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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister. H. CATHCART, Deputy Minister.… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1945

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister.
H. Cathcart, Deputy Minister. C. D. Orchard, Chief Forester.
REPORT
OF
THE FOKEST BRANCH
FOR THE
TEAR  ENDED   DECEMBER  31ST
1943
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1944.    Victoria, B.C., March 1st, 1944.
To His Honour W. C. Woodward,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch of
the Department of Lands for the year 1943.
A. W. GRAY,
Minister of Lands.
The Hon. A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
SIR,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch
during the calendar year 1943.
C. D. ORCHARD,
Chief Forester.  REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH.
Continuation of the war was, of course, the overshadowing circumstance of the
year 1943. Its pressure for more men and materials reflected on forest administration in many ways.
Enlistments have passed the peak, but still the staff was materially reduced in
favour of the forces during the year. As listed elsewhere, there were an additional
twenty-six of the permanent and temporary staff enlisted. This brings the grand
total of enlistments to 156, of whom two have returned honourably discharged.
The great demand for forest products continued throughout the year. A difficult
winter of 1942-43, lack of experienced labour and shortage of materials and equipment,
slowed down the output of logging operations and mills alike. The same factors
affected all forest-work and reflected on the facilities of the Forest Branch. More
demands were made on the time of the smaller staffs, with the result that only the
most urgent of jobs were done. With all the shortcuts possible and a favourable fire
season, the staff was able to complete a larger amount of business in many lines. This
shows elsewhere in the statistical tables in the report.
During the year, plans for post-war projects were prepared and reports submitted
to the Rehabilitation Council. These showed in detail, by Forest Districts, the improvements needed in the forests and the organization required to administer them. Parks
and grazing ranges under the administration of the Branch were included. Various
members of the staff devoted considerable time to rehabilitation planning committees
and other war-time activities.
The agreement with the Dominion Government, under which a number of Alternative Service Workers were allotted to forest-work, was renewed for a year from
April 1st, 1943. These men proved of great value in the conservation of forest
resources and were of distinct assistance. Details of their accomplished work are
shown elsewhere.
Although the fire season was generally favourable, the Fort George District was
hit fairly hard in the late summer and again suffered the greatest damage of any
district. This was largely due to the vast extent of remote country where the only
possible access is by seaplane. The scarcity of such planes for hire was a contributing
cause in the total damage. As the great north half of the Province is opened up it
becomes increasingly apparent that administration, and particularly protection, must
be extended. This will call for increased air transportation, in which connection the
development of the helicopter holds great promise.
Hereafter are presented more detailed statements of the work of the Forest
Branch during 1943 in its various divisions, together with statistical tables.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
It was with the deepest regret that the announcement was received of the deaths
in the service of their country of the following valued members of the Branch:—
J. H. Benton, Air Surveys, Victoria.
A. J. Leighton, Clerk, Prince Rupert.
The following is the complete roster of enlistments as known up to the end of
1943:—
1939—
L. F. Swannell, Assistant District Forester, Prince George.
W. Hall, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
5 BB 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
1939—Continued.
H. Casilio, Draughtsman, Victoria.
N. G. Wharf, Clerk, Victoria.
C. V. Smith, Clerk, Prince Rupert.
L. N. W. Woods, Assistant Ranger, Prince George.
C. R. Sandey, Launch Engineer, Vancouver.
1940—
W. Murray, Draughtsman, Prince Rupert.
T. Hunter, Launch Engineer, Victoria.
G. S. Andrews, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
V. C. Smith, Launch Engineer, Vancouver.
E. G. Oldham, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
G. A. Playfair, Radio Engineer, Victoria.
D. J. McKay, Junior Clerk, Victoria.
C. R. Lee, Draughtsman, Kamloops.
F. J. G. Johnson, Ranger, Nelson.
I. J. Burkitt, Ranger Assistant, Nelson.   -
A. E. Parlow, District Forester, Kamloops.
J. Boydell, Ranger, Kamloops.
C. L. Armstrong, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
0. V. Maude-Roxby, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
A. C. Kinnear, Air Surveys Division, Victoria.
L. S. Hope, Assistant District Forester, Prince Rupert.
A. Gordon, Supervisor, Victoria.
W. D. Hay, Assistant Ranger, Prince George.
A. J. Kirk, Assistant Ranger, Prince George.
W. E. Jansen, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
H. G. Mayson, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
E. F. Taggart, Assistant Ranger, Prince George.
A. Smith, Patrolman, Prince George.
A. B. Ritchie, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
J. H. Wilcox, Lookout-man, Kamloops.
J. C. Wright, Look-out man, Kamloops.
C. W. Mizon, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
W. J. Owen, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
R. R. Douglas, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
L. A. Willington, Assistant Ranger, Prince George.
F. V. Webber, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
1941—
H. Stevenson, Ranger, Vancouver.
S. Benwell, Clerk, Victoria.
W. H. Ozard, Grazing Assistant, Kamloops.
J. H. Benton, Air Surveys, Victoria.
Howard Elsey, Research Assistant, Victoria.
H. I. Barwell, Draughtsman, Kamloops.
H. T. Barbour, Acting Ranger, Nelson.
1. C. MacQueen, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
H. A. Ivarson, Clerk, Prince Rupert.
D. J. Monk, Draughtsman, Victoria.
F. W. Crouch, Compiler, Victoria.
A. B. Anderson, Cruiser, Victoria.
N. F. M. Pope, Parks, Victoria. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943. BB 7
1941—Continued.
D. L. McMurchie, Parks, Victoria.
A. J. Nash, Student Assistant, Nelson.
C. W. Walker, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
J. D. LeMare, Cruiser, Victoria.
G. A. Cahilty, Clerk, Kamloops.
W. S. Hepher, Assistant Forester, Vancouver.
C. E. Bennett, Cruiser, Victoria.
J. S. Stokes, Chief of Party, Victoria.
J. Robinson, Acting Ranger, Prince Rupert.
J. Eselmont, Lookout-man, Nelson.
G. H. Fewtrell, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
S. Lockard, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
E. L. Scott, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
G. J. Ballard, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
W. E. Walker, Patrolman, Vancouver.
E. G. Marples, Lookout-man, Nelson.
A. M. Byers, Surveys, Victoria.
1942—
G. W. Minns, Ranger, Prince Rupert.
C. L. Botham, Ranger, Prince Rupert.
L. A. Chase, Acting Ranger, Kamloops.
D. A. Sims, Clerk, Vancouver.
A. J. Leighton, Clerk, Prince Rupert.
A. R. McLeod, Clerk, Vancouver.
D. Gillies, Clerk, Vancouver.
W. V. Hicks, Clerk, Victoria.
P. N. A. Smith, Draughtsman, Vancouver.
C. J. T. Rhodes, Draughtsman, Victoria.
Miss K. Robinson, Stenographer, Victoria.
G. Levy, Clerk, Victoria.
Miss G. M. MacAfee, Stenographer, Victoria.
Miss L. A. Edwards, Stenographer, Nelson.
I. T. Cameron, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
P. M. Monckton, Draughtsman, Victoria.
J. R. Johnston, Acting Ranger, Nelson.
J. H. Templeman, Ranger, Kamloops.
H. M. Pogue, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
A. H. Dixon, Ranger, Vancouver.
G. R. W. Nixon, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
M. A. Johnson, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
H. K. DeBeck, Grazing Assistant, Kamloops.
L. E. Bland, Junior Draughtsman, Victoria.
W. W. Stevens, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
A. G. McNeil, Clerk, Vancouver.
W. D. Grainger, Research Assistant, Victoria.
A. E. Rhodes, Clerk, Victoria.
C. P. Harrison, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
K. A. MeKenzie, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
R. E. Crellin, Dispatcher, Nelson.
G. M. Riste, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
W. A. Conder, Lookout-man, Vancouver.
W. M. Patterson, Dispatcher, Vancouver. BB 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
1942—Continued.
H. G. M. Colbeck, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
A. W. Slater, Helper, Vancouver.
D. E. Stephens, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
A. C. Letcher, Patrolman, Vancouver.
R. Bradshaw, Lookout-man, Nelson.
L. E. Croft, Dispatcher, Nelson.
R. R. Flynn, Lookout-man, Nelson.
E. J. Hamling, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
A. E. Hesketh, Patrolman, Nelson.
J. C. Payne, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
I. C. Robinson, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
D. W. Speers, Lookout-man, Nelson.
G. Crommett, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
H. L. Couling, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
D. Lamont, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
D. A. Kittson, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
C. W. J. Castley, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
Geo. Baldwin, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
N. H. Boss, Draughtsman, Nelson.
R. A. Damstrom, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
W. J. Wright, Dispatcher, Nelson.
N. T. McPhedran, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
A. Dixon, Patrolman, Vancouver.
J. H. Ellis, Dispatcher, Kamloops.
C. J. Wagner, Patrolman, Vancouver.
A. Sirvio, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
E. A. Nelson, Patrolman, Kamloops.
W. E. Thacker, Lookout-man, Nelson.
E. L. Collett, Helper, Vancouver.
R. G. Bullen, Lookout-man, Vancouver.
C. S. Stubbs, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
A. H. Bamford, Research Assistant, Victoria.
Alex. Corbett, Acting Ranger, Kamloops.
D. E. Dyson, Student Assistant, Vancouver.
A. L. Lyttle, Scaler, Vancouver.
1943—
S. G. Watson, Clerk, Victoria.
W. C. Pendray, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
Miss G. P. Holden, Stenographer, Vancouver.
E. R. Offin, Dispatcher, Nelson.
C. H. Cameron, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
W. R. Garcin, Clerk, Victoria.
H. W. Campbell, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
I. Hanson, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
G. E. Shook, Patrolman, Kamloops.
W. C. Stevens, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
J. D. Creighton, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
A. K. McKirdy, Patrolman, Kamloops.
W. L. Downey, Patrolman, Kamloops.
V. Reed, Dispatcher, Kamloops.
R. W. Colmer, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
F. Tannock, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943.
BB 9
1943—Continued.
C. J. C. Slade, Mechanic, Vancouver.
R. W. Foreman, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
G. Seymour, Patrolman, Prince George.
L. J. Balcaen, Assistant Ranger, Prince George.
Distribution of Personnel, 1943.
Forest District.
Personnel.
Vancouver.
Prince
Rupert.
Fort
George.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Victoria.
Total.
Permanent.
Chief   Forester,   Assistant   Chief   Forester,   and
Division Foresters _ -    	
5
5
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters ...
1
1
2
2
2
8
.
3
1
2
2
13
21
1*
5
1
1
3
1*
-     10
18
7
9
14
9
57
Rangers - _         <
2*
2*
2*
1*
7*
2
1
3
28
28
1
1
2
Mechanical—Radio and Engineering Supervisory         .
....
2
2*
2
2*
Surveys and Reconnaissance Assistants	
4*
4s
Nursery and Reforestation Assistants .._  .;
6*
6*
1
1
4
6
Draughtsmen __ -      <
1*
1*
3*
5*
26
4
5
6
9
29
79
4*
5*
2*
2*
1*
21*
35*
Mechanics, Carpenters, and Technicians.—     ■
5
2*
5
2*
8   '
3
11
3*
3*
98
8*
16
17
26
26
54
237
Total, permanent personnel _    J
7*
2*
5*
2*
41*
65*
Seasonal.
Assistant Rangers  ,  	
23
8
15
20
25
91
16
8
7
22
20
73
14
6
9
15
17
61
Dispatchers and Radio Operators  -
16
13
11
40
9
12
21
Cruisers and Compass-men 	
5
5
Miscellaneous —    	
20
5
4
4
10
5
48
89
27
35
83
95
10
339
187
43
52
109
121
64
576
8*
7*
2*
5*
2*
41*
65*
" Permanent " is a tabulation of positions occupied for at least part of the year under voted salaries. Total
number of permanent positions actually occupied December 31st, 1943, was 221.
♦Continuously employed but no specific position or voted salary for the purpose; includes war replacements
for enlisted personnel.
FOREST ECONOMICS.
At the outbreak of the war the full-time staff of this Division numbered fifty
persons and it is of interest that at the present time only twenty-four are similarly
employed. There have been twenty enlistments in the armed services and of that
number we deeply regret that one man has paid the supreme sacrifice and another was
reported missing last summer.    In addition, six men have been transferred to other BB 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Divisions of the Branch to undertake more urgent tasks or to take the place of men
who have enlisted. Nearly all of these twenty-six persons were technically trained and
it has not been possible to replace them; consequently the activities of the Division
have been reduced to a maintenance basis for the most part. Furthermore, there is
little chance of this situation being remedied until the necessary technical personnel
has been released from the armed services or from other essential war jobs.
AIR AND FOREST SURVEYS.
Air survey operations and forest survey field activities have been suspended for
the duration of hostilities. However, the office-work continued on a restricted scale
and the estimates and report for the Juan de Fuca region were completed. The maps
for this project have not been finished but it is anticipated that they will be ready
early in 1944.
Juan de Fuca Region.
The Juan de Fuca region is bounded on the east by the Esquimalt and Nanaimo
Railway Land Grant, on the north by the Alberni Inlet and the Imperial Eagle Channel,
and on the west by the Pacific Ocean and the Straits of Juan de Fuca.
In general, the region is mountainous with numerous narrow and steep timbered
valleys and many of the rivers and creeks run through narrow, rocky canyons. The outstanding feature is the consistent site quality of the productive forest area over the
entire region at both high and low elevations. The site quality does not vary perceptibly from the valleys to the hill-tops. On the flat areas adjacent to the Coast, poor
sites exist, and drainage appears to be the limiting factor in these instances. The average site index is estimated to be 120;  i.e., 120 feet high in 100 years.    .
The classification of areas is as follows:—
Productive Forest Land—
Mature timber  Acres. Acres.
Accessible  :  517,800
Inaccessible    21,320
        539,120
Immature timber—
1- 10 years  2,920
11- 20 years  6,700
21- 40 years  8,940
41- 60 years  4,740
61- 80 years  1,130
81-100 years  180
24,610
Not satisfactorily stocked—
Logged   10,700
Logged and burned  14,700
Burned   50
Non-commercial cover—
Deciduous        6,430
Coniferous  _.      2,150
25,450
8,580
Total sites of productive quality        597,760 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943.
BB 11 BB 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Non-productive and Non-forest Land-
Cultivated and villages	
Barren and scrub	
Acres.
  830
     67,370
Swamp and water     10,210
Acres.
78,410
Total non-productive and non-forest sites	
Total area of region •_        676,170
Approximately 98 per cent, of the mature timber is considered accessible under
present standards of utilization. Details of the timber volumes (over 11 inches
D.B.H.) are as follows:— volume in m.b.m.
Species. Accessible.
Douglas fir  3,005,510
Western red cedar  4,370,420
Western hemlock  8,517,250
Sitka spruce  330,190
Balsam   3,349,800
Western white pine  135,390
Yellow cedar  87,100
Total.
3,030,850
4,458,890
8,744,930
331,270
3,531,530
137,670
106,230
Totals  19,795,660      20,341,370
Logging did not develop on a large scale until 1935; however, during the past six
years the average annual cut has been 200,000,000 board-feet. When fire losses are
added the annual drain on forest capital is estimated to be 200,800,000 board-feet.
This compares with an estimated sustained yield capacity of 160,500,000 board-feet
from the stocked accessible areas. Indications are that the annual cut will increase
considerably in the next few years when the present operations reach full development.
Current activities are being carried out on areas where Douglas fir predominates, but
as logging proceeds farther west a pulp-mill in the region is needed to more fully utilize
the forest resources. There is sufficient good timber to sustain a pulp-mill, and establishment of such an industry would make possible more complete utilization of small-
diametered hemlock and balsam.
The rugged scenic beauty of the shore-line from Jordan River to Bamfield, with
its numerous sandy and boulder beaches on which the surf rolls continuously, is
unequalled on any part of the British Columbia coast; however, the short summer
season and presence of fog on many of the summer days make it doubtful if the area
will ever be used to any great extent as a recreational centre.
