Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

REPORT OF THE Forest Service Year Ended December 31 1974 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1975

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0376298.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0376298.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0376298-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0376298-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0376298-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0376298-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0376298-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0376298-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0376298-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0376298.ris

Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources
HON. R. A. WILLIAMS,
Minister
J. S. STOKES,
Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT OF THE
Forest Service
Year Ended December 31 1974
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1975
 Victoria, B.C., March 1975
The Honourable Walter S. Owen, Q.C, LL.D.
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
May it Please Your Honour:
Herewith I respectfully submit the Annual Report of
the Forest Service of the Department of Lands,
Forests, and Water Resources for 1974.
R.A. WILLIAMS
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources
 The Honourable R. A. Williams,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir: This is the Annual Report of the Forest Service
for 1974.
J. S. STOKES
Deputy Minister of Forests
  CONTENTS
Page
Personnel Directory 1974    6
Chief Forester's Report    8
Task Force on Crown Timber Disposal    12
Coast Guidelines    15
Recreation  17
High Elevation Restocking Problems    19
Tree Improvement    22
Expanding Capability for Forest Research 25
Bella Coola Regional Study 28
Seed Production Program    33
Smoke Management 36
Forest Range Seeding   38
Appendix — Tabulated Detailed Statements to
Supplement the Report of the Forest Service 43
 PERSONNEL DIRECTORY 1974
(As of December 31st)
VICTORIA HEADQUARTERS
J.S. Stokes Deputy Minister of Forests
W.E.L. Young    Chief Forester
W.G. Hughes   Assistant Chief Forester (Operations)
W. Young Assistant Chief Forester (Resource Management)
P.J.J. Hemphill Director of Services
J.A.K. Reid Staff Consultant
Staff Division Heads
R.W. Long  Departmental Comptroller
Resource Management Division Heads
R.W. Robbins Forester i/c Timber Division
J.B. Bruce  Forester i/c Inventory Division
W.C. Pendray Director, Range Division
Services Branch Division Heads
W.C. Phillips Forester i/c Protection Division
CJ. Highsted Forester i/c Forest Service Training School
L.W. Lehrle    Forester i/c Engineering Division
A.M. Brand    Personnel Officer
Operations Branch Division Heads
E. Knight Forester i/c Reforestation Division
C.C. Warrack   Forester i/c Research Division
E.H. Lyons Forester i/c Information Division
FOREST DISTRICTS
Vancouver Forest District
H.M. Pogue    District Forester
JC. Payne Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers
W.G. Howard (Cultus Lake); G.D. Bertram (Hope); J.R. Schmidt (Harrison Lake);
J.N. Nelson (Mission); M.H. Mudge (Port Moody); M.N. Neighbor (Squamish);
R.S. Wilson (Sechelt); K.A. Northrup (Pender Harbour); S.B. Hollinshead (Powell
River); V.J. Doerksen (Lund); T. Brooks (Campbell River North); W.G. Archer
(Sayward); B.D. Horning (Port McNeill North); R.A. Campbell (Port McNeill);
G.F. Hawkey (Port Hardy); D.E. DeHart (Campbell River); A.J. Teindl (Port
Alberni); F. Vicen(Tofino); N.P. Gilgan (Pemberton) B.L. Custance (Gold River);
M.W. Antonelli (Langford); H. Norbirg (Parksville); S.J. Sykes (Duncan); R.W.
Thomas (Cowichan Lake)
Prince George Forest District
M.G. Isenor   District Forester
D.H. Owen    Assistant District Forester
 Forest Rangers
G.W. Graham (McBride); W.E. Hall (Valemount); M.A. McRae (Prince George E.);
G.E. Meents (Prince George N.); L.G. Espenant (Fort St. James); H.V. Hopkins
(Dawson Creek); J.L. Younghusband (Aleza Lake); K. Arnett (Vanderhoof); S.
Anderson (Fort St. John); P.F. Griffiths (Fort Fraser); Vacant (Summit Lake);
H.L. Miskovich (Fort Nelson); G.E. Magee (Prince George W.); M. Wilkinson
(Hixon); L. McQueen (Chetwynd); C. Nelson (Mackenzie)
Nelson Forest District
J.R. Johnston   District Forester
J.A.D. McDonald    Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers
G.M. Cartwright (Invermere); J.L. Humphrey (Fernie); Vacant (Golden); J.B. Gierl
(Cranbrook E.) Vacant (Creston); H. Thompson (Kaslo); AC. Joyce (Lardeau);
R.E. Robinson (Nelson); C.C. Jupp (New Denver); J.H. Raven (Nakusp); H.R. Wood
(Castlegar); P.F. Russell (Grand Forks); W.R. Anderson (Kettle Valley); H.D.
Hamilton (Canal Flat); W.G. Benwell (Mica Creek); H. Osborne (Fauquier);
Vacant (Elko); Vacant (Cranbrook W.); J.A. Hogan (Beaverdell); C.N. Bellmond
(Salmo); G.L. Benwell (Revelstoke)
Cariboo Forest District
E.W. Robinson District Forester
A.B. Robinson Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers
J.H. Little (Quesnel); Vacant (Clinton); E.A. Bouchard (Williams Lake); C. Rohn
(Quesnel); F.W. Hendy (Tatla Lake); J.F. Lynn (Horsefly); R.W. Donnelly (100
Mile House); P.O. Holitzki (Likely); F.A. Folliet (Riske Creek); R.J. Reeves (Alexis
Creek)
Kamloops Forest District
A.H. Dixon District Forester
C.A. MacPherson Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers
D.J. Wittner (Lumby); M.E. Monteith (Birch Island); O.D. Parsey (Barrier); J.P.
Weinard (Kamloops); V.D. Craig (Chase); W.O. Pistak (Salmon Arm); G.R. Webster
(Sicamous); G. Stefanac (Lillooet); A.G. Cameron (Vernon); R.W. McDaniel (Penticton); G.F.M. Baker (Princeton); F. Pearce (Kelowna); J.O. Noble (Ashcroft);
R.K.M.   Berard   (Merritt);   V.H.   Barge  (Blue  River); J.   Wanderer   (Enderby)
Prince Rupert Forest District
W.G. Bishop District Forester
R.G. Gill Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers
V.H. Hernandez (Queen Charlotte City); H.W. Quast (Terrace); W.O. Neros (Kitwanga); F.L. Roe (Hazelton); A.R. Pement (Smithers); D.J. Neal (Houston); W.G.
Waldron (Burns Lake); S.E. Hansen (Bella Coola); W.H. Jones (Southbank);
J.P. Dunlop (Lower Post); I. Brown (Kitimat); R.N. Keep (Stewart); W.O. Johnston
(Prince Rupert)
 Chief Forester's Report
 Revenue to the province from its forest resource dropped substantially during 1974
in marked contrast to the previous record-
breaking year.
The figures tell the story: Revenue collections were $197,200,142 — a decrease of
19.5 percent over the previous calendar year.
Timber sale stumpage, which comprised 92
percent of the total, contributed
$181,605, 129 — a decrease of 21.3 percent
over 1973.
The revenue drop was due to various factors,
the most damaging being a world-wide
slump in the lumber market. Reflective of
the situation was the severe decline in home-
building throughout North America. And
1974 also saw a significant drop in plywood
sales — down about 30 percent from the
previous year.
On the other side of the ledger, pulp and
paper production, demand and sales reached
new peaks — but by the end of the year
they too were starting to level off and even
decline.
There is another strong factor which undoubtedly is going to have marked effects
on provincial revenue derived from the forest resource. Even if the general lumber market improves, that will be offset by higher
administration costs, and higher costs related to protecting the environment.
Heading the extra-cost list are the new roads
which will have to be built . . . roads established initially for the hauling of logs,
but also designed and built with a view to
immediate or future public use. And with a
view to protecting streams, rivers, fisheries,
watersheds and other considerations which
the public  is  now  demanding.
As the cost of roadbuilding increases, the
revenue to the provincial government goes
down as logging firms are allowed to deduct
such   costs   from   stumpage   payments.
Encouraging progress has been made in our
 10
Expenditures (1965/1974)
300
275
250
225
200
175
150
125
100-
75
50
25
0
66.4 -
9
lion
22.0
Million
Million
24.7
Million
Million
Million
1965/66 1966/67 1967/68 1968/69 1969/70 1970/71 1971/72 1972/73 1973/74
Forest Products Cut on All Lands (1966 to 1974)
2.48
1.89
1.93
2.00
1.97^
^.12
1.60
Bil. Cu. Ft.
1.57
1.70
2.5
o
§  1.5-
o
z
o
1966   1967   1968   1969   1970   1971    1972    1973    1974
 forest resource productivity studies. This has
involved establishment of numerous plots
and detailed measurements from which we
will obtain valuable data on potential yields
from managed timber stands in the future.
Related to this aspect of our planning for
the future, is the relatively new CARP system (computer assisted resource planning)
which will play a dominant role in the future administration of our timber resource.
The system is quite complex and involves
data banks and computer analysis. It will
enable the resource manager to actually
simulate long-term results of various alternative management policies or techniques.
The first region to come under the CARP
management system will be the 600,000
acre Westlake Public Sustained Yield Unit
in the Prince George Forest District. Studies
there commenced   two   years   ago.
It was a significant year for planning and
establishment of facilities in the forest recreation program. There are now 787 forest
recreation sites established throughout the
province, an increase of 181 over 1973. An
additional 175 sites will be established in
1975.
It has been conservatively estimated that
some 672,000 people used the recreation
sites during the year — well above the
153,000 recorded two years earlier when
the program got under full swing.
The special Task Force on Crown Timber
Disposal completed and released two detailed reports during the year. They were
entitled "Crown Changes for Early Timber
Rights" (royalties and other levies for harvesting rights on timber leases, licences and
berths in British Columbia); and "Timber
Appraisal" (policies and procedures for evaluating Crown timber in British Columbia).
Copies of these reports are available from
the Information Division of the Forest Service in Victoria.
By year's end a third report, dealing with
forest tenures, was  nearing completion.
There were 2,558 forest fires throughout the
province during the year — covering more
than 53,650 acres and causing forest cover
losses of $1.86 million. The Forest Service
11
cost of fighting these blazes exceeded $6.7
million.
Lightning caused 716 of the fires (28 percent of the total); 695 were started by careless recreationists and smokers; while the
balance were triggered by loggers, railroads
and assorted other industrial operations.
In our reforestation program, 53.8 million
seedlings were planted by the Forest Service and by industry, compared to 56.2 million in 1973. The decrease was due to unfavourable weather conditions in many parts
of the province.
A Seed Production Section was established
within the Reforestation Division, and new
seed production orchard sites were established at Saanich (near Victoria) and at Skimikin
(near Salmon Arm).
Our Inventory Division during the year produced more than 560 forest cover maps and
reports for 21,000,000 acres which had been
surveyed in 1973.
The year also saw the establishment of a
special interdepartmental task force on
rangeland management. It started detailed
studies on three main issues: How to reorganize the approach to rangeland management to enable integrated management of
the grassland resource, trade-offs with the
forest resource, and related problems; necessary staff additions to do the job effectively;   and  legislative  changes   required.
Range forage production was generally
good, and use of Crown range by domestic
stock increased slightly — reversing the
trend of the past several years.
During the year there was a marked expansion in adoption and implementation of the
resource planning folio system throughout
the province.
Introduced about three years ago as a trial,
the new resource planning system calls for
input from all land-use agencies involved
before any Crown (publicly owned) land is
committed to logging or any other form of
industrial operation. The system considers
fish, wildlife, watersheds, recreation, soils,
stream protection and a host of other factors
related to the environment.
 Task Force on Crown Timber Disposal
 13
The early-1975 appointment of the Task
Force on Crown Timber Disposal was of
particular significance. Its members were
Dr. Peter H. Pearse, Department of Economics at the University of British Columbia,
chairman; Edward L. Young, B.C.'s Chief
Forester: and Arvid V. Backman, prominent
industrial forester.
The Task Force was commissioned to investigate the policies, legislation, procedures
and practices governing the disposal of
timber in the province, and to suggest
changes to protect the public interest in
the Crown forest resources.
An interim report was required before February 28, 1974, with recommendations for
improvements governing the Crown charges
for timber and harvesting rights on the five
classes of old temporary tenures — Timber
Leases, Timber Licences, Pulp Leases, Pulp
Licences, and Timber Berths. The task force
published two detailed reports during 1974
which dealt essentially with charges for
Crown timber.
The first dealt with royalties and taxes applicable to old temporary tenures. Its major
recommendations comprised:
1. Basing Crown royalty charges upon individual appraisals of the timber values
for each timber tract rather than the
previous blanket royalty rates fixed by
legislation for groups of species on a
regional basis. The change was to be
effective September 30, 1974, and enabling legislation was approved by the
legislature in the Forest Amendment Act
1974. The date for implementation, however, was left to the discretion of the
Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council and was
withheld pending an improvement in
market conditions.
2. Abolition of the forest land tax after the
end of the 1974 calendar year. This is a
matter for the Department of Finance
which administers this tax rather than the
Forest Service, and depends on implementation  of  recommendation  No.   1.
3. Easing the burden of the special tax on
logging profits by reducing the rate from
15 to 10 percent and increasing the provincial tax credit to 1/3 of the logging
tax paid, also by adopting the federal
definition of logging income for tax purposes. This also comes under the Department of Finance and is awaiting implementation.
 The second report dealt with timber appraisals. In addition to numerous recommendations concerning the complex details of
appraisal procedures, major recommendations included:
1. Steps to improve the dependability of
log markets so the market could be expected to encourage the distribution of
various types of logs to their best end
use and to promote public confidence that
the log market prices reflect the true log
values.
Legislation was enacted on this matter
under the "Timber Products Stabilization
Act" and implementation is in progress.
2. Modernization of coastal log grades to
make them more consistent with present
industrial practice and more compatible
with tree quality cruising requirements
for appraisal valuation purposes.
3. Establishment of a Marketing Division
of the Forest Service to strengthen the
staffing and attention assigned to the
cruising, appraising, and scaling of Crown
timber. Steps were taken toward implementation of this recommendation early
in 1975.
4. That the cost of approved logging roads
forming part of a basic road system to
be available for public use be borne directly by the government through direct
stumpage credit  or  direct  payment.
This policy has been instituted and is
being applied as rapidly as individual
road evaluations and other arrangements
can  be  completed  for   each   case.
5. That various other procedures be adopted
respecting the technical aspects of appraisals. These relate to the methods of
calculating profit ratios; collection and
compilation of data on operating costs
and product selling prices; treatment of
certain categories of costs in the appraisal, particularly those dealing with slash
disposal site rehabilitation; reforestation;
depreciation and interest on investments;
the determination of the point of appraisal where the log marketing or processing
is assumed to occur; grouping of species
or stand-as-a-whole appraisal concept;
sale of timber on the basis of cruise
volume estimates rather than the scale
volume of timber recovered; utilization
standards; minimum stumpage rates;
publicity of appraisal procedures; training of staff in appraisal methods; and
provisions for the training, examination,
and  licensing of timber cruises.
Most of these recommendations are being
implemented. Some have already been
instituted and others will be adopted during the coming year. Some cannot be
commenced until additional qualified personnel are available.
 Coast Guidelines
r./. % iSr~-.■ '™ V
t#£ > ^r
 16
Good land use practices do not occur as a
matter of course. On the other hand, problems in land management can often be
avoided, sometimes quite simply, by the application of basic forestry and engineering
principles. The Planning Guidelines For Coast
Logging Operations, prepared and issued in
1972, are intended to show generally how
compatibility can be reached and maintained
between timber harvesting, soil protection,
watershed management, and the management and use of other resources within the
forest.
In the preparation of the guidelines neither
the list of resource considerations nor the
series of statements on corrective and precautionary measures is complete. Resource
management is much too complex and difficult a subject to permit entirely satisfactory
consolidation in the form of guidelines. Nevertheless, the guidelines were prepared because land use problems existed and well
known forestry knowledge was often being
neglected.
In spite of the brevity of the guidelines,
many aspects of land management are discussed. For instance, the forest industry is
reminded that every setting, road plan, culvert, and bridge design must be examined
for its effect on all resource components.
They discuss road location and design in relation to landform, soils, and topographic
features the disturbance of which will be
detrimental. Methods of preventing soil
movement and stream siltation are discussed
generally. Maintenance of stream and site
stability is given special attention, particularly in the context of the logged area
size, shape, orientation and location in relation to areas withheld from logging for
firebreaks, animal migration corridors, and
aesthetics.
From the outset it has been acknowledged
the guidelines are an interim measure only
until site specific constraints can be specified for the planned forest harvesting operation. With the recently developed integrated planning system, commonly referred to
as the resource folio system, now being introduced on the coast, the controversial
Coast Guidelines may be given less promi-
nance in 1975.
 Recreation
 18
The forest recreation program expanded significantly in 1974 with 181 serviced sites
added to the previously developed 606 sites,
for a year end total of 787 sites. A further
175 sites are planned for 1975, and upon
completion of these most of the existing public recreation locations on forest lands will
be under maintenance.
The low-key concept, stressing a rustic type
of site development, was again followed in
1974. Public opinion about this approach
continues to be most encouraging, as is the
acceptance of rustic log picnic tables introduced during the year.
Public use of the sites increased greatly
during the year, showing a progression from
153,000 in 1972, to 385,000 in 1973, to
672,000 in 1974. All figures are conservative, due to incomplete tallies of visitors
at many sites.
A much larger maintenance load, resulting
from more visitors and more sites, was competently handled by temporary help, with
students working under ranger staff direction  once  again  performing  a   major   role.
Trail systems, signposting, and map brochures were initiated and will receive increasing emphasis.
Recreation inventory data was incorporated
in a large number of P.S.Y.U. and folio
plans. Delineation of sight zones in forest
lands along travel corridors was expanded
and will continue.
A provincial guideline is in preparation covering recreation policy and operational procedures.
Participation in public meetings and seminars, and assistance with recreation education programs occupied a considerable
amount of staff time during the year, as
did interdepartmental liaison and co-operative  planning  on   recreation   issues.
 High Elevation Restocking Problems
-   JiM.^JIKm lyfjt H
 20
Research is necessary to solve the problems
that arise from the movement of logging
operations away from the valley floor to
higher elevations. Here grow trees that are
not as well understood as those of species
from lower elevations. The climate is generally colder and the growing and reproductive season is shorter. Natural regeneration
may be poor and too slow to support existing   sustained   yield   concepts.
Removal of the forest cover from high elevation sites, which are thinly covered by
soil and low in nutrients, may result in
losses due to erosion. There is added logging
loss from the removal of nutrients which are
in the tree and normally return to the soil
during decomposition. Logging regulations
are needed if regeneration capabilities are
limited.
These matters are receiving the attention
of the Research Division, which has studies
in hand to provide some of the answers.
They fall into three categories: basic understanding of species that grow at high elevations, particularly in regard to seed production capabilities; site studies, to
determine their capability of supporting future stands; and economic evaluation of
environmental constraints and regulations.
Under the first category are studies being
done on yellow cedar and mountain hemlock. Results so far give encouraging indications that hormonal treatments may offer
a practical method of producing crops in
yellow cedar orchards at a cost well below
that incurred for wild stand collections.
However, all experimental treatments have
failed to produce cones on mountain hemlock. This species is being observed in its
natural state and sampled regularly for microscopic analysis to determine when changes
occur in  the  reproductive cycle.
 Research on the rooting of yellow cedar
cuttings started on a small scale in 1971
and was repeated in 1972 and 1974. In the
last experiment, from 800 cuttings taken,
89 percent are considered satisfactory for
production planting. This may provide a satisfactory alternative  to raising seedlings.
Another study is being made of a species
that will grow up to 2,000 metres in elevation. (A metre is approximately 2>Vi feet)
This is amabilis fir, more commonly known
as balsam. The study started this year in
co-operation with the Canadian Forestry Service and its objective is an assessment of
the suitability of restocking upper elevations
of the Vancouver Forest District with this
species after logging. Removal of the dominant trees releases the smaller, suppressed
ones. Data on this growth response after
logging and susceptibility to fungal attack
after damage by logging equipment is needed. The study is not finished yet and there
is much data to be analyzed. Preliminary
results indicate the threat is low from the
Indian Paint fungus up to 30 years after
logging, probably due to enhanced growth
rates   which   quickly   cover   the   wounds.
In the fall of 1974 two high elevation test
sites were planted with coastal Douglas fir.
The seed from which these seedlings germinated came from high elevation areas.
Observation and measurement of the trees
will provide information on suitability of
high elevation regeneration with this species, which does not normally grow above
1,300 metres.
An investigation to characterize sites with
the emphasis on forest management problems at high elevation was pursued this year.
Landforms,   soils  and  vegetation  types   of
21
several areas including Templeton River at
1,200 to 3,000 metres have been mapped on
airphotos. Surveys on the ground were made
to identify and describe soil and vegetation
units. Work is now being done on the interpretation of mapping units. These interpretations will include mass soil movement,
waterborne erosion, soil compaction, hydro-
logic characteristics, nutrient supply and
availability. The vegetation data will be
looked at with silviculture, wildlife and recreation in mind.
For several years a scientist has been working on the development of mapping units
suitable for intensive forest management
practices. As a result of his recent involvement with the high elevation problems occurring in the Vancouver District, he has
been paying special attention to landforms
on these areas, their ability to withstand
various forest harvesting techniques, and
the post-logging problems associated with
these landforms.
It is hoped that, with the co-operation of
the B.C. Forest Service, Inventory Division
and the other specialists working on the various aspects of high elevation problems, criteria for delineating appropriate mapping
units that can be employed as a basic framework for the high elevation land management practices will be developed during
next year.
The third type of study, that of economic
evaluation, is being conducted in two sample
drainage areas in the Chilliwack Provincial
Forest. Costs and benefits are being considered for the harvest period of the existing
crop and for the  next crop.
Preliminary comparisons indicate there are
heavy costs associated with increased road
construction early in the harvesting sequence and with an increase in road maintenance charges over the period that the
large blocks of timber must be allowed to
mature. These costs tend to be very large
when compared to the relatively minor benefits of improved regeneration performance
and a relatively shorter period between logging than would be possible otherwise. The
indirect benefits of recreation, fisheries and
wildlife are yet to be assessed.
 Tree Improvement
Steps involved in managed seed production for the
reforestation program in British Columbia
Douglas Fir Super Tree
selected in Forest.
Scion is shot off.
Scion
grafted to
root stock
Scions from many Plus Trees
of a region are selected
and grafted to root stock.
The grafts are planted
in an orchard at the coast
for seed production.
mm
The seeds from the orchard Coast orchard
are planted in the nursery.
The seeds from the
orchard are planted
in the nursery.
 It is important to the logging industry that
seedlings used for reforestation should grow
into trees of quality. These should be superior in volume and have good form, vigour
and fine branching with a healthy, narrow
crown. To realise them, a suitable environment must exist coupled to basic characteristics which are determined by heredity.
At Cowichan Lake Experiment Station there
is a stand of Douglas fir planted 20 years
ago. It has grown from seed collected from
trees displaying both good and bad form.
That individual trees in the stand
resemble their female parent and their brethren, is evidence of the importance of understanding as much as possible about the
genetics of the trees upon which the forest
industry is based. Desirable characteristics
can then be perpetuated and undesirable
ones removed or reduced through breeding.
The Research Division of the B.C. Forest
Service has a two-pronged approach to the
business of tree improvement, through provenance   testing   and   tree   breeding.
The term provenance relates a species to a
specific geographic locality. Work is done
to determine how seed will fare when planted in a different part of the province from
its place of origin. It is important to establish
seed transfer rules so that should it be necessary to use other than local seed (perhaps there aren't enough due to poor seed
production and much logging) it will be
known  what  provenances  will  grow   well.
