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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF ATTORNEY-GENERAL Provincial Game Commission REPORT For the… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1950

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF ATTORNEY-GENERAL
Provincial Game Commission
REPORT
For the year ended December 31st,
1948
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiakmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1850.  To His Honour C. A. Banks, C.M.G.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned has the honour to submit the Report of the Provincial Game
Commission for the year ended December 31st, 1948.
G. S. WISMER,
A ttorney-General.
Attorney-General's Department,
Victoria, B.C., 1949. Office of the Game Commission,
Vancouver, B.C., July 1st, 1949.
Honourable G. S. Wismer, K.C.,
Attorney-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—We have the honour to submit herewith our Report for the year ended
December 31st, 1948.
We have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servants,
JAMES G. CUNNINGHAM,
FRANK R. BUTLER,
Game Commissioners.   TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Reports— Page-
Game Commission  9
Game Wardens, "A" Division  14
Officer Commanding " B " Division  18
Fishery Supervisor C. H. Robinson, " B " Division   22
Officer Commanding " C " Division  33
Fishery Supervisor C. H. Robinson, " C " Division  41
Officer Commanding " D " Division  51
Officer Commanding " E " Division  54
Preliminary  Survey  of the  Steelhead  Trout of the  Lower  Fraser  River —
Dr. P. A. Larkin  58
Survey Lower Mainland—Dr. Ian McTaggart Cowan  69
Statistical Reports—
Comparative Statistical Statement of Revenue, etc., 1913-48, inclusive     75
Summary of Total Revenue derived from Sale of Various Licences, Collections,
etc., during Year 1948     76
Revenue—Sale of Resident Firearms Licences       77
Revenue—Sale of Deer and Moose (Game) Tags     78
Revenue—Sale of Resident Anglers', Guides', Free Farmers', and Prospectors'
Firearms Licences     79
Revenue—Sale of Non-resident Firearms and Anglers' Licences and Outfitters'
Licences     80
Revenue—Sale   of   Non-resident   Ordinary   Firearms   and   Anglers'   (Minor)
Licences     81
Revenue—Sale  of  Fui--traders',   Taxidermists',  and  Tanners'   Licences   and
Royalty on Fur     82
Comparative Statement of Revenue from Fur Trade, 1921-48, inclusive     83
Comparative   Statement   showing   Pelts   of   Fur-bearing   Animals   on   which
Royalty has been collected, 1921-48, inclusive      84
Statement of Kind of Pelts of Fur-bearing Animals on which Royalty was
collected during Year 1948     85
List of Confiscated Fur, 1948, and Revenue from Sale of Confiscated Fur     86
List of Confiscated  Firearms,  1948,  and Revenue from  Sale  of  Confiscated
Firearms     86
Bounties paid, 1948     88
Comparative Statement of Bounties paid from 1922 to 1948, inclusive     89
Revenue—Big-game Trophy Fees paid by Non-resident Hunters, 1948     90
Prosecutions, 1948     91
Hunting and Fishing Accidents, 1948     93
Statement—Trout Liberations, 1948     94
Statement—Returns from Holders of Special (Trapping) Firearms Licences,
Season 1947-48  104
Statement of Vermin destroyed by Game Wardens, 1948  104
Statement of Game-bird Liberations, 1948  105
Statement—Returns of Game-bird Farmers, 1948  106
Statement—Miscellaneous Receipts ,  106
List of Resident Guides and Non-resident Outfitters, 1948  107
Personnel of Game Department as at December 31st, 1948  116  Report of the Provincial Game Commission, 1948.
Revenues during the year indicate a slight decrease from the previous year's
revenue, which was due possibly to a drop in the fur market, severe flood conditions
during the spring and summer, at which period of the year large numbers of nonresident anglers generally visit the Province, and partially to a reduction in the total
number of non-resident big-game hunters. The drop in the fur market resulted in a
curtailment of trapping operations, and consequently there was a fairly large reduction
in the amount of fur royalties collected over the preceding year. It might be mentioned,
however, that this curtailment in trapping activities will no doubt be beneficial as it
will afford an opportunity for our fur-bearing animal population to increase.
The total revenue for 1948 was $701,312.64. This sum includes $17,537 which
represents fines imposed for violations of the " Game Act." In 1947 the total revenue
was $708,710.94, including fines, indicating a decrease of $7,398.30. Non-residents of
the Province contributed in the form of revenue $279,348, compared to $292,777 for
1947, or a decrease of $13,429.
As indicated in our Annual Report for 1947, questions were being raised by the
organized sportsmen of the Province as to whether or not it was good policy to permit
a steady annual increase in non-resident sportsmen, especially when it appears that
our own resident hunting population has been steadily increasing. After careful consideration we deemed it advisable to put forward an effort to retard slightly or reduce,
if possible, the number of licences issued to non-residents. We have adopted this policy
for the time being in order that we might secure definite proof that our big-game
resources were not being seriously reduced through increased hunting pressure, and
also in view of the fact that at the present time we cannot satisfactorily handle our
non-resident hunters and fishermen due to an insufficient number of trained, experienced, and properly equipped guides and their having available suitable accommodation.
The non-resident big-game trophy fees were increased during the year. In 1947,
4,090 non-resident hunters contributed $96,350 in the form of trophy fees on 3,805 big-
game animals killed, while in 1948, 3,600 non-resident hunters contributed $106,555 on
2,750 big-game animals.
The total number of hunting and angling licences, which includes resident and
non-resident, issued during the year amounted to 135,602, being an increase of 5,019
over the previous year. The continued steady increase in licences and consequent
increased hunting and fishing pressure has been of some considerable concern to your
Commission as well as to the organized sportsmen of the Province who, it might be
mentioned, are taking an ever-increasing interest in the game-management affairs of
the Province.
As hunting pressure increases, the need for instituting a carefully planned scientific
management programme is becoming more apparent, and consequently the scientific
personnel of our Department is gradually increasing. It will not be long before many
more scientifically trained men will have to be employed. Under the very capable guidance of Drs. W. A. Clemens and Ian McTaggart Cowan, we were enabled to have a
number of pressing and important scientific investigations made in many parts of the
Province. These investigations included looking into migratory wild-fowl conditions
and the banding of wild fowl in different sections of the Province; a continuation of
our study on moose; a study of conditions respecting Coast or Columbian deer on Vancouver Island; inquiring into the problem of pheasant propagation in the Fraser River
delta; investigating the effects of lead-poisoning on wild fowl in the Lower Mainland
regions; continuing our study of certain lakes in the Interior of the Province wherein
we have been looking into the possibilities of poisoning lakes for the purpose of destroy-
9 X 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ing undesirable fishes; fertilizing lakes so as to ascertain definitely if this would
improve food conditions therein; a study of steelhead trout in the Lower Fraser
Valley regions; looking into big-game and fur-bearing animal conditions in different
sections of the Province; commencing a careful study on the pheasant situation in the
Okanagan Valley due to the use of toxic sprays in that region; and looking into power
and other industrial-development projects for the purpose of ensuring against any
depletion in our game and sport fishes.
It might be mentioned that with the ever-increasing demand for electric power and
water-storage, we have necessarily been placed in the position of being required to
carry out extensive and costly investigations, because if we are to maintain our sport
fishes in the waters where these developments are taking place, we must of necessity
see that every precaution is taken to ensure this protection, and this entails the construction of fish-ladders or fishways where necessary, protection of spawning-grounds
for trout, and in regard to flooded areas, endeavouring to retain the existing valuable
feeding areas for big game, as well as ensuring against any destruction of fur-bearing
animal habitats.
As predicted in our last Annual Report, the appointment of a trained scientific
fish culturist became a necessity, and we are pleased to advise that we were successful
in obtaining the services of Dr. P. A. Larkin. Dr. Larkin's services, since his appointment, have been in great demand, and we must advise that before long it will be necessary to give assistance to this hard-working official in order to enable him to carry out
satisfactorily the many investigations that are required in order to maintain our
present sport-fish populations.
The general game situation in 1948 was, we regret to state, somewhat disappointing, especially in regard to big game. It would seem that the past two winters have
been responsible for the loss of big-game animals in different sections of the Province,
and there is no doubt that as a result of this loss we will be receiving recommendations
for curtailment in seasons and bag-limits and, in some cases, recommendations for total
closed seasons on certain species of big game. There is nothing that can be done to
alleviate these conditions because they are bound to occur from time to time and should
not, it is felt, be the cause for any great alarm.
Game Biologist James Hatter has continued his investigation in regard to moose
in the Cariboo and Chilcotin Districts, and it might be mentioned that he has about
reached the stage in his investigation whereby he can devote his activities to other
parts of the Province. A scientific study of the big-game conditions in the East Kootenay District will commence sometime next spring, and further studies will be made in
regard to conditions respecting Coast deer in the Campbell River area and other
districts on Vancouver Island.
During the past few years we have conducted a game-checking station at Cache
Creek on the Cariboo Highway north of Ashcroft. This station has been operating
during hunting seasons under the very capable supervision of Game Warden W. H.
Cameron. It has been found that the operation of this station each fall is very necessary. This game check has been heartily endorsed by sportsmen's organizations, cattlemen's associations, and other similar organizations. A great amount of valuable scientific
data has been secured as a result of this game check, and it might also be mentioned
that this checking station has been responsible for the discovery of numerous game
law violations, because in the year under review some sixty violators were apprehended
and fines imposed in the amount of $675. It might also be mentioned that approximately $25,000 was collected through the payment of big-game trophy fees. One of
the important functions of this station has been that the officers there have been able
to supply valuable and needed information to hunters and fishermen proceeding into
the Interior portions of the Province. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948. X 11
A comparative statement which is to be found later on in this Report will show
the number of species of big game taken by non-resident hunters and the trophy fees
paid thereon. It is to be regretted that we are not able to supply similar information
in regard to the game taken by resident hunters. We have endeavoured to secure this
information through a voluntary game-return system, but unfortunately the returns
received have been most disappointing. It is proposed that voluntary returns be asked
of resident hunters during the year 1949, but if, at the end of that year, we find that
this voluntary system is not giving us the necessary scientific information we want,
we will have to institute a compulsory system of game returns.
Again in 1948 a Provincial Game Convention was held at Harrison Hot Springs,
which was attended by elected delegates from zone organizations of game associations,
representatives of the farming industry, guides, trappers, and stockmen, as well as
representatives from various Governmental departments in Canada and the United
States. The proceedings of this convention were again printed and made available to
sportsmen and other organizations in the Province.
We have taken every possible opportunity to be present at game conventions and
meetings of sportsmen in every section of the Province, and it might be mentioned that
we have found that by attending these meetings we can obtain as well as impart a great
amount of information that is valuable to all concerned. We have continued our policy
of showing our game and fish films to as many people as possible, and these films have
been exhibited to schools in outlying parts of the Province, to many organizations, and
to the general public as a whole.
REGISTRATION OF TRAP-LINES.
The policy of registering trap-lines, which has been in effect for many years, has
paid excellent dividends from a game management point of view. This system was
inaugurated in 1925 so as to safeguard against any possible depletion of our valuable
fur-bearing animal population. Since this system was inaugurated, many Provinces
in Canada have adopted similar methods in order to ensure the proper conservation of
their fur resources. One factor which has been giving us some concern is the lack of
control over Indian trappers. This has been due largely to misunderstanding on the
part of the Indian trapper, who apparently does not realize that it is our desire to
assist him in his problems and enable him to receive full benefit from his trapping
operations. However, we feel, in view of a recent conference with the Department of
Indian Affairs at Ottawa, that shortly an officer will be appointed to act as liaison
officer between the said Department of Indian Affairs and the Game Department.
During the past summer we found it necessary to amend our beaver-tagging regulations, and it might be mentioned that after the president of the British Columbia
Registered Trappers' Association had examined these new regulations he advised that
they would go a long way in stopping the poaching of beaver on registered trap-lines
and private properties.
REGISTRATION OF GUIDES.
The allotment of hunting areas for guides has presented a very complex problem.
In recent years the ever-increasing demand for the services of guides in order to cope
with the increased resident and non-resident pressure has resulted in what might be
mildly termed a very serious situation, because it has been impossible to supply the
number of experienced guides required to take care of the demand of these hunters. In
consolidating areas or territories for guides, we have encountered many problems that
we are slowly surmounting. In many districts, due to hunting pressure, it has been
necessary to licence guides to fairly confined territories. This problem has been most
apparent in the East Kootenay, Southern Cariboo, and Quesnel regions.    It might be X 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
mentioned that the number of licences issued to guides for this year amounted to 1,073,
as compared to 1,131 in 1947.
BOUNTIES.
In 1948 bounties were paid on 1,156 wolves, 725 cougars, and 3,911 coyotes. At the
Provincial Game Convention previously referred to, strong recommendations were made
by delegates representing stockmen and farmers' organizations for increased bounties,
with the result that it was necessary to amend the Bounty Regulations to provide a $4
bounty on each coyote and to increase the bounty on wolves from $25 to $40 in the
Kamloops, Lillooet, and Cariboo Electoral Districts, which are the largest cattle-raising
areas in the Province.
While the payment of bounties no doubt meets with favour from the general public,
it does not solve our predator problem. No doubt the payment of bounties will produce
results from areas where predators are numerous and easily obtained, but when it
comes to getting at the heart of this problem, we have no hesitation, after fully investigating the bounty system throughout the North American Continent, in saying that the
payment of bounties is not a cure-all toward the desired control of our predatory-
animal populations.
The situation respecting predatory animals in this Province and elsewhere is
a very contentious one, and undoubtedly can only be handled by scientifically trained
hunters. We propose, in the not too distant future, to appoint a scientifically trained
biologist to study and to supervise every phase of predatory-animal control in the
Province.
UPLAND GAME BIRDS.
As in the past year, the Department purchased and liberated 17,134 pheasants
which were obtained from licensed game-bird farmers and liberated on Vancouver
Island, the Lower Mainland, and some in the Interior section of British Columbia.
Small shipments were made as far north as Pouce Coupe. Some criticism has been
raised as to the large number of birds liberated on the Lower Mainland, but we feel
that these liberations have been quite justified due to the fact that approximately 50
per cent, of the licensed hunters of the Province reside and hunt in areas of the Lower
Mainland between Vancouver and Chilliwack.
Due to flood conditions throughout the Province last May and June, which occurred
at the height of the nesting season, pheasants were hard hit in the flooded areas, and
as a result shorter open hunting seasons were brought into being, and in some cases
seasons closed altogether. It is pleasing to note, however, that at the end of the year
we found that the pheasant situation was not quite as serious as previously anticipated,
especially in certain portions of the Okanagan Valley. With a normal nesting season
next spring there is every possibility of recommendations being received for longer
open hunting seasons.
There has been much concern relative to the decrease and loss in the pheasant
population throughout the orchard areas of the Okanagan Valley, and continuous
reports seem to indicate that these losses have been caused through the use of toxic
sprays in these orchard regions. In order to solve this problem, arrangements have
been made for the areas in question to be scientifically investigated, and no doubt in
a later report we will be in a position to advise definitely whether or not these toxic
sprays are detrimental to pheasants and other bird-life. A scientific study was made
in the Delta Municipality on the Lower Mainland concerning pheasants. This investigation was carried out under the supervision of Dr. Ian McTaggart Cowan, and the
results of his investigation are contained in an article found later on in this Report.
The grouse situation throughout the Interior sections of the Province is steadily
improving, and from present knowledge, and providing the nesting season is normal REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948. X 13
next spring, there is a strong possibility that it will be in order to provide for a short
open hunting season in most of the areas of the Interior where a closed season has
been in effect for some years.
MIGRATORY GAME BIRDS.
A slight improvement in wild-fowl population and in hunting conditions was noted
in 1948. The resident winter population of ducks throughout the Lower Mainland
compared very favourably with the populations observed in 1947.
We have been pressed, especially in the Lower Mainland and Okanagan areas, for
what is termed a " split " open hunting season on wild fowl, which means that organized
sportsmen have been asking for an open season divided into two parts, that is, if the
total length of season is fifty days, then the split season would mean twenty-five days
open period, a closed period, and then another twenty-five days open period.
GAME LAWS ENFORCEMENT.
Your attention is respectfully drawn to a statement showing the prosecutions
carried out during the year. From this statement, which is to be found later on in
this Report, it will be noted that a sum of $17,537 was collected in the form of fines, or
an increase of $5,690.50 over the preceding year. Control of aircraft used for hunting,
fishing, and trapping purposes is a problem which has been continually before us and
is giving us great concern. It is felt that in order to cope with the situation, which we
feel is serious, it will be very necessary that we own and operate or rent planes for
patrol purposes.
Another problem that will undoubtedly confront us before very long is in reference
to the operation of jeeps which can be used to reach out-of-the-way areas, and probably
some control measures will have to be put into effect to curb the activities of this
particular type of vehicle. It might be mentioned that in the United States there
apparently is also some concern in reference to the use of jeeps for hunting purposes.
GAME-FISH CULTURE.
As anticipated, the game-fish cultural branch of the Department is growing very
rapidly, and there would seem to be every possibility of this rapid growth continuing
because of the ever-increasing number of non-resident and resident anglers. Steps
must necessarily be taken to keep up our sport-fish population, and in order to do this
we must enlarge upon our artificial propagation work, we must carry out further and
more enlarged scientific investigations, and further protective as well as regulatory
measures will have to be put into effect if we hope to maintain our present high
standard of sport fishing in the Province.
Two modern trout-hatcheries were completed and put into operation during the
year, one of these being near Courtenay on Vancouver Island, and known as the Puntledge Park Trout Hatchery, and the other at Summerland on the shore-line of Okanagan
Lake, which plant is known as the Summerland Trout Hatchery. It is felt, owing to
the facilities available in these new hatcheries for the propagation of a considerably
greater number of trout, that we will be able to take care of the increased pressure on
our sport fishes, especially on Vancouver Island and in the Okanagan and surrounding
districts. We anticipate the construction of a further hatchery at Smiths Falls on
the east shore-line of Cultus Lake near Chilliwack in 1949. We also anticipate the
necessity of having to relinquish our present hatchery at Cranbrook, and either move
it or construct a new hatchery in the district, this being occasioned through the chlorin-
ation of the water-supply for the City of Cranbrook. It might be mentioned that the
present hatchery at Cranbrook was constructed by the sportsmen of the district many
years ago and was only recently turned over to us for management.    There would seem X 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
to be little doubt that this hatchery building will have to be abandoned and a new
building constructed at a more suitable site where unchlorinated water may be used.
It is anticipated that an amendment to the " Game Act " will be made at the forthcoming session of the Legislature requiring all residents of the Province over the age
of 18 years desiring to fish in non-tidal waters to have a licence for this purpose, and
consequently we anticipate the need of providing further hatchery facilities in the
Cariboo section of British Columbia, and no doubt later on a hatchery will be required
in the northern areas of the Province.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
We wish to take this opportunity of expressing our most sincere appreciation for
the very valuable assistance and co-operation rendered throughout the year by the
various Governmental departments with whom we have come in contact in connection
with our game-management work; Drs. W. A. Clemens and Ian McTaggart Cowan, of
the Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, who are our scientific
advisers, have been untiring in their efforts to assist us in our many problems; Commissioner John Shirras and officers and men of the British Columbia Provincial Police
Force have, as in past years, rendered invaluable assistance; the co-operation of the
Forest Service, the Department of Trade and Industry, the Department of Public
Works, the Federal Department of Fisheries, J. A. Munro, Dominion Wild-life Officer
for British Columbia; the large number of game associations, their officers and members; farmers' institutes and farmers, as well as other organizations and individuals,
have been most co-operative, and we are indeed very grateful for the assistance
rendered by everyone during the year in furthering our aim to retain British Columbia
as a " Sportsman's Paradise."
"A" DIVISION (VANCOUVER ISLAND, THE GULF ISLANDS, AND THE MAINLAND COAST FROM TOBA INLET NORTH TO CAPE CAUTION, INCLUDING THE ISLANDS ADJACENT TO THE EAST COAST OF VANCOUVER
ISLAND NORTH OF CAMPBELL RIVER).
By G. C. Stevenson, Officer Commanding.
I have the honour to submit herewith annual report of game conditions in "A"
Division during the year 1948.
Big Game.
Bear (Black).—Very numerous and becoming a problem in several farming communities.
Bear (Grizzly).—To be found in fair numbers at the head of Knight, Loughborough, and Bute Inlets. Accessibility to these areas is somewhat difficult for the
average hunter.
Deer (Coast or Columbian).—Deer are still numerous on Vancouver Island, with
the exception of those areas that are intensively hunted every year. One such area is
Campbell River district, where hunting has been carried on both by Island and Mainland hunters for many years. In the district referred to, logging roads radiate in all
directions and penetrate into remote areas. In consequence hunters in cars can enter
deep into country that was a refuge to deer prior to the advent of logging roads.
Another area that is intensively hunted is the Cowichan Lake country, which also
contains miles of logging roads over which hunters can travel in their cars.
Both these vast logged-off areas contain abundance of browse for deer, and in consequence they breed rapidly. Notwithstanding the latter advantages, the accessibility
of the terrain and the ever-increasing number of hunters have commenced to have their REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948. X 15
effect, and the number of these animals in the areas mentioned has shown a sharp
decline.
A smaller bag-limit and a shorter open season is suggested. Scientific research is
being carried out in the Campbell River area with a view to appraising the situation
from the standpoint of food conditions, disease, and predators.
Wapiti (Elk).—It is difficult to obtain anything like an accurate figure as to the
number of these animals. The largest herds are on the West Coast, one herd being at
the head of Tahsish Arm and another is reported at the head of Kokshittle Arm. There
are several small herds in the Courtenay district along the Little Oyster River. These
latter herds have been cause for complaint by farmers.
FUR-BEARING ANIMALS.
Beaver.—Are quite numerous and distinctly on the increase, necessitating the
Game Commission to issue permits to farmers to trap these animals in order to prevent
destruction of their lands through flooding.
Marten.—In very fair numbers and of good quality.
Mink.—Fair numbers.
Muskrat.—Scarce (not indigenous to the Island).
Racoon.—Very numerous and proving a menace to poultry-farmers. Poor market
for these pelts discourages trappers from bothering with them.
Upland Game Birds.
Blue Grouse.—The year 1948 has proven an exceptionally good one for these birds,
being probably the crest of a ten-year cycle. Few hunters had cause to complain this
season, and many bag-limits were obtained. The possession limit has been very beneficial, but the transportation of bag-limits by other than the actual hunter will have to
be more closely checked, as it is difficult for a Game Warden to ascertain who did the
actual shooting. Some bag-limits in transit carry the name and licence number of a
hunter who probably was not in the field, but arranged to have his bag shot for him.
Ruffed (Willow) Grouse.—Not plentiful but are showing signs of increasing in
certain districts, especially Nanaimo.
Quail.—Doing very well in the southern part of the Island. These birds have survived exceptionally well during the past winter.
Pheasants.—Are not numerous in any part of the Island, but they are showing a
gradual increase, and in many areas adjacent to residential districts and where shooting
is prohibited they have become a nuisance.
The Alberni district shows a healthy increase in these birds, also the Comox and
Saanich areas.
A handicap is encountered in many districts when restocking is attempted, as many
farmers object to pheasants being liberated on their lands.
Partridge (European).—A few are occasionally encountered in the Nanaimo district, but they do not appear to thrive and I doubt if they will multiply to any great
extent.
Migratory Game Birds.
Ducks—Have been in fair numbers this year and reports would indicate that geese
have been encountered in considerable numbers on the West Coast in many of the inlets.
Brant.—Were making their appearance late in December, especially in the waters
around Sidney Spit and Qualicum Beach.
Predatory Animals and Noxious Birds.
There were 203 cougars and 7 wolves destroyed in this Division during the past
year.    Sixty-six of these cougars were accounted for by Departmental predatory X  16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
hunters. The Provincial predatory hunting school and kennels have proven of great
value to farmers and stockmen, as it is now possible to dispatch a competent hunter
with trained hounds to attend complaints of predation. Very often a hunter has to
spend days and weeks before being able to encounter and destroy a certain predator
which may have been causing damage. Where an amateur hunter would abandon a
chase as not being profitable, a Departmental hunter will remain until the predator or
predators have been eliminated. Apart from the efficiency in having a trained personnel
for hunting, the Department is able to breed, train, and distribute, to detachments that
require them, hounds developed especially for hunting cougar and carrying the best
hereditary strain.
In all operations connected with the destruction of cougars and wolves a certain
hazard is encountered, and we have lost two hounds by attack from cougar and two
were injured but recovered later. Many cats, hawks, horned owls, crows, ravens, and
eagles were destroyed by the Game Wardens of this Division during the course of their
patrols.
Game Protection.
There were 185 convictions and 3 dismissals under the " Game Act" and Fishery
Regulations during the past year.
Game Propagation.
In this Division 1,113 pheasants were liberated, distribution being made at Comox,
Courtenay, Cumberland, Cobble Hill, Metchosin, Shawnigan, and Saanich.
Game Reserves.
There are several small game reserves on the Island and numerous bird sanctuaries.
In the Alberni District a new game reserve has been created in the China Creek
area, which will prove most beneficial for deer and blue grouse. A small game reserve
exists at Cowichan Lake, but encroaching settlements have all but surrounded it.
Certain temporarily closed areas are proving a great help to deer; one area in the
Shawnigan district that has been closed for two years is being closely watched.
Fur Trade.
Very little actual raw-fur trading is carried out in this Division, most catches
being disposed of on the Mainland.
Registration of Trap-lines.
This method of protecting the fur-bearer of the Province is one of the outstanding
examples of conservation, and is not fully appreciated by the general public. Somewhat
belated attempts are being made in other Provinces and in the United States to emulate
our methods, which are recognized as a standard.
The requests for trap-lines far exceeds the supply, and registered holders of trap-
lines jealously guard their privileges. I venture to say, as one who was a trapper years
ago, that there are more marten, mink, lynx, and beaver in the Province to-day than
there were forty years ago.
Registration of Guides.
The question of guide registration is one that is being gradually worked out. It
is not an easy problem and requires considerable tact on the part of Game Wardens
where actual qualification or competence of guides is concerned.
The allocation of spheres of operation is also a problem requiring diplomacy. Once
the system is worked out, it will benefit all parties and will eliminate numerous
complaints. report of provincial game commission, 1948. x 17
Special Patrols.
Two special patrols were made into the Tahsis area during the hunting season with
the object of checking up.
Hunting Accidents.
Raymond Paul Butler, Pacific Coast Copper, Alberni, B.C., on April 9th, 1948,
accidentally shot and killed himself with a .22 rifle while out hunting.
William Grant, Englewood, B.C., accidentally killed while hunting October 10th,
1948.   Loaded rifle discharged while riding on speeder.
Gordon Gretsinger, Beaver Cove, B.C., May 7th, 1948, accidentally shot himself
with .22 rifle when he tripped while hunting.   Loss of eye.
John Hilder, Comox, Vancouver Island, B.C., August 8th, 1948, shot accidentally
with .22 rifle by Owen Ellis, of Comox, B.C., when mistaken for racoon around poultry-
house at night.   Flesh wound.
Harry Waters, 729 Connaught Street, Victoria, B.C., accidentally shot by Edward
Campbell, Royal Oak, Vancouver Island, B.C., while hunting birds at Campbell River,
September 11th, 1948.    Shot-gun pellets, face and chest.
Robert Lewis, Quinsan, B.C., September 11th, 1948, accidentally shot by David
Cook, 185 Stewart Avenue, Victoria, B.C., while bird-shooting near Forbes Landing.
Loss of eye.
James Goudie, Sooke, Vancouver Island, B.C., October 23rd, 1948, accidentally shot
by son, Donald Goudie, when mistaken for a deer.   Severe shoulder wounds.
Donald Campbell, Union Bay, B.C., November 15th, 1948, accidentally shot himself
while removing loaded gun from skiff.   Arm injury.
Shirley Livingstone, Campbell River, B.C., November 12th, 1948, shot accidentally
by Edward Milman, Campbell River, while unloading guns before getting into car.
Pellets in both legs.
Clyde Murray, 2847 Dysart Road, Victoria, B.C., November 29th, 1948, shot accidentally by Clive Elmer Watson, 3360 Quadra Street, Victoria, B.C., while unloading
guns at Whitty's Lagoon.    Leg and hand wound.
Game-fish Culture.
During the year restocking of lakes and streams with trout fingerlings was made
from two small hatcheries, one at Veitch Creek and the other situated at Qualicum. A
total of 216,950 Kamloops trout were liberated, 116,000 being from Veitch Creek and
100,950 from Qualicum.
Distribution was as follows: 31,500 in the Courtenay, Campbell River, and Comox
districts; 30,450 in the Alberni district; 39,000 in the Nanaimo district; and in the
Victoria, Duncan, and Saltspring Island districts, 116,000 were distributed.
After the foregoing distributions were made the hatcheries were dismantled and
the new hatchery at Puntledge Park, Courtenay, was brought into operation. This
hatchery is fully modern and has a capacity of between 750,000 and 800,000 trout,
which will take care of all restocking requirements for this Division for some time to
come. Fishing throughout the Division is generally good, with certain areas being
more popular than others. Though many anglers seem to prefer the up-Island lakes
and streams, there are many excellent fishing-spots within easy access of Victoria.
Summary.
A certain amount of unnecessary alarm was expressed by some hunters because
deer were not as easy to obtain as formerly, and many inaccurate statements were
uttered as to the depletion of these animals.
There is no doubt that with the tremendous increase of the hunting population,
coupled with the ever-increasing accessibility of the country due to logging operations, X 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
deer are becoming scarcer, but not to the extent portrayed by some alarmists. A shorter
open season and reduced bag-limit will of necessity make up for the increase in hunters.
All game wardens, predatory hunters, and fishery officers carried out their duties
in an excellent manner, and to them I express my thanks. This Division received the
whole-hearted co-operation of all members of the Provincial Police, who have given us
every assistance, and I would like to express my sincere appreciation and thanks for
their help.
"B" DIVISION  (KOOTENAY AND BOUNDARY DISTRICTS).
By C. F. Kearns, Officer Commanding.
I beg to submit herewith my annual report covering game conditions in " B "
Division for the year ended December 31st, 1948. Annual report covering fish conditions in this Division, submitted by Fishery Supervisor Robinson, is appended hereto.
Big Game.
Wapiti (Elk).—The stand of these animals continues to be satisfactory in the
Rocky Mountain section of the Kootenay-Columbia Valley. Small bands are established
south and west of Cranbrook, the result of a slow but gradual extension of their range.
The successful plantings in the Okanagan-Princeton areas also indicate a gradual
spread farther afield, as elk have been observed both in the Kettle River valley and
also on the east side of Okanagan Lake.
Moose.—Moose are still in fair numbers in the Kootenay-Columbia Valley but are
showing the effects of consistent hunting for several years. It is very doubtful if
they can stand the present hunting pressure without an appreciable decline in numbers,
and an adjusted season is very necessary. Reports continue of moose being seen to
the west of the Selkirk Range, and a small herd—a bull, two cows, and a calf—was
observed on the Creston Flats, south of Kootenay Lake, during the summer.
Mountain-sheep.—Mountain-sheep are making a good comeback since the epidemic
of a few years ago but have not yet attained their previous strength. A close season
in the Rockies south of the Banff National Park is still advisable.
The small bands on the Ashnola River and the vicinity of Okanagan Falls are more
or less in a static condition due to the limited range, but the taking of a few mature
rams would do no harm.
Goat.—Goats are fairly well distributed throughout the Division but more plentiful
in the Kootenays. Goats appear to be becoming more popular as a sporting animal
than previously, and the present bag-limit of two should possibly be halved.
Caribou.—Caribou are confined to the mountains contiguous to Kootenay and
Arrow Lakes, both south and northward. They are not found in the Rocky Mountains
or in the Boundary-Similkameen. Why these animals do not increase is a bit of a
mystery, although predators (cougars) may be one reason. They are by no means
plentiful, but various small bands have been observed while crossing the valleys. The
bag is very light, a few bulls being taken, mostly in the vicinity of Crawford Bay on
Kootenay Lake and in the Nakusp and Revelstoke districts.
Mule-deer.—Plentiful throughout the Division.
White-tailed Deer.—Plentiful except in the Boundary-Similkameen.
Grizzly Bear.—Thinly distributed throughout the Division but more numerous in
the Kootenays. Another species that should have more protection in the Game
Regulations.
Black Bear.—Found throughout the Division. These bears occasion some damage
to the orchards in the West Kootenay. report of provincial game commission, 1948. x 19
Fur-bearing Animals.
A decline in fur prices has resulted in a lack of inquiries for trap-lines, although
all available territory is taken up by trap-lines in this Division. The low prices of
furs has resulted in many trappers curtailing their operations, which should augur
well for the increase of fur-bearers.
Upland Game Birds.
Ruffed (Willow) Grouse.—Ruffed grouse are still not as plentiful as at the peak a
few years ago, and the restricted open seasons were undoubtedly beneficial. Climatic
conditions—a cold, wet spring and a wet summer—were not conducive to rearing good
coveys. Even so, their numbers appear to be on the upgrade again, judging from
reports during the late fall.
Franklin Grouse.—This particular bird (fool-hen) appears to have suffered a
cyclical decline similar to that of the ruffed grouse. It varies from fair numbers to
actual scarcity in different sections of the Division.
Blue Grouse.—Generally reported scarce but seems to be quite plentiful in West
Kootenay. They are reported as being scarce in the Boundary-Similkameen and the
East Kootenay. As they are not subject to the same hunting pressure as the ruffed
grouse, the suspicion of a cyclical decline is a reasonable one, although there is no
concrete evidence to support the theory.
Migratory Game Birds.
The prevailing flood conditions throughout the Division undoubtedly destroyed
many nests of migratory water-fowl, and the season could be considered a poor one on
account of the subsequent rain during the summer.    The hatch was less than normal.
Predatory Animals and Noxious Birds.
The following predatory animals and noxious birds were destroyed by game personnel of "B" Division during 1948: Cougars, 134; coyotes, 109; owls, 21; eagles,
43; crows, 421; destructive hawks, 86; gophers, 150; bobcats, 3; ravens, 14; bears,
9;  magpies, 37;  pack-rats, 18;  house cats, 71;  dogs, 18.
The destruction of 134 cougars and 109 coyotes by game personnel during the
period January 1st to December 31st, 1948, indicates a lot of activity where the cougars
are concerned. Each cougar destroyed means that the animal was followed on foot
through snow and finally treed by means of trained dogs. It should be further remembered that none of this was on level ground as the cougar is partial to wooded, rocky,
straight-up-on-end type of terrain. Cougar-hunting is laborious and gruelling work,
usually necessitating the use of snow-shoes, and each cougar destroyed in this manner
represents sheer hard work. The number quoted above only includes those destroyed
during the calendar year. Actually, during the winter of 1947-48, the total bagged in
this Division by our own personnel was 120.
Two predatory-animal hunters were employed during the winter on a part salary
and bounty system, and one permanent predatory-animal hunter, G. Haskell. In addition, several of the Game Wardens hunted with the predatory-animal hunters, Corporal
Sinclair being in on twenty-one kills; Game Wardens Gill, Monks, Rauch, and Osman
were notably active. Other Game Wardens have acquired their own dogs and expect
to further their experience in the future.
It could be possible, by the use of enough energetic hunters and trained dogs,
practically to eliminate cougars from specific sections of the Province, and under the
present rate of progress we do feel that we are substantially reducing their numbers.
