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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA THIRTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1944]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
THIRTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOR THE YEAR 1943
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OP THE  LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Chaiu.es P. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1943.  To His Honour W. C. Woodward,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Report
of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1943.
K. C. MacDONALD,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., January 3rd, 19Uk-  CONTENTS.
Page.
Department of Agriculture Officers  6
Report of Deputy Minister  7
Report of Statistician  19
Report of Markets Branch  • 24
Report of Horticultural Branch  31
Report of Field Crops Branch    53
Report of Provincial Plant Pathologist  59
Report of Provincial Apiarist  64
Report of Provincial Entomologist  66
Report of Chief Veterinary Inspector  72
Report of Live Stock Branch  75
Report of Recorder of Brands  86
Report of Dairy Branch  87
Report of Poultry Branch  90
Report of Women's Institutes  94
Report of Boys' and Girls' Clubs  97
Reports of District Agriculturists—
Peace River District  101
Bulkley and Skeena Districts  103
Nechako and Prince George Districts  109
Cariboo and Lillooet Districts  115
Kamloops and Nicola Districts  119
Shuswap, Revelstoke, and Northern Okanagan Districts  124
East Kootenay District  128
Grand Forks and District  132
Lower Mainland District  136
Appendices—
No. 1. Gross Value of Agricultural Production  140
No. 2. Movement of Grain Screenings  141
No. 3. Threshermen's Returns  142
No. 4. Estimate of Honey-crop 1  143
No. 5. Summary of T.B. Tests  143
No. 6. Dairy Premises inspected  143
No. 7. Herds inspected and Premises graded 1  144
No. 8. Slaughter-house Licences  144
No. 9. Milk-testers' Licences :  146
No. 10. Cattle and Hide Shipments :  148
No. 11. Boys' and Girls' Clubs, 1943  149 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICERS.
Honourable K. C. MacDonald, Minister,
J. B. Munro, M.S.A., Deputy Minister.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Assistant Deputy Minister and Provincial Horticulturist,
Victoria, B.C.
Ernest MacGinnis, Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
W. H. Thornborrow, Chief Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
George H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
C. P. L. Pearson, Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
L. W. Johnson, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.    (On military leave.)
A. J. Hourston, General Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
A. H. Shotbolt, Exhibition Specialist, Victoria, B.C.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Survey, Kelowna, B.C.
T. Menzies, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
James S. Wells, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.    (On military leave.)
John E. Porter, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.    (On military leave.)
Daryl Anderson, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.    (On military leave.)
E. W. White, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
E. C. Hunt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
M. S. Middleton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
J. L. Webster, Field Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
Ben Hoy, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
R. P. Murray, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
C. B. Twigg, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Creston, B.C.
H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, Vernon, B.C.
C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector, Salmon Arm, B.C.
John Tait, District Field Inspector, Summerland, B.C.
W. Baverstock, District Field Inspector, Vernon, B.C.
John A. Smith, B.S.A., Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.    (On military leave.)
G. L. Foulkes, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Victoria, B.C.
V. TONKS, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Vernon, B.C.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc.,. Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
W. R. Foster, M.S.A., Assistant Plant Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
I. J. Ward, B.Sc, Entomologist, Vernon, B.C.
A. W. Finlay, Provincial Apiarist, New Westminster, B.C.
Cecil Tice, B.S.A., Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
S. S. Phillips, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Walter Sandall, District Field Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
W. R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.Sc, Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
HENRY Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
F. Overland, Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
G. Patchett, Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
G. H. Thornbery, Assistant (Milk Records), Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Knight, Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
Dr. M. Sparrow, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
Dr. J. D. Macdonald, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
Dr. K. H. Thompson, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
J. R. Terry, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
George Pilmer, Brand Recorder, Victoria, B.C.
R. Cahilty, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
James Travis, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
Shirley G. Preston, M.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
H. E. Waby, District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
T. S. Crack, District Agriculturist, Pouce Coupe, B.C.
C. F. Cornwall, District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
J. E. Manning, District Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
J. S. Allin, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook, B.C.
6 REPORT of the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
REPORT BY THE DEPUTY MINISTER.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A.
The Honourable K. C. MacDonald,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report of the Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1943.
The temporary arrangement by which W. H. Robertson served as Acting Deputy
Minister of Agriculture during 1942 was confirmed by Order in Council No. 793,
approved on June 3rd, 1943> which named him Assistant Deputy Minister of Agriculture. His help in supervising and directing the many Branches of the Department's
activities during 1943 has been much appreciated.
NEW LEGISLATION.
The second session of the Twentieth Legislature passed an Act to amend the
" Animals Act " which more clearly provides for the definition of any area where bulls
over 1 year old may be allowed to run at large, and it also makes provision for the
constitution of a committee with power to act on behalf of the live-stock owners of
the area.
In order to encourage the production of flax and the manufacture of linen in
British C°lumbia an Act was passed to authorize a loan to the Fraser Valley Flax
Co-operative Association. This provides for a loan to the above-mentioned Association of a sum not to exceed $85,000, to be used in the erection and establishment of
a scutching-mill, retting-tanks, storage-tanks, and other facilities which will enable the
Association to deliver flax fibre to a proposed spinning plant.
VICTORIA'S CENTENARY.
During the spring of this year the centenary celebrations of the founding of
Victoria in March, 1843, were observed. It is now one hundred years since the Hudson's
Bay Company established their trading-post at this point on Vancouver Island and
undertook the development of farms in the vicinity. These farms were for many
years noted for their live stock and field crop production and much of the early agriculture of Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland of the Province owes its origin
to the foundations that were laid here. The following paragraphs taken from the
British Columbia press indicate the importance of the work done in those early days.
This records the words of James Douglas, at that time Chief Factor for the Hudson's
Bay Company: " Camosack is a pleasant and convenient site for the establishment
within fifty yards of the anchorage, on the border of a large tract of clear land which
extend eastward to Point Gonzalo at the southeast extremity of the island, about six
miles internally, being the most picturesque and decidedly the most valuable part of
the island that we had the good fortune to discover.
" More than two-thirds of the section consists of prairie land, and may be converted either to purposes of tillage or pasture, for which I have seen no part of the
Indian country better adapted. The rest of which, with the exception of the ponds
of water, is covered with valuable oak and pine timber. I observed, generally speaking, but two varieties of soil on the prairies;  that of the best land is a dark vegetable R 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
mould varying from nine to fourteen inches in depth, overlaying a substratum of
greyish clayey loam which produces the rankest growth of native plants I have seen
in America. The other variety is of inferior value, and to judge from the less vigorous
appearance of the vegetation upon it, naturally more unproductive.
" Both kinds, however, produce abundance of grass, and several varieties of clover
grow on the rich moist bottoms. In two, particularly, we saw several acres of clover
growing with a luxuriousness and a compactness more resembling the close sward of
a well managed lea than the produce of uncultivated waste. Being pretty well assured
of the capabilities of the soil as respects the purposes of agriculture, the climate being
also mild and pleasant, we ought to be able to grow every kind of grain raised in
England. On this point, however, we cannot confidently speak until we have tried
the experiment and tested the climate, as there may exist local influences destructive
of the husbandman's hopes, which cannot be discovered by other means."
The newspaper further states: " The Hudson's Bay Company had a contract to
supply the Russian settlements in Alaska with grain and provisions—this having been
done from the farms established at Fort Vancouver—and Finlayson set to work to
produce material to carry out this contract. The personnel of the fort, with natives
hired to act as laborers, were set to work to till the ground, and, in 1846 there were
some 160 acres under cultivation in the vicinity of the fort on which was grown wheat,
oats, potatoes, carrots, turnips and other vegetables. Where the stately buildings of
Victoria are now reared, where the business streets run, and the banks, and business
blocks are standing now, no less than 300 acres were cleared and under cultivation by
1847. The Indians took kindly to the work of clearing and were paid at the same
rate as white laborers. The land was rich, producing fine peas and potatoes, and forty
bushels of wheat to the acre.
" In 1847 two Russian vessels cleared from Victoria harbor carrying 5,000 bushels
of wheat and large quantities of beef and mutton. Most of the cargo was produced
here, and part was brought from Fort Langley on the Fraser with small boats.
Payment was made with bills of exchange on St. Petersburg. Two extensive dairies,
each having seventy cows, were established in connection with the fort. The cows
during the season yielded about seventy pounds of butter each."
FALL FAIRS.
This year the Class " A " fall fairs were again cancelled owing to war conditions.
The two Class " B " fairs were held at Armstrong and at Chilliwack. In both cases they
were outstanding events and served to keep the " show window" of agriculture
properly dressed for the display of farm products. In addition there were rural fairs
held at many other points. At all of these good displays were featured and with excellent weather prevailing both management and spectators were well satisfied.
Outside of the regular agricultural exhibitions there have been held in British
Columbia during recent years a number of purely live-stock events. These have been
in the nature of feeder sales, at which surplus live stock owned by ranchers has been
disposed of to others requiring such animals or to the owners of feeder lots for fall
finishing.
The Central British Columbia Live Stock Association most successfully conducted
its annual feeder sale at Kamloops on October 7th. It was well patronized by both
producers and buyers.
The Williams Lake feeder sale gave the ranchers of the Cariboo an opportunity
to dispose of their surplus stock and permitted buyers of beef on the hoof to purchase
at reasonable prices.    Ceiling prices were observed at all feeder sales.
At Okanagan Falls the first feeder sale of cattle was well attended and gives
promise of becoming an annual event.    This cattle sale gives an opportunity for the DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 9
ranchers in the South Okanagan and adjacent areas to show and sell their stock at
a central point.
At Elko in the East Kootenay the annual show and sale of feeder stock was held
in improved surroundings. Here the farmers are definitely receiving an advantage
and as a result that section of the Province is becoming known for the quality of its
live stock.    Elko is conveniently situated to be easily reached by the buyers.
The Minister of Agriculture attended all of these live-stock fairs and a number
of agricultural fairs. His presence at them gave much needed encouragement to
cattle owners and producers.
MACHINERY QUOTAS.
One effect that the war has had on agriculture is seen in the difficulty that farmers
are experiencing in purchasing farm machinery. The implements or machines used
in agricultural production are not only costly but they are scarce. In an effort to have
our quotas for British Columbia increased for the year 1943-44 British Columbia was
represented at Regina at the Western Canadian Agricultural Engineering Committee
meeting held in March. At that conference the chairman of the Agricultural Production Committee met with H. H. Bloom, Administrator for Farm Machinery, and consulted with the other representatives for the three Western Provinces.
The quotas for the four Provinces for the coming twelve months were outlined.
British Columbia's quota was increased in those lines of equipment most needed in
this Province—namely, spraying-machines, potato diggers and planters, dairy equipment, wood-cutting machinery, small tractors, bee-keepers' supplies, etc. There have
since been representations made on behalf of British Columbia farmers in the matter
of hay-balers, tractors, cultivators, etc.
In October of this year a further meeting was held between the Agricultural Production Committee members, farm machinery representatives, and the Administrator,
and further arrangements were made to increase the supplies of farm machines needed.
Special representations were also made to the Administrator by the Minister and the
Deputy on the occasion of their visit to Ottawa in December.
WARTIME PRICES AND TRADE BOARD REGULATIONS.
The action of the Wartime Prices and Trade Board has been aimed at keeping
Canadian business on an even keel, but farmers feel that they have been somewhat
overlooked in such matters of supplies of barbed wire, nails, and ammunition. The
ammunition has been partly required as a protection of flocks and herds against the
depredations of marauding animals. It has been very difficult to secure permits to
buy the ammunition needed for this essential purpose. The barbed wire needed for
the protection of crops has been unobtainable in some places and apparently the Wartime Prices and Trade Board are unable to issue permits when the raw material
cannot be had. The Steel Controller has greatly assisted in making available nails and
it is hoped that this commodity may now be obtained by those improving their farm
buildings.
The ruling of the Board regarding the sale of honey by producers was protested
by producers who have, this year, harvested a very small crop of honey. They had
increased their number of colonies of bees during 1943 and it was hoped that they
would get fair returns for their investment next year. However, bee-keepers are not
yet satisfied with the situation and they are hoping that the Wartime Prices and
Trade Board may alter their decisions before the 1944 crop of honey is harvested.
The Wartime Prices and Trade Board established minimum prices for seed potatoes
above Canada No. 1 table stock as follows: Certified seed potatoes, 1 cent a pound or
$20 per ton above Canada No. 1;   iy2 cents a pound for Foundation A seed potatoes E 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
or $30 per ton above Canada No. 1 table stock;   and 2 cents a pound for Foundation
potatoes or $40 a ton above Canada No. 1 table stock.
Foundation and Foundation A seed is in short supply, and while every effort is
being made to permit growers and dealers to fill long-standing export orders sufficient
seed must be retained in Canada to meet the requirements of growers in this country
in 1944.
AGRICULTURAL PUBLICATIONS.
Within the past twelve months the Publications Branch of the Department of
Agriculture has sent 34,000 bulletins and circulars on agricultural subjects to residents of the Province, according to the statement given by Thomas Menzies, Senior
Clerk. Bulletins have also been sent to the United States, Great Britain, and as far
as New Zealand. Even prisoners of war in Germany have had their wants supplied.
Numerous requests have been received from the Forces overseas, indicating that after
the termination of the war they intend to settle in our Province.
Publications greatly in demand are " Dairy Cattle—Care and Feeding of," " Swine-
raising," " Bee Culture," " Poultry-raising," " Poultry Feeding," " Preservation of
Food," " Rabbits—Fur-bearing and Market," " Gardening on a City Lot," while quite
a number of public schools have requested " Weeds and their Control."
Mimeographed stencils to the number of 74,000 were sent out by the Department,
in addition to the above-mentioned bulletins and circulars.
The following is a list of new publications and revised reprints:—
Thirty-seventh Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture.
Climate of British Columbia, 1942.
Agricultural Statistics Report, 1942.
Seed Production Series No. 10:   "Onion-seed Production."
Bulletin No. 80:   Rabbits—Fur-bearing and Market.
Poultry Bulletin No. 26:   Poultry-raising, Practical.
Dairy Circular No. 24:   Mendelism, First Studies in.
Fertilizer Recommendations.
Horticultural Circular No. 43:  Gardening on a City Lot.
Circular No. 53:  Feeding Farm Live Stock in B.C.
Bulletin No. 67:   Dairy Cattle, Care and Feeding of.
Horticultural Circular No. 42:   Top-working of Fruit-trees.
Horticultural Circular No. 64:  Varieties of Fruit-trees recommended for B.C.
Spray Calendar—Field Crop and Garden.
Spray Calendar—Fruit.
A list of publications may be had upon request to this Branch.
FEED-GRAIN TRANSPORTATION.
In the report of 1942 a summary of the tonnage of wheat, oats, barley, etc., carried
under C.F.A. Tariff 145 was given covering a ten-year period. The number of certificates issued by this Department for 1943 indicates that during the eleven months
under review there was carried a total of 81,783 tons of wheat, 28,429 tons of oats,
21,687 tons of barley, 5,650 tons of mill-feeds, 1,269 tons of corn, 1,162 tons of mixed
grains, 922 tons of screenings, 241 tons of rye, and 40 tons of flax—a total of 141,183
tons in all.
In view of recent regulations announced by the Federal Department of Agriculture
it may be well to place on record the existing subsidies contributed by the Dominion
Department of Agriculture for the assistance of live-stock feeders in British Columbia.
They are assisted by a freight subsidy. This freight subsidy is paid by the Federal
Government on car-loads of feed-grains and is on the basis of the actual freight from
Edmonton or Calgary to the destination in British Columbia. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 11
Government assistance on feed-grain purchases is given by the payment to the
producer on the Prairies of 25 cents a bushel for the grade known as " Manitoba No. 4
Northern " and grades of equal or lower value. This payment was provided November
15th and apparently replaces the former payment of 8 cents per bushel.
In Eastern Canada farmers were paid a special bonus for the purchase of feed-
grains. The bonus was made on a descending scale and was intended to be sufficient
to pay storage charges. It was intended to bring about heavy deliveries of feed-
grains in hog producing districts before the close of navigation. As in former years,
applications for feed-grain certificates, which entitled the buyer to the reduced freight
rate on minimum car-loads from Prairie points to British Columbia coast districts
are made by purchasers who send in their grain inspection certificates and freight
bills and are given the special feed-grain certificate issued by C.F.A. Tariff 145. This
entitles them to the reduced freight rate of $6 per ton on their grain.
FARMERS' INSTITUTES.
The regular annual meetings of the District Farmers' Institutes were held in 1943.
The usual practice of the Minister and the Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes
attending each was not possible owing to restrictions in travel and the pressure of
other departmental duties. The place and date of each of the ten annual meetings,
together with the departmental representative in attendance, and the Advisory Board
member elected for the year is shown in the following table:—
'A'
'B';
■C"
•D'
' E '
,F,
'G-
'H'
'I"
•J"
Place of Meeting.
Nanaimo 	
Telkwa....	
Vanderhoof	
Kamloops	
New Westminster.
Robson 	
Lumby 	
Kersley. ....
Cranbrook	
Baldonnel... 	
Date of Meeting.
November 24th
June 18th	
June 22nd-23rd
June 12th	
April 30th	
May 29th	
July 7th	
June 15th	
May 31st__	
July 8th 	
Department Representative attending.
Hon. K. C. MacDonald
J. B. Munro 	
J. B. Munro	
J. B. Munro.. 	
( G. L. Landon... ...-.
j G. E. W. Clarke.	
( James Travis  ^
) E. C. Hunt  f
Hon. K. C. MacDonald ...
C. F. Cornwall	
J. B. Munro  ..
T. S. Crack .._
Advisory Board Member elected.
S. Pickles, R.R. 1, Saanichton.
C. J. Killer, Telkwa.
B. Blackburn, Prince George.
Wm. Harrison, Pritchard.
D. E. MacKenzie, Box 760, New
Westminster.
O. B. Appleton, R.R. 1, Nelson.
J. Woodburn, Salmon Arm.
W. Hogg, Australian.
T. Cameron, Cranbrook.
T. Jamieson, Pouce Coupe.
Eighty-two resolutions relating to agricultural matters which were submitted at
these District meetings are now in the hands of the Advisory Board, which will likely
meet early in the New Year. The Advisory Board this year met with the Select
Standing Committee on Agriculture and presented a number of resolutions for consideration.    The report of the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture is as follows :■—
" Your Committee authorized by resolution of the Legislative Assembly ' to consider such matters as may be laid before it by a committee representing the Advisory
Board of Farmers' Institutes; to consider the report of the Dominion-Provincial Conference on production; to call members of the British Columbia Agricultural Production Committee, the interdepartmental committee on farm labour, and such other
Department officials as may be representatives on other agricultural bodies with a view
to securing information on matters affecting the agricultural welfare of the Province;
to review the report of the Commissioner, Judge Harper, on the operation of marketing
boards operating schemes under the " Natural Products (British Columbia) Marketing Act ";   and to report its findings to this House ' held four sittings.
" At one of these sittings, the Farmers' Advisory Board presented a total of eight
resolutions dealing with the following matters:—
(a.)  Farm Labour.
(_.)  Bounties on Predatory Animals. R 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
(c.) Health Insurance.
(d.)  Japanese Expulsion after the War.
(e.) Rehabilitation Schemes.
(/.)  Farm ' Motor-vehicle Act.'
(g.)  Farm Machinery and Parts.
(/..) Ammunition Shortages and Rationing thereof.
" Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture had the privilege of discussing
with the Honourable the Attorney-General sections 3 and 5a of the ' Motor-vehicle
Act,' who stated that he would welcome any suggestions and recommendations this
Committee would care to make.
" Your Selecting Standing Committee on Agriculture was fortunate in having
a very satisfactory conference with officials of the Dominion and the Province dealing
with the farm labour situation. The delegation was introduced by the Honourable
the Minister of Agriculture. Mr. T. B. Pickersgill outlined the work of the Board and
explained the various regulations dealing with farm labour. Mrs. Rex Eaton outlined
the plan for the mobilization of women in Canada.
" Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture gave some time to the consideration of the Harper Report on Marketing, and your Committee has made several recommendations with regard to it.
" Consideration having been given to matters laid before your Committee by the
Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes, the resolution dealing with Health Insurance
was adopted, but it was felt that the resolution dealing with the expulsion of the
Japanese after the war was not within the jurisdiction of this Committee.
" All of which is respectfully submitted."
The Farmers' Institutes have carried on very useful work during the present year.
They have assisted the Agricultural Production Committee in making known to their
members many of the policies relating to farm life that have been annunciated during
war-time by the several Boards that are under Federal jurisdiction. The secretaries
of practically all of the 214 Farmers' Institutes have been alert and have maintained
a close contact with the Department of Agriculture.
Some reminiscences of the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes and its members, by Wm. J. Bonavia, Secretary, have been submitted and are given herewith:—
" Whilst a Farmers' Institute movement in this Province was first discussed in
1895, actually the earliest institutes to be organized were at Richmond and Surrey-
Langley in 1897.
" It was not until 1899. that the delegates to a convention in Victoria asked the
Minister to appoint an ' Advisory Board to consist of two members each from Vancouver Island, the Lower Mainland and the Interior.' Action was, however, delayed,
and in 1902 delegates to a convention in Victoria discussed the non-action of the Government in appointing this Board, the delegates going so far as to nominate a Board
consisting of Messrs. Mutter and Miller for Vancouver Island, Metcalfe and Paisley
for the Lower Mainland, and Raymer and Heard for the Interior. These names were
sent to the Government for approval, the Superintendent, the late Jas. R. Anderson,
expressing the opinion ' that a mistake was being made in pressing the matter again.'
" The proposed Board was not appointed, however, and the matter was not revived
for many years, although authority was contained in the statute. It was not until
1916 at one of the largest central institute conventions ever held in Victoria that the
question of an Advisory Board was again pressed. The Superintendent, the late W. E.
Scott, welcomed the suggestion ' stating that the growth* of institute work had reached
a stage when such a Board should be appointed to consult with the Department and
carry out suggestions, also to give the Department the benefit of their advice.'
* Note.—There were 136 institutes with 8,145 members this year. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 13
" The meeting then nominated six members from their number as follows:—
Vancouver Island Alex Hamilton, Pender Island.
M. Vick, Nahwitti.
Lower Mainland Jas. Bailey, Sardis.
R. McBride, Richmond.
Interior . J. R. Brown, Vernon.
D. D. Munro, Kitsumgallum.
" A resolution along these lines was endorsed by the convention and submitted to
the Minister, who received same favourably and later made the required appointments.
" During the following year (1917) it was soon found that the Board of six members was scarcely representative of the whole Province, and a new scheme was drawn
up by the writer, submitted to and approved by the Minister, with the following
result:—
District ' A '—Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands C. E. Whitney Griffiths,
Metchosin.
District  ' B '—Bella Coola, Bulkley,  Skeena,  and
Nass Valleys H. Silverthorne, Telkwa.
District ' C '—Prince   George,   including   district
from Endako to McBride  J. S. Ross, Fort Fraser.
District ' D '—Kamloops,   North   Thompson   and
Nicola Valleys, and district be-
• tween St. Elmo and Revelstoke W. Harrison, Pritchard.
District ' E '—All   institutes   on   the   north   and
south sides of Fraser River to
Chilliwack, also Howe Sound.____J. Bailey, Sardis.
District ' F '—Grand   Forks,   Arrow   and   Slocan
Lakes, and Boundary District. C. C. Heaven, Grand Forks.  •
District ' G'—Okanagan   Valley   from   Mara   to
Kaleden, also Salmon River Valley  L. E. Taylor, Kelowna.
District ' H '—Kootenay   Lake   and   River   Institutes   R. Staples, Creston.
District   ' I '—South-east Kootenay and Columbia
Valley  A. B. Smith, Cranbrook.
" James Bailey was appointed Chairman of the meeting called in November, 1917,
and acted as such until his health failed in 1929. His courteous manner and tactful
handling of the meetings of the Advisory Board contributed in no small measure to
the happy relations between the institutes and the Department. Of the other original
members of the Board, W. Harrison is still to be found representing the Kamloops
District, after dropping out in 1937 for three years.
" In 1919 M. F. Nourse, of Francois Lake, replaced H. Silverthorne; J. D. Charle-
son, of Vanderhoof, J. S. Ross; Harvey Smith, Nakusp, C. C. Heaven; and A. D. Clyde,
of Robson, R. Staples.
" In 1920 J. Y. Copeman, Walter Paterson, and Geo. Clark, all of Vancouver Island
and members of the ' United Farmers of B.C.,' were associated with the Board at their
meeting and also in the subsequent efforts to effect an amalgamation of interests
between the two bodies that were carried on for some years.
" In 1921 A. D. Clyde died, being replaced by 0. B. Appleton, who is still on the
Board, while A. B. Smith was replaced by A. Taylor, of Wilmer.
" In 1922 the changes on the Board included H. L. Frank, of Terrace, for District
' B ';  G. H. Outram for District ' C ';  and J. Goldie, Okanagan Centre, succeeded Lionel R 14 • BRITISH COLUMBIA.
E. Taylor, who had resigned, for District ' G.'   U.F. representatives this year were
J. Y. Copeman and E. W. Neel, of Cowichan.
" In 1923 R. J. Blackburn (District ' C ') replaced Mr. Outram. On his death in
the winter of 1924 his son, R. Blackburn, was elected and is still on the Board; whilst
D.- 0. Bricker sat for District ' I' and Mr. M. P. Williams, of Winfield, replaced Mr.
Goldie in District ' G.'
" The year 1925 showed Dr. R. C. Bamford, of Smithers, replacing H. L. Frank in
District ' B,' while A. B. Smith was re-elected for District ' I.'
