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The Chung Collection

California and Alaska, and over the Canadian Pacific Railway Webb, William Seward, 1851-1926 1890

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Of this Letter-press Edition
joo Copies ha ve been Printed for Sale
April, 1890
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Electrotyped, Printed, and Bound by
G. P. Putnam's Sons TO
IN accordance with a time-honored custom, I must, at
the outset, explain in a few words why this work is
given to the public.
In the winter of 1888-9, I determined upon taking a
trip with my family across the continent to the Pacific
coast, and from thence to the city of Mexico. A few
friends were invited to accompany us on our journey.
The intention was to be absent about three months and
a half, and the 1st of March, 1889, was agreed upon as the
starting-day. But the severe illness of my daughter,
which began but a few days prior to our time for leaving,
disarranged all our plans, and the day of departure was
postponed until the first week in April.
The more I thought of this proposed journey, the
more interesting and important it seemed to me in the
prospective. For, to me at least, it was something more
than a trip of pleasure, as, indeed, it could not but be to
any business man. The journey would cover the most
interesting portion of our country—a stretch of territory
that is not only the pride of every native of the United
States, but the subject of never-ceasing wonder on the Mas
How We Travelled
From New York to Omaha
Denver and Colorado Springs   .
The Parks of Colorado
Santa Fe
Santa Monica
• •
30 m
tit. ,£m ;
Los Angeles .
The Missions
The Yosemite Valley .
San Francisco
San Francisco :  The Chinese Quarter
Northern California and Mount Shasta
The Garden of Montana"        .        .        .        .112
From St. Paul to Manitoba        .        .        .        .118
Mountains    and    Gorges    on    the    Canadian
Pacific Railway     .        .        .        .        . 131
From Kamloops to Vancouver    .        .        .        .141
In Alaskan Waters     .        .        .        .        .        -149
In Alaskan Waters, (Concluded)        .        .        .160
Victoria—Winnipeg—Hunting Experiences       .    171
From Winnipeg, Homeward Bound     .        .        .182 Ill ETCHINGS.
Lake Louise, near Laggan. By R. C. Minor, Frontispiece
Mission of San Luis Rey, Cal. By C. Y. Turner, 52
North Arm, Biscotasing Lake. By J. C. Nicoll, 112
Muir Glacier, Alaska.    By R. Swain Gifford,        166  FULL-PAGE PHOTOGRAVURES.
Interior of Car | Ellsmere "
Interior of Dining-Car, Special Train
Old Front of San Miguel Church, Santa Fe
South Pasadena, Sierra Madre Mountains, and
Raymond   Hotel   ......
The Palms of Glenannie   .....
Olive Grove .......
Street View in Los Angeles      ....      38
Hotel del Monte, Monterey (two views)    42 and 43
Arizona Garden at Del Monte
The Lake at Monterey      ....
The Picnic Party at Monterey
Old Live Oak at Monterey
The Drive through the Pines,  Monterey
Rocks, near Monterey        ....
Seal Rock Covered with Seals, near Monterey
On the Coast, near Monterey  .
Mission of Santa Barbara—Building
54 Full-page Photogravures.
Mission of Santa Barbara—The Garden .
Old Mission Church, near Monterey
Mission of San Carlos, near Monterey   .
A Farm Team near the Mission, Monterey
Mariposa Grove—Big Trees
El Capitan, Yosemite Valley
Dead    Giant,    Tuolumne    Grove — Diameter,
30 ft.  8 in.     .
Yosemite Valley, from Artist's Point
Nevada Falls       .        .
Yosemite Falls     .        .
Glacier Point (3,200 feet), Yosemite Valley
South Dome, from Glacier Point
Mount Shasta, from Sisson
Mount Hood from Lost Lake   .
Prickly    Pear    Canyon,    Manitoba    Railroad
(two views)    .        .        .        .        .        106 and
Great Falls of the Missouri River,  Montana,
Cow-Boys, Manitoba Railroad    .
View of Narrows,  Biscotasing Lake
Rear of the Special Train at Field
View of Special Train        ....
Mount Stephen, Canadian Pacific Railway
View   of   Special   Train   at   Field,   Showing
Mt. Field in the Distance
Lower Kicking-Horse Canyon, near Golden
130 F^lll-page Photogravures.
Canadian Pacific Railway Station and Mount
Donald Glacier    ......
Mount Donald, from Tote Road
Stony Creek Bridge—Height, 296 feet,—Canadian Pacific Railway   .        .        .        .        .
Great Glacier, Canadian Pacific Railway
Glacier Hotel and Mountain   .
Sailor Bar Bluff, below Spuzzum, Canadian
Pacific Railway    ......
Top View, Sailor Bar Bluff      .        .        .        .
Interior of Snow-Shed, Canadian Pacific Railway ........
Hermit Range, from Hotel, Showing Canadian
Pacific Railway Station
Supply or Tote Road, near Spanish River
Mountain Creek Bridge, Containing 1,500,000
feet Timber, Canadian Pacific Railway
Forest Trees, English Bay, Vancouver
Douglas Firs, on Vancouver Town Site  .
Roadway in Stanley Park, Vancouver
Vancouver, from Canadian Pacific Railway
Docks     .......
Steamer "Islander"    .....
Interior of Steamboat, on Trip to Alaska
Typical View along the Coast of Alaska
Bella Bella, Alaska .....
• 139
.   141
• 144
• 145
• 147
. 148
. 149
. 150 ■4«fattMi
Full-page Photogravures.
/ wm
Floating Ice, near Muir Glacier
Lincoln Street, East, Sitka, Alaska
Indian Chief's Grave, Alaska
Russian Block-House, Sitka, Alaska
Scene in Indian Town, Sitka, Alaska
Indian River Canyon, from "Pinta" Anchorage,
Favorite Bay, i Home of the Herring," Killisnoo,
Juneau (Alaska) and Harbor    .
Indian Village, Alert Bay, Alaska .
Wrangel, Alaska .        .        .
Fraser Canyon, Showing Four Tunnels above
Spuzzum, Canadian Pacific Railway   .
Hotel Banff, Canadian National Park, Canadian Pacific Railway   .....
View from Banff Hotel, Looking down Bow
Valley, Canadian Pacific Railway    .
Red Sucker Cove, North Shore Lake Superior,
Canadian   Pacific  Railway ....
Red Sucker Tunnel, Canadian Pacific Railway .        .       •.
Main Street, Winnipeg	
A Canadian Backwoods Team, near Sudbury,
Canadian Pacific Railway   ....
Alaskan Game, Killisnoo	
Skirting Nepigon Bay, Canadian Pacific Railway .
. 152
• 154
.  156
.  158
E,  162
1  164
.   168
.'  169
181 Full-page Photogravures. xix
Nepigon   River,   and    Hudson   Bay   Company's
Post,  Looking  down  the River from near
Canadian Pacific  Railway  Bridge      .        .182
Thunder  Cape, Lake  Superior .        .        .        .183
Nepigon  Bay, from Nepigon Station .        .184
Jackfish   Bay, Canadian  Pacific  Railway .    185
Nepigon   River and   Bridge,  Canadian   Pacific
Railway ...        .        .        .        .        .        .186
Typical   Railway   View,   North   Shore   Lake
Superior, Canadian   Pacific  Railway .        .    187
A Tow  on   Lake  Superior—Coal  Vessels  Returning from Thunder Bay .        .        .188
Canadian Pacific Railway Station, Montreal .    189
_/ 2*c
mM i
THE special train of four cars in which we made
our journey was probably the most thoroughly
equipped and most luxurious one that has ever
been used by a party of travellers. On that account the
reader will be interested in a description of it.
The first car was what is called a | combination car."
The forward part of it was used for the storage of baggage;
next to this apartment was a sleeping-room for the cooks
and porters. After this a bath-room, and next adjoining a
large smoking- or drawing-room, at one end of which was
a Chickering piano, and at the other a desk, a complete
library, and proper compartments for guns, fishing-rods,
and sporting paraphernalia. This smoking-room was intended as a sitting-room for the gentlemen of the party
during the evening or daytime. This car, called I Buffet
No. 60," was kindly loaned to me by Mr. John Newell, Hfi
California and Alaska.
President of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern
Railway Company.
The dining-car came next. All the tables had been
taken from it, and in their places an ordinary dining-table,
side-tables, etc., had been put in, the same as in a house.
Next came a car I had formerly used as a special car, the
" Mariquita," which had been remodelled into a nursery-
car, and which was occupied by Mrs. Webb, the three
children, two nurses, and a maid. Last of all was my new
private car " Ellsmere." This was occupied by Mr. and
Mrs. Purdy, Dr. McLane, Mr. Louis Webb, Mr. George
Bird, Mr. Julian Kean, Mr. Frank Webb, and myself.
In the Buffet car and the | Ellsmere," respectively
the first and last cars of the train, were large gongs,
which could be rung from any of the cars ; these were
used in the daytime to call servants from one part of-the
train to the other, and were to be used at night in case of
an attack by highwaymen. There have been cases heretofore where trains, like stage-coaches of old, have been
1 held up " and their occupants compelled to deliver up
their valuables at the urgent request of some desperate
border ruffian. Such instances are, of course, not
very common in the present advanced state of Western
civilization, but we thought it advisable to follow
the Irishman's suggestion—" it is better to be sure
than sorry,"—and we were consequently well prepared
to give any such intruders a warm reception. Our
crew of men on the train during the daytime was in
charge of Col. Oscar Eastmond, who had served in the
United States army during the war, and since then had Interior of Car "Ellsmere!' DM
m   How  We  Travelled.
been holding the position of conductor. On our road to
the Pacific coast we had one of Pinkerton's best detectives,
who took charge of the train at night. After leaving the
Pacific coast, Col. Eastmond took charge of the train at
night, and slept in the daytime.
The cooking on board our train was in the hands of
two of the oldest and best-tried cooks on the road, and
eight of the best porters were selected for the party. The
train was also so arranged as to be heated by steam from
the engines.
Through the kindness of Mr. Van Home, of Montreal,
a new steel steamship, belonging to the Canadian Pacific
Steamship Company, and which, about this time, had just
arrived on the Pacific coast, was chartered for a two
weeks' cruise in Alaskan waters. She was entered as the
writer's yacht in the Yacht Club, and carried his yachting
colors during the cruise.
Our start from under the 45th Street bridge at the
Grand Central Depot, in the great metropolis, was
marked by more than the ordinary excitement which
usually attends events of that kind. A large number of
friends had gathered there to see the party start out,
and to wave their parting salutes as they called out | a
pleasant journey and a safe return "—a journey which was
to take us four times across the continent, up into the
land of seals, and through the British dominions.
MMUhUMgi mm
WE arrived at Niagara Falls on Sunday morning,
the 7th of April. We spent some time in
admiring the scenery, which was of course
not new to us, and with which the reader is probably
familiar. The Falls of Niagara are beautiful at all times,
but there was something in the rich, golden sunrise of that
lovely April morning which, lent an additional beauty to
the view. The sight of such a sunrise recalled our early
reading of " Childe Harold " :
The morn is up again, the dewy morn,
With breath all incense, and with cheeks all bloom,
Laughing the clouds away with playful scorn,
And living as if earth contained no tomb,—
And glowing into day.
We started for Detroit at a few moments past five in
the morning, our first stop being at St. Thomas, one hundred and fifteen miles from the Falls, where we changed
engines. The distance from St. Thomas to Windsor, one
hundred and eleven miles, we ran in one hundred and
seven minutes.
4 Interior of Dining-Car,  Special Train.   I#l»l
e From New York to Omaha. 5
At Windsor, where the transport was in waiting and
where we were transferred to the Detroit side, our first
mishap occurred. In taking the train off the transport,
the coupling between the " Mariquita " and the dining-car
was broken. This caused a delay of three quarters of an
hour. From Detroit to Chicago our running; time was
faster, if any thing, than on the Canada Southern division,
the indicator at one time registering a speed of sixty-nine
miles an hour. Between Niles and Michigan City, a distance of thirty-six and a half miles, we covered in the
remarkable time of thirty-two minutes, including one stop
for grade crossing, which occupied at least two minutes.
We arrived at Kensington, near Chicago, at 5.06, having
made the run from Suspension Bridge to Kensington,
four hundred and ninety-seven and a half miles, in eleven
hours and eleven minutes, not including the delay of
three quarters of an hour at Detroit. All switches were
spiked, and all freight and passenger trains side-tracked to
enable us to make this fast run. Notwithstanding the
remarkable speed at which we travelled, none of the party
realized the rapid rate at which we ran all day.
In thinking over these wonderful performances of
locomotive speed we are reminded of the phenomenal
growth and development of the railway in the last century.
It seems almost incredible that the first locomotive, invented in London only eighty-five years ago, could not
make steam, and could neither travel fast nor draw a
heavy load. The first locomotive in this country was run
in 1829, and operated by the Delaware and Hudson Canal
Company, connecting the coal mines with the canal.   That m
California and Alaska.
same year, Peter Cooper experimented with a little locomotive, and once related, with great glee, how, on the trial
trip, he had beaten a gray horse attached to another car.
On our arrival at Chicago our division superintendent,
Mr. Spoor, and a number of railroad men were waiting to
meet us. The party, with the exception of the children,
went to the Richelieu Hotel, where we dined. In the
meantime the train was sent on the belt line to the
Chicago and Northwestern Depot.
We left Chicago a little after eight o'clock Monday
morning, April 8th, and arrived in Council Bluffs, four
hundred and ninety-three miles from Chicago, in about
twelve hours, the quickest time that has ever been made
between these two points. As on the Michigan Central,
the road was cleared, and the switches were spiked the entire
distance. We had only one engine with the same engineer
all the distance from Chicago to Council Bluffs. This circumstance is remarkable, for the distance has never been
covered before in one run by one engine. The officials of
the road, however, had spare engines at different points, fired
up with crews in waiting to take the place of ours should any
thing give out. A master mechanic was also sent all the
way through with the train, in order to be in readiness
should any accident occur to the engine. Our engineer,
not being accustomed to the last three divisions of the
road, had a pilot over each division, and was thus enabled
to keep up his high speed.
On our arrival at Council Bluffs, through some misunderstanding, the Union Pacific Railroad had an engine
and crew ready to take us through | special 1 to Ogden, From New York to Omaha.
they having conceived the idea that it was our intention
to go directly through to the Pacific coast via the Union
and Central Pacific lines, and had arranged to give us a
very fast run to the coast. There is no doubt that had
we gone by their line we should have made the quickest
time from ocean to ocean that has ever been made, or
is likely to be made for years to come. Mr. Orr, their
representative, met us at the Union Depot, and taking
special engine and car we went with him to see the city of
Omaha, returning late in the evening.
Council Bluffs is one of the oldest towns in Western
Iowa. As early as 1846 it was known as a Mormon settlement and called Kanesville, a name which it retained until
1853, when the Legislature granted a charter designating
the place as the City of Council Bluffs. The city includes
within her corporate limits about twenty-four square miles,
and the surrounding country is rich in farming land.
From the appearance of the country we passed through
at this time we were reminded that spring-time was at
hand. In various sections we saw the farmers ploughing,
and the grass starting- out of the ground. The soil was
of a dark color, evidently of sufficient richness to be independent of a fertilizer. One does not wonder that farmers
in this section of the country can raise from forty to forty-
five bushels of corn to the acre.
When we entered the State of Iowa, which we did
after passing Fulton, the large amount of stock, especially
cattle, seen on every farm, was particularly noticeable.
At every town between Chicago and Omaha there
were groups of people at the various stations, ranging in
J California and Alaska.
numbers from fifty to five hundred, waiting to see our
train go through. For it was known all along the line of
the road that our excursion party was coming, from the
fact that the switches at all stations had been spiked, all
trains side-tracked, and employes of the road near the
several stations had been placed with white flags at the
different crossings just previous to the passage of the
train. These peculiar preparations, of course, brought an
inquiring crowd about, who waited to see our train pass
The city of Omaha, to which point our special train
was taken on the morning of the 9th, furnishes a striking
example of Western growth and enterprise. Each time
that the visitor stops here he finds some new evidence of
improvement. Portions of the town that, but a few months
before, were barren plains, are laid out in streets and lined
with substantial houses of fine appearance. The railroad
terminals and properties near the depot serve to indicate
that this city is one of the most important railroad centres
of the West.
Omaha was settled in 1854, when a few squatters fixed
upon this section for their residence, the country at that
time being a part of the Territory of Nebraska. The
situation of the town commands for it an extensive trade
with the West. The shops of the Union Pacific Railroad,
the smelting works for refining silver ore from the mountains, and manufactories of various kinds give employment
to many mechanics and laborers. The bridge across the
Missouri, built by the Union Pacific Company, and costing
over a million dollars, is one of the finest structures of the From New  York to Omaha. 9
kind in the country. It stands sixty feet above high-water
mark, and has, besides a railroad track, a street-car track
and wagon way.
The ride from Omaha to Kansas City was through a
part of the country which was new to most of us, and full
of interest. We followed the river route the whole distance to Kansas City, passing the city of Leavenworth,
one of the largest and most flourishing- towns in the State,
surrounded by one of the richest agricultural regions in
the valley of the Missouri. In 1853, only thirty-six years
ago, the site of this city was covered with hazel-brush, and
wolves roamed about the country unmolested. Now it
has schools, churches, academies, and theatres. It is the
headquarters for outfitting government supply trains for
Western posts, and has a very large trade with the Territories. The government farm, located here, is one of the
largest and most productive in the country. Fort Leavenworth, two miles from the city, is situated on a bluff one
hundred and fifty feet high, and was established in 1827.
Connected with the fort is stabling" for eight thousand
horses and fifteen thousand mules.
Our stop at Omaha was made particularly agreeable
.and noteworthy from the fact that, soon after our arrival,
Bishop Worthington of the Episcopal Diocese of Nebraska
called upon us, and took the ladies of the party for a drive
around the city. We did not have such a pleasant experience at Kansas City. Through some misunderstanding
on the part of the railroad officials, our train, instead of
being taken into the depot, was left in the freight yards.
As a result of this arrangement, the ladies were deprived
_J [gBSWP"lBWg!W
California and Alaska.
of the pleasure of visiting various points of interest in the
city. Some of the gentlemen of the party, with considerable difficulty, managed to find their way to the passenger
depot, and rode about town in the well-known cable cars.
Though Kansas City was settled in 1830, it was twenty-
five years before it began to improve and increase in
population. After the breaking out of the war its commerce was almost ruined, but with peace came prosperity,
and since 1865 its advance has been marvellous. Kansas
City has the honor of having built the first bridge across
the Missouri, which it did at a cost of one million dollars.
Soon after our arrival at this place the Pinkerton night-
watchman reported for duty—his services being' considered
necessary from Kansas City to San Francisco.
When passing through Topeka, on the Atchison, To-
peka, and Santa Fe Railroad, Mr. Robinson, the General
Manager of the road, called upon us and, on behalf of the
President of the company, extended to us the use of his
company's line on our Western trip, courteously adding
that arrangements had been made to make our trip as
pleasant as possible.
The country through which we passed at this time,
though very flat and sparsely populated, seemed admirably
adapted to farming. The appearance of the farms and
buildings showed that the people enjoyed more than the
usual degree of prosperity peculiar to pastoral life.
A notable sight served to recall the past history of this
country, and place it in sharp contrast with the present—
this was the old cattle trails used by ranchmen in driving
their cattle from Texas and the South  into Montana,
€ From New  York to Omaha.
Wyoming, and Dakota, before railroads had been built to
perform such service quickly and cheaply. Sitting in our
luxuriously appointed palace-car, and noting this point of
interest, together with the overland wagon roads used in
former years, we could not but recall the vast progress that
has been made of late years in furnishing transportation
facilities for a journey across the continent.
J s»
Si i
WE reached Pueblo, the chief city of Southern
Colorado, on the evening of April ioth,
where we were delayed for two hours, owing
to a wash-out. The Spanish-speaking people and the
French hunters and trappers who lived in this section
before the march of improvement began, gave queer-
sounding names to the mountains, streams, and the small
settlements as they began to be formed. Pueblo is a
sample; but when the early settlers came they soon
changed all this, and the brakemen on the Western roads
certainly have cause to be thankful that plain Anglo-Saxon
names have replaced the queer titles that were common in
the early days.
It was so cold coming up the grade over the mountains
that we had to build fires in all the cars, but when we
reached Denver we found the weather warm and pleasant.
Our stop at this point was made more agreeable from the
fact that we received our mail, which had come over the
Union Pacific line from Chicago. We sent a mail-bao-
East with letters from all parties to relatives and friends
12 Denver and Colorado Springs.
at home. The chronicler of the expedition had talked into
a phonograph a diary of the experiences that had befallen
the party since starting from New York. The cylinders
containing this material were included in the outgoing
mail, and were in such a shape that they could be transcribed by a clerk into " every-day English."
Denver has a right to lay claim to the title | Queen
City of the Plains " ; it is to-day one of the largest and,
in many respects, one of the handsomest towns in the
West. Twenty years ago its population was only fifteen
hundred ; to-day it has over eighty thousand inhabitants.
Thirty years ago the inhabitants formed an odd social
mixture. There were refined and educated men from the
Eastern towns, and there were rough and disreputable
characters, hailing from the purlieus of our great cities
and the rough settlements of the far West, all animated
with one purpose—the search for gold. In 1873 Denver
suffered from the financial disaster which had been felt in
the East, and in 1875 an^ 1876 it was visited with the
grasshopper plague, which resulted in a great loss of
crops and the withdrawal of a large amount of capital from
the banks. After these clouds of adversity came the sunshine of prosperity, only two years later, in 1877, when
the export of beeves was the largest ever known. Two
years ago the real-estate sales amounted to $29,345,451,
an increase of eighteen millions over those for the year
Though Denver is a thorough, go-ahead, practical city,
where money and business enterprise are highly appreciated and made the most of, it is claimed that the town m
California and Alaska.
contains more resident college graduates than any other
town of the same size in the United States. It makes no
pretensions to be a literary centre ; the class of literature
found in its wholesale and retail book-stores, however,
shows it to be abreast of the culture of the day.
Denver may be called the commercial centre of Colorado, and, in some respects, resembles the thriving town
of Springfield, Massachusetts. It is situated on a series
of plateaus, fifteen miles from the foot of the Rocky
Mountains. The selection of the site was made by accident. The early gold-hunters who went into the State
found a few grains of gold in the sandy bed of Cherry
Creek, a small stream that flows into the South Platte
River near the town. The hunters called the place
Auraria, a decidedly appropriate cognomen. When it
became known that gold had been found in this vicinity,
hunters came from all parts of the States as well as New
Mexico, and it became, even for those times, a thriving
settlement, where hunters and miners could replenish
their stores and complete their outfits for expeditions into
the mountains. As a matter of fact very little gold was
found here, but the adventurers kept up the delusion of
the fabulous richness of the mountain placers as long as
they could. When the bubble finally burst, the town was
named Denver, in honor of Col. J. W. Denver, who was
then the Governor of Kansas, in which all this mountain
region was then included.
Fifteen railroads to-day centre in Denver. The Union
Depot would be a credit to any of  our well-developed
■ '*
i Denver and Colorado Springs.      15
Eastern cities. It is constructed almost entirely of stone
quarried in the State, and is 503 feet long by 69 feet
wide. The central tower is 165 feet high, and contains
an illuminated clock. An idea can be formed of the immense amount of railroad traffic carried on in this structure
when it is stated that over two hundred thousand pieces of
baggage are handled within its walls in the course of a
Denver is practically supported by the three great
industries, mining, agriculture, and stock-raising. Though
silver was not found until 1870, the yield of that metal in
1886 was nearly $17,000,000. Ore is sent to the city not
only from Colorado but from New Mexico and Old Mexico, Montana, Arizona, Idaho, Oregon, Nevada, and South
America. Of six million acres of agricultural land in
Colorado, two thirds have been taken up, and millions
of dollars are invested in raising cattle and sheep.
The city itself has a very inviting appearance. We
drove through its handsome streets, and admired the
beautiful residences and buildings to be seen on every
hand, not forgetting that this wonderful development was
the growth of the last twenty-five years.
After seeing every thing of interest in the city, and
obtaining certain necessary supplies, we left for Colorado
Springs. This is a beautiful city, charmingly situated at
the foot of Pike's Peak. When Lieutenant Zebulon Pike
was ordered, in 1806, by General Wilkinson, to explore
the region between Missouri and the frontier of Mexico,
he described the great peak, saying that it " appeared like jssasaaa
California and Alaska.
a small blue cloud." He named it Mexican Mountain,
but afterwards, in honor of his bravery, it was given the
name of Pike's Peak.
It may not be generally known that we owe the
existence of Colorado Springs to a railroad company—or
rather, to the National Land and Improvement Company,
which was started by the Denver and Rio Grande Railway
Company. This organization purchased a tract of land,
five miles distant from the Springs, and spent large sums
in laying out broad streets and planting along their sides
rows of cottonwood trees. It expended forty thousand
dollars for the construction of a canal so that water could
be brought to the town. In order to develop the place, it
gave a valuable building lot for church purposes to each
of the Christian denominations. Each deed of land provided a heavy penalty in case liquor should be sold, or
otherwise disposed of, on the premises.
How far these temperance principles are carried out at
the present time, we do not know. We have heard, however, that when a man wants his beer, he gets a certificate
of membership in a § beer" club, thus becoming a shareholder, and the law cannot prevent him from using the
Colorado Springs is noted, far and near, as a health
resort, and, during the summer months, its hotels are
crowded with health-seekers from Western Kansas and
Southern California. In the winter season many New
Yorkers and residents of our large Eastern cities are
seen on its streets. According to competent medical
authority, the climate  and  waters  are good in cases of
if M
#! Denver and Colorado Springs.
nervous exhaustion, bad circulation, defective nutrition,
and malaria. The climate is also said to be good for
consumptives, setting the healthy processes of life going
with increased vigor. Persons who are affected with
heart trouble, however, are not advised to visit this
section of the country.
3 KH
ON the morning of April 12th, soon after breakfast, our party divided, some starting in carriages, and some on horseback, for Manitou
and the Garden of the Gods, others taking a different
Manitou, much to the delight of its residents, has
gained the name of the Saratoga of the West. It is
about five miles from Colorado Springs, and has grown
from a small settlement of log cabins to a good-sized
village. It lies at the base of Pike's Peak, and seems
perfectly hemmed in by surrounding hills, and altogether
shut off from the outside world. The air is very fine, and
the waters are said to be a cure for rheumatism, liver
troubles, blood poisoning, and diabetes. It seems that
the Indians of Colorado, in early times, were in the habit
of using these waters when they felt the need of a tonic.
The beneficial effects of the climate and the waters are
illustrated by the saying of the Western man, that he was
kept there simply as an example of what the country
would do for a man, adding", that he came from Chicago
on a mattress.
KB The Parks of Colorado.
" The Garden of the Gods " is the fanciful title which
has been bestowed upon a valley of small dimensions,
lying about four miles from Colorado Springs. Its special
features are a number of shelf-like rocks, upheaved into
perpendicular position, some of them rising to about three
hundred and fifty feet in height. The road enters the Garden through a narrow passage-way, between two towering
but narrow ledges of cliffs. This entrance is called the
gateway. The rocks are mostly of a very soft brilliantly
red sandstone, although one ridge of cliffs is of a white
sandstone. Some of the foot-hills in the vicinity are
surmounted by similar upheavals, forming ridges of serrated rock, while round the main cliff in the valley are
separate spire-like columns. These rock formations for
years have been a feature of peculiar interest to the
These parks are really nothing more than large fertile
valleys, shut in by the spurs or branches of the Rocky
Mountains. North Park, which lies in the extreme northern part of the State, has not been thoroughly explored
and settled, owing to its remote situation and colder
climate. Its forests abound with bear, deer, and other
wild game, and it is a favorite resort for the adventurous
Middle Park is directly south of North Park, and is
surrounded by Long's Peak, Gray's Peak, and Mount
Lincoln, each from thirteen thousand to fifteen thousand
feet high. Its territory is made up of forests and large,
expansive meadows, among the grasses of which will
be found wild flowers of nearly every hue.    South Park
J California and Alaska.
lies below. It is surrounded by high mountains, and its
climate and scenery are delightful.
San Luis Park, in Southern Colorado, is about twice
the size of the State of New Hampshire. In its centre
there is a beautiful lake, and its mountains are covered
with forests of pine, fir, spruce, oak, and cedar, and large
meadows which produce a rich growth of grasses. Cattle
obtain the most wholesome subsistence on the grasses of
the plains below, and medicinal springs are found in every
Monument Park, which is reached by the Rio Grande
and Denver road, is so called from its resemblance to
a vast cemetery containing monuments of a departed and
long-forgotten race. These monuments are composed of
a very close conglomerate, surmounted by a material of
darker color and harder texture.
Two of our party, on this occasion, with an engine and
one of our cars, took a trip up the Colorado Midland Railroad, over the mountains, as far as Green Mountain Park.
This is a beautiful, sequestered little nook, and contains a
summer hotel, surrounded by green and well-kept lawns.
There is a fountain, too, and the whole appearance of the
place is in striking contrast with the cold peaks of granite
and snow that surround the settlement. On our return we
took up the rest of the party at a way station, and all returned to Colorado Springs.
The scenery on the Colorado Midland road is extremely fine, and the journey was especially interesting,
from the fact that we saw some wonderful specimens of
engineering work.    The bridges and viaducts on this road The Parks of Colorado.
are truly remarkable. In places the grade is from two
hundred and eighty to three hundred and ten feet a mile.
The curves are very frequent; the road-bed winding
first through a tunnel, then passing over a precipice
across gorges, all the time pursuing a serpentine course,
now twisting this way, now that, in making the ascent
of the mountain. So steep are the grades that not more
than twelve freight cars are allowed to go down the mountain with one engine, and six of these are required to be
equipped with air brakes.
As the railroad pursues its winding way along the side
of the mountain, the passengers can look down into the
gorge below, and see the old road which the Forty-niners
used in their perilous trips across the continent to the gold-
fields. Many travellers, it is said, were waylaid and killed
in this section by the Indians; and many others lay down
to die, utterly worn out with fatigue, after their long
and unsuccessful wanderings in search of the precious
From Colorado Springs we went to Pueblo. At that
place, through the courtesy of the officials of the Denver
and Rio Grande Railroad, an observation car was placed at
our disposal, and we made a run over their line of about
forty-four miles to Canon City, through the Royal Gorge,
in which the Arkansas River runs.
In many places the sides of the canyon through which
this stream flows are so close that the only way a railroad
could be built there was by putting rafters from one side to
the other and suspending the track from them over the
surging torrent beneath.
J 22
California and Alaska.
Our party enjoyed this trip very much, and returned to
Pueblo in time for dinner. Mr. Drake, Superintendent
of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad, now left
us, having been in our company two days ; he had shown
us all the points of interest along the route.