However, the territory is vast, and if we can keep them to a low peak of population,
we are doing very well. X 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Plans during the present winter include an extended attack on coyotes whose
depredations on deer are quite as serious as those of the cougars. This will include
some cautious experiments in the use of poison conducted by Predatory-animal Hunter
Haskell. Poison has long been a stock instrument against predators in the States, but
we view its use in British Columbia with some qualms and the profound conviction
that its use must be rigidly controlled. Our programme calls for any poisoning to be
done in specific localities by competent men and under conditions that will allow the
recovery of any baits not eaten. Due to the presence of fur-bearing and domestic
animals on much of the winter range in this Division, poison is an agent that requires
most discreet handling.
Wolves have made their appearance in the eastern part of the Division, and we
can expect them to be present as long as the National parks adhere to their present
and established policy of suffering predators to exist on the game in the parks. It is
an inconsistency that we should hunt the predators in the East Kootenay that prey on
our deer, elk, sheep, and goats, and know that no matter how many we destroy there
will always be a reservoir of predators in the adjacent National parks. This is not
intended to be a criticism of parks policy, but it does mean that their way is not
our way.
Game Protection.
There were 140 prosecutions in the Division during 1948 under the " Game Act "
or Special Fisheries Regulations, which resulted in 133 convictions and 7 dismissals.
Game Propagation.
Nine hundred and twenty-six pheasants were released during the year in the
Southern Okanagan-Similkameen, Grand Forks, Nakusp, and Creston areas. In addition, a number were privately released by individuals, while experimental plantings
have been made by local rod and gun clubs who rear the birds and release them,
particularly at Salmo, Castlegar, New Denver, and Gray Creek. Due to the restricted
range, the chances of birds being established in the last-named localities appear somewhat remote.
Due to the wishes of the Interior rod and gun clubs, who felt there was an unusual
shortage of pheasants, the season was not opened in this part of the Interior. Grand
Forks could probably have had an open season without undue harm, but it was felt
that to make a closure successful it should apply to the entire Division.
Due to modern agricultural methods, considerable pessimism is expressed for the
future of pheasants as a game bird in those sections where they have hitherto flourished.   It is to be hoped that the outlook is not as bleak as it has been reported.
Game Reserves.
The Elk River Reserve, comprising the upper watershed of the Elk and Bull
Rivers, also White River, is the most important one, as it is situated in the heart of
the big-game country.
Game-bird sanctuaries at Nelson and Vasseaux Lake, south of Penticton, are also
beneficial, and their establishment continues to meet with general approval.
Deer sanctuaries exist at Elko, Canal Flats, and the Kettle River. These are
located on winter yarding-grounds and serve as a haven should unusual conditions occur
during the open season when deer might be too easily taken.
Fur Trade.
Most of the fur of this Division is handled by local resident fur-traders or sent
to traders in Vancouver. Very little fur is exported locally from the Province by
trappers. report of provincial game commission, 1948. x 21
Registration of Trap-lines.
This is a good system and there would seem to be no criticism of its operations
as the trappers who hold the lines are satisfied.
Registration of Guides.
The amended regulations during the year did much to clarify the somewhat
confused situation, and it would appear that we now have a fairly adequate control
in this regard.
Special Patrols.
Patrols are made during the year by horseback, foot, and rowboats in a routine
manner. None could be classed as a special patrol, although Game Warden Tyler on
one trip spent upwards to three weeks along the Alberta Border in the Rocky Mountains
covering a great deal of this area on horseback and contacting various hunting parties
in the field.
Hunting Accidents.
Lawrence Longacre, of Pittsburg, Calif., was mauled by a wounded grizzly bear
while hunting in the Fernie area. The animal was shot by his companion before any
serious injury was inflicted.
Summary and General Remarks.
For many years in this part of British Columbia we have been favoured with
beneficial climatic conditions in the winter-time, but it has been pointed out that a
series of tough winters could make things very bad for our game stand. It would
seem that we are now in a cycle of hard winters because the last two, 1946-47 and
1947-48, were more arduous than the average, and the present winter at this date,
January 31st, 1949, is exceptional, particularly as to prolonged cold and heavy snowfall.
The spring of 1948, due to high water, was about as disastrous as possible for
nesting water-fowl, and the continual rain and wet weather during the summer was
not conducive to the rearing of upland game birds.
The pheasant crop was a failure and as a result, there was no open season on
pheasant in this part of the Province.
A larger number of local hunters than ever was in the field, and the non-resident
hunters, while not at the peak of the previous year, were still about all the hunting
areas could accommodate. To offset the pressure of the hunters, we did have a fairly
good fall, which resulted in all game ranging higher, and the snows did not drive
them down until after the end of the deer season, which, fortunately, we had shortened
to the end of November.
There is no doubt that the peak of our big-game population is past; ample bag-
limits and much hunting during the past three seasons is part of the reason, but two
bad winters and numerous predators and some disease have their part, yet we do
still have a great deal of big game, and in many cases, quite as much as our existing
winter ranges can safely carry. Some day, with augmented staffs and the use of
aeroplanes, we may be able to get some definite totals of game numbers. Certainly
our information herein is somewhat vague as yet.
We must continue to curtail our game bags. The recommendations of the sports-
mens' clubs that hunters should be given the choice of either a moose or an elk is a
good one. The goat bag-limit should be cut from two to one animal, and we also can
contemplate the possibility of the deer bag being more limited. The grizzly bear in
this section of the Interior is on the way out, even if we eliminate spring hunting.
It is the number one non-resident trophy. X 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
This report is not intended to be pessimistic. Previous annual reports from this
Division have been most optimistic, although they were qualified by the suggestion
that adverse climatic conditions could make a difference in the game stand of " B "
Division. It is a simple arithmetical fact that we must ration our wild life very
shortly, and the time to start is before our capital stock has been too much reduced.
The increase of population since the close of the war and the number of people
who enter as tourists or hunters from the adjoining States and Provinces have brought
about a situation that did not exist five years ago. Our bag and season limits at that
time were satisfactory. They are not at the present time. This Division is too
accessible. Even our so-called remote areas—game areas, that is—are only a day
distant from the main highways on foot or by horse.
We have to revise our seasons, our bag-limits—possibly both. We may compromise by leaving our seasons open, but by cutting down the variety and numbers of game
animals and birds. One thing in favour of the longer seasons is the country itself.
Game ranges high on the mountains during the summer and early fall—deer, goats,
caribou, sheep, and elk. An early open season does them no harm and permits the
energetic hunter plenty of scope. A late season on these animals, when snows have
either forced them to lower elevations or caused them to bunch up, is not good. They
are too easily bagged.
Moose are the one exception. They range in the lowland swamps early in the fall.
With the first frosts they forsake the sloughs and seek higher ground. A later season
is beneficial to these animals.
The game-fish phase of our wild life requires very thoughtful consideration,
as the resident population is increasing astonishingly. Our bag-limits are generous,
our seasons are long. Power developments are the order of the day. Industrial
pollutions are beginning to be a matter of concern. The main highways parallel our
larger lakes where tourist camps flourish and multiply overnight. Sport fishing
is a potent lure for the non-resident vacationist. The demands are great. New
hatcheries, the enlargement of facilities in the present ones, are definitely indicated.
The usual cordial co-operation was received during the year from the organized
sportsmen and various Provincial Government departments, chiefly the Provincial
Police, the Public Works Department, and the Forest Service.
Report of C. H. Robinson, Fishery Supervisor, covering Game-fish
Conditions in " B " Game Division.
Herewith I beg to submit report covering a review and trend of the sport fisheries
of " B " Game Division for the year ended 1948.
Abnormal water conditions throughout the Interior, far exceeding the season of
1947, seriously curtailed ova collections at two major stations which the hatcheries of
the Division more or less depend upon. The collections at Gerrard and Fish Lakes
were less than anticipated.
The late, cold spring, coupled with floods and prolonged high water, restricted
travel and angling, particularly in waters at higher altitudes. The breach in the
reclamation dykes on Kootenay Flats, June 8th, caused considerable land erosion and
muddy water which practically suspended fishing throughout the south end of Kootenay Lake and River to Columbia River for about five weeks.
Hydro-electric developments on Whatshan Lakes, Nakusp Creek, and Trout Lake,
Lardeau, aroused considerable interest amongst the organized sportsmen and individuals in view of slash, brush, and timber removal to high-water mark and possible
adverse effect on the spawning-grounds of Kamloops trout.
Trout distributions are covered elsewhere in the report of the Game Commission. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948. X 23
Similkameen and South Okanagan Waters.
Due to flood conditions at Penask Lake collecting-station, the original programme
of restocking waters situated in the Pike Mountain, Aspen Grove, and Brookmere
regions was cancelled.
Scientific experiments and the elimination of coarse fish in Dry and Round Lakes,
Princeton district, were continued under the supervision of the Department of Zoology,
University of British Columbia, and carefully gauged small allotments of Kamloops
trout No. 1 fingerlings from Summerland Hatchery were liberated in the two lakes,
September 1st and December 4th, with similar allotments in Blue, Laird, and Allison
Lakes for comparative results.
Crater Lake.—A small, landlocked body of water adjacent to Alleyne Lake, yielded
excellent catches of Kamloops trout varying to 9 lb. and mostly taken on lures. The
trout were first introduced in July, 1946.
Murphy (Bear) and Chain Lakes.—These lakes provided good fly-fishing and trolling throughout the season; also other lakes conveniently located supplied fair flyfishing and trolling for rainbow trout—Alleyne, Boss, Trout, Davis, Hornet, Thalia,
Ludwig, Missezuela, and Osprey Lakes, and the Similkameen River.
Clearwater Lake, Hedley.—As the weather conditions improved, the lake supplied
some good fly-fishing and trolling for rainbow trout varying to 4 lb. Additional improvements toward increasing natural spawning facilities and nursery waters were
effected by the organized sportsmen of the Nickel Plate mine.
Cathedral Lakes.—These lakes, situated in the Ashnola region, were not fished to
any extent, hence poor-conditioned trout in some of the lakes.
Twin, Home, and Madden Lakes (Oliver region).—Fair fly-fishing and trolling for
Eastern brook trout varying to 4 lb. was provided by these lakes. The proposed liberation of fingerlings raised in the Summerland Hatchery should bring fruitful results.
Bear, Taylor, and Richter Lakes.—These lakes continued to yield fair catches of
Kamloops trout varying to 10 lb., mostly taken on trolls.
Osoyoos Lake.—Fair catches of Kamloops (rainbow) trout were produced during
the early spring and fall. The reciprocal arrangement between the Washington State
Game Department and the Game Commission and the local organized sportsmen for
restocking the lake with fingerlings should prove beneficial to all concerned.
Vasseaux Lake. — The prolonged period of silty water curtailed large-mouthed
black-bass fishing. The suggested liberation of trout in the lake by the local sportsmen
is a matter for careful study.
Skaha (Dog) Lake.—As referred to in the 1947 report, the Department of Zoology
carried out a preliminary survey of the lake in July and August in an endeavour to
determine the cause of trout depletion as complained of by the local sportsmen.
Okanagan Lake (South End).—Encouraging reports were received of improved
Kamloops-trout fishing during the spring and fall. With the joint operations of the
Summerland Hatchery and Kelowna Rearing-ponds, the liberations of fingerlings from
the two sets of ponds should increase the trout populations.
Dark (Fish) Lake (West Summerland). — This lake produced good catches of
Eastern brook trout, which are preferred to the native trout, being more prolific and
suitable, in view of the spring-spawning trout leaving the lake and becoming stranded
in the irrigation ditches, etc.
Munro, Eaneas, Island, Deer, Garnet, Glen, and Peachland Lakes, etc.—These
continued to supply fair catches of Kamloops trout by fly and troll.
Naramata and Chute Lake Region.—The several small alpine lakes continued to
yield fair catches of Kamloops trout, resulting from yearly restocking, which also
applies to Allendale and MacLean Lakes, Okanagan Falls region. X 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Boundary District Waters.
Inclement weather and prolonged heavy freshets tended to conserve trout life. As
usual the lakes and streams adjacent to highways were fished extensively by the resident and non-resident anglers. To relieve the heavy drain on the trout populations,
the organized sportsmen of the district are doing some preliminary work in reaching a
series of lakes in the Beaver Creek region.
The several not-so-accessible lakes—Conkle (Fish), Bull, Copper, Collier, and Williamson—continued to yield average catches of rainbow trout.
Kettle River and West Fork.—Due to the amount of angling, the streams did not
produce the desired catches of trout in spite of the short angling season and the protection afforded. The planting of eyed eggs and fry does not seem sufficient to meet
the situation of depletion, and the only alternative is to plant fingerlings and fish the
waters alternate years.
Jewell Lake.—This popular lake supplied fair catches of rainbow trout by fly and
troll varying to 8 lb. The larger trout are now consuming the minnow or shiner which
appeared a few years ago and caused some concern.
Wilgress (Loon) Lake. — Since the presence of the large population of shiners
illegally introduced the trout fishing has deteriorated, and in future the planting of
fingerlings in place of fry seems essential to maintain a reasonable supply of trout in
this one-time very productive lake.
Lake Christina. — Yielded fair catches of Kamloops trout, although perhaps not
quite so large as during the season 1947. It is hoped that with the facilities of additional rearing-ponds at the Nelson Hatchery a percentage of fingerlings raised can be
liberated in this very important lake.
Small-mouthed Black Bass.—These fish are not so plentiful since the protection was
lifted, although fair fishing is still available toward the north end of Lake Christina.
West Kootenay Waters.
Big Sheep, Little Sheep, and Beaver Creeks, and Boundary Lake.—These continued
to supply good catches of Eastern brook trout from natural spawning and restocking
yearly. It is expected that Rosebud Lake will soon produce good catches of speckled
trout introduced in 1946 due to the presence of shiners illegally introduced.
Lower and Upper Arrow Lakes.—Extreme high water and suspended glacial silt
over a lengthy period restricted fishing. As conditions improved, fair catches of Kamloops trout were taken by fly and troll varying to 15 lb. The lower lake is fished largely
by the anglers from Trail. The requested planting of fingerlings seems to be the only
alternative to maintain a reasonable population of trout.
Columbia River.—The portion between Castlegar and Waneta provided fair flyfishing for the anglers of Trail. So far there is no noticeable improvement in the
catches of trout from the expected migration from Roosevelt (Coulee) Lake.
Whatshan Lakes.—These lakes supplied some excellent fly-fishing for rainbow
trout, mostly under 2 lb., with fair trolling as the weather improved, but not so many
fish were taken in comparison with the season 1947 when the approximate creel catches
amounted to 16,000 trout.
Revelstoke Waters.
Griffin and Three Valley Lakes.—Reports indicated a slight improvement in the
catches of rainbow trout, mostly by troll and under 3 lb. An increase in the salmon
runs may have contributed to the improvement.
Victor and Summit Lakes.—Supplied some fair fly-fishing for cut-throat trout
introduced in 1942 and yearly since. The number taken so far is a disappointment in
proportion to the allotments of eyed eggs and fry planted.
Beaver, Begbie, and Echo Lakes.—Provided good fly-fishing for Kamloops trout
varying to 3 lb. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948. X 25
Trout Lake (Lardeau).—Inclement weather and high water curtailed angling during the spring, but toward the early part of the summer and fall, the lake yielded
excellent catches of Kamloops and Dolly Varden trout varying to 24 lb. The lake is
well patronized by American anglers, who very often use planes to reach the lake.
Wilson Lakes.—Supplied fairly good fly-fishing and trolling for Kamloops trout,
mostly under 5 lb. Box Lake produced improved catches of trout varying to 5 lb.
Also, Summit Lake showed an improvement.
Slocan Lake.—Weather conditions restricted fishing, but as the water receded,
some excellent fly-fishing was reported at the mouths of tributary streams, including
fairly good trolling for Kamloops trout varying to 10 lb. After extreme high water,
Slocan and Little Slocan Rivers supplied some good fly-fishing, with a slight improvement compared to season 1947.
Evans, Cahill, and Beatrice Lakes.—Subject to weather conditions the lakes supplied fair fly-fishing and trolling for rainbow trout varying to 8 lb. The conditions of
fish reported improved.
Kootenay River and Slocan Pool.—Before and after the collapse of the Kootenay
Flats dykes, the pool supplied some excellent fly-fishing for rainbow trout varying to
3 lb. and in prime condition. Also, there was a slight improvement in the catches of
trout by fly in the river below Nelson.
West Arm, Kootenay Lake.—This body of water, extending from Corra Linn Dam
to Procter, showed some improvement in the catches of Kamloops trout, including an
occasional large char by troll and fly fishing. Data pertaining to marked fish and the
creel census has so far been a disappointment, as a large percentage of anglers appear
to be reluctant to supply the desired information.
Kootenay Lake.—The late, cold spring and subsequent erosion from the breach in
the reclamation dykes on Kootenay Flats affected fishing generally and the catches of
Kamloops trout. However, as weather and water conditions improved, the catches of
trout were well up to the average, especially during the month of October. Frequent
reports were received of limit catches of smaller trout over 8 inches in length being
taken by fly and troll in less than two hours of fishing. This would indicate that
natural reproduction and the liberation of fingerlings has contributed to the
improvement.
The Nelson Gyro Club conducted their Ninth Annual Kootenay Lake Rainbow
Trout Derby from May 1st to November 16th for resident and non-resident anglers.
A total of 352 trout of 5 lb. and over was recorded and weighed in—total weight,
3,301 lb. The largest fish, winner of the competition, weighed 21 lb. 8 oz., in comparison with a similar derby in 1947 when 242 trout were recorded weighing 2,689 lb. and
the largest fish weighed 22 lb. 8 oz.
From a partly completed survey in connection with a creel census instituted, it
was revealed that quite a large percentage of trout taken over 5 lb. were not recorded
or weighed in. Consequently, the actual derby returns do not give a true picture of
Kootenay Lake production of large trout, which is often referred to in the alleged
depletion of trout in the lakes.
Angling contests over long periods are not consistent with conservation and should
be discouraged or prohibited, as some anglers who might be termed professional fishermen devote most of their time to get a fish larger than the other fellow and, in
consequence, our fisheries are exploited.
Inclement weather restricted angling in the quite numerous alpine lakes, some of
which are overstocked from natural spawning, and it would now seem desirable, if
possible, to change the regulations applicable to meet with this unforeseen situation.
Large-mouthed Black Bass.—These non-native fish appeared quite plentiful in the
channels in the vicinity of Sirdar and Wynndel, which provided early fishing for juve- X 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
nile and adult anglers;   also, the long period of cloudy water caused the bass and
sunfish to circulate farther north and west in Kootenay Lake.
Goat River.—The stretch of the stream below the falls and canyon yielded fair
catches of Kamloops (steelhead) trout, also cut-throat trout fly-fishing improved above
the canyon and to the upper reaches. The improvement might be attributed to the
improved water-flow during the summer. Meadow Creek, a tributary, provided good
fishing for speckled trout.
East Kootenay Waters.
Moyie River (Below Lakes).—Accessible to auto travel, provided some excellent
fly-fishing. No doubt the prolonged freshets were a contributing factor to the improvement as ordinarily the water-flow recedes rapidly with adverse water temperature, etc.
Moyie Lakes.—High-water conditions restricted angling in these quite important
lakes. However, as conditions became normal, average catches of cut-throat, hybrid,
and Kamloops were taken on the fly and troll varying mostly under 10 lb.
Monroe Lake.—This conveniently situated lake produced the average catches of
cut-throat and hybrid trout varying to 2y2 lb. The lake is well patronized by the
local residents who have summer homes at the lake.
Smith Lake.—A productive body of water, supplied good trolling and some flyfishing for Kamloops trout varying to 15 lb. Maintaining the natural water-levels of
the lake has already proven beneficial.
Mirror Lake.—Yielded some excellent catches of Kamloops trout varying from
2 to 5 lb. The planting of small allotments of fingerlings has brought fruitful results.
Horseshoe Lake, a rather peculiar body of landlocked water, continued to supply fair
catches of Kamloops trout by fly and troll, with an occasional fish taken up to 12 lb.
In the past this lake was quite productive, yielding trout up to 15 lb. of three years'
growth.
Premier Lake.—Was well patronized by the Kimberley anglers due to improved
road and camping facilities accomplished by the organized sportsmen. As weather
conditions improved, the lake supplied fairly good fly-fishing and trolling for Kamloops
trout mostly under 5 lb. in weight.
St. Mary Lake and Tributaries.—Considerable angling is carried on by the local
sportsmen, and as water conditions improved after heavy freshets, average catches of
cut-throat trout were taken on the fly and trolls, also a limited number of Kamloops
trout from experimental plantings.
Skookumchuck River.—After prolonged freshets the river below the falls supplied
good fly and spinner fishing. V/ith improved road facilities for logging purposes, some
excellent fly-fishing was enjoyed by the sportsmen in ideal waters above the falls as a
result of a large allotment of cutthroat-trout eyed eggs planted in 1935. Prior to that
the stream above the falls was barren of fish life.
Bidl River and Tributaries.—After the spring freshets the waters supplied some
good fly-fishing for cut-throat trout varying to 2% lb. So far natural reproduction has
been sufficient to maintain a reasonable supply of trout except the stretch of river
flowing between the falls and dam, which is restocked with fair results.
The several small lakes supplied fair cut-throat and Kamloops trout fishing except
New Lake. Logging operations on the Gold Creek system have resulted in more angling
and the depletion of cut-throat trout, which is receiving attention next spring. Kootenay River supplied good cut-throat and Dolly Varden trout fishing toward the early fall.
Fernie District Waters.
Manistee and Loon Lakes.—Supplied the average catches of Kamloops trout mostly
taken by trolling and varying less than 20 lb. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948. X  27
Surveyors Lake.—Showed a definite improvement and surpassed all other lakes in
yielding excellent catches of Kamloops trout varying to 10 lb. The planting of small
allotments of No. 1 fingerlings in place of fry, due to the voraciousness of the shiner,
has proven effective.
Tie Lake.—Not considered ideal trout waters and the doubtful results of fry and
fingerlings planted supplied a few nice Kamloops trout varying to 10 lb. This should
offer some inducement to test the lake out further.
Silver Springs Lakes.—In recent years angling for Kamloops trout has declined
due to the presence of shiners, illegally introduced, and the diminishing food supplies.
The liberation of trout fingerlings in place of fry now appears necessary. North Star
Lake produced excellent catches of Kamloops trout a few years ago, but failed to yield
any during the season.    Possibly winter kill is the cause and will be investigated.
Edwards Lake.—Is not producing such large Kamloops trout as in former years,
but with ideal conditions the average catches of Kamloops and occasional cut-throat
trout were taken on the fly and troll mostly under 5 lb.
McBain's (Rosen) Lake.—Was well patronized by the residents, owners of summer
camps, and the tourists, and continued to supply fair trolling for Kamloops trout and
fly-fishing for cut-throat. All possible attention is given toward maintaining the supply
of trout for recreational purposes.
Elk River and Tributaries.—The prolonged period of high water, mud, and heavy
freshets restricted angling until well into the month of June, then until early fall flyfishing for cut-throat and some Dolly Varden trout was good, a slight improvement
compared to the season of 1947.
The reintroduction of the closure of the upper reaches of the Elk River is worthy
of careful investigation to determine, if possible, the spawning and migratory characteristics of the parent cut-throat trout, and is receiving attention.
Grave (Emerald) Lake.—Subject to weather conditions, the lake provided fair
trolling and some fly-fishing for Kamloops trout varying to 10 lb. The organized sportsmen have done some very creditable work toward road-building and camp-sites, etc.
Other small lakes and streams provided fair angling throughout the season.
Columbia District Waters.
Columbia Lake.—Not fished to any extent, produced fair catches of Kamloops trout
by trolling varying to 5 lb. with an occasional cut-throat trout. Some outward migration occurs which augments the supplies in Windermere Lake.
Windermere Lake.—Average catches of Kamloops trout were mostly taken on trolls
varying to 5 lb. The residents and numerous visitors at the several summer camps fish
the lake, hence the need for restocking.
Dunbar, Twin, and Bott (Fish) Lakes.—Supplied fairly good fly-fishing for cutthroat trout varying to 3 lb.;  also Jeffrey, Hall, Lead, Queen, and Baptiste Lakes.
Cartwright Lake.—This landlocked lake supplied good trolling for Kamloops trout
varying to 9 lb. during the spring and fall. Deer Lake provided some fly-fishing and
trolling for Kamloops trout, a slight improvement compared to season of 1947. Trout
varied to 3 lb.
Magog and Cerulean Lakes.—Situated in Mount Assiniboine Provincial Park, provided good fly-fishing for cut-throat trout during the summer, up to 3 lb.
Paddy Ryan Lakes.—This chain of small lakes has in the past produced excellent
catches of cut-throat trout, but, since the appearance of shiners in large numbers,
fishing has gradually declined. To combat this situation, the planting of Rainbow trout
fingerlings is now advocated.
Golden District.—High water over quite a long period and glacial silt affected
fishing in most streams including Kinbasket Lake. X 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Blackwater Lakes.—Situated adjacent to the Trans-Canada Highway, supplied the
usual limit catches of somewhat small Kamloops trout. As the trout take the fly freely,
the lakes are popular for tourist and resident anglers.
Bush Lakes.—High water and floods restricted early fishing but after June the
lakes supplied fair catches of rainbow trout, mostly under 2 lb.
Cedar Lakes.—The two small lakes yielded fair catches of Kamloops trout by fly
and troll varying to 3 lb. Also Wiseman Lake and Creek provided good fly-fishing for
cut-throat trout, including the mouths of creeks flowing into Columbia River when
conditions permitted.
Kokanee (Little Redfish).—In addition to acting as a forage fish in waters
originally inhabited and introduced, the kokanee fills in as a sport-fish, taking the fly
and baited multiple lures quite freely in the following waters: Clearwater Lake,
Hedley, approximate size and weight, 12 oz.; Lake Christina, varying to 8 oz. and
more; Arrow Lakes, varying from 8 to 12 oz.; Wilson Lakes, varying to 8 oz.;
Whatshan Lakes, 8 to 12 oz.; Slocan Lake, varying from 8 to 12 oz.; Cahill Lake,
average 8 oz.; Trout Lake, 8 to 12 oz.; Moyie Lakes, varying to 8 oz.; Premier Lake,
average weight, 1 lb.; Grave (Emerald) Lake, varying to 8 oz. and slightly more. In
most lakes the kokanee varies in weight each year.
Summary of Hatchery Operations.
Summerland Hatchery.—The new and spacious modern hatchery set-up was in
readiness to operate during the month of May in place of the small hatchery operated
seasonally. The following Kamloops trout eggs were received, 245,000 green eggs,
and 472,665 eyed eggs from Beaver Lake Hatchery; resultant fry liberated, 301,000,
in thirty-three lakes and streams, and 120,000 No. 1 fingerlings. Scientific experimental plantings, 25,989, in five lakes. On hand as at December 31st, 122,913, 2%
to 3 inches in length.
Revelstoke Hatchery.—Operated from May 1st to July 31st. Cutthroat-trout
eyed eggs received from Cranbrook Hatchery, 97,500; resultant fry, 87,000, liberated
in four lakes and one stream. Kamloops-trout eyed eggs received from Beaver Lake
Hatchery, 128,000;   resultant fry, 120,000;   liberated in seven lakes and one stream.
Nelson Hatchery.—Yearly operations for waters of East and West Kootenay,
Boundary, and Okanagan districts. Kamloops-trout eyed eggs received from Beaver
Lake Hatchery, 562,000; Penask Lake, 95,000; total, 657,000. Eyed eggs planted in
eight lakes and streams, 203,050; fry, 404,170, in twelve streams and lakes; No. 1
fingerlings, 17,435, in one stream. Kamloops-trout eyed eggs received from Gerrard
Hatchery June 12th, 150,000; resultant fry liberated in the Nelson Hatchery Rearing-
ponds.
Eastern Brook Trout.—Eggs collected at Boundary Lake, Nelway, 325,000; resultant fry and fingerlings, 288,200, liberated in twelve lakes and streams. Kokanee eggs
received from Meadow Creek, Lardeau, 1,088,000. Eyed eggs planted, 1,450,000.
Pending approximate fry plantings, 450,000, in Kootenay Lake and Grave Lake.
Gerrard Hatchery.—Seasonal operations from April 1st to July 15th, Kamloops-
trout eggs collected, 455,000. Resultant distributions of eyed eggs: Cranbrook Hatchery, 102,000;  Kaslo Hatchery, 168,000;  Nelson Hatchery, 150,000;  total, 420,000.
Kaslo Hatchery.—Yearly operations. Kamloops-trout eyed eggs received from
Gerrard Hatchery, 168,000; resultant fry released in the rearing-ponds and subsequently retained in the hatchery. Kokanee eggs received from Meadow Creek, Lardeau,
160,000;   resultant fry to be liberated in three streams.
Cranbrook Hatchery.—Seasonal operations from April 1st to August 31st. Cutthroat-trout eggs collected at Fish Lakes, 1,008,000; resultant eyed eggs distributed,
743,275, to three hatcheries and eight streams and lakes;   fry, 231,045, liberated in REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948. X 29
ten lakes and streams. Kamloops-trout eyed eggs received from Gerrard Hatchery,
102,000; resultant No. 1 fingerlings liberated, 97,240, in twelve lakes. Kamloops-trout
eyed eggs received from Beaver Lake Hatchery, 188,140; resultant fry, 182,603,
liberated in eighteen lakes.
Summary of Rearing-ponds operated.
Summerland Hatchery Rearing-ponds.—Under construction, not ready to operate.
Kamloops-trout fingerlings retained in hatchery troughs.
Nelson Hatchery Rearing-ponds.—May, 1948, West Arm, Kootenay Lake. Coming
two-year-old Kamloops-trout fingerlings carried from year 1947, 6,098, liberated at
Sunshine Bay, 3,200; Procter, 1,500; Crescent Bay, 1,093; total, 5,793, 5 to 10 inches
in length.    (Marked with removal of adipose and left ventral fins.)
Eyed eggs received, June, 1947, 100,000 Gerrard; resultant fingerlings in ponds
as at December 31st, 1947, No. 3 pond, 32,240; No. 4 pond, 31,260; No. 5 pond, 31,671;
total, 95,171.
Liberations of fingerlings, June 8th to 11th: No. 3 pond, West Arm and Main
Kootenay Lake, Kaslo Bay, 7,141; West Arm, Harrop, 7,141; Procter, 9,000; Long
Beach, 2,000;   transferred to No. 1 pond, 2,853.
June, 12th to 15th: No. 4 pond liberations, Queens Bay, Kootenay Lake, 5,440;
Ainsworth, 6,800;   Woodberry Bay, 9,010;   transferred to No. 1 pond, 1,568.
July 23rd to 26th: No. 5 pond liberations, Kaslo Bay, 5,085; Shutty Bench, 5,805;
Sunshine Bay, 2,160;   transferred to No. 1 pond, 717;   Champion Lakes, 1,080.
Total liberations in West Arm and Kootenay Lake, 71,912; Champion Lakes,
1,080; transferred to No. 1 pond, 5,138. Weight count graded fish, 56 to 1 lb.;
ungraded, 135 to 1 lb.
April 20th, 1948: Carried over in No. 2 pond, 21,850, origin, Snowshoe Lake,
liberated in Kootenay River, Slocan Pool, 21,761 (3 inches in length).
June 12th, 1948: Received from Gerrard Hatchery, 150,000 eyed eggs; resultant
fingerlings retained in Nelson Hatchery Rearing-ponds for liberation in West Arm
and Kootenay Lake, May, 1949.
During the fall, rearing-pond facilities were increased with the construction of
a battery of five concrete ponds of the following dimensions: 3 feet, 6 inches, to 4 feet
in depth; width, 6 feet; length, 40 feet each. Similarly as in the past, the City of
Nelson kindly supplied cement and gravel for the ponds constructed. The extra accommodation should prove a valuable asset toward raising extra trout fingerlings for
district waters such as Kootenay and Slocan Rivers and Lower Arrow Lakes. To
operate effectively the new ponds during the winter, it will be necessary to raise the
water temperatures artificially.
Kaslo Hatchery and Ponds.—June 4th, 1947, eyed eggs received, 100,000 Gerrard;
liberation of fingerlings, August and September, 1947, 35,000 (2 inches in length),
Kaslo Bay, Kootenay Lake.
April 17th, 1948:  Transferred to one of the Bjerkness ponds, 60,548.
June 2nd and 3rd: Liberations, Bjerkness Bay, Kootenay Lake, 4,000; Kaslo Bay,
10,000; Woodberry Creek Bay, 15,000; Bjerkness Bay, 7,500; total liberations, 71,500
fingerlings, 2 to 4 inches in length.
June 12th, 1948: Received 168,000 Kamloops-trout eyed eggs from Gerrard;
resultant fingerlings retained in the hatchery troughs for subsequent release in Lardeau
River and Kootenay Lake.
Princeton Semi-natural Ponds.—The two small lakes partially developed and leased
by the organized sportsmen of Princeton; a breach occurred at the outlet of the lower
pond, resulting in the fingerlings from the 10,000 rainbow-trout fry liberated in the
lower pond, July, 1948, escaping into One Mile Creek. X 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
New Denver Rearing-pond.—Due to the continued serious pollution of Carpenter
Creek from operations of the Zincton Mines, Limited, the local organized sportsmen
did not attempt to operate the pond.
Fernie City Rearing-ponds.—Unfavourable conditions prevented the operation of
Nos. 2 and 3 ponds situated on city property. The local semi-natural pond on Brewery
Creek, partially developed by the local organized sportsmen, was not ready for cutthroat-trout fry during the liberations.
Nelson Hatchery Ova Collections. — High water and flood conditions prevented
additional surveys to ascertain possible ova collections in view of the increasing
demands coupled with the uncertainty of supplies from Lloyds Creek and Penask Lake
Hatcheries, which the hatchery is dependent upon.
Boundary Lake, Nelway.—Climatic conditions were more favourable, permitting
the collection of 410,000 Eastern brook-trout eggs mostly taken at the outlet creek trap.
Also, 90,000 were taken at Loon Lake, Ainsworth. The speckled-trout fry and fingerlings are widely distributed in waters of East and West Kootenay and Okanagan.
Lardeau River.—The rapid rise of the water-flow in the river restricted the effective use of drag-seines toward the latter part of the collection which amounted to
455,000 eggs from a medium run of parent fish in comparison with 456,000 eggs
collected in 1947.
Trout Creek.—An attempt was made to ascertain the potential spawning runs of
Kamloops trout to augment the supplies for Gerrard Hatchery in case the spawning
runs are affected in the Lardeau River in due course. Unfortunately, extreme high
water and flood conditions prevented the completion of the survey.
Kiahko (Fish) Lakes, Cranbrook.—The annual collection of cutthroat-trout eggs
amounted to 1,008,000 in comparison with 1,637,000, the season of 1947. Reports
indicated that the parent fish were not so plentiful, as the bountiful water-flow in the
outlet creek did not induce the expected number of fish to enter the traps.
As the demand for cutthroat-trout eggs is increasing, for local and other Interior
waters, plus those for reciprocal sale and exchange, preparations were made on the
small north-inlet creek of Monroe Lake to resume collections at this point; also experimental collections will be attempted on the outlet of Dunbar Lake to augment the
supplies.
Miscellaneous Subjects.
Trout Food, 1948, Summerland Hatchery.—Approximate quantities of trout foods
supplied to sustain Kamloops-trout fingerlings retained in the hatchery troughs: Beef
liver, 10,500 lb.; powdered milk, 800 lb.; frozen kokanee, 900 lb.; 100 cases of canned
herring and rice polishings.
