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Annual Report of the Director of Correction for the YEAR ENDED MARCH 31 1967 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1968

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL
Annual Report
of the
Director of Correction
for the
YEAR ENDED MARCH 31
1967
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1968
  Victoria, B.C., February 7, 1968.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.C, C.B, D.S.O., M.C., CD.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned has the honour to present the Annual Report of the Director
of Correction for the year ended March 31, 1967.
ROBERT W. BONNER,
A ttorney-General.
 Department of the Attorney-General, Corrections Branch,
Vancouver, B.C., November 1, 1967.
The Honourable R. W. Bonner, Q.C.,
Attorney-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Corrections
Branch for the 12 months ended March 31, 1967.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. ROCKSBOROUGH SMITH,
Director of Correction.
J
 DEPARTMENT OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL
CORRECTIONS BRANCH
The Honourable R.W. Bonner, Q.C., Attorney-General.
Gilbert D. Kennedy, Q.C., Deputy Attorney-General.
SENIOR CORRECTIONS ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
S. Rocksborough Smith, Director of Correction and Chief Probation Officer.
M. A. Matheson, Assistant Director of Correction.
C. D. Davidson, Assistant Chief Probation Officer.
HEADQUARTERS STAFF OFFICERS
O. J. Walling,
Personnel and Staff Training Officer.
R. V. McAllister,
Supervisor of Research.
R. G. E. Richmond,
Senior Medical Officer.
Rev. W. D. G. Hollingworth,
Senior Protestant Chaplain.
Rev. T. F. M. Corcoran,
Senior Catholic Chaplain.
W. Lemmon,
Supervisor of Classification.
ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS
R. E. Fitchett (Personnel).   E. M. Pierce (Training).   M. M. Berg (Catering and Services).
GAOL SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
W. H. Mulligan,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
J. Braithwaite,
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution.
H. B. Bjarnason,
Warden, Prince George Gaol.
F. St. John Madeley,
Warden, Alouette River Unit.
V. H. Goad,
Director, New Haven.
W. Scott,
Warden, Kamloops Regional Gaol.
S. A. L. Hamblin,
Warden, Vancouver Island Unit
and Sayward Forest Camps.
G. Chapple,
Deputy Warden in Charge, Chilliwack
Forest Camps.
PROBATION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
M. Armstrong,
Supervisor, Vancouver Region.
A. E. Jones,
Supervisor, Vancouver Island Region.
R. G. McKellar,
Supervisor, Northern Region.
O. E. Hollands,
Supervisor, Fraser Valley Region.
J. Wiebe,
Supervisor, Interior Region.
J. V. Sabourin,
Supervisor, Parole and Special Services.
BRITISH COLUMBIA PAROLE BOARD
F. C. Boyes, Chairman. M. G. Stade, Secretary.
Mrs. T. G. Norris.
Members:
E. Kelly.
O. Orr.
A. Webster.
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 CONTENTS
Page
Chapter I.—Review of the Year. r  11
Chapter II.—Staff and Staff-training  16
1. Headquarters Staff.  16
2. Institutional Staff—Promotions  16
3. Recruitment  16
4. Training—Gaol Service  16
5. Basic Training  16
6. Advanced Training  17
7. Principal Officers' Training.  17
8. Academy Training (Class III)  17
9. Matrons' Workshop  17
10. Instructional Technique Course.  17
_____ Training—Probation Service  17
12. Staff Supervisors' Workshop  17
13. Probation Service Annual Staff Meeting  17
14. Chaplains' Conference  18
15. Vancouver City College Courses in Corrections  18
16. Outside Conferences  18
17. University Educational Assistance  18
18. Staff Training Centre  19
19. Training Cadre  19
20. Summary  19
BRITISH COLUMBIA GAOL SERVICE
Chapter III.—Treatment of Men  20
General  20
1. Population  20
2. Capacity  20
3. Juvenile Admissions  20
4. Security  20
5. Discipline  20
6. Assaults on Staff  21
7. Central Classification  21
Social Education  21
8. General  21
9. Lay Counselling.  22
10. Group Counselling  22
 FF 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Chapter III.—Continued
Social Education—Continued PAGE
11. Academic Training  22
12. Physical Education  23
13. Recreation  24
14. Religious Training  24
Vocational Training  24
15. Vocational Training Programme-  24
Forest Camps  25
16. Organization  25
17. Capacity and Intake  26
18. Economy of Operation  27
19. Objectives  28
20. Techniques  28
21. Achievement  29
Specialized Institutions  31
22. Alouette River Unit  31
Prison Industries and Farm Production  32
Chapter IV.—Treatment of Women  34
General  34
1. Population  3 4
2. Discipline  34
3. Vocational and Technical Training  34
4. Academic  35
5. Physical Education  35
6. Religious Training  3 5
7. Recreation  3 5
8. Group and Lay Counselling  35
9. Community Participation  35
10. Narcotic Drug Research Unit  35
Twin Maples Farm  3 6
11. Twin Maples Farm  36
Chapter V.—Health and Hygiene  37
Excerpts from Senior Medical Officer's Report  37
BRITISH COLUMBIA PROBATION SERVICE
General  41
1. Probation Cases  41
2. Pre-sentence Reports  41
3. Case Loads  41
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1966/67
FF 9
Page
Staff  41
4. Movement  41
5. Training  41
Treatment of Juvenile Delinquency  42
6. Juveniles Placed under Probation Supervision  42
7. Transfers to Adult Court  42
8. Family and Children's Court  42
9. Family Court Committees  43
10. Volunteer Probation Officers  43
New Developments  43
11. Regional Framework  43
12. New Field Office  43
13. Psychiatric Services  43
14. Search and Leadership Training  44
15. Marpole Hostel  44
16. Treatment for Chronic Alcoholics  44
Provisional Probation Offices  45
Probation Statistics  46
APPENDICES
British Columbia Board of Parole Statistics	
Annual Statistical Tables	
49
51
  Annual Report of the Director of Correction
CHAPTER I.—REVIEW OF THE YEAR
Gaol Service
The total admissions to the gaols of the Province from the Courts for the fiscal
year 1966/67 numbered 16,704. This figure is slightly less than last year's. There
were the usual large number of short sentences, chiefly for drunkenness offences.
Over 50 per cent of those sentenced during the year received sentences of 30 days
or less. It is to be hoped that as wider use is made by the Courts of the new legislation providing an indeterminate sentence of up to 12 months for chronic alcoholics,
the number of short sentences will decrease. Many of these sentences represent the
same person returning time and again before the Courts for similar offences—they
provide no useful purpose. Also noted was an appreciable increase in the number
of young adults (18 to 23) received during the year. Many of these were given
definite-indeterminate sentences under section 151 of the Prisons and Reformatories
Act, and those institutions specially set aside for the training of young-adult
prisoners, notably Haney, New Haven, and the Westgate Unit of Oakalla Prison
Farm, were operating to capacity. Special training programmes incorporating
additional academic education and more recreation were set up at Chilliwack Camps
and Vancouver Island Unit, and small numbers of carefully selected definite-
indeterminates were transferred to these institutions.
Within this age span is developing a hard-core group of young recidivists who
have resisted all attempts to bring about any change in their attitude and behaviour.
Those I refer to are youths in their late teens and early twenties who have failed on
probation, frequently been to Brannan Lake School, and perhaps had one or more
periods of training at New Haven or the Haney Correctional Institution without
any apparent positive result. These young adults are well on the way to becoming
persistent offenders, if they are not already so. It is from this group that the
increasing number of assaults on staff are coming, noted further on in this Report,
and the escapes from custody, particularly those where violence was resorted to.
These young men usually end up at the Westgate A Unit at Oakalla after all other
attempts to reach them have failed. It is intended to develop in this unit a reinforcement programme for the Haney Correctional Institution. Those placed in the
programme will have definable goals at various levels placed before them, and they
will be expected to progress step by step to the point where their return to the
Haney Correctional Institution, hopefully with improved attitudes and motovation,
can be recommended. Each stage will carry with it increasing privilege and responsibility. Those who persistently refuse to co-operate will be denied all normal
privileges of association until they are prepared to change their ways. The staff
will be carefully screened and trained for this project and will combine a supportive
role with firmness of control. This programme will come into operation later on in
the year.
Oakalla Prison Farm, which acts as a clearing-house for the Lower Mainland
and Vancouver Island institutions, received a total of 11,478 admissions from the
Courts, or 68 per cent of the Provincial total. Of these, 326 were transferred to
the Penitentiary and 2,125 to other Provincial gaols, correctional institutions, or
camps.
11
 FF 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The processing of these prisoners through the cramped and completely archaic
admissions section of this prison presented an increasingly difficult task for the
small group of well-trained admissions personnel. These officers process 158 individual movements through this section, both in and out, during the course of a
day. This figure represents an 11 per cent increase over last year. How much
longer this operation can go on without serious breakdown is a matter of conjecture.
Another area of continuous concern is the increasing number of prisoners
awaiting trial and appeal, and the length of their waiting periods. At Oakalla Prison
this group amounts at any one time to over 20 per cent of the total population of
the prison. At the women's unit the percentage is even higher, reaching almost one-
third of the total population. Many of these prisoners are awaiting trial on very
serious charges or appealing long Penitentiary sentences. The two wings used for
these security risks in the men's gaol and the section for waiting trial in the women's
unit are quite unsuited to their task. There is no provision for any indoor association or activity, and the prisoners are forced to spend most of their time locked in
cells. The tension and sense of frustration which builds up under these conditions
frequently show themselves in outbursts of hostility or self-inflicted injury.
During the course of the year under review, some 134 self-inflicted injuries
were reported. Sixty-nine per cent of the prisoners involved in this behaviour were
from the waiting-trial or appeal group. While many of the injuries were manipulative attempts to gain attention and were not serious attempts at self-destruction,
six were successful suicides. How many more would have been successful but for
the vigilance of the staff is impossible to say.
What this does point up is the vital need for proper up-to-date secure facilities
for the increasing number of " waiting " prisoners, many of whom are under severe
stress and tension as they approach their trial or are faced with lengthy Penitentiary
sentences. Such accommodation should include proper facilities for their association together, more time out of their cells, provision for indoor exercise, adequate
library facilities, improved visiting amenities, and some facility to enable them to
prepare for their trial or appeal. The amount of publicity given these acts of self-
injury by the press added to the difficulty of the staff in controlling them. It is a fact
that acts of self-destruction are contagious and easily triggered by suggestion. The
irresponsibility evidenced by some of those who write about these tragic happenings
much as if they were describing a Roman circus, with inference and innuendo that
the staff are callous, incompetent, and unconcerned, is a matter of deep concern to
the administrators charged with the responsibility of releasing information to the
news media. While this type of journalism provides sensational and no doubt
attractive reading to the more morbidly inclined, it does not represent the true facts,
is far from objective, and in the end can only cause irreparable harm.
Lack of facilities for the observation and treatment of mentally disturbed prisoners was noted in my last report. There is no doubt that the provision of a psychiatric ward, adequately staffed with trained professionals, would go a long way
toward relieving the pressure on the severely depressed and emotionally damaged
prisoner. As has been mentioned previously, many of these are not truly psychotic
and therefore not commitable under the Mental Health Act. None the less, they do
require special treatment away from the stress and strain of life in a large prison, at
least for a period, in order to regain their equilibrium and sense of direction.
During the year a small observation unit was established in the tower of the main
gaol where the more obviously depressed and suicidal prisoners could be placed
under 24-hour observation. This undoubtedly prevented further acts of self-injury
and destruction, but, due to the limitation of space and staffing, it was not possible
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1966/67 FF 13
to provide the creative type of diversionary activity which people in this state require
to support them, often over prolonged periods. It is notable that the type of behaviour evidenced among the waiting-trial prisoners at Oakalla was not noted in the
small gaols holding waiting-trial and appeal prisoners elsewhere in the Province.
There is little doubt that the size and poor physical facilities of this large outmoded
gaol have contributed a great deal to this, and to many other problems, in spite of
the best effort's of the staff to counteract them.
Attention is directed again this year to the large turnover of Security Officers,
particularly at Oakalla Prison Farm. As has been frequently emphasized, this institution is the most difficult to staff, accommodating as it does a large number of
remand prisoners, prisoners awaiting classification to other institutions, sentenced
maximum-security prisoners, narcotic addicts, and young-adult recidivists who have
been returned to Oakalla as a result of misconduct elsewhere. The pressures placed
upon the basic grade officer are many—pressures of security and safe custody, the
continual threat of violence and attack, the lack of adequate facilities, and the conditions of work, frequently involving night and week-end duty. Coupled with this is
the fact that the Security Officer in this institution does not have the satisfaction of
getting to know his charges as many are transferred elsewhere following classification, and only the more recalcitrant or those with short sentences remain. The result
of this situation is that in spite of an on-going programme of staff-training, it has not
been possible to keep up with the separations, and there is always a lack of trained
and experienced Security Officers at the institution housing the most difficult and
dangerous prisoners. Until we are able to pay salaries to basic-grade staff comparable to those paid municipal police officers, we shall, I am afraid, continue to lose
good well-trained officers to less demanding and less hazardous employment elsewhere. I am happy to be able to report that the turnover of more senior and supervisory positions in this and other institutions throughout the Gaol Service has been
surprisingly light.