Test sites of Douglas fir, spruce and lodgepole pine have been established in contrasting climates and elevations of the province
covering several hundred acres and including many seed sources. Information can be
expected to accumulate for many years to
come.
23
The tree breeding approach to tree improvement also involves comparing the progency
of known parents on different test sites.
From 1966 to 1971, 28 such sites were established and data is being analysed. Results indicate there are highly significant
differences in volume between six-year-old
trees on the same site even when only one
parent is different. For example, some crosses made in 1963 had a common female
parent, yet on good sites the volume produced by the best are almost three times
those of the poorest cross.
The selection of superior trees — those exhibiting superior growth and form, and
known as "plus trees" — are brought together to produce progency which will inherit some of those characteristics. To obtain
seed from these specimens is not easy since
growth characteristics and reproductive frequency is often opposed and, if cones are
produced, they are a long way from the
ground. Even when a cone is procured from
one of these giants, the resulting seedling would not be much value to the geneticist since only one parent is known, the
other having possible inferior characteristics.
These problems are overcome by shooting
down branches with a rifle and grafting a
small part, the scion, to a rootstock in the
nursery. These are called clones and grow
well, often producing pollen and seed within
a few years. They can then be crossed with
cones from other plus trees. The seedlings
produced are used for further genetic studies, their parents both being known, and as
material for future seed orchards.
A breeding and reselection program was
started involving 350 of the Douglas fir "plus
trees" from coastal B.C. and northern Washington. In 1974 the reproductive buds in the
clonal seed orchards of Pacific Logging
Company and Tahsis Company in Saanich
were made available for the controlled pollination program. Together with those from
the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station, it
was possible to work on 235 crosses.
Parent trees are grouped in sixes and each
sub-program, or diallel, consists of 15 crosses.
 V*'     «§>«..
•■If
i „*3'**:
Eight of these diallels were started in 1973
and in 1974 a further 10 were attempted
with the result that 108 "plus trees" are now
being included in the program. When the
seed had been collected and cleaned, 11 of
these 18 diallels had sufficient seed in all
the crosses and a further three were deficient in only a single cross.
It will be possible to move on to the field
testing phase of the program in 1975 and
seeds from 10 diallels will be raised for
planting out. The field design calls for 200
seedlings from each cross which will be distributed widely across coastal British Columbia. The seed will be sown in the greenhouse at Cowichan Lake in styro foam
seedling containers and will be ready for
planting in the fall of 1975 or spring 1976.
The selection of uniform test sites poses a
problem and already the process of screening recent logging areas for their suitability
has been started. These areas will have to
be selected and prepared by staking during
the summer of 1975. In the meantime the
controlled pollination program will be continuing as rapidly as the occurrence of reproductive buds permits.
A different study on Douglas fir has involved
making controlled crosses from trees at different ends of their species range. Vigour
is often achieved in plants by making wide
crosses. Another method to achieve vigour is
to self-fertilize the plant and after producing an inbred strain, to cross with others.
This is how our corn is bred. Inbreeding with
Douglas fir tends to produce dwarfs, which
are sterile. A danger can be seen here in
that matings between closely related  trees
could be a problem in nurseries, seed orchards and  seed production areas.
The other two major species which concern
the Research Division at the genetic level
are spruces from the interior of the province
and lodgepole pine. While provenance testing has begun on the latter species, controlled crossing experiments await the arrival of
a geneticist, who is being hired to do the
work.
Research work on the interior spruces, mainly white spruce, is centred on the Forest
Service nursery at Red Rock near Prince
George. Selections have been made from
stands of trees over a wide area and seedlings are being planted out. In 1974, 54,000
seedlings were planted on 19 sites in the
Smithers Selection Unit with over 95% survival, and in the East Kootenay Selection
Unit 15 sites have been chosen for planting
in 1975.
A wide crossing program has been started
similar to work being done with Douglas
fir. Grafts are doing well and the arboretum
now includes 70 eastern white spruce families  and   other   exotic   white   spruces.
Clone banks have been established at the
Red Rock Nursery using material from most
of the 445 "plus trees" so far selected.
The oldest clones are now four years old
and next spring will be planted in a newly
established tree breeding area near Enderby
in the Okanagan Valley. Here the climate is
warmer during the flowering period and conditions are more suitable for the production
of cone crops than can be hoped for near
Prince George.
  26
In 1970 there were 15 foresters and 22
supporting staff in the Research Division
of the B.C. Forest Service. Today there are
26 regular professionals, nine on contract
and 36 in support. The expansion has occurred due to pressures on the division for
specialized assistance and advice, and to a
restructuring to better meet the demands
created by intensification of forest practices.
There has been a shift in emphasis in the
work of the Regional Research Officer, one
of whom is stationed in each of the six Forest
Districts. His first responsibility is that of
defining the research needs and priorities of
the District, and has put some of these into
effect through experimental work. However
as the industry grows and Districts Headquarters expands, so his advisory and interpretation role increases.
His responsibilities include advising the District Forester on the acceptability of the cost
of research by industry to ensure that the
taxpayer is the beneficiary. In practice, the
Regional Research Officer obtains recommendations from headquarters in Victoria to
guard against duplication and to ensure the
work fulfills a general provincial requirement, and that statistically relevant data is
sought in a correct manner.
In addition to this Research Officer in each
Forest District, a pedologist or soil scientist
will soon be appointed to each headquarters.
Although primarily concerned with soils in
their District, these men have different backgrounds and specialties. One has 15 years'
experience in resource capability analyses
and related soil problems, while another
has a strong ecological background. Their
functions will not be limited within administrative boundaries — their expertise will be
used wherever important needs are defined.
Specialized work of the division has resulted
in the formation of several small groups
over the past few years. Here there is a natural fit into which scientists and their assistants belong. They are: tree improvement,
which includes provenance testing and tree
breeding sections; silviculture, which includes the Regional Research Officers and
those concerned with tree physiology and
nursery practice,  spacing  and  fertilization;
and site factors, which include ecology and
integrated resource management.
The work of forest mensuration (measurement to ascertain tree volume for timber
yield purposes) is undertaken by a research
scientist, who is also a member of the B.C.
Forest Service Productivity Committee, itself
concerned with maximum yield through fertilization, herbicide application and thinning.
The next group comes under the heading of
"site factors". Here there is an authority
on landforms, an ecologist, an expert in
land-use planning and a researcher concerned with problems of regeneration on high
elevation sites.
In addition to the necessary but small administrative and clerical staff in Victoria,
there is a systems analyst and computer
programmer. Recent strength to this sup- i
porting staff has been added with the appointment of a biometrician who will be
responsible for the design and analysis of
projects with the emphasis on genetics and
provenance work. He will help ensure that
only statistically sound research is undertaken.
Finally the research stations of the division
continue to expand.
The Cowichan Lake Experiment Station controls a total area of 170 hectares, in which
44 have been planted and a further 32
cleared for planting, (a hectare is approximately 2Vi acres.) A fence surrounds 85 hec-
 27
tares in which there is a Douglas fir breeding
arboretum containing 320 provenances, a
native arboretum of 17 species from B.C.,
a yellow cedar plantation of some 20 provenances and Douglas fir clone banks containing 650 young trees. A lodgepole pine arboretum, almost five hectares in extent, is
close by. In addition to a small nursery and
the usual office buildings, a large greenhouse is used to raise seedlings under controlled   conditions.
At the North Road laboratory and greenhouse, near Victoria modernization and enlargement of the building is in progress.
This stands on a one-hectare site, half of
which is kept as a nursery that presently
contains yellow cedar clonal material, rooted
Douglas fir cuttings and weevil resistant
spruce. Trials with various herbicides and
growth studies are also conducted here.
The tree improvement group includes the
work of provenance testing, that is the testing of trees of diverse geographic origins
within the species range to determine how
they fare outside their natural habitat in
comparison to the local variety. Data from
this work gives important information on the
suitability of reforestation after logging with
other than the local provenance, should sufficient seed be unavailable or should a different provenance be more suitable by reason
of resistance to local diseases or general
vigour. This section is the responsibility of
a forester who now has one technician for
each major species — Douglas fir, Sitka
spruce and lodgepole pine.
The tree breeding section initially concentrated on Douglas fir, being the species that
was being logged principally on Vancouver
Island and the lower mainland, and much
of the work was done at the Cowichan Lake
Experiment Station near Duncan. Four years
ago a large genetic program was started
on white and Engelmann spruce at Red Rock
near Prince George. The young trees of
this program are likely to produce cones
earlier if grown in a warmer climate and
a location near Vernon in the Okanagan has
been selected as a suitable site in which
to establish a research centre. Plans are in
hand to move plant material there next
spring. In addition, the amount of lodgepole pine being logged and available for
logging necessitates a program of genetic
studies, involving intraspecific crosses. A
geneticist  is  being  hired  for   this   work.
In the silviculture group, mention of the
Regional Research Officers has already been
made. Traditionally these scientists spent
most of their time on silviculture, but with
the shift in their duties in the last two
years towards liaison functions and district
research program planning, this pattern is
changing.
The work of the physiologists and biochemist in the division has expanded in response
to increased production of nursery stock.
From one full-time scientist in 1970 there
are now four with additional contract backing. The North Road facility has expanded
its technician staff to keep up with the work
generated, particularly analysis of tissue and
soil samples, the latter soon to increase
rapidly as a result of the hiring of the ped-
ologist in the Forest Districts.
At the Red Rock Nursery and Research
Centre there is a nursery, greenhouse and
lathhouse standing on a one-and-a-half-hectare site. Together with material belonging
to the Reforestation Division in a 120-hec-
tare cleared area, there is a 36-hectare
pinetum, 10 hectares of spruce breeding
material and four hectares ready for a spruce
planting stock trial in 1975. Nearby there is
a three-hectare picetum containing white
and exotic spruce and two more spruce
clone   banks   of   two   hectares   each.
  The Bella Coola Regional Study was initiated in April 1974 and encompasses the
Dean, Rivers Inlet and Chilko Public Sustained Yield Units.
The purpose of the study was to establish
priorities and set guidelines for forest development and ensure that such development be linked to and be compatible with
the social, economical, and environmental
needs of the region.
The Forest Service's Special Studies Division ;o-ordinated the study which was interdepartmental in nature. In addition a citizen
participation program was instituted permitting the inclusion of locally elected representatives from the Regional Districts and
Indian Band Councils in the planning and
on-going decision-making process.
There were three major phases to the study:
collecting and collating existing information
on the resources of the region; the analysis
of data and the identification of integrated
land use constraints and; the establishment
of priorities and guidelines for development.
Results of the study indicate that surveys
of the wildlife and inland fish populations
were incomplete, with virtually no information available about many species. Other resources were better inventoried but none
completely enough to be adequate for integrated land use planning. Although logging and pulp manufacturing have been major industries since the turn of the century,
their impact on the region has been limited.
The rate of forest extraction was slow and
impacts on other resources were few and
localized.
The isolation of the region has restricted
development. Workers are reluctant to live
in remote communities when there are alternate opportunities closer to more developed areas. Intra-regional transportation
networks are inadequate to promote easy
distribution of goods and services and add
to the costs of goods coming into and going
out of the areas. The communities rely on
distant centres for supplies as well as markets for local products.
The local communities are faced with the
problem of outmigration of younger people
29
in search of employment opportunities.
Those communities, which are dependent
upon the fishing industry, have had a decline
in their economic base. Many residents of
these communities do not have sufficient formal education or job skills to take advantage
of alternate opportunities. These problems
are most acute for  the  Indian  population.
The potential for development and constraints
imposed by integrated use were identified as
follows:
Mineral Resource — Although a number of
small mineralized showings were developed,
no productive mine has ever operated in
the region. Despite the ruggedness of the
terrain, the area has been extensively prospected but the chances of a major find
appear small.
Water Resource — Many of the rivers are
suitable for hydro-electric development but
only at Ocean Falls and Bella Coola has
there been any hydro-electric generation developed. Two rivers, the Dean and the Hom-
athko, have been investigated by B.C. Hydro
and Power Authority for large-scale development.
Four communities have developed their own
water supplies. All are adequate for the
present needs of the communities. There are
no apparent conflicts of use in any of the
watersheds.
Agriculture Resource — Within the Dean
and Rivers Inlet Public Sustained Yield Units
(P.S.Y.U.) the Bella Coola Valley is the only
area suitable for farming.
 30
Although the climate and soil conditions
make the valley suitable for horticulture and
livestock production, the area is limited and
development is restricted due to lack of
markets. The only agricultural activity in
the Chilko P.S.Y.U. is ranching. However,
there is sufficient rangeland suitable for expansion of the industry.
Fisheries Resource — The commercial fishing for anadromous fish achieves full utilization of natural production in the coastal
portion of the study areas. Maintaining existing production will require protection of
the aquatic habitat' of all salmon producing
waters. Much of the potential damage to the
aquatic environment can be avoided or significantly reduced by applying dispersed
logging patterns and avoiding rapid removal
of timber within single watersheds to minimize detrimental hydrologic changes.
The study emphasized that the Wannock River and Owikeno Lake watershed are particularly sensitive areas which must be intensively managed to prevent degradation of
the fishery resource. It is also indicated that
the present log handling facilities in the
Rivers Inlet estuary limit the volume of timber which can be extracted from the Owikeno Lake watershed.
Salmon enhancement projects are being considered for the Atnarko and Wannock Rivers.
Wildlife Resource — Logging has a significant influence on the wildlife resource. It
changes the environment, variations in the
abundance, distribution and species composition of the animal  community.
Only the grizzly bear, mountain caribou and
mountain goat were selected by the Fish
and Wildlife Branch for protection from the
impact of logging. Most other species will
not be endangered, or will be afforded protection by the same measures taken to ensure the well-being of anadromous fish and
mammalian   species   mentioned   above.
The Chilko P.S.Y.U. contains large areas
with good capability for producing ungulates. The requirements of these animals
must be considered on a site-specific basis,
by species, when plans are developed for the
area.
Recreation Resource — The Parks Branch
identified areas of prime potential for recreational boating and were concerned that
all safe anchorages not become occupied by
log rafts. Another area of interest was the
west side  of  the  Talchako  River.
In the Chilko P.S.Y.U. the recreation potential was identified and should be given
primary consideration in land use plans by
all government agencies.
Forest Resource — A deferment in the allowable annual cut was made for all low site
lands. In the Dean and Rivers Inlet
P.S.Y.U.'s an additional deferment in cut
was made for environmentally sensitive sites
and marginal stands. The Forest Service
designated the Chilcotin Block of the Chilko
P.S.Y.U. as a no-logging unit where all logging is deferred until an integrated use plan
is prepared.
In the Dean and Rivers Inlet P.S.Y.U.'s the
deferment in cut for low site, environmentally sensitive sites and marginal stands was
made because:
— The majority of the poor sites which have
stands older than 251 years and less than
95 feet in height are located on steep
terrain on shallow soil over bedrock. Erosion problems could be created if conventional  harvesting   practices   are   used.
— Difficult soil conditions and the decadent
condition of poor and low site stands
would result in silvicultural problems if
conventional logging practices were used.
— Low and poor sites are dominated by low
grade cedar which has a market value
insufficient to offset the high development cost.
— Past and current harvesting has not occurred on marginal sites. An annual allowable cut which includes these sites
will result in an overcut on the good and
medium sites.
The following table shows the allowable
annual cut (all types, all sites, all access)
and reflects the deferment in cut for low
sites, environmentally sensitive sites and
marginal forest stands.
 Allowable
Deferment
Deferment For
Annual Cut
For Low
Environmentally
6" Top D.I.B.
Site Forest
Sensitive Sites &
Reduced
Ccf.
Types
Marginal Stands
AAC
Unit Name
(100 cubic feet)
Ccf.
Ccf.
Ccf.
Dean P.S.Y.U.
519,480
2,400
113,758
403,322
Rivers Inlet  P.S.Y.U.   575,130
103,210
42,000
429,920
Chilko P.S.Y.U.
484,000
163,810
66,860
253,330
 After deferments, the Crown productive forest land was reduced by 280,716 acres, or
29%, for the Dean P.S.Y.U.; and 427,914
acres, or 47% for the Rivers Inlet P.S.Y.U.
In the Chilko P.S.Y.U. the deferment in acreage for the low site forest types and the Chilcotin no-logging subunit was 1,076,942
acres, or 34%, of the total acres of Crown
productive forest land.
Although the net allowable annual cut for
the Dean P.S.Y.U. is 403,322 Ccf., the Rivers Inlet 429,920 Ccf. and the Chilko 253,330
Ccf., constraints exist which could preclude
full realisation of the potential allowable
annual cuts. These constraints are:
Existing technology — At present the majority of operations have occurred on the
accessible sites in the large river valleys.
As these valleys are rapidly being cut on
the first pass, future operations will have
to move into the more rugged terrain on
the higher side slopes, smaller valleys,
and upper reaches of the watersheds
where road access and current harvesting techniques are too costly or environmentally unacceptable.
Operations must become highly mobile
and innovative. Logging systems, such as
skyline yarding, aerial tramways, and balloon or helicopter logging will have to
be developed or a large portion of the
land on which the A.A.C. is based will
not be  available  for  harvesting.
Physiography and climate — the rugged
topography of the coast fragments logging operations and hinders transportation and acts as a barrier to the transport of logs to the coast from the Interior Plateau. Heavy rainfall and snowfall on the west side of the Coast
Mountains shorten the operating season
while the rainshadow on the east side
inhibits the growth of commercial forests.
The steep terrain and heavy rains also
combine to create a sensitive hydrologic
regime that must be intensively managed
to prevent high peak stream flows, sedimentation and mass wasting.
Watershed management and protection
of   fish   and   wildlife   —   The   needs   for
management and the requirements to protect fish and wildlife restricts the rate at
which forest development can proceed in
any one watershed. Because of the restrictions in rate of cut in watersheds,
operations must be simultaneous on many
fronts if the sum of the cuts from individual operations is to total the net allowable
cuts.
Conclusions — The study provides a data
base for on-going planning. Large scale
industrial developments in the region will
be severely constrained by the lack of a
labour supply and adequate intra-regional
transportation infrastructure. To expand
the regional economy it is essential to
upgrade Highway 20. Because of its position in the transportation network, Bella
Coola is a logical regional center and
development there would have an impact
on the whole region. Bella Bella is another   possible   growth    center.
The forest resources of the region are considered to be suitable for the manufacture of lumber and pulp. Based on the
next allowable annual cuts it is indicated
there is a significant potential for further
development of the forest industry. However, economical, biophysical and technological constraints must be overcome before the full potential of the allowable
annual cuts can be realised. Local communities will benefit from increased logging and sawmilling. However, if the forest resource is to be used to support a
new pulpmill, careful consideration
should be given to the location of the
mill and the new pulping technologies
being developed which can comply with
pollution standards. To maximize the benefits to the people of the province, it
may be advantageous to locate near labour supplies, markets or other plants
rather than near the wood supply.
   ilk, "■$*   ^**"*v4-
 34
Since the Crown controls 93 percent of
the productive forest land in British Columbia, the Forest Service has an overiding
responsibility to see that adequate supplies
of quality seed are maintained. With the
recent expansion in artificial regeneration
mainly by planting, this need has become
critical. To meet this need a seed production
section has been set up in the Reforestation
Division with the following objectives:
1. to ensure procurement of sufficient seed
from natural stands and to provide technical guidance and training assistance
to enable improvement on the overall
quality   of   seed   from   natural   stands,
2. to process, test, register, store, and maintain an inventory of all seed and prepare
for use in nurseries, direct seeding, and
other purposes,
3. to establish first phase seed production
orchards either by grafting of scions or
use of seedlings from selected high quality parent trees to produce regular supplies of seed with high germinative vigour
and    wide    adaptability,
4. to review, integrate and control, and provide technical guidance to company programs which are on an approved forestry
costs basis,
5. to establish second-phase seed orchards
from progeny tested breeds of proven
superior genetic quality produced by the
tree improvement program of the Research Division.
Objectives 3 and 5 are designed to progressively — over the next 20 to 40 years —
reduce dependence on chance collections
from wild stands.
In the interim period seed requirements will
be met by upgrading collections from natural stands by selecting and improving
these stands, by seed production areas and
by existing Forest Service and company seed
orchards. To date 30 S.P.A.'s have been established throughout the province on 134
acres. In addition forest companies on the
coast have established an additional 24
S.P.A.'s on another 134 acres.
Seed production areas are generally portions
of naturally established young stands with a
high proportion of well formed trees. By
removing the more poorly formed trees,
opening up the spacing to provide better
air ventilation and more sunlight and by
fertilization and other techniques enhanced
seed production is expected. Some areas
have responded well to such treatment while
others have not.
Approximately 2,000 "plus" or parent trees
have already been selected in the natural
forests of British Columbia. These selections
have been made in coastal Douglas fir, western hemlock, Sitka spruce and in the interior
spruce, lodgepole pine and Douglas fir.
The selection of these trees was made by
foresters from companies, the University of
British Columbia, the Research Division and
the Reforestation Division working both under the auspices of the Tree Improvement
Board in Plus Tree Weeks and individually.
"Plus" trees are those selected as the one
or two best growth-wise and form-wise in a
forest stand which has been completely examined. Parent trees are those believed to
be the best in a portion of a  stand.
The Reforestation Division is charged with
maintaining a register of all "plus" trees
and parent trees selected in the Province.
Information from this register will be used
not only in the establishment of seed production orchards, but also in the Research
Division program of developing superior
breeds. Scions from selected trees are grafted into clone banks for preservation and
seed  collected   from   them   goes   into   cold
 storage where it may maintain its vigour for
20 years or more.
A number of seed orchards have already
been established. The Reforestation Division
has established three Coastal Douglas fir
orchards at Campbell River and Duncan and
a lodgepole pine orchard near Prince
George. In addition several forest industrial
companies have established seed orchards
in coastal Douglas fir, western hemlock and
Sitka spruce occupying an area of 80 acres.
One of the main purposes of the seed production section is to avoid duplication of
effort by Forest Service and company foresters. To this end a review is currently
under way to predict long term seed requirements, to establish priorities for seed
production orchards and breeding programs
for the major species in  British  Columbia.
Considerable planning is necessary to establish a program of seed production orchards
which will match the seed requirements
of the reforestation program. At present,
no information is available to indicate the
location and elevation of areas to be cut-
over and which will require reforestation
20 to 40 years hence. Considerable informed
guesswork is required.
To achieve its objectives the seed production section has three subsections operating
under the forester-in-charge. One of these
is located at the Koksilah Nursery at Duncan; another is located at the Red Rock
Nursery and Research Centre near Prince
George; and a third section operates from
the Skimikin Nursery near Salmon Arm to
serve the southern interior.
To achieve this objective considerable support will be necessary from the various
Ranger staffs, the forest districts and forester in industry throughout the province.
Staff and facilities of the seed production
section will be attached to nurseries which
will enable joint use of facilities, equipment
and direct consultation on matters of propagation, development and establishment of
orchards. Some orchards will be located
adjacent to nurseries, others will be located
in clusters close to a nursery which will
serve as a headquarters for administrative
35
and maintenance purposes.
Considerable land reconnaissance has been
done to obtain land suitable for seed orchard sites. One 30-acre site has been secured in the Saanich peninsula (near Victoria) which is a desirable location because
of the regular cone crops. This site will be
used to establish a seedling of half-syb.
orchard to produce high elevation Douglas
fir seed for the Harrison-Lillooet Lake region. The orchard will be planted in the
spring of 1975.
A 20-acre site adjacent to the Skimikin
nursery near Salmon Arm has been cleared
and fenced and planting of grafted interior
spruce material will commence in 1976. This
orchard will provide spruce seed for the
interior   plateau   (Stuart   Lake   area).
Plans for 1976 call for commencement of
parent tree selection for an orchard to provide spruce seed for the Smithers-Babine
region and another to provide spruce seed
for the southern interior. It is hoped to
establish three orchards a year.