It has been recommended that the region be made a Provincial Forest on account
of the favourable conditions presented for establishment of a working circle. Particularly important in this regard is the large percentage of the forests which are owned
outright by the Crown or controlled by leases and licences.
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
No new Provincial Forests were created during the year, but a few adjustments
were made in the boundaries of those already established. On the other hand, the
Research Stations were added to by the purchase of the new forest nursery site at
Duncan, Vancouver Island.    A summary of the forests to date is as follows:—
Coast.
Interior.
Total.
Number.
Area.
Number.
Area.
Number.
Area.
19
4
Sq. Miles.
11,510
5
26
2
1
Sq. Miles.
19,211
233
10
45
2
5
Sq. Miles.
30,721
Totals- -  -   -
23
11,515
29
19,454
52
30,969 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943. BB 13
FOREST RESOURCES INVENTORY.
The forest atlas project this season provided for the current revisions for logging
and fires of the cover-maps at the Vancouver, Kamloops, Prince George, and Nelson
District offices, in addition to those on file at Headquarters in Victoria. A total of 874
maps was revised, of which forty-three were new replacements. All district maps are
generally in good condition and, for preservation and convenience in filing, the rangers'
maps are now being placed on sticks with brass ferrules on the end to hold index-cards.
The fire atlas, which shows the date of occurrence and location of all forest fires
throughout the Province, has been maintained.
Numerous miscellaneous inquiries have been handled relative to both the timber
stands of the Province in general and to local areas. The current industrial activity
has increased these requests several times what they were before the war, with the
result that a considerable proportion of the time of this staff is now spent solely in
supplying information to the public.
Recording of forest inventory data by the Hollerith system has been continued as
time and man-power permitted. The estimates for Vancouver Island have been
brought up-to-date and the statistics for the Mainland Coast of the Vancouver Forest
District are now being revised.
FOREST RESEARCH.
Mensuration.
Field activities in mensuration comprised the re-examination of six plots on Vancouver Island and twenty-seven plots in the Prince George Forest District, located
mostly at the Aleza Lake Experiment Station. Office compilations of these data are
now in progress.
Considerable time was spent in statistical analysis of various methods of scaling
forest products in cubic foot measure with a view to recommending the system most
adaptable to local conditions.
SlLVICULTURAL  STUDIES.
Observations have been maintained in connection with the long-term projects
covering such studies as seed dissemination and production, survival of disseminated
seed, germination, and survival of natural seedlings.
The 1943 seed-crop on the Coast was irregular in its occurrence. On the Lower
Mainland and in the Lower Fraser Valley the crop of all species was a failure. In the
Victoria region and around Campbell River on the east coast of Vancouver Island there
were average crops of Douglas fir, hemlock, and cedar; however, at all other points
the crop was poor to nil. No explanation of this spotty behaviour is readily available
as indications the previous fall were that a potentially good crop was in prospect.
The unusually severe winter followed by a late spring may have been responsible for
damage to the conelets during early development. Sitka spruce on the Queen Charlotte
Islands carried an average crop of cones.
Increasing utilization of the hemlock forests of the south-west portion of Vancouver Island prompted initiation of a study of the silvics of hemlock in that region.
Preliminary findings may be summarized as follows:—
(1.) There are two broad forest types in this region: The "open type,"
which includes most cedar types together with the low-volume hemlock
types; and the " dense types," which include most of the high-volume
hemlock types. Silviculturally, these two types probably require different treatment.
(2.) Considerations of underbrush and advance reproduction and slash density
force the conclusion that the open types should be burned after logging.
Reproduction data also indicate the same treatment.    These factors do BB 14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
not necessarily indicate the burning of slash on the dense types, but the
protection factor may force burning.    No reproduction data are available
for this upper slope type.
(3.)  Planned operations are advocated as being practicable on much of the
area.    The chief feature is the advance of cutting into the two prevailing
winds, south and east, with definite plans to have marginal timber left
for at least three years to windward within 1 mile of any cut-over area.
Efficient fire-protection is necessary since once the timber margin has
been moved back by logging, areas beyond 1 mile have little chance of
reseeding for years.
(4.)   Fire-protection and  slash-disposal in this  region are primarily  silvi-
cultural measures, since the danger of fire to green timber is relatively
low.
Analysis is in progress of the data gathered during the course of the third five-year
periodic re-examination of the History Map studies at Alouette Lake and Cowichan
Lake.    At Alouette Lake the 5,000 acres of logged-off land under observation were
burned over partly in 1925 and the remainder by a burn in 1931.    The earlier burn
is restocking satisfactorily because seed-trees were on or adjacent to it for several
years.    The later burn will remain poorly stocked for many years due to lack of
adequate seed-supply.    The 1925 burn has been restocking at the rate of 2.5 per cent.
annually and in 1940 was 61 per cent, fully stocked.    By contrast, the restocking of
the 1931 burn averaged 0.7 of 1 per cent, per annum and in 1940 was less than 4 per
cent, restocked.
The area under observation in the Cowichan Lake region comprises 98,800 acres,
of which 60,500 acres are cut-over; 12,800 acres fire-killed standing timber; and
17,100 acres merchantable timber. About 20 per cent, of the cut-over area is considered to be adequately restocked.
Two of the seed-spotting plots are now ten years old and it has been found that
at this age, if there are no fail spots, a 5- by 5-foot spacing gives complete coverage
of the ground. In addition, the trees are large enough to show the effects of crowding
on spots where there are more than one seedling. The results of a number of trees
on one spot are as follows:—
(a.)   Suppression of the young seedlings by weeds is reduced:
(b.)   The  benefits  of  increased  density  are  obtained  early  in  the  life  of
the stand:
(c.)   The heights of dominant seedlings were greater as the number of seedlings per spot increased, at least up to nine trees per spot:
(d.)  The dominant trees on square-foot spots carrying twelve seedlings had
thinner lateral branches than single trees and the trunks were straight
and symmetrical.
Screened spots gave protection against mice;   at the same time the screening
definitely increased survival and improved the form of the trees.    Thus it has been
demonstrated again that the success of artificial seeding depends upon the development
of a cheap protection against mice.
Applied Management Studies.
An experiment in the selective logging of Engelmann spruce in the Interior of the
Province was started in 1941 with a view to determining the effect which removal of
varying portions of the stand would have on windthrow and reproduction. One block
of timber was marked to remove 13.6 per cent, of the number of spruce-trees and
34 per cent, of the volume 12 inches D.B.H. and over. Another block was marked to
cut 30 per cent, of the number of spruce and 56 per cent, of the volume 12 inches
D.B.H. and over, while on the third area all spruce over 12 inches D.B.H. were removed. Faller at work.
Small yarding  machine used  for salvaging operations, dubbed " Peanut Picker " by the men
Small logs soon became known as " peanuts."  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943. BB 15
Two winters after logging it was found that windthrow on the selectively-cut
areas is very much less than on the clear-cut. Furthermore, a selective cut would
appear to be the answer to the slash-disposal problem in these forests because there
is not the slash created in logging, the subsequent blow-down is so much reduced, and
the canopy is not opened up to permit excessive drying out of the forest floor.
The studies of cutting plans carried out in co-operation with logging companies on
Vancouver Island have been suspended for the duration due to lack of personnel.
This is an important part of our programme of study in applied management and it is
hoped that the work may be resumed without undue delay.
More complete utilization of our Coast forests has been a matter of some concern
over the years; however, in most cases the apparent waste was a matter of economic
necessity. Since the war started prices have advanced to the point where utilization
is improving rapidly and much of the material formerly wasted is taken out.
The greatest advance in this field has been made as a result of the co-operative venture
entered upon by the Government, the Powell River Company, Limited, and the Comox
Logging and Railway Company, Limited. The objective of the experiment is to
demonstrate that the sound wood left behind after a normal sawlog operation can be
economically utilized for the manufacture of pulp.
Light, fast, mobile, yarding machines have been developed for skidding the
material to roadside piles. No revolutionary changes from conventional methods have
been developed; rather, existing principles have been adapted to the small material
which forms the bulk of the logging debris or slash. Other equipment, including the
lines and blocks, are small in size and light in weight. The yarding is done with comparatively small crews of three to five men per machine.
Small understory hemlock trees, too small for saw-timber, form a large proportion
of the salvaged pulpwood. Some of these trees are still standing while others have
been windthrown or pulled ^down in the first logging. The cutters simply fell them,
or buck them off at the stump if they are down, and then sever the top at a diameter
of 4 or 5 inches, leaving them in tree lengths. Other material consists of long tops
and broken chunks. Hemlock is the principal species, but some Douglas fir and white
pine are also being recovered. The average small end diameter is 6 inches and the
average length between 34 and 35 feet.    .
At the end of the year 260 acres had been felled and bucked, of which 164 acres
had been yarded. The yarded material totals 275,680 cubic feet, or an average of
1,665 cubic feet per acre. In the sawlog operation about 6,250 cubic feet per acre
were recovered; therefore, when the pulp material is added, it is found that the
salvaged pulp-wood amounts to 21 per cent, of the total wood utilized.
Only small test shipments have been sent to the pulp-mill, but it is anticipated that
full-scale loading and hauling operations will commence shortly. Costs as far as the
operation has been carried are favourable and suggest that the experiment will demonstrate that pulp-wood salvage operations can be undertaken profitably. If this is true
many beneficial and far-reaching results may accrue. For instance, the life of the
present mature timber on the Coast would be extended, thereby tending to stabilize
logging communities, while salvage operations would provide off-season employment for
settlers and farmers who could not be employed on a sawlog operation.
SOIL SURVEYS AND RESEARCH.
The year was devoted almost entirely to the completion of a soil survey of the
south-east portion of Vancouver Island, started in 1939 as a co-operative undertaking
by the British Columbia Forest Branch, the Dominion Experimental Farms, and the
Department of Agriculture, Victoria. The field-work consisted of an examination of
the southern tip of the island, including Saanich Peninsula,  Metchosin, and Sooke. BB 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
This took about two months. The remainder of the year was taken up in completing
maps, soil analysis, and compilation of a report. The project will be completed before
the 1944 field season begins.
It was found that of 627,000 acres examined, 164,000 are arable and 363,000 acres
are definitely non-arable. The remaining 100,000 acres were classed as generally
non-arable, though containing small, selected, arable fractions. The main conclusions
to be drawn from a study of the data are that there is sufficient good quality farm land
available for a considerable increase in settlement; and the most important land-use
problem, from the point of view of public welfare, is the restoration and improvement
of the forest resources through the intensive use of non-arable and marginal quality
soils for forest rather than farm use.
REFORESTATION.
Forest Nurseries.
The most important development of the year was the selection and purchase of
a 23.5-acre property near Duncan, Vancouver Island, as the site of a third forest
nursery. Development will proceed as equipment, material, and man-power are available with a view to bringing the area into production as soon as possible after the war.
It is planned to grow about 6,000,000 trees a year at the new nursery, and by bringing
the Campbell River nursery to full capacity the combined output of the three nurseries
will provide stock for the planting of 20,000 acres a year.
Production at the Green Timbers and Campbell River nurseries was maintained at
approximately 10,000,000 trees a year. A total of 9,197,200 two-year old trees was
shipped from those two nurseries during the year, of which 5,330,000 came from Green
Timbers and 3,867,200 from Campbell River. The winter was unusually severe and
extremely, low temperatures (15 degrees below zero Fahrenheit at Green Timbers)
were recorded, but fortunately a fairly heavy fall of snow afforded good protection to
the stock. During the spring and summer, temperatures were below normal and rainfall lighter than average but well distributed through July and August. The fall was
mild, so that growth persisted on into October and absence of frost to the end of the
year gave all stock a good chance to harden off sufficiently well to carry through the
winter.
The experiments in which Douglas fir seed was spring-sown, both embedded in
peat-moss and merely covered with a layer of moss, were not a success. Our conclusions
are that, unless the seed has been stratified previous to sowing, germination is seriously
delayed, even though special attention is given to keeping the moss moist. Even
stratification does not produce satisfactory results, so the experiments are being
continued.
The cone-crop was localized in its occurrence and collections were somewhat
restricted on that account.    The statistics of collection and extraction are as follows:—
Species.
No. of Bushels
of Cones.
Pounds of
Clean Seed.
Pounds of Seed
per Bushel
of Cones.
1,589
3
582.00
2.25
5.50
0.75     .
Totals _	
1,592
589.75
Planting.
A total of 9,197,200 trees was planted on 11,421 acres, and of these 6,011,400 were
planted on 7,481 acres in the spring and 3,185,800 on 3,940 acres in the fall.    Projects l^ctdUr
SPF Portable Radio, Type AE.
Is a battery powered unit with a
power output of 2.25 watts. Effective
range is rated at about 25 miles, but in
actual practice distances of 150 miles
are worked. For portable use on fires.
smoke - chasing, etc., special lightweight batteries are utilized, giving the
unit a total weight of only 22 lb.
The Victoria station transmitter is a high-powered unit
capable of a power output of
800 watts, using either phone
or code. It operates at 350
watts output, and covers the
Province without difficulty. Its
extreme range is undetermined.
PAC is a combination unit consisting of a 10-watt transmitter and a
superhetrodyne receiver. It is designed
primarily for use in Ranger Station
Headquarters for contact with lookouts
and field sets. Power supply, 1 10 volts
AC.    Range,  150 miles.
The above pictures illustrate the various forms of recreation to be enjoyed in Manning Park, along the
route of the Hope—Princeton Highway. On the right is the view looking along the sky-line from the top of the
Mad Mountains. Lightning Lake, where good fishing is the rule, is shown on the left. This Park is ideal for
hiking and horseback trips as well as automobile tourists. The fishing lakes and streams and the high mountain
meadows are equally accessible to the highway.  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943.
BB 17
were located at Menzies Bay, Loveland Lake, Lower Campbell Lake, and Lower Quinsam
Lake in the Campbell River region; at Bowser; at Timberlands; and at Hill 60 and
the Robertson River in the Cowichan Valley. One logging company sponsored a project
in which 556,920 trees were planted on 510 acres.
The following table summarizes the planting to date:—
Previously planted.
Planted, 1943.
Totals to Date.
Status.
Trees (in
Thousands).
Acres.
Trees (in
Thousands).
Acres.
Trees (in
Thousands).
Acres.
Crown lands—
Production  	
Experimental — -  	
17,334.8
619.9
733.2
126.5
43.6
21,106.0
522.7
877.3
115.0
42.0
8,535.0
22.4
556.9
70.5
12.4
10,804.0
25.0
510.0
70.0
12.0
25,869.8
642.3
1,290.1
197.0
56.0
31,910.0
547.7
1,387.3
185.0
Private planting (includes farm wood-lots)	
54.0
Totals    	
18,858.0
22,683.0
9,197.2
11,421.0
28,055.2
34,084.0
Plantation losses from forest fires total 489 acres, of which' 278 acres were
destroyed in the fall of 1943.
Considering the general shortage of labour, it is remarkable that the reforestation
programme was able to maintain its schedule. This would not have been possible but
for the labour supplied by the Alternative Service Workers. These men worked well
and, in addition to doing the actual planting in the field, they felled snags, opened up
old railroad grades as truck-roads, collected cones, and assisted with lifting operations
in the nurseries.
PUBLICATIONS.
The following articles were prepared for publication during the year:—
(1.)   "The Embryogeny of Pseudotsuga Taxifolia (Lamb.) Britt.," by G. S.
Allen.    Published in American Journal of Botany 30:  655-661, 1943.
(2.)   " Land Utilization on Vancouver Island," by R. H. Spilsbury.    Published
in The Forestry Chronicle and the British Columbia Lumberman.
PROVINCIAL PARKS.
One new park—namely, Darke Lake, near Penticton—was created during the year
and additions were made to Peace Arch and John Dean Parks, bringing their areas
to 16.15 acres and 98.37 acres respectively. The following table summarizes the
Provincial Parks in British Columbia to December 31st, 1943:—
Classification. No. of Parks.
Class A  16
Class B _____    3
Class C  28
Administered under separate Park Acts     3
Totals  50
Area in Acres.
2,720,771
4,622,246
4,113
1,666,560
9,013,690
or    14,083.9 sq. mi.
