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The Canadian Pacific : the new highway to the Orient across the mountains, prairies and rivers of Canada Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1900

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 ■foo
The
Canadian
Pacific
The
New Highway
to the
Orient
Across the
Mountains
Prairies and Rivers
of Canada
CANADIAN   PACIFIC    RAILWAY   C°l*
BOyAL,    JvCA.IL    STEAMSHIP    LITSTE
No.   14 BUND. YOKOHAMA.
_. General Officers" Canadian Pacific Railway
Head Offices: Montreal, Canada
Sib William C. Van Horne, K.C.M.G., Chairman ol the Board  .. Montreal
T.G. Shaughnessy President ' Montreal
D. McNicoll Second Vice-President and General Manager MontreaI
Chakles Drinkwater Secretary and Assistant to the President  " "Montreal
I.G. Ogden Comptroller i!!!."Montreal
VV. Sutherland Taylor Treasurer  -Mnntrp-Vi
P. A. Peterson Chief Engineer ;_..'.;...".. Montreal
Thos. Tait. ■ Manager, Lines East oi Fort William...:  Montreal
Wm. Whyte Manager, Lines West of Fort William  Winnipeg
Robt. Kerr Passenger Traffic Manager . ; Montreal
G. M. Bosworth Freight Traffic Manager  Montreal
Jas. Kent Manager of Telegraphs Montreal
J. A Sheffield Supt., Sleeping, Lining and Parlor Cars and Hotels Montreal
Arthur Piers Superintendent of Steamship Lines ■ Montreal
A. C. Henry General Purchasing Agent Montreal
G. S. Cantlie Superintendent of Car Service Montreal
L. A. Hamilton Land Commissioner Winnipeg
G. McL. Brown   Executive Agent Vancouver, B.C.
H. P. Timmerman Ueneral Superintendent, Atlantic Division St. John, N.B."
J. W. Leonard General Superintendent, Ontario & Quebec Division Toronto
C. W. Spencer General Superintendent, Eastern Division Montreal
James Oborne     General Superintendent, Western Division Winnipeg
R. Marpole General Superintendent, Pacific Division Vancouver, B.C
C. E. E. Ussheu General Passenger A gent, Lines East of Lake Superior Montreal •
C. E. McPherson General Passenger Agent, Lines Westof Lake Superior  "W innipeg
A. H. Notman Assistant General Passenger Agent : Toronto
Wm. Stitt Assistant General Passenger Agent, Western Division Winnipeg
E. J. Coyle Assistant General Passenger Agent, Pacific Division Vancouver, B.C.
R. H. Morris General Baggage  Agent Montreal
J. N. Sutherland General Freight Agent, Atlantic Division St. John, N.B.
W. B. Bulling General Freight Agent, Eastern Division  Montreal
E. Tiffin General Freight Agent, Ontario Division Toronto
W. R. MacInnes General Freight Agent, Lines West of Lake Superior Winnipeg
S. P. Howard Assistant General Freight Agent Montreal
G. H. Shaw Assistant General Freight Agent, Western Division Winnipeg
Allan Cameron Assistant General Freight Agent, Pacific Division— Vancouver, B.C.
F. W. Peters Assistant General Freight Agent, Kootenay Lines, etc Nelson, B.C.
H. L. Penny General.Auditor Montreal
J. H. Shearing Auditor of Passenger Receipts Montreal
C. J. Flanagan. Auditor of Freight and Telegraph Receipts  Montreal
John Leslie Auditor of Disbursements   Montreal
J. R. Steele Freight Claims Auditor ..Montreal
C. J. Black Auditor of Agencies Montreal
AGENCIES
.B. W. Macdonald	
... Jardine, Matheson &Co   	
-New Zealand Shipping Co.   Thos. Cook & Son	
.Joseph Thompson, Freight and Passenger Agent 120 Fast Baltimore St.
.Ewart, Lathom & Co.    Thos. Cook & Son 13 Esplanade Road
„„„„,„„ Tv/r„™»    (H. J. Colvin, District Passenger Agent 197 Washington St.
.boston  Mass...|FR_ perry_ city Passenger Agent 197 Washington St.
.Burns, Philp & Co., (Ltd.)	
.Geo. E. McGlade, City Ticket Agent — Cor. King St. and Court House Ave.
.A. J. Shulman, City Passenger and Freight Agent  233 Main St.
.Thos. Cook & Son ., 9 Old Court House St.
(J. Francis Lee, General Agent, Passenger Dept 228 South Clark St.
\CHICAGO 111.. J. C. L. Williams, City Passenger Agent 228 South Clark St.
{ W. A. Kittermaster, General Agent, Freight Dept 234 La Salle St.
( B. R. White Room D, Chamber of Commerce Building
' "I G. A. Clifford Room D, Chamber of Commerce Building
.. .Thomas Cook & Son (K. B. Croasey).    Bois Brothers	
,,-• v,     t A. E. Edmonds, City Passenger Agent 7 Fort St. W.
Detroit Mich... ^ M H Brown. District Freight Agent 7 Fort St. W.
Duluth  Minn T. H. Larke, District Agent 126 Spalding House Block
Glasgow Scotland Archer Baker, European Traffic Manager 67 St. Vincent St.
Halifax N.S J. D. Chipman, City Passenger and Freight Agent 107 Hollis St.
Hamilton Ont W. J. Grant, Commercial Agent Cor. King and James Sts.
Hong Kong D. E. Brown, General Agent, China and Japan, etc	
Honolulu H.T T. H. Davies & Co	
Kobe Japan—G. Millward	
Liverpool ..  Eng Archer Baker, European Traffic Manager 9 James St.
. .Archer Baker, European Traffic Manager. { ® Tifdfo cSfk^rtt"! IV*0-'
. .W. Fulton, City Passenger Agent 161 Dundas St.
Adelaide Aus.
Amoy : China.
Auckland N.Z.
Baltimore Md.
Bombay India.
Brisbane Qd.
Brockville Ont
Buffalo N.Y.
Calcutta  .India.
Cincinnati  Ohio..
Colombo Ceylon
London Eng.
London Ont. ..
Malta Turnbull Jr. & Somervillo, Correspondents^
Melbourne  Aus.
Minneapolis Minn.
. .Australian United Steam Nav. Co.   Thos. Cook & Son —
. .W. B. Chandler, Agent Soo Line 119 South Third St.
( W. F. Egg, City Passenger Agent  129 St. James St.
I J. Corbett, Foreign Freight Agent Board of Trade Building
.W.H.Gordon, Passenger Agent 1293 Dock St.
/E. V. Skinner, General Eastern Agent 353 Broadway
' t Land and Immigration Office 1 Broadway
. D. Isaacs, Prospect House 	
.George Duncan, City Passenger Agent 42 Sparks St.
(■ Hernu, Peron & Co., Tickets Agents 61 Boulevard Haussmann
Paris France.. •< International Sleeping Car Co 3 Place de l'Opera
(.Thos. Cook & Son 1 Place de l'Opera
.H. McMurtrie, Freight and Passenger Agent 629-631 Chestnut St.
.F. W. Salsbury, Commercial Agent 409 Smith Building
.G H. Thompson, Ticket Agent, Maine Central Railroad Union Depot
.H. H. Abbott, Freight and Passenger Agent 146 Third St.
.. .William A. Pfeifter 106 Taylor St.
...E. H. Crean, City Passenger Agent Opposite Post Office
.F. E. Ketchum, Depot Ticket Ageiit	
I A. J. Heath, District Passenger Agent 10 King St.
' W. H. C. Mackay, City Ticket Agent 49 King St.
f W. M. Porteous, Freight Agent 315 Chestnut St.
' \ C. E. Benjamin, Travelling Passenger Agent 315 Chestnut St.
.. VV. S. Thorn, Asst. Gen. Pass. Agent Soo Line 379 Robert St.
) M. M. Stern, District Freight and Passenger Agent.. Palace Hotel Building
( Goodall, Perkins & Co., Agents P.C.S.S.Co 10 Market St.
. W. R. Thomson .7. Mutual Life Building, 6091st Ave.
 Jardine, Matheson & Co	
Sherbrooke Que.... W. H. Bottum, City Passenger Agent 6 Commercial St.
Sydney Aus... .Burns, Philp & Co., Ltd      „—,'-„,,,
TACOM'A Wash F. R. Johnson, Freight and Passenger Agent 1023 Pacific Ave.
Toronto Ont... .c. B. Bunting, City Ticket Agent  1 King Street East
Vancouver B.C — James Sclater. Ticket Agent	
Victoria B.C B. W. Greer, Freight and Passenger Agent Government St.
Winnipeg  Man.... W. M. McLeod, City Ticket Agent Cor. Main St. and McDermott Ave.
Yokohama Japan Wm. T. Payne, General Traffic Agent for Japan 14 Bund
Montreal Que.. -
New Whatcom  Wash.
New York N.Y..
Niagara Falls N.Y.
Ottawa Ont.
Philadelphia Pa.
Pittsburg Pa..
Portland Me..
Portland Ore..
Port Townsend Wash.
Quebec Que..
Sault Ste. Marie Mich...
St. John..
.N.B.
St. Louis Mo.
St. Paul Minn..
San Francisco Cal..
Seattle Wash
Shanghai China. THE NEW HIGHWAY
TO THE
ORIENT
ACROSS THE
MOUNTAINS, PRAIRIES
AND
RIVERS
OF
CANADA
Issued by the .......
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY CO. Montreal, July, J 900  The (anadian Pacific Railway
A railway from the Atlantic to the Pacific, all the way on British soil, was
long the dream of a few in Canada. This dream of the few became, in time, the
hope of the many, and on the confederation of the British North American Provinces,
in 1867, its realization was found to be a political necessity. Then the Government
of the new Dominion of Canada set about the building of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, a work of such vast proportions that the richest empire of Europe might
well have hesitated before entering upon it.
Much of the country through which the railway must be built was unexplored.
Towards the east, all about Lake Superior and beyond to Red River, was a vast
rocky region, where Nature in her younger days had run riot, and where deep
lakes and mighty rivers in every direction opposed the progress of the engineer.
Beyond Red River for a thousand miles stretched a great plain, known only to
the wild Indian and the fur trader; then came the mountains, range after range,
in close succession, and all unexplored. Through all this, for a distance of
nearly three thousand miles, the railway surveys had first to be made. These
consumed much time and money; people became impatient and found fault and
doubted. There were differences of opinion, and these differences became questions
of domestic politics, dividing parties, and it was not until 1875 that the work of
construction commenced in earnest.
