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REPORT of the FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1965 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1966

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Hon. R. G. Williston, Minister F. S. McKinnon, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of the
FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31
1965
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1966
  Victoria, B.C., February, 1966.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.
Lieutenant-Governor oj British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service
of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources for the Calendar year
1965.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister oj Lands, Forests, and Water Resources.
 The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister oj Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Forest
Service during the calendar year 1965.
F. S. McKINNON,
Deputy Minister oj Forests.
 ■.>"■■ .
Planting Douglas fir seedlings in steep terrain, Robertson River valley,
Cowichan Lake district.
  CONTENTS
Page
1. Chief Forester's Report  11
2. Forest Surveys and Inventory Division  13
Field Programme  13
Forest Classification and Sampling  13
Growth Studies  13
Loss-factor Studies  14
Special Field Projects  14
Operations  14
Office Programme  15
Forest Mapping  15
Area and Volume Summaries and Distribution of Information  16
3. Forest Research Division  17
Experiment Station  17
Data-processing  17
Field Programme  17
Tree Breeding and Provenance Studies  17
Nursery and Plantation Studies  18
Participation in the ARDA Programme  19
4. Reforestation Division  20
Forest Nurseries  20
Forest Tree Seed  20
Reconnaissance and Survey Work  22
Planting  22
Permanent Improvements  23
Co-operation  23
Interdepartmental Rehabilitation and Forestry Programme  24
5. Working Plans Division  26
Pulpwood Harvesting Areas  26
Pulp Harvesting Forests  28
Other Public Sustained-yield Units  28
Tree-farm Licences  28
Certified Tree-farms  28
Farm Wood-lot Licences  28
 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Page
6. Public Information and Education Division  29
Communications Media  29
Press and Periodicals  29
Publications and Printing  29
Radio and Television  30
Posters and Signs  3 0
Exhibits  31
Photography  31
Still Photography  31
Motion-picture Photography  32
X-ray 1  32
Colour Printing  32
Film Library  32
School Lecture Programme  33
Library  33
7. Forest Management Division  34
Peace River Flood Basin  34
Columbia Flood Basin  34
Spruce Bark Beetle  3 5
Douglas Fir Bark Beetle  35
Close Utilization  35
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  35
Stumpage Prices  3 6
Silviculture  36
Scaling  38
8. Grazing Division  39
General Conditions  39
Range : 39
Hay  39
Markets and Prices  39
Range Management  40
Range Improvements  40
Peace River Pastures  41
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 9
Page
8. Grazing Division—Continued
Co-operation  42
Administration  43
Grazing Permits  43
Hay Permits  43
Grazing Fees  43
Control and Enforcement  44
9. Engineering Services Division  45
Engineering Section  45
Development Engineering, Reconnaissance, and Road Location 45
Road Construction and Maintenance  45
General Engineering  46
Mechanical Section  47
Building Construction and Design  48
Marine Design and Investigation  48
Small-boat Purchases  48
Mobile Accommodation  48
Forest Service Maintenance Depot  49
Marine Work  49
Prefabrication and Carpentry Shop  49
Machine-shop  49
Transport Pool and Warehouse  49
Engineering Maintenance-shop  50
Radio Section  50
10. Forest Protection Division  52
Weather  52
Fires  52
Occurrence and Causes  52
Cost of Fire-fighting  52
Damage  52
Protection Planning and Research  53
Fire Statistics  53
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography  53
 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Page
10. Forest Protection Division—Continued
Protection Planning and Research—Continued
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks  53
Insect Control  53
Research Projects  53
Fire-suppression Crews  54
Aircraft  55
Roads and Trails  55
Slash Disposal and Snag-falling  55
Prescribed Burning, Interior Districts  56
Fire-law Enforcement  56
Forest Closures  56
11. Forest Service Training-school  57
Extra Courses and Functions  57
Acknowledgments  58
12. Accounting Division  59
Fiscal  59
Administration  60
13. Personnel Division  61
Communications and Training  61
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turnover  62
Classification, Salaries, and Working Conditions  63
14. Personnel Directory, 1965  64
15. Appendix—Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of the
Forest Service  67
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
CHIEF FORESTER'S REPORT
The year 1965 was one of continued progress and achievement in nearly all
aspects of forest activity in British Columbia.
The total amount of timber scaled in the Province was 1,533,112,794 cubic
feet, an increase of more than 18,500,000 cubic feet or 1.2 per cent over the previous record year of 1964.
Production value also broke the 1964 record, rising to $980,000,000, an increase of $44,000,000 or 4.7 per cent. An indication of the rate of expansion of
the pulp and paper industry was the fact that its production accounted for
$20,000,000 of this increase.
Forest revenues followed the pattern with a financial return to the Forest
Service of $47,558,411 during the calendar year. This all-time high was more
than $5,000,000 above the 1964 record. Timber-sale stumpage accounted for 88.4
per cent of the total, while timber royalties, the second highest revenue category,
accounted for 5.5 per cent.
Progress of the sustained-yield programme is shown by the fact that, at the
end of the year, the total area committed under working plans was 79,301,951
acres of productive forest, with a total allowable annual cut of 1,120,433,000 cubic
feet, which is the equivalent of 73 per cent of the total Provincial scale for 1965.
The allowable annual cut in sustained yield included 100,000,000 cubic feet set up
on the basis of a close utilization standard.
A considerable amount of work was carried out during the year in the organization and reorganization of various forest areas throughout the Province. Five
pulpwood harvesting areas were designated, while four public sustained-yield units
were proclaimed and gazetted as pulp harvesting forests. One new tree-farm licence
was issued, and three new Taxation Act tree-farms were certified. In addition, 14
public sustained-yield units were reorganized into six larger units.
At the end of the year, the number of managed units in the Province totalled
197, including 75 public sustained-yield units, of which 41 are covered by 7 pulp-
wood harvesting areas (four formally ratified); 40 tree-farm licences; 31 Taxation
Act tree-farms not included within the tree-farm licences;  and 51 farm wood-lots.
Considerable progress also was made with the programme of intensive inventory of public sustained-yield units. Inclusive of 1964 field work, unit survey work
now is available for 37,500,000 acres. A further 21,000,000 acres are covered by
maintenance surveys. Growth, loss-factor, and volume studies continued to provide the basic information used in the compilation of inventory and the calculation
of allowable cuts.
In reforestation, a record 17,809,200 trees were planted by all agencies during
the year, and the steadily increasing demand for planting stock has necessitated a
continuous expansion of nursery facilities.
Continuing research activities at the Forest Service experiment station, in tree
breeding and provenance studies, and in nursery plantation studies were carried
out in support of the reforestation programme and the general improvement of the
forests.
11
 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
The work of opening up our forests to industrial development continued, with
engineering projects in 28 sustained-yield units. The 64 miles of road constructed
during the year brought to 919 the miles constructed by the Forest Service since
the beginning of its forest-development road programme in 1950, and included 23
bridges.
Work also continued on the development of navigation channels and landings within the area to be flooded by the Portage Mountain Dam, and clearing was
well advanced on 5,820 acres of waterway by the end of the year.
The dry, occasionally windy summer brought a difficult fire season, which
resulted in a total of 2,685 fires, a figure well above the 10-year average of 2,106.
However, the 307,132 acres of forest cover burned amounted to only 64 per cent
of the 10-year average of 479,525.
Damage to forest-cover totalled $5,000,000, which was $2,000,000 over the
10-year average, but well below the $8,000,000 damage of 1958 and the $13,-
000,000 damage of 1961.
Total use of Crown range again increased, to set a new record in this area
of Forest Service responsibility. Altogether, 188,339 cattle were grazing under
permit during the year, an increase of nearly 15,000 over 1964.
To safely accommodate the increased live-stock numbers, efforts were concentrated on improving management by range-users. Relations between the industry
and the Forest Service remained good despite the onerous requirements necessarily
imposed on permit-holders under the existing crowded range conditions.
Several amendments were made to the Forest Act in 1965.
Provision was made to allow application of the cost of timber sales to the timber
licence as a whole, or to cutting permits issued pursuant to the licence. Cost of
building primary access roads now may be offset against stumpage. Sales of pulp-
wood now can be made to other parties under the amendment to section 17a.
Section 33 was amended to permit the sale of forest land from pulp harvesting
forests.
Important changes were made in Parts V and VI, relating to timber leases
and special timber licences. The main points of change were: (1) consent to
transfer now is required, (2) rental rates were fixed at 50 cents per acre, and
(3) a new form of licence or lease document now can be issued by the Minister
as the form of a renewal.
Section 52 was amended whereby the holder of a lease or licence is no longer
considered the owner for the purpose of Part VI. It is no longer necessary to
obtain consent from him for a right-of-way across the lease or licence.
The rates of royalty on timber berths were amended. A regulation on the
definition of pulpwood also was made.
Near the close of the year, announcement was made of the adoption of a
voluntary close utilization policy, designed to ensure the complete utilization of
the forest resource.
Effective on January 1, 1966, the policy was adopted following comprehensive
discussions between the Forest Service and forest industry. There is general
acceptance of the principle of close utilization, but it is anticipated that, because
of a variety of local considerations in different areas of the Province, there will be
a considerable management work load in the future to bring about successful
implementation.
It is believed that the introduction of close utilization will be at least as important to the future of British Columbia's forests as was the introduction of the
sustained-yield programme.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 13
FOREST SURVEYS AND INVENTORY DIVISION
The programme of intensive inventory of public sustained-yield units continued
in 1965. Inclusive of 1964 field work, unit survey information is now available for
37,500,000 acres.   A further 21,000,000 acres are covered by maintenance surveys.
Growth, loss-factor, and volume studies continued. These studies provide the
basic information used in the compilation of inventory and the calculation of allowable cuts. The investigation into the application of 70-mm. photography to forest
sampling was carried further, and the regeneration survey started in 1964 was
completed. A small party was assigned again to a cruising project for the Department of Finance.
The continuous staff employed by the Division numbered 140 and included
58 foresters, 12 technical personnel, 55 draughting and clerical staff, and 15
mechanical, warehouse, launch crew, and operations personnel. To supplement
the professional and technical staff during the field season, 86 seasonal employees
were engaged.
Financial assistance for the inventory programme was provided again under
the Federal-Provincial Forestry Agreement.
FIELD PROGRAMME
Forest Classification and Sampling
During the 1965 field season, forest inventory field work, at the unit survey
standard, was completed in the Nazko area and in six public sustained-yield units
encompassing an area of 12,500,000 acres. Details of the area involved in each
unit are shown in Table B outlining the production of interim base maps for this
work.
In the course of this work, 2,188 multi-plot samples were established by crews
of the Division. An additional 461 such samples were established on tree-farm
licence areas by crews of the licensees working in co-operative arrangement with the
Division. Though these latter samples may not apply to stands in areas of current
field work, they can be used to supplement information on similar forest types in
public sustained-yield units.
Growth Studies
In the 1965 " growth and yield " programme, 90 permanent plots were established in one Interior and three Coast public sustained-yield units. These were distributed as follows: Big Bar, 39; Chilliwack, 21; Harrison, 7; and Yale, 12. Types
sampled were: 45 Douglas fir, 25 hemlock, and 20 lodgepole pine. Conditions
sampled were: Ages ranging from 30 to 100 years, sites from good to low with the
majority in the medium and poor class, and elevations ranging from 500 to 5,100
feet.
Production of both zonal and local volume-over-age curves was stepped up
during the year to provide current data for recalculation of annual allowable cuts
for regulated areas. Since there is a need for empirical yield tables based on this
information, tables were produced showing yield and mean annual increment by
growth type at two diameter levels. These tables for zones will be published in
1966.
Over 40 inquiries and miscellaneous requests for growth information were
processed during the year.
 14 department of lands, forests, and water resources
Loss-factor Studies
To complete loss-factor work in the Yale Public Sustained-yield Unit, 2,198
trees were felled and measured on 82 sample plots. Through the addition of information collected in previous studies in the unit, measurements of 2,782 trees
now are available to establish local loss factors for this unit. Ten of the 1965 sample
plots were double-sampled in connection with the study of 70-mm. helicopter
photography.
The Division now has measurements of 44,259 felled trees on 509 samples
(2,036 plots) in various parts of the Province.
Through co-operative loss-factor work by tree-farm licensees, measurements
were submitted for 1,386 trees on 16 samples.
Local taper curves for hemlock and balsam in the Soo Public Sustained-yield
Unit and butt taper tables for commercial Coast tree species were published.
Special Field Projects
In the vicinity of Hope, 2,490 acres of privately held forest properties were
examined on behalf of the Department of Finance for real-property assessment.
A regeneration study, undertaken in 1964 to determine the progress of natural
restocking on yellow pine-fir sites near Cranbrook, was completed with the examination of a further 27,000 acres of logged or burned areas. A report on this additional
area is being prepared for the Reforestation Division.
A stand-treatment cruise was completed on the 5,000-acre Rampart Demonstration Forest near Cranbrook, in which a total of 361 fiftieth-acre sample plots
were established for volume.
The investigation into the application of 70-mm. photography to forest sampling continued. This time a coastal unit, the Yale Public Sustained-yield Unit, was
the scene of operations. Again the results of the tests were favourable, showing
that the standard error of predicting the height of an individual tree through photo
measurement has increased from plus or minus 3 feet to plus or minus 4 feet.
In conjuction with photo-sampling projects, a study in the application of this
method to measurement of logging waste was conducted. A 10-chain transect was
established in a high-lead logged area, and all pieces of material with minimum
dimensions of 4 feet in length and a 4-inch top and larger were counted, and dimensions of every fifth piece measured. Results show there is no significant difference
between the number of pieces counted on the ground and on the photos, or between
ground and photo measurements of piece volume. In co-operation with the Forest
Products Laboratory of the Federal Department of Forestry, a similar logging-waste
study was conducted near Falkland.   Results of this test are still being compiled.
Operations
Field work in the Hecate and Ootsa units during 1965 necessitated extensive
use of water transportation. The launch " Forest Surveyor " with a 60-foot barge
served as a floating base for much of the work in the Hecate, and two 17-foot outboard cabin boats and a 14-foot boat with outboard motor were used by field crews
working from this base. Much of the Ootsa unit was accessible from the Ootsa
flood basin, and here a 23-foot launch, two 17-foot cabin boats, and two jet-powered
river boats were used. The jet boats, with reinforced hulls, proved particularly
valuable in penetrating offshore snags and debris to enable field crews to get ashore
for examination of forest stands. A river boat with outboard motor was used for
transportation on the Parsnip River for access to a large area of that unit.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
15
Helicopters were used on all inventory projects for classification work in inaccessible areas and to transport sampling crews to those areas. The loss-factor
crews also used helicopter transportation to remote samples. A Bell G3B and two
Bell G2 helicopters were employed under contract, while other machines were
chartered locally as required. Flying-time on helicopters totalled 1,000 hours.
Approximately 150 hours of flying by float-equipped fixed-wing aircraft was carried
out to ferry crews and equipment to remote sub-base camps on lakes in several
project areas, particularly in the Nazko area west of Quesnel.
Liaison was maintained with the Air Division of the Lands Service to obtain
air photography coverage for 1966 and 1967 projects. As a result, air photography
was completed on an area of 18,540 square miles at a scale of 20 chains to 1 inch,
and 9,350 square miles at 40 chains to 1 inch.
OFFICE PROGRAMME
Forest Mapping
Table A outlines the final forest-cover mapping, planimetry and volume
estimates completed during 1965, based on the 1964 field projects. Unit survey
reports, maps, and map-area and map-volume statements have been issued on all
but the southern half of the Hecate Public Sustained-yield Unit. For the latter
area, only maps and area statements are now available. On completion, in 1966,
of compilation and mapping for the northern half of the Hecate, a unit survey report
will be issued for the entire unit.
Table A.—Production oj Final Forest-cover Maps jor 1964 Projects
Project
Z o
•rtfi3
JiU o
Forest and Non-forest Area
in Acres
Crown      Alienated       Total
Volume in
M Cu. Ft.
on Mature
Crown
Area
Blueberry P.S.Y.U	
Burns Lake P.S.Y.U..
Cranbrook P.S.Y.U-
Hecate P.S.Y.U. (south half)...
Part of Kitimat T.F.L. reserve..
Okanagan P.S.Y.U	
Soo P.S.Y.U	
Totals-
130
70
100
43
25
91
89
548
20
20
20
40
40
20
20
2,748,392
1,125,044
1,826,200
2,188,257
1,459,500
1,327,951
1,514,287
45,327
96,340
243,943
18,931
9,680
536,750
136,733
2,793,719
1,221,384
2,070,148
2,207,188
1,469,180
1,864,701
1,651,060
1,340,4871
1,401,1061
1,264,4881
(2)
1,538,6793
1,204,4201
2,860,7118
12,189,631
1,087,749
13,277,380
P.S.Y.U.=pubIic sustained-yield unit. T.F.L.=tree-farm licence,
i Volumes 7.1"-f- d.b.h. close utilization standard less decay.
2 Not yet calculated.
3 Volumes 9.1"+d.b.h. close utilization standard less decay.
Table B indicates the extent of base maps prepared for the 1965 field projects.
With the exception of the Hecate Public Sustained-yield Unit, these areas were
base-mapped from 20-chain to 1-inch air photos flown in 1964. Forest-cover
mapping of these projects is now in progress, and maps and reports should be available by the fall of 1966.
 16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Table B.—Production oj Interim Base Maps jor 1965 Field Work
Project
Number
of Maps
Scale
(Chains
to Inch)
Total
Estimated
Acreage
Hecate Public Sustained-yield Unit (north half) i~
Nehalliston Public Sustained-yield Unit)	
Ootsa Public Sustained-yield Unit	
Parsnip Public Sustained-yield Unit.
Upper Kootenay Public Sustained-yield Unit-
West Road-Nazko area2	
Yalakom Public Sustained-yield Unit-
Totals	
45 ( + 13)
23
132
76
65
107
86
40 (+20)
20
20
20
20
20
20
2,515,000
385,000
2,810,800
1,487,000
1,413,700
2,036,700
1,850,000
547
12,498,200
i Includes 13 maps at 20-chain scale for part of Skeena Public Sustained-yield Unit.
2 Extension to Narcosli Public Sustained-yield Unit and portion of Chilko Public Sustained-yield Unit.
Area and Volume Summaries and Distribution of Information
In addition to the planimetry of 13,300,000 acres required for unit survey
reports, 86 inventory summaries were completed for Forest Service management
planning purposes, and 152 were completed for the Lands Service which involved
applications to lease or to purchase. These requests accounted for a total area of
60,000,000 acres and a net timber volume of 81,000,000,000 cubic feet.
Sales and distribution of maps and other information increased considerably
over the previous year. The material included 20,700 maps, 240 survey reports,
840 volume-over-age curves, and over 8,000 sample volume statements and compartment area sheets.
All of the 2,649 Provincial samples established during the 1965 field season
have been compiled on the basis of the 1962 Standard Cubic Foot Volume Tables.
The Provincial total, 1953 to 1965, inclusive, stands at 30,878 exclusive of permanent growth plots, and prints of any compiled sample statement in cubic feet per
acre are available at a nominal charge.
The Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce has
recently installed an I.B.M. 1620 computer with two disk drives and on-line printer,
plus an I.B.M. 1401 with four tape units and one disk drive. The installation will
benefit the Division's data-processing by reducing sorting-time and virtually eliminating card-storage problems.
 138°
134°
134°
132"
130°
126°
124°
122°
120°
114°
56°
54°
52°
50°
48°
136°
134°
132°
130°
128°
126°
122°
120°
118°
116°
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 17
FOREST RESEARCH DIVISION
A detailed report on the research programme for 1965 will appear in the
annual Forest Research Review, compiled at the end of the fiscal year.
EXPERIMENT STATION
Unusually heavy snowfall occurred last winter, resulting in considerable damage to the clone banks at Cowichan Lake. Seventy-one per cent of the scions
grafted in the spring of 1964 were torn off or so severely damaged that they had to
be removed. Many of these, however, were salvaged and regrafted. In addition,
scions from 32 new trees registered in 1964 were added to the clone banks, which
now contain representatives of 457 clones.
In the research nursery, 8,500 1+0 seedlings from controlled Douglas fir
crosses made in 1963 were transplanted. Thirty-two seed-lots, resulting from 1964
pollinations of seven trees located at Cowichan Lake with pollen from the Interior
of British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California, produced over 20,600
seedlings in 1965 for transplanting in 1966.
One hundred and fifty provenances of white and Engelmann spruce were sown,
and detailed assessments of growth behaviour made during the growing season.
The physical development of the nursery and clone bank continues. In the
nursery, four new coldframes were constructed. An additional 40 acres have been
cleared for the clone bank including the splitting and uprooting of old-growth
stumps to prevent rootrot (Poria weirii) infecting newly established grafted root-
stock.
DATA-PROCESSING
In the Vancouver Forest District, programmes for scale computing and billing
tasks have been adapted for the newly installed I.B.M. 1440 computer.
In the research section, the total number of general programmes has been
increased to nine, plus eight temporary programmes written for specific application.
The data from 21 experiments were evaluated by the Victoria I.B.M. 1620 Model 2.
FIELD PROGRAMME
Tree Breeding and Provenance Studies
Plus-tree selection was continued during the summer to extend the coverage
of the range of Douglas fir. Five member companies of the Tree Improvement
Board co-operated in financing a selection crew to work with the Research Division.
Both crews worked from the launch "B.C. Forester" throughout most of the
summer, operating between Kimsquit and Sechelt. Sixty-six new trees were registered as a result of the summer's effort. During November, with the help of Prince
Rupert District staff, scions were collected from 24 trees in the Bella Coola area.
The seventh Plus Tree Week, organized by the Tree Improvement Board, was
held, and nine trees between Hope and Powell River were registered.
Considerable progress has been made with intraspecific crosses of Douglas fir.
At the nursery stage, north-south wide crosses show up better than east-west crosses.
During the winter an X-ray unit was established in Victoria and suitable
methods worked out for the assessment of spruce-seed quality by radiography.
The Douglas-fir-seed provenance study was held up by a lack of seed in 1965.
 18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Nursery and Plantation Studies
Vancouver District
A fertilizer experiment at the Duncan B nursery showed that, in the first year,
phosphates had a highly beneficial effect upon seedling height and dry weight.
Mortality was reduced. Potassium had no detectable effect, and magnesium generally reduced dry weight and increased mortality.
In spite of a warm, dry spring, first-season survival and growth were excellent
in two experiments comparing several classes of Douglas fir planting stock on a
variety of coastal sites. Early differences between age-classes and size grades were
negligible, and preliminary results suggest the overriding importance of care in
handling and planting stock.
Early in June, 18,000 2-month-old Douglas fir seedlings in Vi-inch plastic
containers were planted in test plots in co-operation with the Reforestation Board.
Aspect and shade factors strongly influenced survival, which varied from 0 to 65
per cent.
Prince Rupert District
A comprehensive lodgepole pine problem anlaysis was completed to aid in
setting up a 10-year research programme dealing with this species.
A plantation study to test the relative performance of 2+1 and 3+0 white
spruce on brush sites was established. Two spot-seeding studies were initiated, one
on a freshly scarified area and the other within a 1965 spring burn. An extensive
hemlock planting trial was established in co-operation with Celgar Company Limited
(Terrace) to study the interrelations of site, season, stock, planting methods, and
edaphic conditions with survival and early development.
Prince George District
Most of the season was spent on a reconnaissance of the district prior to writing
a problem of analysis leading to a long-term programme. Visits were made to Grand
Prairie and Hinton, Alberta, to observe regeneration problems.
Nine direct-seeding trials of spruce and lodgepole pine were established in cooperation with the district reforestation officer. One spruce spacing plot was
established with replications to follow annually. A small spruce provenance trial
was planted out.
A final report is being written on the influence of time on the effectiveness of
scarified seed-beds. It has been noted that the effectiveness of seed-beds decreases
with the passage of time after scarification, due mainly to the regrowth of vegetation.
Survival on seed-beds scarified and seeded the same year was 64 per cent, while
survival on those seeded, one, two, three, and four years after scarification was 43,
39, 35, and 29 per cent respectively.
Kamloops District
A comprehensive report of plantations in the Kamloops and Nelson Districts
has shown a number of factors responsible for low survival in plantations. Animals,
bad planting practices, poor-quality stock, soils, and lack of proper site preparation
have been a few of the major causes of the low survival. Many plantations, however, have not been adversely affected by these factors, and as a result have been
successful.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
19
Nelson District
A lodgepole pine thinning study in its 11th year indicates that 80 per cent
stand density (1947 yield tables) provides the greatest net increment and the lowest
susceptibility to mechanical damages in the East Kootenay.
Information obtained from a single, medium hemlock seed crop suggests that
(1) no appreciable amount of seed is dispersed farther than 200 feet from the seed
source, (2) seed may disseminate farther upslope than downslope on southerly
exposures due to mid-afternoon convection currents, and (3) distance of seed
dispersal is greater in the fall than in the winter.
Participation in the ARDA Programme
A part of the ARDA programme in British Columbia is concerned with a soil
survey and land-capability rating of an area between Prince George and Quesnel
referred to as the Special Sale Area. This is a co-operative project with Provincial
and Federal representatives participating. Mapping and rating of the land for forest
and agriculture capability is completed, and a land-use report is being prepared.
Another part o fthe ARDA programme is concerned with a study of climate
as it may affect the use of land for forestry or agriculture. The Research Division is
responsible for establishing a network of temporary climatic stations to supplement
the existing network, located mainly in urban and agricultural valleys, in order to
extend climatic information to less accessible forested regions.
For details of research projects active in 1965, and if publications and unpublished reports, see Tables Nos. 11 and 12 in the Appendix.
 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
REFORESTATION DIVISION
FOREST NURSERIES
As anticipated, seedling stock in Coastal nurseries was protected by a heavy
snow cover during the period of low temperature which occurred early in the year.
Late spring frosts caused nominal damage in most nurseries, with Green Timbers
reporting heavier than normal losses early in May. At Duncan, where similar
temperatures were recorded at that time, damage was prevented by the use of " solid
set " irrigation equipment following advance frost warnings. This system of sprinkling enables all nursery bed areas to be irrigated at once and shows great promise in
frost-damage control as well as an increase in irrigation efficiency at lower cost.
The summer months were warmer and drier than in the previous three years, except
for the eastern portion of the Nelson Forest District, where the East Kootenay
Nursery reported above average precipitation. Some reduction in the growth of
nursery stock resulted from this weather picture, especially where there were shortages of water or breakdowns in irrigation equipment. Normally the proper use
of irrigation will offset rainfall deficiencies. The only frost damage reported in the
autumn was at Duncan, where irrigation equipment had been removed before the
1—0 stock was completely hardened off.
The sowing of 3,781 beds in the spring completed the scheduled programme
of 4,439 beds of stock for 1967 and 1968. Germination and subsequent survival
of this 1—0 stock was lower than normal. At Duncan B nursery, where poor
distribution and colour were noted last year, this same condition appeared. This
defect is apparently overcome during the second year since 2—0 stock from the
initial sowings at Duncan B has developed very well. A similar condition was
noted in the seed-beds at Green Timbers, but its occurrence is only in small and
scattered patches. It is worthy of note that most of the Douglas fir grown at both
Duncan and Green Timbers has not been shaded, and at Duncan some of the 1—0
beds have been without sideboards as well. To date there have been no detrimental
effects from this technique, and there is even some indication that hardier plants
are the result. With the promise of adequate frost prevention by irrigation, it is
possible that the costly and time-consuming chore of erecting side boards and shade
frames may be eliminated from at least some nurseries.
In the autumn, 1,199 beds were sown mainly with spruce and hemlock to
provide stock for 1968 and 1969 planting.
Weeds continued to plague the nursery programme, and weeding costs were
higher than normal in most nurseries. A concentrated campaign against this
nuisance is a necessity if product'on costs are to be lowered over the long run.
