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Report of the Ministry of Forests Year Ended December 31, 1978 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1979

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 Report of the Ministry of Forests
Year Ended December 31, 1978
Province of British Columbia
Ministry of Forests
Honourable T.M. Waterland, Minister
T.M. Apsey, Deputy Minister
 June 22, 1979
The Honourable Henry P. Bell-Irving, D.S.O., O.B.E.,
E.D., Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOUR:
Herewith I respectfully submit the Annual Report of
the Ministry of Forests for the year ended December
31,1978.
Yours truly,
T.M. Waterland
Minister
 June 22, 1979
The Honourable T.M. Waterland
Minister of Forests
Parliament Buildings
Victoria, B.C.
Sir:
I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the
Ministry of Forests for the year ended December 31,
1978. J
Yours truly,
T.M. Apsey
Deputy Minister
 Directory
Minister
Hon. T.M. Waterland, Victoria
Executive Committee
T.M. Apsey, Deputy Minister, Victoria
W. Young, Chief Forester, Victoria
R. Robbins, Assistant Deputy Minister (Operations), Victoria
W.G. Bishop, Assistant Deputy Minister (Timber and Range
Management), Victoria
P.J.J. Hemphill, Assistant Deputy Minister (Support Services), Victoria
Staff Consultant
J.A.K. Reid, Victoria
Special Forestry Advisor
E.L Young, Victoria
Staff Division Heads
J.B. Bruce, Director, Reforestation Division, Victoria
J.H. Carradice, Manager, Training Services Division, Surrey
F. Hegyi, Acting Director, Inventory Division, Victoria
CJ. Highsted, Director, Planning Division, Victoria
E. Knight, Director, Strategic Studies Division, Victoria
L.W. Lehrle, Director, Engineering Division, Victoria
R.W. Long, Ministry Comptroller, Victoria
E.H. Lyons, Director, Information Services Division, Victoria
J. Milroy, Director, Range Management Division, Victoria
D.H. Owen, Director, Protection Division, Victoria
A.B. Robinson, Director, Timber Management Division, Victoria
R.L. Schmidt, Acting Director, Research Division, Victoria
R.D. Thomas, Director, Valuation Division, Victoria
F. Towler, Director of Data Processing, Victoria
L.G. Underwood, Director, Personnel Services Division, Victoria
Regional Managers
J.A. Biickert, Prince Rupert Region, Prince Rupert
D. Grant, Prince George Region, Prince George
M.G. Isenor, Nelson Region, Nelson
J.R. Johnston, Kamloops Region, Kamloops
J.A.D. McDonald, Cariboo Region, Williams Lake
A.C. MacPherson, Vancouver Region, Vancouver
 Contents
Deputy Minister's Report
Introduction      8
Financial Picture     9
Major Achievements  10
The New Legislation  12
Ministry Reorganization   14
Resource Analysis Task Force  15
Divisional Reports
Planning    18
Inventory  19
Research    20
Reforestation  21
Protection  24
Range Management  27
Valuation    28
Engineering   29
Training Services    31
Systems and Data Services 32
Information Services  33
Strategic Studies  34
Outlook    35
Detailed Statistics  38
  Deputy Minister's Report
i
 Introduction
Ministry of Forests nurseries are now
producing 100 million seedlings a year to
replenish British Columbia's renewable
resource.
The year 1978 was a good one for British Columbia, and for its forest
and ranching industries. It was also a particularly productive year for
the Forest Service, which received a new legislative mandate and an
official upgrading in status to that of a Ministry in its own right. Forthe
newly reconstituted Ministry of Forests, the year is thus destined to go
down as marking the turning point in its history, and the beginning of a
crucial period of transition during which the full implications of the new
Forest Act, Range Act, and Ministry of Forests Act will be
systematically worked out and implemented throughout the province.
Like all such periods, this one promises to be both challenging and
stimulating — and also, at times, beset with troubles, as new or
refurbished enterprises invariably are. Both the excitement and the
stresses were very much in evidence during 1978. It is a year which
will be long remembered, not merely among the Ministry's personnel,
but also by the province's forest and livestock industries, and its
employees.
 The Financial Picture
On the whole, the year was a good one for the forest industry, as the
upward economic trend which began in 1977 continued unabated. The
strength of the industry's performance is indicated by the fact that the
total of the Ministry's direct revenue from stumpage and other sources
more than doubled during the year, soaring from the 1977 total of
some $83 million to almost $184 million. At the same time, the
amounts charged against logging operations increased by a
staggering 171 percent, from last year's $85 million to a record $232
million. The total timber harvest expanded from last year's record 69.9
million cubic metres to a new record of 75.1 million cubic metres.
There was a marked decline in the export of raw timber, from 1.01
million cubic metres in 1977 to 680,000 cubic metres in 1978.
On Crown rangelands, which are also the responsibility of the
Ministry, unfavourable weather conditions caused a poor year for the
production of beef. Direct income from grazing leases and other
licensing and permit fees totalled almost $560,000. Some 41 million
kilograms of beef were produced in the province, of which 18 million
kilograms were produced on Crown ranges. Since beef prices almost
doubled, rising to an average of better than $1.35 per kilogram, the
industry enjoyed a prosperous year, if not a particularly productive
one. The prospects for 1979 will depend on the province's weather,
along with fluctuations of the national and world marketplace, but
prices will almost certainly continue to rise and the industry is in a
generally healthy condition.
250
200
■
150
100
'     ll
III
1974   1975   1976   1977   1978
Five year summary of direct forest revenue in
millions of dollars.
British Columbia's forest revenue is still
dependent on the skill and tenacity of the men
and women employed in the public and private
forestry sector.
 10
Major Achievements
At the Ministry's Koksilah Nursery on
Vancouver Island, water spray techniques are
used to inhibit premature pollination by
lowering the air temperature. The Ministry's
objective is to regularly produce a higher
quality seed such as the Douglas Fir seed
pictured above.
During the year the primary concerns of the Ministry's field staff were
the Reforestation and Silviculture Programs. Under the impetus of the
new legislation, this emphasis will become even greater in the future.
During 1978, the Ministry was particularly active in silviculture.
Supported by funds from the provincial revenue surplus of 1977-78,
made available under the Intensive Forest Management Program,
there was a considerable increase in standtending activities,
particularly in the Interior. The rate of thinning was actually doubled in
some areas, and the Ministry's first large-scale operational
forest-fertilization project was successfully completed. A rapid
expansion also took place in the Seed Orchard Program, with several
new orchards commencing operations during the year. Others were
under construction or in the planning stages, and continuing
expansion in this area was heralded by the introduction of the
Cooperative Government/Industry Tree Improvement Proposal.
The Coastal seed orchards produced almost 70 kilograms of seed in
1978; and this, in conjunction with the more than 5,000 hectolitres of
cones gathered in the course of the Ministry's cone collections,
provided what would normally be a better-than-adequate stock for use
in the tree nurseries. Under the pressure of heavy demands from
nursery personnel, however, some 1,200 kilograms of seed had to be
processed ahead of schedule for 1979 sowing, thus straining the
available facilities to the utmost. Nursery facilities were also stretched
to their limits by a record spring sowing of 97 million seedlings.
Although the Ministry spent $650,000 on upgrading nursery facilities
during the year, it is plain that new construction must be initiated if B.C.
is to meet expanding demands in the future.,
The total number of seedlings planted under the Reforestation
Program dropped to just under 60 million in 1978, a decline of 6 million
from the 1977 figure. The drop was due in part to frost damage in the
nurseries, and in part to unusually dry weather which limited the use of
broadcast burning for site-preparation. In all, some 20,000 hectares
were prepared for planting, a decrease of 4,500 hectares from the
previous year. In contrast, thanks to increased mechanization, the
area prepared for natural regeneration increased by one-third, to
almost 32,000 hectares. Further increases are anticipated in the
future.
During the summer, forestry operations were severely curtailed by
fire hazards, as extensive lightning-strikes following a dry winter
created a difficult year for the Protection Division. More than half the
year's fires broke out over a single one-month period, from July 15 to
August 15, and many were in areas not readily accessible to
firefighting crews. As a result, the direct costs of fire suppression were
unusually high — $11.8 million as compared to the ten-year average of
$6.8 million. Some 50,000 hectares of forest cover were destroyed by
the 2,308 fires which broke out in the province, causing a loss of
almost 4 million cubic metres of timber, valued at $11.5 million.
Damage to other kinds of property was some $1.35 million, and the
total loss to the provincial economy is estimated at well over $250
million. During the year, the Division initiated a new system of auditing
all major fire-suppression actions and their costs, in the hope of
improving the already-admirable record of its crews.
Some $2.1 million, or 20 percent of the total Protection budget, went
to the Pest Control Program, in the hope of reducing the more than 16
million cubic metres of timber British Columbia loses each year to
pests and disease. During 1978, serious damage was inflicted by the
mountain pine beetle and the spruce bark beetle, and the Ministry's
researchers, working in conjunction with the Canadian Forest Service,
achieved promising results in developing new organic techniques to
bring this scourge under control.
 11
No additional construction projects were initiated during the year by
the Engineering Division, although many Ministry facilities were
upgraded to bring them into line with the latest legislative requirements
and safety codes.
In particular, work under the Forest Roads Development Program
was confined to routine maintenance and upgrading, along with the
reconstruction or relocation of significant stretches of road in several
parts of the province.
The length of developed hiking trails was augmented and totalled
2,144 kilometres by the end of 1978. Crown forests and rangelands
continued to serve as popular sources of recreation, and the 978
recreation sites operated by the Ministry were utilized by more than 1.3
million visitors in the course of the year. One noteworthy trend was the
increasing use of forests for winter recreations such as snowmobiling
and long-distance skiing, a comparatively recent development.
Important changes were introduced at the administrative and
planning levels of the forest management process. In particular, a new
system of determining Annual Allowable Cuts by means of
computerized Yield-Analysis calculations was introduced. The new
system, which will result in greatly increased flexibility, utilizes as a
basis the newly-defined Timber Supply Area (T.S.A.) in place of the
old P.S.Y.U., and by the end of 1978 the majority of the province's
T.S.A.'s has been formally defined. The new process is scheduled to
become fully operational by the end of 1980.
Improved techniques of inventorying the province's forest resources
were also introduced, notably in the Level 4 Trial Inventory of nine
selected watersheds. The new methods will make the Ministry's future
inventories more comprehensive and more flexible, taking a
broadened range of ecological factors more fully into account. In June,
a new computerized mapping system became operational; though it
will not be fully functional until 1979, it will eventually eliminate much
tedious hand-mapping work, and speed up the processing of maps
and inventories considerably.
The process of conversion to the metric standard continued
throughout the year, and was completed January 1,1979. The
introduction of new financial control concepts at the Regional and
Divisional levels will result in more efficient budgeting, and an increase
in cost/benefit ratios. A general restructuring of internal/external
communications was initiated throughout the Ministry.
During the year the Ministry released two major new films for outside
consumption. Noteworthy among these was "Phase Three", the
Ministry's first motion picture designed specifically for television, which
gave several hundred thousand viewers a basic introduction to
intensive forestry techniques. Also highly successful was ForesTalk,
the Ministry's resource magazine, which continued to grow in
popularity. The Ministry's newsletter, Foresf Service News, commenced
monthly publication in June. It will have a vital function to perform in
coming years, serving as a major source of information for employees
throughout the province.
Winter recreation on forest land is increasing
each year.
 12
The New Legislation
The new legislation emphasises integrated use
of the province's forest resources in all areas,
such as recreation, and encourages greater
efforts towards intensive forest mangement,
such as this aerial fertilization project at
Sayward on Vancouver Island.
The Forest Act, the Range Act, and the Ministry of Forests Act together
form a unified package of legislation which was enacted to replace the
much-amended Forest Act of 1912, and the Grazing Act of 1919,
under which the Forest Service operated. Besides formally upgrading
the Forest Service to the level of the Ministry in its own right, these
three acts also establish the new Ministry of Forests on a firm
legislative footing. For the first time, they provide it with a clearly
defined mandate specifying both its functions and its goals.
The basic terms of this mandate are set forth in Section 5 of the
Ministry of Forests Act, as follows:
"The purpose and functions of the Ministry are, under the direction of
the Minister,
(a) to encourage the attainment of maximum productivity of the
Forest and Range resources in the province.
(b) to manage, protect and conserve the Forest and Range resources
of the Crown, having regard to the immediate and long-term
economic and social benefits they may confer on the province.
(c) to plan the use of the Forest and Range resources of the Crown,
so that the production of timber and forage, the harvesting of
timber, the grazing of livestock and the realization of fisheries,
wildlife, water, outdoor recreation and other natural resource
values are coordinated and integrated, in consultation and
cooperation with other ministeries and agencies of the Crown and
with the private sector.
(d) to encourage a vigorous, efficient and world-competitive timber
processing industry in the province, and
(e) to assert the financial interest of the Crown in its Forest and
Range resources in a systematic and equitable manner."
Toward the furtherance of these ends, the Forest Act and the Range
Act give the Ministry full authority for the coordinated management of
all Crown forest and range resources in the province. In addition, they
systematically redefine the overall framework for the continuing
partnership of public and private interests in resource management.
They do so by spelling out in detail a new, revised system of licenses
and permits to replace the old system which was still largely in effect
during 1978. The new system has been carefully designed to provide
 13
while penalizing those which violate the standards set by the Ministry.
The two acts also establish an innovative new appeal procedure for
companies or individuals.
The Forest Act, in particular, reaffirms the policy of multiple
land-use. It makes provision for the establishment of Provincial
Forests, in order to guarantee both continuity of use and protection of
the intensive management investment in areas best suited for timber
production. It contains provisions to ensure that Allowable Annual Cut
calculations will henceforth take social and economic needs into
account, as well as purely biological factors. It is specifically designed
to protect small, independent businesses, along with the local
manufacture of finished products from cut timber; but it also increases
the flexibility of procedures for exporting raw logs or chips wherever
they are surplus to local needs. Above all, it clearly enunciates the
rights, responsibilities and obligations of all those involved in the
management of Crown forest lands, in a fashion designed to
encourage the full and balanced utilization of British Columbia's timber
resources.
The new Range Act was framed in the same spirit. It is designed to
promote a cooperative approach to range management. The rancher
is offered long-term licences, in return for participation in improved
multiple-use management of his own private lands in combination with
Crown rangelands.
Under the Ministry of Forests Act, the Ministry is empowered to enter
into any desirable agreements or cooperative arrangements with the
federal government, the governments of other provinces, and other
agencies, both public and private. It is also charged with establishing a
Forest Research Council to coordinate research in the province, and to
sponsor grants for research and for forestry education.
All three acts together lay the groundwork for another historic
process: the systematic decentralization of administrative authority
and functions within the new Ministry. The new acts spell out in detail
where decisions are to be made. A major thrust throughout is the
decentralization of decision-making. The goal is to have all forest and
range-management decisions made as close as possible to the field,
thereby making for increased efficiency and flexibility.
The new Range Act promotes a
cooperative approach to range
management activities.
jm0m®***&* *m
■*. -  irtt£-
 14
The Ministry's new organizational structure is
designed to decentralize all practical
decision-making close as possible to field
operations, while policy, support and guidance
is obtained from Ministry Headquarters in
Victoria.
Ministry Reorganization
The new Ministry of Forests Act provides for a comprehensive
reorganization of the entire Ministry. The reorganization is intended to
bring about decentralization required by the new Forest and Range
Acts. Though passed in June, 1978, the Act did not formally come into
force until January 1,1979, when it was officially proclaimed by the
Lieutenant-Governor. Thus 1978 was the last year in which the old
framework of administrative Divisions and Forest Districts remained
entirely in place. Over the coming year, the former "Divisions" will be
renamed "Branches" and the "Forest Districts" will become "Forest
Regions", each subdivided into five to nine Districts. The familiar figure
of the "Forest Ranger" will become a "District Manager". Further
details of the new, restructured Ministry will be discussed in a later
section (see "Outiook", page 35), and in a comprehensive report to be
issued in 1979.
The Ministry's 1978 activities in this area were entirely concerned
with advance planning for the new structure. A Reorganization
Working Committee was appointed. All employees were encouraged
to participate in its deliberations, and meetings were held at every level
of the Ministry. Various reports and studies were conducted and
analyzed. Detailed discussions were held with representatives of
concerned unions, professional and technical associations, along with
the corporate sector of the forest and beef production industries.
By year's end, a comprehensive proposal for a new Ministry
organizational structure had been formulated. The first steps in its
implementation are scheduled to take place in 1979.
 Resource Analysis Task Force
15
A special Resource Analysis and Program Task Force was created to
produce the first in the series of comprehensive province-wide
Resource Analysis and Five-Year Forest and Range Programs,
as required under sections 8 and 9 of the new Ministry of Forests Act.
Both these have specific statutory dates attached to them, requiring
that they be presented to Cabinet no later than September 30,1979.
The work involved in preparing both will be considerable, and they
rank among the Ministry's highest-priority projects for the latter part of
1978 and the first three quarters of 1979.
The Forest and Range Resource Analysis is to be submitted every ten
years, after an initial five-year interval following the 1979 submission. Its
purpose is to provide the provincial government with an overall
framework for long-range resource-management planning, as
required by the new Forest and Range Acts. In particular, it must
contain a comprehensive inventory of all the province's forest and
range resources, specifying their current extent and productive status,
along with an assessment of both domestic and foreign market
opportunities for B.C. timber and timber products. Also included must
be a discussion of anticipated economic trends, a summary of public
policy developments in the light of their potential influence on
resource-management, and a listing of all significant Ministry
programs in this area, with extrapolations of their long-range
economic and environmental impact.
The Forest and Range Resource Analysis the
Ministry is required to carry out every ten years
will contain an up-to-date inventory of all forest
and range resources in the province, and their
current condition.
In contrast, the first of a new series of Five-Year Forest and
Range Resource Programs are to be submitted annually — each, as its
title indicates, will cover a five-year period. Each must indicate a wide
variety of feasible alternate multiple-use programs for managing the
province's timber, forage, and recreational resources. The anticipated
effects of these must be specified, along with estimates of their
associated costs and benefits, and priorities assigned accordingly. On
the basis of this analysis, the Ministry is required to recommend its
own preferred Five-Year Program, which it is prepared to implement
over the period. This program must include an account of the methods
and priorities to be adopted in implementing it and a proposed
schedule for imnlementatinn alnno with a discussion nf the resnective
 16
roles to be played by the private and public sectors. Thus the
government will be able to assess the recommended program, and
modify or revise it if necessary.
Both the Resource Analysis Report and the Five-Year Resource
Management Program are to be submitted in addition to a new
revitalized Ministry annual report. As a result, the Ministry will be
routinely engaged in monitoring and reassessing its activities, in order
to ensure that both public and private resource-management agencies
are consistently serving the best interest of the province.
Together, these new programs represent perhaps the greatest
challenges that the Ministry personnel have ever faced. In 1978,
imposed on a busy staff already engaged in confronting the demands
of an active year, the programs were in many ways a disruptive
influence. But in the long run, the benefits they promise will be
incalculable. This year, 1978, was not just a good year, but a historic
one — for the Ministry and for the timber and range industries.
T.M. Apsey
Deputy Minister
  18
Planning
Ministry planners in cooperation with other
resource agencies gather valuable resource
data necessary for developing Integrated Use
Resource Plans.
Over one million people visit Ministry recreation
facilities such as this family at Raven Lake
Campsite in the Cariboo Forest Region.