But the machinery of Government is ill adapted, at best, to the carrying on of such
an enterprise, and in this case it was blocked or retarded by political jealousies and
party strife. Governments changed and delays occurred, until finally, in 1880, it was
decided, almost by common consent, to surrender the work to a private company.
The explorations and surveys for the railway had made known the character of
the country it was to traverse. In the wilderness east, north and west of Lake
Superior forests of pine and other timber and mineral deposits of incalculable value
were found, and millions of acres of agricultural land as well. The vast prairie
district between Winnipeg and the Rocky Mountains proved to be wonderfully rich
in its agricultural resources. Towards the mountains great coal-fields were discovered,
and British Columbia beyond was known to contain almost every element of traffic
and wealth. Thousands of people had settled on the prairies of the Northwest, and
their success had brought tens of thousands more. The political reasons for building
the railway were lost sight of and commercial reasons took their place, and there was
no difficulty in finding a party of capitalists ready and willing to relieve the Govern- THE CANADIAN  PACIFIC RAILWAY ,;:
THE  NEW HIGHWAY TO  THE  ORIENT
ment of the work and carry it on as a commercial enterprise. The Canadian Pacific
Railway Company was organized early in 1881, and immediately entered into a contract with the Government to complete the line within ten years.
The railway system of Eastern Canada had already advanced far up the Ottawa
Valley, attracted mainly by the rapidly growing traffic from the pine forests, and it
was from a point of connection with this system that the Canadian Pacific Railway
had to be carried through to the Pacific Coast, a distance of two thousand five
hundred and fifty miles. Of this, the Government had under construction one section
of four hundred and twenty-five miles between Lake Superior and Winnipeg, and
another of two hundred and thirteen miles from Burrard Inlet, on the Pacific Coast,
eastward to Kamloops Lake in British Columbia. The Company undertook the
building of the remaining nineteen hundred and twenty miles, and for this it was to
receive from the Government twenty-five million dollars in money and twenty-five
million acres of agricultural land. The two sections of railway under construction
were to be finished by the Government, and, together with a branch line of sixty-
five miles already in operation from Winnipeg southward to the boundary of the
United States, were to be given to the company, in addition to its subsidies in money
and lands ; and the entire railway, when completed, was to remain the property of
the company.
The company set about its task most vigorously, and while the engineers were
exploring the more difficult and less known section from the Ottawa River to and
around Lake Superior, and marking out a line for the navvies, work was commenced
at Winnipeg, and pushed westward across the prairies, where one hundred and thirty
miles of the railway were completed before the end of the first year. During the
second year the rails advanced four hundred and fifty miles. The end of the third
year found them at the summit of the Rocky Mountains, and the fourth in the
Selkirks, nearly a thousand and fifty miles from Winnipeg.
While such rapid progress was being made west of Winnipeg, the rails advancing
at an average rate of more than three miles each working day for months in
succession, and sometimes five and even six miles in a day, armies of men with all
modern appliances and thousands of tons of dynamite were breaking down the
barriers of hard and tough Laurentian and Huronian rocks, and pushing the line
through the forests north and east of Lake Superior with such energy that Eastern
Canada and the Canadian Northwest were united by a continuous railway early
in  1885.
The Government section from the Pacific coast eastward had meanwhile reached
Kamloops Lake, and there the company took up the work and carried it on to „
connection with a line advancing westward across the Rockies and the Selkirks.
The forces working towards each other met at Craigellachie, in Eagle Pass, in the
Gold or Columbia range of mountains, and there on a wet morning, the 7th of
November, 1885, the last rail was laid in the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The  energies  of the  company  had  not  been  confined  to  the  mere  fulfilment THE  CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
of its contract with the Government. Much more was done in order that the railway might fully serve its purpose as a commercial enterprise. Independent connections with the Atlantic sea-board were secured by the purchase of lines leading eastward to Montreal and Quebec; branch lines to the chief centres of trade in Eastern
Canada were provided by purchase and construction, to collect and distribute the
traffic of the main line ; and other branch lines were built in the Northwest for the
development of the great prairies.
The close of 1885 found the company, not yet five years old, in possession of
no less than 4,315 miles of railway, including the longest continuous line in the
world, extending from Quebec and Montreal all the way across the continent to the
Pacific Ocean, a distance of over three thousand and fifty miles ; and by the midsummer  of  1886 all this  vast system was fully equipped and fairly working through-
CITY  OF  ST. JOHN, NEW  BRUNSWICK,   FROM  REVERSIBLE  FALL.
out. Villages and towns and even cities followed close upon the heels of the
line-builders; the forests were cleared away, the prairie's soil was turned over,
mines were opened, and even before the last rail was in place the completed sections were carrying a large and profitable traffic. The touch of this young giant
of the North was felt upon the world's commerce almost before his existence was
known; and not content with the trade of the golden shores of the Pacific from
California to Alaska, his arms at once reached out across that broad ocean and
grasped the teas and silks of China and Japan to exchange them for the fabrics
of Europe and North America. THE  NEW HIGHWAY TO THE  ORIENT
flgf THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
. The following years were marked by an enormous development of traffic and by
the addition of many lines of railway to the company's system, and by the establishment
of the company's magnificent steamship service to Japan and China. One line of
railway was extended eastward from Montreal across the State of Maine to a
connection with the railway system of the Maritime Provinces of Canada, affording
connections with the seaports of Halifax and St. John ; another was completed from
'Sudbury, on the company's main line, to Sault Ste. Marie, at the outlet of Lake
Superior, where a long, steel bridge carries the railway across to a connection with
its two important American lines leading westward—one to St. Paul and Minneapolis
and thence continuing across Dakota to Portal where it again connects with the
Canadian Pacific Railway, the other through the numberless iron mines of the
Marquette and Gogebic districts to Duluth, at the western extremity of Lake Superior;
still another, continues the company's lines westward from Toronto to Detroit,
connecting there with lines to Chicago, St. Louis and all of the great Mississippi
Valley. And now, the company's lines embrace over 9,000 miles of railway and
spread out towards the west like the fingers of a gigantic hand.
Canada's iron girdle has given a magnetic impulse to her fields, her mines, and
her manufactories, and the modest colony of yesterday is to-day an energetic nation
with great plans and hopes and aspirations.
pi
HI
;-.-■■.
■■■■       .        '        . ■  ■     '
CHATEAU FRONTENAC, CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY'S HOTEL,
DUFFERIN TERRACE, QUEBEC. THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO THE  ORIENT
May I not tempt you, kind reader, to leave England for a few short weeks and
journey with me across that broad land, the beauties and glories of which have
so recently been brought within our reach ? There will be no hardships to endure,
no difficulties to overcome, and no dangers or annoyances whatever. You shall see
mighty rivers, vast forests, boundless plains, stupendous mountains and wonders
innumerable ; and you shall see all in comfort, nay, in luxury.. If you are a
jaded tourist, sick of Old World scenes and smells, you will find everything
here fresh and novel. If you are a sportsman, you will meet with unlimited
opportunities and endless variety, and no one shall deny your right to shoot
or fish at your own sweet will. If you are a mountain climber, you shall
have cliffs and peaks and glaciers worthy of your alpenstock ; and if you have
lived in India, and tiger hunting has lost its zest, a Rocky Mountain grizzly
bear will renew your interest in life,
We may choose between a Canadian and a New York steamship. The former will
take us, in summer, directly up the noble St. Lawrence River to the old and picturesque
city of Quebec, the "Gibraltar of America," and the most interesting of all the cities of
the New World. Its quaint buildings, crowding along the water's edge and perching on
the mountain side, its massive walls and battlements rising tier upon tier to the famous
citadel, crowning the mountain top and dominating the magnificent landscape for many
miles around, plainly tell of a place and a people with a history. All about this ancient
stronghold, first of the French and then of the English, every height and hill-side has
been the scene of desperately fought battles. Here the French made their last fight for
empire in America, in the memorable battle in which Wolfe and Montcalm fell. But
peace has prevailed for many years ; the fortifications are giving place to warehouses,
manufactories, hotels and universities, and the great new docks of massive masonry
indicate that Quebec is about to re-enter the contest with Montreal for commercial
supremacy in Canada ; and the Canadian Pacific Railway Company's new hotel, the
Chateau Frontenac, occupying, on Dufferin Terrace, a matchless site, is the latest great
step in this direction.
Here we find the Canadian Pacific Railway, and one of its trains will take us in a
few hours along the north bank of the St. Lawrence, through a well-tilled country and a
chain of quaint French towns and villages, to Montreal, the commercial capital of the
Dominion.
In the winter the Canadian steamship will land us at the old city of Halifax—with
its magnificent harbor, its strong citadel garrisoned by British troops, its extensive
cotton mills and sugar refineries, its beautiful parks and charming views. Here, too, a
Canadian Pacific Railway train will be found ready to carry us westward to Montreal,
passing on its way through the low green hills of Nova Scotia to Moncton, then
skirting along the Bay of Fundy to St. John, the chief city of New Brunswick,
a busy and handsome city, and the largest in the Maritime Provinces—another
winter port with an extensive trade inland as well as on the ocean ; then following
the  glorious  valley  of the  River  St.   John  for  an  hour,  turning  away  from  it  to 10
THE  CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
strike across the State of Maine, where the scenery is as wild and varied as any
lover of Nature could wish ; then crossing the boundary line back into Canada again,
where towns and villages reappear, increasing in size as we go along, until they
become cities—forests and saw mills giving place to highly cultivated fields through
Lennoxville, Sherbrooke, Magog, Farnham and St. Johns on the Richelieu ; through
the broad level valley of the St. Lawrence, with isolated mountains lifting up here
and there ; and finally, crossing the St. Lawrence River by the famous cantilever
bridge of the Canadian Pacific Railway, at the head of Lachine Rapids, we will be
brought within view of the spires and chimneys of Montreal; and a few minutes
later, rolling along over a viaduct of masonry arches with the city spread out below
us, we will enter the magnificent passenger terminus of the Canadian Pacific Company.
PLACE VIGER HOTEL AND  PASSENGER STATION, CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY,   MONTREAL.
Had we chosen a New York steamship our route would have brought us from
the American metropolis northward by railway along the banks of the far-famed
Hudson River to Troy or Albany, and thence through the Adirondack Mountains
or along one bank or the other of Lake Champlain to Montreal—a day or a night
from New York.
Here in Montreal, a hundred years before the British conquest of Canada, the
French bartered with the Indians, and from here their hardy soldiers, priests, traders,
and voyageurs explored the vast wilderness beyond, building forts, establishing missions
and trading posts, and planting settlements on all the great rivers and lakes. From
here, until long after the British occupation, the wants of the Indians were supplied
in exchange for furs and peltries, and in this trade Montreal grew rich and important.