" In 1927 the changes in the Board this year were the election of W. C. Little, who
replaced Mr. Frank (District 'B'), and at the second meeting of the Board J. W.
Turner (' Happy Turner ') took Mr. Little's place.
" In 1928 a new District ' H ' was created in the Lillooet-Cariboo area, where many
new institutes had been organized through the energy of C. C. Kelley, then District
Agriculturist at Williams Lake. The district formerly named ' H ' was amalgamated
with ' F,' West Kootenay. This year also, on October 23rd, the Minister officially
designated by notice in the B.C. Gazette the areas covered by district institutes.
" Year 1929. There were a good many changes in the Board this year. Jas.
Bailey, member for District ' E ' and Chairman of the Board, resigned owing to ill-
health, Mr. H. Bose, of Surrey, replacing him; whilst 0. B. Appleton (District ' F')
was elected Chairman.
" C. E. Whitney Griffiths (District ' A' and Secretary of the Board since its
reconstitution in 1917) resigned, his seat for District ' A ' being filled by R. U. Hurford,
well-known dairyman of Courtenay, while Wm. J. Bonavia took on the secretaryship.
J. M. Yorston, of Australian, also was elected for District ' H.'
" There was some agitation this year for the separation of District ' E ' (Lower
Mainland) into two areas, north and south of the Fraser River, but without result;
and a committee of the Board was also appointed to inquire into a resolution asking
for the creation of a new district to be formed by taking away some of the institutes
from District ' D ' and adding them to the Shuswap and North Okanagan areas. This
new area was not officially created, however, until 1935.
" Year 1930. Changes in the Board's personnel this year included E. W. Neel taking
Mr. Hurford's seat in District ' A '; C. J. Killer being elected for District ' B '; and A.
Wolfenden, of Brisco, replacing A. B. Smith in District ' I.' Mr. Wolfenden, however,
had no opportunity of attending as Board member, there being no fall meetings held
in 1931 or 1932.
" Year 1932. District ' J ' (Peace River) was officially recognized this year, many
institutes having been organized recently there.
" Year 1934. Dr. W. B. McKechnie, of Armstrong, replaced M. P. Williams in
District 'G'; the latter had been a member since 1923, and his well-balanced arguments and knowledge of the sheep industry at Board meetings had contributed much
to the discussions. Mr. Williams died the following year. W. A. Day took his seat
for District ' J ' and R. C. Biss succeeded Mr. Yorston for District ' H,' while A. B.
Smith, re-elected again for District ' I,' became Chairman of the Board.
" Year 1936. T. Jamieson, of Pouce Coupe, was Board member for District ' J '
this year, J. McKinnon representing the rearranged District ' G,' now known as
' Shuswap-Okanagan,' while K. Wallace, of District ' F,' attended the Board meeting
by special invitation.
" Year 1937. This was a year of several changes again; D. E. MacKenzie sat as
alternate member for District ' E '; C. H. Helgesen took Mr. Neel's seat for District
' A,' and W. F. Palmer, of Heffley Creek, replaced Mr. W. Harrison for District ' D.'
"Year 1938. H. Bose was back again this year; J. W. Miller, of Tappen, represented District 'G'; H. D. Evans, of Duncan, took Mr. Helgesen's place in District
' A,' and W. Hogg, of Australian, sat for District ' H.' This year also R. Blackburn
was elected Chairman of the Board. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 15
" Year 1939. There was no Board meeting but, in 1940, H. P. Allberry replaced
Mr. Evans (District ' A') ; D. E. MacKenzie now sat for District ' E '; R. Wood, of
Armstrong, took Mr. Miller's place (District ' G '), and W. Dicken, of Fernie, replaced
A. B. Smith  (District 'I').
" In 1941 there was again no meeting of the Board, but in 1942 S. Pickles, of
Saanichton, took Mr. Allberry's seat (District ' A ') whilst C. J. Killer was elected
Chairman.
"Year 1942. There were two Board meetings this year; at the second one J.
Woodburn, of Salmon Arm, sat as alternate member for District ' G,' whilst W. Hogg
was elected Chairman.
" For the year 1943 the reported changes on the Board show J. Woodburn replacing Mr. Wood in District ' G ' and T. Cameron, Cranbrook, taking Mr. Dicken's seat
in District ' I.' "
DOMINION-PROVINCIAL CONFERENCE.
The Dominion-Provincial conference, to arrange agricultural objectives for 1944,
was held during December 6th, 7th, 8th at the Chateau Laurier in Ottawa. Delegates
from British Columbia included the Minister of Agriculture, the Deputy Minister, and
Director of Dominion-Provincial Emergency Farm Labour Service.
Farm labour was this year a limiting factor in crop production and it will have
an even greater effect during 1944, if the war continues. In the production of meat,
dairy products, eggs, vegetables, fruits, etc., it is a question of securing the necessary
labour for maximum yields.
The objective for 1944 will be shown in a subsequent report, but for purposes of
record the 1943 objectives are shown below:—
Estimate, 1942.
Objective, 1943.
Increase for 1943.
98,400 head
50,200    ,,
68,800    „
5,350,000 lb.
22,371,000 doz.
2,670,000 lb.
73,300 acres
22,900    ,,
400    „
15,100    „
69,800    „
6,400    „
$725,000
1,333,600 lb.
125,950 head
56,200    „
75,000    „
6,152,500 1b.
28,858,600 doz.
2,937,000 lb.
82,100 acres
25,400    „
.764    „
16,800    „
81,700    „
7,000    „
$1,000,000
1,600,000 lb.
Per Cent.
28
12
9
Butter                    	
15
29
10
Oats ....	
12
91
11
Alfalfa                                          	
17
10
38
The procedure at the 1943 conference followed closely that of former conferences
with Provincial Departments of Agriculture indicating as far as possible to adjust
Provincial programmes to the objectives which are reached for Canada as a whole.
HOG PRODUCTION.
On October 22nd it was announced that negotiations with the British Ministry of
Food for the new bacon contract were being based on a considerable reduction in the
total quantity of bacon during the next two years and that restrictions on the slaughter
of hogs for consumption in Canada would be rescinded. The contract with the British
Ministry of Supply will be for a two-year period for not less than 900,000,000 lb. of
bacon and ham at $22.50 per hundred. The ceiling prices to the consumer in Canada
will not be affected. R 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
It is pointed out by Ottawa that the 900,000,000 lb. is not a maximum figure and
the British Ministry of Food is not restricting Canada to this quantity. It is expected
that at least 500,000,000 lb. of bacon will be supplied to Great Britain during the first
year of the contract period. It is, therefore, confidently expected that hog marketings
will be maintained for the next two years at approximately the 1943 level.
While labour and feed difficulties may lead to the curtailment of production in
certain areas it can generally be maintained at as high a level as possible, since there
need be no fear that production will exceed the requirements.
EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS.
On account of the epidemic of equine encephalomyelitis it was decided five years
ago to permit the importation of horses into British Columbia only after a certificate
of vaccination of each of the animals had been received. These certificates are issued
by veterinarians, or in cases where the horses are vaccinated by private individuals
a declaration before a notary or other competent person is required. To date we have
issued 990 permits allowing horses, mainly from the Prairie Provinces, to enter.
Some of these covered race-horses which have been returned to the place of origin,
but most of them are for work animals or for breeding animals and have added to the
horse population of British Columbia.
To date there has been no serious outbreak of sleeping sickness among the horses
of British Columbia and it is believed that the Department of Agriculture, by strictly
carrying out the policy of allowing no horses to come into the Province from infected
areas except after vaccination and upon a permit being issued, has definitely curbed
the spread of this disease.
VANCOUVER ISLAND T.B.-FREE AREA.
By arrangement with the Federal Health of Animals Branch the Provincial Department of Agriculture has had 11,600 cattle subjected to the tuberculin test for bovine
tuberculosis within the Vancouver Island T.B.-free Area. The work was started in
late August and to date there have been four reactors uncovered. This indicates a very
satisfactory condition among the cattle on the Island with regard to bovine tuberculosis.
IMPORTED EGGS.
In accordance with the " Eggs Marks Act," chapter 82, R.S.B.C. 1936, and amendments thereto, imported eggs and egg products entering British Columbia by the
Pacific Coast ports are examined upon arrival. If found to comply with the regulations as set out in the above Act they are released to the importer, or otherwise held
until the requirements have been fulfilled.
There were no arrivals of imported eggs or egg products reported at the ports of
Vancouver or Victoria during the past ten months, such arrivals at Victoria are supervised and recorded through the courtesy of John Noble, Federal District Inspector at
that port, and reported at the end of each calendar month to the Provincial Egg
Inspector, Court-house, Vancouver.
STAFF CHANGES.
It is with regret we report that on November 14th, 1943, Paul Churchill Black,
born August 13th, 1865, at Moncton, N.B., formerly Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, passed away at his Victoria residence.
We also regret to record the death of Max Ruhmann (on December 6th), who was
Provincia] Entomologist, and who was recently superannuated from the Service.
Appointments.—February 1st, I. J. Ward, Entomologist; March 1st, A. Copley,
Junior Clerk;   March 8th, T. Menzies, Senior Clerk;   March 1st, G. Patchett, Dairy DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 17
Inspector; April 1st, H. E. Waby, District Agriculturist; May 1st, K. H. Thompson,
Veterinary Inspector; April 15th, Mrs. D. E. Johnston, Stenographer; July 1st, J. S.
Allin, District Agriculturist; August 1st, Miss D. Leonard, Stenographer; September
lst, Miss G. F. Turcotte, Stenographer; October 1st, Miss D. V. Smith, Stenographer;
October 1st, J. A. Smith, Field Inspector; November 15th, Miss M. Syrnyk, Stenographer;   December 1st, Miss M. Stewart, Stenographer.
Resignations.—February 28th, E. C. Chamberlayne, Veterinary Inspector; February 28th, Mrs. A. B. Pinchbeck, Stenographer; February 28th, D. F. Anderson, Junior
Clerk; June 9th, Miss E. Carey, Stenographer; June 30th, Miss D. Anderson, Stenographer; July 31st, A. Copley, Junior Clerk; September 30th, Mrs. D. Moore, Stenographer;   September 30th, H. E. Waby, District Agriculturist.
Superannuated.—March 31st, M. H. Ruhmann, Entomologist.
EMERGENCY FARM LABOUR.
Owing to the situation brought about as a result of war services depleting farm
labour it was found necessary to appoint a director of the Dominion-Provincial Farm
Labour Board in March, 1943. William MacGillivray, of Salmon Arm, was delegated
to direct this work. He was given leave of absence from the Department of Agriculture on April 1st, 1943, and he spent all of his time on farm labour matters. Associated with Mr. MacGillivray was Ernest MacGinnis, Markets Commissioner, whose
services were-loaned to the Dominion-Provincial Farm Labour Board, with his salary
being paid from the Department of Agriculture. Mr. MacGinnis has served in the
capacity of Farm Labour Secretary for nine months; also S. S. Phillips, Assistant
Field Crops Commissioner, was loaned to the Board for a period of three months,
during which time he carried on his regular departmental duties and acted as fieldman
supervising farm labour on Vancouver Island.
SOIL SURVEY.
This year the Provincial Department of Agriculture again co-operated with the
Federal Experimental Farms Branch in extending the soil survey to the west from the
Vanderhoof District. We were assisted in our labours by Dr. D. G. Laird, of the
University of British Columbia, who remained in the field for a period of more than
three months. During that season a total of approximately 750,000 acres was examined,
of which nearly one-half was considered to have agricultural value.
A memorandum prepared for the use of the Premier showed an area of approximately 2,500,000 acres as having been soil surveyed during the past four years in
the Central British Columbia area, between Prince George and Hazelton. Much of this
land is of considerable value for mixed farming purposes, and it has been recommended
to the Rehabilitation Committee for use in any agricultural plan that is decided upon
for post-war purposes.
REPORT OF PLANT INSPECTION SERVICE.
The following report for the year 1943 from January 1st to December 31st,
inclusive, has been prepared by G. V. Wilby, M.Sc. It covers the work carried on by
the Vancouver office of the Plant Inspection Service.
This report gives the data relating to imported nursery stock, exported nursery
stock, exported plant products, and interprovincial nursery stock from Ontario and
points east thereof.
There has been a considerable decrease in the importations of nursery stock this
last year over the corresponding period.of 1942. There was, however, a slight increase
in fruit-trees, ornamental stock, ornamental seedlings, roots, and peach-pits. Although
the quantity of nursery stock is less, the total value of the shipments is greater. R 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Exports of nursery stock for the past year have decreased in quantity and number
of shipments, but some large shipments of vegetable-seeds to Russia and Mexico have
caused a considerable increase in the total value.
Interprovincial shipments of nursery stock from points east of Manitoba show
a very great increase in bulbs for field planting. An increase is also noted in the
quantities of ornamental stock, roots, and vegetable stock for propagation. The greater
volume of potato-eyes and onion sets is approximately five times that of last year.
In spite of these increases, however, the number of shipments and total value show'
a marked decrease.
Surveys.
The pear psylla (Psylla pyricola Forest) survey, started in 1940, was continued
during the past year under the auspices of the Dominion of Canada and Provincial
Departments of Agriculture, in co-operation with the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine of the United States Department of Agriculture.
Funds and equipment were supplied by the United States Government, together
with the operators of the sprayers. These sprayings were carried cut, beginning in
June and the final spraying being completed in November.
By means of trap-boards a check was kept of the occurrences of the pear psylla
on sixty-one separate properties. Nine new infestations were found during late
August and early September, as follows: Keremeos, 2; Okanagan Falls, 3; Kaleden, 2;
Penticton, 2.
The practice of regular inspection of grain elevators in New Westminster, Vancouver, and Victoria has shown very satisfactory results. Recent surveys have shown
only slight infestations of mites and practically no grain-moths. For the most part
the elevators are kept very clean.
Items of Interest.
In 1943 the limited supplies of imported walnuts and peanuts, which have been
inspected in this Province, originated in India. For the most part they were infested
with Tribolium beetle, Ephestia and Plodia moths. In all cases these shipments were
fumigated and reconditioned. The cars were steamed out before they were released
to the transportation companies.
Due to lack of transportation facilities, large quantities of sheep pelts, raw wool,
and other animal products have had to be held in Vancouver in various warehouses.
An outbreak of larder beetles and moths occurred in certain of these shipments. The
prompt action of the warehousemen in following instructions from this Department
soon brought these insects under control.
Isolated outbreaks of spider-beetles occurred again this year in certain storage
plants. Infested stock was isolated and suitable control measures were adopted.
A re-examination of the warehouses failed to show evidence of live beetles.
An infestation of flea-beetles occurring in the Sumas area, reported in November,
caused considerable damage to potato stock intended for export.
Eighteen shipments of grain to the United Kingdom were inspected as the ships
were being loaded. Since most of the ships are new, examinations of the holds has
only been necessary in a few instances.
This year several large shipments of alfalfa and vegetable seeds have gone to
Russia for the Russian War Relief. In this connection a series of lectures was given
in March at the Dominion Seed Laboratory to assist Inspectors in gaining knowledge
of the technique used in examination of seeds and plants in relation to seed-borne
diseases.
During the low point in citrus fruit importations from the U.S.A. this fall shipments of oranges and grapefruit were brought in to Vancouver from Mexico.    These DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 19
were  not  crated   and  were   inferior  to  the   American   fruit,   both   in   quality  and
appearance.
Shipping News.
For the year ended December 31st, 1943, 1,015 deep sea and coastwise vessels
docked at Vancouver. Of this number, none brought nursery stock and forty brought
plant products as part of their cargo. This represents a drop from the totals of last
year.
Passengers' baggage imported from the United States included two via Great
Northern Railway. One consisted of two ornamental shrubs and the other of 5 lb.
of carrot-seed.    Both shipments were released after inspection.
Imported Nursery Stock.
The following table covers the period from January 1st to December 31st, 1943:—
Fruit-trees   44,572
Small fruits  234,873
Ornamental trees and shrubs  553
Roses  22
Fruit seedlings   117,590
Ornamental seedlings   300
Plants   837,526
Roots   300,861
Bulbs   32,150
Scions   852
Total     1,569,299
Miscellaneous.
Peach-pits (10,283 lb.)  or 719,810*
Potato-eyes   7 lb.
Wild-rice seed   104 lb.
Inspections .  344
Containers   1,078
Value   $24,746.35
The  countries  of  origin  for the  importations  in   1943  were: Australia,   Eire,
England, Ireland, -Scotland, and the United States of America.
REPORT OF STATISTICIAN.
By George H. Stewart, Provincial Statistician.
This report contains statistics of the agricultural industries of the Province of
British Columbia. These statistics relate to areas of land under crop and under
cultivation; production of the various crops;  animals, and animal products.
The data shown for the years 1941-42 relating to the area of field crops and
numbers of farm live stock is based on information returned from farmers and is
prepared in co-operation with the Dominion Bureau of Statistics.
The total gross value of agricultural production in British Columbia in 1942
exceeded that of any previous year. Estimated at $73,748,235, the 1942 total is
$15,245,358 or 26 per cent, above the revised estimate of $58,502,877 for 1941.
* Upon instructions from Ottawa, peach-pits in future are to he reported as " so many peach-pits " estimating
70 to the pound. R 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Increases are recorded in the revenue from farm animals, poultry and eggs, dairy
products, fruits and vegetables, field crops, honey, wool, fur-farming, and seeds.
A decrease is shown in the revenue from tobacco.   -
The total value of imports is placed at $29,768,618, as compared with $22,720,110
in 1941, an increase of $7,048,508 or 31 per cent.
Imports from other Provinces are valued at $27,976,058, compared with $21,068,649
in 1941, while imports from foreign points increased from $1,651,461 in 1941 to
$1,792,560 in 1942.
The total value of exports is placed at $14,380,765, while in 1941 the e'stimated
value was $11,648,588. This represents an increase of $2,732,177 or 23.4 per cent.
The 1942 values are the highest ever recorded.
FRUITS.
From a horticultural standpoint the climatic conditions Were most variable.
The fall of 1941 was extremely wet. The winter was, on the whole, mild with light
snowfall in the Interior sections and less rainfall in the Coast area than is usually
experienced at this time of the year. Dry weather and mild conditions generally permitted the early starting of spring work, but growth on the whole was late in comparison with 1941.
Unsettled weather with heavy rains was experienced in all districts up to the
middle of July. From that date until the end of October there was continuous dry
weather. This was very satisfactory for harvesting crops, but in the case of the apple
and seed crops undoubtedly caused a general reduction over early estimates of
production. During the month of November there was moderate rainfall in the Coast
sections with light snowfall in some of the Interior areas.
The apple-crop in all sections was smaller than anticipated. In the Okanagan
indications were for a heavy crop. At picking-time the crop was much smaller than
was forecast by spring and summer estimates. This was due largely to the dry
weather conditions which prevailed for the two months previous to harvesting. In the
Kootenay sections the crop was also materially reduced by disease as well as by the
drought conditions which were general there as well as in other areas. A reduction of
approximately 20 per cent, from original estimates is indicated from the amount of
fruit picked.
The crab-apple crop was considerably larger than in 1941 and prices were higher
than those of last year.
The crop of pears, plums, prunes, and cherries was lighter than that of the
previous year. Harvesting was carried out satisfactorily and the returns for these
fruits were better than in 1941. Peaches and apricots were a heavy crop in all sections
and of exceptional quality.    Market demand for this fruit was good.
In the main small-fruit areas of the Fraser Valley the small-fruit industry has
been largely in the hands of Japanese growers. Due to war conditions it was found
necessary to move these aliens to points away from the Coast. The result was that
many plantings of small fruits originally owned by Japanese were either partly or
wholly neglected, with resultant loss of crop. These difficulties, together with unsettled
weather at harvesting-time, reduced the tonnage below the anticipated crop in all cases.
The production of strawberries and loganberries was less, while that of raspberries and
blackberries was slightly larger than that of the previous year. Prices generally were
higher than in 1941.
The total production of all fruits in 1942 amounted to 321,484,000 lb., valued at
$12,209,696, as compared with 271,258,000 lb., valued at $8,350,522, in 1941, indicating
an increase of 50,226,000 lb. or 18.5 per cent, in volume and $3,859,174 or 46.2 per cent,
in value. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 21
The total production of commercial apples for 1942 is estimated at 243,950,000 lb.,
of a value of $7,637,384, as compared with 188,106,000 lb., value $4,484,187, in 1941.
Of the other fruits, the estimated commercial production and value for 1942 are as
follows, with corresponding figures for 1941 within brackets: Crab-apples, 6,082,000
lb., $152,326 (4,360,000, $96,812) ; pears, 15,958,000 lb., $809,040 (16,622,000, $571,-
230) ; plums, 2,924,000 lb., $121,206 (5,166,000, $128,341) ; prunes, 6,028,000 lb.,
$289,439 (10,814,000, $380,758) ; peaches, 19,156,000 lb., $876,286 (13,974,000, $572,-
336) ; apricots, 4,876,000 lb., $226,744 (3,798,000, $153,607) ; cherries, 4,578,000 lb.,
$525,563 (4,994,000, $424,580) ; strawberries, 7,352,000 lb., $693,089 (13,924,000,
$930,099) ; raspberries, 3,998,000 lb., $441,435 (3,532,000, $293,483) ; blackberries,
826,000 lb., $57,955 (778,000, $42,590) ; loganberries, 1,950,000 lb., $154,268 (2,014,000,
$112,251) ;   bush-fruits, 3,618,000 lb., $205,824 (2,964,000, $145,142).
VEGETABLES.
On the Coast the season was fairly satisfactory. The mild open winter permitted
the early preparation of land. The broccoli-crop matured satisfactorily and no serious
damage was done by the freeze in January. Unsettled weather at seeding and planting
time, and to some extent throughout the early part of the season, was not conducive to
rapid development. Production, however, was on the whole good and exceeded that of
any previous year. Increases are recorded in the production of such vegetable-crops
as beets, cabbages, carrots, corn, parsnips, spinach, and turnips.
In the Interior the onion acreage excelled last year's but tonnage was under
expectations. Fall-planted onions produced an excellent crop of large-size uniform
onions, but there were more of them than could be marketed through ordinary channels
and many were shipped to the evaporator.
Spring-seeded onions made excellent growth until the hot weather in August.
Thrips became numerous and mildew suddenly stopped growth. Onions at this time
were only two-thirds to three-quarters grown and did not develop further. This small
size accounts for the reduced yield. Harvesting weather was the best in years, practically no rain falling since the onions were pulled.
The cold, wet spring weather retarded growth of tomato plants and the crop was
late in starting. From late July to the end of September favourable weather prevailed,
but there was not time to make up for the late start. The bulk of the canning-crop
was harvested in September and late-picked tomatoes never have the quality of those
harvested in August. As was the case last year, the demand for canning was greater
than the supply, and though not a satisfactory tomato year it was an improvement
over 1941.
The lettuce and celery acreage was very little larger than last year and the crops
somewhat below the average in quality. Celery blight was general in the principal
plantings at Armstrong and Kelowna. Asparagus yields were also below normal, due
to unsatisfactory conditions during the cutting period.
Greenhouse vegetables such as tomatoes and cucumbers were produced in quantities approximately equal to last year and marketed at higher prices than in 1941.
The aggregate of all vegetable-crops for the year 1942 was 84,265 tons, of a value
of $4,476,393, as compared with 76,359 tons, of a value of $3,431,554, produced in 1941,
indicating an increase of 7,906 tons or 10.3 per cent, in volume and $1,044,839 or 30.4
per cent, in value.
The production of field rhubarb is estimated at 1,160 tons, of a value of $56,121,
as compared with 1,107 tons, valued at $40,262, in 1941.
A decrease of 52 tons is recorded in the quantity of forced rhubarb produced. The
1942 crop amounted to 443 tons, valued at $44,433. R 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The quantity of field cucumbers produced in 1942 amounted to 1,333 tons, of a
value of $103,761, an increase of 16 tons over the previous year.
Production of hothouse cucumbers in 1942 amounted to 306 tons, of a value of
$45,236, as compared with 310 tons, value $36,382, in 1941.
Field tomatoes produced amounted to 23,564 tons, as against 23,626 tons in 1941,
a decrease of 62 tons.
The production of hothouse tomatoes in 1942 amounted to 1,944 tons, valued at
$531,976, as compared with the 1941 production of 2,087 tons, valued at $456,552.
Other vegetables produced in 1942 amounted to 55,515 tons, valued at $2,779,640,
as against 47,417 tons, of a value of $2,095,357, in 1941, representing an increase in
quantity production of 8,098 tons, or 17.1 per cent.
GRAINS, FODDERS, AND ROOTS.
The early part of the season was considerably later than in 1941 and cool, wet
weather was experienced until the end of June. The fine, warm days of July brought
the crops along and at the end of the month field crop prospects were generally excellent. Weather conditions favoured harvesting and the principal crops showed better
yields than in 1941.
The total area of the principal field crops in British Columbia in 1942 is estimated
at 545,300 acres, as compared with 517,600 acres in 1941, an increase of 27,700 acres.
Wheat production in 1942 is estimated at 2,579,000 bushels from 90,500 acres, a
yield per acre of 28.5 bushels, as compared with 2,120,000 bushels from 84,800 acres or
25 bushels per acre in 1941. Oats yielded 3,819,000 bushels from 73,300 acres, as
compared with 3,725,000 bushels from 81,500 acres in 1941; yields per acre of 52.1
bushels and 45.7 bushels respectively. The yield of barley is estimated at 854,000
bushels from 22,900 acres, as compared with 592,000 bushels from 18,000 acres in
1941; the average yields per acre being 37.3 bushels and 32.9 bushels. Rye is estimated to have yielded 45,000 bushels from 2,000 acres, as compared with 101,000
bushels from 4,800 acres in 1941; yields per acre of 22.3 bushels and 21 bushels respectively. The production of mixed grains is estimated at 253,000 bushels from 6,200
acres, or 40.8 bushels per acre, as compared with 176,000 bushels from 4,700 acres, or
37.5 bushels per acre, in 1941. The yields of other grain-crops, in bushels, are as
follows, with the 1941 figures within brackets: Peas, 148,000 (127,000) ; beans, 15,000
(24,100);   flax-seed, 30,000 (34,000).