Trout Food, 1948, Nelson Hatchery.—Beef liver, 2,995 lb.; pork liver, 2,436 lb.;
powdered milk, 1,000 lb.; lamb brains, 522 lb.; canned herring, 30 cases; stripped
kokanee, 8,000 lb.
Trout Food, 1948, Revelstoke Hatchery.—(Supplied from Nelson Hatchery) beef
liver, 114 lb.;  powdered milk, 50 lb.
Trout Food, 1948, Cranbrook Hatchery.—(Supplied from Nelson Hatchery) beef
liver, 221 lb.; powdered milk, 10 lb.;  frozen kokanee, 50 lb.
Trout Food, 1948, Kaslo Hatchery. — Beef liver, 1,680 lb.; pork liver, 246 lb.;
powdered milk, 600 lb.; lamb brains, 64 lb.; frozen kokanee, 300 lb., from Nelson
Hatchery.
Salvage and Transfer of Trout.—Generally throughout the district the water-flow
in streams and the levels of the lakes was above normal and no loss occurred from the
lack of water except Big Sheep Creek near Rossland where a number of Eastern Brook
trout became stranded in a side channel of the creek and were duly salvaged and transferred to Corral Creek, a tributary of Sheep Creek, October 3rd, approximately 450
(2 to 5 inches in length) ;   250 (6 to 9 inches in length) ;   total, 700 fingerlings. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948. X 31
Destruction of Coarse Fish.—Abnormal high water and flood conditions prevented
the operation of traps and other methods of taking coarse fish below the Brilliant Dam,
Kootenay River, and likewise in the Okanagan River, Penticton, Christina Lake, What-
shan Lakes, and the Lardeau River, etc.
Fishways.—The five small fishways installed by the property-owners in small dams
less than 10 feet in height situated on the outlet of Okanagan Lake, Eholt Creek, outlet
of McBain's (Rosen) Lake, Alexander Creek, and Paddy Ryan Lakes remained in fair
condition and working order.
Obstructions.
Smith Lake.—Confirming remarks in the 1947 report, relative to maintaining the
normal levels of the lake for fish-cultural purposes, and under the authority of conditional water licence granted, during the month of April a small concrete dam was
constructed on the outlet of the lake, Jimsmith Creek. The dam is so equipped to
permit screens to prevent the outward migration of small and parent trout, also, to
maintain the normal levels of the lake, also, if desired by the irrigation purposes.
Already there is a noticeable improvement in the food supplies and conditions of the
Kamloops trout which should amply justify the small expense in due course.
Lardeau River.—In order to permit the free passage of the parent Kamloops trout
from Kootenay Lake to their spawning-grounds in the vicinity of Gerrard and their
return, the usual attention was given to the removal of obstructions during the fall,
thereby the river is clear of major obstructions that would impede the movements and
migration of fish. Also, attention was given to debris entering the river from Trout
Lake.
Hydro-electric Developments.
Whatsan Lake.—The storage of water in the lakes and diversions to the hydroelectric plant on the Lower Arrow Lake by the British Columbia Power Commission
has been gone into thoroughly with regard to slash and brush to extreme high-water
mark and the flooding of the spawning-grounds, etc., of the Kamloops, Dolly Varden,
and kokanee trout, pending a survey of the affected areas and meeting to be held in
that respect by the authorities.
Nakusp Creek and Box Lake.—The reconstruction of the earth-crib diversion dam
on the creek by the British Columbia Power Commission received the necessary attention for fishery interests with regard to efficient screening of the intake of water supply
to the Nakusp Power Station, improvements to the spillway in the dam to prevent
possible injury to migratory trout, including the installation of a small fishway in the
proposed low dam on the outlet of Box Lake for water storage.
Trout Lake and Lardeau River.—The drawing-down of the natural water-level of
Trout Lake, Gerrard, by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, Limited, of
Trail, for additional water-storage for hydro-electric purposes on Kootenay River, is
receiving most careful attention by the Department to safeguard the valuable natural
resources of the district, relative to the spawning-runs of Kamloops trout in Lardeau
River and Trout Lake, the future spawning-facilities, and the resultant circulation of
trout in the river and lake, etc., in accordance with a joint preliminary hearing held in
Trail, November 10th.
Pollutions.
Mining Industries, etc.—Due to the improved base-metal prices, increasing mining
and concentrator operations throughout the district, depending upon the location of the
plants, the majority of the operators were sincere in their efforts to prevent the serious
pollution of waters frequented by fish, water-fowl, and fur-bearing animals, as referred
to herewith. X 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Similkameen River.—The steady and extensive operations of the Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting, and Power Company, Limited, of Copper Mountain, the
Kelowna Exploration Company, and the Mascot Mining Company, of Hedley, were very
satisfactory from a pollution and conservation standpoint.
The Atkinson Dredging Company, of Princeton, after a year of fairly steady
dredging for gold and platinum with from 2,500 to 3,500 yards of material handled
daily, did not seriously affect fish life in the Similkameen River, except a few whitefish
were found dead in the river in the vicinity of Hedley, 25 miles distant. An analysis
of a water sample taken two miles below the point of operations revealed that the
suspended solids in the water-flow had increased from 18 p.p.m. to 33 p.p.m. during
dredging operations. It was observed that, during any lull in the operations, goodly
numbers of trout and whitefish remained in the pools where the dredging was operating
from.
Okanagan River.—After some delay last fall in obtaining materials, the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company at Penticton constructed a new 15- by 32-foot specially
designed concrete sump to collect, treat, and prevent the escapage of fuel-oil into the
river. From repeated observations, the new arrangement, in place of the old earthern
sumps, is operating very satisfactorily from a sport-fish, water-fowl, and fur-bearing
animal standpoint.
Columbia River.—A certain amount of refuse enters the river from the extensive
operations of the Trail smelter and fertilizer plants operated by the Consolidated
Mining and Smelting Company, Limited, of Trail. It is possible the pollutions, after becoming diffused with the large volume of water-flow, are not so harmful toward fish life.
Sheep Creek and Salmon River.—Owing to the price of gold and cost of production,
the operations of the Sheep Creek Gold Mines, Limited, were suspended June, 1948, but
were resumed, resulting in the pollution of Sheep Creek. The management are reluctant
to take any steps to prevent the direct discharge of concentrator refuse into Wolfe
Creek and Sheep Creek owing to the limited space to impound the tailings thereon.
Salmon River.—The Emerald Tungsten Project, Concentrator Division, Salmo, at
considerable expense and before operations commenced, established settling-ponds to
prevent the serious pollution of the river.   Except during floods, the ponds were effective.
Pend d'Oreille River.—The management of the Reeves-MacDonald Mines, Limited,
expect to operate the newly constructed concentrator in treatment of some 1,200 tons of
silver, lead, and zinc ores daily, and an attempt is being made to store the tailings on
adjacent bench-land in the course of a month or so.
Kootenay River.—The operations of the Kenville Gold Mines, Limited, near Tag-
hum, were satisfactory except some seepage of concentrator refuse through the coarse
rock-fill of the settling-pond, which was rectified, and the river has been free of tailings.
Sitkum Creek, West Arm, Kootenay Lake.—Due to the cost of production and the
price of gold, operations of the Alpine Gold Mines, Limited, were suspended by the
management in 1948, and the creek remained free of pollutions.
Kootenay Lake.—The intermittent operation of the Kootenay-Florence mine and
concentrator near Ainsworth to treat custom and locally mined silver, lead, and zinc
ores resulted in the pollution of the lake within a radius of about 100 yards. The pollution under the circumstances is difficult to control owing to the mill being in close
proximity to the lake.
Kaslo Creek, Kootenay Lake.—The impoundment of the concentrator refuse has
received all possible attention by the management of the Kootenay Belle Gold Mines,
Limited, in the treatment of silver, lead, and zinc ores at the Whitewater concentrator.
The pollution of the creek was of short duration when the pumping-machinery broke
down.
Seaton and Carpenter Creeks, Slocan Lake.—Until recently, the operation of the
Zincton mines and concentrator by the Sheep Creek Gold Mines, Limited, seriously REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME  COMMISSION, 1948. X 33
polluted the creeks referred to and flowing into Slocan Lake. Sufficient attention was
not being given to the promised impoundment of the refuse, which, to some extent,
after repeated interviews and correspondence, has been rectified.
Slocan Lake.—The Western Exploration Company, Limited, Silverton, operates a
concentrator to treat silver, lead, and zinc ores from the Standard, Mammoth, and
Enterprise mines, and the resultant tailings are discharged directly into the lake from
the mill immediately adjacent. The operations have gone on intermittently over a long
period, and with limited disturbances the pollution is confined to a small area of the lake.
St. Mary River.—All possible attention is given to the impoundment of concentrator
refuse by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, Limited, resulting from the
treatment of some 6,500 tons of silver, lead, and zinc ores from the Sullivan mine daily.
Only during extreme low water has the pollution of the river affected fish life, but not
to a great extent.
Michel and Coal Creeks, Elk River.—During the high water and flood period, considerable coal-dust sludge escaped into Michel Creek from the area used for settling-
ponds by the Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company. Immediately conditions would permit,
the company took the necessary steps to control the waste materials, also due attention
was given to the Coal Creek operations, which are more favourably located to prevent
pollutions.
Lumber Industries.—The operators of stationary and portable sawmills have reasonably complied to the Fishery Regulations, except a few minor pollutions which were
rectified forthwith.
Diseases.—During the year an occasional report was received of some mortality
amongst trout, suckers, and whitefish. Apparently the fish did not die from disease
but from some other causes not definitely determined. The lack of sunshine, low
temperatures of water-supplies, and other unusual conditions increased the difficulties
of rearing-pond operations, with some slight gill disease duly checked. However,
with the unsurpassed water-supply to the Summerland Hatchery, no difficulty was
experienced in raising fingerlings in the hatchery troughs with excellent results.
Sport Fisheries.—Generally the fisheries are in fair condition, with some depletion
of streams adjacent to auto camps and auto travel, etc. The planting of fingerlings in
place of eyed eggs and fry would help the situation, with possible alternate yearly
closures, with due consideration given to the regulations to control the number of trout
that can be taken during a week or month, etc.
The usual excellent assistance rendered by the organized sportsmen and individuals, the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, the Consolidated Mining and Smelting
Company, and other Government departments, is gratefully acknowledged.
" C " DIVISION  (KAMLOOPS, YALE, OKANAGAN, CARIBOO,
CHILCOTIN, AND SQUAMISH DISTRICTS).
By R. M. Robertson, Officer Commanding.
I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report on game conditions in
" C " Game Division during the year ended December 31st, 1948.
Big Game.
Moose.—One thousand two hundred and two moose trophies passed through the
Cache Creek checking-station, north of Ashcroft, during the season 1948. This station
keeps a record of the numbers of moose and other animals leaving the Cariboo. A heavy
infestation of winter ticks was manifest in the Big Creek District, where considerable
numbers of cattle and big game died from their effects. X 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The same situation prevailed in other areas but to a slightly lesser degree. Reports
reaching this office gave a preview of what to expect during the spring of 1949. The
locality immediately north of Kamloops is now badly infested with ticks and also that
west of Anahim Lake and surrounding terrain.
Approximately 2,500 moose were killed in the Cariboo during the open season.
This figure includes the non-resident and resident kill, also the Indian kill, and could
be regarded as a conservative one. The opinion prevailed among the guides that
moose-hunting was becoming increasingly difficult due to scarcity of those animals.
Letters received from guides in connection with a questionnaire sent to lodge and
hunting-camp operators seemed to indicate a state of anxiety for the future.
Non-resident hunters were prone to blame the guides for unseemly delay in getting
their bag-limit, and a feeling existed in the minds of many non-residents that the
guides were giving them " the run around " and showed them big game only after
many days of search.
Winter range for moose shows strong evidence of overbrowsing. In the Big Creek-
Porcupine districts and meadows leading toward the Coast Range overbrowsing was
indeed noticeable. The only place where willow and other similar growth appeared
untouched was at the headwaters of Big Creek.
The matter of controlled burning for additional food supply is a subject for expert
consideration. A start should be made toward this end. A report from the Quesnel
Detachment indicates that predation on moose was of a comparatively light nature.
Moose are now moving into the outlying areas. This is especially true of Salmon Arm,
North Thompson (East), Red Mountain, and Yalakom areas. In Upper Clearwater
Valley the hunting of moose was not at all good except for the early part of the season.
Statistical data will no doubt be supplied by Jas. Hatter, Game Biologist, covering
age-group of moose taken.
Cold-storage facilities have encouraged hunters to seek the larger species of big
game. Where moose-meat was freely distributed on past occasions by fortunate, generous hunters because of possible spoilage, the newly constructed cold-storage warehouses
now provide a means of retaining the entire meat-supply without loss.
The Cache Creek checking-station filled a much-needed requirement. The following totals of big game were checked from the beginning of the open season to the end,
as follows:—
Moose   1,202 Goats   41
Deer   1,111 Grizzlies   17
Caribou   3 Wolves      9
Sheep          8 Cougars   13
The above station and check-up was ably conducted by Game Warden W. H.
Cameron and three assistants.
Caribou.—An aerial survey, especially in winter, should be made. There does not
appear to be any explanation of why caribou have dwindled down to a mere remnant of
their former numbers. The task of instituting a survey as to probable causes of
caribou disappearance requires much more extensive research facilities than we have
at present. It is manifestly impossible for one biologist to cover the entire field. It is
not overhunting or predation which appears to be the cause. Whether the intrusion of
moose into the caribou range has had any effect, is something for the trained biologist
to decide.
In the Clearwater area, moose have long since moved into that range formerly
occupied by caribou. A report from Alexis Creek states that big game seems to be
changing its winter range and spending the summers on ranges farther afield. A radical change of seasons is perhaps the true answer as the depth of snow appears to have
decreased considerably in certain ranges in the Chilcotins.    The wet seasons of the REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948. X 35
last few years have increased the available food-supply. The increased hunting-
pressure has played a minor role in the above movement. The Vernon Detachment
reports six cows were seen near Peters Lake early in October. Considerable signs were
reported by guides in the same area earlier in the season.
Grizzlies.—Park Mountain and the Upper Shuswap and Cherry Creek basins were
a source of attraction to hunters for grizzlies. On the Bowron Lake areas bordering
the reserve, they are numerous. In the Texas, Whitecap, and Bear Creek areas many
are known to exist but are seldom hunted.
Mountain-sheep.—A mountain-sheep count carried out by Bertram Chichester, of
Kelowna, during 1948, in the Shorts Creek area, produced the following: twelve rams,
fourteen lambs, thirty-nine yearlings and ewes, totalling sixty-five. This seems slightly
below former years but not enough to warrant inquiry as it is quite possible to miss a
small band of sheep. An open season could never be declared in such a small area with
such a limited sheep population. Practically all of their winter range is now fenced
and used for agricultural purposes. In such a limited habitat an increase is hardly to
be expected. Another area of doubtful value is in the Squilax district. Here again the
population is a small one and an open season would hardly be desirable. During January, 1949, the Squilax sheep could be seen along the Trans-Canada Highway, where
Mr. Danielson, of Squilax, put out hay during the deep snow.
Squam Bay has never been regarded as an area producing a sizeable population.
In this Division, the areas over which mountain-sheep travel are limited, excepting the
Churn Creek basins, Big Creek, Porcupine, and Gunn Creek. The winter range of
mountain-sheep, extending from Big Creek, Porcupine to Gunn Creek, centres mainly
in the Big Churn Creek and Upper Churn Creek basins.
A count taken in the Churn Creek basins by Predatory-animal Hunter Shuttle-
worth and Game Warden Fenton produced the following: 253 sheep of which forty
were rams of trophy size. A patrol of the Big Creek headwaters and also Porcupine
Creek during July revealed five bighorn rams of substantial size at 8,000 feet elevation.
Signs of eight other sheep were seen. The severe winters of recent years have had, no
doubt, an adverse effect on the sheep population.
An annual census should be taken of mountain-sheep in the Churn Creek basins
as this area, with but one possible exception, is their main wintering-ground. Another
area not yet covered and entirely separate from the above may be inspected during 1949.
The sheep population of the Yalakom Reserve has shown some increase. A count
taken by Game Warden Welsman around October 25th on the Yalakom Game Reserve,
revealed the following: ninety-eight sheep, consisting of twenty-eight rams, fifty ewes,
and twenty lambs. In the opinion of one reliable guide and Game Warden Welsman,
it is estimated that there must be around 150 sheep, since, on this patrol, the whole
Reserve was not covered. Of the above number counted, twenty-five were yearlings.
These sheep do not winter in the Churn Creek basin.
Mountain-goats. — Reported numerous around Valemont. Not numerous in the
Shuswap-Columbia River Divide, east of Sugar Lake. They are also limited in numbers
in the Wells area and Momich River district. East of Horsefly they are not by any
means lacking in numbers. In the Cayoosh Creek area an increase is reported, but a
decrease elsewhere in the Lillooet Detachment.
Deer.—Some sign of starvation has been noted in the deer population in certain
areas of the Quesnel Detachment. Coast deer are reported scarce in the Squamish
area. Bucks (mule-deer) were scarce elsewhere in the Lillooet Detachment. Severe
winter conditions are considered responsible. To some extent this also applied to the
Clinton area. Hunting was not heavy in the Aspen Grove area during the past season.
In mountainous country the coyote habit of driving deer over a bluff is still reported.
No big-game animal stands a chance of survival when driven onto ice by predators.
The usual reports of this come to hand yearly. X 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
There is a commonly mistaken idea prevailing in the minds of many people that
deer are numerous because the narrow winter range contains an apparently large
population of these ruminants. When once dispersed over their summer range, the
population could be better described as normal in many places. Wells, Williams Lake,
and Clinton report a decrease. In the Kelowna district the deer got a protective break
due to mild, open weather. During the last week of the season more deer were killed
around Kelowna than during the previous open period.
The wintering-grounds of the mule-deer in the Kamloops area, especially north of
Kamloops, showed no decrease in population over the previous years. The mild weather
prevailing during the early part of the season afforded much needed protection,
considering the unusually large number of sportsmen in the field. North of Williams
Lake the deer were quite conspicuous adjacent to the highway, but were largely does
and fawns. Along the Chilco and Taseko Rivers deer were numerous. The average
snowfall on the Chilcotin Plateau up to February 8th, 1949, was 12 inches at the
4,000-foot level. An Indian report states that thirty deer were killed on the ice on
Tsuniah Lake, up to January 30th, 1949.   This report has not been confirmed.
Elk.—No report has been received of any notable increase in wapiti at the head
of Adams Lake. These animals seem to have scattered, partly due to predators. In
the Lucerne Lake and Red Pass areas numbers of wapiti have been killed by trains
on the Canadian National Railways' line. This matter was fully investigated and
recommendations were made to eliminate partly the possibility of destruction. The
recommendations were of a technical nature, mainly, and are still under consideration.
Fur-bearing Animals.
Beavers are reported everywhere on the increase. The high water of 1948 forced
many young beaver kits to seek drier levels. Low fur values did not encourage
trappers. As snow levels were high, the opportunity to trap was not the same as in
previous years.
The tagging-system for beavers, now inaugurated for the first time, and ready
for the 1949 open-season, will receive its crucial test. As this Division has kept beaver-
population records for a period of years for each trap-line, the task of scrutinizing
apparent irregularities will be greatly simplified. The new graph system now installed
at Kamloops, in which is shown the beaver-kill and potential for each trap-line, will
at once reveal the trapper's activity in relation to his catch, and manner of conducting
conservation measures on his trap-line. The graph form was very kindly drawn up by
Dr. Enid Charles, of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics at Ottawa, and it is expected that
this system will go far toward the creation of a more efficient system of beaver-recording. There are fundamental weaknesses in the present tagging-system in that trappers
are given whatever tags they require and that the regulation of same, democratic as
it may appear, might provide an opening for the poacher to obtain beaver-pelts elsewhere if he finds himself with more tags than he requires. Nevertheless, the inauguration of jthis system is a step in the right direction. It would be a distinctly decided
advantage if an official word of advice were given in the form of an appeal to all
trappers to conserve the basic fur-bearer of this Province. It will be done in this
Division before the season opens.
Upland Game Birds.
The pheasant population of the Central Interior, after the spring floods, suffered
rather severely. Widespread liberations by the Game Commission brought the pheasant
population back to near old-time levels, but the situation, after a careful survey, and
considering the greatly increased number of hunters in the field, did not warrant even
a part-time open season.   The general recommendations by the game associations of the REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME  COMMISSION, 1948. X 37
Interior for a closed season on pheasants were somewhat reluctantly adopted. This
course naturally disappointed many Coast sportsmen as they had made plans for their
annual trek to the Interior. The danger of a closed season on pheasants is the creation
of a hazard to crops. In some places, too many pheasants could hardly be called an
asset.
A general increase in grouse is reported from all Detachments and an open season
is therefore recommended in previously closed areas.
Migratory Game Birds.
A great many ducks and other migrators apparently failed to reach their spring
destination in time, due to the late spring and abnormal winter conditions. Many
species in the habit of going north nested in unfamiliar areas south of their usual
habitat. Geese, according to reports, showed a sharp decrease in numbers in the
Quesnel area. This upset in migration is something that should be considered when
census returns are scrutinized. There would, naturally, be a tendency to judge erroneously the over-all increase in some districts, especially in Southern British Columbia
where spring came late, as against the slow-going ice and snow conditions of the north.
The nesting season was on the whole a very good one, and a general increase in certain
species was reported.   Geese were an uncertain factor and difficult to judge.
Predatory Animals, etc.
This subject is by far the most contentious of all. There appears to be a decided
increase in coyotes and much damage to stock was reported. Deep snow in some places
drove both predator and game animal to lower levels. There seemed to be no shortage
of feed. During the open season the invasion of hunters left a residue of big game
lying everywhere.   This is something that cannot be avoided.
Bounty on sixty-two cougars and ninety coyotes was paid at Vernon. Several
packs of wolves are operating in the Quesnel district, but mostly in the remote areas.
The establishment of a permanent system of predator control becomes necessary
throughout this Division. We should either inaugurate a system starting with the
training of interested young men or hire men with an impressive background of
predator control and destruction. The latter are indeed hard to find, as experience
shows that some men are expert on certain phases of predator control and mediocre on
others. The planning of aerial reconnaissance to ascertain the travel pattern of wolves
operating in the Chilcotin may be given consideration in the near future. In open
country, such as the Chilcotins, and on large, frozen lakes the destruction of wolves
from the air may not be so impractical as would at first appear. The wolf situation in
Alexis Creek was of a milder type. In the Whitewater area, wolves and big game
remained on higher elevations, hence the absence of same in the Big Creek and Alexis
Creek districts.
The posting of two predatory-animal hunters from the Forest Service enabled us
to ascertain the accuracy of reports in many cases hastily made by outside hunters and
stock-growers that wolves were destroying game and cattle on a large scale. There is
no place for predators of any kind on the stock ranges of British Columbia, but in the
hinterland there are other angles to be considered. Hunting by humans during the
open season does not eliminate the unfit animal, but predation by and large is more
effective. The presence of predators keeps game animals alert and healthy. Otherwise
it would be impossible to keep them off the crops of the farmer. In the Clinton and
Kamloops districts the wolf situation is not as serious as reported. Wells Detachment
reports coyotes numerous at the beginning of winter and when snow got deep they
drifted to lower valleys of the Quesnel and Fraser Rivers. X 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Ten Wardens and three predatory-animal hunters destroyed the following predators
during 1948:—
Game Wardens: Dogs, 35; wolves, 9; coyotes, 210; bobcats, 11; wildcats, 4;
eagles, 17; hawks, 113; owls, 53; crows, 658; magpies, 205; ravens, 87;
cougars, 9; bears, 1; cats, 40.
Predatory-animal hunters: Dogs, 25; wolves, 30; coyotes, 117; eagles, 55;
hawks, 120; owls, 93; crows, 499; magpies, 376; ravens, 61; cougars,
18;  bears, 13;  cats, 77.
Game Protection.
Regular patrols were carried out during the year. Prosecutions totalled 269.
Provincial Police took five. There .were nine dismissals and thirteen suspended sentences. A report from Vernon Detachment draws attention to the inefficient use of
pneumatic-type bullets and the number of wounded deer escaping with superficial
wounds. The recommendation is made that the ordinary soft-nose, mushroom-type
of bullet only be allowed.
Game Propagation.
Only seven beavers, for liberation elsewhere, were taken from the Bowron Lake
Sanctuary.   High water hampered our efforts.
Game Reserves.
Smaller sanctuaries are the rule rather than the exception in this Division. It
admittedly would be difficult to create any large-scale sanctuaries now, except, perhaps,
in the north-eastern portion of " C " Division. The smaller sanctuaries serve a useful
purpose in that big game can be studied at leisure where nature is left free from the
hand of man. In the smaller sheep areas, which are too limited for open seasons, due
to stationary populations and lack of suitable surrounding habitat, the idea of creating
sanctuaries of these could well be considered. Some requests for open seasons on these
sheep have been made without proper study of their numbers and extent of area. It
would be folly, indeed, to grant such a request.
There is evident joy ahead for future generations if we preserve these areas for
future study and pleasure. We should consider to-day the youngsters of to-morrow.
It is not what we take to-day that counts so much as what we leave behind to live and
let live. We shall be thanked by future generations if we primarily consider this first
before submitting demands for open seasons on extremely limited herds of big game.
The areas open for consideration, as possible sanctuaries for mountain-sheep, are as
follows: Squilax, Squam Bay, and a portion or all of the wintering area in the Churn
Creek basins. The idea could well be considered in another Division to the south
where sheep populations remain stationary.
Bowron Lake has limited beaver colonies and even these areas are not always
occupied because of high water and lack of suitable feed. A biotic study of the Bowron
Lake area could well be started.
The small Kamloops water-fowl sanctuary serves a very useful purpose. It provides a very definite but limited field for local study and protection of water-fowl during
fall and winter. Additional beaver sanctuaries would be the investment deluxe for
British Columbia.
Fur Trade.
The bulk of fur is still forwarded to Coastal fur-buyers.
Registration of Trap-lines.
A great deal has been said in previous reports of suggested improvements.
Basically the system is sound. report of provincial game commission, 1948. x 39
Registration of Guides.
The system of individual recorded areas put into operation in this Division mainly
on the radius principle received its first try-out during 1948. A few guides disliked
the idea of restricted areas but the majority approved. Several guiding outfits recorded
areas for sheep over which they had conducted hunting-parties for years in addition
to individual areas for moose-hunting, etc. The main idea behind the radius system
with the lodge as the centre of the area was to provide each guide or guide operating
out of a ranch-house, lodge, or hunting-camp with an area over which they could
conduct hunting operations without too much interference.
Unfortunately, too many guides were operating on their own initiative and in
criss-cross fashion before the system of recorded areas was put into effect. This hurriedly arranged system met with the approval of 40 per cent, of the guides replying
to our questionnaire, while 60 per cent, of the total received so far favoured the idea
of a large block of territory over which guides could roam at will.
Additional replies may alter these percentages. There is a tendency to believe that
the 60 per cent, favouring the hunting in competition with others inside a large block
of territory are mainly those without large investments, whereas those favouring the
individual areas where they have cut trails, built cabins, and improved conditions
generally, prefer the individual hunting area with which they are so thoroughly
familiar. The final idea or plan in mind would be to create individual areas within
a group registration, or if they so preferred, to hunt at large within a group boundary
as previously explained.
What suits one group of guides in one district would be quite unsuitable to another
group in another area.
The radius principle of, say, 7 to 10 miles with the lodge as the centre of the
hunting territory or the small area of 50 to 100 square miles would not be suitable in
mountainous country where mountain-sheep range so far in small groups. Many nonresident hunters accustomed to having their favourite guides take them farther afield,
on impulse or by arrangement, did not agree with the system put into effect. The
principle of recorded areas developed as a result of demand by guides and observers in
the field.
There are a great many rough edges to smooth out, but I am firmly convinced that
with a reduction in the number of guides in the field, the way will be left open for
a better system of development once the suggested changes take place.
In my opinion, those lodges and camps which are exclusively engaged in the business and which have large investments, should be the first to receive consideration.
Lodges could increase or decrease the number of guides to be hired from year to year,
based mainly on sane regulations governing maximum kill and available big-game
populations. Within five years we should have a system of recorded areas on a scale
comparable to that of trap-line registration. The big-game kill taken within reasonable limits is a crop to be gathered like that of fur or any other commodity. We can
ruin it by overdoing or mortgaging its future far beyond its normal capacity.
Special Patrols.
A special patrol was conducted by Inspector Robertson and Registered Guide R. H.
Church, of Big Creek, into the Big Creek-Porcupine Creek headwaters and through
numerous meadows en route to the Coast Range. In two days ninety moose were
counted on the meadows alone and most of these were bulls of substantial size. About
80 per cent, to 90 per cent, of the huge meadows were overbrowsed and many of the
moose observed appeared to be feeding on slough-grass.
At the headwaters of Big Creek and where the valley narrows considerably, the
overbrowsing was not so apparent.    Five bighorns were observed at the 8,000-foot X 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
level and traces of eight other sheep were seen. One hundred and fifty miles were
covered by saddle-horse on this patrol. The making of this patrol was necessary and
was only carried out after considerable delay. It was pointed out by Mr. Church two
years ago that the sheep population would be in jeopardy if a large increase in hunters
were to take place. This warning touched off a further investigation and a count was
made (see Mountain-sheep) of their numbers in their wintering-grounds during the
tail-end of the hunting season. While the time for this survey was not ideal, a fairly
definite count of 253 animals was made, of which forty were bighorns. This count
was made by two officers of this Department.
A visit by Mr. Coldwell and Mr. Koster was made during the first part of February,
1949, but, owing to severe winter cold, it was impossible to cover the entire Churn
Creek basin system. H. W. Coldwell, registered guide, reported that only 1 foot of
snow covered the basins. The increased hunting-pressure and additional lodges under
construction require a restrictive quota, otherwise the mistake of Bridge Lake and
Horsefly areas where guides are far too numerous, may be repeated.
A patrol was made by Game Warden Hillen and Constable E. Sarsiat to investigate a drowning in the Kluskus Lake country. Indians of the Kluskus Lake Band
were also interviewed regarding trap-line matters.
Hunting Accidents.
Nelson Walton, of Port Alberni, was shot in the lower part of the right leg by
Robert Castle, of Vancouver, while both men were hunting in the vicinity of the Milk
Ranch, Clinton Detachment. This accident was reported at Cache Creek and Mr.
Walton was driven on to Ashcroft Hospital.    This took place on November 4th, 1948.
On June 9th, 1948, Robert John Stinson Fraser, Canford, was accidentally killed
when his rifle discharged in his face. He went out with the intention of going over
the irrigation system on the Fraser Ranch and also of shooting any groundhogs which
he might run across en route. It is possible he tripped over a root and dropped the
gun, which discharged. The body was found about 8 a.m. on the morning of June
10th, 1948.
Summary and General Remarks.
The year just ended has been a remarkable one in that it was abnormal in many
respects. The destructive floods of 1948 will long be remembered. Disease among
big-game animals was reported, and in places heavy tick infestations were manifest.
These factors were responsible for destruction of many moose and other animals
including live stock on many cattle ranges. The long severe winter, one of a series,
now apparently reaching a peak, had an unfavourable effect on game of all kinds.
Water-fowl nested far to the south of their usual habitat due to the prolonged cold
spell in the more northerly regions.
Guides reported moose increasingly hard to find, and non-resident hunters did
not like paying for the extra delay in obtaining their trophies, apart from the increase
in the trophy fee on moose south of the 56th parallel of north latitude. The general
picture was not by any means a bright one and only lent force to the suggestion that
we should pause to consider the direction along which we should proceed.
The completion of the three-year survey on moose by James Hatter should be of
interest. The caribou herds require specialized study, and what effect, if any, the
intrusion of moose is likely to have on future movements of caribou.
Closer surveys of actual numbers of big game are important. This applies to
mountain-sheep, particularly in areas where hunting lodges are increasing in numbers.
I should like at this time to express my sincere appreciation for assistance rendered by the Forest Service under Colonel Parlow during the year. It was indeed a
great pleasure to work with the employees of this Service and a great deal of very
valuable advice and help was rendered. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME  COMMISSION, 1948. X  41
To the Provincial Police under Inspector Mansell and the Public Works Department under Harry Pope, also to the Water Rights Branch with Arthur Hatton in charge,
I would like to extend my thanks at this time, for the splendid co-operation rendered,
which is gratefully acknowledged.
Report of C. H. Robinson, Fishery Supervisor, covering
Sport Fisheries in " C " Game Division.
I beg to submit herewith report covering a review of sport fisheries, etc., of " C "
Game Division for the year ended 1948.
The late, cold spring, followed by prolonged heavy freshets, floods, and inclement
weather, curtailed auto travel and angling throughout the Interior. The lull was a
welcome change and assisted conservation.
The recurrence of intermittent floods at the two major ova-collecting stations for
Lloyd's Creek and Penask Lake Hatcheries was disastrous, particularly when there is
such urgent need for yearly replenishments of water so extensively fished by the ever-
increasing numbers of resident and non-resident anglers.
Combined with the reconstruction of the Cariboo Highway and with restricted
supplies of trout eggs to meet all demands, the two factors amply demonstrate the
necessity for the construction of a fully modern trout hatchery at a suitable location
in the Cariboo district. Otherwise it is doubtful if some of the already depleted waters
can be restored sufficiently to withstand the angling pressure foreseen after the
completion of the highway.
Generally speaking, the extreme high water-levels of the various lakes were
beneficial toward angling and food conditions.
Kelowna District Waters.
Okanagan Lake (North End).-—Fly-fishing and trolling for Kamloops trout showed
some improvement, varying toward 25 lb. Some excellent specimens of trout were
caught during the winter months; approximately 90 per cent, had consumed kokanee.
Moreover, a week-end angling competition sponsored by the organized anglers during
the month of August indicated a fair population of trout.
Probably the liberations of trout fingerlings raised in the Kelowna Rearing-ponds
contributed toward the improvement, and with an augmented supply from the Summer-
land Hatchery next spring, further fruitful results can be expected.
Beaver Lake.—Supplied the usual average good fly-fishing and trolling for Kamloops trout varying to 4 lb. throughout the season. In comparison to previous seasons,
the numbers of trout taken were less, due probably to poor weather conditions.
An approximate creel census kindly undertaken by the proprietor of Beaver Lake
Lodge, indicates a fairly consistent supply of rainbow trout the past three seasons—
1946, 15,000 from one-half to 3% lb.; 1947, 15,000 from one-half to 3y2 lb.; 1948, 8,000
from one-half to 4 lb.
So far the raising of the water-levels of Beaver Lake an additional 5 feet for
irrigation and domestic purposes has proven beneficial toward producing larger and
better-conditioned fish.
Dee Lake Chain.—Comprising a series of rather small lakes, provided the average
fair fly-fishing and trolling for Kamloops trout varying to 9 lb. The lakes have yielded
fairly consistent supplies of trout as indicated by an approximate creel census kindly
taken by the proprietor of the Dee Lake Fishing Resort the past three seasons—1946,
8,583 trout, approximate weight, 12,874 lb.; 1947, 9,930 trout from one-half to 9 lb.;
1948, 9,645 trout from one-half to 10y2 lb.
Oyama Lake.—Continued to supply good fly-fishing and trolling for Kamloops trout
varying to 15 lb. for the resident and non-resident anglers. The lake is reached by
trail, six miles, which assists conservation. X 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Caribou and Pear Lakes.—Provided fair angling for Eastern Brook trout varying
to 3 lb. The small common suckers which inhabit the lakes are a source of food for
the trout.
