Notes on Metal Mines.....
Kitsumkalum Lake... .
Upper Fraser River
Lac la Hache
Meadow Creek .
Tulameen . .
Similkameen River. ...
56 2 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1959
Notes on Metal Mines—Continued page
Fairview Camp 56
Camp McKinney 56
North Kootenay Lake 64
Woodbury Creek 67
Paddy Peak 67
Retallack-Three Forks 67
Slocan Lake 69
North Lardeau 70
South Lardeau 71
Windermere . 74
Big Bend of Columbia River 90
McCulloch Creek 105
Manning Park 119
Skagit River 122
North Vancouver 127
Howe Sound 127
Lang Bay 127
Malaspina Inlet 130
Texada Island 130
Lasqueti Island 131
Menzies Bay 131
Vancouver Island 132
Reports on Geological, Geophysical, and Geochemical Work 142 GENERAL REVIEW
The average price of copper in Canadian funds for 1959 was substantially
better than the 1958 price. The average Canadian prices for silver and zinc were
fractionally up and those for gold and lead were fractionally down. The prices
were not aided by the fact that the average discount on United States funds was
4.09 per cent, the second highest in recent history. The United States price for
copper showed a variation in the year between a low of 26 cents per pound in July
and a high of 31.581 at the end of the year. The average United States price was
28.891 cents per pound, an increase of 4.769 cents above 1958. The average
New York price for lead was just below that of 1958, a new post-war record low.
The average East St. Louis price for zinc was more than 1 cent per pound better
than in 1958.
Gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc produced at British Columbia lode mines in
1959 had a value of $93,442,599. Miscellaneous metals, including iron ore, nickel,
tin, and minor metals recovered at the Trail smelter, had a value of $11,424,134.
The total quantity of ore mined at all lode mines amounted to 6,990,985 tons and
came from sixty mines, of which forty-four produced 100 tons or more. The average
number employed in the lode-mining industry in 1959, including mines, concentrators, and smelters, was 7,324.
In 1959, twenty-six mills were operated, fourteen throughout the year and four
on a temporary or intermittent basis. One major mill closed, three reopened, and
four operated for the first time. Of the intermittent operations, mills at Ainsworth
and Sandon accepted custom ore. The Toric mill was shut down when the silver-
bearing orebodies were exhausted after ten and a half years of operation. The new
mills included a small plant on the Golconda molybdenum-copper property,
a 1,000-tons-per-day mill at Phoenix, and two new iron-ore concentrators on
Vancouver Island. Britannia, Pride of Emory (Giant Nickel), and Mother Lode
(Woodgreen) mills reopened after various degrees of reorganization.
The Trail smelter recorded custom receipts of 3,871 tons of ore from twenty-
three properties, 3,026 tons of which obtained a silica bonus in excess of the
treatment charge. The smelter also recorded custom receipts of 3,944 tons of lead
concentrates and 16,417 tons of zinc concentrates. Totals of approximately 35,296
tons of lead concentrates and approximately 56,103 tons of zinc concentrates were
shipped out of the country for smelting. Copper concentrates were shipped to the
Tacoma smelter, with the exception of the output from Cowichan Copper and the
copper concentrates recovered by Texada Mines Ltd., which went to Japan. Nickel
concentrates went to the Fort Saskatchewan refinery. All iron-ore concentrates,
amounting to 849,248 tons, went to Japan.
The production of gold was little different from that in 1958, being slightly
down. Bralorne and Pioneer amalgamated as Bralorne Pioneer Mines Limited,
although they continued to operate as two separate mines. The chief apparent
result of the merger was a heightened attention to exploration and a start at providing a better system of ventilation of the lower levels at Bralorne. A moderate
amount of interest was shown in gold prospects in various parts, stimulated in some
instances by the bonus paid for siliceous ore at the Trail smelter. A shipment of
high-grade ore from the Silbak Premier by lessee Tom McQuillan created interest,
even though it came from an old surface working. The original Cariboo Gold
Quartz mine was abandoned in September, after twenty-six years of continuous
operation. The future for the company now appears to lie in the ground north of
the Aurum mine area.
With the closing of the Toric the Province lost its largest and one of its few
remaining mines that operated primarily for the silver content of its ore. After 4 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1959
recording the loss of silver producers in the past few years, it is heartening to note
that although the Highland-Bell has abandoned the original upper mine, which had
approximately forty-five years of profitable operation, it is opening new horizons in
the lower mine, which is in a faulted segment of the upper ore zone.
The production of copper improved very considerably from the record low
reached in 1958. Britannia resumed milling in February, 1959, following a reorganization, after having been closed for nearly a year. A reorganized Consolidated
Woodgreen Mines Limited resumed operations after a shut-down of more than a
year. Phoenix Copper Company Limited, a Granby subsidiary, commenced an
open-pit operation on ground left by Granby in 1919. Copper was produced as
a by-product of nickel-mining at the Giant Nickel operation.
In the development field, Bethlehem and Craigmont came a step nearer to
production. At the former property the 4600 exploratory adit was completed and
a considerable amount of diamond drilling was done underground. At Craigmont
the ore zone was outlined on the 3500 level and a second adit was driven, at the
Exploration for copper continued in the general copper-bearing belt that
extends from near Ashcroft to Copper Mountain. A great deal of money has been
spent in this region in the last five years, during which time staking was done and
scientific prospecting was carried on at a scale never before experienced in British
Columbia. In 1959 it became obvious that the continuing cost of exploration was
becoming too high for some companies. The potential of the copper belt is by no
means exhausted, but the pace of exploration has slowed somewhat.