The only increase in physical accommodation this year was the new camp for
women at Twin Maples Farm, Ruskin. It is intended to utilize this facility for the
treatment of female alcoholics.
The Chilliwack Camps continued their programme of planned replacement of
old and worn-out buildings. A complete new replacement camp was constructed
and ready for occupancy this summer.
A number of planning sessions were held with architects of the Department of
Public Works to discuss the proposed regional gaol for Vancouver Island, to be
located at Saltair near Ladysmith.
No progress was made toward developing the accommodation or services at
the Alouette River Unit for chronic alcoholics.
The reconstruction of the buildings at the former naval ammunition depot site,
north of Kamloops, to provide a temporary gaol to replace the old Kamloops Gaol
built in 1897, continued. These wooden buildings, when completed, will provide
increased accommodation of a temporary nature until such time as a permanent gaol
can be constructed on the property.
Work on the addition to the Prince George Gaol continued, and the beginnings
of a camp have been made at Hutda Lake with buildings acquired from the Forest
Service. Funds are available for a 60-man camp at this location, and it is hoped
they will be released to enable construction to proceed in the spring.
The most pressing need at the present time is a remand prison for the Lower
Mainland to relieve Oakalla. What is required is a prison designed to accommodate
all prisoners awaiting trial or on remand from Courts in the Lower Mainland, along
 FF 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
with a reception and classification centre for all sentenced prisoners in this area.
Oakalla could then remain a maximum-security prison for a manageable group of
security prisoners and continue its role as a medical centre.
Probation Service
Your attention is drawn to the steadily increasing use being made of probation.
A substantial gain of 20 per cent is noted over last year's figure. The graph, in the
Appendix to this Report, showing the increase of probation cases in comparison
with the daily average population of the Provincial prisons, illustrates the effect expanding probation services are having on the gaol population. There can be no
doubt that had it not been for this expansion the gaol population for the Province
would be considerably higher than it is. In view of the current situation with respect
to available institutional accommodation, it is fortunate that it was not subjected to
any further pressure.
There is no indication that we have reached a saturation point where further
expansion of probation would be unwise. On the contrary, there would appear to
be every reason to believe that we could continue to expand our services with
expectation of success at least equal to that which we have achieved to date. A
recent study completed by the classification intake section, utilizing base expectancy
rates to the inmate intake of the Haney Correctional Institution, for a six-month
period indicated that an appreciable number of young-adult offenders were being
committed who would have had a reasonable probability for success on probation
in the community, if given adequate supervision by a Probation Officer. As our
fastest-growing inmate group is in the young-adult offender category—an increase
of 66 per cent in the past five years—we cannot afford to ignore probation as an
alternative to committal to an institution. In the older-adult field we have only
touched upon the use that could be made of probation, for of the year's total cases
only 11 per cent were over 25 years of age.
To increase our service we would require considerably more trained staff. The
present average case load per officer is 54. This number has been steadily rising
until it has reached a level where additional cases could well adversely affect the
standard of supervision. Efforts to recruit Probation Officers resulted in 20 Probation Officers-in-training taking the 16-week orientation course. All but two successfully passed. However, during the course of the year we lost 14 officers through
resignation. As the selection and training of a Probation Officer represents a substantial investment, we can ill afford such losses. A study of the apparent reason
for the number of separations indicated that our salary structure was not sufficiently
competitive with other comparable services, and that we were losing many experienced officers to such Federal Government agencies as the National Parole Service
and Man Power Counselling Services. It was not that our starting salary was insufficient, but that the salary structure did not offer sufficient promotional opportunity
for the trained officer with two or more years' service. The basic issue that must be
faced is whether this Province is going to attempt to deal with more offenders in the
community by developing a strong well-trained Probation Service capable of handling a larger proportion of those coming before the Courts, or whether we are going
to embark on a large prison building programme involving millions of dollars. If
the former course is to be pursued, then the current separation rate in the Probation
Service must be curtailed. Here salary increases and greater promotional opportunity appear as the key factors. A proposal to correct this situation is currently before
the Civil Service Commission. There is no doubt that an increasing use of probation
would bring about a direct and immediate saving to the Province.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1966/67 FF 15
A new category of staff, referred to as an Interviewer, has been instituted to
assist the Probation Officer in gathering information; interviewing employers, school
personnel, and agency workers; making routine supervision checks; preparing
statistical reports and so on in an effort to conserve the Probation Officer's time for
those aspects of the work that he alone is trained to undertake. One or two Interviewers are currently being trained to supervise chronic alcoholics who will be
released when the provisions of the Summary Convictions Act Amendment Act,
1966, come into effect.
The proposed House of Concord in Langley, presently being readied for opening in the spring by the Salvation Army, will be a welcome addition to the limited
facilities available in the community for young offenders on probation who have no
homes, or whose homes are such that they must be removed from them. Many of
these youngsters are presently committed to the Brannan Lake School because there
are not sufficient resources of a group-living or hostel nature within the community
to take them.
I would bring to your notice a number of individual projects with which we are
experimenting at the present time:—
(1) The search and leadership training programme, utilizing the challenge of
nature to help build character and develop confidence and initiative and
a better self-image, leading to higher standards, self-sacrifice, and service.
We are planning to establish a permanent basis for this training and hope
to be able to extend the present summer courses to include an all-year-
round programme making use of week-ends and school holidays.
(2) The establishment of a parole unit within the Haney Correctional Institution to facilitate co-ordination of institutional training with release planning, helping to bridge the transitional gap between life in an institution
and community living.
(3) The increasing use being made of voluntary supervision without a Court
order. These are cases that come to the Probation Officer's attention
direct and not as a result of Court action. The statistics indicate that
1,546 such cases were taken on by Probation Officers throughout the
Service during the year.
(4) The development of a core of selected volunteer sponsors in as many
communities as possible to form a nucleus of involved people who are
prepared to assist the Probation Officer in his supervision of young
offenders either on probation or parole.
(5) Involvement with Family and Children's Court Committees. A number
of Probation Officers are deeply involved with Family and Children's
Court Committees, helping to provide them with the facts and figures to
substantiate current trends in the community and point up the need for
additional resources, particularly for youth.
 FF 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
CHAPTER IL—STAFF AND STAFF-TRAINING
1. Headquarters Staff
Dr. M. A. Matheson, Assistant Director of Correction, returned from one
year's leave of absence in February, 1967. Mr. F. St. John Madeley, who was
Acting Assistant Director of Correction during Dr. Matheson's absence, was appointed Warden of the Alouette River Unit.
Mr. D. Chamberlain was promoted through competition from Probation
Officer 1 to Senior Correctional Officer and will assume responsibility for the development of a staff-training academy in the Gaol Service.
Dr. R. G. E. Richmond, Senior Medical Officer, received a citation award as
" Man of the Year in Corrections " from the British Columbia Corrections Association at its annual meeting. This was the second such award, the first being made in
1963 to Mr. E. G. B. Stevens, former Director of Correction.
2. Institutional Staff—Promotions
Mr. F. St. John Madeley was promoted in February, 1966, to Warden 1 at the
Alouette River Unit, and Mr. S. A. L. Hamblin was promoted in March, 1967, to
Warden 1 at the Vancouver Island Unit. Mr. G. J. Chappie, Officer in Charge of
the Chilliwack Forest Camps, was promoted to Deputy Warden 2 in March, 1967.
Promotions to Deputy Warden 1: Mr. H. R. McGillivray, of the Vancouver
Island Unit; Mr. D. J. Schultz, of the Alouette River Unit; and Mr. S. M. McHale,
of Oakalla Prison Farm. Other promotions in the Branch, through competition,
include: To Senior Correctional Officer, 6; to Counsellor III, 2; to Principal Officer,
18; to Correctional Officer, 74. This brings the total number promoted to the
Correctional Officer rank since its inception in 19f62 to 357.
3. Recruitment
The average number of permanent staff employed in the Gaol Service was
1,064, compared with 1,077 in 1965. This drop in strength was due to an excessively high turnover rate. Total appointments numbered 360. Separations from
the permanent ranks numbered 257, compared with 220 in 1965 and 102 in 1964.
These separations represented a disturbing turnover rate of 24.1 per cent, compared
with 20.4 per cent in 1965, 10 per cent in 1964, 8.1 per cent in 1963, and 9.5 per
cent in 1962. The greatest turnover of staff was in the Security Officer rank with
196 separations for the year, making a total of 356 separations over the past two-
year period. Once staff are promoted above this rank the turnover rate shows a
remarkable drop; for example, only 17 Correctional Officers, 5 Principal Officers,
and 1 Senior Correctional Officer were separated from the Service.
4. Training—Gaol Service
On-going training in the Gaol Service consisted of field training carried out by
each institution; basic training conducted at Oakalla, Haney Correctional Institution, Vancouver Island Unit, Prince George, and Kamloops; advanced training conducted at Haney Correctional Institution; and Principal Officer training conducted
at Haney Correctional Institution. A total of 453 officers completed these training
courses.
5. Basic Training
This was conducted at all institutions. Officers from Chilliwack Forest Camps,
Alouette River Unit, and New Haven attended courses at Haney Correctional Insti-
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1966/67 FF 17
tution or Oakalla Prison Farm. Officers from Lakeview and Snowdon Forest
Camps attended courses at Vancouver Island Unit. A total of 143 Security Officers
successfully completed this training.
6. Advanced Training
This was completed by 116 Officers.
7. Principal Officers' Training
The fourth annual sitting of the Principal Officers' qualifying examination was
held in March, 1967. One hundred and thirteen officers wrote the examination;
73 (64.7 per cent) qualified, compared with 63 (58.3 per cent) in 1965, 87 (67.4
per cent) in 1964, and 139 (49.2 per cent) in 1963. In four sittings of the examination, 357 (57.3 per cent) of the 622 candidates have qualified.
The second Principal Officers' Leadership Training Course was held at Haney
Correctional Institutions for 10 Principal Officers. Six officers from Oakalla Prison
Farm were selected to attend this course, but because of staff shortage and critical
events at the time, they were unable to attend.
8. Academy Training (Class III)
This class commenced in January for 16 officers at Oakalla Prison Farm. The
course, of three months' duration, was scheduled to be completed in April of the
next fiscal year. This form of training has significantly increased the morale of the
officer recruits and improved their job performance. The separation rate from the
Service of those graduating from this course is noticeably lower than the average.
9. Matrons' Workshop
In December a five-day workshop was conducted for 17 Matrons at the
recently completed Twin Maples Farm Camp. The workshop was used as an
orientation course for newly recruited staff and as an opportunity for the experienced staff to re-examine the objectives of corrections as they apply to an open
training camp for women. The workshop was planned and conducted jointly by
headquarters and Oakalla staff.
10. Instructional Technique Course
A four-hour course on instructional techniques was conducted for 33 Principal
Officers at Oakalla Prison Farm in April.
11. Training—Probation Service
Orientation Training Classes VII and VIII were conducted for 20 Officers.
Of the 20, 18 successfully completed the training; one separated for medical reasons
and one separated to go to other employment.
12. Staff Supervisors' Workshop
A four-day live-in workshop on the supervision of staff was held at the University of British Columbia in April for four Regional Supervisors and six Senior
Probation Officers. The focus of this workshop was (1) to identify problems in
supervising Probation Officers, (2) to seek solutions to these problems at the supervisor's level, (3) to discuss the principles of supervision, and (4) to clarify the
role and responsibility of the supervisor.
13. Probation Service Annual Staff Meeting
The ninth annual staff meeting was held at the Astor Hotel in Burnaby from
November 7th to 10th.   It was planned by the Parole Division of the Service and
2
 FF 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
had as its theme " Co-ordination of the Correctional Process for the Young-adult
Offender." This annual meeting was divided into groups to study (a) criteria for
selection for those serving definite-indeterminate sentences, and (b) criteria for
readiness for parole for the young-adult offender. Presentations of impressions
on the validity of these criteria were made by representatives of institutions, classification, and the British Columbia Board of Parole. The theme was particularly
timely as the definite-indeterminate sentence is applied to the largest age-group of
offender with which the Service has to deal.
14. Chaplains' Conference
A three-day conference on the theme " Pastoral Counselling with Individuals "
was held in January at the Provincial Mental Health Centre in Burnaby. Nineteen
chaplains of both Protestant and Roman Catholic faiths attended four workshops of
two hours each. The chaplains took a critical look at the image they were creating
with inmates and examined their role in counselling. Again, as in previous years,
most of the chaplains expressed an interest to be more involved in the general training of institutional staff. Some felt that they could be of help in instructing in our
basic and advanced training courses, but a good many of them thought they would
benefit themselves from receiving this training. Greater consideration will be given
to involving the chaplains in the training programme for the coming year.