ON the morning of April 13th we left Trinidad with
one enormous consolidated locomotive and one
mogul locomotive, and started over the Raton
Range. The grade at this point is very steep, and it
took these two heavy engines to haul our train over. A
little over thirty years ago, " the Army of the West," then
under command of General Kearny, marched over almost
the same route the railroad takes to-day. When the
soldiers crossed the Raton Mountains they were often
obliged to drag the wagons up with ropes on one side,
and let them down on the other in the same way.
At the top of the mountains we passed through a long
tunnel and then commenced the descent of the western
slope. The tunnel is approached on either side by a very
heavy grade, and in some places shows singular seams or
streaks of coal in its inner walls. Mr. Dyer, Superintendent of the New Mexico division of the Santa Fe road,
had joined us at Trinidad, and very kindly pointed out
to us the objects of interest. We arrived at Las Vegas
(which, in English, means "the meadows") about noon.
23 ■HBi
California and Alaska.
It is at this point that passengers leave the train for the
Hot Springs, about seven miles distant.
The old Plaza, a short distance away from the railroad
station at Las Vegas, is said to look about the same as
when General Kearny, after crossing the mountains, stood
there and made an address to the Mexican people. There
is an ancient church with a rude cross in front. A large
singular looking three-story building also attracts the attention of the visitor. This is a hotel evidently of a rather
primitive pattern. A certain witty traveller once stopped
here, and the landlord assured him that he had slept in the
same bed which, centuries ago, had been occupied by Montezuma. In a burst of confidence the landlord also added
that he intended soon to put an additional story on the
structure. 11 told him," said the traveller, " that he 'd
better put a new story on the kitchen, and another coat of
whitewash on those slats I slept on."
The weather in this section was warm, almost summerlike. As we receded from the country we had just been
visiting, we looked back and saw the snow-capped mountains to the north of us, in the distance. As we journeyed
to the south their towering icy peaks gradually grew smaller
and smaller, and when we finally gained a complete entrance
into the Southern land, they seemed like mere specks on
the horizon.
At Lamy, where we arrived about two o'clock, we left
the main line and ran up to Santa Fe, reaching the
quaint old city in a little over an hour. Our party there
divided, some taking carriages and others walking, and
started  out  to  see the  town.     The  most  enthusiastic Old Front of the San  Miguel Church,
Santa Fe. mesmwr.
3CW  J?-*?*1
At Santa Fe.
traveller would not call it a very inspiring place. The
evidences of extreme poverty, dirt, and squalor were met
with on every side, and these the bright sun and genial
climate seemed rather to enhance than to modify. Poverty, when seen in some portions of a tropical climate, is
neither sad nor disheartening, but there was something
about the appearance of the poor of this town that was
peculiarly depressing to the visitor. In a large public
square we noticed a number of improvements being made
by a gang of convicts, who were guarded by keepers
stationed around the fences, seated on boxes or other
improvised seats, each one with a heavy Winchester rifle
across his lap.
While in this part of the country we cannot fail to
recall the fact that in 1527 a Spaniard, landing in what is
now Florida, made an overland journey which occupied
him nine years, passing through the country now known
as New Mexico, and finally reached the City of Mexico.
We have already alluded to the enterprising soldier
and explorer, Z. M. Pike, who did much to start the
profitable trade over what for years has been known as
the Santa Fe Trail. This old town, and the settlement
adjacent to it had, up to that time, been dependent upon
Mexico for the various supplies they needed. Four men
who started in 1812, animated by the spirit of commercial
enterprise, reached Santa Fe in safety, but they did not
get back home until nine years later, having been imprisoned on some pretext or other. In the following
year, however—1813,—the famous Santa Fe Trail was
really opened.    It is about eight hundred miles in length,
4 26
California and Alaska.
and remains very much to-day as it was half a century
ago, when the necessities of commercial intercourse led to
its being opened.
The first traders used mules or pack-horses in carrying
their merchandise, and it was not until 1824 that it was
deemed advisable to employ wagons in the traffic. After
this method of transportation was introduced, the amount
of trade increased wonderfully. The initial points were
towns on the Missouri River, about one hundred and fifty
miles west of St. Louis. What a motley group of characters must have gathered at these centres in the early
days of travel across the plains ! Of course there were
traders, adventurers, plenty of that class of men who have
failed in nearly every undertaking, and who may be called
"the misfits" of life; there were young men who came
from the East to the new country, ready to take their
chances in almost any kind of speculation ; and there were
old men who thought, as their lives were going out toward
the setting sun of existence, their fortunes might as well
tend in the same direction, and, singular to say, there were
many invalids who believed that this rough journey across
the plains, with its open-air life and excitement, might be
to them a means of regaining the health they had lost.
The quaint wagons, or " schooners," as they came to
be called, were at first drawn by horses, then mules, and
finally by mules and oxen. A party or caravan would
number about one hundred wagons, and would be divided
into four equal sections, each in charge of some responsible man. At night the caravan would come to a halt,
form a hollow square, and each member, in turn, would be Santa Fe.
obliged to mount guard. If these lay soldiers could have
stood up together, the sight of them would surely have
furnished a greater fund of amusement than Falstaff's
ragged band of warriors, for here were men representing
not only all degrees of fortune, but all the leading nationalities, some of them, during their midnight vigils, as
brave and tempestuous as the lion-hearted Richard, others
exhibiting the amusing" cowardice of Bob Acres.
In addition to the merchandise, each wagon carried a
good supply of staples, flour, sugar, coffee, and bacon ;
for fresh meat they depended upon killing buffaloes along
the route.
One of the most interesting" thing's we saw as we came
down the Raton Range through a pleasant valley, was the
large " Maxwell Grant," representing one and three-quarter
million acres. While we were passing through this section,
we saw thousands and thousands of cattle roaming about,
and twice during the day our train ran into a number of
them that had broken through the wire fence, unfortunately killing a few of the poor creatures each time. It
was a strange sight, also, to see beautiful antelope occasionally dart up close to the track, and then scamper
away at the sound of the locomotive whistle.
Our journey over the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa
Fe road we found very interesting on account of the
beautiful scenery along the route. The mechanical and
working condition of the road, also, was far better than we
had expected to find it. Its motive power is certainly equal
to that of any road in the Eastern States, and, as far as
could be seen, it is kept in perfect repair. 'M
:V !■
nia and Alaska.
A word or two about our domestic life upon the train,
to which, by this time, we had become thoroughly accustomed. It certainly seemed strange to us, while travelling
through a wild and desolate country, to listen to the notes
of the piano in the buffet-car which we found the pleasant-
est of lounging places, as we spent nearly every evening
after dinner there singing and playing, the ladies generally
retiring about ten, the rest of the party about eleven,
after talking over what we had seen during the day.
It was a long journey for children to undertake, but
they remained perfectly well, and it was surprising to see
how quickly the little ones became used to the motion of
the train. For two or three days after we started, it was
a matter of considerable difficulty for them to maintain
their equilibrium in their journeys about the car ; this
was particularly the case with the baby. They had
many a fall, which, however, in the excitement of the
journey, they took with much good-nature, and it was not
long before they could navigate about their swift-moving
nursery with as much confidence as the oldest railroad
conductor on the road.
It was a matter of great good-fortune to us that we
brought the dining-room car, for there was scarcely a meal
at which there were not present one or two guests. On
various divisions of the roads we travelled over, we entertained the officials who showed us so much courtesy, and
it would have been utterly impossible to have cooked for
such a large party in the kitchen of either the | Ellsmere "
or the " Mariquita." We found, too, that our stores held
out well, which was a matter to be thankful for, as it would
*iJLf Santa Fe.
have been very difficult, in fact impossible, to get some of
them in the sparsely settled country through which we
passed. We received telegrams from home every day,
and were thus kept en rapport with the domestic scenes
we had left, and we were careful to send dispatches quite
as often to the members of our respective families. 51
OWING to some misunderstanding, we were delayed in getting a crew on the Atlantic and
Pacific Railroad, and lost considerable time on
this account. This was the only road we had been over
which did not provide a division superintendent to call
attention to the scenery and point out the objects of
interest. The country was flat, and deserted-looking, and
the train meandered through it over a poor road-bed at a
slow rate of speed. As we came over the Arizona divide
down to the Colorado River, the scenery was very fine.
When we crossed Canon Diablo, the gruesome remembrance came to us that but two weeks before that time
a train was I held up" by robbers.
While singing hymns on Sunday evening, at a station
where the train stopped to take water, an old resident of
the neighborhood came to our buffet-car, the door of which
had been left open on account of the heat. He received
a pleasant greeting, and apologized for his intrusion by
saying that he wanted to hear us sing the hymns and play
the piano, as the music was something he never heard out
J Santa Monica.
there; it was thirty years since he had been in any part of
the country where religious tunes were sung.
The scenery near a point called Flag Staff was very
peculiar and different from any thing we had seen on this
road thus far. An hour or so before reaching this point,
we entered a large grove of yellow pine-trees through
which we rode until we reached the station mentioned.
We passed through the Mojave Desert early on the morning of Monday, April 15th ; as there was a very heavy dew
the night before, we fortunately did not suffer from the dust
to any extent. This desert must truly be a terrible place
to pass through on a hot summer's day. With the exception of the stubbly cactus, not a particle of vegetation of
any kind can be seen as far as the eye can reach.
On our arrival at Barstow, the officials of the California
Central Railroad gave our train a fine run over the San
Bernardino Mountains. In the high altitudes which we
traversed we passed through snow near the summits of the
hilltops ; then, coming down the mountain (the grade being
one hundred and ninety feet per mile) we gradually entered
a beautiful green and fertile valley. The town of San Bernardino, which was an old Mormon settlement, is located
here, and just before entering it, we passed through an
orange grove covered with a wealth of beautiful flowers.
The grass in the fields was growing luxuriantly, and the
contrast between the cold and desolation of the mountain
heights we had just left and the beautiful valley we were
entering was truly remarkable.
The whole valley is walled in by bold and precipitous
mountains formed of soft, white stone, giving them the
1 California and Alaska.
appearance of white sand. Fruit of all kinds grows in
abundance, particularly the orange and the lemon.
From San Bernardino we took the California Southern
road to Los Angeles, passing through Pasadena, celebrated for its orange and fruit groves; the temptation to
stop here was very great, but had to be resisted. At Los
Angeles the agent of the Central Pacific Railroad Company met our party, presenting a very kind letter from Mr.
Towne, the General Manager, who urged us to make our
own plans for travelling over his road, stating that every
convenience would be at our command, and adding that
we should not hesitate to call upon him for any service we
wanted. An engine and crew were placed at our disposal
immediately with orders to remain with us as long as we
required their services.
We left at once for Santa Monica, a charming watering-
place on the coast but a few miles distant. It was here that
we obtained our first view of the Pacific Ocean, the sight
of which served to remind us more strongly than could a
glance at our itinerary of the vast amount of territory we
had covered ; for it was only nine days before this that we
had left the Grand Central Depot in New York, and felt
the warm hand-pressure of our friends who had bade
us good-bye. Considering the number of nights we did
not travel, and the number of days spent in visiting
different points of interest, the trip had been truly remarkable. We had cause to be thankful, also, that there had
been no accidents of any importance, and that all our party
were in the enjoyment of perfect health. Every part of
our train, up to this time, stood the trip remarkably well, South  Pasadena,  Sierra  Madre   Mountains, and Raymond Hotel.
J n
S  «S ■ ■■  SB MM
J* J ;
TO*   fc
ess Santa Monica.
with the exception of the brake shoes, the wear upon which
was so severe coming over the Raton Range, that they had
to be renewed later on.
On our arrival at the sea-coast the children expressed
their joy by scampering on the beach, and one of our
party visited the swimming-baths in the vicinity. The air
was delightful, and blossoming roses and flowers could be
seen in the beautiful garden in front of the hotel.
Santa Monica, though a small town, is beautifully
located, and has been • called the Long Branch of the
Pacific coast. Its population is very largely increased
during the summer months. The hotel, a magnificent
building, standing against a mountain side, is owned by
the railroad company. The upper stories open upon the
bluff, and the lower floors upon the beach. During our
stop here our train stood on a platform overhanging the
Pacific Ocean at the edge of the bluff. We remained here
until after dark. The night was clear, and the moon shone
brightly over the waves as they chased each other toward
the beach. The landscape was beautiful, and recalled those
lines of " The Culprit Fay " :
'T is the middle watch of a summer night,
The earth is dark, but the heavens are bright,
Naught is seen in the vault on high
But the moon, and the stars, and the cloudless sky,
And the flood that rolls its milky hue,
A river of light on the welkin blue.
What might have been a serious accident aroused our
party quite early the following morning; a servant notified
us that the dining-car was on fire, and the crew could
J tifm
California and Alaska.
not put it out. The fire extinguishers had been used, but
not with entire success. It was not until a portion of the
roof, which was discovered to be very hot, had been cut
through that the flames burst through the aperture. The
fire raged with considerable violence, but was quickly
extinguished when once the source of the trouble had
been found. The accident was caused by the use of soft
coal in the kitchen range.
We left Santa Monica at eight o'clock in the morn-
ing and arrived at Los Angeles after about an hour's ride.
J The Palms of Glenannie.
§ i
j ■ggPWWBP
Pi  —"g«
ON reaching Los Angeles, a number of mechanics,
who were in waiting, promptly repaired the
damage to our car, and the party went to a
hotel for lunch.
Los Angeles is the oldest and largest city in Southern
California. It is situated in a narrow valley, on a river
named after the town, and is about twenty-two miles from
the sea. Along the banks of this river, for miles, are
vineyards and orange groves, which are the pride of
the place. The town has grown wonderfully during the
past few years, on account of its reputation as a health
resort. Here and there may be seen one-story houses,
built in the Spanish style, their flat roofs covered with
asphaltum, which abounds in the neighborhood. There is
a rich tin mine at Temescal, about sixty miles distant, and
the San Gabriel placer gold mines lie about twenty miles
to the northeast.
The business portion of Los Angeles is quite handsome, and it is only in the American portion of the town
that the streets are laid out with that painful regularity
35 I
1 si
SI' «
'J, HI
California and Alaska.
common to most American cities. The original Spanish
quarter, not now, however, occupied by many members of
that nationality, is separated from the American-built part
of the town by what is called the " plaza" adjoining a good-
sized hotel. There are large mercantile houses, bank
buildings, and pretentious-looking hotels that line the
broad main street, the regularity of which is occasionally
broken by the appearance of a small adobe house.
The orange-trees ^.t Los Ang-eles bear at from seven to
ten years of age; from the age of twelve until they cease
bearing they are said to average twenty dollars per tree per
annum. At this rate, sixty trees to the acre, allowing one
thousand oranges as the average yield per tree, would give
a gross result of twelve hundred dollars. Trees, in well-
kept orchards, occasionally average fifteen hundred oranges
each. It is said that an American settler has a grove
in this place containing two thousand trees, which, when
sixteen years old, averaged fifteen hundred oranges
per tre,e, and has continued to yield about the same each
year since. Another man had a grove of sixteen hundred
and fifty trees, some of which bore as many as four
thousand oranges, the average being fifteen hundred to
the tree.
Among other fruits that are raised in this section are
apples, walnuts, pears, peaches, pomegranates, figs, nectarines, and olives. The income from English walnuts is
estimated at from six hundred to one thousand dollars per
acre ; from olives, at from two hundred to five hundred
dollars ; the vineyards will produce from ten to fifteen
thousand pounds per acre.    The olive is propagated by Olive Grove.
j i
j  &t£"
ii II
Hi Los Angeles. 37
cuttings from ten to fifteen inches long, the slips being
put into the ground perpendicularly about six or eight
inches apart. The trees bear in four or five years, but
they do not produce a full crop until they are ten or twelve
years old ; they continue to yield, however, until they are
very old. Trees that are threescore and ten years old will
bear one hundred gallons of olives ; the average yield
is about twenty-five gallons per tree. If the olive is to be
pickled, it is gathered before it is ripe ; we get the phrase
1 olive-green " from the looks of the fruit at this time, for
when ripe it has a maroon color, and looks very much like
a damson plum. When the unripe fruit is gathered it is
placed in tight barrels or casks, through which water is
allowed to percolate ; then it is put in strong brine, and
is ready for use in a few days. The methods for manufacturing the oil are being improved upon every few years,
and, even in their crude state, were an advance on the
old Jewish plan, which seems to have been to tread out
the oil with the feet. Seventy trees to the acre should
yield about one thousand four hundred gallons of berries,
and twenty gallons of berries yield about three gallons of
oil, which is worth from four to five dollars per gallon,
California olives are said to be better than the foreign
fruit, because they have more sunshine and a richer soil.
An olive orchard will yield about nine hundred dollars
gross per acre. There is one old olive-tree near Santa
Barbara that is thirty years old, and that has yielded forty-
eight dollars' worth of oil for several years in succession.
A grove of old olive-trees, which was planted by Spanish California and Alaska.
missionaries, seventy years ago, is still a source of income
to its owner.
It is said that the largest grape-vine in the world grows
about three miles from Santa Barbara, and a pleasant
story is told about how it came to be planted. At the end
of the last century a young Spanish lady started from
Sonora on horseback to visit the country in question.
Just before leaving, her lover broke from a neighboring
grape-vine a branch, telling her to use it for a riding-whip.
When the young woman arrived at the end of her journey,
being of a more sensible turn of mind than most young
people passing through the sentimental stage of life, and
wishing to preserve the gift of her lover, she planted
the slip in the ground. The vine, according to the
story, appears to have been quite as thrifty as the far-
famed bean-stalk we heard about in our childhood,
for it attained immense proportions, and astonished the
natives. The trunk is four feet four inches in circumference. After reaching" the height of eight feet from the
ground it sends out its branches, which are trained on
horizontal trellises supported by posts; so that the vine
which started from a riding-whip is made to cover an
area of five thousand square feet. Its annual yield for
many years has been from ten to twelve thousand pounds
of grapes. By a singular coincidence, a fig-tree grows
near by, over which a portion of the vine extends, so that
literally the owner of this vineyard could sit down under
her own vine and fig-tree. The lady died when she was
one hundred and thirteen years old. Much of the past
beauty of this vine was destroyed when a portion of it was
sent to the Centennial Exhibition a few years ago. Street View in Los Angeles. ;«   "
I ill
■.-—■■».-.    ? .L..I JJ1U.
["**■ iff  HMB
'& Los Angeles.
It would have been pleasant, if we could have spared
the time, to have remained longer in this section, one of
the most interesting parts of the State. Southern California includes seven counties : San Diego, San Bernardino, Los Angeles, Ventura, Santa Barbara, San Luis
Obispo, and Kern. These counties contain about fifty
thousand square miles, more than thirty million acres of
land, and represent nearly one third of the territory of the
whole State. San Diego, the farthest county to the south,
is large enough to be a principality. Gold was found in
the Isabella Mountains, forty-two miles northeast of the
town of San Diego, in 1870, but the ore did not turn out
to be very rich. Twelve miles from the town, which is
five hundred miles from San Francisco, and twenty-five
from Los Angeles, a stone monument, erected by the
government, indicates where the territory of the United
States ends and that of Mexico begins.
San Bernardino County, the largest in the State,
consists in a great measure of dry and desert-like valleys,
and inaccessible mountains. As already stated, there was
a Mormon settlement here in 1847, but it was abandoned
by those people in 1856, when they went to Salt Lake City.
What Southern California can do for the industrious
immigrant is illustrated in the settlement called Anaheim,
located twenty miles south of Los Angeles. This place
was founded by an association of Germans in 1857 ; the
land, consisting of eleven hundred acres, being divided
into fifty lots of twenty acres each, having a space in the
centre for local improvements. The party, at the outset,
consisted of fifty members, all Germans, of different occupations and persuasions.    The land was a barren plain, mpmmpigm
California and Alaska.
and cost two dollars per acre. The lots were fenced
by planting willows, sycamores, and poplars, and one
half of each lot was set out in grape-vines. For three
years Indians and Mexicans were hired to do the work,
the stockholders pursuing their regular vocations at home.
An irrigating canal seven miles long was excavated, together with subsidiary ditches, thus securing the thorough
irrigation of the whole tract. In i860 the assessments
were all paid in, the lots were assigned in a drawing, and
the owners took possession and went to work. Ten years
later a million grape-vines were growing, most of them
bearing fruit, and there were ten thousand fruit-trees
on the place. The population numbered four hundred,
and the village contained a public school, a post-office,
and a church.
p 11
WE left Los Angeles at three o'clock on the
afternoon of April 16th, making a pleasant
run to Mojave, where we passed the regular
passenger train on its way to San Francisco. It was
a beautiful, clear moonlight night, and the scenery, coming down the mountain, was so magnificent, that we
regretted we had not started three hours earlier. The
weather was so warm that we could keep the car doors
open, and sit in the observation-room in the rear of
the train, all lights having been put out. The odor
and freshness of the vegetation, as we passed through
the valleys, was something exquisite, and long to be
remembered. With the beauty of the night, the magnificent scenery, and the fragrant exhalations from the
surrounding country, the hour was very late before we
When we awoke in the morning, about half-past six
o'clock, it was in the middle of one of the most beautiful
and luxuriant valleys we had ever seen. We had read
much about the beauties of California, but the richness,
6 41
4|Hftii^Mai Hi
California and Alaska.
the luxuriance, the boundless wealth of the vegetation
which we saw in this section was something far beyond
even our greatest expectations. To be sure, we saw the
country at its best, for we arrived there in the height of
the spring season ; it would scarcely be possible, however, to imagine any natural scene of this kind which
could be more beautiful.
Leaving the main line at Lathrop we went to Niles,
from there to San Jose. The famous Almaden Mines are
located about fourteen miles from San Jose\ The view
from the mountain at this place is full of wildness and
beauty. There are elevated peaks to be seen in every
direction, and the green hillsides are marked by the tracks
made by sheep and goats, which love to feed upon the
sweet grass and wild oats. The mountain road is bordered by flowers of a crimson and glowing hue, the
Mexican sage, the wild gooseberry and currant, the
scrub-oak, and poison-oak—a little shrub dangerous to
touch,—and a profusion of unknown foliage, rich in coloring and luxuriant of growth. The miners and their
families live in cabins and huts, of various sizes and
degrees of comfort, built upon the broken surface of
the mountain in a very irregular and picturesque manner.
The ore from which quicksilver is procured is called
cinnabar, and was worked by the Indians for the vermilion powder it contained, with which they used to paint
their persons. A Mexican officer, in 1846, bribed the
Indians to show him the location of the mines. A
Mexican company was formed, named after the most
valuable   mines of mercury in the world—the Almaden Hotel del Monte, Monterey. EBB
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J Hotel del Monte, Monterey. i. a uii
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»• Monterey.
Mines, in the province of La Mancha, Spain. The
shaft to the mine runs hundreds of feet straight down
into the earth, and the ore is brought up in iron-bound
buckets. The men descend to their work, and come back
again to the tunnel leading to the mouth of the engine-
room, by means of the bucket. The tunnel is very dark,
and its walls drip with damp. Among the miners are
many Mexicans, who have considerable skill and experience in this kind of work ; and there are also English, Welsh, Scotch, and Irish among the workers.
After a delay of half an hour at San Jose, we started
for Monterey, at which point we arrived about ten o'clock.
The place charmed us at once, being one of the finest
we had ever seen. We had all been talking of the beauties
of Southern California, of the fruits of Los Angeles, of
the beach at Santa Monica, of the richness of the country
around San Bernardino and Pasadena, but the charms of
Monterey exceeded any thing we had thus far seen. The
walks and drives through the Park were delightful, and the
place, as a health resort, undoubtedly has no equal in the
country. We were very pleasantly located on the second
story of the Hotel Del Monte, facing the south, our rooms
all being sunny, and our comfort provided for in the most
thoughtful manner by the hotel proprietor. We met here
several invalids, who spoke most enthusiastically of the
health-restoring properties of the place. They told us
how they had stopped at Thomasville, the Hot Springs,
at Las Vegas, Pasadena, and other places, of how they
had suffered there in one way or another, and added
that after they arrived in Monterey, and had been there a fe   )
>    <&
,;l j
California and Alaska.
few days, they felt as if they were on the sure road to
health. Every thing at this place tends to make one feel
cheerful and hopeful. We noticed that the number of
healthy people far exceeded the contingent of invalids,
which is a very important factor in the cure of disease, and
there were none of those depressing surroundings which
are so often met with at the regular health resorts.
The bathing pavilion connected with the hotel is certainly a wonder in its way. It is quite large, being about
four hundred feet square, has a glass roof, and is filled
with palms. In the centre are four large tanks. In the
first one, used for women and children, the water is from
three to four feet deep, and its temperature about eighty-
five degrees. The next tank is about five feet deep, with
a temperature of seventy-five degrees; the third about
seven feet deep, with a temperature of seventy. The
fourth tank is about eight feet deep, and contains the
natural sea-water, which is pumped into it without being
heated. The accommodations in the way of dressing-
rooms, in both the male and female departments, are perfect in their way. It is certainly one of the most complete
bathing establishments in the country.
Those who have read Dana's " Two Years before the
Mast " will remember that he speaks of visiting Monterey,
at a time when its life must have been very picturesque.
He speaks of the pride people took in tracing back their
ancestry to the Spaniards, saying that the least drop of
Spanish blood was held to be sufficient to raise them from
the rank of slaves, and entitle them to a suit of clothes,
boots, hat, cloak, spurs, long knife, and all complete, how- Arizona Garden at Del Monte. BE
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The Lake at Monterey. EM
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m Monterey
ever coarse and dirty they might be. The native women
were excessively fond of dress, and nothing was more
common than to see a woman living in a house of only
two rooms, and the ground for a floor, dressed in spangled
satin shoes, silk gown, high comb, and gilt, if not gold, earrings and necklace. He was struck with the fineness of
the voices and beauty of the intonations of both sexes.
Common-looking ruffians, with slouched hat, blanket cloak,
dirty under-dress, and soiled leather leggings, appeared to
speak pure and elegant Spanish. A common bullock driver,
on horseback delivering a message, seemed to speak like an
ambassador at an audience; in fact, they seemed to be a
people on whom a curse had fallen, which had stripped
them of every thing but their pride, their manners, and
their voices.
The town was under Mexican rule at this time, its
chief officer being a governor-general, appointed by the
central government at Mexico ; then there was a commandant, and two or three alcaldes and corregidores, who
were civil officers, elected by the inhabitants. Dana tells
us that the houses at that time were of one story, built of
clay made into large bricks, about a foot and a half square,
three or four inches thick, and hardened in the sun. These
were cemented together by mortar of the same material,
the whole being of a common dirt color. The floors were
generally of earth, the windows grated and without glass,
and the doors opened directly into the common room.
The men in Monterey always appeared to be on horseback, and, there being no stables, the animals were allowed to run wild wherever they pleased, being branded, ■Hfc
BaP   ■ ■"
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California and Alask
and having long lariats attached to their necks, dragging
along behind them, and by which they could be easily
taken. The men used to catch one in the morning, throw
a saddle and bridle upon him, and use him for the day
and let him go at night, catching another the next day.
We remained nearly two weeks at Monterey, thoroughly enjoying our visit. While we were here, a number
of mechanics came from San Francisco, by order of Mr.
Towne, and overhauled our train, changing some springs
in the " Ellsmere," " Mariquita," and buffet-car, and putting
on a new coupler in place of the one between the " Mariquita" and dining-car, which we were obliged to repair at
Detroit. The train was also thoroughly cleaned, both
inside and out, and carefully aired.
Every day we all went in swimming, while the afternoons were occupied with drives along the picturesque
beach, or up the valley. On Easter Sunday we attended
church at a little town called New Monterey, about six
miles distant. As the children all showed a marked improvement in health, particularly the little girl, for whom
our trip was delayed, our stay at Monterey was principally
on their account.
Our evenings (which were generally spent sitting around
a large open fire in the office of the hotel, which resembles
very much the Profile House in the White Mountains,
though of course the building at Monterey was a great
deal larger and the ceilings very much higher) were
varied by exhibitions on the graphophone, which we
brought from New York, many of the people at the hotel
never having seen one.    It was the opinion of our party
ii The Picnic Party at Monterey. es
b#   Old Live Oak at Monterey. mmm
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Mt Monterey. 47
that this hotel was, without exception, one of the cleanest
and most neatly kept hotels to be found in the United
States. On one afternoon we all went down to our train,
after lunch, and gave a little reception to the friends we
had made in the hotel, closing with an informal afternoon
tea. Our cook had prepared a very palatable cold collation, and our crew took as much pride and pleasure in
this social occurrence as we did ourselves.
On Saturday, April 20th, one of those exquisite days
that can only be found in this climate, we enjoyed a
pic-nic given by two gentlemen of our party, in the pine
grove on the ocean drive. Early on that morning, with
the two stewards of our train, and servants from the hotel,
they drove out to the grove and prepared the lunch. About
twelve o'clock we took two large four-in-hands and drove
out to meet them. We arrived about one o'clock and
enjoyed a most delightful repast, after which one of the
party took three or four photographic views of the scene,
from one of which the accompanying sketch is taken.
The neat appearance of the Hotel Del Monte, of
which we have spoken, was largely due, according to the
statement of its manager, to the use of Chinese servants,
about sixteen of whom, divided into gangs of four, were
constantly engaged in the work of cleaning. The head-
gardener of the hotel grounds gave some very interesting information in regard to the manner in which they
were laid out, Chinese laborers being employed to do the
The Chinese, as laborers, are very important factors
in the industrial  civilization  of the  far West.    Nearly
J 1
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EjJ|     II
California and Alaska.
every town west of the Rocky Mountains and Utah has
its Chinese quarter. They swarm along the line of
the Pacific Railroad, and are found in the old mining
gulches of the mountains. In every village of California,
Oregon, Idaho, Nevada, and up in British Columbia they
are met with, engaged in some kind of service, as
cooks, table-waiters, nurses, gardeners, laundrymen, railroad builders, miners, agriculturists, servants, and as
assistants in manufacturing establishments. They began
to come to the Pacific States in 1852, and though their
capacity for learning is very limited, being confined principally to the power of imitation, they learn quickly, and
they are quiet, clean, and faithful, and do not go on
I sprees," as some of their white neighbors do. On
account of their genius for imitation they make good
cooks, and they are very successful in cultivating a small
vegetable gfarden. The Pacific Railroad would have been
delayed some years, and cost much more money, if it had
not been for Chinese labor.
One of our most enjoyable afternoon drives was with
a four-in-hand, and covered a distance of seventeen miles,
part of the trip being through a delicious pine woods.
This drive is one of the most celebrated around Monterey.
While near the shore we passed rocks whose tops just
appeared above the water, and were covered with seals.
Accompanying illustrations show the drive through the
pines and a rock covered with seals. These seals, or Cali-
fornian sea-lions as they are sometimes called, have always
been objects of interest to the traveller in these parts.
They crawl up from the water awkwardly and blunder-
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_^* Rocks, near Monterey.
