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Department of Agriculture FORTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 1954 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1955

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Department of Agriculture
FORTY-NINTH
ANNUAL REPORT
1954
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1955
  To His Honour Colonel Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit herewith for your consideration the Annual Report of
the Department of Agriculture for the year 1954.
W. K. KIERNAN,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., January 25th, 1955.
  BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DEPARTMENTAL STAFF, 1954
Minister of Agriculture:
Honourable W. K. Kiernan.
Minister's Secretary:
Miss P. Hetherington.
Deputy Minister:
Wm. MacGillivray.
A dministrative:
Miss A. E. Hill, Departmental Secretary, Victoria, B.C.
N. L. Camsusa, Administrative Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
J. S. Wells, Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
T. T. Vaulkhard, Clerk, Accounts Branch, Victoria, B.C.
J. A. McDiarmid, Clerk, Publications Branch, Victoria, B.C.
Statistics:
G. H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
Markets:
*M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Horticulture:
*R. P. Murray, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
*G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
*J. A. Smith, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
*D. A. Allan, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Oliver, B.C.
W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
*I. C. Carne, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
*W. D. Christie, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
*Alan E. Littler, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
*W. F. Morton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
*J. E. Swales, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Creston, B.C.
*G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, New Westminster, B.C.
*M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C.
*A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, West Summerland, B.C.
*R. M. Wilson, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*A. C. Carter, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C.
*E. M. King, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
*M. G. Oswell, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
*J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist, 635 Burrard Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Apiary:
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Court-house, Vernon, B.C.
V. E. Thorgeirson, Apiary Inspector, R.R. 6, New Westminster, B.C.
Plant Pathology:
*W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
*I. C. MacSwan, B.S.A., Assistant Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
Entomology:
C. L. Neilson, B.S.A., Provincial Entomologist, Vernon, B.C.
Live Stock:
*W. R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.S., Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Inspector.
*F. C. Clark, M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
Thomas Moore, Recorder of Animal Brands, Victoria, B.C.
T. J. Batten, Brand Inspector, Nicola, B.C.
A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
P. G. Lawrence, Brand Inspector, .Victoria, B.C.
A. P. Newhouse, Brand Inspector, Williams Lake, B.C.
* Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists.
5
 Z 6
BRITISH COLUMBIA
livestock—Continued Bill   •    u n
uve w k B      h victoria, B.C.
R. J-WEIR, Clert Live Moc Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
j. J. Carney, D.V.M., VA, ^ / inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
r^r^RK D ¥Ml'vetlr nary Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
£ w r™r MR.C.V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Abbotsford, B.C.
A Kjdd! OV.M., D.V.P.H., Assistant to the Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinarj
p t ud?£™v£»-™->veterinar*inspector' Neison> bc- I
w R LEGiwDVM-, V.S., M.S., Ph.D., Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
S Munro, Deputy Brand Inspector, Clinton, B.C.
1 MusTard, D V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster B.C.
K H. Thompson, D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Prince George, B.C
T A Mace Superintendent, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Victoria, B.C.
Harry Iohnson, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Victoria, B.C.
Dairy:
*F C Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*N. H. Ingledew, B.S.A., M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
*G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
*g! Patchett, Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
*K. G. Savage, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
*D. E. Thompson, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
*D. D. Wilson, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
Poultry:
*W. H. Pope, Poultry Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
H. C. Gasperdone, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Vernon, B.C.
N. J. Supeene, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
C. W. Wood, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
Field Crops:
*N. F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*E. C. Hughes, B.S.A., Assistant in Field Crops, New Westminster, B.C.
J. H. Neufeld, B.S.A., Soil Analyst, Victoria, B.C.
Farmers' Institutes:
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Women's Institutes:
Mrs. Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent of Women's Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Soil Survey:
*C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*C. C. Brownlee, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*R. G. Garry, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*A. J. Green, B.S.A., M.Sc, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*W. D. Holland, B.Sc, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*P. N. Sprout, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*A. L. van Ryswyk, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
Agricultural Development and Extension:
*G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Director, Victoria, B.C.
*L S. Allin, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Victoria, B.C.
^p'Luyat' B,S,A-' Supervising Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
♦ a V* rREST°^ o :SA-' SuPervising Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
*t \v ^LLAN' B,S*A-' District Agriculturist, Creston, B.C.
J. W. Awmack B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook, B.C.
R. C. Bailey, B.SA., District Agriculturist, Vernon, B.C.
*R W bS «'S'^ Di8trict A^culturist, New Westminster, B.C.
*G T* CaiZ* p *h Dlf1Ct ASriculturist, Fort St. John, B.C.
*L F^CarmiThapt  M^Ex!fnfon Agricultural Engineer, Victoria, B.C
 J^Carmichael, M.Sc, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
* Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 7
Agricultural Development and Extension—Continued
*D. C. Crossfield, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Duncan, B.C. *
*G. Cruickshank, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Chilliwack, B.C.
*P. E. Ewert, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Mission, B.C.
*R. C. Fry, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*J. D. Hazlette, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Duncan, B.C.
*K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.    .
*A. M. Johnson, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Dawson Creek, B.C.
*Miss E. L. R. Lidster, B.S.A., Supervisor, 4-H Clubs, Victoria, B.C.
K. E. May, B.S.A., Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria, B.C.
*G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
*J. A. Pelter, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vanderhoof, B.C.
*S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Courtenay, B.C.
*A. R. Tarves, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Quesnel, B.C.
*M. J. Walsh, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
*R. L. Wilkinson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*J. V. Zacharias, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
Gordon MacDonald, Accountant, Federal-Provincial Farm  Labour  Service,  411   Dunsmuir
Street, Vancouver 3, B.C.
W. G. Reed, Mechanical Superintendent, Land-clearing Division, 411 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver 3, B.C. p I
H. Barber, Accounts, Land-clearing Division, 411 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver 3, B.C.
* Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists.
  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Report of Deputy Minister  i i
Report of Statistician  15
Report of Markets Branch  20
Report of Horticultural Branch..!  23
Report of Apiary Branch  I.39
Report of Plant Pathology Branch....      42
Report of Provincial Entomologist     45
Report of Dairy Branch     47
Report of Poultry Branch I     5 \
Report of Live Stock Branch..     55
Report of Field Crops Branch     76
Report of Farmers' Institutes     82
Report of Women's Institutes     8 7
Report of Soil Survey Branch     91
Report of Agricultural Development and Extension Branch     97
Appendices— W If
No. 1. Plants Manufacturing, Processing, and Distributing Dairy Products during 1954 I  116
No. 2. Inspected Slaughtering of Live Stock, December 1st, 1953, to November 30th, 1954  118
No. 3. Beef Carcasses Graded in British Columbia, December 1st, 1953, to
fl        I       November 30th, 1954  119
No. 4. Average Prices for Cattle, December 1st, 1953, to November 30th, 1954 120
No. 5. Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show, Kamloops, March 9th to 11th,
1954 _•_  120
No. 6. Provincial Dairy Herd Improvement Associations  121
No. 7. Breed Averages for 1953  121
No. 8. Average Prices for Lambs, December 1st, 1953, to November 30th,
1 1954 -  122
No. 9. Average Prices for Hogs, December 1st, 1953, to November 30th, 1954 122
No. 10. Dairy Herds and Premises Inspected and Graded under the | Milk
Act" from December 1st, 1953, to November 30th, 1954  123
No. 11. Calfhood Vaccinations in Disease-free Areas  124
No. 12. List of Licensees  124
No. 13. Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1954___"_   130
No. 14. Southern Interior Stockmen's Association Cattle Sale, September 1st,
1954  131
No. 15. Seventeenth Annual Cariboo Feeder and Fat Cattle Sale and Show,
September 1st, 1954  132
No. 16. Summary of Grain Screenings from British Columbia Merchants, January 1st to October 31st, 1954 — 133
No. 17. Summary of Movement of Grain Screenings from British Columbia
Elevators, January 1st to October 31st, 1954  134
9
  Report of the Department of Agriculture
REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE
The Honourable W. K. Kiernan,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Forty-ninth Report of the Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1954.
The Report, as submitted, contains reviews of the responsibilities and activities of
each of the branches constituting your Department. These are, of necessity, brief and
general in nature. Detailed information, supplied by all of the branch and division heads,
and by each member of the field staffs, is on file in the Department. This material
provides, in the aggregate, statistical, historical, and practical data which outline comprehensively the extent to which your Department contributes to the welfare and development of agriculture throughout the Province.
As indicated in the branch reports, adverse weather conditions during 1954 created
problems and hazards which affected seriously farm production and farm operations
within the Province.
We were, however, in the final analysis in a better position than Canada as a whole
and particularly the Prairie Provinces. Estimated net farm income for all of Canada is
substantially reduced from that of recent previous years and 12.1 per cent below the
figure for 1953.
British Columbia farm cash income from the sale of farm products in 1954 is
estimated at $103,623,000, an increase of 0.2 per cent from 1953. Lower prices of
several commodities were offset by higher aggregate production.
Farmers generally are concerned by a number of factors, including difficulties affecting the free flow of international trade, the apparent surpluses, the efforts to depress
prices of certain agricultural commodities at various levels, and the increased costs of
labour, goods, and services necessary to the efficient operation of an agricultural holding.
There is a continually increasing demand and need for the various services provided
by and available from your Department.
It is more necessary than ever to review constantly Provincial, National, and International conditions, to determine trends in production and marketing, and their potential
influence on our British Columbia farm economy.
Departmental policies, programmes, and projects will, of necessity, require continued
analytical examination and be subject to such change and redesign as conditions warrant.
The active participation of farm groups and individuals, the fullest integration of
activities of Federal, University, and Provincial technical personnel is becoming increasingly necessary in carrying out measures designed to strengthen the agricultural section
of our economy. #' |p
Further marketing research is essential. Means must be developed for conveying
to, and impressing on, producers of agricultural commodities the consumer outlets, and
the volume and demand in these, available now and in the foreseeable future, as well as
the standards of quality and packaging necessary to maximum consumer acceptance.
Steps which have already been initiated and others to be developed in 1955 will, it
is hoped, contribute much to those objectives. M
11
 Z 12
BRITISH COLUMBIA
CONFERENCE OF PROVINCIAL MINISTERS AND
DEPUTY MINISTERS §|
The fifth annual conference of Provincial Ministers of Agriculture and their Deputy
Ministers was held in the Province of Alberta at the invitation of the Honourable 11
Halmrast, Minister of Agriculture for Alberta.   The dates of the meetings were August
^hose in attendance were the Honourable Colin H. Chisholm, Minister of Agriculture Nova Scotia; Dr. F. W. Walsh, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Nova Scotia-
the Honourable C. C. Baker, Minister of Agriculture, Prmce Edward Island; S. |
Wright Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Prince Edward Island; the Honourable C. B
Sherwood, Minister of Agriculture, New Brunswick; J. K. King, Deputy Minister of
Agriculture, New Brunswick; Rene Trepanier, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Quebec;
C. D. Graham, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Ontario; the Honourable R. Robertson,
Minister of Agriculture, Manitoba; J. R. Bell, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Manitoba;
the Honourable I. C. Nollet, Minister of Agriculture, Saskatchewan; W. H. Horner,'
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Saskatchewan; the Honourable L. C. Halmrast, Minister
of Agriculture, Alberta; Dr. O. S. Longman, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Alberta;
the Honourable W. K. Kiernan, Minister of Agriculture for British Columbia; and W.
MacGillivray, Deputy Minister of Agriculture for British Columbia. There was no
representation from the Province of Newfoundland, and the Honourable Laurent Barre,
Minister of Agriculture for Quebec, and the Honourable F. C. Thomas, Minister of Agriculture for Ontario, were unable to attend.
The conference met in the Legislative Assembly, Edmonton. Discussions on matters
of mutual interest and concern in the spheres of responsibility of Provincial Departments
of Agriculture occupied the first two days.
An opportunity was also afforded of observing various phases of Alberta's great oil
and gas development through visits to certain refineries and plants one evening.
The Government of Alberta entertained the delegates at a banquet addressed by
Premier E. C. Manning.
Arrangements were made to enable those in attendance to view cross-sections of
Alberta's agriculture, including dairying, mixed farming, grain-growing, cattle-ranching,
range management and conservation, irrigation, and the manufacture and testing of
agricultural machinery designed to meet conditions peculiar to areas such as Southern
Alberta. |
The conference discussions were realistic, objective, and definitely valuable to all
concerned.   Detailed minutes are on file.
STAFF CHANGES
The following appointments and resignations were effective during the year:
Appointments
D. C. Crossfield, Assistant District Agriculturist, January 1st.
Mrs. L. E. Stanley, Stenographer, January 13th.
Miss F. Hodges, Stenographer, February 11th.
Mrs. F. Y. Johnson, Stenographer, March 29th.
Miss M. J. Robinson, Laboratory Assistant, April 11th.
Mrs. M. J. McAlpine, Stenographer, April 14th.
Miss I. M. Chisholm, Stenographer, May 1st.
?/* EwW^Gilchrist> Veterinary Inspector, May 1st.
Mrs^M. F. Ritson, Stenographer, May 7th.
C. H. Brownlee, Assistant Soil Surveyor, May 17th
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1954 Z 13
A. L. vanRyswyk, Assistant Soil Surveyor, June 1st.
R. L. Wilkinson, District Agriculturist, June 1st.
Miss S. B. Neglowich, Stenographer, June 14th.
Miss I. J. Knox, Stenographer, June 19th.
Miss J. E. Griffith, Stenographer, June 21st.
Miss J. C. Townsend, Stenographer, June 21st.
Dr. J. Mustard, Veterinary Inspector, July 1st.
R. L. Bradshaw, District Agriculturist, July 5th.
K. E. May, Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, August 1st.
D. E. Thompson, Dairy Inspector, August 16th.
Miss M. J. Pavlis, Stenographer, October 4th.
Miss I. B. Sparks, Stenographer, October 12th.
Miss M. T. Hay, Stenographer, October 18th.
Mrs. G. Perreten, Stenographer, October 26th.
Mrs. H. E. Champoux, Stenographer, November 1st.
N. J. Supeene, Poultry Inspector, November 15th.
R. Klatt, Clerk, November 17th. If I
R. C. Fry, Assistant District Agriculturist, November 23rd.
C. W. Wood, Poultry Inspector, December 13th.%
Miss M. Neale, Clerk, December 15th.
Dr. K. H. Thompson, Veterinary Inspector, August 27th.
Transfers
Miss L. A. Jarvis, Stenographer, January 16th.
Resignations
J. R. Caverhill, Assistant Director, Land-clearing Division, January 31st.
Mrs. E. F. Nikkei, Stenographer, January 31st.
Mrs. S. M. Crooks, Stenographer, February 28th.
Mrs. M. Mackay, Stenographer, February 28th.
Frank Martin, District Agriculturist, March 31st.
Mrs. M. M. Gowan, Stenographer, April 27th.
Miss B. M. Coles, Laboratory Assistant, April 29th.
Mrs. W. M. Morgan, Stenographer, April 30th.
H. Riehl, Dairy Inspector, April 30th.
Miss M. L. Sutherland, Stenographer, May 11th.
Miss F. E. Forbes, Stenographer, May 12th.
H. R. Anderson, District Agriculturist, May 14th.
J. D. Lindsay, Assistant Soil Surveyor, June 9th.
Mrs. F. Y. Johnson, Stenographer, June 17th.
A. D. McMechan, Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, June 30th.
Mrs. L. E. Stanley, Stenographer, June 30th.
Miss N. I. Wicklund, Stenographer, June 30th. ^
T. W. G. Duncan, Assistant District Agriculturist, August 31st.
C. V. Faulknor, Agriculturist, August 31st.
Miss J. C. Townsend, Stenographer, September 3rd.
Mrs. G. I. M. Ross, Stenographer, September 10th.
Mrs. S. D. Fisher-Fleming, Stenographer, September 30th.
Miss M. A. Skene, Stenographer, October 9th.
Mrs. J. P. Holder, Stenographer, October 15th.
Miss I. J. Knox, Stenographer, November 5th.
W. J. Wakely, Poultry Inspector, November 30th.
 Z 14
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Mrs E. Tennant, Stenographer, December 15th.
Zs. S. M. Glassford, Clerk, December 31st.
Superannuation
G H Thornbery, Supervisor, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, April 30th.
W. H. Robertson, Deputy Minister, May 31 st.
PUBLICATIONS
The following is a list of new and revised publications printed in 1954:—
Reports
Agricultural Statistics.
Climate of British Columbia.
Bulletins and Circulars
§Beehive Construction for Beginners A.C. 10
Grape Growing in British Columbia H.C. 78
Maggots in Turnips E.C. 13
Planting an Orchard H.C. 62
Silos and Silage B. 66
The Fraser Valley I No. 5
The Home Vegetable Garden H.C. 43
U.B.C. Feed Formulas for Poultry P.C. 37
Vegetable Varieties, Descriptions, and Uses H.C. 77
Charts
Chemical Weed Control.
Fertilizer Recommendations.
Tree-fruit Spray Calendar.
CONCLUSION
Mr. W. H. Robertson, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, since November, 1950,
retired on superannuation May 31st.
A graduate in Agriculture from the University of Toronto (O.A.C.) in 1911, he
joined the staff of this Department in 1912. Mr. Robertson had held successively the
positions of Horticulturist, Provincial Horticulturist, Assistant Deputy Minister, and
Deputy Minister. His long and valuable association with the Department was interrupted only by the several years he served with the 58th Canadian Field Artillery in
World War I, during which he was wounded severely. §1
Mr. Robertson has the best wishes of the entire staff for many years of happiness
in a retirement that will not be inactive.
I wish to express my sincere thanks to the staff members who have loyally and
efficiently served the Department and the people of British Columbia during the year.
I would be remiss if I did not convey grateful appreciation to the officials of the
Canada Department of Agriculture and of other departments of the Provincial Government, to the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of British Columbia, to farm
organizations and other agencies and individuals who have so generously assisted us
throughout the year.
Respectfully submitted.
W. MacGILLIVRAY,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1954 Z 15
REPORT OF AGRICULTURAL STATISTICIAN!
G. H. Stewart, Agricultural Statistician
I HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Climatic Conditions
The winter of 1953-54 was generally mild in all areas, with the exception of a short
period of below-zero temperatures in the Okanagan District, which caused a considerable
amount of damage to the fruit buds of peaches, apricots, and cherries. Snowfall was
somewhat heavier than usual in the Lower Fraser Valley but about normal in the
Okanagan and Kootenays.
Damaging frosts were experienced on the nights of April 28th, 29th, and 30th,
causing further damage to tree-fruit buds in the Okanagan.
Cool, showery weather throughout the summer delayed the ripening of all fruits.
Satisfactory weather conditions during the latter part of September and October permitted the apple-crop to be satisfactorily harvested.
Cold weather and spring frosts reduced the yields of all small fruits considerably.
Wet weather at harvest-time caused heavy splitting to the cherry and prune crops.
Tree-fruits
The 1954 apple-crop is now estimated at 7,121,100 boxes, an increase of 18 per
cent from 1953.
Production of pears in 1954 is now set at 674,200 boxes, 13 per cent less than in
1953.     -      1 f    gjS       1
The 1954 plum and prune crop is now estimated at 740,000 crates, 2 per cent below
that of 1953. |       1
Latest estimates place the 1954 peach-crop at 667,100 crates, a reduction of 51 per
cent from last year.
The 1954 apricot-crop is estimated at 395,100 crates, 4 per cent below the 1953
production.
Latest estimates place the 1954 cherry-crop at 256,500 crates, which is 21 per cent
less than last year.
Small Fruits
The 1954 strawberry-crop, estimated at 700,700 crates, represents a decrease of
312,436 crates or 31 per cent from last year.
Latest estimates place the 1954 raspberry-crop at 752,000 crates, 8 per cent below
the 1953 production.
Production of loganberries and blackberries in 1954 were slightly below the 1953
totals.
The 1954 grape-crop, estimated at 1,370,000 pounds, is 40 per cent below that
of 1953. | p       1
A comparative table of actual fruit production for 1953, with estimated production
for 1954, is as follows:—
 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Z 16
Actual Estimated
Production, Production,
1953 1954
An22  b0XeS 6>002'477        7,121,100
~pPies-T"T~ ___   1 89,364 119 800
Crab-apples         "        nv> ann Jn*?
Ppars     I 772,677 674,200
pE<                     crates 103'200 95>40°
P^nes         HI  I 651'444 644>6°0
Ses                 » 1,356,588 667,100
Apricots 1  I 411>770 395,100
Cherries I          1 325,945 256,500
Strawberries    I 1,013,136 700,700
Raspberries   1 816>793 752,000f
Loganberries   1 93J48 89,200
Blackberries   I 48>988 40,900
Red currants  I 2>386 3,000*
Black currants  j 9>121 6,500
Gooseberries  j 3,952 4,600;E-
Grapes  | lb- 2,265,234 1,370,000|
Vegetables
The vegetable acreage is down about 1,160 acres from last year. Reduced acreages
of beans, celery, onions, spinach, and tomatoes account for most of the decrease. The
cool, backward season was not favourable to such crops as beans, corn, cucumbers, and
tomatoes, and yields of these crops were below average. Yields of vegetable root-crops,
including beets, carrots, parsnips, and turnips, exceeded those of the previous season.
Prices generally have been on a par with last year.
Actual production of principal vegetable-crops in British Columbia for 1953, with
estimated production for 1954, is as follows:—
Kind
Year
Planted
Area
Average
Yield per
Acre
Total
Production
Average
Price per
Pound
Total Value
Asparagus	
Beans, green and wax
Beets	
Cabbage	
Carrots	
Cauliflower	
Celery	
Corn	
Lettuce	
Onions	
Parsnips	
Peas, green	
Spinach	
Tomatoes	
Turnips	
Totals	
1953
1954
1953
1954
1953
1954
1953
1954
1953
1954
1953
1954
1953
1954
1953
1954
1953
1954
1953
1954
1953
1954
1953
1954
1953
1954
1953
1954
1953
1954
Acres
186
440
1,439
1,270
358
330
560
590
895
860
431
410
632
560
2,149
2,140
688
650
987
790
111
110
4,037
4,240
468
370
2,767
1,800
311
300
Lb.
3,169
2,100
8,616
6,500
12,548
18,300
11,980
15,800
13,537
19,100
7,434
9,800
7,578
9,400
8,340
4,900
16,502
12,600
19,764
24,500
9,486
12,500
3,875
3,000
6,160
7,900
12,060
9,000
9,040
23,400
1953
1954
16,019
14,860
Lb.
589,400
924,000
12,398,628
8,255,000
4,492,300
6,039,000
6,708,967
9,322,000
12,115,395
16,426,000
3,204,302
4,018,000
4,789,329
5,264,000
17,921,765
10,486,000
11,353,640
8,190,000
19,507,527
19,355,000
1,052,910
1,375,000
15,642,795
12,720,000
2,883,069
2,923,000
33,372,650
16,200,000
2,811,450
7,020,000
Cents
18.50
17.00
5.30
5.00
3.55
3.90
3.36
2.80
3.06
3.10
6.49
6.80
3.64
3.70
1.73
1.80
4.09
4.20
2.59
3.00
4.24
4.40
4.83
5.30
4.63
5.30
3.80
3.50
2.68
2.90
148,844,127
128,517,000
108,950
157,000
657,599
413,000
159,361
236,000
226,030
261,000
370,601
509,000
207,906
273,000
174,672
195,000
311,148
189,000
465,236
344,000
506,065
581,000
44,635
61,000
756,187
674,000
133,621
155,000
1,268,065
567,000
75,519
204,000
1^59T
4,819,000
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1954
Z 17
Field Crops
The unusually wet summer throughout all areas of the Province has hampered field-
crop production. Because of the favourable moisture conditions, pastures, although late
in the spring, have produced well.
Continued wet weather made haying difficult, so that much overripe or weathered
hay was harvested. In the Cariboo, where ranchers depend on native meadows for hay,
the wet weather hampered operations, and there is a serious shortage in those areas.
There has been a large increase in the amount of silage put up to offset the bad haying
weather.
Grain production in the Peace River Block was also seriously affected. Because of
the late spring, wheat acreage was down about 15 per cent and oat acreage also showed
a reduction. On the other hand, barley acreage was up and more land is in summer
fallow. Continued wet weather in the fall made harvesting difficult and lowered grades.
However, fine weather prevailed during the last two weeks of October, which enabled
threshing operations to be completed. Crop yields were only average. In the North
Okanagan, yields of cereal-crops were good, but quality was down due to poor harvesting
weather, as is true in the Creston Flats.
Good yields of potatoes have been harvested, but late blight has caused considerable
loss, particularly in the Coast areas. m   §^ M w
November estimate of the 1954 production of principal field crops in British
Columbia, compared with latest estimates for 1953, is as follows:—
Crop
Area
1953
1954
Yield per Acre
1953
19541
Production
1953
19541
Spring wheat...
Oats for grain.
Barley	
Fall rye	
Mixed grains...
Peas (dry)	
Potatoes	
Flax-seed	
Tame hay	
Fodder-corn.
Acres
Acres
Bu.
Bu.
Bu.
81,400
70,000
32.0
25.0
2,605,000
98,000
84,400
57.0
47.0
5,586,000
67,900
75,400
40.0
|        31.0
2,716,000
5,500
5,000
29.0
20.0
160,000
2,900
2,900
57.0
43.0
165,000
2,100
2,400
27.5
33.0
58,000
11,300
10,200
300.0
282.0
3,390,000
5,000
10,000
15.0
10.0
75,000
Tons
Tons
Tons
309,000
304,000
2.50
2.40
772,000
3,100
2,400
12.50
14.00
38,800
Bu.
1,750,000
3,967,000
2,337,000
100,000
125,000
79,000
2,876,000
100,000
Tons
730,000
33,600
1 As indicated on basis of conditions on or about October 15th.
Forage-seed crops are down, particularly the legumes, and again the wet season
prevented good harvesting weather and proper seed-set. Creeping red fescue, produced
entirely in the Peace River District, was up slightly over last year.
The following table gives in summary the forage-seed production for 1953, and the
estimated production for 1954 at the end of October:—
1953
<Xb.)
Alfalfa   530,000
Red clover (double cut)   400,000
Red clover (altaswede)   125,000
Alsike   400,000
Sweet clover  350,000
White clover (including Ladino)        2,800
Alsike-timothy mix  100,000
Timothy  |  220,000
Brome   125,000
Creeping red fescue  600,000
Reed canary       2,000
Orchard-grass  -      1,250
Red-top       22,400
1954
(Lb.)
150,000
50,000
110,000
400,000
225,000
200,000
250,000
100,000
700,000
i 6,000
2,600
17,000
 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Z 18
LIVE STOCK
The estimated total number of cattle and calves on farms at June 1st, 1954, Was
177 000 as compared with 352,000 at June 1st, 1953, an increase of 7 per cent.  Was
Sheep and lamb numbers have also continued to increase but at a more moderate
rate    The increase was about 2 per cent over June 1st, 1953.
" Hogs on farms at June 1st, 1954, estimated at 47 000, were up 12 per cent above
the 42 000 at June 1st, 1953. The Province is not basically set up to make swine-
raising'a major live-stock production effort. We can only look to our grain-raisb
areas such as the Peace River Block, for any great increase or for substantial permanence
Cattle sales to date have been encouraging, with prices quite satisfactory, due in
part to strong buying for export 9HBB     1     M
Numbers of live stock on farms in British Columbia at June 1st, years 1953 and
1954, are as follows:— 1953 1954
Cattle and calves  352,000 377,000
Sheep and lambs  81,000 83,000
Hogs         42,000 47,000
Horses   30,300 31,000
POULTRY
The total number of poultry on farms at June 1st, 1954, is estimated at 4,433,...
birds, an increase of 6.3 per cent from the estimate of 4,167,000 birds on farms at June
1st, 1953. Total hens and chickens increased 6 per cent to 4,130,000. Turkeys, at
265,000 birds, were 18 per cent above 1953 numbers at June 1st.
The outstanding highlight of the current year has been the increase in consumer
demand for eviscerated poultry, and several processing plants have put or are putting
in the necessary equipment to handle this business.
In order to present a picture of the industry, the following statistical data are
given:—
Poultry Population at June 1st
Year
Hens and
Chickens
Turkeys
Geese
Ducks
1951	
3,452,000
3,840,000
3,900,000
4,130,000
243,000
300,000
225,000
265,000
14,000
21,000
15,000
14,000
20,000
1952        jp
25,000
1953 	
27,000
1954	
24,000
Production of Baby Chicks
Year
Chicks
Hatched
1951 	
1952	
1953	
1954 to October 31st.
6,234,426
5,852,539
7,018,569
6,605,099
Production of Turkey Poults
Year
1951	
1952	
1953	
1954 to July 31st
Chicks
Exported
750,991
522,746
420,867
603,580
Poults Hatched
356,069
464,202
345,519
531,709
Chicks
Destroyed
595,950
841,368
715,176
1,210,260
Poults Exported
96,185
162,852
165,716
162,110
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 19
Farm egg production during the first ten months of 1954 is estimated at 21,771,000
dozen, as compared with 19,817,000 dozen for the same period in 1953. J|
DAIRYING
The number of cows kept mainly for milk purposes at June 1st increased from
94,000 in 1953 to 100,000 in 1954, an increase of 6 per cent.
Pasturage conditions were favourable throughout the season. The cool, damp summer, however, made it very difficult to harvest a top-grade hay in most areas, and while
the present trend toward using more grass silage will help to relieve the feed situation,
there will be a shortage of good hay in many districts.
It is estimated that total milk production for 1954 will show an increase of about
8 per cent over the 1953 total of 725,126,000 pounds.
Creamery butter production for the period January to November this year totals
6,329,393 pounds, as against 4,705,653 pounds in the corresponding period of 1953,
an increase of 1,623,740 pounds or 34.5 per cent.
Of the other manufactured products, Cheddar-cheese production is up approximately 25 per cent and powdered milk about 26 per cent. Due to a cool summer,
ice-cream production is down about 1 per cent. Evaporated-milk production for 1954
will be down about 5 per cent from the total for the year previous.
Fluid-milk prices, as a whole, have been slightly lower to both the producer and
consumer than in 1953.
The fact that we are an importing Province in so far as butter, cheese, and concentrated milk products are concerned, coupled with a steady increase in our population,
would indicate a more or less assured market for milk and milk products.
1 MISCELLANEOUS
Preliminary estimates indicate a honey-crop in 1954 of 1,067,000 pounds. This
is about 7 per cent less than the 1953 crop of 1,150,000 pounds. The drop in production this year was attributed to low average yields per colony resulting from unfavourable
weather conditions experienced throughout the Province, particularly in the Peace River
District. The number of beekeepers was up by 6 per cent, and colony numbers increased
10 per cent. -
The 1954 hop-crop is estimated at 1,622,000 pounds from 1,030 acres, or an
average yield of 1,575 pounds per acre, as compared with the final estimate for 1953
of 1,692,000 pounds from 934 acres, or an average yield of 1,812 pounds per acre.
 Z 20
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Estimated Cash Income from the Sale of Farm Products, British Columbia
January to September, 1952-54
Wheat-
Oats—
Barley-
Flax 1	
Clover and grass seed	
Hay and clover	
Total grains, seeds, and hay-
Potatoes	
Vegetables	
Tobacco..;. r
Total vegetable and other field crops
Cattle and calves	
Sheep and lambs	
Hogs	
Poultry	
Total live stock and poultry-
Dairy products	
Fruits	
Eggs	
Wool	
Honey	
Total other principal farm products-
Miscellaneous farm products	
Forest products	
Fur-farming	
Cash income from farm products	
Supplementary payments1	
Total cash income	
1952
1953
$2,157,000
520,000
343,000
83,000
217,000
194,000
$1,667,000
375,000
635,000
63,000
126,000
122,000
$3,514,000
$2,988,000
$1,346,000
4,996,000
54,000
$1,213,000
5,001,000
34,000
$6,396,000
$6,248,000
$7,374,000
261,000
3,245,000
6,296,000
$6,548,000
436,000
2,026,000
7,534,000
$17,176,000
$16,544,000
$18,879,000
$20,195,000
$9,448,000
$10,441,000
$7,084,000
114,000
156,000
$7,394,000
109,000
128,000
$7,354,000
$7,631,000
$4,394,000
$4,484,000
$986,000
$988,000
$1,041,000
$688,000
$69,188,000
36,000
$70,207,000
40,000
$69,224,000
$70,247,000
1 Payments made under the provisions of the " Prairie Farm Assistance Act."
REPORT OF MARKETS BRANCH
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner
1954
$1,880,000
387,000
847,000
59,000
175,000
89,000
$3,4l7S"
"$975S~
4,221,000
21,000
$5,2~17Sxr
"$7373B"
327,000
1,819,000
9,529,000
$19,048,000
$21,726,000
$8,403,000
$7,515S~
148,000
151,000
$7,814,000
$4,595,000
$973,000
$1,083,000
$72,296,
$72,296,000
GENERAL
Market conditions for much of British Columbia's 1954 agricultural production
were influenced to a marked degree by adverse weather conditions. Unseasonably cool,
damp conditions throughout virtually the entire growing season materially reduced
production in several lines. As a result, while quality suffered somewhat in such items
as tree and small fruits, fodders, and some vegetables, the reduced supplies reversed an
earlier trend toward softening of price structures.
In other lines, notably dairying and poultry, production increases resulted in price
declines, which more than offset higher gross receipts.
Reflecting the over-all decline of farm prices during the year, the farm price index,
which averaged 247.4 in 1953, dropped about 15 points to the lowest level since 1947.
In the same period the general wholesale index declined only 5 points.
In sharp contrast the farm living costs and consumer price indexes registered slight
increases.
These indicators serve to point up the growing anomaly of agriculture's economic
position relative to the economy of the Province as a whole.   While agriculture has
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1954 Z 21
suffered declines, other industries have thus far shown little, if any, weakening. Of
increasing concern to agriculturists has been the continued upward swing of service and
handling costs, creating a steady broadening of the gap between producer and retail prices.
FEED-GRAIN MOVEMENTS
With poultry and dairy-cattle populations both registering increases of 6 per cent
over 1953, movement of feed-grains into the Province under provisions of the Federal
Freight Assistance Policy showed a gain in volume of 9 per cent. An average of 21,000
tons per month was shipped into British Columbia from east of the Rockies.
In the first ten months of this year a total of close to $1,500,000 was paid out by
the Federal Treasury in freight assistance on shipments totalling over 216,000 tons of
feed-grains. |JI
This brings to approximately $21,000,000 the total paid out since the Freight
Assistance Policy was inaugurated in 1941.
FEEDS
Despite a huge carry-over of grain stocks in Canada, basic live-stock feeds showed
little change in price from 1953 levels during the early months of the year. While the
unsold surplus continued to build up, much of the supply was of milling rather than feed
grades. As a result, late summer saw a firmer tone develop in coarse grains and mashes
as a strong export demand materialized.
Among exceptions to this trend were feed-wheat and linseed oilcake-meal. The
former eased moderately in midsummer, while oilcake, which had registered a $5 per ton
gain in March, dropped by $10 in November.
Feed-oats remained steady until autumn, when a price increase of 25 per cent was
recorded. Barley followed a somewhat similar pattern, with a September price 25 per
cent above early spring levels.
Screenings and mashes rose fractionally during the year, but did not reflect the
proportionate increases achieved in oats and barley.
Hay production was about average in the southern sections of the Province, but
quality was spotty. Unusually moist weather conditions hampered haying operations
in the Cariboo and Chilcotin cattle districts, producing some shortages.
This tended to firm prices in the Lower Mainland, pushing the farm price of mixed
hay up by $10 to $12 per ton by late fall. Still sharper rises were forestalled by
substantial imports of alfalfa and mixed hays from Washington State at moderate prices.
Second-cut alfalfa increased 15 per cent in price by November, however.
FRUIT
To an extent greater than in any other segment of British Columbia's agriculture,
this year's fruit-crop was affected by unseasonable weather. In tree-fruits, frost damage
reduced the peach-crop by one-half and cherries by one-third. Apples were up in volume,
but tended toward a heavier percentage of smaller sizes from the same cause.
Pricewise, peaches, cherries, pears, and prunes showed increases over 1953 averages.
Apples, apricots, and plums declined slightly.
The 1954 apple deal started slowly, with sales on Eastern and Prairie markets well
below 1953 levels. This was largely brought about by the flooding of Eastern Canada
and United States markets with low-grade stocks resulting from hurricane damage in those
areas, and by sharply reduced purchasing power on Prairie markets.
Lending a welcome sales stimulus this year was the reopening of the United Kingdom
market to Canadian apples. British Columbia will have supplied close to 600,000 boxes
to that market when the season ends in 1955. First arrivals brought excellent prices
at Glasgow and London auctions.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Z 22
As in 1953 the small-fruits crop this year was marred by cool, moist weather
The Coast strawberry-crop was hit hardest, production being off by about one-third
Demand was good, however, and prices were firm throughout. The processing industry
unable to secure sufficient volume for its needs, was forced this year to import stocks
from the United States.
FIELD CROPS AND VEGETABLES
Potato prices this year were considerably better than the discouragingly low levels
recorded in 1953. Early potatoes were doubled in price, while Netted Gems were up
by one-third in November, as compared to the same month one year earlier. Both
acreage and yields of marketable stocks were down this year, the latter having been
affected to a considerable extent by late blight.
Again imports from United States points cut into sales of the local product, but on
balance the potato deal could still be called successful.
Poor growing conditions severely hit the Interior tomato-crop. Production, quality,
and price were well below averages of recent years, adding up to a disastrous season for
growers.   Canners also suffered from lack of supplies. |j
Onions firmed somewhat after a disappointing season last year. Heavy United
States production has had a depressing effect upon the price structure for the second
successive year.
Other vegetables showed little price change from one year ago. Lettuce and carrots
were the chief exceptions, down about 25 per cent on an average.
The canning-pea crop was disappointing this year, yields being down about 40 per
cent. Prices, based upon tenderometer readings, were satisfactory, ranging from $35
to $101 per ton.
I LIVE STOCK
A firmer tone in beef prices was a main feature in live-stock marketing this year.
Good steers at Vancouver averaged over $20 in August, a full $2 rise over early spring
quotations and about 12 per cent above late 1953 averages.
Shipments of cattle and calves from British Columbia points showed marked
increases over 1953, the former up by over 15 per cent and calves up 40 per cent.
Imports from Prairie points were down 2 and 13 per cent respectively.
Car-lots at the Annual Fat Stock Show at Kamloops averaged $22.39, up 6 per cent
from the preceding year's average.
Hog prices maintained excellent levels throughout the year, averaging as high as
$36.40 for Bl's in April at Vancouver, easing in the fall to about $25.
As in 1953, lamb prices were comparatively steady throughout the year and showed
little change in price.
POULTRY AND EGGS
Increased poultry populations resulted in lower prices for both meat and eggs.
Producer prices for chicken declined 10 per cent, fowl about 40 per cent, and turkeys
about 25 per cent from 1953 averages, live weight.
Similarly, eggs dropped about 30 per cent as production increased by 25 per cent
during the year.
Adding to the difficulties faced by British Columbia poultrymen in 1954 was the
steady increase in dressed and eviscerated poultry from the United States.
FORAGE-CROP SEEDS
nr,v.Saiply re,dfed yields featured the forage-crop seed picture this year.   As a result,
prices increased for all major items.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 23
Alfalfa seed rose substantially to about 25 cents per pound to the grower, as one
of the poorest crops on record pointed to a supply shortage by next spring. The 1953
price was 15 cents.
Other varieties showed similar price rises, with the exception of creeping red fescue,
down to 15 cents from last year's 27 cents under weaker demand.
Sugar-beet seed production in the Fraser Valley was down one-third, as close to
40 per cent of the crop was lost through shattering.   The grower price was 14V6 cents.
MARKETING BOARDS
By Order in Council approved April 3rd, M. M. Gilchrist was appointed Chairman
of the British Columbia Marketing Board, succeeding J. E. Lane. As of that date the
Board membership now includes, in addition to the Chairman, E. MacGinnis, Secretary,
and R. P. Murray.
The services of J. E. Lane have been retained in an advisory capacity.
Two additional Orders in Council were also approved during the year. Both
affecting operations of the British Columbia Coast Vegetable Marketing Board, the first,
effective August 24th, provided for a change in the outline of boundaries of the Board's
area of jurisdiction. The second, approved October 30th, provided for continuity in
office of elected Board officers.
For the first time, the Coast Board assumed a new role as bargaining agent for the
processing-pea growers of the Lower Mainland. This was done as a result of a petition
submitted by a substantial majority of growers, calling upon the Board to handle all
contracts between processor and grower.
An order putting this into effect was issued April 12th. Included in the terms was
a clause calling for payment for all peas delivered to processing plants on a tenderometer-
reading basis. At the conclusion of the seasonal harvest, all parties appeared to approve
the new system.
During the year the British Columbia Interior Vegetable Marketing Board issued
its revised general order. This contained several changes, including a reduction in the
number of selling zones within the Board's defined area from fifteen to six.
For the second consecutive year, the three commodity marketing boards operating
under provisions of the "Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act" met
with the British Columbia Marketing Board, the Honourable Minister of Agriculture,
and his deputy in a round-table discussion. The meeting, held in Victoria on November
4th, covered the boards' operations during the year.
REPORT OF HORTICULTURAL BRANCH
R. P. Murray, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
From a grower's standpoint the year 1954 will long be remembered as one of the
worst on record. The winter was generally mild, with only one short period of below-zero
temperature in the Okanagan, which did considerable damage to the fruit-buds of cherries,
apricots, and peaches and wood-injury to apricots. Snowfall was about normal for the
Okanagan, but heavier than usual in the Fraser Valley, so much so that there was some
fear of flooding, which fortunately did not occur.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Z 24
At the end of April a cold spell, when temperatures dropped in some cases as low
as 18 degrees, with high winds, caused further damage to fruit-buds raspberries, and
stowberry crowns.   Frost damage at this time was general m some degree throughout
thC PC°oVoTCshowery weather during the summer delayed all crops and provided almost
ideal conditions for the development of such fungous diseases as apple-scab, mildew,
brown-rot and coryneum blight.
The weather also interfered with spraying to the extent that it was very difficult at
times to get the sprays applied for proper controls.   Weather conditions improved in late
September and October, and the apple-crop was harvested without any difficulty.