Expansion of the various co-operative nurseries continued during 1965.
Details can be found in the section entitled " Interdepartmental Rehabilitation and
Forestry Programme." Shipments from all nurseries in 1965 were up some 26
per cent over 1964 and established a new record of 18,165,500 trees shipped for
field planting.
See Table No. 21 in the Appendix.
FOREST TREE SEED
Cone crops of all species in the Province were reported light to negligible with
the exception of ponderosa pine, which throughout its range produced a medium
crop. Consequently no major collections of tree seed were undertaken during the
year.    Small collections were made to fill special demands, and it was during this
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 21
activity that some important experience was acquired relative to the viability of
cottonwood seed.
The past history of cone crops was reviewed, with the object of studying cone-
crop periodicity. While the findings are not conclusive, there is now some reason
to believe that collections of Coast Douglas fir during bumper crops should be large
enough to provide a 13-year supply of seed. This is especially true of high-elevation
provenances.
The presence of male and female strobili during the fall at all elevations in Coast
Douglas fir indicates a potentially good crop of that species in 1966. A similar
crop of flower buds has been reported in Coastal Washington and Oregon. While
14,000 bushels of Douglas fir cones were harvested during the last bumper crop in
1959, only 724 bushels have been gathered since, of which 65 per cent has come
from seed-production areas. It is estimated that at the present time 40,000 bushels
of Douglas fir cones must be collected to ensure an adequate supply of seed for
Crown land in the Vancouver Forest District.
Early in the year 650 kilograms of seed were extracted from 2,934 bushels of
cones collected from 127 provenances during 1964. Of this, 80 per cent is Douglas
fir from the Nelson Forest District. In addition, 105 small research lots were
extracted and cleaned. The 1965 collections totalled 30.5 bushels from six provenances, and these cones yielded only 2.96 kilograms of seed.
In the seed laboratory, 596 germination tests were carried out, bringing this
information up to date for all seed in storage. Almost three-quarters of a ton of
seed was weighed out and prepared for sowing in forest nurseries. Seed on hand
for all agencies now amounts to 4,116 kilograms or approximately 4V2 tons. The
seed situation with regard to high-elevation Coast Douglas fir is critical for certain
areas. Supplies of Interior spruce for the Prince Rupert Forest District are seriously low.
On the Coast, seed-production areas received routine fertilization applications
again in 1965. Results from the 1964 fertilization programme were disappointing
as, although heavy flower crops were produced, a cone crop did not materialize.
In most cases the flowers aborted before bud-break. Since 1959, Coast production areas have yielded 130 pounds of Douglas fir seed. There are now 10 such
areas, totalling 44 acres.
In the Interior, seed-production areas to date have generally failed to produce
seed. Of the 15 plots now established, 9 are in spruce, 5 in Douglas fir, and 1 in
larch. Not as much is known about the timing of fertilization in regard to reproductive-bud initiation of spruce as is known for Douglas fir. However, in 1965
some evidence was obtained indicating that flower buds in spruce may be differentiated much later than in Douglas fir. The only success in the Interior has been
with two Douglas fir plots in the Kamloops Forest District. No spruce plots have
yet produced artificially stimulated cone crops.
Grafting of plus-tree material in the Campbell River seed orchard continued
in 1965 with 1,435 ramets being established in Field No. 2. Initial survival at the
end of the first growing season was 93 per cent, but heavy snowfall in the late
autumn caused an estimated 68 per cent loss due to breakage. Similar losses due
to weather conditions have occurred for the last three years. In Field No. 1, the 922
ramets now established constitute the survivors of 1963 and 1964 grafting and
represent a survival rate of 49 per cent. In addition to the grafting carried out
in the orchard, an additional 274 spare ramets were established at Campbell River
and 442 more were grafted to rootstock in the Duncan clone bank. The seed
orchard was sown to grass in an effort to keep weeds to a minimum.    Routine
 22 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
cleaning, cultivation, and pruning were carried out. The data-recording system
for the orchard was revised toward more accurate and efficient analysis of the
information obtained.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
No formal regeneration surveys were carried out on the Coast during the year.
However, reforestation crews assessed some 38,200 acres of cut-over and slash-
burned sites in all Ranger districts. The object of this assessment was not only to
locate plantable area for 1966, but also to establish some relationship between
logging, burning, and plantability on which to base future reforestation planning
in the Vancouver Forest District. During the years 1962 to 1964, an average of
40,200 acres of Crown land was logged annually; of this, an average of 22,100
acres was broadcast-burned, providing about 16,500 acres of plantable site each
year. The current backlog of such burned and plantable site was found to be 16,000
acres, which, with an estimated 31,000 acres burned in the fall of 1965 and considered plantable, brings the Crown area to be planted in the Vancouver Forest
District to 47,000 acres.
Forest Surveys and Inventory Division crews completed a study in the
ponderosa pine zone of the East Kootenay on the progress of natural regeneration
on lands previously classified as not sufficiently restocked. This study now has
covered 150,000 acres, and a complete report is expected early in 1966. These
crews also carried out a stand-treatment survey and detailed inventory of the 5,000-
acre rampart demonstration area (Pasture Development No. 5).
A comprehensive re-examination of plantations in the East Kootenay was
carried out in co-operation with Research Division. The object of this study was
to assess plantation success in regard to the many factors which influence seedling
survival and development so as to provide some insight for future planning. A
similar project was completed in the Kamloops Forest District in 1964. The information from both areas is presently being assimilated into one complete report,
the contents of which will be applicable to the Southern Interior in general.
PLANTING
Owing to heavy winter snow and the long drawn-out spring, planting crews
throughout the Province were almost two weeks late in getting started in 1965, and
some projects eventually were cancelled because of persisting snow cover. Once
planting was under way, conditions remained excellent, except in the Northern
interior, where continual warm weather in May and June finally forced suspension
of several projects. Fall planting operations were carried out in three of the five
forest districts. On the Coast, some projects were delayed or cancelled because
access roads were washed out by heavy rains. In the Interior, two projects were
snowed out during the third week of October.
The demands of dam construction, pondage clearing, highway relocation, and
construction projects are beginning to create a shortage of suitable labour for planting in some parts of the Province. Nevertheless, the total planting effort in 1965
set a new mark of 17,809,200 trees, of which 36 per cent was planted by the Forest
Service on Crown land. Native Indians continue to be the backbone of this programme in some districts. Interior planting amounted to 2,481,200 trees, and it is
noteworthy that the 10 millionth Interior tree was planted in the autumn.
See Table No. 22 in the Appendix.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 23
Experimental plantings of Douglas fir in the Kamloops Forest District continued to investigate the effects of aspect and slope on seedling survival.
Survival examinations carried out two years after planting continue to substantiate the superior survival of spring planting in comparison with fall planting.
Average survival of eight 1963 spring plantations was 88 per cent and ranged from
59 to 98 per cent. In contrast, average survival on 13 plantations established during
the fall of that year was only 30.4 per cent. The long-term average survival for
fall plantations is approximately 65 per cent. The poor survival for 1963 fall
plantations is believed to be at least partly due to the winter weather pattern.
A warm autumn at nursery elevations delayed hardening off, and early shipments
of stock reached high-elevation planting-sites in less than prime condition. Much
of this stock was also poorly balanced, having been the first crop from a new field
in the Chilliwack Valley. Subsequent to planting, a fairly prolonged period of
clear cold weather with predominently north winds occurred before any snow fell
on the hills. The 50-acre plantation which was completely killed was located at
over 3,000 feet in elevation in a Mainland valley oriented in a north-south direction
and therefore exposed to the full sweep of freezing winds. This, coupled with the
bare, frozen ground, could have completely dessicated the newly planted seedlings.
The best survival of 79 per cent was secured on an area at 1,000 feet in elevation on
Vancouver Island. The implications regarding planting high-elevation exposed
sites on the Mainland are obvious. However, many of these sites are often snowbound until late in the spring, and delaying planting until late May or June can
often be dangerous.
PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS
Following the spring lifting of stock from Field No. 6 at the Green Timbers
nursery, 6,000 feet of drain tile and a new water main for irrigation were installed.
The drainage and irrigation systems on all fields at this nursery now are complete.
A new office building also was constructed on the site formerly occupied by the
old office, which was condemned and demolished late in 1964. The parking area
was paved in conjunction with this improvement. Increased production of stock
here and in the Chilliwack nurseries necessitated the construction of a new storage
unit, which doubled the cold-storage capacity at Green Timbers.
At the Duncan nursery, a water main was installed to service the area to be
sown in 1966. Here also, increased tree-storage facilities are required, and a start
was made on a new unit in the fall. In anticipation of a large cone crop in 1966,
improvements were carried out in the seed-extraction plant to permit a production
rate of 300 bushels per day, rather than 250 bushels per day as in the past.
CO-OPERATION
There now is a wide variety of agencies involved in reforestation activities, and
all have problems, many of which are common to some or all groups. For this
reason, extensive co-operation in assessing and working on common problems is
necessary. Since the Reforestation Division is largely responsible for the control of
seed and the production of planting stock, its staff is involved in many co-operative
activities. Participation in the Tree Improvement Board meetings and field trips
continued in 1965. Reforestation staff conducted a two-day grafting course at
Duncan in the spring. Experimental fertilization of young stands to acquire some
knowledge of growth response was carried out in co-operation with the Federal
Department of Forestry.
 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
A growing awareness of reforestation problems prompted the Interior tree-
farm foresters to devote their spring meeting to this subject. Their deliberations
resulted in the establishment of a reforestation sub-committee, which immediately
initiated a long-term planting experiment in which the Reforestation Division is
co-operating actively. Stand-improvement treatment by Grazing and Reforestation
crews was applied to 60 acres of overstocked and stagnant Ponderosa pine within
Pasture Development No. 5. The area treated now totals 915 acres. On the
Coast, Division snag-fallers cleared 1,792 acres of dead standing timber, including
405 acres felled in co-operation with industry.
Interdepartmental Rehabilitation and Forestry Programme
The forestry camp programme operated jointly by the Department of the
Attorney-General and the Forest Service, continued to expand in all phases.
Heavy snow over the winter and restrictions during the fire season hampered
work crews in some instances, but, in general, the year was very productive. In the
Chilliwack Sustained-yield Unit, inmate crews maintained or assisted in the construction of 8 miles of road. They also carried out the cleaning, weeding, and
clearing of 120 acres of brushed-in forest land, of which there are several thousand
acres in the valley. This is a continuing project which also provides much of the
camp fuel-wood. The Thurston Camp sawmill converted 222,000 board-feet of
logs into lumber for new camp construction and inmate projects. The supply of
suitable log material continues to be a problem. Present sources are from salvage
operations along the main road, a large log jam in the Chilliwack River, and the
clean-up of a blow-down area caused by hurricane " Frieda " on Vedder Mountain.
Spring lifting operations in the Chilliwack nurseries were delayed by a late spring,
and an all-out effort was made to meet the demand for trees by planting crews.
Inmate crews planted 80,000 trees on logged and burned sites and in rehabilitated
brush areas. Inmate fire-suppression crews, trained by the Forest Service, took
action on four fires.
Work crews operating out of Haney Correctional Institute assisted in the
construction of 3 miles of road and erected two small bridges. Inmate silvicultural
crews cleaned, weeded, and pruned 250 acres of immature forest, and cleared and
burned the 5-acre site for the new transplant nursery. This field was subsequently
tiled and cultivated. Although no men were used directly on fire suppression, one
crew constructed 7 miles of trail and two helispots in connection with a fire near
Stave Lake. Arrangements were completed to salvage all merchantable log material
from Alouette Lake. This should satisfy the log demand for the institution for
several years.
In the Sayward Forest, the Snowdon and Lakeview Camp fire-suppression
crews took action on 11 fires and spent a total of 640 man-hours manning secondary
lookouts. Work crews carried out routine maintenance on 17 miles of road and
constructed Vi mile of first-class trail. At the Snowdon nursery, 400,000 transplant
trees were lined out, and 40 seed-beds erected and sown in the spring. A complete
irrigation system was installed. During the summer, 6 acres of adjacent land were
cleared and prepared to receive seedlings, and the entire area was fenced. Thinning
and pruning of 140 acres of early plantation were carried out near the John Hart
Dam and at Mud Lake.
Inmates of the Rayleigh Gaol near Kamloops set out 260,000 transplant trees
in the nursery field during the spring and installed an irrigation system. In the fall
234 seed-beds were erected and sown under the direction of the Reforestation
Division.   Conversion of an old munitions blockhouse into a cold-storage unit com-
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
25
menced in the autumn. During the spring and fall, work crews thinned and cleaned
up 35 acres of deciduous non-commercial tree cover, and burned the debris.
Twenty acres of this were planted subsequently. In all, 35,000 trees were planted on
three projects. The Rayleigh fire-suppression crew took part in eight fires during
the year. Miscellaneous work projects were the manufacture of 800 small signs
and the chemical treatment of 1,800 cedar posts.
In the Prince George District, inmate crews continued to work on the Hutda
Lake camp-site and stockpiled merchantable timber. The boundaries of this
reserve were surveyed by the Forest Service. Field projects carried out in the
autumn by crews from the Prince George Gaol included the planting of 75 acres,
assistance in a prescribed slash-burn, and routine maintenance of the Hixon Seed
Production Area.
There was a noticeable improvement in the work habits of forestry camp crews
during the year. This is attributed to the attitude of officers in charge of work
parties, and to the training given the officers. Highlight of the year's programme was
the success of inmate fire-suppression crews, which won praise from both the public
and the Forest Service. The four co-operative nurseries operating under the
rehabilitation programme during the year shipped out a total of 1,332,000 trees
for field planting.
There are approximately 550 inmates available for forestry projects throughout
the Province. In some instances the scope of the programme is limited by the travel
distance from respective camps. District and headquarters organization is operating
smoothly with increasing emphasis on field liaison. The midsummer meeting of the
co-ordinating committee, held in the Chilliwack Valley, proved to be a pleasant
departure from headquarters meetings and gave members an opportunity of
inspecting progress in the field.
 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
WORKING PLANS DIVISION
Six public hearings held during the year by the Honourable the Minister of
Lands, Forests, and Water Resources, under authority of sections 17a and 36 of
the Forest Act, involved the Working Plans Division in assessing essential information, acknowledging and summarizing briefs, and preparing display maps. Following the hearings, copies of the decisions were sent to all interested parties. In
addition, the regular activities of sustained-yield planning were continued by the
Division.
Four pulp harvesting forests were proclaimed in 1965.
The fourth pulpwood harvesting area agreement was signed, formally granting to Bulkley Valley Pulp and Timber Limited an option to purchase pulpwood
from four public sustained-yield units. Three other pulpwood harvesting areas
covering a total of 10 public sustained-yield units were designated, but no formal
agreement had been signed by the end of the year. These were in the interest of
Cariboo Pulp and Paper Company Limited, United Pulp Company Limited, and
Intercontinental Pulp and Paper Company Limited. Fourteen public sustained-
yield units and the unregulated areas between them were reorganized into larger
units, reducing the total within the Province to 75.
One new tree-farm licence was issued, and one tree-farm licence reserve was
transferred to a new applicant. Three new Taxation Act tree-farms were certified.
One new farm wood-lot was issued but five were cancelled.
At the end of the year, the number of managed units in the Province totalled
197, including 75 public sustained-yield units, of which 41 are covered by 7 pulpwood harvesting areas (4 normally ratified); 40 tree-farm licences; 31 Taxation
Act tree-farms not included within the tree-farm licences;  and 51 farm wood-lots.
The total area committed under working plans amounts to 79,301,951 acres
of productive forest, with a total allowable annual cut of 1,120,433,000 cubic feet.
This is equivalent to 73 per cent of the total Provincial scale for 1965. The allowable annual cut includes 100,000,000 cubic feet set up on the basis of a close
utilization standard. The following table lists the forms of forest units committed
to sustained-yield management and having working plans:—
Progress oj Sustained-yield Progra
mme to 1965
Number
of
Units
Productive
Area
(Acres)
Allowable Annual Cut (M Cu. Ft.)
Type of Managed Unit
Sawlog
Utilization
Close
Utilization
Total
Public sustained-yield units—
41
33
1
32,486,969
32,144,828
5,150,147
255,140
328,825
255,140
Outside pulpwood harvesting areas—
100,000
328,825
100,000
Total public sustained-yield units
75
40
31
51
69,781,944
8,796,577
709,452
13,978
583,965
100,000
683,965
400,387
Tree-farms (excluding those in tree-farm
35,754
327
Totals  —
197
79,301,951
583,965
100,000
1,120,433
PULPWOOD HARVESTING AREAS
The option agreement for Pulpwood Harvesting Area No. 4 was ratified formally by Bulkley Valley Pulp and Timber Limited and the Honourable the Minister
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
27
of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources on July 14, 1965. Included are Babine,
Burns Lake, Morice, and Smithers Public Sustained-yield Units.
The decision of the Honourable the Minister of March 17, 1965, designated:
(a) the area including the Cottonwood, Narcosli, and Quesnel Lake Public Sustained-
yield Units to be Pulpwood Harvesting Area No. 5; (b) the area including the Big
Bar, Lac la Hache, Stum, Williams Lake, and Yalakom Public Sustained-yield Units
to be Pulpwood Harvesting Area No. 6; and (c) the area including the Peace and
Takla Public Sustained-yield Units to be Pulpwood Harvesting Area No. 7. His
decision of May 3, 1965, designated: (a) the area including the Creston, Cranbrook, and Fernie Public Sustained-yield Units to be Pulpwood Harvesting Area
No. 8 and (b) the area including the Kinbasket, Upper Kootenay, and Windermere
Public Sustained-yield Units to be Pulpwood Harvesting Area No. 9.
On evidence that proper financing could be arranged, it was proposed to grant
an option to purchase the pulpwood from: (a) Pulpwood Harvesting Area No. 5
to Cariboo Pulp and Paper Company Limited; (b) Pulpwood Harvesting Area
No. 6 to United Pulp Company Limited; (c) Pulpwood Harvesting Area No. 7 to
Intercontinental Pulp Company Limited; and (d) Pulpwood Harvesting Area Nos.
8 and 9 to the successful bidder from among Canal Development Limited, Kicking
Horse Forest Products Limited, and Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company Limited.
These agreements had not been formally ratified by the year's end; in fact, the
latter-mentioned auction was cancelled owing to what was considered irrational
bidding.
Industry continued to study other Provincial areas as proposed pulpwood
harvesting areas.
The pulp and paper industry boom continued in 1965. Here, construction nears
completion at the mill-site of Prince George Pulp and Paper Limited. At left are stockpiles
of pulp-logs and chips.   Mill was scheduled to be in operation in mid-1966.
 28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
PULP HARVESTING FORESTS
During the year, four public sustained-yield units were proclaimed and gazetted
as forest reserves to be known as pulp harvesting forests. These became the West-
lake, Naver, Big Valley, and Crooked River Pulp Harvesting Forests. New legislation provided for the lease or sale of lands for other use within these particular
forest reserves on the recommendation of the Chief Forester.
Work is continuing to have reserved as pulp harvesting forests the remaining
public sustained-yield units within pulpwood harvesting areas.
OTHER PUBLIC SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS
Fourteen public sustained-yield units were reorganized into six larger units,
which, with one exception, also were given new names. In the Kamloops Forest
District, the Stum, Taseko, and Tatla units were reorganized into two units named
the Chilko and Stum Public Sustained-yield Units. In the Vancouver Forest
District, only the Soo Public Sustained-yield Unit remained unaltered. The other
11 units were reorganized into the Dewdney, Kingcome, Nootka, and Quadra
Public Sustained-yield Units.
TREE-FARM LICENCES
The contract for Tree-farm Licence No. 40 was signed formally on February
5, 1965, granting to Skeena Kraft Limited the privilege of managing 1,410,299
acres of Crown productive forest land under sustained yield for 21 years.
MacMillan, Bloedel and Powell River Limited withdrew its interest in an
area reserved for it, and, after holding a public hearing in August at Kitimat, the
Honourable the Minister, in his decision of October 7, 1965, designated the same
area to be reserved in the interest of Eurocan Pulp and Paper Company Limited.
Tree-farm Licences Nos. 29 and 34 were enlarged by the addition of the
Upper Seebach Creek areas reserved in their interests. Preliminary steps were
taken to combine Tree-farm Licences Nos. 30, 31, and 34 into one licence, but
this had not been formally ratified at the year's end.
In his decision of September 27, 1965, resulting from the public hearing held
in August at Victoria, the Honourable the Minister, in order to consolidate and
improve operational procedure, designated certain areas to be reserved for addition
to Tree-farm Licence No. 19.
CERTIFIED TREE-FARMS
Three new tree-farms were certified, bringing to 45 the number of tree-farms
under the Taxation Act. Fourteen of these, with a productive area of 306,167
acres and a total annual allowable cut of 14,484,000 cubic feet, are managed as
portions of tree-farm licences. The tree-farms not included within tree-farm
licences total 31 and have a productive acreage of 709,452 with a total annual
allowable cut of 35,754,000 cubic feet, plus 393,740 Christmas trees.
FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
One new farm wood-lot which was nearing completion in 1964 was issued,
but again other commitments did not allow time to process the many applications
on hand for farm wood-lots. Owing chiefly to change in ownership of the farms,
five farm wood-lots were cancelled. The 51 farm wood-lots have a productive
acreage of 13,978 acres and an allowable annual cut of 326,900 cubic feet.
For basic data on sustained-yield units, see Tables Nos. 31, 32, and 33 in the
Appendix.
 136°
132°
130°
128°
126"
124°
120°
116°
114°
112°
110°
54'
50"
PUBLIC SUSTAINED YIELD UNITS (P.S.Y.U.'s)
I   Inside Pulpwood Harvesting Areas  I I
P.H.A.            PSYU-
NO
. 1
9.
Big Valley
15.
Carp
20.
Crooked River
NO.
2
1.
Adams
5.
Barriere
6.
Barton Hill
11.
Botanie
23.
Eagle
NO,
3
12.
Bowron
34.
Longworth
NO
4
4.
Babine
13.
Burns Lake
NO
5
17.
Cottonwood
NO
6
8.
Big Bar
32.
Lac la Hache
NO
7
50.
Peace
P.S.Y.U.'s
2.
Arrowhead
3.
Ashnola
7.
Bell- Irving
10.
Blueberry
14.
Canoe
16.
Chilko
18.
Cranbrook
19.
Creston
21.
Dean
22.
Dewdney
24.
Edgewood
25.
Fernie
40. Naver
41. Nechako
49.   Parsnip
42. Nehalliston
43. Nicola
44. Niskonlith
46. North Thompson
36.   Monkman
51.    Purden
68.  Stum
72,    Williams Lake
69.   Takla
67.   Stuart Lake
71.   Westlake
73.   Willow River
55. Haft
59. Salmon Arm
60. Shu swap
66. Spallumclieen
57,   Robson
64.  Smithers
54.   Quesnel Lake
75.   Yalakom
Outside Pulpwood Harvesting Areas
26. Finlay
27. Granby
28. Hecate
29. Kettle
30. Kinbasket
31. Kingcome
33. Lardeau
35. Moberly
38. Nakusp
45. Nootka
47, Okanagan
48. Ootsa
52. Quadra
53. Queen Charlotte
56. Rivers Inlet
58. Salmo
61. Similkameen
62. Skeena
63. Slocan
65. Soo
70. Upper Kootenay
74. Windermere
Dundosl(
RESERVED
AWARDED
OTHER PUBLIC UNITS
Special Sale Area (O-I-C 2811/62)  WWII
Kamloops Region    \/$W
TREE FARM LICENCES
^ Eurocan Pulp and Paper Co,  Ltd.
BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
HONOURABLE R. G. WILLISTON, MINISTER
Scale
0 40       80 Iff) 160 MILES
40    30    20    10
STATUS OF SUSTAINED-YIELD FORESTRY PROGRAMME
AS AT DECEMBER 31, 1965
58°
56°
54°
8
PRINCE
MJPERT^
21. MacMillan, Bloedel & Powell River
Industries Ltd.
22. British Columbia Forest Products
Limited
23. Celgar Limited
24. Rayonier Canada (B.  C.) Limited
25. Rayonier Canada (B.   C, ) Limited
26. The Corporation of the District of
Mission
27. British Columbia Forest Products
Limited
28. Shelley Development Limited
29. Eagle Lake Sawmills Limited
30. Sinclair Spruce Lumber Company Ltd.
31. Upper Fraser Spruce Mills Limited
32. Vernon Box &c Pine Lumber Co.   Ltd.
33. Shuswap Timbers Ltd.
34. Church Sawmill Limited
35. B.   C.   Interior Sawmills Ltd.
36. F.   & R.   Logging Co.  Ltd.
37. Canadian Forest Products Ltd.
38. Empire Mills Limited
39. MacMillan,  Bloedel and Powell
River Limited
40. Skeena Kraft Limited
52°
QUEEN
CHARLOTTE
SOUND
CapeC
48°
136°
134°
132°
130°
128°
126'
122°
120°
116°
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
29
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION DIVISION
The year 1965 was, viewed in its broad general aspect, a year of normal activity
without any dominating or salient events. It was a year of expanding activity, particularly in the press relations field. Stress in this area was offset to some extent by
the establishment of a specific sub-unit directed toward this area of operations.
Although this Division's activities were directed, in the main, toward the public
within the Provincial sphere, it is of some interest to know that Forest Service exhibits
reached into far wider spheres. One exhibit was put on show in Warsaw, Poland;
another in London, England. Films and exhibits should, in fact, be considered
among the better ambassadors of the Forest Service. Requests for film loans were
made from places such as Spain and from the emerging nations of Africa. Forest
service exhibits are appearing in increasing numbers in smaller communities across
the Province. Their appearance in local fairs is usually the result of some enthusiastic co-operation upon the part of the local Ranger. They provide a valuable
contribution to the Service.
COMMUNICATIONS MEDIA
Press and Periodicals
Press coverage of forestry activity reached its peak during July and August.
Submissions from the press clipping service indicated that British Columbia newspapers during those months devoted at least 350,000 words to the subject, not including such items as union activity. The majority of stories dealt with forest fires
and were based on information, both written and verbal, provided by the Public
Information and Education Division, and on reports from the forest districts and
industry. An active fire-prevention press campaign was carried on in conjunction
with the issuing of routine fire reports.
Throughout the year, press releases and special articles were prepared by the
Division for newspapers and trade publications. Expansion of the pulp and paper
industry was the object of considerable press interest, and information was provided
for publications in Eastern Canada as well as British Columbia. Other written
material was prepared for special events, including National Forest Products Week,
and for annual publications such as the first edition of a new British Columbia forest
industry year book.
Information also was provided to meet encyclopaedic requirements, and those
of other Provincial Government departments and of individual writers preparing
articles on forestry.
In addition to the provision of information for the press and periodicals, the
Division was responsible for the editing of all Forest Service publications, including
the Annual Report, the Research Review, Forest Management Notes, and Protection
Bulletins.
A considerable amount of time was devoted to research and the preparation
of notes for speeches on Forest Service policies and activities which were given
during the year to forest-industry conferences and conventions and to meetings of
other interested business groups.
Publications and Printing
Printing and publishing remained one of the Division's most important duties.
The year brought an unusually high interest in the work of the Forest Service,
reflected in an increased demand for explanatory material for news releases, but
 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
above all for printed material. The contributing factors behind this interest were
a severe fire season, a new school course (Business 11), the continuing expansion
of the forest industrial complex, and the announcement of new policies, particularly
that on close utilization.
Demands of a general nature were met by the issue of a special edition of the
British Columbia Government News, dedicated to the work of the Forest Service
(April 1965, Vol. 3, No. 1). This issue was widely distributed, and an effort was
made to place copies in all schools. It still is being passed in considerable quantities
to libraries, clubs, and to individuals, and it is planned to reissue the edition in
booklet form.
Only one other publication may be described as actually new and was published in 1965. This was the prospectus for the Forest Service training-school. The
series carried under the Protection Bulletin headings has been revived and Nos. 1
and 2 issued as in-service training publications. Such standard works as the Annual
Report, the Research Reviews, and Management Notes were processed as usual.
Again 60,000 scribblers were distributed to school-children across the Province.
Radio and Television
The severe 1965 fire season resulted in more than normal use being made of
all news media. Radio and television played a major role in disseminating accurate
information on the many facets associated with the season.
Reports received from the field staff indicated that radio was used with extremely favourable results, both through the paid advertising campaign and through
the public service announcements provided free of charge by the various stations.
The paid advertising campaign, carried on all 30 radio stations in the Province,