The production of all grains amounted to 7,743,000 bushels, valued at $4,746,000,
as compared with a production of 6,899,100 bushels, valued at $4,061,000, in 1941.
The total yield of hay and clover in 1942 amounted to 484,000 tons from 218,000
acres, or 2.22 tons per acre, as compared with 400,000 tons from 193,000 acres, or 2.07
tons per acre in 1941. Alfalfa yielded 221,000 tons from 69,800 acres, or 3.16 tons per
acre, as compared with 200,000 tons from 65,700 acres, or 3.05 tons per acre, in 1941.
Fodder corn yielded 47,000 tons from 4,400 acres, or 10.65 tons per acre, as compared
with 53,000 tons from 4,600 acres, or 11.53 tons per acre, in 1941. Grain-hay is estimated to have yielded 68,000 tons from 30,000 acres, as compared with 71,000 tons from
32,300 acres in 1941;  yields per acre of 2.25 tons and 2.19 tons respectively.
The production of all fodders amounted to 820,000 tons, valued at $9,396,000, as
compared with 724,000 tons, valued at $7,604,000, produced in 1941.
The total yield of potatoes in 1942 was 75,500 tons from 15,100 acres, as compared
with 74,900 tons from 15,600 acres in 1941; the yields per acre being 5 tons and 4.80
tons respectively.
Turnips, mangels, etc., yielded 39,800 tons from 3,900 acres, or 10.20 tons per acre,
as compared with 34,650 tons from 3,500 acres, or 9.90 tons per acre, in 1941. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 23
The average prices up to December 31st received by growers at the point of production for the 1942 crops are estimated as follows, with the revised prices for 1941
within brackets: Cents per bushel—wheat, 80 (75); oats, 44 (45); barley, 61 (60);
rye, 63 (64) ; peas, 160 (151); beans, 190 (180); flax-seed, 185 (153) ; mixed grains,
52 (50). Dollars per ton—hay and clover, 12 (11) ; alfalfa, 12.25 (11.50) ; fodder
corn, 5 (5) ;  grain-hay, 9.50 (9) ;  potatoes, 45 (28) ;  turnips, etc., 15 (12).
The aggregate value of all field crops in 1942 is now estimated at $18,137,000, as
compared with $14,178,000 in 1941, an increase of $3,959,000.
DAIRY PRODUCTS.
The season of 1942 shows little increase in annual total production of dairy
produce, although the value of all products is sensibly greater. Creamery butter has
given more than its ordinary annual increase to evaporated milk, the output of which
is accordingly higher. Cheese and ice-cream have gained appreciably, the latter largely
owing to service supply. Fluid-milk requirements increased considerably in all parts
and much disturbance of ordinary marketing arrangements and of manufactures has
been experienced.
Much uncertainty as to the future of dairy demands exists with dissatisfaction at
the unprecedented shortage of experienced labour and the wages needed by such help
as is available. It is felt generally that returns are not commensurate with expenses
in the production of milk for the wholesale fluid market or even for manufacturing.
The dispersal and sale of dairy herds, concerning which many rumours have been
afloat, has not proceeded at any rate calculated to damage the industry. The transfer
to the services or to industry of dairy farm owners and workers has necessitated
readjustment and the prices paid for cows as beef have caused the slaughter of more
dairy animals than is usual.
The total value of dairy production in 1942 is placed at $17,662,371, as compared
with $16,209,733 in 1941, an increase of $1,452,638 or 8.9 per cent.
The butter output of creameries in 1942 was 5,357,027 lb., as compared with
6,062,442 lb. in 1941, a decrease of 705,415 lb. or 11.6 per cent.
Factory cheese is estimated at 879,787 lb. in 1942, as compared with the final
estimate of 719,528 lb. for the year previous, an increase of 160,259 lb. or 22.2 per cent.
The production of evaporated milk reached an all-time high. The output of the
condenseries for 1942 was 603,467 cases, valued at $2,413,868, as compared with 581,806
cases, valued at $2,094,502, in 1941.
Ice-cream totals were likewise higher than during any previous season. The combined output of ice-cream and ice-cream mix for the year 1942 amounted to 1,412,705
gallons, valued at $1,612,348, as against 1,357,812 gallons, valued at $1,533,621, in 1941.
The quantity of fresh milk consumed in 1942 was 23,525,000 gallons, showing an
increase over the previous year of 1,660,000 gallons.
LIVE STOCK AND POULTRY.
The total numbers and values of farm live stock in British Columbia at June 1st,
1942, are estimated as follows, with the corresponding figures for 1941 within brackets:
Horses, 62,000, $5,022,000 (62,145, $4,661,000) ; milk cows, 92,500, $7,215,000 (87,623,
$5,432,000) ; other cattle, 236,500, $12,061,000 (229,834, $10,113,000) ; total cattle,
329,000, $19,276,000 (317,457, $15,545,000) ; sheep, 125,500, $1,162,000 (123,116,
$1,090,000) ;  hogs, 82,000, $1,550,000 (78,542, $1,237,000).
The total value of all these descriptions of farm live stock in 1942 amounted to
$27,010,000, as compared with $22,533,000 in 1941, an increase of $4,477,000 or 19.8
per cent. R 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total numbers and values of farm poultry in 1942 are estimated as follows,
with the 1941 figures in brackets: Hens and chickens, 2,968,000, $2,820,000 (2,777,591,
$2,222,000) ; turkeys, 53,300, $165,000 (42,103, $116,000) ; geese, 7,000, $16,000 (6,828,
$14,000) ;   ducks, 18,600, $19,000 (19,610, $20,000).
The total value of all farm poultry in 1942 amounted to $3,020,000, as compared
with $2,372,000 in 1941, an increase of $648,000 or 27.3 per cent.
As compared with 1941 the following increases are recorded in the numbers of
farm live stock and poultry: Milk cows, 4,877; other cattle, 6,666; sheep, 2,384; hogs,
3,458;  hens and chickens, 190,409;   turkeys, 11,197.
The average farm values per head of live stock and poultry in 1942 are as follows,
with the 1941 values in brackets: Horses, $81 ($75); milk cows, $78 ($62); other
cattle, $51 ($44) ; all cattle, $59 ($49) ; sheep, $9.26 ($8.85) ; hogs, $18.90 ($15.75) ;
hens and chickens, $0.95 ($0.80) ; turkeys, $3.10 ($2.75) ; geese, $2.30 ($2) ; ducks,
$1.04 ($1).
The production of farm eggs in 1942 is estimated at 22,376,000 dozens, valued at
$6,937,000, as compared with 20,848,000 dozens,, valued at $5,108,000, in 1941; indicating an increase in quantity production of 1,528,000 dozens or 7.3 per cent.
MISCELLANEOUS.
Honey production in 1942 is estimated at 1,333,600 lb., of a value of $280,100, as
compared with 1,169,040 lb., of a value of $210,427, in 1941; an increase of 164,560 lb.
or 14 per cent.
The quantity of wool produced amounted to 507,000 lb., of a value of $130,000, as
compared with the 1941 production of 459,000 lb., valued at $101,000.
Seasonal conditions were not at all favourable to the growth and development of
the 1942 hop-crop and, as a result, yields were below normal. Hops yielded 1,202,700
lb. from 1,564 acres, as compared with 1,596,400 lb. from 1,506 acres in 1941; yields
per acre of 769 lb. and 1,060 lb. respectively. The average value per pound of hops in
1942 is estimated at 55^ cents, as compared with 35 cents in 1941.
The yield of tobacco in 1942 is estimated at 373,000 lb. from 360 acres, or 1,036
lb. per acre, as compared with 766,200 lb. from 640 acres, or 1,197 lb. per acre, in 1941.
Due to increased planting in 1942 and satisfactory harvesting weather the estimated value of seed production greatly exceeded that of the previous year.
The total value of flower, vegetable, and field-crop seed production for the year
1942 amounted to $901,515, as against $615,033 in 1941; an increase of $286,482 or
46.5 per cent.
The value of floricultural and ornamental nursery stock, etc., sold during 1942
amounted to $493,468, an increase of $160,974 over the year previous.
The revenue derived from fur-farming during the year is placed at $294,000, as
compared with a value of $256,000 in 1941, an increase of $38,000 or 14.8 per cent.
REPORT OF MARKETS BRANCH.
Ernest MacGinnis, Markets Commissioner.
Changed conditions in the marketing of agricultural products because of war
economy has given the Markets Branch an opportunity to participate in the various
activities which connect production to distribution and marketing, Planned production, adequate labour supply, and even distribution of agricultural products may be
compared to the three legs of a stool. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 25
Through the Agricultural Production Committee which has given the lead in
developing new types of crops, such as fibre flax, and advising with regard to standard
production, this Branch has been closely in touch with war-time planning of agricultural crops in this Province. Reference was made in the 1942 report to a survey of
farm labour undertaken then by the Committee, and which disclosed an astounding
condition—eight men gone from every ten farms. This report was widely quoted and
formed the basis for representations which were forerunners to the new Dominion-
Provincial Farm Labour set-up operating in 1943.
During the year just concluded, farm labour, the third leg of the stool, has been
added to the responsibilities of the Branch and much time given to this important
phase of food production.
Starting in April and continuing throughout the year, your Commissioner has
acted as Secretary of the Dominion-Provincial Farm Labour Service in Vancouver and
charged with the responsibility of setting up a system of records to take care of the
registration and placing of about 10,000 men, women, and boys and girls in harvesting
of farm crops throughout the Province. He also assumed the responsibilities of the
Director during the absences of Mr. MacGillivray on organization and inspection work,
in this way becoming entirely familiar with the problem and methods adopted for its
alleviation.
It was possible in January to attend the annual meetings of the Dairy Farmers and
Canadian Federation of Agriculture in Calgary, and again in August to take a hurried
trip as far east as Winnipeg to get first-hand information on the marketing of the fruit
and vegetable crop on the Prairie. As in the past, the staff of the Dominion Fruit and
Vegetable Inspection Branch has co-operated very fully in supplying the Branch with
weekly reports of prices and crop movements in their respective areas. Though the
Markets Bulletin in which these were formerly printed is not issued at present, the
information thus supplied gives a constant picture of conditions on the Prairies.
During the 1942 season Tree Fruits, Limited, merchandised 8,000,000 boxes and
crates of apples and stone-fruits, with a value of over $10,000,000, representing 10,320
car-lots. In addition to this splendid showing, the organization marketed on the
Prairies for the Interior Vegetable Marketing Board a very heavy tonnage of vegetables, including approximately 10,000 tons of sacked and heavy crates, vegetables,
besides lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers, celery, beans and peas (50-lb. sacks), bunched
vegetables, corn, peppers, eggplant, etc.
An interesting breakdown of the proportion of various fruits going out as packed
and to canneries has been prepared by Tree Fruits, Limited, covering the years 1939,
1940, 1941, and 1942 and is shown in Table A. R 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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The Interior Vegetable Marketing Board to November 30th, 1942, sales for the
twelve months amounted to $605,432.69 compared with $413,613.52 to that date in
1941. Included in this were 8,171 tons of potatoes, 5,839 tons of onions, and 842 tons
of cabbage. The total 1941 season potato turnover was 10,483 tons of potatoes, 8,606
tons of onions, and 700 tons of cabbage.
Over 19,000 tons of tomatoes, 1,869 tons of onions, and 504 tons of cabbage were
directed by the Board to processing plants in the season to November 30th, 1942.
Pears.—British Columbia participation in Canada's pear production in 1941 was
52 per cent.; 1942, 41 per cent.; and 1943, 40 per cent. The estimated yields being
332,000, 319,000, and 205,800 bushels respectively.
Cherries.—The wholesale seasonal average prices of cherries, Lambert and Bing,
four baskets, on the Prairie market were:—
Place.
Calgary 	
Edmonton 	
Saskatoon 	
Regina 	
Winnipeg .	
1942.
1943.
$4.27
-   $5.42
4.28
5.46
4.29
6.14
4.37
5.60
4.13
5.98
Apples.—Interprovincial car-lots rail shipments of the British Columbia 1942-43
season follows:—
Prince Edward Island  8
Nova Scotia   126
New Brunswick   96
Quebec   649
Ontario   507
Manitoba   850
Saskatchewan  721
Alberta   852
Total 3,809
During the same period Nova Scotia shipped five cars to Manitoba and one to
Saskatchewan; Ontario shipped eight cars to Manitoba and one to Saskatchewan.
The total interprovincial car-lot rail shipments of Nova Scotia, Ontario, and British
Columbia totalled 3,495 for 1941-42 and 4,709 for 1942-43.
From the 1942-43 season crop, Nova Scotia supplied 3,124,200 bushels in dehydrated apples and cider; Ontario, 627,000 bushels; and British Columbia supplied
396,000 bushels in various by-products.
The 1943 apple-crop was short almost 2,000,000 boxes, but by centralized marketing control it was possible through quotas to effect fair distribution as to area and
seasonal variety. Short crops of peaches (319,100 in 1942 and estimated 133,700 in
1943) and apricots (81,300 in 1942 and estimated 17,600 in 1943) were also distributed
to the best possible advantage through similar methods.
Strawberries.—The 1943 British Columbia crop has been estimated to be 52 per
cent, of 1942, and the Canadian crop 87 per cent, of 1942. Reasons for the decline in
British Columbia production was due to a combination of circumstances, the removal
of a large number of experienced growers from the Fraser Valley, lack of adequate
fertilization and cultivation, and fewer new plantings. Another condition which
affected the production and may have some bearing on next year's crop is the matter of
short-term leases.
Raspberries.—The 1943 raspberry-crop was slightly in excess of that produced in
1942 and constituted 38 per cent, of the Canadian crop.    Much of this fruit was packed R 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
in S02 for the jam-trade. Car-lot shipments were heavier than during the preceding
year, thirty-three cars having been shipped, giving excellent returns with $5.09 per
crate as compared with twenty-one cars at $2.92 in 1942.
Seasonal Average Wholesale Prices for Strawberries.
1942. 1943.
Calgary    $4.33 $6.79
Edmonton      4.31 7.01
Regina  '.     4.21 6.60
Winnipeg      4.11 6.80
The car-lot movement was forty-four cars as compared with forty-one cars in
1942, and 195 cars in 1941. The average per crate worked out at $4.84 as against
$2.71 in 1942 and $1.65 in 1941. No berries were allocated from the 1943 crop for
export to Britain. Greater consumer purchasing power kept the market bare and
prevented losses which could have been heavy otherwise.
Potatoes.—The production of potatoes in 1943 has been somewhat disturbed by
new elements. Many potatoes were grown on the north side of the Fraser River
with the expectation of supplying a dehydrator which had difficulty in securing essential
parts. Infestation of flea-beetle aggravated the situation. In the opinion of some,
the product of Victory Gardens slowed up the normal main crop movement, but due to
the unusual demand from the North and the Prairies, which absorbed over 150 cars,
this new feature had very little ultimate serious effect. It is interesting to note that
compared with 1940, British Columbia crop is down 11 per cent, and the estimated
production down 6 per cent. Whereas in Alberta, the 1943 potato-crop is up 18 per
cent, and the estimated production is up 24 per cent.
Potato ceiling, Zone 4, Vancouver: $10 to $15 increase over commercial allowed
for certified and foundation seed potatoes. Retailer may add 40 cents per 100-lb. sack;
25 cents per 50-lb. sack; 8 cents per 10-lb. sack or 8-10 cents on less than 10 lb. Delivered price, Vancouver: Netted Gems, $2.20 Canada No. 2, $2.40 No. 1; to this, the
wholesaler may add 20 cents per hundredweight. There is a 20-cent hundredweight
differential between Netted Gems and other potatoes.
It is interesting to note that the B.C. Coast Vegetable Marketing Board's turnover
in the period April 1st, 1942, to March 31st, 1943, amounted to over $1,000,000
(Table B), of which $761,168 was potatoes. The total cost of the Board was $25,390
or 0.02 per cent. .
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 29
Table B.
—Total Sales Value of
the Period April 1st,
Potatoes and Vegetables
1942, to March 31st, 1943.
SOLD DURING
Month.
Beets.
Carrots.
Turnips.
Onions.
Parsnips.
Cabbage.
Potatoes.
1942.
$18.00
$105.00
$1,305.25
$83.82
$10,751.17
$227.63
11,745.48
8,002.20
3,980.91
6,353.62
8,115.15
4,916.55
2,017.95
672.22
44.42
12.20
3,069.85
20.00
1,766.54
2,314.45
1,012.60
4,956.18
1,398.94
1,898.13
571.25
400.00
373.89
3,033.91
7,721.01
6,494.51
8,197.46
12,013.67
13,228.33
7,899.88
5,320.50
10,495.10
10,012.95
40.80
284.86
100.38
5,021.14
11,597.08
27,177.20
9,659.50
5,698.28
12,577.23
5,954.66
144,958.77
$1,498.50
7,711.40
7,905.08
1,094.70
457.38
44.00
147,714.74
161.00
773.00
1,602.44
3,027.28
3,164.40
2,043.68
3,241.27
2,424.46
107,215.15
September-	
103,468.03
58,987.42
43,752.55
39.291.28
1943.
'    44,726.46
124.00
269.80
41,825.60
15,407.25
Totals
$14,720.98
$84,522.32
$79,416.38
$19,104.86
$16,521.35
$46,088.33
$761,168.27
Potatoes 	
Total,
Sales Vah
se.
        $.
61,168.27
60,374.22
Vegetables   ___
        2
$1,021,542.49
Table B shows the month by month movement of potatoes to markets. R 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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E- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 31
REPORT OF THE HORTICULTURAL BRANCH.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist.
The winter temperatures during the past season in the fruit producing areas of
British Columbia were the lowest recorded for a number of years. In some sections
the thermometer dropped to 30° below zero, which in many cases was accompanied by
strong winds. Snow came early and in the Interior sections remained on the ground
later than usual. The spring was, on the whole, cold and wet, with the result that
crop development and growth was at least ten days to two weeks later than in 1942.
The following table on tree-blossoming dates for the Kelowna District, as submitted by
B. Hoy, District Field Inspector, gives an excellent idea of spring conditions as
compared with other years:—
Apricots..
Cherries—
Pears	
Apples—
April 19
April 24
April 28
May     2
April 9
April 19
April 24
May     2
April 1
April 16
April 20
April 25
April 15
April 24
April 28
May     8
April 22
May 1
May 3
May   15
Generally cool weather prevailed throughout the summer in all sections, with
resultant delay in the ripening of all crops. The fall, however, was warm, with very
little frost, which enabled harvesting to be carried out in a most satisfactory manner.
HORTICULTURAL CROPS.
Tree-fruits.
Due to the low temperatures during the winter period and unfavourable spring
conditions, practically all tree-fruit crops were smaller than those of the previous year.
The apple-crop was the smallest recorded for a number of years and approximately
30 per cent, below that of 1942. While tree-fruits, such as crab-apples, pears, and
plums, were somewhat less than last year, prunes and cherries were a slightly larger
crop. Peaches and apricots were two of the tree-fruit crops that showed the biggest
reduction of any. The peach-crop in 1942 was 957,825 crates while the estimated
production in 1943 was 476,900 crates, a reduction of 50 per cent. The apricot-crop
showed a reduction of 70 per cent., as the crop in 1942 was 243,839 crates and the
estimated production for 1943 was 69,700 crates.
Harvesting conditions for all tree-fruits were exceptionally good. There-was very
little rain during the cherry season, with the result that split cherries were at a
minimum. The demand for all tree-fruits has been excellent and the prices on the
whole most satisfactory.
It might be pointed out, while dealing with this section of the report, that tree-fruit
production is a long-period business. The stone-fruits, reaching maturity at an earlier
age than apples or pears, are not as long-lived in producing years as are these two
fruits. There comes a time, however, when all fruit-trees reach the peak of production
and, following that, tend to decline. To offset this decline replanting is undertaken.
Furthermore, in addition to the age of the trees, there is the question of maintenance
of soil fertility and disease and pest control. Indications of a decline in certain
districts are noticeable and the fact is extremely well illustrated in the following statement taken from the report of B. Hoy, District Field Inspector for the Kelowna
District:— R 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" The following figures over the past ten-year period indicate a decided change in
the bearing habits of apple orchards throughout the past three years in the Kelowna
area. Boxes.
1934  1,466,384
1935  1,444,968
1936  1,247,242
1937  1,646,448
1,446,219
1938  1,618,046]
1939  1,910,316 L 1,771,262
1940  1,785,424 J
1941      976,289]
1942  1,890,038 V 1,316,775
1943 (September estimate)  1,084,000 J
" Average production in three-year periods:—
1935-37 __ 1,446,219
1938-40  1,771,262
1941-43  1,316,775
"The above figures indicate that the peak production in the Kelowna District was
in 1939 and the three-year average, 1938 to 1940, shows a considerably higher production than any other period. The average production of the three years, 1941 to 1943,
is the lowest in ten years. This low production is especially significant because marketing conditions for fresh and processed fruit have been excellent. In many former years
when marketing conditions were not so good there were many apples not utilized that
do not show in the above records of yield.
"Probable causes of decreased production are: (1.) Old trees declining in production owing to lack of growing-space for root and top. Trees 30 to 35 years old and
older are generally producing lower yields than ten years ago. (2.) Increase of codling-
moth. Codling-moth increases number of drops and windfalls as well as rendering
much fruit unfit for market.    (3.) Tarnished plant bug appears to be on the increase.
" Steps that might be adopted to remedy the situation are: (1.) A planned system
of tree removal, thinning out and replanting in old orchards. (2.) Increased fertilization and more extended studies of soils, fertilizers, cover-crops, and minor soil elements.
(3.) Continuation and extension of present experimental and research work in the
control of codling-moth and tarnished plant bug."
Small Fruits.
Raspberries are the only one of the major small fruits that show a slight increase
in production over that of 1942. There is every indication that the production of this
crop will be maintained as cane-growth during the past season has been satisfactory.
Some of the new varieties also seem to indicate improvement in yields.
Strawberries show a considerable reduction in total quantity produced in 1943 in
comparison with the previous year. While the season may be considered as a normal
one as far as climatic conditions are concerned, the planting of strawberries has not
been maintained during the past two years. Other factors tending to reduce total
yield were inexperienced growers, a severe winter, and a cold wet spring. The market
was excellent and prices received were the highest since 1920.
Loganberries came through the winter in satisfactory condition and the prospects
for a large crop appeared promising. Dry weather during the picking season on
Vancouver Island and many neglected plantings in the Fraser Valley resulted in a yield
considerably below that of 1942. Like all other small fruits the prices were high and
the fruit in demand. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 33
An excellent picture of the production of tree and small fruits is contained in the
following table, which shows the actual production for 1942 and the estimated production for 1943:—
Kind.
Year.
Production.
Kind.
Year.
Production.
Apples •
1942
1943
1942
1943
1942
1943
1942
1943
1942
1943
1942
1943
1942
1943
1942
1943
Boxes.
5,808,352
4,201,800
168,958
85,100
379,963
316,700
Crates.
146,195
114,000
354,631
484,100
957,825
476,900
243,839
69,700
228,939
248,400
Strawberries ...: .—
Raspberries	
Blackberries	
1942
1943
1942
1943
1942
1943
1942
1943
1942
1943
1942
1943
1942
1943
1942
1943
Crates.
408,473
182,200
222,092
256,400
45,869
59,400
Pounds.
1,949,080
1,561,600
95,785
104,900
432,532
Apricots  	
Gooseberries	
400,900
177,329
189,400
2,912,558
2,041,600
Vegetables.
The production of vegetables in British Columbia has been materially increased
during the past year through the Victory Garden effort. In all towns and villages
throughout the Province victory gardening was attempted and generally with outstanding success. A conservative estimate of the production of these gardens is shown in
the following table:—
Estimated 1943 Victory Garden Production in British Columbia
Crop.
Estimated
Acreage.
Production
and Yield.
Quantity
processed.
1,040 .
404
284
186
89%
150
321
3251/z
131
Tons.
5,650
1,870
1,775
1,150
784
1,405
752
5501/2
270y2
Quarts.
Beets      	
297,000
114,000
82,750
29,000
Totals   - -	
2,931
14,207
522,750
The commercial production of vegetables on the whole was smaller than that of
the previous year, even though there was an increased demand by the canneries and
dehydrators. The shortage of potatoes during the past spring led to the planting of
a larger acreage and yields for the most part have been heavy.
In the interior of the Province the tomato acreage was smaller than in 1942. The
cold spring interfered with the setting of the plants and retarded growth. There was
a heavy demand for semi-ripes and for a while it looked as if the canneries would not
be able to operate due to lack of crop. A limit, however, was eventually put on shipments to the fresh market. This action, together with favourable ripening weather
during September and early October, resulted in a much better pack than had seemed
possible earlier in the season. R 34 _ BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The onion acreage was smaller than that of 1.942 and the demand exceptionally
good. Harvesting conditions were good, with the result that the crop marketed was of
excellent quality.
In the case of both celery and lettuce there was approximately the same acreage
as in the past. The movement of these crops to the market was good and in the case
of celery there was very little for storage.