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11 Monterey.
ingly, like babies just beginning to creep, and spread
themselves out over the rocks, lying there as if in a
comatose state. Now and then they raise their heads and
utter a loud piercing bark, apparently without any purpose whatever. When a party of two or three are on a
rock, and they are disturbed by a new-comer, there is a
languid sort of combat, and a great deal of barking and
grumbling, when all of a sudden, seeming to tire of these
useless proceedings, they suddenly plunge into the sea.
When from the water you approach a point occupied by a
numerous herd, you hear their long, plaintive howlings,
as if in distress ; but when near them the sounds become
more varied and deafening. The old males roar so loudly
as to drown the noise of the heaviest surf among the rocks
and caverns, and the younger of both sexes croak hoarsely,
or send forth sounds like the bleating of sheep or the
barking of dogs. What is called a " rookery 1 of matured
animals presents a ferocious and defiant appearance; but
usually at the approach of man they become alarmed, and
if not opposed in their escape roll, tumble, and sometimes
make fearful leaps from high precipitous rocks to hasten
their flight. It is a singular fact that young seals, from
their birth until they are six weeks old, are utterly unable
to swim. They learn this, to them, very necessary accomplishment, by going to the margin of the surf and floundering around in the pools, after which they make slow
and clumsy progress in learning the knack of swimming.
By repeated and persistent efforts the young seal gradually
becomes familiar with the water, and acquainted with his
own power over that element, which is to be his real home ;o
California and Alaska.
'II [If
and his whole support.    Once having learned the art, the
young one fairly revels in his new happiness.
Naturalists affirm that, notwithstanding the fact that
the seal is a very clumsy animal, and with a very small
head, compared to the size of his body, his intelligence is
greater than that of many land animals. Those who saw
the seals in Barnum's exhibition two years ago will certainly be prepared to confirm this statement. The seals
on the rocks near the Cliff House, San Francisco, become
almost friendly with some of the residents of the hotel,
certainly as tame as ordinary domestic animals. But long
before Barnum's seals were exhibited, there was a trained
seal shown in London, who could bow to his visitors, and
showed considerable intelligence in performing tricks.
f Seal Rock Covered with Seals,  near
Monterey. ESSE
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NO record of a journey in the far western section of
the United States would be complete without
some account of the famous Spanish missions.
In the State of California alone there are about fifty towns
whose names bear the prefix of the Spanish word San,
equivalent to saint. That there is a religious or, at all
events, an ecclesiastical significance attached to these
settlements, will be apparent at once. The story of these
missions is exceedingly interesting, and yet remains to be
written with the fulness and accuracy the subject deserves.
A few years before his death, our poet Longfellow, in
acknowledging the receipt of a monograph on this subject
of the missions, wrote to the giver, a resident of California : " A strange feeling of romance hovers about
those old Spanish missions of California, difficult to define, and difficult to escape. They add much to the poetic
atmosphere of the Pacific coast."
The first permanent mission in California was founded
at Loretto, in 1697. From that point, Christianity gradually extended to the north, stations were established at "mmt
m r
California and Alaska.
different points, and efforts made to christianize the
Indians. The missionaries were frequently attacked by
the red men, and the progress that was made was accompanied by considerable loss of life. Later on, the Jesuits
came to this section, but met with a very poor reception,
until, at last, every Jesuit in the State was carried off a
prisoner. These Jesuits were replaced by Franciscan
monks, who always travelled in parties of twelve. A
party of them reached Loretto, which was then the centre
of the mission work, in 1768. By order of the Mexican
Government, three missions were founded in Upper California—one at San Carlos de Monterey in the north,
another at San Diego in the south, and a third at San
Bonaventura in the middle district. The expedition
started out in three divisions, one by land, and two by
sea. The mission of San Diego was founded on the 16th
of July, 1769, on the banks of the stream of that name.
The native Indians were apparently friendly, and every
thing seemed to promise success. No sooner, however,
had the missionaries erected two houses and a chapel, and
were congratulating themselves on the prospective success
of their undertaking, than the Indians commenced depredations. The door of the priest's dwelling was only a
mat, and before they could resist their assailants, four or
five of the inmates were wounded. Not long- after this,
however, amicable relations were established with the
natives. This was the first of the series of missions which
were established along the coast. The new settlement
was placed under the tutelary guardianship of the patron
saint of the Franciscans, San Diego, the Spanish for St. Proof
Mission of San Luis Rey, Cal.
By C.  V. TURNER. ytf"'HHW'
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«ii The Missions.
James, and his name was given to the mission and the bay
near which it was situated. In the year 1810 San Dieo-o
was the largest mission in the State, though this was not
by any means a gauge of worldly prosperity.
The mission San Luis Rey was one of the largest
establishments of this kind. It was founded in the wilderness on the banks of the San Luis, right in the heart
of the Indian country. It was started in a thatched
cottage, and became one of the greatest of the Californian
missions. Its church of stone is ninety feet deep, and
rises at one end in a beautiful tower and dome; and from
its facade there extends a colonnade, not without architectural beauty, and nearly five hundred feet long, while in
depth it is almost of equal dimensions. Father Peyri, its
founder, was not only an architect but an able mission-
director. It was not long before he had thirty-five hundred Indian converts, scattered in twenty ranches, and the
whole place bore marks of industry, peace, and plenty.
The etching by Mr. Turner, herewith, gives a perfect
representation of how this famous mission appears at the
present time.
In the early days of these missions, some singular
customs came into the Church. There were certain
practices of ceremonial used by the Indians that were
gradually introduced into the Church service, not with
the approval of the priests, but tolerated by them.
Indian Catholics, for instance, were in the habit of
dancing before the shrine of a saint; or rather, it should
be said, the custom was pursued by the very young female
converts.    The practice had prevailed in Mexico, probably
.||, t;M
California and Alaska.
as a relic of paganism, where it was also tolerated, but not
approved. There is an anecdote told by a Spanish writer
about the attempt of an archbishop to prohibit this
dancing as sacrilegious. This raised such a tumult among
the people that the Archbishop appealed to the Pope.
The Pope ordered that the boys and girls should be
brought to Rome in order that he migrit see them dance.
After he had witnessed the performance, he laughingly
ordered that they should be allowed to dance until the
clothes they had on were worn out. The young people
took the hint, and shrewdly saw to it that their clothes
were always renewed piecemeal, so as never to be really
new, and thus, according to the Pope's decision, the
dancing was allowed to go on without direct slight to the
Archbishop's scruples.
Generally speaking, what may be called the mission era
in California began in 1769 and lasted until 1823. Between those years twenty-one missions were established,
extending from San Diego in the south, to San Rafael and
Sonoma north of San Francisco. The mission of San
Francisco was started in a rustic chapel in 1776, and the
country around the bay was explored by the missionaries.
Most of the missions were laid out in the form of a
hollow square; the enclosing wall of adobe bricks was
twelve feet high and three hundred feet in length, on each
side. A rectangular building, eighty or ninety yards in
front, and about as deep, composed the mission. In one
end was the church and parsonage. The interior was a
large and beautiful court, adorned with trees and fountains, surrounded by galleries, on which opened the rooms
3S Mission of Santa Barbara—Building.   V*
II Mission of Santa Barbara—The Garden. pf
III   '] ||
ill- i   A
The Missions.
of the missionaries, stewards, and travellers, the shops,
schools, store-rooms, and granary. In fact, the mission was
at once a religious station, a fortress, and a town. A
population was gathered around this centre, sometimes by
persuasion, and sometimes by a show of force, and the
people were taught to construct habitations outside the
walls, and instructed in the various arts of peace and civilization. These small communities prospered for fifty
years; they were havens of rest during the peaceful and
pastoral days of California.
Connected with the mission was a building called the
monastery, where Indian girls were taught by native women
spinning and weaving, and other duties peculiar to their
sex. The boys were taught trades, and those who showed
excellence, were promoted to the rank of chiefs, thus giving
a dignity to labor and an impulse to exertion.
Each mission was directed by two friars, one of whom
took charge of the religious instruction, while the other
was the superintendent of the outside labors. It is surprising, considering the small facilities at hand, how much
these missionaries accomplished in agriculture, architecture, and mechanics. They built mills, machines, bridges,
roads, canals for irrigation, and succeeded, even in that
early day, in transforming hostile and indolent savages
into industrious carpenters, masons, coopers, saddlers,
shoemakers, weavers, stone-cutters, brick-makers, and
lime-burners. A United States commissioner (Bartlett)
has borne testimony to the good work done at that time.
" Five thousand Indians," he says, " were, at one time,
collected at the mission of San Gabriel.    They are repre-
J California and Alaska.
sented to have been sober and industrious, well clothed
and fed; and seem to have experienced as high a state of
happiness as they are adapted by Nature to receive. They
began to learn some of the fundamental principles of
civilized life. The institution of marriage began to be
respected, and, blessed by the rites of religion, grew to be
so much considered, that deviations from its duties were
somewhat infrequent occurrences."
In 1834 the property of the missions was secularized,
and they rapidly decayed. In 1846 they were taken by the
United States, and in 1847 they had a population of 450.
At the mission of San Gabriel, at this time, excellent wine
was being produced, and ships loaded with the products
of the mission sailed regularly for Lima and San Bias.
The missions collectively contained 30,650 Indians, 424,-
000 head of cattle, 62,500 horses, 322,000 sheep, and raised
annually 123,000 bushels of wheat and maize. This property, under the direction of the government, was handed
over to the authorities, who allotted some to each family.
The missionaries were allowed rations for their support.
The civil war, the discovery of gold, which drew a new
population to the country, and the disappearance of the
Indians to the mountains and forests, led to the dissolution
of the missions, as they were originally established.
We resume the story of our journey. On the evening
of April 22d, an agent of the Yosemite stage line came
from San Francisco to Monterey, for the purpose of making final arrangements for our trip to the far-famed valley.
It was planned that we should have special stages all the
way in and out, with the probability of making the return  Ill
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Mission of San  Carlos,  near Monterey.
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r   The Missions.
journey from the Yosemite in one day. This trip has
never before been made in a shorter time.    The following
morning, the 23d, we took our bath a little earlier than
usual, and gathered our things together preparatory to
leaving on the two-o'clock train.
We came as far as San Jose on the regular train. A
special engine met us at this place and took the car 1 Ellsmere " through to Oakland. The rest of our train had
been left at Monterey, with all the crew, except George de
Barr, our chief steward, Armstrong, and our cook, Scotty.
We arrived at Oakland about six o'clock. This is the
principal town on the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay,
almost directly opposite the " Golden City " itself. The
city owes its name to its magnificent groves of live oaks in
which it was originally built, but it has now grown far beyond their limits. These trees are not merely ornamental,
but subserve a useful purpose for parts of the town, in
screening" them from the fierce winds which come through
the gap of the Golden Gate in the summer months, and to
the force of which Oakland is especially exposed. The
University of California is located here, and consists of
various colleges devoted to arts, letters, and professional
life. The drives around the city are very beautiful,
quite equal to those of San Francisco, and good roads
penetrate the surrounding country in every direction.
At Oakland Point, two miles from the city, there is
an immense iron pier over the bay to the ferry-boat,
which conveys passengers and freight to the city of
San Francisco. This wonderful pier, or rather wharf, is
on the east side of San Franciso, and is eleven thousand
-=^ California and Alaska.
feet long, running out to a depth of twenty-four feet at
low tide, and of thirty-one feet at high tide. Upon its last
thousand feet it has twelve railroad tracks, a wide carriageway, a passenger depot and railroad offices, ware-houses,
and outside storage for forty thousand tons of grain or other
merchandise, and three large docks, one of which affords
ample space for five of the largest steamers or clippers afloat.
The piles used, where the water deepens, are sixty-five feet
long, and are forty-two to fifty-four inches in circumference.
The main wharf is eight hundred feet wide at the extreme
or western end, and on it are pens for five hundred cattle,
two immense warehouses, and a large passenger depot.
At Oakland we were met by Mr. Curtis, Mr. Towne's
assistant general manager, who took us over to San Francisco, where we all had dinner at the Cafe Riche. After
dinner we walked back to the boat, and took the 9.15 train
for the south. As our train was leaving the depot, an
officer on the staff of General Miles, commanding the
Department of the Pacific, presented us with the General's
card, saying that he hoped we would notify him of our
return to the city, in order that he might render some
service to make our stay in San Francisco agreeable.
We reached Berenda about four o'clock on the morning
of April 24th, then took a branch line to Raymond, arriving there about three hours afterwards. After breakfast
we took a four-horse stage and started for Wawona, which
is sometimes called Clark's. We had dinner at a half-way
station called Grant's. The drive was exceedingly interesting from the manner in which the driver managed his
horses, and also on account of the kind of horses used fon
this work.    We changed horses seven times between Ray- A Farm Team near the Mission, Monterey,. if
i  Ill
I The Missions.
mond and Wawona, each change consisting of four horses.
It was surprising to see what wiry beasts they were, and
what an immense amount of work they could accomplish.
Our shortest drive between the changes was six miles.
On this we had four half-wild, wiry, Nevada ponies, roans,
and they literally ran all the distance. Their speed was
so great that we were very much concerned lest they
should run away entirely; but we were fortunate in having
an expert driver to go over the route with us. The manner in which the stage would whirl around corners and
dash down hills was quite appalling, and made the remembrance of past experiences in the Catskills and the White
Mountains seem tame, almost uninteresting. But all this
rapid driving was done with good judgment. The brakes
were tightly applied to the wheels when occasion required,
the effect being to bind the running-gear and the body of
the vehicle together, thus preventing any swaying motion
and any possibility of upsetting. When night came we
all felt fatigued, and, after a short walk, retired early, in
order to be prepared for a timely start on the following
morning. I
N the morning of the
25th of April we rose
at five o'clock, and, after
a hurried breakfast, started,
with a light wagon and four
horses, to see the Big Trees.
Two members of our party,
Mr. and Mrs. Purdy, did not
accompany us on this trip,
as they had visited the scene
about three years ago.
The Big Trees are certainly one of
the most remarkable features of California
scenery. No other one of the natural curiosities of the
Pacific States has become so widely known as these trees.
They were discovered in 1852, and at once became famous
over the world, more particularly on account of the exaggerated statements in regard to their size and age. There
are several groves of them, such as the Calaveras, the
Mariposa, the South Grove, the Frezno Grove, and prob-
60  1!
w I
m  ■
! The Yosemite Valley.
ably many others not yet discovered. Although the name
of "I. M. Wooster, 1850," is carved on one of these trees,
it was not till 1852 that a hunter, by the name of Dowd,
having wounded a bear, while pursuing his calling in
these parts, really discovered them. He was following up
the wounded animal, when he came to a group of these
monsters of the forest. In his wonder at the sight he
forgot all about pursuing the bear, and quickly returned
to his camp, where he told his companions of what he had
seen. His storv was received with shouts of laughter and
derision. Wishing to prove the truthfulness of his tale, a
few days afterwards he told his companions that he had
shot a big grizzly bear up in the mountains, and requested
their help to get the beast. The party started off, Dowd
leading the way over the path he had followed a few days
before, until, finally, he brought them face to face with
the Big Trees; they saw at once that, though he had
deceived them about the bear, he had not been guilty
of exaggeration in regard to the trees. So it appears
that, though Wooster, whose identity never seems to
have been established, may have first discovered them,
Dowd, the hunter, was the first to make them known to
the world.
These trees have been seen by visitors from all parts
of the world, and have been viewed with feelings of awe
and wonder. The Calaveras Grove is five miles long, and,
by some travellers, is considered the most desirable to
visit; but we think the majority of sight-seers would
prefer the Mariposa Grove, as the Calaveras has lost
much of its primitive condition—as one man says, " has 62
California and Alaska.
been converted into something like a tea-garden "—while
the former remains in its original state. The Mariposa
Grove is also regarded as being the most attractive,
because here the trees are greater in diameter and much
more numerous. There are four hundred and twenty-
seven of them in the grove, varying in size from twenty
to thirty-four feet in diameter, and from two hundred and
seventy-five to three hundred and twenty-five feet in
height. Botanically speaking, they are of the Sequoia
gigantea species. There seems to be a belt of them
running along the slopes of the Sierras, about four or
five thousand feet above the sea level, and as far south
as Visalia. They are so plentiful near that place that they
are sawed up and used for lumber. In the same neighborhood, the Indians report a tree far in the forest, which
is said to surpass in grandeur any tree of the kind that
has ever been seen ; so far, no white man has ever beheld
it. The leaf of the Sequoia gigantea is very much like that
of the Arbor-vitce, the bark is soft and very spongy, and of
a light-brown color; on all the largest trees it measures
from twenty to thirty-two inches in thickness. This species
grows on mountain slopes and is watered by the springs
that come down the hill-sides, and which are filled with
particles of fertilizing rocks and the decayed vegetation
of centuries. For six months in the year it is warmed
by a tropical sun and refreshed by the balmy air of the
Pacific; in winter its roots have a warm covering of snow,
and it is said, of some of these trees at least, that the
ground never freezes beneath them. In fact, they have
got nothing to do but to grow, and it is interesting to El Capitan, Yosemite Valley
■■■ Is,
P •       /
m  ■P
if       (ar/
A The Yosemite Valley.
note  that  this  species  is  not  wearing  out, for young
trees can be seen growing vigorously.    We say young
trees, meaning about four hundred years old, because the
monsters themselves are over two  thousand years  old.
One of  the  largest of  these  is  the  Grizzly Giant;  it
is one hundred and seven feet in circumference, and in
the thickest place thirty-four feet in diameter.    The first
branch  is  nearly  two  hundred  feet  from  the  ground,
and is eight feet in diameter.    The writer took a number  of  photographs  of   these  trees  and  several  views
in the immediate neighborhood ; from these the illustrations which appear in this book were made.    Most of the
large trees have special names attached to them.    Many
are named after the States, others are named after celebrated men, such as Longfellow, Lincoln, Grant, Ferdinand
de Lesseps, George Washington, Daniel Webster, W. H.
Seward, and Andrew Johnson.    It seems a little incongruous that the names of these modern celebrities should
be attached to trees whose chief claim to recognition, aside
from their size, is their great age—trees that existed before
Titus besieged Jerusalem, which were the contemporaries
of an Attila or a Constantine, and which bid fair to live
when the names they bear shall have faded into oblivion.
Incongruous though it may be, however, it is gratifying
that the names they bear are those of Americans.    The
pertinence of this remark will appear,  when  I   mention
that the first British botanist who saw the trees, had the
monumental assurance  to   christen   them   Wellingtonia,
although years before  they had received  the name of
Washingtonia.      British   botanists   still   call   the   trees 64
California and Alaska.
Wellingtonia, and will probably continue to do so for
their own satisfaction.
Probably a quarter of the trees in all the groves are
over twenty-five feet in diameter; the stump of one of
them, thirty-two feet in diameter, has a house built over
it. Five men worked twenty-five days with pump-augurs
before they could cut it down. The stump is cut five feet
from the ground, and a party of thirty-two have danced
on it at once, not counting the musicians and spectators,
who filled up part of the space. Twenty feet in length
of this log would make forty-nine thousand feet of boards,
which would be worth several thousand dollars.
One of the trees has been tunnelled, and a road built
through it, so that coaches can drive inside. When standing underneath it the leaders' heads are just outside the
arch of the tree at one end, while the end of the coach is
just outside the arch at the other. This, perhaps, will give
a better idea of the enormous diameter of these trees than
any arithmetical statements. The width of the opening
through this tree is sufficient to allow two stages to
pass each other inside the tree. The Faithful Couple is
about twenty-eight feet in diameter, reaches seventy feet
out of the ground, and forms into two trees on one stem;
the faithful couple of trees having, in reality, but one life,
a kind of Siamese-twins existence and being" but one. The
only tree which approaches the Sequoia in size and grandeur is the Eucalyptus of Australia, which is from eighty
to ninety feet in circumference.
After we had gratified our curiosity with regard to the
Big Trees, we returned to Wawona, where we took another Dead Giant, Tuolumne Grove—Diameter,
30 ft.  8 in. r *
m*   The Yosemite Valley.
stag"e and a fresh set of horses and started at once for
the valley.    On this drive we had three changes of horses
and the scenery was simply grand.    The ride was rather
a rough one,   but the views  to be  obtained  were well
worth the cost of the journey.    We alighted from our
coach at the world-renowned Inspiration Point, which is
a little green plateau, about twenty feet square, on the
very verge of the southwest wall of the valley.    The view
from this situation, once seen, can never be forgotten.    It
embraces what might be called the whole gamut of the
natural and magnificent; you see mountains, rock, perpendicular ledge, towering spires thousands of feet high, snow-
clad mountains, bald peaks peering into the blue vault of
heaven, barren domes of gray granite, water-falls, cascades,
and brooks, green fields, and winding streams,—the whole
Yosemite is here seen at one glance.    There was a shelving rock, upon which we were instructed to creep cautiously
to the edg-e.    It is no wonder that the first glance makes
some weak persons giddy, especially when they are exhausted by the long ride.    The beauty of the scene is
indescribable in words ; the experience might be compared
to a person looking over the edge of a grand cyclorama,
executed on a magnificent scale, containing all manner of
natural effects, and absolutely perfect in artistic execution.
The party were particularly impressed with El Capitan,
which is, indeed, the most prominent attraction to the eye
when  coming  down  the mountain-side  into  the  valley.
This mountain, called, in English, the Great Chief of the
Valley, although not so high, by several thousand feet, as
some of its giant neighbors, is remarkable on account of if
California and Alaska.
1       I
its isolation, its breadth, its perpendicular sides, its bold,
defiant shape, and its prominence as it stands out like a
great rock promontory. It is three thousand three hundred feet in height, and the beholder stands in mute astonishment as he views its massive proportions.
The Yosemite Valley was discovered in the spring of
1851, by a party under the command of Major James
Savage, who, at the time, was pursuing a number of predatory Indians, who made it their stronghold, considering it
inaccessible to the whites. The name Yosemite was given
to it in the belief that it was the Indian term for grizzly
bear. The valley proper can hardly be called a valley ; it
is in reality a rift in the earth's surface. It may be described
as a chasm, varying in width from one mile to ninety feet,
with granite walls from one thousand to four thousand
feet high. Masses of detached rock stand, in their soli-
tude, like giant obelisks ; others have been split from top
to bottom as though by a thunder-bolt. Through the
winding's of the valley flows a river, cold as ice and clear
as crystal, its source apparently being from the clouds
above. There is luxuriant vegetation, and the extreme
of barrenness, the softest carpet-moss and grassy lawns,
and great ferns and wild roses, alternating with huge scattered rocks, where not even the lichen will cling. The
traveller will note how the sunbeams brighten the summits
of the giant mountains; how the sunshine creeps down
the sides of the cold walls, filling the valley with floods of
golden glory, made brighter by the contrast of patches of
deep shade, for there are some spots here which the sun
never reaches—cold, and damp, and always dripping ; and Yosemite Valley, from Artist's Point.   r»?
y The Yosemite Valley.
there are gorges with arms wide-open, as if forever to court
the orb of day.
Briefly stated, the chief features of the valley are its
perpendicular walls, their great height as compared with
the width of the valley, and the small amount of debris
formed at the base of these gigantic mountains of rock.
The general opinion is that these great mountains of rock
have been gradually rent in twain from dome to base by
some volcanic action and the chasm thus made widened
by  further volcanic  action  to its present width.     The
valley is one vast flower-garden ; plants, shrubs, and flowers of every hue cover the ground like a carpet; the eye is
dazzled by the brilliancy of the color, and the air is heavy
with the fragrance of a million blossoms.   Inhere are trees
of five and six hundred years' growth, of immense height,
and yet in comparison with the vast perpendicular clefts
of rock they look like daisies beside a sycamore of the
forest.      One interesting writer  on  the  subject  of  the
Yosemite advances the theory that it is possible that the
spot may have been the Eden of Scripture.
On the morning of the 26th we all, with the exception of Dr. McLane, left the hotel on horseback for the
trail to the top of Glacier Point. This is considered
one of the most dangerous trails in the valley. At two
or three places half-way up the mountain the wall on one
side was actually perpendicular, and the path, not over
two feet wide, was held up by a few small stones, any one
of which if loosened would roll thousands of feet below. It
was a matter of much concern to us that one of the ladies
became very much frightened at this stage of the journey. 68
California and Alaska.
If she could hold on to her horse, and retain her senses,
we knew that all would be well, because the intelligent
animal would not go over the cliff. It was utterly impossible for her escort to be of any assistance, as, at this
point, there was scarcely sufficient space for a rider to
stand alongside his horse. Before coming to the dangerous place on the homeward journey, the lady dismounted
and walked with her companion nearly to the foot of the
mountain. California mustangs are the horses used in
this kind of service. They feed on oat-straw or mountain pasture, and can withstand very hard usage. The
Spanish saddle is used, with high peaks before and behind ; the stirrups are covered with huge leathers which
fall five or six inches below the feet, and the legs are
protected by broad leathern shields.
On the afternoon of the day we made our trip to
Glacier Point some of the party made a trip to Nevada
Falls. Dr. McLane and the writer, procured a wagon
and drove to the Yosemite Falls, and other points
of interest in the valley. The Yosemite Valley is
situated on the Merced River, in the southern portion
of the county of Mariposa, one hundred and forty
miles a little southeast from San Francisco. At times
this river flows along in a grave, respectable sort of
fashion, then leaps over a precipice a hundred feet high,
or more, then tumbles and foams its way through a devious
course around massive rocks as large as a house. Sometimes it hops, skips, and jumps over its rocky bed apparently in playful mood; sometimes its noise is almost deafening, sometimes soft and low and musical to the ear.    It Nevada Falls.
— N
^  iifl
J The Yosemite Valley.
flows on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, midway
between its eastern and western base, and in the centre of
the State, measuring north and south.    It is a narrow
stream enclosed in frowning granite walls, rising with almost unbroken  and   perpendicular   faces  to  the  dizzy
height of from three to six thousand feet above the green
and quiet valley beneath.    During the rainy season, and
when the snows melt, streams are formed on the precipices, shaping themselves into  cataracts  of beauty and
magnificence surpassing any thing known   in mountain
scenery.    Looking up the valley, from the foot of the
Mariposa trail, El Capitan is seen on the left, and on the
right, the Cathedral Rocks and a beautiful fall called the
Bridal Veil, which jumps, in sportive glee, a distance of
nearly one thousand feet into the valley.    Long before
the water reaches its rocky bed it is transformed into mist,
and when the wind blows gently it is wafted hither and
thither,  sometimes forming itself into a thin veil, sometimes closing as if to  hide its purity.     The  Cathedral
Rocks on the east are nearly three thousand feet in height,
and look like isolated church spires of solid granite, with
rocky sides gently sloping from the base to the pinnacle,
with no signs of vegetation on their rugged sides.    As
yet,   no   human   foot   has   stood   on   that  barren   eminence.    The Virgin's Tears Creek, directly opposite the
Bridal Veil,  is   in a  deep recess of the rocks near the
lower  corner  of   El   Capitan.      Farther  up  the  valley
is the group  of rocks  known as   the  Three  Brothers,
or  " Mountains   Playing  Leap-frog."     Looked  at from
below,  the  peculiar  shape   of   these  three   rocks   give 7o
California and Alaska.
them the appearance, very much, of three frogs in the act
of going through the performance indicated. The Yosemite Falls—three in one—are farther up the valley. The
water dashes with great force over the rocks and plunges
into a vast basin of rock beneath. Gathering strength, it
again leaps forth, and falling between the North Dome
and the Three Brothers, takes its final plunge of six hundred feet into the valley. The roar of the falls is heard
at all times, but in the quiet and darkness of the night it
seems as if the very earth were being rent asunder. There
are no falls in the world that equal these in size and magnificence. Niagara is two hundred feet high, but here is
a fall more than ten times as high, and the renowned
Staubbach of Switzerland is not to be compared with it.
At the foot of one of the mountains is Mirror Lake, a pure,
clear, cold body of water which reflects, as in a looking-
glass, the towering battlements of rock above.
To reach the Vernal and Nevada Falls the traveller
rides through a valley carpeted with bright-colored, fragrant
flowers, and is obliged to cross the river Merced. At the
base of the Sentinel Dome is the Vernal Fall or Cataract
of Diamonds. The falling cloud of white foam leaps over
its rocky bed into a fearful declivity, making a tumultuous
noise to which the roar of Niagara is as the sigh of the
south wind. For half a mile below the falls the stream
looks like one mass of foam. The Nevada Fall is twice
the height of the Vernal, and is the grandest of all the
falls in the valley. There is an obstruction on the north
side of the fall, which causes a division of a considerable
volume of water, and makes it tumble by itself in mad Yosemite Falls.
^ urn i
,y*..                         M1
'I     1
•".15 j'
J  fc
If I
ifflw The Yosemite Valley.
cascades, that come leaping and dancing down the rocks.
Visitors find no difficulty in going up to the very foot of
the fall, where they can gaze at its magnificent power,
and listen to its stupendous roar, until they are fairly
drenched with the spray.
The hotel at which we stopped at this point in our
journey, although well-built and comfortable in some
respects, is as badly kept as any place of the kind we had
ever seen. This is very unfortunate, because if it were
properly managed the natural surroundings are such that
visitors would be tempted to remain several days in the
locality, instead of getting through their sight-seeing, and
leaving the place as quickly as possible. When travellers
first began to come to this section, the | hotels," as they
were grandiloquently called, were nothing more than inns,
where the accommodations were of the rudest possible description.
We left the valley at half-past six on the morning of
April 27th. The weather was cold, but bright. As we
came past Inspiration Point we gave one last look at the
grand scenery which had been to us such a source of
pleasure for two days. We drove out the entire distance
of sixty-four miles, and arrived at Raymond about five
o'clock in the afternoon. Through the courtesy of the stage
company at Wawona, the writer of the party secured a
buck-board wagon, and, with his wife, drove all the way
to Raymond, having one change of horses. We were all
glad to get back to our car; by this time it seemed to us,
in a certain sense, like a permanent residence, and so far
as the cuisine was concerned, in looking back upon our I
California and Alaska.
\\,   i
hotel experiences in the valley, there was certainly " no
place like home," for the table at the hotels did not begin
to compare with our own.
At half-past six o'clock the train left for Berenda. It
was composed of a dozen freight cars, two Pullman sleepers, our car, and a coach. Half-way to Berenda, at one of
the local stations, through the mistake of one of the
switch-tenders, a switch was left open. Fortunately, the
engineer was not running over twenty miles an hour at
the time, and was able to prevent a serious accident by the
immediate use of the air-brakes. We were all at dinner
when the accident happened, and when the train brought
up with a tremendous jerk, it almost upset every thing on
the table. On going out it was discovered that the engine
had run on a siding directly into a lot of freight cars,
sending some of them on to the main track ahead, knocking
others off their trucks, and altogether making a pretty bad
wreck. It took us over half an hour to clear the main
line of debris, before our journey could be resumed.
