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Guide to Lake Louise and the beautiful scenery of this wonderful region Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1900

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4' Lakes of gray at dawn of day,
In soft shadows lying,
Lakes of gold with gems untold,
On thy bosom glowing.
Lakes of white,
At holy night,
Gleaming in the moonlight."
Published by the
G-07. N
Lake Louise
Lake Louise Chalet.
The First Chalet ..
The Beehive ..
Lakes in the Clouds
Lake Agnes   ..
Mount St. Piran..
Mount Fairview
The Saddleback ..
Paradise Valley
Mount Temple   ..
Mount Aberdeen
Falling Avalanches
View from Little Beehive
Mount Victoria
Valley of the Ten Peaks
Moraine Lake
Mount Hungabee
Mount Deltaform
Mount Biddle   ..
Lake McArthur ..
Side Trips
Lake O'Hara
Game in the Rockies
Livery Rates
Consolation Valley
Wild Flowers
Swiss Guides  i
Tragedy of Mount Lefroy
Pack Horse Trips
Fishing     ..    '
Mount Fay    ..
The Great Divide
Appreciation   ..
Mountain Climbing
First Ascents
Limited Time
Adieu   . .
47 K      E
Thirty-four miles westward from Banff by the Canadian
Pacific Railway is Laggan (the station for Lake Louise and
Lakes in the Clouds). Two and a half miles distance from the
station by a fine carriage road and Lake Louise (altitude
5,670 ft.)—the most winsome spot in the Canadian Rockies—is
reached. Of the beauty of this remarkable lake there is no
divided opinion ; every visitor to its shores sings its praises,
and it is acknowledged by the most competent judges to be one
of the great masterpieces in the world's gallery of Nature. As
a gem of composition and coloring it has no rival. At every
hour of the day the view is ever-changing with the shadows.
This is especially true of the early morning and evening hours.
Walter Dwight Wilcox, F.R.G S., in his. charming book, " The
Rockies of Canada,'' describes the colorings of Lake Louise as
follows : "It is impossible to tell or paint the beautiful colors,
the kaleidoscopic change of light and shade under such conditions. They are so exquisite that we refuse to believe them
even in their presence, so subtle in change, so infinite in variety,
that memory fails to recall their varying moods. I have seen
twenty shades of green and several of blue in the waters of
Lake   Louise   at   one A
time." Mr. Edward
Whymper has compared it to Lake Oesh-
inen in Switzerland,
but has declared it " is
more picturesque and
has more magnificent
environments." It is
about a mile and a half
long and half a mile
broad, while its depth
IS over 200 feet. Monument to Sir James Hector at Laggan. m
Charmingly situated on the shore of Lake Louise in the
midst of the evergreen wood, is a lovely chalet which has been
enlarged to a great hotel, and is one of the chain of hotels
owned and operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company
that have gained a world-wide reputation for beauty of location
and excellence of*service. It is open from June to September,
and at it Swiss guides, horses, and packers can be hired for
excursions near or far. It affcds most splendid accommodation
and comfortable conveyances meet every train. The rates
are $3-5° Per day and upward    Tourist tickets frem Banff, Field
or   Glacier, at   single     ^^^.      .„.,,_,.,.,        ,. 	
fare for the round trip
to Lake Louise are issued on presentation
of certificates from the
manager of the Cana-
d i a n Pacific Hotel.
Telephonic connection
is established between
the hotel and Laggan
station, from which
telegraphic communication is had with all
parts of the world, and
at the hotel is a dark
room for the use of
photographers. Visitors to this chalet
always remember its
home-like air of com- |
fort which adds so
much to the enjoyment
of the guests.
One of the Chinese waiters at
Lake Louise Chalet. THE
The growth of interest in this wonderful region has been
very rapid. A few years ago, about 1890, a small log house was
sufficient to accommodate the visitors who came to pay homage
to this matchless scenery. Each year brought people from all
parts of the earth in increasing numbers, and every season the
accommodation had to be increased and the little house was
soon replaced by a larger building, wings have been added,
remodelling has taken place and today is seen the splendid
Chalet with all its modern equipment for the comfort of guests.
What twenty j^ears hence it will be who]; shall say, for Lake
Louise is gaining new friends in increasing numbers each year.
The First Chalet at Lake Louise. THE BEEHIVE
The Beehive and Mirror Lake. LAKES
IN       THE       CLOUDS
The trail to the Lakes in the Clouds is easy to travel, somewhat steep in places but offering no real difficulties to the average
pedestrian, though many prefer to use the horses. It is best to
take the lower path to Mirror Lake, thence around the lake
skirting the side of Beehive Mountain, then up the stairs to
Lake Agnes. Here a stay of a few minutes should be made and
return by what is known as the high trail, which is a well-beaten
path commencing at the back of Lake Agnes cabin and over the
side of Mount St. Piran to the Lake Louise Chalet. The scenery
of this trail will always be remembered by every visitor.