In an effort to try and stimulate flowering,
orchards are generally located in areas with
a warmer sunnier climate than the region
where the parent trees were selected. To
prevent contamination of the orchard by
local pollen, it is necessary to delay flowering of the orchard by cooling with intermittent overhead irrigation. This requires
considerable water and makes the location
of  suitable  orchard   sites   more   difficult.
While considerable expense is involved in
the establishment of these seed production
orchards it is warranted by the value to the
economy of an assured supply of high quality seed. And as the tested breed of known
genetic gain produced by the Research Division's tree improvement program begins to
be available in 20 to 40 years to replace
the seed production orchards, the required
sites and facilities will be available and
the seed production potential of various regions and sites for various species will
be known.
  37
So long as old decadent timber stands are
being logged, it is necessary to reduce the
accumulation of logging waste and debris.
At this stage, just about everything usable
is being removed but in some areas the
slash is too heavy to leave "as is" because
of the fire hazard created and the difficulty
for replanting. Actually about one-third of
the   logged   areas   fall   into   this   category.
Mother Nature puts nutrients back into the
soil by the use of fire and the normal decomposition which is, in reality, an extremely slow process of allowing oxygen to decompose the residual wood. This rotting is
actually a slow burning process.
By using proper burning procedures in certain logged areas, the ground can be quickly
brought back to grow a clean young stand
of healthy trees relatively safe from a wildfire.
Satisfactory burning cannot be done when
the debris and the weather is wet. Spring
burning has been found to be far too risky.
Late summer and the fall permit the best
results. Even at this period, timing is important. If the debris is too dry, the burn is too
hot and soil or other damage occurs. On the
other hand, if the debris is too wet, there is
little beneficial effect and a subsequent wildfire is likely to destroy all the new
trees, many of which are planted by hand.
This means slash burns should be started
on clear sunny days and the nuisance of
smoke is present.
Wildfires continue to start. In excess of 2,000
occur each year. More than one-third of them
are started by lightning and the rest are
started by people. Fast initial attack using
fire suppression crews with air tankers and
helicopters, has reduced the extent of most
of the wildfires so that little such smoke
persists   to   obscure   the   summer   scenery.
Slash fires lend themselves to control as to
when they are started. This allows the privilege of restricting the number of fires in any
one locality. Some slash areas have a much
heavier amount of slash than others. This is
considered. The topography is a big factor
when burning slash and the chance of the
right kind of weather continuing is very
important.
The main factor is the presence of an upper
wind for scattering the slash smoke at a
relatively high altitude. A good slash burn
produces a fast-rising column of smoke. The
technique employs the principle of a very
fast light-up so the air is drawn to the centre
and rises due to the higher temperature.
Incidentally, slash smoke is mainly water
vapour with a small percentage of fine wood
fly ash.
The key to this quick evacuation of the
smoke is the altitude of the upper air flow.
It must be present and it must be at an
altitude that the column of smoke can reach
before slowing down to allow it to drift
aimlessly for several days.
Special equipment and trained observers are
used by the Atmospheric Environmental Service. These weather prediction crews are an
important part of the program. Other weather predictors are needed to furnish a reliable
weather forecast for the ground level situation.
Good results of smoke management have
been obtained for the Greater Vancouver
area where most of the residents of the province live. This area often develops an undesirable air situation from the automobile and
industry in the area. To add wood smoke may
not increase the hazard but it certainly
makes the situation far more noticeable. The
principles of smoke management have been
used for the areas that could produce smoke
on the Vancouver area for the past two
years. The result has been that very little
slash smoke was visible during the summer
and fall.
A start has been made on the Terrace-
Kitimat area and the North Okanagan. The
program is being actively pursued with the
idea of having it apply to all areas where
it is necessary.
 Forest Range Seeding
 39
In the more open timber stands found in
the interior drybelt, nature has provided
a ground cover of forage plants used by
both domestic stock and wildlife. More than
80 percent of the range used by cattle in
British Columbia is forest range. It is essential this multi-use forest land be managed
for the production of meat as well as wood,
recreation, clean water, and the maintenance of a desirable environment. The responsibility for such management rests with
the Forest Service.
Our native forest range plans provide good
forage. However, through plant selection
and breeding, varieties of grasses and legumes have been developed which are higher producing, more nutritious and better
able to withstand grazing by cattle. The
seeding of such grasses and legumes can be
a valuable adjunct to good range management to improve forage production for both
livestock and wildlife. Seeding can also help
protect or repair the forest environment
where it has been disturbed by industrial
activity or natural disasters such as wildfire. On the other hand, seeding has limitations and even creates problems under
certain circumstances. There are many factors the forest land manager must consider
in  making   the   best   use   of   this   tool.
First, even the best adapted grasses and
legumes for which seed can be obtained
have special requirements for their establishment and survival. They need a suitable
seed-bed and reasonable amount of light.
The undisturbed forest which cannot be cultivated and casts deep shades presents little
opportunity for forage improvement through
seeding. Here we must rely on the shade-
tolerant plants, which have developed in
this environment, and manage grazing to
ensure they are not destroyed and maintain both their forage producing and soil
protection roles.
The opportunity and need for seeding normally arises as a result of man's other activities in the forest such as logging, power-
line and road construction, and similar
operations. These activities result in the tree
cover being removed or thinned and much
bare soil being exposed. Wildfires often burn
'• -;".
 40
so intensely that both the overstory and the
ground cover of native plants is completely
destroyed.
Occasionally, openings in the forest are deliberately created to improve conditions for
both cattle and wildlife. These are the sites
on which seed will germinate and introduced
grasses and legumes will survive for many
years. Thousands of acres of such sites are
seeded by the Forest Service each year. In
1974 approximately 98,000 pounds of grass
and clover seed was used for this purpose.
Lost grazing values are not only restored but
improved — an obvious benefit to livestock
and many kinds  of  wildlife.
Seeding has many other benefits. When
ground is stripped of vegetation and left
bare, valuable soil may be washed away
leaving an ugly barren site and silted
streams. The seeding of fast-growing grasses can quickly bind the soil and prevent
or greatly   reduce   this   serious  loss.
Bare ground is also an open invitation for
weeds and other undesirable plants to become established. Many of our noxious weed
problems today are the result of carelessly
left bare ground. A sturdy growth of grass
and clover gives weeds little chance to
invade the site.
Trees and other plants draw mineral nutrients from the soil. As these plants die and rot
on the ground these nutrients are slowly released into the soil and taken up by growing plants. This is nature's way of "recycling" and conserving valuable plant food.
However, many of the nutrients found in
plants are converted to soluble compounds
when burned and are scattered as ash. In
this form nutrients are readily washed away
or leached out of the soil. Nature usually
provides some quick-growing plants in an
effort to recapture these nutrients and hold
them in the cycle. But when a forest burns,
vast quantities of nutrients are released and
nature may need help. Seeded grasses and
legumes — clovers and the like — can provide this assistance.
In addition to their roles of erosion control
and preventing weed invasion and nutrient
loss, grasses and legumes are great builders of soil fertility. Their extensive root systems build up organic matter in the soil.
The legumes are among the few plants which
can capture free nitrogen from the air and
convert this essential nutrient to a form
which they and other plants can use. They
are natural fertilizer factories.
In spite of these advantages, not all burned
or logged forest land is seeded. In some
cases there are enough good native plants
left to quickly reproduce and restore lost
grazing values and protect the soil. In this
situation the native plants would prevent the
introduced grasses from becoming established and seeding would be a costly waste.
Grasses and legumes compete with other
plants for space, water, nutrients and light.
The degree to which grasses will compete
successfully with other plants varies widely
according to a variety of complex factors
including the nature of the associated plants.
Fortunately, on most forest range sites competition by properly selected and seeded
grasses does not unduly impede tree regeneration or growth and the increased forage
production and soil improvement more than
compensates for any slowdown in early tree
growth.
However, on some sites — particularly at
higher elevations — seeding of grass remains
a controversial issue. Here, tree regeneration
is difficult anyway and when it does become
established it will soon crowd out the grasses. On the other hand, grass grows so luxuriantly on these sites that some fear it will
unduly delay tree regeneration. The Forest
Service, in co-operation with other agencies,
is carrying out research to determine the
advantages of seeding on such sites without
undue  adverse  effect  on   tree  production.
 41
GRAZING PERMITS ISSUED,
1974
Forest District
Number
of Permits
Issued
Numb
Cattle
er of Stock Permitted
Horses       Sheep
AUM's*
use of
Crown Range
Kamloops
584
77,920
509
850
320,110
Nelson
358
19,216
719
12
81,706
Prince George
390
16,161
1,835
918
57,793
Cariboo
657
69,634
2,483
37
349,013
Vancouver
11
225
—
4
616
Totals, 1974
2,000
183,156
5,546
1,821
809,238
Totals, 1973
1,920
177,785
5,748
1,616
783,677
Totals, 1972
1,968
174,617
6,166
1,432
787,589
Totals, 1971
1,920
178,772
6,186
1,484
829,337
Totals, 1970
1,985
178,332
5,651
2,739
822,442
Totals, 1969
2,018
180,579
5,545
5,106
837,405
Totals, 1968
2,053
188,183
6,338
7,090
857,219
Totals, 1967
2,114
188,126
6,837
6,272
866,539
Totals, 1966
2,244
189,286
6,572
8,970
Totals, 1965
2,218
188,339
6,677
12,509
* A.U.M. (Animal Unit Month) is the equivalent of one mature cow for one month.
Figures not available prior to 1967.
  APPENDIX
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
THE REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1974
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1974
CONTENTS
Table Page
No.
1. Unit   Standard Inventory, 1974 Field Work          46
2. Production of Final Forest Cover Maps for
1973 Projects     46
3. Status of Research Projects in 1974    :  47
4. Research Publications  47
5. Summary of Planting, 1965—74     49
6. Planting by Forest District     50
7. Summary of Basic Data for Tree-farm Licences
(Private Sustained-yield Units)      51
8. Summary of Basic Data for Certified Tree-farms
(Private Sustained-yield Units Over
Crown-granted Lands)         51
9. Summary of Basic Data for Farm Wood-lot Licences
(Private Sustained-yield Units)       51
10. Summary of Basic Data for Public
Sustained-yield Units          52
11. Total Amout of Timber Scaled in British Columbia,
1973 and 1974 (in Cunits)    54
12. Species Cut, All Products (in Cunits)    54
13. Total Scale of All Products Billed in 1974 (in Cunits)
(Segregated by Land Status and Forest Districts)     55
13a. Acreage Logged 1974        55
14. Number of Acres Operating Under Approved Annual
Allowable Cuts, 1965—74       56
15. Total Scale of All Products From Areas Operated
Under Approved Annual Allowable Cuts, 1965—74 ....      57
16. Logging Inspections, 1974       58
17. Trespasses, 1974          59
18. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales and Timber Sale
Harvesting Licence Cutting Permits, 1974          60
19. Timber Sales and Cutting Permits (Timber Sale
Harvesting Licences) Awarded by Forest Districts          61
20. Average Stumpage Prices by Species and Forest
Districts on Cutting Permits of Timber Sale Harvesting
Licences and Timber Sales Issued (per
Cunit Log Scale)         62
21. Average Stumpage Prices Received by Species and
Forest Districts on Timber Scaled From Tree-farm
Licence Cutting Permits      63
 Table
No.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Timber Cut and Billed From Timber Sales and Timber
Sale Harvesting Licences  	
Page
64
65
66
66
67
67
67
68
68
68
69
70
70
71
72
72
73
74
74
74
75
76
77
77
78
78
78
79
79
Wood-processing Plants of the Province   	
Exports From the Province of Minor Forest Products   ..
Timber Marks Issued, 1965—74   	
Number of Weigh-scales by District . . . .•	
Grazing Permits Issued, 1974	
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1974  	
Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1974	
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last
10 Years	
Fires Classified by Size and Timber Loss, 1974   	
Loss of Property Other Than Forest, 1974  	
Loss to Forest Cover Caused by Forest Fires,
1974 — Part I  	
Loss to Forest Cover Caused by Forest Fires,
1974 — Part II   	
Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and
Total Loss, 1974	
Comparison of Loss Caused by Forest Fires in
Last 10 Years   	
Fires Caused by Forest District, and Cost of
Fire-fighting   	
Suspension of Campfires	
Forest Revenue, 1970—74	
Amounts Charged Against Logging Operations, 1974 . .
Amounts Charged Against Logging Operations,
Fiscal Year 1973/74  	
Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1973/74   	
Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1973/74   	
Scaling Fund  	
Grazing Range Improvement Fund	
Reservoir Waterway Improvements  	
Accelerated Reforestation Fund	
Distribution of Personnel, 1974	
 46
(l)
UNIT STANDARD INVENTORY
1974 FIELD WORK
Public Sustained-yield Unit
Maps
Classified
Number of Samples
Mature      Immature
Total
Estimated
Acreage
Babine   127 205 56 2,096,635
Canoe   76 266 57 936,194
Dewdney   92 120 230 1,969.929
Kingcome (Cape Scott, Seymour)   62 118 793,223
Narcosli   106 144 166 2,064,112
Robson    73 169 168 1,400,360
Salmo   41 71 320 867,813
Windermere    52 145 209 1,070,323
Totals   629 1,238 1,213 11,198,589
m
PRODUCTION OF FINAL FOREST COVER MAPS FOR 1974 PROJECTS
Public Sustained-yield Unit
Number
of Maps
Forest and Nonforest Area in Acres
Crown
Alienated
Total
Volume in
Cunits for
Mature
Crown Area
(Close "U")
Bell-Irving   28 1,580,988 15,657 1,596,645 1,981,506
Boundary (Proposed, S '/)*   49 3,038,153 3,038,153 1,493,936
Carp*    76 1,517,024 6,120 1,523,144 2,269,965
Creston*   36 748,369 31,100 779,469 522,270
Crooked River*   45 673,269 2,393 675,662 1,229,261
Fernie*   81 1,399,920 138,941 1,538,861 1,021,938
Kechika (Proposed)   106 7,067,683 6,637 7,074,320 1,950,578
l.iard (Proposed, W '/;)   62 3,742,166 3,742,166 2,307,046
Nehalliston   26 390,372 19,594 409,966 596,825
Williams Lake*    52 776,093 180,495 956,588 617,889
Totals   561 20,934,037 400,937 21,334,974 13,991,214
*Area and Volume Figures Based on Earlier Surveys
 47
(3)
STATUS OF RESEARCH PROJECTS IN 1974
Active at beginning of year   127
Terminated      13
New Projects      13
Active at end of year   127
Subject
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Land classification 	
Tree breeding   5
Plant ecology   5
Silvicultural systems 	
Natural regeneration    1
Choice and trial of species   10
Nursery practice   24
Direct seeding   I
Planting   4
Spacing   4
Forest fertilization   1
Tending of stands   10
Statistics   2
Management: Economics  	
Integrated Resource Management .... 5
Totals   72
17
16
Kamloops
Nelson
Cariboo
1
-
-
1
2
—
1
3
1
1
1
.2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
-
9
10
3
(4)
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS
Clark, M.B. (1974): Effects of Cutting Method, Slash-Disposal Treatment, Seedbed Preparation, and Cone Habit on Natural Regeneration of Lodgepole Pine, in the South
Central Interior of British Columbia. (E.P. 698) B.C. For. Serv. Res. Note. No. 67.
16 p.
— and A. McLean. (1974): Compatibility of Grass Seeding and Coniferous Regeneration on Clearcuts in the South Central Interior of British Columbia. (E.P. 590.3).
B.C. For. Serv. Res. Note 63. 10 p.
Dykstra, G.F. (1974): Undercutting Depth may Affect Root-Regeneration of Lodgepole
Pine Seedlings. Tree Planters Notes 24(l):21-22.
 (1974): Effect of Lifting Date of Electrical Impedance, Survival and Root- Regeneration of Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta Doug.) Seedlings. (E.P. 717) B.C. For. Serv.
Res. Note 60. 7 p.
 (1974): Drought Resistance of Lodgepole Pine Seedlings in Relation to Provenance
and Tree Water Potential. (E.P. 718). B.C. For. Serv. Res. Note 62. 11 p.
(1974): Photosynthesis and Carbon Dioxide Transfer Resistance of Lodgepole Pine
Seedlings in Relation to Irradiance,  Temperature and Water Potential. (E.P. 719).
Can. J. For. Res. 4:201-206.
 48
(■» RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS
Illingworth, K. (1973): Lodgepole Pine Genetics, British Columbia 1971-1973. In Proc.
14th Meeting, Can. Tree Impr. Assoc. Fredericton, N.B. 1973. 3 p.
- (1973): Lodgepole Pine Research and Breeding in British Columbia. Paper given at
symposium on Management of Lodgepole Pine Ecosystems, Oct. 1973, Wash. State
Univ., Pullman, Wash. 28 p.
Karlsson, I. (1974): Root Cuttings of Yellow Cedar (Chamacyparis nootkatensis D. Don.)
(E.P. 750). B.C. For. Serv. Res. Note 66. 4 p.
 and M. Kovats. (1974): Effects of Rooting Medium, Container size, cover and
planting time on Container-Grown Douglas Fir Seedlings (E.P. 612) B.C. For. Serv.
Res. Note 69.
Keser, N., V. Parsons, J.R. Murphy, and D.J. St. Pierre. (1974). Soils of Prince George
Forest District. A compendium. B.C. For. Seiv. Res. Note. 58. 310 p.
Orr-Ewing, A.L. (1974): The Incidence of Dwarfing in Inbred Douglas Fir. (E.P. 513).
B.C. For. Serv. Res. Note 64. 26 p.
— (1974): GoodSeedDoes Not Cost, It Pays. B.C. For. Serv. Forestalk 2(1):17-19.
Owens, J.N. (1974): Cone Initiation and Development Before Dormancy in Yellow Cedar
(Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don.) Spach.) Can. Jour, of Botany Vol 52. (9)
2075-2084.
—and M. Molder. (1974): Yellow Cedar Cone Production (E.P. 730) B.C. For.'.
Serv. Res. Note 68.
Schmidt, K.L. (1974): A Provenance Test of Coastal Douglas Fir in British Columbia.
Preliminary Results at Six Years. Paper given at meeting of the Pacific Northwest
Tree Grower's Assoc. Victoria, B.C. April, 1974. 10 p.
Smith, J.H.G. and M.B. Clark. (1974): Results of Methods of Cutting and Related Studies
Initiated in Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir Forests near Bolean Lake, B.C. in
1950. (E.P. 371). Faculty of Forestry, Univ. of B.C. 61 p.
Thompson, C.F. (1974): Tenth Year Remeasurements of Planting Trials with Ponderosa
Pine. (E.P.'s 552, 572 and 597). B.C. For. Serv. Res. Note 65. 13 p.
 (1974): Regeneration Problems at High Elevations in the Nelson Forest District, B. C.
For. Serv. Reforestation Notes Vol. No. 2 14 p.
Utzig, G. and L. Herring. (1974): Factors Significant to High Elevation Forest Management. (E.P. 735). B.C. For. Serv. Report. 69 p.
van den Driessche, R. and M.B. Balderston. (1974): Trials with Selective Herbicides
in Forest Service Nurseries. (E.P. 693). B.C. For. Serv. Res. Note 61. 44 p.
Vyse, A.H. (1974): Report No. 2 on the Labour Productivity of Planting Operations in B.C.
In-Service report, B.C. For. Serv. Feb. 1974.
 and D.E. Ketcheson. (1974): The Cost of Raising and Planting Containerized
Trees in Canada. Paper presented at the North American Containerized Forest Tree
Seedling Symposium, Denver, Colorado. Aug. 26-29, 1974.
 and J.D. Rudd. (1974): Sowing Rules for Container Nurseries. Paper presented at
the North American Containerized Forest Tree Seedling Symposium, Denver, Colorado Aug. 26-29, 1974.
 and D.Wallinger. (1974): Report No. 3 Labour Productivity of Planting Opera
tions in B.C. In-Service Report. B.C. For. Ser., July 1974.
van   den   Driessche,   R.   (1974):   Reciprocal   Grafting  between   Three   Spruce   Species.
N.Z. J. For. Sci. 4 (2): 448-53.
Brix, H. and R. van den Driessche, (1974): Mineral Nutrition of Container-Grown Tree
Seedlings. Great Plains Agri. Council Pub. 68: 77-84.
 49
U
Z
H
Z
<
c
u.
o
j>
K
<<
s
i
p
CO
Eg1
HS.
B !> 8
tfJ  CJJ  CU
p. 73
E«
0
O
HS
.a J
§E
B«
E»H
o
U
|i
u c
2 5
s3
1- o
HS
Hi5
S S"1
S
<
•a «>«5
fli!
O n u
B. 2,0
II
yU<
hi5
© — C^-intOO1)©)—'©©OJ ©
©OJ©©tO©r~-GO — —jiO o
r~- to © — ift -h if r^ -rr co >n —1
co* co ^n to" cc" > rT ©" of in f" o^ ^-~
(Or-i> X 'X 'f) if; f t ^ - —
CO OI
O-OC-I — IMWcOi>.i>'0 OI
Oi—^ ir! r—i — ed — ©' if! O lC"> CO
rr 01 00 01 in if 00 rr co 01 © 00
- W (M - GC if) O Cl — OT fJ_ -h
if" OJ O cd in" © 00" rr" CO* iri oT Tf
CM 00 so iM M CM - i-h - - t- O
iO(O0O©»O<O00©C^0O© Cfl
© —■ m i>- cr; -?r oc — m cm <0 ©
CO — 00 O Ol cO I-- eo O * iO
0C O* —1 —" o" rr CO* —" —■ OO OI l-H
_- — _ 01 — — — — — cn t£>
Tf © CO © «3 (O—■ CcCiO^ tO
— >o" oi co -r- co © ©" co 01 rr' ©
© "Tr r— ir; — I1*- > CO !M m -- t>
<n ©^ cc j>- 01 to -rr cc oc ^r to 01
cn ^ v "r ■> in* m" 00" =o" tt oj ©"
T © C- OJ
F- if) 00 00
00 If —
I I I I I I I
co rr 01 if 01 •© © rr 01 cm 00 01
rr © © co —■ © co oo © rf rr 01
co_ 01 ©_ r- in to — i>■ r- r~ © ©
—■* co" -^r — o" 00* if —■* rfT o" 01 »ri
00 00 so 00 =0 01 0101 01 oj rf 04
00 — o 00 m to 00 to ci in — t—
— oi to" eo to —' r^ co — oc oi   rj"
01 to r- © — co © eo eo co © eo
cn i> - cc cc o. i> o •*• o ci ©
—" of of —* ©* ov oc" t> oc r~-" 00" 00"
if.
