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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Department of Agriculture FORTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 1949 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1950

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Department of Agriculture
Printed by Don MoDiaemid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1950.  To His Honour C. A. Banks,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I have the honour to submit herewith for your consideration the Annual Report of
the Department of Agriculture for the year 1949.
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., January 3rd, 1950.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Report of the Deputy Minister        7
Report of the Statistician     26
Report of the Provincial Apiarist     30
Report of the Markets Branch     34
Report of the Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes     39
Report of the Superintendent of Women's Institutes    44
Report of Soil Classification Branch     48
Report of Horticultural Branch      58
Report of Plant Pathology Branch     83
Report of Field Crops Branch     88
Report of Live Stock and Veterinary Branches  103
Report of Recorder of Brands  145
Report of Dairy Branch  149
Report of Poultry Branch  154
Report of Extension, Land-clearing, Agricultural Engineering, and Farm Labour
Branches  159
Report of Supervisor of Boys' and Girls' Club Work  209
No. 1. Honey-crop Report ..  219
No. 2. Report of Movement of Grain Screenings  220
No. 3.  Threshermen's Report  221
No. 4. Licences issued  222
No. 5. Dairy Premises inspected and graded  225
No. 6. Average Prices for Cattle    226
No. 7. Beef Carcasses graded  227
No. 8. Average Prices for Lambs  228
No. 9. Average Prices for Hogs  228
No. 10. Inspected Slaughterings of Live Stock  229
No. 11. Provincial Cow-testing Association  230
No. 12. Weather Records  231
No. 13. Field-crop Production  232
No. 14. Cattle and Hide Shipments  233
No. 15. Summary of Clubs    234  Report of the Department of Agriculture.
J. B. Munro, M.B.E., M.S.A., Ph.D.
The Honourable Harry R. Bowman,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—At this time I have the honour to submit the report of the Department of
Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1949.
Instead of presenting the legislation passed at the recent session of the Legislature, it has been decided to present herewith a statement of the agricultural legislation that has been prepared by L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes,
for the use of the Economics Branch, Dominion Department of Agriculture, Ottawa.
With this legislation is included all of the amendments passed during the recent session
of the Legislature.
"Department of Agriculture Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 9.—An Act respecting
the Department of Agriculture, and provides for the establishment of the Department,
and sets out the duties and powers of the Minister and Deputy and outlines generally
regulations for the working of the Department.
"Agrologists Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 10.—An Act respecting agrologists,
and in accordance with this Act the practice of agrology becomes a recognized profession. Provision is made for the incorporation of agrologists into the British Columbia
Institute of Agrologists, and certain provisions are set out regarding membership.
"Animals Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 12.—An Act to prevent certain animals
from running at large, and respecting injuries by animals of a domestic nature. This
Act prohibits swine, stallions, and bulls running at large except in certain districts
which may be defined by Proclamation. Municipal rights unaffected by provision of
this Act. This Act also provides for the killing of dogs worrying domestic animals and
for complaints where dogs have worried sheep or bitten persons, and for killing of said
dogs. The Act also sets out liability of owners of animals unlawfully at large, the
impounding of animals, and licences to shoot wild horses and stallions, and empowers
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to make regulations for the purpose of carrying
into effect the provisions of the Act.
"Apiaries Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 14.—An Act for the suppression of disease
among bees, and provides for the appointment of Inspectors, appointment of bee-
masters, destruction of diseased bees and infected hives, inspection of apiaries, registration of apiaries, and the right to enter premises and apiaries.
"Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 25.—An Act
regarding provisions for the granting of assistance to the beef cattle producers in the
Province. This Act provides that a sum of 30 cents shall be deducted from the purchase price of any bull, steer, or female of the bovine species other than a cow for
slaughter, and said money be remitted to the Minister of Agriculture to be used for the
purpose of promotion of the beef cattle industry.
"Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act Amendment Act, 1949," Chapter 4.—This
amendment defines a dealer and inspector, makes provision for payment of the 30 W 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
cents per head for each bull, steer, or female of the bovine species other than a cow
shipped outside the Province, for return and payment to the Minister any payment of
the 30 cents per head to an inspector for animals slaughtered within the portion of the
Province situate east of the Cascade Mountains.
"Beef Grading Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 26.—An Act respecting the grading
of beef, and provides that the Minister of Agriculture, subject to the approval of the
Lieutenant-Governor in Council, may make regulations establishing grades for beef
carcasses, provides for the inspection, grading, marking, and advertising beef carcasses.
"Stock-brands Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 24.—An Act respecting the marking
of cattle and horses—provision is made for application, registration, and inspection of
brands and for regulating stock in transit, and requires all sellers of stock to give the
buyer a memorandum evidencing the sale of stock. It further provides that notice be
given the nearest Brand Inspector when cattle are driven more than 20 miles inside the
Province or to any place outside the Province. Twenty-four hours' notice must be
given when stock or hides are being shipped by rail, truck, or other road-vehicle.
"Stock-brands Act Amendment Act, 1949," Chapter 6.—This Act amends the
definition of a stock-dealer and the licensing of a partnership or a corporation to
engage in the business as a stock-dealer.
"Cattle Lien Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 40.—An Act respecting agistors of
cattle and keepers of livery stables—provision is made for a lien on cattle and effects
for value of food furnished, and provides that cattle or effects of debtor may be detained
and the responsibility of persons detaining same and power to sell and disposition of
balance of proceeds if owner cannot be found.
"Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 67.—An Act to
prevent the spread of contagious diseases among animals—provision is made for the
appointment of Inspectors, duties of Inspectors, quarantine, disposal of diseased animals
and disinfection of premises, compensation to owner, and identification and testing of
animals and penalties for violation of any of the provisions.
"Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 80.—An Act
for the regulation of creameries and dairies—provision is made for the licensing of
creameries and dairies, term of licence, no creamery or dairy can be established, erected
or remodelled without submitting plans and specifications to the Minister, together with
statement as to location, estimated quantity and nature of product or products to be
handled, treated, processed, or manufactured; further provides for examination and
qualifications of milk-testers and cream-graders, keeping of records of tests, and governs
the employment of official cream-graders by operators of creameries and dairies.
"Dairy Industries (British Columbia) Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 80.—An Act
respecting the dairy industry—provides that all provisions of the " Dairy Industry
Act " of the Dominion are enacted as far as it is within the competence of the Province.
"Dairy Industry Act Amendment Act, 1949," Chapter 16.—This Act provides that
any provision or amendment of section 5 of the " Dairy Industry Act " of the Dominion
or any regulation relating to that section shall not apply to the Province.
"Eggs Marks Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 104.—An Act respecting the marking
of eggs—provides that every egg-dealer who helps or has in his possession or under his
control any eggs which have been imported into the Dominion and which are not
marked, shall mark each egg with the words " Produce of " followed by name of country
of origin; further provides for marking of receptacles containing foreign eggs, posting
notices of sale or use of Chinese eggs, and penalties for offences.
"Farmers' and Women's Institutes Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 117.—An Act
respecting Farmers' and Women's Institutes, and provides for grants to some organizations of District Institutes, appointment of superintendents, composition of an Advisory
Board of Farmers' Institutes, formation of Women's District Institutes, Provincial
Women's Institute, and appropriation of certain sums for supplying stumping-powder DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W  9
to Farmers' Institutes, and for the making of rules, orders, and regulations by the
Lieutenant-Governor in Council for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this
"Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 118.—An Act
authorizing the borrowing of the sum of five hundred thousand dollars and to authorize
the Government to clear land—empowers the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to borrow
$500,000, which may be used for the purpose of purchasing machinery and equipment
suitable for the clearing and development of land for agricultural purposes; renting of
machinery and employment of an independent contractor; appointment of a Director
of Land-clearing and such other officials as may be necessary; and the making of
regulations by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council for the purpose of carrying into
effect the provisions of the Act.
"Line Fences Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 119.—An Act respecting boundary
fences and ditches—provides for the appointment of fence-viewers in unorganized and
organized territory, construction and maintenance of boundary fences, procedure to be
adopted in case of dispute between owners of adjoining lands, fees to be paid fence-
viewers, surveyors, and witnesses. The Act also applies to extra-municipal ditches and
"Line Fences Act Amendment Act, 1949," Chapter 23.—This Act increases the
fence-viewers' fees from $4 to $5 for each day's work under the Act plus 8 cents for
every mile travelled in the performance of their duties.
"Fruit, Vegetables, and Honey Grades Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 133.—An
Act respecting the grading of fruit, vegetables, and honey, and empowers the Minister
of Agriculture, subject to the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, to make
regulations establishing grades for any fruit, vegetable, and honey, and provides for
the inspection, grading, packaging and packing, marking, handling, shipping, transporting, or advertising of fruit, vegetables, and honey within the Province.
"Fur Farms Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 134.—An Act respecting fur farms—
provides for the administration of the Act and regulations by a Commissioner under
the control of the Minister and for the appointment of Inspectors, licensing of fur
farms, inspection, cleanliness, prohibition in respect to feeding, contagious and infectious diseases, quarantine, and records. Also provides for the making of regulations
by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council and for penalties and money required for
" Goat Breeders Protection Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 136.—An Act for the
protection of breeders of goats, and provides that no person shall keep, stand, or offer
for public service any buck unless it is pure-bred and is enrolled in the Department of
Agriculture enrolment of bucks or transfer of enrolment, and also duties of owners
and penalties.
" Grasshopper Control Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 137.—An Act to provide for
the control of grasshoppers, and provides for the constitution of control areas, control
committee, and powers of said committee to expend money advanced by the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council, the employment of servants and workmen, purchase of poisons,
the placing or setting out of poisons, the keeping of records of work done and cost
and expenses incurred; also provides for assessment of lands in control area to repay
advances and further provides that the Lieutenant-Governor in Council may make such
regulations as are deemed necessary to carry into effect the provisions of the Act.
" Hog Grading Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 146.—An Act respecting the grading
of hogs, and provides that subject to the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council,
the Minister may make regulations establishing grades for hog carcasses, inspecting,
grading, and marking of hog carcasses, appointment of Inspectors, powers of Inspectors,
and penalties. W 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
"Horned Cattle Purchases Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 148.—An Act respecting
the disposition of deductions made on the purchase of cattle with horns, and provides
that every dealer who purchases cattle with horns shall pay the vendor $1 per head less
than current market price and remit same to the Minister. Money collected is used at
the discretion of the Minister for payment of such expenses as are necessary for
administration and for the payment of such expenses for the improvement of live stock
as may be approved by the Minister; also provides for the appointment of Inspectors,
powers of Inspectors, and penalties; Lieutenant-Governor in Council empowered to
make regulations as to procedure. This Act does not apply to registered pure-bred
cattle sold for breeding purposes.
"Horned Cattle Purchases Act Amendment Act, 1949," Chapter 29.—This Act
provides that monthly returns shall be made to the Minister setting out all purchases
made of cattle with horns. Also provides that in the portion of the Province situate
east of the Cascade Mountains shippers of horned cattle for slaughter will pay the $1
for each head to an Inspector.
"Horse-breeders' Registration and Lien Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 149.-—-An
Act for the protection of horse-breeders, and provides that every person standing or
travelling any stallion for profit or gain shall enrol same annually in the Department,
fees for enrolment, transfer of ownership, examinations of stallions, classes of stallions
in designated areas, lien on colt for amount of service fee and costs, penalties, and
empowers the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to make such regulations as deemed
necessary for carrying into effect provisions of the Act.
"Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter
200.—An Act respecting the transportation, packing, storage, and marketing of natural
products—the purpose and intent of this Act is to provide for the control and regulation
in any or all respect of the transportation, packing, storage, and marketing of natural
products within the Province, including the prohibition of such transportation, packing,
storage, and marketing in whole or in part, also provides for the constitution of
marketing boards, powers of boards, and the making of such regulations by the
Lieutenant-Governor in Council as are deemed necessary.
"Milk Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 208.—An Act respecting the production and
sale of milk for human consumption, and provides that the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council may prescribe standards for stables, barns, milk-houses and other premises
on a dairy-farm, and for the equipment and utensils used therein; further provides
for the appointment of Provincial Inspectors, powers of Inspectors, inspection of cattle,
premises, and milking methods, grading of dairy-farms (A, B, C, and ungraded);
Grade A may supply milk for human consumption without pasteurization, B after
pasteurization, C after pasteurization for a period of 30 days only unless up-graded;
ungraded milk shall not be supplied until Classes A or B. The Act authorizes municipalities to regulate milk-supply within the municipality and further provides that no
person suffering from certain diseases may be employed on or in any dairy-farm or
premises where milk for human consumption is obtained, produced, handled or sold.
"Oleomargarine Act, 1949," Chapter 48.—An Act respecting oleomargarine, and
provides that where oleomargarine is served in public eating-places the words " Oleomargarine is served here as a substitute for butter " must be displayed in a conspicuous
place, that oleomargarine and butter shall not be mixed for sale or use in public eating-
places, and provides for the packaging and licensing to manufacture or sell wholesale
and for the making of regulations by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council regarding
issue of licences, term thereof and fee, standards of quality, and respecting any other
matter necessary to carry out purpose of this Act.
"Plant Protection Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 254.—An Act to provide for the
protection of plants and to prevent the spreading within the Province of insects, pests,
and diseases destructive to vegetation,  and  empowers the Lieutenant-Governor in DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W 11
Council to make such regulations as are considered expedient to prevent the spreading
within the Province of any insect, pest, or disease destructive to vegetation, and further
provides for the appointment of Inspectors, power of Minister to direct spraying of
trees, taxation of owner for expenses incurred, and licence to sell nursery stock.
" Certified Seed-potato Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 257.—An Act to facilitate the
growing of certified seed-potatoes, and provides for the constitution of seed-potato
control areas, appointment of a Seed Control Committee, functions, powers, and duties
of the committee, restriction of growing to authorized varieties, and empowers the
Lieutenant-Governor in Council to make such regulations as are necessary to carry into
effect the provisions of the Act.
"Poultry and Poultry Products Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 258.—An Act
respecting poultry and poultry products, and empowers the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council to make regulations for the classification of eggs, dressed poultry, live poultry
according to prescribed standards; regulating inspection, grading, packing, labelling,
branding and marking of poultry products; shipment, transportation, purchase, and
sale of same;  appointment of Inspectors, powers of Inspectors, and penalties.
"Pound District Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 259.—An Act respecting pound
districts, and empowers the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to constitute as a pound
district any part of the Province not within the limits of a municipality; the impounding of animals running at large within pound districts; appointment of pound-keepers,
duties of pound-keepers, payments of charges on impounded animals, sale of impounded
animals, complaints of owners, and offences and penalties.
" Pound District Act Amendment Act, 1949," Chapter 52.—This Act provides that
only proprietors of land residing within proposed pound districts shall be eligible to
sign petitions, also amends offences and penalties and increases pound fees.
" Seed-growers' Protection Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 299.—An Act to facilitate
the growing of pure seed of vegetables and field crops, and provides for the constitution
of seed control areas by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, constitution of Seed
Control Committee, functions, powers, and duties of committee, restriction of seed-
growing to authorized varieties, offences and penalties.
"Sheep Protection Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 303.—An Act for the better
protection of sheep, goats, and poultry- This Act makes it an offence for keeping of
unlicensed dogs and provides for killing of unlicensed dogs, killing of dogs worrying
sheep, dog licences, recovering of damages for sheep, goats, and poultry killed by dogs,
and further provides for claims against dog tax funds where owner of dog or dogs is
unknown. The Act further provides that municipalities may by by-law provide for the
licensing of all dogs within the municipality and for the collection of licence fees. The
Lieutenant-Governor in Council may make such regulations as are considered necessary
for carrying into effect the provisions of this Act.
"Stock-breeders' Protection Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 314.—An Act for the
protection of breeders of live stock, and provides for the registration and certificate of
breeding, publication of certificate necessary to enable the owner to collect fees, and
penalties for misrepresenting breeding.
" Live Stock and Live-stock Products (British Columbia) Act," R.S.B.C. 1948,
Chapter 315.—An Act respecting stockyards and live-stock exchanges, and provides
that Dominion enactments are given force of law in British Columbia until the same
is repealed by the Parliament of the Dominion or revoked by the Governor-General in
" Threshers' Lien Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 337.—An Act respecting threshers'
liens, and provides that threshers of grain shall from the time of commencement of the
threshing have a lien upon the grain for the purpose of securing payment for the
threshing, and further provides for the enforcement of lien by taking of grain, option
of the kind of grain taken, determination of quantity to be taken, and priority of lien. W 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" Trespass Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 343.—An Act to prevent trespass on
enclosed lands and to afford to owners and occupiers of land summary remedy in certain
cases of trespass. This Act defines lawful fences, trespass and prosecutions, entrance
of land surveyors, trespass of cattle, liability of owner of cattle for damage to enclosed
land, and adjudication on disputes.
" Veterinary Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 356.—An Act respecting the practice
of veterinary surgery, and provides for the constitution of the Veterinary Association of
British Columbia, corporation, members, qualifications for registration, and management
of association.
" Noxious Weeds Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 362.—An Act respecting noxious
weeds, and provides for the destruction of noxious weeds and weed seeds, prevention
of distribution of weed seeds, appointment of Noxious Weeds Inspectors, duties of
owner or occupier of land, duties imposed on municipalities, Department of Public
Works and person responsible for construction works, railway companies or irrigation
districts; and further provides for the constitution of weed control areas, constitution
of Weed Control Committees and duties of committees, and empowers the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council to make regulations necessary for the purpose of carrying into
effect the provisions of this Act.
" Wool Grades Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 368.—An Act respecting the grading
of wool, and provides that, subject to the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council, the Minister may make regulations establishing grades for wool, inspection,
grading, packages and packing, marking, handling, shipping, transporting or advertising of wool within the Province, the appointment of Inspectors, powers of Inspectors,
and penalties.
The Publications Branch reports that 4,651 letters requesting agricultural literature were received in 1949 and 43,017 bulletins and circulars distributed to residents
of British Columbia in the same period.
To date 57,200 publications have been received from the printers, and 123,441
stencils on different agricultural subjects mimeographed in our office.
The following is a list of new and revised publications printed in 1949:—
Forty-third Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture.
Statistics Report, 1947.
Climate Report, 1948.
Asparagus Production in B.C., H.C. 75.
Cabbage Root Maggot, H.C. 32.
Celery Culture, H.C. 70.
Duck-raising, Practical, P.B.B. 2.
Goose-raising, Practical, P.B.B. 1.
Lettuce Production in B.C., H.C. 74.
Lime-sulphur, Making, at Home, H.C. 61.
Rabbit-raising, Practical, P.B.B. 3.
Soil Management for Tree-fruits and Truck-crops in the Southern Interior of
B.C., H.C. 76.
Spray Calendars:—
Control of Vegetable and Field Crop.
Pests and Diseases.
Control of Tree-fruit Pests and Diseases.
Control of Small-fruit Pests and Diseases.
Tomato-growing in B.C., H.C. 65. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W 13
During August last it was my privilege to visit the West Coast of Vancouver Island,
including such points as Port Renfrew, Bamfield, Ucluelet, Tofino, Estevan, Nootka,
Zeballos, and Kyuquot. I found conditions much changed since my last visit there in
1928. The pilchard-fishing has practically ceased and this season the catch has been
decidedly poor. That was a very great change from 1928 when the pilchard industry
was running strongly and the reduction plants at the nineteen or more places were
operating much of the time.
At Port Renfrew, on San Juan River, some time was spent in familiarizing myself
with conditions that are developing, following many years of the logging industry. The
settlers thereabouts have organized a fairly active Chamber of Commerce and have been
negotiating with the Victoria Chamber of Commerce and Major Cuthbert Holmes with
the idea of securing a soil survey covering that area of the Province.
This matter has been investigated and it was hoped that a soil survey party could
visit the district this year. However, weather conditions at Christmas time have rendered the transportation of the party almost impossible. It is now intended that before
the season commences in the northern districts in the spring of 1950, a party will visit
Port Renfrew and the San Juan and Gordon River valleys and will make any suitable
recommendation regarding this area.
It should be noted that about 1880 British Columbia is said to have an examination
made of the Port Renfrew district, but as yet we have been unable to discover any such
map as may have been made. It is also noted that in 1849, when Vancouver Island was
first made a Crown Colony, that an attempt had already been made for the settlement
of Nootka by a colony of Mormons, who wished to establish themselves here under the
British flag. A debate in the British House of Commons ensued and, in view of the fact
that the British Government was expected to bear the expense of establishing this
colony, the idea was dropped. A record of this effort appears in the Archives of the
Province and records of the American North-west.
There appears to be a good tract of land, possibly several thousand acres, that will
be available for settlement as soon as the local branch of the Chamber of Commerce gets
the necessary action with respect to the West Coast road, but it is my impression that
this road must be fairly well completed as far as Alberni before any new district should
be opened up.
During the month of July last the Soil Survey Committee visited sections of Vancouver Island and the regions in the neighbourhood of Neah Bay, Wash., examining soil
conditions. This party concluded that likely similar soils to those of Neah Bay to Port
Angeles existed along the northern side of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and it was
intended that this committee would later on study the Vancouver Island soils, extending
out through Port Renfrew in the direction of Clo-oose and Bamfield. It is possible that
a region with soils somewhat similar to those of Saanich and Metchosin can be mapped
out and made available for settlement later on, and it is believed that many of the waters
adjacent to these farm lands would be suitable for clam-beds, oyster-beds, and fishing-
grounds of various kinds.
One thing should be noted, and that is the necessity of a good road outlet from Port
Renfrew to either Alberni or Victoria. At the present time this district is served by
the " Princess Maquinna," but any agricultural development would naturally require
that the settlers have access by road to their marketing towns. This road has already
been constructed over a distance of about 40 miles to Jordan River, and an extension of
that highway is required to give complete access to Victoria. Similarly, Alberni is at
the end of another section of the highway leading toward Bamfield, and this road
remains incomplete due to the present highway development on Vancouver Island, which
precludes early completion of the West Coast road. W 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
It is believed that much agricultural land of a fair class remains under heavy
undergrowth in the vicinity of Port Renfrew and that several thousand acres can be
reclaimed from seasonal flooding or Iogged-off or burned-over areas when the roads are
In travelling on the " Princess Maquinna," it seemed evident that the topography
of the land would permit of the development of agricultural fields toward Camper, Sandstone, Logan, and Walbran Creeks, but any definite information will be contained in
future annual reports.
In the area lying between Clayoquot and Tofino, much development has taken place
since 1928 and a road now connects—a highway sign announces it as " Terminus of the
Trans-Canada Highway." This region, while by no means containing first-class agricultural land, has progressed very remarkably in the territory adjacent to Wickaninnish
Bay, or Long Beach, due to the fact that for many years Mr. Fraser, the botanist, carried on at Ucluelet his outstanding experiments with fruit-trees and flowering shrubs.
He was the creator of the " Nootka Rose," several varieties of azaleas and rhododendrons, and was a lover of the heathers of different kinds, which grow well in the soils of
the Ucluelet district. Mr. Fraser's nephews are still carrying on and developing the
properties in which Mr. Fraser and his brother had been interested.
At Kakawis, near the Opitsat Indian Reserve on Meares Island, Rev. Chas. Moser,
O.S.B., who had been there in charge of the Christie Indian School in 1928 and succeeded
Rev. A. J. Brabrant, the pioneer missionary of the West Coast of Vancouver Island, has
been succeeded by Rev. P. J. Sheehan, from whom some information was obtained with
reference to "wild cattle" of Hesquiat. These cattle are the descendents of the live
stock procured by Father Brabrant, possibly in the late 80's, and are now said to be
roaming at large over the wild tracts of dense underbrush on the Hesquiat Peninsula.
A fairly comprehensive report on them was secured from G. L. Smith, the lighthouse-
keeper at Nootka. Nootka, it will be recalled, was a notable outpost for otter pelts
during the early days and was first settled by Dr. John Mackay, who was left there with
the Indians during 1785 to 1786. He was rescued a year later by Capt. Barkley and his
wife, Frances Hornby Barkley, with whom he visited the district as far south as Neah
Bay before returning to Europe by way of Asia in the " Imperial Eagle." The record of
European civilization on Vancouver Island is contained in the diary of Frances Hornby
Barkley, the first European woman to have visited Nootka.
In the issue of " Farm and Home," published in Vancouver, B.C., on December
27th, 1928, there appeared the following item in columns 1 and 2 of page 11.
Imported Two Score Years ago Ancestors of these Herds were
Domestic Cattle, owned by Settlers.