resulted in the broadcast of more than 3,700 30-second announcements. It is estimated that free announcements and news broadcasts accounted for an additional
6,000 announcements.
The successful use of prepared taped messages was continued. Specially written
hazard flashes were available when required.
During the year, radio advertising proved itself an extremely flexible, adaptable,
and fast medium with which to meet Forest Service needs.
Paid television advertising was restricted to a series of 20-second flashes carried
over the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's Provincial network. Again the public
service announcements provided by the C.B.C. and other television outlets in the
Province were greatly appreciated by all field personnel. Although there is no
doubt that greater use should be made of this medium, limited funds and personnel
have prevented the Division from taking advantage of the benefits available.
Divisional personnel participated in numerous special-event and public service
programmes on radio and television. Similar services were performed by district
officers as required.
POSTERS AND SIGNS
The use of posters to project Forest Service protection and management information was carefully scrutinized during the year. After consideration it was agreed
to continue with the use of posters but to introduce one new design each year until
all posters have been up-dated. The new design to be circulated during 1966 will
deal with the high fire occurrence attributed to children playing with matches.
During the year, 11,000 posters, made up in 17 designs, were distributed. In
addition, more than 10,000 miniature hazard-rating signs were issued. Introduction
of the miniature hazard-rating sign for use in vehicles has met with outstanding
success.   The general public and many industrial organizations have accepted this
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 31
success. The general public and many industrial organizations have accepted this
constant reminder of the fire hazard. A further indication of the success of the
sign is its adoption by a number of other Provinces and by several States in the
United States.
Forest Service sign requirements have shown a marked increase during recent
years, and it has been difficult to meet all demands. After a general review of the
sign programme, it was agreed to continue to maintain the seven standard Forest
Service signs. All signs will be produced by the Forest Service Maintenance Depot
under direction of the Division.
In addition, use of the " Keep B.C. Green—Use Your Ashtray " sign was continued for the 12th consecutive year. Numerous innovations have been introduced
in an attempt to increase public interest in this programme.
During the year, 32 new signs were painted and 77 repainted, bringing the total
number of signs on Provincial highways to 109.
EXHIBITS
The concentrated efforts made to draw visitors and conventions to the Province
have resulted in an increasing number of requests being made for Forest Service participation in conferences, fairs, and exhibitions.
One new exhibit was constructed, and this, together with three portable displays, was entered in three major forestry conferences, three parent-teacher conventions, and six major exhibitions.
The permanent display in the Pacific National Exhibition was viewed by an
estimated audience of 800,000.
In co-operation with the forest industry, the Division participated in many
events associated with National Forest Products Week and National Conservation
Week.
PHOTOGRAPHY
Still Photography
Print production in 1965 totalled 12,132, an increase over the previous year
and an all-time record.
The staff took 484 large format negatives, 185 of these being colour, and 148
rolls of film. The photographic library added 324 black-and-white and 142 colour
negatives. Proof prints were made of these and supplied to the various forest district
headquarters. A total of 1,352 negatives was added to the files by the Engineering
Services Division.
Increased use was again noted of the 35-mm. slide library, to which 208 slides
were added. Numerous duplicate slides were supplied, or originals loaned, to many
sources, including the British Columbia Institute of Technology, which borrowed
350 slides and duplicated many of them for future use. The Institute also was supplied with 284 8-by-10-inch glossy black-and-white photographs from a wide selection of file prints for use in its forestry courses.
As well as supplying black-and-white prints to the Province's news media and
trade publications, black-and-white prints, colour prints, and 35-mm. slides were
sent to an increasing number of users. Some of these users were: Federal Department of Forestry (library stock shots and colour brochure photographs); Mitchell
Press Limited for forestry year book; Canadian Council of Resource Ministers;
Universities of British Columbia, Toronto, and Pennsylvania; National Film Board;
Toronto Star Weekly; Seattle Sunday Times; Macmillan Company of Canada Limited (school book department); Business and Financial Chronicle; New Scientist;
and individuals from Austria to Australia.
 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
A photographic assignment was undertaken in the early summer to supply colour photographs to the Corrections Branch of the Attorney-General's Department for
use in its permanent exhibit at the Pacific National Exhibition.
Coverage was given, in both black-and-white and colour, of the planting of
1,000,000 trees by British Columbia Forest Products Ltd. planter, and special photographs were taken for the Forest Service training-school brochure.
During the early part of the year the senior staff member of the photographic
section attended a course in photo-micrography held by the Federal Department of
Forestry at Victoria.
The co-operation of Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts was sought in
obtaining selected colour slides to illustrate a lecture. This project was so successful
that similar co-operation throughout the Province will be considered in the future.
Motion-picture Photography
In the motion-picture field the Division's film " Man on the Mountain Top "
was completed and added to the film library. This film has been selected as one of
four to represent Canada at the Madrid Forestry Film Festival, to be held during
the 1966 World Forestry Conference.
Work was started on a new film production on forest access and is scheduled
for completion in 1966. This film will deal with access for protection and management purposes, as well as harvest. So far, footage has been shot mainly in the
Gold River and Peace River pondage areas.
Stock shots have been loaned to various users, including British Columbia
Television Broadcasting System Limited, Fortune Films, the National Film Board,
and the Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce.
X-RAY
The photographic laboratory undertook the processing of X-rays for the
Research Division. A total of 407 sheets was processed.
Colour Printing
During the year a colour-printing processing unit was purchased, enabling
the laboratory to produce Ektacolor prints up to 11- by 14-inch size economically.
After familiarization tests, the unit was put into production in December and a
small number of 8- by 10-inch prints was run off to meet existing requirements.
Film Library
An increase in loans to 535 in 1965 from 483 the previous year resulted in a
total audience of 112,638, compared to 107,006 in 1964.
The gain in the number of adult and child viewers was indicative of a more
selective type of audience than in the past. District staffs, universities, technical
schools, service clubs, and secondary and elementary schools were making much
more use of the films available. Forest Service productions on loan to British
Columbia House, London, showed an increased use by adult organizations and
schools.
Difficulty was experienced in finding appropriate subjects for inclusion in the
library.   Of the 39 previewed during the year, only eight were found suitable.
See Table No. 41 in the Appendix.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 33
SCHOOL LECTURE PROGRAMME
The school lecture programme for 1965 showed some improvement over the
previous year with the advent of a new full-time lecturer. Fifty-six schools in the
Vancouver, Kamloops, and Prince George Forest Districts were visited.
In addition, some 50 lectures were given to organizations other than schools.
See Table No. 42 in the Appendix.
LIBRARY
Interlibrary loans, which were researched and completed by the staff, reached
an all-time high of 206, necessitating the use of many libraries in Canada and the
United States. It also has been most apparent that more and more use is being
made of the literature available in the library.
The library is growing rapidly and has almost reached its maximum area
expansion in its present quarters. There appears to be only enough shelf space
to meet additions for one more year.
The Forest Service library staff would like to express its appreciation to the
library staffs of the Provincial Library, the University of Victoria, the Canada
Department of Forestry, and the Federal Department of Agriculture Research
Branch at Saanichton for their splendid co-operation.
 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
FOREST MANAGEMENT DIVISION
All forest districts reported very good logging conditions during 1965, and this,
together with continued firm market prices, set the stage for yet another record
production year.
The total scale for all products from all lands was 1,533,112,794 cubic feet.
This represented a net increase of 18,517,618 cubic feet or 1.2 per cent. It is
interesting to note that the combined production from the Vancouver Forest District
and the Coast region of the Prince Rupert District showed sufficient increase (3.6
per cent) to carry an over-all decrease (1.7 per cent) in the Interior of the Province.
On the other hand, while three of the Interior districts recorded a drop in production,
Prince George experienced a new record high for the fourth consecutive year.
With the introduction of sustained yield to Crown lands, it was predicted that
the number of sales awarded would fall off. However, it was not until 1965 that
this prediction began to prove itself when the number of sales awarded dropped from
2,281 to 1,614. With a drop in the number of sales, it was also expected that the
acreage per sale would increase. This has not proved out yet, and in fact the average
size of awarded sale dropped in 1965.
Another predicted result of sustained yield was that the number of sawmills
would drop as industry consolidated, but the capacity would increase. There has
been a steady decline in the numbers, from 2,435 mills in 1956 to 1,191 in 1965.
However, the average 8-hour capacity has risen from 12,000 board-feet to 23,000
board-feet.
The volume of logs exported from the Province increased 10 per cent to 58,608,-
824 f.b.m., but was still very much lower than for the years 1961 and 1963. As
stated last year, it is felt that this is due to the increased demand for pulp material
within the Province. This same demand is also reflected in the volume of wood
removed under relogging. In 1963 the volume of wood salvaged on the Coast was
3,217 M cubic feet. In 1964 it was 5,224 M cubic feet, and in 1965 it rose to
6,987 M cubic feet.
PEACE RIVER FLOOD BASIN
All merchantable timber in the flood basin, with the exception of that in the
most northerly and most inaccessible portion, has been sold under timber-sale contract. Operations in the Finlay-Parsnip area did not reach the level hoped for, due
in part to the uncertainty of the eventual award of one of the timber harvesting
licences in the Finlay Sustained-yield Unit and then to the time required to construct
sawmills and get operations organized.   All signs point to high production in 1966.
The total acreage sold to date stands at 85,265, with a total volume of 127,936,-
000 cubic feet.   The total scaled volume to date is 26,415,000 cubic feet.
COLUMBIA FLOOD BASIN
As was reported previously, all merchantable timber to be flooded by the Mica
Dam has been sold under timber-sale contract. Operations progressed during 1965,
and the total volume removed and scaled during the year was 4,402,000 cubic feet.
Logging of timber to be flooded by the Duncan Dam also progressed during
1965.   Total volume of flood timber logged during the year was 553,000 cubic feet.
The programme started in 1964 of selling timber to be flooded by the High
Arrow Dam continued throughout 1965, and a volume of 705,000 cubic feet was
scaled.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
SPRUCE BARK BEETLE
35
The spruce bark beetle infestation that the Prince George Forest District experienced during 1963 and 1964 abated to a considerable degree in 1965. Surveys
of attack areas indicated light attacks in 1965, and new attacks were mainly extensions of existing attacked areas.
DOUGLAS FIR BARK BEETLE
It was reported that mortality of over-wintering broods of the Douglas fir bark
beetle in sample trees in the Cariboo was 35 per cent. This unusually heavy mortality may have been an important factor in the reduced number of trees attacked
in 1965. Nevertheless, beetle kill still poses a serious threat, and everything is being
done to sell attacked stands and to include conditions in all contracts within the
general beetle attack area to reduce breeding-grounds.
CLOSE UTILIZATION
Close utilization was undoubtedly one of the most discussed subjects during
1965 by both the logging industry and the Forest Service. While there was only a
limited number of existing timber sales that went on to close utilization logging on a
trial basis, policy had been firmed up by the end of the year so that, as of January 1,
1966, both new and existing sales could be logged to close utilization standards if
so elected by the licensee.
While close utilization in the forest is still in its infancy, it is already well on
its way in the sawmill. All districts are reporting a great upsurge in the shipment
of chips to pulp-mills, which in turn results from an increase in the number of sawmills with barkers and chippers. In 1964, when records were started, there were 82
barkers and 97 chippers. By the end of 1965, these numbers had risen to 161 and
144, or approximately 70 per cent.
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
The selling prices for dressed lumber as reported to the Forest Service by mills
in the Interior of the Province and for logs on the Coast as reported for the Vancouver log market by the British Columbia Loggers' Association generally held at
the high 1964 level.
The market outlook at the end of the year was reported to be good. However,
on the Coast there were indications that supply was catching up with demand and
prices for some grades and species (for example, cedar) were softening.
1965 Uncorrected Q
uarterly Average Dressed-lumber Prices (Interior)
Jan.-Mar.
Apr-June
July-Sept.
Oct.-Dec.
Species
Basis
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis
MB.M.
Average
Price
Basis
MB.M.
Average
Price
124,895
220,818
20,172
3,263
4,203
$62.22
61.13   '
60.37
98.45
61.62
173,484
294,791
21,273
6,477
7,215
$64.12
62.10
60.79
97,65
57.47
185,310
296,950
17,757
6,725
9,588
$65.52
62.05
63.97
89.75
61.86
148,225
271,503
14,575
4,780
3,962
$62 75
Spruce —  	
60.36
59 60
White pine	
Yellow pine - 	
102.11
64.39
 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
1965 Quarterly Average Log Prices per MB.M. (Howe Sound Market)
No. 3 GRADE
Species
Jan.-Mar.        Apr.-June
July-Sept.
Oct.-Dec.
Fir	
Cedar	
Hemlock-
Balsam	
Spruce	
White pine~
$66.37
55.30
59.70
48.30
57.81
45.01
$66.60
55.10
60.63
49.99
57.06
46.20
$66.40
52.85
60.04
49.98
55.63
44.02
$66.59
48.90
57.97
49.04
56.11
43.51
ALL
GRADES
Fir -    	
$80.94
61.85
61.13
58.58
66.61
50.10
$80.26
61.10
62.35
59.47
65.40
52.40
$79.03
57.78
61.59
58.45
65.28
49.25
$80.82
54.94
59.57
56.67
Spruce - 	
66.37
48.54
Stumpage Prices
The average stumpage price bid for Crown timber sales, including those sales
which were sold at " salvage value only " rates, increased slightly in 1965 to $4.20
per 100 cubic feet. The comparable average figures for the years 1960, 1961, 1962,
1963, and 1964 were $3.53, $2.53, $3.01, $3.36, and $4.09 respectively.
The real increase in stumpage prices, however, was much greater. The actual
increase is hidden because of the drop in the volume sold in the Vancouver Forest
District Coast region. The weighted average selling price per 100 cubic feet for all
species for the Coast region was $8.24, up from $6.18 in 1964. For the Interior,
the weighted average selling price per 100 cubic feet was $3.49, up from $3.29
in 1964.
The average stumpage price for all species excluding " salvage value only "
rates was $8.25 per 100 cubic feet for the Coast, up 28 per cent from $6.43 in 1964,
and $3.81 for the Interior, up 6 per cent from $3.59 in 1964.
Because log and dressed-lumber selling prices were comparatively stable, there
were only 899 upward adjustments and one downward adjustment in the rates
payable under existing timber-sale contracts under provision of the sliding scale
procedure.
See Table No. 67 in the Appendix.
SILVICULTURE
The programme for 1965 included stand treatment, field studies, and road
location.
Following the trend established in past years, the principal activities were in
the field of stand treatment. All districts were active in this field, and some 500
timber sales, principally in the Interior, received some form of treatment. This
involved the treatment of 118,403 acres.
Stands were generally treated to attain either natural regeneration or increment,
or, in some cases, a combination of both. The cutting methods most frequently
employed were single-tree selection, strips, groups, patches, or single seed-trees.
Although natural regeneration is dependent on several interrelated factors, a
satisfactory seed-bed and a suitable seed source can be regarded as prime requisites.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
37
The preparation of a satisfactory seed-bed may require either burning or scarification. The past few years have seen an increase in this phase of the programme. To
date, 49,993 acres have been scarified in the Prince George Forest District, and
similar programmes have been developed in the Nelson, Kamloops, and Prince
Rupert Forest Districts.   During 1965, some 15,530 acres were scarified.
Scarification is providing satisfactory results at a reasonable cost. Surveys in
the Prince George Forest District, based on 6,549 acres, indicate an average stocking
of 49 per cent.
The cost of scarification varies from area to area and from year to year, depending on the physical factors of the area and the prevailing weather conditions. However, experience over the past few years indicates that the majority of areas can be
scarified for $10 to $12 per acre.
Prior to 1963 most of the scarification was carried out following logging.
This is changing and there is a trend to pre-scarification.
A full discussion on scarification is contained in Forest Management Note
No. 4, published in 1965. The Forest Management Note series, which was initiated
in 1963, has proven popular, and it has been necessary to reprint the entire series.
It is anticipated that two further Management Notes will be published during 1966:
one, " The Results of Stand Treatment Following Seed-tree Marking in Dry Belt
Fir Types"; the other, "Some Observations on the Behaviour of Blister Rust
Cankers on Western White Pine Following Foliar Application of Polyamidostreptin."
Bio-assay of white pine blister rust. It is anticipated a Forest Management Note on the
subject of blister rust cankers on western white pine will be published by the Forest Service
in 1966.
 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
SCALING
Coast
The official scaling staff continued in its duties as provided by the Forest Act
in scaling timber cut west of the Cascades. The major part of the Coast scale was
made by the official staff and the minor part by acting official scalers. Detailed
statistics of the staff's activities are available from the annual scaling report prepared by the Superintendent of Scaling at Vancouver.
Scaling examinations were held during the year for the staff and public. A
total of 58 new scaling licences was issued to successful candidates. A special examination was held towards the end of the year for a group of students from the British
Columbia Institute of Technology.
Installation of an I.B.M. 1440 processing unit was completed late in the year.
It is planned that the scale will be computed and billed through this medium early
in 1966.
The trend toward marshalling logs at large sorting and booming grounds continued and increased during the year.
Weight scaling was introduced at one operation to determine the scale of segregated close utilization wood.
Interior
The greater part of the Interior scale continued to be made in accordance with
the licensed-sealer system supervised by the Inspectors of Licensed Scalers and the
Ranger staffs.
Scaling licences were issued to 140 successful candidates of the licensed-
sealer examinations. A total of 20 examinations was held throughout the Interior
during the year.
Introduction and administration of sample scaling techniques occupied a
large part of the Inspectors' time during the year. Weight scaling, which is one
form of sample scaling, was in use at 20 operations.
J
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 39
GRAZING DIVISION
GENERAL CONDITIONS
From the physical standpoint, 1965 was a fairly successful year for the ranching industry. Range forage production and hay conditions were generally good.
The winter of 1964/65 was prolonged, with heavy snowfall and moderately low
temperatures. This combined with the less than average quality and quantity of the
1964 hay crop, resulted in many herds being in below normal condition at the
commencement of the grazing season. Losses were not particularly severe, but
many cattle were slow in recovering from the rigours of winter. Some did not
appear to be in good condition as late as the end of the grazing season.
The industry continues to experience economic difficulties. Although average
prices rose slightly from the low levels reached the previous year, they are still poor.
Further, unrealistic prices have been paid for commercial ranching enterprises in
recent years, and many ranches appear to be overcapitalized. Returns to capital
are very low or non-existent in some instances. Many ranches are changing hands
for this reason, but often at further inflated prices.
The number of cattle on Crown range reached a new record high during
the year. However, range sheep production dropped drastically, and use of Crown
range by sheep is now relatively insignificant.
Range
A cool, dry spring delayed and reduced forage growth during this period.
Droughty conditions persisted through June in most areas, but, later, summer rains
and favourable temperatures greatly increased forage production. Forest summer
ranges were better than average. Lower-elevation ranges made very good to
excellent recovery for fall grazing. Extremely mild conditions persisted until the
end of the year, permitting later than average grazing on both ranges and hay
aftermath which had been reserved for this purpose.
Poisonous weeds and predatory animals caused some difficulties on Crown
range, but losses were not above normal. Highway and railroad acidents involving
live stock continued to be a major problem. Considerable fencing was undertaken
by permittees with Department of Highways assistance, with the Forest Service
participating in some cases, in an effort to reduce stock losses from this cause.
Hay
Hay production was above average in both quality and quantity in most areas.
This, combined with mild weather conditions persisting to the end of the year, leaves
the industry in a good position with respect to winter feed. There is, however,
growing evidence that winter-feed quality must be generally improved to ensure an
adequate level of nutrition and good stock condition at spring turnout.
Markets and Prices
Cattle prices made an appreciable gain toward the end of the year, after the
bulk of British Columbia marketings were completed. The weighted average price
received by cattlemen through the British Columbia Live stock Producers' Co-operative Association was $17.30 per hundredweight, compared to $16.69 in 1964,
a rise of 61 cents. Prices for sheep and lambs were also up slightly over 1964
levels.
 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
RANGE MANAGEMENT
The productive potential of a range is determined by factors such as soil quality
and climate, largely beyond the control of man. However, within certain limits,
the amount of the forage produced which can be safely grazed without reducing
the productive capacity of any part of that range depends to a considerable degree
upon the level of management applied. Destruction of this easily damaged resource
can be avoided by taking the purely negative course of simply restricting utilization
to a level consistent with existing range and live-stock management practices. With
the growing demand for range forage, this is no longer sufficient and the level of
management must be improved. An administrative agency, with adequate staff,
can regulate live-stock numbers and broad seasons of use. However, the more
refined features of management cannot be enforced. They can be achieved only
by enlightened range users and in the light of the economics involved. As most
Crown ranges have a potential for greater use under improved management, a concerted effort to work more closely with range users was continued in various forms
during the year.
Considerable instruction in range-management subjects was given Rangers,
both singly and in groups, thus placing these key field officers in a better position to
influence range users, with whom they are in close contact. Talks on range management, illustrated by coloured slides, were presented at numerous live-stock association meetings. A considerable number of joint Forest Officer-permittee range
inspections were carried out. In several cases, all range users on the unit involved
participated. Observation indicated that this continuing effort is resulting in many
permittees becoming more range-management conscious. However, it is also evident that the amount of this work that is required to achieve full benefits is beyond
the capacity of the existing staff.
Range readiness studies and utilization checks were continued during the year.
However, the pressure of day-to-day administration prevented an adequate level of
range management and development planning. Numerous extensive range inspections were carried out as a basis for dealing with current administration problems.
Detailed surveys were carried out in the Beatton-Doig, Groundbirch, and Bear
Mountain pasture reserves as a guide for future development programmes in these
areas.
Range Improvements
During 1965, $75,344.40 was spent from the Range Improvement Fund.
Material to the value of $12,159.45 was on hand at the beginning of the year.
Material valued at $10,351.34 remained on hand and not assigned to projects at
the end of the year. Actual assistance to the range-improvement programme from
the Fund thus was $77,152.51, the highest of any year to date.
The following projects, chargeable wholly or in part to the Fund, were constructed or extensively rehabilitated: 32 cattle-guards, 55 drift fences, 3 experimental plots, 1 holding-ground, 1 meadow improvement, 1 mud-hole fence, 1 pasture development, 4 stock bridges, 27 stock trails, 20 water developments, 1 yellow
pine thinning, and numerous range-seedings.
Permittees also contributed extensively to most of the projects listed above,
mainly in the form of labour. In addition, the following projects were authorized
for construction entirely at permittee expense: 3 breeding-pastures, 5 cattle-guards,
4 corrals, 33 drift fences, 1 general-purpose enclosure, 2 holding-grounds, 1 holding-
pasture, 11 stock trails, and 2 water developments.   These are considerably fewer
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 41
than the number of projects undertaken entirely at permittee expense the previous
year.
The range-seeding programme was further increased in 1965, a total of 49,655
pounds of grass and legume seed being used, compared to 42,114 pounds in 1964.
Most of this seed was sown on areas denuded of ground cover in the course of
logging and similar activity on Crown range. Two forest burns, within which the
ground cover of forage plants had been destroyed, were seeded from the air. The
range-land drill, acquired late in 1964, was used to seed 1,166 acres of depleted
grassland at a cost of approximately $5 per acre. Although the drill has definite
limitations under the conditions which exist on Crown range, it appears that it can
be used satisfactorily on considerable areas requiring seeding. With the exception
of the aerial and range-land drill seedings, most of the actual seeding was undertaken by co-operating permittees, with seed, equipment, and such supervision as
was possible being supplied by the Forest Service.
Seeding such as reported above continues to be the most feasible means by
which range forage production can be increased by artificial means. However,
observations were continued to determine the results of previous field trials involving
clearing, scarification, and seeding of selected areas of non-commercial forest-cover,
spraying of brush-infested ranges, and thinning of overstocked forest stands. These
practices continue to show promise, but areas suitable for such treatment on Crown
range are not large, and costs will have to be considerably reduced before they can
be applied generally.
On the other hand, there is a considerable potential for safely increasing the
utilization of existing natural forage through improved live-stock management on
the range. Such improved management necessitates the construction of fencing,
water developments, and trails. The bulk of the range-improvement projects reported above are of this type. A number of measures to reduce the cost and improve
the durability of these structural range improvements were investigated and several
trial projects were undertaken during the year. Also, approximately 2,000 treated
cedar posts were prepared by prisoners at the Clearwater Camp. This activity,
which not only helps reduce the cost of projects, but also provides constructive
labour for the inmates, is expected to continue and expand.
Peace River Pastures
The year 1965 was the third and final year of the expanded pasture-development programme in the Peace River area under Federal-Provincial cost-sharing
agreements pursuant to the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act. Work
carried out involved breaking and seeding of domestic pasture grasses and legumes
on 2,100 acres of land which had been cleared the previous year, together with the
construction of 9 miles of boundary fence, corral facilities, and access roads on the
Beatton-Doig Pasture. A minor amount of fencing was completed on the Bear
Mountain Pasture. Expenditures under ARDA totalled $45,366.50 during the
year. In addition, $15,614.55 of unmatched Provincial funds was spent on the
maintenance of pre-existing improvements and for the installation of additional
facilities not covered by ARDA agreements.
There are now six pasture-development projects in the Peace River area with
extensive improvements. Three of these, the Bear Mountain, Sunset Prairie, and
Umbach Pastures, contain only structural improvements designed to facilitate use
of the existing natural forage. The fourth, the Groundbirch Pasture, contains 600
acres of developed pasture for early- and late-season grazing in conjunction with
 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
extensive areas of natural forage. Each of the remaining two pastures, Cecil Lake
and Beatton-Doig, contains approximately 2,100 acres of improved pasture, which
will provide the bulk of the grazing on these units. The first four of the above
pastures were available for full operation in 1965, and light use was commenced
on the Cecil Lake Pasture. The Beatton-Doig Pasture will be ready for light use
in 1966.
These six pastures now contain a total of 4,800 acres of improved pasture,
83Vi miles of fence, 67 stock-watering dugouts, 18 miles of road and 42 miles of
stock trails with minor culverts and bridges, 3 major sets of holding-corrals, and
2 cabins.
During the last three years $239,409.29, of which the Federal Government
contributed approximately 50 per cent, has been spent on the above work under
ARDA agreements. An additional $77,778.39 of Provincial funds has also been
spent, mainly before the ARDA development programme. A portion of the unmatched Provincial expenditures has been for maintenance and operation. No
ARDA funds have been spent on the Umbach Pasture.
During 1965, 59 permittees grazed 1,919 cattle and 28 horses on pasture-
development projects, compared with 43 permittees and 1,280 cattle in 1964.
When full production of the newly developed pasture is reached, these units should
support at least 5,000 cattle.
CO-OPERATION