While driving out from the valley, we had very cool
and comfortable weather. On our arrival at Raymond we
were surprised to learn that the people in that vicinity had
been suffering from the heat. The evidence of the torrid
state of the atmosphere was also to be seen on our car, the
paint upon which had peeled off in many places, while the
inside sash on the sunny side had been blistered by the
heat, taking the varnish completely off.
While going into, and coming out of the valley, we
saw large quantities of quail, and our driver informed us
that during the  season the hunting is very good.    We
w 1 Glacier Point, (3,200 feet,) Yosemite
Valley. ■«*^~ ——  h
m  "*>
r  Ii   The Yosemite Valley.
also passed a flume, of which an illustration is given
herewith. This flume is built of plank and carries logs
and boards to a distance of seventy miles. It is about
two feet high, two feet wide, and eight inches deep, with
flaring sides, and the water runs through it at quite a rapid
rate. When it crosses ravines or winds around the mountain-side, it is supported on trestle-work. The lumber is
sawed some distance up in the mountains, bound together
in bundles of seven or eight planks, then let into the
flume, and floated down stream to the railroad station.
The part of the flume shown in the picture carries lumber
down to Madera, a station on the Southern Pacific Railroad, one hundred and eighty-five miles from San Fran
EARLY on the morning of April 28th we left Berenda
on the express, and arrived at Oakland about nine
o'clock. We found an engine waiting for us,
which immediately took our car and ran us special to Monterey, where we arrived about three in the afternoon. The
children were all well, and overjoyed to see us, and listened
with unfeigned pleasure to the stories we had to tell them
of the wonders we had seen. Our return was made pleas-
anter from the fact that we found three mail-bags awaiting
us, and it took us several hours to reply to the generous
batch of correspondence we found on our hands.
On the following morning, Monday, we resumed our
old habit and started immediately for the swimming-bath.
In the afternoon, the writer engaged a buggy, and drove
out to a ranch twenty-eight miles from Monterey. California ranches often consist of thousands of acres, and are
conducted on a very large scale. The word " ranch " has
come down from the early Spanish occupancy, and is
found, in some form or other, all over the State; farmhands are called "ranchmen," and a man is "ranching-"
74 San Francisco.
horses when he takes them to pasture.    We will take one
ranch of sixteen thousand acres as a specimen.   It extends
about four miles along a river, and there is not a field
through which there does not run a living stream : these
streams come down from the mountains.    A flouring mill
of great capacity is on  one part of the ranch, and  its
wheels are kept running by the water from one of these
streams.    Between  three  and  four  thousand  acres  are
sown with wheat and barley, and,  by aid of machinery,
twelve hundred bushels of wheat can be made ready for
the mill  in one day.    The whole process of threshing,
cleaning, etc., is gone through with in the field, and the
grain at once put into sacks.    Fifty horses or mules and
about  twenty  men are employed from November until
March, in making the ground ready, using the latest and
most approved agricultural machinery.    The laborers live
on the place in a house at a little distance from that of
their employer.    Wild oats grow of their own accord, and
six hundred head of cattle live on parts of the ranch not
under cultivation.    Then there are twelve hundred hog's,
and fourteen thousand sheep, the latter having a shepherd
for each two thousand of their number.
We bade adieu to Monterey on the morning of the
ist of May, taking our special train. At Menlo Park we
were met by the boys—Louis, Frank, and George Bird—
who had remained at San Francisco in order to see the
town, under the guidance of the Pinkerton detective, who,
being an old Californian, was specially qualified to act as
a guide. Louis brought some beautiful roses that he had
procured  for  us  in   San  Francisco,   and  a   number   of ms
California and Alaska.
flowers of the same species were also handed us by a resident of Menlo Park, after our arrival.
After lunch we took carriages and rode out to Governor Stanford's stock farm. Through some misunderstanding, every one connected with the place, including
Mr. Marvin, the manager, was absent. But after a little
trouble we succeeded in getting a groom to show us some
of the horses. We saw % Electioneer," and some of the
stallions, together with the celebrated yearling " Electric
Bells," owned by Miller and Sibley, and for which they
paid in December, 1888, thirteen thousand five hundred
dollars. He is a beauty, and very well-developed, and
the groom assured us that his racing future was full of
After visiting the stables, we drove over to the University buildings which Governor Stanford is erecting to
the memory of his son. The main building is after the
Spanish style of architecture, only one story high, and
with tiled roof. It is in the form of a square, with a continuous arcade or colonnade running around it inside.
The interior square is connected with the outside by four
large arches under each side of the building. These
structures occupy about four acres of ground, and when
we were there a large body of men were at work on the
premises, while others were engaged in grading and preparing the surrounding grounds.
Menlo Park is beautifully situated at the foot of a
mountain, the last of the sea-coast range. It is thickly
wooded, and looked more like a park than any place of
the kind we had ever seen.    The roads are kept in superb San Francisco.
condition, and the profusion of flowers we beheld was
something wonderful. We drove through Governor Stanford's property, and saw his house and grounds; also the
large vineyard connected with it. Near his place, on
the site where he intended to build a house, Governor
Stanford has erected a mausoleum to the memory of his
son. After our drive we returned to the car and left
at once for San Francisco, Subsequently we had the
pleasure of meeting the Governor; also Mr. C. P. Huntington, who was about starting for New York. The
Governor talked freely about horse-raising, and one
could see that he was thoroughly enthusiastic on the
You cannot walk about the City of the Golden Gate
without thinking of its wonderful growth and recalling its
early history.    Only forty years ago men were living on
this very spot, for the most part in tents and shanties.
Some adventurers formed part of the population, but they
were soon exterminated.    Although there was an utter
absence of the refining- influence of women, gfood women
were held in profound respect.    Life and property were
secure though locks and  bars were unknown,  and men
trusted their money to people who a few hours before had
been  strangers  to them.    There  was   not a school,  or
a Protestant church, but men read their Bibles in their
homes.    The discovery of gold changed this condition of
affairs, and brought to the locality the scum of the whole
world—convicts from Australia; the vagabonds of large
European cities ; the toughs from' New York, and | plug-
uglies I from Philadelphia ; desperadoes from Central and m
California and Alaska.
South America ; outcasts from the South Sea Islands, and
pariahs from all over the world. All kinds of crimes were
common, and no man's life or property were safe. Then
came the " Vigilance Committee," and the reign of swift
justice, and finally San Francisco became one of the most
quiet, law-abiding, well-governed cities in the world. San
Francisco is famed for its restaurants. It is said they number about four hundred, and that forty thousand people daily
take their meals at them. They are of all grades and prices
—from the I Poodle Dog," where a dinner costs from two
and a half to twenty dollars, down to the Miner's Restaurant, where it costs only forty cents. There are also
a large number of French, German, and Italian restaurants
where one may get a good breakfast for half a dollar,
a lunch for twenty-five cents, and a dinner, a la carte,
including claret, for seventy-five cents. A tenderloin
steak (and the beef is said to be of an excellent quality),
potatoes, bread and butter, and a cup of coffee, will cost
fifty cents; a lamb chop, potatoes, bread and butter, and
coffee, twenty-five cents; salmon, bread and butter, and
coffee, twenty-five cents; an omelet, or eggs boiled, fried,
or scrambled, with coffee, and bread and butter, thirty-five
cents. A grade lower down, but in places which seem to
be clean and respectable, one gets three dishes for twenty-
five cents, and may obtain quite a decent meal for from
twenty to thirty cents. The European habit of living in
lodgings and taking meals at restaurants, is very much in
vogue in San Francisco. Among the hotels is one which
may be called a California peculiarity. It is what would
be called a second- or third-class hotel, but serves excellent San Francisco.
meals and lodgings at fifty cents each; this place grew
popular under the patronage of the miners, who, when
they come into town from their distant camps and cabins,
insist on having good fare though they are rather indifferent to the manner in which it is furnished. This hotel has
a special office for receiving clothes to be washed and
mended, a well-chosen popular library with five thousand
volumes, full files of newspapers and magazines, an extensive and valuable cabinet of minerals, and a beautiful
collection of stuffed birds, all for the accommodation and
entertainment of its guests. Its reading-room is generally
well-filled with plain, rough-looking men, each with book
or newspaper in hand. The rule of the establishment is
for every guest to buy a supply of tickets for meals and
lodgings on his arrival, at the uniform rate of fifty cents
each, and the proprietor redeems, with cash, what have not
been used up when the customer leaves.
One feature of San Francisco life is its bar-rooms;
many of which are fitted up in a style of almost Oriental
grandeur. They are furnished with immense mirrors,
reaching from floor to ceiling; carpets of the finest
texture and the most exquisite patterns; luxurious
lounges, sofas, and arm-chairs ; massive tables covered
with papers and periodicals, while the walls are adorned
with beautiful and expensive paintings. Some years ago
a picture which had hung on the walls in one of these
drinking-places was sold for twelve thousand five hundred
dollars. Some of the keepers of these places are said to
be men of considerable education and culture. One of
them, some years ago, was an art critic for a leading local Ifff(FT' ¥
California and Alaska,
il lii \
newspaper, and wrote a readable book of San Francisco
reminiscences. There are two classes of these saloons
which furnish a mid-day repast far too pretentious to be
called a " free lunch." In the first a man gets a drink and
a meal ; in the second, a drink and a meal of inferior
quality. He pays for the drink (twenty-five or fifteen
cents, according to the grade of the place) and gets his
meal for nothing. This consists, in the better class of
establishments, of soup, boiled salmon, roast beef of excellent quality, bread and butter, potatoes, tomatoes, crackers
and cheese. On the subject of eating, it may be said that
the San Francisco markets supply almost every conceivable
want of hungry humanity. The products of every clime
are brought to the city. You can enjoy such luxuries as
green peas, fresh tomatoes, celery, and cauliflower every
day in the year, and even strawberries may be a perennial
delight. Here, for months in succession, are grapes of
many varieties, at from two to fifteen cents a pound ; here
are apples from Northern California and Oregon, pears,
figs, peaches, apricots, nectarines, plums, and blackberries
from the neighboring valleys, and oranges, lemons, limes,
and bananas from the southern counties, all in fullest perfection of form and ripeness, and at moderate prices by
the pound—for fruits and vegetables are uniformly sold
by weight. Salmon is plentiful throughout the year at ten
to twenty cents a pound, with smelts, soles, herrings, cod,
bass, shrimps—in fact, every treasure of the sea, while the
variety of game is unequalled.
The Eastern visitor is struck with the gfood manage-
ment of the Wells & Fargo Express Company, which has San Francisco.
been a great convenience in the far western part of the
country. It extends to every village, almost to every mining camp, in the Pacific States and Territories. It is said
that the first three establishments set up in a new mining
town are a restaurant, a billiard-saloon, and a Wells &
Fargo office; these three enterprises represent the first
stao-e of civilization. In the early days the company carried
more letters on the Pacific coast than the government did,
for, though it first paid the government postage on every
one, and then added its own charges, the certainty and
promptness of its carriage and delivery being ahead of
the post-office department, made the agency very much in
favor with the public. It has carried as many as three
millions of letters in the course of a year. It does errands
of every sort, and to every place; it exchanges gold and
greenbacks ; it buys and sells gold and silver in the rough;
it owns all the principal stage lines of the interior ; and it
brings to market all the productions of the gold and silver
On the morning of May 3d, by invitation of General
Miles, commanding the Department of the Pacific, who
had called upon us on the preceding afternoon, and kindly
extended to us the use of the government steamer for a
sail in the harbor, we went to the Mission Street wharf
and boarded the vessel McDowell. We sailed out through
the Golden Gate, visited the fortress and the Union Iron-
Works, where they were building the San Francisco ; we
saw the Charleston, which had just been completed, and
was lying in a dock near by. About twenty-three miles
from the Golden Gate are the Farallon Islands.    They &
California and Alaska.
are six rugged islets, and the meaning of the word Faral-
lon, which is Spanish, is a small pointed islet in the sea.
These islands are seldom visited-by travellers or pleasure-
seekers. On one of them is a government light-house, a
brick tower seventeen feet high, surmounted by a lantern
and illuminating apparatus. There is also a fog-whistle,
which is a huge trumpet, six inches in diameter at its
smaller end, and which is blown by the rush of air through
a cave or passage connecting with the ocean. One of the
numerous caves worn into the rocks by the surf had a
hole at the top, through which the incoming breakers violently expelled the air they carried before them. This
cave has been utilized. The mouth-piece of the trumpet
or fog-whistle is fixed against the aperture in the rock,
and the breaker, as it dashes in, blows the fog-whistle,
which can be heard at a distance of seven or eight miles.
The light-house keepers and their families on the only
inhabited island pass a very lonely life. Their house,
which is built under the shelter of the rocks, seems to be
open to perpetual storm ; the sound of the ocean's roar
is never absent day or night; wild birds scream, sea-
lions howl, and every now and then there are dreadful
storms to make the din more hideous. During the winter
season the supply vessel is unable, sometimes, to make a
landing for weeks at a time. The islands are inhabited by
multitudes of sea-lions, and vast numbers of birds and
rabbits. The latter animals are descendants from a few
pairs brought to the islands, many years ago, by a speculator who intended to make a rabbit warren for the supply
of the San Francisco market.    The animals increase very San Francisco.
rapidly, so much so that sometimes hundreds of them
perish of starvation and general weakness. The sea-lions
congregate bv thousands upon the cliffs', many of them
o       o *
bigger than an ox.    They lie in the sun upon the bare and
warm rocks, or, climbing to high summits, fall asleep and
finally plunge into the ocean below. They are sometimes
caught by the use of the lasso, which has to be held by
half a dozen men, or quickly fastened to a projecting rock,
or the seal would surely get away.
The wild birds which  breed on these desolate islands
are gulls, murres, shags, and sea-parrots, the last a kind of
penguin.    For many years a company has gathered from
these islands the eggs of the murre, the season lasting
from the middle of May until the last of July.    About
twenty men are employed  in this  work,  living on the
island during the time in rude shanties near the usual
landing-place.    The eggs are laid in the most inaccessible
places, and the eggers are obliged to climb to points which
a goat would hesitate about approaching.   The egger cannot carry a basket, but puts the eggs into his shirt-bosom,
and when he has collected a sufficient number he takes
them down the cliff to some place of deposit, where they
can be put in baskets, and subsequently taken to the regular receiving-house near the shore.   These eggs are largelv
used in San Francisco by the restaurants and by bakers for
omelets, cakes, and custards.    In the early days of California, when provisions were high-priced, the egg gatherers
were very lucky.    Once, in 1853, a boat absent but three
days brought in one thousand dozen, and sold the whole
cargo at a dollar a dozen ; and in one season thirty thou- California and Alaska.
sand dozen were gathered, and brought an average of but
little less than this price.
On our return we reached San Francisco about half-
past twelve, going to the Palace Hotel for lunch; then
went to Oakland with Mrs. Webb, where the train had
been taken on a transport. We remained there until
evening, taking on a large supply of groceries, the first
since we had left New York. Our cars were put on the
end of a regular train, this being the first time that we
did not run special. The transport Solano, that took us
across to Sacramento, is capable of holding fifty-two freight
cars and four engines. It is four hundred and fifty feet
long, sixty-four feet wide, and has four tracks. This is
probably the widest vessel afloat; her extreme width over
guards is one hundred and sixteen feet, and she has four
paddle-wheels, each thirty feet in diameter.
Mr. Towne came over to see us off, and we found it
difficult to express our thanks and gratitude for the kind
and considerate manner in which he and his people had
treated us since we had been on their line. It would be
a most difficult task for us to find a way to repay this
gentleman for the courteous, thoughtful, and generous
treatment we had received at his hands.
;wgf* feSfebJ^
THE evening of Wednesday the first of May was
spent by the gentlemen of the party in a visit to
the famous Chinese quarter of San Francisco.
We were accompanied by our detective, and on this
occasion saw more dirt, filth, and degradation than we
imagined could exist in any city in the United States.
The Chinese quarter of San Francisco lies principally
in Dupont and Jackson streets, and within a stone's throw
of the fashionable thoroughfare around Kearney Street,
which was bright and crowded on the night we made our
excursion, its gay shops all ablaze with lights. Individually the Chinaman may be clean ; collectively he is just the
opposite. The Chinese cook keeps his coppers and pans
clean and bright, washes his hands frequently while pursuing his vocation, but go to his home and you will find
him living in a state of squalor and dH*t which is truly
shocking. Fifteen or twenty Chinamen will live, sleep,
and cook in a hovel or cellar twelve feet square, having
only a door for the purpose of admitting light and air.
When the occupants are not cooking they are lying in 7
California and Alaska.
their rude bunks on the side of the apartment, either
sleeping or smoking opium. The boarding-houses established by the Chinese Companies soon become grimy and
dirt-encrusted from cellar to roof. The Chinamen will
live under the sidewalks, under staircases, in cramped
bunks, and on rickety platforms, and when a building has
once been occupied by Chinese, it must always remain a
pest-hole or be torn down.
The Chinese seem to have a particular affinity for
subterranean dwellings. You go down a ladder-like
staircase into a cellar, where you might expect to find coal
or barrels stowed away, and, lo and behold, you are standing in a barber-shop. You pass farther along and find yourself in an underground pawnbroker's, the apartment very
close and stuffy, and dimly lit by a feeble flaring lamp.
The shop is crammed with every possible object on which
a dollar can be raised. In one corner there is a heap of
old clothes ; there are clocks, and an assortment of pistols
and knives of all sorts, from the pocket penknife to a pair
of murderous-looking blades which seem especially adapted
for literally slicing a man to pieces.
Beyond this pawnbroker's shop you will find an apartment dark, unventilated, and very much like the steerage
cabin of an emigrant steamer. There are wooden shelves,
or bunks, on the sides of the wall, screened by ragged
curtains. In each bunk there is a Chinaman, who is
smoking his pipe of opium. He will take a pinch of the
dark, jelly-like substance on a wire, melt it over a little
lamp with which he is provided, then smear it over the
aperture in the pipe, and draw it with great, deep breaths
H San Francisco.
into his lungs. Many Chinamen literally live in these
dens. They pay so much rent for their bunk, in which
they keep their few worldly possessions, and do their
simple cooking in a little court outside of the building.
Others work part of the day, and stay at the opium den
at night. The opium pipe consists of a straight or slightly
curved stem about eighteen inches long, with a bowl
three inches round, in the centre of which is a small
circular hole. This leads to a smaller reservoir in the
centre of the bowl, and a channel runs from this to the
end of the pipe, which the smoker places in his mouth.
The great aim of Mongolian existence, judging from
what we saw, seems to be to get the largest number of
human beings into the least possible space. The Chinese
seem to herd together, to go in droves, and it would seem
almost impossible that there should be a Chinese hermit.
In this quarter of the town there are long, narrow, black
alleys, so black that one has to grope his way, so narrow
that the party must walk in single file, and so long that
when you get to the end of them it seems as if you were
miles away from the Golden City. You go through room
after  room,  burrow  your  way  along-   narrow  passages,
J J O J7 O '
under low rafters, and over slippery and shaky floors.
You see nothing but dirt and rags and squalor, and the
sickly odor of opium permeates every apartment.
There are about ten heathen temples, or Joss-houses,
in San Francisco, and some of them are fitted up with
considerable splendor. The most noted was fitted up by
a distinguished Chinese physician, a resident of the city.
The temples are usually in alleys, the best one being in ni
California and Alaska.
the third story of a brick building, and in each apartment
there are a dozen or more gods and goddesses, representing persons who have once lived and performed some
good deed for which they have been deified. There is a
gong placed near the deities ; also an oven.    In the oven
o O   I
gifts and written representations of prayer, which are
bought of the priest near by, are thrown, and as they
burn the gong sounds to call the attention of the spirits
who are to receive them to the offerings made. The
deities represent different qualities, Joss being the supreme deity. There is a god of War, and there is a
goddess of Mercy. The latter image was brought from
China by the physician above referred to, and cost eight
thousand dollars. The story about her is this : She was a
fine young woman, and in order to escape a disagreeable
marriage went to the house of a religious sisterhood. Her
father burned the buildings, but her prayers saved the
occupants. Her mission in the other world is to look
after the souls of those who have no friends here, or
who have friends that are unmindful and negligent.    One
O      O
image represents a wretched-looking being who has lost
his soul through the commission of some great crime
in this life. He is constantly in pursuit of this lost soul,
sometimes in the act of grasping it, when it eludes him,
and he is constantly obliged to keep up his restless
search. The Chinese have no regular hours of worship,
but come and go in the temples at all times ; they bow
before the images in a perfunctory manner, and their
worship seems to be as apathetic as their general demeanor. Most of these Joss-houses are dingy and carpet-
less, with tables covered with handsome vases, candlesticks,
\\ San Francisco.
and other offerings ; panels of rare and curious carving in
bas relief, protected by a grating ; tinsel, trays of Joss-
sticks, incense, and the gong, which gives forth a deep,
sepulchral toll.
The  Chinese  are  inveterate  gamblers, and  the entrances to their gambling dens are guarded   by two or
three quiet-faced old Chinamen, who sit on little stools a
few feet back from the sidewalk.    These places are easily
entered by the patrons of the establishment, but should an
unknown visitor, or officer, come to them, and give rise to
the suspicion that a raid was going to be made upon the
place, the old man at the door would pull a bell, and such
a proceeding would be made impossible ; for the moment
the bell is pulled a big door, six inches thick, with heavy
crossbars of wood and iron, is closed at the farther end of
the hall.    If  this door should be  passed, the intruders
would find themselves in a maze, with heavy, barricaded
doors at every angle, each one supplied with ingenious
mechanical contrivances which will  bolt and  bar them.
The tinkle of the bell also warns the gamblers, who fly
out  at  rear exits, or up to the roof.    That  these  contrivances for  protection  from   interference  are very ingenious, is illustrated by the fact that, on one occasion,
while a certain wonderfully active and efficient officer was
hotly pursuing the Mongolians in one of these winding
passages, he suddenly found himself  hauled up   to   the
ceiling, with his neck in a noose, and there he dangled
until he was cut down by his brother officers.
The gambling game which the Chinese indulge in is
called " tan." It is a simple banking game, and played by
rapidly dividing a number of buttons into three or four 9°
California and Alaska.
heaps, the betting being whether the heaps contain an odd
or an even number. There is also a Chinese lottery which,
in some respects, resembles the game of " policy," played
so extensively by the colored population of our large
Eastern cities. On each ticket eighty Chinese numbers
are printed. The buyer is allowed to cross out five or
more of these numbers, and if any or all of them when
drawn are found to be prizes, the money called for is paid.
The drawings take place twice a day, and the prizes are
five, varying from twenty-five cents to one hundred dollars. The price of the tickets is from ten cents to one
Chinamen have many fights and quarrels among themselves, growing out of personal jealousies and rivalry.
These may not be so common at the present time, but
only a few years ago assassination was recognized as a
legitimate means of settling a difficulty, and such placards
as the following, offering rewards for the removal of any
disagreeable individual, were not at all uncommon :
■ The members of the Wing Ye Tong Society offer a reward, on
account of Cheung Sam's shoe factory violating our rule.
I Consequently, our society discontinued work.
■ Unless they comply with our rules again, we will not work.
I Some of our workmen secretly commenced to work for them.
■ We will offer $300. to any able man for taking the life of one of
those men who secretly commenced to work, and $500. for the killing
of Sam Lee.
" We write this notice and seal by us for certainty.
" The reign of Quong Chue, in the second year.    The fourth of
Chinese February. | WmG Ye Tong."
Chinese assaults were quite common a few years ago,
so common indeed, that the local newspapers made mere items of the occurrences, though some of the difficulties
were what we would call of a very grave character.    A
captain of police, hearing a disturbance, once went into one
of the narrow alleys to see what was the trouble.    He found
there a Chinaman on the ground holding up his hands to
shield his face.    Another Chinaman was  standing over
him, a knife in each hand, slashing away as hard as he
could.    The fingers of the unfortunate victim were rapidly
being hacked to pieces, the side of his face was a bubbling
fountain of blood, his scalp was laid bare, and his nose cut
to pieces.    The would-be murderer was arrested, and sentenced to ten years in State-prison, and died there before
his term expired ; his victim recovered with three fingers
and a half, one thhji of a nose, a forehead divided in two
by   a red  scar, and  his head   drawn to   one  side  from
the effect of blood-letting.
The Chinese theatre is one of the institutions of
China Town. It will seat nearly a thousand people, and
has a pit, gallery, and boxes. The men sit in one part of
the building wearing their hats, and women are allowed
the privilege of attending on holidays, when the gallery is
reserved for them. The doors of the theatre are opened
at seven o'clock in the morning, and the performance
begins soon after, and continues until eleven o'clock
at night, with the exception of an intermission at noon for
dinner, and a couple of hours, from five to seven o'clock, in
the evening. There is no curtain, no scenery, and the
play is not divided into acts and scenes. When a man is
killed, he remains dead upon the stage for a reasonable
period, until he gets tired of his horizontal position, when SP
California and Alaska.
he gets up, and quietly walks off the stage. The orchestra, consisting of a row of men, sit on the rear of the stage
just back of the performers, and play gongs, cymbals, and
other  loud-sounding  instruments  dear  to   the   Chinese
heart. Women do not take part in the performance,
female characters being taken by men. Historical plays
usually last about six months, being continued from night
to night until they are concluded.
Nearly all kinds of business are represented in China
Town, from the broker to the butcher, from the cobbler to
the commission-merchant, from the tea-dealer to the thief,
and from the goldsmith to the gambler. Many of the
Chinese are cigar-makers and make a cheap and nasty
quality of cigars. Many are engaged in boot- and shoe-
making. A large number keep shops for the sale of pork.
They are excellent fishermen. They work on the mountain roads and on new railways. They are employed
in the sunny vineyards of Sonoma, and clear snow-drifts
from the great trans-continental highways. They have
established wood-yards in San Francisco, and with baskets
tied upon each end of a pole, which they carry on their
shoulders, they peddle vegetables in certain parts of the
city. They manage to acquire a sufficient knowledge of
English to carry on business intercourse, but their " pigeon
English " is very grotesque and amusing. Here is a specimen,—a "pigeon English" rendering of the first three
lines of | My name is Norval."
My namee being Norval topside that Glampian Hillee,
My father you sabee my father, makee pay chow-chow he sheep,
He smallo heartee man, too muchee take care that dolla, gallo ? CHAPTER  XIII.
ON the morning of May 4th, after leaving Redding,
to which point we had now arrived, we gradually entered the mountains and approached the
far-famed Shasta Range, the scenery growing grander as
we ascended the mountain gorge. The railroad crossed
and re-crossed the Sacramento River eighteen times in
seventy-eight miles. The forest was very dense, and the
trees tall and large. On this particular morning, we
stopped our train soon after breakfast, just as we were
crossing a beautiful stream that emptied into the Sacramento, a short distance above Morley. Some of the party
tried their luck at fishing, but we were not able to remain
long, as we were afraid we might be overtaken by the
Portland express, which was behind us at Redding; as
it was, our rear brakeman ran up to us and said that
the train was coming up the mountain. Our engineer
had blown three whistles to call the party in, and before
we could get away the express was waiting behind us,
panting, as if with impatience, to climb the steep grade
just ahead.     At Soda Springs,  a short distance above
93 94
California and Alaska.
Dunsmuir, there is an excellent hotel where parties can
stop over and get good fishing. From Upper Soda we
passed through a wild canyon, over trestles, the road winding in a zigzag course up the mountain.     At one point
o o        O *• *
we could look down the great declivity and see three separate sections of the road on the side of the mountain,
one below the other. From Upper Soda, where we left
the Sacramento, it is not a half a mile by the path up the
mountain to McCloud, but by the railroad it is eight
miles. At this point we stopped our train, got out, and
going to the edge of the mountain we could look down
and see the day-express train winding its way up the
acclivity some seven hundred feet below. McCloud is a
lumber town, filled with logs and saw-mills. In its immediate vicinity is the McCloud River, which is famous for
the size and quality of its trout.
At Sisson, situated in the Strawberry Valley, a few
miles beyond McCloud, we stopped and had a fine sight
of Mount Shasta, a picture of which is given herewith.
This mountain is not only the most striking topographical feature of Northern California, but the largest and
grandest peak of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada ranges.
It stands alone at the southern end of Shasta Valley. In
approaching it from the north and south there is a gradual increase in the elevation of the country for about
fifty miles j the region near the base itself thus attains
an altitude of three thousand five hundred feet above
the sea. The mountain itself is fourteen thousand five
hundred feet above the sea level. The ascent may be
accomplished, in a favorable season, without much danger  > If if 1/
(II Northern California.
or difficulty, by stout resolute men.    The extreme exhaustion realized in ascending mountains like Blanc or the Matterhorn is not experienced; nor is the trial so dangerous,
by reason of huge fissures and icy chasms ; the main difficulty arises from the rarefied condition of the air, to which
the system must adapt itself rather suddenly for comfort.
The ascent is frequently made by parties who stop at Sisson and take two days for the trip, going on horseback to
Sisson Camp, and the next morning on foot to the summit.    Sisson Camp is just on the edge of the timber line.
Parties go there, and remain for weeks at a time, making
hunting excursions into the woods and remaining away
for three or four days.    The hunting in this vicinity is
said to equal any that can be found on the coast from
Portland to San Francisco, and the fishing is without a
parallel.    This  region   is,  in   fact,  a  hunter's  paradise:
grizzly,   black,  and  cinnamon bears  are  found  without
number; elk and mountain sheep tempt the skill of the
venturesome sportsman ; antelope are sometimes seen on
the foot-hills ; while deer of all varieties, especially the mule
and black-tail, are in such abundance as scarcely to be
sought after.
The view of the mountain from Shasta Plains is very
grand. With no intervening mountains tq obstruct the
prospect, the base is seen resting among dense evergreen
forests ; higher up, it is girdled with hardy plants and
shrubs to the region of frosts, and thence the sheeting
snow. During some seasons the great monarch seems to
retire to gloomy solitudes and sits a storm king upon the
clouds, invisible to mortal eye. 96
California and Alaska.
A well-known writer, Clarence King, who made the
ascent of Shasta, thus relates one of his experiences :
" From a point about midway across where I had climbed
and rested upon the brink of an ice-cliff, the glacier below
me breaking off into its wild pile of cascade blocks and
serac, I looked down over all the lower flow, broken with
billowy upheavals, and bright with bristling spires of sunlit ice. Upon the right rose the great cone of Shasta,
formed of chocolate-colored lavas, its sky-line a single
curved sweep of snow cut sharply against a deep-blue sky.
