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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Annual Report of The Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1951]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Annual Report of
The Social Welfare Branch
of the Department  of
Health and Welfare
For the Year ended March 31st
1950
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty
1950  Victoria, B.C., December 7th, 1950.
To His Honour Clarence Wallace,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and
Welfare for the year ended March 31st, 1950, is herewith respectfully submitted.
A. D. TURNBULL,
Minister of Health and Welfare.
Office of the Minister of Health and Welfare,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. Social Welfare Branch,
Victoria, B.C., December 7th, 1950.
The Honourable A.D. Turnbull,
Minister oj Health and Welfare, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch
for the year ended March 31st, 1950.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
E. W. GRIFFITH,
Deputy Minister of Welfare. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Letter of Transmittal .-.       3
Letter of Transmittal :  4
Letter of Transmittal  7
Assistant Director of Welfare  9
Regional Administration—
Region I  14
Region II .-.  15
Region III  16
Region IV  17
Region V  19
Research Consultant  22
Family Division—
Social Allowances  23
Mothers' Allowances 1  31
Family Services  37
Child Welfare Division ■.  45
Old-age Pension Board  59
Medical Services Division  82
Institutions—
Boys' Industrial School  84
Girls' Industrial School  92
Provincial Home   98
Welfare Institutions Licensing Board  101
Social Services, Division of Tuberculosis Control  108
Social Services, Division of Venereal Disease Control  110
Psychiatric Division—•
Social Services, Provincial Mental Hospital  111
Social Services, Provincial Child Guidance Clinics  112  SOCIAL WELFARE
BRANCH
OEPT. OF HEALTH &W€LFAR£
PROVINCE OP BRITISH COLUMBIA
REGIONS -DISTRICT OFFICES -
MUNICIPAL OFFICES
L-EOEND-
®  REGIONAL HEADQUARTERS    0 MUNICIPAL OFFICES
(AND DISTRICT   OFFICS}
#   DISTRICT OFFICES
(AMA LOAMATEO)
+ MUNICIPAL OFFICES
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION...
DIRECTOR OF WELFARE.      ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF WELFARE
RESEARCH CONSULTANT. TRAINING SUPERVISOR.
DIVISIONAL STAFF...
FAMILY DIVISION       Frovincbl Supervisor
Social Workers
CHILD WELFARE      Superintendent f. Deputu      a
DIViSIOpT Supervisors 4
Social Worker i
OLD AGE PENSION    Provinciol Supervisor f
BOARD Social Worker I
MCOICAL SERVICES
DIVISION Director
MVCHIATRC DIVISION Provinciol Supervisor
(?WH_t S»c_j_s.jr Z>yt£.) r
MENTAL HOSPITAL Supervisors
Social Workers
child 6UIDAHCI clinics    Clinic Supervisor
Socio! Workers
2
13
I
6
T.B.i-V.DDIVISIONS D    .    . , ,
r *__**. e__^cjc) Provincial Supervisor I
T.B- DIVISION Sociol Workers 8
V. D. Division       Supervisor I
Sociol Workers 2
BQVS't, GIRLS'
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL Social Workers
FIELD STAFF
REGION I.   ££'?NAL AD""NI&™*T°R
eld consultant
District supervisors
Social  workers
provincial district offices    3.
amalgamated municipal offices—.
gase load 8,870.
3
12
REGION 2        RE&'0NAL ADMINISTRATORS
2
•     FIELO CONSULTANT I
DISTRICT  SUPERVISORS 5
SOCIAL WORKERS Hi.
PROVINCIAL DISTRICT OFFICES 0.
AMALGAMATED MUNICIPAL OFFICES 7.
CASE LOAD    26,877.
ttVCrXCSU *»«     REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR
rscvriwn o.   TIEUO constant
DISTRICT SUPERVISOR 3
SOCIAL WORKERS 19
PROVINCIAL  OISTRICT OFFICES 5.
MUNICIPAL OFFICES ♦.
CASELOAD   5,334.
CPAlftll _L     REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR
i"*-."—' IWH T.   FIELD CONSULTANT I
DISTRICT  SUPERVISORS 3
SOCIAL   WORKERS 14
PROVINCIAL DISTRICT OFFICES 7
REG"!0N5      REGI?NAL ADMINISTRATOR
•   DISTRICT SUPERVISORS
SOCIAL WORKERS
PROVINCIAL DISTRICT OFFICES 6
Z
12
^ PROVINCIAL MUNICIPAL
Vm     OFFICES    42
BRITISH     COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT of LANDS  and  FORESTS
Honour.hie  _    T    K.tnntY.  Miniiltr'
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58°
56°
54°
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116° REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
E. W. Griffith, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Welfare.
Sir,—I have pleasure in submitting the Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch
of the Department of Health and Welfare for the year ended March 31st, 1950.
In this Report for the first time will be found annual reports of the five Regional
Administrators outlining the work of the Branch in their respective regions. The divisions of the Branch have, of course, responsibility for the proper administration of the
Province's social legislation, but it is the field operation which actually brings the benefit
of that legislation to the people whom it was meant to serve. It seems only appropriate,
therefore, that this important aspect of the work be included in the report of our activities
for the year. The reports of the Regional Administrators indicate the social and economic conditions that have a bearing upon the work of our Branch in the separate parts
of this vast Province and portray to some extent the conditions under which our social
workers carry out their duties in the rural areas.
A map of British Columbia is also included in this year's Report. On it are shown
the regional boundaries and the location of municipal and district social welfare offices.
A study of this map well illustrates the extent of the services given by our Branch. It
will also be noted that offices are located in centres accessible to the large majority of our
citizens. This should prove beyond doubt, I believe, that the welfare of the people in
this Province is a major concern of our Government and of our Branch in particular.
The generalized service given by our staff, in which the professional knowledge and skills
of our social workers are utilized with respect to all social problems arising within the
territory to which each is assigned, is another factor of our rural service which bears
reiteration. Not only is this generalized work economical from an administrative point
of view, but it has proved to be decidedly beneficial in that the total family, rather than
parts of it, can be given rehabilitative case-work services by one professional worker
rather than by several specialists.
The nature of professional case-work service has always been difficult to define.
However, the section of the Family Division report devoted to family services aptly
illustrates by means of well-disguised case examples some of the problems which arise
to threaten stable family life and the way in which case-work treatment is given to preserve
it. This method is, of course, not restricted to family services but is used in all areas
of the generalized service. Other divisions have also this year illustrated the values
accruing from professional services, and for these reasons this Annual Report may be
said to be a more thoroughly interpretive document than those which have preceded it.
It should, I believe, give the reader a somewhat better understanding of professional
case-work services.
As the report of the Assistant Director of Welfare reveals, this has been a year of
reaching toward a higher level of staff competence and effectiveness partly by means of
the expert work of our Field Consultants. The wisdom of decentralized supervision
has also been conclusively proved in this year. Decentralization of supervision imposed
additional responsibilities on Regional Administrators, district supervisors and workers,
but these have been assumed with greater ease as facilitating administrative procedures
have now been well established. The co-operation received from municipalities during
the year has been a source of satisfaction. The cordial relations established between
municipal officials and our Regional Administrators has done much in advancing a
mutual understanding and uniformity of practice in social welfare matters. R 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Throughout the reports of the divisions I think there will be found evidence of
a professional vitality and a growing unity of purpose among our staff toward achieving
the fundamental objectives of our Branch—the rehabilitation and restoration of individuals and families to a self-dependent, self-respecting, satisfying, and useful way of
life. It is with gratitude that I acknowledge the splendid endeavours of every member
of our staff toward attaining these objectives.
Respectfully submitted.
C. W. LUNDY,
Director oj Welfare. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 9
ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF WELFARE
I beg to submit the following report for the fiscal year 1949-50:—
The year under review might be characterized as a plateau in the development of
the services of the Social Welfare Branch. There have been no new major undertakings,
but rather the staff have learned to use, with greater ease and more accuracy, the established administrative procedures and policies of the Branch. This familiarity with the
more routine aspects of the work has permitted more time and thought to be given to the
quality of the staff's professional services, and the results have been commensurate with
their efforts.
The appointment of three Field Consultants at the beginning of this fiscal year provided three necessary safeguards to our plan of decentralization. One of these controls
is that of providing our district supervisors with expert counsel in the matter of improving
their skills in case-work supervision. In addition, the surveys the Consultants undertook
of case-loads during the year gave invaluable direction with respect to overcoming the
backlogs of work which our field staff have been too pressed to deal with effectively
themselves. In both these respects the Consultants have made good progress in their
first year of work.
The second safeguard provided by the Consultants is that of bridging the gap,
created by decentralization, between the divisions and the field staff. During the year
the Consultants have met as a group with each divisional head to discuss the problems
the field staff encountered in implementing the division's policies or in maintaining the
standards set by the divisions. In turn, the divisions have interpreted their difficulties
with the field staff and have given their counsel with respect to raising standards. This
liaison will inevitably result in a mutual confidence being established between the divisions
and the field.
The third controlling factor, and perhaps the most important, is that the Consultants
are responsible directly to the General Administration of the Branch. Their tasks of
guiding the district supervisors and in acting as liaison between field and divisions are
brought to the Branch Administration, thus ensuring that its members are appraised of
the whole Branch operation and of the problems encountered. This function of the
Consultants also has proved to be effective in this first year of their work.
CASE-LOADS, STAFF, AND DISTRICT OFFICES
A few brief comments are necessary with respect to the tables of figures appearing
below. The increase in case-load—that is, the total number of families served in this
year—was over 4,000, and the increase in the separate classifications of services given to
the total, or " shared services," was just under 6,000. The increase in staff to meet
these ever-growing social needs was only 18, although there were actually 59 appointments made during the year, 41 being replacements. Of the 18 additional staff, 13 were
placed in the field offices, and 5 in divisions, clinics, and institutions. This makes the
average case-load carried by the field staff over the 300 average reported last year.
Obviously, a social worker who has responsibility for giving many different direct
services to such a large number of families cannot do a wholly adequate job with all of
them. The solution would appear to be the appointment of a sufficient number of staff
to keep pace with the steady rise in the number of individuals and families needing and
seeking services. However, inasmuch as Government policy has this year restricted for
the ensuing year any further expansion of any part of the Civil Service without complete
justification, it suggests that all other means of strengthening our existing staff must be
made in the coming year.
For one thing, it must be possible to demonstrate that no wasteful motions exist in
any part of the Branch and that administrative procedures are as simple as legal requirements will permit.    Such stream-lining measures to effect economies generally, but par- R  10
BRITISH COLUMBIA
ticularly in the wise use of staff we now have, were under constant consideration in the
past year. The revised and simplified methods of statistical reporting were put into
effect and a new Office Manual issued. Suggestions advanced in the last month of the
year by the Regional Administrators for the simplification of certain divisional policies
will be given every consideration in the new year.
Stability of staff is another important factor in ensuring consistently high performance. Although the number of resignations exceed those of last year (by two),
there is, nevertheless, a steadily growing number of social workers with several years of
experience with the Branch to their credit. Though 71 of our staff this year have only
one or two years of experience, 68 have from three to five years, and 52 have from six to
fifteen years. This weighting toward more experienced people suggests a growing
stability and hence a greater all-round competence in our staff as a whole.
Add to these factors the devotion of the staff to their work, their professional growth
through direct supervision and other staff development measures, and it can be said that
the responsibilities of the Branch have been met better than ever before in spite of
increased case-loads.
A critical study of the following comparative tables of figures, while revealing total
numbers of individuals and families served, does not reveal the nature of the professional
services given. For a proper understanding of problems presented and ways of treating
them, the reports of the divisions must also be studied. The conclusions to be drawn
after such study can only be that more staff, with the highest possible professional education, is required to meet adequately the social needs of the people of this growing prosperous Province, as the utmost is being done to ensure that the staff we now have is
being used to the optimum of their abilities and skills.
Case-loads Carried by the Field Service Staff
Marc'l 31st, 1949
Number of
Families
Served
Number of
Categorical
Services
Given
March 31st, 1950
Number of
Families
Served
Number of
Categorical
Services
Given
Social Allowance	
Mothers' Allowance 	
Family Service  	
Old-age Pension.  —
Child Welfare    	
Tuberculosis Division 	
Venereal Disease Division.
Mental Hospital      	
Child Guidance Clinic	
Hospital Clearance	
Welfare Institutions	
Provincial Infirmary	
Collections     	
Provincial Home	
Totals  	
8,472
685
1,302
25,266
3,022
39
228
11
26
96
7
54
9.045
704
1,327
26,655
3,125
290
322
29
39
105
21
85
39,208
41,747
10,010
646
1,246
27,793
3,272
9
289
8
9
155
4
57
1
10,746
657
1,254
30,462
3,400
348
323
27
24
163
17
106
4
43,499
47,531
Staff
April 1st, 1949
March 31st, 1950
Men
Women
Total
Men
Women
Total
48
6
72
120
6
57
6
76
133
6
54
6
72
42
126
48
63
5
76
48
139
53
60
2
114
6
174
8
68
3
124
5
192
8
62       1       120       I       182
71        I       129
200 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 11
Of the 59 appointments made during the year, 38 were professionally trained social
workers, and the remainder were given in-service training.
District Offices
Two new offices were opened during the year to meet the social needs in rapidly
expanding communities—one in Westview and one in Haney. The total number of
social welfare offices in the Province at the end of this year was as follows:—
Provincial   29
Municipal    13
Total   42
The 13 municipal offices are staffed by a total of 106 social workers, 46 of whom
are Provincially appointed and paid. Together with the field service staff in the 29
Provincial district offices, the total number of staff in these 42 offices is 204. This is
exclusive of the staff of social workers in Provincial hospitals, clinics, and institutions,
and in divisions, who number 56.
BURSARIES
A system of bursaries to assist staff members to obtain professional training was
inaugurated in this year. The in-service trained staff member having three years' experience with the Branch, and whose evaluation reveals merit, may receive a grant paid in
monthly instalments during the university year. The amount of the grant for a staff
member with dependents is double that for one without dependents, which fact governs
the number of bursaries which may be awarded in any one year. Only one bursary was
awarded in this year, largely owing to the newness of the scheme. The awards are made
on the recommendation of a Bursary Committee, chaired by the Assistant Director, which
considered many applications for the ensuing year.
A second type of bursary established this year is that of providing leave with pay
for supervisors having six years' experience with the Branch. These are for short periods
of study, usually in the summer months at universities giving short intensive courses.
Two supervisors were granted this help in the past year.
The purpose of these schemes of helping the staff to obtain basic professional education, or further training in the case of supervisors, is, of course, to increase their competence and the quality of their work. Those benefiting are required to sign a contract
agreeing to remain with the Branch for a period of two years following their training,
and the results should be beneficial in the ensuing years.
PLANNING COUNCIL
The Planning Council of the Branch—all heads of divisions and Social Service
Supervisors of Provincial clinics, hospitals, and institutions—continued during this year
to study matters related to the Branch as a whole. Committees were struck to study in
detail such subjects as annual reports, bursaries, staff evaluation, job definitions, policy
manual revision, special staff-training schemes, and so on. In addition, many matters
were referred by the Deputy Minister to the Council for study. The value of this
co-ordinating body has again been well substantiated.
IN-SERVICE TRAINING
Only one in-service training course was conducted during this year to augment the
staff. Eleven people were given training in this way, the majority of them holding the
B.A. degree. Each had a minimum of two months' experience in a district office learning
the separate parts of the work of the Branch, step by step.    This preparatory learning R 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
period was followed by the usual four weeks' intensive course of lectures in Vancouver,
conducted under the Training Supervisor's direction.
In addition, an eight-day training course was arranged for the staffs of the Boys'
and Girls' Industrial Schools, when seven counsellors from the former and three from the
latter participated. This training plan proved most successful and is part of the new
emphasis on treatment being placed on the work of our Industrial Schools. This course
also was conducted under the Training Supervisor's direction, lecturers being drawn from
the Branch, the Child Guidance Clinic, School of Social Work, and Probation Service.
Other similar courses are planned in the next year to provide for the remainder of the
staffs of both schools.
PUBLICATION, FILM, AND LIBRARY
British Columbia's Welfare continued to provide educational material for the staff
in the twelve numbers issued this year. Circulation increased to 775, and its many
readers outside the Branch and from other parts of Canada and the United States have
indicated their interest in it as an interpretive medium. This bulletin is edited, and much
of its content prepared, by the Training Supervisor.
This year the National Film Board made a documentary film on the work of the
Branch, and its premiere is scheduled for June, 1950, during the Vancouver meeting of
the Canadian Conference on Social Work. The research, direction, and production of
this film was done by Mr. Leslie MacFarlane. The utmost co-operation was afforded
Mr. MacFarlane by the Assistant Director and Training Supervisor, and members of the
staff selected to play the parts of social workers in the film's stories gave willingly of their
leisure time during the filming itself. This film will do much to interpret the work of the
Branch, and its release is eagerly awaited.
The library continued to be used frequently, and ways and means of bringing its
advantages to the staff in a wider way are currently being worked out by the Training
Supervisor, under whose jurisdiction the library falls.
CONFERENCES
A Conference of Regional Administrators and Field Consultants was called in
March, 1950, during which many matters affecting the field operation were discussed.
From these discussions, pertinent recommendations for effecting economies were made
by the regional officials, which will be implemented as far as possible in the next year.
The Western Regional Conference, comprised of social workers from Manitoba,
Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia, was held in Victoria in May, 1949. Its
president was the Deputy Minister of Welfare of British Columbia, and its secretary the
supervisor of our Family Division, who was released part time from her normal duties to
do the detailed work conferences entail. The benefits of such conferences are great, and
in the institutes or short courses this Conference provided,, and in the discussions during
meetings where pressing social problems were discussed, the fifty-nine delegates from this
Branch derived a great deal. Following the Conference, the Training Supervisor chaired
the Publications Committee, responsible for editing and producing the printed Conference
Proceedings.
REGIONAL VISITS
During this year, visits were made to two regions. Three days were spent in Region I
in August, 1949, visiting all offices and meeting staff. A regional conference was called
in Region V in October, 1949, attended by the Assistant Director and for one day by the
Director of Welfare, at which the staff had an opportunity to discuss matters affecting
their work and to have many of their problems thrashed out with members of the General
Administration.    Illness  prevented the  Assistant Director's  attendance  at  a  similar REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 13
regional conference, held in Nelson, of the staff of Region IV, the Director of Welfare
attending this session.
UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
During this year, twenty-three students from the Department of Social Work, University of British Columbia, were placed for field work in divisional, district, and municipal offices in and adjacent to Vancouver. In addition, ten students were placed for a
period of four months in six of our district offices covering rural areas. This latter
method of providing field-work training, the " block " plan, began in January, 1949,
and represented a new scheme of student-training worked out by the University's Department of Social Work in co-operation with this Branch and other agencies.
VISITORS
Two holders of fellowships under United Nations auspices were sent to British
Columbia for observation and study of our methods in social welfare programmes. Dr.
Antero Rinne, Director of the School of Social Sciences, Helsinki University, and Mrs.
Virginia de Guia, Vice-Mayor of Bagio City, the Philippines, each spent two weeks
between Vancouver and Victoria. Their itineraries were prepared under the Training
Supervisor's direction.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, it should be again stressed that this has been a year of consolidating
our gains of the past few years, and in this respect the whole staff has worked hard and
faithfully. Special acknowledgment must be paid to the Regional Administrators and
their staffs of supervisors, social workers, and clerical workers, for in their acceptance of
heavy responsibilities under decentralization, they have conducted the affairs of the
Branch with understanding and high integrity. The next year may see further responsibilities delegated to them, and from all points of view it can be readily seen that these
will be in safe hands.
Respectfully submitted.
Amy Leigh,
Assistant Director of Welfare.
. R 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REGIONAL ADMINISTRATION
REGION I
I beg to submit the following report of the activities of the Social Welfare Branch of
Region I for the fiscal year 1949-50:—
This region incorporates Vancouver Island, the Gulf Islands, the Mainland Coast
north-west from Sarah Point to Boyles Point, and adjacent islands in the area. Region I
covers approximately 13,000 square miles and has a population of nearly 200,000 people.
Of this number, 8,000 families and single persons are cared for by the social welfare staff.
Without too detailed a breakdown the following table will show the major categories of
services rendered and the number of cases in each category, as at March 31st, 1950:—
Number of Number of
Categories Cases Categories Cases
Family Service       160 Child Guidance Clinic .. 1
Mothers' Allowance _       90 Special Services  7
Social Allowance   1,719 Tuberculosis    109
Old-age Pension  6,105 Provincial Institutions _ 128
Child Welfare       537
There are eighteen municipalities in Region I, and a sign of the times, and contributing much to progress in the social welfare field, has been the necessary co-operation
between the Provincial Government and the municipalities. A striving for a pattern of
uniformity is leading to greater efficiency in the rendering of services. All cases, whether
residing in organized or unorganized areas, are receiving more equitable attention. The
Provincial and municipal social welfare staffs are working as a harmonious team,
resulting in beneficial co-operation.
Under the " Social Assistance Act," municipalities with a population under 10,000
have the alternative of carrying out social work with their own staffs, with a sharing of
costs in the salaries of social workers, or under a per capita payment arrangement the
work may be done by the Provincial Government. All municipalities in the region to
whom these provisions apply—eleven in number—have chosen the per capita method,
which encompasses seven cities, three district municipalities, and one village municipality.
There are two organized areas with a population of over 10,000 each, and in these two
areas—Victoria City and Saanich—services are rendered by amalgamated staffs. All
told, there are twenty-six social workers actively engaged in the carrying-out of the work,
and they operate from seven administrative offices which are strategically located so as
to meet the welfare needs of the people throughout the whole area. Village municipalities
with an annual revenue of less than $12,500 are exempt from the provisions of the
" Social Assistance Act." There are five such villages in the region, and, for purposes
of welfare services and costs, these areas are considered as part of unorganized territory.
Servicing the islands adjacent to the main island presents a special problem of
transportation for our social workers. This problem has been partially overcome by the
operation of a Government-owned motor-launch. Through the summer months it is
possible to reach the most isolated localities, but frequent midwinter storms very often
prevent a complete coverage during that season. The welfare services to the people on
these islands are not as complete as that rendered to centres on Vancouver Island, but
the weather, time, and expense factors make emergencies wait on the official calling-dates.
Not only do these adjacent islands present a problem, but there are also many inaccessible
points on Vancouver Island which present difficulties equally as great for the social
worker, particularly the west coast and the northern central part of the Island. In these
spots a worker must sometimes travel by boat, railroad speeder, perhaps aeroplane, and
very often by walking several miles to reach his client who is in need of service. Anyone
who knows the coasts of Upper Vancouver Island can appreciate the hazards that must REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 15
sometimes be met and overcome by the skipper of the welfare boat and the social workers
in carrying out their duties. Sometimes, in exceptional emergencies, it is necessary to
call on the Provincial Police, who have rendered valuable service when conditions make
it impossible for a social worker to visit the area.
Forestry, coal-mining, and tourist travel are the major industries, with fishing and
dairy-farming secondary industries. However, some of these industries are more or less
seasonal, and this fact affects social welfare. The climate also has a direct bearing on
the number of cases because a great many old people migrate to this region to take
advantage of the mild climate. Approximately 70 per cent of the persons receiving
welfare services are on old-age pension. Every winter the ranks of those needing social
services are swelled through the slackening of the tourist season, the closing-down of
fishing, and particularly the shutting-down of the logging camps and lumber-mills with
all their allied trades. This not only affects the number of social assistance cases, but
also greatly increases the number of problem cases. More diversity of industry would
tend to solve this problem.
Like all other parts of British Columbia the population of Region I is growing very
rapidly, and this unquestionably will result in a corresponding growth of need for social
welfare services. However, the increased understanding of the general public as to the
social aspects and the increase in the number of persons choosing welfare work as a vocation give evidence that all growing social needs will be adequately and capably met.
Respectfully submitted. _, T   _,
E. L. Rimmer,
Regional Administrator.
REGION II
I beg to submit the following report of the activities of the Social Welfare Branch
in Region II for the fiscal year 1949-50:-—
This region covers the Lower Mainland and West Coast of the Province north to
and including Ocean Falls. Although large areas of unorganized territory lie within the
region, less than 2 per cent of the population is located in this territory, while the balance
is found in municipalities.
In order to give an efficient and economical case-work service to all areas, new
offices have been opened as the need arose. Last year, due to population growths, two
new offices were opened. One office at Westview now handles the work in the Westview-
Powell River area. Another office was established in Haney to handle the social work
in the municipalities of Maple Ridge and Pitt Meadows, as well as the unorganized
territory north of these districts. However, it must be pointed out that these areas were
not neglected before the two offices were opened. The Westview-Powell River area
was handled from the Court-house, Vancouver, while the Haney area was handled from
the Abbotsford office.
In this region there is every type of social welfare office which can be established
under the provisions of the " Social Assistance Act" and regulations. For example,
there is one municipality employing one social worker, while another municipality
employs forty-six. In the first instance, the Province contributes one-half of the salary,
while in the latter case twenty-three workers are provided. Many other municipalities
with a population of less than 10,000, based on the 1941 Census, pay 15 cents per capita
to the Province for service which is given from Provincial offices. The following is
a breakdown: Provincial offices, 6; municipal offices, 8; municipalities paying per capita
rate, 16.
With this interlocking of welfare services between the municipalities and the Province, co-operation in the general operation has been an essential factor. With this
co-operation it has been possible to build toward an efficient and uniform service. R 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Several municipalities lying adjacent to the metropolitan area are receiving a steady
influx of people who have passed their period of production. These individuals, on
reaching retirement age, are taking their funds and moving to low-rental or low-cost
land districts. Unfortunately, many of these people have only sufficient money to carry
themselves for a year or two. They then apply to the municipality for some type of
public assistance. In many cases the local area finds itself responsible for the long-term
care of individuals who have actually lived in the district for a comparatively short period
of time. This may ultimately raise the per capita cost of social services in these areas
to a higher rate than is applicable throughout the rest of the Province.
The Lower Mainland of the Province is the area to which the majority of migratory
workers come in the winter off-season when employment ends. During the winter this
caused concern to many municipalities that found themselves faced with destitute,
employable men who demanded assistance for themselves and families. With no specific
funds allotted for the relief of such cases, it proved difficult to alleviate the situation.
It was also a contributing factor to the over-all increase in case-load in this region, as
one problem in the home in many instances led to other social maladjustments.
There has been a steady, although not an alarming, increase in case-load in the
region during the past year. However, the population in the same period increased,
and thus a corresponding rise in case-load could be expected.
Respectfully submitted.
J. A. Sadler,
Regional Administrator.
REGION III
I beg to submit the following report of Region III for the fiscal year 1949-50:—
The geographical area of Region III is that comprised of the Electoral Districts of
Kamloops, North Okanagan, South Okanagan, Revelstoke, Salmon Arm, Similkameen,
Lillooet, and Yale. Approximately 10 per cent of the population of British Columbia
is resident within this region. The total number of families and individuals given
service by the staff of this region in the past year was 5,305, which was an increase of
669 over the previous year. Of the 5,305 cases, 4,213 were in receipt of one form or
another of social assistance, while the balance of 1,092 received services classified under
the broad division of family services, child welfare, psychiatric, tuberculosis, and
institutional care.
District offices of the Branch in this region are located at Kamloops, Salmon Arm,
Vernon, Kelowna, and Penticton, staffed by a total of eighteen social workers. Three
supervisors give case-work supervision to this staff, each supervising the work of two
or more offices. With fourteen clerical workers and the Regional Administrator the
total staff for the region is thirty-six.
There are sixteen organized municipalities in this region, four of which have a population of from 9,000 to 12,000, and the others from 1,000 to 3,000. Four of these
municipalities—Kamloops, Vernon, Kelowna, and Penticton—maintain social welfare
departments, staffed in each case by one municipally appointed social worker. Under
the terms of the " Social Assistance Act" and regulations, the Province pays one-half
the salary of these officials, whose duties are limited to the local administration of Social
Allowances, Mothers' Allowances, Old-age Pensions, and such medical services as are
required.
A close co-ordination between municipal and Provincial offices has been established,
and thus a desirable uniformity in administrative methods has been achieved. The
remaining twelve municipalities pay the Provincial Government on a per capita basis
for the services of the Provincial social worker to their citizens. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 17
The population of this region is dependent upon three basic industries—namely,
agriculture, lumbering, and mining—which provide the bulk of the employment. The
growing tourist industry and newly developed hydro projects both contribute to the
economic stability of this region. The agricultural industry, mainly tree and small fruits,
provides seasonal employment for many in handling and processing the crops.
Large numbers of persons are employed during the fruit season, many of whom
are not qualified to follow up other work of a heavy nature. In many instances there
are several members of the family—men, women, and children—engaged during the
fruit season in the orchards, canneries, and packing-houses, whose combined earnings
have been sufficient to support the family throughout the year.
During recent years, owing to the shortage of labour and especially that employed
on a seasonal basis, older persons and many who are partially handicapped have been
engaged. In the year under review, employers have not hired such people to the same
extent; this resulted in our Social Allowance rolls increasing approximately 20 per cent
over the previous year.