The Planning Division's 1978 activities were dominated by the new
legislation. A primary task was to create the Resource Analysis and
Five-Year Forest and Range Program required by Sections 8 and 9 of
the Ministry of Forests Act. To achieve this, a Task Force composed of
persons from several Divisions was formed, under the leadership of
the Planning Division. The Task Force was charged to analyze the
current status of the Province's forest and range resources and to
identify opportunities for more effective use and enhancement. The
Task Force was also charged with preparation of a Five-Year Forest
and Range Resource Program. Both of these tasks are to
culminate in presentation of reports to Cabinet no later than
September 30,1979, and subsequent presentation to the Legislature
in the spring of 1980.
The new legislation also confirmed the 1976 Royal Commission
recommendation that the old method of calculating Allowable Annual
Cut by Public Sustained Yield Unit be replaced with a system of yield
analysis by Timber Supply Area, known as the Production Forecast
Method. The new yield-analysis approach to planning utilizes
sophisticated computer programs to generate projected yield
scenarios based on a wide range of alternative forest-management
strategies, so that the Ministry can determine the optimal strategy and
put it into operation. This year the beginning steps were made in this
historic change-over; considerable effort was devoted to creating
T.S.A.'s, and by year-end almost all those required under the new
mandate had been defined. The present schedule calls for the initial
program of yield-analysis by T.S.A. to be completely functional by the
end of 1980, and work toward this target will be among the Division's
highest priorities in 1979.
Another 1978 milestone was the publication and distribution of the
Planning Handbook, with a revised text incorporating the requirements of
the new Acts. Considerable efforts were made to increase public
involvement in planning at the unit and sub-unit levels throughout the
province, especially by inviting public advisory groups to participate in
planning sessions. The new legislation and its demands will continue
to be the primary concern of the Division in 1979.
Recreation
A total of 978 recreation sites were available to the year's complement
of visitors, along with 2,144 kilometres of developed hiking trails.
Twenty-eight new sites were opened during the year, while 57 minor
sites were placed on a 'user-maintained' basis. Some 1.3 million
visitors made use of these facilities, a slight reduction from the 1977
figure of 1.4 million.
By contrast, there was a continuing upswing in the number of visitors
involved in dispersed recreational activity, on the Province's Crown
forest and range lands. Much of the increase was in the winter months,
due to the public's increasing involvement in such activities as
snowmobiling and cross-country skiing. The Ministry will undoubtedly
become increasingly involved in the management of these activities in
future.
An important regulatory tool was introduced in 1978, in the form of a
Minister's Rule. This has the full force of a Regulation, and gives
Ministry personnel the authority to control undesirable or incompatible
activities on designated recreation trails and recreation sites.
In the course of the year, eight new recreation map brochures were
produced for the general public, along with a Recreation Manual for
the direction of Ministry staff. But the largest part of the available
energies of the recreational staff went into reorganizing the Recreation
Program in order to fit it into the framework of the Ministry's new
structure, and into redefining the Program in terms of the changes
 Inventory
19
During 1978, the Ministry's Inventory Division continued to discharge
its assigned task of maintaining a comprehensive province-wide
inventory of British Columbia's timber resources. Among the most
significant of its activities was the Level 4 Trial Inventory of nine
selected watersheds, five of them Coastal streams (the Ahta and
Nahatlatch Rivers and Potlatch, Pemberton, and Mehatl Creeks) and
four of them Interior watersheds (the Trinity Valley, the Yalakum River,
and McNulty and East Canoe Creeks). Between them, these cover a
total area of 195,989 hectares. For the first time, comprehensive
environmental data, ranging from soil-types to weather-conditions,
was included in the inventory. It is anticipated that this improved
format, which involved the Division's personnel in extensive forest
classification fieldwork as well as multistage sampling, will serve as a
pilot project for similar future inventories, rendering them considerably
more valuable in the long-range planning required under the new
Ministry of Forests Act.
In addition, the Division completed Environment Protection Area
mapping for 31 Public Sustained Yield Units around the province,
along with two Special Sale Areas, Dawson Creek and Prince George.
It also helped the Cariboo Region to reclassify disturbed fir and
lodgepole pine stands in the Cariboo portion of the Prince George
S.S.A., and its low-level fixed-base 70mm air photography facilities
demonstrated their value in providing assistance to the Managed
Stands Growth Section, as well as in several plantation performance
surveys conducted on behalf of the Reforestation Division.
The Natural Stands Growth Section measured a total of 264
separate plots, including both licensee and experimental plots, along
with some which were under attack by the spruce budworm. In
addition, it established 61 new growth-check plots, and worked to
develop new computer techniques. Meanwhile, the Managed Stands
Growth Section was active on the lower coast, performing
maintenance duties on 488 plots and remeasuring 346 more as part of
its Managed Stand Yield Program.
During 1978, this Division succeeded in processing and publishing
almost all of the 328 maps, along with accompanying statements and
unit reports, covering the more than 2 million hectares which were
inventoried in 1977. Of great significance in this regard was the
installation of a new computerized mapping system, the Interactive
Graphics Design System, which takes much of the manual work out of
mapping. Once the system is fully functional it will provide the entire
Ministry with a highly organized data base from which information can
be readily updated or retrieved, as is essential for both short and
long-range planning of the type called for under the new mandate.
All available resource data is being transferred
to a computerized system called an Interactive
Graphics Design System. The IGDS can
instantly display inventory maps of one hectare
of forest, or the entire province at once.
 20
Research
Controlled pollination experiments are but one
facet of the Ministry's Tree Improvement
Program.
The Research Division was active in several major areas during 1978.
Most of its energies were concentrated on three major programs: the
Ecological Classification Program, the Silviculture Program, and the
Tree Improvement Program. In connection with the first of these, the
Ecogical Classification Program underwent a considerable expansion,
and is now making strong progress in five of the province's six Forest
Regions. Considerable emphasis was placed on providing field
training for forest practitioners in several Forest Regions to enable
them to make site-specific prescriptions on silvicultural and
environmental questions.
Under the Silviculture Program, a strong emphasis was placed on
the problems involved in lodgepole pine silviculture. Several
plantations in the Nelson, Cariboo and Kamloops Regions were
monitored in order to determine and analyze the prevailing patterns
and causes of tree mortality.
Considerable work was also conducted on behalf of the Ministry's
tree nurseries. Studies were performed on the use of ethrel to improve
the germination of Interior spruce seed, and of the feasibility of
mudpacking 1 +0 lodgepole pine stock. Investigations were made of
the effects of differing storage environments on the quality of nursery
stock, and of root-wrenching and seed-bed spacing on the quality of
planting stock. The Skimikin Nursery was the site of a special project
involving improvements in the quality of the bareroot Interior Douglas
fir stock being produced there, and two Interior nurseries installed new
stock-testing chambers, designed by the Division.
Under the Tree Improvement Program, a full round of controlled
pollination, seedling production, test-site establishment, and
maintenance work was once again completed on Coastal Douglas fir.
The transfer of Interior spruce breeding operations from Prince
George to Vernon in 1976 resulted in cone production on 45 percent of
the breeding orchard. The Lodgepole Pine Breeding Program
succeeded in producing sufficient grafted stock to create two new seed
orchards. At Barnes Creek Tree Breeding Site, site preparation and
fencing were completed on an area of some 43.7 hectares.
The information gathered from analyzing
hundreds of soil samples is the basis
of the Ministry's ecological classification
system.
 Reforestation
21
Despite unfavourable weather conditions, 1978 was a reasonably
good year for reforestation activities in British Columbia. Some 59.7
million seedlings were planted on 55,571 hectares of denuded land, 20
million by the Ministry's Reforestation Division, the remainder by the
forest industry and other outside agencies. These figures represent a
drop of some 6 million seedlings from the previous year's high, in part
because the available stock was significantly reduced by extensive
frost damage at the Ministry's Coastal nurseries, and in part because
of the shortage of prepared planting sites. The latter developed
because unsuitable weather conditions early in the year limited the
extent of broadcast burning.
In the course of the year, the Ministry was responsible for creating a
total of 13,598 new plots, and for checking the survival rate of
seedlings on 27,426 established plots. One noteworthy project was
carried out in the Cariboo Region, where more than 200 hectares of
old logging landings were rehabilitated by ripping and spreading.
Meanwhile, work continued on a major ongoing project in the Nelson
Region: the rehabilitation of the area burned out in 1971 by the
infamous "Sue" fire. Although this project is progressing well, it is
anticipated that it will take another five or six years before it is finally
completed.
Due to the increased use of machinery and machine-assisted
methods, the area prepared for natural regeneration throughout the
province increased by a full 8,360 hectares over the 1977 figure, to a
total of 31,771 hectares. In order to assess the desirability of artificial
treatment to enhance the results of natural restocking, Ministry crews
checked some 118,000 hectares of forest land which had been
denuded in past years, and licencees checked another 42,000
hectares. Of the total area surveyed, 68.5 percent was being
adequately restocked through natural regeneraton. The remaining
31.5 percent will require planting to bring them into production.
Stand-tending and Silviculture
The year was marked by a considerable increase in funds for
stand-tending activities throughout the province. As a result, a large
number of intensive silviculture projects were initiated in the Interior,
while the total area of young-growth forest thinned in the Vancouver
Region came to 2,986 hectares, more than double the 1977 figure. In
all, some 330 separate stand-tending projects were carried out
throughout the province, mostly by small "forestry work" contractors
working under contracts which were awarded on the basis of
competitive bidding. More than 12,000 hectares of forest were treated
under the program.
On Vancouver Island, the Reforestation Division carried out the
Ministry's first large-scale operational fertilizer program, treating some
2,600 hectares of thinned immature Douglas fir stands. Elsewhere, the
Division conducted research into the possible uses of herbicides in site
preparation, and investigated various possible alternatives to
individual tree spacing for use especially in densely forested areas
where the costs of present-day techniques are excessively high.
Experiments were performed to determine the usefulness of low-level
aerial photography in making spacing assessments. On the ground,
studies were conducted on the hand-girdling of coniferous trees, and
on the development of wheeled skidders for use on steep slopes.
Under the terms of the Ministry's new mandate, coming years will be
marked by an increasing emphasis on silviculture. During 1978, a firm
foundation was laid for intensive forest management programs.
1974   1975  1976   1977   1978
Five year summary of planting — trees in
millions
Today half of British Columbia's logged-over
land is planted with seedlings. The Ministry is
working towards the day when most areas are
hand planted, and with genetically improved
seedlings.
 22
1974   1975   1976  1977   1978
Five year comparison of hectares clearcut
and planted ■ (in thousands).
The majority of all cone collecting is still
conducted by hand although results with
mechanical pickers are more promising each
year.
Seed Production
Almost 5,150 hectolitres of seed-cones were collected during 1978,
with 16 different species represented. The crop in general was light to
moderate, and foliowed the familiar pattern of past years. Some 40
percent of the cones harvested were Douglas fir; a significant number
of Amabalis fir cones were also collected on the Coast, along with
cones of grand fir and alpine fir in the Interior—between them these
three species accounted for almost 30 percent of the year's
collections. The crop of Abies (true fir) cones was the heaviest in
years, and there are moderate to heavy crops of Western hemlock and
Western red cedar both on the Coast and in the Southern Interior;
sizable quantities of all three were collected. A moderate crop of
Interior spruce cones, however, was spoiled by insect damage in all
but a few areas, and as a result the yield of this species was poor.
Almost all the cone collecting involved was carried out in conjunction
with timber harvesting. But the Ministry also conducted trials using a
variety of aerial rakes and harvesters suspended from helicopters. The
results were promising enough to encourage further experimentation
along these lines.
Meanwhile, a good cone-crop was produced by the Coastal
seed-orchards. Their total yield was a full 68.3 kilograms of seed
(primarily Douglas fir), with the potential capacity to produce up to 3.7
million trees.
South of Prince George, on the Red Rock Forest Reserve, two new
lodgepole pine orchards were established to serve the surrounding
region, while north of Salmon Arm, at Skimikin Nursery, preparations
continued for the establishment of several projected Interior spruce
orchards, the first of which is scheduled for planting in 1979. In the
Quesnel Lake area, selection and scion coliection continued forthe
planned new spruce orchard, while preparations commenced for
establishing an additional pine orchard. A major portent for the future
was the approval of the Cooperative Government/Industry Tree
Improvement Proposal, which will lead to the eventual creation of
many new seed-orchards in coastal B.C., along with a comprehensive
evaluation of the performance of existing ones. In the more immediate
future, the extensive root-pruning carried out during 1978 at several
Coastal orchards, in conjunction with the year's warm dry summer,
promises another good crop of orchard-raised cones in 1979.
Following the 1978 cone collections, a record 464 seedlots were
processed, a considerable increase over previous years. This was
mainly due to the Ministry's heightened emphasis on the identification
and classification of differing ecosystem types, so that the full range of
appropriate species can be used in restocking denuded areas.
Fir species 70.4%       1H Pine species 17.1%
SDruce SDecies 3.4%        Total hectolitres 3.501.8
 23
Nursery Operations
During 1978, spring sowing was increased to a grand total of 97 million
seedlings, 68 million for bare-root field production and 29 million for
containerized production. During the same period, an additional 14
million seedlings were transplanted.
The Division's nurseries were also intensively involved in the
propagation of new stock for various seed-orchards around the
province. All told, some 26,000 root-stock plants were potted and
cultured for this purpose. In addition, some 13,000 grafts were
performed, and some 12,000 cuttings rooted and cultured.
Sowing and other nursery production activities are expected to
maintain similarly high levels during 1979. Much of the 1978's work,
however, may fail to bear fruit because of adverse weather conditions.
Late in the fall, gale-force winds and freezing temperatures far below
normal caused considerable tip damage to field-grown stocks of
Coastal Douglas fir; the exact losses involved will not be known for
some time. By year-end, the combination of deeply frozen ground and
lack of snow at almost every nursery had created the potential for
serious frost-heaving losses, particularly among overwintering
one-year spruce seedlings. Again, the consequences will not be
evident for some time.
Fir species 21.2%
DH Spruce species 57.1%
■■ Pine species 9.5%
■■ Hemlock species 9.9%
•gm Other 2.3%
Total 96,848,000
1978 nursery sowing by species groups.
Cooperative Programs
Once more, during 1978, the Ministry cooperated closely with the
National Parole Service, the Provincial Corrections Branch, and the
Ministry of Human Resources to provide work projects in a wide variety
of forest work, including several projects under the Agricultural
Rehabilitation and Development Act.
Seed is catalogued according to place of origin
and is used to grow seedlings for planting in
those same areas.
nmv.'AWAYfc
»®&
 24
Protection
Fire destroys over 3 million cubic metres of
timber each year and half of this is caused by
lightning.
Industrial 5.9%
Other 24.5%
Total 2,308
Causes of fire as percentage of 1978 total.
Lightning 49.4%
Smoking 12%
Recreational 8.2%
The 1978 Fire Season
Following an unusually dry winter, widespread lightning strikes created
a serious fire threat in almost all parts of the province. By the first week
in August, when danger ratings throughout the province had already
increased to High and Extreme, the fire crews in five of the six Forest
Regions were already fully committed. In fact, 1,367 fires, a full 59
percent of the season's total, started during the crucial one-month
span from July 15 through August 15. In mid-August, however,
province-wide rains brought danger-rating levels down to Low and
Moderate, and the rest of the season passed without major fire
problems. The overall Severity Rating Index for the 1978 fire season
was the highest since 1972.
Lightning-strikes ignited almost 50 percent of the year's fires — and,
because so many of these were in remote and inaccessible locations,
they caused over 90 percent of the total fire-damage. The next most
significant cause was smokers, who were responsible for 12 percent of
the year's fires but only 3.5 percent of the total fire-damage. A third
significant cause was industrial operations such as logging, which
resulted 5.9 percent of the year's fires and 3.3 percent of the
fire-damage.
During 1978, fires destroyed some 50,000 hectares of forest cover,
comprising an estimated 3.8 million cubic metres of timber. The total
damage to other forms of property was estimated at $1.35 million. In
terms of manufactured value of forest products, the volume destroyed
represented well over $250 million. The direct costs of fire-suppression
activities during the year totalled $11.8 million - almost twice the $6.8
million average over the 10-year period 1968-1977. By contrast, the
fire-suppression costs for 1977 were $3.4 million.
In 1978, the Protection Division initiated a systematic audit of all
actions taken against major fires, in order to determine how
fire-suppression moneys were spent. It is hoped that this data will
indicate ways by which fires can be dealt with both more economically
and more effectively in the future.
About 29 percent of the 1978 Protection Program budget, or some
$2.6 million went to the Initial Attack Ground Crews. The importance of
these crews to the province's firefighting program is indicated by the
fact that during this year they succeeded in bringing 1,872 fires, a full
81 percent of the total number, under control by the end of the first
burning period — i.e., by 10:00 a.m. of the day following that on which
the fire was ignited. This compares with an overall average of 86
percent during the preceding 10 years. The importance of achieving
such early control is indicated by the fact that the remaining 436 fires,
19 percent of the total number, accounted for a full 57 percent of the
total area burned, and a staggering 78 percent of the total suppression
costs.
Throughout most of the province, the established practice of setting
up Initial Attack Crews consisting of four to 10 persons each at
individual Ranger Stations was continued. But in some regions, a new
approach, first initiated in 1977, was instituted. This involved
establishing a larger crew of 25 to 30 persons at a central location, and
equipping it with its own helicopter as well as the usual complement of
ground transport vehicles and communications gear. Thus a crew is
ready to serve anywhere in the region on comparatively short notice.
This approach proved generally successful, and will be put to more
widespread use in the future.
The Division's Aerial Tanker Organization also played a vital role in
the Initial Attack Program. Its flying tankers put in a total of 1,796 hours
of air time during the season, and delivered some 10.2 million litres of
fire-retardant to crucial areas of a large number of major fires.
Helicopters were also utilized, with considerable success. In
. :ai_  ii i-i_j.
 25
British Columbia's fire-fighting system of flying
tankers supported by on-the-ground
suppression crews is still the most effective in
the world.
effect of the Aerial Tanker Program on hypothetical fires. With its aid, it
should be possible to even further increase the program's
effectiveness in the fairly near future.
Also in conjunction with the P.N.F.I., work continued on the
development of a very promising computer-model for fire-prediction
which is being tested in the Kamloops Region. But of more
immediately practical import, were the improvements made in the
experimental lightning detection network, already in operation in the
same region. During 1978, electronic counters were added to 10 of the
20 detection units; if these perform satisfactorily, they may well point
the way to reducing the lightning hazard which made this such a
difficult year for the Protection Program.
Fire Prevention
Fire-prevention efforts during 1978 were directed towards greater
public awareness activities, carried out by staff-members of the
various Forest Regions. The activities included the production and
distribution of posters, handouts, and stickers, as well as the placing of
articles and advertisements in newspapers, and spot announcements
on radio and television. In early August, at the height of the fire season,
radio and television coverage was increased in order to warn the
public of the hazard.
More tangible successes were achieved in another area — the
Fuels Management Program. The aim of this program is to treat
logging sites, where a significant proportion of fires have their
beginning, so that combustible material such as slash, snags,
blowdowns, and dead or dying trees, no longer pose a fire threat. In
1978, the Ministry conducted studies of various ecological
classification systems, so that the specific ecological characteristics of
a site can be taken more fully into account when prescribed burning is
carried out. In the Sayward Forest, Ministry personnel collaborated
with the Canadian Forestry Service on a joint study of fuels-loading
measurement techniques and the rate of fire-spread amongst debris in
thinned forest-stands. The Division developed interim guidelines for
fuels management in the immature forests currently being treated
under the Intensive Forestry Program. Considerable further activity in
this program is scheduled to take place in 1979.
Lightning 58.9% I
Smoking 22.9% I
Recreational 2.7%
Industrial 4.4%
Other 11.1%
Total $11,839,413
Cost of forest fire suppression as percentage of
1978 total.