Hail damage was not as extensive as in 1953, and no losses were reported from wind
The following table, prepared by D. A. Allan, District Horticulturist, Oliver, indicates
the blossom dates at Oliver for the past four years:—	
Fruit
Apricots
Cherries
Peaches.
Pears —
Prunes—
Apples ...
1951
Apr. 15
Apr. 24
Apr. 25
May 1
Apr. 30
May   7
1952
Apr. 16
Apr. 21
Apr. 23
Apr. 25
Apr. 26
May   2
1953
Apr. 2
Apr. 22
Apr. 19
Apr. 23
Apr. 25
May  4
1954
Apr. 18
Apr. 25
Apr. 24
May 3
May 4
May 7
HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Tree-fruits and Small Fruits
Apricots.—Because of frost damage, the apricot-crop was considerably below 1953;
however, the fruit, both from the standpoint of size and quality, was very good and was
well received on all markets.
The Stone Fruit Maturity Committee set up the previous year was largely responsible
for the uniform maturity shipped from the various packing-houses.
Cherries.—The cherry-crop was first injured by frost and then further reduced by
splitting, and only made about 75 per cent of the 1953 crop. However, the quality was
exceptionally good, and sold readily at good prices.
Peaches.—The peach-crop was the hardest hit of any of the tree-fruits and was only
about 50 per cent of last year's crop. Much of the crop was harvested during cool,
showery weather and was of indifferent quality. Toward the end of the season the
peaches softened before colouring. Split-stone peaches were quite prevalent this season,
and it is reported some lots ran as high as 35 per cent. 1
Prunes.—Prunes again were rather a disappointment. The crop prospects were
good until just after picking became general. The earlier districts got their prunes away
before any shrivel developed, and the fruit was well received. The main crop, however,
shrivelled rather badly, did not mature properly—that is, the flesh had a tendency to
soften without changing colour—and was low in sugar. In addition, losses were
considerable from splitting caused by the showery weather.
Since the hard winter of 1950 the prune-crop has not been satisfactory. This
condition also applies in Washington State, and investigators have not been able to
account for the many troubles the prune-crop is suffering from. The situation is so
serious that many growers are pulling out their prune-trees and planting to some other
tTt 1 irf condltion has so far been confined to the Interior producing areas both in
British Columbia and Washington.
Him ^r(fes'~1} was a most unfavourable season for grapes, that require a hot, dry
ornate tor quality yields. The volume and quality were both down this season, and in
me UKanagan, north of Kelowna, the crop was almost a total loss from fall frosts.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 25
^Apples.—What promised to be a considerably larger crop than last year was
seriously reduced by frost, especially Delicious. Fruit size was below average, as was
colour, especially in Mcintosh and Delicious. Earlier in the season it looked like a good
colour year, but it did not develop as anticipated. Newtowns are possibly the best quality
this variety has shown in years.
Apple-scab has been a serious problem. Weather conditions made its control very
difficult and have been the cause of down-grading or culling for a good portion of the
Mcintosh crop especially. Because of this, a larger quantity of apples than usual are
going to the processing plants.
Up to the present, domestic sales have been confined largely to Western Canada
because of the increasing size of the Mcintosh crop in Ontario and Quebec, as well as
early importations of this variety from New York and Michigan. Also, buyers are not
storing at destination as in past years, preferring to buy stocks as needed from the
Okanagan. .j|
' The opening of the United Kingdom market is very much appreciated by the
industry. It is expected that between 600,000 and 700,000 boxes will be shipped from
this Province; of this, around 100,000 boxes are expected to arrive before January 1st.
The first shipments made good arrivals and very satisfactory returns.
Pears.—Frost damage to the pear-crop was comparatively light, although sufficient
to cause only partial pollenizing in a large percentage of Bartlett blossoms, and consequently this variety ran to smaller sizes than usual. The maturity in Bartletts was very
uneven, not only by districts, but in individual orchards, making harvesting a more
difficult task. However, the market has been active, and the crop cleaned up quite early
in the season at good prices.
The Anjou variety turned out well, being of good size and quality. British Columbia
Tree Fruits is trying quite an extensive experiment with this variety this season in an
effort to prolong the marketing season and still be able to market a high-quality product.
The pears are first washed in a disinfectant (Stop Mold B), dried, then packed in the
ordinary way in a pliofilm container which fits into the standard pear-box. The air is
then exhausted with a vacuum-cleaner, the bag tied, and the box lidded and placed in
cold storage. The C02 generated by the fruit delays respiration and prolongs the storage
life of the fruit. Should this experiment be a success, it will be a boon to the pear-grower,
especially of the Anjou variety, since the quantity of this variety is increasing to the point
where marketing it successfully in a comparatively short season is becoming a problem.
Strawberries.—Because of spring frosts, the strawberry-crop in all districts was
below that of last year's. Quality in general was good, and the crop sold at satisfactory
prices. For the first time in years it was necessary for some of the processors in British
Columbia to import some 100 tons of Northwest from Washington to satisfy their
commitments. This season, for the first time, the Salmon Arm and Shuswap Lake
growers got together and pooled their strawberry-crop to the satisfaction and benefit of
both groups. They also processed a small quantity of strawberries by way of experiment,
and if successful it is intended to increase the size of the processed pack next season.
This would relieve the pressure of having to ship only fresh fruit to distant markets, such
as Winnipeg, during the height of the season when the markets closer to home have
already been supplied. This year Salmon Arm berries were shipped to Winnipeg and
made very good arrivals.
Raspberries.—Yields of this crop were fair to good but below that of last year.
Prices varied widely according to variety. Newburgh averaged 9 cents, Willamette
12 cents, and Washington, for canning, 16 cents.   |       -mm       %
Loganberries.—Cold weather reduced the crop in the Fraser Valley area, while on
Vancouver Island frost did some damage to lateral growth in low-lying areas. "Dry
berry " caused less injury than in the last two years. This year eleven cars were shipped
to the Prairies from the Island, two more than last year.   They were well received, and
 Z 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA
the growers are looking forward to an increased movement to the fresh-fruit market
Prices are about the same as last year-12 cents per pound.
A new leaf-hopper (Macropsis fuscula) has made its appearance m the Lulu Island
area and is doing considerable damage in some plantings.   Control measures are being
^Blueberries.—Most of the plantings of this crop are located on the peat-lands of
Pitt Meadows and Lulu Island, and the crop this year is expected to exceed the million-
pound mark, with a return to the growers of well over $200,000. Had the weather been
better in the spring and at harvest-time, the crop would have exceeded this amount by
15 to 20 per cent. While insects caused no serious trouble this year, two diseases-die-
back and canker—show an increase over last year. I
Cranberries.—Interest in this crop is increasing, and the prospects are that the
acreage will treble in the next few years. This year the crop was light due to late spring
frosts and the fireworm. This pest, unless controlled, is capable of completely wiping
out the crop. This season one infested planting was sprayed by aeroplane with Malathion,
with such good results that an excellent crop of top-quality fruit was harvested.
A table comparing the 1954 fruit-crop estimates with the out-turn of the 1953 crop
will be found in the report of the Statistics Branch.
Vegetables
With the exception of cole-crops, the season was generally unfavourable for vegetable-crops and, as will be seen from a table comparing estimated yields and values of
vegetables produced in 1954 with those for 1953 which appears in the report of the
Statistics Branch, the tonnage for the Province is down from 1953, especially for tomatoes
and cantaloupes. Apart from the unfavourable season for tomatoes, the canners were
not very interested in processing the usual tonnage due to stocks on hand, and growers
without contracts did not plant the usual acreage. Cantaloupes from the Osoyoos district,
practically the only area in commercial production, fell from around 200 acres last year
to just slightly over 20 acres this year.
Cannery corn developed very slowly, and it was only due to the long, open fall that
any crop was harvested at all.   The crop was below estimates and the quality poor.
Beans in the Fraser Valley suffered badly from botrytis and rust. In the Okanagan,
particularly in the Kelowna area, golden mosaic appeared for the first time and destroyed
at least 50 per cent of the pole-bean crop. It was also present in the Vernon area, but
did not cause serious injury. This disease is carried by aphids, which were very prevalent
this year, and because the growers lacked proper equipment, it was impossible to control
the aphids and the spread of the disease. If
Potato yields are down from last year due to heavy infestations of aphids in the
Okanagan-Main Line area and to late blight in all districts; showery weather just prior
to digging was favourable for the development of the disease, and where spraying had
been neglected, losses from late blight were quite heavy. |
Seed Production
As with other farm crops, the seed-grower fared rather badly this season, and the
only crops that did not feel the full effects of the weather were Swede turnips, fall wheat,
peas, and grasses.
Losses in production, as reported by J. L. Webster, Horticulturist, Vancouver, in
charge of seed work, are quite high, running to an estimated loss of 30,000 pounds of
onions due to mildew, 50,000 pounds of beans from bacterial blight, and 100,000 pounds
or sugar-beet from sprouting and shattering in the field. Flower seeds, such as sweet
peas annuals, and perennials, suffered badly from botrytis rots, and about 15 acres of
portuiaca and petunia were ploughed under because of poor growth during June and July.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
Z 27
Although this has been the worst growing season for the seed-grower since 1948,
the situation, in so far as markets are concerned, is showing signs of improvement,
especially since the United Kingdom market is now available, and it is expected this year
garden-pea seed to the value of $300,000 will be sold on this market, as well as substantial quantities of onion, carrot, and possibly lettuce seed contracted for the 1955 season.
With demand for turnip seed chiefly from Eastern Canada, a limited market only
is available, and present production is sufficient for this need (50,000 to 60,000 pounds).
Since the production of sugar-beet seed in Canada is confined pretty well to the
Fraser Valley, growers are assured of a market of about 500,000 pounds annually to
supply domestic needs. This year's price is 14 cents per pound, but possibly a larger
market to Eastern Canada and the United States could be obtained if prices were dropped
slightly to meet European competition. P
With a general world shortage of flower seed, there has been a keen demand for
British Columbia seed. Unfortunately, with the limited crop the producers have not
been able to take advantage of the situation. Because of a shorter crop the total value
of flower seed produced in this Province will be somewhat below that of last year (1953,
$42,600). §
The following table has been arranged to show the trend in production. (Note.—
Final compilation of 1954 yields and total value are not completed until February.)
Vegetable-seed Production (Estimates) for 1954 as Compared
to 1952 and 1953 Yields
Kind
Asparagus	
B eans, broad	
Beans, pole and dwarf.	
Beets	
Cabbage	
Carrots	
Cauliflower	
Corn, sweet	
Cucumbers..	
Leeks	
Lettuce	
Muskmelons	
Onions	
Onion sets and multipliers.
Parsnips	
Peas	
Peppers	
Pumpkins ....	
Radishes	
Spinach....	
Squash	
Tomatoes	
Turnips, Swede	
Vegetable marrows	
Watermelons	
Dffls	
Parsley	
Totals	
1952
1953
Lb.
250
11,000
92,250
14,480
30
6,280
200
20,000
1,430
380
8,080
50
5,040
2,000
2,570
',538,246
93
210
10,098
248
770
51,900
610
53
11
Lb.
160
9,000
103,800
3,300
550
12,800
400
15,300
600
250
15,460
20
20,200
38,000
725
3,159,877
100
150
8,400
77
64
470
56,933
750
37"
30
1954
(Estimated)
Lb.
200
11,000
74,900
30
100
12,785
200
22,500
1,350
400
300
50
14,000
46,000
3,200
3,068,870
10
200
12,680
650
200
520
64,800
400
"82
2,766,279
3,447,453
3,335,517
Hops
The production of hops continues to fluctuate due to unsettled marketing conditions.
Hop plantings in the Fraser Valley at present total roughly 1,000 acres and Kamloops
300 acres, while the trial planting of some 20 acres at Creston has been abandoned.
Mildew was a serious factor this year, and a large part of the total crop was not
harvested. Prices have been depressed to around 60 cents per pound, due largely to
heavy surpluses in the United States. This year's crop will average between 8 and 9
bales per acre.
 Z 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Bulbs
The bulb business is showing a steady growth, and growers are now realizing mrt
and more the necessity of better planting stocks. This is showing up in better yields of
both bulbs and flowers. The flower side of bulb-growing is becoming quite an industry
Psneciallv on Vancouver Island, where it is possible to cater to the Easter trade with
C r J j_.cr~^:i„   or>rf  TMntJiPr's  DflV  With   tulins.
outdoor-grown daffodils and Mother's Day with tulips.
This season some 203,000 dozen outdoor-grown daffodil blooms were shipped air
express to Eastern Canada, as well as large shipments by rail to Interior British Columbia
points. In addition, some 60,600 dozen outdoor-grown tulips were shipped to Eastern
Canada by air express.
The forcing industry during the winter months of iris (Wedgewood chiefly), tulips
and daffodils is increasing, and some growers on the Island are now specializing in this
phase of the industry.
Because the bulb-growers are paying more attention to quality and well-graded
bulbs, the demand both for forcing and the counter trade for British Columbia bulbs
is improving.   However, it will be necessary for the growers to increase the number of
varieties grown, particularly in tulips, if they want a larger part of the business. In
British Columbia, tulip varieties in any quantity are limited to about five varieties, whereas
outside competition can supply sixty to seventy main varieties.   It is generally felt that
if the British Columbia growers would grow around twenty-five of the main varieties of
tulips, it would go a long way in cutting out importations.   Until the British Columbia
producer can supply the home market with the kind, quantity, and quality of bulbs
demanded by the trade, they are going to be faced with keen competition from foreign
sources.
Mushrooms
This industry is centred mainly in the Greater Vancouver and New Westminster
area, although there are a few growers scattered throughout other parts of the Province.
The bulk of the crop is marketed in an orderly way through one agency, and fresh
mushrooms are now available throughout the year. A processing plant takes care of any
surplus that would be forced on the fresh market if this service were not available.
Holly
Increased interest is being shown in the production of holly. New plantings of
named or selected types are now replacing the hit or miss methods of a few years ago.
Production is on the increase, and this year it is expected some 40 tons will be marketed
from the Island and Lower Mainland.
With the use of hormone dips (napthalene-acetic acid) the holly is arriving in
better condition than formerly, with good demand and good returns to the grower.
This year the Island growers are experimenting with a small package deal of about 4
ounces that is meeting with favour on all the markets where it has been introduced.
Filberts
Filberts are the only nut-crop produced on a commercial scale in this Province.
The industry is moving ahead, and the many small plantings grown more or less as a sideline that were producing ungraded, poor-quality nuts are giving way to the commercial
producer.
To meet the market demands for a properly processed and graded nut, equipment
to harvest, wash, dry, bleach, and grade the crop has been installed. The product has
improved to such an extent that the price this year was around 25 cents per pound, an
increase of about 3V2 cents over last year.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE   1954
Z 29
Tobacco
A limited acreage of tobacco is being grown in the Sumas area of the Fraser Valley
by a small group of growers familiar with the crop and with facilities to handle it. This
year 95 acres were grown, producing an estimated 125,000 pounds. Although not
a favourable year, the long, open fall enabled the growers to harvest a crop of good
quality.   The crop is shipped to Eastern Canada for processing.
INSPECTION WORK
Fire-blight Inspection
The usual inspection for hold-over cankers of fire-blight was made during the
dormant season.   The following acreages were inspected:— <|f
Fire-blight Inspection, 1954
District
Total Acres
Inspected
Inspected
and Passed
Not
Passed
Creston	
Acres
89.70
4,700.00
6,015.00
500.00
173.00
1,520.00
17.00
695.00
Acres
88.97
4,650.00
6,015.00
500.00
173.00
1,520.00
17.00
695.00
Acres
0 73
Vernon  	
50 00
Kelowna      	
Summerland	
Naramata    	
Penticton       	
Kaleden	
Oliver	
Totals       	
13,709.70
13,658.97
50.73
Nursery Inspection
In order to comply with the "Plant Protection Act," 199 licences were issued to
nurseries and nursery agents during the year at a price of $5 each, an increase of fifty
licences over last year.
The nursery industry is expanding steadily and is now supplying quite a percentage
of stock, particularly ornamentals, to the other Provinces, in spite of very keen compe-
tion from Europe.
Again this season the work of inspecting tree-fruit plantings for trueness to name was
carried out in all the nurseries. K. Lapins, of the Summerland Experimental Station, gave
valuable service in instructing members of the staff in this work. The nurserymen appreciate this service, since it helps to eliminate the possibility of shipping varieties not true
to name, with consequent trouble from the purchasers. It is expected these summer
inspections will become routine procedure from now on.
Not only were the nurseries checked during the summer for trueness to variety, they
were also inspected again at digging-time this fall for crown-gall, hairy-root, and other
defects. The following table is a compilation of trees grown and inspected by the staff
during the year:—
Nursery Inspection Report, 1954
Trees
Number
Inspected
Number
Passed
Number
Condemned
Apples and crab-apples
Pears	
Plums and prunes	
Cherries	
Peaches	
Apricots	
Miscellaneous	
Totals	
69,922
32,848
5,588
14,988
20,403
9,906
437
59,860
32,234
5,434
13,936
19,105
9,238
429
10,062
614
154
1,052
1,298
668
8
154,092
140,236
13,856
 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Z 30
Thirty-nine inspections were made, and 8.99 per cent of the stock was condemned
Apart from the regular inspections for fire-blight and nurseries, assistance was also
riven to the Canada Department of Agriculture by inspecting for bacterial ring-rot o
potatoes entering the Province at Abbotsford and also nursery stock entering at Osoyoos,
DEMONSTRATION WORK I
Pruning Demonstrations
Pruning demonstrations were carried out during the winter and early spring months
The following table indicates the district, number of demonstrations, and attendance: J
Number of       Number of
Demonstrations       Pupils
Vancouver Island  13 563
Lower Mainland  14 518
Okanagan  12 317
Totals  39       |l,398
As will be noted, the Island and Fraser Valley Districts, although not what might be
termed commercial areas, have asked for a much greater number of demonstrations than
the Okanagan District. From observations during the past season, it would appear that
very little has been accomplished from pruning demonstrations in the coastal areas, and
it is proposed to curtail this work and put the time to some better use.
Tomato Demonstration-plots
This work was started in 1952 with a 3-acre plot set up in Kelowna. This has been
extended to include plots at Vernon and Kamloops. The object of this work is to demonstrate to the growers in the area how to improve not only yields, but the grade as well.
Due to weather conditions this season, none of the plots turned out as expected;
however, yields were improved over the district average.
The following is a brief summary by those responsible for this work:—
Kamloops, Stockton Ranch.—As reported by R. M. Wilson, District Horticulturist:
" The plants were grown by Chinese labour and set in the field May 26th. Plants were
rather weak. In June, spray drift from Public Works roadside spraying injured plants
close to the highway. About midsummer the owner applied 400 pounds of 8-10-5
fertilizer as a side dressing in an attempt to improve growth. The yield was 7.7 tons from
the acre plot, as compared with 5.9 tons produced on the grower's adjacent field of
12 acres."
Vernon, Ouiche Ranch.—As reported by W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist:
" Due to one of the coldest and wettest seasons in many years, the first fruit trusses failed
to set, making the crop two to three weeks late. During July a hail-storm did severe
damage to the crop; the fruit was cut, allowing rots to enter later on; immediately after
the first picking a killing frost on September 30th wiped out the balance of the crop. The
yield was only 5,160 pounds, as compared with 21,070 pounds in 1953."
Kelowna, Casorso Ranch.—As reported by W. F. Morton, District Horticulturist:
" Late May and June were so cold that tomatoes grew very slowly. As the cool weather
continued, the aphis population increased and the plants began to show symptoms of
various virous and fungous diseases. The result was poor yield and poor quality.
I Three hundred banded plants were used this year. From calculations based on
the yield from these plants, the grower could have paid up to $60 per thousand for the
plants and taken the early yield as a bonus.
"Actual and calculated yields per acre of tomatoes from the demonstration-plot were
as follows:   (1) Actual yield, 11,740 pounds;   (2) yield if all plants were unhanded,
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
Z 31
10,330 pounds; (3) yield if all plants were banded, 21,200 pounds; (4) yield on
grower's field, three years in alfalfa, followed by onions and then tomatoes, 10,248 pounds.
"In connection with the tomato-plot work, other vegetable-crops will be grown
following tomatoes. At Kelowha this year, onions were seeded on one-half acre set out
in 1952 following a fall-sown cover-crop of Austrian winter peas, disked down the following June, and reseeded to Hungarian millet. The other one-half acre was seeded to
sweet clover.
"Yields calculated on an acre basis were as follows: (1) Preceded by Austrian
winter peas and Hungarian millet, 22.8 tons per acre; (2) preceded by sweet clover,
14.96 tons per acre—a difference of almost 50 per cent. A near-by field of onions grown
by the same owner on land cropped to onions for two successive years following three
years in alfalfa produced 15.53 tons."
Onion Trials
Fertilizer trials with onions were conducted by W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist, Vernon, comparing different fertilizers at various rates. The fertilizer was
broadcast prior to seeding April 27th and cultivated in. Plots were one-twentieth of
an acre.
Plot
Material
Rate in
Pounds per
Acre
Yield in Tons per Acre
1953
1954
No. 1. 	
No. 2	
No. 3	
No. 4	
No. 5   	
No. 6	
No. 7	
16-20-0
16-20-0
8-10-5
8-10-5
6-30-15
6-30-15
Check
500
1,000
500
1,000
500
1,000
17.3
19.2
20.6
21.0
21.3
21.7
17.3
14.3
13.4
16.3
14.1
12.4
10.7
13.6
Conclusions.—Due to seasonal conditions, yields of onions were below average.
Higher applications of fertilizer appear not to be justified.
Asparagus Fertilizer Trials
This crop is increasing in the northern portion of the Okanagan and fertilizer trials
are being carried out by I. C. Carne, District Horticulturist, Salmon Arm, and W. T.
Baverstock, District Horticulturist, Vernon. The plots at Salmon Arm have just been set
up on a new planting, and no results can be expected for some time. However, it was
observed this summer that the check-rows were definitely stunted.  , m §
In the Vernon trials two sets of plots have been set up—one dry-farmed and the
other under sprinklers. The following results are very interesting. Both plots were treated
the same; that is, the fertilizer was made in two applications—the first in early spring and
the second immediately after the cutting season was over. #
Observation.—First picking was made on May 9th and the last picking on June
17th, a total of thirty-nine days' picking.
Dry-farmed (Size of Plots,
One-twentieth of an Acre)
Plot
Material
Rate in
Pounds per
Acre
Yield in Pounds per Acre
1953
1954
No. 1  _.    ___.
33-0-0
33-0-0
16-20-0
16-20-0
6-10-10
6-10-10
Check
500
1,000
500
1,000
700
1,200
4,095
3,660
3,615
3,475
3,600
3,240
3,615
4,770
No. 2  	
3,795
No. 3	
3,880
No. 4„      	
3,630
No. 5  	
4,095
No. 6   	
3,540
No. 7	
3,795
 Z 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Conclusion.-Once again the higher applications are not justified, as | most
the higher applications actually gave a lower yield. |
Observation.—First picking was made on May 9th and continued to June 24th
total of forty-six days' picking.
Under Sprinklers (Size of Plots, One-twentieth of an Acre)
, a
Plot
Material
Rate in
Pounds per
Acre
Yield in Pounds per Acre
1953
No. 1.
No. 2
No. 3.
No. 4.
No. 5.
No. 6
No. 7.
33-0-0
33-0-0
16-20-0
16-20-0
6-10-10
6-10-10
Check
500
1,000
500
1,000
700
1,200
3,225
3,455
2,450
3,755
3,780
3,480
3,010
1954
4,570
4,370
4,200
4,525
4,080
4,425
3,375
Conclusion.—It is noted in this experiment that the higher application of fertilizer
in some instances has acted slightly different with sprinklers than with no irrigation as
at Armstrong. §
The fertilizer trials with apples at Kelowna, started in 1928, are being continued,
These are the oldest fertilizer trials in the Northwest. Up to the present no discernible
difference can be noted in any of the plots. Yields and grades have remained constant,
and apparently the only element needed to maintain tree vigour and yield is nitrogen,
Other long-term fertilizer trials are being conducted with Italian prunes at Keremeos,
Penticton, and Naramata, and with grapes at Westbank and Winfield.
M. P. D. Trumpour, District Horticulturist, Penticton, in reporting results with
fertilizers with prunes, observed: " Prunes with superior quality and size and with less
shrivel appeared to be produced on trees in the Orr lot receiving a moderate amount of
nitrogen (6 pounds of ammonium sulphate per tree) and sawdust. Soil samples taken
on the Orr block on October 26th, 1954, revealed that soil moisture in the sawdust plot
was very satisfactory while that in the remaining plots was below optimum." This condition has been consistent since the plots were established, and it may be that uneven
moisture-supplies may have a bearing on the prune-shrivel condition that has caused such
heavy losses in the past few years.
Blossom-thinning
Because of frost injury to apples and peaches, no trials were carried out on these
fruits. However, trial plots with Italian prunes were set out at Penticton, Summerland,
and Vernon using Elgetol 29, DN 289, and Elgetol 318. Results varied so much that no
conclusions can be arrived at this year. f J§
A. W. Watt, District Horticulturist, Summerland, reports his results as follows:—
| The plots were checked at picking-time (September 19th). Elgetol 318 at one-
half pint per 100 gallons had the earliest prunes but a very light crop. Elgetol 20 at one-
half pint per 100 gallons had a slightly greater yield but contained many small, poorly
coloured prunes. Only the fruit from the spray-thinned trees was of sufficient quality to
warrant picking; the balance of the crop on the unsprayed portion was allowed to drop."
Results were negative in the other two areas.
Apple-scab
An excellent piece of work was carried out jointly by members of the Summerland
Entomology Laboratory and J. E. Swales, District Horticulturist, Creston. It is a new
approach m insect and disease controls, and this piece of work is easily in the pioneer
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 33
field in so far as the Pacific Northwest is concerned. The staff of the Entomology
Laboratory were interested in trying to find if, by the addition of a surfactant material,
the quantity of spray material per acre could be reduced without losing control; if so,
spraying costs could be reduced. They were also interested in the behaviour of a mixture
of surfactants and regular spray materials in modern concentrate spray machines.
The Horticultural Branch was interested in obtaining better scab-control. M Two
orchards at Sunshine Bay, near Nelson, were chosen, as this area has had a serious scab
problem since it was planted to trees. As the outline of the experiment is too lengthy to
report in full, only the conclusions arrived at by Mr. Swales, who very ably carried out
the disease-control section of the experiment and also assisted in making the final counts
at harvest-time, are given, as follows:—
| From the results of these experiments it is evident that where a surfactant was
added to the fungicidal spray there was a decided improvement in the degree of apple-scab
control obtained. Where lime-sulphur without surfactant was applied in the first three
cover-sprays and Ferbam-wettable sulphur without surfactant was applied in later sprays,
there was an average of 11.7 per cent scabby fruit. Where the same materials plus Triton
B-1956 were applied, there was only 4.1 per cent scabby fruit. Where the same materials
plus Miller's MJ 1 were applied, scab-control was equally as good, with 4.3 per cent
scabby fruit.   Fruit from the unsprayed checks was 100 per cent scabby.
I In view of the slight injury caused by the Ferbam-wettable sulphur-surfactant
sprays, further work will be required with varying concentrations and varying rates of
applications before a general recommendation could be made regarding the addition of
surfactants to regular scab-control sprays. However, because of the encouraging results
obtained, it would be desirable to have some apple-growers, with suitable concentrate
sprayers, use surfactants in their fungicidal sprays on a trial basis."
This work is a valuable contribution in apple-scab control and introduces the use of
surfactants to the Canadian field at least, if not the United States. It is planned to continue this work next season.
At Salmon Arm, in addition to the protective sprays for apple-scab, eradicants were
tried, with the object of using one or more of the eradicant materials and reducing the
number of protective sprays. The conclusions reported by I. C. Carne, District Horticulturist, are as follows:—
I The eradicant plot was equally as good as the protective plot and received one
less spray. The possibilities of using Phygon X-L in the spray programme are worthy of
further study."
Antibiotics in Fire-blight Control in Bartlett Pears
Trials with Agrimycin and Agri-strep containing Streptomycin sulphate (0.623
gram Streptomycin base), plus Triton B-1956 to act as a spreader and penetrant, and
Bordeaux 1-1-100, were conducted at Oliver by D. A. Allan and at Kelowna by W. F.
Morton. The antibiotic sprays were applied at balloon and full bloom stage at a concentration of 100 and 50 p.p.m. The sprays applied at the higher concentration gave
good controls, whereas at 40-50 p.p.m. or Bordeaux at 1-1-100 did not appear to be
effective.
Weed-control
Asparagus.—Trials were made at Vernon for the second year. The plots were 400
square feet in size, and for sampling a plot of 9 square feet was counted, and the counts
made forty-one days after the materials were applied. Of all the materials used, Alanap
gave the best control. 2, 4-D (Amine salt), Karmex CMU, and Crag herbicide also gave
good control.   Premerge gave good control for three weeks.
Strawberry weed-control trials were carried out at Creston, Mount Lehman, Clay-
burn, Lulu Island, and Como Lake, with varying results.
3
 Z 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA
G. R. Thorpe, District Horticulturist at New Westminster, reports his results
" 1. Of both I.P.C. formulations used, each gave approximately 80 per cent
control and 85 per cent chickweed-control. §
12. D.N. Amine gave approximately 90 per cent chickweed-control and 50
gK
per
cent grass-control.
I 3. The combinations of D.N. and I.P.C. indicated no improvement on the single
applications. .
I 4. Slight folial damage to the strawberry was noted in the D.N. plots, but these
recovered rapidly."
W. D. Christie, District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, using I.P.C. emulsion, I.Pc
dust, and dinitro-amine (Premerge), reports as follows:—
'"I.P.C. emulsion, when used at low temperatures, has a tendency to separate out
with nozzle clogging. In some places there was definite damage to the plants, with no
appreciable weed-control. With I.P.C. dust, whether because of the formulation or some
other cause, it had a tendency to hang in the duster, resulting in an uneven application,
Some damage to strawberry plants was observed where the dust had gone on too heavily!
It would appear the variety Northwest will only tolerate low dosages of I.P.C. Where
dinitro-amine (Premerge) was used, the control of chickweed, groundsel, and other small
broad-leaved plants was excellent; small germinating grasses were also killed, but the
material had no effect on the larger grass plants."
Herbicide trials with strawberries in the Creston district were carried out during the
past summer. These trials were conducted by J. E. Swales, District Horticulturist, on the
reclaimed lands at Creston. Sprays were applied July 26th at the rate of 60 gallons per
acre, and observations were made on August 17th. Materials applied and rates of
application were as follows:—
Plot No. 1: Potassium cyanate, 20 pounds per acre.
Plot No. 2: Potassium cyanate, 10 pounds per acre.
Plot No. 3: Aero cyanate, 10 pounds per acre.
Plot No. 4: Aero cyanate, 5 pounds per acre.
Plot No. 5: Aero cyanamid, 20 pounds per acre.
Plot No. 6: Aero cyanamid, 10 pounds per acre.
Plot No. 7: Crag herbicide, 10 pounds per acre.
Plot No. 8: Check (no herbicide).
Observations.—Plots 1 and 2: Practically all weeds dead. Old leaves of strawberries killed but new growth developing rapidly.   Some injury to strawberry crowns in
Plot l. jm
Plots 3, 4, and 5: Some weed recovery, particularly well-established Canada and
annual sow thistle.   Old leaves of strawberries killed but new growth developing well.
Plot 6: Similar to Plots 3, 4, and 5, but most established weeds, with the exception
of wild buckwheat, recovering.
Plot 7: Similar to Plot 8; weeds too well established before Crag herbicide applied.
Plot 8: Weeds dense.
Weeds in the plots consisted of annual sow-thistle, Canada thistle, pigweed,
groundsel, goat's-beard, blue lettuce, dandelion, wild buckwheat, oats, and wheat.
Soil Management in Greenhouses
The following is a report as submitted by A. E. Littler, District Horticulturist for
Vancouver Island:—
I The various Oriental greenhouses in the Victoria area have not produced satisfactory crops during the past few years. A soil analysis indicated the cause to be largely
due to toxic conditions brought about by applications of excessive amounts of fertilizer
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 z 35
coupled with a low pH.   A soil analysis prior to treatment indicated a high concentration
of salts and a pH of 4.4.
" The work was carried out in a greenhouse, 150 by 30 feet, owned by Young
Brothers, Shelbourne Street, Victoria.
|Procedure.—(a) One-quarter of the house was leached for eighteen hours, applying approximately one-half inch of water per hour through sprinklers.
"(b) One-quarter of the house was leached in the same way for thirty hours.
"(c) One-eighth of the house was sown to rye and vetch the first week of October.
"(d) One-eighth of the house was mulched with 3 inches of sawdust during the first
week of October.
"(e) One-quarter of the house was handled in the usual way by the owners and
served as a check.
I The leachate was carried away by a ditch, 12 by 18 inches, down the centre of
the house and connected with an outside drainage ditch. I
I The whole house was rototilled the third week of January, and soil samples from
leached plots were taken and checked. The pH on the 18-hour plot was 6.0 and on the
30-hour plot 6.2. §
| Results.—Since it was impossible to be on hand at all times when the crop was
being picked, definite weight records were not taken. Jf.
"Observations made during the season provided the following: Plots A, D, and B,
good; Plots C and E, poor.
I From the results it would appear there was considerable benefit from either adding
sawdust or leaching, provided the leaching process was not prolonged to the extent that
it removed too much of the plant-food already in the soil which had to be replaced for
the new crop." #
The results from these trials were so outstanding the greenhouse-tomato growers in
the Victoria district are now asking for advice and supervision on soil management.
Tomato Variety Trials (Greenhouse)
Trials were conducted by A. E. Littler, District Horticulturist, Victoria, in several
greenhouses in the Victoria area.
The standard varieties for the spring crop are V-121 and V-121 Improved or Bay
State. This season, in the search for something better, two English introductions, Single
Cross and Potentate, were tried. Single Cross showed considerable resistance to mould,
but fruit size was small. While Potentate was larger, it was inclined to be rough and
subject to mould. Both varieties from these trials were considered inferior to the standard
varieties and will be dropped from further tests.
Since many varieties suitable for spring cropping are not suitable for the fall crop,
ten varieties were tested against the standard varieties now used, namely, V-121 Improved
and Vulcan. Eight of these introductions were not any better than the standard varieties
being grown, the fruit being either too small or rough or the plants subject to disease.
Of the ten varieties tested, only two varieties, V-545 and V-548, were found to stand up
to disease conditions which knocked out other varieties, including the standard varieties,
and are worthy of another year's trial with an attempt to get better size than was obtained
this year. M,
f| Tomato Trials (Outdoor)
This is a continuation of variety trials undertaken with the Westminster Canners
Limited, the Range Experiment Station, Kamloops, and R. M. Wilson, District Horticulturist, Kamloops. Since it has been felt for some time that present commercial outdoor
varieties of tomatoes are not entirely satisfactory for the Interior Dry Belt, trials have been
conducted to evaluate some of the newer introductions as to their suitability.
 Z 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
In this test, ten varieties were planted in ten plots replicated four times, or a total of
400 plants spaced 3*4 by 41/2 feet. The foUowmg table shows the ratings and yield flu
season Two of the varieties, 5336 and Early Lethbridge were very early, and the J
of the crop was picked before the first killing frost, but the fruit failed to measure up |
regard to size, colour, and pulp.
Ratings on Plant and Fruit Characteristics
Ratings made on September 22nd, 1954 (maximum points, 10).
Variety-
Defoliation Due
to Early
Blight
Size of
Fruit
Shape
Colour
Pulp
Observations
(Quality)
Size of
Vine
Green Base
or Uniform
Ripening
5536	
Bounty	
Wasach Beauty	
Foremost E21	
Early Lethbridge	
5343	
Early Prolific Hybrid
5365	
Early Del. Hybrid.—
Clarks S.E	
5
4—
Good
Fair
8
4
G.B.
8
7
Fair
Good
8
7
U.R.
7
9
Good
Good
9
8
G.B.
10
8
Good1
Good-
7
10
G.B.
5
5-
Fair
Fair
5
4
U.R.
9
8
Good
Good-
8
8
G.B.
9
8—
Good
Fair—
7
9
G.B.
9
9
Good
Good-
8
9
G.B.
9
7-
Good
Good—
7
9
G.B.
8
7-
Good
Good
7
8
G.B.
Yields
Lb.
614
318
484
88
639
274
197
351
396
334
1 Some irregular.
New Grape Varieties
In 1953 five varieties of new introductions were obtained from the Geneva Experiment Station in New York State. These varieties had been under test on the station
grounds for twenty years before they were released for test in 1952. An attempt at that
time to obtain these varieties was made, but the available stock was sold out and it was
necessary to wait another year. The varieties are Aldin, Romulus, Naples, Bath, and
Himrod. These were distributed throughout the Okanagan to test for hardiness and soil
preferences as well as yield and quality. This season a vine of one variety, Himrod,
produced a few grapes on the ranch of J. W. Hughes, of Kelowna, a grape-grower of
many years' experience, and he was so impressed with the performance of this variety,
he is endeavouring to obtain 150 vines to start a commercial planting. This is the only
variety reported on this season, but next year some record should be possible of quality
and time of ripening of some of the other varieties.
Bird-control in Flower-seed Crops
For several years a flower-seed grower in the Saanich Peninsula has suffered considerable losses from the feeding of the purple finch. Several methods had been tried in
previous years without success, such as tanglefoot, scare-crows, flashers, string, acetylene
bangers, etc. The flower-seed heads attacked were cosmos, marigold, zinnia, and cornflower.
This year A. E. Littler, District Horticulturist, Victoria, tried a type of fire-cracker,
fired by means of a slow-burning, light-weight rope.   He reports the following results:—
" The fuse rope was calculated to burn at approximately 6 inches per hour; therefore, the lengths were cut so they could be set out the night before, burn slowly during the
night, and have the fire-crackers detonate from daybreak onward at intervals of approximately ten minutes for about an hour. The first flower seeds to ripen and be attacked
were cosmos. On August 10th three firing-stations were set up 100 feet apart, the fuse
being suspended from a stake. A count of the damaged seed-heads was made on that
date, and the damaged seed-heads removed.   The same procedure for detonating the m
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 37
crackers was followed each night, and checks made on the seed-heads every three days
However, after the test had been carried out for a week, it was noted that sometimes the
fuse rope would go out during the night if there was a heavy dew, and it was also felt this
system of burning the fuse rope all night was too extravagant and would deplete the supply
before the end of the season, g Therefore, the system was changed so that the fire-crackers
were inserted in a short piece of rope only and these were lit at daybreak. At the start
of the experiment the birds were present in large numbers, but after one or two days of
disturbance by the detonators they disappeared entirely from the seed-farm. Inquiry
around the district revealed the finches were in large numbers in a thistle-field at Brentwood about a mile away from the seed-farm."
The results of this trial have been so successful it is hoped to repeat the work in 1955.
SURVEYS
The biennial small-fruit survey, which also includes rhubarb, filberts, asparagus, etc.,
was completed this season and is now ready for publication.!The total acreages for the
years 1952 and 1954 are shown below:—
Small-fruit Acreages,, 1952 and 1954
District 1952 1954
Fraser Valley _.  4,404.19 4,750.49
Vancouver Island      562.63 600.65
Okanagan      324.92 215.27
Kootenay      225.19 244.30
Totals  5,516.93        5,810.71
Rhubarb, Asparagus, Nut, Grape, and Holly Acreages, 1952 and 1954
District
Rhubarb
Asparagus
Nut
Grape
Holly
1952
1954
1952
1954
1952
1954
1952
1954
1952
1954
Fraser Valley	
83.01
8.12
7.15
1.26
96.75
3.82
5.55
.90
24.63
5.03
440.29
54.66
19.00
2.47
306.17
17.15
501.27
27.09
449.77
19.58
51.51
13.93
409.83
46.49
4.20
561.48
.75
29.85
40.03
63.00
Vancouver Island	
47.64
Okanagan	
Kootenay	
Totals	
99.54
107.02
524.61
344.79
528.36
469.35
475.27
612.92
69.88
110.64
A start on the quinquennial tree-fruit survey was made this fall, and the field work
is well in hand at this time. For this survey a new form was designed that will not only
assist in speeding up the field work, but will also provide a good deal more information
than was possible with the form used previously.
HORTICULTURAL CIRCULARS
During the year the following horticultural circulars have been revised and brought
up to date:—
(1) Horticultural Circular No. 65, Field Tomatoes in British Columbia.
M. P. D. Trumpour.
(2) Horticultural Circular No. 43, The Home Vegetable Garden (formerly
Gardening on a City Lot).   A. E. Littler.
(3) Horticultural Circular No. 62, Planting an Orchard. I. C. Carne. (A
combination of former publications, Planting Plans and Distances and
Orchard Sites and Soils.)
 Z 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA
(4) Horticultural Stencil No.  17, Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, and Tumi*
1 1 „ mm    ™ n rhristie. mP
ilar No.   78,  Grape-growing in British Co
[lis is a new publication, the first issued by the P
on grape-growing.)
Culture.   W.D.Christie.
(5) Horticultural  Circular No.   78,  Grape-growing in British Columbia
W. F. Morton.   (This is a new publication, the first issued by the Provinc
nti orane-PTOwing.)
(6) Horticultural Circular No. 77, Vegetable Varieties, Description and Uses
J. L. Webster.   (A new publication.)
Three other bulletins are under revision and should be ready for the
lie
Okanagan
Agricultural Club.
printer
(a) Soil Management for Tree-fruits and Vegetable-crops in the Southern
Interior of British Columbia, Horticultural Circular No. 76.
ura]
(b) Cantaloupe-growing in the British Columbia Dry Belt, Horticult
Circular No. 69.   D. A. Allan.
(c) Exhibition Standards, Horticultural Circular No. 50.
FALL FAIRS
This season saw a decided increase in the number of fall fairs. In some instances
they were held for purposes other than displaying the farm produce for the district, and
these served no useful purpose to the community. A number of the small fairs could be
dropped in so far as horticultural displays are concerned.
NEWS LETTER, BROADCASTS, CROP REPORTS, AND MEETINGS
The Horticultural News Letter is issued bi-monthly from May through September.
All the horticultural offices co-operate in reporting seasonal conditions and fruit- and
vegetable-crop estimates. The News Letter is compiled in the Kelowna office under the
direction of the Supervising Horticulturist.
