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Annual report of the DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION for the year ended March 31 1972 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1973

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 annual report
of the
DIRECTOR
OF CORRECTION
for the year ended March 31
1972
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
  The Honourable Walter Stewart Owen, Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Director of Correction for the year ended March 31, 1972
is herewith respectfully submitted.
Alex. Macdonald
A ttorney-General
Attorney-General's Office, January 1973.
  Department of the Attorney-General,
Corrections Service,
Vancouver, B.C.,
November 1, 1972
The Honourable Alex. Macdonald,
A ttorney-General,
Parliament Buildings,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir:
I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Corrections Service for the
12 months ended March 31, 1972.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. ROCKSBOROUGH SMITH
Director of Correction
  CONTENTS
Page
Directory of correctional facilities    9
Organizational chart  11
Administrative staff  12
Foreword.   Review of the year   13
Chapter I. Probation
Community involvement  16
Review of the year  17
Chapter II. Offenders in custody
Male admissions.—.  20
Female admissions  21
Immigration cases  21
Juveniles  21
British Columbia Indians  21
Drug-users    22
Classification  22
Remand population    23
Research and data processing  23
Community re-entry programmes _  24
Work release on admission to a correctional centre  25
Chapter III. Regional correctional facilities
Security and discipline  28
Education  30
Industries..  32
Construction and works  34
Lower Mainland Centre Women's Unit  34
Chapter IV. Young-adult training centres
Classification  36
Young female offenders   38
Security and discipline   38
New developments in training programmes   39
Education  39
Vocational Training  40
Forest camps  40
Parole and temporary release  41
Community projects  42
Construction and works  42
 Chapter V. Treatment of alcoholics
Page
Admissions  43
Treatment programme —  44
Release and after-care  45
Evaluation  45
Construction  45
Twin Maples  46
Physical training and recreation  46
Work programme and prison industries  47
Halfway Houses  47
Chapter VI. Medical services
Excerpts from Senior Medical Officer's report  48
Chapter VII. Chaplains' services
Excerpts from Senior Chaplains' reports    50
Chapter VIII. British Columbia Board of Parole
Appendices
Population graph  60
Statistical tables  61
 DIRECTORY OF CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES
Regional correctional centres
Lower Mainland Region
1. Lower Mainland Regional Correctional Centre—This facility serves as the receiving
centre for the Lower Mainland Region, as well as holding remand and appeal cases. In addition,
a number of fairly well-defined groups of offenders are classified to this multipurpose institution:
(a) Drug addicts, mainly hard-core heroin-users;
(b) Physically disabled, and other medical and psychiatric cases;
(c) Overt or aggressive homosexuals;
(d) Miscellaneous short-term cases;
(e) Day parole/work release candidates for the region.
2. Women's Unit of Lower Mainland Regional Correctional Centre—Serves as the receiving centre for sentenced female offenders from all parts of British Columbia. One cottage
is used for those cases with very short sentences. A small number of offenders with sentences
of a few months and a history of alcoholism or problems with alcohol are transferred to Twin
Maples Farm.
The remainder is composed mainly of offenders addicted to heroin, security risks, the
psychologically unstable, or medical cases.   They are kept in the main building of the unit.
3. Mount Thurston and Ford Mountain Camps—Located in the Chilliwack Valley, and
serve as minimum security facilities for inmates transferred from Lower Mainland Regional
Correctional Centre. For the most part these camps receive older offenders showing a fair range
of criminal sophistication or inadequacy, but who are not drug addicts, escape risks, or serious
behavioural problems.
Vancouver Island Region
1. Vancouver Island Regional Correctional Centre—Outside Victoria, which acts as the
receiving centre for sentenced offenders as well as holding remand and appeal cases. As with
Lower Mainland Regional Correctional Centre, problem cases of a psychological, medical, or
security nature are kept at this institution.
2. Snowdon and Lakeview Forest Camps—Located north of Campbell River, they serve as
minimum security housing for the region. All inmates are received upon transfer from Vancouver Island Regional Correctional Centre. Lakeview is used for the recidivist in the latter
stages of a sentence, provided his progress has been satisfactory at Vancouver Island Regional
Correctional Centre.
Interior Region
1. Kamloops Regional Correctional Centre—Near the city of Kamloops, takes all sentenced prisoners from the Interior and Kootenay areas. A small number of remand and waiting-
trial cases are kept here.
As the centre itself has a limited capacity, all but the most difficult security and medical
cases are transferred to camps.
2. Rayleigh Camp—Is a short distance outside the city and takes short-sentence inmates.
Most such cases have less than one month to serve and tend to be nomadic alcoholics.
3. Clearwater Forest Camp—In the Wells Gray Provincial Park, receives all inmates with
longer sentences who are fit for work in the forest.
Prince George Region
1. Prince George Regional Correctional Centre—Performs the same function for the north
of the Province.
2. Hutda Lake Forest Camp—Thirty miles outside Prince George, receives on transfer inmates suitable for work in the forest.
3. Farm Trailer Camp—Located on the grounds of the Prince George Regional Correctional Centre and provides housing for those with sentences of less than one month or medical
cases not fit for transfer to Hutda.
 BB 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Specialized young-offender facilities
Haney Correctional Centre—Is the placement utilized for 40 to 45 per cent of the young
offenders with definite-indeterminate sentences. It offers a broad range of academic, vocational,
work, and counselling programmes, as well as a good level of security for the unstable types.
Most of the juveniles transferred to adult Court require the security of this institution. Haney
Correctional Centre thus receives a wide range of young offenders from the grossly immature
and disturbed or inadequate to the more stable offender who shows a capacity and motivation
for vocational or academic courses.
Selected short-term offenders are housed in Pine Ridge Forest Camp, a satellite camp of the
Haney Correctional Centre. Many of them return during the day to the main institution for a
course or work placement.
Stave Lake Camp—An additional resource for inmates serving their first gaol sentence.
Classification to Stave Lake is handled internally by Haney Correctional Centre.
New Haven Correctional Centre—Is a small, open, Borstal-type facility in the metropolitan
Vancouver area. The offender's basic stability and capacity for response to an intensive responsibility-type training are key factors to be considered. Apart from this, New Haven accepts
a fairly broad range of delinquents.
Boulder Bay and Centre Creek Forest Camps—Both offer a high-demand type of graded
training programme. The one at Boulder Bay is of four months' duration; at Centre Creek, six
months'. The content of the final training stage includes mountain-climbing, wilderness survival,
search and rescue, and forest fire-fighting. Groups from both camps have distinguished themselves in fighting forest fires and finding lost hunters and hikers.
Facilities for chronic alcoholics
Alouette River Unit—Accommodates male alcoholics who are held on a detaining order
imposed by the Courts under an amendment to the Summary Convictions Act. Only the Cities
of Vancouver and Prince George have so far invoked the use of this legislation. Men at the
unit undergo a course of treatment in which they are brought face to face with their problems,
discuss them, hopefully gain a greater insight into their behaviour, and learn ways to live full
and useful lives without having to have recourse to alcohol.
All cases are admitted direct to the institution, and the length of the treatment period depends on the individual's ability to profit from it. Men are released under a probation order to
the community when they are deemed fit.
Twin Maples Farm—Performs the same function for female alcoholics and comes under
the same administration. The legislation for females has been invoked on a Province-wide basis.
In spite of this, the number of admissions is very low.
Young female offenders with definite-indeterminate sentences are classified to a cottage on
the grounds for a specialized training programme geared to their age range.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72
Organizational chart
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Administrative staff
BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL
CORRECTIONS SERVICE
The Honourable Alex. Macdonald, LL.D., Attorney-General
Gilbert D. Kennedy, Q.C., Deputy Attorney-General
SENIOR CORRECTIONS ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
S. Rocksborough Smith, Director of Correction and Chief Probation Officer
M. A. Matheson, Deputy Director of Correction
C. D. Davidson, Assistant Chief Probation Officer
HEADQUARTERS STAFF OFFICERS
A. K. Brind-Sheridan
Probation Staff Training Officer
G. R. Bulmer
Senior Medical Officer
R. E. FrrcHETT
Staff Officer—Personnel
E. M. Pierce
Staff Officer—Correctional Programmes
Rev. E. J. Hulford
Senior Protestant Chaplain
Rev. T. F. M. Corcoran
Senior Roman Catholic Chaplain
Mrs. M. M. Berg
Staff Officer—Services
S. A. Thorvaldson
Supervisor of Classification and Research
CORRECTIONAL CENTRE ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
W. H. Mulligan
Warden, Lower Mainland Regional
Correctional Centre
J. W. Bellis
Warden, Haney Correctional Centre
H. B. Bjarnason
Warden, Prince George Correctional Centre
O. J. Walling
Warden, Alouette River Unit
V. H. Goad
Director, New Haven Correctional Centre
W. Scott
Warden, Kamloops Regional Correctional
Centre
S. A. L. Hamblin
Warden, Vancouver Island Regional
Correctional Centre
and Sayward Forest Camps
G. J. Chapple
Officer-in-Charge, Chilliwack Forest
Camps
PROBATION ADMINISTRATION STAFF
K. M. Richardson
Supervisor, Vancouver Region
A. E. Jones
Supervisor, Vancouver Island Region
R. G. McKellar
Supervisor, Northern Region
O. E. Hollands
Supervisor, Fraser Valley Region
J.  WlEBE
Supervisor, Interior Region
J. V.Sabourin
Supervisor, Parole and Special Services
Mrs. T. G. Norris
BRITISH COLUMBIA PAROLE BOARD
C. J. A. Dalton (Chairman)
Members
E. Kelly        Dr. G. Kirkpatrick        A. Watts (Vice-Chairman)
 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR
OF CORRECTION
Foreword. Review of the year
• During the period April 1, 1971, to March 31, 1972, 11,546 persons were
admitted to Provincial correctional centres. This marks a decrease of 7 per cent
over the previous 12-month period. A corresponding decrease was also noted in the
daily average population of all centres. This figure dropped from 2,195 last year to
2,068.
• During the same time-span, 11,928 were placed under supervision in the
community, either on probation or parole, an increase of 13 per cent over last year.
This figure is an indication of the growing use being made of alternatives to prison.
• While this is an encouraging trend in the light of current correctional practice
which emphasizes the desirability of dealing with as many offenders as possible in
their own communities, it is disconcerting to note that there are still far too many
being sentenced to short prison sentences. A total of 3,600 (30 per cent of the total
admissions) served sentences of less than one month. The short prison sentence has
little that can be said in its favour. It neither deters nor reforms and is highly wasteful of expensive facilities, clogging the system and detracting from the prime purpose
of imprisonment, which is the protection of the community against crime. As many
of those admitted for short periods of imprisonment are committed in default of payment of a fine, it would seem that some steps should be taken to improve the practice
of fining as a correctional sanction. One of the more obvious considerations is that
the fine should be related more accurately to the offender's ability to pay and, where
it is known that the offender is indigent, some alternative sanction should be imposed.
In this connection attention is drawn to the growing use being made of the work-
release programme referred to at the conclusion of Chapter II of this Report.
Offenders capable of holding employment and sentenced to periods of imprisonment
of three months or less have benefited from being allowed to return to the community
for employment by the day, returning to the prison at night, with some control exercised over their earnings to ensure that they meet their financial commitments. Although this is a desirable alternative to full imprisonment, in that the offender is being treated as a responsible wage-earner, its use is restricted by the availability of
suitable employment within travelling distance of a correctional centre.
• Forty per cent of the total admissions during the year were in the 18 to 23-
year-old age-group. The majority of these young-adult offenders were transferred
for training to the Haney Correctional Centre, New Haven, or one of a number of
camps operating specialized programmes for this class of offender. A full description
of these facilities is given in Chapter IV. Evidence is noted of the increasing number
of young offenders who resort to drugs, often with tragic consequences. Some notable success was achieved here during the year in presenting an alternative life-style
to the young drug-user through the Search and Leadership Training Programmes
operating at three camps in the Lower Mainland. There is no doubt that young
people still respond to a physical challenge if it is presented to them in a realistic and
direct manner. This correctional programme, unique to British Columbia, will be
developed further as more trained staff become available.
13
 BB 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
• The increased use being made of probation has been responsible for the reduced number of persons admitted to prison. This is shown dramatically in the
population graph on page 60. As has been pointed out in previous reports, the
effectiveness of probation is limited to the amount of time a Probation Officer is able
to afford each person on his case load. This can be greatly increased if the Probation
Officer has a range of supporting resources available in the community to which he
can refer his charges. Recreational programmes, community service projects, outdoors clubs, week-end activity programmes, attendance centres—all have their place
in providing constructive outlets for redirecting youthful energy and imagination.