Woods Lake.—Yielded excellent catches of kokanee (silvers or sockeye) mostly
taken on baited multiple-lures. The fish varied from 1% to 2% lb., slightly smaller in
comparison to the season 1947. A partial creel census instituted indicated that at least
eighteen kokanee were taken to one Kamloops trout. However, it is possible the
liberation of Kamloops-trout fingerlings in the lake has benefited Kalamalka Lake.
Bear Lake.—This somewhat small lake of about 60 acres provided fair fly-fishing
and trolling for Kamloops trout up to 3 lb. The extension of the logging-road, now
within a short distance of the lake, may now necessitate artificial restocking.
Vernon District Waters.
Reports indicate that most important waters produced average catches of trout, an
improvement compared to season 1947.
Kalamalka (Long) Lake.—This quite important lake supplied fair fly-fishing and
trolling for Kamloops trout, mostly under 5 lb., with an occasional fish to 15 lb. The
reported improved catches during the season are probably attributable to the liberation
of trout fingerling raised in the Kelowna Rearing-ponds. The proposed and continued
reducing of the numbers of undesirable coarse or rough fish that frequent Woods and
Kalamalka Lakes will conserve and improve the trout food-supplies, etc.
Swan Lake.—During the spring and fall this productive lake yielded excellent
catches of Kamloops trout varying to 10 lb., mostly for the residents of Vernon. The
commenced yearly plantings of fry and the protection of the parent trout when spawning in the proposed closed portion of the lower reaches of B.X. Creek should bring
fruitful results.
Sugar Lake.—Throughout the season, average catches of Kamloops trout were
taken by fly and troll, mostly under 3 lb., with larger Dolly Varden trout.
The water storage and raising of the levels of the lake over some 2,000 acres of
timbered land for hydro-electric power during the winter months have increased surface
and bottom feed for the trout. However, the floating debris from the water-killed
brush and timber is a detriment to angling privileges previously enjoyed by the public.
Echo Lake (Creighton Valley).—During the early part of the season this lake did
not yield the expected catches of Kamloops trout varying to 15 lb., but toward the fall
there was an improvement in the catches, mostly taken on the troll.
The proposed creation of artificial spawning-grounds in this landlocked lake, in an
attempt to assist the parent trout to deposit their eggs and to improve the condition
of the fish, is receiving further attention, with the co-operation of the local organized
anglers.
Aberdeen and Haddo Lakes.—The extreme wet weather and poor condition of the
secondary road leading to the Aberdeen Lake region curtailed angling in the several
lakes well stocked with rather small rainbow trout.
The drawoff of water for irrigation from Haddo Lake caused a large number of
trout to leave the lake and congregate below the outlet storage dam, some of which were
salvaged and transferred by the organized sportsmen to Kalamalka and Edwin Lakes.
Should the proposed relocation and construction of the secondary road materialize
to the Aberdeen region for water storage and recreational purposes, a series of lakes
will be accessible for the interested angler and would relieve the fishing pressure on
local waters.
Salmon Arm District Waters.
The usual programme of fry and eyed-egg planting was cancelled owing to flood
damage at the source of supply. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948. X 43
Mabel Lake.—A popular summer resort, supplied fair fly-fishing and trolling for
Kamloops trout mostly under 10 lb., including Dolly Varden and lake trout of larger
size. Exceptionally good fishing was enjoyed the season of 1947, when possibly the
salmon runs assisted with the improvement.
Mara Lake.—In the early part of the season, good fly-fishing was available at the
mouth of Shuswap River followed by fairly good trolling for Kamloops trout varying
to 10 lb.
Gardom (Loon) Lake.—The four experimental plantings of Eastern Brook-trout
fry from the Nelson Hatchery, commencing in 1943 in this landlocked lake, appear
successful, with good specimens taken by troll up to 5 lb.
Shuswap Lake.—The late, cold spring affected fishing generally, but later there
was an improvement in the vicinity of Salmon Arm and Sicamous where fair catches
of Kamloops trout were taken by fly and troll, mostly under 10 lb.
Little River.—Later in the season, average catches of rainbow trout were taken
on the fly. However, it is very doubtful if the supplies of trout can be maintained to
satisfy the patrons at the numerous summer and fishing resorts, and by auto travel,
unless additional restrictions are placed on the daily catches, number in possession,
and a weekly take-limit.
Pillar Lake.—Throughout the season this lake yielded fairly consistent catches of
Kamloops trout by fly and troll mostly under 10 lb. and in excellent condition.
The construction of an earth control dam on the outlet of Pillar Lake by the
Prairie Farms Rehabilitation Administration department in conjunction with the
Veterans' Land Act to store 2V2 feet of water and to draw off 5 feet of water caused
some concern, but with the necessary provisions made to care for the trout, it is
possible the flooded area will assist the food supplies that may be affected by the
lowering of the natural levels of the lake 2% feet.
Spa, Arthur, and Bolean Lakes.—Since the private logging-road was constructed,
angling has increased, and it may be necessary to restock Spa and Arthur Lakes.
Kamloops District Waters.
Inclement weather aided conservation during the first part of the season with fewer
people fishing.
Paul and Pinantan Lakes.—Continued to yield fair catches of Kamloops trout,
mostly under 4 lb., by fly and troll, for the increasing number of anglers. Reports
indicate that the larger trout are now consuming the dace shiner, which, unfortunately,
entered Pinantan Lake several years ago from waters planted unofficially with dace.
La Jeune Lake.—This general utility lake supplied good fly-fishing and trolling for
Kamloops trout varying to 3y2 lb. With carefully gauged plantings of fry, the trout
have increased in size.
Tunkwa and Leighton Lakes.—Reports indicated that these productive lakes failed
to yield the catches of Kamloops trout as enjoyed in the past. It was suspected that
winter-kill was the cause of depletion, although a few trout were observed and caught
after an investigation to be completed next spring.
Knouff Lake.—Continued to produce fair catches of Kamloops trout in good condition, by fly and troll, mostly under 5 lb. High water restricted ova collections at the
inlet and outlet creeks.
Barriere Lakes, North and East.—Supplied fair fly-fishing and trolling for Kamloops trout, mostly under 7 lb. Water is stored in both lakes for hydro-electric power
development for the City of Kamloops.
Surrey and Sussex Lakes.—Continued to provide fair fly-fishing and trolling for
Kamloops trout varying to 10 lb. The supply has been maintained principally from
natural spawning. It is necessary to walk 4 miles to reach Surrey Lake, which tends
to conserve the supply of trout. X 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Peterhope Lake.—One of the outstanding fishing-lakes of the district; supplied
fair fly-fishing and trolling for Kamloops trout during the spring and fall, varying
mostly under 5 lb. The lake is heavily fished by resident and non-resident anglers,
being accessible by auto travel.
Merritt District Waters.
As only a small percentage of Kamloops-trout eggs were collected at Penask Lake,
it became necessary to defer most of the proposed fry and eyed-egg plantings.
Nicola Lake.—Located adjacent to the Merritt-Kamloops Highway. Provided
some fly-fishing and fairly good trolling for Kamloops trout, mostly under 5 lb. Also
some kokanee are taken on baited lures. The lake is subject to wind-storms which
curtail fishing.
Glimpse Lake.—This productive lake does not supply such large Kamloops trout as
in former years although fly-fishing and trolling remained good for trout, mostly under
5 lb.
Mamit Lake.—Supplied fair catches of Kamloops trout, mostly by troll during the
spring, varying to 3 lb. Floating algas and other marginal matter with sluggish water
conditions restrict angling later in the season, also the trout are not very palatable for
domestic use.
Davis, Boss, and Trout Lakes.—Provided fair fly-fishing and trolling for Kamloops
trout up to 3 lb. The lakes are accessible to auto travel, and with limited spawning-
areas, restocking is necessary.
Murray Lake.—Provided some fair fly-fishing and trolling for Kamloops trout up
to 15 lb. The lake is reached by an easy grade trail 3 miles from the Canadian Pacific
Railway's track.
Andy or Brookes Lakes.—The Kamloops remain plentiful and more fishing in the
upper lake would improve the condition of the trout.
Coquihalla Lakes.—Average catches of Kamloops trout were taken on fly and troll,
varying to 2 lb.
Lillooet District Waters.
Extreme high water in most lakes and travelling conditions reduced angling the
early part of the season. No plantings of eyed eggs and fry were effected in waters
of the district.
Pavilion Lake.—Surrounded with ideal scenic conditions, provided some fly-fishing
and good trolling for Kamloops trout varying to 15 lb. The water-levels of the lake
remained exceptionally high throughout the season due to storage and controlled flow
at the outlet dam. The new concrete and earth dam used for water storage and
irrigation was equipped with panel lumber screens to prevent the parent spawning-
trout entering the outlet creek to become stranded and molested.
Crown and Turquoise Lakes.—Remained very high throughout the season, although
fair catches of Kamloops were taken by fly and troll, mostly under 2 lb.
Kwotlenemo (Fountain) Lake.—Was well patronized by non-resident anglers, and
good catches of Kamloops trout were taken by fly and troll, up to 3 lb. With good
spawning-grounds natural reproduction has provided a reasonable supply of trout.
Seton Lake.—Supplied good trolling throughout the season for Kamloops trout up
to 20 lb. and Dolly Varden up to 22 lb. The lake is noted for salmon runs but with
the increased amount of angling, it now appears advisable to stock the lake.
Alta Lake.—Supplied ,fairly good fly-fishing and trolling for a large number of
anglers for Kamloops trout up to 2 lb.; also, kokanee (redfish) are taken on baited
lures, etc.
Clinton District Waters.
Unsettled weather and condition of secondary roads restricted angling and tended
to conserve the supply of trout. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME  COMMISSION, 1948. X 45
Kelly Lake.—Accessible to auto travel, supplied average fly-fishing and trolling
for Kamloops trout varying to 6 lb.
Canim Lake.—From reports, apparently, this large lake did not yield the desired
catches,of Kamloops trout. With the increase of resident and non-resident anglers
and summer camps and fishing resorts, yearly replenishment is necessary; also, the
effectiveness of eyed-egg plantings should receive attention.
Watch Lake.—Angling and trolling for Kamloops trout, mostly under 5 lb., was
far below the average. Weather conditions possibly made some difference but with
the continual use of some thirty-two boats on the lake from four-fishing and hunting
lodges, increased plantings of eyed eggs are essential.
Bridge Lake.—Provided fair catches of Kamloops trout, mostly under 5 lb., with
lake trout up to 25 lb., mostly taken on lures. There seems to be some doubt as to the
success of eyed-egg plantings due to the presence of predatory fish over the planting
areas when the fry emerge from the gravel, which is receiving further attention.
Crystal Lake adjacent supplied fair fishing for the numerous anglers.
Eagen Lake.—Almost impassable roads leading to the lake during the spring and
early summer reduced angling to the minimum. Later, average catches of Kamloops
trout were taken by troll, varying to 7 lb. Natural reproduction has so far maintained
the supply of trout. ;
Machete Lake.—Road conditions did not induce many anglers to fish the lake the
early part of the season when the trout are fairly plentiful, varying to 3 lb. in weight.
Due attention was given to the outlet storage dam to permit the return of a quite large
number of trout to the lake.
Horse Lake.—Did not produce the desired number of Kamloops trout of 5 lb. and
under. With the establishment of several hunting and fishing lodges around the lake
there is a heavy drain on the trout supplies, thus making it essential to restock yearly.
Williams Lake District Waters.
During the spring and summer the secondary roads leading to the various lakes
were almost impassable, which reduced angling and aided conservation.
Dempsey Lake.—Provided fair trolling for Kamloops trout up to 3 lb. A partial
investigation was made with regard to the parent trout spawning in the outlet creek
and their return to the lake.
Timothy Lake.—Continued to yield fairly good catches of Kamloops trout taken
by fly and troll, mostly under 3 lb. Natural reproduction in the inlet creek has so far
maintained the supply of trout, but, with the increase of camping facilities and
tourists, replenishment may become necessary.
Spout Lake.—The condition of the road leading to the lake prevented angling until
the early fall when good catches of Kamloops trout were taken by troll, mostly under
5 1b.
The improvements undertaken by the proprietor of the hunting and fishing lodge
to ensure a steady water-flow in the outlet creek during the early fall to enable the
fingerlings from natural spawning to return to the lake gave gratifying results.
Lac la Hache.—Located adjacent to the Cariboo Highway supplied a limited number of Kamloops trout mostly under 3 lb., with the usual catches of Dolly Varden and
lake trout varying to 20 lb. Apparently the kokanee surpass the other species of trout
and furnish fairly consistent angling throughout the season; average weight is one-
half lb., for the numerous patrons of four camps adjacent to the lake.
Rose Lake.—This quite important lake failed to supply the number of trout varying to 7 lb. as in former years. With restricted suitable spawning-areas and possible
loss of parent trout, restocking is essential, with specially prepared planting-beds in
the inlet creek if eyed eggs are used. X 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Williams Lake.—Supplied fair trolling for Kamloops trout during the spring and
fall, varying to 3 lb. The lake is quite important from a recreational standpoint for
the local residents, and with limited spawning-facilities and possible molestation of the
parent trout, yearly restocking is imperative.
Quesnel District Waters.
Bouchie (Six Mile) Lake.—Kamloops trout continue to be plentiful in this lake
with limit catches taken by fly and troll averaging 1 lb. During the extreme hot
weather the trout lose their firm condition.
Milburn (Nine Mile) Lake.—Provided fairly good fly-fishing and trolling for
Kamloops trout, mostly less than 5 lb., for the residents of Quesnel.
Puntchesakut Lake.—Supplied good fly-fishing and trolling for Kamloops trout,
varying to 4 lb.   Suitable accommodation and boats are available.
Puntataenkut (Tibbies) Lake.—Trolling for Kamloops trout remained fairly good
throughout the season with excellent fly-fishing during the fall, trout vary to 3 lb.
in weight.
Tzenzaicut (Fish) Lake.—Is reached by trail 15 miles from secondary road. The
Kamloops trout are plentiful up to 4 lb. and supply good fly-fishing and some trolling
throughout the season.
Genevieve, Anderson, Fish, and other Small Lakes.—Are reached by trail and
saddle-horse, where good fly-fishing is available for Kamloops trout varying to 4 lb.
Wells District Waters.
Bowron Lake.—The Kamloops and Dolly Varden trout continued to be fairly plentiful, varying to 9 lb. and taken by fly and troll. Kokanee are plentiful, with excellent
runs during the month of June.
Swan Lake.—Provided fair fishing for rainbow and Dolly Varden trout throughout the season, varying to 9 lb.
Isaac Lake.—Supplied good fishing for Kamloops and Dolly Varden trout up to
16 lb.    The kokanee are plentiful, with exceptionally good runs toward the late fall.
Spectacle, Indian Point, and Kruger Lakes.—Supplied good fishing for Kamloops
and Dolly Varden trout during the season, varying to 10 lb.
Summary of Hatchery Operations, 1948.
Beaver Lake Hatchery (Seasonal Operations).—Kamloops (rainbow) collected
from:—
Buckhorn (Echo) Creek  2,012,500
Coldwater Creek _      424,000
Crooked Lake outlet       140,000
Oyama Lake outlet     512,500
Alex Mountain      212,000
Total collection  3,389,000
In comparison to season 1947:—
Buckhorn (Echo) Creek  2,194,000
Coldwater   Creek      238,000
Crooked Lake outlet       108,000
Oyama Lake outlet      470,000
Alex Mountain  J.     291,000
Total collection  3,301,500 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948. X 47
Lloyds Creek Hatchery  (Seasonal  Operations).—Kamloops-trout  eggs collected
from:—
Paul Lake      352,500
Pinantan Lake        72,500
Knouff Lake        75,000
Total collection     500,000
Eyed eggs received from Beaver Lake Hatchery      710,200
Distributed to four hatcheries and one planting-... 1,210,200
In comparison to season 1947 collections:—■
Paul Lake   1,350,000
Pinantan Lake      220,000
Knouff Lake       805,000
Total collection  2,375,000
Eyed eggs received:—
Penask Hatchery     1,000,000
Beaver Lake Hatchery       700,000
Total eggs  4,075,000
Penask Lake Hatchery (Seasonal Operations).—Three hundred and twenty thousand Kamloops (rainbow) trout eggs were collected from Penask Creek.   Resultant eyed
eggs were shipped to Cultus and Nelson Hatcheries and one lake planted.
In comparison to season 1947:—
Penask Creek   3,280,000
Spohomin Creek      220,000
Total collection of eggs   3,500,000
Kokanee (Redfish Silver Trout).—Primarily serve as a forage fish, and in an effort
to restore the runs affected by irrigation, etc., the following waters were planted with
eyed eggs from the Nelson Hatchery:—
Okanagan Lake, Deep Creek     50,000
Trepanier Creek      50,000
Mission Creek   100,000
Mill Creek      25,000
Shuswap Lake, Palmer Creek  100,000
Barriere Lake (East)   100,000
Barriere Lake (North)   100,000
Canim Lake, Bridge Creek  100,000
Lac la Hache, Forbes Creek  100,000
Total eyed eggs  725,000
Summary of Rearing-ponds.
Kelowna Semi-natural Rearing-ponds.—The Departmental ponds were operated
fairly successfully with practically no expense except the enlargement of No. 3 pond,
the costs of which will be amply repaid over a period of years. Generally, the mortality of fry and fingerlings in ponds of this kind is higher than in artificially controlled
ponds, which to some extent is counterbalanced by costs of operation. X 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Allotted to ponds in 1947 season:   Eyed eggs, 450,000;   fry, 95,000.    Resultant
Kamloops-trout fingerlings raised and liberated in April, 1948:—
Fingerlings. Weight Count.
Okanagan Lake   10,420 300 to lib.
Woods Lake   12,400 200 to 1 lb.
Kalamalka Lake      4,200 200 to 1 lb.
Skaha Lake    4,000 125 to 1 lb.
Total distributions    31,020
Kamloops-trout fry liberated in ponds in July, 1948, for subsequent release as
fingerlings in April, 1949:— Fry.
Pot Hole A  100,000
Pond No. 2  100,000
Pond No. 3  242,200
Total   442,200
Vernon Semi-natural Rearing-pond.—April 2nd, 1948. By a joint arrangement
with the Vernon City Council and Rotarians, the organized sportsmen of Vernon took
over the partly completed pond situated in the Rotary Park of the approximate dimensions: Width from 60 to 80 feet; length, 330 feet; depth of inlet 3 feet, outlet 4 feet.
Water-supply fed by seepage and springs and by flume from No. 2 feed-pond. Water
temperatures, June 26th, 1948, at 5 p.m., 62°, outlet 63°, abundant supply. Water-
levels controlled by a double-screened concrete dam with draining and counting sump,
etc. Approximate dimensions of No. 1 feed-pond: 40 by 330 feet; No. 2 pond, 60 by
330 feet.
Experimental allotment of 60,000 Kamloops-trout fry from Beaver Lake Hatchery
released in pond, July, 1948, for subsequent release as fingerlings in May, 1949.
Salvage and Transfer of Trout.
Pavilion Lake.—October 19th, 120 stranded Kamloops trout from 6 to 30 inches
in length weighing from 4 oz. to 5 lb. were salvaged from the outlet creek below the
dam and returned to the lake in good condition.
Edwin and Kalamalka Lakes.—During the month of August the organized sportsmen of Vernon, under special permission, salvaged approximately 1,000 stranded
rainbow trout fingerlings and parent fish from 4 to 12 inches in length from the outlet
creek and below the dam at Haddo Lake. Eight hundred were transferred and liberated
in Edwin Lake (barren of fish-life), four miles below Haddo Lake, and 200 transferred
and liberated in Kalamalka Lake.
Nicklin Lake.—The interested residents salvaged approximately 5,000 stranded
rainbow-trout fingerlings and parent fish from Nicklin Creek below the dam and
returned them to the lake.
Destruction of Coarse Fish.
Prolonged high water and flood conditions made it necessary to cancel almost all
operations to reduce the numbers of undesirable fish throughout the district, except
those referred to.
Okanagan Lake.—Otter Creek Trap. During the early part of the run a limited
number of carp were removed from the trap by the Indians, then extreme heavy freshets
with floating debris compelled partial removal of the interception equipment.
Woods and Kalamalka Lakes.—Unusual water-levels in the connecting channel
prevented the use of temporary portable trap similarly as during the season of 1947
when the following fish were taken:   Carp, 10,850 lb.;   squawfish, 250 lb.;   suckers, REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948. X 49
900 lb.;  total, 12,000 lb.   Also, approximately 10,000 lb. of carp, squawfish, and suckers
were taken in the Woods Creek Trap and by other methods.
Thompson River (West of Kamloops).—Reports indicated that hundreds of thousands of carp were naturally trapped and perished in a fluctuating water area adjacent
to the river. Also it is expected that during the season of 1949 greater numbers of
carp will be destroyed at a different location but under similar conditions.
Fish Barriers and Screens.
For conservation measures, screens, panel fences, and barriers were used effectively
with new and changed screens at the inlet and outlet of Pillar Lake, outlet of Pavilion
Lake, and barrier on B.X. Creek.
Beaver Lake.—Has three-way lumber panel screens at the concrete controlled outlet, and portable panel screens at the earth spillway to prevent the loss of parent trout,
when necessary.
Oyama Lake Outlet.—Screened to prevent the loss of spawning trout.
Coldstream Creek.—Fish barrier situated about 2% miles upstream to prevent
spawning trout, etc., from entering irrigation systems. (Barrier needs partial replacement next spring.)
B.X. Creek, Swan Lake.—To check the upstream movement of spawning trout
beyond a certain point a barrier was constructed, but owing to flash-flood waters the
structure was washed out. With the co-operation of the organized sportsmen of Vernon,
the barrier will be replaced.
Paul Lake. — The controlled outlet for irrigation has a four-way %-inch-mesh
metal screen. Also the inlet creek has a fine mesh screening arrangement in an attempt
to prevent dace shiners from entering the lake.
Knouff Lake Outlet.—Lumber picket fence to prevent the loss of spawning trout.
Monte Lake.—At present time no barrier exists on the inlet creek nor at the outlet
creek to prevent losses of parent trout and their progeny (to be investigated).
Obstructions.
Pillar Lake.—The new earth dam. and concrete outlet with a 24-inch diameter
concrete pipe is equipped with ^-inch-mesh metal screens, sides 3 feet 2 inches by
5 feet 3 inches by 8 inches, together with suitable lumber barrier in the water-supply
channel connected to Chase Creek to prevent the losses of parent trout, etc.
Pavilion Lake Outlet.—The reconstructed earth dam with control gate and 24-inch
outlet concrete pipe is effectively screened with lumber panels and trash rack, 4 feet by
4 feet 6 inches in each case, openings spaced apart three-quarters of an inch, etc.
Bridge Creek and Horse Lake Falls.—This natural barrier is located near the
100-Mile House, Cariboo Highway. The feasibility of constructing a fishway at the
falls to permit the up-stream migration of trout, as recommended by the organized
sportsmen, is receiving further attention.
Investigations, 1948.
In addition to ordinary routine matters, the following investigations were carried
out:—
April 2nd.—The improvement and operation of a semi-natural rearing-pond in the
Rotary Park, Vernon. By the organized sportsmen, satisfactory arrangements made
with the Rotarians and City Council.
April 2nd.—For conservation, the construction of a fish barrier on B.X. Creek
flowing into Swan Lake. Action taken with the co-operation of organized sportsmen,
Vernon.
June 28th.—Possible collection of 1,000,000 rainbow-trout eggs at Ideal Lake
(Belgo Dam).   Held in abeyance. X 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
August 6th.—Suggested creation of artificial spawning-beds in Echo Lake, Creigh-
ton Valley, to accommodate the parent Kamloops trout.   To receive further attention.
August 8th.—For conservation, to salvage and transfer stranded trout below dam
at outlet of Haddo Lake.   Action taken by the organized sportsmen, Vernon.
August 12th, Pillar Lake.—Water storage, dam, screens, diversion channel, and
barrier.   Satisfactory arrangements made.
August ISth, Pavilion Lake.-—For conservation, panel screens in water-storage
dam on the outlet of lake.   Work completed.
August 14th, Watch Lake.—For conservation, installing, and operating panel
screens in outlet creek.   Attended to.
August 14th, Little Horse Lake.—Considered unsuitable for trout.   Concluded.
August 16th, Eagan Lake.—The possible establishment of a semi-private hatchery
to assist with the replenishment of lakes in that vicinity with trout. Additional data
required.
August 17th, Sharpe Lake.—The potential spawning-runs of Kamloops trout in the
inlet and outlet creeks.   For further investigation next spring.
August 17th, Machete Lake.—Water storage, dam, and fishway. Temporary action
taken to allow trout to return to lake.
August 18th, Halfmoon Lake.—Suggested dam to conserve trout in connecting
creek of Crystal Lake.   Receiving attention.
August 18th, Bridge Lake.—Future planting of trout eyed eggs, re predatory fish
and planting areas.   To receive further attention.
August 19th, Bridge Creek.—Possible construction of a fishway at Horse Lake
Falls to permit up-stream migration of Kamloops trout. Additional data required next
spring.
August 19th, Spout Lake.—The construction of an earth dam on the outlet creek
of lake, for conservation measures.   Receiving attention.
August 20th, Dempsey Lake and 111-Mile Creek.—Feasibility of equipping two
diversion dams with fishways and storage-dam outlet of lake. Necessary to ascertain
spawning-habits of trout next spring.
August 21st, Lac la Hache.—Kokanee-fishing and future supplies, etc.
August 22nd, Canim Lake.—Additional plantings of kokanee eggs and trout-fishing
generally.
October 20th, 21st.—Kokanee spawning-runs north end of Okanagan Lake completed.
November 20th, Bear Creek, Kelowna, and Rose Valley.—Irrigation project to be
completed next spring.
November 21st, Swan Lake and B.X. Creek.—Proposed closures and creek channel
improvements partially attended to.
Diseases.
Reports and observations indicated no serious losses of trout except suspected
winter-kill at Tunkwa-Leighton Lakes.
In order to pursue an efficient programme of replenishment and to maintain the
trout population in large lakes inhabited with predatory fish, etc., the raising of
fingerlings is strongly recommended. Otherwise it is very doubtful if the planting of
eyed eggs and fry will suffice to meet with the terrific increasing angling-pressure.
The interest and kind co-operation received from the organized and individual
sportsmen, Fishery Officers, and Game Wardens is herewith gratefully acknowledged. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME  COMMISSION, 1948. X  51
"D" DIVISION  (ATLIN, SKEENA, OMINECA, PRINCE RUPERT, FORT
GEORGE, PEACE RIVER, AND YUKON BOUNDARY DISTRICTS).
By W. A. H. Gill, Officer Commanding.
Big-game Animals.
Moose.—There was a great increase in the number of non-resident hunters in this
area. A great deal of this was due to the mild weather which did not bring the moose
into the Cariboo as early as usual, and therefore the hunters moved north.
There is a decrease in the moose population in this whole Division. This may be
due to the southward migration. No doubt the increase in the wolf population and the
tapeworm and wood-tick menace also are heavy contributors. This decrease in population is especially noticeable around the Ootsa and Burns Lake area where they were
too plentiful last year. It is reported that moose are moving westward around Terrace
and towards Prince Rupert.   However, this is not to any great extent.
Deer.—Deer are very scarce throughout most of this Division, except around
Prince Rupert where they are slowly increasing. On the Queen Charlotte Islands
where the season is open the whole year they are still plentiful, although they have
been heavily hunted and still are suffering from disease. A slight increase in the deer
population is reported in the Cassiar district. This is believed due to the decrease in
the number of moose as this same situation is reported in different areas. There is
also reported an increase of deer in the Pouce Coupe Detachment area.
Caribou.—Caribou in the Tweedsmuir Park area are reported to be holding their
own, but do not seem to be increasing as they should. This is reported to be due to the
heavy toll taken by wolves as the number taken by hunters during the last ten years
is insignificant.   A herd of 150 is reported as ranging in the Germansen Lake area.
Only six caribou have been reported seen by hunters and guides in the Smithers
area. A very slight increase has been reported in the Sheep Creek area near McBride.
From reports received, it would appear that in the overall picture as far as caribou are
concerned, the wolf is the greatest menace, not the hunters, as there are very few of
these animals taken by hunters.
I would strongly recommend that the numbers of these animals be checked during
the month of February, when they can be easily observed by aircraft, as they are
found on the open hills at this time of year.
Sheep.—They are reported to be decreasing in the Cassiar district only. Throughout the remainder of the Division they are reported to be holding their own.
Elk.—These animals are reported increasing on the Queen Charlotte Islands group.
Wardens have been asked to make full inquiries into the elk situation, and as soon as
this information is received, a separate report will be submitted regarding their
findings.
Mountain-goat.—These animals seem to be fairly plentiful throughout the whole
Division. The Guides' Association at Fort St. John recently voted in favour of only
one goat being allowed each hunter in that area as they feel these animals are not as
plentiful as they should be.
Grizzly Bear.—These animals appear to be holding their own; there are not a
great number taken by sportsmen.
Black and Brown Bear.—These are very plentiful through the whole of the Division
in spite of the year-round open season.
FUR-BEARING ANIMALS.
Marten.—These fur-bearers are reported to be very scarce in the Lower Post,
Atlin, Telegraph Creek, Prince George, and Pouce Coupe areas, but are reported
plentiful at Smithers, Burns Lake, and Fort Nelson areas. This, I feel, is due to the
unusual winter, as these animals are believed to have moved from their usual haunts. X 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Beaver.—These are reported as showing a large increase and are now found in a
great number of areas where they have not been observed for a great many years.
While flying over the northern part of the Province, it is nearly impossible to find
a stream or lake where beaver are not present. This, no doubt, is due to the trappers
who are now realizing it is profitable to conserve these animals.
Fox.—Fox are believed to be on a slight increase, but to no great extent. As the
pelts of these animals are nearly valueless, trappers are not taking them in any great
numbers.
Mink.—Mink are reported very plentiful in the Prince Rupert and Vanderhoof
areas.   In the remainder of the Division there is no change.
Fisher.—Fisher are definitely on the increase in the southern portion of this
Division.
All other fur-bearers are reported to be holding their own.
Upland Game Birds.
Pheasants.—This fall, forty-eight pheasants were released at Vanderhoof. Farmers in the area are very interested in these birds and are co-operating fully by assisting
in feeding them during this winter, which has been exceptionally severe. The whereabouts of eight of these birds is known, and they appear to be in good condition.
Coyotes are believed to have destroyed a large number of the pheasants as the birds
seemed to have no fear of dogs. Four are known to have been killed by farmers' dogs.
If any of these birds survive, there is every reason to believe they will increase, as this
has been the severest winter in a great many years—both for cold and crusted snow—in
the Vanderhoof area. They are reported to be surviving at Fort St. John and Dawson
Creek this winter.
Grouse.—These birds are on the increase in all Detachments except Lower Post
and Prince Rupert.
Migratory Game Birds.
There is a noticeable increase of geese over past years, and in most areas where the
ducks stop en route south, an increase is reported over the past three years.
Vermin.
Timber-wolves.—Timber-wolves are reported on the increase in Fort Nelson, Fort
St. John, Pouce Coupe, Fort George, Burns Lake, Vanderhoof, McBride, and Bella Coola
areas.
Cougar.—Cougar are steadily moving north and are reported on the increase in
the Fort George, Burns Lake, Cassiar, Bella Coola, and Princess Royal Islands areas.
Coyotes.—Coyotes are plentiful in the Vanderhoof and Burns Lake areas.
It is felt that full-time predatory-animal hunters should be stationed at Prince
George, Vanderhoof, and Burns Lake, and that seasonal hunters should be employed
for the winter months at Smithers, Fort St. John, and Bella Coola, and that, as these
men prove their worth, they should be employed as permanent employees in order to
cut down the present wolf menace.
Ravens.—Ravens are on the increase throughout most of the Division, but it is
felt that these birds can be held to satisfactory numbers by Wardens and predatory-
animal hunters.
Magpies.—Magpies have been reported at Lower Post for the first time, and are
increasing at Pouce Coupe and Dawson Creek.
All other noxious birds are reported at normal numbers, except eagles, which are
reported on the increase along the coast. report of provincial game commission, 1948. x 53
Game-protection.
Several more Wardens and predatory-animal hunters are required very urgently
in this Division. The Wardens have far too much country to patrol, and are badly
handicapped with office duties where such large areas have to be covered.
I feel that new men should be posted at Headquarters for at least one season
before being posted out to Detachments. They would be better fitted for their duties
and could be sent out to relieve at Detachments during a heavy influx of hunters in
any area. This would necessitate two extra men being posted at Divisional Headquarters where there would be a chance for them to be trained, and at the same time
they would be used on the new Hart Highway and around the large number of logging-
camps, which employ a great number of non-residents who have no regard for our
game laws.
Game Propagation.
Pheasants were released at Vanderhoof, Fort St. John, and Dawson Creek, and
from reports received, some of these birds have survived and are in good condition.
Game Reserves.
There are three game reserves in this area and one bird sanctuary. The Nechako
Bird Sanctuary and the Kaien Island Game Reserve are the only two that give any
protection to game as the other reserves are more for protection of the public. The
Nechako Bird Sanctuary is a great help to the geese as they land there in large
numbers and are increasing each year.
Fur Trade.
There are approximately the same number of fur-traders as in the past two years.
There was a very small catch of fur this year due to low prices and the high wages
being paid for other work.
Registration of Trap-lines.
This is the hardest duty of Game Wardens as it ties them in the office for too
much time when they should be out on patrol duty. Maps of this area are incorrect
and it is impossible to transfer lines on the newer maps unless the previous registrations are partly disregarded. This necessitates the interviewing of all trappers several
times to clear up their boundaries, as in a great number of cases the maps are too
inaccurate for the trapper himself to locate his boundary.
Registration of Guides.
The new registration is working out very well. Some confusion arose, but this is
gradually being cleared up, and if the number of new guides and assistant guides is
held down to a minimum, the present system will be most satisfactory.
Special Patrols.
Only one special patrol was carried out, and this was from Fort Nelson to Fort
Laird, N.W.T., by plane, a distance of 280 miles, to check fur-books of traders buying
British Columbia fur, and to collect unused beaver seals and records.
Hunting Accidents.
I am sorry to report that there were three hunting accidents in this Division
during 1948, and all three were fatal.
Joseph Gordon Holdcroft, age 19 years, of McBride, was accidentally shot in the
back of the head with a .410 shotgun by Bobby S. McDonald, of McBride, while hunting
ducks on September 27th, 1948, at Horseshoe Lake at McBride. X  54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
William Seinner, of Houston, forest patrolman, was accidentally shot in the back
of left leg below the knee by William Vanderweil, of Houston, on October 6th, 1948,
near Houston on return from timber cruise. He was taken to Smithers Hospital, but
died after undergoing an operation in which the leg was amputated.
Bennette Oakley Weaver, of Vanderhoof, was accidentally shot and killed by
Frederick Mark Childs, of Vanderhoof, in mistake for a wounded moose on December
19th, 1948.
Game-fish Culture.
No trout eggs were available for planting in this Division during 1948 due to
flooding at hatcheries in the Kamloops area. In small creeks flowing into Cluculz Lake,
50,000 eyed kokanee eggs were planted.
Summary and General Remarks on Game and Fish.