Attendants were on duty at Elk Falls, Stamp Falls, Little Qualicum, Englishman
River, and John Dean Parks throughout the summer season. The number of visitors
to these parks was estimated to be 27,167, a decrease of 8.2 per cent, from 1942.
The main loss, as in 1942, was at Elk Falls and Englishman River, due directly to their
distance from the main highways. By contrast, the visitors to Little Qualicum Falls
increased almost 50 per cent. The proportion of United States and foreign visitors
dropped slightly while the percentage of Canadian visitors, other than from British BB 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Columbia, nearly doubled.    This may be attributed to the large number of soldiers and
war-workers from other parts of the Dominion now living in British Columbia.
A mobile ten-man crew of Alternative Service Workers spent approximately one
month in each of the five island parks during the winter of 1942-43. Much valuable
improvement-work was accomplished, such as erection of park attendants' quarters;
cleaning up of snags, brush, and stumps; building of toilets at parking-grounds; establishment of change-houses and toilets at swimming-pools; the protection of natural
features by ditches or rock barriers; the installation of covered garbage-pits and wood
piles; construction of new fireplaces, tables, and signs; and planting of shade-trees
on parking-grounds.
Peace Arch Park continues to be visited by large numbers of people and on
occasions such as the annual outings of the various Scandinavian Societies, when picnics
are held with their American friends, there are more than a thousand visitors on one
week-end alone. An additional 5.74 acres have been purchased and it is planned to
develop this as a picnic-ground and playing field.
A detailed field examination was made of Ernest C. Manning, Kokanee, and Darke
Lake Parks, and recreational plans for the development of these areas are now being
drafted.
At Mount Seymour Park further progress was made in the construction of the
log building to be used as administrative headquarters and additional slashing has been
carried out along the right-of-way for the proposed highway up the mountain.
A limited programme of maintenance of trails and roads was carried out in Wells
Gray Park.
FOREST BRANCH LIBRARY.
Classification.
Items
RECEIVED  AND   CATALOGUED.
Up to 1941.
1942.
1943.
Totals.
334
3,063
802
9
120
29
10
85
32
Government Reports and Bulletins, etc.          - .— 	
3,268
RK3
Totals       - - -
4,199
158
127                 4,484
28,157
43
1,962
45       1
1,170
31,289
FOREST MANAGEMENT.
The gross scale of all forest products for the year 1943 dropped 3 per cent, or some
ninety-four million feet from the previous year's total. This was achieved despite the
marked man-power shortage in the skilled labour class, resulting in a reduction of some
quarter-million feet on the Lower Coast and Vancouver Island, where the major volume
production occurs. The loss in production in the Vancouver Forest District was offset
by increased output in all other regions except Kamloops; noticeable gains being in the
Fort George District, where construction requirements of the Alaska Highway largely
entered; in the aeroplane spruce output of the Queen Charlotte Islands; and in the
Nelson District.
The total estimated value of production is placed at a figure about 5 per cent,
below that of 1942, due to curtailed output of pulp and paper, shingles and boxes, as
well as restricted export of unmanufactured logs in the face of short local log-supply.
Greatly increased output of cordwood due to threatened shortage of fuel and increased
value of Christmas trees advance these items over 1942 values.
Statistical tables follow.    The highlights may be briefly touched upon. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943. BB 19
Water-borne lumber trade figures are still unavailable for publication due to
the war.
Pulp and paper production decreased by reason of log shortage and diversion of
effort towards the output of aeroplane spruce.
Douglas fir maintains the lead in production by species, forming approximately 40
per cent, of the cut. Hemlock passed cedar in volume production and accounts for over
19 per cent, of the total scale. Cedar output was 16 per cent. Spruce increased to 11
per cent. Balsam (largely for pulp), larch, yellow pine, white pine, and lodgepole pine
in order given, together with miscellaneous species, account for the balance. Birch
production reached a total scale of over six and one-half million board-feet and was
used extensively for the manufacture of veneer in heavy demand in the war industry.
The cut, according to land status, still centres on early Crown-grant lands of Vancouver Island, which yielded about 30 per cent, of the total scale. The cut on timber
sales shows an increase yearly and with the reduction of timber licences through logging will soon assume second place.
The so-called minor products include cedar poles and piling to a total slightly
below 1942, and hewn ties remain about the same, while cordwood is more than double
the previous year's output.
Field staff activity in logging inspection was well maintained with depleted staff
and war replacements.
Trespass cases were reduced, but volume increased mainly because of urgent necessity for spruce cutting in advance of necessary authority.
Pre-emption inspection-work again shows a decline with reducing numbers of this
class of land alienation. Land examination and classification required as the result of
applications under the " Land Act" increased slightly over 1942.
Again timber-sales claim first place in staff duties throughout the Province.
Their number increased over 300, or 20 per cent, beyond the 1942 total, and involved
the cruising of nearly 600,000 acres carrying nearly one billion feet of saw-timber,
some 11,000,000 lineal feet of cedar poles, 260,000 cords of various products, nearly
one-half million railway-ties, as well as various other products. Estimated revenue
totals upwards of $3,000,000. Detailed tables are given relative to average stumpage
prices bid on sales awarded during the year, together with average stumpage rates
effective on timber scaled during the year originating on timber-sale areas. Stumpage
prices show a slight advance over those of the previous year.
Sawmilling increased by numbers under the expanded demand for sawn lumber
while shingle-mills decreased.
Log export again declined under the stress of short local supply and rigid control
of the Timber Control Board.
Forest insect survey and collections were maintained in co-operation with the
Dominion Department of Agriculture, Entomological Branch, with over 500 boxes sent
in for examination.
Forest revenue declined somewhat in sympathy with reduced scale. Timber-sale
stumpage continues to gain ground as the chief source of revenue linked closely with
timber royalty. BB 20
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M.B.M.).
Destination.
1934.
1935.
1936.
i
1937.
1938.
1939.
1940.
128,141
2,957
1,620
108,128
80,279
455,695
25,276
431
28,735
129,492
3,793
4,017
91,232
43,080
455,862
28,350
3,415
62,013
125,448
6,072
6,328
102,743
33,123
666,272
61,133
1,897
159,904
136
9,823
10,129
2,821
8,040
5,691
168,400
5,416
10,632
47,635
30,677
648,364
49,015
2,781
107,933
743
9,487
12,904
3,748
8,279
4,578
29
875
2,836
1,669
1,023
113
141,465
7,805
9,946
43,457
9,194
741,631
41,614
1,174
154,038
1,780
13,584
5,745
2,271
5,315
5,468
144,534
6,142
5,560
34,775
6,116
964,693
80,120
7,225
123,733
862
12,828
11,523
2,024
1,828
1,976
210
592
3,090
1,098
703
5
3
402
72,797
2,584
1,795
6,347
835
United Kingdom and Continent
971,594
84,708
India and Straits Settlements
United States and Atlantic Coast
Philippine and Hawaiian Islands
139
70,726
13,467
4,475
2,410
4,348
2,997
5
48
105
9
330
5
7,133
4,556
4,870
4,216
6,265
2
425
846
1,870
1,869
8
457
208
15,309
7,187
Mexico and Central America   .
5
17,326
♦Belgium  -	
120
♦France -
724
746
1,212
335
24
64
329
653
3,383
3,332
73
41
4,938
♦Holland                       	
♦Italy  - -	
686
Foreign, unclassified	
4
241
226
821
Totals  _ _	
859,465
853,979
1,202,994
1,107,377
1,192,195
1,409,052
1,257,917
* Previously included with United Kingdom.
Figures for 1941, 1942, 1943, and ten-year average,  1934-43, not available for
publication.
THE FOREST INDUSTRIES.
Estimated Value of Product on, including Loading and Freight
within the Province.
Product.
1937.
1939.
1942.
Ten-year
Average,
1934-43.
Lumber    - _	
Pulp and paper-	
Shingles - -	
Boxes —-	
Doors  —  	
Piles, poles, and mine
props  -	
Cordwood, fence-posts
and lagging 	
Ties, railway ._..	
Additional value contributed by the wood-
using industry	
Laths and other miscellaneous products	
Logs exported 	
Pulp-wood exported .._..
Christmas trees —..
Cascara bark 	
$40,638,000
17,214,000
6,875,000
2,122,000
2,971,000
2,346,000
1,459,000
560,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
3,782,000
5,000
$36,296,000! $50,379,000
11,066,000
6,875,000
1,964,000
1,353,000
1,615,000
1,455,000
560,000
Totals .
16,191,000
8,560,000
2,039,000
737,000
1,556,000
1,495,000
360,000
1,400,000     1,500,000
1,300,000
3,238,000
1,400,000
3,852,000
11,000
141,000
$55,514,000   $64,596,000 $67,150,000
22,971,000     27,723,000, 27,457,000
9,620,000     11,550,000 12,822,000
4,779,000!      4,707,000 5,397,000
740,000 *
$66,520,000 $45,470,000
26,597,0001 18,675,000
8,332,000     8,400,000
4,697,000.    3,016,000
1,021,000
1,759,000;      1,723,000       2,576,000       2,387,000     1,698,000
1,399,000       1,522,000       2,165,000
258,000 204,000 221,000
1,600,000       2,000,000;      2,500,000
1,400,000
2,684,000
8,000
72,000
1,500,000
4,212,000
7,000
176,000
1,500,000
2,618,000
2,000
162,000
150,000
4,485,000
268,000
1,850,000
431,000
2,800,000,    1,696,000
1,400,000
1,555,000
16,000
227,000
150,000
1,498,000
2,913,000
11,000
78,000
30,000
$80,872,000|$67
 I
122,000 $88,221,000
$102,804,000 $119,920,000 $124,720,000 $118,434,000 $86,786,000
* Included in wood-using industry value. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943.
BB 21
Paper (in Tons).
Product.
Newsprint	
Other papers..
1937.
1938.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
264,136
53,026
179,639
39,348
216,542
50,870
262,144
68,428
275,788
75,453
252,559
74,915
211,696
63,026
Ten-year
Average,
1934-43.
241,638
52,384
In addition to 214,828 tons of pulp manufactured into paper in the  Province
171,047 tons were shipped out of the Province during the year.
Total Amount of Timber scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1942-43
(IN F.B.M.).
Forest District.
1942.
1943.
Gain.
Loss.
Net Loss.
2,528,147,522
182,993,071
2,302,157,546
223,073,748
225,989,976
40,080,677
2,711,140,593
2,525,231,294
30,921,143
123,102,695
154,759,005
152,716,743
32,846,607
193,041,865
148,800,054
178,846,964
1,925,464
69,939,170
5,958,951
26,130,221
461,499,586
553,535,490
97,994,855
Grand Totals 	
3,172,640,179
3,078,766,784
138,075,532
231,948,927
93,873,395
PROVINCE •    LIBRARY
Y'CTOisW tik w. BB 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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« FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943.
BB 25
Logging Inspection, 1943.
Forest District.
Operations.
Timber-
sales.
Hand-
loggers'
Licences.
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert -
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson -	
Totals, 1943..
Totals, 1942-
Totals, 1941__
Totals, 1940 -
Totals, 1939-
Totals, 1938-
Totals, 1937 -
Totals, 1936 -
Totals, 1935-
Totals, 1934 .
Ten-year-average, 1934-43..
410
456
1,135
559
1
10
3,259
11
3,086
IS
3,207
18
2,864
12
2,770
10
2,674
23
2,404
46
2,354
35
2,074
59
1,603
87
31
870
140
186
796
527
2,519
2,569
2,833
2,272
2,068
1,883
1,546
2,109
1,570
560
642
1,931
1,086
5,789
5,673
6.058
5,148
4,501
4,272
3,793
1,236
4,770
3,550
2,420
978
3,289
1,873
12,110
11,438
10,968
11,295
10,828
11,507
11,138
10,081
9,486
11,261
Trespasses, 1943.
V
r_
a
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o
6
fa
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+_   .
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Quantity cut.
a
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T_
ta
Forest District.
«
4_
V
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Ph
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t.
Ph
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c.
c
3
0
£
<
49
37
26
33
22
430
1,412
293
737
186
3,651,434
5,070,857
365,086
462,814
194,766
3,931
62,103
731
1,372
3,517
796
457
42
510
4
2
1
$12,617.53
6,091.10
1,336.01
Kamloops _  	
42,785
20,590
4,900
3,023
2,493.67
1,186.98
Totals, 1943—- ......
167
180
3,058
9,744,957
129,409
6,873
552
7,923
7
$23,725.29
Totals, 1942                ..    	
1,159
4,413,906
365,861
4,757
490
1,512
15
$14,391.61
Totals, 1941       — -	
236
1,788
7,627,990
526,391
2,887
1,365
4,150
17
I
Totals, 1940
194
877
5,206,829
94,444
1,573
4,279
9,854
13
$14,088.24
Totals, 1939 - -.     -           	
209*
571
6,905,268
94,818
3,147
5,206
46,729
26 j $17,725.00
Totals, 1938  	
149
816
4,309,030
203,195
3,014
1,185
7,530
10       $9,653.86
Totals, 1937 -	
156
1,147
| 8,239,813
143,860
1,607
| 2,132
35,017
7 1 $17,439.52
Totals, 1936—. „.„..	
153
501
[ 2,067,130
i
75,272
1,632
| 2,452
13 I    $5,243.00
Totals, 1935. 	
121
555
3,043,486
50,965
1,283
[14,078
3
$6,077.58
Totals, 1934	
101
720
3,270,608
30,555
1,385
4,825
6
$5,401.05
Ten-year-average, 1934-43	
167
1,119
5,482,902
1
171,477
2,816
3,656
12   1   Sta.79.IR2
!
1
* Christmas-tree cutting largely responsible for increase. BB 26
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS.
Pre-emption Inspection.
Pre-emption records examined, by districts, are:— 1943.
Vancouver   158
.   Prince Rupert   91
Fort George   197
Kamloops   426
Nelson   90
Totals   962
Average Ten Yrs.
1934-43.
281
157
508
698
125
1,769
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land Act," 1943.
Forest District.
Applications for
Hay and Grazing
Leases.
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
Applications to
Purchase.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert -
No.
2
7
39
4
Acres.
435
662
5,829
1,522
No.
4
1
8
14
Acres.
532
160
1,094
1,891
No.
68
15
29
61
51
Acres.
6,314
1,245
3,486
5,159
6,399
No.
12
7
4
17
5
Acres.
974
377
270
2,242
124
No. j Acres.
84 | 7,820
25 2,217
48    j      5,512
131 1 15,121
60     |       8,045
Kamloops 	
Nelson  	
Totals
52
8,448
27
3,677
224
22,603
45
3,987
348     \    38,715
Classification of Areas examined, 1943.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
7,820
2,217
5,512
15,121
8,045
Acres.
1,673
693
2,689
2,543
1,208
Acres.
6,147
1,524
2,823
12,658
6,837
Acres.
1,751
46
148
M.B.M.
45,592
1,105
1,538
Kamloops    -	
Nelson  - - -	
Totals -- -—
38,715
8,806
29,989
1,945
48,235 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943.
BB 27
Areas cruised for Timber-sales, 1943.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-           Poles and
timber    .        Piles
(M.B.M.).  (Lineal Ft.).
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-ties
(No.).
Car Stakes
and Posts
(No.).
1
347                 60.006
325.315              305.324
40,013
41,161
49,275
5,660
121,569
200,848
Prince Rupert —-	
298
303
64,518
97,358
177,268
120,494
194,638
90,053
1,892,800
53,480
1,955,374
6,513,751
18,900
98,472
533
290
297,789
71,282
95.814
80.745
33.478                  45.955
699,172
Totals, 1943	
1,771       |       590,953
i
907,768
10,720,729
259,741
454,767
816,544
Totals, 1942   	
1,469
305,222
794,676
8,562,739
100,232
381,106
743,500
Totals, 1941	
1,611
321,220
689,595
15,794,246
126,463
199,174
263,480
Totals, 1940	
1,620
300,480
572,562
11,309,288
72,157
314,644
612,042
Totals, 1939  .
1,324
212,594
470,660
5,016,945
68,078
339,866
261,100
Totals, 1938	
1  4R6
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482,680
5,747,766
126,329
804,240
169,900
Totals, 1937.	