Through the co-operation of B.C. Tree Fruits and the B.C. Fruit Growers' Association, excellent radio coverage is given the fruit-growers on such problems as spraying,
irrigation, etc., during the season. Broadcasts are made over the three Okanagan stations
and the regular farm broadcast each Thursday over the C.B.C. This service proved of
real value this season when apple-scab control was such a problem.
Fruit- and vegetable-crop estimates and final production figures were compiled and
forwarded to the Statistics Branch.
The annual series of growers' meetings in the Okanagan was held as usual. Seventeen
centres were visited, with two meetings at each point.   The total attendance was 1,857.
All members of the staff are called on to attend and speak at growers' meetings
throughout the year. Generally, these meetings are held in the evening, and though they
do take up the official's free time, the service is willingly given.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Your Horticulturist wishes to acknowledge with appreciation the help and co-operation of the horticultural staff and the other members of the Department, as well as the
members of the Canada Department of Agriculture and the University of British
Columbia.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 4 Z 39
REPORT OF APIARY BRANCH
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Vernon
Compared to beekeepers in other Provinces, British Columbia beekeepers have
experienced a most successful season during 1954. Unusually wet weather conditions,
however, affected honey production in certain areas, notably the Peace River District and
Fraser Valley Lower Mainland regions. The Peace River District, which now contains
one-quarter of the total colonies in the Province, produced only 50 per cent of its normal
crop average. From 1,507 active beekeepers during 1953, the total during 1954 of
1,762 active beekeepers indicates a gain of 255 beekeepers. The number of colonies
also increased from the 1953 figure of 11,568 to a total of 12,700 during 1954 and
indicates a total increase of 1,132 colonies. f m
The total honey-crop for the 1954 season was 1,143,000 pounds. If production
in the Peace River area had been average, the total crop would have been above average.
Local conditions of weather and nectar secretion were very marked this season and
resulted in above-average crops in some areas and well below average in others.
Swarming was very much a problem during the 1954 season, and many beekeepers
who have for the past number of years been operating without queen excluders found that
it was impossible to employ any of the Demaree methods of swarm-control.
Supersedure and failing of queens was also very much in evidence during the season.
Unfavourable weather conditions hindered proper mating of queens and resulted in many
drone layers amongst queens reared from established colonies. Poor weather conditions
during late fall also prevented colonies in some areas from gathering normal stores of
pollen for winter and early-spring requirements. If weather conditions are backward
during early spring, it will be interesting to observe the results of a possible pollen
shortage.   A shortage of pollen in British Columbia has seldom, if ever, occurred.
MARKETING
The marketing of British Columbia honey presents no problem at all. The packing
plant at New Westminster is anxious to obtain any local honey, and requests for carload
lots have come in from other Provinces throughout Canada.
Production is still only about 45 per cent of our Provincial consumption. The price
from producer to consumer remains at 21 cents per pound. However, in large bulk
quantities it is selling for as little as 16 cents per pound in 60- and 70-pound containers.
Most beekeepers in British Columbia market their own honey locally, and prices range
from 25 cents to 33 cents per pound in small containers.
INSPECTION
During the summer of 1954 an effort was made to inspect all apiaries in the Peace
River District. H. Boone, of Oliver, spent four weeks on concentrated inspection in that
area. Continuous fine weather during June and early July favoured inspection work,
and, as the result of this inspection, outbreaks of American foul-brood and European
foul-brood were eliminted. A concentrated inspection was made of the Penticton and
Naramata districts by the entire inspection staff. Some American foul-brood was
located in almost every apiary in these districts. In other parts of the Province where
concentrated inspections and control methods have been employed, the disease situation
is now well in hand. The locating and destruction of old equipment which is infected
constitutes one of the best safequards against future outbreaks of disease. Routine
inspection work was carried out in all other areas where apiaries are located.
 Z 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Old Diseased Beekeeping Equipment Located and Destroyed by Burning
District
Burned
Drawn
Combs
Value of
Each
Total
Value
Supers
North Okanagan—-----
Kamloops and district
Salmon Arm	
Kootenays	
Penticton	
South Okanagan	
Similkameen	
Vancouver 1	
Vancouver Island	
Fraser Valley	
Peace River	
Totals	
290
2,500
50
200
850
372
258
2,220
6,740
$0.30
.30
.30
.30
.30
.30
.30
.30
$0.30
$87.00
750.00
15.00
60.00
255.00
111.60
77.40
666.00
$2,022.00
25
403
5
20
109
29
20
Scorched
Bottoms
7
43
2
5
43
9
13
Tops
7
42
2
5
43
12
13
Value of Live Colonies Infected with American Foul-brood and
Which Were Burned in Accordance with the "Apiaries Act"
Total colonies burned  278
Average value per hive       $20.00 *
Total value  $5,560.00
1 Depreciated value.  SI
DISEASE-CONTROL
Thirty-seven samples of brood comb and smears were analysed at the office in
Vernon.   Of these, thirty-two showed positive infection.
A method of controlling American foul-brood was employed at one commercial
apiary of 150 colonies where all colonies were treated by spraying combs with a thin
medicated syrup. This medicated syrup contains sulphadiazine at the rate of one
IVi -grain tablet per gallon of liquid. The syrup is prayed on to the combs, employing
a small 2-gallon knapsack sprayer. J|
Type
of Disease
District
A.F.B.
E.F.B.
Nosema
Others
North Okanagan  	
33
13
14
77
22
26
27
4
55
7
17
3003
7
1
20
Sac-brood1
Kamloops and district	
Salmon Arm and district	
Sac-brood2
Sac-brood1
Penticton	
South Okanagan	
Similkameen 	
Kootenays	
Sac-brood2
Greater Vancouver	
Fraser Valley and Delta	
_  «——-—
Vancouver Island	
Peace River.	
Totals	
278
317
28
1
1 Mild Infestation.
2 Heavy Infestation.
3 Only a few of these colonies were found to be heavily infected.    All the remaining colonies suffered a
infestation.
INSECTICIDE AND HERBICIDE POISONING
Spray poisoning of honeybees is always evident during the time orchardists, seed-
growers, and farmers are applying such spray materials. During one application ot
2,4-D to kill weeds in fields of flax and oats, a heavy mortality of field bees was noticed
in two commercial apiaries located within flying distance. Rapid volatilizing of 2,W
while honeybees were foraging mustard is believed to be responsible.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
Z 41
POLLINATION
Rental of Colonies by Growers for Pollination
District
Crop
Number of
Colonies
Rental
Charged per
Colony
Total
Similkameen	
Grand Forks	
North Okanagan
South Okanagan
Kootenays	
Totals -
Fruit	
Red clover
Fruit	
Fruit	
Fruit	
30
60
42
44
8
$6.00
2.50
5.00
5.50
3.00
$180.00
150.00
210.00
242.00
24.00
184
$4.40]
$806.00
1 Average rent.
Vancouver Island:   100 colonies employed in pollinating greenhouse cucumbers, no rental fee.
/ BULLETINS AND PUBLICATIONS
A small circular on Beehive Construction was published and is now available to
beekeepers. Material for another circular and dealing with the Wintering of Honeybees
in British Columbia is at present ready for publication. Five issues of Bee Wise were
published and distributed.   Instruction sheets were prepared on the following subjects:—
(1) Feeding Fumidil-B for Control of Nosema Disease.
(2) Feeding and Spraying of Sulphadiazine for Control of American Foul-
brood.
(3) The Use of Carbolic Acid in Removing the Honey-crop.
EXTENSION
The need for instruction and guidance in all phases of practical beekeeping is very
evident throughout the Province, particularly for those beekeepers who operate an apiary
of fifty colonies or less. Short courses on the fundamentals of beekeeping and disease-
control have materially assisted the inspection staff through proper education of the small
operator on methods of early detection and eradication of brood diseases. Office correspondence over the year has consisted of 754 letters in and 1,091 letters out.
MEETINGS
The staff of the Apiary Branch attended thirty-five beekeepers' meetings throughout
the year. A total of eight short courses were attended, at which members of our Branch
delivered all the lectures and demonstrations. Field-days were attended in most of the
beekeeping districts, where demonstrations on colony manipulation and management
were given by members of this Branch. Honey was judged at nine fall fairs, where
contact was also made with beekeeper farmers. Talks on beekeeping were given over
the radio stations at Kelowna and Vancouver. There is no method of assessing the value
of such broadcasts, but as frequent comment is made by beekeepers to the Apiary Branch
referring to this method of instruction, it is assumed that they are of definite value.
Telephone calls and visitors are too numerous to record, and such requests for
information are willingly handled, even when contact is made at the residence of all
members of this Branch.
I ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Once again all members of the Apiary Branch have completed a busy inspection
season, hampered by adverse weather conditions. Mr. Thorgeirson and Mr. Boone have
both done excellent work. I wish to thank Tom Leach of C.B.C. Farm Broadcast and
Norm Griffith of CKWX for publicity given our inspection problems and also all Supervising and District Agriculturists for their assistance and willing co-operation.
 Z 42
BRITISH COLUMBIA
HONEY-CROP REPORT
The following statement summarizes, the honey-crop situation for 1954:.
District
Beekeepers
Colonies
Crop
Vancouver	
New Westminster :;"";"";	
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands	
Fraser Valley (Upper and Lower) t^T"T W-
fnterioi^Okanagan, Thompson Valley, and Kootenays).
Peace River	
Totals
140
142
230
446
748
56
381
396
1,009
1,383
5,927
3,600
1,762
12,696
Lb.
9,525
11,880
45,405
48,405
711,240
316,800
1,143,255
Average
25
30
45
35
120
47 cents
Value to producers of 1,143,255 pounds of honey at 21 cents (wholesale), $240,083.55;   11,996 pounds of beeswax
nts per pound (wholesale), $5,638.12.
at
REPORT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY BRANCH
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, and I. C. MacSwan, B.S.A.
A number of plant diseases were favoured by the wetter-than-usual weather in most
districts in the Province. The following diseases caused severe losses in some localities:
Apple-scab in the Kootenays and Arrow Lakes and in the Northern Okanagan and Fraser
Valley; little-cherry in the Kootenays and Arrow Lakes and Creston Valley, downy
mildew of hops at Kamloops and in the Fraser Valley, downy mildew of onions used for
seed at Grand Forks, late blight of potatoes in the Fraser Valley, club-root of crucifers
in the Lower Fraser Valley, and green-bean mosaic at Kelowna. Moderate damage was
caused by such diseases as coryneum blight of apricots in the Okanagan, black-knot of
plums in the Fraser Valley, red-stele and powdery mildew of strawberries at the Coast,
Godronia canker of blueberries in the Fraser Valley, fire-blight of pears in the Creston
Valley, verticillium wilt of tomatoes in the Okanagan and at Kamloops and Lillooet,
bacterial blight of beans at Grand Forks and in the Okanagan and Fraser Valley, and
botrytis rot of sweet peas in the Fraser Valley.
The Province continues to be virtually free of bacterial ring-rot of potatoes. This
disease was detected in slight amounts in the crops of six growers.
SCAB OF APPLES
The wetter-than-usual weather favoured the development of apple-scab. Even at
Kelowna, which is not one of the worst areas for scab, there were at least twenty-three
showery periods of sufficient duration to induce scab infection between May 1st and
September 1st. This frequent showery weather made it difficult for some of the growers
to apply sprays at the proper time.
There is considerable evidence to indicate that the recommended spray programme
will give control of scab. The programme most generally followed, in most districts, was
lime-sulphur up to the pink, wettable sulphur plus ferbam in the cover-sprays, and ferbam
in the late summer sprays.
For the first time a demonstration to determine what effect non-ionic surfactants
suitable to DDT concentrate sprays may have on apple-scab was carried out by J.E.
Swales, District Horticulturist, in co-operation with officials of the Canada Entomological
Laboratory, Summerland. The sprays were applied with a Turbo-mist automatic concentrate sprayer in two orchards at Sunshine Bay.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1954
Z 43
The Effect of Adding Surfactants to Fungicides on Percentage of Apple-scab
in Two Orchards at Sunshine Bay
Materials Applied
1. Check (no spray)	
2. Lime-sulphur	
Ferbam and wettable sulphur	
3. Lime-sulphur, plus Triton B1956	
Ferbam and wettable sulphur, plus Triton B1956
4. Lime-sulphur, plus Miller's MJ1	
Ferbam and wettable sulphur, plus Miller's MJL
5. Ferbam and wettable sulphur	
6. Ferbam and wettable sulphur, plus Triton B1956
7. Colloidal sulphur, plus Triton B1956	
Colloidal sulphur, plus Triton B1956 and Ziram..
Stage
Pre-pink, pink, calyx
Four cover-sprays	
Pre pink, pink, calyx
Four cover-sprays	
Pre pink, pink, calyx
Four cover-sprays	
All sprays 1
All sprays	
Pre-pink, pink, calyx
Four cover-sprays	
Percentage of
Scabby Fruit
100.0
11.7
4.1
4.3
13.5
7.7
12.5
i
The adding of surfactants to the fungicides seems to have given better control of
apple-scab. Further tests should be conducted with Ziram sprays with surfactants added,
because the scab was held in check after a fairly heavy primary infection had occurred.
In an attempt to find a better fungicide, the following materials were tried out on
plots at Creston: Nirit (a fungicide from Europe), Phygon XL, Dithane Z-78 (Zineb),
Manzate (Maneb), Karathane, and Dinitro-ortho-cresol 40 per cent.
There was, however, not enough scab in the plots at Creston to determine the relative
merits of these fungicides. Nirit caused about 10 per cent russeting on Mcintosh.
In the Karathane plots, a heavy infection of pin-point scab developed. Phygon XL,
Dithane Z-78, and Manzate will be tried again next year.
ANTIBIOTICS FOR FIRE-BLIGHT CONTROL
An attempt was made in the Oliver, Penticton, and Kelowna districts to discover
the effect of antibiotics in the prevention of fire-blight of pears.
It was only in the Kelowna district, however, that enough disease developed to
determine the relative merits of the different treatments. Demonstrations were carried
out in four different orchards by W. F. Morton, District Horticulturist. The sprays were
all applied in the balloon and full-bloom stages, but only on pears of the Bartlett, Anjou,
and Boussock varieties. The treatments applied were Agri-strep, Agrimycin, Bordeaux
1-1-100, and check (no treatment). It
The antibiotic sprays, at 100 p.p.m., applied at both the balloon and full-bloom
stages, appear to be effective in preventing fire-blight in the blossom stage. Concentrations of 40 or 50 p.p.m. did not appear to be effective. The antibiotics were very easy
to handle and did not cause any apparent damage.
DEFICIENCY DISORDERS IN TREE-FRUITS
A change has been made in the treatment of the following deficiency disorders:—
1. For Corky-core and Drought-spot of Apples, and Die-back Which Are Due to
Boron Deficiency.—To all trees apply one spray per season of 5 pounds of boron compound per acre, in a concentrate sprayer (1 pound per 100 gallons in dilute sprayers),
as soon as the leaves are well developed, or broadcast 30 pounds of boric acid per acre
on the soil every three years. On very light soils apply 10 pounds of boric acid per
acre annually.
2. For Leaf-blotch of Apple Due to Magnesium Deficiency.—Apply at least four
sprays of magnesium sulphate per acre while the trees are in full foliage. For preventive
treatment apply one spray per season of 20 pounds of magnesium sulphate per acre, in
concentrate sprayers (2Vi pounds per 100 gallons in dilute sprayers), as soon as the
leaves are well developed.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Z 44
3 For Interveinal Chlorosis Due to Manganese Deficiency.—Apply 8 pounds f
manganese sulphate per acre, in concentrate sprayers (2 pounds per 100 gallons i
Site sprayers), as soon as the leaves are well developed.
4 For Little-leaf and Rosette Due to Zinc Deficiency.—Apply zinc sulphate as
a dormant spray before spraying with oil. Amount per       Am*^
Concentrate Dilute''
Percentage of Zinc in Material SP^er Sprayer
36 I  25 12%
32    28 14
/    22  40 20
LITTLE-CHERRY
Little-cherry, a virous disease, appears to cause more damage in the Kootenays and
Arrow Lakes area than it does in the Creston Valley. It has nearly wiped out commercial
cherry-growing in the Kootenays and Arrow Lakes area. Edgewood, Renata, and Kaslo
were the only areas in the district to ship any appreciable quantity of cherries in 1954.
In the Creston Valley a good crop was harvested from many of the infected trees. There
were also a considerable number of trees with fruit of no commercial value.
STRAWBERRIES
Severe low-temperature injury occurred in the crowns and roots of strawberry plants
in the Fraser Valley, Kootenays, and at Grand Forks. Red-stele root-rot, verticillium
wilt, root-lesion nematodes, powdery mildew, and botrytis rot of fruit also caused damage
at the Coast.
W. D. Christie, District Horticulturist, reports promising preliminary results with
Captan spray on botrytis fruit-rot, at the rate of 2Vi pounds per 100 gallons. Dithane
Z-78 was not effective.
STRAWBERRY-PLANT CERTIFICATION
The inspections for certification were carried out with the co-operation of G. E. W.
Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist, and W. D. Christie and G. Thorpe, District Horticulturists.
The total number of applications for certification was forty-three—twenty-three
passed and twenty were rejected. The number of strawberry plants certified was approximately 2,000,000, which was less than the number certified in 1953. The demand for
certified plants was greater than the supply. |(||
BACTERIAL RING-ROT OF POTATOES
British Columbia continues to be virtually free of bacterial ring-rot of potatoes.
There was no rejection due to ring-rot of any potatoes entered for certification.
Ring-rot was detected in slight amounts on two farms in the Fraser Valley in the
1953 crop. In the 1954 crop it was detected on two farms in the Frasey Valley—one at
Bella Coola and one at Kamloops. This disease was also detected in ten carloads of
imported potatoes.
A new bacterial ring-rot directive was issued in September of this year.
LATE BLIGHT OF POTATOES
The estimated loss for late blight in the Fraser Valley is between 10 to 15 per cent,
which is the highest since 1948. It also caused some damage on Vancouver Island, |
tne Northern Okanagan and Kootenays, and at Terrace.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 45
Press releases were issued on July 7th, August 23rd, and September 17th warning
growers of the danger, and also advising them on how to prevent late blight tuber-rot.
In the Fraser Valley, where the weather for August was the wettest since 1918*
many growers were unable to apply all the recommended sprays.
CALIFORNIA SEED-POTATO TEST
The value of the California seed-potato test was evident this year. One grower's
certified seed-potatoes showed over 95 per cent leaf-roll. This one test prevented the
use of this seed for planting, and, consequently, avoided an almost complete crop failure.
The test also gave advance notice to some growers that their certified seed-potatoes
would not pass field inspection for certification.
More growers are realizing the advantage of having advance information on disease.
It gives them the opportunity to obtain new seed if their own is not good enough.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We wish to than officials of the other branches of the Department of Agriculture, the
Canada Department of Agriculture, and the University of British Columbia for their
co-operation.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL ENTOMOLOGIST
C. L. Neilson, M.S., Entomologist, Vernon
The year 1954 did not produce any major insect outbreaks, but insect populations
were sufficient that control measures were necessary on many crops, animals, and products
throughout the Province.
A few of the highlights in economic entomology in British Columbia during the year
were:—
(1) Increased usage of soil insecticides for soil pests, with good control
resulting. p
(2) More emphasis on work relating to a better understanding of relationships
between control by parasites and control by chemicals.
(3) Development of better controls for onion maggot and carrot rust fly.
(4) Development of resistance to organic phosphates by some of the fruit-
tree mites.
(5) Revision of the two tree-fruit and vegetable calendars.
FIELD-CROP AND VEGETABLE INSECTS
In general, insects attacking field crops and vegetables were somewhat less than in
1953. Except for the Fort St. John area, grasshopper infestations showed an over-all
decline, and most of the grasshopper-control zones operated on a reduced scale from
1953. The serious 1953 outbreak of black army cutworm was non-existent in 1954, and
only isolated small infestations appeared. The Colorado potato beetle was present in
numbers in the area between Cranbrook and Golden for the first time in several years.
Red-backed cutworm was present but much reduced over most of the Interior and
Kootenays. Onion thrip and onion maggot damage was normal, except for the market-
garden area of Marine Drive in Vancouver, where onion maggot damage was much higher
than previously recognized. On potatoes the incidence of tuber flea beetle was normal,
but aphid populations were much higher and crop-losses resulted in parts of the Southern
Okanagan. Aphids were responsible for as much as 30 per cent loss in bean tonnage
due to their spreading bean mosaic in the Kelowna-Vernon districts.   Crucifer pests of
 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Z 46
flea beetles, worms, aphids, seed-pod weevil, and root maggots were normal, but there
was an increased acreage of saleable turnips due to wider use of improved control
measures Carrot rust fly damage was less in the Fraser Valley but normal in the North
Okanaean Aphids were a minor problem on clover and oats in the Fraser Valley and
on srain in the Okanagan and Central British Columbia. Wheat midge increased in I
North Okanagan. Wireworm damage to garden crops occurred throughout the Province
and to grains in the Peace River and Central British Columbia areas.
ORCHARD INSECTS
Orchard insects are generally well in hand. The following pests were of some
concern in the degree noted:—
(a) The same level as in 1953: Oystershell scale, cherry fruit fly, peach twig
borer, peach tree borer, fruit tree leaf roller, mealy plum aphid, apple
aphid, pear leafworm, buffalo treehopper, climbing cutworms, cicadas
eye-spotted bud moth, grasshoppers, and lygus bugs.
(b) Less than in 1953: Codling moth, pear leaf blister mite, green peach
aphid, cherry fruitworm, San Jose scale, soft scale.
(c)* More prevalent than in 1953: European earwig, pear psylla, rosy apple
aphid, black cherry aphid, woolly apple aphid, European red mite, yellow
spider mite and two-spotted mite (in late September), and clover mite.
SMALL-FRUIT INSECTS
The main pests on strawberries continue to be strawberry root weevils, white grabs,
and spittlebugs. Control of weevils and grubs by baiting is being replaced by soil insecticides. On cane-fruits, fruitworm, root-borer, cane maggot, and mite populations were
normal. A new leafhopper, Mascropsis fusculata, caused serious damage to loganberries
on Lulu Island. A pest on cranberries on Lulu Island, believed to be the black-headed
fireworm, was reported for the first time.
FLOWERS AND SHRUBS
The following pests were reported as causing economic damage: Narcissus bulb
fly, cyclamen mite, orange tortrix, aphids, greenhouse white fly, holly scale, azalea leaf
miner. Minor infestations of walnut scale, juniper scale, pine needle scale, yellow-headed
sawfly, willow sawfly, spruce needle miner, lilac leaf miner, and tent-caterpillar occurred
in scattered localities.
ft LIVE-STOCK PESTS
Warble-fly, ticks, black-fly, horn-fly, lice, and sheep-ked continue to be the major
pests of live stock. Controls for these pests are applied annually by the growers. Black-
fly populations in the Cherryville district were unusually high and continued to cause
annoyance to stock until late in the fall. Considerable attention was devoted to
mosquitoes in the Columbia Valley and Falkland areas.
HOUSEHOLD PESTS
Inquiries were received regarding the following pests associated in or around homes:
Bedbugs, cockroaches, ticks, ladybird beetles, carpenter ants, termites, fleas, earwigs,
carpet beetles, slugs, sowbugs, mosquitoes, bat bugs, granary weevil, spiders, golden
buprestids, bean weevil.
EXTENSION AND PUBLICATIONS
During the year at least one visit was made to every district agricultural and district
horticultural office in the Province. In some cases experimental work was initiated, but
usually such visits were made in conjunction with current insect problems.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 47
Radio broadcasts and press releases were made. Talks on insects were given at
Kelowna, Rock Creek, Brown's School (north of Grand Forks), Grand Forks, Kamloops
(two), Vernon (three), Merritt, Penticton, Vancouver, Windermere, Wasa, Falkland,
and Salmon Arm (two).   The following publications were prepared and released:	
(1) Turnip Maggots.
(2) Insects of the Season of British Columbia.
(3) Tomato Insects and Controls. §§
(4) Pine Needle Scale.
jjj Handbook of the Economic Insects of British Columbia—Part I.
(6) Strawberry Root Weevils. ft
(7) Tuber Flea Beetle.
The following conferences were attended: Pacific Northwest Vegetable Insect
Conference, Entomological Society of British Columbia, International Great Plains Conference of Entomologists (Kamloops), British Columbia Agronomy, British Columbia
Nurserymen's Convention. In addition, assistance was given in setting up and staffing
exhibits at the Vancouver and New Westminster Flower Shows and Kamloops Bull Sale.
The excellent co-operation of all Provincial District Agriculturists and Horticulturists
is hereby acknowledged, as is the co-operation of all laboratory personnel in British
Columbia of the Canada Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomology.
REPORT OF DAIRY BRANCH
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner
Good pastures were responsible largely for an increased milk flow. Poorly cured
hay may reduce winter milk volume. The estimated total production of 770,000,000
pounds represents a 6-per-cent increase over 1953 figures.
VALUE OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
Statistics for 1953 give the farm value of milk production as $28,377,000 and dairy
products valued at factories or milk plants as $38,246,000. As the price of milk and
butter has declined slightly during the past year, the value of milk and milk products
will probably be much the same for 1954.
UTILIZATION OF MILK IN PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
MILK PRODUCTION (1953) STATISTICS
Per Cent
Fluid sales, milk and cream  57.88
Creamery butter j 20.20
Factory cheese 1  1.65
Concentrated milk and ice-cream  8.36
Dairy butter  2.56
Used on farms and for other purposes  9.35
100.00
The 1954 butter, cheese, and powdered-milk production will show an increase, while
ice-cream and evaporated-milk production will be slightly down compared with 1953.
 Z 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA
DAIRY PLANTS
During 1954 there were 12 creameries, 3 Cheddar-cheese factories, 2 powdered-milk
nlants 1 evaporated-milk plant, 31 ice-cream manufacturing plants (mostly included in
creameries and milk plants), 93 large and small milk-pasteunzmg plants, 2 reconstituted-
milk plants, and around 260 counter freezers in operation in the Province.
CREAMERIES
Only twelve creameries were making butter during the year, the smallest number
of creameries in operation in British Columbia since the turn of the century. The trend
in recent years has been toward fewer creameries with a larger total production. The
1954 creamery butter production will exceed all previous records, with a total of
approximately 7,000,000 pounds, the previous high year being 1945, when 6,205,000
pounds were manufactured.
P CHEESE-FACTORIES
Three Cheddar-cheese factories and one farm-cheese factory have been in operation
during the year. These are located at Armstrong, Salmon Arm, Edgewood, and Nanaimo.
One blue-vein cheese factory has made a small amount of cheese at Creston. The factory
at Edgewood has only been operated part of the year. It has recently changed from
a co-operative back to a private company.
Around 800,000 pounds of Cheddar cheese was made this year, an increase of
21 per cent over the figure for 1953. This year's production of cottage cheese amounts
to just over 3,600,000 pounds. |
It is felt British Columbia would consume more cheese if the grade was marked on
the package for the information of the consumer, and if the retail price was lower.
IMPORTS
Due largely to population increase and in spite of increased local production and
the invasion of oleomargarine in 1949, our butter imports have remained much the same
since 1947, averaging around 20,000,000 pounds annually. Other dairy products
imported are cheese and evaporated, powdered, and condensed milk, in the order named.
The value of dairy imports approximates $18,000,000 yearly.
EXPORTS
Dairy exports over a six-year period from 1947 to 1952, inclusive, had an average
value of $694,287, made up chiefly of evaporated and powdered milk and a comparatively
small amount of butter and cheese.
CONCENTRATED MILK PRODUCTS
Reports to date indicate that powdered-milk production will increase 26 per cent
and evaporated-milk production decrease 5 per cent compared with 1953. There are
two powdered-milk plants in operation (one very small) and one evaporated-milk plant.
ICE-CREAM
British Columbia produced 3,058,000 gallons of ice-cream in 1953 from thirty-one
plants, ranking third among the Provinces. This figure will be slightly lower for 1954,
due chiefly to unfavourable weather for ice-cream consumption.
SHORT COURSE IN DAIRYING
The eighth annual short course in dairying offered jointly by the Department of
Dairying, University of British Columbia, and the Dairy Branch, Department of Agfl-
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 49
culture, Victoria, through the facilities of the University Extension Department, conducted
at Acadia Camp, University of British Columbia, November 1st to December 4th,
inclusive, proved to be one of the most successful held. Twenty-two students attended
the general four weeks' course. Twenty-five students took the special one-week course
in Babcock testing and five took the ice-cream course. Total enrolment for all courses
was thirty-four. |f
Increased yearly contributions from the industry indicate the growing value of this
course. i
The services of all persons contributing to the success of the short course in dairying
are herewith gratefully acknowledged. H
DAIRY LICENCES AND CERTIFICATES
The following licences and certificates of proficiency were issued during 1954:
Creamery or Dairy Licences, 101; Milk-testers' Licences, 134; Combined Milk-testers'
and Cream-graders' Licences, 39; one single Cream-grader's Licence; Certificates of
Proficiency, 22; making a total of 297, being an increase of 3 licences and 9 certificates
over the number issued in 1953. Thirty-four examinations were given for Milk-testers'
Licences during the year.   For list of licensed dairy plants see Appendix No. 1.
OLEOMARGARINE LICENCES
Five firms were issued licences to manufacture oleomargarine in 1954. These were
Canada Packers Limited, Consolidated Enterprises Limited, Kraft Foods Limited, Nova
Margarine Limited, all of Vancouver, and Westminster Foods Limited, New Westminster.
Twenty-three licences were issued to wholesalers of oleomargarine.
Per capita consumption of oleomargarine is estimated at 13.5 pounds. Per capita
consumption of butter has been reduced from 28 pounds in 1948 to about 20 pounds
in 1954. HI I    1 §| -9B
INSPECTION AND INSTRUCTION SERVICES
Six Dairy Inspectors are employed by this Branch. Herbert Riehl resigned, effective
April 30th. He was replaced by D. E. Thompson, a 1941 graduate of the Ontario
Agricultural College who operated the Valley Dairy at Penticton for ten years and was
recently manager of the Northern Dairies Limited at Prince George.
Following are excerpts taken from the Inspectors' annual reports.
George Patchett, Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands:—
"A late, cold spring had some delaying influence on the production of milk in the
early part of the year, resulting in a considerable movement of Mainland milk to Vancouver Island until a later date than usual. The unseasonal weather was beneficial in that
it delayed and shortened the surplus milk period, leaving a very short period when more
milk was produced than was necessary to meet the local need.
I Prices for milk have remained the same both to the producer and for consumer
trade. Many more dairy-farmers have built new milk-houses and installed modern
equipment than was the case in former years. A continued improvement in quality of
milk is evident.
"AH Island districts have found a ready market for most of the milk produced.
The Comox district greatly benefited from the activities of the Air Force at Comox, the
industrial boom at Campbell River, and a good demand for milk at the south end of
the Island. The outlook for dairying on Vancouver Island for next year seems to be
excellent."
G. D. Johnson, Interior:—
"Throughout 1954, 119 inspections of all dairy, creamery, cheese, and ice-cream
plants were carried out in the Okanagan, Similkameen, Cariboo, Peace River, and Central
 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Z 50
British Columbia districts. In the same areas visits were made to dairy-farms, and
£ stitute and dairy meetings were attended and addressed. Interviews were given relative
to all phases of the dairy industry."
N. H. Ingledew, East and West Kootenays:—
"The year 1954 has been a difficult one for the dairy industry in the Kootenays
As a result of an economic readjustment, sales volume has dropped considerably (lo to
15 per cent on the Trail market), which, coupled with good winter production, resulted
in a high percentage of surplus milk from December, 1953, to September of 1954."
K. G. Savage and D. E. Thompson, Greater Vancouver:—
"During the year 1954 Inspectors from this area were called upon to assist in
planning layouts for dairy buildings, lecturing at the annual dairy short course and youth
training course, interpreting regulations for dairymen and the general public, and holding
meetings with public health departments, Live Stock Branch, equipment manufacturers
and others as they related to the problems of the dairy industry in the Greater Vancouver
area."
D. D. Wilson, Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands:—
1 The activities included expansion of the dairy laboratory, inspections under
6 Oleomargarine Act' in the Okanagan area and assistance in organizing a dairy booth
at the B.C. Products Fair. Informative talks were given more than 1,500 schoolchildren who were accompanied through the Burdge dairy-farm. The usual routine of
inspecting dairies on Vancouver and Gulf Islands was a major part of the year's work."
SUMMARY OF PLANT INSPECTIONS, TESTS MADE,
AND MEETINGS ATTENDED f
Dairy-plant inspections  771
Farm visits  326
Butter-fat check tests  3,872
Resazurin, sediment, and temperature tests  3,228
Milk samples tested for added water  395
Reports and test cards sent to milk and cream producers  2,330
Meetings attended  121
Visits to oleomargarine plants and public eating-places re
j Oleomargarine Act §  284
MILK PRICES, 1954
Prices for fluid milk to the producers throughout the Province remained much the
same in 1953, ranging from $4.50 to $5.90 per hundredweight for 3.5 per cent milk.
Retail prices to the consumer ranged from 18 cents per quart in the Peace River Block,
20 to 24 cents in Vancouver and other parts of the Province, to a high of 26 cents for
Special in Victoria.
SUMMARY
The increase in population and the development of more industry in the Province
would indicate a continued demand for milk and milk products.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
Z 51
REPORT OF POULTRY BRANCH
W. H. Pope, P.Ac, Poultry Commissioner
The relatively high prices for poultry products during 1953 and the increased
quantities of feed-grade grains available to producers in other Provinces were responsible
for a considerable increase in Canada's poultry population in 1954. This has caused
a small but continuing surplus which has depressed prices during the past year.
Continued heavy production in all kinds of poultry and overproduction of turkeys
and fowl in the United States has also adversely affected the prices of Canadian poultry.
PRODUCTION
Eggs
While egg production has shown a 24.5-per-cent increase during 1954, the total
return to the producer has been considerably less than in 1953.
Production through Registered Grading-stations
Year
1953.
1954.
Cases
434,279
538,490
Weighted
Producer,
Price per Dozen
46.7^
37.50
Total
$6,083,828
6,058,012
The volume going through registered stations probably represents about 75 per cent
of the total Provincial production of commercial eggs. The remaining 25 per cent or
approximately 120,000 cases were produced for home consumption or for distribution
by producer-wholesalers or vendors. In addition, in excess of 9,500,000 eggs were used
by hatcheries within the Province and a substantial quantity exported for hatching
purposes. m ff-
Poultry—Broilers, Chicken, and Fowl
During 1954, fowl prices have been lower than in any post-war period. A low of
12 to 14 cents per pound was reached during September and October.
Chicken and Fowl through Registered Stations
Year Fowl (Lb.)
1953  3,809,958
1954 I  4,053,550
Turkeys
Chicken (Lb.)
4,334,113
4,105,080
Prices for British Columbia turkeys have, during 1954, been depressed by heavy
production levels in Canada and overproduction in the United States. This condition
has been further aggravated by the existing tariff structure, which places the Canadian
producer in an unfavourable position.
Turkey Marketings and Producer Prices (Live weight)
Year
1952
1953
1954
Pounds
2,946,973
2,876,295
3,632,919
Price per Pound
Light
37tf-45tf
34tf?
Heavy
30^-35^
210
 Z 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The record flow of turkeys into Canada from the United States is an important factor
in the low prices being paid for British Columbia birds.
POULTRY-FLOCK APPROVAL Jj
The development of the whole-blood test for pullorum disease and the excellent
results obtained from the flock-approval programme during past years have made it
possible to completely reorganize the recording procedures and office work relative to
the programme.
Inspectors H. Gasperdone, N. J. Supeene, C. W. Wood, F. Wilkinson, R K
Arnould, A. S. Kyle, and H. E. Upton have been employed on this programme during
various periods of the season. With the exception of Mr. Gasperdone's work in the
Okanagan, most of the field work has been carried out by temporary staff members.
The twenty years of testing under the Flock Approval Policy has seen Salmonella
pullorum infection in breeder flocks decline from 6.09 per cent in 1934-35 to 0.02 per
cent in 1954-55. It has been several years since any field infection of pullorum has
been reported.
All Inspectors met to discuss and revise the regulations of the programme. Three
new men have been trained.
Dr. J. C. Bankier supervises the technical aspects of the testing programme,
Data on Flock Approval, 1950—54
Year
1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.
Number of
Flocks
Approved
474
398
453
636
328
Number of
Birds
Pullorum-tested
253,848
300,000
234,602
276,521
351,507
Percentage of
Reactors
0.046
0.022
0.001
0.28
0.20
HATCHERY OPERATIONS
There has been a marked trend by chicken- and turkey-hatchery operators to import
hatching-eggs and breeding stock. Some of these hatcheries are offering widely advertised
strains and breeds obtained on a franchise basis. The changes that are currently being
introduced in the Canadian R.O.P. Policy and the establishment of the random testing
unit at Ottawa are designed to place the Canadian breeder in a more favourable competitive position. M
Production and Distribution of Chicks Hatched
Year
1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.
Hatched
Exported
Imported
Destroyed
Sold in Province
4,770,978
6,234,426
5,852,539
7,018,569
7,181,710
642,949
750,991
522,746
346,669
603,580
93,815
117,684
155,340
180,382
962,468
595,950
841,368
792,812
1,268,426
3,259,376
5,005,169
4,643,765
6,059,470
4,965,212
Figures to June 30th show that 7,906,592 eggs had been incubated with a hatch-
ability of 70.1 per cent.   This is 2.5 per cent below the national average to that date.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
Chicks Hatched by Breeds to June 30th
Breed 1954
New Hampshires  2,005,190
S.C. White Leghorns  1,439,344
Crosses  1  1,434,879
White Plymouth Rocks      214,018
Light Sussex      122,945
Barred Plymouth Rocks      103,144
Others       227,274
TURKEY PRODUCTION
Z 53
1953
2,370,843
1,173,690
1,372,997
67,771
100,382
106,965
A heavy movement of poults and hatching-eggs into British Columbia from Washington is causing some concern among turkey-breeders. These importations are probably
responsible for the renewed interest in sound breeding practices and a more rigid approval
policy.
Production and Distribution of Poults
Year
Hatched
Exported
Imported
Sold in
Province
1950. 	
1951     	
441,121
356,069
464,202
345,519
506,605
96,185
50,237
156,252
165,716
2,694
347,630
305,832
314,550
197,363
1952 	
1953 p       	
1954  _ \	
6,600
17,560
Turkey Flocks Pullorum-tested and Approved
Flocks Birds
1950  67 25,667
1951  53 28,220
1952  55 17,631
1953  44 18,764
1954  34 19,775
During the 1954 season 944,459 turkey eggs were incubated and 506,605 poults
hatched, giving an average hatchability of 56.3 per cent. This compares to the 1953
figure of 57.8 per cent and to the Canadian average of 54.5 per cent for 1953 and 58.9
per cent for 1954.
Up to and including the week of December 3rd, 3,811,119 pounds of turkeys from
the United States were imported into Canada. Of this amount, 1,302,761 pounds came
into British Columbia. The quantity imported into Canada is in excess of British Columbia's production and equal to approximately 16.5 per cent of the entire Canadian production. Because of this rapidly developing trend that is threatening the Canadian turkey
industry, the British Columbia Turkey Association, supported by all other Provincial
turkey organizations, has made repeated appeals to the Government of Canada to provide
tariff protection similar to that enjoyed by turkey-producers in the United States. While
United States turkeys are not being dumped on the Canadian market, they are being
offered at distress prices because of continued overproduction and the discontinuance of
government support prices.
POULTRY-DISEASES
Respiratory diseases continue to be a major problem where vaccination recommendations have not been fully carried out or in areas that have not been previously exposed.
While there have been reports of 1 breaks j in vaccinated flocks, these appear to be of
a minor nature.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Z 54
Demands have been made for the introduction of additional vaccines for Newcastle
and infectious bronchitis diseases, but to date requests for permits to import have been
denied.
Chronic respiratory disease does not seem to be causing serious losses except under
stress conditions of mismanagement, respiratory or other diseases. Recommended treat
ment suppresses this disease where other factors are adequately cared for.
Vaccine Distribution
Doses
Lederle Newcastle (ocular type)  1,084,700
Connaught Newcastle (spray type)___;_ _  896,950
Connaught combined Newcastle and infectious bronchitis
(spray type)  300,800
Total  2,282,450
The distribution of vaccine has been reorganized and is now entirely handled by the
staff of the New Westminster office. All surpluses accruing from the distribution of
vaccine remain in the Blood Testing Fund, which is administered by Mr. Bagshaw,
Bursar, University of British Columbia. The surplus of this Fund is used to finance
projects of immediate concern to British Columbia's poultry industry.
SOUR-EGG PROJECT
This project, which was fully described in the 1953 Annual Report, is being continued with Dr. Paul Trussell, of British Columbia Research Council, in charge. Since
it has been determined that the washing of eggs induces an increased degree of spoilage,
an effort is being made to evolve a nest that will keep a high percentage of eggs clean
under practical farm conditions. This phase of the project is being financed by the
Canadian Research Council, the Canada Department of Agriculture, the British Columbia
Department of Agriculture, and the poultry industry.
POULTRY CONFERENCES fl
H    Canadian Hatchery Federation, Winnipeg, Man. ft
i       Canadian Turkey Federation, Winnipeg, Man. j|.
§|    British Columbia Federation of Agriculture, Vancouver, B.C.
POULTRY SHORT COURSES |jj
Turkey Short Course: Nanaimo (January).
Turkey Short Course: University of British Columbia (February).
Poultry Short Course: Creston (February).
Poultry Short Course: Salmon Arm (March).
Poultry Short Course: Armstrong (March).
Poultry Short Course: Kelowna (March).
Hatchery Short Course:   University of British Columbia (November).
POULTRY MEETINGS
The Poultry Branch has attempted to have one of its members in attendance at all
poultry meetings. These meetings include turkey and poultry producers, hatchery operators, produce-dealers, feed-manufacturers, Farmers' Institutes, and committees dealing
with poultry problems.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 55
BRITISH COLUMBIA POULTRY INDUSTRIES COUNCIL
This organization continues to be an important force in British Columbia's poultry
industry and is worthy of the entire industry's support. While the Council is composed
of all sections of the industry, by far the greatest number of problems presented for its
consideration are of a producer nature. The Poultry Diseases Committee, which operates through the P.I.C., has done much to bring about uniform recommendations for the
control of Newcastle and infectious bronchitis diseases. M
POULTRY AND TURKEY SHOWS
Several major poultry and turkey shows are annual events and are attended by
Inspectors of the Poultry Branch. The assistance of the staff is sought and is freely
given to these events, which give good publicity to the poultry industry. In addition,
staff Inspectors attend and judge the poultry exhibits at many fall fairs.