The following table gives the estimated acreage in vegetables for 1943 in comparison with that of 1942:— .__,„,«    ...     .„_,_,.•    ...
1942 Estimated       1943 Estimated
Kind. Acreage. Acreage.
Tomatoes   3,228 2,507
Onions -___ 1,431 1,006
Lettuce   635 631
Celery   412 421
Cucumbers   171 179
Cabbage  578 750
Cantaloupes   224 191
Grapes.
With regard to this crop in the Fraser Valley, G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist, reports as follows:—
" There have been very few new plantings of grapes during this past couple of years.
Present plantings have been making good growth, but cool wet weather during blossoming reduced the set and as a result bunches for the most part were small and scattered.
Cool fall weather prolonged the ripening period, reducing the quality of the crop."
In the Kelowna District, where the largest plantings of grapes are located, the
following report on this crop is submitted by B. Hoy, District Field Inspector:—
" The yield this year was, owing to freezing during last winter, lighter than last
year. The crop of European grapes was practically nil, except where extensive precautions were taken to protect them during the winter.
" Generally commercial growers are becoming less interested in the production of
European varieties. To date no good table variety that will ship has been produced
and the difference in price offered for the production of wine varieties growers do not
consider great enough to compensate for generally smaller yields and higher production costs. European varieties can still be considered in the experimental stage for
commercial plantings."
Nut Culture.
Nut culture in British.Columbia has not up to the present been undertaken on an
extensive scale. The principal plantings have been filberts, of which there are approximately 125 acres. Most of these plantings are on Vancouver Island and in the Fraser
Valley. With regard to this industry in the Fraser Valley, G. E. W. Clarke, District
Horticulturist, reports as follows:—
" The growing of nuts is attracting attention from established farmers and prospective settlers. Many are inclined to make plantings with little thought as to the
future possibilities or the problems of growing and handling the various nuts.
" Walnuts, sweet chestnuts, almonds, and filberts are being planted. The filbert
plantings are becoming fairly extensive, plantings varying in size from a part of an
acre to several acres. Some of the larger plantings will be in full production in another
couple of years and there will then be an appreciable quantity of these nuts available.
Production this year, while not heavy, is showing, with the new plantings coming into
bearing, an increased production. Some of the filberts are of excellent grade and
quality, others are poorly graded and dried and are not so desirable a product. These
are problems that will require adjusting as production increases. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 35
" There are several small plantings of hard-shelled and semi-hard-shelled varieties
of almonds and at the present time these nuts are finding a ready local demand."
Tobacco.
The acreage in this crop shows a reduction from that of last year. Production is
entirely in the. Sumas District of the Fraser Valley. The 1942 situation is well outlined in the following statement, taken from the report of G. E. W. Clarke:—
" Due to weather conditions tobacco-growers were unable to commence operations
as early as usual and the weather at transplanting time was not as favourable as could
be desired. This situation, coupled with labour problems, resulted in a reduced acreage
in the Sumas area. The acreage cropped is approximately 210 acres and yields will
average fairly close to 1,100 lb. an acre. The crop of flue-cured Virginia leaf is now
being graded and baled and it is expected shipment will be made to the East in
December.
" In 1942 the tobacco buyers graded, weighed, and purchased the crop at the car
loading point and the growers expect to handle the crop this way this year.    Prior to
1942 the crop was loaded and shipped East and the growers received payment on the
grade and weights as recorded at unloading point."
Seed Production.
Seed production in the Province has shown a remarkable increase during the past
five years. The supervision of this work is carried out by J. L. Webster, of the Horticultural Branch. In order to give some idea of the extent of this section of the horticultural industry, it seems advisable to quote as fully as possible from the annual report
. which Mr. Webster recently submitted:—
" Seed Yields and Estimates.—A detailed report on yields and value of all kinds
of vegetable-seed produced in 1942 was submitted on April 12th, 1943. A complete
estimate of 1943 acreage and yields by kinds and varieties was compiled and forwarded to Victoria on November 15th, 1943.
"The following is a comparison of the total value of vegetable-seed produced
during each of the past five years, together with a final estimate of 1943 production:
1938,$48,420.67; 1939, $72,130.20; 1940, $153,608.90; 1941, $456,255.81; 1942, $565,885;
1943 estimate, $910,000.
" Mangel and sugar-beet seed values are not included in the above. These crops
have increased very materially in the past four years as follows: Mangel—1939
$1,742.25; 1940, $1,500; 1941, $4,587.50; 1942, $18,490.15; 1943 estimate, $28,OOo'
Sugar-beet—1941, $18,098;   1942, $11,200;   1943 estimate, $40,000.
" Flower-seed values, after showing a decline in 1940 and 1941 because of the
impossibility of exporting to Great Britain, again promise an increase for 1943. The
following values illustrate the trend of flower-seed production from 1938 to 1943-
1938, $26,102.21; 1939, $26,071; 1940, $18,062.60; 1941, $12,773.73; 1942, $27,992.50';
1943 estimate, $65,000.
" The increases shown in 1942 and 1943 are due to renewed demand in Canada for
British Columbia flower-seeds, together with a new market in the United States for
certain items.    This latter market came about due to labour shortages in that country.
" We fully expected that 1943 might well be the peak year for British Columbia
vegetable-seed production. However, judging from the continued demand for seed,
contracts already let for next year, and the extensive plans made by growers, we look
forward to even greater production in 1944.
" Extent of Industry.—The vegetable-seed industry with all its kinds, varieties,
and strains is extremely complicated and detailed in comparison to that of field-crop
seeds.    The demand for the various varieties and strains is constantly changing and R 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the number increasing. There are grown in British Columbia, with the exception of
a few unimportant items such as celery, endive, kohl rabi, etc., a fairly complete line
of kinds and varieties. We have calculated that there are some twenty-eight kinds
and over 200 varieties being grown.
" There has been again an increase in the number of growers growing vegetable-
seeds classed as ' small seeds ' from 250 to well over 300. This does not include those
growing peas and beans or sugar-beet seed. An estimate made of the total number
of farmers growing all kinds of vegetable and field-root seed for all firms would indicate
that there are in the neighbourhood of 500.
" Equipment, etc.—Considerable new equipment needed to meet the expansion in
seed-growing and to be used for planting, cultivating, harvesting, drying, and cleaning, etc., has been acquired, by farmer-growers and by the local seed firms.
" There were at least an additional five combines purchased for vegetable-seed work
this year;   making a total of more than twenty in use on vegetable-seed crops.
" Another eighteen to twenty seed-cleaners were secured by growers and firms.
These included three large 42-inch cleaners, two gravity machines, and three beet
drapes. The balance were of the smaller 24- to 30-inch screen type. The following
British Columbia firms are now well equipped to clean all kinds of vegetable-seed:
B.C. Co-operative Seed Association; B.C. Pea Growers, Ltd.; Wm. Rennie Seeds; and
B. & K. Milling Company. There are, therefore, now approximately 100 vegetable-seed
growers who are able to clean their own seed. This is a tremendous advance from five
years ago when only about a dozen growers and firms were sufficiently well equipped
to clean their own seed.
" Many more root and bulb storages, drying-sheds, seed-barns, etc., have been constructed—representing an investment probably in the neighbourhood of $100,000 or
more. All in all, seed-growing in British Columbia seems to be becoming an important
and permanent industry.
" Storage of Root Vegetables.—Following the successful experiments in storage
of beets and carrots in non-ventilated pits in 1940-41 and 1941-42, we can definitely
state that the majority of the seed-growers are now using this type of pit for storage
in 1943. Practically all beets and mangel stecklings in the hands of some twenty-five
growers are being stored in this manner, as well as possibly 50 per cent, of the carrot
roots.
" Seed-growers, as well as the Experimental Stations at Saanichton and Summer-
land, are continuing to co-operate in experimenting with the proper depths of roots
and coverage in the various districts.
" Owing to the heavy losses of carrots in storage during the winter of 1942-43,
a series of experiments in this type of pit are being conducted by various growers in
Grand Forks under direction of the Plant Pathological Laboratory, Summerland, and
this office working in co-operation with the District Agriculturist in that district.
" Future Recommendations.—There are presently more farmers wishing to grow
seed than will be required to completely fill all orders and contracts received by the
various growers and firms.
" However, more investigational and experimental work is needed on a number of
problems affecting several of the more important seed-crops.
" Much effort will be required on the part of the various Departments of Agriculture and seed contracting firms to maintain the quality of the seed produced. One of
the greatest factors toward this end is to be found in the care taken to produce or select
the best stock seed obtainable. Stock seed is that used by the farmer-growers to produce their main or marketable seed-crops and no effort should be spared in seeing that
this seed is thoroughly proven, is free from disease, and is of the strain or type required
by the most discriminating wholesalers and retailers of seed throughout the world." DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 37
FIELD INSPECTION WORK.
Greenhouse Survey.
During the past season a survey was made in order to ascertain the total area
devoted to greenhouse crops in British Columbia. The following figures indicate the
standing of this industry in 1943:—
District.
No. of Growers.
No. of Houses.
Area in Sq. Ft.
300
200
36
12
896
969
127
28
2,-206,839
2,684,105
280,449
37,589
Totals -	
548
2,020
5,208,982
It might be noted at this time that when the first survey of this kind was made
in 1923 that there were 120 growers and 1,905,180 square feet of glass. The 1943
figures indicate an increase of 350 per cent, in the number of growers and a 170 per
cent, increase in total glass area.
Bulb Survey.
The major bulb production areas in the Province are on Vancouver Island and in
the Fraser Valley, with smaller plantings in the Okanagan and the Kootenays. There
has been a marked increase in the bulb acreage since 1939. With an increased demand
and the ability of the growers to turn out an excellent product there is every indication
that the growth of this industry will continue.
The ninth biennial survey was made this year. The following table indicates the
growth in acreage since the first survey was made in 1929:—
Total Bulb Acreages.
Year.
No. of Acres.
Year.
No. of Acres.
1929  	
1-9%
200
203V2
209%
1937
249 V_
257%
315V2
1931 "	
1939 _	
1941.     .
1933     .
1935 -  	
1943	
Note.—Both the greenhouse and bulb surveys were carried out by the officials
of the Horticultural Branch in co-operation with officials of the Dominion Plant Pathological Laboratory, Saanichton, and the staff of the Provincial Agricultural Statistics
Branch.
Fire-blight Inspection.
Fire-blight inspection constitutes a part of the yearly programme of the horticultural work in the fruit-growing sections of the Okanagan. The following table
indicates the results of the 1943 inspections:—
District.
Total Acres
inspected.
Inspected
and passed.
Not
passed.
216
6,268
5,000
2,534
325
211
6,133
4,965
2,507
310
135
35
27
15
Totals   	
14,343
14,126
217 R 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Nursery Stock Inspection.
Routine inspection-work is carried out in all nurseries each year at digging-time
or previous to shipment of stock. Inspection of stock is also undertaken during the
growing season to ascertain the presence of virus troubles. These inspections are
made by your Horticultural officials and by officials of the Plant Pathology Branch.
The following table indicates the results of matured stock inspections in 1943:—
-
Number
inspected.
Number
passed.
Number
condemned.
24,394
18,393
14,819
10,038
31,971
2,605
23,991
18,215
14,666
9,836
31,042
2,598
403
178
153
202
929
7
102,220
100,348
1,872
Twenty-eight inspections made;   1.8 per cent, of inspected stock condemned.
Pear Psylla Control.
Although reference has been made in the 1942 report to the pear psylla situation,
it seems advisable to again bring up the matter. The subject has been fully covered
in various memoranda and reports that have been drawn up during the current year.
The following brings the whole situation up to date:—
Pear psylla control in British Columbia as proposed for 1943 is closely linked with
control-work which has been undertaken in the State of Washington by the United
States Department of Agriculture authorities since 1939.
In 1939, 1940, 1941, and 1942 United States officials in co-operation with British
Columbia and Dominion Department of Agriculture officials scouted all pear orchards
in British Columbia in fruit areas adjacent to the International Boundary. No psylla
was found until the late summer of 1942 when this insect was found in various orchards
in the Oliver-Osoyoos District.
When pear psylla was found in British Columbia last year our growers were
naturally disturbed, having heard of the work that was being done in Washington and
believing that unless huge expenditures were made in British Columbia for control that
the pear industry was doomed.
As soon as possible after the discovery of pear psylla in the Province arrangements were made to have W. A. Ross, Chief of the Fruit Insect Investigations of the
Dominion Department of Agriculture, come to British Columbia and look into the
situation.
Mr. Ross held conferences with growers and Government officials and inspected the
work that was being done in Washington. The results of his observations are as
follows:—
" Recommended Policy.—This policy may be briefly stated as follows: Teach the
British Columbia pear-growers how to live with the insect; urge the owners of orchards
known to be infested to employ the methods now being used so successfully in the
east—a dormant application of 3-per-cent. oil (200 viscosity) and summer applications
of 1-per-cent. white oil, nicotine sulphate, and soap when necessary. (Incidentally, if
conditions in British Columbia are favourable to the psylla, growers will literally be
forced by the insect to spray or to remove their pear-trees.) Commence control investigations immediately, and, if possible, biological studies with the object of better adapting the foregoing spray programme to meet local conditions in British Columbia. In
this connection, it appears highly probable that the codling-moth spray schedule could DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 39
be modified and utilized in combating the pear psylla.    The above policy is based on
the following facts or opinions:—
"(1.) That, while the pear psylla is a very destructive insect, it can be controlled
as it is being controlled elsewhere at a reasonable cost.
"(2.)   That nothing short of complete eradication would justify the cost of instituting suppressive measures similar to those being carried on in Washington and Idaho.
"(3.)  That we are very doubtful about the possibility of exterminating the insect
because eradication would involve:—
"(a.) Determining exactly the infested area or areas in British Columbia.
Knowing the serious limitations of any system of scouting in locating
pear psylla in orchards or areas where it is present in trace proportions,'
we question if this can be done. At best, all we could do would be to
delineate the area or areas in which the insect had been found:
"(b.) Locating and destroying all neglected pear-trees, seedling-trees, and
water-sprouts, some of which are no doubt hidden away in wooded
country:
"(c.) Systematic and very frequent spraying (probably every fifteen days)
of all commercial orchards, with a view not of controlling the insect,
but of completely stamping it out. How could any one tell when eradication had been attained. The most efficient system of scouting would
not give this information; only discontinuing the suppressive measures
would, and if this were done and the insect had not been completely
wiped out, it would flare up again. The pear psylla could be reduced to
trace proportions in all orchards by suppressive measures, and it is conceivable that it could be stamped out in some orchards, but because of
its habits, its reproductive capacity, and the fallibility of even the most
efficient suppressive measures, the eradication of the insect in large
areas appears impossible.
"(4.) Particularly at a time like this we could not justify the expenditure of large
sums of money on a dubious project."
From the foregoing it will be seen that satisfactory control measures could be
instituted without excessive expense as was being incurred in the State of Washington.
The spraying-work for the control of this pest (aside from the demonstration
sprays applied by the Dominion and Provincial officials) was carried out by the officials
of the United States Department of Agriculture. The general arrangements are outlined in the following memorandum:—
" The British Columbia area (Oliver-Osoyoos) in which pear psylla has been found
adjoins one of the fruit areas in the State of Washington in which eradication measures
have been carried out. It is quite natural, therefore, that the United States Department of Agriculture officials would feel that such eradication measures should be continued in British Columbia. They were advised, however, that no such measures were
contemplated either by Provincial or Dominion Departments.
" Later in the season of 1942 L. S. McLaine, Dominion Entomologist, discussed this
matter with the United States Department of Agriculture officials in Washington, D.C.
The Dominion authorities were agreeable to further discussions of possible eradication
measures by the United States Department of Agriculture in British Columbia. The
matter was referred to this office and a meeting was arranged in Penticton. At this
meeting details of possible future work were discussed.
"A second meeting was held in Penticton in March, 1943. At this meeting the
United States Department of Agriculture intimated that they were prepared to proceed
with a spraying programme for pear psylla eradication. In addition they would continue their scouting programme farther north in the Okanagan. R 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" The spraying-work would be carried out entirely by United States Department
of Agriculture officials, with some assistance being given by our officials in arranging
routes, etc.
" The scouting programme would be undertaken in co-operation with Dominion and
Provincial officials in so far as time and work permitting.
" In order that there should be no misunderstanding on the part of the growers
it was thought advisable that a series of meetings should be held to acquaint the
growers with the situation. Furthermore, that all United States Department of Agriculture operators should be appointed inspectors in British Columbia under the Provincial ' Plant Protection Act.' "
While it was suggested that a series of meetings should be held in order to discuss
the question with the growers, it was later deemed advisable to secure their agreement
in writing. A petition was therefore circulated (which is on file) which was signed
by all growers.
The result of this year's work on pear psylla control is well outlined in the
following report of R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector, Penticton:—
"As a result of visual inspection and trap boards placed at Kaleden, Keremeos,
Penticton, and Okanagan Falls, it was found that the pear psylla is scattered throughout all these districts. The Division of Plant Quarantine of the United States Department of Agriculture applied three sprays of oil nicotine or soap and nicotine to all
pear-trees in the Oliver-Osoyoos area, spraying a total of 40,042 trees, using an average
of 200,000 gallons of spray for each application. In addition, 1,456 trees were sprayed
at Okanagan Falls, 242 in Kaleden, and 8,388 in Penticton. Only those orchards found
to be infested outside the Oliver-Osoyoos area were sprayed. Controls have been satisfactory and only two cases of very minor damage caused by spraying occurred
throughout the season.
" The American officials in charge were given what help was needed to expedite
the work. Every care was taken by those in charge to see that the work was done
thoroughly and carefully with no inconvenience to the owners. Out of all the properties sprayed there was only one complaint of minor damage when one of the trucks
backed into a low cement curbing. From the officials in charge to the men doing the
actual work it was a pleasure to give what assistance was called for to help carry out
the project.
" Towards the end of the season, traps were used rather than visual inspection.
These traps were very satisfactory and made it much easier to cover a much larger
area than the old method of scouting. The traps consisted of a small piece of board
about 9 by 6 inches painted a daffodil yellow and given a very light coating of tanglefoot
with a little high-test gasoline. The specimens were then sent away for identification.
About 200 traps were used in this work. No pear psylla has so far been discovered
north of the Penticton District although traps and scouting work was carried out as
far as Salmon Arm. As reported previously, pear psylla does not appear to be a
difficult insect to control in the dry areas of the Okanagan."
Bacterial Ring-rot Control.
Bacterial ring-rot was first reported in this Province in 1942 in the Salmon Arm
District. A complete report on this matter was submitted in the last annual report
for this Branch. The steps taken to control this outbreak and the success obtained
are outlined in the following statement taken from the report of C. R. Barlow, District
Field Inspector:—'■
" This'disease was discovered in August, 1942, on the farm of B. G. Harrington,
at Salmon Arm, in the Sequoia variety. As bacterial ring-rot had not been found in
any variety other than Sequoia, and as Mr. Harrington was originally the sole grower DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 41
of this variety, it was deemed possible that by taking steps to ensure that no potatoes
originating from Mr. Harrington's original stock were planted as seed this year it
might be possible to eradicate the disease. It was found that small quantities of seed
derived from the original source had become quite widely disseminated, but the owners
of this seed were contacted by your Inspector and arrangements made for its safe
disposal. Only four growers were found to have grown the Sequoia variety in commercial quantities and the stock from these growers, amounting in all to 19,150 lb. was
assembled in an isolated root-house at South Canoe and on March 8th was shipped to
Bulmans, Ltd., at Vernon for processing. The sacks in which the potatoes were stored
were returned to the root-house by Bulmans, Ltd., and were disinfected by your Inspector before being returned to the growers concerned. The root-house also was disinfected. A careful check-up has been made for any reappearance of the disease during
the season and it is gratifying to note that no evidence of its recurrence has been
discovered to date."
Since the first outbreak, which occurred in Salmon Arm, another outbreak has been
reported in the Ladner District of the Fraser Valley. This is being watched closely
at the present time and complete eradication is anticipated.
In order to take care of this trouble, regulations have been brought into effect
under the " Plant Protection Act." These regulations apply to the occurrence of
ring-rot in both imported potatoes and stock produced in British Columbia.
HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION-WORK.
Strawberry-plant Selection.
Strawberry-plant selection-work is under the supervision of E. W. White, District
Horticulturist, Victoria, who reports as follows:—
"As reported in previous years, this work was carried out at the Dominion Experimental Station, Saanichton, in conjunction with E. C. Reid, who left for overseas duty
in 1941.    E. R. Hall has carried on the work since that time.
" The plot that was planted out in 1942 consisted of a composite sample of plants
selected from the best strains which were planted in 1941. This plot which was in
conjunction with a variety test plot suffered severely from June bug infestation in
1942 and 1943.
" However, about 5,000 plants were sold to growers this year for further trial.
Another plot of British Sovereign was set out at the Experimental Station this spring.
This was replicated five times and an experiment is being carried out using different
methods of applying fertilizer—namely, furrow, side, ring, broadcast, and a check-plot.
A 6-10-10 fertilizer at the rate of 600 lb. per acre is being used.
" Plants from the new plot were propagated and grown in cold frames this summer
and these have been potted up and will be carried over in the greenhouse so that further
selection-work can be done and the best plants will be used for propagation purposes
next spring."
Test of V 121 Greenhouse Tomato.
The report on this work has been prepared by E. W. White, District Horticulturist,
and is herewith submitted:—■
" Following the successful test of V 121 in 1942 as a spring and also a fall crop,
and the disappointment which growers experienced with Vetomold due to mould disease,
practically all the commercial greenhouses grew a spring crop of V 121 this year. It
has proved quite successful and yields have been excellent. The second or fall crop
has not done so well and seemed to be very slow in ripening.
" V 121 has proved highly resistant to mould disease. While infection may take
place it does not develop. It is probable that V 121 will be grown again next year,
particularly as a spring crop." R 42
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Ground Spray for Control of Apple-scab.
C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector for Salmon Arm, under whose supervision
the work was carried out, reports as follows:—
" This is now the third year in which experiments have been carried out using
Elgetol as a ground spray in the orchard of Major C. L. Armitage at South Canoe.
In this year's work the whole ground in the experimental orchard was given an application of 1 per cent. Elgetol at approximately the ' green tip ' stage of development.
Later a portion of the orchard received an application of lime-sulphur (1-40) in the
' pink' stage only and the remainder received the ' pink' spray plus an additional
application of lime-sulphur (1-40) at the ' calyx ' stage.
" The dates of application were April 20th for the ground spray, May 13th for
the ' pink,' and June 2nd for the ' calyx.' The crop was picked on September 20th and
the effectiveness of the treatments was evaluated by examining an adequate number of
apples from each plot and comparing the results with those obtained from (a) trees
which received no spray whatever, and (o) trees which had received the standard spray
schedule for the district (' pink,' ' calyx,' and cover of lime-sulphur) as applied by the
average grower. The Mcintosh Red variety only was used in making the checks and
the results will be found in the following table:—
Treatment.
Total
Apples
counted.
Group
1.
Per
Cent.
Clean.
Group
2.
Per
Cent.
infected.
Group
3.
Per
Cent,
infected.
Group
4.
Per
Cent,
infected.
Ground spray plus pink	
Ground spray plus pink and
calyx
Check  (a), no sprays	
Check     (6),    regular    spray
schedule, three L.S. sprays
1,113
3,279
755
917
3,221
191
1,614
82
98
25
64
173
196
54
499
663
18
2
66
26
75
Group 1—Free of scab.
Group 2—Pinpoint scab infection, confined to the calyx cup.
Group 3—Fruit with scab spots up to a total of not more than one-half square inch in the aggregate.
Group 4—Culls due to scab.
" It is evident from an examination of the results that the use of a ground spray
may have a definite place in the scab-control schedule for the Salmon Arm-Sorrento
District. This spray followed only by one lime-sulphur application in the ' pink ' stage
gave more effective control than the three lime-sulphur sprays as applied by a grower.
When followed by both ' pink' and ' calyx' applications, control was almost perfect.
Though the season was not a particularly favourable one for the development of scab,
as is indicated by the amount of infection on the unsprayed checks, the comparison of
the results with those obtained by the regular lime-sulphur schedule suggests a definite
recommendation for the use of this spray. One of the principal advantages to be
derived from such a procedure would be the elimination of foliage and fruit burning
which so frequently follows the application of the later applications of lime-sulphur as
at present commonly employed. This experiment has been carried out in collaboration
with G. E. Woolliams, Plant Pathologist at the Dominion Experimental Station at
Summerland, B.C."
Orchard Mulch Experiment.
The results of this work are briefly outlined in the following statement submitted
by C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector, Salmon Arm:—
" This experiment, the object and details of which are explained in your Inspector's
annual report for 1941 and 1942, has been carried on into its third year, and it will be
necessary to continue the work for at least another year before definite conclusions can be arrived at. At the present stage it is sufficient to state that yields on the mulched
plot have been heavier than those on the clean cultivated plot and that, as is evidenced
by terminal growth measurements and foliage colour, vigour of the trees on the mulched
plot is also superior to that of the trees under clean cultivation.
" Records and data have again been kept relative to terminal growth, yield per
tree, quality of fruit, soil moisture and humus, quantity and value of alfalfa used in .
mulching, and cost of application.
" Your Inspector wishes .to acknowledge the valuable assistance which has been rendered in this work by J. C. Wilcox, Horticulturist at the Summerland Experimental
Station, who kindly made the soil-moisture determinations and has also made many
valuable suggestions as to procedure."
Deblossoming Sprays.
This work was carried out in the Vernon District under the supervision of H. H.