It is interesting to note that an airborne magnetometer and EM survey was
made of the old Greenwood-Phoenix camp. Results of this survey were not available at the end of 1959.
The production of lead and zinc was about normal, with little change in the
rate of output of the major producers. In the Slocan district activity was reduced,
and Western Exploration Company Limited, which had been doing development
work on the Mammoth, suspended operations. Exploration was rather limited, but
work by Consolidated on Duncan Lake has demonstrated the existence of a substantial tonnage. This property, for some years named the J.G., has received
attention for more than thirty years, most development work having been done since
1951. Recently the application of geological knowledge has led finally to the
recognition of important quantities of ore in this part of the Kootenay arc, and
underground work was started.
The deposits of magnetic iron ore in the coastal regions assumed greater
importance than ever before. Two new producers, the Nimpkish and Hualpai mines
on Vancouver Island, doubled the number of mines shipping concentrated iron ore
to Japan. Exploratory work was done on two properties on Vancouver Island, one
near Vancouver, and one near Kitimat. A deposit on Moresby Island was being
developed for production. The annual value of production has passed the 5-million-
dollar mark and is destined to increase.
Some surface exploration was done on the magnetite-bearing peridotite near
Tulameen, and the Department of Mines made a geological field study of the
A more than usual amount of attention was directed to molybdenite. Exploratory work at the Boss Mountain property on Takomkane Mountain was continued,
some additional work was done at Glacier Gulch near Smithers, and other deposits
were investigated at Usk, near Telesraph Creek, and near Alice Arm.
In mining practice, one of the largest underground blasts in the world was set
off in the Sullivan mine. Fifty-seven tons of powder was used to break 1,060,000 LODE METALS 5
tons of ore in one of the mine's largest pillars. Production from the pillar at an
initial rate of 3,000 tons per day began two days after the blast. The ore was drawn
through 105 drawholes to eight slusher-drifts. At Bralorne the high temperatures
encountered at depth during the past few years have necessitated the installation of
a new ventilation system. To this end, an entirely new raise 12 feet in diameter and
3,000 feet long was driven between the surface and No. 25 level. The raise will
deliver cool air directly to the lower levels and was almost completed at the end
In the summer of 1959 an airborne magnetometer survey was made by the
Department of Mines of a part of Moresby Island. Maps resulting from this survey
were made available to the public early in 1960. The results of two seasons' field
work were compiled as an interim map with accompanying notes and were issued
in April, 1960, as " Preliminary Geological Map, Southern Queen Charlotte Islands."
Field work in the area is continuing. 6 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1959
NOTES ON METAL MINES
During the past two seasons, Frobisher Limited has had a prospecting party
working west of the Haines Road in the vicinity of the Alsek and Tatshenshini
Rivers. In the summer of 1959 the party was serviced with a Hiller 12e helicopter and a pontoon-equipped Super Cub. A large number of mineral occurrences have been found and two mineral deposits have been located. A gypsum
deposit of large size and high quality was located near the head of the O'Connor
River about 10 miles west of the Haines Road. A large replacement in greenstone consisting of pyrrhotite, pyrite, and chalcopyrite and held as the Windy and
Craggy groups was located about 20 miles north of the junction of the Alsek and
Information released by the Chief Geologist of the Geological Survey of Canada on January 15th, 1959, in Information Circular No. 2, Field Work, 1958, led
to the location in northern British Columbia in late January, 1959, of nearly 200
mineral claims by five major exploration companies and several individuals. Some
of the claims were located 2 miles west of the north end of Chutine Lake, in the
northern Coast Mountains, over a reported occurrence of molybdenite. The others
were near Tachilta Lakes at the head of Tuya River, over a serpentine area reported
to contain chrysotile asbestos to a maximum length of 1V4 inches.
The molybdenite occurrence near Chutine Lake was located by Kennco Explorations (Western) Limited and was examined by them, but was not further
investigated. The serpentine area was examined carefully when the ground was
free of snow, and the consensus of opinion is that the Tachilta Lakes serpentine
contains less asbestos fibre than do several other known serpentine bodies that
remain unstaked. No surface work was done on any of the Tachilta Lakes groups.
(57° 132° N.E.) In June, 1957, Einar Hagen, of Watson
Balsom Lake, located eight mineral claims—the Balsom Nos. 1 to 8
—for Conwest Exploration Company Limited to cover a large
and very brilliantly coloured gossan exposed on the north side of Barrington River
about 10 miles from its head and about 35 miles due west of Telegraph Creek.
The claims extend northward, down hill from the top of the ridge at 6,000 feet
to the valley at about 3,000 feet. In 1958 the property was under option to
American Metal Climax, Inc., and in 1959 to Kennco Explorations (Western)
The rocks exposed in the vicinity of the mineralization are grey slate, green
hornblende schists and hornblendites, and hornfelsic sedimentary and volcanic
rocks striking about west and dipping steeply northward. The older rocks are
intruded by light-coloured syenite which extends for about 3,500 feet along a
ridge-top. The syenite extends for 300 feet down the south face of the ridge and
about 1,000 feet down the north face, where it is cut off and intruded by porphy-
ritic quartz monzonite which forms dykes elsewhere in the vicinity. The syenite
is cut by a few narrow dark-greenish fine-grained lamprophyre dykes trending
Toward its western edge the syenite is crossed by a 500- to 600-foot zone of
fracturing striking north 30 degrees east. In this zone the syenite is closely fractured and intensely altered. The fractures are occupied by narrow vuggy quartz
* By Stuart S. Holland. LODE METALS 7
veinlets one-eight to one-quarter inch wide, accompanied by pyrite, molybdenite,
and hematite mineralization. The rock is highly silicified and pyritized. The
pyrite on surface is oxidized and produces a brilliant yellow to red-brown gossan.