—1 OJ CM OJ rr -rT   00
"in r-~
OJ   tM
111:
3 o ©   I 0005 °!
i c^ oi   ' oS oc cri   00
1 © GO       — OJ if   (O
-OXtCCntO-N-COCM OI
00 C-- if) © — >f rr so rr O if, OI
— — rr©r~-OOifOIOIcOif rf
©* —* © OJ t-~ —' oc" ©" o* o* o? of
01 eo cO OI — —< — 00
■— OI
—• r- oc © o © O) — © r- 01 m
oi 1 rj co i^ oi •— —I oi to —i oS r-"
if if © OJ O © CO iO if OI OJ —i
eo oc oj co 01 r- r- © oc 01 01 ©
00 CO OI © t-
CTi cO I— OJ — if t~ 1 CO 0O CO    © "«C   'rT
00 rr d 01 © © cr. — cr. cr. ^ © © 00
in © t— © 01 01 ©, if © rr to ^o (— m
co" co" rr to" r-" oi to" m" r~" co" to" as ©" rs
ifrrcoeo — — —   ^ «   r*
rS w*   —
— CT- © OI © eo to co © OI rr   © rs   i-h
cc rr oi oi o oi — to co 1—' eo  ri 00  r"
co cc m 01 © © © — © o cc  00 ^o w*
to CT; — t^- — eo © if CT-. in ©  © <M  00
cc" co" oc* 1--" oc" .n oo"^ioioir~-' « v* w*
01 01 1 n rj   i/i
ir,
Ol rr © if CT- S- OI t> rr OI ©   0O   —   ■rT
oo oS -sr1 *o to cn n © © cc t- !> C; 2s
0C CO — CO — OI OI CO OO rr    >/l    rl    On
oc to © © © i> 00 m 1^- rr 01 01 00 01
oi — if oi <o" © o~. *f ©' ©' if © © rr
00 -t1 rr to © t— OI © OI CO © rj- — 00
if —     —     —     — — 01 00 00 »n
© i- to r- to   I   1
CM CO eo © CO    I     I
I I
eo — © © ©
O — to co ©'
X OI © rT rT
CO if © C—
I I
©      50      -H
©    GO    t1
©  ©  ©
!>•    ©    O
^ri:^ — _---^-.__i^.i>.ct-, 00
© C. OJ — © — OI if if 'O 'f
© rr i-— 00 © © © if cr. to oc
© 01 I>
t— r~ eo 00 01
— — OI rT
00 — OCO">Oif3r-w7iifl OI OJ i-H
©' —' oi — ed —■ ©' if! oi rr © £> £ 2£
r- if ©, © if. © to go r ■ rr E* © ©
© i.n CO rr r^ 00 00 © if © 00 co in c©
00"CO*—■"—" _' rf- cO tj-
I I I I I I I I II I
I I I I I I I I I I I
©  in 01
— 00 © © Oi c— rr r^ m oj -
r^- to © rr 1— © m rr eo rr — — —   -■
©©©■©© — 00 I— CC rT SO t> OI   i-H
—* rC to" _" V — 10" of" rr* if" —" CO CO   OI
00 oj ojso — — '■- '
" _ t^- ©
OJ — O O! © © CO of to C. C— OI t-; rr
oc — co oi —I oi oi iri oi if oc © £* ©
OI t>- if rr © — — 0C © if CO — OI 00
— eo 01 rr 01 © if r- 011-~ cc © *j "*
: in" 01 - of-" if to 01 ^;
o^   © — — 1— —
: J S 2 'M
:Tjj 0
0 w
rreooi — ©©ocr-©m '? *c3
I>- !>• C— t> r--to©©©©civ *£
© © © © cr, cr. cr. cr. © © j- ,°
 , n, f_
.; -a o, Q.
rr eo OI — © © X r- © m  > 5
I-* t— t— r— 1-- © © to © ©  5j q —   —
© CT. © CT) o~. © © © © ©.  *- rT 3   ^!
 50
■-"«
^Co^5~-95^-?o-.-^Co^9"
5 o
cco   oc m  r^o  r-\o  Tt oo  — r~-  t~~oo
r- ro   —-o  rf r-  oo r-.   ©*o  f-Jo  ■■ rs
m   *■ r-   •■ <s _*• —   * o>   - en    - oo   r
»o*\      '©     -<r>     -■—     -o     —i     -rs
rn in  rj- —.  o —-  ^o—  tt *—' tn — m »s
iD   Ii
■-"   0> 4}
25" 1     1     1     1     12?
CJ= ts*~l
£0.£§
EC£J
U§
r- in                                                      r- m
rs so                                                           rs so
~|«n                                                      m.«
cs —                                                      <n w
E
rt
--  III!    °°©°;©
^m                                                fN co  ^O tt
i
r- cs                                            oo -^ m ro
~~.ro*                                                                 '"iro
h
»S"^p°5o^^^^^S'^P
cu
CJ
C
cd
©—    © <N    t~~3C   fN fN    © ©   ©ro    00 TT
O
H
'tf—    OC in   fNaC    —' CN    ©ro    rj- Tj"    cn irj
°°-0C   °-fN   *W   - —  - fN   "" W  -*-©C
u
© fN   — —'  — s—'                — •—■                "Tro
CJ
TJ
rt
C
i   «
^
u
CJ
<="* fN   °°. 5?    |            |            |            |         ^ P
>
£* £
CU
H
||
5 £
— © — w   '                                    m\c
-T rt                                                                                  — -rT
^_, "tJ
c
fN —                                                                 is •—-
^ *
o
a
CD
tr,
X)
c
rt
—     CU
'c
.C
H  c
rt
a
S
o
U
oo m  oo rN  r~-oo  rJrs   © ©  ©ro  T oo
0
fN >0   t"- V)   CN oo    — fN    ©ro    Tt rt    00 ©
2 1
^.ro   °.CS   ^rf L(N*   _ "~   *W
oC(N   — — — "-^               — ■—'              rsm
H   c
w                                                                "~ w
c/5 -
U
° 1
.* , ■"»
CJ
H   a
bi  ■§
O    3
8^ c
13-
rt   Tt     Tf  Cr>        O^-     ©»n        SO     CNOO     "rTrf
O-t/i e
moi © v~i cn o m rt o m cn — «Ti ^o
SH£
^CS*   ^CN   ^©   ^-fo'   ~rt    ~fN    ■".-'
o c 2
UOrj
"^
sa —
tA
Li."
^S^SJ^m^S^fs^o^??
o g
fS ro    ro ro    ©CM    rtaO    — V~]    ©r^    ©©
©rt  m in  ©r^  f". ©  ooo  >nro  oo-«
z £
T3
c
rt
"~,oo   "^.m'   "loo too" "Ors* °S.oo   ^-rs*
H   o
0
H
r-~ —   (N-—■  rt —-   rf ~_-   — -—  r-( —   -T Vi
-^                                                                fS ■—-
Z   k,
-1
<  5
P-   3
Z
is
o
u
CJ
rt
<-{—   ^ ^"©^°0^~-     1           P^^o*"
u
CJ
'j-   r~(N   f-io  f-'d               >d»   rit-
c
rflo ""■■  f^rsr^cN              o^f^rs
O
'HvC       —!-_'©_'             oo _- in    *
CJ
^ —                   —■       —■                   -^ ao -h
Crt
D
o
'o
*ia*^°5:=c^^°?^^
u-
£
oo_-  w~i —.  n ^  r^oo  — in  <"*".oo  t~~rs
\Crt   r* Tt   ro Tt   moc   oc- O^   t>\C   ©90
■rt     rfN    '©    -in    'in    ;©'c~s    r
co
- ro     .in     'C~     -\C      -cn     '©     ^rs
— ^^(N-—•ro^^fo-—' — -— ro -—■ *n cn
LU
5
■!>
_2
!^
■s,
s:
5j
CJ
,a
S
S
b
1_        —        «J
2
Jr.         i-         on
^         cu         lT                     Cl
S       c-      c       c       o
5        3        w        o         o        c         y,
1      ^      °      €      I      J      1
CD
^O
51
rt         u         i-'         rt         rt        cu        o
>       D_       a.       O       i-*       Z       H
 SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR TREE-FARM LICENCES (PRIVATE
O) SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
51
Forest District
Number
of
Tree-farm
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Schedule
B
Schedule
A
Total
Total
Area
(Acres)
Allowable
Cut
(Cunits)
Vancouver   171
Prince Rupert   61
Prince George   1
Cariboo    1
Kamloops   7
Nelson    5
Grand Totals  34
2,983,521
3,541,531
390,933
80,643
730,843
1,389,164
1,145,359
204,556
1,733
671
1,846
38,730
4,128,880   6,821,566   4,629,053
3,746,087
392,666
81,314
732,689
1,427,894
11,046,746
447,946
85,046
781,645
3,344,843
1,778,100
149,000
44,000
260,505
566,350
9,116,635   1,392,895  10,509,530  22,527,792   7,427,008
1 Three tree-farm licences located in both districts.
Schedule "B" is vacant Crown land.
Schedule "A" is land for which the Tree-Farm Licence holder has cutting rights other than those conveyed by
the Tree-Farm Licence Agreement. This may include lands held in fee simple or temporary tenures; e.g., Timber
leases, licences and berths. Following removal of the mature timber, lands held under temporary tenure are
transferred to Schedule "B".
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR CERTIFIED TREE-FARMS  (PRIVATE
<«) SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS OVER CROWN-GRANTED LANDS) 1974
Within Tree-farm Licences
Forest District
Number
of
Tree-
farms
Productive Area (Acres)
Mature
Immature
N.S.R.
and
N.C.C.
Total
Total
Area
(Acres)
Estimated
Productive
Capacity
(Cunits)
Vancouver    14
Prince George   1
Nelson    2
Total   17
59,665 227,616
33 1,033
530 4,719
60,228 233,368
37,664
155
4,358
42,177
324,945
1,221
9,607
335,773
364,070 329,977
1,280 458
10,158 4,312
375,508 334,747
Not Included Within Tree-farm Licences
Vancouver  ....
Nelson 	
Total 	
Grand Totals
22
10
97.868
108,752
305,001
212,191
39,164
96,527
442,033
417,470
480,750
486,903
425,582
84,489
(339,596)
32
206,620
517,192
135,691
859,503
967,653
510,071
(339,596)
49
266,848
750,560
177,868
1,195,276
1,343,161
844,818
(339,596)
Figures in parentheses ( ) are Christmas trees
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
(9) (PRIVATE SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS) 1974
Forest District
Number
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Allowable
of Farm
Annual
Wood-lot
Cut
Licences
Crown
Private
Total
(Cunits)
12
1,860              220         2,080
2,887
851
4
1,274              147          1,421
2,436
284
4
997                                997
1,032
400
10
2,690              337         3,027
3,586
716
3
691                96            787
859
223
4
1,359              617          1,976
2,071
267
37
8,871
1,417
10,288
12,871
2,741
Vancouver 	
Pr. Rupert  ....
Pr. George ....
Cariboo	
Kamloops 	
Nelson 	
Grand Totals
 52
u
oooo © r- >n r-
ir
Os OO ro m
«r
©     .   — CN CN © 00
rN
*-~
© —■ m r- t^ Tt in   i oooo — TtinTtinoNt^r-©©oor-  e
£ a
oo p- >n so © uo
o
00 Os — Tt
-rT
Ch     1   t^ On OO On in
Os
ro
rOsOONTtm©©    1  roco©©©oOTtON©©©©inoO   1^
(0+J
i^t^M —inrt
oo
© © Tt oc
sO
©^        so ro Tt so Tt
C
c
©TtTt©Ttso©      oonoo — inoo — ininTtTtTt©oo  ~*
« 5
O no" so ©" OO' sC
r-
in" oo ro" r-
©
Tt"     m" © r-" in r^-
rs
cn so" on" ©" in" ro" r-"     so" ro" o" oo" ©" ©" oo" in oo" nd" Tt in" — Tt" on"
o
>
ma^aooi
oc
© © Tt r~-
CO
ro       t— ro in —■ ON
T
so © in Tt ro cn oo      so in cn oo © r^ m so r-co r~-so cn oo  on
fO tN M ^' —
so           _ — _
T
—                                    Cs|   Tt
©
TT
—      cn — in          —      —     Tt—     —      ~~     —       w^
ro
JJ
?u»
m >n © © in in
©
in © in in
i/";
t-   1 © © © © ©
ON
"rT
©r-coos©©   |    1 rororocoTt©cor^ON©©r--Tt©  —
© Tt oo in ro —
CO
CN CN Tt ©
ON
sO     1   OO © © Tt 00
r*~
rO
ro©©r-©ro   i    1 ©r^-osinoN — cN-^-inso©©ooTf   ■-
0 —.-
r~- oo oo o oo^ —
TT
©,sO Tt^sO
sO
Os            CN "st  —  P-   Tt
©
r~-
© — oooo — ro           r-incN©incvirorororNONTtONCN  r—
s « c
OO t*> © ro CN c
[<
ro CN oo" ro
r-*
On"       oo" co' Tt" t-" ©
4
—             OOr-rOQOONrO               vC©sO© — TtCNOOinOON©cOCNfN
^■3 3
in -t m — cn —
r^ © cn ©
©
~          © OO CN Tt NO
in
t— m so © © ro           r-i^Ttoo©cNinvOt^roaNin—■  oo
-CM
■tTf riiXN —
n.         -<N	
sO
CN        CN         Tt Tt —
if.
u
CN
r-
—"                                                                                  tt
2zj3
ominocNh
© in © m
m
in t~~ Tt c-> co oo so
©
*n
inrs|sCTtONinoN©inrov-)ro©cNro —i ro- © — ensof-   t^
OO Tt ro OO sO nC
oc
OO ro © r^
©
— ro Tt r^ wo © cn
NO
so
TtOsrocN©ro — — ON©—■<-OONrooO©ro© — incc©   w*
->. c«?
so 't rn^o <o «r
©
Os^ CN oor —
(N
Tt Tt O CXD © f- OS
©
CN
^D n ~ O M OO O ON O^^ CslONONOO^-CNCOsOWNOM    no
H
3*9 -m
33 u
Tt CS (Nvdrno
c
so'oo"© sO
OO*
r^ Tt in" o oo" Tt" —.
CO    —
Os CO ON r~- ro" CN — so" in" Os CO i/-) as y-l' ^- O Tt ©" ©" — ON On"   ON
p- oo © so cn in
sO
— <N Tt so
ir,
oo r- cn cn in CN sO
in
ONTtcN—-r--ininin—■ccinrNOi>-Tt©in'—sor-©—■  -rt
p-» Tf oo cc in in
o
O CN ro Os
Tt
°, "1 ™ TfVOWTj
r-
r;
—i r~~ os m so so r- on cn cc co ro Tt Tt r~~^ in ror in © cc in ro  ~*
Z
fi a a
— cn"     cn—"
©          ro Tt — —
-H
CN —" —i —T oT ro" —
Tf
m
CN       —"      —"-rt"      _'——'      c^tSS      —r_'fo'cN              ^f
c ^
-■
—1
<N
—                                                                                                                                                                                      TJ
3
Q
w
■a wu
© © Tt CN OO nO
©
ro so (^ 00
TT
ro ON Osl^ CN in Tt
Os
en
cn th ■— r-oor-rsinin©©cNONONTtcN©r-o© —^ro  oo
on co r^ on cn r-
Os
r- cn so en
©
—i r^ cn© tN oo —
©
mr-^r^Ttroccmr-soooQO©Tt —^©ccooror-cNror^  oo
oo —^oo t> © in
CN ©oo ©
r~ —innoo ro r~-
(*•
30
NOONNoin© — cNr-in-st©inr-oNONCN©so — TtcNcN  tt
?
o"r-"— ■©—" ©
OO
oo in so r*-
TT
on-i-r* Tt ©
r-
ro os cc so co r^ oo cn ro — r- ro ro r^ © ro oo Tt m — c~~ —■  on
© Tt ro Tt ^ —
© —' t~~ ro cn ro
OO
sO CTs Osl —
S
CN Tt Os vO © CN ON
Tt
I/-
OO — On© — ONOOOOinOTt©©ON-—"roro©ro — sO©   ©
Q
W
e        on vo © c
ia        —"—r
sC
TT
r- ro Os oo ©^ — e
—,"                     CNcN —
OS
P-
— © cn ro © oo —r-0OTtr^ro — ©cNin©<NCN — inro  t—
_"     __"     incN           —           cn'—"—"          — cncn"            oo
fS
Z
o
Hw
<
<
H
GO
rt
D
— sO OO Tt — Os
o^
wo in © ©
©
on in o © ro cc no
t*
r*
nmoosoo- r~in — © —not^OfNOco — r-oo©  r^
3
Tt cn cn >n os so
©
Tt  — OO SO
©
oo cn in Tt r- © m
ffl
<*■
CN — inCNrOTt©CO — CN — r^rO00rOTtsCNOCNCO©CN|   o
D
u
Tt CN ro oo ©CN
ao
© so Tf ^C
OC
in r- oo no oo cn Tt
T
r-
cn m no on © oo m on © co r-r^ cn — on cc ro — Tt — © —  ©
<
cd
E
CO
Tt in oo — —■ cn
r^
© © ©CN
Os
OO   "st   ON   ©   ©   ©   Tt
Os
Ov
vO©TtroONsCTtTtCN©CN©©sOTtTtTtsOON©CNND   rN
© cn so © so in
©
oo © r~- m
©
oo — cn cn in Os Tt
w
Tt
— ON©Tt©sOTtror^incocN©©oor^TtONroONsocN  oo
O
|
rocN       so — —
«                 —i
c-
in      in cn oo ro ro
Os
CN
fN
©        oocNoOTtro       ©       — CN — ro       CN Tt OO CN ro —   ©
—T               —'—"                         —T                              —7            rf
3
3
■"
oa
o
ex
3
u
O rt so — CN ©
(N
Tt   ON   Tf   ©
sC
— Tf   © © NO ON so
sC
CN
—'©ND©©ror^ONOocc©roincN©Ttr-socN©cc —i   r-
tf
© m o © — cn
©
ro CN On r^
o-
On On — Tt ro in so
Os
o-
m — os in oo r-ro o r-oo — oo ©oo © ro oo — ©rs r-Tt  ■rt
3
r- cn © r~- in on
r-           —i ro CN —
SC
Tt ro OO so so © ON
Ov
oc
cn—i ro on r-^in no^no t~~ no © — cn o >n cn p«- cn as cn r~~ rf  ■-.
O
rt
S
©" CN ro CN Tt m
Os
— oo in —
ir
r-' cn" —' r^" cn cc" ©
sC
CN
so" Tf o" in" Tt" so" r-" r-" cn" ©" ro" in so r-' oo' r> no" ©" —" o\ ro" ©" t*
Os OS in sO Tt ro
t~~
oo m Tt Tt
CN
o © — r^ — sO ro
TT
insOr-sOONsOl^— ■stOONNtsOooro —vOsOOOONTt   r-
m cc no m ro —
—
oo in on oc
r-
©^ro Tt in — so t-
OC
©
—'Tt — t (N in \j-^ r-■> so ~ oor^r^Ttro©ro© — —i  ro
f"
TT
V
©
ro"                                                                                   —"                       'rf
<
<
"
Q
u
E
©©©©©©
e
© © © ©
©
©©©©©©©
©
©
©ooo©oooooooooooooooo© ©
O
3^,
— — (N OO © Tt
V
On sO OO CN
V
Tt © NO CO O OO SO
(?
00
cn r~-cc in —■ r^ ro oo —■ cn in ©-^t on Tt cn ro —- so so r-Tt  —
"3 £
CN O ro O sO ro
s©
in o so in
3C
sO © © ro ro so CN
r^
sOOOTtNOsOrooosOTtTtsOOrocN—inooONONroroin   Os
<
>'S
CN m © © CN O
W"
Tt ro ON O*
sO
Tt in — cn — r~~ oo
©
t~~
ONTtoooNCNr^Ttoo©oo — ONsorooooN — — in © © ro  rN
■>■ •* ro O in r—
t--
CN CN O t-
r^
Tt — — OO © ro Tt
T
r-
— 0©C>C^©OsOoOroinsCror----r----sO — ONinoOsOON   o
<D  3
o t~~ — — — o
ir
■fl-oonoc
T
sO^ OO © © CN sO SO
©
T
cNTt©©cN©r^ro©r^r^©cc©TtcNr^ininTtTtcN   ^i
CQ
a^
ro Tt © Os os ro
Oy
cn" ©" r-" r^
00
CO ON Tt OO CN CN sC
t>
IT
r~S rn r-" cn" cn ro" -rr o" —" ©" ro" so oo" cn" cn" so" o" <n cc r-' r-T so" --
in r^ so -rr cn —
r-
sO O sO sC
Os
ro — — CN Tf © CN
sO
NO
—         CN — ON — —'rOCNCN        CNCNCN — — CNTt—                 t~-
b
O
cd
CN
CN
CN
IT
T*
s
<*
_
<
s
"8$
p-
*g VO o\ «"- "rt o
JM so m vc so r-
O so        so
~" CC        Os
in     —
co in
sO
SO
©                                 ^1
NO        -tCsHO^sD
OO"    1    so C~~ sO rr-t NO
©                in
sO © ^ w
©■•vt         ^©CNOO^ — ©sOONCNinCNr^ONO — ON — On
soso   j ^sOr^sOf^r-r-sOsOsOsOi^sOiot^rvsOsOsO
OS Os     1   ^CT'©0^sO©vTs©©©ONC7NC^ONOsO^ONO^ON
S 3
UO     1    © © © vc ©
Q V5
© ©
Os        — ~ — „" ~
— —          ^ — — — cts" _ — _ — — — — _ — _ _ —M —*
tn
~*                             ©
©
~          -
©
rt
z
D
x.
?7~
c
rt
o
4.
r
1
C
0
1
^
u
u
%     T.
©
d
rn
>
c
4>     :
Cj
s
u
o
3   U.S   C
d
ce
a
=
c
c
, C
>
3
g
C
1
0
s
u
D.
%   c
c
CU
Si
d «;
a*
3
r
i5
4>
Q. a-
3  c
CJ CE
C
c «
=bsJ
coco 2
«
c
C
C
V
&
~J^
■J-
a
1
1
C
"3
c
H
i
O  rt  i>   jj
<D > X>   c
n      o e
8CQ03U
c
c
5
•a
CU
. O  rt
£d
o
13 cr
SI
c
■Ss
o 5
si
o
M  C
CJ    u.
<u re
2 0.
t
a.
c
OJ
3
0.
c
c
c
rt
tJ    Cs
c
T
: **■     :
rt S   o
l. cn —   ["■
fi) ~    M
*> 1
rt                              «
3
>                            >
5
a.