Contact with range live-stock associations continued to be the principal means
by which the necessary liaison between the Forest Service and range users was
maintained. There are now 65 associations approved under the Grazing Act, three
new associations having been recognized during the year. The boundaries of several
association areas were amended during the year, mainly to include formerly unorganized areas. A total of 171 local association meetings was attended by one
or more Forest Officers to discuss the various problems involved in the use of Crown
range. A number of additional meetings were held with informal groups of range
users.
Both the British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association and the British
Sheep Breeders' Co-operative Association remained active. Particularly close
contact was maintained with the former organization, a number of meetings with
the directors being held to discuss matters of industry-wide importance. The British
Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association again supplied the livestock price figures necessary for the sliding scale of grazing fees. This producer-
owned marketing agency continues to be a reliable source of information on range
live-stock prices, having sold approximately 43Vi million pounds of beef animals
during the year.
The Forest Service continued to enjoy excellent co-operation from the Canada
Research Station in Kamloops in connection with a number of range-management
problems which that agency has under study. Unfortunately, the activities of this
station have been somewhat curtailed through loss of personnel. Grazing officers
again participated in a number of events associated with the ranching industry,
including meetings of the American Society of Range Management, the University
of British Columbia Faculty of Agriculture students' tour, and several meetings
sponsored by the Department of Agriculture. Co-operative field inspections were
made with several other Government agencies in an effort to solve problems arising
from conflicting land uses.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 43
ADMINISTRATION
Continuing the trend in recent years, use of Crown range again increased in
1965. To safely accommodate such increased use of already crowded ranges
necessitates an intensification of management and supervision out of all proportion
to the greater use. Further, the need for closer supervision does not stem from
greater grazing use alone. Other and often conflicting uses of the same land, such
as for watershed, timber production, general recreation, and wildlife purposes, are
also increasing rapidly. During the year numerous requests by alternate user groups
to reduce or completely eliminate range use were received and investigated. Developing settlements and greater highway traffic also conflict with range use and
require a great deal of attention to minimize the impact on the ranching industry.
All of these factors greatly increased the administrative work load in 1965, and the
existing staff was insufficient to carry out an adequate level of administration.
Administration of Crown range in the Peace River area, outside of pasture-
development projects, was intensified in 1965. Ninety permittees were authorized
to graze 9,094 cattle, 966 horses, and 2,000 sheep on these unimproved ranges,
more than doubling use authorized in 1964, the first year of general grazing
administration in this area.
During the year further study was given to methods of improving procedures
to cope with the increased work load. The grazing regulations and fee structure
were also reviewed, with final action pending at the end of the year.
Grazing Permits
During 1965, 2,218 grazing permits were issued authorizing the depasturing
of 188,339 cattle, 6,677 horses, and 12,509 sheep on Crown ranges. This is an
increase of 114 permits over 1964. Cattle numbers were up 14,662 head, or 8V2
per cent, and horses 446 head, or 7 per cent, over the previous year. Sheep under
permit dropped by 9,969 head, a startling 44 per cent. Both the number of permits
issued and the number of cattle are at a new record highs. However, sheep numbers
were at the lowest figure recorded in 45 years of grazing administration.
Expressed as animal unit months, the equivalent of one mature cow on the
range for one month, total use authorized for all classes of stock amounted to
864,416 animal unit months. This represented an increase of 41,405 animal unit
months, or 5 per cent, over the previous year. The fact that this percentage is
less than the increase in the number of cattle and horses reported above is due to
shortened grazing periods on some ranges, as well as to the reduction in the use of
Crown range by sheep.
Hay Permits
The harvesting of hay from natural meadows on Crown range declined considerably in 1965, due in part to poor growth but also to the fact that many of the
better meadows formerly cut under permit are now being leased or purchased for
agricultural development. This trend, together with other factors, will ultimately
result in all of the larger and better meadows coming under private control, with
the smaller or poorer meadows being used almost exclusively for grazing. During
the year under review, 178 hay-cutting permits were issued, authorizing the harvesting of 1,976 tons of hay.
Grazing Fees
Grazing fees per head per month in 1965 were 16 cents for cattle, 20 cents
for horses, and 3}/4 cents for sheep.   These fees represent a drop from those charged
 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
in 1964 of 4 cents for cattle and 5 cents for horses. Fees for sheep were up lA
cent. As fees are related to prices received by producers the previous year, these
changes reflect the poor market conditions existing in 1964.
In spite of greater use of Crown range, total billings were lower due to the
considerably reduced fees.
Control and Enforcement
In view of the more intensive use being made of Crown range, it is increasingly
important that authorized seasons of use, numbers of stock, and other grazing permit
conditions be rigidly enforced. This is necessary to ensure that range and associated
resources are not destroyed, and to protect those permittees who do comply from
unfair competition. Both the bulk of permittees who comply with the regulations
and other interested groups, such as natural history societies and fish and game
clubs, are becoming more insistent in this respect.
The extensive nature of the Crown range, together with complicated land-
ownership patterns and the existence of many part-time ranching operations, makes
adequate control extremely difficult. More intensive regulation is required than is
possible with existing staff. In an effort to control the situation, numerous stock
counts were carried out during the year. A number of cattle and horses grazing
in trespass were removed from the range.   No prosecutions were undertaken.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 45
ENGINEERING SERVICES DIVISION
ENGINEERING SECTION
The construction of forest-development roads under the Federal-Provincial
cost-sharing agreement continued, but road maintenance, special access projects,
and engineering work directly connected with Management Division activities constituted a larger proportion of the engineering programme.
Work commenced in May and continued to the end of the year on the construction of road access from Upper Campbell Lake to Gold River. Engineering
and site-preparation work associated with the development of navigation channels
and landings in the area to be flooded by the Portage Mountain Dam continued
throughout the year.
In addition to the continuing development engineering, reconnaissance, and
road-location programme, field engineers carried out a number of investigations
connected with appeals under Part VI of the Forest Act, and with timber-sale
administration and district projects.
Development Engineering, Reconnaissance, and Road Location
Four senior engineers were employed on development engineering work in
various parts of the Province. In the Prince Rupert Forest District a comprehensive study was made for development of the enlarged Skeena Public Sustained-yield
Unit, and a preliminary investigation covered the new Bell-Irving Public Sustained-
yield Unit. In Kamloops Forest District, parts of the Nicola and Ashnola Public
Sustained-yield Units were covered with development studies, and preliminary work
was carried out in Block 2 of the Quesnel Lake Public Sustained-yield Unit for
administrative and protection access. In the Vancouver Forest District, access
into Maimen Creek near Hope, into the upper Lillooet River drainage, into the
Homathko River valley, and into Clowhom River was reconnoitred. Work in the
Nelson Forest District included route reconnaissance into Albert Creek, Jumping
Creek, Twin Creek, Rendell Creek, Blackfoot-Quinn Creeks, and Sage Creek.
During the field season, 194.7 miles of forest road were located and flagged
on the ground. In addition, control survey and large-scale photogrammetric mapping were carried out by the Topographic Division of the Lands Branch for 50
miles of route corridor for the proposed Chilcotin South Forest Road. Detailed
map location and design were completed for the first 16 miles of the road. Open
range land and light forest-cover made this method feasible and far superior and
cheaper than conventional survey procedures.
Efforts continued to develop new techniques and to adapt survey methods to
changing requirements. Prior to the field season, party chiefs were given training
in air-photo interpretation for road layout, and most field parties worked on photo
locations completed before commencing work on the ground.
Road Construction and Maintenance
Construction of 63.9 miles of new road on 13 projects was completed during
the year, and maintenance continued on 855 miles of previously constructed road.
New construction involved site preparation of 516 acres of right-of-way, movement of 1,650,000 cubic yards of common excavation and 102,000 cubic yards of
solid rock, installation of 13,200 lineal feet of culvert, and erection of 22 bridges.
 46
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Placing glue-laminated timber I-beams during erection of Slesse Creek Bridge.
Weather throughout the summer months was generally favourable for construction, and a number of jobs left unfinished in 1964 because of bad weather
were completed. Other major projects undertaken included extension of the Kis-
piox River Road into an area of beetle infestation, construction of a loop road to
accommodate increased traffic generated by new timber-conversion plants and
related services being built in the vicinity of Morfee Lakes, and a start on the construction of a road to provide access from Upper Campbell Lake into the Gold
River drainage.
Of the 22 bridges built during the year, 11 were permanent timber structures.
The largest of these are a 100-foot single span across the Akolkolex River south
of Revelstoke, a 115-foot structure with multiple spans across the Sweetin River
on the Kispiox River Road, and a 165-foot multiple-span structure across Slesse
Creek on the Chilliwack River Road. The Slesse Creek Bridge has a main span of
120 feet, using the longest glue-laminated timber girders fabricated to date for the
Forest Service.
See Table No. 91 in the Appendix.
General Engineering
Designs, plans, and specifications were completed for 16 pressure-creosoted
glue-laminated bridges. One of these, the Slesse Creek Bridge on the Chilhwack
Forest Development Road, is the first Forest Service bridge to use glulam girders
of I-beam section. During the year the design load for new bridges in the Interior
of the Province was increased from 45 tons to 90 tons.
  .        	
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 47
Engineering work continued in the area to be flooded by the Portage Mountain
Dam. In sections of the Parsnip and Finlay drainages where partially submerged
trees could impede navigation, the initial selection and layout of some 200 miles
of waterway covering 32,000 acres has been completed, and clearing is in various
stages of completion on 5,820 acres. This includes 2,500 acres treated by the
Le Tourneau tree-crusher which was moved into the area late in 1964.
MECHANICAL SECTION
The motor-vehicle fleet increased from 888 to 905 units during 1965. Increased protection for northern districts accounted for about half of this number,
and the remainder were normal increments due to new positions and increased
requirements. The number of station wagon types was reduced, whereas that of
pick-up trucks increased noticeably.
In the heavy-construction equipment category, a total of seven tractors was
purchased. Six of these were in the 100-120-horsepower range (flywheel) and
four were power-shift models. Four were equipped with the power-tilt feature
for the bulldozer blade, whereas two of the machines were gear-drive models without the power-tilt feature. The seventh machine was a 235-horsepower (flywheel)
model with power-shift and power-tilt. Finally in the crawler-tractor field, two
160-horsepower (flywheel) units were on order but had not yet been received.
These machines are power-shift models with hydraulic tilting U-blades and double-
drum cable-control units instead of the customary winch. A wheeled farm tractor
was also purchased for the Reforestation Division for use in its East Kootenay
tree nursery section.
Two four-wheel-drive four-wheel-steer graders were obtained—one for Kamloops Forest District and one for Prince George Forest District. A small maintainer
grader was purchased for the Reforestation Division, which, together with a similar
model, provides two units of the same type for use on Vancouver Island. A third
four-wheel-drive four-wheel-steer grader was on order for Prince Rupert Forest
District as this particular type of grader appears to be eminently suited to work on
Forest Service lookout trails and fire access roads.
A particularly active fire year was responsible for the purchase of at least six
forestry-type fire-fighting pumps, and routine purchasing added 28 more, of which
two were of the heavy-duty trailer-mounted style. Also purchased was a variety
of domestic water-supply, camp-protection, nursery-irrigation pumps and bentonite-
handling pumps, totalling 18 in all.
The trail motor-cycle continues to be recognized as a very useful addition to
the fleet, and 28 units, including seven of local manufacture, were added during
the year.
One hundred and seventeen chains saws were purchased, of which 69 were for
the Protection Division. The remainder was shared between the Reforestation,
Survey, and Engineering Divisions. Chain saws of all makes are becoming much
lighter and more powerful.
Of 33 outboard motors added this year, 18 were 3 3-horsepower or over, and
the balance was composed of 18-, 9-, and 3-horsepower models. There is a definite
trend toward the electric starter and electric gear shift, which gives a marked advantage in certain circumstances, although perhaps not necessary in all cases.
See Table No. 92 in the Appendix.
A promotional system is being worked out to provide more incentive to those
of non-permanent status and to take care of future moves of personnel.   The usual
 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS. AND WATER RESOURCES
instructional courses in mechanical maintenance were held at the training-school—
one in the spring and one in the fall. Other instruction was given by district supervisors, particularly in the spring, to acquaint newcomers with the use of fire-pumps
and allied equipment. Seven men in the Engineering Section received a short
course in trailer-towing. This instruction is given annually and is handled by the
Engineering transport pool from the Forest Service Maintenance Depot in Vancouver.
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN
Sixteen major projects started in 1964 were finished during the year, and a
further 44 major projects undertaken, the majority of which were completed. It is
becoming increasingly important to satisfy the living-accommodation requirements
of the field staff and, for this reason, nine new residences were constructed and two
prefabricated buildings were enlarged for family accommodation. Expansion of
the work of the Reforestation Division also is reflected in various projects, such as
cold-storage buildings and irrigation systems undertaken at various tree nurseries.
Ninety-eight contracts for prime and sub-contract work were awarded, and 52 other
miscellaneous jobs were handled, as well as a continuing load of assessment and
consultation services.
The decision to establish a district headquarters at Williams Lake resulted in
a great deal of time and effort being expended on site investigations, preliminary
building layouts, and design of special features. The preparation of detailed drawings and specifications was carried out by an outside architect. However, when
tenders were called, all bids received were judged unrealistically high and were
refused. Alternate means of providing the necessary office and warehouse space
are now being investigated. Due to the heavy work load mentioned above, routine
inspections of buildings for maintenance purposes suffered. This is a recurring
problem that is becoming increasingly significant.
During the year, 25 major additions and numerous papers were added to the
Division technical library.
MARINE DESIGN AND INVESTIGATION
In consultations with the staff of the Forest Service Maintenance Depot, engine
replacements were selected for seven diesel-powered craft and one powered by
gasoline.
Marine advisory services were given to various districts and divisions, and to
the Scaling Commission and Safety Committee, covering activities ranging from
marine radar installations on the coast to specialized river transportation by barge
and tug in the Peace pondage area behind Portage Mountain Dam.
Small-boat Purchases
Seven stock-model aluminum boats, 14 and 16 feet in length, were purchased
for use by Ranger staffs. In addition, three sturdy inflatable boats were brought
for use by Rangers and cruising crews and for use in conjunction with aircraft.
Mobile Accommodation
Fourteen house trailers ranging in length from 14 to 40 feet were designed
and put out to tender for construction by three commercial firms. These trailers
are used by fire-suppression crews, cruising crews, Ranger staffs, air-tanker crews,
construction crews, and families in remote areas.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 49
FOREST SERVICE MAINTENANCE DEPOT
Reorganization in the internal administration and functional control of the
Forest Service Maintenance Depot was carried out early in 1965. The most significant physical change having immediate effect was the installation of a depot communication system. Other changes primarily in the administrative area and aimed
at close integration of existing services also are having the desired effect of
measurably increasing efficiency and economy of production.
Marine Work
The marine ways were occupied 64 times, with 40 complete launch refits and
21 minor overhauls being carried out. The major projects included the re-engining
of four craft, most notable being M.V. " Syrene I " and M.V. " Alpine Fir." The
engine requirements, evolved from factors such as age and parts availability, were
needed to ensure dependable power under adverse operating conditions. Highlight
of new construction work was that carried out on the 50-foot Ranger vessel M.V.
" Golden Spruce." The hull was planked and construction is proceeding according to schedule. Small-boat construction continued with six river boats completed
for distribution to various parts of the Province. Other work accomplished included
the repair of some 36 river boats, barges, and small boats.
Prefabrication and Carpentry Shop
The remodelling, renovation, and general maintenance of Porta-buildings and
trailers was programmed in an effort to increase line production. This programme
has allowed a significant increase in units handled as a total of 26 Porta-buildings
and trailers were rebuilt, modified, or reconditioned. In addition, other items produced in quantity included 150 signs of various types, 96 scaling boards, five
lookout buildings, 45 pieces of office furniture, and 345 boxes and crates.
The normal function of the five-man carpentry crew has the added load of
depot maintenance and improvement. This year the crew completed the fencing
project and the removal of a large tree which was causing some concern as a
hazard to power supply-lines. Finally, the closing-in of the warehouse for protection of stored equipment was completed, thus allowing additional working space
and drive-through wall storage for efficiency of handling.
Machine-shop
The regular work load in the small-engine repair-shop was at its near peak
capacity with 440 pumps, light plants, outboard engines, chain saws, and trail motorcycles overhauled, crated, and shipped. In addition, 214 new units were tested and
shipped to the districts. The machine-shop also produced and assembled finished
items from castings, which included 100 paper-punches, 25 propane brush-burning
torches, 25 log-scale computers, 1,800 hose, pump, and valve fittings, and miscellaneous items. To complete the major portion of this work load, the usual service
in welding, plumbing, and electrical work was supplied in part to the trailer rebuilding and repair programme.
Transport Pool and Warehouse
Transportation service was supplied to 16 engineering projects, to all five forest
districts, and to several other Forest Service agencies. The transport pool operates
three 30-ton tractor-trailer combination diesel trucks and two 5-ton gasoline trucks.
 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
The total distance travelled was approximately 160,000 miles, in which 300 hauling
assignments, totalling 3,000 tons, were completed, and included the movement of
12 bridges from Vancouver fabricating plants. These jobs ranged a course from
the Flathead in the south-eastern part of the Province to projects on Vancouver
Island at Gold River, to north of Hazelton on the Upper Kispiox River. Included
with this function of transport, the warehouse handled, stocked, conditioned, and
repaired all items of construction equipment for various Engineering Services Division projects. Warehousing in general experienced a build-up in items handled with
the addition of tents and other equipment for conditioning, repairs, and storage.
EnGINEERING MAINTENANCE-SHOP
The function of the engineering workshop is primarily to maintain and service
the transport pool fleet. In conjunction with this regular work load, complete overhauls were carried out on 35 half-ton trucks. Extensive repairs were made to heavy
equipment, including graders, tractors, shovels, rollers, loaders, light plants, compressors, and rock drills.
RADIO SECTION
Two hundred and forty-seven radio transmitting units of all types were purchased during the year, compared with 147 during 1964. The greater part of new
radio equipment consisted of very high frequency (F.M.) portables and mobiles of
the all-transistor type. The percentage of radio-equipped Ranger, Assistant Ranger,
and supervisory cars increased considerably during the year, but nearly all districts
expressed a need for more mobiles as soon as possible. Throughout 1965, amplitude modulated (A.M.) transmission was hampered by continuous interference from
teletype and facsimile stations on most Forest Service channels. To date no satisfactory replacement frequencies have been obtained from the Department of Transport.
The Vancouver Forest District during the year expanded the preparation of
pre-organization maps showing the location of and coverage from sites suitable for
the use of portable V.H.F. repeaters. Where these repeaters have been employed,
the 24-hour-a-day reliability resulting from not having to depend on propogation
conditions surpassed the best previously experienced A.M. fire communications. A
new type of A.M. remote receiver was successfully tested at Squamish, and F.M.
was extended to Ranger stations north of Campbell River, where teletype again
supplemented radio circuits between Campbell River and Vancouver.
The F.M. repeater trunk system installed in 1964 between Burns Lake and
Terrace was completed to Prince Rupert during the summer by means of repeaters
on McLean Mountain and Mount Hays. Ninety-watt mobile-type A.M. transmitters
were used for the first time at fire base stations in the Prince Rupert Forest District
with considerable success.
F.M. was extended to Fernie, but all attempts to connect Fernie to its lookouts
by means of either F.M. or A.M. proved relatively unsuccessful. A propogation
survey was carried out in the Mica Creek area with the object of determining F.M.
repeater-sites for a circuit between Mica Creek and Nelson. Plans were made for
the establishment of the first repeater on Mount Sibley in 1966 to give mobile coverage on the Big Bend Road.
The use of thermo-generators to provide power for repeaters was initiated in
the Prince George Forest District with installations on Longworth and Skog Mountains supplying communication to McBride and Finlay Forks. This type of power
supply was not too successful, but improvements have been designed for use in 1966.
Kamloops Forest District changed its F.M. repeater system to trunk operation,
permitting mobiles to work through the repeaters, thereby greatly increasing mobile
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 51
range and coverage. The lease of a repeater on Avola Mountain from Canadian
National Telegraphs was arranged, and the repeater is expected to be in operation
before the end of the current year, giving reliable communication to North Thompson Ranger stations for the first time.
Research work by the Victoria section included redesign of transmitters to prevent the radiation of harmonics, investigation into the failure of thermo-generators,
design of special equipment to meet unforeseen situations such as the A.M.-F.M.
remote system at Squamish, and the design of a low-drain battery repeater for use
with thermo-generators.
Currently in progress is the testing of single sideband transmission, the eventual
legal replacement for A.M. Following some changes in the receiving equipment
used in the investigation of " sferics " during 1964, further tests were carried out
with no measurable success during the past fire season.
 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
FOREST PROTECTION DIVISION
WEATHER
The stage was set for the 1965 fire season with March being one of the
sunniest and driest on record. Below normal precipitation continued into April for
most of the Province
May was generally cool with slightly less than normal rainfall. June was dry
over the whole of the Province, with the few stations that reported above normal
rainfall recording most of that in one or two days.
The temperatures in July averaged close to normal in spite of an extremely
warm period during the last 10 days. For the most part, rainfall continued below
normal.
Most of the Province received less than normal precipitation during August.
In part of the Vancouver Forest District a forest closure was in effect from July 31st
to August 4th.
The weather in September was generally dry, particularly in the Coastal
regions, although the Chilcotin and East Kootenay areas reported more than normal
precipitation.
Strong winds were a significant factor in all districts and were instrumental in
the escape of several logging slash burns.
Lightning activity appears to have been close to normal. Some difficulty was
experienced with dry lightning-storms, particularly in the northern half of the
Province.
FIRES
Occurrence and Causes
The dry, occasionally windy summer resulted in more than the average number
of fires and in several serious " escape " slash fires in the late summer. The total of
2,685 fires recorded was well above the 10-year average of 2,106. Lightning again
leads as the individual cause, accounting for some 37.2 per cent of the total number
of fires.
See Tables Nos. 103, 104, and 105 in the Appendix.
Cost of Fire-fighting
Average fire-suppression cost to the Forest Service was $2,041 per cost fire,
compared to $295 the previous year. The cost of suppression to the Forest Service
of $2,539,800 and other agency costs of $1,245,800 totalled $3,785,600. This is
$1,475,500 above the 10-year average.
See Tables Nos. 109, 110, and 111 in the Appendix.
Damage
The area of forest-cover burned, at 307,132 acres, is only 64 per cent of the
10-year average of 479,525 acres. The damage to forest-cover increased almost
$2,000,000 over the 10-year average but was far less than the damage sustained in
the fire years of 1958 and 1961.
See Tables Nos. 107, 108, and 110 in the Appendix.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 53
PROTECTION PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Statistics
A start was made during 1965 on coding of fire data for punched cards on an
expanded three-card-per-fire basis, and it is planned to continue and increase this
programme during 1966.
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography
A crew of two men, both experienced university students, undertook the combined work of visibility mapping and lookout photography. Emphasis was on visibility mapping in the earlier part of the season, with 20 possible lookout points being
completed.
Thirty sets of the panoramic lookout photographs were taken, part of the
continuing programme of providing photographic sets for newly established lookouts
and for up-dating older photography on long-established lookouts.
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks
Following spring field testing, 883 sets of the 100-gram fuel-moisture indicator
sticks were distributed to industry and the Canada Department of Forestry, as well
as for our own use. This represented an increase of 24 per cent in distribution
over 1964.
The stick-fabrication procedures at the Forest Products Laboratory at Vancouver were streamlined to markedly reduce the amount of manual weighing processes,
resulting in higher production for a shorter period.
The co-operation of the laboratory in allowing use of the kiln and facilities and
providing assistance of the staff is acknowledged.
Insect Control
No individual or co-operative spray projects were undertaken during 1965. A
small co-operative cost-sharing survey project was directed against the hemlock
needle miner in North-west Vancouver Island.
In recognition of the potential of the balsam woolly aphid, a general survey
was organized in the spring and is continuing, in co-operation with the Canada Forest
Research Laboratory staff. This is the first time that the Protection Division has
directly undertaken an insect survey of this type. Instructional training in identification techniques in the field and laboratory were given by the Research Laboratory
specialists, and office and laboratory space was provided in the building. Sampling
areas to date have been Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland.
A senior advisory committee and a technical planning committee on the balsam
woolly aphid have been established, representing the Federal and Provincial Forest
Services and the forest industry.
Research Projects
The experimental window-tinting programme, inaugurated in 1964, was expanded in 1965, with 28 lookouts, 5 Ranger stations, and an air-tanker base completed. The primary purpose of glare modification and a resultant temperature
reduction appears to be successful and has been well received.
The experimental " sferics " programme in lightning detection was continued.
A second receiver was developed, and the two receivers operated during the month
of July in the Cranbrook-Golden area. Lightning activity was widespread during
this period, and much data were gathered. Problems of monitoring the lightning
strikes by the operators of these receivers were evident where widespread lightning
 54
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Investigating for balsam woolly aphid in a continuing general survey being made in
co-operation with the Federal Forest Research Laboratory at Victoria. This is the first
time the Forest Protection Division has undertaken an insect survey of this type.
activity was present, and further research will continue. Although most of the
recorded data have yet to be analysed, it is felt that large single storms can be tracked
with the present equipment.
Equipment evaluation and development, emergency ration packs, plasticizing,
smoke simulation, safety devices, among others, are some of the continuing projects
of research studies.
Fire-suppression Crews
Sixteen suppression crews were again employed in the three southern forest
districts and fought a total of 316 fires. Sixty-six per cent of the fires fought by
these crews were held to 1 acre or less. Several crewmen were attached to various
Ranger and forest district headquarters to assist with air-tanker operations and other
suppression work.
Under a new programme in the northern districts at Prince Rupert and Prince
George, 36 initial-attack crewmen were organized in units of two to eight men.
 	
