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British Columbia, Canada's most westerly province : its position, advantages, resources and climate :… [unknown] 1897

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Array British
Columbia  RRITI5H COLUHBIfl
CdN/lbfl'S MOST WESTERLY PROVINCE
ITS
Position,
Advantages,
Resources
and Climate.
NEW  FIELDS  FOR
Mining, Farming* Ranching
ALONG THE  LINES  OF
The Canadian Pacific Railway
Information for Prospectors, Miners and
Intending Settlers.
1897 m
C.  P.  R.   HOTELS. British Columbia.
GEOGRAPHICAL   POSITION
OF THE PROVINCE.
British Columbia is the most westerly province of Canada. Its limits
extend from the 49th parallel — the international boundary line between
Canada and the United States—on the south to the 60th degree of north
latitude, and from the summit of the Rocky Mountains westward to the Pacific
Ocean, Vancouver Island and Queen Charlotte Islands being included witnin
its bounds. The province contains the immense area of 383,000 square miles
—a diversified country of huge mountain ranges, fruitful valleys, magnificent
forests and splendid waterways. The position of British Columbia on the North
Pacific Ocean — bearing a somewhat similar relation to the larger portion of
the American continent that Great Britain does to Europe for the trade of the
world — makes it one of the most important and valuable provinces of the
Dominion, both commercially and politically. Already its trade, which is ever
rapidly increasing in vo'ume, has assumed immense proportions, and reaches
to China, Japan, Australia, Europe, Africa and South America. The principal seaport—Vancouver, the western terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway — is
the gateway of the new and shortest highways to the Orient, the Far North, the
Tropics and the Antipodes. The voyage from Yokohama, Japan, to London
has already been made in twenty-one days by this route, beating all previous
records; and the journey to and from Australia, via Vancouver, is speedier
and more pleasant than by any other route. British Columbia attracts not
only a large portion of the Japan, China and Australian rapid transit trade,
but must necessarily secure much of the commerce of the Pacific Ocean, the
steamers of the Canadian-Australian Line touching at the Hawaiian and b'ijian
Islands. Its timber is unequalled in quantity, quality or variety; its numerous
mines already discovered, and its great extent of unexplored country, speak of
vast areas of rich mineral wealth; its large fertile valleys indicate great
agricultural resources, and its waters, containing marvellous quantities of the
most valuable fish, combine to give British Columbia a value that has been
little understood.
THE  HARBOURS.
British Columbia has a magnificent ocean frontage of 1,000 miles, abounding in harbours, sounds, islands and' navigable inlets. Of the many fine
harbours the principal are English Bay and Coal Harbour, at the entrance to
Burrard Inlet, a few miles north of the Fraser River. Vancouver, the terminus
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is situated between these harbours.
Victoria, on Vancouver Island, possesses an outer harbour at which all
the Ocean liners dock, and an inner harbour for vessels drawing up to 18 feet,
with another harbour at Esquimalt, three miles to the south east.   Esquimalt BRITISH  COLUMBIA MAINLAND
harbour is about three miles long and something under two miles broad in the
widest part; it has an average depth of six to eight fathoms, and affords
excellent holding ground, the bottom being a tenacious blue clay. The Canadian Government has built a dry-dock at Esquimalt with a length of 450 feet,
and width of 90 feet at the entrance, to accommodate vessels of larger size.
Nanaimo, at .the coal mines, has also a commodious and well-sheltered
haibour.
THE   RIVERS.
Of the rivers of British Columbia the principal are the Fraser, the
Columbia, the Thompson, theKootenay, the Skeena, the Stikine, the Liard, and
the Peace. The Fraser is the great watercourse of the province. It rises in the
northern part of the Rooky Mountains, runs for about 200 miles in two branches
in a westerly direction, and then in one stream runs due south for nearly 400
miles before turning to rush through the gorges of the Co^stran e to the Straits
of Georgia. Its total length is about 740 miles. On its way it receives the waters
of the Thompson, the Chilicoten, the Lillooet, the Nicola, the Harrison, the
Pitt, and numerous other stream*. For the last 80 miles of its course it flows
through a wide alluvial plain, which has mainly been deposited from its own
silt. It is navigable for river boats to Yale, a small town 110 miles from the
mouth, and again for smaller craft for about 60 miles of its course through
the interior, from Quesnelle Mouth to Soda Creek; and larger vessels, drawing
20 feet, can ascend to New Westminster, situated about 15 miles from the
mouth.
The Columbia is a large river rising in the south eastern part of the
province, in the neighborhood of the Rocky Mountains, near the Kootenay
Lake. This lake is now traversable by regular steamboat service. The
Columbia rnns north beyond the 52nd degree of latitude, when it takes a sudden
turn ami runs due south into the State of Washington. It is thi« loop made
by the abrupt turn of the river that is known as the "Big Bend of the
Columbia." The Kootenay waters fall into the returning branch of this loop
some distance south of the main line of the railway. The Columbia drains a
total area of 195,000 square miles.
The Peace Hiv»r rises son e distance north of the north bend of the Fraser,
and flows ea*tw»rdly through the Rocky Mountains, draining the plains on
the other side- It more properly belongs to the district east of the mountains
that bears its name. In the far north are the Skeena and Stikine Rivers flowing into the t acific, the latter being in the country of valuable gold mining
operations.
The Thompson River has two branches, known as the North Thompson
and the South Thompson, the former rising in small lakes in the Cariboo
District, and the other in the Shu*wap Lakes in the Yale District. They join
at Kamloops and flow east out of Kamloops Lake into the Fraser River at
Lytton.
LOCAJL DIVISIONS.
The province is divided for local purposes into a number of districts, of
which six and part of another are on the mainland. The most westwardly of
these is the
NEW WESTMINSTER DISTRICT,
which extends from the international boundary line on the south to 50° 15/on
the north. Its eastern boundary is the 122° longitude, and its western the 124°
where it strikes the head of Jaivis Inlet, and the Straits of Georgia. In the
southern portion of this district there is a good deal of excellent tanning laud,
particularly  in the delta of the Fraser River.   The soil there is rich and ■"%
NEW  WESTMINSTER DISTRICT
strong, the climate mild, ressembling that of England, with more marked,
seasons of rain and dry weather, and heavy yields are obtained without much
labour. Very large returns of wheat have been got from land in this locality
— as much as 62 bushels from a measured acre, 90 bushels of oats pur acre,
and hay that yielded 3£ to 5 tons to the acre, and frequently two crops, totalling
six tons. Experiments have of lute years been made in fruit growing, with
the most satisfactory results — apples, plums, pears, cherries and all the
-smaller fruits being grown in profusion, and at the Experimental Farm at
Agassiz, figs in small quantities have been successfully produced. This part
is fairly well settled, but there is still ample room for new comers. Those
having a little money to use, and desirous of* obtaining a ready-made farm, may
'find many to choose from. These settlements are not a Ion the Fraser; some are
3it a distance from it on other streams. There is considerable good timber in
•the western and south-western portions.
The chief centres of this district are the cities of Vancouver and New
Westminster. The climate of this district is very mild, but in the fall of the
year there is considerable rain in those parts of the district nearest the coast.
The Canadian Pacific Railway crosses the southern portion of this district
"to Vancouver, and rail communicaiiou is established with the cities situated
on Puget Sound, with Portland, Oregon, San Francisco and the American
•system.
CHIEF TOWNS.
Vancouver.—On a peninsula having Coal Harbour in Burrard Inlet on
the east, and English Bay on the west, is the young city of Vancouver. It is
surrounded by a country of rare beauty, and the climate is milder and less
varying than that of Devonshire, and mwie pleasant than that of Delaware.
Backed in the far distance by the Olympian range, sheltered on the north by
-the mountains of the coast, and sheltered from the ocean b»* the high lands of
Vancouver Island, it is protected on every s>de, while enjoying the sea breeze
^rom the Straits of Georgia, wnose tianq til waters bound the city on two sides.
The inlet affords unlimited space for sea going ship*, the land falls gradually
to the sea, rendering drainage easy, and the situation permits of indefinite
-expansion of the city in two directions. It has a splendid and inexhaustible
water supply brought across the inlet from a river in a ravine of one of the
neighbouring heights. The Canadian Pacific Railway was completed to Vancouver in May, 1887, when the first through train arrived in that city from
Montreal, Port Moody having been the western terminus from July of the
preceding year. In 1887, also the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. put a line of
steamships on the route between Vancouver and Japan and China, and i 1893
An excellent service was estab'Nhed between Vaucouver and Victoria and
Australia, via Honolulu and Suva, Fiji. These three important projects are
.giving an impetus to the growth of the city, by placing its advantages
entirely beyond the realm of speculation, and the advancement made is truly
marvellous.
In addition to the great transportation lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway and the steamship lines to Au-tralia, Japan and China, the Hawaiian
and Fijian Islands, the city has connection with all important points along the
Pacific coast and with the interior. Ihe boats employed in the mail service
between Vancouver and Japan and China are three magnificent new steel
twin-screw steamships specially designed for that trade—the Empress of Iudia,
the Empress of Japan and the Empress of China—which avoiding the " horse
latitudes" take the shortest and mo-t pleasant route across the Pacific, and
make the trip in from five to ten day- quicker time than any oth^r line. The
Canadian-Australian Line gives a monthly service to Australia via Honolulu,
H. I., and Suva, Fiji. There is a weekly sailing to A aska during the summer,
months and a semi-monthly sailing in winter.   Steamers p.y between Vaucou- BRITISH  COLUMBIA MAINLAND
ver and Victoria and Nanaimo daily, and connection is made at Victoria for all
Puget Sound ports and to Portland and San Francisco. The Bellingham Bay
& British Columbia Railway gives close railway connection, via Mission
Junction, 43 miles east of Vancouver, with the different cities and towns of
the Pacific Coast.
A great conflagration, in June, 1886, nearly wiped the young wooden city
out of existence, but before the embers died materials for rebuilding were on
their way, and where small wooden structures were before, there arose grand
edifices of stone, brick and iron. Under the influence of the large transportation interests, which were established there the next year, the building of the
city progressed rapidly, and now it has several extensive industries — the
British Columbia Iron Works, sugar refinery, cement works, etc- The city is
the centre of the lumber trade of the provit ce, and within its limits are several-
large saw mills. The population is about 20,000* Electric cars run on the
principal streets, and there is a service of electric cars to and from New Westminster, on the Fraser River. The C. P. R- Hotel, the Vancouver, recently
enlarged to meet increasing wants, in comfort, luxury and refinement of
service, is equal to any hotel on the continent, and in the vicinity of this hotel
is an opera house admitted to be unsurpassed in elegance by any outside of
New York. The city is laid ont on a magnificent scale, and it is being built
up in a style fullv in accord with the plan. Its private residences, business
blocks, hotels, clubs and public buildings of all classes would be creditable to>
any city, and Stanley Park is unsurpassed by any other in the world.
The following table of distances will be useful for reference:
MILES.
Vancouver to Montreal £ ••    2 906
Vancouver to New York, via Brockville     3,16S
Vancouver to Boston, via Montreal     3,248
Vancouver to Liverpool, via Montreal     5,71&
San Francisco to New York     3,266
San Francisco to Boston    ...    3,370
Yokohama, Japan, to Liverpool, via San Francisco......  11,281
Yokohama, Japan, to Liverpool, via Vancouver ". 10,041
Sydney to Liverpool, via Vancouver   12,673-
Sydney to Liverpool, via San Francisco   13,032
Liverpool to Hong Kong, via Vancouver. | 11,649-
Liverpool to Hong Kong, via San Francisco.  12,883
Vancouver to Yokohama     4,283
Vancouver to Hong Kong     5,936
Vancouver to Calcutta     8,987
Vancouver to London, via Suez Canal  15,735
Vancouver to Honolulu, H. I     2,410
Vancouver to Suva, Fiji ,     5,190
Vancouver to Sydney, N. S. W     6,960
New Westminster.—This city, founded by Colonel Moody during the
Fraser River gold excitement in 1858, is situated on the north bank of the
Fraser River, fifteen miles from its mouth, is accessible for deep water ship-.