Evans, District Field Inspector.    His report follows:—
" This project was instituted as a crop-thinning experiment through application of
spray materials which would destroy a percentage of the crop prior to blossom set.
Through the excellent co-operation of T. P. Hill, manager of the Coldstream Ranch, a
block of fifty-seven Wealthy trees was obtained, free from any restriction as to the
materials to be used, injury which might occur, or results obtained.
, " Materials used were Elgetol supplied by the Provincial Department of Agriculture and Dinitro Cresol compounds supplied by the Dominion Entomological Branch,
Vernon, which also assisted in preparing the compounds of Dinitro Cresol.
"A total of twelve plots was sprayed, with the number of trees per plot varying
from eight to ten. Applications were made by your assistant and W. Baverstock with
the departmental equipment.
" Pre-blossom spray was applied May 10th and 11th, when trees were showing
general bloom of the first crown bud. Full-blossom spray applied May 20th. Weather
cool and windy at both spray periods. One tree in each of the pre-blossom sprayed
plots was again sprayed at full blossom. This was thought advisable as a double check
on thinning and foliage-injury results, in that the early application gave indications
of indifferent results on some plots.
" In preparing the spray formula both Elgetol and the Dinitro compounds were
reduced to the true percentage of actual active salts in each material, in order to make
the dilutions comparable.
" Trees checked for foliage-injury, May 31st.
" Trees checked for thinning results, July 5th.
" Intermediate checks were made to note progress.
" Plot 1: Elgetol at 0.2 per Cent. Dilution.
Pre-blossom spray:   Foliage-injury light.    Thinning results poor.    Crop still
too heavy and bunchy.
Full blossom spray:   Foliage-injury medium severe.    Thinning results very
fair, but still too bunchy.
Double sprayed tree:   Foliage-injury medium severe.    Thinning results very
good, still too many clusters.
" Plot 2: Dinitro Dry 40 per Cent, at 0.1 per Cent. Dilution.
Pre-blossom spray:   Foliage-injury slight.    Thinning results fair.    Clusters
fairly well singled.    Crop still too heavy.
•Full blossom spray:  Foliage-injury slight to medium.    Thinning results very
good.    Clusters well singled.
Double sprayed tree:    Foliage-injury medium to  severe.    Crop very well
thinned.    Possibly a little too heavy. R 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
"Plot 3:  Dinitrocreselate Sodium Solution at 0.2 per Cent. Dilution.
Pre-blossom  spray:    Foliage-injury  medium.    Thinning   results   very   fair.
Clusters fairly well singled.    Crop still too heavy.
Full blossom spray:   Foliage-injury medium.    Thinning results very good.
Clusters well singled.
Double sprayed tree:   Foliage-injury medium to severe.    Crop too heavily
thinned.
" Plot 4: Elgetol at 0.4 per Cent. Dilution.
Pre-blossom spray:  Foliage-injury medium.    Thinning results fair.    Clusters
still too bunchy.
Full  blossom  spray:    Foliage-injury  severe.    Thinning  results  very  good.
Possibly thinned a little too heavily.
Double sprayed tree:   Foliage-injury very severe, some spur-killing.    Crop
thinned much too severely.
"Plot 5:  Dinitro Dry 40 per Cent, at 0.2 per Cent. Dilution.
Pre-blossom  spray:    Foliage-injury medium,  slight  spur-injury.    Thinning
results excellent.    Clusters well singled and crop nicely thinned.
Full blossom spray:   Foliage-injury medium to severe.    Thinning much too
severe.    Crop almost cleaned off.
Double sprayed tree:   Foliage-injury very severe.    Spur kill light to medium.
Crop almost cleaned off, much too severe.
" Plot 6: Dinitrocreselate Sodium Solution at 0.4 per Cent.
Pre-blossom spray: Foliage-injury medium.   Thinning results very fair.   Crop
still too bunchy.
Full blossom spray:  Foliage-injury medium to severe.    Clusters well singled.
Crop thinned a little too heavily.
Double sprayed tree:   Foliage-injury very severe.    Spur kill light to medium.
Crop much too heavily thinned.
" Notes.—Sodium Laurel sulphate at 1 oz. to 100 gallons was added to all sprays
as the wetting agent.
"As previously mentioned, both spray periods were windy. Observations showed
heaviest spray-injury on windward side of trees. This suggests necessity of applying
these sprays under calm weather conditions.
" Foliage-injury.—Light: Indicates up to 50 per cent, of leaves injured to greater
or less extent. Medium: All foliage more or less injured. Severe: All foliage badly
burned and slight defoliation. Very severe: All foliage badly burned. Light to heavy
defoliation and some spur-killing.
" By July 5th all trees were back in very active growth and by mid-August trees
had made excellent growth and appeared quite normal. Even with severe injury to
trees at spraying-time, the excellent recovery made indicates no danger of permanent
tree damage. Crop left on the trees developed normally by harvest-time without hand-
thinning, except on plots where the clusters were not sufficiently broken up. It will be
interesting to observe effects of this work on the 1944 crop.
" With some improvement of technique in future work there appears good promise
of such sprays becoming an active and satisfactory thinning agent of certain apple
varieties which are costly to thin and low to medium price in market values."
Bee Repellent Sprays.
Work with bee repellent sprays in 1943 is a continuation of similar work started
in 1942. The following report on the work undertaken during the past season is
submitted by H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector:— " In 1943 two orchards were selected (the Hayes orchard at Larkin and the Johnson orchard at Armstrong) in order to ensure absolute isolation of the two materials
used.
" The work was again conducted in co-operation with W. H. Turnbull, Provincial
Apiary Inspector; also the North Okanagan Bee-keepers' Association, through the good
services of F. Bettschen, of Vernon, who supplied bee colonies for the test.
" Hayes Orchard.—Formula: Arsenate of lead, 4 lb.; commercial creosote, 1 pt.;
water, 100 gal;  lignum pitch as an emulsifier, S1^ oz.
" This block consisted of approximately 3 acres of old neglected trees and several
varieties. Delayed calyx and three cover-sprays were applied. Owing to foliage-
injury in the first and second sprays the creosote was reduced to V_> pint per 100 gallons
on half of the block for the last two cover-sprays. No further burning was observed
on either block after the first two applications.
" Injury Notes.—Yellow Transparent: Edge-burn of spur-leaves and some yellowing of terminal growth leaves.
" Wealthy:   Medium foliage and fruit burn general.
" Mcintosh:   Definite injury to spur-leaves and medium fruit-russeting.
" Golden Russet:   Slight to medium foliage-burn and fruit-russeting.
" Jonathan:   Medium foliage-burn and fruit-spotting.
" Alexander:   Medium foliage and fruit burn.
" Transcendent Crab:  Very slight foliage-burn.
" Pear, unknown:   Slight foliage-injury, heavy fruit-burn.
" Many clumps of sucker-growth were more or less severely burned, depending on
susceptibility.
" Johnson Orchard.—Formula: Arsenate of lead, 4 lb.; crude carbolic acid, 2 oz.;
water, 100 gal.;  lignum pitch, 3V2 oz.
" This block consisted of IV2 acres of medium-sized mature trees receiving fair
attention.    The spray programme was similar to that on the Hayes orchard.
" Injury Notes.—Snow: Light to medium foliage spotting and very slight fruit-
spot.
" Duchess:  Very slight spotting on foliage and fruit.
" Wealthy, Mcintosh, Crab-apple:  No injury to either fruit or foliage.
" Materials and Labour Costs.
Lead arsenate, 176 lb., $21.12;  spreader, 9% lb., $1.40     $22.52
Creosote, 21 pints, $1.78; crude carbolic, 1% pints, 28 cents..        2.06
Labour and machine, 36 hours @ $2.50       90.00
Total cost  $114.58
"Notes.—Comparative cost of the repellent materials per 100 gallons of spray;
creosote, 8V2 cents;  crude carbolic, 21/4 cents.
" Cover-crop in the Hayes orchard consisted of white and red clovers, alfalfa,
yellow sweet clover, and grasses.    This was never cut during the season.
" Cover-crop in the Johnson orchard was alfalfa. This was harvested prior to
application of the last cover-spray.
" Inspection of apiaries was made by Messrs. Turnbull and Bettschen within
twenty-four hours prior to and following each spray.
" Bees in the creosote sprayed block were apparently gassed and partially paralysed
by fumes for several hours following each spray. This did not occur where carbolic
acid was used.
" No loss of bees occurred in either block from arsenical poisoning. R 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" In 1942 no evidence of burning from the repellent materials was observed.
Why burning occurred in 1943 is unexplainable at present. Tree and climatic conditions, also variability of chemicals, may each or all have been contributing factors.
In July creosote was procured from another source and one spray of each type of
creosote applied to a block of Wealthy trees. The type used in the repellent sprays
caused slight bronzing of the foliage but no burn. The second type produced no injury
whatever. The set-up in the creosote block was ideal for recording data from the
standpoint of poisoning and repellent action. In the carbolic acid block conditions were
less ideal and results obtained appear less certain.
" The promising possibilities of this work warrant its continuation for at least o"ne
more season." Celery B]._ght Control
H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, who was in charge of this work, reports as
follows:—
"This work was projected in 1943 following a serious outbreak of blight in
Armstrong celery fields during 1942. The demonstration was divided between two
fields having different moisture and humidity conditions. The Jong Lee field carries
a high water-table and high humidity. The Wong Chog field has a lower water-table
and lower humidity.
" Tests were made on the early and mid-summer crops of yellow and green types
of celery, also on the winter crop of late green Utah type celery.
" C.I.L. standard copper-lime dust was the control material used. Applications
were made with a D. & B. rotary fan duster. Amounts used on plots were at the rate
of 30 to 40 lb. of dust per acre.
" Early Crop Test.—For this purpose two seedling frames each of the yellow and
green types were dusted in the beds, April 12th and 17th. Field planting made April
20th and 21st. Periodic observations were made for appearance of infection to the new
growth as field dusting was contingent on its appearance.
" No infection appeared either on treated or untreated plants up to harvesting of
the crop.    This obviated further work on this series.
" Late Crop Tests.—On the Wong Chog ranch, May 15th, sufficient seed for one
cold bed frame was dusted with Semesan and same seeded on the 18th.
" June 16th, two frames of seedlings were dusted on Jong Lee series. At Wong
Chog's all seedling beds were dusted.    Field planting commenced June 25th.
" Field observations were made at intervals and no infections noted until
August 17th. Several showers of rain fell in the district between August 6th and 10th
and heavy rains August 21st to 23rd. By August 25th infection was general but not
severe.    Dusting of commercial fields was now becoming general.
" Demonstration Plots, % Acre each.
" Wong Chog.
Plot.
Bed
dusted.
Field
dusted.
Copper Lime
per Acre.
Observations.
1
2
June 16
June 16
Aug. 25
Sept. 1
Sept. 8
Sept. 8
30 lb.
401b.
September 8th:    Old  foliage medium infection,  new foliage
clean.
September 28th:   Slight infection on new foliage at tbis time.
Remarks as for above.
June 16
" Jong Lee.
Sept. 8
40 lb.
September 8th:   Old foliage carrying- medium infection.
September 28th:   Old foliage showing heavy infection.    New
foliage general light to medium infection. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 47
" Observations.—Dusting of late celery saved any crop loss. Early dusting'is
necessary for reasonable control. Number of dustings required may vary with amount
of precipitation and humidity conditions of the field. Seed treatment does not appear
to help control of blight. Germination was reduced and retarded in the dry dusted
seed;  no explanation for this can be advanced."
Sweet Corn Trials.
This project continues several years' work in the testing of varieties and hybrids of
sweet corn in the Vernon District and is reported on by H. H. Evans, District Field
Inspector:—
" The early part of the season was not favourable for corn-crops. Cold soil
conditions delayed planting and early growth, also causing loss of seed by rotting.
Later development was normal. Cultural practices by the operator were good but
hindered somewhat by labour shortage.
" Loss was again prevalent on low cobbing varieties from depredations of pheasants.
These birds are a distinct menace to corn-crops producing cobs below 30 inches above
ground-level.
" Plots were %00 acre each; hill planted; spaced 40 by 22 inches apart; twenty-
five hills in each plot were checked for records. Quality and rating maximum is
10 points.    Records taken August 10th and 20th.
" Sweet Corn Comparison Table.
Variety.
Height.
Type, Colour, and Condition.
Yield in
Cobs
per Hill.
Ready for
Fresh
Market.
Quality,
10.
Rating,
10.
Dorinny O.D. 529
4 ft. 10 in.
Cob medium low set, medium long;   very
small  core,   well  filled,   8-rowed;    grain
2.9
Aug. 12
9.0
9.5
Dorick O.D. 530   	
6 ft. 6 in.
golden,   med.   large,   deep,   sweet,   rich,
skin  slightly tough.
Cob med. high set, med. long, large;   core
med.   large,   well   filled,    10-12   rowed;
grain     light     golden,     small,     shallow,
sweet,  rich,  tender.
2.6
Aug. 20
8.5
9.0
Dorking   O.D.   571
(poor germination)
4 ft. 10 in.
Cob med.  low set,  med.  size  and length ;
med.   core,  well  filled,   12-rowed;    grain
yellow,   small,   med.   deep,   sweet,   rich,
tender.
1.6
Aug. 23
8.5
9.0
4 ft. 6 in.
Cob high set, med.  length and  size ;   core
very   small,   well   filled,   8-rowed;    grain
golden,   med.    size,   deep,    rich,    sweet,
3.5
Aug. 17
9.5
10.0
tender.
Golden Early Market-
Spancross	
6 ft. 6 in.
7 ft. 6 in.
Cob med. high set, long, large;   core large,
well  filled,   12-14  rowed;   grain  yellow,
large, med.  deep, med.  sweet and  richness ;   skin slightly tough.
Cob   high   set,   long,   large;    core   large,
well  filled,  12-14  rowed;    grain yellow,
med.   small,   shallow,  med.  sweet;    skin
3.3   .
2.1
Aug. 15
Aug. 27
8.0
8.0
9.0
8.5
Topcross Whipples
8 ft.
slightly tough.
Cob   high   set,   long,   large;    core   large,
well   filled,   12-14   rowed   grain   yellow,
med.   size   and   depth,   med.   rich   and
sweet, tender.
2.1
Sept. 4
8.5
9.0
Topcross Bantam
8 ft.
Cob high set, long, large;   core med. size,
well   filled,   10-12   rowed;    grain   light
golden,    deep,   med.    size,   rich,    sweet,
tender.
3.9
Sept. 6
9.5
9.5
" Summary.—Over several years of testing many varieties and hybrid strains of
sweet corn, a considerable amount of information on performance and adaptability has
been recorded. R 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" As indicated by the general high quality and rating, also the extended maturity
period of this season, an excellent selection for commercial producers is now available.
Saachem, a variety not in this year's series, should be added to the list."
Tarnished Plant Bug Control.
The work undertaken in past season and herewith reported on was carried out in
the Kelowna and Penticton Districts. For the Kelowna District the work is reported
on by B. Hoy, District Field Inspector:—
" For years this has been one of our major insect pests and no adequate control
measures have been available. After discussing control possibilities with members of
the staff of the Dominion Entomological Branch it was decided to try and kill this
insect while it still remained in the cover-crop.
" Preliminary small-scale tests indicated that Pyrocide dust, derris dust, 4-percent. Diesel oil alone and with 1 lb. ' Dinitro Dry' added would kill tarnished bug.
" The encouraging results in killing tarnished bug with Pyrocide led us to treat
about 2 acres with the power duster in the Wilson orchard in Glenmore. With this
treatment sweepings taken before and after spraying indicated about an 80 per
cent. kill.
" Diesel oil, 4 gallons, and 1 lb. 40-per-cent. dinitrocresol to 100 gallons of water
was applied to about 1 acre of alfalfa cover-crop in Keloka orchard. This treatment
also gave an excellent kill of both tarnished plant bug and Buffalo tree-hoppers. This
spray was applied September 1st.
" On November 1st and 2nd three 240-gallon tanks of the Diesel and Dinitro mixture as used at Keloka was applied to the cover-crop in the Wilson orchard at Glenmore.
This will be checked for tarnished bug damage in the spring.
" While much more work needs to be done to find a satisfactory treatment for
tarnished bug, the lines followed this summer seem to hold promise. In all of these
experiments the Dominion Entomological Branch furnished the material and the Provincial Department furnished the sprayer and assisted in the application."
With regard to tarnished plant bug control in the Penticton District the work as
carried out there is outlined as follows by R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector:—
" Two trial plots were dusted for the control of tarnished plant bug. Only one
application was made and this was applied just as the blossoms were in the full balloon
stage. Results do not show anything very conclusive. This might be possibly due to
the cool weather that prevailed during the period when the tarnished plant bug is
usually active. Why there should be such differences in the two lots dusted is rather
hard to explain. One lot had been heavily infected for a number of years which may
account for a larger population, where as the other lot is surrounded by wild land that
makes an ideal overwintering quarter for tarnished plant bug. From the results listed
below neither Rotox nor Pyrocide dust gave very much in the way of control:—
" Smith Lot.—Variety, Rochester; dusted, April 22nd: Rotox, 66 per cent, cat-
faced ;   Pyrocide, 63 per cent, catfaced;  check, 69 per cent, catfaced.
" Corbett Lot. — Variety, Rochester and Veteran; dusted, April 28th: Rotox,
Rochester and Veteran, 1.203 per cent, catf aced; Pyrocide, Rochester 5.56 per cent,
catf aced, Veteran, 3.7 per cent, catf aced; check, Rochester, 5.87 per cent, catf aced,
Veteran, 0.47 per cent, catfaced.
" Further experimental work on tarnished plant bug was started this autumn, the
idea being to see if the adults could be controlled before hibernation. Plot 1 consisted
of 1 acre of full-grown Bartlett trees with a heavy cover-crop of buckwheat and weeds
with a very heavy infestation of tarnished plant bug, 176 being swept up with an
ordinary net in a space of about 10 feet square. This plot was sprayed with Diesel
oil 41/2 per cent, plus dinitrocresol dry 4 per cent.    The cover-crop and weeds only were sprayed using approximately 500 gallons of spray per acre. The plot was swept
the next day and only four live tarnished plant bugs were recovered. Plot 2 consisted
of approximately 3 acres of Rochester peaches and was dusted with Pyrocide dust at
the rate of 100 lb. to the acre. Before the dust was applied 172 adults were captured
in a space about 10 feet square and the day following the dusting the plot was again
swept and only one adult recovered. This plot had a fairly heavy coverage of weeds
and some alfalfa. Since no check will be possible on the controls obtained until next
spring no further report on this piece of work is possible. Apparently this method
does destroy tremendous numbers of adults, but there is the possibility of severe infestations coming from surrounding lands if the weather is favourable for tarnished plant
bug. The spraying and dusting was done October 13th under almost ideal weather
conditions."
Codling-moth Control.
The control of codling-moth is one of the most important problems in the successful production of apples in both the Okanagan and Kootenay fruit-growing areas.
Necessary demonstration-work is undertaken in Vernon, Kelowna, Penticton, and other
sections. It is impossible in this report to give in detail all the work which has been
done during the past season. A brief summary of the work in the Kelowna District,
as outlined in the report of B. Hoy, District Field Inspector, gives a general idea of
the spraying-work attempted in all sections:—
" This was a light-crop year and though cold weather prevailed throughout the
first-brood period many orchards were very heavily infested with codling-moth this fall.
The cold weather last winter and the late spring had little or no effect in reducing the
infestation. Favourable weather for codling-moth during August and September no
doubt was a factor in building up the infestation.
" Considerable difficulty was experienced in applying first-brood sprays owing to
wind, but spraying conditions later in the season were satisfactory.
" Materials recommended for codling-moth spraying were the same as in 1942.
Radio bulletins dealing with codling-moth control were broadcast over CKOV throughout the spraying season.
" At the Hard orchard in East Kelowna further tests were made by the Dominion
Entomological Branch in co-operation with this Department. The materials used were
nicotine bentonite mixtures with various types of oil. Mississippi bentonite was used
in' two plots. Results indicated this new type of bentonite worthy of further trial.
If this type of bentonite is successful it should lower the cost of fixed nicotine sprays.
It can be mixed in the tank with nicotine sulphate and oil and when sprayed on the
fruit leaves a deposit that can be removed with ordinary wipers.
" In Keloka orchard further tests were made by this Department in co-operation
with the Dominion Entomological Branch. Phenothiazine, Black Leaf 155, and Black
Leaf 155 plus added bentonite were tested. The check-plots received standard sprays
of arsenate of lead and cryolite.
" Ammonium dinitrocresylate, 4 oz. to 100 gallons of spray, and nicotine sulphate,
0.25 pint to 100 gallons of spray, were tested side by side on large plots in Keloka
orchard. This material was given to the grower and was added to all the standard
sprays of arsenate of lead and cryolite. Both of these materials are considered capable
of killing moths.    Owing to the light crops no definite results could be recorded.
" Fixed nicotine (Dominion Entomological Branch formula) made by Canadian
Industries, Limited, was given to two growers in the Glenmore District. This was
applied in two second-brood sprays and compared with Cryolite and Black Leaf 155.
Both growers report the C.I.L. material at least equal to Cryolite or Black Leaf 155."
4 R 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Plum and Cherry Aphis Control.
An excellent idea of the work undertaken during the past season is given in the
following statement from the report of R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector, Penticton :—
" Trials were started this season to control the cherry-aphis and mealy plum-aphis
on prunes by the use of dormant oil and nicotine and dormant oil with various forms
of dinitrocresol. This work was undertaken to try and find a more effective and
cheaper method of controlling these two pests. Four plots of cherries and four plots
of Italian prunes were used; all were fully matured trees. Each plot consisted of ten
cherries and four Italian prunes. The spraying was done April 5th. The buds had
passed the dormant stage and were just beginning to show a green tip. It was intended
to have the spray applied earlier, but weather conditions were unfavourable and delayed
the work. Although the buds were rather advanced for dormant oil, no spray damage
showed in any of the plots.    The following procedure was followed:—
(1.)  Dormant oil, 4 per cent.;   nicotine sulphate, 1 pint;   water, 100 gallons.
(2.)   Dormant oil, 2 per cent.;   dinitrocresol dry, 1 lb.;   water, 100 gallons.
(3.)   Dormant oil, 2 per cent.;   elgetol, 3 lb.;  water, 100 gallons.
(4.) Dormant oil, 2 per cent.; home-made elgetol, 3 lb.; water, 100 gallons.
" Four check-trees were left in the middle of the cherry plots and one Italian
prune. Observations were made during the season and the sprayed trees were practically free of aphis during the entire growing period, while the check-trees in the
cherry plots showed a light infestation. The one Italian prune had very few aphis,
but was badly affected by the prune leaf-spot, whereas the sprayed trees had fine
healthy foliage. This may be only a coincidence, but it is intended to repeat this work
during the coming season to see if this early spraying will not only control aphis but
also if it has an effect on prune leaf-spot. Since all the spray treatments gave good
aphis control without injury it is felt that the dormant oil 2 per cent, plus dinitrocresol dry 1% lb. per 100 gallons of water can be safely recommended to growers
because it is efficient and the least expensive of any of the spray treatments so far
tried."
Poison-ivy Control.
The work on the control of this weed was carried out by R. P. Murray, District
Field Inspector.    Mr. Murray's report follows:—
" Numerous inquiries have come to the office for the best methods of handling
poison-ivy.    Ordinary weed-killers have been tried with varying degrees of success.
" This season a 50-lb. drum of ammonium sulfamate was obtained to test its
effectiveness on poison-ivy. Four trials were made—one at Osoyoos, two at Oliver,
and one at Penticton.
" In two of the trials, the poison-ivy was well established along wooden flumes
that leaked rather badly; in the other two patches the plants were growing in rock-
piles. The first two patches were treated in June, using 1 lb. of ammonium sulfamate
to 1 gallon of water, applied with a hand-sprayer, using roughly 1 gallon to 100 square
feet. It took about three days for the plants to wither and with only one application
there has been no sign of regrowth, even where moisture conditions were favourable.
The two patches growing in the stone-piles were treated in late July at the same
strength as the other two.    So far there is no sign of regrowth."
Mealy-bug Control.
Mealy bugs are commercially important only in the Kootenay Districts. Control-
work in the past has been carried out by E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist, collaborating with the staff of the Dominion Science Service. Mr. Hunt's recommendations and
report on this year's work are herewith submitted:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 51
" This insect is on the increase. The past two seasons with cool, damp summers
have been ideal weather for a heavy build-up of this pest. Growers on the whole were
more successful with their control sprays than last year, but a great many did not
spray at all for this insect. The sprays used were the Diesel oil 6 per cent, and the
dormant oil of 110 viscosity, 4 per cent. Most growers used the Diesel oil as it was
somewhat cheaper and the control just as good as the 4-per-cent. 110-viscosity oil.
Indications are at this time that a much larger quantity of the Diesel oil will be
required next year in this district for the control of this insect. Many growers had
to wash and wipe their apples this fall, due to the heavy deposit of sooty fungus on
the fruit, after a heavy infestation of the mealy bugs. It is considerably cheaper to
use the dormant oil sprays in the control of this insect than to have to wash and wipe
the fruit at harvesting-time, especially when help is so short and expensive. Mealy
bug parasites sent out from the Dominion Parasite Laboratory, Belleville, Ont., were
again liberated in this district. This year they were liberated at Bonnington Falls,
South Slocan, Gray Creek, and Queens Bay. Previous liberations were made at Creston,
Boswell, Harrop, Longbeach, Willow Point, and Robson."
Little Cherry Investigations.
A very satisfactory summary of the situation as it stands at the present time is
contained in the following report by E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist:—
" Work in connection with the cause of the ' little cherry' trouble is still going
on and after another year the investigators are not a great deal nearer to the solution.
