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The Chung Collection

Botanical and ethnological appendix to Menzies' journal of Vancouver's voyage, April to October, 1792 Newcombe, Charles Frederick, 1851-1924 1923

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Botanical and Ethnological
Appendix to Menzies'
Journal of Vancouver's
Pages 132-155 and eight plates reprinted without change of folio
from British Columbia Archives, Memoir Na V.
Printed by 'William H. Ccllin, Printer to tbe King's Most Excellent Majesty.
BRITISH COLUMBIA Pages 132-155 and eight plates reprinted without change of folio
from British Columbia Archives, Memoir No. V. 132
Menzies' Journal.
i.c, n.f
Ex. Fl.-, t. 193.
J. Bot.
t. 6.
Fl. I., t. 38.
fi. i:,
30,  1
Fl.  I.,
Fl. I.,
Fl. II.
t. 196.
Fl. II.
t.   195.
Fl.  II., 89.
I.   Ferns and Flowering Plants.
B.M.—Botanical   Magazine.    (By   Curtis,   Sims,   W.   H.
Hooker, etc.)
B.R.—Botanical Register.    (By Edwards, Lindley, etc.)
Fl.—Flora Boreali-Americana.   1833-40.   (By W.J. Hooker.)
Icon. Ined.—Plantarum Icones hactenus Ineditae.    1789-91.
(Smith, J. E.)
Exot. Fl.—Exotic Flora, etc., 1823-27.    (Hooker, W. J.)
Names of plants in italics are those used by early writers, but
now replaced by others.
Abies grandis Lindl.    (White Fir.)
Silver Fir of M.    Admiralty Inlet, etc.
Abronia latifolia Esch.    (Sand Verbena.)
A. arenaria Menz.
| California."    (Also in Admiralty Inlet.—C. F. N.)
Acer circinatum Pursh.    (Vine Maple.)
" Sugar Maple " of M.    Admiralty Inlet, etc.
Acer Douglasii Hook.    (Mountain Maple.)
Admiralty Inlet, etc.
Acer macrophyllum Pursh.    (Broadleaf Maple.)
1 Sycamore or Great Maple " of M.    Port Discovery,
Achlys triphylla (Smith) DC.    (May Apple.)
Achillea millefolium L.    (Yarrow.)
Aconitum delphinifolitjm DC.    (Monkshood.)
Allium acuminatum Hook.    (Wild Onion.)    ■£*?*■
1 Nootka."
Allium recticulatum Fraser.
I Nootka."    (The plant so named by. Hooker is prob- £-\
ably A. Geyeri Wats.—C. F. N.)
Alnus Oregon a Nutt.    (Red Alder.)
" American Alder " of Menzies. *
Amsinckia intermedia Fisch. & Meyer. Ferns and Flowering Plants.
Echium Menziesii Lehmann.
Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) B. & H.
Antennaria marg.    (Peacly Everlasting.)
Andromeda Polifolia L.    (Marsh .Andromeda.)
Nepean Sound, B.C.
Androsace ChamvEjasme Host.
" Islands of Behring's Straits."   (Probably not Menzies.
C. F. N.)
Anemone narcissiflora L.
Anthericum calyculatum.   See Tofieldia.
Arbutus Menziesii Pursh.    (Menzies' Arbutus.)
Port Discovery, Wash.    Jl. 117.    May 2nd, 1792.
" Strawberry Tree " of Menzies, I.e.
Arctostaphylos tomentosa (Pursh) Douglas.
Arbutus    tomentosa    Ph.      (Manzanita.)       (Bearberry.)
Probably the " glaucous arbutus" of the Journal, 117B,
at  Port  Discovery,   May,   1792.    (Common  there.—
C F. N.)
Arenaria laricifolia Pursh.    (Sandwort.)
Arenaria verna L.
" Columbia."
Arnica Menziesii Hook.
Near A. latifolia Bong., but considered to be distinct by
Kurtz, Flor. Chilcatgebietes, 389.    1894.
Artemisia norvegica Fries, var. pacifica Gray (Wormwood.)
A. chamissoniana Hook., l.c.
Aspidium.   See Polystichum.
