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Alpine flora of the Canadian Rocky Mountains Brown, Stewardson, 1867-1921 1907

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Array   V Mimulus Lewisii Pursh.    (% Nat.)
Red  Monkey-Flower. .4
—*\
.Rocky
«.. Vi* =V? «, 5 •; • >■• -•• ••
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1907
London •    -      <
w& Alpine Flora
of the
Canadian   Rocky   Mountains
Clias. W. Armstrong
H' •    By
Stewardson Brown
Curator   of Herbarium   Academy   of Natural   Sciences
Philadelphia
Illustrated with Water-Colour Drawings and Photographs
I      f By
Mrs. Charles Schaffer
G. P. Putnam's Sons
New York and London
3be   fmfcfterbocfeec   press
1907 Copyright, 1907
BY
G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS OFFERED TO THE LOVERS OF ALPINE
FLORAE IN THE MEMORY OF DR. CHARLES
SCHAFFER OF PHILADELPHIA, WHO WAS
AMONG THE PIONEER BOTANISTS OF THE
CANADIAN ROCKIES, AND WHO EARLY
RECOGNISED THIS REGION AS A NEW
AND   INTERESTING   FIELD   FOR STUDY  PREFACE
The present volume, though prepared in
manual form, is meant only as a guide to
the rich and interesting flora of the Canadian
Rockies and Selkirks or those portions
traversed by the Canadian Pacific Railway
between Banff and Glacier. While many of
the plants herein described are found throughout the entire region, yet the species characteristic of the two mountain ranges are vastly
different. For the most part those of the Rockies might be characterised as plants adapted to
the withstanding of severe conditions of
drouth and cold, being mostly low and tufted,
with small surfaces of leaf exposure, either
thick and leathery or in many instances
with an ample covering of protecting hairs;
while those of the Selkirks, owing to the more
humid  atmospheric   conditions,   are   essen- VI
Preface
i i
tially moisture-loving forms, with a luxuriant
growth of stems and leaves; it is only where
the conditions are similar in the two regions
that we find the same or similar forms
existing:. Few of the more characteristic
Rocky Mountain species extend west of the
divide, while of those of the Selkirks, few
extend east of it, except where there is a
luxuriant forest growth, with-the consequent
retention of moisture, and then only at altitudes of from 2000 to 3000 feet greater.
Contrasting the plants of this region with
those of the European Alps it is interesting
to note, that while the species are for. the
most part vastly different, yet there is a
certain close resemblance in the families
and genera which are represented; the
Anemones are here, but not in the scarlets
and crimsons, running more to whites and
purples, and so are the Buttercups, dwarf
many of them, but with large, showy flowers;
the Saxifrages and Drabas are innumerable
as are the Vetches and also the Heaths, but Preface
VII
the latter with fewer and very different
species. Some plants, however, like the White
Mountain Avens (Dryas octopetala), the
Butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris), the Moss
Campion (Silene acaulis), the Mountain
Cranberry (Vitis-idcBa) and the Low Cranberry (Oxycoccus), the One-flowered Winter-
green (Moneses uniflora), the Forget-me-not
(MyosQtis alpestris) and others are found
on both sides of the Atlantic, yet we have
no such array of Primroses or Gentians as
our European brothers, though both genera
are represented with us, while on the other
hand they can boast of nothing comparable
to our Indian Paint Brush, found throughout
the region on the river-shores and bars during
late June and early July and later through
the summer in its innumerable forms and
colours in the moist alpine meadows and
slopes.
The ferns and their allies with the more
striking of the trees and shrubs have been included in the present work, together with the
J Vlll
Preface
majority of the herbaceous flowering plants,
though some of the largely represented but less
striking groups such as the Grasses, Sedges,
and Willows have been entirely omitted,
not seeming of sufficient general interest to
warrant the space required for their intelligent treatment. The species are arranged in
accordance with their scientific relationships,
with keys to the genera and a general key
to the families. Among the illustrations
herein contained, many of the plants of
the Northwest are figured for the first time.
Acknowledgment is here made to Messrs.
David McNicoll, Robert Kerr, and other
officials and employees of the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company through whose
courtesy was made possible the gathering of
the data for the basis of this work.
S. B.
Academy of  Natural  Sciences,
Philadelphia, October 28, 1907. CONTENTS
PAGE
Preface      ....
V
Glossary     ....
.      XXV
General! Key to the Families
xXxiii
Adder's-Tongue Family
i
Fern Family
3
Horsetail Family
14
Club-moss Family
18
Selaginella Family
22
Pine Family         .
•   •      '23
Yew Family         ....
34
Arum Family
■         .      35
Bunch-Flower Family
•       36
Lily Family         .
1
41
Lily-of-the-Valley Family
•    . 45
Iris Family          .
52
Orchid Family    .        .        .
•      53
IX
J x                     Contents
PAGE
Willow Family             .
68
Birch Family
70
Mistletoe Family
•       72
Sandalwood Family
V
73
Buckwheat Family
75
Purslane Family
80
Pink Family
81
Crowfoot Family
90
Barberry Family
109
Poppy Family
no
Mustard Family .
in
Stone-Crop Family
I25
Grass-of-Parnassus Family
I^SS
126
Saxifrage Family
128
Gooseberry Family
146
Rose Family
150
Apple Family
165
Plum Family
167
Pea Family
168
Flax Family
182
Crowberry Family
183
Staff-Tree Family
184 Contents
XI
PAGE
Maple Family
-
.    185
St. John's-wort Family
.    186
Violet Family
.    187
Oleaster Family.
.    191
Evening Primrose Family
•    193
Ginseng Family  .
.    199
Celery Family
201
DogWood Family
.    205
Wintergreen Family .
207
Heath Family
211
Huckleberry Family .
220
Primrose Family
226
Gentian Family  .
231
Buckbean Family
236
Dogbane Family
237
Water-Leaf Family
i       <
238
Borage Family    .
240
Mint Family
244
Figwort Family .
248
Butterwort Family
262
Madder Family   .
263
Honeysuckle Family  .
264 Xll
Contents
PAGE
Valerian Family
•                 •
271
Bellflower Family
•                 •
•         273
Chicory Family   .
•                 •
•    275
Thistle Family   .
.   .     V
.    283
Index          ...
.        .
•    323 ILLUSTRATIONS
PLATE
FACING PAGE
Mimulus   Lewisii   Pursh.    Red Monkey-Flower   . .        Frontispiece
i   _Pinus albicaulis Engelm.    White Pine
i    Pinus  Mttrrayana Oreg.  Com.    Jack
Pine ......
2    Larix Lyallii Pari.    Lyall's Larch
2 Thuja plicata Don.    Giant Cedar
3 Abies lasiocarpa (Hook)  Nutt.    Bal
sam Fir      .....
3 Pseudotsuga mucronata (Raf!) Sudw.
Douglas Spruce    ....
4 Tsuga    Mertensiana
Mountain Hemlock
Tsuga     heterophylla
Hemlock
(Bong.)    Carr.
• • •
(Raf.)     Sarg.
Picea albertiana.    S. Brown.    Alberta
Spruce        .....
Zygadenus elegans Pursh.    Tall Zy-
gadenus       .....
24
24
26
26
28
28
30
30
32
38
Xlll XIV
Illustrations
PLATE
FACING PAGE
6 Zygadenus gramineus Rydb.    Zyga-
denus . .        ". . .38
7 Stenanthella occidentalis  (A.  Gray).
Rydb.    Stenanthium    . . .40
7 Clintonia uniflora  Kunth.    Clintonia      40
8 Tofieldia intermedia Rydb.   False As
phodel . . . . .42
8 Vagnera stellata (L)  Morong.,   Star-
Flowered Solomon's Seal . .      42
9 Erythronium   grandiflorum.    Pursh.
Snow Lily  . . ..      !|jj       .      44
10    Lilium montanum A. Nels, Red Mountain-Lily     . . .       ^fjjjj       .      46
10 Kruhsea streptopoides  (Ledeb)  Kear
ney.    Kruhsea     . . . .46
11 Cypripedium passerinum Rich.    Small
White Lady's Slipper    . . .       54
11 Cypripedium     parviflorum      Salisb.
Small Yellow Lady's Slipper . .       54
12 Corallorhiza Corallorhiza (L). Karst.
Coral-Root . ,       . . . .       56
12 Lyschiton      kamtschatcense        (L.)
Schott.    Western Skunk-Cabbage   .       56
13 Cytherea bulbosa (L.) House.    Calyp
so        58 k-
Illustrations
XV
•
PLATE                                                                                                                             FACING
PAGE
*3
Orchis    rotundifolia    Pursh.     Small
. Round-Leaved Orchid
58                                1
14
Limnorchis      dilatatiformis      Rydb.
II'
Purplish-Green Bog-Orchid
62                                S
14
Peramium Menziesii (Lindl.) Morong.
Menzies' Rattlesnake Plantain
62                                1
-$flti
Ophrys  borealis   (Morong).    Northern
Twayblade .        .         .         .
64
15
jQ pfyrys nephrophylla Rydb.  . Heart-
Shaped Twayblade
m               1
15
Coeloglossum     bracteatum      (Willd)
Pari.    Long-Br acted Orchid   .
64
15
Limnorchis fragrans Rydb.    Fragrant
I :
White Bog-Orchid
64
15
Lysiella    obtusata    (Pursh)     Rydb.
Small Northern Bog-Orchid   .
64
16
Comandra pallida DC.    White Coman-
dra     ......
74
16
Eriogonum subalpinum Greene.    Tall
White Eriogonum
74
f7
Claytonia lanceolata  Pursh.    Spring
■ Beauty         .....
80
|7
Claytonia    parvifolia    Moc.    Small-
Leaved Spring Beauty  .
80 ^               H
18
Silene acaulis L.    Moss Campion
82
18
Lychnis apetala L.    Nodding Lychnis
82 XVI
Illustrations
PLATE FACING PAGE
19    Alsine    borealis     (Bigel.)     Britton.
Northern Stitchwort      ||       . .      86
19    Moehringia  lateriflora    (L.)     Blunt-
Leaved Sandwort . . . .       86
19 Arenaria capillaris nardifolia (Ledeb.)
Regel.    Rock Sandwort . .       .      86
20 Caltha leptosepala  Hook.        . .     104
20 Trollius  albiflorus   (A.   Gray)   Rydb.
Western Globe-Flower   .   -     . .104
21 Aquilegia    brevistyla    Hook.    Small
Blue Columbine   . . . .102
22 Aquilegia flavescens S. Wats.    Yellow
Columbine  . . |        . .106
22 Aquilegia formosa Fisch. Western Col
umbine        . . . . 1     106
23 Delphinium Brownii Rydb.  Mountain
Larkspur     . . . . .108
r
23 Anemone globosa Nutt.   Wind-Flower    108
24 Anemone Drummondii S. Wats.    Al
pine Anemone      ....
24 Anemone parviflora Michx.    Northern
Anemone     . . . • §8   •
25 Pulsatilla hirsutissima (Pursh) Britton
Pasque-Flower    ....
25    Pulsatilla    occidentalis    (S.    Wats.)
Freyn.    Western Anemone
92
92
94
94
Ml Illustrations
XVI1
PLATE
FACING PAGE
26 Atragene  Columbiana Nutt.    Purple
Virgin' s-Bower
27 Ranunculus saxicola Rydb.
27    Ranunculus alpeophilus.    A Nels.
27 Ranunculus Eschscholtzii Schl. Snow
Buttercup    ....
28 Ranunculus      eremogenes      Greene
Ditch Crowfoot
28    Ranunculus Purshii Richards. Pursh'
Buttercup    ....
28 Ranunculus inamcenus Greene .
29 Thalictrum megacarpum Torr .
29 Thalictrum occidentale A.  Gray.
Western Meadow-Rue   .
30 Delphinium     Menziesii     DC.     Blue
Larkspur    ....
30 Lithophragma     parviflora     (Hook
Nutt.    Lithophragma   .
31 Physaria  didymocarpa   (Hook.)    A
Gray.    Bladder-Pod
31 Smelowskia   calycina   (Desv.)   C. A
Meyer.    Smelowskia
32 Draba oligosperma Hook.     Whitlow
Grass ....
32    Draba   andina    (Nutt.)      A.    Nels
Mountain Whitlow-Grass
90
100
100
100
98
98
98
96
96
no
no
116
116
112
112 XVI11
PLATE
Illustrations
FACING PAGE
33    Draba glaciali§ Adams Whitlow-Grass    114
33 Draba aurea Vahl.    Golden Whitlow-
Grass . . . • .114
34 Parnassia montanensis Rydb. & Fern.
Marsh Grass of Parnassus   ». .    126
34 Ribes  lacustre (Pers.)   Poir.   Swamp
Gooseberry . . . . .126
35 Mitella nuda L.    Naked Bishop's-Cap.    132
35 Pectiantia pentandra-(Hook.) Rydb.
Mitrewort   . . . . .132
36 Saxifraga  cernua L.    Nodding Saxi
frage . . . . . .     136
36 Saxifraga rivularis L.    Alpine Brook
Saxifrage    . ...       ,. .     136
37 Micranthes   Nelsoniana    (D.    Don.)
Small.   Nelson's Saxifrage    . .140
37 Micranthes   Lyallii   (Engler)   Small.
Lyall's Saxifrage . . . .140
38 Muscaria     caespitosa     (L.)     Haw.
Tufted Saxifrage . . . .138
38 Micranthes     rhomboidea     (Greene)
Small.    Mountain Saxifrage .138
39 SpatulariaBrunoniana(Bong.)  Small.
Sail Saxifrage      . . . .142
39    Leptasea austromontana  (Wiegand),
Small.    Common Saxifrage   .      . .    142
wmmmmm Illustrations
xix
PLATE FACING PAGE
40    Tiarella   unifoliata   Hook.      Western
Foam-Flower       . . . .150
40 Lutkea   pectinata   (Pursh)    Kuntze.
Cut-Leaved Lutkea . . 150
41 Rubus    pedatus    Smith.     Creeping
Raspberry   . . . . .152
42 Rubus   parviflorus.    Nutt.    Salmon-
Berry . . . . .156
43 Fragaria  glauca   (S.   Wats.)    Rydb.
Wild Strawberry . . . .158
43 Amelanchier   flinda   Lindl.     Service
Berry . . . . .158
44 Dry as octopetala L.    White Mountain
Avens. . . . . .164
44 Dry as   Drummondii   Rich.     Drum-
mond's Mountain Avens . .164
45 Geum strictum Ait.    Yellow Avens  .     162
45 Sieversia ciliata (Pursh) Don. Long-
Plumed Purple Avens   . . .162
46 Phaca americana (Hook.) Rydb. Arc
tic Vetch      . . . . .172
46 Homalobus     aboriginorum      (Rich)
Rydb.    Indian Vetch   . . .172
47 Aragallus   deflexus.    (Pall.)    Heller.
Drooping Vetch    . . . .176
17    Aragallus   viscidulus    Rydb.    Sticky
Oxytrope     . . . . .176 XX
Illustrations
PLATE FACING PAGE
48    Aragallus  Lamberti (Pursh) Greene.
Loco-Weed . m      . • .180
48 Lathyrus ochroleucus Hook.    White
Vetch . . . . .180
SU 1
49 Empetrum nigrum L. Black Crowberry    182
49    Linum  Lewisii Pursh.     Wild  Blue-
Flax . . . . ,      . .     182
50    Pachystima myrsinites (Pursh)  Raf
Mountain Lover
50    Viola adunca longipes (Nutt.) Rydb
Dog Violet
184
184
51    Elasagnus argentea Pursh. Silver-Berry    190
51 Lepargyrsea  canadensis  (L.)   Greene
Buffalo-Berry       . .        '.-        .190
52 Epilobium    luteum   Pursh.     Yellow
Willow-Herb        . . . .194
52 Chamsenerion latifolium  (L.)   Sweet.
Broad-Leaved Willow-Herb    . .     194
53 Chamsenerion angustifolium (L.) Scop.
Fire-Weed  . . , ..        .196
53 Berberis aquifolium Pursh.    Trailing
Mahonia    . . . . .196
54 Echinopanax     horridum.      (Smith)
Dec. & Planch.    Devil's-Club       1    200 Illustrations
XXI
PLATE
FACING PAGE
55 Cornus  canadensis  intermedia  Farr.
Bunch-Berry        . . . .204
56 Pyrola asarifolia   Michx.    Liver-Leaf
Winter green . . . .208
56    Pyrola uliginosa Torr.      Bog Winter-
green . . . . . .     208
56 Moneses uniflora (L.) A. Gray.    One-
Flowered Winter green    . . .208
57 Chimaphila   umbellata     (L.)     Nutt.
Prince's Pine       . . . .210
57 Arctostaphylos uva-ursi  (L.) Spreng.
Bear-Berry . . . . .210
58 Oxy coccus    oxy coccus    (L.)    MacM.
Small Cranberry  . . . .212
58    Gaultheria ovatifolia A. Gray.   Ovate-
Leaved-Winter green       . . .212
58 Vitis-idaea   Vitis-idaea   (L.)    Britton.
Mountain Cranberry     \ . .212
59 Cassiope   Mertensiana   (Bong.)   Don.
White Heath . . . .216
59    Phyllodoce    empetriformis     (Smith)
Don.    Red False-Heather       . .     216
59 Phyllodoce      glanduliflora     (Hook.)
Rydb.    White False-Heather .     216
60 Ledum grcenlandicum (Eder.    Labra
dor Tea       . . . . .218 XX11
Illustrations
PLATE FACING PAGE
60 Azaleastrum albiflorum (Hook.) Rydb.
White Mountain Rhododendron       .    218
61 Menziesia ferruginea Smith.    Smooth
Menziesea   . . . . .220
61 Kalmia  microphylla (Hoo^:.)  Heller.
Dwarf Swamp-Laurel   . . .220
62 Vaccinium     erythrococcum     Rydb.
Alpine Bilberry    . . . .222
62    Vaccinium   globulare   Rydb.    Thin-
Leaved Bilberry    . . . .222
62 Vaccinium ovalifolium Smith.    Blue
berry . ... . .222
63 Primula Maccalliana Wiegand.    Mac-
calltis Primrose . . .228
63 Androsace     carinata '   Torr.     Sweet
Androsace   . . . . .     228
64 Trientalis arctica Fisch.    Arctic Star-
Flower .....     230
64 Dodecatheon conjugens Greene. Shoot
ing-Star      . . . . .230
65 Gentiana affinis Griseb.    Large Gen-
Han
234
65 Romanzoffia   sitchensis   Bong.    Ro-
manzoffia    .....     234
66 Phacelia sericea (Graham)  A.  Gray.
Mountain Phacelia       . . .238
IHM Illustrations
XXI11
PLATE
66
67
67
68
68
FACING PAGE
Phacelia heterophylla Pursh    .
Lappula floribunda (Lehm.)  Greene.
False Forget-me-not
Lithospermum  linearifolium   Goldie.
Narrow-Leaved Puccoon
Collinsia   parviflora   Dougl.
Flowered Collinsia
Small-
Elephantella   grcenlandica       (Retz.)
Rydb.    Long-Beaked Elephantella .
69   "Pentstemon confertus Dougl.    Yellow
Beard-Tongue      . . .
69 Pentstemon pseudohumilis Rydb.
70 Pentstemon fruticosus (Pursh) Greene.
Large Purple Beard-Tongue   .
70 Pinguicula vulgaris L.    Butterwort  .
71 Linnasa americana Forbes.   American
Twin-Flower        ....
71 Lonicera     ebractulata    Rydb.    Fly
Honeysuckle ....
72 Lonicera involucrata (Rich.) Banks.
Involucred Fly Honeysuckle   .
73 Valeriana   sitchensis   Bong.      Wild
Heliotrope   . ....
73    Lobelia    Kalmii   strictinora    Rydb.
Brook Lobelia       .
238
242
242
248
248
350
250
262
262
266
266
270
272
272 XXIV
Illustrations
PLATE
74
74
75
75
75
76
76
76
77
78
78
79
79
FACING PAGE
Hieracium umbellatum L.    Narrow-
Leaved Hawkweed
Agoseris aurantiaca (Hook.) Greene.
Erigeron acris L.    Blue Fleabane
Erigeron salsuginosus (Rich.) A^ Gray.
Large Purple Fleabane .
Saussurea densa Hook.    Saussurea   .
Erigeron discoideus Rydb.        \
Erigeron melanocephalus A. Nelson.
Black-Headed Fleabone
Erigeron    multifidus     Rydb.      Cut-
Leaved Fleabane  .
Aster Lindleyanus T. & G.
Erigeron aureus     Greene^       Golden
Fleabane     . . .     ■   .
Gaillardia    aristata    Pursh.     Great-
Flowered Gaillardia
Arnica cordif olia Hook.   HearULeaved
Arnica ......
Arnica louiseana Farr.    Pale-Flowered
Arnica
276
276
288
288
288
292
292
292
298
302
302
304
304 GLOSSARY
Acaulescent: with stem so short that leaves appear
to arise directly from root.
Achene: a small, dry, one-seeded indehiscent, seedlike fruit.
Acuminate: tapering gradually to a point.
Acute: with an abrupt point.
Adnate: growing together as the stamens with the
petals,' or the anthers with the filament.
Alternate: (leaves) not opposite but arising at
different points on the stem. Stamens are alternate with petals when they are situated in the
intervals.
Anther: the part of the stamen which contains the
pollen.
Apical: pertaining to the top or apex.
Auriculate: with ear-like appendages at base.
Axial: pertaining to an axis.
Bilabiate: two-lipped.
Blade: the expanded portion of a leaf.
Bract: a modified and usually small leaf at the base
of a flower or flower-cluster. In the latter case
it is usually associated with others. .
Bracteolate: furnished with small bracts.
C^espitose: growing in tufts.
Calyx : the outer whorl of floral leaves forming usually
a green cup.
Campanulate : bell-shaped.
Canescent: greyish-white, due usually to fine hairs.
Capillary: hair-like.
XXV
\ XXVI
Glossary
Capitate: arranged in a head; knob-like.
Capsule: a dry, dehiscent seed-vessel.
Carpel: a pistil-leaf.    The pistil is regarded as being
composed of one or more such carpels.
Catkin : the scaly, cylindrical flower-cluster of Willow,
Birch, etc.
Caudate: with a tail-like appendage.
Caudex:   the  perennial   rootstock. ofr an   otherwise
annual plant.
Chartaceous: papery or parchment-like.
Ciliate : fringed with marginal hairs.
Cinereous : ashen or greyish.
Cleistogamic :   (flowers)   never  opening  as  the  late
flowers of violets, etc.
Connate: united.
Cordate: heart-shaped.
Coriaceous: leathery.
Corm: a solid bulb.
Corymbose:  with   a  flat-topped  or  convex  flower-
cluster, the flower-stalks of which arise at different
points on the axis, and of which the outermost
flowers are the oldest.
Crenate: with rounded teeth.
Crenulate: with small rounded teeth.
Cuneate: wedge-shaped.
Cuspidate: ending in a sharp, hard point.
Cyme:   a   flat-topped   or   convex   flower-cluster,   the
flower-stalks of which  arise  at  different points
on the axis, and of which the innermost flowers
are the oldest.
Deciduous : subject to fall, as leaves of most trees and
calyx and corolla of most flowers before the fruit
forms.
Decumbent:  (stems)  reclining on the ground with
summit tending to rise.
m I
Glossary
xxv 11
Decurrent:  (leaves) with base prolonged below insertion and forming a sort of wing.
Deltoid: broadly triangular.
Dentate:   toothed,   usually   with   teeth   projecting
outwards.
Denticulate: with little, outwardly projecting teeth.
Dioecious :   having   staminate   and  pistillate   flowers
' on separate plants.
Disc: the central part of a head as opposed to the ray,
e. g., in the sun-flower.    Also a fleshy expansion
of the receptacle of the flower.
Drupe: a stone-fruit.
Drupelet: a small stone-fruit.
ELXiPTic: with the outline of an ellipse.
Entire : with the margin even and not toothed, -lobed,
or divided.
Erose: irregularly margined.
Fimbriate: fringed.
Ploccose: with loose tufts of wool-like hairs.
Foliaceous : leaf-like.
Follicle : a fruit of one carpel (pistil-leaf) which splits
only by one suture.
Fusiform : spindle-shaped.
Galea: a helmet-shaped body.
Glandular: with  small prominences which  appear
to have a secreting function.
Glaucous : covered with a bluish or white bloom.
Globose: spherical.
Incised : sharply and irregularly cut into.
Indusium: the membrane covering the fruit-dots of
ferns.
Inferior: (side of flower) the one away from the axis
of the flower-cluster;    (ovary)  united with   the
calyx-tube,   the   other   floral   parts   apparently
growing from its summit. XXV111
Glossary
Inflorescence: the mode of arrangement of flowers
on the stem; the flower-cluster.
Internode : the portion of ^he stem between the places
where the leaves arise.
Involucre : a whorl of small leaves at the base of a
flower or flower-cluster.
Keel: the lower petals of the peculiar corolla of the
pea, etc., which are united in the forni of the keel
of a boat.
Laciniate: with deep, triangular, narrow lobes.
Lanate: woolly.
Lanceolate: narrow and tapering at each end.
Lateral: pertaining to the side.
Leaflet: one of the divisions of the blade of a compound leaf.
Linear : narrow and flat with the margins parallel.
Lyrate:  lyre-shaped.
Monoecious: having the separate staminate and pistillate flowers on the same plant.
Mucronate : with a short, abrupt point.
Node: the point of the stem from which one or more
leaves arise.
Oblanceolate: lance-shaped with the base tapering
downwards.
Obtuse: blunt.
Orbicular: circular.
Ovate: egg-shaped (applied to flat bodies).
Ovoid: egg-shaped (applied to solids).
Palmate:   (compound  leaf)   with   the   divisions   so
arranged that they radiate from the petiole like
the fingers of the hand.
Panicle:  a branched,  flower-cluster  with the  older
flowers outermost.
Paniculate:    with    much    branched    open    flower
clusters. Glossary xxix
Papillae: minute, blun^ projections.
Pappus: the bristles, awns, or hairs which crown the
fruit of the Composites.
Parietal : (placentas) attached to the wall of the ovary.
Peduncle: a flower-stalk.
Perennial: lasting from year to year.
Perfoliate : (leaves) having the basal part so extended
and united as to make it appear as though the
stem grew through them.
Perianth: the calyx and corolla collectively.
Petal: a corolla-leaf.
Petaloid: petal-like.
Petiole: the leaf-stalk.
Pinnae : the primary divisions of a compound leaf.
Pinnate: compound with  leaflets arranged along a
common axis.
Pinnatifid: pinnately cleft.
Pinnules: secondary pinnas.
Placentae : the parts of the ovary to which the seeds
are attached.
Plumose: feathery.
Pollen : the fertilising powder of the anther.
Polygamous:   having   both   perfect   and   imperfect
flowers.
Prostrate: lying flat on the ground.
Puberulent: covered with tiny almost imperceptible
hairs.
Pulvini: cushions or pads.
Raceme: a flower-cluster in which the stalked flowers
are arranged along an elongated axis.
Racemose : raceme-like.
Rachis: the axis.
Radical : arising from the root, or portion of the stem
resembling the root.
Receptacle: the usually somewhat enlarged portion
1 XXX
Glossary
of the stem on which parts of a flower or of a
flower-cluster are borne.
Reniform: kidney-shaped: |
Repand : wavy-margined.
Reticulate : arranged like a network.
Revolute: rolled backward.
Rhizome: an underground stem; a rootstock.
Rhombic : having the shape of a four-sided figure with
parallel and equal sides which may be either
perpendicular or oblique to each other.
Rhomboid: of a somewhat rhombic shape.
Rotate: wheel-shaped.
Runcinate : coarsely cut into with the segments turned
backward.
Sagittate: shaped like an arrow-head with the lobes
turned downward.
Samara: a simple, indehiscent, winged fruit.
Saprophyte : a plant which grows on dead organic
matter.
Scale : a minute, rudimentary leaf.
Scape: a leafless or nearly leafless flower-stalk arising
from near the ground.
Scarious: dry, thin, membranous.
Scurf : minute scales on the epidermis (skin).
Sepals : the divisions of the calyx.
Serrate: with teeth pointing forwards.
Serrulate: with minute forward pointing teeth.
Sessile: (leaf) without any stalk.
Sheath : a tubular structure such as is formed by the
lower part of the leaves of. grasses, etc.
Silicle: a short and broad silique.
Silique: the elongated two-valved and usually dehiscent fruit of the Cress family. It is divided
by a partition and the placentae are parietal.
Sinuate: with a strongly wavy margin. Glossary
xxxi
Sinus: the recess between the lobes of a leaf.
Sori: the fruit-dots of ferns.
Spadix: a fleshy spike as in the Araceae..
Spathe: a large bract or pair of bracts enclosing a
flower or an inflorescence.
Spatulate : spoon-shaped.
Spike: a flower-cluster in which the flowers are stalk-
less on an elongated axis.
Sporanges: the sacs containing the spores.
Spore: the reproductive body of ferns.
Sporophyll: leaf-like organ or receptacle   containing
spores.
Stam-en: the organ of the flower which produces the
pollen.
Staminodia: sterile stamens or structures which are
developed in the place of stamens.
Stellate : star-shaped.
Stipe: the leaf-stalk of a fern.
Stipule : an appendage such as is found at the base of
many leaf-stalks.
Stolon : a trailing and rooting shoot.
Striate: marked with slender, longitudinal stripes.
Strict: straight and upright.
Style: (of pistil) the elongated portion at top of ovary.
Subulate :  awl-shaped.
Superior: (side of flower) the one next the axis of a
flower-cluster; (ovary) free from calyx tube.
Terete: cylindrical, circular in cross-section.
Tern ate: in threes.
Tomentose : clothed 'with matted wool-like hairs.
Torulose: knobby;  swollen at  intervals.
Truncate: as if cut off at the top.
Tubercle: a small knob-like outgrowth.
Turbinate: top-shaped.
Umbel: an umbrella-like flower-cluster. xxxn
Glossary
Undulate: wavy.
Valvate : (leaves in bud) meeting by the margins, not
overlapping.
Verticillate : whorled.
Vexillum:  the  standard  of  the  peculiar  flower  of
pea, etc.
Villous : with long soft hairs. v GENERAL KEY TO THE FAMILIES
PLANTS WITHOUT FLOWERS
Ferns and their Allies
Leaves large, fern-like.
Sporanges in a spike or panicle above the sterile
leaf. Ophioglossaceae.
Sporanges borne in sori, on the backs or margins of
the leaves. Polypodiaceae.
Leaves small, reduced to scales.
Stems erect, hollow, jointed, rush-like; leaves reduced to sheaths at the joints; sporanges in
the terminal, cone-like spike. Equisetaceae.
Stems not hollow, creeping; leaves numerous, scalelike ; sporanges of one kind, solitary in the axils
of   the   leaves. Lycopodiaceae.
. Stems creeping, moss-like; leaves numerous; sporanges of two kinds in the axils of the upper
leaves, which are formed into a quadrangular
spike. Selaginellaceae.
PLANTS WITH FLOWERS
Woody Stemmed Plants ; Trees, Shrubs, and Vines
trees   or shrubs   with    resinous   juice;   leaves
usually evergreen.
Fruit a cone, either dry or berry-like.       Pinaceae.
Fruit a fleshy crimson berry. Taxaceae.
1111     xxxiii xxxviii General Key to Families
Leaves  not  evergreen,  simple, lobed,
or much divided.
Smooth.
Stems erect or floating.
Ranunculaceae.
Stems creeping.
Flowers white or pink.
Rosaceae.
Flowers yellow.   Ranunculaceae.
Rough-hairy.
Flowers yellow or pink.  Rosaceae.
Flowers white, blue or purple.
Ranunculaceae.
§§ Leaves mostly on the stem.
Leaves   finely   cut;   stems   creeping;
flowers white. Rosaceae.
Leaves entire.
Leaves bright  green, black dotted;
flowers yellow. Hypericaceae.
Leaves glaucous, without black dots;
flowers blue. Linaceae.
(e) Flowers with 5 sepals and 5 united petals
or lobes.
fStamens   3;   flowers   small,   in   terminal
clusters. Valerianaceae.
ttStamens 5.
Opposite to the corolla lobes.
Primulaceae.
Alternate with the corolla lobes.
1 Stems   smooth,   leafy;   corolla   cam-
panulate.
Stem leaves broad;
Stem leaves narrow;
flowers pink.
Apocynaceae.
flowers  blue
Campanulaceae. General Key to   Families xxxix
Stems rough-hairy.
Corolla   salver-form;   stamens   in- •
eluded. Boraginaceae.
Corolla tubular; stamens exserted.
Hy drophyllaceae.
ttfStamens 10; flowers mostly in terminal
heads or singly. Pyrolaceae.
** Flowers irregular.
(a) Leaves  all  entire and basal, forming ro
settes ; flowers blue. Lentibulariaceae.
(b) Leaves all heart-shaped; flowers blue, white
or yellow. Violaceae.
(c) Leaves not heart-shaped, simple or much
!       cut, not pinnate.
Stems square; flowers in close verticels in
the axils of the leaves or in terminal
heads. Menthaceae.
Stems round; flowers numerous in elongated terminal leafy heads or few on
slender stems in the axils of the upper
leaves. Scrophulariaceae.
(d) Leaves palmate; flowers blue in elongated
spikes. Ranunculaceae.
(e) Leaves pinnately divided; flowers pea-like.
Papilionaceae.
(/)  Leaves   compoundly     lobed,    not   pinnate.
Stems   low,   spreading,   flowers   small   in
dense terminal or axillary spikes.
Papaveraceae.
Stems erect; flowers drooping in open terminal heads, either showy and spurred
or not showy and without spurs; leaves
maiden-hair fern-like.    Ranunculaceae.  Alpine Flora of the Canadian
f    Rocky Mountains
OPHIOGLOSSACEiB
Adder's-Tongue Family
More or less succulent fern-like plants,
consisting of a stem and leaf growing from
a fleshy root. Sporophyll in the form of a
spike or panicle.
Botrychium      VeiT   fleshy>   2"12   itlcheS   hiSh'
lunaria (L.)     Leaf usually sessile, borne at or
Sw- above the middle of the stem,
Moon-wort. •        §§|11 Wm       o       •        r
pinnate with 2-8 pairs of moonlike or fan-shaped lobes which vary from cre-
nate to entire and either close and folded
together or distant;   spore-bearing portion 2 Ophioglossaceae
2-3 pinnate, often dense,^ 1-2  inches long,
about as high as the leaf.
In open or exposed situations, frequently
on the tops of the highest mountains, rather
rare; occurring in midsummer.
Botrychium
simplex E.
Hitchcock.
Small Moon
wort.
Plant 2-6 inches high, slender and
very variable. Leaf ovate, ob-
ovate or oblong, entire, lobed or
pinnately parted, borne near the
base of the stem; spore-bearing
portion a simple or slightly compound spike,
sometimes reduced to only a few sporanges;
apex of the leaf and spore-bearing portion
erect in fruit.
In   alpine   meadows    or   grassy   slopes,
frequently through   the Rockies   but   very
inconspicuous; during summer.
Stem slender, 4 inches to 2 feet
high. Leaf thin, ternately divided and spreading 3-12 inches
across, pinnately much divided
into oblong-toothed segments;
spore-bearing   portion   long-stalked,   much
Botrychium
virginianum
(L.) Sw.
Virginia
Grape Fern. Polypodiaceae 3
above the leaf 2-3 pinnate, cinnamon brown,
when ripe.
In rich moist woods, sparingly throughout
the region during the summer.
POLYPODIACEAE
Fern Family
Ferns of various habits, the rootstocks
horizontal, often.elongated or short and erect;
the leaves simple, pinnate, pinnatifid or
decompound, coiled at the ends when young.
Sporanges borne in clusters (sori) on the
lower side or margins of the leaves or their
segments, with or without a membranous
covering (indusium).
Represented in the region by the following 10 genera.
Sori without indusia, leaves 2-3  pinnate or ternate.
Phegopteris.
Sori with marginal indusia  formed by the  more  or
less altered edge of the leaf.
Sporanges at the ends of the veins, borne on a re-
flexed portion of the leaf. Adiantum.
Sporanges   on   a   continuous   vein-like   receptacle
which connects the apices of the veins.
Pteridium. 4
Polypodiaceae
Sporanges at or near the ends of the unconnected
veins.
Leaves of two kinds, the spore-bearing ones contracted and more or less-pod-like.
Cryptogramma.
Leaves  uniform;  sori minute,   indusium  usually
interrupted. ^jf; Cheilanthes.
Sori not marginal, provided with spinal indusia.
Sori oblong on oblique veins; leaves pinnate.
Asplenium.
Sori round.
Indusium conspicuous.
Leaves firm; indusium peltate.        Polystichum.
Leaves  membranous;  indusium  reniform.
Dryopteris.
Indusium inconspicuous.      ;?££
Indusium under the sorus,  stellately  divided.
Woodsia.
Indusium hooded, fixed by a broad base.   Filix.
Rootstock short, thick, erect or
oblique; stems 4-10 inches long
with a few brown spreading
scales near the base; leaves 1-2
feet long, oblong-lanceolate,
thrice pinnate, the pinnae deltoid-lanceolate, the lower ones distant
and smaller, pinnules oblong-lanceolate,
finely cut-toothed; sori small, rounded
and nearly marginal.
Phegopteris
alpestris
(Hoppe) -
Mett.
Western
Beech Fern. Polypodiaceae
On moist banks in the Selkirks, frequent
especially in the vicinity of Glacier, where
it forms clumps of considerable diameter, up
to 7000 feet elevation.
Phegopteris
Phegopteris
(L.)Un-   ■
derw.
Long Seech
Fern.
Rootstock slender and creeping;
stems 6-9 inches long; leaves
triangular, thin, usually longer
than broad, 6-9 inches long,
4-6 inches broad, hairy on the
veins, especially beneath; pinnae
linear-lanceolate, the lowest pair deflexed
and standing forward, segments oblong,
obtuse, entire, the basal ones joined to the
main rachis; sori small, near the margin.
In  moist  woods  in  the  Selkirks  at  the
lower elevations, not Common.
Phegopteris Rootstock slender, extensively
Dryopteris creeping; leaves or short black
(L.) Fee.        stipes,   broadly   triangular   4-8
Oak Fern. ■, WA    ,-.      m
inches wide, the three  primary
divisions 1-2 pinnate, segments oblong, obtuse, entire or toothed; sori near the margin.
In moist woods and thickets throughout 8
Polypodiaceae
Cryptogram -
ma Stelleri
(S. G.
Gmel.)
Prantl.
Slender
Cliff-brake
Rootstock slender, creeping,
thread-like; stems slender, scattered 2-3 inches long, dark
brown; leaves thin, ovate in
outline 2-5 inches long, 1-2
inches wide, 2-3 pinnate or
pinnatifid above, the fertile
taller, with narrower pinnules and segments,
pinnae lanceolate-deltoid, cut to the rachis,
in few lobed or entire segments; indusium
broad; veins conspicuous.
In crevices of damp.or dripping rocks,
preferably limestone, in the Rockies up to
7000 feet elevation; not common.
_ .. . Rootstock creeping, covered with
F6ei Moore. Pale rusty-brown scales; stems
Hairy Lip tufted, wiry, chestnut brown,
Fem. 2_4 inches long,  hairy; leaves
oblong-lanceolate in outline 4-9 inches long,
gradually attenuate to the apex, twice
pinnate; pinnules somewhat distant, lanceolate-deltoid, acute, deeply pinnatifid or
incised,   more   or   less   covered   with   stiff Polypodiaceae
hairs and usually somewhat glandular; sori
numerous, covered by the infolded ends of
the rounded oblong lobes.
On rocks and among broken stones at the
lower altitudes of the eastern Rockies; growing in matted masses.
Asplenium Rootstock stout, creeping, chaffy
viride_Huds. with brown scales; stems nu-
Green merous, densely tufted, brown-
Spleenwort.       ish   bdow>   green   above;  leayes
linear-lanceolate, 2-8 inches long, once pinnate, pale green, with 12-20 pairs of ovate
or rhomboid, crenate, obtuse, unequal-sided
pinnules; sori oblong, numerous, or scattered.
On dry rocks and slides, frequent through
the Rockies.
Rootstock creeping, rather slender for the size of the plant;
stems tufted, 6-10 inches long;
straw-colored, brownish or reddish, with scattered brown scales
which are large and numerous at the broadened base; leaves broadly oblong-lanceolate,
Asplenium
Filix-foem-
ina (L.)
Bernh.
Lady Fern IO
Polypodiaceae
pinnae lanceolate, acuminate, 4-8 inches long;
pinnules lanceolate, incised or serrate, sori
short, the indusia straight or variously
curved.
In moist woods and thickets throughout
the region but especially in the Selkirks,
being a common fern in the woods in the
vicinity of Glacier.
t> t   i ^ Rootstock    short,   stout,    and
Polystichum
Lonchitis densely chafly; stems 1-5 inches
(L.) Roth. long, bearing large dark-brown
Holly Fern.    scaies> with some smaller ones;
leaves rigid, leathery, and evergreen, narrowly lanceolate in outline, once pinnate;
pinnae broadly lanceolate, scythe-shaped,
1-2 inches long, acute or acuminate at the
apex, with an ear-like projection on the
upper side at the base, and with a nearly
straight edge on the lower, densely spiny-
toothed ; sori large, nearer the margin than
the midrib.
In large tufts  among rocks throughout
the region. Polypodiaceae
ii
Rootstock   stout,  ascending, or
Dryopteris
Filix-mas erect, chaffy; stems 4-6 inches
(L.) Schott. long, very chaffy below; leaves'
Male Fern. broadly lanceolate, acute or
acuminate at the apex, slightly narrowed at
the base, 1-3 feet long, rather firm, half
evergreen, pinnate or partly 2-pinnate; pinnae
lanceolate, broadest at the base, gradually
acuminate, 3-6 inches long, pinnatifid almost
to the rachis, or pinnately divided into
oblong, smooth lobes; sori large, borne near
the margin, more numerous on the lower
halves of the segments.
In rocky woods in the Selkirks on the
lower slopes of Mt. Macdonald.
Rootstock stout, chaffy; stems
6-18 inches long, bearing large
brown scales with dark centres;
leaves broadly ovate or triangular ovate, commonly 3-pin-
nate; pinnules lanceolate-oblong,
the lowest often much elongated;
sori medium size; indusium smooth.
In   moist   woods   through   the   Selkirks,
Dryopteris
spinulosa
dilatata
(Hoffm.)
Underw.
Spinulose
Shield Fern
i
jj_ 12
Polypodiaceae
probably the most  abundant  fern  in the
vicinity of Glacier.
Dryopteris
oreopteris
(Sw.)
Maxon.
Rootstock short, erect or decumbent, scaly; stems light
straw-colored, 2-6 inches long,
tufted, copiously scaly throughout, with light brown scales; leaves 1J-2
feet long, rather firm, broadly-lanceolate,
gradually tapering from near the middle
to both ends; pinnae 2-3 inches long, deeply
pinnatifid, gradually shorter to the lowest
which are more distant, broadly triangular,
and less than an inch long; segments flat,
oblong, and nearly entire; rachis straw-
colored, densely scaly with light brown
scales, nearly to the apex.
In the Selkirks on the moist mountain
slopes and rocky ravines at Glacier.
Woodsia
scopulina
D. C. Eaton.
Rocky
Mountain
Woodsia.
Rootstock short, creeping, and
densely chaffy; stems brown,
darker at the base, 2-4 inches
long, glandular-hairy; leaves
mostly glandular-hairy through- Polypodiaceae
13
out, lanceolate, 6-12 inches long, tapering
from about the middle to both ends; pinnae
numerous, oblong-ovate, pinnatifid into oblong-toothed segments; sori nearly marginal.
In crevices in the rocks and among broken
stones on slides, throughout the Rockies, up
to an elevation of 7000 feet; frequent.
Woodsia
oregana
D. C. Eaton.
Oregon
Woodsia.
Rootstock short; stems smooth,
brownish below. Leaves smooth,
2-10 inches long, lanceolate;
pinnae triangular, oblong, obtuse,
pinnatifid, lower ones rounded
and somewhat remote from the others;
rachis straw-colored; pinnules oblong-ovate,
dentate or crenate, the teeth often turned
back and covering the submarginal sori.
Among broken stones on the slides near
the base of Mt. Stephen in the Rockies.
„.,.   ,    ...     Rootstock   short;    stems    4-8
Filix fragilis '
(L.) Un- inches long, leaves thin, smooth
derw. Brit- throughout, oblong-lanceolate,
tie Fern. only   slightly   tapering   below,
4-10 inches long; pinnate or 2-3 pinnatifid;
i H
Equisetaceae
pinnae lanceolate-ovate, irregularly pinnatifid with a broad central space, and bluntly
or sharply toothed segments, decurrent
along the margined or winged rachis; sori
small, half way between the margin and the
midrib; indusium narrow, soon withering.
In crevices in rocks and among broken
stones throughout the Rockies.
Filix mon- Rootstock slender, widely creep-
taha (Lam.) ing; stipes 6-9 inches long, slen-
Underw. clev;   leaves   deltoid-ovate,   3-4
pinnate, 3-6 inches broad, the lowest pinnae
triangular-lanceolate and much larger, their
inferior pinnules i-i? inches long, deeply divided into oblong lobes, deeply toothed; sori
numerous; indusium acute, soon withering.
On damp mossy banks and rocks throughout the Rockies; not common.
Equisetace^j
Horsetail Family
Green, rush-like plants with usually hollow,
m Equisetaceae
15
jointed, simple or often much branched
stems, rising from subterranean rootstocks;
the branches verticillate.
Leaves reduced to toothed sheaths; sporanges clustered beneath the scales of
terminal, cone-like spikes.
Equisetum Stems annual, the fertile ap-
arvense L. pearing in early spring before
Field Horse- the sterile; fertile stems 4-10
inches high, soon withering,
light> brown, their loose sheaths mostly distant, whitish, ending in about 12 brown
acuminate teeth; sterile stems green, much
branched and slender, 2 inches to 2 feet high
with numerous, mostly simple, 4-angled
solid branches with 4-toothed sheaths.
In moist sandy soil throughout the region,
frequent in wet woods and swampy places.
Stems annual, the fertile appearing in early spring, before
the sterile, at first simple, at
length much branched, resembling the sterile except in the withered apex;
Equisetum
sylvaticum
L. Wood
Horsetail. i6
Equisetaceae
stems 8-20 inches high, producing verticillate
compound branches which are curved downward; sheaths loose and cylindric, those of
the stem whitish, with 8-14 rather blunt
brown teeth.
In moist sandy woods and thickets in the
Selkirks, not common.
Stems annual, all alike, 2-4 feet
Equisetum
fiuviatiie L m&n> bluish green, smooth, usu-
Swamp ally producing upright branches
Horsetail. after the spores are formed;
sheaths appressed with about 18 dark brown
or nearly black, short acute teeth.
In sloughs and shallow ponds throughout
the region, frequent.
Stems stiff, evergreen, 2-4 feet
high, rough, 8-34-furrowed, the
ridges with two distinct lines
of tubercles; sheaths rather long,
cylindric, marked with one or
two black girdles, teeth dark brown or nearly
black and membranous, soon deciduous;
spikes tipped with a rigid point.
Equisetum
hyemale L
Common
Scouring- <
rush. Equisetaceae
17
In wet places and on banks and slides in
the valley of the Kicking Horse River.
Equisetum
variegatum
Schl. Variegated
Equisetum.
Stems perennial, slender, evergreen, 6-18 inches long, rough,
usually simple from a branched
base, commonly tufted, 5-10
furrowed; sheaths companulate,
distinctly  4-keeled,   green  variegated  with
black above; the teeth  5-10,  each tipped
with a deciduous  bristle.
In moist, sandy soil throughout the region
up to an elevation of 7000 feet, sometimes
forming large patches.
Equisetum Stems perennial, evergreen, very
scirpoides slender, 3-6 inches long, rough,
Michx. flexuous  and  curving,   growing
in tufts closely matted to the ground, mostly
6-furrowed with acute ridges, simple or
branching from near the base; sheaths black,
with three membranous rather persistent
bristle-tipped teeth.
On moist sandy shaded banks throughout
the Rockies. 18 Lycopodiaceae
Lycopodiace^e
Club-moss Family
Branching, moss-like plants with small
lanceolate or subulate, sometimes oblong
or roundish simple leaves, arranged in two
or many ranks on trailing or sometimes
erect, usually branched stems.
Sporartges solitary in the axils of the
leaves or on their upper surfaces.
Lycopodium
Selago L.
Fir Club-
moss.
Stems usually yellowish throughout, 3-6 inches high, thick, rigid,
erect, 2-5 times forked, the
branches forming a level topped
cluster; leaves crowded, uniform, ascending,
elongated, lanceolate with a spiny tip, the
upper mostly 8-ranked and sterile, those
below bearing small sporanges in their axils,
leaves of the lower half of the stems again
sterile; plant propagated also by enlarged
bud-like organs.
Throughout the region in alpine meadows
and slopes above 6000 feet elevation.
■M Lycopodiaceae
J9
T a- ~ Stems much branched, slender,
Lycopodium ' '
annotinum prostrate and creeping, rather
L. Stiff stiff, 1-4 feet long, the branches
Club-moss.      similar>   ascending   5-8   inches
high, sparingly forked; leaves uniform, spreading, 5-ranked, rigid, linear-lanceolate, minutely serrulate, nerved below, spikes solitary
or several at the ends of the branches,, oblong,
cylindric 1-1J inches long, composed of ovate
or ovate-cordate, short acuminate and
denticulate bracts, each with a sporange
in its axil.
In woods throughout the region, frequent.
Running
Pine.