1,471             278,386
633,216
9,658,000
140,820
753,408
160,450
Totals, 1936	
1,415              252,035
464,402-
8,535,045
148,606
1,083,746
63,200
Totals, 1935 ._.	
!
1,319       |      238,952
398,884
5,674,908
114,753
1,164,454
74,700
Totals, 1934	
1,331
223,391
356,264
2,856,619
80,101
1,235,766
73,766
Ten-year average,
1934-43- 	
1,482
304,863
577,071
8,387,629
123,728
673,117
313,868 BB 28
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f- BB 32
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS.
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1943.
Operating.
Shut Down.
Forest District.
Sawmills.                     Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
M.B.M.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
M.B.M.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert 	
185
86
118
105
120
8,917
823
1,467
988
1,428
44
2
6
2
7,286
5
80
40
22
13
30
31
24
144
94
84
140
184
13
3
3
707
Kamloops  	
Nelson 	
77
45
Totals, 1943	
614
13,623         j      54
7,411
120     |             646                 19
829
Totals, 1942	
551
13,197
70
8,874
149    [         1,206                11
135
Totals, 1941 	
557
13,820
76
8,835
129
1,083
5
63
Totals, 1940	
542
12,691
77
8,585
141
1,432
18
307
Totals, 1939	
461
11,698
84
7,926
147
1,907                24
637
Totals, 1938 -
481
12,159
88
8,184
126
1,406
19
315
Totals, 1937	
434
11,042
80
9,124
131
1,685
16
402
Totals, 1936	
410
11,401
86
8,859
122
1,699
10
315
Totals, 1935	
384
9,822
93
8,492
96
1,962         j      16
1,231
Totals, 1934	
349
9,152
82
7,311
129
2,999
13
1,228
Ten-year average,
1934-43 	
478
(
11,861                79
1
8,360
129
1,602
15    [            536 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943.
BB 33
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1943.
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
Fir
1,389,702
16,144,075
6,484
1,180,852
27,157,037
454,985
2,570,554
2,809,744
46,110,856
461,469
25,018,342
4,243,412
25,018,342
4,243,412
White Pine _   	
180,482
4,930
66,000
185,412
66,000
Totals, 1943 	
2,809,744
17,720,743
28,863,804
29,261,754
78,656,045*
Totals, 1942  	
2,639,167
18,960,886
27,618,347
106,793,550
156,011,950
Totals, 1941-  	
8,549,320
63,485,278
43,165,973
191,879,335
307,079,906
Totals, 1940      	
4,697,188
37,567,582
24,865,886
150,396,702
217,527,358
Totals, 1939      	
6,383,398
111,155,799
66,870,882
128,323,383
312 733 462
Totals, 1938	
4,386,370
98,637,490
74,650,653
81,998,669
259,673,082
Totals, 1937       	
4,924,298
114,991,217
66,611,218
83,947,361
270,474,094
Tnt__ls, 1936
4,028,567
107,007,342
49,061,362
68,731,564
218,828,835
Totals, 1935 _
8,766,098
129,029,692
56,979,194
40,516,782
235,291,766
Totals, 1934  	
10,489,155
89,831,736
43,416,151
28,998,709
172,735,751
Ten-year average, 1934—43.	
5,767,331
78,838,776
48,210,347
90,084,771
222,901,225
* Of this total,  77,664,670  F.B.M.  were exported from Crown grants carrying the export privilege;    991,375
F.B.M. were exported under permit from other areas. BB 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Shipments of Poles,
Piling
Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
, 1943.
Quantity
exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where marketed.
Forest District.
United States.
Canada.
Other
Countries.
Vancouver—
lin. ft.
 lin. ft.
1,788,651
204,261
1,362
$232,525
32,682
16,344
1,677,459
75,155
1,362
111,192
117,302
Piles  	
11,804
Pulp-wood 	
cords
Fence-posts 	
posts
13,467
68,085
1,281,909
2,020
5,250
149,154
10,163
68,085
545,796
3,304
Prince Rupert—
lin. ft.
736,113
Fence-posts -	
Fort George—
posts
lin. ft.
5,923
72,245
1,513
1,481
5,780
9,075
5,923
20,415
1,513
5,830
cords
... lin. ft.
52
502
52
trees
 lin. ft.
Kamloops—
4,005,000
116.256
2,030
136
50,599
655,094
2,612,185
83,768
7,287
11,673
517,865
83,344
28,360
1,773
3,856
72,627
261,219
5,026
58,296
93,384
2,765,505
1,239,495
116,256
2,030
136
50,599
- cords
  lin. ft.
655,094
2,460,380
Nelson—
Poles --	
Piles          	
lin. ft.
... lin. ft.
151,805
83,768
7,287
9,366
2,307
. cords
cords
. ties
trees
479
50.777
1,022,953
2,156
25,389
143,213
100
379
50,777
72,450
950,503
Total value, 1943	
$1,751,321
Total value. 1942	
$2,042,981
Summary for Province, 1943.
Product.
Volume.
Value.
Per Cent, of
Total Value.
Poles and piling ___ 	
   lin. ft.
10,048,019
167,033
531
1,362
19,390
15,216
50,599
7,423
1,746,132
$1,204,251
108,733
2,658
16,344
3,501
130,819
3,856
60,069
221,090
68.76
6.21
Cordwood  _	
  - cords
  -   —- cords
 posts
— - - cords
  lin. ft.
0.15
0.93
Fence-posts 	
Fence-posts __	
0.20
7.47
0.22
Mining-timber -,
Christmas trees  	
       - cords
 trees
3.43
12.63
Totals.  	
$1,751,321
100.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943.
BB 35
TIMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued.
"
1938.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
Old Crown grants    -
Crown grants, 1887-1906                  - -    	
258
103
124
272
59
9
6
1,501
3
6
1
198
.91
103
259
61
3
16
6
1,479
1
2
2
272
101
99
275
58
1
16
13
1,724
4
3
2
20
211
85
101
282
64
1
16
5
1,853
11
6
2
17
160
85
92
250
79
2
9
4
1,709
19
6
2
1
190
98
Crown grants, 1906-1914          	
104
283
Stumpage reservations-— — —
Premptions under sections 28 and 29, "Land
Act"                                               	
72
2
5
11
2,017
5
1
4
Totals	
2,342
321
2,221
316
2,588
315
2,654
307
2,418
224
2,801
237
Draughting Office, Forest Branch, 1943.
Month.
Number of Drawings prepared or Tracings made for
Timber-
sales.
Timber-
marks.
Examination
Sketches.
Miscellaneous
Matters.
Constructional
Works, etc.
Totals.
No. of Blue-prints
or Ditto-prints made
from Draughting
Office Drawings.
Blueprints.
Ditto-
prints.
January.—
February..
March	
April	
May 	
June..
July-
August	
September-
October	
November-
December—
Totals..
14
37
27
31
44
29
29
29
24
19
30
43
52
58
106
74
95
41
110
84
92
50
94
81
19
17
63
37
17
31
9
19
19
19
26
64
16
14
8
29
19
51
10
14
6
6
8
16
5
5
11
97
141
204 ■
158
207
181
234
169
146
140
190
208
937
396
93
2,075
175
196
377
304
341
382
475
327
357
284
378
413
4,009
175
136
243
575
375
267
325
350
150
353
499
3,448
Forest Insect Survey, 1943.
Forest District.
Vancouver ,	
Prince Rupert
Fort George 	
Kamloops  _~
Nelson  ,	
Insect-box
Collections
made.
115
67
67
111
160
Negative-
Reports.
o
7
11
9
0
Totals
520
27 BB 36
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Protection Tax.
Area of Private
Timber Lands
Year. (Acres).
1921  845,111
1922..
1923_.
1924.
1925-
1926..
1927_.
  887,980
  883,344
  654,668
    654,016
 ,  688,372
  690,438
1928 :_  671,131
1929  644,011
1930  629,156
1931  602,086
1932  552,007
1933  567,731
1934  557,481
1935  535,918
1936  515,924
1937 ,  743,109
1938  754,348
1939  719,112
1940  549,250
1941  543,632
1942 :__. 527,995
1943  543,044
Average Value
per Acre.
$10.33
11.99
11.62
15.22
40.61
39.77
39.01
38.62
38.41
44.74
43.77
43.73
41.18
37.25
37.13
36.61
23.32
23.05
22.73
27.70
26.99
26.34
25.15
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown
in the following table:—
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1943.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1942.
Average
Value
per Acre,
1943.
Change in
Value
per Acre
since 1942.
76,863
100,046
90,465
12,969
328
315
129,744
2,637
160
1,428
21,164
33,202
41,024
+  8,057
— 4,408
— 627
— 640
*
*
+ 13,232
*
*
— 320
*
— 158
*
— 1,074
+     988
$36.34
22.35
33.01
5.89
14.88
10.37
28.21
5.83
4.15
14.95
17.18
14.19
2.57
— $4.34
— .95
— 1.44
— .56
Fort Steele 	
Kettle River  	
— 2.23
+ 1.33
+    .13
Vancouver - -	
— 7.05
— .56
32,699
28.05
Totals- :	
543,044
+ 15,049
$25.15
; No change. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943.
BB 37
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fc FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943.
BB 39
FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR 1942-43.
Timber-licence rentals 	
Timber-licence transfer fees
Timber-licence penalty fees .
Hand-loggers' licence fees	
Timber-lease rentals	
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest-
Timber-sale rentals	
Timber-sale stumpage	
Timber-sale cruising	
Timber-sale advertising 	
Timber royalty	
Timber tax	
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund) 	
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund) __
Trespass stumpage 	
Scalers' examination fees 	
Exchange 	
Seizure expenses 	
General miscellaneous 	
Timber-berth rentals, bonus and fees
Interest on timber-berth rentals 	
Transfer fees on timber berths	
Grazing fees and interest 	
$403,698.24
645.00
10,471.60
525.00
49,896.76
166.21
38,108.93
947,284.40
14,903.46
2,338.00
1,928,759.92
38,409.19
304.62
1,380.31
22,816.68
25.00
227.07
353.13
8,143.19
22,314.33
71.63
68.69
28,981.08
Ten-year Average.
$485,269.00
1,243.00
29,310.00
750.00
59,360.00
703.00
25,345.00
561,635.00
9,410.00
1,433.00
1,750,852.00
53,320.00
360.00
320.00
12,265.00
286.00
167.00
633.00
3,720.00
25,893.00
232.00
72.00
21,256.00
Taxation   from   Crown-granted   timber
lands 	
$3,519,892.44   $3,043,834.00
206,146.21        267,791.00
Totals   $3,726,038.65   $3,311,625.00 BB 40
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943.
BB 41
FOREST EXPENDITURE, FISCAL YEAR 1942-43.
Forest District.
Salaries.
War Service,
Temporary
Assistance.
Temporary
Assistance.
Expenses.
Total.
$63,997.18
20,778.83
20,939.58
41,287.01
32,337.11
82,846.09
$3,640.00
939.00
$72,535.12
44,959.08
8,409.53
18,760.64
12,247.79
25,731.93
$140,172.30
$300.00
66,976.91
29,349.11
3,212.71
1,709.94
4,323.22
63,260.36
46,294.84
65.00
112,966.24
Totals _ 	
$262,185.80
$13,824.87
$365.00
$182,644.09
$459,019.76
Canadian Forestry Associat
4,000.00
8,317.00
9,924.47
76,383.14
13,147.85
Grazing Range Improvemen
Forest Protection Fund*
ts*	
10,171.51
500,000.00
103,158.43
$1,184,122.16
N.B.—The above figures do not include amounts paid as cost-of-living bonus, totalling $15,821.70.
* Contributions from Treasury to special funds detailed elsewhere.
SCALING FUND.
Balance, April 1st, 1942 (credit)     $17,975.90
Collections, fiscal year 1942-43     152,152.13
$170,128.03
Expenditure, fiscal year 1942-43     163,959.12
Balance, March 31st, 1943 (credit)       $6,168.91
Balance, April 1st, 1943 (credit)       $6,168.91
Collections, 9 months, April-December, 1943     122,524.24
$128,693.15
Expenditures, 9 months, April-December, 1943     116,721.42
Balance, December 31st, 1943 (credit).
$11,971.73
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
Balance brought forward April 1st, 1942  $107,186.58
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1942 (under
subsection (2), section (32), "Forest Act")     103,158.43
$210,345.01
Credit (by adjustment).
$30,587.71
Expenditures, fiscal year 1942-43    25,566.53
(credit)        5,021.18
Balance, March 31st, 1943 (credit)  $215,366.19
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1943 (under
subsection (2), section (32), "Forest Act")       87,972.03
Carried forward  $303,338.22 BB 42 DEPARTMENT OP LANDS.
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT—Continued.
Brought forward  $303,338.22
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 32, " Forest Act"	
Expenditures, 9 months to December 31st, 1943       13,918.12
Balance, December 31st, 1943 (credit)  $289,420.10
GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND.
Balance, April 1st, 1942 (credit)  $9,423.06
Government contribution   (sec. 11,
"Grazing Act")  $10,171.51
Other receipts  26.70
  10,198.21
     $19,621.27
Expenditures, April 1st, 1942-March 31st, 1943 _'__        3,476.28
Balance, March 31st, 1943 (credit)     $16,144.99
Government contribution (sec. 11, " Grazing Act ")         9,660.36
$25,805.35
Expenditures, April 1st to December 31st, 1943         2,186.66
Balance, December 31st, 1943 (credit)     $23,618.69
STANDING OF FOREST PROTECTION FUND, '
DECEMBER 31ST, 1943.
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1942      $530,726.54
Expenditure, Forest Protection Fund         588,888.35
Expenditure, Alternative Service Workers        487,906.38
$1,607,521.27
Collections, tax  $237,426.65
Collections, miscellaneous       29,211.43
Refunds  of  expenditure,  Forest  Protection Fund         5,146.87
Refunds of expenditure, Alternative Service Workers    486,462.74
Government contribution     500,000.00
      1,258,247.69
Balance (deficit), March 31st, 1943       $349,273.58
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1943  $349,273.58
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1943, Forest
Protection Fund  364,756.81
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1943, Alternative Service Workers  288,322.01
Repayable to votes (approximately)   150,000.00
Carried forward    $1,152,352.40 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943.
BB 43
Standing of Forest Protection Fund, December 31st, 1943—Continued.
Brought forward    $1,152,352.40
Collections, tax  $191,734.28
Collections, miscellaneous       24,263.88
Refunds of  expenditure,  Forest  Protection Fund         4,909.44
Refunds of expenditure, Alternative Service Workers     179,930.02
Government contribution      375,000.00
 ■        775,837.62
Estimated deficit, December 31st, 1943       $376,514.78
Estimated and Known Costs op Forest Protection to other Agencies, 1943.
Expenditures.
Forest District.
Tools and
Equipment.
Improvements.
Patrol.
Fire-
fighting.
Total.
Vancouver ' _ - 	
$59,391.00
6,975.00
$1,780.00
225.00
$51,359.00
$43,239.00
1,050.00
3,555.00
3,383.00
4,167.00
$155,769.00
8,250.00
3,555.00
3,383.00
15,900.00
1,490.00
21,557.00
Totals  ..._	
$82,266.00
$2,005.00
$52,849.00
$55,394.00
$192,514.00
Totals, 1942  	
$78,877.00
$5,510.00
$62,983.00
$166,961.00
$314,331.00
Forest Protection Expenditure for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1943.
Districts.
Patrols
and Fire
Prevention.
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
$128,179.04
29,882.69
38,032.47
79,351.52
93,215.28
50,086.43
$15,759.10
3,154.81
7,181.57
7,842.93
15,674.03
26,521.20
$10,366.64
1,601.86
40,564.66
16,825.60
7,020.71
$1,704.36
2,293.74
2,847.09
7,006.71
3,775.91
$156,009.14
36,933.10
88,625.79
Kamloops  _ - —
111,026.76
119,685.93
-     76,607.63
Totals	
$418,747.43
$76,133.64
$76,379.47
$17,627.81
$588,888.35
FOREST PROTECTION.
Weather.