The west coast of Vancouver Island has, among its many other attractions, three bands
of wild cattle. The largest band ranges on what is known as the Low Peninsula, which lies
between Tofino and the western extremity of Long Beach.
One of the most spectacular sights that can be seen on the coast is a fight between two
or more bulls belonging to this band of wild cattle. Such a fray has been witnessed by a few
visitors and several residents. These combats are only staged in the latter part of May and
throughout June, and to one who witnesses one of these struggles for victory between two
of nature's adopted creatures, it makes a lasting impression.
Eighty Head.
It is estimated that there are about eighty head of wild cattle in this vicinity, mostly
of the Red Poll breed. These cattle, although originally of domestic stock brought in by
some of the earliest settlers, have ranged over this locality for over thirty years and are now
truly creatures of the forest.    They are as wild as any wild animal of the woods. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W 15
These cattle travel in bands of ten to twelve head wandering from one feeding ground
to another. The bulls travel singly except in the mating season. The feed on this peninsula
is of the best and by mid-summer the animals are as plump as pastured cattle. Individual
animals have been killed weighing two thousand pounds.
Difficult to Kill.
These cattle are very difficult to kill despite their bulk. They are very swift and have
learned well the first law of life—self preservation. It requires a very sure aim with a high-
powered rifle to bring one of these thick-skinned bulls to the ground. One hunter has said
they are more difficult to bag than the moose.
It has been known for these animals to dispute the trail with a human being but usually
the animal, on scenting his enemy, will flee.
The underbrush is very dense, but throughout the peninsula they have their regularly
well-beaten trails from place to place. On account of the absence of snow or any extreme
weather they winter well, coming out in the open places in the spring to enjoy the warm
sunshine and the tender shoots of new grass. It is at this time that thrilling combats have
been seen.
In one open field there are two enormous pits, some four feet deep where the hostile
animals meet. In the late afternoon on a hazy June day, a large bull leading a band of
cows and calves will come out of the thick timber and graze in the field.
About sunset or a little before, a loud bellowing will be heard in the distance, gradually
coming nearer and nearer in the fading daylight. The first bull retreating to the further
end of the field answers with a loud bellow. So step by step the opponents advance towards
the pit, each snorting and pawing as they go forward.
The cows and calves keep well in the rear, bellowing periodically to cheer their leader on.
Desperate Combat.
Finally the antagonists reach the pit and there they meet in combat sometimes in a
cloud of dust as they paw and snort in the pit. This combat may last for many hours if
the animals are evenly matched.
When they emerge from the pit, if the assaulting bull is the stronger, he will drive his
adversary back to the point from which he started, and on reaching that point he retreats
into the forest leaving the herd to the winner.
On the other hand, if the assaulting animal is the weaker he is driven back into the
woods from which he came. If there are any bull calves or yearlings in the band they rush
in to help their leader as soon as the antagonists emerge from the pit. As many as six
animals have been seen against one at one time. The conquering bull leads his band of
followers until he is challenged and the same thing is repeated.
Leaders are mourned.
If the opponents fight to a finish and one of the animals is killed, as sometimes happens,
the band will gather about the spot where the blood was spilt and bawl like paid mourners,
perhaps for several days.
Occasionally the opposing animals will struggle for hours, neither one gaining any on
the other; after long hours of combat the stronger joins the band by common consent, thus
when the next hermit arrives he has two equally powerful animals to contend with.
And thus these wild creatures live and thrive, quarrel and die, and thus they have for
the past thirty years, but how much longer they will be permitted to enjoy the freedom of
their adopted forest is difficult to guess.
The above item, which was contributed to the " Farm and Home " by a resident
of the West Coast of Vancouver Island twenty-one years ago, has been revived by
reports emanating from various people around Nootka, Hesquiat, and Estevan on recent
occasions, and it appears fairly well-established that these animals do exist on Vancouver Island, but they are sufficiently remote from other agricultural districts as to
be of comparatively little danger to animals in the T.B.-free area, and hence they are
not being examined for bovine tuberculosis or other live-stock diseases.
In a letter addressed to George L. Smith, lighthouse-keeper, Nootka, B.C., on October 13th, I said after relating that in 1928 as editor of " Farm and Home ": " What
I am anxious to have from you is a plain factual statement, possibly corroborated by
others, regarding the movement of those wild cattle.    I would like first if you could W 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
give me some information as to the breed of cattle. Although this is not very important, yet we are interested, in the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, in
knowing that horned cattle have been roaming at large in the vicinity of Estevan
Point. You see, the trouble is that all of Vancouver Island has been declared a
restricted T.B.-free area by the Federal Government. This requires that we assure
the Federal Government that other cattle do not exist.
" I have discussed this matter with Dr. F. W. B. Smith, Inspector of the Federal
Health of Animals Branch, and told him of your statements that the descendants of
these animals are still roaming in your part of the Province. Inspector Smith has
stated that they are not of any consequence as far as the Federal Department is concerned, they are regarded altogether as wild animals and will do no harm from the
standpoint of other animals that are kept under domestic conditions on farms in that
To date I have not received a definite reply from Mr. Smith but I understand that
he has referred the matter to Mr. McCall, a lineman with the B.C. Telephone Company.
Further information on this interesting point will be dealt with in a future annual
Speaking of restricted T.B.-free areas, British Columbia at present has the area
which includes all of Vancouver Island and the adjacent islands; the Lower Fraser
Valley, east as far as Hope, and has recently announced the intention to undertake the
inspection of all horned cattle within the Okanagan area of the Southern Interior. We
are now working on the rest of the Province and it is hoped by the end of 1950 that all
of British Columbia will be included in the Federal T.B.-free areas. Under this plan
the Canadian Government tests for and uncovers any cases of bovine tuberculosis,
compensates for the animals destroyed, and protects the health of our people. It is
interesting to know that during the past forty years the British Columbia Government
pioneered in this undertaking, being the first in the Dominion to give the dairymen
assurance that their herds were free from bovine tuberculosis. During the recent war
years it has been impossible for the Canadian Government to take over this responsibility, but they have worked effectively within the two first areas mentioned and are
now prepared to proceed with the balance of the territory, which contains many fine
herds of dairy cattle.
Although this conference was valuable and the information gleaned from the
round-table discussions show that Canada's ability to produce is as great as ever, still
it was the feeling of the majority of those in attendance that the Outlook Committees
of the past ten years are now a thing of the past and that we will have to look to our
own Provincial means to discover export markets.
Part of the blame for this new departure was definitely placed by the Right
Honourable J. G. Gardiner on the poultrymen of this Province, who last year, by a
vote of 901 against and 507 for a Poultry Marketing Scheme (122 spoiled ballots),
definitely rejected the opportunity to support Mr. Gardiner in marketing their egg
Mr. Gardiner informed the conference that the British egg deal was definitely off
and that Canada was at present unable to take advantage of its recently passed Bill
No. 82, which would give the poultrymen the necessary support if they had voted in
favour of such action being taken.
On account of the remarks made by several of the leading speakers, the press
reports of the addresses by the Right Honourable J. G. Gardiner, Dr. H. H. Hannam,
Secretary of the Canadian Federation of Agriculture, and Sir Andrew Jones, representing the British Ministry of Food, are all given herewith. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W  17
The Dominion-Provincial Agricultural Conference, called for Ottawa on December 12th, 13th, and 14th, 1949, was well attended by representatives from all the Canadian Provinces and from the Federal Department of Agriculture. Individual reports
prepared by the various Interdepartmental Committees were presented for the use
of the conference, and other data was presented by the various Ministers of Agriculture, who spoke for the Provinces.
The 1949 Agricultural Conference showed a considerable departure from the
Agricultural Outlook Conferences which had been held during the past ten years, and
following the meetings, the Minister of Agriculture, the Right Honourable J. G.
Gardiner, summed up the discussion in an address which lasted more than an hour.
His remarks, as well as those of Dr. H. H. Hannam, secretary of the Canadian Federation of Agriculture, and the defence of the lack of the United Kingdom markets given
by Sir Andrew Jones, head of the British Food Missions in Canada, are herewith presented for the use of readers of the 1949 Annual Report of the Department.
It will be apparent from the perusal of these newspaper clippings that the British
Government in future will not provide the market that we had expected for agricultural products. In such commodities as bacon, cheese, apples, eggs, and garden seeds
it will be necessary that each Province locate and fill its reasonable share of any commodity that may be required.
The Minister of Agriculture for Canada felt confident that Canada would get the contract to clear all of the surplus cheese from this country.
The U.K. bought 50,000,000 lb. of cheese from Canada this year, at 30 cents a pound.
Negotiators are asking that the price be reduced to 24. It appears the final price may be
set at about 27 cents a pound.   The available surplus next year may run to about 65,000,000 lb.
To buy no Eggs.
Britain, which bought about 40,000,000 dozens of eggs from Canada this year at about
45 cents a dozen, will buy no eggs from Canada next year, said Mr. Gardiner.
A small amount of bacon might be purchased next year, but this was not definite. There
had been a suggestion that part of the $280,000,000 Britain has set aside for the purchase
of Canadian wheat during the 1949-50 crop year be transferred to bacon. This suggestion
was being explored.
Mr. Gardiner said because of the uncertainty of the bacon contract, Canada may have
to ship bacon down to the U.S., to try and sell surpluses there.
Canada, however, has an embargo against the import of U.S. pork and any move to sell
Canadian pork in the U.S. probably would bring on requests to open Canadian doors to U.S.
The U.S. product sells at a slightly lower price than does the Canadian.
Other Statements.
Mr. Gardiner made these other statements in a two-hour speech:—
1. The freight-rate subsidy on movement of western feed grain to Eastern Canada would
be continued next year.
2. Canada's farmers could not be prosperous without British food contracts. It was
" essential " that Canada sell to the U.K. most of her surplus bacon, cheese, egg, and apple
production.   There appeared to be no other markets available.
3. He didn't agree with " economists " who called for balanced trade between Canada
and the United Kingdom. Nor did he believe that there would be any great change in the
$300,000,000 annual trading deficit in Canada's favour.
4. He advised western farmers that they cut down their wheat acreage next year and
get into coarse grains. The government once had paid farmers to "get out of wheat,"
but the government would not do it again.    It was up to the farmer to act.
5. If " certain " legislation was not passed by Parliament by March 31st, 1950, he no
longer would have authority to tell farmers to do anything. He apparently was referring to
the "Agricultural Prices Support Act" due to be re-introduced in the Commons at the next
session.    It was dropped during the last session without debate. W 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Canadian farmers appeared to be " at, or near, the crossroads where a plan based on
Government-to-Government sales cannot be continued."
In the final hours of the three-day conference, Provincial Agricultural Ministers and
other farm spokesmen emphasized the need to retain the British market.
H. H. Hannam Comments.
H. H. Hannam, president of the Canadian Federation of Agriculture, said the end of the
boom appeared in sight.
Spokesman for some 400,000 Canadian farmers, Mr. Hannam said:—
" Canadian farmers face a worse market outlook at this time than do the farmers of
any other agricultural country."
Farmers " got gypped " at the beginning of the boom period and now they were the " first
to take the rap " at the end of it.
He called on Canadians to be " generous in applying price supports to agricultural
Ask Price Support.
The federation is asking for price support for eggs and likely will ask support of bacon
prices if a contract does not develop. Mr. Gardiner also will be faced to-day with requests
for support of Maritime potatoes by a delegation of Maritime Agricultural Ministers.
The conference had given light to information which presented a " grim picture " to
Canadian farmers.
There was a loss of a large part of the U.K. market in prospect, growing surpluses in
the U.S. and declining prices there and a still growing number of Canadian food surpluses
as well.
Canada had experienced two depressions, one in 1919 and another in 1929. And just
before these depressions developed, farm prices had dropped. They had declined 10 per cent,
in 1919-20 and 10 per cent, in 1929-30. In the last fifteen months, a similar trend had
occurred. Farm prices had dropped 9 per cent. And it appeared likely they would drop
still further next year.
Canada needed an export market in Britain next year of between 80,000,000 and
100,000,000 lb. of bacon at $36 a hundredweight—the same price as this year. The 1949
contract called for shipment of 160,000,000 lb. Only about 60,000,000 lb. were shipped because
of a short supply.
If the price of bacon to the U.K. dropped from $36 to $30 a hundredweight, it would
mean a loss of about $3,000,000 on 50,000,000 lb.
" It would, however, be a drop in our floor price for the 600,000,000 lb. that we may be
expected to consume in Canada during 1950.   That amounts to $36,000,000."
The U.K. would save $3,000,000, but it meant a total loss to the farmers of $39,000,000.
It would be wise, he thought, for the Government to subsidize Canadian agriculture to
permit a " fair " return until world trading conditions become more stabilized.
Mr. Hannam said if Canada wanted to buy more goods from the U.K., she should reduce
tariffs on shoes, fabrics, and other equipment that Britain produces.
Trade Restrictions.
Mr. Gardiner did not believe that tariff reduction was the answer to the difficulties.
No matter how much tariffs were reduced, they could not eliminate embargoes and other
restrictions set up in world trade.
He found more agreement with Mr. Hannam's suggestion that Federal agriculture price-
support legislation " should be used in a more liberal manner."
The suggestion would be taken up, especially in consideratioon of 1950 bacon surpluses.
But he hoped that when the Maritime delegation came to see him to-day about potato price-
support they would not press their demands too heavily.
He called attention to a statement by Francis Flood, commercial attache to the U.S.
Embassy here. Mr. Flood told delegates that the U.S. had the same kind of surpluses as
Canada had, and Canadians should think twice before trying to sell their food products to
the U.S.    Canada should try to build up a bigger domestic demand instead.
Mr. Flood said the U.S. was returning to pre-war acreage allotments for wheat farming.
This was an " important" statement, said Mr. Gardiner.
Lauds Jones.
Mr. Gardiner lauded Sir Andrew Jones, head of the British food mission here. Sir
Andrew yesterday told the conference that the U.K. had been " boarded " by Canadian
criticism recently, but it did not plan to retaliate with " high sticking." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W 19
No man had done more than Sir Andrew, said Mr. Gardiner, to cement relationships
between Canada and the U.K. Any critical statement he had made of the U.K. did not refer
to this competent civil servant.
He referred again to a statement he had made in the Commons that there was a " deliberate " effort in the U.K. to squeeze out Canadian foodstuffs from the British market.
The interpretation people had placed on that word was not the interpretation he meant,
said Mr. Gardiner. He had used the word " deliberate " because the move against Canadian
foodstuffs had been " planned," and the planning stemmed from Britain's lack of dollars.
He realized Britain's position. She had only a limited amount of dollars. Even if
Britain did agree to make sufficient dollars available for bacon, cheese, and eggs, he still
would instruct his officials " to try to work it out so that we would require as few dollars from
them (Britain) as possible."
Before the conference broke up for another year, Provincial Agricultural Ministers—or
in their absence, their deputies—gave brief verbal reports on how the food situation affected
their various regions.
C. D. Graham, Ontario's Deputy Minister of Agriculture, said he favoured the suggestion
that Britain " postpone " buying of Canadian wheat and buy bacon instead.
Rene Trepannier, Quebec's Deputy Minister, said his Province needed western feed
grains.    He hoped the freight-rate subsidy would be maintained on grains.
Under date of December 13th, the staff writer for an Eastern newspaper stated:—
Sir Andrew Jones, head of the British food mission in Canada, to-day employed the good
humour for which he has a reputation, added a few spicy and friendly digs at Canada's
Minister of Agriculture, and delivered an answer to Mr. Gardiner's accusations which brought
him a round of applause from the Dominion-Provincial Farm Conference.
He spoke at the conference before Mr. Gardiner announced that the United Kingdom
would purchase only wheat and cheese from Canada in 1950.
" It seems to me recently we have taken a pretty heavy bawling out," he said, referring
to Mr. Gardiner's charges that there was a deliberate onslaught on Canadian farm products
in the British market. The Minister made these statements in the closing hours of Parliament and repeated them in the closed sessions of the Dominion-Provincial Conference.
Sir Andrew assured the delegates that there had been no high sticking on the part of
the British; that they wanted the Canadian food as soon as they could pay for it; that free
trade with Canada would be resumed as soon as currency difficulties were eliminated and
that in the meantime: " We are the ones who are suffering privation because of those
Several times the British official documented his facts by calling statements of Trade
Minister C. D. Howe in evidence, some of which hinted rather broadly at fundamental differences of viewpoint between the two Canadian Ministers. He expressed agreement with
Mr. Howe's advocacy of two-way trade and better bilateral balance. Mr. Gardiner has told
Canadians that they should buy where they can sell and that for the time being they can sell
freely only in Canada.
Sir Andrew took direct issue with the oft-repeated Gardiner interpretation of the bacon
fiasco of 1948 which resulted in Canada delivering less bacon than had actually been contracted for and being blamed by the British Government for the United Kingdom ration.
Mr. Gardiner has declared that this was because the British would not take all the bacon
Canada could send in the early part of the year. Sir Andrew admits this, but says that the
question put then was whether Britain was prepared to accept whatever supplies Canada
could send them, disregarding the 195,000,000-lb. commitment on the contract. The United
Kingdom said " No." Canada then asked whether they would be prepared to cancel the beef
contract and shift the dollar to purchase of more bacon.    The United Kingdom said " Yes."
" The end result," Sir Andrew reminded his audience, " was that we lost the bacon and
we lost the beef—but we saved our dollars."
The conference, both to-day and yesterday, has heard a good deal from Maritime quarters
about apples, for which 1950 will see even a worse tightening of markets than 1949. The
Dominion Bureau of Statistics reports apples held in storage at Dec. 1st, as 8,919,616 bushels,
compared with 5,129,432 bushels last year, and on last year's crop Canada was able to make
a deal with the United Kingdom by which she sold apples at half the support price. It was
arranged by Trade Minister Howe last spring.
Sir Andrew described it this way. Mr. Howe had gone over to England and asked them
if they would like some apples. They had said, of course they would like apples. Sir Stafford
Cripps was in Switzerland and so the deal had been made.
" What we were really doing," Sir Andrew reminded his audience, " was to relieve
Canada of half a liability which otherwise would have fallen wholly on the Canadian
Government." W 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Sir Andrew expressed his appreciation for a number of sympathetic statements made by
delegates who were obviously not of the same opinion as Mr. Gardiner.
" I assure you," he declared, " that what we are doing we are not doing with any perversity.   We are not being bloody-minded."
" Differences," he said, " must arise even in families which are closely knit. But these
differences are not going to make the slightest change in our relations. When the cloud of
financial problems is swept away Canada and the United Kingdom will again be trading
freely.    Our sincere wish as a British people is that it may be soon."
Sir Andrew pointed out to the conference that between 1946 and 1949 the United Kingdom had spent $1,629,667,832 on Canadian food products. " That," he said, " is our contribution to development of Canadian agriculture."
Before the war, he pointed out, Britain's investments had been sufficient to pay for 25
per cent, of her imports from Canada. To-day, as a result of the liquidation to pay the cost
of standing alone against the Nazis, that had been reduced to 8 per cent.
Floor prices or support prices may be provided by the Dominion Government, but
at the present time of writing this matter is still in abeyance, although it is under the
consideration of the Minister of Agriculture for the Dominion of Canada.
The following information has just come to hand on January 3rd, 1950, from
Canada takes Seven-cent Drop in 1950 Deal.
From Canadian Press Dispatches.
A 2%-cent-a-pound decline recorded to-day on the Winnipeg live hog market was attributed to the 1950 United Kingdom bacon contract, and in Montreal merchants predicted retail
pork prices would drop by 5 cents a pound by the end of the week.
The 1950 United Kingdom bacon contract, under which Canada will supply Britain with
60,000,000 lb. at a price of 29 cents a pound, was announced in London and in Ottawa by
Canada's Agriculture Minister Gardiner. The price represented a cut of 7 cents a pound
from the 1949 contract. Mr. Gardiner also announced the bacon subsidy will be discontinued " on and after July 1st, 1950."
One of the reasons for including a note on the results of the Koch therapy
investigation that was conducted by this Department during the past five years is the
publication in The Cancer Bulletin, published by the British Columbia Division of the
Canadian Cancer Society, in Volume 3, No. 1, this year of an article transcribed from
the Journal of American Medical Association.
Another reason for mentioning the Koch treatment is that on September 29th,
1949, the Fraser Valley Koch Therapy Association was incorporated, and it is felt that
members of that organization may find it advantageous to refresh their minds of what
has been done by the Department of Agriculture and by the men who co-operated with
our Committee.
This Department makes it perfectly clear that the Koch treatment was used in
veterinary cases and that we are satisfied with the results of that treatment that has
been used in connection with mastitis and other diseases of dairy cattle.
It was June, 1943, when the distribution of glyoxylide for the treatment of dairy
cows affected with mastitis and other diseases began in British Columbia. By the
spring of 1944, sufficient reliable information of the highly successful results of its use
in the Chilliwack district had reached the Department to warrant making the suggestion
to Dr. MacDonald that the use of this treatment be investigated. The Minister was
favourable to the idea of getting the fullest possible information and requested that
Dr. D. H. Arnott be communicated with. Dr. Arnott supplied copies of the books
published by Dr. Koch and the five pamphlets which he himself had written on the use
of the Koch treatment on farm animals. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W 21
After careful study of the literature the Minister decided that an entirely new
approach to the study and treatment of disease had been disclosed. He considered it
advisable to have a personal interview with Dr. Arnott, who in response to an invitation
came to British Columbia in September, 1944, for this purpose. Arrangements were
made by the Minister of Agriculture for representatives of the British Columbia
Veterinary Association, the University of British Columbia, and the Department of
Agriculture to meet in the Court-house, Vancouver, on September 25th, when Dr.
Arnott visited British Columbia and outlined to those present the Koch method of
treating dairy cattle for acute infectious mastitis and related diseases of cattle. Most
of the veterinarians present appeared to be hostile to the Koch method of treatment
of cattle in which 5 c.c. of glyoxylide solution is administered subcutaneously by hypodermic injection. However, since none who were opposed to the use of glyoxylide ever
had seen it used, the Minister stated that he wished to have a further meeting of
veterinarians and the owners of dairy cattle, and this was called for October 4th, in the
afternoon, in the Vancouver Court-house.
At this second meeting, attended by the veterinarians, Government and University
officials, the Minister of Agriculture, and Dr. Arnott, there were many dairymen present
who made astounding claims for the Koch treatment. In practically all cases the dairymen claimed that their cows responded almost immediately to the single injection of
glyoxylide. These cattle-owners were emphatic in their request that no action be taken
which would prevent their obtaining Koch treatments when required. In addition to
the dairymen present, a number of letters had been received from cattle-owners prior
to the meeting. The Minister stated that it was his desire to form an opinion based
upon accurate investigations and he named a committee to undertake this investigation.
On the committee the British Columbia Veterinary Association, the University of
British Columbia, the Provincial Department of Agriculture, and representatives of
the several breed associations were included, together with Dr. D. H. Arnott, who
represents the Dr. Wm. F. Koch Laboratories.
This Committee held its first meeting on the evening of October 4th and outlined
suggestions to be laid before the Minister with respect to undertaking the work.
Acting upon these suggestions, the Minister appointed J. E. Bennett, B.V.Sc, secretary
of the British Columbia Veterinary Association, as a Provincial Inspector to work with
G. F. R. Barton, B.V.Sc, of Chilliwack, who was named to represent Dr. Arnott.
The work undertaken was limited to an investigation as to the merits or demerits
of Koch's glyoxylide in the treatment of mastitis and infertility. Seventy-one cows
affected with mastitis and twenty-nine which were infertile were given the glyoxylide.
The Minister directed that record was to be made of all clinical results of importance
which might be observed during the progress of the demonstration. Two milk specimens were taken from each quarter of the affected animals by the veterinarians at
the time the cows were injected; these were sent to separate laboratories, where
bacteriological examinations were made and noted. Samples were taken a week later,
examined, and compared bacteriologically with the first. A second physical examination
was made at this time and compared with the first, and any improvement or otherwise
was accurately recorded.
The reduction in the number of bacteria between the first test and the second one,
made seven days later, was so remarkable that the setting-up of the Committee was
justified in that brief interval.
The seventy-one cows treated for mastitis presented 263 quarters affected with the
disease out of a total of 284 quarters, showing the stern test to which Koch's glyoxylide
was submitted during the investigation. No saleable milk was being obtained from
these 263 quarters affected with mastitis when the first injections of glyoxylide were
administered; ten months later it was revealed that production of market milk had
been restored to 256 quarters. W 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Reckoning as one item the many different types of bacteria regarded as inciting
mastitis in the seventy-one cows affected with this disease, the Committee made note
of fourteen pathological states which gave place to normal conditions during the work.