To the left, the precipices of the lesser cone rose to the
altitude of twelve thousand feet, their surfaces half-jagged
ledges of lava, and half irregular sheets of ice. From my
feet the glacier sank rapidly between volcanic walls, and
the shadow of the lesser cone fell in a dark band across
the brilliantly lighted surface. Looking down its course,
my eye ranged over sunny and shadowed zones of ice, over
the gray-boulder region of the terminal moraine; still
lower, along the former track of ancient and grander
glaciers, and down upon undulating pine-clad foot-hills
descending in green steps, and reaching out like promontories into the sea of plain which lay outspread nine
thousand feet below, basking in the half-tropical sunshine,
its checkered green fields and orchards ripening their
wheat and figfs."
In the forests around Mount Shasta are found the
maple, evergreen oak, and several varieties of pine, including the spruce, the cedar, and the fir. Chief among them
all for symmetry and perfection of figure is the majestic
sugar-pine,  nearly equalling  the   red-wood   in   size,  and Northern California.
excelled by none as a beautiful forest-tree. The Sacramento River rises far up on the southwestern slope of
the mountain, far above vegetation and the timber line,
and almost amid eternal snow. The McCloud, its principal tributary, rises on the eastern slope.
After leaving Sisson, we travelled through the beautiful
Shasta Valley, later in   the day ascending the Siskiyou
Mountains just before crossing into Oregon.    This part of
our journey was exceedingly interesting.    At the foot of
the grade we attached to our train of four cars two large
consolidated engines.    In the distance we could see the
road winding up the mountain.    At the top of the ascent,
ten miles before we came to it, we saw the entrance to a
tunnel which is four thousand one hundred and sixty feet
in length, and which our train subsequently passed through.
The grade up the mountain was nearly two hundred feet
to the mile.    After passing through the tunnel we came
to Siskiyou, the highest point on the  road.    The view
from this point was grand in the extreme.    Looking down
into the valley below we could easily distinguish the railroad wending its way northward, and it seemed incredible
to   us that our train would also soon be  in  the  same
position.    To the right and east the Cascade Mountain,
extending fully four hundred miles to the north, loomed
up into view.    The grade on the north side of the Siskiyou Mountains we found more tortuous and much steeper
than on the south side, and at certain places our train had
to go very slowly, lest our cars,  being unusually long,
should strike the sides of the mountain.    In making- our
descent we were obliged to cross many high trestles, to go
13 mm
California and Alaska.
through three tunnels, and the road so twisted and turned
that we could scarcely have told the points of the compass, much less the locality in which we were, if we had
not been accompanied by the superintendent of the
division, who helped us to a knowledge of our surroundings. When we reached the valley the scenery was of a
very different character. We had rapidly been taken
away from every thing that pertained to a tropical climate,
and the rich and profuse vegetation for which California
is famous. The region through which we were travelling
reminded us very much of what we were accustomed to
see in the East, more especially the pastoral life peculiar
to the New England States. It was noted, too, that even
the trees in this part of the country were similar to those
to be found around our country home at Shelburne, Vermont, and very different from the varieties we had met
with on the California slope.
Ashland is the terminus of the Southern Pacific road;
it is four hundred and thirty-one miles from San Francisco.
At this point we changed engines, and travelled over the
Oregon and California Railroad, a line leased by the
Southern Pacific. During the afternoon we stopped in
the Shasta Valley and tried our luck at fishing in a pretty
stream which, as we crossed it, looked as though it would
give us some sport. The train was sent on about five
miles ahead to a siding, with instructions to return for us
in about two hours. Our party got out of the cars and
fished, but succeeded in capturing only a few of the finny
tribe. Shortly after breakfast on this particular morning
the following telegram was delivered to us ; it will serve Northern  California
to indicate, in some small degree at least, the generous
and thoughtful treatment we received at the hands of the
Southern Pacific Railroad Company:
" Dr. W. S. Webb and party :
"Good-morning. I hope you are enjoying yourselves thoroughly.
Do not fail to remember that I am at the other end of the wire, and
call upon me for any thing you want.
"A. Towne."
The northern part of California is, in many respects,
one of the most interesting portions of the State; it is
particularly adapted to sheep-grazing, and it is said that
there are not a few young men who have migrated to this
part of the State, started with a few sheep, and are now
wealthy.    Although the largest flocks of sheep are in the
southern part of the State, the best quality of wool comes
from the north.    Klamath, Humboldt, Trinity, Tehama,
Mendocino, and Yuba counties, where no sheep formerly
ranged, now send the best wool.    A few years ago all the
wool was sent  by sailing vessels round Cape   Horn  to
New York and England.    When the Pacific Mail Steam-
ship Company increased their carrying facilities, at   the
same time reducing their rates of freight, it was sent by
way of  the  Isthmus   of   Panama.    At the present time
nearly all the wool goes by the Central Pacific Railroad.
Some  enterprising  sheep-grazers  in the  Sacramento
Valley own a range in the foot-hills, and another on the
bottom lands.    During the summer the sheep are kept in
the bottoms, which are then dry, and full of rich grasses;
in the fall and winter they are taken to the uplands, and
there they lamb and are shorn.    Sheep  are  sometimes IOO
California and Alaska.
driven into the mountains, where they have green grass
all summer, and it is not unusual to see groups of the animals crossing the Sacramento without a driver, and in the
fall returning, of their own motion, each to its respective
owner. sS^Ssi
WE arrived at Portland, Oregon, on the morning
of Sunday, May 5th. Mr. Boothby, of the
Pullman Car Company, met us on our arrival, and did every thing in his power to make our stay
pleasant and comfortable. We attended the Episcopal
Church in the morning, and in the afternoon drove over
the town and through the park. Portland is the largest
town of Oregon, and lies on the banks of the Willamette.
We noticed that Sunday was observed with much greater
strictness than in most towns on the Pacific coast. Large
trees are to be found on every hand, and the few farms
that are to be seen must have been cleared at very great
expense. Portland was one of the first cities to be settled
on the northern slope of the Pacific coast, but it is only
within the last few years that it has grown much in population ; most of the immigration has been towards Tacoma,
Seattle, and other towns farther north. The valley of the
Willamette is a most fertile region, and very attractive in
its natural curiosities. Many remarkable instances are
to be found here of those eccentric mountain formations
known as beetlers—huge conical, isolated hills. idm
to  (
California and Alaska.
We arrived at Tacoma about midnight on the 5th, and
were placed on a side-track. It is evidently a new and
certainly not a very inviting-looking city. When we were
there the streets were not paved, but were covered hub-
deep with mud. The sidewalks had a very rough and
crude appearance, and the whole settlement looked like a
frontier town. Notwithstanding all this, however, there
had been such a boom in real estate that the price of a
twenty-five-foot lot with a very ordinary building on it
was from twenty-five to thirty thousand dollars. Whittier
may have had such Western towns in view when he wrote :
I hear the tread of pioneers,
Of nations yet to be—
The first low wash of waves
Where soon shall roll a human sea.
Behind the squaw's light birch canoe
The steamer smokes and raves,
And city lots are staked for sale
Above old Indian graves.
The weather was cold and rainy when we arrived here,
and our spirits were at a very low ebb. A call was made
upon the General Superintendent of the Pacific division of
the Northern Pacific Railroad, who was found to be quite-
agreeable though very busy, and unable to leave his office.
He at once made arrangements to have us leave for the
East over his road as soon as we could get some informa-
tion we wanted in regard to the fishing- along- the line.
o OO
We did not go to Seattle, as it would have  consumed
another day.
We stopped at the foot of the Cascade Range and
fished for two hours without success. The Superintendent
k Mount Hood From Lost Lake   mm 11
¥ Montana
of this division came down to meet us, and with two consolidation engines, each having ten drivers, took us over
the range ; the grade, at this point, being one hundred and
seventy-four feet to the mile. This range of mountains
includes some of the loftiest peaks in the United States,
among which are Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, and
Mount Pitt. The first of this grand trio has a volcanic
crest fourteen thousand feet above the level of the sea;
on its northern side it is nearly vertical for seven thousand
feet; there the snows of winter accumulate till they reach
the very summit, but when the summer thaw commences
all this vast body of snow becomes disintegrated at once,
and, in a sweeping avalanche, buries itself in the deep
furrows at its base and leaves the precipice bare.
We arrived at Spokane Falls early on the morning of
May 7th. Dr. Merriam, to whom I had telegraphed from
Tacoma, met us on our arrival, and gave us some information that we had requested about the fishing. Spokane
Falls is a very prosperous town, and the streets are well
laid out and planned for a city of some thirty or forty
thousand inhabitants, although the population at present
is less than half the first estimate mentioned. This is the
distributing place for the mines, and the great success
which is just now attending those enterprises is likely to
materially raise the price of real estate.
At eleven o'clock, on this particular morning, we went
to Hope, on Lake Pend d'Oreille. This is a new station
and a divisional point of the Northern Pacific ; as the
railroad moved its round-houses here owing- to the water
giving out at the former terminus.    We got a boat from
— f    If
104 California and Alaska.
the Northern Pacific Railroad, and Mrs. Webb, Dr.
McLane, and the writer took a sail on the lake ; the other
members of the party went fishing in small boats and had
very good luck, catching trout near the shore weighing
from two to three pounds. This lake is beautifully encircled by mountains, and is sixty miles long; the water
is from five hundred to eight hundred feet deep. There
are no towns near it, and it is as wild a place as the traveller will seldom see. On the northern bank of the lake
there is a very small place called Chloride, where the
miners stop on their way to the Chloride Silver Mines.
Before we left this locality for Helena, which we did the
next evening at half-past six, the boys went out fishing
again and returned with a very good catch.
We arrived at Helena on the morning of May 9th.
Mr. Shelby, the General Manager of the Montana Central (which is a part of the Manitoba system), met us on
our arrival and took us over his road to Butte, the largest
j O
mining city in the world, where the celebrated Anaconda
Silver Mines are located.    After lunch we took carriages
and drove around the city, which struck us as being a
very strange town. Half of the population worked in the
mines during the day, and the other half during the night.
The liveliest hours of the day were twelve o'clock noon,
and at midnight, when the day gangs came up to be relieved by the night workers.
The primitive manner of gathering gold in the Montana mines is rude and incomplete enough. In all the
gulches, at depths varying from six to fifty feet, is a bedrock of  the same general   conformation as the surface. Usually this is granite 1 but sometimes before reaching the
primitive rock two or three strata of pipe-clay—the later
beds of the stream, upon which frequently lies a deposit
of gold—are passed. Upon the bed-rock is a deposit
from three to four feet in depth, of gravel and boulders,
in which the gold is hidden.     This is called by the miner
"pay-dirt," and to remove it to the surface and wash it
is the end of mining. It is an expensive and laborious
process indeed. The water has first to be controlled ;
and in mines of not too great depth this is done by a
drain ditch along the bed-rock, commenced many claims
below. In this all the claim-holders are interested, and
all contribute their quota of the labor and expense of digging it. The district laws permit every person to run
such a drain through all the claims below his own, and
force every man to contribute alike towards its construction, on pain of not being allowed to use the water, even
thoug"h it flows through his own land. The water con-
trolled, the rest is mere physical labor, which only bones
and sinews of iron can endure. In the shallow diggings
the superincumbent earth above the pay-dirt is removed,
and the process is called "stripping." In deep diggings a
shaft is sunk to the bed-rock, and tunnels are run in every
direction, and this is called | drifting." The roof is supported by strong piles, but these supports too frequently
give way, and hurry the poor miners to untimely deaths.
The pay-dirt, in whichever way obtained, is then shovelled into the sluice-boxes—a series of long troughs so
o o
made as to prevent the gold from washing past, or the
dirt from settling to the bottom.
The gold being heavier io6 California and Alaska.
sinks to the bottom and is caught by cross-bars called
" riffles " ; in the lower boxes is frequently placed quicks
silver, with which the lighter particles amalgamate. During the washings the large stones and boulders are removed by a fork. The heavy sand and iron are separated
by a careful washing by hand and by the magnet.
In the new and thinly settled countries of the West
many ideas have always been expressed by figures drawn
from the pursuits of the people. Much of the language
of the Indians is expressed by signs. So, with miners,
their conversation is full of expressions peculiar to their
vocation. The new settler is called a | pilgrim " or a " tender-foot." The term § adobe," the sun-dried brick, applied
to a man, signifies vealiness and verdancy. A " corral "
is an enclosure into which herds are gathered ; hence a
person who has every thing arranged to his satisfaction
announces that he has every thing " corralled." A man
fortunate in any business has | struck the pay-dirt" ; unfortunate, has "reached the bed-rock." Every thing
viewed in the aggregate, as a train, a family, or a town, is
an I outfit." A miner in criticising a certain lawyer in his
neighborhood—" a great blower," as he would be called in
the East—said expressively: " When you come to pan
him out, you don't find color."
The names of the gulches near Helena are very suggestive ; here are some of the most peculiar ones : Bean
Gulch, Bilk Gulch, Boomerang Gulch, Greenhorn Gulch,
Hell-Gate Gulch, Hail-Columbia Gulch, Hangman's
Gulch, Hope Gulch, Ice-House Gulch, Last-Chance
Gulch,    Lost-Horse  Gulch,   Magpie   Gulch,   New-York Prickly Pear Canyon, Manitoba R. R. 3SS
14  if i
k \ i
ft"?   Ill
gflfi  1
L v
"rs   Montana.
Gulch, Peter's Gulch, Show-Down Gulch, and Yankee
Doodle Gulch. Helena is the second point of importance
in the Territory. Near it are the low valleys of the Missouri, which are rapidly becoming the homes of thrifty
In regard to the grazing qualities of this country,
finer grasses have never anywhere been seen than between
the Columbia and the Missouri rivers. Their nutritive
qualities are apparent from the number and condition
of the stock that feed upon them. Wild hay. is cut
from thousands of acres. The grass is mostly a wild
bunch-grass, growing from twelve to eighteen inches
high, and covering the entire country. Horses and
horned stock by thousands, and sheep by the hundreds,
all bespeak the wealth that is wrapped up in the native
grasses of this region. Years ago it was prophesied that
the wealth of this beautiful region would eventually consist of thousands of fleecy sheep to be sheared; the
streams of the Rocky Mountains themselves might be
caught and harnessed to the spindles and looms of wool
manufactories to be erected, and the wool-trade with the
St. Louis market would constitute a trade replete with
wealth and magnitude.
The city was started by a few emigrants from Minnesota, who discovered a gold mine, which, for several
months, they worked quietly, amid their majestic mountain
scenery, making no announcement of their wealth. In
the winter of 1864 their secret became known, and a
heterogeneous population was drawn to the locality.
Claims advanced  in  price,  and  the  discoverers  reaped io8 California and Alaska.
fortunes. A hundred ravines near Helena showed gold,
and every one of them was soon claimed from mouth to
source. The first settlement made here was called Last-
Chance Gulch.
The years 1865 and 1866 were those of the greatest
excitement and immigration and gold production in the
Territory. In the latter year, probably thirty-five thousand
people were there, and twelve to fifteen millions of dollars
were taken out, mostly from the sides and bottoms of the
gulches. Two men washed out a ton of gold, and from a
single I bar " in Confederate Gulch three companies took
a million and a half of dollars' worth.
The ranchman finds in Helena a good market for his
produce—butter, eggs, cattle, horses, sheep, etc. The
majority of the ranches are stocked with the best, and it
is not a matter of wonder that they furnish the finest veal,
beef, and mutton in the world. It is a fact that cattle are
herded during the winter months, and on the approach of
spring are in better condition and fatter than cattle in the
Eastern States which are corn-fed and kept stabled during
the same period. The same remark also applies to horses
and mules. Considering the newness of the country it is
well supplied with produce. Thousands of tons of hay
are put up every season, and esculent roots are raised in
prolific quantities.
We left Helena on the evening of the 9th of May,
passing through the Prickly-Pear Canyon and following
the Missouri River. The road crossed and recrossed the
old stage route to Helena, which was abandoned only a
few years ago. Prickly Pear Canyon, Manitoba R. R.
■• .'   ■ I
.i M
if^|g|fi^ -tv^A. -m'..
ing the -newnes:
educe,      Tiousj
I'M  '
* t
I ill
} Montana.
Great Falls (at which point we arrived about eleven
o'clock in the evening) is situated at the wonderful falls of
the Missouri River, just where the Sun River empties into
that stream. The town is beautifully located, and it is safe
to say it has more natural resources, as a town site, than
any other place in the country. At this point the Missouri River has a fall of five hundred feet in a few miles.
The country around the town is a gently undulating plain,
the land being of an excellent quality and varying from
a sandy loam to a dark clay loam, without any admixture
of sand. This description of country extends for miles
around Great Falls, the nearest mountains, plainly in sight
and densely timbered, being twenty-five miles away.
The principal street is lined with business houses, built
of brick and stone. Though the town is only three years
old, it has a population of two thousand inhabitants, public
parks, electric lights, a fine hotel, and public school-house.
Eventually it will be the distributing point for all the mines
in the neighborhood ; it will be to Montana what Denver
and the country surrounding it are to Colorado.
On the morning of the ioth of May, with an engine
and the buffet-car, we went to San Colu, about sixteen
miles south of Great Falls, where the new coal-mines are
located. These mines were discovered a short time before
we visited them, and have now been worked about a year
and a half. They have a working thickness of from seven
to fourteen feet. Previous to their discovery the railroad
at this point was compelled to haul its coal from St. Paul,
a distance of fifteen hundred miles, obtaining the greater
part of it from  Ohio.    Since the discovery of the coal- I 7 M m
hi in
If I
California and Alaska.
mines a large smelter has been put up by prominent New
York capitalists, to smelt iron ore, which is found in the
hills near by in great abundance. A railroad has been
built to the mines, so that now the ore can be delivered to
the smelter at comparatively small cost. A million dollars
has already been expended on this smelter, and a Boston
company has lately erected another at a cost of half a
million more than that sum. Heretofore it would not
have been practicable to erect smelters in this part of the
country, owing to the want of coal, but since its discovery ores can be brought from Butte and the mines
near by direct to the smelter, and smelted, thus leaving
only the valuable part of the ores to be transported East.
The reader can form some idea of the richness of the ores
in the mines south of this point, when it is stated that the
owners can afford to draw the ores by team a distance of
nearly sixty miles to the smelter. There is also at this
place a very valuable lime quarry, which yields fifty-two
per cent, of lime.
We were all very much interested in our visit to the
smelter, and also enjoyed the sight of an enormous spring
that bursts from the ground just below Black Eagle Falls,
about one hundred yards back from the river. This is the
largest known spring in America, and is believed by many
to be the mouth of a subterranean river.   According- to an
engineer's report on the subject, the volume of water
from it equals a river one foot deep and seventy yards
wide. Captains Lewis and Clark, who explored the
Missouri in 1804, mentioned this great natural phenomenon.
II Here, also, is a natural spring of pure cold water, which,
if walled up, to any desired height, could supply the upper
story of any house on the highest point in this region, while
in quantity there is enough to supply two cities as large as
New York. HI
ON leaving Great Falls, coming east, we journeyed
for two hundred miles through the Judith basin,
which is known as " The Garden of Montana."
Benton, which is forty miles northeast of Great Falls, is
one of the great shipping points of Montana. In 1888
there were shipped from Benton three thousand four hundred head of fat cattle, sixty-two thousand five hundred
head of sheep, and nearly two million pounds of wool.
From the " Garden of Montana " east of Great Falls, on
the Manitoba Railroad, in the same period, there were
shipped thirty-five thousand head of fat cattle, ninety-
four thousand head of sheep, and about two and a half
million pounds of wool.
We passed through Assiniboia, near to which is Fort
Assiniboine, which we could see from the train. This is
one of the largest and best-built military posts in the
United States, the buildings alone having cost over two
millions of dollars. There are seven companies of infantry,
and two of cavalry stationed here. Before the railroad
was built, some two years and a half ago, Helena, two
hundred and seventy miles away, was the nearest point of
\ II ll.l I'
North Arm, Biscotasing Lake.
Proof rs
ml lf[ II
!  mil III
. «■ i The Garden of Montana.
railroad communication. Bear Paw Mountains, rising out
of an almost level prairie, can be seen for miles around.
The range is about seven thousand feet high, and is covered by large tracts of pine timber. Several streams of
fine spring water gush forth on the plains from the sides
of the mountain range. Valuable leads of gold", silver,
and lead were discovered two summers ago, and many
mines were located. At the base of these mountains
is one of the most attractive tracts of land ever seen ; it is
slightly rolling, and elevated about five hundred feet above
the valley of the Milk River. Summer before last we
were told that the grass was waist-higfh over the whole
o o
face of the country, and very thick; it had been nourished
by the frequent summer showers which are peculiar to this
section. Large veins of the finest bituminous coal, from
six to twenty feet in thickness, crop out at frequent intervals along the banks of the streams.
The country through which we passed towards evening
was unsettled and looked very new ; although a fertile
and good grass country, for a distance of two hundred
miles we saw only four houses, and those were railway
stations. Many of the stations on this part of the road
consist of simply a switch or siding, with the name put on
a post driven into the ground ; attached to the post is
a box containing a telegraph key connected with the
wires, so that an operator may telegraph in case of
necessity. The Manitoba road carries an operator on
each of its trains, so that these boxes can be used in case
of need. There are no lamps on these switches, and if
there were there are no inhabitants here to attend to them.
„f w
114 California and Alaska.
During a part of the journey the writer took one of
the children on the engine, where he remained an hour;
it was the first experience of the kind he had ever had.
We saw a number of wolves on the prairie, and, at times,
passed many groups of Indians, especially at Assiniboine,
where we purchased from them a number of buffalo horns.
Although this country is so sparsely inhabited, it must
be borne in mind that only eighteen months before we saw
it there was no railroad passing through the section, and
the Government had only a year before opened this great
reservation for settlement, which, in itself, is an empire containing about eighteen millions of acres, eligible for free
homes under the United States land laws. This great
tract through which the railroad runs is the cream of the
Territory, and, without doubt, in the future will represent
the great grain-producing section of the United States.
Many people suppose that because this Territory is
near the northern boundary its climate is severe; the
contrary is the case. It is within the limits of the warm
winds which blow from the Pacific coast in the winter.
These winds are called " chinooks," and as long as they
continue, which is often for days at a time, the weather
will be mild and spring-like. The limit of the 1 chi-
nook" winds is three hundred miles east of the mountains,
and within this section all kinds of stock graze at large the
o o
year round. The valleys are protected, and with the high
plains are all richly watered. The slight snows melt immediately after they fall, leaving the ground bare, and it is
very seldom that there is enough snow to allow sleighing.
The rivers, if they close at all, remain frozen but for a few
weeks, the ice invariably going out the last of January or
ll The Garden of Montana.
during February. Signal-service records show that the
temperature in the winter is often higher at Great Falls
than at San Antonio, Texas, or at Memphis, Tennessee.
In the vicinity of Great Falls the climate is especially beneficial to persons with weak lungs, consumption and kindred diseases being almost unknown.
The following table will give a very good idea of the
temperature at Great Falls, which is only a few miles east of
Helena, and if anything is a milder climate than at Helena:
Temperatures for February, 1888, at
7 A.M.  3 P.M.
7 a.m. 3 P.M.
7 A.M.  3 P.M.
February 1
3°    36
30    32
i     2
28    24
28    32
22    32
3°    32
24    30
32    32
20    34
24    20
32    36
6    24
38    40
14    14
46    38
12     0
44    44
16     6
36    42
4    12
44    48
4    18
46    56
16    28
"   i3
40    40
26    42
i   14
42    30
26    16
i   is
28    20
8    16
36    48
14    36
"   17
34    46
28    40 -
40    42
36    42
■   *
34    42
48    46
I   20
34    38
28    24
34    40
18    28
38    46
28    38
1   23
32    44
34    38
i    24
28    40
32    40
i  25
34    38
34    16
i  26
34    44
4     6
34    52
2     6
28      12
10    30
mammmmm n6 California and Alaska.
The farmers begin the work of sowing their crops in
February and March. The summers are not excessively
hot. Harvest commences in August, and fall work is
continued through the months of September, October,
and November. Mild autumn weather lasts into December, thus giving a season of nine or ten months of beauti-
7 o o
ful weather. A notable feature about the climate is the
dryness of the air ; in the winter the mountains can be
easily seen from sixty to one hundred miles away. Wheat
yields from thirty to sixty bushels per acre, oats from fifty
to one hundred and five bushels per acre, barley forty to
seventy bushels, timothy from one and a half to three tons
per acre, and other grains in proportion. Timber grows
freely along the rivers ; saw-mills, tanneries, flouring-mills,
and mechanics' shops are in active and profitable operation ; so that, with a climate almost as favorable as that of
Colorado, and a soil more fertile, and an industry similarly diversified, Montana seems sure to occupy an important place in the commercial future of the Great West.
The Great Falls of the Missouri, from which the town
of Great Falls takes its name, are esteemed by travellers
as holding rank scarcely below the cataracts of Niagara.
Beyond Council Bluffs commences a country of great
interest and grandeur, called the Upper Missouri; buffalo, elk, and mountain sheep abound. Lewis and Clark,
and other travellers, relate having seen here larg-e and
7 o o
singular petrifactions, both animal and vegetable. On
the top of a hill they found a petrified skeleton of a huge
fish, forty-five feet in length. Navigation is very dangerous, on account of the swift current, the countless islands Great Falls of the Missouri River,
Moittana. § m-vl "1 lift
1 II
kith The Garden of Montana
and sand-bars, and the murderous " snags " and " sawyers."
A " snag " is a tree which, when washed away from the
bank, floats into the stream, and then partially sinks ; the
roots become fastened in the bottom, and then the sharp
stems, rising nearly to and above the surface of the water,
are the fatal snags that almost instantly sink any steamer
striking them. They always lie with their sharp ends
pointing down the stream, and consequently are dangerous principally to ascending steamers. When a steamer
is descending the stream, it slides over them, instead of
being impaled. They are then known as " sawyers," if
they project above the water, the current giving them
a waving motion. At a low stage of water, navigation is
almost impossible.
The Great Falls of the Missouri are also wonderful
considered from a utilitarian point of view, or, in other
words, the amount of water-power which they would be
capable of furnishing,* which, as estimated by a prominent
engineer, would be one million horse-power. It would
seem to be only a question of time when the town of
Great Falls will be another St. Paul or Minneapolis. The
Manitoba road intend building- a line north of Great
Falls, to connect with the Canadian Pacific. CHAPTER XVI.
WE arrived at St. Paul on Sunday morning, May
12th, about half-past seven o'clock, and after
breakfast went at once to the Ryan House.
Soon after our arrival Mr. F. B. Clarke, of the Omaha
road, called upon us ; we had the pleasure of dining with
him, and afterwards spent the evening with Mr. Hill.
After getting comfortably settled in our rooms in the
morning, we took carriages and drove around the city.
Some of our party went to church, and in the afternoon
we took another drive around the town.
The following (Monday) morning, the writer's brother,
Walter, Vice-President; Mr. Flagg, Gen'l Superintendent ;
Mr. Spoor, Division Superintendent; and Mr. Smith,
private secretary, arrived from New York. The morning
was occupied in talking over " Company" matters.
After lunch our whole party went out to Mr. Hill's
farm. While Mrs. Webb and the writer were admiring
the stock on the place, the rest of the party went fishing.
We returned to the city about seven o'clock, in time to
see Walter and his party off to Chicago.    Mr. Smith had
fe j .r V Cow-Boys, Manitoba Railroad. p>m, St5SS i - ■
tk jyllj I  -II From St. Paul to Manitoba
arranged to remain, and accompany us a little way on the
Canadian Pacific, when, with Louis, he intended to take
the train, going home to New York by way of Montreal.
We had expected Mr. Creighton Webb to join us here
and take Louis' place, but for some reason he could not
get away.
Soon after breakfast we all went over to Minneapolis.
On our arrival there we were met by Mr. Thomas Lowry,
who favored us with a pleasant drive over the city, showing us the parks and other places of interest, and taking
us around the suburbs of the city. The writer had been
to Minneapolis many times before, but must confess that
not until this occasion had he ever realized the extent and
beauty of this magnificent city. The saw- and grist-mills
here are numerous and extensive. The Driving Park,
south of the town, is an enclosure of seventy-five acres,
and used for the purpose indicated by its name. Lakes
Harriet and Calhoun also afford delightful drives, while
Lake Minnetonka is twelve miles to the west.
At half-past twelve we returned to St. Paul, and at
once busied ourselves in getting ready to start for Winnipeg. At this point the cars were all cleaned both inside
and out, the trucks and running gear were overhauled,
and a plentiful supply of provisions laid in, "in fact every
preparation was made for our second long trip to the
Pacific coast.
Promptly at three o'clock, with Mr. Mohler, the genial
Assistant General Manager of the Manitoba road, we
started northward. Mr. Hill, Mr. Clarke, and a group of
other friends came down to the station and bade us good- 120
California and Alaska.
by. The ride during the evening on our way north was
exceedingly interesting ; we saw a new part of the road,
and the scenery was somewhat different from what is seen
on the western section. We found the track to be in
excellent condition, and made very good time after we
came out of St.  Paul.
As we entered the park region of Minnesota, we were
continually passing lakes ; it is said that there are ten
thousand of these within an area of one hundred square
miles. These lakes form one of the most inviting and
picturesque features of the State. They are found in
every section, and are annually visited by large numbers
of tourists and sportsmen. Sometimes they are little
ponds a mile in circumference, and again sheets of water
forty or fifty miles in extent. Their shores are charmingly
wooded, and frequently present, fine pictures of cliff and
headland. The waters are pure and transparent, and are
filled with white-fish, trout, pike, pickerel, sucker, perch,
and other finny inhabitants. The largest of these lakes
are the Minnetonka, the Osakis or Spirit Lake, White
Bear, Kandiyohi, Otter Tail, and Mille Lacs.
This is a very fertile wheat country. Romantic stories
of the wonders of the land which now forms the State of
Minnesota were told more than two centuries ago by the
zealous French missionaries, who had, even at that remote
period, pushed their adventures thither; nevertheless,
scarcely twenty years have elapsed since immigration has
earnestly set that way, creating populous towns and cultivated farms along the rivers and valleys before occupied
by the canoe and the wigwam of the savage alone.    Some From St. Paul to Manitoba.
idea of the marvellous growth and development of this
young State may be formed from the fact that during the
past decade the cultivated area of Minnesota has increased
nearly three hundred per cent., the population nearly two
hundred and fifty per cent., and the value of manufactures
about two hundred and fifty per cent.
It seemed quite like home to get back to our train and
spend our evenings in the buffet-car. The kindness and
attention of the Manitoba officials could scarcely be exceeded ; nothing was left undone to make our journey over
their lines thoroughly comfortable and enjoyable. Their
treatment reminded us of the generous hospitality we had
received on the Southern Pacific more than any other experience we had met with since leaving the Pacific coast.
The Manitoba people are certainly to be congratulated
upon having such a superb piece of property, and beyond
a doubt there is a truly wonderful future in store for it.
Persons who are looking- for homes in the West should not
fail to consider carefully the advantages to be derived from
locating on the line of this road in Montana ; we were given
o o
to understand that the company offer extraordinary inducements to settlers.