On the Trail at Lake Louise. "K      E~
G      N      E
Lake Agnes (altitude 6,875 ft.). The highest of the Lakes
in the Clouds. A clear, cool sheet of water, cliff-girt and overhung with towering pinnacles. An impressive and beautiful
view can be obtained from the shores of this lake and from the
trail on Mt. St. Piran of Mt. Niblock, Mt. Whyte, Lake Louise,
and far down the Bow Valley. Perpetual silence reigns except
for the sound of the cascades that fall into Mirror Lake. Lake
Agnes is almost encircled with towering walls of rock whose
height almost shuts out the sun and gives to the lake a much
smaller appearance than it really deserves. MOUNT
S   T.
One of the easiest mountains to climb and having one of
the finest views to be obtained in the mountains is Mount St.
Piran. The crest of this mountain is quickly reached from the
Chalet by the Lakes in the Clouds trail.
Edward Whymper, the conqueror of the Matterhorn, was so
entranced with the scene to be had from this mountain that he is
reported to have slept on the crest over night. The climb is so
easy, and there is so much to repay for the time, that it should
be one of the most popular trips for visitors who desire to get
some idea of the magnitude and beauty of this mountain district.
A Wonderful View MOUNT
Mount Fairview is a very easy mountain to ascend and well
repays the climber for the trouble. It is the nearest to the
Chalet though not as high as many peaks in this vicinity, yet
it affords a magnificent view of this wonderful district. The
Saddleback is part of this mountain and from this point some
idea of the distance and the labor required to make the ascent
can be obtained. The name, Mount Fairview, is well chosen
for the outlook from the top is indeed a fair view. It is a
favorite climb for the less ambitious Alpinist and will always
be regarded with favor because of the many points on this trail
which look out over magnificent scenery in various directions.
Information regarding the trail can be obtained at the chalet
and the ascent can be made in safety without the services of a
guide or the use of a rope.
The Top of Mouut Fairview. THE
Paradise Valley from the Saddleback-.
One of the most impressive sights in the vicinity of Lake
Louise is the scene from the Saddleback lookout, reached by a
good trail from the Chalet across the bridge thence upward
through the trees. So interesting and pleasant is this trail that
the time passes quickly and the charming scene of Paradise
Valley and surrounding mountains is soon viewed from a
vantage point that seems to have been prepared by Nature for the
benefit of mankind. A short stay should be made to observe
the mighty mountains and contemplate the beautiful valley with
its silver stream far below nestling among the dark green trees. ■
To the east of Laggan run two mountain valleys, both of
which are noted for their exquisite scenery. Paradise Valley,
the nearer to Lake Louise, lies between Mt. Sheol and Mt.
Temple, while the Valley of the Ten Peaks, as its name implies,
is lined by ten great peaks, and holds at its head, Moraine Lake.
Paradise Valley is bounded on the east and west by some
splendid glacier mountains, such as Mt. Temple, (11,626 feet
above sea level) ; Mt. Lefroy, (11,220); Mt. Aberdeen, (10,340) ;
Mt. Hungabee, (11,447); and Mt. Victoria, (11,355), is nearby.
Pinnacle Pass, Paradise Valley. MOUNT
A small blue lake called Lake Annette lies at the base of
Mount Temple somewhat elevated above the valley and
hemmed in by the forest, which sparkles like a diamond when
the sun is in the south. It is more than 5000 feet from the
water of this lake to the top of Mount Temple. A glacier
crowns the summit and at intervals avalanches fall into the
valley below, a distance of 7,000 feet, and the thunder of their
fall can be distinctly heard at Laggan over six miles away.
Mount Temple is one of the most imposing mountains in
the Canadian Rockies and is a favourite climb for ambitious
Alpinists. Fifty-three members of the Canadian Alpine Club ascended this mountain
at their annual camp in
Paradise Valley-
season 1907. Numerous ascents have been
made of this mountain
and it is said to be
somewhat arduous but
not very dangerous
for experienced
climbers. A very fine te^
view of the side of
this mountain is obtained from the
Saddleback. From
its imposing appearance, which from a
distance looks like the
dome of a vast cathedral, this mountain
derives its name. On
a clear day the panorama that is seen from
the top of the mountain
is wonderful. Mount Temple from Lake Annette. MOUNT
Mount Aberdeen is another of the Paradise Valley group
and has also found favor with the Canadian Alpine Club, for
this mountain was
theone selected for
the official climb
of the Club. By
reaching the top of
this grand peak the
novice becomes
qualified to have his
name enrolled as
an active member
of the Canadian
Alpine Club. To
scale the rocks and
ice of this giant
peak and to look
out from the summit with most of
the Continent of
America beneath
your feet is sufficient evidence that
the conqueror of
this mountain is an
active m e m b e r of
the human family
and the person
who successfully
performs this feat
is worthy of honor.