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 55
These units were used as " helitack " crews, air-tanker base crews, and ordinary
fire-suppression crews. This programme was a very important factor in keeping
many fires in the unpopulated, isolated regions to a relatively small size.
Indians were employed wherever possible, but a degree of reorganization of
crews became necessary when some crewmen left to attend stampedes. Also, some
difficulty was encountered when Indian crewmen were requested to go to the more
northern areas without their families. It is proposed to continue trying to use Indian
crewmen knowing that some problems will develop.
Aircraft
The place occupied by aircraft in all phases of fire suppression was significant
last season. The number of aircraft on contract was increased by two, for a total
of 40 machines. The two additional aircraft, Canso air tankers, were used in the
northern districts with success.
The light aircraft used for detection turned in an impressive list of first reports,
contributing greatly to the detection system.
The Avenger air tankers flew out their contract for the first time, achieving a
high degree of success on the fires attacked.
Helicopters and Beaver-type aircraft maintained the high standard of performance that has characterized their operations.
See Tables Nos. 113 and 114 in the Appendix.
Roads and Trails
The programme of road and trail construction and maintenance continued in a
normal manner. As roads and trails are an essential part of economic fire suppression, the programme should be expanded.
See Table No. 116 in the Appendix.
Slash Disposal and Snag-falling
(Vancouver District)
The weather during the late summer of 1965 was the most favourable for slash-
burning experienced in many years. Burning commenced in late August and early
September. Excellent results were obtained, and most of the burning was completed
by September 15th. Of an estimated 100,000 acres logged during 1965, 84,000
acres were burned, including 52,000 acres of slash created in previous years. A
further 3,000 acres were burned by accidental fires earlier in the season.
Comparatively moderate fire seasons and marginal fall slash-burning weather
during the previous three years had engendered an attitude of complacency, and
instead of mopping up the fires as soon as slash had been consumed, they were left
to be extinguished by the fall rains, which usually commence about September 15th.
These rains failed to materialize on schedule, and when the slash-burning advisory
from the Dominion Weather Office forecast north-west winds of 30 to 35 miles per
hour on September 20th, numerous spots were still smouldering around the margins
of the burned areas. On September 21st the winds arrived as predicted and were
compressed in some of the larger valleys into gales of 40 to 50 miles per hour.
Many serious " escape " fires resulted. By the time these fires were under control
again, they had covered an additional 14,500 acres.
The total damage resulting from the " escapes " reached an unprecedented
figure of $277,000. However, a large portion of the mature timber killed or damaged will be salvable for sawlogs. The poor burning weather in past seasons left a
sufficient volume of fuel in some planted areas to support the spread of a hot fire
and resulted in several hundred acres of immature trees being destroyed.
 56
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Although the damage caused by these " escape " fires and the cost of suppressing them was very high, there is no doubt that these " escapes " and the numerous
accidental fires which occurred earlier in the year were less serious and extensive
than they would have been if the slash-burning programme of previous years had
not eliminated the build-up of large unbroken areas of slash.
It has been found that spot burning is not nearly as effective as broadcast burning for preventing serious reburns in later years. Consequently spot burning was
scheduled for only 3.2 per cent of the areas required to be burned in 1965, as
compared to 33 per cent in 1962.
During the year, 5,857 acres of snags were felled under " major " contracts,
with an additional 140 acres being felled on " minor " projects. A small Reforestation Division crew on loan to Protection during slack periods accounted for a further
480 acres of snags.
Prescribed Burning, Interior Districts
The increasingly large areas of unbroken slash caused by the expansion of clear-
cut logging in the Interior and northern forest districts in recent years is a matter of
grave concern to both Forest Service and logging-industry officials. A few broadcast
burns were carried out by both parties over the past few years, but these were mainly
of an experimental nature.
Acreage oj Slash Burned in 1965
Forest District
Industry
Forest
Service
Total
Prince Rupert._
Prince George..
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Acres
2,300
2,150
1,578
3,251
Acres
2,490
520
1,075
4,682
Acres
4,790
2,670
2,653
7,933
Totals.
9,279
8,767 18,046
Expansion of the Interior pulp harvest will greatly accelerate the increase of
clear-cut areas of extremely hazardous slash. Broadcast burning is the most effective
method of reducing this hazard, and a greatly expanded burning programme is
required in the Interior if the large and costly fires, similar to those which originated
in slash in recent years, are to be avoided.
A graphic example of the need to reduce slash areas was shown during the fall
in one prescribed slash burn in the North Central Interior. Unusually strong, dry
winds caused the fire to escape the guards into old slash, and resulted in a troublesome fire even at that late time of year. Damage to forest-cover was relatively light
however, although some equipment was lost.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
As 1965 was a heavier fire season than had been experienced during the past
several years, prosecutions under Part XI of the Forest Act also increased, there
being a total of 30 informations laid. This represented 62.5 per cent of the 10-year
average.
FOREST CLOSURES
There was only one forest closure imposed this season under section 122 of
the Forest Act. This was a general closure in six zones of the Vancouver Forest
District from July 31st to August 4th, inclusive. Zones 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, and 10 were
affected.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 57
FOREST SERVICE TRAINING-SCHOOL
The fourth and fifth classes of basic trainees (Basic Courses Nos. 4 and 5),
consisting of 20 men each, graduated April 9 and December 17, 1965, respectively.
Graduates from the basic course now total 100.
Subjects covered during the year for both courses were as follows:—
Basic Course No. 4, Spring 1965, and Basic Course No. 5, Fall 1965
Days Allotted
Forest Protection Policies and Procedures     4
Forest Management Policies and Procedures     6V2
Pre-suppression Studies     7
Fire Suppression  13
Forest Measurements     7 Vi
Mathematics      IVi
Forest Surveying     5 Vi
Silviculture     3
Mechanical Equipment Maintenance and Operation  10
Photogrammetry     3
Opening, closing, examinations, clean-up     3
Total days  65
First Aid:  Two hours per week in evenings for 9 weeks.
Typing:  One hour per week for 13 weeks.
Physical Education:  One-half hour per day.
See Tables Nos. 131 and 132 in the Appendix.
EXTRA COURSES AND FUNCTIONS
Training-school facilities were used for two weeks in April, 1965, by the Department of Recreation and Conservation for an in-service training course. Average
attendance was 30 men for 12 days.
The usual course for lookoutmen for the Vancouver Forest District was given
to 11 men, May 4th to 7th. Ten proved satisfactory and were employed, effective
May 4th.
Three two-day sessions of instruction were given to a total of 53 men from the
Forest Service staff of scalers. The purpose was to give these men an appreciation
of the Forest Service, its organization, and phases of Forest Service activity. The
sessions were held January 13th and 14th, January 20th and 21st, February 9th
and 10th.
The school facilities were used by the Surveys and Inventory Division for three
two-day sessions, May 6th and 7th, May 10th and 11th, and May 12th and 13th,
during which 90 summer field employees were instructed.
One three-day session of instruction was given to 14 Gaol Service officers
attached to the Attorney-General's Department. The three-day course, which included instruction on the major phases of Forest Service work and its organization,
was designed to promote a better understanding in the interest of co-operation between departments.   The course was held March 9th to 11th.
The reading course on the Forest Act was brought up to date.
Subject outlines and lesson plans were further developed.
 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Our staff assisted with instruction at various courses, institutions, and meetings
throughout the Province. Included were courses at the University of British Columbia, the Northern Interior Fire Control Course, and a Parks Branch meeting at
Manning Park.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Appreciation is expressed to speakers and lecturers and to the following agencies for equipment provided: Air Division of the Surveys and Mapping Branch,
Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources; University of British Columbia; Weldwood of Canada Limited; Burnaby Parks and Recreation Commission;
and Surrey Municipality. Appreciation also is expressed to lecturers from other
divisions and districts of the Forest Service.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 59
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
FISCAL
The financial return to the Forest Service in 1965 again exceeded expectations
in spite of only a minor increase in the total scale of wood harvested. The additional
revenue was due mainly to higher stumpage prices received on timber cut from
timber sales and tree-farm licence cutting permits, which was a direct reflection of
the continued good prices being obtained by the industry for its forest products.
This favourable situation persisted throughout the year, but there was some indication at its close that some effect might be felt from a " tightening " money market
in the new year.
The total of amounts charged to logging operations increased by a substantial
10.9 per cent to yet another new record of $49,902,240 (see Table No. 142 in the
Appendix). By districts the largest increase, 28 per cent, was registered in the
Prince Rupert Forest District, followed by Prince George, Vancouver, and Nelson
with 14.1, 13.8, and 11.1 per cent respectively. Kamloops Forest District showed
a decline of 8.2 per cent.
Forest revenue recorded a higher percentage increase than the amounts charged,
12.8 per cent, and the total of $47,558,411 (see Table No. 141 in the Appendix)
was also a new all-time high. Timber-sale stumpage, which constitutes the bulk of
the revenue, rose by 12.9 per cent to $42,031,437, and the related item, timber-sale
rentals and fees, increased by 49.9 per cent. The latter was mainly due to an
increase in rental to 50 cents per acre by regulation pursuant to the Forest Act.
A similar increase by Statute in the rental payable on timber licences and timber
leases accounted for gains of 98.7 and 25.9 per cent respectively in these categories.
Rentals and fees collected from timber berths declined by 3.9 per cent as the rates
remained unchanged, and areas are steadily being eliminated from these tenures as
cutting progresses. Timber-sale cruising and advertising declined by a surprising
33.16 per cent, the apparent result of a reduction from 2,282 in 1964 to 1,614 in
1965 in the number of timber sales awarded.
Timber royalties, the second-highest revenue category, remained almost unchanged, recording an increase of only 0.7 per cent to a total of $2,629,476. This
was to be expected as this revenue is derived from the cut on Crown-granted lands
and the old licence and lease tenures. Areas are eliminated from the latter tenures
as the timber is liquidated, and new licences of this type no longer are issued.
Forest-protection tax collections increased moderately by 6.9 per cent to
$559,007, and miscellaneous revenue, continuing an upward trend, rose by 30.1 per
cent to $273,738. Bidding fees of approximately $34,000 are included in the
miscellaneous category, as are charges for publications issued which were raised to
cover higher printing costs. Grazing permits and fees increased by 8.4 per cent,
exactly offsetting the decline in 1964.
Financial tables on a fiscal-year basis for the period ended March 31, 1965,
also appear in the Appendix (see Tables Nos. 143, 144, and 145), and details of
expenditure can be found in the Public Accounts, published by the Department of
Finance.
The Federal-Provincial Forestry Agreement, which expired March 31, 1965,
was replaced by a new two-year agreement terminating March 31, 1967. The
amount claimable by the Province from Canada remained unchanged at $1,804,461,
and only minor alterations were made in the terms and conditions.
 60 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
ADMINISTRATION
The Accounting Division as a whole experienced its busiest year on record. In
addition to coping with the increase in volume indicated in the financial tables, all
sections were subject to increased pressure resulting from policy changes originating
in other divisions of the Forest Service, the Department of Finance, and the Civil
Service, Superannuation, and Purchasing Commissions.
Major effects of changes in Management Division timber-sale administration
were felt by the timber-sale and revenue sections of the headquarters accounts office.
The introduction of new tenures in connection with the expansion in pulp-mill construction and preparation for the advent of the close utilization policy, effective
January 1, 1966, required planning of new routines in recording and accounting.
These changes also had a similar effect on each district office.
Changes in personnel appointment action procedure, income-tax adjustments,
and the expected inclusion of the Provincial Civil Service in the Canada Pension
Plan combined to put extreme pressure on the pay desk of the headquarters accounts
office, and on district and divisional pay clerks.
Additional though relatively minor changes were made in the expenditure
accounting structure with the approval of Treasury Board in a further effort to
achieve flexibility and reduce paper work.
As time permitted, the survey of office methods in the Forest Service begun by
the Accounting Division in 1964 was continued, and further recommendations were
submitted to the Chief Forester for consideration late in the year.
A concerted drive on delinquent accounts receivable was instituted early in the
spring, and, in spite of the increase in billing, all districts were able to report considerable progress toward the goal of maintaining all accounts on a current basis.
The investigating section of the Comptroller's Office was kept fully occupied,
concentrating mainly on mill cost studies and lumber prices analyses for the appraisal section of the Management Division. Investigations also were conducted
in conjunction with the five district offices.
No changes in the organization or personnel establishment of the Accounting
Division were made, the extra work load being carried with the addition only of the
usual summer temporary typing help.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 61
PERSONNEL DIVISION
On June 30, 1965, Mr. R. G. McKee officially retired as Deputy Minister of
Forests to assume full-time duties as Chairman of the Provincial Government Purchasing Commission. As a result, Mr. F. S. McKinnon, Chief Forester, was
appointed Deputy Minister, and Mr. L. F. Swannell, Assistant Chief Forester, was
appointed Chief Forester. Subsequent transfers and promotions resulted in a new
Assistant Chief Forester, a new Forester in charge of Forest Protection, and new
District Foresters in four of the five forest districts. The Working Plans Division was
combined with the Forest Surveys and Inventory Division under the general administration of the Forester in charge of Surveys and Inventory. Legislative approval
was given for the establishment of the Cariboo Forest District with headquarters
at Williams Lake. At the close of the year this district was not yet operational,
although some time had been spent in the Personnel Office in the preparation of
organization charts to adequately staff the new district. A new series of technician
grades was set up by the Civil Service Commission and included, in addition to
engineering technicians, the two senior draughting employees in this department.
In the matter of employee relations, the newly appointed Chief Forester and
the Personnel Officer met with a representative committee of the Society of British
Columbia Forest Officers to discuss matters of Departmental policy concerning this
group. There were no formal grievances, and one inquiry from the British Columbia
Government Employees' Association was resolved at the Departmental level between
the Personnel Officer and a representative from the association. A general salary
increase involving all employees became effective April 1st.
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING
No formal meeting of District Foresters was held in Victoria, but the District
Forester and Assistant District Forester from each of three districts spent a week in
Victoria discussing specific problems with the various headquarters divisions concerned. Full-scale Ranger meetings were held in Vancouver and Nelson Forest
Districts, while limited Ranger zone meetings were held in the Kamloops, Prince
George, and Prince Rupert Forest Districts. The Forest Surveys and Inventory
Division held its annual pre-season meeting for field foresters, and held a pre-season
training session at Green Timbers for its summer field staff. The Engineering Services Division, in addition to its annual meeting of engineers, also held meetings in
Victoria for district mechanical supervisors and district and headquarters radio technicians. The Foresters in charge of Forest Management in the district offices came
to Victoria in a group and met with headquarters Forest Management staff to discuss policies and procedures involving close utilization. The Forest Agrologists
from Nelson, Prince George, and Kamloops met with the Director of Grazing in
Kamloops to discuss common problems in range management.
The Personnel Officer and Assistant Personnel Officer took part in several
vocation-day programmes at various schools in the Victoria area and the Lower
Mainland as did a number of other Forest Officers. The Forest Service was also
represented on a programme of instructive interviews for graduating secondary-
school students jointly sponsored by the Victoria Chamber of Commerce and the
National Employment Service.
Two men were selected for the 10th class of the course in Public Administration
under the Government's Executive Development Training Plan. Unfortunately one
man dropped out before the course started, and the Service is represented in this
 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
class by a Forest Protection Officer from Prince George. Class X is for candidates
from the Interior of the Province. Two employees, both foresters, graduated from
the seventh class of the programme and received Diplomas in Public Administration
from the University of Victoria, the first of this programme to be granted by that
institution. A correspondence course in Basic Public Administration of one-year
duration was commenced by the Civil Service Commission. Four employees from
the senior clerical staff of the Forest Service at Victoria, Vancouver, Kamloops, and
Nelson enrolled and subsequently graduated. Class 2 of this basic course commenced in the fall, and the Forest Service was represented by one employee from
Victoria, one from Vancouver, and one from the Forest Service training-school.
A number of field employees continued to take first-aid courses at various levels,
but the trend in this area appears to be toward the industrial first-aid certificate.
The Civil Defence Organization sponsored St. John Ambulance first-aid courses in
Victoria to the benefit of several Forest Service employees. Arrangements were
made with the Chief Warden of Civil Defence to endeavour to have such courses
slanted to field conditions which would be more beneficial to our staff. Informal
training continued for junior engineers and junior foresters.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT, AND STAFF TURNOVER
The permanent Civil Service establishment of the Forest Service was increased
from 863 to 881, an increase of 18 positions, which included a Technical Forest
Officer 4 as an additional Ranger Supervisor in the Prince Rupert Forest District
and a Forest Protection Officer 2 in the Prince George Forest District to be responsible for increased protection in northern areas. The remaining 16 positions were
new positions of various classifications set up as a nucleus for the new Cariboo
Forest District.
During the year, 160 persons obtained Civil Service appointments and 156 left
the Service. Eleven Forest Service 25-year certificates and badges were earned, and
23, employees were guests of the Government at a luncheon where they were awarded
a certificate in recognition of 25 years' service with the Provincial Government
Service. There were seven retirements and 63 transfers of permanent staff. Six
graduate foresters and six engineers left the Service, and 15 graduate foresters and
one engineer were hired.
Turnover of Civil Service-appointed staff, including full-time casual staff, was
12.4 per cent, up from 11.6 per cent in 1964. The Prince George Forest District
suffered the greatest disruption with 17 per cent, followed by Vancouver and Victoria headquarters with 14.5 and 13.4 per cent respectively. Kamloops and Prince
Rupert Forest Districts followed closely with 13.3 and 12.2 per cent respectively.
Vancouver Scaling had a 9.9-per-cent staff turnover. Nelson Forest District was
lowest at 6.3 per cent.
Professional-staff turnover dropped back to 6.7 per cent from 7.5 per cent in
1964. Technical-staff turnover went from 7.6 per cent in 1964 to 6.8 per cent, but
this figure gives a false impression of improvement since it does not include a large
number of junior technical field positions not covered in these statistics. Considerable disruption was felt in the office staff, which suffered a turnover of 22.8 per
cent for the Service as a whole, as compared to 18 per cent in 1964. Kamloops and
Prince George Forest Districts suffered the greatest turnover in this group at 35.2
and 33.3 per cent respectively. In general, the greatest number of people left the
Service for better salaries.
There were no fatal accidents during the year involving employees, but one
contract snag-faller was killed on duty and the workmen's compensation claim was
 —
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
63
chargeable to the Department. In the matter of discipline, while no employees were
released by Order in Council, there were 15 disciplinary suspensions. A number of
these suspensions were made because the employees concerned failed to observe
accident-prevention regulations with regard to personal protective equipment. No
annual statutory increases were withheld, but one employee, due for promotion after
two years' satisfactory service, had his promotion withheld for a period of six months.
There were 602 written applications for employment processed by the Personnel Office, in addition to those handled by the district offices and divisional staffs.
Promotional examinations were held as usual by the Civil Service Commission for
draughtsmen and mapping assistants, resulting in the promotion and reclassification
of a number of staff members who qualified. Oral examinations were employed at
panel interviews to fill 27 positions. The Personnel Officer and Assistant Personnel
Officer participated in the rilling of 135 other positions. Two hundred and twenty-six
candidates sat the annual spring examination for Technical Forest Officer 1, and 65
qualified. Of the candidates writing 160 were presently on the staff of the Forest
Service. Of the 65 who qualified, 22 qualified for regrade in their present duties
only. This left only 43 to fill the 36 vacant positions, and some of these men were
not available for employment. As a result, the individual districts, with the exception of Kamloops, were unable to fill all their vacancies and therefore had to draw
on the excess in the Kamloops Forest District. As a result of this shortage of candidates, it was necessary before the end of the year to employ a number of Acting
Assistant Rangers to fill the existing vacancies.
CLASSIFICATION, SALARIES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
Including the classification of technician, which was established by the Civil
Service Commission, there were 105 reclassifications requested, of which 81 were
approved and 11 rejected-  At the end of the year, 13 were still under review.
Eight employees were registered as professional foresters and four as professional engineers. Working conditions in general remain unchanged. While no
decision has been received yet on the study on special living allowance for northern
areas, it is understood the Civil Service Commission is continuing and broadening
this study.
The accident-prevention programme received a setback in that there were 382
accidents, of which 169 were time loss. The previous year showed only 237 accidents, of which 78 were time loss, but it should be noted that, for statistical purposes,
commencing on January 1, 1965, time-loss accidents were counted where the period
of absence was at least one full working-day, as opposed to three full working-days
in previous reports. This change in statistical recording was not, however, a major
factor in the increase as there were very few time-loss accidents in which the period
of absence was less than three days. There was a particularly heavy fire season, and
of the 169 time-loss accidents, 75 were suffered by fire-fighters and seven by temporary tree-planters. In 1964, these two categories had one accident each. However, with the continuously employed staff there were 87 time-loss accidents in
1965, as compared to 75 during 1964. In 1965 the time-loss accidents jumped
from 33 per cent of the total accidents to 44.3 per cent of the total. It is also worth
noting that, while the time-loss accident frequency in 1964 was 16.8 accidents per
million man-hours worked, in 1965 it was 31.1 accidents per million man-hours
worked. However, districts and divisions are actively engaged in accident prevention with the hope that these figures can be reduced in the future.
 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, 1965
(As of December 31st)
VICTORIA HEADQUARTERS
F. S. McKinnon Deputy Minister of Forests
L. F. Swannell Chief Forester
J. S. Stokes - - Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations Branch
I. T. Cameron Assistant Chief Forester i/c Planning Branch
Staff Division Heads:
Cooper, C.   -----------        Forest Counsel
Hicks, W. V. -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       Departmental Comptroller
Park, S. E.   -       -       -       - Director, Public Information
McKeever, A. E. Personnel Officer
Operations Branch Division Heads:
W. C. Phillips       ..--..-       Forester i/c Protection Division
Greggor, R. D.      -       -       -       -       -        Forester i/c Engineering Services Division
Hughes, W. G. Forester i/c Management Division
Pendray, W. C. Director, Grazing Division
Robinson, E. W.    -       -       -       -       -      Forester i/c Forest Service Training-school
Planning Branch Division Heads:
Young, W. E. L.    -        - Forester i/c Surveys and Inventory and Working Plans Division
Silburn, G. -  Forester i/c Reforestation Division
Spilsbury, R. H. - Forester i/c Research Division
FOREST DISTRICTS
Vancouver Forest District
H. B. Forse  District Forester
J. A. K. Reid Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Lorentsen, L. H. (Chilliwack); McDaniel, R. W. (Hope); Wilson, R. S. (Harrison Lake);
Nelson, J. N. (Mission); Mudge, M. H. (Port Moody); Carradice, J. H. (Squamish); Cham-
berlin, L. C. (Sechelt); Northrup, K. A. (Pender Harbour); Hollinshead, S. B. (Powell
River); Hannah, M. (Lund); Archer, W. C. (Thurston Bay East); Stefanac, G. (Thurston
Bay West); Doerksen, V. J. (Chatham Channel); Teindl, A. J. (Echo Bay); Moss, R. D.
(Port McNeill); Neighbor, M. N. (Port Hardy); Carr, W. S. (Campbell River); Antonelli,
M. W. (Courtenay); Norbirg, H. (Parksville); Howard, W. G. (Nanaimo); Sykes, S. J.
(Duncan); Bertram, G. D. (Ganges); Jones, R. W. (Langford); Thomas, R. W. (Lake Cowichan); Haley, K. (Alberni); Doerksen, H. G. (Tofino); Gill, D. E. (Pemberton).
Prince Rupert Forest District
H. M. Pogue ------ District Forester
Lehrle, L. W.       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -        Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Simmons, C. F. (Ocean Falls); Brooks, T. (Queen Charlotte City); Hamilton, H. D. (Prince
Rupert); Gorley, O. J. (Terrace); vacant (Kitwanga); Crosby, D. N. (Hazelton); Hawkins,
R. M. (Smithers); Lindstrom, W. C. (Telkwa); Berard, R. K. (Houston); Mould, J. (Pendleton Bay); Mastin, T. (Burns Lake); Harvie, T. (Bella Coola); Pement, A. T. (Southbank);
Dodd, G. F. (Lower Post); Jaeger, J. F. (Topley).
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
65
Prince George Forest District
District Forester
Assistant District Forester
N. A. McRae	
Young, W. --._
Forest Rangers:
Ward, J. G. (McBride); McRae, M. A. (Valemount); Meents, G. E. (Prince George East);
Gibbs, T. R. (Prince George North); Ford, C. (Fort St. James); Keefe, R. R. (Quesnel);
Barbour, H. T. (Dawson Creek); Amonson, D. A. (Aleza Lake); Graham, G. W. (Vander-
hoof); Espenant, L. G. (Fort St. John); Griffiths, P. F. (Fort Fraser); Waller, T. G. (Summit
Lake); York, G. M. (Fort Nelson); Magee, G. E. (Prince George West); Wallin, D. F.
(Hixon); Hewitt, E. W. (Quesnel); Rohn, K. (Quesnel); McQueen, L. (Chetwynd); Magee,
K. W. (Hudson Hope).
Kamloops Forest District
A. H. Dixon -
Boulton, L. B. B.
District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Hopkins, H. V. (Lumby); Ivens, J. H. (Birch Island); Wittner, D. J. (Barriere); vacant
(Kamloops South); Paquette, O. (Chase); Gibson, C. L. (Salmon Arm); Jones, G. G.
(Sicamous); Cameron, A. G. (Lillooet); Kuly, A. (Vernon); Scott, E. L. (Penticton);
Baker, F. M. (Princeton); Petty, A. P. (Clinton); Hamilton, T. J. (Williams Lake); Donnelly, R. W. (Alexis Creek); Hewlett, H. C. (Kelowna); Noble, J. O. (Ashcroft); Pearce, F.
(Merritt); Huva, G. G. (Blue River); Collins, B. G. (Enderby); Schmidt, J. T. (100 Mile
North); Weinard, J. P. (Kamloops North); Craig, V. D. (Horsefly); Monteith, M. E. (100
Mile South).
Nelson Forest District
J. R. Johnston
Isenor, M. G.
District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
Taft, L. G. (Invermere);
(Cranbrook East); Ross,
Robinson, R. E. (Nelson)
(Castlegar); Reid, E. W.
(Canal Flats); Benwell,
(Elko); Bellmond, C. N.
(Beaverdell); Webster, G.
Humphrey, J. L. (Fernie); Anderson, S. E. (Golden); Gierl, J. B.
A. I. (Creston); Allin, G. B. (Kaslo); Benwell, G. L. (Lardeau);
; Jupp, C. C. (New Denver); Raven, J. H. (Nakusp); Wood, H. R.
(Grand Forks); Uphill, W. T. (Kettle Valley); Cartwright, G. M.
W. G. (Arrowhead); Loomer, I. M. (Edgewood); Russell, P. F.
(Spillimacheen); Bailey, J. F. (Cranbrook West); Hamann, L. O.
R. (Slocan City); Jackson, R. C. (Revelstoke).
  APPENDIX
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 69
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
THE REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE
CONTENTS
Table Research Division
No. Pace
11. Tabulation of Research Projects Active in 1965     72
12. Research Publications, 1965     73
Reforestation Division
21. Nursery Stock Distributed, 1965     73
22. Summary of Planting, 1956-65     74
Working Plans Division
31. Summary of Basic Data for Tree-farm Licences (Private Sustained-yield
Units)     75
32. Summary of Basic Data for Certified Tree-farms (Private Sustained-yield
Units)     77
33. Summary of Basic Data for Farm Wood-lot Licences (Private Sustained-
yield Units)     79
Public Information and Education Division
41. Motion-picture Library, 1956-65  80
42. Summary of Coverage by School Lecturers, 1956-65  81
43. Forest Service Library, 1956-65  82
Forest Management Division
51. Value Added by Manufacture, 1965     83
52. Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M B.M.), 1956-65     84
53. Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during Years 1964
and 1965:   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet     85
54. Species Cut, All Products, 1965:   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet—    86
55. Total Scale, All Products, 1965 (Segregated by Land Status and Forest
Districts):   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet     87
56. Timber Scaled in British Columbia during 1965 (by Months and Forest
Districts )     88
57. Volume of Wood Removed under Relogging at Reduced Royalty and
Stumpage, 1956-65, in Thousands of Cubic Feet     89
58. Number of Acres Operating under Approved Annual Allowable Cuts,
1956-65     90
59. Total Scale of All Products from Areas Operated under Approved An
nual Allowable Cuts, 1956-65     91
 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Table
No. Page
60. Logging Inspections, 1965     92
61. Trespasses, 1965     9 3
62. Areas Examined by the Forest Service for Miscellaneous Purposes of
the Land Act, 1965     94
63. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1965  94
64. Timber-sale Record, 1965  95
65. Competition for Timber Sales Awarded, 1965  96
66. Timber Sales Awarded by Forest Districts, 1965  97
67. Average Stumpage Prices as Bid, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Timber Sales during 1965, per C C.F. Log Scale     98
68. Average Stumpage Prices Received, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Saw-timber on Tree-farm Licence Cutting Permits Issued in 1965    99
69. Timber Cut and Scaled from Timber Sales, 1965  100
70. Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1965  101
71. Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1965  102
72. Shipments of Poles and Other Minor Products, 1965  103
73. Summary of Export of Minor Products for Province, 1965  103
74. Timber Marks Issued, 1956-65  104
Grazing Division
81. Grazing Permits Issued   104
Engineering Services Division
91. Forest Road Programme, 1965  105
92. Forest Service Mechanical Equipment, 1965   106
Forest Protection Division
101. Forest-protection Expenditure by the Forest Service for the Fiscal Year
1964/65  107
102. Reported Approximate  Expenditure  in  Forest  Protection  by  Other
Agencies, 1965  107
103. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1965  108
104. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1965  108
105. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last 10 Years  109
106. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1965  110
107. Damage to Property Other than Forests, 1965  111
108. Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1965—-Parts I and II  111
109. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1965 113
110. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last 10 Years  114
111. Fires Classified by Forest District and Cost per Fire of Fire-fighting, 1965  115
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 71
Table
No. Page
112. Prosecutions, 1965  116
113. Contract Flying, 1965  117
114. Use of Aircraft in Fire-fighting (Non-contract), 1965  117
115. Analysis of Suppression-crew Fire-fighting Activities, 1965  118
116. Construction of Protection Roads and Trails, 1965  118
117. Summary of Snag-falling, 1965, Vancouver Forest District  119
118. Summary of Logging Slash Reported in 1965, Vancouver Forest District 119
119. Acreage Analysis of Slash Disposal Required, 1965, Vancouver Forest
District  119
120. Analysis of Progress in Slash Disposal, 1965, Vancouver Forest District 120
121. Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs,  1965, Vancouver Forest
District  120
Training-school
131. Enrolment at Advanced Course, 1965  121
132. Enrolment at Basic Course, 1965  122
Accounting Division
141. Forest Revenue, 1956-65  122
142. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1965  123
143. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1964/65  124
144. Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1964/65  125
145. Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1964/65  125
146. Scaling Fund  125
147. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  126
148. Peace River Power Timber Salvage  126
Personnel Division
151. Distribution of Personnel, 1965  127
 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
<U) TABULATION OF RESEARCH PROJECTS ACTIVE IN 1965
Experimental
Project No.
Title
Region
368
418^.69
474
476
479
482
502
513
517
528
541
549
554
570
576
589
591
594
597
599
602
603
605
606
607
613
614
616
618
619
623
624
625
626
628
629
631
632
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
The Adaptability of Tree Species to Forest Sites..
Thinning Experiments in Douglas Fir	
Inbreeding Experiments with Douglas Fir.	
Pollination Techniques for Douglas Fir_
Plus-tree Selection for Douglas Fir Seed Orchards	
Climate and the Altitudinal Distribution of Conifers-
Plantation Trials    	
Intra- and Inter-specific Crosses within the Genus Pseudotsuga..
Thinning Studies in Ponderosa Pine..
Influence of Time on the Effectiveness of Scarified Seed-beds-
Natural Nurseries    	
Spacing Trials...
Thinning Experiments in Douglas Fir..
Sitka Spruce Spacing Study-
Land Classification in Relation to Reforestation  	
Comparison of 2+0, 2+1, and 1+2 Douglas Fir on High-site Lands	
Regeneration Study in Cut-over Lodgepole Pine Stands	
Brush Control, Coastal British Columbia   .	
Planting Trials with Ponderosa Pine — 	
Problem   Analysis:    Approach   to   Provenance  Experimentation  in   Coastal
Douglas Fir.
Lodgepole Pine Problem Analysis  	
Study of Some Hand-planting Methods in White Spruce.—
Determination of the Optimum Season for Direct Seeding-
Direct Seeding of Douglas Fir and Engelmann Spruce	
Ponderosa Pine Spacing Trials 	
Western Hemlock Spacing Study..
The Use of the Herbicide Tordon to Control Bracken	
Study of Regeneration Problem in Decadent Hemlock-Cedar Stands
Cone Production in the Interior of British Columbia-
Douglas Fir-Engelmann Spruce Planting Study, 1963	
The Growth Behaviour of Interior Spruce in the Nursery	
Geographic Variation in Spruce Cone Scale Morphology	
The Survival and Initial Growth of Various Types of Douglas Fir Planting Stock.
Engelmann Spruce Planting Trials, 1964 	
Forest-land Classification, Bear Creek  	
Classification of Soil Capability for Forestry-
Planting Trials of Douglas Fir, 1964-65-
Exploratory Direct Seeding Trials in the Wet Belt Type of the Southern Interior-
Seed Dispersal and Natural Regeneration in the Columbia Forest Zone	
Seeding Trials..
Regeneration and Reforestation Practice —
Requirements of Douglas Fir Seedlings for P, K and Mg  _
Dry Matter Production and Growth Periodicity in Four Western Species..
Nursery Experiment with Different Nitrogen Sources	
Nutrient Analysis in Plantation Trees..
Bullet Planting with Douglas Fir, Preliminary Trial, 1965	
Variation in Nutrient Concentration within and between Trees, and Estimation
of Nutrient Uptake.
Field Test of 40 Provenances of White and Engelmann Spruce	
Investigation of Factors Influencing Pollen Production in Douglas Fir:
Effect of Growth Regulators upon Reproductive Bud Initiation	
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Prince George.
Prince Rupert.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Prince Rupert.
Prince Rupert.
Nelson.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Kamloops.
Prince George.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Nelson.
Okanagan.
Prince George.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Prince George.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
73
U2,
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS, 1965
Austin, K. (1965):  Two Devices for Speeding Morphological Assessment of Nursery Stock.
U.S.D.A. Tree Planters' Notes No. 71.
Hetherington, J. C. (1964):   Brush Control in Coastal British Columbia, B.C. Forest Service
Research Note No. 38.
  (1965): The Dissemination, Germination and Survival of Seed on the West Coast of
Vancouver Island from Western Hemlock and Associated Species.    B.C. Forest Service
Research Note No. 39.
Orr-Ewing, A. L. (1965):  Inbreeding and Single Crossing in the Douglas fir.   Forest Science
11:3:279-290.
Revel, J. (1965): Effect of Method and Density of Sowing on Douglas Fir Seedlings.   U.S.D.A.
Tree Planters' Notes No. 72.
Spilsbury, R. H., et al. (1965): A Cooperative Study of the Classification of Forest Land.   Proc.
Second North American Forest Soils Conference, Corvallis, Oregon.
Papers
Clark, M. B. (1964):  Regeneration Methods in Interior of British Columbia.   Proc. Reforestation Co-ordinating Committee, Western Forestry and Conservation Association.
Revel, J. (1964):  Planting Study of 2+0 Culls.   Proc. Reforestation Co-ordinating Committee,
Western Forestry and Conservation Association.
Warrack, G. C. (1964):  Thinning Effects in Red Alder.   Annual meeting of the Northwest
Hardwood Association.
Unpublished Manuscript Reports
Armit, D.: Silvics and Silvicultural Management of Lodgepole Pine Stands in the North Central
Region of British Columbia—A Problem Analysis.
Clark, M. B.: Planting Stock Survival in the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts.
Illingworth, K.: Direct Seeding Trial, Mars Creek.
Orr-Ewing, A. L.: A Visit to Tree Breeding Centres in Europe, 1962.
Revel, J.: Planting Study of 2+0 Douglas Fir Culls.
  Cold Storage of 2+0 Douglas Fir in Multi-wall Bags.
  Comparison of Four Age Classes of Douglas Fir Planting Stock on Various Sites.
(.21,
NURSERY STOCK DISTRIBUTED,  1965
Age-classes
Total
for Field
Planting
Total
Nursery
2-0
1—0 and
3-0
1—land
1-2
2—1 and
2-2
Trees Transplanted
7,678,300
4,311,900
11,200
62,000
105,000
131,900
284,800
41,000
150,500
122,400
476,000
105,700
9,400
317,300
148,000
7,794,500
4,506,000
298,800
2,382,900
150,500
695,700
476,000
722,200
9,400
389,200
685,000
55,300
112,000
225,200
14,000     '
251,100
2,341,900
404,000
624,000
573,300
442,500
	