A great increase of non-resident hunters took place throughout this Division in
1948, and a greater number of big-game animals were taken, but all guides reported
more hunting time was necessary owing to there being a decrease in the big game,
especially moose and deer.
The wolf situation is very grave and there is no doubt the bounty system will not
control these predators. There should be at least three permanent and four part-time
predatory-animal hunters in this Division immediately, if we wish to stop the wide
killing of game animals by these predators.
There are very few moose left in the northern part of this Division, and there
is a marked decline in the whole Division, although in Burns Lake and Vanderhoof
areas they are still fairly plentiful. A great number of moose are found to be heavily
infected with tapeworms.
There is a marked increase in the grouse population, and it is felt that an open
season on these birds is in order.
I wish to thank all Wardens, office staff, and British Columbia Police Officers for
their very fine co-operation, and hope we will soon be in a position to have more
assistance for them.
" E " DIVISION   (MAINLAND COAST NORTH TO TOBA INLET AND
LOWER MAINLAND AS FAR INLAND AS NORTH BEND).
By R. E. Allan, Officer Commanding.
I beg to submit herewith an annual report covering game conditions in " E "
Division for the year ended December 31st, 1948.
Big Game.
Deer (Coast or Columbian).—Considering the division as a whole, deer appear to
be holding their own. True, in some areas where browsing is either poor or nonexistent, they are scarce. That territory on the Mainland from North Vancouver to
Squamish is an example of such an area. In other areas, particularly Pitt Meadows
and Cloverdale, deer are reported to have increased during the past year. In the
vicinity of Sturgeon Slough alone, Game Warden Frank Urquhart, of Port Coquitlam,
reports twenty deer were taken during the recent open season.
Mountain-goat.—These animals in several areas of the Coquitlam, Mission-Chilli-
wack, and Powell River Districts are fairly plentiful. A sportsman who is both willing
and able to do strenuous climbing on foot can readily obtain his bag-limit of these
animals. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948. X 55
Bear (Black and Grizzly).—Black bear are common throughout the division and in
settled areas are continuing to be a nuisance. Isolated reports of grizzly bears were
received.
Wapiti (Elk).—Reports indicate that these animals, planted in the McNab Creek
area of Howe Sound, have reached their saturation point in so far as the available supply
of food. The herd, estimated to be between thirty and forty animals, has not increased
over the past several years. This would indicate that a certain amount of controlled
hunting of these animals should be allowed.
FUR-BEARING ANIMALS.
Muskrats.—Are to be found in plentiful supply throughout the Fraser Valley.
Restrictions on the taking of these fur-bearers had to be eased as a result of the damage
they were doing to flood-control dykes throughout the valley.
Otter.—Scarce in most sections of the Fraser Valley, but fairly plentiful throughout the Coastal area between Howe Sound and Toba Inlet. The same would apply to
mink, marten, weasel, and beaver. Racoon and squirrels are plentiful throughout the
whole district. Racoon are a nuisance through being overly plentiful. This is due to
the present low fur-market value of their pelts.
Upland Game Birds.
Grouse (Blue).—These birds are scarce in this Division, although some good bags
were obtained from logged-off lands, not too heavily covered with new timber growth.
The various islands throughout the up-coast district provided the most numbers of
these birds.
Grouse (Willow or Ruffed).—These birds are not plentiful; however, scattered
coveys can be found in almost every section of this Division. Short open seasons and
curtailed bag-limits do not appear to have any beneficial results.
Quail.—The planting of quail in this Division was unsuccessful. The Ladner
Townsite is the only place where these birds are to be found. They number approximately 100 birds.
Pheasants.—Are the principal upland game bird of the Lower Mainland, the only
place in which they can be found in this Division. As there are approximately 20,000
licensed hunters in that area, the hunting pressure upon them is very heavy. This
and decreasing suitable habitat necessitates, in order to supply even the minimum
demands of sportsmen, continued annual plantings of farm-raised birds. Hunting
pressure was particularly heavy during the 1948 season as a result of sections of the
Interior of the Province being closed to hunting due to the disastrous spring floods.
The same floods destroyed large numbers of nests and young chicks in the Chilliwack,
Agassiz, Matsqui, Mission, and Pitt Meadows districts of the Lower Mainland. As you
are aware, no open season was allowed in a large portion of this territory.
Migratory Game Birds.
The northern migration of ducks was late in coming into this Division. However,
local birds produced numerous good bag-limits. Migrating ducks did not arrive until
after the local season had closed. This resulted in thousands of ducks remaining on
the Delta foreshore throughout the winter, which was an exceptionally severe one.
Reports were received of ducks starving to death. A large number of dead birds
examined by the Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, established
that they had died as a result of lead poisoning of the stomach tract. Shotgun pellets
(there must be tons of it in the foreshore sands) had been eaten as grit by the birds.
A number of permits were given to farmers to destroy ducks damaging their winter
sugar-beet crops. In most instances the individual farmer was able to limit his damage
to a negligible degree by shooting over the birds. X 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Geese.—Approximately 10,000 snow geese (lesser) wintered in the Delta and Lulu
Island area. This number is a definite increase over previous years. The open season
did not make a serious inroad into that figure.
The Canada geese were about normal and a fair number were taken. An estimated
flock of 600 of these birds wintered in the mouth of Pitt Lake.
Wilson snipe, plover, and most other shore-birds are becoming quite plentiful.
Band-tailed pigeons are decreasing in numbers and a shortened or closed season
would be beneficial.
Swans in small numbers have been observed in several areas of the Division.
Vermin.
Game Wardens in this Division are constantly on the look-out for predators. Game
Wardens A. J. Butler and P. M. Cliffe, of Chilliwack and Mission City, respectively,
have been particularly active in that regard. As an example, Game Warden Cliffe
reports taking the following predators during the year 1948:—
Cougar      6 House cats     29
Red fox  25 Crows   103
Bobcat      2 Hawks        9
Game Protection.
With the exception of a portion of the up-coast area, continuous patrols were
maintained throughout the whole of the Division. Until such time as a Game Warden
and Departmental launch can be stationed in the vicinity of Powell River, adequate
game protection cannot be given the up-coast area. A total of 317 prosecutions under
the " Game Act," Special Fishery Regulations, and " Migratory Game Bird Act " were
conducted in this Division during the past year.
Game Propagation.
A total of 13,136 pheasants was released in this Division during the year.
Game Reserves.
There are five game reserves in this Division. All are in the Lower Mainland
with the exception of Goat Island Reserve which is in the Powell River district. Goat
Island Reserve, following years of over-hunting, is now in a condition which warrants
it again being opened to hunting. Deer, goat (mountain), and black bear are to be
found in fair numbers on this island. The other reserves are primarily wild-fowl
nesting and resting areas, and have proved, to be very beneficial in maintaining the
supply of local ducks.
Fur Trade.
The bulk of the Provincial fur-trade finds a market outlet via this Division;
namely, the City of Vancouver. There are twelve licensed raw-fur dealers in that city.
Traders report that fur prices dropped this year to the lowest point in years. Game
Warden F. R. Lobb in his report covering the fur-trade states, " The demand for fur
is very limited, being confined largely to short-hair type, comprising mink, weasel,
squirrel, muskrat, beaver, and otter, and, to a lesser extent, marten. The demand is
very keen for small fine fisher, but the large sizes are most difficult to market. All longhaired furs including fox, coyote, lynx, skunk, and racoon are very much neglected, and
prevailing prices are lower than they have been for a number of years. The result has
been that trappers have not bothered to catch them and they are greatly on the
increase." An indication of this trend in the market may be gained from the No. 1
pelt prices for 1947 and 1948 which I have listed hereunder. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948. X 57
Type. 1947. 1948.
Beaver   $36.35 $26.45
Muskrat     2.00 1.60
Otter   27.40 21.00
Pisher   45.05 35.35
Cross fox  5.00 3.00
Red fox   3.50 2,00
Marten  35.35 17.00
Weasel   1.58 1.45
Wild mink   30.00 21.00
Lynx   19.00 10.00
Racoon   2.00 1.50
Squirrel   .61 .33
Wolverine   15.00 10.00
REGISTRATION OF TRAP-LINES.
There is a constant demand for the very few lines which become vacant in this
Division. No complaints were received with respect to the registration of trap-lines.
At the close of the year 1948, there were 228 registered lines in this Division. Several
times that number of trapping licences were issued covering trapping on private
property.
REGISTRATION OF GUIDES.
There are six registered guides in this Division.    They are all located in the
Chilliwack district.
Special Patrols.
No special patrols were made during the year.
Hunting Accidents.
Edmond Ray Losier, age 13 years, accidentally shot and killed by his 14-year-old
companion while hunting in the Mission district with a .22 calibre rifle.
Richard Pollock, of Langley Prairie, received a neck wound from a ricochet bullet.
Not serious.
Roy Robert Kvaas, of Pitt Meadows, wounded in the legs by shotgun pellets, discharged from a loaded shotgun left standing against a car by one Richard Windover,
of Hammond.    Not serious.
H. Carter, of Surrey, received pellet wounds in his face and arms following the
careless handling of a shotgun in the hands of one Carl Zappone, also of Surrey. Not
serious.
Edwin Clegg, of Rosedale, accidentally shot in groin and legs by the discharge of
a shot gun in the hands of one Allan Crofts, also from Rosedale.    Recovered.
Gam-fish Culture.
A total of 225,000 Kamloops-trout fingerlings was distributed from the Cultus
Lake and Smith Falls Hatcheries between nineteen lakes and streams in the Lower
Mainland area. One thousand of these were planted in barren Petgill Lake, a three
hours' hike on foot from Britannia on Howe Sound. These fish left Cultus Lake by
truck; thence by steamer from Horseshoe Bay to Britannia; thence, as mentioned
above, on foot to the lake. The total travelling time was ten hours with a total loss of
seventeen trout.
Summary.
The Lower Mainland area is rapidly becoming thickly populated, and sportsmen
now find that they have to go further afield in order to obtain the good hunting which X 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
they have been accustomed to find within a short distance from Vancouver. As time
goes on, I can foresee the necessity of imposing more severe restrictions on open
seasons and bag-limits.
The Game Wardens in this Division have carried out their numerous respective
duties in a very efficient and commendable manner, and for this I wish to extend to them
my sincere thanks. I also wish to express my thanks and appreciation of the valuable
assistance rendered by the British Columbia Provincial Police, the Forest Service,
Public Works Department, game asociations, and many individual sportsmen in this
Division.
REPORT ON THE PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF THE STEELHEAD
OF THE LOWER FRASER RIVER.
By P. A. Larkin, Fisheries Biologist, British Columbia Game Commission.
The migratory rainbow or steelhead trout (Salmo gairdnerii gairdnerii) is probably the most prized sport-fish of the Pacific Coast; it ranges in weight up to 25 lb.,
it is difficult to hook, it fights furiously so that in fast water it is landed only by a
skilled angler, and it is an excellent food fish.
The careful management of such a popular fishery is obviously desirable, and for
this reason in recent years Rod and Gun Sportsmen's Associations of the Lower Fraser
Valley have been anxious that the steelhead should be the subject of scientific investigation. At a convention of the Lower Mainland Zone of the British Columbia Fish and
Game Protective Association, June 27th, 1948, the Hope Rod and Gun Club proposed
the resolution " That the Secretary (of the Zone) contact both the Dominion Department of Fisheries and the B.C. Game Commission advocating a thorough investigation
of the effects of commercial fishing and spawning grounds and habits. This to be
undertaken jointly by the two Departments."
The subject-matter of this resolution was discussed at the offices of the British
Columbia Game Commission on October 21st, 1948, by representatives of the various
departments concerned. The following (including the writer) were present at this
meeting:—
F. R. Butler, Game Commissioner, British Columbia Game Commission.
J. G. Cunningham, Game Commissioner, British Columbia Game Commission.
A. J. Whitmore, Chief Supervisor, Dominion Fisheries, Vancouver.
Thomas Taylor, Dominion Fisheries, New Westminster.
Dr. R. E. Foerster, Director of the Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo.
Ferris Neave, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo.
Dr. W. A. Clemens, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver.
Dr. Ian MacTaggart Cowan, Department of Zoology, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver.
Craig MacPhee,  Department of Zoology, University of British  Columbia,
Vancouver.
It was decided at this meeting that the writer would immediately begin a preliminary investigation of the steelhead, that the Hope Rod and Gun Club should be asked
to give reasons for the proposal of this resolution, and that attempts be made by the
departments concerned to appropriate funds for a large-scale scientific investigation.
Subsequently, the Dominion authorities advised that inasmuch as the steelhead commercial fishery was small and incidental to that for various species of salmon, no funds
could be made immediately available for the suggested investigations.
The present report outlines the findings of the preliminary survey conducted in
the period October 21st, 1948, to April 21st, 1949. The survey is currently being
continued, and further reports will be made in the future. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948. X 59
INTRODUCTION.
As a preliminary survey of the steelhead-fishery of the Lower Fraser River, the
investigation of the past year has dealt largely with outlining the phases of the life-
history of the steelhead of the Fraser which require study as a basis for management.
It is desirable that any restriction of the season, limit, or area should be based on
factual information regarding habits and abundance, and in the case of the steelhead
the amount of this information required is extremely great. It is not known, for
example, where steelhead run in the Fraser drainage as a whole. The runs of fish in
the Lower Fraser are known to the majority of steelhead enthusiasts, but the existence
and extent of steelhead runs to tributaries of the Fraser beyond Lytton is not well
known. In the Shuswap area there is confusion between steelhead and large resident
trout from the lake. Steelhead have been reported from as far north as Prince George
on the Fraser and from the Chilko River, but for the most part there is a distinct lack
of well documented records of steelhead in the upper reaches of the watershed.
This knowledge is important in any long-term investigation of the significance
of the commercial catch (and the sport catch) to the escapement of steelhead and their
availability to the sport fishery both in the Lower Fraser and in the Fraser as a whole.
For example, the commercial catch of steelhead at the mouth of the Fraser is greatest
in the months of September and October, but the subsequent movements of these fish
is a matter of speculation. During the same months, movements of steelhead at Hell's
Gate Canyon are recorded (records of the International Salmon Fisheries Commission),
which might suggest that there are large runs to points north at this time. The
important point is, however, that even the elementary information, such as the
distribution of steelhead, is lacking, so that the significance of these catches in
September and October cannot be assessed.
Studies of the steelhead trout in various parts of the Pacific Coast area have
indicated that the life-history of this fish is considerably more variable than that of
the five species of Pacific salmon which inhabit approximately the same fresh-water
drainage systems. Immature steelhead may stay one, two, three, or even four years in
fresh water. Most commonly the seaward migration is made at the age of 2 years.
The period of rapid growth in salt water before spawning may last one, two, or three
years, but there is apparently no relation between the length of time spent in fresh
water and the length of time spent in the ocean.
The runs of fish to streams are generally described as being summer runs or winter
runs, the latter being the more common. A winter-run fish is one taken in a stream
some time between November and April. A summer-run fish is one which has not
recently spawned, which is taken some time between May and October. Some streams,
for example the Vedder River (Chilliwack River), have only a winter run; others, such
as the Coquihalla at Hope, are reported to have a winter run and a summer run.
Adults are thus present in almost all of the months of the year in some of the streams,
yet spawning apparently takes place only in the late winter and early spring. Kelts
are taken only in April, May, June, and July. The relation between summer runs and
winter runs has not been investigated. The " homing" of steelhead trout is not
infallible. Pautzke and Meigs (1940) reported that " strays" to other drainage
systems accounted for 5.4 per cent, of recovered fish that were tagged and planted as
14-month-old fingerlings in Green River, Wash.; that 16.3 per cent, of the recoveries
of tagged fish were from a tributary of the same river, although the tributary had not
been planted.
The complicated and variable life-history of the steelhead implies difficulty in
investigation, and with the present scarcity of basic information it is even more
important that long-term and large-scale studies begin immediately if satisfactory
management practices are to be developed. X 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In the past winter season some attempt has been made to compile as much
information as possible on the distribution, migration, and life-history of steelhead
of the Fraser by reference to scientific literature, the records of the International
Salmon Fisheries Commission and the Pacific Biological Station, and by conversation
with anglers. A " Steelhead Questionnaire " was circularized to anglers in the Lower
Mainland area, and " Weekly Catch Record " forms were distributed, on which space
was provided for statement of the number of anglers, numbers of fish taken, observations re condition of fish, water levels, and other pertinent information. The collection
of scale samples to accompany the weekly catch records was also requested.
The winter season of 1948-49 was exceptionally cold, and the steelhead-fishing was
restricted accordingly. The smaller streams were extremely low and in many cases
the snow was deep, and, as a result, fishing was concentrated on the larger and readily
accessible streams. The Vedder River supported the only significant sport fishery
during the winter months. Coquihalla River and Silver Creek near Hope and the
streams of the north shore of the Fraser were very lightly fished. Commercial fishing
at the mouth of the Fraser was closed in December and January, and in February ice
on the river and extreme cold weather prevented fishing operations.
A summary of the numbers of weekly catch records and scale samples submitted
for each of the streams in the Lower Mainland area is given in Table I. In many
cases, forms were filled in by anglers for their own single day's catch. Stream checking
by Game Wardens and hatchery officials (Cultus Lake Hatchery) were recorded on
weekly report forms, and many anglers included estimates of the number of fishermen
in the area they were fishing on the days for which entries were made.
The collections of information on the Vedder River and in the commercial catch
are the only two treated in detail in this report. Data on other streams was not
considered sufficiently representative for analysis.
Table I.—Summary of Returns of Fraser River Steelhead Reports (Weekly
Catch Records) from December, 1948, to April, 1949.
Vedder—
Reports	
Scale samples.
Campbell River—
Reports	
Scale samples
Little Campbell—
Reports	
Scale samples
Nicomekl—
Reports	
Scale samples
Chehalis—
Reports	
Scale samples
Coquitlam—
Reports	
Scale samples
Coquihalla—
Reports	
Scale samples
Stave—
Reports	
Scale samples
Fraser—
Reports	
Scale samples
9
18
Feb.      March.     April.      Total.
13
76
5
10
30
123
1
13
Total reports, 53 ; total scale samples, 160. report of provincial game commission, 1948. x 61
Analysis of the Steelhead-catch on the Vedder River, 1948-49.
The Vedder River is one of the most popular streams for steelhead-fishing in the
Lower Mainland area. It is readily accessible by road and close to the amenities of
the City of Chilliwack. During the 1948-49 winter season the Vedder River was the
only Lower Mainland stream which was intensively fished. The river is called by three
names in its lower reaches. Above Vedder Crossing it is called the Chilliwack River,
below the crossing it is called the Vedder River, and in its artificial course across
Sumas Prairie where the banks are heavily dyked it is named the Vedder Canal.
Steelhead-fishing tends to concentrate at Vedder Crossing and a mile or two downstream, but good catches are made in pools all the way from the mouth of the river at
the Fraser to the outlet of the river at Chilliwack Lake, more than 20 miles up-stream
from Vedder Crossing.
The river supports only a winter run of steelhead. The first catches are usually
made after November 15th, and fish continue to run through December, January, and
February. By the beginning of March many of the fish are approaching full spawning
condition, and because " dark fish " are not favoured by anglers, the intensity of the
fishery drops off accordingly. Catches of fish in good condition may be made as late
as April 15th, but thereafter the season is generally considered finished. The maximum
length of the fishing season is thus 120 days, although from local reports in most years
an estimate of 100 days would be a closer approximation of the period of good fishing.
Total Catch on the Vedder River.
A complete creel census on the river throughout the winter would be desirable, but
it is not practical at the present time. Fishermen may be checked from Allison Bridge
above the Vedder Crossing to the mouth of the river at the Fraser, a distance of more
than 30 miles. Moreover, many fishermen are residents of the district, and no simple
checking-station technique is possible. The estimate of the catch for the 1948-49
winter season has been made on the basis of a season catch per unit effort calculated
from weekly catch records and various counts of the number of anglers on the river on
different days throughout the fishing season.
The catch per unit effort on the basis of twenty-nine of the thirty weekly reports
on the river was 0.83 fish per man per day. This means that the angler would expect
to catch, on the average, eigth fish for each ten days' fishing. This estimate includes
the day of the " Steelhead Derby," when fifty fishermen took a total of six steelhead.
There is a serious source of error involved in this estimate in that many anglers may
fish for only an hour in the morning and then again in the evening, so that the " man
per day " reported may not be a full day's fishing. For this reason the figure of 0.83
might be considered as the catch per man for approximately four or five hours' fishing.
However, there is a further error incurred by the failure of anglers to report days or
excursions which yielded no fish. Although it was requested that forms be completed
even though no fish were taken, the forms were seldom forwarded without mention of
fish caught.
The average number of fishermen per day on the river varies with the time of the
week (many more anglers on week-ends), the weather, and with the runs of fish.
When good catches had been reported, it was probable that more than fifty fishermen
were present on the different parts of the river on each day of the week-ends, and
during the week the average number of fishermen was probably as high as twenty-five
per day, but the majority of reports indicated that the usual count was from ten to
twenty. When the run of fish was poor (late January and early February), the
number of week-end fishermen was probably less than thirty and on weekdays was correspondingly less. As in the case of the estimate of the catch per " man day," the
short fishing excursions introduce a serious source of error.    At any one time of the X  62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
day there may be only twenty anglers on the river, so that the average for the day would
be twenty, but a hundred individuals may fish for short periods to contribute to this
average figure.
In the absence of detailed daily reports a generous estimate of the total catch has
been made on the assumption that on the average week-end days (Saturday and Sunday) there were forty anglers, and on the average weekday twenty for the entire
120-day fishing season (November 15th to April 15th). The calculated total of 3,100
fishing-days multiplied by the catch per man per day of 0.83 fish per man per day yields
the total catch figure of approximately 2,500 fish.
This estimate must not be accepted without some reservation. The catch per unit
effort of 0.83 is a crude estimate. The census of anglers is similarly liable to error,
and the assumption of a 120-day fishing season is generous. The estimate of 2,500
fish is probably high, but gives a useful picture of the order of magnitude of the sport
catch. The cold winter season of 1948-49 may not be representative. The inaccessibility and poor fishing conditions in other streams would tend to increase the popularity
of the Vedder, but at the same time the cold wave probably discouraged many of the
less enthusiastic anglers.
The close checking of the Vedder in the coming winter season would be desirable.
Vital Statistics of Vedder River Catch.
A total of 123 scale samples was received from the Vedder River for the 1948-49
winter season. In only one case was a sample of no use because of regeneration of
scales. In the majority of cases, information concerning sex, length, weight, date of
capture, and degree of sexual maturity was included with each scale sample. The
majority of the fish taken in the winter months are approaching spawning condition
for the first time. Ten of the samples were from fish spawning for a second time;
one from a fish spawning for the third time.
The method of expressing the age of fish at first sexual maturity requires some
explanation. Movements of young steelhead toward the ocean take place during the
early summer months, at about the same time as the return of the kelts. Scales of
the fish at this time show a " winter check " for each winter that the fish has been in
fresh water. A fish with two winter checks is thus 2 years plus a few months old.
Corresponding with the entry into salt water, there is a rapid increase in growth-
Winter checks are formed for each winter that the fish is in salt water. The migration from the ocean to fresh water may occur many months before spawning or almost
immediately before spawning. It is convenient to divide the life of the fish into two
sections—(1) years in fresh water and (2) years in ocean, plus period spent in fresh
water prior to spawning. Thus a fish which showed two fresh-water winter checks and
two salt-water checks on its scales would be 5 years old at maturity. A scale showing
two checks for fresh water, no salt checks, but rapid growth, indicating some period in
salt water, would be one that would spawn one year from the time of its seaward migration, that is, at the full age of 3 years.
Fig. 1 shows the age distribution of Vedder River steelhead at the time of the
first spawning. This includes fish which were spawning for the second or third time,
but for which the earlier portion of the life-history could be read from the scales.
The age of any group of fish at maturity can be read from this diagram by adding the
number of years in fresh water to the number of years in salt water and fresh water
prior to spawning. Thus, fifty of the fish spent two years in fresh water and two years
later were caught, presumably just before spawning at an age of nearly four years.
One fish had spent four years in fresh water and had not been to the ocean.
The number of fish spawning at a particular age can be read by adding the figures
in a diagonal row from left to right. Thus, 1+1+50+3=55 were caught that were
4 years of age. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME  COMMISSION, 1948.
X 63
The variability in the life-history of the steelhead is apparent from this diagram.
It is important to note that nearly 75 per cent, of these fish had spent two years in
fresh water before their seaward migration, and that approximately 45 per cent, were
caught at the age of 4 years.
There is apparently no relation between the number of years spent in fresh water
and the number of years subsequently passed in the ocean (by statistical analysis;
also applies to commercial catch and Vedder and commercial catch considered together).
For example, a fish which spends two years in fresh water is as likely to return after
one year in the ocean as a fish which spends three years in fresh water. The same
applies to all combinations of fresh- and salt-water life-histories. This problem is
worthy of further investigation on the basis of the growth rate in the early years of
life and the portion of the watershed in which they were spawned.
The size of a fish at any age in its past life can be roughly calculated from scale
measurements. The size of the fish at the time of deposition of the scales was taken as
32 millimetres (1.26 inches) (Pautzke and Meigs, 1940). Fig. 2 summarizes calculated
lengths of fish at various ages, together with mean lengths of fish of different life-
histories at the time of capture. Fish spawning for the second or third time are not
included because at spawning the edge of the scale is resorbed and measurements
thereafter are of no use. No attempt has been made to place fish which spent various
periods of time in fresh water into separate groups.
0 12 3 4
Years in Ocean and Fresh Water before Sexual Maturity.
Fig. 1.  Age distribution of Vedder River steelhead at time of first spawning. X 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Generally, the average size of fish increases with the number of years spent in salt
water. Fish which spend two years from the time they leave fresh water until they
return range in average weight from 7 lb. for those which spent one year in fresh
water before seaward migration to 9.25 lb. for those which had three years in fresh
water before migration. With a three-year interval between the initial fresh-water
period and the return at maturity the average weights of fish which spent one and
three years in fresh water before migration were respectively 11.25 and 14.18 lb.
The average lengths of the fish show similar differences. (It is interesting to note
that the relation of the average weight to the average length is approximately 1 lb. to
the inch. Thus, 26-inch fish would average roughly 6 lb., 27-inch fish 7 lb., 28-inch
fish 8 lb., etc.)
The difference in the average size of fish of different ages is reflected in the
analysis of the catch by months. It is a popular conception among anglers on the
Vedder River that the fish come in runs. For certain periods, lasting from a few days
to over a week, the catches are excellent, while at other times catches are poor. The
usual explanation of a period of good fishing is that a run of fish has just come up.
These runs are apparently associated with changes in water level. A complete analysis
of the Vedder River weekly reports to determine the dates of runs and their relation
to water-level fluctuations could not be made. However, the division of the scale-
sample records into monthly periods yields the interesting observation that the age
distribution and consequently the average length and weight of steelhead varies during
the fishing season.
Years in Fresh Water.
One Year.
Two Years.
Three Years.
Four Years.
Years in Ocean+
Fresh to Spawn.
MEAN
LENGTH (INCHES)
-
—
—
Z7.25
27.58
29.40
30.67
31.65
32.90
-
30.00
29.50
WEIGHT (POUNDS)
—
—
—
700
7.97
9.25
11.25
12.22
1418
—
9.25
10.13
NO.OF FISH
—i
0)x
(1)X
2
46
8
3
35
14
—
2
TOTAL 110
(l) FISH HAD SPAWNED PREVIOUSLY
Fig. 2.   Calculated lengths (inches) of fish at different ages in fresh water and lengths
(inches) and weights (pounds) of fish at time of capture.    Steelhead from the Vedder River. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948.
X 65
Table II summarizes the age distribution for each month of the fishing season
for which records are available, and gives the mean age, weight, and length for the
catch of each period.
Table II.—Age Distribution, Mean Age, Length, and Weight of Steelhead taken
in Different Months on the Vedder River, 1948-49.
Age at Capture.
Mean
Age.
Mean
Length.
Three.
Four.
Five.
Six.
Mean
Fresh/Salt.
Weight.
1/2
2/1    1    4/0
2/2
1/3
3/2
2/3         3/3
2/4
December	
2
1
1
lot
33
3
1
It
1
1
2
4
2t
It
8
10
17t
1
3
6t
S
3*
2t
St
6.22
4.92
4.43
4.33
31.45
30.20
30.00
28.08
12.05
10.89
February	
9.40
8.79
* Two fish spawning second time.
t One fish spawning second time.
% Two fish spawning second time ; one fish spawning third time.
In the early part of the season the proportion of older fish is higher, so that the
mean age, mean weight, and mean length are also higher. As the season progresses
the mean age falls and the average weight of the fish drops from the high of 12.05 lb.
in December to 9.40 lb. in February and 8.79 lb. in March.
The sex ratio in the catch suggests a significant preponderance of females (seventy-
seven females to forty-six males). The greater proportion of females is not found in
the fish spawning at 4 years of age. In the group " two years in fresh water—two
years to capture " the sex ratio was twenty-three males to twenty-three females. The
older age-groups contribute greater numbers of females than males and bias the total
sex ratio. In the group " two years in fresh water—three years to capture " the sex
ratio was twenty-eight females to six males.
Analysis of Commercial Catch of Steelhead, 1948-49.
Commercial fishing for steelhead at the mouth of the Fraser is conducted during
all months of the year, with the exception of a closed period, usually during December.
For the most part the catch of steelhead is incidental to the salmon-fishery. Table III
summarizes the commercial catch of steelhead at the mouth of the Fraser for each
month of the year from August, 1941, to December, 1948. Fig. 4 shows the variation
in the annual catch in the years 1942 to 1948.
The greatest catch of steelhead is in the months of September and October. The
catch in these two months accounts for over 60 per cent, of the average annual catch.
In some years sizeable catches are taken in other months; for example, in 1945, June
and July contributed 362 hundredweight (23.7 per cent.) to the large catch for that
year;  in 1947, May was the best month of the year (230 hundredweight).
The annual catch fluctuates widely in the years 1942 to 1948 and depends chiefly
on the success of the September and October fishery. There are also wide variations
in the catch for each month over the period of years. The analysis of these catch-per-
month and catch-per-annum figures yields no evidence of either four- or five-year
cyclical fluctuations of abundance which are such a prominent feature of the analysis
of commercial catches of Pacific salmon. However, with such relatively short-term
observations, the known variability in the life-history of the steelhead and the fact
that the commercial catch includes fish from many different streams, this failure to
exhibit cyclical fluctuation is not surprising. X 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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X 67
The average weight of individual steelhead in the commercial catch is approximately 10 lb. for the year as a whole, so that the average annual catch for the years
1942 to 1948 of 1,117 hundredweight represents a take of approximately 10,000 fish
per annum. It is tentatively suggested that the annual removal of 10,000 steelhead
at the mouth of the Fraser is not excessive, considering the size of the river system
and the probable number of streams which support runs. The estimate of 2,500 fish
for the sport catch for the Vedder River represents almost one-quarter of the average
annual total commercial catch. If it is assumed that the commercial catch is distributed
over the streams tributary to the Fraser River which have steelhead runs even approximately in proportion to their size, it is apparent that for a stream such as the Vedder
the sport catch is probably much greater than the commercial catch of fish running
to that area.
The detailed analysis of the commercial catch, together with field observations in
the Fraser as a whole, would appear to present a profitable field of investigation in the
future.
Vital Statistics of the Steelhead in the Commercial Catch.
During October and November of 1948, 120 steelhead from the commercial catch
were measured, weighed, and sampled for scales at the Steveston and New Westminster points of landing. The results of the scale readings are summarized in Fig. 3,
which is constructed in the same way as Fig. 1. The age distribution of these fish is
quite different from that for the Vedder River, suggesting perhaps that they are from
12 3 4
Years in Ocean and Fresh Water before Sexual Maturity.
Fig. 3. Age distribution of commercial catch of steelhead, mouth of Fraser River,
at time of first spawning. X 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
other streams. The dominant age type is the 5-year-old, which has spent two years in
fresh water. The mean age of the fish at maturity (including second and third
spawners) in this catch would be 4.88 years as compared to 4.66 years for fish taken
from the Vedder River. It should be noted that the commercial catch age-type
distribution representative only of October and November is somewhat like that for
the Vedder River for the month of December. Younger fish are taken in greater
numbers toward the latter part of the winter in the Vedder, and the same may be true
for the commercial catch.
Of the 120 fish sampled in the commercial catch, five had spawned once before
capture and one had spawned twice. The average weight of fish taken in the commercial catch was 12.94 lb.; the average length, 31.5 inches. Again the comparison
with the Vedder River catch for the entire season suggests that the commercial catch
takes larger fish, but the December catch in the Vedder compares closely with the
commercial (12.15 lb., 31.45 inches).
The sex ratio in the entire commercial catch was forty-six males to forty-five
females (only ninety-one fish sexed). The even sex ratio was contributed largely by
the 5-year-old type (two years fresh—three years to maturity), with fifty-four
individuals showing a sex ratio of twenty-seven males to twenty-seven females. The
4-year-old age type (two years fresh—two years to maturity) was represented by only
seven fish, for which the sex ratio was six males to one female. This last result might
have occurred by chance, but it is interesting to observe that in the commercial catch
the situation is reversed from that in the Vedder, where the total sex ratio was biased
by a preponderance of females in the 5-year-old age type, while the 4-year-old group
showed an even sex ratio.
The analysis of the commercial catch will be continued in the coming season.
1600
.9
1200
800
1942      1943      1944      1945      1946      1947
Fig. 4. Annual commercial catch of steelhead, Fraser River.
1948 report of provincial game commission, 1948. x 69
Acknowledgments.
The writer would like to thank the Dominion Fisheries Department, New Westminster, for their kindness in providing statistics of the commercial steelhead-catch
and the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, New Westminster, for the
use of their valuable Hell's Gate Canyon tagging records. The Game Wardens and
hatchery officials were, as usual, extremely co-operative, and in the census work their
assistance was invaluable. " Pintail," of the Vancouver Daily Province, and Lee
Straight, of the Vancouver Daily Sun, have provided useful personal observations and
valuable references to steelhead enthusiasts. Game Commissioners F. R. Butler and
J. G. Cunningham, and Dr. W. A. Clemens, of the Department of Zoology, University of
British Columbia, have at all times shown a constant interest in the work and have
generously taken care of any administrative problems.
References.
International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission: Unpublished records of tagging at
Hell's Gate Canyon, Fraser River.
Pautzke, C. F., and Meigs, R. C. (1940): Studies on the life history of the Puget Sound
steelhead.    Biological Bull. 3.   Washington State Dept. of Game.
EXCERPT FROM THE MINUTES OF 1949 PROVINCIAL
GAME CONVENTION.
Paper Presented by Dr. Ian McTaggart Cowan, Scientific Advisor
to the British Columbia Game Commission.
Chairman (F. R. Butler).—I know that sportsmen present will be very keenly
interested in the next presentation, because it deals with a study of one of our important exotic game birds—the pheasant—and I have at this time, therefore, very great
pleasure in calling upon Dr. Ian McTaggart Cowan to present a paper entitled " Pheasant Study in British Columbia in 1948."
Dr. Cowan.—Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, this report concerns the progress
made during a survey of the ring-neck pheasant population of the Municipality of
Delta, British Columbia. The work was carried out under the joint sponsorship of the
Provincial Game Commission and the University of British Columbia.
I noted with interest the first question that Mr. Pautzke asked his biologists when
they were applying for a job, " Do you fish? " One of the things we take into consideration in our applicants is, have they a wife who is also interested? If they have, we
get two people for the price of one.