Canadian Alpine Club at Work FALLING       AVALANCHES
Lake Louise is a noted place for avalanches, and it is not
uncommon to hear the thunder of several of them in one day.
The sides of the mountains in the vicinity are plowed and furrowed by these immense masses of falling rocks and ice which
cut down trees and sweep everything from their path by a
terrible, irresistible force. From the precipitous sides of Mounts
Lefroy and Victoria ice and rock are continually becoming detached, and large falling avalanches are frequently seen from
the Chalet descending through the airy abyss and .striking the
rock with thundering noise far below. It is said to take nearly
twenty seconds for the noise to reach the Chalet, and when
their thunder is heard all that is then seen is large clouds of fine
snow risingfrom the place where the avalanche has fallen.
(The "whole of the foreground is the Victoria Glacier, here buried beneath the rocks and stones
carried down by avalanches from the cliffs above.    The avalanche seen in ■picture, a
little to the left of the centre, is falling-about i,800 feet.) VIEW     FROM    LITTLE    BEEHIVE
Here is a view easy to obtain and will give a better idea of
the work of Nature in this marvellous district than possibly any
other journey of an equal distance from the chalet. The trail
is easy and good enough for the ponies. The time should not
be limited to minutes for an hour is well spent in contemplation
of this scene, which is unsurpassed in the gallery of Nature.
View of Lakes in the Clouds, Mts. Lefroy, Victoria and the Beehive. MOUNT
That giant snow-capped mountain situated at the end of
Lake Louise and directly in front of the Chalet is the magnificent
Mount Victoria (11,355 ft.). It has been frequently ascended
and is not considered a difficult peak to attain. The time required is from ten to fourteen hours, according to the condition
of the snow. The ascent is made by way of the Abbot Pass or
Death Trap and is somewhat arduous in places, particularly
when the snow is soft. In places the sides are very steep and
for 700 to 800 feet a ladder-like steep snow curtain must be
scaled and then a long narrow ridge must be traversed which
are the only difficult places in this climb. Guides should be
secured well in advance and an early start made for this peak.
Mount Victoria is at the head of Lake Louise.
17 V A L L EY    OF    THE    TEN    PEAKS
The Valley of the Ten Peaks extends parallel to Paradise
Valley on the other side of Mt. Temple. In it is Moraine Lake,
two miles long and half a mile wide, in which there is trout
fishing. The Government have recently constructed a splendid
carriage road from Lake Louise to Moraine Lake.
A great glacier has found its way down the heights at the
head of the lake and has forced its course between and around
the peaks. Ft>r a third of the distance from the lake to the
summit the ice is entirely covered by a picturesque mass of
rocks, piled in such disorder as chance directed the ice should
have them. It is a picturesque and awe-inspiring sight, the
effect of which is magnificent in the extreme.
Moraine Lake and Valley of the Ten Peaks. MORAINE
Walter Dwight Wilcox, who has written that charming
work " The Rockies of Canada," is the real discoverer of this
lake and thus describes his experience :—
1' There lay before me one of the most beautiful lakes I have
ever seen. This lake, which I called Moraine Lake, from the
ridge of glacial formation at its lower end is about a mile and a
half long. A green forest covers the north shore, while the
opposite side is overhung by a high precipice. Surrounding
the water is a succession of high peaks rising five to six
thousand feet above it, with a few short glaciers among
them. The water is very clear and of the characteristic blue-
green color. At the time of my arrival the lake was partly
calm and reflected the rough escarpments and cliffs from its
surface-. No scene has ever given me an equal impression of
inspiring solitude and rugged grandeur.''
Moraine Lake. MOUNT       HUNGABEE,       n,447     ft.
The most difficult and most dangerous mountain in this
whole region is Mount Hungabee (Indian for chieftain) situated
at the head of Paradise Valley, which has only been climbed
once, and that by one of the most strenuous Alpinists
in America —Prof. H. C. Parker, of Columbia University,
New York. The glacier which feeds Paradise River is packed
in the lap of Mt. Hungabee, and is said to be one of the most
dangerous glaciers in the Rockies.
Ik   ■ **
Mount Hungabee MOUNT
This is one of the most difficult peaks to climb in the
Canadian Rockies. It is only possible to ascend to the peak
under favorable circumstances and accompanied by the most
experienced and determined guides. The first ascent was made
by Professor Parker of Columbia University, on September ist,
1903. It required ten hours of the hardest kind of climbing to
reach the crest, and the party encountered almost vertical
ledges, sensational traverses, difficult ice and steep chimneys.
The descent required eleven hours, and for a portion of the time
the party were in a very severe snow storm. Luckily they
succeeded in this ascent without an accident and arrived in
camp at 3 a.m.
If the ambitious alpinist wants a climb that will test his pluck,
skill and energy, Mount Deltaform will gratify his every wish-
w*$: ...
Mount Deltaform.