 26
Defoliators 3.4%
IB Bark Beetles 5.4%
SBH Decay in Mature Forests 50.6%
8H Root & Butt Rots 14.1%
«•*•• Dwarf Mistletoe 26.5%
Average annual loss due to insect and
disease damage 1967 -1976
Each year insects destroy enough timber to
build 33,000 homes. The Mountain Pine Beetle
is among the worst of the offenders.
Pest Management
In 1978, some $2.1 million, or 20 percent of the total Protection
Program budget, went to the Pest Management Program. This money
was utilized chiefly for pest-control operations throughout the province,
although some $78,000 was spent on research, with emphasis on
finding new methods of controlling the province's most damaging
tree diseases and insect pests.
It is estimated that over 16 million cubic metres of timber is lost each
year to insects and disease in British Columbia. About half this loss is
the result of tree decay in mature, unharvested forests. An equal
amount of damage, however, is caused by various pests which are at
least potentially controllable. These include dwarf mistletoe
(responsible for an estimated 26.5 percent of the annual timber loss
caused by pests and disease), root and butt rot (14.1 percent), bark
beetles (5.4 percent), particularly the mountain pine beetle and the
spruce bark beetle, and defoliators (3.4 percent), including the spruce
budworm.
During 1978, the Protection Division, in conjunction with the
Canadian Forestry Service, conducted field trials of the utilization of
prescribed burning to control both dwarf mistletoe and the mountain
pine beetle — an approach which appears promising, but is not yet
practically viable. The most recent survey discovered 70,000 hectares
of forest under attack by the mountain pine beetle, and a more
extensive area being threatened. Damage was particularly severe in
the Elk and Akamina-Kishinena Valleys of the Nelson Region, and the
Stum and Chilko Public Sustained Yield Units of the Cariboo Region.
Salvage logging was carried out on 7,000 hectares in infested areas in
the northern and southern Interior.
Limited successes were achieved in the battle against the spruce
bark beetle, which caused considerable concern in the Prince Rupert
and Prince George Regions, especially near Smithers Landing and
Summit Lake. To forestall its ravages, aggressive salvage harvesting
operation were mounted in both these areas. Other infestations in both
the regions involved, along with the Kamloops Region, were
field-mapped in preparation for future salvage-logging operations.
On the basis of 1977 egg counts, the western spruce budworm had
been expected to pose a major problem during the year. But for
unknown reasons, populations of this insect collapsed, rendering
control operations unnecessary. Nevertheless, damage surveys
continued both in the Fraser Canyon area and near Lillooet and
Ashcroft. In the latter two areas, experimental studies of possible
control methods were carried out in conjunction with the Canadian
Forestry Service: from low-flying aircraft, monitored doses of Bacillus
thuringiensis (Bt) and a budworm virus were applied to infected areas.
The results, though inconclusive, were promising.
 Range Management
27
During 1978, British Columbia's livestock industry had an
unexceptional year physically, but a spectacularly successful one on
the marketplace. A moist spring and favourable early summer weather
caused forage plants to commence growth satisfactorily, and the
beginning of the year promised to be a good one for hay and range
production. But severe summer droughts reversed the trend,
particularly in the central and northern parts of the province, and as a
result beef production declined. In the fall, widespread rains
rejuvenated forage growth, but at the expense of a serious drop in the
quality of second-cut hay, some of which was spoiled completely. In
consequence, hay prices rose considerably.
In the course of the year, 1,057 tonnes of hay were cut on Crown
rangelands, down 92 tonnes from the 1977 figure. The use of ranges
for grazing purposes showed an increase of 43,000 Animal Unit
Months over the previous year, to a grand total of 871,608 A.U.M.'s
Crown revenues from permit and licence fees totalled almost
$560,000.
During 1978,222,000 beef calves and yearlings were marketed
from B.C. Crown and private range land. Over 70,000 head were
slaughtered in B.C., the rest were shipped to Alberta and Ontario for
finishing. Some 41 million kilograms of beef were produced in the
province, of which some 18 million were produced on Crown ranges.
The North American beef herd deficit relative to consumptive demand
drove the price of cattle on the open market, from the 1977 average of
71.37 cents per kilogram to a 1978 average of $1.35. Financially, at
least, this increase helped offset the effects of the year's poor weather
conditions for B.C. beef producers.
The most important event of 1978 for the Division itself was a new
mandate in the form of the Range Act. This demands considerable
reassessment and reorganization — a process which will take at least
two years. With the help of the fifteen new Range Technicians added
to its staff during the year, the Division was able to make a good start
on this undertaking.
Each year over 200,000 calves
and yearlings are raised and
marketed from British Columbia.
 28
Valuation
1974 1975 1976 1977 1978
Five year summary of log exports in thousands
of cunits.
The primary 1978 objective of the Valuation Division was that of
supervising and implementing a comprehensive changeover to the
metric system on the part of all the Ministry's Divisions and field
agencies. During the course of the year, metric computer-programs for
scaling and cruising were introduced, and new manuals on both topics
were published, written to metric standards. The change was
completed on schedule, so that all activities involving timber quantities,
including appraisals, were ready to be carried out entirely in metric
measures as of January 1,1979. During the year, the Division was
also heavily involved in drafting regulations for the new Forest Act,
proclaimed in December. A major part of its 1979 activities will be
devoted to interpreting these new regulations for the benefit of the
Ministry's own staff and all other interested parties, and to supervising
their actual implementation in the field.
The Division was responsible for administering the export of raw
forest products from the province during 1978. Some 686,000 cubic
metres of logs were exported in the course of the year—considerably
less than the 1977 figure of 1.03 million cubic metres. The cumulative
dollar value of all exports, however, rose by more than two-thirds over
the 1977 figure, totalling some $67 million as against the
previous year's $40 million. The bulk of the timber exported was sold to
the United States; most of the remainder was purchased by
processors in the other Canadian provinces.
Weight scaling stations, similar to the one
pictured here at Ootsa Lake, are located
throughout the province.
 Engineering
New construction was limited to the upgrading of existing facilities in
order to conform with current safety codes and related legislative
requirements. The Division's chief activity during the year was the
upgrading of nursery facilities on behalf of the Reforestation Division
— more than $650,000 was spent on some 30 projects in various parts
of the province. Another $226,000 was spent on upgrading seven
air-tanker bases for the Protection Division, with priority being given to
the Campbell River and Penticton Bases.
No new forest roads were constructed, although routine
maintenance and improvement work was continued in all Regions.
One major reconstruction project was mounted, however, involving the
rebuilding of some 29 kilometres of the Morice River Forest Road,
including a sizable new bridge over the Nadina River. This and the
three other smaller bridges constructed during the year were all
designed by staff members of the Ministry, as was the important new
span which will carry the Walker Creek Forest Road across the Fraser
River. This latter will be the longest bridge ever built by the Ministry; at
year-end, the substructure had been completed and the steel for the
superstructure was nearly ready.
This "Fin" boom on the Fraser River catches
debris, preventing it from entering the Straits of
Georgia.
Among the Division's other significant achievements under the
Forest Road Development Program were the relocation and upgrading
of sections of the Head Bay and Cayoosh-Joffre Forest Roads, using
funds provided by the Ministry of Highways and Public Works, and site
surveys conducted at five different locations in the Vancouver and
Prince George Regions.
Under the Reservoir Waterways Improvement Program, cleanup
operations on the Duncan Reservoir continued satisfactorily.
Considerable progress was also made on land-clearing forthe
Revelstoke Project. Meanwhile after 17 years of operation, the
Division turned over responsibility for the Peace River Waterways
Improvement Project to the B.C. Hydro and Power Authority.
In the northern part of the province, preliminary investigations or
proposed development schemes for several major watersheds were
completed. An important research program was also mounted in
collaboration with the Canadian Forestry Service, aimed at finding new
techniques of estimating the volume of wood debris floating on
reservoirs and other waterways by correlating aerial photographs with
satellite imagery. The results were definitely promising.
 30
Mechanical support services are provided to all
areas of the Ministry.
Mechanical Services
The Mechanical Services Section, which is responsible for acquiring
vehicles and mechanical equipment for the entire Ministry, spent $1.4
million during the year, which was partially offset by $430,000 received
from the sale of unserviceable older vehicles at four major public
auctions in Surrey, Prince George, Kamloops and Nelson.
For the Marine Services Group, 1978 was a year of transition from a
large, multi-purpose fleet of relatively slow vessels to a smaller but
more useful fleet of faster craft, all purchased from the proceeds of the
sale of the older vessels. In addition to offering maintenance services
for Ministry equipment, continuing support services to survey crew in
various parts of the province, and supplying warehouse facilities for
equipment belonging to the Protection Division, its staff completed an
extensive maintenance and upgrading program on its own facilities
over the course of the year.
Considerable inventiveness and ingenuity were involved in another
long-term ongoing program conducted by the division, that of
developing and testing new mechanical equipment for use in
silvicultural programs.
Communications
A good deal of effort was expended on improving the Ministry's
electronic communications system. Eleven more high-level,
low-powered radio-repeaters were installed in various parts of the
province — two of them solar-powered. Considerable attention was
also paid to methods for reducing the time required for repairing
mountain-top repeaters, by stocking a wider range of parts and
assemblies in the Ministry's Victoria warehouse, as well as by
developing faster procedures for use in on-site repairs.
 Training Services
31
The major 1978 objective of the Training Services Division was to
develop the necessary Implementation of Change Training Programs
which are required in order to implement provisions of the new
legislative mandate throughout the Ministry. Substantial progress was
made, and many new projects were developed and introduced. A total
of 516 students attended courses at the Ministry's Training School in
Surrey. This was an impressive increase over the 1977 figure of 376.
The Division prepared and published an informative brochure,
Introduction to Forest and Range Legislation. In addition, a
comprehensive new training-program was prepared, ready for formal
introduction in 1979, which explains the policy and procedural issues
involved in implementing the new legislation and its associated
regulations.
Finally, the preliminary outlines of a new management training
program were completed. Scheduled to be introduced in 1979, it will
explain the principles, roles and responsibilities incumbent upon
managerial personnel in the newly reorganized Ministry, and acquaint
them with efficient new methods of team-building for use in the
regulation of its restructured framework of Divisions and Branches.
The Ministry is continually training its
personnel. Pictured here are training
sessions in the field for fire suppression
crews and a formal classroom setting at the
Training School in Surrey.
 32
Systems & Data Services
The Ministry is continually advancing its
computer facilities.
In 1978, the Ministry's former Systems Group was officially
reconstituted as a separate Division, the Systems Services Division,
directly responsible to the Assistant Deputy Minister, Support
Services. But historic as this administrative change may seem, the
year will be best remembered for its achievements in the realm of
hardware rather than software, due to the tremendous advances made
in upgrading the Ministry's computer facilities.
In the past, data was largely stored on punch-cards which were
bulky, slow to process, and all-too-easily subject to deterioration or
loss. By the end of 1978, some 90 percent of all new data processed
by the Division had passed directly from the keyboard terminal to
either magnetic storage-discs or the computer's main memory-bank,
from which it can be readily retrieved or revised by means of
high-speed reprocessing procedures. Considerable time and effort
were also spent on improving working relationships with the B.C.
Systems Corporation, and in reviewing existing data-processing and
storage techniques throughout the Ministry, so that more efficient
systems can be introduced in 1979. Since reorganization, and the
increased decentralization of authority which accompanies it,
necessitates a greater use of computer technology in order to
successfully carry out the Ministry's new mandate, the Division plans
to continue upgrading its facilities during the coming year:
 Information Services
33
The highly successful magazine, ForesTalk continued to grow,
achieving a circulation of some 85,000. Recent research indicates an
estimated total readership of over 400,000. A full-time assistant editor
was appointed to the magazine, and its format was revised and
improved, notably through the new policy of including in-depth
interviews with prominent figures in the resource-management field.
Commencing in June, the Ministry's own newsletter, Forest Service
News, also sported a new format, as it commenced monthly publication
for the benefit of Ministry personnel and their families. Another of the
Division's publications, Wilderness Survival, was transferred to the
Outdoor Recreation Branch of the Ministry of Lands, Parks and
Housing, for revision and release early in 1979.
The Division was particularly active in the visual media, producing
and releasing two major films along with a training film, "Saw Points",
which deals with the spacing of juvenile forest stands. "Trees, The
Renewable Resource," completed in late December, is a basic
introduction to the Ministry's activities, designed for use by
staff-members in conjunction with speeches to public groups; along
with an explanatory pamphlet of the same title, it will also be made
available for use in schools. The year's most ambitious film project was
"Phase Three". A popular introduction to intensive forest land
management techniques, it was aired in July on both the C.B.O and
B.C.T.V. networks, and reached approximately 600,000 viewers. The
film was subsequently taped and rebroadcast on numerous
cable-stations throughout the province, while 16mm prints were
prepared for school and general use.
Also on television, an entire six-program series of the C.B.C.'s
popular "Bob Switzer Show" was devoted to the Ministry's field
activities; and, over a full month, a special new thirty-second
commercial spot was aired regularly on major television outlets
throughout the province. By this and other means, the Division made a
promising start on developing a major new publicity program, which
encourages the public in all parts of the province to report the outbreak
of forest fires, by using the Zenith-5555 provincial forest fire reporting
telephone system.
Two major visual-education displays were circulated by the Division
during the year. "Fires, Insects and Disease" was exhibited at selected
locations throughout the province, while an older display, "Man and
the Forest Environment", was refurbished and shown in the Prince
George and Prince Rupert regions. In addition, four new slide-tape
presentations were completed for use in training programs. Other
educational activities included the production of two new teaching
tools in cooperation with the Western Education Development Group
of the University of British Columbia. Timber— the Forest
Management Game, designed for grades 5 and up, was widely
distributed, while a trial edition of Managing the Forest, an aid for use in
Forestry 11 courses, was distributed for preliminary testing in actual
classroom situations.
The Ministry Library, operated by the Division, was closed to general
use from January to September in order to recatalogue the entire
collection, making the changeover from the Oxford System to the
Dewey Decimal System. Work on preparing a computer-catalogue of
library holdings was also initiated.
An important event was the March publication of the study
Communications Function of the Ministry of Forests — Review and
Recommendations, prepared under the Division's sponsorship. A frank
and comprehensive analysis of the Ministry's policies and activities in
this area, the report supported a far-reaching restructuring of both
internal and external communications throughout the Ministry.
During a six month period, the display pictured
here, featuring a protection theme, travelled to
all urban centres of the province.
 34
Strategic Studies
1974  1975   1976  1977   1978
Summary of investments by British Columbia
forest industries (in millions of dollars).
The challenges posed by the new legislation set many of the priorities
of Strategic Studies Division during the past year. Especially in the
latter half, a number of special assignments developed. These
included aiding the Planning Division in explaining the purpose and
methods of the Timber Supply Area Analysis to other agencies and the
public, and participating on the Resource Analysis and Program Task
Force to conduct the resource analyses demanded by Sections 8 and
9 of the new Ministry of Forests Act.
Routine functions of the Division were somewhat curtailed, but still
achieved significant progress. Work continued with other federal and
provincial agencies to establish balanced resource use policies to
direct and coordinate forest management programs. Increased
attention was given to the area of federal/provincial relations with the
Division representing the Ministry on the Forest Industries
Development Committee and the National Forest Policy Executive
Committee.
Provincially, representation on interagency committees remained a
major activity of both the Resource Section and the Economics and
Analysis Section. Development proposals were evaluated for twelve
major projects including coal, natural gas pipelines, hydro installations
and transmission lines, as well as numerous minor ones. The Division
was also active on working groups establishing policy for the Salmonid
Enhancement Program, Natural Hazards Program and Mitigation and
Compensation for resource use interactions.
Other integrated management projects included assessing conflicts
over the location of the Morice River Road, investigating risks imposed
by logging near the Elkford slide, recommending changes in the
Environmental Protection Area inventory program, and assisting with
designing a project to identify costs imposed by integrated
management of forests.
The combination of resource management and economics
specialties within the Division were also applied in coordinating
development of the program and policies to guide the Ministry's
accelerated intensive forestry program. Implementation is now well in
progress under the direction of the Reforestation Division.
Strategic Studies Division, in its role as economic advisor to the
Ministry's Executive, was called upon to prepare evaluations of several
major issues — most notably, the well-publicized take-over proposals
involving crucial elements of the provincial forest industry.
During 1978, the Organization and Management Section of the
Strategic Studies Division was deeply involved in reorganization
throughout the Ministry. One of its chief objectives was that of assisting
other Branches in implementing the new legislation. In addition, the
Section's 1977 review of the operations of the Kamloops Region's
administrative staff served as a basis for a fundamental restructuring
of the Ministry's accounting groups. Efforts will be directed next year to
re-evaluate the Ministry's vehicle pools and warehousing facilities, with
the aim of increasing their efficiency and their cost/benefit ratios.
Beginning in October, the Section devoted a large portion of its time
to developing a new improved Integrated Management Information
System. Once they have been formally introduced, these new systems
will provide the Ministry with comprehensive and reliable feedback
from the field. They will thus be invaluable tools forthe new
decentralized Ministry.
 Outlook
35
The new legislation passed in 1978 provides the Ministry with a clear
legislative mandate for the first time in its history. Soon, due to the
ongoing process of reorganization, the Ministry will have a new and
improved structure to enable it to effectively implement and administer
this mandate.
The accompanying chart of the proposed Headquarters
Organization, as it is scheduled to be restructured in 1979, indicates
how the Ministry's new organizational structure differs from the old one
which was still in effect in 1977 and part of 1978. The major difference
has to do with a basic organizational principle — that of Line-and-Staff
organization. In the Ministry, this line flows directly downwards from
the Deputy Minister through the Operations Division and the Assistant
Deputy Minister in charge of it, to the six Forest Regions and their
Regional Managers, and thence to the District Managers within each
region, who in turn have line authority.
In contrast, the other three new Headquarters Divisions and their
constituent Branches (the former "Divisions", under the old structure
still prevailing in 1978) will no longer exert direct line authority over
Regional or District personnel. Theirs will instead be a "staff" role,
confined to supplying the Ministry's Primary Line officers with advice or
support-services. Thus the Branches concerned with the overall
planning, coordination, and servicing of field-activities will remain
efficiently centralized, while responsibility for executing the Ministry's
programs and policies will be delegated as close to the actual field as
is practically possible. In this way, the increased flexibility and
responsiveness required by the new mandate will be effectively
institutionalized with no loss of central direction.
In the ongoing process of reorganization, the former "Divisions" are
not only being regrouped and retitled as "Branches", but certain
former "Sections" or groups of Sections are now being designated as
Branches in their own right. Thus the old Engineering Division will
henceforth be reorganized into an Engineering Branch and a
Technical Services Branch, while the old Planning Division will turn
over its responsibility for recreational facilities to a new Recreation
Management Branch. In addition, the Systems and E.D.P. Services
Division will become simply the Systems Services Branch; the
Protection Division will be the Protection Branch (with most of its field
activities assigned to the new Provincial Forest Fire Control
Organization); and the Reforestation Division will be reconstituted as
the Silviculture Branch — an indication of the great stress laid on
silviculture in the new Forest Act. All these changes are more than
merely cosmetic: they mark profound changes in orientation or
philosophy which will become increasingly evident in the future.
The appearance of thinning crews and acres of
seedlings are the beginnings of intensive forest
management.
 36
1979 will be the year when the reorganization of the Ministry's
Victoria headquarters is completed; it will also be the year when the
Ministry's first Five-Year Forest and Range Resource Program is
developed.The statutory background of that program has already been
discussed; its significance, however, extends far beyond the legislative
framework which occasioned it. For the first time, the new Ministry,
with its new mandate, will be embarking on a truly comprehensive
long-term program of multiple-use resource management. In so doing,
it will usher in a new era of intensive forest management.