>ing, and lies in the centre of a tract of country of rich and varied resources.
t is connected with the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway by a branch
line from Westminster Junction and with Vancouver by an electric railway-
New Westminster is chiefly known abroad for its salmon trade and its lumber
business, but the agricultural interests of the district are now coming into
prominence and giving the city additional stability, particularly as it is the
market town of the Fraser River delta. There are about forty large salmon
canneries within easy reach of New Westminster.   These  establishments
t "^
CARIBOO   GOLD  FIELDS
represent an invested capital of over a million dollars, they employ over eight
thousand men during the fishing season, and pay out over $750,000 a year for
supplies. This is one of the most important industries of the region. Lumbering operations are also extensive and profitable, the mills in the city alone
having a capacity of 350,000 feet per day of ten hours. There is a magnificent
system of waterworks, and the city owns its own electric light plant, which
cost $116,000. New Westminster can boast of the finest public library westof
Winnipeg, and a capital public market. There are fifteen churches with a
seating capacity of 4,400. The Provincial Penitentiary, Asylum for the
Insane, and other public buildings are located here. In 1884 the population
was 1,500 ; in 1896 it was estimated at 8,000.
Steveston.—A town at the mouth of the Fraser where a number of large
iish canneries are located.
Ladner's, on the delta of the Fraser, is a rising town surrounded by a
prairie region of great fertility.
Chilliwack, with a population of 700, in the centre of a large agricultural and fruit growing district, is a prosperous place.
Mission City, on the north side of the Fraser, has a large area of farming
lands tributary to it which are well-adapted for fruit growing. The Pitt
Meadows, which include 40,000 acres of bottom lands being reclaimed by
dyking, are contiguous to the town.
CASSIAR DISTRICT
Lies north of the Comox district, and occupies the whole western portion of
the province from the 26° longitude. While its agricultural capabilities have
not yet been fully determined, it possesses several tracts of fertile land, notably
that occupied by the Bella Coola colony, which gives indications of great
prosperity. The district contains some of the richest gold mines yet discovered
m the province, and indications are numerous of further mineral wealth to be
developed. There are some prosperous fish canning establishments on the
•coast, and parts of the district are thickly timbered. Communication with
the Cassiar district is principally by water. Steamers start at regular dates
from Victoria for the Skeena River, Port Simpson and other points on the
coast within the district.   See page 29 northern zone, as to climate.
OMTNECA  AND  PEACE  RIVER.
The Qmineca and the Peace River countries, which are best reached by
the Cariboo road, are attracting much attention as there is a large and practically unexplored section of country that is known to be rich in gold and
silver. Tne opening up of several hydraulic mines will give that country a
well deserved prominence. These mines are nearly 600 miles north of Ash-
croft, are partially fitted up and will be in operation before the close of the
season of 1897- There is said to bemucb/rich hydraulic ground in that section.
CARIBOO DISTRICT
Lies between Cassiar on the west and the Canadian Northwest on the east, the
southern boundary being the 52nd parallel. The famed Cariboo mines, from
which fifty millions of dollars of gold have been taken, are in this district.
This is still a promising field for the miner, the immense output of the placer
diggings being the result of explorations and operations necessarily confined
m0  n
CARIBOO  GOLD  FIELDS
to the surface, the enormous cost and almost insuperable difficulties of transporting heavy machinery necessitating the employment of the mo.-t primitive
-appliances in mining. These obstacles to the full development of the marvellously rich gold fields of Carihoo have been largely overcome by the construction of the Canadian Pacific, and the improvement of the great highway
from that railway to northern British Columbia, with the result that the work
-of development has recently been vigorously and extensively prosecuted.
During the past few years several costly hydraulic plants have been introduced
by different wealthy mining companies which are now operating well-known
-claims with the most gratifying results, and there is every prospect of a second
golden harvest which in its immensity and value will completely overshadow
that which made Cariboo famous thirty years ago. Among the numerous
Cariboo enterprises are the Horsefly Hydraulic Minirg Co., with a capital of
$250,000, working a series of claims which are located in tne drift gravels on
the western bank of the Horsefly, a tributary of the Upper Fraser River, near
<Jnesi!elle Lake, 200 miles from Ashcroft; the Cariboo Hydraulic Mining Co.,
with a capital ot $ 00,000, actively prosecuting work on its claims on the
-south fork of the Quesnelle River, on extensive ground exceptionally rich in
igold deposits, the company, for its hydraulic purposes, conveying water by 17
miles of ditching, which supplies a capacity of 3,000 miner's inches over a
•course of two fef t deep, with a top width of eleven fe< t, and a bottom of seven,
feeding four hydraulic "giants," or monitors, carrying a 300 feet head of
hydraulic pressure that will easily disintegrate gravelly conglomerate wherein
the gold of the mine is contained, and the Montreal Hydraulic Gold Mining
Company wnich is developing its claims rapidly and with excellent results.
At Slough creek, Willow river, Anthr, Cunningham, Big Valley and other
■creeks, and at Barkerville on the richest of all known creeks in the world,
tfrom which $25,0> 0,000 was taken in two miles distance in early days
.{and now being at enormous expense opened up to work by the Cariboo Gold
Fields Company, with a hydraulic elevator,) the results speak well for the
future prosperity of Cariboo. In addition to the properties of these companies, there are numerous other large gravel deposits, many of which
rare now being prepared for working by companies with ample capital, and
which only require properly directed ex- rtions to insure large returns.
The development work for the season of 1896 has served to materially advance
the intere-ts of the district, and the season of 1897 will see the opening up of
-some vast mines. Many hundreds of men found emp'oyment last year in this
region and none who really desired work at a fair wage failed to secure it.
-Capitalists will find advantages which no other part of the world offers for
investments. The quartz mines have not as yet been exploited only in a very
-superficial way, but the rich surface showing on Burns, Island and Bald
^mountains, all tend to prove that further rest arch and a fair use of capital
will make the quartz mines of the Cariboo district among the great producers
and dividend payers of the world. Gold abounds in every valh y, and in every
stream that empties into it, and there is no estimating the unusual activity in
the Cariboo mining circles, some of the richest places merely awaiting the
advent of capital for that development which the new condition of affairs has
rendered easily possible. Cariboo in not without agricultural resources, and
there is a limited area in scattered localities in which farming and ranching
are carried on ; but this region will always prove more attractive to the miner
than to the settler. The early construction of a railway from a point on the
main line of the Canadian Pacific, through the district, when completed will
•open up many desirable locations and largely assist in developing the immense
mineral wealth already known to Cxi«t. At present com<. unication is by serni-
*reekly stage line from Ashcroft, (with steamer from Soda creek to Quesnelle
during navigation) but on application in advance, arrangements can be made
At any time for the transportation of large or small parties by special convey- 10 LILL00ET AND   YALE  DISTRICTS
ances. The roads are excellent, the stopping places convenient, and the trip
is not an uncomfortable one. The chief places en route are Clinton, Lac la
Hache, 150 Mile House, Soda Creek, Quesnelle Mouth, Horsefly, Quesnelle
Forks, Stanley and Barkerville. This district covers such a large area that it
contains more than one climate, which subject, however, is dealt with on
page 29, middle zone.
LILLOOET  DISTRICT.
This division lies directly south of Cariboo and is bisected by the Fraser
River. The country is as yet only sparsely settled, the principal settlements
being in the vicinity of the Fraser River, though there are other settlements at
Clinton, Lillooet and elsewhere which, when the projected Cariboo Railway,
before mentioned, is built, will rapidly become of more importance. This
district is rapidly coming to the front as a gold producer. Considerable milling
gold is found near the town of Lillooet when the Golden Cache and other
mines are being operated. Several promising quartz-bearing locations are
being developed in this district, and as machinery capable of treating the
refractory ores are of the most improved methods the excellent results already
attained are attracting miners and mining men in large numbers. There is a
large area of the finest grazing land in this district, and cattle thrive well. The
valleys are wonderfully rich, and fruit of an excellent quality, chiefly apples,
is grown; peaches, pears and plums are also cultivated, and smaller fruits
grow in profusion.    See page 29, middle zone, for climate.
YALE DISTRICT
Is on the east of Lillooet and New Westminster. It extends southwards to
the international boundary and eastward to the range of high lands thai
separate the Okanagan Valley from the Arrow Lakes. The Yale district
affords openings for miners, lumbermen, farmers, and ranchmen. For the
purpose of localizing the information here given this district of the Province
may be subdivided into the Nicola, the Okanagan and the North Thompson
countries.
THE NICOLA VALLEY,
Forming the central part of the Yale district, while specially adapted to pastoral pursuits, is well fitted for agriculture and the growth of all classes of
cereals. The crops already grown are excellent in quality and the yield
exceptionally large. There is greater tendency now to mixed farming than
in the past, and the Nicola Valley is becoming as famous for its grain, roots,
vegetables and fruits of all kinds as it has been for its bunch grass fed cattle.
For climate see page 29, southern zone.
The valley is also rich in its mineral deposits. The principal mines for
the precious metals are in the Similkameen section where hydraulic companies
are operating. There is a large area of bituminous and good coking coal at
Coldwater, where magnetic iron ore is likewise found. The richest platinum
mines on the continent have been discovered on Tulameen and Slate Creeks.
A railway is projected from Spence's Bridge, which, when completed, will
largely develop the mines in this valley.
THE OKANAGAN VALLEY,
South and southeast of Kamloops and the Canadian Pacific Railway, and east
of the Nicola Valley, is one of the finest sections in the whole province for .
agriculture and stock raising pursuits.   In this part are to be found the most
extensive farms in the province, as well as the largest cattle ranges.    Many
U OKANAGAN  VALLEY 11
can count their herds by the thousands of head, and their broad fields by
thousands of acres. The district is an extensive one and within its borders
are to be found large lakes, the principal one being Okanagan, whilst such
-streams as the Spallumcbeen and other large rivers flow through the district
Okanagan is famous as a grain-growing country. l?or many years this
industry was not prosecuted, vigourously, but of late a marked change has
taken place in this respect, and samples of wheat raised in Okanagan, sent to
the Vienna Exposition, were awarded the highest premiums and bronze
medals. One of the best flouring mills in the Dominion is now in operation
at Enderby, 24 miles south of Sicamous, and connected with it by rail. The
flour manufactured at these mills from Okanagan grown wheat is equal to
any other to be found on the continent. There is another mill at Vernon and
-one at Armstrong erected in 1896. Though Okanagan is a excellent wheat
producing country, considerable attention is now being given to the various
kinds of fruit culture, and an important movement is on foot looking to the
conversion of the grain fields into orchards and hop fields. Attention has
been more particularly turned to the production of Kentish hops, and during
the past four years hops from this section have brought the highest prices in
the Euglish market, competing successfully with the English, the continental,
and those grown in other parts of America. The Earl of Aberdeen, Governor
■General of Canada, has a large fruit farm near Kelowna, on the east side of the
lake. His Excellency has also over 13,000 acres near Vernon, in the Coldstream Valley, where general farming, hop growing and fruit raising are carried
•on. His orchard of about 125 acres is the point of attraction for visitors to
Vernon. An excellent quality of cigar wrapper and leaf tobacco is grown about
Kelowna, shipments of which are yearly increasing, but the production has
not yet become general.
There are still to be taken Up immense stretches of the very best land,
which are but lightly timbered and easily brought under cultivation. Water
'is abundant in many sections, whilst in some it is scarce, rendering irrigation
by artesian wells a necessity, although not every year.
Okanagan is also a very rich mineral district, and in the different parts
valuable gold, silver, platinum, copper and iron deposits have been discovered,
and are being developed.