637,000
49,500
124,500
465,700
249,800
71,900
467,000
55,300
440,400
Telkwa— 	
	
16,000
	
54,000
284,000
	
Totals	
15,942,100
138,900
192,500
1,892,000
18,165,500
3,693,200
 74
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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ts
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR CERTIFIED TREE-FARMS
(32)                                  (PRIVATE SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
Within Tree-farm Licences
77
Tree-farm Number
and Licensee
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Mature
Volume
(MCu.
Ft.)
Present
Allowable Cut
(MCu.
Ft.)
Estimated
Productive
Capacity
(MCu.
Ft.)
Mature
Immature
N.S.R.
and
N.C.C.
Total
Vancouver Forest District
8. T.F.L. No. 2	
12. T.F.L. No. 17 	
13. T.F.L. No. 20	
14. T.F.L. No. 21       	
204
51
26,792
10,695
6,731
2,251
24,442
2,964
2,193
3,333
10,315
54,629
179
45,667
17,397
12,212
1,982
12,194
6,179
2,268
13,817
11,429
1,478
259
12,780
2,279
4,461
501
2,179
784
723
3,691
2,732
56,311
489
85,239
30,371
23,404
4,734
38,815
9,927
5,184
20,841
24,476
64,752
1,230
93,468
32,638
24,719
5,683
40,312
11,331
5,480
26,071
28,312
135
77,268
37,041
44,515
4,353
95,206
15,730
10,259
9,615
45,892
3,273
22
4,728
1,738
1,285
336
2,321
836
896
2,355
2,896
21
4,653
1,405
1,285
277'
1,777
749
282
2,000
2,008
16. T.F.L. No. 22	
20. T.F.L. No. 19       	
21. T.F.L. No. 39 	
25. T.F.L. No. 37	
29. T.F.L. No. 6	
30. T.F.L. No. 25	
31. T.F.L. No. 25 	
Totals	
Prince George Forest District
41. T.F.L. No. 29 	
Nelson Forest District
.«. TFT. No M
XJ. T.F.T., Nfl. n
89,971 | 177,953 |    31,867 | 299,791
333,996 |     340,014
14,457
20,686
123
868
702
3,473
504
429
277
1,254
4,618
504
1,280
5,447
504
331
6,072
27
'             37
130
20
Totals
868
3,977 |         277 |      5,122
5,951  |         6,072
150
Grand totals within
tree-farm licences
	
90,962
1                 1
182,632 |    32,573 | 306,167
1
341,227 |     346,417
14,484
20,873
Not Included within Tree-farm Licences
Vancouver Forest District
1. Thomas G. Wright	
2. H. R. Nickson
4. MacMillan, Bloedel and
Powell River Ltd.	
5. Western Forest Indus-
231 ]           18
(1)  |         165
10 1     9,219
854 j    22,506
1
4£R            1 .RIM
3
252
165
9,744
25,609
2,461
9,468
6,535
2,150
157
21,621
296,339
2,299
1,010
1,898
749
106
1,437
32,805
4,980
2,335
1,090
6,257
310
180
10,347
28,054
3,569
10,303
7,566
2,561
163
22,283
313,479
2,458
1,010
1,947
788
106
1,699
34,706
5,533
2,476
1,090
6,465
68
747
1,221
2,294
11,695
935
31
9
358
45
10
430
1,788
185
606
492
'            141
17
1,666
21,456
197
111
175
67
5
90
1,470
250
180
60
511
515
2,249
188
1,373
1,559
6. British Columbia Forest
125
282
100
30
783
29,500
7. Victoria Plywood Ltd	
9. Robert J. Filberg	
10. Canadian  Forest  Prod-
3,689
235
113
4,406
4,741
2,037
157
16,670
139,244
2,274
779
1,888
749
106
1,282
28,390
4,735
1,161
657
15. W. J. Robertson	
17. British Columbia Forest
8,399
1,105,704
1,986
129,460
2,965
27,635
25
231
10
19. MacMillan, Bloedel and
Powell River Ltd	
22. Merrill & Ring  ...
23. W. & W. Holdings Ltd.._
24. Merrill   &   Ring-Canadian Properties, Inc. ..
28. Merrill   &   Ring-Canadian Properties, Inc.
32. Savary Island Hotels Ltd.
and A. B. Christopher
34. Robert J. Filberg...
39. Canadian Collieries Resources Ltd 	
42. John C. Cowan	
44. Friedrich W. Fuerst zu
Wied	
45. Erbprinz Von Hohenzol-
59
C1)
213
198
189
5
151
155
4,202'
47
985
178
87
347
348
160
160
640
16
65
430
47. Merrill   &  Ring-Canadian Properties, Inc	
Totals
1,812 |      4,358
139,713 '| 247,347
42,407
429,467
457,093 | 1,132,928
31,734
29,952
i Scattered.
 78
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR CERTIFIED TREE-FARMS
(32) (PRIVATE SUSTAINED YIELD UNITS)— Continued
Not Included within Tree-farm Licences—Continued
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Mature
Volume
(MCu.
Ft.)
Present
Allowable Cut
(MCu.
Ft.)
Estimated
Productive
Capacity
(MCu.
Ft.)
Tree-farm Number
and Licensee
Mature
Immature
N.S.R.
and
N.C.C.
Total
Nelson Forest District
1
1
96  1     lfi.999
	