15. Vancouver City College Courses in Corrections
Two classes were enrolled in the Vancouver City College diploma course in
corrections with a total registration of 41. Sixteen successfully completed their
second year of the three-year course. Twenty-two officers attended a five-day Provincial Department of Education course on " Communications and Human Relations " at the British Columbia Vocational Institute and Haney Correctional Institution in May.
16. Outside Conferences
Some of the outside conferences attended by staff during the year were as
follows: Four officers from the Gaol Service attended a one-day workshop on adult
education at the University of British Columbia; three Probation Officers attended
a workshop on basic counselling techniques at Kelowna; two trade-shop foremen
at Oakalla Prison Farm attended a two-day workshop on " Motivating Effective
Action in Cost Reduction," conducted by the School of New Dimensions in Learning; and three Probation Officers attended a three-day institute on child development at Kamloops. The annual Magistrates' Conference in June at Campbell River
was attended by the Chief Probation Officer and two Senior probation staff officers;
62 staff from the Gaol Service and 37 from the Probation Service attended the
British Columbia Corrections Association Biennial Conference on Corrections at
the Astor Hotel in Vancouver in June.
17. University Educational Assistance
Seven officers, four from the Probation Service and three from the Gaol
Service, were assisted with grants to return to university for social-work training.
Similarly, six staff were assisted in working toward a B.A. with majors in the behavioural sciences. A Probation Staff supervisor attended a three-week institute
at the University of Chicago on social-work practice. Two Senior Correctional
Officers at Haney Correctional Institution were enrolled in the first year of the
Executive Development Course sponsored by the Provincial Government.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1966/67
FF 19
18. Staff-training Centre
The former occupational-therapy complex of the Marpole Infirmary was acquired during the year for a staff-training centre. Such a facility was sorely needed
to hold conferences and workshops for staff outside of Vancouver, particularly since
the University of British Columbia now provides only limited service of this kind.
It is intended to use the centre for probation training courses as well. The location
is central, the rooms are adaptable, and when furnished in the next fiscal year should
provide a classroom for 20 students with two adjoining conference rooms for up to
16 persons each.
19. Training Cadre
Plans are under way to set up a travelling staff-training unit. A mobile office
trailer has been ordered and equipment purchased to enable a staff-training team to
visit the various gaol regions of the Province and assist the regional gaol staffs in
organizing their field training.
20. Summary
In all it was an eventful year in training. Apart from the 453 officers who
participated in the on-going in-Service courses, 437 participated in some other form
of training directed toward improving performance on the job. This makes a total
of 890 staff who received training.
This year saw a new development in the approach to training. Leadership
was purposefully non-directive, the traditional, formal, teacher-class approach was
discarded, and the emphasis placed on the students themselves accepting the responsibility for self-development. That this new approach achieved a considerable
measure of success is a tribute to both the instructors and those undergoing training.
 FF 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
BRITISH COLUMBIA GAOL SERVICE
CHAPTER III.—TREATMENT OF MEN
General
1. Population
The daily average number of inmates in institutions has risen this year for the
second year in succession. The total average daily population was 2,404, as compared with 2,195 last year and 2,088 in the previous year. On March 31, 1967,
2,218 male and 110 female inmates were registered throughout the various correctional units in the Province.
2. Capacity
The only significant change in the institutional accommodation provided for
prisoners was the expansion of the women's facility at Twin Maples. The additional accommodation at Prince George Regional Gaol and the new temporary
regional gaol buildings at Kamloops were not ready for occupancy this year. At the
end of the year the total capacity for male prisoners was 2,435; of this number,
802, or approximately one-third of the total, were in camps or other minimum-
security facilities.
3. Juvenile Admissions
The number of juveniles admitted to adult receiving institutions was 222, a
reduction of 36 from last year. Of these, 19 were under the age of 15, and 18 of
this number were received at Oakalla Prison Farm. Fortunately the Juvenile
Remand Unit will be ready for occupancy shortly, and this should prevent the
future incarceration of juveniles in Oakalla Prison Farm while awaiting trial.
4. Security
The upward trend in the number of escapes continued this year but levelled
off at a final figure slightly in excess of last year's. The number of escapes for the
last three years have been 144, 137, and 106. Most escapes occurred from the
minimum-security camps or from outside work parties. The majority of escapees
were apprehended very quickly and received additional terms of imprisonment.
5. Discipline
The number of infractions against gaol rules and regulations rose during the
year. This was particularly noticeable among the young-adult offenders. Wardens
attribute this to the increasing number of younger, more aggressive inmates in the
gaol population, who tend to respond to the pressure of correctional treatment by
acting out against authority.
The drop in disciplinary incidents noted last year at the Vancouver Island Unit
has increased this year with a further drop of 5 per cent. Only 54 infractions were
reported at this institution. Lakeview Camp, which underwent a change in classification last year from the tough, aggressive young adult undergoing specialized
training to a more stable group of older prisoners working in a regular forest-camp
programme, reported a reduction in the number of infractions from 114 to 51. The
majority of infractions were of a minor nature. Segregation, which is normally
awarded as a punishment for more serious infractions, was only awarded in 34 per
cent of the cases noted, mainly for assaults on staff or on inmates, or for creating
a disturbance.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1966/67 FF 21
6. Assaults on Staff
The total number of assaults upon staff throughout the Service rose from 31
last year to 69 this year. Oakalla Prison was responsible for this increase. Other
institutions reported a decrease in the number of serious assaults. At Oakalla 10
of the 61 assaults were sufficiently serious to warrant the laying of charges in outside
community Courts. Violence against staff was used in three escape attempts from
Oakalla. Assaults, as with most other disciplinary problems, are confined mainly
to the hostile young-adult recidivist who is awaiting trial or appeal or is classified to
a training programme which places heavy demands upon him.
7. Central Classification
Initial classification dropped this year to 2,692 from 2,894 last year. However, the number of reclassifications increased to over 400. Reclassification is
usually the result of failure to adjust to training, lowering of medical category,
escape, or parole violation. Initial classification figures from Oakalla Prison Farm
for the year are listed below:—
To Chilliwack Forest Camps       635
To Oakalla Prison Farm      873
To Haney Correctional Institution      513
To Vancouver Island Unit      184
To Snowdon Forest Camp      180
To Lakeview Forest Camp      151
To New Haven Borstal        58
To Alouette River Unit        98
Total   2,692
Although the pressure of work has increased since the establishment of the
Classification Committee in 1962, the staff complement has remained the same.
_   _,        , Social Education
8. General
Social training is an attempt to develop within the inmate increased consideration for other people, an ability to co-operate with others, good work habits, self-
respect, motivation, and discipline. Such training is given through planned treatment programmes, counselling, community living experiences, and by staff example.
Training of this kind is better adapted to a small, independent, open-living unit
type of organization rather than to cellular accommodation. Nevertheless, progress
was made in the Westgate A Unit at Oakalla, a specialized cellular unit for the training of recidivistic young-adult offenders who require a secure setting.
The Haney Correctional Institution and New Haven are, of course, better
suited to undertake this type of training, and the bulk of the young-adult offenders
sentenced to indeterminate sentences are sent to these two institutions. The Haney
Correctional Institution has developed a unit team approach in which all staff are
allocated to individual living units and share the responsibilities for the treatment
and management of the trainees. On the other hand, at New Haven the large open
dormitory area is divided into four contiguous living areas to accommodate 10
trainees each. A captain is appointed by the housemaster as leader of each group
and is responsible for the general well-being of the members of the group. The
four group captains meet weekly with the housemaster to discuss programmes to
which they should make contribution. These four groups meet three times each
week for group counselling.    Every member of a group must participate in the
 FF 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
group's sports programme unless excused on medical grounds. In smaller institutions and camps the machinery for social education may not be as elaborate, but
throughout the Service continuing efforts are made to provide facilities whereby the
offender can train himself toward a more satisfactory, more satisfying, and more
productive way of life.
9. Lay Counselling
This formal social training has continued to be used in all units, with several
institutions (Kamloops, Prince George, and Vancouver Island) reporting an expanded programme. Some smaller units found lay counselling to be more readily
acceptable than group counselling as the inmates feared ridicule when expressing
their personal problems in front of their peers. At Kamloops the expansion of lay
counselling in the satellite camps was offset to some extent by its enforced reduction
in the main gaol on account of the disruption brought about by the relocation of
the institution to a new site.
Lay counselling was used for men serving a sentence of one month or more at
the Vancouver Island Unit. There, as with most units, this process was found to be
acceptable to the younger men, and the most common topics discussed were their
current classification, family matters, employment, training, and personal problems.
Staff at Prince George attributed much of the improved attitude toward academic
and vocational training to the use made of lay counselling at that institution.
At the Haney Correctional Institution, this type of counselling is part of a more
elaborate casework process. Lay counsellors are supervised by professional staff
who work with the unit teams and develop a form of case study at the team meeting.
At Oakalla Prison many correctional staff, including senior officers, have case
loads for counselling. The Male Drug Treatment Unit has the most intensive programme, and the inmates at this unit are involved on a regular daily basis.
10. Group Counselling
While it is acknowledged that group counselling is by no means a panacea for
all ills, this form of counselling has established itself as a valuable adjunct to the
treatment programme of all institutions. Most units use both compulsory and voluntary group sessions, the latter being more intensive and probably more productive.
Group counselling is now undertaken in all units at Oakalla Prison, with the
most intensive sessions taking place at the Drug Treatment Units, the Women's
Unit, and Westgate A. This year, groups were also established in the Remand Unit
for first offenders and men under 25.
Prince George has involved members of the local John Howard Society in
a vigorous voluntary programme.
At the Chilliwack Camps, although sessions were only made compulsory for
the small group of young adults sentenced to definite-indeterminate sentences, 90
per cent of all the men attended sessions.
The Haney Correctional Institution had 67 groups meeting on a regular weekly
basis, 11 of them voluntary. Group sessions continued in the pre-release programme
on a more specialized basis, focusing on such topics as marriage and family responsibilities.
At New Haven, trainees meet thrice weekly for group counselling, on two
occasions in small groups and once each week as a large group comprising the total
community.
11. A cademic Training
Good use continued to be made of the wide range of correspondence courses
issued by the Department of Education.   Many inmates worked at elementary levels,
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1966/67 FF 23
a large number at junior secondary level, and a few at Grade XII and XIII subjects.
The classroom facilities were in constant use. With a population containing so many
young men lacking basic educational standing, it is a constant challenge to staff to
try to interest trainees in up-grading their formal educational standing.
One hundred and twenty-four men in the programme units at Oakalla Prison
were involved in correspondence courses, compared with 15 in the Remand Unit.
The difficulty in getting men to complete courses they started remained a problem.
In the Westgate area, of 55 men who commenced a course, 32 were transferred or
discharged before they completed their courses. This year the young offenders in
Westgate A studied together in a classroom programme, which proved far more
effective and achieved better results.
Two outside community groups assisted with specialized courses this year. The
British Columbia Lumberman's Association gave a lumber-grading course and the
St. John Ambulance Association provided a course in first aid. Both these courses
met with an enthusiastic response from the men.
The Rayleigh Camp at Kamloops followed the example set last year by Prince
George and the Vancouver Island Unit in establishing a course for illiterates. Ray-
leigh's course was run on a voluntary basis.
At Prince George six men were granted day parole to take vocational training
at the British Columbia Vocational Training School just outside the city, and three
men attended a prospectors' course sponsored by the local Department of Indian
Affairs. At Chilliwack Camps, all inmates serving three months or more were encouraged to take correspondence courses, while the young adults serving definite-
indeterminate sentences are required to attend classroom sessions three afternoons
each week and to undertake six hours' homework weekly to quality for parole consideration. Considerable use is made of educational films by all units for discussion
purposes.
Some inmates in the Snowdon Forest Camp volunteered to run classes for
fellow inmates who could neither read nor write.
The increase reported last year in the use of remedial classes at the Haney
Correctional Institution continued. One hundred and thirty-two men completed this
training, compared to 50 last year. Other results reported were a decrease in the
number taking the accelerated Grade X " crash " programme, a successful pilot
project in programmed learning, and a 50-per-cent increase in the number of trainees
completing correspondence courses; this was attributed to the assistance of a number
of Simon Fraser University undergraduates who acted as tutors in the evenings.
The shop and classroom facilities at the institution were fully utilized both during
the daytime and in the evenings.
The facilities of the institution were again made available to the Maple Ridge
School Board for adult education classes for community residents. Trainees attended
some of these classes.