That was very true in connection with the study upon which I am reporting.
E. W. Taylor, I hoped he would be able to get up to-day, but I'm afraid he hasn't been
able to make it, who did the majority of the field work on this study, has one of those
wives. She works alongside him in the field, the results achieved would have been
simply impossible by himself alone. She was a tower of strength to our biological
investigation.
The period of the investigation ran through the winter of 1947-48 through the
spring, summer, and fall, and has run again through the winter just past. The investigation was confined to the Delta region generally, but it was more specifically concerned
with the area lying west of the community of Ladner. The immediate objectives of the
survey included first the finding out of the local sex ratios in the pheasants, then
investigation of nesting success. Third, an appraisal of food and cover as they were
affecting the pheasants. Fourth, the relationship of agricultural practices to the
pheasant population.    Fifth,  the  economic  relation  of the pheasants  to  the local X 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
agriculturist.    Sixth, the relation of the liberation of farm-raised birds to the final
harvest, and last, the harvest itself.
Now, those of you who have had any experience with working on a programme of
this sort will know that we bit off quite a fair-sized chunk to try and accomplish in
one summer. It is my purpose to-day merely to summarize the results of this first
season's study, picking out some of the high spots for you and bringing to your notice
some of the things I know you've all been asking yourselves, some of the things for
which we have been seeking the answer.
First, the sex ratio. We found it exceedingly difficult to get accurate sex-ratio
counts in the field, because of the changes in the behaviour of the birds from one
season to another. If you will go out to the nesting grounds at this time of the year,
the cock birds will be on territory. They don't roam hither and yon all over the area.
They have (each cock bird) a separate territory, which he defends, and around that
territory for varying distances the hens that are his mates will be nesting. In determining sex ratios, we made crude counts over large areas, counting all the males and
all the females seen. We found, of course, as you would expect, that as soon as the
hens start to nest you see more cocks than there are in the true proportion of the
population. Some of the hens you don't find. However, you can reduce that bias by
taking your count very early in the morning when the hens just come out of their nests
to feed, and also by taking a count late in the evening when the hens are off the nests
feeding.
We found that in May we could still get fairly satisfactory sex-ratio counts,
though the best month for them was April. Then around about midsummer when
the hens have all brought their broods off and you think, " Well, now we've got the
hens out with their broods, we can now make satisfactory sex-ratio counts," the
cocks start to moult, and a moulting cock goes to cover, and your sex ratio becomes
badly out of balance in favour of the females. Just about the time that the moulting
is finished and the cocks are in full plumage and parading around in the field again,
the hunting season starts. By the time the hunting season is over—you know how
hai-d it is to find the cock bird, you can find lots of hens—so that you can't, at that
time of the year, get a satisfactory sex-ratio count.
The results of the hunting season lasted until about Christmas time before the
cocks and thehens became obvious again in the terms of their actual situation on the
range. To come down to the results that we found, the net result was about one
cock to five hens on this heavily shot area of Delta Municipality. There were a few
areas in which the proportion was as high as eleven hens to a cock. Now these are
satisfactory sex ratios. All the research that's been done in North America points
to no ground for alarm when sex ratios do not become further out of balance than ten
or eleven hens to a cock. However, as you will realize, the acid test lies in the fertility
of the eggs, and we confirmed our results by checking for that result, the fertility of
the eggs. The average percentage of infertility throughout the season was 3.8 per
cent.; 3.8 per cent, of the eggs failed to hatch for reasons of infertility, or at least, if
the eggs weren't infertile, the germ died at such an early stage you couldn't detect it
in examining the unhatched eggs.
In fields where there were as many as eleven hens per cock the average net failure
to hatch as a result of infertility was 3.6 per cent., just a little bit lower than the overall average. The 0.2 per cent, difference is not significant statistically, so that you
can say that there was no difference in fertility where hens were five to the cock than
where hens were eleven to the cock. Thirty-three per cent, of the unhatched eggs had
embryos in them that had failed to develop and materialize.
Reports full of nests of unhatched eggs that we receive very frequently from
sportsmen usually refer to what we refer to as " dump nests." Now that's a peculiar
phenomenon of pheasants and we don't yet know the causes of this production of dump REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME  COMMISSION, 1948. X  71
nests. By dump nests I mean a nest in which several hens are depositing eggs, but
the nest is actually owned by no one and incubated by no one. You find these nests of
eggs, oh, sometimes as many as twenty eggs, twenty-five eggs, and sometimes if you
look through the nests there are eggs of two seasons in them, and sometimes you'll
find eggs of Hungarian partridges and quail in along with the pheasant eggs. Now
the sportsman usually finds these nests when he is hunting in the fall, the successful
nests have all hatched and gone, and he concludes from the presence of these unhatched
nests that there's quite a lot of infertility.
We know that this productivity of dump nests increases as the density of the
pheasant population increases, but nowhere has the answer been arrived at. In
Ontario last year, the biologists were seriously concerned on Peeley Island, which is
a very heavily stocked area, because practically all the first nests that they could find
were dump nests, and were not being incubated by any hens, though the eggs, when
you examined them, were fertile.   This is a problem that remains to be solved.
We proceeded to try and determine the cocks territories and the number of them,
because that offers one of the most satisfactory ways of censusing your pheasant
population. You can establish your cock territories by frequent crowing counts, going
out early in the morning during the crowing season and spotting the position at which
each cock crows, and by a series of counts, particularly with more than one man so that
you can take cross-bearings on individual birds, you can spot where he crows time
after time and arrive at a fairly satisfactory territory distribution.
The results that we achieved in that connection revealed one cock territory to
52 acres in the Municipality of Delta over a surveyed area of 8,640 acres that we had
under close control. On this basis, the population of pheasants inhabiting the Delta
Municipality in the breeding season was 470 plus or minus cocks and 2,560 odd hens,
or a total breeding stock in the area on which we are working of just over 3,000 birds.
Now with regards to the nesting season. Nesting started about the 15th of April.
The last new nests were established in mid-July. Virtually none of the nests had
hatched before the 24th of May, and very few nests had hatched before June 15th.
This date of hatching is exceedingly important, for a reason that I'll bring to your
attention right away. When we came to study the types of ground, types of cover in
which the pheasants were nesting, we found this: Fifty-three per cent, of all the nests
we found were in red clover; 29.5 per cent, were in mixed hay, in other words a total
of 82.9 per cent, of the nests we found were in hayfields, either clover or mixed hay.
Twelve per cent, were in pea fields; 0.08 per cent., less than 1 per cent., were in grain
fields, so that a total of 95.9 per cent, of our birds were nesting on agricultural ground
in an area in which there was considerable non-agricultural cover.
The period of the first mowing of hay started on the 10th of June, and the first
mowing of hay, because of a very wet summer, persisted until the last week of June.
The net result was that out of these 53.4 per cent, of the birds that nested on the
red-clover field only 19 per cent, brought off their first hatches. The rest of them were
destroyed by mowing. Twenty-four per cent, of the birds nesting on the mixed-hay
area brought off their broods because the mowing of mixed hay was later than the
mowing of red clover, and so on down the line. The total result was only 51 per cent,
of the birds that nested on the agricultural land brought off their nests. Now that,
I think, will emphasize what I meant by saying this distribution of nesting was important, and the nest survival was important.
However, another very interesting and important thing that we did find out was
that a pheasant is very difficult to discourage in terms of re-nesting. Re-nesting was
taking place up to the middle of July, birds that had lost their first nests were having
another go at it. The net result was that by the end of August, better than 80 per cent,
of the hens were accompanied by broods, despite the fact that over 50 per cent, of them X 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
lost nests at least once during the season. The net final result was over 80 per cent, of
the hens were accompanied by broods by the end of the year.
That, of course, is one of the reasons why the pheasant is a very successful bird
from the sportsman's standpoint. We have to take into consideration, however, the
losses of hens due to mowing, because these birds that are killed or so badly damaged
during the first mowing that they are incapable of trying again are permanently
removed from our breeding stock. The losses of hens in the first mowing were 38 per
cent, of the nesting hens, better than a third of our nesting hens were killed or badly
mangled in the first mowing of clover.
Chick mortality is important, how many mature birds can we expect to get from
a nestful of eggs? Our average nest of eggs was slightly over eight and one-half eggs
per nest. The mean hatched eggs was 7.1 per cent., that is, we can expect to get about
seven chicks out of each setting of eggs. The average brood size in August was 5.2
birds, so we can expect to lose about two birds after they are out in this Delta, and that
is a fairly successful return—5.2 birds matured per bird for one clutch of eggs.
It was interesting to us to analyse the causes of loss to wild birds, this is to both
old and young, on the nesting ground. Eighty-two and nine-tenths per cent, of our
losses were due to mowing, 82.9 per cent, of the birds that died or were killed during
the summer due to mowing. Ten and three-tenths per cent, were due to traffic, killed
on the road by cars, so that 93 per cent, of all the losses of wild pheasants were a
result of man-made hazards, mowing and traffic. Five and one-tenth per cent, of the
losses were due to predation; and miscellaneous causes, 1.4 per cent. But the big
losses were those two losses, two man-made hazards.
Then we liberated the birds. We liberated 2,500 birds to the Delta Municipality,
1,248 cocks and 1,252 hens. The cock birds were all banded; the majority of the hens
were also banded. One hundred and fifty of these birds were yearlings, liberated in
the spring. The rest of them were liberated at the age of twelve weeks. We made
extensive re-examinations of the liberation site. We kept track of the birds that we
liberated. The losses that were suffered were quite heavy. Now with the analysis of
the losses of wild birds in mind, that is, 94 per cent., 93 per cent, of them man-made
hazards, 82 per cent, mowing and 10 per cent, traffic, this is what we found with the
released birds, the hand-raised birds.
The losses through predation on released birds constituted 84 per cent, of our
losses, almost exactly the same as the mowing-losses in the wild birds. Eighty-four
per cent, of our losses were predation. Accidents on the highways and running into
fences and so on when they were liberated, flying into telephone wires, 12.26 per cent.
Release hazards of one sort or another just about 2 per cent, and unknown losses, 1.88
per cent.
Now the analyses of those predation losses are particularly significant, as I say,
83 per cent, of those birds, 83.9, just about 84 per cent, were lost to predation, and of
those predator losses, that is of this 84 per cent, loss, dogs, domestic dogs, accounted
for 76 per cent., three-quarters of the predator losses were to domestic dogs. It would
just break your heart to see some of the things that we saw. We turn out 200
birds and go back three days later and find fifty or sixty lying mangled around the area
in which we released them. Domestic cats accounted for another 5 per cent., that is,
81 per cent, of the losses were to domestic dogs and domestic cats. Hawks accounted
for 3 per cent, and foxes for an unknown number, but lower than even the hawks.
This brings me to the hunt. The local situation will not be known to all of you, the
Ladner-Delta municipality is right next to Vancouver, and the sportsmen of Vancouver
throng the Fraser Valley during the opening days of the hunting season. In years
previous to last year, quite a number of hunters from the Lower Mainland go to the
Okanagan for their hunting.   Last fall the hunting season on pheasants was closed in REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948. X 73
the Okanagan, further concentrating the hunting on the Lower Mainland. We have a
situation in British Columbia that is of advantage to us that I understand is not possessed " south of the line." In the interest of obtaining statistics we can block highways and stop cars. With the co-operation of the Provincial Police, the enforcement
officers of the Game Commission on the Lower Mainland, and sixteen university students
in wild-life management, we put road blocks on all roads leading out of our experimental
areas. We stopped all cars and examined the birds that were in the car. The sportsmen
co-operated admirably; there was only one man who really raised any objection at all to
being stopped, and he was in his cups.
The results that we got were these. On the first day of the season we checked over
1,000 birds out of our area, 1,055 birds. Nine hundred and forty-four of those were
wild and 111 were released, with a ratio of one released bird to 8.5 wild birds. On the
second day of the season we checked out another 600 birds, with a proportion of one
released bird to eleven wild birds. On the second week-end of the season we checked
only eighty-nine birds. Thus the sportsmen took them on the first week-end of the
season, or the ones that were left were much harder to get, and so on down. We had
three week-ends in the hunting season.
The recovery of birds by non-resident hunters, that is, hunters that did not live in
Delta Municipality, was 1,646 wild-raised birds and 175 released birds, with the ratio
of roughly one to ten. In other words, the released birds, of which we released 2,500
hens and cocks, made up just 10 per cent, of the actual kill on the area. In checking
this number we checked 3,000 hunters, with a success of 0.61 bird per hunter.
We were then faced with finding out what the local residents had killed, the farmers
of the district and the businessmen and residents in Ladner itself. To do this, we made
a preliminary attempt to have the men co-operate directly. We inserted an advertisement in the Ladner paper, asking the people would they please turn in the bands that
they had taken from their pheasants, and just leave a little note on the number of
unhanded pheasants they had taken at the same time as they took these banded birds.
We got four bands back as a result of that advertisement. The next approach was a
more direct one. We got the licence sales in the Municipality of Ladner and we made
a straight 10 per cent, sample approach. We went down the line ringing door-bells, and
when the sportsman came to the door we asked him whether he hunted pheasants, how
many pheasants he had killed, and how many of those birds were birds that we had
released. We got excellent co-operation. We assured them that we were not at that
moment law-enforcement officers, and quite a number of them admitted getting more
than the season's bag-limit.
The results that we got were exceedingly interesting to me. We found out that the
650-odd licensed hunters of the Ladner Municipality had shot 2,756 pheasants. They
had shot almost double the number of pheasants that the combined attack of the hunters
of Vancouver had been able to obtain. This interested me, too, because the general
impression was that some of the farmers knew where the released birds were and had
gone out and cleaned them up. We found that the proportion of released birds to the
total kill of the resident hunters was almost exactly the same as the proportion of
released birds to the non-resident hunters. In other words, they hadn't selectively
removed the released birds.
The net result was this: We got back 38.8 per cent, of the cock birds we released.
A little bit better than a third of the birds we turned loose was actually recovered, and
that is an absolute check on a bag basis. In terms of the total release, we got back 19.4
per cent. The age ratio was another item of interest because it gives you some idea of
the hunting intensity. Only 5 per cent, of the birds that were shot last year were over
a year old. Ninety-five per cent, of the kill were hatched in the year they were shot.
That gives you some idea of what a dense population of gunners do to a pheasant population, and yet the pheasant population is sufficiently resilient that it will come right X 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
back and produce you a good hunting season next year, provided you leave the hens.
That is one of the things that disturbed us most, it's a thing that we're going to try to
measure this year, the proportion of the hens that were shot by the hunters. As you
understand, it's very difficult to measure. Nobody's going to admit how many hens he
shot, or wounded, or shot at.
There are several ways we can get at it. A number of the States in the Union have
attempted to do this and they have come up with rather disquieting figures. One State
estimated that 40 per cent, of their hens were killed during the hunting season.
Another State came up with the figure that up to 60 per cent, of their hens was killed
during the hunting season. No State that has attempted to determine hen losses found
that less than 20 per cent, of their hens was killed during the hunting season.
We have two ways of doing it, by direct ground-covering with dogs looking for
dead hen pheasants. That's not very satisfactory. A much better way would be for us
to put in the field an unknown number of observers. These would be sportsmen that we
have asked to co-operate who will tally for us the number of times they see cocks shot
at and the number of times they see hens shot at. That will give us a proportion that
we can use against the known number of cocks that we will obtain from our bag-check
and enable us to obtain a figure on the mortality, or attempted mortality at least,
attempted mayhem on the hens.   That is something we're going to try to find this year.
One of the most important improvements we could make in management would be
to persuade the sportsmen to be that in fact, and to leave the hens alone. What we have
found out shows that there is very little damage that can be done to a pheasant population by an open hunting season provided the sportsmen will shoot cocks only.
Chairman (F. R. Butler).—Thank you, very much, Dr. Cowan, for your wonderful
paper. I am sure the sportsmen here will appreciate the hard work that your students
and yourself did in this very important pheasant check last fall. It is surprising to me
because, from time to time, and I am sure that Mr. Cunningham will support me in
this remark, we have been approached by representatives of game associations saying
this—that in releasing farm-raised pheasants they are really tame birds and that there
is a heavy toll taken on the opening day, or the first two days of the season. Your
investigation, Doctor, indicates conclusively that that statement is absolutely inaccurate
and is not based on fact. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948.
STATISTICAL STATEMENTS.
X 75
Comparative Statistics, 1913 to 1948, inclusive.
Prosecutions.
Revenue
derived from
Sale of Game
Licences
and Fees.
Calendar Year.
Informations
laid.
Convictions.
Cases
dismissed.
Firearms
confiscated.
Fines
imposed.
derived from
Fur Trade.
1913 .    .
188
294
279
127
111
194
267
293
329
359
309
317
296
483
518
439
602
678
676
538
498
477
454
451
585
613
647
440
446
409
356
379
652
819
895
1,142
181
273
258
110
97
167
242
266
312
317
280
283
279
439
469
406
569
636
625
497
474
454
438
436
552
574
526
419
430
392
342
372
632
798
878
1,117
7
21
21
17
14
17
25
27
17
42
29
34
17
44
49
33
33
32
51
41
24
23
16
15
33
39
21
21
16
17
14
7
20
21
17
25
5
36
46
74
44
24
24
43
39
47
29
54
33
40
37
22
4
19
14
20
42
21
18
9
27
18
8
30
39
56
74
$4,417.50
5,050.00
4,097.50
2,050.00
1,763.50
3,341.00
6,024.50
6,073.00
6,455.00
7,275.00
5,676.60
4,758.00
5,825.00
7,454.00
10,480.50
7,283.50
9,008.00
9,572.75
8,645.00
5,493.50
3,531.00
5,227.82
4,399.50
3,965.00
5,332.50
5,729.50
4,776.50
5,197.00
4,977.50
5,079.50
5,554.60
5,570.50
8,381.50
10,921.00
11,837.60
17,537.00
$109,600.80
92,034.20
72,974.25
66,186.97
65,487.50
75,537.00
116,135.00
132,296.50
114,842.00
127,111.50
121,639.50
125,505.50
123,950.50
135,843.50
139,814.00
140,014.76
142,028.22
147,660.00
137,233.31
141,269.55
135,876.94
149,955.11
148,689.64
157,647.30
177,771.33
192,024.07
193,170.53
188,605.20
213,267.67
205,451.71
207,661.72
238,902.36
352,228.85
502,555.25
597,529.30
610,383.56
1914	
1915	
1916	
1917	
1918	
1919	
1920	
$5,291.39
1921	
24,595.80
1922	
51,093.89
1923	
60,594.18
1924	
56,356.68
1925	
1926	
56,287.78
62,535.13
1927	
71,324.96
1928	
58,823.07
1929	
47,329.89
1930	
45,161.11
1931.	
46,091.08
1932	
40,363.79
1933	
44,167.48
1934	
47,102.81
1935	
1936	
49,831.95
52,196.50
1937	
1938	
53,697.48
44,963.87
1939	
1940	
49,187.00
68,466.33
1941	
1942	
1943	
1944	
63,125.30
68,475.07
58,354.03
70,363.23
1945	
1946	
104,260.95
107,357.72
1947	
1948	
99.344.14
73,392.08
16,460
15,540
900
996
$228,761.57
$6,598,885.09
$1 680 124.69 x 76 british columbia.
Summary of Total Revenue derived from Sale of Various Licences, Collections,
etc., January 1st to December 31st, 1948.
Revenue derived from— Total.
Sale of resident firearms licences, deer and moose tags.— $266,690.75
Sale of resident anglers', guides', and prospectors' firearms licences  ♦.  61,730.00
Sale of non-resident firearms and anglers' licences and
outfitters' licences   171,546.00
Sale   of   non-resident   ordinary  firearms   and   anglers'
(minors) licences  1,247.00
Sale of fur-traders', taxidermists', and tanners' licences,
and royalty on fur  73,392.08
Sale of confiscated and surrendered fur  558.53
Sale of confiscated firearms  84.33
Collection of big-game trophy fees from non-residents._._ 106,555.00
Prosecutions—Fines imposed under the " Game Act"  17,537.00
Miscellaneous revenue  1,981.95
Total   $701,322.64 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948.
X 77
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>t* X 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Revenue derived from Sale op Moose and Deer Tags, January 1st
to December 31st, 1948.
Government Agency.
Alberni	
Ashcroft	
Atlin	
Barkerville	
Clinton	
Cranbrook	
Creston	
Cumberland	
Duncan	
Fernie	
Fort Fraser	
Golden	
Grand Forks	
Greenwood	
Kamloops	
Kaslo	
Kelowna	
Lillooet	
Merritt	
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
New Denver	
New Westminster..
Oliver	
Penticton	
Pouce Coupe	
Powell River	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Princeton	
Quesnel	
Revelstoke	
Rossland	
Salmon Arm	
Smithers	
Stewart	
Telegraph Creek	
Vancouver	
Vernon	
Victoria	
Williams Lake	
Moose-tags.
No.
24
48
28
73
387
661
17
184
322
234
601
6
197
47
17
50
36
5
1,064
28
107
726
4
887
207
9
250
56
43
110
222
Totals..
12
1,048
199
68
289
8,304
Amount.
$24.00
48.00
28.00
73.00
387.00
661.00
38.00
17.00
184.00
322.00
234.00
601.00
6.00
197.00
47.00
17.00
50.00
36.00
5.00
1,064.00
28.00
107.00
726.00
4.00
887.00
207.00
9.00
250.00
56.00
43.00
110.00
222.00
12.00
1,048.00
199.00
68.00
289.00
Deer-tags.
No.
3,310
353
232
984
3,534
1,487
6,873
3,428
1,649
512
1,322
628
599
3,730
258
2,898
771
575
5,653
1,995
552
8,586
1,355
2,509
1,924
731
1,551
1,595
1,436
955
272
1,694
1,281
335
10
$8,304.00
9,940
3,014
6,770
1,196
86,497
Amount.
$827.50
88.25
58.00
246.00
883.50
371.75
1,718.25
857.00
412.25
128.00
330.50
157.00
149.75
932.50
64.50
724.50
192.75
143.75
1,413.25
498.75
138.00
2,146.50
338.75
627.25
481.00
182.75
387.75
398.75
359.00
238.75
68.00
423.50
320.25
83.75
2.50
2,485.00
753.5(0
1,692.50
299.00
$21,624.25
Totals.
$851.50
136.25
28.00
131.00
633.00
1,544.50
409.75
1,718.25
874.00
596.25
450.00
564.50
157.00
149.75
1,533.50
70.50
921.50
239.75
160.75
1,463.25
534.75
143.00
3,210.50
366.75
734.25
1,207.00
186.75
1,274.75
605.75
368.00
488.75
124.00
466.50
430.25
305.75
2.50
12.00
3,533.00
952.50
1,760.50
588.00
$29,928.25 REPORT OP PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948.
X 79
Revenue derived from Sale of Resident Anglers', Guides', Free Farmers', and
Prospectors' Firearms Licences, January 1st to December 31st, 1948.
Government Agency.
Anglers.
Guides.
Free
Farmers.
Prospectors.
Total.
No.
Amount.
No.
Amount.
No.
No.
Amount.
1,321
222
1
780
1,989
1,006
2,296
1,230
1,108
670
417
278
2,618
261
2,208
381
593
2,140
2,591
558
8,734
433
1,867
744
6
2
922
3
451
1,919
1,097
1
8,043
1,748
2,626
110
$1,321.00
222.00
1
2
3
191
16
8
14
6
39
63
81
22
101
1
18
2
2
19
1
13
110
69
8
5
40
3
13
18
15
13
9
167
$10.00
15
5
14
25
16
32
57
23
30
37
30
102
4
43
11
17
85
47
4
140
1
8
51
10
53
9
3
32
8
2
45
42
41
122
105
22
12
13
18
24
9
29
4
3
19
3
5
14
13
13
8
65
3
3
14
3
25
2
3
17
61
19
35
21
6
23
10
19
6
11
141
25
13
35
$4.00
$1,335.00
222.00
20.00
40.00
2,015.00
135.00
75.00
110.00
50.00
390.00
480.00
815.00
215.00
20.00
1.00
780.00
1,989.00
1,006.00
2,296.00
1,230.00
1,108.00
41.00
2,795.00
2,124.00
1,081.00
2,406.00
1,280.00
l,498i00
480.00
670.00
417.00
278.00
2,618.00
261.00
2,208.00
381.00
593.00
2,140.00
2,591.00
558.00
8,734.00
433.00
1,867.00
1,485.00
5.00
637.00
278.00
986.00
1.00
3,605.00
261.00
Kelowna	
3.00
160.00
20.00
20.00
180.00
3.00
1.00
2,214.00
542.00
Merritt	
613.00
1.00
2,161.00
2,771.00
558.00
15.00
2.00
1.00
8,751.00
434.00
Penticton	
140.00
855.00
2,007.00
855.00
744.00
6.00
2.00
922.00
3.00
451.00
1,919.00
1,097100
744.00
605.00
85.00
50.00
420.00
35.00
5.00
3.00
7.00
2.00
616.00
90.00
979.00
425.00
486.00
1,919.00
110.00
150.00
1,207.00
150.00
1.00
1.00
150.00
88.00
75.00
150.00
8,043.00
1,748.00
2,626.00
110.00
11.00
8,142.00
1,823.00
2,626.00
1,805.00
3.00
1,918.00
51,374
$51,374.00
1,073
$10,307.00
1,291
747
$49.00
$61,730.00 X 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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NcOH«HMiHH«iO^OtJ* REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948.
X 81
Statement of Non-resident Ordinary Firearms and Anglers' (Minors) Licences,
January 1st to December 31st, 1948.
Government Agency.
Non-resident Ordinary
Firearms Licences.
Anglers' Licences
(Minors).
Total.
No.
Amount.
No.
Amount.
1
3
1
1
$3.00
1.00
1.00
$3.00
4
2
1.00
1.00
$12.00
49         |             49.00
11                      11.00
58                      58.00
42                      42.00
2                        2.00
16                      16.00
7                        7.00
46                      46.00
37                      37.00
1         1               1.00
61.00
11.00
58.00
42.00
2.00
16.00
6.00
13.00
1                        3.00
49.00
1
1
12
37.00
1.00
3.00
68
12
126
1
3
8
32
408
114
18
2
4
1
1
4
3
33
30
13
17
12
68.00
12.00
126.00
1.00
3.00
8.00
32.00
408.00
114.00
18.00
2.00
4.00
1.00
1.00
4.00
3.00
33.00
30.00
13.00
17.00
12.00
71.00
12.00
3.00
129.00
1.00
3.00
8.00
32.00
408.00
	
114.00
18.00
2.00
4.00
1.00
1.00
4.00
3.00
33.00
30.00
36.00
49.00
17.00
12.00
21
$63.00
1,184
$1,184.00
$1,247.00 X 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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Total Collections from Fur Trade, 1921 to 1948, inclusive.
X 83
Year.
Fur Royalty
or Tax.
Fur-traders',
Tanners', and
Taxidermists'
Licences.
Total.
1921                                  	
$24,595.80
51,093.89
60,594.18
56,356.68
48,737.78
56,045.13
61,629.96
51,563.07
40,769.89
40,431.11
41,056.08
36,253.79
39,592.48
42,697.81
44,986.95
46,186.50
47,257.48
39,423.87
44,238.00
62,745.33
56,755.30
63,176.07
52,122.03
63,412.23
93,793.40
98,766.72
92,637.14
66,939.08
$6,195.00
6,365.00
6,930.00
6,090.00
7,650.00
6,490.00
9,695.00
7,260.00
6,560.00
4,730.00
4,925.00
4,110.00
4,675.00
4,405.00
4,845.00
6,010.00
6,440.00
5,540.00
4,949.00
5,721.00
6,370.00
5,299.00
6,232.00
6,951.00
10,559.00
8,591.00
6,707.00
6,453.00
$30,790.80
1922	
57,458.89
1923	
67,524.18
1924	
62,446.68
1925	
56,287.78
1926	
62,535.13
1927	
71,324.96
1928	
58,823.07
1929	
47,329.89
1930	
45,161.11
1931                 	
45,981.08
1932	
40,363.79
1933	
44,167.48
47,102.81
49,831.95
52,196.50
53,697.48
44,963.87
49,187.00
68,466.33
63,125.30
68,475.07
58,354.03
70,363.23
104 352 40
1934	
1936	
1936	
1937	
1938	
1939	
1940	
1941	
1942	
1943	
1944	
1945	
1946	
107,357.72
99,344.14
73,392.08
1947	
1948	
Totals	
$1,523,857.75
$176,547.00
$1,700,404.75 X 84
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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X 85
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BRITISH COLUMBIA.
List of Fur confiscated under " Game Act," January 1st to
december 31st, 1948.
Confiscated from.
Confiscated at.
Kind of Fur confiscated.
Date of
Confiscation.
JH
cu
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a
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u
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in
3
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Jan   12	
1
2
2
6
1
1
2
7
1
1
2
39
21
2
1
3
1
13
„     19	
24 .
George Thompson	
Bamfield	
Puyallup, Wash	
Vancouver	
Black Creek	
Feb. 19   	
E. F. Towers	
Mar.   2	
15
A. C. Smith	
Quesnel	
„     22	
Antoine Billy and Felix Bobby
24
G. M. Swicker	
William Willick	
Vancouver	
19
July 27 	
28
Sam Hall	
Aug. 17	
,     26
Robert Hill	
Sept.   8	
Dec.    6	
6	
„     10	
„     10	
Terrace	
„     10	
„     18	
Maillardville	
Totals	
23
3
80
14
65
Note.—The sum of $558.53 was received during 1948 from the sale of confiscated and surrendered fur.
List of Firearms confiscated under " Game Act," January 1st to
December 31st, 1948.
Date of
Confiscation.
Confiscated from
Confiscated at
Kind of Firearms
confiscated.
Rifles.
Shotguns.
Jan.   13	
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
„     15	
William Veregin	
William Hillen	
„     27	
„     28	
Feb.     9	
R. Letouroneau	
„     19	
Mar.    2	
„     25	
„     25	
Robert Reid	
Ken Collier	
16	
„     20	
„     20	
„      20	
John Prestage	
D. A. Smith	
20         	 report of provincial game commission, 1948.                    x 87
List of Firearms confiscated under " Game Act," January 1st to
December 31st, 1948—Continued.
Date of
Confiscation.
Confiscated from
Confiscated at
Kind of Firearms
confiscated.
Rifles.
Shotguns.
Ole Hallen            	
1
1
1
1
1
„     14	
„     14	
Dale Steward	
Robert Wyatt	
„     14	
„     14	
.,     14	
„     14	
„     14	
Tom Bird	
Lloyd Schwartz	
Lome Hofeld	
Andy Kazimischuk	
B.Duffy	
„     14         	
„     14	
„     20	
26    	
Ronald MacDonald	
2 	
2       	
„     15	
„     18	
Maillardville	
„     18	
„     18	
„     21	
July    2	
Prince Rupert	
Richard Walton	
H. F. Meise	
G. Gretsinger	
3        	
„     17	
17    	
26
26        	
Billy Boedeker	
Sept. 16     	
,.     28          	
Oct.   13
Lome Gibson	
Gerald Ryan	
13
26
26
William Weston	
27
„     27	
4
PhilGotch	
John Reisinger	
R. W. Hyde
4   	
„     10	
„     13	
„      14	
15
J. H. Phillpott       	
M. Grygoryk	
Ben J. Vogt	
24
„     24	
Frank Korpich	
Victoria	
24
1        |        ....
....        1          1
1
„     24        	
W. Schmidt	
0. Sederitch	
Happy Valley	
24
1
1
1
Fred Guy	
2
2
North Vancouver	
2
Ralph Phillips	
North Vancouver	
6	
20
A. J. Francoeur	
Steveston	
20
FredMcColl	
30
30
31
Totals	
65
9
1
Note.—The sur
Note.—Four ai
n of $84.33 was received from the sale of confiscated firearms during 1948.
r-guns confiscated during the year are not listed in the above statement. x 88 british columbia.
Bounties paid during the Year ended December 31st, 1948.
Government Agency.
Wolves.
Cougars.
Coyotes.
Total.
$10.
$25.
$40.
$20.
$2.
$4.
2
7
1
7
6
2
149
1
12
4
2
142
355
78
30
36
3
168
5
66
2
16
9
1
1
1
14
36
44
41
11
71
28
3
13
6
34
73
1
18
33
15
19
38
4
10
7
3
10
9
2
30
1
30
32
61
78
5
39
51
33
76
39
3
72
14
13
65
8
62
10
38
2
24
23
1
1
19
26
61
20
14
216
4
3
276
68
26
320
81
78
307
12
19
21
153
48
4
89
24
97
7
32
142
2
9
54
62
25
5
84
924
$880.00
Atlin	
201.00
117.00
2,817.00
594.00
1,570.00
610.00
230.00
5,417.00
Golden	
547.00
998.00
3,492.00
68.00
464.00
910.00
1,042.00
470.00
968.00
96.00
680.00
3,806.00
60.00
9,559.00
2,202.00
216.00
2,524.00
10.00
58.00
1,154.00
900.00
75.00
4,422.00
825.00
1,584.00
8,778.00
Totals	
2
1,074
80
725
935
2,976
$58,344.00
- report of provincial game commission, 1948. x 89
Comparative Statement of Bounties paid from 1922 to 1948, inclusive.
Calendar Year.
Wolves.
Cougars.
Coyotes.
Crows.
Magpies.
Eagles.
Owls.
Total.
1922	
303
162
195
291
336
344
452
411
312
310
372
195
173
137
183
372
444
530
491
701
8
628
572
430
599
423
384
366
285
196
261
265
301
472
461
519
725
1,092
1,687
5,175
7,276
14,070
20,192
3,672
1,881
1,544
2,864
53,443
2,246
70
7,095
20
89
17,625
172
$60,494.80
1923	
14,840.00
1924   	
172
20,398.40
1925    	
24,397.00
1926        	
5,770
10,046
41,077.00
1927	
2,487
65,377.95
1928    	
1,025
1,389
403
1
50,709.25
1929
42,122.00
1930    	
36,090.25
1931 	
3,427
42,036.15
1932	
80.00
1933
1
221
561
837
828
915
1,159
1,659
1,002
1,039
1,017
1,321
1,202
932
1,102
1,156
6,285.00
1934    	
1,877
1,950
1,400
2,094
1,971
2,038
1,924
1,546
1,221
1,259
5,506
2,720
2,976
3,911
6,825.00
1935    	
12,374.00
1936
20,350.00
1937   	
19,540.00
1938
21,018.00
1939
26,399.00
1940
23,131.00
1941
16,868.00
1942
17,397.00
1943
16,587.00
1944        ..                  	
20,243.00
1945
46,627.00
1946
22,392.00
1947                            	
36,386.00
1948
58,344.00
Totals     	
18,068
10,493
91,846
69,431
8,230
7,204
20,615
$768,388.80 X 90
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Big-game Trophy Fees paid by Non-residents, January 1st to
December 31st, 1948.
Species.
Name and Address
(Government Agency).
N
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Amount.