It is through such channels that new habits and attitudes are often established, values
reassessed, and positive patterns of behaviour formed. While many communities
have shown considerable imagination in developing their own resources, there is an
urgent need for co-ordinated planning by all departments of Government concerned
with the problems of youth to assist and support communities struggling to develop
badly needed local facilities. The Provincial Youth Resources Panel was developed
three years ago for this purpose, with representation from five departments of Government involved with youth. Unfortunately, it did not receive sufficient support
from the administrative arm of Government to enable it to operate effectively and
it was allowed to lapse. A strong consultative body with representation from those
departments of Government concerned with the prevention of delinquency, with
adequate funding and power to act where necessary, is essential to co-ordinate and
assist community planning toward the development of a broad range of child care
and youth resources.
Probation Officers across the Province are concerned that measures to control
the more difficult juvenile delinquent are inadequate. There are few effective resources available for the youth who fails on probation. The Probation Officer at
present is limited in his control over juveniles. Returning a difficult case to Court
frequently results in the child being made a ward of the Superintendent of Child
Welfare where, due to lack of resources, he is returned to his home with no further
controls imposed. Raising a 14 or 15-year-old child to adult Court for committal
to an adult institution is not the answer to the problem, for here the child comes into
contact with older, more sophisticated, young adults, where he quickly learns the
type of behaviour expected of him if he is to be accepted by the group. It is, therefore, a matter of urgent priority that authority for adequate control and management
of this difficult group of delinquents be established with funds available for the
initiation of community-based programmes. Such an alternative would result in a
much lower over-all cost to the taxpayer than the current practice of maintaining
a juvenile in an inappropriate and expensive correctional centre for young adults.
• The programme referred to in last year's Annual Report for the renovation
and updating of outmoded facilities is continuing, and plans for the design and construction of new alternative accommodation are well under way. Chief among these
is the planning for a new correctional centre at Langley for New Haven. This institution, following the Borstal Programme of training, is now in its 25th year and continues to operate with outstanding success from its old and cramped quarters on
Marine Drive. It suffered further this year as a result of two fires and is maintaining
its programme with difficulty in improvised housing.
A 30-man security unit is under construction in the Chilliwack Valley as a
back-up resource for the Chilliwack Camps. This is being built by inmate labour
under the supervision of Corrections Service tradesmen and is an example of the level
of expertise that can be achieved through a well co-ordinated team effort.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72
BB  15
• It is with considerable concern that I have to report that planning for the
proposed new remand centre for waiting-trial prisoners in the Lower Mainland
ceased, due to lack of a suitable site. It should be unnecessary to point out once
again the due need for a new facility to replace present outmoded and inadequate
accommodation and the shocking conditions under which this class of prisoner is
presently being held. This situation has been referred to for many years in these
reports. I can but draw attention to it once again and trust that the issues surrounding the present delay are speedily resolved.
• One of the continuing problems in Corrections is the re-establishment of
the offender in the community following a period of incarceration. Over the years,
various procedures have been devised to assist in bridging the gap separating life
in an institution from life in the free community. Community re-entry programmes
include a variety of institutional pre-release preparations, temporary absence leaves,
hostels, halfway houses, and arrangements for individual supervision. All of these
devices rely on some degree of control or supervision in the community. A growing
amount of assistance is being offered in this aspect of Corrections by voluntary societies employing both professional and lay volunteers. Such organizations as the B.C.
Borstal Association, Elizabeth Fry and John Howard Societies, the Salvation Army,
Job Therapy, and a number of newer prisoner self-help groups are making an invaluable contribution to the work carried on by Probation and Parole Officers in this
aspect of the work. Over the past year there has been a 15-per-cent increase in the
amount of aftercare supervision offered, so that one out of every five prisoners released from custody has been receiving supervision in the community. It is to be
hoped that this assistance can be further increased in the coming year with the allocation of additional funds and personnel.
• A correctional system is only as strong as its supporting field staff, and its
effectiveness depends largely on their experience and training and on the degree
of their commitment to their work. The B.C. Corrections Service employs 1,300
permanent staff, over 1,000 working in correctional centres, and 180 serving the
Courts of British Columbia as Probation Officers and interviewers, responsible for
the supervision of offenders in the community either on probation or parole.
The Service maintains two staff-training establishments—a Training Academy
for institutional Corrections' staff and a Training Centre for Probation Officers. Both
of these establishments operate the year round, providing programmes of training
for new entrants to the Service, refresher courses for experienced field officers, and
training seminars and conferences. In addition to the in-service training programmes, four post-secondary regional colleges throughout the Province and the
University of British Columbia offer extension courses leading to certificates in
corrections and criminology over a three-year period. During the year, 105 officers
were enrolled in these evening courses.
The task facing the Corrections staff becomes increasingly difficult in a permissive society which places the rights of the individual ahead of the individual's
responsibility to the community, where standards are viewed with suspicion, and the
young are openly encouraged to "do their own thing." In spite of the increasing
difficulty of their work, the staff has performed with a high degree of skill and showed
considerable patience and understanding, often in the most trying situations involving violence or when faced with complete indifference or apathy. A number of
officers were officially commended for specific acts of excellence during the year and
seven were accorded special recognition on completion of 25 years of unbroken
service. I am particularly grateful for the high standard of co-operation, devotion
to duty, and loyalty shown by all senior personnel within the Service.
 Chapter I. Probation
The acceleration of change in so many areas of society in recent years is reflected in the changing attitude to the offender and the trend toward developing an
increasing number of alternatives to imprisonment. The imposition by the Court
of a "probation order" permitting the offender to remain in the community under the
supervision and guidance of a Court officer is to date the best known and most widely
used of these alternatives. As has been pointed out in the foreword to this report,
there has been increasing use made of probation during the course of the past year.
With amendments to the Criminal Code which came into force in August 1969,
probation was given a unique and individual status and the number of instances in
which probation could be granted was substantially increased by providing for a
"probation order" to follow a period of custody. In addition, the legislation provided for a new offence known as a "breach of a probation order." The amendments went further and provided for the transfer of a probation order made in one
province to a Court of similar jurisdiction in another province, thus making the
order as enforceable as if it had been made in the Court to which it was transferred.
This amendment overcame one of the serious gaps in probation supervision and prevents the flaunting of authority by the probationer removing himself from the area
of the Court's jurisdiction.
Community involvement
Among the significant amendments was a recognition of the value placed on the
pre-sentence report by the Court as an aid to sentencing, and the authority to request and consider such reports.
In preparing a pre-sentence report, the Probation Officer interviews the offender
and members of the community who know him well. While interested in personal
evaluations of the offender, the Probation Officer is also anxious to ascertain what
community resources are available which may vitally assist in the offender's rehabilitation. If the Court decides to place the offender under probation supervision, the
Probation Officer then tries to muster these resources as well as to give guidance to
the offender on an individual or group basis. The involvement of the community
can thus be seen as a very positive factor in probation.
But the Probation Officer's community involvement is not limited to contacts
in respect to individual clients. In those areas of the Province where a Family
Division Committee of the Provincial Court has been appointed, the Probation
Officer acts as a resource person, bringing to the attention of the committee gaps in
resources or programmes to combat or prevent delinquency. In those areas where a
committee has not been appointed or is inactive, the Probation Officer can be of
assistance to local authorities by pointing out the need for such a committee and the
advantages to the community of an active group of knowledgeable citizens working
together to achieve a common objective.
In some communities Probation Officers have worked closely with the schools,
explaining to students the structure and function of the Courts and how the Court
system acts as a guardian of individual rights. Through this type of approach the
teenager not only becomes more aware of the responsibilities he must assume as a
member of society but also receives a positive image of a Probation Officer as a
person involved with his community.
16
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72
BB 17
Another type of community involvement has been the development and utilization of volunteer probation sponsors. In July 1970, with assistance from the Junior
League of Vancouver, a demonstration project involving volunteer probation sponsors was initiated in North Vancouver. This project was to cover a two-year period.
By the end of March 1972, approximately 180 sponsors had been recruited and
trained and 145 of them matched with probationers and actively undertaking their
supervision. While this project is still in progress, results to date indicate that
volunteers can play a major role and be most effective in the supervision of probationers. As a result of this programme a larger number of citizens have become
much more knowledgeable about delinquency and the law and more aware of the
need for increased preventive measures at the community level. It has also led to
the increasing use of volunteer sponsors in other parts of the Province.
The impetus which community supervision has gained comes from many factors, not the least of which is a growing awareness by the general public that in
Canada we have too many people in custody compared to European countries, and
the realization that the proof of an offender's rehabilitation must come not from the
protected environment of an institution, but from the community to which he will
eventually return.
Review of the year
The statistical report which follows gives comparisons with previous years in
terms of case loads, pre-sentence reports prepared, parole supervision cases, and
Family Division activity. As statistics do not tell a complete story, the following
highlights need to be recorded:
• Of paramount importance is staff—a Service is measured in terms of the
effectiveness of its field staff. On April 1, 1971, field officer strength was 162, including eight officers undergoing training. At the end of March 1972, the complement was 173, including five officers in training—a net gain in trained staff of 14.
During the year, 31 new staff were trained, but separations and retirements took their
toll.   H. W. Jackson retired in January 1972 after more than 20 year's service.
• A new field office was opened in Sidney on Vancouver Island in May 1971.
The establishment of this office facilitated improved services to the northern part
of the Saanich Peninsula and the Gulf Islands.
• Month-long summer training programmes for problem probationers were
again conducted at both Porteau Cove and Metchosin Camp. The final expedition
of the Metchosin group retraced the West Coast Trail from Port Renfrew to Bamfield.
• During the fall and winter, week-end programmes for juvenile probationers
experiencing difficulty with normal supervision methods were conducted at both
Porteau Cove and Metchosin. Close liaison was maintained between the Camp
staffs and the field supervising Probation Officers. Attendance on the week-ends at
the camps was mandatory, and supervising Probation Officers noted positive gains on
the part of the majority of probationers attending.
Under the leadership of two house parents, the week-end programme for girls
continued at Ruskin. The Ruskin facility offers a unique experience for girls who
reside in the Lower Fraser Valley area.
During the year, Marpole Hostel continued to serve as a residential facility for
juvenile probationers whose homes were unsuitable. This facility is maintained and
operated by the Corrections Service and accommodates eight boys at one time. The
supervising Probation Officer for each youth keeps in close touch with the hostel
house parents.
 SEARCH AND LEADERSHIP TRAINING
V
Rapelling down rock face.
Gaining Confidence.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72
BB  19
The House of Concord at Langley, operated by the Salvation Army, expanded
its residential facilities in January 1971 to a maximum capacity of 51 residents. A
new swimming-pool was completed and officially opened in December. As the
majority of the residents are probationers, a full-time Probation Officer is attached
to the House of Concord to give on-the-spot supervision and to assist in postrelease
planning.
• In Victoria, the Attendance Centre has continued to function as a positive
resource to the Family Division Court, affording an additional treatment alternative
with firm controls for difficult juvenile probationers.
• During the year, probation interviewers across the Province handled an increased number of maintenance order applications as well as assisting in the enforcement of orders already made. The substantial increase in maintenance payments
collected has meant that many more wives are now being adequately maintained by
their husbands and no longer have to look to public assistance for support.
New probation cases
Males:
Under 18 years
Comparative Statistics
18 to 24 years (inclusive)
25 to 39 years (inclusive)
40 to 64 years (inclusive)
65 years and over	
Subtotals
Females:
Under 18 years
1970/71
2,234
1,615
637
250
11
1971/72
2,541
1,762
729
284
18
4,747
  315
18 to 24 years (inclusive)  234
25 to 39 years (inclusive)  117
40 to 64 years (inclusive)  54
65 years and over  3
391
277
140
74
2
5,334
Subtotals
723
884
Total probation cases
New parole cases—
National Parole _.
Provincial Parole
Totals
New miscellaneous and voluntary cases
Grand totals	
New maintenance order supervision cases
Pre-sentence reports prepared	
5,470
142
699
841
4,197
10,508
699
6,735
182
691
6,218
873
4,837
11,928
909
7,467
 Chapter IT. Offenders in custody
Male admissions
Male admissions totalling 10,838 were received from the Courts during the
year under review. This was a decrease of 7.5 per cent over last year. When it is
considered that the previous year experienced a 17 per cent increase, this year's total
admissions represent a significant drop. It is of interest to note that the decrease
was spread evenly throughout all the regional correctional centres. The only increase experienced was in the number of juveniles received at the Haney Correctional
Centre.
The use of probation as an alternative to imprisonment appears to have been
the major factor in this reduction. Probation experienced a rapid and continuous
rise throughout the year. By way of comparison, it should be noted that, when the
probation case load fell off for a brief period last year, due to the curtailment in the
recruitment of Probation Officers, an increase in committals to prison resulted.
Direct committals from Court to the Alouette River Unit under section 64a of
the Summary Convictions Act dropped 20 per cent. However, the transfer of alcoholic cases from Central Classification kept the unit operating at capacity. This decrease in direct committals from Courts stems from a conflict over the interpretation
and philosophy surrounding the legislation for the treatment of chronic alcoholics.
