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Annual Report of the Director of Correction for the YEAR ENDED MARCH 31 1963 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1964]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL
Annual Report
of the
Director of Correction
for the
YEAR ENDED MARCH 31
1963
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1964
  Victoria, B.C., March, 1964.
To Major-General the Honourable George Randolph Pearkes,
V.C., P.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned has the honour to present the Annual Report of the Director
of Correction for the year ended March 31, 1963.
ROBERT W. BONNER,
A ttorney-General.
 Department of the Attorney-General, Corrections Branch,
Vancouver, B.C., November 1, 1963.
The Honourable R. W. Bonner, Q.C.,
Attorney-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Corrections Branch
for the 12 months ended March 31, 1963.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. ROCKSBOROUGH SMITH,
Director of Correction.
 DEPARTMENT OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL
CORRECTIONS BRANCH
The Honourable R. W. Bonner, Q.C.
Attorney-General
Gilbert D. Kennedy, Q.C.
Deputy Attorney-General
SENIOR CORRECTIONS ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF, 1962/63
S. ROCKSBOROUGH SMITH
Director of Correction and Chief Probation Officer
M. A. Matheson
Assistant Director of Correction
C D. Davidson
Assistant Chief Probation Officer
HEADQUARTERS STAFF OFFICERS
O. J. Walling Rev. W. D. G. Hollingworth
Personnel and Staff Training Officer Senior Protestant Chaplain
R. V. McAllister Rev. T. F. M. Corcoran
Supervisor of Research Senior Catholic Chaplain
R. G. E. Richmond W. Lemmon
Senior Medical Officer Supervisor of Classification
R. E. Fitchett
Administrative Officer
GAOL SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
H. G. Christie G. Warnock
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm Director, New Haven Borstal
J. B. Braithwaite W. Scott
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution Warden, Kamloops Provincial Gaol
W. Mulligan
Warden, Prince George Provincial Gaol
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 CONTENTS
Gup.
I.
Page
Review of the year 1  1
Population Trends	
Probation ____,:	
Institutions : ■_	
Parole ■	
Total Population	
The Building Programme-
Forest Camps	
Hospital	
Westgate Addition  12
Plans for Future Construction J  12
Developments in Methods of Treatment  12
Central Classification  12
Training Programme in a Common Gaol  12
Group Counselling  12
Forestry Projects  12
The Native Fellowship	
Transfer of Definite-Indefinite Population to the Haney Correctional Institution	
Evaluation Studies	
Plans for the Future	
II. Staff.
12
13
13
13
16
Headquarters Staff  16
Institutional Staff  16
Probation Staff  16
Recruitment  16
Correctional Officer Positions  17
In-service Training, Gaol Service  18
Orientation Training  18
Field Training  18
Basic Training  18
Advanced Training  18
In-service Training, Probation Service  18
Orientation Training  18
Refresher Training .  19
Specialized Courses i  19
Instructional Technique Training  19
Forestry  19
Specialist Courses  19
Staff Conferences  19
Conference on the Role of the Supervisor t  19
7
 Chap. Page
II. Staff—Continued
Staff Conferences—Continued
Probation Officers' Conference  20
Outside Conferences  20
Chaplains' Conferences  20
Monthly Seminars  20
Group Counselling Training  20
Weekly Staff Meetings  20
Staff-training Grant  21
Conclusion  21
III. Treatment of Men  22
Population  22
West Wing, Oakalla Prison Farm  22
Old Gaol Annex  23
East Wing, Oakalla Prison Farm —  23
Overflow Accommodation, Oakalla Prison Farm  23
Prince George Gaol  23
General  24
Discipline  24
Security  24
Classification  25
Central Classification  25
Institutional Classification  25
Research  26
Evaluation Studies  26
Young Offender Population  26
Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit (Male)  27
Religion  27
Social Training  28
Group Counselling  28
Recreation Programme  30
Physical Testing Programme  31
Community Service  31
Counselling  31
Casework  31
Lay Counselling  31
Education  32
Academic Education  32
Vocational Training  32
Libraries  32
General ,  33
Production  33
8
 Chap. Page
IV. Forest Camps  34
Interdepartmental Co-ordinating Committee  34
Committee Activity  34
Chilliwack Forest Camps  34
Construction  34
Population  34
Reforestation Projects  34
Parks Project  35
Social Training  3 5
Religious Services  35
Haney Correctional Institution Camps  35
Gold Creek Camp  35
Pine Ridge Camp  35
Kamloops Gaol and Forest Camp .  35
Reforestation  35
Clearwater Forest Camp :  35
Vancouver Island Camp  35
Snowdon Forest Camp  35
V. Treatment of Women  37
General ,  37
Population  37
Discipline  37
Security  3 7
Classification  37
Religion  37
Protestant Worship  37
Roman Catholic Worship  38
Non-institutional Worship L  38
Social Training i  38
Group Counselling  3 8
Recreation  38
Education  38
Socialization  38
Work  3 8
Institution  38
Twin Maples Farm  38
Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit  39
VI. Health and Hygiene  44
Senior Medical Officer's Report  44
Warden, Prince George Gaol  46
Warden, Kamloops Provincial Gaol  47
9
 Chap. Page
VII. Parole Supervision and After-care  48
General _ *  48
Staff  48
British Columbia Borstal Association  48
After-care Associations  48
British Columbia Parole Service  48
Parole Board Members  48
Released on Parole  48
Revocations  48
Day Parole  49
Release Procedures :  49
Average Length of Time Served  49
National Parole Board  50
Day Parole  50
Group Counselling  50
VIII. British Columbia Probation Service  51
General  51
Probation Cases  51
Pre-sentence Reports  51
Case Loads  51
Field Offices  51
Juveniles  51
New Developments  52
Staff Recruitment  52
Regional Development  52
School of Social Work Field Placement Unit  52
Group Counselling with Probationers  52
Evaluation Study of Probation Cases  53
Probation Service Field Offices  53
Probation Service Statistics  54
Statistical Appendix   5 5
10
I
 CHAPTER I
REVIEW OF THE YEAR
POPULATION TRENDS
1. Probation.—During the year, 1,701 new cases were placed on probation and
2,115 pre-sentence reports were prepared by Probation Officers. This is an increase
of 210 cases placed on probation and an increase of 126 pre-sentence reports over
last year. As of March 31, 1963, there were 1,630 individuals on probation, creating an average case load of 41.8 per officer.
2. Institutions.—The number of inmates in all institutions again rose. Last
year's daily average population of 2,035 increased to 2,180, an increase of 7.1 per
cent. This increase continued throughout the year, and as of March 31, 1963, there
were 2,419 inmates on the register.
3. As in the past, the overcrowded condition and limited capacity of the smaller
gaols at Prince George and Kamloops resulted in transfers to Oakalla Prison Farm.
The Prince George Goal transferred 104 inmates because of over-capacity counts.
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police escorted prisoners weekly from the Interior
direct to Oakalla Prison Farm by motor-coach. Thus Kamloops Gaol was only
required to take sufficient prisoners to bring it up to capacity and had no need to
transfer any inmates to Oakalla. Oakalla Prison Farm itself remained in a chronically overcrowded condition all year.
4. Parole.—A total of 324 cases with definite plus indefinite sentences was
released on parole by the British Columbia Parole Board. Of this total, 120 cases
had their paroles revoked—78 as a result of direct Court action and 42 for technical
violation of their parole. Thus parole was successful in 76 per cent of the cases
released. This number had no further criminal convictions recorded against them.
The five Parole Officers assigned to these cases had an average case load of 38.8, the
British Columbia Borstal Association assuming supervision of the 30 trainees
released from New Haven.
A total of 214 cases was released by authority of the National Parole Service,
of which only nine were revoked. These cases were supervised on release by the
members of the John Howard Society and the Provincial Probation Service.
5. Total Population.—The total population under probation supervision, in
institutions or under parole supervision, totalled 4,049 on March 31, 1963.
THE BUILDING PROGRAMME
6. Forest Camps.—-With the continued acute need for additional accommodation, another forest camp was added during the year. This camp, known as Snow-
don Camp, was constructed on Vancouver Island just north of Campbell River.
Construction started on November 16, 1962, with a small crew of eight inmates and
four officers. By February the camp was up to full strength and the inmate crews
were working in the Sayward Forest.
7. Hospital.—The Gaol Service hospital at Oakalla Prison Farm was completed and put into operation this year. This hospital, with its professional staff,
has done much to raise the level of our programme of medical care and attendant
services.
11
 T 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
8. Westgate Addition. — To help with the acute overcrowding at Oakalla
Prison Farm, authority has been received to proceed with an addition to the
Westgate Unit of this institution. Presently, plans are being drawn for this unit
and construction should start shordy in the new year.
9. Plans for Future Construction.—Currently, discussions are being held
with the Department of Public Works with a view to the construction of a dormitory-
style facility on the present Allco Infirmary property at Haney. This facility
would replace the present totally inadequate old Gaol Annex at Oakalla. Plans
are also being drawn to increase the housing capacity at Prince George Gaol from
100 to 150 inmates.
DEVELOPMENTS IN METHODS OF TREATMENT
10. Central Classification.—With the appointment of a Supervisor of Central
Classification to the headquarters staff in September, classification became a
centralized function. This has led to a greater awareness of the needs of individual
institutions and a more careful assignment of inmates to appropriate training
programmes.
11. Training Programme in a Common Gaol.—The Prince George Gaol is
demonstrating just how effective a carefully developed training programme for
inmates can be, even in a common-gaol setting. The group counselling programme
instituted last year is proving to be most effective and has resulted in some startling
changes in inmate behaviour. In addition, a lay counselling programme has been
instituted comparable to those in operation at the young-offender training institutions. Considerable initiative has been shown in organizing a programme of
academic education that has surpassed anything previously attempted for adult
persons in a county gaol. An interesting after-care venture in group counselling
for discharged inmates has also been started in co-operation with the Prince George
John Howard Society.
12. Group Counselling.—Group counselling has continued to develop and is
now in operation in all our institutions. To date the results can only be measured
in intangible terms. They are, however, reflected in the general atmosphere of
the institutions, in the decreasing number of disciplinary infractions, and, most
important of all, in the improved relationship between staff and inmates. The staff
have a better understanding of the inmates, and the inmates in turn tend to see
staff members more as helping rather than strictly authoritarian figures.
13. Forestry Projects.—The reforestation programme carried on by our forest
camps continues to develop as new camps are established. The morale of these
camps is extraordinarily high, which accounts for the relatively small number of
behaviour problems occurring. The leadership provided by the officers in these
camps is of the highest order. Heavy demands are placed upon them, and I am
glad to be able to report that they have responded well.
14. The Native Fellowship.—At the Haney Correctional Institution the native
Indians formed a club of their own and asked a native Indian Correctional Officer
to act as their president. The membership of the club numbers 26, and they have
embarked on a group programme which includes study of the Indian Act, discussion
of employment practices, arts and crafts, and cultural activities. In addition, they
are actively participating in the sports and recreational activities of the institution.
The Warden reports that the members appreciate the recognition this club has
given them, and many of them have developed in confidence and in their ability
to express themselves as a result of this experience.    It is hoped that we shall be
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1962/63 T 13
able to continue to develop this approach for this somewhat neglected group of our
population.
15. Transfer of Definite-Indefinite Population to the Haney Correctional Institution.—Shortly after the centralization of classification and the appointment of the
supervisor, it was decided to transfer all definite-indefinite cases from Oakalla Prison
Farm to the Haney Correctional Institution. The only cases remaining at Oakalla
Prison Farm were those medically unfit and requiring treatment in the hospital and
those psychiatric cases awaiting evaluation or transfer to the Provincial Mental
Hospital. This move resulted in a number of hard-core problem cases being transferred to the Haney Correctional Institution and was no doubt responsible for their
increase in escapes. However, the institution managed to cope with this more difficult group of hostile young adults and assimilate them into the training programme.
It was felt that the Haney programme had much more to offer this group than had
Oakalla, particularly in the current overcrowded state.
16. Evaluation Studies.—With the increasing diversification of our correctional
programme, it has become more and more necessary to evaluate the various programmes to determine their efficacy in terms of rehabilitation. In line with this,
several evaluation studies were carried out during the year. The first series of these
were follow-up studies on New Haven, Haney Correctional Institution, and the Gold
Creek Forest Camp. These studies found that 62 per cent of those discharged from
New Haven have not subsequently been resentenced to an institution in British Columbia; that 64 per cent of those discharged from the Haney Correctional Institution
have not been resentenced; and that 70 per cent of those discharged from the Gold
Creek Forest Camp have not subsequently been resentenced. These are most favourable results and point to the value of intensifying these three programmes.
In the field of drug addiction treatment, a follow-up study was carried out involving 96 cases discharged from the Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit (Male) at
Oakalla Prison Farm. This study revealed that 32 per cent of those released were
not resentenced to an institution. Again, this is a most promising result, and the
study is continuing in order to determine the exact state of this 32 per cent who have
not subsequently been resentenced.
In the field of probation a follow-up study of a sample of 880 cases showed that
88 per cent of them successfully completed probation, and that 82 per cent were not
resentenced to an institution in British Columbia during the six-year follow-up
period. This also is most encouraging and points to future possibilities of handling
even more difficult cases on probation.
PLANS FOR THE FUTURE
17. Staff-training.—The increasing development of training programmes designed to fit prisoners to lead honest, useful, and industrious lives on their return to
society calls for a skilled and highly trained staff. It is no longer sufficient for the
Security Officer to be able to function solely as a guard. If he is to be effective in this
new programme, he must be trained for leadership and be capable of taking full
responsibility for a group of men either in a group-living unit or in a work project,
detailing the work schedule, assigning duties, maintaining a good standard of participation and behaviour, evaluating and reporting on the progress of individuals in
the group, recommending pay increases and promotions where necessary, and so on.
To maintain an adequate level of training for a staff of nearly 1,000 requires a continuous staff-training programme over a 12-month period. At the present time we
have a staff officer attached to our headquarters staff who has done an outstanding
job devising training programmes and organizing courses for both the gaol and pro-
 T 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
bation staffs. However, we have no full-time personnel available at the instructional
level to offer continuous instruction. It is hoped that it will be possible shortly to
develop a small staff-training school with a permanent staff of three instructors with
clerical assistance in order to provide this continuity of training on a year-round
basis.
18. Accommodation.—The need for additional physical accommodation is
still the greatest and most pressing single need. The construction of one forest camp
during the year and a partially completed second camp provided for 90 additional
men only. This did not even take care of the annual population increase and had
no effect on the gross overcrowding at Oakalla Prison Farm, which I reported last
year. There is need for a regional gaol on Vancouver Island to house 150 to 200
men and another in the Central Interior of the same size. Provision of two such
facilities, each with a group of satellite forest camps, to be developed at a later date,
would take the pressure off the Lower Mainland and mean that we could reduce the
Oakalla population to manageable proportions.
There is an urgent need for additional kitchen facilities at Oakalla to take care
of the present population. To feed the current number, the kitchen has to prepare
each meal twice in order to provide food in sufficient quantity. This means that food
has to be kept hot for hours on end and then carried long distances prior to serving.
Food-distribution centres are required in each wing, with steam tables for serving to
replace the present antiquated serving method. It is hoped that the Department of
Public Works will be able to renovate and enlarge the present Oakalla kitchen and
provide two food-distribution centres—one in the Westgate Unit and the other in
the Main Gaol—this coming year. This will go a long way toward ensuring that the
men receive meals on time and hot, and would eliminate a great deal of unnecessary
waste.
The other area in Oakalla requiring immediate attention is the Admissions Section. During the course of a year over 50,000 movements pass through this basement area, which is quite unsuited for its purpose. Every prisoner received or
discharged from the gaol or proceeding or returning from an outside Court is processed through the admissions area. The records department records the details of
his conviction and sentence; his clothes and personal belongings are checked and
stored; he is bathed and, if necessary, deloused before being issued with prison
clothing, and fingerprinted. On release the same process is carried out in reverse.
This basement area is old and antiquated with cracked cement flooring and inadequate plumbing. It is impossible to keep clean and sanitary and is subject to lice
and cockroach infestation. Besides all this there is insufficient room to process the
number of prisoners passing through, and a bottleneck is created. There have been
days when up to 50 men have been kept waiting outside in police vans up to 2 hours
while the staff have been attempting to clear the congestion inside preparatory to
receiving new admissions. There has been a natural reluctance to add new cosdy
admission facilities to an old and outmoded gaol, but if we are to continue this
institution, as we shall have to do for some years to come, funds must be allocated
for an adequate admissions area.
The whole question of Public Works maintenance for an old and worn-out
building with inadequate facilities for a modern correctional programme is a problem. To bring this building in line with standards approved by the public health
authorities would entail considerable renovation and would be costly. Present
planning favours the development of a number of small alternative facilities and the
abandonment of this gaol at the earliest opportunity.
19. Probation.—As will be noted elsewhere in this Report, probation is having
considerable success in halting recividism.   It is our intention to develop probation
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1962/63 T 15
services as speedily as we can. To do this we must be able to attract suitable personnel for training as Probation Officers. At the moment we are unable to recruit
a sufficient number to keep our present Probation Offices up to strength and also
establish new ones in areas as yet unserved. Plans for a stepped-up public relations
campaign to make the needs of probation known to young university graduates are
under way. There is a need for increased grants to assist young men to obtain the
necessary training in social work or one of the behavioural sciences at the university
level. We cannot expect men to be able to afford to undertake this training at their
own expense at the salaries we offer. Financial assistance for professional training
would have an immediate beneficial effect and step up our recruitment considerably.
Statistics indicate that Courts are not utilizing adult probation to the extent that
they could. This may be partly because the law at present places a restriction on the
number of times a person may be placed on probation in a given period of time.
This legal restriction seriously curtails the use of probation in adult cases and serves
no useful purpose. The statistics from those countries where probation is unrestricted
indicate that where a person has failed on probation, he has often recovered as a
result of a second period. It is to be hoped that Parliament will effect a change in
this legislation at an early date.
In the juvenile field we are anxious to make probation a more meaningful experience. We are experimenting with establishing specific goals for the probationer
to achieve during his period on probation. It is felt that he must be challenged more
if he is to grow, and that through overcoming obstacles he will develop some of those
qualities we look for in a successful probationer. To create an incentive we are asking Courts to set a lengthy probation period with the proviso that when he achieves
the goals set for him, he will be rewarded by having his probation terminated.
Some thought has been given to the establishment of a probation hostel for
those young adults who require more control and support and have no family on
whom they can fall back. These youths would have a condition of residence added
to their probation order. They would work in the community by day, returning in
the evenings to the hostel. A facility of this kind would make it possible to extend
the use of probation to those rather doubtful cases which we now have to exclude
for lack of roots in the community.
20. Parole.—Provincial parole is being used extensively for the young offender.
Three hundred and thirty-one young adults serving definite-indeterminate sentences
were considered for parole during the year, and 324 were approved for release. Over
60 per cent of this number have been successful. This is a high success rate when
you consider that this group is one of the most difficult with which we have to deal
and contains many hostile, aggressive, and severely disturbed young men.
It is becoming increasingly apparent that those who fail on parole are usually
those who have been unable to establish satisfactory relationships with normal people
and who are unable to use their leisure time constructively. They may be good workers and quite capable of holding down a job, but they have been unable to adjust to
socially accepted standards of living.
With this in mind we are anxious to see established a pilot half-way house as
soon as possible. Such a house would be in an urban area and should provide a
jumping-off place for those not capable of taking on the responsibilities of living in
the community all at once. Ideally, the house would be run by a married couple and
accommodate some 10 ex-inmates. The men would seek employment in the community and reside at the house. The control and discipline exercised by the staff
plus the guidance of the Parole Officer hopefully would give the parolee sufficient
support to help him over that difficult transition period between the controlled
existence of life in an institution and the freedom of life in the community outside.
 T 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
CHAPTER II
STAFF
HEADQUARTERS STAFF
1. Mr. O. J. Walling, Probation Officer for Burnaby, was promoted to Personnel and Staff Training Officer for the Branch, and Mr. R. E. Fitchett, Senior
Correctional Officer at the Haney Correctional Institution, was promoted to Administrative Assistant at headquarters.
2. With the establishment of inmate classification on a centralized basis under
headquarters jurisdiction, the positions of Supervisor of Central Classification and
Assistant were created. Mr. W. Lemmon, Supervisor of Counselling at the Haney
Correctional Institution, was appointed Supervisor of Central Classification in
August, and Mr. T. Jacobson as his assistant in September.
3. Mr. R. V. McAllister, headquarters Psychologist, was assigned the responsibilities of Supervisor of Research for the Branch.
INSTITUTIONAL STAFF
4. Mr. D. L. Clarke resigned in July as Deputy Warden at Oakalla Prison
Farm.   To date no replacement has been appointed.
5. Senior promotions within the Gaol Service include Mr. V. Blackman to
Assistant Deputy Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm; Mrs. R. Perkins to Supervisor of
Group Counselling, Haney Correctional Institution; Mr. J. Harrison to Chief Steward, Prince George Gaol; Mr. A. W. Irvine to Senior Correctional Officer in Charge,
Clearwater Forest Camp; and Mr. L. Hopper as Senior Correctional Officer at the
Haney Correctional Institution.
6. Other promotions in the Gaol Service include 10 officers to the rank of
Principal Officer and 89 to the newly created rank of Correctional Officer.
PROBATION STAFF
7. Senior appointments in the Probation Service included Mr. A. A. Byman to
Probation Officer 3 in charge of the Vancouver Region and Mr. A. E. Jones to
Probation Officer 3 in charge of the Vancouver Island region. Both these officers
are graduates of the School of Social Work of the University of British Columbia and
have extensive experience in probation work.
8. Three serving Probation Officers were promoted to Probation Officer 2;
another three were granted educational leaves of absence at the University of British
Columbia for graduate study.
9. Mr. R. A. Khan, Counsellor 1 at the Haney Correctional Institution, was
promoted to the rank of Parole Officer.
RECRUITMENT
10. There were 79 separations from the permanent ranks of the Gaol Service,
7 more than last year. For a Service total of 821 officers, this amounted to a turnover rate of 9.5 per cent.
11. To fill these vacancies and to staff Snowdon Forest Camp as well as the
new hospital at Oakalla Prison Farm, 114 new officers and specialists were appointed
to the Gaol Service. The temporary officer situation remained the same, with an
extremely high turnover rate.   Steps are being taken to expedite annual leave on a
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1962/63 T 17
year-round basis in order to reduce the heavy use of temporary staff during the
summer months.
12. Three Probation Officers resigned during the year. One of these, Mr. D.
Guest, became the Field Work Supervisor in Probation for the School of Social
Work.
13. Six new Probation Officers were appointed during the year as a result of a
nation-wide recruiting campaign, which included advertising in newspapers and
professional journals, addressing interested groups on university campuses, and enlisting the aid of university employment counsellors.
14. It is a matter of some concern that although this campaign produced 98
applicants, only 6 were found suitable for training as Probation Officers. To be successful an applicant had to possess above average qualities of character and intellect.
Further attention will have to be given to this problem of recruiting and to the question of the starting salary. The salary at the top of the range for Probation Officers
is adequate, but many competent applicants withdraw when they learn of the starting