Throughout the Province the weather was generally favourable to forest protection ; not from the point of view of excess rainfall, but from the fact that the increased
precipitation was nicely distributed throughout the fire season. In the Interior, where
dry lightning-storms are usually attended with disaster, almost invariably lightning
strikes were accompanied by heavy showers. This resulted in few lightning-fires being
recorded. As an outstanding instance, the Revelstoke vicinity, often a hot spot, did not
have one cost fire to record. Farther north in the Penny vicinity, a centre of lightning
strikes, the outbreaks of 1943 were only 11 per cent, of normal. On the Coast, where
lightning is sometimes an important feature, there was no occurrence of lightning-
- BB 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
fires. Due to a heavy snowfall last winter and a slow melting during the spring and
summer, there was a general absence of lightning-fires at the higher levels difficult of
access, and often the source of serious fire-spread.
In the Northern and Central Interior the spring hazard is greatly feared. So
often there is an abrupt change from late winter to hot days with dry winds before
there is any showing of new leaves or green grass. This condition quickly makes for
flash fires, which will travel very fast and do great damage. In those early spring
days, not realizing the danger, it is not unexpected that there is a general carelessness
with fire and a desire to burn off the hideous mass of last year's dead grass and
unsightly collection of debris. With the spring breakup in roads and lack of very early
fire-suppression organization, this brief spring hazard, when it occurs, is often one of
the most serious seasons encountered. Fortunately in 1943, such a condition did not
develop in any district. The absence of the spring hazard is largely responsible for a
lower-than-average cost of fire-fighting and damage.
The most consistent period of fire danger comes in August. Temperatures are
high, relative humidities low, and the vegetation has cured to such an extent that the
lush grasses and weeds—earlier protection—are now becoming a flash fuel. In 1943,
August precipitation, although small, was considerably above average. Throughout
the Kamloops District it was 150 per cent, of normal. In the Fort George District it
was 175 per cent, of normal. This factor, together with general westerly winds on the
Coast, made for higher relative humidities and lower 'fire occurrence throughout the
Province. The usual August weather was experienced in September of 1943, but by
that time the longer and colder nights, with exceedingly heavy dews, were of such
influence that no very alarming conditions developed.
The fire season was of such light hazard that in the Vancouver District, where
logging operations are so often curtailed on account of the fire-hazard, there was no
general shutdown, although there was some curtailment according to prearranged plan
of one or two of the larger companies.
Generally, we were most fortunate in a critical year in both protection and manpower that weather conditions were extremely favourable. We cannot hope for a
continuation of the good fortune of 1942 and 1943. Bad and good fire weather seems
to run on about an eight-year cycle, and the fact must be faced that the time is likely
at hand when, instead of being aided by the elements, we shall have to contend with
them, as we have had to do in such years as 1922, 1925, 1930, and 1938.
Fire-weather Forecasts.
Following Japan's entry into the war a radio blackout of weather conversation was
imposed. This proved a severe handicap in forest protection. More and more reliance
had been placed in the ever-improving weather forecasts, much of the progress being in
connection with increased air travel by commercial air lines as well as the Royal Canadian Air Force. With the radio blackout all these advantages were lost, and our own
weather reports were impeded with coding. To know the answer to the vital question
as to what the weather is going to be is to know how to organize for and attack a fire.
It is to know whether to hit a fire with five men or with fifty. It is to know when to
man secondary lookouts, whether to expect electric storms, and when to close the forest
against the hazards of travellers, hunters, and even, at times of severe hazard, when to
shut down logging and other industrial operations.
Lately, weather forecasts have been heard on American stations and our own
Canadian Broadcasting stations are making weather reports. At date of writing our
restrictions have not been lifted, but application has been made and it is hoped that
before the 1944 fire season we may once more have the benefit of freely conversing on
the air concerning weather and of having the forecasts by the Royal Canadian Air
Force and Trans-Canada Air Lines. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943. BB 45
Fires.
Occurrence.
The record of fire outbreaks for ten years past is an average of 1,605 fires per
year. The year 1943 recorded but 1,185, or about 74 per cent. If, through weather
conditions, only 74 per cent, of the average number of fires occur, it is safe to say for
the same reason that those which do occur will be extinguished with a smaller fraction
of the usual suppression effort and cost, and likewise with correspondingly little
damage and publicity. In only one year, 1935, in the last twenty-five years have there
been less fires than in 1943. This is the more remarkable when it is remembersd that
1943 was a year of feverish activity. While, doubtless, most credit is due to favourable
weather, still the general public and the loggers in particular must have some credit
for precautions taken. There is encouragement here for all those who have promoted
the gospel of forest protection.
Causes.
Extraordinary features are:—
(a.) Lightning is a very considerable and a variable agent of fire cause. Resulting fires are more in proportion to the prevalence of dry lightning-storms than to the
incidence of lightning itself. An example of this variation is a comparison of 1940
with 1943. In 1940, lightning caused 1,265 fires, or 54 per cent, of all causes. There
were but 256 lightning-fires in 1943, 22 per cent, of the total—an exceedingly low
figure. This year all districts reported an absence of dry storms and a late melting of
snow at the higher elevations.
As truck-logging pushes the boundaries of inflammable debris farther up the
mountain-sides, the danger of escape of lightning-fires will increase progressively.
(b.) Campers.—Fires from this source were few and the decrease traceable to less
pleasure travel and shortage of ammunition for the hunting season.
(c.) Railways.—Changing from oil to coal burning, the shortage and inexperience
of labour, and the unprecedented overload of traffic indicated a sudden increase in fires.
The indication was borne out. Fires have tripled in number and quadrupled in
percentage of total. With normal conditions and a reversion to oil burning this will
correct itself. The railway companies are not relaxing their efforts. Under the Chief
Inspector of Equipment, Department of Railways, investigations and intensified inspections have been carried out with the object of lessening the number of fires set by
coal-burners.
(d.) Smokers' fires are on the steady increase, from what particular cause is not
known.
Cost of Fire-fighting.
(a.) To Forest Branch.—The cost to the Forest Branch as indicated in the tabulation on page 62 ($35,358.49) is misleading as a measure of normal fire-fighting costs.
To this should be added a large proportion of the cost of maintaining the Alternative
Service Workers in Forest Branch camps. Another source of free fire-fighting labour
was the army. In the Fort George District, and to some extent in others, the soldiers
did the work of the lacking civilian fire-fighters.
The Alternative Service Workers extinguished or assisted on eighty-nine fires in
the Vancouver Forest District. Exceedingly satisfactory results marked their efforts
on outbreaks attacked while still small. These crews attacked seventy-two small fires
(1 acre or less) with such success that the average spread per fire was only *4 acre.
Any one of these fires was potentially a destroyer which could have gained 4-inch
headlines on the front page. This is real testimony for well-trained and equipped
suppression crews standing on the alert in the emergency.
(b.) To other Parties.—During the past six years this figure has varied all the
way from $25,000 to $400,000.    In general, it is a measure of the intensity of the fire- BB 46
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
hazard, but not so necessarily. It does not lend itself to averaging, largely because it
results from outstanding exceptional instances such as the big fire at Campbell River
in 1938. This year private parties spent $55,394 in fighting fires, most of which
($43,234) was expended in the Vancouver District. It does not include the expenses
of intentional slash-disposal fires.
Damage.
It is a pleasure to report a year such as 1943 when damage to forests and other
property is but a fraction of average. Again the damage to the forest is concentrated
in the Fort George Forest District. The following is the record for 1941, 1942, and
1943:—
All British
Columbia.
Fort George.
Per Cent,
of Total.
1941                                                                     _ ____	
$483,002
859,037
63,731
$445,295
816,564
54,365
92
95
1943                                                                                        __
85
$1,405,770
$1,316,224
94
The fact that more than nine-tenths of the damage to our forests is occurring in
one area arrests our attention and calls for explanation and action. The explanation
is as follows:—
Across that great expanse of timbered country lying to the north of the Grand
Trunk, electrical storms weave a pattern of small smokes visible only to the bush pilot
in his travels to the Far North, to the miners, the trappers, the surveyors, and, more
recently, the defence forces. These areas are so far removed from any other means of
travel that, without aircraft, we cannot provide lookouts to report the fires, nor the
small crews capable of extinguishing these small fires. The results are too well known.
During prolonged periods of high hazards these small fires spread, fuse, and finally
consume vast areas of forest. Just because these hitherto remote stands have not
played an important role in our economy does not justify their destruction. Nature
made the country in question highly accessible; it is our last frontier, and it is vast in
extent. As soon as aircraft can be made available, no time should be lost in providing
necessary detection and suppression. Efforts have been made within limited means to
do this by hiring commercial craft. The forced delay of many vital days has resulted
in disaster. Instead of suppressing incipient outbreaks with two or three men, we
have had to attempt to control large fires often without success. There is one and only
one remedy—and our experience has proved its worth—we must get to those fires
while they are still spots. This calls for our own aircraft and a specially trained airborne crew standing on the alert in periods of high hazard.
Prior to the very recent years we had no way of measuring damage in the great
northern hinterland, but the fire-scars indicate that this devastation has been going
on in greater or lesser degree.
Shakespeare expressed the fundamentals of effective forest protection in " Henry
VI"-	
" A little fire is quickly trodden out,
Which, being suffer'd, rivers cannot quench."
To achieve this obvious objective is to organize, train, and equip to detect and attack
fires immediately they start—not after they have grown to sizeable proportions.
Forest Protection Education.
So far as possible, the usual avenues of forest protection education were followed.
Shortage of staff and restricted travel limited activities. The following indicates the
principal endeavours to reach the public:— FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943. BB 47
(a.) Calendars.—Forest Branch calendar for 1944 was prepared. The subject
featured was " Forest Protection."
(b.) Blotters.—Two hundred thousand blotters were distributed to schools. They
were in sets of twelve, each carrying a cut of birds or animals and a forest protection
message.
(c.) Moving Pictures.—Scarcity of film and little travel precluded anything extensive. Two new films—(1) " Land of Timber" which was made up from shots already
on hand, and (2) " Experimental Pulp-wood Salvage Operation in Logging Waste,"
prepared for the Economics Division and featuring salvage logging on the operation
of the Comox Logging & Railway Company, Ltd., Ladysmith—were added to the
moving-picture library. The latter film features the method of salvage and the resulting reduction in fire-hazard.
(d.) Forest-protection Lectures and Moving-picture Shows. — These included
seventy appearances before 6,000 people. During the year two trips were made
through the Alternative Service Workers' camps to provide entertainment for the men
and to instruct them in forest protection.
(e.) Newspaper Advertising.—The usual advertising campaign was continued in
all the daily papers and most of the weeklies. Less space was taken due to increased
costs. Stories on reforestation, forest protection, etc., were placed in such publications
as " The Family Herald and Weekly Star," " Telephone Talks," and the B.C. Electric
" Buzzer."
(/.) Radio Broadcasts.—Due to restrictions on mentioning the weather on the air,
the spot announcements had to be curtailed. Arrangements have been completed for
a series of half-hour forest protection dramatizations on CBR.
(g.) Young Ranger Bands.—Due to travel and other war restrictions, activities
were confined to a " Forest Day Celebration " held at Francois Lake, and a boys' and a
girls' summer camp at Pinkut Lake. The ritual of camp life featured forest protection. It is the opinion of close observers in this much forested central area of the
Province that these activities instill in the youth a lasting reverence for the forests and
their welfare.   In this the small promotion expenditures in time and funds are justified.
Fire-control Planning.
Lookout and Visibility Mapping.—As in 1942, further work is postponed until our
field staff which has enlisted is able to resume.
Panoramic Lookout Photographs.—The following stations were photographed
during the season:—
Bunch Grass—Nelson Forest District.
Russell—Nelson Forest District.
Hunter—Nelson Forest District and Yoho National Park.
Baldy Hughes—Prince George Forest District.
Terrace (retake)—Kamloops Forest District.
Under a co-operative arrangement between our Service and the National Parks,
panoramic photographs were taken from Tunnel Lookout in Banff  National  Park.
An attempt was made to examine Milligan Peak in the Nation River area in the Prince
George Forest District but, owing to unfavourable visibility conditions, it was impossible to make the necessary photographs.    The project was abandoned and will be
completed next year.    This site is indicated as a lookout to work with Pope and Pilot
Lookouts, which will make for the necessary detection over part of a great area of
timber, to date not covered with an organized detection service.
War restrictions and the absence of the qualified and experienced fieldmen limit
the field-work so vitally needed to implement the detection plan so important to forest
protection. BB 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Suppression Crews.
Stand-by suppression crews were provided in the Vancouver Forest District from
the camps of Alternative Service Workers. The comparatively few outbreaks of fire
allowed these crews to be employed to a large extent on improvment-work. Action was
taken by these crews on eighty-nine fires and labour to the extent of 12,222 man-hours
was expended on those fires. Excellent results were achieved, as shown in the following tabulation:—
Fires fought by Stand-by Suppression Crews of Alternative Service Workers.
No. of Fires        No. of Fires
attacked. extinguished.
(Size as per (Size as per
Left-hand Left-hand
Column.) Column.)
Spot (up to Yi acre)   53 40
Over % acre and up to 1 acre  19 24
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres :_  12 14
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres  4 4
Over 50 acres  1 7
Totals  89 89
Of eighty-two of the above fires attacked before they exceeded 5 acres in size,
the average spread per fire thereafter before being extinguished was less than Yi acre.
This demonstrates that, with even a modest force of stand-by suppression crews, forest
fires can be extinguished with little expense in fire-fighting and without the disaster of
large conflagrations. The key to suppressing forest fire is quick and accurate detection,
plus immediate attack by small mobile crews of trained men, properly equipped.
As these crews are engaged on other essential work during periods of low hazard, their
actual net cost chargeable as suppression crews is relatively small.
Again in the Nelson and Kamloops Forest Districts, small civilian crews of men
were hired. Due to the limited selection of man-power, there was some dissatisfaction
in results gained. In the Nelson Forest District, two six-man crews were stationed, one
in the East Kootenay, and the other in the West Kootenay. The advantage of a stand-by
crew was apparent in that the crew was on the road to the fire usually in the space
of two or three minutes from the time the fire was reported, and in no case more than
five minutes. The crew arrived on the fire in a minimum of time, considering the
distance travelled. In some cases the fires were extinguished by the stand-by crews;
in others, the fire was held until another crew could be recruited, and the stand-by
crews returned to their headquarters to be on the alert for other outbreaks. In periods
of low hazard, the crews were occupied on improvements when work of much value was
completed.
In the Kamloops District, difficulty was experienced in keeping a full crew and,
due to the lack of suitable men, the best results were not achieved.
Equipment.
In addition to the stock of hand-tools used in fire-fighting, road-construction, snag-
falling, planting, and miscellaneous work, the Forest Service requires a considerable
amount of various types of mobile and other mechanical units.    The following is a list
of such units on hand:—
72 cars, passenger.
17 deliveries, panel and sedan.
154 trucks, light delivery, %-ton, 1-ton.
40 trucks, heavy, 1%-ton, 2- to 2V2-ton, 3-ton, 5-ton.
6 trucks, tanker, light.
1 truck, tanker, heavy.
290 cars and trucks. Forest Branch administration requires the employ-
snt of many kinds of craftsmanship.     Here are
ment
illustrated two kinds
.HIKERS     SKIE*5
Y0«« HIKIN6   AND   SKItNG  IS
WHAT   YOU  MAKE  (T.
PONT   HIK I    ON     SKI  RUM
OR   SKI   ON        HIKCRS   . «<Att&
types of carved'wooden signs along the trails of Mount Seymour Park.    Good park plans call for many
signs which must be appropriate to the setting as well as useful for the purpose intended.
Forest Branch launch. " Red Cedar." completely built in the Boat Repair Station at Vancouver.  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943. BB 49
11 tractors with bulldozer blades.
2 tractors without bulldozer blades.
13 tractors.
3 fire-ploughs.
3 graders.
20 motor track-cars (railway).
38 launches, cabin cruiser.
2 radio transceivers, UHF.
139 radio transceivers, SPF.
32 radio transceivers, PAC.
18 radio receivers.
5 radio transmitters.
13 radios, launch.