We passed through Winnipeg early on the morning of
May 15th. Before arriving, the writer had received a telegram from the American consul at that place inviting our
party to stop over at that city and attend a banquet which
it was intended to give in our honor, and, at the same time,
be presented to the Governor of Manitoba. We were
obliged to decline this flattering invitation, as we had arranged to stop at Winnipeg on our homeward journey,
16 II
California and Alaska.
and besides it was the wish of Mr. Van Home that we
should go directly through to the coast and stop at different points on the Canadian Pacific road on our return.
After leaving Winnipeg the country presented the appearance of one broad, level plain—not a prairie, but a
widening of the valleys of the Red and Assiniboine rivers,
which unite at Winnipeg. There were large numbers of
cattle to be seen, and, behind the trees, glimpses of well-
tilled farms with comfortable farm-houses. The farmers
here devote their energies to dairy products and to cattle-
breeding. For nearly one hundred miles we followed the
course of the Assiniboine River, which is marked by a belt
of timber. Between Winnipeg and Brandon the stations
are about eight miles apart, many of them representing
lively and enterprising towns, and at nearly all of them are
large grain elevators. We arrived at Brandon about ten
o'clock on the morning of May 15th, and there bade good-
by to Louis and Mr. Smith.
Brandon has a population of five thousand four hundred, and is a divisional point on the railway. It is the
largest grain market in Manitoba, and the distributing
market for an extensive and well-settled country. It has
five grain elevators, a flouring-mill, and a saw-mill. A railway is being built from Brandon northwest to the Saskatchewan country. At this point, too, the standard time changes
to " mountain time "—i. e., it is one hour slower.
After changing engines, and having the train carefully
examined, we proceeded on our westward journey, passing
through a rolling prairie, and about one hundred miles
from Brandon we entered the Province of Assiniboia. We From St. Paul to Manitoba
saw a great number of ponds and small hills covered with
low brush, where it is said excellent sport can be had in the
wild-fowl season. At Broadview, a pretty place, but a
divisional point dependent upon the railway, we changed
engines again. A short ride from here brought us to the
celebrated Bell farm, which embraces one hundred square
miles of land. The work upon this vast estate is performed with military precision and discipline. The furrows ploughed on this farm are usually four miles in
length ; one furrow out and one back is considered half
a day's work and in the afternoon the same amount of
labor is performed. The cottages on the farm are built of
stone, and barns can be seen for miles around; the large
collection of buildings at the headquarters near the railway
station include a church, a flour-mill, and, of course, a grain
elevator, and it may be said here that in this section an
elevator will be found wherever there is wheat to be handled or stored.
After passing Qu'Appelle we went for eight miles
through a small-timbered country and then entered the
great Regina Plain, which seems to be apparently boundless, extending in all directions ; the soil is very fertile to a
great depth. Regina is the capital of Assiniboia, and the
distributing point for the sections of country lying far north
and south. A railway runs from here northward, and will
soon be extended to Edmonton on the North Saskatchewan. The Executive Council of the Northwest Territories, which embrace the provinces of Assiniboia, Alberta,
Saskatchewan, and Athabasca, meets here. The Lieutenant-Governor's residence is at this place, and in the imme- California and Alaska.
diate neighborhood are the headquarters of the celebrated
Northwest Mounted Police, whose buildings, including
officers' quarters, drill hall, barracks, offices, store-houses,
stables, etc., could be plainly seen from the train. The
Northwest Mounted Police is a military organization numbering one thousand young and picked men, who are stationed over the Northwest, for the purpose of watching
the Indians and preserving order generally. Moose Jaw,
where we changed engines, is another divisional point.
There we saw a number of Indians, encamped on the
banks of the river. The Indian name for this place is
I The-creek -where-the-white - man -mended-the-cart-with-
After leaving Moose Jaw we noticed that the prairie
was well marked in all directions with old buffalo-trails,
and here and there the old wallows. This section was
once the home of the buffalo ; we say was, for their number
is rapidly decreasing. Not one was visible, for they
quickly leave the land which is traversed by the train.
Once, however, this country was blackened by their hordes
as they wandered over it at their will, or marched from
one feeding-ground to another. In making this remark
we may say that they do not run in a mob as represented
in some pictures, but move in single file, like policemen.
We crossed hundreds of their deeply worn tracks leading
straight away into the distance, and surely indicating that
the slopes of the Rockies are fitted for the purpose to
which they are being applied by the settler, viz., the rearing
and feeding of cattle.
On this day we ran very fast, and by half-past seven
o'clock had covered five hundred and ten miles, arriving at I
View of Narrows, Biscotasing Lake. It; Sir
■ m
m if 111 From St. Paul to Manitoba.
Swift Current, a divisional point, where we changed en-
gines. The country was exceedingly picturesque and much
more thickly settled than we had been led to anticipate.
While riding in the baggage-car we saw an antelope, at
which we had four or five unsuccessful shots ; we also saw
a bear and a number of wolves. Rush Lake is a favorite
resort for water-fowl, swans, geese, duck, and pelican,
which at times are seen here in countless numbers. Snipe,
plover, and curlew, which are common enough upon the
prairies, are found here in great abundance.
We changed engines at Medicine Hat, situated on the
Saskatchewan River, which is spanned by a fine steel bridge.
There are large repair-shops located at this place, which is
a very important station on the line, and not far away are
largfe coal-mines.    The river is navigable  for some dis-
o o
tance above, and for eight hundred miles below. From
Medicine Hat the ground creeps up towards the Rocky
About thirty-five miles from Medicine Hat is a small
station called Langevin. When they were building the
railroad here they wanted water, and after boring over a
thousand feet, hoping to make an artesian well, the search
for water was repaid by fire. At least, one day, the borers,
holding a candle or striking- a match close to the hole, were
thrust back by a fountain of flame, which licked up the
house in which their engine was at work, and there stood
a pillar of fire in the midst of the green prairie. They had
then reached a depth of nearly eleven hundred feet, and,
passing through the huge coal-bed which lies beneath, had
probably struck a fissure. At all events, up rushed the
gas, which, becoming ignited, soon consumed their solitary
I \w\
126 California and Alaska.
shelter. Presently, however, after some pains, the hole
through which it issued was plugged and fitted with an
iron pipe, governed by a tap. This natural gas is now
used by the railroad company to pump water for the
engines. The prairie at this point in August is said to
present a very fine appearance, resembling, at times, a
billowy ocean of grass.
We arrived at Gleichen, a railway divisional point,
near the foot of the Rockies, on the 16th of May, at about
half-past two in the morning. We stopped there until
four o'clock to see the sun rise on the prairie, and it was
one of the most imposing spectacles we had ever witnessed.
As the orb of day rose over the horizon it appeared to be
one mass of fire, while the moon was shining in the sky in
the opposite direction. The mountains at first were invisible, but as the sun gradually came into view the reflection of its bright-red rays was thrown upon the snowy
peaks of the Rockies in the distance. A few hours after
we had witnessed this sig-ht the mountains began to be
visible ; although we had crossed the continent twice in
the preceding five weeks, it seemed as if this was the first
view we had really had of the Rocky Mountains. Shortly
after leaving Gleichen we came to Calgary, very charmingly located on the banks of the Bow River, and surrounded by most excellent farming lands. This is the
most important, as well as the handsomest, town between
Brandon and Vancouver, and is situated on a hill-girt
plateau, overlooked by the white peaks of the Rockies ; it
is the centre of the trade of the great ranching country,
and the chief source of supply for the mining districts in The Rear of the Special Train at Field. m
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ii View of Special Train m
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I   il 1 From St. Paul to Manitoba.
the mountains beyond. The Hudson Bay Company have
here an important post, and it is one of the principal stations of the Northwest Mounted Police. Lumber is easily
obtainable here, as it is floated down the Bow River from
Banff. Parties going into the extreme Northwest leave
the train here, and after travelling from three to four
hundred miles into the interior they find the largest and
best horse-ranches in existence. One of eleven farms belonging to Sir John Lister Kaye is located at Calgary. Sir
John married Miss Yznaga, of New York. As we passed
through Calgary we saw his car standing on a side-track,
he having recently come over on a visit from the other
side. His eleven farms are located along the line of the
road between Brandon and Calgary; there are ten thousand acres in each of them, and they are all situated near
towns, or the nucleus of towns, and will eventually be exceedingly valuable. The land originally cost a large
English stock company, which Sir John represents, about
$3 an acre. It is only a question of time before it will be
worth from $20 to $25 an acre for farming purposes alone;
much of this property would bring that price to-day, owin
to its proximity to growing towns. Sir John visits the
farms twice a year and overlooks the worl
After leaving Calgary and crossing the Bow, we ran
through large ranches, and immense herds of horses and
OO '
cattle were to be seen on every side. At Morley, a station
near the mountains, we stopped for about five minutes at
a trader's store and picked out a number of horns, heads,
etc., and a beautiful grizzly-bear skin. At Kananaskis the
mountains appeared to be close at hand, and we entered i28 California and Alaska.
the gap or pass through which the Bow River runs, and
which we were to pass through, and soon crossed the
Rockies. The scenery at this stage of the journey was
grand and impressive. Above us, on both sides, we saw
vertical walls rising to a dizzy height, snow-laden, seared
and scarred by enormous gorges and promontories. At
Can more we changed engines, and here had an excellent
O O '
view of the mountain, representing in profile what are
called the 1 Three Sisters." Following the Bow River we
entered the Canadian National Park. We hauled up on a
side-track and waited for the transcontinental train for
the East to pass. The weather being quite warm, we took
the children out for an airing ; some of the party amused
themselves by firing at a mark, while others made use of
their fishing-rods in Bow River.
The ride from here on through the mountains was
grand beyond description. Each mountain as it loomed
up into view seemed grander and more imposing than the
last. The scenery in this part of the country is certainly
more magnificent than any thing we had dreamed of. As
we neared the summit, an altitude of five thousand three
hundred feet above the sea, Castle Mountain was seen
ahead, a sheer precipice five thousand feet high, surmounted
with turrets, bastions, and battlements complete, and partly
snow-capped. At the summit we passed by a small lake
called Summit Lake, in which were vividly reflected the
surrounding mountains. About half a mile east of this point,
the water, as it trickled down the mountain side and entered
the ditch on the side of the.road, could be seen to divide,
part running to the east and part to the west.    From here Ui
Mount Stephen, Canadian Pacific
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II 111
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■n<l View of Special Tram at Field, Showing
Mt. Field in the Distance. If
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■ 111
i < i
»—^m-i^   From St. Paul to Manitoba.
our descent was rapid, as we crossed the deep gorge of the
Kicking Horse. Here the scenery is sublime, even terrible.
Looking off to the north you behold one of the grandest
mountain valleys in the world, stretching far away in the
distance, with great white, glacier-bound peaks on either
side. On the left of the track you see the double head of
Mount Stephen, eight thousand feet above the valley,
and get an occasional glimpse of Cathedral Mountain.
The grade from the summit is so steep and perilous at
this point that a heavy consolidation engine was put on
ahead of our locomotive, and we were taken down at
a speed of not over ten miles an hour. Every mile or so
there is a switch to a track leading up the mountain side ;
in case any thing should occur to make the train unmanageable, a switchman stands ready to open the switch,
stop the train in its downward course, and send it up-hill,
where it would soon stop. At Field, at the foot of Mount
Stephen, is an excellent hotel managed by the railway
company. It is a favorite stopping-place for sportsmen.
Rocky Mountain sheep, goat, and grizzly bears are to be
found in large numbers in these mountains. We remained
here a few moments, and the writer took a view of our
train, with Mount Field in the distance; an attempt was
made to take it with Mount Stephen in the distance, but
the latter acclivity was too high.
Leaving- Field we crossed the Otter Tail River, then
the Beaverfoot at the left. The Otter Tail Mountains rise
abruptly to an immense height, while to the south, to an
immeasurable distance, the Beaverfoot Mountains can be
seen. The river and railway here enter the Kicking Horse
VV ran
California and Alaska.
Canyon, which rapidly deepens, the walls, an easy stone's
throw from either side, rising vertically thousands of feet.
The railway runs for twelve miles down this grand chasm,
now crossing over to ledges cut out of the solid rock,
twisting and turning in every direction, while towering
cliffs almost shut out the sunlight, and the roar of the
river and cars is increased a hundred-fold by the echoing
walls, until the train, running out into a valley, suddenly
emerges into daylight.
(I Ii
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I Lower  Kickinp-Horse   Canyon,
near Golden.
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■Ilk Canadian Pacific Railway Station and
Mount Donald Glacier. fftf n
K)   STO&sACi   ^SflSSW&jV   ^piSrY   $&$«WSM
I 111
Mwlni'  rait Ml
I 111
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FTER we passed through the Kicking Horse
Canyon and entered the valley we saw before us
the Columbia River, a stream of great width,
moving northward, and obtained our first glimpse of the
celebrated and long-looked-for Selkirks, which had so often
been the subject of our conversation, and which we had
long been anxious to see. Our expectations in regard to
their grandeur were not to be disappointed, for on the day
we saw them they presented a noble appearance, as they
seemed to rise from their forest-clad bases, and lifted their
ice-capped heads high into the sky above. In form they
are simply incomparable, and as they stood there in their
matchless majesty, bathed in the glow and warmth of the
afternoon sun, they called forth expressions of the highest
admiration from every member of the party.
The Canadian Pacific Railway is divided into four
divisions, the Eastern, the Ontario and Atlantic, the
Western, and the Pacific. At Donald, which is the beginning   of   the    Pacific   Division,   we   changed   engines
o o
131 i-
&  I
1. I
|i < 11
ft     (HI8f
California and Alaska.
and had the pleasure of meeting Mr. Marpole, the Division
Superintendent of the road. Here, too, we were compelled
to bid good-by to our friend Mr. Niblock, who had accompanied our party from Swift Current, and had kindly given
us details and descriptions of the scenes through which we
had passed, and which, in some measure, and it is feared
but imperfectly, have been transferred to these pages.
Donald is charmingly situated on the Columbia River,
within the very shadow of the Selkirks. The headquarters of the mountain division is located here, with the
repair shops, etc. At this point the traveller changes to
I Pacific time "—the time goes back one hour.
Leaving Donald we crossed the Columbia River and
entered the Selkirks, going up Beaver River and crossing
it on the right side of the mountain. The ascent was
commenced at Bear Creek, one thousand feet above
Beaver River. At this point a magnificent view is had of
Beaver Valley, which extends off to the south until it is
finally lost in the mountains. From here a long line of
the higher peaks of the Selkirks is seen, culminating
in that lofty mountain, Sir Donald. The railroad here
ascends the banks of Bear Creek at a grade of one
hundred and sixteen feet to the mile. The construction
of this part of the road is a triumph of engineering skill ;
many narrow gorges in the mountain side, the pathways
of avalanches, had to have the bridges over them protected. The most noticeable of these bridges was the
Stony Creek bridge, the highest structure of the kind in
the world, the distance below the rails being two hundred
and ninety-five feet.    We found, upon inquiry, that the Mount Donald, from  Tote Road. fl I
I 111 I'
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Jim i  I »fffi s,
Stony Creek Bridge—Height, 296 feet,
Canadian Pacific Railway.
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II 111
a great difficulties of the railway company from snow in
the winter season occur from Bear Creek and the Summit
and a similar distance down on the other side. These
bridges are protected by heavy logs, built in the shape of
angular piers, and so placed in the gorge as to break the
slide of snow and subdivide it; in that way its force- is
lessened, and it is guided away under the bridges. The
snow-sheds, which we entered not far from here, cost the
company over $3,000,000. They are open on the side for
the purpose of admitting the light, and are completely
equipped with hose, etc., to be used in case of fire, and are
guarded by men day and night. These sheds are built of
heavy squared cedar timber, dove-tailed and bolted together, backed with rock, and fitted into the mountain side
in such a manner as to bid defiance to the most terrific
As we ascend the mountain, Bear Creek is graduallv
1 O J
compressed, by Mount Macdonald on the left and the
Hermit on the right, into one narrow deep ravine, which
forms a contracted portal to Rogers' Pass at the summit.
As our train emerged from the snow-sheds, Mount Macdonald was seen towering a mile and a quarter above the
railway to an almost vertical height, its numberless pinnacles piercing the very zenith. As Mr. Van Home says
in describing the scene : " Its base is but a stone's throw
distant, and it is so sheer, so bare and stupendous, and
yet so near, that one is overawed by a sense of immensity
and mighty grandeur. This is the climax of mountain
scenery. In passing before the face of this gigantic precipice, the line clings to the base of Hermit Mountain, and,
'it I PpIw
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'• d l!ll
!' ] i > I
134 California and Alaska.
as the station at Rogers' Pass is neared, its clustered
spires appear, facing those of Mount Macdonald, and
nearly as high. These two matchless mountains were
once apparently united, but some great convulsion of
nature has split them asunder, leaving barely room for
the railway."
This pass was named after Major A. B. Rogers, by
whose adventurous energy it was discovered in 1883 ; previous to that time no human foot had ever been planted
on the summit of this great central range. The pass lies
between two lines of huge snow-clad peaks. The pass
on the north side forms a prodigious amphitheatre, under
whose parapet, seven or eight thousand feet above the
valley, half a dozen glaciers may be seen at once, and so
near that their shining green fissures are distinctly visible.
The changing effects of light and shadow on this brotherhood of peaks, of which The Hermit and Macdonald are
the chiefs, can never be forgotten by the fortunate traveller who has seen the sunset or the sunrise tinting their
battlements, or has looked up from the green valley at
a snow-storm, trailing its white curtain along their crests,
with perchance a snowy peak or two standing serene
above the harmless cloud. The line of peaks connecting
Macdonald with Sir Donald stretches to the south, their
rear slopes having been visible in ascending the Beaver.
This pass-valley has been reserved by the government as
a national park.
Leaving Selkirk Summit, the road commences to descend the mountains, and off to the right is seen, for many
miles far below, the deep valley of the Illicilliwaet, which I*-
Great Glacier, Canadian Pacific Railway
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Glacier Hotel and Mountain V   m ., J -
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lb Mountains and Gorges
makes its way westward, following a devious course through
the mountains. The line of the railroad can easily be
traced, until it finally reaches the bottom of the valley by
a series of extraordinary curves, doubling upon itself again
and again.    Some views of this portion of the road are
Directly ahead is seen the Great Glacier of the Selkirks, a vast plateau of sloping ice, extending as far into
the mountains as the eye can reach. It is claimed by the
Pacific Railway people that this glacier is as large as all
the glaciers in Switzerland combined.
We passed in front of the snow-sheds on an outer
track, which is provided so that travellers may view the
scenery in summer, and arrived at Glacier Station ; an
illustration of the snow-sheds and the summer track is
given herewith. The train remained at the station about
half an hour, and, as we did not have time enough to visit
the Great Glacier, our party all left the train and took a
stroll in the woods. The hotel here is a very handsome
building, after the Swiss chalet style, and is owned and
managed by the railroad company. It serves not only
as a dining-room for passengers, but also as a pleasant
summer resort for sportsmen and tourists. Owing to the
heavy grades here, and all through the mountains, the
dining-cars are not run on the through trains, as they
make the trains too heavy ; but the railroad company have
provided, at proper distances and at the most interesting
and convenient places where the scenery is the finest,
comfortable hotels, where passengers are able to get an
excellent  dinner,   the  trains   stopping  at  such  stations between one half and three quarters of an hour. Passengers are also allowed to remain two or three days at
a station, or lie over for a train. The Great Glacier is
about half a mile distant from the hotel, and only a
hundred feet above the level of the building ; a good path
has been made to it, so that its exploration is quite practicable and easy. The water for the fountain in front of
the hotel is furnished by piping a stream coming out from
the Great Glacier. This stream also furnishes water for
the hotel and railroad. The agent of the hotel informed
us that game is very abundant in the mountains near by,
the locality being especially celebrated for the big-horn
sheep or mountain goat ; Canada bears are also killed
here during the season. Elk, deer, and other game, however, are not found at quite such high altitudes. Views
of our special train at this station, together with views of
the depot, Great Glacier, Mount Hermit, and the valley
Delow, are given on other pages. A tame Canada bear
was chained to the piazza of the hotel ; he had been
caught in the mountains five months before we saw him,
and his antics furnished considerable amusement to passengers during their stop at the station.
Leaving the Glacier House, the road makes a rapid
descent to the celebrated loop of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. The line makes several startling curves and
twists, crosses the valley, then doubles back to the right a
* O
mile or more to within a stone's throw of the track, then,
sweeping around, crosses the valley again, and at last continues down the dell parallel with its former course. On
looking back, the railroad track is seen on the mountain
— Sailor Bar Bluff, below Spuzzum,
Canadian Pacific Railway.
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Top View, Sailor Bar Bluff. Ml
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IfcA W Mountains and Gorges
side, cutting two long parallel gashes in the mountain, one
above the other; far to the left, and still hiofier above on
the other side of the valley, is seen the giant snow-shed,
just below the summit near Rogers' Pass.
At Illicilliwaet we crossed for the first time the Illicil-
liwaet River. The stream is very small here, but the
water is exceedingly turbulent and of a pea-green color,
caused by glacial mud, but it rapidly clarifies ; its source is
said to be in the interior of the Great Glacier. The
scenery is very wild, as the gorge through which the
river runs is very deep at places, and filled with the
gigantic forest-trees for which British Columbia is justly
noted.    At Albert Canyon the train often runs along the
brink of several remarkably deep fissures in the solid rock,
the walls of which, on each side, rise to a height of one
hundred feet, and at the top are very heavily wooded.
The river is fully three hundred feet below the railway, and
is compressed into a boiling flume not more than twenty
feet wide. We had our train stop here for a few minutes,
while we walked up and down the track viewing this truly
remarkable freak of nature. The depth of the water must
be very great, as the gorge through which it flows is very
narrow and the volume of water flowing through it is
At Revelstoke, a railway divisional point on the
Columbia River, we changed engines. We had seen the
Columbia River on the other side of the Selkirks at
Donald ; since then it had made a detour around the
northern extremity of the Selkirks, while the course of the
railroad is directly across the mountains.    At this point
J California and Alaska.
the river is not only larger, but is one thousand and fifty
feet lower down, than at Donald. From this point it is
navigable southward some two hundred miles, down to the
United States boundary, where it expands into a number
of lakes, around which there is said to be a beautiful and
fertile country, where opportunities for sport are also unlimited. According to the railway officials this country
has been rarely visited by sportsmen ; miners are about
the only people who have ever penetrated its unknown
recesses. Kootenay Lake and Valley are both reached
from this point.
After leaving Revelstoke we crossed the Columbia
River upon a bridge about half a mile long, and entered
another range of mountains by Eagle Pass. The railway
officials call particular attention to this pass, which is so
deep-cut and direct that it seems to have been purposely
provided for the railway in compensation, perhaps, for the
enormous difficulties the engineers had to overcome in the
Rockies and the Selkirks. The highest point the railway
is compelled to reach in crossing this range is only five
hundred and twenty-five feet above the Columbia. At
the summit four beautiful lakes are passed in quick succession, each one occupying the entire width of the valley
and forcing the railway on the mountain side in order to
pass them. This valley is filled with a dense growth of
immense trees, indigenous to this coast—spruce, Douglas
fir, hemlock, cedar, balsam, and many other varieties.
At Craigellachie, twenty-eight miles from Revelstoke,
the last spike was driven in the Canadian Pacific Railway
on the 7th of November, 1885, the railroads from the east
and west meeting here.    At Sicamous,  situated on the J
Interior of Snow-Shed, Canadian Pacific
Railway.  Wmmn
fo Hermit   Range,   from   Hotel,    Showing
Canadian Pacific Railway Station.
m i' 1
» i
f I
,M  Mountains and Gorges.
great Shuswap lakes, we reached what is said to be the
centre of one of the best sporting regions on the Canadian
Pacific line. Northward, within a day's journey, caribou
are said to be very abundant. Within thirty miles to the
south the deer-shooting is probably unequalled on this
continent, and the lakes are celebrated for their large trout.
The London Times has well described this part of the
line : " The Eagle River leads us down to the Great Shuswap Lake, so named from the Indian tribe that lived on
its banks, and who still have a ' reserve ' there. This is a
most remarkable body of water. It lies among the mountain ridges, and consequently extends its long narrow arms
along the intervening valleys like a huge octopus in half-
a-dozen directions. These arms are many miles long, and
vary from a few hundred yards to two or three miles in
breadth, and their high, bold shores, fringed by the little
narrow beach of sand and pebbles, with alternating bays
and capes, give beautiful views. The railway crosses one
of these arms by a drawbridge at Sicamous Narrows, and
then goes for a long distance along the southern shores of
the lake, running entirely around the end of the Salmon
arm." Sicamous is the station for the Spallumsheen
mining district and other regions up the river and around
Okanagan Lake, where there is a large settlement; steamboats ascend the river thirty miles, and a railway is proposed. " For fifty miles the line winds in and out the
bending shores, while geese and ducks fly over the waters,
and light and shadow play upon the opposite banks. This
lake, with its bordering slopes, gives a fine reminder of
Scottish scenery. The railway in getting around it leads
at different and many times towards every   one of  the Mi
llr5     III',
I ill L
140 California and Alaska.
thirty-two points of the compass. Leaving the Salmon
arm of the lake rather than go a circuitous course around
the mountains to reach the southwestern arm, the line
strikes through the forest over the top of the intervening
ridge [Notch Hill]. We come out at some 600 feet elevation above this ' arm,' and get a magnificent view across
the lake, its winding shores on both sides of the long and
narrow sheet of water stretching far on either hand, with
high mountain ridges for the opposite background. The
line gradually runs downhill until it reaches the level of
the water, but here it has passed the lake, which has narrowed into, the [south branch of the] Thompson River.
Then the valley broadens, and the eye, that has been so
accustomed to rocks and roughness and the uninhabited
desolation of the mountains, is gladdened by the sight of
grass, fenced fields, growing crops, hay-stacks, and good
farm-houses on the level surface, while herds of cattle,
sheep, and horses roam over the valley and bordering hills
in large numbers. This is a ranching country, extending
far into the mountain valleys west of the Gold Range on
both sides of the railway, and is one of the garden spots
of British Columbia. . . . The people are comparatively old settlers, having come in from the Pacific coast,
and it does one's heart good, after having passed the rude
little cabins and huts of the plains and mountains, to see
their neat and trim cottages, with the evidences of thrift
that are all around,"
Many of our party compared the scenery around Shu-
swap Lake to the country about Lake George, but the
landscape in the former locality is on a very much larger
and grander scale. Supply or Tote Road,  near Spanish
L  1
w  1^
.} i
Mountain    Creek   Bridge,    Containing
1,300,000 feet Timber, Canadian
Pacific Railway. f
If i
(  f I
7 ;1
t h a
j • \ym
WE remained at Kamloops one night, that being
a divisional point, and after changing engines
early in the morning, we started for Vancouver.
Kamloops now has a population of about one thousand. It was settled years ago as a Hudson Bay post,
and is the principal town in the Thompson River Valley,
and the largest that the traveller passes through until
he arrives at Vancouver. The Thompson River is seen
here; many steamboats ply up and down the stream, and
we noticed a number of saw-mills along the shore. The
Chinese are largely employed here to do the rougher sort
of work.    The grazing on  the hills  in the background
O O <J
is said to be very fine. Cattle are left out-of-doors all
winter, the climate being very much milder than it is two
or three hundred miles westward. Kamloops is the supply
point for the large ranching and mineral country to the
south, which is reached by stage lines running semi-weekly
from the town into the districts beyond.
Just after leaving Kamloops the river widens and forms
Kamloops Lake.    The railroad crosses to the southern
m I
142 California and Alaska.
\! I
f i
shore, now entering a tunnel, now passing over a trestle,
in a way to remind the traveller very much of the Delaware and Hudson road on the west shore of Lake Cham-
plain. As the lake narrows into the river the railroad
enters a series of tunnels. From this point to Port
Moody on the Pacific coast the road was built by the
Dominion Government and transferred to the railway
company in 1886. While the road-bed of this section is
very well built, the sides and slopes of the same are not
fully protected, and the company are constantly troubled
with landslides from above, and the sinking of the track
from below, owing to the " quicksandy " nature of the soil.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company claim a million
dollars or more from the government in order to make
this portion of the road equal to the rest of their line. It
certainly did appear to our party as a very inferior kind of
work compared with what we had seen on the part of the
line we had travelled over. The scenery on this portion
of the road and along the Thompson River is at first very
wild and picturesque, but soon becomes exceedingly uninteresting. There is very little vegetation to be seen on
either side of the river—nothing, in fact, but round-topped,
treeless, and water-cut hills, the color of which varies from
the richest yellow to a reddish-gray, or iron-ore, with here
and there a few masses of olive-green color, caused by the
scanty vegetation. Shortly after leaving Kamloops Lake,
as the train went round a curve, where the bank overhung
the track, and we were all standing on the platform, we
were suddenly startled by a large bird which alighted near
to us, and settled on the railing of the platform.   We were
mi*: ■^
Forest   Trees,   English  Bay,   Vancouver
■ **?&&>
W  iTfSrl
l fij ft
! dnffl
fl   1
rill I
J y
■ *.-                       j
mi   i'
ill          i
' From Kamloops to Vancouver.
so surprised that, for a few moments, we did not realize
what it was ; it proved to be a large partridge. Had
any of us been quick enough we might have caught it
without any trouble; as it was, when we attempted to
catch it, it flew off into the brush. We stopped the train
and getting our shot-guns started in pursuit, thinking that
there might be other game in the neighborhood, which
would have proved a very palatable addition to our larder.
We had no success, however, though the little incident
afforded us considerable diversion.
At Lytton, at the confluence of the Thompson and
Fraser rivers, the scenery is very grand. Six miles below
here our train crossed the Fraser River, a steel cantilever
bridge being at that point. The scenery here became
wilder as the gorge deepened and the size of the river
increased. The banks were steep and rugged, their tops
covered with a dense growth of trees. The old government road continues along the Fraser River, twisting
and turning about, now passing under the railroad,
then along by its side, sometimes many hundred feet
above the road until, at Cisco, it is forced to the height
of over one thousand feet above the river. It is said
that the width of the road here is not sufficient to
allow two teams to pass, and that it is held in place by
iron rods, or bridge-trusses, inserted in the mountain
Mr. Marpole informed us that it was not uncommon to
see Indians on the projecting rocks down at the water's
edge spearing salmon, or capturing them with scoop-nets;
the salmon are dried on  poles  and sold to Chinamen. fflli'ffl
144 California and Alaska.
Along the river on the sandy channel piers Chinamen and
Indians are occasionally seen washing for gold, and many
of the inhabitants on the banks of the stream gain their
subsistence from what little gold they find in washing the
gravel. They are a lazy, thriftless class of people, washing
for gold two or three days in the week, and living on the
proceeds for the remainder of the time.