salary and the number of years required to reach the top of the range.
CORRECTIONAL OFFICER POSITIONS
15. Commencing this year the title of Guard in the Gaol Service was changed
to Security Officer, and a new position of Correctional Officer created, carrying a
higher salary range. This change was made to give greater recognition to those officers who have the responsibility for the leadership and training of inmates as distinct
from those with a more limited supervisory responsibility. Correctional Officers, by
a continuity of contact with the same inmate group, develop close relationships with
their charges, which has been found to be most effective in changing their behaviour.
Correctional Officers are expected to undertake at least two of the following duties
in the institution or camp to which they are attached:—
(a) The direction of a group of inmates participating in an organized programme of group counselling under the direction of a qualified supervisor.
(b) Lay counselling with a small case load of inmates in need of individualized
treatment under the supervision of a professionally trained counsellor or
senior administrative official.
(c) The supervision, instruction, or coaching of some physical or recreational
activity.
(d) The development, organization, and supervision of an activity programme,
such as an interest club, Alcoholics Anonymous, public speaking, etc.
(e) The supervision and programme direction of a living unit within an institution or camp.
(/) The supervision, instruction, and control of a work group. This would
include responsibility for the planning and organizing of the work assignment.
Before a Security Officer is eligible for promotion to Correctional Officer, he must
have completed successfully all in-service courses, have a minimum of two years'
experience in assignments which required him to assume leadership and counselling
responsibilities, and in these assignments have demonstrated ability to lead, instruct,
and counsel inmates.
16. Only 89 officers were able to qualify for promotion to Correctional Officer
rank this year, which is an indication of the stiffness of the requirements. This has
created unusual enthusiasm on the part of Security Officers to attend training courses
designed to prepare them for Correctional Officer duties. Within our Correctional
Officer ranks we now have a group of staff who are extremely well qualified in cor-
 T 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
rection and present a high standard of leadership ability. I have no doubt that this
will be reflected in the studies we are presendy undertaking to measure rehabilitation
effectiveness.
IN-SERVICE TRAINING, GAOL SERVICE
17. Orientation training for probationary Security Officers continues to operate
at all institutions.
18. Field training continued at a high standard at the Haney Correctional Institution and Prince George Gaol. New Haven, after a planning period, developed
its field training this year. Because of its smaller staff complement, it has followed
a tutor-pupil pattern, with the experienced officer instructing the new one on an
individual basis. This tutor-pupil approach has proved effective, and thought is
being given to expanding it to other institutions. At Oakalla Prison Farm, only the
East Wing was able to institute the required field training. Kamloops Gaol also
requires further development in this area. A total of 40 officers completed their
field training this year.
19. Basic training was conducted at all institutions for the first time this year.
All training, except advanced, is now the responsibility of individual institutions.
Ninety Security Officers completed their basic training this year.
20. Advanced training throughout the year was given at the Haney Correctional Institution. All staff within the entire Gaol Service are sent to this Institution
for their advanced training. Officers from outside the Lower Mainland area are
quartered in the staff accommodation facilities at the Institution. It has been found
that for the higher levels of training a centralized training approach is more effective
because of the need for more extensive facilities and specialized instructors.
21. During the year a total of 21 advanced training courses was conducted,
with 401 out of 418 successfully completing the training. Included in this number
were 42 senior officers, ranging in rank from Principal Officer to Warden, who took
the course to bring themselves up to date with advances in correctional techniques.
22. The average marks for advanced training remained high in spite of an
increasing complexity of content.   The averages attained were as follows:—
Per Cent
New Haven (10 staff attended)   78.2
Haney Correctional Institution (161 staff attended)   74.0
Oakalla Prison Farm (251 staff attended)   71.2
Prince George Gaol (30 staff attended)  69.3
Kamloops Gaol (21 staff attended)   63.0
IN-SERVICE TRAINING, PROBATION SERVICE
23. Orientation Training.—All new Probation Officers recruited to the Service
must have as a minimum a Bachelor of Arts degree and, preferably, graduate study
in one of the social sciences. Regardless of their educational status, all recruits to
the Probation Service now complete a 14-week orientation training programme. The
first two weeks after entry into the Service are spent attached to an experienced
officer in the field. This attachment gives the recruit a much better appreciation of
the Probation Officer's role and responsibilities in a very practical manner. After
completion of this two-week observation period, recruits then undergo seven weeks
of classroom training interspersed with field trips. Classes are held from 8.30 a.m.
to 12 noon each morning for 12 weeks, and field trips are arranged in the afternoons
of these same days. In this manner they are not only introduced to the theoretical
and operational side of probation, but they also have an opportunity to examine,
through field trips, resources available to the Probation Officer in the community.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1962/63 T 19
The classroom training emphasizes orientation to behaviour, especially as it
relates to the pre-sentence investigation and probation supervision and treatment.
In addition, it examines the legal setting of probation and the administrative matters
with which a Probation Officer in a field office must be familiar. After completion
of the classroom stage, recruits are assigned to a field placement. This consists of
working in a field office under the supervision and direction of an experienced Probation Officer, where they are given increasing responsibility. If the officer-in-training has developed to the level required for independent placement in a field office
within a five-week period, he is then posted. However, if the supervising Probation
Officer is not satisfied that he has measured up to the required level of ability to
assume full responsibility, he will stay on for more training.
24. Refresher Training.—Experienced Probation Officers are now brought
back periodically for a two-week period of refresher training. To date one group
of nine officers has completed this training. During this time they live at the Youth
Training Centre on the University of British Columbia campus. The purpose of this
refresher course is to assist Probation Officers in keeping abreast of developments
and practices in the study of criminal behaviour, to familiarize them with new techniques, and to examine new resources within the community which may be of assistance to them.
The case-study method, whereby actual case files are studied, has proven most
fruitful in this course as a focus for discussion. In all other courses the staff are
generally inexperienced and are taught by the lecture method. It is true that discussion takes place, but this is usually related to clarifying the new knowledge to
which they are exposed. The essential difference in the experienced officer's training
is that he is aware of the basic knowledge required in his role and can be much more
specific in terms of his discussion.
Regional refresher training courses to complement the refresher training programme also have been used successfully. The same technique of the case-study
method is used, but it is related to the cases from a particular region and so focuses
on the problems peculiar to that region.
SPECIALIZED COURSES
25. Instructional technique training was given to 19 selected staff who were
involved as instructors in staff training courses. This instruction has been made available to institutional and supervisory staff to show them the best possible method of
imparting knowledge to other officers either on the job or in the classroom.
26. Forestry.—Thirty officers who are working on various reforestation projects throughout the Province attended a two-day training course at the British Columbia Forest Service Ranger School at Green Timbers. This course consisted of
instruction in the planting and growing of trees, forest protection, and the methods
used for the better prevention and control of forest fires. This training was followed
up by a two-day tree-planting course in the Chilliwack Provincial Forest.
27. Specialist Courses.—A substantial number of staff were involved in a wide
range of specialist courses. These included lay counselling, civil defence, first aid,
safety training, job instruction training, and university extension courses. In addition, five senior officers completed, and three are currendy enrolled, in the University
Executive Development Programme.
STAFF CONFERENCES
28. Conference on the Role of the Supervisor.—A three-day living-in conference attended by 31 staff of Assistant Deputy Warden and Senior Correctional
 T 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Officer rank was held at the University of British Columbia. The object of this
conference was to examine ways and means by which supervisory staff can seek
to develop the leadership potential of subordinate staff. The conference consisted
of lectures and discussions on written and verbal communications, staff evaluations,
the theory of organization, and work-study methods relating to the objectives of
the Service.
29. Probation Officers' Conference.—A three-day living-in conference was
held at Kelowna in September, in which all Probation and Parole Officers participated. A lively discussion followed the presentation of papers on the topics of
" Group Counselling," " Therapeutic Use of Authority," " Legal Aspects of Probation," and " Family Interviewing Techniques."
30. Outside Conferences.—A total of five staff from Oakalla Prison Farm
and the Haney Correctional Institution attended a three-day Pacific Northwest
Regional Conference on Recreation, and eight attended the 83rd National Council
of Crime and Delinquency Conference in Seattle.
31. Chaplains' Conferences.—In July the senior Roman Catholic chaplain
attended a five-day workshop on pastoral care and psychotherapy for clergy of all
faiths at St. John's University, Collegeville, Minn.
In September a two-day conference and workshop for Protestant chaplains
was conducted in the board room of the Vancouver Public Library by the senior
Protestant chaplain.   Fourteen full- or part-time chaplains attended.
32. Monthly Seminars.—Three open seminars were held for staff of all ranks
during the year. Eighty-three heard Dr. J. Regal discuss the topic "An Optimum
Treatment Approach to the Sociopath within the Limits of a Large Institution."
Two seminars on the treatment of the alchoholic offender, conducted by the
Alcoholism Foundation of British Columbia, were attended by a total of 85 staff.
The first session dealt with some of the problems in treating the alcoholic offender,
and the second included the presentation of a case from the Alcoholism Foundation
files illustrating some of the methods of treating alcoholics.
GROUP COUNSELLING TRAINING
33. Weekly Staff Meetings.—With the experience gained through the increased
development of group counselling at several institutions, it has been demonstrated
conclusively that group counselling with lay leaders can only be successful where
there is skilled supervision on a continuous basis.
When the weekly staff meetings were stopped at New Haven for a period,
there was a noticeable drop in the effectiveness of the group counselling programme.
A similar drop in effectiveness has been experienced in other units lacking continuous training and interpretation.
A noteworthy development in the use of staff as skilled group counselling
leaders occurred at the Prince George Gaol, where the Warden met weekly with
the leaders for discussion, training, and interpretation. This top-level support has
enabled staff at this institution to create a very effective programme. Another
development of interest is at the Women's Gaol. To meet the growing need for
information and experience in group counselling, staff have been trained by the
use of simulated groups. Matrons meet together in a group, participating as they
would if they were members of an inmate group in the institution. This procedure
gives the Matron an opportunity to observe some of the techniques involved in
conducting a group, as well as to experience personally some of the reactions.
As a result of the positive effect of the group counselling programme in our
institutions, it was decided to start two pilot groups in probation.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1962/63 T 21
These are described in the Probation section of this Report. Here again it
was shown how essential it is for group leaders to receive continuous direction and
interpretation. The role of group leader is a most demanding one in that he
frequendy becomes the focal point of the group's hostility, and yet he must not
intrude his own feelings or he will stifle participation on the part of the group and
the free ventilation of the group's feelings.
We are proceeding cautiously with the development of the group counselling
programme in order to ensure adequate supervision at all times. For this reason
we are not allowing the formation of groups where there is no provision made for
skilled and continuous supervision.
STAFF-TRAINING GRANT
34. The staff-training grant of $4,000 was again used to its maximum. This
year it covered the cost of degree assistance, extension courses, conferences, and
training supplies. The provision of this grant on a yearly basis has proven a
valuable asset in the development of our staff-training programme.
CONCLUSION
35. While progress has been made in staff-training and a solid base of general
training established, there is still much to be done. A small training-school with an
establishment of two or three full-time instructors is necessary in order to extend
our present programme to cover all staff within the Service. It is hoped, too, that
with the growth of experimental rehabilitation programmes in our camps and
institutions, we shall be able to draw on a growing body of knowledge which we
can incorporate into our general training courses.
36. We are very aware of the need to develop training for supervisory and
administrative staff. Our present plans call for an early start on such training
next year.
37. Staff-training is gradually emerging from a voluntary spare-time occupation, which had to be fitted in in an officer's spare time, or at a time when no one
was on annual leave or away sick, to an essential part of an efficient organization.
By tying in the training programme with our promotional policy, there is considerable pressure exerted by junior staff to obtain as much training as possible in
order to qualify for promotion and advancement within the Service.
• ■
 T 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
CHAPTER III
TREATMENT OF MEN
POPULATION
1. West Wing, Oakalla Prison Farm.—The West Wing at Oakalla Prison
Farm is used to house inmates waiting trial, appeal, or transfer to the British
Columbia Penitentiary and has a capacity for 178 inmates. Up until five years
ago the South Wing was used for this purpose. However, it has a capacity of only
80 cells and was chronically overcrowded. The West Wing, with its much greater
capacity, was able to house, in safety, all inmates in this waiting-trial and appeal
category until this year. From early September to March the population was con-
sistendy in excess of 200 and rose to 250 for extended periods. On September
22nd this overcrowded situation led to a revolt on the part of some 200 prisoners
who refused to return to their cells from the Wing exercise yard. The revolt was
staged as a demonstration of protest against conditions of overcrowding, poor
quality of food, and inadequate laundry and shower facilities. Only prompt and
well-organized action on the part of staff avoided a major riot, and inmates were
eventually returned to then cells, a small group at a time. While their complaints
were well founded, there was little that could be done. The kitchen, designed to
cook for 750, was having to prepare meals for a population of up to 1,200. The
same problem existed in regard to the other facilities: they were simply inadequate
to handle such a large population. The situation became so acute during October
that the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and Vancouver City Police were requested
to hold remand prisoners in their local lockups. On October 2nd there were 43
remand prisoners held in the Vancouver City Gaol, which necessitated removing
constables from their regular duties.
The problem of overcrowding in the West Wing was not caused solely by the
increased number of waiting-trial prisoners. The recent changes in legislation
allowing time spent waiting appeal to count as time spent served on a sentence has
increased considerably the number of inmates appealing then sentences. The
Warden of Oakalla Prison Farm reported on October 15th that of the 230 inmates
in this Wing, 54 had been sentenced to penitentiary terms and all were appealing.
The Warden went on to state:—
" Of this group of 54, two have been held in the West Wing for 17 months,
one for 14 months, one for 10 months, one for 9 months, and several for 6 months
and less, and there is no real indication of how much longer they will spend in this
institution, since they are receiving credit for their time served. . . . The general
practice today when one receives a sentence is to appeal either sentence or conviction, or both, as there is little to be lost as they sit and do nothing, often delaying
the termination of their trial by complaints of not having been able to get the
money for their transcripts, not being able to get a satisfactory lawyer, or similar
other excuses, which in many instances are quite openly admitted to be a diversion,
in the wild hope that something might turn up."
And again:—
" This Wing is badly overcrowded and includes a group of offenders who,
because of their previous experience and their depth of feeling against all authority,
will not be able to be outwitted in their plans to cause some major revolt and
destruction. As you will recall, they have recently made a mass aggressive move
which we were fortunately able to cope with, but without some method of segre-
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1962/63 T 23
gating the professional ' con' organizer from the others, it is almost too much to
expect that we will be able to avoid a major catastrophe."
The problem of speeding up remands and appeals would appear to be a legal
one. From the correctional side we can do little without additional accommodation. To obtain further cellular accommodation for remand prisoners would
require clearing one of the other cellular wings completely of sentenced prisoners.
This would mean that alternative accommodation would have to be found for
nearly 200 sentenced prisoners, a large proportion of whom require secure
accommodation.
2. Old Gaol Annex.—The Old Gaol Annex was used continuously throughout the year, housing up to 200 inmates for months at a time during the winter
period. This group had to be accommodated in one large condemned dormitory
which has extremely limited sanitary facilities and a rated capacity for 96.
3. East Wing, Oakalla Prison Farm.—This wing houses drug addicts and the
habitual criminal. It has accommodation for 180 and was continuously over this
capacity from October on, reaching a high of 274. The high count in this wing
meant increasing the number housed to two in a cell. This created serious problems
in control and supervision as a high population of the group are border-line psychotic cases and are given to outbursts of extremely hostile and aggressive behaviour.
4. Overflow Accommodation, Oakalla Prison Farm.—As all other institutions
were up to, or over, capacity, temporary living accommodation had to be found at
Oakalla for a population that reached a high of 1,269. To achieve this, the
population in the Old Gaol Annex was doubled by using two-tier bunks, and as
many as 238 inmates were housed, an increase of 72 over last year's 166.
By January, however, this extra space was not sufficient, and 40 inmates
had to be moved into the basement of the gymnasium. The decision to use this
space was made as a last resort as it is quite inadequate for this purpose. The
quarters are cramped, poorly ventilated, and without proper sanitary or feeding
facilities. However, the population pressure continued to mount, so that by
February housing trailers complete with ablution facilities were rented and brought
into the prison. These trailers provided accommodation for 80 and allowed the
unit in the gymnasium basement to be vacated. These trailers were used for the
remainder of the year.
Concern has been expressed during the year by our Senior Medical Officer
that this continued overcrowding might lead to the complete breakdown of any
standards of hygiene and sanitation in the gaol. At one time considerable difficulty
was experienced stemming an infestation of lice in the admitting section, caused by
the volume of admissions passing through inadequate and insanitary facilities.
The volume of individual movements in and out of Oakalla during the year
rose to 51,000. Each of these movements involved the issue or receipt of clothing,
personal effects and cash, handling of bedding and clothing, recording of particulars,
medical inspection, and feeding, and placed heavy demands on the time of staff
assigned to the supervision and control of already overcrowded cell blocks.
5. Prince George Gaol.—With the increased employment opportunities in the
North, there has been an overflow of a transient population, many of whom find
their way to prison. As a result, the Prince George Gaol, with an accommodation
for 98, has recorded daily over-capacity counts almost from midsummer to the
end of the year. During the winter the count reached a high of 134, which resulted
in inmates being housed on the landings in front of the cells.
The Warden reported that this overflow population had the effect of slowing
down the correctional programme and placing a heavy strain on the staff.    All
 T 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA
officers were assigned more inmates than they could effectively report on, supervise,
or conveniently handle.
GENERAL
6. Discipline.—There were two instances of major infractions against discipline during the year, one being the attempted revolt in the West Wing at Oakalla
Prison Farm and the other a violent attack on an officer. This officer was attacked
by two inmates at Clearwater Forest Camp when he discovered them escaping.
One of the inmates struck him from behind with a shake mallet, causing concussion
and a fracture of his skull, which resulted in extensive hospitalization. In spite of
his injuries, Security Officer C. T. King was able to raise an alarm, and an immediate
search was made, which resulted in the recapture of the two inmates near Kamloops.
The high rate of assaults on officers remains a concern, and the number of
these assaults appears to rise with the increasing population. At times the situation
at Oakalla Prison Farm has been explosive, with patience wearing thin on both
sides. Only the skilful leadership of the staff has managed on more than one
occasion to contain a potentially dangerous situation.
I am glad to be able to report that the over-all disciplinary situation has
improved to the point where the larger institutions have shown a considerable drop
in the number of infractions, as is shown in the following table:—
Total Infractions
Assaults
on Officers
1961-62    1     1962-63
1
1961-62
1962-63
1,259
1,352
1
19
100
1,039
914
26
31
50
9
2
3
14
1
1
Totals   -      	
2,731
2,060
14
16
The unit team concept at the Haney Correctional Institution has led to a
definite improvement in staff-trainee relationships and, as was noted last year,
a noticeable decrease in disciplinary infractions. The same factor, without doubt,
accounts for this continued improvement in trainee discipline.
The reorganization last year of Oakalla Prison Farm into smaller decentralized units, with many disciplinary problems being handled at the unit level, has
led to a similar improvement. This improvement is of even greater significance
when one considers the overcrowded state of this facility and the type of offender
handled.
7. Security.—The number of escapes from closed and open institutions is
given below, compared with the number of prisoners in custody during the same
period: Number Housed   Number Escaped
Oakalla Prison Farm    13,413 16
Chiliwack Camps  (open)  1,149 12
Haney Correctional Institution  2,002 38
Haney Correctional Institution Camps (open)  788 2
New Haven (open)  94 14
Kamloops Provincial Gaol  1,658 1
Clearwater Forest Camp (open)  531 3
Prince George Gaol   1,214
Totals   20,849 86
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1962/63 T 25
The total of 86 escapes represents 0.41 per cent of the number of inmates
that were held in custody during the year. Of this total, 2,562 were held in open
facilities. In general, our escape rate is extremely low and is due in large measure
to continued careful classification and the leadership afforded by staff.
The increase of 32 escapes over last year's total of 54 is from the younger
offenders' facilities. The Haney Correctional Institution had 16 escapes last year,
compared with 38 this year. This large increase is due to this institution sending
up to 138 trainees out to work on the Blue Mountain reforestation project. Many
of these 138 are security risks in that they are unstable young men with little
behaviour control. However, all were recaptured, the majority by institution staff,
with no untoward incident. It is felt the risks taken were justified by the excellence
of the forestry programme.
CLASSIFICATION
8. Central Classification.—In September, 1962, the function of selecting
inmates for transfer to other institutions from Oakalla was established as a headquarters function. To accomplish this a supervisor of Central Classification and
an assistant were appointed to the headquarters staff. The Oakalla personnel
previously carrying out these duties were reassigned, with one officer remaining
to select the inmates for the various units of Oakalla itself.
This centralized control of classification has resulted in the needs of all
institutions being considered, and a more appropriate assignment of cases by virtue
of a closer knowledge by the classification personnel of the proper capabilities of all
rather than just one institution.
Since then appointment, the classification personnel have reviewed the cases
of all prisoners admitted to Oakalla Prison Farm. Those inmates receiving
sentences of less than 60 days are routinely held at Oakalla Prison Farm. However, exceptional cases are given more detailed consideration and, depending on
circumstances, may be classified to another institution for special treatment. Inmates who receive definite-indefinite sentences are all interviewed with a view to
placing them in an institution with a training programme suitable to their needs.
Certain inmates serving definite sentences, especially first offenders, are considered
for placement in one of the forest camps.
In addition, a system of reclassification has been established for the purpose
of reconsidering inmates who were not fitting into a training programme. To date
five inmates have been reclassified as unsuitable for the training originally decided
upon. Twenty-five other applications for reclassification were considered and the
original classification sustained.
The decisions of the Classification Committee are based on information
gained from pre-sentence reports, psychological tests, interviews by themselves