It will be some time before the Ministry's ongoing reorganization is
completed, and the full benefits of the new philosophy of managerial
decentralization are realized. But in times to come, the profound
changes initiated during 1978 will bear abundant fruit. Periods of
transition are always troublesome as well as challenging; and over the
next few years the newly-created Ministry of Forests will undoubtedly
undergo a certain amount of dislocation and confusion as a result of
the new demands being made upon it. The year 1978 was not without
troubles along with its challenges, but it nevertheless will go down in
the memories of the Ministry and all its personnel as a very special
time.
Ministry organization
Office of the
Deputy Minister
Deputy Minister
Office of the Assistant Deputy Minister
Finance & Administration Division
Office of the Assistant Deputy Minister
Operations Division
Office of the Assistant Deputy Minister
Timber, Range & Recreation Division
Office of the Assistant Deputy Minister
Forestry Division
Assistant Deputy Minister
Assistant Deputy Minister
Assistant Deputy Minister
Chief Forester
J
Information Services
Branch
Personnel Services
Branch
Range Management
Branch
Planning Branch
Strategic Studies
Branch
Director
Director
Director
Director
Director
Training Services
Branch
Timber Management
Branch
Inventory Branch
Director
Director
Director
Financial Services
_             Branch
-
Recreation
Management Branch
Research Branch
Ministry Comptroller
Director
Director
Systems Services
Branch
Valuation Branch
Silviculture
Branch
Director
Director
Director
Legal & Administrative
Services Branch
Engineering Branch
Protection
_            Branch
Director
Director
Director
Technical Services
Branch
Director
Regional Manager
l
  Contents
1
Summary of Planting 1969-1978  	
..40
2
Planting by Forest Region 1978 	
..40
3
Hectares Clearcut and Hectares Planted in Public  	
Sustained Yield Units by Forest Region, 1974-1978
41
4
Site Preparation and Hazard Abatement, 1978, Forest  	
Service and Licensees On All Tenures
41
5
Stand Tending and Improvement, 1978 (Hectares 	
Completed) Forest Service and Licencees On All Tenures
41
6
Regeneration Surveys, 1978, Forest Service and 	
Licensees in P.S.Y.U.'s
42
7
Cone Collections, 1978 Forest Service	
..42
8
Seed Orchards Established as of 1978 	
..43
9
Inventory of Seed in Storage, 1978, by Forest Region 	
..44
10
Seed Processed from 1978 Cone Crop, Forest Service	
and Companies, by Forest Region
44
11
Forest Service Nurseries, Inventory as of August 1978  	
..45
12
Forest Service Nurseries, Inventory by Species as of	
August 1978
45
13
Forest Service Nurseries, Summary of Spring 1978 Sowing ..
..46
14
Summary of Basic Data For Certified Tree-Farms   	
(PSYU's over Crown-granted lands) Included Within Tree
Farm Licences 1978
46
15
Summary of Basic Data For Farm Woodlot Licences 	
(PSYU's) 1978
46
16
Summary of Basic Data For Tree-Farm Licences  	
(Private PSYU's) 1978
47
17
Average Stumpage Prices Received by Species   	
and Forest Region on Timber Scales from Tree-Farm
Licence Cutting Permits During 1978
48
18
Summary of Basic Data for PSYU's 1978	
..49
19
Average Bid Stumpage Prices by Species and Forest  	
Regions on Cutting Permits of Timber Sale Harvesting
Licences and Timber Sales Issued During 1978 Per Cunit
Log Sale
51
20
Timber Cut and Billed from Timber Sales and Timber 	
Sale Harvesting Licences 1978
52
21
Total Amount of Timber Scale Billed in British  	
Columbia During the Years 1977 and 1978 in Cunits
52
22
Total Scale of All Products Billed in 1978 in Cunits 	
..52
23
Species Cut, All Products, 1978, in Cunits 	
..53
24
Acreage Logged 1978 	
..53
25
Total Scale of Christmas Trees Billed in 1970-1978 	
..54
26
Wood Processing Plants of the Province 1978  	
..54
27
Export of Logs 1978  	
..55
28
Exports from the Province of Other Forest Products 1978	
..56
29
Sub-unit Surveys, 1978 Fieldwork 	
..56
30
Production of Final Forest Cover Maps for 1977 Projects
..57
31
Uses of Crown Range 1978   	
..57
32
Fire Occurrences by Months 1978 	
..57
33
Number and Causes of Forest Fires 1978   	
..58
34
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years  ..
..58
35
Fires Classified by Size and Damage 1978  	
..58
36
37
Loss of Property Other Than Forest 1978	
I nss nf FnrpRt C.nv&r Caused hv Forest Fires 1978 (Part 1)
■59
.. 59
 39
39 Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost and    60
Total Damage 1978
40 Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in    60
Last Ten Years
41 Fires Classified by Regions, Place of Origin and Cost   61
Per Fire of Fire-fighting, 1978
42 Volume and Mortality Losses Due to Insects and Disease    61
43 Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1977-1978    62
44 Forest Revenue 1974-1978    62
45 Amounts Charged Against Logging Operations 62
Fiscal Year 1977-1978
46 Amounts Charged Against Logging Operations, 1978  63
47 Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1977 -1978 63
48 Accelerated Reforestation Fund 63
METRIC CONVERSION FACTORS
Metric Conversion Factors
1 acre = 0.404 686 hectare
1 hectare = 2.471 05 acres
1 cunit (100 cubic feet) = 2.831 68 cubic metres
1 cubic metre — 0.353 147 cunit
1 gram = 0.035 274 0 ounce
1 ounce = 28.349 5 grams
1 kilogram —2.204 62 pounds
1 pound = 0.453 592 kilogram
1 tonne = 1.102 62 ton
1 ton = 0.907185 tonnes
 40
Table 1       Summary of Planting 1969-1978
Forest Service On
Companies On
Forest Service
Crown Granted
Compar
ies
Timber Sale
On
Land Forest Act
On Tree
Harvesting
Crown Land
Sec. 152
Farm Licences
Licences
Other Private
Totals
Trees In
Trees In
Trees In
Trees In
Trees In
Trees In
Year
Thousands
HA
Thousands
HA
Thousands
HA
Thousands
HA
Thousands
HA
Thousands
HA
Coast 1978
5922.7
5202.
0.
0.
10672.7
12801.
3290.2
3804.
2857.9
3425.
22743.5
25232.
1977
7174.8
6467.
0.
0.
13159.0
15646.
3082.0
2605.
4772.7
5122.
28188.5
29840.
1976
6549.3
5973.
0.
0.
11779.7
13496.
2937.8
2610.
7190.2
5620.
28457.0
27699.
1975
8725.9
7243.
0.
0.
9522.9
10357.
1768.2
1527.
4123.5
4142.
24140.5
23269.
1974
8352.1
8147.
0.
0.
11921.3
12805.
1374.2
1223.
3501.4
3604.
25149.0
25779.
1973
13855.7
12614.
0.
0.
12769.1
13757.
1550.3
1393.
4046.0
4053.
32221.1
31817.
1972
12998.8
12326.
0.
0.
12176.0
13760
187.6
153.
4872.6
4515.
30235.0
30754.
1971
9627.0
9185.
55.0
52.
11603.8
12843.
82.4
96.
4756.0
4601.
26124.2
26777.
1970
7202.0
7171.
118.0
109.
10616.5
12348.
0.
0.
7914.6
8120.
25851.1
27748.
1969
4791.0
4596.
107.0
81.
9981.6
11601.
0.
0.
5673.6
6048.
20553.2
22326.
Previous
Planted
109090.9
63118.
15188.9
11012.
89566.4
94887.
0.
0.
30206.4
34492.
244052.6
2035C9.
Totals
to Date
194290.2
142042.
15468.9
11254.
203769.0
224301.
14272.7
13411.
79914.9
83742.
507715.7
474750.
Interior 1978
13799.5
10515.
0.
0.
4192.4
3718.
18213.3
15683.
806.0
593.
37011.2
30509.
1977
17503.4
13995.
0.
0.
3697.9
3012.
16156.9
13107.
285.0
209.
37643.2
30323.
1976
23801.9
18602.
0.
0.
3526.0
2947.
16469.9
13242.
566.4
502.
44364.2
35293.
1975
24712.8
21054.
21.0
16.
3129.7
2751.
12588.8
10050.
355.0
344.
40807.3
34215.
1974
16128.2
12938.
0.
0.
3076.8
3199.
9380.3
7535.
82.8
36.
28668.1
23708.
1973
14371.1
10954.
0.
0.
3551.1
3034.
5521.1
4284.
541.6
362.
23984.9
18634.
1972
14256.0
10765.
0.
0.
1692.0
1506.
2066.0
1674.
145.0
138.
18159.0
14083.
1971
15449.2
12565.
0.
0.
1461.0
1340.
743.0
606.
69.0
67.
17722.2
14578.
1970
7201.0
5938.
0.
0.
753.0
847.
40.0
27.
166.0
149.
8160.0
6961.
1969
5019.9
4519.
0.
0.
301.7
369.
0.
0.
70.7
51.
5392.3
4939.
Previous
Planted
14184.8
12621.
0.
0.
4039.6
4841.
0.
0.
771.1
645.
18995.5
18107.
Totals
to Date
166427.8
134466.
21.0
16.
29421.2
27564.
81179.3
66208.
3858.6
3096.
280907.9
231350.
All Planted
to Date
360718.0
276508.
15489.9
11270.
233190.2
251864.
95452.0
79620.
83773.5
86838.
788623.6
706100.
All Planted
This Year
19722.2
15717.
0.
0.
14865.1
16518.
21503.5
19488.
3663.9
4018.
59754.7
55741.
Table 2       Planting by Forest Region 1978
(Number of Trees in Thousands (Hectares in Parantheses Below)
Forest
Region
Forest Service
on Crown Land
and Crown
Granted Land
Companies
onT.S.H.L.s,
T.S.Lson
Crown Land
Comps
nies on Tree Farm Licences
Tree Farm
not within
Tree Farm
Licences
Companies
on other
Private
Regional Totals
Crown
Land
Crown-Granted
Land
Total
Vancouver
5458.4
(4779.0)
2724.1
(3324.0)
7240
(9211.0)
2233.9
(2448.0)
9473.9
(11659.0)
1898
(2305.0)
959.9
(1119.7)
20,514.3
(23186.7)
Prince Rupert
663.9
(576.3)
3757.0
(2831.5)
1198.8
(1141.6)
1198.8
(1141.6)
5,619.7
(4549.4)
Prince George
2764.3
(2209.6)
4914.3
(5091,4)
1129.2
(1032.2)
1129.2
(1032.2)
8,807.9
(8333.2)
Cariboo
2945.4
(2185.6)
3682.3
(3115.7)
316.1
(263.5)
316.1
(263.5)
5.0
(5.0)
6,948.8
(5569.8)
Kamloops
4428.2
(3421.7)
4417.8
(3809.1)
1482.1
(1365.0)
1482.1
(1365.0)
33.0
(33.0)
10,361.1
(8,628.8)
Nelson
Tntalc
3462.0
(2545.0)
2008.0
(1316.0)
1265.0
(1057.0)
1265.0
(1057.0)
737.0
(518.0)
31.0
(37.0)
7,503.0
(5,473.0)
1QTOO O
OIRCI R
19fiQ1   1
OQ-3Q Q
UDRR   1
«,,= „
™
»-"
 41
Table 3       Hectares Clearcut & Hectares Planted
Public Sustained Yield Units by Forest Region, 1974-78
Percent
Total
Cutover
five-year
Accumulative
Planted
Region
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
period
Total 1971 +
1971 +
Vancouver
Hectares Clearcut
10231
8636
12414
12977
14793
59051
97698
71.9
Hectares Planted
8650
7843
6581
7753
8103
38930
70210
Prince Rupert
Hectares Clearcut
11901
7018
11293
12462
13968
56642
85916
41.3
Hectares Planted
3291
4689
6253
3282
3408
20923
35513
Prince George
Hectares Clearcut
33282
26855
30267
40791
35620
166815
257925
21.6
Hectares Planted
5779
8955
12116
13545
7301
47696
55617
Cariboo
Hectares Clearcut
12392
11869
14570
15529
17311
71671
108908
32.2
Hectares Planted
4670
7457
5382
5612
5301
28422
35116
Kamloops
Hectares Clearcut
10907
10539
17968
16770
15374
71558
114675
25.8
Hectares Planted
2961
4569
4840
3782
7231
23383
29604
Nelson
Hectares Clearcut
12430
8060
14233
12124
7613
54460
92392
35.6
Hectares Planted
TOTAL
4272
6386
5276
2942
3861
22737
32875
Hectares Clearcut
91143
72977
100745
110653
104679
480197
757514
34.2
Hectares Planted
29623
39899
40448
36916
35205
182091
258935
TABLE 4       Site Preparation and Hazard Abatement, 1978, Forest Service and Licensees on All Tenures
Prime Objective Indicated in Appropriate Column
Method of Treatment
Broadcast Burned   	
Bunched & B Yned 	
Spot Burned   	
Landings Only Burned 	
Chemical Treatment and Burn 	
Drag Scarified 	
Blade Scarified 	
Bunched Only 	
Chemical Treatment Only 	
Residual Falling Only (including snags)
Snag Falling Only	
Other Treatment 	
No Treatment  	
TOTALS    	
(D
Natural
Regeneration
Preparation (ha)
(2)
Planting
Preparation (ha)
(3)
Hazard
Abatement (ha)
(4)
Total
(ha)
(5)
Per Cent
582
6,153
1,530
2,919
12,983
2,042
260
6
1,317
52
565
3,362
6,522
5,853
852
2,194
248
1.263
313
65
2,164
20
294
425
2,337
2,095
4,018
76,396
22
128
968
197
488
927
1,654
2,383
9,441
14,101
6.400
81,509
13,253
3,433
1,541
268
3,969
999
2,513
6,170
6.6
9.7
4.5
56.7
9.2
2.4
1.1
0.2
2.3
0.4
1.1
4.4
31,771
20,213
91,613
143,597
Table 5       Stand Tending and Improvement -1978 - All Tenures
(Area treated in hectares)
Region
Stocking Control
Residual Falling
Region Totals
uoniter Heiease
(Brushing)
Juvenile Spacing
Commercial
Thinning
Mistletoe
Control
and
Site Rehab.
Fertilization
Totals
Forest   Licencee
Forest  Licencee
Forest  Licencee
Forest   Licencee
Forest   Licencee
Forest   Licencee
Forest  Licencee
All
Service
Service
Service
Service
Service
Sen/ice
Service
Agencies
Vancouver
703.0
2826.4
2674.8
6569.5
2.0
23.1
—
—
—
751.6
2636.0
4807.5
6015.8
14978.1
20 993.9
Pr. Rupert
23.0
686.7
363.5
4.7
714.4
363.5
1 077.9
Pr. George
230.5
—
625.0
—
560.0
—
1415.5
—
1 415.5
Kamloops
1.6
637.3
—
572.1
95.0
6.0
—
1217.0
95.0
1 312.0
Nelson
—
546.0
—
332.0
—
—
—
878.0
—
878.0
Cariboo
Totals
—
698.9
—
1253 0
506.3
—
—
—
—
1951.9
506.3
2 458.2
727.6
2826.4
5474.2
6933.0
2.0
23.1
1878.0
506.3
1468.8
846.6
2642.0
4807.5
12192.6
15942.9
28135.5
 42
Table 6       Regeneration Surveys, 1978, Forest Service and Licensees in PSYU's1
Forest Region
Total
Hectares
Examined
Hectares
Satisfactorily
Stocked
Hectares
Not
Satisfactorily
Stocked
PerCent
Stocked
Vancouver —
25.804
(1)
25,804
10,274
10,381
20,655
16,751
7,572
24,323
25,484.6
4,141.7
29,626.3
15,908
10,653
26,561
23,507
9,063
32,570
20.181
(1)
20,181
7,683
6,128
13,811
10,809
4,858
15,667
18,898.7
2,507.6
21,400.3
11,537
6,147
17,684
16,401
4,196
20,597
5,623
(D
5,623
2,591
4,253
6,844
5,942
2,714
8,656
6,591.9
1,634.1
8,226.0
4,371
4,506
8,877
7,106
4,867
11,973
78.2
(1)
78.2
74.8
59.0
66.8
64.5
64.1
64.4
74.1
60.5
72.0
72.5
57.7
66.6
69.8
46.3
63.2
Licensee	
Total 	
Prince Rupert —
Licensee	
Total 	
Prince George —
Licensee	
Total 	
Cariboo —
Licensee	
Total 	
Kamloops —
Licensee	
Total 	
Nelson —
Licensee	
Total 	
Provincial totals —
117,728.6
41,810.7
159,539.3
85,503.7
23,836.6
109,340.3
32,224.9
17,974.1
50,199
72.6
57.0
68.5
Licensee	
Total 	
'Vancouver data incomplete (no licensee report).
aNote - Date of denudation varies considerably on areas examined, hence time for establishment of natural regeneration also varies. This is simply an indication of natural
stocking not showing denudation. No inference can be made between Regions or Agencies under stocking columns.
Table 7       1978, Cone Collections (hectolitres) — Forest Service
Species
Forest Regions
Species
Total
%
Vane.
Pr. Rpt.
Pr. Geo.
Cariboo
Kamloops
Nelson
Douglas Fir
37.8
1028.4
472.0
1538.2
43.9
Western Hemlock
61.4
31.0
2.7
95.1
2.7
Mountain Hemlock
7.3
7.3
negl.
Amabilis Fir
239.1
25.9
239.1
6.8
Grand Fir
136.6
105.5
242.1
6.9
Alpine Fir
3.6
114.0
98.0
206.0
447.5
12.8
Sitka Spruce
3.0
3.0
negl.
Interior Spruce
1.0
68.2
49.4
118.6
3.4
Western Red Cedar
49.0
12.4
0.6
15.6
14.0
91.6
2.6
Yellow Cedar
29.4
29.4
0.8
Lodgepole Pine
4.0
32.7
407.6
78.0
4.0
526.3
15.0
Ponderosa Pine
6.8
43.0
4.3
64.1
1.8
White Pine
9.6
9.6
0.3
Whitebark Pine
7.0
7.0
negl.
Western Larch
82.0
82.0
2.3
Birch
Totals
0.9
0.9
negl.
581.8
69.3
147.3
414.4
1341.2
947.8
3501.8
 Table 8       Seed Orchards Established as of 1978
43
Seed
Orchard
#
Agency
Date(s) Est.
i.e. Graft'd
or planted
Orchard
Seed Ore
nard
jn Area
Type of
Orchard
Present
Orchard
Size/ha
Seed Production (kg)
Seed Utilizati
1978
Accumulated
to Dec. 31/78
Location
Spp.*
Seed Zone
Elev. Band
Coastal Region
1
B.C.F.S.
1963
Campbell R.
F
1020
450-610
Clonal
+
Seedlings (OP.+C.P.)"
6.6
5.530
16.365
2
Tahsis "A"
1962-69
Gold R.
F
1010
0-450
Clonal
2.2
—
0.460
3
B.C.F.P.
1963-64
Caycuse
F
1010-1020
400-660
Clonal
1.8
—
—
4
Crown Zellerbach
1964-65
Courtenay
F
1020-1030
0-450
Clonal
1.8
—
0.250
5
Crown Zellerbach
1964-65
Nanaimo L.
F
1020-1030
450+
Clonal
1.8
0.750
0.905
6
Rayonier
1964-65
Gordon R.