Here they are:—
(1) Remarkable reduction of bacterial count in milk produced in many cows
in one week.
(2) A consistent result was a definite softening of the udder.
(3) The disappearance of fibroid tissue was noted in a considerable number
of cases. No member of the Committee ever had seen one instance by the
use of any other treatment.
(4) Beneficial effect on digestion.
(5) Beneficial effect on the skin.
(6) Beneficial effect on the coat.
(7) One quarter that was affected for a long period and badly atrophied
(shrunken) made a complete recovery.
(8) Infertile cow exhibiting continuous estrum had normal time-cycle restored
and mated successfully to same sire.
(9) Four infertile cows where no estrum had appeared over considerable
periods of time had normal estrum restored and were mated successfully
to same sire.
(10) Infertility with cysts of the ovaries. Normal conditions restored.
Successfully mated to same sire.
(11) Infertility with ovarian cysts and vaginitis. Normal conditions restored.
Successfully mated to same sire.
(12) Infertility with retained corpus luteum and vaginitis. Normal conditions
restored.   Successfully mated to same sire.
(13) Infertility with fibrous ovaries. Normal conditions restored. Successfully mated to same sire.
(14) Dr. W. R. Gunn, Live Stock Commissioner, reported horses suffering from
fistulous withers, and with blood test positive to the infection of Brucella
abortus, had cleared up after the injection of glyoxylide. This report was
received and accepted by the Committee.
The consistent and highly meritorious results obtained from the use of Koch
glyoxylide by the Committee warranted the Department in extending its interest in the
therapy during 1946 and 1947 by treating Johne's disease.
Could any clinical problem offer more convincing excuse for being classed as
incurable than that presented by Johne's disease? It is induced by infection with
mycobacterium paratuberculosis, which produces enteritis characterized by severe
chronic diarrhoea which directly and persistently depletes the vitality of the stricken
animal. Early diagnosis followed by the slaughter of all affected animals has been the
method for control of the disease ordered by veterinary authorities.
During the season of 1946 a fair-sized herd on Vancouver Island was losing young
heifers at the time of first calving. The trouble was diagnosed as Johne's disease, and
a concentration of infection was found in this isolated herd that had sustained many
losses. This trouble was brought to the attention of Dr. W. R. Gunn, Live Stock Commissioner, who, at the request of the owner, inoculated all animals in the herd and one
week later reinoculated the four animals which showed clinical symptoms of Johne's
disease, using the Koch treatment. The suffering of the animals with the scouring
was stopped immediately, and the herd has continued to make steady improvement
ever since.
When first treated with glyoxylide, out of a herd of between twenty-five to thirty
milking cows, there were four clinical cases, with one in the very advanced stages of DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W 23
the disease. Checks made periodically since that date have shown that all clinical cases
recovered. The general over-all production of the herd has shown, by cow-testing
records, to be up to a very high standard. The cattle are all in very satisfactory
condition, and, from the standpoint of disease for which they were treated, not a single
additional case of Johne's disease has appeared, and the owner is highly satisfied.
Since reporting the above late in 1947, Dr. Gunn has discovered that two additional
cows which have been added to the herd are showing clinical symptoms of Johne's
disease. At the owner's request he has administered the necessary injections of
glyoxylide. These cases also are being closely followed up because it is evident that
contamination remains on the premises.
No isolation! No slaughter! Complete control obtained by the administration
of Koch's glyoxylide!
At the meeting of the Committee held on May 12th, 1945, it was clearly established
that mastitis which had been incited by the Streptococcus hemolyticus not only was
cured by the administration of glyoxylide, but that there was a strong tendency for
this greatly feared germ to disappear from the milk of the cow in a month after it had
been treated with glyoxylide. This point should be of interest to the public, and also
to those responsible for the health of the public.
The hostile reception with which the proposal to discuss the merits of the Koch
therapy met from most of the veterinarians present at the meeting held on September
25th, 1944, gave way, after six months' work of the Committee, to the following approval
of the action of the Minister expressed on May 12th, 1945, as recorded in the minutes
of that meeting:—
" Dr. F. W. B. Smith, speaking for the Veterinary Association, stated ' that they
were happy that Dr. MacDonald was instrumental in bringing this investigation about
and he assured him that they appreciated his efforts.' "
At the regular meeting of the British Columbia Veterinary Association held
January 15th, 1946, the following resolution was passed:
" This Association is of the opinion that the official results of the Koch treatment
(glyoxylide) in veterinary practice appear reasonable grounds to warrant continuing
its use."
The last public appearance of Honourable K. C. MacDonald as Minister of Agriculture was at the meeting of the Committee held in Vancouver, September 28th, 1945,
at which time it was gratifying to the Committee to be able to return a favourable
report based upon the Minister's request for a studied candid opinion of this rather
new type of veterinary therapy.
The Minister explained that the purpose of carrying out this investigation was to
seek some means of benefiting the dairy herds of British Columbia which were affected
by mastitis though all precautions were taken that were known of at the time. The
Minister thought the evidence as presented by the veterinarians indicated that nothing
could be added, and he wished to assure the members of the Committee that his sole
interest was the welfare of the dairy population of the Province. He had reached the
years when he realized that there was no finality to any question when the matter of
possible treatment arose and that the least that could be done was to investigate the
Koch treatment.
This Committee meeting included members of the British Columbia Veterinary
Association, the University of British Columbia, and the Provincial Department of
Agriculture, also the presidents of all dairy breed associations. The personnel of the
Committee is as follows:—
Honourable K. C. MacDonald, Minister of Agriculture.
Dr. J. B. Munro, Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
Dr. D. H. Arnott, representing the Koch treatment, London, Ont. W 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Dr.   F.  W.  B.  Smith,  president,  British  Columbia  Veterinary  Association,
Vancouver;    British   Columbia   Division,   Health   of   Animals,   Federal
Department of Agriculture, Ottawa.
Dr.   W.   R.   Gunn,   Live   Stock   Commissioner,   Department   of  Agriculture,
Dr. Jos. E. Bennett, secretary, British Columbia Veterinary Association, and
Veterinary Inspector, Department of Agriculture, Victoria.
Dr. S. N. Wood, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Dr.  M.   Sparrow,  vice-president,  British  Columbia  Veterinary  Association,
Dr. J. G. Jervis, veterinary surgeon.
Dr. G. F. R. Barton, veterinary surgeon.
R. H. Irwin, representing the dairymen.
W. A. Gooder, representing the Koch treatment in British Columbia.
In 1947 the Department felt that it had completed a very satisfactory investigation
of the Koch treatment of dairy animals and reported that in each succeeding year since
1944 the British Columbia Department of Agriculture reported on the progress of
investigations of the Koch treatment of farm animals. These investigations were
carried on with a number of different types of diseases, and in every instance we have
been able to confirm and corroborate the outstanding clinical results reported by
Dr. Arnott in his publications touching on the successful treatment of these various
pathological states.
The usefulness of the Koch therapeutic reagents rests upon reactions, fundamental
and undisputed, physiological and bio-chemical, which we explained in our Annual
Report of 1945, thus:—
" Life is promoted, sustained, and reproduced by the use of food. For good health
the supply must be adequate in amount and variety. For the best normal results it is
necessary that the food be well digested, and also that the potential energy contained
therein be transferred into living energy throughout the body at a vigorous rate,
burning the food properly in each individual cell where it unites with oxygen for this
purpose. This living chemical reaction is spoken of by medical science as ' internal
respiration,' and it must take place continuously because Nature has provided the body
with no reservoir wherein oxygen may be stored to be drawn upon at will or in time
of need. It is upon the degree approaching perfection with which food is thus turned
into living energy consistently that conditions requisite for good health are best
maintained, that disease is best resisted, that life is best reproduced.
" It is Dr. Koch's belief that certain carbon compounds perform an important
intermediary step in the living chemistry by which food is turned into life itself; and
should the supply of these compounds fall below that requisite for the best conditions,
life may continue, but vigorous good health may be lost.
" It is Dr. Koch's belief that a normal supply of these essential carbon compounds
often can be renewed by the hypodermic administration of the reagents which he
" The Department of Agriculture, after making its investigation of different
diseases, is inclined to agree with this claim. We have reached our favourable conclusions on the Koch treatment through a carefully planned method of obtaining
practical first-hand information in actual field-work among dairy-herd owners. Our
observations have established the fact that various pathological states sometimes were
present in one animal, all of which cleared up promptly following the administration
of the Koch therapy. It seems only right that we should accept the explanation
furnished by Dr. Koch that these and other serious diseases stem from the breakdown
of the oxidative mechanism upon which effective natural immunization to disease
primarily depends." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W  25
We have expressed our appreciation to Dr. D. H. Arnott, whom we have found
to be most useful, co-operative, and able in carrying out this work. His action in
making available the Koch treatment without delay has been of material benefit to our
live-stock men. In fact, at a meeting of the Joint Dairy Breeds Association of British
Columbia held in 1947 the following resolution has been passed:—
" The Joint Dairy Breeds Association of British Columbia wishes to express its
appreciation of the effort made by the British Columbia Department of Agriculture
to determine the merit of the Koch treatment in controlling and curing diseases of
dairy cattle, and request that the Department of Agriculture continue to make available
the Koch treatment to owners of dairy cattle."
The recent incorporation of a non-profit company under the name " Fraser Valley
Koch Therapy Association " set up by owners of fine dairy cattle experienced in the
use of glyoxylide forecast the future safety of this form of therapy which has been
endorsed in British Columbia by the Department of Agriculture and the other organized
agencies which co-operated in carrying out the Koch Therapy Investigation set up in
1944 by Honourable K. C. MacDonald (deceased), Minister of Agriculture.
The fact should have been noted by the British Columbia Cancer Bulletin that in
all of our committee reports regarding the Koch treatment we have dealt with the use
of this material from a veterinary standpoint only. All references to the use of the
Koch treatment for cancer have been carefully avoided, although many instances of
the value of this treatment have come within the purvue of those engaged in veterinary
If in any future issues of their bulletins the Cancer Society wishes to quote from
our report, it is hoped that they will give a correct impression of the value of the Koch
treatment and refrain from any inaccurate claims with which they are not competent
to deal.
The following appointments were made by the Civil Service in 1949: Miss I. N.
McGarva, March 1st; Miss D. Woolfrey, March 7th; Miss L. K. Reid, March 21st;
J. M. Cameron, April 1st; Miss B. Voegtlin, April 27th; N. H. Ingledew, May 1st;
R. G. Garry, May 16th; I. C. Came, May 16th; W. F. Morton, May 16th; J. D. Hazlette,
May 16th; E. C. Hughes, May 16th; C. M. Williams, May 16th; J. A. Pelter, May
16th (casual labour) ; M. Hanna, May 16th; R. H. McMillan, May 16th; H. R. Anderson, May 18th; A. J. Allan, May 19th; A. R. Tarves, May 20th; G. Cruickshank, May
23rd (casual labour) ; K. V. Ellison, May 30th; J. Caplette, June 1st; A. E. Littler,
June 1st; W. I. Hugh, June 1st (casual labour) ; W. S. Fletcher, June 20th; Miss B.
Campbell, June 27th; M. M. Gilchrist, June 1st; Miss F. E. Forbes, July 18th; R. L.
Lancaster, July 25th; Miss P. G. Hetherington, September 1st; Miss I. C. Brown,
September 26th;   Miss H. Noakes, October 18th.
The following transfers were made in 1949: Miss M. Borge, February 16th; Miss
M. MacDonald, April 5th;   D. B. Robertson, May 16th;   W. B. Richardson, May 31st;
D. Borthwick, May 31st; Miss D. Leonard, June 18th; Miss S. Kennedy, August 1st;
Miss N. H. Pite, September 30th.
The following resignations took place in 1949:  J. A. Fischer, January 15th;  Miss
E. M. Freathy, January 31st; Miss F. E. Henney, February 9th; Miss J. H. Hamilton,
March 26th; A. J. Bodaly, March 31st; N. C. McKinnon, April 2nd; Miss M. Somer-
ville, May 31st; Mrs. M. MacKay, July 16th; Miss V. V. Cookson, August 31st; Miss
A. M. Nixon, August 31st.
The following were superannuated in 1949: H. H. Evans, January 31st; F. Overland, July 31st;  V. Tonks, September 30th;   Miss F. L. Brooks, November 30th.
In addition to the above superannuations, it must be noted that the Honourable
Frank Putnam, who was Minister of Agriculture from the time of the death of the W 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Honourable K. C. MacDonald on November 19th, 1945, had been Minister of Agriculture,
he declined re-election in the summer of 1949 and retired at the end of July last. He
has been succeeded by the Honourable Harry R. Bowman, who was elected this year
for the constituency of Prince George.
G. H. Stewart, Agricultural Statistician.
The total gross value of agricultural production in British Columbia in 1948
exceeded that of any previous year. Estimated at $142,108,222, the 1948 total is
$8,099,907 or 6 per cent, above the revised estimate of $134,008,315 for 1947.
Farm cash income from the sale of farm products reached a total of $101,212,000
in 1948. This was a record high and surpassed the previous all-time high set in 1947
by 9.3 per cent.
Increases are recorded in the revenue from live stock, fruits, potatoes, eggs, and
dairy products. These increases are in part offset by decreases shown in the revenue
from grains, seeds, poultry, meat, wool, hops, tobacco, and honey.
The total value of imports is placed at $79,382,802, as compared with $64,801,208
in 1947, an increase of $14,581,594 or 22.5 per cent. The gain in imports was particularly marked in the case of live stock, dairy products, and feed-grains.
The total value of exports is estimated at $36,264,372 in 1948, as compared with
$31,217,149 in 1947, an increase of $5,047,223 or 16.1 per cent. The 1948 values are
the highest ever recorded.
The winter was generally mild in all horticultural sections, with only a few short
periods when the temperature was below zero in the Salmon Arm and Kootenay areas.
A satisfactory snow coverage and well-ripened trees prevented any winter-injury. In
the Okanagan there was little snowfall on the lower levels, while in the Coast sections
there was a light snowfall but a somewhat higher rainfall than is usual at this time
of the year.
The spring was late in all districts, varying from two to three weeks and depending
upon location. Heavy rainfall and floods resulting from the melting of snows in the
mountains also materially affected agricultural production in many districts. The summer was cool in all districts with no extended periods of high temperatures and accompanied by unprecedented rainfall. These conditions affected all crops. Cool weather
and unusual rainfall continued until early fall, followed, during the month of October,
by little rainfall and generally satisfactory weather for harvesting. The late fall and
early winter period experienced heavy rains, snow in many districts, and at points,
particularly on the Coast, high winds.
While tree-fruits of all kinds early in the season gave indication of a crop larger
than that of the previous year, there was a gradual decrease in the estimated production as the season advanced. This decrease in apples was undoubtedly due in part to
poor pollenization at time of blossoming, followed by poor seasonal conditions through- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W 27
out the growing period, which resulted in unsatisfactory sizing and the production of
a large quantity of small-sized fruit. Pears showed only a slight increase as compared
with 1947. Peaches, cherries, plums, and prunes showed a decrease due, in part, to the
general distribution of peach leaf-curl and brown rot. These two diseases are not
usually of outstanding significance, but under the weather conditions that prevailed
during the past season caused a considerable loss. Heavy rains also caused severe
cherry-splitting, thus reducing the crop and increasing handling and picking costs.
Of the various stone-fruits, apricots alone showed a marked increase in production over
the 1947 crop.
The flood conditions prevailing in the Fraser Valley during June did destroy many
plantings of small fruits. Nevertheless, the total tonnage of all small fruits produced
during the 1948 season was on the whole larger than that of the previous year. Furthermore, the demand for and sale of all such fruit, with the exception of raspberries, was
most satisfactory. Loganberries were particularly outstanding, as the abundant supply
of moisture during the harvesting period brought the total production well up in line
with earlier estimates.
The total production of all fruit-crops in British Columbia in 1948 is estimated at
448,184,000 lb., valued at $27,078,666, as compared with 461,934,000 lb., valued at
$25,783,485, in 1947. Average prices of tree-fruits were higher than in 1947, prices
of raspberries showed a decline, and strawberries and loganberries remained unchanged
from the previous year. Increases in average prices were largely offset by decreased
yields, thus accounting for the small increase in the total value.
The total production of commercial apples for 1948 is estimated at 312,806,000 lb.,
of a value of $14,326,426, as compared with 325,934,000 lb., value of $14,223,178 in 1947.
The 1948 strawberry-crop is estimated at 19,192,000 lb., as compared with
12,390,000 lb. in 1947, an increase of 6,802,000 lb. or 54.9 per cent.
Production of raspberries is estimated at 14,820,000 lb. in 1948, as compared with
18,420,000 lb. in 1947, a decrease of 3,600,000 lb. or 19.5 per cent.
Of the other fruits, the estimated commercial production and value for 1948, with
corresponding figures for 1947 within brackets, are as follows: Pears, 27,388,000 lb.,
$1,765,004 (27,150,000, $1,496,880); plums, 2,686,000 lb., $180,197 (4,204,000, $184,565);
prunes, 13,820,000 lb., $860,331 (16,026,000, $703,038); peaches, 36,476,000 lb., $2,237,150
(37,914,000, $1,842,302) ; apricots, 7,608,000 lb., $629,476 (5,824,000, $326,646) ; cherries, 6,530,000 lb., $1,046,724 (8,564,000, $1,211,245) ; blackberries, 950,000 lb., $112,578
(1,058,000, $117,611) ; loganberries, 2,262,000 lb., $340,286 (1,414,000, $212,506) ; bush-
fruits and grapes, 3,250,000 lb., $226,137 (2,644,000, $184,704).
A late, cold spring, followed by a wet and cool summer, delayed the early ripening
and shipping of tomatoes, cucumbers, and cantaloupes. Furthermore, the delay in
shipping brought competition on the Prairie markets from their local-grown as well as
Ontario produce of a similar nature. Late blight also attacked the tomatoes, with the
result that the crop was lighter than in previous years. Onions were also attacked by
mildew, which materially reduced the size of the bulb and therefore lessened the total
yield. Potato acreage was badly blighted and, while not reducing the yield, increased
the storage hazard.
Practically all vegetable acreages are the same as in 1947. A few, such as carrots,
cabbage, and potatoes, show a slight upward trend. The few kinds planted in excess
of last year may have been increased with a view of taking care of home requirements
occasioned by restrictions placed on importations.
As compared with the previous year, increases are recorded in volume of production
for asparagus, cabbage, cantaloupes, carrots, cauliflower, celery, and spinach.    On the W 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
other hand, such vegetable-crops as beets, corn, lettuce, onions, green peas, and green
beans yielded less than in 1947.
The production of field cucumbers registered a sharp decline from that of the
previous year. The 1948 crop is estimated at 1,940 tons, as compared with 2,853 tons
in 1947.
Hothouse cucumbers produced in 1948 amounted to 280 tons, up 46 tons or 19.6
per cent, over the 1947 production.
Field tomatoes produced in 1948 amounted to 27,400 tons, valued at $1,836,497, as
compared with 19,619 tons valued at $1,323,390 in 1947, a decrease in quantity of
7,781 tons.
Hothouse tomatoes showed a slight drop in production from that of the previous
The production of field rhubarb is estimated at 718 tons of a value of $51,854, as
compared with 1,002 tons valued at $67,788 in 1947.
The total production of all vegetables in 1948 amounted to 77,654 tons valued at
$7,670,856, as compared with 99,886 tons valued at $7,869,430 in 1947.
The 1948 season was one of the worst experienced in British Columbia for the
production of hay, cereals, and forage-crop seeds. The late spring with heavy runoff,
together with above-normal summer rainfall, seriously curtailed hay production.
Heavy rains in the early summer resulted in much poor-quality hay being put up.
Improved weather conditions in August and September helped the situation, and some
good-quality second and third cuts of hay were harvested. On the other hand, pastures
were good and provided heavy feeding throughout the summer.
Floods in many areas, particularly the Fraser Valley and Creston district, resulted
in heavy losses in hay and grain. After the floods subsided in the Fraser Valley,
farmers were able to get on their land and seed emergency crops, mostly oats and grass
mixtures. The oats did very well and provided late-season pasture or hay and silage
for winter.
Many of the upland meadows of the Interior remained flooded all season and no
hay could be harvested from these areas as in normal years.
The situation regarding cereal-grain production varied considerably with districts
but, in general, all districts reported heavy growth with delayed ripening of crops.
There was severe lodging in many areas and some crops were frosted, others had to be
harvested for hay. The oat-crop in the Fraser Valley (outside of flooded areas) lodged
badly and yields suffered somewhat.
In the North Okanagan the crop was late but yields were good. Grades were
somewhat poor due to wet weather during harvest. This situation also applies in the
Central Interior.
In the Peace River Block yields were good. There was some frost damage and
grades were poor.    Snow in August caused some bad lodging.
Floods on the Creston flat wiped out a large acreage of wheat and peas. Areas on
the flat not flooded had light crops of oats and wheat. Yields in other areas of the
Kootenays were above average but late.
The total gross farm value of field crops produced in the Province in 1948 is estimated at $33,293,000, as compared with $33,023,000 in 1947, an increase of $270,000.
Wheat production in 1948 is estimated at 2,459,000 bushels from 116,000 acres, as
compared with 2,966,000 bushels from 130,100 acres in 1947; yields per acre of 21.2
bushels and 22.8 bushels respectively. Oats yielded 3,456,000 bushels from 75,800
acres, a yield per acre of 45.6 bushels, as compared with 3,915,000 bushels from 84,200
acres or 46.5 bushels per acre in 1947. The yield of barley is estimated at 485,000
bushels from 15,600 acres, as compared with 507,000 bushels from 14,900 acres in 1947;
the average yields per acre being 31.1 bushels and 34 bushels. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W  29
The production of mixed grains is estimated at 339,000 bushels from 8,400 acres,
or 40.4 bushels per acre, as compared with 368,000 bushels from 8,700 acres, or 42.3
bushels per acre in 1947. The 1948 flaxseed crop is estimated at 24,000 bushels, an
increase of 7,200 bushels over the 1947 crop.
Grain crops aggregating a total of 6,834,000 bushels valued at $7,585,000 were
produced, as against the 1947 production of 7,978,800 bushels valued at $9,542,000.
Hay and clover yielded 458,000 tons from 218,000 acres, or 2.10 tons per acre, as
compared with 492,000 tons from 229,000 acres, or 2.15 tons per acre in 1947. The
total yield of alfalfa in 1948 amounted to 231,000 tons from 82,500 acres, or 2.80 tons
per acre, as compared with 241,000 tons from 87,800 acres in 1947. The yield of fodder
corn is estimated at 33,000 tons in 1948, down 4,400 tons from that of the previous year.
Grain-hay production is placed at 84,000 tons as against 75,100 tons for 1947.
The production of all fodders amounted to 806,000 tons valued at $18,973,000, as
compared with 845,500 tons valued at $16,911,000 produced in 1947.
Potatoes yielded 111,350 tons from 17,400 acres, as against 106,900 tons from
17,100 acres in 1947;  yields per acre of 6.40 tons and 6.25 tons respectively.
The average prices received by farmers for the 1948 crops are estimated as follows,
with the prices for 1947 within brackets: Cents per bushel—wheat, 161 (163) ; oats,
72 (81) ; barley, 103 (111) ; rye, 140 (325) ; peas, 360 (276) ; mixed grains, 94 (80) ;
flaxseed, 380 (522) ; dollars per ton—hay and clover, 24.50 (21.53) ; alfalfa, 25 (21) ;
potatoes, 54.40 (55.60).
In the Fraser Valley of British Columbia an acute flood situation developed as the
snow melted in the mountains, causing very considerable damage to areas prepared for
crops, which led to a feed and pasture shortage later in the season.
Total milk production is placed at 632,080,000 lb., representing an increase of
approximately 4,000,000 lb. in comparison with the previous year.
In studying the utilization of milk for various purposes it will be found that
approximately 51 per cent, was used as fluid sales, 16 per cent, in the manufacture of
creamery butter, 11 per cent, in the manufacture of evaporated whole milk, and the
remaining 22 per cent, in the manufacture of Cheddar cheese, ice-cream, dairy butter,
farm-made cheese, and includes milk consumed on the farm and fed to live stock.