CU
X
C
Q-                                                                                         Q
N
 53
ovOvo©inmp-©cNTt  in
sooNCNmrNoooovooNaN  r—
sOvOvO — Tt OO m ro OO ro    so
r->" cc" oo" oc" cc —" cn" co —•' r-" oo
TtsOTt      cc©© — ©inro
— ro ro ro CN —   so
CNNO©TtCNTt— inTtro — — Os Os —'OOCNTtm wn
rOONON©©TtTtCNroONrO"stinOTtrocN©ro so
cNONinincnooro©cNsO[^ONcc —■ cc on m —^t  -h
CO "t oo 00 t — ro — Ttr^-ONrOTtr- w«   On
©TtooTtr^oo© — minrNsOTtm vo  ©
TtvOTtP-OOCNOsroOrOTtinP^Tt CN^  ^
ro"—"oo"©"cn"on cn"in in nop-" — in p— "<r  oo
ro —^r--rocCsni^-so©sO©TtTtco ON   fN
cn — —• v* r-
Tt©ro©roCNTt©©CN tj
CNoo©©oor^TtP^ooco on
ro © © © in © in oo so "* ir>
o'm'oN ©"©"cn'oo"©"—"so" tj
Tt©TtTt©ONTt^tr-CO 00
— CN CN ro ro CN — 00
r- ro r- ro |sooocN©©Ttsooor^so©so©oi/i
r^roTt© I   soCN — TtCNinrooorosOCNOONO©   P-
r^ooroin Tti^r-—©©tNcNONCNroTtccrN  00
o" ©" m" on Tt" © —" cc" r-* so" ro" cn" on cn" ©" Tt" Tt ro   vT
TtONOOrO — ON — ON CN r- ON CN — ro — — (^- ©   tt
— _         __         _               (N-         -MfSNCj
rf
Tt©TtrosO©i>-TtCNror^ro©NC On   ro
r--in — r-"OocN©inro — 't — on© no  -*
r^ C> © — CN ro — ©in On ©Tt Tt,^ WJ,  «A
ro" p-T —" r-" CN CN CN —" oo" ro' CN © —i — iti   CN
■      -OvOoOOOCNTtTtinOt^sOvO m   ro
CN-
- rj -
NO     NO
somcosocNONrosoooco
mTtr-ONTtONOooNONON
r--ONr^ONCN©cccNso©
in" CN oc" so" © On cn" ro" o" no"
CN ON sO O OO r-CN t^ ON P-
co — — co Tt r-oc^n r-
—' in"      —'cNCN'ro"
©ccinrocNTtTtosoror-ro — cnr^©cnTtso on
oocncNr^ — — cnoooNCCinr^inrocNin — com fN
so^cNON — TtTtoo^oN—< oo © no on Tt — oo >n m ro ro
Tt" so" so" cn" —i oc —i in" in" ©' V"T ro r-" (-» ro" on cn" ©' cc cn
oooocNsocNONin©ONinoNOOcNinOTtr--ccco on
cninro — ro(Nroooro©cN©coincNP^ooONoo v>
Or-ONOO©sop^ro-^-p^r-CNooro rH ©
CNCNsorOCNoooOTtinrt©sOrv|ON P» ©
© cn ro on^ on —. rf^ CN r^ CC Os 00 V~~ OC "rT^ t-^
os"t^ooP~-ONrorvir^[^ — r- r- co cn t~- wm
©r-TtON©TtCNCCCN — — — NO© CN ©
in P-^ t~- CN ro^ sO OO CN OC; ro © in CN On ON *H
—"     —"     CN—        — CO no
on n no on co so m-st t — ro
ONooooroosc — m © in ©
cNTtsor^oOTtrooOTtro Ty
ONCN ©"p~-"cN"TtTt"NO"ON"oo" NO
— ooinr-incN©roTto On
— — — cN->*inooinor- oo
— ro"       —"—"—."ro" ro"
ino©sOTtTtr-rot^roininininincN©Ttoo   ^
cor^^ro©inOsCroroCNOOOOONONO©ON©   °N
■■' ~       o©©inoNoincNroincocnrop--c^""
.■■ii^ONrng^o^nr^nooco^o^OONO —■
ro Os —i o © © cn on o in cn ro in ro in ro p-> © cc (N
so ©cn" ©"cn —-""rt cc" oo" in" p--" o" Tt" cnco'cN —' ro'sd t-
on so on in oo © in r~~ in—m^onosoocoooo "rf
TtTtrN — cNcc<NsorooocNTt©in — inr^r^© —
—'TtcnTtinooTtTt©cN©— oo—   on
CCsOoor-- — ©CN — ©©rOCCsDCN    CN
— — ©©ooo — mooosinoNTtro ©
—' no" cn" cn" oo" Tt" ro" P-" —" cn" —" —" on" o" ■tt"
©cNr^soin©soooro©sooinTt no
rvicNsocN©cnr^r^ON—iTtcor-Tt   tt
osr-OM>i>coi>o[^rv m
CC — P- »/1—h roooOro© ©
ro rt — oo CN CN cc ro ro in Vl
so" Tf" on" Tt" cn" Tt" cn" cn" — so" r--"
oocN"st©©in©Ttr--so ©
cn           no— socNinTtTtP-
—                    —           —" NO
© in ro ro P» Tt Tt oo — -<t ro © in P^ -* on o o r- Tf
ON OO CN CN — (OOO —fOsOO-stOO-stONsOn —i p-
— on —'corr, r-r-ccooTt©ONsoNoooON(NocN >n
so" © r—" on ©" -rt" P-" co cn" co" cn" Tt" in" cn" p^ ©" on" —" so* fN
TtNom — p^r^oororocnsooosop- — vo r-^ /- -- —
fsj_„H      —, rv|      cnt^icn —•      • ■• - ■
Ttl^r-^OOOOOsOOOsOrsKNOO- t* m
fJNCSi>OsOCO(Ni>C7NTt —i>cno tt r-
— in — p^cn — Tt© —> in t^ in cn cc no p-
—" oo" Tt" ©" ©" cn ©" oo" ©" co" cc" r--" — on no *m
ccsoroinoooo — rN©©-^-©r--r- cn tt
P^Tt — -^troinr^, in       ro — ro (N On ro
—i00rOTtCNCO00CNr--00 NO
© — ONcncN©©—'CNin j—
CNoC©OOcnrocn©ONsO On
oo" P-" ro" —" CN CN —" oc" ©" —" 00*"
inTtosso — ONr^oN©ro v>
Tt —      cn ro r^ © oo Tt cn no
— _' SO
— ooo^-ooNCCincNONCNCinTtocccNOro r-
— CNTt^P-inr-rocncNro — rorooo^-ON©0 no
ro — —^H O^COrr, in rt sOOfO-.ro©rOTtsD rS^
1 © ,2'on © in Tt cn o"in" — cn"cn"p— so*r-"©'on m
- . . . o"./ on so in t' rvf o" in" — cn cn" P-" so' r-" ©" o\  m
CN©CN^lONCNTt-0O — t^OMnQCTs — — ■ -   - -     -^
in ro o
CN Os -'
CN CN
k^_J   **   J   -~—   I,  ^J    I,  "^    l   —    ^^   ,     -    ^w.   ^,. -.  .
r-on in o © ro — Tt in oc oo
ro  ro Tt —  CN ro ro Tt "~
r^rs|TtrosOTtroror-(Nccsoin(N cn
©Tt©oNr^ooscinro©Ttr^ccin <N
©r^oooNTt©oot^-rocn — © — © ■-
—' Tf' P--' sO Tt" NO On" ON ro" — ON ^-' in —' P-^
— oncM^oNooor- oosoooTtco ©
— ro —      CN       — Tt ro ro — f-
©©©0©0©©©0 ©
Ttr^ro©©ccro©TtON O
voaNTtin —inroTtcNcc fN
sOvOrocoaNON — CNnCoO CO
no© — so — TtomoNp- <n
ON©©TtroONsO© —i — NO
©©©©©©©©©©© O© © O© O© <C2 ©
r oo Tt — © Tt so cn in [^ so © — ro — ro — p- r-
i^TtcNcncc — asror^cN©rocNroincNONsoin fi^
ro" ON no" cn" P-" Tt" vo" — ro" CN ©' ro" Tt" r-" CC ro" ©" —' —' rs
NOTtONoosocNCNON©cccNinTtr^in©Ttr^ro >n
Tt © r- ro^ Tt ©^ ro — r-w CN Tt CN ©^sO^CN CO © ro Tt rH
t Tt" — ro oo" so" ro" ©" ro' so" CN r-' — CN Tt so' r-" fN
Os" ON Tt" Tt — CO Oo" so" f
©©©©©©©©©©©©©©
fNro©inccr^oN©oP^inTtcNr~-
cnror--©rorosoooin©inTtONCc
©" cn" cn ©" on" r-' cn" ro" o" P* ro' ro' (N in"
r^r^cN' 'Oor^rorosooocNco —
O ■> fN rn CN sD — in©ONONTtCN©
—,      — I--
5 P    S
^.
cNONr^sooNrNNO — ©q
sDsOsOsOsOr^_-r-T^-sO
©ONOs©Os©sO©©vT-
ooosr-orNo —^oocnooor^T+r-rNrr-, ONOviin
vO sO ^O  P*- sC r—■ (^ sO sO r^ sO sC sO ^D sO sO ^D C"^ sC
ON On © Os © © ON ON CJs Os © ON © © © Os Os On On
cNTtONr^-ror^rooNONp-CNr^cnvo
sO sO in so sOsOsOsOsOsOsOsOsO.—
OnOOnONOsOsONOnONOnOnOnOnsO
rt   ^   q
„ «>!
o  oxj WJ g
2 S S co
ss--_
■- *- o J- H -i —
UUJZObS  -|
o.S   ■■■Zt-
:ocq §>rs3-
;c:E
p
: d ft
rt rt e
d
o
*£ B
c   rv <M    ±i
\~0  <a  ca  rt-S'O re   rt u.y.^ OX rt^x:  5  O-rt
!<<cofflpacDu^zzzzOa:75wi/iw>'
rt o . =
u n O
J=   £   C   O
Jxi o J »j
o a t^ «'-
,   i_ re oj oo
\f3E
x 6
oj  JJT3
2 o.'-c
a *
a,
*!
■cs
^1
 54
(U)
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALE BILLED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA,
1973 AND 1974 (IN CUNITS)
Vancouver  8,154,453.03 9,547,106.98 8,114,317.27 1,432,789.71
Prince Rupert (C.)   1,527,211.33 2,009,909.98 1,730,047.20 279,862,.78
Totals, Coast   9,681,664.36 11,557,016.96 9,844,364.47 1,712,652.49
Prince Rupert (I.)   1,112,732.74 1,820,355.26 1,464.852.25 355,503.01
PrinceGeorge'    3,285,187.44 4,010,602.51 3,886,380.18 124,222.33
Cariboo2   362,442.00 1,848,875.13 1,775,544.91 73,330.22
Kamloops'   2,593,483.31 2,957,948.08 2,216,576.88 741,371.20
Nelson   1,787,781.85 2,573,783.21 2,031,401.62 542,381.59
Totals, Interior   9,141,627.34 13,211,564.19 11,374,755.84 1,836,808.35
Grand Totals   18,823,291.70 24,768,581.15 21,219,120.31 3,549,460.84
' Includes Cariboo District in previous years.
2 Reported by Kamloops and Prince George Districts in previous years.
(12)
SPECIES CUT, ALL PRODUCTS  (IN CUNITS)
Forest District
Cedar
Spruce
Lodgepole
Pine
Balsam
White
Pine
Vancouver   1,462,322.69 1,748,965.79    110,956.29        5,437.48 3,038,986.39 1,465,943.41 44,550.76
Prince Rupert (C.)        34,366.11    304,155.68    305,191.25           908.58 830,055.16    197,716.09 129.18
Totals, Coast     1,496,688.80 2,053,121.47    416,147.54        6,346.06 3,869,041.55 1,663.659.50 44,679.94
Prince Rupert (Int.)                  .48      72,413.74    331,878.27    369,836.69 406,468.99    228,727.97 14,787.20
PrinceGeorge        90,105.07      24,338.012,087,707.96 1,287,621.01 9,603.88    331,281.92 4.15
Cariboo      482,742.48      10,647.99    550,460.75    614,093.97 1,679.11     110,148.47
Kamloops      582,111.52    168,714.74    611,249.97    365,328.26 127,401.89    250,803.04 25,040.03
Nelson      220,697.53    283,580.52    528,151.75    331,876.52 290,604.43    220,168.44 35,614.57
Totals, Interior  1,375,657.08    559,695.00 4,109,448.70 2,968,756.45 835,758.301,141,129.84 75,445.95
Grant Totals  2,872,345.88 2,612,816.47 4,525,596.24 2,975,102.51 4,704,799.85 2,804,789.34 120,125.89
Forest District
Yellow
Pine
Cypress
Larch
Hardwood
Cottonwood
Unspecified
Total
Vancouver            205.34 176,245.21 23,804.34 26,785.63
Prince Rupert (C.)                  .14 19,276.32 758.47 36,922.78
Totals, Coast            205.48 195,521.53 —      24,562.81 63,708.41
Prince Rupert (Int.)   .54 7,174.99 33,561.77
Prince George   .87      32,728.08 18,791.50
Cariboo            380.71 840.21 104.23
Kamloops   43,829.71 39.57 21,331.79        8,242.80 4,058.87
Nelson   10,044.77 97,802.17 184.10 4,021.89
Totals, Interior    54,255.19 40.11 119,134.83      49,170.18 60,538.26
Grand Totals   54,460.67 195,561.64 119,134.83      73,732.99 124,246.67
10,113.94     8,114,317.27
567.44      1,730,047.20
10,681.38     9,844,364.47
1.61
4,197.73
4,446.99
8,424.69
8,654.93
25,725.95
36,407.33
1,464,852.25
3,886,380.18
1,775,544.91
2,216,576.88
2,031,401.62
11,374,755.84
21,219,120.31
 55
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS BILLED IN 1974 (IN CUNITS) (SEGREGATED BY
(13)
LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
Prince
Prince
Prince
George
Land Status
Vancouver
Rupert
Rupert
Cariboo
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
(Coast)
(Interior)
Timber Licences ...
1,783,625.95
399,417.50
_
41,734.47
__
82,701.63
26,035.58  2,333,515.13
Timber Berths 	
130,567.48
—
—
—
—
90,742.94
78,753.60     300,064.02
Timber Leases 	
213,537.68
—
—
—
—
—
—     213,537.68
Pulp Leases 	
280,385.19
50,521.94
—
—
—
330,907.13
Pulp Licences 	
36,413.03
110,339.07
—
—
—
—
146,752.10
Farm Wood-Lots  .
721.93
—
302.66
288.70
246.10
29.37
79.55          1,668.31
Timber Sales  	
470,787.58
172,629.56
240,923.48
1,648.779.10
608,401.10
569,500.65
373,676.79  4,084,698.26
Harvesting
Licences 	
1,235,612.37
297,909.98
632,701.88
1,518,495.07
941,603.08
891,686.05
766,766.40  6,284,774.83
Tree-Farm
Licences 	
1,809,291.00
501,786.96
457,437.64
143,484.25
31,587.21
256,296.13
489,310.78  3,689,193.97
Beachcomb,
Trespass 	
158,463.70
24,320.53
191.76
—
—
—
182,975.99
Miscellaneous 	
8,763.65
—
664.83
299,972.93
63,149.33
35,595.70
20,135.86     428,282.30
Sub-Totals,
Crown Lands 	
6,128,169.56
1,556,925.54
1,332,222.25
3,652,754.52
1,644,986.82
1,926,552.47
1,754,758.5617,996,369.72
Federal Lands  	
41,959.85
43,954.11
985.66
38,024.35
900.95
21,723.24
2,395.81      149,943.97
Crown Lands
to 1887 	
1,509,250.73
3,579.98
303.68
1,144.39
68,183.43
23,586.27   1,606,048.48
Crown Lands
1887-1906 	
85,982.73
93,373.35
924.74
378.72
11.650.85
16,647.05
94,523.46     303,480.90
Crown Grants
1906-1914 	
58,157.93
13 997 88
13 701 80
21 614 88
13 895 43
57,018.26
22,160.73     200,546.91
Crown Grants
290,796.47
18,216 34
117017 80
173,304 03
102 966.47
126,452.43
133,976.79     962,730.33
Totals 	
8,114,317.27
1,730,047.20
1,464,852.25
3,886,380.18
1,775,544.91
2,216,576.88
2,031,401.6221,219,120.31
(13a)
ACREAGE LOGGED 1974
Forest
Clear
Selective
District
Cutting
Cutting
Total
Vancouver 	
                              62,883
3,636
66,519
Prince Rupert 	
                              47,066
2,029
49,095
Prince George  	
                              97,200
89
97,289
Cariboo 	
                              34,861
19,317
54.1 78
Kamloops 	
                              32,511
13,669
46.180
Nelson 	
                              42,161
5,748
47,909
Totals, 1974 	
                            316,682
44,488
361,170
Totals, 1973 	
                            368,792
59,121
427,913
Totals, 1972 	
                            328,553
48,005
376,558
Totals, 1971 	
                            334,994
73,039
408,033
 56
co
H
P
w
-J
aa
<
O
►J
►J
<
<
P
z
z
<
Q
o
sa
c-
<
OS
u
Q
z
B
Z
H
OS
W
a.
O
C/3
W
OS
u
<
o
as
u
oa
2
P
z
o o
fi
3D
3'?.
ii
lb O
I*
z*
o <3
11
11
3 H
•IS
2
Bit
— ©rocN — -^-©sO — 00
cn©OroCNin©oO©ro
ON ^D <o » x ■st in n no vn
— TtroroinTtcjOTtsOsO
©ONTtrooocOONONCNro
moo-~~^r~~oorfr~~rf-rf
rrr--©r-ONCN©[^ONi>-
Ttro©©©©©mfN —
©CNCC©OOsO©Ttr^CN
—" so" p-" in" oo" —" oo' cn —" r-*
cccocNTtmONONTt — in
t^irn-v-T) —r^sD^f —o
cccNCNcncnoorop-oocc
r^rocNsocnr-cNin©cc
on so in — — ro^ in r— — cn
co" CN* CN* —' —* —' CN" —" —" o"
cn m — Ttooro — t~- — —
sor~~cN©©Tto —im —
© — TtcnTtinTtTtcccN
CN!^- ©Tt — ONt^TtTt
cnTtininTtroP^cNsocN
rororOrororocNro(NCN
CNCN — ror~-ON©00"^-fO
incnocNO — roos©©
rt — os — cNroinsOTtin
ON CN "*" so" ON P"» CC P-" NO" ON
O — — © © no ro CN CN in
r^r-r^oooooooooooooo
t^ONTtr--©mcNTto©
r^c^oocoONinP^P^©ro
cn cn o\ no in — f- Tt ro^ in
so" ro* r-* ©" so* Tt* in* cn* r-'os'
ONroroP-O — Tt — P-©
r-- so © r- cc cn on in Tt in
oo" on* on on on* o* os o" ©' ©*
msor-oooN© — cNroTt
sOsOsOsOsCr^t^t^t^t^
ON Os O^ ON Os On On ON On Os
— rt
B-S
■3 g
UJ<
 57
Tt oo no — ro © ro in — t~~   ©
on in in © cn on cn p^ cn cn  oo
M   (rt
cnON-ONcNooo —r- —   nc
O 3
ro" r-" so'cc"cc © fN r-" P--" cc" rr
— — (N—cninvofNooso  vi
O©roccror^ror--cio—   ©
HO
—' o" —* cn'cn ro in" cn" on' r-" tj
T
1/1
VO
ov
■ti
©P-CNoO©rocn©ONON   no
VI
rNsO-^©TtTt — oo-o©   tj
4>
.sa
2'3
33
0
ON Tt Tt^ sO^ Tt ON — r^ sO —   *■
Ttosininoooor^roONoo  o«
3
P- © ON O OO CN T~~ OO OO CN    ON
Cfl
u
oo Tp ro © cn "st so Tt no r-   f
H
so" so" no" P-* P-* CC ON o" CN ©"   CK
P
">TJ
— —. —
sJ
33
fo
s-
1-°
CD sO vO M^-CO OO OO O O    00
i-l
ft.
P^P^P-P-P-P-p^P^OOOO    P-
CO
<
£
13
o
fo
o
mOiOtNM^MO'th    ^
*C
© r^ oo on o ro r-~ in r-so  no
•o
— sOr^CCTtrorO©(NsO    C
fo
8
3
u
CN—"ro" cn'cn"—cn'cn" ro"—   fN
1
is
p
rt
ft
—i P- so ro ro cn in cn on t~~   cn
Z
z
CnTtTtTtTtTtTtTtrOrO      TJ
<
Other
Sources 2
(Number
of Trees)
rooo — OO — sOCN©r^CC   ON
D
w
Ttr^roos©© — cNooin  no
sOco©rocCTtr^r- — ro   r*
r^"oN"Tt'ro'p-'-^"cc"os"©"co   t-
>
o
©coin — — Tt ocstONsO   oo
6
v
CNCNTtTtroro        CNCNCN    CS
OS
ft.
H
ft.
rt
NO oo © ro t O ro — P^P^   (N
P^ONrot^TtcnsooONOin   nc
<
E
cCc--ONro^O©ininroo   V
J3
on" Tt — on* ©* — ©' ©' ©" —■" r>
as
©ONTtONp^CCP^ONOOCC   ■-
£
c
Zo
inTtmTtTtcoroCNCNCN    TT
Q
Z
U
u
fti
£ .O
p
CNP- —o-stnoNr-TfTj-   p-
inTtininTtror-cNvocN  —
Q
w
Z
rorororocorocNro CNCN   C*-
H
-<
•ft
t~~r~-ro©cn©©©0©   fl
OS
w
r^ooooTtsooNsooNr-©  v
n
'3
oo in o r-■* tt t - © ©  tj
fo
B
3
in © ro in vO ro" OO* P-" ON* ro" f">
fo
O
ii
u
ONinroinr^oo — TtcNro  p-
at
•2
roTtTtsoinroTtTtinTt   TJ
_o
<
6
H
— CN — — OCNroCNCNCN   (N
O
§
5 v
I*
OS
rorororororororororo   C
<
E
S
roTtoo — inTtccmoom  c
a
u
V)
CNcosOsOroCNr^inrocc   fN
c
o
I
♦J
vocn_ccsooncooo — oo© r-
os
a
O   SO' CO   Tt   O' CN" Tt" Tt" Tt   "*'    C
3
■rrinoNinoNTtsoossoo   oc
fo
3
u
r-© Tt — ©ONCNr^roO   e>
cn
g
ro" Tt" Tt" in" Tt" Tt* in* Tt* so" so" ■"J
I
H
U
P
g
tA  «
UJ    i
C  cu
s ^
Q
O
OS
^
O 0O SO  so  u-i-st  Tf  Tj Tf Tf     NC
y ~
H
Ttrororocorororocoro   C
s |
CU
foS £>
i-l
CU —
i-l
£ E
<
fo
o
fo
fo
<:
u
cfl
fo
Tt
O  rt
.5 ?> d
•o in ^
CU  "^   o
«s-s
n.v-1 o
t-
u,   W  3
<
sC
c u o
E — tu
O
Ov
rt  ^ <L*
**T   rt  w
H
«
CD
w £ «
6          H —: ra
"■c E
•1 utj
9
fo
—s
3-§_
u— 3
•rs
>
cnsor-oooNO — CNrOTt     '
x ^ o
sOsDsOvOsOi>i>r-r-r~~    c
OnOnOnOn©©OnOnOnON    ,°*
UJ J= r-
 58
(16)
LOGGING INSPECTIONS, 1974
Forest District
Type of Tenure Operated
Timber
Sale
Licences
Cutting
Permits
(Tree-farm
Leases,
Licences,
Licences,
Farm
Crown
Wood-lot
Grants,
Licences,
and
and
Other
Timber Sale
Tenures
Harvesting
Licences)
Total
Number of Inspections Made
Timber
Sale
Licences
and
Cutting
Permits
Other
Tenures
Total
Vancouver  814 412 1,853 3,079 2,607 1,813 4,420
Prince Rupert   172 330 970 1,472 2,406 1,914 4,320
PrinceGeorge   266 839 1,100 2,205 3,725 1,571 5,296
Cariboo  110 356 1,432 1,898 1,741 801 2,542
Kamloops    170 505 549 1,224 1,537 1,800 3,337
Nelson   156 329 743 1,238 2,047 1,721 3,768
Totals, 1974   1,698 2,771 6,647 11,116 14,063 9,620 23,683
Totals, 1973   1,772 2,457 5,758 9,987 16,063 10,431 26,494
Totals, 1972   1,821 2,162 5,593 9,576 16,158 8,974 25,132
Totals, 1971   2,163 1,609 6,602 10,374 15,374 10.037 25,411
Totals, 1970   2,881 1,272 6,230 10,383 16,080 10,112 26,192
Totals, 1969   3,511 876 7,358 11,945 17,518 8,682 26,200
Totals, 1968   4,719 (') 7,758 12,477 17,480 10,092 27,572
Totals, 1967   5,118 (') 7,431 12,549 17,663 9,488 27,151
Totals, 1966   5,566 (') 6,174 11,740 18,593 9,576 28,169
Totals, 1965   6,231 (') 6,514 12,745 17,869 6,365 24,234
Ten-year average, 1965-74   3,548 — 6,606 11,269 16,686 9,338 26,024
' Figures not available prior to 1969.