Aster MENZiEsn Lindl.
" N.W. coast."    (Probably collected in California.—
C. F. N.)
Atriplex Gmelini C. A. Meyer.    (Orache.)
A. angustifolia Hook., l.c.
Atriplex   zoster,efolia   (Hook.)   Watson.   (Narrow
Chenofrodium zosterifolia Hook., l.c.
Azalea procumbens.   See Loiseleuria.
Bahia artemislefolia Less.
Berberis Aquifolium Pursh.    (Oregon Grape.)
Berberis nervosa Pursh.
Berberis glumacea DC.
n. I., 329.
Fl. n., 119.
FI. I., 18.
Pursh, I., 282.
A. procera,
B.B., 21, t.
B.B.  1791.
Pursh, I., 282.
Fl. II., 30,
t. 130.
Fl. I., 98.
FI. I., 99.
Fl. I., 331,
t.   111.
Fl. I., 324.
FL II., 12.
Fl. II., 128.
FI. II., 127.
Fl., 115.
Fl. I., 29.
B.B-,t. 1425.
E.B.  I., 29.
B.R., t. 1426. 134
Menzies' Journal.
Fl. II., 92,
t. 167.
Fl. II., 92,
t.   168.
Fl. I., 223,
t.  70.
Fl.  I., 22.
Fl.   I.,  22,
t.  10.
Fl. II., 27.
Fl. II., 216.
Fl. II., 215,
t. 216.
FL, i.e., t. 27.
Fl. II., 214.
Fl. II., 37,
t. 131.
Fl. II., 105.
Fl. I.. 125.
Fl.  I., 125.
Fl. I., 104.
Fl. II., 165.
Betula occidentalis Hook.    (Western Birch.)
Birch Bay, Washington, was named after this tree,
which is mentioned as occurring there by Vancouver
and Menzies.    The species was named from specimens
collected in the same locality by Scouler.
Boschniakia glabra C. A. Meyer.    (Broom Rape.)
Boschniakia Hookeri Walp.
(Orobanche tuberosa Hook.)
Brodicea.    See Hookera.
Calandrinia Menziesii Hook.
" North-west coast of America, south of the-Columbia."
Calt.ha biflora DC.    (Marsh Marigold.)
" Banks'   Isles   on   the   North-west   coast   of   America.
Caltha leptosepala DC. ||||
Calypso bulbosa Oakes.    B.M. 54, t. 2763.
Port Discovery, near the ship, May 3rd.
" Cypripedium. bulbosum " of Menz. MS.
Campanula linifolia A. DC.    (Harebell.)
".Port Wentworth and Sledge Island."
Carex Gmelini Hook.    (Sedge.)
Carex macrocephala Willd.
Carex Mertensii Prescott.
Carex ovalis Good.
I Columbia River.    Menzies."
Cassiope Stelleriana (Pall.) DC.
" North-west coast, probably Banks' Islands."
Castilleja pallida (L.) Kunth.  (White Painter's Brush.)
Ceanothus L/EVIGAtus Hook.    (Sticky Laurel.) £^y
"Nootka."    Hooker.    (Port Discovery & Puget Sound.
Menz. in Journ.)
Ceanothus thyrsifiorus Esch.    (California Lilac.)
(Probably Californian.—C. F. N.)
Cerastium arvense L.    (Meadow Chickweed.)
" Columbia.    Mr. Menzies."
Cham^ecyparis nutkatensis (Lambert) Spach.    (Yellow
As Cupressus Nutkanus Lambert.
" Nutka.   Mr. Menzies."
The " new species of Thuya" found by Menzies in«
Burke Channel in Boxer Reach near Gribbell Island,
and at Kildala Arm, Kitimat.
£^ ChimapJiila Menziesii (R.Br.)   Spreng.    Menzies* Wintergreen.      From Hooker, Flor.
Bor.-Amer., IL, PI. 136.    1S34.  Ferns and Flowering Plants.
Chenopodium.   See Atriplex.
Chimaphila Menziesh (R. Br.) Spreng.
Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Nutt.    (Prince's Pine.)