Stems extensively creeping, 1-4
Lycopodium ,
clavatum L.    ^eet   long   with   similar   short,
irregular ascending or decumbent, densely leafy branches;
leaves much crowded, many ranked, incurved, linear^subulate, bristle-tipped, the
lower denticulate, the upper nearly entire or
slightly decurrent on either side; spikes 1-4
on long peduncles; bracts membranous,
roundish, and. irregularly denticulate below. 20
Lycopodiaceae
In dry woods and open grounds, rather
rare in the region, observed only in the
Selkirks around Glacier and Roger's Pass.
Lycopodium
sitchensis
Rupr.
Arctic Club-
moss.
Stems prostrate, 8—12 inches long,
on or a little beneath the surface;
sending up frequent branched
stems which form compact
masses of vertical, compressed
branches 2-3 inches high, with occasional
stronger, spike-bearing branches; leaves lanceolate with a broad base, spreading and
curving upwards, thick, entire, acute, in five
rows on the branchlets; the spikes nearly
sessile.
On grassy alpine slopes 6000 feet and
upwards in the Selkirks, especially in the
region about Glacier.
Lycopodium
compla-
n a turn L.
Trailing
Christmas-
green.
Stems extensively creeping, with
erect or ascending reinform or
fan-shaped branches, several
times forked above with crowded
flattened branchlets; leaves
minute,  overlapping,   flattened, Lycopodiaceae
21
4-ranked, the lateral row with somewhat
spreading tips; peduncle slender, 2-6 inches
high, forked, bearing 2-4 linear-cylindric
spikes, bracts broadly ovate, acuminate, with
pale irregularly cut margins.
In mossy woods at the lower altitudes,
more or less frequent throughout the region,
especially in the Rockies.
Lycopodium Stems Prostrate, 8-20 inches
alpinum L. long on or near the surface of
Alpine the ground, forming numerous,
ciu -moss. several times branched clusters
2-3 inches high with glaucous leaves, and
occasional stouter, compressed spike-bearing
stems, extending above the others; leaves
4-ranked, erect, flattened, those of the lateral
rows two to three times larger than those
intermediate; spikes sessile, few, |—§ of an
inch long.
In alpine meadows, on slopes, and in open
woods throughout the region from 6000 feet
upwards. 22 Selaginellaceae
SELAGINELLACEiE
*"'ft'-iif: V
Selaginella Family
Moss-like plants with branching stems and
scale-like leaves which are many ranked
and uniform, or 4-ranked and of two types
spreading in two planes. Sporanges solitary
in the axils of the leaves which are so arranged as to form more or less quadrangular
spikes.
Selaginella
selaginoides
(L.) Link.
Low Selaginella.
Sterile stems, prostrate and
creeping, small and slender; fertile stems thicker, ascending,
simple 1-3 inches high; leaves
lanceolate, acute, spreading,
sparsely spinulose-ciliate; spikes solitary at
the ends of the fertile branches, bracts lax,
ascending lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate,
strongly fringed.
A light green moss-like plant growing in
wet sandy grounds in the Rockies; not
infrequent. Pinaceae
23
Selaginella Densely tufted sterile branches
densa very short and crowded; leaves,
Rydb. densely crowded, many-ranked
linear or needle-shaped in age, slightly flattened and grooved on the upper side, the
margin fringed, tipped with a white bristle;
fertile branches erect, the spikes quadrangular §—§ of an inch long, bracts folded
together, thick, triangular-ovate, fringed on
the margin and tipped with a white bristle
half as long as that of the leaves.
In sterile dry ground and on exposed rocks
throughout the region from the bases to the
tops of the highest mountains, forming
grayish-green mats on the ground.
1
iO
PlNACE^E.
Pine Family
Resinous trees and shrubs mostly with
evergreen, narrow, entire or scale-like leaves;
the pollen sacks and ovules borne in separate
spikes; fruit a cone with numerous, several 24
Pinaceae
or few, woody, papery or fleshy scales, sometimes berry-like; seed wingless or winged.
Scales   of   the   fruit    numerous,    alternate;    leaf
buds scaly.
Leaves in clusters.
Clusters ensheathed at the base, containing 2,3, or 5
leaves. Pinus.
Clusters not ensheathed   at the base containing
many leaves. Larix.
Leaves solitary.
Cones erect; scales deciduous. Abies.
Cones pendent; scales persistent.
Branchlets smooth; bracts 3-toothed.
Pseudotsuga.
Branchlets roughened by the persistent leaf bases.
Leaves petioled, not pungent. Tsuga.
Leaves sessile, pungent. Picea.
Scales of the fruit few, opposite; leaf buds naked.
Fruit fleshy and berry-like. Juniperus.
Fruit a dry cone. Thuja.
1   1
A tree 20 or 30 feet high generally
with a short trunk 2-4 feet in
diameter, stout, very flexible
branches, often standing nearly
erect and forming an open
irregular broad head; often a low shrub and
nearly   prostrate   at   high   altitudes;   bark
Pinus albi-
caulis En-
gelm.
White-bark
Pine. 9> P-i
£   aJ
a;   C
S?£
W  o>
+»
•^H
CQ  X
Mi
=3*
SJ^      ^
1^       o
XJ
eJ
DO
25!§i
3
s=      CI
■-- j.^                  • ^H
55,
0< I
I 111 Pinaceae
25
thin with creamy-white plate-like scales;
leaves stout, rigid, slightly incurved, clustered at the ends of the branches i|-2| inches
long; cones oval or subglobose horizontal,
sessile, dark purple, 1J-3 inches long with
thickened acute scales.
On alpine slopes and exposed ridges from
5000 feet elevation upward, occurring occasionally in the Rockies, but frequent
throughout the Selkirks at or near the timber
line.
Pinus Mur-
tayana
Oreg. Com.
Black Pine,
Jack Pine.
A tree 40-80 feet high with
a trunk 1-3 feet in diameter,
slender, & strict; branches frequently persistent nearly to the
base of the stem, somewhat
pendulous below, ascending near the top
of the tree, forming a pyramidal spire-
topped head; bark thin, close, light orange-
brown with appressed scales; leaves 2 in a
a bundle, yellowish green, 1-3 inches long,
stout; cones yellowish-brown and shining
oval to sub-cylindric oblique at the base, often 1-i
26
Pinaceae
clustered f-2 inches long, with slightly concave scales with slender deciduous prickles.
The most abundant tree at the lower altitudes througliout the Rockies, frequently
covering vast tracts, and rising on the mountain sides to 6000 feet or occasionally higher.
Larix
Lyallii
Pari.
LyalVs
Larch.
A tree usually 40-50 feet high
with a diameter of 18-20 inches
and remote, elongated, tough,
persistent, nearly black branches,
with prominent winter buds with
conspicuous long white matted hairs fringing
the margins of their scales and often nearly
concealing the buds; bark on the old trunks
J to I of an inch thick, pale gray, divided
into shallow irregular plates; leaves many
in a cluster, 4-angled, slender, blue-green
1-1J inches long; young cones showy with
dark red or yellow-green scales and dark
purple bracts; when mature, ovate 1J-2
inches long with reddish-purple scales and
long tipped dark purple bracts.
An  alpine tree occurring with more or
mm .y o
X  Pinaceae
27
less frequency throughout the Rockies
from Banff to Field, from 6000 to 8000 feet
elevation, at or near the tree limit, often
much stunted and almost shrub-like; very
abundant on the mountains in the region
about Lake Louise.
Abies lasio-
carpa
(Hook)
Nutt. Sub-
alpine Fir,
Balsam Fir
A tree usually 40-100 feet high
with a trunk 1-5 feet in diameter,
short crowded tough branches,
usually slightly pendulous near
the base and forming dense
spire-like slender heads; bark
rough on the older trees, with thick, ap-
pressed, cinnamon-red scales; leaves pale
blue-green flat, i-if inches long on the lower
branches, rounded or notched at the apex;
on the upper branches thickened, not more
than J an inch long, flattened and closely
appressed with long rigid points; cones,
oblong-cylindric, rounded, truncate or depressed at the narrowed apex, dark purple
and soft hairy, 1J-4 inches long with scales
gradually narrowed from the broad rounded 28
Pinaceae
apex to the base, about 3 times as long as
the bracts.
This tree the Balsam of the region is found
throughout on the higher mountain slopes
and summits, frequently forming the timber
line in which case it is shrub-like and stunted.
Pseudotsuga
macronata
(Raf.)
Sudw.
Douglas
Spruce,
Red Fir.
A magnificent tree 80-100 feet
high, with a trunk 2-3 feet in
diameter, or frequently larger,
with slender crowded branches
and long pendulous lateral ones
forming, while the tree is young,
an open pyramid, soon deciduous from the trees crowded in the forest and
leaving the bare trunk naked for § of its
height and surmounted by a comparatively
small, narrow head; bark on the young trees,
smooth, dark gray-brown and lustrous, on
the old trunks several inches thick, divided
into oblong plates broken into irregularly
connected ridges; leaves crowded, yellowish-
green, st light or slightly curved, narrow,
f-ij inches long, obtuse or  acute at the  ii f Pinaceae
apex; cones pendent on long stout stems,
2-4I inches long, with thin slightly concave
scales; bracts often extending half an inch
beyond the scales.
w
Throughout the Rockies in the lower
wooded valleys, the handsomest tree of this
section especially when young, now rather
rare in the mature state along the line of
the railway, but may be so seen to perfection in the Yoho and some of the other outlying valleys.
Tsuga
heterophylla
(Raf.) Sarg.
Western
Hemlock.
A tree frequently 200 feet high,
with a trunk 6-10 feet in diameter, with short slender usually
pendulous branches forming a
narrow pyramidal head; bark
orange-brown, thin when young, an inch
or more thick on mature trees and divided
into broad flat ridges; leaves flat, dark green
and lustrous on the upper surface, marked
below by broad white bands; cones sessile,
oblong or oval, f-i inch long with few yellowish-brown oblong scales abruptly contracted 3°
Pinaceae
at  the  middle  and  purplish    toward    the
base.
Abundant throughout the Selkirks.
Tsuga
Mertensiana
(Bong.)
Carr.
Mountain
Hemlock.
Tree usually 70-100 feet high
with a tapering trunk 2-5 feet
in diameter and gracefully pendent slender branches and drooping lateral ones; bark grayish
and scaly, on mature trees i-i|
inches thick divided into rounded ridges
with closely appressed cinnamon scales;
leaves more or less in clusters, standing out
all over the sides of the branches, rounded,
light bluish-green or in some pale blue J-i
inch long; cones sessile, cylindric, oblong,
narrowed toward the blunt apex and somewhat toward the base, pendulous, 1-3 inches
long, with thin scales usually as broad as
long, with slightly thickened or erose margins, purplish-brown, 4 times as long as the
sharp, purple bract.
On the slopes and exposed ridges through
the Selkirks, a most attractive tree. jr&pr&p.
>?
o
0)
-2 W
1
!
PQ
«  Pinaceae
3i
Picea Al-
bertiana S
Brown.
Alberta
Spruce.
A tree 30-60 feet high, slender,
strict; twigs smooth and shining
or occasionally glandular, hairy,
but never glaucous, yellowish-
brown when young becoming
darker with age, leaf-bases long and standing out at right angles from, the stem;
leaves pale blue or blue-green, J-i inch
long, nearly straight or curved, acute or
with a rigid tip, 4-sided; cones ovate or oblong, bright crimson when young, at maturity
1-1J inches long and nearly as broad
when expanded, scales stiff and rigid, broadly
rounded at the apex, entire, broader than long,
cinnamon brown with a chestnut edging;
bract very small' with a sharply angular tip.
The common spruce in the lower valleys
and river bottoms throughout the Rockies.
Picea Engel-
manni
(Parry)
Engelm.
Engelmann's
Spruce.
A tree often 150 feet high but
usually much lower, with a
trunk reaching 4-5 feet in diameter ; spreading branches, produced in regular whorls and
forming a narrow compact py- ;
32
Pinaceae
ramidal head, and gracefully hanging short
lateral branches; bark when mature reddish-
brown and broken into thin scales; leaves
soft and flexible, slender or slightly incurved,
stouter on the fertile branches, |-ij inches
long, glaucous when young, becoming dark
blue-green; cones oblong-cylindric, 1-2 inches
long, lustrous, light chestnut brown with
thin flexible wedge-shaped scales, with erose-
dentate margins.
On the higher mountain slopes in the
Rockies, but much lower in the valleys of
the Selkirks, where it grows to a great size.
Juniperus
Siberica
Burgs.
Alpine
Juniper.
A depressed rigid shrub, with
many slender, decumbent stems,
curving upward and forming a
circular mass frequently 10 feet
in diameter and 18 inches high;
bark reddish-brown; leaves numerous |-J
an inch long, awl-shaped, rigid, spreading
nearly at right-angles to the branches, linear-lanceolate, acute, and tipped with sharp,
slender   points;    channelled  and   whitened   Pinaceae
00
above, lustrous-green beneath; berry-like
cones, blue and glaucous, subglobose or
oblong about \ of an inch in diameter.
On dry hills and stony slopes throughout
the region.
Juniperus
prostrata
Pers.
Shrubby
Red Cedar
A depressed, creeping shrub seldom more than a foot high, with
spreading branches; bark grayish-brown; leaves scale-like, ap-
pressed, 4-ranked, acute, with
a short spiny point; berry-like cones, light
blue and glaucous, a third of an inch in
diameter.
On dry stony ground and slopes throughout the Rockies.
Thuja A tree frequently 200 feet high
plicata Don. with a broad, gradually tapering
Giant Cedar, buttressed base sometimes 15
feet in diameter; branches short, horizontal,
usually pendulous at the ends, bright yellow-
green during the first year, becoming reddish
brown and lustrous; bark thin, cinnamon- HIM
34
Taxaceae
red, divided into broad rounded ridges by
shallow fissures; leaves ovate, long pointed,
| of an inch long or less; cones purplish-
brown, much reflexed, clustered at the ends
of the branches, J inch long with 6 oblong
thin leathery scales with thickened spine-
bearing tips.
Occasionally met with in the lower valleys
on the western slope of the Rockies; becoming an immense forest tree in the moist
valleys of the Selkirks where it forms a
striking feature of the landscape.
Taxace^j
Yew Family
Trees or shrubs with narrow flat evergreen
or deciduous leaves and a drupe-like fruit.
Taxus brevi-
folia Nutt.
Western
Yew.
A small straggling tree or shrub
seldom over 20 feet high and up
to 12 inches in diameter; bark
thin, covered with greenish pur- Araceae
35
pie scales; leaves about J an inch long,
linear-lanceolate, flat, dark yellowish-green
above, paler below with stout midribs and
rigid points; fruit a fleshy crimson disc
J of an inch long and as broad, surrounding the hard, nearly black, depressed
seed.
Occurs locally in the  Selkirks,   forming
much of the underwood on Beaver Creek.
Araceae
Arum Family
Smooth perennial herbs with tuberous or
corn-like rootstocks and mostly basal, large
showy leaves; flowers small and numerously
crowded on a spadix which is generally
surrounded or subtended by a simple showy
leaf-like organ called a spathe.
A very numerous family found mostly in
the tropics and represented in our region
by but a single species. 36
Melanthaceae
Lysichiton
kamtschat-
cense (L.)
Schott.
Western
Skunk Cabbage.
A stemless marsh plant with
large leaves 1-4 feet long, 3-18
inches wide, oblong or oblong-
lanceolate, acute, narrowed below into a short petiole. Flowers
appearing before the leaves;
spathe yellow with a broad
acute blade 2-6 inches long, narrowed below
to a sheathing petiole 3-10 inches long;
spadix 2-4 inches long, densely flowered, on
a stout peduncle 8 inches or more long.
In wet and marshy spots through the
Selkirks. Very .abundant near Bear Creek
Station on the railway, flowering in early
spring.
Melanthaceae
Bunch-Flower Family
Lily-like plants with leafy stems, usually
with tufts of grass-like leaves at the base
and rootstocks or occasionally bulbs.
The flowers small and distinctly 6-parted, Melanthaceae
37
with the same number of stamens and three
styles J the flowers grow in close heads at the
top of the stems.
Anthers, i-celled.
Leaves broad, petioles sheathing. Veratrum.
Leaves grass-like.
Flowers erect with a gland at the base of each
petal. Zygadenus.
Flowers nodding, petals without glands.
Stenanthella.
Anthers, 2-celled. Tofieldia.
Veratrum
viride Ait
American
White
Hellebore.
. Stem 2-8 feet high, very leafy,
softly hairy especially above.
Leaves dark green above, paler
and hairy beneath, prominently
veiny and sheathing at the base,
oval or elliptic, acute, 6-12 inches long,
3-6 inches broad, the upper becoming successively narrower. Flowers yellowish-green,
numerous in a spreading head often 2 feet
long, with drooping branches; perianth segments oblong or oblanceolate,- acute, J-J
an inch long, twice as long as the stamens.
In swamps and on moist slopes and stream, 38
Melanthaceae
borders throughout the region, frequently
growing in great masses. In the Rockies
it seldom grows below 6000 feet elevation,
but is found much lower in the moist valley
of the Selkirks'.
„ Very glaucous throughout, with
Zygadenus J   fe &
elegans a cluster of narrow,  grass-like
Pursh. Tall'   leaves 5-10 inches long and J
Zygadenus.       {nch brQadj from & chaffy bulb_
ous root; stem whitish-green or purplish, 1-2
feet high, with scattered, purple, leaf-like
bracts and an open head of flowers 4-12
inches long; flowers greenish-white, open, J an
inch or more across the six petals and sepals
with a large, bright green gland at the base;
stamens 6, erect, forming a central column,
anthers scarlet on the opening of the bud,
changing to yellow; styles 3.
Throughout the Rockies up to 6000 or
7000 feet elevation, in all kinds of situations
and soils, a most attractive plant worthy
of a place in the flower-garden, blossoming
during midsummer.   Zygadenus
gramineus
Rydb.
Melanthaceae
A slender, yellowish-green plant
8-12 inches high, from an elon-
Grass-like       Sated ovoid bulb-    Leaves nar-
Zygadenus.     row   and   grass-like,   rough   on
the margins and midribs, all with sheaths
around the stem.    Flowers light yellow,  \
of an inch broad in a compac.t head  2-3
inches long; stamens exserted, anthers yellow.
On open grassy hill-sides in the Rockies
from Banff   to Castle Mountain, flowering
in June.
Stenanthella
occidentalis
(A. Gray)
Rydb.
Stenthium.
Smooth 12-18 inches high from
a bulbous base. Leaves 2-3
from the same root, 8-10 inches
long, J an inch broad, spreading.
Flowers 6-20, greenish purple,
J an inch long, open, drooping, in a simple
slender head; sepals and petals 3 each, with
recurved tips; stamens 6, included.
In moist woods throughout the Rockies,
growing in moss; the dark green, widely
spreading leaves and wand-like stem of
drooping bell-like flowers, making a graceful 40
Melanthaceae
and attractive plant during early summer
111
Tofieldia
palustris
Huds.
Scottish
Asphodel.
Low with numerous tufted grasslike leaves 1-2 inches long.
Flowers 6-parted, minute, greenish-white in a compact oblong
head J of an inch long, elongated in fruiting; stamens 6; anthers yellow
not exceeding the perianth; head of flowers
borne on a slender, smooth stem 3-7 inches
high.
Abundant throughout the Rockies in
damp sandy or gravelly ground, on the
flood-plains and banks of rivers and streams
and on the gravelly shores of lakes and
ponds; flowering in June.
Plant with a cluster of grass-like
leaves, 3-8 inches long and
about J of an inch broad,
yellowish-green, from an oblique
and chaffy rootstock. Flowers
few, less than J of an inch long, pale yellow,
6-parted, on very short pedicels; stamens 6,
Tofieldia
intermedia
Rydb.
False
Asphodel. Liliaceae
41
slightly excerted, with purple anthers; the
whole in a compact head about J an inch
long, on a stem 8-10 inches high, with
sticky hairs near the top.
Frequent throughout the region at an alti-,
tude of 4000 to 5000 feet, in wet open situations with shallow soil;  flowering in  June.
Similar to the preceding but
readily distinguished by its'
taller stem and more open head
of flowers, with longer sepals
and pedicels, which are twice
as long in each case.
In the Selkirks only, but frequent there
in the bogs around Roger's Pass.
Tofieldia
occidentalis
S. Wats.
Western
False-Asphodel.
LlLIACE^E
Lily Family
Plants with bulbs or corms but. never
rootstocks; leaves either at the base or in
whorls or pairs on the stem; the flowers
brightly coloured,   frequently  large,   borne 42
Liliaceae
singly or in clusters at the summit of the
frequently naked stem, the six parts though
usually distinct, sometimes more or less
united into a tube; stamens 6; stigma 3-lobed.
Bracts of the inflorescence thin and transluscent.
I Allium.
Bracts of the inflorescence leaf-like or none.
B ulbs scaly. Lilium.
Bulbs corm-like. Erythronium.
Allium
recurvatum
Rydb.
Wild Onion,
Garlic.
Plant 12-15 inches high with
an oblique base from an oblong-
ovoid bulb. Leaves narrow and
grass-like, 6-8 inches long, thick
and half rounded on the back,
the old ones persistent and forming a mat
at the surface of the ground. Flowers numerous, on slender pedicels, in a nodding
terminal head; sepals and petals J of an inch
long, elliptic-ovate and obtuse, rosy pink
with a darker mid-vein; stamens and styles
exserted, anthers pale yellow.
Frequent throughout the Rockies on dry
grassy or stony slopes and slides; flowering
in June.   Allium
sibericum L.
Northern
Garlic.
the stem.
Liliaceae
Stem 1-2 feet high from a narrowly ovoid bulb, with a single,
elongated, round, hollow, basal
leaf and i or 2 similar leaves on
Flowers numerous in a compact
round head; the sepals and petals about J
an inch long, slender, with a tapering tip,
bright rose-purple with a darker midvein;
stamens much shorter than the perianth
segments.
Not   infrequent   in   moist   open   places
throughout the Rockies; flowering in July.
Lilium
montanum.
A. Nelson
Mountain
Lily.
Stem 12-18 inches high, rather
stout, from a depressed globose
bulb an inch in diameter. Leaves
alternate except the uppermost
which are in a whorl of 5-7, dark
green above, paler beneath, minutely roughened on the edges, lanceolate, tapering but
slightly toward the sessile base. Flowers
erect usually one, but sometimes several, on
a stem; sepals and petals 2§ inches long,
somewhat spreading, elliptic-oblong, tapering 44
Liliaceae
MM
gradually toward both ends, the base contracted into a claw, which is less than J the
length of the blade; blade reddish-orange on
the inner face, paler near the base, which is
dotted with numerous purplish-black spots;
outer face less brilliant, largely suffused with
green; stamens and stigma purplish.
Frequent throughout the Rockies on the
edges of woods and in the lower river valleys;
very abundant in early July in the valley of
the Lower Kicking Horse and Columbia
rivers from Golden to Donald.
Erythron-
ium grandi-
fiorum
Pursh.
Snow Lily.
A foot or more high from a deep-
rooted, slender, membranous-
coated corm. Leaves 2 or occasionally 3, opposite or in a
whorl, broadly lanceolate, obtuse, 6-8 inches long, 2-3 inches wide,
unequal, dull and glaucous green. Flowers
1-6, nodding, bright yellow, sepals and
petals lanceolate 2 inches long, tapering to
a slender, strongly reflexed tip; stamens
exserted, anthers yellow or purplish-brown. i.£>4
Krythromtt/Y: grandiflorum Pursl 44
Liliaceae
U^4-V
gradually towarc oase  con
tracted into a claw, which is less than | the
length of the blacc; blade reddish-orange on
the inner face, paler neat- the base, which is
dotted with numerous purplish-black spots;
outer face less brilliant, largely suffused with
green; stamens and stigma purplish.
,l^$|uent throughout the Rockies on the
edges of woods and in the lower river valleys;
very abundant in early July in the valley of
the Lower Kicking Horse and Columbia
rivers from Golden to Donald.
Erythron-
ium grandi-
florum
Pursh.
U
i—o,
petals
a   s
exses
A foot or more high from a deep-
rooted, slender, membranous-
coated corm. Leaves 2 or occasionally 3,' opposite or in a
whorl, broadly lanceolate, ob^
aches long, 2-3 inches wide,
"<§ed glaucous green. Flowers
jllow, sepals and
long, tapering to
tip; stamens
thers yellow or purplish-brown. 11
Erythronium grandiflorum Pursh.    {V2  Nat.)
Snow Lily.  Convallariaceae
45
This beautiful lily is frequent on the slides
and mountain slopes throughout the region
at an elevation of 5000 feet or higher, appearing immediately after the snows have
melted, and lasting but a short time. It may
be found flowering according to the elevation
and condition of the snow, from May throughout the summer. The plant has derived its
common naine no doubt from its habit of
blooming so close to the melting snows.
Where the plant occurs it is usually found in
great numbers during the brief flowering
period.
CONVALLARIACEiSE [£t
Lily-of-the-Valley Family
Resembling the lilies, sometimes with
naked but usually leafy stems, and simple
or branched, frequently creeping rootstocks,
flowers usually small and -variously disposed
on the stem, either scattered in the axils of
the leaves or in.terminal clusters, or occasion- 46 .
Convallariaceae«
ally solitary on a naked stem; either 4- or 6-
parted, regular, perfect; stamens 6.
Plant producing but one flower.
Plant producing several flowers.
Flowers in a raceme or panicle.
Flowers in an umbel or solitary.
Flowers terminal on the branches.
Flowers axillary.
Perianth narrowly campanulate.
Perianth rotate.
Clintonia.
Vagnera.
Disporum.
Streptopus.
Kruhsea.
Clintonia
uniflora
(Schult.)
Kunth.
Clintonia
More or less hairy throughout,
with 1 to 3 or 4 dark green leaves,
4-8 inches long and 1-2 inches
wide, oblong-lanceolate with an
abrupt tip, and tapering at the
base to sheathing petioles, from a creeping
underground stem 2-3 inches long. Flower-
stem shorter than the leaves with one or
rarely two blossoms which are pure white,
very open, 6-parted; sepals and petals f-
1 inch long, oblanceolate, obtuse; stamens
6, shorter than the petals, anthers yellow.
In   rich,   moist   woods   throughout   the
region.   Convallariaceae
47
Vagnera
stellata (L.)
Morong.
Star-
flowered
Solomon's
Seal.
Glaucous throughout, 8-20
inches high, smooth or with
a few short hairs, leafy from a
stout fleshy root; leaves alternate, 2-5 inches long, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate,
acuminate, with a clasping base,
smooth and bright green above, glaucous
and minutely hairy beneath. Flowers white,
several forming a rather open terminal head.
1-2 inches long; petals and sepals narrow, J
to I of an inch long; stamens 6, about half
their length, anthers nearly white.
Common throughout the region in moist
words and thickets; flowering through June
and July.
Vagnera
amplexi-
caulis
(Nutt.)
Greene.
False Solomon's Seal.
Tall, stout, and leafy, 18-30
inches high, from a fleshy root-
stock; stem striate and slightly
hairy especially near the top;
leaves alternate, sessile or short-
petioled, ovate or oblong, 3-7
inches long,  ij—3 inches broad, 48
Convallariaceae
short, acuminate, often with a twisted tip.
Flowers small, yellowish-white in a close
terminal head iJ-3^ inches long; petals and
sepals minute,- about -^Y of an inch long;
stamens 6, the filaments petaloid and about
J of an inch long, anthers yellowish white.
Common  throughout  the  region  in  the
moist rich woods; flowering during June.
Streptopus
amplexi-
folius (L.)
DC. Tall
Twisted-
stalk.
Plant 1-3 feet high, from a short,
stout rootstock, covered with
numerous fibrous roots; stem
glaucous, usually branching below the middle, smooth above
and covered with stiff hairs
below. Leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate,
2-5 inches long, 1-2 inches wide, acuminate,
smooth, bright green above, glaucous beneath, heart-shaped and clasping at the
base. Flowers numerous, 1 or 2 on a
stem at the back of each of the upper
leaves, stem bent or twisted about the
middle; sepals and petals greenish-white or
yellowish,  narrowly lanceolate about \  an Convallariaceae
49
inch long, spreading and turned back at the
tips; berry |-j of an inch in diameter, globose,
yellow or bright scarlet.
A rather striking plant throughout the
region in the moist rich woods among rocks;
flowering in June.
Streptopus
curvipes
A. M. Vail.
Smaller
Twisted-
stalk.
Plant 6-24 inches high, smooth
except the flower-stalks and
margins of the leaves, simple or
slightly branched from a slender
creeping rhizome, with a few
fibrous rootlets at the nodes.
Leaves yellowish-green, sessile, oval or oblong-lanceolate, 1-3 inches long, acuminate
at the tip and rounded or more or less clasping at the base, the margins more or less
scatteringly glandular-hairy. Flowers few at
the backs of the upper leaves, solitary on
glandular-hairy, curved stalks J-f of an
inch long; sepals and petals pale purple or
rose colour, darker spotted on the inner surface, slender, slightly more than J of an
inch long; anthers beaked, the beaks slender; 5o
Convallariaceae
berry globose, about | of an inch in diameter,
bright red.
In the damp woods in the Selkirks,
frequent, growing in colonies and spreading
largely by the creeping rhizomes.
Kruhsea
strepto-
poides
(Ledeb.)
Kearney.
Kruhsea.
Smooth and simple, 3-6 inches
high, from an extensively creeping rhizome, with a few fibrous
roots at each node. Leaves 4-8,
bright green and shining on both
surfaces, ovate-lanceolate, acute,
1-2 inches long, the upper merely sessile, the
lower clasping at the base. Flowers few,
about \ of an inch in width, stellate and
solitary on very slender, curved stalks about
f of an inch long in the axils, at the backs
of the upper leaves; sepals and petals deep
wine-colour at the base, with yellowish-
green reflexed tips; stamens 6, anthers ovoid,
2-lobed, yellow and prominent, slightly below
the centre of the sepals and petals; ovary
broadly urn-shaped; style none; berry nearly
globose at maturity and bright red. Convallariaceae
5i
Known only in the Selkirks where it occurs
in colonies of considerable size in the rich
woods at Glacier; flowering in the middle of
June.
i
Disporum
Oreganum
(S. Wats.)
B. and H.
Disporum.
Stem 1-3 feet high, much
branched and finely hairy above.
Leaves yellowish-green when
young, becoming darker with
age, ovate or oblong, acuminate,
distinctly heart-shaped at the base, 2-4
inches long, hairy, especially beneath.
Flowers appearing as the leaves unfold
greenish-yellow or nearly white, drooping
1 or 2 together at the ends of the branches;
sepals and petals spreading half an inch or
more in length, lanceolate and narrowed at
the base into a broad claw; stamens exserted,
anthers yellow; style simple, larger than the
stamens; berry ovate, half an inch in diameter, smooth or nearly so when ripe, bright
red and few-seeded.
In moist rich woods throughout the region,
most abundant on the western slope of the
u 52
Iridaceae
Rockies and in the Selkirks; flowering in June.
ii si
Disporum
ma jus
(Hook).
Britton.
Large
Flowered
Disporum.
Plant 1-2 feet high with few
branches, hairy when young.
Leaves ovate or oblong-lanceolate, acute or short, acuminate,
rounded at the base. Flowers
greenish-yellow or nearly white,
1-3 together at the ends of the
branches; sepals and petals not spreading,
half an inch or less in length, narrowly oblong or oblanceolate, stamens about equalling the sepals and petals; style slightly longer
than the stamens, 3-cleft; berry a little less
than half an inch in diameter, depressed,
globose, and roughened with short papillae.
In rich woods, most abundant on the
eastern slopes of the Rockies; flowering early
in June.
Iridace^
Iris Family
Perennial   herbs  with  narrow   2-ranked, Orchidaceae
53
grass-like leaves and mostly clustered, perfect flowers, subtended by bracts; perianth
of 6 segments, rolled together in the bud,
stamens 3, inserted on the perianth opposite
its outer series of lobes; filaments slender, distant or united; anthers facing upward.
Sisyrin-
chium
septentri-
onale Bick-
nell.  Blue-
eyed Grass,
Growing in small tufts, 4-10
inches high, pale, glaucous.
Leaves stiff and very slender
about half the length of the taller
scapes, equalling the shorter
ones. Spathe small purplish or
green, often partly double and enclosing 3 or
4 small bright violet-blue flowers, less than
half an inch broad, on erect pedicels.
Throughout the Rockies in open moist
ground at the lower elevations; flowering in
June.
Orchidaceae .
Orchid Family
Perennial   herbs,   with   corms,   bulbs, or 54
Orchidaceae
tuberous roots, sheathing entire leaves, sometimes reduced to scales, the flowers perfect,
irregular, bracted, solitary, spiked or racemed.
Perianth superior of 6 segments, the 3 outer
(sepals) similar or nearly so, 2 of the inner
ones (petals) lateral, alike; the third inner
one (lip) dissimilar, often markedly so, usually larger and often spurred; stamens and
style variously arranged. An extensive
family with great diversity of flower form,
and habit of growth. Most abundant in the
tropics, represented in the region as follows:
Perfect anthers 2; lip large, sac-like. Cypripedium.
Perfect anther 1.
Plants saprophytic, without green herbage.
Corallorhiza.
Plants with ordinary green herbage.
Flower and leaf solitary; root bulbous.    Cytherea.
Flowers several to many in racemes.
Leaf only 1,
Flowers white with purple spots. Orchis.
Flowers greenish. Lysiella.
Leaves only 2, cauline. Ophrys.
Leaves more than 2.
Stem leaves reduced to bracts.
Basal leaves white veined. Peramium.
Stem leaves not reduced to bracts.  54
Orchid
dCCcC
tuberous roots, sheathing entire leaves, sometimes reduced to scales, the flowers perfect,
irregular, bracts ^ry, spiked or racemed.
Perianth superior of 6 segments, the 3 outer
(sepals) similar or nearly so, 2 of the inner
ones (petals) lateral, alike; the third inner
one (lip) dissimilar, often markedly.so, usu-
y larger and often spurred; stamens and
vie variously arranged. An extensive
family with great diversity of flower form,
and habit of growth.    Most abundant in the
m V.*f V*"* '■'
k11r»
ws:
Perfect anthers 2; lip large.
Perfect anther t.
Plants saprophytic,, without green
green]
3litary: ro
bite with purple spots
jauline.
otem ie«
to bracts.
Cypripedium,
Corallorhiza.
s.    Cytherea.
Orchis.
Lysiella.
Ophrys.
Peramium.
lot reduced to bracts. a Cypripedium passerinum Rich.    Small White Lady's-Slipper.
(% Nat.)
b Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. Small Yellow Lady's-Slipper.  Orchidaceae
55
Flowers not spirally arranged.
Glands surrounded by a thin membrane.
Cceloglossum.
Glands naked. Limnorchis.
Flowers spirally arranged. Ibidium.
Cypripedium
passerinum
Rich.
Small White
Lady's
Slipper.
Stem 8-10 inches high from
a decumbent base, leafy, hairy
throughout. Leaves 4 or 5,
lanceolate, acuminate, veiny, 3-4
inches long, yellowish-green, and
clasping at the base. Flowers solitary, small;
lip obovate, inflated half an inch long, white,
spotted with purple inside, particularly near
the base; sepals greenish, shorter than the
lip, the upper forming a sort of hood; the
lateral petals white, oblong-lanceolate,
obtuse, half an inch long, spreading.
In damp shaded situations, frequent in the
Rockies; flowers in July.
Cypripedium
parviflorum
Salisb.
Small Yellow Lady's
Slipper.
Stem 1-2 feet high, slender, and
leafy. Leaves elliptic or lanceolate, 2-6 inches long, 1-2 J inches
wide, yellowish-green, veiny,
scatteringly     hairy.       Flowers 56
Orchidaceae
usually solitary, bright yellow; lip inflated,
curved, an inch or more long, spotted and
blotched inside with purple; sepals and
petals longer than the lip, laterals twisted,
i|-2 inches long, lanceolate with an attenuate tip, yellowish green or sometimes
purplish.
Not uncommon in the Rockies in moist
ground, very abundant on the torrent fan
among loose stones at the head of Ernerald
Lake; flowering in June.
Corallorhiza
Corallorhiza
(L.) Karst.
Early Coral-
root.
Stem smooth, greenish-yellow or
purplish; 4-12 inches high from
a mass of coral-like roots.
Leaves absent but represented
by 2-5 closely sheathing scales.
Flowers 3-12 in a head 1-3 inches long;
sepals and petals slender, | of an inch long,
yellowish or dull purplish; lip not quite as
long as the petals, white or whitish, oblong,
nearly entire or slightly notched at the apex,
2-toothed at the base, occasionally with
purple spots. •+J
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J  Orchidacese
Frequent in woods in the Rockies especially
those of the "Jack Pine," flowering in May
and early June.
Corallorhiza
multiflora
Nutt.
Large Coral-
root.
Stems 8-2o inches high, purplish,
with several appressed scales.
Flowers 10-30 in a head 2-8
inches long, brownish purple \-
\ of an inch long; sepals and
petals linear-lanceolate, about \ of an inch
long; lip- white, spotted and lined with
purple, oval in outline, deeply 3-lobed, the
middle lobe broadest; spur manifest and
yellowish.
Not infrequent in the rich woods in the
Selkirks; flowering in late summer.
Cytherea Stem 3~6 inches high, purplish,
bulbosa (L.) from a bulb nearly half an inch
House. in diameter.   Leaf solitary, dark,
a ypso. lustrous green, 1-1 \ inches long,
round, ovate, obtusely pointed at the apex,
rounded or somewhat heart-shaped at -the
base, deeply veined.    Flower solitary, nod- 58
Orchidaceae
Ii
ding, an inch long, rosy purple variegated
with pink and yellow; petals and sepals,
linear, erect or spreading, half an inch or
more long.with longitudinal purple lines; lip
| of an inch long, sac-like and spreading,
divided into two below, with a prominent
patch of yellow hairs near the point of
division.
This charming little orchid, by far the most
dainty of any found in the region, is frequent,
growing in deep moss on the shaded slopes of
the Rockies; very fragrant, flowering in early
June.
Plant slender, 8-10 inches high
with one leaf near the base,
varying from nearly orbicular
to oval, 1J-3 inches long, 1-2
inches wide, sheathing at the
base. Spike 2-8 flowered;
flowers half an inch or more long; lateral
sepals spreading, somewhat longer than the
petals, petals and sepals oval, rose-colour; lip
white, purple-spotted, longer than the petals,
Orchis
rotundifolia
Pursh.
Round-
leaved
Orchid. I
^v Ill1
5'
Orchidaceae
ding, an inch long, rosy purple variegated
with pink and yellow; petals and sepals,
linear, ereipdi) spreading, half an inch or
more long with longitudinal purple lines; lip
| of ;j|ti inch loii||, sac-like and spreading,
divided into'two below, with a prominent
patch   of   yellow  hairs  near  the  point  of
This charming little orchid, by far the most
dainty of any found in the region, is frequent,
growing in deep moss cm the shades 'Oc.pes of
the Rockies; very fragrant :de asdics In early
Tune.
urcms
rotundifolia
Pursh.
f^&und"
Plant giendei\:8~-to ■cehc^ high
with one leaf rear the base,
varying, frocs cearly orbicular
to ovaf,: 1J--3 inches long, 1-2
inches wide, sheathing at the
base. -Speiee 2-8 flowered;
flowers half an inch or more long; lateral
sepals spreading, somewhat longer than the
petals, petals anl} sepals oval, rose-colour; lip
white, purple-spotted, longer than the petals,
Orchid.
■n a Cytherea bulbosa (L.) House. (% Nat.)
Calypso.
b   Orchis  rotundifolia   Pursh.    Small   Round-Leaved   Orchid.  Orchidaceae
59
three-lobed, the middle longest, dilated and
two-lobed or notched at the tip; spur slender,
shorter than the lip.
This beautiful little orchid is abundant
throughout the Rockies in cool mossy spots
and rich woods; flowering in June.
Lysiella
obtusata
(Pursh.)
Rydb.
Small
Northern
Bog-orchid
Plant 6-8 inches high from a
short thick rootstock; stem
naked with a single obovate or
oblong leaf at the base i§-2|
inches long, J-i| inches wide,
obtuse. Flowers few in a slender
spike, yellowish-green; upper
sepal round, ovate, erect, surrounding the
broad column; lateral sepals reflexed and
spreading; petals lanceolate, smaller; lip
entire, linear-lanceolate, and deflexed; spur
slightly curved especially at the tip, shorter
than the ovary.
Frequent throughout the Rockies in the
lower valleys, in cool shaded spots growing
in moss, on the borders of streams, ponds,
or lakes; flowering in June. 6o
Orchidaceae
Ophrys
nephrophylla
Rydb.
Heart-
shaped
Tway-blade.
Stem slender and smooth, 3-8
inches high. Leaves sessile, cordate or broadly ovate, J-i inch
long; head of flowers rather
loose, \-2 inches long, 4-20-flow-
ered; flowers very minute, purplish or greenish; sepals ovate; petals oblong,
about |H of an inch long; lip two-cleft, twice
as long as the petals, the segments linear or
hair-like.
This diminutive orchid is one of the commonest species throughout the region in
early summer, growing abundantly in mossy
places in the moist woods,, frequently not
rising more than an inch or two above the
surface of the ground; the flowers varying
greatly in color from yellowish green to
purple.
Ophrys con-
vallarioides
(Sw.) Wight.
Broad-
lipped
Tway-blade.
Stem rather stout, 4-10 inches
high, glandular-hairy above the
leaves. Leaves smooth, round,
oval or ovate, obtuse, 3-9 nerved,
1-2J   inches  long,   J-i|   inches Orchidaceae
wide. Flowers 3-12 in a loose head, yellowish-green, J an inch long; bracts nearly
J of an inch long; sepals and petals
narrow and strongly reflexed in flower,
much shorter than the lip; lip nearly half
an inch long, broadly wedge-shaped with
two obtuse lobes at the apex and with a
tooth at each side of the narrow base; column
elongated but shorter than the lip, and incurved with two short projecting wings
above the anther.
In hemlock woods throughout the Selkirks;
flowering in July.
Ophrys
borealis
(Morong).
Northern
Tway-blade.
Stems 3-5 inches high, smooth
below, glandular and with long
silky scattered hairs among the
flowers. Leaves oval, slightly
sheathing, obtuse, an inch or
more long, half as broad, generally smooth.
Flowers few in a raceme; sepals and petals
nearly equal, linear, obtuse, about \ of an
inch long; lip half an inch long, obtuse at
the apex with very obtuse lobes.    Yellowish- 62
Orchidaceae
green with a purplish middle and purple
nerves radiating into the apical lobes, column slightly incurved, § of an inch long.
Generally distributed throughout the
Rockies but never abundant, seldom more
than 3 or 4 plants being found together;
flowering in July.
Peramium
Menziesi
(Lindl.)
Morong.
Rattlesnake
Plantain.
Plant 8-15 inches high from
a hairy, creeping rootstock.
Leaves basal, ij-2| inches long
and a third as broad, tapering
to both ends, dark green and
veiny, sometimes blotched with
white. Flowers \ to nearly \ an inch long,
yellowish- or greenish-white, in a slender
spike; sepals and petals lanceolate, erect or
nearly so about half the length of the lip, lip
swollen at the base and with a long narrow
recurved tip.
Frequent in rich woods throughout the
region, growing in moss, the evergreen leaves
forming a -rosette at the base of the stalk
of flowers, which blossom in August.   Orchidaceae
63
Peramium
repens (L.)
Salisb.
Northern
Rattlesnake
Plantain.
Plant 6-10 inches high, glandular-hairy in the upper part of
the stem. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, an inch or more long and a
third as wide, tapering to both
ends, green and usually blotched
with white along the veins.- Flowers small
in a one-sided spike, greenish-white, about
\ of an inch long, densely glandular-hairy
on the outer surface; sepals and petals
erect, ovate; lip sac-like with a narrow
recurved tip.
Frequent  in the  woods throughout the
Rockies, flowering in July.
Stem stout and leafy, 6-18 inches
high, from a root of numerous
fusiform tubers. Leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 2-4
inches long. Flowers in a loose
spike 2-3 inches long with bracts
an inch long; flowers yellowish-
green, sepals ovate-lanceolate, dilated at the
base, J of an inch long; petals very narrow or
Coeloglos-
sum
bracteatum
(Willd.)
Pari.
Long-bracted
Orchid.
__  •-••' _ 64
Orchidaceae
sometimes thread-like; lip nearly half an
inch long, oblong-spatulate, 2-3-toothed
or lobed at the tip, more than, twice as long
as the white sac-like spur.
Frequent in open grassy woods and
meadows throughout the Rockies; flowering
in June.
Limnorchis
dilatati-
formis
Rydb.
Purplish-
Green Bog-
orchid.
Stem 1, 2, or 3 feet tall, from
a root of 2 or 3 fusiform, hairy
tubers; leafy. Lowest leaves
oblanceolate, obtuse, 2-5 inches
long, upper ones lanceolate, acute,
much longer. Spike of flowers
4-12 inches long, loosely flowered, the bracts linear-lanceolate, the lowest
much longer than the flowers, 1-1J inches
long. Flowers about | an inch long; sepals
fellowish-green and thin, the upper one
ovate, erect, about J of an inch long, the
lateral ones obtuse and spreading, J of an
inch long, petals lanceolate, acute, greenish-
purple or green; lip purple or greenish,
linear, obtuse, thick, over J of an inch long; a
mi
m
..r
l\ SSv ■-'
1      i
rys borealis (Morong),
im bracteatum (WTOo)
Is  fragrans  Rydb.  ||
;usata (Pursh) |lf§j||'
? nephropiiyiia  P; <
H
&$mm 64
Orchidaceae
sometimes thread-like; lip nearly half an
inch long, oblong-spatulate, 2-3-toothed
or lobed at the tip, more than twice as long
as the white sae4ike spur.
Frequexn •; in " open grassy woods and
me&cS§s||| throughout the Rockies; flowering
in
Stem 1, a* or' 3 feet tall, from
a root of 2 or 3 fusiform, hairy
tubers; leafy. eeriest leaves
oblanceolate, ofeHiSe, afejj inches
long, upper oricsd-.ee owe fe? acute,
much longerd dsddo of flowers
4-12 inches' long, loosely flow-
id, the bracts 1inear4aneeoiate, the lowest"
much longer than the flowers,   i-ij inches
Limnorchis
dllatati-
formis
Rydb.
Purplish-
Green Bog-
orchid.
en
T?
YRTP'T'C!     O
bou
m
I an inch long; sepals
thin, the upper one
, about $ of an inch long, the
laterss- ones obtuse and spreading, J of an
inch long, petals lanceolate, acute, greenish-
purple or green; lip purple|or greenish,
linear, obtuse, thick, over J of an inch long; a Ophrys borealis (Morong).   Northern Twayblade.
b Coeloglossum bracteatum (Willo) Pari.    Long-Bracted Orchid.
c Limnorchis  fragrans  Rydb.    Fragrant White Bog-Orchid.
d Lysiella obtusata (Pursh) Rydb.   Small Northern Bog-Orchid.
€     Ophrys nephrophylla Rydb.    Heart-Shaped Twayblade.
(% Nat.) ■SOHI Orchidaceae
spur about J as long as the lip, sack-like.
Frequent through the region in open
swamps, wet meadows and sloughs, varying
greatly in size; flowering during June and
early July.
Limnorchis
viridiflora
(Cham.)
Rydb.
Small
Green Bog-
orchid.
erect;   lateral   ones
Stem 8-18 inches high, strict
and leafy. Lower leaves ob-
lanceolate, obtuse, 2-4 inches
long, upper lanceolate and acute;
spike of flowers short and dense,
the bracts linear-lanceolate, the
lower slightly exceeding the
flowers. Flowers J an inch long or less,
yellowish-green; upper sepals broadly ovate,
an   inch   long,
acute, spreading; petals erect, lanceolate,
acute; lip lanceolate, obtuse, less than J of an
inch long; spur club-shaped, curved, about as
long as the lip. Differs from the last species
in the bright green colour, slightly smaller
flowers with broader based lip and the longer,
club-shaped curved spur.
In bogs throughout the region; flowering
in June. 66
Orchidaceae
Limnorchis
borealis
(Cham.)
Rydb.
Small White
Bog-orchid.
Stem 18 inches to 2 feet high,
slender and leafy. Leaves, the
lower oblanceolate and, obtuse,
the upper lanceolate, acute. Spike
of flowers often rather dense, 4-8
inches long; bracts lanceolate, the
lower often much exceeding the flowers; flowers J an inch or more long, white or sometimes
yellowish or greenish-white; upper sepals
ovate, obtuse, J of an inch long, lateral ones
oblong-lanceolate, spreading; petals lanceolate, slightly shorter than the sepals; lip
rhombic-lanceolate, obtuse, about J of an
inch long; spur club-shaped about the length
of or shorter than the lip.
Throughout  the  region  in  open   boggy
places and wet meadows; flowering in June.
Stem slender, 8-12 inches high,
from a narrow fusiform tuberous
root. Leaves linear, acute, 2-4
inches long, about § an inch
wide. Spike of flowers slender,
lax; bracts, lanceolate, acuminate, the lower
Limnorchis
fragrans
Rydb.
Fragrant
Orchid. slightly longer than the flowers; flowers pure
white with a spicy fragrance; upper sepal
ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, the lateral ones
linear-lanceolate, acute, and strongly veined;
petals narrowly linear-lanceolate equalling
the sepals; lip lanceolate with an ovate
rhomboid base about J of an inch long; spur
slender and curved, slightly exceeding the
lip.
In more or less shaded bogs through the
Rockies, flowering during July.
Ibidium
roman-
zoffianum
(Cham.)