209 radio units.
253 pumps, fire-fighting.
89 outboard motors.
27 saws, drag.
7 saws, chain.
34 saws.
Fraser River Repair-station.
Machine-shop and blacksmith-shop—
1 lathe, 16-inch centres, 10 feet between centres.
1 drill, 16-inch table, 20-inch swing, capacity 2-inch hole.
1 drill, 10-inch table, 10-inch swing, capacity y2-inch hole.
1 shaper, 20-inch, with 11- by 11-inch vise.
1 power hack-saw, 10- by 10-inch.
1 power-grinder, 2 large (1- by 12-inch wheels), 1 small (^-by 6-inch wheels).
Carpenter-shop—
1 band-saw, 36-inch.
1 planer, 16- by 7-inch.
1 jointer, 6-inch.
1 shaper, two-spindle, 39- by 49-inch.
1 circular saw (two), one 8-inch, one 16-inch (combination).
Pump floor—
1 lathe, 10-inch centres, 36 inches between centres.
1 air-compressor, % horse-power, 150 lb. per sq. in.
1 bushing grinder, 48 inches to 96 inches.
1 valve grinder, 21/2-inch.
1 power grinder (two wheels), Yz- by 6-inch.
In keeping with war-time restrictions and scarcity of equipment, all efforts were
aimed at making present units do the job or finding second-hand units as replacements.
Cars and Trucks.—As it is apparent that few, if any, new units will be on the
market for 1944, arrangements were made for the purchase of suitable second-hand
cars and trucks.    No suitable trucks have become available and only two passenger-cars
have been found to date.    There is only slight promise of any new light delivery trucks BB 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
being manufactured for 1944. Obviously, it will be a case of making present units do
still another year. This offers its problems, especially as overhaul becomes more
difficult, not only for shortage and delay in obtaining parts, but with the scarcity and
inexperience of garage and machine-shop mechanics. Further, the time and attention
of our mechanical supervisory staff is so monopolized with the detail of rationing and
restrictions that at this time, when a maximum of supervision is required, only a
minimum is possible. This applies not only to cars and trucks but to all types of
mechanical equipment.
Pumps.—No new pumps, have been made available. An order for fifteen of the
MacDonald portable pumps, placed a year ago, is still unfilled. With wear and tear,
there is steady decrease in the number of operating units, which will make for a serious
situation if, before long, some relief is not obtained in the form of new units or spare
parts. Unfortunately a number of our pumping units are equipped with Coventry
engines, manufactured in England, the parts for which have not been obtainable since
the heavy bombing of the factory. Much credit is due to members of our staff for their
ingenuity in moulding and casting parts which had formerly been purchased from
a parts catalogue. Such success and savings have attended these efforts that the
practice to some extent will be continued even after there is a plentiful supply offering
by the manufacturers. This is but one of the advantages gained by the installations
and equipment at the Fraser River Repair-station.
The problem of repair and overhaul of pump and outboard equipment has been
difficult but would have been altogether impossible without our facilities at the Fraser
River Repair-station. Private shops where formerly much of this work was done
have to give priority to war orders to such an extent that work enjoying even the
priority accorded to fire-fighting equipment has been set aside, and, without our own
plant, many of our units would have been tied up at a time when their operation was
vital. As an evidence of this situation, Civil Defence authorities had to come to our
plant for repair and overhaul of fire-fighting equipment. This emergency work is being
carried out at the Fraser River Repair-station, but only until such time as the commercial shops will again be able to cope with it.
Normally, those of our staff with special mechanical ability give considerable
attention to designing and developing specialized equipment for our peculiar type
of work. With short staff and multiplicity of detail, a large part of which is directly
a result of rationing and other war restrictions and, further, in an effort to make
what we have do, this phase of our activities is necessarily deferred, but not without
regret, because this is a type of work for which we must rely on our own staff. It is a
feature in which we have had considerable success in the past.
Launches.—In so far as skilled labour and materials were available, launch maintenance and new construction were carried out.
One new launch, " Red Cedar IL," 34 feet, was built at the Fraser River Repair-
station. It was powered with a 40-horsepower Ailsa Craig Diesel engine, formerly in
the " Amabilis II."
Minor overhaul was carried out on a number of launches, and a major rebuild
done on the launch " A. L. Bryant."
Two launches, having outlived their usefulness to the Service, were sold. These
were the " Birch II." and the " Cherry."
New outboard motors are no longer available. As opportunity offers, suitable
second-hand units are purchased. Repair parts for outboard motors have been impossible to obtain, for which reason it has been necessary to strip one machine to keep
another in operation, thus decreasing the number currently in use, and making necessary second-hand purchases. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943. BB 51
Building and Construction.
War regulations had a great effect. Permits were required from the Controller
of Buildings for all work except minor repairs. The following is a summary of the
comparatively major items of construction in 1943:—
Combination warehouse and garage at Kelowna Ranger Station.
Fraser River Repair-station:—
Large marine ways lengthened and gradient increased to accommodate
larger craft and lessen the time lost awaiting tides.
Chimney height increased 14 feet to improve heating conditions and to
abate smoke nuisance.
Garage completed with installation of sliding-doors.
Area fenced.
Main building repainted by contract.
Lumber-shed painted, using plant labour.
Coal-bunkers built to ensure continuous fuel-supply.
New float and mooring at Port Hardy Ranger Station.
New emergency mooring at Alert Bay Ranger Station.   -
Aerial Delivery of Fire-fighting Supplies.
For some years the United States Forest Service has been experimenting in the
delivery of supplies, equipment, and even fire-fighters from aircraft by parachute to
remote fires. There are vast areas in British Columbia where this practice may be
followed with profit. We have used aircraft to deliver men, equipment, and supplies
to lakes in the vicinity of the fire. It often takes many hours for these to reach the
fire from the lake. Valuable time could be saved in parachuting these loads to open
spaces such as muskegs and meadows in close proximity to the fire. So far we have
not parachuted any fire-fighters, but we have had some success in dropping supplies and
equipment. Various types of chutes have been used—both factory cotton and paper.
That giving best satisfaction to date has been an unbleached factory cotton chute fitted
with eight shroud lines, four of which carry over the top of the chute from side to side,
serving both as load-ties and as general reinforcement. Loads up to 50 lb. are dropped
in chutes measuring 9 by 9 feet. Losses have been small and some of these have been
the result of inexperience or accident. To date parachuting has all taken place in the
Fort George District.
Radio.
The year 1943 opened with an unfavourable outlook for the coming year. Operation curtailed by emergency restrictions, shortage of material due to military priorities,
and inability of manufacturers to deliver new sets. In spite of these drawbacks, communication was as successful as ever and only new installations were affected.
The types of set in use during the year were the standard SPF, PAC, and type L,
2% watts, 10 watts, and 50 watts respectively, with two Forest Branch constructed
headquarters sets of 50 watts each at Nelson and Kamloops. Each of these types is
entirely adequate in the work for which it was designed and no changes are contemplated at present. Two portable UHF sets gave good service in the Nelson District.
A number of new stations were proposed for 1943, but the manufacturers failed to
deliver the sets requisitioned so that our total stands at 196 units of all above types.
Restrictions dating from April, 1942, made the coding of weather reports still necessary. This was undoubtedly a great drawback as far as speed and ease of operation
were concerned and also deprived us of mutual co-operation with T.C.A. and R.C.A.F.
However, it was accepted as a necessary evil and with the co-operation of all concerned,
the difficulties were overcome. BB 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
In the field of supply, priorities and actual shortage of materials have made the
obtaining of parts for replacement and construction very uncertain. Our two staple
maintenance replacements, tubes and batteries, are perhaps the hardest hit, certain
batteries necessary to the operation of our SPF's being no longer in production. However, an adequate supply was forthcoming for 1943, and by special permission to manufacture it is probable that our 1944 supply is assured also. As mentioned before, the
manufacturers of our SPF, PAC, and type L sets were unable to fill our orders this year.
The obtaining of new licences and amendments to existing ones has not been difficult, though the Department of Transport now looks into proposed installations very
closely, particularly when these are near coastal or military defence areas. Two proposed stations at Terrace and Hazelton are now being considered by the Department of
Transport and it is as yet uncertain whether these will be allowed. For the absence
of any material difficulties regarding licences, we have to thank Mr. W. J. Bowerman,
District Superintendent of Radio, for his unfailing courtesy and co-operation throughout 1943. The possibility of getting new frequencies to relieve our crowded bands is
definitely out for the duration.
All improvements and additions having been curtailed for the reasons already discussed, progress in 1943 was confined to internal organization. The dictates of previous
experience and stringent Government regulations forced on us the maximum in brevity
and schedule efficiency within the districts. Progress in the near future, contingent on
the end of hostilities, is not hard to foresee, being mainly in the field of ultra high
frequency; that is, in that portion of the spectrum covering wave-lengths between 4
and 10 metres.
If a radical improvement over present-day equipment is indicated, the trend of this
improvement is definitely towards amplitude modulated UHF. The present short-wave
equipment is excellent and fully able to satisfy our needs when conditions allow. Summer static, very strong in the summer evenings, man-made static prevalent in nearly
all towns and villages supplied with A.C. power, and interference from other broadcasts
spoil the chances of 100 per cent, communication and often reduce it almost to nil while
the interfering condition exists. Amplitude modulated UHF, while possessing the disadvantage of a rather short range, is little affected by the types of interference just
mentioned. Used as a complement to ordinary short-wave transmission, not as substitution for it, it wih provide reliable contact regardless of conditions, and at the same
time relieve our crowded channels. Although very little can be done at the moment
with regard to buying new equipment, we can at least prepare the way, as experimental
work will first be necessary anyway.
Our ultimate aim should be to have every suitable radio installation on ordinary
wave-lengths equipped also with UHF for use when conditions demand. The value of
such a step was shown in the Nelson District in 1943 when the Saddle Mountain Lookout
was struck by lightning and communication was restored by UHF. There are other
uses too numerous to mention, the most important of which will be the equipping of
secondary lookouts and minor points of vantage and the eventual establishment of relay
stations to do away with topographical barriers. As regards the equipment itself, our
present two sets are modulated oscillators with superregenerative receivers, and, though
they have proved perfectly satisfactory, it should be kept in mind that crystal-controlled
transmitters and superheterodyne receivers will improve results and increase the ease
of operation where portability is not a prerequisite.
To summarize this report, 1943 may be said to have been successful but static, due
to circumstances which will not be remediable until the end of the war. We have it in
our hands, however, to improve our position before hostilities cease, by placing our
stations with an eye to results rather than convenience and by preparing now for the
extensive use of ultra high frequency transmission, which is sure to come in the near
future. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943. BB 53
Alternative Service Workers' Projects.
As in 1942, Alternative Service Workers (conscientious objectors) were made
available to the Forest Branch for forest protection and conservation work by arrangement with the Dominion Government. In addition, the Forest Branch was required to
co-operate with the Fuel Control Board in the matter of cordwood production. Under
the terms of 1943-44 agreement, expenditures were financed as previously, except that
the Provincial Government paid one-third of the cost of operating A. S.W. projects.
During the year the average enrolment was reduced from 740 to approximately 450
men, due to a movement in the spring to grant Alternative Service Workers extended
farm leaves. In October, a programme was instituted by some of the Provinces to
replace men in our camps, both married and single, and return them to their own
Province for employment in some other form of Alternative Service. Replacements
received up to the end of the year were on the whole of a much lower medical category
and have not proven as adaptable to the work as those who were released.
The camp organization was similar to that established in 1942, with twenty camps
located on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland.
Due to the decrease in enrolment, only seventeen of the twenty camps operated for
the fire season, and for cutting fuel-wood during the winter months the following
distribution of personnel was made:—
No. of Men
Project and Location. in Camp.
C-l. Hill 60, Duncan  35
C-2. Cowichan Lake  20
C-3. Koksilah River   35
C-4. Langford   25
C-5. Nanaimo   45
C-6. Port Alberni   25
Q-l. Quinsam Lake, Campbell River  Closed.
Q-2. Menzies Bay      30
Q-3. Lower Campbell Lake  Closed.
Q-4. Courtenay   Closed.
Q-5. Bowser        35
Q-6. Home Lake       40
Q-7. Loveland Lake, Campbell River       30
Q-8. Salmon River, Kelsey Bay .  Closed.
GT-1. Green Timbers Manning Depot        20
GT-2. Hope        45
GT-3. Vedder River, Chilliwack   Closed.
GT-4. Haney   Closed.
GT-5. Dollarton        35
GT-6. Powell River      30
Total   450
The following is a summary of work accomplished by Alternative Service
Workers:—
Fighting forest fires.
Stand-by for fire-fighting during periods of high hazard.
Road construction—in co-operation with the Department of National Defence.
Snag-falling—in preparation of areas to be planted and in constructing planned
fire-breaks.
Planting new forests. BB 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Nursery work.
Seed-collection for forest nurseries.
Fuel-wood cutting—for Fuel Control Board.
Farm aid—for Emergency Farm Labour Bureau Service.
Maintenance of forest protection improvements.
Food production—A.S.W. vegetable farm.
Fire protection, of course, was of primary importance and was given precedence
over all other activities during the fire season. Fire suppression crews were trained
and organized in the spring on a similar basis to the previous year. Fire weather was
extremely favourable, with the result that it was only necessary to fight eighty-nine
fires. In addition, 1,289 man-days were spent by suppression crews on stand-by
during particularly hazardous periods.
During non-hazardous periods, enrollees near populated centres and close to transportation facilities worked on the production of fuel-wood for the Fuel Control Board.
Other camps, particularly those in the vicinity of Campbell River, worked on forest-
protection work and also on road work in co-operation with the Department of National
Defence.    Details of all projects appear elsewhere in this report.
Difficulties experienced last year in obtaining food supplies for our projects necessitated the raising of our own vegetables for the camps. Twenty-two acres were leased
near Courtenay and sown in potatoes, 12 acres; carrots, 5 acres; parsnips, 2% acres;
onions, beets, and turnips, 2% acres. With the exception of onions and turnips, a
bumper crop was harvested. The total crop consisted of 2,000 sacks each of carrots
and potatoes, 1,000 sacks of beets, and 600 sacks of parsnips and turnips. This project
required the full time of four Alternative Service Workers, and additional labour was
provided from a near-by camp during peak periods. A total of 1,900 man-days was
spent on this work. Power equipment was used as much as possible and was obtained
locally on a rental basis.
Working in co-operation with the Regional Alternative Service Officer and the
Emergency Farm Labour Bureau Service, arrangements were made to grant leave to a
few workers from certain camps to work on neighbouring farms to assist in harvesting
crops. Camps near agricultural communities provided one or two three-man units for
this purpose.    A total of 840 man-days was spent on farm-aid work.
During the summer months nine of the projects spent practically all of their time,
when not on fire-fighting duty, cutting cordwood by hand for the Fuel Control Board.
At the conclusion of the fire season a start was made to purchase mechanized equipment
to increase cordwood production. A total of twenty-six drag-saws and three portable
chain-saw cordwood mills have been put into operation. Three more mills are expected
to be completed early in 1944. The mills are provided with conveyers to and from the
saw and are capable of producing fifteen cords per day. Under the terms of the
1943-44 agreement, 8,000 cords of wood were produced and it is expected that the
monthly production will be greatly increased during the remaining winter months.
In addition, about 800 cords were cut during the year under the 1942-43 agreement.
Co-operation was also extended to the Fuel Control Board in the matter of mill-waste
recovery.
Another major activity concerned the reforestation of unsatisfactorily stocked
logged areas. Planting was undertaken during the spring and fall of the year and
a total of 9,300,000 trees were planted on 11,500 acres. In conjunction with the
reforestation programme, 1,050 bushels of cones were gathered to provide seed for our
Forest Nurseries.
The remaining activities concerned principally miscellaneous fire-protection improvement projects and maintenance and improvements to Provincial Park facilities.
Total  operating  costs  for  the  year  1943  were  about  $336,300,   approximately
$288,500 having been expended under the terms of the 1943-44 agreement. Slug-f«S!ing
After logging, a slash-fire killed most of the trees left in the group shown. The area reproduced bountifully
from the green trees remaining. With the snags standing a fire would quickly get to their tops, blow long
distances, and make it impossible to control.    The new forest would be lost.