Chrysanthemum nanum Hook.    (Ox-eye Daisy.)
Not recognized by recent writers.    C.  areticum was
found by Krause in Lynn Canal and by McEvoy in
Observatory Inlet.
Cladothamnus pyrol^eflorus Bong.
Tolmiea occidcntalis Hook.
Claytonia.    See Montia.
Clintonia uniflora (Schult.) Kunth.
Smilacina uniflora Menz.    Hook., l.c.
Near Port Stewart, Alaska.    Menzies.    Also in Kildala
Arm, Kirimat, 1793.    Fol. 321.
"Draccena borealis, var." of Menzies.)
" California, 1792;"
Coptis aspleniifolia Salisb.    (Gold Thread.)
Cornus Nuttallii Audub.    (Nuttall's Dogwood.)
" Great Flowering Dogwood."    Admiralty Inlet, etc.
Cornus canadensis L.    (Canadian Dogwood.)
Admiralty Inlet, etc. v
Cornus Occident ales (T. & G.) Coville.    (Western Dogwood.)
C. alba Hook.
The " Common Dogwood " of the Journal, fol. 138.
Admiralty Inlet, etc.
Cornus suecica L.
Burke Channel, B.C.    Menzies, Journ. MS., fol. 354.
Corylus californica (A. DC.) Rose.    (Hazel.)
The Hazel frequently noted by Menzies in Admiralty
Inlet.    Fol. 138, etc.
Crataegus brevispina Douglas.    (Hawthorn.)
The Hawthorn noticed by Menzies at Cape Mudge, B.C.
Cryptogram ma acrostichoides R. Br.       ^-    /^s
" Nootka Sound."
Cupressus.   See Thuya and Chamaecyparis.
Cypripedium bulbosum Menzies.    See Calypso.
Delphinium Menziesii DC.    (Menzies' Larkspur.)
" Hab. in Nova-Georgia."
Fl.  II.,  49,
t. 138.
Fl.   II., 49.
Fl. I., 320.
Fl.  II.,  45.
Fl. II.,
t. 190.
B.M., t. 2895.
Fl. I.,
t. 11.
F.B. I.
FI. II., 264.
Fl. I., 25.
B.R.,   t.  1192. 136
Menzies' Journal.
Fl. I., 46.
Fl. I., 35.
Fl. II., 174,
t. 189.
Fl. I., 55.
Fl. I., 81.
Fl. II.,
t. 204.
Fl. II.,
t.   2942
Bot. Mag.  94,
tab.  5714.
Fl. II., 182.
Fl.   l.c.
Dent ari a tenella Pursh.    (Pepper Root.)
As D. tenuifolia Ledeb.
I Banks of the Columbia."
Dicentra Formosa (Andr.) DC.    (Dutchman's Breeches.)
" Nootka Sound."
Disporum Smithii (Hook.) Piper.    (Fairy Bells.)       /^Jc
Uvularia Smithii Hook., l.c.
1 Nutka Sound."
Draba incana L. var. b. Hooker.    (Whitlow Grass.)
Dracaena borealis of Menzies.    See Clintonia.
Drosera anglica Hudson.    (Sundew.)
D. longifolia.    Nepean Sound, 1793. yiHi
Drosera rotundifolia L.
Echium Menziesii Lehm.    See Amsinckia.
Teakern Arm, Redonda Island, B.C.
Empetrum nigrum L.    (Crowberry.)
Nepean Island, B.C., and Burke Channel.
Epilobium minutum Lindl.
Epipactis decipiens (Hook.) Ames.    (Rattlesnake Plantain.)
Spiranthes decipiens Hook.
Goodyera Menziesii Lindl.
Erigeron salsuginosus (Richardson) Gray.
Aster salsuginosus Hook.
Erythronium giganteum Lindl.    (Large White Dogtooth
E. grandiflorum var. g., albiflorum Hook.
E. giganteum Baker.
" Fort Vancouver. Menzies." There is an obvious
error here, for Menzies did not visit the Columbia
River. Broughton, in the Chatham, surveyed the
Columbia River from the 21st of October to the
10th of November, 1792. It was too late in the season
then for the finding of this plant. It is common in the
northern part of Admiralty Inlet.