It has now become apparent that this legislation should be expanded to support a
more comprehensive and far-reaching effort in the treatment of alcoholism. Treatment should be applied in the earlier stages of the disease rather than waiting until
the person deteriorates to the commonly termed "skid-row alcoholic," before being
committed to the unit. Recent mental health legislation appears to provide a suitable
example of a treatment and prevention approach to the problem. The adoption of
the mental health model would remove the alcoholic from the Criminal Courts and
treat him as a medical-social problem. This would go a long way toward resolving
the present conflict between the law and social treatment. Planning along these lines
is now under way and it is hoped recommendations can be presented early in the new
year.
The total daily average population for all male correctional centres in the Province decreased by 7.7 per cent, from 2,124 last year to 1,959. This reflects the drop
in admissions from Court and the continuing decline in the number of cases held in
custody during their waiting-trial status.
The pattern of sentences received by offenders was relatively unchanged from
last year. Again, sentences were relatively short, slightly over 50 per cent receiving
less than six months. This, with remission, would reduce the actual time served to
four months. Approximately one-third of all admissions received a sentence of less
than one month. A sizable percentage of these was serving sentences in lieu of a
fine. The Wardens at Prince George and Kamloops Regional Centres both reported
a large percentage of fine-option cases in custody. The number of young-adult
offenders receiving a definite/indeterminate sentence was reduced slightly this year.
In spite of this, the 18 to 23-year-old age category remained the largest in terms of
total admissions.
20
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72 BB 21
Female admissions
Female admissions to custody increased by 14.5 per cent—from 618 to 808.
In turn, the daily average population rose proportionately to 109.
The number of Court committals of chronic alcoholics to Twin Maples remained constant at the relatively low level of 18 for the year. As with the males,
the conflict inherent in the committal procedure led to an under-utilization of this
alcoholic treatment resource.
Admission of young-adult offenders with a definite/indeterminate sentence rose
by one this year to 23. Several significant differences in the female admissions compared to last year were:
(1) A relatively younger group—a 35-per-cent increase in the 18 to 23-
year-old category, the largest age category for females.
(2) Greater drug use—a 33-per-cent increase in those classified as habitual drug-users, now a third of the total admitted.
(3) Shorter sentences—those sentenced to less than one month increased
by 48 per cent to the point where they represent over half the female
intake.
It would appear the Courts have resorted to short prison terms for the young
drug-user to a far greater extent this year. The effectiveness of this trend is questionable.
Immigration cases
A sharp increase in the number of persons ordered held at correctional centres
by the Department of Citizenship and Immigration has placed a substantial burden
on our services. The Immigration Order cases increased over 100 per cent during
the year, from 246 to 528. This meant that considerable staff time was exhausted in
processing these cases in and out of the centres, arranging for interviews with Immigration officials, making constant security and segregation changes, and providing
counselling. The use of high-cost security accommodation for these detainees is
expensive. The volume of immigration cases for the Lower Mainland is such as to
warrant a separate Federal detention facility.
Juveniles
In October 1970, the maximum legal age of a juvenile offender was reduced by
Proclamation from under 18 to under 17 years. This was reversed in June 1971 by
a B.C. Court of Appeal ruling and many young offenders over 17 but under 18 were
released from custody. In January 1972 the Supreme Court of Canada reversed
the position once again and returned the juvenile age to under 17. The lowered age,
although in effect for only five months of the fiscal year, produced a substantial rise
in the number of 15 to 17-year-olds coming into custody. Over a three-year period
the number has risen from 251 to 474, an increase of almost 100 per cent.
British Columbia Indians
The number of male British Columbia Indians admitted to institutions continued to drop; 1,453 were received this year compared to 1,537 for 1970/71.
Kamloops Regional Centre received the highest intake, where one-quarter of the
total admissions was Indian. The female admission figure, as with last year, increased slightly, the Women's Unit receiving 142 compared to 136 for the previous
year.
 BB 22
Drug-users
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Drug-users (Male)
Correctional
1969/70
1970/71
1971/72
Centre
Infrequent
Habitual
Infrequent
Habitual
Infrequent
Habitual
38
44
44
1,098
178
103
18
69
11
124
107
1,615
321
54
32
2
15
136
108
1,999
258
55
49
Totals 	
126
1,397
311
2,022
261
2,361
The number of male offenders classified at time of intake as drug-users has increased, though not as sharply as in the past. The current year hopefully reflects the
greater efforts placed on education and prevention by the Province.
Classification
Central Classification Panel, located at the Lower Mainland Correctional
Centre, interviewed 2,312 admissions with sentences of two months or longer, a drop
of 10 per cent compared to the previous year. The panel is responsible for recommending the transfer of all admissions serving more than two months to the most
suitable Correctional Centre in the Province. It also interviews all young-adult
offenders sentenced to definite/indeterminate terms from any Court in the Province.
Numbers classified to young offender facilities reveal a slight decrease from the
previous year.
Significant changes in classification as reported by the panel were as follows:
1. Lower Mainland Centre—The number classified to the Lower Mainland
Regional Correctional Centre dropped by the considerable figure of 133—16 per
cent down from last year.
2. Westgate A—During the year the Westgate A young offender programme at
Lower Mainland Centre was gradually phased out. This unit was designed for British
Columbia parole violators and young offenders with severe behavioural disorders.
In the spring of 1971 the Classification Panel began classifying those posing less of
a custodial problem elsewhere, the largest number going to the Haney Correctional
Centre.
3. Haney Correctional Centre—This centre is now regarded as the normal
placement resource for young-adult offenders, the only exceptions being those young-
adults selected for special programmes. This has increased the Haney Correctional
Centre count to near capacity.
4. Vancouver Island Regional Correctional Centre—It was noted in the
Annual Report for 1970/71 that Pine Ridge Camp had replaced Snowdon Forest
Camp as the prime resource for men serving their first prison sentence whose residence was on the Mainland, and that Vancouver Island Regional Correctional Centre had become responsible for internal classification to its own camps. The Classification Panel visited the Vancouver Island Centre every two months during the year
to classify specially referred cases.
5. Chilliwack Forest Camps—The number of men classified to Chilliwack
Forest Camps has declined by 39 per cent. This decrease reflects the smaller number received at the Lower Mainland Centre who are able to qualify for normal forest
camp placement.    It is apparent that the increasing use of probation for older
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72
BB 23
offenders has drawn off many of those men who normally would have been placed
in camps.
A similar situation to the Lower Mainland Centre has been experienced by the
other regional correctional centres during the year. All reported fewer admissions,
with a preponderance in the younger age categories. As the Warden of Kamloops
reported ". . . we continue to receive large numbers of the younger inmates. With
the increase in probation and parole services we are finding a larger percentage
of problem types among them."
This same trend was evidenced elsewhere and has resulted in some very marginal cases being classified to camps. As a consequence, the number of men returned
to regional centres as unsuitable for camps has increased. In an attempt to cope
with this group of difficult inmates in a forest camp setting, a 30-man security unit
is currently under construction in the Chilliwack Valley. It is hoped that such a
resource will be able to handle those requiring more control than the ordinary camp
can exercise and that the number of transfers back to regional centres can thereby
be reduced. Should this pilot project prove successful, it will provide valuable experience to be followed in the other regions of the Province.
Remand population
The remand intake for the year showed a decrease of 7 per cent over last year,
while the number released on bail rose to 11.6 per cent. This latter figure was influenced by the provisions of the new Bail Reform Act, which became operative in
January 1972, thus affecting the last three months of the fiscal year.
Remand Prisoners, 1971/72
Correctional
Centre
Remand
Intake
Remand
to Bail
Discharged
at Court
From Remand
to Sentenced
Haney (young adults under 18)	
176
463
294
340
3,167
117
122
83
104
891
1
129
61
45
1,190
176
142
Kamloops 	
195
190
1,095
Totals..   ...
4,440
1,317
1,426
1,742
Unfortunately the reduction of the number waiting trial in the remand units has
been offset to a large extent by increases in other categories of waiting prisoners,
such as those detained by order of the Immigration authorities, transfers to the
penitentiary and the Provincial Mental Hospital, parole suspension cases, and those
remanded in custody for pre-sentence or psychiatric reports.
Research and data processing
The following research projects were undertaken during the year:
1. Centre Creek report—This was a survey of the functioning and effectiveness
of the Centre Creek Programme for recidivistic young offenders. Data were
gathered on offender background, response to programme, work accomplished,
disciplinary procedures, escape rates, and recidivism. The result suggested that the
programme was at least as effective as other programmes for this offender group.
Possible changes were discussed, e.g., methods of increasing active inmate involvement or participation in training, expanding the incentive system and improving the
induction procedure in an attempt to reduce the escape rate. These topics are now
under study and changes are planned.
 BB 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
2. Behaviour modification—Several meetings were held with staff members of
the Haney Correctional Centre to explore and consider the application of behaviour
modification or token economy methods on a pilot basis at that institution. There
are several problems involved.   The investigation is continuing.
3. Boulder Bay experiment—Young first offenders were placed in this programme on an experimental basis (random placement with a control group at the
Haney Correctional Centre) for the first year of its operation—June 1968 to June
1969. A preliminary descriptive report was submitted in 1970 and a first draft of a
final report has now been prepared. The four-month programme was found to have
a lower rate of recidivism than the 10 to 11-month Haney programme for this
offender group.
4. Development of the computer-based information centre for the Corrections
Service—This was initiated in April 1971.   The objectives of the system are:
(a) To standardize the data collection and reporting procedures of all
correctional centres and probation and parole offices within the Corrections Service:
(b) Provide computer-compiled statistics at regular intervals of the number of offenders processed through the Corrections system, based on
admission, transfer, and discharge data:
(c) Create and maintain a computer-based master file on offenders entering the system in order to eliminate the manual filing system currently
in use in the Corrections Service Headquarters:
(d) Develop a new recidivism analysis programme, preceded by research,
to ascertain the most indicative measures of recidivism applicable to
the purpose of the analyses:
(e) Design a programme for recording and processing of information on
offenders' programme involvement, achievement, and personality in
behaviour, in order to assess programme effectiveness for particular
types of offenders:
(f) Provide a research capability to allow for programme evaluation and
criminal trend predictions in order to improve planning and decisionmaking at all levels.
The first objective has been met and programme specifications are now complete to
meet the second objective. Work is proceeding toward meeting objectives (c) and
(d) by October 1972 and April 1973 respectively. No definite date has been set
as yet for completion of the programme to meet the fifth objective. The sixth objective is built in to the whole programme and output will be available when a sufficient data bank has been created.
Liaison has been maintained with other departments and agencies, both Federal
and Provincial, during the planning stages of the information base to ensure its com-
patability with other current developments.
Community re-entry programmes
A total of 1,736 cases, an increase of 15 per cent over last year, was released
by various authorities for supervision in the community—37 per cent of these were
released by the British Columbia Parole Board, 27 per cent by probation orders, 18
per cent by the National Parole Board, and 16 per cent by order of the Chief Probation Officer under section 64 of the Summary Convictions Act and Orders in Council.
During the year, 6,642 male offenders and 368 female offenders were released on
expiry of their sentences without any form of supervision. Supervision in the community was accordingly extended to one in every five offenders.   A total of 451
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72
BB 25
inmates was granted various types of temporary absence—195 proceeded on work
release to work in the community, serving their nonworking-hours in a correctional
centre; over 92 per cent were successful in completing work release and an amount
in excess of $79,500 in wages was earned by the total group; 39 per cent were granted
home and job search leaves for humanitarian or compassionate reasons; and 95
per cent were considered successful.
Work release on admission to a correctional centre
The highlight of the year in the temporary release programme has been the
opening of a Work Release Unit at the Lower Mainland Centre and the introduction
of Probation Officers to assist in this operation. A new programme was introduced
whereby first or occasional offenders of any age, with less than three-month sentences
to serve, could be considered for work release. Those selected were helped to retain
continuity of their employment and maintain their families' standards of living.
Through a streamlined application procedure, this type of work release could be
authorized within 24 hours of admission.
Eighty-one offenders were able to retain their former employment and maintain
their financial obligations to the community. Many received short-term intensive
counselling on financial management and with alcoholism problems during their non-
working-hours at the centre, and contacts were made for them with outside community self-help groups. All completed their sentences and only one was charged for
an offence involving contraband. Over $30,228 was earned by this group alone and
more than one-third of this amount was directed toward family maintenance, payment of fines, restitution, and financial debts. This programme has been considered
90 per cent successful. Further details may be found in the appendices to this
Report.
 BB 26
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 Chapter HL Regional correctional facilities
Security and discipline
Escapes and walkaways from all regional correctional centres and their satellite
forest camps totalled 62 during the year. Although this is an increase over last year's
total of 44, it still represents a remarkably low rate for the number of prisoners involved. The increase in escapes was confined almost entirely to walkaways from
forest camps. This particular total increased from 24 last year to 39 for the current
year. Escapes from the security institutions declined slightly. The fact is that in
spite of the hundreds transferred to open forest camps, only 39 walked away.