So far, none of the work done has changed the opinion that the trouble might be a virus.
On the whole, the cherry-crop in the infested areas was somewhat improved over other
years. In fact a marked improvement in Bings but less in Lamberts. The trouble
has not appeared in any new section this past season. Sixty tons of cherries were put
up at Harrop this past season in S02 and most of this was from the areas affected
with ' little cherry' trouble. A full bearing cherry orchard of about 5 acres was purchased this last year in the Kootenay Bay area for further experimental work in finding
a solution to this cherry trouble. The orchard was well fertilized last spring and again
this fall and at the present time the trees are looking quite healthy. Budding was
carried out in July by the staff of the Dominion Plant Pathological Laboratory at
Summerland on a large number of trees and results will be checked next season.
This is a test to prove or disprove the trouble is a virus. Further work will be carried
on with different tests next year. Your assistant spent considerable time with the
men on this work as well as carrying out his own, such as pruning, fertilizing, and
cutting the undergrowth around the trees. The young cherry orchard planted at
Columbia Gardens has been discarded and further work there will stop. Some young
cherry-trees have also been planted in the Willow Point area for testing different root
stocks and their effect on the fruit when they reach the bearing age."
Cover-crops and Fertilizers.
The orchard cover-crop work as carried out in the Vernon District consisted of
four plots of 2 acres each of alfalfa, yellow sweet clover, wild white clover, and mixed
grasses. The plots were under the supervision of H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, from whose report the following statement was taken:—
" This project, laid down in 1941, is now well established. Reseeding was made
of a small portion of the white clover plot in 1943. The yellow sweet clover plot will
need reseeding next spring.
" The past summer showed a distinct difference in tree appearance of the plots.
The wild white clover plot had the best terminal growth and foliage appearance.
Alfalfa and yellow sweet clover were next and about equal.    The mixed grasses plot R 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
trees showed definite stunting of growth, small and yellow foliage, with general appearance of low vitality. To overcome this condition the plot was fall fertilized with
ammonium sulphate at 20 lb. per tree. Fertilizer was supplied by the Provincial
Department of Agriculture and applied by your officials."
In the Penticton District R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector, reports as follows
on the cover-crop work undertaken in that area:—
" Continuing the work of past years cover-crop plots of oats, buckwheat, and
sweet clover were seeded May 3rd. This was rather late to seed annual cover-crops
in this district, but pressure of other duties prevented getting this done.
" In addition to the crops mentioned above a trial seeding of strawberry clover
was made.    The plot is roughly about % acre in extent.
" The oats, buckwheat, and strawberry clover were broadcast, lightly harrowed,
and the surface packed with a float. The sweet clover was drilled in with a hand-
seeder in rows 18 inches apart. Due to the continued dry weather and no irrigation-
water available the sweet clover did not germinate and with the strawberry clover only
a partial catch was obtained. This has been left and has been forming quite a few
seed-heads, possibly enough to give a reasonable stand next season. The oats and
buckwheat did very well. On July 15th the buckwheat and oat plots were sampled,
giving a total yield of ll1^ and 7% green tons per acre. Both oats, and buckwheat
were in the milk stage when sampled.
" This year on the oat and buckwheat plots there were definite signs of tree
response with a very much improved physical condition of the soil. As has been
reported previously the site of these plots was part of a seepage area where the ground
had become very densely packed and almost impervious to irrigation-water, although
a drainage system was installed several years ago to take care of seepage conditions."
Some fertilizer-work in orchards throughout the Okanagan has been undertaken,
particularly in the Kelowna District. The results, however, are so inconclusive that
it does not seem advisable to go into detail as to the work which has been carried out.
Raspberry Variety Trials.
The raspberry trials as carried out in 1943 are a continuation of the work undertaken in the past. In addition to commercial varieties that are at present on the
market, and which are being tried out in different sections of the Province, there have
also been tried certain seedling introductions from the Central Experimental Farm,
Ottawa. One or two of these give indications of having some commercial value. This
work will be continued.
Pruning Demonstrations.
Pruning demonstrations were undertaken last winter in different parts of the
Province.    The largest attendance is in the Coast sections.    The instructional work
given was similar to that provided in the past.
The following table indicates briefly the number of demonstrations, etc., for
1943;	
. No. of No. of
District. Demonstrations.       Pupils.
Islands  11 262
Lower Mainland      3 132
Okanagan       3 13
Total :  17 407
CROP REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS.
As in the past, the Horticultural News Letter was issued from the Vernon office
under the supervision of M. S. Middleton, District Horticulturist, who reports as
follows:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 53
" The Horticultural News Letter was issued from the Vernon office during the
1943 season. This was sent out every two weeks from May 15th to September 18th,
a total of ten issues. Approximately 285 copies of each issue were sent out. The
following crop estimates were compiled and issued with the News Letter:—
Small-fruit Estimates, May 29th.
Vegetable Acreages, June 12th.
Stone-fruit Estimates, June 26th.
Tree-fruit Estimates (Apples, Pears, Crabs, Grapes), July 10th.
Revised Tree-fruit Estimates, August 21st.
" Fruit and vegetable crop production figures, as well as crop estimates, have been
compiled from time to time throughout the season.   These have been issued as required
and also supplied to the Statistics Branch for inclusion in the Agricultural Statistics
Report of the Agriculture Department."
Horticultural circulars have been revised and reissued and new circulars printed
in order to meet the ever-increasing demand for information on horticultural subjects.
REPORT OF THE FIELD CROPS BRANCH.
C. Tice, B.S.A., Field Crops Commissioner.
The extreme winter conditions of 1942-43 were detrimental to many field crops.
As a result there was considerable winter-killing in legumes, grasses, and winter wheat.
Hay-crops, alsike clover, red clover, and timothy seed production have been considerably reduced due to unfavourable climatic conditions.
Grasshoppers were very bad in some districts and were responsible for much loss
of crop.
Potatoes and other root crops have turned out well, whilst grain was an average
crop.
The fibre flax crop in the Fraser Valley was spotty, but there were some exceptionally good fields.
The following report is made by M. S. Middleton, District Horticulturist, Vernon,
regarding field crops and general farm conditions in his district:—
" The season has not been a very favourable one for general farm crops. We had
excellent harvesting weather but the yields were generally lighter than usual. The
hard winter damaged alfalfa stands in many areas and as a consequence this crop was
much lighter than usual. The fall grain-crops were also damaged to some extent and
the yields were only fair. Spring-sown grain-crops especially on heavy clay land were
extremely patchy and generally poor. The demand for hay has been very great and
many farmers have sold themselves short, and others who planned to buy locally are
being disappointed. As a consequence many are selling off some of their cattle and
much unfinished stuff is passing through the stockyards at present. Permanent pasture
and after-growth has been the poorest for years. The late fall weather has been moist
and mild and stock is still being pastured, which is helping to save the winter feed
which is short. The ensilage crops were,also much lighter and less well matured than
usual in the valley."
SEED PRODUCTION.
In co-operation with the Dominion Plant Products Division every effort has been
made to stimulate the production of forage and grass seeds.
In view of the Federal Government's advice that increased supplies of legume-seeds
would be required, this office lost no time in advising district agricultural officials and
seed-growers' organizations of the situation. Farmers were advised to save all the
legume acreage possible for seed purposes providing it would make good clean seed. R 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Due to the winter-killing which took place in several of the legume-crops during
the winter of 1942-43, many farmers found themselves forced to cut all the acreage
possible for hay purposes instead of saving it for seed. As a result the production of
some legume and grass seeds was much lower this year than last.
On the other hand, the production of mangel and sugar-beet seed, according to
John L. Webster, District Inspector, is much higher than last year.
At the time of preparing this report the final figures for field-crop seed production
in the Province for the year 1943 are not available. The following table represents
the estimated production for 1943 and the full production for 1942:—
Estimated
Production 1942
for 1943. Production.
Lb. Lb.
Alfalfa  200,000 63,000
Red clover   120,000 320,000
Alsike clover    115,000 250,000
Timothy   754,000 1,500,000
Sweet clover   100,000           	
White clover ,  2,700
Brome grass   10,000 16,000
Crested wheat-grass _  2,000 4,000
Kentucky blue-grass   1,000           	
Creeping red fescue   200 3,000
Reed canary-grass   2,000           	
Orchard grass   31,000
Mangel  80,000 52,829
Sugar-beet  :  400,000 140,000
Field corn   1,500 5,000
SOIL ANALYSIS.
A large number of soil samples have been submitted to this office for analysis
during the year. The analytical work has been undertaken by S. S. Phillips, Assistant
Field Crops Commissioner, by means of the Spurway method of analysis. Of the 288
samples analysed, 237 originated on Vancouver Island and 190 came from in and
around the City of Victoria.
The enthusiasm displayed in Victory Gardens was no doubt responsible for the
large number of samples received from this latter area.
It is interesting to note that during the years 1940, 1941, and 1942, 494 samples
of soil have been analysed by this office for nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, and calcium
content. Of these samples, 74.2 per cent, have shown some degree of acidity, the pH
ranging from 5.0 to 7.0;  23.7 per cent, of the samples have been neutral in reaction.
FEDERAL FERTILIZER SUBVENTION.
It will be recalled that in March, 1942, the Federal Government authorized by
Order in Council the payment of a subsidy to farmers on certain fertilizers when used
on specified spring-sown feed crops. The amount of the subsidy was calculated on the
following basis: 40 cents per unit of nitrogen, 20 cents per unit of available phosphoric
acid, and 20 cents per unit of water soluble potash in the ton of fertilizer. In June the
same year a new Order in Council was passed extending the policy to December 31st,
1943, but the amount of subsidy was reduced to 30 cents per unit of nitrogen, 15 cents
per unit of available phosphoric acid, and 15 cents per unit of water soluble potash in
the ton of fertilizer. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 55
Your Commissioner, who handled the administration of the policy in British
Columbia for 1942, was therefore required to continue supervision of the work which
for convenience has been carried on in the Court-house, Vancouver. However, the
bulk of the office work has this year been capably handled by A. McNeill of the Department of Agriculture staff in Vancouver.
As it will be early next year before a complete compilation of the records will be
possible, it may be stated now that many more claims have been handled this year than
last, but the total amount of the subsidy paid will be less. The total number of claims
handled in 1942 was 1,692 and the total amount of subsidy paid was $13,415.60,
representing 1,729.6 tons of fertilizer.
In order to make the policy as widely known as possible and also to ensure a
better understanding of its requirements, a special circular was prepared, printed and
distributed.
LIME.
Considerable attention has been given to the matter of lime supplies for farmers.
Grant S. Peart, Fertilizers Administrator at Ottawa, and Frank Foulds, his assistant,
visited the Province during the year and went into the matter thoroughly. Meetings
were attended, at which representatives of the Provincial and Federal Departments of
Agriculture and lime manufacturers were present. Your Commissioner has also on
several occasions personally interviewed the lime manufacturers and discussed the lime
situation with them.
The two largest lime plants in the Province are located on Texada Island. Both
of these plants have for some time been busy in turning out lime for war purposes.
Due to shortage of labour and equipment the production of lime for agricultural purposes has been slowed up considerably. However, the situation has improved very
much of late and it is expected that in the very near future increased quantities of
lime will be available for agricultural purposes.
Last spring the Wartime Prices and Trade Board at Ottawa set a ceiling price of
$7.50 per ton on agricultural hydrated lime, f.o.b. scow, Texada Island. Since then
nearly 4,000 tons of this type of lime have been manufactured and put on the market,
for which the Federal Government is paying the manufacturers a subsidy of $1 per ton.
Later on in the year a ceiling price was set on ground limestone. These prices
are as follows: $3 per ton in new sacks, f.o.b. scow, Texada Island, and $2.75 per ton
in old sacks, f.o.b. scow, Texada Island.
Since these prices are below the cost of production a subsidy of 75 cents per ton
is to be paid the manufacturers of ground limestone by the Provincial Department
of Agriculture. This, however, will be refunded to the Province by the Federal
Government.
As a further aid to farmers to secure lime at a reasonable price, the Provincial
Department of Agriculture is paying a subsidy of $1 per ton to bona-fide farmer
purchasers of lime.
FIELD CROPS UNION.
There were 148 members of the Crops Union this year, distributed as follows:—
Members.
Vancouver Island  35
Central British Columbia  28
Kootenays     9
Interior  .  32
Fraser Valley __,  10
Cariboo  15
Peace River   17
Northern British Columbia  _     2 R 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
There were twenty-eight distinct tests available to members of the Union as compared with thirty-three the previous year. Your Commissioner is Secretary-Treasurer
of the Association.
STOCK SEED OF CEREALS AND ROOTS.
The following quantities of stock seed of various kinds and varieties of cereals and
roots produced at the University of British Columbia were placed by this office during
the year:— Lb
Marquis wheat       890
Red Bobs wheat      700
Red Wing flax      230
Victory oats  2,604
Eagle oats  1,054
Olli barley      500
Storm rye      600
Kharkov wheat      300
Ridit wheat  .      800
Yellow intermediate mangel         24
U.B.C. Bangholm Swede turnip        25
It should be stated that this seed is sold to farmers at a considerably reduced price.
HYBRID FIELD CORN TESTS.
The tests with hybrid field corn were continued this year on individual farms in
the Interior, Cariboo, Fraser Valley, and on Vancouver Island. The seed of these tests
was again supplied by Dr. S. E. Clarke, Agrostologist of the Dominion Experimental
Farm at Swift Current.
Samples have been taken wherever possible and the same have been forwarded to
the Swift Current Station for dry-matter test.
The following hybrids were under test this year: KE-2, KS-2, KM-2, KY-55, Wisconsin 355, Wisconsin 525, Wisconsin 570, and Wisconsin 279.
The various plots were inspected during the growing season and green weights
were taken at harvest-time.
The complete results of these tests are not available at the time of preparing this
report.
WEED-CONTROL.
Weed-control work receives as much attention as time permits. One Weed Inspector—namely, H. D. Mclvor, of Fort St. John—was appointed for the north side of the
Peace River. This official worked under the immediate supervision of Sub-Inspector
Mansell of the B.C. Police at Pouce Coupe. Tom Crack, District Agriculturist at Pouce
Coupe, handled the situation on the south side of the Peace River.
Some demonstration-work in the control of weeds by means of chemicals continues
to be undertaken.
GRAIN SCREENINGS.
As Walter Sandall, District Field Inspector in the Department of Agriculture,
Court-house, Vancouver, is the official responsible for issuing permits required in
connection with the movement of screenings and also for recording the tonnage of
■ screenings which have been sold, that section of his report pertaining to this matter
is quoted herewith.
" Up to October 31st, sixteen permits to remove screenings were issued to feed
dealers covering various quantities.    All permits expire at the end of year of issue. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 57
" During the first ten months of 1943, which ended October 31st, manager's
reports showed that approximately 771 tons of screenings, including all grades, have
been consumed locally. This quantity is slightly more than for the corresponding
period of last year, but is still much below the requirements for this material, which,
when available, is normally about 7,000 tons per year. Due to the extremely light
movement of grain shipments from British Columbia grain elevators, the supply of
screenings has become very limited.
" During the first ten months ended October 31st, 426 tons of refuse screenings
have been exported by dealers, while 681 tons of refuse screenings and 125 tons mixed
feed oats have been shipped direct from British Columbia elevators to the United
States.
" In an endeavour to control the weed situation which might arise from the use
of screenings, occasional visits have been made to co-operative associations and other
dealers in stock feeds situated in or near the farming districts of the Fraser Valley to
ascertain if any unground screenings are being distributed in the country districts,
thereby eliminating the danger of weed contamination from that source. It may be
mentioned here that No. 1 and No. 2 feed screenings are the only grade available to
dealers or consumers in or near the farming districts. They are also available to the
farmer, although it is many years since an individual farmer was known to have
purchased unground No. 2 feed screenings. It is questionable if any grade of screenings contain the food value per dollar as compared to other feed-grains. Ground
screenings are chiefly used in the manufacture of various feeds; other ground grains,
etc., are added which enhances its food value. The manufactured product is subject to
inspection by officials of the Dominion Plant Products Division, where it is analysed for
weed-seed content, as well as protein, fat and fibre.
" Appendix No. 2 will show the quantity of screenings of each grade removed from
British Columbia grain elevators each month, ended October 31st, 1943, as compiled
from the manager's reports."
CAMPBELL RIVER LOGGED-OFF LAND SEEDING.
On October 29th, 1943, an inspection was made of the Campbell River logged-off
land seeding by L. Todhunter, who, in the spring of 1939 seeded some 2,000 acres of
burned-over land to timothy and alsike clover, sweet clover, white Dutch clover, and
subterranean clover. The seeding was carried out immediately after the big fire which
occurred in the fall of 1938.
It was very gratifying to note at the time of this inspection that all the clovers
which at the previous inspection had almost entirely disappeared were now growing
in abundance, the plants being strong and vigorous.
The areas seeded to timothy and alsike are again an excellent stand and there is
much evidence of natural reproduction. In most cases the seed-pods were shattered
and much new growth was noticed. It was also noted that there is a gradual spread
of plants to areas which had not previously been seeded.
Cattle are running over parts of the area and are keeping the clover plots well
grazed. Deer, which are fairly numerous in the district, are closely grazing the other
areas which are seeded to clover.
The sweet clover now appears to be making better progress, and although there
were very few plants of this year's growth bearing seed it was very evident that from
last year's plants much reproduction had taken place, large quantities of young plants
being found, which at the time of inspection were from 4 to 6 inches in height and
appeared to be very healthy. These plants will no doubt produce a good crop of seed
next year.
A small area located about a quarter of a mile south of the forest nursery where
the soil is a silt loam continues to show an exceptionally good growth of subterranean R 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
clover, although this area is now becoming infested with willows and alder shrubs.
Other areas seeded to this clover are showing equally good results.
The white Dutch clover has made a remarkable comeback, areas seeded to this type
showing much better growth than at any previous inspection. A plot seeded to white
Dutch and where the plants had all disappeared was given dressings in the fall of 1942
of superphosphate, basic slag and 6-10-10 fertilizer. This was applied in small plots
at the rate of about 400 lb. per acre, and to a portion of each plot lime was also applied.
The results of these tests were very interesting. The superphosphate and lime
plot was extremely good, there being much bloom and seed still in evidence. The plants
were also spreading by the creeping stems which were developing numerous roots.
From the phosphate alone there were also good results. Basic slag and lime was only
fair as might also be said of the basic slag alone, although some good patches were
noted. The 6-10-10 and lime plots showed fair results, but was quite patchy, as was
also the plot to which fertilizer alone was applied. It was, however, noted in this
particular plot that a very good stand of native grasses had become established.
B.C. FERTILIZER BOARD.
Six meetings of the B.C. Fertilizer Board were held and attended by your Commissioner during the year. These meetings discussed various topics pertaining to the
fertilizer industry in the Province. Correspondence is received from time to time
from the Fertilizer Administrator at Ottawa regarding fertilizer supplies which
requires the attention of the Board. In addition to this the Board recommends to the
Administrator the fertilizer mixes which will be allowed to be manufactured for sale in
the Province. The following is the approved list of fertilizers for manufacture and
sale in British Columbia in the fertilizer trade-year ending June 30th, 1944:—
0-14-10 0-24-20
2-12-10 (for tobacco only) 6-30-15
2-16-6 6-18-12
4-12-8 8-24-16
8-10-5 10-12-10
6-7-6 (organic)
It should be pointed out that fertilizer is one of the most important materials for
the production of essential food products. Although figures are not yet available
showing the consumption of fertilizer in British Columbia for 1943, it may be stated
that there was a considerable increase in consumption over the previous year, probably
25 per cent.
Present indications point to the fact that there will be sufficient fertilizer materials
available to meet our requirements in 1944. However, due to the general shortage of
potash this material is being supplied on a quota basis. For this reason it has been
necessary to reduce the potash content of fertilizer mixes.
THRESHERMEN'S REPORTS.
In compliance with the requirements of the " Noxious Weeds Act" threshermen
are required to file annual statements of the amount of grain threshed for the current
year.    Special forms are furnished them for this purpose.
Appendix No. 3, attached to this report, gives the amount of grain and seed
threshed in the various districts of the Province for 1942. It will be some time before
the 1943 returns are completed. The statement has been prepared from returns submitted by the various district agricultural officials.
MECHANIZED FARMING.
It is interesting to note in travelling through the Province the gradual changes
taking place on the farm.    This is particularly noticeable in the case of farm machinery. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 59
Hand-labour and horses are being replaced with power-driven machines. The shortage
of labour during the war has no doubt been largely responsible for this.
The large number of small combines in use throughout the Province is very much
in evidence at harvest-time and during the past couple of years the pick-up baler
seems to have become very popular in some sections of the Province. There are several
types of these machines on the market which require from one to several men to
operate.
Your Commissioner has observed that some of the large ranches which put up
several thousand tons of hay a year are solving the labour problem by means of the
pick-up baler. Reports received so far indicate that these balers are proving satisfactory.
MISCELLANEOUS.
During the year this office has received an increased number of inquiries regarding
soil and crop problems. This has no doubt been due to the greater interest being shown
by those on the land in improving the yield and quality of their products. The Victory
Garden movement has also been responsible for a large number of telephone calls and
visits from those seeking information on soil and plant problems.
In conclusion, your Commissioner wishes to express his appreciation to the
University of British Columbia and the Federal Department of Agriculture for their
helpful co-operation during the year.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL PLANT PATHOLOGIST.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist.
Special delivery tags to the number of 1,326 were issued, as compared with 777
for last year. Of these, 1,007 were divided almost equally between two mail order
houses in Winnipeg and consist, so far as returns have been received, of small orders
for the home garden of ornamentals, asparagus, rhubarb, strawberries, onion sets, etc.
In addition, 90 tags were issued to cover shipments of forced daffodil bulbs from
Manitoba to be grown under quarantine until considered fit for planting stock. Fifty
tags were issued for greenhouse plants.
In addition 107 shipments without tags were inspected at Vancouver, exclusive of
potatoes. These were mostly small shipments from nurseries and private persons, but
included several consignments of onion sets from Manitoba for the trade. One of these
consignments consisted of 107 sacks, another of sixty-seven, and require rather careful
inspection for onion smut, which occurs in Manitoba but has not been found so far in
British Columbia.
Since the passing of the Bacterial Ring-rot Regulations all private shipments of
potatoes from the Prairies have been inspected for this disease. Owing probably to the
potato shortage last year there have been considerable shipments this fall, of one to six
sacks each, to consumers in Vancouver, although our local supplies are now more than
adequate. These have been about equally from Alberta and Saskatchewan. No indications of the disease have been found so far. Fortunately most of the shipments have
been from points outside the known area of infection.
PLANT DISEASES.
No new diseases of importance were noted but one or two which have been present
for some time occurred in an unusual degree of severity.
Bean Rust (Uromyces appendiculatus).—This disease was first noticed in British
Columbia in 1935 in the plantings of two Japanese growers at Pitt Meadows.    Since R 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
then an occasional heavily attacked planting has been found on the Lower Mainland,
but, on the whole, the bean-crop has not been seriously affected. This year, however,
an outbreak of serious economic importance occurred in the Matsqui District, in a
number of acreage plantings of Kentucky Wonder beans being grown under contract
for the canners. In some fields the yield was reduced 50 per cent., only two pickings
being made instead of the usual four. Also, spotting of the pods with rust pustules
was frequent, while spores were produced in such quantities that picking was made
disagreeable for the pickers.
This disease is not usually considered serious in the northern areas of bean
cultivation. The Canadian Disease Survey only records an occasional serious infestation, sometimes only of garden proportions. Even in New York State it is stated to be
not serious enough to call for any measures of control or the use of resistant varieties,
the reason being given that the disease does not " appear before the last of August, and
by then the plants are so far matured that little injury is sustained." (Cornell Est.
Bull. 58, rev. 1935.) This also appears to have been the case in previous years at
Matsqui, the disease having been noticed only at the time of the last picking. This year,
however, the whitish aacial stage was plentiful on July 15th and uredinia appeared a
few days later. The secial stage is said to be rare and often omitted in the life-cycle,
but it was very abundant in this case.
Measures of control consist chiefly in the use of resistant varieties. Kentucky
Wonder, the most popular variety with the canners in British Columbia, is generally
regarded as one of the most susceptible varieties, although certain strains have been
found less susceptible than others. In the South, dusting with sulphur, or spraying
with wettable sulphur, has been found effective, while copper fungicides are said to
have little value, and may even be injurious to the plants. Whether such sulphur sprays
would be effective under our rather low temperatures can only be determined by actual
test.
It is proposed to carry out some tests along both lines, using one of the fields
heavily affected this year. The matter of a variety to replace Kentucky Wonder is
complicated by the fact that the resistant variety, if such is found, must be acceptable
to the canners. Moreover, as the seasonal conditions resulting in an epidemic may not
recur in the same district for some time, it may be necessary to continue the test over
a period of years.
Coryneum Rot of Sweet Cherries.—The twig-blight of stone-fruits due to
Coryneum Beijerinckii is not uncommon, especially on peaches, both at the Coast and
in the West Kootenay. Spotting of apricot fruit has also been found in the latter area,
but this crop is of no commercial importance there. This year quite a serious rot of
ripening cherries occurred in several orchards at Boswell. Bing and Centennial were
the chief varieties affected, the heaviest infection reaching 25 per cent. The rot is
a firm one, the fruit gradually drying up. Spore production was copious on the infected
fruit. In America this disease, as it affects the cherry-crop, does not seem to have
attracted much attention. It is possible that sanitary measures, including the destruction of rotted fruits, and pruning out and burning of blighted twigs, may be all that
is necessary for control. What spray programme is necessary or desirable to supplement these measures will have to be determined experimentally. Possibly the new
organic spray material " fermate" may prove satisfactory as a fruit protectant.