and the Senior Medical Officer, and observations by the staff of the classification
wing. The precise details of the younger inmate's training programme are worked
out after a longer and more detailed study at the particular institution to which he
has been assigned. With the pressure of population, a minimum amount of time
for institutional placement is given to all other offenders.
9. Institutional Classification.—The younger offender with a definite-indefinite
sentence, upon reception at the Haney Correctional Institution, is subjected to
intensive study and testing. The product of this study is a detailed treatment plan
setting forth broad training goals for the subsequent guidance of staff working
directly with the trainee.   This initial treatment plan is followed up by systematic
 T 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
recording of the behaviour and attitude of the trainee, to keep the treatment plan
in step with the changing needs of the case.
Those inmates with straight definite sentences remain in the common gaols
of Oakalla, Prince George, and Kamloops. From here they are selected for the
various sub-units of the main institution or transfer to a forest camp.
10. Research.—The study of the present-day drug addict carried on last year
in conjunction with the students and staff from the Department of Psychiatry,
University of British Columbia, has continued. The demographic portion of this
study has been completed, and at the moment the investigation is focusing on the
addiction history of each individual in the study.
The comparative study of a group of narcotic addicts and a closely related
control group of non-addicts through the application of the Minnesota Multiphasic
Personality Inventory did not show any significant difference between the addict
criminal and the non-addict criminal personalities. The negative results of this
study plus our own successful experience in the Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit
point to the conclusion that the problem of drug addiction is not greatly different
from that of rehabilitation in general. In view of this, our addiction treatment
has no special features that are not found elsewhere in our total corrections
programme.
Medical staff from the Vancouver General Hospital and the University of British Columbia School of Medicine have been carrying out a study on salt infusion and
blood volume on voluntary cases at Oakalla Prison Farm. They have been studying
an average of five inmates per week.
The Senior Medical Officer and a graduate geneticist on the classification staff
are currently involved in a study to determine the presence of a narcotic drug in the
body. They are studying saliva smears of female addicts and non-addicts to determine whether the taking of drugs can be detected in this manner. If this study is
successful, it will have some significance for the parole supervision of addicts, as a
simple test could be most useful in detecting whether a parolee has been using drugs
or not.
EVALUATION STUDIES
11. Young Offender Population.—In order to determine the effectiveness of
our correctional programme for younger offenders, a follow-up study was completed
on releases from New Haven, Haney Correctional Institution, and Gold Creek Forest Camp. The criterion of success for this study was non-reappearance in an institution, either Provincial or Federal, in British Columbia. Cases were not followed
out of the Province, nor were Court records studied to determine any who might have
been fined as a result of a future conviction. The possibility of any being placed on
probation was removed by the provisions of section 638 (5) of the Criminal Code
of Canada. For New Haven, 665 cases discharged over the last 12 years were followed up. All the cases had been out for at least one year. For this group, 62 per
cent were not resentenced to an institution in British Columbia. One thousand two
hundred and fifteen cases discharged from the Haney Correctional Institution over
the last three years were studied, all having been out for at least one year. For this
group, 64 per cent were successful.
Gold Creek Forest Camp, opened in 1956 as a satellite to New Haven and later
transferred to the Haney Correctional Institution when that institution was built in
1958, showed a 70-per-cent success rate over the last four years. This is an extremely
high success rate even for a selected population.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1962/63 T 27
In general, these success rates for our young offender population are higher
than those reported elsewhere. However, any gross comparisons are dangerous in
that the types of inmates dealt with vary greatiy.
12. Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit (Male).—The officer in charge of this unit
kept records on the 107 male addicts admitted to the unit for the five years February
1, 1958, to February 1, 1963. During this same five-year period 96 cases were discharged. A follow-up study showed that 63 of these cases were again sentenced to
prison and that three had died. The remaining 30 cases were checked through the
R.C.M.P. fingerprint files in Ottawa. This check revealed that only one case had
been rearrested, giving a success rate (in terms of being arrested anywhere in Canada) of 32 per cent.
The cases admitted to this unit are a selected population in the sense that they
express varying degrees of motivation to stop using drugs. They represent a small
sample compared to other studies. The latest reported follow-up study of 1,912
addicts discharged from the U.S. Public Health Service Hospital at Lexington, Ky.,
U.S.A., represents a far larger sample, but it showed that 90 per cent became read-
dieted. The cases studied by the Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit are being further
studied to ascertain whether those not rearrested are readdicted or not.
RELIGION
13. Chaplains.—The chaplains in the Service, under the direction of the Senior
Protestant and Roman Catholic Chaplains, have continued to interpret their role to
the inmates. To lead men to a knowledge of God as revealed in Jesus Christ, and
to inspire them to an obedience to His will, the chaplains employ a variety of
methods. The use of wisely chosen religious films as a basis for discussion, the use
of discussion groups on Bible study in relation to effective Christian living, the provision of correspondence courses on the Bible, the distribution of religious periodicals, all are used to a greater or lesser degree, according to the temperament of the
individual chaplain.
While co-operation is always forthcoming from the administrative staff of every
institution, the chaplain frequently works at a severe disadvantage because of limited
facilities.
There is an urgent need for chapels in every institution except New Haven.
As long as this situation prevails, the chaplains work under a severe handicap, and
the effectiveness of the services of public worship is considerably diminished.
The chaplains gratefully acknowledge the interest and support of the Greater
Vancouver Council of Churches, the local ministerial association, other church
bodies and individual congregations, the theological colleges on the campus of the
University of British Columbia, the Salvation Army, and the various after-care
organizations.
The appointment of a full-time chaplain to Oakalla Prison Farm in July, 1962,
with no responsibility to other institutions, has enabled the religious programme to
be more closely integrated with the over-all programme of the institution.
In addition to specifically religious programmes, the chaplains also sponsor
institutional Alcoholics Anonymous groups, and other groups on current events or
public affairs, in the course of which they are able to come in contact with inmates
who otherwise might not be reached. These contacts frequently lead to opportunities for spiritual counselling, which is often helpful to the inmates concerned.
All chaplains seek to refer inmates with whom they have worked to an appropriate after-care agency if required, and to a church in the community to which they
may return.
 T 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
This year a number of meetings were held under the guidance of the chaplain
at Haney with native Indian trainees. The object was to make a study of their environmental problems in the community, and also to discover new areas of interest
within the institutional programme. Study of the Indian Act, employment practices,
and arts and crafts formed the basis of the meetings, and the interest shown is indicative of the need to develop this aspect of the programme further.
A special advanced study session leading to church membership was held for
several months at Haney, and eight trainees were received into membership of
various churches in their home community.
A two-day conference of Protestant chaplains was held in the board room of
the Vancouver Public Library. There were 14 chaplains in attendance who work
in our institutions either on a full-time, part-time, or voluntary basis.
In addition to a full schedule of lectures, discussions, and demonstrations, there
was a display of recent books in penology and pastoral counselling arranged by the
Vancouver Public Library.
Protestant Worship
Services of public worship were held regularly in all institutions and camps,
with special services in some institutions on Remembrance Day, Good Friday, during
Holy Week, and on Easter Sunday.
The sacrament of Holy Communion is also celebrated regularly, and the atmosphere of solemnity and reverence is noteworthy.
Inmates were permitted to invite members of their direct family to attend
worship with them on three occasions at Haney Correctional Institution and once
at New Haven.
Visits of Haney trainees to community churches have been continued and are
of value in establishing the habit of public worship.
Roman Catholic Worship
The Holy Sacrifice of Mass is held every Sunday and every holy day. Confessions are held upon request.
The padre's hour is held weekly, and the chaplains are grateful for assistance
received from members of the Legion of Mary, from visiting chaplains, and from
the Sancta Maria House, where women may find shelter and understanding upon
release from Oakalla Women's Building.
Pastoral counselling continues on an individual and group basis.
At Haney, choir practice is held every week, preparing inmates for a better
understanding of the mass and litergical singing.
SOCIAL TRAINING
14. Group Counselling.—The group counselling pilot project initiated at New
Haven last year has now developed to the point where group counselling is in practice at all institutions.
The New Haven programme has continued to contribute to the changing of
behaviour and attitude on the part of the trainees. As is normal with delinquents,
they tend to blame the community, police, Judges, parents, and even companions
for the position in which they find themselves. However, it has been found that
within the group-counselling setting this irresponsible attitude and braggart front is
quickly penetrated by fellow trainees, and the individual is forced to face up to
reality. Such interaction as this does much to assist the process of rehabilitation in
that the individual is prepared to accept counselling on both an individual and group
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1962/63 T 29
basis much sooner than he normally would. Also, counselling is more readily
accepted from members of the peer group than from the staff, particularly in the
early stages of training.
At Oakalla Prison Farm, group counselling has continued as a part of the programme of the Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit. It was also introduced into the East
Wing for a problem group of non-addict inmates. With this latter group it was found
that it did much to reduce their hostility and improve discipline. An interesting
feature of this group was that it met on a voluntary basis. The group in the early
stages was small but gradually grew to the point where all but two of this problem
group of 20 attended voluntarily.
Kamloops Gaol has started a group-counselling programme on a limited scale
for short-term offenders, with a group at the Clearwater Forest Camp for those with
longer sentences.
An outstanding example of how group counselling can be developed in a
common gaol is to be seen in the Prince George Gaol. Here the programme has
grown to the point where all of the larger work groups are now participating on a
compulsory basis twice a week. In addition, a volunteer group meets two evenings
per week with the Senior Correctional Officer, and a special group of inmate volunteers who have had some months of experience in group counselling meet once a
week in a group session with the Warden. These sessions have proved to be thought-
provoking and encourage the individual to face his problems in a positive manner.
The following excerpt, taken from the report of the National Parole Service's representative, illustrates the impact of group counselling at this institution. The subject
of this report was 40 years old and had 20 previous convictions, which date back to
1939.
"Admitted to Prince George Gaol, January 13th, 1962, and was placed in the
carpentry shop, at a lathe, where he has worked since. He has taken up leathercraft
hobby in his spare time and claims to have sent articles worth $150 to his wife. He
was chairman of the Alcoholics Anonymous group for seven months and claims that
this is the first time that he has joined the organization. He used to laugh at people
who told him he was an alcoholic, but now he realizes that he will not be able to
stay out of further difficulties if he drinks again. He seems to have a good understanding of the programme and will follow it up when released in the Prince George
area.
" M. thinks that he has ' gained a lot' from his prison term as he is now thinking more about others, such as his wife and child, rather than his own pleasures.
This has come about through the group counselling programme and a very different
relationship with staff in the institution. He found it very difficult to ' do time ' as
the staff members have made him do things their way rather than let him work into
softer jobs, and although he has blown up on a few occasions, the whole experience
has helped him to change ' my thinking.' He has been ' ripped to pieces ' in group
counselling, but still attends regularly and feels he has gained renewed confidence in
himself.
" The John Howard Society in Prince George have taken M. to an outside
counselling group session with discharged inmates, which is in the experimental
stages. The president, a high school teacher and counsellor, Mr. W. O'Brien, is
willing to act as supervisor and will consult with Mr. McKellar, Probation Officer in
Prince George, who, along with Magistrate Stewart, is also active in this John
Howard Society experiment."
Supervision of the Prince George programme has been provided by the Senior
Correctional Officer visiting all groups in rotation. Also, a weekly meeting is held
for all staff group leaders where progress and problems are discussed with the Senior
 T 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Correctional Officer and Warden. The practice of tape-recording group sessions,
with the group's permission, and playing back to staff those that demonstrate effective
group counselling and group leadership has proven a valuable asset in the training
and supervision of the group leaders. The Warden has reported increasing enthusiasm for this method of counselling on the part of his staff. This same development
has been reported in other facilities. As the staff become more aware of the inmate
as an individual and the inmate in turn becomes a more responsible person, a closer
relationship develops, which gives the individual officer a sense of great satisfaction in
that he can see the positive results of his leadership.
The most highly organized form of group counselling is at the Haney Correctional Institution, where a full-time supervisor has been assigned to the programme.
The trainees here attend group counselling at their work placement, with the work-
crew officer or instructor acting as the group leader. At the present time there are
53 groups in operation at the institution and camps, with approximately 500 trainees
participating. These groups meet twice a week for one hour, with additional meetings being held at the discretion of the leader. Such an additional meeting would be
held if an incident arose in a shop or on a work crew that the officer thought should
be discussed immediately.
Group leaders at the Haney Correctional Institution submit brief reports following each meeting. These are then carefully studied and analysed by the Supervisor
of Group Counselling before being passed on to the division heads and the Warden.
Training sessions are held with the leaders to discuss techniques, as well as the
progress of their group as revealed in their reports.
The most significant development during the past year at the Haney Correctional Institution has been the inauguration of the unit team meetings. On November 7th the first unit team meetings were held. Each group consisted of the unit
principal officer, the unit counsellor, vocational instructors or teachers, the work-
gang officer, plus any other unit officers or lay counsellors assigned to the unit.
Right from the beginning, the meetings were an unqualified success. The teams
discussed any or all problems pertaining to the unit, special emphasis being placed on
the trainees and their problems. An agenda is prepared prior to the meeting. However, any member of the unit team may forward the name of a trainee for discussion
or bring up a problem pertaining to the unit. Three such meetings are held each
month; the fourth meeting is a training session, which is attended by all members of
the team. A speaker, a film followed by discussion, or a panel followed by a discussion period is the usual form taken for such meetings.
Recently the Provincial Parole Officers have joined the unit teams, one Parole
Officer being assigned to two units. They have been enthusiastically received by the
team members and are already making a valuable contribution. Hospital officers
are now also in the process of joining the teams, and one officer will be assigned to
each unit. Many problems regarding individual trainees are now being referred
directiy to the unit team for discussion and decision if necessary.
15. Recreation Programme.—At the Haney Correctional Institution a very
successful club programme has been developed, with 21 clubs flourishing within the
institution, each with a staff sponsor. These clubs have played an important part
in inducing self-respect and awareness of others. In the Arts and Crafts Club the
native Indian trainees have done particularly weU, and plans are being made to set
up a complete pattern of native Indian art with a view to preserving such a collection
for the future.
Maximum use has been made of library and recreation facilities in all institutions, and whenever possible sound instruction is given both in playing techniques
and in the value of sportsmanship.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1962/63 T 31
16. Physical Testing Programme.—At the Haney Correctional Institution a
programme of physical testing for all admissions was commenced. To date over 500
new arrivals have been tested and retested after four months, to determine whether
physical progress has been made during this period. This has been particularly useful in cases where poor posture or other physical weaknesses were noted during the
initial test.
Although a complete and accurate analysis of the test results cannot be made
until approximately 1,000 trainees have been assessed, some definite trends have
become apparent:—
(1) In general, all trainees are very unskilled in athletic activities, such as
gymnastics, volleyball, and basketball.
(2) The motor ability scores on the Brace Motorability Test, although suggesting a normal curve, are far below normal.
(3) The physical fitness of most trainees upon arrival is far below a passing
grade on the Indiana Physical Fitness Test. Some improvement in physical fitness has been noticed on retesting after four months.
(4) Some trainees have marked deficiencies in motorability and physical fitness. A few trainees had structural and postural defects which required
remedial attention. Still others had suffered injuries or illness which
handicapped them physically:   a remedial class could help them.
A systematic physical-fitness programme commenced on February 15th, designed for trainees who obtained extremely low scores on the intake test battery.
Since this programme has been in progress for only a short time, it is too soon to draw
any conclusions. One trainee, however, retested after three weeks raised his physical
fitness score from 9 to 26 per cent.
17. Community Service.—Traditionally in corrections the focus is on the individual inmate and his problems. This can lead to the individual seeing himself as
the centre of the institutional universe and develop little concern for others. To offset this risk and to give the inmate a chance to gain satisfaction by doing something
voluntarily for someone else, a good deal of emphasis has been placed on community
service. At Haney Correctional Institution volunteer groups have, on their own
time, completed an outdoor kitchen and washhouse in Allco Park for the municipality and developed two Y.M.C.A. camps designed to give children who cannot
otherwise afford a camping experience some of the benefits of camping.
COUNSELLING
18. Casework.—With the advances made in probation and the larger number
of young offenders being committed to adult institutions, a generally younger and
more disturbed group of inmates has been sent to New Haven and Haney Correctional Institution. Consequently, more emphasis has been placed on individual
counselling so that now each unit at Haney Correctional Institution has a full-time
professional counsellor. This counsellor not only provides a casework service to
the trainees, but serves as a consultant and member of the unit team. The psychiatrist is also available as a consultant to this team.
19. Lay Counselling.—Lay counselling by Correctional Officers has continued
at Haney Correctional Institution and New Haven. At these two institutions it has
been developed to a most satisfactory level by constant supervision and staff-training.
One of the more significant developments in this counselling technique occurred at
the Prince George Gaol, where it has been developed on a regular and supervised
basis for a common-gaol population. The plan, placed in effect on October 15th,
involved all the supervisory staff, including Correctional Officers, 17 in all.   These
 T 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
officers were assigned one to three inmates each. Their responsibilities included the
establishing of counsellor-inmate relationships, preparation of social histories, maintenance of training files, and the guiding and counselling of inmates throughout their
stay in the institution.   Some pre-release planning was included.
The Warden reports that this lay counselling programme has made a marked
advance in his over-all correctional programme. His staff are enthused about the
continuing therapeutic effect that has developed as a result of the improved staff-
inmate relationship.
The South Wing at Oakalla Prison Farm has developed an orientation counselling programme for inmates passing through this classification unit. New admissions are prepared for their unit placement and helped to overcome some of the
anxiety which is invariably present during the initial stages of incarceration.
EDUCATION
20. Academic Education.—The two most significant developments of the year
in this area occurred at Haney Correctional Institution and Prince George Gaol.
At Haney Correctional Institution a Grade X accelerated course was introduced. This is the same course that is being offered by the vocational schools as a
means of raising the educational level of unemployed persons. The objective is to
raise students as much as two school grades in a five-month period. Twenty trainees
are on this plan, and early indications are that the majority should be successful on
this course.
At Prince George Gaol a classroom academic programme was introduced for
the first time. A portion of the basement was partitioned off as a classroom and a
teaching programme instituted for the afternoons and evenings. This teaching programme focused on the elementary grades and was carried out by a Correctional
Officer with the assistance of local education authorities. The more advanced studies
are taken by correspondence courses, which are completed and supervised in the
same classroom. Some inmates continue to work on homework and correspondence
courses in their living-quarters in the evening, when tutorial help is provided by the
Correctional Officer in charge of education.
New Haven has continued with its compulsory academic education five evenings a week on a correspondence and classroom basis.
21. Vocational Training.—The extensive vocational training programme of
Haney Correctional Institution has continued at a high level. The number who
entered training has dropped from 400 to 300. This is attributed to a more experienced staff of instructors coping with problems and motivating many trainees to stay
with their training instead of running away from it when difficulties were encountered.
At Oakalla Prison Farm five inmates working in the boiler-house were studying
for their fourth-class steam engineering certificates. One completed his course during the year, wrote the examination, and received his fourth-class steam engineer's
certificate before leaving the institution. At Haney Correctional Institution six
trainees were studying for their certificate; one qualified as a fourth-class steam
engineer and another as a Class B heating engineer.
At Haney Correctional Institution 10 trainees were trained in the kitchen and
later placed as cooks in outside employment.
22. Libraries.—With the increased emphasis on education, the libraries in all
institutions have experienced full use. The bookbindery at Oakalla Prison Farm
has also been kept occupied, having rebound and repaired some 1,000 books.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1962/63
T 33
A series of audio-visual workshops was held with staff at Oakalla Prison Farm
to examine new approaches and methods in teaching. As a result of this initial work,
a number of Science Research Associates reading kits have been purchased and staff
instructed in their use. They are now in use in several units, and the inmates'
response to them has been encouraging. A limited number of filmstrips has been
purchased which can be used as aids to educational programmes, staff-training, and
interest groups. Five long-playing records, which have application to group discussion sessions, are also in use in several units.
The library at Haney Correctional Institution operates much as a public library
in the community. Trainees come in during the evening to read, browse, and borrow, and the responsibility to return the book is theirs as in any public library. It is
interesting to note that the library atmosphere in this institution compares favourably
with any public library.
23. General.—The usual range of work projects involving maintenance, overhaul, laundry and clothing repair, replacement of equipment and buildings was carried on throughout the year.
Reforestation of the area surrounding Haney Correctional Institution has continued, as has the reforestation work undertaken by the Kamloops Gaol.
The farms at Oakalla Prison Farm, New Haven, Twin Maples, Kamloops, and
Prince George were again utilized and provided substantial food supplies to the
respective institutions.
24. Production.—The following table gives a breakdown of the year's production for the indicated production shops at Oakalla Prison Farm. Internal consumption is defined as items produced for and used by the Department of the Attorney-
General, and external consumption indicates items produced for other Government
agencies. The value attached to production is always the lowest current market
value as determined by the British Columbia Purchasing Commission.
Shop
Number of
Items
Produced
Value of
Internal
Consumption
Value of
External
Consumption
30,498
34,524
41,772
1,561,397
4,963
2,916
45
165
$83,172.25
42,011.99
27,650.00
15,639.70
)       74,127.00
2,690.00
$102,528.56
Shoe-
1,656.00
Repaired    „
Upholstery.	
5,115.00
Totals	
$245,290.94
$109,299.56
	