The Shuswap & Okanagan Railway to Vernon, the chief town of the district, from the main line of the Canadian Pacific, a distance of 46 miles, has
proved an immense impetus to this splendid section of the country. There are
splendid grazing lands, and the valleys that intersect them are of the most
fertile character. The Coldstream or White Valley is one of these, the Simil-
kameen is another, and the country round about Kelowna, where extensive
fruit orchards have been established, is a rich and valuable section. Crops
grow luxuriantly, but the dry climate necessitates irrigation. There is, however, ample water in the hills, and no difficulty presents itself on this score.
From Okanagan Landing, near Vernon, a fine steamer, the Aberdeen, owned
by the Canadian Pacific Ry. Co., plies to Kelowna (formerly called the Mission)
and to Penticton near the south end of the lake, and the Provincial Government is constructing roads to open up the Boundary Creek country and Samil-
kameen Valley, the former being rich in mineral wealth, and the latter a
famous hunting ground for sheep and goat. The Boundary Creek district
lying along the international boundary contains a large area which is believed
•to be mineralized throughout its extent. Some valuable mines are being
Operated extensively. Its wealth is not alone in its rich ores, but its valleys
are fruitful and adapted for grain growing; there is excellent water and timber
supply, and grazing lands on which thousands of head of stock range, are
found throughout the district. The country tributary to Lake Okanagan is
pre-eminently suitable for settlement and will shortly become thickly populated.   A railway from Trail, in West Kootenay through the Boundary Creek 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA MAINLAND
country to Penticton, will, when constructed, give a great impetus to thi>
section
The climate of the Okanagan country is mild and dry, irrigation being:
necessary for farming and fruit growing. There is only a slight snow fall m-
winter, and the summers are warm and pleasant.
THE THOMPSON VALLEYS.
To the north of these valleys are the Valleys of the North and South*
Thompson, where there are extensive grazing and fertile agricultural areas-
Valuable mining properties-—iron, gold, silver, lead and copper and large-
deposits of mica — from which shipments of ore have been male, are in this-
locality. Here also is a large deposit of cinnabar, said to be the only one io
the British Empire.
CHIEF TOWNS.
The chief towns of the district are Agassiz, Kamloops, North Bend and*
Ashcroft on the Canadian Pacific Railway main line, Penticton, Enderby am>
Vernon on the Okanagan branch, and Rock Creek, Midway, Greenwood and
Grand Forks, in the rapidly developing mining region near the international
boundary which can be reached from Penticton.
Kamloops is 224 miles east of Vancouver, and is situated at the confluence
of the North and South Thompson Rivers, both of whicH are navigable for a-
great distance. It is a railway divisional point and a thriving town of 150(r
population, doing a good trade with the farmers, ranchmen and miners of the-
district Steamboats ply on Kamloops lake, and there are sawmills in constant
operation. The town is supplied by waterworks and lighted by electHcity. It
was originally merely a Hudson's Bay Co's trading post, bit has now become
a town of some size and importance, and is destined to be one of the great
health resorts of the West on account of the dryness and equability of its
climate and its possession of a'l the conditions necessary for the cuie of lung:
troubles. Placer mining has been successfu ly carried on north of Kamloops^
for 25 years and rich mineral discoveries have recently be*n made within three
miles of the town, carrying gold and copper, and some being free milling.
Ashcroft, on the Thompson River, is 204 miles east of Vancouver. It is-
the starting point of the stage line for Clinton, Lillooet 150 Mi'e House,.
Horsefly, Quesnelle Forks, Quesnell** Mouth, Stanley, Soda Creek, Barkerville
and other points in the Lillooet and Cariboo districts- It is a busy place, where
considerable freighting business is done, and where supplies of all kinds can
be obtained.
Agassiz, on the main line of the C  P. R. is the site of the  Dominion
Government experimental farm  which has proved of great benefit  to the
farmers and fruit growers of the Province.   Over two thousand varieties of   -
fruit trees are under test, besides many cereals, roots, fodder, plants and livestock.
Vernon is a good sized town of 1,000 population, with three principal   -
hote's and other minor ones. 1 here are stores of all kinds, flour and saw mills
and two banks.   Having a first-rate farming and ranching country in its-
immediate vicinity, besides large tracts of valuable timber, a large and flourishing business is done at this centre.
Enderby and Armstrong are smaller, but rising towns, where there-
are good hotel accommodation and a variety of stores and other business
establishments, and each having large g-ist mills.
l WEST KOOTENAY   DISTRICT 13
Yale is at the head of navigation on the Fraser River— 103 miles east of
Vancouver, and is the eastern gateway to the famed Fraser River Valley.
Midway is a thriving mining town of growing importance, in the Kettle
River district.
Grand Forks, 20 miles east and north of Midway, at the junction of
North Kettle and Kettle rivers, has a large mining country tributary to it. It
is proposed to erect a smelter at tnis poiut. The Great Volcanic Mountain
mines are north of Grand Forks.
Greenwood is a new and flourishing town in the mid^t of a rich mining
seetion, with a population of about 900, and close to it the rival town of Anaconda has sprung up.
WEST  KOOTENAY  DISTRICT
Is the next east of Ya'e, and extends north and south from the Big Bend of
the Columbia to the international boundary, embracing, with East Kootenay
(from which it is separated by the Purcell range of mountains) an area of
16,500,000 acres. West Kootenay is chiefly remarkable for its great mineral
wealth. Marvellously rich deposits have been discovered in different sections,
and new find- are almost daily made. There is still a large area not yet prospected which will doubtless yield even more phenomenal returns of precious
ores. It is a country of illimitable possibilities, but is only passing the early
stages of development, when the vast area of hidden wealth is considered.
Great strides, however, have already been made, and many of the camps, notably in the Trail Creek, Kaslo-Slocan, Ainswouh and Nelson districts, are
completely equipped for mining operations. In the Lardeau, Big Bend and
other parts of this rich region, mining is profitably carried on, and as capital
is acquired through the working of the mines, or is brought in, the output of
ore will be immensely increased. The output of ore last year approximated
$6,000,000, and with the additional transportation and smelting facilities now
being afforded this amount will doubtless be largely increased during 1897.
Capitalists and practical miners have shewn their unbounded confidence in
West Kootenay by investing millions of dollars in developing claims, equipping
mines, erecting smelters, building tramways, etc., and an eminent American
authority speaks of it as: <Ube coming mining empire of the Northwest." In
1896, the population of West Kootenay was trebled, and the year witnessed the
creation of a number of new mining camps which astonished the world with
their phenomenal growth and prosperity. There are valuable timber limits
in different parts of the country, and saw-mills are in operation.
The mining distriets are easily reached from Revelstoke, on the main line
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, about midway between the eastern tlope of
the Rockies and the Pacific coast. From this point a branch line south is
completed to Arrowhead, at the head of Upper Arrow Lake, from which the
fine new steamers of the Columbia & Kootenay Steam Navigation Co. are taken
to Nakusp, near the foot of the lake, where rail communication witn the
towns of the Slocan, the principal of which are New Denver, Three Forks,
and Sandon, the centre of a rich mining region, has been established, and there
is an excellent steamboat service on Slocan Lake. Steamers can also be taken
from Arrowhead past Nakusp to Robson, at the mouth of the Lower Kootenay
River, along the bank of which unnavigable river the C. P. It. runs by its
Columbia & Kootenay branch to Nelson, the metropolis of the Kootenay mining district, in the vicinity of which are the celebrated Silver King and other
mines From Nelson, steamers ply to all the mining towns on the Kootenay
Lake —Pilot Bay, Ainsworth, Katlo, etc. From Robson the steamers continue
down tl e Columbia to Trail, from which point Rossland, the centre of the new
gold fields of the Trail Creek district, is reached by railway, and to Northport
in the State of Washington. &sm   « BRITISH  COLUMBIA  MAINLAND 15
CHIEF TOWNS.
Hevelstoke, on the Canadian Pacific Railway, is one of the chief towns
of West Kootenay. It is a mining town between the Gold and Selkirk ranges,
and is the chief source of supply for the country south of it, being the junction
point with the Arrow Lake branch, and the Big Bend country to the north-
Population 500-
Nakusp, near the foot of Upper Arrow Lake, is the initial point of the
Nakusp & Slocan branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It is prettily
situated and has the same adjuncts of civilization as the other mining towns.
New Denver, on the east side of Slocan Lake, at the mouth of Carpenter's Creek, is a rapidly growing town, with a population of 800. It is the
seat of government of the Slocan distri3t Large shipments of ore are made
from here to smelter points, a number of very valuable mines being clustered
about the town. There is daily steamboat communication between New
Denver, Roseberry, Silverton, Slocan City, Brandon, and other points on Lake
Slocan, and the town has excellent hotel accommodation, etc.
Roseberry is a distributing point on the N- & S. railway, near the head
of Slocan Lake.
Silverton, four miles south of New Denver on Slocan Lake, is a growing
town near the celebrated Galena Farm.
Ten Mile Creek is a large shipping point on Slocan Lake.
Slocan City and Brandon are situated together at the foot of Slocan
Lake, near which wonderfully rich finds have been discovered and mining
operations are carried on extensively.
Three Forks is situated at the confluence of Seaton Creek and the north
and south branches of Carpenter's Creek, on the Nakusp & Slocan Railway-
Large concentrating works are erected near the town, with a daily capacity of
50 tons. A number of very rich mines are being operated within a short distance of Three Forks.
Sandon, the terminus of the Nakusp & Slocan Railway, and from which
Kaslo is reached, by railway, is a new mining town around which are several
groups of the most valuable mines, chief among which is the Slocan Star.
Cody is a new town, one mile above Sandon, and is growing rapidly, being
the centre for a group of very rich silver-lead and galena mines, amongst
which is the Noble Five.
Nelson, an important business, government, court and customs centre of
the Lower Kootenay district, with a population of 2,000, is situated on an arm
of Kootenay Lake, 28 miles east of Robson, and from it points on the lake
are reach by steamer. A smelter with a daily capacity of 250 tons is erected
here, and an serial tramway connects it with the celebrated Hall mines, 4$
miles distant
Kaslo, on Kootenay Lake, is one of the bases of supplies for mines on
the eastern slope of the Slocan district.   Population 1000, which is increasing.
Ainsworth, on Kootenay Lake, is the centre of the Hot Springs mining
district, from which considerable ore is annually shipped to the smelters. Hot
sulphur springs are in the immediate locality.
Pilot Bay, also on Kootenay Lake, is where the extensive smelting works
of the Kootenay Mining and Smelting Co., which have a capacity of 100 tons
daily, and in which $500,000 have been invested, are located. 16 MINING  LOCALITIES
Trail, on the Columbia river, a town without an existence in 1894, is the
landing place for Rossland and the Trail Creek mining region with which it is
connected by rail. Extensive smelting works with a capacity of 400 tons daily
are erected here and the town boasts of first-class hotels, newspaper, general
stores, etc.   Its population of 1,500 is rapidly increasing.
Rossland is the largest town in the West Kootenay, its growth having
been phenomenal. From a small mining camp in 1894 it has grown to the
proportions cf a thriving, bustling city with a population of 6,000 in January,
1897, which is increasing at the rate of 4,000 or 5,000 yearly. At Rossland,
are the celebrated Le Roi, War Eagle and other mines whose illimitable richness brought this region into prominence. The city, which is eight miles from
the United States boundary line and seven miles from Trail, has excellent
hotels, well-furnished stores, public and private schools, chartered banks, is
lighted by electricity and has a system of water-works.
MINING  LOCALITIES.