Erythronium revolutum Smith.    (Pink Dogtooth Lily.)
E. grandiflorum, var. d., Smithii Hook.
" King George's Sound.    Menzies."
A purple-flowered species of wide range along the coast
of Vancouver Island and reaching the mainland at the
head of Kingcome Inlet.    (C. F. N.,  1917.)    Specimens   from   the   following   localities   touched   at   by TAB CZtXJOl
Qentiana Douglasiana Bongard.    Douglas' Gentian.    From a drawing by Menzies in Hook.,
Flor. Bor.-Amer., II., PI. 146.    1837.  Ferns and Flozvering Plants.
Menzies have been seen:   Nootka, Cape Mudge, and
near " Cheslakees " village at the mouth of the Nimkish
Eschscholzla californica Cham.
"Monterey, Calif., 1792."
Eutoca Menziesii R. Br.   See Phacelia.
Fatsia horrtda (Smith) B. & H.    (Devil's Club.)
Panax horridum Smith & Hook., l.c.
Fragaria chilcensis (L.) Duch.
F. BRACTEATA Heller, etc.    (Strawberries.)
Strawberries are frequently mentioned by Menzies in
his journal, but do not appear in the published records.
The above are common in the places mentioned by
Fraxinus OREGANA Nutt. Sylva 3, 59, t. 99. (Oregon Ash.)
Admiralty Inlet, etc. . >
Fritillaria lanceolata Pursh.
" Nutka Sound. Menzies." In his Journal, under date
June 8th, Menzies speaks of the " Saranne root"
(Lilium camtscatcense L.) as occurring on one of the
islands of the San Juan group, probably Orcas. Both
species are credited to this region by Piper, Flora of
Washington", p. 192.
Garrya elliptica Douglas.    (Quinine Bush.)
" California."
Gaultheria Shallon Pursh.    (Salal.)
(" A. Menzies ...» the first discoverer of this
Gentiana Douglasiana Bong. var. patens Hook.
Gentiana Menziesii Griseb.
Menzies records the. discovery of two new Gentians in
mountains bordering on Nepean Sound, B.C. This is
in latitude 530 10', nearly the same as that at which the
editor collected G. platyphylla, the species most like G.
Menziesii, according to Grisebach.
Geum calthifolium Menzies.    (Mountain Avens.)
G. radiatum Hook., l.c.
GiLiA inconspicua (Smith) Douglas.e
Described from plants grown from seed received in
1793. (Probably collected at Monterey in 1792 by
Menzies.—C. F. N.)
Gnaphalium chilense Spreng.
B.B., t. 1168.
B.M., t. 2887.
Fl. I., 273,
t.  98.
Fl. II., 181,
t. 193,  B.
,  143
B.B. 1686.
, 59.
FI. I., 177.
B.M., t. 2883.
Fl. I., 328. 138
Menzies' Journal.
FI. I., 211.
Fl. II., 198.
Fl. II., 199.
Fl. II., 196.
Fl. II., 197
FI. II., 186.
B.B.,  t.  1639.
FI. II.,
t. 198,
Fl. II., 186.
Fl. I., 134.
FI. II.,
Fl. II.,
Fl. II., 44.
G. luteo-album Hook., l.c.
" North California, Menzies. Straits of de Fuca,
Godetia purpurea (Donn) 'Watson.
CEnothera purpurea Hook., l.c.
Goodyera Menziesii.    See Epipactis decipiens.
Habenaria   gracilis   (Lindl.)    Watson.    (Slender   Bog
Platanthera gracilis Hook., l!c.
Habenaria graminea (Lindl.).
Platanthera graminea Hook., l.c.
Habenaria obtusata (Pursh) Richardson.
Platanthera obtusata Hook., l.c.
Habenaria Menziesii (Lindl.)    (Menzies' Orchis.)
Platanthera Menziesii Hook., l.c.
Closely resembles H. orbiculata (Pursh) Torrey.
Hookera coRONARiA Salis. Parad.   Lond., t. 98.    (False
Brodicea grandiflora Smith in Hook., l.c.