21 M     O     U     N
D     D
This mountain is situated near Lake McArthur. The first
ascent was made by Professor Parker and two Swiss guides on September 3rd, 1903. Professor Parker says of this ascent:—" The
view from the peak is very fine and the difficult climbing, where
the greatest caution is required, is for so short a distance that it
does not become fatiguing. The time required was about
seventeen hours, and the two Swiss guides said that for a short
distance this ascent was the most difficult they had encountered.
Mount Biddle.
Mr. Bell Smith, the well-known artist, thus describes this
lake in August, 1903 :—"This is a most beautiful spot; from our
camp on the shore near its outlet a clear view opens over the
full length of the lake, at the upper end of which the water
comes down from the glaciers of Victoria and Lefroy in a series
of falls which spring forth out of a high rocky cliff, and reflected
in the exquisitely colored waters of the lake form a most attractive feature of an altogether lovely scene. The weather
being fine and warm we, after spending two days in sketching
and photographing, on August 5th made an early start, and
after an easy walk over the pass, found ourselves in a rocky
gulch too rough for the horses to get through, so we had to
leave them tethered at the extremity of tree line, for we had now
ascended 2,000 feet above our camp, and after a short scramble
found ourselves near the shore of the most beautifully colored
lake I have ever seen. Over a mile in length, nearly surrounded
by high rocky precipices, and studded over its surface with
veritable icebergs, which were constantly breaking off from a
huge glacier that thrust its bulk far into the lake at its upper
end, this wonderful tarn spread out before us, reflecting in its
depths the titanic masses of rock and snow in shimmering
glints of violet, blue and green. Before leaving this charming
scene, which we did most reluctantly, Mr. Wilcox discovered
quite near the shore at one end of the lake a small whirlpool,
which indicated the spot where the waters found their subterranean outlet. Only about four or five persons had ever before
seen this lake, and none of them had noticed this place. The
noise which the waters made in being sucked down into this
terrifying abyss exactly resembled that produced by small
pebbles rolling down an iron pipe, and could be heard at a
considerable distance. Probably the first white man to see this
lake, which he did from a lofty height and at some distance,
was Mr. J. McArthur, Government Surveyor, after whom it has
To Lakes in the Clouds.—Distance, three miles for round trip.
Time required from two and a half to three hours. Good trail.
May be made on foot or by pony.
Go to Mirror Lake first, then up the stairs to Lake Agnes.
Take trail back of shelter at Lake Agnes and return by the
high trail to Chalet.
To the Saddleback.—Distance, five
miles for round trip. Time required
from three to three and a half hours.
May be made on foot or by pony.
Ready for the Trail.
Moraine Lake and Valley of the Ten
Peaks.—Distance, twenty miles for
round trip. Time required six to seven
hours.    Lunch should be taken.
This trip may be extended to the
Wenkchewna Glacier.
Paradise Valley.—Distance,  eighteen miles for round trip.
Time required six to seven hours.    Take a lunch.
This trip may be extended to the Horseshoe Glacier.
Consolation Valley.—Lake the Moraine Lake road or trail,
crossing the stream at the end of the lake, then around the
Tower of Babel.    Time, ten hours.
Note.—Much if not all the pleasure is lost if you give too little time to
Victoria Glacier.—Distance, about six miles. Time required
from four to five hours. With guides this trip may be extended
to a full day and interest greatly increased by doing some
climbing on the snow and ice.
Lake O'Hara.—Take the ponies at Hector Station. Round
trip forty miles. Time, two days. If Lake McArthur and Lake
Oesa are to be visited add another day.
Lake Mc Arthur.—
Take the ponies at
Hector Station.
Round trip forty-six
miles. Time required,
two days. A full week
can be well spent in
this charming locality.
Ptarmigan Lake and
Valley. — Distance,
thirty miles. Time,
two days. This is a
delightful trip to practically a new country.
Pack Horses in the Canadian Rockies.
Note.—To get full enjoyment of mountain trips—never hurry.
O ' H     A     R     A
Lake O'Hara. " If six of the most beautiful Lakes in the mountains were
selected this would certainly be among them. Personally
I regard Lake Louise, Moraine Lake and Lake O'Hara as the
finest I have ever seen. Bach is between one and two miles
long and each has certain individual charms. O'Hara Lake is
surrounded by a noble amphitheatre, the cul de sac made by
Mounts Victoria, Lefroy and Hungabee. The water, and even
the bottom itself, are colored a vivid, clear green. Not far from
the ^outlet, a pretty bay is made by a narrow point which
projects a line of trees into the water. Then it dissolves in a
chain of rocky islets covered in part with moss willows, a few
dwarf species and beds of purple rayed astors. Beyond the
minature cape the shore sweeps out into the broader reaches of
the Lake and carries the eye to the cliffs of the farthest shore,
where the inlet stream makes a curtain of water as it falls
in cascades over dark rocks. At night and sometimes by day
you may hear the echo distinctly a mile or more distant as it is
carried over the Lake. I have never discovered whether there
are any fish in this lake or not, though every condition is
favorable for them."—Walter Dwight Wilcox, in "The
Rockies of Canada."