12. Physical Education
Physical education is stressed in all institutions as a means of maintaining fitness
and developing a sense of sportsmanship and team spirit. Most programmes are
run using inexpensive equipment and outdoor sports facilities. Oakalla, Haney, and
New Haven are the only institutions that have gymnasium facilities approaching
community school standards. However, many units reported involvement with local
community teams both on institution grounds and in the community. This type of
activity has always proved popular both with the men and the public and has helped
to develop good public relations.    Weight-lifting programmes continue all year
 FF 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
round, and in season softball, basketball, volleyball, badminton, and soccer. Inter-
camp track and field competitions are frequently held on long holiday week-ends.
Every effort is made to encourage full participation in sports activity. To this
end the competitive nature is frequently played down, emphasis being placed on the
individual competing against himself to improve his own performance. At the
majority of camps a diversity of outdoor sport continued throughout the summer on
Sundays and after work, including swimming, fishing, and hiking expeditions. In
many instances, staff came in on their own time to make these activities possible.
13. Recreation
Hobby craft is encouraged in all institutions as a part of the spare-time recreational programme. Tools are usually provided by the institution and expendable
materials purchased by the individual inmate, who pays for this from the resale of
his finished articles.
Four institutions exhibited items at local community hobby shows during the
year and won awards for the excellence of their entries.
Most recreational activities have a deeper purpose than simply providing an
acceptable way to pass leisure time. It is recognized that hobby activity and sports
can be a valuable outlet for retraining, particularly for young prisoners. It often
offers those participating their first experience of a constructive use of leisure time
and brings the satisfaction of accomplishment while encouraging persistence of effort
and consideration for others.
14. Religious Training
The chaplains' staff of 3 full-time and 13 part-time community-based clergy
continued to visit at all gaols and camps within the Service. Although much valuable work was undertaken during the year, the chaplains felt that their numbers were
too few to allow them to provide the desired amount of pastoral counselling in depth.
Basically, their role continued to be that of conducting services of worship, pastoral
counselling, and religious instruction. Many chaplains reported experiments in
forms of worship aimed at encouraging greater inmate participation.
At a number of institutions successful family services were conducted during
the year. The Haney Correctional Institution held four such special services, while
at the Alouette River Unit the services were held each Sunday after the weekly visits.
Ecumenical services involving both Protestant and Roman Catholic inmates
were held on Remembrance Day both at the Chilliwack Camps and at the Haney
Correctional Institution.
Chaplains are becoming increasingly more involved in the total programme of
the institutions they serve. Apart from their traditional role, they have become
actively involved in sponsoring a number of activities involving outside clubs and
associations, and in many cases have taken on the task of liaison between the institution and the neighbouring community. A good example is the establishment of the
half-way house for discharged inmates at Kamloops, which was largely the result of
the prison chaplain's efforts.
Vocational Training
15. The vocational training programme throughout the Gaol Service varies
greatly, depending on the type of institution and the particular goals being stressed.
It is felt that the young-adult offender should be the first priority for trade training,
provided, of course, that he has the ability and the basic educational requirements
to profit from such training. Many of these youths are school drop-outs and,
although anxious to learn a trade, cannot qualify for a vocational course without
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1966/67 FF 25
prior academic up-grading, usually in mathematics. Motivating those in this group,
many of whom have shown little persistence in the past, to stick with a course and
see it through to its completion is perhaps the most difficult task that faces the institutional instructor. The Haney Correctional Institution has the most advanced vocational training programme and offers courses in draughting, motor mechanics, auto
body, heavy-duty mechanics, heavy-duty operators, welding, millwork and joinery,
woodwork construction, sheet metal, painting and decorating, barbering, building
services, steam engineering, and cookery and laundry work. It is gratifying to note
that course-completion rates at this institution were higher this year than last, and
a larger number of trainees gained their Department of Education certificate for
satisfactorily completing a vocational course.
Lads at New Haven enrol on one of four pre-vocational placements on admission to the institution and stay with this placement usually until their release. Particular emphasis is placed on the development of character by stressing a high
standard of work and inculcating habits of persistence and " stick-to-itiveness." Inmates of the Westgate A Unit for young-adult recidivists at Oakalla Prison participate in maintenance work within the institution and a limited amount of trade
instruction geared toward production. These youths, many of them failures from
other institutions, are extremely difficult to motivate and are frequently resistive to
training which requires any degree of persistence. Their level of tolerance to frustration is low, and dramatic emotional outbursts are not infrequent as they react to
the demands placed upon them in the programme. Little formal vocational training
is attempted in the regional gaols for older inmates. The shops in these institutions
are on production quotas, and those employed on skilled or semi-skilled work are
more often than not men who have learned the rudiments at least of the trade in the
community before coming to gaol.
, r   _       .    . Forest Camps
16. Organization
The Corrections Branch operates 10 minimum-security camps for adult male
prisoners. During this year, construction commenced on one additional camp.
These camps are located throughout the Province and are organized as satellite units
of the regional gaols. The Vancouver Island region, with its regional gaol located
at Saanich, maintains two satellite forest camps in the Sayward Forest District, north
of Campbell River. The Interior region has its regional gaol located in Kamloops
and operates two satellite camps, one in the Wells Gray Provincial Park and the
other located at Rayleigh, some 11 miles north of Kamloops. The Prince George
Regional Gaol is in the process of constructing a satellite camp, which will be the
first to operate in the northern region of the Province. Within the Lower Mainland
region, where Oakalla Prison Farm is the central receiving gaol, the Chilliwack
Forest Camps serve as the minimum-security camp facilities for this region. Due
to the size of the population involved, the Chilliwack Forest Camps, which are four
in number, have been separated administratively from Oakalla Prison Farm, in line
with the general policy of decentralized administration.
Two specialized forest camps are administered as satellites of the Haney Correctional Institution. One of these is a pre-release camp for trainees completing
their training programme at the institution; the other is a minimum-security placement for those young adults who do not require the security of the institution and
whom it is felt would gain more from training in an open camp.
All the camps have adopted a similar pattern of administration, with a Senior
Correctional Officer in charge, a Principal Officer as second in command, and 12
additional officers.   By virtue of operating as satellite units of the main gaol facility,
 FF 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
support services are provided from this base, and this enables the camps to operate
with a minimum of staff on administrative duties. Rations and supplies are delivered
on a weekly basis to the camps, and as much as possible of the business and repairs
is handled at the base in order to keep the focus of the forest camp on the work
projects and the training of the inmates.
The Hutda Lake Camp is currently under construction, some 35 miles southwest of Prince George on the shore of a small lake. Three small buildings were
moved into this location in the fall, and a crew of 12 inmates plus supervising officers
worked on this site all winter in preparation for construction which starts in the
spring. In addition, they have established a small salvage logging operation and
operate a sawmill at this site producing lumber for eventual use in the construction
of the camp. The vocational school at Prince George has been particularly helpful
in the establishment of this camp, and at one point assigned its entire Heavy-duty
Equipment Operators' Course, including six bulldozers, to clear the camp-site and
access road. This assistance speeded up the construction schedule considerably and
was invaluable in releasing inmate crews from these chores to concentrate on salvage
logging and lumber production.
17. Capacity and Intake
All camps follow a similar pattern in terms of accommodation and have a maximum capacity of 60 inmates. Where camps are attached to regional gaols, inmates
are received upon transfer from the gaol after being screened there by classification
personnel. The two camps attached to the Haney Correctional Institution differ
slightly in that the inmates are transferred first to the Haney Correctional Institution
from the receiving gaol and then are selected for transfer to a forest camp. The
selection is based on a planned training programme for the individual inmate.
The number of admissions to the forest camps during the year was as follows:—
Camp Admissions
Snowdon Forest Camp  173
Lakeview Forest Camp  143
Rayleigh Forest Camp  965
Clearwater Forest Camp  303
Chilliwack Forest Camps  695
Gold Creek Forest Camp  123
Pine Ridge Forest Camp  23
Total  2,425
It will be noted that over a third of the 2,425 admissions to forest camps are
accounted for by Rayleigh Camp alone, with its 965. This camp is being used for
short-term alcoholics. It is planned to develop a programme that will deal more
effectively with their basic problem in the coming year. At the moment it is serving
as a stop-gap facility for this group.
Snowdon Forest Camp, with its 173 admissions, has continued to be reserved
for first offenders with no previous institutional experience. In this way it is possible to minimize the impact on impressionable first offenders of the older recidivist.
The other camp in the Sayward Forest area, Lakeview Forest Camp, has changed
its population from the young recidivist group to the older recidivist group. This
change was brought about because of the problems encountered in attempting to
deal with the hard-core young recidivist group in a remote area with minimum
support from a base facility. Plans are under way for relocation of this programme
in a more controlled setting.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1966/67 FF 27
The pre-release programme of the Haney Correctional Institution was transferred from the Gold Creek Camp, located in the southern Garibaldi Park area, to
the Pine Ridge Camp, immediately adjacent to the Haney Correctional Institution.
It was found that the distance involved in bringing trainees out of the camp, in
order to take advantage of community facilities during their pre-release training
period, was too great and consumed much valuable training time. In addition, the
work projects to which the trainees were committed in the park suffered due to the
rapid turnover of the pre-release populaion. It has proven to be much more satisfactory to move these trainees closer to the community during their pre-release
training period and to have the continuing support of the institution and its specialized training staff during this phase of the programme.
The four Chilliwack Camps have continued to take inmates on transfer from
Central Classification at Oakalla Prison Farm. A programme of training for young-
adult offenders with indeterminate sentences has also been developed at these
camps, a small number being placed in each of three camps. During the year 37
such cases were placed in camps to undergo a training programme in forestry work
supplemented by counselling and academic education. In addition to this small
group with indeterminate sentences, 10 young offenders of juvenile age plus 200
offenders between 18 and 23 years of age were transferred to these camps during
the year. These young-adult offenders are recidivists, and in many cases are hardcore delinquents who represent a real challenge to the staff in a minimum-security
setting.
18. Economy of Operation
The average daily population for all the camps combined during the year was
518. This figure represents a population equal to that of a large institution. When
it is considered that the materials required to construct these camps were to a large
extent salvaged from the forests and the labour provided by the inmates themselves,
it is realized what a tremendous saving the camps represent in dollars and cents,
particularly in view of the current cost of modern prison construction, which approximates $20,000 per cell.
In addition to the initial savings in construction, the average daily maintenance
cost per prisoner in the camps was $6.99, compared to the average daily maintenance
cost in an institution of $10.40. When this difference is multiplied over thousands
of cases, it again represents considerable savings. However, this saving is not without its problems in that the level of staff leadership required in the camps is most
demanding and requires highly trained staff skilled in recognizing and dealing with
problems at their earliest stages; for example, the escapes from these minimum-
security facilities totalled 52 during the year. Although this appears a large figure,
it represents only a small percentage of the total number of inmates handled in the
camps during the year.   The escapes are detailed as follows:—
Camp Escapes
Snowdon Forest Camp  2
Clearwater Forest Camp  3
Lakeview Forest Camp  3
Rayleigh Forest Camp  2
Chilliwack Forest Camps  29
Gold Creek Forest Camp  8
Pine Ridge Forest Camp -  5
Total  52
 FF 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Chilliwack Forest Camps had the largest increase in the number of escapes, 29
this year as compared to 19 last year. This increase is evidence of the greater risks
being taken in an effort to accommodate particularly young adults in camps rather
than prison.
We appear to have reached the limits of what the present staff establishment can
handle within these camps. Any expansion will require additional security facilities
and a higher staff-inmate ratio to be able to deal with the problem inmates we are
presently receiving.
The Chilliwack Forest Camps are engaged in a major rebuilding programme.
Ford Mountain Camp was completed this year and officially opened by the Honourable the Attorney-General on June 2nd. This camp replaces the original Chilliwack
Camp built in 1955 to alleviate acute overcrowding at Oakalla Prison Farm. The
camps at that time were built as fast as possible and were intended to last only a
few years until other facilities could be constructed. These old camps served their
purpose well and are now being gradually replaced by buildings of a more permanent nature. The materials for these buildings, apart from the cement and
hardware required, have all been taken out of the forest through salvage logging
and have been cut in the sawmill operated by the camps.
19. Objectives
The forest camps, although developed originally out of the need for additional
accommodation brought on by acute overcrowding at the regional gaols, have
developed to the point of being an integrated and valuable part of the total training
plan for inmates. In such a setting the inmate is entrusted with a greater level of
responsibility and is given the freedom of working in the outdoors. In some cases
the increase in the level of responsibility placed on the inmate is simply that of
forcing him to take responsibility for his own custody and having to make the
decision whether he will take advantage of his opportunities or escape. This, in
itself, forces him to adopt a more mature and realistic attitude towards his life.
20. Techniques
The forest camps represent a deceptively simple approach to the rehabilitation
of inmates. Despite the more primitive facilities and the lack of professional staff,
a great deal of opportunity exists for the change of attitude and behaviour within
the camp setting. The experience of life in a bunkhouse with a small group of
inmates living and working in close proximity to one another 24 hours a day requires
a good deal of give and take. An inmate is forced by group pressure to develop
some respect for the rights of others.