There are numerous mines at work in diff rent sections of the district,
chiefly in the Lower Kootenay country, in the north of which are the Kaslo-
Slocan mines; in the cectre, those abound Nelson and Ainsworth, and in the
south those of the Goat River and Trail Creek districts. There are no richer
gold fields than those of the latter mentioned district, of which Rossland is
the centre. Several mines are already operated extensively and are paying
large monthly dividends, while new discoveries indicate that the full richness
of this region cannot yet b even approximately estimated. Large shipments
of ore are being made from Le Roi, War Eagle, Josie, Nickle Plate, Crown
Point, Evening S>ar, Columbia & Kootenay, O. K., Jumbo, Cliff, Iron Mask,
Monte Christo, St. Elmo, Lily May, Poonnan. and other leading mines, while
the Centre Star and other properties have lar^e quantities on the dump ready
for shipment With increased home smelting facilities, the Output of the
camp will be immensely increased. The most notable silver mines are in the
famed Slocan district, from which large shipments of ore have been and are
being made — the general character of its ore being high grade galena, often
carrying 400 oz. of silver to the ton, and averaging 100 oz. and over. The
priucipal mines are the Slocan Star, which paid $300,000 in dividends in 1896,
Enterpiise, Reco, Good Enough, Whitewater, Alamo, Ruth, Two Friends,
Dardanelles, Noble Five, Washington, Payne, Idaho, Mountain Chief and Grady
groups. The Wonderful, two miles from Sandon, is the only hydraulicing
galena mine in the world The Slocan is admitted to be the r* chest silver mining region in America to-day, and has the advantage of excellent transportation
facilities. On Kootenay Lake are the well known Aiusworth group which are
large shippers of ore. The Toad Mountain district around Nelson, and south
of it, has a distinct gold, silver and copper belt, the ore being of that character
known as "gray copper." There are a number of rich mining properties in
this section, amongst others the Silver King or Hall mines, purchased for-
$1,500,000 by an English company, which has constructed an aerial tramway
to connect the mines with their own smelter at Nelson. A number of free milling gold claims have been located near Nelson recently. Hydraulicing is also
carried on at Forty-Nine Creek with profitable results. During the summer of
1896, some of the i ichest discoveries in the Kootenay were found in the Salmon
river country, between the Lower K"Otenay River and the international boundary. In the north, in the IllecMewaet, Fish Crt-ek and Trout Lake districts are
rich properties which are heing worked, and a*ound Lardeau, some valuable
placer gold mines and extensive deposits of galena are being developed. Between the Gold Range and the Selkiiks is the west side of the Big Bend of the
Columbia River, that extends north of the 52nd parallel.    This bend drains a 1
EAST KOOTENAY  DISTRICT 17
gold region yet awaiting complete exploration, but which has every indication of
great mineral richness. Throughout the whole Kootenay country new discoveries
are made every year, so that which is the richest claim of a district during
one season may be surpassed by a dozen others in the following year.-
The wages paid laborers are from $2.50 to $3.00 per day ; $3.00 to $3.50
for miners ; $3-00 to $4.00 for mechanics. Board is from $6 to $7 per week at
mine boarding houses; from $6 to $10 at private boarding houses; and
transient rates at hotels are $2-00 to $3.00 per day.
EAST KOOTENAY DISTRICT.
East Kootenay, lying between West Kootenay and the eastern boundary
of the province, comprises the larger part of the famous Kootenay region of
British Columbia, which is entered from the east at Golden, on the Canadian
Pacific Railway. ^^^^^K
East Kootenay is now actively engaged in working its new mines and
prospecting for others. The selection of the Crow's Nest Pass route for a short
line of the Canadian Pacific Railway and the probable construction of the
branch roads and other lines within a few years will add marvellously to its
prosperity. East Kootenay is, speaking generally, a good agricultural and
pastoral as well as mining country, and during the past year has added a large
number of actual farmers to its population who have taken up and are cultivating land.
It contains a valley nearly 300 miles long, from the international boundary-
line to the apex of the Kootenay triangle of the Big Bend of the Columbia,
with an average width of 8 to 10 miles, in the centre of which is enclosed the
mother lakes of the Columbia, 2,850 feet above sea level. The Columbia River
flows north from these, and the Kootenay River south through the valley.
"It is," says Judge Sproat's report, '• one of the prettiest and most favored valleys in the province, having good grass and soil, a fine climate, established
mines and promising mines, excellent waterways and an easy surface for road-
making. Its chief navigable waterway leads to a station of the Canadian
Pacific Railway."
Nearly the whole of the area of the valley described is a bunch grass
country, affording excellent grazing. The grass country is 250 miles long, of
an average width of five.miles, besides a number of lateral valleys of more
limited extent It is safe to say that the whole of the valley is fertile, though
except in a few places its agricultural capabilities have not been tested. The
atmosphere is clear and dry and the snowfall in winter light, but in a district
so extended climatic conditions vary considerably from local causes.
The country is more thinly wooded than the West Kootenay district, and
affords great facilities for fishing and hunting; big game, trout and salmon
abounding.
Much is expected of the oil fields in the southeast portion of East Kootenay
which were discovered several years ago, but wbich have been waiting capital
to develop them. Over a large area of ground there are indications of the
presence of oil.
TOWNS.
The towns of East Kootenay are Field, near Monnt Stephen ; Golden, on
the Columbia River at the mouth of the Wapta, and Donald, at the base of the
Selkirk Range, all on the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, Fort Steele, a
mining centre of importance on the Kootenay River, about 40 mile3 from the
head waters of the Columbia, and Sancho on Kootenay Lake further south-
Prospectors, sportsmen, miners and others can supply their requirements at
. these places, and also at Windermere, on the Lower Columbia Lake, Thunder
Hill Landing on Upper Columbia Lake and Cranbrooke. L EAST KOOTENAY DISTRICT 19
The present communication of the district is effected by the Kootenay
mail line of steamers plying from Golden Station, on the Canadian Pacific
Railway, southward fdr 120 miles to the Columbia Lakes. A steamer leaves
Golden once a week, (Tuesdays, 6 am.) for Canon Creek, Carbonate, Humphrey's, Galena, Shorty's, McKay's, Gordon's, Windermere and Adela, connecting at the tramway with S. S. Pert to Thunder Hill and Canal Flat, at
which there is a connection with North Star, Fort Steele, Tobacco Plains, on
the [J. S- boundary, and Jennings, Montana. The steamers connect with the
trains of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The steamboat company operates a
series of tramways to connect the upper lakes and mines and owns a fleet of
barges used in the transportation of ores and other heavy freights. For climate
of East and West Kootenay see page 25 southern zone-
MINING  LOCALITIES.
A large amount of work has been done in the mines of Jubilee and Spilli-
macheen Mountains, 45 miles above Golden, fine bodies of lead and silver
having been opane.d up on the latter and several copper mines on the former.
Back of Spillimacheen, on the several branches of the river of that name, in
the region known as the McMurdo district, a number of promising claims
have been located and worked to a considerable extent. Some of them are
large gold quartz lodes, and others are small high-grade silver-lead veins. On
Bugaboo Creek, a few miles south of Spillimacheen, silver-lead veins have
been known for several years, and last season a large and well-defined gold
quartz lode was discovered. On Toby Creek, opposite Windermere, there are
numerous quartz locations, and also benches of hydraulic ground; and back
of Windermere a silver-lead and copper property has been opened up and some
high great carbonates shipped. The Jupiter group of claims, at the head of
Upper Columbia Lake, extends about a mile on two great parallel gold bearing
quartz lodes forming a ridge from 250 to 500 feet above the adjacent country,
carrying gold in varying quantities. The Sun Lake is a similar property
north of the Jupiter, and Gold Hill is south. Thunder Hill is also immediately
north of the Jupiter, and has a 50-ton concentrator on the lake. Large low
grade lead and silver and gold quartz lodes have been found up Findley Creek
and on the South Fork. There are also high benches of hydraulic ground
for miles along either side of Findley Creek. Beyond Gold Hill and Jupiter
and on the same mineral belt, 26 or 30 miles further south, and 20 miles from
Fort Steele, are the North Star and Sullivan groups. The former is a large
lode, 15 to 30 feet wide carrying immense quantities of argentiferous galena
and carbonates; and the shipment of ores to smelter points is paying large
profits. The output in 1896 was 6,000 tons. The Sullivan mines which are
of a similar character, are being developed. In fact, the whole country tributary
to Fort Steele is developing with amazing rapidity. At Wild Horse, a few miles
back of Fort Steele, hydraulic mining is being carried on extensively, and
several good quartz claims are more or less opened up. In early days,-this
section was a rival of Cariboo in the marvellous output of its placer mines,
the value reaching up in the millions. Still further south on Moyie Lake,
large silver lodes have been discovered, and on Moyie River a considerable
amount of gold is annually obtained from the placers. Gold quartz lodes have
also been found on Moyie Lake and Weaver Creek.
In the Crow's Nest Pass are great coal mines only waiting for the completion of the railway to ship coal and coke to East and West Kootenay for smelting purposes, and extensive petroleum fields have also been found in the southeastern portion of the district 20 ALONG  THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC
ALONG THE LINE OF THE CANADIAN PACIFIC
RAILWAY. •
Starting from Vancouver eastward, already described on page 5, the trains
of the Canadian Pacific stop at
NEW WESTMINSTER JUNCTION,
from which a branch line runs to the city of New Westminster.   Twenty-three
miles east of this is
MISSION JUNCTION,
from which a branch line starts, and crossing the Fraser River, runs south to
the international boundary, where rail connection is made for New Whatcom,
Tacoma, Portland, San Francisco, etc-   Twenty-eight miles east is
AGASSIZ,
near which are the Harrison Hot Springs, where a large hotel is in operation
with baths and other sanitary conveniences. At Agassiz the Dominion Government has established an experimental farm. Every kind of grain, vegetable,
and fruit likely to succeed in a temperate climate is here tried, and from here
settlers obtain seeds and cuttings that have been proved suitable to the country.
Agassiz is the centre of an extensive hop-growing district. Thirty-two miles
further along the line going east is
YALE,
at the head of navigation on the Fraser, and formerly one of the principal
towns of the Yale district, and twenty-six miles east of this is
NORTH BEND,
a divisional point of the Canadian Pacific Railway, where one of the company's
chalet hotels is situated, and whence parties desiring to explore the Fiaser
Canon and the neighboring gorges can with advantage proceed.   Twenty-seven
miles beyond North Bend on the line of railway is
LYTTON,
at the junction of the Fraser and Thompson Rivers, once a busy mining town,
and now giving indications of returning prosperity in consequence of the opening of mines in the vicinity.
ASHCROFT,
on the Thompson River, is forty-eight miles beyond Lytton.   It is the starting
place of the stage line for the celebrated Cariboo mines and the northern
district (page 14), and forty-seven miles east is
KAMLOOPS,
a delightful health resort, in whose temperate climate may be found a natural
sanitarium, the conditions being favorable for those afflicted with lung troubles.
The country in this section is good grazing land; cattle and sheep thrive to
ferfection on the bunch grass, and cereals, fruit, etc., are successfully grown,
ron, cinnabar, mica, gold, copper and silver-lead discoveries have been made
near Kamloops.
SICAMOUS,
eighty-four miles east of Kamloops, on the great Shuswap Lakes, is the junction of the Shuswap & Okanagan Railway, operated by the Canadian Pacific
Railway, which runs to Enderby and Vernon, the latter at the head of Okanagan Lake,from which the C. P. R. steamer «Aberdeen" plies tri-weekly to
Kelowna and Penticton, from which the Boundary Creek mining regions are
reached by stages. MINERALS OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA 21
REVELSTOKB,
forty-three miles ea°t of-Sicamous, is a railway divisional point and a busy
mountain town on the Columbia River. From here a branch railway runs to
Arrowhead, the head of Upper Arrow Lake, from which all poms in the West
Kootenay mining region are easily reached- The main line of the railway has
by this time passed through the Coast and Gold ranges. After leaving Revel-
stoke it enters the Selkirk range and the famous Albert Canon —a remarkable
gorge through which the lllecillewaet runs, where the train stops for passengers to alight to better view the canon — is soon -reached* Continuing eastward, the line passes Ross' Peak and ascends the "loop" to the foot of Mount
Sir Donald at
GLACIER STATION.