F
1010-1020
450
Clonal
4.1
—
0.233
7
Tahsis "B"
1964-68
Gold R.
F
1010
450+
Clonal
1.8
—
0.254
8
Tahsis Local
1968-75
Gold R.
F
1010
Nootka PSYU
only.
0-910
Clonal
2.3
0.018
9
Pacific Logging
1964
Saanich
F
1020
0-450
Clonal
+
Seedlings (O.P.)
1.8
—
—
_
0.960
1.981
10
Pacific Logging
1964
Saanich
F
1020
550
Clonal
3.4
22.365
40.710
11
Tahsis "C"
1968-75
Saanich
F
1010
Low Coastal
0-450
Clonal
+
Seedlings (C.P.+O.P.)
4.9
25.250
59.535
12
Rayonier
1968
Jordan R.
F
1010-1020
Seedlings (O.P.)
0.4
—
—
13
Rayonier
1969
Pt. McNeill
F
1010-1020
Seedlings (O.P.)
0.4
—
—
14
B.C.F.S.
1970
Duncan
F
1040, 1050, 1060
450-640
Seedlings (O.P.)
4.5
11.270
25.923
15
B.C.F.S.
1971
Campbell R.
F
1030
0-300
Seedlings (O.P.)
+ Clonal
4.9
0.425
0.425
16
Canadian Forest Prod.
1971
Sechelt
F
1020
450-610
Clonal
2.4
—
0.095
17
Tahsis
1969-70
Gold R.
Hw
1010
0-910
Clonal
1970-75
Gold R.
Hw
1010
0.910
+ Seedlings (O.P.)
3.7
—
—
18
Tahsis
1973
Saanich
Ss
1010
0-450
Clonal
0.8
1.710
2.594
19
B.C.F.S.
1977
Chilliwack
Sw
Seedling
1.6
—
—
20
B.C.F.S.
1975
Saanich
F
1050, 1060, 1070
760-1070
Seedlings (O.P.)
+ Clonal
7.4
—
—
21
Pacific Logging
1976
Saanich
F
1020
550
Seedling (CP.)
6.0
—
—
22
MacMillan Bloedel Ltd.
1976-78
Harmac
F
Dry
Mid.
Clonal
1.2
—
—
23
MacMillan Bloedel Ltd.
1976-78
Harmac
F
Wet
Mid.
Clonal
1.0
—
—
24
MacMillan Bloedel Ltd.
1976
Harmac
F
Dry
Low
Clonal
0.5
—
—
25
MacMillan Bloedel Ltd.
1976
Harmac
F
Wet
Low
Clonal
1.0
—
—
Totals
- Coastal Re
gion Orchards
68.3
68.260
149.748
Central Interior Region
200
B.C.F.S.
1974
Red Rock
PI
6050-6060
Clonal
4.4
—
—
201
B.C.F.S.
1978
Red Rock
PI
7030
Clonal
1.7
—
—
202
B.C.F.S.
1978
Red Rock
PI
6010-310
0
Clonal
3.2
—
—
Totals
- Central Int
irior Region Orchards
9.3
-
-
"F- Douglas Fir
Hw - Western Hemlock
Ss - Sitka Spruce
PI - Lodgepole
* O.P. - seedlings resulting from
open pollination
CP. - seedlings resulting from
controlled pollination
Note: Pacific Logging Seed Orchards are for reforestation in Private Lands.
 44
Table 9       Inventory of Seed in Storage, 1978, By Forest Region
(Quantity in Grams (g)1)
Species
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Cariboo
Kamloops
Nelson
Totals
Douglas-fir	
Western hemlock 	
Engelmann/White spruce .
Sitka spruce   	
Lodgepole pine 	
Mountain hemlock  	
Abies amabilis   	
Abies lasiocarpa	
Abies grandis  	
Red Cedar	
Ponderosa pine   	
Western larch  	
Miscellaneous	
Totals
5,559,920
179,360
66,400
213,640
4,720
14,250
276,950
38,250
48,380
2,190
3,310
106,750
33,600
1,194,720
455,450
570,130
117,180
1,653,250
643,720
6,350
950,710
258,450
239,360
6,840
010
1,183,340
5,000
431,060
862,670
158,260
59,580
504,580
21,840
4,570
1,993,140
7,190
1,380,351
1,097,200
450
2,070
7,630
97,370
55,480
17,440
9,911,040
225,150
4,984,231
669,090
3,417,800
14,250
276,950
171,900
40,320
137,300
630,850
77,320
32,690
6,407,370
2,427,860
1,455,370
4,658,321
20,561,891
' Including seed collected by forest companies
Total seed native species	
Total seed exotic species	
.20,561,891
63,490
Grand total seed in storage   20,625,381
Table 10       Seed Processed from 1978 Cone Crop, (Grams)1, Forest Service and
Companies, by Forest Regions
Prince
Prince
Species
Vancouver
Rupert
George
Cariboo
Kamloops
Nelson
Totals
Douglas Fir
261106
—
—
5360
757205
434440
1458111
Western Hemlock
130063
82760
—
—
—
—
212823
Mountain Hemlock
1590
—
—
—
—
—
1590
Spruce (Int)
220
—
—
—
36275
44600
81095
Sitka Spruce
4165
3500
—
—
—
—
7665
Lodgepole Pine
—
5930
3630
—
—
—
9560
Yellow Cedar
22627
—
—
—
—
_
22627
Balsam
139975
—
—
—
—
105460
245435
Western Red Cedar
73490
17630
885
—
20065
23640
135710
Yellow Pine
—
—
—
12620
124280
—
136900
Larch
—
—
—
—
—
66910
66910
Miscellaneous
Totals
2060
—
-
—
-
13860
15920
635296
109820
4515
17980
937825
688910
2394346 g.
1 Total seed extracted to 19th January 1979. Processing of 1978 cone crop incomplete at time of preparing this report.
Seed sown in 1978:1236759 g.
 45
Table 11       Forest Service Nurseries - Inventory August 1978
(Thousands of Trees)
Stock Type
Bareroot
Container
Nursery
1 +0
2 + 0<1>
Transplant
Styroblock
Other(2)
Campbell River
6199
5731
2277
280
34
Koksilah
4140
2278
648
4508
640
Green Timbers (Whally)
5981
1605
547
5615
250
Surrey
26312
10143
3071
9549
Chilliwack River
7740
9712
1648
Skimikin (Tappen)
7574
5825
1738
2151
Vernon
2898
Red Rock
10025
10269
2058
412
Telkwa
965
849
265
Harrop
250
Forest Region
Vancouver
18196
10188
4126
9340
782
Prince George
30668
15969
2189
4865
82
Prince Rupert
7015
1915
1160
2081
60
Kamloops
3942
5514
2368
3682
Cariboo
6588
8681
1508
1419
Nelson
Provincial Total
2527
4145
901
4226
68936
46412
12252
25663
924
(1 'includes transplantables, i.e. small plantables mainly 4" - 6" Spruce
(Mother containers include Spencer Lemaire Trays, Walter's bullets, etc.
Table 12       Nursery Inventory by Species - August 1978
(Thousands of Trees)
Stock Type
Bareroot
Containers
Species
1 +0
2 + 0
Transplants
Styroblocks
Others
Douglas Fir - coast
16151
6855
1498
94
168
Douglas Fir - interior
3067
5701
2093
602
Sitka Spruce
1266
1573
1318
689
Engelmann Spruce
306
4112
588
3082
Interior Spruce
42316
24258
3991
7216
35
Lodgepole Pine
4308
2358
1447
5495
47
Western Hemlock
13
7066
Mountain Hemlock
490
Western Red Cedar
750
489
205
87
640
Yellow Cedar
54
85
5
4
34
Amabalis Fir
420
564
509
236
Grand Fir
218
339
265
36
Western Larch
428
Yellow Pine
40
42
128
Other Species
1
38
18
10
Provincial Total
68936
46412
12252
25663
924
 46
Table 13       Summary of Spring 1978 Sowing
(Thousands of Trees)
Stock Type
Bareroot
Containers
Species
1 +0
2 + 0
Transplants
Styroblock
Others
Totals
%
Douglas Fir - coastal
7614
8398
681
105
180
16978
17.4
Douglas Fir - interior
149
1840
259
774
3022
3.1
Sitka Spruce
1506
317
763
2586
2.7
Interior Spruce
904
33509
7835
10267
50
52565
54.4
Lodgepole Pine
168
3263
608
5062
50
9151
9.4
Western Hemlock
10
15
9018
9043
9.3
Mountain Hemlock
553
553
0.6
Western Red Cedar
22
425
263
70
640
1420
1.5
Yellow Cedar
10
60
4
40
114
0.1
Amabalis Fir
227
159
386
0.4
Grand Fir
71
83
103
257
0.3
Western Larch
458
458
0.5
Yellow Pine
3
134
137
0.1
Other Species
Provincial Total
2
81
95
178
0.2
8872
49118
10333
27565
960
96848
100%
Table 14       Summary of Basic Data for Certified Tree-Farms — 1978
(Private Sustained-Yield Units Over Crown-Granted Lands)
(Included Within Tree Farm Licences)
Forest
Region
Number of
Tree-Farms
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Allowable Annual Cut or
Estimated Productive
Capacity (Cunits)
Mature
Immature
N.S.R.
and
N.C.C.
Total
Vancouver
Prince George
Nelson
Total
14
1
2
59,803
33
494
278,733
1,043
4,719
30,238
145
4,394
368,774
1,221
9,607
407,852
1,280
10,158
368,445
458
4,312
17
60,330
284,495
34,777
379,602
419,290
373,215
Not Included Within Tree Farm Licences
Vancouver
Nelson
Total
Grand Totals
22
10
96,412
102,804
346,491
224,491
37,283
92,492
480,186
419,787
522,103
488,973
438,103
(1000)
151,810
(292,293)
32
199,216
570,982
129,775
899,973
1,011,076
589,913
(293,293)
49
259,546
855,477
164,552
1,279,575
1,430,366
963,128
(293,293)
Figures in parentheses ( ) are Christmas Trees
Table 15       Summary of Basic Data for Farm Woodlot Licences —1978
(Private Sustained-Yield Units)
Number of
Droductive Area (Acres
Total
Allowable
Forest
Farm Woodlot
Area
Annual Cut
Region
Licences
Crown
Private
Total
(Acres)
(Cunits)
Vancouver
10
1,433
158
1,591
2,072
706
Prince Rupert
4
1,274
147
1,421
2,436
284
Prince George
5
1,169
—
1,169
1,272
500
Cariboo
10
2,915
242
3,157
4,911
720
Kamloops
2
371
96
467
467
163
Nelson
4
1,359
617
1,976
2,071
267
Grand Totals
35
8,521
1,260
9,781
13,229
2,640
 47
Table 16       Summary of Basic Data for Tree-Farm Licences (Private Sustained-Yield Units) 1978
5 Year
Productive Area (Acres)
Allowable
T.F.L. Number
Working Plan
Licensee
Total
Total Area
Annual Cut
&Name
Period
Schedule B
Schedule A
(Acres)
(Cunits)
Vancouver Region
* 2 Duncan Bay
1975-79
Crown Zellerbach Canada Ltd.
260,644
144,288
404,932
473,193
214,640
6 Quatsino
1976-80
Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Limited
295,170
60,365
355,535
420,134
417,000
7 Salmon River
1977-81
MacMillan Bloedel Limited
117,514
58,012
175,526
194,602
185,000
10Toba
1975-79
Timberland Development Co. Ltd.
94,241
611
94,852
574,279
63,300
12Hardwicke
1974-79
Crown Zellerbach (Hardwicke Island) Limited
19,935
1,641
21,576
23,404
25,000
17 Knight Inlet
1978-82
British Columbia Forest Products Limited
117,933
578
118,511
681,435
66,200
19 Tahsis
1977-81
Tahsis Company Ltd.
260,095
18,708
278,803
473,138
349,500
20 Tofino
1973-79
MacMillan Bloedel Industries Ltd.
214,849
141,243
356,092
426,371
383,120
21 Alberni
1973-79
MacMillan Bloedel Industries Ltd.
273,206
206,693
533,899
638,050
683,420
22 Maquinna
1978-82
British Columbia Forest Products Limited
321,529
52,697
374,226
412,330
392,200
•25 Naka
1977-May20, 1979
Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Limited
158,624
66,509
225,133
361,308
184,358
26 Mission Municipal
1974-July21,1979
Corp. of the District of Mission
13,260
2,934
16,194
18,957
11,400
27 Nitinat
1970-Oct. 19, 1979
British Columbia Forest Products Limited
29,363
2,708
32,071
35,870
40,639
36 Cordero
1978-Dec.22, 1980
British Columbia Forest Products Limited
21,404
5,737
27,141
28,656
33,000
37 Nimpkish
1976-Dec. 31,1980
Canadian Forest Products Ltd.
242,555
92,211
334,766
465,031
387,000
38 Squamish
1978-June 1,1982
Empire Mills Limited
129,075
470
129,545
541,175
93,000
•39 Haida
1976-80
MacMillan Bloedel Limited
453,563
177,549
631,112
1,060,028
648,450
Totals
(Est.)
17
3,022,960
1,086,954
4,109,914
6,827,961
4,176,227
Prince Rupert Region
1 Port Edward
1970-78
Canadian Cellulose Company Limited
2,288,010
15,085
2,303,095
6,665,920
720,000
* 2 Duncan Bay
1975-79
Crown Zellerbach Canada Limited
33,019
26,892
59,911
68,165
73,360
24 Moresby
1974-May 1,1979
Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Limited
184,781
7,332
192,113
277,909
154,000
•25 Naka
1977-May20, 1979
Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Limited
125,441
38,365
163,806
761,687
33,142
•39 Haida
1976-80
MacMillan Bloedel Limited
435,349
101,567
536,916
734,941
530,550
(Est.)
41 Kitimat
Totals
1975-79
Eurocan Pulp & Paper Company Limited
602,219
—
602,219
2,526,261
200,000
6
3,668,819
189,241
3,858,060
11,034,883
1,711,052
Kamloops Region
9 Okanagan West
1972-79
Crown Zellerbach Canada Limited
178,532
1,686
180,218
195,981
74,300
15lnkaneep
1974-79
Northwood Properties Ltd.
113,133
160
113,293
120,261
25,800
16 Monte Lake
1974-79
Crown Zellerbach Canada Limited
120,172
—
120,172
128,101
45,200
18 Clearwater
1977-81
Clearwater Timber Products Limited
166,912
—
166,912
183,404
74,000
32 Rolean
1975-June28, 1980
Crown Zellerbach Canada Limited
31,327
—
31,327
33,494
12,000
33 Sicamous
1975-79
Federated Co-operatives Limited
20,566
—
20,566
21,032
10,055
35 Jamieson Creek
Totals
1974-78
Weyerhaeuser Canada Ltd.
92,129
—
92,129
97,650
31,950
7
722,771
1,846
724,617
779,923
273,305
Nelson Region
3 Little Slocan
1973-78
Slocan Forest Products Ltd.,
109,925
—
109,925
196,951
44,600
8 Boundary Creek
1974-79
Pope & Talbot Ltd.
179,569
—
179,569
192,136
53,250
13 Bull River
1974-Nov. 26, 1980
Galloway Lumber Company Limited
51,112
485
51,597
92,270
9,500
14Spillimacheen
1974-79
Crestbrook Forest Industries Ltd.