Atlin	
i
6
3
20
1
14
1
2
1
5
6
21
12
2
9
2
2
25
10
19
21
27
3
1
1
2
2
20
10
27
21
4
3
2
1
2
1
2
14
1
60
8
5
2
19
2
1
15
2
13
125
20
2
7
3
68
55
21
1
123
104
3
2
4
2
8
3
15
1
1
13
21
1
48
16
94
4
5
9
6
70
14
1
3
15
5
6
2
1
2
4
83
2
16
6
1
2
272
16
29
65
53
25
2
303
107
33
77
3
14
3
6
5
2
1
38
28
45
49
2
$15.00
185.00
Clinton	
26,125.00
3,380.00
55.00
285.00
30.00
5,980.00
4,420.00
9,575.00
1,375.00
2,150.00
105.00
325.00
25.00
60.00
22,155.00
9,505.00
7,600.00
6,010.00
210.00
Penticton	
100.00
15.00
330 00
1,225.00
1,025.00
125.00
Vernon	
2,965.00
108
218
76
52
566
333
117
1,156
124
$106,555.00 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948.
X 91
Prosecutions (Provincial Game Divisions), January 1st to
December 31st, 1948.
Description of Offence.
Divisions (see Foot-note) .
: a
:  Q
Fines or
Penalties
imposed.
Game Animals.
Allowing dogs to run after or hunt deer	
Exceeding bag-limit	
Killing or hunting game animals of female sex	
Killing or possession of game animals under one year
of age	
Killing,  hunting,  or  in  possession  of  game  animals
during close season	
Possession  of  members  of   deer  family   from  which
evidence (sex) removed	
Possession of untagged deer or moose	
Possession of big game on premises of logging camp	
Pitlamping or hunting deer at night	
Selling big game illegally	
Firearms.
Carrying firearms or hunting on game reserve	
Carrying  firearms  or  discharging   same  in   or  from
automobile	
Carrying   or   in   possession   of   unplugged   repeating
shotgun	
Discharging firearms on or across highway in munici-
paJity.	
Minors carrying firearms unaccompanied by an adult	
Fur Trade and Trapping.
Allowing traps to remain set after close of season	
Allowing another person  to trap his line without a
permit	
Destroying beaver dams	
Fur-trader   buying   without   a   licence   or   failing   to
keep record-book	
Failing to make returns on trapping licence	
Interfering or trapping on another person's trap-line	
Possession of untagged beaver-pelts	
Possession of or taking fur during close season	
Trapping or carrying traps without a licence	
Trapping on other than his own trapping area	
Trapping on game reserve	
Licences.
Guiding without a licence	
Non-resident carrying firearms without a licence	
. Non-resident angling without a licence	
Resident carrying firearms without a licence	
Resident angling or carrying fishing tackle without a
licence	
Migratory Game Birds.
Hunting migratory game birds during prohibited hours..
Hunting migratory game birds from power-boat	
Hunting migratory game birds with a rifle	
Hunting or molesting migratory game birds on a
game reserve	
Hunting or in possession of non-game or insectivorous birds	
Hunting or in possession of migratory game birds
during close season	
12
19
2
5
3
64
36
4
2
1
1
1
5
4
3
1
107
58
18
150
42
4
72
7
22
24
264
16
4
3
1
13
21
1
2
24
29
21
11
5
1
20
151
42
2
1
5
2
9
1
15
5
2
1
7
22
24
264
141
4
3
1
13
21
$200.00
560.00
200.00
1,785.00
90.00
265.00
345.00
1,550.00
10.00
230.00
1,830.00
435.00
40.00
174.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
200.00
20.00
310.00
315.00
65.00
10.00
25.00
60.00
950.00
235.00
2,323.00
1,475.00
160.00
35.00
20.00
10.00
150.00
265.00 X 92
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Prosecutions (Provincial Game Divisions), January 1st to
December 31st, 1948—Continued.
Description of Offence.
Divisions (see Foot-note) .
: fi
: a
:  D
«S
2.2
Si
Fines or
Penalties
imposed.
Special Fishery Regulations.
Angling for trout during close season	
Angling in prohibited area	
Exceeding bag-limit on trout	
Jigging  or molesting  trout  or  salmon   on   spawning-
grounds	
Possession of or using salmon roe in prohibited area	
Possession of undersized trout	
Taking or molesting kokanee on spawning-grounds	
Using more than one rod while angling	
Upland Game Birds.
Allowing dogs to hunt game birds during nesting season
Hunting upland game birds during prohibited hours	
Hunting, killing, or in possession of upland game birds
during close season	
Possession of upland game birds with plumage removed.
Hunting pheasants with a rifle	
Hunting upland game birds on game reserve	
Miscellaneous.
Allowing dogs to run on game reserve	
Canning game in field	
Failing to stop automobile when called upon by officer	
Feeding game animals to fur-bearing animals in captivity	
Furnishing false information to an officer	
Guiding more than two persons atone time	
Guide failing to report violation of " Game Act "	
Guide failing to make necessary returns	
Hunting big game with metal-cased bullets	
Making false statement to obtain a licence	
Non-resident hunting big game without a guide	
Obstructing an officer in the discharge of his duties	
Trespassing on enclosed land	
Totals	
10
16
1
1
1
1
3
5
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
3
1
6
6
4
10
460.00
40.00
110.00
35.00
50.00
165.00
255.00
25.00
45.00
10.00
1,020.00
20.00
40.00
25.00
25.00
10.00
15.00
10.00
20.00
35.00
85.00
10.00
35.00
245.00
260.00
115.00
300
119
382
1,117
1,142
$17,537.00
I
Gaol Sentences.
Allowing another person to trap his line without a permit, four (thirty days each).
Guide failing to report violation, one (ten days).
Hunting, killing, or in possession of upland game birds during close season, two (total of twenty-five days).
Killing or hunting game animals of female sex, four (thirty days each).
Killing or in possession of game animals under one year of age, two (thirty days each).
Possession of or taking fur during close season, one (thirty days).
Possession of migratory game birds during close season, one (thirty days).
Resident carrying firearms without a licence, five (total of eleven days).
Note.—"A" Division: Vancouver Island area and part of Mainland. "B " Division: Kootenay and Boundary
areas. "C" Division: Kamloops, Yale, Okanagan, Cariboo, and Lillooet areas. "D" Division: Atlin, Skeena,
Omineca, Fort George, Peace River, and Yukon Boundary areas. "E" Division: Vancouver, Coast, and Lower
Mainland areas. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME  COMMISSION, 1948.
X 93
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Kind of Game Fish.
Eggs.
Fry.
Fingerlings.
780,275
281,045
66,000
1,650,330
511,190
222,200
4,321,515
1,450,000
1,268,979
Totals	
6,551,790
2,508,565
1,491,179
Summary of Game-fish Eggs, Fry, and Fingerlings at Departmental
Hatcheries, December 31st, 1948.
Hatchery.
Eastern
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Kamloops.
Kokanee.
Eggs or Fry.
Fingerlings
or Fry.
Eggs or Fry.
85,310
113,963
121,613
303,370
83,256
172,957
145,010
430,400
477,480
Totals	
477,480
880,469
575,410
Eggs
Fry
Fingerlings
Summary.
Total distributions
6,551,790
2,508,565
1,491,179
10,551,534
On hand at hatcheries, December 31st, 1948     1,933,359
Total  12,484,893 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME  COMMISSION, 1948.
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BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Keturns from 2,420 Holders of Special Firearms Licences, showing Big Game,
Fur-bearing Animals, and Predatory Animals killed, Season 1947-48.
Bear 	
Caribou
Deer -	
Moose -
Big Game.
585 Mountain-goat
28
860
407
Mountain-sheep
Wapiti (elk) .....
Beaver
Fisher
Fox 	
Lynx ...
  6,794
  312
  598
  539
Marten   7,015
Mink   4,910
Muskrats   36,661
Fur-bearing Animals.
Otter ...
Racoon
86
15
25
387
935
268
Skunk 	
Squirrels  137,132
Weasels     21,329
Wildcat         252
Wolverine          131
Cougar
Coyotes
Predatory Animals.
152 Wolves
2,310
309
Statement of Vermin destroyed by Game Wardens during the Year 1948.
Game Divisions.
Total.
" A."
" B."
" C."
" D."
"E."
Animals.
3
43
299
80
200
42
89
12
46
29
6
3
104
115
150
50
78
17
434
26
55
30
25
19
2
20
6
13
41
499
100
238
65
26
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85
295
598
169
158
3
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110
34
2
40
229
32
34
32
17
142
4
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6
45
346
30
880
63
107
20
22
23
4
26
19
195
739
45
150
150
995
194
66
Birds.
3,026
248
580
628
387
28
53 report of provincial game commission, 1948. x 105
Summary of Liberation of Game Birds, 1948.
Area. Pheasants.
Vancouver Island—
Alberni   60
Courtenay  424
Nanaimo-Parksville   54
Victoria (North and South Saanich)  575
Total      1,113
Lower Mainland—
Agassiz   250
Chilliwack   594
Delta   2,563
Lulu Island  1,030
Matsqui  214
Mission (Hatzic and Nicomen Island)  663
Pitt Meadows   2,686
Sumas Prairie   2,674
Surrey   2,462
Total   13,136
Interior—
Dawson Creek  24
Fort St. John  24
Grand Forks  660
Kamloops  843
Kelowna   181
Nakusp   56
Penticton   210
Salmon Arm  336
Vanderhoof   48
Vernon   503
Total      2,885
Summary.
District.
Vancouver Island      1,113
Lower Mainland  13,136
Interior  :     2,885
Total   17,134
Ninety California quail were purchased and liberated in the Victoria district
during the year.
NOTE.—Total cost covering purchase of all game birds listed was $28,218.40. x 106 british columbia.
Statement of Game-bird Farmers, 1948.
Number and Kind of Birds on Hand as at January 1st, 1948.
Pheasants      3,763 Geese  1
Quail        173 Partridge          27
Ducks          26
Number and Kind of Birds raised, 1948.
Pheasants   25,863 Ducks         135
Quail          97 Partridge          15
Number and Kind of Birds purchased, 1948.
Pheasants        496 Quail   2
Number and Kind of Birds sold, 1948.
Pheasants   19,567 Partridge   11
Quail         170
Number and Kind of Birds killed or died, 1948.
Pheasants      4,023 Geese  1
Ducks         100
Number and Kind of Birds on Hand as at December 31st, 1948.
Pheasants      6,532 Ducks         61
Quail         102 Partridge          31
Note.—During the year 1948 there were 108 licensed game-bird farmers in the
Province, but during the year 1948, sixteen of these farmers discontinued business.
Six game-bird farmers have not submitted returns. Game-bird bands sold to licensed
game-bird farmers during the year 1948 amounted to $220.20 (2,202 bands at ten cents
each).
Miscellaneous Revenue, 1948.
Sale of Lists of Various Licence-holders, etc.
3 trappers' at $15 per copy  $45.00
2 fur-traders' at $1.50 per copy  3.00
5 game-convention minutes at 75 cents per copy  3.75
2,202 game-bird bands at 10 cents each  220.20
271 trap-line transfer fees at $2.50 each  677.50
Proceeds, sale of trout eggs  700.00
Proceeds, export live fur-bearing animals  175.00
Proceeds, permits export game meat  157.50
Total   $1,981.95 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948.
X 107
LIST OF GUIDES AND NON-RESIDENT OUTFITTERS, 1948.
Definition of Guide Licence Classifications.
A First-class Guide shall be one who has acted as a guide in the Province for a
period of at least three years in the ten years immediately preceding his application for
a guide's licence and who has suitable equipment for outfitting any person desiring to
hunt game.
A Second-class Guide shall be one who has acted as a guide in the Province for a
period of at least three years in the ten years immediately preceding his application for
a guide's licence, but who cannot qualify as a First-class Guide.
An Assistant Guide shall be one who cannot qualify as either a First-class or
Second-class Guide, and shall be entitled to act as a guide in the hunting of game birds
or in angling for trout, and after securing a permit so to do from the Game Commission
when employed by, or under the supervision of a First- or Second-class Guide to guide
big-game hunters.
East Kootenay "A" (Cranbrook-Invermere-Golden Districts).
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Alton, William, Parson  Asst.
Anderson, Charles D., Windermere     1st
Asimont, Horst, Invermere     2nd
Baldry, Charles, Windermere    2nd
Belcher, Walter, Canal Flats Asst.
Bergenham, Peter, Beavermouth      1st
Bjorn, Henry Manning, Port Steele .... Asst.
Boyle, James, Edgewater    2nd
Brewer, Carl, Invermere  Asst.
Brogan, Alex, Canal Flats    2nd
Buckman, Alan, Fort Steele  Asst.
Buckman, Charles, Fort Steele Asst.
Burns, Timothy, Golden  Asst.
Canning, Lester, Skookumchuck   2nd
Capilo, Louie, Shuswap Reserve, Athal-
mer      1st
Cooper, Albert, Invermere    2nd
Dilworth, James, Athalmer   2nd
Dobbie, Alex, Invermere    2nd
Drysdale,   Alistair   James,   Skookumchuck  Asst.
Du Bois, Vaughn, Windermere     1st
Eady, Clark W., Golden    2nd
Eady, Margaret, Golden Asst.
Englehart, Paul, Invermere Asst.
Engles, Jack, Invermere Asst.
Feuz, Sidney W., Golden  Asst.
Feuz, Walter, Golden      1st
Fisher, Tony, Fairmont    2nd
Gabry, Michael, Brisco   2nd
Galbraith, Edward, Spillimaeheen   2nd
Goodwin, Cecile R., Invermere Asst.
Goodwin, Elwood, Edgewater    2nd
Gould, Percy, Canal Flats     1st
Hamilton, Thomas Joseph, Ta Ta Creek  2nd
Hammond, Lyle, Golden  2nd
Hansen, Trygvert, Wilmer  2nd
Hansen, Walter, Edgewater   2nd
Harrison, William 0., Edgewater     1st
Hellman, Ernest F., Fort Steele Asst.
Hogan, Charles A., Spillimaeheen     1st
Hogan, Charles M., Spillimaeheen     1st
Hynes, Ben, Spillimaeheen  Asst.
Jimmie, Joe, Windermere  Asst.
Johnson, Alexander, Invermere   2nd
Joseph, Camille, Fairmont    2nd
Joseph, Jerome, Fairmont  2nd
Kain, Isidor, Wilmer   2nd
Name and Address of Guide.
Licence
Grade.
King, Norman, Golden      1st
Langdon, Frank, Invermere  Asst.
Larson, Alfred Athalmer Asst.
Lindborg, Azel, Golden     1st
Lum, George, Fort Steele  Asst.
McClain, J. I., Spillimaeheen     1st
McKay, Gordon, Invermere      1st
McKay, James, Invermere  Asst.
Michael, David C., Invermere      1st
Michele, Abraham, Windermere  Asst.
Mitchell, Robert, Brisco     2nd
Morigeau, Martin, Fairmont      1st
Nicholas, Dominic, Windermere     2nd
Nicol, Arthur Henry, Fort Steele     1st
Nixon, Fred, Parson  Asst.
Nixon, Leigh, Invermere      1st
Nixon, Wilbert W., Parson     2nd
Palmer, Howard, Canal Flats    2nd
Pelton, Robert Benjamin, Cranbrook ...   2nd
Phillips, Eclus C, Windermere     1st
Phillips, Frank A., 1551 St. Andrews,
North Vancouver       1st
Pommier, Emile, Skookumchuck     2nd
Rad, Gordon, Invermere Asst.
Richter, Frank, Invermere    2nd
Robison, Arthur E., Canal Flats Asst.
Romane, William, Golden Asst.
Rutherford, Melvin, Invermere    2nd
Seward, Arvid, Golden     2nd
Sheek, W. P., Spillimaeheen    2nd
Sparrow, John, Windermere     2nd
Stender, Elmer Clarence, Cranbrook __ Asst.
Stevens, Lawrance, Windermere Asst.
Stewart, Douglas, Spillimaeheen  Asst.
Sykes, Harry, Spillimaeheen     1st
Tegart, George, Edgewater     1st
Tegart, Hiram W., Brisco      1st
Tegart, James, Brisco      1st
Tegart, Raymond, Windermere Asst.
Thomas, Robert George, Parson   2nd
Thompson, James, Brisco      1st
Thompson, Lionel, Edgewater     1st
Tyler, Graham, Invermere    2nd
Webber, Sidney, Golden      1st
White, James Freeman, Fort Steele __.    1st
Wilson, John, Spillimaeheen  Asst.
Wolfenden, Winston, Brisco    2nd
Wood, William B., Invermere  Asst.
Zapotochny, Stan, Golden  Asst.
Zinkan, Edward, Invermere  Asst. X 108
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
East Kootenay " B " (Cranbrook, East to Crow's Nest,
including Fernie and Natal) .
Name and Address of Guide.
Anderson, Fred, Wardner
Arbuckle, David, Fernie
Licence
Grade.
...     1st
..Asst.
Name and Address of Guide.
Licence
Grade.
Ashman, Levi, Waterton, Alta.   2nd
Baher, Fred, Natal  Asst.
Baher, Mathias, Natal      1st
Baher, M. C, Natal     1st
Baher, William, Natal    2nd
Barnes, Alfred, Fernie     1st
Barnes, J. M., Fernie      1st
Betts, Vincent, Wardner  Asst.
Billy, Andrew, Natal Asst.
Bower, Glen, Wardner  Asst.
Cossarini, Louise, Natal  Asst.
Cunliffe, Thomas, Fernie Asst.
Dvorak, Frank, Fernie     1st
Dvorak, Wenzel, Fernie     2nd
Gorrie (Sr.), Meth, Flagstone     1st
Gorrie (Jr.), Meth, Flagstone   2nd
Gravelle, Alex, Flagstone Asst.
Gravelle, Nicholas, Flagstone   2nd
Hammer, Andy, Wardner Asst.
Hicks, Frank, Fernie     1st
Hicks, Philip, Fernie     1st
Holley, Charles, Natal Asst.
Holley, Thomas, Natal  Asst.
Kaisnir, George, Natal     2nd
Kaisnir (Jr.), Harry, Natal    2nd
Lum, Peter Charles, Fort Steele     1st
McGinnis, Earl, Natal     1st
McGuire, Albert F., Flagstone    2nd
Porco, Albert, Michel     2nd
Porco, Ralph, Michel      1st
Riddell, Harry Scott, Wardner     2nd
Rodney, Sylvester, Natal  Asst.
Rosicky, Andrew W., Wardner  Asst.
Rosicky, Anton, Wardner     1st
Rothel, Malcolm, Natal    2nd
Siple, Alfred, Wardner     1st
Talbot, Percy K., Natal Asst.
Volpatti, Benjamin J., Natal  .    1st
Whiting, Renal, Natal     2nd
Williams, Robert, Fernie Asst.
West Kootenay (including Creston-Nelson-Slocan-Kootenay-Arrow
and Trout Lakes Districts) .
Name and Address of Guide.
Licence
Grade.
Abey, Harry R., Kaslo   2nd
Benny, Glen E., Creston      1st
Brett, Artley, Arrow Creek Asst.
Clark, W. F., Howser   2nd
Cummings, Arnold, Boswell     2nd
Cummings, Ray, Boswell  Asst.
Currie, H. S., Ainsworth    2nd
Hagen, Frank, Wynndel    2nd
Hallgren, Sven, Ainsworth      1st
Hansen, W., Ainsworth Asst.
Hawkins, Sumner, Port Crawford    2nd
Kacnuk, J., Trout Lake    2nd
Name and Address of Guide.
Kilsby, C. S., Howser ...
Koch, Charles, Sanca
Licence
Grade.
-Asst.
...   2nd
Marks, F. R., Howser     1st
McKay, Ellis, Balfour Asst.
MacNicol, James W., Johnson's Landing 2nd
Newbrand, E., Nakusp   2nd
Oliver, G. J., Gray Creek   2nd
O'Neil, Richard, Sanca     2nd
Peterson, E. H., Sandon   2nd
Small, Roy G., Beaton   2nd
Varney, C. E., Vallican    2nd
Varney, Roy, Vallican     2nd
Cariboo District "A" (100-Mile House South to Ashcroft
AND INCLUDING CANIM LAKE AND LILLOOET).
Name and Address of Guide.
Licence
Grade.
Allaire, R. J., Goldbridge  Asst.
Archie, Cassian, Canim Lake  2nd
Archie, Charlie A., Buffalo Creek  2nd
Archie, George, Canim Lake   1st
Archie, Jacob, Canim Lake  1st
Archie, Joseph, Canim Lake   2nd
Archie, Tommy, Forest Grove   2nd
Baker, Fred, Ashcroft  2nd
Baker, J. A., Clinton   2nd
Baker, J. C, Loon Lake  2nd
Baker, R. M., Loon Lake  2nd
Baldus, William, Fawn   2nd
Baldus, William, Wells Gray Camp Ltd.,
Fawn  Asst.
Bates, M., Clinton   2nd
Besette, Arthur, Loon Lake   2nd
Birdsele, Sam, Clinton   2nd
Bishop, J. A., Clinton   1st
Bob, Henry, Canim Lake  2nd
Bones, Alex, Clinton   1st
Bones, Frank, Clinton   2nd
Bones, Pete, Clinton  2nd
Name and Address of Guide.
Bones, Teresa, Clinton
Licence
Grade.
2nd
Bothwick, Hector, Forest Grove   2nd
Bowden, R. L., Clinton  2nd
Boyce, Jules, 100-Mile House   2nd
Bradford, A. N., R.R. 1, Fawn   2nd
Brooke, H. A., Cache Creek  2nd
Camille, Francis, Canoe Creek  2nd
Chabara, Anna, 70-Mile House   2nd
Charlie, Jimmie, Forest Grove  2nd
Christie, Frank, Moha   2nd
Christie, Thomas L., Moha  Asst.
Christopher, David, Canim Lake Asst.
Christopher, Peter, Canim Lake  1st
Cleveland, J. G., Bridge Lake  2nd
Cleveland, L. C, Bridge Lake   1st
Cleveland, R. C, Bridge Lake   2nd
Cleveland, W. L., Bridge Lake  2nd
Coldwell, H. W., Jesmond   1st
Colin, A. A., 100-Mile House   2nd
Collin, Grover, 100-Mile House  Asst.
Collins, E. M., Cache Creek   1st
Collins, J. E., Cache Creek  2nd REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948.
X 109
Cariboo District "A" (100-Mile House South to Ashcroft and
including Canim Lake and Lillooet)—Continued.
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Conroy, J. S., 70-Mile House  2nd
Cunningham, Charles B., Bralorne   1st
Dahlgren, Carl, Bridge Lake  Asst.
Daniels, George, Canim Lake   2nd
Day, W. A., 100-Mile House  2nd
Deker, English, Forest Grove  2nd
Doman, G. L., Fawn  2nd
Dougall, A. T., Bridge Lake Asst.
Dougherty Sr., C. A., Ashcroft  1st
Dougherty Jr., C. A., Ashcroft  2nd
Dougherty, E. G., Clinton   1st
Dougherty, J. J., 70-Mile House  2nd
Dyer, G. H., 70-Mile House  2nd
Eberle, Matt, Clinton  Asst.
Edall, I. K., Fawn  2nd
Edall, L. S., Fawn  2nd
Eden, D. D., Lone Butte  2nd
Eden, R. B., 70-Mile House  2nd
Erickson, S. W., Canim Lake   2nd
Faessler, C. J., Fawn   1st
Fenton, Charlie, Clinton   2nd
Fenton, Walter, Jesmond  1st
Flaherty, R. J., 93-Mile House  1st
Fowler, N., Clinton   1st
Frost, Freeman, Ashcroft  2nd
Gaines, Clinton, Fawn   2nd
Gammie, H. G., 70-Mile House  2nd
George, Henry, Cache Creek  2nd
Gott, Joe, Clinton Asst.
Graf, Mike, R.R. 1, Fawn  2nd
Greenlee, E. L., Canim Lake  1st
Grice, Percy, 70-Mile House   2nd
Grinder, Bert, Clinton   2nd
Grinder, Bill, Jesmond  2nd
Grinder, E., Jesmond   2nd
Grinder, Isidore, Clinton   2nd
Grinder, John, Big Bar   1st
Grinder, Louise, Clinton   2nd
Grinder, Walter, Big Bar   2nd
Hall, M., Bridge Lake   2nd
Hansen, J. F., Bridge Lake   1st
Hansen, Wesley, Bridge Lake  2nd
Hendricks, Ike, Loon Lake   2nd
Higgins, C. L., Bridge Lake   1st
Higgins, Ed, Fawn   1st
Higgins, Marrion, Bridge Lake   1st
Higgins, R. A., Bridge Lake   1st
Hodges, E. W., R.R. 1, Fawn  2nd
Horn, Walter A., Lone Butte  2nd
Houseman, J. J., 100-Mile House  2nd
Huckvale, A. J., Lone Butte  1st
Hunter, Mickey, Ashcroft  2nd
Hutchison, D. B., 70-Mile House  2nd
James, Ernest, Lillooet   2nd
James, Pat, Lillooet  Asst.
Johnson, Claude, Bridge Lake   2nd
Johnson, J. A., 100-Mile House  1st
Johnson, J. E., Bridge Lake  2nd
Johnson, Zale A., Bridge Lake  2nd
Johnston, Vincent, Bridge Lake  2nd
Keary, C. J., Tyaughton Lake  2nd
Kellett, George, Canim Lake Asst.
Kerr, Alvis H., Clinton   2nd
King, C. J., Fawn  2nd
King, G., R.R. 1, Fawn   2nd
Knauf, H. G., Fawn  1st
Koster, Henry, Canoe Creek  2nd
Krebs, Len, 100-Mile House   2nd
Name and Address of Guide.
Labourdais, E., Clinton, ...
Labourdais, Joe, Clinton, .
Land, Robert S., Moha
Licence
Grade.
... 1st
... 2nd
...   1st
Larson, J. 0., Bridge Lake   1st
Larson, Karl J., Fawn  2nd
Larson, L. L., Fawn   1st
Larum, S., Fawn  2nd
Leavitt, F. W., R.R. 1, Fawn   1st
Lehman, Albert, Lillooet  2nd
Levick, J. S., Fawn  2nd
Livingston, Niel, 70-Mile House  2nd
Lord, E., Buffalo Creek   2nd
Loring, Edwin, Clinton   2nd
Louie, Freddie, Canoe Creek  2nd
Louie, Gavy, Canoe Creek  2nd
Louis, Victor, Canoe Creek  2nd
McKay, John, Lytton   2nd
MacLean, D., Fawn   2nd
McMahon, J. C, 70-Mile House   2nd
McNiel, B. Spencer, Fawn   1st
McNiel, B. H., Fawn Asst.
McNiel, Herbert, M., Fawn  1st
Mackie, James C, Fawn   2nd
Madden, E. E., Cache Creek  2nd
Maddocks, F., 70-Mile House   2nd
Marriott, Ron, Clinton   2nd
Martin, R. M., Bridge Lake   2nd
Mathewson, A. E., Ashcroft  2nd
Matier, Herb, Clinton   2nd
Matier, Mrs. M., Ashcroft  2nd
Mabbs, Ben, 70-Mile House  2nd
Mabbs, W. E., 70-Mile House  2nd
Mooring, Alex, Fawn   2nd
Morris, D. L., Forest Grove   2nd
Murray, G., Clinton   2nd
Math, Carl, J., Fawn  2nd
Nelson, Ronald, Clinton  2nd
Odian, E. J., Fawn   2nd
O'Keeffe, Wally, Rexmount   2nd
Olafson, H. J., Lone Butte   2nd
Oleman, Patrick, Shalalth   2nd
Osterlund, Ed, Moha  2nd
Parent, S. J., Fawn   2nd
Park, Arlie H., 70-Mile House   2nd
Park, Jack, 70-Mile House  2nd
Parkes, L. G., 70-Mile House   2nd
Paul, L., Canoe Creek   2nd
Perrault, Joseph, Jesmond   2nd
Petrie, Don, Bridge Lake  2nd
Pigeon, J. R., Clinton   1st
Powell, Henry J., Clinton   1st
Powell, T. G., Sheridan Lake   1st
Piero, J., Cache Creek   2nd
Pigeon, Arne, Clinton   2nd
Pigeon, C. L., Clinton  2nd
Pigeon, P. F., Clinton Asst.
Pinkney, R. 0., Canim Lake   2nd
Pollard, J. H., Clinton   1st
Prydatok, Steve, 70-Mile House  2nd
Reinertson, R. J., Taylor Lake  2nd
Reynolds, A. J., Big Bar Creek  1st
Reynolds, H. D., Big Bar Creek  2nd
Ridenhour, R., Bridge Lake   2nd
Roper, Alfred, Forest Grove  2nd
Rosenau, Richard, Canim Lake  Asst.
Rosette, Augustine, Gang Ranch  1st
Russell, L. J., Lillooet   2nd
Scheepbouwer, J. A., 70-Mile House  2nd X 110
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Cariboo District "A" (100-Mile House South to Ashcroft and
including Canim Lake and Lillooet)—Continued.
Name and Address of Guide.
Licence
Grade.
Name and Address of Guide.
Licence
Grade.
Scheepbouwer, John C, 70-Mile House    1st
Scheepbouwer, W., 70-Mile House   2nd
Scott, Doug, 100-Mile House   2nd
Scotton, George, Lillooet  Asst.
Sedman, J., R.R. 1, Fawn     2nd
Singleton, W., Fawn    2nd
Spencer, J. H., Cache Creek  Asst.
Spencer, L. C. P., Ashcroft    2nd
Stanislaus, Patrick, Canim Lake  Asst.
Sundman, John, 100-Mile House     2nd
Taylor, Dick, Bridge Lake     2nd
Terry, David, Lillooet  Asst.
Theodore, Paul, Canim Lake  Asst.
Thomason, D. M., Bridge Lake      1st
Thorsteinson, Charles, 93-Mile House.   2nd
Tom, William, Lillooet Asst.
Turney, R. J., Fawn  1st
Umphrey, S. T., Fawn  2nd
Van Horlick, Buster, Clinton   2nd
Vecqueray, A. E., Clinton   2nd
Vecqueray, R. J., Clinton  2nd
Walsh, F. C, 83-Mile House  2nd
Watkinson, Bob R., Lillooet   2nd
Watt, Lloyd, 21-Mile House Asst.
Westman, James, Forest Grove  2nd
Whitley, W. P., 70-Mile House  2nd
Wilkinson, Charles. 70-Mile House  2nd
Wilkinson, T. H., Fawn  2nd
Winteringham, Frank, Fawn   2nd
Womack, C. B., Fawn   2nd
Wrigley, E. W., Clinton  1st
Young, W., Clinton   2nd
Cariboo District
Name and Address of Guide.
Abram, A. E., Lac la Hache
B " (100-Mile House North to Marguerite,
East of Fraser River) .
Licence
Grade.
...   2nd
Alexander, Jack, Lac la Hache   1st
Ash, Chris, Big Lake   2nd
Asserlind, H. C., Keithley Creek  2nd
Atkins, Don, Horsefly   2nd
Barker, Peter, Big Lake   2nd
Barrett, Stan, Likely _      2nd
Barton, Thomas, Lac la Hache   1st
Bathgate, John S., Lac la Hache  2nd
Branch, Edward, Miocene   2nd
Brown, James J., Lac la Hache  2nd
Bryce, Jack, Big Lake   2nd
Cropley, R. H., Ochiltree  2nd
Curtis, Rae, Williams Lake   2nd
Dick, Matthew, Ochiltree  2nd
Dixon, Edward, Lac la Hache   2nd
Dixon, Maurice, Lac la Hache   2nd
Eagle, Cliff B., Lac la Hache   1st
Ewart, Don, Lac la Hache  1st
Felker, W. R., 150-Mile House  2nd
Ford, Clair, Horsefly  2nd
Forster, Hubert, Likely   1st
Gibbons, M. L., Horsefly  1st
Goetten, Charles E., Horsefly  2nd
Graham, James, Horsefly   2nd
Graham, John, Horsefly  2nd
Graham, Robert, Likely   2nd
Gunn, John M., Horsefly  1st
Haller, August, Lac la Hache   2nd
Hamilton, G. G., Williams Lake   2nd
Hamilton, Herbert M., Lac la Hache .. 1st
Hamilton, Theodore, 10-Mile House .... 1st
Hamilton, Pete, Williams Lake   2nd
Hamilton, Thomas, Williams Lake   2nd
Herber, Archie, 150-Mile House  2nd
Hinsche, Fred, Lac la Hache   2nd
Hockley, George, Horsefly  1st
Hole, W. H., Keithley Creek   2nd
Hooker, F. C, Horsefly   1st
Hooker, S. B., Horsefly   1st
Hubbard, I. H., Horsefly   2nd
Jacobson, Alfred, Williams Lake   2nd
Jacobson, John, Williams Lake   2nd
Jefferson, Jesse, Big Lake  2nd
Jefferson, Theodore, Big Lake   2nd
Jenner, Ernest, Horsefly   1st
Johnson, Floyd, 150-Mile House   2nd
Jones,  Fred, Horesfly   1st
Licence
Grade.
1st
Name and Address of Guide.
Jones, Lawrence, Horsefly 	
Junek, Adolph, Horsefly   2nd
King, E. S., Horsefly   2nd
McDougall, Archie, Lac la Hache  2nd
McDougall, Robert D., Big Lake   2nd
McKenzie, Kenneth, Big Lake   1st
McKenzie, William, 150-Mile House .. 2nd
Manley, Douglas V., Horsefly   2nd
Mikkelson, Claus, Horsefly   2nd
Mitchell, Sam, Williams Lake   2nd
Moore, John, Ochiltree  2nd
Moore, Thomas, Ochiltree   2nd
Morgan, D., Likely   1st
Nicol, Alex, Horsefly   2nd
Nicol, Shelly, Horsefly  2nd
Oak, E., Horsefly   2nd
Otson, Arbor, Horsefly  2nd
Patton, Henry, Bit? Lake   2nd
Paxton, Hubert, Macalister   2nd
Petrowitz, Arthur, Williams Lake   2nd
Prior, Joe, Hydraulic      2nd
Pulver, George, 150-Mile House   2nd
Pulver, William, G., 150-Mile House _ 2nd
Racher, Wilfred, Horsefly        2nd
Rankin, Fred R., Soda Creek  2nd
Robertson, A. H., Macalister   2nd
Robertson, A. T., Macalister   2nd
Robertson, Kenneth, Miocene   2nd
Sharp, William, Ochiltree  2nd
Thygeson, Julius, Horsefly   2nd
Vannes, John, Horsefly  1st
Walters, Glen, Horsefly   1st
Walters, H. Thomas, Likely   2nd
Walters, Leonard, Horsefly       2nd
Walters, R. I., Likely     2nd
Weber, James L., Big Lake  2nd
Webster, Alfred, Horsefly  2nd
Webster, Alister, Horsefly  2nd
Westwick, Burton, 150-Mile House  2nd
Westwick, Freddie, 150-Mile House  2nd
Westwick, Lawrence, 150-Mile House... 2nd
Wiggins, Wiley H., Miocene   2nd
Williams, Aubry, Horsefly .   2nd
Williams, Rex, Lac La Hache  1st
Wotske, Erbert, Williams Lake  2nd
Wycotte, Jimmy, Williams Lake  2nd
Wynstra, J. W., Horsefly  2nd
Zirul, John, Lac La Hache   2nd REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948.
X 111
Cariboo District " C " (Quesnel-Barkerville from Marguerite North).
Name and Address of Guide.
Licence
Grade.
Allen, George H., Quesnel  1st
Armstrong, Brazier, Quesnel   1st
Armstrong, Wilfred, Quesnel   1st
Baptiste, Eugene G., Castle Rock Asst.