The total value of dairy production for 1948 is estimated at $28,812,000, as compared with the revised total of $ 25,408,000 in 1947, an increase of $3,404,000 or 13.4
per cent.
The 1948 creamery butter make amounted to 4,321,000 lb. as compared with
4,439,000 lb. in 1947, a decrease of 118,000 lb.
The output of factory cheese is estimated at 431,000 lb. in 1948, as compared with
the final estimate of 533,000 lb. in 1947.
The make of ice-cream was greater than that of the previous year. The 1948
production is estimated at 2,492,000 gallons valued at $3,240,000, as compared with
2,487,000 gallons valued at $3,233,000 in 1947.
The production of evaporated whole milk in 1948 reached an all-time high. The
output of the condenseries in 1948 was 31,759,000 lb., as compared with 24,438,000 lb.
in 1947, an increase of 7,321,000 lb. or approximately 30 per cent.
Fluid milk sales in 1948 are estimated at 319,583,000 lb., as compared with estimated sales of 324,442,000 lb. in 1947, a decrease of 4,859,000 lb.
The winter of 1947-48 was possibly the most unfavourable one from the standpoint
of the range cattleman for a number of years.    Heavy snowfall  beginning early W 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
exhausted reserve feed-supplies of cattlemen in many parts of the Province. The
nature of the weather at yearly calving time resulted in a very heavy calf-crop loss.
Prices during the past year have been probably the best in the history of the
industry, with top prices being over 27 cents for good-quality British Columbia steers.
Particularly good prices have been obtained for bulls and cows since the high prices
encouraged the use of cheaper-quality meat. In-between grades of cattle were not
quite as good.
The sheep industry in so far as numbers on farms are concerned has shown little
change during the past year.    However, prices for all offerings have been very good.
The number of hogs on farms at June 1st, 1948, is estimated at 59,300, a decrease
of 22.6 per cent, from the 76,600 at June 1st, 1947. The large numbers moved to markets during the early months of this year represented a considerable liquidation.
The June 1st survey indicated 50,600 horses on farms, as compared with 53,300
in 1947, a decrease of 2,700.
Cattle numbers at 362,000 represents an increase of 3,300 head over the numbers
at June 1st, 1947. There was no significant change in the number of cows and heifers
2 years old and over kept mainly for milking purposes.
Poultry on farms at June 1st, 1948, consisting of domestic fowl, turkeys, geese,
and ducks totalled 4,298,000 birds, a decline of 12.4 per cent, from last year's total of
4,910,400 head.    Turkeys numbering 147,000 were 83.8 per cent, of last year.
Total egg production for 1948 is estimated at 33,868,400 dozens of a value of
$14,321,000, as compared with 34,890,000 dozens, value $13,715,000, in 1947.
The total poultry meat produced during the calendar-year 1948 was 18,266,000 lb.,
a decrease of 17.9 per cent, from the 1947 total.
The hop acreage in British Columbia was slightly larger than that of the previous
season. Hops yielded 2,009,000 lb., from 1,635 acres, as compared with 2,320,000 lb.
from 1,619 acres in 1947—yields per acre of 1,229 lb. and 1,433 lb. respectively. The
average price is estimated at 73 cents per lb., as compared with 79 cents per lb. in 1947.
The yield of tobacco in 1948 is estimated at 19,000 lb. from 24 acres, or 792 lb. per
acre, as compared with 121,000 lb. from 118 acres, or 1,025 lb. per acre in 1947.
Total wool production in 1948 amounted to 409,000 lb., as compared with 458,000
lb. in 1947. Slighter average weights per fleece contributed to the decline, but it was
mostly due to fewer sheep on farms.
Honey production for 1948 is estimated at 1,638,000 lb. of a value of $369,000 as
against 1,805,000 lb. of a value of $406,000 in 1947, a decrease in quantity of 167,000 lb.
The total value of flower, vegetable, and field-crop seed production for 1948 is
estimated at $1,000,707, as compared with the 1947 estimate of $1,583,577.
The value of bulb production in 1948 is estimated at $350,000, as compared with
a value of $332,800 in 1947, an increase of $17,200.
The winter of 1948-49 was very hard on bees as the severe frost kept them confined
for long periods of time. This, combined with a late honey-flow in the fall of 1948
which was not properly ripened, caused heavy losses from dysentery. This only applied,
however, to bees belonging to bee-keepers who did not take care in preparing their bees
for winter and making sure that they had ample, well-ripened stores of honey or heavy
sugar syrup. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W 31
Careful bee-keepers, who took precautions and carefully protected their colonies
by packing in cases or wrapping the hives with paper, report very light winter losses.
The season opened up early on the Coast and Vancouver Island, and commercial
bee-keepers in these districts, who started spring-feeding early were, in some cases,
importing queens and making divisions for increase late in March. This plan worked
out very well and excellent results were reported.
A heavy importation of package bees was made this year. Many bee-keepers in this
way replaced colonies that had died out.
The " building-up " season extended over six to eight weeks in the Coast areas
with strong colonies being reported before May 15th. This tended to make swarming
a much greater problem than usual, but it helped fill the empty hives, and at the
beginning of the summer honey-flow, about June 15th, the bee population was back to
normal. In the Interior valleys the season opened about April 15th and the wintered-
over colonies and the package bees built up very rapidly, which made the colonies in
excellent shape for the early honey-flow. This flow was " spotty " and it looked for
some time as if the honey-crop for 1949 would be low. The season, however, continued
favourable for nectar secretion and extended over a long period, which brought the
yield well above average, and in sections running heavy to white sweet clover many
bumper crops were harvested.
The only disappointing crop this year was from areas that depend almost altogether
on alfalfa.   Even this plant with the long season gave an average yield.
The Peace River area opened up about two weeks later. Bee-keeping in this district
is almost 100 per cent, with package bees, which are brought ahead by sugar-feeding
until such time as the natural flora comes in. The honey-flow started about June 28th
and continued until the plants were cut down by the early frost of August 5th. Alfalfa
and the clovers being at their best for nectar secretion at this time kept honey production in this area up to its usual high average. The Prince George district had another
wet summer with a resulting low average of honey, although it was much better than
1948, and the crop was of excellent quality.
A questionnaire was mailed to all registered bee-keepers on Vancouver Island and
the Lower Mainland, and upon returns being compiled and broken down into districts,
it was found that 1,201 registrations had been cancelled. As there were only 176 new
bee-keepers registered this year, this showed a net loss of 1,025 in the number of
registered bee-keepers. This loss, in numbers, is not serious as it only goes to show
that a large number of people who purchased bees during the rationing of sugar have
found that it takes more than the initial investment in a colony to assure a crop of
honey, and they have taken a loss. The industry now is in a very healthy condition, as
most bee-keepers that are left are very interested in gaining a better knowledge of
handling bees in order to show a profit or procure a crop of honey for home use.
The plan adopted in 1948 was carried out more fully this year. V. E. Thorgeirson
handled all calls on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland. Your Senior Inspector
handled the Interior districts, assisted where necessary by bee-masters in local districts.
This system is working out in a very satisfactory manner, and bee-keepers in outlying
districts feel that they are getting all the attention required. C. C. Heighway, Peach-
land, handled calls in the Okanagan Valley as far south as Summerland, and Harvey
Boone, of Oliver, took care of all calls south of Penticton and in the Similkameen Valley.
V. E. Thorgeirson and myself visited the Prince George district and spent two days
in the Peace River Block. This visit took place between June 24th and July 2nd.
R. W. Brown, of Fort St. John, took charge of us and we covered the district from
Pouce Coupe to Hudson Hope, calling on practically every bee-keeper in the territory. W 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
This visit at this time of year convinced us that bees are very essential to the growing
seed industry of that district, in so far as pollination is concerned. It also convinced
us that this will prove to be our best honey-producing area in the Province.
In February the Extension Department of the University of British Columbia
conducted a short course in bee-keeping of eight lectures, of these three were handled
by V. E. Thorgeirson and two by your Senior Inspector. This course was well attended,
some sixty-odd students registering for the series. This was followed by a field
demonstration in McGavin's Apiaries at Abbotsford at which V. E. Thorgeirson assisted.
In March a short course was arranged on Vancouver Island by the Vancouver
Island Division of the B.C. Honey Producers' Association. This was held in Victoria
and was in charge of Mr. Thorgeirson and myself. A total of eighty-two registered
for the course, which was made up of three evening meetings. A very keen interest
was shown and the results have come out in the season just passed in much better
bee-keeping methods being adopted. Bee-keepers attended from all parts of Vancouver
We also attended the American Pollination Convention held at the University of
Washington in Seattle. At this convention we were joined by Dr. J. B. Munro,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, and by E. 0. MacGinnis, Markets Commissioner.
The convention was well worthwhile, and we were able to gather a lot of useful data
which will greatly assist us in our pollination problems.
Your Inspectors attended the Pacific National Exhibition at Vancouver and also
the Central Interior Exhibition at Armstrong, and as many of the local fairs as it was
possible to attend. In most cases we acted as honey judges, or as instructors to others
who were judging. Much good work was done here in contacting, and instructing
We also attended all the annual meetings of the several divisions of the B.C. Honey
Producers' Association, and were able to contact many bee-keepers and discuss problems
affecting the different local districts at these meetings.
It might be well here to record the progress made by this association since beekeepers began to organize in 1914. The Kootenay Beekeepers' Association was started
in 1914 and carried on as a local association concerning the Kootenays for almost six
years. Major-General Lord Aylmer, of Queen's Bay, was the president, and W. J.
Sheppard, of Nelson, was secretary. On February 25th, 1916, the Beekeepers' Association of B.C. was organized in Vancouver with Dan Mowat, of McKay, as the first
president, and J. Brooks, of Vancouver, as secretary-treasurer. Organized bee-keeping
carried on in this way with minor changes until May 1st, 1920, when the certificate of
incorporation for the British Columbia Honey Producers' Association was issued. This
association was made up of two divisions, the Kootenay group being discontinued and
reformed as the Kootenay Division of the new organization. The other division was
known as the Fraser Valley Division and was composed of the majority of the actual
honey producers on the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island. The Beekeepers' Association of B.C., in Vancouver, carried on as usual until 1934, when the association was
abandoned and reorganized as the Greater Vancouver Division of the B.C. Honey
Producers' Association. Immediately after the amalgamation of the two associations,
organization went ahead very rapidly, and in 1946 the last district in British Columbia
(Vancouver Island) became part of the British Columbia Honey Producers' Association.
We now have fifteen divisions, of which thirteen are active and almost 1,000 bee-keepers
are entered as members. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W  33
A very heavy loss was reported from poison sprays this year. Approximately
75 per cent, of 600 colonies was lost in and around Vernon and a loss of 80 colonies at
Diagnosis in both cases showed a more than lethal dose of arsenic.
The same method of handling foul-brood was followed this year and the results
were most satisfactory. As no systematic inspection was carried on this year, we have
abandoned the usual summary. All reports of disease or suspected disease were
investigated and a very small percentage of foul-brood was found. If any were found
to have a bad infection, they were destroyed; and if a mild infection, and your
Inspectors were satisfied the bee-keepers could handle it, all infected combs were
destroyed and full instructions given as to the use of sulfathiazole as a preventive
measure. This has worked out in a very satisfactory manner. Commercial bee-keepers
are all using the drug and all report practically no trace of American foul-brood in
their apiaries.
Sulfathiazole is still being supplied at cost through this apiary office, and full
instructions are sent out as to its use.
The several divisions of the British Columbia Honey Producers' Association and
the Bee-masters of British Columbia have been very co-operative, both in reporting
any suspected cases and in supplying bee-keepers in their own districts with information
received from this office as to control of disease.
This publication, compiled and issued from this office every six weeks during the
bee-keeping season, has proved to be of real value in contacting bee-keepers and in
supplying them with information on the various phases of bee-keeping as it affects
each district.   It was issued primarily as a reminder to do certain things at the proper
time.   It took well, and the popular demand has been for more articles on bee-keeping
subjects.   We, however, have continually used it for its primary purpose, and it is also
used as a warning to all readers to look out for bee-diseases.   As such it has real value,
and it goes a long way towards making better bee-keepers and helps to control the
spread of bee-diseases, the prevalence of which is rapidly decreasing.    Seven issues
were sent out this year from February until October, from 750 to 872 copies going out
each issue.
" Bee-Wise " is the biggest individual part of the office work and the compiling,
printing, and mailing takes considerable time. This year a questionnaire was also
prepared and sent out to every bee-keeper on the Lower Mainland and Vancouver
Island. Some 3,000 were sent out and 66 per cent. (1,980) were returned completed.
From this it was possible to compile a more accurate list of bee-keepers in the Coast
areas. This should be extended to cover the rest of British Columbia next year. Miss
Joan Trehearne has handled the office work in a very efficient manner. She has taken
care of 2,399 incoming letters and has mailed out 4,428.
Six new bee-keepers qualified as bee-masters in 1949: Wm. E. Hoadley, Salmon
Arm; Stanley F. Bettschen, Vernon; Gordon Robb, Vernon; James H. Drinkwater,
Kelowna; Leo Fuhr, Vernon; and Charles W. Warren, Victoria. One of our earliest
bee-masters passed on in September in the person of Willis F. McMullen, formerly of
The " Bees' Workshop," the coloured film made in 1944, has been shown several
hundred times and is now beginning to show signs of wear. It is still very much in
demand. It was shown at the International Pollination Conference held in Seattle in
July. J. I. Hambleton, of the U.S.D.A., was very pleased with it, both from, the
standpoint of entertainment as well as for its educational value. He made several
constructive suggestions as to its improvement.
It was decided to make a new film on the same lines. Work was started immediately
and about half of the photographic work was completed this past fall by A. J. Hourston,
Agricultural Assistant. This work should be completed and edited in the coming early
summer so as to make the new picture available for meetings in the fall of 1950.
" Bee Culture in British Columbia," Bulletin No. 92, was written in 1930 and has
been revised twice since that time. The last revision was in 1945, and as the last
printing of 3,000 copies is running low, it is time a new bulletin was written and
brought up to date. This work was started in the past season and should be carried
on in 1950.
The educational campaign on the use of sulfathiazole as a preventive for American
foul-brood should be carried on, as it means much to the future of bee-keeping in
British Columbia.
More time should be spent in the northern parts of the Province as it is to the
north one must look for future development of the bee-keeping industry.
The thanks of this department are due to the District Agriculturists and to the
District Horticulturists for the hearty co-operation they have given us at all times.
Ernest MacGinnis, Markets Commissioner.
The general marketing situation is confused and cloudy. The elimination of what
has been considered normal export outlets through exchange difficulties, devaluation
of the pound sterling and the Canadian dollar, decontrol of various products, and price
supports are a few of the principal agencies adding to the perplexity of those interested
in all phases of agriculture. This is but an accelerated projection of last year's report,
which said: " In view of the constantly changing marketing scene in so far as
' markets' are concerned, and the impact of these changes upon the whole disposal
problem   .   .   ."
Summaries of production records were presented then as exhibiting trends, accompanied by export figures of the past.
The general situation is aggravated by two distinct trends, a decrease in exports
and an increase in imports. Of the two, the lack of favourable export markets is the
more serious to agriculture, with prospective surpluses of perishable commodities if
present production programmes are maintained. Price supports in Canada have only
affected the picture indirectly, and applied to apples, dried white beans, honey, dried
skim-milk, and potatoes from 1948 production, and apples, butter, cheese, and dried
skim-milk out of 1949 production. Guaranteed minimum advance prices have been
made for forage-crop seeds, honey, and fox pelts.
Generally speaking it may be said that the market for horticultural products for
domestic consumption is only fair and much less satisfactory for those commodities
which find a substantial part of their outlet in the export market. Apples and raspberries for jam manufacture, substantial portions of which have been sold to the
United Kingdom, will likely continue to face dollar-conserving import prohibitions on
commercial shipments to the sterling area. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949.
W  35
» ffl   C W 36
The wide variation in egg prices is depicted in the following chart, from a low of
36% cents to high 58 cents in 1948 and in 1949 a low 38 cents and high 58 cents.
Laying-mash increased in two years from $60 to $82.
Comparative Prevailing Prices.
Grade A Large
Producer Eggs.
1947.   !    1948.   I    1949.
1948. 1949.
36 V2
$60.00 .
Poultry producers, with the withdrawal of an assured outlet in the United Kingdom, are facing new and serious conditions, with a price drop of as much as 15 cents
per dozen in two weeks. Some idea of the size and value of the industry may be
gathered from the figures below:—
Value and Disposition of Eggs and Poidtry Meat in British Columbia.
EggS  1947. 1948.
Production      29,000,000 doz. 28,191,000 doz.
Consumption      24,937,000 doz. 24,327,000 doz.
Hatching        1,044,000 doz. 1,023,000 doz.
Poultry meat     18,711,000 lb. 15,354,000 lb.
Turkey meat       3,378,000 lb. 2,763,000 lb.
Total farm value  $16,640,000 $16,794,000
The operations of Commodity Boards under the " Natural Products Marketing
(British Columbia) Act " throughout the year have continued to justify their existence
and again proved their need in the producer range of the whole marketing picture.
During the year producers under these Boards (it applies to no others) were
encouraged by the Federal legislation, quoted hereunder, which enlarged the scope of
control beyond the Provincial boundary. All Boards have applied for the privilege
accorded by this legislation.
13 George VI.
Chap. 16.
An Act to provide for the Marketing of Agricultural Products
in Interprovincial and Export Trade.
[Assented to 30th April, 1949.]
Whereas it is desirable to improve the methods and practices of marketing agricultural
products of Canada;   and whereas the legislatures of several of the provinces have enacted DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W 37
legislation respecting the marketing of agricultural products locally within the province;
and whereas it is desirable to co-operate with the provinces and to enact a measure respecting
the marketing of agricultural products in interprovincial and export trade; Therefore His
Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada,
enacts as follows:
Short Title.
1. This Act may be cited as " The Agricultural Products Marketing Act."
Governor in Council may grant Authority to Provincial Boards
to exercise Powers of Regulation outside the Province.
2. (1) The Governor in Council may by order grant authority to any board or agency
authorized under the law of any province to exercise powers of regulations in relation to the
marketing of any agricultural product locally within the province, to regulate the marketing
of such agricultural product outside the province in interprovincial and export trade and for
such purposes to exercise all or any powers like the powers exerciseable by such board or
agency in relation to the marketing of such agricultural product locally within the province.
(2) The Governor in Council may by order revoke any authority granted under subsection one.
3. The Governor in Council may make regulations prescribing the terms and conditions
governing the granting and revocation of authority under section two and generally may
make regulations for carrying the purposes and provisions of this Act into effect.
As a matter of record, covering attempts, on a world-wide, basis, to use food
surpluses to feed those areas where there are food shortages, herewith is produced the
most recent form for a world food pool emanating from the Food and Agricultural
Organization of United Nations.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has issued the following
summary of resolutions concerning the International Commodity Clearing House at their
recent meeting in Washington.
The Problem.
1. Surpluses of farm products are already appearing, mainly in the dollar area, but later
perhaps elsewhere.
2. At the same time, great need and desire to buy exists in soft-currency, dollar-short
3. No full solution of the agricultural commodity problem is possible without long-term
measures to restore the equilibrium of world trade. But because the great importance of
such commodities creates grave danger of spreading depression, specific attack is necessary
upon the problems of agricultural surpluses.
4. Unless an early solution is found, " surplus " countries will pay to restrict or destroy
production, resulting not only in economic idleness of farm resources but unemployment of
warehousemen, railroad, shipping, and processing workers.
Importing countries will pay production bonuses for uneconomic self-sufficiency, resulting
in high prices and reduced consumption of food and other agricultural products.
At both ends regimentation and restriction will increase, large sums of public money will
be required, and dumping or anti-dumping practices will grow, further disorganizing international trade.
The Proposal.
5. Therefore, it is proposed to create an International Commodity Clearing House
(I.C.C.H.), open to all nations of F.A.O. or U.N. Its purpose would be to "build a bridge"
over which surpluses could move to deficit areas for constructive uses through regular channels of trade. By making possible and advantageous the enlargements of world trade, this
would help to restore multilateral trading. W 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
6. While later on I.C.C.H. might have such long-range functions as experience indicated,
it is proposed that for the next five years I.C.C.H. should mostly use two methods for constructive surplus disposal:—
(a) The exporting country would sell (say, wheat) to I.C.C.H. at full market price.
The importing country would buy such supplies as additions and not as substitutions for ordinary commercial transactions. It would pay full price in its own
(presumably inconvertible) currency—guaranteed, however, against loss by
devaluation. I.C.C.H. would hold this currency to the credit of the exporter
until enlarged trade or restored convertibility permitted clearing the account.
(6) An exporter might sell to I.C.C.H. at reduced price for an immediately acceptable currency, again provided such quantity is taken by an importer as an
addition to ordinary commercial transactions.
7. Additional sales through I.C.C.H. on the lines envisaged will be less expensive to the
supplying countries than the direct and indirect costs of production restrictions. They will
enable buying countries to avoid costly and uneconomic expansion of their own production.
8. I.C.C.H. would also serve as a negotiating centre for multilateral or bilateral commodity exchanges or commodity arrangements for co-ordination of commodity policy and
agreements, and in the longer run might hold over stocks from fat to lean years, thus
cushioning the disastrous speed and severity of price changes.
9. I.C.C.H. would have $5 billion capital contributed in national currencies. Twenty per
cent, would be paid in to provide a revolving fund to finance reduced-price transactions. The
remainder would be called up as required and earmarked for purchase of commodities in the
contributing country for sales against soft currencies.
10. I.C.C.H. can be used to handle surpluses as little or as much as countries desire.
It would be chartered initially for five years. No new international organization would be
required, as I.C.C.H. would operate as an arm of F.A.O.
Called by the Minister of Agriculture, one of 1949's most important conferences
called to consider marketing on the Provincial level was held with the B.C. Federation
of Agriculture, attended also by the Minister of Trade and Industry and officials of
both departments. Col. W. Moore Cosgrove represented the Federal Department
of Trade and Commerce.
The production and marketing problems confronting the farming areas were in
the form of briefs and oral presentations covering practically all agricultural crops and
stressing the importance of finding an outlet for visible surpluses. A precis of proceedings formed a valuable reference in representations made to the annual Dominion-
Provincial Conference in Ottawa on agricultural production, which was held immediately
following this meeting on marketing.
Following the second British Columbia Resources Conference it was decided to
break down the agricultural presentation into various sections, and a number of committees were set up to contribute to the final report. Dr. F. M. Clement, former dean
of agriculture, is chairman of the Committee on Marketing, and your Commissioner
is a member of that body.
The Markets Bulletin, originally intended for the use of fieldmen and still edited
with their needs in mind, is gradually increasing its service to other areas, the most
recent request for inclusion on the mailing-list coming from the Royal Agricultural
Library of Sweden. Now in its third year, it provides an accurate record of price
fluctuations in British Columbia agricultural feeds and produce, as well as national and
international trends in production and marketing. Circulation is 225 copies per week,
running from six to eight mimeographed pages.
During the year just closing the appointment was made of an Assistant Markets
Commissioner, in the person of M. M. Gilchrist, who will assume his new duties early
in the new year. Mrs. M. MacKay, who for several years had been stenographer in the
Branch, retired in June, and was succeeded by Miss Mona Law, transferred from the
office of Brands Recorder. Appreciative acknowledgement is made of the cordial
co-operation received from officials of the Federal Government, the University, producer
associations and their boards, as well as from members of the Department staffs. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W 39
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent.
During the year 1949 five new Institutes were incorporated, bringing the total to
199, with 178 Institutes filing their 1948 annual reports, showing a total membership
of 7,936. Of the sixteen Institutes not reporting, six, having failed to do so for two
or more consecutive years, will shortly have their charters cancelled. The five new
Institutes incorporated during the year were North Rolla in District " J "; Promontory
Heights, District "E"; Cherryville, District "G"; Cinema, District "H"; and
Nelson, District " F." The Farmers' Institute districts, with number of active
Institutes reporting and total membership, are as follows:—
District. Institutes.       Membership.
" A "—Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands  21 1,058
" B "—Skeena and Bulkley  19 344
" C "—Nechako Valley  13 367
" D "—Kamloops   18 357
" e "—Lower Fraser Valley  30 3,505
" F "—West Kootenay  16 602
" G "—Okanagan and Shuswap  14 503
"H"—Cariboo   11 253
" I "—East Kootenay  15 395
" J "—Peace River  21 552
As Institutes are not required to file annual returns until March 31st of the
following year, figures showing amount of business done cannot be given for this year;
however, totals for the year 1948, as compiled from reports received this year, compared
with those for 1947, are shown as follows :— 1947. 1948.