In places the pyrite appears to have been leached but little or none of the molybdenite. There is no indication of copper.
A large number of samples taken by American Metal Climax, Inc., from the
altered and mineralized zone indicates that the molybdenum content ranges from
0.01 to 0.09 per cent.
(57° 130° S.W.) The Bird Nos. 1 to 4 claims were located
Bird in August, 1957, by N. Bird, of Wells, for Silver Standard
Mines Limited to cover copper mineralization exposed at
4,500 feet elevation on the ridge between Mess Creek and Schaft Creek and about
7 miles southwest of Mess Lake. In 1959 these claims were under option to Kennco
Explorations (Western) Limited, and in August, 1959, forty-two additional claims
(Bird Nos. 5 to 46) were located for that company.
The copper mineralization is exposed in natural outcrops and in about 3,000
lineal feet of trenching spaced at 100-foot intervals between elevations of 4,000
and 4,500 feet on the top and steep west slope of a north-south ridge. The rocks
are grey and brown Permian rhyolitic flows and tuffs cut by northerly striking dykes
of dark andesitic porphyry. At the north end the mineralized rhyolite is overlain
unconformably by unmineralized volcanic breccia.
Mineralization consists of pyrite, chalcopyrite, and a little molybdenite disseminated through the rock and along joint fractures in the rhyolite and the dark
dykes. There is a considerable amount of secondary malachite in the surface exposures and trenches.
The trenching done by Silver Standard Mines Limited indicates that the highest grade of surface mineralization, assaying as much as 0.4 per cent copper per
ton, lies in an area 500 feet wide and extending 1,000 feet along the ridge. No
work has been done to indicate what the grade of the unoxidized mineralization
(56° 130° S.E.) Company office, 1111 West Georgia Street,
Vancouver 5. L. T. Postle, president. The property is on
the south fork of the Leduc glacier, 25 miles northwest of
Stewart, at an elevation of 4,500 feet. Work during the 1959
season was carried out by a crew of six men under the direction of G. W. H. Norman.
The work consisted of geological mapping at and around the property. Transportation to the property was by aircraft from Stewart.
[References: Bacon, W. R., Preliminary Map, Granduc Area, B.C. Dept. of
Mines (1956); Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Repts., 1956, pp. 15-17; 1957, p. 6;
1958, p. 6.]
Salmon River (56° 130° S.E.)
Company office, 844 West Hastings Street, Vancouver 1.
A. E. Bryant, president; Hill Starck and Associates, consulting mining engineers. Starting on September 26th, 1959,
a small leasing operation was carried on for about six weeks by
* By W. C. Robinson. 8 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1959
a crew of five men headed by T. J. McQuillan. Sixty-two tons of high-grade ore,
which had been sorted and cobbed, was shipped to the smelter at Trail. It is
reported that the work also involved the construction of one-quarter of a mile of road.
American Creek (56°129° S.W.)
This property is near the mouth of American Creek on the
Red Cliff west slope of the valley. A number of Crown-granted claims
are held by Orofino Mines Ltd. under option from Yale Lead
& Zinc Mines Limited. The property has been described in the 1908 Annual Report,
page 56, and the 1909 Annual Report, page 67. Work which began on September
20th and ended on November 2nd was directed by F. L. James. Two men were
employed, and it is reported that a tractor, which was under contract, did some
road work between American Creek and the lower tunnel. Transportation to the
lower tunnel was by truck or jeep. The property was not visited.
(55° 129° N.W.) Registered office, 309 Royal Bank Build-
Toric (Torbrit Silver ing, Vancouver; executive office, 44 King Street West, To-
Mines Limited) ronto; mine office, Alice Arm. R. W. Burton, manager; H.
Bapty, mine superintendent; G. K. Sutherland, mill superintendent. Capital: 3,000,000 shares, $1 par value. The Torbrit mine camp and
mill are on the west bank of the Kitsault River, 17 miles by road from Alice Arm.
Production between January 1st, 1959, and September 27th, 1959: Ore milled,
93,577 tons. Total concentrates produced amounted to 1,280 tons, containing
675,185 ounces of silver and 891,633 pounds of lead. In addition, the total bullion
produced was 175,442 fine ounces.
A summary of mining operations follows:—
Ore broken— Tons
Stope raises and stope drifts 1,551
Longhole drilling with tungsten carbide bits 16,569
No safety officer was employed, but a mine safety committee carried out regular monthly inspections of the mine and mill and held monthly meetings.
On the surface no new construction was undertaken. The access trail to the
hydro plant was maintained and, with the exception of the bridge at Trout Creek, the
main bridges are in satisfactory condition.
The adit which was driven in 1958 on the North Star claim was driven an
additional 412 feet in 1959 and an additional 7,940 feet of diamond drilling was
done. It is reported that the silver mineralization outlined in the course of this
work was not extensive enough to warrant the separate mining operation that would
Production from the mine ceased on September 23rd, 1959, and production
from the mill ceased on September 27th, 1959.