In contrast to the continuing decrease in disciplinary infractions during the past
several years, the number this year remained relatively unchanged in spite of the
declining population. Some of the factors responsible are noted in the following
excerpts from Wardens' reports:
"We still have a fairly high level of disciplinary cases. I do not consider this
unusual in view of the increase in the number of difficult and dangerous inmates admitted to this Centre during the year. The trend now seems to be moving away
from assaults on staff to more assaults by inmates on other inmates. Often these
physical assaults are the result of disagreements or acts of retribution related to the
drug scene. Often the incidents that prompt the assaults have occurred outside the
Centre."
"Disciplinary problems have increased over the year with an increase in the
younger inmates who are drifting around the country, possibly using or dealing in
drugs, etc."
"During the past year, and as previously reported, the one problem causing us a
great deal of concern is that of caring for the inmate suffering from the abuse of
hallucinatory drugs. This type of individual is most unpredictable, and considerable
staff time is taken up in supervising his activities."
The relatively younger age-group received in custody is undoubtedly a major
factor, combined with the fact that many of the more manageable offenders are now
being placed on probation and the stabilizing influence they exerted is no longer
present.
Two points of concern noted by the Warden of the Lower Mainland Correctional Centre were the noticeable increase in the amount of illicit drugs and paraphernalia seized by staff during the year and the setting of minor fires by inmates.
The drug smuggling reflects a greater use of drugs by the younger population in custody and is not an unexpected problem. However, the tendency toward the setting
of fires by obstreperous inmates is of particular concern. As noted earlier in this
report, the Westgate Unit is of wooden construction and represents a major hazard
to life in the event of fire. Although increased vigilance is being exercised by all
staff, it is imperative that this building be vacated of all inmate housing as soon as
possible.
The West Wing at Lower Mainland Centre, one of the wings used for housing
remand prisoners, unfortunately was the scene of a successful suicide last summer.
The victim, a young drug-user, was found hanging in his cell. Although quick action
was taken, all efforts failed to revive him. This Centre experienced 76 suicide attempts during the year. Fortunately, care and surveillance by trained "suicide-conscious" staff averted all but this one tragedy.
28
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72
REGIONAL CORRECTIONAL CENTRE FACILITIES
BB 29
Two types of cellular accommodation.
Gymnasium.
Entrance hall.
Women's Unit.
Accommodation.
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^v''■■■
 BB 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The only major incident of group rebellion during the year occurred on July
7, 1971, when there was a "sit-out" staged by 56 inmates in the Westgate Unit of the
Lower Mainland Centre. The group refused to return to the unit following an evening on the sports field. The reason for their actions was to pressure for relaxation
of the rules with regard to hair styles and some other minor concessions. Constant
surveillance and control by staff, together with some disciplinary action, soon returned the unit's functions back to normal.
Education
Academic
All regional correctional centres continued to offer academic courses in a variety
of forms.
At Prince George the full-time classroom programme continued under the
direction of a Correctional Officer who also supervised correspondence courses.
Most of the inmates now attempting to upgrade their education are at a very low
academic level and, because of learning and motivational problems, require a trained
and experienced teacher in remedial education. It is planned to engage a trained
teacher on a contract basis in the coming year.
At Kamloops the academic upgrading programme continued, with teachers
coming in from the community. During the past year, three teachers from Cariboo
College were involved and displayed a keen interest in helping inmates benefit from
their courses.
The educational programme at the Vancouver Island Correctional Centre,
under the supervision of two nuns from St. Anne's Academy, was expanded this year,
with provision of an additional classroom to include classes for illiterates, academic
upgrading, and correspondence courses. The interest generated by these two sisters
has had a most positive effect on the drop-out rate. The effectiveness of this programme is best illustrated by the cases of two inmates who reached Grade V during
the year when previous reports indicated that they were illiterate, mentally deficient,
and untrainable.
Chilliwack and Snowdon Forest Camps continued their classes with teachers
provided by the local school district on a contract basis.
At Lower Mainland Centre the classroom programme was suspended with the
closing of the Westgate A Unit. Correspondence courses were maintained in all
other units of the centre.
Trade training
Trade training continued in all centres with the emphasis on the development
of work skills through on-the-job training. The shortness of most sentences and
the low academic level eliminate the majority from vocational courses. However,
the experience the Kamloops Correctional Centre is having with Cariboo College is
being watched with keen interest for its possible application to other regions. Here,
the centre's training in industrial cooking is recognized by the college and can be
used for credit by inmates who wish to continue and are prepared to enrol in the
cooking course on their release. It is hoped that in time the woodworking and mechanical courses offered at the Kamloops Centre will receive the same recognition.
Vancouver Island Centre has had the services of a community volunteer teaching typing. This class has attracted a good attendance and several inmates have reentered the community having achieved a basic skill in typing. Hopefully, we will
be able to expand the use of volunteer teachers in the future.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72 BB 31
Social education
Both group and individual counselling were carried on by Correctional staff
at all centres and camps.
The Warden at Prince George reports that it has become a common occurrence
for Correctional Officers who act as inmate counsellors to be instrumental in placing
their men on work release. One outstanding example was an officer who had secured work placements for 14 work-releases.
A successful native Indian youth conference was held at Prince George last
year with the object of promoting better understanding and encouraging pride in
Indian history and traditions. Three native Indian inmates from the Prince George
Centre attended the two-day conference with an Indian Correctional Officer who
played a dual role as escort and panel member for the discussion groups.
At Lower Mainland Centre a special group discussion programme was organized for remand prisoners by the Senior Medical Officer and the Protestant Chaplain.
Organized lay counselling was instituted also under the supervision of an experienced
Principal Officer as a means of dealing with the problems of the remand population.
Both these efforts helped in relieving the tension and frustration bred by long hours
of continued lock-up in cells and the lack of proper physical facilities in these units.
Interest in activity groups continued to play an important role in the centres
and camps throughout the Province, with the assistance and guidance of an ever-
increasing number of volunteer groups from the community. We have been most
fortunate in receiving considerable help from such groups as The Elizabeth Fry and
John Howard Societies, Alcoholics Anonymous, and many similar organizations
interested in working toward prisoner rehabilitation.
Physical education and recreation
All centres, with the exception of Kamloops, developed a wide programme of
physical education and sports in excellent gymnasium facilities. Fortunately, this
year, the Department of Public Works was able to acquire a steel-fabricated building
for Kamloops. This will provide that centre with most adequate gymnasium,
library, and hobby space.
Vancouver Island Centre's new gymnasium was completed during the year and
has proven to be a great asset. The additional space has given a boost to inmates,
staff, and community volunteers alike. It is of interest to note that this centre now
has 10 officers who voluntarily attend at least one evening per week to assist in the
operation of an extensive evening programme. This programme includes sports,
hobbies, and various creative arts.
The inadequate facilities for waiting-trial prisoners at the Lower Mainland
Centre are again pointed out by the Warden in the following excerpt from his Annual
Report, which provides a direct contrast to the facilities noted above:
"Recreation for inmates in the remand units was again necessarily limited. A
very inclement winter season meant that our completely inadequate indoor recreation
spaces, the bottom floors of the West and South Wings, again had to be used. While
the extra time out of cells did serve to relieve some of the tension in these Units, it
did also provide an opportunity for aggressive inmates to prey on others in these
tightly enclosed areas. We were fortunate that of the number of assaults, mostly over
matters relating to illicit drugs, none resulted in death or permanent injury. It is my
respectful opinion that it is imperative that proper recreational space that can be
adequately supervised be provided for inmates in this classification at the earliest
possible time."
 BB 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The upgrading of the libraries at all centres and camps was accomplished, following a complete survey undertaken by the Corrections Service's Library Consultant. As a result, both the quality and quantity of books made available have increased immeasurably.
Industries
Manufacturing
The objective of the industrial programme is to provide a realistic and useful
work experience for as many inmates as possible under the most favourable conditions obtainable. The programme is geared to meeting the material needs of the
Service as well as responding to requests from other departments of Government
offering challenging work opportunities.
Clothing continued to receive priority in the production shops. With a reduced population it has been possible to work toward creating a stock on hand for
emergency issue. The use of new and more costly synthetic clothing fabrics has
necessitated a closer look at production methods. The input of money into the industrial programme is being carefully weighed against the output in terms of the
quantity of items produced, the quality of workmanship, and the training provided.
This year the carpentry, sheet metal, and motor mechanics shops were asked to
devote more time to devising practical applications of their work to assist in construction projects, heating and plumbing systems, and mechanical overhauls on
behalf of the Service. Both instructors and crews met the challenge, with the result
that many dollars were saved.
Agriculture
Despite setbacks due to floods and poor weather, the farms had a reasonably
productive year. Beef herds have reached their optimum in size, until such time
as we are able to obtain additional pasture. Flooding and an unfortunate train
wreck which released sulphur fumes over a wide area reduced our silage and vegetable production at Rayleigh Farm. On the positive side we acquired the use of 300
acres of hay land for the coming year in Prince George. This will do much to ease
the feed situation and assist in beef production next year. Feeder barns and equipment sheds have been added at two farms and extended root-vegetable storage at a
third. Each year sees more land coming under cultivation and many man-hours
are spent in improving the land we have under production. The piggery at Lower
Mainland Centre is operating at its maximum and supplies pork to all the outlying
correctional centres. Most institutions now have their own smokehouses to increase the variety of pork products for their own domestic use.
Forestry
Forest camps not only continued to make a significant contribution to the forest
and recreational areas of the Province but also provided an excellent training programme for both young and older offenders. The work programme was sufficiently
diversified and presented a wide variety of conservation projects. The most outstanding project to be initiated during the past year was the task of converting Stave
Lake (35 miles east of Vancouver) into a recreational area.
Crews from the Prince George Correctional Centre and Hutda Lake Camp prepared 242 acres for reforestation, planted a record number of trees, thinned and
pruned growing stock, fought three forest fires, developed a recreational area, and
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72
BB 33
maintained 21 miles of road. A total of nearly 12,000 man-days was contributed to
forest projects. The sawmill at Hutda Lake Camp produced close to 20,000 board
feet of lumber from logs salvaged from nursery development and forest clean-up. A
highlight of the Prince George programme was the introduction of a work-release
tree-planting project. Twelve inmates were selected from the Hutda Lake Camp
to work under the direction of a Forest Service foreman. The crew worked 201
man-days and planted 93,000 trees in an exceptionally difficult area covered with old
logging slash and brush.
Kamloops Regional Centre and its satellite camps—Rayleigh and Clearwater—
continued with forestry and range land projects. Further clearing was undertaken at
Heffley Lake and 11,000 trees were planted. Three and one-half miles of fence
were constructed on the Dew Drop Range. At Lac Le Jeune camp-site, slashing,
burning, and fencing were carried out. Community work projects included the
Royal Inland Hospital, a Girl Guide Camp, and the Kamloops Wild Life Park. Harvesting pine cones for the Forest Service took nearly 1,000 man-days. In June the
newly constructed sawmill at Clearwater Camp became operational, cutting logs salvaged from 12 acres of decadent timber in the Bear Creek area. Camp crews also
cut 10,000 fence-posts and 83,000 stakes and planted 6,000 Douglas fir trees.
The Chilliwack group of forest camps—Mount Thurston, Ford Mountain, and
Centre Creek—contributed over 10,000 man-days to forest and parks projects.
The work included sawmill operation, maintenance of roads, lookout trails, land-
clearing, tree-planting, and fire suppression. The largest single commitment was at
the Ford Mountain Nursery, where 3,600 man-days were spent clearing 26 acres of
virgin land for seed-beds and the ditching and lifting of 6 million seedling trees.
The sawmill produced over 100,000 board feet of lumber from logs salvaged from
forest clean-up.
On Vancouver Island, crews from the Say ward Camps (Snowdon and Lake-
view) contributed a total of close to 20,000 man-days on forest and parks projects.
These included nursery development, camp-site maintenance, and the operation of
a sawmill, as well as road maintenance, a beach-cleaning project at Oyster Bay to
improve nesting areas for seabirds, and cleaning up forest debris at Amor Lake.
Lakeview Camp sawmill was productive during the year, cutting nearly 150,000
board feet of lumber from logs salvaged from the forest and shoreline clean-up. In
addition, 949 fence-posts and 30,000 cedar stakes were produced.
Fire-suppression crews were organized in each forest camp. These crews are
given instruction on all aspects of fire suppression by Forest Service personnel.
Instruction is carried out by use of films and practical demonstration, using helicopters, power-saws, and the most modern fire-fighting equipment and techniques.
Camp inmates took action on a total of 12 fires during the season and the Forest
Service reported that their performance was most satisfactory.
Community programmes
Red Cross Blood Donor Clinics were again set up at all centres and camps
several times during the year.
Voluntary work parties assisted on a wide variety of community projects across
the Province. On Vancouver Island, volunteers contributed many man-hours to
the Project Seventy display at the Provincial Museum.
The services of two inmates were used by the Provincial Government in making
spot commercials for the Council on Alcohol, Drugs, and Tobacco. These commercials were aired over all British Columbia radio and television stations.
 BB 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Construction and works
At the Lower Mainland Centre a continuous upgrading programme has been
under way for the past three years. Plumbing, locking systems, records, and admitting areas have all been improved. A study is under way to determine methods
of remodelling and upgrading the hospital unit.