House.
Lady's
Tresses.
Stem smooth, 6-18 inches high,
leafy below, bracted above; the
lower leaves 3-8 inches long,
linear or linear-oblanceolate.
Head of flowers more or less
glandular, hairy, 2-4 inches long,
half an inch or more thick,
bracts shorter than the flowers; flowers waxy
white or greenish, nearly half an inch long
with an open mouth, spreading horizontally
and very fragrant; upper sepals broad and
obtuse; lip oblong, broad at the base, and 68
Salicaceae
contracted below to the crisped apex, thin
transparent, and veined, callosities merely
thickenings of the basal margins of the lip.
Throughout the region in springy places
and wet alpine meadows; flowering toward
the end of July.
Salicace^
Willow Family
Trees or shrubs with light wood, brittle
twigs, and simple alternate leaves; flowers
borne in catkins; the staminate and pistillate
on separate plants, the seed provided with a
covering of long, white, silky, hairs.
A large tree with nearly smooth
gray bark, reaching a maximum
height of 80 feet; branches stout,
ascending, the larger buds very
Leaves smooth, broadly ovate
or • ovate-lanceolate, entire, dark green and
shining above, pale beneath, acute or acuminate at the apex, rounded or acute at the
Populus bal
samifera L.
Balsam
Poplar.
resinous. base, petioles round. Flowers in slender
catkins, the staminate and pistillate on
separate trees.
Throughout the region in the river valleys
and on the surrounding slopes, usually a tree
not over 20-30 feet high but sometimes
attaining an immense size.
Populus
tremuloides
Michx.
American
Aspen.
A slender t^ee with smooth, light
green bark, seldom more than
40-50 feet high, and less than
half that in our region. Leaves
smooth when young except on
the margins, ovate, short-acuminate at the
apex, rounded at the base, finely crenulate
all around; petioles flattened laterally, very
slender, causing the leaves to quiver with
the slightest breeze. Flowers in rather
stout  catkins.
Frequent in the low valleys and slopes
through the Rockies, forming groves, or
singly.
The willows which are very largely represented throughout the region,   in the  low ff
70
Betulaceae
or moist ground and banks of streams, as
shrubs or small trees; or on the drier slopes,
and in alpine meadows and summits, frequently as very diminutive shrubs with
stems less than an inch high, have been
omitted entirely, owing to the extreme
difficulty of distinguishing between them
in a work of this kind.
BETULACEi©
Birch Family
Trees or shrubs with alternate simple
leaves; staminate and pistillate flowers borne
in separate catkins on the same plant; the
staminate usually long, slender, and drooping; the pistillate short and erect; fruit
cone-like.
Betula
papyrifera
Marsh.
Paper Birch,
Canoe Birch.
Becoming a large forest tree;
bark chalky white, peeling in
thin layers. Leaves ovate,
acute, or acuminate, dentate and
denticulate, smooth above, glan- Betulaceae
7i
dular and hairy on the veins beneath, slender-
petioled iJ-4 inches long. Staminate catkins 2-4 inches long; pistillate catkins f of an
inch or more long.
Sparingly on the slopes in the vicinity of
Field, British Columbia; not a common tree.
A tree sometimes 100 feet high
but much smaller in our region;
the bark smooth dark bronze;
twigs gray-brown, warty.
Leaves broadly ovate or nearly
sharply   serrate,   short-petioled,
smooth  on  both  sides  or  sparingly  hairy
beneath f-2  inches long.
On river shores throughout the region,
sparingly from Field west.
Be tula occi-
dentalis
Hook.
Western Red
Birch.
orbicular,
A shrub 1-8 feet with brown,
glandular, warty twigs. Leaves
orbicular, oval or ovate, smooth,
rounded at the apex, crenate-
dentate, bright green above,
pale and sticky, glandular-dotted
beneath,   short   petioled,   J-i   inch   long.
Betula glan-
dulosa
Michx.
Glandular
Birch, Scrub
Birch. 72
Loranthaceae
Staminate catkins, commonly solitary, about
J an inch long; cones when ripe §-i inch long.
In moist ground and thickets in the lower
valleys through the Rockies, frequent.
A shrub  4-20  feet  high with
brown bark.      Leaves more or
Alnus tenui-
folia Nutt.
Slender- less broadly ovate,   2-3  inches
leaved Alder, long, acute, rounded or slightly
heart-shaped at the base, acutely doubly
toothed, light green and smooth on both sides
or slightly hairy. Staminate catkins slender,
drooping, 1-2 inches long; fruiting cones
erect, J an inch or less long.
In moist places and thickets and stream
banks at the higher elevations throughout
'the region, very abundant in the Selkirks.
LORANTHACEi©
Mistletoe Family
Parasitic herbs growing on woody plants
and absorbing their food from the host plant
through  specialised roots; leaves opposite, Santalaceae
73
frequently reduced to scales; flowers dioecious or monoecious, regular; in terminal or
axillary clusters.
Razoumof-
skya amer-
icana(Nutt.)
Kuntze.
Dwarf
Mistletoe.
Greenish-yellow or brownish,
smooth, fleshy; stems rather
slender, numerous, and tufted,
forked or branched into 4-angled
jointed branches. Leaves reduced to opposite scales at the
joints.    Flowers very small, the staminate
and pistillate on separate plants; staminate
plants 2-4 inches long, with the flowers on
terminal peduncle-like joints; pistillate plants
much smaller and .darker coloured; berries
ovate, purplish brown, J of an inch long.
Throughout the Rockies, parasitic on
Pinus Murrayana; locally abundant, appearing in midsummer.
Santalace^s
Sandalwood Family
Low herbs parasitic on the roots of other 74
Santalaceae
plants, with entire leaves and perfect, greenish flowers, either terminal or axillary; calyx
3-6-lobed; petals wanting; stamens as many
as the calyx lobes and inserted near their
bases or opposite them upon the disc; fruit
in the only genus represented in the region,
drupe-like, crowned by the persistent style.
Comandra Stem slender and leafy, 6-12
pallida DC. inches tall, pale and glaucous.
Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate,
acute or the lowest of those of the
stem, oblong-elliptic. Flowers small, less than J
of an inch high with short pedicels, clustered
at the summit of the stems, calyx purplish or
sometimes nearly white; fruit ovoid-oblong,
nearly half an inch high and crowned by the
very short upper portion of the calyx tube.
On dry hillsides throughout the Rockies;
flowering during June.
Pale Comandra.
Comandra
livida Rich.
Northern
Comandra.
Stem slender, usually quite simple, 4-12 inches high. Leaves
thin, oval, obtuse or rounded at
the apex, narrowed at the base,  T Polygonaceae
short-petioled |-ij inches long, nearly half
as broad, yellowish or purplish-green when
young, becoming bright green or often variegated with age.d Flowers small, less than
\ of an inch broad; purplish green, in axillary
clusters of 1-5 flowers; drupe globose-oblong,
I of an inch in diameter, bright red when
ripe.
Throughout the Rockies in moist ground
and shaded mossy places and borders of
woods, flowering in June. While inconspicuous early in the season, in midsummer
it is apt to be quite showy on account of the
striking, golden yellow veining of the otherwise green leaves; this condition is due to a
fungoid or other disease of the plant.
POLYGONACE^
Buckwheat Family
Herbs and twining vines with alternate or
sometimes opposite or whorled leaves, jointed 76
Polygonacese
stems and usually sheathing united stipules;
flowers small, regular, perfect, monoecious,
dioecious or polygamous; petals none, calyx
2-6-parted, the segments more or less folded
over each other, sometimes petal-like; stamens 2-9 dilated at the base and distinct or
united into a ring; ovary superior, one-celled
with a solitary ovule.
Flowers not involucrate; stipules sheathing.
Leaves reniform, sepals 4. Oxyria.
Leaves not reniform; sepals 6.
Sepals unequal; stigmas tufted. Rumex.
Sepals equal; stigmas capitate. Polygonum.
Flowers involucrate, many; stipules wanting.
Eriogonum.
Oxyria
digyna   (L.)
Hill.
Mountain
Sorrel.
Stems 2 inches to a foot high,
scape-like and leafless, from a
large chaffy rootstock. Leaves
basal on long petioles, reniform
or orbicular \-2 inches wide with
a wavy margin, sometimes notched at the
apex. Racemes 2-3 inches or more long,
of many small flowers on slender pedicels;
crimson or pinkish and showy in fruit.
Frequent at the Jiigher altitudes through- Polygonaceae
77
out the region in moist grounds and beside
streams, flowering in June. S3
Rumex
acetosa
Sour.
Stems a foot or more high,
smooth. Leaves oblong, hastate
or ovate-sagittate, 1-4 inches
long, acute, the basal few and long petioled,
stem leaves sessile, the acute auricles entire.
Flowers, dioecious, minute, crowded in a slender head 3-6 inches' long, yellowish-green
tinged with red.
In moist open ground at the higher elevations, more or less frequent throughout
the Rockies, flowering in midsummer.
Rumex
salicifiolus
Weinm.
Pale-leaved
Dock.
Smooth, pale green, erect, and
spreading, 1-3 feet high. Leaves
lanceolate, acute or acuminate
at both ends, petioled. Flowers
small greenish-white in erect or
reflexed racemes, dense in fruit, interrupted
below;   wings of the fruit triangular-ovate,
with a large ovoid tubercle.
Frequent throughout the Rockies at the
lower altitudes; flowering'in summer. 78
Polygonaceae
Polygonum
viviparum
L. Alpine
Bistort.
Smooth, with a corm-like root-
stock ; stems solitary or clustered,
2-1 o inches high. Basal leaves
lanceolate or oblong i—8 inches
long, rather acute, cordate at the base on long
petioles; stem leaves narrowly lanceolate or
linear, upper sessile with revolute margins.
Flowers in a dense terminal raceme several
inches long; rose-coloured or white; stamens
exserted; small bulblets frequently developed among the flowers, which later produce
leaves and young plants.
Frequent in moist sandy soil and river
banks throughout the Rockies, flowering in
June and July.
Several small weedy species of the genus
are also found through the region but are not
sufficiently striking to be here described.
Eriogonum
subalpinum
Greene.
Tall White
Eriogonum.
Stems depressed, much branched,
prostrate and matted at the
base. Leaves oblong to ovate-
spatulate, 1—2 inches long, on
slender   petioles,   smooth   and Polygonaceae
79
green above, white-woolly beneath. Scape
like peduncles, erect, 8-14 inches high, with
a simple, large umbel of 8-12 rays subtended
by a whorl of leaves. Flowers |-J of an
inch high, cream-coloured or nearly pure
white, and tinged with rosy pink especially
in age.
A striking plant growing in stony places
and on rocky slopes, throughout the Rockies,
flowering in June and July.
Eriogonum
ochroleucum
Small.
Yellowish-
white
Eriogonum.
Tufted from a large rootstock.
Leaves white and woolly throughout, densely crowded on the
very short stems, elliptic to
obovate-spatulate, half an inch
or more long, narrowed at the
base into slender, frequently spirally-twisted
petioles; scapes slender, several, six inches
or more high bearing a globular head of
pale yellowish-white flowers T3^ of an inch
high.
On a moist rocky slope at an elevation
of   4500 feet near Glacier, abundant, the 8o
Portulacaceae
plant may occur elsewhere in the region
but has not been observed; flowers in
June.
PORTULACACEAE
Purslane Family
Fleshy herbaceous plants, with regular
perfect, unsymmetrical flowers; sepals commonly 2; petals 4 or 5, folded together, stamens equal in number to the petals or fewer.
Claytonia
lanceolata
Pursh.
Spring
Beauty.
Stem 3-8 inches high from a
round corm. Leaves oblong or
lanceolate, J-i| inches long.
Flowers nearly half an inch
broad, few to several in a loose
head, on slender pedicels; petals notched at
the end or almost obcordate, white with
pink veins.
One of the first plants to appear in spring
on the edges of the snow-banks, throughout the region, from the lower altitudes up
to the alpine summits, flowering throughout   Cary ophy 1 laceae
the   summer   according   to   elevation   and
condition of the" snow.
Claytonia
parvifolia
Moc. Small-
leaved
Spring
Beauty.
Stems 6-12 inches high, diffuse,
ascending or somewhat reclined
or creeping, sometimes reduced
to slender naked runners. Leaves
fleshy, rhombic-ovate, acute,
about half an inch long, contracted at the base, the upper a quarter of
an inch long or less. Flowers few and racemose ; petals somewhat obcordate J of an inch
long, much surpassing the rounded sepals, rose-
colour varying to white; propagating freely
by bulblet-like offshoots in the axils of the
stem leaves, as well as by the usual method.
In wet stony places and in the gravelly
beds of Alpine brooks, frequent in the Selkirks, flowering in July.
CARYOPHYLLACEiB
Pink Family
Herbaceous plants, often swollen at the
6 82
Caryophyllaceae
nodes, with opposite entire leaves and perfect
or rarely dioecious regular flowers; sepals
4 or 5 persistent, separated or united into
a calyx-tube; petals equal in number to the
sepals or none; stamens twice as many as
the sepals or fewer.
Sepals united; petals long clawed.
Calyx io-many nerved.
Styles 3; capsule with 3 or 6 teeth. Silene.
Styles 5; capsule with 5 or 10 teeth. Lychnis.
Sepals free to the base or nearly so.
Petals two cleft or rarely none.
Capsule cylindric, usually curved. Cerastium.
Capsule ovate or oblong, not curved. Alsine.
Petals entire or notched, rarely none.
Styles as many as the sepals and alternate with
them. Sagina.
Styles fewer than the sepals.
Seeds appendaged. Mcehringia.
Seeds not appendaged. Arenaria.
Closely tufted, an inch or two
high, forming cushion-like beds,
Often 2 feet or more across.
Leaves sessile, crowded, linear,
I an inch or less long, the margins ciliate.
Flowers J of an inch or more across, nearly
Silene
acaulis L
Moss
Campion.   Caryophyllaceae
sessile or raised on naked curved peduncles,
often J an inch long; calyx narrowly cam-
panulate, J of an inch long, smooth, the
teeth short, rounded; petals rose-purple or
rarely white, entire or notched.
In alpine meadows, in stony ground, on
the moraines and tops of the mountains
throughout the region, flowering in June
and July.
Silene
Lyallii S.
Wats.
Lyall's
Catchfly.
Stems slender, decumbent at the
base, 12-18 inches high, minutely hairy throughout, glandular above. Leaves, the basal
spatulate, obtuse 1-2 inches
long on long petioles, those of the stem
linear 1-2 inches long, sessile. Flowers on
short peduncles in rather loose terminal
heads; calyx oblong, inflated, about \ an
inch long, narrow, glandular, teeth purple-
tipped; petals white, nearly half an inch
long, spreading, two-lobed.
On grassy alpine slopes throughout the
region, flowering in June and July. 84
Caryophyllaceae
L   hn' More   or   less   glandular-hairy,
apetala L. 2-6 inches high. Leaves linear
Nodding or oblanceolate, §-2 J inches long.
Lychms. Flower solitary, £-f of an inch
long, nodding; calyx inflated, strongly purple veined, its teeth triangular-ovate, acute;
petals purple, as long as or shorter than the
calyx, narrow, 2-cleft.
Among loose boulders on the moraines
and alpine summits throughout the region,
flowering in July.
Cerastium
arvense
strictum
(L.) Rydb
Field
Chickweed.
Stems tufted, ascending from a
decumbent base, 3-6 inches high,
hairy throughout, roughly so at
the base, glandular at the summit. Leaves numerous, J—§ of
an inch long, narrowly lanceolate, acute, with a broad sessile base.
Flowers several in a more or less close head,
nearly half an inch broad, white; petals
deeply notched.
In dry stony ground in the lower valleys
of the Rockies, flowering in June. Caryophyllaceae
Thick, silky-hairy below, with
sticky hairs above; stems matted
1-3 inches high. Leaves small,
oblong, J of an inch long or less,
rather thick, obtuse. Flowers
1 of an inch or more broad;
petals white, notched at the
apex, sometimes little longer than the
lanceolate sepals.
In stony ground, alpine slopes and summits throughout the Rockies, flowering
during summer.
Cerastium
behringi-
anum
Chain, and
Schl.
Alpine
Chickweed.
Alsine
longipes
(Goldie)
Coville.
Long-
stalked
Stitchwort
Erect or ascending, tufted, simple or rarely sparingly branched,
3-12  inches  high,  smooth  and
shining.     Leaves   light   green,
lanceolate   or   linear-lanceolate,
§-i§ inches long, broad at the
base.      Flowers few,  J—J of an
inch broad, terminal, on long, slender, erect
pedicels;- sepals ovate or lanceolate, acute;
petals 2-cleft, exceeding the calyx.
»*■ 86
Caryophyllaceae
In   moist   open   places   throughout   the
Rockies, flowering in June.
Alsine laeta
(Richards.)
Rydb.
Glaucous
Stitchwort.
Low, smooth, or somewhat hairy,
1-4 inches high, very glaucous
throughout, densely leafy at the
base. Leaves keeled, lanceolate, awl-shaped to linear, rather
stiff, |-J an inch long. Flowers J of an inch
or more across; sepals lanceolate, acute, | of
an inch long; petals notched, longer than the
sepals; stamens showy, with scarlet anthers.
In alpine meadows and moist grounds at
high altitudes, throughout the region; flowering in July.
Alsine
borealis
(Bigel.)
Britton.
Northern
Stitchwort.
hairy or
spicuous
Erect or ascending, weak, much
branched, smooth, or hairy
above, 6-18 inches long. Leaves
thin, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, |-i| inches long, acute,
sessile, thin, margins slightly
naked. Flowers small and incon-
in a leafy terminal compound head, ft
\r	  Caryophyllaceae
ascending or spreading on slender pedicels;
sepals ovate-lanceolate, acute; petals shorter
than the sepals or none.
In wet places at the lower altitudes
throughout the Rockies; flowering throughout the summer from early June.
Sagina
saginoides
(L.) Britton
Arctic
Pearl-wort.
Smooth, stems very slender and
tufted, 1-4 inches high.   Leaves
I to nearly J an inch long with a
spiny tip.  Flowers small, solitary
or few together, at the end of the
slender stem, about J of an inch broad; petals
white  minute, hardly exceeding the calyx.
On rocks and moist sandy ground throughout the region; flowering in June.
Stems erect or ascending, simple
or at length, sparingly branched,
finely hairy throughout, 4-12
inches high. Leaves thin, oval,
or oblong, |-i inch long, obtuse,
spreading; the margins and
nerves fringed with hairs.    Flowers few in
Mcehringia
lateriflora
(L.) Fenzl
Blunt-
leaved
Sandwort. 88
Caryophyllaceae
lateral and terminal clusters or sometimes
solitary; J of an inch or more broad, their
parts in 4's or 5's; sepals oblong, obtuse or
acute, half as long as the nearly entire
white petals.
In moist places growing among grass,
throughout the Rockies; flowering in
June.
Arenaria
capillaris
nardifolia
(Ledeb.)
Regel.  Rock
Sandwort.
Smooth throughout except the
tops of the stems and sepals,
which are glandular; stems slender, 4-8 inches high, numerous
from a tufted, leafy base.
Leaves mostly in bundles J-iJ
inches long, smooth, very slender and
curved, with a spiny tip, those of the stem
few and much reduced. Flowers white,
J an inch broad in a loose branching
head.
A rather striking plant on grassy
slopes throughout the region; flowering in
June. Arenaria
verna
equicaulis
A. Nelson
Vernal
Sandwort.
Caryophyllaceae
Very slender, much branched
and finely, sticky-hairy throughout; stems threadlike, numerous,
nearly of a uniform length in
the same plant, 2-3 inches long.
Leaves crowded at the base, few
and much reduced above, linear, awl-shaped,
thick, semi-cylindric, nearly smooth. Flowers small, little more than J of an inch across;
sepals ovate-oblong, acute, strongly 3-nerved;
petals white, acute, not exceeding the sepals.
A small tufted plant with wiry stems and
minute white star-like flowers, in moist or
dry, sandy places throughout the region
from the low valleys to the alpine summits;
flowering in May and June.
Closely tufted, stems densely
glandular-hairy, decumbent, very
leafy below, J-2J inches long
with 2 or 3 pairs of short,
rather distant leaves and terminating in 1-3 flowers. Lower leaves,
linear-obtuse, stiff, J of an inch or more long,
Arenaria
sajanensis.
Willd.
Alpine
Sandwort.
I M
90
Ranunculaceae
smooth or slightly hairy; calyx lobes linear-
oblong, 1-3 ribbed, glandular, hairy, | of an
inch long; petals white, broad, equalling or
exceeding the sepals.
On high alpine slopes and summits,
throughout the Rockies; flowering in June
and July.
Ranunculaceae
Crowfoot Family
Herbs or rarely climbing shrubs with
acrid sap; leaves usually alternate without
stipules; flowers usually showy, blue, white,
yellow, or scarlet; sepals 3-15, generally soon
falling away, often petal-like; petals about
the same number or occasionally wanting;
stamens many; carpels many or rarely
solitary.
Carpels with solitary ovules; fruit an achene.
Sepals valvate in the bud; leaves opposite.  Atragene.
Sepals folded on each other in the bud; leaves not
opposite.  go
Ranunculaceae
smooth or slightly hairy; calyx lobes linear-
oblong, 1-3 ribbed, glandular, hairy, J of an
inch long; petals white, broad, equalling or
exceeding the sepals.
On high alpine slopes and summits,
throughout the Rockies; flowering in June
and July,
Ranunculaceae
Crowfoot Fan
Herbs or rarely diinbing shrubs with
acrid sap; leaves usually awewate without
stipules; flowers usually showy, .blue; white,
yellow, or scarlet; sepals 3-^§:, yenerally soon
falling away, often petal-like; petals about
oho same number or occasionally wanting;
stamens   man}/.;   carpels   many   or   rarely
"j
Sepals
Sepals
opposite.
rules; fruit an achene.
the bud: leaves opposite. Atragene.
Hon - each other in-sthe bud; leaves not   Stem leaves three in a whorl.
Styles short, smooth or hairy.
Styles long, plumose.
Stem leaves alternate or basal.
Petals none, flowers small; leaves compound.
Thalictrum.
Petals present.
Flowers white.
Flowers yellow.
Achenes papillose or spiny.
Achenes longitudinally nerved. Halerpestes.
Carpels with several ovules; fruit, follicles or berries.
Flowers regular.
Leaves simple.
Petals none; leaves cordate-orbicular.     Caltha.
Petals  linear-spatulate;  leaves palmately
parted. Trollius.
Leaves compound.
Sepals spurred; carpels becoming follicles.
Aquilegia.
Sepals not spurred; carpels becoming berries.
Actaea.
Flowers irregular; upper sepals spurred.
Delphinium.
A climbing or trailing vine with
somewhat woody stems. Leaves
trifoliate, the leaflets thin, on
slender petioles, ovate, attenuate, acute, and entire, 2-3 inches
long.    Flowers purple, i§-2 inches broad, on
Atragene
columbiana
Nutt. Purple Virgin's-
bower. 92
Ranunculaceae
long peduncles, solitary in the axils of the
leaves; sepals 4-6, oblong lanceolate, acuminate, more than twice. the length of the
stamens; styles persistent, forming a plumose head of fruit.
In rocky woods and on shaded mountain
sides up to 6000 feet elevation, throughout
the Rockies, trailing over the ground, or
festooning the shrubs or lower branches
of the trees; flowering in early June.
Anemone
parviflora
Mich*. -
Northern
Anemone.
Stem simple, sparingly hairy, 4-8
inches high. Basal leaves long-
petioled, 3-parted, the broadly
wedge-shaped divisions obtuse-
ly-lobed or crenate, those of
the involucre nearly sessile, similarly lobed.
Flower an inch or less in diameter, sepals, oblong, very obtuse, white, blue on
the outside near the base; stamens numerous;
head of fruit globose.
Common throughout the Rockies in moist
ground and rich woods; flowering early in
June.  92 Ranunculaceae
long peduncles, solitary in the axils of the
leaves; sepals 4-6, oblong lanceolate, acuminate, more than twice the length of the
stamens:  styles  persistent,  forming a  plu-
In rocky woods- and on shaded mountain
sides up to 6000 feet elevation throughout
the Rockies, trailing over the ground, or
festooning   the   shrubs   or   lower   branches
nf  trip trftp*; * flnwp'rina' in parivTtitifi
Anemone
parviflora
Stem simple, sparingly hairy, 4-8
petiole
ge-
Flower  an
the out- :
head of fruit &.
Jtie oase; si
eaves lon^L
le broadly
as   obtuse-
similarly lobed.
1  diameter,   se~
i numerous;
se.
die  XvOOivK
moist
id   und rich
flowering early
Jun<  i Anemone
Drummondu
S. Wats.
Alpine
Anemone.
Ranunculaceae
Sparingly pubescent, with long
whitish hairs, especially at the
involucre, 4-6 inches high.
Root-leaves, slender-petioled, 3-
parted, the divisions cut into
linear, oblong obtuse lobes; leaves of the
involucre similar on short petioles, their
lobes slightly broader. Flowers usually solitary, half an inch or more broad on long
peduncles; sepals 5, ovate or oval, obtuse,
white, finely appressed-hairy and blue outside.
Throughout the region in alpine meadows
and slopes near the snow, flowering in June
and July as the snows disappear. .
Anemone StemS   9|   incheS   hiSh'   cloSe>
globosa silky-hairy.     Root  leaves  long
Nutt. Wind- petioled, nearly semicircular in
flower. outline,    3-parted,   the    sessile
divisions deeply lobed, with cleft, linear
segments, involucral leaves similar, short
petioled. Sepals 5-8, red, bluish or nearly
pure white, half an inch or less long, soft, 94
Ranunculaceae
hairy   outside,   receptacle   oblong,   in  fruit
densely woolly.
The most abundant anemone through
the Rockies in the low open valleys, and,
occasionally on the slopes, presenting the
greatest variety of colouring from deep
rosy pink to pure white and occasionally
blue; flowering in early June.
Pulsatilla
hirsutissima
(Pursh.)
Britton.
Pasque
Flower.
Villous, 6-18 inches high. Leaves
much divided into narrow, linear,
acute lobes, the basal on slender
petioles, those of the involucre
sessile and erect or ascending.
Flowers bluish purple, sometimes nearly white inside; sepals 5-7 ovate-
oblong 1-1J inches long, forming a cup;
fruit a head of long silky achenes 2 inches
or more in diameter.
This is one of the earliest and most beautiful of all the spring flowers, in the open
meadows and mountain sides, blossoming
through May and June according to the
situation.    Probably its most common local  94
Ranunculaceae
hairy   outside,   receptacle   oblong,   in  fruit
densely woolly.
The most abundant anemone through
the Rockies in the low open valleys, and,
occasionally on the slopes,, presenting the
greatest variety of colouring from deep
rosy pink to pure white and occasionally
blue; flowering in early June.
Pulsatilla
hirsutissima
(Pursh.)
Britton.
Pasque
Flower.
Villous, 6-18 inches high. Leaves
much divi<^f^^i|i^rrow, linear,
acute lobes., the basal on slender
petioles, • those' of the involucre
sessile cuui erect or ascending.
Flowers bluish purple, sometimes nearly white inside; sepals 5-7 ovate-
oblong i-ij inches long, forming a cup;
fruit a head of long silky achenes 2 inches
or more in diameter.
This is one of the earliest and most beautiful of all the spring flowers, in the open
meadows and mountain sides, blossoming
through May and June according to the
situation.    Probably its most common local a Pulsatilla hirsutissima (Pursh) Britton.
Pasque Flower.
6   Pulsatilla  occidentalis   (S.  Wats.)   Freyn.   (%   Nat.)
Western  Anemone.
i.  Ranunculaceae
name, in the Rockies where it is very abundant, is that of crocus, to which flower it
does bear a superficial resemblance, in size
shape, and colour, and in the habit of the
flower appearing as soon as the snow has
left the ground, and before the leaves.
Pulsatilla
occidentalis
(S. Wats.)
Freyn.
Western
Anemone.
Stem rather stout, silky-hairy,
6-18 inches high, simple. Leaves
biternate, the lower on long
petioles, the divisions deeply
pinnatifid into deeply cut linear,
acute lobes; those of the involucre similar but short-petioled. Flowers i|-2 inches broad, peduncled, the
peduncles much elongated in fruit; sepals
spreading, 6-7, oval-obtuse, white, the
outside usually blue at the base; fruit of
long plumose tailed achenes in a globular
fluffy head.
Frequent throughout the Rockies at an
elevation of 6000 to 10,000 feet, blossoming
on the edges of the snow banks as they recede, 96
Ranunculaceae
Thalictrum
megacarpum
Torr.
Veiny
Meadow
Rue.
a conspicuous feature of many an alpine
meadow during early June.
Smooth, pale green, and glaucous;
stem purplish, erect, 6-18 inches
tall. Leaves 3-4 ternate, long-
petioled, leaflets firm, obovate,
rounded at the apex, wedge-
shaped or subcordate at the base,
J-J an inch long, 3-5-lobed, the lower surface
prominently veined. Flowers dioecious, with
4 or 5 small, purplish-green sepals and large,
linear, wedge-shaped anthers or slender
styles; the achenes wedge-shaped and tapering into a short beak.
A frequent plant in the dry open valleys
in the Rockies at the lower altitudes; flowering in June.
Thalictrum
occidentale
A. Gray.
Western
Meadow
Rue.
Stems slender, 1—3 feet high.
Leaves 2-4 ternate, the lowest
petioled; leaflets thin, J to nearly
an inch long, 3-9 lobed at the
summit, sparingly glandular-
hairy   beneath.    Flowers 'dice-
y e3
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Ranunculaceae
Rananculus
Purshii
Richards.
Pursh's
Buttercup.
Aquatic or creeping, hairy, at
least on the younger parts.
Leaves slender-petioled, J—i inch,
wide, palmately-divided nearly
to the base, into obtuse lobes.
Flowers less than | an inch broad, bright
yellow; petals 5; head of fruit globose, a little
less than J of an inch broad.
Frequent in shallow pools throughout the
Rockies; flowering throughout the summer.
„ ,       Stems creeping, rooting at the
Ranunculus |    ° °
reptans L. joints; flowering stems and pe-
Creeping duncles ascending.    Leaves lin-
Spearwort. ear-lanceolate or spatulate £-2
inches long, entire, gradually narrowed into
the petiole. Flowers nearly half an inch
broad, solitary, on peduncles §-2 inches long;
petals 4-7, much exceeding the calyx;
stamens numerous; achenes flat.
On muddy shores of ponds and streams
throughout the Rockies, flowering in midsummer, the creeping stems frequently interlaced and forming dense mats.   Ranunculaceae
99
Ranunculus
pedatifidus
I E. Smith.
Northern
Buttercup.
Erect 4-12 inches high, branching. Basal leaves petioled,
broadly ovate or nearly orbicular, about I of an inch
broad, crenate or often lobed,
those of the stem deeply and narrowly lobed,
nearly sessile. Flowers about J of an inch
in diameter, petals little surpassing the
spreading sepals.
In moist shaded situations near Banff;
flowering in June.
Ranunculus
eremogenes
Greene.
Ditch
Crowfoot.
Stem branching, more or less
hairy, 6-18 inches high, sparingly
leafy. Leaves rounded" in outline, mostly 5-parted, the segments cut into about 3-toothed
lobes. Flowers J of an inch or more broad,
the light yellow petals surpassing the sepals;
fruit in an obtusely ovoid head.
In wet springy places, ditches and the
margins of pools, frequent through the
Rockies at the lower altitudes; flowering in
June and July. IOO
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculus
Eschscholt-
zii Schl.
Snow
Buttercup.
Smooth, 3-12 inches high, 1—3-
flowered. Leaves round in outline, those at the root all 3-5-
parted and deeply cut, their
obovate or wedge-shaped divisions mostly lobed or narrowly cut, stem-
leaves similar with oblong to spatulate or
lanceolate, often entire divisions. Flowers
bright yellow; petals 5, a third of an inch
or more long.
Frequent at the higher altitudes, blooming
close to the melting snow, throughout the
region; flowering in June and July.
Ranunculus Similar in habit to the previous
alpeophilus species though usually larger,
A. Nelson. bright green and nearly smooth
throughout. Leaves sparingly hairy on the
margins, the basal broader and less divided.
Flowers pale yellow, \ of an inch or more
broad; petals little longer than the calyx.
Along streams and in moist grounds, an
alpine species frequent throughout the
Rockies; flowering in June and July.   Ranunculaceae
IOI
Ranunculus stems about 4 inches long, de-
saxicola. cumbent or ascending, smooth.
Rydb. Basal leaves on petioles 2 inches
long, rounded, somewhat hairy when young,
3-lobed, lobes spreading and toothed, stem-
leaves 1-3, nearly sessile, cleft into 3-7 linear
lobes. Flowers about \ an inch broad, sepals
tinged with brown, half the length of the
petals, broad, obovate, obtuse, slightly hairy;
petals broadly obovate, bright yellow; achenes
more or less hairy, with a straight style.
Throughout the Rockies in stony ground at
the higher altitudes; flowering in July.
Ranunculus Stems rather stout, 6-12 inches
inamcenus. high, slightly hairy. Root leaves
Greene. on short petioles, rounded, cre-
nate-toothed or 3-lobed, stem leaves sessile
and cut into 3-6 oblong-lanceolate segments.
Flowers \ of an inch or more broad, usually
several together on short slender peduncles;
petals obovate-oblong, light yellow; achenes
small, hairy.
In open ground sparingly throughout the 102
Ranunculaceae
Rockies at the lower elevations; flowering
in June.
Ranunculus Stem 3-6 inches high, smooth,
Suksdorfii slender, 1-3-flowered. Leaves
A. Gray. 1   an  [nch  0r  more long,  sub-
reniform or broadly fan-shaped with wedge-
shaped base, deeply 3-5-cleft or parted, the
radical into cuneate 3-5-cleft or incised divisions, those of the stem linear. Flowers bright
yellow; petals round-obovate, J-J an inch long.
In moist ground on slopes, throughout
the Rockies; flowering in June.
Stems hairy, 6-10 inches high,
branching. Leaves few, basal,
rounded in outline, ternately
lobed, sometimes deeply so, on
slender petioles; stem leaves
sessile or nearly so, cut into narrowly linear
or linear-lanceolate lobes. Flowers | of an
inch or more broad, petals spreading, bright
yellow and shining on the upper surface;
sepals not reflexed.
A showy low buttercup in the dry open
valleys in the Rockies; flowering in June.
Ranunculus
eximius
Greene.
Low
Buttercup. ua&.
ff 1 B
<#*\
■
it-
: ■;....
I
re :r 102
Ranunculaceae
jvocicies ax xne low
flowering
JR a nun cuius
Suksdoriii
i oa
3-6 inches high, smooth,
slender,    1-3-flowered.     Leaves
J   an inch  or more long,  sub-
broillSf' fan-shaped with wedge-
joileeply 3-5-cleft or parted, the
■into cuneate 3-5-cleft or incised division^ those of the stem linear.   Flowers bright
yellow; petals round-obovate, J- J an inch long.
In  moist ground  on  slopes,  throughout
the Rockie
Ranunculi
eximius
Greene.
Low
Buttercup,
sessile o
or lineal:
yellov
sepals
A shov
valleys ir
; fl<
St
►untie
inches, high,
Lew,   basal,
I* ternately
ply so, on
;1. oder   petioles;    stem    leaves
.. so, cut into narrowly linear
Flowers | of an
petals spreading, bright
bn the upper surface;
buttercup
;he drv
Hi •-isaa^v
Aquilegia brevistyla Hook.   (%  Nat.)
Small Blue Columbine.  Ranunculaceae
103
Ranunculus
mbntanensis
Rydb.
Meadow
Buttercup.
Stem stout, 1-2 feet high,
branching with long rough hairs.
Basal leaves long, hairy all over,
3-parted, the divisions again
divided or cut into linear or
lanceolate segments; petioles 3 or 4 inches
long; stem-leaves similar but short petioled.
Flowers few, large; sepals broadly ovate with
silky hairs; petals broadly ovate, nearly half
an inch long, bright yellow; head of achenes,
globose; style long, slender, and much curved.
Frequent in the Rockies at the lower
altitudes in more or less shaded grassy
situations; flowering in June and July.
Stems creeping and rooting at
the joints, 1-7-flowered. Leaves
broadly ovate, coarsely crenate,
clustered at the base and joints
of the long slender runners.
Flowers   J  of   an  inch  across;
petals light yellow, longer than the sepals;
fruit in oblong heads.
A common species throughout the Rockies
Halerpestes
Cymbalaria
(Pursh.)
Green.
Creeping
Crowfoot. 1
IOzJ
Ranunculaceae
in damp ground, frequently forming mats
several feet across; flowering continuously
throughout the summer.
Caltha lep
tosepala
Hook.
White
Marsh
Marigold.
Stems erect, 2—12 inches high,
1-2-flowered. Leaves roundish
or oblong-cordate, longer than
broad, irregularly crenate-
toothed; sepals 6-8, lanceolate,
J of an inch long, white, strongly
suffused with blue on the outside; stamens
numerous; pistils 5-15.
In springy ground and wet alpine meadows
throughout the region, often growing in such
abundance as to make the meadows brilliant
with the blue and white flowers, which appear
soon after the snow has left the ground in
June and July.
Trollius
albiflorus
(A. Gray.)
Rydb.
Western
Globe-
flower
Stem erect, 6-12 inches high,
more or less branching. Leaves
palmately divided, the segments
many cleft. Flowers solitary,
1-1J inches broad, subtended
by   a   whorl   of   leaves;   sepals  io4
Ranunculaceae
in damp ground, frequently forming mats
several feet across; flowering continuously
throughout the summer.
Caltha lep-
tosepala
Hook.
Stems erect, 2-12 inches high,
1—2-flowered. Leaves roundish
or oblong-cordate, longer than
broad, irregularly crenate-
toothed g sepals 6-8, lanceolate,
} of an inch long, white, strongly
suffused with blue on the outside; stamens
numerous; pistils 5—15.
In springy ground and wet alpine meadows
throughout the region, often growing in such
abundance^ to make the meadows brilliant
with the blue and white flowers, which appear
soon after ties s-owv has leia the ground in
Tune and Tul\o
TroiUus
Rydb.
Western
Globe-
flower
JbC
erect, 6-12 inches high,
bore or less branching. Leaves
[almately divided, the segments
cleft. Flowers solitary,
i-ij inches broad, subtended
by .a  whorl   of  leaves;  sepals
Ilia. J
1 a Caltha leptosepala Hook.
b Trollius albiflorus  (A. Gray)  Rydb.   Western Globe-Flower.
{% Nat.)
1  Ranunculaceae
broadly obovate 5-6, pure white tinged on
the back with greenish rose; petals 15-20,
less than J of an inch long, narrowly truncate,
bright yellow, nearly concealed by the numerous stamens.
One of the most abundant and conspicuous
of the spring flowers of the alpine meadows,
and marshy borders of alpine streams and
lakes, commencing to flower when but a few
inches high on the edges of the melting snow
in May and June. •
One to two" feet high, slender,
sparingly branched. Leaves, the
basal long-petioled, biternate,
lobed. and crenate, the stem
leaves few, nearly sessile and
lobed. Flowers \ an inch or more long,
nodding, sepals blue, petals creamy-white
with a short blue spur not more than \ of
an inch long; styles and stamens hardly
exceeding the petals.
In open rocky situations, rather local,
common in the region around Banff, flowering in May and June.
Aquilegia
brevistyla
Hook.
Small Blue
Columbine. 1:1
io6
Ranunculaceae
Aquilegia
flavescens
S. Wats.
Yellow
Columbine
Stems smooth, 1-3 feet high,
branched. Leaves ternate, leaflets round-cordate, 3-parted, the
segments coarsely toothed, 2—3-
cleft. Flowers yellow, an inch
or more long, nodding; sepals reflexed, oblong-ovate, acute, longer than the spurs;
petals spreading with a spur half an inch
long; styles and stamens nearly equal, much
exserted.
The commonest columbine throughout
the region, growing in woods and on slopes
up to 8000 feet, varying greatly in colour;
flowering in June and July according to the
elevation.
Stem 2-4 feet high, branching,
sparingly pubescent with spreading hairs. Leaves, the lower
triternately parted on long petioles, the upper sessile and ternate or reduced to simple bracts, leaflets
broadly wedge-shaped, 3-cleft. Flowers scarlet,   drooping,   more   than   an   inch   long;
Aquilegia
formosa
Fisch.
Western
Columbine  io6
Ranunculaceae
Aquilegia
flavescens
S. Wats.
Yellow
Columbine.
Stems smooth, 1-3 feet high,
branched. Leaves ternate, leaflets round-cordate, 3-parted, the
segments coarsely toothed, 2-3-
cleft. Flowers yellow, an inch
or more long, nodding; sepals reflexed, oblong-ovate, acute, longer than the spurs;
petal's spreading with a spur half an inch
long; styles and stamens nearly equal, much
exserted.
The commonest columbine throughout
the region, growing in woods and on slopes
up to 8000 feet, varying greatly in colour;
flowering in June and July according to the
elevation.
formosa
Fisch.
Western
Columbine.
high, branching,
sent with spread
ing hairs. .Leaves, tne lower
ttiternately parted on long petioles, the upper sessile and ternate or reduced to simple bracts, leaflets
broadly wedge-shaped, 3-cleft. [ Flowers scarlet,   drooping,   more   than   an   inch   long; X
Ml
a Aquilegia flavescens S. Wats.   Yellow Columbine.
b Aquilegia formosa Fisch.   Western Columbine.    {% Nat.)  Ranunculaceae
107
sepals scarlet varying to orange, spreading
or reflexed, an inch long, lanceolate, acute;
petals yellow, more or less spreading, with
a scarlet spur about the length of the sepals;
styles and stamens exserted.
Throughout the Selkirks, in moist
ground, on slopes and borders of rocky
alpine streams, flowering during July and
late June.
Delphinium
Brownii
Rydb.
Western
Larkspur.
Stem tall, 2-5 feet high, leafy.
Leaves mostly orbicular in outline, 5-7-parted, the upper into
narrow-cleft, laciniate divisions,
petioled. Flowers nodding, less
than an inch long, dull purple, bluish or
occasionally white, numerous in an elongated spike; sepals 5, blue, J of an inch long,
not spreading, the upper one prolonged into
a spur, half an inch long; petals white, nearly
as long as the sepals.
Frequent in the region around Banff in
open woods at the lower altitudes, flowering
in July. io8
Ranunculaceae
Delphinium
Menziesii
DC. Blue
Larkspur.
Sparingly leafy, 10-18 inches
tall, from a tuberous rootstock.
Leaves, the lowest round-reniform, cut into irregular, oblong,
obtuse lobes, the upper with linear, acute
lobes. Flowers few in a simple panicle,
sepals lanceolate, obtuse, f of an inch or more
long, spreading, brilliant blue, about as long
as the short curved spur; petals exserted,
white with purple veins.
Throughout the region in open ground
and on grassy slopes; flowering in early June
or later according to the altitude.
Stems    erect,    2-7.    feet   high,
Actaea ar- .
guta Nutt. smooth except the inflorescence.
Western Red Leaves large, ternately com-.
Baneberry. pound, the basal leaf long petioled, the divisions long petioled and pinnate, leaflets ovate, 1 J—5 inches long, cut
with sharp teeth. Raceme ovoid, 1-2
inches long; flowers small, white, with
petal-like sepals; petals, 4-10 spatulate
and minute ; stamens numerous ; berries in a +3
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I-  Berberidaceae
iog
spreading   raceme,   small,    spherical,    and
purplish red.
Frequent in the rich woods throughout
the region, at the lower altitudes; flowering
in late May and early June.
Actaea
eburnea
Rydb.
Western
White
Baneberry
Similar to the preceding species
and often growing with it and
difficult to distinguish from it
when in flower: in fruit, however, they are quite distinct. In
A. eburnea the berries are fully twice as
large, nearly half an inch long and a quarter
of an inch in diameter and pure waxy white.
In rich moist woods throughout the
Rockies; flowering with the other species in
May and early June; fruiting in late July.
BERBERIDACE;©
Barberry Family
Shrubs or herbs with alternate or basal
leaves, with or without stipules, and solitary
or racemed, mostly terminal flowers; sepals no
Papaveraceae
and petals generally overlapping in several
series; stamens as many as the petals and
opposite them; flowers perfect.
Berberis
aquifolium
Pursh.
Trailing
Mahonia.
A smooth, trailing shrub. Leaves
petioled, pinnate, leaflets 3-7,
ovate or oval, oblique, obtuse,
truncate or slightly cordate at
the base, sessile thick, persistent, finely veiny, 1-2 inches long, with spine-
bearing teeth. Flowers yellow, in several
erect, dense, terminal racemes; berry globose,
blue or purple.
A straggling shrub with spiny glossy
dark green leaves, which change to beautiful tints of scarlets and yellows during midsummer and autumn. Frequent in the
Rockies in woods; flowering in June.
Papaveracejs
Poppy Family
Herbs with milky or coloured sap and alternate leaves or the upper rarely opposite,
flowers perfect, regular or irregular; sepals 2,
)	 I
ein
»n
r
Lrkspui
tXfcl iJit.X. no
Papaveraceae
and petals generally overlapping in several
series; stamens as many as the petals
opposite them; flowers perfect.
1Q
Berberis
aquifolium
Pursh.
Trailing
Mahonia.
A smooth, trailing shrub. Leaves
petioled, pinnate, leaflets \-n.
ovate or oval, oblique, obtuse a
truncate or slightly cordate at
the base, sessile thick, persistent, finely veiny, 1-2 inches long, with spine-
bearing teeth. Flowers yellow, in several
erect, dense, terminal racemes; berry globose,
blue or purple. jjjl
A straggling shrub with spiny glossy
dark green leaves, which change to beautiful tints of scarlets and yellows during midsummer and autumn. Frequent in the
Rockies in woods; flowering in June.
Papaveraceae
Poppy Family
Herbs with milky or coloured sap and alternate leaves or the upper rarely opposite,
flowers perfect, regular or irregular; sepals 2, a Delphinium Menziesii DC    Blue Larkspur.
b   Lithophragma   parviflora    (Hook.)     Nutt.   Lithophragma.
(%   Nat.)  Brassicaceae
u i
rarely 3 or 4, soon falling off; petals 4-6 or
rarely more, folded together, often wrinkled;
stamens numerous.
Capnodes
aureum
(Willd.)
Kuntze.
Golden
Corydalis
Smooth, 4-12 inches long, diffusely branching. Leaves all
but the uppermost petioled,
finely cut into oblong-obovate
or wedge-shaped segments.
Flowers numerous in an oblong
head, bright golden yellow, nearly half an
inch long; spur \ the length of the body of
the corolla, outer petals keeled, not crested;-
pods spreading or pendulose, torulose; seeds
obtuse, margined, shining, obscurely ridged.
Frequent throughout the Rockies in open
ground at the lower altitudes where it has
been recently burned or cleared; flowering
during most of the summer.
Brassicaceae
Mustard Family
Herbs, rarely somewhat woody, with watery acrid juice, alternate leaves and racemose 1
■I' ill!
1
1
112
Brassicaceae
or corymbose white, yellow, or pink flowers;
sepals and petals 4; stamens 6, rarely fewer;
pistil 1, consisting of 2 united carpels.
Pods short; silicles.
Pod compressed parallel to the partition.      Draba.
Pod compressed contrary to the partition,  ovate;
flowers white. Thlaspi.
Pod inflated, obcordate; flowers yellow.     Physaria.
Pods elongated; siliques.
Pod compressed parallel to the partition.
Valves nerveless; flowers white. Cardamine.
Valves i-nerved; flowers white or pink.      Arabis.
Pods terete, not at all compressed.
Pods ij inches long br more.
Flowers yellow, stigma 2-lobed. Erysimum.
Pods less than i£ inches long.
Leaves grey with fine hairs; flowers white.
Smelowskia.
Leaves not grey-hairy; flowers.yellow or white.
Pubescence of simple hairs. Sisymbrium.
Pubescence of forked hairs.
Leaves pinnate or pinnatifid ; flowers yellow.
Sophia.
Leaves entire or nearly so; flowers white.
Braya.
Smooth throughout.
Leaves pinnate or pinnatifid; flowers white.
Roripa.
Caudexmuch branched, branches
short     and      slender.     Leaves
strongly keeled, J—§ of an inch
long, more or less loosely stellate-pubescent,
Draba
glacialis
Adams. .ȣ  Brassicaceae
"3
sometimes ciliate at the base. Scapes slender, J-6 inches high, hairy or nearly smooth;
racemes few-flowered; sepals with a few
long hairs or smooth petals § of an inch
long, pale yellow, darker at the base; pod
J of an inch or more long, narrowly
oblong, acute at both ends, on pedicels j of
an inch or more long; style distinct.
In dry, exposed stony places throughout
the Rockies, flowering in early spring.
Draba Stems much branched from the
oligosperma root, densely tufted at the base.
Hook. Leaves   erect,    linear,    obtuse,
tapering to the base, stiff, ciliate, with stellate hairs on both sides, especially toward
the apex. Scapes naked; flowers racemose;
calyx smooth or with scattered hairs, petals
white or pale yellow, obovate, J of an inch
or more long, pods short, nearly orbicular,
acute at the apex, more or less rounded at
the base, sparingly short-hairy, J of an inch
long; style J its length.
Alpine summits and dry ridges throughout 9
H4
Brassicaceae
the Rockies; flowering in May   and June.
Draba
andina
(Nutt.)
A. Nelson
Densely csespitose. Leaves linear-oblong, obtuse, J of an inch
long or' less, stiff and rigid,
densely imbricated, forming numerous small rosettes: stellate-pubescent on
both sides. Scapes slender, 1-2 inches high,
few-flowered, petals pale yellow or white, J
of an inch long; twice as long as the hairy
calyx; pods J of an inch or less long with
short stiff hairs.