But finally a change came. The appearance of steam navigation on the inland
waters accelerated the settlement of the fertile country at the west; towns and cities THE  NEW HIGHWAY TO THE  ORIENT
11 12 THE  CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY
sprang up about the old outposts of the missionaries and fur-traders; the Indians
receded and disappeared, and agricultural products took the place of furs in the
commerce of Montreal. Then came the railways, penetrating the interior in every
direction, bringing still greater changes and giving a wonderful impetus to the
western country, and Montreal grew apace. And now we find it rising from the
broad St. Lawrence to the slopes of Mount Royal, and looking out over a densely
peopled country dotted with bright and charming villages—a large and beautiful city,
half French, half English, half ancient, half modern ; with countless churches, imposing
public buildings, magnificent hotels and tasteful and costly residences; with long
lines of massive warehouses, immense grain elevators, and many windowed factories;
and with miles of docks crowded with shipping of all descriptions, from the smallest
river craft to the largest ocean vessels.
Whichever way we came, Montreal should be regarded as the initial point of
our transcontinental journey, for it is the principal eastern terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and it is the terminus not only of the main line, but of
numerous other lines built and acquired by the company to gather up and distribute
its traffic. From here for a thousand miles we have the choice of two routes. We
may go through the farms and orchards of Ontario to Toronto, the second city of
Canada in importance, much younger than Montreal, but closely growing in the extent
of its trade and industries, and hoping soon to surpass its older rival in both—a modern
and handsomely built city, where the solidity and culture of the older East is combined with the brightness and eager activity of the newer West. Here, as at Montreal,
many railway lines reach out, and on all sides may be seen the evidences of extensive commerce and great prosperity. From here we may in a few hours visit Niagara,
by way of Hamilton and the fruit growing districts of Southern Ontario, and then,
resuming our westward journey by one of the Canadian Pacific lines, four hours will
bring us to Owen Sound, on Georgian Bay, whence one of the trim Clyde-built steel
steamships of the railway company will take us in less than two days across Lake Huron
and through the Straits of Sault Ste. Marie, where we will be lifted by an enormous lock
to the level of Lake Superior, and then across this greatest of fresh water seas to
Fort William, on Thunder Bay, where the western section of the Canadian Pacific
Railway begins.
But you are impatient to see the mountains, and if you will permit me to choose,
dear reader, we will start from Montreal by the main line of railway, and in order
that we may miss nothing we will return by the great lakes, and see Toronto and
the Falls of Niagara then.
Although the locomotive is hissing, as if impatient for the signal to go, we have
yet a few minutes to spare, and, if it is agreeable to you, we will look over the train THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO  THE  ORIENT
13
which is to carry us to the Pacific. Next to the engine we find a long post-office
van, in which a number of clerks are busily sorting letters and stowing away mail-
sacks, then an express or parcels van, and then another laden with luggage. Following
these are two or three bright and cheerful colonist coaches, with seats which may be
transformed into sleeping bunks at night, and with all sorts of novel contrivances for
the comfort of the hardy and good-looking immigrants who have already secured
their places for the long journey to the prairies of the Northwest or the valleys of
British Columbia. Next we find two or three handsomely fitted coaches for passengers
making short trips along the line, and finally  come  the dining and sleeping cars, in
INTERIOR  CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY  DINING  CAR.
which we are to live for some days and nights. The railway carnages to which
you are accustomed are dwarfed to meet Old World conditions, but these in our
train seem to be proportioned to the length and breadth of the land. The diner is
elaborately appointed—a marvel of comfort and convenience, and we experience a
new and delightful sensation in breakfasting and dining at our ease and in luxury as
we fly along through such interesting scenery. Our sleeping car is unlike the
" Pullman's" you have seen in England, being much larger and far more luxurious.
With  its   soft  and  rich   cushions,   silken   curtains,   thick   carpets,   delicate   carvings 14
THE  CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
and   beautiful  decorations,   and  with   its   numberless  and  ingenious  appliances  for
convenience and comfort, it gives us a promise of a delightful journey.
We glide out of the Montreal passenger station, an imposing Romanesque
structure, and from a viaduct of masonry arches look down upon the house tops
until we leave the city behind.* For a time we are still among the old French
settlements, as is evidenced by the pretty cottages and the long and narrow well-
tilled   farms.    There  is an air of thrift and comfort everywhere.    We have hills and
distant mountains on
the one hand and the
broad and beautiful
Ottawa   River   on   the
;-C31S^llgtlpiP^ v-   yf^¥     ^Slllll'       other-       Villages   are
,r=i=i^__g3_ Hf   »^3^ml^teS^frKf^^^^&^ ,-.
passed in close succession, and soon we are
n earing Ottawa, the
capital of the Dominion.
High up there, on a
bold cliff overlooking
the river, are the Government Buildings and
the Parliament House
of the Dominion, with
their Gothic towers and
many pinnacles, making
a magnificent group.
Away to the left is
Rideau Hall, the residence of the Governor-
General, and stretching
far over the heights
beyond is the city. On
the broad flats below
are acres, perhaps miles,
of great square piles of
deals, and the cloud
that rises beyond comes
from the Chaudiere Falls, where the whole volume of the Ottawa River takes a
tumble, and is. made to furnish power to a host of saw-mills and manufactories.
We are beyond the French country now; the farms are larger, and the modest
cottages have given place to farm houses, many of them of brick and stone, and all
having a well-to-do air about them. The towns are larger, there are more manufactories,
and there is more hurry and more noise.    At frequent intervals on the river bank are
STATE-ROOM   IN  FIRST-CLASS  SLEEPING CAR. - \
THE   NEW  HIGHWAY TO  THE  ORIENT
15
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WIISwII	 16
THE  CANADIAN   PACIFIC RAILWAY
great saw-mills, surrounded by vast piles of lumber. The logs are floated down
from the forests on the Ottawa River and its tributaries, and the product is shipped
to Europe, to the United States, and everywhere.
Gradually the towns become smaller and the farms more scattered ; the valley
contracts and deepens, and we are in the new country. We leave the Ottawa River,
and strike across toward Lake Superior. We are surprised at the thriving villages
that have already sprung up here and there, and at the number of hardy pioneers
who are clearing away the timber and making homes for themselves. At intervals
of four or five hours we come to the railway Divisional Stations, where there are
workshops, engine-sheds, and quite a collection of neat cottages. At these places we
change engines and then move on. It is a long way from the Ottawa to Lake
Superior, but the ever-recurring rocky pine-clad hills, pretty lakes, dark forests, glistening
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY  COMPANY S   STEAMSHIP   ON
LAKES   HURON  AND  SUPERIOR.
streams and cascades keep our interest alive. We are alert for the sight of a bear
or a deer, and we do not heed the time. Our only regret is that we cannot stop for
even an hour to cast a fly in one of the many tempting pools.
At Sudbury, a new-looking town planted in the forest, we find a branch line of
railway leading off to the straits of Sault Ste. Marie, where it connects with two
American lines, extending to Duluth, St. Paul and Minneapolis, and beyond, and
which brings this way vast quantities of flour and grain on its way to the Atlantic
sea-board; and here at Sudbury we see long lines of cars heaped with the products
of the mines and smelting furnaces near by, for within a few miles are deposits of
copper and nickel ores aggregating millions of tons, and the numerous columns of
smoke rising over the tree-tops indicate the extent to which they are worked. THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO  THE  ORIENT 17
We move on through never-ending hills, meadows, forests and lakes, and now,
about 24 hours after leaving Montreal, we catch glimpses of Lake Superior away to
our left, and soon we are running along its precipitous shore. On our right are
tree-clad mountains, and there are rocks in plenty all about.
For many hours we look out upon the lake, its face just now still and smooth
and dotted here and there with sails, or streaked with the black smoke of a steamer.
At times we are back from the lake a mile or more, and high above it; again we
are running along the cliffs on the shore as low down as the engineer dared venture-
Hour after hour we glide through tunnels and deep rock-cuttings, over immense
embankments, bridges and viaducts, everywhere impressed by the extraordinary
difficulties that had to be overcome by the men who built the line.
We cross the Nepigon River, famed for its five-pound trout, run down the shore
of Thunder Bay, and stop at the station at Port Arthur, a thousand miles from
Montreal. This place and Fort William, at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River,
a short distance farther down the bay, constitute together the Lake Terminus of the
Western Section of the railway.
On the way hither we have met numerous long trains laden with grain and flour,
cattle and other freight, but we have not until now begun to realize the magnitude
of the traffic of the Northwest. Here on every side we see the evidence of it.
Long piers and wharves crowded with shipping, great piles of lumber, coal and
merchandise, with the railway grain elevators looming above all. Four of these
elevators at Fort William are monsters, holding twelve to fifteen hundred thousand
bushels each. Not far away are rich silver mines, and a railway has been made to
these and to the iron deposits beyond.
The scenery here is more diversified and beautiful than any we have yet seen.
The wide emerald-green waters of Thunder Bay are enclosed by abrupt black-and-
purple basaltic cliffs on the one side, and by hills rising roll upon roll on the other.
Here the Kaministiquia River, broad, deep and placid, emerges from a dark forest
and joins the waters of Lake Superior, giving little token that but a few miles back
it has made a wild plunge from a height nearly equalling that of Niagara itself.
Our train is increased to provide for the passengers who have come up by
steamer and joined us here, and by a goodly number of pleasure seekers who have
been fishing and shooting in the vicinity, and who, like ourselves, are bent on seeing
the great mountains far to the west. We leave the lake and again move westward,
and for a night and part of the following day we are in a wild, strange country.
The rivers seem all in a hurry, and we are seldom out of sight of dancing rapids
or foaming cataracts. The deep, rock-bound lakes grow larger as we move westward. Fires have swept through the woods in places, and the blackened stumps
and the dead trees, with their naked branches stretched out against the sky, are
weird and ghost-like as we glide through them in the moonlight. It was through
this rough and broken country, for a distance of more than four hundred miles,
that   Wolseley  successfully  led  his  army   in   1870   to   suppress   a  rebellion   of the li
THE  CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
half-breeds   on   Red   River, and  some  of his  abandoned  boats  are  yet   to be seen
from the railway.