The sheet-metal shop is now in full production on highway signs and filing-
cabinets and has created considerable savings, as can be seen in the above table.
The amount of external production by the shoe and sock shops has been reduced
considerably due to the increasing needs of our own service.
 T 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
CHAPTER IV
FOREST CAMPS
INTERDEPARTMENTAL CO-ORDINATING COMMITTEE
1. Committee Activity.—As in the past, this Committee, composed of senior
officials from the Forest Service and Corrections Branch, met to plan and review
forestry projects.
With the increasing number of reforestation projects, it became necessary to
develop a more formal organization for contact between the Forest Service and
Corrections Branch staff in the field. Toward this end a detailed organization plan
was developed to operate under the Co-ordinating Committee with specific assignments. Two Forestry Operations Officers were appointed—one from the Forest
Service and one from the Corrections Branch. These two officers are responsible
to the Co-ordinating Committee to see that approved projects are carried out
efficientiy and that the policies established by this Committee are being followed.
In the field, one specific Forest Service official and one Corrections Branch officer
have been assigned to each of the five reforestation projects being carried out by
the Corrections Branch, and all liaison work for each project is carried on through
these two officers. The working relationships we enjoy with the Forest Service at
all levels in this organization are excellent and have resulted in projects of benefit
both to the Province as well as our inmate population.
Liaison with the Parks Branch has continued on a less formally organized
basis for work in Garibaldi, Wells Gray, and Seymour Mountain Parks.
CHILLIWACK FOREST CAMPS
2. Construction.—The fourth camp for the Chilliwack Valley was put into
operation this year, giving a total capacity in these camps of 240 inmates. This
fourth camp, built from lumber cut in the valley, followed plans provided by the
Forest Service and is far superior in terms of accommodation to any other camp.
An electric-power line was extended into the valley as far as Tamahi Creek
Camp by the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority. As we were anxious
to extend this power-line farther into the valley, arrangements were made whereby
inmate crews, under the direction of their officers, built the next 4 miles to Mount
Thurston Camp. The poles were supplied by our logging crews and the line
erected by inmates and staff to B.C. Hydro standards.
Because of a flood in November, the Tamahi Creek Camp had to be moved
to higher ground. Plans are presently under way to rebuild this camp at a more
suitable site.
3. Population.—The camps were operated at capacity throughout the year.
One thousand two hundred and ninety-three inmates were transferred to the camps
from Oakalla Prison Farm. Without this accommodation the situation at Oakalla
would have indeed been impossible.
4. Reforestation Projects.—Right-of-way clearing and road construction and
maintenance were carried out on the main access roads of the valley in addition to
establishing additional fire access roads, fire-breaks, and the construction of protection trails. A large proportion of the work time was put into the thinning and
pruning of standing trees as well as the clearing of debris and useless growth in
preparation for replanting.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1962/63 T 35
The three tree nurseries operated during the year produced over 2,000,000
seedlings for replanting in the forest. The actual replanting from the nurseries to
the forest totalled 143,400 trees.
5. Parks Project.—Over a thousand inmate working days were spent at Cultus
Lake Park on improvement and maintenance of the park. Assistance was also
given during the winter months with clearing up the severe storm damage suffered
by this park in November.
6. Social Training.—The recreation periods for the inmates have continued
and now include inter-camp sports. Facilities have also improved for hobby work
and correspondence-course study.
7. Religious Services.—Religious services and counselling have been provided
by visiting ministers for both Protestants and Roman Catholics.
HANEY CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION CAMPS
8. Gold Creek Camp.—Gold Creek Camp has been converted into a prerelease camp for the main institution. The work and training programmes have
remained the same. Crews from this camp were employed in Garibaldi Park,
landscaping, providing firewood, maintaining the camp-sites, and clearing land
for new picnic and camping areas.
9. Pine Ridge Camp.—This camp has been changed from a pre-release camp
to an honour unit where inmates serve their complete sentence. Many of the
inmates are still involved in training at the main institution and walk back to the
institution for training during the day, returning to camp unescorted in the late
afternoon. Others who work outside of the main institution are employed on
reforestation, logging, and the operation of a saw and planer mill.
KAMLOOPS GAOL AND FOREST CAMP
10. Reforestation.—Crews from the main gaol at Kamloops again carried
out projects for the Forest Service in the same manner as in the previous year.
New projects were the clearing and cleaning of seed-production areas at White
Lake and Westwold. One hundred and fifty-three prisoner-days were devoted to
this project.
The Falkland reforestation on the " Pin " fire was continued. Thirty-two
thousand seedlings were planted in April and May, and further clearing was carried
out during the winter months. A total of 550 prisoner-days was spent on this
project.
11. Clearwater Forest Camp.—Crews from this camp carried out a wide
range of work projects in the Wells Gray Park. These included road clearing and
maintenance, clearing an emergency airstrip, cutting 5,000 fence-posts for the
Department of Highways, clearing a new park service area, and maintaining picnic
areas in the park.
The mobile camp was again in use during the summer. The inmates from
this fly camp continued work on the public camp-site at Clearwater Lake constructing additional units.
VANCOUVER ISLAND CAMP
12. Snowdon Forest Camp.—This is our most recent camp, located in the
Sayward Forest District north of Campbell River on Vancouver Island.
 T 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Construction of the camp was started in November and reached its full count
of 60 inmates in February. Although the camp was put into operation in good
time, its construction was hampered by the severe winter weather. High winds and
continuous rain turned the camp-site into a virtual sea of mud, making it necessary
to carry all building sections several feet by hand.
Work in the forest itself was started during the last month of the year after a
4-mile power-line had been erected by the inmates to provide power for the camp.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1962/63 T 37
CHAPTER V
TREATMENT OF WOMEN
GENERAL
1. Population.—There were 1,160 admissions during the year, resulting in
a daily average population of 143, an increase of 23 over last year's average.
Accommodation in the gaol was strained by peak periods when the inmate population reached as high as 175.
Of the 1,160 admissions, approximately half were Indian women, many of
whom came from distant points in the Province. This suggests the need for
regional facilities to take care of these women in the communities, if possible,
where the causes of their troubles are most apparent. While in the institution,
Indian women respond well to authority and sometimes appear almost happy to
be clean and well fed. Their health is greatiy improved by the time they return
to their communities, but the problem which usually brings them to gaol—namely,
alcohol—has not been solved.
Approximately 43 per cent of admissions were drug-users. During the year
268 were treated for drug withdrawal by the clinic, while 448 were treated for
alcoholism.
For six months of the year, Doukhobor women, sentenced or waiting trial,
were accommodated in a separate Quonset hut, staffed by matrons who spoke their
language and understood their background. Considerable progress was made in
convincing these women through group discussions that they had a responsibility to
conform to rules and regulations in the institution in order to earn concessions and
privileges. They gave the impression on their departure that they were more
willing to setde down in the community.
2. Discipline.—Discipline continues to be good, with a healthy atmosphere
prevailing throughout the prison. There were 28 disciplinary infractions and two
assaults on matrons, considerably less than last year.
3. Security.—There were nine escapes during the year—four from the
Women's Narcotic Drug Research Unit and five from Twin Maples Farm, an open
unit. Due to overcrowding in the maximum-security section, many escape risks
had to be housed in more or less open cottages beside the main building. As many
as 65 women were housed in this manner, but no untoward problems were
experienced.
4. Classification.—All new inmates, on admission, were placed in the orientation area until their health was satisfactory and it was felt by the medical and
classification staff that they were ready for a living unit and placement in one of
the vocational or work teams. Every effort was made to segregate new offenders
from old, and drug addicts from non-users.
RELIGION
5. Protestant Worship.—A religious programme is scheduled for Tuesday
evenings, when audio-visual aids and discussion techniques are used for instruction.
The Sunday service, now held in the afternoon by the Senior Protestant Chaplain,
has brought about increased attendance since entire groups with their matrons
frequentiy attend.
 T 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
6. Roman Catholic Worship.—The Senior Roman Catholic Chaplain has
conducted services and given counselling throughout the year. The Legion of
Mary visited weekly to assist in group discussions.
7. Non-institutional Worship.—The inmates at the Twin Maples Farm attend
church in Haney since there is no church service held on the farm grounds.
SOCIAL TRAINING
8. Group Counselling.—AU groups participate in daily counselling sessions.
The emphasis is placed as much as possible on the group itself finding solutions to
problems. This technique is used both in the work and vocational groups, which
meet during the daytime as well as in the living groups in the evening. As a result,
the old " con " run prison culture is gradually breaking down and becoming less
prominent.
Younger women respond well to the counselling sessions, which enable them
to ah their problems and to understand themselves better. However, it has been
found that the longer the record and the more institutionalized the inmate, the
more reluctant she is to probe into her own problems or to recognize and accept
any responsibility for her own behaviour.
9. Recreation.—Inter-unit competition and activities with volunteer groups
have been carried on. Dance therapy and a modern art series introduced by one
of the staff have been very well accepted by most groups.
10. Education.—Vocational as well as educational training continues as in
previous years. A daily class was begun for illiterates. There is an increased
demand for more technical and specific types of reading due to the intensive group-
work programme. A Science Research Associates kit is in use for improvement of
silent readers.   Full use is made of the library by many of the women.
11. Socialization.—This year a concentrated effort was made to involve the
Women's Unit with the community. Selected groups of volunteer students from
the University of British Columbia, after receiving an outline of the programme,
were given a number of inmates to visit weekly and to take out into the community
once a month, usually to the University. These visits and tours to industrial plants
and exhibits of various types opened up new areas of experience to the inmates.
Community facilities, such as the Y.W.C.A. and South Burnaby swimming-
pools, bowling-alleys, and church recreational activities were made available to
the Unit.
Numerous business, professional, and church groups have visited the prison
and offered their volunteer services.
WORK
12. Institution.—The sewing and mending rooms service not only the
Women's Unit, but the entire population of Oakalla as well as Haney Correctional
Institution and New Haven.
The women's laundry undertook to launder the operating-room linen for the
gaol hospital, which strained its facilities to the limit.
13. Twin Maples Farm. — The farm at Twin Maples is becoming almost
entirely self-operating. The women here do their own laundry, baking, canning,
pasteurize the milk from their dairy cattle, and make butter for then use. Every
effort is made to assign to the farm women who can use this type of training and
experience in their own homes and communities.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1962/63 T 39
NARCOTIC DRUG TREATMENT UNIT
14. Extracts from Unit Report.—Because of the developing concern in the
difficult task of treating drug addiction, the report of the female drug treatment unit
is presented here in some detail:—
" In the Men's Unit at Oakalla Prison Farm 10 per cent of the 10,838 admitted during the past fiscal year were drug-users, while at the Women's Unit 43.5 per
cent of the 1,160 women admitted were drug-users. Because of the highly contagious nature of addiction among delinquents in this area, both units have been
careful to segregate drug-users from non-users so far as is possible within the
limitations of the physical plan in the institution. Treatment of the addicts, like
that of other inmates in the institution, has been centred around a group-work
approach.
" In addition to this general treatment approach and philosophy, and as a
direct result of recommendations contained in the Stevenson Report in 1956, two
Narcotic Drug Research Units, known as the Male and Female Research Units,
were established at Oakalla to serve as pilot projects in the search for a more
effective means of coping with the problems of addiction in an institutional setting.
" The Women's Research Unit is a simulated log structure which is situated
alongside the main building of the Women's Unit. Twelve inmates can be housed
in the dorm area, but because of the limited bathroom and kitchen facilities, we
find 10 can be accommodated more successfully. This is a semi-autonomous unit;
all meals are prepared and served in the Pan-Abode, and some of the women work
in the Pan-Abode throughout the day, while some work in the main unit, taking
academic courses or vocational training of some kind. An attempt is made to
segregate Research group from the general population as much as possible, but
given our physical location, this is possible only to a point.
" Two years ago the Warden took a special interest ir; the Women's Research
programme, as it seemed apparent to him that whereas the prerequisites for a good
institutional treatment programme for addicts had been met here, as elsewhere,
actual treatment had only been prepared for, and not really tried. He therefore
initiated a more intensive programme, which was designed to test out certain treatment theories which seemed to merit further investigation of a more systematic
nature. Some of these treatment ideas had been developed out of our own experience in working with addicts; others had been developed elsewhere by people
involved in the treatment of sociopaths and patients suffering from character
disorders. We did not intend to neglect considerations of custody and control, but
we did hope, by trial, adaptation, and constant evaluation, to develop a good treatment programme within these very necessary bounds.
" In developing our approach we tried to keep in mind certain common
features of persons suffering from character disorders who tend to act out then
difficulties in a hostile, aggressive manner. These people have learned to achieve
their various objectives by manipulating others, and addicts, in particular, are past
masters in this art. They also project onto society their own feelings of hostility
and aggression. They can avoid facing their own inadequacies and difficulties by
blaming the outside world. It isn't their fault they come to prison for stealing;
the police pick on them. This process of rationalization is sometimes very complex
and intricate, and requires a lot of untangling before the individual in question can
begin to accept responsibility for his own actions.
" The addict has two more hurdles to jump in learning to face and cope with his
difficulties. First, he has learned that he can solve or at least minimize all of his
difficulties pharmaceutically, simply by taking a fix or a pill.    Secondly, he has
 T 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
around him (both within and outside of the prison) a group of friends and acquaintances who accept and share in his rationalizations, and who also have learned the
effectiveness of a pharmaceutical solution to their problems. Both of these factors
impede any motivation which he might otherwise have to seek treatment and gain
insight into his problem areas.
" With these problems in mind, we set out some basic requirements for participation in the Research Unit programme which we are not, under any circumstances,
prepared to submit to arbitration. Although these requirements may seem unduly
harsh, the group members know they have the choice of either accepting the challenge
and staying strictly within these limits or leaving the Research Unit and returning to
the main building to take their chances. Beyond this we are not willing to compromise.
" Our first requirement is that all group members must take part in group
counselling sessions. Our meetings are held at 2.30 p.m., Monday to Saturday, so
that both the morning and afternoon staff members can be involved. The groups
usually continue until at least 4 o'clock, but there is no set time-limit. A girl may
have individual interviews with a worker from another agency of course, but she must
also take part in group counselling, as this part of our programme takes precedence
over any other. Aside from our belief in the intrinsic value of a group approach to
treatment, we feel that this approach greatly minimizes the possibility of manipulation. So long as the girls come to us individually with their problems and requests,
we are certainly vulnerable to manipulation, but if they present then problems in
front of the group, and to the group, the chances of successfully manipulating a situation are greatly reduced.
"Another requirement about which we are very strict is medication. By the
time a girl comes to the Research Unit she has completed a programme of medical
treatment for drug withdrawal, and we make it very clear when interviewing
prospective members that we do not allow anyone in our group to be on any kind
of medication other than that which would be considered justifiable, on purely
physiological grounds. The taboo list includes aspirin or pain-killers of any kind,
tranquillizers, sedatives, sleeping medication, and even diet pills. We allow aspirin
or 222 tablets if a tooth has been extracted or an ankle sprained, etc., but we make
it clear at the outset that minimal doses will always be given.
" Much to our gratification, we have found that this hard-line attitude has
worked. After a few weeks of struggle, the girls stop barraging us with the usual
string of demands for medication to relieve their various somatic complaints. We
make it clear that all we can do is listen sympathetically and offer moral support, but
we will not assume the guilt and the responsibility which they try to shift onto us in
the process. New arrivals to the Research Unit sometimes go through a testing
period in which they make the usual demands and threats, but they soon learn from
the other group members that this is not a legitimate means of gaining attention in
this setting. They are now almost stoical in their reactions to pain and stress, and
seem grateful for our implied confidence in their ability to cope without relying upon
medication.
"A third limitation placed on the group members concerns their associations
with other addicts and known delinquents. Unless a couple is legally married, no
letter-writing and (or) visiting is allowed between the Men's and Women's Units.
Additionally, however, girls from the Research Unit are not allowed to spend any
money which they receive from outside sources. This restriction serves a double
purpose: it means the girls must rely on then own good performance to receive
higher good-conduct pay rating, and it cuts down on their obligations to old associ-
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1962/63 T 41
ates on the outside. Now that they can no longer spend money or receive parcels
from their old boy friends, they usually drop the contact altogether.
" To help meet some of their real needs for cigarettes and cosmetics money, we
devised a baking-school project. The girls take turns baking pies, bread, meat pies,
etc., and sell their produce to the staff. They must do all their own ordering of
supplies, budgeting, planning, and cooking, and must do a good enough job to satisfy
their customers. They must learn about pricing and economizing if they are to
realize any profits, and must restrain themselves from literally eating up their capital.
Any profits which are made in this fairly extensive business operation are shared
equally among the group members. The project has done a great deal to teach our
girls the real value of money, and has given them a sense of achievement in knowing
they have done their job well. Many have learned to budget their own money for
the first time, and they are proud of being able to assume financial responsibility for
themselves in a socially approved manner.
" On a more strictiy treatment level, we had two knotty problems to solve.
First, we had somehow to break down the traditional trust barrier between inmates
and staff. The relationship between the female staff and the inmates in the Women's
Unit is, on the whole, quite good, but there are still vast areas about which there is