On exposed rocks and alpine summits
throughout the Rockies, frequent in the
vicinity of Banff, flowering in May and June.
Caudex with numerous slender
matted branches. Leaves in
dense tufts, oblanceolate, acutish
with a rather stout mid-nerve,
entire, white-hairy, with dense
stellate pubescence, not at all ciliate or
slightly so near the base, J of an inch long
or less.    Scapes slender, hairy,  1-3 inches
Draba
nivalis
Liljb.
Arctic Whitlow-grass. +3
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high, calyx hairy; flowers J of an inch high,
the white petals slightly exceeding the
calyx; pods few, usually smooth, oblong,
acute at each end, J of an inch or less long
on short pedicels and with a short stout style
and 2-lobed stigma.
On alpine summits and exposed ledges
throughout the Rockies; flowering in June.
Draba Ion- Similar to the preceding species
chocarpa but with the leaves obtuse;
Rydb. pods J-f of an inch long, smooth,
very narrow and usually more or less twisted,
on slender pedicels 9H an inch long.
In moist or shaded ground, on alpine
summits or on ledges, throughout the
Rockies; flowering in June.
Pubescent throughout with short
stellate hairs; stems rather stout,
erect, frequently several from
the same root; leafy, 2-15 inches
high. Leaves entire or few-
toothed,  oblanceolate   or  lanceolate,   stem
Draba aurea
Vahl.
Golden
Whitlow-
grass. n6
Brassicaceae
leaves usually narrowed and frequently
ciliate at the base, J-2 inches long. Flowers
bright yellow in an elongated leafy raceme;
calyx smooth or somewhat hairy; petals
elliptic, less than J of an inch long; pods
lanceolate to linear, acute, hairy, often
twisted, III an inch long on peduncles half
their length.
Frequent in dry open ground at the lower
altitudes throughout the Rockies; flowering
in June.
Draba in
cana L.
Hoary
Whitlow-
grass.
Erect, simple, or somewhat
branched, leafy, stellate-pubescent throughout, 6-12 inches
high. Leaves lanceolate, oblan-
ceolate or ovate, J-i inch long,
acute or obtuse, dentate or nearly entire;
flowers white, I of an inch or less broad; petals
notched, twice as long as the sepals; pod
oblong or lanceolate, acute J-J an inch long
on nearly erect pedicels about J their length.
Throughout the region in moist ravines;
flowering during June. o3
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117
Other species of Draba occur in the region
but being neither common nor striking it is
deemed   Out   of   place   to   describe    them
here.
Thlasni Decumbent or erect, 6-12 inches
arvense L. high, simple or much branched
Penny-cress, above. Leaves spatulate or
oblong, obtuse, obtusely- or runcinately-
toothed or angled. Flowers small, white,
in a compact head; pods large, J an inch
broad, orbicular or nearly so, strongly winged
and compressed.
In moist low ground  and  waste  places
throughout the .Rockies, flowering in June.
Densely stellate, canescent, pale
green, root long and deep. Stems
decumbent or ascending, slender,
simple, 3-12 inches long. Leaves
spatulate, the basal ones obtuse, entire or few lobed, narrowed into margined petioles;
stem  leaves   nearly   sessile,    acute,    much
Physaria
didymo-
carpa
(Hook.)
A. Gray.
Double
Bladder-
pod. u8
Brassicaceae
smaller. Flowers about J an inch broad,
light yellow in a close raceme, 2—5 inches
long in fruit; pods much inflated and variable, often J an inch thick.
In dry clayey and stony soil and on slopes
throughout the Rockies; flowering in June.
Cardamine
pennsylva-
nica Muhl.
Pennsylvania
Bitter-
cress.
Smooth or rarely with a few
scattered hairs; stems erect,
stout or slender, 8 inches to 3
feet high, usually much branched,
somewhat succulent, leafy up
to the racemes. Basal leaves
2-6 inches long, the terminal
leaflet obovate, ovate or obcordate, usually
narrowed at the base, £—f of an inch wide,
the lateral 4-8 pairs oblong,* oval or obovate,
all toothed or some of them entire. Flowers
about I of an inch broad, white; pods very
narrowly linear, J-iJ inches long, erect when
mature on ascending pedicels.
In wet shaded places, sparingly throughout the region; flowering during June and
J«iy-   * ' * Brassicaceae
119
A   b'    h'r-   Steni erect,  nearly simple,  1-2
suta (L.) feet high, roughly hairy or nearly
Scop. Hairy smooth. Basal leaves on mar-
Rock-cress. g{nec\ petioles forming a rosette,
obovate or spatulate, obtuse, denticulate,
1-2 inches long; stem leaves sessile, clasping
by an auriculate base, lanceolate or oblong.
Flowers J of an inch or less long, white, in
a strict, elongated raceme; pods narrowly
linear, erect or appressed, 1-2 inches long.
In open grounds throughout the Rockies
at the lower altitudes; flowering in June.
Finely stellately pubescent
throughout; stems frequently
several, simple or branched, erect
J-2J feet high. Root leaves
narrowly oblanceolate, entire, an
inch or less long; stem leaves linear-lanceolate to narrowly oblong, acute, sagittate.
Flowers rosy pink or rarely white, becoming
more or less reflexed, J of an inch long; pods
more or less abruptly reflexed, straight or
somewhat curved iJ-2§ inches long, very
narrowly linear.
Arabis  Hoi
boldti
Hornem.
Stony
Rock-cress. 120
Brassicaceae
On banks and stony slopes throughout
the Rockies; flowering in June.
Arabis
Drummondii
A. Gray.
Drum-
mond's
Rock-cress.
Slightly glaucous, stems erect;
1-2 feet high. Root leaves
narrowly oblanceolate more or
less hairy; the stem leaves
oblong or linear-lanceolate, 1-2
inches long. Flowers white or
pinkish, \ of an inch long in a close panicle,
elongated in fruit; pods erect when mature,
slender, 1J-3 inches long, obtuse.
In open ground and on slopes throughout
the Rockies, flowering in June.
Arabia
Lyallii
S. Wats.
LyalVs
Rock-cress.
Low, smooth, throughout, or
sometimes more or less Stella i:e-
pubescent below; stem simple,
several, or many from the same
root. Lower leaves spatulate
or linear-oblanceolate, usually J-i inch long,
sometimes longer; stem leaves narrowly
lanceolate or oblong, sometimes scarcely
auricled.   Flowers rose-colour, | of an inch Brassicaceae
121
long; pods erect or ascending, very slender,
straight or nearly so, 1-2 inches long.
Alpine meadows and slopes at the higher
elevations throughout the Rockies, flowering
in June and July.
Erysimum
incon-
spicuum
(S. Wats.)
MacM.
Treacle
Mustard.
Erect, 10-18 inches high, cinereous and rough with 2-parted hairs.
Leaves narrowly linear-lanceolate or oblong-linear, mostly
entire, the root leaves crowded
and sometimes repand dentate.
Flowers sulphur yellow in a
compact head, elongated in fruit; calyx cam-
panulate, \ inch high, petals f longer, the
blades spreading; pods slender, erect or nearly
so at maturity, 1-2 inches long.
In gravelly places, common on the eastern
slopes of the Rockies at the lower elevations,
flowering in June.
Smelowskia
calycina
(Desv.)
C. A. Meyer.
Smelowskia.
Very variable in foliage, finely
stellate-pubescent and usually
cinereous-villous with larger single hairs; caudex stout, branched.
1 122
Brassicaceae
Leaves soft in texture, usually deeply pinnatifid with 2-several pairs of linear to
obovate, obtuse segments. Stems several,
1-6 inches high, racemes at first dense
and corymbose, becoming elongated in fruit.
Flowers white with exserted broad rounded
petals J of an inch or more long; pods
usually lanceolate, tapering to each end.
On alpine summits through the Rockies;
not common; flowering in June and July.
Sisymbrium
altissimum
L.  Tall
Hedge
Mustard.
Erect, 2-4 feet high,freely branching, smooth or nearly so. Lower
leaves runcinate-pinnatifid, petioled, the lobes lanceolate, often
auriculate; upper leaves smaller,
short petioled, or usually sessile, very deeply
pinnatifid, the lobes linear or lanceolate,
dentate or entire, the uppermost often reduced to linear, entire bracts. Flowers pale
yellow, J of an inch broad on slender spreading pedicels, pods very narrowly linear, .
divergent, 2-4 inches long.
At the lower elevations throughout the Brassicaceae
123
region as a weed, especially on the line of the
railway, flowering in July.
Sophia
intermedia
Rydb.
Western
Tansy-
Mustard.
Stems 1-2 feet high, sparingly
greyish-puberulent, especially below, or sometimes nearly smooth,
often glandular above; hairs
more or less stellate. Leaves
twice or thrice-pinnatifid, the
primary divisions oblanceolate or obovate,
divided to near the midrib into linear or
linear-oblong segments, sparingly puberulent.
Raceme rather long, flowers small, less than
J of an inch high; petals yellow; peduncles
diverging sometimes nearly at right angles;
pod  club-shaped.
Common throughout the Rockies in open
places at the lower altitudes, flowering in
June and July.
Braya
humilis
(Meyer)
Robinson.
Northern
Rock-cress.
Erect 4-10 inches high, branching below, sparingly hairy.
Leaves spatulate or oblanceolate, the lower obtuse, 1-2 inches
long, narrowed   into a   petiole, 124
Brassicaceae
sharply dentate or rarely entire, the upper
smaller, narrower, often acute. Flowers
white or pink J of an inch or more broad,
pedicels erect, J of an inch long in fruit;
pods nearly terete, narrowly linear, §-§
of an inch long, valves finely nerved.
In moist gravelly or stony ground throughout the Rockies at the lower altitudes,
flowering in June.
Aquatic, smooth, branched, float-
Roripa
Nasturtium     ing  or creeping,   rooting   from
(L.) Rusby. the joints. Leaves odd pinnate
Water-cress. Qf ^-g segments, the terminal
one larger j than the lateral, all obtuse,
ovate or oval or the terminal one nearly orbicular Racemes elongated in fruit;
flowers white, J of an inch or more broad; pod
J-iJ inches long, spreading and slightly
curved upwards, on pedicels of about their
length.
In ditches and shallow pools through
the Rockies, especially abundant at
Banff in the   warm  water   at   the    outlet Crassulaceae
125
from   the  Basin;   flowering   through June
and July.
Crassulace^
Stone-Crop Family
Fleshy smooth herbs with alternate leaves,
and perfect flowers in terminal, oftentimes
1-sided cymes. Calyx 4-5-lobed; petals 4-5,
distinct, stamens twice as many as the petals;
carpels 4-5, styles short.
Sedum
stenopet-
alum Pursh.
Narrow
Petaled
Stone-crop.
Perennial, tufted, smooth, flowering branches 3-7 inches long.
Leaves alternate, crowded, sessile,
linear |-J an inch long, entire.
Flowers bright yellow, nearly
half an inch broad in a 5-7- forked, compact
cyme, petals narrowly lanceolate, very
acute.
Common throughout the Rockies in moist,
gravelly or sandy soil, on river shores, and
on  rocky  slopes,   flowering  in   June    and
July.
1:1 126 Parnassiaceae
PARNASSIACEiE
Grass-of-Parnassus Family
Smooth bog-herbs with a rosette of basal
leaves and generally one or a few alternate
stem leaves and solitary, terminal flowers.
Flowers perfect; calyx generally 5-lobed to
near the base; petals 5; perfect stamens 5;
staminodia (imperfect stamens) in clusters
at the base of each petal; stigmas 4.
Parnassia
fimbriata
Banks.
Fringed
Grass-of-
Parnassus.
Leaves tufted at the base on
petioles 2-6 inches long; blades
reniform or broadly cordate,
f-J an inch wide, thin, smooth,
with about 7 principal veins.
Flowers § of an inch or more
broad on a scape 8-12 inches high with a
small cordate clasping, bract about the middle ; sepals \ of an inch long, elliptic, obtuse;
petals obovate, pure white, fringed at the
base, staminodia united into 5 fleshy
obovate scales.
Common throughout the region in springy u
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127
places and damp mossy banks at the lower
altitudes, flowering during July.
Parnassia
montanensis
Rydb.    and
Fernald.
Marsh
Grass-of-
Parnassus.
Leaves tufted at the base on
short petioles, blades ovate with
a cordate or rounded base f of
an inch long. Flowers solitary,
on scapes 8 inches or more high
with a large ovate bract below
the middle; sepals lanceolate, acute, | of an
inch or more long, petals oval to elliptic only
slightly larger than the sepals; staminodial
scales with 7-9 gland-tipped filaments.
Throughout the Rockies in marshy ground
and shaded river shores; flowering in June
and early July.
Scapes slender, 4-12 inches high,
usually bearing a clasping oval
leaf at the middle. Basal leaves
on slender petioles, oval or ovate,
narrowed at the base, not cordate, J-i inch long. Flowers
about i of an inch broad, sepals equalling or
somewhat   shorter than the elliptic sessile
Parnassia
parviflora
DC. Small
flowered
Grass-of-
Parnassus. 128
Saxifragaceae
petals; staminodia 5-7 at the base of each
petal.
In wet gravelly places at the lower altitudes
throughout the Rockies; flowering in July.
Parnassia
Kotzebuei
Cham, and
Schl.
Alpine
Grass-of-
Parnassus.
Much   smaller   than   the   preceding   species.      Basal   leaves
few on petioles less than an inch
long; blades broadly ovate, J an
inch long.    Flowers on slender
scapes 2-4 inches high, without
any bract; sepals oblong, about
J of an inch long, equalling or exceeding the
elliptic or oval 3-veined petals; staminodia
short with 3-5 slender filaments.
Throughout the Rockies at high altitudes
on the gravelly borders of alpine ponds or
brooks, a very diminutive species, flowering
in July.
Saxifragaceae
Saxifrage Family
Stemmed or stemless herbs with alternate
or sometimes opposite or more frequently Saxifragaceae
129
+
basal leaves; flowers perfect, racemose,
cymose or paniculate; calyx 5-lobed or parted;
petals 4 or 5, white, yellow or greenish or
sometimes rose-coloured; stamens equal or
twice the number of the petals; carpels 1-
several, distinct or united.
Placentas parietal.
Flowers solitary and axillary; sepals 4; stamens 4-8.
Chr y sosplenium.
Flowers in more or less elongated racemes.
Flowers with 2 or 3 equal carpels.
Flower-stalk axial from a bulbiferous rootstock.
Lithophragma.
Flower-stalk a lateral shoot from a stout scaly
rootstock.
*
Inflorescence racemose.
Petals pinnately cut or pinnatifid.
Base of the calyx campanulate deeper
than the length of the sepals.
Tellima
'        Base of the calyx saucer-shaped,  shallower than the length of the sepals.
Ovary more than half superior; disc
inconspicuous. Mitella.
Ovary wholly  inferior,   covered  with
the   prominent   disc.        Pectiantia.
Inflorescence paniculate. Heuchera.
Flowers with 2 very unequal carpels.
Tiarella.
Placentae axial.
Base of the calyx well developed, at maturity longer
than the sepals. 130 Saxifragaceae
Stamens   5,   plant   with   short   bulblet   bearing
rootstock. Hemieva.
Stamens 10.
Plants without caudices; only producing annual
flowering stems. Saxifraga.
Plants with perennial leafy caudices, often with
offsets. Muse aria.
Base of the calyx only slightly developed, unchanged
at maturity.
Leaves alternate, sometimes all basal.
Plants stemless.
Corolla regular, petals about equal in shape
and length. Micranthes.
Corolla irregular petals of different shape and
length. Spatularia.
Plants with stems.
Carpels distinct; leaf-blades toothed.
Leptarrhena.
Carpels partially united; leaf-blades entire.
Leptasea.
Leaves opposite except sometimes on the flower-
stalks. Antiphylla.
Perennial with a slender creeping
rootstock; stems i§-6 inches
high, branched above. Leaves alternate, the lower ones on petioles
1-2 inches long; blades thick,
reniform, J an inch or less wide,
crenate with 3-5 broad teeth, shining above,
paler beneath, upper ones larger and more
Chrysos-
plenium
tetrandrum
Th. Fries.
Golden
Saxifrage. Saxifragaceae
13*
or less wedge-shaped. Flowers in small
clusters in the axils of the upper leaves;
sepals 4; stamens 4 opposite the sepals.
- In shaded damp ground in the wooded
areas through the Rockies at an elevation of
rooo to 6000 feet, where it often forms dense
green carpets, the inconspicuous little flowers
coming into blossom in June.
Lithophragma
parviflora
(Hook.)
Nutt.
Lithophragma.
Stems 4-12 inches high, slightly
glandular-hairy, from a slender
creeping rootstock with rosy
bulblets. Leaves palmately
divided to the base into 3-5
divisions, J-i inch long, twice
ternately cleft into oblong or
linear divisions; lower ones on petioles 1-2
inches long; stem leaves 1 or 2 similar,
sessile. Flowers 3-8 in a slender raceme,
base of the calyx and sepals J of an inch
long; petals pure white, deeply 3-5 cut into
narrowly oblong divisions.
On   grassy   slopes   and  gravelly   places
throughout the Rockies; flowering in June. J32
Saxifragaceae
T3llima
grandiflora
(Pursh.)
Dougl.
Tellima.
Flowering branches 1-2 feet high,
with long rough hairs, glandular
above. Leaves reniform or cordate, sparingly rough-hairy,
round lobed, and toothed with
broadly ovate teeth; 1^-4 inches broad on
hairy petioles 4-8 inches long; stem leaves
short-petioled with well-developed stipules.
Flowers numerous in an elongated raceme;
sepals ovate J of an inch long; petals white,
purplish or pink with a pinnately cut blade;
claws broadly wedge-shaped, § of an inch
long, erect, blade spreading or reflexed with
a rounded ovate body and tapering threadlike lobes.
Moist woods  and  crevices in the rocks,
abundant in the Selkirks; flowering in June.
Perennial,     from     a      slender
Mitella nuda
L Naked branched rootstock, producing
Bishop's- long runners in late summer;
Cap. flowering    branches    scape-like,
naked, or rarely with a small leaf, 2-8 inches
high,   sparingly   hairy.      Leaves   reniform >
X
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Ph ■■■Ill——111.11 ■ Saxifragaceae
i33
f-2 inches in diameter, rounded, crenate or
lobed, on petioles 1-3 inches long. Flowers
few, in a loose raceme, saucer-shaped: calyx
about J of an inch broad, greenish-yellow;
petals spreading about twice as long as
the sepals, greenish-yellow, pinnately divided
into thread-like divisions, resembling snow
crystals in form.
Common- in the cool woods and shaded
mossy bogs throughout the Rockies; flowering in June.
Pectiantia
pentandra
(Hook.)
Rydb.
Mitrewort.
Flowering branches scape-like,
4-12 inches high, naked. Leaves
broadly crenate with 9-11 more
or less distinct round lobes,
thin, 1-2J inches broad on petioles, 2-4 inches long. Flowers J of an inch
broad in a slender loose raceme, green or
often purplish inside; sepals broadly triangular-ovate, obtuse, and recurved; petals
yellowish, deeply cut into slender threadlike divisions, twice as long as the calyx;
stamens 5, opposite the petals. Saxifragaceae
Throughout the region in cool woods and
shaded springy spots; flowering in early
June at the higher altitudes.
Flowering branches 4-8 inches
high, leafless. Leaves thin,
broadly reniform with many
shallow rounded lobes; petioles
2-4 inches long.    Flowers in a
loose raceme,  green,  occasionally in  pairs;
calyx J of an inch wide; sepals obtuse and
reflexed; petals deeply cut into thread-like
divisions about twice as long as the sepals;
stamens 5, opposite the sepals.
In  damp  woods throughout the region,
growing with the previous species; flowering
in early June.
Flowering stems slender, 4.-20
inches high, smooth, 1-3-leaved.
Basal leaves on petioles, 2-8
inches long, cordate, deeply 5-7-
lobed, thin, shining, 1-4 inches
broad and as long or slightly longer, lobes Saxifragaceae
i35
triangular-ovate, acute, doubly and sharply
serrate. Flowers in a loose panicle 2-6 inches
long; calyx with the turbinate base about
I of an inch long, sparingly fringed with hairs ;
petals white, broadly spatulate, acute, about
twice as long as the sepals; stamens much
exserted, with scarlet .and orange anthers.
On damp shaded rocks, especially abundant in the Selkirks in the vicinity of Glacier.
Heuchera
ovalifolia
Nutt.
Round-
leaved
Alum-root
Flowering branches naked,
densely glandular-hairy, 1-2
feet high. Leaves round-oval, J-
1J inches broad, j—2 inches long,
rounded, slightly heart-shaped
at the base, round-lobed and
crenate with bristle-tipped teeth. Flowers
in a short dense raceme less than 4 inches
long, the deeply campanulate, yellowish,
densely hairy base of the calyx, with the
broadly oblong sepals \ of an inch long,
petals usually wanting.
On dry rocky banks and hillsides throughout the region, flowering in midsummer. Tiarella
unifoliata
Hook.
Foam
Flower.
Saxifragaceae
Flowering branches 6-15 inches
high, 1-4-leaved.   Leaves broadly   cordate,  coarsely  3-5-lobed
with broadly ovate-acute lobes,
doubly crenate with mucronate
teeth; stem leaves   short-petioled, basal, on
petioles 2-6 inches long:   Flowers in a narrow
panicle; sepals whitish ovate-oblong, -^ of an
inch long, the  linear-subulate, white petals
land stamens fully three times as long; carpels oblong-acute,   nearly half an inch long
in fruit.
Abundant in damp rich woods throughout
the region often-times carpeting the ground;
flowering in June,
Light yellowish-green; stems 8-
10 inches high from a rosy-
bulbous rootstock. Leaves ter-
nately divided to the base, the
middle division broadly wedge-
shaped, J-i inch long, rounded,
3-lobed, the lateral ones oblique and 4-lobed;
basal, on   petioles    2-4   inches  long,   stem
Hemieva
ranunculi
folia
(Hook.)
Raf.
Hemieva. as
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37
leaves on short petioles dilated at the base,
the uppermost sessile, merely 3-lobed at the
apex. Flowers showy in a short dense
corymb; the base of the calyx and sepals
yellowish-green about J of an inch long;
petals white or yellowish, broadly spatulate,
J of an inch long; stamens 5, opposite the
sepals, filaments and carpels more or less
rosy in colour.
On wet rocky slopes in the Selkirks at
Glacier, not common; flowering in June.
Saxifraga
rivularis L
Alpine-
Brook
Saxifrage.
Stems 1-3J inches tall, tufted,
smooth or finely glandular-
hairy. Leaves reniform in outline, J-§ an inch broad, thick,
mainly 3-lobed, those of the
stem sometimes entire, short petioled or
sessile; basal leaves on slender petioles an
inch or more long. Flowers small, base of
the calyx and sepals J of an inch long; petals
oblong, or broadly wedge-shaped, white,
slightly larger than the sepals.
An inconspicuous little plant growing on
jy 138
Saxifragaceae
wet rocks and beside alpine brooks at high
altitudes throughout the region; flowering
during midsummer.
Saxifraga
cernua L.
Nodding
Bulbous
Saxifrage.
Stems   3-8   inehes   tall,   leafy,
somewhat     glandular-hairy,
growing in groups.   Leaves reniform in outline f-i inch wide;
the basal and lower stem-leaves
long-petioled   prominently,  3-7   lobed,   the
lobes   linear   to   triangular-lanceolate;   the
upper stem leaves, 3-5-lobed.   Flowers represented by clusters of rosy bulblets,   except
a single terminal one with the base of the
calyx and sepals J of an inch long, and wedge-
shaped, the clawless white petals nearly half
an inch long.
A rather striking alpine plant growing
on wet rocks at Lake Louise and Moraine
Lake; flowering in midsummer.
Muscaria
adscendens
(L.) Small.
Muscaria.
Somewhat glandular-hairy, 1-4
inches tall. Leaves \-\ of an
inch long, mainly wedge-shaped
or spatulate, 3-toothed or those ■II
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of the stem entire. Flower-stalks sparingly branched above or throughout;
sepals ovate or oblong-ovate -fa—§ of an
inch long, acute or obtuse; petals white,
wedge-shaped to oblong wedge-shaped, a
third longer than the sepals, the claws
slender or stout.
An alpine species with rosettes of basal
leaves, not infrequent throughout the
Rockies, along streams, and on shaded
rocks;   flowering  in  midsummer.
Glandular-hairy, 2-6 inches tail..
Leaves crowded at the base,
sometimes densely so; blades
J—§ of an inch long, 3-lobed at
the apex, the lobes lanceolate
Flower-stalks stout, 3-few-
flowered, each bearing 2—3 leaves, base of
the calyx J to T3^ of an inch high, turbinate at the base, sepals ovate to ovate-
lanceolate, -t\~i of an inch long; petals
white, narrowly obovate or oblojig-ovate, \ of
Muscaria
caespitosa
(L.) Haw.
Tufted
Saxifrage.
or   linear
I
I 140
Saxifragaceae
an inch or more long, rounded at the apex.
An alpine species growing on moist, shaded
rocks throughout the Rockies, frequent, often
forming tufts of considerable size; flowering
in. June.
Micranthes
rhomboidea
(Greene)
Small.
Alpine
Saxifrage.
Leaves forming a rosette, spreading or ascending {-2 inches long,
ovoid or rhombic-ovoid, obtuse,
crenulate or dentate-serrate,
nearly smooth except the ciliate
margins, mainly green, sometimes purplish beneath, abruptly or gradually narrowed into petiole-like bases, which
are occasionally larger than the blades.
Flowers in a compact terminal head on a
copiously glandular, naked scape 3-10 inches
high; sepals ovate to triangular ^-J of an
inch long barely if at all ciiiate, 3-veined;
petals .white, obovate or oblong-ovate, twice
as long as the sepals, notched at the apex,
seed pods green or purplish, the points
spreading.
A frequent alpine plant in the more or   Saxifragaceae
141
less moist, shaded situations throughout the
Rockies; flowering in July.
Micranthes
Lyallii
(Engler)
Small.
Lyall's
Saxifrage.
Leaves erect or ascending J—2 J
inches long, fan-shaped varying
to suborbicular, typically wedge-
shaped at the base, coarsely
few-toothed above with the teeth
mainly directed forward, smooth
or nearly so, the petiole-like bases often
longer than the blades. Flowering stems
3-24 inches tall, smooth or nearly so, sparingly branched above, commonly purple,
few-flowered; petals white with 2 yellow
blotches below the middle, broadly oblong
or suborbicular, often slightly notched at
the apex, twice as long as the sepals, often
tinged and streaked with red on the outside;
seed pods nearly \ an inch high, purple or
purple-tinged, usually 3 or 4 together, with
pointed beaks.
An alpine form frequent throughout the
region in damp, shady, or open places and
along  the  borders   of  mountain   streams; I42~
Saxifragaceae
a rather striking plant,  flowering in July.
Micranthes
Nelsoniana
(D. Don.)
Small.
Nelson's
Saxifrage.
Leaves erect or ascending, 1-5
inches long, suborbicular or
reniform, f—if inches in diameter, deeply cordate at the base,
usually sparingly hairy on both
sides, coarsely few-toothed with
crenate, gland-tipped teeth. Flower-stem
erect, ij—7 inches tall, glandular-villous,
especially above, terminating in a compact
head usually with purple or purplish bracts;
sepals ovate or oblong-ovate J-| of an inch
long, ciliate; petals white, broadly oblong
to ovate, twice as long as the sepals.
A rather rare though very beautiful alpine flower found throughout the region in
moist places and along alpine brooks; flowering in June.
Spatularia Copiously glandular-hairy, 4-15
Brunoniana inches tall. Leaves crowded on
Bong. Tall the short rootstock, spatulate
axvjrage. ^ oblanceolate-spatulate, 1-3
inches long, sharply and sometimes broadly m
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143
toothed, mostly above the middle, i Flower-
stems solitary or several together, widely
branching, bracts much smaller than the
leaves; flowers terminating the stem, branches,
and branchlets, but on many of the ultimate
branchlets represented by clusters of green
bulblets; sepals oblong-ovate to triangular-
ovate, J of an inch or less long, purple,
reflexed; petals white, J of an inch long or
less, the three upper with lanceolate or
oblong-lanceolate blades; two lower with
elliptic or spatulate-elliptic blades; seed pods
J of an inch long with diverging tips.
The commonest form in the Selkirks,
everywhere along streams and banks.
Caudex horizontal or ascending,
clothed with folded leaf bases.
Leaves leathery, oblong, or sometimes slightly broadest above or
below the middle, 1J-3J inches
long, obtuse, serrate or crenate-serrate, deep
green and lustrous above, paler beneath, narrowed into winged petiole-like bases. Flower-
Leptarrhena
pyrolifolia
(D. Don.)
R. Br.
Leptarrhena. 144
Saxifragaceae
stalks 4-18 inches high, bearing 1 or 2 clasping leaves; flowers small and inconspicuous,
at first congested in a compact head, becoming separated; sepals ovate, about as long as
the base of the calyx, each with a terminal
gland and usually some lateral glands; petals
narrowly spatulate, white, | of an inch
long; seed pods J of an inch long with slightly
spreading tips; purplish.
Along alpine streams and in damp shaded
places, rather abundant throughout the
region at the higher altitudes ; flowering in
June.
Leptasea
Van-Brun-
tise Small.
Fleshy
Saxifrage.
Stems decumbent. Leaves J-J
of an inch long, the blades very
thick, flattish, smooth, ciliate
on j the margins, spine-tipped.
Flowers 1-several on stalks, ij-
3 inches tall, finely glandular-hairy, leafy,
bearing larger leaves than the decumbent
stems; sepals ovate to oblong ovate, J of an
inch long, smooth, more or less eroded at
the apex; petals deep yellow, oblong, much Saxifragaceae
i45
longer than the calyx; seed pods J of an inch
or more long.
A common species throughout the Rockies,
forming mats on the wet gravel and sand of
the shores and flood-plains of the rivers and
torrent fans at the bases of the moraines;
flowering throughout June and July.
Leptasea
austromon-
tana (Wie-
gand)
Small.
Common
Saxifrage.
Leaves of the caudices J an inch
or less, long, stiff and crowded,
but more or less spreading, the
blades narrowly lanceolate to
subulate, ciliate, slender, spine-
tipped.
Flower-stalks
inches tall, nearly smooth or
finely glandular-hairy, bearing several
leaves which are smaller than those of the
caudices; sepals ovate, sometimes rather
narrowly so, J of an inch long, smooth
or sparingly ciliate, obtuse; petals white,
usually yellow-spotted, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, £ of an inch or more long, filaments
slender; seed pods often nearly J an inch long.
Common    everywhere    throughout    the 146
Grossulariaceae
Rockies at the lower altitudes on bare rocks
and stony slopes, frequently forming mats a
foot or more across; flowering in June.
Antiphylla
oppositi-
folia (L.)
Fourr.
Purple-
Saxifrage.
Plants in dense mats, leaves
densely folded together except
on the flower-stalks and sometimes on the elongated stems,
4-ranked, the blades obovate to
spatulate, J of an inch long,
ciliate, keeled. Flower-stalks J-i inch long
or sometimes shorter when young, leafy;
sepals oblong to ovate, J of an inch long,
ciliate all around; petals lilac or purple, elliptic or oval, showy, -J- of an inch long, each
narrowed into a stout claw.
Usually a high alpine species and not
infrequently forming mats of considerable
size; throughout the region, flowering in July.
GROSSULARIACEi®
Gooseberry Family
Shrubs, usually with lobed, petioled leaves
and   racemose   or   subsolitary   axillary   or Grossulariaceae
147
lateral flowers, the pedicels bracteolate;
calyx tube attached to the ovary, the limb
4-5N-lobed, often coloured; petals, 4-5, inserted on the throat of the calyx, small,
scale-like, often included; stamens 4-5, inserted with the petals; berry globose or
ovoid, pulpy, the calyx persistent on its
summit.
Ribes lacus
tre (Pers.)
Poir.
Swamp
Gooseberry.
Stems prostrate or ascending,
3-4 feet long, very prickly when
young, spines slender and weak,
generally clustered. Leaves
nearly orbicular, thin, smooth or
hairy along the veins beneath, deeply 5-7
lobed, 1-2 inches broad, the lobes acutish,
incised-dentate. Flowers in racemes of 5-9;
calyx rotate, J of an inch broad, spreading,
green or purplish; petals exceeding the
calyx; ovary glandular-hispid; berry black.
A very abundant gooseberry throughout
the region in cool damp woods and bogs
at the lower elevations; flowering in
June.
: 148
Gross ulariaceae
I
Ribes seto- Stems erect, 3-4 feet high, with
sum Lindl. numerous stout bristles, es-
BHstly pecially   on   the   young   wood;
oose erry. axillary spines 1-3 together,
rather stout and spreading. Leaves slender-
petioled, more or less finely hairy, at least
when young, J-i inch wide, broadly ovate
or orbicular, 3-5-lobed, the lobes incised or
coarsely toothed. Flowers 2-3, J—J an inch
long on very short pedicels; calyx tube
cylindric, greenish-white or pinkish; petals
white; berries small, purple or blue and very
sour.
Frequent throughout the Rockies on lake
shores and in thickets at the lower altitudes;
flowering in June.
Ribes oxya- sPines generally solitary, light-
canthoides coloured, J-| of an inch long;
L. Northern prickles commonly wanting.
uuo.-,(c rry. Leaves petioled, roundish, sub-
cordate and 5-lobed, hairy or nearly smooth,
the lobes deeply toothed or crenate. Flowers
greenish-purple or white, little more  than Grossulariaceae
149
\ of an inch long; berry half an inch in
diameter, smooth, reddish-purple and sweet
when ripe.
Throughout the Rockies at the lower
elevations, in open ground and on stony
hillsides; flowering in June; fruit ripening
"in July.
Ribes
Howellii
Greene.
Howell's
Currant.
Stems ascending, crowded, 2-5
feet high, without spines.
Leaves triangular, 2-3 inches in
diameter, cordate at the base,
deeply 5-lobed, the acute lobes
doubly serrate, smooth above, often resinous-
dotted beneath, petiole as long as or longer
than the blade. Flowers -J- of an inch broad
in a loose raceme, bracts linear, about -^ of
an inch long, much shorter than the slender,
glandular pedicels; calyx rotate with broad
spatulate lobes; petals red, narrowly spatulate, shorter than the calyx lobes; berries red.
A rather showy plant with a pungent,
skunk-like odour when bruised, growing on
wet,   shaded  rocks  and  in   springy   places 1
i5o
Rosaceae
throughout the region, at the lower altitudes;
flowering in June.
Rosacea
Rose Family.
Herbs, shrubs, or trees with alternate
leaves and perfect flowers; calyx free or ad-
nate to the ovary, 5-9-lobed; petals equal
in number to the calyx lobes, distinct or
none; stamens usually numerous and distinct; fruit mostly follicles or achenes.
Carpels few; in fruit becoming 2-several sided.
Stamens united at the base; flowers racemose.
Lutkea.
Stamens not united at the base; flowers in panicles
or corymbs.
Shrubs with simple leaves, flowers perfect.
Spiraea.
Herbs with compound leaves; flowers dioecious.
Aruncus.
Carpels few or many; in fruit becoming achenes or
drupelets.
Fruit consisting of drupelets, usually united.  Rubus.
Fruit consisting of achenes.
Achenes enclosed in a fleshy fruit; prickly shrubs.
Rosa.
Achenes on a plane or concave receptacle; herbs.
Styles deciduous, naked. <a
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03  Rosaceae
151
Potentilla.
Dasyphora
Sibbaldia.
Styles terminal.
Styles lateral.
Carpels hairy; shrubs.
Carpels smooth; herbs.
Stamens 5; carpels 10—15.
Stamens 20; carpels numerous.
Leaves trifoliate; receptacle fleshy.
Fragaria.
Leaves pinnate, receptacle not fleshy.
Flowers dark purple. Comarum.
Flowers yellow.
Plant with stolons; flowers solitary.
Argentina.
Styles persistent, mostly plumose.
Calyx lobes and petals 8 or 9. Dryas.
Calyx lobes and petals 5.
Style jointed, upper part deciduous.
Geum.
Style not jointed, upper part plumose.
Sieversia.
Smooth, stems caespitose, very
leafy. Leaves trifoliate, persistent, leaflets deeply 2-4-lobed,
the lateral ones decumbent,
forming a broad petiole. Flowering stems 2-6 inches high with
a dense terminal raceme of- many white
flowers, about J of an inch broad; calyx
lobes ovate, acute; petals 5, obovate, exceed-
Lutkea
pectinata
(Pursh.)
Kuntze.
Cut-leaved
Lutkea. 152
Rosaceae
ing the calyx; stamens numerous, shorter
than the petals.
Frequent throughout the Selkirks, on
alpine slopes and beside streams at the higher
elevations; flowering in June.
Qv.fi Stem   2-4   feet   high,   reddish.
bpiraea ^ &   '
densiflora        Leaves ovate or elliptical,  ser-
Nutt.   Pink   rulate at the apex, entire below,
pira;a. narrowed at the base to a very
short petiole or the lowest sessile, dark green
on both sides, f-i inch long. Flowers small,
deep rose-colour in dense, round, leafy,
bracted corymbs, terminating the numerous
branches.
In moist, exposed, rocky places and on
slopes at the lower altitudes, frequent in the
Selkirks; flowering in June.
Stems erect, mostly simple, 1-2
feet high, from horizontal running rootstocks. Leaves, the
lower ones small, obovate; upper,
oval to oblong, 1—2 inches long,
often obscurely lobed  and   doubly   serrate
Spiraea
lucida
Dougl.
Birch-
leaved
Spiraea. •5*S3»??.&.«
W*m&L
<Jiii Ei!	 152
Rosaceae
ing the  calyx; stamens numerous, shorter
than the petals,
sequent   throughout   the   Selkirks,    on
alpine slopes and beside streams at the higher
elevations; flowering in June.
c.w„ Stem#2-4   feet   high,   reddish.
Spiraea ^ &
densiflora Leaves ovate or elliptical, ser-
Nutt. Pink rulate at the apex, entire below,
narrowed at the base to a very
short petiole or the lowest sessile, dark green
on both sides, f-i inch long. . Flowers small,
deep rose-colour in dense, round, leafy,
bracted corymbs, terminating the numerous
branches.
In moist, exposed, rocky places and on
slopes at the lower altitudes, frequent in the
Selkirks; flowering ir^June.
Spiraea
lucida
Dougt.
Birch-
leaved
Spiroea.
Stems erect, mostly simple, 1-2
feet high, from horizontal running rootstocks. Leaves, Jfthe
lower ones small, obovate; upper.
often obscurely lobed  and   doubly   serral m Rubus pedatus Smith. (% Nat.)
Creeping  Raspberry. ■^k^        JL^^ Rosaceae
J53
above the middle, smooth throughout, dark
green above, paler beneath. Flowers white
or tinged with pink in a large flat branching
terminal corymb.
Abundant throughout the region on hillsides and dry banks; flowering during July.
Aruncus
Aruncus (L.)
Karst.
Goafs-
Beard.
Smooth throughout, stem erect,
somewhat branched, 2-4 feet
high. Leaves long-petioled, 2-3
pinnate, leaflets 1-3 inches
long, ovate or lanceolate, thin,
acuminate or acute at the apex, rounded
or slightly heart-shaped at the base, doubly
serrate or incised. Flowers small, white, in
an elongated spike.
Frequent along   streams   throughout  the
Selkirks; flowering during June and July.
Stems slender, trailing, 1-3 feet
long, unarmed, rooting at the
nodes, pubescent. Leaves trifoliate, leaflets obovate, cuneate
at the base, f-i inch long incised, lateral leaflets often   parted to   the
Rubus
pedatus
Smith.
Creeping
Raspberry Rosaceae
base, smooth or sparingly hairy. Flowers
usually solitary, on long slender pedicels,
white or rosy, J of an inch or more broad;
sepals ovate-lanceolate, entire or incised,
exceeding the petals; berry of 1-6 large
red, juicy drupelets.
Frequent throughout the region in cold
damp woods, forming masses of considerable
size; flowering during June.
w , Stem low, herbaceous, unarmed,
Rubus
arcticusL. finelY hairY» 3~10 inches high,
Arctic sometimes leafless below. Leaves
Raspberry. 3-foliate, leaflets sessile or short-
stalked, rhombic-ovate or obovate, coarsely and unequally serrate or slightly
lobed, f-i inch long. Flowers solitary or
occasionally 2, slender-peduncled; petals
obovate, pink, £-1 inch long; sepals
acute, equalling or shorter than the petals,
reflexed; berry light red, fragrant and
edible.
In cold mossy thickets and swamps
throughout the region, the first flowers ap-
■    i-aaaMlMBMM Rosaceae
i55
pearing in May and early June when the
stems are but a few inches high, with the
leaves hardly unfolded; in midsummer it
frequently flowers again from branched
stems 8-10 inches high and appearing like
a different plant.
Rubus
Americanus
(Pers.)
Britton.
Dwarf
Raspberry.
Stems herbaceous, trailing or
ascending, unarmed, 6-18 inches
or more long, somewhat hairy.
Leaves petioled, 3-foliate or
rarely 5-foliate leaflets rhombic-
ovate, smooth or nearly so,
acute, the lateral ones mostly rounded,
terminal, wedge-shaped at the base, all
sharply serrate. Flowers 1-3 on a slender
glandular-hairy peduncle, J an inch or less
broad; petals 5-7, white, spatulate-oblong,
erect, rather longer than the acuminate
calyx lobes; fruit red-purple, half an inch
long.
In cold moist woods and swampy places
throughout the region; flowering in May and
June. 156
Rosaceae
Rubus
parviflorus
Nutt.
Salmon-
berry.
Stems   shrubby, 3-8  feet high,
smooth or more or less glandular-
hairy.   Leaves round-cordate in
outline,    palmately    3-5-lobed,
the   lobes    acute    or    acutish,
rarely  acuminate,   coarsely  and   unequally
serrate.     Flowers   few,   1-2   inches   broad,
white, in corymbose, terminal heads, calyx
lobes tipped with a long slender appendage.
Borders of woods, and in thickets among
rocks,   throughout   the   region,   but   most
abundant in the Selkirks; flowering in June
and July.
Rubus
strigosus
Michx.
Wild Red
Raspberry.
Stems   shrubby,    biennial,    18
inches to  4  feet  high,  usually
densely clothed with weak glandular bristles or the older stems
with    small    hooked    prickles.
Leaves pinnately 3-5-foliate, leaflets ovate
or   ovate-oblong,   acuminate,   sharply   and
irregularly serrate or slightly lobed, rounded
at the base, 1-3 inches long.    Flowers | an
inch  broad  in  a loose raceme  on  slender  156
Rosaceae
Rubus
parviflorus
Nutt.
Salmon-
berry.
Stems shrubby, 3-8 feet high,
smooth or more or less glandular-
;hairy. Leaves round-cordate in
outline, palmately 3-5-lobed,
the lobes acute or acutish,
ruminate, coarsely and unequally
Flowers few, 1-2 inches broad,
corymbose, terminal heads, calyx
lobes tipped with a long slender appendage.
Borders of woods, and in thickets among
rocks, throughout the region, * but most
abundant in the Selkirks; flowering in June
and July.
white
Stems shrubby, biennial, 18
inches to 4 feet high, usually
densely clothed with weak glandular bristles or the older stems
with small hooked prickles.
Innately 3-5-foliate, leaflets ovate
orv: ovate-oblong, acuminate, sharply and
irregularly serrate or slightly lobed, rounded
at the base, 1-3 inches long. Flowers J an
inch  broad  in  a loose raceme  on  slender
Rubus
strigosus
Michx.
Wild Red
Raspberry
Leaves Rubus parviflorus Nutt.   (%  Nat.)
-Sahntm-Berry.
m  Rosaceae
i57
pedicels, curved in fruit; petals white, ascending, about equalling the spreading acuminate
sepals; fruit dark red, sweet and very juicy.
The common red raspberry throughout
the region in dry and rocky places; flowering
in June.
Dasyphora
fruticosa
(L.) Rydb
Shrubby
Cinquefoil.
Shrubby, much branched; stems
erect or ascending, very leafy, 6
inches to 3 feet high, the bark
shreddy. Leaves pinnate with
5-7 oblong, entire, acute leaflets,
with long silky hairs and re volute margins.
Flowers bright yellow, f-i| inches broad,
usually solitary at the ends of the branches.
A very abundant plant throughout the
region, in swampy grounds, gravelly river
shores, on dry slopes and alpine meadows,
flowering throughout the summer.
Sibbaldia Stems densely tufted, decum-
procumbens bent or creeping, 1-4 inches
L- long.    Leaves 3-foliate, leaflets
Sibbaldia. o   j        -. 1 .      ...     .
wedge-shaped,   3-5-toothed    at
the apex with scattered hairs on both sides. Rosaceae
Flowers J of an inch broad, greenish-yellow;
petals very small, not exceeding the calyx.
Frequent throughout the region on rocks,
usually in dry, exposed situations at elevations varying from 4000 to 10,000 feet;
flowering during June and July.
Fragaria
glauca (S.
Wats.)
Rydb.
Wild
Strawberry
Plant spreading, 3-6 inches tall,
hairy,   forming   new plants  by
' the running stems after flowering.    Leaves  tufted  from  the
root,   very hairy, palmately 3-
foliate; leaflets obtuse, strongly
serrate, the teeth gland-tipped; lateral leaflets ovate, oblique on the inside, shorter than
the terminal one; terminal leaflet broadly
ovate with a wedge-shaped base.    Flowers
white,  I of an inch broad; petals slightly
longer than the sepals,  borne on a scape
about J longer than the leaves. Fruit ovoid,
rather small.
On grassy banks and roadsides throughout
the Rockies; flowering in late May and early
June. as
s *
"3 Vl
I—1   a>
PQ
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• i-H
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.   Vi
TO      »>
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u
&J0
o3
Vi  Rosaceae
J59
Comarum
Smooth, decumbent at the base,
palustre (L.) 6 inches to 2 feet long. Leaves
Marsh pinnate, the lower long-petioled
Cinquefoil.      ^^ s__7 oblong or oblanceolate,
sharply serrate leaflets, which are lighter-
coloured and more or less hairy beneath;
upper leaflets similar, 3-5. Flowers few,
in an open cyme; calyx lobes purple within,
acuminate, nearly \ an inch long, enlarging
in fruit; petals much shorter than the sepals.
A marsh plant frequent throughout the
region in very wet situations, at the lower
altitudes; flowering in July.
1
Argentina Herbaceous, spreading by run-
Anserina ners. Leaves all at the root,
(L.) Rydb. interruptedly pinnate with 7-21
leaflets and smaller ones interposed; oblong, sharply serrate, dark green
above, soft, white-hairy beneath. Flowers
bright yellow, J-i inch broad, solitary on
long pedicels, petals exceeding the ovate,
acute,  calyx lobes.
In open and waste ground and meadows i6o
Rosaceae
throughout the Rockies at the lower altitudes; flowering during June and July.
Potentilla Stem 4"8 inches high, woody at
nivea L. the base, with long silky hairs.
Snowy Leaves 3-foliate, the lower peti-
Cinquefoil. oled. leaflets oblong or obovate,
usually deeply cut, densely, white-hairy beneath, green and loosely soft-hairy above, f-i
inch long. Flowers 1-5, bright yellow, J-j of
an inch broad; sepals silky, lanceolate, shorter
than the broadly-ovate, notched petals.
Frequent throughout the Rockies in open,
rocky situations; flowering during June and
July-   , '■ I
Stem decumbent or ascending
4-8 inches high from a woody
base, more or less silky-villous
or nearly smooth. Leaves pinnate or tripinnate with 5-7
lanceolate, deeply cut leaflets, usually glaucous and with ciliate edges. Flowers few,
bright yellow, | an inch or more broad with
notched petals, in an open cyme.
Potentilla
dissecta
Pursh.
Cut-leaved
Cinquefoil.
LL Rosaceae
161
In open alpine meadows and slopes
throughout the region at the higher altitudes;
flowering during June and July.
Much like the preceding species
Potentilla r &    r
multisecta       but much more hairy throughout
(Wats.) and with more divided leaves.
Rydb. Flowers   in   a   loose   cyme   on
scapes 4-6 inches high, not quite so large as
in the preceding nor as brilliantly coloured.
" Dry rocky summits and ledges throughout the Rockies; flowering in June.
Potentilla
uniflora
(Ledeb.)
Alpine
Cinquefoil
Densely caespitose from a woody
base. Leaves closely tufted,
small, palmately divided, leaflets deeply cut, densely white-
woolly on both surfaces. Flowers
solitary on short peduncles, bright yellow,
half an inch or more broad; petals broadly
obovate, notched at the apex, much longer
than the densely soft-hairy lanceolate sepals.
A high alpine species in dry stony ground
throughout the Rockies, not common; flowering in July.
11 l62
Rosaceae
Geum
macro -
phyllum
Willd.
Large-
leaved
Avens.
Stout, erect, stiff-hairy, 1-3 feet
high. Leaves lyrate-pinnate with
broad foliaceous stipules, basal
leaves petioled, the terminal segment much the largest, reniform,
dentate, 3-7-lobed; lateral leaflets 3-6 oval or obovate with smaller ones
interspersed. Flowers several, short pedun-
cled, borne in a terminal head; bright yellow,
nearly J an inch broad; petals longer than the
acuminate sepals; receptacle nearly smooth.
In damp places and low grounds throughout the region, most abundant in the Selkirks;
flowering in June.