Glacier House station is opposite Mount Sir Donald and about a mile and
a half from the foot of the great glacier of the Selkirks. One of the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company's chalet hotels, with an annex to meet increasing
travel, is at this point (The Glacier House), and is most frequented by tourists
and sportsmen.   Though several other stations are passed,
DONALD,
on the Columbia, as it flow,s northward, is the next town on the railway. It is
a divisional poiut and the headquarters of the mountain section of the railway,
the line east of this being in the western division. Here watches are put on
one hour going east and put back one hour going west, to conform to standard
time.
GOLDEN,
on the Columbia River, is seventeen miles eastward of Donald- From here a
steamer makes weekly trips (starting on Tuesday) up the Columbia to the lakes
at the head of the river, and a good waggon road has been constructed from
Golden to Fort Steele. From the head of navigation roads and trails leal to
all parts of the mining district, and steamers connect with mining camps on
the Kootenay river. Soon after leaving Golden the railway p.sees through
Kicking Horse Pass into the Rocky Mountains, where the principal station is
FIELD,
near Mount Stephen. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company has a chalet
hotel he'-e, and there is a small town, or village, at which supplies for miners,
travellers and sportsmen can be obtained. From Revelstoke to Field, and
beyond to the Gap, where the mountains end and the plains begin, the scenery
•is the finest on the continent, but the v*lue of the district is in its rich mineral
deposits, which are from time to time discovered, and the development of
which is partially seen at several points along the line.
MINERALS  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
. It would be difficult to indicate any defined section of British Columbia in
which gold or silver has not been, or will not be found.   The first mines dis- '
covered were on  the Thompson River; then on the Fraser and Hope, and
continued up the Fraser to the Cariboo district
Gold has been found on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, on Queen
Charlotte Islands at the extreme west, and on every range of mountains that
intervenes between these two extreme points. Until recently the work has been
practically placer mining, a mere scratching of the surface, yet over fifty millions of dollars have been scraped out of the rivers and creeks. B«rs have been
washed out and abandoned, without sufficient effort being made to discover the
quartz vein from which the streams received their gold. Abandoned diggings
have been visited after a lapse of years, and new discoveries have been made
in the neighborhood. 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA MAINLAND
The railway now pierces the auriferous ranges; men and material can be
carried into the heart of the mountains, and with each succeeding season fresh
gold deposits are found, or the old ones traced to the quartz rock, and capital
and adequate machinery brought to bear upon them. In no section in this
more strongly demonstrated than in the famed Cariboo region, where during
the past three years hydraulic mining has been commenced on a large scale, and
improved plant to the value of over half a million dollars introduced. During
the past year, a grand total of 43 miles of ditch flume and pipe have either-
been constructed or put in working order. Already the results have been most
satisfactory, and there is every indication of a yield of the precious metal that
will astonish the world and revolutionize mining in northern British Columbia,
which had hitherto been conducted in a somewhat crude fashion.. The recognized and greatest authority on mineralogy in Canada, Dr. G. M. Dawson,
F.R.G-S., who for fifteen years was engaged in exploring British Columbia,,
says: | The explorations of the Geological Survey of Canada have already l
resulted in placing on record the occurrence of rich ores of gold and silver in
various places scattered along the entire length of the Cordilleran (Rocky
Mountain) region in Canada- * * * Because a mountainous country, and
till of late a very remote one, the development of the resources of British
Columbia has heretofore been slow, but the preliminary difficulties having
been overcome, it is now, there is every reason to believe, on the verge of an era
of prosperity and expansion of which it is yet difficult to foresee the amount
or the end- * * * Everything which has been ascertained of the geological
character of the Province, as a whole, tends to the belief that so soon as means
of travel and transport shall be extended to what are still the more inaccessible
districts these also will be discovered to be equally rich in minerals, particularly in precious metals, gold and silver"
In giving evidence before a committee of the House of Commons a member of the Government Geological Survey said; " After having travelled
ever 1,000 miles through British Columbia, I can say with safety that there
will yet be taken out of her mines wealth enough to build the Pacific Railway." This means many millionss. Another gentleman in the same service
said that, | it may soon take its place as second to no other couutry in North
America."
There are large areas still open to the poor prospector, and there are
numerous openings for the capitalist To the agricultural settler the existence
of gold is of double significance. He is certain of a market for his produce, he
is not debarred from mining a little on his own account, and he is never deprived of the hope that he will one day become the fortunate discoverer of a
bonanza.
The total output of gold since its first discovery in British Columbia, even
before new mineral districts were opened up by the Canadian Pacific Railway,
was estimated at $60,000,000. It is uow far in excess of this. With present
facilities for prospecting, much heavier returns are expected, for the era of
scientific mining in British Columbia has only commenced.
In British Columbia a belt of rocks, probably corresponding" to the gold
rocks of California, has already been proved to be richly auriferous. Geological explorations go to show a general resemblance of the rocks to those of
the typical sections of California and the Western States.
Silver has been discovered in several places, and its further discovery wilt
probably show that it follows the same rules as in Nevada and Colorado. Tne
best known argentiferous lot ality is the West Kootenay, from whose mines it
is estimated between $2,000,000 and $3,000,000 in ore were shipped within the
past year. Railroads in this section are opening up the country and several new
smelters have been erected and are in operation, smelting the ore in close
proximity to the mines. There can be no doubt that the output will be largely
on the increase as development work shows more ore in sight every day.
I MINERALS AND  TIMBER 23
Great iron deposits exist on Texada Island, and copper deposits have been
found at several points on the coast of the mainland, Howe Sound, Jarvis
Inlet, the Qugen Charlotte Islands and other points. Cinnabar and platinum
have been found in small quantities during the process of washing gold.
A ledge of cinnabar, found on Kamloops Lake, is operated by the Cinnabar
Mining Co. The true vein is reported as being fourteen inches thick, and there
appears to be a large scattered quantity besides. Assays give a high percentage
of mercury, and the mine, which is now being actively worked, is pronounced
to be a very valuable One.
In Alberni Distict on the west coast of Vancouver Island a considerable
amount of work is in progress.   Numerous, quartz veins have been discovered
* and are being opened up; a mill run from one of these claims gave a yield of
$30.00 per ton.   In the same district two hydraulic claims have commenced
work on China Creek with every prospect of success.
Bituminous coal has been extensively worked for many years past at
Nanaimo, on Vancouver Island, at whiGh place there are large deposits, and
indications of coal have been found at several other places on that Island.
Several seams of bituminous coal haye been discovered on the mainland
and the New Westminster and Nicola districts, and other indications of coal
have been found in many parts. The same formation exists on the mainland
as on the island, and the iNew Westminster and Nicola coal fceds are probably
small portions only of a large area.
A most phenomenal discovery of coal as been made in the Crow's Nest
Pass of the Hocky Mountains. Here no fewer than twenty seams are seen to
outcrop, with a total thickness of from 132 feet to 448 feet-
Anthracite coal is now being extensively mined at " Anthracite," on the
line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, just outside British Columbia, and some
comparing favourably with that of Pennsylvania has been found in seams of
six feet and three feet in Queen Charlotte Island. Fragments of anthracite
have been picked up on several parts of Vancouver Island, and this would
seem to indicate that the seams found in Queen Charlotte Island will be traced
to Vancouver.
TIMBER.
No other province of Canada, no country in Europe, and no state in North
America, compares with British Columbia in respect to its timber.
There are prairies here and there, valleys free from wood, and many openings in the thickest country, which in the aggregate make many hundred
thousand acres of land on which no clearing is required, but near each open
spot is a luxuriant growth of wood.
The finest growth is on the coast, and in the Gold and Selkirk ranges.
Millions on millions of feet of lumber, locked for centuries past, have now
become available for commerce. In 1895 the quantity cut amounted to 112,-
884,640 feet, an increase of about 40 per cent over that of the previous year. The
Canadian Pacific Railway passes through a part of this, and crosses streams that
will bring untold quantities to the mills and railway stations. The Government
Department of Agriculture has published a catalogue and authoritative description of the trees of British Columbia, including:
Douglas Spruce (otherwise called " Douglas Fir," " Douglas Pine," and
commercially * Oregon Pine.") A weil-known tree. It is straight, though
coarse-grained, exceedingly tough, rigid, and bears ^reat transverse strain.
For lumber of all sizes and planks, it is in great demand. Few woods equal
t for frames, bridges, ties, and strong work generally, and for shipbuilding.
Its length, straightnegs and strength specially fit it for masts and spars.
The White Pine, resembling the White Pine of the Eastern Provinces,
making the most valuable lumber in their markets; the Black Pine, the Butt
Pine, the Yellow Cypress  (commonly called the Yellow Cedar), the Western  TIMBER AND LAND ,    25
Larch (sometimes called Tamarac), Engleman's Spruce, Manzie's Spruce, the
Great Silvei Fir, Balsam Spruce, besides Oak, Elm, Maple, Aspen, and other
deciduous trees. '1 hese several growths are found more or less throughout the
Province, both on the mainland and the adjacent islands. The Douglas
Spruce, the largest and most valuable, attains its greatest size in the neighborhood of the coast, but is found elsewhere. Owing to the variety of climates in
British Columbia the several classes of trees named are to some extent localized..
LAND.
As indicated in the descriptions of the several districts forming the mainland portion of British Columbia, the land varies in quality in different sections,.
There is almost every description and quality of land from the rich river
bottom land, such as that in the Fraser delta, to the light covering of moss
and sand at high altitude on the mouxtains. Between Yale and he coast in
the New Westminster district, where the rainfall is regular, the land of the
valleys is rich and heavy ; east of Yale, where the rainfall is slight and irregular, there is a considerable quantity of good land, very productive, under
irrigation. In the Nicola and Okanagan valleys of the Yale district, and in
both the Kootenays, there is a quantity of very fertile land in some parts, as
in the Okanagan section, requiring irrigation and in other places sufficiently-
cared for by the rainfall. On the higher lands the bunch grass grows freely
and affords the best pasturage for cattle. Where water is convenient for irrigating purposes, grains and vegetables succeed well in those sections otherwise
used only for grazing. Along the Fraser valley fruit ripens well. A great
number of varieties have been tried at the experimental farm at Agassiz, and
the more delicate fruits have been successfully cultivated. Still greater success
has been achieved in the Okanagan valley, a considerable distance east of
Agassiz, so that in all parts of British Columbia south of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, the land, when worked as circumstanct s require, is found to be of
first quality for agricultural purposes. North of the railway line, in the districts
of Lillooet and Cariboo, there is a considerable quantity of land adapted to>
farming, and still larger tracts admirably suited for cattle raising,
PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT LANDS.
Crown lands in British Columbia are classified as either surveyed or un~
surveyed lands, and may be acquired by entry at the Government Lands Office*
pre-emption or purchase.
The following persons may pre-empt Crown lands; Any person being the-
head of a family, a widow, or a single man over 18 years of age. being a British,
subject, may record surveyed or unsurveyed Crown lands, which are unoccupied, or unreserved, and unrecorded (rhat is unreserved for Indians or others,.
or unrecorded iu the name of any other applicant).
Aliens may also record such surveyed or unsurveyed land on makinga.
declaration of intention to become a British subject
The quantity of land that may be recorded or pre empted is not to exceed
320 acres northward and eastward of the Cascade or Coast Mountains, or 160>
acres in the rest of the province.
No person can hold more than one pre-emption claim at a time. Prior
record or pre-emption of one claim, and all rights under it, are forfeited by
subsequent record or pre-emption of another claim.
Land recorded or pre empted cannot be transferred or conveyed till after
a Crown grant has been issued.
Such land, until the Crown grant is issued, is held by occupation. Such*
occupation must be a bona fide personal residence of the 6ettler, or his family*
The settler must enter into occupation of the land within thirty days after
recording, and must continue to occupy it 26 DOMINION   GOVERNMENT    LANDS
Continuous absence for a longer period than two months consecutively of
the settler or family is deemed cessation of occupation ; but leave of absence
may be granted not exceeding four months in any one year, inclusive of two
months' absence.