Receipts   $733,660.49 $801,341.58
Expenditures      679,572.14 736,128.54
Assets      230,335.97 267,648.11
Liabilities       65,866.72 84,194.69
Commodities purchased for members—
Stumping-powder, caps, and fuse..      92,323.41 70,466.46
Feed      443,575.58 531,741.40
Seed and fertilizers       45,950.20 23,117.68
Miscellaneous        61,954.44 93,957.06
The Advisory Board met in Victoria at the call of the Minister of Agriculture,
from February 28th to March 2nd, for the purpose of considering the resolutions
passed by district meetings the previous year. These resolutions totalled 116 and dealt
with agriculture, predatory animals and game matters, taxation, marketing, highways
and public works, motor-vehicle insurance and licence fees, education and social welfare,
freight rates, electrification, daylight-saving time, barbed wire and nails, floods, and
numerous miscellaneous subjects. The Board instituted 6 additional resolutions,
making a total of 122 resolutions considered.
As instituted the previous year, the Board again met with three officers of the
British Columbia Federation of Agriculture, following which both bodies jointly
presented the resolutions to the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture for their
consideration. Later in the Legislature, Thomas King, chairman of the Select Standing
Committee on Agriculture, presented the report of his Committee, which was as
follows:— W 40
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W 41
Mr. Speaker:
Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture begs leave to report as follows: —
The Select Standing Committee on Agriculture held several meetings and heard representations from the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes conjoined by a representation
from the British Columbia Federation of Agriculture, and begs to report as follows:—
1. That in order to satisfactorily conserve the wild life of the Province, all revenues
accrued under the " Game Act " be earmarked for use by the Game Commission in order that
a sustained programme of game management may be put into immediate operation and,
further, that if the said revenue is not sufficient to look after and manage the wild-life
resources of the Province, that additional funds be granted by the Government.
2. That to lessen the burden of school taxes on land and improvements, a more equitable
system be evolved.
3. That the coverage for health insurance be broadened in scope.
4. That before daylight saving be again put into effect, a plebiscite be taken at the first
general election to establish the desires of the people in this matter.
5. That if margarine is allowed, no colour resembling butter be permitted wherever sold
or served, nor any advertising be allowed suggesting any phase of farming.
6. That the Committee endorses the principle of reserving the same area of timber when
allocating timber leases around any lake, stream, or spring as they at present do along public
7. That this Committee endorses the fundamentals of a new method for providing motor-
vehicle insurance as presented in a memorandum by Thomas King, Esq., M.L.A.
8. That the Provincial Department of Trade and Industry and the Dominion Department
of Trade and Commerce be urged to expand and intensify their efforts to develop markets
for Canada's farm products in the United States and in other countries and that these efforts
include the sending of trade missions to such countries for the purpose of exploring every
potential marketing opportunity.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Thomas King, Chairman.
To date all districts, except District "E " (Lower Fraser Valley), have held their
1949 annual meetings, with the Superintendent being present at all of them. All
meetings were very satisfactory, with good attendance and renewed interest in Institute
work quite in evidence. The place and date of each meeting held, together with the
names of the president, secretary, and Advisory Board member elected, are shown in
the following table:—
Officers elected.
Fort Fraser.._	
" B ".          	
June 23-24	
East Wellington ;   A. Melntyre, Advisory Board member, R.R. 2, Victoria.
" C "	
June 28-29	
May 25	
George Brandon, Telkwa,
R. S. Fells, Dunster;   S. Zingle, Box 536, Prince George;
"    £    „
T. E. Gerhardi, Fort Fraser.
" F "               	
May 30-31	
Street, Kamloops ;   William Harrison, Pritchard.
" G "            	
May 27	
W. Shipmaker, Edgewood.
" H "
July 4	
Woodburn, Salmon Arm.
" I "
Canim Lake.
W. H. Dicken, Fernie;   A. B. Smitb, Cranbrook ;   A. B.
" 3 "           	
July 21	
Smith, Cranbrook.
A. H. Dunn, Sunset Prairie. W 42
Again, as last year, a considerable number of requests was received for information
on constitution of pound districts in unorganized territory. Following the sending-
out of this information, thirteen petitions were received requesting areas be constituted as pound districts, and as all requests were signed by a majority of proprietors of land in the area, same were granted. New districts constituted during the
year were as follows:—
Name of Pound District.
January 14.
February 21.
May 4.
July 19.
July 19.
August 3.
August 24.
Blind Bay	
During the year seven petit-ions were received requesting that pound districts
already established be enlarged, with one petition requesting that a portion of a district
be deleted from same.    These were as follows:—
Name of Pound District.
South Dawson	
Stoddart Creek	
Mirror Lake	
Goat River (Creston)	
North Enderby and Grindrod
North Enderby and Grindrod
Peace River District	
Peace River District	
South Okanagan District.
West Kootenay District....
West Kootenay District....
North Okanagan District.
North Okanagan District.
Vancouver Island-	
Enlarged January 7.
Enlarged February 9.
Enlarged August 24.
Enlarged October 10.
Enlarged October 10.
Enlarged October 10.
Enlarged November 30.
Portion deleted December 6.
During the year 1949 there were held in the Province one Class A exhibition, two
Class B exhibitions, and fifty fall fairs, compared with one Class A exhibition and three
Class B exhibitions and forty-two fall fairs in 1948.
The place and date of these exhibitions and fall fairs were as follows:—
Vancouver Pacific National Exhibition	
-Aug. 24 to Sept. 5
Chilliwack September 7 to 9
Armstrong September 12 to 15
Circuit I—Vancouver Island.
Mayne Island August 17
Alberni August 25 to 27
Courtenay September 3 to 5
Saanichton September 5 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W 43
Cobble Hill September 7
Duncan September 8 to 10
Luxton September 12
Coombs September 9 and 10
Lasqueti Island September 13 or 14
Nanaimo . September 15 to 17
Saturna Island September 17
Ladysmith September 21 and 22
Circuit II—Lower Mainland.
New Westminster Horticultural Society August 8 and 9
Abbotsford August 17 and 18
Gibsons Landing August 19 and 20
Haney (Horse Show) August 19 and 20
Mission August 19 and 20
Ladner August 20
Squamish September 5
Haney September 8 and 9
Langley Prairie September 13 and 14
Agassiz September 16
Port Moody September 16
Cloverdale September 16 and 17
South Burnaby September 16 and 17
Vancouver (Horticultural) October 7 and 8
Aldergrove November 9
Circuit HI—Okanagan, etc.
Rock Creek August 26
Peachland September 8
Lillooet September 15 and 16
Salmon Arm September 22 and 23
Circuit IV—East and West Kootenay.
Invermere September 2 and 3
Fruitvale September 5
Golden September 5
Castlegar September 9 and 10
Arrow Park September 10
Port Crawford September 13
Nelson September 15 to 17
Circuit V—Central British Columbia and Peace River.
Kiskatinaw August 10
North Pine August 11
Smithers August 26 and 27
Francois Lake August 31
McBride August 31
Bridge Lake September 3
Woodpecker September 3
Prince George September 3 to 5
Fort Fraser September 5
Watch Lake September 7
Quesnel September 9 and 10
Terrace September 15 W 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The Department again assisted all exhibitions and fairs financially in the form of
grants and also provided each with one or more officials as judges.
From judges' reports filed with the Department, it is noted that in most instances
there were more entries than last year, also the quality of exhibits was exceptionally
good, with organization and management in practically all cases excellent.
Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent.
The year 1949 marked the fortieth milestone for the Women's Institutes of British
Columbia. Eleven of the Institutes celebrated their fortieth anniversary; these are
Lake Hill, Sooke, Coquitlam, Chilliwack, Agassiz, Summerland, Salmon Arm, Nakusp,
Kaslo, Nelson, and Surrey. A valuable record of their organization has been found in
the eleventh annual report of the Farmers' Institutes, as reported to their twelfth
convention held at Victoria in February, 1910. This report was the full account of the
travels and organization work of Miss Laura Rose in the Province of British Columbia
in the fall of 1909, and gives an accurate account of this history-making tour. (This
report in full with other references to the newly formed Women's Institutes made at
that meeting is being added to the revised Handbook.)
An interesting note in Miss Rose's report is that Dr. Simon Tolmie, one-time
Federal Minister of Agriculture and later Premier of British Columbia, was chairman
for the Lake Hill meeting, and his wife became the first president. Other Institutes
that were organized in 1909 but have ceased to function were Gordon Head, Metchosin,
Tynehead, Matsqui, Central Park, and Cranbrook.
Five new Institutes were organized in 1949—three in the North Okanagan and
Salmon Arm District (Adams Lake, Barriere, and Squam Bay), North Quesnel in the
Cariboo District, and Kla-anch in the North Vancouver Island District. At the same
time, four others which have been inactive for some time have been struck off the
roll—Buffalo Creek, Devereaux, Midway, and Trail—so that the total number is 210.
The membership has risen to 5,038 for 1948.
Eighteen girls' clubs are sponsored by the Women's Institutes, but directed by
their supervisor, Miss Echo Lidster. The local Women's Institute teaches and encourages home economics and sewing, and these clubs are filling a definite need in the
communities. The Institute takes the responsibility for their organization and a benevolent supervision of their work, thus broadening the scope of both age-groups.
Twelve district meetings were attended by your Superintendent, while two other
rallies were held in the hope of eventually making two additional districts. This would
make it possible for more women to attend the annual district meeting, which increases
the interest.
This year marked the inauguration of one-day district meetings in the large districts of the North and South Fraser and the South Vancouver Island.    The attendance DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W 45
surpassed all records, 250 being registered for the South Fraser alone, and the women
voted unanimously in favour of continuing the one-day district meeting. It was found
that with fewer speakers but a larger attendance the work of interest to the women in
general was discussed freely, and more women had an opportunity of attending to
learn more about the work and to meet other women of the district.
Individual Institutes were visited as much as possible at the time of the district
meetings, as well as many fall fairs and flower shows arranged by Women's Institutes.
The biennial meeting of the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada was attended
by Mrs. J. H. East, Provincial president, who was elected second vice-president of the
Federated at that time; Mrs. R. W. Chalmers, vice-president; Mrs. A. S. Dennis, Federated convener of citizenship; and your Superintendent. A pleasant surprise was
the winning by our Province of the silver cup donated by Lady Tweedsmuir for the
essay " Our Institute Takes a Forward Look." This was submitted by Pemberton.
Summerland was awarded second for their hooked rag rug, and Telkwa honourable
mention for their village history. All who attended felt that our Province had done
very well, in view of the fact that this was the first time British Columbia had competed for the Tweedsmuir silver cups.
Mrs. Raymond Sayre, of Ackworth, Iowa, president of the Associated Countrywomen
of the World, was guest speaker and gave a most inspiring message, emphasizing the
importance of international co-operation. She told of her visit to the American
occupied zone of Germany and the reorganization of the German countrywomen's
The theme of the Federated Women's Institute of Canada for the next two years
is to be concentrated on agriculture, with special emphasis on soil conservation.
The Women's Institute Memorial Fund reached its initial objective in August, and,
with $8,500 on hand, the first scholarship was given to Lora Cecelia Stowell, of Oliver.
This is a continuing award of a $250 scholarship. Fifty dollars is paid at the beginning of the term, with $25 a month for the next eight months. This fund was only
started in 1946, and the whole-hearted support of the Institutes for this home economics scholarship fund is shown by the quick response with which this money has been
Recognition of the work done by the Women's Institutes in supporting a chair of
home economics was given when the Provincial president and your Superintendent
were invited to attend the opening of the new Home Economics Building at the University of British Columbia at the time of the autum convocation. Mrs. A. A. Shaw,
of Vancouver, represented the president, who was unable to be present.
Nineteen Women's Institutes competed for the new challenge cup given for
Women's Institutes work at the Pacific National Exhibition. This was won by Point
Grey Women's Institute. Mrs. A. A. Shaw was in charge of the Women's Institute
work, and the demonstration booth in her charge showed the variety of handicrafts
undertaken by the Institutes. These included weaving, rug-making, quilt-making,
glove-making, soft toys, etc. Different Institute members took charge on different
days, and many visitors showed their interest in this booth.
Five meetings of the Rural Housing Advisory Committee were attended during
the year.    A booklet on the farm kitchen was well received.    In preparing this bulletin W 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
a number of Institutes were contacted by the Advisory Committee secretary, and some
of the pictures showed views of the kitchens of our Institute members in the Kamloops
and Grindrod district. A second booklet on the utility room is now in the hands of
the printer.
Your Superintendent was privileged to be invited to address the Federation of
Agriculture annual meeting, and with the Provincial president, Mrs. J. H. East, and
director, Mrs. A. A. Shaw, attended all sessions of the Federation. The Women's
Institutes of British Columbia are associate members of the Federation, which gives
the right to take part in all discussions but not to vote. A nominal fee of $5 covers
this affiliation. The co-operation of this body, and particularly the Farmers' Institutes,
makes a valuable contribution to the success of our work.
The Provincial Board met in Vancouver following the Federation of Agriculture
meeting, with all members present, as follows: Mrs. J. H. East, president; Mrs. R. W.
Chalmers, vice-president; Mrs. R. Doe, secretary-treasurer; and Mrs. A. A. Shaw and
Mrs. E. Glover, directors. Plans for the 1950 convention were made at this time. The
members were privileged to meet the new Minister of Agriculture, the Honourable
Harry R. Bowman, who presented the president with a gavel made of native yew with
a cherry handle and suitably inscribed as from the Department of Agriculture in commemoration of the fortieth anniversary of the Women's Institutes of British Columbia.
One of the great privileges of the year was an invitation to address the open day
of the Farm Women's Week of Whatcom County, Washington. The pleasure of the
day was enhanced by the fact that 200 Fraser Valley women chartered buses and went
along for the day, making it an international get-together.
Throughout the year the members of the Provincial Board have been most
co-operative and helpful, attending district meetings and others. Mrs. East was
especially tireless in attending meetings in the Kootenay and Fraser Valley, as well
as in the Okanagan, and this splendid support has contributed greatly to the interest
and success of the work this year. The co-operation of other members of the Department of Agriculture staff and fieldmen has been much appreciated, while the use of
a Departmental car for the Institutes has added to the efficiency and makes an expanding programme possible.
The monthly News Letter has been continued as a means of keeping the Institutes
informed and is used by the Board, the different conveners, and your Superintendent
to get information to the Institute members. A cover with the Institute crest has been
added to make it more attractive, while highlights taken from the monthly reports of
twenty-five Institutes are sent out each month with the News Letter. Many letters
of appreciation for the News Letter and the Handbook have been received.
The popularity of the Handbook exceeded all expectations, and this has been
brought up to date and another thousand copies printed. This has proved a valuable
reference book for the Institutes, and we have been unable to supply the demand. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W 47
With the large number of Institutes on the roll, it would take a lengthy report to
list their accomplishments, but a few will serve to illustrate the work that is being done.
Horsefly, a small Institute many miles from the nearest picture show in the Cariboo
District, raised $300 for a projection outfit. With this they put on regular picture
shows from films which they personally view before they are shown. Penticton has
quietly organized the Indian women of the near-by reservation into a home-makers
group and is arranging for useful instruction in home craft.
The North Vancouver Island District Board has taken the lead in enlisting the
aid of the Courtenay Council and all interested groups and has made considerable
progress in getting a home for senior citizens started.
Point Grey has shown how a city Institute can help by making regular visits to
Institute members from outside points who are in hospital in Vancouver.
More overseas Institutes are being adopted by our British Columbia Women's
Institutes, and regular parcels and letters are sent to Institutes of Herefordshire,
Gloucestershire, and many other counties of England. Others send parcels to other
parts of Europe. Letters are also exchanged with Australia, New Zealand, and Africa.
This has been a very busy year, and perhaps the best way to show the variety of
work done and the districts and Institutes visited is the following report of meetings:—
January 14th—Rural Housing Advisory Committee at Vancouver.
February 8th—Saltair Women's Institute.
February 10th—South Saltspring Women's Institute at Fulford Harbour.
February 16th—Brentwood, luncheon meeting to celebrate Adelaide Hoodless
March 3rd—Closing exercises of the Youth Training School at the University
of British Columbia.
March 17th—Esquimalt Women's Institute.
April 4th—Howe Sound Women's Institute at Gibsons Landing.
April 5th—South Fraser District meeting at Hope.
April 8th—North Fraser District meeting at Agassiz.
April 13th—Cobble Hill Women's Institute.
May 3rd—Westbank Women's Institute.
May 5th—South Okanagan and Similkameen District meeting at Osoyoos.
May 7th—North Okanagan and Salmon Arm District meeting at Chase.
May 9th—Kalamalka Women's Institute at Oyama.
May 10th—North-east Burnaby Women's Institute.
May 12th—North Vancouver Island District meeting at Qualicum.
May 18th—Royal Oak Flower Show.
May 21st—Executive meeting of the Rural Housing Advisory Committee at
May 25th—Rally of near-by Institutes at Kamloops.
May 27th—Vernon Women's Institute.
May 30th—Salmo and Fruitvale Women's Institutes at Fruitvale.
May 31st—Farmers' Institute District meeting at Fruitvale.
June 2nd—Rally of near-by Institutes at Cranbrook.
June 17th—Executive of the Rural Housing Advisory Committee at Victoria.
June 20th to 23rd—Federated Women's Institutes of Canada at Saskatoon.
June 25th—Bulkley-Tweedsmuir District meeting at Topley.
June 28th and 29th—Central Interior District meeting at Fort Fraser.
June 30th (afternoon)—Discussed rural housing with the women at the field-
day at Kersley arranged by the Experimental Station at Prince George.
June 30th (evening) — Organization  meeting  of  North   Quesnel  Women's
July 2nd—Discussed rural housing with the women at the field-day at the
Experimental Station at Prince George.
July 4th—Cariboo District meeting at Horsefly.
July 6th—Pemberton Women's Institute, presented silver cup won by this
Institute at Saskatoon.
July 8th (afternoon)—Brackendale Women's Institute.
July 8th (evening)—Sqramish Women's Institute.
July 13th—Luxton and Happy Valley Country Fair and Flower Show.
July 20th—Peace River District meeting at Kilkerran.
July 21st—Farmers' Institute district meeting at Bessborough.
August 4th—Whatcom Farm Women's Week, open day.
August 17th—Langford Country Fair.
August 20th—Saltair Day and opening of new hall furnished by Women's
August 26th—Women's Day at the Pacific National Exhibition.
September 2nd—Community Centres Conference at Vancouver.
September 6th (afternoon)—Penticton Women's Institute.
September 6th (evening)—Naramata Women's Institute.
September 7th—Keremeos Women's Institute.
September 8th—Cawston Fall Fair and Flower Show.
September 9th—Summerland Women's Institute.
September 13th—Kootenay District meeting at Nelson.
September 14th—Willow Point Women's Institute.
September 15th—Nelson Fall Fair, judged canned fruit, etc.
September 17th—Arrow Lakes District meeting at Burton.
September 20th—Executive meeting of Rural Housing Advisory Committee at
September 21st—District meeting of South Vancouver Island Women's Institutes at Shawnigan.   •
September 28th—Lake Hill, oldest Women's Institute in British Columbia,
had its fortieth anniversary.
October 19th—Coquitlam fortieth anniversary.
October 26th—Autumn convocation of University of British Columbia and
opening of the new Home Economics Building.
November 4th—Sooke fortieth anniversary.
November 9th (afternoon)—Patricia twenty-fifth anniversary.
November 9th (evening)—Surrey fortieth anniversary.
November 21st—Hammond Women's Institute.
November 22nd—Meeting of full committee of Rural Housing Advisory Committee at Vancouver.
November 23rd and 24th—Federation of Agriculture meeting at Vancouver.
November 25th and 26th—Meeting of Provincial Board at Vancouver.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor.
The winter and spring months were utilized for preparation of material derived
from field-work, drainage of seepage in orchards, testing soil and water samples for
growers, lectures, and drafting of maps. A soil survey report describing the Okanagan
and Similkameen Valleys was published and distributed. During the season a proposed
" Soil Conservation Act " was prepared and submitted for consideration. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W  49
The smaller field operations of 1949 consist of two soil correlation trips, detailed
soil surveys of Penticton West Bench Irrigation Proposal, new Black Mountain Ditch
Proposal, Grandview Flats Irrigation Proposal, Cuisson Creek Irrigation Proposal, and
a survey and drainage job in co-operation with the Water Rights Branch near Okanagan
The major field surveys of 1949 were continuation of the reconnaissance soil
surveys in the East Kootenay District and in the Peace River Block.
In the southern part of the Province the survey party consisted of J. S. D. Smith,
B.S.A., in charge, with H. W. R. Chancey, student assistant, and R. G. Garry, graduate
assistant. The appointment of R. G. Garry, B.S.A., became permanent in December,
his duties in future being extension work in connection with irrigation, drainage, and
soil problems of farmers.
The chief purpose of the proposed Act is to provide means with which to educate
and persuade owners of land to take better care of their soil and keep erosion in check.
There is provision for a Provincial Soil Conservation Committee, whose duties are
advisory, and sections covering natural disasters and each kind of erosion actually
taking place.
Educational and other features would reach land-owners in unorganized territory directly, and organized territory would have local self-government. Organized
territory would consist of Soil Conservation Districts of convenient size in the settled
areas, where significant soil erosion occurs. A " Soil Conservation District " would
be a corporate body without power to tax, its funds for administration being obtained
from Government sources.
The duty of the Soil Conservation District would be to devise the most suitable
programme to conserve the soil in the area under its charge and carry out the programme. It would seek to convince the farmer, by education and other extension
methods, that soil conservation practices are fundamental to a successful agriculture.
The district would also have the power to form by-laws, submit them for endorsation
by the land-owners, and enforce those that are approved.
The proposed Act is the most advanced of its kind in Canada. Its provisions
could be carried out by the Department of Agriculture Extension Service, co-operating
with a fieldman working under the direction of the Soil Conservation Committee.
It is necessary to correlate soil classification along international and interprovincial boundaries, so that the reports published on each side will agree with one
another. The method used is to have a field-trip arranged for the interested field-
workers, during which the soils are examined and information is exchanged.
During the last week of June the soils of the Lower Fraser Valley and the soils
along the east shore of Vancouver Island were correlated with the soils of north-western
Washington by a party composed of American and Canadian soil surveyors, who carried out the classification work in these areas. The purpose is to clear away technical
problems before revising and reprinting the soil survey report on the Lower Fraser
Valley, now out of print, and completing field-work and publishing a report on the east
shore of Vancouver Island.
In the last week of July the second correlation trip was organized to get agreement
in regard to soil classification on both sides of the Alberta-British Columbia Boundary
in the Peace River District. This meeting was made necessary by preparation to
publish a report covering the work of the Alberta field-party. W 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
A detailed soil and subdivision survey of the west Penticton bench was undertaken
in May in co-operation with the P.F.R.A. The purpose was to investigate the value of
the area as a " Veterans' Land Act " settlement.
The surveyed area amounts to about 1,750 acres, at elevations between 1,300 and
1,700 feet above sea-level. The relief consists of ridged moraines with depressions
between them, kettles, and a deeply gullied silt bank on the eastern boundary.
The mean annual temperature at near-by Penticton is 48° F., and annual precipitation 11.26 inches. The length of the growing-season is about 217 days, and the
average frost-free period is about 149 days. Native vegetation consists chiefly of
bunch-grasses and sage, with scattered Ponderosa pine and fir at the higher elevations.
The upper two-thirds of the area consists of a series of stony terminal moraines
and several stony outwash channels produced by a glacier that occupied a valley on the
north-west side of the map. Cemented glacial till is intermixed with sorted sand,
gravel, and stones, the stones being very numerous. The stony moraines are thinly
covered by material of sandy loam texture, probably carried by wind and deposited as
In some places the underlying stones show through the thin loess covering and
appear at the surface; in others, the wind-laid deposit is deeper and the surface is
stone-free. The soil derived from this material was mapped as Osoyoos Sandy Loam,
with stony and stone-free phases.
The lower third of the area consists of stratified silt and fine sands, formed as a
glacial river deposit against stagnant ice in the present depression of Okanagan Lake.