Immediately following the termination of the war, there was a tremendous increase
in the population of this region, perhaps as much as 30 per cent, and in some of the
centres the population actually doubled. Although this meant that new capital was
brought in, stimulating business in general, it also created a serious problem in some
areas, notably the South Okanagan. Many properties in this district were subdivided
to a point whereby they can hardly now be classed as self-supporting farming units.
Some of the people who bought these small holdings were formerly Prairie farmers,
who have sufficient income to regard their new homes as places to live and not necessarily as means of livelihood. On the other hand, a good portion of these newcomers
are dependent upon seasonal employment to supplement the returns from their small
fruit acreage. In short, their income is precarious, and in adverse times they may
become dependent upon social assistance.
As for resources in this region, we have in addition to the general hospitals established in the various centres, the Provincial tuberculosis unit at Tranquille, Provincial
Home at Kamloops, and the Old People's Home in Vernon, also the municipal home
operated by the City of Kelowna for the caring of elderly people. We have, of course,
three Provincial health units, and the services of the cancer, child guidance, and tuberculosis travelling clinics, which make periodical visits to this region. The most recent
service inaugurated has been by the Canadian Arthritis Association. Each centre has
the usual service clubs.
This region should always be a fairly solid district economically owing to its climate
and diversified resources. We must, however, expect a certain amount of seasonal
unemployment, as we lack some industry which would absorb in the off-season the class
of labour which follows up the fruit industry.
Respectfully submitted.
F. G. Hassard,
Regional Administrator.
REGION IV
I beg to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Welfare Branch
in Region IV for the year 1949-50:—
The geographical boundaries of Region IV are roughly these: On the west, the
summit of the mountains bordering the eastern shores of the Okanagan Lake; on the
south, the International Boundary; on the east, the border between Alberta and British
Columbia; and on the north, a triangular apex including the populated areas in and
around the Village of Golden.   Except in the more settled economically stable areas in R 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the southern and eastern part of the region, where mining activities provide employment,
the region is sparsely populated and covers wide distances served by a network of
mountainous roads which, during the winter months, make travel hazardous for the field
staff. The region covers approximately 14,000 square miles of mountainous terrain
(including the Selkirk, Gold, Cascade, Purcell, and Rocky Mountain ranges) and has an
approximate population of 80,000.
To serve the 6,200 people in Region IV who in this year were in need of services
from the Social Welfare Branch, seven district offices are established. These are in
Nelson (which is also regional headquarters), Trail, Grand Forks, New Denver, Creston,
Cranbrook, and Fernie. A staff of fourteen social workers work out from these offices.
Three supervisors, located in Nelson, Trail, and Cranbrook, supervise the work of this
staff, dividing their time among the seven district offices.
In this region there are ten incorporated cities, one district municipality, and eight
village municipalities. In all of these the social welfare needs of the people are met by
the Provincial social workers, the municipalities paying the Province on a per capita basis
for this work. The necessity of maintaining a close liaison with the municipalities is not
lessened by this arrangement, rather increased, as it is obviously incumbent upon the
Social Welfare Branch to keep the Municipal Councils informed about the needs of their
people and how they are being met. The sharing of expenditures between the Province
and municipalities also demands that the latter approve their share, and constant mutual
interpretation is necessary and welcomed. It is gratifying to report that cordial relationships exist between our Branch and the municipal reeves, councillors, and clerks in this
region, and that desirable co-operation exists in the matter of establishing uniform
administrative methods.
The case-load in the municipalities and in the vast stretches of unorganized territory
comprises every category of service given by the Branch, heavily weighted with Old-age
Pensions and Social Allowance cases. Many of these latter are still able to do light
employment, but this type of work is not available in an area where heavy industry,
predominates. Although economic conditions are stable and a high level of employment
is maintained, the type of employment available in this region is such that there is a large
number of. persons in receipt of Social Allowance, the proportion of the case-load,
exclusive of Old-age Pensions, being about 50 per cent Social Allowance.
Within this region are two large minority groups, each being served by the Branch
in various ways. At New Denver there is a fairly large community of Japanese people
who preferred to remain in the area after restrictions on their resettlement were lifted,
and they receive our usual services. In addition, there is a tuberculosis sanatorium for
Japanese patients, the administration of which was transferred to the Provincial Department of Health and Welfare in 1948, and the social service requirements on their behalf
and that of their families are given by the social worker in our New Denver district office.
There is also a home for chronically ill and aged Japanese at New Denver.
The other large minority group is, of course, the Doukhobors, who, though
contributing to the agricultural development of the area, do nonetheless present somewhat
difficult social problems because of their communal way of life, their refusal to register
births and deaths, and their general attitude toward education and learning the English
language. In the two district offices serving the largest population of persons of Douk-
hobor lineage—namely, Nelson and Grand Forks—approximately 27 V_ per cent of the
total case-load is Doukhobor. In categories the percentage of Doukhobor cases is
approximately as follows: Family Service—Doukhobor 15 per cent, others 85 per cent;
Mothers' Allowance—Doukhobor 6 per cent, others 94 per cent; Social Allowance—
Doukhobor 38 per cent, others 62 per cent; Old-age Pensions—Doukhobor 33 per cent,
others 67 per cent; "Children of Unmarried Parents Act"—Doukhobor 81 per cent,
others 19 per cent; T.B.—Doukhobor 58 per cent, others 42 per cent; Provincial Mental
Hospital—Doukhobor 65 per cent, others 35 per cent. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 19
The economic backbone of the whole region is the mining industry. The metals
mined are gold, silver, lead, and zinc, their prices in world markets determining the
prosperity of the West Kootenays and of Kimberley in the East Kootenay, the latter the
scene of the famous Sullivan mine. Smaller mining operations have shown profits in this
year, and with the larger companies this has resulted in a constant demand for experienced
miners, muckers, etc., and the employment picture has thus been good. The Consolidated
Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited, employs around 5,000 people in the
Kootenays and, constantly expanding, will be a source of steady income indefinitely.
Coal-mining is centred in the Fernie district, producing the largest percentage of coal in
the whole Province. Employment is reasonably steady, wages running to $9 and $10
per day.
Lumbering is another factor in this region's economic prosperity, and though
operations are scattered and are fairly small, opportunities for employment in this
industry are good. It is in this industry that the largest percentage of employable
Doukhobors not engaged in year-round farming are occupied.
The principal agricultural development in the region is in the Creston and Grand
Forks areas. Creston, which raises grain, fruit, and market produce, has attracted
a number of people from the Prairie Provinces with few resources, many of whom may
be regarded as potentially in need of one form or another of assistance. Grand Forks
has largely been developed agriculturally by the Doukhobors who moved into the
Province from Saskatchewan. Seed-growing has supplanted general farming in this
area, from which a good revenue is derived. Though seasonal, there appears to be
a fairly regular demand for labour in this area.
Respectfully submitted.
J. W. Smith,
Regional Administrator.
REGION V
I beg to submit the following report on the work of the Branch in Region V for
the fiscal year 1949-50:—
Region V has an area larger than all other regions combined, comprising what is
popularly known as " the North." This vast part of the Province has great potentialities
for economic development, as recent governmental surveys have proved, and comprises
one of the few remaining " frontiers " for pioneer effort on this continent. At this time,
however, although the population is growing quite rapidly, the total area is sparsely
settled and widely scattered. This complicates the work of the Branch by reason of the
great distances to be travelled to give needed services.
The offices in this region are remote from each other, making supervision of the
social workers somewhat of a problem. The supervisor in the Prince Rupert office
supervises the three social workers required in that district as well as the social worker
in Smithers, which is a " one man " office. Early in 1949 a supervisor was appointed
to the Prince George district office to supervise the three social workers who are needed
to cover the work in this area, and to supervise the worker in the Quesnel office and the
worker in Williams Lake office. Her resignation at the end of the calendar year has
placed responsibility for supervision as well as administration on the Regional Administrator. We were, however, fortunate in being able to have the help and advice of the
Field Consultant for Regions III and V for a total of three or four months, which gave
our offices, particularly in the eastern end of the region, a much needed boost.
The distances to be travelled by our staff are great, particularly in the Williams Lake
and Peace River Districts, and are a unique feature of the region in the administration R 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of our Provincial social services. The social worker in the Williams Lake office travels
approximately 235 miles to reach the western end of his district (the eastern slopes of
the Coast Range) and may easily drive well over 400 miles before returning home from
a trip to the southern boundary of his district. To the north and east his distances are
shorter, but with a case-load of some 192, representing all categories of service, he is
away from Williams Lake for several days at a time.
In the Peace River District the worker will travel over 600 miles from his office to
the northern boundary of his district (the Yukon border), with trips off on side-roads
anywhere up to 75 miles each way. While driving on the Alaska Highway he has one
of the longest and perhaps best roads in the Province on which to travel, but immediately
he gets off the highway he is on to roads which are thick with dust during the summer
months, and practically impassable because of thick gumbo mud during the spring. Late
summer and the period just after freeze-up and before the heavy snow comes are the
times when he is best able to get around.
The Prince Rupert office has perhaps the greatest variety of modes of travel, the
social workers using coastal steamers, fish-packers, fishing-boats, and police boats, as
well as aircraft. And one must not forget, of course, that at times all our staff do a considerable amount of walking, particularly in the fall, just before freeze-up, when the roads
are all but quagmires and during the spring break-up when they are even worse.
This region has few organized areas, Prince Rupert and Prince George being the
only incorporated cities, with the majority of the small towns constituted as villages.
In both cities the social services are given by the Social Welfare Branch on the per capita
payment plan, the villages being served without fee. Thus the administration of the social
services for the entire region is a matter of Provincial responsibility, the Administrator
and staff having the utmost co-operation with the municipal officials concerned.
The work of the Branch in this region was increased during the year under review,
due to the increase in population. Practically all the larger centres in the region could
be described as booming. In Quesnel the extension of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway,
the building of a plywood plant, and the possibility of a hydro development on the
Quesnel River have brought hundreds of people in, both single men and families. Under
such conditions housing has become an acute problem, to such an extent that tents have
been renting in that area during the summer months for amounts of from $15 to $25
per month.
The continuing high price of lumber has kept all the mills in the Prince George
district, and both east and west along the Canadian National Railway, operating to
capacity, and there has also been a large amount of building construction in the city.
This is also a centre of operations for the extension of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway,
and is the southern end of the work being done on the Hart Highway.
In Prince Rupert there has been a fair amount of construction, the celanese plant
at Port Edward being the largest of these jobs. Prince Rupert's mainstay, the fishing
industry, also had a good year during 1949-50, and the mining and logging industries
have been busy and expanding.
In the Peace River District there was a bumper crop last year, which had the effect
of taking care of many of the border-line people who might otherwise have been forced
to come to this department for assistance.
In the Williams Lake area the high price of beef cattle has kept money flowing
freely, and conditions have been good.
All this boom employment has the effect of bringing to our offices a large number
of drifters, particularly to the Quesnel, Prince George, and Prince Rupert offices. The
majority of these are single men who arrive in one of the towns, become stranded, and
apply to the Social Welfare Branch for aid. In many cases they have managed somehow
to get work for a short period, but not long enough to be entitled to unemployment REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 21
insurance benefits. Others have been injured on the job and have nothing to carry them
until their first workmen's compensation cheque arrives. In such cases we get in touch
with the Workmen's Compensation Board and learn when a cheque may be expected
and, in so far as possible, try to arrange for repayment of any assistance given.
Collections of this sort have been reasonably successful.
The generalized social welfare services in this region are maintained at the highest
level of which the staff are capable, and in spite of geography, climate, and few community
resources, their work is of an increasingly high calibre.
Respectfully submitted.
A. A. Shipp,
Regional Administrator. R 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
RESEARCH CONSULTANT
The Research Consultant begs to present the following report for the fiscal year
1949-50:—
The first part of the year was given over to a study of rehabilitation resources in
British Columbia for the physically handicapped. It was felt that a study such as this
was particularly timely in view of the Dominion-Provincial Conference on Rehabilitation
which was scheduled to take place in the autumn. Two separate studies were completed—first, " Rehabilitation Resources in British Columbia for the Physically Handicapped," and second, " Rehabilitation Resources in British Columbia for the Physically
Handicapped Child."
Both studies emphasized the number and variety of resources which actually exist
in the Province for the rehabilitation of the physically handicapped, but they also pointed
out the great lack of a co-ordinating body with authority which could round all these
resources into an effective programme and also give leadership and direction in filling the
gaps.
The next research started, but which had to be laid aside because of more pressing
work, was a study of the delinquent Indian girls who have been committed over the
past few years to the Girls' Industrial School. The work was started at the instigation
of the school authorities, not because of any particularly large number of Indian girls
but because we seemed to be accomplishing the least with this group, either because of
lack of understanding or because the programme set up for the other girls in care is
not suited to the Indian girl. Also, the resources for rehabilitation outside the school
were much fewer for the Indian than for the average Canadian girl. This research led
back into the early records of explorers, missionaries, and doctors which offer a wealth
of historical and sociological detail about the background of our British Columbia
Indians. This material in itself, if it could be condensed into a pamphlet, should be
of assistance to our social workers in dealing not only with the Indian but also with the
half-breed group.
The rest of the Research Consultant's time was given over to essential work for the
General Administration. As one of a committee to edit the Annual Report of the
Social Welfare Branch, considerable time was spent on this, not only to produce an
integrated Annual Report, but also to study the whole question of the best methods of
presenting such reports. The results of this study were presented to the Planning
Council in the form of recommendations which it was felt would be helpful in the
future to those who must prepare annual reports for the Branch.
A summary of residence and responsibility in British Columbia was prepared for
the Canadian Welfare Council so that completely up-to-date information might be
embodied in its new publication on residence laws across Canada.
Toward the end of the year the Research Consultant was assigned the task of
rewriting the existing Policy Manual with the help and co-operation of the various
divisions and institutions concerned. This is a job of several months' duration and
will be reported on in the next Annual Report.
Isobel Harvey,
Research Consultant. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
R 23
FAMILY DIVISION
I beg to submit the following report of the Family Division, which includes the
administration of the " Social Assistance Act," " Mothers' Allowances Act," and Family
Service programme of the Social Welfare Branch for the fiscal year 1949-50:—
SOCIAL ALLOWANCE SECTION
The study of the Social Allowance programme for the year under review is set
against a background almost identical to the previous year.
Once again we have seen a year of great growth and activity in industrial enterprise,
particularly in construction, road-building, and lumbering. This has in turn brought
general economic prosperity to the Province. In spite of this, however, there has been
an increase in the case-load and costs of Social Allowances. It might be thought that
the employment situation would have little or no bearing on the case-load, since assistance
is granted only to unemployable persons, but it apparently does, with an interesting
difference which we shall note later.
Otherwise, the apparent reasons for such increased case-load, which have been discussed in previous Reports, need only be mentioned here. There are such factors as the
increase in the total population of the Province with a proportionate increase in that
section of the population in need of public assistance; the general employment situation
which still remains difficult for the older worker (it is said that those over 45 years of
age form the greater portion of the unemployed) and the inevitably greater difficulty for
the handicapped or disabled worker; the rising costs of living which prevent the younger
self-maintaining family members from supporting at the same time elderly or aged parents,
and presents difficulties for the older persons living on a small fixed pension or annuity.
Added to all these factors, of course, is a growing awareness and recognition of our social
assistance programme, the fact that the proportion of older people in our population is
increasing, and many persons in ill-health move to British Columbia to seek the milder
climate.
Finally, we have again watched the cost-of-living index rise to an unprecedented
level, and have continued to be aware of the resultant increased budgeting problems for
those on Social Allowance in an effort to cope with the rising cost of living.
Case-load
The case-load will be examined first, and a comparative statement for the month
ending each fiscal period for the past three years is as follows:—
Table I.—Case-load
March, 1948
March, 1949
March, 1950
2,075
4,461
5,893
2,614
5,789
6,827
3,244
7,295
7,236
12,429
15,230
17,775
However, the March, 1950, figures do not represent such a sharp rise as indicated
in the previous year in that the total increase was only 16.71 per cent, compared to
a 22.54-per-cent rise in March, 1949. Whereas the case-load of March, 1949, had
increased by 2,801 individuals over March, 1948, there has been an increase of only
2,545 in March, 1950.
Taken on a month-by-month basis, the case-load for the fiscal year 1949-50 shows
the following variations and increases: R 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table II.—Case-load on a Monthly Basis
Heads of
Families
Dependents
Single
Recipients
Total
April, 1949	
May, 1949	
June, 1949 	
July, 1949	
August, 1949 _
September, 1949-
October, 1949 _
November, 1949....
December, 1949...
January, 1950 	
February, 1950....
March, 1950	
2,546
2,535
2,560
2,554
2,589
2,585
2,585
2,715
2,857
3,066
3,190
3,244
6,042
5,579
5,529
5,517
5,511
5,567
5,557
5,837
6,284
6,807
7,161
7,295
6,658
6,802
6,784
6,810
6,916
6,948
7,334
6,466
6,664
6,920
7,163
7,236
15,246
14,916
14,873
14,881
15,016
15,100
15,476
15,018
15,805
16,793
17,514
17,775
This table bears out to some extent the relationship between the employment situation and our case-load. Employment figures published indicated that, from April, 1949,
on, there was a steady improvement in the employment situation which continued until
October, 1949, when there was a sharp decline. During this same period the Social
Allowance case-load remained fairly level. From October, 1949, to February, 1950, the
employment situation deteriorated until a very high rate of unemployment existed in
February of 1950.
In some areas it was reported the unemployment insurance claims in pay were
double or treble the number in pay for the same period the previous year. During this
same period the Social Allowance case-load increased by nearly 200. The answer would
appear to lie in those cases of border-line employability where the person suffers some
disability or handicap which prevents him taking full employment, or else very light or
sheltered employment, and, therefore, in times of stress are most likely to be out of
employment and must perforce be considered unemployable.
The like comparison is, therefore, that our case-loads, increase in times of low
employment, but the important difference lies in the fact that in times of rising employment the case-load does not decrease proportionately but remains more or less static.
This would seem to point to the conclusion that each year it is becoming increasingly
difficult for the disabled or partially employable person to become re-employed.
Another phase of the problem was indicated by a report from a district office which
stated that among its case-load were a number of persons who were unemployable in
their present geographic location where " light" or selective work is scarce or unobtainable. This is a situation which exists to some extent in many parts of the Province.
These are persons, however, who belong to a particular area or setting and have no wish
to move or be uprooted; consequently, their hopes of rehabilitation are often limited not
only by their handicap and degree of unemployability but by the opportunities for work
within their ability in the particular area in which they live. As long as there is residence
and responsibility legislation and a housing situation such as exists in this Province, little
encouragement can be given to these people to move from one area to another, and the
problem of their unemployability must usually be considered in the light of the local
opportunities available to them.
In view of these comments it appeared of interest to break down the case-load figures
by regions as follows:— REPORT OF THE SOCIA
Table HI.—Individuals in Rece
as at March
Unorganized
Region I—                                                     Territory
Alberni     •  ,       42
L WELFARE BRANCH                                R 25
ipt of Assistance by Regions,
31st, 1950
Organized
Territory
28
Cumberland    	
8
23
Esquimau  	
Ladysmith  	
40
1,050
31
138
North Cowichan  	
Oak Bay
64
37
82
Saanich     	
Victoria  	
249
806
1,566
    2,616
Region II—
Abbotsford __ -  33
Chilliwack   ...-  105
New Westminster   —. 57
Vancouver   —  256
Burnaby
Chilliwack City
736
48
Cliilliwhack Township   179
Coquitlam    _ 169
Delta     198
Kent      18
Langley   —  255
Maple Ridge    94
Matsqui      148
Mission District   103
Mission Village _  19
New Westminster      498
North Vancouver City  144
North Vancouver District  138
Pitt Meadows
Port Coquitlam
451
      415
        29
Richmond   	
      263
26
Surrey    . 	
820
  4,945
West Vancouver 	
58
. -       17
Region III—
8,984
     9,435
21
Kelowna     	
Penticton   —	
      317
      134
61
Coldstream 	
Enderby	
13
        23
          9
 ....        67
Kamloops    	
Kelowna   	
Merritt  	
       167
....      159
38
3
...     215
      25
7
        80
      251
1,325
      114
      148
Penticton     	
Revelstoke     	
Salmon Arm District 	
Spallumcheen   	
Summerland   . 	
54
86
45
      183
Region IV—
Cranbrook    	
Creston Village -	
Ferule 	
Grand Forks   	
1,048
    2,373
       48
23
77
       24
13
Fernie   . ,	
Golden    	
      147
76
        77
Kaslo    -	
Nelson    -	
       187
      357
      328
Kaslo	
Kimberley  . 	
Nelson	
Rossland 	
Trail   	
9
26
....     108
39
        64
Trail       '	
      145
1,579
431
    2,010 R 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table HI.—Individuals in Receipt of Assistance by Regions,
as at March 31st, 1950—Continued
Unorganized Organized
Region V— Territory Territory
Atlin       —        5 Dawson Creek Village          61
Pouce  Coupe    _ _     301 Prince George __   _      112
Prince  George  ...       369 Prince Rupert          78
Prince Rupert       102
Quesnel           126
Smithers            80
Stewart    -          14
Telegraph Creek          15
Williams Lake         78
1,090                                                                               251
       1,341
Totals    _.   5,495 12,280 17,775
From these figures it will be noted that of the case-load residing in organized territory about 73 per cent falls in Region II and 86 per cent of that case-load is in Regions
I and II combined. As for the recipients living in unorganized territory, it will be noted
that about 73 per cent of the case-load falls in Regions III, IV, and V, which might be
expected, as these regions comprise greater areas of unorganized territory. Of the total
case-load in organized and unorganized territory, 68 per cent falls in Regions I and II
and 32 per cent in Regions III, IV, and V.
From this table the following facts are also noted:—
Table IV.—Place oj Residence without Regard to Legal Residence under
the Provisions oj the " Residence and Responsibility Act "
Recipients living in organized areas (as at March, 1950)....  12,280
Recipients living in unorganized areas (as at March, 1950)..    5,495
Total   17,775
Table V.—Comparative Table on Percentage Basis
March, 1948    March, 1949    March, 1950
Per Cent Per Cent Per Cent
Living in organized territory   62.48        69.39        69.09
Living in unorganized territory   37.52        30.61 30.91
From this it will be seen that the concentration of population of social assistance
recipients has remained almost static in the past year, in contrast to the trend shown the
previous year.
On the basis of legal residence for social assistance purposes as determined by
the " Residence and Responsibility Act," the percentages show a somewhat different
distribution.
Table VI.—Legal Responsibility oj Social Allowance Recipients, March, 1950
Municipal responsibilities  10,992
Provincial responsibilities     6,783
Total   17,775
Table VII.—Comparative Table on Percentage Basis
March, 1948    March, 1949    March, 1950
Per Cent Per Cent Per Cent
Municipal responsibilities  63.40        63.14        61.84
Provincial responsibilities  36.60        36.86        38.16
This table indicates a slight increase in the proportion of Provincial cases, or
a similar decrease in municipal cases.
The tables above give a picture of the volume of work done in the Social Allowance
category by the workers in our district offices and municipal offices, while the following
table will outline the expenditures which have shown a corresponding increase: — REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 27
Table VIII.—Expenditures by the Province jor Social Allowances,
Medical, Services, etc.
1. Cases who are the responsibility of a       F[m\Y4T Fim\^T ^11%-™
municipality   (80 per cent paid by
Province)   $1,329,993.91 $1,509,312.18 $1,874,641.68
2. Cases who are the sole responsibility
of the Province (100 per cent paid by
Province)         815,054.68       981,240.49    1,247,494.64
3. Repatriation, transportation within
the Province, nursing- and boarding-
home care (other than T.B.), special
allowances and grants   58,603.23       394,376.04       586,159.02
4. Medical   services — Provincial   and
municipal cases  (Social Allowance, .   •
old-age   pensioners,   and   Mothers'
Allowance cases)*  ■_     .
5. Emergency payments—such as where
family may lose its home by fire or
similar circumstances 	
6. Municipal and Provincial cases—
(a) Tuberculosis   boarding-,   nursing-, and private-home cases ...
(b) Transportation   of  tuberculosis
cases 	
(c) Comforts allowance for tuberculosis cases	
7. Dependents of conscientious objectors
$2,769,304.81 $3,158,653.29 $4,033,551.15
Less recovered by refund and payment from Dominion Government—
Conscientious objectors  631.60         .___	
Allowance to lapanese persons 15.00         	
335,073.61
*
#
4,704.34
7,020.97
13,686.25
213,459.89
253,865.61
295,701.09
3,279.55
3,178.40
3,714.67
8,926.40
209.20
9,659.60
12,153.80
Net Social Allowance   $2,768,658.21  $3,158,653.29 $4,033,551.15
8. Administration, hospitalization, social allowances, etc., re Japanese indigents            $222,497.25     $257,714.37
Less Dominion Government sharef..            109,856.48        125,525.49
$112,640.77     $132,15
9. Hospital insurance premiums!      $254,164.76     $435,269.75     $758,260.00
10. Medical services and drugs      ......     $466,469.70     $949,248.28
Totals   $3,022,822.97 $4,173,033.51
Total cost of Social Allowance to Province, 1949-50  $5,873,248.31
* Medical services set out as separate vote since April 1st, 1948.
f By agreement, Dominion Government share 50-50 in Japanese project at New Denver.
t Hospital insurance effective January 1st, 1949—previous costs for hospitalization of indigents. R 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Some of the developments during the past year which are reflected in the above
statement are as follows:—
(1) Comforts allowances paid to social assistance recipients in hospital,
boarding homes, and private hospitals were increased to $5, effective
October 1st, 1949.
(2) Gross shareable payment for private hospital care was increased to $105
per month, effective April 1st, 1949. Provincial Government contributes
80 per cent of this cost. Based on type of service given and subject to
recommendation and approval of Hospital Insurance Service and Departmental Comptroller, the maximum may be increased to $120 per month.
(3) Effective January 1st, 1950, the new provision for drug services commenced, whereby the Province assumes, in addition to 100 per cent of the
cost for Provincial responsibilities, 80 per cent of the municipal cost, with
the 20 per cent balance being apportioned among municipalities on a
per capita basis.
(4) Effective January 1st, 1950, similar arrangements were established for
the provision of optical services.
One further note of explanation is necessary in that under the decentralized
programme where the administration of social allowances is delegated to the local area,
municipal or Provincial, the Province continues to share with the municipalities for the
costs. The Province is responsible for the total cost of allowances to those who are
Provincial responsibilities under the terms of the " Residence and Responsibility Act,"
and reimburses the municipalities for 80 per cent of allowances granted to those who
are municipal responsibilities in accordance with the above Act. The percentage
reimbursement is based on a maximum set by the Social Allowance guide.
Rehabilitative Services
Above we have seen figures of total case-loads and total expenditures, but these
give us no picture of the services to the many individuals included in those totals, nor
of the assistance given to meet need because of age, illness, handicap, accident, or loss
or desertion of the earning head of the family. It does not show us the persons to whom
the granting of assistance has meant support in time of illness, nor the family to whom
it has meant security when they are unable to provide for themselves, nor the person
who has been helped to independence in spite of an overwhelming handicap, nor the
family of mother and children who have been kept together after the death or desertion
of the father.
Some of these cases merit specific mention, and chief among these are those
assisted under the experimental assistance programme to aid in the rehabilitation of the
handicapped, mentioned in the previous Annual Report. At that time it was noted that
with special financial assistance from the Social Welfare Branch three paraplegic patients
were receiving remedial and vocational training in the treatment centre of the Western
Society for Physical Rehabilitation in Vancouver. It was noted that first reports had
been encouraging, and the year under review has seen the results of this experiment.
One of the patients was discharged from the treatment centre early in the year. Arrangements were made for a suitable boarding-place, and he enrolled in a shoe-making course.
Maintenance costs were met by the Social Welfare Branch, not only for the man in
Vancouver, but for his wife and family as well, who had remained in the small town
where the man formerly worked, and the costs of the training were met by the Kinsmen
Club of Vancouver. This man showed amazing determination and ability and became
a prize pupil. Eventually, the time came to re-establish him in a shoe-making business
in his home locality, and, as a result of a generous undertaking by the Kinsmen Club of
Vancouver, plans were under way at the end of the year to provide him with a shop as REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 29
well as the necessary equipment and material, and the family were assured of maintenance from Social Allowance funds until the family could be self-supporting. Everything pointed to a most satisfactory conclusion, with favourable indication that the
family would shortly achieve economic independence. This particular case is a valuable
example of close co-operation between private and public agencies and organizations
and their workers, and is a supreme example of courage and achievement on the part
of the man himself. It meant long and hard training for him, but with public and private
support he has achieved his goal.
The second example was that of a young man for whom, because of physical and
educational factors, the future did not hold the same promise of entire independence.