It seems to have given encouraging results as a pre-harvest spray in protecting cherries
against brown rot and grey mould.
" Little Cherry " Disease in the Kootenays.—Last year, no evidence was found of
this disease outside of the West Arm of the Kootenay Lake and slightly east of Nelson.
However, as reported in the annual report for 1942, after the return of Mr. Foster and
myself, suspected trees were reported from Gray Creek, Boswell, and Creston.    This DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 61
year an inspection was made when the Lamberts were ripe, in conjunction with E. C.
Hunt. The trees at Gray Creek, which bore rather small fruit last year, were bearing
normal fruit this year. Mr. Twigg also reported that the suspected tree at Creston
bore normal fruit this year. However, several orchards at Boswell showed what
seemed to be clear evidence of the disease. The outbreak of the disease here is not
easy to account for unless by the introduction of infected nursery stock from the
West Arm, of which no evidence was found. The previously known area of infestation
being along the West Arm, and the nearest point across the lake, as well as the ferry
terminus, being at Gray Creek, it seemed natural to suppose that if the disease spread
across the lake it would appear at Gray Creek rather than at Boswell, 10 miles or so
farther on. However, if, as is almost certain, infected insects are the agents of
transmission, these might be carried by the wind or on the cars, and escape in a more
or less haphazard manner.
The project, mentioned in the 1942 report, of using an isolated cherry orchard at
Kootenay Bay for research purposes was satisfactorily arranged. The Provincial
Government has leased this orchard for a term of years and the Plant Pathologists of
the Dominion Laboratory at Summerland have put in a large number of buds from
trees known to be suffering from " little cherry " and from wild cherries (Prunus
emarginata) growing in the infected area. This should provide a final answer to the
two questions which have to be disposed of before any control campaign can be undertaken, namely: (1) Whether or not the disease is transmissible—i.e., is a virus;
(2) whether or not the native cherries, which are so abundant in the Kootenay Lake
area and which show no symptoms, are nevertheless infected and " carriers " of the
disease.
Canker of Cultivated Blueberry Bushes.—There are a few commercial plantings of
cultivated blueberries on Lulu Island and in these a canker disease of the twigs and
branches has been observed for some years past. Usually it is only a minor trouble
but in individual bushes, where one or more of the main branches are attacked low
down, the injury may be severe. Fruit-bodies do not appear to be freely produced, but'
this year cankers bearing fruit-bodies, submitted to I. L. Conners, of the Division of
Botany at Ottawa, were identified by him as those of Godronia Cassandrss Peck
(Fusicoccum putrifaciens Shear) an organism which is the cause of one of the most
important storage-rots of Cranberry fruits. The Plant Disease Reporter (U.S. Dept.
Agriculture), Vol. 26: No. 22, records it as occurring on various native species of
Vaccinium in Alaska and the Pacific North-west, but not on the Eastern species from
which most of our cultivated plants originated. The Canadian Plant Disease Survey
No. 11, 1931, however, reports severe injury to cultivated high-bush blueberries of
eastern origin in a small planting in Quebec Province, resulting in the death of fifteen
plants in a total of fifty.
NURSERY INSPECTION.
The inspection of commercial nurseries on Vancouver Island and in the Fraser
Valley for virus diseases of stone-fruits was postponed until near the end of June on
account of the backward season. No plants were found with virus symptoms and the
standard of health was good. Evidence of the shortage of skilled labour was noticeable,
especially in the large numbers of " misses " in budded stock.
FALSE CHINCH BUG.
(Nysius ericse.)
In the absence, through illness, of the Provincial Entomologist, some inquiries and
observations were made on an infestation of great numbers of a small hemipterous
insect along the West Arm. Specimens sent to W. Downes, of the Dominion Division
of Entomology, were identified as above. R 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
A wide range of plants was attacked, potatoes, especially the medium early kinds,
suffering rather severely. Some plots of the variety Warba in particular looked as if
hit by a late frost. The tips of the shoots withered up and the leaflets rolled up into
tubes in each of which would be up to fifty of the insects. Raspberry fruit also suffered,
the berries sometimes being smothered in bugs. Such berries showed shrivelled and
discoloured when packed. Amongst garden flowers stocks showed much deformation
and other injury to the blooms. Large numbers of the insects were found attacking
Swede turnips at the level of the ground and appeared to cause a corky layer to develop
which later cracked, opening up the flesh. These insects are very small, less than
a quarter of an inch in length and in the adult stage extremely active, not only running
with great rapidity but taking flight on very slight disturbance. At the date of first
observation (July 28th) only winged adults were found. The insect is apparently
a native one which only occasionally becomes numerous enough to do serious injury.
Mr. Downes writes that an injurious outbreak was reported by the late R. C. Treherne
in 1918, but he has not heard of one since. The injury this year was chiefly along the
West Arm and extending up the lake to Kaslo. Inquiries were also sent in to
Mr. Downes from Trail. At Creston specimens of the insects could be found only by
searching and there was no evidence of injury. In the Columbia Valley between
Fairmont and Canal Flats some fields of Netted Gem potatoes being grown for certification showed occasional rolled leaflets containing the insects but injury was negligible.
Considering the past history of the pest, it is quite likely that it may not be of any
consequence again for some years; such at least is to be hoped as control measures are
difficult. A small-scale test of dusting with derris is said to have had little effect owing
to the activity of the insects. Possibly derris and nicotine dusts if used in very early
morning or on a dull day when the insects are sluggish, or if applied early in the season
before they acquire wings, would be satisfactory. It is not likely, however, that when
the leaves have rolled up as in the case of potatoes, and the insects are hidden inside,
that either sprays or dusts will be very effective.
VICTORY GARDENS.
Several addresses were given on diseases and pests to newly organized garden
clubs and some of the co-operative plots provided under city auspices were visited.
Throughout the growing and harvest season a constant stream of inquiries by telephone
and personal calls at the office were dealt with. However, the troubles were all such
as might be expected and no new pests or diseases were brought to light.
MEDICINAL PLANTS.
There is little to report in reference to medicinal plants. A few inquiries were
received from prospective purchasers of native drug plants in the East and they were
given the names of such collectors as are known to us. Armica seems in much demand
and brings several times the pre-war price, the flower heads being used. Our large-
headed A. cordifolia is abundant in many parts of the Interior and one collector at
least is organizing sub-collectors through the schools, etc., with the aid of a coloured
chart.
An interesting observation was made at a ranch between Canal Flats and Fairmont,
where Caraway (Carum Carui) was found well established and growing freely along
irrigation-ditches. The farmer had been mowing it in the belief it might be poison
hemlock. It was pointed out to him that there was a good market for the seed of this
at the present time and from the way it was growing it might be a useful side-line.
MISCELLANEOUS.
Considerable time was spent in conjunction with R. Glendenning, of the Dominion
Entomological Division, and G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist, in drawing up DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 63
estimates of insecticide and fungicide requirements for 1943 for the Lower Mainland
for the Dominion Pesticides Requirements Committee.
No new weeds were found or reported, but specimens of Loisels' mustard (Sisymbrium Loeselii) were found at Athalmer in the Columbia Valley. Previously this
plant was only known to occur in a small area just east of Kamloops.
A short address was given to the Waldo Stock-breeders' Association on plants
poisonous to stock and illustrated by specimens gathered in the vicinity. From the
discussion which followed it would seem that cases of poisoning are more numerous
than might be supposed from the cases that are reported. With the renewed appointment of a District Agriculturist at Cranbrook more information may be forthcoming.
A series of herbarium specimens was exchanged with the Provincial Museum and
a number of plants new to, or rare in, British Columbia contributed to the National
herbarium at Ottawa.
REPORT OF ASSISTANT PLANT PATHOLOGIST.
The Assistant Plant Pathologist, W. R. Foster, reports as follows: Requests for
information in 1943 showed a considerable increase, not only in respect to Victory
Gardens, but also for vegetable-seed crops and orchards. Twenty-one lectures and
addresses were given during the year and ten articles given to the Press.
On Vancouver Island the losses due to disease were greater in potatoes than in
any other crop. Possibly this was mainly due to lack of an adequate supply of certified
seed potatoes. Leaf-roll and mosaic were responsible for the greatest damage. Club-
root of crucifers continues to spread to more gardens, mainly through the purchase
of infected young plants. As a consequence of the cool wet spring, damping-off caused
a good deal of loss.    Later in the season, blossom-end rot of tomatoes was common.
Bacterial Ring-rot of Potatoes (Corynebacterium sepedonicum).—This was found
for the first time in potatoes grown on Vancouver Island. A shipment from Manitoba
was disposed of to an army camp at Esquimalt because inspection showed the presence
of a few tubers infected with the disease. Although the officers in charge were notified
of the presence of the disease in the shipment, owing to the shortage of other seed
some tubers were planted in the army garden. When the disease appeared, however,
the Assistant Plant Pathologist was notified and an attempt was made to eradicate it.
Vegetable-seed Crops on Vancouver Island.
Cauliflower.-^-This seed crop was attacked by many diseases, but losses in most
cases were slight to moderate owing to the care taken by the growers. The following
injuries and diseases were observed:—
(1.) Frost: Losses of seedlings and young plants were considerable during the
cold spell in January. The greatest number killed were in greenhouses insufficiently
heated. Young plants in well-built cold frames, covered to protect them from sunlight,
survived, in one case, —6° F. and in a number of cases 7° F. About 40 per cent, of
plants out of doors survived 25 degrees of frost.
(2.)   Drought:  A nearly complete failure to set seed was observed at one grower's.
(3.)   Excess moisture:   Damage was observed in low spots in a number of fields.
(4.) Blindness: Cause undetermined. About 1 to 2 per cent, of young plants
in nearly all seed-beds or in the field were found to be blind. One grower had about
40 per cent, of blind plants. Whiptail was suspected but the Ph of the soil was 6.9,
considerably higher than the average for the soils of the district, and plants not blind
did not exhibit any other symptoms of whiptail.
(5.) Bolting: One grower, whose plants had a severe check, lost them all. Another,
whose plants began to bolt, was successful in preventing it in the remainder by prompt
application of water and fertilizer. R 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
(6.)  Wirestem (Rhizoctonia solani) was observed in nearly all seed-beds.
(7.) Downy mildew (Peronospora parasitica) was general, but losses were slight,
except in one or two cases, in which they were moderate.
(8.)  Rot due to Botrytis cinerea: Observed in all fields, but loss slight.
(9.) Club-root (Plasmodiophora brassicss) : Found in a few plants belonging to
one seed-grower.
(10.) Alternaria blight: Found in nearly all fields, but losses slight. This disease
has been severe in some fields in other years.
(11.) Wilt (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) : Found in five out of ten fields examined.
This disease appears to be increasing in importance and, more than any other, is
forcing growers to practise rotation.
(12.) Soft-rot (Erwinis carotovora) was observed in all fields and caused slight
to moderate damage. The loss in one field was about 7 per cent. This disease makes
considerable demands on the grower's time. When the curd is well formed each head
should be examined every day or two, the diseased portion cut out, and copper-lime
dust applied.
Leeks.—Rot due to Botrytis cinerea caused moderate losses in one large field.
Onions.—Downy mildew (Peronospora Schleideniana) caused severe damage in
crops grown for seed.
Spinach.—Downy mildew (Peronospora spinacise) was general, and caused slight
to moderate damage.
Lettuce.—Downy mildew (Bremia lactucx) was general, and caused moderate to
severe damage in one crop.
Greenhouse Tomatoes.
Vetomold 121 has replaced all other greenhouse varieties at the Coast to the extent
of 90 per cent. It has proved very satisfactory as to both quality and yield for the
main crop, but unsatisfactory for the fall crop. It proved resistant to leaf-mould
(Cladosporium fulvum).
Wilt (Verticilliurn albo-atrum) appeared to cause much less damage this year
than usual, which may have been due to later planting on account of the fuel shortage
last winter.
Blotchy ripening, a physiological trouble due chiefly to potash deficiency, caused
moderate losses in one greenhouse. An adjoining grower secured almost complete
prevention by very heavy application of sulphate of potash (1,200 lb. per acre) and
an abundance of water during the early growing period.
Mosaic (Virus) is generally present to the extent of 100 per cent, in Chinese
greenhouses by the end of the season. Nearly all the white growers, owing to better
methods of handling, remain practically free.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL APIARIST.
A. W. Finlay, Provincial Apiarist.
Bees were fairly well provided with stores of honey when packed in the fall of
1942, and came through the winter in good condition with less than average winter loss.
Continuous cool weather the following spring and early summer was prevalent throughout the Lower Mainland and Coast Districts. . The earlier nectar sources from willow,
dandelion, and maples were barely sufficient to keep up brood-rearing, and with the
advent of warmer weather in June many colonies were strong in bees though depleted
in stores, which resulted in considerable swarming troubles at the beginning of the
clover flow.    A return of cool weather in the latter part of June was another set-back DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 65
to bees and many of the new swarms dwindled or starved at this time. These conditions accounted for the uneven appearance of the final crop. The season of 1943,
although showing an estimated production of over 625 tons, may be reckoned, on the
whole, as being one of our poor years for bee-keeping.
The average production of surplus honey per colony was much below normal.
In the Coast Districts and Lower Mainland the crop varied from very poor to good.
The irrigated districts of the Interior, or Dry Belt, suffered a good deal from the
winter-killing of clover and alfalfa plants, and in the orchard districts of the Okanagan
and Kootenays the heavy mortality in field bees caused by spray poisoning reduced the
honey-crop in many instances by 50 per cent.
An outstanding development of the bee-keeping industry this season was the great
increase of new bee-keepers. A total of 1,202 new registrations was recorded this
year, an increase of about 25 per cent. This unusual increase undoubtedly helped in
the total honey production of the Province and under normal conditions would probably
have produced a record crop. Package bees, with which nearly all new bee-keepers
start, arrived very late, due to cool weather in the South and the consequent difficulty in getting queens mated for them. Many packages did not arrive until June, too
late to be of value this season, while those which arrived in April gave a good account
of themselves.
A new bee-keeping district is rapidly developing in the vicinity of Prince George.
About 200 new bee-keepers have been established there, with the able assistance of
the local District Agriculturist, who procured package bees and supplies for them on
a co-operative basis. They produced a fair crop this season with better prospects for
the future.
REPELLENT TESTS.
The Horticultural Branch of the Department of Agriculture again carried out
experiments with the use of creosote and carbolic, mixed with the usual arsenical
sprays for codling-moth on fruit-trees, as a repellent to honey-bees. This work, begun
last season, was extended to two isolated orchard plots this year under more favourable conditions affecting cover-crops, etc. Attached is the report in detail of Apiary
Inspector W. H. Turnbull, who supervised the tests. The summary of his report indicates that the use of these repellents was very encouraging. There was no loss of
bees in colonies established in the test orchards, but considerable burning of foliage
resulted from the first of four sprays, applied at intervals during the season.
In the opinion of the District Field Inspector for the Horticultural Branch, much
further work will be necessary in making these tests before a complete formula can
be worked out that can be safely recommended for general use by orchardists. Beekeepers in the orchard country are very much encouraged by the results so far obtained
by the tests conducted by the Department.
FIELD-WORK.
Apiary inspection began with a number of apiaries examined in March. Early
field-work was intermittent, according to weather conditions, and was principally confined to checking over colonies in apiaries previously found diseased and where there
was the possibility of latent cases developing. A number of emergency calls were
also attended to and inspection certificates given for selling or moving bees. Systematic
inspection began in April and was continued throughout the season until the end of
September, after which a number of return visits were made to all apiaries where
disease had been treated and a further check-up made.
Acknowledgment for the able assistance given iii the work of apiary inspection is
hereby accorded to J. Travis, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks;   C. B. Twigg, Dis-
5 R 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
trict Horticultural Inspector, Creston; E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist, Nelson;
and also to J. E. Manning, District Agriculturist, Prince George, for his co-operative
work in assisting the bee-keepers in his district.
A greater number of field-days than usual were held by various branches of the
British Columbia Honey Producers' Association this season. These were attended,
wherever possible, by the local Apiary Inspector, for the purpose of demonstrating
proper hive manipulation and instruction in the detection and diagnosis of brood
diseases, etc. The meetings were well attended and the educational work of the
Inspectors very much appreciated, especially by the great number of new bee-keepers
this season. Following is a summary of the field-work of the Apiary Inspectors in
the various districts where honey production is a major interest:—■
District.
Examined.
Disease
Inspector.
Apiaries.
Colonies.
A.F.B.
Lower Fraser Valley  	
477
53
262
237
621
13
1,782
184
1,144
701
5,232
35
68
J. Gillespie  	
3
8
V. E. Thorgeirson  	
W H Turnbull
61
141
3
Totals
1,663
9,078
284
OFFICE-WORK.
There were 1,202 applications for registration of new bee-keepers received and
204 cancellations recorded for 1943. Correspondence included the receipt of 3,318
letters and 3,480 were sent out. Fifty-seven samples of diseased comb and smears of
dead larva, were sent in for bacterial diagnosis. Thirty-three proved American foul-
brood, five European foul-brood, and nineteen sterile. Reports on same with instructions for treatment, as required, were sent out. Supervision of Inspectors' accounts,
departmental reports, and telephone calls were routine office-work.
The greater part of the increased correspondence was due to Wartime Prices and
Trade Board regulations concerning the issuance of permits to bee-keepers for purchase
of sugar for feeding bees. It was also necessary to provide the Wartime Prices and
Trade Board with a list of our registration of bee-keepers, also a monthly report on
new registrations as they came in. Work has proceeded, as opportunity allowed, in
changing the registration list on the ledgers to the card-index system, which is expected
to be completed shortly.
A total of 2,635 permits for purchase of sugar was forwarded to bee-keepers on
application and duplicates of same returned to the Sugar Administrator at Montreal.
Estimates of the honey-crop by districts, including the production of .beeswax,
will be found in Appendix No. 4.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL ENTOMOLOGIST.
I. J. Ward, B.Sc, Entomologist.
The Entomological staff during the past year consisted of I. J. Ward, Entomologist,
and Miss C. Bigland, Laboratory Assistant.
Mr. Ward was appointed to the position of Provincial Entomologist on February
1st, 1943, following the retirement of the late M. H. Ruhmann on December 31st, 1942. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 67
Mr. Ward had previously been employed by the Dominion Division of Entomology,
Field Crops Insect Investigations, and had been stationed both at Vernon, B.C., and
Kamloops, B.C.
GENERAL INSECT ACTIVITY, 1943.
Insect activity during the year was very pronounced with certain pests being more
prevalent than at any time during the past eighteen years. This was particularly the
case with insects hibernating in the soil. A heavy covering of snow in most parts of
the Interior during the winter months prevented low soil temperatures and undoubtedly
minimized winter mortality of insects. With a few species the increase in population
over the previous year was almost unbelievable.
Field Crops Insect Pests.
Colorado Potato-beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata).
(a.) East Kootenay District.—There was a marked increase in intensity of the
potato-beetle throughout the entire East Kootenay District. A few new spot infestations, mainly in the Upper Columbia Valley, enlarged the area of infestation over the
previous year.    Cranbrook continued to be the centre of heavy infestation.
The new infestations occurred in the Windermere, Wilmer, and Athalmer Districts,
and one beetle was taken at Horse Creek, about 20 miles south of Golden. Rather
serious infestations occurred in the Windermere, Wilmer, and Athalmer Districts as
early as 1927, but thorough control measures over a period of years eradicated the
pest. At this time a spot infestation was located at Parsons, 23 miles south of Golden.
Thorough control measures were adopted and eradication of the pest was effected the
same year.
The increased intensity of the potato-beetle infestation in 1943 may be attributed
to two factors: (1) Continued wet weather during 1942 washed poisoned dust from the
potato plants and a large number of the insects were able to complete development and
hibernate for the winter; (2) a heavy covering of snow during the winter months
protected the hibernating adults in the soil from low temperatures.
Control Measures during 1943.—Control measures were generally more effective
than during the previous year. Growers were threatened with severe damage to
potato-crops and undertook more thorough dusting. After June the weather remained
clear and poisoned dust applied to plants was not washed off by heavy rains.
Rotox agricultural derris dust and some Pyrocide 7% dust were used at Cranbrook
for early control of the beetles. The derris dust was found to be particularly effective.
Heavily infested commercial acreages were dusted soon after beetles emerged from
hibernation. This contact insecticide provided excellent control, preventing considerable egg-laying and reducing the danger of beetle migration.
The use of agricultural derris was considered very worth while in supplementing
existing control recommendations.    The following recommendations may be made:—■
(1.) Use agricultural derris dust at the rate of 20-25 lb. per acre to control
emerging beetles in the spring before heavy egg-laying occurs.
(2.) Dust plants thoroughly with calcium arsenate 1 to 6 dust as soon as egg-
hatching is observed. This dust remains effective as long as it is on the plant and will
kill the rapidly feeding larva, emerging from eggs over a considerable period of time.
If heavy rain washes poisoned dust from the plants another application is required.
Usually at least two applications of the calcium arsenate dust are required to protect
the plants through the growing season.
Note.—The beetle stage of the Colorado potato-beetle does not feed to any great
extent and the calcium arsenate dust is therefore not very effective in controlling it.
The use of the two dusts provides a very effective combination for the destruction of
adults and larva.. R 68 , BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The increased potato-beetle infestation in the East Kootenay District should not
cause undue alarm. Fluctuations in population are bound to occur from time to time,
according to the presence or absence of factors effecting natural control.
Since 1927, when organized annual control was undertaken by the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, there has been a general improvement in the potato-
beetle situation in the East Kootenays. The amount of poisoned dust required
annually for control measures provides the best illustration of this.
Calcium Arsenate
1—6 Dust used.
32,965
25,545
22,352
15,260
8,320
8,820
9,700
4,000
4,138
7,103
Year.
1927	
l-
1928	
1929- ____     -  	
1937	
1938	
1939   	
1940      	
1941    __   	
1942                     	
*1943 :	
* Add a total of 870 lb. of Rotox and Pyrocide 7% dusts.
Recommendations.—A supervisor to take complete charge of potato-beetle investigations in the East Kootenay District is essential. The area is large and requires
the full-time services of a supervisor to scout potato acreages and direct control
operations during the months of June, July, and August.
An effort should be made to improve control in the Upper Columbia Valley and
the Creston to Gray Creek area. These areas represent a potential threat to a further
spread of the beetle in British Columbia.
(6.) .Boundary Area (Grand Forks, Greenwood, Midway, and Rock Creek).—For
several years prior to 1942 a few small infestations occurred in the Grand Forks District. The late M. H. Ruhmann took charge of control measures and was apparently
successful in eradicating the pest. No sign of an infestation was observed at Grand
Forks during 1942 although a spot infestation was located on the Fenwick-Wilson farm
at Rock Creek. This represented the most westward advance of the potato-beetle in
Canada. This small infestation was dusted thoroughly on several occasions in an
attempt to eradicate it.
No infestation occurred on the Fenwick-Wilson farm during 1943, although a total
of thirteen infestations was located from Grand Forks to Rock Creek. These were
as follows:   Grand Forks, 8;   Greenwood, 2;   Midway, 2;   and Rock Creek, 1.
No definite explanation can be given for these infestations. It does seem highly
probable, however, that a small infestation went undetected the previous year at Grand
Forks. The other spot infestations west of Grand Forks apparently originated from
flight of the beetle or through mechanical transmission.
J. S. Travis, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, supervised control operations
and all infestations were dusted.
Control efforts during 1944 will have to be aimed at eradication of the pest to
eliminate the threat of a general outbreak in the Boundary area.
(c.) South Okanagan Valley.—Potato-beetle infestations were located in the South
Okanagan Valley for the first time during 1943, indicating a continued westward
advance in British Columbia.
Seven infestations were found south of the townsite of Osoyoos and three were
located at Okanagan Falls. These infestations were located during very thorough
scouting of potato acreages by R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector, Penticton. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 69
It seems highly probable that the infestations originated from Okanogan County,
Washington, U.S.A. All but one infestation were adjacent to the main highway,
suggesting transmission by mechanical means.
All infestations were heavily dusted and beetles were picked from the infested
plants. Areas of infestation were rechecked on several occasions. During late summer no sign of the pest was observed. This does not indicate that it was eradicated,
but shows that control measures were thorough.
The presence of this pest in the Okanagan Valley represents a serious threat to
larger potato-growing areas in British Columbia as natural barriers have been crossed
in its westward advance in the Province.
Every effort will be made to make growers in the South Okanagan realize the
importance of attempting to eradicate this pest. Thorough dusting of all potato acreages in the districts where infestations were found during 1943 will be carried out in
1944. The control programme outlined is sufficiently complete to determine whether
it is possible to eradicate the pest completely from a district or not.
The Okanagan Valley infestation represents the extreme western limits of the
potato-beetle infestation in Canada to-day.
Grasshoppers.—Grasshoppers were present in outbreak numbers in practically all
parts of the Interior Dry Belt during the year.
The increase in population over the previous year was little short of phenomenal.
Practically all of the eggs deposited during the summer and fall of 1942 must have
hatched. There must have been almost a total absence of natural controlling agencies.
From general observations it was impossible to predict an outbreak of such proportions.
The main outbreak species in all areas was Melanoplus mexicanus mexicanus, known
locally as the red-legged grasshopper. It is probably the most destructive species we
have. Although it usually starts its activities on open range-land, the drying-up of
native grasses often forces this species to seek succulent green feed in agricultural
areas.