The cooking done in the camp is all carried out by inmates. Thus if problems
arise within the food-preparation area, they have to be faced by the inmates and
solutions sought by them rather than having all their problems taken care of by staff.
These are simple responsibilities and appear as rather elementary expectations.
However, considering the lack of maturity and responsibility shown by many inmates, it is not too high a level at which to start their training. Only by some
grounding in the basic elementary responsibilities of social living can one try to
develop more elaborate concepts of responsibility.
A further level in the training toward increased responsibility can be achieved
through the work projects available in the woods. The work programme in the
camps is very much project-oriented so that the responsibility for a project can be
placed on a crew. This project then becomes their job, and they face, along with
their officer, the difficulties of weather, terrain, and equipment in completing the
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1966/67 FF 29
project. However, with this they can experience the satisfaction of completing a
specific project and see the results of their achievements. This, in turn, involves a
closer relationship with staff as the hostility between inmates and staff decreases as a
result of the involvement each has in the project. The impact of the officer's personality is then complemented by the demands of the work situation and calls into
play a sophisticated leadership on his part in order to transmit his value system and
an expectation of high performance for the inmates rather than a gaoler-convict
complex. Each sharing in the achievement of the project leads to higher staff
morale, and has an impact on the motivation of the inmate to become involved in
other aspects of the training programme at the camp.
Group and lay counselling are actively followed under the leadership of staff,
and there is no doubt that the remoteness of the camp setting helps to develop a
closeness of relationship which makes these techniques most effective in reaching
inmates. The focus, however, of the counselling is to assist the inmate in finding
his own solutions to his problems, motivate him to correct undesirable habit patterns,
and formulate realistic release plans. There is a very definite attempt to avoid
solving the problems for the inmate. Assistance is given in helping him to solve
his own problems rather than allowing him to escape these problems by someone
else doing his thinking for him.
Religious services are provided at all camps through part-time chaplains. In
several camps the chaplains have contributed a great deal of their own time to
counselling in addition to the regular religious services. It is interesting to note that
following the construction of the chapel at the Chilliwack Forest Camps by the
inmates, the Lakeview and Snowdon Forest Camps inmates started planning their
own chapels, to be constructed from salvage materials on a voluntary basis during
their own time.
Additional activities in the area of sports, recreation, and hobbies have been
instituted at all camps, not from the standpoint of providing diversionary activities,
but within the over-all plan of increasing the capacity of the inmates to handle
responsibility. The organization of these activities is a responsibility that is placed
on the inmates themselves.
21. Achievement
The forest camps have made significant contributions to various departments
of government as well as to several communities throughout the Province.
Specifically, the contribution to the British Columbia Forest Service has included the operation of tree nurseries at Chilliwack, Snowdon Camp, Haney Correctional Institution, and Rayleigh Camp. In addition, crews from Prince George
Gaol were used on the clearing of the Red Rock Research Nursery outside of the
City of Prince George. Within the Chilliwack Valley, the Ford Mountain Camp
crews have been used to clear a new nursery-site which, when completed, will be
one of the largest nurseries in the Province. It is anticipated that eventually a camp
will have to be established at this nursery to be able to handle the work load that will
be involved in the operation of seeding and transplanting.
Reforestation activities engaged in by the camps this year included the collection of over 9,000 bushels of seed cones that will be used to provide seeds for the
germination of future tree crops in the nurseries. In addition to the production of
some 1,400,000 trees that were shipped out for planting around the Province, the
camp crews themselves planted 117,000 in areas that they had cleared for reforestation.
On the forest-production side, fire-fighting crews and equipment were established at every forest camp, and during the fire season crews were called out on 13
 FF 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
fire-fighting missions. In addition to actual fire-fighting, thousands of man-hours
were employed in clearing access roads for protection purposes to inaccessible areas,
and a great deal of time was spent in cleaning out decadent high-hazard growth and
replanting it with young stock. As a by-product of the forest fire-hazard abatement
programme, a large number of logs are salvaged and cut up in sawmills that are now
established at Chilliwack and Prince George camps and the Haney Correctional
Institution.
The camps, through their salvage logging, were able to bring in sufficient logs
to produce over 320,000 board-feet of lumber, which was used both by the British
Columbia Forest Service and the Corrections Branch for construction projects within
the Province's forests. In addition, Lakeview Forest Camp produced 265 squares
of shakes for the British Columbia Forest Service and the reroofing of bunkhouses
in the camps.
The development of Provincial parks around the Province has been the second
major work area for inmate crews from the camps. Crews from the Haney Correctional Institution camps have been involved in clearing some 400 acres of floating
debris on the upper reaches of Alouette Lake. This project has been particularly
attractive to the younger, more physically active inmate because of the adventure
involved in the project and the sense of achievement gained. In addition, the provision of a tug by the British Columbia Forest Service made it possible to tow down
the logs worth salvaging to the sawmill at the Haney Correctional Institution for
lumber production. This lumber has been used in the vocational training programme at this institution, as well as in camp construction, effecting considerable
savings in the vocational training programme.
Inmates from the Sayward Forest Camps, during the winter months, worked
on the development of tourist camping facilities within the Sayward Forest District.
This included the building of camp-sites at Quinsam Park, the clearing of the lake-
shore at Mortan Lake, and hauling in sand to create a beach at the lake in addition
to camping-sites on the lakeshore. Several thousand man-hours were also devoted
to the construction of trails throughout the forest area.
Clearwater Forest Camp, located in the Wells Gray Park area, has devoted
almost all its manpower to park development. This included an elaborate programme of camp-site clearing, access trails, slashing right-of-ways for B.C. Hydro
and telephone lines into the camp, hauling sand to improve beaches, supplying firewood for camping sites, and general camp-site maintenance in the spring prior to
the camping season and again in the fall after the season is completed. In addition
to developing access roads into remote areas and repairing bridges, crews on the
roads erected safety fences at view points and cleared off fire hazards along the
roadside. This camp also experimented rather successfully with small crews of
inmates, two to five in number, working under the direct supervision of Parks
Branch personnel rather than Corrections Branch officers. For inmates who have
measured up in terms of being able to develop and handle responsibility, this
experience of working under an outside employer is particularly valuable as it
approximates more closely the working environment they will face upon discharge
to the community.
Clearwater Camp has also carried on extensive road work for the Department
of Highways, slashing and fencing rights-of-way and covering watercourses on the
sides of roads to prevent wash-outs. In the winter they sanded and repaired roads
and kept sandboxes filled at difficult points on these roads. As part of their salvage
clearing project, they have been able to provide the Department of Highways with
over 9,000 fence-posts.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1966/67 FF 31
The Rayleigh Camp, besides providing crews for nursery work and Forest
Service projects, developed an extensive farming programme. This year they
produced a large crop of vegetables which they canned in their own cannery, and
after meeting their own needs were able to ship significant amounts to other institutions. Plans are under way to develop this farm programme significantly in the
forthcoming year to help meet the ration needs of other institutions in the Service.
Two significant contributions to the community this year were the construction
of 4 miles of the Centennial Trail for the Canadian Youth Hostel Association by the
Chilliwack Forest Camps. This entailed small crews camping out on the trail sites
during the week and coming back to the base camp for the week-ends. The other
major community service was the blood-donor clinics held in various camps. The
inmates from the Snowdon Forest Camp exceeded any other group donations in the
Campbell River area.
Although it is simpler to note the production achievements of the forest camps
in terms of lumber and reforestation, their most valuable contribution has been in
the training of unmotivated and immature inmates, many of them in the young
offender category. Having the opportunity to develop in these inmates basic skills
in handling simple tools, such as axes and saws, is invaluable in teaching them to
deal with the frustrations and difficulty of hand labour. Because of this, it has been
the policy of the forest camps to avoid the use of machinery such as power-saws. As
has been pointed out, our over-all objective is to develop responsibility and a
capacity to face problems within our inmates.
,»    .,     *>«..     tt !_.      Specialized Institutions
22. Alouette River Unit
Admissions to the Alouette River treatment unit for alcoholics totalled 876, as
compared with 886 during the previous year, with a daily average population of 108.
Thirty-four were returned to Oakalla Prison during the year mostly for medical
reasons.
Basically the unit programme was unchanged except for the introduction in
October, 1966, of an orientation course for new admissions. This course was instituted in an attempt to make a greater impact on those serving short sentences. This
was achieved by concentrating rehabilitative services into the first full week of training at the unit. Residents worked half a day during their first week and were required to attend the orientation course sessions for the remainder of each day. The
sessions included lectures on alcoholism as a disease, an introduction to Alcoholics
Anonymous and informative material on common human needs, problem-solving,
personality development, and health matters. In addition, the course provided a
daily opportunity for residents to improve their communication skills and problem-
solving abilities by means of group counselling sessions.
With the appointment of Mr. St. John Madeley as Warden on February 1, 1967,
the unit was separated from Oakalla Prison and was made responsible for its own
administration, including the processing of discharges direct to the community. At
the same time a house system was organized to permit closer attention to individuals
and their problems within the framework of the larger institution. To foster house
organization, centralized feeding was discontinued though the economy of centralized cooking was retained. The cooked food was distributed to the house dining-
rooms in heated food carts.
Effectiveness of the programme continued to be examined by statistical surveys.
The latest figures cover the period from the start of operations in July, 1964, to the
end of December, 1966. During this period 1,214 persons were discharged. The
following table gives significant details:—
 FF 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Percentage
Not
Recommitted
Percentage
Recommitted
Only Once
Percentage
Recommitted
Twice
Two years or more after release  	
One full year but less than two years after release..
Six months but less than one year after release	
19.7
26.3
44.3
11.3
14.0
21.1
4.2
13.0
16.0
It should be remembered that these discharges included substantial numbers
of " revolving door " chronic alcoholics. Of the total of 1,214, 32.6 per cent (396)
had 20 or more previous committals, 14.5 per cent (176) had from 11 to 19 previous committals, 23.3 per cent (283) had from 4 to 10 previous committals, 19.6
per cent (238) had from 1 to 3 previous committals, and only 10 per cent (121)
had no previous committals. The term " previous committals " refers only to known
committals in this Province. There is no central registry for summary conviction
offences which includes public drunkenness.
It is apparent that roughly one-half (47.1 per cent) of those discharged had
had more than 11 previous committals and could thus be classified as " revolving
door " cases.
A study of the relative success rates for those serving more than one period in
the unit disclosed that a second or third sentence served in the unit produced a
significant number of successes, but that any further periods produced little change.
Success rates were significantly higher amongst those released to the Haney
Half-way House. There is no doubt that half-way houses play an important part in
the rehabilitation of alcoholics, particularly where the life of the house is centred
around the A.A. programme. The Maple Ridge Half-way House Association
deserves full recognition for the part it is playing in this all-important work.
During the year the unit received regular visits from workers of the Alcoholism
Foundation of British Columbia. The help and assistance of the Foundation was
greatly appreciated, as was the assistance provided by the Alcohol Research and
Education Council.
The passage of the Summary Convictions Act Amendment Act, 1966, which
came into effect March 1, 1967, permitting Courts to sentence chronic alcoholics to
an indeterminate period of 12 months, ushered in a new phase in the unit's function.
A few prisoners sentenced under the new legislation had been received prior to the
year's end, but none had been released by that time.
Prison Industries and Farm Production
Prison Industries.—The industrial shops at Oakalla Prison and Prince George
were operated on a year-round basis. These shops employ inmates in the higher
security-risk categories and take care of many of the essential needs of the Service
through the production of clothing and manufactured items.
At Oakalla Prison Farm the industrial shops have all now been relocated to
the Westgate B Unit. The largest shop, employing over 50 prisoners, is the motor-
vehicle licence-plate shop, which produced over 2,000,000 licence-plates this year.
Due to the additional equipment and expanded facilities, it was able to complete its
production quota on a one-shift operation. An officer with an inmate crew has been
assigned solely to checking plates coming off the production line. This has resulted
in reducing the error rate to a minimum.
The programme of planned replacement of obsolete equipment is continuing.
Each year old pieces of machinery are phased out as replacements become available.
Eventually the shop will be operating two completely separate production lines with
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1966/67
FF 33
modern equipment.    It is anticipated that this will enable the shop to meet the
demands for an increasing number of licence-plates each year.
The sheet-metal shop continued to produce filing-cabinets of various designs
for Government use and a variety of custom-made items, as well as the production
of highway sign blanks for the Department of Highways. The tailor, shoe, and
sock shops at Oakalla Prison and the tailor-shop at Prince George Gaol were in
full operation all year producing inmate clothing. The production of these shops
continues to expand, and in the forthcoming year it is anticipated that they will be
able to fill the total clothing requirements for inmates throughout the Service.