Becker, Fred W., Wells   1st
Bobb, Edward R., Marguerite  2nd
Booth, Paton, Quesnel  2nd
Cochran, James Dean, Barkerville  1st
Coldwell, Harry, Punchaw   2nd
Cooper, Thomas Hiram, Quesnel  2nd
Dale, Joseph, Woodpecker  2nd
Dolvin, Edward, Batnuni, Quesnel  1st
Harrington, Alexander G., Quesnel  1st
Heaton, William Frank, Buck Ridge ... 2nd
Hoffman, Peter, Cinema   2nd
Hartness, Sigurd, Cinema   2nd
Hunter, Lome C, Quesnel  Asst.
Knudson, Leonard E., Quesnel  2nd
Lavington, Arthur, Nazko   2nd
Lavington, Harold A., Quesnel  2nd
McKenzie, James H., Cinema  2nd
McKenzie, Sam, Cinema  Asst.
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
McKitrick, Roy Douglas, Wells  2nd
McKort, Clarence C, Alexandria  1st
McKort, Irvine, Alexandria  Asst.
Marsh, Ruric L., Quesnel   2nd
Miller, Isaac, Punchaw   2nd
Moffat, Ronald, Alexandria   1st
Monkman, Floyd, Narcosli Creek  2nd
Morris, Miche, Cinema  2nd
O'Leary, Art, Quesnel   2nd
Paley, Bob, Quesnel  Asst.
Quanstrom, Carl, Quesnel  2nd
Quanstrom, Harry, Quesnel   2nd
Quanstrom, Julius, Quesnel   2nd
Rawling, Arden T., Quesnel   2nd
Rowling, Arnold B., Quesnel   2nd
Simrose, Martin, Cinema   2nd
Sorum, Erick, Cottonwood   2nd
Tibbies, Fred, Quesnel   1st
Tibbies, James, Quesnel  2nd
Twan, Dave, Marguerite  1st
Webster, Jim, Narcosli Creek  1st
Wyllie, James, Quesnel  Asst.
Cariboo District " D " (Chilcotin District, Cariboo West of Fraser River) .
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Blacknose, Chel, Alexis Creek  2nd
Blatchford, John, Alexis Creek  1st
Bonner, J., Big Creek   2nd
Boyd, Douglas R., Alexis Creek  2nd
Bristow, James Archie, Hanceville Asst.
Bryant, Alfred Lord, Anahim Lake  1st
Bullion, Sammy, Redstone   2nd
Cheta, Johnny, Hanceville   2nd
Church, R. H., Big Creek   1st
Collier, Eric, Meldrum Creek  2nd
Dester, Baptiste, Kleena Kleene  1st
Dorsey, Lester, Anahim Lake  1st
Elkins, Baptiste, Anahim Lake  2nd
Elkins, Joe, Alexis Creek   2nd
Elkins, Marvin, Alexis Creek  2nd
Elkins, Thomas, Alexis Creek  2nd
Frank, Scotty, Anahim Lake  2nd
George, Little, Hanceville   2nd
Grambush, Donald, Anahim Lake   2nd
Haller, Joe, Hanceville  2nd
Hance, Grover, Hanceville   1st
Haynes, Harry K., Tatlayoko Lake— 2nd
Haynes, K. W. G., Tatlayoko Lake  2nd
Henderson, John, Tatlayoko Lake  2nd
Henry, A. C, Big Creek   1st
Henry, E. L., Tatlayoko Lake  1st
Hugo, Ambrose Mark, Big Creek  2nd
Hutchinson, W., Big Creek  2nd
Jasper, Wesley Norton, Riske Creek  1st
Johnson, T. William, Riske Creek  1st
Lucas, Ted., Anahim Lake Asst.
Name and Address of Guide.
Lulua, Felix, Redstone ...
Licence
Grade.
2nd
Lulua, Henry, Redstone   2nd
Lulua, Tommy, Redstone   2nd
MacPherson, A. J., Alexis Creek Asst.
MacPherson, A. St. Clair, Alexis Creek 2nd
Mackill, Clarence, Kleena Kleene  1st
Maxted, William, Big Creek   2nd
Mullen, Bernal, Tatla Lake   2nd
Mulvahill, Randolph, Chezacut  1st
Mulvahill, William, Chezacut  2nd
Nickolson, D. R., Tatla Lake  2nd
Phillips, Dan, Anahim Lake   2nd
Quilt, Frederick, Hanceville   2nd
Quilt, Jack, Hanceville   2nd
Quilt, Louis, Stonei Rancherie  2nd
Rafferty, Arthur Thomas, Riske Creek .Asst.
Roberts, C. F., Riske Creek   1st
Roberts, Johnny, Anahim Lake  2nd
Sammy, Danny, Redstone  2nd
Sammy, Eugene, Redstone   2nd
Smith, Robert, Anahim Lake   2nd
Squinas, Thomas, Anahim Lake  1st
Stephenson, Donald, Alexis Creek  2nd
Sulin, Willie, Anahim Lake  2nd
Turner, George, Kleena Kleene  1st
Wier, Donald James, Alexis Creek  1st
Watt, Bruce, Big Creek Asst.
Witte, Duane, Big Creek  1st
Witte, Frank, Big Creek  1st
Woods, William, Hanceville   1st
Zulin, Fatty, Anahim Lake  2nd
Zulin, Sam, Anahim Lake  2nd X 112
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Kamloops District.
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Albrecht, C. W., Quilchena Asst.
Allen, Howard, Savona  Asst.
Archibald, D. A., R.R. 1, Clearwater   2nd
Archibald, David C, Clearwater Asst.
Avery, Walter, Savona  Asst.
Bisehoff, Fred, Magna Bay    2nd
Boule, James E., Savona     2nd
Boyd, Kenneth, Kamloops Asst.
Boyko, John, Savona     Asst.
Bradner, Earl M., Chase     2nd
Brousseau, Clifford, Savona      1st
Brown, Willard, Clearwater Asst.
Burdett, George, Savona      1st
Burdett, Loretta, Savona      1st
Cahoon, Charles, Kamloops     2nd
Cameron, James B., Savona      1st
Caywood, Phil, Clearwater     2nd
Christian, Douglas, Savona     2nd
Clearwaters, Dale, Kamloops  Asst.
Clearwaters, Ralph W., Westbridge    2nd
Cochran, William P., Darfield     2nd
Cooper, Norman T., Savona     2nd
Cooper, Philip, Westsyde     1st
Delisle, George Henry, Louis Creek    2nd
Dever, Dolly, Savona  Asst.
Dexheimer, John, Savona     2nd
Donald, William J., Savona      1st
Douthwaite, Peter L. C, McLure     1st
Dunlop, William, Barriere          2nd
Earl, Thomas H., Louis Creek  Asst.
Ellis, Douglas K., R.R. 1, Kamloops    2nd
Fennell, J. A., Chu Chua    2nd
Gourlay, James R., Barriere     1st
Genier, Wilfred, Barriere     2nd
Grant, Charles, McLure     2nd
Grant, Gordon, McLure      1st
Hagen, Harry 0., Barriere    2nd
Hanson, R. Lee, Salmon Arm      1st
Helset, Ted, Clearwater    1st
Henstock, Jack, Savona  Asst.
Hoover, Eldred, McLure     2nd
Humphrey, Ashton, Knutsford  Asst.
Irving, Frank H., McLure    2nd
Johnson, Jack, Savona      1st
Johnson, Stewart, Criss Creek    2nd
King, Edwin I., Westwold    2nd
Kipling, John, McLure     2nd
La Fave, John W., R.R. 1, Louis Creek   1st
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
La Riviere, James, Squilax     2nd
Latremouille, Joseph L., Little Fort     1st
Lean, Theodore B., Clearwater    2nd
Lloyd, William, Red Lake __.     2nd
Loveway, Thomas V., Little Fort    2nd
Ludtke, Charles D., Clearwater    2nd
Ludtke, Laurence, Clearwater     1st
Lyons, George Henry, Brookmere      1st
McConnell, Ken, Louis Creek   2nd
McDiarmid, G. Garfield, Clearwater     1st
MaeDougall, Harold D., Darfield Asst.
MacDougall, Wallace, Darfield  Asst.
McGarrigle, William J., Little Fort.....    1st
McMaster, Vern, Savona Asst.
Marriott, Robert, Heffley Lake    2nd
Miller, Robert G., Blue River     2nd
Morris, Ian, Red Lake    2nd
Morton, Alfred, McLure      1st
Murray, George, Savona      1st
Nelson, Gerald, Blackpine    2nd
Nelson, William L., Savona     2nd
Palmer, William F., Darfield     2nd
Paris, John D., Barriere     2nd
Parkes, E. J. Vincent, Monte Creek...... Asst.
Pell, Murrill, Pritchard     1st
Perry, Sam, Kamloops  Asst.
Rainer, Karl, Darfield    2nd
Ransom, Ronald, Kamloops Asst.
Rawson, John, Squilax    2nd
Reaugh, Howard, Savona . ..    2nd
Schreiber, Charles P., Darfield     2nd
Scott, Duncan, Barriere       1st
Shook, Charles, Clearwater     2nd
Shook, Floyd, Clearwater  Asst.
Small, Reg, Clearwater     2nd
Smith, Allen E., Savona    2nd
Smith, John H. C, Kamloops Asst.
Smith, John W., Criss Creek      1st
Thacker, George, Savona  Asst.
Threlkeld, Harold, Savona    2nd
Threlkeld, Richard, Savona     2nd
Turner, Harold, Criss Creek     2nd
Turner, John, Criss Creek     2nd
Tuson, Clifford, Savona      1st
Vinnie, Alexander, Kamloops    2nd
Welland, John, Red Lake     2nd
Wilson, Don, Vinsulla         2nd
Woodward, Ernest A. J., Little Fort...    1st
Similkameen-Penticton-Princeton-Keremeos.
Name and Address of Guide.
Armstrong, Allan Carew, Keremeos
Billups, Clyde, Oliver
Licence
Grade.
...   2nd
...  2nd
Clark, Herbert Gerald, Keremeos  1st
Duncan, Charles, Penticton     2nd
Edge,   Alvin   Hawthorne,   Okanagan
Falls ..--   2nd
Fulks, Leonard, Peachland   2nd
Holding, Richard, Bankier   2nd
Le Lievre, Lind John, Penticton  1st
Lewis, James William, Princeton  1st
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
McDermott, James, Princeton  Asst.
McLean, Gordon Archibald, Okanagan
Falls .....      2nd
Manion, William Bartlett, Tulameen   2nd
Marsell, Frank, Keremeos Asst.
Richter, John, Keremeos   ...     1st
Richter, John Joseph, Keremeos     2nd
Steve, James, Princeton     2nd
Thomas, John Edward, Okanagan Falls   2nd
Tweddle, Haliburton, Keremeos   2nd REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948.
X 113
Grand Forks-Greenwood (including Kettle Valley).
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Ackerman, Alfred Wm., Westbridge..— 2nd
Anschetz, Chris, Rock Creek  2nd
Bohnet, James, Rock Creek  2nd
Bradshaw, George A., Westbridge  2nd
Carey, Bertram, Westbridge  2nd
Carey, Joe F., Westbridge  2nd
Cochran, Fred M., Westbridge  2nd
Fernstrom, Frederick, Kettle Valley  2nd
Fernstrom, John A., Kettle Valley  2nd
From, Helge C, Westbridge  2nd
From, Ingvall, Westbridge Asst.
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
From, Oliver G., Westbridge  2nd
Hall, D. Elmer, Westbridge  2nd
Lockhart, Fred, Beaverdell  2nd
Lutner, E. C, Beaverdell  2nd
Noren, Arnold F., Westbridge  2nd
Noren, Carl F., Westbridge  2nd
Noren, Carl S., Westbridge  2nd
Noren, Clarence Wm., Westbridge  2nd
Peterson, Stanley G., Grand Forks  2nd
Smith, H. J., Westbridge  2nd
Wolstenholm, Ronald, Westbridge  2nd
Revelstoke-Salmon Arm and Okanagan District.
Name and Address of Guide.
Licence
Grade.
Becker, Johnnie, Sorrento  2nd
Bubar, Allan Douglas, Mara  2nd
Churchill, Thomas, Falkland  2nd
Cormack, Alvah, Sugar Lake, Lumby... 2nd
Cormaek, A. R., Lumby  2nd
Daney, Selden M., Ferguson  1st
De Simone, S. H., Revelstoke  1st
Esswein, Magna Bay  2nd
Gates, E. B., St. Leon, Nakusp  1st
Hanson, Charles E., R.R. 1, Lumby  2nd
Hiren, Oscar, Revelstoke Asst.
Hunter, Joseph W., Ewings Landing.— 2nd
Laforme, George W., Revelstoke  1st
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Mobley, Charles William, Tappen     1st
McBee, Melvin Francis, Sorrento    2nd
McEwen, Harvey, Sicamous Asst.
MacKenzie, M. M., Lumby    2nd
McLellan, Francis B., Sorrento    2nd
Martin, Pete, Sicamous Asst.
Melinchuk, Fred, Ewings Landing   2nd
Potts, Bill, Sorrento    2nd
Ritchie, K. G., 545 Burne, Kelowna Asst.
Schwartz, G., R.R. 1, Lumby    2nd
Softing, Berger, Lumby    2nd
Young, Archie, Sicamous Asst.
Cassiar (Telegraph Creek-Atlin District).
Name and Address of Guide.
Licence
Grade.
Asp, Phillip Henry, Telegraph Creek.. 2nd
Bob, Johny, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Campbell, Dick, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Carlick, Billy Fann, Telegraph Creek.. 2nd
Carlick, Loudecker, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Clever, Gene Bryan, Bennett  2nd
Day, Alfred George, Telegraph Creek. 2nd
Dennis, Alex, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Dennis, Andy, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Dennis, John Creyke, Telegraph Creek.. 1st
Dennis, Thomas, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Etzertza, Charlie, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Frank, Benny, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Loudecker, Walter, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Nole, Bell, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Williams, Stephen, Atlin  2nd
Coastal Mainland to Prince Rupert.
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Corbould, Gordon C, Stuie, Bella Coola   2nd
Gardner, C. Princess Louisa Inlet Asst.
King, Wesley Cecil, Hagensborg    2nd
Lawrence, James, Alert Bay    2nd
Mack, Clayton, Bella Coola     1st
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Mathews, Peggy (Mecham), Bella Coola 2nd
Nygaard, Martin, Bella Coola  2nd
Skuse, Herb, Ocean Falls  1st
Wright, William C, Hagensborg  2nd
Prince George District "A" (East to Mount Robson).
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Anderson, Samuel, Fort McLeod    2nd
Berghammer, Joseph, Fort Grahame...Asst.
Bergstrom, John, Hansard Asst.
Bricker, William, South Fort George...   2nd
Brooks, George, South Fort George    2nd
Cannon, Walter L., Sinclair Mills Asst.
Carr, Stanley Joseph, Tete Jaune     1st
Chesser, Charles Alfred, Mount Robson   2nd
Chingy, Harry, Fort McLeod Asst.
Corless (Jr.), R. F., Prince George     1st
Cornell, Horace Lome, Prince George..   2nd
Fraser, Gordon W., Prince George    2nd
Gaugh, Allen H., Prince George    2nd
Name and Address of Guide.
Licence
Grade.
Gray, Jack, Prince George  2nd
Hansen (Sr.), Anund, Hansard  1st
Hansen, (Jr.), Anund, Hansard Asst.
Hargreaves, Roy F., Mount Robson  1st
Henry, Gordon K., Prince George  2nd
Henry, Walter J., Prince George  1st
Hobe, Henry, Hansard  2nd
Hooker, James B., Dome Creek  1st
Jensen, Arne, Dome Creek  2nd
Jensen, Einer W., Dome Creek  2nd
Jensen, Ernest H., Dome Creek  1st
Johnson, Howard T., South Fort George 2nd
McCook, John, Fort Ware Asst. X 114
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Prince George District "A" (East to Mount Robson)—Continued.
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Mahon, Mike J., Prince George Asst.
Miller, Dolmer N., Fort Ware     1st
Miller, Samuel, Fort Ware Asst.
Mills, Marshall, Tete Jaune   2nd
Mintz, Art, Tete Jaune    2nd
Mintz, Carl, Tete Jaune   2nd
Mitchell, John Bruce, Fort McLeod    2nd
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Mostrom, Geo., Box 321, Prince George 2nd
Prather, Oliver J., Dome Creek  2nd
Sande, Walter J., Sinclair Mills  1st
Simmons, Herbert D., Prince George... 2nd
Smith, James M., Loos  1st
Van Somer, James R., Prince George... 2nd
Zlotucha, Antoni, Prince George  2nd
Prince George District " B " (West to Terrace).
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Anderson, Harry, Houston Asst.
Aslin, Lawrence, Ootsa Lake Asst.
Beaver, Albert E., Ootsa Lake   2nd
Bennett, Clifford C, Ootsa Lake Asst.
Bennett, Vernon, Southbank .'.   2nd
Benson, Allen, Hazelton   2nd
Braaten, Edwin, Southbank    2nd
Bradley, Robert, Telkwa Asst.
Campbell, Ronald B., Vanderhoof    2nd
Christie, Ellis D., Southbank Asst.
Clark, James Ely, Cheslatta      1st
Clark, William, Ootsa Lake Asst.
Conlon, Rita, Topley   2nd
Conlon, Rupert, Topley    2nd
Cooke, Ted, Vanderhoof Asst.
Darby, Linzy E., Isle Pierre Asst.
Davidson, Charlie B., Vanderhoof     1st
Donald, Jimmie, Pendleton Bay   2nd
Foote, Charles H., Fraser Lake Asst.
Gardiner, William C, Smithers    2nd
Gaylord, Roy, Vanderhoof Asst.
George, Thomas S., Telkwa   2nd
Gilliland, Donald W., Fort St. James ....Asst.
Grainger, Barrington H., Noralee via
Burns Lake    2nd
Hagen, N. H., Hazelton Asst.
Hamilton, George E., Fort St. James. .Asst.
Harding, Clifford R., Fort St. James ....  2nd
Harrison, Bryan R., Wistaria     1st
Harrison, Robert Owen, Wistaria    2nd
Haugen, Karl, Germansen Landing    2nd
Henry, James H., Fort St. James Asst.
Henry, Stanley Bion, Ootsa Lake     1st
Henson, Frank E., Marilla     1st
Hindmarch, Floyd Ellis, Vanderhoof...  2nd
Hipp, Anthony Julius, Terrace Asst.
Holland, Julian, Telkwa     2nd
Howlett, Ernest, Southbank Asst.
Hoy, David Henry, Fort St. James Asst.
James, Duncan, Fort Babine Asst.
James, Sebastian, Fort Babine   2nd
Jimmy, Alexis, Fort St. James Asst.
Johnson, George Martin, Vanderhoof...Asst.
Johnson, John K., Fort St. James   2nd
Johnson, John H., Isle Pierre   2nd
Johnson, Peter Ivor, Fort St. James .—.Asst.
Knox, John, Ootsa Lake     1st
Lee, John T., Hazelton   2nd
Leon, Paddy, Topley Landing    2nd
Lindsay, John Gordon, Vanderhoof Asst.
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Lord, Samuel V., Tchesinkut Lake Asst.
Lord, Walter H., Tchesinkut Lake    2nd
Love, W. J., Hazelton Asst.
Mac Alec, John, Fort St. James Asst.
McConachie, H. R., Fort St. James Asst.
McKenzie, Ben, Hazelton Asst.
Malgunas, Costo, Mud River    2nd
McNeill, Clifford W., Ootsa Lake     1st
McNeill, John W., Ootsa Lake     1st
Mathews, William John, Telkwa    2nd
Michell, Patrick, Fraser Lake    2nd
Morgan, James Edward, Ootsa Lake ....    1st
Munger, Roy F. W., Houston    2nd
Neighbor, Lorraine Z., Ootsa Lake Asst.
Nelson, George Wm., Vanderhoof    2nd
Nelson, John N., Clemretta   2nd
Pease, Clarence A., Nithi River     1st
Perison, Harold M., Fort St. James Asst.
Pierre, Alec D., Fort St. James Asst.
Plowman, Clarence, Endako    2nd
Plowman, Enid Alice, Endako Asst.
Plowman, William C, Endako Asst.
Prince, Alex, Fort St. James    2nd
Prince, Alfred, Fort St. James Asst.
Prince, Dixon, Fort St. James Asst.
Prince, John, Fort St. James     1st
Prince, Teddy, Fort St. James    2nd
Ragsdale, Douglas A., Marilla Asst.
Rasmussen, Peter, Mapes    2nd
Rehill, Manlie, Ootsa Lake   2nd
Reinke, Ernest Edward, Vanderhoof—Asst.
Reinke, Gaylord R., Vanderhoof Asst.
Reynolds, Jack W., Houston    2nd
Roos, Arthur, Marilla Asst.
Roumieu, David, Burns Lake Asst.
Schultz, Albert L., Vanderhoof Asst.
Seyforth, Joe, Fort St. James    2nd
Shea, James B., Telkwa    1st
Short, Fay W., Colleymount Asst.
Smith, George A., Vanderhoof   2nd
Smith, Harold Craig, Fort St. James....   2nd
Smith, Richard H., Fort St. James Asst.
Start, Percival E., Fort St. James Asst.
Tapping, George L., Prince George Asst.
Tompkins, Emery, Telkwa Asst.
Tourond, Peter N., Wistaria Asst.
Van Tine, Edward, Ootsa Lake     1st
Van Tine, William, Tatalrose Asst.
Walker, Thomas A., Fort St. James.     1st
Wiley, Alvin John, Southbank Asst.
Winsor, William J., Isle Pierre   2nd REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948.
X 115
Peace River (including Fort Nelson and Lower Post).
Name and Address of Guide.
Licence
Grade.
Licence
Grade.
Anderson, Stewart B., Arras     1st
Apsassin, Daniel, Fort St. James Asst.
Ardill, Thomas A., Farrell Creek Asst.
Arhus, Carl, Fort Nelson Asst.
Artemenko, William, Fort St. John Asst.
Baker, Harry H., Fort St. John Asst.
Beattie, Robert, Gold Bar    2nd
Beattie, Robert, Hudson Hope Asst.
Behn, George, Fort Nelson Asst.
Belcourt,   Adolphus,   Hazelmere  P.O.,
Big Slough    2nd
Belcourt,   Clarence,   Mountain   Valley
P.O., Big Slough Asst.
Belcourt, Francis, Lymburn P.O., Alta.
(Kelly Lake, B.C.)  Asst.
Belcourt, George, Little Prairie Asst.
Belcourt, George, Lvmburn P.O., Alta.
(Kelly Lake, B.C.) ....  Asst.
Belcourt,   Magloire,   Mountain  Valley
P.O., Big Slough Asst.
Blakis, George, Arras Asst.
Brady, Otto, Bear Flat Asst.
Brown,  Wesley J.,  Mile 175,  Alaska
Highway  ~    1st
Calliou, J., Goodfare P.O., Alta. (Kelly
Lake, B.C.)  Asst.
Calliou, Pete, Little Prairie     1st
Calliou, Sam, Moberly Lake Asst.
Callison, Dennis W., Fort Nelson    2nd
Callison, Elisha 0., Fort Nelson    2nd
Cameron, Patrick, Moberly Lake     1st
Camnbell, Harry, Goodfare P.O., Alta...Asst.
Chatlar, Alfred, Goodfare P.O., Alta...   2nd
Clovis, Roy, Baldonnel  Asst.
Cottom, Clarence, Hudson Hope Asst.
Courrenatte,   Alfred,   Lymburn   P.O.,
Alta." (Kelly Lake, B.C.) Asst.
Courvoisier, Henry, Fort St. John     1st
Couterille, Fred, Moberly Lake Asst.
Dahl, Joel Olaf, Dawson Creek    2nd
Davidson, John 0., Lower Post     1st
Davis, Albert, Moberly Lake Asst.
Desjarlais, Joseph, Moberly Lake Asst.
Desjarlais, Louis, Moberly Lake Asst.
Dopp, Bruce David, Bear Flat Asst.
Dhenin, Rene G., Fort St. John     1st
Dopp, Edgar, Fort St. John     1st
Durney, Laviral, East Pine     1st
Durney, Milo, East Pine     1st
Edzerza, George, Lower Post    2nd
Fleet, Delbert, Charlie Lake Asst.
Garbitt, Theophile, Moberly Lake     1st
Golata, Francis W., Dawson Creek     1st
Garbitt, Patrick, Moberly Lake Asst.
Gardiner, Enis, Fort Nelson Asst.
Gauthier, Alexis, Moberly Lake Asst.
Gauthier, Eugene, Mount Valley P.O.,
Alta.  Asst.
Gauthier, John, Moberly Lake Asst.
Gladu,   Fred,   Lymburn   P.O.,   Alta.
(Kelly Lake, B.C.)  Asst.
Gladu,   Isidore,   Lymburn   P.O.,   Alta.
(Kellv Lake, B.C.)  Asst.
Gray, Dave G., Goodfare P.O., Alta.... 2nd
Groat, A. H., Sunset Prairie Asst.
Name and Address of Guide.
Hambler, Albert, Lymburn P.O., Alta.
(Kelly Lake, B.C.)  Asst.
Hambler, George, Lymburn P.O., Alta.
(Kelly Lake, B.C.)     2nd
Hambler,   Joe,   Lymburn   P.O.,   Alta.
(Kelly Lake, B.C.)     2nd
Haralson, Lome M., Fort Nelson     2nd
Harrold, Garnet, Fort Nelson Asst.
Hewitt, Donald A., Mile 232%, Alaska
Highway, Fort Nelson Asst.
Hogg, William B., Dawson Creek Asst.
Houle, Joseph, Arras Asst.
Johnson, Alvin C, Little Prairie Asst.
Kruger, William, Hudson Hope    2nd
Lamont, Alexander, Dawson Creek Asst.
La Roche, Robert, Fort Nelson Asst.
Larson, Albin, Fort Nelson      2nd
Letendre, Fred, Moberly Lake   ._ Asst.
Letendre, James, Lymburn P.O., Alta.
(Kelly Lake, B.C.)  Asst.
Letendre, Roland, Mt. Valley P.O., Big
Slough    ...   ...    ...            2nd
Logan, Eric R., Moberly Lake  . Asst.
Longhurst, William J., Fort St. John.    1st
McGarvey, George, Hudson Hope Asst.
McGarvey, Morris M., Taylor Flat     1st
McGuire, Colum, Rolla   Asst.
MacLean, Arthur J., Fort St. John Asst.
McLean, William, Little Prairie      1st
McRae, Gordon, Dawson Creek     2nd
Millar, William C, Fort St. John Asst.
Millar, William E., Fort St. John Asst.
Mole, Tom, Muncho Lake  .       2nd
Napoleon, Felix, Moberly Lake     2nd
Neilson, Gordon R., Fort St. John    2nd
Noskey, Narcisse, Goodfare P.O., Alta.
(Kelly Lake, B.C.)      1st
Ouderkirk, Keith K., Dawson Creek... Asst.
Peck, Bruce, Hudson Hope  Asst.
Peck, Donald R., Fort St. John Asst.
Peck, 0. Keith, Hudson Hope Asst.
Peterson, Pete, Muncho Lake    2nd
Philpott, William H., Montney Asst.
Pitts, Ray W., Charlie Lake     2nd
Poquette, Mervin, Moberly Lake Asst.
Poquette, Morris, Moberly Lake     1st
Powell, Jack K., Hudson Hope Asst.
Rutledge, Leo, Hudson Hope     1st
Selsev, Fred J., Fort St. John  Asst.
Sheffield, Callie A., Fort St. John     1st
Sheffield, Garth, Fort St. John Asst.
Simpson, William H., Fort St. John ...Asst.
St. Pierre, J. B., Fort St. John  Asst.
Stubley, Claude E., Dawson Creeek .....Asst.
Supranent, John, Goodfare P.O., Alta.
(Kelly Lake, B.C.)  Asst.
Thomas, John, Arras    2nd
Wanandie, Paul, Goodfare P.O., Alta...  2nd
Watson, Donald H., Bear Flat Asst.
Watson, James H., Bear Flat Asst.
Whitford,   Wilfred   James,   Fort   St.
John    Asst.
Wilde, Thomas, North Pine    2nd
Young, Andrew, Dawson Creek Asst.
Young, Louis, Dawson Creek Asst. X 116
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Lower Mainland Coast and Fraser Valley.
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Herman,   John,   1364   Eleventh   Ave.
West, Vancouver Asst.
Smith, F. J., Box 171, Hope   2nd
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Weisenberger, Joe, Hope     1st
Wells, Roy E., Cultus Lake    1st
Vancouver Island.
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Adams, Milton, Brown's Bay, Bloedel.. 2nd
Alsdorf, William, Campbell River  2nd
Drummond, Jack, Merville   2nd
Flesher, Eric Reed, Phillip's Arm  2nd
Gillespie, G. K., Lake Cowichan Asst.
Hancock, Arthur, Lake Cowichan  2nd
Hancock, Joseph A., Lake Cowichan ... 1st
Hopton, F. H., Campbell River  2nd
Houghton, Lawrence, Nanaimo   2nd
Kindlan, James, 611 Victoria Rd., Victoria   2nd
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Large, Edwin L., Campbell River  2nd
Marshal, Don, Campbell River  2nd
Marshall, Duncan, Campbell River  2nd
Palliser, Charles H., Lake Cowichan  2nd
Palliser, W., Lake Cowichan   2nd
Parkin, Alvin, Campbell River   2nd
Welch, Phil, Port Alberni   2nd
Whitaker,   Gordon,   Upper   Campbell
Lake   2nd
Non-resident Outfitters.
Brewster, C. B., Banff, Alberta.
Harrison, George H., Banff, Alberta.
McCullough, Henry, Wembly, Alberta.
Phillips, Frank A., 1551 St. Andrews, North
Vancouver.
Ray, Jack, Beaverlodge, Alberta.
Russell, Andy, Twin Butte, Alberta.
Sunderman,  Kelly,  Hythe, Alberta.
PERSONNEL OF GAME COMMISSION AS AT DECEMBER 31st, 1948.
Attorney-General (Minister) Hon. Gordon S. Wismer, K.C Victoria.
Game Commission (members) James G. Cunningham Vancouver.
Frank R. Butler Vancouver.
Headquarters.
_H. D. Simpson..
Senior Clerk	
Senior Clerk-Stenographer Miss I. Lawson..
Intermediate Clerk F. R. Lobb	
 Vancouver.
 Vancouver.
 Vancouver.
Clerk J. McLellan Vancouver.
Senior Stenographer Miss W. Cooper Vancouver.
Senior Stenographer Miss J. Smith Vancouver.
Clerk-Stenographer Miss P. Golder Vancouver.
Clerk-Stenographer Miss D. Voldsnes Vancouver.
Clerk-Stenographer  Miss M. Wares Vancouver.
Game-fish Culture Branch.
__C. H. Robinson.
-E. Hunter	
.A. Higgs	
_R. A. McRae.....
Fishery Supervisor	
Fishery Officer	
Fishery Officer	
Fishery Officer	
Fishery Officer F. Pells ...
Hatchery Officer A. S. Frisby	
Hatchery Officer J. C. Inglis	
Hatchery Officer J. D. S. Inverarity..
Hatchery Officer F. H. Martin	
Hatchery Officer C. 0. Mellor	
 Nelson.
 Nelson.
 Summerland.
...Kaslo.
 Cultus Lake.
 Nelson.
...Courtenay.
 Courtenay.
 Cultus Lake.
 Cultus Lake.
"A" Division (Vancouver Island and Portions of Lower Mainland).
Inspector G. C. Stevenson Victoria.
Clerk D. Keirs Victoria.
 J. W. Jones Victoria.
 R. W. Sinclair Vi ctoria.
 W. A. R. Lawley Alberni.
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Corporal Game Warden.
Game Warden..
.0. Mottishaw..
..R. S. Hayes..
Game Warden M. L. Gardiner	
Game Warden F. P. Weir	
Game Warden F. H. Greenfield..
.Alert Bay.
..Campbell River.
..Courtenay.
.Duncan.
.Nanaimo. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1948. X  117
" B " Division (Kootenay and Boundary Districts).
Inspector C. F. Kearns Nelson.
Clerk-Stenographer Mrs. E. H. Edgar Nelson.
Game Warden R. A. Rutherglen Nelson.
Game Warden P. D. Ewart Castlegar.
Game Warden J. W. Bayley Cranbrook.
Game Warden B. Rauch Cranbrook.
Game Warden G. A. Lines Creston.
Game Warden J. J. Osman Fernie.
Game Warden N. Cameron Golden.
Corporal Game Warden A. F. Sinclair Grand Forks.
Game Warden H. Tyler Invermere.
Game Warden A. Monks Penticton.
Game Warden A. F. Gill Princeton.
Game Warden E. D. Cameron Revelstoke.
" C " Division (Kamloops, Yale, Okanagan, and Cariboo Districts).
Inspector R. M. Robertson Kamloops.
Clerk-Stenographer Miss H. Swadling Kamloops.
Game Warden D. Ellis Kamloops.
Game Warden R. Farquharson Kamloops.
Game Warden H. J. Lorance Kamloops.
Game Warden R. W. C. Tate Kamloops.
Game Warden W. T. Ward Kamloops.
Game Warden R. H. Haynes Alexis Creek.
Game Warden W. I. Fenton Clinton.
Game Warden W. R. Maxson Kelowna.
Game Warden R. S. Welsman Lillooet.
Game Warden E. M. Martin Merritt.
Game Warden W. J. Hillen Quesnel.
Game Warden D. Cameron Salmon Arm.
Game Warden J. P. C. Atwood Vernon.
Game Warden E. Holmes Wells.
Game Warden L. Jobin Williams Lake.
" D " Division (Atlin, Skeena, Omineca, Fort George, Peace River,
and Yukon Boundary Districts).
Inspector W. A. H. Gill : Prince George.
Clerk R. J. Guay Prince George.
Stenographer Miss F. Decker Prince George.
Game Warden A. J. Jank Prince George.
Game Warden K. R. Walmsley Prince George.
Game Warden D. G. H. Stevenson Burns Lake.
Game Warden J. A. McCabe Fort Nelson.
Game Warden (Special) B. Villeneuve Fort Nelson.
Game Warden J. D. Williams Fort St. John.
Game Warden J. W. Stewart Lower Post.
Game Warden W. O. Quesnel Pouce Coupe.
Game Warden L. J. Cox Smithers.
Corporal Game Warden E. Martin Prince Rupert.
Clerk-Stenographer Miss M. Boulter Prince Runert.
Game Warden R. O. Anderson Vanderhoof.
" E " Division (Vancouver, Coast, and Lower Fraser Valley Districts) .
Inspector R. E. Allan Vancouver.
Game Warden R. S.King Vancouver.
Game Warden L. R. C. Lane Vancouver.
Game Warden H. D. Mulligan Vancouver.
Game Warden H.L.Rose Vancouver.
Game Warden A.J.Butler Chilliwack.
Game Warden H.P.Hughes Cloverdale.
Game Warden W.H.Cameron Ladner.
Game Warden P. M. Cliffe Mission.
Game Warden   F. Urquhart Port Coquitlam. x 118 british columbia.
Predatory-animal Hunters.
Chief Predatory-animal Hunter J. Dewar Extension.
Predatory-animal Hunter A. L. Frost Extension.
Predatory-animal Hunter A. W. Hames Extension.
Predatory-animal Hunter K. Moores Extension.
Predatory-animal Hunter D. H. Denison Fort Fraser.
Predatory-animal Hunter C. G. Ellis Kamloops.
Predatory-animal Hunter C. E. Shuttleworth Kamloops.
Predatory-animal Hunter G. Haskell Nelson.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiaemid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1950.
1,195-150-5822  

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