Melting ice blocks buried in the silt deposit have left kettle holes, and post-Glacial
erosion has scarred the area with gullies, so that the arable sections on the eastern
side have been separated from one another by construction of the Kettle Valley Railway
grade. The soil type derived from the glacial river silt was mapped as Penticton Silt
In addition to the Osoyoos and Penticton soils, there are two small post-Glacial
fans in the surveyed area. These have been classified as Similkameen Gravelly Sandy
Loam and Nisconlith Silt Loam, the former being well drained and the latter poorly
drained and calcareous. Detailed descriptions of the soil types mentioned above may
be found in the bulletin " Soil Survey of the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys,"
Report No. 3 of the British Columbia Soil Survey, Department of Agriculture, Victoria,
Land Utilization.
There are 887.5 acres of potentially irrigable land in the mapped area, of which
248.3 acres are Penticton Silt Loam, 35 acres Osoyoos Sandy Loam, 530.8 acres Osoyoos Stony Sandy Loam, 57.8 cares Similkameen Gravelly Sandy Loam, and 15.6 acres
of calcareous Nisconlith Silt Loam. Non-arable, rough, and broken land amounts to
868.5 acres.
A tentative subdividision was prepared and drafted on a soil-map having a scale
of 200 feet to an inch. The subdividision shows the position of roads, farm units,
small holdings, and a business area. Recommendations as to the type of agriculture,
size of farm units, type of irrigation, domestic water-supply, duty of water, carrying
capacity of the system, water charges, and maximum slopes for cultivation are outlined in Reclamation Committee Brief No. 6, made available on May 31st, 1949. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W  51
In June detailed work was undertaken between the present main canal of the Black
Mountain Irrigation District and a proposed new canal, in the area east of Rutland.
The survey was in co-operation with a P.F.R.A. investigation to determine the feasibility of the new ditch proposal.
Approximately 857 acres were mapped along the valley-side, between Gopher Flats
and Whelan Creek. The area has a western slope between 1,800 feet and 2,000 feet
elevation. The topography is generally rough, consisting chiefly of ridged moraines
with depressions between them. The native vegetation is composed of bunch and
secondary grasses.
Precipitation at Kelowna, elevation 1,160 feet, the nearest meteorological station,
is 12.31 inches, and mean annual temperature is 47° F. The Black Mountain area,
being higher, is several degrees cooler on an annual basis and slightly more humid.
The rough topography, however, ensures good air-drainage, and to some extent this
modifies the effect of higher elevation. Prevailing wind is from the south-west, with
spells of north wind in July and in winter.
The area consists chiefly of large lateral moraines with depressions between them,
lying parallel to the main Okanagan Valley. Here and there the continuity of the
morainal deposits is broken by the post-Glacial outwash of temporary and permanent
streams. Scotty Creek has excavated a channel through the morainal debris, carrying
away the bulk of the material and leaving behind the lesser volume of stones, which
remain as an excessively stony fan.
In part the morainal material consists of glacial till, and it is partly composed of
outwash sand and gravel. Separation of the variable substrata is not feasible, owing
to the surface mantle of loess deposited at the time of reglaciation. Some of the
morainal slopes are matted with stones exposed at the surface, and scattered large
boulders are common.
The soil type mapped in this area is Kelowna Stony Sandy Loam, described in the
bulletin " Soil Survey of the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys," Report No. 3, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Land Utilization.
Of 857 acres mapped, the irrigable acreage amounts to 569.4. The non-irrigable
acreage consists of steep slopes and coulees, excessively stony land, poorly drained land,
and swamp.
The area was mapped at a scale of 400 feet to 1 inch and examined by the Reclamation Committee. Reclamation Committee Brief No. 7 contains recommendations as
to the type of agriculture, size of the farm unit, type of irrigation system, maximum
slopes for irrigation, duty of water, domestic water supply, and maximum capital cost
the land can support.
Detailed classification of the Grandview Flats was carried out in June. The survey was in co-operation with the Water Rights Branch and the P.F.R.A., the purpose
being to determine the irrigable acreage.
The Grandview Flats map-area, covering 2,136 acres, is situated about 3 miles
south-west of Armstrong on the west side of Spallumcheen Valley. The range of elevation is between 1,200 and 1,600 feet above sea-level. The topography is gently sloping
to the edge of Spallumcheen Valley, and the area is pocked with several large kettles. W 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
On the basis of estimation by use of Armstrong and Vernon meteorological stations,
the mean annual temperature is about 46° F. and annual precipitation about 16 inches,
the frost-free period being about 155 days. Prevailing wind is south to south-west,
with occasional northerly winds in winter. Air-drainage is good. Excepting fir forest
on north slopes, bunch-grasses were originally dominant. Natural pastures support
a thick cover of secondary grasses and weeds.
The glacial outwash, which formed Grandview Flats, consists of a thick deposit of
sand containing scattered lenses of gravel. Here and there the gravel lenses appear at
the surface, giving the soil a gravelly phase. The large kettle holes were formed by
collapse of the surface after the melting of buried ice.
Grandview Sandy Loam, the main soil type, has a deep profile grading from black
sandy loam at the surface to brown and grey sand at depth. Where gravel is exposed,
the soil has been mapped as Grandview Gravelly Sandy Loam.
Other sandy soils of less importance include Kalamalka Gravelly Sandy Loam, a
black soil developed on colluvial fans, and Shuswap Loamy Sand, a weakly podsolized
type on the forested border of the Flats.
An included area of clay lies north-east and about 200 feet below Granview Flats in
Spallumcheen Valley. The clay is glacio-lacustrine and the derived soils are Broadview
Clay, developed under forest, and Spallumcheen Clay, formed under grass. Detailed
descriptions of the above-mentioned soils are available in the bulletin "Soil Survey of
the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys," Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Land Utilization.
At one time a comparatively large acreage was planted to tree-fruits, but rainfall
is insufficient and the tree-fruits area now stands at 45 acres in favoured locations.
The main crops consist of grain, field peas, and potatoes. Farms average 40 acres
in area. Clean cultivation in orchards and present cropping practice, by following
moisture economy, has mined out the organic matter and reduced soil fertility. However, fertility could be regained by the use of irrigation.
The total surveyed area amounts to 2,130 acres, of wfeich 2,067 acres are arable.
There are 1,602 acres of sandy- soils and 483 acres of clay types. About 190 acres
remain to be cleared of forest.
A soil-map with a scale of 400 feet to an inch was prepared from registered plans
and distributed to the co-operating agencies. The mapped area was examined by the
Reclamation Committee, whose recommendations appear in Reclamation Committee
Brief No. 8, December, 1949. These cover type of agriculture, size of the farm unit,
type of irrigation system, carrying capacity of the irrigation system, duty of water,
and water charges per acre.
In co-operation with the Water Rights Branch and the P.F.R.A., a detailed examination of the Cuisson Creek Irrigation Proposal was undertaken in July, the purpose
being to determine the arable acreage.
This irrigation proposal covers about 3,500 acres. It is located about 30 miles
south of Quesnel on the east side of the Fraser River, and it has the advantage of being
crossed by the main Cariboo Highway and the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.
The range of elevation is between 1,450 and 1,800 feet above sea-level. The topography consists of river terraces with inward slopes and undulating surfaces.
The nearest meteorological stations are at Quesnel and Soda Creek, to the north
and south, where annual mean temperatures are 41° F. and 43° F. respectively, annual DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W 53
precipitation being 16.38 inches and 11.5 inches. From May to September the rainfall
at Quesnel is 8.15 inches, and at Soda Creek, 5.86 inches. Cuisson Creek may be slightly
more humid than Soda Creek, which places the mapped area on the dry fringe of agriculture unless irrigation is provided.
The native vegetation consists of fir about 1 foot in diameter, with variable aspen
and birch. The shrub layer is fairly dense and land-clearing is medium to heavy. On
the shallow soils there are about 330 acres of natural grassland which now produce
secondary grasses and weeds. Tall juniper and rabbit-bush occur on south exposures
of banks.
In this locality the Fraser River has excavated a wide trench, on the sides of which
are escarpments of volcanic rock. The surrounding plateau country is mantled by a
silty clay till which fans as broad, smooth lobes into the river trench. At an elevation
of 1,800 feet these lobes of till lie on a bench-like formation, with micro-topography
consisting of low, rounded knobs.
The main part of the mapped area consists of thirteen river terraces, probably
derived from glacial till. The upper terrace is in part covered by two small silty fans
of post-Glacial origin, which have weathered from the silty clay till of the plateau.
Most of the soils are minimal Grey Wooded types bordering natural grassland. The
natural grassland is represented by 330 acres of Dark Brown soils, a shallow and porous
profile being the cause of grass dominance over trees.
About 480 acres of silty clay till were mapped as potentially arable land. The
profile is capped by 1% inches of forest litter, and the structure of the underlying soil
grades from small crumbs in the brownish-grey leached layer to small clods in the
yellowish-brown subsoil. The compact, semi-impervious parent till is about 18 inches
deep. The range of reaction is from pH 6.4 at the surface to 6.9 pH in the upper part
of the till.   The till and the soil above contain scattered igneous stones and boulders.
There are about 1,710 acres of river terraces on which the texture of material has
been closely graded as medium, fine, and very fine sandy loams and silt loam by slowly
moving water. The texture sequence occurs from the outer to the inner margins of
the terraces, but even grading is generally broken by subsequent meanders of the
stream, which channelled the former deposit and left a second one of the same kind.
The resulting mixture of textures could not be differentiated. Since the silt loam
profile occurs most frequently, it is used for the general description, inasmuch as the
others are comparable except as to their textures.
Beneath the thin covering of forest litter the greyish-brown leached layer of the
silt loam profile is platey, slightly compact, and its depth is about 2 inches. The subsoil
to a depth of 18 inches is brown, with loose crumb structure breaking into weak clods.
Beneath the 18-inch depth are stratified sands of different textures, which add porosity
to the whole profile. Soil reaction at the surface is pH 6.5, or nearly neutral. With
depth the reaction increases to pH 8.6 at 18 inches and pH 9 at 30 inches, indicating
the presence of lime and sodium carbonates. Moisture relations of the several texture
variations appear to be about equal, both for dry-farming and for irrigation.
About 330 acres of Dark Brown soils developed under natural grass on undulating
lower terraces. The texture is gravelly sandy loam, the surface soil being dark greyish
brown, and the subsoil is brown to pale brown with variable content of gravel. There
is clean, stratified gravel at a depth of 30 inches. The reaction is pH 6.8 at the surface
and pH 8.5 in the substratum. While marginal for dry-farming, this type could produce
hay and other field crops when irrigated.
Two small fans of silt loam texture cover about 160 acres at about 1,780 feet
elevation. The uncleared part supports a forest of tall aspen and a ground-cover of
shrubs.    There is a thin layer of deciduous forest litter and a pinkish-grey leached W 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
layer about 1% inches thick. The subsoil is yellowish-brown with scattered iron stains,
beneath which is a considerable depth of stone-free silt. There are about 115 acres
cultivated for grain and potatoes and about 45 acres uncleared.
Land Utilization.
In 3,550 acres of classified land the potentially irrigable acreage amounts to about
2,612 acres. The non-irrigable acreage consists of steep slopes, flood channels, placer-
workings, rough mountainous land, the Cariboo Highway, and the railway right-of-
The total cleared land, some abandoned or used for pasture, amounts to 1,170 acres,
which includes 330 acres of natural grassland. There are about 325 acres cultivated
by seven farmers, the average cultivated acreage per farm being about 60 acres.
Crops grown consist of cool season vegetables, certified seed potatoes, grains, and
timothy and alfalfa hay. The type of agriculture is mixed farming, held in check by
periodic droughts.
The area was mapped on a scale of 400 feet to an inch, and advance maps were
supplied to the P.F.R.A. for 1949 use. An examination of the area by the Reclamation
Committee, and production of a brief giving recommendations as to its value for
irrigation, is delayed until the spring of 1950.
During the past few years the Okanagan Mission Irrigation District installed a
pumping system on the shore of Okanagan Lake to assist the gravity water-supply, and
conveyed water to a number of settlers on the stony upper part of the Sawmill Creek
fan. Increase of natural run-off and the supply of water applied to the gravelly area
combined to raise an existing water-table around the fine-textured fan apron and swamp
about 70 acres used for vegetables and pasture.
The Water Rights Branch has the problem in hand, with this office co-operating in
regard to duty of water and how the swamped area can be drained. This job was
carried out during the winter months.
In co-operation with the Dominion Water and Power Bureau, the soil survey of
the East Kootenay District was continued. Field-work was extended from Kimberley
to Canal Flats, completing the soil survey of the East Kootenay River valley from
Canal Flats to the border of Montana.
The total classified area amounts to 497,000 acres, of which about 249,500 acres
consist of several soil types suitable for mixed farming under irrigation. The purpose
of the soil survey is to define the potentially irrigable soil types, thus paving the way
for a determination of how much of this land can be irrigated from tributary streams
and proposed reservoirs. In addition to the potentially irrigable area, potentially arable
second bottoms of the Kootenay River, Canal Flats to Montana, amount to about 19,723
acres, not including inaccessible islands and first bottoms subject to annual floods.
There are about 300 farms in the map-area, with about 19,000 acres under some
form of farm management. Included in this amount are thirty-eight farms on the
Kootenay River second bottoms, which have about 2,846 acres cleared and used for hay,
pasture, and other crops. Above the Kootenay River trench the balance of 16,154 acres
consists of cleared farm, land and pasture, about 3,850 acres being under some form of
During the field season a series of ten maps were prepared for the Department of
Lands and the Dominion Water and Power Bureau. These maps were designed to carry
advance information as to the acreage and classes of soils that would be inundated in DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W 55
reservoir areas if dams were built at Libby, Mont., and Plumbob or Bull River in the
East Kootenay District.
Preparations of a soil-survey report on the area between Canal Flats and Montana
will be undertaken during the winter. When brought to the proper stage, this report
will be published in bulletin form by the Dominion Experimental Farms Service,
During the past 15 years, experiments with the drainage problems of farmers
have been undertaken for the purpose of developing a technique for economical
drainage of irrigated and other lands. In the winter of 1949-50 the solution of drainage problems has been placed on a practical extension basis as a service for farmers in
the Okanagan Valley.
An extensive change from furrow to sprinkler irrigation is taking place in the
Okanagan Valley, and this is encouraged as a measure of soil conservation where farms
are on rough topography. There is demand for information as to the size of pipes,
pumping plants, and methods of application. An extension service to meet this demand
is being established in co-operation with the Dominion Experimental Station at Summerland.
The soil survey in the Peace River Block was continued during the 1949 field season
on the same basis as in previous years, with the Provincial Department of Agriculture
and Dominion Experimental Farms Service co-operating. Headquarters for the summer were established at Fort St. John, but as the survey progressed and as the areas
to be surveyed became more remote, temporary camps were established at Clayhurst
and Cecil Lake.
The personnel consisted of the following: H. F. Fletcher and G. E. Munro, of the
Provincial Department of Agriculture; T. M. Lord, J. H. Day, and J. A. Green, of the
Dominion Department of Agriculture. L. Farstad, of the Dominion Department of
Agriculture, and Dr. C. A. Rowles, Department of Agronomy, University of British
Columbia, directed field operations.   Mrs. G. E. Munro acted as cook.
Area surveyed.
The area surveyed is located on the north side of the Peace River and extends from
Hudson Hope eastward to Clayhurst. All or portions of the following townships and
ranges were surveyed: Township 82, Ranges 14, 24, and 25; Township 83, Ranges
14, 15, 16, 20, 22, and 23; Township 84, Ranges 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, and 22; Township
85, Ranges 14, 15, 16, 17, and 20; Township 86, Ranges 16 and 20; Township 87, Ranges
18, 19, and 20;   Townships 88, Ranges 18 and 19.
Approximately 200,000 acres were surveyed. In addition, a number of exploratory
traverses were undertaken. The main traverses consisted of the following trips: Cecil
Lake to Doig River, Clayhurst to Boundary Lake, and from Stoddard Creek to Prophet
Vegetation and Land-clearing.
The dominant vegetation of this wooded area consists of light to moderately heavy
stands of mixed deciduous and coniferous forests. The tree-cover, therefore, is the
main impediment to land improvement. The hand-axe method of land-clearing, as well
as uncontrolled burning, had definite limitations. Only a relatively small acreage
would be brought under cultivation each year. Also, the fires, which frequently got
out of control, often destroyed valuable stands of timber. W 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The introduction of power machinery has proved to be a rapid, efficient, and relatively inexpensive method of bringing the land under cultivation. The trend, unfortunately, is towards indiscriminate removal of trees, and in this regard there is little
to commend it.
The importance of maintaining strategically located stands of trees to meet the
needs of the area in terms of fuel, fencing and building material cannot be overemphasized; also, continued wholesale removal of trees will ultimately lead to serious soil
erosion and moisture conservation problems.
During Pleistocene time the surveyed area was covered with ice many hundreds
of feet thick. The glaciers moved over the terrain, picking up soil and rock masses and
redepositing them as a mantle of drift over the bedrock. This mantle varies in thickness and consists mainly of glacial till, lacustrine, and alluvial deposits.
It is quite evident that the tills covering much of the Peace River area have their
origin in several sources, and attempts are being made, with the assistance of the
Geological Survey of Canada, to separate them on the basis of stratigraphy and lithol-
The till area lying to the west of Fort St. John and Bear Mountain (Arras) is
characterized by pebbles and boulders derived from strata in the Rocky Mountains. In
the area lying near Fort St. John and Dawson Creek, and to the east, the till is characterized by stones and boulders of Precambrian origin. In addition, it may also contain
boulders of Rocky Mountain origin. This particular portion of the till plain is characterized by groovings or markings which are best interpreted as originating from ice
movement. These markings are so inconspicuous that in many instances they can be
noted only with the aid of aerial photographs. This phenomenon, according to Dr.
J. E. Armstrong of the Geological Survey, may possibly represent a type of merging
ground or end moraine.
In conjunction with field observation on key sections of Pleistocene sediments and
a study of aerial photographs, Dr. Armstrong postulates as follows: " Continental
glaciers formed in the Rocky Mountains and in the Precambrian Shield, the ice flowing
north-east from the Rockies and south-west from the Shield, the two sheets meeting
along a line extending approximately from Fort St. John to Dawson Creek. In this
area they coalesced and the combined sheet flowed a little to the east of south   .   .   .
" Following the retreat of the last ice sheets, much of the Peace River area Was
covered by glacial lakes; glacial lake clays are widespread and form much of the
parental material of the better soils."
The alluvial sediments occupying the first terrace position of the Peace, Beaton,
Kiskatinaw, and Pouce Rivers presents many perplexing problems. They consist of
brown to yellowish-brown sandy to silty materials. Aerial photos show a mottled or
reticulated pattern, for which no satisfactory explanation has been found. In many
instances the characteristic topography resembles the type of surface often described
as drumlinized, and in others, like kame mounds. The majority of these landscapes
appear to be strictly depositional forms, although extreme cases are suggestive of
erosional origin.
Future work in the Peace River Block will undoubtedly provide a better understanding of the origin, distribution, and extent of the various parent materials. This,
of course, is necessary before satisfactory progress can be made in the classification of
the Peace River soils.
Soil Development.
The majority of the soils in the surveyed area fall into two zonal groups—namely,
the Grey Wooded and degraded Black soils.   The Grey Wooded (Grey Podsolic) are the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W  57
most common and are associated with the forested regions. The degraded Black occur
mainly as islands, and are associated with the open, park-like areas. The other groups
of soils include the following profiles: Black, Brown, Solonetz, Solodized Solonetz,
Solodic, Slough Podsol, and Peat.
A brief description of each major profile group is given below:—
1. Grey Wooded (Grey Podsolic) Profile.—This is a group of well-developed soils
having a moderately thin A0, deep, light grey leached A2 overlying a brown clayey,
blocky or nuciform (B2) horizon which grades into the lighter coloured more friable
lower horizons (B:! and C). These soils occupy well-drained positions, are alkaline to
slightly acid in reaction, and have developed on calcareous parent materials.
2. Degraded Black Profiles.—The degraded Black profiles occur on moderately well-
drained to well-drained positions. They are characterized by very dark grey to brown
well-developed A1 horizons usually several inches thick. Underlying is a light grey
to grey-brown slightly leached A2 horizon that rarely exceeds 6 inches in thickness.
The B horizons are usually nuciform or blocky in structure but lack the heavy, waxy
character of the Grey Wooded soils.
3. Black Profile.—These profiles are usually found on relatively non-saline parent
materials and located on well-drained topographic positions. They are characterized
by dark brown to black thick A-, horizons, granular to prismatic B horizons which contain lime in the lower parts.
4. Brown Profile.—The Brown soil profiles belong to a group of forested soils and
. are found on well-drained to moderately well-drained topographic positions.   They are
characterized by thick granular to weakly platy Ax horizons, little or no A2 development,
and a strong structural (granular to small nuciform and blocky) development in the
B horizon. Horizontal boundaries are indistinct compared to the Grey Wooded or
degraded Black.   Colour and structure are the dominant features.
5. Solonetz Profile.—The Solonetz profiles are mainly associated with saline parental materials and found in areas of somewhat impeded drainage. They usually have
dark grey-brown A1 and thin greyish A2 horizons. The upper B is very hard, compact,
impervious, and columnar, the columns being characterized by well-rounded tops. Lime
carbonate and salts are frequently found in the lower horizons (B2, B3, and C).
6. Solodized Solonetz Profile.—The Solodized Solonetz profile is very similar to the
Solonetz, except that the upper part of B horizon is not as hard and impervious. In
addition, they have a moderately well-developed to well-developed A2. The lime carbonate and salt concentrations are found at greater depth in the Solonetz profiles.
7. Solodic Profile.—The soils belonging to the Solodic profile group are usually
found on well-drained positions. They appear to represent an advanced stage of development of the Solodized Solonetz profile. Their dominant characteristics consist of a
well developed Ax horizon, platy A2, thin vesicular A3, blocky Bx, and a blocky, moderately compact B2.
8. Slough Podsol Profile. — The Slough Podsol profiles are found in ill-drained
depressions and are recognized by their thick grey A2 horizons which overlie a sticky,
heavy, mottled subsoil.
9. Peat Profiles.—The Peat profiles occupy the poorly drained topographic depressions. Accumulations of organic materials (peat and muck) overlie a greyish, heavy and
sticky subsoil that is often quite wet. These profiles have been further divided on the
depth of the organic accumulations. Shallow Peat profiles (up to 12 inches) underlain
by a mineral subsoil are termed " Half Bog " soils. Deep peat and muck profiles having
developed from sedges, mosses, or woody plant remains are termed " Bog " soils. Further subdivision is generally made by reference to the source of the material (sedge,
sphagnum, etc.). W 58
Soil Classification.
Soil classification is concerned with the identification and description of soil profiles, together with a determination of their genetic relationships.
Field soil surveys involve studying, identifying, and mapping the soils in an area,
as well as assembling, analyzing, and interpreting facts about the soils. The subsequent
groupings are generally made to show similarities relating to parent material, drainage,
topography, land use, etc.
Classification of the Peace River soils has not progressed beyond the preliminary
stage used at present in the legend for mapping purposes. Nine distinct profile groups,
described above, have been recognized. Definite progress is being made in defining
the adaptability of these groups for crops, their management requirements and expected
yields under different systems of use and management.
The nine profile groups described above have been recognized as the principal major
profiles in the area. The subdivisions making up each group have been dealt with in
previous reports and may be consulted for further information.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist.
The winter in the Kootenay sections, while not extremely cold, was prolonged.
Snow was recorded in early December, 1948, with a temperature drop to —4° F. in January, with heavy snows and low temperatures being recorded until the end of March
in all fruit-growing districts of this area. In the Okanagan low temperatures were
also recorded, varying from —12° F. at Oliver to —27° F. in the Salmon River valley.
All districts, however, reported a comparatively heavy fall of snow, which undoubtedly
was a protection to fruit-tree roots. One noticeable feature of the winter was the fact
that through December, 1948, to March, 1949, cold weather generally prevailed, with
little or no mild weather. Reports from the Fraser Valley show also that cold weather
set in about the middle of December, 1948, and continued until the end of February.
The cold weather was accompanied by snowfall which, while not heavy in comparison
with Interior districts, was heavier than usual for this area. Vancouver Island and the
Gulf Islands also experienced one of the longest continuous cold spells on record. In
this district January, in addition to being cold, was one of the driest first months
on record and February one of the wettest second months on record.