However, with the training he received in the treatment centre, together with encouragement and training in the skills which he had—music and leather work and saddlery—
he was able to return to his family in the small community where they lived to lead a more
satisfying life. It has been necessary to continue financial assistance to him, but he is
able to supplement this by sale of his leather handicraft. The market for his work is
limited by the isolated location of his home, and now some thought is being given to
moving him to a larger centre where he will be able to find more buyers for his product.
While his activity is limited, the financial assistance granted to enable him to take the
necessary treatment and training has enabled him to return to a more normal life with
his family and in the community—outside a hospital where otherwise he would have had
to remain for many months, if not years, or for life.
The third case was that of a still younger man who was temporarily assisted to
complete the treatment and training he had begun in the treatment centre under private
auspices. The public funds used to assist in his care were shared by the Province and
responsible municipality. At the time of his discharge he obtained part-time employment, but because of superior education he intends to seek further training to equip
himself for full-time employment. At the close of the fiscal year only one patient
subsidized by Provincial funds was in the treatment centre. However, as a result of
a recent survey of possible rehabilitation cases in receipt of Social Allowance or Mothers'
Allowance, it is anticipated that a new Provincial programme will be undertaken before
long.
Another use of Social Allowance funds which is especially satisfying is in those
cases where assistance is granted for children in the home of relatives. An extract from
a district office report reads as follows:—
" This (provision) continues to be a useful resource to perpetuate long-standing
family arrangements where grandparents or other relatives have undertaken the care of
children when parents have died or deserted them. It is also helpful in arranging care
for children during temporary illness of the mother or other emergency in the family."
This provision may also be used as part of the case-work planning where, because
of personality or behaviour difficulties of a child, temporary removal from his home is
indicated, and relatives are willing to take the child into their home to enable the family
to resolve the difficulties of which the child's behaviour was primarily a symptom. Up
to the present there has been one major difficulty with such arrangements—namely, the
provision of dental care for such children, but it is hoped that an arrangement will shortly
be made which will solve this problem.
In one such case, social allowance paid to an uncle and aunt enabled them to look
after the children of a mother who had been admitted to a tuberculosis institution. In
another instance when a widow formerly in receipt of Mothers' Allowance died leaving
three small dependent children, relatives were able, with the help of social allowance
for the children, to provide them with a happy and satisfactory home. These two
examples indicate the relative possibilities of this provision. In the first instance the
arrangement is of a prolonged but non-permanent nature, with the ultimate reunion of R 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the mother with her children, while in the second a permanent arrangement has been
made within the family group which might not have been otherwise possible without the
support from Social Allowance funds.
Another example is that of five children deserted by both father and mother, where
the granting of social allowance enabled the paternal grandparents to keep the children
in their home, giving them care and affection and security within the family group.
In a final example of this method of using Social Allowance funds, it is reported
that two children have been placed with the grandparents during the hospitalization of
both parents in a sanatorium. In this way the family unity is not broken, and the ultimate
hope is for a happy reunion with the parents when their health permits.
No better commentary can be made on the value of this type of service than the
following, which is quoted from a report of a field consultant:—
" This provision, I believe, is good, and helps to keep children where they belong,
which is within their own family group. It preserves the interest and responsibility
of relatives in and for the children, and their parents who may be only temporarily
removed from the group. It is vital to preserve the natural relationship where possible,
and where the situation and circumstances are suitable this is a wise solution. It is
essential, however, that supervisory service should go along with the financial aid to the
extent that we may be assured, always, that the provision is being used in the interests
of the particular children and that their welfare is best served thereby."
The above examples outline some of the more interesting developments in the use
of social allowances over the past year or few years, but, of course, give no picture of
the vast majority of cases where a normal family group faced with illness of the father
and wage-earner can, with the granting of social allowance, continue to function in a
normal manner, subject, of course, to any stresses and strains which may develop because
of the altered financial circumstances or the family's reaction to the father's illness.
In addition, too, there are many single individuals who, though totally incapacitated
for one reason or other, with the help of social allowance and the advice and counsel of
the worker, are helped to lead satisfying lives in the community within the limits of their
handicap.
Those persons who require care in a boarding-home or private hospital are also
assisted from Social Allowance funds, thus enabling them to have the care and supervision they require outside a hospital or institutional setting. Social allowance may also
be granted as a temporary measure to meet a temporary need of a family or an individual
pending the granting of a disability pension or allowance or compensation..
This, then, is a brief outline of some of the services for which Social Allowance
makes provision. Accompanying this provision, of course, is the realization that financial
assistance is not the only and final answer to all problems, and where emotional or
personality problems do arise, the district worker is ready to offer counselling and help.
In this way an effort is made to meet the needs of the individual as they relate to his
total well-being.
General Comments
During the year under review, negotiations with other Provinces under the existing
inter-Provincial " gentlemen's agreement" in relation to non-resident applications for
social allowance has been for the most part a satisfactory one. A new inter-Provincial
agreement is at present under discussion by the four Western Provinces, which it is
hoped will become effective before too long.
If a clearer and accepted definition of residence and responsibility between Provinces can be established, many minor differences of opinion and misunderstandings will
be eliminated. It is the hope, of course, that under the sponsorship of the Public Welfare
Division of the Canadian Welfare Council this sample agreement might become the
pattern for all Canadian Provinces. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
R 31
There have been no amendments to the " Social Assistance Act " and regulations,
and because of the flexible terms of this legislation, the need for revision is not foreseen
at this time.
During the year sixty-eight municipalities (cities, districts, and villages) have participated under the provisions of the " Social Assistance Act."
Only one appeal has been made under section 13 of the regulations to the " Social
Assistance Act."
During this year the relationship in the field of Social Allowance between the Province and the municipalities has, generally speaking, been a mutually helpful and cordial
one. Every effort has been made to maintain this degree of mutual respect and understanding, as it is only in this way that a successful programme can be achieved.
The success of the programme also depends on the social workers, supervisors,
administrators, and consultants, whose constant efforts and ready co-operation are indeed
appreciated.
MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE SECTION
No amendments or changes were made in the "Mothers' Allowances Act" and
regulations during the period under review, and no changes were made in the administrative procedure covering Mothers' Allowance cases.
The case-load continues to fall, as it has for the past ten years, and comparative
figures for the past six years are given below:—
Table I.—Statement oj Case-load
As at March, 1945  940 As at March, 1948  751
As at March, 1946  905 As at March, 1949  681
As at March, 1947  863 As at March, 1950  643
This represents a decrease of about one-third in the case-load since March, 1945,
and a reduction of 1,119 cases since the all-time high total of 1,762 reached in March,
1940.
On a monthly basis the following case-load figures are given for the year:-—
Table II.—Monthly Case-load, April 1st, 1949, to March 31st, 1950
Month
Number of
Allowances
in Pay
Number of Persons
Incapacitated
Husbands .
Mothers
Children
676
672
661
656
660
655
659
666
664
652
650
643
676
672
661
656
660
655
659
666
664
652
650
643
1,445
1,435
1,415
1,416
1,423
1,408
1,422
1,434
1,435
1,398
1,392
1,372
149
147
144
July                                                                              	
138
141
137
137
138
137
131
131
130
From these figures it will be noted that the total case-load has been reduced by
approximately 5 per cent since April 1st, 1949. R 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The number of applications received also decreased this year to 141, as against 176
for the preceding year, while a total of 171 applications were dealt with, as follows:—
Table III.—Statement of Applications Considered and Decisions Made
Applications pending as at April 1st, 1949  30
New applications received during year  110
Reapplications received during year  31
Total .  171
Decisions—
Grants   127
Refusals   18
Withdrawn   12
157
Applications pending as at March 31st, 1949  14
Total .  171
Reasons for refusals—
Not a British subject '.  1
Not a resident in British Columbia for three years  1
Disability which caused husband's death arose when outside British Columbia  1
Personal property in excess  2
Unable to qualify under section 6  2
Mother's earnings in excess  3
Unearned income in excess  5
Social Allowance preferable  3
Total  18
Reasons for applications pending—
Awaiting medical information and property information.... 1
Awaiting completion of investigation report  1
Awaiting information re property and assets  2
Awaiting verification of income  2
Awaiting verification of citizenship  2
Awaiting medical information  2
Awaiting vital statistical information  2
Awaiting verification of status  1
Awaiting decision (received March 31st, 1950)  1
Total  14 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
R 33
Reasons for cancelling 165 allowances during the year under
review—
Mother deceased  3
Mother remarried  26
Mother left British Columbia  3
Whereabouts unknown  1
Mother in hospital indefinitely  4
Mother's earnings in excess  33
Section 6 of " Mothers' Allowances Act"  4
Husband not totally disabled  14
Husband released from penitentiary  3
Deserting husband returned  2
Only child removed from care  4
Only child 16 years of age and not attending school  1
Only child 18 years of age  23
Only child under 16 years left school  1
Only child under 18 years left school  17
Personal property in excess  4
Unearned income in excess  8
Social Allowance preferable form of assistance  5
Withdrawn at mother's request  9
Total  165
Of the cancelled cases, the length of time each family had been in receipt of Mothers'
Allowance is as follows:—
Years ....    1     2     3     4     5     6     7     8     9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17
Cases .... 23   24   11     9     9   11     6   14   14     9     8     7     9     5     4     1     1
Total cases, 165.   Average length of time on allowance, 6.26 years.
With regard to the active case-load as at March 31st, 1950, a breakdown shows the
payment of allowances for the following reasons and the number of children benefited:—
Table IV.—Reasons for Granting Allowance and Children Benefited
Status of Mother in Accordance with Eligibility
Number of Children
Qualifications Set by the Act
1
2
3
4
5
6
7    1 '8
1
9
Total
162
2
6
25
4
10
1
5
12
1
3
146
4
7
39
7
6
9
15
66
3
4
14
2
2
1
3
6
25
3
9
2
7
8
1
2
2
2
1
5
3
2
3
1
1
1
416
Husband in penitentiary  -  -	
10
22
Incapacitated husbands home   —	
95
17
18
3
17
1
-  1       .
-  1   • -
41
1
3
Totals
231
233
101
46
16
8   1       5
2
1
643
Number of individuals benefited: Mothers, 643; husbands, 95*; children, 1,372; total, 2,110.
* This figure applies only to those incapacitated husbands residing in the home, and who are included in the
Mothers' Allowance grant. In addition, there are 17 incapacitated husbands in hospital or cared for elsewhere and 18
husbands in receipt of old-age or blind pension (total, 35) for whom no Mothers' Allowance grant is paid.
In this table it will be seen that approximately 36 per cent of the case-load is comprised of one-child cases, with a similar percentage of two-child cases, and 88 per cent
2 R 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of the total case-load is for families of three children or less. The one-child cases are
the important ones for comment. Frequently, the question is asked as to why a mother
with only one child cannot maintain herself and child independent of public funds. However, many factors which do not appear in a statistical table may prevent her doing so.
The one child may be the youngest of a family, the mother's age and health may prevent
her from working, while in a true one-child case the health of the mother and child or
age of child, or the presence of an incapacitated husband in the home, may each or all
prevent her from taking employment.
As has been pointed out in previous Reports, wherever the circumstances warrant
in a one-child case, the mother is given every encouragement to remain independent of
public assistance when making application, and if she is already a recipient, to direct her
efforts and training to a point where she may dispense with the allowance. Only twenty-
one allowances were granted in one-child cases during the year. It might be pointed out
here, too, that every encouragement is given in all cases to the over-age earning children
living in the home to assist in the maintenance of the home. Such contributions are
important, as well as any casual earnings the mother may have, to supplement the allowance in an effort to meet the rising cost of living which has affected so drastically all those
who are attempting to live on a very limited income.
In so far as Mothers' Allowance is concerned, an attempt is made to offset this by
giving the broadest interpretation possible to the approved schedule of exemptions and
deductions in relation to earnings, keeping in mind the goal of equitable decisions for
all recipients.
Cost of Mothers' Allowance
The costs of Mothers' Allowance grants have decreased proportionately with the
case-load, as will be seen from the following statements.
In explanation of these two statements it should be pointed out that when the increase
was granted to Mothers' Allowance recipients during the previous fiscal year, the increase
was and is derived from Social Allowance funds; consequently, the financial costs to each
fund are shown separately. Included in the Social Allowance total of $71,353.42 is the
sum of $2,124.80 which was paid in the form of a Christmas bonus of $3.20 to each
Mothers' Allowance family. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 35
Table V.—Mothers' Allowance Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year
April 1st, 1949, to March 31st, 1950
Advance received from Minister of Finance  $368,100.00
Bank interest  20.86
$368,120.86
Allowances paid as follows:—
Month Amount of Allowances
April   $31,291.36
May     31,054.61
June     30,712.33
July      30,546.30
August      30,819.58
September      30,313.16
October     30,627.01
November      30,792.78
December     30,890.34
January      30,129.14
February      29,791.87
March      29,619.79
  $366,588.27
Unexpended balance of advance refunded
to Minister of Finance, May 2nd,
1950          1,511.73
Bank interest paid to Minister of Finance,
May 2nd, 1950  20.86
  $368,120.86
The books and records of the Mothers' Allowances Fund have been examined under my direction. I hereby certify
that the above statement is a true account of the Receipts and Disbursements of the Director of Welfare under authority
of the " Mothers' Allowances Act " for the twelve months ending March 31st, 1950, according to the information furnished me, and as disclosed by the books and records submitted for my inspection.
J. A. CRAIG,
Comptroller-General. R 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VI.—Financial Statement of Supplementary Social Allowances Paid to Mothers'
Allowance Recipients for the Fiscal Year April 1st, 1949, to March 31st, 1950
Advance received from Minister of Finance  $71,353.43
Allowances paid as follows:—
Month Amount of Allowances
April   $5,914.00
May  ... 5,893.00
June   5,762.28
July  5,745.05
August   5,797.40
September   5,711.50
October '.  5,772.50
November   5,828.25
December   5,821.85
Christmas bonus  2,124.80
January   5,706.40
February   5,661.00
March   5,615.40
  $71,353.43
The books and records have been examined under my direction. I hereby certify that the above statement is a true
account of the Receipts and Disbursements of the Director of Welfare for the twelve months ending March 31st, 1950,
according to the information furnished me, and as disclosed by the books and records submitted for my inspection.
J. A. CRAIG,
Comptroller-General.
Based on the above financial statement the per capita cost is given for the present
year in comparison with the past five years.
These figures are based on expenditures from the Mothers' Allowances Fund only
and do not include the additional expenditure from Social Allowance funds.
Table VII.—Statement Showing per Capita Cost
Fiscal Year
Total
Expenditure
Population
at June of
Each Year
"»' Canita
Cost to the
Province
Percentage
Change over
Previous
Year
(Decrease)
Total
Reduction
from
Previous
Year
1944-45                    	
$528,442.87
498,901.72
488,866.74
441,966.71
389,347.24
366,588.27
932,000 (1944)
949,000 (1945)
1,003,000 (1946)
1,044,000 (1947)
1,082,000 (1948)
1,114,000 (1949)
$0.57
.53
.49
.42
.36
.28
9.13
5.59
2.01
9.59
11.91
5.85
$53,098.42
1945-46                    .— 	
29,541.15
1946^17  •    	
1947-48
10,034.98
46,900.03
52,619.47
22,758.97
1948^19 	
1949-50                    	
Mothers' Allowance Advisory Board
The Mothers' Allowance Advisory Board held one meeting during the fiscal year
under review under the chairmanship of Mrs. F. W. Smelts.
At this meeting further consideration was given to the scale of Mothers' Allowances
in relation to other forms of public assistance and the rising cost of living. Consideration
was also given to the existing schedule of exemptions and earnings as it affects the allowance payable to a mother engaged in part-time work. In view of the decreasing caseload, discussion also centred around the merits or otherwise of repeal of the " Mothers'
Allowances Act " in favour of one form of assistance available to all mothers—namely,
Social Allowance as provided under the " Social Assistance Act." REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 37
During the year the resignation from the Board of Mrs. W. R. F. Richmond was
received with regret. To replace Mrs. Richmond, Mrs. Paul Smith, of New Westminster,
was appointed for a period of three years.
General Comments
The significant factors in the year's administration remain as they were last year.
Once more the year has brought an unprecedented rise in the cost of living, which,
added to existing high rentals, has increased the problem of budgeting for the mother in
receipt of a fixed minimum income.
In many cases their ability to manage has been taxed to the utmost and can be
accounted for only in part by increased contributions of earning children and their own
supplementary earnings from part-time work. The mother most affected, however, is
the one who has no means whatever, by reason of health or circumstances at home or
absence of working children, of supplementing her income or other resources at her
disposal.
The decrease in the case-load has been noted elsewhere and is due to a large extent
to the growing use of the provisions of the " Social Assistance Act" in granting social
allowance as the preferable form of assistance.
The majority of applications continue to come from mothers residing in organized
territory, and the majority of those have legal residence in organized territory. The
following table will illustrate this:—
Table VIII.—Proportion of Applications and Grants in Organized Territory
Total applications and reapplications received  141
Applicants residing in organized territory  134
Applicants having legal domicile in organized territory 135
Total grants made during year  127
Recipients residing in organized territory  121
Recipients having legal domicile in organized territory 123
From these figures it will be seen that 95 per cent or more applicants reside in or
have legal domicile in organized territory, and the same percentages apply in those cases
in which grants were made.
To the municipal and Provincial workers and supervisors we wish to express our
appreciation of their ever-ready co-operation with the Division in the administration and
supervision of Mothers' Allowances.
FAMILY SERVICE SECTION
This year, in order that the report on this section of the work might be more descriptive of the service rendered and the statistics have more meaning, the field consultants,
with the help of the district supervisors and workers, were asked for reports and comments on certain selected topics and case material. To them I would like to express
personal appreciation at this point for making the following report possible in a new
method of presentation with illustrative material.
As we have stated before, Family Service is a relatively new service to be given
recognition in a public welfare setting, although it must inherently be a part of any
generalized programme. In this Province " Family Service " has full recognition as part
of a generalized social welfare programme in statutory authority granted under the
" Social Assistance Act." This places emphasis on the fact that financial need arid
assistance will not always be the only problem nor the only way of meeting that problem.
The total case-load has been reduced slightly this year, but this may be explained
largely by closer supervision practice, more selectivity at intake, and frequent careful R 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA
review of case-loads to ensure that individual cases are carried no longer than required or
after our services are needed, or of benefit to the individual or family.
Following are figures compiled from the monthly statistical reports from the district
workers:—
Table I.—Monthly Case-load oj Family Service Cases
As at April 30th, 1949 : 1,119
As at May 31st, 1949 .:  1,143
As at June 30th, 1949  1,167
As at July 31st, 1949  1,207
As at August 31st, 1949 :  1,273
As at September 30th, 1949  1,267
As at October 31st, 1949 .  1,285
As at November 30th, 1949  1,297
As at December 31st, 1949   1,271
As at January 31st, 1950  1,257
As at February 28th, 1950  1,290
As at March 31st, 1950  1,254
This table indicates minor variations in case-load, with the maximum reached in
February. From the opening month to the closing month- of the fiscal year there was a
net increase of 135 cases or 12 per cent in the case-load.
' For the purposes of closer study a statistical breakdown of the Family Service caseload in Region II was submitted as follows (this does not include the Greater Vancouver
area, which is served by Vancouver agencies):—
Table II.—Statistical Breakdown for Region II of Family Service Cases during
Fiscal Year 1949-50
Problems
Vancouver
District
New Westminster
City and
District
Cloverdale
Chilliwack.
Abbotsford,
Haney
Langley
Total
47
19
4
9
25
.10
8
34
18
9
47
26
14
9
2
21
8
" 2
37
14
2
1
30
4
2
19
19
4
19
3
7
1
18
6
1
1
12
2
20
2
10
3
3
3
29
11
1
5
39
13
16
22
27
5
41
16
2
5
8
6
7
3
1
2
2
3
1
2
132
Desertion . 	
49
7
16
Insufficient income 	
Financial    assistance    required — emergency
health aid, MA., S.A., housekeeper	
114
27
28
87
69
Delinquency involving appearance in Court...
Illness (mental or physical)  	
Personality    problems    (not    diagnosed    as
21
113
46
Inadequate housing    .	
Unemployment—not active SA.  	
14
18
Inter-Provincial responsibility  and  repatriation   	
8
Sundry — D.V.A.,  C.N.I.B., Family  Allowance, B.C. Youth Foundation 	
49
Inquiries—■
Outside Province ....	
Outside Canada—■
United States ...	
20
1
England  	
3
These figures cannot be regarded as absolute and must allow for a margin of error
due to variety of interpretation regarding categorization of case-load and incomplete
information on hand in the divisional office. Major factors, however, are the difficulty
of trying to isolate and tabulate problems of human behaviour and relationships.   Even REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
R 39
if that were possible to an exact degree, the problems would overlap in many family situations in that more than one problem might and often does appear in one family group.
The sources of referral of family problem cases are interesting, as they indicate to
some extent the growing knowledge of our service. In the same Region II (excluding
Greater Vancouver) these are as follows:—
Table HI.—Sources of Referral of Family Service Cases for Fiscal Year 1949-50
Source of Referral
Vancouver
District
New Westminster
City and
District
Cloverdale
Chilliwack,
Abbotsford.
Haney
Langley
Total
66
61
7
11
2
1
7
37
4
4
5
2
4
6
30
34
65
4
12
15
1
3
3
3
5
7
■      14
3
1
5
1
1
2
3
12
8
6
2
17
......
1
58
66
12
17
17
1
6
4
2
15
3
22
1
1
14
6
2
1
5
5
4
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
163
208
Citizens, neighbours, etc.-	
26
44
Public health nurses	
.   43
4
11
17
5
76
Schools     	
14
40
Courts, Magistrates   ...
9
5
4
D.V.A. ....	
21
7
C.A.S.—Ontario   	
2
4
1
B.C. Youth Foundation  .
3
6
Others	
36
These tables give a picture of the volume and variety of problems met with in one
area in the Family Service case-load, but in order to see the nature of the service given, the
following examples were selected from the many which were reported from the five regions
of the Province:—
Mrs. X. came to the Social Welfare Branch following the death of her husband after a
year's illness. She was concerned over the adjustment of her 3 '/i -year-old son with her own
health and with her financial situation. Mrs. X. was an intelligent, well-educated young
woman, and following the establishment of a supportive relationship with the worker, she
appeared free to use the resources at her disposal. She applied and was found eligible for a
pension which gave her a feeling of security in being able to provide for her family. She
was able to benefit from a discussion of the emotional problems of her son and arranged for
him to have the companionship of her brother so that the loss of his father, to whom the
boy was greatly attached, was minimized.
Mrs. X. was encouraged to speak of her life with her husband and to evaluate the
changes which his death had brought. This appeared to alleviate her anxiety and she became
optimistic in her outlook for the future. She accepted medical care for herself and ceased
to be overly concerned with her health, as her confidence in her ability to accept her responsibilities increased.
A different situation was presented when:—
A 17-year-old girl was brought to our district office by a friend. She had run away that
morning from an unhappy home situation. When the parents were reached, they proved to
be very antagonistic and unyielding as far as their daughter was concerned, insisting that the
only solution was for her to return home immediately and behave as they thought fit. They
were of European extraction and it was evident that their Old World concepts of parent-child
relationships were in conflict with their daughter's Canadian upbringing, and her desire to
gradually create a life of her own, and to choose her own friends. However, since the
daughter steadfastly refused to return home, they ultimately agreed to our placement of her
in a wage home, temporarily, and under our supervision. Money was no object, but the girl
thought that she would be happiest in a work placement where she could earn her board and
room and pocket money. R 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
She used this period to think about her problems more calmly, which, for the most part,
were those of the average teen-ager attempting to grow up, but which had been complicated
by the family situation. In time she saw past her parents' domination to the very real concern they felt for her. Her parents, too, in time, were able to talk things over with us, and
their tendency to force the girl into their own patterns diminished. Of her own free will she
began to visit her home again, and gradually the visits extended until she decided that she
could return home to live once more, in the changed atmosphere. Recently she came in to
tell us that she was making plans to be married and that the whole family was entering into
the spirit of the occasion and giving some realistic help and encouragement.
From another area we are told of:—
A 12-year-old boy in rebellion against his father and mother until the father began to
think of him as incorrigible. The boy felt he was rejected because one eye turned in. The
worker's services centred around interpreting the boy's emotional needs to his father, also
the need for the boy to see an eye specialist. The relationship between father and son has
improved, and the father is taking the boy to an eye specialist. We are obtaining financial
aid for eye care from a private source.
These are examples of family service at the level at which it is possible for the district
worker to offer help in a generalized programme. Large case-loads and long distances
of travel naturally tend to limit the amount and degree of service which is also dependent
on the level of skill and experience of the worker, but in every case a sincere effort is
made to help the family resolve the presenting problem and to strengthen family unity.
From another report the work of the Family Service Section is tabulated on the basis
of presenting problem and again shows the variety of service given. Some of the
examples are as follows:—
(1) Children of school age in the custody of their grandparents, under the
jurisdiction of the Official Guardian, who is responsible for maintenance.
Our worker helps with planning for the children and reports to the Official
Guardian.
(2) Single elderly man of considerable wealth, who has lived for many years in
an isolated location, was helped to adjust to boarding-home care and
environment of local community.
(3) Family of mother and five young children, with independent means
although the father is in a tuberculosis institution, required considerable
supportive help because of loneliness and behaviour problems of the
children, and need for family adjustments due to father's limitations in
future.
(4) Help with family problems, which arise because of absence of husband
and father who must live apart from family by reason of his employment.
(5) Counselling service given regarding the problems of step-children in a
family background of frequent divorce and remarriage.
(6) Counselling service to war brides who are finding it difficult to accept
Canadian ways of living and their Canadian husbands in their civilian
setting.
(7) Service rendered to safeguard children and responsibility of parents in
common-law family units.
(8) Counselling service on problems arising in families due to conflicts in
cultural patterns or religious differences.
(9) Service granted on request of doctor to assist parents to understand and
accept children who are mentally retarded, epileptic, or physically handicapped.
These are but a few of the problems chosen at random from a long list of services.
In addition, there are the co-operative services with other divisions and other agencies,
such as supervision of boys and girls released from the Industrial Schools and requiring
continued supervision in their own or relatives' homes; follow-up service to families after
Child Guidance Clinic or Provincial Mental Hospital supervision has ended;  or advice REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 41
regarding various community resources and assistance in applying to these—such as
Benevolent Fund benefits, Junior Red Cross, B.C. Youth Foundation, Family Allowances,
School for the Deaf and the Blind, Children's Travelling Clinic, and many others.
In addition, our workers render considerable service to agencies outside the Province
and Canada who request interviews and reports on family members living in British
Columbia, where another member of the family is seeking some service or counsel from
the inquiring agency.
In order to assess the factors which might affect the Family Service case-loads, one
worker was asked to do a study of a real community, and the following is the report,
showing how the make-up of a community might affect a case-load and the factors which
help to determine the nature of service given:—
Setting.—This city and suburb have a combined population of approximately 6,600.
The city is new, having been incorporated within the last ten years. It is scattered in
area, and since its incorporation has increased 50 per cent in population and 33V3 per
cent in area. It is interesting to note that its population is essentially one of young
families. According to school figures and the city's census roll, the percentage of children
to adults is double that of the City of Victoria.
Analysis of Case-load.—It would appear only natural that in a city which is characterized by its quick growth and its youthful population to have a case-load which is
predominantly (60 per cent) Family Service and Child Welfare. The assistance groups
make up 11 per cent of the total case-load and Old-age Pensions approximately 28 per
cent. At present one out of every five of our cases is a Family Service case. These
comparative percentages have not changed greatly since a year ago, but the numbers in
each category have increased. The above figures are based on a case-load as of April,
1950, of 127.
Factors Affecting the Family Services Case-load.—Naturally one seeks for reasons
for such a large percentage of Family Service cases.    Among these are the following:—
(1) The general character of the population of the city with its emphasis on
young people and large families. It is noted that this city is primarily
a centre of employment where people come almost solely to obtain
employment and not on account of any particular amenities which it
offers. On the whole, people do not drift here except for employment
purposes, and as it is a company town, it is essentially a wage-earner's
centre.
(2) An increasing number of referrals by the Provincial Police and the school
authorities.    Most of their referrals have been on problem children.
(3) An increasing awareness throughout the community of the nature of our
work and of the facilities such as the Child Guidance Clinic, which we have
at hand. In this respect the very active Parent-Teacher Association has
played a prominent role.
With these increasing referrals and the increasing awareness of our place in family
counselling comes the absolute necessity on the part of the social worker:—
(1) To make a careful selection of cases to be carried. It is interesting to note
that only about 50 per cent of the cases referred are carried as active cases
by the worker.    The basis of our selectivity depends on:—
(a) The nature of the problem presented in each case.
(b) The facilities within our Branch (such as Child Guidance Clinic,
etc.) and the community for assisting us in our work.
(c) The amount of time the worker has to spend on these cases.