WINNINGS AT NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS
British Columbia poultrymen successfully competed in both the Canadian National
Exhibition and the Royal Agricultural Winter Fair. At the Canadian National, Jane
Acces Egg Farm (J. Pringle), of Chilliwack, was awarded first prize for his entry of 30
dozen Grade A Large white eggs with a score of 98.9. In Grade A Large brown eggs,
Langara Poultry Farm, Richmond, and W. G. Drew & Sons, Sidney, tied for second place
with a score of 97.7. J. R. Coombs, of Saanichton, took second place in the class for
Grade A Medium brown eggs with a score of 96.5. These high scores and placings in
a national competition reflect credit on these British Columbia producers.
John Blashet, Aldergrove, made a highly successful entry of Broad Breasted Bronze
turkeys in the Royal Agricultural Winter Fair. With an entry of four birds, Mr. Blashet's
winnings included grand champion of the show, three firsts, and one second. This was
the first time Mr. Blashet had entered his birds in a national exhibition.
STAFF CHANGES
W. H. Pope replaced G. L. Landon as Poultry Commissioner in August.
Walter Wakely resigned in November and was replaced by N. J. Supeene. C. W.
Wood was appointed as Inspector for the Okanagan in December.
These men are well qualified by training and experience to make a valuable contribution to the poultry industry of British Columbia.
NOTE
In the interest of brevity, much of the excellent material submitted by Inspector
H. Gasperdone has been incorporated into this general report rather than using it on a
regional basis.
REPORT OF LIVE STOCK BRANCH
Wallace R. Gunn, B.V.Sc, B.S.A., V.S., Live Stock Commissioner
and Chief Veterinary Inspector
HORSES
The situation within this branch of the live-stock industry has not changed.   The
outlook is the same.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Z 56
Stallion enrollments for the year were as follows:—
1953: A,1;B,3;C,0;D,3;E,26;F,3.
f 1954: A, 4; B, 2; C, 1; D, 1; E, 21; F, 11.
BEEF CATTLE
For inspected slaughterings of cattle and calves, see Appendix No. 2. For beef
carcasses graded in British Columbia, see Appendix No. 3. For average prices of cattle,
see Appendix No. 4. j #
The price picture can be evaluated by examining the appendices over last year's.
The general feeling is that prices have been moving downward somewhat, but not to the
extent where it would seriously affect the industry. A more important factor affecting
the net income of cattlemen is the over-all higher production costs.
BULL TESTING
A third year of this work has been completed with equally good results as in the
previous year.
At the end of the current year's trial, it was decided to restrict the work at the
University to laboratory trials. The progeny testing of bulls to be carried out at the
Kamloops range station is proceeding as planned, and indications are that some very
valuable information will be obtained from the tests. |j
BULL-CONTROL AREAS
This policy is a most useful one. A new area in the North Thompson—the Sullivan
Valley Bull-control Area—was gazetted late this year.
J. W. Awmack reported on the bull-control areas in the East Kootenay, Sand Creek,
Newgate-Grasmere, and Waldo.
SALES AND SHOW RESULTS
The summarized reports of sales in British Columbia during the year 1954 are shown
in the appendices (Appendices Nos. 5, 14, and 15).
PROVINCIAL BULL SALE AND FAT STOCK SHOW, KAMLOOPS,
MARCH 9th TO 11th, 1954
Total head, 395. 1
Champion car-lot: J. W. Lauder, Quilchena. §§
Reserve champion car-lot:  Nicola Lake Stock Farm Limited, Nicola. M
Champion group of five steers:  Haughton Brothers, Kamloops. -B
Reserve champion group of five steers: F. De Leeuw & Sons, Knutsford. B
Champion animal of the open singles:  Basran Brothers, Kelowna. If
Reserve champion animal of the open singles:  Denis Atkinson, Penticton.       ||
Champion animal of the boys' and girls' competition:  Irene Gardiner, Kamloops.
1 Reserve champion animal of the boys' and girls' competition: Dennis Lyster, Armstrong.
Grand champion animal of the show:  Irene Gardiner, Kamloops.
Reserve grand champion animal of the show:  Dennis Lyster, Armstrong.
DAIRY CATTLE AND DAIRYING
Never have we had more and better dairy cattle. One of the best pieces of production work is being done in the placement of choice young dairy stock. .  ,
The number of inquiries received from points outside the Fraser Valley for aid in
locatmg suitable dairy stock approximated those received in 1953.   Grade heifer calves
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 57
are selected only from D.H.I.A. herds where production of the dam and (or) granddam
is known, calves are sired by registered bulls, and all calves are blood-tested for brucellosis.   Only calves negative to the test are shipped.      JL
DAIRY-HERD IMPROVEMENT
The foUowing is the report of J. A. Mace, Superintendent of Dairy Herd Improvement Services:—
The year 1954 was a very mixed-up one for dairymen, particularly in the Fraser
Valley. While weather conditions were conducive to good pasture growth and the
increased production that goes with it, the same conditions made hay-making a very
hazardous undertaking, with the result that much poor-quality hay has been put up in
the Province. This lack of quality will be partly offset by an increase in the volume of
silage made, although, here again, lack of knowledge in the building of and material to
put in stack and trench silos may make the resultant feed somewhat disappointing.
While definite figures for 1954 will not be available until the spring of 1955, it is felt
that the production of the associations may well be down somewhat from the record 1953
figure. Generally lower prices for dairy products throughout the year may tend to curb
grain feeding and, to that extent, lower production.
These lower prices and the resultant uncertainty and indecision amongst dairymen
caused further delay in contemplated expansion of D.H.I, routes. That this course was
justified is shown by the turnover of herds in the newest route where this process has
absorbed much of the waiting list formerly available for another route in the Langley-
Surrey district. On the other hand, a stable and expanding waiting list in the district
extending from Mission to Agassiz has enabled preparations to be made to start an
additional route in this area commencing January 1st, 1955. This will mean two reasonably compact routes here—one including the area from Mission to Harrison Mills, the
other confined exclusively to the Agassiz district. M. Symkowich, at present on Langley-
Surrey Route 2, is being transferred to take the Agassiz run. Paul E. Jensen, White
Rock, will take over the Langley-Surrey Route.
D.H.I, routes operating in the Province remain at twenty-one in fourteen Associations, with approximately 490 herds on test. All routes are full and operating efficiently.
Herds per route average twenty-three with 24.4 days' work. Total cows on test are up
considerably, to 12,293 as at June 30th, 1954. This averages 633 cows per route.
Attached in appendix form is a list of associations, giving the names of their respective
supervisors and secretaries (Appendix No. 6).
There was a total of 9,530 milking periods completed during 1953, an increase of
nearly 20 per cent over 1952. Average production was up again slightly at 9,538 pounds
of milk (4.21 per cent) and 402 pounds of butter-fat per cow. A summarized report
showing average production by breeds is attached in Appendix No. 7.
STAFF
The following changes or transfers of supervisors took place during the year: Pat
Hibbert from Dewdney-Deroche Dairy Herd Improvement Association to Salmon Arm-
North Okanagan; Soren Baehr from Salmon Arm-North Okanagan to Surrey to replace
Fred Nagel, who resigned to go farming; A. Maddocks from Matsqui Route 2 to
Dewdney-Deroche; P. Harvey from Sumas Route 2 to Matsqui Route 2; Brian Hall, a
student at the short course held at the University of British Columbia from March 19th
to 30th, 1954, went to work on Sumas Route 2; Henry Bylsma, a student at the same
class, went to work on Chilliwack Route 3 to replace Stan Blabey, who has taken a year's
leave of absence due to ill health.
The problem of securing sufficient suitable men to act as supervisors on the associations continues to be a difficult one.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Z 58
CALF TAGGING
During the past twelve months 3,000 tags have been allocated to D.H.I.A routes
an increase of 25 per cent over the 1953 figures. This interest in tagging is mci
appreciated, as it not only furnishes us with absolutely authentic information concern^
daughters and dams for our sire-list work, but is the basis for much of the authentic
information used in giving production ratings to bulls in use in A.I. Clubs in the Province.
DEPARTMENTAL SUBSIDIES
Grants to twenty-one D.H.I, routes amounted to $40,674 during 1954, an increase
'      j R.O.P.-D.H.I.A. COMBINED SERVICE
Fifty-one D.H.I, herds are now availing themselves of this very worth-while service.
In May, 1954, Ottawa decided that herds on Plan A would no longer be eligible for
combined service testing. The majority of herds on the combined service who were on
Plan A immediately switched to Plan B. Losses incurred by this change in policy have
since been more than replaced, in fact membership is at an all-time high, herd-owners
under this plan now having over 850 pure-bred cows receiving R.O.P. tests at very little
cost and inconvenience to themselves.
DISEASE-CONTROL PROJECT (LIVE STOCK BRANCH
APPROVED HERD POLICY)
The fundamental value of this project has been definitely shown, although the lull
potential will not be realized until sufficient time and help are made available so that an
intimate study of the information obtained can be made by those concerned with its
administration.
FIELD WORK
The policy of personal contact with both members and supervisors of D.H.I, routes
has been continued to as great an extent as possible. Annual meetings of all Dairy Herd
Improvement Associations were attended, as well as a D.H.I, field-day at Chilliwack, and
also annual meetings of both the Chilliwack and Milner Artificial Insemination Associations and the regional meeting of District Agriculturists held at Victoria, among others.
A talk was given to students attending the Dairy Short Course at the University of British
Columbia, outlining the operation of Dairy Herd Improvement Associations and their
potential value to dairymen.
ANNUAL DAIRY SIRE LISTS
Only one sire list was prepared this year—namely, the Twenty-third Holstein—
containing production information concerning some 160 Holstein bulls. Unless these lists
can be prepared and issued with regularity containing pertinent and up-to-date information, much of their potential value is lost. H
j- PRODUCTION RECORDS
The year 1954 will again reach an all-time high in the receipt of these records.
D.H.I. should account for over 10,000 completed periods, and R.O.P. have already sent
through over 4,000. A new system of numbering non-qualifying D.H.I, records has been
started and will prove of great benefit in securing further daughter-dam pairs. Previous
to starting this system, many pairs were missed as there was no positive identification
made of the dam's non-qualifying record. It is felt that these non-qualifying records are
of equal, if not greater, importance than qualifying ones if a full and complete picture ot
a bull's productive capacity, as shown through his tested daughters, is to be given.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1954 Z 59
ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION CLUBS
A close relation with artificial insemination units has again been maintained this
year. Periodic reports on the performance of bulls in these units have been prepared
irrespective of whether a regular sire list was being made up for the breed in question at
the time. It is felt that a close and harmonious relationship must be maintained between
this office, the artificial insemination units, and the Federal Department of Agriculture
personnel dealing with bull selection if the full benefit of the artificial insemination programme is to be realized.
One disappointing factor in regard to the operation of these units is the lack of
attention being given to the tagging of calves. This office could undoubtedly give much
quicker and more complete proofs on artificial insemination bulls if an accurate and
authentic system of tagging were adopted by the clubs. fSj|
PARENTAL PRODUCTION SUMMARIES
Complete reports have been prepared on twelve prospective sires for interested
purchasers.
"LONG PULL"
In co-operation with Frank Clark, live-stock fieldman, Department of Agriculture,
New Westminster, this small bulletin has gone out to D.H.I, members regularly each
month for the past year. A good many complimentary remarks have been received on this
effort. An attempt is made to- keep the contents of each issue timely, interesting, and
pertinent from the view-point of the D.H.I, members.
TON-OF-FAT COMPETITION
Interest in this very practical competition continues to grow. The fact that more
D.H.I, herds are eligible for the competition each year, and that the total number of cows
published in the annual ton-of-fat list continues to grow, seems to indicate that the effort
being made to get dairy-farmers to realize the vital importance of handling good dairy
cows in such a manner that they may realize their full potential according to lifetime
production rather than individual high records is bearing results. Forty-seven herds were
eligible for competition last year (that is, had a minimum of 25 per cent of the cows
completing lactations during the year with a production of 2,000 pounds of butter-fat or
over), and G. E. London, Delta Rdute 2, D.H.I.A., was the 1953 winner, his herd having
55 per cent of such cows. A total of 1,216 cows appear in the fifteenth annual list of
long-life production cows issued this year.
PUBLICATIONS
H.I.C. No. 74, The Twenty-third List of Holstein Sires, containing reports on
160 sires.
Monthly issues of the 1 Long Pull."
H.I.C. No. 75, Fifteenth Annual List of Long-distance Production Records of 1
Ton of Butter-fat or Over, giving details of milk and butter-fat records for 1,216 cows.
SUMMARY OF TRANSACTIONS UNDER PURE-BRED SIRES FOR
FARMERS' INSTITUTES POLICY
Sire purchases for the year 1954 were as follows (1953 figures in parentheses):
Twelve (eight) pure-bred sires have been purchased at a cost of $4,450 ($3,000), with
a total freight charge to this Department of $359.43 ($282.95).
 Z 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
ROYAL AGRICULTURAL WINTER FAIR, TORONTO, NOVEMBER
K 12th TO 22nd, 1954
Never before was there as strong a Hereford show at the Royal Winter Fair and
while our wins may not seem to be very great, our exhibit was very well appreciated
and our cattle were recognized as sound and practical. There were two large American
herds which were the strong winners. The competition amongst Canadian breeders was
keen and prizes quite well divided.
Our wins were as follows:—
Colonel Spencer:   First,  senior cow  class;   fourth, junior yearling bulls-
eleventh, senior yearling bulls;  seventh, 2-year-old bulls; and eleventh'
summer yearling bulls.
Len Wood:   Fourth, cross-bred and grade steers (900 to 1,000 pounds);
fourth, cross-bred and grade steers (1,000 to 1,250 pounds); seventh
senior yearling bulls; and seventh, summer yearling bulls.
V. Ellison:  First, pure-bred summer yearling steers (later made breed champion); ninth, junior heifer calves; and ninth, junior bull calves.
Fred Dey:  Fifth and sixth, summer yearling heifers.
Felix Abel:  Third, 2-year-old bulls.
Glen Shannon: Fifth, grade and cross-bred steers (900 to 1,000 pounds).
The win of Hereford breed champion steer by Vern Ellison was outstanding, a
compliment to the breeder and to his outstanding herdsman, Harold Somerset. The win
by Colonel Spencer in the aged cow class showed the sound, rugged quality of Earlscourt
breeding. Fifth and sixth places in summer yearling females by Fred Dey was one of
the good wins. In the Sale of Stars, the Felix Abel bull brought $1,450 and third
highest price. Col. Victor Spencer drew top price in the female Sale of Stars. Generally, market cattle sold rather low, with the average about HVz cents.
PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION, PORTLAND, ORE., 1954
Jersey and Ayrshire dairy cattle entered by British Columbia breeders at the 1954
Pacific International Exposition at Portland, Ore., captured an impressive share of
honours in stiff competition with top entries from American exhibitors.
With a shipment of only 26 head, British Columbia Jersey entrants took awards
for the senior and grand champion bull, reserve grand champion cow, junior champion
heifer, nine firsts, including the coveted State Herd prize, six seconds, six thirds, and
four fourths.
Leading the aged bulls class and senior and grand winner was Bellavista Royal
Standard from H. Reifel's Bellavista Farms at Milner. Second and fourth in the same
class were W. H. Savage's Glendowan Boy's Aim and Quilchena Standard's Le Parcq
5th.
First prize senior yearling bull was W. H. Savage's Glendowan Boy's Illustrious.
First prize junior calf was entered by H. Malenstyn, of Ladner.
Reserve grand champion cow was Fairmeade Radiance Aim 2nd from the herd of
G. H. Keur, Quilchena Farms, Lulu Island. f
Junior champion heifer, Quilchena Pamela Princess, came from the same well-
known herd.
In the State Herd competition, British Columbia was a strong first.
British Columbia Ayrshires also came off very well at the big Portland show, taking
the junior champion bull, grand and reserve grand champion cows, junior champion
heifer, and State Herd awards.
Gharry Lord Nelson, entered by R. Adrian, of Ladner, was junior champion
Dun in the show.   Grand champion cow was Maple Crest Becky from the herd of W. V-
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
Z 61
Savage, also of Ladner.   Junior champion heifer, Glengarry Lucky Jessie, was entered
from the same Savage herd.
Reserve grand champion cow award went to Ubyssey Commodore Allison, from
the University of British Columbia's herd. This cow also was judged best-uddered cow
in the show. ft
Again the State Herd award was won easily by British Columbia, against competition that included entries from as far east as Ohio.
These gratifying results in what is recognized as one of the top agricultural shows
in the Western United States serve as a sharp reminder that the quality of British
Columbia dairy stock is well above the average for all North America.
Kalwood Real Domino 19th, Reg. No. 379375
First prize summer Hereford steer and breed champion for V. E. Ellison, Oyama, B.C.,
at the Twenty-sixth Royal Agricultural Winter Fair, Toronto, Ont.
SHEEP
Prices for breeding stock, meat, and wool followed the general price pattern of livestock prices in general. There has been a renewed interest in sheep, as shown by more
farm flocks being established.   See Appendix No. 8 for average prices for lambs.
Compensation
Paid under the (<Sheep Protection Act
% from the Dog Tax Fund
Year
Goats
Sheep
Poultry
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
1950___   _
8
1
2
2
$135.00
18.00
70.00
123
114
120
60
173
$1,721.00
1,728.00
2,168.00
1,115.30
3,157.00
1,371
401
376
883
282
$1,996.58
1951    	
673.80
1952  ..
697.43
1953	
1,096.90
1954„„.
43.00
460.65
        ■
 Z 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
SWINE
Swine-breeding is almost entirely confined to the grain-raising sections of the Prov
ince such as the Peace River. Most of the swine produced there go to the Edmonton
market Swine-raising in most other parts of the Province is restricted to garbage feeding
of feeder hogs shipped in from Prairie points. For inspected slaughterings of hogs J
Appendix No. 2; for average prices of hogs see Appendix No. 9.
APPROVED HERDS
This policy is receiving continuing support. The herds which have been selected
have a good sound foundation and are managed by capable cattlemen. In last year's
Annual Report, an outline was given of the policy. |
The following have made application and been accepted under the British Columbia
Approved Herd Policy: G. R. Rotluff, R.R. 1, Matsqui, May 12th, 1952; C. A. Higgin-
son, R.R. 2, Sardis, January 29th, 1952; J. S. Reid, R.R. 1, Matsqui, January 23rd,
1952; Fred J. Zink, R.R. 3, Sardis, January 28th, 1952; H. B. Fraser, R.R, 2, Chilli'
wack,' January 29th, 1952; J. Vonesch, R.R. 2, Abbotsford, December 16th, 1953; and
John Walsh, Cedar, Vancouver Island, February 9th, 1954.   As mentioned in the 1953
Annual Report, the herds of Messrs. Higginson and Rotluff have already been dealt with
and British Columbia approved-herd certificates issued.    The other herds are well on
their way toward approval.
I DISEASE
1 The importance of disease in the economy of the country is not generally appreciated. Only a paralysing outbreak of some disease seems to alert the industry to the
importance of disease. New diseases draw closer to our borders each year. This suggests
keener policing and constant study of the whole field. This year, during one or more
nights, cattle near the United States-Canadian border were attacked while in pasture close
to the farm buildings. The location of the injuries and their peculiar nature very strongly
indicates that these injuries were the work of vampire bats. The bats were not seen,
unfortunately, and there is no record, as far as we know, of these animals ever appearing
farther north than Southern United States. Insect and parasitic pests are drawing closer
to our borders and invading our country. This serious situation does not appear to be
recognized by the industry except in a very minor way.
SPECIFIC DISEASES
Hemorrhagic Septicemia.—In its complex form usually termed I shipping fever."
With the step-up in live-stock movements, we have a step-up in the incidence of this
disease. We are constantly advising stockmen how to prevent and how to handle
outbreaks.
Coccidiosis.—The incidence of this condition has been decreasing.
Necrotic Stomatitis.—There is always some of this disease present, but the causal
organism seems to be doing more damage when included in the foot-rot of cattle
syndrome.
Equine Encephalomyelitis.—This was not an encephalomyelitis year. The weather
was not suitable, but it would seem as though the stage is being set for another near
epidemic.
Caseous Lymphadenitis.—The importation of old prairie ewes is the source of our
breaks. We are holding the disease down by inspection and quarantine. If the incidence increases, we shall have to refuse entry of this class of stock.
Keratitis (Pinkeye).—-This disease is strongly established in the range country.
1 his too, came in with outside cattle. Cattle from the Interior coming to the Lower
Mainland and Vancouver Island are definitely establishing the disease in these areas.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1954 Z 63
Carcinoma of the Eye.—Cancerous eye in cattle seems to be increasing. The
stimulating effect of an increased incidence of keratitis, together with the recognized
inheritance factor, constitutes the complete syndrome.
Foot-rot in Cattle.—This condition is becoming of increasing importance. Its
appearance on more and more ranches indicates the need for closer attention to the
problem. We have been doing considerable work on the disease but more should be
done.   It seems to present a complex problem.
Foot-rot in Sheep.—This is a reportable disease under our I Contagious Diseases
(Animals) Act." The good work of our Inspectors has helped to keep the incidence
of this disease down.
Liver Abscess.—Where foot-rot is prevalent, abscessed livers appear since the
Actinomyces Necrophorus organism appears in both conditions,    ft
Actinomycosis and Actinobacillosis.—These may appear singly or in combination.
As we proceed with our area disease clean-up for brucellosis, it is hoped that we can
eliminate these diseases.   We have made good progress in this approach.
Swine Erysipelas.—Uncontrolled importations of swine have established this disease
over wide areas of the Province. Once established, it is impossible to eradicate. It
means living with the disease. This disease is especially dangerous to poultry, particularly
turkeys.
Swine Rhinitis.—-This is another importation. Much research work is being done,
and while no specific answer has been found, a lot of useful information has been
obtained.
Other Complex Swine Troubles.—Swine seem to be subject to a wide range of
troubles—some sporadic, some of an infectious or contagious nature. These work singly
and in various combinations as we find them. Good attention to feeding and management seems to help greatly.    These troubles include respiratory and enteric conditions.
Johne's Disease.—This disease seems to be increasing, and unless something is
done, it is certain to become a real problem. It is a reportable disease under the Federal
Health of Animals Division. We uncovered a bad break in a large sheep flock last year.
Some progress in its eradication has been made, but it is far from cleaned up.
Infectious Abortion Other than Brucella Infection.—The two chief causative agents
met with in our Province are those caused by the protozoan Trichomonas foetus and the
organism Vibrio foetus. The former fortunately seems not to be prevalent, but vibriosis
unfortunately quite widespread.
Vibriosis.—A very severe break was uncovered in the Grasmere-Roosville district.
The disease affected approximately sixteen cattle herds and actively appeared in several
herds running on this range. In the clean-up approximately twenty bulls were shipped
and the cow herds culled very carefully. The cows were kept out of breeding for some
three months and were then bred artificially. The cattlemen made a very fine organized
effort, and it is hoped that the disease may be eliminated. A close check is being kept
on the situation, especially to note how the different herds calve out. Quarantine is being
retained until we are sure we have the disease eradicated. The matter of next year's
breeding plan has yet to be decided. All the cattle herds were blood-tested for brucellosis. Trouble was found only in recent importations from outside the Province. This
vibriosis outbreak was traced to imported cattle. With the entire Kootenays now
within disease-control areas, the chances for disease outbreaks like this are much less.
Mastitis.—This disease is one of the most costly to the dairy industry and will soon
be enemy number one; it also constitutes a public health problem. With the advent of
antibiotics, the disease has taken on a new angle. We have more of the bad strains and
types to contend with. In our production work in the placement of breeding stock, we
have restricted importations to brucellosis-free cattle with sound udders as well as good
production.   The results have been most satisfactory.    §|
 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Z 64
VESICULAR DISEASES
Rabies —Little can be added to what was said in last year's report. The Federal
Health of Animals Division is in charge of the work, but our Department is continuing
to assist on the same basis as last year. Rabies is one of America's greatest disease
problems, a challenge to the veterinary and medical professions and to governments.
BRUCELLOSIS-CONTROL
The year 1954 has been one of greatest progress in the control of brucellosis in
British Columbia. A study of this disease and its control on a world-wide basis indicates
increased interest in its control. It is very evident that the public health side of this
disease in receiving much more attention. We have received quite a number of disturbing
reports on human brucellosis. Some of these have been investigated and our findings
have shown a high incidence of brucellosis in the herds on the farms.
The following tabulated statement gives the over-all picture:—
Calfhood Vaccination
Total vaccinated under Provincial policy during the period July 31st, 1941, to
July 14th, 1950, 83,730. This figure includes 14,121 calves vaccinated under the area
programme by Provincial veterinarians.
Calfhood Vaccination under Joint Policy of Federal-Provincial Brucellosis-control
Area Vaccinations
by Provincial Total
Veterinarians Vaccinations
July 15th, 1950, to June 30th, 1951     8,798 18,929
July 1st, 1951, to June 30th, 1952  11,324 24,178
July 1st, 1952, to June 30th, 1953  14,820 29,605
July 1st, 1953, to June 30th, 1954  19,321 34,152
Totals   54,263 106,864
On the date of July 14th, 1950, the programme became a joint Federal-Provincial
policy, in which the Federal Department of Agriculture (Health of Animals Division)
furnished to the Provincial Department vaccine free for distribution according to an
agreed-upon plan.   The Province is required to direct and administer the policy.
PROVINCIAL WARBLE-FLY AND TICK CONTROL
Since the beginning of the work of warble-fly control in British Columbia, the first
organized policy in Canada, great progress has been made. When we first started, it was
not uncommon to find an average incidence of infestation as high as twenty-five or thirty
warbles. In many of these areas the incidence to-day is perhaps less than two warbles
on the average. The only thing which prevents a complete clean-up is the fact that some
people are careless in treating their heifers on pasture and also that imported stock brings
in new implants. In some sections we need more intimate supervision. As areas come
in under our disease-control policy, closer supervised control is to be carried out. The
control of warbles is most essential in the over-all control and eradication of brucellosis
and some other disease problems which are confronting us in our work. The need for
more intimate insect-pest control, especially in the southern part of the Province, is
something which is becoming more evident all the time. Recent work done in the range
country to the south proves distinctly the close relationship between the control of specific
diseases and the incidence of internal and external parasites. We have reason to be
thankful that we got started early on warble-fly control.   While we need better organi-
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 65
zation in some parts of the Province, we are fortunate in having such an excellently
organized programme in some districts, especially in concentrated dairying areas like the
Fraser Valley. This latter district is under the immediate direction of F. C. Clark of
this Branch. w
(Mr. Clark has carried out considerable work on warble-fly control. His detailed
report, as well as reports from other Departmental officials in various areas of the
Province, is on file in the office of the Chief Veterinary Inspector.)
j MILK ACT | ADMINISTRATION, DAIRY HERD INSPECTION,
AND DAIRY-FARM GRADING
No other policy has accomplished more than dairy-herd inspections and farm
grading. In the districts where the work has received support, the quality of the product
has been excellent and consumption has been high. If an examination of plate count
records in several areas is made, it will be noted that the counts remain consistently down
to a very low level, far below the legal requirements; also it will be noted that the
incidence of mastitis is very low. This all means a low replacement percentage in the
dairy herds. This work is supported by our brucellosis-eradication programme. This is
a much more sound approach than that of ignoring these several policies, and trying to
live with these troubles, and failing to recognize quality as the very foundation of a sound
industry.   (See Appendix No. 10.)
(Here again the detailed reports of the Veterinary Inspectors are on file in the office
of the Chief Veterinary Inspector. These show the number of premises inspected, the
number of all cattle, of milk cows, of cows milking, etc., as well as much other information of local interest to each area concerned and valuable in the all-over Provincial
picture.)
FUR-FARMING AND j FUR-FARM ACT 1 ADMINISTRATION
It is generally conceded that this Act is one of the best. The British Columbia fur-
farm industry is one of the most disease-free and the management methods are the best.
This means a very sound industry. ft
During the year there were only seven premises quarantined; two of these later
proved not to have had distemper, and one of the breaks was very mild. Of the four other
breaks, three were on new ranches made up entirely of mink from outside the Province.
During the year seventy-one new licences were issued for the establishment of new
ranches. Of these, nine were ranches built entirely on mink from outside the Province.
On these seventy-one ranches, there were three distemper outbreaks, and all three breaks
were on ranches built entirely on outside mink.
This would seem to be a very fine record and would seem to indicate no need for
any change in policy or procedure.
The following is a summary of activities within the industry: 1954 licences issued,
432, as against 408 last year* (Nos. 2561f to 2992f). Revenue totalled, $4,640
($4,360 in 1953). Five lots of Fromms (minkvac) mink distemper vaccine were purchased, at a cost of $875.25 ($596.75 in 1953), by the Department to combat initial
outbreaks of distember. | Seven ranches were quarantined for distemper but only five
were proven; four are still under quarantine. Twenty permits to vaccinate were issued—
all for minkvac—fifteen of these as a protective measure only with five of the latter having
previously had distemper.
• Seventy-one new licences (thirty-six chinchiUa, thirty-three mink, and two nutria) were isued, including nine
mink-ranchers moved from Alberta. Fifty ranches ceased operations (thirty-one mink, sixteen chinchma, one fox, one
marten, and one skunk).
 Z 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Statistics (1952) released by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics in April, 1954.
1952
1951
1950
Ranch-produced pelts sold (number)	
Value of pelts ~ ^""-TjrToo
Value of breeding stock at December 31st, 1952.
82,839
$1,347,718
$1,619,561
70,552
$1,226,289
$1,530,781
65,659
$1,147,321
$1,473,988
1948
46,627
$638,612
$1,099,710
The following table indicates the distribution of fur-farm transportation permjts
issued during the period December 1st, 1953, to November 30th, 1954 (figures for 1953
shown in parentheses):—      	
Kind and Number of Permits
Mink
Chinchilla
Fox
Export, 114 (117)—
Canada	
United States —
United Kingdom
Sweden	
Netherlands	
Austria	
Totals	
Import, 83 (102)—
Canada	
United States	
Totals	
Move, 55 (65)	
317 (
219 (
11 (
6(
 (
4(-
536)
114)
3D
59)
12)
 )
557 (   752)
1,030 (1,015)
330 (   160)
1,360 (1,175)
281 (   184)
158 ( 26)
8 (--)
15 ( 31)
 ( 15)
 (__)
------ (--)
181 ( 72)
59 (187)
137 (_)
196 (187)
73 (188)
Nutria
The large number of mink imported from other Canadian Provinces is due primarily
to the movement to British Columbia from Alberta of nine ranchers and their stock,
totalling 965 animals. In addition to those listed in the above table, permits were issued
to cover movement of mink to shows at Milwaukee, Seattle, Vancouver, Toronto, Calgary, and Regina, and for chinchilla to shows at Nanaimo, New Westminster, Edmonton,
and the National Chinchilla Show at Guelph.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
ANIMAL PATHOLOGICAL SERVICES
Z 67
Dr. J. C. Bankier, D.V.M., V.S., Vancouver, in charge of the Branch Laboratory
on the campus of the University of British Columbia, reports as follows:	
Specimens Examined in Vancouver Laboratory, December 1st, 1953
to November 30th, 1954
Diseases Due to—
m
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1
Fur-
bearers
Miscellaneous
Remarks
Total
A. Bacteria
Abortion           .      - 	
11
14
24
51
45
9
7
1
85
5
113
71
6
4
180
44
2
3
1
130
97
181
36
145
33
7
12
4
15
15
31
14
1
2
6
11
1
4
2
6
4
35
14
21
25
13
1
1
2
2
—
2
1
2
89
9
4
3
5
2
1
2
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
2
3
1
1
11
1
5
9
13
5
2
1
9
i
3
3
7
2
1
~1
1  mummification,  1  coryne-
bacteria.-    . ....	
7
Actinomycosis 	
1
2
89
Blackleg-    — 	
BruceUosis	
87 negative, 1 positive, 1 suspicious 	
Enteritis         	
1 mink, 1 rabbit, 1 pigeon, 1
swan	
Erysipelas	
42
31
Fowl-cholera.-       	
Goat-
14
1
1
Johne's disease.   	
Liver necrosis  	
Malignant oedema  —   	
4
Mastitis    —    . 	
Non-specific infection  ~.
2 mink, 1 chinchiUa
48
Pasteurelosis	
Mink 	
3
Pericarditis.   	
1
Peritonitis —  . 	
Mink    .
54
Pneumonia   	
3 mink, 7 chinchilla, 1 pheasant, 3 budgies, 2 dogs,  1
cat, 1 goat, 1 baboon	
4 positive 	
Pullorum	
76
9
Salmonellosis	
Sinusitis  	
Mink 	
12
1
Staphylococcus     	
Streptococcus..   	
Toxaemia       —
Mink   ...   	
6 mink, 3 chinchiUa   ..
16
5
103
Tuberculosis
5
B. Virus
Bronchitis
113
Chronic respiratory disease.    	
Mink, dog     ..
75
Distemper  	
Fowl-pox   .  &* ''
Laryngo-tracheitis	
Leucosis _
14
Canaries	
9
4
180
Neural
Ocular                                _...__            __ .
Bone
Skin
Visceral ...  „   	
	
Newcastle disease                           	
97
C Protozoa
Coccidiosis
5 rabbits, 1 goat, 2 geese.	
224
Caeca1__ _                            __   j    	
Intestinal
Renal.   ...   . 	
Entero-hepatitis- .     _   -
H examiti asi s
58
13
Trichomoniasis.. 	
D. Helminthes
Caecal worms 	
Gaoe worms
1
7
1
Gizzard worms
Geese	
7
Luns worms
Deer.	
2
Roundworms  	
Tapeworms.. .    	
Trich ostron pv1 ps
Doe                  -      	
13
5
Goat 	
2
E. Fungi
Aspergillosis.                        _
2
Mvcosis
17
 Z 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Specimens Examined in Vancouver Laboratory, December 1st, 1953,
to November 30th, 1954—Continued
Diseases Due to—
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g
Fur-
bearers
Miscellaneous
Remarks
F. Nutrition
6
1
16
5
1
82
9
756
9
2
2
3
87
175
7
1
4
1
3
5
8
2
4
6
2
6
1
2
2
4
40
23
69
5
2
12
2
I
24
17
1
3
1
1
11
2
13
1
12
1
1
2
2
jj
1
2
15
1
1
9
11
2
4
3
4
i
1
2
2
3
1
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
2
Dog	
—
■ ~
|   ——
Pheasants	
Mink..	
G. Metabolic Disorders
Mink	
Mink 	
H. Miscellaneous
Liver	
Mink	
1
r>iaf»«tivp deraneement      	
9   chinchillas,   1   goose,
budgie...	
Faultv management          	
10   mink,    1   chinchilla,
ducks..	
2
Faecal samples    .	
2 dogs, 1 goat	
Fibrillary muscle rupture _ —
Dog „..  ..
Gizzard erosion                             -   -
California murrelet 	
Western grebes
Gizzard impaction  	
Gout                                                 	
Budgie
Hernia  	
Hock disorder.   	
Impaction 	
Injury 	
Mink, budgies.	
Internal haemorrhage	
Mink               	
Intussusception	
Cat                    	
Keratitis.   .    ...	
Negative findings	
Nitrate poisoning	
Mink, 1 dog, 1 goat, 1 egg-
(Edema of wattles.  	
Preventriculitis	
Round heart	
Semen samples	
Tumour...	
Unsuitable for examination	
Uraemia . . 	
Totals	
2,178
338
41
170
7
11
86
75
mmmm^^
Total
10
1
17
7
3
3
2
1
15
3
87
1
9
1
35
796
9
2
1
2
3
121
257
20
2
1
8
3
1
1
9
3
12
20
1
2
31
1
2
4
6
12
4
3
6
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
Z 69
Location from which Specimens Originated
Location
Number of Owners
1953
1954
Location
Number of Owners
1953
Greater Vancouver,  Burnaby,  New
Westminster, and Burquitlam	
Richmond	
Delta	
Surrey	
Langley	
Matsqui	
Sumas	
Chilliwack	
Kent	
Mission-Maple Ridge	
Pitt Meadows	
Vancouver Island	
Carried forward.	
110
90
45
78
10
17
87
92
70
61
36
54
4
8
27
25
2
5
21
18
5
5
12
29
429
482
1954
Brought forward	
South and North Coast and Islands	
North Okanagan	
South Okanagan	
West Kootenay	
East Kootenay	
Boundary	
Kettle Valley	
Pemberton	
Kamloops	
Central and Northern British Colum
bia	
Golden and Revelstoke	
United States (Washington)	
Totals	
429
10
14
5
10
9
2
3
12
15
3
1
482
11
44
6
14
6
2
2
1
32
26
1
513
627
In other activities associated with pathological work, Dr. Bankier reports having
attended the following meetings and conferences, field-days, and short courses:—
(1) The ninety-first annual meeting of the American Veterinary Medical
Association, Seattle, August 23rd to 26th, where he presented a paper on
| Poultry Disease Problems in British Columbia."
(2) Conference of Canadian workers in pathology, Hull, Que., October 5th
to 7th. -|||        |
(3) Annual meeting of the British Columbia Poultry Industries Council, the
annual meeting of the British Columbia Artificial Insemination Centre, as
well as several meetings on matters affecting the poultry industry. Addresses were given at some seven poultry meetings.
(4) Participated in five short courses—three in the field of turkey and poultry
production and two in the field of fur-farming.
(5) Three field-days were attended.
(6) Twenty-five field visits were made in connection with respiratory diseases
of poultry.        |
(7) Special disease investigations; problems include the uncovering of round-
heart disease of chickens, canary-pox, respiratory diseases of poultry,
which includes Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis.   In this work
1 796 poultry blood samples were taken from eighty flocks and were referred
to Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, University of Toronto, for
diagnosis.
(8) Observations in the field of such diseases as erysipelas and coccidiosis
were made and recommendations offered.
 Z 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
E A  Bruce, B.V.Sc, V.S., in charge part-time of the Victoria Branch Animal
Pathology Laboratory, reports as follows:—
Specimens Examined in Victoria Laboratory, December 1st, 1953,
to November 30th, 1954
Diseases Due to—
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Fur-
l bearers
CO
O
Q
Wild
Animals
Miscellaneous
Remarks
A. Bacteria
2
1
8,589
1
1     3
2
32
1
4
1
1
2
1
1
!
i
i
l
l
l
l
l
2
1
1
1
4
2
6
10
46
1
1
1
37
8
3
7
8
189
3
20
18
1
35
8
1
4
3
4
2
2
1
2
1
22
5
1
4
1
2
2
1
1
19
4
1
26
5
4
3
2
1
2
—
1
4
1
1
1
1
8,021 negative, 148 suspicious, 423 positive
Chicken	
Chinchilla	
Gastritis	
Chinchilla	
Gastro-enteritis	
Hemorrhagic septicaemia—
Rabbit, mink	
Rabbit	
B. Protozoa
Blackhead        	
Rabbits, pigeons	
f^nppiilinsis
C. Metazoa
Gestodes
Trisects
T icp
Mites .. 	
Rat (cuterebra larvae)- -
Myiosis	
Nematodes
D. Virus
C.R.D...	
Fowl-pox.
Leucosis 	
Newcastle disease  	
E. Miscellaneous
Atresia ani  	
Arteriosclerosis 	
Anaemia. .      .. 	
Asphyxia.       	
Calcification	
Cannibalism    ....
Chilling    	
Cysts 	
Casts, bronchial—   _
Casts, mucous .
Degeneration	
Feed   	
Foreign body
Gastric ulcers
Indigestion..
Impaction .
Internal haemorrhage	
Injury
Impotency..
Moniliasis..
Mucoid enteritis.
Nut, anaemia.
	
Total
1
8,592
1
10
1
10
47
1
2
3
2
32
1
:f
3
1
1
37
10
22
1
7
4
8
198
29
18
1
35
8
1
26
v)
4
1
3
4
2
1
2
2
6
2
3
3
22
5
1
ft-
ir
2
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
Specimens Examined in Victoria Laboratory, December 1st, 1953,
to November 30th, 1954—Continued
Z 71
Diseases Due to—
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o
Ph
Fur-
bearers
CO
oo
O
Q
Wild
Animals
Miscellaneous
Remarks
Total
E. Miscellaneous—Cont.
Necrosis             	
—
1
1
1
—
—
—.
1
4
1
16
2
2
1
11
4
1
—
1
1
2
2
4
Odour	
Overheating  ~
Perosis.   —    	
Pheasant	
1
1
1
11
5
1
17
3
Rineworm	
Mink    	
Starvation  —
Steatitis  	
Mink
Thrombosis -—
Thrown out  	
Parrot
Tumour.	
Uraemia	
Totals	
2 18,642
10
2
2
6
473
54
97
—
8
3
9,243
56
Counted twice	
Totals	
2
8,642
8 1    2
6
419
97 1 ....
8
3
9,187
1
i
ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION
Observations made throughout Canada would indicate that this service requires a
closer alignment with and over-all supervision by government live-stock and veterinary
branches, il My original thought on this matter was to provide supervision and direction
but not to undertake the mechanics of the work. The use of frozen semen has come into
the picture and must be dealt with properly, and in conjunction with artificial insemination
generally, otherwise serious difficulties will be encountered.
MEAT INSPECTION
Since the last report was compiled, an Act known as "An Act respecting the
Slaughtering and the Inspection, Storage, Handling and Preparation of Meat and Meat
Products I was passed. Regulations under this Act have been drafted and presented for
examination and review. The Clappison plant at Haney continues to operate as a trial
effort, and is doing a very excellent job and serving a very good purpose. Dr. Kidd and
later Dr. Mustard served as Supervising Inspectors. The report is summarized as follows:
A total slaughter of 5,164 head, made up of 1,167 head of cattle, 179 calves, 22 sheep,
37 lambs, and 3,759 swine, is shown. The year's operations found only three complete
carcasses condemned, two of these being cattle and one of swine. In all, 1,964 portions
were condemned. It should be borne in mind that this plant handles only the best class
of live stock, and the condemnations which are so small in reality do not furnish a cross-
section of the situation over the country in general.