118,043
1,000
119,043
344,749
40,800
23 Arrow Lakes
Totals
1972-79
Canadian Cellulose Company Limited
930,515
37,245
967,760
2,518,737
415,000
5
1,389,164
38,730
1,427,894
3,344,843
563,150
Cariboo Region
5 Mackenzie-
1975-79
Weldwood of Canada Limited
81,196
695
81,891
85,047
43,930
Cariboo
Prince George Region
30 Northwood
1976-June2,1980
Northwood Pulp Limited
390,929
1,725
392,654
447,946
155,720
Grand Totals
34
9,275,839
1,319,191
10,595,030
22,520,603
6,923,384
" Tree Farm Licences 2,25 and 39 are partly
within the Vancouver Region and partly within the Print
e Rupert Rec
ion
Schedule "B" is vacant Crown Land
Schedule "A" is land for which the Tree-fa
rm Licence holder has cutting rights other than those
conveyed by
the Tree-farn
i Licence Ag
eement. This
may include
lands held in fee simple or ten-
porary tenures; e.g., Timber leases, licences and berths
Following re
novalofthem
ature timber,
ands held und
er temporary
tenure are transferred to Sch
3dule "B"
 48
Table 17       Average Stumpage Prices Received by Species and Forest Region on Timber Scaled from
Tree-Farm Licence Cutting Permits During 1978
Douglas Fir
Cedar
Spruce
Hemlock
Forest Region
Volume
Price
Price Range
Volume
Price
Price Range
Volume
Price
Price Range
Volume
Price
Price Range
Cunits
Per
Cunit
Per Cunit
Cunits
Per
Cunit
Per Cunit
Cunits
Per
Cunit
Per Cunit
Cunits
Per
Cunit
Per Cunit
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Vancouver
220,725
12.65
2.00-27.10
616,644
32.99
4.11-51.92
30,263
27.23
2.00 - 53.65
1,128,693
5.09
2.00-10.03
Prince Rupert
51
4.55
3.90-   5.48
140,736
25.94
.55-33.66
120,922
18.27
.55 - 32.76
437,713
2.36
.55-   4.04
Prince George
3,546
38.49
1.10-42.50
2
5.96
1.10-14.90
115,901
22.16
1.10-39.70
69
2.31
1.10-14.90
Cariboo
20,029
33.73
18.30-55.40
—
—
—
9,730
21.65
7.20 - 47.80
—
—
—
Kamloops
42,788
19.61
1.10-50.90
2,503
12.02
1.10-42.20
80,835
17.02
1.10-33.20
5,015
2.57
1.10-14.90
Nelson
All Regions
29,903
19.34
1.10-51.30
65,753
26.78
1.10-54.50
76,473
13.73
1.10-37.70
95,623
1.15
1.10-27.30
317,042
15.83
1.10-55.40
825,638
31.23
.55-54.50
434,124
18.97
.55-53.65
1,667,113
4.13
.55 - 27.30
Balsa
m
Lodgepol
3 Pine
White Pine
Larch
Forest Region
Volume
Price
Price Range
Volume
Price
Price Range
Volume
Price
Price Range
Volume
Price
Price Range
Cunits
Per
Cunit
Per Cunits
Cunits
Per
Cunit
Per Cunit
Cunits
Per
Cunit
Per Cunit
Cunits
Per
Cunit
Per Cunit
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Vancouver
614,416
5.24
2.00-10.60
203
4.92
1.40-   6.03
8,025
3.77
1.62-     8.77
—
—
—
Prince Rupert
94,678
1.95
.55-   6.80
10,579
1.67
.55-   2.10
1
2.00
2.00
—
—
—
Prince George
30,227
4.13
1.10-14.90
7,909
8.21
1.10-19.90
—
—
—
—
—
—
Cariboo
1,606
5.31
1.10-22.60
5,508
14.35
3.70 - 35.00
—
—
—
—
—
—
Kamloops
36,410
2.65
1.10-19.10
98,790
6.23
1.10-22.40
1,543
18.84
1.10-123.40
2,864
19.55
1.10-43.30
Nelson
38,208
2.84
1.10-38.20
72,237
4.59
1.10-38.20
18,010
59.75
1.10-117.10
8,827
17.60
1.10-40.80
All Regions
815,545
4.58
.55 - 38.20
195,226
5.68
.55 - 38.20
27,579
41.16
1.10-123.40
11,691
18.07
1.10-43.30
Other Species
All Species
Forest Region
Volume
Price
Price Range
Volume
Price
Price Range
Cunits
Per
Cunit
Per Cunit
Cunits
Per
Cunit
Per Cunits
$
$
$
$
Vancouver
80,192
35.72
5.97-41.73
2,699,161
13.36
1.40-   53.65
Prince Rupert
17,426
29.44
.50 - 39.75
822,106
9.25
.50-   39.75
Prince George
13
3.28
1.10-   6.80
157,667
18.36
1.10-   42.50
Cariboo
—
—
—
36,873
26.41
1.10-   55.40
Kamloops
198
7.32
1.10-35.40
270,946
11.26
1.10-123.40
Nelson
All Regions
2,096
27.88
1.10-38.20
407,130
12.84
1.10-117.10
99,925
34.39
.50-41.73
4,393,883
12.70
.50-123.40
 Table 18      Summary of Basic Data for PSYU's — 1978
49
Forest Region
Date
Mature
Productive Area (acres)
Total
Total Area
Allowable
Volume
and Unit Name
of
Volume
Productive
(Including
Annual
Commitment
Scaled
Survey
(cunits)
Mature
Immature
(Includes
NSR & NCC)
Non-Forest
acres)
Cut
(Cunits)
(Cunits)
Vancouver 1
Dewdney
1974
43,647,860
517,197
381,064
990.736
1.792,885
559,560
486,683
540,294
Kingcome
1966,69,71,74
89,555,950
1,045,657
243,680
1,322,563
2.706,047
603,000
433,195
419,304
Nootka
1969
60,098,260
579,441
64,101
663,877
786.629
413,000
413.000
427.861
Quadra
1962,66,67,69
49,153,860
561,777
682,917
1,336,518
2,855,229
776,000
740.844
609,827
Soo
1975
26,427,300
316,884
188,773
525,555
1,476,440
206,500
206,500
214,480
Vancouver
Regional Total
1970
13,279,340
135,920
152,269
319,576
550,367
179,240
122,077
117,432
282.162,570
3,156,876
1,712,804
5,158,825
10,167,597
2,737,300
2,402,299
2.329.193
Prince Rupert
(Coast 1)
Dean
1962,63,68
62,424,590
881,134
80,045
968,273
3,916,986
517,080
228.144
123.072
Hecate
1964,65
100,823,060
1,558,329
100,615
1,695,026
4,228,235
745,840
179,947
63,899
Queen Charlotte
1967
60,619,620
945,266
76,508
1.026,867
1,346,809
379,240
207,407
158,625
Rivers Inlet
Regional Sub Tota
1968
67,879,520
841,139
52,660
913,938
1,966,175
471,920
319,986
77,523
291,746.790
4,225,868
309,828
4,604,104
11,458,205
2,114,080
935,484
423,119
Prince Rupert
(Interior 2)
Babine
1974
37,136,390
1,057,695
397,114
1,582,527
2,098,082
423,500
227,942
315,732
Bell Irving
1973
18,147,930
279,081
14,871
326.576
1,580,988
125,000
—
12,110
Burns Lake
1976
17,562,542
580,818
372,096
973,787
7,088,508
264,030
264,030
260,977
Morice
1972
28,082,330
577,640
220,646
861,367
1,420,877
280,710
196,636
95,949
Ootsa
1976
45,780.314
1,273,461
669,101
1,971.590
2,670,493
632,780
540,799
258,591
Skeena
1976
109,284,630
1,667,251
368,038
2,094,392
3,914,904
1,006,591
508.883
458,643
Smithers
1976
31,643,984
759,351
246,077
1,019,938
1,439,369
315,110
263.222
234.719
Sub Total
Regional Total
287,638,120
6.195,297
2,287,943
8,830,177
14,213,221
3,047,721
2,001,512
1,636,721
579,384,910
10,421,165
2,597,771
13,434,281
25,671,426
5,161,801
2,936,996
2,059,840
Prince George 2
Big Valley-Blk. 1
1969
7,219,620
156,251
16,222
183,653
199,645
83,304
82,195
93,434
Blueberry
1964
13,404,870
464,110
1,090,513
1,919,971
2,748,392
293,000
189.650
171,584
Canoe
1974
10,342,650
209,023
86,371
315,290
877,262
76,000
67.867
43,749
Carp
1973
32,074,080
672,293
555,401
1,293,397
1,486,602
419,500
291,114
273,113
Crooked River
1973
15,964,450
322,340
222,651
593,366
669,724
186,230
178,472
149,143
Finlay
1972
93,607,370
3,566,573
1,866,840
5,897,187
11,652,835
1,212,000
1,060,600
748,612
Fontas
1969,70
3,302,310
100,405
734,933
1,079,038
2,699,016
159,800
77,990
—
Fort Nelson
1968
14,704,830
477,637
1,444,501
2,188,252
4,751,019
370,050
253.502
257,824
Kluskus
1975
11,886,760
442,611
338.182
781,591
952,807
120,500
63.825
54,157
Kotcho
1969.70
3,902,420
145,403
1,865,709
3,079,616
5,513,175
92,700
—
34,729
Liard
1972,73
46,140,920
1,831,848
1,806,479
4,287.324
7,505,413
480.700
144.035
42,157
Longworth
1971
31,980,410
742,778
72,015
853.565
1,215.095
295.030
230,235
147.311
Moberly
1970
20,738,420
700.688
650,821
1,491,486
1.889.393
292.719
135,209
116,919
Monkman
1966
23,751,650
693,610
32,716
747.086
1,353,615
205,340
156.560
159,081
Naver
1969
6,669,060
145,183
120,771
303,502
325,233
116,972
115.902
118,475
Nechako
1975
37,046,020
1,204,042
769,643
2.045,504
2,309.018
500,500
501.903
498,472
Ootsa 4
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
54,452
Parsnip
1965
22,973,290
787,082
166,187
1.097,919
1,475,932
221.620
216,370
195,015
Peace
1972
22,478,140
738,509
384,930
1,210,994
1,744,883
252.603
129,350
93,112
Purden
1967
16,269,520
417,234
74,842
533,282
590,461
174,540
167,074
94,491
Robson
1974
12,448,730
299,533
162,599
496,120
1,317.975
98,000
97,783
73,772
Sikanni
1971
1,188,803
631.083
1,753,210
2,617,630
4.792,926
250,070
52,504
34,112
Stuart Lake
1970
25,591.910
660,216
496,168
1,204.637
1,510,800
385.000
189.510
207,447
Takla
1970,71
48,555,960
1,301,992
839,421
2,235,170
3,060,611
642,260
322,013
405,662
Wapiti
1969
17.486,360
609,329
1,290.137
2,111,420
2.871,553
367.315
104.053
82.435
Westlake
1975
11,880,590
329.557
181,843
553,842
588,028
162,000
162.000
179,776
Willow River
Regional Total
1969
6,293,540
140,441
126.129
301,273
319,807
119.130
118.202
125,970
557,902,683
17.789,771
17.149.234
39.422,115
64,421.220
7,576.883
5.107,918
4,455,007
 50
Forest Region
Date
Mature
Productive Area (acres)
Total
Total Area
Allowable
Volume
and Unit Name
of
Volume
Productive
(Including
Annual
Commitment
Scaled
Survey
(cunits)
Mature
Immature
(Includes
NSR & NCC)
Non-Forest
acres)
Cut
(Cunits)
(Cunits)
Cariboo 2
Big Bar (Partial)
1976
13,563,750
697,052
393,498
1,112,324
1,350,435
177,813
154,833
110,430
Big Valley Blk. 2
1969
6,006,970
147,818
24,417
182,483
192,945
69,390
68,550
109,645
Bowron
1967
4,013,430
93,993
49,179
150,686
168,773
52,020
51,604
84,378
Chilko
1966
28,648,690
1,463,453
1,546,439
3,120.920
5,134,347
253,327
70,666
9,769
Cottonwood
1969
14,319,160
312,522
105,217
452,808
480,242
208,250
208,250
240,948
Lac la Hache
1972
22,949,580
792,363
654,235
1,524,466
1,779,099
337,036
337,036
341,727
Narcosli
1974
24,916,820
1,093,842
863,651
2,009,482
2,176,973
399,400
384,014
462,591
Quesnel Lake
1971
40,952,460
898,012
542,380
1,536,854
2,073,296
523,560
370.974
381,948
Stum
1963,66
23,196,240
1,490,927
1,471,337
3,049,404
3,590,698
317,161
315,231
241,598
Williams Lake
Regional Total
1973
12,383,090
371,645
227,843
671,381
747,169
155,400
143.112
247,683
190.950,190
7,361,627
5,878,196
13,810,808
17,693,977
2,493,357
2,104,270
2,230,717
Kamloops 2
Adams
1968
9,463,770
225,311
246,190
496,335
584,686
146,000
146,000
199,187
Ashnoia
1969
8,273,000
265,492
141,504
422,239
525,919
96,194
90,191
85,487
Barriere
1967
4,796,280
120,140
157,123
292,190
326,925
91,349
89,781
96,953
Barton Hill
1970
4,385,540
125,574
19,823
150,036
162,173
43,200
41,663
28,940
Big Bar (Partial) 3
1976
3,181,610
166,114
105,825
274,433
323,174
—
—
47,362
Botanie
1970
13,024,100
526.056
274,734
861,654
1,298,414
144,370
131,088
173,181
Eagle
1971
8,326,940
145,870
87,784
254.507
351,854
106,170
96,036
74,822
Kamloops
1968
6,191,360
284,335
333,818
678,963
805,980
117,298
117,298
111,507
Nehalliston
1973
5,968,250
174,152
160,477
347,849
390,372
100,000
100,000
129,261
Nicola
1970
10,282,250
370,429
353,464
815,533
950,883
137,359
134,494
109,715
Niskonlith
1968
3,420,670
95,632
165,003
277,225
295,057
87,940
80,451
85,261
North Thompson
1967
16,253,360
351,010
84,940
470,385
983,673
142,037
99,628
127,019
Okanagan
1975
15,246,450
491,293
531,859
1,057,630
1,269,087
235,000
233,488
372,844
Raft
1967
7,677,310
192,134
275,607
505,395
557,435
132,963
126,439
119,692
Salmon Arm
1975
1,620,230
43,646
122,106
179,126
223,080
48,000
34,666
39,494
Shuswap
1975
13,465.090
238,568
216,901
517,550
756,179
165,000
133,607
150,620
Similkameen
1969
14,640,930
347,392
379,260
781,706
872,515
248,116
226,175
226,051
Spallumcheen
1972
16,371,610
350,460
391,030
783,094
980,584
322,116
290,966
322,186
Yalakom
Regional Total
1977
18,854,849
568,112
295,419
901,286
1,845,107
231,751
180,689
93,117
181.443,599
5.081,720
4,342,867
10.067,136
13,503,097
2,594,863
2,352,660
2,592,699
Nelson 2
Arrowhead
1962
5,070,520
111,907
81,194
201,181
509,020
60,000
46,774
53,437
Cranbrook
1964
11,566,660
299,849
767,016
1.219,401
1,725,800
248,333
230,367
216,612
Creston
1973
4,508,450
122,347
362,296
516,499
678,721
103,000
103,000
172,886
Edgewood
1967
3,316,650
96,993
150,704
262,074
297,938
71,050
70,725
84,014
Fernie
1973
7,127,870
223,221
458,176
755,327
1,337,504
200,200
191,796
274,670
Granby
1967
3,687,370
96,684
382,180
504,008
643,186
115,712
88,106
90,149
Kettle
1963
5,175,690
189,863
510,428
763,124
822,487
145,375
135,466
148,251
Kinbasket
1968
23,533,800
409,753
328,076
787,514
2,287,243
310,250
256,566
291,175
Lardeau
1969
19,027,060
373,337
500,198
931,866
1,827,754
366,160
164,877
100,562
Nakusp
1967
3,967,070
81,502
93,546
192,992
311,847
62,929
49,199
54,878
Salmo
1974
3,206,220
72,341
351,277
449,664
630,029
113,500
102,662
116,538
Slocan
1967
3,423,440
84,076
197,572
301,981
517,862
86,505
71,524
61,667
Upper Kootenay
1965
12,136,370
343,012
371,207
757,244
1,260,615
166,505
166,505
289,584
Windermere
Regional Total
Total for Province
1974
4,636,520
132,787
231,148
377,796
806,237
63,400
64,826
54,950
110,383,690
2,637,672
4,785,018
8,020,671
13,656,243
2,117,919
1,742,393
2,009,373
1,902,227,642
46,448,831
36,465,890
89,913,836
145,113,560
22,682,123
16,646,536
15,676,834
1 -9.1" + d.b.h.
2-7.1" + d.b.h.
3 - See Cariboo for commitment and a
owable annual cu
4 - See Prince Rupert for balance
 51
Table 19       Average BID Stumpage Prices by Species and Forest Regions on Cutting Permits of Timber
Sale Harvesting Licences and Timber Sales Issued During 1978 Per Cunit Log Scale
Douglas Fi
r
Cedar
Spruce
Forest Region
Volume
Price
Price
Volume
Price
Price
Volume
Price
Price
Cunits
per
Range per
Cunits
per
Range per
Cunits
per
Range per
Cunit
Cunit
Cunit
Cunit
Cunit
Cunit
$
$
$
$
$
$
Vancouver
318,133
11.89
1.70-101.00
507,960
35.37
1.10-103.25
26,148
21.22
2.00-49.40
Prince Rupert (est)
20,256
3.22
1.10-20.00
75,712
17.20
1.80-62.00
62,776
12.38
2.00 - 37.50
Prince Rupert (int)
—
—
—       —
38,708
20.37
1.10-64.00
494,527
9.75
1.10-40.10
Prince George
58,530
31.90
1.10-69.40
17,227
11.91
1.10-59.00
2,984,495
16.38
1.10-47.20
Cariboo
347,040
23.93
1.10-57.70
64,354
1.29
1.10-   3.40
556.077
19.58
1.10-47.70
Kamloops
483,663
24,69
1.10-76.00
216,691
26.47
1.10- 106.00
632,533
16.20
1.10-48.00
Nelson
Totals for Province
136,267
18.69
1.10-54.70
176,394
28.83
1.10-   63.10
389,180
13.17
1.10-38.40
1,363,889
20.90
1.10-101.00
1,097,046
28.40
1.10-106.00
5,145,736
15.79
1.10-49.40
Forest Region
Volume
Cunits
Hemlock
Price
per
Cunit
Price
Range per
Cunit
Volume
Cunits
Balsam
Price
per
Cunit
Price
Range per
Cunit
Volume
Cunits
White Pine
Price
per
Cunit
Price
Range per
Cunit
Vancouver
Prince Rupert (est)
Prince Rupert (int)
Prince George
Cariboo
Kamloops
Nelson
Totals for Province
$
.55-60.42
.55-30.00
1.10-17.10
1.10-   4.20
1.10-   1.10
1.10-90.00
1.10-   6.00
536,797
76,653
314,715
598,887
127,659
255,504
162,018
$
4.89
3.38
5.14
6.22
5.39
3.42
2.34
$
.55 - 40 00
.55-   4.80
1.10-25.60
.80-31.10
1.10-37.80
1.10-76.10
1.10-36.00
3,221
26,669
53.504
$
14.41
65.99
62.11
$
1.00- 92.10
3.30-123.90
1.10-109.30
736,558
184,025
243,983
7,271
8,624
175,394
104,628
$
5.32
4.34
1.41
1.11
1.10
2.53
1.11
1,460,483
3.86
.55 - 90.00
2,072,233
4.90
.55-76.10
83,394
61.50
1.00-123.90
Lodgepole Pine
Larch
Other Species
Forest Region
Volume
Price
Price
Volume
Price
Price
Volume
Price
Price
Cunits
per
Range per
Cunits
per
Range per
Cunits
per
Range per
Cunit
Cunit
Cunit
Cunit
Cunit
Cunit
$
$
$
$
$
$
Vancouver
2,254
1.69
.55-20.00
—
—
—   —
126,812
31.21
1.80-104.50
Prince Rupert (est)
85
1.94
1.70-   2.00
—
—
—   —
9,071
11.78
.55-   30.60
Prince Rupert (int)
722,866
6.43
1.10-33.00
—
—
—   —
10,361
1.47
1.10-     5.00
Prince George
1,640,832
10.93
.55-37.60
68
1.10
—   —
11,685
1.10
1.10-   1.10
Cariboo
934,384
9.57
1.10-44.10
—
—
—   —
325
3.17
1.10-     4.10
Kamloops
822,519
9.14
1.10-45.00
18.882
34.97
4.50-75.70
8,664
18.52
1.10-   34.10
Nelson
416,384
4.84
1.10-49.20
72,568
20.86
1.10-45.30
5,626
22.54
1.10-   45.10
Totals for Province
4,539,324
9.04
.55-49.20
91,518
23.75
1.10-75.70
172,544
25.39
.55-104.50
Forest Region
Volume
Cunits
All Species
Price
per
Cunit
Price
Range per
Cunit
Vancouver
2,257,883
$
14.55
$
.55-104.50
Prince Rupert (est)
Prince Rupert (int)
Prince George
Cariboo
428.578
1,825,160
5,318,995
2,038,463
7.72
6.70
13.65
14.18
.55- 62.00
1.10-   64.00
.55- 69.40
1.10-   57.70
Kamloops
Nelson
Totals for Province
2,640,519
1,516,569
14.89
13.34
1.10-123.90
1.10-109.30
16,026,167
13.06
.55-123.90
 52
Table 20       Timber Cut and Billed from Timber Sales and Timber Sale Harvesting Licences -1978
Forest Region
Cunits
Lineal
Feet
Posts
Car
Stakes
Fence
Rails,
Palings
Slag
Poles
Shingle
Shakes
Shake
Blanks
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert (Coast) ...
Prince Rupert (Interior)  ..
Prince George   	
Cariboo   	
Kamloops   	
Nelson  	
Totals 1978 	
Totals 1977 	
Totals 1976 	
Totals 1975 	
Totals 1974 	
Totals 1973 	
Totals 1972 	
Totals 1971  	
Totals 1970 	
Totals 1969 	
Ten-year average 1969-78
2,474,916
426,542
1,521,868
4,349,510
2,332,370
2,493,598
1,650,155
15,248,959
16,889,119
13,731,411
9,929,328
10,354,644
12,419,197
10,592,009
9,935,172
9,004,256
8,048,571
3,957,998
9,699,203
6,250,091
40,520
24,600
40,042
1,071
105,729
39,365
97,066
348,393
360,843
172,791
1,054,761
1,215,860
185,850
390,014
775,330
1,918,009
3,280,599
11,649
971
343
107
278
203
7,128
20,679
5,522
5,900
3,131
3,271
7,369
3,815
5,440
4,327
7,046
1,792
440
34,913
12,458
14,647
12,986
160,635
237,871
100,345
68,078
210,745
324,083
89,629
35,322
89,015
36,720
103,192
600
2,500
3,100
4,155
950
1,400
2,100
4,045
1,547
742
1,253
3,494
11,637
4,998
16,635
14,368
14,372
18,927
7,785
2,441
61,829
3,393,881
199,470
85,710
7,200
3,686,261
4,657,402
2,954,787
2,207,573
3,278,183
5,217,017
4,281,398
4,423,122
4,379,241
5,676,051
28,512
24,919
4,687
5,756
16,950
63,931
100,252
322,740
866,431
,856,028
11,615,267
1,990,729
970,245
6,650
129,500
2,279
4,086,103
329,021
Table 21       Total Amount of Timber Scale Billed in British Columbia
During the Years 1977 and 1978 in Cunits
Forest Region
10-Year
Average
1977
1978
Increase
Decrease
Net
1969-1978
Increase
Vancouver
8,456,778
8,600.829
9,954,268
1,353,439
Prince Rupert (C.)