(2) It has also made imperative the increasing necessity of the short-contact
interview, and this in turn adds a responsibility on the part of the worker
to develop skills in this field. We are increasingly aware of the necessity
in the above setting of stressing selectivity and the short-contact interview. R 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Analysis of Family Services Cases.—The Family Services cases may be broken down
into three categories, though these are not too clear-cut and there is considerable overlapping:—
(1) There are the miscellaneous cases which include problems of people on
marginal income, Family Allowances, Deserted Wives' and Children's
Maintenance Act, housing, etc. This general category has accounted for
about 30 per cent of the Family Service cases, and many of these were
referred for some assistance to the private resources.
*(2) The largest group are those of children's behaviour problems, including
the cases referred by the Juvenile Court. This accounts for 50 per cent
of our Family Service case-load. It is noteworthy, however, that although
the referrals come on the children, usually from the police and sometimes
from parents or friends, the problems are family problems. Five of these
during the past year have been referred to the Child Guidance Clinic.
*(3) The smallest group numerically, but the group requiring the most case
work, is that in which there is marital counselling. This group would
account for about one-fifth of our Family Service cases. We have never
carried more than two or three of these at any one time. In this group
the following factors are noted:—
(a) Emotional instability on the part of both or either one of the
parents (usually the husband). We find that emotional difficulties are the
underlying cause of disruption.
(b) Present in every case has been some degree of sexual maladjustment.
(c) Financial difficulties appear to be the third focus of marital
difficulties, either too little money or too much money. The problem
seems to-be one partly of budgeting and partly of assisting couples to face
their problems rather than spend their resources in drink or other harmful
activity outside the home.
In the above study, reference is made to the short-contact interview, upon which the
workers have been concentrating in the past year, and an example of this service was
requested.    The following is a report of such an interview:—
Mrs. Y. came to the office accompanied by her lawyer, who suggested that Mrs. Y. was
in need, as she had left her husband and had two children to support. Mrs. Y. had only $50
in cash and the lawyer felt she was a " deserving case."
In the interview, after the lawyer had left, Mrs. Y. said she left her husband one week
ago because she could no longer tolerate his stealing, queerness, and inability to hold a job.
She had threatened many times before to leave him, and when he lost this last job for stealing
articles from his place of employment, she contacted friends in another part of the Province
who offered to provide accommodation for her and her two children, both girls, aged 11
and 3.   She and the children are living with friends at present and can stay there indefinitely.
Mrs. Y. is 40 years of age, has a smart appearance, wears glasses, and has a pleasant
manner. She has no affection now for her husband and hopes to be able to get a job in the
near future and provide for her children. Her husband sold all but a few pieces of the
furniture and so she will be starting out afresh.
Although Mrs. Y. was not willing at this time for a worker to interview her husband,
worker was impressed by her candidness and initiative. We wondered why Mrs. Y. had
come asking for financial help, as she did not seem concerned about money. She said she
wasn't worried about funds, as she had relatives and friends who were prepared to help her.
"I'll never be stuck." It developed.that the lawyer had urged her to apply for assistance.
The idea had not occurred to her before, but she was willing to try.
Her energy and initiative were commended and as well our policies regarding assistance
interpreted. Mrs. Y. realized she did not actually need money now. Worker encouraged her
to continue her efforts to find a job, and as she was already optimistic about possibilities here,
it might be only a short while before she got one. In the meantime, she had good friends
and accommodation.
* Worker's Note.—Categories (2) and (3) cannot really be separated. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 43
Mrs. Y. realized that we could be more helpful to her when she was more helpful to
herself. She then asked about care for her 3-year-old child, thinking that she might be
unable to look after her if she got a job. We suggested that in view of the many apparent
strengths in the whole situation, that she might find she would solve this problem when it
arose, but, in any event, we could suggest a suitable home for private placement, or if the
situation warranted it, assume more responsibility in placing the child with client contributing to maintenance.
This idea was satisfactory to Mrs. Y., and interview concluded with client prepared to
continue job-hunting and knowing that if she needed help later we would be available.
While the worker in this situation would be aware of underlying emotional difficulties
caused by separation and possible later problems, the fact that Mrs. Y. was able and
wished to make her own plans for the time being were not disregarded. In consequence,
our participation in her plan was not imposed upon her, but rather the assurance that if
any time our services were needed, we would be willing to help.
Other Services
Two such services, which represent examples of co-operation between Federal Government departments and private agencies, are given for the Family Allowances Division
of the Department of Health, and Welfare and the British Columbia Youth Foundation,
whose inquiries are directed through the divisional office and for whom we undertake
a reporting service.
During the year under review the volume of Family Allowance inquiries (for which
we are reimbursed) are as follows: —
Family Allowances
Table IV.—Requests Received from Family Allowances Division,
April 1st, 1949, to March 31st, 1950
Pending as at April 1st, 1949     95
Received during fiscal year April 1st, 1949, to March 31st,
1950, by months—
April  .     33
May      44
June     43
July     20
August.     22
September      31
October      31
November      28
December      3 2
January, 1950     31
February 1     29
March      32
  376
Total case-load   471
Cases completed within fiscal year  438
Cases pending as at April 1st, 1950 ;     33 R 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table V.—Requests to District Offices and Other Agencies
Pending as at April 1st, 1949  102
Sent out during fiscal year April 1st, 1949, to March 31st,
1950, by regions—
Region I*      44
Region Ilf  178
Region III     31
Region IV     43
Region V ,     36
■  332
Total number of requests  434
Requests completed within fiscal year, by regions—
Region I*     55
Region Ilf 1  210
Region III .     40
Region IV     47
Region V     28
 380
Requests pending as at April 1st, 1950     54
* Includes requests to private agencies in Victoria City.
t Includes requests to private agencies in Vancouver City.
British Columbia Youth Foundation
For the British Columbia Youth Foundation the following statistics are noted:
Table VI.—British Columbia Youth Foundation Applications
Pending as at April 1st, 1949     8
Applications received—
Region I      4
Region II      7
Region III     3
Region IV      5
Region V     1
— 20
28
Grants   9
Withdrawals  3
Refusals   3
Pending as at March 31st, 1950  13
Conclusion
28
It is hoped that this report will serve in some measure to give a clearer outline of
that section of our work defined as Family Service for purposes of statistical recording,
while it must not be forgotten that in actual practice the same degree of service and skill
is offered and given in Mothers' Allowance and Social Allowance cases as well.
For their efforts in this area of service, and for their assistance in compiling this
report, we wish to express appreciation to the district workers, supervisors, and field
consultants. T ,., „
J. M. Riddell,
Supervisor. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 45
CHILD WELFARE DIVISION
I beg to present herewith the Annual Report for the Child Welfare Division for the
fiscal year ended March 31st, 1950.
During the fiscal year 1949-50 the Child Welfare Division has been concerned
primarily with the clarification and review of policy as it relates to those areas of administration already or to be decentralized to the field. The two-way interpretation from
division to field now possible through field consultants has enabled us to broaden a number of policies pertaining to the adoption placement of children, and early in the new
fiscal year we expect to be able to decentralize additional phases of unmarried parents'
work, as well as the admission of children to non-ward care.
The structure of decentralization is gradually becoming clearly established. However, its ultimate success will depend upon whether or not a high standard of preventive
family and child welfare work can be maintained in the field, and this, in turn, will depend
upon the ability of the Branch to maintain a reasonable ratio of experienced supervisors
and staff to clients in the face of ever-increasing case-loads in all phases of the Social
Welfare Branch programme.
" PROTECTION OF CHILDREN ACT "
There were 189 children from 112 families apprehended under the " Protection of
Children Act " this year, an increase of 77 over last year's number. Nine of these, from
four families, were not presented at Court, as their parents, when located, were able to
make satisfactory plans for them. Four children from another family were presented,
but returned to their own home under our supervision by order of the Court, and 19
children, from 9 families, were presented, but the application withdrawn when alternative
plans were offered by parents or relatives. There were 126 children, from 74 families,
made wards of the Superintendent of Child Welfare, and applications for the remaining
31 children, from 24 families, are still before the Court.
In addition to the 189 children apprehended, 281 children, from 182 families, were
admitted to care at the request of the parent or parents on a non-ward basis, and 23
children, from 22 families, were committed to the care of the Superintendent of Child
Welfare under the " Juvenile Delinquents Act." In all, 493 children, from 316 families,
were admitted during the year, and 52 children were accepted for supervision from
Children's Aid Societies or agencies in other Provinces. Omitting these 52 children, this
represents an increase of 199 children over last year's admissions—a cause for some
concern.
A study of reasons why the 189 children were apprehended under the " Protection
of Children Act" has established with reasonable certainty the fact that no alternative
plan was possible at that time. Undoubtedly, if our preventive work had been more
adequate in the past, some of the family breakdowns could have been averted. Also,
to-day's more complete coverage of services throughout the Province and the greater
degree of stability in staff which the Branch has achieved has brought to light a number
of serious and long existent neglect situations. These two factors could account for
much of the sharp increase in admissions, but in view of the rising population in British
Columbia, similar situations may again have to be overlooked if we do not increase the
staff of the Branch accordingly. If we do not do so, we can expect to have a continuing
increase in the numbers of children admitted to care.
An analysis of the non-ward admissions gives a more positive picture in that the
constructive use of placement in certain family crises can be distinctly seen. Ninety-one
children of the 281 admitted came to us pending completion of plans for adoption or
other permanent placement. Thirty-four other children, who up to this time had known
little else but institutional life in this and the Old Country, were admitted from the Fair-
bridge Farm School.    Of the remaining 156 non-wards admitted, 102 were children R 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
whose parent or parents were ill, and 21 had one parent (usually the mother) deceased
or deserting. The parents of another 15 children were divorced, and the one awarded
custody needed help in planning. One other child was admitted pending repatriation to
another Province, and 15 came into care because of serious behaviour problems.
Many of these children should be in care for a short period only if their parents can
be given the constructive help that would enable them to work through their problems
and re-establish a home. Others, who have been badly hurt by the experiences which
life has brought them, will require the most skilful treatment over a long period of time
if their stay in care is to be of benefit. Our observations during the year in this and other
phases of child welfare lead us to believe that there must be still further freedom from
the pressures which accrue in a far-reaching programme such as ours, and greater opportunity provided for supervisors and workers to learn skills in treatment of children and
their parents if this part of our programme is to be really effective.
Incomplete Committals
As at March 31st, 1950, 62 children, from 44 families, who had been apprehended
under the " Protection of Children Act " during this and previous years, were still before
the Court awaiting completion of committal. Some of these delays have been caused by
difficulties in establishment of and disputes over residence. Unquestionably, much valuable time and effort would be saved if a more simplified means of determining and sharing
financial responsibility between Provincial and municipal governments could be devised.
Wards Returned to Own Parents
During the year 5 children, from 3 families, were re-established with their parents
and the order of committal rescinded by the Court, and 3 children, from 2 families,
returned on a probationary period.
FOSTER PLACEMENT OF CHILDREN
A total of 938 children in the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare were
placed in Child Welfare Division foster homes during the year. In addition, we had 398
children in the care of a Children's Aid Society; 15 other wards were resident with their
foster-parents or relatives in other Provinces, and the respective Superintendents of
Child Welfare have been requested to admit them to care and to extend supervision on
our behalf; 17 other children were in a Provincial institution in this Province. Summing
this up, the Superintendent of Child Welfare had 1,368 children in care during the fiscal
year, and we begin the new fiscal year with 741 of our children in Child Welfare Division
foster homes, 279 with Children's Aid Societies, 13 under the supervision of another
Province, and 10 in Provincial institutions, making a total of 1,043 children in the care
of the Superintendent of Child Welfare as at March 31st, 1950.
Among the 545 children newly admitted to care during the year, 65 over 12 years
of age came because of serious behaviour difficulties, and of the 189 removed from their
homes under the " Protection of Children Act " because of neglect or need of proper
guardianship, a probable 75 per cent will need concentrated help and guidance over
a long period of time if they are to understand and accept what their parental relationships have meant to them. If workers have not the time to help these children with their
problems, placement away from their own homes will only add to their confusion and
resentment. For instance, there was Joey, the little boy who came to us this year while
his mother was undergoing hospital treatment for a condition considered to be the outcome of her own neurosis. During his seven years of life, Joey had known innumerable
boarding homes. The brief periods in his own home left him with only vivid memories
of an unreasonable, unloving, and harsh mother. His father had long since ceased to be
interested and had left the family soon after Joey's birth. This boy knew he did not
want to go back to his mother, but before he can relate happily to other adults as he REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 47
grows older, someone will have to help Joey to understand why his mother and father
behaved as they did, and help him to realize that he need not reproach himself for wanting to be away from them. A time-consuming and demanding task for any worker—
but how challenging and how rewarding!
Some Results of Placement
It is difficult to assess the results of foster-home placement. With some children
we can but admit failure—because of our own lack of skill or a lack of other adequate
treatment facilities to meet a particular child's needs. The real test of our work comes
when and if we have opportunity to observe the child as he grows to adulthood and can
evaluate his ability to form mature and meaningful relationships in his work and personal
life. There is a great need for research in this area, and child-placing agencies should not
be without such knowledge to guide them in future building and planning.
There are some children each year, however, who encourage us by their evident
ability to reach out for new learning and experiences, and we know from their early and
unhappy associations that this newly gained insight and courage did not " just happen "—
a skilful worker and loving, understanding foster-parents helped constructively.
A 17-year-old boy is making good marks this year in his matriculation term and has
plans to go on to a professional degree. Not many years ago he was one of the " bad
boys " in a community, and the hostility he felt toward the world in general might easily
have spelled disaster for him. Another boy, who was found abandoned eighteen years
ago, and who has suffered acutely with asthma since babyhood, is reaching out for some
vocational training this year. It will have to be on a part-time basis because he is not
robust, and he has still to resolve many inner conflicts, but he is at last showing some
ability to accept the most bitter of all facts to a child—his parents' complete rejection
of him. Two girls, who have been in care for a number of years, married this year, and
their choice of partners and their ability to share in planning with the workers indicates
a good degree of mature judgment. Another girl, who came to us six years ago from
a sad and sordid home situation, as a 15-year-old unmarried mother of two children,
wired us this spring from a nurses' training-school: " Made it. Got capped Tuesday.
Kay."
These and others of our children have been helped to gain greater insight through
which they are able to build satisfying lives for themselves. Their very progress, however, makes us doubly conscious of the boys and girls we are unable to help.
Our immediate goal must unquestionably be the development of more effective
treatment facilities. When these are available, many more of our disturbed children can
be helped, and our use of foster homes for placement can be on a more selective and
constructive basis than is now possible, since these constitute almost our only placement
resources.
COST OF MAINTAINING CHILDREN IN THE CARE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF CHILD WELFARE OR A CHILDREN'S SOCIETY
In addition to the 1,368 children in the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare,
the three Children's Aid Societies had in their care 1,905 children during the year,
making the total number of children in care 3,273. How the cost of maintaining this
group of children was shared between Community Chests, municipal governments, and
the Provincial Government is shown in the following statement:— R 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Children in Child Welfare Division foster homes, as at March 31st, 1950     741
Provincial Government responsible for 100 per cent, of cost     376
Provincial Government responsible for 80 per cent and
municipality for 20 per cent of cost      199
Fairbridge Farm School (100 per cent, recoverable)        14
Other Provinces responsible for 100 per cent  7
596
Wards in free homes, or who have become wholly or partly self-
supporting  .      145
Number of children for whom full maintenance was paid as at
March 31 st, 1950      596
Total number of children in care of Children's Aid Societies during the
fiscal year ended March 31st, 1950  1,905
Provincial Government responsible for 100 per cent of cost     488
Provincial Government responsible for 80 per cent and
municipality for 20 per cent of cost      799
Fairbridge Farm School        17
Other Provinces and agencies        11
1,315
Paid for by Community Chest, or in free homes, or who have become wholly or partially self-supporting      590
1,315
COST OF MAINTAINING CHILDREN IN CHILD WELFARE DIVISION FOSTER
HOMES, CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETIES, AND SUNDRY EXPENDITURES
The cost of maintaining 989 children in Child Welfare Division foster homes during
the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1950, was carried as follows:—
Gross cost of maintenance to Provincial Government •_  $188,021.58
Less—
Municipal 20-per-cent share for children
with municipal residence  $16,330.29
Parents' contributions _.         5,551.61
Received from other Provinces       2,075.36
Received from Children's Aid Societies
for their children in care of Child
Welfare Division     19,991.90
Received from Fairbridge Farm School...      1,790.96
Received from Dominion Government... 233.02
Miscellaneous ,       1,962.26
      47,935.40
Net cost to Provincial Government  $140,086.18 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 49
Brought forward   $140,086.18
Cost of total number of children in the care of Children's Aid
Societies chargeable to Provincial Government or municipal governments during the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1950, was carried as
follows:—
Cost of maintenance of children with Provincial
residence  $253,400.78
Refunds to municipalities, 80 per cent of maintenance of children with municipal residence    241,904.80
$495,305.58
Less—
Paid by municipalities for
Child Welfare Division
children in Children's
Aid Societies' care  $11,214.88
Parents' contributions       3,706.69
Paid by Dominion Government        1,838.23
Paid by other Provinces......      3,118.99
Fairbridge Farm School.....      2,740.12
Miscellaneous credits       1,487.39
       24,106.30
Additional expenditures:—
Gross expenditure for Jewish overseas children    $14,556.21
Less reimbursement from European Children's Committee       17,572.14
471,199.28
(Overpayment  represents  amount  chargeable  to  former
years)          3,015.93
Gross transportation of children       $6,777.96
Less reimbursements from parents  527.85
         6,250.11
Grants to institutions '.         1,300.00
Net cost to Province .  $615,819.64
Reconciliation
Foster homes  $188,021.58
Children's Aid Societies  495,305.58
Gross expenditure for Jewish overseas children  14,556.21
Transportation of children  6,250.11
Grants to institutions  1,300.00
$705,433.48
Less sundry collections.and refunds       89,613.84
Net expenditure as per Child Welfare  $615,819.64
Add " Motor-vehicle Act " collections  44.49
Net expenditure per Public Accounts  $615,864.13 R
50
BRITISH
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n ph vi REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
In total, the Superintendent of Child Welfare assumed responsibility
children during the fiscal year 1949-50, as follows:—
Wards—
Of Superintendent—
" Protection of Children Act "    476
" Juvenile Delinquents Act "     50
Of Children's Aid Societies     85
Of other Provinces .__     62
673
Before Court awaiting committal =.  162
Non-wards—
Of Superintendent  530
Of Children's Aid Societies  1
Of other Provinces  2
At March 31st, 1950, the Superintendent of Child Welfare had in care:-
Wards—
Of Superintendent—
" Protection of Children Act "  498
" Juvenile Delinquents Act "  47
Of Children's Aid Societies  65
Of other Provinces  52
662
Before Court awaiting committal      62
Non-wards—
Of Superintendent  317
Of Children's Aid Societies       1
Of other Provinces       1
R 51
for  1,368
 835
 533
1,368
■ 724
319
1,043
CHILDREN FOR ADOPTION
A comparison of the numbers of children placed for adoption by the Child Welfare
Division and the three Children's Aid Societies during the past three years leaves no doubt
but that greater emphasis is being placed on the need to find a permanent home for every
child who can use one:—
Year
Child
Welfare
Division
Victoria
C.A.S.
Vancouver
C.A.S.
Catholic
C.A.S.
Total
194S                 -
1949                                 : - - 	
72
117
147
25
49
39
163
184
192
17
28
277
378
1950   -     	
30        |        408
Totals                  — -	
336
113
539
75        1     1.063
Along with this very satisfying increase in the number of children placed in adoptive
homes are two important developments:  First, that children are being placed by agencies R 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA
at a much earlier age and, second, that we have broadened our standards of selectivity of
children for adoption. As a result, we are presently carefully reviewing children of all
ages now in foster homes who could and should have the security of adoption placement,
and intend in time to achieve this for them.
The majority of children placed for adoption are under 1 year of age, and this will,
of course, always be so, since adoption is so closely linked with planning for the unmarried mother. However, children in the older age-groups, 2 to 10 years, who have come
to us for care, were not always thought of in terms of adoption soon enough, and the
increased number of these children whom we have been able to place successfully in
adoption homes this year is most encouraging.
Long
Term
Usual
Probation
Foster
Home to
Adoption
Under
1 Mo.
1-2
Mos.
3-5
Mos.
6-11
Mos.
1-2
Yrs.
3-4
Yrs.
5-9
Yrs.
Religion
Total
R.C.
Prot.
Region I
Region II
Region III	
Region IV—	
Region V   	
11
25
17
13
4
6
27
18
8
10
1
3
3
1
2
22
5
5
2
6
21
19
9
6
5
5
5
4
4
2
4
4
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
—
1
2
4
5
1
17         18
53          55
31          35
19         24
14    1     15
Totals ..
70
69
8
36
61
23
13
7
4
3
13
134    | 147
Placing older children with people who will become as their own parents is a task
which requires careful and sensitive handling. They are old enough to remember consciously their former experiences with adults, and it can take weeks of frequent visiting
on the part of the social worker with the child and with the prospective adopting parents
before 4- or 5-year-old Mary or Johnny knows he can trust these people unreservedly.
Even in the most successful of these placements, and perhaps for a long time to come,
this little person will do many surprising and sometimes disturbing things in his new
home, but if the adopting parents have been chosen wisely, they will understand that
he is simply seeking reassurance of their love for him. Once he knows this, there will
be deep satisfaction in the placement for him and the adoptive family.
This was certainly true for 7-year-old Edward. Born prior to his mother's marriage,
he had been placed by her over the years in a number of boarding homes and finally in
an institution. When she married, a hope that she might ultimately have Eddie with her
proved futile, and they had to face permanent separation. After weeks of getting to know
Eddie, a home was chosen where the son in the family was 13 years old, and where
obviously deep feelings of warmth and affection existed between all members. More
time was spent in allowing Eddie and his new family to get acquainted, and then Eddie
went to their home near the shore for the summer. Toward the fall, the worker records,
" Eddie could not sleep one night and told Mr. and Mrs. G. that he was so worried because
he wanted to stay with them for ever and didn't want them to send him back." Eddie
had not by any means been the proverbial " model child " on all occasions, but they did
not " send him back." Rather, they are helping him through their love and understanding to become a self-reliant and dependable boy, and we feel sure that he will
ultimately be a happily secure and permanent member of their family group through
legal adoption.
In our efforts to place more of our children at a younger age and to find permanent
homes for those whose development requires an extended period of medical observation,
it seems necessary to broaden our present medical policies. Adopting parents, generally,
are willing and anxious to take the normal risks of parenthood involved in the development of a child, and some are financially able to undertake what subsequent special
medical care may be needed. But, since the children we place are primarily a responsibility of the Division and some of the surgical and medical care required is costly, it seems REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
R 53
reasonable for the Department to consider the extension of the same medical coverage
to these children on adoption probation as is available to those in foster homes until such
time as the recommended course of treatment is complete.
Completed Adoptions
There were 733 adoptions completed by Court order this year—an increase of 93
over last year, and in these we can see clearly the increased activity on the part of agencies
in this Province to secure permanent homes for children in the decreasing number of
placements made through irregular channels.
Adoptions Completed April 1st, 1949, to March 31st, 1950
Agency
Private
Adopting
Mother
Is Natural
Mother
Relative
Total
Child Welfare Division completed adoption—
26
40
27
19
8
27
52
25
14
21
12
45
16
21
10
3
2
2
1
2
68
Region II     	
Region III  _  ___ .-	
139
70
55
41
120
143
28
30
139
57
11
12
104
57
5
10
10
4
1
2
373
261
45
54
321
219
176
17
733
Most of the 219 children shown in the above chart as placed for adoption privately—
that is, without the aid of a social agency—are reasonably safe and secure in their new
homes, because it is probably true that the average couple seeking to adopt a child have
a genuine warmth and love for children. However, there are those with less pure
motives. A shaky marriage relationship, a neurotic husband or wife who has been
advised " to adopt a child to take their minds off their troubles "•—these and many more
subtle but equally unsound motives do not make for a successful and happy home life
for a child. There are other factors, too, in the casual placement of children which create
hazards, particularly for the very young child. For instance, the four children of one
family whose parents advertised them for adoption and who all needed extensive medical
care and treatment. Three of them were subsequently removed from the homes in which
their parents had placed them because the adopting parents' expressed " love of children "
did not go deep enough to allow them to assume the heavy medical bills and constant
care required. These children, who have been in an agency's care for months now,
are responding well to treatment and are receiving the kind of loving acceptance which
will safeguard their healthy development.
Children whose parents do not themselves protect and provide for them need
greater protection from the State than we are able to give in our present legislation, and
it is proposed that an amendment to the "Adoption Act " be considered whereby no child
may be placed by his parent or other persons until the approval of the Superintendent
of Child Welfare is obtained.
"CHILDREN OF UNMARRIED PARENTS ACT"
Closely associated with adoption placement of children is our work with the unmarried mother and father, and it is significant to note that while the number of illegitimate
births registered with the Division of Vital Statistics exceeded last year's by only fifty-
nine, the numbers of unmarried mothers known to social agencies during the same period
increased markedly.   This can only mean that our services are reaching and are accept- R 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
able to a larger portion of the population, and, as a result, we are able to offer better and
earlier planning for the majority of children in this group.
Payments under the " Children of Unmarried Parents Act" increased this year by
$5,019.60. A review of how the total amount of $38,511.95 was collected shows that
workers are endeavouring to administer this Act in a socially constructive manner to the
end that the mother and putative father can share realistically in planning for their own
future in relation to that of their child. A case in point is one in which adoption placement of the child was under consideration at the mother's request, and, in the course of
planning, we interviewed the putative father. Emphasis was placed on the fact that we
were asking him to give us assistance in planning for his son. Out of the interview came
a desire on his part to resolve the difficulties which had come between him and the child's
mother, and a determination to establish a sound family life for them. Marriage to each
other is not the answer in many such situations. However, we believe, with the emphasis
placed on the need for responsible planning where a child's future is concerned, the
interview under the " Children of Unmarried Parents Act " can be a constructive experience through which unmarried mothers and fathers can gain insight and understanding
of the responsibilities of adult relationships. A newly devised interview guide prepared
in the Division and distributed to district workers this year emphasizes this approach and
is proving to be helpful in the field.
Further Decentralization
Interviews with unmarried fathers in the City of Vancouver have always been carried
by a divisional supervisor. However, in line with our general policy of decentralization,
this work will gradually be transferred to the Vancouver district office of the Social
Welfare Branch during the early part of the new fiscal year. Because it is essential to
maintain continuity in Court and outside agency relationships, the work will be assigned
to one worker. The transfer of this block of work to the general district office should
help both field and Division to clarify further the responsibilities of each, and result in
a better service to clients in this metropolitan area.
As at March 31st, 1950, there were 508 active unmarried parents' cases known to
the Division, and on 276 of these an affiliation order, agreement, or settlement had been
obtained.
Affiliation orders as at April 1st, 1949     96
New affiliation orders during fiscal year     19
Agreements as at April 1st, 1949     93
New agreements during fiscal year     53
New settlements and releases during year     15
Total   276
HOSPITAL AND MEDICAL SERVICES FOR CHILDREN
As intimated last year, we are still meeting some difficulties with regard to hospitalization of children who are in our care at the request of their parents or, as they are
termed, non-wards. While the majority of parents can and do include their children
in their own registration and payment of premiums for hospitalization, some are less
responsible, and some, as in the case of many unmarried mothers, are not financially
able to meet the cost involved. An awkward situation arises when hospitalization of
the child becomes necessary. Hospitals are loath to admit them when there is no
assurance that the bill will be paid, and we, having undertaken to provide all needed
care, must still reject responsibility for such costs under present policies. A review of
these is necessary this next year in order that each child in our care can be eligible for
this essential service. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 55
During the fiscal year both wards and non-wards in the care of the Superintendent
of Child Welfare or a Children's Aid Society were included in the agreement entered
into between the Social Welfare Branch and the British Columbia College of Physicians
and Surgeons for complete medical care. The cost to the Branch is $14.50 annually
for each child, and we feel highly secure in the medical coverage provided.
HEALTH OF THE CHILDREN
We regret to report the death of one baby, aged 3 months, from a congenital
digestive condition, who failed to respond to medical treatment. Another child, aged
14 years, suffered an industrial accident while working during her summer holidays.
The employer did not abide by the child labour laws and placed her at work outside
the ruling of the Act. Swift legal action was taken by the Labour Department, and an
appropriate pension will be awarded through the " Workmen's Compensation Act," but
unfortunately this girl has suffered a permanent handicap to one hand. Preparing her
for suitable employment as she grows older will be complicated, but, fortunately, her
ability and interests seem to tend toward work in which we are advised her particular
handicap will be at a minimum.
We have also in care four children who came to us for special medical treatment
not available in their home area. Two of these are responding well—one will require
a long period of care and retraining, and for one there is no known help that we can
obtain. As can be expected, placement of these children, since they require constant
and demanding care, is costly, and the finding of suitable foster homes for them is a difficult and time-consuming task for the social workers.