CALFHOOD VACCINATION
The work of calfhood vaccination with Strain 19 Brucella vaccine was started in
1941, immediately when the use of the vaccine was approved by Canada and the United
States.   Considering our cattle population, I feel that our vaccinations have been high.
DISEASE-FREE AREAS
This policy had its beginning in a small way in the Inonoaklin Valley, Area No. 1,
in the year 1945, but was not gazetted until 1950. Almost all of British Columbia is now
under area control as far north as Alexandria in the Cariboo, except a small portion of
the North Okanagan and the Fraser Valley. We also have a good-sized area in the
McBride district.
 Z 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The work is built round both calfhood vaccination and blood-testing.  Our
records and findings prove the need for blood-testing in conjunction with vaccination^
the sound procedure. §
Of the some twenty-three areas established, twenty-one have been gazetted, and
these total areas, eleven areas have been shown to be disease-free over complete blood
test. Two of our early areas—namely, Area No. 1 (Inonoaklin) and Area No. 3 (Che
jy^'lle)—have recently been completely retested without finding a single reactor. This
proves that herds and areas can be cleaned up and kept clean. The results of some three
years of working with our approved herds has shown that large dairy herds, even in rather
dangerous surroundings, can be cleaned up and kept clean. i
A table listing the several areas and showing the vaccinations done through the years
appears in the appendices. Some of these areas have been cleaned up over blood test
and consequently vaccinations are nil or much reduced (see Appendix No. 11).        \
It should be pointed out that the policing of the different areas imposes a great deal
of work, but disease-control work, unlike so many other types of effort, demands intimate
attention to detail. Nothing can be taken for granted. This calls for seeking out animals
that have been illegally entered, the retesting of entries legally made, the supervision of
sales, etc. The most important thing in the successful conduct of the work is the control
of cattle movements.   Only by having areas with suitable boundaries can this be done,
We now have very complete control of the regular cattle sales, which is most
important to the success of the work. Some smaller sales are appearing, but these will
be brought into line.
(Detailed reports from the Veterinary Inspector of the Live Stock Branch dealing
with various phases of their activities in this particular field are on file in the office of the
Chief Veterinary Inspector. These show the wide scope of the services they perform and
contain complete records of animals and premises inspected throughout the year.)
BRAND INSPECTION flj
The following is a report by the Recorder of Brands, Thomas Moore:— §|
Shipments
Shipments of cattle in British Columbia were 79,634 head, compared to 63,419
head in 1953.   This shows an increase of 16,215 head.     H
Cattle shipped from the Interior of British Columbia to the United States in 1954
were 3,207 head, compared to 528 head in 1953, an increase of 2,679 head. Demand
for Canadian cattle this year appeared to be better than in 1953, particularly in the early
part of 1954.
Shipments of cattle from the Cariboo were 22,684 head, compared with 16,784 head
in 1953, an increase of 5,900 head. Kamloops-Nicola shipped 24,653 head in 1953,
compared with 29,312 head in 1954, an increase of 4,659 head. Shipments of hides
were 18,233, as compared to 17,265 in 1953, an increase in the number of hides of 968.
Horses shipped in 1954 were 5,328 head as against 5,883 head in 1953, a decrease of
555 head. Shipments of cattle to the Prairies were 7,849 head in 1954, compared
to 6,595 head in 1953, an increase of 1,254 head.
Inspection Service f|
Brand inspection was carried on by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at seventy
shipping-points in the following districts:—
Cariboo:   Williams Lake, Quesnel, Alexis Creek, Bella Coola, Clinton, Lil-
looet, Bralorne, 100 Mile House, and Wells.
Kamloops-Nicola:  Chase, Blue River, Salmon Arm, Ashcroft, Lytton, Spences
Bridge, Merritt, Hope, Kamloops, Flood, and Boston Bar.        §
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 73
Okanagan and Similkameen: Vernon, Lumby, Armstrong, Enderby, Kelowna,
Penticton, Summerland, Oliver, Osoyoos, Princeton, Copper Mountain,
Keremeos, Hedley, Grand Forks, Greenwood, Falkland, and Sicamous!
South-eastern British Columbia:   Rossland, Trail, Fruitvale, Castlegar, Crescent Valley, Nelson, Kaslo, Salmo, Creston, New Denver, Cranbrook,
Kimberley, Fernie, Natal, Invermere, Golden, Revelstoke, Nakusp, Radium Hot Springs, and Field. §
Central British Columbia and Peace River: Smithers, Hazelton, Terrace, Burns
Lake, Vanderhoof, Prince George, McBride, Red Pass, Pouce Coupe,
IDawson Creek, Fort St. John, Fort St. James, and Atlin.
Inspectors paid by the Department attended to the work at eighteen shipping-points,
as follows:   Bridge Lake, Clinton, Copper Creek, Dawson Creek, Endako, Graham
Siding, Houston, 100 Mile House, 150 Mile House, Kamloops, Kitwanga, Lac la Hache,
Nicola, Pavilion, Soda Creek, Spillimacheen, Williams Lake, and Lone Butte.
Staff
Appointments
New appointments during this year were E. Samann, Assistant Supervisor of
Predator-control, appointed Deputy Brand Inspector on February 25th, 1954, for the
sole purpose of inspection of horses, before being slaughtered, which are to be used by
the Game Department in the control of predators. Dr. J. Steele, Vancouver, City Health
Department, appointed a Deputy Brand Inspector, March 15th, 1954. P. G. Lawrence,
Brand Inspector, appointed November 16th, 1954.
Resignations
Marvin Pickard, Deputy Brand Inspector, Soda Creek, resigned August 31st, 1954.
The Williams Lake Brand Inspector is covering this area pending a new appointment.
Peter T. Jacobson, Deputy Brand Inspector, Endako, resigned September 8th, 1954.
His duties are being carried out by the R.C.M.P. Vanderhoof Detachment pending a new
appointment. E. R. King, Deputy Brand Inspector for Bridge Lake, resigned December
31st, 1953. He was replaced by W. Daniels, who was appointed a Deputy Brand Inspector on January 1st, 1954. || J|
Brand Commissioners
Lord Martin Cecil, a valued member of the Board of Brand Commissioners,
submitted his resignation to the Minister of Agriculture, and this was accepted with keen
regret. Hugh G. Cornwall, of Onward Ranch, 150 Mile House, was appointed a member
of the Board of Brand Commissioners to replace Lord Martin Cecil.
Appreciation is expressed to the Brand Commissioners for their assistance and
co-operation during the year. fj|
Leave of Absence
A. P. Newhouse, Brand Inspector, Williams Lake, requested a leave of absence to
join the armed services. Gilbert Forbes, Deputy Brand Inspector, Lac la Hache, is
acting as his relief pending the return of A. P. Newhouse, as specified by the Civil
Service Commission.
Lectures to Royal Canadian Mounted Police on | Stock-brands Act |
Lectures given by the Chief Inspector of Brands during the year were held at
Penticton, Vernon, Kamloops, Nelson, Grand Forks, Cranbrook, and 100 Mile House.
In giving these lectures the Chief Inspector of Brands dealt with three Provincial
Statutes—the I Stock-brands Act," the 1 Horned Cattle Purchases Act," and the 1 Beef
 Z 74
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Cattle Producers' Assistance Act." These lectures were well attended by members of
the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Brand Inspectors, and Deputy Brand Inspectors
Practical demonstrations of brand inspection were carried out at the various places live
stock was available. At Kamloops Dr. L. P. Guichon, Brand Commissioner, assisted
and also A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, when a demonstration of brand inspection of stock and hides was carried out at the C.N.R. stockyards, Kamloops. It § felt
that considerable progress has been made by giving these lectures in co-operation with
the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
Stockmen's Meetings and Cattle Sales
A meeting of the British Columbia Beef Growers' Association held at Kamloops
on March 12th, 1954, was attended, and also the annual meeting of the British Columbia
Beef Growers' Association held at Clinton on May 29th, 1954. Resolutions submitted
and approved have received attention. Resolutions dealing with the "Beef Cattle
Producers' Assistance Act," were discussed and tabled. The matter of cattle killed on
the Kettle Valley Railway was discussed. The Chief Inspector of Brands gave a report
to the meeting explaining that this matter had been fully dealt with as requested, and
satisfactory adjustments by the Kettle Valley Railway would be made to any stockman
who had cattle killed on the Kettle Valley Railway right-of-way.
Meetings were also attended at Grand Forks on July 12th, 1954, and Elko on
July 16th, 1954. Matters dealt with were poor branding and the importance of improved
branding to curtail stealing and the working-over of brands. These meetings were well
attended by the ranchers, who appeared very interested in the subjects dealt with and
discussion which ensued.
A field-day was held at Bulman's ranch, Kelowna, on July 11th, 1954. Your Chief
Inspector of Brands was invited to attend and requested to give a talk on branding, and
matters pertaining to the | Stock-brands Act" explained as requested. Dr. L. P.
Guichon explained the making of branding-irons and the proper application of same.
T. O'Keefe gave a practical demonstration of branding. A large number of ranchers
attended this field-day.
National Livestock Brand Conference
The National Livestock Brand Conference held at New Mexico on June 21st and
22nd, 1954, was attended. :^^? .    Ill
Royal Canadian Mounted Police Co-operation
Appreciation is expressed to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for their co-operation throughout the Province in the enforcement of the 1 Stock-brands Act," the 1 Beef
Cattle Producers' Assistance Act," and the I Horned Cattle Purchases Act."
i We have had a number of convictions for cattle-stealing this year. It is particularly
commendable to those members of the force carrying out investigations of this difficult
nature to have secured sufficient evidence to obtain convictions for cattle-stealing.
R.C.M.P. detachments, Brand Inspectors, and Deputy Brand Inspectors were visited
throughout the Province, and matters discussed pertaining to the enforcement of the
above-mentioned Acts.
Brand-book
renewed,
The 1953 Supplement No. 1 to the brand-book, showing all brands renewed,
transferred, reissued, and new brands, was published and distributed to police and Brand
Inspectors, etc. The issuance of the Annual Supplement No. 2 to the brand-book,
showing all brands issued in 1954, is due at the end of the year. It is anticipated to have
tins brand-book completed so that it can be in the hands of the printers soon after the
first of the new year.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 75
Brands
New Brand Applications.—Approximately 334 new brands were issued this year.
Brand Renewals.—There were 954 renewal applications sent out from this office
in 1954. K I
Brands Renewed.—There were 1,109 brands renewed in 1954.
Brand Transfers.—There were 117 transfers of brands in 1954.
Brand Reissues.—There were 79 reissues of brands made in 1954.
Licences Issued
1953 1954
Slaughter-house     86 83
Hide-dealers     84 74
Stock-dealers  128 137
Beef-peddlers      10 10
Horse-slaughterers     19 18
Horse-meat dealers (animal food)       8 8
Horse-meat dealers (human consumption)       1 2
Permit to transport horses for range purposes     49 50
Permit to transport stallions for breeding purposes       1 1
A complete list of the licensees is attached (see Appendix No. 12).
Flood Check-point
Figures shown below are for the years 1953 and 1954, carried out by the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police at Flood in the checking of all live stock, hides, and dressed
beef through this check-point.
1953 1954
Number of cattle  5,010 6,781
Number of horses I  1,084 1,015
Number of hides  2,191 3,872
Dressed beef (quarters)  52 89
Number of trucks checked|  994 1,080
Prosecutions and Convictions under the I Stock-brands Act "
Section 35 (failing to have cattle inspected at point of shipment): Keremeos, 1;
Penticton, 1; Lytton, 1; Kimberley, 1.
Section 34 (1) (operate as stock-dealer without a licence):  Sumas, 1.
Section 40 (transporting beef without Form 4):  Smithers, 1; Penticton, 1.
Section 37 (receive stock for carriage without brand certificate):  Keremeos, 1.
Section 23 (4) (obstructing Brand Inspector) :   Clinton,!.
Section 41 (b) (failing to produce brand inspection certificate):  Hope, 2.
Section 40 (ft) (impress brand other than registered brand of owner): Alexis
Creeb 1.
Convictions under the Criminal Code of Canada re Cattle
Section 369 (theft of cattle): Haney, 2; Enderby, 3; Courtenay, 1; Greenwood, 3.
Cattle and Hide Shipments       ||
For cattle and hide shipments for the Province of British Columbia for the year 1954,
see Appendix No. 13.
 Z 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF FIELD CROPS BRANCH
Norman F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner
C H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner
CROP PRODUCTION
Cereals
Total cereal production will be reduced slightly this year, with the general quality
of the grain much lower. Excellent moisture throughout the summer indicated a bumper
crop in all the major grain-growing areas, but continued wet weather into the harvest
season caused severe losses and lowered grades. Wheat acreage in the Peace River
District was reduced sharply this year, with an increase in oats, barley, and flax. Much
of the crop in the area was harvested in damp condition, but the latter part of October
turned fine, allowing all crops to be harvested, with yields running about average for the
district.
Grain production was average in the Creston area and somewhat above average in
the North Okanagan, but again harvesting conditions lowered grades. There were
10,000 bushels of Durum wheat grown on the Creston Flats this year.
The oat-crop in the Fraser Valley was sharply reduced because of the wet weather,
with considerable lodging and shattering.   There is also more oats used for pasture
silage where it is under sown with grass mixtures. ||
Following is an estimate of cereal production in the major areas:—
or
District
Spring
Wheat
Fall
Wheat
Oats
Barley
Flax
Rye
Field
Peas
Peace River	
Central Interior (McBride to Smithers)
East Kootenay	
Creston	
Boundary (Grand Forks-Bridesville).
North Okanagan	
Kamloops	
Fraser Valley	
Vancouver Island	
Bu.
1,175,000
46,500
20,000
160,000
24,000
160,000
12,500
Bu.
6,000
209,000
400,000
45,000
Bu.
1,760,000
309,000
30,000
240,000
48,000
300,000
600,000
300,000
Bu.
2,052,000
38,500
20,000
68,000
64,000
200,000
Bu.
100,000
Bu.
100,000
Tons
1,620
2,000
Hay and Pasture
The cool, wet spring in all areas delayed grass growth, and pastures were about two
weeks later than normal. Continued cool weather with above average rainfall kept
pastures at a high level of production throughout the season. Hay-crops were heavy,
but wet weather hampered haying operations with a lot of spoiled hay. The hay situation in the Chilcotin area, where ranchers rely entirely on wild-hay meadows, became
acute when it was impossible to cut these. However, ranchers took advantage of fine
weather late in October, and some feed was salvaged. With some supplemental feeding,
the ranchers should be able to get through the winter. 1 j§
In all areas there has been a decided increase in the preservation of forage-crops
as ensilage, and especially in the Lower Mainland and North Okanagan. At least twice
as much silage has been put up this year over last year, and, in general, farmers have
had good results from the increased use of silage in the feeding programme.
Grassland Clubs continued to function this year, with a large increase in membership. In addition to the clubs formed last year at Duncan, Matsqui, Pitt Meadows,
Chilliwack, and North Okanagan, new clubs were organized at Langley, Mission, Agassiz, Cedar, and Courtenay. The clubs held field-days and lecture courses, and they have
provided a basis for the increasing interest in grassland improvement.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 77
Forage-crop Seed
Generally, the season has been unfavourable for the production of legume seed but
reasonably favourable for grass-seed crops, notably creeping red fescue in the Peace
River District. Double-cut red clover in the Fraser Valley was almost a complete failure.
Under the National Forage Crop Seed Plan, growers harvested crops of Lasalle red clover
and Grimm alfalfa. New contracts let this year include Lasalle red clover and vernal
alfalfa.
The following table gives, in summary, the estimated forage-seed production for
1954 and production for 1953:— Estimated
Production, Production,
1953 1954
(Lb.) (Lb.)
Alfalfa  530,000 150,000
Red clover (single)   125,000 110,000
Red clover (double)  400,000 50,000
Lasalle red clover      3,700
Alsike clover  400,000 400,000
Sweet clover   350,000 225,000
White clover  300 	
Ladino clover        2,500 	
Timothy  220,000 250,000
Timothy-alsike mixture  100,000 200,000
Brome   125,000 100,000
Creeping red fescue  605,700 700,000
Reed canary-grass       2,000 6,000
Orchard-grass        1,250 2,600
Red-top     22,400 17,000
Spring vetch       7,000 6,000
Fall vetch       2,800 2,100
Intermediate wheat-grass      70
Production of Registered and Certified Seed
The inspection and registration of cereal- and forage-crop seeds is carried out by
representatives of the Plant Products Division, Federal Department of Agriculture, under
the regulations of the | Seeds Act." The following table gives, in summary, the number
of acres and the estimated production of varieties inspected in British Columbia in 1954,
the largest acreage being located in the Peace River Block:— Production
Variety Acres (Bu.)
Barley—
Montcalm   5 # 250
Newal   20 1,200
Olli   413 15,430
Vantage   14 480            ||
Oats— i
I   Beaver   66 1,950
Eagle          .        10 800
Victory  -  158 5,200
Wheat—
Saunders   417 13,080
Thatcher   146 3,700
Flax—
Marine   204 3,850
Redwing   356 3,290
 Z 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Variety Acres
Alfalfa-
Grimm    "52
Ladak   91
Rhizoma   674
Brome-grass  — 128
Sweet clover   185
Creeping red fescue  2,736
Duraturf creeping red fescue  288
Orchard-grass (Hercules)   6
Red clover (Altaswede)     	
Red clover (Lasalle)   35
Crested wheat-grass  5
Seed Improvement
Estimated
Production
(Bu.)
21,100
70,000
675,875
23.500
3,500
500
Foundation-stock seed produced by the Agronomy Department of the University
of British Columbia and distributed to growers through the Branch this year included
Dawson's Golden Chaff wheat, 70 pounds; Ridit wheat, 190 pounds; Storm rye, 550
pounds; Eagle oats, 1,600 pounds; Victory oats, 800 pounds; and Olli barley,
175 pounds.
m Potatoes S
Planting of commercial potatoes was reduced about 10 per cent this year to 10,300
acres. Late blight at the Coast and early frosts in the Central Interior reduced marketable
yields.   Prices have remained firm.
The acreage of seed-potatoes is also down this year. The following list of varieties
and acreage inspected is supplied through the Federal Seed Potato Inspection Service:—
Variety Acreage
Canus p2.95
Chippewa     1.50
Columbia Russet     7.08
Early Epicure  38.80
Early Rose  11.50
Gold Coin     2.75
Green Mountain  55.50
Irish Cobbler     3.00
Katahdin   29.51
Kennebec      1.00
Keswick     3.00
Variety Acreage
Netted Gem  1,315.03
Pontiac  23.83
Red Warba  0.25
Sebago  3.00
Sir Walter Raleigh 0.50
Warba   88.93
Wee McGregor  0.25
White Rose  145.82
Total  1,734.20
The main areas of production are also given, with approximate acreages inspected
in 1954 (1953 acreage in parentheses): Vancouver Island, 150 (221); Lower Mainland, 627 (756); Pemberton, 202 (212); Okanagan, 213 (273); Cariboo, 117 (163);
Central British Columbia, 20 (76); Boundary District, 310 (339); East and West
Kootenays, 84 (120).
Oceanside Test-plots
This Branch again assembled, treated, and shipped seed-potato samples to the plots
at Oceanside. One hundred and twenty-nine samples of 200 seed-pieces each were sent
in by ninety-one growers. These samples were planted at the Oceanside testing-ground
on November 15th and 16th. Disease readings will be taken the end of February so that
results can be given wide publicity to growers and buyers of seed-potatoes before planting
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 79
Seed-potato Selection
A programme of seed-potato selection was undertaken this year to improve the
general quality and standard of perfection of seed-potato stocks. Selections this year
were made from Netted Gem and White Rose on two farms in the Pemberton area and
two farms in Grand Forks. These selections have been culled, and progeny will be tested
to select for yield, uniformity, trueness to type, vigour, freedom from disease, and other
agronomic features.
Peas
Total production of peas for the canning and freezing trade on Vancouver Island
and in the Fraser Valley is down this year. Field peas in the North Okanagan and
Creston areas were good, with an estimated production of 1,620 tons and 2,000 tons
respectively.
Field Crop Union
Membership in the Field Crop Union was 109 this year, with 99 tests distributed.
The following gives the number of tests sent out by districts: Vancouver Island, 23;
Lower Mainland, 3; North Okanagan, 13; Central Interior and Cariboo, 38; Boundary
and Kootenays, 17; Peace River, 5. Again the grass-mixture tests were the most
popular.
Field-crop Demonstrations
The Branch co-operated with District Agriculturists and Dominion Experimental
Farm Service in continuing the establishment of demonstration plots of cereals. Cereal
trials were conducted in the East Kootenays, Edgewood, Rock Creek, Cariboo, Fraser
Valley, and on Vancouver Island. This work is of value in demonstrating the performance of recommended varieties as well as testing new varieties under local conditions.
Soils and Soil Fertility
Maximum crop production can only be achieved through maintaining a high level
of soil-fertility, and this Branch has continued to co-operate with the Extension staff
in promoting improved soil-management practices through soil and plant analysis, fertilizer demonstrations, tillage and crop-rotation demonstrations, irrigation studies, and
other principles of soil-management practices.
Soil and Forage Analyses
There were 2,260 soil samples analysed up to the end of October this year. Analyses
are made for available nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, and calcium by the Spurway rapid-
test method. pH readings and, in some cases, conductivity readings are also made.
Results of all farm samples are reported back through the district agricultural office
concerned.
Since the end of October no soils have been analysed, as our laboratory facilities
are taken up with forage analyses. Analyses are being made for crude protein and
moisture on samples of grain, hay, and silage, of farm samples submitted by District
Agriculturists. pH determinations on silage are also made. We expect to do a total of
200 such analyses, with about eighty-eight done to date. Most of the analyses are made
on silage samples submitted, and very interesting and worth-while information is being
assembled. f§
Tillage Trials l|
In co-operation with the Extension Branch and the Agricultural Engineering Branch,
tillage and cropping trials were inaugurated this year. Two locations in the Duncan area
involved deep-tillage studies, and another project in the same area includes a detailed
 Z 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA
studv of various tillage operations in preparing a seed-bed for cereal and pasture estab-
hshment In combination with a terracing project at Bndesville by the Engineering
Branch, a demonstration system of strip cropping on steep slopes to prevent erosion and
improve fertility was laid down this year.
Fertilizer Demonstrations
In addition to plots already laid down and continued this year, several new fertilizer
demonstrations were started. These plots, which are operated in co-operation with
district officials, are carried on in nearly all districts of the Province. Depending on the
district, they include a wide range of kinds and rates of fertilizer applications on major
field crops, including cereals, potatoes, legume and grass crops for hay, silage, or pasture.
Some plots on minor elements are also included. Such trials not only give valuable
information on fertilizer response in areas where such information is lacking, but also
acquaint the farmer in the area with results obtained. Field-days have been held in many
districts on these demonstration plots.
Soils Club
In co-operation with the local District Agriculturist and 4-H Club supervisor,
lectures were given to a group of boys from the Duncan and Saanich districts over a
two-year period. Soils were discussed, field-trips made, and fertility demonstrations
carried out. § A similar club with new members has been formed this fall to carry on
a soils education programme in the Saanich area. M
Agricultural Lime
Movement of agricultural lime for soil-amendment purposes has dropped slightly
this year. From January 1st to November 30th, 25,781.5 tons were distributed under
the Federal-Provincial Lime Subsidy Policy. During the past year minor changes were
made in the subsidy policy. Use of gypsum as a soil amendment has increased in the
Okanagan area.   Lime Subsidy totals are based on the fiscal year.
The following is a summary of the movement of agricultural lime and subvention
paid for the past five years:—
Table No. 1
Fiscal Year
Total Number
of Applications
Approved
Total Amount
of Subsidy
Recommended
Total
Tonnage
Used
1949-50. 	
974
1,810
1,827
2,243
1,590
$20,188.47
42,589.93
55,387.51
69,974.18
52,458.01
13,722.26
1950-51 	
26,235.06
1951-52	
31,154.17
1952-53	
38,917.55
1953-54             	
28,239.24
Fiscal Year
Ground
Limestone
Table No. 2
Hydrated
Lime
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
9,396.53
7.00
8,412.20
42.50
6,125.402
131.175
8,595.223
117.425
8,837.63
52.50
Marl
Carbide
Residue
Gypsum
Pulverized
Oyster or
Clam Shell
4,318.73
17,746.11
22,051.05
27,926.155
18,584.02
2,637.00
2,020.50
732.00
34.25
150.55
190.25
115.50
59.00
68.00
3.50
Total
Tonnage
13,722.26
26,235.06
31,154.17
38,917.55
28,325.15
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1954 Z 81
Average Application ft
Year Tons Year Tons
1949-50  14.09 1952-53 20 94
1950-51  14.49 1953-54 17 76
1951-52  17.05 J!
Fertilizer and Agricultural Poisons Board
Two meetings of the Board were held during the year—on May 26th and August
16th. The spring meeting was held in conjunction with the trade to consider fertilizer
mixes for the coming year. The following mixes were approved: 0-12-20, 2-15-15,
2-16-6, 4-10-10, 6-8-6 (organic), 6-30-15, 8-10-5, and 10-20-10. Mixes for
tobacco and sugar-beets were considered as special mixes, since the tonnage involved is
not large and the mixes are for special crops.
WEED-CONTROL
Two Weed Inspectors were appointed this year for the summer months—one on the
north side of the Peace River and one on the south side. The Department of Public
Works has increased spraying of roadsides for weed-control, and this year the Alaska
Highway Command sprayed a considerable section of the highway through the farming
areas. An active community weed-control programme is operating in the Armstrong
area with very good results.
In most areas, farmers are using weed chemicals more widely for weed-control, with
good results in most instances.
Federal-Provincial Weed Survey
During the past season a weed survey was completed in the Fraser Valley comprising
some 450,000 acres. This survey is a joint project with the Botany Division, Science
Service, Canada Department of Agriculture. Several new weeds were collected, which
are the first recorded in Canada. Of particular interest was the recording of a recent
infestation of tansy ragwort (Senecio facobcea) in the Abbotsford district.
Weed-control Trials
Introduction of new chemical herbicides has made this one of the most rapidly
expanding phases of agriculture. We have continued to test these herbicides under
varying conditions on a wide range of crops and weeds. Any new materials introduced
are also treated. This year we conducted fifteen such weed trials in the Fraser Valley,
four on Vancouver Island, and three in the North Okanagan, in addition to work already
started in those areas. These chemicals include all formulations of 2,4-D and MCP,
selective and pre-emergent forms of DNBP, TCA, IPC, and CIPC, Dalapon, CMU,
PCP, borate chlorate mixtures, and 2,4-D borate mixtures.
IIgrain Screenings
In the period January 1st to November 30th, twenty permits for removal of screenings were issued. During the same period forty-four feeders' permits have been issued.
There has been an increase in the amount of devitalized processed screenings reported
both for the local market and for export (Appendix No. 16).
Appendix No. 17 gives, in summary, the movement of screenings from British
Columbia elevators for the period January 1st to October 31st.
 Z 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA
PRIZE-WINNERS AT THE TORONTO ROYAL WINTER FAIR
Because of the poor harvesting season, there were fewer exhibits forwarded from
this Province to the Toronto Royal Winter Fair, but those who exhibited made a good
showing.
F R. Coy, of Invermere, took third place m the alfalfa class and eighteenth in the
orchard-grass class. S. Weston placed fourth in the alfalfa class and fourth in the
creeping red fescue class.
In the Brassica seed class, Alan R. Thompson was third and William C. Zylmans
fourth. 1
In the Netted Gem class, winners of first, second, third, fifth, and tenth place were,
respectively, Ross Brothers, Pemberton; Edmond Ronayne, Pemberton; Francis s!
Pincosy, Salmon Arm; and John O. Decker, Pemberton. Francis S. Pincosy, of Salmon
Arm, placed twelfth, and Alfred L. Needoba, of Salmon Arm, fourteenth in the Katahdin
potato class. In the A.O.V. potato class, Ross Brothers placed sixteenth, while in the
A.O.V. rose or red class, John O. Decker was fourth and Francis S. Pincosy eighth.
In the vegetable-potato classes, H. H. Bazett, of Duncan, took sixth place for his
Irish Cobbler sample, and placed third in the cooking class. Alfred L. Needoba took
third place in the Katahdin class and second in the Netted Gem class.
REPORT OF FARMERS9 INSTITUTES S
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent m
At the beginning of the year 1954 there were 183 Farmers' Institutes in the Province.
Of these, 153 Institutes have filed returns for the year 1953, sixteen are inactive, and
fourteen have failed to file returns.
Returns from the active Institutes show that while membership is approximately
6,500, Institute business continues to increase. Figures for the past three years are as
follows:—
Receipts	
Expenditures
Assets	
Liabttities	
1951
$1,111,746.02
1,009,012.51
415,761.61
138,915.03
1952
$1,191,159.50
1,053,618.41
429,613.67
83,256.17
1953
$1,197,941.19
1,054,250.94
504,147.24
83,165.02
The purchase of commodities by Institutes on behalf of members showed a slight
decrease over the previous year, with the exception of stumping-powder, which showed
an increase of approximately $10,000, being $73,173.37 for the year. Other commodities, which includes feed, seed, fertilizers, gasoline, oil, hardware, etc., decreased
approximately $30,000, being $851,923.23 for the year 1953. g
DISTRICT INSTITUTES §
All District Institutes held annual meetings during the year, with the Superintendent
in attendance at each.   The place and dates of each meeting, together with the names
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
Z 83
of the elected president, secretary, and Advisory Board member, respectively, were as
follows:—
District
Place
Date
Officers Elected
"A"
"B"
"C"
Nanaimo	
Telkwa	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
New Westminster
Fruitvale	
Salmon Arm	
September 25	
June 22 and 23 .
June 25 and 26	
W. R.  Barker, Duncan;   J. T. Neen, R.R. 3, Nanaimo;
H. Drummond, Glen Lake.
E.  Widen,  Telkwa;   A.  Shelford,  Wistaria;   A.  Shelford,
Wistaria.
Alton Myers, Fort Fraser;  R. E. Johnston, Prince George;
T. E. Gerhardi, Fort Fraser.
W.   Charlton,  Pritchard;    G.   W.   Humphrey,   Chase;    L.
Johnson, Heffley Creek.
T. Kuhn, Cloverdale:  J. C. MacKenzie, New Westminster
D. Hunter, R.R. 2, Cloverdale.
John  Cochrane, Mirror Lake;   K. Wallace, BosweU;   K.
Wallace, Boswell.
W.   A.   Monk,   Grindrod;    M.  A.   Dangel,   Grindrod;   J.
Woodburn, Salmon Arm.
J. Trueman, Quesnel;  F. Vernon, Bouchie Lake;  E. Greenlee, Canim Lake.
L. G. Pippin, Cranbrook;   A. B. Smith, Cranbrook;   J. B.
Aye, Jaffray.
W. C. Henderson, Rolla; John Close, Sunset Prairie; P. A.
Leeland, Clayhurst.
"D"
"E"
October 28	
February 5	
"G"
May 26 and 27	
October 27
"H"
«< T >>
Alexandria	
Cranbrook	
Fort St. John	
June 26	
May 28	
"J"
June 29	
ADVISORY BOARD OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
The Advisory Board was called to Victoria by the Minister of Agriculture on
March 1st, 2nd, and 3rd, at which time 126 resolutions, submitted by District Institutes,
were considered. Of these, eighty-eight were carried, nineteen withdrawn, fifteen lost,
and four tabled.
Nine resolutions—dealing with the following subjects: Increased appropriations for
the Department of Agriculture, veterinary scholarships, rural electrification, school taxes,
working out taxes, Ministry of Co-operatives, Pacific Great Eastern Railway, river-bank
erosion, and agricultural schools—were presented to the Select Standing Committee on
Agriculture, on March 3rd.
The report of the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture to the Legislative
Assembly was as follows:—
Legislative Committee Room, March 30th, 1954.
Mr. Speaker:
Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture begs leave to report as follows:—
Your Committee met the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes and heard the presentation
of a list of resolutions as submitted by them.   Careful consideration was given to these resolutions,
and your Committee:—
(1) Recommends the allotment of a larger proportion from the Budget to the Department of Agriculture for future years to provide necessary services to the farming
industry of British Columbia:
(2) Recommends initiation of a system of scholarships to help out suitable students
with an interest or inclination toward veterinary work:
(3) Whereas cheap electrical power is essential to-day for successful farm operation
and to provide a reasonably high standard of living for farmers, and whereas rural
electrification is generally considered as necessary to encourage the settlement in
scattered areas and in areas that do not necessarily pay for themselves through
purchase of electrical energy, your Committee recommends the extension of rural
electrification as rapidly as possible by all power concerns in the Province with
the utmost encouragement to hydro development within the Province to facilitate
electrification, and that, wherever possible, funds to be made available under
section 107 of the " Electric Power Act," and that hydro power be made available
in areas adjacent to the site where power is developed:
(4) In view of the fact that many farmers, due to physical or financial difficulties, are
unable to pay taxes on their lands, and the further fact that in some cases side-
roads do not receive any or, in other cases, adequate Government work, your
 Z 84
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Committee recommends that a farmer wishing to work out his taxes on the road
may do so in the discretion of the engineer or Minister concerned:
(5) Recommends that a committee be set up to give assistance, supervision, and direc
tion to co-operatives, and that the formation and organization of co-operatives
and credit unions be further encouraged:
(6) In view of the fact that the Pacific Great Eastern Railway is not only of vital
importance to the entire Peace River area but is also of economic importance to
the Province as a whole, your Committee recommends the extension of this rail-
way from Squamish to Vancouver and from Prince George to the Peace River
area as expeditiously as possible:
(7) Realizing that the cost of preventing river-bank erosion is prohibitive to the
individual land-owner, your Committee recommends every effort to control erosion
of our agricultural land, and that departments of Government involved continue
to work toward a concrete policy in this matter and continue to press the Federal
Government for participation in this type of control work under the Federal
"Conservation Act" of 1953: 1
(8) Recommends consideration of the establishment of an agricultural school or college within the Province at some appropriate place.
Respectfully submitted.
L. H. Shantz, Chairman.
EXHIBITIONS AND FALL FAIRS jS
During the year 1954 one Class A and three Class B exhibitions were held in the
Province, together with seventy-one fall fairs, being an increase of six fairs over the
year 1953.
The Department again paid grants to all exhibitions and fairs in aid of their prize-
lists. Grants to fall fairs were made on a basis of 25 per cent of the previous year's
prize-money paid.
Places and dates of these exhibitions and fairs were as follows:— J|
Exhibitions
Chilliwack- August 19 to 21.
Vancouver August 25 to September 6.    If
Duncan September 9 to 11. J|
Armstrong September 14 to 16.
Fall Fairs jjH
Vancouver Island
Mayne Island August 19.
Ganges September 1.
Saturna September 1.
Courtenay September 2 to 4. fl
Saanichton September 4 and 6. ||
Cobble Hill September 8. ■
Alberni September 9 to 11. JH
Coombs : September 10 and 11. ff
Luxton September 11. I
Sooke September 11. jB
Lasqueti September 15. |
Nanaimo September 16 to 18.
Ladysmith September 22 and 23.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 85
Fraser Valley
Haney August 12 to 14.
Port Moody August 13.
Gibsons August 20 and 21.
Hope August 28.
Squamish September 6.
Port Coquitlam September 6.
Abbotsford September 7 and 8.
Agassiz September 10.
Langley September 10 and 11.
Mission September 15 and 16.
North Delta September 16 and 17.
North Burnaby September 17 and 18.
Cloverdale September 17 and 18.
Powell River September 23 to 25.
South Burnaby  September 24 and 25.
Aldergrove September 24.
Ladner September 24 and 25.
Vancouver October 1 and 2.
Okanagan-North Thompson
Vernon August 19 to 21.
Penticton August 20 and 21.
Peachland August 27.
Westbank September 3,
Chase September 6.
Louis Creek 1 September 6.
Revelstoke September 6.
Merritt September 6.
East Kelowna September 8;
Cawston September 9.
Kelowna September 9 to 11.
Grand Forks September 10.
Oliver September 10 and 11.
Lillooet September 16 and 17.
Rock Creek September 22.
Salmon Arm September 23 and 24.
East and West Kootenays
Natal August 7 and 9.
Invermere August 20 and 21.
Fruitvale September 3 and 4.
Arrow Park September 4.
Edgewood September 5 and 6.
Nelson September 9 to 11.
Rossland September 13 and 14.
Crawford Bay September 14. §
Castlegar September 17 and 18.
Creston September 17 and 18.
 Z 86
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Central British Columbia and Peace River
Montney August 11.
Sunset Prairie August 12.
Dawson Creek August 13 and 14.
McBride August 24 and 25.
Williams Lake August 26 and 27.
Fort Fraser August 28.
Smithers September 3.
Burns Lake ! September 3 and 4.
Prince George September 3, 4, and 6,
Bridge Lake September 4.
Bella Coola | September 6.
Quesnel September 10 and 11.
Watch Lake September 11.
Terrace September 17 and 18.
POUND DISTRICTS W
During the year twelve unorganized areas in the Province were constituted as
pound districts.   These were as follows:—
Name of Pound
West Bench	
Palling	
Deep Creek	
Fauquier	
Beaver Creek-
Burns Lake	
Shelley	
Vanderhoof.	
Little Fort	
Christina Lake
Nanoose	
Lister	
District
Okanagan	
Central British Columbia-
North Okanagan	
Arrow Lakes	
Vancouver Island	
Central British Columbia.
Prince George	
Central British Columbia.
North Thompson	
Grand Forks	
Vancouver Island	
East Kootenay	
Date
January 19.
January 27.
March 29.
April 23.
April 23.
July 2.
August 9.
November 4.
November 8.
November 26.
November 26.
December 13.
The boundaries of seven pound districts were extended during the year. These were
as follows:—
Name of Pound
Bear Mountain.
Canyon	
Red Rock	
Cranberry	
Rose Prairie	
South Dawson..
Balmoral-Carlin-Notch Hill.
District
Peace River	
East Kootenay	
Prince George	
Vancouver Island
Peace River	
Peace River	
Salmon Arm	
Date
March 29.
May 20.
July 2.
July 2.
July 29.
August 30.
November 12.
GRASSHOPPER-CONTROL AREAS
During the year one new grasshopper-control area was constituted—namely, West-
bank, on December 13th—bringing to eight the number of active control areas in the
Province. These control areas, together with the amount expended by each for control
measures, are as follows:—
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 z 87
Nicola Grasshopper-control Area  $20 000.00
Clinton Grasshopper-control Area  875 96
South Riske Creek Grasshopper-control Area       1,638^75
Oliver-Osoyoos Grasshopper-control Area	
Princeton Grasshopper-control Area       3 520.72
Vernon and District Grasshopper-control Area	
Thompson Valleys Grasshopper-control Area	
Westbank Grasshopper-control Area	
Total _  $26,035.43
MISCELLANEOUS
Fence-viewers for the Nanaimo and The Islands Electoral District and for the North
Okanagan Electoral District were appointed.
One hundred and forty-five licences to sell poisons used exclusively in agriculture
Were issued.   New regulations governing the sale of drugs and poisons were also issued.
REPORT OF WOMEN'S INSTITUTES
Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent
Four new Women's Institutes have been organized during the year, and three have
disbanded, leaving a total of 238. The new Institutes are Vedder in the Hopeline District
of the South Fraser, Vinsulla in the North Thompson, and Bella Coola and Wells in the
Cariboo. Winlaw in the West Kootenay, Eagle Crest in the North Fraser, and Circle
Three in the East Kootenay have ceased to function. Langford is in abeyance, but owns
a good hall, has a good cash balance on hand, and we hope a revival of local interest may
enable this Institute to resume activity.
Annual reports for the year 1953, from 223 institutes reporting, show their total
receipts to be $148,294.28 and their expenditures $106,788.78. The total membership
was 5,367. ~'M
Institute funds are spent in the main for community projects, such as building, furnishing, and maintaining community and Women's Institute halls. Contributions are
made to playgrounds, parks, and the beautification of cemeteries and identifying unmarked graves. Fall fairs and flower shows are financed wholly or in part by the Institutes, contributions are made to the Women's Institute scholarship for girls taking Home
Economics, and to the Provincial per capita tax for convention expenses.
WOMEN'S INSTITUTE TRUST FUNDS
The Othoa Scott Trust Fund consists of $10,000 held in trust, with the interest used
annually to help crippled and disabled children. This is administered by the Provincial
Board.
The Women's Institute Memorial Fund now has $13,000 in bonds, and the interest
is used for a $250 scholarship in Home Economics at the University of British Columbia.
Miss Lynn Webster, of Coldstream, is this year's winner. A bursary of $100 will also be
awarded next year for the first time, in all probability to a girl or boy taking agriculture.
PROVINCIAL CONVENTION
The biennial convention was held at the University of British Columbia on June 1st
to 3rd.    Special guest was Mrs. J. W. Adams, of Ethelton, Sask., president of the
 Z 88
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Federated Women's Institutes of Canada. The sessions were planned around the standing
committees of Agriculture, Citizenship, Cultural Activities, Home Economics, Social
Welfare and United Nations and International Exchange Programmes. Special speakers
were L.G. Wallace, who spoke on 1 Recreation in Rural Areas "; Miss Charlotte Black
Director of the School of Home Economics, University of British Columbia; Charles
Walls, of the Federation of Agriculture; and Miss Jessie M. Boeckenheuer, Extension
Agent of Whatcom County, Wash., who spoke on | The Women of Germany." Reports
of standing committee conveners were given by Mrs. R. Palmer, Mrs. G. Brown, Mrs. |
Partington, Mrs. M. Powers, and Mrs. E. J. Roylance.
A meat-cutting demonstration presented by Safeway Stores proved of value.
A complimentary dinner was given by the Government of British Columbia, at which
the Honourable W. K. Kiernan, Minister of Agriculture, presented the Canadian flag and
the Union Jack, and Point Grey presented the flag of the United Nations. These were
accepted by Mrs. A. A. Shaw, Provincial president.
Officers were elected as follows: President—Mrs. A. A. Shaw, 4020 West Tenth
Avenue, Vancouver; vice-president—Mrs. E. J. Roylance, Greenwood; directors—Mrs.
T. Windt, Alexandria; Mrs. P. Douglas, Whaletown; and Mrs. J. Decker, Pemberton.
Mrs. R. Doe was reappointed secretary-treasurer at the Board meeting which followed, and the standing conveners were appointed as follows: Agriculture—Mrs. R. C.