17,095
106,107
2,931
25,960
32,494
86,612
5,463
2,243
1,080
22,362
236,807
3,230
28,755
33,632
139,341
6,061
2,375
1,260
(488,762)
35,708
(79,066)
(1,072,896)
85,572
66,839
6,413
4,606
(45,000)
(194,235)
1,510
(18,496)
(174,009)
945
1,370
88
77
(7,000)
(427,375)
27. The Crow's Nest Pass
Coal Co. Ltd	
33. Elkhorn Ranch and Emerald Christmas Tree Co.
36. J. Hofert Ltd
25,457
77,301
2,931
23,978
848
52,808
4,480
1,928
1,080
3,349
1,543
(73,275)
1,982
(651,050)
38. William T. Joyce Co.
40. Kootenay Lake Logging
Co.
31,646
33,804
370
96
1,029
1,260
43. Donald D. MacDonald _.
46. Blue and Gold Estates
Ltd	
48. Ernest Boker	
613
219
	
200
90
(11,000)
Totals	
91,469
182,353 |      6,163
1
279,985
473,823 |     199,138
! (1,685,724)
3,990
(393,740)
4,122
(1,162,700)
Grand   totals  not
within tree-farm
231,182
1        |
479.700 1    48.570     709.452
1                    I
1                    1
930.916 1  1,332.066 !    35.724
34,074
(1,685,724) j (393,740)
(1,162,700)
Numbers in parentheses are Christmas trees.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1965
79
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES (PRIVATE
(33) SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
Farm Wood-lot Number
and Licensee
Productive Area (Acres)
Crown       Private      Total
Total
Area
(Acres)
Total Mature Volume
(MCu. Ft.)
Crown       Private
Total
Allowable
Annual
Cut (M
Cu. Ft.)
Vancouver Forest District
5. Thompson, A. R.	
8. Heikkila, E	
17. Wells, G. E	
22. Kirkelund, P	
26. Dawson, C 	
34. Morris, F 	
40. Courchene, R. O	
41. Jones, T. E. D	
43. Evans, L. W - _
44. Wilson, M. R	
46. Williams, G. C	
49. Fall, J. S. T  —
52. Dawson, H  _.
57. Mellor, J. G	
78. Pickard, G. T 	
Totals 	
Prince Rupert Forest District
28. Priest, C. V 	
42. Nysven, K 	
66. Grainger, B. H— 	
70. Burt, A. H	
73. Sprigler, L. F 	
77. Hewett, H. F -
Totals  	
Prince George Forest District
14. Macallister, J. M	
38. Miller, A. B	
45. Douglas, E. C 	
47. Sanford, J	
53. Hiller, B 	
54. Teichman, O 	
55. Kienzle, C. W	
61. Kaska, M. G	
63. Walsh, G. D _.. 	
67. Higdon, J. and K._	
68. Aiken, E. F. 	
74. Caron, L. A	
75. Lavally, E. L	
76. Paley, W. J	
79. Windt, T. E	
80. Ochsner, M 	
Totals	
Kamloops Forest District
3. Myers, J. A  —-
9. Black, W   	
29. Hankey, A  _
30. Kershaw, R. T „
48. Durrell, J. M. 	
72. Law, D. A	
Totals 	
Nelson Forest District
1. Bombini, S  	
18. Siska, C   	
21. Sahlstrom, G. O 	
60. Stevenson, J., and Boyd,
R. A  	
62. Braisher, O	
65. Johnson, B. P	
69. Davidson, D. G	
71. Carey, F. H _. 	
Totals 	
70
75
135
8
101
38
70
190
7
174
62
122
8
29
235
14
152
75
38
253
198
186
16
115
19
2,105    |
285
274
353
321
343
296
336
110
240
37
1,923
475
258
222
283
154
240
240
240
245
218
289
225
202
243
138
281
192
95
28
29
53
3
11
3,670
222
236
142
154
320
499
417
110
48
36
1,768
194
145
143
139
70
197
236
130
29
249
152
113
253
198
202
134
384
593
358
343
384
336
2,398
98
147
176
13
126
90
162
147
154
382
238
379
564
27
515
118
2,033
1,303
Grand totals..
11,499    |    2,479
353
250
283
157
240
240
240
274
218
289
225
202
243
191
284
203
236
252
202
320
499
453
1,962
245
189
216
309
536
617
591
633
3,336
13,978
232
159
199
92
274
494
223
69
304
282
189
321
202
202
138
2,390    |    3,380
782
927
824
480
825
350
4,188
428
251
302
166
240
240
240
274
226
290
256
202
249
193
286
271
3,892    |    4,114
260
276
326
160
540
724
2,286
31
35
86
66
640
419
72
143
374
195
3.16
343
550
362
106
29
32
11
8
40
33
60
35
118
66
640
430
80
143
414
195
349
343
550
362
106
3,738     |
153
567
178
616
372
388
387
11
578
36
214
82
698
372
4
392
	
387
550
170
186
263
648
645
642
332
427
381
429
540
370
387
271
418
91
641
3
173
186
6
269
648
645
_
642
332
427
381
■
429
540
370
387
5
276
418
6,659
105
6,764
286
27
127
112
865
235
18
286
45
127
112
865
235
1,652
18    |    1,670
254
195
270
333
567
617
601
633
153
176
123
193
160
443
243
24
2
96
122
155
272
3,470
1,589    |       544    |    2,133
6.0
1.0
6.0
2.6
9.0
6.5
2.5
2.0
5.0
4.0
8.0
4.5
10.0
7.0
8.0
3,891    [      82.1
8.5
8.0
6.2
4.0
8.3
6.2
2,508    |       133    |    2,641    |      41.2
10.0
9.5
6.0
5.5
10.0
10.0
10.0
5.0
7.0
4.5
7.0
9.0
5.9
7.0
4.4
6.5
117.3
8.0
4.5
4.0
6.0
10.0
7.5
40.0
4.9
3.4
6.0
46 169 6.2
109 i       302 5.5
240 400 |       6.7
19 462 ,        9.4
8 251 4.2
46.3
17,438
16,146
953    I 17,099
326.9
 80
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 82 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(43) FOREST SERVICE LIBRARY,  1956-65
Classification
Items Catalogued and Indexed
1956
.1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
37
179
170
151
177
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45
266
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1,263
41
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73
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1,371
37
Government reports and bulle-
159
Other bulletins and reports	
135
142
319
1,197
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
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'MioPS!
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
85
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALE BILLED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
DURING THE YEARS 1964 AND 1965 IN F.B.M.
(53A) (All products converted to f.b.m.)
Forest District
10-year Average.
1956-65
1964
Increase
Decrease
Net Increase
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert (C.)..
Totals, Coast...
Prince Rupert (I.)..
Prince George _
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals, Interior.
Grand totals _
3,700,196,468
477,415,018
4,392,978,408
577,798,368
4,489,965,270
659,941,062
96,986,862
82,142,694
4,177,611,486 | 4,970,776,776 | 5,149,906,332
290,052,168
891,511,310
1,180,332,607
659,259,226
412,424,707 |
1,165,780,823 |
1,449,044,609
918,011,046 I
402,968,493
1,210,468,621
1,358,088,653
908,545,897
3,021,155,311  [ 3,945,261,185 [ 3,880,071,664
179,129,556
	
-
9,456,214
44,687,798
90,955,956
9,465,149
  |    65,189,521 | ..
7,198,766,797 | 8,916,037,961 | 9,029,977,996
A        I
I 113,940,035
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALE BILLED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
DURING THE YEARS 1964 AND 1965 IN CUBIC FEET
(53B)
(Conversion factors:   Coast—6 f.b.m.=1 cu. ft.; Interior—5.75 f.b.m.=1 cu. ft.)
(All products converted to cubic feet.)
Forest District
10-year Average,
1956-65
1964
1965
Increase
Decrease
Net Increase
1
616,699,411
79,569,170
732,163,068
96,299,728
748,327,545
109,990,177
16,164,477
13,690,449
Prince Rupert (C.)
Totals, Coast	
696,268,581
828,462,796
858,317,722
29,854,926
	
50,443,855
155,045,445
205,275,236
114,653,778
71,726,036
202,744,491
252,007,758
159,654,095
70,081,477
210,516,282
236,189,331
158,007,982
1,644,559
7,771,791
15,818,427
1,646,113
525,418,314
686,132,380
674,795,072
11,337,308
	
1,221,686,895
1,514,595,176
1,533,112,794
18,517,618
.
 86
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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87
TOTAL SCALE  OF ALL PRODUCTS BILLED  IN   1965  IN F.B.M.
(55-4)        (SEGREGATED BY LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
Special timber licences
Timber berths	
Timber leases	
Pulp leases  	
Pulp licences 	
Band-loggers' licences .
Farm wood-lots	
Timber sales 	
No mark visible	
Tree-farm licences	
Miscellaneous	
Sub-totals, Crown
lands  	
Federal lands 	
Crown grants—
To 1887  	
1887-1906  	
190&-1914	
1914 to date _
Totals  _.
963,414.
99,039.
117,372.
37,862.
14,457.
32.
443,
1,257,450.
205,181.
606,114.
2,751.
.168
,228
,462
.418
636
292
,988
450
,784
780
005
17,669,676
10,608,684
51,387,954
276,314,904
307,102
286,073,684
238,213,392
10,012,998
3,304,120,212
24,146,688
972,612,234
56,705,382
22,133,430
110,247,324
92,226,912
3,393,058
604,207,608
24,205,950
291,300
4,163,568
2,963,010
24,109,626
382,000,756
1,058,287
294,118
2,760,357
16,854,975
4,489,965,270|659,941,062
402,968,493
6,288,482
17,824,672
56,910,930
18,780,477
38,810,775
456,930
1,034,259,595
125,862
943,407,801
83,967,129
17,831,630
68,380,052
35,875,314
163,294
509,596,407
210,650,939
5,706,519
1,023,977,475
194,760,933
117,372,462
48,471,102
65,845,590
32,292
1,497,176
4,307,102,841
205,181,784
,1,299,553,204
75,570,525
1,142,803,766
31,504
792,488|
231,569
7,138,165
1,122,524,631
37,104,813
40,848,219
22,336,749
32,406,281
59,471,1291   102,867,960
783,708,411
1,808,364
13,648,447
61,136,490
15,653,800
32,590,385
7,339,365,384
88,355,606
1,028,192,688
144,867,876
83,055,043
346,141,399
1,210,468,621 1,358,088,653;908,545,897|9,029,977,996
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS BILLED IN  1965 IN CUBIC FEET
(SEGREGATED BY LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
(55B) (Conversion factors:  Coast—6 f.b.m.=1 cu. ft.; Interior—5.75 f.b.m._=1 cu. ft.)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
160,569,028
16,506,538
19,562,077
6,310,403
2,409,606
5,382
2,944,946
1,093,649
3,099,943
9,897,553
3,266,170
6,749,700
170,973,736
33,153,791
19,562,077
1,768,114
8,078,517
8,564,659
10,974,265
5,382
73,998
209,575,075
34,196,964
101,019,130
458,501
53,409
49,751,945
79,466
179,871,234
21,889
164,070,922
28,399
88,625,462
257,161
46,052,484
737,947,122
34,196,964
Tree-farm licences-
Miscellaneous 	
39,702,232
1,668,833
16,039,463
590,097
14,602,979
3,101,153
11,892,183
6,239,185
36,634,946
992,438
219,890,933
13,050,207
Sub-totals, Crown
lands	
550,686,702
4,024,448
162,102,039
9,450,897
3,688,905
18,374,554
100,701,268
4,034,325
48,550
693,928
493,835
4,018,271
66,434,914
184,050
198,748,481
5,479
137,824
40,273
1,241,420
10,342,805
195,221,675
6,453,011
7,104,038
3,884,652
5,635,875
17,890,080
136.297,115
314,498
2,373,643
10,632,433
2,722,400
5,667,893
1,248,090,155
15,015,811
Crown grants—
To 1887 .
171,766,094
1887-1906	
1906-1914	
1914 to date	
51,151
480,062
2,931,300
24,753,334
14,262,497
59,224,903
Totals  -	
748,327,545
109,990,177
70,081,477
210,516,282
236,189,331
158,007,982
1,533,112,794
 88
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h
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
89
VOLUME OF WOOD REMOVED UNDER RELOGGING AT REDUCED ROYALTY
AND STUMPAGE,  1956-65, IN THOUSANDS OF CUBIC FEET
(57) (1956-63—Vancouver Forest District only.    1964-65—Vancouver and Prince Rupert.)
Year
1956-
1957_.
1958..
1959..
1960..
Salvage Wood
(M Cu. Ft.)
_ 1,795
_____ 3,663
  1,427
  1,257
  1,976
Year
196L.
1962..
1963-
1964..
1965..
Salvage Wood
(M Cu. Ft.)
.  1,813
 2,580
  3,217
 5,224
 6,987
Ten-year average, 1956-65: 2,994 M cu. ft.
 90              DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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n
 92 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(6°) LOGGING INSPECTIONS, 1965
Type of Tenure Operated
Number of Inspections Made
ForesC DislricC
Timber
Sales
Leases, Licences, Crown
Grants,
and Other
Tenures
Total
Timber
Sales
Other
Tenures
Total
1,176
803
1,606
1,892
754
6,231
1,734
419
2,142
1,289
930
6,514
2,910
1,222
3,748
3,181
1,684
12,745
3,363
2,749
6,122
3,229
2,406
17,869
2,328
860
841
'     1,235
1,101
6,365
5 691
3,609
6,963
4,464
3,507
24,234
Totals, 1965   	
Totals, 1964 	
6,557
6,560
13,117
17,789
13,311
31,100
Tntnls, 10K1
6,926
7,168
14,094
18,021
7,189
25,210
Totals, 1962
7,079
6,645
13,724
18,602
6,353
24,955
Totals, 1961	
7,088
6,463
13,551
18,330
6,242'
24,572
Totals, 1960 _   . .
7,249
5,120
12,369
C1)
(1)
26,151
Totals, 1959    .
6,273
4,898
11,171
(!)
(1)
26,912
Totals, 1958        	
5,936
4,341
10,277
(!)
(!)
23,802
Totals, 1957. .    —      .   .
7,503
5,940
13,443
(i)
(i)
25,253
Totals, 1956 	
7,492
5,841
13,333
(1)
(i)
22,038
Ten-year average, 1956-65
6.R33       1           5.949
12,782
25,423
i No breakdown made prior to 1961.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1965
93
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 94
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
AREAS EXAMINED BY THE FOREST SERVICE FOR MISCELLANEOUS
(62) PURPOSES OF THE LAND ACT,  1965
Forest District
Applications for
Foreshore Leases
Applications to
Purchase
Miscellaneous
Total
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Vancouver .
Prince Rupert  	
14
26
166             1
460    |      13
253
774
3
11
258
825
18
50
677
2,059
Totals 	
40
626    1      14
1,027
14
1,083
68
2,736
1
(63)
AREAS CRUISED FOR TIMBER SALES,  1965
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(MC.F.)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cord-
wood
(Cords)
Railway
Ties
(No.)
Car
Stakes,
Posts,
Shakes,
etc.
(No.)
442
200
245
313
157
89,967
44,528
94,374
132,188
135,197
323,123
90,817
169,4X4
181,569
187,062
800
115,000
200,000
2,158,000
176,600
2,801
900
1,850
2,065
4,000
3,000
18,100
	
38,000
Nelson 	
924,000
Totals, 1965 	
1,357
496,254
951,995
2,650,400
7,616
1
987,100
Totals, 1964—	
1,709
661,821
1,107,428
2,944,004
25,154
478,520
Totals, 1963  _	
1,862
716,699
1,165,976
3,887,525
32,519
	
656,680
Totals, 1962                 .
1,871
615,500
921,710
18,508,084
19,340
564,865
Totals, 1961
1,892
720,144
1,027,243
7,687,920
14,798
24,000
1,395,285
Totals, 1960 -    .....
2,122
767,351
1,142,479
8,807,614
29,050
13,809
1,405,370
Totals, 1959, _	
2,317
681,550
877,370
7,387,960
27,753
26,875
1,124,400
Totals, 1958	
1,922
609,563
890,285
8,772,888
24,316
34,430
1,146,719
Totals, 1957             	
2,582
781,748
1,171,283
16,099,489
39,254
95,209
1,149,133
Totals, 1956  _ -
3,089
1,095,150
1,273,970
13,981,856
44,287
128,432
1,916,510
Ten-year average, 1956-65-
2,072
714,578
1,052,974
9,072,774 !    26,409
32,276
■ 1,082,458
 (64)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1965
TIMBER-SALE RECORD,  1965
95
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales
Existing
Total
Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest-protection Tax
(Acres)
Total
10-per-cent
Deposit
Vancouver	
371
134
258
309
184
499
221
322
335
154
1,603
956
1,178
1,617
694
592,894     '
395,729
656,947
983,386
620,661
553,232
365,366
575,191
943,114
580,260
$6,382,295.40
1,677,674.04
2,659,923.29
Kamloops ,    —
Nelson	
3,760,217.87
2,085,746.83
Totals	
1,256
358
1,531     '
6,048
3,249,617
3.017.163
$16,565,857.43
              	
1 fi14      [
1
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 96
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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101
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 102 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
CI) EXPORT OF LOGS (IN F.B.M.), 1965
Species
Grade No. 1
Grade No. 2
Grade No. 3
Ungraded
Fuel-logs
Total
Fir
97,405
52,391
5,017,118
3,082,723
126,818
184,672
9,225,970
18,011,529
32
224,223
15,549
1,724,226
727,595
252,644
2,095,000
18,062,314
13,362
1,256
21,835,209
6,323,069
6,324,325
,
515
7,327,954
515
887,854
2,431,946
10,647,754
617
207,293
617
84,618
969,312
—    —
1,261,223
Totals, 1965
3,355,224
10,766,201
35,846,770
8,625,979
14,650
58,608,8241
Totals, 1964       .. ,.   ,
3,748,377
14,590,533
30,789,610
3,740,863
84,834
52,954,217
Totals, 1963  	
3,468,986
16,149,811
62,790,210
10,274,991
107,529
92,791,527
Totals, 1962	
3,773,734
11,215,447
46,151,663
13,143,092
696,436
74,980,372
Totals, 1961  ,
9,216,534
28,611,982
48,009,763
12,202,800
3,311,119
101,352,198
Totals, 1960    _. .
1,391,803
5,351,398
20,872,330
11,805,419
890,260
40,311,210
Totals, 1959	
486,685
2,601,653
19,608,208
3,999,901
1,839,030
28,535,477
Totals, 1958	
734,991
3,727,452
16,164,689
3,715,124
3,762,411
28,104,667
Totals, 1957....            	
524,180
3,987,443 |
22,016,291
5,625,910
3,421,354
35,575,178
Totals, 1956 	
183,859
2,933,129
27,433,037
12,929,722
3,530,479
47,010,226
Ten-year average, 1956-65
2,688,437
9,993,505
32,968,257
8,606,380
1,765,810
56,022,390
1 Of this total, 38,753,555 f.b.m. were exported from Crown-granted lands carrying the export privilege;
19,855,269 f.b.m. were exported under permit from other areas.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
<72> SHIPMENTS OF POLES AND OTHER MINOR PRODUCTS,  1965
103
Forest District and Product
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value,
F.O.B.
Where Marketed
Canada
United
States
Other
Countries
Vancouver—
Poles  lin. ft.
Piling        „
Stakes and sticks       „
Cedar shakes —.pieces
Christmas trees     „
Fence-posts         „
Prince Rupert—
Poles __]in. ft.
Prince George—
Poles . lin. ft.
Piling      „
Mine timbers .      „
Cedar posts pieces
Christmas trees      „
Kamloops—
Cedar poles lin. ft.
Poles and piling        „
Posts  cords
Christmas trees.- pieces
Nelson—
Poles and piling lin. ft.
Mine timbers .      ,,
Palings and pickets       ,,
Orchard-props      ,,
Corral rails _      ,,
Fence-posts  cords
Mine-props       „
Cordwood      „
Christmas trees pieces
Cedar shake blanks       „
Hewn ties _       „
Total value, 1965 - 	
Total value, 1964 _	
4,086,623
759,039
45,925
25,911,110
23,257
2,300
3,161,47S
82,045
3,475
1,891
19,592
941
881,540
8,435    I
5
333,641
2,388,121
68,634
447,464
29,050
53,920
1,491
34
8
1,173,066
394,547
128
$2,338,724.22
425,448.00
1,377.75
2,159,250.00
52,328.25
690.00
1,201,360.50
45,124.75
3,231.75
406.00
5,877.60
1,882.00
282,092.80
2,108.75
200.00
200,184.60
1,216,477.00
17,159.00'
4,475.00
872.00
539.00
52,185.00
272.00
128.00
791,069.00
59,182.00
282.00
,   ...    |    $8,862,926.97
     |    $939T7006r43_
3,265,039
99,083
~~ 89,010
1,264,590
10,100
3,475
19,592
498,015
8,435
5
7,824
1,092,259
68,634
21,198
53,920
862
34
8
187,691
59,910
128
348,055    [
10,370    1
45,925
25,705,100
23,257
2,300
1,896,885
71,945
1,891
941
383,525
325,817
1,245,862
426,266
29,050
629
985,375
334,637
473
649
529
586
117,000
(73)
SUMMARY OF EXPORT OF MINOR PRODUCTS FOR
PROVINCE, 1965
Product
Quantity
Value
Per Cent of
Total Value
Poles  __ lin. ft.
8,211,683
762,514
2,346,556
70,525
447,464
45,925
29,050
53,920
25,911,110
394,547
1,521,446
21,892
128
1,496
34
8
$3,867,302.27
428,679.75
1,218,585.75
17,565.00
4,475.00
1,377.75
872.00
539.00
2,159,250.00
59,182.00
1,045,463.85
6,567.60
282.00
52,385.00
272.00
128.00
43.6346
4.8368
13.7493
0.1982
0.0505
0.0155
0 0098
0.0061
24 3627
0.6677
11.7959
0 0741
0.0032
0.5911
0.0031
0 0014
$8,862,926.97
100 0000
 104 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(74~> TIMBER MARKS ISSUED,  1956-65
1956 ;
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
10-year
Average,
1956-65
Old Crown grants	
Crown grants, 1887-
1906
Crown grants, 1906-
1914
480
207
172
655
82
6
10
46
2,859
71
1
320
108
97
460
59
1
7
23
2,239
74
1
215
93
93
362
89
7
9
1,900
80
7
299
103
125
524
108
9
21
1,926
85
1
315
115
123
517
116
1
4
15
2,136
113
1
268
121
121
470
117
3
4
8
2,141
91
5
300
150
164
589
109
9
12
20
1,991
90
5
2
313
.125
161
608
141
13
12
18
2,183
97
356
148
164
672
149
7
9
27
2,281
121
328
150
172
649
133
8
14
24
1,614
153
3
319
132
139
Section 58, Forest Act
Stumpage reservations
551
110
5
9
Indian reserves
21
2,127
98
Special marks and
2
T"ts>'«
4,589
3,389
2,855
3,201 |
3,456 |
3,349 |
3,441
3,671 '
3,934
3,248
3,513
Transfers and changes
873
615
598
669
794
691
809
725
802
740
732
(81)
GRAZING PERMITS ISSUED
District
Number of
Permits
Issued
Number of Stock under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
1,316
502
394
6
144,555
22,743
20,869
172
3,708
9,157
1,302
1,637
30
1,044
2,308
Totals, 1965       	
2,218
188,339
6,677
12,509
Totals, 1964                          	
2.104
173,677
6,231
22,478
Totals, 1963	
1,951
158,840
5,860
25,366
Totals, 1962 _	
1,924
146,830
5,007
23,370
Totals, 1961
1,825
132,749
4,985
21,309
Totals, 1960
1,726
127,148
4,504
19,460
Totals, 1959	
1,683
124,425
4,377
20,604
Totals, 1958
1,571
122,489
4,169
20,927
Totals, 1957
1,640
128,978
3,886
20,693
Totals, 1956  	
1,776
127,182
3,667
22,310
 (91)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
FOREST ROAD PROGRAMME, 1965
105
Project
Regulation Unit
Reconnaissance
Location
Construction
Vancouver Forest District
Clowhom Lake —.	
Gold Fiver F.R	
Homathko River .	
Joffre Creek	
Lillooet River	
Maimen Creek	
West Harrison F.R .	
Prince Rupert Forest District
Bell-Irving-
Blunk Creek F.D.R—
Fiddler Creek	
Hankin Lookout	
Kispiox River F.D.R..
Kitwanga F.R	
Kwinnamass	
Owikeno Lake F.D.R-
Skeena	
Prince George Forest District
McLeod-Tsilcoh North F.R	
Parsnip West F.D.R	
Kamloops Forest District
Ashnola River F.D.R __	
Cayoosh Creek F.D.R	
Chilcotin South F.R	
Deception Creek-
East Barriere F.D.R...
Joffre Creek F.R	
McNulty-Shinnish.	
Minch-Maiden F.R	
North Barriere F.D.R..
Quesnel Lake...
Scottie-Hihium F.R..
Spius-Prospect	
Nelson Forest District
Akolkolex River F.D.R	
Albert Creek	
Beaverfoot .	
Blackfoot-Quinn_
Flathead-Sage F.D.R..
Greely Creek	
Jumping Creek-
Kettle River F.D.R..
Twin Creek	
Worthington-Butrell Creek..
Totals, 1965 programme-
Previous works	
Totals, forest road programme, 1950-65	
Quadra P.S.Y.U	
Nootka P.S.Y.U	
Quadra P.S.Y.U—
Soo P.S.Y.U	
Soo P.S.Y.U	
Dewdney P.S.Y.U..
Dewdney P.S.Y.U..
Bell-Irving P.S.Y.U-
Smithers P.S.Y.U	
Skeena P.S.Y.U	
Smithers P.S.Y.U	
Skeena P.S.Y.U	
Skeena P.S.Y.U	
Hecate P.S.Y.U	
Rivers Inlet P.S.Y.U..
Skeena P.S.Y.U	
Carp P.S.Y.U—
Finlay P.S.Y.U..
Ashnola P.S.Y.U—.
Yalakom P.S.Y.U-
Stum P.S.Y.U	
LaclaHacheP.S.Y.U-
Barriere P.S.Y.U	
Yalakom P.S.Y.U	
Similkameen P.S.Y.U—
Ashnola P.S.Y.U	
Okanagan P.S.Y.U.	
Big Bar P.S.Y.U	
Barriere P.S.Y.U..
Quesnel Lake P.S.Y.U..
Big Bar P.S.Y.U	
Nicola P.S.Y.U	
Arrowhead P.S.Y.U...
Arrowhead P.S.Y.U...
Kinbasket P.S.Y.U	
Upper Kootenay P.S.Y.U..
Cranbrook P.S.Y.U.—___
Fernie P.S.Y.U	
Arrowhead P.S.Y.U	
Arrowhead P.S.Y.U	
Kettle P.S.Y.U	
Arrowhead P.S.Y.U..
Granby P.S.Y.U	
Miles
43
3
37
19
5
48
33
6
19
6
112
70
8
3
15
16
7
36
9
504
4,357
4,861
Miles
24.6
1O0
1.3
12.2
17.6
22.0
15.9
11.8
16.0
~&3
13.3
15.5
15.6
8.6
20.6
210.7
2,122.4
2,333.1
Miles
~%2
0.4
11.8
4.2
6.5
0.6
1.6
1.0
4.5
9.2
63.9
854.6
918.5
F.D.R.=Forest-development road.
F.R.-=Forest road.
P.S.Y.U.=Public sustained-yield unit.
 106 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(92) FOREST SERVICE MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, 1965
Type
Total
Units,
Jan. 1,
1965
Removed
from
Service
New
Purchases
Total
Units,
Jan. 1,
1966
50
115
73
127
283
179
54
5
2
4
31
8
15
50       1
15
4
2
5
22
10
19
51
32
5
2
51
106
75
131
284
5,000-10,000 G.V.W. pick-ups, ¥> and 1 ton   	
14,000-24,000 G.V.W. trucks, 2, 3, and 4 tons. _ ,    	
1%
55
24,000-40,000 G.V.W. heavy-duty trucks 	
5
2
888
129
146
905
65
43
10
2
18
4
2
2
3       '
406
772
125
34
10
62
377
103
13
8
163
284
11
1       1
8
1
20
12
7
3
4
2
—
	