Two key problems that exist in the industrial area at Oakalla Prison Farm are
(1) the location of living units in the same building as the industrial shops and (2)
the higher security risks that have to be assigned to the shops as the population of
Oakalla Prison is gradually reduced by transferring prisoners to camps and other
less-congested facilities.
The sheet-metal shop in particular presents a fire hazard as volatiles are used
within the shop. Several fires have been set deliberately by inmates, but fortunately
alert staff were able to act promptly and damage was minimized. However, with
living accommodation within this same building and an inadequate locking system,
there is a constant hazard of fire or smoke. Precautions have been taken, including
the building of a fire-wall between the shops and the living area, but as the building
is of wooden construction it would only serve to delay a fire breaking through and
would not overcome the problem of heat and smoke.
Plans are now in the hands of the Department of Public Works for the relocation of all shops at the bottom section of this building with a barrier between the
shop area and the living area which would provide, along with the renewal of the
locking system, a greater level of safety. When both these actions have been completed, the hazard level will have been reduced considerably.
Farm Production.—The four prison farms at Oakalla Prison, Vancouver Island
Unit, Rayleigh Camp, and Prince George Gaol again produced a considerable
amount of food to offset rising catering costs. Surplus meat and vegetables were
used to supplement the rations of those camps and institutions unable to produce
then own.
The two canneries at Vancouver Island and the Rayleigh Camp canned 5,000
gallons of vegetables, which were shipped to various institutions during the year.
The total farm production is detailed in the table below:—
Oakalla
Prison
Farm
Vancouver
Island
Unit
Rayleigh
Prince
George
Gaol
Beef                	
Pork 	
Fowl
ih,
Milk    	
Fruit _	
 tons
33.6
15.5
58
19.2
107
40.5
8,500
11,866
2,204
726
170
0.4
0.8
7
53
63.8
56.1
77.2
264.3
20,366
2,930
170
0.4
0.8
The Vancouver Island Unit farm this year lost its barn through arson. A new
one is being rebuilt in a more secure location. This unit also produced many thousand feet of drainage tile, which was shipped to the new women's camp at Twin
Maples for land drainage.
 FF 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
CHAPTER IV.—TREATMENT OF WOMEN
,    n     , ,. General
1. Population
There was a sharp drop in the population this year, and the daily average fell
from 142inl965tol01 this year. This reduction in population is attributed to the
following:—
(1) The increased use of probation. Very few women were committed to
prison on their first or even second offence. Probation was also awarded
to some repeaters, on their reconviction, who had shown evidence of
progress since their last release from prison.
(2) The opening of the Federal institution for narcotic addicts at Matsqui.
A small number of addicted recidivists were sentenced to Penitentiary
terms and transferred to the Matsqui institution.
(3) Fewer recidivists were received who had had previous committals to the
Willingdon School for Girls, and those received who had showed improved
attitudes.   This is a most encouraging trend.
(4) The increasing success with younger women who underwent treatment at
the Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit.
This decrease in population enabled staff to concentrate more intensively on
the women under their care with improved results.
There was a noticeable increase in the number of women waiting trial or appeal.
This group comprised one-third of the total population. As many of them were
experienced sophisticated addicts, they posed a major problem in the small institution with no proper segregated accommodation for waiting-trial prisoners.
2. Discipline
The Matron in charge reported an increase in the number of infractions against
rules and violent incidents. The waiting-trial prisoners and those undergoing orientation were the chief offenders. The first case of suicide in 25 years occurred in
March, and four women were charged with assault for attacks upon Matrons.
3. Vocational and Technical Training
Vocational training continued at the usual high level in this unit throughout the
year. The cosmetology course, with an average class of six, graduated nine women,
all of whom passed the British Columbia Hairdressing Association's examination.
A course in business administration was added this year to give these women a better
idea how to manage then own shops.
The home nursing course had to be discontinued for lack of a competent instructress, but interested inmates continued to gain some experience in this field by
caring for sick women in their own infirmary.
The production in the laundry unit was maintained at a high level. This unit
is reserved for the longer-term maximum-security women. The heavy work in this
operation provides a suitable energy outlet for many of the more difficult women in
the gaol.
The power-sewing course went well with increased production, and 27 women
completed the course.
In the kitchen an average of 10 trainees worked daily. Many of the younger
and inexperienced workers gained sufficient knowledge and experience in cookery
to help them obtain work in this field on release. Maintenance and carpentry within
the unit was carried out largely by women inmates.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1966/67 FF 35
4. Academic
An average of 10 women participated in full-time education during the year.
They studied 11 different subjects by correspondence, commercial courses being the
most popular. Most students obtained high marks in their tests, and nine obtained
course certificates.
5. Physical Education
Physical education was conducted on a group basis and included formal gymnastics, dancing, and inter-unit competitions in badminton, volleyball, and basketball. The unit's softball team participated in a community league with good success.
A high standard of sportsmanship was maintained.
6. Religious Training
Religious training is viewed as an essential, inspiring part of the unit's community living programme.
Both chaplains held regular services, which were greatly enhanced by the gift
of an organ. Film discussions, visitors from the Legion of Mary, and the formation
of a choir were some of the more notable events during the year.
7. Recreation
All groups made active use of the gymnasium. Hobbies varied from fancywork
to furniture-making on a small scale. Each group had its own pet project and took
great interest and delight in displaying its handicraft. Materials were donated by
many volunteer groups or bought from group funds earned from the sale of their
projects. Volunteer groups gave instruction in the art of make-up, hat-making,
modelling, and flower and centre-piece arrangements.
8. Group and Lay Counselling
Formal counselling was intensified this year. Two sessions per week were
held for each group. There were periods when the women, especially the older
addict group, rebelled against counselling, and the sessions ended in silence. The
group Matrons found that the inmates were more willing to express themselves and
benefited from the counselling after sitting through silent sessions. All problems
of the group were discussed in counselling sessions, and it was generally felt that
the additional time spent on this part of the programme was worth while.
9. Community Participation
Social training at the Women's Unit strived toward achieving the normal
environment of the home and the community through groups in the living units
learning to entertain volunteers as well as inviting other groups to share in their
activities.
The Elizabeth Fry Society made weekly visits to the unit and were the liaison
party when two inmate groups adopted two orphan children, one in Korea and one
in Austria. This society's executive secretary undertook to interview and help with
after-care planning of some first offenders, with good results. University students
also did valuable visiting, especially with the more uncommunicative inmate. A
number of women donated blood at the donor's clinic held in the prison.
10. Narcotic Drug Research Unit
Now that the Federal drug institution at Matsqui is open, most of the women
selected for the Narcotic Drug Unit at Oakalla have short sentences or are parole
 FF 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
violators. At one time the female addict population in the women's unit was
sufficiently large to include a number of well-motivated addicts with sentences of
six months to two years less a day. This last year any known addict, whether
sentenced under the Narcotic Act or not, with a sentence of six months was considered for the Narcotic Treatment Unit.
The unit received 27 women during the year and discharged 16. Of those
released, six are still at large in the community and 10 have since been returned to
custody.
An attempt to speed up the therapy process brought an increased resistance,
and as a result several worth-while programme features had to be curtailed. The
population, normally averaging ten, dropped at one point to three, and individual
counselling replaced the normal group approach. However, the situation stabilized
itself later in the year, and the group work and group projects grew again in number
and effectiveness.
As a result of three escapes, the open-door policy was severely curtailed. All
inmates in this unit are required to take some form of academic training. A number
of women also enrolled in the cosmetology course and a course in home management.
The usual approach to physical training and recreation through sports and hobby
craft was followed. Group counselling was the main form of counselling and
worked at a constructive and intensive level. Visits to The Woodlands School and a
community swimming-pool provided useful outlets for the community-participation
programme.
Twin Maples Farm
11. The new unit at Twin Maples was opened toward the end of the year, in
December, 1966. The significant feature about the new unit is that its increased
facilities and accommodation make it possible to establish in the future a self-
sufficient training unit for women. For the time being women will continue to be
selected for this minimum-security facility from the main women's unit at Oakalla
Prison.
While the new unit was under construction, a small group of women continued
living in the old Twin Maples Farm quarters. The daily maintenance staffs of the
unit—cleaning, washing, ironing, mending, and making of clothes and linens for
the new unit—were used as training devices for a group of women often quite
deficient in these skills on admission.
The more formal aspects of training were also much in evidence. Schooling
was given mostly at an elementary level; physical education was taken through the
medium of daily exercises and regular dance groups. Church services were held
for both Protestant and Roman Catholic groups. Along with the usual recreational
activities—sports, hobbies, dancing, indoor games and television—a more creative
activity was developed with the formation of a singing group.
Group counselling and lay counselling programmes were started and were
enthusiastically pursued by residents and staff. A.A. group meetings on a regular
basis and meetings with the local church women's sewing circle were two very useful
local community-participation activities.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1966/67 FF 37
CHAPTER V.—HEALTH AND HYGIENE
The increasing advances in medical science and the rising level of medical care
in the community have led to a vast improvement in medical services in prisons and
correctional institutions. The prison medical service has expended from one officially appointed part-time medical officer, 20 years ago, to one full-time Senior
Medical Officer and 11 part-time medical officers today. A 60-bed prison hospital
was established for the whole Service five years ago at Oakalla Prison with a small
female nursing staff of six matrons. Two years ago the Vancouver General Hospital
agreed to set aside one of its smaller wards with 12 beds as a security ward for prisoners requiring post-operative treatment. The security staff for this ward is provided
by the Gaol Service and the medical and nursing staff by the hospital.
In spite of this large over-all increase in medical services, there is constant
pressure for more. The allotment of funds for medical care is frequently overspent
by the majority of institutions before the end of the fiscal year. This is no doubt
in part due to the increasing emphasis placed on the important role that physical
health plays in a person's general well-being, and that criminality can result from
physical handicap. It is felt important, therefore, to pay the closest attention to any
chronic ailments a prisoner displays on admission to an institution which the medical
officers feel is having a detrimental effect on his attitude and behaviour and keeping
him from being a self-supporting member of society.
There is still a great need for a segregated psychiatric unit for the more aggressive sociopathic offender. These hostile acting-out prisoners are not committable to
a mental hospital and yet are unable to cope with the discipline and routine demands
of prison life. They keep the institution in a constant state of unrest and turmoil
by their unpredictable behaviour, their unreasonable demands, and their continued
attempts to manipulate and stir up trouble.
As suggested by the Senior Medical Officer, this group requires a highly specialized separate unit, staffed by skilled and experienced staff officers equipped to maintain an active schedule of training over a lengthy period of time.
The following excerpts are taken from the Senior Medical Officer's report for
the year:—
" There has been considerable increase in the general medical service required
at Oakalla Prison Farm owing to an increasing number of committals there, of
which a larger number is in need of medical treatment and procedures of classification and transfer to other institutions, all of which involve an increasing number of
routine investigations for venereal disease and tuberculosis, in addition to clinical
disorders which call for attention from all medical departments. There have also
been a greater number of transfers from other institutions to the central prison hospital for treatment.
" Starting with the prison hospital in 1962 with fewer staff than we considered
essential, the position is now even more urgent as regards nursing services. Two
nights a week the prison hospital is left without a registered or psychiatric nurse,
and post-operative and some critically ill patients are left in the charge of male
medical orderlies who are most competent and highly commendable for the quality
of their performance, but, nevertheless, are being expected to take responsibilities
for which they have no professional qualifications. The Superintendent of Nursing
has always borne the brunt of being operating-room nurse, in addition to her utmost
activity in administering both the nursing aspects of the prison hospital and of outpatients at Vancouver General Hospital and admitting procedures to the prison ward
there. Statistics show the amount of surgery carried out at Oakalla, and there should
 FF 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
be one nurse available solely for operating-room duty, at least on the days when
surgery is carried out. Were it not for inmates who work as medical aides and as
assistants to the technicians, we could not continue to function. Each year medical
standards generally are raised, and we must keep pace as much as possible. We are
extremely indebted to all those at Vancouver General Hospital who work for our
patients, both in the out-patient and in-patient departments. Probably their contribution to the medical care of prisoners is unsurpassed in Canada.
" The ward for the observation of mentally disturbed patients has been found
to be quite inadequate for observation owing to the absence of a psychiatric nurse
or custodian especially committed to observing these men, and owing to the position
of the single rooms. These rooms are uninhabitable because of failure of plumbing,
which, in spite of much consideration and reporting, have remained unserviceable
for two years.
" The problem of dispensing medication to other units of the gaol, which
amounts often to 500 prescriptions per day, is almost overwhelming, and it is greatly
to the credit of the nurses who take their turn in the dispensary that the demands
are met with very rarely any serious omission.
" Dr. E. Lewison was allotted a research grant from the Federal Government
to help him to expand his research into the effect of rhinoplastic facial surgery in
the rehabilitation of an offender. Over a period of 14 years he has performed 600
plastic operations, for which his patients are most grateful and cannot but be assisted
thereby toward social adjustment, however slow their progress. Research teams
from the U.B.C. Faculty of Medicine and the G. F. Strong Rehabilitation Centre at
Vancouver General Hospital have not visited this year as their projects involving
the prison medical services have been completed for the time being. We have ourselves carried out research into the E.E.G.s of aggressive young offenders, and our
laboratory technician was trained to culture and type chromosomes.