This road was originally built by the government of
Columbia for the convenience of miners above Lytton,
where enormous quantities of gold were originally taken
out by washing. At North Bend we stopped to change
engines, and all the party got off the train and visited the
hotel, which is owned by the railroad company ; here we
saw another tame brown Canadian bear, which afforded
the children great amusement. During the day we
stopped the train at many points along the Fraser River,
where the line crosses large canyons, on trestles. The
scenery from North Bend to Yale, twenty-six miles, has
been described as not only intensely interesting, but startling, even " ferocious." The volume of water in the river
being so large, and the walls at the sides coming out close
together, the stream is compressed into a roaring torrent.
At Spuzzum the government road crosses the chasm by a
suspension bridge, at the side of the railway bridge, and
keeps close to it all the way to Yale. Here the railroad
runs through a series of five or six tunnels. It should be
stated that this government road has been rendered almost
absolutely valueless for wagons, from the fact that, wherever the railroad crosses it, no means have been provided
for passing the road, either above or around the railway ;
I fv Mm
'^S'1  Jt Roadway in Stanley Park, Vancouver. ¥
II: ii
i-*.t^\: \*»\ \* haP    «**
r>\\t\c\S\  !     j'
I rill
——• From Kamloops to Vancouver.
pack-trains can now cross, but they are compelled to climb
steep trails in order to get around these places.
Yale is at the head of navigation on the Fraser River.
At New Westminster Junction there is a branch line to
the important town of New Westminster, a town of some
five thousand inhabitants, on the Fraser River, about eight
miles distant. When we passed through here, this road
was being constructed to Seattle, and it was expected that
before long through connection by rail could be had with
that town.
We reached Port Moody, at the head of Burrard Inlet,
about two o'clock on the afternoon of May 17th. At one
time this was the last station of the railroad, and, on that
account, was quite a settlement; but it is now very much
dilapidated and run down, owing to the terminus having
been removed to Vancouver. As the railroad sweeps
down here to the shore, we could once more see the
Pacific coast and salt water, an outlook which was truly
refreshing after such a continuous stretch of mountain
scenery. Snow-tipped mountains were to be seen on the
opposite side of the inlet, beautiful in outline and color,
especially so on the afternoon when we saw them in the
sunlight. Here and there, at intervals, on the opposite
coast, saw-mills and villages were to be seen. At one or
two of the villages there were ocean steam-ships at the
wharves being loaded with the celebrated Douglas fir,
which is sent to all parts of the world. These trees are
found twenty, thirty, and even forty feet in circumference.
Our speed on this particular day was necessarily slow,
owing to the fact that this section of the road is considered
I ,
California and Alaska.
very dangerous, and is about the only part on which any
accidents ever occur; at one moment the road-bed overhangs a river, on trestle-work or embankment, and the
next moment enters a short tunnel, only to reappear again
on another trestle.
After our arrival at Vancouver, Mr. Harry Abbott,
the General Superintendent of the western end of the
road, called upon us with his wife, and extended to us
the courtesies of the road at this terminus.
On the morning after our arrival we took a carriage
and drove over the town, going through the new park,
which promises some day to be one of the wonders of the
coast.    The  trees here are enormous,  and  the growth
might be called a primeval forest, which it really is, with
the underbrush taken out.
Vancouver, the Pacific terminus of the railway, is comparatively a new town, and reminds one of the growth
of such Western towns as Duluth or Great Falls. Until
May, 1886, its present site was covered with a dense
forest. The following July a severe fire swept away every
house in the place but one ; all the buildings now standing
have been erected since that date. The hotels, business
blocks, and residences are of the most approved architecture, and would be a credit to any city in the United
States. Large and extensive wharves have been built by
the railroad company and private corporations, and the
town promises to develop into one of the future cities of
the Pacific coast. The paved streets are well laid out, and
lighted with electricity. A plentiful supply of pure water
is brought through large pipes, laid across the harbor,
from a spring in the mountains on the other side of the
II Vancouver, from Canadian Pacific Railway Docks. I
hc tecmn
I II in
HI 4	   /
i   Ji
\i\ From Kamloops to Vancouver.
sound. I The country to the south of Vancouver has many
fine farms, and is said to be well adapted to fruit-growing.
Many parties remain here for the shooting and fishing
o o'
both of which are excellent, and can be had by making
short excursions into the mountains towards the north.
A regular line of steamers leaves Vancouver every day for
Victoria, fortnightly for Japan, Yokohama, and Hong
Kong, and twice a week for Seattle, Tacoma, and other
Puget Sound ports. The city is beautifully located on a
slight eminence, overlooking the sound, with Burrard
Inlet on the north.
About one o'clock on the afternoon of May 18th, the
Islander, which had been engaged for our party, steamed
into the harbor, having just come from Victoria in the
morning. This vessel was a twin propeller boat, two
hundred and forty feet in length, forty-two feet beam,
and sixteen feet draught, with tremendous power, and
was capable of making about nineteen miles an hour.
Captain John Irving, the manager of the line, had
charge of the vessel, and our pilot for Alaskan waters
was the veteran Captain Carroll, the most celebrated
pilot on the Pacific coast, who was one of the pioneers, and had made one hundred and seventy trips to
Alaska. He had become very wealthy, and was largely interested in mines, etc. We had also a very old pilot, an
employe of the steamship company; from the nautical
point of view we considered ourselves very well provided for. The accommodations for passengers were
ample; the boat had about one hundred state-rooms, the
manager's room being large and roomy, and the other
apartments very comfortable. Km Wll
i? s I
148 California and Alaska.
The greater part of the afternoon was occupied in
placing our baggage aboard and in getting thoroughly and
comfortably settled. About half-past four o'clock we cast
off from the wharf and started on our trip to Alaska. The
weather was all that could be desired, neither too warm nor
too cold, bright and sunny, and a fair omen of the journey
we were about to make.
We took the cooks and stewards with us, and left the
rest of the crew on the train. The weather was so fine that
we were able to sit on the upper deck until dinner-time,
and at ten o'clock at night it was light enough for us to
read a newspaper on deck. The view of Mount Baker,
with its snow-capped peak, in the distance about sunset,
was magnificent.  TA
Wnm Fl  LfclL  H
lull I
^A 'W&fc \35^i  \^^\r\  WM
/ -
,4 ill
ON the night of the 18th we sailed through Discovery Passage, where at places there is hardly
room for two steamers to pass each other, and
mountains rise up abruptly on each side. At half-past
nine on the morning of the 19th we reached Alert Bay,
and from there steamed on northward, passing the north
end of Vancouver Island, out into Queen Charlotte Sound.
Although the wind was blowing lightly at the time there
was quite a heavy swell; it took us only two hours, however, to go across. We then entered Fitzhugh Sound,
passing Calvert Island and Hunt Islands. On reaching
the end of the channel we left Burke Channel on our
right, and went through the Lama Passage, passing between Campbell and Lendenny Islands, where the scenery
was very fine.
About a quarter before six we arrived at Bella Bella
and anchored for the night; this is a small fishing village
on Campbell Island. The scenery here was remarkably
grand and bold, the passage, in many places, not being
an eighth of a mile wide, though the water reaches a depth
11, i5o
California and Alaska.
of from one hundred and thirty-one to one hundred and
fifty fathoms. After supper one of the quarter boats
was lowered and Dr. McLane, with two or three of our
party, went ashore to call on the agent of the Hudson Bay
Company and the missionary. We found that the agent
was absent at Vancouver and the missionary was making
a visit to the interior. Bella Bella consists of some forty
or fifty log-huts occupied by Indians, who gain their subsistence principally by fishing. We were informed that
most of the male inhabitants were at work at the canneries, and there were not over five or six men remaining
in the village. The accompanying picture of Bella Bella
was taken about nine o'clock in the evening; the Hudson
Bay Company's store is shown on the left, and the church
and the missionary's house on the right.
While crossing Milbank Sound the next morning, we
felt the motion of the sea quite considerably. It commenced raining in the morning and rained nearly all day.
Passing north of Milbank Sound we took the western
passage between Swindle and Cone Islands, passing
nearly through Tolmine Channel, Graham Reach, Fraser
Reach, leaving Princess Royal Island on our left. Nearly
all the morning, on our right, we passed large water passages, or reaches, up which we could look many miles and
see that they were lined on either side by very high and
precipitous mountains, perhaps not a quarter of a mile
apart. All the information the captain could give us
about these narrow waters was that they were unexplored, and there was no telling how far inland they
might extend. Bella Bella, Alaska.
I 11
feou^ og. the^r^ig]
mm <M¥§bH»wi
.-..?._rr,.,_ -™-^ --^   -^-^      -: >v;r.i
stliidl    -as&mg  rffl In Alaskan Waters.
Passing through McKay Reach, we entered Wright
Sound. On our right were Douglas Channel and Verney
Passage ; both these waters have been somewhat explored,
and extend for many miles back into the country. The
mountains on both sides of these passages are, according
to the government chart, from three to five thousand
feet high, but, in point of fact, many of these waters have
not been explored to any great distance.
Sailing from Wright Sound and going north, we passed
through Grenville Channel, leaving Pitt Island on our
left and the Countess of Dufferin range of mountains on
our right. The mountains on each side of this channel
are about three thousand feet high, and are very heavily
timbered with evergreens. The scenery was picturesque
in the extreme.
In the afternoon we passed through the Arthur Passage
(Kennedy Island being on our right) and through Chatham Sound. As we passed through the sound the weather
commenced to clear and before long the sun came out.
Bearing to our right we arrived at Port Simpson at half-
past six o'clock. This is a Hudson Bay post, the last
English post before entering Alaska, and we found it to
be one of the most interesting we had seen for some time.
The Hudson Bay Company's agent, whom we met, was
a very genial person ; he invited us up to the company's
store, and showed us all over the premises. The main
store is built of logs, and was constructed some sixty years
ago ; part of the old stockade is still standing, and on one
corner of it, up in the air, is one of the old turrets, the
sides having slits for musketry, which were to be used by
1,1 :C<
California and Alaska.
the occupants to defend themselves against the Indians.
The old powder magazine was built of stone, and is now
used by the Hudson Bay officer for a dairy.
The agent had all sorts of goods in his store. We
bought some Winchester rifle cartridges, of which we were
a little short, and some very old-fashioned spoons carved
out of horn. We looked over a stock of skins and furs,
but did not buy any. The steward took this opportunity
to lay in a supply of fresh milk and eggs.
The agent told us that the climate in this section is
exceedingly agreeable throughout the year, although the
place is in the latitude of 540 35'; he said that the flowers
in his garden blossomed in January. Every thing surrounding the company's store was in the most admirable
order; the stockade and buildings were all neatly whitewashed, the grass carefully trimmed, and the walks free
from weeds. At one time Port Simpson was one of the
most important posts of the Hudson Bay Company, but of
late years it has become a very insignificant place. The
Indian village outside of the walls of the post is very
small, and in a very poor and needy condition.
The prices paid for furs by the Hudson Bay Company
are, of course, higher now than they were some twenty or
thirty years ago, and the profits on them are very much
less. On the other hand, it must be taken into consideration that it was formerly necessary to keep at least six or
ten armed men here all the time to defend the post against
the Indians, and further, that supplies can be landed here
now at one tenth of the price charged for them thirty years
ago.    The agent told us that he thought the company Floating Ice, near Muir Glacier I
V  i
i; IV IF  In Alaskan Waters.
made as much out of the post as formerly, owing to the
decreased cost of running the station, which he believed
more than offset the lower price obtained for the furs.
About half-past three o'clock on the morning of May
21 st we left Port Simpson and entered upon the Alaskan
Territory, passing on our left Annette and Gravina islands.
In the afternoon we entered Wrangel Narrows, leaving on
our right, some thirty miles away, Fort Wrangel, on Wrangel Island. This was one of the prettiest spots we had
yet seen. The hills on either side of the Narrows were
not so remarkably high, but the shores were exceedingly
picturesque, and looked as though they were covered with
a great deal of vegetation. There is thick, rich, green
grass on both sides, above high-water mark. We saw here
a great many ducks and geese, and a countless number
of eagles. After passing through Wrangel Narrows we
entered Frederick Sound, a beautiful sheet of water, and
on our right saw, for the first time, Patterson's Glacier,
and also a large amount of floating ice.    It was about dark
when we passed this glacier. No one point in all our journey through this Sitkan Archipelago seemed invested by
nature with so much grandeur as Prince Frederick Sound.
Here the mountains of the mainland run down abruptly to
the water. The scenery in this wilderness of Lower Alaska
was certainly unique and unrivalled. At one time our
ship was in a lake, at another in a river, and then in a
canal, with walls towering above us right and left to an
almost dizzy height, and channels running off into unknown
and unexplored regions. And yet, upon this vast expanse
of water a sail or boat rarely is seen.    There is a deathly
20 ft\
1/f; M
154 California and Alaska.
stillness, interrupted now and then by the screech of an
eagle, or the flight of ducks frightened at the approach of
the vessel. At the head of these channels are countless
ravines and canyons filled with glaciers, from which pieces
are constantly broken every day. It is estimated that
there are five thousand individual glaciers in Alaska, from
which, constantly, pieces are broken and silently find their
way down to the sea.
On the morning of May 2 2d we woke as the boat was
about entering Peril Straits, an intricate part of the waters
to navigate, but pretty well buoyed out. The scenery
from here to Sitka, where we arrived about half-past nine
o'clock in the morning, was exceedingly fine. This place,
the capital of Alaska, is an old Russian settlement, and
was, at one time, a prosperous and lively town ; at present it has the appearance of a half-sleepy, indolent village,
giving one the impression of general decay. As the boat
nears the wharf a cluster of buildings is seen to the right ;
o o
the buildings are the Castle, the Custom-house, and Barracks. This Castle of Barranore was once celebrated for
the lavish hospitality of its occupants,—elegant dinners
and extravagant balls; to-day it is a dilapidated-looking
building of large size. Notwithstanding its absolute
neglect and abandonment to decay and ruin, it was so
substantially built that it will be years before it will disappear entirely. All Americans who travel in this section
wonder why our government does not put it in repair, and
use it for the government headquarters, as such a building
is badly needed. The Castle is one hundred and forty
by seventy feet, and is three stories high. As a rule, the
United States keeps a war vessel here during the summer Lincoln Street, East, Sitka, Alaska.
! 3 1  I
I     VI
;> n  In Alaskan Waters.
months ; at the time of our visit she was at Mare Island
Navy Yard undergoing repairs and Lieutenant Turner
was in charge of the forty marines, who were temporarily
located in the old barracks.
Alaska has been in the possession of the United States
since October 18, 1867.    The country was bought through
J O o
negotiations carried on by William H. Seward, who was
at that time Secretary of State. The wits of the period
made merry over the acquisition, just as wits in former
days made merry over our acquisition of Louisiana and
Florida. Secretary Seward justified his action on the
ground of the new country's natural wealth in timber,
fisheries, minerals, and fur-bearing animals ; also on the
ground that it would neutralize the power of Great Britain
in the North Pacific and render the annexation of British
Columbia possible in the future. " Alaska," said he,
" may not be so valuable as we deem it ; but you cannot
deny the value of the gold regions of the Cariboo country
and Fraser River, the coal mines of Vancouver's and
Queen Charlotte's islands, and the unrestricted possession
of the magnificent Straits of Fuca. All these, following
manifest destiny, will be ours in time ; besides," said he,
" we owe a deep debt of gratitude to Russia for her
unvarying friendship through long years, and for her
kindly sympathy during the sorest of our national trials
—the great rebellion." The sum of $7,200,000 was paid
for Alaska, and it is estimated that the few mines near
Juneau are worth more than that sum to-day.
The Governor of Alaska, Hon. A. P. Swineford, has
made interesting reports in regard to the resources and
prospects of this new and remarkable country.    He says
fl 156 California and Alaska.
that two years ago the population was estimated at about
fifty thousand inhabitants ; of this number thirty-five thousand were classed as wholly uncivilized. Very little has
been accomplished in the way of agricultural development.
Here and there a ranch has been started for the growing
of root-crops, while in nearly all the settlements vegetable
gardens are maintained with very little labor. There are
large areas of excellent grazing lands in the Territory, but
very little has been done in the way of stock-raising. At
nearly all the settlements on the Kodiak Islands and in
Cook's Inlet white and Creole people keep cows and make
their own butter; the Governor sees no reason, except the
absence of a market, why Alaska might not rival Montana
or Wyoming in the raising of stock. The great island of
Kodiak comprises a geographical area of about five thousand square miles. Considerable progress has been made
in the development of the mineral resources of the Territory, There is a large stamp-mill on Douglas Island, the
largest plant of the kind in the world, its output of gold
bullion being estimated at not less than $150,000 per
month. New discoveries of valuable mines are constantly
being made, especially in Southeastern Alaska.
It is pretty well established that other minerals besides
gold and silver are abundant in various parts of the Territory. A large vein of very rich copper ore has been
found on Kodiak Island, and large bodies of the same
metal in its native state are known to exist on Copper
River. Petroleum is found in different sections, while at
Cape Prince of Wales, the most westerly point of the
continent, there is a plentiful supply of graphite in the Indian Chiefis Grave, Alaska.
=*■ Jl I
.«&'-'   i
micai area oout n
MI fe  In Alaskan Waters.
adjoining mountains. Amber exists in large quantities,
and sulphur is found in connection with the numerous
volcanic peaks and extinct craters. Discoveries of iron
cinnabar, and mica are recorded. Marble abounds ; there
is every evidence of the existence of valuable slate beds ;
fire-clay is found in connection with the coal seams; and
kaolin is among the discoveries reported. There is said
to be coal enough in Alaska, and of the very best quality,
to supply the wants of the whole of the Pacific slope for
centuries, and it is prophesied that the time will soon come
when the product of her mines will find other and wider
markets than those of the Pacific coast alone. There are
vast forests of valuable timber in the back country, but
there are not more than half-a-dozen saw-mills engaged
O     O
in cutting lumber, and they only partially supply the local
The fisheries of Alaska form an important industry.
There are seventeen salmon canneries in operation, some
of them very large establishments, and nearly all having
salting houses in connection. The codfishing fleet is
steadily increasing, and halibut is being sent to Eastern
cities in refrigerator cars. In 1888 twelve thousand tons
of salmon were prepared for the market. The fur trade
is also an important industry.
There are thirteen public schools in the Territory,
located respectively at the principal towns, and the Industrial Training School at Sitka is in a flourishing
condition, though not accomplishing, it is said, all that
might reasonably be expected ; the boys are taught carpentry and cabinet-, boot-, and shoe-making, while girls
I; if II'
1 f
158 California and Alaska.
are instructed in housekeeping, sewing, knitting) cooking, and dressmaking.
The average rainfall in Sitka and its immediate
neighborhood is about forty-eight inches ; about one third
of the year there is no rain. The weather is not very
cold in winter, the thermometer rarely reaching zero on
the coast. The mean temperature for the year is about
forty-four degrees. January and February have the lowest record—290 2 ; August highest—56° 4'. Ice rarely
forms to a thickness of six inches, and yet in summer the
weather is not warm enough to ripen any grain. The
months of June and July are generally clear, dry, and free
from rain. The fall and spring are the rainy seasons.
The comparatively mild temperature in this high latitude
is accounted for by the existence of a great current of
warm water, resembling our Gulf Stream, which, sweeping
along the coasts of Japan and Asia to the northeast,
crosses the Pacific, and washes the northwest coast of
America as far down as the Bay of Panama, where it
again diverges to the westward and forms the great
equatorial current of the Pacific.
At the head of Cross Sound are five large glaciers
that are formed far back in the country on the slopes of
Mount Fairweather and Mount Crillon, the former 14,708
feet high, the latter 13,400.
The remarkable indentation and almost endless length
of this coast, the thousand islands, the immense number
of mountains large and small, the maze of rivers through
which the traveller passes, make this journey incomparable with any other which could be made.    We had often Russian Block-House, Sitka, Alaska.
■ ti
£ -ream,wnicn, swe<
:^Y-& .^^^%¥fi-4^&% to&simmSkh
. i
* i
I m
W  PI if In Alaskan Waters.
heard about the wonders of a trip to Alaska, but were
more than surprised at the remarkable character of the
scenery we saw, especially the water-ways, which the writer
has deemed worthy of being so fully described.
11 Bill
IN   ALASKAN    WATERS    (concluded).
PROBABLY the most interesting feature of life in
the vicinity of Sitka is the Indian village a short
distance outside of the town ; Lieutenant J. E.
Turner was kind enough to show our party through this
settlement, which was certainly very unique.
After entering an old gate we turned to the left and
passed in front of a long row of cheaply built houses
fronting on the beach, the canoes and fishing paraphernalia belonging to each hut being drawn up on the
beach in front thereof. Each house is numbered, and
the village is under the strict surveillance of an officer of
the Navy. As we had found at Bella Bella, most of the
Indians were off fishing or engaged in work at the can-
neries; in the winter, when they are all at home, the
population numbers about eight hundred, and the town
then presents quite a lively appearance.
It may be well to mention here a certain peculiar kind
of fish which is quite plentiful in Alaskan waters ; it is
called the candle-fish, and is about the size of a smelt,
which it resembles in appearance, being small and havin
!fl Scene in Indian Town, Sitka, Alaska. IU1
in *■
lit mil I
i I
.fc&uAK ;i#KS :0k&*
-j I
**mm I 111
'    'r J In Alaskan Waters.
bright silvery skin and scales. It is caught by the Indians
on bright moonlight nights. They use for this purpose a
large rake, some six or seven feet long, with teeth of bone
or sharp-pointed nails. This rake has a handle, and while
one Indian paddles the canoe close to the " shoal of fish,"
the other sweeps the rake through the dense mass, bringing up generally three or four fish impaled on each tooth
of the rake. The canoes are soon filled, and the contents
being taken on shore, the squaws proceed to skewer the
fish on long sticks, passing these sticks through the eyes
until each one has as many as it will hold, when the whole
are suspended in the thick, smoky atmosphere at the top
of the hut, which dries and preserves the fish without salt,
which is never used by the Indians.
When dry, the candle-fish are carefully packed away in
boxes of dried bark. The traders at Fort Simpson catch
these fish in nets, salt and dry them in the usual manner
practised by the whites ; and, when this is properly done
no fish are more delicious than the candle-fish, the only
trouble being that they are so rich that one soon tires of
To use them as candles, a piece of wick or dried pith
is passed through the fish with a bodkin of hard wood, and
the tail being inserted in a cleft-stick or junk-bottle, the
wick is lighted.    The fish burns with a clear, steady flame.
In point of wealth and power, after a few Indian chiefs,
the most important person in the village is Mrs. Tom,
a woman of great importance and influence among the
natives. She is worth about $40,000, and, in that section
of the country at least, is considered a wealthy woman.
I) i
. {
i ii
162 California and Alaska.
We made her a visit, and found her not only willing to
exhibit to us her large collection of curiosities, but anxious
to part with many of them for a proper pecuniary consideration. Her house consists of three rooms, one of them
very large. At the time Lieutenant Turner and our party
made our visit she was not presentable, but called out to
us that we should amuse ourselves by looking over her
furs until she could prepare her toilet. She was not long
in making her appearance, when she opened her trunks,
searched in various recesses, and brought forth any number of trinkets and curious articles, which she offered for
sale. We made a number of purchases, including some
very fine otter skins and a Chilcot blanket. We were told
that she left the settlement for the Aleutian Islands every
year in a large boat well stocked with provisions and articles that she knows will be appreciated by the Indians;
these she trades away for rich furs and curiosities which
she knows she can readily sell to the Americans who visit
Sitka. These journeys sometimes keep her away for three
months at a time.
Mrs. Tom's ideas of matrimony are certainly very
liberal; she has almost any number of husbands, but rarely
keeps one over two or three years, when she discharges
him and purchases a new one. After we had made the
purchases from her we requested her to send the articles
to the steamer and we would pay the money to the husband who brought the package. She evidently had a very
pessimistic opinion of man's honesty, for she quickly replied
that, as the amount due was quite a large sum, she wished,
if we had no objections, that we would pay her " cash
[;|| ii
Jill Indian River Canyon, from 1 Pint a"
=5= ;i   ;H
%WS«M^ Ill
Y   I
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fjjj lulllj
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In Alaskan Waters.
down " on the spot, saying that she would feel easier than
if she had to wait for one of her husbands to bring it back
to her.
While this book is going through the press the writer
has noticed some curious statements in a New York journal on the polyandrous women of Alaska. A member of
an expedition that is surveying the boundary line between
Alaska and Canada says that he has met tribes on the
upper Yukon River where it is not uncommon for the
women to have two or more husbands. This custom also
prevails in Eastern Thibet and among the Mongols of the
Tsaidam. It is accounted for by the fact that, on account
of the barren nature of the soil and the general poverty of
the people the brothers in a family will agree to have only
one wife among them; while one brother is absent on a
trading journey another remains at home and looks after
the live stock, the " mutual wife" managing the household. Among the Alaskan Eskimo a man is entitled to
as many wives as he can get, but in parts of the country
where women are scarce two or more men live in a hut
with one woman. It is. stated that polygamy is only practised among rich and prosperous savages, while polyandry
is practised by the poorer peoples, from necessity rather
than choice.
After lunch we stopped a few moments at Lieutenant
Turner's rooms and then visited the Presbyterian Mission,
where we saw the Shepard workshop, established by Mr.
and Mrs. Shepard when they were here two years ago.
We were much interested in the old Greek Church,
a sketch of which is given.    It is a rather gaudily deco-
¥ If
164 California and Alaska.
rated building, painted in green and gold after the Eastern
fashion, with magnificent regalia and appointments for its
rather lengthy but imposing service. Some of the old
houses presented a very quaint and time-worn appearance ;
the one shown in the accompanying sketch is probably
some hundreds of years old. While we were here the boys
of the party had very good luck fishing off the bows of the
boat, catching some very fine black bass and halibut. The
fishing and deer-shooting in this vicinity are said to be
very good.
The Russian-American Company, once such an important factor in Alaskan life, commenced its existence in
1799 and was formed on the same plan as the Hudson
Bay Company; a body of Russians traders and merchants,
however, had existed long before that date. Between 1812
and 1841 the Russians had settlements in California, at
Ross and Bodega, and they named the principal stream in
that part of the country Russian River. In the latter year
Captain Sutter, the famous Californian, purchased the
company's settlement for $30,000, which was finally abandoned when it was found more convenient to purchase
from the Hudson Bay Company on Vancouver Island.
It is said that when the Russians occupied Sitka their
houses were not models of cleanliness. Some of them
were in the habit of keeping poultry in the rooms over
the sleeping-chamber, and as the little windows were never
opened except at long intervals the odor was not very captivating. Pigs and goats at that time were allowed to
roam the streets at their own sweet will and took full
advantage of their unrestricted liberty. Favorite  Bay,  "Home of the Herring^
A M w
^= £^_  '-, y
1    » Hi Iff If
: mi f
I ] In Alaskan Waters.
We left Sitka on the afternoon of the 22d of May.
All the acquaintances we had made begged us to remain
over until the next day, promising that they would arrange
an Indian war-dance in the evening, but our time being
limited we were obliged to take our departure. The
mission band came down to the dock and gave us a sere-
nade just before we sailed away. We ran until about
dark, when we entered Peril Straits and anchored in Fish
Bay for the night.
At three o'clock on the following morning, May 23d,
we left Fish Bay in Peril Straits, passed through the
rapids, and out into the open sound, bound for Glacier
Bay. We went through Chatham Strait, leaving Admiralty Island on our right, going around Port Augusta, and
passing by Port Frederick, Port Adolphus, and Bartlett.
The waters in this region are totally unexplored. After
we entered Chatham Strait bound for the north, Captain
Carroll remained in the pilot-house, as there were no
soundings, and he was the only man on board who had
ever been through these waters before. We were constantly
meeting  large  floes  of  ice,  and the vessel had to cut
00 7
through them. Some of the icebergs must have been
fully three or four hundred feet square, and of proportionate mass.
At this time the weather was exceedingly disagreeable ; the wind was cold, and a fine mist was falling all the
time. The climatic conditions, combined with the bleak-
looking appearance of the country, devoid of all vegetation, was any thing but cheerful, but it helped us to realize
what a dreary and desolate journey a trip to the Arctic
M)L 166 California and Alaska.
regions must be. As our vessel was built entirely of
steel, we were, of course, obliged to exercise unusual care
in sailing ; if we had run on a rock, or into an iceberg, it
would probably have made a hole in her, and sunk her at
once. This was one of the first iron vessels that had ever
been through these waters ; Captain Carroll remarked,
however, that he felt very much safer with a good wooden
vessel, because in case she sprung a leak he would be able
to patch it up. We had rain almost steadily from the
time we started, though now and then the weather would
clear up for an hour or so. As it was almost impossible
to go out on deck, we were forced to amuse ourselves in
the cabin by playing cards and backgammon for hours at
a time.
In the afternoon, as we neared the Muir Glacier, we
met large fields of floating ice. As we travelled towards
the north the scenery changed entirely ; there were no signs
of vegetation to be seen, the whole surrounding country
was one mass of rocks, while the waters were dotted with
barren and desolate islands. We arrived at the Great
Glacier about four o'clock in the afternoon. We ran up
very close, then drifted back, and threw out anchor on the
east shore. A boat was lowered, and some of the party
went ashore, and walked up over the glacier. At ten o'clock
at night the writer took a photograph of the glacier, from
which Mr. Gifford has made the etching given herewith.
o   o
Pieces of this icy mountain were falling away repeatedly,
the noise of their falling being similar to the sound of heavy
artillery. During the whole of this particular afternoon
there was not a period of five minutes during which we did Mr
Muir Glacier, Alaska.
i tl'fi
ill I)
m 1;   In Alaskan Waters.
not see or hear large pieces of ice falling, the masses
being so large sometimes that they caused the vessel
to rock.
We anchored at this point all night, leaving about half-
past three o'clock the following morning, as soon as we
could see. We travelled south to Ainsley Island ; here,
instead of going down through Chatham Strait, as we did
when we came up, we turned around and went north,
towards Lynn Channel, bearing off sharply to our right
round Admiralty Island, going through Stevens' Passage,
then back again between Douglas Island and the mainland to Port Douglas. We arrived at Douglas about two
o'clock in the afternoon. It had rained steadily all day,
and we had not been able to see any of the mountains ;
at times the fog was dangerously thick.
After tying up at the wharf, our party went through
the celebrated Treadwell Mine, which has the largest
stamp-mill in the world ; it is owned principally by Mr.
D. O. Mills, and some gentlemen of San Francisco.
We passed through a tunnel into the mountain, and
entered the mine. The ore is all of a low grade, and is
worth about ten dollars per ton. It is taken out by the
use of Sargent drills worked by compressed air. The ore
is quarried the same as any ordinary stone, after which it
is all put into the crusher, and then into the stamp-mill.