Weather conditions began to improve in all areas toward the end of March, and
what gave indications of being a late spring actually turned out to be a spring somewhat earlier than that of 1948. This is well indicated in the following table of " Blossom Dates," as contained in the report of J. A. Smith, District Horticulturist for
Apr. 22
May 1
May 6
May 15
Apr. 16
Apr. 26
Apr. 29
May 7
Apr. 16
Apr. 22
Apr. 26
May 5
Apr. 22
May 5
May 10
May 20
Apr. 23
Apr. 29
May 4
The spring was comparatively dry in all districts. This was particularly noticeable in the Okanagan and Coast areas. Summer rainfall was also light, and the general
temperature, while not high, was higher than that of 1948. However, a few good summer rains were recorded, which materially helped the irrigation areas and also the Coast
districts where late plantings of vegetables were made.
Early fall frosts in many districts shortened the season for the harvesting of
certain canning crops, but this period on the whole was dry and gave an excellent opportunity for the harvesting of the main fruit and vegetable crops in all sections.
Several severe hail-storms were experienced in the Okanagan during the past
season. Amongst the hardest hit were sections of South Kelowna, Okanagan Mission,
and parts of East Kelowna. Certain growers sustained losses as high as 70 per cent.
Heavy losses were also experienced in Naramata and Penticton districts from the hailstorms of July 23rd to 24th and August 23rd. In these two districts approximately
500 acres suffered from hail. The Naramata district has had hail losses two years in
succession but had no hail damage for fifteen years prior to 1948.
Tree and Small Fruits.
From a Provincial standpoint the production has, in the case of most tree-fruits,
been the heaviest on record. While there has in the past been a heavier production of
apples, the spring indications were that this crop would be smaller than in 1948.
Nevertheless, due to favourable weather conditions, freedom from pests, etc., the crop
of apples will be considerably heavier than that of last year.
The pear-crop also was heavier than that of last year, although the crop was
undoubtedly reduced due to the general prevalence of fire-blight in many districts.
The cherry-crop was one of the best on record, and in the Okanagan particularly
was harvested in excellent condition due to the satisfactory weather conditions at
harvesting time.
The peach-crop also was very heavy and, owing to the dry season, there was little
loss from disease. Dry weather, however, was a factor in the failure to size, particularly in early peaches. The apricot-crop was larger than that of 1948, with little or
no loss from disease.
Plum production showed a marked increase, as also did the prune production. The
The prune-crop was on the whole of poor quality, due to a heavy set and many devitalized trees. There are many prune-trees that are badly neglected, both from the
standpoint of proper feeding and lack of pruning. It would be better for the industry
if many of the prune-trees at present producing second- and third-grade fruit were
The total production of small fruits for the current year shows a reduction as
compared with 1948. This is particularly noticeable in the case of loganberries, which
suffered very materially from winter-injury- Other small fruits, such as blackberries,
currants, and gooseberries, show little change from last year. Prices for small fruits,
while showing a decline in comparison with past years, may be considered as satisfactory, with the demand excellent, particularly in the case of strawberries, and there was
a heavy movement of this fruit in car-load lots to the Prairies from Vancouver Island.
The following table indicates the actual production of both tree and small fruits
for 1948 and the estimated production for 1949:— W 60
With the increase in population there comes an increased demand for vegetables.
This demand is met by domestic production, as well as by importation. There is also
a certain export movement of early vegetables from British Columbia to the Prairie
Provinces and further east.
The most important vegetable-producing areas are Vancouver Island, the Fraser
Valley, and the Okanagan. The production situation in these three areas is outlined
in the reports as submitted by the Supervising Horticulturists in charge of each district:—
Vancouver Island (E. W. White).
" Greenhouse tomato production during the past season has been well up to average, although prices are back more or less to normal after the very high prices of 1948.
There were eight straight car-loads shipped east from the spring crop in addition to a
large L.C.L. movement to Vancouver to make up mixed cars. From the fall crop,
three straight car-loads have been shipped east, making a total of eleven straight carloads. In addition, up to the present time, over 3,000 crates of the fall crop have been
shipped L.C.L to United States markets.
" Greenhouse cucumber production should be about the same as last year.
" Severe weather during December, 1948, and January and February, 1949,
destroyed a considerable proportion of the Christmas cauliflower-crop and the early
broccoli-crop. The April-May broccoli-crop was not so severely damaged. Low temperatures during January and February caused the small lakes in the vicinity of Victoria to freeze over. Wild ducks were deprived of their feeding-grounds so they took
possession of broccoli-fields and in some cases completely destroyed the crop. Spring
and summer vegetable-crops were in good supply throughout the season. There has
been an excellent crop of Christmas cauliflower this fall. Cutting and shipping has
been in progress since the first of the month and will continue during December if
weather conditions are favourable. There are some excellent stands of spring broccoli in the district. Austerity controls have been lifted and growers are again facing
severe price competition from States south of the border."
Fraser Valley (G. E. W. Clarke).
"Vegetable production in the Fraser Valley is of major importance, and more
farmers, and particularly the small-holders, should be giving consideration to the
including of some vegetable-crops in their farm production. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W  61
" Up too the present time, a large part of the vegetable production has been within
a comparatively small radius of Vancouver and New Westminster, but with the increasing population and the expansion of industry, many of these former vegetable-growing
areas have to be vacated.
" There are several areas in the district where vegetable-crops are not being grown
to any extent at present that could be developed. At the present time a large number
of the growers are unacquainted with the commercial production of vegetables and
require information and instruction concerning varieties, time of planting, and markets.
" The vegetable-growing in this area extends over a long period, and with a well-
organized industry the greater part of the immediate requirements of the local market,
as well as markets outside the Province, could be well supplied.
" During the past year considerable work was conducted among prospective vegetable-growers in new areas, and present indications are for a favourable response.
" Vegetable production during the year has been sufficient to supply local requirements at most times and to make shipments to outside points.
" The annual acreage required by canneries is, for the most part, contracted, particularly in the case of peas, beans, corn, and to some extent spinach, carrots, and beets.
The cucumber production for pickling is also grown, for the most part, on contract.
" Several tests were made in freezing several kinds of vegetables during the past
season, and present indications are that this work will be extended during next year."
Okanagan (B. Hoy).
" Generally, vegetable-crops were better than in 1948. There was less trouble with
diseases but some loss from early frosts this fall.
" Onions.—This crop suffered the normal amount of damage from cutworms and
wireworms, but not so heavily from maggot. Growers in increasing numbers are using
control measures for maggot, and in some instances are treating the soil to control
wireworms. Owing to seasonal condtions, diseases were not as destructive as in 1948.
A good crop was harvested and ruling prices have been higher than last year.
" Tomatoes.—This year was a more favourable tomato year than 1948, but frosts
in September damaged the vines and curtailed the crop to some extent. Fine weather,
however, followed these frosts, and a considerable tonnage was delivered to the canneries late in the season. Though deliveries to canneries did not start much earlier
than last year and damage was caused by early frosts, cannery packs should be larger
than in 1948.
" Celery.—Blight and insects did little damage to the celery-crop this year. Thrn
was a good stand of good quality, but growers were only able to sell a portion of ihe
late crop. Owing to the lifting of the import ban this fall the movement slowed up,
and there was a large quantity of celery in the fields when a severe frost in early
October damaged the crop to such an extent that it was practically unmarketable.
Some growers estimated their loss as high as 50 per cent, in the late crop.
" Other Vegetables.—Carrots, beets, and cabbage crops were normal. Watery soft
rot was responsible for some loss in bean fields. It was more severe in Vernon and
Armstrong areas than at Kelowna, and more severe on thickly sown stands and where
beans had been grown over a period. Wider spacing in pole-beans and rotating the
crop should prove beneficial.
" Dried Peas and Beans.—The seed- and dried-bean acreage was estimated at 361
acres for 1949, compared with 327 last year, and the dried-pea acreage dropped from
1,740 in 1948 to 1,252 in 1949. Frost-damage in September caused some loss to the
bean-seed crop in the Salmon Arm and Kamloops areas."
Some idea of the vegetable acreage and production of the most important vegetable-
crops in British Columbia can be obtained by a study of the following table :■— W 62
Estimated Acreage and Production of Vegetable-crops in British Columbia,
Year 1949 (as at November 1st).
per Acre.
Flower-bulb Production.
The biennial bulb survey, which is undertaken with a view to ascertaining the
total acreage, was made this past season. The following table shows the acreage for
1949 as well as for the period from 1929 when these surveys were first started—a period
of twenty years. In addition, there is also shown the total number of bulb-growers in
the Province and the distribution of growers by districts:—
Bulb Acreages, 1929-1949.
Year. Number of Acres.
1929  159.33
1931  200.00
1933  203.50
1935  209.62
1937  249.50
1939  257.62
Year. Number of Acres.
1941  315.50
1943  360.62
1945  482.75
1947  559.62
1949  451.70
Number of Growers, 1949.
Fraser Valley 	
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands	
Okanagan      11
Kootenay      15
Total for B.C.
The past season was not entirely an unsatisfactory one for bulb-growers, particularly those producing flowers for the cut-flower market. The Easter season coincided
with the peak of the narcissus season and tulips were ready for Mother's Day. Large
quantities of flowers were shipped by air express to eastern markets.
The growers interested in the sale of bulbs have had to meet the competition of
Holland bulbs, which has materially reduced returns. In many sections also the narcissus bulb-fly developed to the extent that it became a major problem and reduced the
number of bulbs that could be sold during the past season.
An excellent idea of the value of the bulb industry to the Province is indicated in
the following table:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W 63
Estimated Value of Marketable Bulb Production in British Columbia in 1949.
208 acres X 100,000 = 20,800,000 grown.
Marketable crop (15%)= 3,120,000 @ $30     $93,600
101 acres X 100,000 == 10,100,000 grown.
Marketable crop (30%)= 3,030,000 @ $25      75,750
29 acres X 150,000 = 4,350,000 grown.
Marketable crop (30%)= 1,305,000 @ $30       39,150
66 acres X 100,000 = 6,600,000 grown.
Marketable crop (30%)= 1,980,000 @ $20        39,600
47.7 acres X $1,000 per acre      47,700
Total (451.7 acres)   $295,800
Cranberry production has never been of commercial importance in the Province.
Recently some interest has been taken in the crop, particularly in the Fraser Valley.
Ultimate success is a matter of time. Progress to date is briefly outlined by G. E. W.
Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist for the Fraser Valley:—
" There has been periodic interest in cranberry-growing in the peat-bog sections
of the Valley, but until recently the very high cost of setting out a cranberry planting
has discouraged the growing of this crop. Cranberries have been tried by a few
growers on a very small scale, and there is no doubt that conditions, particularly in the
Lulu Island peat-bog sections, are favourable for the growth of the plants. It was not
until the last few years, however, that there has been any commercial planting, and even
at the present there is less than 15 acres of cranberries in the Fraser Valley. Of this
amount, one planting of about 10 acres was just set out in 1948 and has not yet
produced a commercial crop. Although the cranberry grows well under our conditions,
none of the present acreage is being grown under controlled system of flooding, which
is standard practice in other cranberry-growing areas, and it remains to be seen just
how successfully the crop can be managed."
Seed Production.
Vegetable and flower seed production during the war years reached their peak.
Since 1945 there has been a gradual decline both in tonnage and value of production.
The general direction of all seed-work in the Province is under the supervision of
J. L. Webster of the Horticultural Branch. The following are extracts from Mr.
Webster's report for the current year:—
" The General Market Situation for Vegetable Seed.—As noted in previous reports,
the market for vegetable-seed is now almost entirely confined to this continent. However, certain shipments of onion, carrot, and other seeds from 1949 crop are being
made to Great Britain through the Purchasing Commission. Restrictions governing
the sale of seed to individual firms in Great Britain were removed during the early
summer, but trade is subject to the firms obtaining import permits before seed can be
shipped. In view of the monetary situation in the above country, it is known that few,
if any, import permits will be granted. While British firms are anxious to place certain
contracts in British Columbia, growers here will not take the risk of growing seed
which might remain in their hands should permits not be forthcoming. W  64 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" Trade with other European countries is also not favourable. Permits are
required as in the case of Great Britain, and even more so-called red tape is necessary
to place any seed on the European market. The devaluation of the pound has made
it possible for British and European firms to offer seed of certain vegetables in Canada
at prices on a par with, or lower than, our own cost of production. Items being offered
at low prices are turnip, mangel, beet, spinach, and radish. Prices have declined in
Canada and the United States to meet these foreign quotations, and British Columbia
producers are as a result faced with a situation somewhat comparable to that which
existed after the First World War.
" The good-will secured by British Columbia seed-growers during the past ten
years will be of considerable assistance at this time, and a fair amount of Canadian
business is secured for good-quality seed at reasonable prices.
" The market for disease-free or health-approved seed-beans is not as strong as
during the past two years. In spite of this, our growers are producing in considerable
volume and should continue to do so if our costs of production can be somewhat lowered
by mechanization and other means. The problem now will be to produce disease-free
seed at prices competitive with offerings from the United States.
" Your official has continually stressed the need for mechanization in the production
of several vegetable-seed crops, and some results have been secured. Another point
which is important to the grower is the question of acreage contracted for. It is
possible to lower production costs if larger acreages are allotted to growers. This, of
course, means that many small growers will have to discontinue growing seed unless
they can produce at the lowered contract prices. Seed quality from the point of view
of British Columbia growers has been fairly well maintained, but in several kinds and
varieties insufficient effort is made to carry on selection work and improve the purity of
existing strains.   Further comments on this point are made under ' Trial Grounds.'
" There is no doubt that we who are concerned with the seed business are in the
middle of a fight to maintain the industry. Further curtailment in production of
vegetable and flower seed may result in 1950. Anything basic which can be done by
Government officials or others to assist the industry to lower cost of production and
improve quality should be vigorously undertaken.
" Trend in Production of Vegetable-seed.—While British Columbia production has
declined very materially from the peak years of 1944-46, it is interesting to note that,
with the exception of peas, beans, and corn, other Provinces in Canada have practically
ceased growing vegetable-seed. British Columbia is now practically the only producer
of the following Canadian-grown vegetable-seed items: Beet, cabbage, carrot, cauliflower, cucumber, leek, lettuce, parsnip, pepper, pumpkin, radish, spinach, squash,
marrow, and swiss chard.
" The following data show the 1947 and 1948 yields in comparison with the final
or November estimate for the current year (1949):— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949.
W 65
Onion sets	
" Flower-seed Production.—The following is the value of flower-seeds produced
in 1947 and 1948, with tentative estimate for 1949: 1947, $120,899.78; 1948, $66,638;
1949 (estimated), $50,000.
" Owing to mass-production methods employed in California in many kinds of
flower-seed, it has now become difficult for British Columbia growers to compete in the
growing of many of the flower-seed crops. Mechanization, both in the seeding,
cultivating, and harvesting of flower-crops, has reached major proportions in California.
A struggle for markets, with resulting low prices, has come about by Dutch offerings
of many flower-seed items at very low prices. The devaluation of the pound and the
Dutch guilder has made it possible for Dutch firms to again compete on American
markets. British Columbia producers, with the exception of certain wholesale firms
who produce and deal in high-quality stocks, are not in a very favourable position.
The result has been that our total volume of flower-seed grown in 1949 will show
a considerable decline.
" We have hopes, when the prevailing price-war in flower-seeds has settled down,
that production might again increase, particularly if the Cawston Bench in the South
Okanagan could be developed as a production centre for many half-hardy and tender
Tree-fruit Survey.—The last tree-fruit survey covering the Okanagan and Kootenay
Districts was made in 1945. These surveys have been made every five years since 1920.
We therefore have a continuous record of the growth of the tree-fruit industry to 1945.
The 1950 survey has already been started and will be finished early next year. A full
report should be available by the time the annual report of this branch for 1950 is being
Greenhouse Survey.—The following table shows briefly the results of the greenhouse survey, as conducted by your horticultural staff during the past season:— W 66
Greenhouse Survey, 1949.
Number of
of Houses.
Area in
Sq. Ft.
The above table shows a slight change from the 1947 survey which records a total
of 5,066,950 square feet of glass and 552 growers.
Under the " Plant Protection Act" all nurseries, as well as nursery agents, are
required to secure an annual nursery licence, the cost of which is $5. During the past
year 128 licences have been issued.
Inspection of all fruit-nursery stock produced in the Province is undertaken,
either at digging-time or previous to shipping. The following table summarizes the
work done during 1949:—
Nursery Inspection Report, 1949.
8 544
Sixty-one inspections made, 3.2 per cent, of stock condemned.
The past season has been one of the worst on record for fire-blight. In addition
to the usual dormant treatment of this disease, certain copper sprays have been tried
out during the growing-period. These sprays give indication that they may be useful
in the future, particularly in seasons when blight is general. Particular attention will
also be given to the discussion of fire-blight and its control at growers' meetings which
will be held during the coming winter.
The following table indicates the result of the inspection-work on fire-blight as
undertaken in 1949:—
Fire-blight Inspection, 1949.
Total Acres
and passed.
Pruning Demonstrations.
Pruning demonstrations are held each year in all districts. The fact that they
are on the whole well attended is an indication of their usefulness.
The following table indicates the districts, number of demonstrations held, and
total attendance for 1949:— Number of
Demon- Number of
District. strations. Pupils.
Vancouver Island  20 673
Lower Mainland  12 330
Okanagan  10 150
Kootenay      7 117
Totals _„ 49 1,270
New Black Currant Varieties.
Two new varieties of black currants apparently resistant to white pine blister-rust
were forwarded several years ago to officials of the Horticultural Branch from Ottawa
for trial purposes. These were placed with growers on Vancouver Island, in the Fraser
Valley, as well as in the Kootenays.
Officials in these three districts have submitted reports dealing with these plantings. There is apparently some difference of opinion as to their value. The following,
as taken from the annual district reports, will at least constitute a record, particularly
as to the suitability of this fruit for further plantings:—
E. W. White, Supervising Horticulturist, Vancouver Island.
" Two new black currants were secured in 1945 from Dr. A. W. S. Hunter, Assistant in Fruit-breeding, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. They were bred for
resistance to the white pine blister-rust. These varieties have proved their resistance
to rust disease and have now been named. Ottawa No. 381 (0-381) has been named
Crusader and Ottawa No. 393 (0-393) has been named Coronet.
"A considerable number of plants of these varieties have been distributed from
Mountain Valley Farm, Duncan, now owned by E. N. Trueman and E. R. Wilkinson,
and formerly owned by R. E. C. Stephens. These varieties are very vigorous in growth
and the fruit compares very favourably with other standard varieties."
G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist, Fraser Valley.
" The two rust-resistant varieties of black currants, Ottawa 381 and 393, which
have been on trial have now been named Crusader and Coronet respectively. These
varieties have continued to make good growth, but the setting of fruit has been disappointing both as to quantity and size. These varieties blossom earlier than Boskoop
and Baldwin and it appears that these varieties are self-sterile; cool weather at this
time of the year might be a factor. Baldwin and Boskoop Giant are producing fair
to medium crops. Crusader and Coronet are resistant to white pine blister-rust but
are very subject to mildew."
J. E. Swales, District Horticulturist, Kootenay.
" Two varieties of black currants have been under test since 1946. These were
at first introduced under numbers 381 and 393 but are now known as Crusader and
Coronet respectively. Although apparently quite resistant to rust, these two varieties
are quite susceptible to mildew, and during the 1948 season were severely infected.
On account of this, the grower on whose property these varieties were growing removed
and destroyed the bushes.    Consequently these two varieties were not tested in 1949." w 68 british columbia.
Greenhouse Tomato Trials.
The production of greenhouse tomatoes is an important section of the agricultural
industry of the Province. Growers are continually trying out new varieties in an
effort to obtain the best. For a number of years the Ontario Experimental Station at
Vineland has supplied some excellent strains. In his 1949 report E. W. White, Supervising Horticulturist for Vancouver Island, reports on these strains as tried out by
one of the commercial growers:—
" On October 16th, 1948, a letter was written to 0. J. Robb, Assistant in Research,
Ontario Horticultural Experiment Station, Vineland, regarding new strains of greenhouse tomatoes resistant to mould and available for trial. Mr. Robb replied on October
18th and forwarded seed of three new varieties for trial. One, V473, was sent out in
1947. It was reported as having more resistance to mould than V121. Last summer
two strains, V4802 and V4803, were sent out for grower trial.
" This seed was handed to Riddle Bros, on October 30th, 1948, and the three
varieties were grown as a spring crop and also as a fall crop this year.
"All three varieties were more vigorous in the seed-bed than V121 and continued
to show extra vigour during the growing-season.
" V473 developed fruit which had a tendency to be smaller than V121 and produced
its crop on single trusses. The fruit, however, was very smooth and of the Market
King type, but deeper. The fruits had a tendency to be two-celled. V4802 was very
similar to the V473 in vigour, size, and fruit trusses. V4803 produced larger fruit on
branching trusses and was very similar in this respect to V121. The fruit had a tendency to show some roughness but was a very good market tomato. Some fruits were
multiple-celled.   All three varieties were very resistant to the mould disease.
"A test for edible qualities of the three varieties was made in comparison with
V121, and very little difference could be observed.
" The three varieties were also grown as a fall crop and gave excellent results.
Fruit development and quality were the same as for the spring crop. Riddle Bros, are
of the opinion that the three new varieties are too vigorous in growth for the spring
crop, and they are inclined to stay with V121 for the early crop. However, if seed is
available, they are prepared to plant their whole area to the three new varieties for a
fall crop in 1950."
Strawberry Varieties Resistant to Red Stele.
Red stele in strawberries has caused a considerable loss to growers in the Fraser
Valley and to a lesser extent on Vancouver Island. Strawberry-plant certification was
introduced in 1946. Growers having plants for sale have their plant-beds inspected
for the presence of red stele. If no stele is found the plants are certified as free from
this disease. During the past season approximately 3,000,000 plants were certified,
and principally of the British Sovereign variety. There are also trials of new varieties
which it is hoped may be resistant to red stele and have the high quality of British
In the Fraser Valley, which has the largest strawberry plantings of any district
in the Province, work on red stele was first initiated. Observations on the work to
date are supplied in the following remarks by W. D. Christie, District Horticulturist
for that area:—
" In 1946 sixteen varieties of strawberries were planted in a red-stele area in
Bradner, and results of the observations made during the years 1947 and 1948 were
submitted in the 1948 annual report.
" The varieties Temple, Pathfinder, and Pitt, being the most resistant to red stele,
have been planted by a few growers in areas where the British Sovereign has been
affected with red stele.   These varieties do not equal the British Sovereign in yields DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949. W 69
nor quality. The Pitt has been grown in the Fraser Valley for a number of years and
is a local seedling, resistant under many conditions to the red-stele disease.
" Pathfinder and Temple are more recent introductions and are worthy of further
consideration, being of fair to good quality and also because these varieties mature
earlier in the season. During the past season frost appeared to cause more heaving
of the plants of Temple than in the case of British Sovereign, and more particularly on
the heavier types of soils.
" The British Sovereign, under Fraser Valley conditions, is an outstanding variety,
and at the present time no other variety has threatened its supremacy except in areas
where the red-stele disease is the limiting factor.
"Ridge Planting of Strawberries.—Following observations made on the farm of
W. R. Redman, Bradner, B.C., during 1945 to 1948 with a high-ridge method of planting British Sovereign strawberry-plants as compared to level cultivation on the hill
system definitely indicated that under these conditions the high-ridge method showed
a marked reduction in the loss of plants from red stele, and correspondingly increased
" In the spring of 1948 Mr. Redman decided to adopt this method for setting out
a commercial planting. Ridges were made at intervals of 54 inches and levelled to a
height of 15 inches above ground-level. The plants were set on these ridges at distances
of 14 inches in the row.
" On account of good drainage, particularly during the winter and early spring,
losses from red stele were negligible. Plant-growth was fair to good, and in spite of
severe winter conditions production this year (1949) averaged 2% tons an acre.
" Observations seem to indicate that where this high-ridge system is adopted the
height and width of the ridges should be governed by drainage conditions and type of
soil. High-ridging may result in lack of moisture during the dry, warm weather.
This is the first time high-ridge system of planting has been tried on a commercial
acreage, and costs have been higher than the level planting on the hill system. It is
felt that a reduction in operation costs can be made effective. This high-ridge planting
of British Sovereign plants has made good growth and crop prospects are favourable
for the second cropping year. The slight ridging of British Sovereign plants, as now
adopted by many growers during the fall in some locations where red stele is a limiting
factor, has reduced disease infection and loss of plants."