The rest of the children in care during the year have been in excellent physical
health, and we are most appreciative of the interest and care provided them by doctors
and public health nurses throughout the Province.
THE PERMANENTLY PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED CHILD
We are pleased to report that our concern about the lack of facilities available for
this group of children has resulted in an arrangement being made with the Queen
Alexandra Solarium, Cobble Hill, Vancouver Island, by which it will admit certain
children who, in the opinion of their medical adviser, can benefit by the programme
offered. Some will still have to be excluded because of the limitations of the present
buildings. However, the board of the Solarium is deeply interested in this so far
" forgotten " group of children, and in their new building plans, adequate space and
facilities to meet their needs will be provided.
FAMILY ALLOWANCES
A total of $32,961.64 was received from the Family Allowances Department
during the year for children in care; $19,491.74 was spent, and a balance of $13,469.90
as at March 31st, 1950, is being held in trust. From the expenditures made it is
evident that we are using Family Allowances constructively in work with foster-children.
A total of $2,994.04 was used to provide camp and other summer vacations, sports
equipment, musical instruments, music lessons, bicycles, Scout and Guide uniforms, and
many other special articles or projects in which children showed aptitude; $12,754.79
was spent by foster-mothers on behalf of children; $1,035.01 was transferred to
adoptive mothers when children were placed on adoption probation; and $1,658.96
was paid to children's own parents when they were discharged from care. In addition,
$359 was refunded to the Family Allowances Department and $689.94 paid to a Children's Aid Society for children transferred to their care for supervision. R 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
MAINTENANCE AND CLOTHING FOR CHILDREN
Foster-home rates have not been increased since July, 1948, at which time policy
was altered to allow for all clothing to be paid for by the Division, and naturally the cost
of this item has increased. We spent $41,901.94 throughout the Province for clothing,
which is an increase of $8,998.53 over last year. But the average expenditure per child
was only $70.30, which is not an unreasonable amount in a year, and at least, to a degree,
helped to bridge the gap which exists between current foster-home rates and the cost of
living. The historically low rate paid foster-parents may not always have a bearing on
the availability of homes, but if we are to look to foster-parents for the care and training
we want for our children, then we must be prepared to offer them a considerably higher
board rate in the not too distant future.
OVERSEAS CHILDREN
One of the four British overseas children remaining in Canada has enrolled as
a student nurse this year, and her sister is completing high school. A still younger
sister of this family is making satisfactory progress at school and in her home life, as is
the fourth British overseas child in care.
JEWISH OVERSEAS CHILDREN
It is evident from the accomplishments and present activities of the original forty-
six Jewish children who came to us in 1948-49 that they have made a remarkable
adjustment in this country. Remembering the hardships these children had known
during the war years in Europe, we cannot but feel admiration for their ability and
desire to make a happy adjustment, and for the workers who have so ably helped them
through the many and inevitable difficulties in a new and, in so many ways, totally
different way of life.
Three of the girls are now happily married into Canadian families. One girl is in
an Eastern city with an older married sister, and another girl is also comfortably settled
with a friend in another Province. One boy moved East with his foster-family, and one
boy is established in a jewellery business in a large Eastern city.
These seven are now discharged from our care, and the original group is decreased
to 39. During this last year, however, one boy, who had been in another Province
since coming to Canada, was transferred to British Columbia, and we consequently have
a group of forty Jewish children in care as at March 31st, 1950.
Twenty-one of these are now wholly self-supporting, and, with some help through
scholarships, two of them are also attending the University of British Columbia. Eleven
others still need some financial help, but are either working part time, taking an apprentice course, or, as one girl, taking a nurse's training course. Before too long it would
seem that this group also will reach full independence.
There are still eight younger children attending school; five of these seem successfully placed in free homes, and board is being paid for the remaining three.
Much time, thought, and effort have gone into planning with these children, and the
local Jewish Committee, under the leadership of the Vancouver Children's Aid Society
on our behalf, are to be commended for the able way in which the project has been
carried.
SUPREME COURT CUSTODY OF CHILDREN
The Supreme Court of British Columbia received from us forty-eight reports on
custody cases during this year. These involved seventy-nine children, three of whom
were admitted to our care following the divorce as a means of providing them with
greater security than was possible with the parent awarded custody. We continue to
be encouraged in our work in this field by the increased interest in the welfare of children
generally expressed by attending lawyers and by the appreciative comments received
from the Court. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 57
IMMIGRATION OF CHILDREN
Thirty-two applications to bring forty-six children from other countries to Canada
were studied this year; twenty-three of these were new referrals from the Canadian
Department of Immigration, four were reopened, and five carried over from last year.
Twenty-one were families with one child, eight had two children, and three had three
children.
Six children, from four families, lived in the United States and were to come to
a parent or relative following divorce or death of the mother. Another application,
involving three children from Iceland, was also the result of ordinary peace-time family
upheaval and planning. But the circumstances surrounding the applications of the
remaining thirty-seven children, and in particular those from European countries, suggests much in the way of war-time loss and deprivation. Their adjustment to a new
country and family will be fraught with many risks, and they and their foster-parents
may need help over a period of time if their coming to Canada is to bring them happiness.
The home lands of these children were:—
Yugoslavia     4
Poland      3
France      1
Italy     4
Greece     1
Germany      2
England  11
Scotland      3
Ireland      6
Iceland  :     3
United States      8
Total :  46
Three unfavourable reports on the designated homes were made to the Department
of Immigration, and three children were rejected as unsuitable for immigration by that
Department. As far as we know, the applications on behalf of twenty-four children
are still under consideration. Seventeen children have arrived, and two applications
have been formally withdrawn by the respective families. Of the seventeen children
now in British Columbia, one has been legally adopted by his mother and step-father,
two by near relatives, and one by a family friend. Four children of two families are
making a satisfactory adjustment so far in a parent's home, as are five children from
three families in relatives' homes, and one child in a friend's home. However, three
children from three families have not fared so well, and one of them, a girl in her late
teens, has been returned to England. In another instance we had to place a 12-year-old
boy who had come hopefully to his aunt's and uncle's home only to be later rejected
by them. One other boy, aged 11 years, who came to join his father following the
parents' divorce, may also need placement elsewhere if the father cannot make more
satisfactory arrangements for his care.
The weak point in planning for a child who is in another country and coming to
other than his parent is the difficulty of preparing him for placement with people he
does not know. Distance keeps him from becoming anything more than a " picture
child " until he arrives—both to the prospective foster-parents and to the agency. Until
there are more facilities available, in the European countries especially, this kind of
placement will continue to be difficult and hazardous for the child.
LEGITIMATION ACT
During this year sixty-four requests were received from the Division of Vital
Statistics for assistance in clarifying the paternity of the children whose births it was R 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
proposed to legitimate. In some instances the mother was known to us at the time of
the birth of the child, and where paternity of the child had been established as that of
the mother's present husband, we could readily support the application by documentary
evidence. In all other instances, visits to the applicants were made in order to help
assemble the evidence in support of the application, or to help the applicants to accept
that legitimation was not possible. In the latter instance, adoption procedures are
explained and the relationship between the child and the step-father is often legalized
later by this alternative method.
An interview about the legitimation of a child, centred as it is on the most intimate
of human relationships, requires unusually sensitive handling, and it is because of this
we have gradually established a policy with the Division of Vital Statistics whereby all
such applications will be referred to the Child Welfare Division for study and recommendation. The majority can be finalized by legitimation of the child under the Act,
but in the others only appropriate action under the "Adoption Act" can provide him
with desirable legal protection.
In carrying out the varied responsibilities vested in the Child Welfare Division, we
are to a great extent dependent upon the staff of private agencies and other public welfare
departments in Vancouver and Victoria, and we are sincerely grateful to these for their
continued help and support. In conclusion, we would like to say a special thank-you
to the field service staff of the Branch for the way in which they are endeavouring to
carry the Child Welfare responsibilities so far delegated to them by decentralization.
Respectfully submitted.
Ruby McKay,
Superintendent of Child Welfare. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
R 59
OLD-AGE PENSION BOARD
I beg to present the annual report of the Old-age Pension Board for the year ended
March 31st, 1950.
GENERAL
The fiscal year ended March 31st, 1950, saw a further increase both in the number
of old-age and blind pensioners and in expenditures. There were 6,222 new applications
received, including both old age and blind, as compared with 6,110 in 1948-49, and
5,803 pensions were granted, compared with 6,139 the year before. At the end of the
year there were 29,617 pensioners, including both blind and old age, on the payroll,
compared with 26,213 the year before. This represents an increase of 12.98 per cent.
Total expenditures, including both basic pensions and cost-of-living bonuses for both blind
and old-age pensioners, amounted to $15,620,090.10, compared with $11,513,273.83
last year. This shows an increase of 35.67 per cent. The increase in the number of
pensioners was due largely to the normal increase in the population of the elderly, but
also in part to the growing pension-consciousness of the public. The greater number of
pensioners and the amendment to the Act raising the maximum pension from $30 a month
to $40 as from May 1st, 1949, account for the very large increase in expenditure.
The increase in number of pensioners and expenditure on pensions serves to
emphasize the fact that in the future one of the most important and in many ways the
most difficult of all the problems of social security is going to be the provision of employment for older people. Life expectancy is lengthening out; the population is rapidly
growing older relatively and the numbers of older people are increasing sharply. The
situation calls for our best thinking and planning. For two reasons in particular it seems
essential that these elderly people be given the opportunity to continue longer in useful
employment. Firstly, their health and well-being demand it. Long life without good
health would not be a boon, and doctors tell us that to live long and be healthy it is
necessary to be active. Besides, there is nothing more crushing to an old person than
to be made to feel that he is no longer useful. Secondly, it is important in the interest
of the national economy that people should be enabled to continue at productive work
suited to their varying capacities and condition of health as long as possible to help bear
the cost of the social services generally. If we keep retiring people at earlier and earlier
ages and go on putting more and more people " on the shelf," soon there may be more
on the shelf than off. It is at least conceivable, for instance, that in the not distant
future 40 per cent of the people may be working to support the other 60 per cent if present
trends continue. The situation poses an almost overwhelming problem, but it is a problem that is going to have to be faced.
In the last report it was pointed out that in the past there have been a great many
more transfers of pensioners from other Provinces to British Columbia than there have
been transfers from British Columbia to those other Provinces, and we had grown
accustomed to assuming that the movement is largely, and almost inevitably always,
to this Province, but statistics for the years 1946-47, 1947-48, and 1948-49 were
quoted to show that there was some slight evidence that the trend might have changed
at least temporarily. From the following table it will be seen that the statistics for
1949-50 give some further, though still slight, support to this view:—■
1946-47
1947-48
1948^19
1949-50
Number of new transfers to British Columbia  	
Number of B.C. pensioners returned to British Columbr'a „
Number of B.C. pensioners transferred to other Provinces
596
111
137
357
94
145
588
83
184
436
94
238 r 60 british columbia
Changes in the Act
An amendment to the Federal " Old Age Pensions Act" was passed at the 1949
Session of Parliament, providing for an increase in the maximum rate of pension from
$30 to $40 a month, effective from May 1st, 1949. This change made it necessary to
review approximately 30,000 cases and grant such increases in pension as the means
test would permit.   All the increases so granted were in payment by the end of September.
Cost-of-living Bonus
Although the Federal Act now provides for a pension of $40 a month instead of $30,
as stated above, the Government of British Columbia continues to pay a cost-of-living
bonus of $10 a month to its pensioners as heretofore.
Reciprocal Agreements
As a result of agreements made with Alberta, Saskatchewan, New Brunswick, and
the Yukon Territory, British Columbia pensioners who have transferred to any of these
areas receive the British Columbia cost-of-living bonus of $10 a month just as our
pensioners here do. The costs are, of course, charged back to British Columbia by the
other areas.
Alberta.—As at June 1st, 1949, Alberta increased its cost-of-living bonus from $7
to $7.50 a month. Under the reciprocal agreement with Alberta, British Columbia pays
this latter amount to Alberta pensioners now living in British Columbia and charges
the cost back to Alberta.
Saskatchewan.—The Province of Saskatchewan pays a bonus to its pensioners up
to $5 a month, depending on income. Under the reciprocal agreement, British Columbia
pays this bonus to Saskatchewan pensioners now living here and charges the cost back
to Saskatchewan.
New Brunswick.—Although New Brunswick does not pay any bonus to its own
pensioners, it continued to pay our bonus of $10 a month to British Columbia pensioners
living there, as in previous years. The costs were, of course, charged back to British
Columbia.
Yukon Territory.—During the year a reciprocal agreement was entered into with
Yukon Territory, effective October 1st, 1949, for the payment of a cost-of-living bonus.
Like British Columbia, the Yukon pays a bonus of $10 a month to its pensioners. Under
the agreement, therefore, British Columbia pays this bonus to Yukon pensioners now
living in British Columbia and charges the cost back to the Yukon.
Earned Income of Pensioners
A study was made to determine the effect of earned income, or income from employment, on pensions. In the study, 9,000 cases were reviewed. These were divided into
three groups, approximately equal in number—a group of the oldest cases on the payroll,
a group of the most recently granted cases, and a middle group.
Of the oldest group, it was found that 20.3 per cent were receiving reduced pensions
for various reasons, 5.3 per cent of those on reduced pension had their pensions reduced
because of earnings from employment, and 1 per cent of the total sample had their
pensions reduced for that reason.
Of the middle group, 30.2 per cent were on reduced pensions, 6.1 per cent of the
reductions were due to earnings, and 2.2 per cent of the total sample had their pensions
reduced for that reason.
Of the youngest group, 45.7 per cent were on reduced pensions, 11 per cent of the
reductions were due to earnings, and 4.6 per cent of the total sample had their pensions
reduced for that reason. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 61
Of the whole 9,000 cases studied, 31.7 per cent, or 2,853, were on reduced pensions,
and of these latter, 234, or 2.6 per cent of the total sample, were on reduced pension
because of earnings.
The total savings to the Federal and Provincial Governments resulting from applying
the earnings factor of the means test to the 234 cases mentioned amounted to $1,760.14
a month, or $21,121.68 for the year. On that basis the total savings to the two Governments for the year in respect of all pensions for the 25-per-cent Provincial portion of
which British Columbia was responsible amounted to $4,689.21 a month, or $56,270.52
for the year out of a total expenditure of $15,620,090.10 (including the cost-of-living
bonus). These facts should be of interest when the question is raised as to whether
it would be wise to exempt earned income from consideration when calculating a pensioner's income for pension purposes.
Length of Life of Pensioners
Under the heading of " Statistics," farther on in the report, will be found tables
showing the ages of pensioners at the time their pensions were granted and the ages at
death of the pensioners who died in the fiscal year 1949-50.
A special study was made of the cases of the pensioners who died in the calendar
year 1949. For convenience the study was confined to those whose pensions originated
in British Columbia.   These were 1,997 in number.
It was found that the greatest number of male pensioners died between the ages of
74 and 75 years, while the greatest number of females died at age 76. The average male
lived 79.279 years and the average female 79.916 years. However, while this shows
that the average female lived 0.637 year longer than the average male, there were three
males who had passed the century mark, whereas there were no females who achieved
that record. It appears that if a male pensioner can last out to the age of 95 years, he
is likely to outlive his wife, otherwise she is likely to win the race for longevity.
In the report for the fiscal year 1944-45, it was shown that the average age at death
of the pensioners who died in 1928—the first calendar year after the " Old-age Pension
Act" came into operation—was 77.676 years for males and 78.546 years for females,
and that the average for those who died in 1944 was 79.512 years for males and 80.160
years for females. It will be seen, therefore, that while the life-span has lengthened out
1.603 years for males and 1.370 years for females since 1928, it appears to have shortened
slightly since 1944—to the extent of 0.233 year for males and 0.244 year for females.
SOCIAL SERVICE
The Social Service Division of the Old-age Pension Board at present seems to offer
the only focal point for bringing together and examining information in relation to the
many phases of the social situation and needs of the increasingly large number of old
people in the Province. Contacts with the " 70 and up " group in the past seven years
have been far reaching and enlightening, particularly since the " Old-age Pensions Act"
and regulations have called for an over-all coverage in this category, including well-
adjusted old folk, living relatively comfortably, as well as those suffering from the
numerous disadvantages and problems to which older people are subject. One fact that
emerges clearly is that, whatever the older age-group included in our security programme,
sound planning in this, as in other areas of social service, must be preventive in outlook
rather than designed to meet only the immediate situation.
Of our total population in British Columbia, 15.5 per cent, or 173,672 persons, are
now over 60 years of age. What we have learned in pioneer efforts with old-age
pensioners should surely be carried over into our association with this wider group.
We do not plan programmes for 5-year-olds. Rather, we develop " child welfare "
services.   In the same way, social workers cannot think only in terms of " pensioners," R 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
but of what will make for the good life for all our older citizens. Hence it is not unfitting
that this section of the report of the administration of old-age pensions, while primarily
concerned with a particular category, does have in certain respects a somewhat wider
application than may seem to come strictly within its province.-
Each yearly report shows a startling increase in the moneys expended in the
payment of old-age pensions. A total of all Provincial Government expenditures for the
benefit of pensioners would include costs of medical care and of other social services
along with payments for pension and would show a much higher figure.
Annual reports are understood to give an account of stewardship. To this end we
may well ask ourselves whether these funds have been expended in the way that ensures
maximum benefit to the pensioners. Since social work accepts the premise that it matters
greatly how things are done, we cannot be satisfied with providing what is understood
to be merely a floor of protection. In order to make the allowance more effective, it is
necessary to supplement with certain other services. From our experience we venture
to suggest which of these may be considered most essential.
Case Work
First in the list we would place case work. This we understand in its broadest sense
as inherent in every situation where a worker assumes a helpful role toward a client as
an individual. The assignment is a heavy one for the case worker, since work with older
people calls for great skill and, in the brief span of the development of professional social
work, there has been little opportunity to build up essential knowledge and understanding
as to the meaning of the ageing process as a whole.
Interpretation, as a function of case work, plays a particularly important role, even
in what might be looked upon as purely administrative procedures. For instance, during
the course of getting together the necessary details of the required form, many an old
person, frightened, confused, and often resentful at finding himself in the role of
applicant, is almost ready to give up in despair. The skilful case worker helps him
" see it through " without undue delay.
Later, it may be that a change in financial circumstances calls for a recalculation
of income, which results in an adjustment in the pension rate. Few clients are able to
accept such action without a good deal of resentment. The social worker, understanding
the old person's reactions (as well as the legal requirements), is able to clear misunderstandings and to help him meet the situation with a minimum of disturbance—no small
consideration for everyone concerned. From time to time, because of excess earnings,
a legacy, or other income, a pension must be suspended. This was the case with Mr. B.,
who came to the Board office to inquire about reinstatement. The income had ceased
and there was no difficulty in obtaining the required facts. As we indicated that our
interview, which had been a pleasant one, was terminated, Mr. B. rose hesitatingly and
looked puzzled. " But," said he, " don't I have to have the means test? " He was
reassured in the current phrase " You've had it"—and enjoyed a laugh with his
interviewer.
Written instructions, we find, have little meaning to old folk, and we must realize
that in the group of which we are thinking there are many with failing eyesight and others
relatively illiterate, to whom reading and writing have always been a chore. Pensioners
continually get into difficulties simply because they don't know what services are available and how to go about getting them, but the district worker knows his resources and
sets the right wheels in motion.
Budgeting is another of the practical ways a case worker can help the client to
adjust to the inevitable change in situation without " losing face." Mrs. /. is one of the
more fortunate ones. She has a small independent income—to be exact, an insurance
annuity of $300. Because of this personal income the pension is reduced. The annuity
is paid quarterly.   It is not hard to spend the $75 when it comes to hand.   Indeed, it is REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 63
difficult not to do so when one is in need of so many things! When the social worker
first tried to help Mrs. /. see that the insurance money would have to be " spread thin "
to supplement pension throughout the quarter, Mrs. J. was most indignant. Like a good
many of our pensioners, she had been accustomed to ample means, and this was all just
too humiliating and altogether more than she could cope with. Since we in the Board
office had reason to know something of her difficulties, she thought it worth while not
long ago to drop in to tell us with great satisfaction, " I've learned to get along and spin
out my insurance money to make up full pension. It works fine now that I've got the idea
and am getting used to it—and I didn't think I could do it! " Mrs. /. looked positively
triumphant. Such examples could be multiplied indefinitely. They represent the social
worker's day-to-day job.
In reality, however, most old peoples' troubles are not " one dimensional " problems.
Deep-seated fears and anxieties mingled with loneliness and dependence, family strains,
and a sense of growing helplessness manifest themselves on all sides and in varied ways.
They are all part of complicated situations arising from the changed position of the older
person. They call for profound understanding of the individual, of the ageing process
as it affects him, and finally of the interaction between client, family and community.
So it is evident that resources to help senior citizens live a reasonably useful and satisfying
life must be based on full knowledge and should be made available in such a way that
they will be readily understandable and acceptable. Surely the case worker with understanding and experience gathered in person-to-person contacts offers a resource that
cannot be overlooked by those entrusted with planning services to pensioners and older
persons generally.
Medical Services
Second in the list we would put medical services. The importance of medical
treatment and hospitalization in making provision for older people is now taken for
granted. These are urgent needs which must be met before we can hope to direct the
thinking of either the older generation or the public toward less concrete objectives.
Provision has been made for an over-all coverage which gives added security and
greatly enhances the value of the pension. During the period since this has been in
effect, British Columbia pensioners have fully availed themselves of the privileges of free
medical attention, but under the pressures of organization there has been no opportunity
to appraise results.
A serious problem, causing much distress and confusion to pensioners and their
relatives, arises from the demarcation between cases of acute and chronic illness and the
limited resources available for care of the latter. There has been little change in this
situation during the past year and the Old-age Pension Administration cannot but be
conscious of the problem because of constant inquiries on the part of pensioners and
their relatives who do not understand why hospitalization is not available when, as so
often happens in the case of the aged, the patient is suffering from a long-term ailment
which medical authorities consider will not benefit from this expensive form of care, but
which at the same time calls for nursing service. Such are the chronic cases. Present-day
family homes are usually too small to permit of caring for invalids, even in those rare
instances in which there is someone able and willing to take on the task. Nursing homes
are few and costly. When the burden of caring for the sick old person becomes so great
as to threaten family life, it is essential that other plans be made without delay. Case
work is not an immediate function of the pension administration, but numerous contacts
with clients and their friends are inevitable in the Board office, and under these circumstances, by interpretation and referral, the supervisor and social worker do what they can
to relieve the harassed relatives.
The same comments apply in cases of advanced senility, for whom the accommodation provided is still inadequate. R 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Accommodation
The needs of older people in regard to care and accommodation have been discussed
quite fully in earlier reports, and detailed information with regard to boarding homes and
other institutions will be found in the section of this report relating to the administration
of the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act."
The picture graphs below will give some indication of the situation of pensioners
in relation to this problem of suitable living arrangements. Calculations have been made
on the basis of the pensions granted during the past year. The picture would no doubt
be somewhat different on the basis of the total number of pensioners or of an older group.
I. MARITAL STATUS
II. HOW LIVING
III. WHERE LIVING
(rented houses and
In Rented Quarters -*f—   rented suites)
In Supervised Homes
and
Institutions
-   In Single Rooms (with housekeeping
privileges)
In Single Rooms (eating out)
Adequate housing is not merely a matter of making sufficient accommodation
available, but rather of providing varied plans of housing to meet the needs of the many
types of people in our older group.
A considerable number of excellent, small, congregate institutions sponsored by
philanthropic, racial, and other groups continue to operate successfully. Information
concerning these has been included in previous reports.   There have been no additions REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 65
this year, but it is interesting to note that in the Danish Home a singularly happy arrangement has been worked out by encouraging old persons, with small means, to build
cottages within the grounds. Proximity to the main house facilitates the transition if one
partner dies or for any other reason a move " in " becomes desirable.
The number of boarding homes, commercially operated, has increased so that they
now offer reasonably adequate accommodation for those pensioners to whom this type
of supervised care is necessary and acceptable. There has been no change in the general
picture other than that the larger number of applications for licence has made it possible
to be more selective, thereby improving somewhat the general standard of licensed
(proprietary) homes. There is some question as to the scope of responsibility and
authority under the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act" in relation to the various
important factors in these boarding homes, apart from the purely physical ones. The
social worker is particularly concerned with two obvious lacks in these homes. The first
is the privacy of a single room. It is hard to know just what happens to the personality
deprived of this last bulwark of independence. One can only guess from the evident
satisfaction of the old lady in a room of her own who points with pride to the small
personal possessions which so frequently " clutter up " her small domain.
Facilities for and encouragement of some form of occupational activity are also
highly desirable from a psychological point of view. We recently had a call from a young
woman who, much against her wishes, has been forced to place her mother, a semi-
invalid, in a boarding home. She came to us in distress asking for suggestions about
what one may call occupational therapy. Said she, " They are all just sitting there—
vegetating. My mother has always been an active woman. We can't let this happen
to her! "
In Courtenay and Nanaimo an effort is being made to develop interest in " foster
homes " for older persons—homes which undertake to care for only one elderly person
and consequently are not considered as boarding or nursing homes in the accepted sense
of the terms, as set out under the welfare institutions or private hospital licensing requirements. In this way it is hoped that the older person will become more a part of the
family group.
Housing projects well under way when the previous report was made are now in
operation. Additional developments in this category are the Dawson project in Saanich,
a few miles outside Victoria, to consist, when finished, of twelve duplex units, and
Kimberley's Pioneer Lodge, consisting of four two-room apartments, with bath and
central heating.
We now have five creditable undertakings of this type in British Columbia, all of
which appear to be operating successfully. Rent in all instances is around $20 a month
for married couples. The administration in these projects is confronted with two serious
problems—provision for the remaining partner when one of a couple dies, and care for
those for whom other plans must be made because of chronic illness. The latter difficulty
is, of course, only one aspect of the larger problem already referred to in relation to care
for chronic cases.
Housekeeping Services
" Please leave me here in my own home," is an expression heard very often among old
people when illness or some other change threatens the status quo. It is not just an empty
repetition, and the case worker wouldn't agree that " Grandma is just being stubborn."
It is rather the expression of a deeply rooted need for the security of familiar surroundings. Relatives and friends know that different arrangements must be made. The social
worker is only too conscious of the difficulties encountered in trying to arrange for this
type of care. The alternative is to bring someone into the home for full or part time
as may be required. By good luck a suitable person may sometimes be found " to tide
over." More often this is not possible, since no definite plans have been made to meet
such contingencies. R 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In the larger centres (notably Vancouver), general housekeeping services are
sometimes provided, but there is no assurance that these services will be available at
any time, even in the case of a serious emergency.
Kelowna is the one locality in which a service has been set up in which provision
has been made to meet the requirements of older people. The Kelowna Home Service
is an agency established to take care of the home in cases of emergency arising through
illness or other disrupting circumstances. Close co-operation with the local health unit
greatly strengthens the organization.
While the service is by no means confined to older persons, this group is specifically
mentioned as one of those for which it has been established, and the Kelowna plan has
proven extremely helpful in cases " of aged and infirm " for short emergency periods.
Funds for this scheme have been received from the community and costs shared according
to the client's ability to pay.
Activities for Leisure Time
Gradually there is coming to be some recognition of the disastrous effect of the
idleness and lack of normal social intercourse, so commonly the lot of older people.
A letter recently received by the leader of a voluntary group making a start in organizing
a neighbourhood club for old folks tells this tale:—
I received the card from you inviting me to the meeting and I returned it to say I would
be there, but unfortunately it rained so I was unable to come.
I am nearly 80. I have lived all alone since my wife passed away June 19th, 1945.
I had a daughter here who used to come and do some ironing and cooking but she moved to
Victoria a year ago, since when I have no one. I joined one of the large old-age clubs but
did not like it. Singing songs does not appeal to me; I like playing cards. I used to dance
years ago. I like dance music and like to watch people enjoy themselves. All my life I have
been shy. I think I must have what is called inferiority complex. I came out from England
in 1912 and have lived in this city over thirty years. I had been married over fifty-three
years when I lost my wife, and our old friends have since passed on.
I was superannuated after working for eleven years at my last job. I keep watching the
ads in the paper to see if anyone would like to live and share the home and expenses but
have not yet found anyone. 1 get so lonesome and miserable all alone. If I could find some
people to talk to sometimes. Please excuse me and all my worries but I have to tell
someone.
If those meetings are still held, I would like to come to them.
Thanking you, yours very truly.
We have a feeling that if Mr. B. doesn't find the outlet for which he is so obviously
in need, he will soon become a source of worry to the few friends he does have and make
heavy demands on the time of the social worker, the doctor, and other community
resources.
In our largest centre, Vancouver and environs, active community groups for older
people now include Alexandra Neighbourhood House (Community Centre), Christ
Church Cathedral, Gordon House (Community Centre), Marpole Community Centre,
North Vancouver Community Centre, Vancouver East Community "Y," and West
Vancouver Senior Citizens' Club. This is a beginning, nothing more, since the " 70 and
up " group in Vancouver alone has now reached the 10,000 mark!