 59
o.
cfl*
fo
Cfl
Cfl
<
fo
Cfl
fo
OS
fo
K
<A  O
4-9
        73              285           4,791                             2,028                19         28,107                               —              4                154,816.34
>ert         37               110           2,312                —              30                                    —                —           —               1                  25,123.53
rge          39              231           4,603                                                                          —                —           —            —                 50,230.19
        44              400           8,735                                                                          —                —                            —                135,862.36
        53              723           4,884                                    1                                   350              110                              1                  52,950.36
        34              223           7,466                                                    400                                  853                              1                139,654.18
1974        280           1,972         32,791                —         2,059              419         28.457              963            —              7                588,636.96
1973        377           2.868         65,942                                292                             41,779           1,755            36              7             1.135,332.95
1972        322           2,377         50,881                                  29              160                —              704            74              3               479,300.53
1971         321           2.636         58,046         20,327              53           6,839         23,412              900            29              6                270,451.85
1970        380           3,545         60,958         23,093              70           2,800         34,759                —              4              8               248,468.40
1969        399           2.595         47,251           6,220              56         22,526        124,464           2,373              4             17               371,964.95
1968        378           2.229         30,679         34,013            778           4,127          13,234         29,976          141               6                260,438.20
1967        319            1,724         27,859           9,365         2,910           3.934         49.635              176              6               I                184,724.80
1966        435           2,921          41,850         64,535              37          11,001        121,604           1.990          405              5                272,439.56
1965        436           4,517         40,938         93,546            118          13,204         25,290                75          580              5                239,156.97
verage, 1965-74       365           2,738         45,719         25,110           640           6,501         46,263           3,891          128              6               405,091.52
Number
of Resulting
Seizures
3
U
trt
1
3
©
es
fa J
11
SJ(0
lag
6BH
Cfl
u
a
11
3*
t/j
c
3
u
Area
Cut
Over
(Acres)
Is"
s
5
(A
4>
h
0
£ jiy* f H  n  P"        rtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrt    l-
3 «. *. o o e   oooooooooo   £
ccc-;^                                                   ■
rt"i_ E  rt ra u                                                       S
 60
(IS)
AREAS CRUISED FOR TIMBER SALES AND TIMBER SALE
HARVESTING LICENCE CUTTING PERMITS, 1974
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Logs
(Cunits)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cordwood
(Cords)
Car Stakes,
Posts,
Shakes,
Etc. (No.)
Vancouver   361 40,503 2,196,053
Prince Rupert    156 41,834 2,123,164
Prince George   216 130,533 3,542,731
Cariboo   9 13,094 61,828
Kamloops   194 116,956 1,827,893
Nelson  :  118 49,819 1,544,611
Totals, 1974   1,054 392,739 11,296,280
Totals, 1973   1,049 489,345 11,176,582
Totals, 1972   1,049 468,001 15,152,503
Totals, 1971    427 112,668 2,369,910
Totals, 1970   622 193,737 4,687,620
Totals, 1969   732 233,491 4,451,260
Totals, 1968   890 314,595 6,738,850
Totals, 1967   848 310,325 5,498,070
Totals, 1966   998 361,021 6,794,860
Totals, 1965   1,357 495,254 9,519,950
Ten-year average, 1965-74   903 337,218 7,768,588
10,000
10,000
2,461,100
1,622,192
9,500
61,400
15,300
3,269,400
6,014,850
3,674,100
2,650,400
1,978,824
(,052
1,000
9,052
11,995
7,104
2,520
5,277
13,392
6,769
12,352
25,675
7,616
10,175
542,200
10,000
160,400
712,600
173,602
721,045
51,650
225,850
2,910,012
704,950
319,450
837,244
937,100
764,350
 61
■gfi
Ttinrnp-r-in ro © p-- — © in cn r- on —  v
CC CN P- P^ © On  nOnO — © — sOONrONOco   sfi
2 c
Eg
ro — oo ©' no so' c^cNodsdinoo — in cn od   rr
r^TtcNcNCNcc r^©inTtininr-p^p 1  fN
— co no cn © ©  mrvicnoNTfrv —sooco   i/"
+j   V
—' ON* ©" in" Tf" co" On — — © Tt —' ro Os so t~~    V
S*
o m r- © in © ocsiTtoNscooNi>sor~-  nc
© ro ro r- cc oo  — in Tt m —« © fN vo — no^ v
— oo" — Tt" no" no" On" in on" Tf" © — Tt ro" Tt" co*  f
CN         CN- —i          OOr-ONin — COCN — — CNV
0   U   M —   M
1    ion — oo©ccsot^©inininTtccccp-
1   r- —' P^ ©  sO OO (N sD CN CO P- OO ON cn   r-
cnoncnon  rotn©cccNsoccincNso  C
cn" od —* Tt  P-* no" — so" Tt" Tt" oo" cn ro Tt" e
ro —i —' —  p^ — in                     —      —  tj
CN
©©©    1     |©©©cN©OTfin©©©rr
*I1
©Tf©|        l©Tf©I--©CCTtCNCOOONO(N
©rOTt               —   OO OO to if OO sD — ON n OO    X
o o 2
ro'so*—           r^ r-"on"© Tf*uo"ro"Tf"©"© ©" CJ
ZU£
— —cn           [^CNso«nTtccoorN — r-- Tf   o*
— —                   ro Tt r^- — ro «n Tt fN       mTf
Cfl
fo
IM          w
1©    1©    j     1    OOOOOOvDiOOO   f
U
O u.  >i
1©   1©   1    1   ©inino©©© — in©p-
so      ©            socccN^Ttr^in©in©cNcN
Z
fo
■ an
SOS
Tt"      —"               in" so* CN* —■' ©"Tt"P^P-"ro ro*  r^
p-                   —  ^
U
fo
^ i
rj
°jb 6,"
1   ©    j     j     1     |    ©©©ro©|©©©©C
1 ©   1              l©m©ON©l©msj5msc
z
fo
cfl
in                      in©iOTfin      ro r^ p- —  sc
fo
r- Tt © m m oc  ON<jsfNON©ooosNOooso  •—
;>
©rorocNvOCN   OCCNoorocNinsO — rose   r-
OS -t
ESS
o' O
co in — Tt Tt cc  ©
SO*                     CNCN*   rv
CN ON
CC oc
oo in oo o cc m^ r^ r>
p-" on no' o' od — no* r*
*~
W Cfl*
o S
© f~-- nO © co in   — ONOCOOONONTt©ro©   O
ro cc Tt — Tt r-   on — rNmcN©inTtinrN  rs
fo fo
Pi*
0 o
SB*
on in cn so •■-1 ro  cc so — —• —. oo © in ro ©  nc
on" ro" cn" in os   ©" cn" in ©" P-" cn* ro" ©* Tf" od ti
Onl^O   CNCN©sO — —• — nooncn   nc
„             —   rorocNCNroCNCN —i — Tf   CN
•d    y.
fo Cfl
!.5£
! roinr^tnTt   TtcN©rocNsor-©©ro  —
85
C-cfl
w
S o
1 ooonONP-   on — — —■ cn © r-- Tf [^ so  o
OOcn^ONCC    ^D^DONsOrni^sONtr^—    V
Jr S
—"in ©*ro"©* cNONTt©r-rocncc"cN©" i/
5*3
Cj*    w
Tf       r-Ttro©P~-©ooooro©cNin©ro
—                inr^ccr- — i—■ —> omosONC
^
on co Tt — so so   TtTtooinmso©so — p—  e
P-TtONTt*n©   CNNOTfroso©r--CNTt —   fN
Sfo
OS ><
Sf'e
Ost^-Tf — ro©   "v- on cm >/i r^ — !/ionS nd   ti
9 5
cn m" in oo* ro p-   cn — in©so — r^ — — Tt  l—■
s
©sOt^-OOrOTt   —in — ©sOCNsCroooON   nc
fo «
CJ W
r^sorooooON   no ro oo —■ ro^ Tt oo cn cn in  *-
—T—"rvTrN—         ©*—"cNTf'(N'ro"ro'Tt*ro*in   P-
V
£°
00
— cnsOQoooo   r^rN©r^-cNsocN — in©  c*~
rt
On © — (Nlfspv   On P- CC © ro — tN — ten   sc
foOS
fo <
u
ro so ro in — r—   r-ni>0\0 — ©©©cc   ti
o
Tt"oN"so"fNTt"ro" o*cc in*©"oo"ro"rNCvf od Tt  oc
<
criCiXsOI^O   CN©ONrorOOO — TfOOO   V)
a
z
—.—. — —   r-CNsOin — — CN CN CN ro   Tt
°.s*s
6 tj C
<
— _ —            sDiX^CTi
cfl
fo
(t-l
fo
o|
© — cn in on so  roocN — osr^ — ossOTf  oo
<
Cfl
6*rt
rO©OOTtOssO    CN — ©ONOsCNTtTtCN—   ON
cNCNrNfNinrN   cccn©© — oocn — — so fN
OS
fo
SO
§
fo
o
s
ES
tu
0
TT
t-
VC
Os
<^
v.
v=
Su"
"vNJ
■s
s.
Tf ro cn — © on oo r-so m   J
r-r-r--r-r-sOsOsDsDsD   ■
r- v
ON©ON©ONONONONONON       J
1
&J
S3 tf
p-o
t£ <A vi eo eo" crt" c«  cfl  yi* trt    cs
¥ 3 X   ■ a.
rtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrt   «_
6.
3          99c   oooooooooo?
SSS^oHhhHhHhhhH   S
c s S"c: E J2                                        i
1
OS
n £,*{, cd A u                                                            a.
3
 62
fo
fo
<
cfl
CS
UJ
5
fo
fo
fo
<
fo
fo
t/1
o
0
(A
r>
fo
fo
?
fo
os
fo
a.
z
fo
fo
z
05
fo
fo
fo
fo
w
fo
-T
u
»
z
u
•
tn
fo OS
fo fo
OS
D
fo
Cfl
D
w
Qfo
Cfl
fo
Cfl
Cfl
*-
w
Cfl
OS H
o
fo
fo <
Cfl
a
z
<
05
fo
CO
IS.
fo
s
fo
fo
w O
fo
7
Cfl
<
>«
rfl
CU
fo
Cfl
fo
W Z
U fo
OS
fo
fo
fo
w o
o z
<
fo
fo
Cfl
fo
fo>
fo 05
[fl
<
fo
X
o
<
OS
w
i>
<
U
©
©  ©  ©  ©
©
a a.t;
Tf
.§« a
CN
Tf
CN
sO^txr-
u on 3
*|o
©
CN
© © ©
a
05
ro
—
'".   " .
—
CN
.§ Ss'I
£&5
OO
«n
CO
cn so Ov
Tr
CN
OC   ON
CN
Tf
©
CN  Tf
© in
©   ©
CN
IS
•n
Tf
NO
— oc
3 C
f-
ON
NO
SO  Tf
tvL
>z.
s6.-a
.9 u a
C OC 3
8 fa
■eg §
B.     (J
5j D.*J
°-gO
es
•r- 4> 5
E.S
3 B
u 003
a^gU
B.2
3 B
u.
c
♦*
a)
B
ft.
C
rt
X.
u
8h-a
3 a
15
_____   ^   ©
ON CN © © sC
CN CN — CO —
© © © © ©
© — OC — oc
—  ©' OC Tf  ©
© — .	
vO  ©
TT
CC sO
Os LT,
rOCN
""
CN
~~
m in Tf
Tf    Tf   Tf
cn r- cn
Ti
CN
ro OC
CN  —
a
er.
CO
© © © © ©      £
r~~ : — —
On ro © rO r—
so — © cn —
cn cn © r- oc
© oc r- Tt ro
in r- r— — in
r~T so' —* on* r--*
rN m, Tf cn ©
ro — r- wo rN
r- so
cn —
© o
~£   <±
vC CN — f(r
Tf sC — OC Tf
oc p- cn — r—
oc oc Ov uo p-
Os" Os" ro 0s nO
cn co r^, in p-
r- oc — ©
ro cn m cn
© © © ©
r- i/1 —' ro
© OC © vO
■.a
Ou2dJdPCC
o o o o c o
rt 'u "-"u "-"C rt
^^ c c
""84? ~__
OJ
'o
o,
CO
<
u£.b
■ga§
a-gO
o.ao    |
3 6
OJ
Dm
in
u
5
tu
©&«
C  Mi 3
a-go
05
a b
__
o
ca
-J
OJ
OjO.ti
cj oj c
C sUJ3
a-gu
os
■- u S
a. *%)
1.1
3 E
<u
B
I
OJ
Oti
■a
o
0J
oj 5.ti
y o> E      1
C M 3        !
OS
OJ      .-
CJ fo c
c-  r 3        j
a.   o
0J ^
E.1
3 B
OJ
S
u
OJ
g oj c
"■So
.Hfeg
ll
3 E
>3
S
a
0
u.
6     -
Tt os r- ov r-
ro Tf — sO rN
ro © Tt in —
°o "* —. **i cs
On m od ro r-"
oo r— cc ro Tf
<N ro © oc o
—' rs" cn" —"
- © _ — _,
r~~ co © — oo
m © © — os
m oc t- © ©
I     I     I I \°A
I     I     I
Tf  —
CN ro
t~- ©
CN © ro © -
sC Tf CN sC Tt
© CN p- CN sO
r— © © m in
— Ov" tt uo" r-
— Tf   sO  ©  OO
Tt oo r- Tf —
CN ©
(^ CC
— CN
. • o> o o c
• a u © 7: o
rt-— —■■— —■■—   cr  tr;  ij
> CL       Cu CL U-4 Z
 63
s
o
os
fo
o
fo
fo
<
u
cfl
OS
fo
s
z
OS
cfl gj
fo "
fo o
osz
r        T*
*" OS
22 P
QO
fo cfl
Cfl fo
O 05
fo fo
cfl fo
fo fo
w ,
fo fo
cfl U
>^
« y
w '-
fo OS
fo <
fo fo
OS ii
Cfl W
fo OS
U fo
5
fo
fo
o
<;
fo
S
fo
fo
Cfl
fo
O
<
05
fo
V
ojO."
sJ  OJ   C
fo 0O3
Oil
h
rt
rt
CL &U
3  C
i8
M
_>
OJ
u o.->
.y u c
C  CJ) 3
a-gu
05
o
E
u
a
111
1.1
3 E
is
OJ
fo
OJ
O <*■_«
u 00 3
a-gu
05
3
trt
1|1
a, &u
B.1
3 E
IS
u
.a » e
C  CJ) 3
a^gu
05
rt
■a
OJ
U
w , ■-
3 C
is
S
OJ
oj "..*;
C OC 3
OS
_rt
-0
3
O
Q
1*1
o. uu
II
3 C
li
u
'fo
S
OJ
o
tL
© CN © © © © ©
© so co r— r- © ©
On r^KooCON Os
— — — CN CN
: © r^ — — -
in r- © r- © r- ro
© © © oc © CC OO
ro" ro — in Tt Tf  ON
—      — («
P- CC Tf ro— CN «7
ro CN — © vO CN   CN
o\cn r- Tf cn in t*
Os © sC CO Tf Tf ON
OO ro CN rO ^- CN
CO — no
m so —
^CD-
CO © ©
ro_ o
CN co r-"
Tf r- oo
on so in
so so —
ro*so*
SO oo
C^Tt
°c © © © m © 00
nO ro in © —' O NO
CO CN ro sO OO Os ro
P"" in Tf CN Tf CN P-
fj-©©©© *J
vn — oo Tf — —   **>
«->_■_■ ^ - - ■«
&e
t/N
os m © cn oo Tf oo
oo Tt on cn in © on
ro CN ro CN — ©   ©
On vo P-
,-^P     -- r-
sc © © © in ©
CN vC in © O CN
so in ro —! in" ©
© on ro — oc oc on
Tf cn Tf cn oo in ©
cn       © — cn cn ro
Tf       cn* on" in" — N
Tf — Tf cn ro
O  oj   cu   £   O  C
o  o  u © 73  O
rt 'u. 'u rt rt oj
> ClD_U_-Z
OJ
"u
OJ
a
trt
<
OJ
o U c
fo CD 3
a-gU
05
t- 5. 3
0.     U
6_
3 E
is
o
OJ
a
trt
aj
0
OJ
OJ  &«
.2 « c
Ih UI 3
°-go
05
OJ        ■-
lis
0. aO
11
3 E
is
__
u
-J
OJ
oj 5.,-a
fo M 3
a-gu
05
Isl
E._i
3  C
IS
OJ
c
OJ
OJ
oj °-«
,yoc
fo  OC 3
a-go
05
&a5
B.-S
3 C
is
OJ
C
£
_-
*o
a
OJ
_o
■a
o
-J
OJ
u a-
fo  CC 3
fcgO
05
|s'l
CL aiJ
Ej_
3 C
is
c5
cU
0
-L
2 VI © © © © ON
~ cn m © ro r- —i
92 © ro —' Tt r-; ad
2 OO Tf CO oo oc ©
~Z in © so os © m
~ so so Tf © © r-
Isc-'dcvi^ *-'
-      .NCN- m
cn >n ro — r^ oo >©
© cn tj oo m r— oo
© CN — CO^ © sO ©_
■TN* ON* ©' OC P-* Tt* CN
© v~) Tf ro cn oo r~
2- ^>
t/"j
in —i r—
P- © ro
© ©
©*P-*
Tt ro
©©
Tt   —
©"   ©
5 —    P
ro Tt   r-
©   Tf     Tt
ON  CN     wt
'OOOOO   j.
pr-ioj —— — *
^ ro © — Tt — no
3N sO sO CO sO © ©
=£CN ro Tf" c^ ro'   £
~© oo -n Tt on t~-
'cc on Tf in — ^J
"oo r- in on © ro^
ro so' Tf ro Tf fO
—               MCI VI
. *- aj
: £ ao
fo  °- O
aJ 3 oj
>*Oo§-
E B B-C S «
s 'u 'C  cd  rd  U
> CLO-CJ^Z
 64
o j3
©    1     1     1     1     1     1    © ~ CN © — oo © P- ro Os   ro
in   1     1     1     1     1     1    inroinTfrocNoo©©—   ©
ON                                        On ©^ CN P- Tf ©_ CN co OO —   00
J3_3
NO                                             so" ro" ©' CN no' sO* ro" CO* On" cn"   00
Wffl
—                                    ~so©CNsoinroinr^osNC
— rooOOO — inroro   Vj
ro    1     1  ©    1     1     1    ro P- co cn —i ~ — p- cc co   no
3_
•ll
BJtfl
CN     1      t©     1      1      |     0O — ©CNTfin — CNrOP-fN
>n              NO^                    — © ro —: CN © © Tf On 00   ^-
—           ©                 oo" r-' —* ro* on no" on* Tt" no* cn" od"
—'          ©                r-- —^oocNP~-r-©©ON©ON
CN                                        CNCNCN-^-rosoroCNCNP^rO
Cfl
ro                                    ro" in" Tf Tf" Tf* m" Tt" ro" Tt" Tf" TlT
W
CJ
Z
53,2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1   1 1 1 1 IS 1 1 1 1 s
00                           --1
—'                              no"
NO
o
3
III
1    1    imcNi    ip-ini    1    i-i    I    i    1   in
II     IhVl    II    NOO    1           1  rf    |                  1    h
0
Z
fo
co
W
ON  ON                       ON  r--                              TJ"                                         ON
P-"               OOP-"                   cn"                           cnT
.1
©   1    1    1©   1    1   ©mr^cNroTt — r-ro-tp-
©1    I    1 ©   1    l©TtTfTtin©inr^©mov
>
05
<
—                    ©               —Oinr^-fNTtP-CNrOTtTt
M
—                    —               CN Tf—'       —* ro' CO* NO* CN Os   r*T
^18
6gH
1     1     1     1     1     lONONsOcnsOONTtrocnroinON
1 oo  oooo — m-too©ONCNoo  as
fo
<
Cfl
co  oc
P-" p~
© —
ONincNcnp-Tfro  oo
CN © on" ro" oo" in" oo* r—
©*sC
©  o tN-f rf-f r-oo m rf tt   on
CN   cNCNroTtTtTtTtTfTtTt   ro
aS
§
©1     1     |incNsOroONCNcn©cNCNCNoop-->rt
—    1     1     1—roCNOOCNCN — CN©Tf — — —   00
rt
03
£
—                      Os Os —    © © ro © P- — NO p-- in ©    00
P-                m* ©' ©* -^f* os' in* on so" ro* cn" co* Tf" ©' no'
ro©©   CNOOroccro©p^ooro©   -j
a
—   ro                          — — CN — tN   H
—    1     jro©Ttro—ONin©P-NO©©CC©Tr
•a
sol    1       *nm©r-NO — TfrNTt — — inp-ON
C-                  Ttror^rNrooOTfro©oor^inmTt
t_
Q
6
—                                    ro' P-* ro' in* Tt* r-' p-* cc* cn" Tf"  (-»*
Z
<
Cfl
M
0O    1           1   P-forvl   OONtOOOsOvsDsO—   vc
W
St *t
©1    1    Isop-msom — co©©©p-Ttp-so
«$
ro                  ooin©oocc©ro©ininooON©ro
fo
JS
Tf                ro p» ©" in" in* o* in* od ©" cn" p»" tt" cn" «n
<
p-      ro  — oooNp- — oo no © in ro  P-
—   CN — ror-Os(NCC — CN P-   »-»
cfl
aS
rt
—  —                — ro ro no oo *n  ro
j    1    1    1    |    1    1      1    1    | co ro — Tt «n tt on  -t
1
00
1        1        1        1        1        1        1           1        1        ION©ONSOON©inTP
•6
i
ONCN O00 CN CC —   r-t
r~- on © so ro in* oo" —
cn on in — oo o on   ro
fo
0
to
ON ©
CN Tf © p-—   rO
so" no" NO P--" ro"  i/f
ro*ON
o
ON©cn0O©P~-ON    Tt P- On CN © —"©OOrocO   fN
sOTtrNcNinsor-   T+osor-int^Tfinro—  o
OS
'a
Ovs_io —sqoopv   so — ©—■(Ninooror^cN   Tt
rt
3
cc © ro r^ oo on no  Tt c^ cn" in" Tt* oo" ro" ro" r-T in* o>
u
ONr-r-so-^-mro   in-ONro©TfTfONCNoo   tM
Q
so^Tfoo — vTst—  n-f cnoNOO —> — — cn  oo
—           ro" —* —* —* ©" cn" ©" on* on oo' r-" so* p-* r-* od"
rt
fo
— — —
fo
i-H
00
Q
Z
<
fo
0
o
05
S
rt
CQ
._!
s
a
M
H
u
fo
Tf
0
tu
rt u
NO
ON
6a
TfcocN      ©ONoor^socn   _*„
r- p- r- r' r- no © © © ©   £r
—  *-    4J
ONONONI^ONONONONONON       g
u-   fo   OH
oj oj ir
______ ON  ______  _-        ^
j_ cu a o
&  d   c$   rt   crt   ez
so  v
V3  vi    cQ
>c_c_0 -, e-
a re
3                     X^e    OOOOOOOOOO    E
8 u o 8-0-2 0  hhhhhhhhhh   Si,
<N
<N
c c e e-n e__                                        i
rt 'C 'C 'C rt rt oj                                                       4>
>Q-Q.CLsJ--Z                                                            H
 65
rt
O
z
>
o
Q5
fo
rt
X
H
rt
O
z
<
fo
fo
0
z
Cfl
rt
O
o
OS
fo
Q
o
o
ILi-
a
6-°a «oa
WW   u
oo
1
s
g
I/O
§
3
3
z
nated
t-hour
aily
acity,
B.F.
n
3
a
Esti
Eigh
D
Cap
M
10
i
3
Z
uS      13
■O ET3 o t;
2§£j
Z'S  E*
(
•§3.2
V  3        J.T
11 *£w
.2
E
WW   u
A
to
M
3
E
•rl
Z
a
is   "8 s
O
Numb
of
Attach
Barke
3   ££
E'SSa
rt
Crt
z <5
mated
t-hour
aily
acity,
B.F.
a-OS's
Ww    -
u
1
1
3
z
u
.13
0
OJ
0
U.