Work on red-stele resistant varieties has also been undertaken on Vancouver Island.
This work is reported on by E. W. White, Supervising Horticulturist:—
" The following four varieties of strawberries were planted out in 1947 and tested
for resistance to red stele—namely, Temple, Pathfinder, Fairpeake, and No. 1639.
Of the four, Temple was by far the most promising. As a result of the promising
appearance of Temple, Herb. F. Young, on whose farm the test was made, planted out
3,500 plants of Temple in the spring of 1948. These were planted in a low, wet spot
where British Sovereign died out from red stele. The plants made wonderful growth
in 1948. This year Mr. Young kept track of the yield from the 3,500 plants of Temple
and harvested 200 crates and 150 flats of 12 lb. each, which would be approximately
5,400 lb., or a little over 8 tons per acre. The fruit held its size well, was firm and of
good colour, and shipped well. The flavour perhaps does not equal British Sovereign,
but that may be a case of individual preference. The fruit was shipped in the regular
cars of British Sovereign and no complaints were received. Some pickers complained
that the stem, was tougher, making it a little more difficult to pick. In season Temple
is just about the same as British Sovereign."
Selective Weed-killers in Vegetable-crops.
J. L. Webster, Horticulturist, Vancouver, is in charge of the vegetable-seed
production-work for the Department of Agriculture. The following on selective
weed-killers in vegetable-crops is submitted in his 1949 report:— W 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" Oil Solvents for Carrots.—Following results of our trials with several types of
solvents and fuel-oils in 1947 and 1948, it can now be reported that practically all
commercial growers of carrots are using one of these materials. Stove-oil is gradually
losing out to the new solvents, as no trouble from tainting or burning of carrots has
been reported from their use. The success of oil solvents as a weedicide for carrots
has lowered the average cost of weeding to 20-25 per cent, of former hand-weeding
"Aero Cyanate for Onions.—We were fortunate in again securing a considerable
quantity of this material from the American Cyanamid Company at Niagara Falls.
The material was distributed to thirteen growers of onions and the data secured on
results obtained was very interesting. The material shows great promise, but due to
variation in temperatures, kind and stage of weed development, and methods of
application, some variable results were obtained. In the first place it should be noted
that the cost of the material is fairly high, running from $3 to $8 per acre for each
of the early applications, not including the cost of the actual spraying.
" When the temperature was high in the middle of the day, weeds were not killed
effectively unless the percentage strength of the cyanate was increased. Lamb's-
quarters has been found to be fairly resistant and not readily killed unless in the
seedling stage. Damage to onion seedlings has been very slight with the majority of
" Some very effective kills of large pigweed and smartweed plants in the Fraser
Valley were obtained both with 3 per cent, and 4 per cent, syanate. Weeds at the time
of treatment were from 3 inches to 5 inches in height, and the onions which were grown
from transplants were 8 inches to 10 inches in height. Application of the weedicide
was made from the side and not directly over the onion rows.
" In the Okanagan, results showed that 3 per cent, to 4 per cent, cyanate applied
when the onion-plants were half-grown did not cause injury and yet obtained a good
kill of all weeds except lamb's-quarters. However, the cost of the material at 3- to
4-per-cent. strength runs from $10 to $20 per acre for each treatment, depending on
thoroughness of application. At 1-per-cent. strength, which is recommended in Eastern
Canada for use in the first weeding, many unsatisfactory kills of weeds were noted.
" We would not care to make any general recommendations as to the use of this
material other than to encourage growers to try it out on a small area and use 2- to
4-per-cent. strength, depending on temperatures and stage of development of both
onion-plants and weeds.
" Cyanamid.—Three hundred pounds of special-grade cyanamid was received to
carry on experimental work in the pre-emergent weeding of onions. This was distributed to the same growers receiving the cyanate. Not all of the results from growers
have been received to date, but we were able to inspect over 50 per cent, of the trials.
" Where moisture from rain or irrigation was present just prior to emergence of
the onions, the cyanamid appeared to form a film over the soil and kill the majority,
if not all, of the weed seedlings as they emerged. Where no rain or dew fell just prior
to emergence of the onions, the applications were not effective. It would appear that
sprinkler or furrow irrigation—particularly the former—is necessary to ensure good
" The material proved to be an excellent fertilizer, as treated rows showed increased
vigour. It would appear that the material should be applied four or five days before
the onions are due to emerge and that irrigation, by either the sprinkling or furrow
method, be applied if rain does not occur before the onions come through the ground.
It was evident that where the cyanamid acted efficiently the major labour involved in
the first weeding was eliminated.
" With both the above materials, results can be said to be variable and yet
promising when conditions are ideal.   No doubt a good deal of experimental work will DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949.
W 71
have to be done to iron out recommendations. Even after this has been done, growers
will have to become thoroughly experienced and familiar with the factors involved
before they can be sure of a complete kill of weeds in the growing onion-crop."
Sweet Corn Trials, 1949.
As reported by W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist, Vernon:—
" The above project was conducted in co-operation with J. L. Webster, Horticulturist, Provincial Department of Agriculture, Vancouver, B.C. The objective was
comparative performance of some of the more recent varieties and hybrids of sweet
corn. We wish to extend our thanks and appreciation to Mr. Webster for supplying
the material for this test, and also to T. P. Hill, manager, Coldstream Ranch, for
supplying the required area of land and all production requirements of the crop.
" Germination in all plots was very good. The plot of Purdue Bantam was very
slow in germination and early growth, but the stand was uniform, healthy, and strong.
All other plots germinated in the normal time-period. Growing conditions were good
and excellent attention was given the growing crop. Plot records were made by
H. H. Evans, District Horticulturist. As will be noted in the table of comparisons, the
selection of varieties under test, seeded on the same date, gave a continuous supply of
fresh table corn for a period of approximately one month. The following table indicates
the results:—
" Siveet Corn Comparison Table.
(Seeded May 6th ; plots, 1/100 acre.)
Type, Colour, and Condition.
Yield in
for Fresh
4' 6"
6' 6"
5' 6"
4' 6"
5' 6"
6' 6"
6' 6"
Cob low set, medium long, small core, well filled;
grain medium large, medium depth, very sweet,
July   28
Aug.     8
Aug.    2
Aug.    5
Aug.    8
Aug. 25
Aug.  10
Aug. 15
Golden Rocket,
Cob set medium high, large, medium length, core
medium   large,   medium   filling;    grain   large,
deep,  sweet, rich, tender;   colour golden   (very
Cob  set medium high,  large,  medium  long,  well
filled,   core  medium  large;    grain   medium  size
and depth, medium sweet, rich;   skin slightly
Cob   set  medium  low,   medium  long,   small,  well
filled, core small; grain large, deep, sweet, rich,
Purdue Bantam,
Cob set medium high, large, long, well filled, core
large;   grain medium size and depth, medium
sweet, rich, tender;   colour yellow (good)	
Cob set high, long, medium large, medium filling,
core medium small;   grain small, medium depth,
Maine Topcross
Cob high set, long, large, well filled, core medium
size;    grain   deep,   rich,   medium   sweet;    skin
Cob High set, long, large, well filled, core medium
small;    grain   large,   deep,   sweet,   rich;    skin
10 " w 72 british columbia.
Observations on the Use of Mulching Material.
The use of mulching materials, such as hay, straw, sawdust, etc., is becoming more
general, not only in the small-fruit areas of the Coast but in the Interior as well.
For the past two years the report of this branch has dealt with this question and as
reported by E. W. White, Supervising Horticulturist. The following are extracts from
the 1949 reports of E. W. White and G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturists for
Vancouver Island and the Fraser Valley respectively, which deal with this matter:-—
" On Vancouver Island mulching materials of various kinds continue to be of
interest among growers. Sawdust is perhaps the most extensively used material at
the present time. With the use of sawdust the weed and grass problem is not so
great as where old hay is used.
" The Gordon Head grower with the % acre of Latham raspberries suffered considerably from winter-injury to the canes this year, but the crop held up very well
considering the cane-growth available for fruit production.
" The Duncan grower who was the pioneer in the use of mulching material is now
well established at his new place at Goldstream and is continuing his mulching programme. A new planting of Everbearing strawberries set out in the fall of 1948
gave an excellent yield this year. A further new planting of British Sovereign planted
this spring and mulched with sawdust is in excellent condition at the present time.
All plantings of raspberries, loganberries, boysenberries, and blackberries have been
mulched with sawdust. Some of these plantings are on very light soil. Fortunately,
this grower now has an adequate supply of water for irrigation purposes, which is a
great advantage. This grower is also using seaweed as a top dressing, the material
being hauled from a beach in the Metchosin area.
" The Saanich grower who has %-acre planting of loganberries which has been
under sawdust mulch since 1946, had a very good crop this year. There was very little
winter-killing of the canes and weed-growth has been practically eliminated..
"Another Saanich grower had a sawdust-mulch experiment this year on loganberries under the direction of the Dominion Experimental Station, Saanichton. This
experiment was quite outstanding during the fruiting period. There was practically
no winter-killing of the canes on the mulched row and they were very much more
vigorous than the unmulched check-row. Final figures on production are not yet
available but the grower estimated that the mulched row gave a yield 75 per cent, higher
than the unmulched check-row.
" The Saanich grower who has been developing a contour strip-farming project
during the past two years is beginning to capitalize on his programme. Soil erosion
has been largely eliminated and the humus content of the soil is beginning to build up.
This grower, of course, makes use of manure when available and also uses commercial
fertilizers.    He is also fortunate in having a water-supply for irrigation purposes."
" In the Fraser Valley in 1948 sawdust was used as a mulch on a part of the
outdoor chrysanthemum crop of J. Harper, Steveston. Growth and general excellence
of the mulched chrysanthemums was greatly superior to that of the section which was
grown in the ordinary way.
" The most probable explanation is that in 1948 the water-table throughout the
year on this particular piece of land was exceptionally high. The root system of the
mulched plants was much closer to the surface of the soil than that of the untreated
plants and would be thus much less affected by the high water-table. It is a well-known
fact that mulching is a very effective means of maintaining good moisture conditions
in the soil, and the trial was repeated by Mr. Harper in 1949 on a larger scale. A part
of the crop was also mulched with spoiled hay to determine whether or not there would
be any significant difference between the two materials. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949.
W 73
"Although there was no high water-table problem during 1949, results on the
plots mulched with either hay or sawdust were consistently better than those obtained
under the ordinary system of growing. There was no significant difference noticeable
between sections mulched with hay and those mulched with sawdust. Mulching in this
case proved to be a very worth-while investment, and it is probable that mulching will
be used to a greater extent as growers become familiar with the advantages of this
Apple-scab Control.
The following is the result of work undertaken during the past season by M. P. D.
Trumpour, District Horticulturist, Salmon Arm, in connection with apple-scab control
in that district:—
"A Comparison of New Materials for the Control of Apple-scab.
" Orchard site, E. P. Wright orchard, Canoe; variety tested, Mcintosh Red; spray-
machine, conventional Hardie 23.
Spray Period.
Materials per
100 Gallons.*
Plot 1.
Plot 4.
Plot 5.
Plot 6.
May 12
May 25
June 18
L.S. 2l/2
W Pt.
y2 pt.
C.R. 305
m ib.
L.S. 1%
Vz Pt.
% Pt.
C.R. 305
iyt ib.
I.C. 1 lb.,
W.S. 3 lb.,
50% D.D.T.
iy2 ib.,
% lb.
I.C. 1 lb.,
W.S. 3 lb.,
50% D.D.T.
iy2 ib.,
34 lb.
I.C. 1 lb.,
W.S. 3 lb.,
50% D.D.T.
iy2 lb.,
% lb.
I.C. 1 lb.,
W.S. 3 lb..
50% D.D.T.
iy2 ib.,
% lb.
* Abbreviations : L.S. = Lime-sulphur.    I.C.=Iron carbamate.    W.S.=Wettable sulphur,
" Results are tabulated in terms of per cent, from averaged counts per plot as
Plot 1,
Plot 4.
Plot 5,
Plot 6,
C.R. 305.
Per cent, primary infection.	
* Over % inch aggregate scab.
" Discussion.—Actually this test was a comparison of lime-sulphur with the newer
organic type materials for the control of apple-scab, for the last or cover-spray in all
plots was necessarily of iron carbamate with wettable sulphur. With this in mind, it
becomes apparent that lime-sulphur remains the best in so far as scab control is concerned, while of the three new materials T.A.G. is the most promising.
"At the same time, T.A.G., being an organic-mercury type of material, is reputed
to have less adverse effect in earlier sprays on plant-tissue and has a wider range of
compatibility than lime-sulphur. It may be that such a material could eventually
replace lime-sulphur provided the cost can be brought within reason." W 74
With regard to the apple-scab control-work done during the past year in the Salmon Arm, Kootenay, and Creston districts by the various officials, there is not only a
difference of opinion as to the best spray or sprays to recommend but also a difference
in the results obtained with the conventional and concentrate type of sprayer.
This is noticeable in the Salmon Arm report. But as pointed out by Mr. Trumpour,
who was in charge of the work: " The trees in the trial plots were exceptionally dense
and there is a possibility that concentrate machines are not effective for the control of
apple-scab under such conditions."
In the scab-control work undertaken in the Kootenay and Creston districts the
officials undertaking this work found the concentrate machines most effective. Mr.
Hunt, Supervising Horticulturist, does, however, indicate this fact: " This past season
could not be considered a bad scab year in the Kootenays and control of the disease was
comparatively easy. It would be desirable to use this machine during a year in which
apple-scab was difficult to control to determine just how efficient it may be."
With a view to testing the efficiency of iron carbamate in the control of apple-scab
under Kootenay and Arrow Lake conditions, Messrs. Hunt and Swales, of the Nelson
office, submit the following report on the work done in 1949:—
" The object of this demonstration was to compare the efficiency of an iron
carbamate-wettable sulphur mixture as against that of either lime-sulphur alone or a
lime sulphur-wettable sulphur combination in the control of apple-scab. This work,
carried out in the Horcoff orchard at Castlegar, is more or less a continuation of work
done last year at Harrop. Trees used in this experiment were in good vigorous condition and included both Mcintosh and Delicious varieties. The trees were divided
into three plots, with six Delicious and at least six Mcintosh trees in each plot. Five
sprays were applied to each plot. One plot was sprayed with a mixture consisting
of 1 lb. of Fermate (iron carbamate) and 3 lb. of wettable sulphur per 100 gallons of
spray. The spray for the second plot consisted of 1 gallon of lime-sulphur and 3 lb. of
wettable sulphur per 100 gallons of spray. Lime-sulphur, 2 gallons per 100, was used
on the other plot. The dates of spray application were as follows: Pre-pink, April
28th; Pink, May 9th; Calyx, May 20th; First cover, June 2nd; Second cover,
June 16th.
" Two trees of Delicious and one of Mcintosh were left as checks and were not
sprayed. In the last three spray applications 1% lb. of 50-per-cent. wettable D.D.T.
powder per 100 gallons of spray was added to the sprays containing lime-sulphur, while
4 lb. of cryolite per 100 gallons was added to the iron carbamate sprays for codling-
moth control.
" None of the trees was thinned. At harvest-time all the fruit from one representative tree in each plot was picked, sorted, and counted. Fruits free from scab
were classed as clean, while those showing any'signs of scab were classed as scabby.
Results of these counts are given in the following table:—
" Results of Fruit-counts made at Harvest-time.
Spray Materials.
Number of
Number of
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
None (check)	
Lime sulphur-wettable sulphur.
Fermate-wettable sulphur	
None (check)	
Lime sulphur-wettable sulphur.
Fermate-wettable sulphur	
None (check)	
W 75
" From this table it will be seen that both the lime-sulphur and the lime sulphur-
wettable sulphur sprays gave equally good control of apple-scab. Fermate-wettable
sulphur gave fair results, although control was not as good as that obtained by the
other sprays. It is of further interest to note that fruit of the Delicious variety, in
particular, from the Fermate-wettable sulphur sprayed trees was rather dull in appearance and poorly coloured, while that from the other plots was very bright in appearance
and well coloured.    Spray-injury to fruit or foliage was negligible in all plots.
" In view of the fact that apple-scab was relatively easy to control this past season
and in view of results presented here along with those obtained last year, when the
Fermate-wettable sulphur combination gave very poor control of apple-scab, it is felt
that it would be inadvisable to recommend the use of iron carbamate for the control
of apple-scab in the Kootenay and Arrow Lakes district."
Dealing further with scab-control work, the following has been submitted by G. R.
Thorpe, District Horticulturist, Creston:—
" The co-operative spray project on apples was continued this season. The work
was undertaken by your Horticulturist in co-operation with officials of the Dominion
Science Service stationed at Creston.
" In this apple-spray demonstration the efficiency of mixtures was compared for
apple-scab and codling-moth control and gun and concentrate machines were compared.
" In the W. Truscott orchard the conventional gun spray-machine was used. The
summary of the procedure was as follows and the results are recorded in the following
" Results of Orchard Spray Demonstration for the Control
of Apple-scab and Codling-moth, 1949.
Spray Materials.
Lime-sulphur, wettable sulphur..
Iron carbamate, wettable sulphur	
Iron carbamate, wettable sulphur (no pre-
Phygon, iron carbamate, wettable sulphur...
HL 331, iron carbamate, wettable sulphur....
Calcium arsenate
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
Lime-sulphur, wettable sulphur..
Iron carbamate, wettable sulphur	
Iron carbamate, wettable sulphur (no pre-
pink)  .-.	
Phygon, iron carbamate, wettable sulphur...
HL 331, iron carbamate, wettable sulphur....
Calcium arsenate
1. Varieties:  Mcintosh and Delicious.
2. Eight to twenty trees per plot. W 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
3. Average gallons spray per tree per spray, 15.
4. Dates of application: Pre-pink, May 1st; pink, May 9th; calyx, May 21st;
first cover, June 3rd;   second cover, June 21st;   second brood, August
5. Fifty apples examined from each field box.
" The lime-sulphur, calcium arsenate and iron carbamate, wettable sulphur, cryolite combinations were repeated on the same plots as in 1948. The results where the
full programme was applied show that scab-control was better than 99 per cent, with
both combinations in Mcintosh and Delicious. Foliage damage was considerable by
lime-sulphur in the early stages and calcium arsenate foliage burn was very evident
at later dates. No significant foliage-injury was evident in the iron carbamate, wettable sulphur, cryolite combination. Light fruit russeting was evident in the lime-
sulphur but not in the other plot. Larger buds and more blooms were noted in comparison with the lime-sulphur plots. Field-box counts showed that iron carbamate,
wettable sulphur, cryolite plots produced 80.7 per cent, more Mcintosh and 90 per cent.
more Delicious than the lime-sulphur plots.
" Other sprays tested for apple-scab control were as follows:—
"Plot IB.—Lime-sulphur, wettable sulphur. This combination gave 90 per cent,
control in Mcintosh and 97 per cent, control in Delicious. Foliage and fruit injury
was recorded in this plot.
" Plot 2B.—Iron carbamate, wettable sulphur (no pre-pink application). This plot
showed a scab increase of approximately 5 per cent, in Mcintosh and 8 per cent, in
Delicious.    This indicates the necessity for a pre-pink scab-spray.
" Plot 3.—Phygon was used in the early pink, calyx, and first cover and iron carbamate, wettable sulphur in the remaining spray. This spray shows promise but further
work is necessary to determine its value.
" Plot 4-—341c was used in the full schedule. This spray did not prove as efficient
as the Phygon plot.   Further tests should be run to prove its value.
" Plot 5.—HL 331 was used as a scab eradicant. This material showed eradicant
properties, but further tests must be run to determine its value.
" For codling-moth control, calcium arsenate, D.D.T., and cryolite were compared.
It is evident, as recorded in the foregoing table, that D.D.T. is the most efficient, with
cryolite and calcium arsenate showing decreased efficiency.
" One error was made in the insecticide application. The orchardist intended
applying parathion on August 7th but made a mistake and applied D.D.T. over the
entire plots."
Chemical Thinning.
Blossom thinning by means of chemical sprays is still very much in the experimental stage. It is naturally of interest to growers for, if successful, it would materially reduce the cost of one orchard operation—namely, hand-thinning. During the past
season it has been tried out not only by commercial growers but by the various horticultural officials on demonstration plots.
Many commercial growers report savings up to 50 per cent, in thinning costs. On
the demonstration plots the results are variable. The following is a report by R. P.
Murray, District Horticulturist, Penticton. This may be taken as a criterion of the
work done in other districts:—
" So much interest has been shown by the growers in chemical thinning that trials
were extended this year to include stone-fruits as well as apples. Generally, the results
have been encouraging except on stone-fruits, and it is hoped a programme can be
worked out to properly thin them.
" This season the blossom period was short. Fine, warm weather prevailed during
the time of blossoming and was very favourable for pollination.   Consequently it was DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1949.
W 77
harder to properly blossom-thin than in a season such as 1948 where cool, rainy weather
prevailed throughout the bloom period.
" The following are the results of this season's work:—
"Mcintosh (Tillar Orchard, Naramata, B.C.).—The spray was applied ten days
after full bloom.   The material used was Green Cross ' Stop-Drop' (oil base).
Plot 1-
5 oz. (12 p.p.m.)
Number of
Trees sprayed.
Plot 2  7 oz. (17 p.p.m.) 6
" Good thinning was obtained in both cases. There was no over-thinning from
the use of 7 oz. (17 p.p.m.) on Mcintosh this year.
"Jonathan (Sammet Orchard, Naramata, B.C.).—Blossom sprays were applied on
May 10th. This was at least one day after the proper time, but because of wind it was
impossible to spray earlier.
" Naphthalene acetic acid was applied on May 13th. At this time no petals were
present and it was very close to a true calyx spray.
" At harvest-time ten orchard-boxes from each plot were counted to determine the
difference in size.
" The following table is self-explanatory:—
Number of
in Plot.
Number of
Number of
per Box.
DN 289, 1 pt./lOO gal	
Elgetol, 2 pt./lOO gal	
Elgetol, iy2 pt./lOO gal	
Elgetol, 10 pt./acre*	
Elgetol, 8 pt./acre*	
Naphthalene acetic acid 5 oz. (12 p.p.m.)
Naphthalene acetic acid 7 oz. (17 p.p.m.)
Size uniform
Size uniform
Size uniform
Size uneven
Size uneven
Size uneven
Size uneven
Size very uneven
* Applied with Bes-Kil steam generator machine.
"All plots which were sprayed showed an increase in size. The size was more
uniform in the plots sprayed with Elgetol than with naphthalene acetic acid.
"A Besler steam generator, using the same quantities of material per acre as for
hand-spraying, was not satisfactory. Unfortunately, the tractor was not in proper
working order and a steady speed could not be maintained. In some cases the bottoms
of the trees were fairly well thinned but there were no noticeable results on the tops.
" The possibilities of concentrate types of spray-machines for blossom thinning
should be further investigated.
" On the plot sprayed with 2 pints of Elgetol per 100 gallons the average yield from
twelve trees was 36V2 boxes per tree, while on the rest of the orchard the average yield
was about 29 boxes per tree. The fruit on the plot receiving 2 pints of Elgetol per 100
gallons was over-sized for the variety (Jonathan), averaging 125 per box.
" One plot of three Delicious trees was also sprayed at the rate of iy2 pints of
Elgetol per 100 gallons on May 10th and showed no effect of over-thinning.
" The sprays were applied on April 21st. The varieties consisted of English Moor-
park, Blenheim, and Tilton. English Moorpark were one day past full bloom, Blenheim
were in full bloom, and Tilton were 85 per cent, in bloom.
" None of the materials tested gave any appreciable thinning. W 78
"Rochester.—The sprays were applied on May 3rd when 90 per cent, of the blossoms were open.
"Amount of hand-thinning was slightly reduced on all the plots sprayed. Size was
slightly larger.
" Vedette.—The sprays were applied on May 6th when 90 per cent, of the blossoms
were open.
" No apparent thinning from any of the sprays on Vedette.
" Veteran.—The sprays were applied on May 7th at full bloom.
" None of the materials applied gave excess thinning but did reduce the set slightly.
" Prunes.
" The sprays were applied on April 30th when the trees were in full bloom.
" No apparent thinning effect obtained with any of these materials when put on in
full bloom."
Woolly Apple-aphis Control.
As reported by R. M. Wilson, Assistant District Horticulturist, Kelowna:—
" In the orchard of Paul Hol