Hairy, branched above, 2-4 feet
Geum
strictum high-   Stipules broad, foliaceous;
Ait. Yellow basal leaves lyrate-pinnate; leaf-
Avens. iets 5-7, obovate, cuneate, den
tate or lobed, the terminal one largest,
broadly ovate or cuneate, stem leaves sessile
or short-petioled with 3-5 ovate or oblong,
acute segments. Flowers yellow, J an inch
broad; receptacle downy. >..«
m
£&
WJBs
""iffi- 3^
iSP?     Ss
£^^,J5||
ft
if
I l62
Geum
macro -
phyllum
Large-
Rosaceae
Q+
it
high. Leav^ lyrate-pinnate with
broad foliaceous stipules/? basal
leaves pexioieu. tr
ie te ii ainai seg-
ment much the la
rgest, reniform,
'Jt +-*. .*-, 4- ^ 4- in              —.          mm      1 ,-^.Vv*-
:d; lateral leaf-
lets 3-6 oval or obovate with, smaller one:
interspersed. Flowers several, short pedun-
HpH  borne in a terminal head: bright vellow
nearly | an inch broad
als longer than the
ac
uminate sepals; receptacle nearly smooth.
out the region, most abundant in the Selkirks;
flowering in June.
Geum
strictum
Ait.    Y«<
Avens.
Hairv, branched
4 feet
basal leaves lyrate-pinnate; leaf-
lets s-7, obovate, cuneate, den-
broadly   -vateor cuneate, stem leaves sessile
or short-petioled with ■*-% ovate or oblong,
oroa
sceptacle downy, a Geum strictum Ait.    Yellow Avens.
b Sieversia ciliata  (Pursh)   Don.    Long-Plumed Purple Avens.
(%   Nat.)  Rosaceae
163
In swamps or low grounds throughout the
region; flowering in June.
Sieversia
ciliata
(Pursh)
Don.    Long
Plumed
Purple
Avens.
Soft-hairy, scapose; scape 4-18
inches high, simple, 3-8-flowered
at the summit. Basal leaves
petioled, interruptedly pinnate
with many small leaflets, among
the numerous obovate, deeply
cut larger ones. Flowers J an
inch broad of 5 pale purplish-pink petals
hardly exceeding the calyx and spreading
linear red bractlets; styles plumose in
fruit, 1-2 inches long.
In dry open grounds extending into the
Rockies from the plains, where it is especially
abundant, to the lower slopes and valleys
throughout the region; flowering in June.
Stems prostrate, branched, 3-6
inches long. Leaves oblong or
ovate, |-i inch long, obtuse at
each end, closely crenate, dark
green and shining above, densely
white-woolly beneath.    Flowers solitary on
Dryas octo
petala L.
White
Mountain-
Avens.
1 164
Rosaceae
slender pedicels, white, an inch or more broad;
petals longer than the 6-8 spreading linear
sepals; stamens numerous, anthers bright yellow; styles conspicuously plumose in fruit.
Frequent in dry stony ground throughout
the Rockies at elevations ranging from 4000
to 10,000 feet, forming dense mats of considerable size on the surface of the ground;
flowering in June.
Dryas
Drum-
mondii
Richards.
Drummond's
Mountain-
Avens.
Similar in manner of growth
and general appearance to the
preceding species. Leaves generally narrower at the base, the
lobes dentate-crenate. Flowers h
an inch long, campanulate, drooping on a densely woolly pedicel; sepals ovate,'
acute, black glandular-hairy; petals lanceolate, obtuse, bright yellow, about twice the
length of the sepals; stamens included; styles
numerous, conspicuously plumose in fruit.
In gravel and loose stony soil throughout
the Rockies, especially abundant on river
shores and flood-plains, like   the previous  1
164
Rosaceae
slender pedicels, white, an inch or more broad;
petals longer.than the 6-8 spreading linear
sepals; stamens numerous, anthers bright yellow; styles conspicuously plumose in fruit.
Frequent in dry stony ground throughout
the R^pes at elevations ranging from 4000
to 10,000 feet, forming dense mats of con-
siderabl#Js2e on the surface of the >und;
flowering in June.
Similar in manner of growth
and general appearance to the
preceding species.    Leaves gen-
Dryas
Drum-
mondii
Richards.
Drummond's   erally.narrower at the base, the
Mountain-      lobes derrtate-erenate. Flowers \
fLvem
an inch long, campanulate, droop-
in gf on a ciei
acute, 'elack gland ular-bairy; petals lanceolate, obtuse, bright yellow, about twice the
length of the sepals; stamens included; styles
numerous, conspicuously plumose in fruit.
In gravel and loose stony soil throughout
the Rockies, especially abundant on river
shores and flood-plains, like   the prey|pti$'
T-*-k- a Dryas octopetala L.    White Mountain Avens.
b  Dryas  Drummondii  Rich.    Drummond's  Mountain  Avens.
(%   Nat.)  Pomacese
165
species   frequently   forming   mats   of   considerable size; flowering in June.
Rosa
Macounii
Greene.
Macoun's
Rose.
Stems branched, 2-3 feet high,
prickly. Leaves pinnate, leaflets large, BR inches long,
oval, coarsely toothed. Flowers
solitary, on slender pedicels,
bright pink, petals broadly obovate, an inch
or more long, sepals entire with a long
acuminate obtuse tip, persistent and erect
in fruit, fruit globose, bright scarlet.
The wild rose of the region, in open
ground, on slopes, borders of -woods, stream
and river banks throughout the Rockies;
flowering in late June and early July.
POMACE^E
Apple Family
Trees and shrubs with alternate leaves,
and regular, perfect flowers; calyx superior,
5-toothed; petals 5; stamens numerous; fruit
a more or less fleshy pome.
Leaves pinnate. Sorbus.
Leaves simple, entire-toothed or lobed. Amelanchier. 166
Pomaceae
Sorbus
sambucifolia
(Cham,  and
Schl.) Roem
Western
Mountain-
ash.
A small tree with smooth bark.
Leaves pinnate, leaflets 5-15,
ovate-lanceolate or oval, obtuse
or short-pointed, serrate, smooth
and dark green above, pale and
usually more or less hairy beneath, especially along the veins,
seldom over 2§ inches long. Flowers white,
nearly J an inch across in a compound flat
cyme, 2-4 inches broad; petals spreading,
short-clawed, obovate; stamens numerous;
fruit bright scarlet, more than \ of an inch
in diameter.
In moist  stony ground  throughout the
region; flowering in June.
W*
A shrub, soft-hairy when young,
at length nearly smooth. Leaves
thick, broadly elliptic or almost
orbicular, very obtuse and often
truncate at the apex, round or
subcordate at the base; coarsely
dentate above the middle, 1-2
inches long.    Flowers in rather short, dense
Amelan-
chier
alnifolia
Nutt.
Northwestern
June-berry. Drupaceae
167
racemes, pedicels short; petals oblanceolate,
J-f of an inch long, 2-4 times the length
of the calyx; fruit purple when ripe and very
sweet.
On slopes at the lower altitudes throughout
the region, flowering in June.
Drupaceae
Plum Family
Trees or shrubs, the bark exuding gum.
Leaves alternate, petioled, serrate, the teeth
and petiole often glandular; flowers regular,
perfect; calyx 5-lobed inferior, deciduous;
petals 5, inserted on the calyx; stamens
numerous, inserted on the petals; fruit a 1-
seeded  drupe.
A shrub or small tree. Leaves
thick ovate or broadly oval,
acute or slightly obtuse, serrulate with short teeth. Flowers
\ of an inch or more broad, in
drooping racemes at the ends
of the leafy branches; drupe dark purple or
Prunus
demissa
(Nutt.)
Walp.
Western
Wild Cherry. Papilionaceae
black, globose, over \ of an inch in diameter.
In thickets in the Rockies, frequent in the
vicinity of Banff; flowering in May and early
June.
Papilionaceae
Pea Family
Herbs or vines with alternate, compound
leaves and irregular, perfect, yellow, purple,
blue, or white flowers, mainly in racemes;
calyx 4-5-toothed; petals more or less united
or separate, consisting of a broad upper one
(standard), two lateral ones (wings), and two
front ones more or less united (keel).
Herbs; leaves unequally pinnate, not tendril bearing.
Pods not jointed.
Keel of the corolla blunt.
Pod   not   much   swollen,   fleshy,   leathery   or
papery; flowers blue or purple.      Astragalus.
Pods much inflated, membranous; flowers white.
Phaca.
Pods flat, both sutures prominent externally.
Homalobus.
Keel of the corolla acute. Aragallus.
Pods jointed, flowers purple or white.      Hedysarum.
Herbaceous veins; leaves evenly pinnate, with tendrils. Papilionaceae
169
Style slender with a tuft of hairs at the summit.
Vicia.
Style flattened, bearded along the inner side.
Lathyrus.
Astragalus
adsurgens
Pall.
Ascending
Milk-vetch.
Stems whitish with close hairs
or nearly smooth, ascending or
decumbent, 4-18 inches long,
• simple or branched at the base.
Leaflets 15-25 oval or linear-
oblong, sometimes notched at the apex,
narrowed at the base, |-i inch long; peduncles exceeding the leaves. Flowers purplish, J-f of an inch long in dense short
spikes; calyx villous with long partly black
hairs, J the length of the corolla, with slender
teeth, half the length of the campanulate tube.
In open ground at low altitudes, probably
the most frequent of the vetches on the
eastern slopes of the Rockies, often forming
great patches of blue during June.
Astragalus Hairy or nearly smooth, stems
hypoglottis decumbent or ascending, slender,
L. Purple       branched  at  the base,   usually
Milk-vetch.  ,   I \ .
low,   but   ranging   from   6-24
inches long.    Leaves 2-5 inches long with Papilionaceae
17-25 leaflets which are oblong or elliptic,
obtusish and usually notched at the apex,
rounded at the base Hp an inch long.
Flowers violet-purple, J to nearly an inch
long in dense heads, calyx nearly J the length
with long black and white hairs.
Frequent at the lower altitudes, in dry
ground and roadsides on the eastern slopes
of the Rockies, particularly in the region
around Banff; flowering in early June.
Astragalus Ascending or decumbent,
alpinus L. branching from the base, 6-15
Alpine inches   high,   slightly   hairy   or
Milk-vetch. (1       T .       i
smooth. Leaves 2-5 inches long,
with 13-25 oval or elliptic, obtuse or retuse
leaflets, narrowed or rounded at the base,
J-J an inch long. Flowers J an inch or more
long, pale violet, the keel commonly darker,
in short rather open racemes; calyx about
J the length of the corolla, with short black
hairs.
The most dainty of any of the vetches,
frequent in  rocky  soil  in  slightly  shaded Papilionaceae
171
Astragalus
convallarius
Greene.
Slender
Milk-vetch.
situations throughout the Rockies at the
lower altitudes; flowering^ during June and
July.     . ■  fr
Stems slender, ascending and
rigid, 10-18 inches high, branching from the base; hairy throughout. Leaves 3-6 inches long
with 9-17 narrowly linear, silky
leaflets J-i inch long, remote. Flowers pale
violet or mauve, half an inch or more long,
scattered in a slender raceme 3-5 inches
long; peduncles much longer than the leaves;
calyx about J the length of the corolla with
scattered white or brownish hairs.
On the eastern slopes of the Rockies in
dry stony ground at the lower altitudes;
flowering in early June.
Stems 18-24 inches high, stout
and leafy, slightly striate and
nearly smooth. Leaves 2-4
inches long, thin, odd-pinnate
with 4-8 pairs of obtuse, oblong,
or oval  leaflets,   J-i   inch long.     Flowers
Astragalus
Macouni
Rydb.
Macoun's
Vetch. 172
Papilionaceae
cream-coloured, tinged with blue, in heads
1J-3 inches long, on peduncles 4-10 inches
long, from the axils of the upper leaves;
calyx J of an inch long, black-hairy, lobes
very slender and short; corolla J of an inch
or more long.
Frequent in more or less moist open
ground throughout the Rockies at varying
altitudes; flowering during June and early
July- I
Phaca
Americana
(Hook)
Rydb.
Arctic
Milk-vetch.
Erect, nearly simple and smooth,
1-2 feet high. Leaves 3-6 inches
long with 7-17 oval or ovate-
lanceolate obtuse leaflets, |-i|
inches long. Flowers white, f
of an inch long in loose racemes
on peduncles equalling or exceeding the
leaves; pedicels slender, J an inch long in
fruit; pod membranous, inflated, an inch
long.
In moist or wet rocky shaded places
throughout the Rockies; flowering during
June and early July. QQ
^3     .
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o
Pi
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O
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P«  Papil
lonaceae
i73
Homalobus
aborigin-
orum
(Richards)
Rydb.
Indian
Vetch.
Stems erect and branching, 6-18
inches high, hairy throughout,
from an enlarged root. Leaves
pinnate with 7-11 linear leaflets;
stipules ovate, acute, foliaceous.
Flowers white, tinged with mauve,
in a loose raceme 1-2 inches long;
peduncles longer . than the leaves, calyx
black-hairy, about J of an inch long, with
slender teeth nearly half as much longer;
corolla more than twice the length of the
calyx.
An abundant species at the lower altitudes
in open dry ground on the eastern slopes of
the Rockies; flowering in early June.
Aragallus
monticola
(A. Gray)
Greene.
Mountain
Oxytrope.
Flowers
an inch
Silvery-pubescent throughout,
with appressed or slightly spreading hairs; tufted. Leaves basal,
3-6 inches long with 9-19 linear-
oblong or lanceolate, acute or
obtusish leaflets f-i inch long,
pale yellow or creamy-white 1 of
or  more   long in dense heads, on 174
Papilionaceae
peduncles longer than the leaves; calyx
nearly half as long as the corolla, with long
white and short black hairs.
Frequent throughout the Rockies in dry
stony and alpine meadows and slopes, at
varying elevations; flowering from June to
early July.
Aragallus
L amber ti
(Pursh)
Greene.
Loco Weed
Tufted, the* branches of the
caudex short; scapes few or several, erect, rather slender, 4-20
inches high. Leaves several,
mostly erect, shorter than the
scapes; leaflets 10-15 pairs, mostly oblong-
lanceolate, from sparsely soft-pubescent
to lightly canescent, acute, §|fj inch long.
Flowers pale yellow, J an inch long and twice
as long as the calyx, in a loose head, 2-4
inches long.
Abundant in the open ground on the eastern slopes of the Rockies; a strikingly handsome vetch frequently found in masses of
considerable extent, especially, in the region
around Banff; flowering in June and early
July-    1       f Papilionaceae
U5
Aragallus
splendens
(Dougl.)
Greene.
Showy
Oxytrope.
Densely silky, silvery-villous,
acaulescent, and tufted. Leaves
4-9 inches long, erect; leaflets
very numerous, in verticels of
3-6, oblong or oblong-lanceolate,
acute or acutish at the apex,
rounded at the base, J to nearly an inch long.
Flowers deep purple, about J an inch long
in dense spikes on peduncles exceeding the
leaves.
A very showy plant frequently flowering
• in considerable masses in the open grounds
on the eastern slopes of the Rockies and dry
alpine meadows; flowering in June.
Aragallus
viscidulus
Rydb.
Sticky
Oxytrope.
Tufted, with parts of the old
leaves remaining. Leaves all
basal, 4-6 inches long with 8-15
pairs of leaflets, loosely villous-
pubescent, Oblong, obtuse or
acutish, J to nearly \ an inch long, glandular
on the margins. Flowers nearly J an inch
long varying from pink to dark purple, in
loose   spikes   on   glandular   sticky   scapes, 176
Papilionaceae
much longer than the leaves; calyx more
than half as long as the corolla with white
and shorter black hairs; calyx teeth and
bracts of the inflorescence densely glandular.
In dry open ground and alpine meadows
through the Rockies at the lower altitudes,
flowering in early June and forming dense
tufted masses of brilliant pink, blue, or
purple flowers; probably the most striking
species in the vicinity of Banff.
Aragallus
deflexus
(Pall.)
Heller.
Drooping-
fruited
Oxytrope.
Loosely soft-pubescent or silky,
decumbent or ascending 10-18
inches high. Leaves 4-6 inches
long with 12-16 pairs of lanceolate to oblong, acute leaflets,
j-| an inch long. Flowers small,
pale purple, little more than J
of an inch long in slender spikes 2-4 inches
long on peduncles much surpassing the
leaves. Calyx nearly as long as the corolla,
with short black and longer white hairs;
fruit strongly reflexed.
In  moist  open  ground   throughout   the i^&ipS.:
r/-
m
-5k  Papilionaceae
177
eastern Rockies at the lower altitudes; flowering in July.
Aragallus
inflatus
(Hook)  A
Nelson.
Inflated
Oxytrope.
Acaulescent or more or less so,
1-4 inches high, soft-hairy.
Leaves pinnate with 5-11 pairs
of short linear-lanceolate or
oblong leaflets. Flowers violet-
purple, 1 or 2 on the peduncles
which scarcely exceed the leaves; calyx
densely dark-hairy; pods much inflated.
On high alpine slopes and summits through
the Rockies, not a common plant but probably more general than is now known; flowering in July.
Stem erect or somewhat decumbent, smooth or nearly so, 6
inches to 2 J feet high, generally
simple. Leaves 2-8 inches long
with 11-21 oblong or oblance-
olate-obtuse leaflets, § to nearly
1 inch long. Flowers violet-purple or nearly
white, deflexed, J-f of an inch long in rather
12 ;V,<W
Hedysarum
americanum
rMichx.)
Britton.
Purple
Hedvsarum.
! 178
Papilionaceae
loose elongated racemes; calyx teeth ovate-
acute, shorter than the tube.
One of the taller of the vetches growing in
open stony places and slides throughout the
Rockies at the lower altitudes, flowering in
July.
Hedysarum
sulphur-
escens
Rydb.
Yellow
Hedysarum
Erect,  12-15 inches high, minutely   hairy.    Leaves with   5-6
pairs of oblong-elliptic, obtuse-
cuspidate   leaflets,   J-j   of   an
inch long, finely hairy beneath.
Flowers bright yellow, over |  an inch long;
15-30 in a rather dense raceme; wings exceeding the vexillum but shorter than the keel.
Throughout the Rockies in open woods
and meadows up to 8000 feet elevation;
flowering in June and July.
Stems erect or decumbent, 12-18
inches high, usually minutely
hairy. Leaves 3-6 inches long
with 11-19 oblong-elliptic leaflets
about \ an inch long. Flowers j
of an inch long, reddish-purple, 20-30 in loose
Hedysarum
Mackenzii
Richards.
Mackenzie's
Hedysarum. Papilionaceae
179
L. Cow
Vetch.
racemes on peduncles longer than the leaves;
calyx teeth very slender, longer than the tube.
On slides and in loose stony soil throughout
the Rockies at varying altitudes; flowering
during June and July.
Finely hairy or sometimes nearly
ViciaCracca smooth; stems tufted, slender,
and weak, climbing or trailing
2-4 feet long. Leaves tendril-
bearing 2-3 inches long of 18-24 thin, linear
or linear-oblong, obtuse or acutish, mucro-
nate leaflets, |f§ of an inch long. Flowers
deep bluish-purple, J an inch long or less
in dense spike-like racemes 1-4-inches long on
peduncles equalling or exceeding the leaves.
In dry or moist soil throughout the Rockies
at the lower elevations, flowering during
June and July.
Vicia
americana
Muhl.
American
Vetch.
Smooth or some - with appressed
hairs, trailing or climbing 2-3
feet long. Leaves nearly sessile,
2-3 inches long, tendril-bearing,
with 8-14 elliptic, ovate or ob- i8o
Papilionaceae
long leaflets, |-ij inches long, obtuse or
sometimes notched or mucronulate at the
tip. Flowers bluish-purple about f of an
inch long, 3-9 in loose racemes, on peduncles
usually shorter than the leaves.
In moist ground at the lower altitudes
throughout the Rockies, climbing over the
surrounding shrubs and herbaceous plants;
flowering in July.
Vicia
linearis
(Nutt.)
Greene.
Narrow-
leaved
American
Vetch.
long,  2-
shorter
Smooth or nearly so; stems weak,
often zigzag, 1-2 feet long.
Leaves tendril-bearing, with 4-7
pairs of narrowly linear or linear-
oblong leaflets, 1-3 inches long,
entire, acute and mucronate at
the tip. Flowers purple or
purplish, about | of an inch
-6 in loose racemes, on peduncles
than or about equalling the leaves.
In dry soil at low altitudes throughout
the Rockies especially near the line of the
railway; flowering during July. -(J
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181
Lathyrus
palustris L.
Marsh
Vetchling.
Smooth or sparingly hairy, stems
angled and winged, slender, 1-3
feet long; stipules half sagittate,
lanceolate-linear or ovate-lanceolate, J to nearly an inch long. Leaves with
branched tendrils and 2-4 pairs of lanceolate
oblong or linear, acute, mucronate leaflets;
iJ-4 inches long. Flowers purple, half an
inch or more long, 2-6 in loose-headed racemes on peduncles about equaling the
leaves.
In wet ground and swamps at the lower
altitudes throughout the region; flowering
during July.
Stems slender, somewhat angled,
trailing or climbing, smooth and
slightly glaucous, 2-2\ feet long,
stipules broad foliaceous, half
ovate and half cordate, f-i inch
long. Leaves with branched
tendrils and 3-5 pairs of thin, ovate or
broadly oval, obtuse leaflets, 1-2 inches long,
green   above,   whitish   beneath.     Flowers
Lathyrus
ochroleucus
Hook.
Cream-
coloured
Vetchling. 182
Linaceae
yellowish or creamy-white J-J of an inch
long, 5-10 on peduncles shorter than the
leaves.
On shaded river banks and hillsides at
the lower altitudes throughout the Rockies;
flowering during June.
LlNACEiE
Flax Family
Herbs with perfect regular nearly symmetrical flowers; sepals 5, persistent; petals
5 and alternate with the sepals; stamens 5
opposite the sepals.
Perennial from a woody root,
1-2 feet high, densely tufted,
smooth, glaucous. Leaves
crowded, oblong or linear, J-iJ
inches long, acute or acutish,
3-5 nerved. Flowers bright blue, i-ij
inches broad; petals 5, soon falling; sepals
5, oval, mainly obtuse, J or J the length
Linum
Lewisii
Pursh.
Lewis's
Wild Flax. m
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H  Empetraceae
183
of the petals; stigmas shorter than the
styles; stamens 5, longer than the styles.
In open, dry, stony ground and slopes
throughout the Rockies; flowering in June
and July.
Empetraceae
1
Crowberry Family
Low evergreen shrubs with narrow nearly
sessile leaves jointed to short pulvini, channelled on the lower side by the revolute
margins and small monoecious, dioecious or
rarely polygamous flowers; -sepals, petals,
and stamens each 3, fruit a black, berrylike
drupe.
Empetrum | Smooth or the young shoots
nigrum L. hairy, usually much branched,
Black the branches diffusely spreading,
j 2-10 inches long. Leaves
crowded, dark green, linear-oblong, thick
and obtuse, about \ of an inch long with
strongly revolute, roughish margins.    Flow- i.84
Celastraceae
ers very small, purplish; stamens exserted;
berry nearly J of an inch in diameter, black.
Frequent throughout the Rockies in damp
woods, especially those of the "Jack Pine',
where it frequently forms a considerable
part of the forest floor, in dense, close mats,
CELASTRACEi©
Staff-Tree Family
Shrubs with simple evergreen leaves, and
^regular perfect flowers, sepals, petals, and
stamens each 4 in our species.
Low evergreen shrub, densely
branched or nearly simple, 1-3
feet high. Leaves opposite,
smooth, ovate to oblong or
lanceolate, cuneate at the base,
the upper half serrate or serrulate |-i inch long on very short petioles,
Flowers small in axillary cymes; petals 4,
stamens 4, inserted at the edge of the broad
disc.
Pachystima
Myrsinites
(Pursh)
Raf.
Mountain
Lover. o3
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o3  Aceraceae
185
In gravelly and stony situations extending
from the Valley of the Columbia River at
Beavermouth, westward throughout the Selkirks, the minute blossoms appearing in the
latter part of May; a pretty but very variable shrub in habit and leaf form.
ACERACE^
Maple Family
Trees or shrubs with watery often saccharine sap, opposite, simple and palmately
lobed leaves and axillary or terminal, cy-
mose or racemose, regular, polygamous or
dioecious flowers; fruit of 2 long-winged
samaras, joined at the base.
A . , A shrub or small tree 6-30 feet
Acer glab- °
rum Torr. high, 2-8 inches in diameter,
Smooth smooth throughout  except the
Maple. scales   which  are   densely   soft
hairy inside. Leaves round cordate with
shallow sinus, 2-4 inches broad and nearly  as  long,   more   or   less   deeply  3-lobed 186
Hypericaceae
or parted, the ovate-acuminate lobes doubly
serrate with slender teeth; conspicuously
veined. Flowers greenish-yellow, somewhat
corymbose on short 2-leaved branchlets
appearing after the leaves. Fruit smooth with
slightly spreading wings about an inch long.
One of the few deciduous trees of the
region, growing on slopes with the other
forest trees and in the moist valleys.
Hypericaceae
St. John's-Wort Family
Herbs in our species with opposite, black-
dotted leaves, and cymose yellow flowers;
sepals and petals 5, twisted in the bud;
stamens many.
Simple or sparingly branched
above often with numerous small
branchlets from running root-
stocks, 1-2 feet high. Leaves
thin, shorter than the internodes,
about an inch long, mostly
obtuse,  more or less clasping and usually
Hypericum
Scouleri
Hook.
Scouler's St.
John's-
wort. Violaceae
187
black-dotted along the margin. Flowers
bright orange, J-i inch in diameter in more
or less panicled cymes, sepals oval or oblong,
much shorter than the petals, stamens
numerous in three fascicles.
In moist gravelly soil in the Selkirks at
Glacier; flowering in July.
VlOLACE^E
Violet Family
Herbs in our species with basal or alternate simple leaves and solitary or clustered
perfect irregular flowers; sepals 5, petals 5,
the lower one larger or with a posterior spur.
Acaulescent; rootstock short and
thick. Leaves long-petioled,
smooth or more or less hairy,
slightly fleshy, cordate with a
broad sinus, acute or acuminate,
crenately toothed. Flowers large, blue or
violet, scapes 2-10 inches long, equalling or
surpassing the leaves;  petals  narrow,   £-§
Viola
cognata
Greene.
Early Blue
Violet. 88
Viola
Violaceae
of an inch long, all villous at the base, the
3 lower strongly so.
In moist shaded ground, on stream banks
and in marshes, frequent throughout *the
Rockies; flowering in May and early June.
Acaulescent, smooth, petioles
palustris L. and scapes arising from a very
Marsh slender,   creeping- or horizontal
Violet. rootstock,   the   scapes   mostly
exceeding the leaves. Leaves thin, cordate,
broadly ovate, orbicular or reniform, 1-2J
inches wide, crenulate. Flowers pale lilac
or nearly white with darker veins; petals
broad, J-J an inch long, spur short.
In marshy places among moss in the Selkirks near Glacier; flowering in June; not
a common species in the region.
Viola
semper-
virens
Greene.
Low Yellow
Violet*
Sparingly hairy, stems weak and
decumbent, multiplying by long
slender rootstocks. Leaves
mostly basal, rounded, cordate,
reniform   or   sometimes   ovate Violaceae
189
J-1J inches broad, finely crenate; peduncles
mostly exceeding the leaves. Flowers yellow; petals oblong, ^ of an inch or more
long, sparingly veined with brown toward
the base; spur short and sac-like.
In open woods throughout the region at
elevations ranging from 5000 to 7000 feet,
blossoming very early in May or June
shortly after the melting of the snow.
Viola
glabella
Nutt.   Tall
Yellow
Violet.
Minutely hairy or smooth, stems
• fleshy from a short fleshy horizontal rhizome, naked or sparingly leafy below, 5-12 inches
high. Basal leaves on long
petioles, the upper short-petioled reni-
form-cordate to cordate, acute, crenate-
toothed, 1-4 inches broad. Flowers bright
yellow on peduncles mainly shorter than
the leaves; petals broadly oblong, J-J an
inch or more long, the lateral and lower with
brown lines at the base.
A  striking  plant  on  shaded  banks  and
borders of streams and rills at the higher 190
Violaceae
altitudes, very abundant in the Selkirks;
flowering in June.
„. . Smooth or nearly so; stems 3-14
Viola WM
canadensis      inches     high,      tufted,     leafy
L. Canada throughout. Leaves, broadly
Violet. ovate   or nearly orbicular, cor
date, acuminate or acute, jgjBf inches long,
serrate, the veins on the lower surface often
hairy. Flowers on peduncles mainly shorter
than the leaves, pale violet or nearly white,
veined with purple, and often tinged with
purple on the outside, J—f of an inch broad;
petals nearly in the same plane.
In rich moist woods throughout the
Rockies and occasionally in the open alpine
meadows, continuing in flower from June
until  September.
Slightly hairy or nearly smooth,
branching from the base, usually
3-11 inches high, at length sending out runners that bear cleis-
togamic flowers. Leaves ovate,
more or less cordate at the base, i-iA. inches
Viola
adunca
longipes
(Nutt.)
Rydb.
Dog Violet.   Elaeagnaceae
191
long, obscurely crenate. Flowers on peduncles
usually longer than the leaves, violet-purple
to white; petals J an inch or more long; spur
J of an inch long, rather slender and curved.
A low-stemmed violet usually with brilliant
blue flowers, growing in dry, sandy, shaded
or open ground at varying elevations throughout the Rockies: flowering in June and July.
EL^AGNACEiE
Oleaster Family
Shrubs or trees mostly silvery-scaly or
stellate-pubescent with entire leaves and
flowers clustered in the axils or at the
nodes of twigs of the preceding season;
fruit drupe-like.
Stamens as many as the perianth parts; flowers perfect
or polygamous: leaves alternate. Elaeagnus.
Stamens twice as many as the perianth parts; flowers
dioecious; leaves opposite. Lepargyraea,
A stoloniferous much branched
Elaeagnus
argentea
Pursh.
shrub sometimes  12  feet high,
the  young^ twigs covered with
Silver Berry.    |3rown scurf,  becoming silvery. 19:
Elaeagnaceae
Leaves oblong-ovate or ovate-lanceolate,
densely silvery-scurfy on both sides, acute
or obtuse short petioled, 1-4 inches long,
Flowers usually numerous in the axils of
the leaves, fragrant, silvery, J an inch or
more long; perianth silvery without, yellowish
within, the lobes ovate and short.
On the eastern slope of the Rockies, on
the banks of the rivers and streams, very
abundant at Banff on the Bow and Spray
rivers; flowering in June.
Lepargyraea
canadensis
(L.) Greene.
Canadian
Buffalo-
berry.
A shrub 4-8 feet high, with
brown-scurfy young shoots.
Leaves with short petioles, ovate
or oval, obtuse at the apex,
rounded or some of them narrowed at the base, 1-1J inches
long, green and sparingly scurfy, stellate
above, densely silvery, stellate, scurfy beneath, some of the scurf usually brown.
Flowers small, yellowish, in short spikes
at the nodes of the twigs, expanding
with   or   before   the   leaves;   fruit  showy, Onagraceae
i93
i of an inch in diameter, translucent,
varying in colour on different plants from
orange to brilliant crimson.
Thickets and wooded banks throughout
the Rockies; flowering in May or early
June.
Onagrace^
Evening Primrose Family
Herbs, with alternate or opposite leaves
and perfect flowers; calyx tube adnate to
the ovary, 2-6 lobed; petals white, yellow,
pink, or purple, folded on each other in the
bud; stamens usually as many or twice as
many as the petals.
Parts of the flower in 4's; seeds with tufts of hair on
the ends.
Calyx tube not prolonged beyond the ovary; flowers
large. Chamaenerion.
Calyx tube prolonged  beyond  the  ovary;  flowers
usually small. Epilobium.
Parts of the flowers in 2's; fruit with hooked hairs.
Circaea.
13 194
Onagraceae
Chamaener-
ion angusti-
folium (L.)
Scop.
Great
Willow-
herb, Fire-
weed.
Erect, stout, simple or branched,
usually smooth, 2-8 feet high.
Leaves numerous, alternate, very
short petioled, lanceolate, entire
or denticulate, 2-6 inches long,
J-1 inch wide, pale beneath, thin,
acute at the apex, the lateral veins
confluent in marginal loops. Flowers f-ij
inches broad, reddish-purple, in elongated terminal spike-like racemes, 1-2 feet or more long.
An abundant plant throughout the entire
region on open mountain sides and banks,
especially where visited by fire, flowering
throughout the summer, the air being filled
with the white cottony seeds a few weeks
after  flowering  commences.
Chamsenerion lati-
folium (L.)
Sweet.
Broad-
leaved
Willow-
herb.
Erect, usually branching, very
smooth below, 6-18 inches high.
Leaves mostly sessile, 1-2 inches
long, |-| an inch wide, denticulate or entire, lanceolate or
ovate-lanceolate, acutish at both
ends, thick, those of the branches JP"
UiV 194
Onagraceae
Chamsenerion angusti-
folium (L.)
Scop.
Great
Willow-
herb, Fire-
weed.
Erect, stout, simple or branched,
usually smooth, 2~8 feet high.
Leaves numerous, alternate, very
short petioled, lanceolate, entire
or denticulate, 2-6 inches long,
J-i inch wide, pale beneath, thin,
acute at the apex, the lateral veins
confluent in marginal loops. Flowers j-ij
inches broad, reddish-purple, in elongated terminal spike-like racemes, 1-2 feet or more long.
An abundant plant throughout the entire
region on open mountain sides and banks,
especially where visited by fire, flowering
throughout the summer, the air being filled
with the white cottony seeds a few weeks
after  flowering:  commences.
Chamaener-
ion lati-
folium (L.)
Sweet.
Broad-
leaved
Willow-
herb.
Erect, usually branching, very
smooth below, 6-18 inches high.
Leaves mostly sessile, 1-2 inches
long, J~2 an inch wide, denticulate or entire, lanceolate or;
ovate-lanceolate, acutish at both
ends, thick, those of the branches a Epilobium luteum Pursh.    Yellow Willow-Herb
6 Chamaenerion latifolium  (L.)   Sweet
Herb.
(3/5   Nat.)
Broad-Leaved Willow-  Onagraceae
T95
opposite, the veins inconspicuous. Flowers
reddish-purple, 1-2 inches broad, mainly in
short leafy-bracted racemes; petals entire;
stigma  4-lobed.
On gravelly river bars and moist clayey
banks throughout the entire region; flowering
during July.
Epilobium
luteum
Pursh.
Yellow
Willow-
herb.
Stems rather stout, 1-2 feet
high, usually simple, nearly
smooth. Leaves 1-3 inches long,
ovate or elliptical to broadly
lanceolate, acute or acuminate,
sinuate-toothed, sessile, or when
large, obliquely tapering to a winged petiole,
slightly fleshy. Inflorescence with more or
less glandular pubescence; flowers about f
of an inch long, not opening widely, pale
yellow, rather few, at first nodding in the
axils of the upper leaves; style usually ex-
serted and deeply 4-parted.
A rather rare plant in springy places and
along alpine brooks, confined to the Selkirks;
flowering during July.
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19b
Epilobium
alpinum L.
Alpine
Willow-
herb.
Onagraceae
Slender, smooth or nearly so,
3-12 inches high. Leaves pale,
petioled, opposite or the upper
alternate, obtuse or obtusish at
the apex,
1 1
of an inch long.
Flowers few, white, nearly erect, J of an
inch or more broad; stigma nearly entire;
capsules slender stalked, 1-2 inches long,
seeds beaked.
In damp and springy places at the higher
altitudes throughout the region; flowering
in July.
Epilobium
anagallidi-
folium Lam.
Nodding
Willow-
herb.
Low, usually tufted, 2-6 inches
high, slender, smooth or nearly
so; stems commonly hairy in
lines and nodding at the apex.
Leaves oblong or narrowly ovate,
entire or nearly so, obtuse at the
apex, narrowed at the base into a short
petiole J-i inch long. Flowers few, axillary,
clustered at the apex, pink-purple, nodding,
about J of an inch broad; stigma entire.
On damp stones and along alpine brooks o
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197
at high  elevations throughout the region;
flowering   during  midsummer.
Epilobium
Hornemanni
Reichb.
Horne-
mann's
Willow-
herb.
Erect, 6-12 inches high, simple
or nearly so, slightly hairy above,
otherwise smooth. Leaves short-
petioled, ovate or elliptic, mostly,
broadly obtuse at the apex,
narrow or rounded at the base,
entire or rather remotely denticulate, thin, \-i\ inches long. Flowers few
in the upper axils, pink-purple or violet, J of an inch or more broad; stigma
entire.
A frequent and very variable species
throughout the region at the higher elevations, along alpine brooks or in damp, partly
shaded or springy spots; flowering during
June and July.
Circaea
alpina L.
Smaller
Enchanter's
Nightshade.
Mostly smooth or slightly hairy
above, 3-8 inches high. Leaves
acute or acuminate at the apex,
more or less cordate at the base,
coarsely dentate, 1-2 inches long. 198
Onagraceae
Flowers about J of an inch broad, white,
on pedicels nearly J of an inch long, subtended by minute, slender bracts, in a slender raceme; fruit nearly obovoid, about J of
an inch long, covered with weak hooked
hairs.
In moist shaded situations and beside
alpine brooks, through the Selkirks; flowering in July.
Circaea paci-
fica Achers
and Magnus.
Western
Enchanter's
Nightshade.
Mostly smooth, stems usually
simple, 6-12 inches high, from
a small tuber. Leaves ovate,
rounded or cordate at the base,
acute or acuminate, repandly
dentate, 1-3 inches long, the
slender petiole about the same length.
Flowers white, very small in slender racemes, without bracts; fruit about J of an
inch long loosely covered with soft curved
hairs.
Growing oftentimes with the other species
in moist shaded situations through the Selkirks ; flowering in July. Araliaceae 199
Araliace^e
Ginseng Family
Herbs, shrubs or trees with alternate or
verticillate leaves, and flowers in umbels,
heads or panicles; calyx tube adnate to the
ovary; petals usually 5, sometimes cohering
together; stamens as many as the petals and
alternate with them; seeds flattened, somewhat 3-angled with a coloured, fleshy covering.
Herbs; leaves compound.
Shrubs; leaves simple.
Aralia.
Echinopanax.
Aralia
nudicaulis
L. Wild
Sarsapa-
rilla.
Acaulescent or nearly so, root-
stock long. Leaf usually solitary, arising with the peduncle
from a very short stem; petiole
erect, 6-12 inches long, primary
divisions of the leaf slender, stalked, pinnately 3-5 foliate; leaflets sessile or short
stalked, oval or ovate, acuminate, rounded at
the base, finely serrate, 2-5 inches long, often
hairy on the veins beneath. Flowers on a ped- 200
Araliaceae
uncle usually shorter than the leaves; umbels
usually three, nearly round, composed of
numerous small greenish flowers.
In   rich   woods   throughout   the   region,
flowering in July.
Echinopanax
horridum
(Smith)
Dec. and
Planch.
Devil's
Club.
Very prickly throughout; stems
erect from a decumbent base
4-12 feet high, leafy at the
top. Leaves roundish, cordate,
prickly on both sides, palmately
lobed, more or less hairy beneath, 6-24 inches long. Flowers
greenish-white in a dense terminal paniculate umbel; petals 5; stamens
5, alternate with the petals; fruit berry-like,
laterally compressed, bright scarlet when
ripe.
An ornamental though very prickly shrub,
in moist rich woods throughout the region,
sparingly in the Rockies, west of the divide, but very abundant in the Selkirks
where it frequently forms dense impenetrable
thickets, flowering, in early summer. ICRSE 200
Araliaceae
uncle usually shorter than the leaves; umbels
usually three, nearly round, composed of
numerous small greenish flowers.
In   rich   woods   throughout   the   region,
flowering in July.
Very prickly throughout; stems
. erect from a decumbent base
4-12 feet high, leafy at thfe
top. Leaves roundish, cordate,
prickly on both sides, paknately
lobed, more or less hairy beneath, 6-24 inches long. Flowers
greenish-white in a dense terminal paniculate urnbe!: petals 5: stamens
5, alternate with the petals; trait berry-like,
laterally   compressed,   bright   scarlet   when
Echino-
panax
horridum
(Smith)
Dec. and
Planch.
Devil's
Club.
An ornamental though very prickly shrub,
in moist rich woods throughout the region,
sparingly in the Rockies, west of the divide, but very abundant in the Selkirks
where it frequently forms dense impenetrable
thickets, flowering in early summer. Echinopanax horridum (Smith) Dec. & Planch. (y2 Nat.)
Devil's Club.  Apiaceae
Apiace^e
Celery Family
Herbs with alternate, compound or simple
leaves; flowers small, white, yellow or purple
in compound flat heads; fruit dry, usually
of two flattened carpels.
Stems 1-2 feet high.
Leaves pinnately or ternately compound, cut into
fine divisions.
Flowers yellow or white; not purple.    Lomatium.
Flowers purple. Leptotaehia.
Leaves   simple or 3-lobed; flowers  yellow.     Zizia.
Stems 2-3 feet high; leaves ternate. Ligusticum.
Stems 4-8 feet high, soft-hairy.
Leaves ternately divided; flowers white.
Heracleum.
Lomatium
macro-
carpum
(Nutt.)
C. and R.
Large-
seeded
Parsley.
Nearly stemless, 4-24 inches
high, more or less hairy, much
branched at the base from an
elongated thick root. Leaves
pinnately compound, segments
pinnately incised, on rather short
petioles, purplish at the base;
flowers white or pinkish in a somewhat equally
3-10-rayed umbel; rays 1-4 inches long. 202
Apiaceae
In dry stony ground throughout the
Rockies, very abundant on the lower ridges in
the vicinity of Banff; flowering in early June.
Purplish at the base, with or
without stems, 1-2 feet high,
slightly hairy. Leaves twice or
thrice ternate, the leaflets narrowly linear, 2-4 inches long.
Flowers small, deep yellow in
an unequal umbel of 5-18 rays,
with slender bracts.
Through the Rockies on dry ridges and
grassy slopes; flowering in early June.
Lomatum
triternatum
(Pursh).
C. and R.
Narrow-
leaved
Parsley.
Stems 1-3 feet high, very leafy
at the base, from a- large fleshy
rootstock. Leaves ternate or
thrice pinnate, segments very
finely cut. Flowers small, brown-
in   nearly   equal   8-20   rayed,
rounded   umbels,   3-4   inches  in   diameter,
usually without an involucer.
A most striking plant from its beautifully
Leptotaenia
multifida
Nutt.
Cut-leaved
Parsley.
ish-purple Apiaceae
203
dissected leaves and rather large heads of rich
brownish-purple flowers blossoming in June;
on  grassy  slopes  of   Stony   Squaw,   Banff.
Stout, erect, branched, and
smooth or somewhat hairy, 1-2
feet high. Basal and lower
leaves long-petioled, broadly
ovate or orbicular, undivided,
deeply cordate at the base, 1-3
inches long, crenate I stem leaves
short-petioled, ternate, the segments ovate
or oval, crenate or lobed. Flowers small,
bright yellow, in nearly flat 7-16 rayed
umbels, 1-2 inches in diameter.
Common on the eastern slopes and foothills of the Rockies; flowering in May and
early June.
Zizia
cordata
(Walt.)
Koch.
Heart-
leaved
Alexanders
Ligusticum
apiifolium
(Nutt.)
A. Gray.
Wild
Parsley.
Leaves
Smooth throughout except the
slightly hairy inflorescence and
rough leaf margins; stems 2-3
feet high with 1-3 rather small
leaves with inflated petioles,
ternately   divided,   the   segments 204
Apiaceae
i
usually distinct, ovate, deeply cleft into linear
acute, sharply serrate or entire lobes. Flowers white in nearly flat, many rayed umbels,
2-3 inches in diameter.
Abundant in wet places and along streams
through the Selkirks, especially so in the
Asulkan Valley at Glacier; flowering in June
and July.
Heracleum
lanatum
Michx.
Cow-
parsnip.
Very stout, soft hairy, 4-8 feet
high, the stems rigid, ©ften 2
inches thick at the base. Leaves
petioled, ternately divided, very
hairy beneath,, the segments
broadly ovate or orbicular, cordate, stalked,
lobed or sharply serrate, rather thin, 3-6
inches broad; petioles much inflated. Flowers white in 8^-30 rayed umbels, 6-12
inches broad, the rays stout,' 2-4 inches
long.
Common throughout the region in wet
places along streams and river banks, frequently growing in great masses; flowering
in June and July. a
inaaensii
1 204
Apiaceae
usually dis \ct ovate deeply cleft into linear
acute, sharply serrate or entire lobes. Flowers white in nearly flat, many rayed umbels,
Abundant in v places and along streams
through the Selkirks, especially so in the
As can Valley at Glacier; flowering in June
and July.
Very stout, soft haii
feet
Heracleum
lanatum high,  the  stems  rigid,  ©ften   2
Michx. inches thick at the base.   Leaves
Cow-
parsnip.
petioled, ternately divided, very
hairy beneath,, the segments
broadly ovate or orbicular, cordate, stalked,
lobed or sharply serrate, rather thin, 3-6
inches broad; petioles much inflated. Flowers white in 8^-30 rayed 6-12-
inches  broad,   the  rays   stout,' 2-4  inches
long.
Common throughout the region in wet
places along streams and river banks, frequently growing in great masses; flowering
in  Tune and Tiilv Cornus canadensis intermedia Farr.   {Vz  Nat.)
Bunch-Berry.  Cornaceae
205
CORNACE^E
Dogwood Family
Shrubs or trees with simple, ' opposite,
verticillate or alternate leaves, usually entire;
flowers in cymes, heads, or rarely solitary;
sepals and petals 4 or 5, stamens as many
as the petals or more numerous and inserted
with them; fruit a drupe.
Smooth, herbaceous from a
nearly horizontal rootstock,
woody only at the base; flowering stems, erect, scaly, 5-7 inches
high. Leaves verticillate at the
summit of the stem or sometimes
1  or  2   pairs  of  opposite  ones
below,   sessile,   oval,   ovate   or
obovate,   smooth   or   minutely    appressed,
pubescent, acute at each end or sometimes
rounded at the base, entire, 1-3. inches long.
Flowers small, capitate, purple, surrounded
by a white involucre of 4-6  petaloid-ovate
bracts, J-f of an inch long; stamens alter-
Cornus
canadensis
intermedia
Farr.
Dwarf
Cornel.
Bunch
berry. 206
Cornaceae
nate with the petals; styles exserted, deep
purple; fruit globose, J of an inch in diameter
in a close head; bright red.
Common throughout the region in moist
woods flowering in early summer.
Cornus
stolonifera
Michx.
Red-
stemmed
Dogwood.
Shrub 3-16 feet high, usually
stoloniferous, the twigs smooth
and bright reddish-purple or
the youngest finely hairy.
Leaves slender-petioled, ovate,
ovate-lanceolate or oval, acute
or short acuminate, rounded or narrowed
at the base, finely close-hairy above, white
or whitish and sparingly hairy beneath or
sometimes smooth on both surfaces, 1-5
inches long. Flowers in flat-topped cymes,,
1-2 inches broad, petals white, less than \
of an inch long; berries white or whitish.
In moist places and along streams and
river banks throughout the region; an attractive shrub, sometimes forming thickets of
considerable size, the red stems contrasting
beautifully with the dark green leaves; flowering in June. Pyrolaceae 207
Pyrolace^e
Winter green Family
Low, mostly evergreen perennials with
branched rootstocks and petioled leaves;
flowers nearly regular, white or pink; calyx
4-5-lobed; corolla deeply 4-5-parted or of
5 petals; stamens twice as many as the
divisions of the corolla, anthers opening
by pores or short slits; stigma 5-lobed.
Flowers racemose; leaves basal. Pyrola.
Flowers   solitary   or corymbose;   leaves opposite   or
whorled.
Stem leafy at base; flower solitary; style long.
Moneses.
Stem horizontal; branches erect, leafy; style short.
Chimaphila.
Stems 4-10 inches high, 3-10
flowered. Leaves all basal, small,
orbicular or broadly oval, mostly
obtuse at both ends, sometimes
narrowed at the base, thick,
leathery, dull, obscurely crenu-
late or entire, J-i inch long, shorter than
or equalling the petioles.    Flowers greenish-
Pyrola
chlorantha
Sw.
Greenish-
flowered
Wintergreen 208
Pyrolaceae
white, nodding, slightly odorous, about half
an inch broad; stamens and style declined,
ascending; anther sacs short-beaked.
On  dry  wooded  slopes  throughout  the
Rockies; flowering during June.
Pyrola
uliginosa
Torr. Bog
Wintergreen
Scape 6-12 inches high, 7-15-
flowered. Leaves broadly oval
or orbicular, dull, rather thick,
obscurely crenulate, obtuse at
both ends. Flowers frequently over half an
inch broad; calyx lobes oblong or ovate-
lanceolate, J—J the length of the petals; style
and stamens declined; anther sacs beaked.
In bogs throughout the Rockies, a very
pretty species with bright rosy flowers and
rounded leaves; flowering in July.
Stem 6-15 inches high, 7-15-
flowered. Leaves reniform, usually wider than long, thick,
shining above, obtuse at the
apex, cordate at the base, crenulate, i-i| inches long, usually shorter than
Pyrola
asarifolia
Michx.
Liver-leaf
Wintergreen.  208
Pyrolaceae
white, nodding, slightly odorous, about half
an inch broad; stamens and style declined,
ascending; anther sacs short-beaked.
On   dry  wooded   slopes  throughout  the
Rockies: flowering during June.
Pyrola
uliginosa
Torr. Bog
Wintergreen.
both ends.