As to the general state of this centre, the Warden reported:
"It is becoming more evident that many inmates at the Lower Mainland Centre
are not receiving proper treatment in accordance with present-day standards. The
main reason for this is the complete inadequacy of much of our physical plant and
its lack of acceptable living facilities. The main building, particularly the remand
section, in addition to being emotionally depressing, has often been overcrowded
with an increasing number of dangerous and disturbed people."
At Vancouver Island Regional Centre a gymnasium has been completed and
mechanical and electrical services improved. The next phase is to increase accommodation and to make internal improvements in the kitchen and housing areas.
The Snowdon Forest Camp, a satellite of this centre, has a gymnasium nearing completion. This building is being constructed by inmates from lumber supplied by the
Lakeview Forest Camp sawmill.
Treasury Board has given approval for the erection of a gymnasium at the site of
the Kamloops Regional Centre this spring. This building will include a workshop
for prison industries.
A 30-man security unit is near completion for the Chilliwack Forest Camps.
This is of new design and it is to be used as a "back-up resource" for difficult people
who otherwise would have to be transferred back to the security of the Lower Mainland Centre.
The trailer units were finally completed at Prince George Regional Centre,
with accommodation for 24. These units will be used for men going out by the day
on work release and for short-term inmates working on the institution's farm.
Lower Mainland Centre—Women's Unit
The daily average population of the Women's Unit showed a slight increase
during the year. Many admissions, mainly those serving definite/indeterminate
sentences, or charged with theft and child neglect, were transferred to Twin Maples.
A large proportion of the population were borderline behaviour cases and LSD
flashbacks. This wide variety of problem groups makes a treatment programme
very difficult to operate. There was an increase in the rate of recidivism of female
offenders.
Disciplinary problems increased with the growing number of unsettled and
aggressive young soft-drug and barbiturate-users received this year. The limited
facilities for handling these inmates became more evident than ever before as the
character of the unit changed gradually into more of a remand unit.
The increase in the number of mentally ill prisoners was of special concern,
making safety and control of the population generally very difficult.
Despite these problems, the counselling programme continued on several levels,
from discussion to psychotherapy, depending on the cohesiveness of the group. The
most intensive group therapy was held twice a week in the young offenders unit,
helping to pave the way for eventual day parole and re-entry into the community.
All staff were assigned case loads for lay counselling under the supervision of Senior
Matrons. At present a special group programme for the more sophisticated female
offenders is being organized.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72
BB 35
The educational programme had an average enrolment of 15 students per day,
varying in age from 16 to 23 years. Courses ranged from the basics to Grade XII
level. Commercial courses were provided for upgrading as well as for initial training
for women working toward work release or parole. A special programme was introduced for students of low IQ. In addition to school work, training was given in personal hygiene, grooming, sewing and mending, laundry, and practical nursing.
Vocational training in cookery, sewing, and housekeeping was provided on a
practical day-to-day basis for all at the centre. The women care for their own needs,
taking turns in housekeeping, kitchen, and laundry areas. The power sewing-room
continued to meet the centre's clothing requirements and in addition served other
regional centres by manufacturing bed linens, curtains, and other basic items.
Intergroup tournaments in baseball, badminton, and volley ball were arranged
during the year and a number of community teams visited to put on exhibition games.
The Elizabeth Fry Society and various church groups deserve great credit for
their dedicated efforts to keep inmates in contact with the community and to assist
them, when the time comes, to re-enter society.
During the year, 16 women were released on parole and five were given work
releases.
 Chapter IV. Young-adult training centres
Classification
All young-adult offenders from any Court in the Province receiving a definite/
indeterminate sentence are brought to the Classification Unit at Lower Mainland
Regional Correctional Centre, where the background of each is studied to determine
the most appropriate placement. Juvenile offenders raised to adult Court, however,
are likely to go direct to the Haney Correctional Centre Remand Unit on account of
their age, and when sentenced are classified right at the Haney Centre. They still
may be considered for any training centre or camp in the Province.
This year, 774 young offenders received definite/indeterminate sentences, a
drop of 30 from last year. Although this is the second consecutive year experiencing
a slight decline, the total remains well above the 1968/69 figure of 658. Approximately 50 per cent of the 774 were classified to the Haney Correctional Centre, an
increase of 10 per cent. This was due to the phasing-out of the Westgate A Unit at
the Lower Mainland Centre. In the autumn of 1971 the capacity of Westgate A
was reduced to 40 and all inmates who were considered able to function elsewhere
were reclassified. Finally, in March 1972, Westgate A was closed altogether. It is
still envisaged that the Lower Mainland Centre will have to maintain a group of the
more seriously inadequate young offenders with whom Haney Correctional Centre is
not equipped to cope.
In May 1971, Stave Lake Camp was organized. Initially a small group was engaged in camp construction, but by October 1971 the camp was in full operation.
This facility provided an additional resource for those young-adults serving their first
sentence of imprisonment. Central Classification at Lower Mainland Centre selects
those who are eligible and sends them to Pine Ridge Camp. There they are seen by
the Haney Classification Committee, and those considered suitable for Stave Lake
are finally selected.
The remaining 50 per cent of young-adult admissions this year were placed in
open training centres at New Haven, Boulder Bay Camp, Pine Ridge Camp, and
Centre Creek Camp. All of these, except Pine Ridge Camp, which increased its
intake, received relatively the same number for training as in the previous year. The
classification and orientation programme at Haney Correctional Centre continued
to develop during the year. All trainees upon admission were housed in House 5 for
a two-week orientation period. Through information-giving and interaction an
attempt is made to have the trainees examine their individual needs, build positive
relationships with staff, and explore carefully the centre's programme to determine
those elements of it which are of interest and use to them. Interviews with the
Classification Officer assist trainees in self-evaluation and in sharing in positive
decision-making.
All trainees admitted to the centre, including those who had served previous
sentences there, were until recently participating in the two-week orientation programme. Increasingly it became evident that for recidivists the effect was greatly
reduced because of their knowledge of the centre. It was decided, therefore, to
have such trainees placed in a different house for approximately one week, where
they would work on general labour and during evening hours have the opportunity of
discussing with house staff the reasons for their return to custody.
36
 YOUNG ADULT FACILITIES
New Haven temporary accommodation.
**•**
Typical "House," Haney Centre.
Camp kitchen and dining-room.
Butcher's shop, Haney Centre.
Woodwork, Haney Centre.
On-job training—Haney Centre.
 BB 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Within the past year, Central Classification changed its policy with regard to
the classification of offenders serving definite/indeterminate sentences to Pine Ridge
Camp. Previously this group had been sent directly to the camp. They are now
being sent to the main centre, where they participate in the orientation programme.
This permits a more thorough assessment and, if final placement at Pine Ridge Camp
is deemed appropriate following the orientation programme, they can still be routed
there.
During the year a study was made of a system of classification which would
differentiate offenders according to personality variables. The aim of such a system
was to design specific programmes in each house for different offender types and
then classify each trainee to the house best able to work effectively with his particular type.
Young female offenders
This was the second complete year since legislation was introduced providing
the definite/indeterminate for young-adult females.
The special programme developed for this group in Cottage D at the Women's
Unit at the Lower Mainland Centre was transferred in September to the Twin Maples
Camp. The programme continued with its emphasis on group therapy, work, school,
and individual counselling. As the majority of these young women were drug-users,
special drug-counselling sessions were presented utilizing volunteer ex-addicts from
the community. Use was made of service projects, some of the girls helping at The
Woodlands School with the retarded children's swim classes, while others visited a
rest home in Maple Ridge.
By focusing on service to others rather than concern for self, this type of project
has proved most beneficial in getting the girls to achieve greater maturity.
Security and discipline
Escapes and walkaways for young-adult offenders totalled 64, a decrease from
last year. Although there was evidence of more hostile and aggressive behaviour
among the young-adult population than in the previous year, actual disciplinary infractions showed a slight decrease. The major incident of the year occurred at New
Haven on the morning of April 2, 1971, when the old dormitory block was completely destroyed by fire. This not only razed the living and recreation facilities but
destroyed the shops which had provided training for half the trainee population.
Living quarters were hastily set up in the gymnasium and trailers were brought in to
provide improvised accommodation for the metal and wood shops, and within the
week some semblance of order was restored and training went on.
The investigation that followed pointed to arson, and a trainee admitted to the
police that he had set the fire. He was brought to trial but was subsequently acquitted. Within a month of the outcome of the trial a second fire occurred, this
time in the basement of the main administration building. Thanks to the skill and
effort of the Burnaby Fire Department, the fire was brought under control and the
building saved. As a result of these two fires the decision was made to relocate the
institution elsewhere rather than attempt to rebuild onto old buildings in an area
already becoming increasingly built up with new housing developments. Planning
commenced on the design for a new institution to accommodate a slightly larger
trainee population, and 160 acres of farm property were acquired by the Government
in Langley Municipality.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72 BB 39
New developments in training programmes
The most significant event during the past year was the phase-down and final
closure of the Westgate A Unit at Lower Mainland Centre. This unit, with a carefully selected staff, had moved into a special gradated programme for persistent
young offenders in February of 1967. Over the years the staff met many challenges
in working with the most difficult young-offender group in the Province. The West-
gate A programme proved it could meet the urgent need during the years when the
Corrections Service was inundated with persistent and incorrigible young offenders.
The development, high success, and final phase-out of this gradated programme are
significant events in the history of Corrections in British Columbia.
Haney Correctional Centre continued to extend its house programme and will
be modifying it further to cope with difficult young offenders previously classified to
Westgate. Houses are encouraged to develop their own particular programme pattern. One house, for example, has been experimenting with a behaviour-modification
approach, using a merit-point system to stimulate and reward positive effort. House
staff evaluate each trainee, using a monthly merit evaluation form to rate effort in
such areas as work, leisure activities, dependability, co-operation, and self and social
development. Demerit points are awarded for poor behaviour. There has been a
noticeable decrease in behavioural incidents within the house since the introduction
of this system.
New Haven initiated a series of group outings during the year. Each of the
four living groups planned their own trips, the officers going out with them. The result has been a significant reduction in the number of misconducts noted in the institution.
Another development of interest commenced in the spring of 1971 when, in
co-operation with the B.C. Hydro and the Forest Service, plans got under way to
establish a work camp at Stave Lake for the purpose of converting this lake to a
recreational facility for the general public. The initial group of staff and trainees
working from an improvised tent camp on the lakeshore had to battle very adverse
elements in their efforts to prepare and construct more permanent quarters.
Education
Social education in the form of group and lay counselling continued at all facilities. Group counselling has proven to be a most effective method at both Boulder
Bay and Centre Creek Forest Camps, where the groups live and work together with
the same staff the entire period of their training. The relationships developed become intense and the impact of the instructors' leadership has proven to be of considerable value.
Educational release continued with four trainees attending high schools in the
Maple Ridge District. One of these completed Grade XII and has now finished
first-year university.
The need for a remedial approach in educational programmes has become more
apparent than ever this year. Many trainees have experienced repeated failure in
their former school life and enter classes with a very negative attitude. This extreme
school failure rate of the younger offender is best illustrated by New Haven, where
36 per cent of the trainees were at the elementary level. Encouragement and skilful
teaching is required to build up sufficient confidence to attain any degree of success
in their classwork. To meet this need, consultation is taking place with Douglas
College with view to developing some form of specialized remedial education.
 BB 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Vocational training
The vocational instructors at the Haney Correctional Centre spend a considerable amount of time with trainees, teaching good work habits and attempting to
change attitudes to a level acceptable to industry. Here again, lack of the required
basic education eliminated many from vocational courses. It is hoped that the
future development of a remedial academic programme will alleviate this problem.
One notable change in the vocational training programme at the Haney Correctional
Centre this year has been greater participation in producing items for use in the
construction and renovation of facilities around the Province. The sheet-metal shop
completed all the air and heating pipes and duct work for the new security unit at
Chilliwack Forest Camps and the class then went out to the unit with their instructor
and installed all the equipment and accessories.
Forest camps
Forest camps have been increasingly important in the training of young-adult
offenders. Conservation work in an open-security setting seems to have a meaningful impact on all offenders, particularly the first-offender drug-user. It provides a
mind-clearing period away from community influence and an opportunity for introspection and for thinking more realistically about future goals. It is too soon to be
able to talk about long-term results, but we are hopeful that this type of training will
have lasting benefits. It is gratifying to report that with few exceptions those transferred from security correctional centres to forest camps lived up to the responsibility
and trust placed in them.
During the year the Service was approached to see whether it would undertake
a clearing project for the B.C. Hydro on the shores of Stave Lake. The lake originally had been 9 miles in length, but in 1912, with the building of the hydro-electric
dam and the flooding of the partly logged-off forest valley, it was lengthened to about
18 miles. After the flooding, countless snags and stumps were left, many hidden below the surface of the lake, making it extremely hazardous to the boating public.