Palmer, Okanagan Mission; Citizenship—Mrs. J. Frolek, Knutsford; Cultural Activities
—Mrs. R. Partington, Francois Lake; Home Economics—Mrs. W. G. Brown, Chilliwack; Social Welfare—Mrs. J. Young, Rose Prairie; United Nations and International
Exchange Programmes—Mrs. D. J. De Rochie, Sooke. M
HOME ECONOMICS SHORT COURSES
These short courses were held again for the third year in succession and have proved
their worth as we have now covered the Province once. The same staff members from the
School of Home Economics as last year—Miss O. Ross, Miss W. Bracher, Miss L.
Demchuk, and Miss M. McFarlane—made these courses a summer project with marked
success. Miss Ross and Miss Demchuk started early on Vancouver Island, with Miss
Ross continuing to Pemberton and some Fraser Valley points. Miss Bracher and Miss
McFarlane covered the North Thompson, the North Okanagan, and the Kootenays.
PROVINCIAL BOARD 1|
The Provincial Board met in the office of the Superintendent on October 14th and
15th, with all members attending. Plans were made for carrying out suggestions and
recommendations passed at the Provincial convention. A scheme was worked out to
raise the per capita to $1 for four years to raise money to send delegates to Ceylon in
December, 1956, for the next meeting of the Associated Country Women of the World.
The Board went on record as being in favour of adding a Home Economist to the
Women's Institute staff so that a year-round service could be given in Home Economics.
A resolution was passed asking that the dogwood should be the official flower of this
Province, as an investigation had disclosed that the dogwood in one of its various forms
is found all over British Columbia. ;jB
The standing committees were outlined and defined.
PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION
Twelve Institutes competed for the challenge cup this year, which was won by Point
Grey for the third time, and thus becomes their property. The Institute exhibits were ot
a high quality, with 215 articles shown.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1954 Z 89
The demonstration booth in the Home Arts Building had Institute members from
Denman Island, Point Grey, Hazelmere, and White Rock demonstrating rug-making
weaving, quilting, and pillow lace.  This proved a popular place, with a constant crowd
of people showing interest in the work being done.
A painted backdrop illustrating the other standing committee work of the Institutes
was a new feature.
Space was allotted in the new B.C. Building, and this gave a permanent spot for our
B.C. quilt. This was made by Mrs. R. Partington, Cultural Activities convener, of quilt
blocks sent in by each Institute. It was quilted by Langley Prairie and, when set up,
provided a drawing-point for interested visitors. Two glass cases on either side featured
other types of Women's Institute handicrafts.
FALL FAIRS AND FLOWER SHOWS
These were of the usual high standard throughout the Province and are an important
part of Institute work. The Women's Institute section in the smaller fairs is gaining
favour, with special prizes offered.
DISTRICT MEETINGS
Fifteen district meetings were held, with the president and secretary elected as
follows:—
April 6th, Douglas District at Fort Langley: Mrs. D. McDougall, Fort Langley;
Mrs. S. Holding, R.R. 5, Langley Prairie.
April 7th, North Fraser at Pitt Meadows: Mrs. J. Decker, Pemberton; Mrs.
j§ O. E. Leaf, Whonnock.
April 8th, Hopeline, South Fraser, at Abbotsford: Mrs. O. France, Chilliwack;
Mrs. R. Harrington, R.R. 1, Abbotsford.
April 9th, North Vancouver Island at Little Qualicum: Mrs. E. M. Smith,
Lazo, R.R. 1, Comox; Mrs. S. Godwin, R.R. 2, Courtenay. |g§
April 29th, North Thompson at Clearwater: Mrs. A. Stevens, Barriere; Mrs.
B. Hansen, Little Fort.
May 1st, North Okanagan and Salmon Arm at Westwold: Mrs. H. Farmer,
Salmon Arm; Mrs. H. L. Green, R.R. 2, Salmon Arm.
May 4th, South Okanagan and Similkameen at Penticton: Mrs. J. Bowen-
Colthurst, Penticton; Mrs. Gordon Ritchie, Summerland.
May 8th, Arrow Lakes at Edgewood: Mrs. J. T. Kirkpatrick, Needles; Mrs. J.
Lee, Arrow Park.
May 11th, East Kootenay at Cranbrook: Mrs. J. Payne, Wynndel; Mrs. K.
Marshall, Windermere.
May 14th, West Kootenay at Robson: Mrs. T. Jenkin, R.R. 1, Nelson; Mrs.
W. L. Wright, Robson. §
June 22nd, Bulkley-Tweedsmuir at Telkwa: Mrs. L. Saunders, Decker Lake;
Mrs. E. Dungate, Houston.
June 25th, Central Interior at Pine View, near Prince George: Mrs. M. McLaren, Pine View; Mrs. G. Snell, Vanderhoof.
June 26th, Cariboo at Alexandria: Mrs. K. Moffat, Kersley; Mrs. D. Robertson, Kersley.
June 28th, Peace River at Rolla:   Mrs. J. Young, Rose Prairie; Mrs. Lyle
Braden, Rolla.
September 23rd, South Vancouver Island at Brentwood:  Mrs. E. H. Emery,
Colwood; Miss H. Leighton, Victoria.
All of these meetings, as well as a rally at Greenwood of Grand Forks, Main River,
Rock Creek, Carmi, and Greenwood, were attended by your Superintendent.
 _ on BRITISH COLUMBIA
z yu
Individual visits were paid during the year to Bella Bella, Bella Coola, Englewood
Kla-Anch, Woss Lake, Colwood, Craigflower, Esquimalt, Cedar, Cobble Hill, Hapnv
Valley, Vinsulla (to organize), Deer Park, Parksville, Courtenay, Lazo (for the opening
of their hall), Penticton, Sooke, Surrey (for their forty-fifth anniversary), Royai 0ak,
Lake Hill, and Victoria.
OTHER MEETINGS ATTENDED
The yearly event for women from the United States and Canada, the Peace Arch
picnic, was held in July, with 300 women present. Two meetings of interested groups and
organizations in the interests of adult-education work were well worth while. Two meetings of the Home Arts Committee of the Pacific National Exhibition were concerned with
plans for improving the standard of the displays in the Home Arts Building.
RURAL HOUSING COMMITTEE
No meetings of the Rural Housing Committee have been held this year, but the last
booklet, "Farm House Plans," will be ready for circulation early in the new year. The
booklet | Repairs to the Farm Home " is practically out of print and in all probability will
be reprinted.
WOMEN'S INSTITUTE HANDBOOK AND NEWS LETTER
The Handbook has been revised and brought up to date and another thousand copies
printed. This is the fourth edition of the Handbook. The new outline of standing committee work has been included, as outlined by the Provincial Board. A chapter giving
suggestions for District Boards has been added. This was previously sent out in mimeographed form but has proved so useful that it is being included in the Handbook.
The News Letter has been sent out for every month except July and August and has
provided a means of contacting the Institutes on important matters. Information has been
sent regarding Institute projects, dental and health services, the dangers of botulism and
where information can be obtained regarding it, letters from the Provincial president,
suggestions from Provincial conveners, and general information regarding current matters
of interest to members.
OUTSTANDING DEVELOPMENTS j
The encouragement and development of leadership among women in the rural areas
is one of the outstanding contributions being made by the work of the Women's Institutes.
There is a decided improvement in the quality of the leadership shown, more especially
in the Institutes which hold evening meetings, which bring in the younger women with
families. There is also a growing interest in international affairs following the meeting
of the Associated Country Women of the World in Toronto last year. Each Institute
member is becoming increasingly aware of the fact that she is also a member of the international group.  As a result, her interest in women of other lands has grown accordingly.
CO-OPERATION AND SUPPORT APPRECIATED
The co-operation and support of the Minister of Agriculture, the Deputy Minister
and the staff of the Department of Agriculture, the president and Provincial Board of the
Women's Institutes are much appreciated. Without their help and interest, this programme would not have been possible.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 z 91
REPORT OF SOIL SURVEY BRANCH
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor
Detailed soil surveys of parts of Delta and Richmond Municipalities, amounting to
24,171 and 13,817 acres, were undertaken and completed in 1954.   These localities
located near Ladner and on Lulu Island in the Lower Fraser Valley, are under examination as irrigation and drainage proposals. J|
Most of the work of drafting and editing for publication of the soil-map and report
describing the soil resources of the Upper Kootenay and Elk River valleys has been completed by the Canada Department of Agriculture.       ft
The reconnaissance soil survey of the Upper Columbia River valley was completed
this year with classification of about 16,000 acres. The soil-map area in this section of
the Rocky Mountain Trench extends from Canal Flats to Bluewater Creek, the latter
being about 25 miles north of Golden. Total classification of soils in the mapped area
amounts to approximately 267,000 acres. m
A start was made on a reconnaissance soil survey of the Kettle River valley. Classification was undertaken in the vicinity of Bridesville and Rock Creek, about 12,000 acres
being surveyed in 1954.
The reconnaissance soil surveys in parts of the Columbia River drainage-basin have
been undertaken at the request of the Department of Northern Affairs and National
Resources, which provides a grant of assistance. The primary purpose of the surveys is
to determine the acreage of irrigation land and estimate the amount of water that should
be reserved from streams flowing into the United States. The water to be reserved is for
eventual development of the agriculture resource.
Minor undertakings during the year included soil-conservation extension work, two
meetings of the Reclamation Committee, and development of a small laboratory for
physical examination and testing of soils. This Branch also co-operated with the Department of Mines in connection with a ground-water survey of the North Okanagan Valley.
Five University students were employed as survey assistants during field work. One
of these was assigned to assist the Experimental Farms Service soil-survey party, which
continued field work in the Peace River area under the direction of L. Farstad.
SOIL SURVEY OF DELTA MUNICIPALITY
A detailed soil survey of 24,171 acres in Delta Municipality was undertaken and
completed in the spring of 1954. The area was surveyed at the request of the Water
Rights Branch, Department of Lands and Forests, which has irrigation of the locality
under consideration. %
The main features of the parent material from which the soils are derived consist of
silt loam and silty clay loam fresh-water river deposits overlying marine sandy river
deposits. The marine sands are at the greatest depth along the north side, near the Fraser
River, and they rise slowly toward the surface to the southward. In the vicinity of Point
Roberts there is a comparatively large area of exposed sand, derived from marine erosion
of the Point Roberts upland. This remnant of an earlier landscape is composed of a
considerable thickness of stratified interglacial sands covered by a capping of glacial till.
The system of drainage consists of a grid of open ditches, which drain to the sea at
low tide. At other tide conditions the drainage-water is pumped over the dyke. The
water-table is low in summer, causing the lighter soils to dry to the point where crops are
affected.
Ground-water conditions often consist of a fresh-water stratum floating on salt water
in the underlying sand. When a well is pumped in such places, the fresh water is removed
and the salt water domes up. If pumping is continued, the salt water will enter the well.
That is to say, in some sections the abundance of ground-water cannot be used for irri-
 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
gation Where sand is at or near the surface in the vicinity of the dykes, considerable
salinity occurs in the ditch-water. An irrigation-water supply, to be pumped from the
ditch system, would have to come chiefly from the Fraser River.
In the latter part of the season a set of maps showing soil conditions in the area were
delivered to the Water Rights Branch. Provision has been made to hold a Reclamation
Committee meeting early in 1955 for the purpose of estimating the irrigation-water
requirements of the different soil types.
SOIL SURVEY OF RICHMOND MUNICIPALITY
In the fall of 1954 a detailed soil survey was made of sections of Richmond Municipality still zoned for agriculture, the total area examined being 13,817 acres. This work
was done at the request of the Water Rights Branch, which also contributed to the cost
of the survey. I| M
While the geological structure of Lulu Island compares with the near-by Delta
Municipality, the texture of the fine material overlying sand is heavier and generally
deeper. The average texture of the upper 6 feet is silty clay loam, commonly surfaced by
shallow muck. The muck indicates an original condition of saturation at the surface.
The sands beneath the fresh-water- silty clay loam deposit are regarded as marine,
although they are also river deposits. That is to say, the original deposition of sand, silt,
and clay below the high-tide level was sorted by action of the sea, leaving the sand to
form a beach while the finer sediments were carried out to deep water.
The underlying sand is the key stratum in regard to the movement of the water-table.
Water levels out in the sand, exerting a more or less even upward movement. Comparatively free movement into the silty clay loam above is afforded by frequent root channels
and vertical cracking of the material when dry. The combination of sand below and
cracked silty clay loam above permits the water-table to rise with a fair degree of freedom.
Although peat-bog covers approximately one-third of Lulu Island and the entire
area is subject to flooding in winter, it is rapidly becoming an urban locality at the expense
of agriculture. Home-building is progressing in the form of ribbon development along
established roads, thus rendering the farm land in the centre of each block ineffective.
As Vancouver expands, the whole island will be urbanized.
Summer drought is not as severe as in the Delta Municipality; therefore, the most
important problem of development is one of drainage. Apart from draining the land for
agricultural purposes, the problem is complicated by the present system of septic-tank
sewage-disposal in the urban areas. The effluent from the septic tanks drains into the
ditches, particularly at high water. As urbanization progresses, the ditches will become
open sewers and a menace to public health.
A set of soil-maps of the surveyed section in Richmond Municipality is under
preparation for delivery to the Water Rights Branch. This area will be included with the
Delta Municipality for consideration by the Reclamation Committee early in 1955.
SOIL SURVEY OF THE UPPER KOOTENAY AND
ELK RIVER VALLEYS
The Canada Department of Agriculture undertakes publication of our soil-survey
maps and reports, and contributes the editing and expense of publication. In this connection the soil-maps and report covering the Upper Kootenay and Elk River valleys
have been in the hands of the editor and publisher since April, 1954.
As of October the drafting of soil-maps for publication was reported to be 80 per
cent completed. Editing of the report has been delayed. However, it is expected that the
maps and report will be published by July, 1955.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 z 93
SOIL SURVEY OF THE UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER VALLEY
The soil and water-requirement survey of the Upper .Columbia River valley was
completed in 1954. The classified area covers the floor of the Rocky Mountain Trench
in the area between Canal Flats and Bluewater Creek, about 25 miles north of Golden
The over-all length of the map-area is about 130 miles, the main valley depression being
from 2 to 10 miles wide. Soil classification this year amounted to about 16,015 acres, the
total of the map-area being approximately 267,337 acres.
Twenty-five soil types were found in this area, with farm-delivery requirements of
irrigation-water that vary from 16 to 48 acre-inches per acre. Soil-maps and a soil-survey
report will be prepared in the winter of 1954-55, the purpose being to submit the material
for publication in the spring of 1955.
A noteworthy feature not previously mentioned consists of a type of easily weathered
bedrock whose silty, soil-forming product is distinctive as to colour, texture, and distribution. This is a silty clay-shale of Ordovician age known as the McKay Formation. It
is exposed to weathering up-stream from Canal Flats in the Kootenay River valley, and
to the north of Parsons in the Columbia River valley. Soils have been formed from this
material up-stream from Canal Flats and to the north of Spillimacheen, but not elsewhere.
But there is an extensive glacial-lake deposit composed chiefly of McKay material
that extends from Montana to the vicinity of Golden, at elevations up to 3,400 feet above
sea-level. It lies in the form of a stratified bed from a few feet to 50 feet or more in
thickness between the upper till (Wisconsin glaciation) and the lower till (pre-Wisconsin
glaciation).   It is exposed only on the sides of bluffs and ravines.
During Wisconsin and pre-Wisconsin stages of glaciation, and more extensively
between them, a glacial lake existed to the south of the American border with shore-lines
up to 4,200 feet elevation. This was called Glacial Lake Missoula. It is here suggested
that Glacial Lake Missoula extended northward in the Rocky Mountain Trench soon
after recession of pre-Wisconsin ice, and that when this lake existed the drainage in the
whole mapped area was southward.
j  SOIL SURVEY OF THE KETTLE RIVER VALLEY.
A reconnaissance soil and water-requirement survey of the Kettle River valley was
started in the vicinity of Bridesville and Rock Creek in September, 1954. This job has
been undertaken at the request of the Water Resources Division, Department of Northern
Affairs and National Resources.
The primary purpose of the survey is to determine the acreage and quality of the
potentially irrigable lands in the watershed of the Kettle River and estimate the amount
of water that should be reserved for eventual development of the irrigation-land resource.
This information will be of value in connection with diversion of water by international
agreement. The secondary purpose is publication of a soil-survey report containing a
soil-map, description of soil types, and general information as to the agricultural resources
of the Kettle River valley.
No prior soil-survey work has been undertaken in the Kettle River valley; hence
the picture at the present time is limited to about 12,000 acres classified this year in the
general area from Bridesville to Rock Creek.   More information will be gained in 1955.
From present observation it would appear that to the east of the Okanagan Valley
the soil survey is moving into a region of igneous rocks containing scattered remnants or
pods of limestone. In moving from north to south over this terrain the glaciers produced
a spread of lime-free till, spotted with small areas of limy till. This material was delivered
into the Kettle River and tributary valleys of east-west direction, and in part sorted into
gravels, sands, and silts.    |j
The soils derived from these deposits are calcareous where lime occurs, but chiefly
non-calcareous.   There is a calcareous Black soil and two non-calcareous Black types.
 J Q, BRITISH COLUMBIA
Zi   "4
The latter are prairie soils not previously encountered in British Columbia, one bein*
well-drained Black and the other a deep Black soil found in depressions. b
In limy parent materials, Grey Wooded soils would occur in the forest bordering the
Black soils, due probably to slowing of the genetic process by a neutral reaction during
downward displacement of lime. In the absence of sufficient lime, however, the Grey
Wooded stage is by-passed, the more or less direct result being development of Brown
Podzolic soils.
SOIL CONSERVATION
In a year of declining farm prices for farm products, soil-conservation practices
became increasingly important to growers of the Okanagan and South Thompson Valleys.
Many growers found that these practices lowered production costs, and, as a result, they
were in a better position to survive a period of falling prices.
The practical application of soil conservation in this area falls into three categories*
that is, drainage, irrigation, and soil-testing. The following is an outline of the work
carried out in these fields in 1954.
Drainage
Increasing awareness of the value of land improvement by means of drainage is
evident in the Okanagan and South Thompson Valleys. Although the cost of reclamation
of poorly drained land may range from $50 to $250 per acre, the investment in a well-
planned drainage system pays for itself by raising the value and the productive capacity
of the land.
The grower generally lacks the specialized knowledge required to solve drainage
problems. In this regard he needs advisory assistance for reasonable assurance that
investment in drainage will be profitable.
Advisory assistance in planning drainage resulted in 102 visits to farms in the
Okanagan and South Thompson Valleys. Data from these investigations were used to
prepare plans for 15,512 feet of drain. About 74 per cent of the drainage-works planned
were installed.   The remainder will be built when the growers are financially able to do so.
Sixty-two acres have shown improvement from drains installed in the area this year.
Seventy-two per cent of the land so improved is being used for beef- and dairy-cattle production. This is significant because in previous years the greatest demand for advisory
service was in connection with orchard drainage.
On July 7th, at the request of the Regional Supervisor of the " Veterans' Land Act,"
a field-day was held to demonstrate drainage-extension methods. It was attended by the
I Veterans' Land Act" field staff, who were shown the results obtained from drained land
used for dairying.
H Irrigation
Although the trend toward sprinkler irrigation continued, there was some decline
over 1953 in the number of new systems installed. The situation is partly due to caution
in view of the decline in the prices of farm products.
Advisory assistance was given in planning sprinkler irrigation systems for a total of
205 acres. Sixty-eight per cent of this area is utilized for orchard and vegetable crops,
the remainder being for beef and dairy cattle. Other advisory assistance was chiefly
concerned with ways and means of improving the efficiency of existing irrigation systems.
Many growers have difficulty in arranging irrigation schedules to suit their soil and
cropping conditions. If irrigation-water is not applied often enough, the crop suffers from
drought.   If irrigation is too frequent, the crop yield is depressed,   f
Demonstration work with a soil-moisture meter was started this year to assist growers
in arranging better irrigation schedules. Frequent soil-moisture measurements were
undertaken on three soil types under three kinds of cropping in the Kelowna locality. The
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 95
results indicate that an increase of yield can be expected when irrigation schedules are
arranged on a scientific basis.
Requests for advisory assistance with various irrigation problems accounted for
twenty-nine visits to growers, in addition to the foregoing demonstration work. Irrigation
lectures were held as part of the spring short courses at Edgewater and Jaffray in the East
Kootenay District. A similar lecture was given for Kelowna tomato-growers at the request
of the British Columbia Interior Vegetable Marketing Board.
SOIL-TESTING
The purpose of soil-testing is to evaluate soil problems and determine what amendments may be necessary. That is to say, if a soil is excessively alkaline, no benefit can
be derived from fertilizers until the alkaline condition is rectified. Whenever possible,
recommendations as to soil amendments were based on field observations in addition to
the evidence of the soil test. ||
A total of 396 soil samples were tested for reaction and neutral salts. About 7 per
cent were strongly alkaline, requiring the application of gypsum. About 3 per cent had
an acid reaction, in some cases strong enough to require liming. About 8 per cent of the
samples indicated a harmful accumulation of neutral salts. The cause of salty conditions is
generally seepage and evaporation, requiring drainage as part of the corrective procedure.
RECLAMATION COMMITTEE
Two meetings of the Reclamation Committee were held in 1954, the first of which
was on April 22nd at Kamloops. This meeting was held to consider high- and low-
pressure irrigation schemes for the reconstruction of the British Columbia Fruitlands
Irrigation District.
This district started to function as a private enterprise in 1911. Subsequent reorganization and the handing of control from one new company to another resulted in slow
deterioration of the irrigation-works, until they became practically inoperative in 1947.
At this time the people occupying the land were forced to apply for government aid to get
interim control of the works, thus assuring some form of water-supply until conditions
can be improved.
Estimates as to the cost of high- and low-pressure irrigation systems were placed
before the Committee. Details and recommendations were reported in Proceedings of the
Reclamation Committee, Brief 28, June, 1954, Department of Agriculture, Kelowna, B.C.
The second Committee meeting was held from September 21st to 24th in the Upper
Columbia River valley to estimate irrigation-water requirements of the classified soils.
An additional job at the time was to make recommendations in regard to the rehabilitation of the Vermilion and Westside Irrigation Districts near Edgewater and Invermere.
The estimation of irrigation-water requirements of classified soils in this area is
related to the reservation of water in the watersheds of streams entering the United States.
A report on this meeting is given in Reclamation Committee Brief 29.
Following Commitee recommendations, a small laboratory was organized at the
Kelowna office in 1954. Apparatus was set up to check Committee estimates as to
irrigation-water requirements of classified soils. Further recommendations have led to
the selection of two irrigation plots located on widely differing soil types for the purpose
of finding the irrigation-water requirements of different crops. This job will be undertaken in the East Kootenay District in 1955 by the Experimental Station, Lethbridge,
Alta. In 1954 the Canadian Department of Agriculture supported a research undertaking by the Professor of Soils, University of British Columbia, following a recommendation of the Committee. The purpose, carried out in the East Kootenay District, is to
find the difference of irrigation-water use due to climatic distinctions in a range of soil-
texture profiles.   This research may be continued in 1955.
 „ n. BRITISH COLUMBIA
Z 96
GROUND-WATER SURVEY
Under an agreement between the Departments of Mines and Agriculture, geologists
of the Department of Mines and the Geological Survey of Canada may undertake groundwater surveys in agricultural settlements, the order of choice being defined by the Department of Agriculture. |
In 1954 H. Nasmith, Department of Mines, started a ground-water survey to the
north of Kelowna in the Okanagan Valley. A report covering this work will be issued
by the Department of Mines. During the year, geologists of the Geological Survey of
Canada paid visits to the soil-survey field parties for the purpose of identifying the
geological nature of soil-forming deposits.
REPORT OF SOIL SURVEY ACTIVITIES IN THE
PEACE RIVER DISTRICT, 1954
(L. Farstad, Senior Pedologist, Experimental Farms Service)
During the 1954 field season a soil survey was made of a portion of the foothill
region in the Peace River area. The area covered extends from Moberly Lake on the
south to the Halfway River on the north. The area surveyed is located in Townships
78 to 85, inclusive, within Ranges 23 to 25, west of the 6th meridian. In addition, the
isolated valley of Lone Pine was also surveyed. The reconnaissance map of the area
represents about twenty townships or approximately 400,000 acres.
The general topography of the area is undulating to gently sloping and rolling,
especially in the plain and plateau portions. However, there is considerable acreage,
rough, broken, and hilly, in the morainic uplands and foothills sections.
Climate
The Peace River area has a continental climate characterized by wide variations in
temperature both in winter and summer. The average annual precipitation is 15.83
inches at Hudson Hope and 15.72 inches at Fort St. John. The average annual temperature for the foot-hills region is 34° F. at Hudson Hope and 35° at Fort St. John in the
central portion.
The length of the growing season over the greater part of the area is of sufficient
duration for the maturing of all common agricultural crops adapted to this section of the
country.   A study of some of the factors affecting plant growth are presented in the
following table:— jjj HudsonHope Fort St. John
Mean annual temperature     34° F. 35° F.
Annual precipitation  15.83 in. 15.72 in.
Average annual snowfall  50.00 in. 58.90 in.
Precipitation in frost-free period     9.20 in. 10.20 in.
Length of growing season  157 days 165 days
Frost-free period     68 days 106 days
First day of growing season1  Apr. 30 Apr. 26          f|
Last day of growing season     Oct. 4 Oct. 8
Last frost in spring  June 15 May 24
First frost in fall  Aug. 22 Sept. 7
1 The growing season is regarded as the period in which the mean temperature is at or above 43° F.
Vegetation
Forests cover the greater part of the area surveyed and consist principally of mixed
coniferous and deciduous species. The forest consists of a variety of trees and shrubs.
The most common deciduous trees are poplar, cottonwood, birch, alder, and willows,
while the principal coniferous species are spruce, pine, and larch.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 97
Lumbering in this part of the Province is confined to certain localities because
depletion of merchantable lumber by forest fires has been heavy. The vegetation on
low-lying, poorly drained areas varies from grasses and willows to sphagnum mosses.
fr Water-supply
In August, 1950, Dr. W. H. Mathews investigated the practicability of obtaining
ground-water adequate for domestic requirements and for live stock in the Peace River
area. His conclusions, summarized briefly, state that suitable supplies of ground-water
are available at depths of less than 100 feet in the area under review.
Soils
The entire land surface has been overrun by one or more glaciations of Rocky Mountain origin, with the result that a thick deposit of limy glacial materials now covers it.
The soils have developed from this glacial drift. Climatic and other influences acting
on these materials have been somewhat more severe than in the eastern part of the
Peace Block, with the result that more leaching has occurred. The principal glacial
materials are lacustrine, glacial till, and alluvial sediments.
The soils of lacustrine origin, covering by far the greatest part of the area, are stone-
free and range in texture from sandy loam to silt loam. The silt loam soils have the
widest agricultural adaptation. The nutrient status and moisture-holding capacity of
these soils are good. Heavy forest-cover and inaccessibility accounts for their lack of
development.
The soils developed from glacial till occur in the rough moraine-like area in the
vicinity of Moberly Lake, Lone Prairie, and Pine Valley. 1 The chief limitations in the
use of these upland till soils are stoniness and adverse topography.
The soils of alluvial origin have developed on terraces. They are stone-free and
range in texture from silty clay to very fine sandy loam. These soils have the widest
agricultural adaptation in the area. Their nutrient status is somewhat better than the
upland soils, and they are generally accessible by roads.
The soils occurring on kames, eskers, and fluviatile deposits are very poor agricultural
soils. Low moisture-holding capacity, excessive drainage, low nutrient status, and
adverse topography combine to make these gravelly soils extremely hazardous for farming
purposes. f|
Peat soils are organic soils 12 inches or more in depth. The structural range is
from floating bog to the deep sphagnum moss type. These soils are not suitable for
agricultural use. |§
Approximately 95 per cent of the area surveyed during the year is forested and
inaccessible. The low rating of many soil areas, the high cost of clearing, and the need
of roads and other services suggest that settlement in this region should be carefully
supervised.
REPORT OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND
EXTENSION BRANCH
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., P.Ag., Director
The year 1954 will go down in the records as one of the wettest in the history of
British Columbia. Such unfavourable weather conditions presented many problems to
farmers in all sections of the Province, irrespective of the type of production.        §
The assistance of the District Agriculturist, the key man in Extension and the public
relations representative of the Department in his district, was requested to a greater extent
than in any previous year.
7
 z 9g BRITISH COLUMBIA
EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
Three regional conferences were held during the year—one in Victoria in October
for the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island staff, one at Kamloops in November for
the Southern Interior staff, and one at Prince George in November for the Central British
Columbia and Peace River staff. They were excellent meetings, and many problems of
extension were discussed. A number of recommendations were made for the consideration of the officials at headquarters.
One of the features of these conferences was the discussion on planned programmes
for each District Agriculturist, along similar lines to methods used in some areas in the
United States. The possibility of setting up a planning committee in each district was
discussed and is being investigated.
Coupled with the regional conferences were meetings of the Coordinating Committees held at Kamloops and Prince George in November. Meetings were also held at
Vanderhoof in August and at Saanichton, etc. These meetings are attended by British
Columbia Department of Agriculture staff, Canada Department of Agriculture staff,
V.L.A. staff, and others, and are invaluable in co-ordinating the efforts of agrologists in
the Province.
All divisions of the Branch had a very busy year, and each division co-operated to
the fullest extent in carrying the programmes of the Department to the farmer.
Membership in 4-H Clubs continues to increase each year, with new projects being
added. In some districts the volume of work on 4-H Club projects is tremendous and
involves a problem for the District Agriculturist, who has so many other projects to look
after. It is our hope that a planned programme for each district will alleviate this
problem. 4-H Clubs are a vital factor in the agricultural economy of the Province, and
it is anticipated the 4-H Club projects will be incorporated more and more into our
Extension programme.
More and more emphasis is being placed on the economics of farming, and the
Extension staffs have given considerable thought to an economic unit for a dairy-farm,
mixed farm, beef-cattle enterprise, etc., for areas in various sections of the Province.
This is vital to successful farming to-day, with lower prices for agricultural commodities
and higher costs of production.
Land-clearing operations continued to take up a great deal of time of the District
Agriculturist in the areas where the equipment operated. A summary is presented later
on in this report.
The Extension Agricultural Engineering Division was very busy during the year,
and their activities are outlined in this report later on.
Individual reports have been submitted by all district officials. These contain a
wealth of valuable detailed information, and are on file in the Department for reference.
CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA, NORTH CARIBOO, f|
AND PEACE RIVER REGION ||
(Report by S. G. Preston, P.Ag., Supervising Agriculturist)
Forage-crops, cereal-crops, and seed production were affected in these areas by tie
adverse weather conditions and economic conditions. Details as to yields and quality
will be included in the report of the Field Crops Branch.
There was a marked trend toward greater use of silage.
There was a definite increase in milk production in Central British Columbia.
Higher hog production was experienced in the Peace River area. Estimates indicate
30,000 hogs marketed from that area.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 99
Extension Activities
During the season several District Agriculturists attended conventions, fairs, or gave
assistance outside Central and Northern British Columbia. The experience and widening
of views obtained through these outside contacts are of considerable value to the individual
concerned. In addition, visiting officials often provide the extra emphasis necessary to
putting across plans and programmes. |p|
Progress Activities
Cattle Sales.—Assistance was given at the Quesnel cattle sale by Agriculturists
Tarves, Walsh, and Preston, and at the Fort St. John sale by Agriculturists Johnson,
Brown, and Preston.
Dairy Promotion.—All Agriculturists have been active in this work. Problems were
particularly acute in the Bulkley and Nechako Valleys and the Prince George district.
As a consequence, our officials were called upon to assist with organization, Milk Board
hearings, and meetings with producers at Prince George and Vanderhoof.
Reorganization of the Bulkley Valley Dairymen's Association and plans for future
expansion were aided materially by Mr. Jameson.
Advice was given during the season on matters of buildings, prices, grades, health
of stock, etc.
Some exchange of assistance occurred between districts. This could be done to
a greater extent.
Other projects receiving particular attention this season follow.
Storage and Harvesting of Forage-crops.—District Agriculturists in Central British
Columbia gave particular assistance in this regard, and, as a consequence, several
thousand tons of silage have been stored satisfactorily.
Disease-free Area.—Mr. Zacharias worked with the Northern Interior Dairymen's
Association toward obtaining a petition for a disease-free area from Cluculz Lake to the
Alberta boundary. A good deal of the effort was directed toward informing stockmen
of the regulations and advantages and disadvantages that may accrue.
Fall Fairs.—All district men and the writer took part in local fall fairs as well as
being represented at the Pacific National Exhibition. G. A. Luyat acted as official judge
for the Peace River fairs.
Vegetable Production—Grading and Packaging.—In the western district Mr. Jameson has worked with marketing agents at Houston and Terrace. Their method of grading
and marketing is working out in an excellent manner. In the Prince George district
Mr. Zacharias has spent a good deal of time on farms and through garden clubs in
explaining and promoting grading, packaging, and marketing.
Inspections.—At the wholesale centre of Prince George a demand has arisen for
destination inspections, from time to time, on fruits and vegetables. This has been done
by Mr. Zacharias and the writer, with apparently complete satisfaction to shippers and
wholesalers. While no retail inspections have been carried out, this may be necessary
if grades and quality offered appear to be injuring trade.
Farmers' Institutes.—District Agriculturists attended conventions in their areas.
The Honourable W. K. Kiernan, Minister of Agriculture, attended the convention in the
Peace River in 1953 and those in Central British Columbia in 1954. Only a few Farmers'
Institutes provide a definite service to their community. From an Extension view-point,
the McBride Farmers' Institute is outstanding and in a lesser capacity the Kitsumkalum
Farmers' Institute at Terrace. Institute meetings held in areas at a time Messrs. Jameson
and Zacharias make their regular trips provide a means of contacting the maximum
number of farmers. I .
Co-ordinating Meetings on Agriculture.—The Co-ordinating Committees on Agriculture in Central British Columbia and the Peace River are outstanding examples of
 0 BRITISH COLUMBIA
successful efforts to integrate activities of Federal and Provincial Departments of Agri
culture, V.L.A., and Lands Department. All District Agriculturists have given fall
co-operation and contributed to the value of the Committees. Summer sessions of the
Co-ordinating Committees were held at Vanderhoof (Central British Columbia) and
Beaverlodge (Peace River).
Regional Meeting.—With senior staff changes in view, no regional meeting was held
in the spring. However, Mr. Landon, Director of Extension, attended a two-day
conference at Prince George on November 25th and 26th.
In the afternoon of November 26th the group met at the Experimental Station,
where Mr. Burns, Superintendent, and his staff explained plans they had in view. Also
discussed were problems of mutual interest, such as increased sizes of farm units,
financing of land-clearing, and marketing.
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND LOWER MAINLAND REGION
(Report by J. S. Allin, P.Ag., Supervising Agriculturist)
Mr. Allin reports a greatly increased interest in silage production, grassland programmes, forages and pastures, and in diversification of farm enterprises. A considerably
greater volume of milk was produced in this area.
Out of a total of 3,927 farm visits made by the seven District Agriculturists in this
region from January 1st to October 31st, approximately 40 per cent were made for the
primary purpose of discussing some aspect of dairy production.
Efficient production combined with diversification is being emphasized in this area,
including recommendations on fertilizers and manure, higher-yielding crop varieties,
better cultural methods, better cows and sires, better harvesting methods, and better
feeding and management.
Silage Production jjj
The production of high-quality silage was considered of major importance to the
farmer trying to lower unit cost of production.
In one district of the Lower Mainland a survey of twenty-six farms was made for the
purpose of compiling information which would show the farmer the value of high-quality
silage and the methods of ensiling which have an influence on this quality. Each farm
was visited at silage-making time, and data were secured on such items as time of cutting,
stage of growth at cutting-time, type of silo, machinery employed and preservative used,
method of packing, and all other variations of methods having a bearing on quality.
At feeding-out time, samples were taken to determine protein and moisture content,
pH, appearance, palatability, etc. This work is not yet complete and will be continued
for at least another year. By this means we hope to correlate methods of ensiling with
quality of silage and subsequent feed rations and requirements for economic milk
production.
Grassland Clubs, Forage and Pastures §f
Nine Grassland Clubs operated, with a total membership of approximately 300.
Short courses were arranged during the winter and early spring, also tours, field-days,
and panel discussions. Fifty meetings with an attendance of 819 persons, ten field-
days with 907 farmers present, and over 1,000 farm visits were made in connection with
forage-crops and pastures.
Programme Planning
District Agriculturists met in Victoria for a three-day conference in October to deal
with Extension problems. Full discussions were held on topics such as 4-H Club work
and organization, Extension methods, production and marketing problems, and integration of activities between branches.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
Z 101
FIGURE I--Division of Farm Visits by Sub.j e ct
Forage
Crop
Dairying
Livestock
Poultry
Horticultur
4~H Club
Field
Soils &
Fertilizers
Engineering
General
FIGURE II--Division of Office Visits by Subject
Dairying
Livestock
Poultry
Horticulture
Forage
Crops
Field
rops
Soils &
ertilizers
Ag.
Engineering
General
4-H Clubs
 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The theme of the conference was | Programme Planning," in which a County
Agricultural Extension Agent from the State of Washington assisted greatly. A new
understanding of the mechanics of developing an agricultural programme for a specific
district was realized, based on the farm problems which the farmers must appreciate and
on which they request assistance. A programme or plan of action is then outlined
showing details of what is to be done to correct the situation. One essential feature is to
provide the means whereby farmer representation in the form of a programme-planning
committee assists in developing the programme and further assists in carrying out
activities designed to improve the situation.
The whole programme depends upon farmer participation and opens up a new field
of duties or responsibility for the Extension worker.
REPORT FOR SOUTH CARIBOO, KAMLOOPS, SHUSWAP, NORTH
OKANAGAN, KOOTENAY, AND BOUNDARY DISTRICTS
(Report by G. A. Luyat, P.Ag., Supervising Agriculturist)
A greatly increased interest in the green pastures and silage programme is reported.
This is apparent in the South Cariboo, Shuswap, North Okanagan, and Boundary Districts.
Good legume-grass silage appears to be an answer to many nutritional problems
prevalent in the range country. An adequate supply of good silage would, in considerable
part, replace the present hay-grain feeding programme. Rations would not be balanced
for calves or yearlings, but only a relatively small amount of concentrate would be
required. The effect would be to reduce fixed costs of efficient ranch operation, assuming
the total cost of the silage to be less than the combined costs of hay and supplement.
Some saving might also be made in machinery and labour costs.
The Extension staff have been a major force in advertising and selling, and in
providing technical assistance to establish and maintain improved pastures.
It would be reasonable to assume that at least half of the 15-per-cent increase in
milk production in the Shuswap area is attributable to these improved pastures.
Several hundred farm visits were made to advise on fertilizers, management, rotation,
and irrigation, etc., and to score pastures in the Grassland Clubs.
In the Creston district three pasture mixtures were demonstrated at Canyon,
namely:—
Plot 1: Brome, 8 pounds; orchard, 8 pounds; Ladino, 1 pound.
Plot 2: Brome, 6 pounds; orchard, 8 pounds; Alta fescue, 4 pounds; Ladino,
1 pound.
Plot 3: Orchard, 18 pounds; Ladino, 1 pound.
Pasture cages were used for sampling, and three clippings taken in the establishment
year.   Only green weights were recorded.   These were:   Plot 1, 13.158 tons per acre;
Plot 2, 10.946 tons per acre; Plot 3, 15.887 tons per acre.
One pound of Ladino supplied sufficient legume. Orchard-grass predominated
in all mixtures.
Irrigated Pastures
Close on to 2,000 acres of high-producing pastures were in operation during the
pasture season of this year. In order to pick out the I Grassman of the Year," also to
establish an accurate picture of the development and to advise each pasture operator on
management, 300 pastures were scored by the District Agriculturists and the Field Crops
Branch. Each district official selected his ten best pastures. Finally judging was undertaken by a panel of three. The awards for the five best pastures in the Kamloops,
Salmon Arm, and North Okanagan areas went to the following:—
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 103
Name and Address
Score
A. F. Hubner, Vernon ("Grassman of the Year")  124.5
Ray Lidstone, Lumby .  220
BX Ranch, Vernon  119 5
Ivan Wright, Silver Creek 1  U9
Rusty Freeze, Hay ward's Corner.  Hg
All operators were highly pleased with the results of their first experience in heavy
yields of grass, which in most cases supported 3 head of cows to the acre and a surplus
during the flush season for silage-making.
Ranges in the beef areas of the Interior showed a marked improvement over those
of other years due to the high availability of moisture throughout the season. In the
Cariboo it is likely that winter rustling will be plentiful because so many hay meadows
have only been partially harvested. This system of partly wintering cattle can cut down
costs of production tremendously where pot-holes or smaller uncut meadows are
numerous, as heavy snows do not generally occur until early January.
Nutrition
Animal nutrition was a major problem in many areas during the year, particularly
in the South Cariboo and other Interior areas. Jj|jjL
The Extension workers have campaigned actively for several years to promote
better live-stock nutrition. They are called upon to suggest feeding methods and rations
where low-grade swamp hay, etc., is the only roughage available and work out suitable
rations for pregnant cows and ewes, using grass and legume silage. Emergency feeding
was discussed fully at regional meetings and at meetings with live-stock associations.
Prospects for adequate supplies of roughage improved greatly during October and
November.
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING DIVISION
(George L. Calver, Extension Agricultural Engineer)
The extremely wet summer season encountered this year interfered with some
proposed field work and forced the cancellation of other portions. Changes in staff,
with resultant time-loss, made it necessary to eliminate some of the work which had
been planned. In mid-June A. D. McMechan resigned from the Division to take
a position with the Canada Department of Agriculture. The position was filled in
August by K. E. May.
New work has also been added in that the writer has been named Engineer in
Charge of Land-clearing. Time has been devoted to the operation of and familiarization
with this programme. Trial work has been conducted for the ultimate improvement
of clearing operations. The work which has been accomplished will be discussed under
the main headings of "Farm Machinery," "Farm Structures," and "Soil and Water."
Farm Machinery
Seven machinery field-days were held this year. A " first" this year was a combine-
adjustment field-day organized by the local District Agriculturist in the Armstrong area.
Although the crop was not quite ready to harvest, it was possible to demonstrate
adjustments and a very successful day was held.