There is a good trail from Hector to Lake O'Hara, and it is
a very enjoyable trip in favorable weather. The distance to the
lake and return is almost forty milesand two days should be
devoted to this trip.
<»X«> GAME
Lake Louise being within the confines of the Canadian
National Park there is no opportunity for the hunter of big
game in this immediate vicinity. Yet many parties in search of
mule deer, caribou, moose, mountain goat and sheep, start from
here, for, by good trails and within easy distance, is one of the
best big game districts in America. Of smaller game, the lynx,
coyote, wolverine, muskrat and marten are most common, and
the whistling marmot and waddling porcupine are often seen
close to the Chalet. Squirrels, chipmunks and gophers are also
in abundance. Not to be forgotten are the black, cinnamon
and grizzily bears which are often seen by guides and others
who wander from the beaten paths of civilization. Hunting in
this altitude has many additional charms, for nowhere else can
be found such remarkable and diversified scenery to interest the
sportsman together with the abundance of game, making an
outing that is most beneficial and amply repays for the time
spent in reaching this favorable territory. V
Between Laggan Station and Lake Louise Chalet $ .50
Hand baggage not exceeding two pieces for each person Free
For each additional piece of hand baggage 25
Trunks from Laggan Station to Lake Louise and return..    . 75
Pony from Lake Louise to Moraine Lake and return  4.00
Pony from Lake Louise to Saddleback and return  1.50
Pony to Lake Agnes and return  1.50
Pony to Victoria Glacier and return 1.50
Saddle and pack ponies for trips not herein specified, for
each horse per day 2.00
Horses and Carriages at the Chalet.
29 mm
This is a characteristic upland valley of the Canadian
Rockies of singular beauty, with glaciers, moraine, dark forests,
and winding silver streams and charming nestling blue lakes
whose restfulness make the traveller forget the world of bricks
and mortar, noise and strife, as effectually as if he were transported to a land where these troubles never had an existence.
To the south of this valley is a rock precipice commencing with
the Tower of Babel and then gradually increasing in height
eastward till it terminates in the Alpine peak fringed with a
border of ice near its pointed crest. Some of the cliffs around
this valley rise in a sheer wall for thousands of feet and make a
picture of quiet isolation and secluded beauty unsurpassed by
any^mountain valley in the world.
Orchid. Harebell.
Avalanche Lily- Asters and Columbines.
Among the many flowers found in the Lake Louise region
are moss campion, alpine campion, alpine dandelion, crepis,
star thistle, erigeron, arnica, arctic saxifrage, stonecrop and
alpine willows, and harebells, romanzoffia, grass of parnassus,
pentstemon, anemones, large thistle, chives, shooting-star.
31 W     I
G     U
D      E
Bach year the Canadian Pacific Railway Company has
brought out from Switzerland sturdy guides, men who are
familiar with the dangers of Alpine climbing, who have practically spent their lives scaling lofty heights and ascending the
giant monarchs of the Old World. To the caution of these men
is due the freedom from accidents which has been so marked in
the Canadian Rockies. The neophytes can safely trust themselves in their care and feel sure no undue risks will be taken and
every precaution exercised for safety and comfort while attaining
dizzy heights and getting a vision of the world from an altitude
where man feels his own insignificance and Nature is seen in all
her majesty and glory.
Swiss Guides are brought to Lake Louise each season by the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company. THE     TRAGEDY    ON     MOUNT     LEFROY
The list of fatal accidents in the Canadian Rockies contains
but one name up to the present, and that is Philip Stanley
Abbot of Boston. A man of long experience in mountain climbing in the Swiss Alps and in the Canadian Rockies ; a member of
the Appalachin Mountain Club. On August 3rd, 1895, Messrs.
Abbot, Thompson, Little and Professor Fay left Lake Louise
Chalet and started to ascend Mount Lefroy. The party at 5.30
drew up under an immense bastion and Abbot, who was leading,
saw beyond an angle in the bastion a verticle cleft up which
it was possible to climb. Unroping, Abbot ascended some
thirty feet when Professor Little called to him if it would not
be better to try and turn the bastion on the shelf. To this
question Abbot replied ' I think not. I have a good lead here.'
These were the last words he ever uttered. A moment later
Professor Little, whose attention was for the instant diverted,
was conscious that something had fallen swiftly past him and
knew only too well what it must be.
Thompson, standing at the base of the cliff, saw Abbot fall
backward, then head foremost saw him strike the upper margin
of the ice, turn completely over and begin rolling down a steep
incline. As the limb body rolled downward two lengths of rope
coiled upon it as upon a spool, this effected the velocity of the •
descent of 900 feet and prevented the unconscious form from
falling over the cliff below. Abbot died a few moments
after his friends reached the place where his body had
been arrested in its terrible fall. Two days later the party
returned and recovered Abbot's body now wrapped in a
mantle of snow.