no communication between the two camps. Because the staff members are the
agents of social control in this setting, life becomes a constant game of cat and
mouse, such that only about one-third of the actual social life and social structure of
the inmate group is visible to the staff. We felt that in order to be of any treatment
value to the group members, we had somehow to gain their confidence and trust while
maintaining their respect so that we could be ' let in on ' more of their very important
daily patterns of interaction in a useful way. We felt that the best way to break down
this barrier was to somehow make the girls responsible for their own operation so
that they would not see rule enforcement as a punitive, restrictive function, but as a
necessary part of group living. We had to make them realize that then dishonesty
and social irresponsibility was much more hurtful to themselves than it was to the
institution or the Research Unit staff. They seem to have to experience this on a
meaningful first-hand rather self-centered basis before they can accept it as a valid
orientation to life in general. On a purely practical level it could be seen that by
eating their baking supplies, or by losing customers for selling inferior produce, only
they lost out in the long run. for they were the ones who were out of pocket money.
Our next problem was to help them test out these ideas in terms of their relationship
with one another and with the staff.
" One of our first moves in trying to establish feelings of trust so that the girls
would not try, on principle, to somehow ' beat the system' was to encourage full
group participation in the planning and scheduling of group activities and individual
duties for the week. We may suggest and arbitrate, but the final decision must be
theirs. They must keep their own record of group discussions and decisions reached,
and they must ensure that proceedings within the group be kept confidential to the
Research Unit.
" Next we encouraged them to take increasing responsibility for their own social
control and group behaviour. We made them responsible for getting themselves up
in the morning and for keeping a daily check on the cleanliness of their individual
sleeping cubicles. Good-conduct pay ratings would be made in accordance with how
well they were able to measure up to institutional standards in these respects, but
they had to do their own prodding, pushing, and policing in these matters.
"As you can imagine, the girls objected violently to this innovation. Although
on the one hand they complained about having staff ' constantly on our backs,' the
 T 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
notion that they should perhaps monitor themselves was quite appalling to them.
So long as social control, even of this minor type, was the responsibility of the staff,
non-conformity was considered to be part of the game and a useful way of ' getting
back' at staff if you were annoyed with them. They wanted staff to continue to play
this controlling role so that they would not have to blame each other or, even worse,
blame themselves if they were paid 10 cents a day for a week when they had hoped
to be clever enough to get 50 cents a day. In this way the girls had an opportunity
to test out reality again. They were brought face to face with the extent to which
they could, or could not, expect to exert enough self-discipline to get themselves up
in the morning to go to work, and could not get away with the rationalization that
' it would be different if I were on the outside and knew I had to do things for myself.'
Here was a good place to practise, and we expected them to measure up here before
they would be considered ready to undertake any greater responsibilities, such as
advanced programme activities, gradual release parole, or even full parole.
" We knew that to profitably exploit the therapeutic potential of a delinquent
group, particularly an addict group, we had to make it as difficult as possible for
them to blame authority figures for their feeling of frustration, their anxieties, and
their attitudes. We could not allow them the safety of directing all of the hostility
toward us as authority figures, and of supporting one another in this rationalization
by ganging up against us as a group. We had to make them share in our responsibility for control in the group so that feelings of resentment and hostility would be
directed toward one another also, not just toward the staff. As they began feeling
resentful or hostile toward one another instead of toward the staff, they were obliged
to take a closer look at these feelings and all they implied.
" Our next step in attempting to achieve this goal was to ask the group to actually assign the various good-conduct pay ratings themselves. We established what
our weekly quota of good-conduct pay was in this Unit, and then, given this general
framework, allowed the group to make the actual allocations. We found that we
could pay one person 80 cents a day, two could earn 50 cents a day, and the remainder could be paid 30 cents a day.
" Once again this innovation met with a great upheaval within the group. They
felt very resentful because they did not want to be put into a position in which they
would have to judge and evaluate one another and themselves, and they accused the
staff of shirking their duty and responsibility by giving the group this chore. They
even argued that they could not possibly know who deserved the best ratings because
they were not wearing white uniforms. All of this was to no avail, however; we
were convinced of the merit of the system, and we persevered. We indicated that
we would continue to make notes about how well the individual inmates performed
their work assignments, or how well they participated in planned group activities,
and we would note any rule infractions which had come to our attention, but beyond
this the group members were expected to make the final evaluation for themselves.
"The subsequent pay-ratings meetings went through some very interesting
stages. For a time the ratings were essentially a popularity contest, with the best
liked or most useful member being paid the most, and for a time also only those
inmates whose deviations had been noted by the staff were penalized for their poor
behaviour, and others who were perhaps deviating as much but doing it skilfully
were protected by the group. Our only requirement was that the group discuss why
they were making allocations the way they were, and we would not allow them to
make the pay assignments on an automatic basis. We prodded, questioned, and
commented, and they took the cue from there. Eventually one of the members who
was constantly penalized for her very obvious deviations accused the other group
 r
REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1962/63 T 43
members of being hypocritical and unfair. She did not actually state how the other
group members were cheating, but she certainly insinuated that she expected them
to quit playing her for a sucker. In this session we were able to an extent to break
through the fairly established pattern of inmates automatically protecting one another from the outside. Because of the fact that it was obvious that only they suffered and only they could set things right again, it became pointless to keep up a
barrier of silence between the staff and the group. We tried not to bring in any
external sanctions against the group members for deviations which were mentioned
in the pay-rating session, hoping that the distribution of money alone would provide
sufficient social control in all but the most serious cases, and so far we have not been
greatly disappointed. The nature and reason for various institutional rules was
brought into question by the group often, frequently as a last-ditch effort to rationalize non-conformity by claiming it was a ridiculous restriction in the first place.
By capitalizing on what was happening in the group at the moment, however, we
were able to use a rather dramatic incident to advantage, for this incident affected
the entire group and pointed up the real necessity for some of the very rules which
had been most harshly criticized. We took this opportunity to ask the group members to draw up their own set of rules and expectations for the Research Unit which
would ensure minimum protection and comfort for the group members, and, as we
predicted, we found these rules and expectations did not differ in any significant way
from those which had previously been drawn up by the staff. At the same time the
group arrived at a set of understood but unwritten standards of behaviour which are
expected for the various pay categories. Pay ratings are still difficult for the group,
but over the long-range period they realize that this method of allocation is much
more fair to all concerned than any which could have been devised by the staff alone.
"At the present time, and as a result of two years of experimenting, analysing,
and developing, our group discussions have become tremendously meaningful and
fruitful. The girls are now able, and indeed find it necessary, to express their feelings
about each other, about the staff, and about themselves, and the group insists that
these be true feelings, not a performance. They are beginning to see that the relationships they form in this group are not significantly different from those which
they form on the outside, and that the difficulties they encounter here are a very close
reflection on those they encounter with their friends and with society as a whole.
The one great deficiency in this here-and-now approach is, of course, the absence
of men in the group. Unfortunately we are not so far advanced as to have coeducational prisons (although co-educational mental hospitals seem to be working
very well), but there is a real need for the girls to be able to work through difficulties
in their relationships with men as well. We are fortunate in having some male
members of staff take part in our group counselling sessions, but greater participation by men in the daily activities of the girls would be even more beneficial."
 T 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
CHAPTER VI
HEALTH AND HYGIENE
1. The Senior Medical Officer reports as follows:—
" Medically this has been an eventful year. It marked the opening of the
new prison hospital, situated in the old Young Offenders' Unit, on October 9, 1962.
The adaptation of the building was carried out by the Department of Public Works.
The architect was Mr. Stan Lloyd, and the foreman of works, Mr. Fred Gordon.
We would like to place on record our appreciation of the great co-operation we
received, and the skill with which the reconstruction was carried out. Your achievement has been a small general hospital which does credit to present medical
services.
" We would also like to stress our appreciation of yourself, your superiors in
Victoria, and your subordinate colleagues for your awareness of medical needs in
the way of staffing and equipment. With only a few additions to both of these
aspects, we would be equipped to carry out any medical treatment except that which
could only be supplied by a large general hospital. We are fortunate to have been
allowed a staff of technicians with psychiatric and registered nurses. In order to
accomplish a nursing service of high calibre, we require at least one more registered
nurse, as experience is showing.
" The pressures of overcrowding have made heavy demands on medical services, and it is greatly to the credit of all staff, both in the main units and in the
out-patient and in-patient departments of the prison hospital, that no epidemic or
fatal illness occurred during the year under review. The number of admissions to
Oakalla has been excessive, and frequently more than 60 men have been examined
as admissions by the doctor during his evening duty in addition to those women
admitted to the Women's Building.
"Almost all available space in the men's hospital is in daily use, and we are
also admitting patients from other institutions requiring special medical and surgical
care.
" The overcrowding in the women's quarters has also brought medical problems. The onus on the staff incurred by such large numbers of inmates is almost
overwhelming, and if it were not for the skill which has been exercised in handling
so many disturbed people living in such close quarters, grave episodes could have
occurred.
" We would like to comment medically on the care which has been afforded
to very disturbed inmates by the staff of all units, and more especially on the West-
gate sections, which accommodate, amongst many others, those younger offenders
who have failed in other institutions or have been rejected by classification as
unsuitable for training elsewhere. Whilst time allowed, I had a weekly conference
with the senior staff of Westgate B, and it was evident how much insight, patience,
and individual counselling were employed in the face of behaviour pathology which
might well daunt and defeat less-devoted supervisors.
" Conditions in the old gaol were such that health authorities would have
condemned them as unsuitable for habitation, and indeed this is our opinion and
recommendation. It is hoped that your plans for a special institution for the older
and alcoholic offenders will materialize very shortly.
" We are also in need of a special unit and programme for the treatment of
younger, grossly disturbed male offenders.    There is also a significant number of
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1962/63 T 45
offenders who are so constitutionally inadequate and pathological (perhaps dangerously so) that resources should be available for them to be detained in a special
psychiatric institution or hospital, if necessary, for life. We also would welcome
a clinic of forensic medicine for the treatment of the more responsive sex offender.
We welcomed the initiation of this in two conferences we have been privileged to
attend under the chairmanship of Dr. James Tyhurst, during which the cases of
two men convicted as criminal sexual psychopaths were discussed with a view of
assessing their fitness to return to the community. We await with interest the report
to be submitted by Dr. A. Marcus, a member of Dr. Tyhurst's staff, following his
survey of the psychiatric needs of your probation branch and institutions as regards
psychiatric and ancillary services.
" The admitting area at Oakalla continues to be inadequate and the situation
steadily deteriorates.
" The kitchen area is inadequate for the increasing population, and your plans
for meeting this problem, I know, are far advanced. The achievement of the
kitchen staff, as evidenced by the quality of the food, is well worthy of recording in
the face of almost insuperable difficulties. This has been much appreciated by your
medical staff, and it was when we had a brief experience of food poisoning in the
Westgate units that the difficulties became highlighted.
" Once more we mention the elementary training unit, which still offers nothing
but a negative disciplinary isolation area, and the continued use of the dark cells is,
I feel, to be deplored.
" The health services in the Women's Building have been meeting almost insurmountable problems, but with the unstinted help of staff, visiting gynecologists from
the Provincial health department, and the out-patient and in-patient facilities of the
Vancouver General Hospital, a relatively high standard of physical health has been
maintained.
" There should be a separate women's infirmary unit and facilities for patients
requiring medical isolation, as, for example, those under observation for tuberculosis or with active disease awaiting transfer to TB. hospitals and those with
staphylococcal infection or other communicable diseases.
" The utmost possible use of the somewhat dilapidated older buildings at Twin
Maples Farm has been employed. On one occasion the sanitation failed seriously
owing to a defect in the septic tank, but this was remedied without delay. Medical
conditions have been observed by routine visits of inspection.
" The camps at Chilliwack have also been visited periodically, and medical
services have been supplied by return to Oakalla Prison Farm of those requiring
attention and by emergency visits to Chilliwack General Hospital when necessary.
Numbers there are now sufficient to require the appointment of a part-time physician. It is very necessary that those staff officers with industrial first-aid certificates
should be encouraged and enabled to renew them when their present certificates
have expired. It is hoped that an ambulance will be in use before long and a
central unit in one of the camps with qualified staff in attendance. We have been
very fortunate in the rare incidence of serious accidents. This is greatly to the credit
of all staff working in the camps, especially considering that men of advanced age
and low medical category are amongst the population there.
" I have visited the correctional institution at Haney almost weekly, and have
been pleased to observe the high standard of medical services there in spite of the
absence of a full-time physician. Dr. A. Trudel has continued to employ what
time he can allot in the most efficient manner.
 T 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" I have also visited the camps at Pine Ridge and Gold Creek as often as possible, and have made recommendations concerning the urgent need for renovations
to the kitchen at Gold Creek and for replacement of the ablution hut there.
" I have closely observed and examined some of the more sociopathic and
delinquent young individuals classified for the Haney Correctional Institution, and
have noted a change of policy since the criteria of suitability for this institution was
formulated. It is my opinion that although techniques have been adapted to control
them at Haney Correctional Institution, they are disruptive to the high calibre of
training programme for which the Institution was designed.
" I have greatly appreciated the opportunity to take part in the senior officers'
training classes at Haney Correctional Institution.
"Dental services have been most conscientiously carried out by Dr. Walter
Johnson at Oakalla Prison Farm and Haney Correctional Institution. The most
significant progress in this direction has been that of the appointment of a full-time
dental technician at Haney Correctional Institution for the making of dentures. Such
a service is required at Oakalla Prison Farm. There are many inmates there who
are indigent, and lack of dentures seriously handicaps their health and rehabilitation.
"As far as research is concerned, we are actively engaged in the hospital at
Oakalla Prison Farm with a project associated with the content and volume of
human blood under the direction of Dr. K. A. Evelyn, Director of the Strong
Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia. Dr. Evelyn and
his staff are always welcome in our hospital, and contribute a valued link between
prison medical services and higher branches of learning in medical science.
" In conclusion, I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation of the
services rendered by Dr. Ulrich Zimmerman and Mr. John MacLeod, Senior Hospital Officer, Oakalla Prison Farm; Mr. Leo Boechler, Senior Hospital Officer at
Haney Correctional Institution; Mrs. I. Passey, Supervising Nurse at Oakalla Prison
Farm; and all their staff for the very great help and co-operation which they have
exercised, not only enabling us to keep pace with standard medical requirements,
but, we hope, in progressing beyond these."
2.  The Warden of Prince George Gaol reports as follows:—
" Quarterly medical inspections of the institution were carried out by the gaol
physician, who also visited the institution weekly to examine newly admitted inmates
and deal with the sick parade. Population growth has placed an increased work
load on the physician and hospital and reception officer. Arrangements made with
the local physicians last year to provide for medical services on a sessional basis
may soon have to be revised. When the present plan was agreed upon, our weekly
clinical list, including new admissions, averaged approximately 24 inmates.
" Housekeeping standards remained high. Living Unit inspections were carried out twice daily. Inspections of the entire institution were carried out by the
Warden, and special Living Unit inspections were made by an executive officer each
Saturday morning.
" Local Social Welfare Branch officials continued to give full co-operation and
assistance with inmate problems referred by the administration.
" Nine criminal legal-aid applications were referred to the Cariboo Bar Association, which provided invaluable assistance in several worthy cases. One young
man was aided in gaining acquittal of a manslaughter charge as a result of this fine
service.
" Under the supervision of the training officer, an exhibit of inmates' handicrafts was again shown at the Prince George and District Fall Fair in September.
Many favourable public comments were received by officers attending the exhibit.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1962/63
T 47
Some handicrafts were sold to the public, realizing the amount of $321 for the
Inmates' Welfare Fund. This money was expended for the two additional television
sets. Each of the larger units housing convicted inmates who are enrolled in programme are now provided with television."
3. The Warden of Kamloops Provincial Gaol reports as follows:—
" The general health of the inmate population was satisfactory, though more
cases of serious illnesses were encountered in the past year than in any one previous
year. Six males and two females required hospitalization. The times varied from
two or three days till about a month in the longest case; besides these cases, the
usual minor infections and diseases were encountered. If these were serious enough
to warrant medical attention, doctors from the Burris Clinic, who serve as gaol
physicians, treated them, along with accidents that required medical attention. The
normal colds, minor ailments and accidents were handled by the gaol staff at Kamloops and Clearwater Camp. At Clearwater Camp, Guard-Medical Orderly T.