Victoria, too, has an active, growing " 60-up " club.
Community clubs have great possibilities for developing a wide variety of interests,
but other than in the two large centres there has been little progress in this direction.
Two exceptions should be mentioned—Duncan and Hope. In the former a group
sponsored by the I.O.D.E. has been active for several years. The Hope Old Folks' Club
(age limit, 55 years) came into being on March 12th, 1950, with prospect of considerable
activity.
This sort of development is conceded to be a community job, with emphasis on the
participation of the older people themselves, but unless we can find qualified leadership, REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 67
the programme will continue to be a slow-motion picture.    It is noticeable, too, that
unless there is stimulation, the group tends to become more or less static and narrow
in interest and outlook. „
Employment
Community groups offer only one form of activity. Previous reports have made
reference to the general problem of employment and the importance of research and
action in this connection. Of the persons to whom pension was granted during the past
year, information on file suggests that at least 25 per cent would be capable of some
form of suitable employment. There appears to be a growing recognition of the larger
implications in this situation.
There are, however, other angles of this problem more nearly within our compass
which might be explored with interest and profit.
Mrs. D. enjoys knitting and brings in samples of excellent workmanship, Mrs. E.
favours hooked rugs, Miss F. would like the odd night of baby-sitting, Mrs. G. would
like to have another old person to share her home, Mr. H. is more or less of a shut-in (in
a very comfortable home) and would like to have the odd game of checkers. Could " the
Board " suggest who would be interested? Day by day such queries come over the
telephone. And from the other side: " Would you know anyone who would like to rent
a small home a few miles from Vancouver moderately priced, just right for an old couple,"
or " a room on the ground floor vacated by an old gentleman who has gone to be with
his daughter." " We have some very good clothing suitable for an older woman of
medium build—do you have one in mind? " " Have you on your list an older woman
who could spend a few hours a day with a semi-invalid? " etc.
The supervisor and the social worker in the Old-age Pension Board office, which
willy-nilly becomes a sort of information bureau, cannot but wonder whether some sort
of " centre " of their own is not a need peculiar to older people who seem to be for ever
*° ' Age Will Be Served
The total problem of providing essential and constructive services to older age-groups
is an overwhelming one for leaders in the field of social work. At the end of the year
1949-50, the Social Welfare Branch of the Provincial Government finds itself in somewhat of a dilemma. The requirements of the Pension Board call for assistance from
the field staff in proving eligibility for pension and at least one visit a year to establish
continuing eligibility. To render this service, and at the same time maintain accepted
standards of social-work practice, has taxed workers beyond their capacity. Increases
in staff have not been sufficient to overcome the difficulty. Service to old people is
notably time-consuming, and supervisors in our generalized service are concerned because
other important categories suffer while our well-qualified workers grapple with the
completion of application forms, the volume of work of visiting and reporting, and the
innumerable demands resulting from these contacts. The problem is a real one, but it is
also an inescapable one. Older people are here to stay and, as someone has so aptly
put it, "Age will be served."
Targets for the Future
The next step would seem to be a careful survey of our situation and a study of
resources and the best way to use them. Since we are not quite sure of our direction in
this field, perhaps some targets for the future might not be out of place.   We suggest:—
(1) The development of an integrated programme for old people which would
also take into account the needs of the pre-pension group.
(2) Specialized training in social work with older people.
(3) Consideration of more definite standards in institutional care for persons
in this group. R 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(4) Co-operation with appropriate voluntary agencies in building up the community resources.
(5) Further development of housekeeping services.
GRAPHIC PRESENTATION COVERING PERIOD SINCE 1927
On the following page will be found a graphic presentation of the trends in old-age
and blind pensions in British Columbia from the coming into force of the " Old Age
Pensions Act " in 1927 to the end of the fiscal year 1949-50.
The black-line graph shows the trend in cost of pensions, the dotted line shows the
trend in number of persons in receipt of pensions, and the broken line shows the trend
in total population. These graphs may be compared one with another only in general
as they are not based on any common unit of amount. The trend-of-costs graph is
based on 72,000 units to the square, the trend-of-number-of-pensioners graph is based
on 2,400 units to the square, and the trend-of-population graph is based on 240,000
units to the square. The graphs are made up from statistical records of the Old-age
Pension Board and population figures from Federal census records.
It will be seen from the graphs that during the first two years' operation of the Act
there was an initial sharp rise in both the number and cost of pensions and then a lessening
in rate of increase until the middle of 1930. During the depression years a further
increase began and continued fairly steadily until 1939. During the war years and
since the end of the war there have been certain changes in the Act and regulations, and
with each change the cost graph shows a sharp rise. The last three peaks recorded at
March, 1947; November, 1948; and August, 1949, are occasioned by accumulated
retroactive payments of the increase in the cost-of-living bonus and two changes in the
" Old Age Pensions Act " increasing the basic pension, first from $25 to $30 and, finally,
from $30 to $40 a month.
It will be noted that following each peak the recession in the cost graph does not
fall below the level of the previous peak but starts from a higher point as a new base.
In other words, these changes in the Act, along with other factors, have consistently led
to increasing expenditures on pensions.
When the graph representing the cost of pensions is compared in a general way with
the graph representing the total population of the Province, it is evident that at first the
number of old-age pensioners increased much more quickly than population, which,
of course, was to be expected. This difference in percentage increase, although for some
time becoming less, has in the last several years again shown a marked upward trend.
The sharp increase in the number of pensioners in the last four years is chiefly due to
the broadening of the Act and regulations. There are, however, a number of other
contributing factors, such as the rising cost of living, a decreased demand among
employers for the services of older people, and the attraction of increasing supplementary
social services, which include hospital services, medical services, and drugs.
GRAPHIC PRESENTATION COVERING YEARS 1946-47,
1947-48, 1948-49, and 1949-50
In the long-term graph already referred to, a general picture is given of the trends in
the number of old-age pensioners and the cost of pensions. In the column graph
presented on page 70, more details are given of activities which, from an administrative
standpoint, are of particular importance, and these are shown for the years noted above.
Since, in this column graph, figures for four consecutive years are used, it is possible to
compare one year with another and to note the trend shown in a succession of four years. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
R 69
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Activities for the Years 1946 to 1950
R 71
Activities
Fiscal Year
1946-47
Fiscal Year
1947-48
Fiscal Year
1948-49
Fiscal Year
1949-50
2,937
2,971
322
1,402
370
232
5,849
4,918
304
1,674
268
328
5,983
5,996
411
2,226
304
254
6,120
5,710
463
2,135
371
301
The above table serves to emphasize the difference in the activities of the four fiscal
years. Although the extreme differences between the years 1946-47 and 1947-48 must
be attributed to changes in the " Old Age Pensions Act " and regulations, the difference
shown between each two years in the following three years may reasonably be attributed
to influences that are likely to be more or less consistent for some time to come.
In examining the columns showing the number of applications received and the
number granted in the last three years, it will be noted that there is a levelling-off as the
percentage rate of increase in new applications declines.
STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st,  1950
OLD-AGE PENSIONS
Table I.—Disposition of Applications
Number of new applications received     6,120
Number of new applications granted     5,710*
Number of new applications not granted        463
* Includes some left over from previous year.
Table II.-
-Miscellaneous
Number of B.C. pensioners returned to British Columbia	
Number of new " other Province " pensioners transferred to
British Columbia	
94
436
Number of B.C. pensioners transferred to other Provinces        238
Number of pensioners from other Provinces transferred out
of British Columbia or suspended
Number of B.C. reinstatements granted	
Number of B.C. pensions suspended	
Number of deaths of B.C. pensioners	
Number of deaths of " other Province " pensioners in British
Columbia	
Total number of pensioners on payroll at end of fiscal year	
471
301
371
2,135
252
28,988
Table III.—Reasons Why Applications Not Granted
Number
  98
  55
  8
  1
  145
  32
  3
  2
  1
Applications withdrawn      118
Not of pensionable age	
Unable to prove age	
Not sufficient residence	
Unable to prove residence.
Income in excess	
Property transferred
Receiving War Veterans' Allowance
Transferred to mental institutions	
Information refused	
TotaL
463
Per Cent
21.17
11.87
1.72
0.22
31.32
6.91
0.65
0.43
0.22
25.49
100.00 R 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IV.—Sex of New Pensioners
Number Per Cent
Males   3,065 53.68
Females 7____ 2,645 46.32
Total  5,710 100.00
Table V.—Marital Status of New Pensioners
Number Per Cent
Married  2,655 46.50
Single       655 11.45
Widows   1,243 21.77
Widowers       643 11.28
Separated     454 7.95
Divorced       60 1.05
Total  5,710 100.00
Table VI.—Birthplace of New Pensioners
Number Per Cent
British Columbia        96 ,   1.69
Other parts of Canada  1,424 24.94
British Isles  2,488 43.57
Other parts of British Empire      143 2.50
United States of America      533 9.33
Other foreign countries  1,026 17.97
Total  5,710 100.00
Table VII.—Ages at Granting of New Pensions
Number Per Cent
Age 70  2,176 38.11
Age 71       702 12.29
Age 72      522 9.14
Age 73      428 7.49
Age 74      344 6.03
Age 75      333 5.83
Age 76 to 80      821 14.38
Age 81 to 90 ___     352 6.17
Age 91 and up        32 0.56
Total  5,710 100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 73
Table VIII.—Ages of Pensioners at Death
Number Per Cent
Age 70  56 2.35
Age 71   118 4.94
Age 72  110 4.61
Age 73   137 5.74
Age 74  141 5.91
Age 75  153 6.41
Age 76  150 6.28
Age 77  141 5.91
Age 78  134 5.61
Age 79  165 6.91
Age 80  148 6.20
Age 81   108 4.53
Age 82  129 5.40
Age 83  112 4.69
Age 84  98 4.11
Age 85  90 3.77
Age 86 :  95 3.98
Age 87  70 2.93
Age 88  57 2.39
Age 89  39 1.63
Age 90  37 1.55
Over 90  99 4.15
Total   2,387 100.00
Table IX.—With Whom New Pensioners Live
Number Per Cent
Living alone  1,384 24.24
Living with spouse  2,334 40.87
Living with spouse and children      267 4.68
Living with children  1,004 17.58
Living with others       597 10.46
Living in public institutions        89 1.56
Living in private institutions         35 .61
Total _:  5,710 100.00
Table X.—Where New Pensioners Are Living
Number Per Cent
In own house  2,453 42.96
In rented house      632 11.07
In rented suite      770 13.48
Boarding       805 14.11
In housekeeping room      355 6.22
In boarding home      221 3.90
In institution ,      124 2.13
In single room (eating out)      350 6.13
Total  5,710 100.00 R 74                                                         BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XI.—Economic Status of New Pensioned
(a) Holding real property of value—                        Number
$0               _         3,257
.s
Per Cent
57.04
2.52
6.78
8.63
7.34
8.95
4.80
3.94
$1 to $250                                      --         144
$251 to $500                                                 387
$501 to $750_.                                             493
$751 to $1,000      419
$1,001 to $1,500       ..                  511
$1,501 to $2,000      274
$2,001 and up      225
Total                                              5,710
100.00
45.10
18.93
11.40
7.08
4.94
12.55
{b) Holding personal property of value—
$0   2,575
$1 to $250..              .           1,081
$251 to $500                                       651
$501 to $750      404
$751 to $1,000             282
$1,001 and up      717
Total •  5,710
100.00
Whose Pensions
or Partially by
-- 170
Table XII.—Number of Pensioners Living in Other Provinces
Were Granted by British Columbia and Are Paid Wholly
This Province.
Alberta	
Saskatchewan  ,    	
     66
Manitoba	
     54
Ontario  '      	
  141
Quebec 	
.     22
New Brunswick      __ _— 	
--    13
Nova Scotia	
9
Prince Edward Island  _       -   	
2
Newfoundland 	
1
Northwest Territory            _ _
Yukon Territory  	
.--      2
Total	
.. -. 480
Table XIII.—Claims against Estates, Old Age and
Number of cases of death    _   	
Blind
2,135
204
in
50
281
Number of cases where claims were made.-.	
Number of cases where claims were waived or withdrawn
favour of beneficiaries                     .     .
Number of cases on which collections were made	
Total amount collected—
Old Age       -- $ 117,044.31
Blind          4,656.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
Table XIV.—Percentage of Pensioners to Population over
Ten-year Period*
R 75
1
1939      1941 I   1943
1
1945
1947
1948
1949
Percentage of pensioners to the total population of the Province ...
Percentage of all persons over 70 years of age to the total popu-
I             1
1.64 |    1.79 |    1.74
3.59      3.60 1    4.85
45.82 j 49.79 j 35.87
1             1
1.65
4.94
33.36
1.80
5.08
35.37
2.07
5.31
39.03
2.38
5.31
Percentage of pensioners to the population over 70 years of age	
44.86
* Percentages based on population estimated by Dominion Bureau of Statistics.
Table XV.—Distribution of B.C. Pensioners According to the Amount
of Pensions Received (Basic Pension, $40)
Pension Per Cent
$40.00  69.94
$35.00 to $39.99  13.59
$30.00 to $34.99  5.81
$25.00 to $29.99  3.55
$20.00 to $24.99  2.63
Less than $19.99  4.48
Total.
100.00
PENSIONS FOR THE BLIND
Table I.—Disposition of Applications
Number of new applications received  102
Number of new applications granted     93*
Number of new applications not granted     12
* Includes some left over from previous year.
Table II.—Miscellaneous
Number of B.C. pensioners returned to British Columbia  2
Number of new " other Province " pensioners transferred to
British Columbia .  18
Number of B.C. pensioners transferred to other Provinces  3
Number of pensioners from other Provinces transferred out of
British Columbia or suspended  11
Number of B.C. reinstatements granted  7
Number of deaths of B.C. pensioners  40
Number of deaths of " other Province " pensioners in British
Columbia   3
Total number of pensioners on payroll at end of fiscal year  629
Table III.—Reasons Why Applications Not Granted
Number Per Cent
Not blind within the meaning of the Act     7 58.33
Ineligible on account of residence  — 	
Income in excess     3 25.00
Property transferred   	
Applications withdrawn      2 16.67
Total
12
100.00 R 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IV.—Sex of New Pensioners
Number Per Cent
Males   42 45.16
Females   51 54.84
Total   93 100.00
Table V.—Marital Status of New Pensioners
Number Per Cent
Married   45 48.38
Single   21 22.58
Widows   15 16.13
Widowers      3 3.23
Separated      7 7.53
Divorced      2 2.15
Total   93 100.00
Table VI.—Birthplace of New Pensioners
Number Per Cent
British Columbia  14 15.05
Other parts of Canada  27 29.03
British Isles   30 32.26
Other parts of British Empire     3 3.23
United States of America     2 2.15
Other foreign countries :  17 18.28
Total   93 100.00
Table VII.—Ages at Granting of New Pensions
Number Per Cent
Age 21   55 59.14
Age 22 to 30     8 8.60
Age 31 to 40     5 5.35
Age 41 to 50     6 6.48
Age 51 to 60     7 7.53
Age 61 to 70     5 5.38
Age 71 to 80     4 4.30
Age 80 and up     3 3.22
Total   93 100.00
Table VIII.—Ages of Pensioners at Death
Number Per Cent
Age 21   	
Age 22 to 30  	
Age 31 to 40     3 6.98
Age 41 to 50     3 6.98
Age 51 to 60     2 4.65
Age 61 to 70 .  16 37.21
Age 71 to 80  15 34.88
Age 81 and up     4 9.30
Total   43 100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 77
Table IX.—With Whom New Pensioners Live
Number Per Cent
Living with parents - 10 10.75
Living alone  23 24.73
Living with spouse  29 31.19
Living with spouse and children     9 9.68
Living with children  14 15.05
Living with others     4 4.30
Living in private institutions     4 4.30
Total   93 100.00
Table X.—Where New Pensioners Are Living
Number Per Cent
In own house  38 40.86
In rented house  12 12.90
In rented suite     4 4.30
Boarding   30 32.25
In housekeeping room     4 4.30
In boarding home     1 1.08
In institution     1 1.08
In single room     3 3.23
Total :  93 100.00
Table XI.—Economic Status of New Pensioners
(a) Holding real property of value—                          Number Per cent
$0  .  55 59.13
$1 to $250     8 8.60
$251 to $500     5 5.38
$501 to $750     6 6.45
$751 to $1,000     7 7.53
$1,000 to $1,500     5 5.38
$1,501 to $2,000     4 4.30
$2,001 and up     3 3.23
Total   93 100.00
(b)  Holding personal property of value—
$0  59 63.44
$1 to $250 1  12 12.90
$251 to $500  4 4.30
$501 to $750  7 7.53
$751 to $1,000  4 4.30
$1,001 and up  7 7.53
Total   93 100.00 R 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XII.—Number of New Pensioners Living in Other Provinces Whose Pensions Were Granted by British Columbia and Are Paid Wholly or Partially
by This Province.
Alberta     3
Saskatchewan  	
     1
Manitoba 	
1
Ontario
Quebec    	
New Brunswick      - - . -   ...
Nova Scotia             .            . __
Prince Edward Island	
Newfoundland    	
Northwest Territory _              _ _ _
Total 	
     5
Table XIII.—Distribution of British Columbia Blind Pensioners According
to the Amount of Pensions Received (Basic Pension $40)
Pension Per Cent
$40.00   86.65
$35.00 to $39.99  4.77
$30.00 to $34.99  2.70
$25.00 to $29.99  1.12
$20.00 to $24.99  1.11
$19.99 and less  3.65
Total   100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 79
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st, 1950
Table I.—Pensions
Total amount paid pensioners in British
i-t  ,       ,. Supplementary
COlUmDia  Pensions Allowances Total
Old age  $12,220,011.23 $3,056,205.14 $15,276,216.37
Blind   276,884.19 66,989.54 343,873.73
Totals   $12,496,895.42 $3,123,194.68 $15,620,090.10
Less amount of refunds from pensioners and estates—
From estates of old-age pensioners-       $116,109.31 $935.00       $117,044.31
From estates of blind pensioners  4,656.00     4,656.00
Overpayments refunded by old-age
pensioners   5,724.96 664.69 6,389.65
Overpayments refunded by blind
pensioners   289.26 60.00 349.26
Miscellaneous refunds from old-age
pensioners   1,372.30 307.50 1,679.80
Miscellaneous refunds from blind
pensioners           .__
Totals         $128,151.83 $1,967.19       $130,119.02
Net  amount  paid  to  pensioners   in
British Columbia—
Old age  $12,096,804.66 $3,054,297.95 $15,151,102.61
Blind   271,938.93 66,929.54 338,868.47
Totals   $12,368,743.59 $3,121,227.49 $15,489,971.08
Add amount paid other Provinces on
account of pensioners for whom
British Columbia is partly responsible—
Old age  $66,015.82       $27,803.25 $93,819.07
Blind   1,080.45 470.00 1,550.45
Totals   $67,096.27       $28,273.25 $95,369.52
Less amount received by British Columbia on account of pensioners
for whom other Provinces are
wholly or partly responsible—
Old age --            $490,340.43     $116,578.62       $606,919.05
Blind   12,365.17 2,285.52 14,650.69
Totals         $502,705.60     $118,864.14       $621,569.74 R 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Less amount refunded by the Dominion
Government—
Old age     $9,072,353.74        $9,072,353.74
Blind   204,086.42     204,086.42
Totals      $9,276,440.16        $9,276,440.16
Total amount of pensions paid by British Columbia—
Old age     $2,600,126.31  $2,965,522.58    $5,565,648.89
Blind   56,567.79 65,114.02 121,681.81
Totals      $2,656,694.10 $3,030,636.60    $5,687,330.70
Reconciliation
Expenditure as per Public Accounts  $2,821,259.68
Less administration expenses .        164,907.85
$2,656,351.83
Add net supplementary allowance     3,030,636.60
$5,686,988.43
Add refund from other Provinces for fiscal year
1948-49 received in the fiscal year 1949-50.— 342.27
Expenditure as per above statement  $5,687,330.70
Table II.—Administration Expense
Salaries and special services  $126,723.48
Office supplies, subscriptions, etc  12,648.94
Postage, telephone, and telegraph  19,641.26
Bank exchange  2,898.27
Travelling expenses  115.26
Incidentals and contingencies  2,880.64
Total      $ 164,907.85
Table III.—Supplementary Allowances
Gross amount of supplementary allowances paid in
British Columbia  $3,121,227.49
Plus supplementary allowances paid to other Provinces on account of British Columbia pensioners 28,273.25
Less supplementary allowances refunded by other
Provinces         118,864.14
Net  supplementary   allowances   paid  by
British Columbia  $3,030,636.60 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 81
CONCLUSION
In concluding its report the Board welcomes the opportunity of expressing its sincere
appreciation for the assistance received from many sources in administering the Act
during the year. It would not be possible to record adequately the help received from the
various social agencies, clubs, and service groups all over the Province who have done so
much for our older people, but to all of them we extend our thanks.
We wish also to commend the departmental field staff and the members of the office
staff for their untiring efforts in carrying out a very heavy year's work.
J. H. Creighton,
Chairman. R 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
MEDICAL SERVICES DIVISION
I beg to present the report of the activities of the Medical Services Division for the
fiscal year 1949-50.
The figures quoted below give the financial picture but in themselves do not convey
in an adequate fashion the true scope of our activities.
Our Division, born in a period of duress, has lost all resemblance to its origin. It
has become a supporting pillar in the welfare picture of the Province. Much of the work
in the past was based on the policy of " holding the line." This has changed to one of
anticipating the medical needs of our clients and arranging to meet them. This, naturally, is not as simple as it sounds. The dual responsibility of the client through residence
(municipal and Provincial), the shift of the type of client from unemployed to unemployable and retired, the increasing costs, the increasing load on the professions, the increased
recognition by the general public of the requirements of these people—all have combined
to spur the Division to unify, simplify, and solidify the medical coverage of the recipient
of social assistance.
During the past year, under the new medical services arrangement with the College
of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia, much information has been gathered.
Analysis of this at the present time would not be fair in view of the newness of the scheme.
However, the facts and figures gathered will, in the next few years, prove most enlightening and interesting.
A fact which has been known to a few but is certainly becoming more apparent to
the public at large is that the senior citizens require more medical attention in contrast to
younger groups, and that the ills and ailments of the ageing are time-consuming. I wish
to emphasize this point in view of the changing age of the population of Canada as a
whole and this Province in particular. When one takes into consideration the figures
issued by recognized authorities as to the growth of our ageing population, together with
the thinking of the general public, we must mould our policy and initiate our actions to be
compatible with our economy and ability to finance this.
The problem of drugs has given your department a good deal of concern. You will
observe the increase from $172,554.46 to $299,478.71. How can we account for this?
There are several factors. First, there has been a 33VS-per-cent increase in the number
of recipients. Second, there has been a drastic increase in the cost of drugs commensurate
with the inflationary trend of the times. Third, the type of drugs used in the practice of
medicine is changing from day to day, and with this change the cost is very much more;
the best example one can quote is the development and liberal use of the antibiotics and
vitamin preparations. Fourth, the acuteness of the hospital bed situation is causing a
goodly number of people to be taken care of in their own homes, boarding homes, and
nursing homes, the medical supplies now being furnished through our Department for
Welfare cases. Fifth, the latitude of prescribing given to so great a number of doctors
throughout the Province who are subject to constant bombardment of advertising from
all drug concerns is bound to increase the costs. Sixth, drugs being totally free to the
recipients reflects in the variety administered, and perhaps the prescribing of a greater
quantity than is needed, which is wasted and adds to the cost.
Turning to dentistry, the increase from $19,290.90 to $24,764.96 is readily
accounted for by the increase in the number of the clientele served. We have spent this
money wholly for extractions and dentures. Considering the number served in the senior
age-group, this sum is not out of the way. We must, however, anticipate a radical
increase in these costs if we are to entertain prophylactic dentistry.
It is our observation and opinion that it is most vital to our younger recipients gradually to gravitate from extractions and replacements to prophylaxis and repairs. It is bound
to be more expensive, but taking a long view it would pay dividends in health and satisfaction. Much study is contemplated during the year in this field to enable us to present
a reasonable picture of the situation. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 83
Analysing the cost of all ancillary services, there would appear to be three influencing
factors: First, the steadily increasing numbers; second, inflationary prices; third, the
ever-increasing needs.
Transportation deserves special notation. This item carries sufficient human interest
to fill many pages of a report. This includes the child in the outlying district who has
been brought to a larger centre to correct a bad squint and avoid the facial stigma which
would throw a blight on the youngster's future. Included in this are the charges of bringing the person who has lost his or her sight through cataracts and has been robbed of the
pleasures provided by sight to a centre where this condition can be rectified. Here we
find the cost of bringing cancer cases to centres of diagnosis, treatment, and relief of
agony. Here we find all travelling charges paid to make available adequate consultation,
diagnosis, and treatment from isolated areas to the closest locality equipped to deal with
the problem.
A comparison of the costs for the fiscal years 1948-49 and 1949-50 is as follows:—
Fiscal Year Fiscal Year
1948-49 1949-50
Medical   $250,004.18 $592,908.17
Drugs      172,554.46 299,478.71
Dental        19,290.90 24,764.96
Hospital        10,317.53 3,990.96
Optical          3,817.73 13,425.22
Transportation        10,484.90 14,156.08
$466,469.70        $948,724.10
In summary, one can state that much has been accomplished in bringing to the needy
of the Province services which are as good or better than any other Province in our
Dominion.
Respectfully submitted.
J. C. Moscovich, M.D.,
Director. R 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR BOYS
I have pleasure in presenting the forty-sixth annual report of the Provincial Industrial
School for Boys, covering the fiscal year 1949-50.
We feel that considerable progress has been made in the development of policy and
plans with the view to the eventual moving of the school from the present location and in
order that no time may be lost in putting into effect a programme of treatment in keeping
with the most advanced methods when adequate facilities are available to us.
We are fully cognizant of the fact that we have a dual capacity to fulfil—(1) our
treatment and training of those committed to our care and (2) our responsibility to the
community. The first calls for an intensive treatment programme to meet the needs of
each individual case and the second for a degree of custodial care.
Although handicapped by lack of facilities in both of these phases, we feel that much
good work has been accomplished owing to the fine efforts of our staff, who have benefited
greatly by in-service training and interpretation. In both of these we have received
immeasurable help from the Child Guidance Clinic staff and the training supervisors of
the Social Welfare Branch, supplemented by our own staff meetings and coaching, all of
which have given us a deeper appreciation of the problems of those whom we serve and
a more informed approach to differential treatment.
One hundred and eleven boys were admitted during the year, 36.9 per cent being
under 15 years of age and 63.1 per cent being 15 years of age and over.
3.6 per cent or 4 boys were under 12 years of age.
1.8 per cent or 2 boys were between 12 and 13 years of age.
9.9 per cent or 11 boys were between 13 and 14 years of age.
21.6 per cent or 24 boys were between 14 and 15 years of age.
15.3 per cent or 17 boys were between 15 and 16 years of age.
32.5 per cent or 36 boys were between 16 and 17 years of age.
15.3 per cent or 17 boys were over 17 years of age.
The average age was 15%2 years, approximately one year older than in previous
years.
Our average daily population was 81.7 boys, average monthly admissions were 9.25
boys, while releases averaged 10.5 boys per month. Twenty-two and one-half per cent
of our year's admissions were recidivists.
Thirty-seven Juvenile Courts were represented by our year's intake, and offences
against property were responsible for the majority of commitments, there being eighty-
eight under this heading. There were five offences against persons and eighteen miscellaneous offences.    The average length of training period was 300 days.
HEALTH SERVICES
It is the policy of the school to give-major consideration to the health of our boys,
the majority of whom are found to be in need of medical or dental care upon admission.
A battery of tests and examinations is given within the first month of admission, the results
of which often have far-reaching effects upon our programme of training.
Dental service occupies three mornings per week and is taken care of by the Vancouver General Hospital Dental Clinic, where every consideration is given to our patients
by both doctors and nurses. The following figures will illustrate the amount of dental
work done, and our thanks are due to the staff of this department for their courteous and
efficient treatment. One hundred and seventy boys were given a total of 268 appointments and the following work completed: 99 extractions, 713 fillings, 48 X-rays, 3 partial
dentures. The extent of this service might be illustrated by the fact that one boy required
forty-one fillings, while another had six extractions, thirty fillings, and a partial denture. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 85
One hundred and thirty-six chest X-ray examinations were given, 134 being negative,
one showing minimal arrested tuberculous lesion of reinfection type, and one showing
reactivation tuberculous disease of right lung (boy was transferred to hospital).
Five hundred and sixty-two days' hospitalization were necessary for a variety of
medical and surgical treatments, this year being the heaviest on record at our school.
One case of a boy suffering from diabetes and epilepsy was responsible for 337 days of
this total. As the school pays regular hospital rates for boys who are hospitalized, the
treatment entails considerable expenditure, yet we know that little can be accomplished
in changing behaviour patterns when a patient is physically or mentally ill, and restoration
to normal health is essential in our programme of treatment of behaviour problem cases.