After the shag-falling. This is exactly the same area as that above as shown by the trees left standing.
The new forest can now be protected from fire more easily since the snags are not present to throw fire into
the air and spread it over wide areas.  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943.
BB 55
The following table summarizes the major project work in
detail:—
Type of Work.
1942.
1943.
Total.
Fire-fighting—
145
6,502
3,586
22,267
223,101
82.437
485,055
22
20,960
89
1,966
1,289
18,625
196,023
72,320
513,659
27*
21,409
840
1,899
11,537
9,324,000
4,322
1,050
10.16
44.95
48.20
399
21
2.91
3.38
1.83
3.70
8,800
480
18,225
152
170,677
92,887
234
8,468
4,875
Snag-falling
40,892
Total snags felled, 10"+ _	
419,124
154,757
908,714
24
42,369
840
1,899
Reforestation and nurseries—
658
425,000
2,751
12,195
9,749,000
Man-days, nursery work ____   	
7,073
1,050
Road-construction—
11.00
109.50
73.75
218
16
22.75
5.50
14.50
25.50
21.16
Existing roads improved, miles   -— 	
154.45
121.95
617
37
Telephone-line construction—
25.66
Existing line improved, miles.-  	
Trail-construction—
8.38
16.33
29.20
Fuel production, Fuel Control Board—
8,800
480
18,225
Man-days, millwood recovery___  	
152
117,755
61,742
288,432
154,629
* Basal area per set of two men actually engaged on snag-falling per 8-hour day averaged 64 sq. ft.
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling.
Under this heading all remarks refer only to the Vancouver Forest District,
within which the special slash and snag legislation (" Forest Act," sections 113a and
113b) applies.
In consideration of all factors involved, we feel that with the passing of 1943
we can report reasonably satisfactory progress in the administration of section 113a
and toward our ultimate objective of obtaining complete and satisfactory abatement
of slash-hazards in the year they are created. According to meteorological records,
1943 was a very dry year. For the purpose of illustration, Victoria, with an average
annual precipitation of 27.13 inches, recorded only 18.18 inches. Other stations in
the slash-burning area of which we have record report correspondingly low precipitation.
Notwithstanding the above, conditions for burning were ideal during the month
of September, excepting the days of the 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, and 25th. Of these
six days, the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 25th were extremely dangerous, high winds and low
humidity prevailing. The 13th was outstanding, humidities of 16 per cent, being
recorded. During these periods of high hazard, any fires in the process of being
started or where burning was incomplete broke out of control and caused damage. BB 56 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The period for broadcast burning ended October 2nd. Excepting the fires lost during
the periods of high hazard, it can be said slash-burning was carried out with a marked
degree of success and great improvement over 1942. This was particularly noticeable
in cases where operators had conducted burning in accordance with prearranged plans
and Forest Branch instruction. The results obtained proved definitely that abatement
of slash-hazards by burning could be secured without damage to adjacent areas.
Alternative Service Workers and Slash- and Snag-disposal.—Not only did the
Alternative Service Workers fall snags on more than 20,000 acres in each of the years
1942 and 1943, but, being quickly available in the vicinity of slash-burning operations,
they rendered timely assistance in emergency when slash-fires threatened to escape
their boundaries. Under the heading of " Alternative Service Workers' Projects," full
detail of snag-falling is set out. Throughout the length and breadth of the district
there are vast areas cut over prior to snag-falling legislation, on which snags remain
and are an ever-present fire threat to plantations and all other areas of immature
growing stock. For whatever crews of stand-by fire-fighters that may be allocated to
the service of the Forest Branch, there is an unlimited volume of work in snag-falling
offering. No crew need be idle during non-hazardous periods. The disposal of the
snags is a prerequisite to practical fire protection of all forested areas, more particularly the immature stock. (This applies likewise to the Interior.) The Alternative
Service Workers' crews in the last two years have demonstrated the practicability of
fire-proofing wide expanses of country by falling snags. The accompanying photographs depict the situation better than words can describe it.
Progress in Slash- and Snag-disposal since Enactment of Section- USA.—The
accompanying tabulations indicate that slash-burning and snag-falling are practised
generally throughout the Vancouver Forest District. To some extent the practice of
intentional slash-burning was followed prior to the date of enactment, 1938. The area
slash-burned annually has grown considerably in proportion to the area cut over.
The year 1941 was an outstanding exception to this because the weather continued dry
and hazardous right up to the time when the fall rains set in, making burning
impossible. The area burned in 1940 was cut down considerably by a ban on smoke
by the Department of National Defence. Generally, the logging operators have
co-operated in effecting the necessary precautions prior to slash-burning. This has
not always been possible for them for the reason that they have been seriously affected
with the current man-power shortage. Experience has indicated very definitely the
fact that slash-burning can be and is likely to be disastrous if the precautions prescribed
are not carried out. To correct such situations, more field supervision is required than
our present short staff is capable of doing. There is little hope of correcting this until
after hostilities cease. The practical application of slash-burning legislation is so
complex and its final results are so remote that the question is still deserving of study
by the Forest Officers as well as by the operators.
The following summaries indicate results obtained in slash-disposal in 1943:—
Summary Acreage logged, 1943, and dealt with under Section 113k.
Acres. Acres.
Total area logged, Vancouver Forest District    53,540
Total area logged in fir belt, Vancouver Forest District    49,130
1943 slash covered by hazard reports  39,316.00
1943 slash logged after September 1st and carried
over to 1944     9,814.00
 49,130 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943. BB 57
Summary Acreage logged, 1943—Continued.
Acres. Acres.
1943 slash covered by hazard reports    39,316
1943 slash burned intentionally  12,989.55
1943 slash burned accidentally     1,071.00
1943 slash granted exemption from burning  11,228.00
1943 slash on which extension in writing has been
granted     5,030.00
1943 slash awaiting decision re compensation or
extension     8,997.45
    39,316
Summary of Operations, Vancouver Forest District.
Total operations, hazard area, Vancouver Forest District         932
Number of operations conducting slash-burning  234
Number of operations on which slash was burned by
other slash-fires spreading to their areas or by lopping and scattering or clearing land      2
Number of operations on which slash accidentally burned    40
Number of operations exempt from burning  186
Number of operations granted written extensions     69
Number of operations exempt as not considered necessary to deal with under section 113a  228
Number of operations on which compensation has been
assessed       3
Number of operations pending decision re compensation
or extension     93
Number of operations inactive in 1943     79
Number of operations, snag-falling area only     21
Number of operations not advanced to point requiring
slash-disposal        3
958*    '932
* Difference noted above is accounted for by some operations disposing of slash by both
accidental and intentional means and extensions being granted over certain areas where only
partial disposal was accomplished.
Summary of Slash-hazard being carried for
Disposal into 19 k^.
Acres.
Slash created prior to 1943    12,477
Slash created in 1943    23,841
Total slash at January, 1944    36,318
Summary Chart A—Intentional Slash-burn.
Operations conducting slash-burn  234
Acres slash-burned in 1943—
Prior to 1942     5,244.00
1942  21,788.70
1943  12,989.55
Total acres       40,012.25 BB 58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Intentional Slash-burn—Continued.
Acres of forest-cover burned
Total acres of area burned	
Net damage to forest-cover____.
  5,805.00
  46,321.10
  $23,178.01
Net damage to property on operations and cut products... $110,482.00
Cost of slash-disposal—
Operator  $66,816.41
Forest Branch  $70.87
plus 313 A.S.W. man-days.
Acreage hazard abated, 1943  40,012.25
Cost to operators  $66,816.41
Cost to operator based on stand of 40 M. per acre  $0,042 per M.
Cost to operator per acre.—-  $1.67
Total damage  $133,660.01
Damage per M. of 1943 production  $0.06
Summary Slash-disposal, 1934-43.
Acres slash-burned.
Accidentally. Intentionally.
Year.
1934  4,927
1935  11,783
1936  1,340
1937  3,015
1938  35,071
1939  1,930
1940  2,265
1941  3,385
1942 • 4,504.25
1943 : 2,045.5
Closures.
15,935
13,239
7,691
27,516
50,033
51,603
33,034
5,524
80,225.75
40,012.75
Due to the general lack of very prolonged high hazard periods, it was not found
necessary to declare many closures. As previously in very local instances, where an
industrial activity is the sole occupant of a watershed or other readily definable area,
the usual partial closures were placed on the request of the parties concerned. For a
period in September, to the disappointment of some of the sporting public, it was found
necessary to close entry to the woods over a particularly hazardous area difficult to
protect in the Sayward Forest, north and west of Campbell River. The wisdom of
doing so was reflected in the absence of hunters' fires at a critical time when man-power
was not available to control outbreaks. On account of the lack of ammunition' and
travel, difficulties for the hunters were broad, with the result that comparatively few
felt the restriction.
Following is detail of 1943 closures:—
Area.
District.
Effective
Date.
Date
suspended.
July   5th
July 16th
July 30th
July 23rd
July 23rd
July 23rd
July 23rd
July 23rd
Sept. 28th
Oct      4th
Sept. 20th
Sept. 20th
Sept. 20th
Sept. 20th
Sept. 20th
Upper Kootenay __	
Nelson  _„ _	 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943.
BB 59
Fire Law Enforcement.
Generally, the public is acquainted with and conforms with the Fire Law. Prosecutions for fire trespass are instituted and publicized with the objective in mind of
public education rather than punishing individuals. This form of public education,
together with other endeavours, has paid dividends. Some contravention must always
be expected; neither this year, nor for some years past, has there been more than
what might be considered the minimum of infractions. In the whole of British Columbia only seventeen informations were laid. Fourteen fines were paid and suspended
sentence meted out in the other cases. The average number of informations laid
annually over the past ten years is twenty-eight.
Co-operation with Department of National Defence.
Assistance to defence forces was again given in:—
(1.)  Aircraft Detection Corps of the R.C.A.F.
(2.)   Concentrating improvement-work on truck-trails vital to defence communications, such as the road from Shawnigan Lake to Port Renfrew,
and another from Menzies Bay via Roberts Lake and the Valley of the
Salmon River to Sayward.    Crews of Alternative Service Workers were
allotted to these projects.
The Forest Service is pleased to acknowledge the valuable contribution of the
R.C.A.F. in fire detection, and the fire-fighting assistance so timely rendered by the
army units, particularly in the Fort George and Kamloops Districts.    Details of this
are made under another heading.
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1943.
Forest District.
March.
April.
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Total.
2
1
3
3
10
5
17
33
13
22
40
19
55
9
14
49
20
73
2
17
90
131
81
2
15
86
116
70
5'
16
61
87
1
5
6
6
318
35
99
337
396
3
38
127
147
313
300
239
18
1,185
Ten-year average, 1934—43 	
60
174
203
527
430
204
12
1,605
Number and Causes of Fires in
Province, 1943.
Forest District.
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8
48
53
119
15
14
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49
11
318
26.83
3
1
16
4
7
2
2
35
2.96
25
27
6
14
18
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1
2
5
99
8.36
Kamloops __ 	
59
58
75
66
14
2
4
56
3
337
28.44
Nelson  , - -	
164
21
81
89
7
3
2
27
2
396
33.41
Totals          .            	
256
157
216
304
58
8
20
7
136
23
1,185
100.00
21.60
559
13.25
249
18.23
96
25.65
327
4.89
96
0.68
10
1.69
41
0.59
51
11.48
150
1.94
23
100.00
1,605 BB 60
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Damage to
Property other than Forests, 1943.
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent,
of Total.
$35,745.00
$534.00
$28,814.00
$351.00
$65,444.00
94.57
330.00
22.00
30.00
750.00
55.00
350.00
590.00
1,263.00
282.00
1,670.00
1,350.00
732.00
2.42
Kamloops  _ —-  	
Nelson  __._ _	
10.00
70.00
'   1.95
1.06
Totals                 	
$36,127.00
$1,689.00
$28,894.00
$2,486.00
$69,196.00
100.00
Ten-year average, 1934-43 _	
$83,611.00
$33,016.00  1    $79,148.00
$25,058.00
$220,833.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943.
BB 61
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years.
Causes.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
Total.
256
157
216
304
58
8
20
7
136
23
704
158.
114
220
30
31
38
5
90
24
871
142
73
184
81
4
33
20
134
19
1,265
236
90
400
74
5
41
38
171
18
515
305
77
374
111
11
32
88
175
16
703
442
72
524
180
4
77
121
238
51
263
269
74
242
107
14
55
20
124
25
524
256
81
321
78
6
29
74
152
26
173
217
65
289
127
11
45
72
97
15
320
312
103
415
117
10
41
65
188
19
5,594
2,494
965
3,273
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)	
Road and power- and telephone-line con-
963
104
Industrial operations „  ._
411
510
1,505
236
1,185
1,414
1,561
2,338
1,704
2,412
1,193
1,547
1,111
1,590
16,055
Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1943.
Total Fires.
Under .4 Acre.
Vi to 10 Acres.
10 to 500 Acres.
Over 500 Acres.
Damage.
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35
26.83
2.96
176
14
55.35
40.00
29.48
2.35
113
14
35.53
40.00
27.10
3.36
25
7
7.86
20.00
17.24
4.83
4
1.26
15.39
304
35
8
6
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8.36
31
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33
33.34
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22
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15.17
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13.13
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11       fl
337
396
28.44
33.41
114
262
33.83
66.16
19.10
48.88
146
111
43.32
28.03
35.01
26.62
70
21
20.77
5.30
48.28
14.48
7
2
2.08
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26.92
7.69
325
389
12
7
Totals 	
1,185
100.00
597
100.00
417
100.00
145|
100.00
26
100.00
1,132
38
15
100.00
50.38
35.19
12.24
?. 19
95.53
3.21
Ten-year average,
1934-43 _
1,605
805
513
260
•
-"-
1,477
84
43
Fire Causes, Cost, and Damage, 1943.
Causes.
No.
Per Cent.
Cost.
Per Cent.
Damage.
Per Cent.
256
157
216
304
58
8
20
7
136
23
21.60
13.25
18.23
25.65
4.89
.68
1.69
.59
11.48
1.94
$12,136.85
9,136.94
3,228.86
5,608.03
1,786.85
34.33
25.84
9.13
15.86
5.05
$7,984.06
13,667.63
1,837.01
55,282.54
12,723.64
52.00
35,004.89
361.24
1,266.54
4.748.05
6.01
10.28
1.39
41.59
9.57
Campers  -	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)
Road and power- and telephone-line con-
130.34
423.33
2,499.99
407.30
.37
1.20
'   7.07
1.15
26.33
.27
.95
3.57
Miscellaneous (known causes)- 	
Totals	
1,185
100 00      1        535 S..8 _Q
100.00
$132,927.60
100.00
* FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943.
BB 63
Prosecutions for Fire Trespass, 1943.
Information
laid.
Contravention
of
Sec. 99
of
" Forest
Act."
Contravention
of
Sec. 122
of
" Forest
Act."
Contravention
of
Sec. 104
of
" Forest
Act."
Burning
without
Permit.
Fines.
Suspended
No.
Amount.
tence.
3
6
2
6
3
3
3
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
2
6
$55.00
75.00
50.00
162.00
3
Total                        	
17
3
6
2
6
14
$342.00
3
Ten-year average, 1934-43 	
28
19
$401.00
Damage caused by Forest Fires, 1943—Part I.
Accessible
Merchantable Timber.
Inaccessible
Merchantable
Timber.
Immature
Timber.
Forest District.
CJ
H
oz:
z%
QJ
o 0=3
H>J2
Salvable
Volume of
Timber
killed.
Net
Stumpage
Loss.
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Acres.
294
2
2,041
393
62
M.B.M.
734
19
12,251
543
98
M.B.M.
602
10
53
7
47
$
440
17
6,324
543
59
Acres.
224
71
M.B.M.
$
1,792
45
Acres.
309
1
9,220
3,316
131
$
3,114
5
Fort George     ,.	