Scape 6-12 inches high, 7—15-
flowered. Leaves broadly oval
or orbicular, dull, rather thick,
obscurely crenulate, obtuse at
Flowers frequently over half an
inch broad; calyx lobes oblong or ovate-
lanceolate, J—J the length of the petals; style
and stamens declined; anther sacs beaked.
- In bogs throughout the Rockies, a very-
pretty species with bright rosy flowers and
rounded leaves; flowering in July.
Pyrola
asarifoiia
Michx.
Liver-leaf
Wintergreen.
6-15 inches high, 7—15-
flowered. Leaves reniform, usu- .
ally wider than long, thick,
shining above, obtuse at the
apex, cordate at the base, crenulate, 1-1J inches long, usually shorter, than I
a Pyrola asarifolia Michx.    Liver-Leaf Wintergreen.
b Pyrola uliginosa Torr.
e Moneses uniflora   (L.)   A. Gray. One-Flowered Wintergreen.
(% Nat.)
I  Pyrolaceae
209
the narrowly margined petioles. Flowers J-f
of an inch broad, pink, nodding in a slender raceme 2-4 inches long; stamens and
style declined, ascending; style exserted.
In damp ground, in woods and swamps
throughout the Rockies; flowering in July.
Leaf blades thin, broadly oval
Pyrola    . J
minor L. or nearly orbicular, dark green,
Lesser crenulate, obtuse but sometimes
Wintergreen. with a spine-tipped apex,
rounded, slightly narrowed or subcordate
at the base J-i inch long. Flowers pinkish,
\ inch broad, nodding, in a close raceme;
style straight included, stamens not inclined.
In damp mossy places throughout the region at the higher altitudes; flowering in July,
Stems generally several together,
from the much branched root-
stock, slender, 4-10 inches high.
Leaves ovate or often oval, thin,
acute or rarely obtuse at the apex, rounded
or narrowed at the base, crenulate-serrate,
Pyrola
secunda L.
One-sided
Wintergreen
14 2IO
Pyrolaceae
f-2 inches long, longer than the petioles.
Flowers greenish-white, \ of an inch or more
broad, many, at first erect but soon drooping,
in a dense one-sided raceme; style straight,
exserted; stamens not declined,
Common in woods throughout the region at
thelower altitudes; flowering during early July.
Moneses
uniflora (L.)
A. Gray.
One-flowered
Wintergreen.
Stem bearing 1-3 pairs or
whorls of leaves at the base,
continued above into a bracted
or naked scape 2-6 inches high.
Leaves orbicular or ovate, obtuse   at  the  apex,   narrowed,   rounded   or
sometimes subcordate  at the base,   rather
thin, J-1- inch long, longer than or equalling
the petioles.   Flowers white, J-| of an inch
broad, nodding at the summit of the stem;
petals spreading; capsule \ of an inch in
diameter,  about as long as the persistent
style and lobed stigma; the stamens in pairs
opposite each petal.
In mossy spots in the woods throughout
the region; flowering in early July. <v
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211
Chimaphila
umbellata
(L.) Nutt.
Pipsissewa,
Prince's
Pine.
Stems extensively creeping, sending up both sterile and flowering
branches 3-12 inches high.
Leaves numerous, crowded near
the summit of the stem, spatulate or cuneate-oblanceolate,
obtuse or acutish at the apex, sharply serrate, bright green and shining, 1-2 § inches
long, J-i inch wide above the middle.
Flowers several in an umbellate head, waxy
white or pink, the form of the region being
usually bright, rosy pink, J an inch or more
broad, petals spreading with the rosy pink
anthers opposite them in pairs; capsule
about \ of an inch broad surmounted by
the short "style.
Locally abundant throughout the region;
flowering during July.
Ericaceae
Heath Family
In our species, shrubs with simple leaves
and  perfect  flowers;  calyx  free   from  the
<iji 212
Ericaceae
ovary 4-5-parted, mostly persistent; corolla
regular, 4-5-toothed, -lobed or -parted;
stamens usually as many or twice as many
as the corolla lobes; anthers 2-celled, attached to the filaments by the back or base,
the sacs, often prolonged upwardly into
tubes; ovary 2-5-celled; fruit a capsule,
berry or drupe.
Gaultheria.
Fruit a berry or drupe.
Calyx becoming large .and fleshy.
Calyx small.
Leaves thick and leathery; drupe reddish-brown.
Arctostaphylos.
Leaves membranous, veiny; drupe scarlet.
Mairania.
Fruit a dry capsule.
Anther cells each with a recurved tip. Cassiope.
Anther cells not appendaged.
Corolla with united petals.
Bracts firm, persistent; no sca,ly leaf-buds.
Leaves heath-like; corolla without pouches.
Phyllodoce.
Leaves lanceolate; corolla with pouches.
Kalmia.
Bracts thin, deciduous; leaf-buds scaly.
Corolla funnel-form, 5-lobed.      Azaleastrum.
Corolla globose, 4-toothed. Menziesia.
Corolla with distinct petals.
Flowers white, umbelled; leaves evergreen.
Ledum. .■V;«J
slftfljp 212
Ericaceae
ovary 4-5-parted, mostly persistent; corolla
regular, 4-5-toothfed,\ -lobed or *l-parted;
stamens usually as many or twice as many
as the Corolla lobes; anthers 2-celled, attached to the filaments by the back or base,
the sacs, often prolonged upwardly into
sal 5; ovary 2-5-celled; fruit a capsule,
berry or drupe.
Fruit a berry or drupe.
Calyx becoming large .and fleshy.
Calyx small.
Leaves thick and leathery;
Gaultheria.
Ar<
Leaves membrarnns veiny; drupe Jjggrlet.
Mairania.
Fruit a dry ? ■ ssae.
Anther cells each with a re—a --W sp. .        Cassiope.
C
Bracts firm, persistent; no scaly leaf-buds.
Leaves heath-like; corolla without pouches.
Phyllodoce.
Leaves lanceolate; corolla with pouches.
Kalmia.
XJXciC'vd   Lj.li.Hj   v1CC.1lIU.OUo j  iv-.cii""DU.CI0  ov*cLl y.
Corolla funnel-form, globed.      Azaleastrum.
Menziesia.
Ledum.
Jorolla with distinct petals.
Flowers white, umbelled: le Jfr
a Oxycoccus oxycoccus (L.) MacM. Small Cranberry.
b  Gaultheria ovatifolia  A.  Gray.    Ovate-Leaved Wintergreen.
c Vitis-idaea vitis-idaea (L.) Britton.    Mountain Cranberry.
(%   Nat.)  Ericaceae
213
Gaultheria
ovatifolia
A. Gray.
Ovate-leaved
Wintergreen
beneath.
Depressed, trailing, with ascending branches with rusty
hairs. Leaves broadly ovate,
J-i inch long, serrulate, dark
green and shining above, lighter
Flowers pink or nearly white,
campanulate, less than J of an inch long,
on short solitary pedicels in the axils of the
leaves; fruit bright scarlet, J of an inch in
diameter.
A rather rare plant in the region but
abundant in places on the slopes of Avalanche Mountain at Glacier.
Tufted, creeping or depressed,
smooth, the flowering branches
1-5 inches long. Leaves oval
or rounded, mostly only J an
inch long; pedicels solitary in
the axils, very short, 3-5 bracteo-
late. Flowers depressed-campanulate, white
or pinkish, little surpassing the calyx; fruit
scarlet, \ of an inch in diameter.
Common   in   alpine   meadows   through-
Gaultheria
humifusa
(Graham)
Rydb.
Low
Wintergreen 214
Ericaceae
out the Rockies and Selkirks; flowering in
July. ■      I
Arctosta-
phylos Uva-
Ursi (L.)
Spreng.
Bear-berry.
1_
Trailing or spreading on the
ground; branches 6—24 inches
long, the twigs soft-hairy.
Leaves leathery, evergreen, spatulate, obtuse, entire, smooth or
minutely hairy toward the base,
1 inch long, J as wide, short-petioled.
Flowers J of an inch or less long, ovoid, constricted at the throat, rosy-pink or white,
few, in short racemes at the ends of the
branches.
In dry sandy or stony soil throughout the
Rockies at the lower elevations; flowering
in early June.
Tufted or depressed-prostrate,
branches 2—5 inches high, the
twigs smooth or nearly so,
Leaves thin, obovate, crenulate,
conspicuously reticulate-veined,
1    inch   long, J  as wide.    Flowers  few,
Mairania
alpina (L.)
Desv.
Alpine
Bear-berry.
1- Ericaceae
2I5
appearing before or with the leaves from
scaly buds; corolla i of an inch long, white,
ovoid, constricted at the throat; berry bright
scarlet.
Growing in moss on the wooded slopes
throughout the Rockies, flowering in May and
early June.    .
Cassiope
Mertensiana
(Bong.)
Don.
White
Heath.
Rather stout with rigid, ascending, woody, much branched
stems, a foot or less high. Leaves
J an inch long, smooth, not
furrowed on the back, closely
crowded in 4-ranks. Flowers
pure white, nodding, campanulate, J of an
inch long with 5 deeply cut obtuse spreading
lobes, on smooth peduncles half an inch or less
long, near the tips of the apparently 4-
sided stems; calyx smooth, usually red,
making the bell-like flowers appear red
and white.
Throughout the region at the higher
elevations, frequently carpeting the ground;
flowering in late June and early July. 2l6
Ericaceae
Phyllodoce
glanduli-
flora
(Hook.) Co-
ville. White
False-
heather.
Stems rather rigid, much
branched, 3-12 inches high.
Leaves numerous and crowded
but spreading, linear, oblong,
obtuse, J—J an inch long, thick,
leathery with a white line
through the centre below and
deeply furrowed above, the margins thick
and rough. Flowers ovoid, glandular throughout, less than J of an inch long, much
contracted at the throat, short-lobed, on
glandular pedicels J—1 inch long at the ends
of the branches.
In alpine meadows and woods at the
higher elevations throughout the region;
flowering during June and early July, often
in clumps of considerable size.
Much branched, from a more or
less decumbent base, 6-12 inches
high. Leaves linear, J-J an
inch long, obtuse, leathery, with
thickened revolute, slightly glandular-toothed  margins.   Flowers pale pink,
Phyllodoce
intermedia
(Hook.)
Rydb. Pink
False-
heather.  2l6
Ericaceae
Phyllodoce
glanduli-
flora
False-
Stems rather rigid, much
branched, 3-12. inches high.
Leaves numerous and crowded
but spreading|| linear, oblong,
obtuse, J—J- an inch long, thick,
leathery with a white line
through the centre below and
deeply furrowed above, the margins thick
and rough. Flowers ovoid, glandular through-
out, less than \ of an inch long, much
contracted  at  the  throat,   shorf]
glandular pedicels J-i
of the branches.
In  alpine   meadows
higher   ele1
jfcwiixij^  $ till" a
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p- at the ends
roods  at   the
the   region;
ltd early July, often
in clumps
tble size.
Much branched, from a more or
less decumbent base, 6-12 inches
high. Leaves linear, J—J an
inch long, obtuse, leathery, with
thickened revolute, slightly glandular-toothed  margins.   Flowers pale pink,
Phyllodoce
intermedia
(Hook.)
Rydb. Pink
False-
heather. a Phyllodoce empetriformis  (Smith)   Don.
Red False-Heather.
b  Phyllodoce  glanduliflora   (Hook.)   Rydb.
White False-Heather.
-c Cassiope Mertensiana   (Bong.)    Don.   (% Nat.)  Ericaceae
217
J* of an inch long, urn-shaped, slightly
contracted at the throat, with 5 spreading
lobes; at the ends of the branches on glandular pedicels J-i inch long; calyx slightly
glandular; corolla smooth; slightly fragrant.
Throughout the region growing in the
same situations as the other heathers, and
often associated with them, perhaps a hybrid;
flowering in late June and through July.
Phyllodoce
empetri-
formis
(Smith)
D. Don. Red
False-
heather.
Much branched from the base,
6-12 inches high. Leaves linear,
obtuse, J-§ an inch long, with
strongly revolute, thick rough
margins. Flowers \ of an inch
long, bright rose-colour, cam-
panulate, with broad, spreading
obtuse lobes, very fragrant, on slender, slightly
glandular pedicels mm inch long at the ends
of the stems; calyx and corolla smooth.
Abundant throughout the region at the
higher elevations, in the same situations
as the two previous species and flowering
with them during late June and early July. 2l8
Ericaceae
Kalmia
microphylla
(Hook.)
Heller.
Small-leaved
Swamp
Laurel.
A smooth shrub, 2-6 inches high
with erect or ascending branches,
the twigs 2-edged. Leaves opposite, short petioled, less than
\ an inch long, oblong or ovate,
obtuse, narrowed at the base,
the margins revolute. Flowers
on slender pedicels i-i£ inches long, few
in simple umbels terminating the branches;
corolla saucer-shaped, bright rosy pink about
\ an inch in diameter.
Frequent in mossy alpine bogs and meadows throughout the region at the higher
altitudes; flowering during June and early
July- a
A shrub with stems 2-6 feet
high, with slender hairy branches
more or less glandular when
young, nearly smooth with age.
Leaves thin, light green and
shining above, paler beneath,
oblong, 1-2 inches long, with
slightly   wavy   margins.      Flowers    white,
Azaleastrum
albiflorum
(Hook.)
Rydb.
White
Rhododendron. /•
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219
nearly an inch broad, open, with 5-spreading lobes; on short nodding stems in
numerous clusters of 1-3 near the ends of the
branches, on wood of the previous year;
sepals nearly J an inch long and leaflike,
filaments bearded at the base; stigma
peltate, 5-lobed.
On the wooded hillsides at the higher
elevations through the Rockies, but much
lower in the Selkirks; flowering in June and
July-      a    *'      It I
Menziesia
ferruginea
Smith.
Smooth
Menziesia.
A shrub 2-6 feet high, twigs
more or less chafly. Leaves
obovate, obtuse and glandular-
tipped at the apex, pale, glaucous and smooth or very nearly
so beneath, sparingly hairy above, f-ij-
inches long, the margins ciliolate. Flowers
1-5 on glandular pedicels J-i inch long in
spreading umbels, becoming erect, corolla
J of an inch long, cream and pink or salmon,
urn-shaped, with 4 spreading teeth; stamens
8,  included,  with hairy filaments. 220
Vacciniaceae
Throughout the  region  in  moist   woods
and slopes; flowering during June.
Ledum
Grcenland-
icum Oeder
Labrador
Tea.
A shrub 1-4 feet high, with
twigs densely rusty woolly.
Leaves oblong, obtuse, 1—2 inches
long, J—j an inch wide, green
and deeply veined above, densely
brown woolly beneath, the margins strongly
revolute. Flowers numerous, white, nearly
J an inch broad in close umbels or corymbs;
petals 5, narrow, spreading.
Abundant throughout the region at the
lower altitudes in bogs and swamps; flowering during June.
Vacciniaceae
Huckleberry Family
Shrubs or small trees with alternate leaves
and small perfect flowers; calyx tube adnate
to the ovary, 4-5-lobed or cleft; corolla 4-5-
lobed, rarely divided into single petals, deciduous;   stamens   twice   as   many   as   the M
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221
corolla lobes, inserted at the base; filaments
mostly short; anthers attached on the back
2-celled; fruit a globose berry or drupe.
Erect deciduous shrubs; corolla cylindric or urn-shaped,
white, pink or greenish. Vaccinium.
Low evergreen shrub; corolla open-campanulate, pink;
berry red. Vitis-idaea.
Trailing or creeping evergreen shrubs.
Corolla short-campanulate, white; berry white.
Chiogenes.
Corolla with spreading curved petals,  pink; berry
red. Oxycoccus.
Vaccinium
csespitosum
Michx.
Dwarf
Bilberry.
A shrub 3-7 inches high, much
branched and nearly smooth
throughout. Leaves obovate or
oblong, cuneate, obtuse or acute,
green and shining on both sides,
nearly sessile, serrulate, with close bluntish
teeth. Flowers white or pink, small bell-
shaped, J of an inch long, mostly solitary
in the axils and longer than their drooping
pedicels; berry J of an inch or more in diameter, blue with a bloom.
On slopes and in alpine meadows throughout  the   Rockies   at   the  higher   altitudes; 22.
Vacciniaceae
flowers appearing with the leaves in early
June.
Vaccinium
erythro-
coccum
Rydb.
A Ipine
Bilberry.
Stems erect with numerous
slender, strict, green branches
and branchlets, 3-18 inches high.
Leaves ovate or oval, J an inch
long or less, bright green. Flowers ovate, \ of an inch long,
white or pink, 5-lobed, solitary in the axils
of the leaves; berries small, bright red.
On slopes and in alpine meadows throughout the Rockies at the higher altitudes;
flowering during June.
Vaccinium ^ s^raSgling branched shrub,
ovaiifolium 3-12 feet high, the branches
Smith. slender,    twigs   smooth,    joints
71 sharply angled. Leaves oval,
short-petioled, smooth on both sides, green
above, pale and glaucous beneath, rounded
at both ends or somewhat narrowed at the
base, thin, sometimes spine tipped, entire
or nearly so, 1-2 inches long. Flowers
commonly  solitary in  the  axils on rather ■
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223
recurved pedicels; corolla pink or white,
ovoid, J of an inch or more long; berries
blue with a bloom J an inch in diameter.
In the beds of snow slides, occasionally in
the Rockies, and abundant through the
Selkirks, where it is also found in the woods;
flowering in May.
Vaccinium
globulare
Rydb.
Thin-leaved
Bilberry.
A branching shrub 1^3 feet high,
nearly smooth throughout, stems
round, only the youngest twigs
slightly angled, bark grey and
somewhat shreddy. Leaves
broadly oval or obovate, obtuse to acute,
somewhat pale beneath, veiny, sharply and
finely serrate, J-i£ inches long. Flowers on
pedicels |f an inch long; calyx teeth almost
obsolete; corolla depressed-globose, frequently more than J of an inch in diameter,
greenish-white; berry dark purple, J of an
inch in diameter.
In beds of snow slides and in woods in
the valleys of the Selkirks; flowering during
June. 224
Vacciniaceae
Vitis-idaea
Vitis-idaea
(L.) Britton
Mountain
Cranberry.
A low evergreen shrub* with
creeping stems, the branches
erect, 3-8 inches high, nearly
smooth. Leaves thick and
leathery, crowded, green and
shining above, paler and black-dotted beneath, ovate or oval, short-petioled and
entire or sparingly serrulate J-f of an inch
long, the margins revolute. Flowers in
short terminal 1-sided racemes or clusters,
nodding, longer than their pedicels; corolla
white or pink nearly J of an inch long, open
campanulate, 4-lobed; berries dark red, acid,
nearly \ an inch in diameter.
In bogs and moist mossy places throughout  the   Rockies;  flowering   during   June.
Creeping, branches rough hairy,
slender, 3-12 inches long.
Leaves leathery, persistent, oval,
ovate or slightly obovate, acute
at the apex, rounded or narrowed at the base, dark green and smooth
above, sprinkled with stiff, brown hairs be-
Chiogenes
hispidula
(L.)T.andG
Creepi ng
Snowberry. Vacciniaceae
2$
neath and on the revolute, entire margins;
J to nearly J an inch long. Flowers white,
ovoid, about £ of an inch long, few, solitary
in the axils, nodding, on the lower side of
the creeping stems; berry about J of an inch
in diameter, white, bristly, aromatic.
Throughout the Rockies at the lower
elevations, growing in moss and on damp,
decaying logs; flowering in May.
Oxycoccus
Oxycoccus
(L.) MacM
Small
Cranberry.
Stems slender, creeping and rooting at the nodes, 6-18 inches
long; branches ascending or erect
1-6 inches high. Leaves thick,
evergreen, ovate, entire, acutish
at the apex, rounded or cordate at the base,
dark green above, white beneath, J of an
inch or less long, \ as wide, the margins
revolute. Flowers 1-6, from terminal scaly
buds, nodding on slender erect pedicels;
corolla pink, \ of an inch broad, the petals
curled backwards; stamens and style protruding; berry globose, \ of an inch or more
in diameter, acid, often spotted when young.
15
1 226
Primulaceae
In sphagnum bogs throughout the Rockies,
though not common; flowering during July.
Primulace^
Primrose Family
Herbs with perfect regular flowers; calyx
free from the ovary, usually 5-parted; corolla 5-cleft; stamens as many as the corolla
lobes and opposite to them; flowers purple,
yellow or white.
Lobes of the corolla erect or spreading.
Leaves in a rosette at the base of the scape.
Corolla-tube longer than the calyx; flowers pink.
Primula.
*" Corolla-tube shorter than the calyx; flowers white
or yellow. Androsace.
Leaves whorled at the top of the  stem;  flowers
white. Trientalis.
Lobes of the corolla reflexed. Dodecatheon.
Primula
americana
Rydb.
Bird's-eye
Primrose.
Leaves spatulate or oblong,
obtuse at the apex, narrowed or
somewhat wedge-shaped at the
base, tapering into petioles,
green, usually  white-mealy be- Primulaceae
227
neath, at least when young; 1-4 .inches long,
the margins crenulate-dentate. Flowers umbellate 3-20, on scapes 4-18 inches high;
corolla pink or lilac, usually with a yellowish
eye, the tube slightly longer than the calyx,
the lobes wedge-shaped, notched at the apex,
J of an inch or more long.
In swamps and wet meadows in the lower
valleys of the eastern slopes of the Rockies
not penetrating far into the mountains;
flowering in June.
Primula
Maccalliana
Wiegand.
Maccalla's
Primrose.
Similar to the preceding species
but much smaller. Leaves
spatulate or obovate, mostly
quite broad; pale green above,
more or less mealy beneath, denticulate or repand, obtuse at the apex, narrowed or cuneate at the base, petioled or
sessile, J-iJ inches long, forming a rosette
at the base of the scape. Flowers f of an
inch broad or less, umbellate, on a peduncle
1-6 inches high; pale pink or bluish with a
conspicuous orange eye; the lobes obcordate; 228
Primulaceae
corolla tube yellow, slightly longer than the
calyx.
The commonest primrose of the region
on wet banks and moist, sandy or gravelly
places at the lower altitudes throughout the
Rockies; flowering in June, also occurs
sparingly in the Selkirks.
Androsace
carinata
Torr.   Sweet
Flowered
Androsace.
Proliferously branched at the
base and caespitose. Leaves
folded over each other, forming
rosettes at the bases of the many
flowered scapes; from lanceolate
to oblong-spatulate or ovate, keeled, i-
nerved, \-\ an inch long, acute, fringed with
hairs on the margins. Flowers \ of an inch or
more broad, cream coloured with a brilliant
yellow eye; 4-10 in a close umbel, on slender
hairy scapes 1-3 inches high; flowers delicately fragrant. j
Throughout the Rockies in open situations either dry or moist, and at low or high
altitudes; flowering from early June to midsummer according to the altitude. t   Jft
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229
Androsace
septentrion-
alis L.
A Ipine
Androsace.
Almost smooth, leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, narrowed at the base, from irregularly denticulate to laciniate
toothed. Flowers small, little
more than J of an inch broad, white with
yellow centre,, in spreading umbels; peduncles 2-10 inches high.
In open places and on grassy banks at
the lower altitudes throughout the Rockies;
flowering in May and early June.
Androsace
diffusa
Small.
Spreading
Androsace,
More or less hairy. Leaves
rosulate, oblanceolate to spatulate or nearly linear, J—1 \ inches
long, obtuse or acute, sharply
serrate above the middle or
sparingly toothed. Scapes erect and spreading, often diffusely branched at the base,
2-4 inches long; pedicels thread-like from
B| inches long in the same umbel. Flowers white or pink, the corolla included or
sometimes equalling the tips of the calyx
segments. 230
Primulaceae
On grassy banks and slopes in the Rockies
flowering in June.
Trientalis
arctica
Fisch.
Arctic
Star-flower
Stems slender, 1-4 inches high,
with small scattered obovate
leaves below; upper leaves ob-
ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate
obtuse, i-ij inches long. Flowers white on slender pedicels as long as the
leaves; calyx reddish with 7 narrowly linear
acute sepals; petals 7 white, lanceolate,
acute, about twice the length of the sepals;
stamens 7.
In moist woods throughout the region,
rare in the Rockies but common throughout
the Selkirks; flowering in June.
Dodeca-
theon
pauciflorum
(Durand)
Greene.
Slender
Shooting
Star.
Smooth. Leaves dark green,
lanceolate, acute, entire, 2-3
inches long. Flowers few in
an umbel; scape 6-8 inches tall;
segments of the corolla rich
lilac purple, the undivided part
yellow with a narrow scalloped -M
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231
ring, midway between the base of the segments and the stamen tube; stamen tube
often nearly as long as the anthers, yellow;
anthers purple.
In damp, open ground and grassy slopes
throughout the eastern Rockies; flowering in
June.
Dodeca-
theon
conjugens
Greene.
Shooting-
star.
Plant smooth. Leaves obovoid
and elliptic, 2-5 inches long,
including the distinct petiole,
obtuse, entire. Flowers large, in
a few-flowered umbel, scape 3-8
inches high; corolla deep purple varying to
rose-red; anthers, distinct., obtuse, the connective lanceolate, acuminate to a linear point.
In the open ground and plains in the lower
Valleys of the Rockies; flowering in June.
Gentianaceae
Gentian Family
Smooth herbs with opposite entire leaves,
and regular perfect flowers in clusters  or 232
Gentianaceae
Gentiana
acutaMichx
Northern
Gentian.
solitary at the ends of the stems or branches.
Calyx 4-12-lobed; corolla 4-12-parted; stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla
and alternate with them.
Corolla funnel-form or campanulate; without glands,
spurs or scales. Gentiana.
Corolla campanulate; spurred at the base.
Tetragonanthus,.
Stem leafy, slightly angled, simple or branched, 6-20 inches
high. Basal and lower leaves
spatulate or obovate, obtuse,
^he upper lanceolate, acuminate, rounded or
subcordate at the base, sessile or somewhat
clasping, \-2 inches long. Flowers numerous in clusters in the axils of the upper leaves;
pedicels J-i inch long, leafy bracted at the
base; calyx deeply 5-parted, lobes lanceolate;
corolla tubular campanulate, \ an inch long,
5-parted, pale blue or greenish; lobes lanceolate, acute each with a fimbriate crown at
the base.
Along stream banks and grassy slopes
throughout the Rockies, common; flowering
in July. Gentianaceae
233
Gentiana
propinqua
Richards.
Four-parted
Gentian.
Stems slender, usually much
branched from the base and
sometimes also above, slightly
wing-angled, 2-7 inches long.
Basal leaves spatulate obtuse,
the upper distant, oblong or lanceolate, J-i
inch long, acute or obtusish at the apex,
rounded at the slightly clasping base, obscurely 3-nerved. Flowers sometimes numerous, solitary on slender peduncles, mostly
4-parted, J-j of an inch high, seldom opening; calyx 4-cleft, two of the lobes oblong,
the others linear lanceolate; corolla blue or
bluish, glandular within at the base, the
lobes ovate-lanceolate, entire or denticulate.
Frequent throughout the Rockies on
slopes and open ground beside the trails;
flowering through July.
Gentiana
prostrata
Haenke.
Dwarf
Gentian.
Stems slender, 1-5 inches long,
when prostrate the lateral ones
often creeping. Leaves ovate,
rather spreading,' bright green
with   slightly   whitened   edges. 234
Gentianaceae
Flowers solitary, 4-parted, azure blue, J an
inch high, the lobes rather spreading.
A very small and rather rare plant found
throughout the Rockies at the higher altitudes, on the alpine slopes and "summits; flowering in July.
Gentiana
glauca
Pale-
glaucous
Gentian.
Perennial; stems 2—4 inches high.
Leaves oval, glaucous, J—J an
inch long, obtuse, the basal
forming a rosette.   'Flowers few
o
or several at the top of the stem,
short-peduncled or nearly sessile, usually subtended by a pair of bracts; calyx campanulate, the teeth shorter than the tube; corolla
blue or blue-green, J an inch or more long, the
tube cylindrical with short ovate obtuse lobes.
In wet alpine meadows and slopes throughout the region, a rather rare but very striking
little gentian, flowering in July.
Gentiana
affinis
Griseb.
Large
Gentian.
Stems clustered, 6—12 inches
high, mostly ascending. Leaves
from oblong or lanceolate to
linear.   Flowers from numerous oS
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235
and racemose to few and almost solitary;
calyx lobes linear or linear-awl-shaped,
unequal, the largest rarely equalling the
tube; corolla an inch or less long, bright
blue or bluish; funnel-form, spotted inside
with white, the lobes ovate, acute, and
spreading.
A showy species in damp open meadows
in the lower valleys throughout the Rockies,
especially abundant at Banff; flowering
during August.
Annual, stems simple or branched,
slender, erect, 6-20 inches high.
Basal leaves obovate or spatulate, obtuse, narrowed into petioles; stem leaves ovate or
lanceolate, acute, sessile, 3-5-
nerved, 1-2 inches long, the
uppermost smaller. Flowers J
of an inch or more long, few, on peduncles
about their own length, in the axils of the
upper leaves; corolla purplish-green or white,
4-5-parted,   the  lobes   ovate,   acute,   each
Tetragon
anthus
deflexus
(J. E.
Smith)
Kuntze.
Spurred
Gentian. 236
Menyanthaceae
with a hollow deflexed or descending spur
about half the length of the corolla.
In moist places and shaded slopes throughout the Rockies; a rather frequent but inconspicuous plant owing to its green colour;
flowering in July.
Menyanthace^
Buckbean Family
In our species a smooth marsh herb, with
creeping rootstock, long-petioled, 3-foliate
leaves and white or purplish flowers, in
racemes on long lateral scapes.
Menyanthes Creeping rootstocks sometimes
trifoliata L. a foot long marked by the scars
Buckbean. 0f bases of former petioles.
Leaves 3-foliate, petioles sheathing at the
base, 2-10 inches long; leaflets oblong or
obovate, entire, obtuse at the apex, narrowed to the sessile base, ij—3 inches long.
Flowers half an inch long, pure white or
purplish   in    10-20-flowered    racemes    on Apocynaceae
237
scape-like naked peduncles; calyx shorter
than the corolla which is bearded with white
hairs within, giving the flower a feathery
appearance.
In open marshes throughout the region,
local in distribution; flowering in May and
early June.
Apocynaceae
Dogbane Family
In our species, perennial herbs with
opposite, entire leaves and small, 5-parted,
campanulate, pink flowers in corymbed
cymes, and slender elongated terete seed pods.
Stems 1-3 feet high, branches
broadly spreading, mostly
smooth. Leaves ovate or oval,
spine tipped, smooth above, pale
and usually more or less hairy
beneath, 2-4 inches long. Flowers pink,  open campanulate,  | of an inch
Apocynum
androsajmi-
folium L.
Spreading
Dogbane,
Honeybloom 238
Hydrophyllaceae
broad, with 5 spreading lobes, numerous, in
loose, terminal and axillary cymes; seed
pods round, slender, curved, 4—6 inches long,
narrowed at the apex, usually in pairs;
plant with a milky juice.
Frequent on the line of the railway from
Field westward through the valley of the
Kicking Horse River.
Hydro ph yllace^e
Water-Leaf Family
Herbs, mostly rough-hairy, with alternate
or basal leaves, and perfect regular 5-parted
flowers in cymes, spikes or racemes, curled
when in bud and uncoiling as they flower;
stamens 5, inserted on the corolla and alternate with its lobes; filaments thread-like;
flowers yellow, purple or white.
Plant rough-hairy; leaves lanceolate and simple or
pinnate; flowers blue or violet-purple. Phacelia.
Plant smooth; leaves round reniform or cordate;
flowers white. Romanzoffia. o3
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239
Phacelia Rough-hairy;  stem stout,  6-24
heterophylia    inches high.   Leaves white hairy,
Pursh. lanceolate to ovate, acute, pin
nately and obliquely, striately veined, the
lower tapering into petioles, commonly with
1-2 pairs of small lateral leaflets. Flowers
in a dense spike; corolla bluish, longer than
the oblong-lanceolate or linear calyx lobes;
filaments much exserted, sparingly bearded.
In the Cougar Valley in the Selkirks;
flowering in July.
Phacelia
sericea
(Graham)
A. Gray.
Mountain
Phacelia.
Silky-hairy or canescent throughout, 6-18 inches high, leafy to
the top. Leaves pinnately
parted into linear or narrow
oblong, numerous, often pinnatifid divisions, the lower petioled, the upper nearly sessile. Flowers
crowded in an elongated spike, corolla
violet, blue or white, open-campanulate,
cleft to the middle; stamens much exserted.
In dry ground and open slopes throughout
the region; flowering in June and July. 240
Boraginaceae
Roman-
zoffia
sitchensis
Bong.
Roman-
zoffia.
Stems slender, weak, 3-6 inches
long. Leaves mainly at the
root, with slender petioles,
alternate, round-cordate, or reniform, with 7-11 crenate, glandular-tipped lobes. Flowers more
or less racemose on slender, weak scapes
with spreading pedicels longer than the
flowers; calyx lobes smooth, much shorter
than the delicately veiny pale pink or usually
white funnel-form corolla with yellow throat
and broad rounded lobes.
On constantly dripping ledges of wet rocks,
rare in the region generally but rather frequent about Lake Louise and Lake O'Hara;
flowering during July.
BORAGINACE^J
Borage Family
Herbs with alternate or rarely opposite,
entire, leaves and usually rough hairy stems.
Flowers   perfect,   regular, mostly   blue,   in Boraginaceae
241
1-sided curled spikes; corolla 5-lobed, stamens as many as the corolla lobes and alternate with them; fruit mostly of 4 i-seeded
nutlets.
Nutlets armed with barbed prickles. Lappula.
Nutlets not armed with barbed prickles.
Racemes without bracts; corolla flat, round.
Myosotis.
Racemes with bracts; corolla funnel form.
Lithospermum.
Lappula
floribunda
(Lehm.)
Greene.
False
Forget-me-
not.
Rough hairy, stem stout, panicu-
lately branched,  2-5 feet high,
the     branches     nearly     erect.
Leaves oblong, oblong-lanceolate
or linear-lanceolate,  2-4 inches
long, sessile, obtuse or acute at
the apex,   the  lower  narrowed
into long petioles.    Flowers 5-lobed, bright
blue with a yellow centre J to nearly J of an
inch broad in numerous erect, dense racemes,
nutlets i of an inch long, keeled tuberculate
on the back, the margins armed with a single
row of flat barbed prickles, on pedicels less
than their own length.
16 242
Boraginaceae
In moist, open ground, frequent throughout the Rockies; a striking plant with heads
of bright blue flowers, resembling large
forget-me-nots   flowering in June.
Similar to the preceding species,
but not so tall and with broader
acute leaves. Flowers larger,
J an inch broad, not so numerous; and larger, more densely
prickled nutlets, J of an inch
long, on pedicels more than their
own length.
Throughout the Rockies, probably more
common than the previous species, in moist,
more or less shaded or open ground; flowering
in June.
Lappula
diffusa
(Lehm.)
Greene.
False
Forget-me-
not.
Pale, leafy, rough, 1-2 feet high,
Lappula
Lappula the branches erect.    Leaves lin-
(L.) Karst. ear and linear-oblong, sessile
Stickseed. or -fae lowest spatulate and
narrowed into petioles £— ij inches long, obtuse.   Flowers very small, about the length i^jyr
a
X:
€m$ki
appula  floribunda
False Forger s;y-/=-:.
i§ft*gigi  Hnearifolitim   Geitfie.    -  •
-Leaved 242
Boraginaceae
In moist, open ground, frequent through-
o
n+-    + U,
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th  rmnrl<
ot   bright   blue   flower
forget-me-nots   flowerir
ssembling   large
June.
Similar to the preceding species,
but not so tall and with broader
acute leaves. Flowers larger,
| an inch broad, not so numerous; and larger, more densely
prickled nutlets, J of an inch
long, on pedicels more than their
own length.
Throughout the Rockies, probably more
common than the previous species, in moist,
more or less shaded or open ground; flowering
Lappula
diffusa
(Lehm.)
Greene.
False
For
not.
hi j une.
Lappula
Lappula
(L.) Karst.
Stickseed.
Pale, leafy, rough, 1-2 feet high,
the branches erect. Leaves linear u and linear-oblong, sessile
or  the   lowest   spatulate   and
tuse.. Flowers very small, about the length a Lappula  floribunda   (Lehm.)   Greene.
False Forget-me-not.
b   Lithospermum  linearifolium   Goldie.    (%   Nat.)
Narrow-Leaved Puccoon.  Boraginaceae
243
of the calyx, blue, in one-sided leafy-bracted
racemes; nutlets papillose on the back,
armed with 2 rows of slender barbed prickles.
In open or waste ground throughout the
region, especially on or near the railway;
flowering throughout the summer.
Myosotis
alpestris
Schmidt.
Forget-me-
not.
Stems tufted, erect, 3-9 inches
high. Leaves oblong, linear, or
lanceolate, hairy, 1-2 inches
long. Flowers in rather dense
heads; corolla flat,  bright blue
with a yellow centre J of an inch or more
broad, 5-lobed.
Frequent throughout the Rockies in alpine
meadows  and  on  grassy  slopes;  flowering
during June and early July.
Erect or diffusely branched from
the base, 6-12 inches high, minutely rough-hairy. Leaves all
linear, sessile, acute, 1-2 inches
long. Flowers of two kinds,
leafy-bracted, at the ends of ;the
branches,  the  earlier   bright   yellow,   J an
Lithosper-
mumlineari-
folium
Goldie.
Narrow-
leaved
Puccoon.
■*• 244
Menthaceae
inch broad with a tube an inch or more
long, the rounded lobes crenately erose;
the later flowers small, inconspicuous and
pale.
Dry sandy soil in the valley of the Bow
River at Banff, the showy flowers in May
and early June.
Menthaceae
Mint Family
Aromatic herbs mostly with 4-sided stems
and simple opposite leaves; flowers irregular,
perfect, clustered, the inflorescence typically
cymose; calyx persistent, 5-toothed or lobed;
corolla with a short or long tube, the limb
4-5-lobed, mostly 2-lipped, but some regular; stamens borne on the corolla tube,
typically 4.
Calyx with a protuberance on the upper side.
Corolla 2-lipped, the upper arched, tube long, blue.
Scutellaria.
Calyx without a protuberance on the upper side.
Corolla tube longer than the calyx; flower 2-lipped
purple. Prunella, Menthaceae
245
Corolla tube not longer than the calyx; flower 2-
lipped, pink. Stachys
Corolla tube shorter than the calyx; nearly regular,
4-lobed. Mentha.
Scutellaria Perennial by slender stolons,
galericulata leafy; stem erect, usually
L. Marsh        branched, 1-2 feet high.   Leaves
u caP" oblong-lanceolate to ovate-oblong, thin, short petioled or the upper sessile,
acute at the apex, dentate with low teeth
or the upper entire, subcordate or rounded
at the base, 1-2 J inches long, the uppermost
usually much smaller. Flowers an inch
long, bright blue with a slender tube and
slightly enlarged throat, solitary in the axils
of the leaves, on peduncles shorter than the
calyx.
In swamps and wet places, frequent along
the railway from Field west to Beavermouth.
Hairy or nearly smooth; stems
slender, creeping or ascending,
or erect, usually simple but sometimes considerably branched, 2
inches to 2 feet high.   Leaves ovate, oblong
Prunella
vulgaris L
Heal-all,
Self-heal. 246
Menthaceae
or oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or subacute at
the apex, usually narrowed at the base, thin,
entire or crenate, 1—4 inches long. Flowers
in dense terminal spikes J-i inch long, becoming 2—4 inches in fruit; corolla violet-
purple, or sometimes pink or white, J—J-
an inch long, twice as long as the purplish-
green calyx.
Common throughout the region in moist,
open or shaded places at the lower altitudes,
frequently forming clumps of considerable
size; flowering throughout the summer.
Stachys
palustris L.
Marsh
Woundwort.
Erect, usually slender, simple
or somewhat branched, hairy
throughout; 1—4 feet nigh.
Leaves lanceolate, sessile or very
short petioled, acuminate or
acute at the apex, wedge-shaped or cordate at the base, 2-5 inches long, J-i inch
wide, crenulate or dentate, flowers clustered,
forming an elongated, interrupted spike, or
sometimes in the axils of the upper leaves,
6-10 in a whorl;  calyx  hairy,   its  slender Menthaceae
247
teeth more than ^ the length of the tube;
corolla deep pink spotted with purple, §r|
of an inch long, the upper lip erect, hairy,
the lower spreading 3-cleft.
In swamps and wet places throughout
the region from Field west to Beavermouth
along the railway; flowering during July.
M   th Perennial by runners; stem more
canadensis or ^ess hairy with spreading
L. American hairs, simple or branched, 6
Wild Mint, inches to 2 J feet high. Leaves
oblong, ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate,
slender-stemmed, acute at the apex, sharply
serrate, smooth or sparingly hairy, the larger
2-3 inches long, |l1 inch wide. Flowers
numerous, small, §• of an inch long, white,
pink or pale purple, all in whorls in the axils
of the leaves, the calyx about J the length
of the corolla.
In moist soil and marshy places, frequent along the line of the railway from
Field west to Beavermouth; flowering during
J«iy- H-   I 248
Scrophulariaceae
SCROPHULARIACE^
Figwort Family
Herbs with alternate or opposite leaves
without stipules and mostly perfect, complete and irregular flowers; calyx 4—5-toothed,
-cleft, or -divided; corolla 2-lipped or nearly
regular and stamens 2, 4, or 5, nearly equal.
Stamens 5, the fifth sterile or rudimentary.
Sterile stamen represented by a gland on the upper
side of the corolla tube. Collinsia.
Sterile stamen nearly as long as the rest.
Pentstemon.
Stamens 2, leaves opposite or whorled. Veronica.
Stamens 4.
Stamens not enclosed in the upper lip.      Mimulus.
Stamens enclosed in the upper lip.
Anther cells unequal.
Upper lip of the corolla much longer than the
lower. Castilleja.
Upper lip of the corolla   scarcely longer   and
much narrower than the inflated lower one.
Orthocarpus.
Anther cells equal and parallel.
Galea not prolonged into a beak; throat without teeth. Pedicularis.
Galea prolonged into a very slender, recurved
beak; throat with a tooth on each side
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O  Scrophulariaceae
249
Collinsia
parviflora
Dougl.
Small-
flowered
Collinsia.
Stems slightly hairy at length,
diffusely branched, very slender,
3-15 inches long. Leaves oblong
or lanceolate, mostly obtuse at
the apex, narrowed at the base
J-1 inch long, entire or sparingly toothed,
the lower opposite, petioled; the floral sessile, opposite or verticillate. Flowers few, in
whorls in the axils of the leaves, on long
slender pedicels; corolla blue or whitish, the
throat longer than the limb; the upper lip
erect, 2-cleft, the lower lip 3-lobed, spreading.
An inconspicuous little plant on rocks
and in damp places throughout the region;
flowering during June and July.
Pentstemon Decumbent, diffusely spreading,
6-12 inches high, woody at the
base. Leaves ovate, obovate or
oblong, \ an inch or more long,
serrulate or entire, smooth or
hairy when young. Flowers in
glandular hairy terminal ra-
corolla violet, blue or pinkish purple,
fruticosus
(Pursh.)
Greene.
Large
Purple
Beard-
tongue.
cemes; 250
Scrophulariaceae
an inch or more long, tubular funnel-form,
2-lipped, the upper deeply 2-, the lower
3-cleft.
Throughout the region in exposed stony
places and on slides up to an elevation of
10,000 feet, frequently growing in patches
of considerable size; flowering in June and
early July.
Pentstemon
confertus
Dougl.
Yellow
Beard-
tongue.
Smooth throughout or the inflorescence and calyx sometimes
with viscid hairs; stem a foot or
two high. Leaves from oblong
or oblong-lanceolate to somewhat linear, usually quite entire.
Flowers in a terminal head of 2-5 dense,
many-flowered clusters; corolla with a narrow tube about £ an inch long, pale yellow;   the lower   lip   conspicuously bearded
within.
In moist or dry open ground throughout
the   Rockies,   especially   abundant   in   the
valleys of the Bow and  Pipestone in the CQ
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III  Scrophulariaceae
251
region about Laggan; flowering during late
June and early July.
Pentstemon
procerus
Dougl.
Blue Beard-
tongue.
Smooth throughout, stems slender, 2-12 inches high. Leaves
lanceolate, 1-2 inches long, those
of the middle of the stem largest,
usually entire. Flowers in dense
verticillate clusters, in a more or less elongated head; corolla bright blue with a slender
funnel-form tube \ an inch or more long; the
lower lip bearded within.
In open dry or moist ground throughout
the Rockies, not common; most abundant in
the valley of the Kicking Horse River at
Field; flowering in June.
Pentstemon     Smooth; stem 8-12 inches high,
pseudo- simple.     Basal   leaves   broadly
humilis spatulate or elliptic, thin, firm,
obtuse, or acute, contracted into
a slightly winged petiole, with entire margins;
stem leaves oblanceolate, oblong or lanceolate, 252
Scrophulariaceae
mostly all opposite. Flowers blue or bluish-
purple in a loose panicle, with more or less
glandular-hairy branches; calyx glandular-
hairy, J of an inch long, deeply cleft into
lanceolate lobes; corolla slightly hairy, about f
of an inch long, funnel-form, slightly oblique.
In open ground and slopes in the Selkirks;
flowering in July.
Veronica
americana
Schwein.
American
Brooklime.
Smooth throughout; stems decumbent, rooting at the lower
nodes, 6 inches to 2 feet long.
Leaves oblong, ovate, or oblong-
lanceolate, all distinctly petioled,
sharply serrate with a wedge-shaped or
rounded base, obtuse or acute at the apex,
1-3 inches long, J-i inch broad. Flowers
in racemes on slender peduncles in the axils
of the leaves; corolla blue or nearly white,
striped with purple, nearly J of an inch
broad, rotate, with 4 unequal lobes.
In brooks and swampy places in the Selkirks, especially around Glacier; flowering
throughout the summer. Scrophulariaceae
253
Veronica
Wormsk-
joldii R. and
S.  Alpine
Speedwell.
Hairy throughout with brown
glandular hairs; stems ascending or erect, slender, usually
simple, 2-12 inches high. Leaves
oblong, ovate or elliptic, sessile,
mostly rounded at both ends, crenulate or
entire, |-i inch long. Flowers light blue,
in a short, narrow raceme; corolla, J of an
inch broad, rotate, lobes nearly equal and
rounded.
Throughout the region in open woods,
and in alpine meadows and slopes up to
7000 feet elevation; flowering during June
and July.
Slightly hairy or smooth; stems
slender, decumbent, the branches
ascending or erect, 2-10 inches
high. Leaves all opposite and
petioled or the uppermost sessile,
oblong, oval or ovate, \-\ an
inch long, crenulate, entire. Flowers in
short spicate racemes at the ends of the
stems and  branches;  corolla pale blue or
Veronica
serphylli-
folia L.
Thyme-
leaved
Speedwell. 254
Scrophulariaceae
sometimes white, with darker stripes, nearly
J of an inch broad.
In open grassy ground at the lower altitudes throughout the Selkirks, very abundant
and striking in the lawn at Glacier House;
flowering during June.
Mimulus
Lewisii
Pursh.    Red
Monkey-
flower.
Stems viscid-hairy, 2-4 feet
high. Leaves from oblong-ovate
to lanceolate, acuminate, denticulate, opposite, 2-4 inches
long and J as broad. Flowers
on peduncles longer than the leaves; calyx
campanulate, f of an inch long, with triangular acute teeth; corolla rose-red or
paler, the tube twice as long as the calyx,
throat open, limb two-lipped; lobes of
the upper lip erect or turned backward,
obcordate, the lower lip spreading, the lobes
obovate.
In wet ground and along streams through
the Selkirks, frequently growing in such
abundance as to practically exclude all other
vegetation;   the  large   showy,    rose-purple Scrophulariaceae
255
flowers, each with two bright yellow patches
in the throat.
Mimulus
caespitosus
Greene.
Yellow
Monkey-
flower.
Smooth, stems flattened, decumbent and rooting at the
nodes, the branches rising 3-6
inches high. Leaves orbicular or
ovate, J—1 inch long, dentate or
denticulate, usually sublyrate, purple beneath.
Flowers axillary on long peduncles; calyx campanulate, J of an inch long, mottled with dark
purple; corolla bright yellow, f-i inch long,
throat spotted with dark red, lobes of the upper lip erect, J-J an inch long, the middle lobe
of the lower lip broadly cordate, pendulous.
In wet, gravelly soil around springs and in
the beds and banks of alpine brooks, through
the Selkirks, often forming large patches;
flowering in July.
Hairy with soft and glandular
haif s, musk scented; stems creeping or ascending, branched, slender, 6-12 inches long. Leaves
ovate or oblong,   short  petioled,   acute  or
Mimulus
moschatus
Dougl.
Musk Plant.
1 256
Scrophulariaceae
obtuse at the apex, denticulate, rounded
or subcordate at the base, 1-2 inches long,
half as broad. x Flowers £ of an inch long
on axillary peduncles, shorter than the
leaves; corolla funnel-shaped with a spreading
limb nearly J an inch broad, bright yellow.
In wet shaded ground at the lower altitudes,
throughout the Selkirks; flowering during
June and July.
Castilleja
pur pur-
ascens
Greenm.
Painter's
Brush.