On—    I—    IrOTf — oocN©r^coinroONro
r-- r^ oo ©oo ro cop^cnco — ©p^ — Ttco no
oo cn co oo cn ~ cNinTtrooin© — Tt©  oo
CN P- P-. CN sO ro ©©rOTtOOQOCNCNroON   ON
—' Tt"co"co'ro — —"cNro'co'cN" fN
— Tt CN CN Tf CN    mmsOsOrNONCN©ONCO   TT
ro © CN Tf co nO   ONin©P^CN©rOTtCNP-   fN
— cn -t Tt in in ro ro ro ro Tt Tt  tt
i —— —   fN
1 © CN   ro©msO — roin-tsO©
— ©    Tt \C co © ro Tf©0CCNCN
cn  ONONOs©inscr^r^ococ
so so ro no © ro   Ttr^CNrocNTf^-Ttc^iTt   V",
oo — in Tf r^ ro  ©©r-Tt©ossOsocnTt   —
corocNCNCN — — — (N
~f-f rj o on i^- -OOi/iNfOh-sDrvf, —- oo
CN — cn Tt in ro CNCv]©TtroCNCOONCOsC ro
— rOrorOCNCNCN — — — —    fNI
ccosomcNin   sooNrvunotNtNi^os —■ ro
cc — ro © oo oo  ©cNTt — r^rocNinrNTf on
oo Tt ©^ ro^ cn in  in — oorosOTfoor^r^-so m
Os  — Tt ro Tf ro so" —" so" Tf* ro" ro" CN CN so' P-" </T
CN ro CN CN CN CN CN CN CN fN fN
cn © in r^ © ro  r-©ror- — TfcN — © —■  rN
ONOOrOsor^Tt    00 — O CN OO r^ © ro — On    00
_      _      —. —■   r-oosOsoooo^ONos~— oo
TfrocN — ©Osocr—som
r^r^-t--t~--t^-sososOsCsc
On On On Os Os Os CJs Os CJs ON
5a^ o o
o oj tu 2 c S
O   O   0 J- -S   0
c fi C'C E_2
rt 'C 'C  rt d  oj
>c___0_-Z
rtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrt
oooooooooo
hhhhhhHhhh
 66
(24)
EXPORT OF LOGS  (IN CUBIC FEET)
Species
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Ungraded
and
Lumber
Reject
Total
Exportable!
Exported
Under
Permits
Fir   55.72
Cedar    256.45
Spruce  ,   3,401.36
Hemlock   1,175.29
Balsam  	
Lodgepole Pine 	
Cypress   1,268.33
Hardwood 	
Cottonwood   2.93
Totals, 1974   6,160.08
Totals, 1973   1,547.29
Totals, 1972   7,170.96
Totals, 1971     28,743.15
Totals, 1970   32,223.51
Totals, 1969   5,988.29
Totals, 1968   36,195.62
Totals, 1967   20,213.74
Totals, 1966   16,251.72
Totals, 1965   5,592.04
Ten-year  average,   1965-74 16,008.64
1,182.11
1,296.90
15,642.23
5,745.91
119.91
7,839.91
79.38
31,906.35
6,379.71
23,086.45
60,941.92
76,299.24
30,313.47
44,828.35
68,868.00
45,537.90
17,943.67
40,610.50      152,722.48
9,637.57
7,399.15
23,751.94
47,709.91
1,160.63
60,958.13
4,924.10
155,541.43
32,746.90
67,532.09
168,170.90
308,001.74
172,708.17
201,117.53
214,992.39
146,668.99
59,744.62
6,839.43
9,584.03
16,423.46
6,834.56
4,088.45
23,244.25
83,962.11
50,402.81
26,956.46
34,954.73
28,218.74
14,401.05
28,948.66
10,875.40
8,952.50
42,795.53
54,631.11
6,839.43
1,280.54
70,066.37
9,584.03
5,006.41
210,031.32
47,508.46
101,877.95
281,100.22
500,486.60
259,412.74
309,097.96
339,028.86
236,677.35
97,681.38
238,290.28
7,548.46
6,801.99
23,275.36
39,064.02
5,517.13
1,062.47
17,108.91
9,312.64
3,576.54
113,267.52
32,679.96
30,058.46
46,304.25
134,557.34
106,553.49
162,651.30
114,189.13
73,488.20
64,589.26
87,833.89
3,326.94
2,150.51
19,520.17
15,567.09
1,322.30
218.07
52,957.46
271.39
1,429.87
96,763.80
14,828.50
71,819.49
234,795.97
365,929.26
152,859.25
146,446.66
224,839.73
163,189.15
33,092.12
150,456.39
1 Export privilege — Exported from lands Crown Granted prior to March 13, 1906
2Exported under permit from Crown lands and lands granted after March 12, 1906 under authority of Section 97 of the
"Forest Act"
(25)      EXPORTS FROM THE PROVINCE OF MINOR FOREST PRODUCTS
Forest District
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value
F.O.B.
Where Marketed
Canada
United
States
Other
Countries
Vancouver
Poles  Lin. Ft. 3,098,439 9,295,317.00
Piling  Lin. Ft. 52,188 156,564.00
Shakes  Pieces 2,514,774 502,954.80
Pulp Chips  Units 321,590 10,612,470.00
Prince Rupert
Poles  Pieces 51,074 3,365,213.00
Shakes  Squares 180 5,670.00
Shakes  Pieces 47,041 9,408.20
Posts  Pieces 1,775 3,728.00
Ties  Pieces 2,100 5,250.00
Prince George
Poles  Pieces 3,201 320,100.00
Posts  Pieces 17,683 27,287.00
Rails  Pieces 1,125 900.00
Shakes  Pieces 68,000 13,530.00
Cariboo
Christmas Trees  Pieces 18,512 27,405.44
Cedar Shakes  Bundles 1,815 12,705.00
Kamloops
Poles  Lin. Ft. 211,200 73,920.40
Christmas Trees  Pieces 35,483 30,160.55
Posts  Cords 20 900.00
Nelson
Poles & Piling  Lin. Ft. 1,463,862 59,046.00
Corral Rails  Lin. Ft. 136,953 4,109.00
Mine Timbers   Lin. Ft. 4,500 135.00
Pickets  Cords 35 325.00
Fence Posts  Cords 2,892 123,807.00
Christmas Trees  Pieces 604,176 598,134.00
Pulp Chips  Units 9,074 154,258.00
Total Value 1974   25,403,297.39
Total Value 1973   14,229,486.25
864,474      2,184,181
47,638 4,550
601,005      1,913,769
321,590
26,048
45
47,041
195
2,100
3,201
17,683
1,125
68,000
2,553
1,463,862
136,953
35
392
166,711
9,074
25,026
135
1,580
2,553
1,815
155,400 55,800
3,531 31,952
20
4,500
2,500
437,465
49,784
13,406
 67
(26)
TIMBER MARKS ISSUED, 1965-74
1965      1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
10-year
1974 Average,
1965-74
Old Crown grants   328 341 277
Crown grants, 1887-
1906   150 130 147
Crown grants, 1906-
1914   172 144 163
Section 58, Forest Act. 649 679 680
Stumpage reservations. 133 63 61
Pre-emptions   8 3 6
Timber berths   14 10 4
Indian reserves   24 27 11
Section 24, Forest Act. — 20 214
Timber sales   1,614 1,126 1,149
Special marks and
rights-of-way   153 117 95
Pulp leases   3 12 4
Pulp licences   — 4 1
Totals  3,248 2,676 2,812
Transfers and changes
of marks   740 908 593
328
361
220
197
280
328
258
292
173
159
82
109
120
150
139
136
190
203
111
126
144
188
171
161
805
781
540
524
561
828
749
680
48
48
19
7
8
9
12
41
9
13
10
4
2
6
1
6
1
11
6
2
I
I
1
5
24
30
14
12
12
24
20
20
347
502
418
384
346
362
285
288
1,241
1,327
1,199
991
1,002
1,510
1,823
1,298
101
143
89
115
114
90
74
109
5
2
—
—
2
1
1
3
1
2
1
—
2
—
—
1
3,273
3,582
2,709
2,471
2,594
3,497
3,534
3,040
773
554
686
548
583
506
364
626
(27)
NUMBER OF WEIGH-SCALES BY DISTRICT
Forest District
Number of Weigh Scales at December 31—
1965
1966
1967
1968      1969
1971
1972      1973
1974
Vancouver   1
Prince Rupert    1
Prince George   9
Cariboo 	
Kamloops   4
Nelson   1
Totals   16
12
3
40
5
8
21
17
4
55
5
10
27
19
20
81
4
16
31
20
20
91
6
20
37
26
22
111
6
20
42
33
29
130
25
44
14
27
30
148
11
35
47
18
35
37
183
20
36
50
16
36
36
194
10-year
Average
1965-74
7
18
32
5
23
20
105
(28)
GRAZING PERMITS ISSUED, 1974
Forest District
Number
of Permits
Issued
Number of Stock Permitted
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
AUM's
Use of
Crown Range
Kamloops  584 77,920 509 850 320,110
Nelson   358 19,216 719 12 81,706
Prince George   390 16,161 1,835 918 57,793
Cariboo   657 69,634 2,483 37 349,013
Vancouver   11 225 4 616
Totals, 1974   2,000 183,156 5,546 1,821 809.238
Totals, 1973   1,920 177,785 5,748 1,616 783,677
Totals, 1972   1,968 174,617 6,166 1,432 787,589
Totals, 1971    1,920 178,772 6,186 1,484 829,337
Totals, 1970   1,985 178,332 5,651 2,739 822,442
Totals, 1969   2,018 180,579 5,545 5,106 837,405
Totals, 1968   2,053 188,183 6,338 7,090 857,219
Totals, 1967   2,114 188,126 6,837 6,272 866,539
Totals, 1966   2,244 189,286 6,572 8,970
Totals, 1965   2,218 188,339 6,677 12,509
'A.U.M. (Animal Unit Month) is the equivalent of one mature cow for one month. Figure not available prior lo 1967.
 68
(29)                               FIRE OCCURRENCES BY MONTHS,   1974
Forest District
March
April
May        June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
—               1               8           38           36            92           121             34       1     331      12 9
Prince Rupert 	
Prince George 	
Kamloops  	
4              13           14           16            58            42               1      —     148       5.8
1                8          119           40             74            44             15              301      11.8
1               5             21          175         103           230            98           116       5     754     29.5
I               3               9          158         106          223             86            72        1     659     25.7
5               8             30           70           32           128            49            43              365     14.3
Totals 	
Per Cent 	
7            22             89         574         333          805          440          281        7 2,558   100.0
0.3           0.8             3.5        22.4        13.0         31.5          17.2          11.0      .3  100.0        —
Ten-Year Average 	
Per Cent 	
16            68           374         418         658           794           220            57        1  2,606        —
0.6            2.6            14 4         16 0        75 3          30 5            8.4            7.2            100.0        —
(30)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES
, 1974
_■
~
U
E
i.S
w
E —^
^£
i/>
§ B
a.Sf e
an
1)  Oil
■j,
3
O E
1= 1
Q.
EOJ'C
B
3 S
^i
H >
Forest District
O
?s"
E
S-o.2
O  DO
O 3
U
«*- 0
E
O   t/1   O)
T3
£
S*3
3
Xl
0 So
0.  M  3
ra o
■£->
ra'U
*
E E
31)
3
ss-
® r i 8?
_y.s
at
0
S
IS)
■E i ra
3=S
oaoi o
DO
E
ra
M S £
si §
M
c
OJ
fj
C
E
B
D
ra
o
H
U n
O.U.
Vancouver 	
26
60
22
98
6
	
I
77
6
34
1
331
12.9
Prince Rupert 	
21
27
6
21
10
1
I
30
1
28
2
148
5.8
74
44
15
27
38
II
2
49
9
26
6
301
11.8
Kamloops  	
183
92
67
158
22
3
12
45
30
140
2
754
29.5
Nelson 	
344
43
35
65
8
2
10
67
7
70
8
659
25.7
Cariboo 	
68
22
2
38
18
17
10
51
80
57
2
365
14.3
Totals 	
716
288
147
407
102
34
36
319
133
355
21
2,558
100.0
28.0
893
11.3
248
5.7
200
15.9
352
4.0
1 16
1.3
113
1.4
57
12.5
216
5.2
57
13.9
328
.8
26
100.0
2,606
Ten-year Average  	
Per Cent 	
34.3
9.5
7.7
13.5
4.4
4.3
2.2
8.3
2.2
12.6
1.0
100.0
(3D NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES FOR THE LAST TEN YEARS
Causes
1965  1966  1967
1968  1969  1970
1971
972      1973      1974    Total
Lightning   1,000
Recreational (Campers,
hunters, fishermen, etc.)    315
Railroads operating   89
Smokers   310
Brush-burning (not Railway
or Right-of-way clearing) .... 89
Range Burning   193
Road, Power, Telephone and
Pipe-line construction   89
Industrial operations
(logging, etc.)   223
Incendiary    24
Miscellaneous known causes ... 309
Unknown causes    44
Totals   2,685
374
958
708
646     1,803     1,327
583
716    8,925
230
170
281
288
455
464
131
121
179
188
238
374
302
246
501
211
175
309
188
136
267
338
218
431
288
147
407
2,479
1,995
3,523
156
149
128
138
65
53
133
128
146
191
129
105
70
59
145
78
102
34
1,163
1,128
101
93
34
52
30
50
44
38
36
567
164
14
292
36
248
42
348
54
126
23
193
14
206
19
313
21
255
70
432
27
205
70
303
14
189
77
277
13
224
99
462
20
319
133
355
21
2,159
571
3,284
264
1,967
3,216
1,647
2,318
4,003
2,898
1,903
2,863
2,558
26,058
 69
cfl
OJ
O
_■
as
so
C
Z
<
w
ss
Q
CC
Cfl
<
-J
U
09
W
OS
ooo'ii jsao
000'I $ pue
001$ U39/H13H
001$ «pun
ai
>
0
ssBU siqx «!
SOJIJ IBIOJ.
JO JU30 J3<J
1DU1SIQ UI
S3JIJ |C]OX
JO )U33 J3J
jaqtunf,!
in
ii
<
8
m
O
©
0
SSEO Stqx u!
S3JIJ IOOX
JO 1U33 J3<£
jaujsia ur
S3JIJ [ElOX
JO WO J3d
jsqtunjsi
u
<
©
o
SSBO SIU.XUI
S3JIJ [BJOX
JO 1U30 J3J
1DU1SIQ UI
S3JJJ i'biox
JO JU33 J3.J
asquint
CJ
<
V
■a
E
_
ssbo siux "1
S3JI j IEJOX
JO 1U33 J3J
13UJSIQ UI
S3jig ,i'biox
JO )U33 J3J
joqiunM
V
E
rt
0
H
30UIAOJJ UI
S3JIJ |B10X
JO 1U33 J3d
jaquinfsj
Forest District
Tf  CN     ©  Tf
2<^  — «n
ro —   ro "st
ro © OO in so ©
© — ro © in ©
cn — cn no cn ro
oo oo ro oo cn oo
ro r^ so oo — ro
IIII
— — — in (N —      <— oo  rf r-
P> Tf © oo OO ro
Tf p^ on (N —I Tt
— — CN CN —
r- © on so © cn
CN Tt P^ OO —
© r- — © oo Tf
Tf   O   CO   ON   Tf   Tf
cn so P- in — ©
no © cn p» so m
Tf so — ro in —
© oo in r— ro ©
rv]      — Tt Tt oi
— co — Tf ov in
ro Tf © in in ©
ro — ro P- so ro
I   I
cn cn  cn co
I I
00 O    .O O
£ B
ra 'i_
> a.
u. ra <u ra
HO-  HO.
 70
(33)
LOSS OF PROPERTY OTHER THAN FORESTS — 1974
Forest District
Forest
Products
Cut, Logs,
Lumber,
Etc.
Buildings
Railway,
Logging,
and
Sawmill
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of
Total
Vancouver   $    77,727
Prince Rupert   125,852
Prince George    4,868
Kamloops   4,124
Nelson   3,923
Cariboo   1,159
Totals   $ 217,653
Per cent   44.3
Ten-year Average 1965-74   $ 226,427
Per cent   38.3
$
139,650
1,100
140,750
28.6
142,214
24.1
43,120
15,984
1,720
3,900
64,724
13.2
154,217
26.1
$ 24,823
100
38,609
3,163
1,600
$ 68,295
13.9
$ 67,859
11.5
$
$ 285,320
141,836
4,968
45,553
7,086
6,659
S 491,422
100.0
$ 590,717
100.0
58.1
28.9
1.0
9.3
1.4
1.3
100.0
(34)
LOSS OF FOREST COVER CAUSED BY FOREST FIRES, 1974 — PART
Forest District
Merchantable Timber
Net Area
Killed
Total
Volume
Killed
Salvable
Volume
of Timber
Killed
Net
Stumpage
Loss
Immature Timber
Net Area
Killed
Present
Value
Acres      |   M Cu. Ft.   |   M Cu. Ft. $            |      Acres       | $
Vancouver   982 5,193 3,233 276,844 1,388 202,307
Prince Rupert   2,450 8,859 6,583 45,604 413 24,542
PrinceGeorge   1,897 5,199 2,440 216,893 3,101 223,810
Kamloops   5,002 19,725 18,571 39,148 2,i69 115,694
Nelson   2,435 63,830 50,478 212,225 2,077 104,154
Cariboo   1,559 1,047 301 115,477 1,251 92,921
Totals   14,325 103,853 81,606 906,191 10,399 763,428
Percent    26.7 100.0 78.6 48.7 19.4 41.0
Ten-year average 1965-74   44,759 111,216 41,656 2,445,412 60,854 1,642,819
Percent   18.9 100.0 37.5 58.0 25.6 38.9
lThe dollar value of losses in merchantable and immature timber represents only stumpage loss to the Crown.
Loss to the provincial economy may be estimated at approximately 10 times the loss values shown.
 71
©cNinoOTtr-  NO on ©
in co CN co tJ- Tt   tt -_;   no _,
ooovjor-r- o^g oo^
u £
3 O
M -i «*
©'oo'oo © no ^—>   © —   ON —
>*s
ON OO © CN CO CN    N©            —
Tf       Tt CN co CN   00         CN
—T           Tt
rt
O
H
i.         3
©©©TtfNso  t-Tt  —in
Quan
tity
M. C
Ft.
sor-ininwoTt  Tf-  no
— CN CN' — co'          CN          Os
■o
c
Csl
—          CN          ©
0
t«
© © — oo — ©  © ©  m©
J.   u
<<
oo co Tt on co r-   in _■  oo_,
Tt cn Tt cn © >n  NO_g  m £
Tt'so'in in t--'Tt' co"—  r-' —
— —            m       cn
CN
CU
3 O
•3«4«»
Tt©COTtOOON     00—     -vtCO
© © © Tt CN oo   tn    -oo
os m — — ©       Tt       cn
t>
>«
cn co' oo' co' —'        Os        cn'
3  «5
•a <u
o .ti
&">
sis
c
so r— On — co oo  Tt Tt  o©
0
<l<
OO — CO co CN —    i-H'   Os^
H
Oi
Z
m r- oc no co       •— __  ^ _
CO                            NO           CN
Tt
<
fa
,2
o>'3
1
■a
0 ca
-L-J
3 o
Tt  Tt  — CN  — ON     HTj-     CO      1
>
I
ra-l»»
>0
— oo © r~- Tt on   ^i    -oo   1
o
CN CN — m cK   CN        -<t
ro'—'—' r--*      —
o\
.|g
_
ra 3
"O «
Cfl"
0 «
Oh
1> c _.
cNNo©inTtr-  Tfso  cnoo
o
as
c 5 s
CQ
inTtcN©ON  n_;  on _~
NO CO CO    Tf CN    0^CO
m      as
8
►-J
fa
cU v%
Tt cn r- in — r-  no Tt  — Tt
o
1*.
VI
H
OS
o
fa
13
3 O
co © oo no — ©  N©- in
co m Tt Tt cn cn  cn^   Tt
'u
rt-J&«
"^ 0
co      Tt      in—  in       oo'
CO                            Tf            —
SO — © © OO-^    Tt Tt    SOON
O
sy
T3
rt U Sfi
>H
e
<u c ?:
no — co os in co  ©    ■  in .,
NO — OS           © CN     -- ~Z     "^  fN
Co'       —'          so          rf
in
PQ
Q
0
Z
flQ
sU
fa
_o
Cfl
P
«ss
co © — m wo Tt  oo Tt   — Tt
3 o
m m co — oo m  oo.x  —' *-s
1
<
rt-J^
Tt Tt © TtO-v.©,   CO *°     Tj-^
sJ
■a
u
>l5
«n co'in oo'—' in  ©C      ©'
— — in—' —    i-H          On
^
OS
fa
j_
u
0
~"
^,
5    9..
>
OldBu
(Not
Logge
Acres
r-   i r- © o\ —  TtTt  sonc
o
o
H
1/5
fa
OS
>,
o
o
rt
—   1 co © cn r-  ir.   ■  rf
co co           t-~ *~  m^
oo'
r-in oo r^ © Tt  --©  so —
S s
_. "5
"O     "a ,„
i> — <u £
-t, C i_ 5
©       © ro Tt CN   00^   r~-
^ >
o
fa
«
O « 3 j
tA   cq^
—       ~rOTt        ©"^m"-
—'            rf      cn
fa
0
sU     _
o
z
•o    ""» «
CNOO©OOinNO   CACN   CNCN
S-5
Sj *■ u 8
COt^CNcOsO—    Tf-    —
r- Tt — — © ©^ Tt ^j  r- ^
02
05
OOOCh
^ p
BC7  I- S
cn'cn in      —  cn"       Tt
o
fa
-j   ca
TsC>
C ~^
a*
3 a
2 £
Is
i a.
s
Tt
w"^
% a
<u
sO
5.g
©
o
"S>5
tu
<U
Si ^j
*-.    OJ
rt
^■o
a. n
>
s^
v.-
ancouver
rince Ru
rince Gei
amloops
c
c
c
■       Csl
3    ™   C
1U      y   4,
_   c
iS-     SJ
>a.a._-2:s_) hcl h-a.
-   (_
 72
E
<3
COOQO — ONONCNTtCO© —    *->
os" r-'     —               co cn co —  2
tu
CU
-H                                                                     V£>                                       ©
OS
cs
i
O^OOr-OvMNO — ©   *_;
© cn oo — r^ © Tt © © m —   n©
co on r^ © in oo — incNOsco  f*J,
Tt co' o\ Tt' —' —' ©' ©' co' ©" in   £<
in © — cn cn cn      on m r^ cn   "E
Tt —                                    Tt                         «
_T                        CN
^j
c
6
Ttovco© — Ttr^rNTtor^   ©
vS co cn —" cn —    ' © r-^ Tt       ©
a
CO               —                      CO                         ©
CU
^t
£
o\
—
sOON — inOsONsCONsO©—    ©
sOcOsCCOOCNCN — ~ ©NO    CO
Cfl
cn
O
0
cNTtTtinooNO — m so h on   ph
03
oo' in oo' oo' on in so' ©' v> oo' m  on
O
r-sOinONCOOsTfCNOssOTt    ph
co cn — r^ —          ©TtcN       r-
fa
CN                                           CNJ                        NO
fa
<
H
._
O
3
tf
H
— o©©cN©©sor-ocin  ©
Ih
<U
a.
Os' —<        CN CN CO     ' Tt —i —i CN    ©
Q
Z
—                                           ©                        ©
<<
H
Cfl
O
U
CONOOONCNm©COQCCNCN    ©
in oo so co © © Tt r^ oo oo ©  in
u
<
CNTtTt©CNONCONOOOONCO     NO
©         —"—"_-"    rf         _r cn
fa
—                                                         CO                                "»
CJ
>
OS
c
s^
fa
ii
©cor-©ocoTtincN©oo  ©
cfl
od — in in" Tt — — cn in co    '  2
CN —       —                    —        —         2
H
05
£
fa
OS
u
_-
o
fa
so OO t~- t~~ CN Tt sO Os CO m —   j!£
— OOTt©©COCO — COWICN    J>?
r^ cn — Tt —           co — co       "J
(N
e
3
q
fa
z
OS
fa
pa
T
fa
OS
<
VI
fa
Cfl
"5o
fa
c
c
o
<
rt
U
-J
tu
o
3
fa
■fll
>)
tfl
OS
c
1
B
0
fa
u
Cfl
_>
£
O
c
3
rt
J_
_2
__
__
tu .{
C_ "
u
0
_r o
c
3
x:
>s
'c3
SJ
3
rt
CJ
c_;
-3  «,
c
a.00
__ C
S
s-s
o
__ o
0    '
c
_> ■_;
C   «,
S  rt
—      h-  rt
__  tu
„„ dj       ii
"—   OJ
Ofj rr   - oj
cn   3
— a.