This sad event should not be forgotten by those who
attempt mountain climbing in this region and it must be
remembered that danger is near and that no risks should be
taken without every available precaution for safety being
The Canadian Rockies excd'all other places for a camping
trip because there is so much to see that is I interesting, novel
and exhilarating,. Blest, indeed, are those that can get away
from the turmoil of the city and spend some time among these
matchless mountains and see Nature in all her grandeur of
towering peaks and glittering glacier, wild and weird canyons,
picturesque mountain lakes and tarns, spacious valleys and
enchanting streams.
Camping in the Canadian Rockies is a delightful and beneficial vacation,
34 It is well known that the chemical composition of the
atmosphere differs but little, if at all, wherever the sample be
taken ; whether it be on the high Alps or at the surface of the
sea, the relation of oxygen to nitrogen and other constituents is
the same. The favorable effects, therefore, of a change of air
are not to be explained by any difference in the proportion of
its gaseous constituents. One important difference, however, is
the bacteriological one. The air of high altitudes contains no
microbes, and is, in fact, sterile, while near the ground and some
ioo feet above it, microbes are abundant. In the air of towns
and crowded places not only does the microbic impurity
increase, but other impurities, such as the products of the
combustion of coal, accrue also. Several investigators have
found traces of hydrogen and certain hydrocarbons in the air,
and especially in the air of pine, oak and birch forests. It is
these bodies, doubtless, to which the curative effects of certain
health resorts are ascribed. Thus the locality of a fir forest is
said to give relief in diseases of the respiratory tract. But all
the same these traces of essential oils and aromatic products
must be counted, strictly speaking, as impurities, since they are
not apparently necessary constituents of the air. As recent
analyses have shown, these bodies tend to disappear in the
air as a higher altitude is reached, until they disappear
altogether. It would seem, therefore, that microbes, hydrocarbons, and entities other than oxygen and nitrogen, and
perhaps we should add argon, are only incidental to the
neighborhood of human industry, animal life, damp, and
vegetation.—The London Lancet.
There can be no divided opinion as to the healthfulness of
Lake Louise or the benefit to be derived from a visit in this
charming region. G
James Outram has written, • \ In the Heart of the Canadian
Rockies," thus on glaciers :—" Glaciers and their ways take a
life time to understand fully. Snowcraft is an education which
many guides with the experience of years are not masters of;
and almost every season the treacherous snows will claim among
their victims men who have spent years in studying their conditions. Many a vast abyss is hidden under an unbroken
expanse of seemingly solid snow where even the keenest and
most practiced eye cannot detect their presence, and frequently
an intricate net work of these huge crevasses may be gaily
passed over by an unskilled party perhaps unroped, where an
experienced guide would have had each individual on the rope,
held taut, the eye and hand watchfully ready as he winds here
and there probing at every step and noting indications of the
most subtle type. Still more appalling and even more difficult
to recognize are the limitations of avalanching snow. The
average athlete requires a hundredfold less education to become
safe or even expert on rocks than on snow or ice.
" Dangers are more apparent and easily recognized. It is
the open rather than the hidden and treacherous foe that he has
to battle with ; and certainly amongst amateurs for one expert on
snow and ice will be found ten or a dozen in the foremost rank
on rocks. The masked crevasse, the slippery surface, the frail
snow bridge, the tendency to avalanche demand every possible
care to guard against an accident.''
From a man of such wide and varied experience these
words of warning should be heeded by every person who visits
the glaciers in the vicinity of Lake Louise, named as follows:
Victoria, Lefroy, Horseshoe and Wenkchemna. The first
two are situated at the end of Lake Louise and in plain
view of the Chalet. Their distance and size is most deceiving
and upon nearer view one is impressed with their immensity.
Great yawning crevasses seam and furrow these mighty masses
of ice and snow, making them exceedingly dangerous for the
unfamiliar to traverse. PACK
To see the Rockies best one must leave the beaten track
and go by pack-horses into the very heart of the wilds. This
is easily done, even by ladies. The outfitter will supply all
requisites for camp life. Pack-horses carry all provisions,
and saddle-ponies, sure-footed as a mountain goat and trained to
the trail, are supplied. The camp cook and usually a boy of all
trades precede the campers inland; and, if there are ladies
in the party, have the camp stove for the ladies' tent going and
refreshments ready. One party including ladies recently made
a trip of sixty miles. It was necessary to ford nine mountain
torrents, cross two miles of giant fallen timber, climb a vertical
bench 2,000 ft. high by means of the zigzag, or corkscrew llridle
path, and come to a lake by trail through three miles of
muskeg. So perfect were the outfitters? arrangements that it
was not necessary to dismount once—excepting to rest. For
such a trip the charges are according to the size of the party.