But wild and rough as it is, this country is full of natural wealth. Valuable
minerals and precious metals abound, and mining operations- are carried on extensively
and successfully, and from here, mainly, is procured the timber to supply the
prairies beyond. Right in . the heart of this wilderness thriving villages are met and
an encouraging commencement of farming is seen ; and at the outlet of the Lake-
of-the-Woods, we suddenly come upon half a dozen busy saw-mills, their chimneys
black against the sky ; and standing far above all these an immense flouring-mill, of
granite, with a cluster of grain elevators and warehouses about it; and here at
Keewatin are the extensive, newly-completed works of the Keewatin Power Company,
which make of the Lake-of-the-Woods a mill-pond of 3,000 square miles and afford
a   most  convenient  and  unlimited  water-power  for  mills  and  establishments  of all
SOME  OF  THE  CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY  COMPANY'S
GRAIN  ELEVATORS  AT  FORT  WILLIAM.
kinds for supplying the needs of the great Northwest beyond, and for manufacturing
its products on their way to the Eastern markets.
As we draw nearer to the prairies we find great saw-mills begin to appear, with
piles of lumber awaiting shipment ; and at the stations increasing accumulations of
timber to be moved westward—firewood, fence posts and beams and blocks for
all purposes. Many men find employment in these forests, and villages are growing
up at intervals. And, strange as it may seem, hardy settlers are clearing the land
and making farms; but these are Eastern Canadians who were born in the woods
and who despise the cheap ready-made farms of the prairies. THE  NEW HIGHWAY TO THE ORIENT
19
We suddenly emerged from among the trees and enter the wide, level valley of
Red River, and in a little while we cross the river on a long iron bridge, and enter
the magic city of Winnipeg. It will be well worth your while to stop here for a
day. Notwithstanding all you have been told about it, you can hardly be prepared to
find a frontier trading post of yesterday transformed into a city of nearly fifty thousand
inhabitants, with miles of imposing structures, hotels, stores, banks and theatres, with
beautiful churches, schools and colleges, with tasteful and even splendid residences, with
immense mills and many manufactories, with a far-reaching trade, and with all the
evidences of wealth, comfort and cultivation to be found in cities of a century's growth.
While you
will find in Winnipeg the key to
much that you
will see beyond,
you must look
beyond for the
key to much you
will see in Winnipeg. Situated
just where the
forests end and
the vast prairies
begin, with thousands of miles
of river navigation to the north,
south and west,
and with railways     radiating
in every direction like the spokes of a wheel, Winnipeg has become, what it must always
be, the commercial focus of the Canadian Northwest. Looking at these long lines of
warehouses filled with goods, and these forty miles or more of railway tracks all crowded
with cars, you begin to realize the vastness of the country we are about to enter.
From here the wants of the people in the West are supplied, and this way come the
products of their fields, while from the far North are brought furs in great variety
and number.
And now for the last stage of our journey. The beautiful sleeping car in
which we came up from Montreal kept on its way westward whilst we were " doing"
Winnipeg, but we find another awaiting us, differing from the first only in name.
Looking through the train we find but few of our fellow passengers of yesterday.
Nearly everybody stops at Winnipeg for a longer or shorter time, some to remain
permanently,   others  to  visit  the  land  offices   of the   Government  or of the railway
CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY  COMPANY S  SLEEPING CAR. 20 THE  CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY
company; others to purchase supplies or materials for their new prairie homes;
and still others only to see the town, as we have done. We find among the
new passengers representatives of all grades of society—gentlemen travelling for
pleasure, sportsmen, merchants and commercial travellers, high-born young men
seeking fortunes in large farms or in ranching, keen-looking Japanese, pig-tailed Chinamen, sturdy English, Scotch, American, German and Scandinavian immigrants, land-
hunters in plenty, their pockets stuffed with maps and with pamphlets full of land
lore, gold and silver miners for the Kootenay, the Cariboo and the Klondike, and
professional men of all descriptions. There is not a sorrowful visage in the party ; every
face wears a bright and expectant look, and the wonderfully clear sky and the
brilliant sunshine add to the cheerfulness of the scene.
The Rocky Mountains are yet nearly a thousand miles away. A few short years
ago this was a six weeks' journey, under the most favorable circumstances, and it was
counted a good trip when the old-time ox-trains, carrying goods and supplies to the
distant trading-posts, reached the mountains in three months; but our stages will be
numbered by hours instead of days.
Leaving Winnipeg, we strike out at once upon a broad plain as level and green
as a billiard table, extending to the north and west apparently without limit, and
bordered at the south by a line of trees marking the course of the Assiniboine River.
This is not yet the prairie, but a great widening of the valleys of the Red and
Assiniboine rivers, which unite at Winnipeg. To the left, and skirting the river, is
a continuous line of well-tilled farms, with comfortable farm houses peering out from
among the trees. To the right is a vast meadow, with countless cattle half hidden
in the grass. The railway stretches away before us without curve or deflection as far
as the eye can reach, and the motion of the train is hardly felt as we fly along. As
we proceed westward we imperceptibly reach higher ground, and the country is
checkered with fields of grain, and dotted far into the distance with farm-houses and
grain-stacks.
Fifty-six miles from Winnipeg we reach Portage-la-Prairie, another city of a day's
growth, and the centre of a well-developed and prosperous farming region. Its big
elevators and flour-mills, its busy streets and substantial houses, tell their own story.
From here a railway reaches away two hundred miles or more to the north and
northwest, making more lands accessible (if more be needed), bringing down grain
and cattle, and before long to bring salt and petroleum as well. Crossing a low
range of sand-hills, marking the shore of an ancient lake, we pass through a
beautifully undulating country, fertile and well settled, as the busy little towns and
the ever-present grain elevators bear evidence.
One hundred and thirty-three miles from Winnipeg we cross the Assiniboine River
and reach Brandon, next to Winnipeg the largest town in the Canadian Northwest, a
city, in fact, although but a few years old, with handsome buildings, well-made streets
and an unusual number of large grain elevators and mills ; and here again railways lead
away, one to the northwest and another to the southwest to the Souris coal fields. THE   NEW  HIGHWAY TO  THE  ORIENT
21
Leaving Brandon we have fairly reached the first of the great prairie steppes,
that rise one after the other at long intervals to the Rocky Mountains ; and now we
are on the real prairie, not the monotonous, uninteresting plain your imagination has
pictured, but a great billowy ocean of grass and flowers, now swelling into low hills,
again dropping into broad basins, with gleaming ponds, and broken here and there
by valleys and irregular lines of trees marking the water-courses. The horizon only
limits the view; and, as far as the eye can reach, the prairie is dotted with newly
made farms, with great black squares where the sod has just been turned by the
plough, and with herds of cattle. The short, sweet grass, studded with brilliant
flowers, covers the land as with a carpet, ever changing in color as the flowers of
the different seasons and places give to it their predominating hue.
CITY  OF  BRANDON, MANITOBA.
The deep, black soil of the valley we left in the morning has given place to a
soil of lighter color, overlying a porous clay, less inviting to the inexperienced
agriculturist, but nevertheless of the very highest value, for here is produced in the
greatest perfection the most famous of all varieties of wheat—that known as the
"Hard Fyfe Wheat of Manitoba"—and oats as well, and rye, barley and flax, and
gigantic potatoes, and almost everything that can be grown in a temperate climate.
All these flourish here without appreciable drain upon the soil. Once here, the British
farmer soon forgets all about fertilizers. His children may have to look to such
things, but he will not.
We pass station after station, nearly all alike, except as to the size of the villages
surrounding   them,   some  of which  are  of   considerable   importance.     The   railway 22
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
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buildings at these stations are uniform, and consist of an attractive station-house for
passengers and goods, a great round water-tank, cottages for the section men, and the
never-ending grain-elevators—tall, solid structures, always telling the same story.
Every minute or two we see coveys of " prairie chickens" rising from the grass, startled
by the passing train. Ducks of many kinds are seen about the frequent ponds, together
with wild geese and cranes, and occasionally great white pelicans. The sportsmen
have nearly all dropped off at the different stations. Those who remain are after larger
game further west—antelope or caribou, or  the bear, sheep or goat, of the mountains.
Three hundred and sixty miles from Winnipeg we reach Regina, the capital of
the North-West Territories, situated in the centre of an apparently boundless but
very fertile plain. The buildings here have more of a frontier look than those of the
larger towns we have left behind; but it is a busy place, an important centre of
trade, and one of the cities of the future. From here a railway branches off to the
north, crossing the South Saskatchewan River at Saskatoon, and continuing on to
Prince Albert on the North Saskatchewan. As we leave the station going westward,
we see on our right the Government Buildings and Governor's residence, and a little
beyond, the headquarters of the Northwest Mounted Police, a body of men of whom
Canada is justly proud. This organization is composed of young and picked men,
thoroughly drilled, and governed by the strictest military discipline. Their firm and
considerate rule won the respect and obedience of the Indians long before the
advent of the railway, and its coming was attended by none of the lawlessness and
violence which have darkly marked the opening of new districts elsewhere in America,
so wholesome was the fame of these red-coated guardians of the prairies. At Moose
Jaw, forty-one miles beyond Regina, the main line is joined by another from St. Paul
and Minneapolis—a line belonging to the Canadian Pacific Railway Co.—which now
affords the shortest route between the Mississippi Valley and the Pacific Coast.
Leaving Moose Jaw we commence the ascent of another prairie steppe. We have
now nearly reached the end of the continuous settlement, and beyond to the mountains
we shall only find the pioneer farmers in groups here and there, and, at intervals of
two hours or so, the dozen establishments of an English company, where wheat
growing and cattle raising are carried on together in a large and systematic way—■
each establishment embracing ten thousand or more acres. The country, while
retaining the chief characteristics of the prairie, becomes more broken, and numerous
lakes and ponds occur in the depressions. We shall see no trees now for a hundred
miles, and without them the short buffalo grass gives the country a desolate barren
look ; but it is far from barren, as the occasional farms and station gardens testify,
with their wonderful growth of cereals and vegetables. There is a flutter of excitement among the passengers, and a rush to the windows. Antelope ! We shall see
them often enough now. At Chaplin we come to one of the Old Wives' lakes,
which  are  extensive bodies of water having no outlet, and consequently alkaline.
We are now entering a very paradise for sportsmen. The lakes become more
frequent.    Some  are  salt, some  are  alkaline, but most of them are clear  and fresh 24 THE  CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
Wild geese, cranes, ducks—a dozen varieties—snipe, plover and curlew, all common
enough throughout the prairies, are found here in myriads. Water fowl blacken the
surface of the lakes and ponds, long white lines of pelicans disport themselves along
the shores, and we hear the notes and cries of many strange birds whose names I
cannot tell you. " Prairie chickens " are abundant on the high ground, and antelopes
are common in the hills.