Three field-days dealing with silage-harvesting were held in conjunction with staff
from the Canada Department of Agriculture, branches of the Provincial Department, and
local agricultural groups. Other farm-machinery field work carried out during the year
dealt with individual farm visits, together with special projects of a demonstration nature
which will be listed below.
 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A mimeographed circular entitled " Silage Harvesting Costs—a Comparison of the
Costs Involved in Making Various Tonnages of Grass Silage Using Several Different
Machinery Combinations on Some Farms in British Columbia" was published. This
information served as the basis for talks presented to farm groups at five Vancouver
Island locations and was also presented to members of the British Columbia Agronomists'
Association at their annual conference. Lack of man-power made it necessary to defer
further study of this work until the coming year.
Demonstration Projects
The first project to be reported is a deep-tillage trial carried out on two of the
heavier-soil groups in the Duncan area. This trial was carried out jointly by the Field
Crops Branch, the Agricultural Engineering Division, and the District Agriculturist for
the Duncan area. The Agricultural Engineering Division was in charge of equipment
and the actual operation. Records of production were supplied by the Field Crops
Branch, with the District Agriculturist carrying out local arrangements regarding field
location, crop-harvesting, etc. To date our results would indicate that on an extremely
heavy soil deep tillage may have some merit if the costs can be reduced somewhat and
if the operation will give beneficial effects for a number of years. Investigation should
be continued to determine whether or not there are less expensive methods and equipment
for carrying out this operation.
The second field demonstration is basically a tillage trial to demonstrate the minimum requirements for good seed-bed preparation. This project is once again being
carried out jointly by the Field Crops Branch, the Agricultural Engineering Division, and
the local District Agriculturist. This is a pilot type of project, carried out to determine
whether or not it is possible to demonstrate good tillage by certain methods. The work
will be duplicated over a period of three years in order that different weather conditions
can be taken into consideration when assessing various methods of seed-bed preparation.
Farmers in the Upper Clearwater area were given assistance in harvesting white-
clover seed. This project was designed not only to assist with the actual mechanical
harvesting of the crop, but to obtain reasonably accurate information on crop production
so as to assess the possibilities of this crop for improvement of farm income. Mr. May
carried out this project and is reporting in detail to the farm operators concerned. Low
yields, together with difficult harvesting and weed-seed separation, make this crop of
doubtful value.
Farm Structures
The number of plans supplied through our plan service this year dropped by 100
from our record of 1,150 of last year. The fairly steady demand for farm-building plans
indicates a general tendency on the part of the farmers to provide better housing for their
farm enterprises. Last year it was reported that the National Advisory Committee on
Agricultural Engineering was publishing plans for most of the buildings required on a
farm. The catalogue and plans for beef-housing have been completed and are now
available for distribution. Work is progressing on all of the other groups of plans, and
some of these should be obtainable in the coming year. It is hoped that the group
covering fruit- and vegetable-storage buildings will be available in 1955, and that all of
these plans will receive their first printing by 1956.
During the past year we found it necessary to make some slight revisions to our
poultry-house plan for northern areas. New plans drawn and made possible for distribution include a concrete liquid-manure tank to meet the demand of many of our dairy-
farmers who are becoming more conservation-minded, and a plan for a thirty-cow
pole-type shelter. Plans and the general programme in farm structures are also affected
by the emphasis being placed on silage production. Our circular on trench silos was
revised to provide more information on the construction of the bunker silo, which is
basically a trench silo built above ground, and to show alternate methods of construction.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 105
Some portable silo wall sections were designed to be used in the construction of
stacks of ensilage. The Canada Range Experimental Station at Kamloops had two pairs
of these forms constructed according to our plan. Their reports indicate that this type
of structure should be used by anyone planning to put up stack ensilage, especially if
more than one stack is to be built.   The drawing is now available for distribution.
No field-days were held this year dealing primarily with farm structures. However,
the subject was fitted into three field-days when farm fencing was discussed, and dairy
buildings came in for a full discussion at a dairy-cattle barn meet. Approximately forty
individual farm visits were made regarding farm structures, and, in addition, seventy-five
letters of inquiry were answered, exclusive of inquiries met by supplying plans from stock.
The services of Len Staley, lecturer at the University of British Columbia in
agricultural engineering, have been obtained to draw plans for certain specific structures.
Soil and Water
A definite shift of interest is noted in the type of problem encountered in the field
of soil and water. The requests for assistance with irrigation problems showed a marked
decrease. On the other hand, the increased work regarding land-clearing did mean that
as many actual farm visits were made and a large number of inquiries were answered.
Drainage
Field visits for drainage purposes were made to twenty-six farms. Seven farm
surveys were made and detailed plans drawn up. In several cases the actual tiles have
been installed and, according to reports, have functioned very successfully. In addition
to these individual farm visits, two tours were made in the Pitt Meadows-Hatzic Lake
areas. On these tours special note was made of the ground-water levels in relation to
surface levels to determine the basic cause of poor drainage. The information obtained
has assisted the District Agriculturist in his programme of promoting better drainage
through lower main-ditch water-levels.
Two field-days were held to demonstrate the use of ditching dynamite for drainage.
These field-days not only demonstrate the actual methods of blasting a ditch, but also
stress safe handling of explosives. m ■
Other work included drainage survey and report requested by the Deputy Minister
and some preliminary work on a fairly large drainage problem on Southern Vancouver
Island. p;
Water Storage
Assistance was given on five water-storage projects. Visits were made to several
farms to consider possible storage locations. In many cases the soil type encountered
made these potential reservoir-sites unsuitable. Several requests have been received for
advice from areas where water storage is desired primarily for domestic purposes.
Irrigation
Field visits were considerably reduced. However, the staff designed irrigation
systems for twenty-four farms, or a total of 635 acres. Of this total, 100 acres was laid
out primarily for ditch and rill type of irrigation. In addition to the work already completed, survey work has been done on approximately 200 acres, and systems will be
designed during the winter.
Four field-days were held dealing primarily with irrigation. At most of these field-
days the relative merits of sprinkler and furrow irrigation were discussed, together with
some of the basic information regarding irrigation practices and equipment which could
be used. Two separate reports were prepared—the first a report on the potential for
sprinkler irrigation in British Columbia and the second a report on the expected irrigation,
 Z 106
BRITISH COLUMBIA
drainage and clearing costs to be encountered on the proposed Haney gaol-site.  This
latter report was prepared jointly by the Field Crops Branch and this Division.
Conservation
The field demonstration work carried out last year by constructing two terraces in
the Rock Creek area was followed up this year. A field-day was held to show the terraces
after they had undergone a year's settling and had been seeded down to a grass-crop
and also to point out the strip-cropping work which had been undertaken in conjunction
with terrace construction. Many of the farmers in the general area consider erosion
a vital problem, and terraces have been laid out for two more farmers. If no set-backs
are encountered and it is possible to demonstrate more efficient methods of construction
of terraces on the exceedingly steep slopes, it is believed that this programme will be used
extensively.
4-H CLUB DIVISION
(Miss Echo Lidster, P.Ag., Supervisor)
Following is a table indicating the 4-H Club enrolment for British Columbia this
year:—
Enrolment
Project
Clubs
Members
1953
1954
1953
1954
Beef Calf                              	
18
15
7
45
13
5     1
5
15
1
3
6
4
20
20
13
11
55
14
6
2
1
4
20
1
5
1
6
3
17
222
191
64
719
170
62
57
149
12
35
47
45
148
209
Clothing                                     	
178
Dairv Calf                             	
190
630
Grain                      ...  —    -.                 --
169
83
Handicraft     ~   _ . j - 	
Honeybee ~     .
Potato. .  ._	
Poultry         	
Rural Electrification     	
Sheep       	
55
12
45
202
12
48
Soils    :..     	
Swine—   „ 	
10
52
Tractor .
Yearling Dairy	
36
145
Totals	
152
17Q        I       199.1        I      2.073
-»'■—-
In some areas the Department of Agriculture followed the policy of promoting community clubs in which there may be more than one project within the club. In these
clubs it was asked that each different project have a maximum of four members enrolled
in it. Each member within the club could have only one project. This arrangement
made it possible for districts to participate in the 4-H Club programme where it was
difficult to obtain the required eight members for a single-project club.
The T. Eaton Agricultural Scholarship
This was the fourth year that the T. Eaton Company has awarded this scholarship.
The winning boy this year was the Ontario candidate.
The British Columbia candidate was Ross Husdon, Mount Lehman.
Eaton Watches
This was the fourth year that the T. Eaton Company awarded gold watches to the
high-scoring individuals in each project in the Provincial elimination competitions in
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
Z 107
British Columbia. The 1954 winners were as follows: Beef—Verna McLeod, Kamloops; Clothing—Lois Smith, Chilliwack; Dairy—Kathleen Barichello, Langley; Garden—Don Ramsey, Armstrong; Grain—Eleanor Tiegs, North Pine; Poultry—Eileen
Klebaum, Abbotsford; Swine—Dennis Lyster, Armstrong.
Plllillilll
Abbotsford Poultry Team—Eileen Klebaum and Paddy Conroy.
Provincial Elimination Competitions
The Provincial elimination competitions for four projects were, Jdd * «"j^
with the Pacific National Exhibition on Tuesday, August 24t^ ^.^^
garden eliminations were held in Armstrong, in conjunction with the Interior Exhibition,
Tuesday, September 14th, 1954 Mi,Hnna, 4 H club Week this year, so a Garden
There was no potato competition at National 4-H uuo wee* yu» y     ,
Team was sent instead.   It was possible to send a Grain Team this yean   This teamcame
from the Peace River and was the first team from that area to ^^^^^tfe
Beef (four teams competing):   Kamloops Beef Team-Verna McLeod and Katie
Davidson. I rbilHwack Clothing Team—Lois Smith and
Clothing (three teams competing):   CnilliwacK uouuug
Barbara Andrews. „ .     jffl §1    ir„*i,w« Rarichello and
Dairy (nine teams competing):   Langley Dairy Team-Kathleen Bancnello
Bruno Giacomazzi.
 Z 108
BRITISH COLUMBIA
x
1
Langley Dairy Team—Bruno Giacomazzi and Kathleen Barichello.
Armstrong Garden Team—Don Ramsey and John Duncan.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
Z 109
Garden (two teams competing): Armstrong Garden Team—Don Ramsey and John
Grain (two teams competing):   North Pine Grain Team—Alvin Germain and
Eleanor Tiegs.
Poultry (two teams competing):   Abbotsford Poultry Team—Paddy Conroy and
Eileen Klebaum.
Swine (two teams competing):  Armstrong Swine Team—Dennis Lyster and Ber-
neice McCallan.
Chilliwack Clothing Team-Lois Smith and Barbara Andrews.
Public Speaking Competitions
There were no public speaking finals held this year, «^^^^^
indicated any interest in it.   Therefore, in common consent ^^BntitiL C°1UmD
Federation of Agriculture, it was agreed to cancel the contest for this year.
National 4-H Club Week
This Province was able, for the first time, to send ^G^^^^
to National 4-H Club Week, which is held at the time of the Royal Agncuitu
Fair in Toronto, November 10th to 23rd, 1954.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Z no
There were 116 delegates registered. The nine cups were distributed among six
« B3S    The Swine Cup came to this Province for the first time in twenty-four years.
p^'lt* of iudging competitions: Swine, first (five teams competing); Clothing,
fifth Steams competing); Dairy, fifth (eight teams competing); Garden fifth (seven
team   competing); Poultry, fifth (seven teams competing); Beef, sixth (eight teams
,Ti   Grain seventh (seven teams competing).
C°m Barbara ^^^ was the British Columbia representative on the Junior Club
»„;i f«r National 4-H Club Week.
Council for National 4-H Club Week.
Armstrong Swine Team—Berneice McCallan and Dennis Lyster.
Four of the National delegates from British Columbia had brothers or sisters who
had previously attended in the same capacity.   Kathleen Barichello's brother Ralph was
a member of the Dairy Team in 1942 and is now farming and leader of the cluD m
Langley; Dennis Lyster's brother Ronald, a member of the Swine Team in iy 4*'
now farming and leader of the club at Armstrong;  Berneice McCallan's brother J
was a member of the Swine Team in 1950; Lois Smith's sister Marie was a member
the Clothing Team in 1952 and assistant leader of Clothing Club in Chilliwack.
Provincial Council of 4-H Club Leaders
On January 25th and 26th, 1954, a representative group of six 4-H Club 1™^TS®*
in Victoria.   This was the first meeting of the Provincial Council of 4-H Club Lea
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 111
The Province has been divided into seven areas for this purpose of selecting representatives for this Council, as follows: Peace River—Clarence Veiner, Dawson Creek; Central
British Columbia—Fred Bartel, Quesnel; Kamloops—Clarence Bryson, Merritt;' Okanagan—Hilliard McCallan, Armstrong; East Kootenay—Mrs. Greta Marples, Invermere;
Fraser Valley—Arnott Bailey, Chilliwack (Cornelius Froese substituted);' Vancouver
Island—Pearl Standen, Duncan.
The East Kootenay was the only district not represented at the first meeting.
Officers are Hilliard McCallan, Armstrong, president, and Miss Echo Lidster, Supervisor of 4-H Clubs, secretary.
Duties of the members of this Council are to help to co-ordinate 4-H Club activities
in their own area and make recommendations Provincially as well.
Kamloops Beef Team—Katie Davidson and Verna McLeod.
Pullman Trip
June 6th to 12th, 1954, were the dates of the Washington State 4-H Club camp at
Pullman, Wash. This year British Columbia sent four delegates to this camp. Qualifications included record of club work and potential leadership abilities. Those selected
were Miss Verna McLeod, Kamloops; Miss Marie Leidl, Prince George; Dick Field,
Vernon; and Vernon Bostock, Bridesville. Ronald Tarves, District Agriculturist,
Quesnel, accompanied the team. H ff
 Z 112
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale
This show continues to be a 4-H Club show and sale. There were 170 head of
4-H Club members' steers shown, plus 20 additional head being shown by club members
in the open singles, out of the 436 head of fat stock shown. In addition, there were 60
head of lambs shown by the three Lamb Clubs, making a total of 230 4-H Club and
associate members present at the show.
The champion of the show was owned by Jean Pringle, Westwold, and was bought
by Super-Valu Stores, Vancouver, for $1.15 a pound.
'•*•*•*• "•*****«*^X»XAX^«rAX"X«X<«X»X»X'X»X»X,Xi
North Pine Grain Team—Eleanor Tiegs and Alvin Germain.
Leaders' Certificates Ji^B
Certificates were awarded by the Canadian Council on 4-H Clubs as a recognition
for five years or more of 4-H Club leadership in their communities to the following
leaders: C. W. Bailey, Sardis, leader for five years; Walbert J. Leidl, Prince George,
leader for five years; Dorothy Mercer, Mission City, leader for five years; R. B. Moulton,
Cobble Hill, leader for six years; Fred Nichol, Monte Creek, leader for seven years;
Walter Shepherd, Westwold, leader for five years; Neil Smith, Rock Creek, leader for
six years; Mrs. Pearl Standen, Duncan, leader for five years; and Norman S. Wright,
Steveston, leader for five years. I
Additional Activities M
During the year, travels included attending, as British Columbia director, the annual
meeting of the Canadian Council on 4-H Clubs, which was held in Edmonton, Alta., in
March. All points where clubs are organized in the Province were visited, with the
exception of the East Kootenay and North Vancouver Island. Jf
Leadership training courses of one day each were held in Kamloops, Armstrong,
Abbotsford, Quesnel, and Fort St. John in March.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
Z 113
SS&SSM^^S^SKKHHSWH-H
First British Columbia delegation to Washington State 4-H Club camp,
headed by A. R. Tarves, District Agriculturist, Quesnel. Marie Leidl, Prince
George; Verna McLeod, Kamloops; Dick Field, Vernon; and Vernon Bos-
tock, Bridesville, being greeted by State 4-H Club Agent Charles Meenoch.
Eaton Agricultural Scholarship candidate—Ross Husdon,
Mount Lehman.
 Z 114
BRITISH COLUMBIA
During November, along with J. S. Allin, Supervising Agriculturist, Victoria, I accom
panied the teams attending National 4-H Club Week, where part of my duties included
acting as counsellor to the Junior Council of ten members.
For the second year, also, duties have included acting as chairman of the National
Committee on 4-H Club Leadership.
LAND-CLEARING OPERATIONS If
The following table is a summary of the land-clearing operations by districts for
the year 1954:—
District
Acreage
Value
Vancouver Island	
WiUiams Lake	
Salmon Arm and Kamloops—
East Kootenay	
Prince George (ten contracts)-
Cleared	
Broken	
McBride (seventeen contracts)
Vernon1	
Grand Forks1	
716*4
692
200
150
289
394
$48,684.10
20,315.44
14,037.25
3,400.00
8,653.60
7,623.00
Value per Acre
$68.00
29.82
31.49
35.45
1 Not available.
G. L. Calver reports on land-clearing projects as follows:—
"A Rome disk plough was tried as a replacement of the mould-board plough for
breaking newly cleared land. This trial indicated the disk plough was more effective for
most tillage operations; furthermore, it was indicated repair costs would be low—limited
almost entirely to disk replacement due to wear.
" Farmer acceptance of the work done has been very high, actually favouring the
disking as compared to the work done previously with the mould-board breaker plough.
| Equipment was borrowed from the Public Works Department to carry out a trial
of rotary-tillage equipment for breaking land. Results of this test indicate the equipment
may have some merit from the viewpoint of seed-bed preparation. However, the nature
of the work done does not lead us to be too hopeful of its value for the purpose in mind.
Costs are likely to be high due to a short annual period of usefulness, high repair costs,
and excessive down time.
| Some trial work was also carried out with a new clearing-blade and a rear-mounted
stumper. More trials are still necessary to find methods to reduce the cost of clearing
operations."
Summary of Work Reported by Districts |||
B     Vancouver Island had 716V6 acres cleared at a total cost of $48,684.10 or an
average of $68 per acre. m
Williams Lake district had clearing done on forty-five farms for a total of 692 acres
at an average cost of $29.82 per acre. ft
Salmon Arm and Kamloops district report thirty-one farms with approximately
200 acres cleared at a total cost of $14,037.25.
East Kootenay reports clearing done on four farms for a total of $1,400 and
additional work of approximately $2,000.   About 150 acres were involved.
Prince George reports show ten contracts completed for a total of $8,653.60. The
average cost, including cutting, piling, double disking, and repiling, was $31.49 per acre;
289 acres were cleared and 394 acres broken.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954 Z 115
At McBride seventeen contracts for $7,623 were completed, with an average cost
of $35.45 per acre, i
Detailed reports are not available for Vernon and Grand Forks districts.
FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL FARM LABOUR SERVICE
During January, February, and March there was little demand for farm labour,
except for a few requests for experienced dairy-workers.
During March and April some requests were received for sheep herders and
handlers and for dairy-farm workers. j
The joint programme suffered a severe loss in the death at a comparatively early
age of W. L. Forrester, Supervisor of General Placements, Unemployment Insurance
Commission, who was for several years closely associated with the work of the Farm
Labour Committee. Ben White, during the rest of the season, acted as liaison officer
between our two departments.
Weather conditions during the year were most trying from a labour standpoint, but
the supply was ample at practically all times. Great credit is due to the placement officers
for effective handling of difficult situations.
Seasonal demands were received for berry-pickers, apple thinners and pickers in the
Okanagan, cannery-workers, and other groups, and were met without too much difficulty.
Throughout the entire season a close liaison was maintained with the National
Employment Service. The effective co-operation which prevailed in past years was
evident again this year, and reports indicate no crop-losses were experienced due to lack
of labour.
National Employment Service undertook recruiting and placement in the Vancouver
area. In future the Province will gradually relinquish operation of all offices possible
to the Federal agency, retaining only an advisory role in the general plan.
B.C. BUILDING AT PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION
The Department of Agriculture was also associated with other departments of
Government this year in the agriculture exhibit in the British Columbia Building. This
required considerable time of a committee under the chairmanship of your Director.
This exhibit is open to the public all year and will be of great educational value. Arrangements have been made by the Pacific National Exhibition with the Vancouver School
Board for all Grade VIII classes to visit the building.
AGRICULTURAL MAP OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Extension Branch, with other divisions of the Department of Agriculture,
co-operated with the Statistics Branch of the Department of Trade and Industry in the
preparation of the first agricultural map of the Province.
CONCLUSION
The Extension Branch co-operated with J. W. Wilson, of the Lower Mainland
Regional Planning Board, in his preparation of the report entitled " The Capital Region
Takes Stock," in so far as the agriculture was concerned.
The Extension Branch also co-operated with municipal, Federal, and Provincial
authorities in matters pertaining to the agricultural development of the Province.
I wish to express my appreciation to all members of the Extension staff for their
co-operation and assistance during the year, and also to members of the staffs of Canada
Department of Agriculture, University of British Columbia, "Veterans' Land Act"
administration, Washington State Extension staff, and other agencies for the co-operation
received during the year.
 Z 116
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDICES
APPENDIX No. 1
Plants Manufacturing, Processing, and
Acme Dairy Ltd., 130 West Hastings Street, Vancouver 3. .   .
Armstrong    Cheese    Co-operative   Association,
Armstrong.
Arrow  Lakes   Co-operative  Dairy  Association,
Edgewood.
Arrowsmith Farms (Nicholson Ltd.), Hilliers.
Avalon Dairy Ltd., 5805 Wales Road, Vancouver 16.
Baby's Own Dairy (H. Armishaw), 600 Albert
Street, Nanaimo.
Blue Ribbon Dairy Ltd., 661 Main Street, Mission City.
Brooksbank Farms Ltd., 804 River Road, Lulu
Island, Vancouver.
Bulkley Valley Creamery (Paulsen & Kinney),
Telkwa.
Cariboo Farmers' Co-operative Association, Box
19, Quesnel.
Central Creameries (B.C.) Ltd., 325 Railway
Street, Vancouver 4.
Chilliwack Dairy Ltd., Box 274, Chilliwack.
City Dairy Farm (Barrett & Morrison), Cranbrook.
Comox Co-operative Creamery Association, 280
Sixth Street, Courtenay.
Creamland Crescent Dairy Ltd., 1335 Howe
Street, Vancouver 1.
Creamland Ice Cream Ltd., 1335 Howe Street,
Vancouver 1.
Creston Co-operative Milk Producers' Association, Creston.
Dairy Queen Mixco (J. C. Mulvey), 2000 East
Hastings Street, Vancouver 6.
DeClark's Dairy (A. and J. DeClark), Ladysmith.
Diamond Dairy (H. H. Trerise), Haney.
Dominion Dairy (Gordon Milum), Box 186,
Golden.
Drake's Dairy Ltd., 441 Sixth Street, New Westminster.
Dutch Dairy Farms Ltd., 21 Tranquille Road,
North Kamloops.
Dyffryn Dairy (P. C. Inglis), Lumby.
Edgewater Dairy (D. A. Bowers), Edgewater.
Egeskov Cheese Factory (Kaj E. Andersen),
Creston.
Enterprise Dairy (W. Pighin), Box 379, Kim-
berley.
Fernie Dairy (S. Barrett), Fernie.
Frasea Farms Ltd., Postal Station " L," Vancouver.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, 425
West Eighth Avenue, Vancouver 10.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, 1166
Hornby Street, Vancouver 1.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association Sardis.
Distributing Dairy Products during 1954
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Abbotsford.
Glenburn Dairy Ltd., 3695 East Hastings Street
Vancouver 6. '
Guernsey Breeders' Dairy Ltd., 2405 West Broadway, Vancouver 9.
Hazelwood Creamery Ltd., 441 Keefer Street
Vancouver 4.
Hillside Farm Dairy (Wm. Crawford), R.R. 4
Cloverdale.
Hudson's Bay Co., Ocean Falls.
Island   Farms   Co-operative   Association,   608
Broughton Street, Victoria.
I.X.L. Dairy Ltd.,  145 Terminal Avenue, Nanaimo.
Jersey Dairy (Jack Taylor), 130 Young Road
South, Chilliwack.
Jersey Farms Ltd., 2256 West Broadway, Vancouver 9.
Kamloops   United   Dairies   Ltd.,   156 Victoria
Street, Kamloops.
Kelowna Creamery Ltd.,   1474 Pendozi Street,
Kelowna.
Kootenay   Valley   Co-operative  Milk Products
Association, 609 Railway Street, Nelson.
Lewis & Sons' Dairy (E. R. Lewis), Box 162,
Powell River.
Little Mountain Dairy (Carncross & Thompson),
Box 396, Abbotsford.
Maple Ridge Dairy (Herbert Vogel), Main Street,
Mission.
Medo-land Farm Dairy Ltd., Port Coquitlam.
Modern Dairy (D. M. Macaulay and R. H. Du-
charme), Box 70, Marysville.
Modern Dairy (K. Sharpies), Castlegar.
Morrison-Knudsen Co. of Canada Ltd., Kemano.
Nanaimo Dairy Co. Ltd., 535 Franklyn Street.
Nanaimo.
National Dairies Ltd., 1132 East Hastings Street,
Vancouver 6.
Nechako Valley Dairy Ltd., Vanderhoof.
Northern Alberta Dairy Pool Ltd., Dawson Creek.
Northern Dairies Ltd., Prince George.
Northland Dairy Ltd., 401 Third Avenue, Prince
Rupert.
North Squamish Dairy (Lloyd Goodale), Squam-
ish.
Northwestern Creamery Ltd., 1015 Yates Street,
Victoria.
Odermatt's  Dairy   (Paul  Odermatt), Box 252,
Fort St. John.
Oliver Dairy (Henry Hettinga), Box 601, Oliver.
Palm Dairies Ltd., Kamloops.
Palm Dairies Ltd., 685 Baker Street, Nelson.
Palm Dairies Ltd., Box 2115, Trail.
Palm Dairies Ltd., 3333 Main Street, Vancouver 10.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
Z 117
APPENDIX No. 1—Continued
Plants Manufacturing, Processing, and Distributing Dairy Products during 1954-
Continued
Palm Dairies Ltd., 930 North Park Street, Victoria.
Peerless Dairy (John Lancaster), Box 456, Cranbrook.
Penticton Dairy and Ice Cream Co. Ltd., 67
Front Street, Penticton.
Peter's Ice Cream Co. Ltd., 3204 West Broadway,
Vancouver 8.
Pinelawn Dairy (Mrs. Dulcie Hamilton), R.R. 1,
Comox.
Primrose Dairy (L. R. Singlehurst), Box 353,
Williams Lake.
Princeton Dairy (Sidney D. Atkinson), Box 286,
Princeton.
Richmond Milk Producers' Co-operative Association, 3277 Cambie Street, Vancouver 9.
Rivers' Dairyland (J. P. Rivers), Palmer Street,
Salmon Arm.
Riverside Dairy (Alan V. Frear), McBride.
Rose's Ice Cream Ltd., Drawer 70, Prince George.
Royal City Dairies Ltd., 309 Sixth Street, New
Westminster.
Salt Spring Island Creamery Co. Ltd., Ganges.
Seal-Kap Dairy Ltd., R.R. 1, Langley Prairie.
Shannon Dairies Ltd., 8584 Granville Street, Vancouver 14.
Shepherd's Dairy Ltd., 1645 Fort Street, Victoria.
Shirley Farm (H. G. Morson), 5711 Kittson
Road, R.R. 1, New Westminster.
Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative
Association, Enderby.
Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative
Association, 1136 Richter Street, Kelowna.
Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative
Association, Salmon Arm.
Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative
Association, Vernon.
Silver Rill Dairy (Stanley H. S. Fox), Saanichton
P.O.
Standard Dairy (Mrs. D. McKinnon), Revelstoke.
Stanhope Dairy Farm (R. Rendle), 3578 Richmond Avenue, Victoria.
Sunny Brae Dairy Ltd., Queen's Road, Duncan.
Sunnybrook Dairy (Hay Bros.), 1598 South-east
Marine Drive, Vancouver 15.
Sunshine Valley Dairy Ltd., Box 74, Grand Forks.
Surrey Dairy (Mrs. F. R. Lipsey), 200 Scott
Road, R.R. 7, New Westminster.
Tip Top Dairy Ltd., Box 804, Westview.
Turner's Dairy (Mrs. R. J. Turner), 416 King
Edward Street, Ladner.
United Dairies Ltd., 1601 Second Avenue, Trail.
Valley Dairy (Albert Doratti), Box 527, Ross-
land.
Valley Dairy (Armstrong Cheese Co-operative
Association, 64 Nanaimo Avenue, Penticton.
Willow Dairy (H. G. Pemberton), Parksville.
Wood's Dairy (J. P. Wood), Creston.
 Z 118
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 2
Inspected Slaughterings of Live Stock, December 1st, 1953, to November 30th, 1954
Date
British Columbia
December 5	
December 12	
December 19	
December 28 to 31.
January 9	
January 16	
January 23	
January 30	
February 6	
February 13	
February 20	
February 27	
March 6	
March 13	
March 20	
March 27	
April 3	
April 10	
April 17	
April 24	
May 1	
May 8	
May 15	
May 22	
May 29	
June 5	
June 12	
June 19	
June 26	
July 3	
July 10	
July 17	
July 24	
July 31	
August 7	
August 14	
August 21	
August 28	
September 4	
September 11	
September 18	
September 25	
October 2	
October 9	
October 16	
October 23	
October 30	
November 6	
November 13	
November 20	
November 27	
Cattle
Calves
Hogs
Sheep
Alberta
Cattle
Calves
Hogs
Sheep
Totals for Canada
Cattle
Calves
2,167
2,130
1,450
1,795
2,389
2,550
2,689
2,596
2,007
2,231
2,192
2,198
2,434
2,197
2,256
2,332
2,293
2,409
1,893
2,452
2,040
2,061
2,347
2,166
1,886
2,450
2,374
2,275
2,060
1,788
2,091
2,353
2,065
2,122
2,041
1,952
2,278
2,317
2,430
2,054
2,715
2,245
2,286
2,125
2,202
2,732
2,123
2,600
2,129
2,489
2,346
653
396
249
144
656
500
261
269
489
357
325
361
279
249
223
374
338
270
324
269
349
518
370
287
337
463
379
505
482
449
446
402
540
346
383
443
372
342
581
447
556
496
465
588
358
336
895
687
664
681
612
8,417
6,809
6,875
3,753
6,830
6,388
5,317
4,625
6,972
5,967
4,794
5,654
5,713
5,424
6,315
6,105
5,943
5,705
4,997
5,740
6,976
6,817
5,904
5,808
6,021
5,615
4,713
6,209
5,729
5,114
4,021
5,568
5,298
5,183
5,252
4,774
5,399
4,840
4,785
5,364
5,973
6,619
6,866
7,167
5,024
5,891
8,338
8,393
7,150
8,485
9,456
1,534
992
1,409
895
1,220
1,832
1,826
1,220
1,846
1,905
1,444
1,195
1,127
1,577
1,543
1,356
1,030
1,333
1,682
894
1,037
1,367
694
657
527
17
418
363
1,020
223
1,092
480
901
847
675
1,256
1,448
1,927
1,176
1,408
1,715
2,129
1,509
2,466
1,452
1,729
2,342
1,096
1,485
1,604
1,715
4,911
4,296
2,773
3,897
5,131
5,739
5,486
4,961
4,960
4,483
4,848
4,906
4,883
4,713
3,990
4,920
5,077
4,991
3,843
4,479
4,577
4,768
5,068
4,880
4,063
5,648
5,141
4,911
4,559
4,477
5,495
5,698
5,650
4,562
4,183
5,011
5,529
4,787
4,733
4,446
6,062
6,009
4,927
5,944
4,659
5,643
5,705
5,704
5,343
5,939
6,078
1,471
1,251
886
470
1,296
1,523
702
984
1,554
847
957
1,179
919
1,178
1,109
1,222
1,201
1,169
1,008
1,029
1,414
1,399
938
1,399
961
1,148
1,188
1,830
1,508
1,057
1,451
1,445
1,674
1,460
1,322
1,580
1,529
1,207
1,795
1,817
2,031
1,816
1,647
2,339
1,030
1,511
2,055
1,944
2,042
1,849
1,991
26,115
26,278
27,361
14,779
27,466
24,638
14,295
20,207
25,301
18,581
20,709
20,865
18,822
21,109
21,117
21,296
18,599
19,960
16,924
21,071
24,957
22,742
18,975
24,890
20,700
22,543
16,777
20,646
20,900
16,643
18,141
15,497
16,808
13,458
12,784
13,258
13,324
12,908
16,218
14,047
15,679
17,282
17,931
19,223
13,981
17,430
26,475
25,192
25,342
31,017
33,576
1,739
1,157
1,102
637
849
1,494
818
622
1,725
1,436
776
1,067
933
951
599
1,033
598
970
1,020
550
591
763
866
594
392
189
159
325
282
386
605
789
551
1,280
1,166
762
1,045
1,050
1,337
1,060
1,264
1,499
1,365
1,665
1,702
1,401
1,646
2,069
1,746
1,742
1,834
33,146
29,372
23,475
23,703
32,639
35,726
33,818
30,683
29,509
28,654
28,090
30,452
28,920
28,111
26,726
30,148
32,234
31,822
25,272
29,286
30,124
31,932
33,342
33,321
28,157
33,731
31,697
29,124
27,791
25,851
32,719
34,511
31,461
29,038
24,899
31,127
34,943
32,230
31,470
28,306
37,810
36,348
31,653
33,107
28,903
36,748
36,993
38,751
36,035
37,976
37,858
12,934
12,334
10,433
5,990
10,610
11,339
9,931
10,024
10,372
10,012
9,106
12,396
11,246
15,657
18,127
21,004
24,553
24,511
24,273
23,905
27,316
23,756
25,478
23,816
20,632
20,836
17,586
18,011
17,082
15,155
16,988
16,639
16,832
15,841
12,809
13,230
14,336
13,933
14,685
13,961
16,835
16,643
13,656
14,885
11,775
14,841
15,858
16,774
14,872
15,127
13,956
Hogs
105,111
102,375
106,030
62,768
95,600
97,959
75,684
81,378
95,273
90,378
80,568
91,210
76,067
95,711
90,379
93,985
87,754
85,254
81,642
93,742
102,953
97,195
84,142
88,220
81,194
88,471
72,957
83,688
81,579
67,413
71,968
67,722
72,131
72,781
71,480
70,141
67,309
72,208
77,575
79,297
90,716
90,537
95,724
104,024
87,965
94,297
112,560
112,447
109,124
126,664
128,141
Sheep
14,593
10,360
11,320
4,881
6,514
10,131
8,634
6,490
8,017
7,593
5,867
5,453
64,625
5,653
5,519
5,451
4,783
5,046
5,640
4,131
3,934
3,770
2,998
2,469
2,126
2,048
2,494
2,775
4,387
3,650
6,979
7,344
8,892
11,894
11,054
11,928
14,099
16,022
18,584
17,184
21,867
22,715
20,574
20,800
18,980
26,929
30,720
26,183
28,395
20,254
17,243
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
Z 119
APPENDIX No. 3
Beef Carcasses Graded in British Columbia, December 1st, 1953, to November 30th 1954
Date
Total
Kill
B
Di
December 5	
December 12	
December 19	
December 28 to 31
January 1 to 9	
January 16	
January 23	
January 30	
February 6	
February 13	
February 20	
February 27	
March 6	
March 13	
March 20	
March 27	
April 3	
April 10	
April 17	
April 24	
May 1	
May 8	
May 15	
May 22	
May 29	
June 5	
June 12	
June 19	
June 26	
July 3	
July 10	
July 17	
July 24	
July 31	
August 7	
August 14	
August 21	
August 28	
September 4	
September 11..	
September 18	
September 25	
October 2	
October 9	
October 16	
October 23	
October 30	
November 6	
November 13	
November 20	
November 27	
2,167
2,130
1,450
1,795
2,389
2,550
2,689
2,596
2,007
2,231
2,192
2,198
2,434
2,197
2,256
2,332
2,293
2,409
1,893
2,452
2,040
2,061
2,347
2,166
1,886
2,450
2,374
2,275
2,060
1,788
2,091
2,353
2,065
2,122
2,041
1,940
2,290
2,317
2,430
2,054
2,715
2,245
2,286
2,125
2,202
2,732
2,123
2,618
2,111
2,489
2,346
D2
D3
M
671
687
417
785
1,156
987
1,091
1,045
636
829
976
972
1,103
999
947
1,001
897
1,026
791
1,033
949
923
896
848
816
1,104
1,153
1,002
869
860
916
1,146
932
914
980
874
1,039
1,011
877
754
892
764
712
747
703
864
817
801
668
834
667
365
449
237
387
436
537
472
497
419
387
395
339
416
335
482
413
450
527
390
451
427
409
472
381
328
467
404
398
315
319
352
344
244
297
302
306
368
378
517
382
489
401
386
348
429
426
383
439
282
394
393
438
484
307
335
362
426
494
577
441
393
327
383
367
355
347
416
429
412
329
411
313
344
419
390
276
411
300
330
300
226
314
378
311
307
332
313
402
424
436
390
584
442
459
320
428
595
315
490
423
447
494
120
69
69
42
79
73
71
105
56
95
55
94
82
76
56
92
71
86
36
106
51
68
89
106
65
82
76
92
106
42
70
90
106
88
73
47
62
78
79
70
93
60
61
83
63
115
53
79
61
85
72
194
110
106
122
158
144
306
158
180
167
155
162
172
175
148
129
165
101
109
153
58
98
135
117
64
62
84
122
107
84
113
63
167
177
133
91
137
132
185
99
209
178
182
133
93
240
189
211
206
230
192
54
47
38
19
42
. 55
53
49
57
64
39
46
41
46
43
37
36
57
42
45
46
42
53
46
62
92
63
72
79
62
66
46
71
55
34
30
32
60
59
46
70
46
67
64
68
71
76
141
78
94
86
196
176
151
48
119
202
110
99
99
156
180
149
181
131
153
121
154
134
125
150
129
109
188
164
167
143
192
166
139
69
149
130
121
155
98
161
147
143
148
185
194
213
269
293
279
282
230
337
323
280
340
129
108
125
57
37
126
92
66
119
140
65
53
72
80
80
123
91
66
71
103
67
68
95
114
108
89
102
93
145
126
111
156
113
129
89
118
103
91
129
128
184
141
150
137
139
139
60
120
70
125
102
 Z 120
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 4
Average Prices for Cattle, December 1st, 1953, to November 30th, 1954
Date
December 5	
December 12	
December 19	
December 28 to 31
January 9	
January 16	
January 23	
January 30	
February 6	
February 13	
February 20	
February 27	
March 6	
March 13	
March 20	
March 27	
April 3	
April 10	
April 17	
April 24	
May 1	
May 8	
May 15	
May 22	
May 29	
Vancouver
Good
Steers
$18.00
18.00
18.00
18.13
17.50
17.50
17.50
17.50
18.00
17.00
17.00
17.50
17.50
17.50
17.50
18.60
18.18
19.00
19.00
Veal
Calves
$17.75
17.50
18.00
17.50
20.75
19.00
22.00
22.00
20.00
22.00
19.50
19.75
22.00
23.25
21.00
20.70
Calgary
Good
Steers
$17.02
17.12
16.66
17.57
17.06
17.48
17.60
17.41
16.35
16.57
16.70
16.85
16.85
16.23
16.25
16.85
16.75
17.03
17.32
17.61
17.61
17.86
18.38
18.45
19,07
Veal
Calves
Date
$15.80
16.36
16.05
18.03
19.54
22.34
23.73
23.90
24.31
23.79
22.23
22.92
23.21
24.88
23.89
22.92
22.81
23.83
24.63
23.83
21.83
22.64
21.55
20.88
21.05
Vancouver
Good
Steers
June 5	
June 12	
June 19	
June 26	
July 3	
July 10	
July 17	
July 24	
July 31	
August 7	
August 14	
August 21	
August 28	
September 4..
September 11
September 18
September 25
October 2	
October 9	
October 16	
October 23	
October 30	
November 6..
November 13
November 20
November 27
$19.00
19.13
18.75
18.80
17.63
17.50
17.25
18.05
19.15
18.68
21.18
19.63
20.00
19.50
18.90
19.00
19.00
19.00
20.00
20.00
19.75
19.30
Veal
Calves
$21.75
19.68
22.18
20.50
19.00
20.00
18.50
20.25
18.10
18.75
18.00
17.68
18.50
19.70
18.50
16.75
18.00
17.00
17.00
17.00
18.00
18.40
17.50
15.00
15.00
Calgary
Good
Steers
$19.12
18.65
17.97
18.73
19.35
20.00
20.21
20.37
20.09
20.10
20.01
20.38
20.40
20.42
19.66
19.31
19.51
18.86
19.10
19.05
19.08
18.71
18.92
19.59
19.45
Veal
Calves
$20.91
25.08
22.18
21.56
21.47
22.55
20.25
19.90
19.75
19.98
19.05
18.81
18.71
17.94
17.21
15.99
15.52
14.18
14.80
14.84
14.29
14.66
14.10
13.98
13.39
APPENDIX No. 5
Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show, Kamloops, March 9th to 11th, 1954
Number and Kind
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
1954
Average
1953
Average
Car-lots of 15 steers	
Groups of 5 steers	
Spares	
Open singles and boys' and girls' classes
$23.00
24.50
27.50
85.00
$17.10
17.50
17.50
18.25
$19.70
19.87
19.76
23.06
$20.26
20.90
19.27
24.31
Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale, Kamloops, December 2nd, 1954
Kind
Head
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt., 1954
Average
Price per
Cwt., 1953
Total
Weight
Car-lots	
Groups of 5 cattle	
Spares	
Open singles and boys' and girls'
entries (cattle)	
Groups of 5 lambs .	
Open singles and boys' and girls'
entries (lambs)	
Totals	
105
90
8
233
25
58
$25.00
25.00
23.25
115.00
24.00
80.00
$20.25
19.00
18.00
16.50
22.00
20.00
$22.39
22.29
21.10
25.27
23.05
25.42
519
$21.12
20.43
19.75
23.09
44.40
98,351
82,660
7,743
213,305
2,270
4,975
409,304
1 Plus Lot 380 donated to Salvation Army for resale, $333.95, making a grand total of $98,396.35.
1953
1954
Head
Total fat stock  436
Total lambs     83
Total
Price
$21,980.34
18,466.98
1,656.85
54,159.73
« 523.33
__1I275117__
19^06140T
Value
$96,597.85
1,798.50
Total sale  519 $98,396.35
Average price of qualified stock per hundredweight, $22.76.