We spent two hours in this mine, after which we went
across to Juneau, where we were obliged to fill the tank of
our steamer with water. We remained there until seven
o'clock in the evening. Juneau enjoys the distinction of
being one of the dirtiest towns we had yet seen.    The
l\ *r
i   if
168 California and Alaska.
place was full of people, one hundred and sixty having
arrived on the last trip of the Ancon, drawn to the locality
on account of the great mining excitement which existed
there at the time. Only a few days before we arrived, a
party struck, about thirty miles south of the town, a rich
silver ore, which assayed $160 per ton. While at Juneau,
at the special request of a young lady in New York,
who is much interested in the work, we called upon
Miss Matthews, who is in charge of the Presbyterian
Mission here. While making this call we saw a young
bear cub in the street; we purchased it, and had it taken
on board the boat, where it greatly amused the children.
We left the dock at half-past three in one of the
heaviest rains we had so far seen. A short distance from
here we passed Bishop's Point, and if we had had more
time would have turned off into Taku Inlet, and sailed up
to a very large glacier which is at the head of it. As we
passed through Stevens' Passage we left Holcomb's Bay on
our left. The old pilot we had on board told us that some
twenty years ago, while he was sailing in this vicinity as
mate on a vessel, the ship anchored here one night and
did some trading with the Indians. There was some misunderstanding between the captain and the chief of the
tribe, and the captain, in some way, insulted the Indians.
That night the savages boarded the ship, and, taking possession, completely stripped her, the crew barely escaping
with their lives.
At nine o'clock, on the morning of Saturday, May 25th,
the clouds broke away as we were entering Prince Fred-
¥ O
erick  Sound,   coming   through   Stevens'   Passage   from
—.11 1
funeau (Alaska) and Harbor. I
IV USl&iSljsLi.
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I Indian Village, Alert Bay, Alaska.
i  n.
j %
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IF \m In Alaskan Waters.
Juneau. We here retraced our steps through Wrangel
Narrows, and, after leaving the narrows, bore off to our
left for Fort Wrangel. In the sunshine on this day the
country looked beautiful, and it was the first opportunity
we had had for many days to take a really good photograph.
On our arrival at Fort Wrangel, at half-past one, every
one went ashore. The town consists of about forty or
fifty Indian houses, two missions and stores, and two or
three houses in which a few white people live. Fort
Wrangel is chiefly celebrated for its totem poles, of which
the accompanying sketch will give a very good idea, as
it will also of the street and stores. We understood that
there was a large cannery about thirty miles north of this
place, but we did not have time to visit it.
After spending an hour and a half on shore, we started
on our way to Vancouver. The bear which we obtained at
Juneau proved to be a great source of pleasure to the
children. He grew tame very rapidly, and became quite a
Sunday, May 26th, was the first really pleasant day we
had had since leaving Vancouver, more than a week
before. As already stated, we had had an hour or two of
sunlight at times, but this particular Sunday was lovely
from beginning to end; there was not only an absence of
rain, but the weather was so mild that we were all able to
sit on the deck throughout the entire day. On the same
evening, however, as we were crossing Charlotte Sound,
about half-way over, it began to rain very hard, and by
eight o'clock it became so thick that we had difficulty in
22 ,'ff I
Ii •
California and Alaska.
finding our way into the narrows beyond. We looked
forward eagerly to our arrival at Vancouver the following
day, as we expected to find there mail and telegrams ; for
the ten preceding days we had had no chance of receiving
any communication from our friends.
Jj\       1
jLu iii
.s 519
Wrangel, Alaska.
Iv*i #.''
ii!     If
1  tv
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'I h
WE arrived at Vancouver about five o'clock on the
afternoon of Monday, May 27th, and found
there a large number of mail-bags, telegrams,
and packages awaiting us. We remained until eight
o'clock, removing our spare baggage and attending to
necessary correspondence, when we left for Victoria, which
we reached, after a pleasant run, during the night.
After breakfast, in the morning, we went to the office of
the Northern Pacific Express Company, and found there
two lost mail-bags, which we should have received at
Lake Pend d'Oreille. In the morning we took a drive
around the town ; in the afternoon some of the party took
a steam launch and made a trip to Esquimalt and the
English naval depot, while the rest drove over there in
carriages. The roads on the island are excellent, being
macadamized as they are in England. A number of
English men-of-war are stationed here, among them some
of the latest and most approved ironclads.
.Victoria is the capital of British Columbia, and is in the
southern part of Vancouver Island.    From the city one
California and Alaska.
has a fine view of the Olympia Mountains, just across the
straits in Oregon, and, to the east, snow-capped Mount
Baker. There is one railway on the island, and it leads to
the mountains, the coal-fields, and to the harbor of Nanaimo. Fine deposits of anthracite coal are said to exist
in the far interior of the western portion of the island.
During the summer months  a steamer leaves  Victoria
every two weeks for Alaska. The climate is much like
that of the south of England.
On our return from Esquimalt we all met at the Islander, and through the courtesy of Captain Irving enjoyed
a sail up the " Arm," a beautiful inlet from the sea, both
shores of which are lined with handsome villas, occupied
by wealthy residents of Victoria.
We returned to the boat in time for dinner, and immediately afterward started for Vancouver. Instead of
following a direct route we ran around to Esquimalt
Harbor, and sailed in among the English ironclads, thus
getting a very good view of the fleet.
Our trip on the steamer Islander was charming and
was thoroughly enjoyed, much of our pleasure being due to
the kindness and courtesy of Captains Carroll and Irving,
both of whom took special pains to describe the various
points we visited. During the ten days we were on
board the steamer, our life was comfortable in the
extreme. There was no part of the boat which we were
not welcome to visit, and most of the men, when not
below with the ladies, spent the greater part of their
time in Captain Irving's apartment, or in the pilothouse.
jij/ if I; J
Fraser  Canyon,  showing Four  Tunnels
above Spuzzum,  Canadian
Pacific Railwy. mn
■ .^:v/\ •  .    v:^5
Wl If 1*1  **■>
Hunting Experiences.
Although we thoroughly appreciated the grandeur,
magnificence, and novelty of the scenery we had witnessed
during our ten days in Alaskan waters, yet we were all
quite agreed that weird, strange, and grand though it
might be, it did not begin to equal what we had seen
on the Canadian Pacific road near Mount Stephen when
we crossed the Rockies, or Mount Macdonald when we
journeyed over the Selkirks.
On our return to Vancouver, on the morning of May
29th, we found our special train backed down upon the
wharf, ready to receive us for our homeward trip. Every
thing was immediately transferred from the boat to the
cars. We had intended stopping over at Shuswap Lake
to fish, but we received word from Mr. Marpole that the
flies and mosquitoes were biting faster than the fish ; he informed us it would be better to continue directly to Banff.
Our train really looked better now than on the day we
started from New York; the trucks of the cars had all
been overhauled and painted. Mr. Abbott did all he
possibly could for our comfort.
The ride up the Fraser River Canyon was extremely
interesting ; the scenery seemed to be even more beautiful
than it did the day we journeyed down. We arrived at
the junction of the Thompson and Fraser rivers about
three o'clock in the afternoon, and reached Kamloops
Lake about seven o'clock, just as we were about sitting
down to dinner. None of us before had realized what a
beautiful sheet of water this is. We reached Kamloops
about nine o'clock, where Mr. Marpole and his master
mechanic met us.
1 ¥
174 California and Alaska.
As it rained very hard on the morning of May 30th,
we abandoned our intention of going to the Glacier, and
rode directly through to Banff. As we passed through we
were unable to see Mount Macdonald owing to the fog
and mist hanging over it; but the scenery going up from
Macdonald, alongside of the Kicking Horse Canyon to the
summit underneath Mount Stephen, seemed to us even
grander than it did on our outward trip. We arrived
at Banff about four o'clock, where we took carriages and
drove to the Hot Springs, and afterwards to the Hotel
Banff, which is kept by the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Here we had an excellent dinner, after which we walked
to the Bow River and then back to the cars in the
Banff is a station for the Rocky Mountain Park of
Canada. This park is twenty-six miles long, about ten wide,
and embraces the valleys of the Bow, Spray, and Cascade
rivers, Devil's-Head Lake, and many mountains beyond.
The hotel here is kept by the railroad company in the
finest and most approved style. It was as good as any
hotel we stopped at on our journey, almost equalling the
hotel at Monterey. The building is beautifully located
on the side of the mountain overlooking the Bow River
Valley, is supplied with every modern convenience and
luxury that one could wish for, and is kept open during
the entire year. A photograph of the view from the
hotel is given on another page.
Many excursions are made from here into the mountains by sportsmen, who can readily obtain the horses and
camping  outfits   necessary   for   a   two   or   three   weeks'
il   » Hotel  Banff,  Canadian National Park,
Canadian Pacific Railway. I
■J'if  III
1 It
■ I
finest and most  iDDroved
:it)g the B<
)F h rUfj
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View from Banff Hotel, Looking down
Bow  Valley,  Canadian Pacific
P j
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i 1
"«^8k  ^i^l^toA^. '\^&3,  sw&  vmV^l i f.
feft ■ ,   ' Hunting Experiences.
sojourn. The mountains surrounding Banff average in
height from seven to ten thousand feet. Devil's-Head
Lake is situated at the very foot of Fairholme Mountains.
The illustration of Lake Louise near Laggan, given
elsewhere, will furnish an excellent idea of the appearance
of Devil's-Head Lake. It is situated in the very heart of
snow-capped mountains, its shores rising perpendicularly
out of the water with little if any vegetation upon them.
The depth of the lake is in proportion to the height of
the mountains at its sides. We had heard that very large
trout were to be obtained in this lake, and consequently
had made arrangements to drive out there in two wagons.
As it was early in the season we were not able to obtain
many boats; a few of the party went out, however, and
after an hour's fishing Mr. Kean returned with a forty-
two-pound lake trout. This locality is particularly celebrated for big-horned sheep, and mountain goats are
common on the neighboring heights.
The Sulphur Springs at Banff are highly appreciated
by invalids. The air here is soft and balmy, and the
records show that the winters are not as severe in the
valley as one might be led to expect. The government
has built excellent roads, running in different directions,
all through the valley and up the mountain sides. A
good livery is kept at the hotel, where horses and
carriages can be obtained for excursions in the vicinity.
Bridle-paths have also been cut to quite a distance in the
mountains. A party could stay a couple of weeks here
with very great profit, not only on account of the shooting
and fishing, but for the pleasure that would be derived 176
California and Alaska.
from excursions to the different points of interest. A
picture of the hotel is given on another page.
We stopped for a few minutes about ten miles farther
east, at Anthracite, a place where discoveries of anthracite
coal have been made. From that point we did not stop
until we reached Calgary, where we remained about half"
an hour, at the request of the mayor and some of the
prominent citizens, and enjoyed a drive around the city.
Calgary can be compared to the town of Great Falls, in
Montana ; it seems to be similarly located, and will eventually become a distributing point for the mines and
mountain region  surrounding it : it  is understood that
O O '
this is now the case with regard to the Northwest and
Mackenzie River country. The growth of this town within the past four years has been something phenomenal.
From Calgary we hurried on eastward until, about
sundown, we reached Medicine Hat, situated on the
Saskatchewan River. This place is the home of Mr.
Niblock, through whose energy enough funds have been
raised to build a large hospital for the railroad people.
The station at Medicine Hat is one of the prettiest buildings on the prairie ; the experimental garden in front of
the building in the summer time is one mass of flowers.
We left Medicine Hat at half-past six on the evening
of May 31st, taking with us Mr. Niblock's assistant, Mr.
Coon, his celebrated ducking dog " Punch," and another
dog which we borrowed from a gentleman in Medicine
Hat. We ran slowly during the evening, so timing ourselves as to get within about half a mile of Goose Lake at
three o'clock in the morning.    The train was stopped here
! i ,   :'  .
Red Sucker Cove, North  Shore Lake
Superior, Canadian Pacific
Pv ^
-aoii>tMs ■"*
Ik. mmh
^^^r^^assl Red Sucker  Tunnel, Canadian Pacific
Railway. ^i^Z: \<&5v
.^J^SUSm  lit) Hunting Experiences.
on the main track, Mr. Coon having with him a telegraph
instrument with -which he tapped the wires and kept all
east- and west-bound trains out of the way. We then had
coffee, and the gentlemen of the party started with their
guns and walked up the track, just as day was breaking.
As we neared the lake, which lay to the south, we could
hear geese and ducks, as well as many other kinds of wildfowl, making an incessant squawking and calling. When
we reached the lake we found it fairly alive with geese
and ducks of every description ; snipe, yellow-legs, and
avecet were there in myriads. Owing to the easy
manner in which wild-fowl can be killed here, the lake
has been nicknamed, by Mr. Van Home, " Blind-hunter's
Lake " ; he truthfully contends that all a man has to do
is to go there, fire off a gun, and he is sure to hit some-
O ' O '
thing. It must be added however, that this remark only
applies to the gunning season.
As it was the close of the season, and our party only
desired to obtain a few specimens of game, to be mounted
in Winnipeg, we separated, some of us going to the north
side of the lake, while others went to the opposite side.
About half-past six we returned to the railroad track,
at the north end of the lake, each with a few specimens
of almost every kind of wild-fowl. All the party then
went back along the track, and signalled for the train to
come up, when we all got on. We made a run for a short
distance until we came to another part of the lake, where
a number of swan were seen. We stopped the train, and
two of the party tried to stalk them, but found it impossible
to get near them, as the swan would invariably get up , II
178 California and Alaska.
just before the sportsmen were within gun-shot distance.
At Rush Lake we made another stop. This is, probably,
the finest shooting lake on the line of the Canadian
Pacific; wild-fowl shooting is said to be better here than
anywhere else along the road. After spending a half-
hour at this lake, we all returned to the train and had
breakfast. While waiting at the siding at this lake we
were passed by the west-bound Continental. From Rush
Lake to Winnipeg we made no stop, except to change
engines and take water. We arrived at Winnipeg at
about eleven o'clock in the evening, having made exceptionally good time.
The following day, Sunday, the second of June, the
weather was bright, clear, and quite warm. Shortly after
breakfast the American Consul called upon us, and we
arranged with him for a visit to Governor Shultz. Some
of the party took carriages and drove to church.
In the afternoon the children all took a drive, and the
men of the party visited Mr. Hines, the taxidermist, and
left with him a number of heads and specimens that we
had procured in the Rocky Mountains and elsewhere, such
as moose, elk, and the black-tailed deer. The writer had
the pleasure of capturing one of the largest moose heads
that had ever been seen in that section of the country ;
also quite a large elk head.
We all enjoyed our visit in Winnipeg, especially our
call upon Governor Shultz, whom we found to be an
exceedingly agreeable person. He was very anxious,
not only to hear about our trip to Alaska, but also to give
the writer information in regard to the Mackenzie River I:
Main Street,   Winnipeg. i.
i III!
II r&
A  Canadian Backwoods  Team, near
Sudbury, Canadiait Pacific
l-M  *
"     ii
HHBB ii Hunting Experiences.
Basin country, of which he  had  made  a study   having
been a member of a commission, appointed some years
ago by the Canadian Government, to make a report on
the subject. He kindly furnished us with a copy of this
document. He was very anxious that some time in the
near future the writer should make up a party and visit
the Mackenzie River, following it down to its outlet. He
explained that this scheme was quite practicable, provided
the writer could obtain a letter from the Hudson Bay
Company giving him the right to use their boats on the
river or its tributaries, wherever they might be found ;
and he, very kindly, gave the assurance that he could
obtain such a letter. Such a trip, he estimated, would
occupy about five or six months.
Winnipeg, the capital of Manitoba, is situated at the
junction of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, both of which
are navigable by steamships. For many years this city
has been the chief post of the Hudson Bay Company, and
to-day that company carries on a very large business with
the people in the regions to the north and west. As it
was Sunday we were not able to visit the warehouses of
the Hudson Bay Company, and could only see them from
the outside. They look more like large military barracks
than the buildings of a private company. Governor Shultz
informed us that in former years the Hudson Bay Company were government, counsel, and every thing else to
this part of the country ; that they made their own laws,
and even conducted the trials. He also informed us that
very few people believe Lord Lonsdale ever penetrated
the Arctic region as far as he claimed he did ; in fact, that \f)
California and Alaska.
reports from Hudson Bay officials said that no such
person had ever been at certain posts, and that it was
next to impossible for him to have gone over to
Mollesten's Land, or even to the eastern Arctic coast
opposite ;—besides, the trip from here westward to the
Yukon would have required a longer period.
The city is situated on a level plain ; the streets are
very broad, and the buildings mostly of brick. An illustration of the main street in Winnipeg is given elsewhere.
Within the last few years the town, of course, has grown
very rapidly, owing to the Canadian Pacific Railway passing through it and the Manitoba Railroad reaching it from
the south. Many branches of railroad now centre here.
The Hudson Bay Company have a railway, which, when we
were at Winnipeg, was completed as far as Shoal Lake,
forty miles to the northwest. The depot of the Canadian
Pacific Railway in this city is a handsome and imposing
building, and is the divisional headquarters for that part
of the road from Port Arthur to Donald, a distance of
one thousand four hundred and fifty-four miles ; this is
called the Western Division. The land offices of the
Canadian Pacific Railway are also located here.
In conversing with the taxidermist, Mr. Hines, and his
son, both of whom are ardent sportsmen, they gave very
interesting accounts of the game that can be found north
of Winnipeg, at Lake Winnipeg. This game includes
moose, caribou, bear, and, in the fall, any number of
ducks. They also informed us that the facilities for
getting to the hunting grounds were very good. The
sportsman could follow the Hall River nearly the whole IjjTl
Alaskan Game, Killisnoo.
1 II f I
1  II
: i mil"  Skirting Nepigon Bay, Canadian Pacific
^1 :!S
'' ■ ■*•
f   fl.i
v,. ••
J haaAfttt*2XBfi
.&M M
n M Hunting Experiences.
distance, part of the way by steamboat and the rest of the
way in canoes, making it exceedingly easy to take plenty
of supplies. The country is said to resemble very much
the Adirondacks or the lake region of Minnesota from
the fact that, for miles and miles the hunter can go from
one lake to another, oftentimes without having to make
any carry, while at others he would only have from one
to three hundred feet carry to make. They told us, also,
that the grounds for camping were excellent; in fact,
from their account we came to the conclusion that a trip
there during the months of September or October would
amply repay any sportsman.
WE left Winnipeg at three o'clock on the afternoon of June 2d, arriving at Rat Portage
about sundown. The scenery west from Lake
Winnipeg was very similar to what we had seen the two
preceding days, until we approached Rat Portage, when
there were some very picturesque views and numerous
rock-bound lakes that we passed, many of which were
studded with small islands and were very pretty.
We arrived at Port Arthur about six o'clock on the
morning of June 3d, first stopping at Fort William.
The ride by moonlight the night before was through
scenery different from any thing we had seen heretofore.
The road twisted and turned around many low hills,
across small lakes, winding down rivers, running all the
o * ^>
time through an exceedingly picturesque country. The
effect of the moonlight, now and then falling upon these
beautiful lakes, of which there was almost a continuous
line, was so pleasing as to induce many of the party to sit
out on the rear platform until quite late in the evening.
If we had not been in a hurry to reach Nepigon, where Nepigon  River, and Hudson   Bay  Company s Post, Looking down the River
from near Canadian Pacific
Railway Bridge.
^ Si
1 ism
IJ'sR ',i \m
"■■■*• ■•'•" "hi  i-nr-nin ■ar*
Thunder Cape, Lake Superior Writ
^»$R*X& V >■' "'I'
I r
hi From Winnipeg, Homeward Bound.
the party proposed to have some fishing, we would have
stopped over at Winnipeg until the morning, in order to
enjoy this scenery, which, though it was not grand, was
exceedingly beautiful.
We arrived at Port Arthur, more commonly called
Prince Arthur's Landing, at about eight o'clock in the
morning, and remained there until the Indians, who
were to accompany us on our fishing tour, arrived from
Fort William, about half-past one. We procured a boxcar for the canoes. The morning was occupied in visiting
various stores, and purchasing provisions and needed
articles for the four or five days' camping trip up the
Nepigon. We also went down to the docks, and went
through one of the fine steam-ships of the Canadian
Pacific Company, which ply between Port Arthur and
Owen's Sound. Both this place and Fort William are
noted for having a great number of large grain elevators.
The extensive docks at Port Arthur are also a notable
feature of the place.
The steam-ship that we took here was a passenger
boat, fitted up with every modern luxury and convenience.
The engine-room was so arranged that visitors, instead of
being warned away by the sign "No Admittance," were
permitted to go through almost every part of it. These
boats were built on the Clyde, in Scotland, and the
different pieces brought to this country and put together
at Lake Superior. The principal freight carried by them
is grain.
Directly across the bay from Port Arthur is Thunder
Cape, a view of which is given on another page.    Behind
m MA
I  re
184 California and Alaska.
this cape is Silver Islet, noted for having yielded
fabulous amounts of silver ore. On the Western Division,
west of Port Arthur, " Central " time and the twenty-
four-hour system are used. East of Port Arthur, Eastern
time and the old twelve-hour system are used.
We made the short run from Port Arthur to Nepigon,
and immediately on our arrival went down the Hudson
Bay Company's coast and called on Mr. Flanagan, the
head official of that company. He had been notified by
Mr. Van Home to have every thing ready for us in the
way of necessary supplies ; also canoes and Indians. We
procured from him another boat, some Indian tents and
blankets, and the party started up the river. It consisted
of Messrs. Kean, Purdy, Frank Webb, and George Bird;
the writer and Dr. McLane had arranged to remain with
the ladies and children while the other members of the
party made their trip up the river. We had heard that
the Nepigon had been pretty thoroughly fished, owing
to its accessibility, and we were told that by going on
to Jackfish we would find a number of streams, both east
and west, that could easily be reached, and where the
fishing was very good. We arrived at Jackfish, about
sundown. The road from Nepigon to Jackfish sweeps
around the north shore of Lake Superior, and represents a section of the railroad upon which some of the
heaviest work on the entire line had to be done. The
scene changes constantly, the road sometimes going over
deep, rugged cuttings, viaducts, passing through tunnels,
and sometimes on the very face of the cliff. One or two
miles of road over which we passed cost the company
i-ii Nepigon Bay, from Nepigon Station J;iffl
,   '#f 1
* M fackfish Bay,  Caitadian Pacific
r —I
X •■*■
.*u* -ji_- TjMM'rjfJMii wti* f #«jm lit From Winnipeg, Homeward Bound.    185
nearly $500,000 per mile. The water along the shore at
some places is from three to five hundred feet deep. It
was in this section of the country, views of which are
elsewhere given, that the Canadian Pacific Railway spent
over $1,500,000 in dynamite alone. The company had
to use such a large amount of this explosive that they
built an establishment of their own for its manufacture;
the building was located on an island, which can be seen
from the train.
At Schreiber, a divisional point, we changed engines.
The Division Superintendent whom we met here very
kindly introduced the writer to the engineer of this section
of the road, a great fisherman. He not only told us where
the best fishing was to be had, but arranged with the foreman of the section at Jackfish, also quite a fisherman, to
take us up and down the track on his hand-car as often as
we might desire.
From Schreiber to Jackfish the road is carried through
and around many lofty and precipitous promontories, and
over a great number of high trestles. Jackfish is beautifully situated on Jackfish Bay. The mouth of the bay is
filled with islands and is one of the land-locked harbors on
the north coast of Lake Superior. The place is known
principally as a fishing hamlet, and, besides the depot,
contains only a few huts occupied by fishermen. Lake
trout from ten to twenty pounds in weight are brought in
every evening by small sloops. These fish are taken in
gill nets in the deep water beyond the islands. Quite a
number of brook trout are also caught in this way, each
boat bringing in from thirty to seventy-five fish.    The
jfcfimHjmgg^a.'-gaafcjTirjg^ us— oast -Ji
|Mk£. .ifafc I r
186 California and Alaska.
fish are cleaned at once and shipped by express to the
East, nearly every express train which stops here taking
on four or five barrels. When a fisherman comes across
a particularly fine brook trout, or lake trout, he packs
it in ice and ships it to some particular customer in
Early on the morning of June 4th, Dr. McLane and
the writer started on the hand-car with the section foreman
and three men, and rode four miles east to Steel River,
crossing the railroad bridge there and going down to the
mouth of the river, where it empties into Lake Superior.
The river here is filled with pools from twelve to
fifteen feet deep, and at other places is from two to three
feet deep, though the current is very swift; it is about one
hundred yards wide. The writer had scarcely made a cast
before he struck a very large trout ; after some very lively
work, playing him about ten minutes in the swift current,
the fish was landed and found to weigh about three
pounds. A second attempt resulted in hooking another
trout not quite so large. The fishing in this river is said
to be better than in any other river on the lake coast;
very few people, however, are aware of this fact, nearly all
fishing parties going to the Nepigon. After lunch we
went up the river some two miles north of the railroad
bridge to one of the prettiest pools we had ever seen.
We had fairly good luck here and, in the afternoon,
returned on the hand-car to Jackfish. On the following
day, Dr. McLane not feeling very well, the writer made
the same trip without him, but as the weather was very
warm he met with little success.    One of the men on the m
Nepigon River and Bridge,  Canadian
Pacific Railway.
0F 1/
ly mad
Wt-"! K« m
M . .   . -Jte&i
\ "
Typical Railway   View,   North   Shore
Lake  Superior,  Canadian
Pacific Railway.
■'    : ■     -■   "■
.^- -7wc^v.i,aeBraH» -wara &&&& &V%ciNft ^s^VM  ^ens\$&S\. Ys&sWT m
":'*'+'jt*~T& "r-.T*.'^  ^a^.^T's^T ^a.vwsbl
syjgsrSffyjKzzgr^T^g*^!^^ I
' From Winnipeg, Homeward Bound.   187
car had been out in the morning to a little brook called
Blackbird Creek, about two miles west of Jackfish, and
caught ten fine trout with a fly ; some of the trout weighed
as much as four pounds each. After lunch the writer
took Mrs. Webb and Mrs. Purdy in a sail-boat, and sailed
over to this creek, where we got out and fished awhile.
We then went up on a high trestle and waited for Mr.
Van Home, who was expected to come along with our
train. The day before he had wired us that he was on his
way to the Pacific coast, and he would stop and take up
our train with his " special " and take us back to Nepigon,
where we had arranged to remain a couple of days until
the boys came down the river.
Owing to some little delay down the line we had
to wait on the trestle two hours, but Mr. Van Home
finally came along and picked us up. He and his party
dined with us that evening, and after leaving us at Nepigon he started westward for the Pacific coast. His last
words to us were : " Make yourselves at home, and call for
what you want."
Thursday, June 6th, we spent at Nepigon, waiting for
the boys to come down the river, and did but very little
fishing. The flies had got to be quite thick, and we had
to be very careful all day to keep them from getting into
the cars. Dr. McLane and the writer spent the evening
with Mr. Flanagan and his family, and were delightfully
entertained by his charming wife and daughter. Mr.
Flanagan has been located here with his family quite
a number of years, and is in charge of the Hudson Bay
property.    Some foot-races and rifle-matches between the
>^ i88
California and Alaska.
1 PM
porters on our train, which we got up on this afternoon,
proved to be very amusing.
About six o'clock the next evening word was brought
to us by an Indian that our party was coming down the
river ; we telegraphed at once to Port Arthur to send an
engine to take us East.    The boys arrived about seven
O *
o'clock, and, as soon as possible after their arrival, we
started for Montreal.
After leaving Jackfish, our. journey led us through
a very wild and barren country, perhaps the most uninteresting portion of the Canadian Pacific road. There was
one succession of small lakes and insignificant mountains.
We changed engines four times after we left Schreiber—
at White River, Chapleau, Carter, and Sudbury. Chap-
leau is charmingly situated on Lake Kinogama, and here
the railroad company have workshops, and a number of
neat cottages for their employes.
We arrived at Sudbury about evening. This place
has a connection with the Sault Ste. Marie Railroad,
through to St. Paul and Minneapolis, by the Duluth,
South Shore, and Atlantic and " Soo " route. Just before
this time a new passenger line had been opened from
Minneapolis to Boston by this route. Large copper
mines are situated a short distance from Sudbury, and
a number of smelting works have been erected there.
We left Sudbury on the evening of Saturday, June
8th, and arrived at Ottawa on the morning of the 9th,
passing North Bay, a very pretty town on Lake Nipis-
sing, during the night. The country from Sudbury to
North Bay is very much frequented by sportsmen; bear, A   Tow on Lake Superior-Coal Vessels
Returning from   Thunder Bay.
^twr^.a *"~w~-^B^""'-ry
^£T&pf&*mt'x£~jr *rayriLTS*5g
>Q ■ fl
•fe :.'•.
hmtem, Carte*,and       ib*ry.*
M &
% £
fl From Winnipeg, Homeward Bound.   H|
moose, and deer are said to abound throughout this
region—such, at least, was the statement made by our
train-hands. Very little timber seems to have been cut
in this region, but wherever the land has been cleared it
has been immediately taken for agricultural purposes.
We spent the morning in Ottawa, and left about one
o'clock for Montreal, making the run in three hours, and
arriving in the new station of the Canadian Pacific Railway, near the Windsor Hotel. It was here that we
began to feel that we had almost completed our long and
interesting trip. On another page an illustration is given
of this new depot of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and
it is probably one of the finest passenger depots in the
Immediately on our arrival we went to the Windsor
Hotel for dinner, and there met the genial manager, Mr.
Swett, who gave us a very cordial reception, as usual. In
the evening we walked around the city, getting back to
the train about bedtime.
Our train was taken around to the Grand Trunk
Depot, and, on the morning of Monday, June ioth, Mr.
Flagg, Mr. Louis Webb, and Mr. Smith arrived from
New York to welcome our return. We had intended to
stay all day in Montreal, but towards noon the weather
became warm and sultry, and, as the party became a little
restless and anxious to go to Shelburne, the writer telegraphed to St. Albans for an engine, and we left at five
o'clock, reaching home about three hours later. The people of the whole town turned out to greet us on our arrival,
and gave us an old-fashioned and right hearty welcome.
I-•   "T   ■-
mH. AbJ California and Alaska.
Before closing this record of our western trip, it is
only proper to say that the whole party were unanimous
in the opinion that the courtesy and kind attention shown
by Mr. Van Home and all of the officials connected with
the Canadian Pacific Railway could never be fully repaid,
and that it was only through their efforts that our trip had
been so thoroughly enjoyable and interesting. It is not
too much to say that Mr. Van Home literally verified the
statement made in a letter to the writer prior to the commencement of our journey ; that statement was, that the
Canadian Pacific Railway was at the disposal of the writer
to come and go on as he willed, and that all he had to do
was to command. Mr. Van Home's generous hospitality
was certainly thoroughly appreciated by every member of
the party, and will never be forgotten by the writer.
THE   END. ^
*te- f
Ml wi
fe ! $4  <S*?R
i«   ESS
m <gS^ngM


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