" We are grateful for the continued interest and assistance from the Department
of Venereal Disease Control, and the services of its physician to the women's building at Oakalla and in the routine examination of each male admission by a public
health nurse. Dr. Allan, from the Simon Fraser Health Unit, has continued to be
our consultant and visits weekly. The incidence of active tuberculosis is minimal
compared with what it was 10 years ago.
" There were four deaths from natural causes and seven from unnatural causes,
of which one was from a fall during an epileptic seizure and the remainder were
suicide by hanging. The suicide rate is tragically high, especially among the younger
offenders, who have been mainly those awaiting trial. These deaths have usually
occurred in the case of persons we have known as very disturbed people, who have
received a great deal of attention both medically and sociologically throughout their
lives; rarely does a prisoner commit suicide who has never given any indication of
emotional turmoil. The triggering episodes have included Court appearances, fear
of habitual criminal proceedings, homosexual jealousy, and frustration, amounting
to intense depression in most cases and feelings of hopelessness—even an incident
such as petulance because an expected medication was a few minutes in arrears.
" The ultimate acts were doubtless superimposed on prolonged feelings of depression and despair, though, in addition, most of those committing suicide have
been hostile individuals. This alarming tendency to suicide is relatively new to
those who have worked in prisons for many years. Until the recent epidemic of such
occurrences at Oakalla, suicide there was very infrequent. Looking back on prison
conditions in England, such as Dartmoor Prison in the early 1930's, where life was
almost death in comparison to imprisonment nowadays, over a four-year period in
my experience there, there were no suicides.   There was no psychiatry and almost
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1966/67 FF 39
no sedation. Outward violence was more frequent, both amongst the prisoners
and in the form of violent discipline, such as manhandling and corporal punishment.
There was no intention, however, on the part of almost all the prisoners to forsake
a life of crime, nor any signs that they did so on release. In other words, anxiety
was much less with almost no introspection and very little self-pity. Violence on
the whole was directed predominantly outwardly. No doubt the present affluent
society, threatened with extinction, becomes more and more neurotic and the gulf
between the educated and the school drop-out, the social success and the social
failure, becomes wider, as does the envy, hatred, and malice of those who have not
for those who have become more intense, and hopelessness more profound.
" Dr. J. C. Thomas has continued to report on an increasing number of referrals from the Courts; Dr. Gordon Stephenson has continued as consultant to the
Narcotic Addiction Units, both men and women; Dr. A. M. Marcus, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, visits for one half-day a week
to assess convicted prisoners referred by myself or especially referred by your headquarters or the British Columbia Parole Board. He has a large waiting list, and
time available is very inadequate to keep pace with demand. We have lost the
regular services of the Riverview psychiatrist, although when urgency arises Dr.
Middleton, Dr. E. Mellor, and their colleagues have not hesitated to assist. The
practice of sending our mentally ill prisoners to the Riverside Unit of Riverview
Hospital by Order in Council has met with considerable criticism from the point of
view of the Provincial Mental Health Services. As is always the problem in correctional agencies, such patients are unwelcome in a psychiatric hospital, as so many
are sociopathic and not strictly psychotic. The experience of correctional departments throughout the world has been that special psychiatric units established by
the prison services are essential. This means the building of a unit staffed and
administered by forensic psychiatrists with all the necessary parapsychiatric and
nursing personnel, with legal provision for compulsory treatment, as provided by
Mental Health Acts. As matters stand at Oakalla at present, there are no facilities
for psychiatric treatment of any sort, nor resources to carry out even the most
elementary psychiatric recommendations. One hundred and fourteen Oakalla inmates were transferred by Order in Council to Riverview Hospital as mentally ill.
"Alterations to the kitchen at Oakalla Prison Farm have been completed and
the separate bakery is in operation. The quality of the dietary at Oakalla and at all
other institutions has been very satisfactory in spite of initial difficulties arising at
the start of a closely controlled rationing system.
" The cockroach infestation at Oakalla Prison Farm has been eliminated by
the pesticide contractors, who attend at regular intervals. This is an accomplishment of remarkable success in the face of what we once considered an impossible
task.
" The staff of the women's building at Oakalla Prison Farm has, as before,
been confronted by a large number of highly disturbed women offenders, and, under
the leadership of the Chief Matron, the incidence of serious upheaval has been
minimal. In spite of the fact that professional help in the way of psychiatry has
been limited to very few consultations, each inmate receives more individual and
group attention than in any other section of the gaol. The opening of the new unit
at Twin Maples has been most welcome, and although only carefully selected
inmates can be sent there, those that remain at Oakalla Prison have benefited by
the reduction in population, though the pressure of numbers admitted increases.
We are still without the establishment of a registered nurse for the women's building
and an infirmary is badly needed, as, even for relatively simple nursing procedures,
 FF 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
under present conditions the patients had to be admitted to Vancouver General
Hospital.
" Dr. Hugo Schlagintweit has undertaken the medical care at the Alouette
River and Twin Maple Units. Twin Maples has also the assistance of Dr. Duncan
McC. Black, the Medical Health Officer for the Mission area, in the aspect of
venereal disease control. Twin Maples is well equipped and designed to attain the
highest standards of institutional living.
" The Alouette River Unit shows promise of pioneering the treatment of the
alcoholic offender in British Columbia, but will need much more financial provision
if it is to keep pace with scientific approach in treatment and research. The nursing
care is undertaken by medically trained and experienced officers who are, in fact,
part of the custodial and correctional establishment. As treatment of this nature
evolves, full clinical, psychiatric, and bio-medical services will become almost
mandatory. The building of a new kitchen is anticipated shortly, and this will be
a great improvement. The sewage disposal is seriously inadequate; as matters
stand now raw sewage effluent is flowing into the Alouette River.
" The camps I have visited show a high degree of hygienic competence, with
medical care most conscientiously carried out by the part-time physicians. The
greatest call on medical services is from the Chilliwack Camps, not only because
they accommodate the largest number, but because they include many of low
medical category, and it is greatly to the credit of the staff there that so many older
and debilitated inmates are adequately cared for and employed.
" I have continued to visit the Haney Correctional Institution regularly and
see trainees referred to me for various reasons. The major purpose is to coordinate specialist services available for the Haney Correctional Institution at the
central prison hospital. The number of seriously disturbed young offenders classified to the Haney Correctional Institution has increased considerably, with a consequent increase in escapes therefrom and transfers back to Oakalla Prison Farm.
Many of these form the core of the group of those with grossly anti-social personalities in Westgate A Unit in Oakalla."
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1966/67 FF 41
BRITISH COLUMBIA PROBATION SERVICE
1    r>   r ,•     ~ General
1. Probation Cases
The number of cases placed on probation during the year was 3,453, of which
3,048 were males and 405 were females. The increase of 574 over the previous
year represents 20 per cent, a substantial gain. There was little change in the age-
group distribution, with 67 per cent under 18, 22 per cent over 18 but under 24,
and the remaining 11 per cent over 25 years of age.
2. Pre-sentence Reports
There was also a substantial increase in the number of pre-sentence reports
leading to a disposition other than probation. The number of these reports prepared
during the year was 3,724, as compared to 2,970 in the previous year, an increase
of 25 per cent. Of this year's total, 1,662 or 45 per cent involved juvenile offenders
and 2,062 adults. Preparation of pre-sentence reports, which now outnumber cases
placed on probation, consumes a substantial proportion of the Probation Officer's
time. The Probation Act lays a clear duty on the Chief Probation Officer to provide this service to the Courts, but additional staff is needed if the quality of supervision of probation cases is not to suffer.
3. Case Loads
At the end of the year there were 2,722 cases on probation, of which 1,610
were juveniles and 1,112 were adults. The increase over the previous year was 337
or 14 per cent. Juvenile cases increased 16 per cent in contrast to a 12-per-cent
increase in adult cases.
Parole cases under supervision at the end of the year numbered 241, of which
207 had been released by the British Columbia Parole Board and the remaining 34
by the National Parole Board. In addition, there were 159 cases in which follow-up
services were provided for those released from juvenile training-schools. Both
National Parole cases and training-school cases increased substantially as compared
to the previous year, but there was no significant change in British Columbia Parole
cases.
The average case load per officer again increased, from 47 last year to 54 this
year. Although the average increase was not great, there are still too many officers
carrying case loads of 75 or more, a level which seriously jeopardizes the effectiveness of service to the probationer.
The average number of pre-sentence reports prepared by Probation Officers
involved in this work was 59.
4. Movement
Efforts to recruit staff for the Probation Service were vigorously pursued
throughout the year, but produced only 26 additions to staff compared to 32 the
previous year. There were 19 appointments as Probation Officer (five of whom were
transferred from the Gaol Service) and two appointments as Interviewer. Fourteen
officers left the Service during the year.
5. Training
No significant changes were made in the 16-week orientation course. As in
previous years, two courses were conducted, commencing in May and October. All
but two of the 20 candidates successfully completed the final examination.
 FF 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The promotion of two new Regional Supervisors within a short time prompted
the organization of a four-day living-in workshop focused on the job of the Supervisor.   All supervisory Probation Officers participated.
Newly appointed officers gained much from their more experienced co-workers
through discussion of all aspects of supervisory process.
The ninth annual staff meeting was held in early November. Its focus was
" Co-ordination of the Correctional Process for the Young-adult Offender." Participation of institutional counsellors and senior staff from all institutions dealing with
release on parole by the British Columbia Parole Board brought Probation Officers
a broader understanding of the problems surrounding parole release and pre-parole
planning. Many problems relating to parole readiness and supervision in the community were brought out, and the sharing of these problems did much to unify
objectives and foster team spirit among probation, parole, and institutions.
Treatment of Juvenile Delinquency
6. Juveniles Placed under Probation Supervision
During the year under review 2,040 boys under 18 and 270 girls of the same
age-group were placed under probation supervision by the Courts. These figures
are above last year's by 15 per cent for boys and by 31 per cent for girls. The total
increase was 375 or 19 per cent. Expansion of probation services will enable us to
increase preventive services to this age-group and break the progression from industrial schools to adult institutions.
7. Transfers to Adult Court
It is gratifying to be able to report a substantial decrease in the number of cases
transferred from the Family and Children's Court to the ordinary Courts under the
provision of section 9 of the Juvenile Delinquents Act. The decrease was 28 per
cent, from 210 last year to 151 during the year under review. The decrease is noteworthy because so many of these youngsters gain nothing from this transfer. They
lack sufficient education to benefit from vocational training and are particularly
vulnerable to the more negative aspects of the sophisticated young adult with whom
they quickly come into contact.
Several factors were at work to bring about this decrease. Expansion of probation staff and greater public acceptance were certainly important, as well as the
willingness of officers to give these cases additional attention in spite of their heavy
case loads. Credit should also go to Regional Supervisors, who have encouraged
officers to search imaginatively for alternatives to a transfer to Adult Court.
8. Family and Children's Court
Another source of gratification is a further substantial increase in new voluntary
cases during the year—1,546 as compared to 1,181 last year, or 365 (31 per cent).
The increase reflects an emphasis on staffing Family Courts, greater acceptance of
handling juvenile offences on an out-of-Court basis, and more use of the Family
Court facilities in dealing with cases of marital discord. Substantial sums of money,
which in most cases represent a direct saving in social assistance grants, are passing
through these Courts.
In Victoria the situation is much improved by the appointment of a full-time
Judge, an additional part-time Judge, and a full-time prosecutor. The physical
facilities for this Court are on the way to improvement with the planning of a new
building containing proper space for Court sessions, probation offices, waiting-rooms,
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1966/67 FF 43
and general office facilities.   Construction of this new building will get under way
early in the new year.
9. Family Court Committees
An increasing number of Family and Children's Court Committees are finding
ways and means of contributing to the communities they serve by establishing needs
and recruiting public support to provide resources to fill them. The communities'
role in the prevention of delinquency assumes greater importance as it becomes more
and more apparent that we cannot solve our problems by banishing them from the
community. Removal of a youngster to a training-school is at best only a temporary
expedient. It is overly optimistic to expect much success if he or she is to return to
the same unchanged environment. Family and Children's Court Committee can be a
source of great strength to the community it serves in mobilizing public support and
action if its members are alive to the local situation and sufficiently determined to do
something about it.
10. Volunteer Probation Officers
In a Province like British Columbia, it is inevitable that certain areas are too
sparsely settled for probation services to be extended to them. In these areas voluntary officers can perform useful services. Judges of the Family and Children's
Court are encouraged to seek out suitable volunteers to extend probation services to
this type of community.