Head
Total fat stock  303
Total lambs     49
Value
$64,728.47
1,472.19
Total sale  352 $66,200.66
Average price of qualified stock per hundredweight, $21.10.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
Z 121
APPENDIX No. 6
Provincial Dairy Herd Improvement Associations
Dairy-herd Improvement
Association
Chilliwack-
Route 1-
Route 2-
Route 3-
Route 4.
Comox Valley-
Co wichan	
Delta-
Route 1.
Route 2	
Dewdney-Deroche.
Langley (Route 1)
Matsqui—
Route 1	
Route 2	
Salmon Arm-North Okanagan—.
Pitt Meadows-Maple Ridge and
Richmond (Route 2)
Richmond (Route 1)	
Sumas—
Route 1 :	
Route 2	
Surrey (Route 1)	
Surrey (Route 2) and Langley
(Route 2)
Vancouver Island—
Centre .	
South	
Secretary
H. C. Clark, 214 Spadina Ave., Chilliwack.
Ditto	
D. T. Jones, R.R. 2, Courtenay	
M. Hansen, P.O. Box 14, Cobble Hill.
A. W. Mitchell, Crescent Island, R.R. 1,
New Westminster
Ditto	
A. McDonald, Agassiz	
H. L. Davis, Box 103, Milner	
James Green, R.R. 1,Mount Lehman...
Ditto	
J. H. Thompson, R.R. 1, Salmon Arm-
Gordon Park, Pitt Meadows	
G. P. Crosby, 8483 Wiltshire St., Vancouver 14
J. E. Dayton, R.R. 2, Abbotsford	
Ditto	
R. J. Livingston, 7051 Pacific Highway,
R.R. 4, Cloverdale
Ditto	
T. C. Tryon, R.R. 1, Parksville	
John   Pendray,   4160   Blenkinsop   Road,
R.R. 4, Victoria
Supervisor
J. R. Hannam, 236 Corbould St., Chilliwack.
Fred Wiffen, 295 Maple Ave., Sardis.
H.  Bylsma,   159  Chilliwack  Central Road,
R.R. 1, Chilliwack.
R. E. Chapman, 268 Trans-Canada Highway
East, R.R. 2, Chilliwack.
H. de Blieck, Box 991, Courtenay.
D. R. O'Brien, Maple Bay Road, R.M.D. 1,
Duncan.
L. Craig MacNair, Box 76, Ladner.
G. H. Bailey, Ladner.
A.   H.   Maddocks,   c/o   C.   G.   Lancaster,
Matsqui.
Arne   Colly,  7105  Latimer  Road,   R.R.   3,
Cloverdale.
V. A. Gill, R.R. 1, Matsqui.
Phil Harvey, Mount Lehman.
Pat Hibbert, Box 91, Salmon Arm.
R. MacGregor, Box 454, Pitt Meadows	
D.  S. Heelas,  1657 West Fifty-ninth Ave.,
Vancouver.
C. S. Lillies, Box 392, Abbotsford.
Brian Hall, No. 5 Road, R.R. 4, Abbotsford.
S. Baehr, Port Kells.
M. Shymkowich, R.R. 7, Langley Prairie.
W. T. Calbick, 516 Churchill Ave., Nanaimo.
T. G. M. Clarke, 3449 Cook St., Victoria.
Ayrshire	
Guernsey—
Holstein	
Jersey	
APPENDIX No. 7
Breed Averages for 1953
Unclassified (cross-breds, etc.).
Percentage
of Total
3.6
20.8
41.5
23.8
10.3
Milk
Lb.
8,567
8,382
11,403
7,738
8,856
Fat
Per Cent
4.07
4.75
3.66
5.05
4.43
Lb.
349
398
417
391
392
 Z 122
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 8
Average Prices for Lambs, December 1st, 1953, to November 30th, 1954
Date
Vancouver
December 5	
December 12	
December 19	
December 28 to 31
January 9	
January 16	
January 23	
January 30	
February 6	
February 13	
February 20	
February 27	
March 6	
March 13	
March 20.	
March 27	
April 3	
April 10	
April 17	
April 24	
May 1	
May 8 I
May 15	
May 22	
May 29	
June 5	
$22.50
19.25
22.50
21.93
20.50
21.50
21.00
Calgary
Date
$19.49
19.63
19.36
19.34
19.18
19.41
19.50
19.88
20.43
20.81
20.43
19.18
18.83
18.45
18.75
19.18
19.29
21.01
20.81
20.85
21.19
21.63
21.05
20.86
Vancouver
June 12	
June 19	
June 26	
July 3	
July 10	
July 17	
July 24	
July 31	
August 7	
August 14	
August 21	
August 28	
September 4..
September 11
September 18
September 25
October 2	
October 9	
October 16	
October 23	
October 30	
November 6~.
November 13.
November 20.
November 27
$26.00
24.18
22.50
23.50
22.00
22.50
22.25
20.00
20.00
19.50
19.35
18.25
21.00
20.50
19.85
20.00
18.25
19.00
Calgary
$20.00
22.25
19.49
22.75
24.80
24.71
22.83
20.69
Hi
18.91
18.60
18.55
18.45
18.12
17.91
17.70
17.92
17.73
17.63
16.83
16.91
16.74
16.87
17.00
APPENDIX No. 9
Average Prices for Hogs, December 1st, 1953, to November 30th, 1954
Date
Vancouver
Calgary
Date
Vancouver
Calgary
December 5	
December 12	
December 19	
December 28 to 31.
January 9	
January 16	
January 23	
January 30	
February 6	
February 13	
February 20	
February 27	
March 6	
March 13	
March 20	
March 27 I	
April 3	
April 10	
April 17	
April 24	
May 1	
May 8	
May 15	
May 22	
May 29	
June 5	
$30.50
34.00
33.62
36.35
34.75
33.35
36.40
35.65
35.40
35.40
$28.60
29.60
30.95
31.70
32.00
32.75
33.45
33.30
31.80
33.20
33.80
34.35
33.60
33.65
32.88
34.35
32.45
32.95
33.10
34.42
34.10
33.95
33.31
34.00
33.56
34.00
June 12	
June 19	
June 26	
July 3	
July 10	
July 17	
July 24	
July 31	
August 7	
August 14.	
August 21	
August 28	
September 4..
September 11
September 18
September 25
October 2	
October 9	
October 16.	
October 23	
October 30—.
November 6...
November 13.
November 20.
November 27
$35.40
31.15
31.15
29.90
27.65
27.15
29.27
24.40
25.40
22.65
25.65
$33.75
31.41
29.70
29.06
28.50
28.55
28.40
27.55
25.81
26.46
27.30
26.37
23.87
23.60
23.00
22.79
21.00
21.06
23.25
22.80
20.87
22.30
23.60
23.60
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
APPENDIX No. 10
Dairy Herds and Premises Inspected and Graded under the "Milk Apt"
 from December 1st, 1953, to November 30th, 1954
Z 123
District
Number of
Premises
Visited
Total
Cattle
Total
Cows
Grade of Premises
A
B
C
U
U-Pi
Cariboo
Coast	
Kamloops	
8
35
8
44
207
1,126
425
774
138
647
68
356
3
4
1
5
27
3
24
1
15
1
2
4
Lillooet	
Quesnel	
1
3
Totals	
95
2,532
1,209
8
59
16
7
4
Central British Columbia
Fort Fraser  	
4
14
31
581
17
269
390
1
11
3
5
8
7
1
1
Fort George	
Prince Rupert  _
Smithers 	
19
548
Totals	
37
1,160
676
12
16
7
2
Fraser Valley
Chilliwack	
Coquitlam	
160
26
33
2
4
4,070
543
1,695
39
182
2,537
288
957
25
122
2
1
149
14
33
2
2
2
19
10
41
2
1
33
315
81
3
11
1
1
2
1
8
Delta       	
1
Dewdney	
Greater Vancouver	
Hope  .
2
Kent... 	
2
19
11
42
69
785
306
1,036
49
453
207
681
Langley..  	
Manle Ridee	
Matsqui  	
Mission      —
—
Nicomen	
2
1
33
330
83
60
44
788
10,080
1,540
47
29
546
5,730
1,054
Pitt Meadows   . 	
Richmond  —
Sumas           — 	
12
1
Surrey        	
Totals	
748
21,237
12,725
3
704
3
16
24
Greater Okanagan
Osoyoos	
Shuswap        	
220
40
30
4,643
980
823
2,746
534
483
7
4
3
204
33
25
1
1
3
7
Similkameen      	
i
Totals	
290
6,446
3,763
14
262
1
4
o
Kootenay
Cranbrook	
4
22
17
9
51
248
580
267
410
1,446
167
151
153
63
752
1
3
7
4
2
4
1
32
3
1
7
3
5
1
4
Fernie 	
13
Golden .	
Kaslo   	
6
4
Nelson 	
6
Totals	
103
2,951
1,286
11
43
11
13
29
Northern British Columbia
Atlin
......      |
_
......      |
Peace River
Telegraph Creek	
Totals
Vancouver Island
Alberni |	
Comox	
Cowichan 1 	
19
53
120
68
17
101
596
1,317
3,162
1,828
654
2,908
334
737
1,721
1,060
317
1,755
9
8
36
13
7
53
9
9
8
35
61
29
10
38
13
11
1
2
9
23
Nanaimo	
Newcastle.. 	
Saanich	
Sayward
26
10
Sidney-Gulf Islands	
22
29
634
449
341
244
Sobke-Metchosin	
9
West Coast	
Totals 1	
429
11,548
6,509
144
205
1
79
Grand totals	
1,702      J
45,874
26,168
192
1,289
1
38
43
145
1 Premises ungraded where milk is used for private purposes only.
 Z 124
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 11
Calfhood Vaccinations in Disease-free Areas
Area No. and Area
1. Inonoaklin	
2. Nicola	
3. Cherryville	
4. Alkali Lake-Dog Creek
5. Greater Horsefly	
6. Savona	
7. Nehalliston	
8. South-west Kootenay—
9. Princeton	
10. Powell River	
11. Burton	
12. Squamish	
13. Gulf Islands	
14. Saltspring Island	
15. North-west Kootenay....
16. Southern Interior	
17. Pemberton	
18. Cariboo	
19. McBride .	
20. East Kootenay	
21. Vancouver Island	
22. Kamloops	
Non-area	
Totals	
APPENDIX No. 12
List of Licensees
Stock-dealers
Abbott, W. J. (Abbott & Co.), 436 Sixth Street,
New Westminster.
Adcock, J. F., R.R. 3, Vernon.
Arnold, Ralph G. (Pete), Box 938, Salmon Arm.
Baird & Co. Ltd. (nominees, T. H. Baird and
A. E. McClary), foot of Fraser Street, Vancouver 15.
Baird, J. K., c/o Baird &Co., Vancouver.
Baker, H, & Son (nominees, Horace Baker and
Herbert Baker), 515 East Tenth Avenue, Vancouver.
Baker, Roger, Loon Lake, Clinton.
Barry, D. T., 9526 Wilson Road, R.R. 7, New
Westminster.
Boulton, Eric D., Gabriola.
Bulman, Jos. O., Claresholm, Alta.
B.C. Live Stock Producers' Co-operative Association (nominees, J. F. Guichon and R. Y.
Devick), Drawer 420, Kamloops.
B.C. Live Stock Producers' Co-operative Association (nominees, R. Hill, Lumby, and K. R.
Chowen, Vancouver), foot of Fraser Street,
Vancouver 15.
Brisbin, J. H. (see Seed & Pitts).
Bryde, Henry, 1492 Duncan Road, R.R. 11, New
Westminster.
Bryde, J. H. (see Slomen & Bryde)
Busch, Wm. E., Ta Ta Creek.
Butterworth, Ernest, 471 Victoria Street, Kamloops.
Butterworth, Fred, Box 437, Kamloops.
Cameron, O. W., Pincher Creek, Alta.
Campbell, E. D., 141 Third Avenue, Kamloops.
Cariboo Cattlemen's Association (nominees, E. C.
Leavitt and C. (Slim) Dorin), Williams Lake.
Carson, E. W., 1590 Howes Road, R.R. 1, Alder-
grove.
Central Department Store Ltd. (nominees, P.
Prestwich and R. C. Pomeroy), Fort St. John.
Chung, Henry Y., 350 Island Highway, Victoria.
Circle "S" Cattle Co. Ltd. (nominees Miss B. E.
Spencer and V. Spencer), Marine Building, 355
Burrard Street, Vancouver, and Dog Creek.
Creasey, C. R., Vanderhoof.
Currie, Jas. Douglas, Princeton.
Davidoff (Sr.), N. N., Pincher Creek, Alta.
Davidson, C. E., County Line P.O.
Dawson Creek Co-operative Shipping Association
(nominees, E. Wilson and M. McQueen), Box
2170, Dawson Creek.
De Leenheer, Jos. U., R.R. 3, Vernon.
Diamond "S" Ranch Ltd. (nominees, V. Spencer
and C. B. Erickson), Marine Building, 355
Burrard Street, Vancouver, and Lytton.
Doney, Albert, Mount Newton Cross-road, Saan-
ichton P.O.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
Z 125
APPENDIX No. \2—Continued
List of Licensees—Continued
Stock-dealers—Continued
Doney, O. T., Cowichan Station, V.I.
Duncan, George, Box 404, New Denver.
Eales, Reginald, 1036 Twentieth Avenue, Calgary, Alta.
Estrin, Harry, 1825 West Fourteenth Avenue,
Vancouver.
Edwards, L. G., R.R. 4, Vernon.
Evans, Frank, Box 177, Armstrong.
Fainstein, Harry, 6064 Cambie Street, Vancouver.
Fitzpatrick, Edward F., Buffalo Creek.
Flock, Ben, Route 1, Box 51, Oroville, Wash.
Frolek, Chas., Box 188, Kamloops.
Frost Auctions Ltd. (nominees, Gowing Frost
and Stacy G. Frost), Langley.
Fisher, Milton D., Glen Lake, V.I.
Furgason, A. W., General Delivery, Abbotsford.
Gallagher, H. H., Spences Bridge.
Gibson, J. and J. B. (trading under the name of
Gibson's), Langley.
Green, J. H., Box 275, Salmon Arm.
Haines, A. E., R.R. 1, Abbotsford.
Haslam, John A., R.R. 2, Nanaimo.
Hassen, Mat, & Sons (nominees, Mat Hassen and
Mat S. Hassen), Armstrong.
Hay Bros, (nominees, K. A. Hay and Wm. A.
Hay), 1598 South-east Marine Drive, Vancouver.
Hogg, Geo. M., Lakes Road, Duncan, V.I.
Hogg, R., Agassiz.
Holmes, Harold, R.R. 3, Nanaimo.
Hopkins (Jr.), Wm. O., Salmon Arm.
Hook, Reg, R.R. 1, Kamloops.
Horton, Richard L., and Frayn, C. (carrying on
business under the firm-name of Vancouver
Dairy Cattle Sales & Exchange), 1753 Westminster Highway, Lulu Island.
Hoy, Foster, 545 Johnston Road, R.R. 14, New
Westminster.
Hubbard, H. W., 1242 Cordova Bay Road, Victoria.
Hunt, S. E. (Hunt's Auction Marts), 3100 Twenty-
ninth Avenue, Vernon.
Hyndman, Allan W., Box 2018, Skaha Lake,
Penticton.
Jackson, Geo. P., R.R. 2, Salmon Arm.
J. Brothers (nominees, J. MacKie and J. Azanza),
2584 Yale Road, Langley.
Johnston, S. S., Salmon Arm.
Johnstone, C. C, 12 Williams Road North, Chilliwack.
Kamloops Livestock Co. (nominees, L. Turcott
and A. Pickard), 289 First Avenue, Kamloops.
Klassen, M., Sardis.
Klontz, Wm., Box 351, Abbotsford.
Kohler, Herman, R.R. 2, Duncan.
Lanyon, Paul, Courtenay.
Lock, Arthur, R.R. 4, Victoria.
Lock, W. H., Sooke Road, Glen Lake P.O.
Loudon, Frank R., Oroville, Wash.
Lock, John W., R.R. 1, Chemainus.
Langton, Jas. C, Clinton.
McCook, Lewis, 130 Ninth Avenue North-west,
Calgary, Alta.
McGrath, F. J., 1925 Erskine Road, Victoria.
MacFarlane, J. B., Dawson Creek.
Mackenzie, C. A., Tulameen.
MacLaren, D. A. {see Werner & MacLaren).
McPherson, A. H., 3917 Cedar Hill Cross-road,
Victoria.
Maki, W. O., R.R. 1, Nanaimo. §
Marshall, M. W., R.R. 2, Box 252, Kelowna.
Martens, A. A., Box 27, Yarrow.
Meltzer, Nat, 2575 West Eighteenth Avenue,
Vancouver 8.
Merin, Max, 622 East Georgia Street, Vancouver 4.
Miller, Jos. Dale, Falkland.
Miller, Trios. A., Williams Lake.
Mission Meat Ltd. (nominees, F. A. Johnstone
and J. A. Campbell), Box 536, Mission.
Murray, F. J., Salmon Arm.
Murphy, W. P., Enderby.
Neal (Sr.), Robt. E., Nespelem, Wash.
Nobbs, F. C, Dawson Creek.
No well, Geo. I., R.R. 1, Agassiz.
Nikkels, B. F., R.R. 2, Victoria.
Okanogan Livestock Market (nominees, O. Ru-
bert and A. Stookey), Okanogan, Wash.
Pender graft, T. W., Osoyoos.
Phillips, T. F., 32, 1490 Laburnum, Vancouver.
Placsko, F., Creston.
Poohachoff (Sr.), John, Rossland.
Poplack, Max, 561 West Twenty-sixth Avenue,
Vancouver 9.
Powick, John, Box 144, Kelowna.
Prince, Louis, Oroville, Wash.
Pulver, W. G., Williams Lake.
Salmon Arm Meat & Produce Co. Ltd. (nominees,
G. Askew, Salmon Arm, and D. Askew, Kamloops), Salmon Arm.
Saville, Jos. L., R.R. 2, Duncan.
Schamp, Albert, Rayleigh Mount.
Schneider, Harry H. (trading under the firm-name
of Mission Auction Stables), Mission City.
Seed & Pitts Packers Ltd. (nominees, J. H. Bris-
bin and A. F. Pitts), 430 East Eighth. Avenue,
New Westminster.
Shannon, A. M., R.R. 3, Vernon.
Sheline, A., 2181 West Eighteenth Avenue, Vancouver.
Sheline, Geo. A., Box 147, Kamloops.
Slomen, Harry, and Bryde, J. H., 333 East Hastings Street, Vancouver 4.
Smith, J. H., Matsqui.
Smith, Jas. A. (carrying on business under the
firm-name of Alexander & Smith Cattle Co.),
Kamloops.
Smith, Frank E. M., Osoyoos.
Snider, Harry, 3614 Seventh "A" Street West,
Calgary, Alta.
 Z 126
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 12—Continued
List of Licensees—Continued
Stock-dealers—Continued
Staffen, John F., Berry Road, R.R. 2, Langley.
Stein, J. (nominees, Jos. Stein and David Stein),
3216 West Seventh Avenue, Vancouver.
Steiner, Edward, 2599 West Thirty-seventh Avenue, Vancouver 13.
Striegler, Robt, Riske Creek.
Stuby, R. G., Fort St. John.
Swanton, G. C, Duncan.
Thomas, Dan, Stelly's Cross-road, R.R. I Saan-
ichton.
Todd, Douglas H., General Delivery, Kelowna.
Tweddle, H. T., Cawston.
Warner, Wm. H.,  453  East Thirtieth Avenue,
Vancouver 10.
Watson, Jos. J., Smithers.
Weightman, Harold, Birch Island.
Wellman, John J. E., R.R. 4, Langley.
Werner, Adolph, and MacLaren, D. A., 425 No
5 Road, Lulu Island, R.R., Vancouver
White, L. F., Oliver.
Wiley, R. W., & Sons (nominees, R. W. Wiley
and A. J. Wiley), Burns Lake.
Wingerd, Curt G., Cloverdale.
Wosk, Bill, 1170 Howe Street (rear), Vancouver 1.
Wosk, Morris, 722 Trans-Canada Highway West
Chilliwack.
Wragg, A. N., Dawson Creek.
Wrayton, A., 2027 Old McClellan Road, Cloverdale, Surrey Centre P.O.
Slaughter-house Operators
Adshead, H., R.R. 1, Ladysmith.
Alberta Meat Co. Ltd., Box 460, Vancouver.
Allertson, Chris, Bella Coola.
Bailey, Mrs. M., and Fraitzl, M., Nakusp.
Borsato, Mario, Trans-Canada Highway, R.R. 7,
Langley.
Burns & Co. Ltd., foot of Woodland Drive, Vancouver 6.
Butler, E. A., R.R. 1, Abbotsford.
Canada Packers Ltd., 750 Terminal Avenue, Vancouver.
Cariboo Cold Storage Ltd., Williams Lake.
Central Department Store Ltd., Fort St. John.
Circle "S" Cattle Co. Ltd., Dog Creek.
City Supermarket Ltd., 930 Rossland Avenue,
Trail.
Clappison Packers Ltd., Haney.
Cohrs, F. and W. (Fleetwood Cold Storage), 346
Pike Road, R.R. 5, New Westminster.
Crown Market, Grand Forks.
Cuthill, E. F., Fort St. John.
Dauncey, W. S. (carrying on business under the
firm-name of Wilcock's Market), Box 1022,
Courtenay.
De Leenheer, Jos. U., R.R. 3, Vernon.
Diamond "S" Ranch Ltd., Pavilion.
Doney, Albert, Mount Newton Cross-road, Saan-
ichton.
Doney, O. T., Cowichan Station, V.I.
Douglas Lake Cattle Co. Ltd., Douglas Lake.
Duncan, Geo., New Denver.
Enderby Meat & Lockers Ltd. (C. Horrex), En-
derby.
Fardal, O., Quesnel.
Gaven, Richard, R.R. 4, Vernon.
Fisher, M. D., Glen Lake, V.I.
Gordon Meat Market Ltd., 425 Bernard Avenue,
Kelowna.
Gosse Cold Storage Ltd., 1395 Fourth Avenue,
Prince George.
Hanson, Emil, Nakusp.
Hill, L. L., Quesnel.
Hoy, Foss, 545 Johnston Road, R.R. 14, New
Westminster.
Hubbard, H. W., 1242 Cordova Bay Road, Victoria.
Hunniford, P. C, 333 Kirkbride Road, R.R. 7,
New Westminster.
J. Brothers, 2584 Yale Road, Langley.
Jones, E. L., R.R. 4, Langley.
Johnstone, C. C, 12 Williams Street North, Chilliwack.
Kamloops Meat Co. (registered), Box 437, Kamloops.
Kingsley, W. J. (Delta Cold Storage), Box 42,
Ladner.
Klontz, Wm., R.R. 1, Abbotsford.
Kohler, H., R.R. 2, Duncan.
Ladner Meat Co. Ltd., Ladner.
Lafond, Jos. T. (Lawrence Meat Market), Dawson Creek.
Lock, J. W., R.R. 1, Chemainus.
McGivern, B., R.R. 3, Cloverdale.
McLeod's Meats Ltd., 2129 Bose Road, Cloverdale.
McGrath, F. J., 1925 Erskine Road, Victoria.
Maki, W. O., R.R. 1, Nanaimo.
Marshall, M. W., R.R. 2, Box 252, Kelowna.
Martens, A. A., Box 27, Yarrow.
Marriott, T. W., Kaleden.
Mouat Bros. Ltd., Ganges.
Nelmes, W. B. (Rosedale Meat Locker Service),
Rosedale.
Nikkels, B. F., R.R. 2, Victoria.
Northern Meats, Dawson Creek.
Pacific Meat Co. Ltd., 8950 Shaughnessy Street,
Vancouver.
Powick, John, Box 144, Kelowna.
Pratt, Ernest, Thrums.
Pym, W. J., 683 Pacific Highway, R.R. 3, Cloverdale.
Quist, C. J., Westholme.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
APPENDIX No. 12—Continued
List of Licensees—Continued
Slaughter-house Operators—Continued
Z 127
Quesnel Packing Co. Ltd., Quesnel.
Rutland Lockers Ltd., Rutland.
Salmon Arm Meat & Produce Co. Ltd., Salmon
Arm.
Saville, J. L., R.R. 2, Duncan.
Schulz, H. H., Black Creek, V.I.
Seed & Pitts Packers Ltd., Pitt Meadows.
Shepherd, S., R.R. 2, Cloverdale.
Skov, Sam, Otter Road South, R.R. 3, Alder-
grove.
Smith, D. D., Huntingdon.
Spittal, David, Dawson Creek.
St. Dennis, R. L., Pouce Coupe.
Stuby, R. G., Fort St. John.
Swift Canadian Co. Ltd., New Westminster.
Talarico, A. and G. (Valley Market), Grand
Forks.
Tenbaum, S. (Caribou Meat Packing Co.), Prince
George.
Vecchio, J. B. (Fairway Meat Market), 384
Baker Street, Nelson.
Walkley, Mrs. Louise, Cranbrook. H
Watson, G. H., 325 Wells Road, R.R. 4, Sardis.
Weymouth, A. T., Matsqui.
White, L. F. (carrying on business under the firm-
name of Quality Meats & Lockers), Oliver.
Whitelock, Leo (Liberty Meat Department), Nelson.
Wrayton, A., 2027 Old McLellan Road, Surrey
Centre P.O.
Hide-dealers
Adirim, N., Nanaimo.
Allertson, C, Bella Coola.
Armstrong's Department Store Ltd., Merritt.
Bailey, Mrs. M., and Fraitzl, M., Nakusp.
Barazzuol, P. (agent for Bissinger & Co.), Vancouver.
Belshaw, D., Merritt.
Biddlecombe, G. I., Kimberley.
Bissinger & Co., P.O. Box 1005, Vancouver.
Bradley, L. S. (trading under the name of Bradley's Meat Market), 516 Baker Street, Nelson.
Burns & Co. Ltd., foot of Woodland Drive, Vancouver 6.
Cariboo Cattlemen's Association, Williams Lake.
Carr, G. H., Creston.
Chung, H. Y., 530 Island Highway, Victoria.
Compeau, H. E. (trading under the name of
Johnson's Meat Market), Osoyoos.
Creston Valley Co-operative Association, Creston.
Dillabough, Geo., R.R. 1, Kamloops.
Enderby Meat & Lockers Ltd., Enderby.
Fisher, M. D., Glen Lake, V.I.
Fruitvale Locker Storage Ltd., Fruitvale.
Gammie, Alex., Lytton.
Gordon, Ben (carrying on business under the firm-
name of Gordon's Salvage & Trading Co.), 730
Yale Road West, Chilliwack.
Gosse Cold Storage Ltd., 1395 Fourth Avenue,
Prince George.
Halford Hide & Fur Co. Ltd., 10509 One Hundred and Fifth Avenue, Edmonton, Alta.
Harper, Jas. (agent for J. E. Love & Sons, Calgary), Nakusp.
Hawker, Geo. R., Vanderhoof.
Henderson, R. B. (agent for Martin & Stewart
(B.C.) Ltd.), 126 West Third Avenue, Vancouver.
Hendry, Edward (Greenwood Meat Market),
Greenwood.
Henson, Robt. A. (carrying on business under the
firm-name of Creston Valley Lockers), Creston.
Hocksteiner, Wm. (carrying on business under
the firm-name of Pioneer Meat Market),
Osoyoos.
Inouye, T. (Vernon Tanning & Manufacturing
Co.), Vernon.
Ironside, G. R. (agent for J. E. Love & Sons),
Box 233, Calgary, Alta.
J. Brothers, 2584 Yale Road, Langley.
Jones, E. L., R.R. 4, Langley Prairie.
Kamloops Meat Co. (registered), Box 437, Kamloops.
Lauren, John (carrying on business under the
firm-name of Armstrong Lockers), Box 370,
Armstrong.
Lafond, Jos. T. (carrying on business under the
firm-name of Lawrence Meat Market), Dawson
Creek.
Leckie, J., Co. Ltd., 220 Cambie Street, Vancouver.
Love, J. E., & Sons, 405 Fourth Street East,
Calgary, Alta.
McClounie's Department Store, Falkland.
McLeod's Meats Ltd., 2129 Bose Road, Cloverdale.
McMynn, C. G., Ltd., Midway.
Marshall, M. W., R.R. 2, Kelowna.
Martin & Stewart (B.C.) Ltd., 126 West Third
Avenue, Vancouver.
Mead, T. R. (agent for Halford Hide & Fur Co.
Ltd.), Edmonton, Alta.
Meehan, L. O. (Meehan's Meat Market), Revel-
stoke.
Miner, M. (agent for Bissinger & Co.), Vancouver.
Mouat Bros. Ltd., Ganges.
Northern Meats, Dawson Creek.
Palmer, Thos. H., Barriere.
Paris Tannery Ltd., 51 West Hastings Street,
Vancouver.
Parker, R. G. (agent for A. Wyman & Co.),
Edmonton, Alta.
 Z 128
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 12—Continued
List of Licensees—Continued
Hide-dealers—Continued
Pinko, R. P., R.R. I Prince George.
Pratt, E., Thrums.
Quesnel Packing Co. Ltd., Quesnel.
Rebagliati, Geo. A., Lytton.
Reber, U.,  13815 Hjorth Road, R.R.   13, New
Westminster.
Reinertson, C. W., R.R. 1, Summerland.
Salmon Arm Meat & Produce Co. Ltd., Salmon
Arm.
Schulz, H. H., Black Creek, V.I.
Scott, Robt. (carrying on business under the firm-
name of Union Meat Market), 197 Victoria
Street, Kamloops.
Simpson & Lea, 708 Centre Street, Calgary, Alta.
Spittal, David, Dawson Creek.
St. Dennis, R. L., Pouce Coupe.
Staples, Jas. (carrying on business under the firm-
name of Maple Leaf Meat Market), Armstrong.
Stuby, R. G., Fort St. John.
Uptigrove, R. H., 3911 Grandview Hiehw™
North Burnaby. * way'
Vecchio, J. B. (Fairway Meat Market, agent for
J. E. Love & Sons, Calgary), Nelson.
Vernon Locker Service & Meats Ltd., Vernon.
Wall, J. F., Burns Lake.
Watson, J. J., Smithers.
Weightman, H. (agent for J. E. Love & Sons
Calgary), Birch Island. '
Wheeler, O., Rock Creek.
White, L. F. (carrying on business under the firm-
name of Quality Meats & Lockers), Oliver.
Wilson, S. A. (Princeton Meat Market), Princeton.
Wosk, Morris (agent for Martin & Stewart (B.C.)
Ltd.), 722 Trans-Canada Highway West, Chilliwack.
Wyman, A., & Co., 10529 One Hundred and Fifth
Avenue, Edmonton, Alta.
Beef-peddlers
Brook, Thos. Wm., Box 75, Chase.
Bailey, Mrs. M., and Fraitzl, M., Nakusp.
Cariboo Meat Packing Co. Ltd., Box 97, Prince
George.
De Leenheer, Jos. U., R.R. 3, Vernon.
Duncan, Geo., New Denver.
Gordon, L., Castlegar.
Marriott, T. W., Kaleden.
Pratt, E., Thrums.
Sheline, G., Kamloops.
Shoaf, W. B., Parson.
Washtock, Q. R., North Bend.
Weightman, H., Birch Island.
Horse-slaughterers
Avis, Harold, Perry Siding, Appledale P.O.
Butler, E. A., R.R. 1, Abbotsford.
Dawson, Robt., R.R. 2, Kelowna.
Fuller, D., R.R. 2, Salmon Arm.
Gregory, A. K., 675 Young Street South, Chilliwack.
Hosko, A., Natal.
Hoy, Foss, R.R. 14, New Westminster.
Jacobsen, E. J., Haney.
Jonson, Axel, Dewdney Fur Farm, Dewdney.
Joiner, Chas. J., 325 Chilliwack River Road,
R.R. 2, Sardis.
Makow, M., 915 Happy Valley Road, R.R. 1,
Victoria.
Morris, A. W. E., R.R. 1, Winfield. S
Reese, R. W., Sorrento.
Staffen, J. F., R.R. 2, Langley Prairie.
Turner, Geo. T., R.R. 2, Salmon Arm.
Vancouver Rendering Co. Ltd., 1178 River Road,
Lulu Island.
Yerbury, Fred C, Kimberley.
Yerbury, J. H., Lister.
Horse-meat Dealers (for Animal-food)
Allison, Robt. and Barnett, Keremeos.
Butler, E. A., R.R. 1, Abbotsford.
Carson, Ed W., R.R. 1, Abbotsford.
Hoy, Foss, 545 Johnston Road, R.R.  14, New
Westminster.
Makow, M., 915 Happy Valley Road, R.R.  1,
Victoria.
Staffen, J. F., R.R. 2, Langely Prairie.
Uptigrove,   R.   H.,   3911   Grandview Highway,
North Burnaby. ,
Vancouver Rendering Co. Ltd., 1178 River Road,
Lulu Island.
Horse-meat Dealers (for Human Consumption)
Best-bi Food Co, 633 East Hastings Street, Van-     Tracy,   Glenn  E,   1891   Buller Avenue,
couver- Burnaby.
South
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
APPENDIX No.  12—Continued
List of Licensees—Continued
Permit to Transport Horses for Range Purposes
Z 129
Alkali Lake Ranch Ltd, Alkali Lake.
Bostock, Brigadier W. N, Pritchard.
Bostock Ranch Ltd, Monte Lake.
Bowers, G. J, Kamloops.
Bulman, T. A, Kamloops.
Cariboo Land & Cattle Co, Hanceville.
Cecil, Lord Martin, 100 Mile House.
Circle "S" Cattle Co. Ltd, Dog Creek.
Coldstream Ranch Ltd, Vernon.
Coldwell, H. W, Jesmond.
Conner, N. E, Heffley Creek.
Cooper, A. B, Invermere.
Corbould, D, Rayleigh.
Devick, F. A, Heffley Creek.
Devick, R. Y, Heffley Creek.
Dorrell, D. C, Clinton.
Douglas Lake Cattle Co. Ltd, Douglas Lake.
Duck, R. M, Kamloops.
Elkhorn Ranch Ltd, Windermere.
Fetterly, V, Okanagan Falls.
Foley Bros, Brigade Lake.
Forestry Division (C. R. Mills), Nelson.
Frolek Ranch & Sawmills Ltd, Kamloops.
Furiak, Mike, Knutsford.
Gottfriedsen, August (Indian), Kamloops.
Guichon Cattle Co. Ltd, The, Quilchena.
Horn, W, and Eden, D, 70 Mile House.
Hepburn, J, Chase.
Hysop, Geo. W. D, Chase.
Kamloops Livestock Co, Kamloops.
Kerr, A. H, Clinton.
Lauder, J. W, Quilchena.
Morrison, S. B, Knutsford.
Nicola Lake Stock Farm Ltd, Nicola.
Palmer, W. A, Heffley Creek.
Parke, P. A, Cache Creek.
Pollard, J. H, Clinton.
St. Joseph's Mission, Williams Lake.
Steffens, R, Merritt.
Sutton, F. N, Williams Lake.
Thorlakson, T. A, Vernon.
Walker, B. J, Oliver.
Watt, J. D, Jesmond.
Wolstenholme, R, Okanagan Falls.
Wotzke, H, Williams Lake.
Permit to Transport Stallions for Breeding Purposes
Lloyd, W, Port Coquitlam.
 Z 130
BRITISH COLUMBIA
District
Cariboo—
Williams Lake   iz,wi
Alexis Creek, Quesnel, Soda Creek,
Lac la Hache, Clinton, 100 Mile
House, Graham Siding      8,101
Lillooet, Pavilion, Bridge Lake, Lone
Butte        1 >952
Bella Coola     	
APPENDIX No.  13
Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1954
Cattle    Hides
563
Kamloops, Nicola, etc.—
Kamloops,  Chase    14,216
Nicola       9,142
Ashcroft, Lytton, etc     5,117
Salmon Arm         837
Similkameen—
Princeton, Keremeos, etc.    2,748
Grand Forks, Greenwood        932
865
84
57
22,684      1,569
1,446
355
156
896
29,312     2,853
159
921
District
Central British Columbia—
Prince George, Vanderhoof
Smithers, etc 	
Burns Lake 	
Cattle
Okanagan—
Vernon, Lumby 	
Armstrong, Enderby .....
Kelowna 	
Penticton, Summerland
Oliver, Osoyoos  ..
South-eastern British Columbia-
Rossland, Crescent Valley	
Nelson, Creston, etc	
Cranbrook, Fernie, etc	
Invermere,  Golden 	
Peace River—
Fort St. John .
Dawson Creek
Hides
1,778
409
453
1,526
104
5
2,640
1,635
3,303
2,578
2,077
669
3,380
1,616
542
2,554
153
680
12,007
5,545
262
835
3,342
1,105
950
823
1,128
252
5,544
3,153
141
3,626
371
2,027
3,680      1,080
3,767    2,398
Totals Compared
District
1954
Cattle
Hides
1953
Cattle
Hides
1952
Cattle
Hides
Cariboo and South	
Kamloops and Nicola	
Okanagan and Similkameen	
South-eastern British Columbia	
Central British Columbia and Peace River
Totals	
22,684
29,312
15,687
5,544
6,407
1,569
2,853
6,625
3,153
4,033
79,634
18,233
16,784
24,653
13,598
4,392
3,992
969
2,443
5,777
3,539
4,537
63,419
17,265
19,295
20,679
9,934
2,739
2,727
55,374
981
1,836
4,990
3,241
3,210
14,258
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1954
APPENDIX No. 14
Southern Interior Stockmen's Association Cattle Sale, September 1st, 1954
Kind
Head
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Steers	
Cows	
Registered cows—
Heifers	
Vaccinated heifers.
Calves	
Bulls	
Club calves	
Open singles	
Totals	
257
141
6
82
8
77
14
6
1
$19.35
11.75
12.00
16.00
14.25
19.10
13.60
30.50
25.00
$6.60
4.75
12.00
10.85
14.25
13.75
10.25
25.00
25.00
592
$16.10
9.21
12.00
14.69
14.25
17.25
12.22
26.83
25.00
Second Sale, October 27th, 1954
Steers	
Heifers	
Baby beef.	
Calves	
Stags	
Cows	
Bulls	
Registered bulls
Registered cows
Totals..
246
182
16
384
2
162
8
3
1
$20.75
14.75
15.85
16.25
11.00
11.60
10.50
$7.00
8.85
15.85
13.00
11.00
5.00
10.50
1,004
$15.74
12.95
15.85
14.87
11.00
8.16
10.50
Total
Weight
218,445
145,990
6,645
58,920
4,560
26,985
19,750
5,755
1,050
488,100
207,320
126,175
8,335
153,920
2,115
163,395
10,520
671,780
Z 131
Total Price
$35,164.51
13,450.70
797.40
8,655.51
649.80
4,653.72
2,413.94
1,543.99
262.50
$67,592.07
$32,628.15
16,340.82
1,321.10
22,881.81
232.65
13,334.19
1,104.60
1,285.00
180.00
$89,308.32
Eleventh Annual Quesnel Cattle Sale, October 19th, 1954
Kind
Head
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
Weight
Total Price
Steers             	
366
158
119
43
14
197
$18.70
10.00
16.25
9.40
8.70
16.00
$7.50
3.80
10.50
9.30
7.50
11.50
$14.90
7.52
12.65
9.37
8.32
14.29
323,231
174,566
84,502
34,723
14,797
75,498
$48,187.63
13,130.04
10,683.62
3,255.80
1,231.32
10,681.04
Cows 	
Heifers	
Heiferettes. 	
Bulls... 	
Calves     	
Totals 	
897
707,317
1
$87,169.45
 Z 132
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 15
Seventeenth Annual Cariboo Feeder and Fat Cattle Sale and Show,
September 1st, 1954
Kind
Head
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
Weight
Steers	
Cows	
Heiferettes	
Heifers	
Calves	
Bulls	
Bull calf	
Miscellaneous-
Totals
1
,143
474
78
627
454
37
1
20
$35.00
10.35
12.60
14.85
16.00
9.50
10.00
12.25
$10.25
5.50
10.80
11.60
12.50
9.50
10.00
8.00
2,834
$15.89
8.40
11.56
13.18
14.01
9.50
10.00
8.87
974,231
464,694
70,971
402,107
149,082
51,746
407
11,385
Total Price
$154,830.25
39,042.24
8,208.27
53,008.95
20,887.91
4,915.86
40.70
1,010.11
2,124,623
$281,944.29
Second Sale, November 4th, 1954
Steers	
Cows	
Calves	
Bull calves	
Steer calves	
Heifers	
Bulls	
Miscellaneous-
Totals
877
550
292
10
27
586
39
17
$20.10
12.85
16.25
12.00
16.50
15.00
9.50
14.25
$8.50
5.35
8.75
12.00
15.25
10.25
9.00
2.00
2,398
$16.21
9.14
14.42
12.00
15.97
12.75
9.35
7.97
782,442
549,860!
104,194!
4,210
9,583
376,122
53,489
9,140
1,889,040
$126,835.17
50,758.85
15,524.88
505.20
1,530.03
47,949.32
5,001.32
728.96
$248,833.73
1 These figures do not include 6 cow and calf pairs.
B.C. Live Stock Producers' Co-operative Association, Kamloops Auction Sale,
November 18th, 1954
Kind
Head
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
Weight
Total Price
Steers	
249
108
3
89
19
350
301
4
29
4
$18.50
11.10
11.85
14.75
17.35
18.35
15.75
14.50
16.60
10.00
$9.00
5.75
11.85
7.25
8.25
7.35
6.00
14.00
14.00
9.00
$15.33
7.75
11.85
12.71
14.83
16.39
13.83
14.33
14.84
9.51
193,413
110,128
2,860
65,260
5,180
161,560
122,080
970
12,920
5,080
$29,651.30
Cows 	
Heifer cows    	
8,538.38
338.91
Heifers	
Calves.   	
8,297.44
768.39
Steer calves   	
26,479.76
Heifer calves	
16,885.62
Heifer and steer calves	
138.00
Bull calves 	
1,917.07
Bulls.  	
482.90
Totals	
1 1^6
679,451
$93,497.77
■», ■"••■'«
I
 DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE,  1954
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H
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Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1955
760-455-5292
 

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