Thompson, a qualified first-aid man, supervised treatment and first aid to all injuries
and minor ailments. If the cases were serious, the inmate was transferred to Kamloops for treatment by gaol physicians."
 T 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
CHAPTER VII
PAROLE SUPERVISION AND AFTER-CARE
GENERAL
1. Staff.—As in the past, we continued to provide one Parole Officer to the
British Columbia Parole Board as its secretary.
During the year those young-adult offenders serving definite-indeterminate
sentences and held at Oakalla Prison Farm were transferred to the Haney Correctional Institution. Only those with medical or psychiatric disabilities were retained
at Oakalla Prison Farm. Four Parole Officers are now carrying out follow-up duties
from the Haney Correctional Institution and one from Oakalla Prison Farm.
The follow-up officer at the Male Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit was on leave
of absence this year, and no replacement was made for him at that Unit. The Female
Unit continued to have a part-time follow-up officer to assist in discharge plans.
2. British Columbia Borstal Association.—During the year this association
supervised 18 cases discharged from New Haven along with 29 parolees released
prior to this year whose paroles extended into 1963. This made a total of 47 supervised by the Borstal Association.
3. After-care Associations.—As has been the case in past years, the John
Howard Society, Salvation Army, Alcoholism Foundation, Narcotic Addiction
Foundation, Legion of Mary, and many other volunteer groups contributed much in
the way of assistance to discharged inmates. The National Employment Service
continued to interview selected inmates at aU institutions with a view to placing them
in employment as soon as possible after release. We are indeed most grateful for
the assistance provided by these groups and the National Employment Service.
BRITISH COLUMBIA PAROLE SERVICE
4. Parole Board Members.—Early in the year Mr. E. G. B. Stevens resigned
as Vice-Chairman of the Parole Board. In spite of the short time that Mr. Stevens
served on the Board, he made a definite contribution. Messrs. Eric Kelly, Horace
Keetch, and Oscar Orr were appointed during the year, bringing the Board to full
strength.
5. Released on Parole.—The Board held 69 meetings during the year at the
various institutions. It dealt with 331 cases, with an additional 88 cases being
brought up for review. Of this total, the Board released on parole 324 cases—73
from Oakalla Prison Farm, 30 from New Haven, and 221 from the Haney Correctional Institution.
6. Revocations.—Of the 324 cases released on parole, 120 or 37 per cent had
their parole revoked. Of this total, 78 or 24 per cent were due to further criminal
offences, and 42 or 13 per cent were revoked on the recommendation of their Parole
Officer. Thus, from the standpoint of the protection of society, in the sense of no
further criminal offences, parole was successful in 76 per cent of the cases released.
As has been pointed out in the past, the population of inmates sentenced to a
definite plus indeterminate term are generally a young and unpredictable group.
They present a problem in terms of accurate selection for parole. In view of this, it
is expected that a certain percentage will be revoked while on parole.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1962/63
T 49
Comparative Statement of Releases on Parole and Revocations,
British Columbia Parole Board, 1960, 1961, and 1962
Westgate, Oakalla
Prison Farm
New Haven
Haney Correctional
Institution
Totals
1960
1961
1962
1960 1  1961
1
1962
1960
1961
1962
1960
1961
1962
Released on parole-
Revocations	
Percentage of revocations    	
76
53
70
73
29
40
73
35
49
35
11
31
25
2
12.5
30
9
30
242
92
38
282
88
31
221
76
34
353
156
44
380
119
31
324
120
37
Number of Times Released on Parole, 1962
1st Time
2nd Time
3rd Time
4th Time
Total
266
98
37
48
15
31
8
6
75
2
1
50
324
120
37
7. Day Parole.—Four day paroles were granted by the Board—three to cases
at New Haven and one to a trainee at the Haney Correctional Institution. The
four trainees went out to seek employment in the community during the day, returning to the institution at night. All were successful in their endeavours and were
eventually released on full parole.
8. Release Procedures.—From time to time parole procedures, while generally
workable, have produced problems with contingent complications. For example,
the trainee approved for release when suitable employment is found occasionally
is unable to find employment and is therefore detained in custody. Also, many
inmates have looked upon the end of their definite sentence as the time when they
should be released on parole. As a result, they have been concerned with the time
served, rather than developing in terms of readiness to live in the community.
Those released in this frame of mind often fail. To overcome these problems, a
new release procedure was established, under which trainees whose definite time
expires between the 16th day of one month and the 15th day of the next month
will be considered for parole during the first month. If approved, they are then
given pre-release training during the second month in a camp setting with a programme designed to prepare them for the community. Following this compulsory
one-month pre-release training, they then become eligible for release any time
during the next month when a satisfactory release plan has been established. However, release must be accomplished on the last week of this latter month whether
or not a satisfactory release plan has been arranged. This then avoids trainees
being held in an institution simply because they are unable to find employment.
9. Average Length of Time Served.—It is interesting to note that since 1959
the average length of the institutional training period for definite-indeterminate
cases has increased from 8 months to nearly 12 months. This, it is felt, is a reflection not only of the increased demands made by the Parole Board before granting
parole, but of the increased severity of the problems presented by the young offender
committed to an institution.
This figure is also of concern to us in terms of the length of sentence handed
down. In order to provide the trainee with an adequate period of training, a minimum of one year in the institution and a year on parole is desirable.
 T 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
NATIONAL PAROLE BOARD
10. Inmates serving a straight definite sentence have continued to apply to the
National Parole Board for consideration for release. Of all those who applied,
214 were released on parole, many being placed under the supervision of our
Probation Officers. Of that number, only 9 paroles were revoked during the year,
which is an extremely high success rate. However, this must be viewed in the
light of the much higher age range of this group and the greater discrimination
shown in selection.
11. Day Parole.—The National Parole Board granted 16 day paroles during
the year—3 to New Haven, 1 to the Haney Correctional Institution, 1 to a male
inmate at Oakalla Prison Farm, and the remaining 11 to female inmates in the
Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit of the Women's Gaol. All the male cases were
successful in completing their day parole. Of the 11 female addicts released under
the provisions of this day parole, 2 were revoked. In view of the fact that these
females were all drug addicts, this is evidence that day parole can be used to good
effect with this type of prisoner.
GROUP COUNSELLING
12. The John Howard Society in Prince George has, with the co-operation of
the Warden of the gaol and the encouragement of the Magistrate, developed aftercare group counselling sessions in that city. A group of discharged prisoners meet
once a week with a representative of the John Howard Society and the Probation
Officer at a meeting-place in the city. They are joined by one or two inmates who
are taken under escort from the gaol and carry on a group counselling session
similar to that which they experienced while serving then sentences. This is the
first instance of the use of group counselling on a after-care basis, and developments
to date have been most encouraging.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1962/63 T 51
CHAPTER VIII
BRITISH COLUMBIA PROBATION SERVICE
GENERAL
1. Probation Cases.—During the year 1,701 new cases were placed on probation, an increase over the previous year of 210. During the year 37.7 per cent
of the new probation cases came from Magistrates and other Adult Courts. By
contrast, in 1957 this percentage was 25.7. It is believed this increase in Adult
Court referrals can be attributed to the slowly evolving philosophy that probation
is a method of treatment which can help people rather than just an alternative to
incarceration.
2. Pre-sentence Reports.—A substantial increase in the number of presentence reports prepared for the Courts in cases where some disposition other than
probation was made is indicated in the appended statistics. The actual increase
over the previous year amounted to 126, for a total of 2,115 during the year under
review. It will be noted the number of pre-sentence reports far exceeds the number of new probation cases. As pointed out in previous Reports, it is believed
there is an increasing desire on the part of Magistrates and Judges to ascertain all
relevant information about an offender before sentence is imposed, so that the
sentence, when imposed, may protect society and at the same time further the
rehabilitation of the offender.
3. Case Loads.—As at March 31, 1963, there were 1,630 individuals under
probation supervision. With 39 officers giving actual supervision, the average
case load was 41.8 per officer. Bearing in mind the number of pre-sentence reports
prepared—an average of 54 per officer—as well as miscellaneous referrals and
parole supervision cases, each officer of the Service was kept exceedingly busy
during the year.
4. Field Offices.—Two new field offices were opened during the year—one at
Duncan and the other at Sechelt. The new office at Duncan has taken some of the
load from the Nanaimo office, from which this area was previously served. The
office at Sechelt provides services to the Courts on the Sechelt Peninsula, which
were previously without probation services.
5. Juveniles.—Approximately 62 per cent of the 1,701 new probation cases
dealt with were juveniles appearing in Juvenile Courts. During the year also,
there were some 80 voluntary cases, mainly juveniles refererd to Probation Officers
by police, parents, and school-teachers concerned about the behaviour of these
children and fearful that if their mode of behaviour continued they might be formally brought before a Juvenile Court. Adequate treatment and training for
juveniles is imperative if we are to stop the flow at a later date into our adult institutions. More diversified facilities are necessary for them, for in too many instances
the Juvenile Court Judge must choose between care in the child's own home or
committal to an industrial school.
Attention is drawn to the total of 182 cases transferred from Juvenile Court
to Magistrate's Court under section 9 of the Juvenile Delinquents Act. Probation
Officers stated in many cases that the transfers to Adult Court were initiated because of the overcrowded industrial schools, feeling they would have a better training opportunity in a young-adult offender institution.
 T 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
NEW DEVELOPMENTS
6. Staff Recruitment.—-During the early part of the year the recruitment of
new staff became imperative. A very large number of potential candidates for
appointment were interviewed and screened. A basic training course was started
on the 18th day of June, 1962, for four new staff members. Shortly after the
inception of the course a fifth person was added at the request of a Municipal
Family and Juvenile Court.
7. Regional Development.—Early in the year it became apparent that more
effective contact with Probation Officers in field offices could be maintained if the
Province were divided into regions with a Grade 3 Probation Officer located in each
region. The Okanagan and Kootenay areas logically formed a region, and our
Grade 3 officer, Mr. John Wiebe, worked out of our Penticton office. Other regions
established were Vancouver Island, Greater Vancouver, the Fraser Valley, and the
northern part of the Province. On May 15th Mr. A. A. Byman was promoted to
Grade 3 Probation Officer for the Greater Vancouver region, and on March 1st
Mr. A. E. Jones was similarly promoted to give special attention to the Vancouver
Island region. Quarterly meetings are held with the Grade 3 Probation Officers
from each region, and these meetings assist head office to keep abreast with developments and needs in the individual regions.
8. School of Social Work Field Placement Unit.—In September Mr. D. Guest
resigned from the staff to accept an appointment with the School of Social Work,
University of British Columbia, as student field-work supervisor for students doing
their field work in a correctional setting. Arrangements were made between the
School of Social Work and the Director of Corrections whereby office facilities were
made available at New Haven, and with the co-operation of the Probation Officer
for Burnaby the students took over certain cases referred from the Burnaby Courts.
In this setting, under the direct and intensive supervision of Mr. Guest, who was
given a special appointment as a Probation Officer, the School of Social Work students were able to gain first-hand knowledge of the responsibilities of a Probation
Officer's job while at the same time putting into practice the theoretical concepts
gained in their formal lecture sessions. This programme will continue until April,
1963.
9. Group Counselling with Probationers.—In February, 1963, a pilot experiment in group counselling for probationers was initiated in both the Vancouver and
North Vancouver offices. The Vancouver group, consisting of about 10 probationers under the leadership of Mr. J. M. Armstrong, began meeting one evening per
week. It was decided that attendance at the group counselling sessions should be
compulsory, and a small number were returned to the Courts as unsatisfactory probationers because of non-attendance at the sessions. During the beginning sessions
the group was given an explanation of what should be achieved at the meetings.
Once the group meetings were under way, the leader adopted a non-directive approach, leaving responsibility to the group for the conduct of the meeting.
The participants in the North Vancouver group, under the leadership of Mr.
Thorvaldson, were generally younger than the Vancouver group, and it has taken
a longer time for this group to settle down. Group meetings were unavoidably
interrupted shortly after the group started because of the illness of Mr. Thorvaldson.
A weekly " post-mortem " session, under the chairmanship of Dr. Matheson,
has been held regularly to discuss the dynamics displayed in each session and to
help the group leaders to better understand their role and find solutions to new
problems as they appear.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1962/63
T 53
It is too soon to evaluate objectively this pilot experiment, but evidence of
tension and crisis can be noted in the participants. If proved to be effective, this
technique may provide a means whereby some Probation Officers can handle larger
case loads efficiently.
EVALUATION STUDY OF PROBATION CASES
10. During the year an evaluation study of probation cases was carried out.
The study covered the period from April 1, 1956, to March 31, 1962. During this
six-year period 8,800 persons were placed on probation. These individuals were
juveniles and adults, males and females.
From this population an unstratified sample of 880 cases was selected, which
gave results significant to the 5-per-cent level.
The follow-up study showed that of the sample population 88.6 per cent successfully completed then period of probation and 82 per cent were not sentenced
to an institution in British Columbia during the six-year follow-up period.
PROBATION SERVICE FIELD OFFICES
Vancouver:
Room 205, 1075 Melville Street, Vancouver 5, B.C.
Abbotsford:
P.O.  Box  444,  Courthouse,  Abbotsford,
B.C.
Burnaby:
7272 Kingsway, Burnaby 1, B.C.
Chilliwack:
Room 75, Courthouse, 77 College Street,
Chilliwack, B.C.
Courtenay:
P.O. Box  1017, Courthouse, Courtenay,
B.C.
Cloverdale:
The Family and Children's Court, Clover-
dale, B.C.
Cranbrook:
P.O.   Box   699,   Courthouse,   Cranbrook,
B.C.
Dawson Creek:
10300b—10th Street, Dawson Creek, B.C.
Duncan:
261 Canada Avenue, Duncan, B.C.
Haney:
Room 4, 22336 Lougheed Highway, Mide
Block, Haney, B.C.
Kamloops:
Room 211, 523 Columbia Street, Kamloops, B.C.
Kelowna:
350 Doyle Avenue, Kelowna, B.C.
Nanaimo:
Room 105, Courthouse, Nanaimo, B.C.
Nelson:
Room 2, Courthouse, Nelson, B.C.
New Westminster:
Room 618,  713  Columbia  Street,  New
Westminster, B.C.
North Vancouver:
8 Charles Block,  117  East  15th Street,
North Vancouver, B.C.
Penticton:
Room 4, 284 Main Street, Penticton, B.C.
Port Alberni:
400 Argyle Street, Port Alberni, B.C.
Prince George:
Courthouse, Prince George, B.C.
Prince Rupert:
Room  209,   Courthouse,   Prince  Rupert,
B.C.
Sechelt:
Box 387, Sechelt, B.C.
Trail:
815 Victoria Street, Trail, B.C.
Vernon:
Courthouse, Vernon, B.C.
Victoria:
Room 104, Law Courts Building, Victoria,
B.C.
The Family and Children's Court,   1947
Cook Street, Victoria, B.C.
Williams Lake:
Speers Building, 72 Second Avenue, Williams Lake, B.C.
 T 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL PROBATION SERVICE STATISTICS
Year
New
Probation
Cases
New
Follow-up
Cases
Presentence
Reports
Total
Cases
Miscellaneous
1942/43..
1945/46..
1948/49..
1951/52..
1954/55..
1957/58-
1959/60..
1960/61..
1961/62-
1962/63..
Totals since inception
63
105
276
591
831
1,431
1,593
1,745
1,491
1,701
15,841
24
50
36
33
151
395
489
448
491
408
3,881
49
84
262
472
892
1,602
1,896
2,255
1,989
2,115
17,825
136
239
574
1,096
1,874
3,428
3,978
4,448
3,971
4,224
37,547
74
238
80
95
93
94
81
1,674
New Probation Cases
Year
Under
20 Years
20-25
Years
Over
25 Years
Probationers
Married       Single
Total
1951/52—.
1954/55	
1957/58.	
1959/60...
1960/61	
1961/62	
1962/63-
496
710
1,193
1,302
1,371
1,152
1,323
49
65
124
131
178
158
174
46
56
114
160
196
181
204
40
58
120
168
194
177
219
551
773
1,311
1,425
1,551
1,314
1,482
591
831
1,431
1,593
1,745
1,491
1,701
New Follow-up Cases
Year
Under
20 Years
20-25
Years
Over
25 Years
Follow-up Cases
Married
Single
Total
1951/52 - .
22
107
234
267
247
310
245
11
41
159
206
195
167
150
3
2
16
6
14
13
3
8
14
26
17
22
35
30
33
1954/55 -	
1957/58                                                       	
143              151
381              395
1959/60	
463      !       489
1960/61  	
1961/62                                                       	
431              448
469              491
1962/63 ,"   	
373
408
1962/63:  Number transferred from Juvenile Court to Magistrate's Court under section 9 of Juvenile Delinquents Act, 188.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1962/63
T 55
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 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1962/63 T 57
2. Accommodation and Population of Correctional Institutions
Accommodation
Establishment
Cells
Other
Total
Men
Women
Men
Women
Men
Women
Oakalla Prison Farm—
740
100
16
94
1113
218
1180
M
304
130
40
29
60
3
16
10
4
958
180
11
404
130
40
45
60
97
Women's Gaol  -	
113
16
N.D T. units                                	
10
Haney Correctional Institution—
Kamloops—
4
Population
Establishment
Daily Average
Population
Greatest
Number
Least
Number
Men
Women
Men
Women
Men
Women
pakalla Prison Farm—
1,087
124
1,259
250
10
409
14H
42
56
69
126
159
20
13
4
946
150
7
339
101
33
30
49
85
84
190    j          9
9              8
374    |
1112    ]
37.8    |      	
I
45.2    j       2.1
58.8    |
107.2
5
N.D.T. units  	
Haney Correctional Institution-—
5
Kamloops—■
Forestry Camp  __ - 	
3. Sex
1961/62
1962/63
Increase or
Decrease
13,146
1 mi*
13,559
1 _7«5
+413
+213
Totals              	
14,218
14,844
+626
4. Educational Status
Illiterate	
Elementary...
High school-
College or university-
Totals	
808
8,844
4,374
192
865
I 9,159        !
4,635        I
185
+57
+ 315
+2«1
—T
14,218
14,844
I
+626
 T 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA
5. Nationality (Place of Birth)
1961/62
1962/63
Increase or
Decrease
British-
12,299
368
364
12,984
432
369
+685
+64
+5
13,031
13,785
+754
Foreign—
246
867
51
23
216
810
24
9
30
—57
27
14
Totals                          	
1,187
1,059
— 128
14,218
14,844
+ 626     :
■
6. Racial
White                            ....
11,332
93
2,706
61
26
11,539
113
3,124
55
13
+207
+20
+418
—6
— 13
Mongolian
Others                                                                    ..
14,218
14,844
+626
7. Civil State
Single	
Married	
Widowed -
Separated-
Divorced—.
Totals.
8,858
2,175
441
2,127
617
14,218
9,081
2,515
475
2,155
618
14,844
+223
+340
+34
+28
+ 1
+626
8. Ages
18 years and under..
19-21 years	
21-25
26-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
Over 60 years	
Totals _
592
1,246
1,231
1,846
3,603
3,115
1,825
760
14,218
629
1,191
1,433
1,884
3,783
3,135
1,931
858
14,844
+37
-55
+202
+38
+ 180
+20
+ 106
+98
+626
9. Habits as to Use of Alcohol
Abstainers	
Temperate	
Intemperate	
Totals..
579
2,776
10,863
14,218
578
2,608
11,658
14,844
— 1
— 168
+795
+626
10. Habits as to Use of Narcotics
13,373
85
760
13,743
120
981
+ 370
+35
4-221
Totals                - - 	
14,218
14,844
+626
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1962/63
11. Creeds (on Admission)
T 59
1961/62
1962/63
Increase or
Decrease
6,860
2,765
1,073
1,472
447
720
86
95
111
21
12
168
36
352
7,080
2,997
1,157
1,578
391
704
73
61
127
20
16
182
33
425
+220
+232
+84
+ 106
—56
— 16
Greek Catholic	
— 13
—34
Doukhobor    _
+ 16
— 1
RiirMh ist
+4
Others
+ 14
—3
+73
Totals
14,218
14,844
+626
12. Duration of Sentence
Under 1 month  „  	
8,234
1,486
942
788
664
289
142
323
254
64
4
299
26
470
33
195
1
4
8,320
1,746
1,081
959
684
213
115
377
421
18
2
188
31
381
21
287
+86
+260
2 months and under 3 months    	
+ 139
+ 171
+20
—76
—27
+54
+ 167
—46
—2
Probation         	
— 111
+5
—89
— 12
+92
— 1
Others	
	