The country is reticulated with buffalo trails, and pitted with their wallows; but
the buffalo has disappeared, except in pitiably few numbers in the farther north,
where he is known as the " wood buffalo." Hour after hour we roll along, with little
change in the aspect of the country. The geese and ducks have ceased to interest
us, and even a coyote no longer attracts attention ; but the beautiful antelope has
never-ending charms for us, and as, startled by our approach, he bounds away, we
watch the  white  tuft which serves him for a  tail until it disappears in the distance.
We have crossed the high broken country known here as the Coteau, and far
away to the southwest we see the Cypress Hills appearing as a deep blue line, and,
for want of anything else, we watch these gradually rising as we draw near to them.
The railway skirts their base for many miles, following what seems to be a broad
valley, and crossing many clear little streams making their way from the hills northward to the Saskatchewan. At Maple Creek, a little town with extensive yards for
the shipment of cattle, we see the red coats of the mounted police, who are looking
after a large encampment of Indians near by. The Indians are represented on the
station platform by braves of high and low degree, squaws and pappooses, mostly
bent on trading pipes and trinkets for tobacco and silver—a picturesque looking lot,
but dirty withal. Leaving the station we catch sight of their encampment, a mile or
so away—tall, conical " tepees " of well-smoked cloths or skins; Indians in blankets
of brilliant colors ; hundreds of ponies feeding in the rich grasses; a line of graceful
trees in the background; seemingly more beautiful than ever because of their rarity—
all making, with the dark Cypress Hills rising in the distance, a picture most novel and
striking.
From Dunmore Junction, 655 miles west of Winnipeg, there stretches away
westward, to the south of the main transcontinental line, the Crow's Nest Pass Branch
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which provides a short route to the Kootenay gold-
fields. This newly constructed line taps the Lethbridge collieries, and touching
the flourishing town of Macleod, traverses the great southern Alberta ranching country,
the home of the Cow-boy and the Cattle King. Beyond Macleod, the Rockies rise
sharp and clear out of the western horizon, while the intervening country is a panorama
of undulating prairie upon which vast herds of cattle graze. As the mountains are
neared the surface of the prairies become seamed with numerous streams, large and
small, of crystal icy water flowing toward the Saskatchewan River fresh from its source
amongst the eternal snows—streams abounding in trout of various species; and water
fowl, prairie chicken and other feathered game are here also, and farther on, in the
mountains, the more venturesome sportsman can  gratify his ambition for grizzly and THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO   THE  ORIENT
25
black bear, elk, and mountain sheep and goat. The railway enters the Rockies through
a narrow pass guarded on either side by towering peaks, whose bare bases almost touch
the track, and after skirting Crow's Nest Lake, crosses the summit of the Rockies at
an elevation of 4,427 feet, and penetrates the rapidly developing East Kootenay
region. Gold and silver and the baser metals are found here in plenty, and here
are said to be the largest undeveloped coal areas in the world.
At Fernie, a town of yesterday's birth, evidences of the new life that has been
infused into the country are seen on every hand, and many coke ovens, whose number
is being rapidly multiplied, are already employed to supply fuel for the smelters
of West Kootenay. We pass Cranbrook and other towns whose existence dates
from the building of the railway, and on the beautiful Moyie Lake come in
close contact with active  mining   operations.    The   country  through   which  we  pass
CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY  COMPANY'S STEAMER  ON  ARROW  LAKE.
is rich not only in mineral and forest wealth, but in the broad valleys are seen
countless opportunities for the coming farmer and rancher. While the mountain
scenery may not have the same majestic features which characterize the main line of
Canadian Pacific to the north, it has a charm all its own, varying in its nature from
beetling crags and whitened peaks to pleasant meadow lands and picturesque water
stretches. At Kootenay Landing, at the southern end of Kootenay Lake, the present
terminus of the Crow's Nest Pass Branch is reached, a little to the south of which
the Kootenay River re-enters Canadian territory after making a detour through
Montana   and   Idaho; the railway   company   has  built transfer slips, and here laden 26
THE  CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
freight cars are transferred to barges and towed to Nelson where they are re-transferred to the railway tracks which lead west and north from there. By one of the Company's splendidly equipped steamers which ply on all these magnificent inland British
Columbia waters, we are conveyed to Nelson, a thriving and prosperous mining
town of great promise, picturesquely located on an arm of the lake. . From here we
can go by rail down the grand canon of the mighty Lower Kootenay River to
Robson, and on to Trail, the great smelter centre, and to Rossland, around which
cluster a famous group of mines, and from Robson we can also go over the
railway westwardly into the newly opened Boundary Country, and visit a dozen
busy and thriving mining camps, the foundation of whose prosperity is laid upon the
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY  COMPANY S  STEAMER  ON  SLOCAN   LAKE.
vast mineral wealth of that region. From Robson we can rejoin the main line
of the Canadian Pacific by sailing up the Columbia River and the upper Arrow
Lake—stopping off, if we will, at Nakusp and there taking another branch railway
to Sandon, in the centre of the wonderfully rich silver-lead mining region of the
Slocan—which can also be reached direct from Nelson, by way of Slocan Lake,
one of the prettiest of mountain waters. Returning to Nakusp, our way lies
farther up the Arrow Lake, lying between the Selkirks on the one hand and the
Gold range on the other, in a region- where exists a superb combination of lake
and mountain scenery;  and from Arrowhead, where the Columbia   coming   from the THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO THE  ORIENT 27
north pours its flood into  the  lake, a  short railway  ride will  take us  to the newly-
created city of Revelstoke, from which our western journey is resumed.
Let us now return to Dunmore and make the journey on the main line of the
Canadian Pacific which passes through an inviting stretch of country—perhaps the
most attractive in the world to tourists. From Dunmore we descend to the valley
of the South Saskatchewan, and soon arrive at Medicine Hat, a finely situated
and rapidly growing town, a thousand miles from Lake Superior, on the broad and
beautiful Sackatchewan River. Crossing the river on a long iron bridge, we
ascend again to the high prairie, now a rich pasture dotted with lakelets.
Everywhere the flower-sprinkled sward is marked by the deep narrow trails of the
buffalo, and the saucer-like hollows where the shaggy monsters used to wallow ;
and strewing the plain in all directions are the whitened skulls of these noble
animals, now so nearly extinct. There are farms around many of the little stations
even so far west as this, and the herds of cattle grazing on the knolls indicate
the " ranch country"; and here Nature seems to have atoned in part for the
scarcity of timber by providing beneath the surface a reservoir of natural gas, which
has been tapped at some of the stations and made to afford power for pumping
water, and light and heat for the station houses, and which will soon be utilized
in reducing the silver ores from the mountains not far away.
As we approach Crowfoot Station, all are alive for the first view of the Rocky
Mountains, yet more than a hundred miles away ; and soon we see them—a glorious
line of snowy peaks, rising straight from the plain, and extending the whole length
of the western horizon, seemingly an impenetrable barrier. As we speed on, peak
rises behind peak, then dark bands of forest that reach up to the snow-line come
into view ; the snow-fields and glaciers glisten in the sunlight, and over the rolling
tops of the foot-hills the passes are seen, cleft deep into the heart of the mountains.
We are now in the country of the once-dreaded Blackfeet, the most handsome and
warlike of all the Indian tribes, but now peacefully settled on a reservation near by.
We have been running parallel to the tree-lined banks of the Bow River, and now,
crossing its crystal waters, we find ourselves on a beautiful hill-girt plateau, in the
centre of which stands the new city of Calgary, at the base of the Rocky Mountains,
two thousand two hundred and sixty-four miles from Montreal and three thousand
four hundred and sixteen feet above the ocean.
Before us, and on either side, the mountains rise in varied forms and in endless
change of aspect, as the lights and shadows play upon them. Behind us is the
great sea of open prairie. Northward is the wooded district of Edmonton and the
North Saskatchewan, full of moose, elk, bear and all manner of fur-bearing animals
and winged game, and a most attractive agricultural country as well, with great
waterways that lead through the vast Mackenzie basin to the Arctic regions.
Stretching away one hundred and fifty miles to the United States boundary southward,
is the Ranch Country; and both these districts have recently been made accessible by
a railway extending northward from Calgary to Edmonton, and southward to Macleod. 28
THE  CANADIAN  PACIFIC   RAILWAY
vvLfw^ THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO THE  ORIENT 29
You may be sure of a cordial welcome should you visit the ranchmen, and it
will be worth your while to do so. You will find them all along the foot-hills, their
countless herds feeding far out on the plain. Cattle and horses graze at will all over
the country, summer and winter alike. The warm " Chinook" winds from across the
mountains keep the ground free from snow in the winter, except for a day or two at
a time, and the nutritious and naturally cured grasses are always within reach of the
cattle. In the spring and autumn all the ranchmen join in a "round-up" to collect
and sort the animals according to the brands of the different owners, and then
the " cow-boy " appears in all his glory. To see these splendid riders " cutting out" or
separating the animals from the common herd, lassoing and throwing them, that they may
be branded with the owner's mark, or herding a band of free-born and unbroken horses,
is well worth coming all this way. The ranchmen, fine fellows from the best families
in the East and in England, live here in a lordly way. Admirable horsemen, with
abundant leisure and unlimited opportunities for sport, their intense love for this
country is no matter of wonder, nor is it surprising that every day brings more
young men of the best class to join in this free and joyous life. All along the
base of the mountains clear streams come down to the plain at frequent intervals;
coal crops out on the water courses, and there is timber in plenty throughout the
foot-hills. The soil is rich and deep, game is abundant and the climate is matchless.
What more can one desire?
Leaving Calgary and going westward again, following up the valley of the
Bow, the gradually increasing river terraces and the rounded grassy foot-hills on
which innumerable horses, cattle, and sheep are feeding, shut out the mountains
for an hour or two. Suddenly we come upon them grand and stern and close at
hand. For more than six hundred miles and until we reach the Pacific they will
be constantly with us. We enter an almost hidden portal, and find ourselves in a
valley, between two great mountain ranges. At every turn of the valley, which is
an alternation of precipitous gorges and wide parks, a new picture presents itself—
seen in all its completeness from the observation car now attached to the rear of
the train. The beautiful river now roars through a narrow defile, now spreads out
into a placid lake, reflecting the forests, cliffs, and snowy summits. Serrated peaks,
and vast pyramids of rock, with curiously contorted and folded strata, are followed
by gigantic castellated masses, down whose sides cascades fall thousands of feet.