The number of persons drowned in the lake over the past 30 years serves as a grim
reminder of the dangers involved. The project got under way in the spring, the
Forest Service having undertaken the preliminary mapping and engineering. A
select group of trainees from the Haney Correctional Centre moved into a tent
camp and, during the next four months, constructed an access road and set up a
trailer camp to accommodate 30 trainees on the west side of the lake. By September
the clean-up operation, involving the removal of debris and pulling of snags and
stumps from both shoreline and lake, was in progress. To date a considerable
amount of clearing has been accomplished. The lake, with its sandy beaches and
numerous creeks, situated in a scenic setting surrounded by forest and mountains,
has tremendous recreational potential. With access improved there is little doubt
that Stave Lake will be used increasingly for fishing, boating, and picnicking by
residents of the Lower Mainland area of the Province.
Trainees for Stave Lake Camp are initially selected by the Central Classification
Committee for transfer to Pine Ridge Camp, a satellite of the Haney Correctional
Centre, where they are evaluated for placement at Stave Lake. The average age of
the Stave Lake trainee is about 25 years and the average sentence approximately six
months.
As a reward for sincere work effort, a new innovation, the week-end leave, was
introduced into the Stave Lake programme. The week-end leave (Friday to Sunday
evening) is a modified form of home leave which has been used in British Columbia
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72
BB 41
correctional centres for the past four years. During a seven-month period a total
of 76 week-end leaves was granted to 36 Stave Lake trainees, and only three were
considered unsuccessful. Trainees visited their families, wives, relatives, or friends
in the Greater Vancouver and Fraser Valley areas. No new offences were committed
while on leave, but one trainee was hospitalized for drug abuse. In most cases the
week-end leave helped strengthen family relationships and improved morale.
Work crews from Haney Correctional Centre and its satellite camps contributed
to many noteworthy projects. Nearly 20,000 man-hours were devoted to forest
reclamation. Projects included land clearance, nursery development, road construction and maintenance, tree-planting, the cutting of shakes and firewood, and the
manufacture of lumber products. The sawmill at the Pine Ridge Camp produced
over a quarter of a million board feet of lumber from logs salvaged from the lake
and forest.
Trainees from the Centre Creek's DASH programme took part in two search-
and-rescue missions during the 1971/72 fiscal year. The first involved the rescue
of a 7-year-old girl who had become lost while on a camping trip with her parents
in the Cultus Lake area. One officer and 12 DASH members were successful in
locating the lost girl, who was in good spirits and unharmed. The second involved
a hunter who became lost in the Mount Thurston region. It is interesting to note
that the lost hunter was located on September 7 by a Canadian Forces search party
just a few hundred yards from where the camp search party had broken off the search
the previous evening. A commendable job was done by all personnel involved in
both incidents. In May 1971, a tragedy marked this programme when two trainees
lost their lives in a drowning accident while taking part in a canoeing exercise on
Pitt Lake. The two were in a canoe which was swamped when they encountered
a sudden squall. The drowning occurred when they removed their life-jackets while
attempting to swim to shore. The loss of these two lives was a tragic experience,
not only to the next of kin but to all staff and trainees involved in the Centre Creek
programme.
Parole and temporary release
The number of cases released by the British Columbia Parole Board decreased
by 7.5 per cent to a total of 634. The encouraging improvement experienced last
year in the percentage of paroles successfully completed continued this year at the
high level of 83 per cent. The very high success rates experienced by both New
Haven and Twin Maples (96 per cent and 90 per cent respectively) was most
gratifying. The development of the intensive training programmes in Forest Camps
and the progress made in developing the house programme at Haney Correctional
Centre have undoubtedly contributed to the continued improvement in the over-all
parole success rate.
During the year, 168 temporary absences were granted to trainees for work
release, home leave, week-end leave, medical treatment, or to attend community
schools.   Only eight had to be revoked.
At the Haney Correctional Centre the creative job-search programme proved
quite useful when four trainees were selected following classroom sessions to
participate in a job-search "laboratory" in the City of Vancouver. The trainees went
into the city for a two-day stay and practised job-search techniques. During the two
days, three of the four trainees taking part were able to secure employment.
Home leaves have proved particularly helpful in improving family relationships
where the home environment has been supportive.   However, where the home en-
 BB 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
vironment lacked positive controls and where parental influence was marked by instability, poor results were experienced.
There has been a move toward greater community involvement on the part of
the Haney Correctional Centre's Probation Officers. The majority of the community
re-entry plans throughout the Lower Mainland are now being investigated and reported on by the centre's probation staff. This direct contact has improved communication between the staff and parents, to the benefit of all concerned.
Community projects
A wide range of community projects was undertaken again by all institutions
dealing with young-adult offenders, and results have continued to be encouraging.
Work forces from Boulder Bay Camp assisted in various community projects involving the Maple Ridge Rod and Gun Club, a Girl Guide camp, and the construction
of park trails. Voluntary work projects continued to be a core element in the house
programme at the Haney Correctional Centre and provided a focus for activity during the year. As in the past, several Red Cross blood-donor clinics were held at all
centres and camps.
Construction and works
The kitchen-dining hall and storage facilities lost by fire last year at Centre
Creek Camp were replaced by trainee labour, utilizing lumber cut at the Mount
Thurston mill. At Pine Ridge Camp a new 20-man living unit was constructed to
house the additional population created by the transfer of the first-offender group
from Snowdon Camp.
New Haven responded rapidly to the disorganization and loss of accommodation caused by two fires, and erected several temporary buildings. This, along with
the use of trailers, has allowed the training programme to continue with minimal
disruption.
 Chapter V. Treatment of alcoholics
The resident population of the Alouette River Unit, a minimum security treatment facility for male alcoholics, again reached its capacity of 153 during the year.
Twin Maples farm, the satellite facility for females, continued to operate well below
its capacity of 60.
Admissions
Admissions to the Alouette River Unit came from two sources—those sentenced
to imprisonment whose primary problem appeared to be alcoholism (this group was
selected for transfer to the Alouette River Unit by Central Classification) and those
committed direct by the Courts on confirming orders, following medical certification,
under the provisions of the Summary Convictions Act.
The number of males transferred by Central Classification increased substantially to a total of 171. This increase in transfers was made possible by the drop in
direct Court committals from 251 last year to 199 for the current year.
There appears to be no lack of offenders sentenced to a term of imprisonment
who have an alcoholic problem. However, the pattern of revolving-door short sentences is a great handicap in providing for the proper treatment of their alcoholism.
It is hoped that the conflicts in approach by the Courts toward the committal of
alcoholics for treatment can be resolved in the coming year.
Fortunately, amendment was made to the Summary Convictions Act in May
1971 which made it an offence to leave the unit without authority. In June, after
the amendment, there was a noticeable drop in walkaways. The total for the year
was 79. This compared favourably with last year's total of 190. It is significant to
note that, of the 79 for the year, 47 were in the months of May and June. After
the impact of the amendment became apparent through cases being taken to Court,
the problem diminished considerably for the remainder of the year.
Although the number of walkaways was still high, most of them were in the
chronic phase of alcoholism—people who just refused to accept their illness and who,
43
 BB 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA
by walking away from treatment, were seeking to evade or deny that they had a
problem. Many of them had plans to leave the Province and thought that going
elsewhere would solve everything. Few were able to follow through on their plans
and eventually returned to skid road, where they were ultimately picked up and
returned to the Unit. It was gratifying to see at least a few start to come to grips
with their problem after repeated failures. It is perhaps apropos to point out here
that the method of selection of people for a confirming order is somewhat questionable. There is little doubt that with 25 per cent of the persons sent from Court,
although undoubtedly in need of treatment for their alcoholism, they are quite
incapable of becoming involved in treatment.
Discipline was not a serious matter except in two instances. On one occasion
a resident was charged in outside Court for assaulting an officer by throwing a cup of
coffee in his face. The resident's attitude was still poor when he returned to the unit
after serving an additional sentence, but, surprisingly, he wrote the officer seeking
help after his final discharge.
The punishment cells were not used after May and this appeared to have a
quietening effect on the unit. Curtailment of earnings, suspension of privileges, and
with persons serving a sentence, the awarding of remission, seemed to provide adequate sanctions.
The health of the residents continued to be a major concern. The way residents
live while drinking heavily, the self-neglect and the physical and mental deterioration,
resulted in numerous admissions of very sick people. Many were in the process of
taking medical treatment at the time they were arrested, but could not follow
through with it because of their drinking pattern. Thus, when they came to the unit
they were in grave need of medical services; 21 persons required hospitalization
within one week after admission.
Treatment programme
The significant development this year was the evolution of a more consistent
method of treatment moving in the direction of a therapeutic community where both
staff and residents see themselves as persons involved with each other. It was a
settling-in year, after a heavy emphasis on staff training last year. Now both staff
and residents have a conviction that a rehabilitation process is taking place.
A three-month block of recovery lectures was held daily, starting in January.
These lectures covered a variety of topics dealing with the physical, emotional, and
spiritual aspects of alcoholism. Staff did much research in developing meaningful
talks, and some were of a very high calibre. Personnel from all parts of the unit,
ex-residents, and persons from the community participated along with the residents.
The effect of these lectures exceeded expectations and contributed immensely to staff
morale and to staff and resident awareness of the rehabilitative process.
Due to the continual sharing of information among staff, counsellors were
better able to evaluate a resident's progress. Improved "progress log" reporting
helped everyone to obtain a clearer picture of each resident. Having more literature available, the zeroing-in on alcoholism by the A.A. counsellors, and the development of the recovery lectures, contributed to making the content of counselling
relevant to alcoholism.
The number of special counselling groups where attendance was voluntary increased this year and several leaderless groups were in process for as long as six
weeks' duration. These groups were sometimes attended by staff on request from
the group.   The topics discussed centred on the A.A. programme or A.A. traditions.
Highlights of the year included the native potlach, the A.A. programme, and
the Christmas concert.   Each involved the outside community and a congenial mix-
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72 BB 45
ing of men and women residents and staff. One project which it is hoped will develop was the Future Group. This was a group of residents on definite sentences
who thought more could be done to assist fellow residents on discharge by encouraging their peers to get involved in the programme. The group set up interviews to
help identify residents' needs and evaluate their sincerity. So far the Future Group
has worked effectively in supporting the work of a residents' counsellor and Probation Officer.
Release and after-care
Of the 247 male discharges on confirming orders, 201 went to some kind of
domiciliary care.   The remaining 46 made private arrangements.
Because the first two weeks at a Halfway House are critical, particularly for
those who view going to such a place simply as a way of getting out of the unit, a
procedure was initiated whereby some persons would go on leave of absence leading
to a discharge. Only three such leaves were processed, so it is too soon to comment
on their effectiveness.
Thirteen men and seven women received National Paroles, but no residents
were granted work release or day parole.
Evaluation
The average length of stay of persons on a confirming order remained at just
under four months, the same as last year. There were 80 persons returned by revocation of order of discharge, compared with 107 last year. This shows a significant
drop, particularly since there were 225 discharges last year and 247 this. It has
been noted that many of those who return two or three times show improvement and
an increased desire to succeed after failure.
Of those released by order of the Chief Probation Officer, 40 per cent, compared with 37 per cent last year, were found to be sober as at March 31, 1972; 32
per cent, compared with 47.5 per cent last year, were brought back for training, and
the whereabouts of 24 per cent was not known.
For those residents under sentence, it is known that 48 of the 139 released on
expiration of sentence were sober at the year-end. Many of these returned to the
unit for meetings or were seen by staff at A.A. meetings throughout the Province.
Construction
With the near completion of the Administration-Infirmary building, the unit
has shed its work-camp appearance and looks more like a rehabilitation centre. The
existing "houses" have been kept in good state of repair, and the kitchen completed
last year has functioned efficiently.
Discussions have been held with the Department of Public Works on planning
for a fourth "house." This will be a two-floor type of design with rooms for three
rather than dormitories. It will include a therapy room for each group of 12, as
well as a large dining-room/lounge.
The existing Administration Building will be altered shortly to provide a temporary chapel, two therapy rooms, a barber shop, and storage space for personal
belongings.
A road that bypasses the unit, replacing the Hydro thoroughfare through the
unit, has been completed except for blacktopping, and consideration is being given
to moving the power-lines and telephone-lines to this road.   This change has done
 BB 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
much to enhance the appearance of the unit and, in addition, has provided an ample
supply of topsoil to carry out necessary landscaping.
Twin Maples
At Twin Maples there are now three categories of residents—
(1) chronic alcoholics on a confirming order;
(2) young offenders on a definite/indeterminate sentence;
(3) women serving definite sentences, some of whom have an alcohol or
drug problem and some who are in the same age-range as the young
offenders.
In addition to these categories there was a large native Indian population with similar
basic needs, but also with problems resulting from their ethnic group.
Chronic alcoholics
The programme for the alcoholics continued much the same as last year, but
with the addition of daily recovery lectures. Strong community support was received
in all aspects of the A.A. programme and in the Alanon activities which all persons
who were not alcoholics were encouraged to attend. Residents attended 10 special
community A.A. activities in addition to some 97 general community A.A. meetings.