I New Georgia.   Menzies."
Hookera hyacinthina  (Lindl.)    Kuntze.    (Wild Hyacinth.)
Hesperoscordon Lewisii Lindl., Hook., l.c.
Hookera pulchella Salisb.
Brodiaea congesta Smith.    Tr. Linn. S., 10, t. 1.
New Georgia.    Smith.
Hosackia parviflora Benth. '
" California. Menzies." (More likely from Admiralty
Inlet, where it is common at the dates Menzies was
there.—C. F. N.)
Juncus balticus Willd.    (Rush.)
Juncus falcatus E. Meyer.
/. Menziesii R. Br. MS.
Kalmia polifolia Wangh.    (American laurel.)
K. glauca Menzies.
Nepean Sound, B.C., 1793.
Ledum groenlandicum CEder.    (Labrador Tea.)
L. palustre and L. latifolium Menzies, MS., fol. 3266.
Nepean Sound, B.C. Gathered in quantities as a substitute for tea. Also mentioned by Vancouver at same
time.   (IL, 299.)   Hook., I.e., also credits Menzies with  140
Menzies' Journal.
Fl.  II.
Fl. II., 86.
Fl. n
, 100.
t. 1501.
Fl. II., 49.
Fl.  I., 224,
t.   72.
Fl. I.,
Fl. I.,
Fl.  I.,
t. 74.
t.   1336.
t.   1309.
Fl. n., 160.
Fl. II., 79.
Menziesia ferruginea Smith.
," In Americae borealis tractu occidentali copiosissime
crescit." Collected by Menzies. Sir J. E. Smith established the new genus and species in the work quoted
and dedicated them to the tireless traveller and botanist
from whom he had received the specimens. These were
collected during Menzies' first visit to the North-west
coast.    Burke Channel, B.C., Journal, fol. 354.
Menyanthes crista-galli Menz.
Hook., Bot. Misc. IL, 45. (The plate from a drawing by Menzies.)
Menyanthes trifoliata L.    (Buckbean.)
Teakerne Arm, Redonda Island, B.C.
Mertensia maritima L.    (Sea Lungwort.)
Lithospermum maritimum Hook., l.c.
Micromeria DouGLASii Benth.    (Yerba Buena.)
Mimulus Langsdorrfii Donn.
"Nootka   and   California."    Doubtless   collected   by
Menzies, as it is a very common plant along the whole
coast of British Columbia.
Monotropa Hypopitys L.    (Pine Sap.)
M. lanuginosa.
Monti a parvifolia (Moc.) Greene.    (Spring Beauty.)   \
Claytonia filicaulis Hooker.
" Nootka  and  Queen  Charlotte  Islands,  July,   1787.
Mr. Menzies."
Montia perfoliata (Donn) Howell.
Claytonia perfoliata. W^ki
" First discovered by Mr. Menzies."
Montia sibirica (L.) Howell.
Claytonia alsinoidcs Sims.
Montia spathulata (Dougl.) Howell.
Claytonia spathulata Hook.
Myrica californica Cham.   (Sweet Gale.)
Myrica Gale L.    (Sweet Gale.)
Kitimat Arm, B.C.,    " Perfuming the marshes."
Nemophila Menziesii Hook. & Arn.
Nemophila parviflora Dougl.
" California.    Mr. Menzies."    Common in Admiralty
Inlet and Puget Sound.
\ Menyanthes crista-galli Menzies.    From Hook., Bofc Miscell., I., PI. 24.    1S28.
(Drawing by Menzies.) 142
Menzies' Journal.
Fl. II., 105.
Fl. I., 120,
t. 41.
B. Misc. I.,
43, t. 23.
Fl. I., 60.
Fl. II., 107.
Fl. II., 95.
B.M., 3645.
B.B., t. 1132.
Fl. II.) 98.
B.H., t. 1217.
Fl. II., 96.
B.M., t. 6834.
B.M., t. 3762.
Fl. II., 79.
B.B., t. 1180.
Tr., 294.
same custom at Port Mulgrave, Yakutat, Alaska. Many
other writers also speak of this native tobacco, but,
so far, no satisfactory identification of its species has
come to hand.