* By W. C. Robinson. LODE METALS 9
The property has been described in the Annual Report for 1948, and subsequent developments have been described in the Reports from 1949 to 1958, inclusive. A historical summary follows.
The original Toric group, which lies east of the Kitsault River, consisted of
the Anglo, Toric, Moose, and Lamb Crown-granted claims. Silver occurrences
were explored by trenches starting about 1916, and the results obtained indicated
that the occurrences were on two main zones of mineralization. Of these, the
lower one was considered to be more attractive, and it was explored, starting in
1924, by an adit level originally called the 1900 but later called the 1150 level,
corresponding approximately with the elevation above sea-level. The workings on
this level exposed a replacement deposit more than 100 feet wide, and in 1926-27
a mill designed to treat 50 tons per day was built. The efficiency of this mill in
recovering the silver was less than expected. In 1928-29 the ore milled amounted
to 1,540 tons, containing 32,040 ounces of silver and 32,445 pounds of lead.
In 1929 the property was acquired by Britannia Mining and Smelting Co.
Limited, and Torbrit Mining Co. Ltd. was formed to develop the Toric group.
In 1929 and 1930 the property was explored by additional underground workings
and by diamond-drill holes. This exploration snowed that the replacement deposit
extended above and below the 1150 level. Work was suspended in 1930, and the
property remained idle until 1946, when Torbrit Silver Mines Limited, a new company controlled by Mining Corporation of Canada, acquired the Toric group and
started to build a road up the valley from Alice Arm. This road, constructed most
of the way along what had been the right-of-way of the Dolly Varden railway line,
was completed in 1948 to the camp-site. A camp was built and a mill, designed
to have a capacity of 300 tons per day, was completed early in 1949.
About 5 miles up the Kitsault Valley from the camp, near the mouth of Clearwater River, a 1,600-horsepower hydro-electric plant was installed and a transmission-line built to the camp. The mine camp and power-house were connected by
the construction of a tractor-trail. A dam built at Clearwater Lake raised its level
and stored water for use in periods of low run-off. In 1948 a new adit level was
driven, the 1000, which became the main haulage level and was connected with the
mill by a narrow-gauge railway 3,200 feet long.
The ore, which was found mainly on the Toric claim, occurred in shoots in
a quartz-barite-hematite-jasper replacement deposit within a country rock consisting
of agglomerates and tuffs of the Hazelton group. The oreshoots as a rule apexed
abruptly below the surface, a definite indication that they were formed from ascending solutions and not descending solutions. The original discovery was one of the
few shoots that extended to the surface.
During the last years of operation considerable exploration work was done on
the Moose and Lamb claims of the Toric group. A number of open-cuts, contemporary with the original work on the Toric claims, were examined and further prospecting located continuations of the silver-bearing veins. On the Moose and Lamb
claims, 9,680 feet of surface diamond drilling was done, but the results were
unfavourable and the project was abandoned in September, 1957.
During the first part of mining operations two systems of sloping were practised, depending on the size and plunge of the particular ore section. In flat-lying
sections, open stoping, using scrapers to pass the broken material to draw points,
was used. In steeper sections shrinkage stoping was employed. Ground for the
most part stood up well, and long blast-hole drilling was used extensively. The
longhole drilling was done with leyner machines and tungsten carbide bits attached
to sectional steel. Above the 1000 level the ore was scraped from draw points to
an ore-pass, and on the 1000 level and below the ore was loaded by mucking- 10 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1959
machines at the draw points. Material from the 900 and 800 levels was hoisted by
means of a shaft which had been initially raised from the 1000 level to the surface
and eventually sunk to the 800 level. Material below the 800 level was brought
to that level by means of a 16-degree winze which had been driven in the footwall
for a distance of approximately 500 feet to the 700 level.
The mill commenced operation on February 4th, 1949, and averaged about
300 tons per day during the first year. During the first four months of operation
all the ore was treated by cyanidation. During this period it was found that
recovery in the plant did not equal that of the original test work. It was found that
much of the silver was present in silver sulphides, mostly ruby silver, and was not
recoverable by cyanidation. The important ore minerals were galena, ruby silver,
and native silver. After trying several combinations of cyanidation and flotation it
was found that the best recovery was obtained by grinding the ore, floating off the
bulk of the silver minerals, and passing the flotation tailings to cyanidation. Most
of the silver was thus recovered with galena and sphalerite in a bulk concentrate
which was shipped to the lead plant at the Trail smelter. The native silver recovered
by cyanidation was refined and shipped as bullion.
Mill capacity was increased through the years. During 1950 it averaged about
355 tons per day and by 1954 was 400 to 450 tons per day.
Production between the commencement of milling in February, 1949, and the
cessation of operations at the end of September, 1959: Ore milled, 1,374,832 tons;
silver produced in concentrate and bullion, 18,614,015 oz.; lead produced in concentrate, 10,700,428 lb.
(55° 129° S.E.) Head office, 25 King Street West, Toronto
Alice (Kennco 1. C. J. Sullivan, president; C. S. Ney, in charge of property.
Explorations A total of forty-five claims are held—twenty-six by record
(Western) Limited) and nineteen by option. The property is on Lime Creek about
5 miles south of Alice Arm. It is reported that the mineralization consists of molybdenite in the form of thin selvages in quartz veinlets which
form a stockwork in a small granodiorite plug, intrusive into greywacke. Work
between July 10th and August 28th was done by a crew of seven men. Ten X-ray
drill-holes totalling 1,021 feet were drilled. About 300 lineal feet of trench and
open-cut was excavated and sampled.