Land is considered abandoned if unoccupied for more than two months
consecutively.
If so abandoned the land becomes waste lands of the Crown.
"J he fee on recording is two dollars (8s.)
The settler shall have the land surveyed at his own instance (subject to
the rectification of the boundaries) within five years from date of record.
After survey has been made, upon proof, in declaration in writing of himself and two other persons, of occupation from date of pre-emption, and of
having made permanent improvements on the land to the value of two dollars
and fifty cents per acre, the settler, on producing the [pre-emption certificate,
obtains a certificate of improvement
After obtaining the certificate of improvement and paying for the land
the settler is entitled to a Crown grant in fee simple. He pays five dollars
therefor.
The price of Crown lands, pre-empted, is one dollar. (4 shillings) per acre,
which muj-t be paid in four equal instalments, as follows: First instalment
two years from date of record or pre-emption, and yearly thereafter, but the last
instalment is not payable till after the survey, if the land is unsurveyed.
The Crown grant reserves to the Crown a royalty of five cents per ton on
every ton of merchantable coat raised or gotten from the land, not including
dross or fine slack.
No Crown grant can be issued to an alien who may have recorded or preempted by virtue of his declaring his intention to become a British subject,
unless he has become naturalized.
The heirs or devisees of the settler are entitled to the Crown grant on his
decease.
Landlords may divert, for agricultural and other purposes, the required
•quantity of unrecorded and unappropriated water from the natural channel of
any stream, lake, etc., adjacent to or passing through their land, upon obtaining
a written authority of the Commissioner.
HOMESTEAD ACT.
The farm and buildings, when registered, cannot be taken for debt incurred
after the registration ; and it is free from seizure up to a value not greater than
$2,500 '£500 English); goods and chattels are also free up to $500 (JEl 00 English) :
cattle " farmed on shares " are also protected by an Exemption Act
DOMINION GOVERNMENT LANDS.
All the lands in British Columbia within twenty miles on each side of the
Canadian Pacific Railway line are the property of Canada, with all the timber
and minerals they contain (except the precious metals). This tract of land,
with its timber, hay, water powers, coal, and stone, is now administered by the
Department of the Interior of Canada, practically according to the same laws
and regulations as are the public lands in Manitoba and the North-West Territ-.
cries, except that the homesteads must not only be resided upon and cultivated
for not less than six months in each of the three years after entry, but they
must also be paid for at the rate of one dollar per acre. Dominion lands in the
province may also he acquired by purchase, free from settlement conditions.
Agencies for the disposal of these lands have been established at Kamloops, in
the mountains, and New Westminster, ou the coast The minerals in this tract,
ether than coal and stone, are administered by the British Columbia Govern-
orient. THE  FISHERIES 2T
EDUCATION.
Free schools are established throughout the Province. Whenever a minimum daily attendance of at least ten pupils can be secured, the Government
supplies a certificated teacher, so that there is hardly a settlement in the country too small for Jhe advantages of a common school education to be afforded
its children. There were in 1896, 200 public schools throughout the Province,
educating 15,000 children. About one-fifth of the total revenue of the Province
is thus expended, irrespective of the large yearly grants from the Department
of Land and Works for the erection of school houses, etc, and a sum almost
equal which city municipalities pay in salaries to their own teachers- In these
latter there are also high schools which provide a more advanced instruction;,
and a number of private academies.
FISHERIES.
An important part of the trade of British Columbia is the wealth of fish in
the waters of her coast. Of these the most valuable at present is the salmon.
They literally teem in the Fraser and Columbia Rivers, and frequently passengers on the Canadian Pacific Railway are astounded during the spawning
season by the sight of broad expanses of river, or deep pools packed almost
solid with wriggling masses of splendid fish making their way to the spawning
grounds, their motions being distinctly visible from the platforms or car windows as the trains pass by. The greater number of the canneries are on the
Fraser River, but there are some in the far north.
The salmon make their way for great distances up the rivers. The salmon
of the Columbia fill the streams of the Kootenay ; those of the Fraser are found
six hundred miles in the interior. There are five different kinds of this fish,
the spring or tyhee, sockeye, cohoe, dog and humpback, the two latter being of
no commercial value, and they arrive from the sea at different times. There are
fifty-five canneries in the Province, each employing about 300 men during the
season. Each cannery costs from $30,000 to $40,000 equipped, so that over
$2,000,000 are invested in this enterprise. Of these, thirty-five are on the
Fraser (three being double). The value of the fish catch has increased enormously, largely owing to the establishment of fish hatcheries. In 1876 it
amounted to $104,697 ; in 1880 to $718,355; in 1885 to $1,078,038 ; in 1890 to
$3,487,432, and in 1894 to $3,954,228. The annual salmon pack has increased
since the beginning of the industry in 1876 from 9,847 cases to 566,395 in 1895,
valued at $2,831,875, and owing to the fish hatcheries established by the
Government there is no danger of the rivers being depleted, one authority stating that the greater the catch the larger the number of fish to be caught
Besides this the fish consumed yearly in the Province, and exported fresh
amounts to $250,000. During the fourteen years, 1883 to 1896 inclusive, the
value of the salmon caught was $25,000,000, and to this should be added the
catch al halibut, sturgeon, herring, oolacban, trout, cod, etc.
Besides the salmon are the oolachan, which come in great numbers, and
supply a valuable oil largely used by the natives. The black cod, a superior
food-fish, abounds from Cape Flattery northward. Cod, similar to the eastern
variety, are taken on the banks off the coast of Alaska Halibut of fine quality
and large size are plentiful in the inner waters, on the banks off the west coast
of Vancouver Island, and further north. The halibut fisheries are just being;
developed, and during the past three years large quantities were exported,
T^e estimatedjcatch of last season was 4,000,000 lbs. Sturgeon of very heavy
weight and occasionally up to 1,00j pounds are numerous in the Fraser
and large rivers; 1893 and 1894 were the first years for exporting this fish, and
higher prices were secured than for sturgeon caught elsewhere. There is a
great future for this industry, especially in the manufacture of caviare which 28 TRADE AND CLIMATE
Prof. Prince, Dominion Fichery Commissioner, has pronounced equal to the
Russian a'tide. The surf smelt and common smelt and anchovy are abundant,
and valued for the table. Herring is plentiful, and trout abound in the lakes,
rivers and streams of the whole Province.
There are scores of men in the fishing trade of England and Scotland who
-struggle year after year for an uncertain percentage, who, in JJnti;-h Columbia
would find competency in a few years'working, and hundreds who are no richer
at the eud tf December than they were at the beginning of January who would
^experience a very different condition of life on the coast of British Columbia.
These coasts afford wide fields for occupation, and dispense reward with
Jess niggard hand than in the older home were every loaf has many claimants.
There is no rent to pay, no leave to ask to run a boat ashore — the land is his
who occupies it. A man who in other seas toils year in and year cut for others,
way here own his own home, his piece of land and his boat by no man's favour.
TRADE.
Though the trade of British Columbia is still unimportant when compared
with the extent, resources and immense future possibilities of the province,
*still it has improved and developed wonderfully during the pa^t few years,
showing an increase in the last decade, that speaks volumes for the progress
and enterprise of the people. It is now the largest in the world per head of
fjopulation except Holland. In 1871, the imports were $1,789,283 and the
-exports 11,858,050, which increased in 1886 respectively to $4,011,726 and
:$2,89l,811, a total of $6,903,537, and in 18f6 to $5,526,490 imports and $10,-
$76,524 exports—a total of $16,103,014. Prominent exports are fish, coal,
gold, silver, timber, masts and spars, furs and skins, fish oil, and hops. A large
portion of the salmon, canned and pickled, goes to Great Britain, Eastern
'Canada, the United States, South Africa and Australia; the States and Hawaiian Islands consume a large share of the expoited coal, aud great quantities of
timber are shipped to Australia and ports in South America. To Great Britain
and the United states are sent the valuable furs and peltries Of land animals
and the much prized seal and otter, etc China also receives a considerable
amount of lumber, timber and furs. Valuable shipments of fish oil, principally obtained from dog-fish at the Q.neen Charlotte Islands, are cousigned
to the States annually, and also to the Hawaiian Islands. Gold and silver ore,
^valued in the millions, is shipped annually to the smelters in the United States.
These industries, though already of considerable importance, are destined to
^become very large as well as very profitable enterprises in the near future. A
large inter-provincial trade with Kastern Canada, Manitoba and the North-
West Terr-tories is rapidly developing. With the shipping facilities offered by
the Canadian Pacific Railway and the magnificent steamship lines to Japan,
China, Australia and the Hawaiian and Fijian Islands, backed by her natural
advantages of climate and geographical position, and immense resources in
timber and minerals, British Columbia is gradually obtaining her proper share
of the commerce of the world. There is no other country on the globe more
richly endowed with varied resources of wealth, as fisheries, timber, minerals,
.pasture and arable lands, etc., and all are open to those who choose to avail
rthemeel'ves of these new and attractive fields for enterprise.
CLIMATE.
Ne general description will serve the purpose in speaking of the climate
«of the mainland of British Columbia. On the coast it varies considerably, while
«n the iuterior the differences are yet more plain'y marked. It may be divided
into the southern, middle and northern zones.  r
THE  CLIMATE
29»
THE SOUTHERN ZONE.
The southern zone, taking that to be between the international boundary-
line 49°, and 51° north latitude, and east of the coast range beginning at Yale,,
comprising much but not all of that country in which irrigation is essential to*,
the growth of cereals. This aiises of course from the air losing moisture in
crossing the range. The region about Kamloops especially possesses an equable
and temperate climate, and owing to its dryness is peculiarly beneficial to those-
affected by consumption or other lung troubles.
It is in this zone that so much bunch-grass country exists, which offer so-
many advantages for cattle and shetp-raising. The mean annual temperature
differs little f torn that of the coast region; a gi eater difference is observed,,
however, t etween the mean summer and winter temperature and a still greater
contrast when the extremes of the heat and cold are compared. The rainfall
at a point on the Thompson River, 700 feet above the sea, was measured in the
year 1875 and showed 7 99 inches, together with melted snow making 11.84,.
while at Esquimalt it was 33.87. The winter is shorter and milder^than the-
district further north, and though snow falis the windswept slopes are usually
very thinly covered. Cattle as well as horses winter out, and as the former,,
unlike the latter, will not scrape for their food, this circumstance serves in
some degree as a guide to the nature of the climate.
The report of thr Geological Survey of Canada says of it: " The whole of
British Columbia south of latitude 52° and east of the Cascades is really a
grazing country up to an altitude of 3,500 and a farming couutry up to 2,50(>
feet, where water can be conveyed for irrigating purposes. The que*-tion of
water in this district must be ever kept in sight." Some years ago General
Moody, K.E. formerly Lieutenant-Governor of the colony, in speaking of the
interior and its advantages for settlement, said: "It will demand not a little-
faith by those living in the same parallels of latitude in Europe to believe that
wheat will ripen anywhere at all, at altitudes from 2,500 to 3,500 feet, audi
other grain at even more. * * * Nevertheless such is the fact"
THE MIDDLE ZONE.
This comprises the region between 51° and 53° north latitude and contains
much of the mountainous parts of the Province, including the Cariboo Mountains, the locality of the most celebrated gold-fields yet discovered in British
Columbia. rlhe rainfall is heavier there than in the southern zone, aud the
forest growth therefore becomes more dense. The altitude of the settlements
in this division varies from 1,900 to 2,500 feet above the level of the sea; 3,000-
feet being about the maximum height for wheat, though other grains ripen at
a greateraltitude. From longitude 122° the land falls towards the valley of
the Fraser, the climate becomes milder than in the mountains aud bunch-
grass grows in the valleys and on the benches- 1 he climate, if less attractive-
than thHt of the two great divisions east and west of the coast range, is particularly healthy.
THE NORTHERN ZONE.