The marvellous clearance of the air brings out the minutest detail of this Titanic
sculpture. Through the gorges we catch glimpses of glaciers and other strange
and rare sights, and now and then of wild goats and mountain sheep, grazing on
the cliffs far above us near the snow-line. The mountains would be oppressive in
their grandeur, their solemnity, and their solitude, but for an occasional mining
town or a sportsman's tent, which give a human interest to the scene.
Three hours after leaving Calgary we begin at Canmore to see coal mines,
both anthracite and bituminous, and soon after stop at the station at Banff,
already  famous for its hot and sulphurous springs, which possess wonderful curative 30
THE  CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY THE   NEW  HIGHWAY TO  THE  ORIENT 31
powers, and which have already attracted thousands of people, many of them from
great distances. The district for miles about has been reserved by the Canadian
Government as a natural park, and much has already been done to add to its
natural beauty, or, rather, to make its beauties accessible; for in this supremely
beautiful place the hands of men can add but little. Everybody stops here for a
day or two at least, and we should do likewise. We shall find luxurious quarters
in a large and handsomely appointed hotel, perched on a hill overlooking the
beautiful valley of Bow River. The river comes down from its glacier sources at
the west, plunges over a precipice beneath the hotel balconies, and, stretching
away through the deep, forested valley, disappears among the distant mountains at
the east. Half a dozen ranges of magnificent snow-tipped mountains centre here,
each differing from the others in form and color; and the converging valleys
separating them afford matchless views in all directions. Well-made carriage roads
and bridle paths lead to the different springs and wind about among the mountains everywhere.
Resuming our journey, we are soon reminded by the increasing nearness of
the fields of snow and ice on the mountain-slopes that we are reaching a great
elevation. Thirty-four miles west of Banff is Laggan, the station for the " Lakes in
the Clouds." We must must not fail to visit these lakes, which are of singular beauty,
and are situated one above the other among the mountains, within easy reach of
the station. On the margin of Lake Louise, the first reached, is a picturesque
chalet where tourists lunch and remain over night. From it radiate easy paths to
the Upper Lakes—Mirror and Agnes—and the aptly-named Paradise Valley and
other picturesque spots. Two hours from Banff our train stops at a little station,
and we are told that this is the summit of the Rocky Mountains, just a mile above
the sea; but it is the summit only in an engineering sense, for the mountains still
lift their white heads five thousand to seven thousand feet above us, and stretch away
to the northwest and the southeast like a great backbone, as indeed they are—the
"backbone of the continent".
Two little streams begin here from a common source. The waters of one find
their way down to the Saskatchewan and into Hudson Bay, and the other joins
the flood which the Columbia pours into the Pacific Ocean. Passing three emerald
lakes,' deep set in the mountains, we follow the westbound stream down through a
tortuous rock-ribbed canon, where the waters are dashed to foam in incessant leaps
and whirls. This is the Wapta or Kicking-Horse Pass. Ten miles below the summit
we round the base of Mount Stephen, a stupendous mountain rising directly from
the railway to a height of more than eight thousand feet, holding on one of its
shoulders, and almost over our heads, a glacier, whose shining green ice, five hundred
feet thick, is slowly crowded over a sheer precipice of dizzy height, and crushed to
atoms below. On the broad front of the mountain we trace the zig-zag lines of a
tramway coming down from a silver mine somewhere among the clouds. From the
railway, clinging to the mountain   side, we look down   upon  the  river valley, which 32
THE  CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY
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suddenly widening here, holds between the dark pine-clad mountains a mirror-like
sheet of water,  reflecting with startling fidelity each peak and precipice.
Still following the river, now crossing deep ravines, now piercing projecting rocky
spurs, now quietly gliding through level park-like expanses of greensward, with
beautiful trees, pretty lakelets and babbling brooks, with here and there a saw-mill,
a slate quarry or some other new industry, we soon enter a tremendous gorge, whose
frowning walls, thousands of feet high, seem to overhang, the boiling stream which
frets and roars at their base, and this we follow for miles, half shut in from the
daylight.
Two hours from the summit and three thousand feet below it, the gorge suddenly
expands, and we see before us high up against the sky a jagged line of snowy peaks
of new forms and colors. A wide, deep, forest covered valley intervenes, holding a
board and rapid river. This is the Columbia. The new mountains before us are
the Selkirks, and we have now crossed the Rockies. Sweeping around into the
Columbia Valley we have a glorious mountain view. To the north and south, as far
■ as the eye can reach, we have the Rockies on the one hand and the Selkirks on the
other, widely differing in aspect, but each ndescribably grand. Both rise from the
river in a succession of tree-clad benches, and soon leaving the trees behind, shoot
upward to the regions of perpetual snow and ice. Here is the new town of Golden,
with smelting works, ri.ver steamers and choice " corner lots." The railway turns
down the Columbia, following one of the river benches through gigantic trees for
twenty miles to Donald, where a number of our fellow-passengers leave us. Some
of them are miners or prospectors bound for the silver mines in the vicinity, or the
gold " diggin's " farther down the river; others are ambitious sportsmen, who are
seeking mountain goat, or caribou, or mountain sheep—the famous "big horn."
They will not fail to run across a bear now and then, black or cinnamon and perchance
a grizzly.
Crossing the Columbia, and following it down through a great cafion, through
tunnels and deep rock-cuttings, we shortly enter the Beaver Valley and commence
the ascent of the Selkirks, and then for twenty miles we climb along the mountain sides, through dense forests of enormous trees, until, near the summit, we
find ourselves in the midst of a wonderful group of peaks of fantastic shapes and
many colors. At the summit itself, four thousand five hundred feet above tidewater, is' a natural resting-place—a broad level area surrounded by mountain mon-
archs, all of them in the deadly embrace of glaciers. Strange, under this warm
summer's sky, to see this battle going on between rocks and ice—a battle begun
sons ago and to continue for 320ns to come ! To the north and so near us that
we imagine that we hear the crackling of the ice, is a great glacier whose clear
green fissures we can plainly see. To the south is another, vastly larger, by the
side of which the greatest of those of the Alps would be insignificant. Smaller
glaciers find lodgment on all the mountain benches and slopes, whence innumerable sparkling cascades of ice water come leaping down. 34
THE  CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO THE  ORIENT
35
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Descending westerly from the summit we reach in a few minutes the Glacier
House, a delightful hotel situated almost in the face of the Great Glacier and at
the foot of the grandest of all peaks of the Selkirks—Sir Donald—an acute
pyramid of naked rock shooting up nearly eight thousand feet above us. In the
dark valley far below we see the glacier-fed Illicilliwaet glistening through the tree-
tops, and beyond and everywhere the mountains rise in majesty and immensity
beyond all comparison. To reach the deep valley below, the engineers wound the
railway in a series of great curves or loops all about the mountain slopes, and as
we move on, this marvellous scene is presented to us in every aspect. We plunge
again for hours through precipitous gorges, deep and dark, and again cross the
Columbia River, which has made a great detour around the Selkirk Mountains,
while we have came directly through them. The river is wider and deeper here
and navigated by steamboats southward for nearly two hundred miles.
•On its east bank stands Revelstoke, a supply point for the mining district
up and down the river, and here, perched on a mountain bench overlooking the
river, is a fine hotel. From here the Kootenay country can also be reached. A
branch line will take us down to Arrowhead at the head of the Upper Arrow
Lake, and from thence elegantly appointed and speedy steamers through the long
and beautiful stretch of the Upper Lake, to all points in this famed region—to the
Slocan, to Kootenay Lake, to Nelson, Trail and Rossland, and into the Boundary
country, this being the easiest way to this section from the Pacific Coast.
But, if we continue on our journey to the Pacific, we are at once confronted by
the Gold Range, another grand snow-clad series of mountains, but broken directly
across, and offering no obstacle to the railway. The deep and narrow pass through
this range takes us for forty miles or more between parallel lines of almost vertical
cliffs, into the faces of which the line is frequently crowded by deep black lakes ;
and all the way the bottom of the valley is thickly set with trees of many varieties
and astonishing size, exceeding even those of the Columbia.
A sudden flash of light indicates that we have emerged from the pass, and we
see stretching away before us the Shuswap Lakes, whose crystal waters are hemmed
and broken in every way by abruptly rising mountains. And here again we may
turn aside and visit the Okanagan Lake, two hours distant by a branch line of
railway—another mountain-hemmed lake extending many miles to the south, bordering
on which is the greatest game country of the continent. There are caribou and
bear, mountain sheep and mountain goat and deer and smaller game in plenty, and
the waters are filled with fish.
Going on again, and after playing hide-and-seek with these lovely lakes for an hour
or two, the valley of the South" Thompson River is reached—a wide, almost treeless
valley, already occupied from end to end by farms and cattle ranches; and here for
the first time irrigating ditches appear. Flocks and herds are grazing everywhere,
and the ever-present mountains look down upon us more kindly than has been
their wont. ...   . THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO THE  ORIENT
37 38
THE  CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
Then comes Kamloops, the principal town in the interior of British Columbia,
in whose dry, salubrious climate those of weak lungs derive especial benefit, and
just beyond we follow for an hour the shore of Kamloops Lake, shooting through
tunnel  after  tunnel,   and  then   the   valley  shuts   in   and   the   scarred   and   rugged
mountains frown upon us again, and for
hours we wind along their sides, looking
down upon a tumbling river, its waters
sometimes almost within our reach and
sometimes lost below. We suddenly cross
the deep  black gorge of the Fraser River
ROSS  PEAK   GLACIER.
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO THE  ORIENT
39
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on a massive bridge of steel, seemingly constructed in mid-air, plunge through a
tunnel, and enter the famous canon of the Fraser.
The view here changes from the grand to the terrible. Through this gorge, so
deep and narrow in many places that the rays of the sun hardly enter it, the black
and ferocious waters of the great river force their way. We are in the heart of the
Cascade Range, and above the walls of the canon we occasionally see the mountain
peaks gleaming against the sky. Hundreds of feet above the river is the railway,
notched into the face of the cliffs, now. and then crossing the great chasm by a
tall viaduct or disappearing in a tunnel through a projecting spur of rock, but so
well made, and so thoroughly protected everywhere, that we feel no sense of danger.
For hours we are deafened by the roar of waters below, and we pray for the broad
sunshine once more. The scene is fascinating in its terror, and we finally leave it
gladly, yet regretfully.
At Yale the canon ends and the river widens out, but we have mountains yet
in plenty, at times receding and then drawing near again. We see Chinamen
washing gold on the sand-bars and Indians herding cattle in the meadows; and
the villages of the Indians, each with its little unpainted houses and miniature
chapel, alternate rapidly with the collection of huts where the Chinamen congregate.