Transportation was mainly by helicopter, with some help from back-packing.
A drilling programme is planned for 1960. The property was not visited.
(55° 129° S.W.) G. A. Derry, development superintendent.
Double Ed (The This property of fifteen recorded claims is on Bonanza Creek,
Consolidated Min- 3 miles west of Anyox. Work commenced June 1st, 1959.
ing and Smelting The access road was rehabilitated and a camp was constructed
Company of on the property. A thirty-man bunk-house, cook-house,
Canada, Limited) warehouse-office, dry, compressor and power house, shop,
and magazine were built. Equipment includes a 600-c.f.m.
diesel-driven compressor, a diesel-electric generator, a 6-ton 38-horsepower diesel
locomotive, and a 3,980-c.f.m. ventilation fan.
An adit was driven at about 500 feet elevation from the west bank of Bonanza
Creek to investigate further the surface showing of copper mineralization which is
* By W. C. Robinson. LODE METALS
about 500 feet higher than the adit. The adit measures 9 by 9 feet, and at the end
of 1959 was 1,898 feet long.
A crew averaging twenty-five men was employed. Coastal boats and aircraft
were used for transportation to Bonanza Creek Landing and trucks were used on
(52° 131° S.E.) Company office, 808, 602 West Hast-
Harriet Harbour ings Street, Vancouver 2. H. B. Gilleland, manager; A. C.
(Silver Standard Ritchie, general superintendent. The magnetite bodies pres-
Mines Limited) ently under investigation occur at an elevation of approximately 1,000 feet above sea-level close to Harriet Harbour
on the southeast coast of Moresby Island, Queen Charlotte Islands. Access is by
air or sea to Harriet Harbour and by foot-trail from the shore to the outcrops.
The climate is temperate, with negligible snowfall and temperatures rarely below
20 degrees above zero. Harriet Harbour is a good sheltered harbour, suitable for
entry by moderately large cargo vessels.
Figure 1. Mineral claims near Harriet Harbour, Moresby Island.
* By W. G. Jeffery. 12 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1959
The main ore zone is on the Jessie Crown-granted claim (Lot 1861), which is
held under option from Consolidated Exploration Company Ltd., 1133 Melville
Street, Vancouver (see Fig. 1). Adjacent claims controlled by the company
include the following: Limestone, Diorite, and Chance fraction recorded claims
held under option from Western Canada Steel; Iron Duke (Lot 1977) and Hot
Punch (Lot 1976) reverted Crown-granted claims comprising retention lease R30B
optioned from J. M. Black; the Adonis (Lot 1865) Crown-granted claim. In addition, about twelve claims and fractional claims are held by record in the same general
Mineral occurrences in the vicinity have been known since 1863, but the
magnetite deposits on the Jessie claim have been previously described only in " The
Iron Ores of Canada," Volume I, Economic Geology Series 3, published by the
Geological Survey of Canada (1926).
The writer spent four days in August examining the property and preparing
a geological map at a scale of 1 inch to 40 feet (see Fig. 2). Elevations were
obtained by barometric readings based on sea-level. Outcrops are scarce as the
deposits are on a heavily timbered slope, but stripping has exposed parts of all the
magnetite outcrops and some of the more evident rock exposures.
In the vicinity of Harriet Harbour a thick sequence of basic volcanic rocks is
overlain by Upper Triassic limestone and thin-bedded argillites. Jurassic sedimentary and volcanic rocks occur near by. All these rocks are cut by post-Middle
Jurassic granitic rocks, and these in turn are cut by late basaltic dykes.
The magnetite, associated with variable amounts of skarn rock, replaces the
basic volcanic flows of pre-Upper Triassic age. These flows are amygdaloidal finegrained green rocks, mainly composed of plagioclase feldspar and green hornblende.
The amygdules, which are irregular in shape, average about 6 or 7 millimetres
across and are almost entirely filled with a dark-green chlorite. Disseminated magnetite in the rock notably occurs as more concentrated haloes or aureoles around
Massive finely crystalline limestone with little indication of bedding overlies
the volcanic flows and is exposed along the eastern margin of the magnetite showings. The limestone in turn is overlain by thin-bedded black and brown argillites.
The volcanic and sedimentary rocks have been invaded by a swarm of finegrained greenstone dykes and sills. These intrusive rocks are the local representatives of an extensive suite of Lower or Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks. The dykes
are typically volcanic in appearance and texture. Their uniformity of grain size and
colour makes identification in the field difficult, but microscopic examination classifies most dykes as andesites or basalts, with some lamprophyric types. One finegrained basaltic dyke cuts through magnetite, but most of the dykes in this swarm
are pre-ore. At some distance from the ore zone an altered andesite dyke was seen
to cut diorite, and some of the dyke swarm could also be post-diorite in age.
Diorite is exposed along the western margin of the ore zones and is intrusive
into the volcanic rocks. Dioritic dykes extend from the intrusive mass and cut the
volcanic flows. At least one diorite dyke has a general trend northwest and dips
approximately 30 degrees northeast. All evidence is that these dykes are pre-ore.
In the examination of the Jessie claim very little indication of structure was
obtained, but it is known from regional evidence that the volcanic and sedimentary
rocks are at least gently folded, and that the district volcanic-limestone contact
strikes about north 75 degrees east and dips from 40 to 55 degrees to the north.