A consideration of this country hardly falls within the scope of this pamphlet It is neces-arily remote from the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway „
and except for its gold mines and fish in its waters will not, by reason of its>
distance, attract immediate settlement
It will be seen fiom the foregoing that British Columbia possesses a greater
variety of climate than any other country of its size, aud that the lines of demarcation between one and the other are singularly abrupt and well defined. VANCOUVER ISLAND
31
SPORT.
In addition to its many advantages already referred to, British Columbia
offers great attractions to the lover of rod and gun. Of game, large and small,
there is a great variety, grizzly, black and brown bears, panthers, lynx, caribou.^
deer, mountain sheep and goat, heads aud skins of which are the finest trophies
of a sportsman's rifle. Water fowl, geese, duck, etc, are very abundant on the
larger lakes, and these and several varieties of grouse are the principal feathered game, and can always be found in season. In the lakes and rivers are
to be found a great variety of fish.
In the foregoing pages the statements made, with the exception of the land
laws and educational facilities, have applied almost exclusively to British Columbia on the mainland, and not to the adjacent islands.
VANCOUVER ISLAND.
Vancouver Island is the largest on the west coast of America, being about
three hundred miles long, and with an average breadth of about fifty miles,,
and contains an estimated area of about 15,000 square miles. The coast line-
more particularly on the west side, is broken by numerous inlets of the sea,.
some of which run up to the interior of the island for many miles between
precipitous cliffs, backed by high and rugged mountains, which are clothed in
fir, hemlock and cedar. At some points are sheltered bays which receive small
streams, watering an open gladed country, having a growth of wild flowers and
grasses—the white clover, sweet grass, cowslip, wild timothy and a profusion
of berries. The two ends of Vancouver Island are, comparatively speaking,,
flat, but there are mountains in the interior ranging from 6,000 to 8,000 feet on
the highest ridges. The interior of the island, still unsettled at any distance
froth the sea coast, is largely interspersed with lakes and small streams. The
surface is beautifully diversified by mountains, hills and rioh valleys, and on
the east coast the soil is so good that great encouragement is offered to agricultural settlement and fruit growing.
In other parts the soil is light and of little depth, but it is heavily wooded-
In the inland lakes and in the indentations of the coast there is a plentiful
supply of fish, and a fair variety of game on shore. The scenery is picturesque
and varied.
The island is rich in mineral wealth, besides the greal coal mines of Nanaimo, whose output amounts to 1,000,000 to..8 annually, there being discoveries of gold and other valuable metals in several districts. The region about
Alberni has recently come into.prominence owing to the rich *'finds," and it is
expected that this district will rank high among the gold producing centres of
the north as development already well under way progresses. Some of the
rocks of the island furnish excellent building material, the gray granite being
equal to Scotch and English granites.
The principal harbour is that at Esquimalt, which haslongbeen the rendezvous of the British squadron in the North Pacific. It is situated at the south
end of the island, on the eastern side. There are, however, numerous good
harbours both on the east and west coasts of the island, notably Nanaimo and
Departure Bay on the former, and Alberni Canal and Quatsimo Sound on the
latter.
Victoria-—(pop. 20,000) is the capital of British Columbia and the chief
city Of Vancouver Island. It was formerly a stockaded post of the Hudson's
Bay Company and was then called Fort Victoria. It is delightfully situated on
a small arm of the sea, commanding a superb view of the Straits of San Juan
de Fuca, the Olympian range in Washington, the mountains of the mainland,
and snow-capped Mount Baker in the distance.   The city's age may date from _,«
^2 VANCOUVER ISLAND
1858, when the discovery of gold on the mainland brought a rush of miners
from the south. It is now a wealthy, well-built and a very English city, with business and shipping interests of great importance. Victoria is pre-eminently a
place to delight tourists, and has ample accommodation for a large floating
population, having several comfortable hotels, one or two of which are noted
tor the excellence of their tables. Various public buildings are also worthy of
more than passing notice, the new government buildings costing £800,000 when
•completed especially being an imposing structure. Many of the manufacturing
interests of the province are centred at Victoria. It has one of the largest iron
works on the Pacific Coast outside of San Francisco, and several smaller foundries and machine shops, and many factories. The city is amply provided with
educational facilities, both public and private.
Victoria has the advantage of being a port of call of the Canadian Pacific
Kail way Company's Royal Mail Steamship Line of steamers to and from Japan,
<jhina and Australia, and several other lines. Steamers run daily between Victoria and Vancouver, and the trip from city to city through the clustered isles
cf the Straits of Georgia is very pleasant Boats ply to all important Puget
Sound ports, and to points northward on the island and mainland and all regular
San Francisco and Alaska steamers call at Victoria.
The city has for many seasons been a favorite resort for tourists, and appears
to be growing steadily in popularity. The country for some miles about the
city supports a scattered farming population and furnishes a portion of the supplies of the city, but it is particularly adapted to fruit culture Here every variety
•of fruit grown in a temperate climate attain peculiar excellence, and fruit culture
promises to become a leading industry in the near future.
Esquimalt.—There is a small town at the northern corner of the harbour
cf Esquimalt. The nucleus of it is some British Government buildings, consisting of a naval hospital, an arsenal and other dockyard buildings. In the immediate vic:nity of these the town has arisen. There are two churches, a public
school, hotels or inns, and a number of residences and business buildings. Es-
-quimalt is only three and a half miles from Victoria by land and is connected
with it by an excellent macadamized road and an electric car service.
Nanaimo.—Situated on rising ground and overlooking a fine harbour on
the east coast of Vancouver Island is the thriving city of Nanaimo, with a population of 5,000, but taking in the mining districts immediately tributary to it the
population would probably be between 9,000 and 10,000. Nanaimo ranks next
to Victoria in importance It is seventy miles north of Victoria and depends
chiefly upon its coaling interest and shipping business for support Nanaimo
Harbour is connected by a deep channel with Departure Bay, where the largest
craft find safe anchorage. Vancouver Island bituminous coal is now acknowledged to be superior for all practical purposes to any coal on the Pacific Coast.
Four companies operate the mines in the vicinity of Nanaimo. Large quantities
are sent to San Francisco, to the Hawaiian Islands and China, being snipped
from either Nanaimo or Departure Bay. Nanaimo is also the coaling station
for the British squadron in the Pacific. A large number of men find employment
in the mines and about the docks, and the town for its size is well supplied with
the requirements of a growing population. It has churches, schools, hotels,
waterworks, telephone, and several manufacturing industries, and daily and
semi-weekly newspapers. Much of the land is excellent for agricultural purposes. There is a week-day train service between Nanaimo and Victoria and connections by steamer with Vancouver.
These three places, Victoria, Nanaimo and Esquimalt, all on the southeastern corner of Vancouver Island, are the principal centres. There are smaller
communities on the island, mainly on the southeast corner, and at no great distances from the three principal places already spoken of. Such is Cowichan, a
settlement on the east coast, about midway between Victoria and Nanaimo, where
the quality of the soil permits farming to be carried on to great advantage. Saa- VANCOUVER ISLAND 33
oieh is another farming settlement at the extreme southeast; Maple Bay, Chemai-
iius, Somenos, all in the neighborhood of Cowichan; Comox, some 60 miles
north of Nanaimo, in the vicinity of which are some of the principal logging
camps ; Union, where large coke ovens have recently been erected, a-i d Sooke, a
short distance souihwest of Esquimalt. Alberni on the west coast, where gold
in quantities has recently been discovered, is extracting attention and promises
to become a great mining region with one or two towns of importance.
THE SOIL OF VANCOUVER ISLAND.
The soil of Vancouver Island varies considerably. In some parts are deposits of clay, sand and gravel, sometimes partially mixed and frequently with a
thick topsoil of vegetable mould of varying depth. At other places towards the
north of the island on the east* rn shore are some rich loams, immediately available for cultivation. The mixed soil with proper treatment bears heavy crops
cf wheat; the sand and gravelly loams do well for oats, rye, barley, buckwheat,
roots, etc, and where the soil is a deep loamy one fruit grows well. The following average of the yield of a properly cultivated farm in the Comox district is
given by a member of the Canadian Geological Survey. This is from the best
land in Comox, but there are other parts of the island not much inferior :
Wheat, from 30 to 45 bushels per acre; barley, 30 to 35 bushels; oats, 50 to
-60 bushels; peas, 40 to 45 bushels; potatoes, 150 to 210 bushels; turnips, 20 to
25 tons per acre.
TIMBER.
The timber of Vancouver Island is one of its richest products. Throughout
the celebrated " Douglas Fir " is found, and a variety of coniferous trees grow
on all parts of the island. It is impossible to travel without marvelling at the
forest growth. This exuberance is not confined to the mammoth fir trees or
the enormous cedars; trees of many of the deciduous varieties abound, so that
either for lumber and square timber, or for the settlers' immediate requirements,
for the use of cities, and as arborous adornments to the homes, the forests of
Vancouver Island have a value that every year will become more apparent.
CLIMATE OF VANCOUVER ISLAND.
Concerning Vancouver Island, it only remains to say in the important
matter of climate its inhabitants believe, and with some reason, that they enjoy
peculiar advantages. They have a mild and even winter, with rain (the annual
rainfall is estimated at 30 inches), and occasionally snow; early spring; a dry,
warm summer, and a clear, bright and enjoyable autumn. Sometimes the frost
is sufficiently hard to permit of skating but this is very exceptional indeed. As
a rule flowers bloom in the gardens of Victoriathroughout the year. It is spoken
of as England without its east winds; in reality it is Torquay in the Pacific.
Fruits of all kinds indigenous to the temperate climates ripen in the open air,
and amongst them some that are in England brought to perfection only under
glass. Thunder storms very rarely break over Vancouver Island, distinct rumblings only having been heard twice in ten years. It is this climate, combined
with the situation of Victoria, that makes that city such a pleasant abiding place.
HOW TO REACH BRITISH COLUMBIA.
From Europe.—The Canadian transatlantic steamers from Europe, from
about 20th November to 1st May, land their passengers at Halifax, Nova Scotia,
cr St John, N. B., the Canadian winter ports From both places passengers are
carried direct to Montreal in the Canadian Pacific's cats. During the summer
and autumn months (about 1st May to 12th November) steamers land passengers at Quebec, and thence the continent is crossed to Vancouver via the Canadian Pacific Railway. When landed at New York the route thence is via Montreal. 34 VANCOUVER  ISLAND
The Atlantic passage usually takes from eight to ten days, and the railway
trip from Montreal five days. A passenger can usually go through to British
Columbia from England in less than a fortnight by crossing the continent on the
Canadian Pacific Line.
It is advisable to book through to Vancouver or Victoria, the tickets being
exchanged at the port of landing—Halifax, St. John, Quebec, Boston or NewYork.
Efforts may be made to induce passengers to purchase tickets by roundabout
routes, which oftentimes necessitate expensive stoppages and inconvenient transfers on the way. A passenger should insist on having a ticket by the Canadian
Pacific Railway, which is the only direct and continuous route.
While passing through Eastern Canada colonists for British Columbia
should apply, in case of need, to the local immigration officers of the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company or of the Dominion of Canada, who will give honest
advice and imformation.
Intending passengers can obtain tickets through to all points in British
Columbia, together with the fullest information relative to the most desirable
places of location for farming, cattle growing, mining and trading, by applying
to agents of the Canadian Pacific Railway in London, Liverpool, and Glasgow.
From the United States.—From Oregon, Washington, Nevada and California via Huntingdon, B C, or Vancouver.
From the Dakotas, Minnesota, Illinois, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa and Missouri, via the Soo-Pacific line, entering Canada at Portal, and connecting with
the Canadian Pacific Railway.
From Eastern States via Montreal, P.Q., orPrescott, Ontario, or via Toronto.
HOW TO SEND MONEY TO BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The colonist from Great Britain is recommended not to take English coin
to British Columbia. In Great Britain he should pay that portion of his money
not wanted on the passage to the Post Office and get a money order for it payable in Vancouver or Victoria; or he may pay his money either to any bank in
London having an agency in British Columbia, such as Bank of Montreal, Bank
of British Columbia, Bank of British North America, Imperial Bank, etc This
will avoid risk from loss on the way. yM&
United States currency is taken at par in business circles.