Salmon drying on poles near the river give brilliant touches of color to the
landscape, and here and there we see the curious graveyards of the Indians, neatly
enclosed and decorated with banners, streamers and all manner of carved " totems."'
A gleaming white cone rises toward the southeast. It is Mount Baker, sixty miles
away and fourteen thousand feet above us. We cross large rivers flowing into the Fraser,
all moving slowly here as if resting after their tumultuous passage down between the
mountain ranges. As the valley widens out farms and orchards become more and more
frequent, and our hearts are gladdened with the sight of broom and other shrubs and
plants familiar to English eyes, for as we approach the coast we find a climate like that of
the South of England, but with more sunshine. Touching the Fraser River now and
then, we see an occasional steamboat, and here in the lower part the water is dotted
with Indian canoes, all engaged in catching salmon which visit these rivers in astonishing numbers, and which when caught are frozen and sent eastward by the railway
or canned in great quantities and shipped to all parts of the world.
At Mission a branch line turns off to the south, crossing the Fraser River
immediately and connecting at the international boundary with railways extending
along Puget Sound to Seattle, Tacoma, Portland and San Francisco, and all the way
to the Gulf of California, passing in turn those glorious isolated mountain peaks that
stud the Pacific Coast— Baker, Tacoma, Hood and Shasta.
Passing through a forest of mammoth trees, some of them twelve feet or more
in diameter, and nearly three hundred feet high, we find ourselves on the tide-waters
of the Pacific at the eastern extremity of Burrard Inlet. Following down the shore of
this mountain-girt inlet for half an hour, our train rolls into the handsome new station
at Vancouver, the western terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway. THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO  THE  ORIENT
41
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We soon find comfortable quarters in a fine hotel, equal to any we have seen in
the East, and its situation on high ground affords us a most interesting and charming view of the new city and the surrounding country. Far away at the south-east
Mount Baker looms up all white and serene. At the north, and rising directly
from the sea, is a beautiful group of the Cascade Mountains, bathed in a violet light
and vividly reflected in the glassy waters of the inlet. Looking towards the west,
out over English Bay and the Straits of Georgia, we see the dark-blue mountains
of Vancouver Island, and at the south-west, beyond the broad delta of the Fraser
River, is the Olympia range—a long line of opalescent peaks fading into the
distance. At our feet is a • busy scene. The city is new indeed; only one or two
of its many buildings were here a dozen years ago —a forest stood here then. The
men who built the town could not wait for bricks and mortar, and all the earlier
houses were built of wood; but fire swept all of these away, and solid, handsome
structures of brick and granite took their place. Down at the water's edge are
long wharves where steamships from China and Japan, Australia, New Zealand,
Hawaiian Islands, from California, Puget Sound and Alaska are discharging or
taking in cargoes; and at the warehouses along the wharves are lines of railway
cars loading for the Atlantic sea-board with teas, sugar, silk, seal-skins, fish, fruit
and many other commodities. Here and there all around the inlet are great sawmills where steamships and sailing vessels are taking in timber and deals for China
and Australia, South America, and even for England. The great white steamship
that catches the eye first among all the shipping in the harbor is the " Empress of India,"
one of the three swift and magnificent twin-screw steamships that have been placed on
the route between Vancouver and Japan and China, by the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company, the like of which has never been seen in Pacific waters—great steel steamships like the best of the Atlantic liners, but more perfect and luxurious in their appointments. Think of it. We are within ten days of Yokohama—of wonderful Japan! Near
by is another fine steamship of the first-class; one of the new line to Honolulu
(Hawaii), and Brisbane and Sydney, Australia. A few miles away is New Westminster,
on the Fraser, one of the old towns of British Columbia, and the columns of smoke
rising in that direction tell us of its extensive salmon canneries and saw-mills. There,
too, ships are loading for all parts of the world. And over against Vancouver Island
are other columns of smoke, indicating the great coal mines from which nearly all of
the steamships of the Pacific are supplied.
Northward for twelve hundred miles through the Gulf of Georgia and the wonderful
fiords of Alaska, where the mountains are embraced in a thousand arms of the sea,
ply numerous steamers, crowded with tourists and with not a few gold-seekers bound
for the great Klondike mining regions in Canada's far Northwest. Southwestward
the Straits of Fuca lead out past the entrance to Puget Sound and past the city
of Victoria, to the open Pacific. All these waters, from Puget Sound to Alaska,
hardly known a few years ago, are now dotted with all kinds of craft from the
largest   to   the smallest,   engaged  in all manner  of trade. THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO  THE  ORIENT
43
No wonder that, with all her magnificent resources in precious metals, her coal
and iron, her inexhaustible fisheries and vast forests, her delightful climate and rich
valleys, her matchless harbors and her newly completed transcontinental railway,
British Columbia expects a brilliant future ; and no wonder that everybody here is
at work with all his might !
I ask your pardon, patient reader, for my persistence in showing you all sorts
of things as we came along, whether you wished to see them or not. My anxiety
that you should miss nothing you might wish to see is my only excuse. You
have been bored nearly to death, no doubt, and I have noticed signs of impatience
which lead me to suspect your desire for freedom to go and see as you like, and as
you have found that no guide is necessary, I will, with your permission, leave you
here ; but before releasing your hand, let me advise you not to fail, now that you
are so near,  to visit Victoria,  the beautiful capital of British Columbia.    A steamer
CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY  COMPANY S   HOTEL,   VANCOUVER.
will take you there in a few hours, and you will be rewarded in finding a transplanted
section of Old England, climate, people and all ; and more vigorous perhaps because
of the transplanting. The city stands on the southern extremity of Vancouver
Island, overlooking the Straits of Fuca and the entrance to Puget Sound. The
wealth of the Province is chiefly centred here, and the great warehouses and busy
wharves testify to the extensive trade of the city, and the tasteful and in many casts
splendid residences testify to a more than colonial refinement.
Near Victoria you will find Esquimalt, Britain's North Pacific naval station,
and an iron-clad or two, and perchance some old friends from home ; and let me
advise you, furthermore, to take all of your luggage with you to Victoria, for I
am   sure  you   will  be  in  no hurry to   come  away. 44
THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
Canadian Pacific Railway Go's Twin-Screw Steamships
ROYAL   MAIL   ROUTE   TO
JAPAN and CHINA
STEAMSHIPS
Empress of India, Empress of Japan, Empress of China.
They are alike in every detail, ;_85 ft. Ion*, 51 ft. beam, 86 feet depth and 6,000 tons register, twin Berews
triple expansion engines, 10,000 horse'power, speed 19 knots. They run between VANCOUVER and VICTORIA,
B.C., and YOKOHAMA, KOBE, NAGASAKI, SHANGHAI and HONG KONG.
Of these magnificent vessels, constructed under supervision of the English Admiralty, with numerous watertight compartments, insuring perfect safety, and equipped with all the most improved appliances devised by
modern marine engineering for obtaining speed, comfort and luxury, one will sail from Vancouver, B.C., subject
to unavoidable changes, ONCE IN EVERY THREE OB FOUR "WEEKS.
These vessels are in every respect superior to any other ships that have as yet sailed the Pacific Ocean.
Their route is 300 miles shorter_than that of any other trans-Pacific Line.
CANADIAN-AUSTRALIAN  STEAMSHIP  LINE
R.M.S. "miowera," "warrimoo," "aorangi."
Sailings between VANCOUVER, B.C., VICTORIA, B.C., and HONOLULU, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, BRISBANE   QUEENSLAND   and SYDNEY, NEW SOUTH WALES, every four weeks.
Passengers booked PROM LONDON or LIVERPOOL, NEW YORK, BOSTON, MONTREAL, TORONTO, or any
of the principal cities of CANADA and the UNITED   STATES.
_  n/N, .m.p.     -t-i_i __■     \iiAn I   r%    booking in connection with the P. & O. and fast
AROUINU       I   ML     W UnLU trans-Atlantic lines a specialty.
For freight or passage, handbooks of information, Around the World Folder, or a copy of "Westward to the
Far East " or "East to the West," Guide-books to the Principal Cities of Japan and China, apply to
R   J. COLVIN, District Passenger Agent 197 Washington Street, BoBton
E. V. SKINNER, General Eastern Agent 353 Broadway, N.Y.
J. F. LEE, General Agent, Passenger Department 228 South Clark Street, Chicago
M. M. STERN, District Passenger Agent  Palace Hotel Building, San Francisco
WM. STITT, Assistant General Passenger Agent Winnipeg
A.  H.  NOTMAN, Asst.  General Passenger Agent 1 King Street East, Toronto
e! J. COYLE, Assistant General Passenger Agent Vancouver
W. R. CALLAWAY, General Passenger Agent, "Soo Line"  Minneapolis, Minn.
W. R. THORN, Assistant General Passenger Agent "Soo Line " St. Paul, Minn.
G. W. HIBBARD, General Passenger Agent "South Shore" Line Marquette, Mich.
W. T. PAYNE, General Traffic Agent for Japan Yokohama, Japan
C. E. MePHERSON, General Passenger Agent, Lines West of Lake Superior Winnipeg
C. E. E. USSHER, General Passenger Agent, Lines East of Lake Superior - Montreal
D. E.   BROWN, ARCHER   BAKER, European Traffic   Manager,
General Agent China and Japan, India, etc. 67 & 68 King William St., E.C., London.
Hong Kong, Shanghai and Yokohama. 30 Cockspur St., S.W., London.
9 James St., Liverpool.    67 St. Vincent St., Glasgow.
G.   M.   BOSWORTH, Freight Traffic Manager, Montreal.
ROBT.   KERR, Passenger Traffic Manager, Montreal. THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO   THE  ORIENT
45
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   HOTELS
While the perfect sleeping and dining car service of the Canadian Pacific Railway
provides every comfort and luxury for travellers making the continuous overland
through trip, it has been found necessary to provide places at the principal points of
interest among the mountains where tourists and others might explore and enjoy the
magnificent scenery.
The Company have erected at convenient points hotels, which, by their special
excellence, add another to the many elements of superiority for which the Railway is
famous.
THE  CHATEAU   FRONTENAC,
at Quebec, the quaintest and historically the most interesting city in
America is one of the finest hotels on the continent. It is fireproof,
and occupies a commanding position overlooking the St. Lawrence,
its site being, perhaps, the grandest in the world. The Chateau
Frontenac was erected in 1893, at a cost of over a million of dollars,
and is now being enlarged to meet the increasing demands of travel.
Great taste marks the furnishing, fitting and decorating of this imposing structure, in which comfort and elegance are combined to an
unequalled extent- Kates, three dollars and fifty cents per day and
upwards, with special arrangements for large parties and those making prolonged visits.