The spatial relationships of these various rock types are characteristic of other
magnetite occurrences in the southern coastal region of British Columbia. The
possible importance of adjacent limestone and intrusive rocks in the genesis of the i__—^-^BS2____»
_. ToicnH Silver Standard
Vi„ ___- _-■b^js-b ssrssr ■ 14 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1959
magnetite deposits has been discussed by W. R. Bacon in the Annual Reports for
1952 and 1956.
The magnetite forms tabular or lenticular bodies striking southeast and dipping
about 20 to 30 degrees northeast. The amount of magnetite is erratic, varying from
weakly disseminated to massive, hence continuity of ore is only proved by closely
spaced diamond drilling. Mineralization in a section low in iron is in places represented by skarn consisting essentially of an orange-brown garnet with minor epidote.
In addition to skarn which occurs along magnetite contacts and with disseminated
magnetite, skarn also occurs in isolated masses with negligible amounts of magnetite. Throughout the region of the magnetite deposits and within the volcanic flows
there has been a major redistribution of carbonate. Calcite is abundant as disseminations, pods, lenses, and coarse-grained veins and veinlets.
From the early descriptions the magnetite outcrops prior to stripping were
of the order of 10 feet across, although it would appear that there was considerable
float on the hillside below the outcrops. A rough estimate made in 1926 indicated
a tonnage ranging from 25,000 tons to perhaps 200,000 tons. Stripping has
increased the size of the exposures of continuous mineralization to distances as great
as 40 or 50 feet (see Fig. 2). Silver Standard Mines commenced operations with
a ground magnetometric survey. The zone lying mainly on the Jessie claim was
indicated by an anomaly to be roughly 500 by 300 feet in size. A subsidiary area
200 by 80 feet with anomalous values occurs to the west on the Limestone claim.
Diamond drilling on 100-foot centres with some intermediate holes for greater
detail has proceeded since June, 1959.
To September 30th, 1959, the development programme on the Jessie zone has
revealed about 1,100,000 tons of ore grading: Iron, 49.4 per cent; copper, 0.025
per cent; sulphur, 0.78 per cent; titanium, 0.09 per cent; phosphorus, 0.035 per
cent. The tonnage of ore outlined has since been increased by continued diamond
Work done on the smaller magnetic anomaly on the Limestone claim has
proved about 100,000 tons of ore grading: Iron, 50.9 per cent; copper, 0.018 per
cent; sulphur, 0.42 per cent; titanium, 0.08 per cent; phosphorus, 0.048 per cent.
Approximately 1,500 feet east of the Jessie claim and on the opposite side of
the ridge between Ikeda Cove and Harriet Harbour is the Adonis claim. A magnetite outcrop on this claim was reported in 1926 and is now being investigated by
Silver Standard Mines Limited. The mineralization is similar to that on the Jessie
claim and occurs in similar volcanic rocks underlying the limestone. The limestone
beds cover the volcanic rocks on the ridge and between the outcrops of magnetite
on the Jessie and Adonis claims. Whether there is a continuous magnetite zone
between the two areas, extending under the limestone, remains to be ascertained by
further development. A preliminary magnetometer survey on the Adonis claim has
shown anomalous readings over an area of 1,000 by 300 feet.
On the west side of Harriet Harbour are two more magnetite deposits controlled by Silver Standard Mines Limited, the Magnet (Lot 79) and Dingo (Lot 87)
Crown-granted claims. Previous work in 1956 and 1958 on these properties has
indicated magnetite deposits estimated by the company totalling 750,000 tons with
a grade in the surface exposures of 54.2 per cent iron. LODE METALS
(Quebec Metallurgical Industries
(54° 128° S.W.) Company office, 602, 88 Metcalfe Street,
Ottawa. N. B. Davies, president; Alex. Smith, engineer in
charge. The property is on Iron Mountain, about 6 miles
north of Kitimat. It consists of four Crown-granted claims
and six recorded claims. The mineral occurrences consist of
a magnetite-pyrite-chalcopyrite-bearing zone in greenstones
near the eastern contact of a body of quartz-diorite. The greenstones in the mineral-
bearing zone are epidotized and some garnet skarn is present.
Work on the property commenced in June and was suspended in December.
Three to four men were employed, and twenty packsack-drill holes averaging about
60 feet long were completed. Three EX holes, averaging about 550 feet long, were
Transportation to the camp, which was near the Wedeene River crossing of
the Terrace-Kitimat branch of the Canadian National Railway, was by rail. Further
drilling is planned for 1960.
[Reference: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1929, p. 72.]
(54° 128° N.W.) This property, held by Conwest Explora-
Beaver Group tion Company Limited, consists of fifteen recorded claims—
the Beaver No. 1, optioned from S. R. Ling, and Beaver Nos.
2 to 15. The property is at an elevation of about 4,000 feet, on a ridge of a mountain north of Mayo Creek, 7 miles west of Kitsumkalum Lake. The showings are
reported to consist of a ribboned quartz vein which is contained in a strong northeasterly striking shear. The vein shows sulphide mineralization, including in order
of abundance pyrite, arsenopyrite, galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite. Values are
principally in gold.
Work from June 1st to August 15th was done by two men. It involved the
digging of fourteen pits and trenches totalling about 118 cubic yards of excavation
and the clearing of about 6 miles of trail. Back-packing for a distance of about
9 miles was required to service the property. The property was not visited.