ON ARRIVING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
It is sometimes better for an iutending farmer of moderate means to place
his money on first arrival in the Government Savings Bank (which allows interest), to take lodgings and to work for wages for some time in order to gain a
knowledge of colonial life and modes of management
The Government, or Canadian Pacific agent at port of arrival will furnish
information as to lands open for settlement in the respective districts, farms for
sale, demand for labor, rates of wages, routes of travel, distances, expense of
conveyances, etc.
The colonist should be careful of his cash capital, and not put it into investments hastily.   There are Canadian Government Havings Banks in the Province.
PRICE  OF   BOARD   AND  LODGING.
Very erroneous ideas prevail in some quarters as to the actual expense of
Mving in the Province. In old days, during the mining boom and prior to the
opening of the Canadian Pacific Railway, rates were undeniably high. But at
present the increased shipping facilities and livelier competition have lowered
prices all round, and necessaries of life cost no more than in the adjacent United
States territory, and can be purchased at a reasonable advance upon ruling
prices in Ontario and the provinces of Eastern Canada Good board and lodging at hotels costs from about &5 to $6.50 per week, or 20s. to 26s. sterling. MINING  LAWS 35
Board and lodging per day $1, or 4s. sterling; single meal, 25c. and 50c,
<ls. and 2s, sterling); beds, $100, 50c. and 25c, (4s., 2s. and Is.) Rates at some
boarding houses are a shade lower.
SYNOPSIS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MINING LAWS.
(Subject to Alteration.)
Every person over eighteen years of age, and every joint stock company
shall be entitled to all the privileges of a free miner, on taking out a free miner's
certificate, the cost of which is $5 00 a year, and is procurable from any Gold
Commissioner or any Mining Recorder. A free miner can locate and hold
mineral and placer claims, under the mining laws in force at the time, during
the continuance of his certificate, but no longer.
A mineral claim must not exceed 1,500 feet long by 1,500 feet wide, and
must be marked by two legal posts, numbered 1 and 2, placed as nearly as possible on the line of the lode or vein, and not more than 1,500 feet apart. The line
from 1 to 2 is the location line, and the claim may extend any number of feet t#
the right and to the left of said location line, provided the total distance on
both sides does not exceed 1,500 feet.
A legal post marked " Discovery Post" must also be placed on the lode
where it was discovered. On No. 1 post must be written : " Initial Post," the
name of the claim, the name of locator, date of location, approximate bearing
of No. 2 post, length and breadth of claim, and number of feet to the right and
number of feet to the left of location line. On No. 2 post: Name of claim, name
of locator, and date of location. The line from 1 to 2 must be distinctly marked
by blazing trees, cutting underbrush, or planting posts.
All records must be made at the Mining Recorder's office of the mining
division in which the claim is situated, with affidavit that mineral has been
found on the claim. A mineral claim must be recorded within fifteen days after
location, if within ten miles of the office of the Mining Recorder. One additional day is allowed for every additional ten miles. The locator must furnish
the Mining Recorder with the following particulars, in addition to the affidavit
above mentioned, at the same time the claim is recorded, paying a fee of $2.50
for recording claim and 25 cents for filing affidavit: Name of claim, name of
locator, number of location, number of Free Miner's certificate, where the mine
is situated, direction or bearing of location line, length and breadth of claim,
number of feet to the right and number of feet to the left location line, and
date of location.
To hold a mineral claim, work to the valae of #100 must be done on the
claim each year from date of record, to the total value of $500. An affidavit
made by the holder, or his agent, giving a detailed statement of the work done
must be filed with the Gold Commissioner or Mining Recorder, and a certificate
of work obtained from the Gold Commissioner or Mining Recorder, and
recorded (fee $2 50) before the expiration of each year from the date of record.
The holder of adjoining mineral claims may, subject to filing a notice of his
intention with the Gold Commissioner or Mining Recorder, perform on any one
or more of such claims all the work required to entitle him to a certificate of
work for each claim. Any money or labor expended in constructing a tunnel to
develop a vein or lode will be deemed to have been expended on such vein or
lode. In lieu of the above annual work, the holder of a mineral" claim may pay
to the Mining Recorder $100, get a receipt and record the same, each year for 5
years from date of record.
To obtain a certificate of improvements to a mineral claim the holder must
have done work on his claim to the value of $500;. had the claim surveyed and
marked out by a provincial land surveyor, whose field notes and plan must be
immediately forwarded to the Lands and Works Department; posted notice on
claim and in Mining Recorder's office for sixty days; filed copy of surveyor's
field notes and plan with Mining Recorder; inserted copy of jnotice in British 36 MINING  LAWS
Columbia Gazette and in some provincial newspaper circulated in the district,
for sixty days after * posting notice on claim; and filed with Mining Recorder
affidavit of himself, or his agent, in. the lequiied form and to the effect that the
above conditions have been complied wiih.
Applications for Crown grants must be made to Gold Commissioner within
three months from date of certificate of improvements. The holder of a certificate of improvements, on making application for Crown grant, must enclose
certificate of improvements and the Crown grant fee of $6. The holder of a
certificate of improvement*, which has been duly recorded, in respect of a
mineral clame outside the railway belt, is entitled to a Crown grant of such claim
on payment of Crown grant fee, $5, and making application as above; but in»
respect of a claim within the railway belt, a further payment of $5 an acre is.
required. Or: Any lawful holder of a mineral claim can obtain a Crown grant
by paying to the Government of British Columbia $500 in lieu of expenditure*
on claim, after having complied with all the provisions relating to certificates of
improvements except such as have respect solely to work required to be done
on the claim.
PROVINCIAL   MINING  BUREAU.
By the establishment of a mining bureau in British Columbia by the
Provincial Government, under the sup rintendency of Mr. William A- Carlyie*
of McGill University, Montreal, valuable information regarding mineral formations and deposits and mining properties is authentically disseminated throughout the country by means of official reports made after actual personal
inspection.
"THE GOLD FIELDS OF CARIBOO AND KOOTENAY," issued by
the Canadian Pacific Railway Co., which contains valuable information
regarding those mining regions, can be obtained free from the Company'*
agents. t£t 3G\iTV5.\\01& »Wr
3AN
JT--
ouver
Hong
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aciflc
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ilcker ■WW——II nil   "" i' i yq«8fgaBKG3asMBH|
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^^S: BRITISH COLUMBIA
AND
PART OF WESTERN CANADA,
SHOWING THE UNES OP
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
JJLiE-
SCALE  OF  STATUTE  MILES. Canadian Pacific Railway Co.'s
Royal Mail Steamship Line
to JAPAN and CHINA
Consisting of
TWIN-SCREW Steamships:
EMPRESS OF INDIA EMPRESS OF JAPAN
EMPRESS OF CHINA
Sailing every four weeks in winter and every three weeks in summer between Vancouver
and Victoria, B.C., and Yokohama, Kobe and Nagasaki, Japan, Shanghai, China, and Hong
Kong. These steamships are of 6,000 tons register, with a speed of 19 knots, and are the only
Twin-Screw Vessels on the Pacific. The shortest and smoothest route across the North Pacific
avoiding the uncertain weather of more southerly latitudes, is followed and with the superior
speed of the Empresses enables the voyage to be made in from a -week to ten days quicker
time than is required by any other route.
CANAD1AN=AUSTRALIAN S. S. LINE.
The Royal Mail Steamships WARRDIOO and MIOWERA give a monthly service
between Vancouver and Victoria, B.C., and Sydney, N.S.W., ViaHonolulu, Hawaiian Islands,
and Suva, Fijian Islands.  _____________
Passengers booked from London or Liverpool, New York, Boston, Montreal, Toronto,
or any of the principal cities of Canada and the United States.
These vessels carry an experienced medical man and a stewardess on each voyage, and
are in every respect superior to any other ships that have as yet sailed the Pacific Ocean.
For passage, handbooks of information, or Trans-Pacific or Japanese Guide, apply to
ARCHER BAKER, 67 & 68King William St. E.C, & 30 Cockspur St. S.W., London, Eng.;
7 James St. Liverpool; 67 St. Vincent St., Glasgow.
H. J. COLVIN, District Passenger Agent,       -      -      - 197 "Washington St., Boston.
E. V. SKINNER. General Eastern Agent, 353 Broadway, New York.
C. SHEEHY, District Passenger Agent, - 11 Fort Street "West, Detroit, Mich.
J. F. LEE, General Agent, Passenger Dept., - - - 232 South Clark St., Chicago, HI.
M. M. STERN, District Passenger Agent, - - Chronicle Building, San Francisco, Cal.
W. R. CAU_AWAY, General Passenger Agent, Soo Line,        -      -        Minneapolis, Minn.
W. S. THORN, Ass. Gen. Pass. Agent, Soo Line,  St. Paul, Minn.
6. W. HIBBARD, General Passenger Agent, D. S. S. & A. Line, - Marquette, Mich.
C E. McPHERSON, Assistant General Passenger Agent,       -     1 King St. East, Toronto.
G. McL. BROWN, District Passenger Agent,    -  Vancouver, B.C.
A. H. NOTMAN, District Passenger Agent,  -      -      St. John, N.B.
D. K. BROWN, General Agent, Hong Kong.
ROBERT KERR. Traffic Manager, Lines West of Lake Superior, Winnipeg, Man.
C. E. E- USSHER, D. McNICOLL,
Assistant General Passenger Agent, Montreal. Passenger Traffic Manager, Montreal
m A SENSIBLE  ROAD I 1 !
The /-* ll
~^1   anadian
Dacific
ailway
Operating
Its
Own   .
Steamship, Hotel, Sleeper, Telegraph,
Express & News Services
Is the Most Substantial and Perfectly Built Railway on the Continent of America, and.'
superbly equipped with the finest rolling stock modern skill can produce. COACHES,
DINING and SLEEPING CARS are triumphs of luxurious elegance, and excel in Stability
and Beauty of Finish any other in the world.
TOURISTS
Will find the New Route through Canada from the Atlantic to the Pacific unapproached for
magnificence and variety of scenery by any other line of travel, The rugged -wilderness of the
North Shore of Lake Superior, the picturesque Lake of the Woods region, the Billowy Prairies
of the Canadian North-West, the stately grandeur of the Rockies, the marvels of the Selkirks
and Gold Range, the wondrous beauty of the Pacific Coast, are traversed by THE GREAT
DUSTLESS ROUTE. Being entirely controlled and managed by one Company, the
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY offers special advantages to transcontinental travellers
that cannot be granted by any other line. It is the Best, the Safest.Jihe Fastest and the Only
' Continuous Route from Ocean to Ocean. The Company have sparedVio expense in providing .
for the wants and comfort of their patrons, as their line of Dining Cars and Mountain Hotels
will at all times testify, being supplied with all that the most fastidious can desire.
Transcontinental Sleeping Cars
.Are provided with Sofa Sections and Bathing Accommodation, and offer all the comfort and
convenience of First-class Hotels.   They are specially constructed to admit of the Scenery |
being viewed in all directions.
Through Tickets from Halifax, St. John, N.B., Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, Prescott,
Brockville, Toronto, Hamilton, London and all points in Eastern Canada ; also from New-
York, Boston, Chicago. St. Paul, Minneapolis and all the principal points in the United
States, to Vancouver, Victoria, and all points in British Columbia, and to Portland, Ore.,
PugetSound Ports, New Whatcom, Seattle, Tacoma, San Francisco, etc.
Insist on getting your tickets via the Canadian Pacific Rail-way.
Colonists receive special attention by this route. Free Colonist Sleeping Cars being supplied for their accommodation.
Freight Shippers can have their goods transported -without the vexations delays and
damage incidental to the frequent transfers necessary by other routes, and without the
expense and annoyance of customs requirements.
M

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