1,612,964
1,484,166
1,463,081
21,085
Totals, Coast   ,
10,069,742
10,084,995
11,417,349
1,332,354
Prince Rupert (I.)
1,405,192
1,920,180
1.864,427
55,753
Prince George
4,083,930
4,763,844
4,917,746
153,902
Cariboo
1,298,341
2,381,482
2,637,441
255,959
Kamloops
2,801,198
3,159,614
3,145,536
14,078
Nelson
Totals, Interior
Grand Totals
2,102,646
2,399,514
2,561,671
162,157
11,691,307
14,624,634
15,126,821
502,187
21,761,049
24,709,629
26,544,170
1,834,541
Table 22       Total Scale of All Products Billed in 1978 in Cunits
(Segregated by Land Status and Forest Region)
li
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince Rupert
(Coast)
Prince Rupert
(Interior)
Prince George
Cariboo
Kamloops
Nelson
Totals
Timber Licences
2,021,167
197,997
—
453
—
44,034
32,230
2,295,881
Timber Berths
80,249
191 DR
—
—
—
45,164
30,000
155,222
Timber Leases
284,423
—
—
—
—
—
—
284,423
Pulp Leases
215,172
15,711
—
—
—
—
—
230,883
Pulp Licences
44,546
105,729
—
—
—
—
—
150,275
Farm Wood-Lots
762
—
76
759
583
3
24
2,207
Timber Sales
577,502
116,122
223,422
1,573,915
1,113,407
1,240,703
561,268
5,406,339
Timber Sale
1,897,414
310,420
1,298,446
2,775,595
1,218,693
1,252,894
1,088,887
9,842,619
Harvesting Licences
Tree-Farm Licences
2,768,958
613,021
242,760
155,086
36,994
277,624
412,949
4,507,392
Beachcomb, Trespass
88,229
8,277
2,576
_
—
—
—
99,082
Miscellaneous
Sub-Totals, Crown Lands
2,271
—
336
114,062
43,796
24,303
15,747
200,545
7,980,693
1,367,086
1,767,646
4,619,870
2,413,743
2,884,725
2,141,105
23,174,868
Federal Lands
22,590
4,897
7,225
3,110
12,303
10,481
3,142
63,748
Crown Grants to 1887
1,522,369
—
—
78
2,200
50,445
92,750
1,667,842
Crown Grants 1887-1906
85,031
33,434
2,779
48,845
7,532
12,458
175,510
365,589
Crown Grants 1906-1914
37,096
6,367
15.999
—
12,329
43,494
25,727
141,012
Crown Grants to date
306,489
51,297
70.778
245.843
189,334
143,933
123,437
1,131.111
 53
Table 23      Species Cut (In Cunits) All Products — 1978
Forest Region
Fir
Cedar
Spruce
Lodgepole
Pine
Hemlock
Balsam
White
Pine
Vancouver
Prince Rupert (C.)
Totals, Coast
Prince Rupert (Int.)
Prince George
Cariboo
Kamloops
Nelson
Totals, Interior
Grand Totals
1,592,826
29,438
2,132,026
338,672
154,700
242,591
20,148
774
3,687,704
673,241
2,019,439
135,293
38,794
17
1,622,264
42
73,293
596,063
650,309
265,253
2,470,698
37,401
28,809
33,733
231,730
372,113
397,291
484,043
2,771,812
798,505
832,614
590,794
20,922
661,378
1,565,783
1,113,133
858,855
662,523
4,360,945
334,746
2,136
5,344
129,835
222,688
2,154,732
330,670
459,517
104,366
342,479
236,025
38,811
13
27,864
61,983
1,557,960
3,180,224
703,786
3,174,484
5,477,768
5,875,059
4,861,672
4,882,594
694,749
5,055,694
1,473,057
3,627,789
89,860
128,671
Forest Region
Yellow
Pine
Cypress
Larch
Hardwood
Cottonwood
Unspecified
Total
Vancouver
Prince Rupert (C.)
Totals, Coast
Prince Rupert (Int.)
Prince George
Cariboo
Kamloops
Nelson
Totals, interior
Grand Totals
33
276,313
31,287
-
3,899
70
23,995
6,860
4,391
4,838
9,954,268
1,463,081
33
547
31,678
15,309
307,600
434
53 DR
20,917
124,467
3,969
110
2,456
293
873
221
30,855
4,332
1,152
38
1,803
1,446
9,229
11,705
12,828
12,419
16,145
8,849
11,417,349
1,864,427
4,917,746
2,637,441
3,145,536
2,561,671
47,534
47,567
434
308,034
145,331
145,331
3,953
7,922
8,771
39,626
61,946
71,175
15,126,821
26,544,170
Table 24       Acreage Logged 1978
Clear
Selective
Forest Region
Cutting
Cutting
Total
Vancouver
82,840
1,493
84,333
Prince Rupert
50,670
3,111
53,781
Prince George
96,871
224
97,095
Cariboo
45,615
20,087
65,702
Kamloops
41,452
19,623
61,075
Nelson
28,904
19,489
48,393
Totals 1978
346,352
64,027
410,379
1977
365,449
69,322
434,771
1976
329,322
58,560
387,882
1975
248,333
47,122
295,455
1974
323,324
44,488
367,812
1973
368,792
59,121
427,913
1972
328,553
48,005
376,558
1971
334,994
73,039
408,033
 54
-
Table 25          Total Sale of Christmas Trees Billed 1970-1978
1978
1977
1976
1975
1974
1973
1972
1971
1970
Vancouver
Private
81,527
90,129
77,554
71,617
85,413
81,743
72,067
65,043
77,662
Crown
10,173
14,119
7,217
6,926
4,124
7,348
10,985
2,775
2.130
Prince Rupert
Private
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
60
—
Crown
1,600
600
495
500
500
—
500
375
—
Prince George
Private
833
60
444
677
645
185
3,868
188
—
Crown
-
500
-
—
800
—
280
900
100
Cariboo
Private
1,201
6,020
9.558
8,020
12,860
11,677
—
—
—
Crown
6.301
3.866
23,680
19.634
31,486
28,588
3,366
—
—
Kamloops
Private
17.864
32.011
35,360
63,057
76,884
61,401
34,883
83,188
152.578
Crown
500
12,723
12,290
13,829
10,709
25,467
66,716
77,783
103,083
Nelson
Private
302,871
433.841
496,343
505,372
557,240
603,533
457,940
752,079
822,322
Crown
Total
Private
207,926
195,341
217,072
334,010
210,764
225.036
367,056
448,423
455,865
422,296
562.061
619.259
648.743
733,042
758.539
568,758
900,558
1.052,562
Crown
Total
226.500
227,149
260.754
374,899
258,383
286,439
448.903
530,256
561,178
648.796
789,210
880.013
1,023,642
991.425
1,044,978
1,017.661
1,430,814
1.613.740
Table 26       Wc
od Processing
Plants of the Province 1£
78
/
Operating
Shut Down
/ J  /
/                  Sawmills
/     Shingle
Mills
/       Sawmills           /      Shingle Mills
Forest Region
/ <* A /A / # / /// / //
/      st     7   £   /   £   /         /     s      /         /   £ /          /if/
/            §        /      M       /     J>      /                 /         &           /                  /    rlS   /                    /          »       7
/////// //A/// /// ,
////// A? AAA ///
*/////// s /////// // // /
A*
/     ■■!?
///
V
1
Vancouver
165
19,082
149
88
100
1,635
12
13
63
140
17
12
Prince Rupert
84
4,979
32
22
5
227
3
—
141
681
—
—
Prince George
127
20,563
56
59
1
4
5
3
214
1,997
1
2
Cariboo
47
5,200
32
45
2
3
1
3
43
109
5
2
Kamloops
168
7,914
62
66
15
46
1
6
29
209
3
6
Nelson
125
5,477
50
39
21
161
2
6
61
237
3
12
Totals 1978
716
63,215
381
319
144
2,076
24
31
551
3,373
29
34
1977
705
48,991
365
335
114
2,615
25
31
566
4,242
25
5,125
1976
659
49,895
365
326
99
1,835
25
30
543
4,816
25
84
1975
661
52,242
354
318
106
2,071
25
30
575
5,313
19
132
1974
787
45,541
326
304
103
1,615
25
27
495
6,889
14
74
1973
810
53,303
320
307
86
1,644
24
30
455
6,262
11
135
1972
603
45,962
305
272
74
1,601
23
30
506
5,723
28
94
1971
627
41,635
244
243
68
1,038
21
27
576
5,878
12
51
1970
881
40,531
230
202
59
909
20
24
322
3,084
9
29
1969
Ten Year Average
974
40,123
227
194
62
1,101
19
22
309
3,168
17
67
1969-1978
742
48,144
312
282
91
1,645
23
28
490
4,875
19
582
 Table 27       Export of Logs (In Cunits) 1978
55
Ungraded and
Exported
Lumber
Under
Species
Grade No. 1
Grade No. 2
Grade No. 3
Reject
Total
Exportable1
Permit
Fir
261
2,933
10,175
—
13,369
3,218
10,151
Cedar
7,346
9,339
21,578
—
38,263
2,245
36,018
Spruce
3,880
16,862
75,516
—
96,258
4,873
91,385
Hemlock
2,836
7,265
30,339
—
40,440
8,514
31,926
Balsam
—
—
—
19,514
19,514
2,773
16,741
Lodgepole Pine
1
22
637
—
660
346
314
Cypress
1,034
5,444
26,728
—
33,206
8,372
24,834
Hardwood
—
—
—
639
639
627
12
Cottonwood
-
11
27
-
38
-
38
Totals 1978
15,358
41,876
165,000
20,153
242,387
30,968
211,419
Totals 1977
19,272
62,358
209,753
73,426
364,809
98,069
266,740
Totals 1976
10,107
30,228
133,443
34,461
208,239
88,777
119,462
Totals 1975
12,066
29,820
98,397
9,843
150,126
73,447
76,679
Totals 1974
6,160
31,906
155,541
16,424
210,031
113,267
96,764
Totals 1973
1,547
6,380
32,747
6,834
47,508
32,680
14,828
Totals 1972
7,171
23,086
67,532
4,089
101,878
30,058
71,820
Totals 1971
28,743
60,942
168,171
23,244
281,100
46,304
234,796
Totals 1970
32,224
76,299
308,002
83,962
500,487
134,558
365,929
Totals 1969
Ten-Year Average
5,988
30,313
172,708
50,403
259,412
106,553
152,859
1969-1978
13,864
39,321
151,129
32,284
236,598
75,468
161,130
1 Export privilege - Exported from lands Crown Granted prior to March 13,1906.
2 Exported under permit from Crown Lands and lands granted after March 12,1906 under authority of Section 97 of the "Ministry of Forests Act".
 56
Table 28       Exports From the Province of Other Forest Products 1978
Where Marketed
Quantity
Approximate
Other
Forest Region
Unit
Exported
Value F.O.B.
Canada
United States
Countries
Vancouver
Poles
Lin. Ft.
2,511,595
$ 8,028,596.00
589,485
1,920,310
1,800
Piling
Lin. Ft.
34,016
108,851.00
25,920
8,096
—
Cedar Shakes
Pieces
1,590,394
556,637.00
264,465
1,296,098
29,831
Christmas Trees
Pieces
91,700
825,300.00
91,700
—
—
Fence Posts
Pieces
1,655
2,896.00
—
1,655
—
Pulp Chips
Units BDU
122,998
6,149,900.00
—
—
122,998
Units GPU
712,099
23,499,267.00
—
644,898
67,201
Prince Rupert
Poles
Lin. Ft.
2,464,009
2,465,000.00
1,319,009
1,145,000
—
Piling
Lin. Ft.
17,460
35,000.00
17,460
—
—
Cedar Shakes
Pieces
985,460
200,000.00
—
985,460
—
Pickets
Cords
3,600
400,000.00
—
—
3,600
Prince George
Fence Posts
Pieces
275,000
512,500.00
25,000
250,000
—
Cedar Shakes
Squares
1,602
80,100.00
1,282
320
—
Christmas Trees
Pieces
533
2,800.00
533
—
—
Cordwood
Cords
9
450.00
9
—
—
Shake Bolts
Cords
14
1,400.00
14
—
—
Building Logs
Lin. Ft.
1,845
1,850.00
1,845
—
—
Pulp Chips
Units BDU
66,014
1,124,878.00
66,014
—
—
Units GPU
78,372
3,029,077.00
—
74,453
3,919
Cariboo
Pulp Chips
Units BDU
59,823
1,495,575.00
-
11,366
48,457
Kamloops
Poles
Lin. Ft.
934,735
3,738,940.00
931,455
3,280
Christmas Trees
Pieces
2,909
8,727.00
2,027
3,882
—
Fence Posts
Pieces
145,342
726,710.00
1,910
143,432
—
Fence Rails
Pieces
266,584
533,168.00
3,820
262,764
—
Cordwood
Cords
54
2,166.00
54
—
—
Pickets
Cords
2,585
387,750.00
181
2,404
—
Building Logs
Cords
44
5,500.00
44
—
—
Shake Bolts
Cords
4,341
1,302,330.00
547
3,794
—
Pulp Chips
Units BDU
70,308
1,757,700.00
—
—
70,308
Nelson
Corral Rails
Lin. Ft.
2,738
278.00
1,258
1,525
—
Poles
Lin. Ft.
89,680
179,360.00
25,720
63,960
—
Mine Timbers
Lin. Ft.
3,711
1,856.00
3,711
—
—
Cedar Shakes
Squares
164,778
9,155,955.00
44,030
120,748
—
Fence Posts
Pieces
179,996
197,996.00
30,437
149,559
—
Shake Blanks
Pieces
2,786,250
557,250.00
2,786,250
—
—
Shake Blocks
Cords
6
900.00
—
6
—
Cordwood
Cords
47
2,350.00
13
34
—
Shingle Bolts
Cords
51
7,650.00
—
51
—
Christmas Trees
Pieces
23,874
38,198.00
5,082
18,792
—
Christmas Trees
Bales
4,813
38,504.00
4,731
82
—
Pulp Chips
Unit BDU
7,113
192,051.00
—
7,113
—
Total 1976
67,355,416.00
Total 1977
40,660,070.00
Table 29       Sub-Unit Surveys, 1978 Fieldwork
Maps
Number of
Total Area
Sub-UnitName
Classified
Samples
(Hectares)
Ahta River
6
31
8311.8
East Canoe Creek
5
16
2 428.1
McNulty Creek
11
113
20 566.6
Mehatl Creek
12
37
28015.6
Nahatlach River
13
38
29 269.3
Pemberton Creek
3
11
1 214,1
Potlatch Creek
5
6
3 615.5
Trinity Valley
18
183
112 372.1
Upper Yalakom River
Total
32
122
71 515.7
ms
«7
9*77 ica a
 57
Table 30       Production of Final Forest Cover Maps for 1977 Projects
Area and Volume Figures are Based on Earlier Surveys
Volume in
Forest and Nonforest Area (Hectares)
Cubic Metre
5x102
Public Sustained
Yield Unit
Number of
Maps
Crown
Alienated
Total
For Mature
Crown Area
(Close "C")
Arrowhead
38
206 000
22 590
228 590
143 581
Edgewood
Kamloops
23
68
120 575
326 169
5 752
177 031
126 327
503 200
93 917
175319
Kettle
49
332 860
43198
376 058
146 559
Nakusp
23
126 202
7 243
133445
122 335
Slocan
34
209 579
16 266
225 845
96 941
Yalakom
Totals
93
743 981
32 223
776 204
493 606
328
2 065 366
304 303
2 369 669
1 262 258
Table 31       Uses of Crown Range, 1978
Grazing Special
Hectares
Range
Grazing
Permits
Hay Cutting
it      /   &
£     /  8
Use Permits
*         / V
<F       / P
of Usable
Crown Range
Including
Permittees
Permits
Permitted Livestock
AUM's' Use of
District
Handled
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
Crown Range
<?
/   ^
<e  /$
Grazing SUP's
Kamloops
541
524
77,532
391
935
313,062
2
2
32
1,614
3,328,160
Nelson
263
266
18,120
491
—
74,021
—
—
13
1,135
578,308
Prince George
509
355
33,469
2,784
30
130,482
15
245
1
50
874,016
Cariboo
585
584
74,364
1,488
348
351,672
63
745
2
40
4,770,400
Vancouver
7
8
150
—
—
327
—
—
—
—
405
Prince Rupert
Totals, 1978
6
6
658
9
—
2,044
5
65
—
—
705,000
1,911
1,743
204,293
5,163
1,313
871,608
85
1,057
48
2,839
10,256,289
Totals, 1977
1,779
1,738
192,040
5,232
1,985
828,173
85
1,149
57
5,930
10,186,762
Continued
back to 1969 Figures for 1969 to 1976 inclusive to be quoted from 1977 Annual Report (Table 28).
1AU (Animal Unit Month) is the equivalent of one mature cow for one month.
Table 32       Fire Occurrences by Months -1978
Regions
March
April
May
June
July
August
Sept.
Oct.
Other
Total
Per Cent
Vancouver
3
6
20
52
176
45
5
7
2
316
Prince Rupert
0
6
37
57
69
82
3
2
0
256
Prince George
1
12
60
81
94
169
1
11
7
436
Kamloops
1
9
27
78
129
316
12
9
3
584
Nelson
2
7
16
47
91
259
3
8
2
435
Cariboo
Totals
0
6
41
55
95
57
5
18
4
281
7
46
201
370
654
928
29
55
18
2,308
100.0
Per Cent
0.3
2.0
8.7
16.0
28.3
40.2
1.3
2.4
0.8
100.0
_
Ten-Year Average
12
83
311
389
681
702
175
72
6
2,431
—
Per Cent
0.5
3.4
12.8
16.0
28.0
28.9
7.2
2.9
0.3
100.0
—
 58
Table 33       Number and Causes of Forest Fires -1978
Regions
Vancouver
68
45
9
95
11
0
12
31
13
31
1
316
13.7
Prince Rupert
95
31
4
31
13
0
6
20
15
40
1
256
11.1
Prince George
229
34
14
33
29
11
7
25
29
24
1
436
18.9
Kamloops
343
40
25
78
14
3
2
22
10
46
1
584
25.3
Nelson
322
19
9
23
9
0
3
21
4
25
0
435
18.8
Cariboo
Totals
84
20
4
17
17
13
2
17
67
39
1
281
12.2
1,141
189
65
277
93
27
32
136
138
205
5
2,308
100.0
Per Cent
49.4
8.2
2.8
12.0
4.0
1.2
1.4
5.9
6.0
8.9
0.2
100.0
—
Ten-year average
915
234
146
329
101
75
34
194
89
299
15
2,431
—
Per Cent
37.6
9.6
6.0
13.5
4.2
3.1
1.4
8.0
3.7
12.3
0.6
100.0
—
Table 34
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years
Causes
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
Total
Lightning
646
1,803
1,327
583
810
716
1,417
159
551
1,141
9,153
Recreational (Campers, hunters,
fishermen, etc.)
188
302
211
188
338
288
249
157
237
189
2,347
Railroads operating
238
246
175
136
218
147
113
57
63
65
1,458
Smokers
374
501
309
267
431
407
289
130
302
277
3,287
Brush-burning (not Railway or
Right-of-way clearing)
133
146
129
70
145
102
83
24
83
93
1,008
Range Burning
128
191
105
59
78
34
42
56
34
27
754
Road, Power, Telephone and
Pipe-line construction
52
30
50
44
38
36
25
5
27
32
339
Industrial operations (logging, etc.)