Perennial more or less purplish
throughout, stems erect or nearly
so, 4-12 inches high, usually,
several from the same root,
smooth or somewhat hairy below, soft hairy above. Leaves
sessile, clasping, linear or narrowly lanceolate,
f-2 inches long, usually attenuate and acute,
entire and undivided or occasionally 3-cleft
near the apex, smooth or the uppermost
soft-hairy, 3-nerved. Inflorescence in a
close terminal raceme, later elongated, about
3 inches long, close-hairy; bracts ovate-
lanceolate or oblong-ovate, 1-1J inches long, Scrophulariaceae
257
usually entire or occasionally cleft, from
deep purple-red to scarlet and rarely yellow
to tinged with red or pink; calyx f-i inch
long, ranging in color with the bracts; corolla
1-1J inches long, galea green or greenish-
yellow with scarlet margins and exserted
beyond the calyx and floral bracts.
Frequent in the lower altitudes through
the Rockies; very abundant and striking on^
the flood-plain of the Kicking Horse River
at Field; flowering during June.
Commonly hairy with weak cobwebby hairs, a foot or less high.
Leaves linear to lanceolate or
the upper ovate lanceolate.
Flowers in dense leafy-bracted
spikes; bracts oval or obovate,
partly white or yellowish, cobwebby-hairy,
equalling the corolla; calyx 2-cleft, the lobes
oblong or lanceolate, corolla jta inch long;
galea not exceeding the calyx.
In moist open grounds at the higher altitudes throughout the Rockies; flowering
in July.
Castilleja
pallida
Kunth.
White
Indian
Paint-brush
17 258
Scrophulariaceae
Castilleja
miniata
Dougl.
Bright
Painted
Cup.
A foot or two high, mostly simple and strict, smooth or nearly
so.    Leaves lanceolate or linear
or   the   upper   ovate-lanceolate
acute,   entire  or rarely  3-cleft.
Flowers in a dense, short, hairy
spike; bracts from lanceolate to oval, mostly
bright red or crimson, occasionally pinkish,
rarely  whitish,   seldom lobed;  calyx  lobes
lanceolate,  acutely  2-cleft; corolla over an
inch long; galea exserted, linear, longer than
the tube.
In moist alpine meadows throughout the
Rockies; flowering in July.
Perennial with a long creeping
rootstock, not growing in clumps,
1-2 feet high, sparingly close-
hairy or^ nearly smooth, very
leafy. Leaves lanceolate; often
acuminate, iJ-2^ inches long,
rather firm, 3-veined, the upper seldom if
ever cleft. Flowers in a compact terminal
head; bracts bright scarlet, oblong, obtuse;
Castilleja
lanceifolia
Rydb.
Scarlet
Painted-
Cup. Scrophulariaceae
259
calyx 1 inch long, crimson or scarlet with
a green base about equally cleft; corolla yellowish-green, \ an inch longer than the calyx.
In moist open woods throughout the Rockies at the lower altitudes on the eastern
slope; flowering in June and July.
Orthocarpus
luteus
Nutt.
Yellow
Orthocarpus.
Annual, rough-hairy; stems
stout, erect, branched above
or simple, 6-18 inches high,
densely leafy. Leaves erect or
ascending, linear or lanceolate,
entire or sometimes 3-cleft, i-i£ inches long,
sessile, long acuminate; bracts of the dense
spike lanceolate, broader and shorter than
the leaves, entire or 3-cleft, green, mostly
longer than the flowers. Flowers bright
yellow, an inch long or less, the upper lip
ovate, obtuse, about as long as the sac-like
3-toothed lower one.
In open ground in the lower valleys
throughout the region as far west as the
valley of the Columbia River at Beavermouth; flowering throughout the summer. 260
Scrophulariaeeae
I
Elephantella
grcenlandica
(Retz.)
Rydb.
Long-beaked
Elephantella.
Whole plant usually purple,
smooth; stem simple, erect, i-ij
feet high. Leaves alternate,
lanceolate in outline, pinnately
parted or the lower pinnately
divided into lanceolate, acute,
crenulate, or incised segments,
the upper sessile, the lower slender-petioled
2-6 inches long. Flowers in a very dense
spike 1-6 inches long; calyx short, acutish;
corolla red or purple, the galea produced
into a slender beak J-f of ah inch long, which
is decurved against the lower lip and upwardly recurved beyond it; body of the
corolla about | of an inch long.
In open bogs and wet alpine meadows at
the higher altitudes throughout the Rockies;
flowering in July.
Pedicularis
racemosa
Dougl.
White
Lousewort.
Smooth throughout, simple or
sometimes branching, 6-18 inches
high. Leaves lanceolate, undivided, minutely and doubly
crenulate, 2-4 inches long.  Flow- Scrophulariaceae
261
ers short-pedicelled in a short leafy raceme
or spike, or the lower remote in the axils of
the leaves; corolla white, showy, the galea
which is half an inch long produced into a
slender, elongated, incurved beak nearly
reaching the apex of the broad lower
lip.
At the higher altitudes in the Rockies in
moist open ground and alpine meadows,
flowering in July.
Pedicularis
bracteosa
Benth.
Wood
Betony.
Smooth, 1-3 feet high; leaves
3-10 inches long, all pinnately
parted, the lower divided, ample;
divisions of the leaves j—2 inches
long, linear-lanceolate. Flowers
crowded in a cylindrical, leafy-bracted spike,
2-6 inches long; corolla less than an inch
long, pale yellow or reddish, the galea
much longer than the lip with a hooded
summit.
Frequent throughout the Rockies in
moist open woods and alpine meadows at
the higher elevations; flowering during July. 262
Lentibulariaceae
Lentibulariaceae
Butterwort Family
In our species, stemless herbs with fibrous
roots and i-flowered scapes; basal, tufted,
entire leaves, the upper surface covered with a
viscid secretion, to which insects adhere and
are caught by the curling of the sensitive
leaf margins; calyx 4-5-parted or 2-lipped;
corolla sac-like and contracted into a spur.
Pinguicula
vulgaris L.
Butterwort.
lanceolate.
Leaves pale yellowish-green,
3-7 in a rosette at the base of
the scape, greasy to the touch
on the upper surface, ovate-
obtuse, 1-2 inches long, J as
wide. Flowers solitary on a slender scape,
violet-purple, nearly J an inch broad when
expanded, 2-lipped; the upper lip 2-lobed;
the lower 3-lobed, larger; the tube gradually
contracted into an obtuse or acute nearly
straight spur, J of an inch long.
In wet mossy places, on rocks, or edges
of   gravelly   stream   beds   throughout   the Pinguicula   yuigar
temon fruticosus  (PurU.    Qmm
Large Purple BeardeT- -'t
I i 262
Leritibulariaceae
Lentibtjlariace^
Butterwort Family
In our species, stemless herbs with fibrous
roots and i-flowered scapes; basal, tufted,
entire leaves, the upper surface covered with a
viscid secretion, to which insects adhere and
are caught by the curling of the sensitive
leaf margins; calyx 4-5-parted or 2-lipped;
corolla sac-like and contracted into a spur.
Pinguicula
vulgaris L.
Butterwort.
Leaves pale yellowish-green,
3-7 in a rosette at the base of
the scape, greasy to the touch
on the upper surface, ovate-
lanceolate, obtuse, 1-2 inches long, \ as
wide. Flowers solitary on a slender scape,
violet-purple, nearly \ an inch broad when
expanded, 2-lipped; the upper lip 2-lobed;
the lower 3-lobed, larger; the tube gradually
contracted into an obtuse or acute nearly
straight spur, \ of an inch long.
In wet mossy places, on rocks, or edges
of   gravelly   stream   beds   throughout   the a   Pinguicula   vulgaris   L.    Butterwort.
b Pentstemon fruticosus (Pursh)  Greene.  (% Nat.)
Large Purple Beard-Tongue.  Rubiaceae
263
Rockies, at the lower altitudes; the bright
little flowers suggesting violets; flowering
during June.
11
RUBIACEAE
Madder Family
In our species, herbs with 4-angled stems
and branches, with verticillate leaves and
small 4-parted flowers, regular and perfect
and fruit separating into 2-carpels.
Galium Smooth, erect, simple or branched,
boreale L.     leafy,   1-2J  feet  high.    Leaves
Northern       jn   4>s^   ianceolate   or   linear   3-
Bedstraw.
nerved, obtuse or acute, 1-2$
inches long, the margins sometimes fringed
with hairs. Flowers white, numerous in a
terminal panicle; corolla 4-parted, J of an
inch across, the lobes lanceolate, acute.
In open ground and in open woods or
thickets at the lower altitudes, throughout
the Rockies; flowering in July. 264
Caprifoliaceae
Caprifoliace^e
Honeysuckle Family
Shrubs, trees, vines or perennial herbs
with opposite leaves and mostly cymose
flowers; calyx 3-5-toothed, the corolla
5-lobed or sometimes 2-lipped; stamens
5-inserted on the tube of the corolla and
alternate with the lobes; fruit a berry, drupe
or capsule.
Corolla   rotate   or urnshaped; flowers  in  compound
cymes.
Leaves pinnate. Sambucus.
Leaves simple. Viburnum.
Corolla tubular or campanulate, often 2-lipped.
Creeping,  somewhat woody herb; flowers in pairs,
pink. Linnaea.
Shrubs, erect or climbing.
Corolla short campanulate, regular or nearly so.
Symphoricarpos.
Corolla tubular and irregular. Lonicera.
A shrub 2-12 feet high, the
twigs and leaves commonly
hairy; stems woody, the younger
with reddish brown pith.
Leaves pinnate with 3-7 ovate-
lanceolate or oval,   acuminate leaflets  2-5
Sambucus
pubens
Michx.
Redberried
Elder. Caprifoliaceae
265
inches long, sharply serrate. Flowers numerous, less than J of an inch broad, white,
in a close oblong head 3-4 inches high, longer
than broad; berries in a compact head,
bright scarlet, J of an inch in diameter.
Rocky places and thickets throughout
the region though most abundant in the
Selkirks; flowering in June, the bright red
berries ripe in late summer.
Sambucus
melanocarpa
A. Gray.
Blackberried
Elder.
A shrub 2-12 feet high, smooth
or the young leaves slightly
hairy. Leaves pinnate with,
3-7 or rarely 9 ovate-oblong
or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate
leaflets, 2-5 inches long, sharply serrate.
Flowers small white in a close compound
cyme 3-4 inches high and as broad; berries
J of an inch broad, black and shining in a
close head.
Rocky places and thickets in the Selkirks,
growing with the other species and difficult
to distinguish from it except by the colour
of the berries. 266
Capriofoliaceae
Viburnum
pauciflorum
Pylaie.
Few-flowered
Cranberry
Tree.
A straggling bush 2-6 feet high
with twigs and petioles smooth
or nearly so. Leaves broadly
oval, obovate or broader than
long; 5-ribbed, mostly with 3
rather shallow lobes above the middle, coarsely and unequally dentate, smooth above,
more or less hairy on the veins beneath, 1J-3
inches broad. Flowers small, pure white or
pinkish, \ of an inch broad in compact axillary heads an inch or so broad; drupe
globose, bright red, acid, about half an inch
long.
A most attractive shrub in thickets and
woods at the lower altitudes throughout
the Rockies; flowering in May and early
June; the acid fruit is frequently used for
preserving.
Linnaea
americana
Forbes,
Twin-
flower.
Branches slender, woody,
slightly hairy, trailing, 6-24
inches long. Leaves evergreen,
opposite, obovate or orbicular,
obscurely crenate, thick, J—} of  1 Caprifoliaceae
267
an inch wide, sometimes wider than long.
Flowers nodding in pairs, rarely in 4's, oh
slender pedicels J—| of an inch long, very
fragrant; corolla tubular-campanulate with
5 equal lobes, pink or nearly white, deep
pink within.
In moist cool woods, frequent throughout
the region, especially in the Rockies; flowering in late June and early July.
An erect shrub, 1-4 feet high,
smooth or nearly so with slender
branches. Leaves oval, obtuse
at each end, 1-2 inches long,
entire, undulate or sometimes
Flowers pale pink or white, few,
in axillary clusters; corolla campanulate,
I of an inch long, equally 5-lobed, slightly
inflated at the base and bearded within;
berries snow-white, nearly \ an inch in
diameter.
On rocky banks and along streams at the
lower altitudes throughout the Rockies; flowering during July.
Symphori-
carpos
racemosus
Michx.
Snowberry.
dentate. 268
Caprifoliaceae
Symphori-
carpos
pauciflorus
(Robbins)
Britton.
Low
Snowberry.
A low, spreading, diffusely-
branched shrub 6-9 inches high.
Leaves broadly oval or orbicular, entire, softly hairy, especially along the veins beneath.
Flowers about J of an inch
long,   solitary    in    the    upper
axils, and 2 or 3   in   the   terminal   spike;
corolla     campanulate,     5-lobed,      bearded
within;   berry globose, white, \ of an inch
in diameter.
In rocky places  and  on wooded  slopes
throughout     the    Rockies;    flowering    in
July-
Smooth, more or less shrubby or
twining. Leaves smooth above,
glaucous and hairy at least on
the veins beneath, 1J-2 inches
long, papery on the margins,
usually only the upper pair
connate-perfoliate. Flowers in a short terminal interrupted spike, corolla 1 inch long
or less, yellow changing to reddish, slightly
Lonicera
glaucescens
Rydb.
Douglas's
Honeysuckle.
^-EL Caprifoliaceae
269
hairy without, long-hairy within, the tube
rather strongly inflated at the base, the
2-lipped limb shorter than the tube, stamens
and style exserted.
In  rocky  places  and  along  river  banks
throughout the   Rockies;   flowering during
July-      I      W '§k;I       I
Lonicera
ebractulata
Rydb.
Fly Honeysuckle.
Shrubby, 3-6 feet high with grey
bark. Leaves light green, glaucous and hairy beneath, fringed
with hairs on the margins, elliptic-ovate or broadly-ovate, obtuse, rounded or cordate at the base, rounded
at the apex, 1-2 J inches long, J-iJ inches
wide. Flowers in pairs from the axils of
the leaves; peduncles about § an inch long;
corolla light yellow, about | of an inch long,
funnel-form, and spurred at the base on the
inner side; berry bright red, J of an inch in
diameter.
In moist woods throughout the region at
the lower altitudes; flowering in May and
early June. 270
Caprifoliaceae
Lonicera
involucrata
(Richards)
Banks.
Involucred
Fly Honeysuckle.
A nearly smooth shrub 3-10
feet high. Leaves short-petioled,
ovate, oval or obovate, 2-6
inches long, acute or acuminate
at the apex, narrowed or rounded at the base, more or less hairy
at least when young. Flowers
greenish-yellow, 2 or 3 on axillary peduncles,
1-2 inches long, bracts foliaceous, ovate or
oval, often cordate, bractlets larger, greenish-
yellow, at length turning rich maroon and
surrounding the fruit; corolla hairy, funnel-
form; the limb nearly equally 5-lobed;
stamens and styles slightly exserted; berries
separate, globose or oval, nearly black,
about \ of an inch in diameter.
In rich moist woods and thickets at the
lower altitudes throughout the region, inconspicuous when in flower in late June and
early July, but especially showy when in
fruit, the blue-black berries subtended by
the showy maroon bracts, making it a most
striking shurb during summer and early
autumn. Banks. :'■■*% Nat
Involucred  Fly  Hoi 270
Caprifoliaceae
2—1
Lonicera
involucrata
(Richards)
Banks.
Involucred
Fly Honeysuckle.
A nearly smooth shrub
feet high. Leaves short-petioled,
^jjife^it'! oval |or obovate, 2-6
inches long, acute or acuminate
at the apex, narrowed or rounded at the base, more or less hairy
at least when young. Flowers
greenish-yellow, 2 or 3 on axillary peduncles,
1-2 inches long, bracts foliaceous, ovate or
oval, often cordate, bractlets larger, greenish-
yellow, at length turning rich maroon and
surrounding the fruit; corolla hairy, funnel-
form; the limb nearly equally 5-lobed;
stamens and styles slightly exserted; berries
separate, globose-or oval, nearly blacky
about J of an inch in diameter.
In rich moist woods and thickets at the
lower altitudes throughout the region,  in-
i-n    U+o    Tf,«C
conspicuous wnen in now
early July,  but especially showy when in
fruit, the blue-black berries subtended bv
lg   lb cl IllUbl-
striking shurb during summer   and   early
autumn. Lonicera involucrata  (Richards.)    Banks.   (% Nat.)
Involucred  Fly  Honeysuckle.  Valerianaceae 271
Valerianace^e
Valerian Family
Perennial strongly smelling herbs, with
opposite leaves and paniculate heads of
small pink or white, funnel-form, more or
less gibbous flowers, commonly with 3
exserted stamens.
Valeriana
septentri-
onalis Rydb
Northern
Valerian.
Erect, perfectly smooth throughout or the inflorescence minutely
hairy, 8-16 inches high. Basal,
leaves petioled, spathulate or
oval, 1-5 inches long, entire;
stem leaves usually 3 pairs, the lower
petioled, the upper sessile, segments, 5-7
oval or linear-lanceolate, entire or merely
undulate on the margins. Flowers cymose-
paniculate, usually congested; corolla white,
about f of an inch long; fruit smooth, J of
an inch or slightly longer.
In moist shaded places and on slopes in
the lower valleys of the Rockies; flowering
in July.
w 272
Valerianaceae
Valeriana
Scouleri
Rydb.
Scouler's
Valerian.
Smooth throughout; stem rather
stout, 1-3 feet high. Leaves,
the basal on long petioles, oblong, 1-2 inches long, 3-lobed,
the centre one much the largest,
oblong, tapering to both ends, the lateral
lanceolate; stem leaves, 2-4 pairs pinnately
parted in 5-7 lanceolate, acute, entire, or
undulate segments, 1-2 inches long. Flowers
pink in a flat, cymose panicle, 2-2 J inches
broad; corolla nearly J of an inch long,
funnel-form; stamens and style exserted.
In moist open ground throughout the
Rockies at the higher elevations; flowering
during June and early July.
Valeriana Smooth; stems rather stout,
sitchensis 1-5 feet high, often branching..
Bong. Wild Leaves in 2-4 pairs, pinnately
Heliotrope. 3_5_iobed> leaflets ovate to oblong or lanceolate, acuminate, coarsely dentate, 1-2 inches long, densely white-hairy
at the base of the petioles; basal leaves lacking at the time of flowering.    Flowers very X*
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a>  Campanulaceae
2 73
fragrant, pink, in a compact cymose panicle,
corolla broad, funnel-form, J of an inch long
with spreading rounded lobes; stamens and
style much exserted.
Common along the streams and in damp
places in the Selkirks, at times forming vast
masses of pink when in flower in June and
early July.
Cam panul ace^e
Bell)'lower Family
Herbs with alternate simple leaves, usually
milky juice, and perfect flowers; calyx mostly
5-lobed; corolla regular or irregular, the tube
entire or deeply cleft on one side, its limb
5-lobed, regular or more or less 2-lipped;
stamens 5, alternate with the corolla lobes.
Campanula Smooth or nearly so, simple, 1-6
uniflora L. inches high. Leaves linear
Arctic or linear-oblong, acute,   sessile,
'"'""("- thickish entire or sparingly den
tate, f-ij inches long or the lower and basal
ones   spatulate, obtuse   and   narrowed into
18 2 74^
Campanulaceae
petioles. Flowers erect, calyx tube top-
shaped, smooth or hairy, shorter than or
equalling the lobes; corolla narrowly campanulate, HE an inch long, bright blue, with
5 slightly spreading lanceolate lobes.
Alpine summits in the Rockies not common; flowering in July.
Campanula Smooth or nearly so, stems erect
rotundifolia or spreading, often several from
L. Harebell,    the    same    root,     simple    or
' branched, 6 inches to 2 feet high.
Basal leaves nearly orbicular or broadly ovate,
usually heart-shaped and slender petioled,
J-1 inch wide, dentate or entire, often
wanting at flowering time; stem leaves linear
or linear-oblong acute, mostly entire and
sessile or the lower narrowed into short
petioles and somewhat spatulate. Flowers
several or numerous in racemes, drooping
or spreading, slender pedicelled; calyx lobes
hair-like, spreading, longer than the tube, corolla bright blue, campanulate, J-i inch long.
On moist rocks or stony places, on slides Cichoriaceae
275
or gravelly stream banks, frequent throughout the region; flowering during most of the-
summer.
Lobelia
Kalmii
strictiflora
Rydb.
Brook
Lobelia.
Smooth throughout or slightly
hairy below; stem simple or
slightly branchedj erect, leafy,
4-8 inches high. Leaves basal,
small, |p-j an inch long, obovate,
hairy; stem leaves linear. Flowers light blue
or white, J or nearly J an inch long on erect
pedicels slightly more than their own length;
petals 5, the two upper erect, J of an inch
long, very slender, the 3 lower broader, \ of
an inch long and spreading, in loose racemes,
lower bracts linear lanceolate, the upper
hair-like.
On wet banks or wet gravelly or sandy
ground at the lower altitudes throughout the
Rockies, abundant locally; flowering in July.
ClCHORIACE.®
Chicory Family
Herbs  almost  always  with  milky juice, 276
Cichoriaceae
alternate or basal leaves and yellow or rarely
pink, blue, purple, or white flowers in involucrate heads; bracts of the involucre in 1 to
several series; flowers all alike and perfect;
corolla with a short or long tube and a strap-
shaped (ligulate) usually 5-toothedlimb (ray).
Heads solitary; leaves all basal.
Achenes smooth at the apex.
Achenes spinulose at the apex.
Heads several; leaves not all basal.
Achenes flattened.
Flowers yellow.
Flowers blue.
Achenes rounded.
Pappus white.
Pappus tawny.
Agoseris.
Taraxacum.
Sonchus.
Lactuca.
Crepis.
Hieracium.
Pale and smooth throughout or
a little woolly below. Leaves
linear-lanceolate or oblong, entire, dentate or pinnatifid, 2-10
inches long, acuminate. Scapes
stout, smooth or slightly hairy,
longer than the leaves, 6-18
inches high, head 1-2 inches broad, rays
bright yellow, involucre oblong, campanulate,
usually smooth.
Open grounds and on grassy alpine slopes
Agoseris
glauca
(Pursh.)
Greene.
Large-
flowered
Agoseris o«
%
3te
If
m.
.WWj-
^"awss^
W r ■•'
caelum umbellatum  L,-. ; Narrow-Le;
.goseris aurantiaca   (Hoo!       Greei
iiawK> 2 76
Cichoriaceae
alternate or basal leaves and yellow or rarely
pink, blue, purple, or white flowers in involucrate heads; bracts of the involucre in i to
several series; flowers all alike and perfect;
corolla with a short or long tube and a. strap -
shapdd (ligulate) usually 5-toothed limb (ray).
Heads solitary; leaves all basal.
Achenes smooth at the apex.
Achenes spinulose at the apex.
Heads several; leaves not all basal.
Achenes flattened.
Flowers yellow.
Flowers blue.
Achenes rounded.
Pappus white.
Pappus tawny.
Agoseris.
Taraxacum.
Sonchus.
Lactuca.
Crepis.
Hieracium.
Agoseris
glauca
(Pursh.)
Greene.
Large-
flowered
Agoseris
Pale and smooth throughout or
little  woollv  belo^
/eaves
linear-lanceolate or oblong, entire, dentate or pinnatifid, 2-10
inches long, acuminate". Scapes
stout, smooth or slightly hairy,
longer than the leaves, 6-18
inches high, head 1-2 inches broad, rays
bright yellow, involucre oblong, campanulate,
usually smooth. ■
Open grounds and on grassy alpine slopes a Hieracium umbellatum  L.  Narrow-Leaved  Hawkweed.
b  Agoseris aurantiaca   (Hook.)   Greene.   (%   Nat.)
•fxnmn  Cichoriaceae
277
and in meadows; flowering during June and
July.
Nearly smooth, not glaucous.
Leaves oblanceolate, obtuse, entire or with lanceolate lobes
toward the base, narrowed into
slender petioles, 4-8 inches long.
Scapes longer than the leaves,
smooth below, woolly at the top;
involucre J-} of an inch high, bracts lanceolate, more or less woolly, flowers orange or
copper-coloured.
In open ground and alpine meadows
throughout the region; flowering in midsummer.
Agoseris
aurantiaca
(Hook.)
Greene.
Orange-
flowered
Agoseris.
Agoseris
graciliens
(A. Gray)
Greene.
Slender
Agoseris.
Smooth,    leaves   lanceolate   or
linear-lanceolate      entire,     6-8
inches long, acute.    Scapes slender, 10-18   inches  high,  woolly
at  the   summit;   involucre   J-J
of an inch long, bracts narrow, smooth with
hairy-fringed margins; flowers,deep  orange.
In grassy alpine meadows throughout the
1 278
Cichoriaceae
Rockies at the higher altitudes; flowering
during July.
T Root thick and deep.    Leaves
Taraxacum oblong to spatulate in outline,
(L.) Karst. usually rough-hairy at least
Dandelion. when young, acute or obtuse,
pinnatifid, sinuate-dentate or rarely nearly
entire, rather succulent, 3-10 inches long
\-2\ inches wide, narrowed into petioles.
Scapes erect, 2-18 inches high, head 1-2
inches broad, containing very numerous
golden-yellow flowers, inner bracts of the
involucre, linear or linear-lanceolate, the
outer similar, shorter, not glaucous, reflexed,
acute; achenes greenish brown.
In waste places and open ground throughout the region, along roadsides and near
the railway; established as a weed; flowering in early summer.
Taraxacum
montanum
Nutt.
Mountain
Dandelion.
Smooth; scapes and leaves from
the crown of a thick, vertical
root. Leaves spatulate, oblong,
nearly    entire    or    runcinately Cichoriaceae
279
toothed, obtuse, the teeth shallow and
simple, 3-4 inches long, J—| of an inch
wide. Flowers bright orange or yellow on
smooth scapes, 4-8 inches high; invo-
lucral bracts all appressed, in 2-series, the
outer ovate to lanceolate, frequently reddish;
inner ones narrowly lanceolate.
Throughout   the   Rockies   in   the   lower
valleys and slopes; flowering in early June.
Sonchus
arvensis  L:
Milk
Thistle.
Stems smooth, leafy below,
branched and nearly naked
' above, 2-4 feet high. Lower
and basal leaves runcinate-pin-
natifid, often 12 inches long, spinulose dentate, narrowed into short petioles, the upper
pinnatifid or entire, clasping. Flowers bright
yellow, numerous in showy heads, 1-2 inches
broad; involucre nearly an inch high.
An introduced weed, occurring more or
less frequently along the line of the railway
throughout the region; a showy plant when
in flower, during the early part of the
day. 280
Cichoriaceae
Smooth throughout and somewhat glaucous; stem rather slender and leafy, 1-3 feet high.
Leaves linear-lanceolate, lanceolate or oblong, acute, entire,
dentate, lobed or pinnatifid, 2-8
inches long.   Flowers bright blue
or violet in numerous heads J an inch or more
broad, in an open panicle.
Frequent along the railway in moist open
places throughout the region; flowering in
midsummer.
Lactuca
pulchella
(Pursh) DC.
Large-
flowered
Blue
Lettuce.
Crepis nana
Richards.
Alpine
Hawk's-
beard.
Smooth, forming depressed tufts
on slender, creeping rootstocks.
Leaves chiefly at the root, 1-2
inches long including the petioles,
obovate to spatulate, entire,
repand-dentate or lyrate, commonly equalling
the clustered stems. Heads few-flowered,
nearly J an inch high, narrowly cylindric,
I of an inch in diameter; flowers bright
yellow, spreading J of an inch across.
A small alpine plant growing among loose Cichoriaceae
281
stones and on the moraines and on slides
and summits throughout the Rockies; flowering in midsummer.
Smooth, many-stemmed from a
perennial tap-root, 6-12 inches
high, diffusely branched. Leaves
entire or nearly so; root leaves
spatulate; stem-leaves from
lanceolate to linear. Heads numerous, narrowly cylindric, J-J
of an inch high, the pale yellow flowers little
more than J of an inch across.
In gravel beds along the rivers and larger
streams throughout the Rockies;  flowering
during July.
Crepis
elegans
Hook.
Many-
flowered
Hawk's-
beard.
Stem rather slender, smooth
or puberulent, sometimes rough
hairy below, leafy, simple, 1-2 ^
feet high. Leaves lanceolate
or the lowest spatulate, entire,
denticulate or sometimes laciniate-dentate,
acute or acuminate, 1-3 inches long, smooth
above,   usually   hairy   beneath   with    the
Hieracium
umbellatum
L.   Narrow
leaved
Hawk-weed.
a«s 282
Cichoriaceae
margins fringed with hairs. Heads of flowers
nearly an inch broad, umbellate, bright
yellow.
On banks and near rivers in the Rockies;
flowering in July.
Hieracium
Scouleri
Hook.
Hairy
Hawk-weed
Hairy throughout with long,
soft hairs; 1-2 feet high. Leaves
lanceolate or spatulate-lanceo-
late, 3-6 inches long. Flowers
in an irregular branching panicle.
Head \ an inch high; involucre with copious
long bristly hairs; flowers bright yellow, \
an inch or more broad.
On banks and stony open ground throughout the region flowering during July.
Growing in tufts, pale green.
Leaves nearly all in clusters
at the root, obovate to oblong-
spatulate, 1-3 inches long, attenuate into petioles, entire or
repand denticulate. Stems 8-18 inches high,
brownish-hairy above, bearing few or several
heads of flowers near the top; involucres
Hieracium
gracile
Hook.
Slender
Hawk-weed Carduaceae
28
about J of an inch high, usually blackish-
hairy at the base; flowers bright yellow in
heads i of an inch or less broad.
In dry open or shaded places at the higher
elevations throughout the region, growing
in sand; flowering in July.
Hieracium
albiflorum
Hook.
White-
flowered
Hawk-weed.
Loosely branching, and hairy
with long hairs; 1-3 feet high.
Leaves oblong, thin, 2-6 inches
long. Involucres narrow-cam-
panulate, J to nearly \ an inch
high; flowers white, \ of an inch
across   or   more;   several  in   a  compound
cyme.
On sandy banks and open mountain sides,
frequent throughout the region at the lower
elevations; flowering during June and July.
Carduaceae
Thistle Family
Herbs with watery or resinous  sap and
alternate, opposite or basal leaves; flowers 284
Carduaceae
perfect, pistillate or neutral; borne on a
common receptacle forming heads, surrounded by an involucre of few to many
bracts in one or more series; calyx tube
attached to the top of the ovary, the limb
(pappus) of bristles, awns, teeth, scales,
crown-like or wanting; corolla tubular, usually 5-lobed or -cleft, the marginal flowers
frequently expanded into a ligule (ray);
when the ray flowers are absent the head is
said to be discoid, when present, radiate;
the tubular flowers form the disc. The largest
of all the families of flowering plants comprising about 760 genera and not less than
10,000 species, represented in the region by
the following:
Anthers not tailed at the base; heads rayed or rayless.
Style branches of the perfect flowers flattened, with
terminal appendages.
Rays yellow or sometimes wanting.
Pappus double, the outer very short.
Chrysopsis.
Pappus simple; panicle compact. Solidago.
Rays white, purple, or bl»e, rarely wanting.
Involucral   bracts   in   1-2 series, narrow';   rays
usually narrow and numerous.       Erigeron.
Involucral bracts in 2- 5 series; rays broader and
less numerous. Carduaceae
285
Scales of the involucre dry, papery and ap-
pressed. Eucephalus.
Scales of the involucre more or less herbaceous,
and spreading. Aster.
Style branches of the perfect flowers straight edged
or with hairy tips.
Involucre not scarious.
Pappus never capillary;  receptacle chaffy or
bristly.
Receptacle conic, chaffy; pappus none.
Rudbeckia.
Receptacle flat, chaffy; tall herbs; pappus 2
scales. Helianthus.
Receptacle bristly; pappus a crown of scales.
Gaillardia.
Pappus capillary.
Leaves all or mostly opposite. Arnica.
Leaves alternate.
Flowers white or pinkish; leaves large.
Petasites.
Flowers yellow, leaves small.        Senecio.
Involucre scarious.
Receptacle chaffy; rays short. Achillea.
Receptacle naked; rays conspicuous.
Chrysanthemum.
Receptacle naked; rays none. Artemisia.
Anthers with tails at the base; heads without rays.
Receptacle not bristly; corolla not deeply cleft.
Pappus hair-like in pistillate flowers; club shaped
in staminate. Antennaria.
Pappus of all the flowers similar. Anaphalis.
Receptacle long bristly; corolla deeply cleft.
Leaves and usually the involucral bracts prickly.
Carduus.
Leaves and involucral bracts not prickly.
Saussurea.
ana
MM
mmm 286
Carduaceae
Chrysopsis
hispida
(Hook.)
Nutt.
Hispid
Golden
Aster.
Stems numerous from a woody
rootstock, rough-hairy throughout, spreading, 6-12 inches long.
Leaves spatulate to oblong, entire, spreading, f-ij inches long,
obtuse at the apex, narrowed at
the base, often into petioles
half as long as the blade or more. Heads
very numerous, about \ an inch broad; involucre less than \ an inch high, its bracts
lanceolate, rough-hairy; ray flowers bright
yellow, \ of an inch or more long.
In dry soil through the lower valleys
throughout the Rockies; flowering in midsummer.
Stems smooth or somewhat hairy
above, slender, 6-15 inches high.
Leaves firm, smooth or nearly
so, the basal and lower ones
spatulate or oblanceolate, entire or sparingly serrate, obtuse, finely
reticulate-veined, 3-5 inches long, the upper
smaller and narrower, entire.    Heads about
Solidago
multiradiata
Ait.
Northern
Goldenrod. Carduaceae
287
J of an inch high, usually few in a rather
compact terminal cyme; bracts of the involucre thin, linear-lanceolate, acute, smooth;
rays 8-15, large.
On open hillsides throughout the region;
flowering in July.
Solidago
decumbens
Greene.
Field
Goldenrod.
Stems clustered at the summit
of a strong, perpendicular root,
stout, decumbent, 6-18 inches
high, usually dark red and
sparsely hairy. Leaves spatu-
late-obovate to oblanceolate, obtuse or acutish, more or less distinctly serrate toward the
summit, upper cauline leaves similar but
few and reduced, all rough on the margins.
Heads large in a thyrsoid panicle; bracts
of the involucre glandular-viscid, linear,
obtuse, of firm texture, nerved; rays large.
Solidago
missourien-
sis Nutt.
Missouri .
Goldenrod.
Smooth, rather slender, 3-5
feet high. Leaves firm or thick,
those of the stem linear-lanceolate and sessile, acuminate at
the apex, narrowed at the base,
avis
UWM
mm 288
Carduaceae
2-4 inches long, rough-margined, triple-
nerved, entire or sparingly serrate with low
sharp teeth, the basal and lowest ones longer
spatulate and petioled. Heads J—J of an
inch high on one side of the spreading or
recurving branches of the short panicle;
bracts of the involucre oblong, greenish-
tipped, obtuse; rays 6-13, short.
In dry soil on the edges of woodland at the
lower altitudes throughout the Rockies;
flowering in August.
Solidago Stout, rough-hairy   or   slightly
canadensis so, 2-8 feet high. Leaves lan-
L. Canada ceolate, triple-nerved, acute at
each end, the lower ones sharply
serrate and petioled, 3-6 inches long, -J—1
inch wide, the upper smaller, entire. Heads
small, J of an inch or less high, very numerous
on one side of the spreading or recurved
branches of the usually large, and dense
panicle; involucral bracts linear, obtuse or
acutish; rays 9-15 small.
In open usually dry soil at the lower alti- #
*tm
y<s^£jr~ *'
a*®
■■ >
1 /
HliO*
'W
a
a  Erigeron. salsuginosus ^EJe|L")  A
Large Purple Fieabarus
Erigeron acris L. Blue Fleabai
Elook.    ibaussures..
c Saussurea dens
Gray.
wmm ne
iches    long,   rough-margined,   triple-
re or sparingly serrate with low
p tee
spatulate and petioled.    Heads   J-J   of   an
inch high on-one side of the spreading or
re<
is   01   me
rSlo
bracts
oblong, greenish-
short.
+ V.C
m ciry sou on xne edges 01 woouiana
lowersaltitudes  throughout   the    Rockies;
flowerino- ii Aucnist.
Solidago
StOU
canadensis        SO,
ugh-hairy    or   slightl^
Ife- Leaves Ian-
Gt
ilrJA
ach end, the lower ones sharpl;
petioled,   ?-6 inch
small, J of an inch or less high,
on one side of the spreading
■6
Hea.
numerous
recurved
panicle;  involucral bracts linear, obtuse
acutish: ravs q-k small, a Erigeron salsuginosus  (Rich.)  A. Gray.
Large Purple Fleabane.
b Erigeron acris L. Blue Fleabane.
c Saussurea densa Hook.    Saussurea.     (3/5  Nat.)  Carduaceae
28
9
tudes   throughout   the   Rockies;   flowering
during July and August.
Erigeron
simplex
Greene.
Arctic
Fleabane.
Heads
Stems 1-6 inches high, several
from • the same root. Leaves
few, the basal spatulate or
oblanceolate, 1-2 inches long;
stem leaves linear and few,
of an inch in diameter, solitary;
involucre usually rough-hairy as well as
woolly, bracts linear-acute, rather close, rays
J—J of an inch long, white, very numerous.
An alpine plant in dry ground at the higher
elevations, among stones and on the moraines,
flowering in July.
JErigeron
salsuginosus
(Richards)
A. Gray.
Large
Purple
Fleabane.
Soft hairy above, 12-20 inches
high. Leaves smooth, thick,
bright green, spatulate or
nearly ovate, acute or conspicuously bristle-tipped, the uppermost small and bract-like.
Heads   over   ih  inches  in   di
ameter; rays 50-70, purple or violet, J-f of
19 290
Carduaceae
an inch long; disc bright yellow; involucral
bracts linear, attenuate and spreading,
glandular-hairy.
A most striking violet or purple daisy on
moist banks, slopes, and in moist, open woodlands; flowering during July.
■B--rr^„        Stem simple or branched above,
J&ngeron c '
asper Nutt.     more or less hairy,  sometimes
Rough roughly  so,   6-24  inches  high.
Leaves smooth, hairy or fringed
on the margin with hairs, entire, the basal
ones spatulate, obtuse, 2-4 inches long,
narrowed into a margined petiole; stem
leaves oblong-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate,
obtuse or acute, the upper.smaller. Heads
several or solitary, slender peduncled, J-J
an inch broad; involucre hemispheric,
its bracts linear, acute, or rough hairy ;
rays 100-150, very narrow, violet-purple
or nearly white, J to nearly half an inch
long.
. In dry soil in the lower valleys and slopes
of the Rockies; flowering in July. Carduaceae
29
Erigeron
caespitosus
Nutt.
Tufted
Fleabane.
Stems tufted, closely white-hairy
from a deep root; simple or
branched above, 6-12 inches
high. • Leaves white-hairy, entire, narrowly oblanceblate or
spatulate, obtuse or acutish, 1-3 inches
long; stem-leaves linear or linear-oblong,
acute or obtuse, the upper gradually shorter.
Heads solitary or several, short-peduncled,
J-J an inch broad; involucre hemispheric
its bracts lanceolate or* linear-oblong acute,
white-hairy; rays 40-60, J—J of an inch
long, white or pinkish.
In dry open places in the Rockies at the
lower altitudes, a pretty tufted plant resembling an Aster; flowering during July.
Rough-hairy or somewhat
smooth, stems slender, numerous, 3-6 inches high. Leaves
crowded on the crowns of the
caudex,  usually twice ternately
parted into linear or spatulate hairy lobes;
an inch long or less including the petiole;
Erigeron
multifidus
Rydb.
Daisy
Fleabane. RM
292
Carduaceae
stem-leaves narrow or scale-like. Flowers
solitary at the top of the nearly leafless hairy
stem; involucre J of an inch high and nearly
-J an inch in diameter, outer bracts shorter
and spreading; rays 40-60, white, purple or
violet, from J to nearly \ an inch long.
On dry rocks throughout the Rockies up
to 6000 feet elevation or above, flowering
during June or July.
Erigeron multifidus discoideus (A. Gray.)
Rydb., differing from the species in the entire absence of ray flowers and smaller heads,
and Erigeron multifidus nudus Rydb., differing from the species in being almost entirely smooth except a few hairs on the
petioles and involucral bracts, are found
in similar localities throughout the Rockies,
often growing with the species and frequently much more abundant.
Erigeron
aureus
Greene
Golden
Fleabane.
Ashy-hairy, 3-6 inches high
from a tufted caudex. Leaves
ovate, spatulate or roundish,
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MM  Carduaceae
293
tracted into a petiole; stem leaves J of
an inch long, few, and very narrow. Flowers solitary, about J of an inch high and
broad; involucre usually reddish or purplish,
covered with woolly hairs; bracts nearly
equal, lanceolate, rather loose; rays numerous, £-$■ of an inch long, deep golden yellow.
In open ground on alpine meadows and
among rocks, at the higher altitudes, throughout the region; a striking little plant, flowering in July.
Erigeron
melanoce-
phalus
A. Nelson.
Black-woolly Fleabane.
Stems few or several, slender,
erect, 2-6 inches high, with
purplish-black hairs. Leaves
numerous, elliptic or narrowly
oblong, |-ij inches long, nearly
smooth; stem leaves broadly linear, acuminate, f-i inch long, hairiness similar to that
of the stem. Head solitary, -J of an inch
broad; involucral scales nearly equal, with
attenuate tips, densely covered with purplish-black wool; rays 50-60, white or pinkish,
I of an inch long. 294
Carduaceae
In open stony or more or less grassy
ground at the high altitudes; flowering
during July.
Erigeron More or less hairy, varying to
acris L smooth, 3-18 inches high, simple
Blue or   branching.     Leaves   spatu-
Fleabane. -1   , -. -.   , u,
late or lanceolate, obtuse, 1-3
inches long, hairy and entire. Heads J of an
inch or more broad, single or several, more or
less paniculately disposed; involucre hemispheric, its bracts linear and hairy; rays
numerous, very narrow, only slightly exceeding the yellow disc, blue or purple.
In dry stony ground and slopes throughout
the region, very variable as to size; flowering
during July.
Nearly or quite smooth, 1-2
feet high, usually paniculately
branched. Leaves spatulate
to lanceolate, acute, rather nu-
Heads on peduncle-like branches,
an inch or more long, involucre, J of an inch
or more broad,  scales narrowly lanceolate,
Erigeron
drobrachi
ensis. O.
Muell.
merous. Carduaceae
295
attenuate and glandular, green; rays numerous and thread-like, pink, but slightly
exceeding the disc.
On banks and more or less shaded places
at the lower altitudes throughout the
Rockies; flowering during July.
Erigeron
philadel-
phicus   L.
Soft-hairy or sometimes nearly
smooth, stems slender, mostly
branched above, 1-3 feet high.
Philadelphia   Leaves   spatulate   or   obovate,
Fleabane. . , +     .   ,
obtuse or acute, dentate or
entire, 1-3 inches long. Heads several or
numerous, corymbose-paniculate, J-J of an
inch broad; involucre depressed hemispheric,
its bracts linear with roughened margins; rays
100-15o, J-J of aninch long, bright rose-colour.
In open grassy and wet places at the lower
altitudes, throughout the Rockies; flowering
in June and July. This species, the most
widely distributed of any member of the
genus is found throughout North America;
though locally rare, where found it is usually
in great abondance.
wmwm 296
Carduaceae
Aster
Hairy,    often   much   branched
Richardsonii    from the base> 3~" inches high.
Spreng. Leaves    oblong,    spatulate    to
Richardson's   broadly lanceolate, more or less
Aster. 11 -1
sharply serrate, an inch or more
long. Heads solitary, terminating the stem
or branches; involucre broadly campanulate,
\ of an inch high, shorter than the disc the
bracts narrowly lanceolate, with mostly
acute and loose herbaceous tips; rays nearly
half an inch long, violet-purple.
In gravelly ground and river bottoms
frequent in the region; flowering during
July. k
Aster
conspicuus
Lindl.
Large
Purple
Aster.
Rough, stout, and rigid, 2 feet
high. Leaves firm, ovate, oblong, or the lower obovate, acute,
4-6 inches long, 1^-4 inches
broad, acutely serrate, reticu-
Flowers numerous in a broad
head, involucre, broadly campanulate, equalling the disc, half an inch high; bracts in
several series, minutely glandular, lanceolate,
late-veiny.
--dite Carduaceae
297
acute, the greenish tips a little spreading;
rays J an inch long or more, violet.
The most showy of all the Asters, frequent
in the Rockies at the lower altitudes, on
slides and on gravelly river banks, forming
great masses of colour when flowering in late
July and early August.
Aster major
(Hook)
Porter.
Great
Northern
Aster.
Stem stout, leafy to the summit,
densely long-hairy, or rarely
smooth, branched above, 2-6
feet high. Leaves rather thin,
lanceolate, partly clasping by
a narrowed base, acuminate at
the apex, sharply serrate with low distant
teeth, dark green and lightly hairy above,
densely sOft-hairy on the veins beneath,
3-5 inches long, J to nearly an inch wide.
Heads mostly solitary, at the ends of short
branches, i^ inches broad; involucre hemispheric, its bracts little imbricated, green,
linear-subulate, densely glandular; rays
35-45 purple, about \ an inch long.
In moist soil in the valleys of the Selkirks;
flowering during August. 298
Carduaceae
Aster
Lindleyanus
T. &G.
Lindley's
Aster.
Stem usually stout, smooth, or
sparingly hairy, 1-3 feet high,
branched above. Leaves rather
thick, smooth or slightly hairy,
especially on the veins, the
lower and basal ones heart-shaped at the
base, sharply serrate, ovate-acute or acuminate, 2-4 inches long, with slender, naked
petioles; upper leaves ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, more or less serrate or entire, sessile or
with margined petioles. Heads usually not
numerous, J of an inch or more high; involucre broadly top-shaped; bracts linear-
lanceolate, acute, rather loosely imbricated,
smooth or nearly so, their tips green, rays
10-20, blue or violet, J-4 an inch long;
pappus nearly white.
In   open   places   and   along   the   rivers
throughout   the   region;   flowering   during,
July and August.
Aster cilio- Stems 1-2 feet high, round,
marginatus slightly striate and tinged with
Rydb. re(^^ smooth below, more or less
hairy in lines above.    Basal leaves smooth /
I
Aster Lindleyanus T. & G     % Nat.)' 298
Carduaceae
Aster
Lindleyanus
Stem  usually stout, smooth, or
sparingly hairy jf&i^j|$ feefu high,
K*-o
thick, smootl
especially *&s
slightly hairy,
ie   veins,   the
base, sharply serrate,, ovate-=acute or acuminate,  2-4 inches long, with slender, naked
petioles; upper leaves ovate-lanceolate w lanceolate, more or less serrate or entire, sessile or |
with margined petioles.    Heads usually not
volucre broadly top-shaped; bracts linear-
lanceolate, acute, rather loosely imbricated,
smooth or nearly so, their tips        en, rays
pappus nearly white.
throughout   the   regioi
Tuly and August.
lowering,   during.
Aster cilio-     Stems   1-2   feet   high,   round,
margmatus     siigntiy striate anu Linged. witn
Rydl>          wsd, smooth fetew, wore^tm
leav   ■ sir
^_ ^m — __________ _—_——	 Aster Lindleyanus T. & G, (% Nat.)  Carduaceae
299
except the hairy-fringed margins, thin, distantly serrate or subentire, tapering into
wing-margined petioles, oblanceolate-acute,
4-8 inches long; the upper oblong or lanceolate sessile. Heads about J an inch high,
•J—I of an inch in diameter, rather few in
an open panicle; involucral bracts linear,
fringed with hairs on the margins, the upper
part foliaceous and the outer somewhat
spreading; rays numerous § an inch long,
light-blue.
In moist, more or less shaded places, edges
of woods and thickets, throughout the
Rockies; flowering in late July and August.
Aster
frondeus
(A. Gray)
Greene.
Leafy-
hracted
Aster
involucre
Simple, stem smooth, with sparing, erect, flowering branches.
Leaves few, broadly lanceolate
to oblong or spatulate, entire
or nearly so, the lower tapering
into winged petioles. Heads solitary or few, on naked peduncles;
of an inch high, or less; bracts
linear-lanceolate, loose, all equalling the disc; 3oo
Carduaceae
rays violet or purple, nearly -J an inch long.
In wet places and along streams throughout   the   Rockies;   flowering   during    July
and August.
Eucephalus
Engelmanni
(D. C.
Eaton)
Greene.
Engel-
mann's
Aster.
Slightly hairy or smooth, simple
or somewhat branched, 18 inches
to 2 feet high, bright green.
Leaves thin, ovate-oblong to
broadly lanceolate, 2-4 inches
long, loosely veined, tapering at
the apex into a slender- spined
tip, the larger sometimes with
a few small acute teeth. Heads J an inch
high, hemispherical, either racemosely disposed on slender axillary peduncles, or
somewhat cymose; involucral bracts mostly
acute or acuminate, some outer ones loose,
narrow, and partly herbaceous, or with loose
pointed tips; inner purplish; rays about £
an inch long, spreading, violet or pinkish.
In open woods and on slopes, principally
in the Rockies at the higher elevations;
flowering during July.
.<_ Carduaceae
301
Rudbeckia
hirta L.
Black-eyed
Susan,
Yellow
Daisy.
Rough-hairy throughout, stems
simple or sparingly branched,
often tufted, 1-3 feet high.
Leaves thick, sparingly serrate
with low teeth or entire, lanceolate or oblong, the lower and
basal ones petioled, mostly obtuse, 3-5-
nerved, 2-7 inches long, \-2 inches wide,
the upper sessile, narrower, acute or acutish.
Heads commonly few or solitary, 2-4 inches
broad; rays 10-20, deep yellow or orange;
bracts of the involucre very rough-hairy;
spreading or reflexed, much shorter than the
rays; disc globose-ovoid, purple-brown.