Kamloops.  ,, 	
1,792
175
35,010
1,209
110
Totals	
2,792
13,645
719
7,383
295
1,967
1,837
12,977
39,448
2.94
87.40
4.61
11.58
0.31
12.60
2.88
13.68
61.90
68,522
58,579
203,966
_
Damage caused by Forest Fires, 1943—Part II.
Forest
District.
Not satisfactorily
restocked.
Noncommercial
Cover.
Grazing or
Pasture
Land.
Nonproductive
Sites.
Grand Totals.
id
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Vancouver 	
Acres.
2,096
203
98
36
Acres.
804
90
21
36
14
Acres.
12
13
4,535
98
9
$
520
26
1,141
58
20
Acres.
1,699
210
21,105
2,233
1,056
$
479
52
5,282
570
345
Acres.
14
303
14,633
7,663
1,129
$
i
15
970
383
53
Acres.
882
if
219
3,846
1,023
60
Acres.
6,110
619
67,371
18,008
2,734
M.B.M.
734
19
14,043
718
98
$
4,773
115
15,389
4,100
297
54,365
Kamloops __	
Nelson __ 	
3,831
647
Totals _	
2,433
965
4,667
1,765
26,303
6,728
23,742
1,422 | 20,668
5,148
94,842
15,612
63,731
2.57
1.02
4.92
2.77
27.73
10.56
25.04
2.23 |    21.79
8.08
100.00
100.00
100.00
Ten-year average 1934-43
11,238
571
327,011
367,288
574,607 BB 64
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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% BB 66 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
GRAZING.
General Conditions.
Winter conditions have a direct effect on range and stock during the following
summer, often as important as the summer grazing season itself. The winter of
1942-43 was unusually severe throughout the range country of the Interior of the
Province, resulting in a later spring and need for extra feeding. Thus feed reserves,
already small, were reduced and home pastures overgrazed. Some cattle losses occurred
because of hay shortage and severe weather.
The late, cool spring resulted in poor grass conditions, which were not bettered
at all by hot, dry summer weather in some sections. Cattle generally entered the feed-
yards in the fall of 1943 in only fair condition.
On the other hand, the sheep bands from the high mountain ranges returned to
the home ranches in excellent shape, which is attributed to the fairly dry conditions.
Lambs do better on the high weed ranges in dry seasons than in wet.
Markets and Prices.
High prices for range stock continued through 1943, the demand being generally
good. Naturally, the better grades held their prices to better effect than the poorer
stock, and those breeders and feeders who have laboured to improve their stock naturally reaped the benefits. The prices on common grades fell away slightly towards the
middle of the season. This was affected by the beef rationing system, through buyers
taking their limited purchases in the better grades, while the 'hard winter and short
hay-supplies forced some ranchers to cull their herds.
Prices for beef started higher in 1943 than the previous year, continued rising until
April, held steady to August, and slipped back to spring prices towards the early fall.
Range lambs sold for an all-time high and remained high until a ceiling price was
placed on them in September.
The following are average prices, on the hoof, received on the Vancouver market:—
Beef in early spring was $11.25 per 100 lb. and reached a high point of $12.50 in
April. At the end of August the price had dropped back to $11.65 and in November
was $11.10.    At the end of the year good steers sold for $11 to $11.25.
Local lambs brought a top price of $17 per 100 lb. in June and did not fall below
$14.50 until the ceiling price was placed on it in September. To the end of the year
lamb prices ranged from $10.75 to $11.25.
Again there were several sales of stock organized by the stock associations, at
which many excellent animals were exhibited and sold. Some sales, for high-grade
stock, brought unheard of prices, while others for general ranch cattle naturally showed
less spectacular, but still satisfactoi-y, returns.
The Annual Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show was held at Kamloops on March 23rd.
A new record of total sales was made, with $111,597 being paid for breeding and
market stock. The increase over previous years was due entirely to higher individual
prices, as the total number of animals sold was less than in 1942. Record prices were
chalked up, with the highest figure paid for a bull at this sale being $1,725.
Following the example of the Waldo Stock-breeders' Association in 1942, a stock
sale was organized in 1943 by the associations around Okanagan Falls. At this event
some 862 head were sold. Fat stock brought an average high for calves of $10.20 per
100 lb., $9.92 for two-year steers, and $8.57 for yearling steers.
On October 7th the Central British Columbia Live-stock Association held its third
annual feeder sale at Kamloops, also setting a record for itself. There were 1,467 head
of cattle sold for $86,354 and 823 head of sheep for $6,216, a total of $92,570. This
compares favourably with 1942 when the receipts were $73,790 and in 1941 only $43,696. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943. BB 67
Unit prices were not high, with lambs averaging $9.75 per 100 lb.; two-year steers,
$8.90; and yearlings, $8.94. Top price was for calves at $11 and $10.25 for good steers.
A feature of this sale is that most of the stock came from Central British Columbia
along the line of the Canadian National west of Prince George.
It being a year of new records, the Cariboo Cattle Show and Sale at Williams Lake
on October 15th brought out 86 bulls and 2,453 grass-fed cattle. The former sold for
an average of $290 each and the latter at an average of $9 per 100 lb. The top price
was $11 per 100 lb.
The Waldo Stock-breeders' Association held their second annual sale at Elko on
October 23rd. For various reasons, the returns were not quite as good as expected, but
fair prices were realized. Top price went for calves at $11.50 per 100 lb., and for
steers at $10.60. Top for lambs was $10.05, but the average was about $9.40. Altogether 975 cattle and 223 sheep were sold with total returns to the community of
$53,099.25, which is a good record compared to total receipts of $31,270 in 1942 at
their first sale.
The last feature sale of the season was that of the Kamloops Fat Stock Show and
Sale on December 1st and 2nd. Another record was set for the Province, the average
price being $14.44 per 100 lb., with tops for some special items of $50 per 100 lb.
There were 400 head sold for a total of $51,375.
Stock sold at the various feature sales might be sold at the individual ranches for
about as much net return, considering the extra expenses involved in transportation,
conditioning, feeding, etc. However, the competitive spirit engenders the desire to
show good stock on the one hand and see it on the other, all of which creates incentive
to raising better animals. The results are good for the community, for the public gets
better beef and, in the long run, cheaper food.
The raising of better meat animals depends largely upon good range forage and
conditions. The result of the shows and sales of better stock will have a favourable
reaction on range management in the desire to keep up quality through better feed.
Live-stock Losses.
Conditions on the range were such that no great losses occurred through poisonous
weeds or predatory animals, although there were some cases. Through co-operation of
the Live-stock Branch of the Department of Agriculture and the Forest Branch, foot-
rot in sheep has been controlled to the great betterment of the range bands.
Bears, cougars, coyotes, and timber wolves continue to take some toll of range
animals, but they are kept in reasonable control through the co-operation of the Game
Commission. They report the destruction on the range of 253 coyotes, 27 bears, 69
timber wolves, and 26 cougars.
Range Reconnaissance.
Owing to enlistments in the armed forces, it was not possible to conduct any range
reconnaissance projects. The limited staff were more than fully occupied with routine
administration and investigations of immediate importance. Millions of acres of
range, both that being now used and potentially usable, need to be mapped, estimated,
and inspected. The Grazing Assistants who have enlisted and many others can find
useful and productive work on the stock ranges of the Province upon the cessation of
hostilities.
Co-operation.
Close contact was maintained by the field staff with the various live-stock
associations. In the Kamloops Forest District five new associations were formed and
officially recognized. By this procedure, which requires prior incorporation, the associations are given a considerable measure of home rule on their respective ranges and
are assured of consultation by grazing officials in all matters affecting their ranges.
Co-operation was maintained through meetings with some twenty-three associations. BB
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Grazing Permits.
The following tabulation shows the volume of business transacted in the three
Forest Districts to which it is confined. In all, it amounts to a huge volume of routine
and administrative work, although monetary returns are not high.
Grazing Permits issued.
District.
No. of
Permits
issued.
Number of Stock under Permit.
Cattle.
Horses.
Sheep.
Fort George-
Nelson  -._.
Kamloops	
Totals, 1943 _._	
Totals, 1942	
Totals, 1941 __—
Totals, 1940	
Totals, 1939...-	
Totals, 1938 __	
Totals, 1937- 	
Totals, 1936  _._
Totals, 1935 -	
Totals, 1934... -	
Ten-year average .
33
257
931
1,221
1,130
1,064
881
790
738
807
700
746
789
887
2,073
7,084
84,340
93,497
84,788
77,774
74,404
69,447
72,774
75,123
75,224
60,305
68,735
75,207
234
1,096
3,514
4,844
4,797
4,180
3,958
2,758
2,248
2,328
2,061
1,870
2,235
3,128
168
2,989
36,764
39,921
36,962
39,552
37,132
38,357
37,060
42,185
46,084
36,902
36,569
39,072
Collections.
The condition of the range live-stock industry continues to be reflected in satisfactory collections and in the Range Improvement Fund. This fund, the condition of
which has been previously shown in this report, has received the benefit, under statute,
of one-third of the fees paid in.
Grazing Fees billed and collected.
Year.
Fees billed.
Collections.
Outstanding.
$21,348.41
23,338.28
23,781.19
25,116.02
24,680.37
$22,027.05
38,146.48
29',348.22
30,802.33
31,150.81
$42,012.10
27,203.90
21,636.87
15,950.56
9,480.12
1941                                 -	
1942              .           	
1943	
Range Improvement.
As mentioned above, the Range Improvement Fund receives one-third of collections. This fund is used to improve the Crown range through such structures as
drift-fences, cattle-guards, mud-hole fences, water-troughs, and trails. During the
year of 1943 improvement-work was curtailed through lack of labour and many necessary projects had to be postponed. However, the Kamloops District arranged for and
had completed the following range improvement projects: 3 stock bridges; 3 cattle-
guards ; 4 drift-fences, totalling 4 miles; 1 driveway, 3 miles; 1 experimental plot;
2 mud-holes fenced; 5 water developments; and 4 stock trails, 17 miles. The total
cost to the fund was $2,166.66.
In addition, there was some activity in ridding the range of wild and useless
horses, but because of lack of ammunition only 43 of these animals were shot. None
were rounded up and sold. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943. BB 69
The war has brought prosperity to the range live-stock industry, and it is hoped
that conditions on ranch and range will be improved while funds are easy and available.
The post-war period may bring less favourable conditions, and those who have consolidated their position will survive and continue to prosper. It can only be done through
care and intelligent use of the productive capacity of the land, be it the home alfalfa
field, the wild-hay meadow, or the open range. All are susceptible to damage by
improper use and of perpetual production of valuable forage and, hence, meat animals
if used with providence.
The management of the Crown range through the Forest Branch aims to promote
the intelligent use of the forage resource.
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, JANUARY 1st, 1944.
Victoria Office.
C. D. Orchard Chief Forester.
G. P. Melrose Assistant Chief Forester.
E. E. Gregg Forester—Operation.
E. W. Bassett Assistant Forester.
J. H. Blake Marine and Structural Engineer.
W. C. Spouse Mechanical Superintendent.
G. A. Playfair Radio Engineer.
H. E. Ferguson Radio Engineer.
E. B. Prowd Forester—Management.
S. E. Marling Assistant Forester.
G. M. Abernethy Assistant Forester.
' F. S. McKinnon Forester—Economics.
H. J. Hodgins Assistant Forester.
E. H. Garman _: Assistant Forester.
H. G. McWilliams Assistant Forester.
R. H. Spilsbury Assistant Forester.
G. S. Allen _'_ Assistant Forester.
A. P. MacBean Assistant Forester.
A. E. Collins Assistant Forester.
C. F. McBride Assistant Forester.
C. P. Lyons Assistant Forester.
S. W. Barclay Royalty Inspector.
H. H. Smith Chief Accountant.
A. E. Thompson . Chief Draughtsman.
Districts.
Vancouver.
C. J. Haddon District Forester.
J. G. MacDonald Assistant Forester.
D. B. Taylor Assistant Forester.
M. W. Gormely Assistant Forester.
R. C. Telford Acting Assistant Forester.
W. Byers Supervisor of Scalers.
A. H. Waddington Fire Inspector.
J. A. Pedley.— - Acting Fire Inspector.
R. Murray Supervisor.
C. F. Holmes Acting Supervisor.
J. A. Mahood Forest Ranger. BB 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Districts—Continued.
Vancouver—Continued.
P. E. Sweatman Forest Ranger.
E. T. Calvert Forest Ranger.
G. G. Armytage Forest Ranger.
W. Black ' Forest Ranger.
J. McNeill Forest Ranger.
R. Little Forest Ranger.
E. W. Cowie Forest Ranger.
R. J. Glassford Forest Ranger.
S. Silke Forest Ranger.
A. C. C. Langstroth Forest Ranger.
J. P. Greenhouse Forest Ranger.
T. J. W. Underwood Forest Ranger.
C. S. Frampton Forest Ranger.
J. W. Ker Acting Forest Ranger.
C. M. Yingling Acting Forest Ranger.
S. C. Frost Acting Forest Ranger.
R. W. Aylett Acting Forest Ranger.
K. M. Bell Acting Forest Ranger.
R. C. Swan Foreman, Fraser River Repair-station.
E. P. Fox Chief Clerk.
• Kamloops.
C. C. Ternan District Forester.
R. G. McKee Assistant District Forester.
H. B. Forse Assistant Forester.
G. V. Copley Assistant Forester.
E. A. Charlesworth Supervisor of Scalers.
J. M. Fraser Fire Inspector.
J. W. McCluskey ... Forest Ranger.
C. Williams Forest Ranger.
W. E. Noble Forest Ranger.
R. B. W. Eden Forest Ranger.
G. J. Mayson Forest Ranger.
C. E. Robertson Forest Ranger.
A. Chisholm Forest Ranger.
C. Perrin Forest Ranger.
J. W. Hayhurst Forest Ranger.
H. A. Ferguson Forest Ranger.
C. D. S. Haddon Forest Ranger.
F. H. Nelson Acting Forest Ranger.
W. P. Cowan Acting Forest Ranger.
R. C. Hewlett Acting Forest Ranger.
J. H. Dearing Acting Forest Ranger.
J. A. Sim Acting Forest Ranger.
H. J. Parker Chief Clerk.
Nelson.
R. E. Allen 1 District Forester.
K. C. McCanneL. Assistant District Forester.
W. C. Phillips Assistant Forester. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1943. BB 71
Districts—Continued-
Nelson—Continued.
G. W. A. Holmgren Assistant Forester.
P. Young Fire Inspector.
T. W. Brewer Supervisor.
F. H. S. Pym Supervisor.
G. T. Schupe Forest Ranger.
G. C. Palethorpe Forest Ranger.
H. C. Nichols Forest Ranger.
H. J. Coles...: Forest Ranger.
R. Cameron Forest Ranger.
J. P. MacDonald Forest Ranger.
G. T. Robinson Acting Forest Ranger.
L. S. Ott Acting Forest Ranger.
J. H. Holmberg Acting Forest Ranger.
J. H. A. Applewhaite Acting Forest Ranger.
S. S. Simpson .....Chief Clerk.
Prince Rupert.
R. C. St. Clair District Forester.
J. E. Mathieson Assistant Forester.
I. Martin Forest Ranger.
J. B. Scott Forest Ranger.
S, G. Cooper Forest Ranger.
C. L. Gibson Forest Ranger.
D. R. Smith Forest Ranger.
M. 0. Kullander Acting Forest Ranger.
S. T. Strimbold Acting Forest Ranger.
L. C. Chambe'rlin Acting Forest Ranger.
L. G. Taft Acting Forest Ranger.
A. M. Davies Chief Clerk.
Fort George.
R. D. Greggor District Forester.
D. L. McMullan Assistant District Forester.
W. G. Henning Supervisor.
D. H. Ross Forest Ranger.
G. A. Forbes Forest Ranger.
W. N. Campbell Forest Ranger.
H. R. Sansom Forest Ranger.
E. W. Thomas Forest Ranger.
W. Adamson Acting Forest Ranger.
J. S. Macalister Acting Forest Ranger.
A. V. O'Meara •„ Acting Forest Ranger.
A. B. Porter , Acting Forest Ranger.
J. Jardine Chief Clerk.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1944.
1,305.241 7871 

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