Guidance sessions in the first five steps of A.A. were conducted weekly in
separate units by the two chaplains. Correctional Matrons were responsible for lay
and group counselling on a weekly basis. A unit A.A. meeting was held weekly
and an open-house meeting was held once every three months. As at the Men's
Unit, the involvement of persons from the community resulted in several residents
finding A.A. sponsors on discharge.
Of the 24 women on a confirming order, 17 were discharged under supervision
during the year, 12 of them to Halfway Houses. Nine of these 17 discharges were
doing satisfactorily at the year's end.
Definite sentences
Persons on definite sentences did not have a special programme but fitted into
the above-noted programmes in keeping with their needs.
Native women
Native Indians comprised about 50 per cent of the total population, the majority
of them serving definite sentences. The Roman Catholic chaplain conducted a
separate session of counselling for them as it was found they were somewhat reticent
to speak up in mixed groups. The Native Fellowship Club also gave them a sense
of identity as they pursued Indian culture, crafts, their place in the total community,
and their relationship to other residents. The natives attended several outside functions at the Vancouver Indian Centre, a homemaker workshop, an Indian Regatta
at Cultus Lake, as well as co-educational meetings once a month with the club at the
Men's Unit.
Physical training and recreation
In addition to the work and counselling programme, a fairly broad range of
recreational activities was conducted. These included softball on the new ball
field, table tennis, indoor bowling in Haney, and swimming at Whonnock Lake.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72
BB 47
Five days a week residents did jogging, calisthenics, and yoga, the matrons participating as enthusiastically as the residents.
Hobbies and craft work were encouraged and social evenings were held periodically with several outside groups participating as a change in pace.
Work programme and prison industries
Each resident was required to put in 30 hours of work a week. The work
projects included tailoring, remake clothing, care of poultry and egg processing,
gardening, landscaping, land-clearing, food preparation, and housekeeping. Shortly
after the transfer of the young offenders there was some slight resistance to working,
but once the land-clearing started they quickly responded to the challenge.
Halfway Houses
The Halfway Houses for alcoholics, particularly Maple Ridge, Burnaby Lodge,
Prince George, Fraser House, and Kinghaven, are all on a sound footing. Maple
Ridge is now well finished and decorated and has a pleasant atmosphere; Burnaby
Lodge is planning a new building; and Prince George plans to open its new building
shortly. Three meetings of Lower Mainland Halfway House managers and board
members have been hosted at Alouette River Unit for the purpose of sharing information. A workshop for Halfway House personnel, sponsored by the Alcoholism
Foundation and planned for the fall, has received enthusiastic support from all
Halfway Houses in British Columbia. At this time it appears as if at long last some
form of co-ordination between Halfway Houses will become a reality.
 Chapter VI. Medical services
The following excerpts are taken from the Senior Medical Officer's annual
report:
General remarks and significant trends
"The amount of medical service required within the B.C. Corrections Service
is in direct proportion to the inmate population. For the past few years there has
been a general decline in the inmate population, and this has been reflected in the
medical needs of the individuals. This gradual reduction in medical needs of the
population in general has not affected the medical requirements of any of the institutions, with one notable exception. That exception is the Fairview Pavilion
Security Ward at the Vancouver General Hospital. The admissions to this ward
for the fiscal year 1969/70 were 235; for the year 1970/71 they were 193; and for
1971/72 they were only 165. During the fiscal year under consideration, the average daily census in the Fairview Pavilion Ward was 6.86. This daily census is very
difficult for the administration of the Vancouver General Hospital to justify, and I
expect that severe pressure will be forthcoming from the hospital to decrease or make
other arrangements for the ward.
"As you are aware, heroin addicts admitted to correctional centres and suffering from the effects of narcotic withdrawal are given methadone to alleviate their
symptoms. As you are also aware, methadone has been used extensively in the
community for the treatment of narcotic addictions and has created a considerable
political controversy. At the present time, the Department of National Health and
Welfare is reviewing the whole area of methadone distribution and it is expected that
severe limitations will be placed upon its use in the very near future. To what
extent the Federal Government regulations will affect the use of methadone in
Corrections Service institutions is not known at this time, but one can expect that
special authorizations and special procedures will have to be implemented in order to
prescribe this form of treatment.
"As a result of the decrease in inmate population, more time has become available to pursue aspects of medical care other than urgent direct problems, particularly
at the Lower Mainland Regional Centre. Dr. William Brown, Associate Professor
of Psychiatry at the University of British Columbia, and I have embarked on a
clinical trial to find a suitable substitute for methadone in the treatment of the narcotic withdrawal syndrome. After the present programme is completed, it is
hoped that the Corrections Service will in the future become more and more involved
in the research aspects of medicine and that small and large projects will be instituted."
Alouette River Unit
"A major development at the Alouette River Unit during the past year has been
the addition of a 15-bed infirmary, which is near completion. The new infirmary
contains also a doctor's office, a large treatment room, and a dental office. The
building facilities show a good use of space and seem to be well planned and designed. Equipment that has been ordered should prove satisfactory. It is almost
certain that, after the unit has been occupied for a period of time, minor changes
48
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72 BB 49
will have to be made. But I foresee no major problems arising. It is also heartening
to have a registered nurse employed full time at this unit, as well as a part-time
dentist.
"In my report last year I alluded to the alarming number of chronic medical
conditions that were being sent to the Alouette River Unit, many of these conditions
precluding any realistic treatment of the individual's alcoholism. During the past
fiscal year there seems to have been a marked reduction in the number of these
particular problems at the unit, which can only be attributed to a more efficient
screening process prior to admission."
Kamloops Regional Correctional Centre
"In my report dated one year ago I indicated that the record-keeping for
dangerous and controlled drugs in the Kamloops Centre was inadequate. Subsequently, arrangements were under way to correct this and in my latest discussion
with the Federal Narcotics Inspector, he indicated that the system now in use at
the institution is more than satisfactory.
"Also, during the past year, the Kamloops Regional Centre has been given the
use of a miniature X-ray unit for the screening of tuberculosis. This unit belongs
to and will be maintained by the Public Health Branch, and at this writing is in
the process of being installed."
Lower Mainland Regional Correctional Centre
"The gratifying low suicide rate at the Lower Mainland Regional Centre has
been maintained during the past year.
"A development during the past fiscal year that has affected the medical needs
of the remand prisoners is the change in policy whereby inmates ordered by the
Courts for psychiatric examination no longer may go to Riverview. All these inmates are now being examined at the Lower Mainland Centre. As a result, the
number and variety of disturbed individuals in the remand situation at the Lower
Mainland Centre has markedly increased. A count was taken on one day, and of
the 235 individuals on remand, 36 were there for psychiatric examination. The remand units at the Lower Mainland Centre are not suitable places for the detention
and examination of complex psychiatric problems. However, the staff have been
most tolerant and have shown a remarkable degree of sophistication in being able to
handle some of these very difficult individuals.
"During the fiscal year, Dr. R. A. Farquharson, Medical Officer at the Lower
Mainland Centre, was given a unique opportunity to attend a major medical conference in Houston, Texas, dealing with the problems presented by violent and
aggressive behaviour. Dr. Farquharson attended the conference for three days and
on his return prepared a very interesting report, which he presented to staff. The
conference itself dealt principally with theoretical concepts, and there were few
practical suggestions that resulted. However, some practical applications are under
research study at the present time and it is hoped that in the future information will
become available that can be used directly. Dr. Farquharson also met many of the
leaders in this particular field and established a "pipe-line" to the British Columbia
Corrections Service. It is expected that this "pipe-line" will enable the medical staff
of the Service to receive quickly the very latest information in the area of aggression
and violence."
 Chapter VII. Chaplains' services
The following excerpts are taken from the Protestant Senior Chaplain's report:
The historical role of the chaplain as a "religious functionary" and "generalized
social worker" within the framework of an institution which emphasized custody
rather than treatment has become modified in recent years. Traditionally the chaplain has been a source of comfort and help to troubled people, but he is now seeing a
wider responsibility as an agent of change, if not challenge, both within the institution
and in the community. Since November, the Chief Medical Officer and the chaplain
at the Lower Mainland Centre have met once a week with representatives of the
inmate population of the West Wing at the Lower Mainland Correctional Centre to
discuss living conditions, treatment, and other legitimate concerns. The doctor and
the chaplain held their meetings separately, with one or two officers present. The
chaplain reports that "at first these proved to be 'bitch' sessions; however, things
changed after the inmates realized that there was genuine interest and a desire to see
change." As a result, family visits are now permitted, newspapers are available,
remand officers have been assigned a case load of remandees, and extra phones have
been installed.
The second crisis identified is in the area of belief and in the growing number
of inmates who have no belief and are alienated from the church. The chaplains of
the Lower Mainland have spent much time at their monthly meetings at Headquarters discussing this array of belief and unbelief so evident among inmates. As a
result, experimental worship services have been held, professional men from the
community have been brought in to talk about their faith, and groups of Christian
young people have assisted the chaplain in presenting a contemporary Christian
message.
The third crisis in the religious institution is in the area of authority. We are
told, apparently, by public opinion polls that "organized religion is losing its influence over the life of modern man, and this is accompanied by declining confidence
in clergymen." This may be true, but the temper of our time is to respect no person
in a position of authority unless he has earned it and is competent. The chaplain has
long known that his authority is only respected as he gains the confidence of staff
and inmates. To achieve this he must be a real, warm, honest, open, and genuinely
concerned person who constantly tries to convey the kind of love and confidence
found in Jesus Christ, who regarded Himself as a servant. The chaplain at Haney
Correctional Centre reports that he has gone to work with trainees at Boulder Bay,
Stave Lake, and Pine Ridge Camps. He has done this because the trainees were out
working when he visited those areas, so he went where they were and shared in what
they were doing.
The other institution of central concern to the chaplain is of course the correctional institution. As the traditional prison becomes a correctional centre with
its emphasis on treatment rather than punishment, the chaplain has seen many of his
social service functions taken over by trained treatment specialists. Some chaplains
have viewed this trend with concern, but actually this is a welcome change for
several obvious reasons. The inmates receive more expert treatment, the chaplain
has more time for ministering to people, and, if competent, receives support and
stimulation as a member of the treatment team.
50
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72 BB 51
The chaplains at the Alouette River Unit and Twin Maples are integral members of the treatment team. As the 12 steps of the A.A. programme provide the
basis for treatment, they have specific responsibilities in discussing the concept of a
higher power with residents and to assist them through the fourth and fifth steps.
They also give recovery lectures and as team members evaluate the progress of inmates and the programme.
The chaplain at the Kamloops Centre reports that he held a series of drug
seminars for inmates during the year and invited professional people in the community to assist him on a teamwork basis.
The Senior Chaplain, along with experienced matrons and the carpenter instructor, established a group-living programme in Group 8 of the Women's Unit of
the Lower Mainland Centre, which included five hours of group therapy per week.
Besides any treatment-team involvement, the chaplain is responsible for worship
services, individual and family counselling, group discussion, and the sponsorship
of certain institutional programmes. At present he is only too happy to share with
or hand over to a trained person any of his traditional social service functions.
Finally, the shift in the locus of treatment from the institutional setting to the
community is most progressive and realistic and welcomed by chaplains.
The chaplain at Prince George reports that he has been working with Probation
Officers in their community re-entry programme, and the chaplain at Kamloops has
a good working relationship with Probation Officers, the Alcoholism Foundation,
and the Halfway House for Alcoholics in that area. These are part-time chaplains
who have greater freedom than a full-time chaplain to continue working with inmates when they return to the community. The Senior Chaplain has been involved
in home leaves for young married couples, both at the Lower Mainland Centre and
the New Haven Centre. The problems have been spiritual as well as marital, and
being able to visit a couple during a home leave increases the effectiveness of the
ministry. As fewer people are institutionalized, so will the chaplain's role become
modified both in the institution and community. The chaplain at Twin Maples has
put it well when he says, "to remain functional within the content of change is to
approach the chaplain's role with a degree of flexibility that will allow a response
to situations as they arise."
The following excerpts are taken from the Roman Catholic Senior Chaplain's
report:
Prince George Centre (Hutda Lake Camp)
Regular Sunday Mass was offered at the institution and once each week at
Hutda Lake Camp. Father Rayner reports the valuable assistance of "frontier
apostles," young lay people who volunteer one or more years of dedicated service
to the church in all facets of the church's ministry. Inmates especially appreciated
the volunteers' aid, and attendance at Mass and other functions improved. He
singled out for special praise the excellent co-operation of staff and the Protestant
Chaplain in the exercise of his duties and the work of his assistants.
Kamloops Regional Centre (Rayleigh and Clearwater Camps)
Fr. J. A. Mclntyre, with the Service since 1964, makes his regular weekly
visits and is always on call. However, he finds religious services are poorly attended
because of indifference among inmates. Personal interviews and counselling are
on the other hand quite successful and frequent.   In his personal contact he finds
 BB 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the greatest spiritual activity.   He points out the need and the great help of a specially set-aside chapel area.