SOCIAL WORK DEPARTMENT
Considerable progress is noted in our Social Work Department during the past year,
and in closer co-operation in our relationships with the Child Guidance Clinic.
Increased appointments, case-work supervision, and the attendance of two members
of the clinic team at our weekly case discussions provided both incentive and leadership in
our challenging work. Since January, when increased clinic appointments were obtained,
we have increased our full examinations by 40 per cent and our psychiatric interviews by
67 per cent. A total of forty-seven full examinations and fifty-two psychiatric examinations were completed, which covered approximately 75 per cent of our population. An
additional 10 per cent has been known to the clinic previously, so it appears that in the
approaching year psychiatric services will be available to every boy.
Treatment recommendations have been followed as closely as possible within our
limited resources. This department has worked closely with other programme areas
to interpret treatment needs in the light of background information and psychiatric findings. A group of seven particularly disturbed boys who could not adjust in our regular
programme were given special attention by this department with heartening results. An
interesting experiment in using " finger painting " as a diagnostic medium was also
conducted.
Eleven agencies provided case-work services for our boys' families, as this department sent regular progress reports to the field. Social history information was sent to
us quite promptly, and pre-release planning was accomplished in a co-operative way.
An increasing number of probation officers and social workers from supervising agencies
visited the school to maintain contact with their boys. These visits are being encouraged,
as they not only help the boy maintain his community contacts, but also give more people
a first-hand picture of the child in the institutional setting.
Another encouraging sign is the response which we have received to our requests
to supervising agencies for follow-up reports. The compiling of these records over an
extended period may prove to be valuable research tools by which we can measure the
effectiveness of our programme.
There were 107 boys on the roll at the beginning of the fiscal year 1949-50, and
111 boys were admitted during the year. This case-load of 218 cases was divided
between two workers. We found it rewarding to choose certain cases for special attention, as it was impossible to work intensively with every boy.
This year arrangements were made to have a psychiatrist and a psychiatric social
worker from the Child Guidance Clinic attend our regular weekly staff meetings in order
to make suggestions relative to the treatment of boys in terms of their psychiatric needs
and to supervise the case work of our social workers. We appreciate greatly the fine
service given by Dr. R. G. E. Richmond and Mr. D. Ricketts in this regard and feel that
a more efficient job is being done through their interpretive conferences.
One of our social workers took leave of absence during the year in order to take the
graduate course in social work at the University of British Columbia. When he returns
in August, 1950, he will have full professional standing. R 86
BRITISH COLUMBIA
We feel that the year's work in our Social Work Department has been most encouraging and has produced some interesting trends. Increased psychiatric and case-work
services, improved response from supervising agencies, and a development toward individualized treatment within the school are encouraging signs.
Social Welfare
Branch
GRAPH B.—SHOWING DISTRIBUTION BY SUPERVISING AGENCIES
number of cases
0 10 20 30 40
42 boys or 37.9%
Vancouver Juvenile
Court
Provincial Probation Branch
Victoria Juvenile
Court
Vancouver Children's
Aid Society
Victoria Children's
Aid Society
Catholic Children's
Aid Society
Department of
Indian Affairs
New Westminster
Social Assistance
Department
Child Welfare
Division
Office of Official
Guardian
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15 boys or 13.5%
9 boys or 8.1%
8 boys or 7.2%
6 boys or 5.4%
4 boys or   3.6%
3 boys or  2.7%
2 boys or   1.8%
1 boy or  0.9%
1 boy  or  0.9%
EDUCATION.
Ninety-nine boys were enrolled in academic classes during the year. This, we feel,
is a high enrolment, considering that the majority of our total population were between
the ages of 15 and 17 years. The fact that there is a change in registration every month,
owing to new admissions and releases, makes it difficult to record any final statistical
table that would indicate the success or failure in any one department.
16 boys were enrolled in special classes during the year.
11 boys were enrolled in Grade V.
17 boys were enrolled in Grade VI.
23 boys were enrolled in Grade VII.
17 boys were enrolled in Grade VIII.
7 boys were enrolled in Grade IX.
2 boys were enrolled in Grade X correspondence course.
2 boys were enrolled in Grade XI correspondence course.
1 boy was enrolled in Grade XII correspondence course.
3 boys were enrolled for cooking instruction.
Following the term examinations in June, 1949, five boys were promoted to Grade
IX out of a class of seven, and twenty others were promoted to higher grades between
Grades IV and VII.
A check of the standing of those enrolled during the year indicates that upon admission the average retardation is from two to three grades. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 87
We are happy to report that two of the three boys who enrolled for instruction in
cooking were able to secure positions at union wages upon their discharge from the school,
and both are doing well in their work. The third boy returned to his home upon release.
This training feature will be expanded when more adequate facilities are available.
One boy who took tailoring instruction at the school secured work in this line with
a Vancouver firm upon discharge.
Classes in motor mechanics are held regularly, and the interest taken is such that
we have had to increase these from two to four days per week. Approximately twelve
boys attend each class.
Auditory and visual aids continue to play an important part in our educational
programme, as do school radio broadcasts, vocational films, and recordings in musical
appreciation.    These do much to stimulate interest in the more routine forms of study.
The Industrial Arts Department continues to hold interest. This workshop has
been remodelled during the year and some new equipment installed, permitting greater
student participation. We feel that this department is all-important in our training
programme, and trust that in any future development space and equipment will be
provided for a greatly increased and a more varied course of training.
For several years we have been of the opinion that our academic and vocational
training should continue during the summer vacation period rather than close down
during-July and August. This year we secured a relief teacher who continued academic
training on a remedial basis during the summer. This was found to be highly satisfactory, and several boys who were not promoted in June were able to start the fall term in
higher grades, thus saving their year's effort. It is our hope that this feature may be still
further expanded to include vocational training.
Our garden and greenhouse continue to serve a very useful purpose. Not only do
the vegetables raised provide the needs of the school for approximately four months and
the flowers grown help in beautifying the grounds, but the therapeutic value of this training
has been found of great help in our work with a particular type of disturbed boy, who
gets satisfaction from close contact with nature.
RECREATION AND ENTERTAINMENT
In addition to formal classes in physical education held twice weekly, recreational
activity and entertainment occupy a large portion of late afternoon and evening hours.
Soccer, lacrosse, baseball, volleyball, basketball, and other team and group games,
seasonal in aspect, are popular activities. Teams representing the school compete with
many outside groups and display very fine sportsmanship and a spirit of fair play. Swimming is our most popular recreational activity, and the pool is seldom unoccupied.
Instruction is given in swimming, diving, and life-saving.
Three hobby clubs meet regularly and promote a variety of worth-while projects,
as well as providing a natural outlet for those interested in hobbies, handicrafts, and other
spare-time activities.
Through the generosity of the New Westminster Parks Board, groups of boys from
the school have been able to attend the professional hockey and lacrosse games during
the season and also many other special events, including the ice carnival, circus, and
gymkhana. These special events are greatly appreciated by the boys. Service clubs
and other organizations have been most generous in permitting our boys to attend, without
charge, many events sponsored by them.
Weekly picture shows are held at the school, and many other events, such as picnics,
hikes, and visits to places of interest, are arranged. Seasonal features are not forgotten,
and our Christmas concert proved to be the big event of the year. Sixty-three artists
from New Westminster and Vancouver combined to bring to the school an outstanding
variety programme, to which the parents and friends of our boys were invited. R 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Our grateful thanks are due to so many people for their thoughtfulness in providing
these extras, which have made possible many hours of wholesome fun and enjoyment.
RELIGIOUS TRAINING
Religious services are held each Sunday for both Catholic and Protestant boys, the
Catholic boys attending the parish church at Port Coquitlam, while the New Westminster
branch of the Salvation Army and the Sapperton Baptist Church alternately conduct
services for the Protestant boys in the recreation room at the school. Opportunity is also
given during the week for boys to meet with representatives of these denominations for
the purpose of discussion and study.
We are grateful for the kindly interest taken by Rev. Father J. P. Kane, Rev. T. J.
Jones, and the officers of the Salvation Army, who have given so generously of their
time in ministering to our needs.
Religious training, like other phases of our school programme, must, combat the
handicap of inadequate quarters. A quiet room in proper surroundings and a school
chaplain, who could give time to interview boys and share with them their problems,
would be of immeasurable help.
MOVEMENT OF POPULATION, APRIL 1st, 1949, TO MARCH 31st, 1950
Number in school, April 1st, 1949  89
Number in Oakalla, April 1st, 1949  1
Number on extended leave, April 1st, 1949 :.  3
Number absent without leave, April 1st, 1949  14
Number of admissions during year  111
218
Number released during year  126
Number absent without leave, March 31st, 1950     13
  139
Number in school, March 31st, 1950  79
STATISTICAL INFORMATION FOR YEAR 1949-50
Charges Resulting in Commitment
Offences against property  88
Offences against persons  5
Other offences  18
Total  111
Number of Apprehensions by Regions
Region I  7  24
Region II  45
Region III  24
Region IV  7
Region V   11
Total  111 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
R 89
Ages of Boys
10 years  1
11 years  3
12 years :  2
13 years  11
14 years  24
15 years  17
16 years .  36
17 years ,  17
Total.
Ill
Parental Relationships
Number of boys from normal homes     54
Number of boys from broken homes     57
Total
111
GRAPH A.—SHOWING ADMISSIONS OVER TWENTY-YEAR PERIOD  1930-50
Fiscal Year 30/31/32/33/34/35/3G/37/33/39/'4Q/4//4a/43/44/45/46/47/40/'49/
     /3! /3B /33 Z34/35 /36 /37/38 /39/40/4I /4a /43/44/45/46/47/48 /43/SO
Number af Admimions.   160
155
as
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110
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I R 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
EXPENDITURE AND PER CAPITA COST
Salaries  $70,787.32
Office and school supplies :  1,490.97
Travelling and transportation  3,754.76
Shoes and clothing  4,350.43
Janitor's supplies and maintenance of grounds  1,929.31
Fuel, light, water :....  4,185.39
Furnishings, equipment  811.82
Provisions ..:  24,607.32
Medical, surgical, dental  5,292.57
Laundry   1,947.56
Vocational and recreational supplies  1,076.89
Other hospitalization  5,990.57
Incidentals and contingencies  849.91
$127,074.82
Less—
Rent collected    $495.00
Proceeds from meal tickets  1,844.00
         2,339.00
  $124,735.82
Public Works expenditure         5,012.34
Decrease in value of stock  534.76
$130,282.92
Cost-of-living bonus     $15,347.09
Public Works cost-of-living bonus  480.00
       15,827.09
$146,110.01
Reconciliation
Expenditure as per Public Accounts   .. $140,082.91
Add—
Public Works expenditure  $5,012.34
Public Works C.L.B        480.00
$5,492.34
Decrease in inventory        534.76
         6,027.10
Expenditure as per above statement  $146,110.01
Per Capita Cost
General operating expense  $4.37
Cost-of-living bonus       .53
Total  $4.90 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 91
CONCLUSION
While our total admissions were fourteen less than last year and our average daily
attendance was down by five boys from the previous year,, we do not feel that this is
significant at the present time. Our population fluctuates month by month and year by
year, and it is our opinion that when housed in a modern school the population of the
school will increase considerably.
This year has been outstanding in many respects as we plan and prepare for the new
school. Programme changes have been made, intensive staff-training instituted, an
advisory committee appointed, and regular meetings held to study and evaluate the work
being done and to discuss plans for the future development of our school, and these are
but a few indications that we are endeavouring to keep abreast of the changing times in
policy and programme.
In conclusion, may I pay tribute to our staff, who have worked together harmoniously and given the administration their loyalty and support. To the many individuals,
departments of Government, and public and private agencies, too numerous to enumerate,
who have given us so much help during the year in our work with and for those committed
to our care, we extend our grateful thanks.
Respectfully submitted.
George Ross,
Superintendent. R 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS
I respectfully submit the thirty-sixth annual report of the Girls' Industrial School for
the period from April 1st, 1949, to March 31st, 1950.
General routines within this institution followed the previous outline. Housekeeping, dining-room, kitchen, and laundry training was provided as usual. The sewing-room
especially has been productive of progressive instruction. The girls receiving training
there not only produce all the girls' wearing-apparel, bed and table linen, and provide
maintenance in the form of mending and remodelling, but were able to carry on during
the absence of their instructress while she was on vacation. They made new curtains for
their assembly room during that period, too. Knitting and hand-work class turned out a
fine collection of knitted baby garments and stuffed toys for the Junior Red Cross, as well
as many useful, saleable articles to swell the fund used to provide materials for this class.
HEALTH
This important part of our programme was carried out by the various clinics—
physical, dental, and venereal disease. General health was good. There were five hospitalizations—two for tonsillectomy, one for observation which resulted in transfer to
mental hospital, one for removal of a swallowed needle, and the fifth for X-ray observation of progress of a swallowed safety-pin without necessity for operation.
SCHOOL
The following are movements of school classes: —
On roll, April 1st, 1949  15
Enrolled during term  16
— 31
Released during term  13
On roll, March 31st, 1950  18
All but two of these pupils were enrolled in Government correspondence courses.
These prepared courses have proved to be a most satisfactory means of organizing our
classes upon an individual basis. Nine girls were enrolled in partial Grade IX or X.
High school and more advanced elementary grades spent a full day in class, the others
a half-day.
Seven girls received music lessons in addition to school work. Several had received
musical instruction previously, and welcomed the opportunity to continue.
TRAINING AND PLACEMENT
We are looking back upon a year during which a variation in training programme,
initiated last year, has been developed to produce results indicative of its value as part of
our programme. This trend was toward training of a practical or vocational nature not
obtainable within our institution.   Three separate types of plan were launched:—
(1) Placement in another institution where training was provided on the job
while the girl was also a wage-earner.
(2) Daily attendance at commercial or vocational schools while resident in
Girls' Industrial School.
(3) Trial placement, pending release to foster home, domestic or job placement.
These have been arranged in the order in which they were tried, rather than as an
indication of their importance. The importance was dependent upon the girl, inasmuch
as some placements required higher standards of education and personality for enrolment. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 93
Most of the cases tried in the first group were placed for several weeks or months at
a time in a small nursing home, where they received instruction in tray work, general
bedside attention to patients, and preparation of light diets, etc. Four girls had the
advantage of this experience, which also netted them a little nest egg of ready money for
use upon release. All but one of these girls became successfully rehabilitated. One,
whom we may call "Jane," appears in our second group as well, and her story continues
there. Another girl, with a Grade X education, was released to employment and training
in hospital work as a ward maid. Nine months later, in the same hospital, she is. a
qualified nurse's aide, a happy and useful citizen.
In the second classification, two girls completed training at the Vancouver Vocational Institute—"Jane" as a waitress and "Martha" as a power-machine operator.
From the beginning, " Jane's " reports were excellent. On several occasions she was
given the opportunity of work at banquets or teas, and during Christmas vacation she was
employed in a full-time position where she gained valuable experience. These opportunities were offered by the institute while she was still in training. The money so earned
was a welcome addition to that previously saved. Upon completion of her course,
" Jane " was released to steady employment. " Martha," who showed keen interest in
her power-machine course, was highly recommended, but owing to the seasonal nature
of some garment shops, she was some time in finding steady employment. She remained
at the school while working part time and, upon obtaining a permanent job, was released
to her home and work. " Martha " has been four months in her present position, has had
two pay increases, and is learning a cutting-machine, for which she shows evident aptitude.
Three more girls in this classification are doing well, but have not completed courses.
The trial-placement group has been an effective means of developing security for the
girls who have no definite training and are fearful of being on their own. They understand that if they find the placement unsuitable in any way, they may return to us for
further trial. This has proved to be a satisfactory and helpful plan. This group includes
mother's help, domestic, and similar placements. In all these cases we have had the
interest and assistance of the Child Guidance Clinic, Children's Aid Societies, Probation
Service, schools, and employers, which we deeply appreciate.
RECIDIVISTS
The story here is not too bright. We started the year with seven recidivists, three of
whom were committed for the third time. Of these, one was "Jane," who returned bitter
and defiant. However, in a month's time she requested the privilege of remaining until she
was fitted for employment that would provide her with security and self-respect. This
girl completed a grade in school, as well as waitress training, and during this period in the
Girls' Industrial School set a fine example of co-operation and effort to the other girls.
Of the other two, one was transferred to the mental hospital for treatment, and the other,
an Indian, is still here. Of the remaining four, one, also an Indian girl, was mentioned
above as the one girl who did not reach a happy ending to her trial employment in the
nursing home. Reports reaching us indicate that she has had several gaol terms since
leaving us. The second of this group was released to her home and found work as
a domestic. She has avoided trouble, moves from one job to another, writes to us
frequently, and hopes to be married before long. The third girl is still here without
immediate plan. She is docile and obedient, but quite irresponsible. The last of the
recidivists went A.W.O.L. immediately following her eighteenth birthday and has not
been heard of since. During the year only two recidivists were admitted—one, an Indian
girl with previous poor adjustment and behaviour, who has spent a period in Oakalla
since her first commitment here, and the other was released less than three months previously through determined efforts of her parents. Her second committal was following
a more serious charge. Both of these girls are still here. Recidivists create a problem of
their own, as they love to tell of the " days back when " and bring to light stories of earlier R 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA
escapades, riots, and escapes that would otherwise be forgotten. On the other hand, these
girls are often helpful in settling quickly into routines and accepting help and instruction,
which is an excellent example to others.
INDIANS
This branch of our work remains the least productive of happy results. At the
beginning of the year there were two Indian girls in the school, and five were admitted
before the end of March. Of these seven, three were recidivists, and six were delinquent
on charges involving vagrancy, sexual immorality, or intoxication, indicating morals
weakened by lack of supervision, education, or productive employment. In no case has
one of these girls completed Grade VI previous to committal. This has prohibited training in any course leading to employment. The sixth girl, while charged with incorrigibility, had a lengthy history of sexual delinquency. Three of these girls are still in the
school, have reached saturation point, and no plan for future placement is available. Of
the three released, one went to hospital placement, which she almost immediately left to
return to her former mode of life. The other two went to relatives, and we know nothing
of what became of them. Many Indian families are nomadic, and it is difficult to trace
their progress. Most Indian girls have a natural flair for manual crafts, appreciation of
colour and art, and it was hoped to establish a programme by which these talents might
be developed. The class in Indian art, instituted last year, collapsed through the illness
of the Indian instructress. We were unable to find anyone qualified or interested enough
to carry on.
DISPOSITION OF GIRLS
It may be interesting to note the disposition of released girls. It should be borne in
mind that committal has followed years of life in which the forces have been against
worthy development of socially acceptable habits, respect for authority, or desire for
higher standards. Complete character reformation can hardly be brought about in a
matter of months. These girls need constant support and encouragement in their efforts
to conform to new standards. Seventeen girls were released in this year. Nine of these
were placed in care of relatives to attend school or to become employed. Of these, one is
married, four are happily continuing their work, and the whereabouts of three are
unknown to us. One became a recidivist and is still in Girls' Industrial School, planning
attendance at commercial school. Of the three unknown, two were Indian girls, one
a half-breed. Two unmarried mothers were released to agency care following confinement. One of these has visited us, and seemed well and happy in domestic employment.
Two girls were released to employment in hospitals (as well as one of first group). Both
remained several months in these positions, one leaving for cannery work, and the other
to her former way of living.
Of the four remaining releases, one was to foster home, one to Provincial Mental
Hospital, one out of the Province, and one to attend private school. Seven of the total
number were 18 years of age; nine have voluntarily continued contact with the school by
letter, telephone, or visit.
RELATED AGENCIES
The Child Guidance Clinic has been of great assistance to us. Our usual routine
examinations have been carried on with the added value of continuous psychiatric interviews for those girls disturbed enough to require this. For others, suggestions along
treatment lines have been most helpful and have brought about happy results. We
appreciate the interest of the clinic team whose planning has made possible these
treatments.
Grateful acknowledgment is extended to all agencies, Probation Service, various
religious bodies who so faithfully carry on our Sunday and midweekly programmes,
including Salvation Army, John Howard Society, Anglican, United, and Roman Catholic
churches, as well as Vocational Institute, Women's Musical, Women's Philharmonic, REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 95
Lions' Club, and groups and individuals who have given so generously of effort and time
in our behalf.
Many happy relationships have been established between individual girls and the
field staff, Probation Officers, and social workers of Children's Aid Societies interested in
them. This has led to a more beneficial, happier, and more permanent result in planning
and placement. We trust that their continued co-operation will support and assist us in
the coming year.
POPULATION OF SCHOOL, MARCH 31st, 1950
On roll, April 1st, 1949  27
.     Girls admitted during year April 1st, 1949, to March 31st, 1950 . 28
55
Released on parole .  15
Transferred to other institutions     1
Transferred out of British Columbia     1
— 17
Total in school, March 31st, 1950  38
PLACES OF APPREHENSION
Region I      1 Region IV     3
Region II  18 Region V     5
Region III     1 ■ —
Total   28
OFFENCES COMMITTED
Incorrigibility   9               Vagrancy  3
Theft   1 Violation of Probation... 2
Intoxication  2 —
Sexual delinquency   11                                Total   28
LENGTH OF SENTENCE
Sec.  20,  Juvenile Delhi-                        Indeterminate   7
quents Act, 1929  18                 Indeterminate,    not    ex-
Sec.   16, Juvenile Delin-                           ceeding two years  1
quents Act, 1908     2 —
Total   28
PARENTAL RELATIONSHIPS
Normal homes     8
Broken homes  19
Adoptive homes     1
Total   28 R 96
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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R 97
EXPENSES AND REVENUE STATEMENT OF SCHOOL, MARCH 31st, 1950
Total inmate-days from April 1st, 1949, to March 31st, 1950_
Per capita cost, one year	
Per capita cost, one day	
Operating expenditure by voucher—•
Salaries 	
Cost-of-living bonus 	
Office and school supplies, etc.—
Postage, office and school supplies-
Telephone and telegraph	
Travelling expenses  	
Farm operations 	
Furnishings, equipment, etc.
Clothing—
Clothing
Boots and shoes _
Janitor's supplies 	
Fuel, light, and water-
Fuel 	
Water  	
Light and power
Provisions—
Groceries
Meat 	
Fish 	
Medical attendance, medical supplies, hospitalization, and dental cost—
Medical attendance 	
Medical supplies
Hospitalization and surgery
Dental cost 	
Eyes examined and glasses provided.
Good Conduct Fund	
Incidentals and contingencies	
Vocational and recreational supplies .
Total expenditure for year by voucher.
Maintenance and repairs (expended through Public Works Department)-
Salaries 	
Cost-of-living bonus  ,—
Repairs  :	
Grounds 	
Inventory, March 31st, 1949
Less proceeds from sale of meal tickets .
Less rent 	
Less credit for sale of garden produce _
Less inventory, March 31st, 1950	
Reconciliation
10,051
$2,022.17
$5.5402
$25,138.20
4,986.76
$262.11
132.02
$317.78
89.01
$3,221.00
314.45
820.97
$4,998.64
1,526.47
219.75
$520.00
117.69
566.40
331.50
15.50
394.13
517.67
376.28
1,341.37
406.79
471.79
4,356.42
6,744.86
1,551.09
237.35
92.69
391.87
$47,007.27
$2,411.40
497.92
6,986.41
109.82
$1,304.00
480.00
6.00
1,560.85
10,005.55
2,023.02
$59,035.84
3,350.85
$55,684.99
Total expenditure as per Public Accounts  $45,217.27
Add Public Works expenditure     10,005.55
Add inventory as at March 31st, 1949
Less inventory as at March 31st, 1950..
Expenditure (as above) 	
Respectfully submitted.
$55,222.82
2,023.02
$57,245.84
1,560.85
  $55,684.99
A. V. Peck,
Superintendent. R 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL HOME, KAMLOOPS
I beg to. submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Home, Kamloops, for
the fiscal year 1949^50.
IMPROVEMENTS TO BUILDING
The major improvement executed during the year was the complete overhaul of the
kitchen and dish-washing room. The kitchen was equipped with new electrical cooking
facilities, including an electric range, bake-ovens, and a hot-food wagon for sick-ward
use. Also installed in the kitchen were new double stainless sinks and drain-boards,
while in the dish-washing room the walls were lined with stainless steel and plastic boarding. The floors of the kitchen, bake-room, and dish-washing room were re-covered with
rubber tile of a bright cherry-red tone. All of this has enhanced the appearance of the
kitchen and facilitated the work of cooks. The dining-room was fully equipped with
new hardwood maple chairs, lacquer finish, with new tea and coffee urns installed in the
dining-room for convenience.
The entrance driveways of the home were widened and concrete curbing installed.
The section of ground on the right of the entrance was cleared of bushes, levelled, and
seeded to grass, with flower-beds inserted to correspond with the grounds to the front of
the building.
The trees on the boulevard on Columbia Street, having overgrown, were thinned out
and trimmed, which facilitated a clearer approach for traffic and the use of the crossing
by the residents in the home.
ENTERTAINMENT
A new pool table was installed in the recreational room, and I am happy to state
that this pool table has been the centre of recreation, and is in use continually, and is
greatly appreciated by the residents.
During the year we have been favoured with entertainment from various local organizations—the Kamloops Junior High School Band in particular, the Elks Band, High
School Girls' Choir, St. Ann's Convent girls, and during Christmas week a variety of
entertainment took place every night, the highlight being the Elks concert party with
their gifts of smokes for our residents.
A picture show is a weekly occurrence, and religious services by various denominations are regularly held. Several organizations and individuals donate illustrated periodicals, which are greatly appreciated, and the game of checkers, both inside and outside
board, is becoming quite competitive.
MEDICAL SERVICES
Satisfactory arrangements with the Irving Clinic, whereby one of their doctors
attends at the home once a week and on call for any emergency, still continues.
CONCLUSION
I am happy to look back on a year of substantial progress in the improvements of
the physical aspects of the Provincial Home. It has been noted that as the regulations
governing the day-to-day operation of the home have been more carefully adhered to, the
morale and happiness of the residents have definitely improved. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 99
FINANCIAL REPORT FOR THE YEAR APRIL 1st, 1949,
TO MARCH 3 1st, 1950
Expenditure for the Fiscal Year Ended March 31st, 1950
Salaries   $54,903.35
D.V.A. refund  !  $15.00
W.C.B. refund   3.55
Overpayment   25.13
Overpayment   1.80
D.V.A. refund   43.02
88.50
Cost-of-living bonus  $ 12,968.37
Less—
Overpayment    $5.03
Overpayment    .36
D.V.A. refund   12.91
•  18.30
$54,814.85
Expenses—
Office supplies, etc.  ...     $1,033.62
Less unemployment insurance   160.28
Fuel, water, light, etc  $17,020.75
Less—
Charge to Provincial Police  $1,799.66
Charge to Public Works    2,246.38
4,046.04
Janitor's supplies and maintenance     $1,288.19'
Less repairing projector  41.98
Furnishings, equipment, etc.      $6,867.51
Chairs      $988.80
Pool table        756.51
Assemble pool table  15.95
Barber chair        303.85
       2,065.11
12,950.07
873.34
12,974.71
1,246.21
Provisions, etc.   $27,976.90
Less—
Tobacco sales  :     $469.40
Sale of carrots   76.00
Imperial Tobacco Sales Co., Ltd        111.40
Sale of seed-potatoes         26.20
4,802.40
683.00
27,293.90
Clothing, etc.  I  5,407.69
Medical and surgical supplies  4,345.07
Transportation of inmates   708.37
Feed for live stock  1,189.07
Laundry   '_  1,036.28
Burials   1,380.00
Other hospitalization  240.00
Incidentals and contingencies      $2,877.84
Less—
Comfort money to non-pensioners...   $1,603.00
Rent for pasture land  12.00
1,615.00
1,262.84
$130,524.80
Less rent, $776.25, and board, $1,946         2,722.25
Total expenditure   $127,802.55 R 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Inmate-days
Inmates in home, April 1st, 1949  141
Inmates admitted during the year     66
  207
Inmates discharged      37
Inmates died  __     34
     71
Total number of inmates, March 31st, 1950  136
Total number of inmate-days  49,912
Expenditures by Department of Public Works, Maintenance and Repairs
Salaries    $8,630.80
Cost-of-living bonus   1,883.52
Repairs  6,483.22
Grounds   347.64
Total  ._.-,     $17,345.18
Summary
Total Provincial Home expenditure  $127,802.55
Public Works expenditure       17,345.18
Total expenditure  $145,147.73
Total cost per capita: $145,147.73-M9,912=$2.90807v
Moneys Paid to Government Agent, Kamloops
Pensions      $58,930.36
Reconciliation
Net expenditure as per Public Accounts     $71,925.94
Add maintenance receipts      61,978.97
$133,904.91
Add Public Works expenditure       17,345.18
$151,250.09
Less pensioners' comforts         6,102.36
Total expenditure (as above)  $145,147.73
Respectfully submitted.