Throughout the region, not infrequent
along the railway from Field west to the
valley of the Columbia at Beavermouth;
flowering in July and August.
Helianthus
scaberrimus
Ell.
Stiff     ■ ^
Sunflower.
Stems simple or a little branched,
rough-hairy or only slightly so,
1-8 feet high. Leaves thick, leathery, serrate, rough-hairy on both
sides, 2-7 inches long, §-„ inches §
302
Carduaceae
wide, acute at the apex^ narrowed at the base,
the lower ovate or ovate-oblong, petioled, the
upper lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, sessile or short-petioled, all opposite, or the
uppermost bract-like and alternate. Heads
solitary or few, 2-3 inches broad, involucre
hemispheric, its bracts ovate, acute or obtuse,
fringed with hairs; disc brown or purple;
rays 15-25, light yellow.
Frequent along the railway in the valley
of the Kicking Horse River and in the
valley of the Columbia at Beavermouth;
flowering in August.
Stem smooth, except the summit
which is soft-hairy, slender,
mostly simple, 2-4 feet high.
Leaves rough on both surfaces,
lanceolate or the upper linear,
3-6 inches long, J-f of an
inch wide, frequently opposite, serrulate or
entire. Heads 4 an inch high, scattered;
bracts of the involucre linear-lanceolate
with  a  subulate,   tip,   hairy at the  base;
Helianthus
Nuttallii
Torr and
Gray.
Nuttall's
Sunflower. •"«sa
m Mil
*$'-•■%;"*
11m
.--rJr
^uua
•■■ a •;".
a^p     i.^fflf—^
a
Erigeron aureus Green
Great 302
Carduaceae
wide, acute at the apex,, narrowed at the base,
the lower ovate or ovate-oblong, petioled, the
upper lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, sessile or short-petioled, all opposite, or the
uppermost bract-like and alternate. Heads
solitary or few.. 2—3 inches broad, involucre
hemispheric, its bracts ovate, acute or obtuse,
fringed with hairs; disc brown or purple;
rays 15-25, light yellow.
Frequent along the railway in the valley
of the Kicking Horse River and in the
valley of the Columbia at Beavermouth;
flowering in August. J§|
Helianthus
Nuttallii
Torr and
Gray.
Nutt all's
Sunflower.
Stem smooth, except the summit
mostly simple, 2-,4 feef high.
Leaves rough on both surfaces,
lanceolate or the upper linear,
.3-6 inches long, J-j of an
inch wide, frequently opposite, serrulate or
entire. Heads \ an inch high, scattered;
bracts of the involucre linear-lanceolate
with  a  subulate   tip,   hairy at the  base; a Erigeron aureus Greene.    Golden Fleabane.
b  Gaillardia aristata Pursh.    (3/5 Nat.)
Great Flowered Gaillardia. *J& Carduaccae
303
rays narrow, acute, deep yellow, 1-1J inches
long, *
In moist grounds and on river banks
throughout the Rockies at the lower altitudes; flowering during July.
Gaillardia
aristata
Pursh.
Great-
flowered
Gaillardia
Rough-hairy, stems simple or
little branched, 1-3 feet high.
Leaves firm, densely and finely
hairy, the lower basal ones petioled, oblong or spatulate, lacini-
ate-pinnatifid or entire, mostly
obtuse, 2—5 inches long; upper leaves sessile,
lanceolate or oblong, entire or dentate, rarely pinnatifid. Heads 1J-4 inches broad,
long peduncled; bracts of the involucre,
spreading, lanceolate, acuminate, rough-
hairy, rays 10-18, bright yellow, wedge-
shaped, deeply 3-lobed; disc reddish-purple.
One of the most showy of the midsummer
plants, in the lower valleys of the Rockies,
in dry ground and on slopes, especially in
the Bow Valley at Banff and in the open
country around Golden.
II 3^4
Carduaceae
Arnica
cordifolia
Hook
Heart-
leaved
Arnica.
Somewhat hairy, stem simple
or sparingly branched, 1-2 feet
high. Leaves hairy, the basal
ovate or orbicular, obtuse or
acute, deeply cordate at the base,
dentate, 1-3 inches long with
slender sometimes margined petioles; stem
leaves in 1-3 pairs, ovate or oblong, sessile
or short-petioled, much smaller. Heads
1-8, 2-3 inches broad, bracts of the involucre,
acute or acuminate, -J-f of an inch long;
rays 12-16, deep yellow, an inch or more
long, toothed at the apex; pappus white.
In woods and thickets at the lower altitudes
throughout the Rockies; flowering in June.
Smooth, slender and branched
6-12 inches high. Leaves with
short glandular hairs on both
surfaces or smooth, the basal
broadly ovate, petioled, dentate,
3-ribbed; stem-leaves about 2 pairs, similar,
the upper sessile. Heads several on slender
glandular peduncles, disc -J an inch or less
Arnica
gracilis
Rydb.
Slender
Arnica. «s
{.■■■■.
Arnica c
a.  (Hook.)     H<
m$ed. Arnk
Pale-Flowered   A 3°4
Arnica
cordifolia
Hook
Heart-
leaved
slender
Carduaceae
Somewhat   hairy,   stem   simple
high.    Leaves hairy, the. basal
-ate   or   orbicular,   obtuse   or
acute, deeolv cordate at the base.
dentate,
ticnes
mai
es; stem
paves
petioiea,   mucn   smaller.      neaas
iches broad, bracts of the involucre,
rays  12-16,  deep yellow,
long, toothe'd at the apex ;|
In woods and thickets at the lo%
throughout the Rockies; floweri
ce.
Arnica
gracilis
Rydb.
Slender
Arnica.
Smooth,   slend<
short  glandular hairs on  both
surfaces   or. smooth,  the basal
; stem-leaves about 2
• sessile. - Heads seve
r,
glandular peduncle^, disc a Arnica cordifolia   (Hook.)    Heart-Leaved Arnica.
b Arnica  louiseana  Farr.    Pale-Flowered  Arnica.    (9g  Nat.)  Carduaceae
305
high; involucral bracts, 12-15, lanceolate,
acuminate, glandular-hairy as are also the
seeds; pappus white; rays about } of an inch
long, narrow, bright yellow, with a single
notch at the apex.
On alpine slopes throughout the Rockies;
flowering in July, not common.
Arnica lati-
folia Bong.
Broad-
leaved
Arnica.
Minutely hairy or nearly smooth,
simple or branched. Leaves
thin, nearly smooth, or with
long scattered hairs; the lower
cordate; stem leaves in 2-3 pairs,
equal, ovate or oval, sharply dentate, closely
sessile" by the broad base, or the lowest with
contracted bases. Heads | of an inch high
on long, slender, hairy peduncles; involucral
bracts J an inch or more long; oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, with scattered hairs, rays
yellow, I of an inch long, with 2 notches at the
apex; achenes nearly smooth; pappus white.
Throughout the region in woods and open
ground usually at an elevation of 5000 to
7000 feet; flowering during July.
20
m 3°6
Carduaceae
Arnica
Chamissonis
Less.
Chamisso' s
Arnica.
From lightly hairy to densely
so or nearly smooth, 1—2 feet
high. Leaves rather thin, hairy,
oblong to oblong-lanceolate, dentate or denticulate, acute or
obtuse, lowest tapering into a margined
petiole, upper broad at the base and somewhat clasping. Heads \ an inch or more
high, single or several on hairy peduncles;
involucral bracts J of an inch or more long,
oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, glandular-
hairy; ra^s bright yellow, \ an inch or more
long with a single notch at the apex, rather
broad; achenes with a few scattered hairs;
pappus tawny.
On the borders of streams and wet places
at the lower altitudes throughout the region;
flowering in July.
Slender, hairy, 3-8 inches high.
Leaves in about 3 pairs, the
two lowest at the base of the
stem, 1 £-2 inches long, elliptical
or obovate, entire or denticulate,
glandular-hairy on both surfaces, as are the
Arnica
louiseana
Farr.
Pale-flowered Arnica Carduaceae
307
margins. Heads of flowers, 1-3, nearly half
an inch broad, on long, slender, nodding, hairy
peduncles; rays 8-10, light yellow, about \ an
inch long; involucre J of an inch high, campanulate, densely glandular-hairy at the base,
brownish-purple, the bracts lanceolate, acute,
with scattered white hairs; pappus white.
Among loose stones at the base of Mt.
Fairview at Lake Louise; flowering in July.
Arnica
fulgens
Pursh.
Alpine
Arnica,
Glandular-hairy throughout, 8-
12 inches high. Leaves oblong
lanceolate to lanceolate, acute,
the lower denticulate and petioled, the upper sessile and entire.
Heads of flowers several on long, slender,
glandular-hairy peduncles; involucres campanulate, J an inch high, bracts lanceolate
acute, glandular and with long white hairs;
rays bright yellow f-i inch long, \ of an inch
wide, twice  notched  at the apex; achenes
hairy;  pappus white.
On stony alpine slopes at the higher altitudes
throughout the Rockies; flowering in July. 3o8
Carduaceae
Arnica
eradiata
(A. Gray.)
Heller.
Rayless
Arnica.
Densely soft-hairy throughout;
simple or branched, 12-18 inches
high. Leaves oblong, ovate-
lanceolate or the upper ones
lanceolate, obtuse or acute, entire or sharply denticulate, 1-3
inches long. Heads of flowers on short, hairy
peduncles, without rays; involucre \ an inch
high, bracts lanceolate, acute; achenes black,
smooth or nearly so; pappus tawny.
On grassy alpine slopes through the Rockies
at the higher elevations; flowering in July.
Senecio
pseudaureus
Rydb.
Western
Golden
Ragwort
Smooth from a creeping root-
stock, 1-2 feet high. Leaves
smooth, basal broadly ovate,
somewhat cordate, serrate, ij—3
inches long, long-petioled; stem
leaves more or less laciniate at
the base, the upper sessile.   Heads of flowers.
\ of an inch high in a flat-topped corymb,
rays bright orange-yellow, J of an inch long.
In  moist  ground  and   borders  of woods
and slopes throughout  the Rockies, at the Carduaceae
309
lower altitudes; flowering during June and
early July.
Senecio
discoideus
(Hook.)
Britton.
Northern
Squaw-root
Smooth except for the small
tufts of wool in the axils of the
lower leaves; stem rather stout,
1-2 feet tall. Basal leaves oval
or ovate, thin, sharply dentate,
abruptly narrowed into petioles
longer than the blade; stem leaves few, small,
more or less irregularly cut. Heads few or
numerous, corymbose; bracts of the involucre
narrowly linear, nearly J an inch high; rays
very short or wanting; achenes smooth.
Frequent throughout the Rockies on river
shores and borders of woods and thickets;
flowering in July.
Light or yellowish-green, slender,
woolly in tufts at the base of the
leaves or smooth in age; stem
12-18 inches high, striate, pale.
Leaves 1-3 inches long, at the
base obovate or broadly oval,
generally tapering into the petiole but some-
Senecio
flavovirens
Rydb.
Western
Balsam
Groundsel.
! 3io
Carduaceae
times truncate at the base, obtuse, crenate
or sinuate, light green; lower stem-leaves
lanceolate in outline and petioled, the upper
lanceolate or linear and sessile, deeply
pinnatifid with narrow oblong or linear segments, cymes contracted, corymbose. Heads
J of an inch or more high; bracts linear,
acute, yellowish-green and occasionally with
brownish tips; rays pale yellow, i an inch
long,  4-nerved or often lacking.
In the lower valleys of the Rockies, on the
borders of woods, thickets, and marshes;
flowering in July.
Senecio Permanently silvery-hairy with
canusHook. felted hairs; stems several, 6-12
Silvery inches high from a woody base.
'.■,(>n:i<.>..;r,.. Leaves sometimes all undivided,
the radicle and lower from spatulate to
oblong or roundish-oval, j-ij inches long,
slender-petioled, sometimes laciniate-toothed,
or pinnatifid. Heads of flowers few and terminal, J to nearly half an inch high; rays
yellow, nearly \ an inch long. Carduaceae
31
In stony dry ground and slopes throughout
the Rockies at the lower altitudes; flowering
in June.
Senecio
lugens
Richards.
Black-tipped
Groundsel.
More or less woolly when young,
soon smooth; stem stout, 1-3
feet high. Basal and lower
leaves oblong or oval, obtuse or
acute, denticulate or dentate, 2-5
inches long, 8H| inches wide, narrowed into
margined petioles; upper leaves few, sessile,
small and bract-like. Heads of flowers several or numerous, corymbose, often short-
peduncled, J to nearly an inch broad;
involucre campanulate, f-J of an inch
high, its bracts lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, acute, green with conspicuous black
tips; rays 10-12, bright yellow, i an inch long.
In moist soil at the lower altitudes throughout the Rockies; flowering in June.
Senecio
triangularis
Hook.
Giant
Ragwort.
Rather stout, simple, 2-5 feet
high. Leaves thin, all more
or less petioled and dentate,
deltoid-lanceolate or the   lower
■R
mmm 312
Carduaceae
triangular-hastate or deltoid-cordate, the
uppermost lanceolate, with cuneate base.
Heads of flowers about J an inch high,
numerous in «a flat open cyme; involucre
campanulate; rays 8-12, bright yellow, oblong-linear, J-J of an inch long.
In wet ground and along the borders of
streams and wet slopes at 5000 to 6000 feet
elevation throughout the Rockies; at much
lower altitudes in the Selkirks where it is
a very abundant plant; flowering in June and
early July.
Scape slender and scaly, 6-24
inches high. Leaves nearly or-
bicutar in outline, 3-12 inches
.broad, deeply 7-11-cleft to much
beyond the middle, green and
smooth above, densely white-
woolly beneath, at least when
young; the lobes oblong to obovate-acute,
often somewhat wedge-shaped, sharply dentate or cut. Heads mostly dioecious, numerous,   corymbose,   J—J   an   inch   broad;
Petasites
palmata
(Ait.)
A. Gray.
Palmate-
leaved
Coltsfoot.
-*» Carduaceae
313
flowers usually white, fragrant, the marginal
ones of the pistillate heads with narrow pinkish or white rays about J of an inch long; cottony in fruit.
In wet places and along streams at the
lower altitudes throughout the Rockies;
flowering in May and early June before the
leaves appear.
Petasites
sagittata
(Pursh.)
A. Gray.
Arrow-
leaved
Coltsfoot.
Scape slender and scaly, 6-12 inches high. Leaves deltoid-ovate
or reniform-ovate, persistently white-tomentose beneath;
smooth or nearly so above
4-10 inches long, thin, margins
sinuate-dentate, not cleft or
lobed. Heads dioecious, loosely corymbose,
involucre campanulate, J of an inch high;
flowers nearly white, the marginal ones of
the pistillate heads with white rays.
In similar situations to the preceding; in
wet places and along streams at the lower
altitudes throughout the Rockies; readily
distinguished by the shape of its leaves;
flowering in May and early June.
n
I 316
Carduaceae
Artemisia
frigida
Willd.
Pasture
Wormwood.
Simple or branching, silky-hairy
and silvery throughout; stems
numerous and spreading, about
a foot high. Leaves mainly
twice ternately divided into linear crowded lobes. Heads globular, about \
of an inch in diameter, numerous, in more or
less racemose heads; involucre pale, greenish-
yellow, woolly; bracts narrow and herbaceous.
In open dry ground and on banks throughout the Rockies at the lower altitudes;
flowering in July.
Artemisia
discolor
Dougl.
Green
Wormwood
Stems slender, 9-12 inches high,
spreading from a woody base.
Leaves pinnately parted into
narrow, linear or lanceolate, entire or spreading cut divisions
and lobes, white beneath with cottony hairs,
green and nearly smooth above. Heads f
of an inch high, numerous in a wand-like
panicle; involucre hemispherical-campanu-
late, greenish and smooth or nearly so,
20-30 flowered. Carduaceae
3*7
On Rocky slopes throughout the region;
flowering in June or July.
Antennaria
lanata
(Hook.)
Greene.
Alpine
Everlasting.
Densely white-woolly; stem simple, 2-6 inches high. Lower
leaves spatulate-lanceolate, i-ij
inches long, the upper linear
with conspicuous papery tips.
Heads several in a close cluster
at the end of the stem, J an inch high; involucre nearly J of an inch high, conspicu-
ously woolly at the base, the inner bracts
with conspicuous white tips, the outer straw-
colour or greenish.
An alpine plant in meadows and on slopes
from 7000 feet up; flowering during July.
Antennaria
pulcherrima
(Hook.)
Greene.
Tall Alpine
Everlasting.
bracts   of
White-woolly throughout, stem
simple, 6-18 inches high. Leaves
spatulate to lanceolate or linear,
1-4 inches long, acute, nerved.
Heads numerous in a close capitate cluster, ||j| inch high, outer
the   involucre   straw-colour   or
■ 3i8
Carduaceae
greenish, rounded and often notched at the
apex; inner ones nearly white.
In moist open ground in the Rockies at
the lower elevations; flowering in July.
Antennaria
racemose
Hook.
White Ever
lasting.
Lightly woolly, becoming smooth,
stems 6-2o inches high, slender,
sparsely leafy. Leaves thin,
the radicle broadly oval, an
inch or two long, obscurely
3-nerved at the base, rather veiny, the lower
stem leaves oblong, the upper smaller and
lanceolate. Heads of flowers about J of
an inch high, all on slender peduncles in
a loose raceme, involucral bracts, thin and
translucent, greenish-yellow or brownish.
On shaded slopes throughout the Rockies,
at the higher altitudes; flowering in June.
Antennaria
Howellii
Greene.
Howell's
Everlasting.
clasping,
More or less woolly; stem 6-10
inches high. Leaves rather thin,
the lower spatulate, acute, 1-2
inches long, green above, woolly
beneath; stem leaves lanceolate,
1   inch   long,   becoming   smaller Carduaceae
3J9
toward the summit. Heads in a compact
capitate cluster, \ an inch or more in diameter, woolly at the base; involucral bracts
Very narrow, acute, thin, and translucent,
straw-colour, the outer ones densely woolly
and occasionally rosy.
In dry ground and on slopes, frequent in
the Rockies at the lower altitudes.
Antennaria
parvifolia
Nutt.
Mountain
Everlasting.
Plant silvery throughout, freely
spreading; stems prostrate and
leafy, forming mats of considerable extent; flowering stems
2-8 inches high. Leaves from
obovate to spatulate, \ an inch or less long
persistently white-woolly. Heads in compact
terminal clusters about \ of an inch broad;
involucral bracts, lanceolate, obtuse, thin
and translucent, yellowish.
In dry sterile ground at the lower altitudes throughout the Rockies; flowering in
June, frequently growing with the next
species which it closely resembles in manner of growth.
m 32°
Carduaceae
Antennaria
rosea (D. C.
Eaton)
Greene.
Pink Everlasting.
Silvery throughout, stems prostrate and leafy, forming broad
mats; flowering stems 6-15
inches high. Leaves very thin
in texture, densely hairy, lanceolate to linear, J—ij inches
long, acute. Heads small, closely compacted
into a rounded terminal cluster, J an inch or
more in diameter; involucral bracts in 2
series, lanceolate, the outer greenish and
woolly, the inner from pink to bright rose-
colour.
In-dry sterile or moist open ground throughout the Rockies up to an elevation of 6,000
feet; flowering in June and July.
A foot or two high in tufts, very
leafy, the white tufts of woolly
hairs   rarely  becoming   tawny.
Leaves 2-5 inches long, broadly
lanceolate,   green above, white-
woolly beneath.     Heads numer-
inch high in a contracted corymb;
bracts   numerous,   ovate-lanceolate, pearly white, spreading in age.
Anaphalis
subalpina
(A. Gray)
Rydb.
Pearly
Everlasting.
ous, J of an
involucral
U-U* Carduaceae
321
Abundant throughout the region in dry or
moist ground and on slopes up to an altitude
of 7000 feet; flowering in June and July.
Carduus
Kelseyi
Rybd.
White
Thistle.
Stems 18 inches to 4 feet tall,
striate, more or less cobwebby-
woolly. Leaves linear, sinuately
toothed and fringed, with rather
weak spines, green above, cottony beneath. Heads several in a leafy
spike, 1—1£ inches high, subtended by linear,
cut and bristly-fringed and cobwebby-hairy
leaves; bracts rather unequal, lanceolate,
a few of the outermost with weak spines,
the rest unarmed but with a long slender
tip; corolla cream-colour.
Open ground and on slopes at the lower altitudes throughout the Rockies; flowering in
July.
Persistently white fomentose, 1-
3 feet high, branching. Leaves
rarely pinnately parted, moderately prickly. Heads of flowers
about ij inches high, usually
solitary   at   the   ends   of   the
Carduus
undulatus
Nutt.
Wavy-
leaved
Thistle.
21
m
HMHHH
f.Z 3 322
Carduaceae
branches; principal bracts of the involucre
mostly thickened on the back by the broader
glandular-sticky ridge, comparatively small
and narrow, tipped with a short spreading
prickle; corollas rose-colour or pale purple.
In open grounds throughout the Rockies at
the lower altitudes; flowering during July
and August.
Saussurea Nearly smooth, with a decum-
densa Hook, bent base; 3-12 inches high.
Saussurea. Leaves thin, oblong-lanceolate,
acuminate, sinuate-dentate, or entire. Heads
of flowers several in a compact terminal
corymb, involucre campanulate, J an inch
high; bracts lanceolate, acuminate, nearly
equal; corolla purple or violet-blue.
On stony slopes or on the moraines at the
higher altitudes throughout the Rockies, not
common, but freqeunt in the region around
Lake Louise; flowering during July. INDEX
A
Abies, 24
lasiocarpa, 27
Aceraceae, 185
Acer glabrum, 185
Achillea, 285
lanulosa, 314
Actaea, 91
arguta, 108
eburnea, 109
Adder's-Tongue Family, 1
Adiantum, 3
pedatum, 6
Agoseris, 276
aurantiaca, 277
glauca, 276
graciliens, 277
Large-flowered, 276
Orange-flowered, 277
Slender, 277
Alder, Slender-leaved, 72
Alexanders, Heart-leaved, 203
Allium, 42
recurvatum, 42
sibericum, 43
Alnus tenuifolia, 72
Alsine, 82
borealis, 86
lasta, 86
longipes, 85
Alum-root,
Smooth, 134
Round-leaved, 135
Amelanchier alnifolia, 166
323
■ 324
Index
Anaphalis, 285
subalpina, 320
Androsace, 226
carinata, 228
diffusa,  229
septentrionalis, 229
Alpine, 229
Spreading, 229
Sweet-flowered, 228
Anemone, 91
Drummondii, 93
globosa, 93
parviflora, 92
Alpine, 93
Northern, 92
Western, 95
Antennaria, 285
Howellii, 318
lanata, 317
parvifolia, 319
pulcherrima, 317
racemosa, 318
rosea, 320
Antiphylla, 130
oppositifolia, 146
Apiaceae, 201
Afocynace^e, 237
Apocynum, androsaemifolium, 237
Apple Family, 165
Aquilegia, 91
brevistyla, 105
flavescens, 106
formosa, 106
Arabis, 112
Drummondii, 120
hirsuta, 119
Holboldii, 119
Lyallii, 120
Arace^e, 35
Aragallus, 168
deflexus, 176
inflatus, 176
Lamberti, 174
monticola, 173
«a& Index
Aragallus—Continued
splendens, 175
viscidulus, 175
Araliace^e, 199
Aralia nudicaulis, 199
Arctostaphylos, 212
uva-ursi, 214
Arenaria, 82
capillaris nardifolia, 88
sajanensis, 89
verna equicaulis, 89
Argentina, 151
anserina, 159
Arnica, 285
Chamissonis, 306
cordifolia, 304
eradiata, 308
fulgens, 307
gracilis, 304
latifolia, 305
louiseana, 306
Alpine, 307
Broad-leaved, 305
Chamisso's 306
Heart-leaved, 304
Pale-flowered, 306
Rayless, 308
Slender, 304
Artemisia, 285
discolor, 316
frigida, 316
Arum Family, 35
Aruncus, 150
Aruncus, 153
Aspen, American, 69
Asphodel,
False, 40
Scottish, 40
Western False, 41
Asplenium, 4
Filix-fcemina, 9
viride, 9
Aster, 285
ciliomarginatus, 298 326
Index
Aster—Continued
conspicuus, 296
frondeus, 299
Lindleyanus, 298
major, 297
Richardsonii, 296
Engelmann's, 300
Great Northern, 297
Hispid Golden, 286
Large Purple, 296
Leafy-bracted, 299
Lindley's, 298
Richardson's, 296
Astragalus, 168
adsurgens, 169
alpinus, 170
convallarius, 171
hypoglottis, 169
Macouni, 171
Atragene, 90
columbiana, 91
Avens,
Drummond's Mountain, 164
Large-leaved, 162
Purple-plumed, 163
White Mountain, 163
Yellow, 162
Azaleastrum, 212
albiflorum, 218
B
Baneberry,
Western Red, 108
Western White, 109
Barberry Family, 109
Batrachium, 91
trichophyllum, 97
Bearberry, 214
Alpine, 214
Beard-tongue,
Blue, 251
Large Purple, 249
Yellow, 250 Index
327
Bed-straw, Northern, 263
Bell-flower Family, 273
Berberidace^e, 109
Berberis aquifolium, no
Betony, Wood, 261
Betula,
glandulosa, 71
occidentalis, 71
papyrifera, 70
Betulace-(E, 70
Bilberry,
Alpine, 222
Dwarf, 221
Thin-leaved, 223
Birch,
Canoe, 70
Family, 70
Paper, 70
Scrub, 71
Western Red, 71
Bishop's Cap, Naked, 132
Bistort, Alpine, 78
Black-eyed Susan, 201
Bladder-pod, Double, 117
Bladderwort Family, 262
Bluebell, 274
Blueberry, 222
Blue-eyed Grass, 53
Borage Family, 240
Boraginace^e, 240
Botrychium,
lunaria, 1
simplex, 2
virginianium, 2
Bracken, 6
Brake,
American Rock, 7
Slender Cliff, 8
Brassicace^e, III
Braya, 112
humilis, 123
Brooklime, American, 252
Buckbean, 236
Family, 236
II
i 328
Index
Buckwheat Family, 75
Buffalo-berry, Canadian, 192
Bunch-berry,- 205
Bunch-flower Family, 36
Buttercup,
Low, 102
Meadow, 103
Northern, 99
Pursh's, 98
Snow, 100
Butterwort, 262
Caltha, 91
leptosepala, 104
Calypso, 57
Campanula,
rotundifolia, 274
uniflora, 273
Campanulace^e, 273
Campion, Moss, 82
Capnodes aurea, in
Caprifoliace^e, 264
Card amine, 112
pennsylvanica, 118
Carduace^e, 383
Carduus, 285
Kelseyi, 321
undulatus, 321
Carophyllace^e, 81
Cassiope, 212
Mertensiana, 215
Castilleja, 248
lanceifolia, 258
miniata, 258
pallida, 257
purpurascens, 256
Catchfly, Lyall's, 83
Cedar,
Giant, 33
Shrubby Red, 33
Celastrace^e, 184
Celery Family, 201 Index
Cerastium, 82
arvense strictum, 84
behringianum, 85
Chamaenerion, 193
angustifolium, 194
latifolium, 194
Cheilanthes, 4
Feei, 8
Cherry, Western Wild, 167
Chickweed,
Alpine, 85
Field, 84
Chicory Family, 275
Chimaphila, 207
umbellata, 211
Chiogenes, 221
hispidula, 224
Christmas-green, Trailing, 20
Chrysanthemum, 285
leucanthemum, 315
Chrysopsis hispida, 286
Chrysosplenum, 129
tetrandum, 130
Cichoriace^e, 275
Cinquefoil,
Alpine, 161
Cut-leaved, 160
Marsh, 159
Shrubby, 157
Snowy, 160
Circaea, 193
alpina, 197
pacifica, 198
Claytonia,
lanceolata, 80
parviflora, 81
Clintonia, 46 j
uniflora, 46
Club-moss,
Alpine, 21
Arctic, 20
Family, 18
Fir, 18
Stiff, 19
329
1 33°
Index
Cceloglossum, 55
bracteatum, 6^
Collinsia, 248
parviflora, 249
Small, 249
Coltsfoot,
Arctic, 314
Arrow-leaved, 213
Palmate-leaved, 312
Columbine,
Small Blue, 105
Western, 106
Yellow, 106
Comandra,
livida,    74
pallida, 74
Northern, 74
Pale, 74
Comarum, 151
palustre, 159
Conv5tllariace^e, 45
Coral-root,
Early, 56
Large, 57
Corallorhiza, 54
Corallorhiza, 56
multiflora, 57
CORNACE-E, 205
Cornus,
canadensis intermedia, 205
stolonifera, 206
Corydalis, Golden, in
Cranberry,
Mountain, 224
Small, 225
Tree, Few-flowered, 266
Crassulace^e, 125
Crepis, 276
elegans, 281
nana, 280
Cress,
Drummond's Rock, 120
Hairy Rock, 119
Lyall's Rock, 120 Index
Cress—Continued
Northern Rock, 123
Pennsylvania Bitter, 118
Penny, 117
Stony Rock, 119
Water, 124
Crowberry,
Black, 183
Family, 183
Crowfoot,
Creeping, 103
Ditch, 99
Family, 90
White Water, 97
Cryptogramma, 4
acrostichoides, 7
Stelleri, 8
Currant, Howell's, 149
Cypripedium, 54
parviflorum, 55
passerinum, 55
Cytherea, 54
bulbosa, 57
331
>i
D
Daisy,
Ox-eye, 315
White, 315
Yellow, 301
Dandelion, 278
Mountain, 278
Dasyphora, 151
fruticosa, 157
Delphinium, 91
Brownii, 107
Menziesii, 108
Devil's Club, 200
Disporum, 46, 51
Large-flowered, 52
majus, 52
oreganum, 51
Dock,
Pale-leaved, 77
Sour, 77 332
Index
Dodecatheon, 226
conjugens, 231
pauciflorum, 230
Dogbane,
Family, 137
Spreading, 237
Dogwood,
I Family,  205
Red-stemmed, 206
Draba, 112
andina, 114
aurea, 115
glacialis, 112
incana, 116
lonchocarpa, 115
nivalis, 114
oligosperma, 113
Drupace^e, 167
Dryas, 151
Drummondii, 164
octopetala, 163
Dryopteris, 4
Filix-mas, 11
oreopteris, 12
spinulosa dilatata,   it
E
Echinopanax horridum, 200
Ei^^agnace^e, 191
Elaeagnus, 191
argentea, 191
Elder,
Black-berried, 265
Red-berried, 264
Elephantella, 248
groenlandica, 260
Long-beaked, 260
Empetrace^e, 183
Empetrum nigrum, 183
Epilobium, 193
alpinum, 196 Index
333
Epilobium—Continued
anagallidifolium, 196
Hornemanni, 197
luteum, 195
Equisetaceje, 14
Equisetum,
arvense, 15
fluviatile, 16
hyemale, 16
scirpoides, 17
sylvaticum, 15
variegatum, 17
Variegated, 17
Ericaceae 211
Erigeron, 284
acris, 294
asper, 290
aureus, 292
caespitqsus, 291
drobrachiensis, 294
melanocephalus, 293
multifidus, 291
philadelphicus, 295
salsuginosus, 289
simplex, 289
Eriogonum, 76
ochroleucum, 79
subalpinum, 78
Tall White, 78
Yellowish White, 79
Erysimum, 112
inconspicuum, 121
Erythronium,
grandiflorum,
Eucephalus, 285
Engelmanni, 300
Everlasting,
Alpine, 317
Howell's, 318
Mountain, 319
Pearly, 320
Pink, 320
Tall Alpine, 317
White, 318
■hi
I 334
Index
Fern,
Beech, Long, 5
Beech, Western, 4
Brittle, 13
Family, 3
Grape, Virginia, 2
Holly, 10.
Lady, 9
Lip, Hairy, 8
Maidenhair, 6
Male, 11
Oak, 5
Shield, Spinulose, 11
Figwort Family, 248
Filix, 4
fragilis, 13
montana, 14
Fir,
Balsam, 27
Red, 28
Sub-alpine, 27
Fireweed, 194
Flax,
Family, 182
Lewis's Wild, 182
Fleabane,
Arctic, 289
Black-woolly, 293
Blue, 294
Daisy, 291
Golden, 292
Large Purple, 289
Philadelphia, 295
Rough, 290
Tufted, 291
Foam Flower, 136
Forget-me-not, 243
False, 241, 242
Fragaria, 151
glauca, 158
GaiUardia, 285
aristata, 303
G Index
335
Gaillardia—Continued
Great-flowered, 303
Galium boreale, 263
Garlic, 42
Northern, 43
Gaultheria, 212
humifusa, 213
ovatifolia, 213
Gentian,
Dwarf, 233
Family, 231
Four-parted, 233
Glaucous, 234
Large, 234 *
Northern, 232
Spurred, 235
Gentiana, 232
acuta, 232
affinis, 234
glauca, 234
propinqua, 233
prostrata, 233
Gentianace^e, 231
Geum, 151
macrophyllum, 162
strictum, 162
Ginseng Family, 199
Globe-flower, Western, 104
Goat's Beard, 153
Golden Rod,
Canada, 288
Field, 287
Missouri, 287
Northern, 286
Gooseberry,
Bristly, 148
Family, 146
Northern, 148
Swamp, 147
Grass, Blue-eyed, 53
Grass of Parnassus,
Alpine, 128
Family, 126
Fringed, 126
m 33°
Index
Grass of Parnassus—Continued
Marsh, 127
Small-flowered, 127
Grossulariace^, 146
Groundsel,
Black-tipped, 311
Silvery,   310
Western Balsam, 309
H
Halerpestes, 91
Cymbalaria, 103
Harebell, 274
Arctic, 273
Hawk'sbeard,
Alpine, 280
Many-flowered, 281
Hawkweed,
Hairy, 282
Narrow-leaved, 281
Slender, 282
White-flowered, 283
Heal-all, 245
Heath,
Family, 211
White, 215
Heather,
False Pink, 216
False Red, 217
False White, 216
Hedysarum, 168
americanum, 177
Mackenzii, 178
sulphurescens, 178
Mackenzie's, 178
Purple, 177
Yellow, 178
Helianthus, 285
Nuttallii, 302
scaberrimus, 301
Heliotrope, Wild, 272
Hellebore, American White, 37
Hemieva, 130
ranuncuiifolia, 136 Index
Hemlock,
Mountain, 30
Western, 29
Heracleum, 201
lanatum, 204
Heuchera, 129
glabra, 134
ovalifolia, 135
Hieracium, 276
albiflorum, 283.
gracile, 282
Scouleri, 282
umbellatum, 281
Homalobus, 168
aboriginorum, 173
Honeybloom, 237
Honeysuckle,
Douglas, 268
Family, 264
Fly, 269
Involucred, 270
Horsetail,
Family, 14
Field, 15
Swamp, 16
Wood, 15
Huckleberry Family, 221
Hydrophyllace^e, 238
Hypericace^e, 168
Hypericum Scouleri, 186
Ibidium, 55
romanzoffianum, 67
Iridace^e, 52
Iris Family, 52
June-berry, North-western, 166
Juniper, Alpine, 32
Juniperus, 24
prostrata, 33
siberica, 32
22 338
Index
Kalmia, 212
microphylla, 218
Kruhsea, 46, 50
streptopoides, 50
K
Labrador Tea, 220
Lactuca, 276
pulchella, 280
Lady's Slipper,
Small White, 55
Small Yellow, 55
Lady's Tresses, 67
Lappula, 241
diffusa, 242
floribunda, 241
lappula, 242
Larch, Lyall's, 26
Larix, 24
Lyallii, 26
Larkspur,
Blue, 108
Western, 107
Lathyrus, 169
ochroleucus, 181
palustris, 181
Laurel, Small-leaved Swamp, 218
Ledum, 212
groenlandicum, 220
Lentibulariace^e, 262
Lepargyraea, 191
canadensis, 192
Leptarrhena, 130
pyrolifolia, 143
Leptasea, 130
austromontana, 145
Van Bruntias, 144
Leptotaenia, 201
multifida, 202
Lettuce, Large-flowered Blue, 280
Ligusticum, 201
apiifolium, 203 Index
339
Liliaceje, 41
Lily Family, 41
Mountain, 43
Snow, 44
Lily-of-the-Valley Family, 45
Lilium, 42
montanum, 43
Limnorchis, 55
borealis, 66
dilatatiformis, 64
fragrans, 66
viridiflora, 65
Linace^e, 182
Linnaea, 264
americana, 266
Linum Lewisii, 182
Lithophragma, 129
parviflora, 131
Lithospermum, 241
linearifolium, 243
Lobelia,
Brook, 275
Kalmii strictiflora, 275
Loco Weed, 174
Lomatium, 201
macrocarpum, 201
triternatum, 202
Lonicera, 264
ebractulata', 269
glaucescens, 268
involucrata, 270
Lousewort, White, 260
Lutkea, 150
pectinata, 151
Cut-leaved, 151
Lychnis,
apetala, 84
Nodding, 84
Lycopodiaceae, 18
Lycopodium,
alpinum, 21
annotinum, 19
clavatum, 19
complanatum, 20 34°
Index
Lycopodium—Continued
Selago, 18
sitchensis, 20
Lysichiton kamtschatcense, 2>^>
Lysiella, 54
obtusata, 59
M
Madder Family,
Mahonia, Trailing, no
Mairania, 212
alpina, 214
Maple,
Family, 185
Smooth, 185
Marigold, White Marsh, 104
Meadow Rue,
Veiny, 96
Western, 96
MELANTHACE.E, 36
Mentha, 245
canadensis, 247
Menthace^e, 244
Menyanthace^e, 236
Menyanthes trifoliata, 236
Menziesia, 212
ferruginea, 219
Smooth, 219
Micranthes, 130
Lyallii, 141
Nelsoniana, 142
rhomboidea,  140
Mimulus, 248
caespitosus, 255
Lewisii, 254
moschatus, 255
Mint,
American Wild, 247
Family, 244
Mistletoe, Dwarf,
Mitella, 129
nuda, 132
Mitrewort, 133, 134 Index
;4x
Mcehringia, 82
lateriflora, 87
Moneses, 207
uniflora, 210
Monkey Flower,
Red, 254
Yellow, 255
Moonwort, 1
Small, 2
Mountain-ash, Western, 166
Mountain Lover, 184
Muscaria, 130
adscendens, 138
caespitosa, 139
Musk Plant, 255
Mustard,
Family, in
Hedge, 122
Tansey, 123
Treacle, 121
Myosotis, 241
alpestris, 243
N
Nightshade,
Smaller Enchanter's, 197
Western Enchanter's, 198
O
Oleaster Family, 191
Onagraceae, 193
Onion, 42
OpHIOGLOSSACEaE,  1
Ophrys, 54
borealis, 61
convallarioides, 60
nephrophylla, 60
OrchidaceaE, 53
Orchid,
Family 53
Fragrant Bog, 66
Long-bracted, 63 342
Index
Orchid—Continued
Purplish-green Bog, 64
Round-leaved, 58
Small Green Bog, 65
Small Northern Bog, 59
Small White Bog, 66
Orchis, 54
rotundifolia, 58
Orthocarpus, 248
luteus, 259
Yellow, 259
Oxycoccus, 221
Oxycoccus, 225
Oxyria, 76
digyna, 76
Oxytrope,
Drooping-fruited, 176
Inflated, 177
Mountain, 173
Showy, 175
Sticky, 175
Pachystima myrsinites, 184
Paint-brush, White Indian, 257
Painted Cup,
Bright, 258
Scarlet, 258
Painter's Brush, 256
PapaveraceaE, no
PapilionaceaE, 168
Parnassia,
fimbriata, 126
Kotzebuei, 128
montanensis, 127
parviflora, 127
ParnassiaceaE, 126
Parsley,
Cut-leaved, 202
Large-seeded, 201
Narrow-leaved, 202
Wild, 203 Index
Parsnip, Cow, 204
Pasque Flower, 94
Pea Family, 168
Pearlwort, Arctic, 87
Pectiantia, 129
Breweri, 134
pentandra, 133
Pedicularis, 248
bracteosa, 261
racemosa, 260
Pentstemon, 248
confertus, 250
fruticosus, 249
procerus, 251
pseudohumilis, 251
Peramium, 54
. Menziesii, 62
repens, 63
Petasites, 285
frigida, 314
palmata, 312
sagittata, 313
Phaca,  168
americana, 172
Phacelia, 238
heterophylla, 239
sericea, 239
Mountain, 239
Phegopteris, 3
alpestris, 4
Dryopteris, 5
Phegopteris, 5
Phyllodoce, 212
empetriformis, 217
glanduliflora, 216
intermedia, 216
Physaria, 112
didymocarpa, 117
Picea, 24
albertiana, 31
Engelmanni, 31
PinaceaE, 23
Pine,
Black, 25 344
Index
Pine—Continued
Family, 23
Jack, 25
Prince's, 211
Running, 19
White-bark, 24
Pinguicula vulgaris, 262
Pink Family, 81
Pinus, 24
albicaulis, 24
Murrayana, 25
Pipsissawa, 211
Plantain
Rattlesnake, 62
Northern Rattlesnake, 63
Plum Family, 167
PolygonaceaE, 75
Polygonum, 76
viviparum, 78
PolypodiaceaE, 3
Polystichum,  4
Lonchitis, 10
PomaceaE, .165
Poplar, Balsam, 68
Poppy Family, no
Populus
balsamifera, 68
tremuloides, 69
PortulacaceaE, 80
Potentilla, 151
dissecta, 160
multisecta, 161
nivea,' 160
uniflora, 161
Primrose
Bird's-eye, 226
Evening, Family, 193
Family, 226
Maccalla's 227
Primula, 226
americana, 226
Maccalliana, 227
PrimulaceaE, 226
Prince's Pine, 211 Index
345
Prunella, 244
vulgaris, 245
Prunus demissa, 167
Pseudotsuga, 24
mucronata, 28
Pteridium, 3
aquilinum pubescens, 6
Puccoon, Narrow-leaved, 243
Pulsatilla, 91
hirsutissima, 94
occidentalis, 95
Purslane Family, 80
Pyrola, 207
asarifolia, 208
chlorantha, 207
minor, 209
secunda, 209
uliginosa, 208
Pyrolaceae, 207
R
Ragwort
Giant, 311
Western Golden, 308
Ranunculaceae, 90
Ranunculus, 91
alpeophilus, 100
eremogenes, 99
Eschscholtzii, 100
eximeus, 102
inamcenus, 101
montanesis, 103
pedatifidus, 99
Purshii, 98
reptans, 98
saxicola, 101
Suksdorfii, 102
Raspberry
Arctic, 154
Creeping, 153
Dwarf, 155
Wild Red, 156
Rattlesnake Plantain, 62
Northern, 63 346
Index
Razoumofskya americana, 73
Rhododendron, White Mountain, 218
Ribes
Howellii, 149
lacustre, 147
oxyacanthoides, 148
setosum, 148
Romanzoffia, 238
sitchensis, 240
Roripa, 112
nasturtium, 124
Rosa, 150
Macounii, 165
Rosaceae, 150
Rose
Family, 150
Macoun's, 165
RubiaceaE, 263
Rubus, 150
americanus, 155
arcticus, 154
parviflorus, 156
pedatus, 153
strigosus, 156
Rudbeckia, 285
hirta, 301
Rumex, 76
acetosa, 77
salicifolius, 77
Rush, Common Scouring, 16
Sagina, 82
saginoides, 87
St. John's-wort
Family, 186
Scouler's, 186
SalicaceaE, 68
Salmon-berry, 156
Sambucus, 264
melanocarpa, 265
pubens, 264
Sandalwood Family, 73 Index
Sandwort
Alpine, 89
Blunt-leaved, 87
Rock, 88
Vernal, 89
SantalaceaE, 73
Sarsaparilla, Wild, 199
Saussurea, 285
densa, 322
Saxifraga, 130
cernua, 138
rivularis, 137
Saxifragaceae, 128
Saxifrage
Alpine, 140
Alpine Brook, 137
Common, 145
Family, 128
Fleshy, 144
Golden, 130
Lyall's 141
Nelson's 142
Nodding Bulbous, 137
Purple, 146
Tall, 142
Tufted, 139
Scouring Rush, Common, 16
ScrophulariaceaE, 248
Scutellaria, 244
galericulata, 245
Sedum stenopetalum, 125
Selaginella
densa, 23
selaginoides, 22
Family, 22
Low, 22
SeLAGINELLACEaE, 22
Self-heal, 245
Senecio, 285
canus, 310
discoideus, 309
flavovirens, 309
lugens, 311
pseudaureus, 308 348
Index
Senecio—Continued
triangularis, 311
Shooting Star, 231
Slender, 230
Sibbaldia, 151
procumbens, 157
Sieversia, 151
ciliata, 163
Silene, 82
acaulis, 82
Lyallii, 83
Silver Berry, 191
Silverweed, 159
Sisymbrium, 112
altissimum, 122
Sisyrinchium, septentrionalis, 53
Skullcap, Marsh, 245
Skunk Cabbage, Western, 36
Smelowskia, 112
calycina, 121
Snowberry, 267
Creeping, 224
Low, 268
Solidago, 284
canadensis, 288
decumbens, 287
missouriensis, 287
multiradiata, 286
Solomon's Seal,
False, 47
Star-flowered, 47
Sonchus, 276
arvensis, 279
Sophia, 112
intermedia, 123
Sorbus, 165
sambucifolia, 166
Sorrel, Mountain, 76
Spatularia   130
brunoniana, 142
Spearwort, Creeping, 98
Speedwell
Alpine, 253
Thyme-leaved, 253 Index
Spiraea, 150
densiflora, 152
lucida, 152
Beech-leaved, 152
Pink, 152
Spleen wort, Green, 9
Spring Beauty, 80
Small-leaved, 81
Spruce
Alberta, 31
Douglas's, 28
Engelmann's, 31
Squaw-root, Northern, 309
Stachys, 245
palustris, 246
Staff-tree Family, 184
Star-flower, Arctic, 230
Stenanthella, 37,
occidentalis, 39
Stenanthium, 39
Stickseed, 242
Stitchwort
Glaucous, 86
Long-stalked, 85
Northern, 86
Stone-crop
Family, 125
Narrow-petaled, 125
Strawberry, Wild, 158
Streptopus, 46
amplexifolius, 48
curvipes, 49
Sunflower
Nuttall's, 302
Stiff, 301
Symphoricarpos, 264
pauciflorus, 268
racemosus, 267
Taraxacum, 276
montanum, 278
Taraxacum, 278 35° Index
TaxaceaE, 34
Taxus brevifolia, 34
Tellima, 129
grandiflora, 132
Tetragonanthus, 232
deflexus, 235
Thalictrum, 91
megacarpum, 96
occidentalis, 96
Thistle
Family, 283
Milk, 279
Wavy-leaved, 321
White, 321
Thlaspi, 112
arvense, 117
Thuja, 24
plicata, 33
Tiarella, 129
unifoliata, 136
Tofieldia, 37
intermedia, 40
occidentalis, 41
palustris, 40
Trientalis, 226
arctica, 230
Trollius, 91
albiflorus, 105
Tsuga, 24
heterophylla, 29
Mertensiana, 30
Twayblade .
Broad-lipped, 60
Heart-shaped, 60
Northern, 61
Twin-flower, 266
Twisted stalk
Smaller, 49
Tall, 48
Vacciniaceae, 220
Vaccinium, 221
caespitosum, 221 Index
5i
Vaccinium—Continued
erythrococcum, 222
globulare, 223
ovalifolium, 222
Vagnera, 46
amplexicaulis, 47
stellata, 48
Valerian
Family, 271
Northern, 271
Scouler's, 272
Valeriana
Scouleri, 272
septentrionalis, 271
sitchensis, 272
ValerianaceaE, 271
Veratrum, 37
viride, 37
Veronica, 248
americana, 252
serphyllifolia, 253
Wormskjoldii, 253
Vetch
Alpine Milk, 170^
American, 179
Arctic Milk, 172
Ascending Milk, 169
Cow, 179
Indian, 173
Macoun's 171
Narrow-leaved American, 180
Purple Milk, 169
Slender Milk, 171
Vetchling,
Cream-coloured, 181
Marsh, 181
Viburnum, 264
pauciflorium, 266
Vicia, 169
americana, 179
cracca, 179
linearis, 180
Viola
adunca longipes, 190
,«■ m 352
Index
Viola—Continued
canadensis, 190
cognata, 187
glabella, 189
palustris, 188
sempervirens, 188
ViolaceaE, 187
Violet
.  Canada,190
Dog, 190
Early Blue   187
Family, 187
Low Yellow, 188
Marsh, 188
Tall Yellow, 189
Virgin's Bower, Purple,
Vitis-idaea, 221
Vitis-idaea, 224
91
W
Water-leaf Family, 238
Whitlow-Grass
Arctic, 114
Golden, 115
Hoary, 116
Willow-Herb
Alpine, 196
Broad-leaved, 194
Great, 194
Hornemann's, 197
Nodding, 196
Yellow, 195
Willow Family, 68
Wind-flower, 93
Wintergreen
Bog, 208
Family, 207
Greenish-flowered, 207
Lesser, 209
Liver-leaf, 208
Low, 213
One-flowered, 210
One-sided, 209
Ovate-leaved, 213 Index
Woodsia, 4
oregana, 13
scopulina, 12
Oregon, 13
Rocky Mountain, 12
Wormwood
Green, 316
Pasture, 316
Woundwort Marsh, 246
Yarrow, 314
Yew
Family, 34
Western, 34
Zizia, 201
cordata, 203
Zygadenus, 37
elegans, 38
gramineus, 39
Grass-like, 39
Tall, 38    Q^D{    i
U
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