—4
Totals                                  	
14,218
14,844
+626
13. Previous Convictions
3,706
1,814
1,204
817
591
433
363
394
323
262
275
223
221
187
180
176
147
133
124
151
248
614
556
342
264
470
3,963
1,790
1,162
786
617
558
464
376
361
302
291
246
217
180
218
178
154
157
132
99
189
814
547
339
184
520
+257
1         .                  	
—24
2                      .	
—42
3          	
4                         _	
—31
+26
5              	
+ 125
6 -    .	
+ 101
7	
— 18
8	
+38
9 	
+40
10                       	
+16
11        	
+23
12.   -               	
—4
13                          	
—7
14	
+ 38
15   	
16  	
+2
+7
17     	
+24
18 _ -    -
19
+8
—52
20     	
—59
21-30                          	
31-40  	
+200
—9
41-50 .- _                           	
— 3
51-60.         •     	
—80
Over 60  - 	
+50
Totals  	
14,218
14,844
+626
 T 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
14. Offences for Which Prisoners Were Committed and Sentenced during the Year
Committed
Male      Female      Total
Sentenced
Male      Female      Total
(a) Crimes against the Person
Abduction  _ 	
Abortion s	
Assault, common	
Assault, felonious  	
Attempted suicide   	
Bodily harm  _ 	
Shooting with intent  	
Manslaughter... _   	
Murder 	
Carnal knowledge	
Rape and assault with intent to rape	
Criminal negligence	
Seduction	
Totals  	
(6) Crimes against Property
Arson and incendiarism 	
Breaking and entering 	
Robbery  	
Forgery	
Fraud  __■-	
False pretences	
Conspiracy 	
Possessing housebreaking instruments —
Uttering	
Taking auto without owner's consent 	
Receiving stolen goods 	
Trespass	
Mischief (damage property)— — -
Theft-
Over $50 .	
Under $50  	
By conversion  .	
Totals	
(c)  Crimes against Public Morals and Decency
Bigamy  - 	
Indecent assault 	
Indecent exposure  — —
Gross indecency	
Incest       	
Keeper of a bawdy-house-
Juvenile delinquency	
Perjury  	
Prostitution	
Buggery-
Preventive detention..
Totals _.
(d)  Crimes against Public Order and Peace
Breaches of Government Liquor Act	
Breaches of Excise Act-
Breaches of Narcotic and Drug Act	
Breaches of by-laws (not including B.L.C.A.)..
Breaches of Motor-vehicle Act ,	
Possessing offensive weapon  	
Breach of recognizance.—
Escaping-
Failing to stop at scene of accident-
Impaired driving	
Obstructing an officer-
Selling or giving liquor to Indians  (not including
B.C.L.A.) .	
Unlawful shooting—	
Vagrancy-
Causing disturbance-
Totals	
(e) Other Offences Not Enumerated Above
Other offenders	
2
204
151
2
40
4
9
31
5
21
7
476
50
752
111
116
84
297
55
13
6
28
327
80
28
486
860
3
3,296
3
30
7
2
86
152
6,743
1
156
95
417
38
9
13
11
665
41
290
3
430
205
9,117
522
Grand totals of (a), (b), (c), (rf), and (e)
13,563
2
212
151
2
49
4
9
35
5
21
7
6
4
229
165
4
38
5
9
21 I
4 I
13 I
10 i
1 I
21 I
497
509 I
12 j
23
7
13
14
5
16
33
60
73
759
124
130
89
313
55
13
8
29
332
83
36
519
920
3
190 | 3,486
11
3
1
32
3
30
19
8
7
2
89
1
32
6
2
199
761
29
91
1
9
4
5
6
18
2
17
19
25
7,504
30
247
96
426
42
14
19
11
683
43
307
3
449
230
987
10,104
36
558
I
4,507
6,797
4
193
202
699
50
9
17
27
691
49
291
12
434
238
9,713
674
53
976 I
207 |
259
137
605
77 I
43 i
10
36
372
84
47
587
1,007
7
202
15
3
9
7
3
10
138
758
29
64
1
9
2
5
4
18
17
14
25
6
4
233
165
4.
46
. 5
9
21
4
13
10
1
521
68
979
216
266
140
615
77
43
11
37
377
87
53
25 t  612
50 | 1,057
-  1 t .7-
4,645
3
3
42
42
18
ii
29
7
7
13
13
1
1
110
3
113
2
2
27
27
4
4
2
2
41 I
243
7,555
33
257
203
708
52
14
21
27
709
49
308
12
448
261
946 | 10,659
31
705
1,281 I 14,844
15,605 ] 1,168 | 16,773
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1962/63
15. Employment of Prisoners—Daily Average Population
T 61
Haney
Oakalla Prison Farm
Correctional
Kami
raps
Institution
New
Haven
Prince
George
Main
Prison
Women's
Prison
Camps
Drug
Huts
Main
Inst.
Camps
Main
Bldg.
Camp
1. Manufacturing	
91
1
36
3
1
2
10
3. Vocational training...
24
17
11
139
20
38
—
4. Mechanical service..
18
	