Huestis Molybdenum Corporation
(54° 128° N.E.) The Huestis Molybdenum Corporation
Ltd., 810, 402 West Pender Street, Vancouver 3, holds
eighty-seven claims and fractions located as the J.B.,0 Molly,
and H.M. groups. The claims extend westward from the
Skeena River on both sides of a small creek, locally called
Bell Creek, 1 mile north of Pitman station. The original claims were located by
J. Bell, of Usk, to cover molybdenite mineralization seen along the creek bottom.
Pitman is close to the eastern margin of the Coast intrusions, where andesitic
fragmental volcanics and flows of the Hazelton formation are intruded by granitic
rocks. Along the lower stretch of Bell Creek dark andesitic volcanic rocks are
intruded by grey porphyritic granodiorite which appears to have a flat upper
(western) contact. The volcanics lie in a gently west-dipping and thinning wedge
between the granodiorite and pink quartz monzonite, about one-half mile west of
the railway track. All of these rocks are cut by younger dykes of granite porphyry
* By W. C. Robinson.
t By Stuart S. Holland. LODE METALS
and andesite. For 2,000 feet upstream (westward) from the wedge of volcanics the
pink quartz monzonite is exposed in the creek bottom. Its upper contact with other
rocks of the Hazelton formation dips 30 to 40 degrees northwestward. Near its
lower contact the quartz monzonite is altered and has a noticeable light-brown
colour; near its upper contact it is jointed and silicified. Feldspathization of the
rock extends outward from siliceous veinlets.
Molybdenite is present in the altered quartz monzonite but has not been
observed in the grey granodiorite.
The molybdenite occupies narrow shears in the quartz monzonite, is in quartz
veins a few inches to a few feet wide, and occurs as disseminations. Disseminated
molybdenite is associated with narrow silicification veinlets which appear to occupy
a definite system of joint fractures. The molybdenite is accompanied by disseminated pyrite and a small amount of specular hematite.
During the summer of 1959 a small crew was occupied in geological mapping
in the vicinity of the mineralization, in putting in open-cuts along the creek bottom
to expose the mineralization, and in a thorough sampling.
The best molybdenite mineralization is exposed in a trench 150 feet long just
downstream (east) of the upper (western) quartz monzonite-volcanic contact. In
this trench the quartz monzonite is intensely silicified and feldspathized and is
crossed by numerous joint fractures occupied by narrow quartz veinlets. The rock
contains finely disseminated molybdenite and pyrite, and is cut by several shears
well mineralized with molybdenite across widths of a few inches.
A road was bulldozed from Pitman station to the vicinity of the upper trench
preparatory to further exploration by diamond drilling.
(54° 128° N.E.) The Grotto group, owned by Huestis
Grotto* Molybdenum Corporation Ltd., consists of six recorded
claims. The property is about 1 mile west of Pitman. The
main rock type is dark green, somewhat chloritized andesite traversed by several
feldspar porphyry dykes from 4 to 15 feet wide. No major granitic bodies occur
near the workings, but what may be the southern edge of the main stock occurs in
granitic bluffs that form the rim of the valley some 1,500 feet north of the workings.
The mineral deposits include quartz veins containing values in gold and silver and
copper and silver-lead-zinc mineralization in the surface showings.
A preliminary examination was made in 1959 and the underground workings
were mapped. Repair work was done on the lV_-mile road connecting the camp
with Pitman. A camp was originally set up near Pitman, but the Grotto camp,
serviced by jeep, was in use by the end of the season. This camp was used by those
doing work either on the Bell Creek prospect or the Grotto prospect.
[References: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1937, pp. C 4-7; Kindle,
E. D., Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem. 212, 1937, pp. 38-40.]
(54° 127° N.E.) British Columbia office, 908, 718 Granville Street, Vancouver 2. J. Payne, Jr., president; J. W.
Hoadley, British Columbia manager; W. W. Moorhouse,
geologist in charge at property. The property consists of
sixty-one claims held by option agreement on the eastern
flank of Hudson Bay Mountain about 6 miles northwest of Smithers. The property
* By W. C. Robinson.
Climax, Inc.) 18 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1959
has been described in the 1958 Annual Report, pages 10 and 11. In 1959 six
weeks of geological mapping was done by two men. The option was later dropped.
(54° 126° N.W.) Company office, 844 West Hastings
Cronin (New Cronin Street, Vancouver 1. L. C. Creery, president; Hill Starck
Babine Mines and Associates, consulting mining engineers. The property
Limited) is on the east slope of Cronin Mountain, about 30 miles by
road from Smithers. P. Kindrat, lessee, operated the mine
and mill during part of 1959. It has been reported that 82 tons of lead concentrates and 66 tons of zinc concentrates were produced and shipped to the Trail
[References: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Repts., 1949, pp. 94-98; 1956,
(54° 126° N.E.) Head office, 1111 West Georgia Street,
McDonald Island Vancouver 5. L. T. Postle, president. This property of
(Granisle Copper forty-six recorded claims is on McDonald Island (also known
Limited) as Copper Island) in the northern section of Babine Lake at
the mouth of Hagan Arm. Work in 1959 began soon after
break-up in May and continued through the summer. Thirty holes were drilled,
with a total length of 11,262 feet. Prospecting was done over near-by islands and
the mainland of the east shore of Babine Lake. At the end of the season all drill
equipment was removed. The property was serviced by boat from Topley Landing.