At Clearwater Camp, he is assisted by Fr. Emil Sasges, who offers Mass there
regularly and has active involvement of inmates in the Liturgy and other programmes.
Chilliwack Forest Camps
Fr. Anthony Verrall, with the Service since 1969, conducts regular services
weekly and participates in programmes of a group nature jointly with the Protestant
chaplain. He has assisted in marital problems with inmate families, personal interviews, and reports he spent considerable time with staff "trying in an indirect way
to stimulate them into a deeper humane approach with their charges." Father
Verrall states that smaller numbers at the camps created a healthier mood and cooperation among inmates. He also expressed appreciation for the fine co-operation
and confidence of the staff.
Haney Correctional Centre
Fr. Karl Bohnenberger, in the Corrections Service since 1964, has suffered ill
health during the past year but has, nevertheless, maintained excellent service for
the centre. Besides the regular services offered by the chaplain, he baptised two
trainees whose backgrounds were Catholic. He offers Mass on all Sundays and
holy days; is available to administer the other Sacraments; gives weekly lectures as
part of the new intake programme; participates in individual counselling, especially
on marriage and family problems; assists with pre-release planning; and regularly
visits Pine Ridge and Boulder Bay Camps.
Father Bohnenberger reports he also provided employment opportunities and
accommodation for trainees during transition and adjustment prior to community
return and has maintained contact with parolees during and after expiration which
often necessitated contact with Probation Officers. He singled out the need for a
chapel for more effective religious services and suggested programmed orientation
for pre-releases.
Alouette River Unit (Twin Maples)
Fr. Mel Cropley, who joined the Corrections Service in 1970, was assigned the
spiritual care of Twin Maples in 1971, following the resignation of Father Fouquette.
Besides the regular duties of the chaplain, which he faithfully carries out,
Father Cropley aids in guidance regarding Steps 2 to 5 of the A.A. programme, and
assists the A.A. Steering Committee when possible. He also works with the volunteer residents and points out that his former years working with the Indian people,
living among them on reserves, helps in his administration of the spiritual needs of
the Indian residents.   He also gives one recovery lecture each week as assigned.
Vancouver Island Centre (Sayward Forest Camps)
Father Kennedy resigned in February 1972 and we have been waiting for a
nomination for appointment since that date.
Father Cunningham was transferred from Campbell River to Victoria in September 1971. His replacement, Fr. Gerald Herkl, the new pastor at Campbell River,
was not appointed until March 1972.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72 BB 53
New Haven Centre
"Each Tuesday at 1 p.m. I hold a Padre Hour at this Centre, with open discussion on religious and spiritual topics. Mass is offered Sunday at 9 a.m., with inmates singing and responding with participation in the religious service.
"Resident inmates are individually interviewed by me on admission, and further
counselling sessions are held with them as requested and (or) required. Few admissions have had religious training at home, and all must be motivated to seek
more knowledge of God and Divine Truths. However, many succumb to group
pressure after a while and show complete indifference."
Lower Mainland Correctional Centre
Fr. H. I. Bader, although only in the Corrections Service since November 1971,
has worked previously in the Canadian Penitentiary Service, bringing with him valuable experience. Father Bader offered Mass twice each Sunday for programme and
remand units, as directed by the institution, with varying attendance. However, a
significant increase in active participation by inmates was noted and a steady increase
of reception of the Sacraments, even as the institution's population decreased. He
also experimented with one of the programme units, using psycho-therapy group
technique, adapted to the peculiar circumstances of the maximum security gaol and
its limited facilities, and found it to be workable, well received, and appreciated by
the inmates, and productive. Other regular chaplain duties were faithfully carried
out, and again most of his time was occupied in individual counselling.
Lower Mainland Centre Women's Unit
"Each Tuesday I interview all new Roman Catholic admissions here, offering
the services of the chaplain, encouraging Catholics to attend Mass each Sunday,
and other activities and functions involving the chaplain, and those volunteers assisting me.
"A Padre Hour is held each Tuesday evening for the women, followed by a
period of open discussion on subjects pertaining to the spiritual growth and development of the inmates. Confessions are heard regularly, and any time on request, and
Sunday Mass was offered first on Sunday afternoons to accommodate greater numbers, and later on Saturday evenings when special permission was given by the
Archbishop for Catholics to fulfil their Sunday obligations with the Saturday-night
celebration of the Liturgy. This special privilege was extended to all chaplains of
the Service in January 1972.
"This change was well received and 50 per cent of Catholic inmates attended
regularly. The inmates and myself are very grateful for the services of the Sisters of
the Child Jesus from North Vancouver, who come in numbers each week to lead
the girls in singing and further participation in the weekly Liturgy."
 Chapter VIII. British Columbia Board of Parole
Membership of the Board remained as for the previous year:
C. J. A. Dalton, Chairman.
A. Watts, Q.C., Vice-Chairman.
Eric Kelly.
Mrs. J. M. Norris.
Dr. Gordon Kirkpatrick.
The Board continued operating in panels monthly at the various correctional
centres on the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island.
It has been unnecessary to date to hold meetings at either Prince George or
Kamloops Centres; however, the number of suspended and revoked parolees in
custody at the Prince George Regional Correctional Centre is increasing and may
warrant personal interviews on a periodic basis at some future time.
The Board enjoyed the usual ready and close co-operation of the Corrections
staff, and relations were harmonious.
The Board advocates an increased probation staff in order to assist parolees
adequately. If supervision is not available or not readily available, then the concept of parole is not fulfilled.
Parole revocations were 26 per cent of those on parole, compared with 30
per cent in the previous year.
Paroles granted were IV2 per cent less than in the previous year, partly as a
result of increased probation sentences.
Suspensions of parole were about 5 per cent higher than in the previous fiscal
year. The Board continued to find this tool to be an effective experience for borderline performers, particularly those parolees with steady work but who tend to get
into difficulties in their leisure time. Short suspensions in local lockups appear to
have a salutary effect on the parolee, and we hope draw the attention of their friends
and families to the fact that parole is not a game.
Although the total male population of Indians in correctional centres was down
slightly this year, we are concerned at the high number relative to the total population.
The majority of trainees with whom we deal come from broken, unstable homes,
thereby having had little or no experience of affection, security, and disciplines. A
correctional centre is their first experience of someone taking an interest in them
as individuals and trying to bring some order into an unorganized life. Certainly if
more could be done for these individuals at a younger age while they are in their formative years, much of the later correction efforts might not be necessary.
A fair number of the above category has also become involved in drugs. In
addition, there is an increasing number of trainees with reasonable family backgrounds who are in prison as a result of drugs. Many of these are ruining what
otherwise could have been a healthy productive life. This increasing number of those
on hard drugs, many of whom are heroin addicts, is alarming.
54
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72
BB 55
1. Summary, April 1, 1971, to March 31, 1972
1971/72 1970/71
Number of sittings held  132 98
Number released on parole  634 687
Number released on National/B.C. Parole     33 37
Number of paroles revoked  173 203
Number of paroles cancelled       8 14
Number of paroles suspended     70 67
2. Comparative Statement of Releases on Parole During Fiscal Year
and Revocations Applying to Those Paroles
Cancelled
Conversely
Released
on Parole
Revocations
Indeterminate
Sentences
Percentage
Successfully
Completed
Paroles or
Continuing
Percentage
Vancouver Island Centre—
1971/72	
38
7
	
18
31
82
1970/71...  	
83
14
3
20
66
80
Chilliwack Forest Camps—
1971/72	
66
13
20
53
80
1970/71	
73
13
18
60
82
Lower Mainland Centre—
1971/72 	
67
18
27
49
73
1970/71	
85
14
3
20
68
80
New Haven Centre—
1971/72	
24
1
4
23
96
1970/71 	
28
2
7
26
93
Haney Correctional Centre—
1971/72 	
428
65
15
363
85
1970/71
417
58
1
14
358
86
Prince George Centre—
1971/72	
—
	
1970/71	
1
1
	
100
	
Kamloops Centre—
1971/72  _..
1
1
100
1970/71    ,.
—
Alouette River Unit
(Twin Maples Unit)—
1971/72                           . -
10
1
10
9
90
1970/71 	
Totals—
1971/72
634
105
17
529
83
1970/71    .           	
687
105
7
16
575
84
 BB 56
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Total Revocations Based on Court Action and Other Parole
Violations Compared
Based on
Based on
Total
Revocations
Court
Action
Percentage
Other
Violations
Percentage
Percentage
Vancouver Island Centre—■
1971/72.      ....
7
47
8
53
15
100
1970/71	
18
60
12
40
30
100
Chilliwack Forest Camps—
1971/72	
7
33
14
67
21
100
1970/71 	
19
59
13
41
32
1C0
Lower Mainland Centre—
1971/72...	
26
79
7
21
33
100
1970/71..	
17
52
16
48
33
100
New Haven Centre—
1971/72	
1
50
1
50
2
100
1970/71	
3
43
4
57
7
100
Haney Correctional Centre—
1971/72	
48
47
54
53
102
100
1970/71 	
65
58
49
42
114
100
Prince George Centre—
1971/72	
1970/71-	
1
100
1
100
Alouette River Unit
(Twin Maples Unit) —
1971/72   ...
	
	
	
	
	
	
1970/71	
	
	
	
	
	
—
Totals—
1971/72  ....
89
51
84
49
173
100
1970/71.  ....
109
53
94
47
203
100
Total Suspensions Based on Court Action and Other Parole
Violations Compared
Based on
Court
Action
Percentage
Based on
Other
Violations
Percentage
Total
Suspensions
Percentage
Vancouver Island Centre
1971/72   	
1970/71  	
Chilliwack Forest Camps—
1971/72.
1970/71  	
Lower Mainland Centre—
1971/72	
1970/71	
New Haven Centre—■
1971/72	
1970/71..- 	
Alouette River Unit
(Twin Maples Unit)—
1971 /72  	
1970/71  	
Haney Correctional Centre—
1971/72  _....
1970/71	
Totals—
1971/72	
1970/71	
16
10
19
18
57
17
13
22
30
33
25
27
27
32
30
51
49
100
43
83
87
78
70
100
100
100
67
75
73
73
9
10
48
40
70
67
10O
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1971/72
BB 57
5. Total Suspensions Resulting in Revocation Compared to Total
Suspensions Continuing on Parole
Resulting
in Revocation or
Cancellation
%
Continuing on
Parole or
Completed
%
Outstanding as of
End of
Fiscal
Year
%
Deceased
%
Total
Suspensions
%
Vancouver Island Centre—
1971/72  _..
1970/71...	
Chilliwack Forest Camps—
1971 /72	
1970/71	
Lower Mainland Centre—•
1971/72	
1970/71..   ....
3
4
4
3
7
6
1
2
23
21
60
57
67
37.5
78
60
100
100
48
52.5
2
2
2
4
1
2
20
6
40
29
33
50
11
20
42
15
1
1
1
2
1
3
13
14
12.5
11
20
100
6
32.5
2
4
5
7
6
8
9
10
1
2
1
48
40
100
100
100
100
100
100
New Haven Centre—
1971/72	
1970/71 	
100
100
Alouette River Unit
(Twin Maples Unit)—
1971/72...  	
1970/71...   . .
100
Haney Correctional Centre—
1971/72  	
1970/71
100
100
Totals—
1971/72	
1970/71      . .	
37
36
53
54
26
21
37
31
5
10
7
15
2
3
70
67
100
100
 BB 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
6. Miscellaneous Statistical Information
Year Ending March 31,1972
Parolees— 1971/72 1970/71
Total released on regular order of parole  634 687
Average age  (years) 17.9 19.5
Average training period (months) 9.8 10.2
Institutional comparison:
Vancouver Island Centre (months) 8.5 9.3
Chilliwack Forest Camps (months) 8.4 7.6
Lower Mainland Centre  (months) 13.6 15.0
New Haven Centre (months) 12.1 12.5
Haney Correctional Centre (months) 8.8 9.5
Alouette River Unit
(Twin Maples) (months) 7.6            	
Revokees—
Total revocations during the fiscal year  173 203
Cancellation of indeterminate sentences  8 14
Average age (years) 19.8 19.5
Average training period (months) 11.1 10.8
Average period on parole (months) 4.7 4.2
Occurrence of revocation relative to period of
parole:
During one to four months (per cent) 65 54
During five to eight months (percent) 23 35
During nine months or over (percent) 12 11
Total revocations previously suspended  45 46
Suspensions—
Number of paroles suspended  70 67
Average age  (years) 19.6 19.5
Average length of time on parole before suspension  (months) 4.5 3.5
Number of suspensions terminated with no further violations up to March 31, 1972  26 21
Number of suspensions terminated and further
violations resulting in revocation of parole 37 36
Number of cases pending  5 10
Number of cases deceased  2               	
  BB 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Population graph
Population
9,000—
900—
800—
700—
4
600—
#
500—
400—
2,600,000
*
*
*
300—
*
*
200—
100—
*
*
*
8,000—
900—
. 2,500,000
*
*
800—
*
*
700—
*
600—
*
500—
400—
2,400,000
*
*
*
300—
•
200—
*
*
100—
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