Pack Horse Trips.
From the English sparrow to the golden eagle, birds of all
sizes visit Lake Louise and the vicinity during the summer
months.    The blue grouse,  Franklin grouse or fool hen are
plentiful, and Rocky Mountain ptarmigan are found at higher
altitudes. In the wooded lower valleys bird life in endless
variety is found. On the lakes are frequently seen different
varieties of water fowl, and the common whiskey-jack is everywhere to be found. It is good to know that shooting is not
permitted within the boundaries of the National Park, but if the
tourist be so inclined and in the regular season he can find
abundant opportunity for the exercise of his skill in many famous
districts beyond said boundaries.
F" JJ* '
-          ' J/r     ^^^^^^^^^^^^r    "
^K *
'■'I"- H  '*>•   ''-'^f-^yV H
Trout from Moraine Lake.
Trout of a good size have frequently been caught in
Moraine Lake and also in Lake Louise. The water in the
vicinity of Lake Louise being largely of glacier origin, contains
a large amount of glacier sediment which is not a favorable
condition for angling. The guides at Lake Louise, however,
know of good fishing waters within easy distance from the Chalet. M        O        U        N        T FAY
This mountain is named after Professor Fay, President of
the American Alpine Club, who thus describes the ascent of this
mountain : ' • The approach of Mt. Fay is from one of the most
exquisite of those deep blue Alpine lakes, in the number and
beauty of which Switzerland is quite outclassed by this region—
Moraine Lake. Its environment is most impressive, yet almost
forbidding Mt. Fay is another massive ridge, rising, as if to form
a second terrace, from a great arena filled to the depth of hundreds of feet with a crevassed glacier. Its feeding neve sweeps
at a precipitous angle up this frowning ridge, and seems to curl
backward like a breaking wave in a ponderous changing cornice
that precludes secure approach from this side. And this is, in
part, why the ascent was one of the longest as well as most
arduous that I have hitherto made—fifteen hours from our camp
by the lakeside andreturn, from 3.30a.m. until 6.30p.m. . . .
To the top of the couloir we made our way, chiefly on the ice,
with frequent step-cutting, but with one diversion, for variety,
to the crags. It was a parlous-looking place, and, as we noted
it upon our return by the ice below, we asked ourselves : ' How
many persons inexperienced in such climbing would consider
a passage over such a frowning donjon as in any way possible
without wings ? ' Then over snow-fields and a brief rocky ridge
between peaks Three and Two, then skirting over the latter's
snowy side—avoiding in one place a mass of rock discharged at
us as if in fury from the outcrop near its summit—and we found
ourselves at the col, or depression, between Two and the great
snow-faced ridge still left for us to surmount, and even now
towering some thousand feet above us. . . . It remained
only to pass over the ponderous dome of snow that crowns the
midway portion of the great ridge, and then beyond it by an
easy slope to gain its culmination. A vast panorama is here
unfolded", the most impressive feature of which is the seemingly
perpendicular drop of about 5,000 feet, on its northern side to
the lakelets of Consolation Valley.'' THE GREAT DIVIDE
The Great Divide.
Six miles from Laggan the summit of the Rockies is
reached, and the Great Divide is passed, 5,296 feet above sea
level. It is marked by a rustic arch spanning a stream, under
which the waters divide by one of those curious freaks witb
which nature occasionally diverts herself. For the two little
brooks have curiously different fates, though they have a common origin. The waters that deviate to the east eventually
mingle with the ice-cold tides of Hudson Bay, while the rivulet
that turns to the west adds its mite to the volume of the Pacific. APPRECIATION     AND     ADVICE
"There can be little purpose to serve in writing an appreciation of the superb scenery which presents itself on every
hand in this locality. I would say see : First, the magnificent
view from Saddleback. Second, the Victoria Glacier at close
range.    Third, the Lakes in the Clouds."
(Signed)       Robert Galloway.
" I have seen the grandeur of the Himalayas, the beauties
of the Alps in Switzerland, the Yosemite and the Yellowstone
Park, but I have not seen any place so picturesque as
Lake Louise."
(Signed)     Swami Abbedamanda,
New York City.
'' Surely this is a rare pearl  of   Nature set in a   most
magnificent mounting, overpowering in its quiet beauty."
(Signed)        A. H. A.,
Milwaukee, Wis.
\ I Where, O reader, but at Lake Louise, do the snow-capped
crests of mountain patriarchs glistening in the sun, against a
sky of Italian intensity, look down upon you, filling you
with awe and reverence.''
(Signed)   R. W. Ashcroet.
"If you go mountain climbing here, always Secure the
services of a guide."
(Signed)       G. C. Brown,
  London, Kng.
'' Judging the distance by sight, I thought I could reach
Victoria Glacier in an hour, but alas ! it took me four hours,
and it was hard work."
.(Signed)       C. Forbes. O N
" The joy of life is steepness overcome,
And victories of ascent, and looking down
On all that had looked down on us."—Tennyson.