J. M. Shilland,
Superintendent. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 101
WELFARE INSTITUTIONS BOARD
I herewith submit the annual report of the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act."
The year 1949 was another busy one in the administration of the "Welfare Institutions Licensing Act." The total number of cases dealt with was 628; this was an increase
of 56 over the previous year. There were 339 licences issued; of these, 265 were
renewals and 74 were new licences. During the year 47 licensed institutions closed,
leaving 292 licensed institutions at the end of the year.
The Welfare Institutions Board, which administers this Act, held regular monthly
meetings to approve applications for licence and to attend to other important business.
The purpose of the "Welfare Institutions Licensing Act" is to protect, through
licensing, certain dependent groups of children and old people, and is considered an
important and valuable means of control.
WELFARE INSTITUTIONS—CHILDREN
A. Full-time Care of Children
There are two types of welfare institutions licensed to give full-time care to
children:—
(1) Children's institutions which are under the auspices of a private organization or society. These are administered by a board of management and
give care to a large number of children.
(2) The private family home which is licensed to care for not more than five
children.
Institutions for Child-care
In this Province there have been no new children's institutions opened for some time,
and the number of institutions now licensed is more than adequate for the requests for
this type of care. There have, however, been inquiries from interested groups about
opening children's institutions, but these have been successfully dealt with as the situations
have arisen. The " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act " has been very useful in dealing
with such inquiries.
Of the ten licensed institutions, only two are child-caring institutions, and during
1949 a total of 149 children received care in these two institutions. The other eight
institutions are set up to give special services to children, and children are usually placed
here for short periods. The total number of children cared for in these latter institutions
was 434.
By and large, all the licensed children's institutions are trying to do a fair job.
Better-trained staff is being employed, and boards of management are beginning to realize
what services are available to them through the Social Welfare Branch, Child Welfare
Division, and the Child Guidance Clinic. However, the matter of educating boards of
management to the importance of proper intake standards, case-work services, and
follow-up procedures is continuing, but results in this field are somewhat slow.
In most institutions more attention is being paid to the use of leisure time, and
hobbies are being encouraged. As few of the institutions have their own schools, the
children attend the public schools in the area and take part in all community activities.
This tends to give the children a more normal life.
Institutions for the care of children have been used for many years and have been
the subject sometimes of favourable comments and sometimes of criticism by child
welfare workers. It now seems to be recognized that while an institution has many
disadvantages in the training of children, it also has many advantages, and it seems
definitely agreed that children's institutions have a real place in any adequate and well-
rounded child welfare programme. R 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA
One institution in Northern British Columbia was closed during the year.
Number of institutions licensed in 1949  10
Number of children cared for  683
Number of days' care  146,480
Private Boarding Homes
(As distinct from a home approved as a foster home by the Child Welfare Division,
Social Welfare Branch.)
The situation in relation to private boarding homes is now fairly well under control.
Each year brings some improvement in the standard of care given and the type of person
seeking licence. This improvement in the private boarding-home situation is due to the
close co-operation of the Children's Aid Societies, public health nurses, and the licensing
authority. Another important means of controlling these homes in the large centres is
by checking all newspapers for advertisements of this nature. When persons who have
advertised to board children are acquainted with the terms of the " Welfare Institutions
Licensing Act," they usually decide to give up the plan.
In Vancouver the Children's Aid Societies investigate and supervise private boarding
homes. In Victoria this work is done by the Family Welfare and Children's Aid Society,
while in other parts of the Province the field staff of the Social Welfare Branch have
assumed this responsibility.
Children's agencies working with the homes are encouraging the private boarding-
home mother to discuss with them all plans made to board children before the placement
has been made. In the same way, parents are being encouraged to work through the
children's agencies when seeking private boarding-home care for their children. When
placement is made in this manner, better results are achieved.
In Vancouver there is a Children's Private Boarding Home Committee under the
chairmanship of the Vancouver Children's Aid Society, with representation from the
Catholic Children's Aid Society, Metropolitan Health Services, and welfare institutions.
This committee deals with all difficult situations that arise concerning private boarding
homes in Vancouver. The committee aims to improve the standards of care and to
control the situation in general.
Number of children's boarding homes licensed in 1949  57
Number of children cared for        240
Total days' care .  42,831
B. Day Care for Children
Welfare institutions licensed for day care usually confine their activities to the care
and training of pre-school children.    Projects are licensed for two different types of care.
(a)  Foster Homes for Day Care
This service is provided in Vancouver for the children of working mothers by the
Foster Day Care Association.
Mothers needing this type of care for their children are required to register with
the agency. The cost of this service is reasonable, and should the mother not be able
to meet the full charge, the association gives financial assistance. It is the mother's
responsibility to take her child to and from these homes. These homes are under the
supervision of the agency social worker, and the district public health nurse visits regularly.    A kindergarten class is held once a week in each home.
While only eleven homes were licensed, there were six in the process of being
licensed at the end of the year.
Number of foster homes licensed  11
Number of children cared for        210
Total days' care  15,793 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 103
(b) Kindergartens, Play Schools, and Nursery Schools
The interest in the education and training of pre-school children which began in
the war years still continues. Kindergartens and play schools are now located in the
outlying parts of the Province as well as in the large centres.
There has been continued improvement in personnel, accommodation, and equipment of these projects. There are now courses available for those interested in this work
at the Vancouver night-school and also the Victoria night-school. The Extension Department of the University of British Columbia has much valuable and useful material on
this subject.
There is an increased demand for this service, and this has been met to some degree
by kindergartens and play schools which have been established by many churches and
community groups as well as by private persons.
The important person in any pre-school project is a well-trained supervisor, for
she knows that the purpose of pre-school education is to help the child develop physically,
mentally, emotionally, and socially. She values the child's mind and realizes how much
depends on the way it is trained to grow. She knows that the 3-year-old will fight for
a favourite toy he wants, and how the 4-year-old begins to share his playthings, and
how the 5-year-old develops a sense of fairness and begins to take his turn. The child
who has been to nursery school or kindergarten goes to school more developed socially
than the child who has seldom been away from home.
Another important part of any pre-school project is the parents' study group,
usually organized and directed by the trained supervisor. Child development and
behaviour are studied by this group.
Much credit for improvement in this field is due the Vancouver Kindergarten
Teachers' Association. Through the efforts of this association, courses are now being
given in pre-school education. This association also has drawn up a course of studies
which it considers essential for the training of supervisors.
Number of pre-school centres licensed in 1949  105
Number of children registered       5,356
Number of days' care given  393,010
MATERNITY HOMES
The three licensed maternity homes in this Province seem to be meeting the need
for this type of service. Maywood Home, operated by the Salvation Army, and Our
Lady of Mercy Home, which is run by a Roman Catholic Sisterhood, both in Vancouver,
and the United Church Home in Burnaby, under the auspices of the United Church of
Canada, have a total accommodation for fifty-five mothers and fifty-one babies.
All these homes work very closely with the Children's Aid Societies and the other
welfare agencies in planning for the rehabilitation of the mother and care of the child.
Before the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act" was passed, maternity homes
then in existence were guilty of malpractice and also of exploitation of the unmarried
mother and her child. Licensing has put these homes out of business, and to-day only
recognized and official organizations are permitted to carry on this work.
Number of homes licensed in 1949  3
Number of mothers cared for        256
Number of infants cared for        266
Total days' care  31,055
AGED-CARE
There are many fine homes throughout the Province licensed under the " Welfare
Institutions Licensing Act" for the care of older people. R 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Each year more homes are being licensed in the outlying districts of the Province,
which means the old person can stay near his relatives and friends and among familiar
surroundings.
During the year an increased number of private persons offered their homes for
this type of care, but all could not be licensed since the required standards could not
be met.
The City of Kelowna is building a new home for its old people. It will replace
the present David Lloyd-Jones home. It is of modern architecture, and all rooms for
the old people are at ground-floor level. The building will be open early in 1950 and
will have accommodation for twenty-eight guests.
All homes for old people are being encouraged to pay more attention to the
recreational and occupational needs of the guests. Handicrafts and hobbies have been
started in some homes and have met with great success. Old people also need entertainment, and in some areas the local movie theatre gives free tickets at least once a week
to the old people, while in other boarding homes films are rented and are shown in the
home because the old people are not able to get out.
Municipal homes and those operated by organizations usually have very active
women's auxiliaries which look after the needs of the old people.
From several years' observation it has been noted that if placement is made when
older persons first need boarding-home care, they usually escape the diseases which
attack old age and remain active until death.
Most old people seem happier in the smaller boarding home, where there are no
more than about six guests and where they can be part of a family group.
The majority of these boarding homes have a regular attending physician.
The contentment and happiness of the old people depends largely upon the understanding attitude and kindliness of the person in charge.
In order to have a programme with some uniformity for the care of our older people,
it is recommended that before official financial help is given any organization wishing to
establish a boarding home for old people, the need for such a home should be proven and
the organization should be willing to co-operate in their plans with municipal and
Provincial authorities.
Number of homes licensed during 1949  92
Number of persons cared for       2,127
Total days' care  405,437
UNEMPLOYED ADULTS
There has been no increase in the number of licensed homes for unemployed adults.
All four are for the care of girls and young women.
In Vancouver there is the Sisters of Service Residential Club (Roman Catholic),
a comfortable home for twenty young girls. Located also in Vancouver is the Bethel
Home, which is under the auspices of the Mennonite Church of British .Columbia and
provides homey living-quarters for fifteen girls of the Mennonite faith. In Prince
Rupert there is the Salvation Army Home for Native (Indian) Girls. This home was
opened because native girls coming to Prince Rupert to work were unable to get suitable
and decent living accommodation. Rainbow House in Victoria, which is supported by
a group of philanthropic citizens, also gives a good home for fifteen girls.
The purpose of these homes is to provide comfortable living-quarters for young
women away from home and to give protection and security. The cost to the girls
is kept at a minimum, and no girl is turned away who is unable to pay. These homes
are a valuable resource in their communities.
Number of homes licensed in 1949  4
Number of girls cared for        474
Total days' care  14,835 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R  105
SUMMER CAMPS
There are many fine summer camps in this Province where children can have a happy
and healthy holiday, with experience in group living, lessons in co-operation and tolerance, and first-hand experience with nature. Many of our underprivileged children are
given a camping holiday through the generosity of service clubs. It is interesting to
note that two or three of these camps had a camping period for a number of old-age
pensioners, and it was reported that the oldsters enjoyed this experience and are looking
forward to a similar holiday next summer.
Gradually, all the camps are being brought under licence. Many camps have
expressed appreciation of licensing, since it is felt the camping standards will be
improved.
The Provincial Health Department is co-operating to improve health and sanitation conditions of camps, and the British Columbia Camping Association is working
toward improved camping programmes.
Number of summer camps licensed in 1949  25
Number of children cared for       8,005
Total days' care  117,023
GENERAL
The work of the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act" has now outgrown the
present regulations to the Act, and the Welfare Institutions Board now has under study
new regulations which will be more comprehensive and will help with the administration.
In conclusion, I should like to thank the Welfare Institutions Board for their assistance and help during the year. Also, I would like to thank the various welfare agencies
for their co-operation. R  106 BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATISTICS
Table I.—Showing a Comparative Summary of Information Regarding Premises
Licensed under the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act "
1946
I
1947
1948
1949
Children—Total Care (Excluding Summer Camps)
Number licensed—
10
49
659
874
151,956
24
35
4
127
720
39,279
2
2
53
984
1,415
288,396
27
26
3
43
299
14,846
2
81
2,210
4,531
314,447
54
27
11
51
690
970
162,915
21
41
3
102
533
33,591
2
1
64
1,077
1,667
336,977
29
35
4
58
377
20,051
2
2
90
2,485
4,674
326,541
55
35
11
66
748
1,025
180,467
25
52
3
106
549
32,856
2
1
68
1,206
1,823
365,130
34
34
4
58
434
11,561
2
2
111
3,026
5,309
397,945
68
43
10
57
C ap ac ity     	
683
923
189,311
22
Number of premises located—
45
Worn en—Pregnant
3
106
522
31,055
2
Number of premises located—
1
Adults—Infirm and Unemployable
92
1,417
2,127
405,437
41
Number of premises located—
51
Adults—Emp loyable
58
14,835
2
Number of premises located—
Children—Day Care
Number licensed 	
3,104
5,566
408,803
69
47
Number of children enrolled     	
Number of attendance-days    	
Number of premises located—
In rest of Province  	 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 107
Table II.—Case-load, Showing the Total Number of Separate Licences,
Applications, and Inquiries, 1949
Section A
Brought forward from 1948—
(a) Licensed premises   265
(b) Applications and inquiries     94
Total case-load on January 1st, 1949  359
Section B
Applications received during 1949  269
Gross case-load, 1949  628
Section C
Closed during 1949—
(a) Licensed      47
(b) Inquiries   176
Total subtractions   223
Section D
Carried forward into 1950—
(a) Licensed premises—
(1) Children—total care   -82
(2) Women—pregnant        3
(3) Adults—infirm and unemployable     84
(4) Adults—employable        4
(5) Children—day care  112
Composite licence under (1) and (3)       7
292
(b) Applications and inquiries  113
Total case-load carried into 1950  405
MEMBERS
The following are the members of the Welfare Institutions Board for 1949: —
Chairman:  Mrs. Edith Pringle, R.N.
Members:   Miss Amy Edwards, Old-age Pension Board;  Miss Ruby McKay,
Superintendent of Child Welfare;  Mr. J. A. Sadler, Regional Administrator; Dr. J. F. Cork, Consultant, Hospital Services Division.
Chief Inspector:  Mrs. Edith Prinde, R.N.
Deputy Inspector:  Mrs. Edna L. Page.
Statistician:  Miss A. E. Scott.
Respectfully submitted.
(Mrs.) Edna L. Page,
Deputy Inspector of Welfare Institutions. R 108 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, DIVISION OF TUBERCULOSIS
CONTROL
I beg to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Service Department, Division of Tuberculosis Control, for the fiscal year 1949-50:—
During the year beginning April, 1949, one service mentioned as a possibility in
a previous report materialized. This was the appointment of a full-time rehabilitation
officer to the staff of the Division. This officer works very closely with the case workers
because he must understand what kind of people he is dealing with and also because
the patient's attitude and ability to accept limitations in employment are the concern of
the case worker. The rehabilitation officer is not actually a part of the Social Service
Department but, to all intents and purposes, is considered to be a member of our staff.
A most interesting development took place in the Victoria unit, where the social
worker, in conjunction with other staff members, carried on a project started by a staff
doctor who had seen a similar project in England. This was the beginning of plans for
an art therapy course. The social worker managed to interest an extremely gifted artist
in helping some of our patients who had started to paint under the supervision of the
doctor. In the fall a well-attended and excellent show of patients' work was held in
Victoria. The rehabilitation officer, co-operating with the social worker, then arranged
that this show should go on tour, and it was shown in Vancouver at the main Vancouver
unit and at Jericho Beach unit, and was then taken to Tranquille. A tremendous amount
of interest among the patients and staff was stimulated, and it is to be hoped that in future
funds may be obtained through a Dominion health grant to carry on a full-scale art
therapy project in all hospital units.
During 1948 our method of keeping statistics on our cases was changed, so that now,
for the first time, we have an accurate count of our case-loads. In the Vancouver unit
the average monthly case-load for each worker was 98 cases, with 59 of these active
during the month. In the Jericho Beach unit the case-load was 88 cases, with 54 active.
In Tranquille each worker carried 125 cases, with 64 active. In the Victoria unit the
case-load was 94 cases per month, with 84 of these active. The Victoria worker has
other responsibilities also, as she does a great deal of follow-up and visiting in the homes.
In Vancouver we depend on the excellent co-operation of the Metropolitan Health Committee and the City Social Service Department, so that we do not do a great deal of home
visiting, which would only duplicate the service of the other agencies. In addition, all
workers attend medical conference and ward rounds as part of their duties. The social
workers also take part in planning committees, hospital staff conferences, and entertainment projects for the patients.
In a statement on medical social services in T.B. Control, published by the Federal
Security Agency of the U.S. Public Health Service in 1946, the standard to be aimed at
in an institution was given as one social worker for every fifty to seventy-five bed patients.
Not all of these patients, of course, would be referred to the social workers for service.
In order to reach such standards we would have to have one full-time worker and one
part-time worker at Jericho Beach unit, five full-time workers at Tranquille, five workers
in the Vancouver unit, exclusive of work with out-patients, with two other workers for
the out-patients. The Victoria unit, with one worker for seventy-six patients, is the
only one which is near this standard.
In our institutions we have a rather different situation than exists in the American
hospitals as there is a very large turnover of cases, and because of the shortage of beds,
it is necessary for patients to be discharged on much less exercise than is the case with
other sanatoria. There a patient may be in hospital for three to four years. In our
institutions a patient's stay is often measured in months. In addition, there is an outpatient clinic in Victoria and a large out-patient service given by the Vancouver unit. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 109
The case-load figures seem small when compared with the case-loads of the field
workers. However, working with a sick person requires a tremendous amount of time
for each interview and countless interviews with other personnel, such as occupational
therapists, the rehabilitation officer, the patient's doctor, nurses on the ward, and other
staff members who are dealing with the patient. We still consider that our case-loads are
larger than we would like to have them to give the intensive case-work service that is the
ideal.    However, we are constantly working toward that.
Respectfully submitted.
Helen M. Sutherland,
Provincial Supervisor of Medical Social Work. R 110 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, DIVISION OF VENEREAL
DISEASE CONTROL
I beg to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Service Department, Division of Venereal Disease Control, for the fiscal year 1949-50:—
During the year ended March, 1950, several research projects were done by the
social workers. One study which had been started previously and was completed in
this period was that of newly diagnosed juveniles. Another was an intensive study of
150 newly diagnosed cases, the results of which were published in the June issue of
British Columbia's Welfare under the title "A Sociological Measurement of the Venereal
Disease Problem."
The case-work supervisor, who had been studying for her master's degree, returned
to the staff toward the end of the calendar year after completion of six months' field work
in the United States. Her thesis, "A Social Work Approach to the Venereal Disease
Problem in British Columbia," was based on a study of the problem of repeaters in the
Vancouver clinic.
In February the Western Regional Conference of V.D. Control officers was held in
Vancouver. For the first time, social workers were on the programme of this conference.
The case-work supervisor from the British Columbia Division presented material from
her thesis on repeaters, and the other social workers presented case-studies to show the
integral part which social case work plays in the medical care of patients with venereal
disease. This particular development was extremely interesting because the Division
of Venereal Disease Control in British Columbia is the only one using the service of the
case workers in this way. Needless to say, this paper created a great deal of discussion
among the V.D. Control officers.
During the year a permanent psychiatric consultant was appointed to the staff of
the Vancouver clinic. The social workers have found him helpful in the case-work
planning of their difficult problem cases. The psychiatrist in turn depends on the social
workers to prepare the patients for his service. This means interpreting to the patient
what psychiatric consultation will mean, as well as preparing social histories. It is to be
hoped that the social workers will keep on doing detailed studies into the various aspects
of venereal disease, such as the effect of the disease on the people who have contracted
it, and an evaluation of the factors in the total experience of people which lead to
venereal disease infections. Eventually, a great deal of this material should be collected
in permanent form.
Respectfully submitted.
Helen M. Sutherland,
Provincial Supervisor oj Medical Social Work. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 111
PSYCHIATRIC DIVISION
I beg to submit the following report on the activities of the psychiatric social workers
in the Provincial mental health services for the year 1949-50:—
As this is the last report I will present as Provincial Supervisor of Psychiatric Social
Work, I shall review briefly the last year, and, by so doing, will fulfil the function of an
annual report which is supposed to supply the facts of our stewardship of public funds.
In psychiatry we work in teams, but the team play goes much farther than the hospital
walls. It goes out to the community by means of our generalized service within our
Department of Welfare. Our work here would be most ineffectual if we did not have
other divisions co-operating with us. The field service of the Social Welfare Branch
helps inestimably in providing us with information of the local situation through the case-
history. The Child Welfare Division comes into play with children left in homes where
either or both parents have to be hospitalized in our Mental Hospital. There is planning
together for either a short- or long-term period of State child-care. Dovetailing with this,
there are the Child Guidance Clinics ready to assist in lending their knowledge in psychiatry in the field of child-care. For instance, what happens to a child who has been exposed
to a psychotic parent or parents? What may be expected of the parent after hospitalization? Will he or she be a fit and proper person to resume responsibilities, or will her type
of psychosis clear away enough to make a fairly normal home, providing the other parent
partner is capable of supplementing?
We in the hospital setting asked the Child Welfare Division to assist us in being able
to reassure the sick parents that their children are receiving the expert care and protection
afforded by our department as a whole, thus relieving the parents of this worry and allowing them to make the best use of hospital treatment.
Again in teamwork, the Family Division comes into play in providing case work as
well as financial assistance to families who have suffered hardship and sorrow due to
removal of a mentally ill person from the home to a mental hospital. In fact, all divisions
within the structure of the Provincial Social Welfare Branch come into play in caring for
the mentally ill.
Mental health is only at the beginning of its career, and its pioneers, or its first
workers, many of whom are still active, know by experience that each forward step has
been gained only by bitter struggle, unremitting effort, persuasion, and hard work. If we,
in this Province, did not have the superstructure, provided by our leaders and wise
administrators in the public welfare field,, our field of mental health would be greatly
hampered and progress would not be as hopeful as it is at present.
In this last year we have tried to improve our service by learning to know our
patients better on the wards and carrying out case work with them as individuals. In
order to do this, the crucial ingredient for a successful programme must be well-trained,
experienced, able, and devoted personnel ready to take direction from the psychiatrist
and at the same time be in command of their own techniques in social case work in a psychiatric hospital setting. They must, at the same time, be reaching out into the community to assist their patients upon discharge and enlightening the public on what mental
illness means and the necessity for trying to prevent such.
We are fortunate in being included in many educational opportunities as provided
by our other departments within the hospital, and we try to reciprocate by imparting our
special knowledge of case work with other divisions. Last year fourteen lectures were
given to the nurses-in-training at the Mental Hospital, and two postgraduate nurses from
Essondale spent a period of three weeks each in our department. Twelve teaching clinics
arranged for U.B.C. Social Work students, calling for the co-operative effort of patients,
psychiatrists, and social workers. Two students from U.B.C. School of Social Work were
given field work at Essondale. Twenty-four persons were given short periods of from
one to five days of orientation.    At the same time we have an over-all coverage of all R 112 BRITISH COLUMBIA
patients admitted to Essondale—being referred to the Social Service Division for casework services—either intensive or short-term type.
We feel that the quality of the work has improved over the last year. This is a natural
growth because the psychiatrists, as they know more of the social implications and have
more faith in the social workers, naturally turn over more responsibility to them. There
is also the incidence of earlier discharge of patients through the more active treatments as
used at Essondale, which calls for social planning by the social-work staff.
REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WORKERS' PARTICIPATION IN
THE CHILD GUIDANCE CLINIC
In the last year it has been found, as with most Child Guidance Clinics as they age
and progress, that a greater percentage of their clientele come from other than social
agencies. This has been true of our clinics. Last year there was a 30-per-cent increase
in referrals from private doctors. In most of these cases it means that the total case work
falls on the psychiatric social worker attached to the clinic. This is time-consuming but
much more satisfactory, as treatment of the case is initiated in the very first clinical contact and there is the opportunity to prepare the parents and the child for the clinical
examination. Because a case is referred does not always mean that either the parents or
the child is ready to fully co-operate. Changes in behaviour cannot be imported ready-
made from the outside, but parents have to be ready and willing to make the effort themselves or there is a waste of expensive government services. Good preparation leads to
good participation for both the child and parents and also leads to accepting treatment
changes carried out through the social workers from the psychiatrist and other members
of the clinical team.
Because of the above increase in doctors' referrals, the clinic has been unable to
accept all social agency referrals. However, with the added team in the correctional field,
more time will be available for these cases.
A full team in the correctional field has made for more time for examination of cases
falling into that category and more consistent follow-through. As part of the duties of the
clinical team, a social worker has taken on a special role with the Boys' Industrial School,
where, as a temporary measure to assist in its growing programme, a clinic case-work
supervisor has been supervising in the school's social-work department and participating
in their staff meetings, which are also attended by the psychiatrist.
The staff of social workers at the Vancouver clinic has been increased, but, while at
the end of the fiscal year we had six workers against four workers at the beginning, the
actual increase in regard to time on staff has been less than one worker. The supervisor
of the clinic was loaned to the Supreme Allied Command in Japan and one other member
was on educational leave. However, the additional staff during the latter part of the year,
together with the increase in staff of the other professions and teamworkers, has made it
possible to organize our work more satisfactorily and to give better service to a larger
number of clients.   This is clearly indicated by the yearly statistics.
The field training of two male students of social work during their university term
was time-consuming but profitable to the clinic, in that it helped to bridge the clinic's
urgent need for a male case worker. It is hoped that this need will be filled in the near
future.
The services of the travelling clinic have been expanded, which, of necessity, calls
for more social-work participation on the team. We hope, in this next year, to be able
to expand more in this area, particularly as this is the one area in which we act as a teaching unit—to public health nurses, teachers, lay service clubs, etc. Unfortunately, due to
other more pressing demands, a minimum of social workers' time was devoted to the
travelling clinic work.
Evaluation of the total programme has to be made from time to time in order to
avoid any one problem from receiving more than its allotted prominence.   In order to REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH R 113
do this effectively, the whole staff must be alert and come together to make a sampling
survey. But some of the most effective clinical work that can be done is often of a
character that is so diffuse in its influence to the community that it cannot be traced to
any one case but is a composite of the whole programme.
In a community public service, allied services ask for assistance in evaluating their
client. In this last year the spastic paralysis society, as well as others, has asked the
clinic's help in studying their children. The spade work and preparation for Child
Guidance Clinic examination falls on the psychiatric social worker, but, because of the
often unusual individual capabilities of the children, this has proved to be a service well
worth while. For instance, a child was presented at clinic who, because of her illness,
presented a vacant facial expression. It was found, however, on examination that she
was capable of much teaching and really fell into the higher brackets of intelligence, and,
because of the illness plus her intelligence, she was reacting in a non-acceptable social
manner due to lack of understanding of those caring for her.
If the psychiatric worker was not a participating part of the clinical team, they could
not enjoy the promising beginning and the additional progress that is in sight. However,
it'must be remembered that the psychiatric social worker in a Child Guidance Clinic team,
while very important, is only one person in that team.
STATISTICAL REPORT
A. Social Services, Provincial Mental Hospital and Home for the Aged,
April 1st, 1949, to March 31st, 1950
Number oj New Cases Rejerred to Social Service Department
In Vancouver      630
Out of Vancouver      774
1,404
The number of new admissions was increased by 154 during the past fiscal year.
Disposition
Discharged on probation—
In Vancouver      217
Out of Vancouver      279
496
This is an increase of 21 cases which were referred to the Social Service Department
probation services.
Report of Social Service Work Carried Out by Members oj the Social
Service Department at Essondale
Initital case-work interviews ' -  3,564
Intensive case-work interviews with patients and their families 1,051
Case-work interviews for the purpose of rehabilitation, including follow-up case-work services for patients discharged
on probation   2,122 R 114 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Out-of-town Supervisory Service by Mail
Letters to the Provincial field service, Social Welfare Branch,
requesting social histories and probation visits, and of a
general supervisory nature  2,527
Letters to other social agencies in and out of British Columbia     551
3,078
Social histories, probation and other reports, and letters of a
general consultative nature received from Provincial field
service, Social Welfare Branch  1,538
Correspondence received from other social agencies in and out
of British Columbia ._      458
1,996
Special Assignments
Applications taken for old-age pension for patients resident in
Provincial Homes for the Aged      400
Ward rounds and medical staff clinics attended by members of
the Social Service Department        77
Other special assignments, including conferences with other
agencies, lectures to nurses, in-service training groups,
and community groups      354
831
Training oj University Students
Field work:  2 students placed.
Teaching clinics held at the hospital for Social Service students
from University of British Columbia         12
Rehabilitation of special cases in Vancouver      148
160 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
R 115
B. Social Services, Provincial Child Guidance Clinics,
April 1st, 1949, to March 31st, 1950
Vancouver
Victoria
1949-50
Total
1948-49
Total
Increase
Case-work   services—Total   number   of   cases   brought
84
34
118
98*
Per Cent
20
Private case referrals—
168
10
15
67
8
9
235
18
24
150
25
57
Total intake _	
193
84
277
175
57
Total cases carried (844-193—10) „
267
110
377
262
43
138
129
2,722
868
158
183
432
106
87
36
197
41
69
937
90
57
25
144
28
99
7
26
179
198
3,659
958
2151
208 j
576
186
43
223
158
115f
1,540
1,017
239
298
71
186
32
150
72
Total number of case-work interviews with and regard-
137
6
77
93
88
34
49
* Last year's increase in cases.
t This year's increase in cases.
This report is respectfully submitted.
Josephine F. Kilburn,
Provincial Supervisor, Psychiatric Social Work.
victoria, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty
1950
845-1250-3856 

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