.,    _    .     , „ ,        New Developments
11. Regional Framework
Prior to this year, only four of the contemplated five regional subdivisions of the
Province have been fully operational, each with its own Regional Supervisor. The
fifth region, comprising the northern areas of the Province, was brought into being on
May 1, 1966, with the appointment of Mr. R. G. McKellar as Regional Supervisor
with headquarters at Prince George.
Mr. J. M. Armstrong was promoted to Regional Supervisor of Region I in May,
1966, to replace Mr. A Byman, who resigned to take a post with the National Parole
Service. Mr. O. E. Hollands was confirmed as Regional Supervisor of Region II in
March, 1967.
Regional Supervisors continued to meet quarterly throughout the year. These
meetings play an important role in internal communications, providing a two-way
flow of information to and from the Chief Probation Officer through the Regional
Supervisors to the officer in the field. Each region organizes its own staff meetings as
part of the continuing process of staff development.
12. New Field Office
A new probation office was opened during the year at Fort St. John, which had
previously been operated on a part-time basis from the Dawson Creek office. This
was found necessary to cope with the increased Court work resulting from the development of the area and the influx of workers employed on the Peace River power
project.   The new office was opened in December, 1966.
13. Psychiatric Services
The establishment in January, 1967, of a forensic clinic as part of the Province's
Mental Health Services provided a welcome addition to available psychiatric services.
The clinic provides assessment in selected cases, accepts a limited number for treatment, and its Director, Dr. E. Lipinski, contributes to staff development through
 FF 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
weekly case discussions with Probation Officers of the Lower Mainland area.   The
services of Dr. Bennet Wong have been retained on the same basis as last year.
14. Search and Leadership Training
The success of the search and leadership training initiated three years ago
prompted expansion of this programme during the past year. Two 26-day courses
were planned, each involving 12 boys. One, with a base camp near Cranbrook,
operated in the Yoho and Kootenay National Parks. The other, with its base camp
near Haney, used Garibaldi Provincial Park for its training area. The results of a
recently completed statistical study were sufficiently encouraging to warrant a continuation of this project.
Of 43 who completed search and leadership courses during 1964-66, 27 or
63 per cent had, up to the year's end, not committed a further delinquency or offence
resulting in either further probation or committal to a Provincial correctional institution. Of the 10 probationers who were destined to be sent to an institution in
1964 and who completed the six weeks' course, seven or 70 per cent had not committed a further offence at the time of the study. A further expansion of this programme is contemplated in this forthcoming year.
15. Marpole Hostel
Staff changes, a normal hazard of small hostel operations, forced closure of the
Marpole Hostel during the latter part of the year. However, plans were under way
for its reopening at the year's end. This type of resource, entailing close association
with delinquent boys on a 24-hour basis, places heavy demands on staff.
16. Treatment for Chronic A Icoholics
Under a recent amendment to the Summary Convictions Act, Magistrates'
Courts may find a person to be a chronic alcoholic and sentence such persons to an
indeterminate period of not more than 12 months, or release them on suspended
sentence on condition they attend a clinic for treatment of their alcoholism. The
legislation defines a chronic alcoholic as a person who has more than three convictions for public intoxication during the preceding two years. Those receiving an
indeterminate sentence may be conditionally released by the Chief Probation Officer
when he is satisfied of a change in their attitude toward drinking and of a determination to lead a life of sobriety.
The new legislation is not as yet applicable to the whole Province, but was
made available initially on March 1, 1967, to the Courts at Vancouver and Kamloops, where clinics operated by the Alcoholism Foundation of British Columbia
were already in operation. It is anticipated that the legislation will be extended to
other areas when suitable facilities become available.
Because community supervision is an integral part of the concept behind the
new law, a new responsibility is added to the role assigned to probation staff. Although no releases had been authorized under the new legislation at the year's end,
an additional staff member had been recruited to assist the Vancouver Courts in the
selection of suitable cases, as well as to supervise future cases on release to the Vancouver area. Their release to other parts of the Province will come under the supervision of local field Probation Officers. The " revolving door " alcoholic, caught up
in the repetitive cycle of arrest and short-term imprisonment, presents special treatment problems. This new approach is frankly experimental, and it is difficult at this
point to foresee the volume and complexity of the work which may result from this
change. A substantial volume is anticipated, particularly in the Vancouver area.
Many of these cases will be conditionally released from the Alouette River Unit, an
institution whose programme is specifically geared toward recovery of the alcoholic.
 report of director of correction, 1966/67
Provincial Probation Offices
FF 45
Headquarters:
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver 5, B.C.
Abbotsford:
Courthouse, Abbotsford, B.C.
Burnaby:
7375 Kingsway, Burnaby 3, B.C.
Campbell River:
P.O.  Box 749,  Public Health  Building,
Birch Street, Campbell River, B.C.
Chilliwack:
Room 75, Courthouse, 77 College Street,
Chilliwack, B.C.
Courtenay:
P.O. Box 1017, Courthouse, Courtenay,
B.C.
Cranbrook:
Room 213, Courthouse,  102 South 11th
Avenue, Cranbrook, B.C.
Dawson Creek:
10300b Tenth Street, Dawson Creek, B.C.
Duncan:
271 Canada Avenue, Duncan, B.C.
Fort St. Iohn:
Courthouse, Fort St. Iohn, B.C.
Haney:
Room 4, Mide Block,  22336 Lougheed
Highway, Haney, B.C.
Kamloops:
322 Seymour Street, Kamloops, B.C.
Kelowna:
435 Bernard Avenue, Kelowna, B.C.
Lillooet:
Courthouse, Lillooet, B.C.
Marpole Hostel:
8982 Hudson Street, Vancouver 14, B.C.
Nanaimo:
Courthouse, Nanaimo, B.C.
Nelson:
Room 2, Courthouse, Nelson, B.C.
New Westminster:
618,  713  Columbia  Street,  New  Westminster, B.C.
New Westminster Family and Children's
Court:
511   Royal  Avenue,   New  Westminster,
B.C.
North Vancouver:
1676 Lloyd Avenue,  North Vancouver,
B.C.
Penticton:
Room 4, 284 Main Street, Penticton, B.C.
Port Alberni:
Public Safety Building, 1101 Sixth Avenue North, Port Alberni, B.C.
Powell River:
4687 Ewing Place, Powell River, B.C.
Prince George:
Courthouse, Prince George, B.C.
Prince Rupert:
Courthouse, Prince Rupert, B.C.
Revelstoke:
P.O. Box 1540, 307 First Street, Revelstoke, B.C.
Richmond:
105, 676 No. 3 Road, Richmond, B.C.
Smithers:
P.O. Box 2267, Smithers, B.C.
Surrey Family and Children's Court:
17671—56th Avenue, Cloverdale, B.C.
Trail:
203 Federal Building, 805 Spokane Street,
Trail, B.C.
Vancouver:
719, 193 East Hastings Street, Vancouver
4, B.C.
Vernon:
3402—30th Street, Vernon, B.C.
Victoria:
Room  104,  Law Courts  Building,  Victoria, B.C.
Family and Children's Court, 1527 Cold-
harbour Road, Victoria, B.C.
Williams Lake:
P.O. Box 697, Speers Building, 72 Second
Avenue, Williams Lake, B.C.
 FF 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Probation Statistics, April 1, 1966, to March 31, 1967
New probation cases—
Males (married, 341; single, 2,707)—
Under 18 years
18 to 24 years, inclusive
25 to 39 years, inclusive
40 to 64 years, inclusive
65 years and over	
2,040
662
239
99
8
Females (married, 66; single, 339)—
Under 18 years 	
18 to 24 years, inclusive	
25 to 39 years, inclusive	
40 to 64 years, inclusive	
65 years and over	
Total new probation cases
New parole cases (B.C. Parole, 420; Order in Council, 4;
National Parole, 56)—
Under 18 years 	
18 to 24 years, inclusive	
25 to 39 years, inclusive	
40 to 64 years, inclusive	
Total (married, 51; single, 429) 	
New cases, provisional release from training-schools—
Boys  	
Girls  	
New miscellaneous cases1
Pre-sentence reports—
Juveniles 	
Adults 	
3,048
270
85
33
16
1
41
399
28
12
190
46
1,662
2,062
Grand total
405
3,453
480
236
1,546
3,724
9,439
i Figures for miscellaneous cases have not previously been included in total figures quoted because they did
not involve a Court order. However, they are now included because these cases reflect the volume of work
from the adult side of the Family and Children's Court (that is, reconciliation and maintenance cases where a
probation order is not made), as well as cases involving juveniles who voluntarily report to a Probation Officer
without a formal Court hearing.
Transfers from Family and Children's Court to Ordinary Courts
1962/63  188
1963/64  167
1964/65  178
1965/66.
1966/67.
210
151
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1966/67
Comparison of Probation Service Activity
FF 47
1966/67
1965/66
Increase (+)
or
Decrease (—)
Per Cent
3,453
480
236
1,546
2,062
1,662
2,879
482
237
1,181
1,747
1,223
+574
—2
— 1
+365
+315
+439
20
New Provincial releases from training-school
New miscellaneous cases — 	
Pre-sentence Reports
Adult 	
Juvenile—          	
31
18
36
 FF48
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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FF 49
APPENDICES
BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF PAROLE
Table No. 1.—Summary of Meetings Held and Cases Dealt with,
April 1, 1966, to March 31, 1967
Number of meetings held	
Decisions made—
New cases considered	
Miscellaneous—
84
417
British Columbia-National paroles considered
Reviews	
Special consideration	
Revocations considered _
Administrative decisions
20
49
61
211
1
Total decisions made
In co-operation with National Parole Service—
Applications for National parole supported by British Columbia Board of
Parole	
Disposition of cases—
Support withdrawn
342
759
14
       3
       9
       2
     14
Applications for National parole not supported by British Columbia Board
of Parole	
Total cases considered	
Granted National parole	
Decisions by National Parole Board pending
Total 	
Average number of cases dealt with per meeting
Released on parole during the fiscal year	
6
20
9.0
411
Table No. 2.—Progressive Summary of Meetings Held and Cases Considered,
1949 to 1966/67
Year
Number of
Meetings
Decisions Made
New
Miscellaneous
Total
1949-
1950_
1951-
1952-
1953-
1954-
1955_
1956._
1957-
1958_.
1959-
1960-
1961-
1962-
1963	
1964 (January, February, and March)-
1964/65	
1965/66	
1966/67	
Totals-
5
12
12
14
23
37
44
51
69
84
93
70
74
69
73
17
76
81
84
988
457
450
389
417
331
355
91
374
426
417
460
684
460
356
319
259
63
270
320
342
15
79
61
72
147
343
409
521
621
917
1,134
849
773
650
614
154
644
746
759
9,508
Average number of decisions per meeting, 9.5.
 FF 50
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Table No. 6.—Miscellaneous Statistical Information, Year Ended March 31, 1967
1964/65
1965/66
1966/67
Parolees
Total paroled   	
Average age (years)  	
Average training period (months)	
Institutional Comparison—
Lakeview and Vancouver Island Unit (months).
Chilliwack Forest Camps (months)	
Oakalla Prison Farm (months) ~ 	
New Haven (months)_
Haney Correctional Institution (months).
Revokees
Total revocations-
Average age (years)..
Average training period (months)	
Average period on parole (months)  	
Occurrence of revocation relative to period on parole—
During 1 to 4 months  	
During 5 to 8 months _
During 9 months or over-
Day Parole
Released on the condition of day parole—
From Haney Correctional Institution...
From New Haven — 	
From Oakalla Prison Farm-
Totals	
355
20.3
12.4
7.8
11.3
12.1
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19%
6%
395
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13.7
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411
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24%
7%
Parole Success Based on Times Paroled
Average
1964/65
1965/66
1966/67
Per Cent
68
51
57
Per Cent
70
61
67
Per Cent
72
49
25
Per Cent
63
44
78
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Table No. 6.—Miscellaneous Statistical Information, Year Ended
March 31, 1967—Continued
How Definite-Indeterminate Sentences Used
Received during period April 1, 1964, to March 31, 1965  495
Released on parole  375    (76%)
Discharged—■
Refused parole   20    (4.0%)
Absconded     7    (1.5%)
Regular discharge   78  (15.5%)
Total discharged on completion of sentence  105    (21%)
In custody on March 31, 1965     15      (3%)
Total for period 1964/65   495  (100%)
Of the 105 discharges—
To date reconvicted  49
On remand    2
Total     51    (49 % )
Having no further convictions      54    (51%)
Two hundred reports were reviewed by Mrs. I. M. Norris, member of the British Columbia Board of Parole, and classified as follows:—
From broken homes 54 or 27.0%
Wards of social welfare 18 or  9.0%
Indians  31 or 15.5%
Having a low I.Q 62 or 31.0%
Having border-line mentality 12 or  6.0%
Boys' Industrial School experience 69 or 34.5%
First offenders  j. 18 or  9.0%
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1966/67
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