1
23
44
1
69
1
5
3       i
28
8
3
3
2
33
32
3
15
126
6
1
10
8
4
1
93
39
9
5
20
4
2
3
5
416
760
125
34
13
77
434
109
Speeders—railway— _  	
13
8
168
289
Air-pnmprMsnrs
15
1
8
1
20
12
7
3
1
4
2
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
107
FOREST-PROTECTION EXPENDITURE BY THE FOREST SERVICE
(101)
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR 1964/65
Travelling expense	
Clothing and uniforms 	
Equipment rental (aircraft) 	
Equipment and machinery	
Maintenance of bulidings and grounds	
Maintenance and operation of equipment	
Acquisition or construction of buildings and works .
Motor-vehicles and accessories	
Incidentals and contingencies	
Slash and snag disposal	
Wages and expenses, seasonal staff	
Increased protection, Peace River	
Insect control 	
$29,675.32
34,688.12
605,293.88
437,022.71
284,545.07
328,137.19
229,744.29
119,559.63
20,646.77
55,901.03
,529,134.72
176,193.99
18,766.66
Total  $3,869,309.38
Fire-suppression expenditure by the Forest Service for the fiscal year
1964/65      $129,242.02
REPORTED APPROXIMATE EXPENDITURE IN FOREST PROTECTION
(102) BY OTHER AGENCIES,! 1965
Forest District
Expenditures
Patrols and
Fire
Prevention
Tools and
Equipment
Fires
Improvements
Total
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert...
Prince George,.
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals -.
$123,128
85,000
8,900
1,600
18,223
$236,851
Ten-year average, 1956-65.
$334,094
$522,905
72,000
27,800
10,500
59,887
$673,770
379,000
53,761
36,461
102,816
$693,092
$1,245,808
$504,281
$454,250
$78,200
38,500
14,200
6,500
97,636
$235,036
$327,673
$1,398,003
574,500
104,661
55,061
278,562
$2,410,787
$1,620,298
Principally forest industry.
 108 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(103) FIRE OCCURRENCES BY MONTHS, 1965
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
Vancouveri
4
3
4
8
5
22
16
48
36
80
182
37
155
39
86
148
38
204
124
104
297
272
95
126
98
125
78
82
83
14
30
12
5
4
1
14
6
597
420
388
821
459
22.2
15.6
14.5
Kamloops2
Nelson
30.6
17.1
Totals
7
55
383
465   '
1,001
522
221
30
2,685
100.0
Per cent	
0.3
2.0
14.3
17.4
37.3
19.4
8.2
1.1
100.0
.....
Ten-year average,
1956-65
33
92
330
290
667
507
157
30
2,106   '
Per cent
1.6
4.4
15.6
13.8
31.6
24.1
7.5
1.4
100.0
	
Railroad-tie fires
-     1   —
1
518
529   '
840
914   '
373
"
3,193
——
i Excludes 2,922 railroad-tie fires.
2 Excludes 271 railroad-tie fires.
(104)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES, 1965
00
00
a
s
o
CQ
§
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ra
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00
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SI
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Forest District
00
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5 8s,
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IIS
a
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"jo .9
0,0
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132
17
129
23
5
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15
101
16
597
22.1
188
54
11
41
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30
35
1
43
4
420
15.5
162
40
9
22
26
41
19
22
6
38
3
388
14.4
Kamloops2          . .
276
68
28
88
20
150
33
55
93
10
821
31.0
307
21
24
30
8
1
2
19
2
34
11
459
17.0
Totals
1,000
315
89
310
89
193
89
223
24
309
44
2,685
100.0
37.2
11.7
3.4
11.5
3.4
7.2
3.4
8.3
0.9
11.4
1.6
100.0
Ten-year average,
1956-65
777
222
112
256
84
111
40
162
40
243
59
2,106
	
Per cent
36.9
10.5
5.3
12.2
4.0
5.3
1.9
7.7
1.9
11.5
2.8
100.0
Railroad-tie fires— 	
13,193
—
	
	
*****
_
3,193
1 Excludes 2,922 railroad-tie fires.
2 Excludes 271 railroad-tie fires.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 109
(105)   NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES FOR THE LAST 10 YEARS
Causes
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
Total
497
214
135
281
112
47
73
183
27
213
73
307
170
85
182
65
48'
46
107
22
172
45
1,150
296
162
478
120
131
18
246
53
310
94
184
172
88
211
75
190
30
204
34
253
33
1,166
241
245
257
82
87
36
137
54
271
59
1,426
269
154
336
86
179
36
194
49
290
83
615
182
41
162
60
62
35
109
25
183
62
1,144
221
65
220
82
95
24
141
62
250
41
277
144
51
129
66
79
11
81
451
178
59
1,000
315
89
310
89
193
89
223
24
309
44
7,766
2,224
1,115
2,566
Brush-burning (not railway or right-
of-way clearing)
Range-burning
Road  and power-,  telephone-,  and
837
1,111
398
Industrial operations (logging, etc.)
1,625
395
Miscellaneous known causes... 	
2,429
593
Totals	
1,855
1,249
3,058
1,474 |2,635
3,102
1,536
2,345
1,120
2,685 [21,059
955
370
1,062
536
1,478
1,489
2,479
528
'  365
3,193'
12,455
i Excludes 12,455 railroad-tie fires.
 110
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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(107) DAMAGE TO PROPERTY OTHER THAN FORESTS,  1965 1
Forest District
Forest
Products Cut,
Logs,
Lumber,
etc.
Buildings
Railway,
Logging,
and
Sawmill
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of Total
Vancouver.	
$206,747
20,139
52,858
1,530
3,647
$13,000
1,172
27,500
125
1,800
$147,594
23,150
19,580
$11,360
25,550
9,334
74
2,000
$378,701
70,011
109,272
1,729
7,449
66.8
12.3
19.3
Kamloops 	
0.3
Nelson -	
2
1.3
Totals _	
$284,921
$43,597
$190,326
$48,318
$567,162
100.0
50.2
7.7
33.6
8.5
100.0
Ten-year average, 1956-65
$112,117
$36,296
$190,542
$28,433
$367,388
30.6
9.9
51.8
7.7
10O.O
t Does not include intentional slash burns (for this item see Table 121).
(108)
DAMAGE TO FOREST-COVER CAUSED BY FOREST FIRES,
1965—PART li
Merchantable Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
Net Area
Killed
Total
Volume
Killed
Salvable
Volume
of Timber
Killed
Net Stumpage
Loss
Net Area
Killed
Present
Value
Vancouver 	
Acres
4,900
30,124
28,977
2,068
452
M Cu. Ft.
37,164
24,305
47,147
4,739
1,230
M Cu. Ft.
28,815
6,406
2,428
3,191
32
$
610,832
1,130,291
907,449
105,128
29,133
Acres
3,745      [
43,503
38,240
3,039
219
$
174,017
1,099,338
Prince George  ,,   —
811,770
60,333
8,319
Totals	
66.521
114,585
40,872
2,782,8332
88,746
2,153,7772
21.6
100.0
35.7
53.5
28.9      !
41.4
Ten-year average, 1956-65
65.604
94.274
31,044
1,548,451
65,853      |
1.379,807
13.7
100.0
32.9
47.1
13.7      [
42.0
i Does not include intentional slash burns (for this item see Table 121).
2 The dollar value  of losses  in  merchantable  and  immature  timber represents  only  stumpage  loss  to   the
Crown.   Actual payroll loss to the Province is ten times these figures.
 112
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 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
117
(113)
CONTRACT FLYING,  1965
Fixed-wing Aircraft
Forest District
Base
Type of Aeroplane
Hoars Flown
Vancouver
Vancouver    	
Smiftiers
Prince George and Dawson Creek
Kamloops,-   ...         	
Nelson   	
Beaver
558
S35
1,302
Super Cub, Beaver      —
1,582
401
Total
4,678
Helicopters
Forest District
Base
Type of Helicopter
Hours Flown
TTillprs 1 ?F.
495
Smiftiers
Prince George and Fort St. John 	
Hillers 17.F.    .    .
Hillers 12K
Bell 47G3
511
2,035
618
TtpH fMR, Willprs. 19H
567
Total
4,226
Am Tankers
Forest District
Base
Type of Aeroplane
Hours Flown
Prince Rupert_
Prince George-
Kamloops	
Nelson 	
Total-
Smithers and Prince George-
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Cranbrook	
Avenger and Canso_
Canso	
Avenger and Cessna-
Avenger and Cessna_
386
357
450
177
1,370
(Ut)      USE OF AIRCRAFT IN FIRE-FIGHTING (NON-CONTRACT), 1965
Fixed-wing Aircraft
Forest District
Reconnaissance
Transportation of
Men and Supplies
Water Bombing
Total
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
48
387
587
1
40   '
$3,334
19,560
32,423
10
1,655
1,420
380
8
153
113
$35,545
27,470
48
1,960
1,080
9
40
$3,334
$101,166
28,496
597
156,271
88,389
607
1,655
Totals 	
1,063
$56,982
1,808    | $130,259
1
266
$63,015
3,137
$250,256
Helicopters
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George-
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals-
13
56
16
85
$1,516
5,692
1,857
$9,065
78
725
551
53
41
1,448
$8,565
74,059
77,911
7,732
5,265
$173,532
2
73
75
$150
8,085
1,235
93
854
567
53
41
il,(
$10,231
87,836
79,768
7,732
5,265
$190,832
 118
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
ANALYSIS OF SUPPRESSION-CREW FIRE-FIGHTING
(US) ACTIVITIES, 1965
Size of Fire When Attacked
Number
of Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires)
Vn Acre
or Less
Over V4
Acre to
1 Acre
Over 1
Acre to
5 Acres
Over 5
Acres to
50 Acres
Over 50
Acres
Spot (up to Vi acre) -	
Over V4 acre and up to 1 acre ...
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres....
Over 5 acres and up to 50' acres
Over 50 acres	
Totals	
166
44
58
42
6
157
6
1
32
4
316
164'
44
1
5
43
3
52
1
10
34
45
5
6
11
(H6)       CONSTRUCTION OF PROTECTION ROADS AND TRAILS, 1965
Light
Medium
Heavy
Total
Miles
28
413
Miles
82
410
Miles
59
154
Miles
169
977
441
492
213
1,146
16
76
19
22
20
13
55
111
92
..
33
166
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965 119
(117)   SUMMARY OF SNAG-FALLING, 1965, VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres
Total area logged, 1965, Vancouver Forest District       99,694
Logged in small exempted operations1        325
Assessed for non-compliance, less 210 acres subsequently felled        383
  708
Balance logged acres snagged, 1965       98,986
Snags felled, 1965, by Forest Service Protection Division     5,997
Snags felled, 1965, by Forest Service Reforestation Division        480
      6,477
Total area snagged, 1965    105,463
i Exemption granted under subsection (3) of section 116 of the Forest Act.
SUMMARY OF LOGGING SLASH REPORTED IN  1965,
(118) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres
Total area logged, 1965     99,694
Area covered by full hazard reports  65,400
Covered by snag reports but exempted from slash disposal  11,456
Covered by acreage reports only (exempted from slash and snag disposal) 1        325
     77,181
Slash created and not reported in 1965     22,513
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3) of section 116 of the Forest Act.
ACREAGE ANALYSIS OF SLASH DISPOSAL REQUIRED, 1965,
(H9) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres of Slash
Prior to 1965 19651 Total Acres
Broadcast burning  27,725 35,575 63,300
Spot burning        631 1,469 2,100
Totals  28,356 37,044 65,400
1965 reports not recommending slash disposal  11,456
1965 slash on very small operations exempted without special examination        325
     11,781
Total area of slash dealt with, 1965       77,181
i Does not include the estimated' 22,513 acres (see Table 120) created too late to be dealt with in 1965.
 120 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
ANALYSIS OF PROGRESS IN SLASH DISPOSAL, 1965,
(120) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres
Total disposal required (see Table 119)      65,400
j^Vcrfis of S 1_ix.i
Type of Disposal Prior to 1965 1965 Total Acres
Spring broadcast burning       613 366 979
Spring spot burning         37 211 248
Fall broadcast burning  49,658 30,930 80,588
Fall spot burning     1,929 904 2,833
Total burning completed  52,237 32,411 84,648
Burning by accidental fires    3,098
Lopping, scattering, land-clearing, etc        iVii
Total     87,746
Balance reported slash not yet abated _
Slash created, 1965, acres assessed         207
Plus slash created too late to be dealt with, 1965    22,513
Total area of slash carried over to 1966 for disposition    22,720
Actual area burned in spring spot burning, 31 acres.
Actual area burned in fall spot burning, 423 acres.
The above figures do not include 1964 slash-burn reports received too late for inclusion in
1964 Annual Report, 4,194 acres.
SUMMARY OF SLASH-BURN DAMAGE AND COSTS, 1965,
(121) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Total acres of forest-cover burned in slash fires, 1965     14,471
Net damage to forest-cover  $162,984.32
Net damage to cut products      90,553.15
Net damage to equipment and property       23,500.00
Total damage   $277,037.47
Cost of Slash Burning as Reported by Operators
Cost Per Cost Per
Total Cost               Acres       MB.F. Acre
(a) Spring broadcast burning     $6,270.00            979       $0.16 $6.40
(_>) Spring spot burning         685.00            248           .09 2.76
(c) Fall broadcast burning  429,160.27        80,588           .13 5.33
(d) Fall spot burning     10,957.09         2,833            .13 3.87
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
121
(131)
ENROLMENT AT ADVANCED COURSE, FOREST SERVICE
TRAINING-SCHOOL, 1965
Forest District
Forest
Assistants,
Cruisers,
Etc.
Rangers
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
Clerks
Total
Graduates
—
--
—
—
—
Attendance, 1965	
—
—
—
—
—
	
5
—
—
15
—
20
20
Attendance, 1963	
5
—
—
15
—
20
—
Attendance, 1962	
3
—
....
17
—
20
20
Atfpnrlnnrp, KW.1
3
....
—
17
„„
20
Attendance, 1960	
4
—
....
17
—
21
21
Attendance, 1959	
4
—
—
17
—
21
—
Attendance, 1959
	
—
....
21
—
21
21
Attendance, 1958	
—
—
—
21
—
21
	
Attmrlanr*, 19S7
4
—
—
26
—
30
30
Attendance, 1956	
4
—
._„
26
—
30
—
Attendance, 1956	
3
—
—
18
	
21
21
Attendance, 1955	
3
—
—
18
—
21
—
Attendance, 1954	
—
—
—
20
—
20
20
Attendance, 1953	
._.
21
_
21
—
Attendance, 1953
....
—
—
20
—
20
20
Attendance, 1952	
—
—
20
20
_
Attendance, 1951
3
3
15
21
21
Attendance, 1950 .
3
3
15
	
21
21
Attendance, 1949	
3
2
16
21
—
Attendance, 1948	
4
2
12
2
20
20
Attendance, 1947	
8
12
—
20
20
Attendance, 1946	
2
9
9
—
20
20
Total graduates to December
31, 1965            	
--
—
—
-
275
Note.—Since 1949/50 until 1962 the course was of nine months' duration, spread over VA years.
to 1949, and commencing with Class 13,1963, a six-month course is involved, spread over one year.
From 1946
 122
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
ENROLMENT AT BASIC COURSE, FOREST SERVICE
(132) TRAINING-SCHOOL, 1965
Forest District
Forest
Assistants,
Cruisers,
Etc.
Rangers
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
Clerks
Total
Graduates
Class 4
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert _
Prince George
Kamloops	
Nelson— 	
Reforestation-
Research	
Surveys 	
Class 4 totals	
Class 5
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert —	
Prince George _ _ _
Kamloops	
Nelson  	
Reforestation	
Research	
Surveys	
Class 5 totals 	
Attendance, 1965	
Attendance, 1964	
Attendance, 1963	
Attendance, 1962	
Total graduates to December
31, 1965L 	
12
17
11
28
13
17
20
20
40
20
2C
20
20
20
40
20
_20_
20
100
Grand total of graduates, advanced and basic courses, 375.
(141)
FOREST REVENUE, 1961-65
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1961
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1962
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1963
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
11964
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1965
10-year
Average,
1956-65
Timber-licence rentals
and fees	
Timber-berth rentals and
fees	
Timber-lease rentals and
fees	
Timber-sale rentals and
fees  _
Timber-sale stumpage _
Timber-sale cruising and
advertising
Timber royalties	
Grazing permits and fees
Forest-protection tax	
Miscellaneous	
Totals	
$366,600.53
21,929.03
59,071.23
480,803.23
24,554,147.30
377,755.89
2,245,313.71
119,87'6.«7<
569,749.95
134,824.47
$352,418.29      $357,175.79
19,795.95 17,361.70
73,139.35
500,208.12
26,315,940.41
346,627.67
2,433,175.10
137,118.26
550,949.16
161,447.52
63,629.77
502,317.68
30,199,623.94
386,735.44
2,499,842.31
152,200.70
523,598.00
173,192.07
$28,930,072.21|$30,890,819.83;$34,875,677.40
! I
$362,707.84|     $720,919.31'      $400,600.86
15,639.09, 15,024.33! 18,743.45
68,446.06
510,469.54
37,221,058.19
487.503.76
2,610,292.87
139,313.50
522,672.70
210,330.47
86,230.58!
71,581.47
765,651.171       478,194.05
42,031,437.70   28,034,173.52
325,847.00
2,629,476.11
151,079.95
559,007.55
273,738.16
316,566.32
2,151,441.11
111,139.39
161,301.25
$42,148,434.02 $47,558,411.86 $31,743,741.42
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
123
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M
z
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
125
(144)
FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR 1964/65
Timber-licence rentals and fees .
Timber-berth rentals and fees __.
Timber-lease rentals and fees _.
Timber-sale rentals and fees ._
Timber-sale stumpage
Timber-sale cruising and advertising .
Timber royalties	
Grazing permits and fees	
Forest-protection tax	
Miscellaneous 	
$353,401.33
15,321.88
68,277.30
518,588.91
38,844,855.03
466,439.97
2,578,660.67
164,971.41
519,824.40
245,879.72
Ten-year Average
$368,314.78
17,443.12
69,453.94
430,177.81
25,377,262.91
304,914.77
2,189,085.97
97,468.53
C1)
148,786.12
$43,776,220.62   $29,002,907.95
i Formerly credited to Forest Protection Fund.
(145) FOREST SERVICE EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1964/65
Salaries   $3,796,831
Expenses   1,053,73 8
Reforestation and forest nurseries  686,522
Forest management   704,371
Forest research  223,150
Public information and education  116,848
Forest Service training-school  121,512
Grant to Canadian Forestry Association  17,500
Office furniture and equipment  27,948
Engineering services     454,602
Forest-development roads    2,766,611
Forest protection   3,869,308
Fire suppression  129,242
Forest surveys   1,218,426
Silviculture   1,561,099
Grazing Range Improvement Fund1  66,946
Peace River community pastures  7,785
$16,822,439
Less contribution from Federal Government    1,823,284
Total  $ 14,999,155
i Statement provided elsewhere.
(146)
Deficit, April 1, 1964	
Collections, fiscal year 1964/65 .
SCALING FUND
Expenditures, fiscal year 1964/65
Deficit, March 31, 1965.
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1965	
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1965
Deficit, December 31, 1965	
$27,988.35
1,394,461.48
$1,366,473.13
1,574,990.15
$208,517.02
1,440,308,45
$1,231,791.43
1,321,079.10
$89,287.67
 126 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(147) GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND
Deficit, April 1, 1964	
Government contribution (section 13, Grazing Act).
Expenditures, fiscal year 1964/65 .
Surplus, March 31, 1965	
Government contribution (section 13, Grazing Act) .
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1965
$4,535.08
79,310.98
$74,775.90
66,947.35
$7,828.55
82,485.70
$90,314.25
49,477.23
Surplus, December 31, 1965     $40,837.02
(148)
PEACE RIVER POWER TIMBER SALVAGE
Expenditures, fiscal year 1964/65
... $593,686.00
Recovered from British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority     593,686.00
Balance.
 (151)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1965
DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL, 1965
127
Personnel
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Victoria
Total
Continuously Employed
Deputy Minister, Chief Forester, and Assistant Chief
2
13
3
91
13
66
79
6
5
92
4
IS
39
7
1
2
9
2
72
2
3
5
1
2
5
33
2
22
2
25
2
2
12
2
3
95
3
5
5
35
9
57
3
2
2
14
5
1
128
3
9
5
5
31
55
3
2
2
11
2
2
119
3
1
5
3
24
3
"32
2
3
4
8
2
3
100
32
4
28
7
43
2
1
34
1
26
116
10
49
2
25
6
32
72
4
8
2
3
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters	
10
159
9
32
15
533
24
70
Scalers, Official, temporary	
88
7
69
2
1
35
3
49
331
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Main-
10
67
28
230
23
58
81
439
197
233
263
212
607
1,951
Seasonally Employed
10
2
38
6
54
3
3
8
16
3
1
21
1
18
4
6
1
3
12
1
31
5
20
20
9
2
26
2
33
5
63
28
3
12
2
6
41
9
44
9
4
8
1
74
19
1
515
50
93
79
37
109
46
Patrolmen , _        	
10
164
27
199
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc	
575
70
Student and Survey Assistants and Engineering Aides.
93
98
59
230
140
58
126
148
196
903
1,571
579
255
359
411
408
1,510
3,522
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1966
2,260-266-2443
 

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