	
8
5
2
5. Farming	
44
7
	
—
9
14
6. Forestry	
	
163
—
39
4
18
17
7. Domestic services—
Sewing and mend
ing-	
31
1
2
2
Cleaners	
111
2
19
6
	
3
2
Labourers	
154
	
	
93
23
....
8
23
21
Gardeners 	
15
	
	
	
3
Culinary-workers...
51
8
1
1
42
12
4
7
13
Clerks	
9
	
	
	
14
	
—
:_.-■  ■
Hospital orderlies
3
	
	
	
	
—
4
Stokers	
5
	
	
	
	
	
	
4
Laundry-workers..
44
11
 .
1
15
—
—
1
2
11
31
39
15   :
5
2
2
14
456
18
15
1
1
1
20
10. Outside employment
	
	
	
	
	
	
—
—
—
11
—
—
14
—
16. Number of Officers and Employees on March 31,
1963
Oakalla Prison Farm
Haney
Correctional
Institution
New
Haven
Kamloops
Prince
George
Main
Prison
Women's
Prison
Camps
Drug
Huts
Main
Inst.
Camps
Main
Bldg.
Camp
Wardens 	
1
1
1
4
7
11
....
77
3
2
1
5
1
"i
48
1
4
-     1
—
1
1
1
1
6
15
39
71
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
10
10
1
1
1
3
5
1
1
1
1
1
2
12
1
12
1
1
Chief Matron	
Custodial
1
Assistant   Deputy   War-
Senior Correctional Offi-
5
Senior Prison Guards
Senior Matrons 	
Matrons 	
20
5
Training
Assistant   Deputy   War-
1
Chaplains  	
Classification Officer
Supervisor of Academic
2
Supervisor of Social Ed-
Supervisor of Vocation-
Arts and Crafts Instructors	
 T 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
16. Number of Officers and Employees on March 31, 1963—Continued
Oakalla Prison Farm
Main
Prison
Women's
Prison
Camps
Drug
Huts
Haney
Correctional
Institution
Main
Inst.
Camps
New
Haven
Kamloops
Main
Bldg.
Prince
I George
Camp
Training—Continued
-Instructors, Academic	
Instructors, Vocational-
Social Workers —
Rehabilitation Officers...
Librarians 	
Counsellors  —
Programme Officers	
Tradesmen — —
Guards  - —
Supervisors 	
Matrons —
Guards —	
Clerk—  	
Consultant, Recreational
Maintenance
Business   Managers-Bursars
Foremen of Works	
Chief Engineers— 	
Assistant    Chief    Engineers
Chief Stewards 	
Dietician  	
Assistant Chief Stewards
Chief, Mechanical Maintenance  	
Foreman of Plate-shop
Foremen Electricians	
Laundry Managers —„
Accountants 	
Clerks— -	
Storekeepers 	
Tool Control Officers	
Engineers  -
Tradesmen .
Senior Prison Guards
Guards.
Stenographers 	
Carpenter Foremen-
Overseers..
Mechanics, Heavy Duty-
Stores Driver -
P.B.X. Operators 	
Grounds Officer	
Medical
Doctor —   -
Dentist  - —
Psychologists - —
Senior   Prison   Hospital
Officers .'- 	
Technicians  	
Hospital Officers _
Psychiatrist 	
Nurses— —
General Hospital
Guards  	
Doukhobor Guards   	
Holiday relief —	
Trailer Camp Guards	
Gymnasium Dormitory
Guards	
17
32
10
5
2
43
2
5
9
3
17
5
1
1
2
1
1
3
12
12
6
28
12
4
4
1
2
2
2
2
1
31
2
2
—
~2
2
15
1
8
--
1
--
	
3
—
2
1
1
—
—
—
—
1
1
	
—
1
1
1
—
1
1
12
~
	
	
6
—
—
2
10
.—
9
	
	
1
—
—
2
4
1
—
1
1
—
—
2
	
	
1
1
1
__
1
6
I
—
22
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1962/63
T 63
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360-164-3048

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