[References: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Repts., 1913, pp. 113-114; 1927,
pp. 149-150; 1929, pp. 180-181; 1940, p. 78; 1946, p. 89; 1955, p. 29; 1956,
(55° 125° N.E.) Company office, 320, 355 Burrard Street,
Snell Group Vancouver 1. F. R. Joubin, president; E. Bronlund, engi-
(Bralorne Pioneer neer in charge. The property is on Silver Creek, 9 miles
Mines Limited) south of Omineca River, and consists of thirty claims held
by record. The showings are reported to be mercury deposits along the Pinchi fault zone. Work from June 26th to November 13th was
done by an average crew of seven men. Thirteen holes totalling 2,548 feet were
drilled, and a total of 27,300 cubic yards of overburden was removed by hydraulic
stripping. A bridge and a number of culverts were replaced and some grading was
done on the access road from Germansen Lake. The camp was supplied by truck
and tractor. The property was not visited.
(58° 127° S.E.) This property, held by Conwest Explora-
West Group tion Company Limited, consists of thirty-two recorded claims.
It is about 140 miles south-southeast of Watson Lake, at the
head of an eastward-flowing tributary to the Frog River. It has been reported that
massive galena float has been found in an area underlain by sericite schists. Work
in 1959, from May 28th to September 15th, involved trenching and cutting trail.
An average crew of five men was employed. Transportation was by charter aircraft
* By W. C. Robinson. LODE METALS
from Watson Lake to a small lake 14 miles east of the property. Pack-horses were
used from this lake to the claims. The property was not visited.
Toad, Toad River,
and Beaver Lake
(58° 125° N.W.) Reports brought in by Indian hunters of
the occurrence of copper-bearing float on the west side of
the Toad River led to the location of the first claims in the
area by Oscar Macdonald, of Mile 442, Alaska Highway, and
Hans Kvikstad, of Fort St. John, in May, 1956. The claims
are south of the highway on the west side of the Toad River,
about 1,200 feet above it at about 4,200 feet elevation, and are reached by about
21 miles of pack-horse trail which makes four crossings of the Toad River.
In 1958 and 1959 the claims were under option to Fort Reliance Minerals
Limited, 2810, 25 King Street West, Toronto 1. Work done on the property was
under the supervision of A. D. Wilmot.
In the vicinity of the mineralized showings the rocks consist of grey slate and
silty argillite. They are pre-Silurian in age (possibly late Precambrian or early
Pakeozoic) and are part of a succession of metamorphic rocks that occupies a fairly
extensive area south of the Alaska Highway and extends from the Toad River eastward to Mounts Churchill and Stalin. The rocks have a regionally developed flow
cleavage. Numerous dark greenish-black diabase dykes a few tens to a few hundreds of feet wide are intruded parallel to the regional cleavage. On the property
the rocks strike north and dip 12 degrees west; axial plane cleavage strikes north
30 degrees west and dips 35 degrees southwestward.
Copper mineralization is on both sides of a diabase dyke which is about 20
feet wide and is parallel to the cleavage. The mineralization lies in a shear which
to the south is on the west side of the dyke, crosses it without perceptible offset of
the dyke, and extends for several hundred feet on the east side of the dyke. The
shear strikes about 10 degrees east of north and dips 70 degrees west.
Copper mineralization, consisting essentially of chalcopyrite and a little quartz,
occurs in the shear across widths ranging from 3 to 14 feet. In the outcrop and
surface trenches the chalcopyrite is altered to malachite, and it is estimated that
one-quarter to one-half the copper occurs as secondary malachite.
In 1958 nine trenches were put in on the shear along a length of 640 feet to
the south of the shear-dyke intersection. The average copper content of the exposed mineralized shear is about 6 per cent across an average width of almost 8 feet.
In the trenches it is apparent that secondary malachite has migrated along the shear
planes and occupies a greater width than does the primary chalcopyrite. About
1,500 feet of diamond drilling done in 1958 disclosed that at a depth of about iOO
feet mineralization in the shear consisted essentially of chalcopyrite and included
little secondary malachite.
The shear was traced for a few hundred feet north of the shear-dyke intersection, but the widths were narrow and the grade low, and consequently no further
exploration was done along that section.
In 1959 five drill-holes totalling 1,509 feet were put down using a BXF bit to
enable a high core recovery to be obtained. For the most part the shear was found
to extend to depth and to maintain its width, but the average content of the primary
copper mineralization was considerably less than that obtained in surface sampling.
Drilling stopped in August, 1959, and all equipment was removed from the
* By Stuart S. Holland. Looking southward to the head of the Toad River from Fort Reliance Minerals property.
Looking northward from Fort Reliance Minerals camp. West dipping beds
crossed by steeper diabase dykes. LODE METALS
(58° 125° N.E.) Copper mineralization was found on his
trap-line at the head of Delano Creek about fifteen years ago
by Albin Larson, of Mile 408, Alaska Highway. Larson,
and William Lembke, of Mile 408, located the showings in
September, 1957, as the Al 1 to 3, Caribou 1 to 5, and Canyon 1 to 3 mineral claims. These claims in 1958 and 1959
were under option to Magnum Copper Limited, 700 Burrard Building, Vancouver,
who subsequently located the Don 1 to 48 mineral claims in the same area.
The copper mineralization is at an elevation of about 6,000 feet at the head
of the north branch of Delano Creek, about 2Vi miles southwest of the Yehde Lakes
and 5V_ miles northwest of Mount Roosevelt. A tent cam