For view of Chateau Frontenac, see page 8.
THE  PLACE  VIGER,
at Montreal is a handsome new structure in which are combined a
lintel and station. The building which faces Place Viger is most elaborately furnished and niodernlv appointed, the general stvle and elegance
characterizing the Chateau Froittenai*, at Quebec, being followed.
The Place Viger is operated on the   European plan: rooms si.00
per day and upwards ; large double rooms $2.00, and with baths 82.00
THE  KAMINISTIQUIA,
at Fort William, the western terminus of the Lake Route and of the
Eastern Division of the C. P. R., is an excellent, well-appointed hotel
in every respect, which offers many unique attractions as a vacation
home for those in pursuit of rest and recreation in the picturesque
region at the head of Lake Superior.
The hotel rates are from.two dollars and fifty cents per day and
upwards, with special rates to large parties or those making an
extended visit.
MOOSE JAW HOTEL,
a new hotel erected at Moose Jaw, in the Canadian North-West at the
junction of the Soo-Pacific road vvith the main line of the C.P.R. The
hotel is modern'y appointed and elegantly furnished.
Rates, $2.50'per day, with reductions to those remaining a week
or longer.
BANFF SPRINGS HOTEL,
at Banff, in the Canadian National Park, on the Eastern slope of the
Rocky Mountains, is placed on a high mountain promontory 4,500 feet
above the sea level, at the confluence of the Bow and Spray rivers,
and is a large and handsome structure,-with every convenience that
modern ingenuity can suggest, and costing over a quarter of a million
of dollars. While it is not intended to be a sanitarium, in the usual
sense, the needs and comforts of invalids are fully provided for.
The Hot Sulphur Springs, with which the region abounds, vary in
temperature from 80 to 121 degrees, and bathing facilities are provided by the hotel. The springs are much like those of Arkansas, and
the apparently greater curative properties of the water are no doubt
due to the cool, dry air of the mountains.
A number of sub-ranges of the Rocky Mountains radiate from
Banff, and a dozen mountain monarchs within view raise their heads
a mile or more above the hotel.    '
Game is plentiful, and Devil's Head Lake, not far away, a mile or
two in width and fifteen miles long, affords excellent sport in deep
trolling for trout.
Swiss Guides are stationed here and at the Lake Louise Chalet
and Great Glacier House to accompany tourists to points of attraction.
The hotel rates are from three dollars per day and upwards,
according to the rooms.   Special rates by the week or month.
THE  LAKE  LOUISE  CHALET,
This quiet resting place in the mountains is situated on the margin of Lake Louise, about two miles distant from the station at Laggan, from which there is a good carriage drive, and is an excellent
vantage point for tourists and explorers desiring to see the lakes and
the adjacent scenery at their leisure.
The rates are $2.50 per dav. Apply to "Manager, Banff Springs
Hotel, Banff, Alberta, N.W.T., Canada."
MOUNT  STEPHEN   HOUSE
is a pretty chalet-like hotel, fifty miles west of Banff, in Kicking
Horse Canon, at the base of Mount Stephen—the chief peak of the
Rockies, towering 8,000 feet above. This is a favorite place for tourists, mountain climbers and artists, and sport is plentiful, Emerald
Lake, one of the most picturesque mountain waters, being within
easy distance.
The rates are three dollars per day for accommodation, with
special arrangements for parties stopping a week or longer.
GLACIER  HOUSE
is situated in the heart of the Selkirks, within twenty minutes' walk
of the Great Glacier, which covers an area of about thirty-eight
square miles.
The hotel, which has recently been enlarged twice, to accommodate the ever-increasing travel, is in a beautiful amphitheatre surrounded by lofty mountains, of which Sir Donald, rising 8,000 feet
above the railway, is the most prominent. The dense forests all
about are filled with the music of restless brooks, which will irresistibly attract the trout fisherman, and the hunter for large game can have
his choice of "big horns, mountain goats, grizzly and mountain
bears." The main point of interest, however, is the Great Glacier.
One may safely climb upon its wrinkled surface, or penetrate its
water-worn caves. It is about 500 feet thick at its forefoot, and is
said to exceed in area all the glaciers of Switzerland combined.
The rates are three dollars per day, with special arrangements
for parties stopping a week or longer.
HOTEL   REVELSTOKE,
at Revelstoke, B.C., in the basin of the Columbia between the Selkirk
and the Gold ranges, and a gateway to the West Kootenay mining
region. The hotel, which jilthough only built in the summer of 181)7, has
already been enlarged, is perched on a mountain bench directly above
tho railway station, and is surrounded on all sides by majestic mountains. Immediately opposite The hotel, and fifteen miles away, lies the
Begbie Glacier, one of the grandest in British Columbia, amongst the
highest peaks. The hotel is replete with every modern convenience
and comfort, electric light, hot and cold baths, and is heated by
steam. It is a favorite resort for tourists and travellers to and from
the Kootenay.
The rates are three dollars per day, with special arrangements
for parties stopping a week or longer.
HOTEL SICAMOUS,
at Sicamous, B.C., a fine new structure, built on the shores of the
Shuswap Lakes where the Okanagan branch of the C.P.K. leids south
to the Okanagan Valley and the contiguous mining country. The
hotel is handsomely furnished and has all modern appointments anil
conveniences.
Rates $3.00 per day and upwards, with reductions to those stopping a week or longer.
THE  FRASER  CANON   HOUSE,
at North Bend, 130 miles east of Vancouver, is situated on the Fraser
River, and is managed with the same attention to the comfort of its
patrons that pervades all branches of the Company's service. The
scenery along the Fraser River is well described as "ferocious," and
the hotel is a comfortable base from which to explore.
Rates, three dollars per day, with special arrangements for persons
stopping a week or longer.
HOTEL VANCOUVER,
at Vancouver, B.C., is the Pacific Coast terminus of the Railway.
This magnificent hotel is designed to accommodate the large commercial business of the place, as well as the great number of tourists
who always find it profitable and interesting to make here a stop of a
day or two. It is situated near the centre of the city, and from it
there is a glorious outlook in every direction. Its accommodations
and service are perfect in every detail, and excel that of the best
hotels in Eastern Canada or the United States.
Rates, three dollars per day and upwards, with special terms for
a longer time.
Enquiries as to accommodation, rates, etc., at any of the Canadian Pacific Hotels
will be promptly answered, by addressing Managers of the different hotels, or communicating direct to
J.  A.   SHEFFIELD,
Supt. and Manager Company's Hotels, MONTREAL. 46
CANADIAN   PACIFIC  HOTELS CANADIAN PACIFIC HOTELS
47 48
THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
The Canadian Pacific Railway
THE WORLD'S  HIGHWAY  FROM   THE  ATLANTIC  TO  THE  PACIFIC
The   Most Solidly Constructed  and the  Best  Equipped Transcontinental Route
SPECIAL ATTENTION IS CALXED to the PABIOE, SLEEPING and DINING CAR SERVICE-
largely added to recently—so particular an accessory upon a railway whose cars run
upwards of THREE THOUSAND  MIXES  WITHOUT   CHANGE
THUSE cars are ol unusual strength and size, with berths, smoking and toilet accommodations correspondingly roomy. The transcontinental sleeping cars are fitted with double doors and windows to
exclude the dust in summer and the cold in winjter.
The seats are richly upholstered, with high backs and arms, and the central sections in many of the
cars are made into luxurious sofas during the day.
The upper berths are provided with windows and ventilators, and have curtains separate from those of
berths beneath. The exteriors. are of polished red mahogany and the interiors are of white mahogany and
satinwood elaborately carved; while all useful and decorative pieces of metal work are of old brass of
antique design. ,
Stateroom cars are run in connection with Canadian Pacific Transpacific Steamships.
No expense is spared in providing the DINING CARS with the choicest viands and seasonable delicacies,
and the bill of fare and wine list will compare favorably with I hose of the most prominent hotels.
OBSERVATION CARS, specially
designed to allow an unbroken
view of the wonderful mountain
scenery, are run on all transcontinental trains during the Summer
Season (from about May 1st to
October 15th).
THE FIRST-CLASS DAY
* COACHES are proportionately elaborate in their arrangement for the
comfort of the passenger; and for
those who desire to travel at a
cheaper rate, TOURIST CARS, with
bedding and porter in charge, are run
on stated days at a small additional
charge; and COLONIST SLEEPING
CARS are run on all overland trains
without additional charge. These
colonist cars are fitted with upper
and lower berths after the same
general style as other sleeping cars,
but are not upholstered, and the
passenger may furnish his own bedding, or purchase it of the Company's
agents at terminal stations at nominal rates.
The entire passenger equipment
is MATCHLESS in elegance and
comfort.
First Class Sleeping and Parlor    v^.
Car Tariff
FOR ONE DOUBLE BEBTH, LOWEB
OR UPPER IN SLEEPING
CAR BETWEEN
Tourist
Oar
Tariff
Halifax ana Montreal $4.00   ....
St. John, N.B., andMontreal   2.50   	
Quebec and Montreal     1.50    ....
Montreal and Toronto     2.00   ....
Montreal and Chicago "     5.00   ....
Montreal and Winnipeg ....   8.00
Montreal and Calgary  13.00
Montreal and Revelstoke... 15.50
Montreal and Vancouver ... 18.00
Ottawa and Toronto     2.00
Ottawa and Vancouver  17.50
Fort William and Vancouver 15.00
Toronto and Chicago    3.00
Toronto and Winnipeg    8.00
Toronto and Calgary  12.00
Toronto and Bevelstoke .... 14.50
Toronto and Vancouver .... 17.00
Boston and Montreal    2.CO
Boston to Vancouver  19.00
New York and Montreal    2.00
Boston and St. Paul     7.00
Boston and Chicago     5.50
Montreal and St. Paul     6.00
St. Paul and Winnipeg    3.00
St. Paul and Vancouver  12.00
Winnipeg and Vancouver .. 12.00
Between other stations rates are
in proportion.
4.00
7.00
1.00
8.00
4.00
6.00
6.50
7.50
5.00
6.00
STATE-ROOM  IN  FIRST-CLASS SLEEPING CAR.
Rates for full section double the berth rate.   Staterooms between three or four times the berth rate.
Accommodation in First-clasg Sleeping Cars and in Parlor Cars will be sold only to holders of First-class
transportation, and in Tourist Cars to holders of First or Second-class accommodation.  The
Canadian
Pacific
f
The
New Highway
■
to the
.""\
Orient
Across tne
Mountains
Prairies and Rivers
i
of Canada

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