Climb the mountains and get their good tidings. Nature''speace
will flow into you as sunshine flows into trees The winds
will blow their own freshness into you, and the storms their
energy, while cares will drop off like autumn leaves.
—John Muir.
Mountain climbing is not a dangerous pastime but a
beneficial recreation which has no age limit, and within proper
limitations is conducive to health and an aid to digestion.
Dr. J. C. Yonge,
New York.
Climbing the mountains around Lake Louise has been to
me a revelation of the beauties of Nature, and an interesting
and exhilarating form of exercise, as a result I shall return to
my labors with renewed vigor.
Rev. J. S. Smith,
Go to the mountain
top, ye whose lives have
been spent in the valleys.
A vision of a new world
awaits you, and an inspiration to bigher, holier
and loftier ideals.
Chas. Moore,
Anyone can go down
and stay down—struggle
upward, it always repays.
This is true around Lake
Miss G. Bruce,
Minneapolis, Min. HISTORICAL
Lake Louise was named in honor of Princess Louise,
daughter of the late Queen Victoria, and wife of the Marquis of
Lome, who was Governor-General of Canada from the year
1878 to 1883.	
Lake Agnes was named after Miss Agnes Knox, of Toronto,
who is said to have been the first woman to visit this lake.
The first sod on the Canadian Pacific Railway was turned
May 2, 1881.    The last spike was driven November 7, 1885.
The first passenger train across Canada, Eastbound, arrived
in Montreal July 12, 1886.
The first transcontinental passenger train, Westbound, left
Montreal June 28, 18S6, and reached its destination, Vancouver,
in five days and nineteen hours.
The Canadian Pacific Railway cost over three  hundred
millions to construct.
Lady Aberdeen at Lake Louise Chalet, Oct. i8th, 1894. FIRST
Mount Victoria,
August 3rd, 1897
Mount Victoria (N. Peak),
August 24th, 1900
Mount Leeroy,
August 1st, 1897
Mount Temple,
August 18th, 1894
Mount Aberdeen,
August 22nd, 1894
Mount Biddle,
Sept. 3rd, 1903
Mount Deltaeorm,
Sept. 1st, 1903
Mount Hungabee,
July 21st, 1903
r      •:-. *■ *?
K **
Two Ladies who have won fame as Mountain Climbers.
45 R
The tree life around Lake Louise is abundant and ends at
an altitude of about 7,000 feet. In this locality is found a
splendid variety of timber, including the jack pine, spruce,
balsam, fir, larch, cedar, hemlock, cotton wood, alder and
willow. Visitors will note that strict regulations and heavy
penalties exist regarding the starting of forest fires in the
Canadian National Park, and care must also be exercised in the
disposal of lighted matches when on trails in the timber
Remember a careless act may cause very serious results.
On the Trail.
<5 HOW    TO    USE   LIMITED     TIME
It is unfortunate to have but one day at Lake Louise, for in
that time a passing glance can only be obtained of the beauty
and magnitude of these wonderful mountains.
FOR A ONE-DAY VISIT.—In the morning visit the Lakes
in the Clouds, going by Mirror Lake trail, returning by the
high trail which is easily followed, starting as it does from the
rear of the Lake Agnes chalet. Time should be allowed for a
short stay at Lake Agnes, and to visit the best points of
view on the high trail.
After lunch go to the Saddleback and see the beautiful
Paradise Valley, with the glorious mountains surrounding this
far-famed valley.
In the evening take a boat trip on Lake Louise to the end of
the lake, and see from the trail Victoria Glacier at close range.
THE SECOND DAY.—Take a trip to Moraine Lake and
the Valley of the Ten Peaks. A full day should be given to this
most interesting scenery, which will be appreciated by every
visitor to this famous valley.
THE THIRD DAY.—Secure the service of a Swiss guide,
make an early start and visit Victoria Glacier. Your progress
will be governed by the climbing ability of your party. See the
immense crevasses and the wonderful formations of ice and
snow. A day can be well spent on this most interesting trip.
Strong boots are absolutely necessary.
THE FOURTH DAY.—Lakes O'Hara and Mc Arthur should
be visited. This will be a very enjoyable trip and the scenery
will amply repay for the time spent in reaching these most
interesting lakes.
MONTHS can be well spent at Lake Louise and new places
visited each day. The fascination and charm of this region
grows upon every visitor.
47 Adieu
To    Lake    Louise.
Unwilling feet I turn from thee
To seek my far off home,
Yet thy fair face I still shall see
Wherever I may roam.
For beauty seen remains for aye,
Strengthening the heart along
Life's way.
E. F. N.
Lake M?Artibu
Driving roads shown..
Pony trails constructed „	
Pony trails projected „ __L_
Scale H so, 000
5,000 10,0^0
Contour In±eTvol= 500 feet.
EW & CO., EDIN   


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