206
255
205
189
224
319
133
116
154
136
1,937
Incendiary
19
70
70
77
99
133
94
59
128
138
887
Miscellaneous known causes
313
432
303
277
462
355
252
127
270
205
2,996
Unknown causes
Totals
21
27
14
13
20
21
16
3
5
5
145
2,318
4,003
2,898
1,903
2,863
2,558
2,713
893
1,854
2,308
24,311
Table 35
Fires C
:iassi
fied by Size and Damage -
1978
/     Total Fires      /      0.1 Ha & Under       / Over 0.1 to 4.0 Ha    /  Over 4 to 200 Ha     /   Over 200 Ha
/ Damage
/ a,     /            /      /<?/        /       / »    /         /      / 8    /       /     / 8   7
/     ///    /$/?/   /£/&/   /#/?/ /$/$/
/      /<£ /      /#/$/    /*/#/    /# /£ /   /#/*/
A /
7         / -f   /        /■*/•*'/      /•$■/■$■/      /<■/<■/     /•*■ 7 ■§ 7
Af /      A/A /    AA* /    A A/   A/A/
/f? /     A° A0 /   A* A8- /    A° A5/   A'A5" A   /
/A/       / & / & /     /A/A/     A /A/    A / s- / ^   /
///
§ A /
** A?   /
Regions
//
/ / / / /// i // /i/i // av / // /if $ // //  £
/
Vancouver
316
13.7
215
68.0
13.2
82
25.9
15.6
18
5.7
12.9
1
0.3
5.3
297
10
9
Prince Rupert
256
11.1
176
68.8
10.8
61
23.8
11.6
12
4.7
8.6
7
2.7
36.8
238
6
12
Prince George
436
18.9
253
58.0
15.6
124
28.4
23.5
51
11.7
36.7
8
1.8
42.1
384
22
30
Kamloops
584
25.3
461
78.9
28.4
102
17.5
19.4
19
3.3
13.7
2
0.3
10.5
566
6
12
Nelson
435
18.8
359
82.5
22.2
65
14.9
12.3
11
2.5
7.9
0
0
0
425
6
4
Cariboo
Totals
281
12.2
159
56.6
9.8
93
33.1
17.6
28
10.0
20.2
1
0.4
5.3
258
17
6
2,308
100.0
1,623
70.4
100.0
527
22.8
100.0
139
6.0
100.0
19
0.8
100.0
2,168
67
73
Per cent
100.0
—
70.3
—
—
22.9
—
—
6.0
—
—
0.8
—
—
93.9
2.9
3.2
 59
Table 36       Loss of Property Other Than Forests -1978
Forest
Railway,
Products Cut,
Logging, and
Logs, Lumber,
Sawmill
Per Cent of
Regions
etc.
Buildings
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Total
Vancouver
$138,812
$    1,000
$   799,522
$16,000
$   935,334
70.1%
Prince Rupert
$    7,104
$            0
$           300
$      100
$       7,504
0.5%
Prince George
$    1,342
$            0
$   240,500
$       50
$   241,892
18.1%
Kamloops
$    3,655
$    2,550
$      10,741
$ 8,911
$     25,857
1.9%
Nelson
$  12,309
$          50
$               0
$     400
$      12,759
1.0%
Cariboo
Totals
$       328
$    9,800
$   100,000
$  1,500
$   111,628
8.4%
$163,550
$  13,400
$1,131,063
$26,961
$1,334,974
$100.0%
Per Cent
12.0%
1.0%
85.0%
2.0%
100.0%
—
Ten Year Average
$185,650
$132,358
$194,580
$57,025
$   569,613
—
Per Cent
32.4%
23.1%
34.5%
10.0%
100.0%
—
Table 37       Loss of Forest Cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1978 - Part I*
Vancouver
Prince Rupert
Prince George
Kamloops
Nelson
Cariboo
Totals
Per Cent
Ten-year Average
Per Cent
509
15,855
8,444
462
41
1,127
61,591
3,346,224
1,000,371
62,173
7,148
305,607
36,178
576,514
150,372
39,924
2,470
203,721
107,521
4,947,931
4,074,172
96,460
20,110
796,238
253
6,853
472
355
58
1,290
37,052
952,173
28,786
46,850
9,160
140,496
26,438
53.0
16,921
20.2
4,783,114
100.0
927,037
100.0
1,009,179
21.0
280,296
30.2
10,042,432
87.8
3,063,858
64.9
9,281
18.5
18,820
22.4
1,214,517
10.6
1,498,008
31.6
Table 38       Loss of Forest Cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1978 - Part II-
Regions
Not Satisfactorily
Re-stocked
Non-Commercial/   Grazing or      / Non-Productive      /    Under
Cover       /  Pasture Land/ Sites /       4 ha
Grand Totals
/
ha
ha
ha
$
ha
S
ha
$
ha
$
ha
$
ha
cu.m
$
Vancouver
31/
12
32
4,515
15
189
131
1,631
96
1,203
77
884
1,442
25,413
152,995
Prince Rupert
134
9
0
1,784
5,821
72,765
15
189
752
9,402
71
826
29,510
2,769,710
5,985,070
Prince George
300
73
7
4,792
569
7,110
314
3,922
3,559
44,492
149
1,759
13,887
849,999
4,165,033
Kamloops
101
397
0
6,223
0
0
129
1,613
0
0
120
1,351
1,564
22,249
152,497
Nelson
55
0
0
684
0
0
0
0
90
1,126
99
1,122
343
4,678
32,202
Cariboo
Totals
596
0
0
7,451
30
369
156
1,950
24
297
112
1,330
3,335
101,886
948,131
1.503
491
39
25,449
6,435
80,433
745
9,305
4,521
56,520
628
7,272
50,081
3,773,935
11.435.928
PerCent
3.0
1.0
0.1
0.2
12.7
0.7
1.5
0.1
9.0
0.5
1.2
0.1
100.0
99.0
100.0
Ten-year average
4,858
799
3,618
61,614
18,688
43,071
2,827
15,357
16,940
37,145
421
5,153
83,892
646,741
4,724,206
Per cent
5.8
1.0
4.3
1.3
22.3
1.0
34
0.3
20.2
0.8
0.4
0.1
100.0
69.8
100.0
"The dollar value of
approximately 10 tin
osses in m
les the loss
erchantc
values
bleand
shown.
mmature
timber re
presents on
y stump
age loss
o the crov
/n. Loss to U
e provi
ncial economy mj
ybeestima
edat
 60
Table 39       Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost and Total Damage, 1978
Causes
No.
PerCent
Hectares
Per Cent
Cost
Per Cent
Damage
Per Cent
Lightning
1,141
49.4
39,880
79.6
$6,974,433
58.9
11,580,795
90.5
Recreational (campers, hunters.
fishermen, etc.)
189
8.2
724
1.4
$   324,597
2.7
70,632
0.6
Railroads operating
65
2.8
393
0.9
$     76,481
0.6
5,378
0.3
Smokers
277
12.0
3,984
8.0
$2,702,033
22.9
457,373
3.5
Brush-burning (not Railway or
Right-of-way clearing)
93
4.0
728
1.5
$   231,779
2.0
40,021
0.3
Range Burning
27
1.2
716
1.4
$     46,254
0.4
15,157
0.1
Road, Power, Telephone, and
Pipe-line construction
32
1.4
54
0.1
$     26,249
0.2
14,317
0.1
Industrial Operations (Logging, etc.)
136
5.9
1,950
3.9
$   520.247
4.4
422,916
3.3
Incendiary
138
6.0
318
0.6
$   432,875
3.7
124,660
1.0
Miscellaneous known causes
205
8.9
1.323
2.6
$   477,133
4.0
39,032
0.3
Unknown Causes
Totals
5
0.2
11
0.0
$     27,332
0.2
621
0.0
2,308
100.0
50.081
100.0
$11,839,413
100.0
12,770,902
100.0
Table 40
Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years
1969
2,318
164,688
4,428,116
601,972
$ 6,776,020
663,177
$ 7,439,197
1970
4,003
105,688
4,040,036
1,581,272
$ 3,437,205
744,901
S 4,182,106
1971
2,898
351,890
9.944,980
1,962,800
$12,974,582
609,064
$13,583,646
1972
1,903
26,087
391,469
189.821
$     713,681
459,728
$   1,173,409
1973
2,863
33,422
1,640,856
752.528
$ 5,276,975
1,056,760
$ 6,333,735
1974
2,558
21,728
2,907,884
2,284,968
$  1,860,942
491,422
$ 2,352,364
1975
2.713
24,911
6.443,444
5,298,748
$  1,264,407
92,430
$  1,356,837
1976
893
57,020
1.318,398
389,089
$ 2,528,465
70,135
$ 2.598.600
1977
1,854
3,796
203,252
115.396
$     369,508
173,537
$     543.045
1978
10 year total
2,308
50,081
4,783,114
1.009,179
$11,435,938
1,334,974
$12,770,920
24,311
839,362
35,656,576
13,594,764
$46,637,713
5,696,128
$52,333,841
 Table 41        Fires Classified by Regions, Place of Origin and Cost Per Fire of Fire-Fighting, 1978
61
Vancouver
Prince Rupert
Prince George
Kamloops
Nelson
Cariboo
Totals
Per Cent
Ten-year Average
Per Cent
Cost to other parties (470 cost fires) $5,904,994. Cost to Forest Service (1,838 cost fires) $11,839,413
* Cost correct to date   Subject of later revision.
Detailed final costs are published one year in arrears in the table "Forest Protection Expenditures" in each annual report.
Table 42       Volume & Mortality Losses Due to Insects & Disease
(Summary of estimated average annual losses in B.C. forests during 1967-76,
compiled by G.A. Van Sickle)
Growth Loss
Morta
ity
Pest
(m3)
%
(m3)
%
Defoliators:
Spruce Budworm
97 578
Hemlock Looper
12 028
Black-headed Budworm
308 470
D.F. Tussock Moth
9198
63 109
False Hemlock Looper
2 604
46 554
Green-striped Forest Looper
3 226
4245
433104
3.1
113 908
5.6
Bark Beetles:
Mountain Pine Beetle
106 125
Spruce Beetle
725 895
Douglas fir Beetle
16 980
Balsam Bark Beetle
18 678
867 678
42.8
Dwarf Mistletoes
4 245000
30.3
Root and Butt Rots
1216 900
8.7
1047 100
51.6
Decay in Mature Forests
8 093800
57.9
13 988 804
100.0
2 028 686
100.0
Total of Growth Loss & Mortality = 16 017 490 m3
= 32% of 1975 scale
= 28.3% of 1
0-year average (1967-1976)
Percentage of Total Growth Loss & Mortality:
Defoliators=
3.4%
Bark Beetles =
5.4%
Dwarf Mistletoe =
26.5%
Root& Butt Rots=
14.1%
Decay in Mature Forests =
50.6%
100.0%
 62
Table 43       Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1977 -1978
Timber licence rentals and fees   505,638.98
Timber berth rentals and fees  70,572.86
Timber lease rentals and fees     72,959.58
Timber sale rentals and fees     804,995.40
Timbersale stumpage  78,135,374.94
Timber sale cruising and advertising   293,722.10
Timber royalties    8,668,094.38
Grazing permits and fees    460,040.67
Forest-protection tax    1,158,595.62
Miscellaneous  997,665.42
Weight-scaling    4,698,793.55
Coast scaling     2,675,454.19
Indian Affairs Agreement     143,357.00
TSHL fire-fighting costs standby crews  76,598.02
Reservoir-waterway improvements  2,277,548.99
Total
$101,039,411.70
Table 44       Forest Revenue, 1974 -1978
12 Months
to Dec. 31
1974
12 Months
to Dec. 31
1975
12 Months
to Dec. 31
1976
12 Months
to Dec. 31
1977
12 Months
to Dec. 31
1978
$
$
Timber licence rentals and fees 	
Timber berth rentals and fees	
Timber lease rentals and fees   	
Timber sale rentals and fees   	
Timber sale stumpage	
Timber sale cruising and advertising ...
Timber royalties  	
Grazing permits and fees  	
Forest protection tax  	
Miscellaneous	
Weight-scaling 	
Coast scaling   	
Indian Affairs Agreement   	
TSHL fire-fighting costs standby crews .
Wood products 	
Reservoir-water improvements 	
Totals
569,850.39
81,729.63
86,412.80
696,048.97
181,605,129.21
144,040.10
7,459,614.20
661,145.80
1,028,180.35
1,654,564.42
2,772.736.05
151,585.78
283,095.50
197,200,142.26
551,336.77
75,548.18
85,655.56
693,428.67
43,437,755.58
113,492.20
6,142,472.77
514,595.23
1,136,279.10
1,175,699.59
3,073,017.84
175,202.08
651,038.38
154,285.90
57,979,807.85
536
74,
80,
841,
43,691,
199,
6,691,
412,
1,421,
1,267,
4,468,
2,067,
181,
775,
2,
305,
424.40
772.43
253.37
081.45
476.49
208.82
829.70
690.82
792.84
600.72
124.99
742.02
848.14
716.72
792.17
101.00
512
70.
74,
806,
62,314
275
8,628.
503,
1,198,
1,203.
4,637,
587
143
163
,757.29
1,324.86
,757.20
,406.86
,958.73
,650.62
,049.98
1,775.34
161.44
,475.27
,871.16
,913.39
,357.00
,909.94
63,018,456.08
2,378,800.00
83,500,169.08
505,
64,
72
724
159,913
275
7,530.
556.
986
750
4,656
2,529
136
2,
263.82
211.92
,248.95
.629.24
091.94
878.44
,386.48
.696.15
043.00
.862.73
807.15
089.93
.850.00
349.64
5,211,567.00
183,915,976.39
Table 45       Amounts Charged Against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1977 -1978
Forest Region
Scaling Fund
Royalty
Miscellaneous
Scaling
Expenses
I
Scaling Fees
Stumpage
Rentals,
Cruising,
Advertising,
Transfer
Fees
Vancouver
Prince Rupert
Prince George
Kamloops
Nelson
Cariboo
7,149,430.22
824,931.25
266,104.00
322,146.44
253,733.23
167.534.73
Totals, 1977-78   8,983,879.87
Totals, 1976-77   7,083,088.95
Totals, 1975-76   5,258,416.88
Totals, 1974-75   8,954,769.20
Totals, 1973-74   6,694,810.26
Totals, 1972-73   5,696,871.79
Totals, 1971-72   5,502,832.37
Totals, 1970-71   5,508,498.13
590,591.73
577,876.03
1,433,510.30
1,023,913.38
920,013.94
684,939.80
5,230,845.18
4,956,050.33
4,445,957.15
4,251,752.40
4,031,114.49
2,755,671.01
2,004,531.00
1,717,910.69
270,223.12
30,192.97
300,416.09
435,514.55
422,709.28
569,292.49
514,197.74
435,656.63
429,262.36
382,501.42
2,010,148.50
292,479.53
2,302,628.03
2,665,562.58
2,462,229.56
2,539,384.43
2,297,984.55
2,179,338.81
2,124,679.35
1,999,070.86
48,985,630.34
8,136,559.34
12,031,804.44
6,366,332.92
4,426,954.56
8,606,097.55
88,553,379.15
48,707,785.36
30,630,115.00
115,853,196.88
252,909,645.78
135,091,040.33
68,137,580.27
45,558,857.31
775,007.38 59,781,031.29
334,187.13 10,196,226.25
394,723.20 14,126,141.94
247,086.03 7,959,478.77
222,948.94 5,823,650.67
183,113.76 9,641,685.84
2,157,066.44
1,976,118.79
2,012,808.31
2,004,181.95
2,018,277.41
1,883,747.01
2,251,080.00
1,914,268.47
107,528.
65,824.
45,232.
134,172.
268,466
148,042
80,449
57,081
214.76
120.56
236.18
577.35
030.23
325.58
,965.35
.106.88
 63
Table 46       Amounts Charged Against Logging Operations, 1978
Forest Region
Royalty
Miscellaneous
Scaling
Fund
Stumpage
Rentals,
Cruising,
Advertising,
Transfer
Fees
Total
I    Scaling
Expenses
~1
Scaling Fees
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
Vancouver
Prince Rupert
Prince George
Kamloops
Nelson
Cariboo
Totals, 1978   	
6,036,914.94
934,825.22
377,266.89
365,227.19
307,124.92
265,268.14
         8,306,627.30
564,866.06
693,835.67
1,426,338.94
1,111,000.51
757,562.15
553,545.93
5,107,149.26
5,064,910.21
5,074,293.99
4,438,210.28
3,841,145.72
3,876,214.24
2,510,946.56
1,930,657.09
1,480,701.37
1,335,288.66
285,562.19
46,547.21
332,109.40
320,937.99
445,389.11
454,867.22
560,404.12
506,980.82
403,475.31
423,107.49
430,081.94
417,010.41
2,120,577.78
437,246.37
1,745.78
1,534.05
1,608.20
2,562,712.38
2,407,435.80
2,677,890.72
2,380,053.72
2,506,196.96
2,385,179.87
1,995,941.13
2,107,899.80
2,242,672.37
2,046,118.14
74,501,258.83
17,924,541.53
45,536,202.73
29,708,252.70
16,730,604.38
30,216,626.80
214,617,486.97
67,074,287.41
48,592,302.05
28,389,508.35
169,698,769.51
251,777,437.15
96,595,977.64
55,347,358.35
50,042,114.17
80,270,727.23
265,791.51
188,165.87
394,211.99
147,078.16
122,724.72
165,683.86
1,283,656.11
2,066,412.85
2,877,314.56
1,989,319.46
1,213,664.51
1,917,706.24
1,921,977.20
2,341,636.62
1,998,891.74
1,900,578.27
83,774,971.31
20,245,162.07
47,735,766.33
31,333,092.61
17,918,016.17
31,202,732.93
232,209,741.42
85,544,601.62
66,564,449.29
43,726,133.58
186,041,352.34
267,268,201.91
108,659,791.62
67,669,895.85
62,296,745.36
92,363,937.89
Totals, 1977  	
Totals, 1976   	
         8,610,617.36
         6,897,258.86
Totals, 1975   	
         6,074,174.55
Totals, 1974   	
         8,221,171.52
Totals, 1973   	
         6,804,683.59
Totals, 1972   	
         5,231,473.78
Totals, 1971   	
         5,519,236.50
Totals, 1970   	
         6,102,283.77
Totals, 1969   	
         6,394,215.18
Table 47       Forest Service Expenditures Fiscal Year 1977 -78
Minister's office  105,277.93
Ministry Administration Program    18,398,236.71
Engineering Support Services Program   9,417,731.52
Public Information Services Program     572,227.57
Resource Management Program     6,973,644.78
Strategic Studies Program    357,014.62
Reforestation Program     18,418,485.23
Research Program  2,421,639.68
Fire Suppression Program    7,508,997.32
Protection Program    8,659,280.89
Inventory Program (includes S.W. 35)     5,063,109.26
Scaling Program  9,446,684.53
Range Management Program    1,713,746.89
Forest Development Roads Program (includes S.W. 41)     6,191,538.33
Reservoir Waterway Improvement Program (includes S.W. 40)  3,152,983.67
Building Occupancy Charges  1,617,621.00
Computer & Consulting Charges   535,000.00
Forest Policy Advisory Committee (S.W. 4)   296,594.25
Accelerated Reforestation Fund (1)   	
Total    100,849,814.18
(1) See Table 46
Table 48       Accelerated Reforestation Fund
Surplus, April 1,1977   1,476.6
Expenditures, fiscal year 1977-1978   NIL
Surplus, March 31,1978   1,476.6
Queen's Printer for British Columbia ©
Victoria, 1979
 

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