B.S h a
3   rt
.go
■3350         O   O
F u ?      ^ aj
-O M       3 3 o "n i-  c  3
= ■^"2 ejo-ooH-ri.s * s
_j a: <* « m os c* _ _ 2 d h
oo no     co Tt  r- m  cn
in in      sovn.  oo  ih
* -
©
O os      — in   © —   t**
so'©'     cn'so' oo'm" co"
cn r^      — —   © co  ©
co      — Tt  r- oo  so
rsf     —        —in   r-^
Tt              Tf
6ft          6ft
OO ©        ro NO   CN CN    Tf
in in      in ©   Tt cn   no
Tf
r-
On
in ©      oo no  on Tt  co^
CN co'      ro' —'  © —   *N
in      © oo  © os  m
—            OO Tt    CO
—        cn"
6ft          6ft
ro Tt       fsisO   «^0   <«
CO
r-
so cn      © r~~   r*- no  co
oo in      sox  ONi>   >>
ON
cn'cn      oo'no' © no  CO
oo      in cn  t*- m  co
(NO   co_
m'—' no"
6ft          -%
ro co       CN ©   — oo   On
O —       oo r--   oo cn   ©
CN
On Tt       CN r~-  ^O t*-   t?
— Tt       co' no'  co' Os   CO
so       —        — m   t-
r- Tt -h
Cfl
	
6ft          6A
OS
oo Tt      in ©  cn Tt   vo
Os sO         OC ©    OO NO    Tf
■<
_
oc oo      cn —  <n ©  no
>•
r-^
CN 00          © ©    Tt ©    CO
ffs
so      co r^  r- ©  oo
00            CO              ON NO     1/1
z
CN           CO
6ft          6ft
H
co oo        r- Tt   in —   NO
o >n      cor-  oo  ©
H
©
©On       CN Tt   CN on   ^h
Cfl
r-
Tt'©'     Tt'so' r-'Tt  r-T
ON
so        Tt in   ro Tt   00
•<
cn    —     Tt r- ph
-J
g
CO'                Tf
fcft          6ft
oo co     v-~ as oh r-
— sO       Tt ©   CN r~   CN
Cfl
ON
NO
nr      ""^ °,"", w
w
CN so       oo —   \o co   On
£
On
o      in cn  r~~ so  co
Tf            —              t-^NO     Tf
H
tfl
so'      r^
6ft          6ft
t— —      ~o   »-  o
Tt oo      so in   _. o  cn
00
NO
H
NO ro        CO, h   on (N   -h
OS
ON
-*"_2     "?      — r-" Os"
cn                  in cn   r-
O
r- on  no
ta
>
Tt              l/f
6ft          6ft
09
© co      in ©   t~~- cn  on
r-
— oo      m co   —»n  \o
Q
sO
CNTt       «n—;^  On   i^
OS
cn Tt'     © ©' r^ Tt   t*
w
Tt     r- —  wo © cn
uo
cn t^ —  as
P
<
tft            6ft
CJ
r- OO       NO co   ro CN   w
no
NO
so oo      © in   r- no  ro
-0
on r~-      *n Tt   Tt —'  no
o
On
—' Tt"          CO" —"    Tf   t**     H
in                        ON ©    so
— in   r-
-J
m"      vT
fcft           6ft
to
O
in cn      in cn  co oo  hh
m
OO CO          OO t-    © CO    CO
z.
o
no
On
so —       in oo   r- co   i-h
rsf r-'     Tt" o" in —' r^
o      — Tt  cn in  r-~
Cfl
CO           —                       —     1—l
6ft            6ft
2
3
c-
S
o
u
T3
tU„
Cfl
rt
6
rt
>s
T3
<u
o
©j
a.
o
■a
3*
Q-
o
O
a>       *g
S
in
,b 1a <u
'r  o  u
OJ
O
«  rt  cj    '__    M^-
u- ^'J- ,—. rt   *- i_
g  C *=    .   cn    o g    s
C^ B ° C    OO   nJ
—    "5 -^ 3 *"" *" —
c"i_w£   boo
hs.
(-<V5          <    tJtJ    h
 73
U
z
fa
s
o
E
a
es
fa
u.
o
fa
05
CS
fa
fa
fa
Cfl
o
u
Q
z
<
fa"
fa
2
fa
cfl
fa
V)
fa
os
c
fa
>
ca
Q
fa
Cfl
Cfl
<
-J
fa
02
fa
OS
2 2
SSS*
OOSfc
6ft g,
2o «
uo°.2j
&<«a
2    u
sssse
J_
uo|jgg
3
00
c
X
UJ
8©8E
**        P.
>1
u
u
£
0
% en rt       t-
0  4)j_©:-
6ft
o
U
ti—  r-  u
"h|§
£'SB.fi
S2-SS
"hSS
£'SEQ
u
©
B
3
z
wH£'|
0
£oE£
3
4-
■o
u
_-
£oE5
3
0
©
><
s
3
z
1                   —.
8
£|s3e|
0)
<cS2      a
>
_>
c
u
U
Cfl
tn
CJ
Qh
O
u-
73
_5
H
D
H&
o
a
-•j
O
Ph
© cn © Tt Tt r-  r-oc  ©©
©TtONOON—   co.,-;   co-,;
rs] — —-   i— oo   |^ CXJ
ro r- — oc on ©  t- ro  ©co
ocosooscom  on^  ©^
— — —        in        oc _.
so as so oo © r- no
r-r-cNONooON   cn©   mo
o <n r- o fj on  ''*■«-.  oc_;
CN — CN ©m CN   -h£   ©S
co oc — r~~ c~~ © cn
— o — in Tt* cn   no
co © On CN OC OO
© Tt ON ON ~~ *""
in Os sO CN so CO i-h
Tt O CO © — sO CO
Tt © Nom © cn Os_
r--"co Ttiftfio so
- oo © co in   ©
in on in © co oc ©
— © — O NO CN cO
iNSOOOsOr- HH
CN* Tt —' ©' Tt in* On"
on © so © on r~- H
ro cn cn r- © on r-
CiTsJi'li'lsV    «)U    vfa) ~
ro — co t^ © co   in—   sex
- £-°
j  3  a> ■
;oco|
J    ii    CJ
j a tj
:  c a
oco w g b £
—  C © —  u >> o
rt  cj  cq O tu cj  cu
UlZU HO. 1-0.
^J.g   O
^.S  SJ
-^    c
<£ ~"«
S 5 J;
.- sj-s:
8^jS
■-J      ^
^—       h.
r- *• °
O.S "
1-1
-s; _ -E
 74
(39)
FOREST-USE RESTRICTIONS
Area
Type of Closure
Date
Implemented
Date
Terminated
Entire district-	
Restricted industrial	
Travel and recreation
Aug. 2
Aug. 2
Aug. 3
Sept. 12
Aug. 27
Aug. 221
Aug. 242
Aug. 19
Sept. 19
Zones Kl, Nl	
Travel and recreation_	
1 Zones N7, N8.
2 Remainder of forest district.
(40)
SUSPENSION OF CAMPFIRES
Forest District
Date
Implemented
Date
Terminated
Okanagan Lake watershed
Similkameen watershed excluding
Manning Provincial Park   Kamloops .
Vancouver Forest District
except Zones 4, 5 & 6   Vancouver
Zone 8 ban lifted August 16
Vancouver Forest District except
Zones 4, 5 & 6 including Gulf
Islands water front areas and beaches    Vancouver .
Aug. 2
Aug. 8
Aug. 29
Aug. 13
Aug. 20
Sept. 10
(41)
FOREST REVENUE, 1970-74
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1970
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1971
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1972
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1973
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1974
Timber licence rentals and fees   668,254.04 640,458.88 623,153.52
Timber berth rentals and fees    123,123.68 112,947.83 95,433.78
Timber lease rentals and fees   92,895.76 93,633.27 91,731.48
Timber sale rentals and fees   898,484.23 798,919.11 674,091.83
Timber sale stumpage   53,524,665.0149,680,565.02 91,180,674.04
Timber sale cruising and advertising ... 163,321.01 166,647.42 140,245.57
Timber royalties   6,217,109.85 5,553,861.92 5,336,035.96
Grazing permits and fees   438,003.68 469,636.16 532,992.78
Forest protection tax   1,006,742.58 1,123,517.24 1,185,179.11
Miscellaneous   669,194.53 735,683.76 773,132.95
Weight-scaling  1,149,637.48 1,514,347.62 2,004,105.62
Indian Affairs Agreement 	
TSHL fire-fighting costs standby
crews*	
Totals   64,951,431.85 60,890,218.23 102,636,776.64
585,616.72
87,545.48
84,405.30
736,073.92
230,648,895.04
132,227.44
6,879,851.39
542,090.28
1,149,528.61
1,056,014.21
2,660,410.57
569,850.39
81,729.63
86,412.80
696,048.97
181,605,129.21
144,040.10
7,459,614.20
661,145.80
1,028,180.35
1,654,564.42
2,772,736.05
151,585.78
282,596.87 283,095.50
244,845,255.83  197,200,142.26
 75
on
2 S-S S3
-3 .a .■» *
n~Sgo"i
cfl
Z
O
fa
<
OS
fa
fa
o
u
z
3
u
o
fa
fa
Cfl
z
■H
<
u
<:
q
o
OS
•<
a
u
fa
z
fa
o
S
<
■ 3  U
—   U6ft
00 u
-£ C
ir
Sjg
— sO
Tt CN
cn in
r-"so
r- os
so m
ro oo r- in
Tt © cn ©
no on cn oo
©"©"no"©"
O — CN CN
<nro © —
—" no" r-" co"
Tt CN — CN
CN —
m o
CO CN
— oo"
Tt so
©CN
Nc"r~"
oc sO
— mmr--TtrocoQO
OsONTtfONOTt — CN
r-oct^ONinooooaN
On ON NO
in so ©
so NO CN
CO ON © f
sO CO Tt s
ro © © C
ro SO © © in CN
Tt oo t-» r- Tt Tt
o © oo co no r~-
cn od cn" co oo" r-"
On in CN so Tt CN
rsi — ro — — —
Ttsor^© — OO — t^rOTt
so©r^coa\r^—-©cn©
sor^©©ooinr^co©Tt
ro" r-" — —" oo" ©" oo" —" r-" o"
—i — CNTt©0©©©CN
cNONONroONONOommm
_r _" —r r-T ih —" —" —" —" —"
t © 00 © oo
j — OO © sO
j oo On r- ro
$ p-** oo" r-" co"
t oo © o ©
- OO co O ro
C~~ rf OS  CO -
oc r-
on r-
no r-
in r~-
OS  Tt
in co
cn o
Tt r-
© CN
- © ro OO ©
4 Tt — CO CN
- Os r~~ r~~ r~~
"cn"—"cNr-"
Os — ro on
CN — © ON
CN "st
Tt m
ON CN
oo'r-"
oo —
CN CN
Os  CN
oo On
©^Tt
©"oo"
© ©
co in
CN Tt
sot^co©r^Ttinroso —
ON0O — ooro — coooooin
sd ON — ON (N od no so r~' Tt*
©r^TtON!^- — t^ CN 0O —
— — ONocso — ©inr- —
©' in" in c~~ cn so" o' Tt in" so"
OOOON©TtTtsDinoOCN
incoON — cNOos©soin
cn" cn" —" cn" cn" cn" —" —" —" —"
TtOmi^- — OrocNOOro
©oor^©oo — r- © © co
TtONTt  —  ©©OCTtCOCO
o" no' ro" ro" o" (--" t~-" ©" On" ^
NC©©CNro — msOOCN
ininTtTtTtTtTtTtTtrO
r~~ oo cn Tt in Tt © r-— oo — © cn on
coOsnOnO Tt — Tt VN, O 0O fN (N IO 1
CNincNTt — cNONsor-CNTtTtm©
CN Tt" oo" oo" — so" © © ©" in" in" in" Tt" ro"
so no Tt Tt Tt (— — ro 00 ro — m ro —
c^cNinTt ooooin©TtrocN —
—" ro" ro" CN —" —" —"
CN — O © —<rorosOroinCNCorom
—i in co cn c~~ oo v~~ cnoo—i co oc—i co
^©mCN —isCTtCNCNCNONCNCOCO
r-" co" —" ©" —" Tt" —" ©" cn" Tt ©" r-" co" on"
CNoOCNsO CNOro — ©ONTtONCOO
rn -rt cn —i rviconifl-rnnooifl
oo"no"in"in© no"in"co"co"of
a, 3
tu  3   _>
_-e_0
C   3   C   g.„.
rt 'C 'C  cd  tu  trl
TtcocN — oONoor^sOTi
t^t^r-t~~-r^©©©©NO
© ON  ON  © OS ON OS ON 0s  ON
rtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrt
2 oooooooooo
-= ox> hhhhhhhhhh
 76
©r-ooooooos  cNincooo — ©ooin©in
co Tt r— no no Tt  co CNso©Tt(~- — osor-
"rt
so in m cn Tt m ©coon — mr-o — o —
O
txv    oofi so © ro r~  nocnon — r- — m r- © ©
r- © co cn — o ©TtTtoo — cNcNt^r-r-
h-
© on Tt © r- co  Tt o Tt © oo in Tt r-; ©. <n
Tt" cn" cn in" ©" ro' oo" oo' o* r-" ©" P* ©" in" cn so"
(— ro m Tt ro CO   vO V M in O sD n 'st VI ■sT
CN —
— os o cn © o  — — ©r^r^- — r-cNsocN
« =?.S £
CN Os ro CN © ©   Tt©©Tt — ro ro sO © —
enta!
ruisin
vertis
ransf
Fees
— — sC © sO O   t^TtOOsOinCNt^OCNTt
^      — © CN © — p-   CN r^ © CN OO ro^ ro^ Tt ©^ in
CN CN CJs* —" <Os" Tt    OO' CO' —" Tt Tt" ro' in" Tt  so' Uo"
«[j-_-H
OO CN rO CN OOCCNONOO©Tt©inrO
<
rsf — fN — — CN — — — —
— r-sosor- —  ocror-- — r—rocomsDr-
cN©TtONTtr--  r- co cn co — in Tt in	
■^
on
p- nC co cn as m  tn©ot^sooocNOovo
E
„.     cn m — ©or-   ©oinoooo — ©OTtTt
m
cn — oc© — ©  on — r-ocroNOocavoocN
3
oc — on co n cn   oasroinmQocNONmo
Ov
55
— oo r- cn ro in  © o — in so © sn © so Tt
OS
CN —
<
fa
>
ro—        1    1    1   m oo ro oc on — ©TtmTt
fa
00
sCOO                           TtoCONOinrooCCNO©
<
~T    ii
™ II
CO©                               ONfOsOOr- nD — CN On f—
fa
ON OC                                   r- Os Tt ON CO CO © ro CO OO
Cfl
                          CN — — ovrooor^so© —
fa
3
fe
Z
M
3
%
CJ
©Tt   |    ;    |    1   TtrosocNm — Tt m oo —
ONOO       1         1          1          1        r-SOrOTtTtSOTt©TtTt
o
trt
MM
.H C
m 3-
OsO                               r-sO(N — OssOCNOssOTt
fa
ro©                     ovinsoocNr-ONTtTtTt
<
OS
fa
fa
Tt                                  inTtTtrOTtTtTtTtroCN
o
z
Tt — r- co r- r-  os — ©osoond — r^coin
COTtsO©inoC    ■^'©©sD©OONOt^ — oo
o
t   trt
oor^-TtcoinTt  Tt — — o©cNrooc —■ ©
o
o o
crt  _<
OO co Tt Tt CN r-    — sOmONCNOOCNsOOsCN
o
fa
W    r-" r»" r- cn" x~- oo  — in" Tt" r-' cn* — t*« r-" cn ©
SJ
oo o © m Tt co  coin© — nocono© — —
tNvCh- — r^Tt  ©r-©(^roin —
fa
—                 Tt CN CN — —
Cfl
z
m vC CO O ro ©   sO^t^rOsO^Or^© —
o
ONf, -* o r- r-  cn r- ro — ooTtosoooso
<
ro O co ~ CN 00   O — CNOOCNt^ONOr--co
— ON OO^1 — sO    — r-roos — On — — OOin
Q
© — r^ oo o ro ooooooTt — so© — ro r-
>.
w    in — — cNsor-   Tt so cn" oo' on so — Tt m oo
fa
o
OS
<
in — in ro CN —   QNO-OOOOO—r^cs
tf
— ©TtTtTtcN  soscinin — No~ooom
Tt—                       sointninr^-inrorocNcN
sa
u
cfl
fa
Z
fa
o
5
<
5
trt
CU
O
u.
 r-r-r-r-r-sOsDscsO'O
 fOfsl — OONOOh-sOTi-st
:         '    :    :    :r^r-r--r-sCsCsCscsoso
t  •_<   4>            ;          © Os ov On Qs On On Os On ©
' oj £?   :    :    :                         ""
\T 3 2 vi        '~jd~J£J£J-ijdj2jdjd
>j^q ti   :        rtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrt
2 *» «. O c c   occccooocc
8 8 8doiHHhhhhhhhi-
9
c c e E _»'C
d'Cu.  cd  tu  -j
> a._._-ZU
 77
(44) REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR 1973/74
Timber licence rentals and fees 	
Timber berth rentals and fees 	
Timber lease rentals and fees 	
Timber sale rentals and fees 	
Timber sale stumpage         247
Timber sale cruising and advertising 	
Timber royalties    6
Grazing permits and fees 	
Forest-protection tax   1.
Miscellaneous    1.
Weight-scaling    2.
TSHL fire-fighting costs standby crews 	
Total 262
612,239.59
77,751.23
86,884.30
764,000.74
550,107.93
129,253.56
895,105.19
579,369.01
198,382.80
103,797.99
823,727.19
459,020.52
279,640.05
(45)
FOREST SERVICE EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1973/74
General administration, protection, and management of forests   29,175,738.19
Reforestation and forest nurseries   5,425,101.01
Forestry and Correction Camp Programme   29,900.21
Forest research   351,918.63
Public information and education (Includes S.W. 10)   135,218.81
Forest Service Training School   139,259.06
Grant to Canadian Forestry Association   30,000.00
Engineering services and forest-development roads   3,491,995.93
Fire suppression  9,554,150.28
Forest inventory   1,950,907.12
Scaling Fund (1)   2,831,204.55
Silviculture   1,954,583.70
Grazing Range Improvement Fund1   271,935.48
Peace River community pastures   19,039.29
Reservoir Waterway Improvements (I)   2,747,937.88
Accelerated Reforestation Fund (1)   8,255,846.54
Special Warrant 49 Relocation of H.Q. Office   39,481.81
Total   66,404,218.49
4 Statements provided elsewhere
 78
(46) REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1974
SCALING FUND
$
Deficit, April 1, 1973   597,802.80
Collections, fiscal year 1973-74          2,860,215.78
2,262,412.98
Expenditures, fiscal year 1973-74   2,831,204.55
Deficit, March 31, 1974   568,791.57
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1974   2,043,211.95
1,474,420.38
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1974   2,489,332.28
Deficit, December 31, 1974  1,014,911.90
(47) GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND
$
Surplus, April 1, 1973   1,690.62
Government contribution (sec. 13, Grazing Act)   254,162.37
255,852.99
Expenditures, fiscal year 1973-74   271,935.48
Deficit, March 31, 1974   16,082.49
Government contribution (sec. 13, Grazing Act)   289,684.50
273,602.01
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1974   248,308.50
Surplus, December 31, 1974   25,293.51
(48> RESERVOIR WATERWAY IMPROVEMENTS
$
Expenditures, fiscal year 1973-74   2,747,937.88
Recovered from British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority   2,509,411.92
Balance   238,525.96
(49) ACCELERATED REFORESTATION FUND
$
Surplus, April 1, 1973          9,349,556.97
Expenditures, fiscal year 1973-74   8,255,846.54
Surplus, March 31, 1974   1,093,710.43
Expenditures, nine months, April 6 - December 1974   150,165.95
Surplus, December 31, 1974   943,544.48
 79
(50)
DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL 1974
>
c_
rt
Personnel
o
u r;
u ^
o
£
rt
__
C
O
O
o
c
cd
>
C   c_
CL __
.5 °
e-G
Z
rt
_>
>
rt
0
H
Continuously Employed (Regular)
Deputy Minister, Chief Forester, and
Assistant Chief Foresters   —
Director of Services   —
District Foresters, Division Heads,
Forest Counsel, Staff Consultant   1
Assistant District Foresters and
2 i/c Divisions   1
Foresters, Engineers, Agrologists,
Agriculturist   18
Economists, Biologists, Research Officers   —
Personnel Officers   1
Forest Protection Officers   2
Technical Forest Officers   49
Engineering Technicians & Assistants    5
Forest Assistants & Engineering Aides   181
Communication Technicians   4
Comptroller, Audit Accountants, Administrative
Officers, Property Negotiators, Prog. Analysts   2
Public Information Officers, Photographers etc  —
Mechanics and General Tradesmen   16
Tradesmen (Carpenters etc.), Bridgemen, Laborers   4
Scaling Supervisors (Coast)   15
Scalers (Coast)   147
Weight Scaler Supervisors   —
Weight Scalers    —
Superintendents & Assistant Superintendents
(Scaling, Nursery, Mechanical etc.)   4
Foremen (Trades, Road, General etc.)   14
Draughtsmen, Mapping Assistants and
Survey Assistants   10
Machine Operators    10
Launch Crewmen   24
Administrative Support Staff  94
Total — Continuous Personnel   602
Non-Continuous Employees (Auxiliary)
Patrolmen and Lookoutmen   —
Dispatchers, Radio Operators & Clerks   4
Reforestation, Snag-fallers, Planters etc  12
Machine Operators   —
Forest Assistants, Engineering Aides   3
Foremen (Trades, Road, General etc.)   4
Launch Crewmen   —
Mechanics and General Tradesmen   —
Tradesmen (Carpenters etc.)   1
Scalers (Coast and Interior)   15
Administrative Support Staff and others   I
Total — Auxiliary Personnel   40
Total — All Personnel    642
23
2
35
2
83
3
6
10
2
4
38
4
9
7
39
272
25
8
527
5
124
704
976
26
1
2
44
3
123
4
1
1
10
9
1
70
24
10
57
400
28
5
450
5
181
27
5
10
40
751
1151
26
1
1
2
45
4
96
3
1
42
42
296
17
7
16
324
19
11
2
17
3
416
712
1 1
1 1
23        29
1
44
4
98
4
2
43
47
299
35
7
262
26
1
40
377
676
2
30
4
74
3
5
16
I
28
3
10
44
260
13
6
475
3
110
15
4
2
6
634
894
4
1
13
6
163
5
5
6
9
36
144
10
21
8
67
30
26
23
61
14
181
833
10
3561
55
317
218
4
12
47
82
4
1
19
12
308
5
8
17
256
58
799
31
28
9
115
75
15
149
9
221
33
66
121
67
31
504
2962
118
40
5041
75
1321
309
5
23
66
50
182
4306     7228
5139    10190
 Printed by K. M. MacDonald,
Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1975

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0376298/manifest

Comment

Related Items