The possibility of the tobacco collected by Menzies on
the Pacific coast having been found by him at Trinidad
Harbour must not be overlooked. He went ashore there
with Vancouver on May 2nd, 1793. It was this port
that in June, 1775, the Spanish expedition under Heceta
noted that the natives smoked tobacco in small wooden
pipes in the form of a trumpet and procured it from
little gardens where they had planted it. ("Barrington,'
D. Miscellanies, Lond., p. 489. 1789.)
Unfortunately, Menzies' own account of Trinidad is
missing from his Journal.
Orthocarpus tenuifolius Benth.
Pachystima myrsinites (Pursh)  Raf.    (Evergreen Box
Myginda myrtifolia Hook.
Parnassia fimbriata Koenig.    (Grass of Parnassus.)
Panax.    See Fatsia.
Parrya Menziesii (Hook.) Greene.
Hesperis Menziesii Hook.
I California.    Mr. Menzies."
Pedicularis Menziesii Benth.    (Menzies' Lousewort.)
"-Not clearly identified."    Gray.
Pedicularis parviflora Smith.
P. Wlassoviana Stev. iMtfk
Pentstemon diffusus Dougl.
Pentstemon Menziesii Hook.
" Nootka Sound. Menzies, 1788." This plant grows
freely near the sea on some of the rocky islands.
(C. F. N.)
Pentstemon Scouleri Lindl.
Phacelia Menziesii (Brown) Hook.
Eutoca Menziesii.    (Scorpion Weed.)
" California Mr. Menzies."    It also occurs on Whid-
bey Island and some of the islands in the Strait of
Georgia.    (C. F. N.)
Philadelphus Sp.    (Syringa, Mock Orange.) Parnassia fltnoriaia Konig.    From Hook., Bot. Miscell., I., PI. 23.    1828.
(Drawing by Menzies.) 154
Menzies' Journal.
June 16,
de Nuika.
Their range extended from the entrance of the Strait
of Fuca to Puget Sound and as far north as Nanaimo. In
the greater part of this area they overlapped the region in
which the hair of the mountain-goat was used in a similar
Cook thought that the woollen garments noted by him
at Nootka were made of the wool of different animals, " as
the fox and brown lynx," and it appears from Penn?nt's
note under " Sheep, Argali," in his Arctic Zoology, I., p
that a piece of this cloth was taken back to England,
that the wool resembled that under the hair of the musl -ox,
and that it was of a pale-brown colour. This, perhat ;, is
the earliest suggestion of the mountain-goat, which wa; not
known to be distinct from the mountain-sheep until >me
years later. Haswell in 1778-9 and Mozino in 1792 ilso
speak of the wool of the mountain-sheep as used in blai °ts.
But the nearest approach to the true nature of the ai nal
source of the wool most commonly used by natives o the
North-west Coast was made by Vancouver and Menzies
in 1793, when they saw at a village not far from Bella
Bella the skins of the animal " from which the fine white
wool comes." It had small straight horns and was therefore supposed to be an unknown goat. The animal at this
time was said to be high up in the mountains, but used
to come down in winter. Menzies adds that at Nootka
and Whannoh (i.e., the Nimpkish village) the natives were
ignorant as to the animal " which they procured by barter
from the" natives inland." (Menzies' Journ., under date
June 16th, 1793.) It was probably from this locality that
Vancouver procured the mutilated skin which Richardson
refers to under " Mountain-goat, Capra americana," in his
Fauna Boreali-Americana, p. 268.
Two kinds of loom were used by the natives of the
coast visited by Menzies in 1792. The simpler one consists
of three sticks, two of which are set up vertically and
support the third one in a horizontal position. The warp
is fastened to the latter and weaving is carried on from side
to side without the use of any other appliance than the
fingers. This was well described by Mozino at Nootka and
is the same with that used by the Chilcat Indians in the •      Blanket-making, showing spinning and weaving on Vancouver Island.    From a
painting by Paul Kane.
Indian tomb, showing canoe form of burial.    From a drawing by H. J. Warre.     


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