All organized control zones were in operation during the year and a limited amount
of private control was undertaken. In some areas range grasses were heavily damaged.
Damage to hay-crops, truck-crops, and seed-crops was severe in some areas but not
generally widespread.
Unusually late hatching of grasshoppers prevented widespread severe damage to
all types of crops. In most areas crops were well advanced before grasshoppers moved
from dry range-land to seek green, succulent food. Local migrations took place without
warning to growers and in some instances small garden-crops were lost before control
measures could be adopted.
Growers in the East Kootenay District reported grasshoppers more numerous than
at any time during the past thirty years. Damage was generally confined to small
gardens and late hay-crops.
In the Boundary area range grasses, grain-crops, and some truck and seed crops
were damaged.
In the Okanagan Valley damage was confined to range grasses, truck-crops, seed-
crops, and slight orchard damage.
In Kamloops and Cariboo areas, range grasses were heavily eaten down.
It is interesting to note that in the Nicola area, where continuous control measures
have been carried out in an effort to prevent serious grasshopper infestations, no commercial damage to range grasses or hay-crops resulted. Grasshoppers were present in
above normal numbers, but did not reach outbreak proportions.
Grasshopper Forecast, 1944-—Grasshoppers hatched at least a month later than
usual during 1943 and this suggests a shorter egg-laying period. To offset this, fall
weather remained clear and warm, permitting continued egg-laying in most areas. R 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In some areas there were indications that the maximum number of eggs were not
deposited, but this does not supply sufficient proof that grasshoppers will not be
numerous in 1944. The same population as was present this year would constitute a
very serious outbreak should hatching of eggs occur in early June. Barring an unforeseen abundance of parasites and weather conditions unfavourable for grasshopper
development, there is every indication that a serious outbreak threatens for 1944.
Many districts are preparing to undertake control measures should crops be
threatened. This Department is assisting by publication of control pamphlets and with
articles for the radio and press. Grasshopper-control may possibly be one of the main
entomological projects for 1944.
Cutworms.—The black army cutworm (Agrotis fennica) was present in outbreak
proportions in some alfalfa fields at Vernon, Armstrong, Enderby, Salmon Arm, and
parts of the North Thompson Valley in mid-May. Salmon Arm appeared to be the
centre of heaviest infestation. Injury was mainly confined to alfalfa-crops, although
adjacent fields of asparagus, grain, and peas were attacked. Limited control measures
were adopted. The life-cycle of this insect was short and crop-damage was not extensive. As far as is known this species has never before reached outbreak proportions
in British Columbia.
The variegated cutworm (Lycophotia margaritosa) severely injured a cabbage-
crop at Lavington, but the outbreak was very local in nature.
Cutworms in general caused little damage to crops in the Province.
Onion-maggot (Hylemyia antiqua).—Injury to crops throughout the Interior averaged light to moderate, although in isolated cases the damage was heavy. Very few
growers adopted control measures. The recommended control by using corrosive sublimate or calomel is too costly at the present time. Many growers rely on heavy seeding
and the subsequent thinning out of infested plants to provide some measure of control.
Onion-thrips (Thrips tabaci).—Thrips were reported numerous on the onion-seed
heads in the Grand Forks District, but no damage resulted. No thrip-injury of economic importance to onions has been observed in the Interior during the past two years.
Cabbage-maggot (Hylemyia brassicse).—Damage to crops in the Okanagan Valley
was extremely patchy and generally confined to early plantings. In Vernon, where a
large acreage was grown, several growers adopted control measures using the recommended corrosive sublimate or calomel solution. The dusting of holes at planting-out
time with agricultural derris dust seemed to give satisfactory control, but more detailed
research along this line is required. A substitute for mercury salts to control root-
maggots is badly needed.
Cabbage-worm (Pieris rapse).—This pest was general throughout the Interior but
did less damage than during 1942.    Some control with derris dust was undertaken.
Flea-beetles.—Flea-beetles appear to be increasing yearly in the Interior and a
considerable amount of control is required to prevent crop loss. Throughout the Okanagan and Kootenay areas cruciferous plants are heavily attacked. Agricultural derris
dust is used extensively and provides effective control.
Reports were received from the Fraser Valley of damage to potato tubers caused
by larva, of the potato flea-beetle.
White Grubs or June Beetles.—Reports of white grub damage to crops were
received from Chase and Windermere. Both infestations were in newly broken sod
land planted to truck-crops. Some damage to crops is caused yearly by this pest, but
as yet there is no satisfactory insecticide for its control. Control depends mainly on
planting crops that are not severely damaged by this pest.
Wireworms.—Wireworms occur throughout the Province, but are generally limited
to small areas. In some parts of the Grand Forks District damage to seed-crops and
truck-crops is often severe. Some measure of control is obtained by using bait-traps,
but generally it is advisable to plant crops that are not readily attacked. department of agriculture, 1943. r 71
Orchard Pests.
Orchard insect investigations are dealt with very thoroughly by the staff of the
Dominion Entomological Laboratory at Vernon, with Dr. J. Marshall in charge, and by
Provincial Horticultural officers in the Okanagan Valley.
Close contact was maintained with these officers during the year to gain a knowledge of research being carried out. Assistance was given whenever possible. The
report on orchard pests is dealt with fully by the Provincial Horticulturist.
Assistance was given to members of the United States Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine in their pear psylla (psylla pyricola) control campaign carried out
in the South Okanagan.
Greenhouse Pests.
Greenhouse Whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum).—This insect is often found in
greenhouses and is difficult to control by means of sprays. At the end of April a
shipment of whitefly parasites was obtained from the Dominion Parasite Laboratory,
Belleville, Ontario, for liberation in an infested greenhouse in Vernon. The parasite
provided rapid and complete control.
Slugs.—Slugs in greenhouses in Vernon were effectively controlled by using a
commercial bait having metaldehyde as the active ingredient.
Household Insects.
Cockroaches.—During the year assistance was given with the control of cockroaches in five business premises. The continued use of powdered sodium fluoride
provided effective control in all cases.
Earwigs.—A few reports of earwigs entering homes in Vernon were reported
during the year. All homes were close to a creek that provided suitable moisture conditions for this insect. The British Columbia interior is generally too dry for earwigs
and no general outbreak is likely to occur.
Box Elder Bug (Leptocoris trivittatus).—Although these bugs often feed destructively on foliage, flowers, and twigs of box elder and ash trees, they are generally more
important as a nuisance during fall when they swarm into dwellings. A fairly severe
infestation occurred in Vernon and district for several years and caused annoyance to
many householders.    The outbreak is now subsiding in the Vernon District.
Wasps.—Wasps were extremely numerous this year. Although not generally considered as household insects, they caused annoyance to many householders by building
nests in dwellings and adjacent buildings. They were particularly bad in orchards in
the Okanagan Valley, making it particularly difficult for those engaged in thinning or
picking fruit.
In some districts extensive robbing of beehives occurred and some damage was
caused due to their habits of feeding on ripe fruit.
Ants.—Very few reports were received of ants being a nuisance in dwellings this
season.
Stored Product Pests.—Numerous infestations of small quantities of foodstuffs
occur each year. Mites, weevils, and meal-worms cause the most damage. Practically
all foodstuffs are free of infestations when received from the manufacturer. A long
period of storage of foods in stores or in homes often results in insect attack.
Special Investigations.
Onion-maggot (Hylemyia antiqua).—A limited amount of research towards control
of the onion-maggot by use of poisoned bait was carried out during May in Vernon.
Trays 12 inches wide by 18 inches long and 1 inch deep were used. These were filled
with sawdust and a screen mesh was placed on top to prevent animals from getting at
the poisoned solution. R 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
An arsenical solution, with onion-powder as an attrahent, was used to moisten the
sawdust in the trays. Flies were able to drink readily from the wet sawdust. It was
necessary to add moisture daily due to heavy evaporation. In all, eighteen trays were
placed in a 1-acre field.
Flies were observed drinking from the trays and forty-two dead flies were counted
at one time on the eighteen trays. This would indicate that many died from drinking
the poison as only a very small percentage would be likely to die on the trays.
Very few onions were infested and a crop close to 20 tons to the acre was harvested.
This field was in an area where onion-maggot has caused moderately heavy damage
previously.
Although no definite conclusions can be reached from this very limited experiment,
indications suggest that further investigations along this line are warranted.
The use of caged plots would provide more definite information in this type of
an experiment.
Cabbage-maggot (Hylemyia brassicse).—In an attempt to simplify the existing
recommendations for the control of the cabbage-maggot, agricultural derris dust,
dusted into holes at planting-out time was tried. This appeared to provide satisfactory
protection against root-maggot infestations. As the infestation was very patchy this
year, no definite conclusion can be reached however.    More detailed work is required.
General Control of Insects affecting Truck-crops.
Considerable assistance concerning control recommendations was given to A. Lantz,
Field Supervisor, of Bulman's, Ltd., Vernon, B.C. This company had contracted for
a large tonnage of vegetables to be dehydrated. Cabbage-crops were threatened with
severe damage by flea-beetles and cabbage-worms. Mr. Lantz took charge of control
operations and it is interesting to note that of 2,800 tons of cabbage delivered to
Bulman's, Ltd., less than 1 ton was wormy. All crops contracted for were protected
from economic loss due to insect activity.
Publications.
The circular " The Colorado Potato-beetle," Field Crops Series No. 1, was completed during the spring in time for distribution to growers prior to potato-beetle
activity.
Brief articles for the radio and press were prepared, urging growers to undertake
effective control of the potato-beetle when it was noted that an increased infestation
was prevalent during the year..
An article dealing with grasshopper-control was prepared to supplement Horticultural Circular No. 63, "Grasshopper-control." Further information was supplied
to land-owners by means of the radio and the press.
Work was carried out in connection with the revision of Horticultural Circular
No. 72, " Pests of Cultivated Plants." It is considered advisable to divide this circular
into a series of pamphlets to facilitate revision and reprinting as new control recommendations are available.
REPORT OF CHIEF VETERINARY INSPECTOR.
A. Knight, VS., Chief Veterinarian.
Considerable ground has been covered by your Inspectors during the past year.
As a whole they have found the cattle in good condition and comparatively free from
any serious contagious diseases. Pasturage conditions have been good and the cattle
that appear as evidence at various sales appear to be in splendid condition.    The hay- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 73
crop was very light but grain-crops appeared to be quite up to average conditions.
Therefore the cattle should not suffer to any great extent during the winter from lack
of feed.
The following diseases have been dealt with:—
HEMORRHAGIC SEPTIC/EMIA.
This disease was encountered in the following districts: Trail, Salmon Arm,
Wardner, Heffley Creek, and Williams Lake. In the first-mentioned districts the
disease manifested itself in the pectoral form, while at Williams Lake the intestinal
form was noted. In all cases the owners were advised to vaccinate early, have animals
changed to a different pasture, especially where cattle have access to swampy land or
dead sloughs, and to bury in lime or burn the carcasses of animals dying of this
disease.
This disease under Coast conditions does not appear to cause severe losses as
usually only a few animals in a herd are affected at one time. In the Interior it is
liable to cause severe losses among the larger range herds.
BLACKLEG.
Only two cases of this disease were noticed this year, one at Vernon and the other
at Grand Forks. The carcasses of the dead animals were disposed of as under the
regulations governing this disease.
COCCIDIOSIS.
In the outbreak at Salmon Arm where three animals were affected two died.
Treatment was advised for the remainder of the herd and no further trouble was
reported. ACTINOMYCOSIS.
Very few cases of this disease were noticed this year among cattle. A few cases
occurred among range cattle and two cases in a dairy herd on the Coast. The latter
two cases were in the early stage and treatment was advised with satisfactory results.
In advanced cases destruction of the animals was recommended.
INTERNAL PARASITES OF SHEEP.
Considerable economic loss occurs to sheepmen through sheep harbouring parasites.
Demonstrations in the administration of anthelmentics to sheep as a curative measure
have been carried out by your Inspectors. Farmers are now carrying out this work
with beneficial results.
ENCEPHALOMYELITIS.
No cases reported this year of encephalomyelitis.
INFLUENZA.
There was an outbreak of horse influenza during the summer near Trail and a few
horses died. One case was also seen at Kaslo. Advice as to precaution and treatment
was prescribed.
The Kaslo horse in due time recovered, but this disease, if not taken in hand at
once, or if the animals receive poor treatment, hard work, and neglect, is likely to cause
death.    It is also very infectious in most cases and will cause considerable trouble.
NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES AMONG PIGS.
Pronounced nutritional deficiency was noticed among some 2,600 pigs examined in
the Cariboo District.    In one herd of some 800 pigs several losses had occurred, mainly R 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
among the new born and pigs up to 4 months of age. A number of animals up to 6 to
8 months were also noticed to exhibit abnormal physical conditions. On post-mortem
and physical examination of some of the pigs all evidence pointed to lack of Vitamin A
as the main factor in causing the trouble, although there was some evidence of lack of
Vitamins B and D. The same condition existed on a ranch at Soda Creek where some
900 hogs are kept.
Pigs on both places were fed a half grain ration in a dry lot with little or no
animal protein or green fodder. Some cod-liver oil was fed but was of a cheap or
inferior grade and not thoroughly mixed with the grain ration.
To rectify matters skimmed milk, green feed (alfalfa), and a good grade of cod-
liver oil was advised. This was carried out with apparently satisfactory results as the
pigs showed considerable improvement when examined in two weeks' and a month's
time.
Although the dams appeared to be in good condition themselves at the time of
farrowing, apparently they were not receiving the essential nutritional ingredients
necessary in the young before birth and also failure to provide the essential material
in their milk after farrowing, with the result the pigs were born weak with consequent
loss by death a few days or a few weeks after they were born. It is quite essential for
the men attempting to raise hogs to supply all the bodily requirements through the feed
by allowing a greater range of feed material.
BOVINE CONTAGIOUS ABORTION.
Symptoms of this disease were noticed in several places, but as mineral and vitamin
deficiencies often produce similar symptoms positive identification of the disease without a blood test is practically impossible. Only when animals are receiving all bodily
essentials through their feed can one with any assurance identify the disease by
a physical examination. Stockmen throughout the Province are keenly interested in
calfhood vaccination as a preventive measure of this disease.
BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS.
As shown in Appendix No. 5, 4,723 cattle were subjected to the tuberculin test.
Eleven reactors were found. Of these, six reactors were found in one herd where the
disease existed previously. On these particular premises the poultry flock was badly
infected; therefore, it is possible that the cattle were subjected to infection with
avian form. The owner was advised to dispose of his poultry flock and not bring
poultry on the premises for some months. Also to thoroughly cleanse and disinfect the
chicken-house and plough out the yards. This particular herd of cattle will be retested
during December.
DAIRY INSPECTION.    .
Considerable time of your veterinary staff was spent on dairy inspection, especially
in the vicinity of the town and cities of the Province. A number of the premises have
a tendency to show a decline in their condition, the owners complaining that with
shortage of help they cannot keep their premises as they would like. However, as
a whole, premises are in good condition, especially in the higher grades.
During the year 2,769 premises were inspected and graded and 53,191 dairy
cattle were inspected.
A summary of the districts visited, giving the number of premises graded and the
number of cattle inspected on the dairy farms, together with the number of the various
grades, will be found in Appendices Nos. 6 and 7. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 75
REPORT OF LIVE STOCK BRANCH.
W. R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, Live Stock Commissioner.
A shortage of experienced labour, a general demand for more agricultural products,
and a very unusual year, beginning with a cold, late spring followed by a backward
summer, resulted in a general decrease in crop production and a slight reduction in
flocks and herds.
HORSES.
The production of horses in the Province may be said to be at a standstill. Horse
markets were not keen. Again, labour shortage encouraged the use of as much power
equipment as possible. The great danger to the industry from this lack of interest is
the possibility that the best of our good sound breeding stock will be sacrificed, which
will mean in future years, when horses are in demand, that a start will have to be
made with inferior and unsound stock. If it were possible to in any way salvage the
good clean foundation stock for future use it would be a very worth-while effort. As it
is to-day we see good quality, sound, well-bred stock being sacrificed even for slaughter
while our ranges continue to be infested with useless, light-weight cayuse type horses.
All attempts to correct this situation are defeated because those interested have no
authority over certain people.
Classification of stallions under our " Horse-breeders' Registration and Lien Act"
shows the following enrolments of stallions: "A," 21; "B,"ll; "C,"9; "D,"6;
"E," 4;   "F," 1.
" A " and " B " classes include our two top groups of registered stallions found
sound and free from hereditary diseases and fit for premium under the Federal-
Provincial Premium Policy. In Class " C " is included all registered horses showing
slight unsoundness not felt to be hereditary in nature by the Inspectors, blemished
horses and those individuals lacking somewhat in type, character, and size. Class " D "
includes all grade stallions. These must be up to size and must be sound. Classes " E "
and " F " are interim classifications for pure-bred and grade stallions respectively.
A small beginning is being made in the way of inspection of mares for mating to
top stallions. It is hoped that this work can be extended in the future. It requires
a good deal of field-work in order to get it properly started.
BEEF CATTLE.
The beef cattle industry had a very good year in marketings and prices obtained.
Feed conditions on the whole were not up to average. Grasshoppers, especially the
red-legged species, were quite plentiful and damaged the ranges considerably. Feed
supplies for winter are light and some cattlemen expect to have thin cattle if the
winter is hard or long.
The summarized reports of sales held in British Columbia throughout 1943 are
as follows:—
Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show, Kamloops, March 23rd, 1943.
In 1943, 431 head of cattle were sold compared to 451 head in 1942.
1942, grand total  $50,148.11
1943, grand total      58,642.22
The above is for the commercial cattle sold. Breeding stock sold at the same sale
included the following:— R 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Breeding Stock sold.
Animals.
No. of
Head.
Average Price
per Head. •
Total.
95
9
6
32
$437.73
146.11
275.00
262.66
$41,585.00
1,315.00
1,650.00
8,405.00
142
$52,955.00
Total breeding cattle
Total commercial cattle
$52,955.00
58,642.22
Grand total   $111,597.22
Southern Interior Stockmen's Association First Annual Feeder Sale,
Okanagan Falls, September 30th, 1943.
Animals.
No. of Head.
Average Price
per Head.
Total.
Cattle                                                                        -                     	
i
862                        S70.83            1     S61.057.79
32
10
283.00
2,590.00
Totals            _ —_  :	
904
j    $63,930.79
Average Price
Animal. per Cwt.
Cows     $6.20
Market bulls        6.98
Heifers        8.87
Two-year-old steers        9.92
Yearling steers        8.57
Calves      10.20
Breeding Hereford yearling bulls   272.50
Breeding Hereford females   205.00
Central British Columbia Live-stock Association Sale, Kamloops,
October 7th, 1943.
Animals.
No, of Head.
Sold for.
1,467
823
$86,354.49
6,216.63
Totals 	
2,290
$92,571.12
Animal.
Lambs	
Average Price
per Cwt.
 :_  $9.75
Market bulls   6.80
Cows   6.03
Calves   8.81
Heifers   8.56
Two-year-old steers   8.90
Yearling steers   8.94 DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 77
Cariboo Stockmen's Association Feeder Fat Stock Show and Bull Sale,
Williams Lake, October 14th, 1943.
Animals.
No. of Head.
Sold for.
2,411
95
$209,702.86
Bulls  	
27,045.00
Totals       	
2,506
$236,747.86
Breakdown of Cattle.
Two-year-old steers _
Head.
1,284
Yearling steers   193
Calves   103
Cows   307
Two-year-old heifers   163
Heiferettes   47
Yearling heifers   292
Miscellaneous stock  22
It is thought that this is the largest sale of commercial cattle in Canada for the
year 1943.    Top prices at the sale were as follows:—
No.
of
Head.
Description.
Average
Weight.
Sold by.
Purchased by.
Amount
paid.
25
1,185
280
1,099
627
1,185
1,183
1,079
1,207
1,160
1,106
666
1,115
$11.00
28
Mixed ownership	
Alkali Lake Ranch	
Pacific Meat Co. -
11.00
25
11.00
42
R. C. Cotton	
•   11.00
25
Chilco Ranch 	
11.00
5
Burns & Co  	
Burns & Co  	
10.85
5
Mel. Moon   	
Chilco Ranch  	
10.80
5
10.80
5
10.80
40
Gang Ranch  	
Alkali Lake Ranch 	
Burns & Co 	
C. S. Ford	
10.70
25
10.65
29
10.40
Several lots of cattle of mixed ownership coming from the smaller ranches of the
district brought similar prices, indicating general improvement in the cattle of the
district over the last number of years.
Waldo Stock-breeders' Association Second Annual Sale, Elko,
October 23rd, 1943.
Animals.
No. of
Head.
Average Price
per Head.
Total.
975
233
$53.04
6.22
$51,713.11
Sheep	
1,386.14
Totals	
1,198
$53,099.25
Animals.
Average Price
per Cwt.
Top Price
per Cwt.
$4.20
5.15
6.71
8.22
9.30
$6.70
7.60
10.60
11.50 R 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale, Kamloops, December 1st and 2nd, 1943.
Animals.
No. of
Head.
Sold for.
Cattle   -
400
12
$51,374.82
162.01
Totals                  	
412
$51,536.83
This sale was exempted from the ceiling price under arrangements with the Wartime Prices and Trade Board.    All animals were culled by a special committee.
The following summary of the different sales held in British Columbia over the
last number of years is worth including as a permanent record.
Williams Lake Bull and Feeder Sale.
Year.
No. of
Bulls.
Value.
No. of
Feeders.
Value.
Total.
1938    :... 	
45
57
71
93
60
95
$5,600.00
10,260.00
12,772.00
19,860.00
20,125.00
27,045.00
f    800 odd              1
(    531 fat steers j
1,229
1,800
2,190
1,892
2,411
$68,650.00
104,594.00
140,605.00
142,216.00
209,702.86
1939 -	
1940...   .   	
1941  	
1942    - —   _
$76,824.00
117,366.00
160,465.00
162,341.00
236,747.86
1943    -        —   .   -
Central British Columbia Live-stock Association Sale at Kamloops.
Year.
No. of
Cattle.
Value.
No. of
Sheep.
Value.
Total.
1941    ...                	
680
1,075
1,467
$38,707.00
67,578.00
86,354.49
628
393
823
$4,989.00
3,271.00
6,216.63
$43,696.00
70,849.00
92,571.12
1942   ...
1943	
Waldo Stock-breeders' Sale at Elko.
Year.
No. of
Cattle.
Value.
No. of
Sheep.
Value.
Total.
1942
438
975
$28,315.00
51,713.11
514
223
$2,951.00
1,386.14
$31,266.00
53,099.25
1943	 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 79
Kamloops Bull Sale.
Year.
Bulls.
Value.
Fat Stock.
Value.
Totals.
Animals.
Value.
1928-	
64
85
113
64
56
55
64
55
56
68
76
69
79
72
110
133
$15,227
22,505
22,220
11,363
7,835
6,065
11,065
10,085
-      8,235
11,935
11,970
13,345
17,800
19,100
32,235
51,640
136
203
148
95
117
259
278
360
453
364
334
387
367
414
453
431
$14,395
18,381
17,071
12,250
16,780
9,832
17,014
22,414
23,015
29,157
24,655
29,590
27,000
40,992
50,148
58,642
200
288
261
159
173
314
342
415
509
432
410
456
446
486
563
564
$29,622
40,886
39,291
1929 _
1930     _	
1931	
23,613
1932	
24,615
15,897
1933    _	
1934 	
28,079
1935 	
32,499
1936      	
31,250
41,112
35,625
42,935
44,725
60,092
82,383
110,282
1937	
1938  	
1939	
1940..     _ 	
1941  	
1942 	
1943  	
Kamloops Winter Fat Stock Show.
Year.
No. of
Cattle.
Value.
No. of
Lambs.
Value.
No. of
Swine.
Value.
Total.
1939	
1940... 	
1941	
1942  	
314
301
341
241
400
$30,433
28,411
33,875
29,838
51,374
293
778
801
25
12
$2,813
6,931
7,740
293
162
176
131
79
$3,235
1,998
2,043
$36,481
37,341
43,659
30,131
1943	
51,536
The following prices obtain for the year 1943 for beef cattle on the Calgary
market:—
Date.
Cows.
Heifees.
Steers
Good.
Choice.
Good.
Heavy Choice.
Light Choice.
Good.
May 13 	
$9.50
9.50
9.50
9.50
10.00
10.00
9.50
9.50
9.25
8.75
9.00
$11.75
11.50
11.50
11.50
11.75
12.00
11.75
11.75
11.50
11.00
11.00
9.00
10.75
10.75
10.75
10.50
10.25
10.50
10.25
10.50
10.75
10.75
10.50
11.25
$11.00
10.75
10.75
10.75
11.00
10.75
11.25
11.25
11.00
11.00
$12.25
12.00
12.00
12.25
12.25
12.00
12.35
12.50
12.50
12.50
11.75
11.50
11.50
'   11.50
11.50
11.50
11.50
11.00
11.00
11.00
11.50
11.50
11.50
11.65
$11.25
11.00
11.00
11.25
11.25
11.00
11.25
11.00
11.50
11.00
11.00
11.00
11.00
11.00
11.00
11.00
10.75
10.25
10.25
10.25
10.75
10.75
11.50
11.50
$10.50
May 20	
10.00
May 27          	
10.00
June 3	
10.50
10.50
10.00
July 15
11.75
July 22	
12.00
July 29                        	
12.00
August 5 	
August 26 	
11.75
8.50
10.25
10.25
10.25
10.00
9.25
10.00
9.75
10.00
10.25
10.25
10.00
10.50
10.00
8.25'
8.25
8.25
8.50
8.25
8.00
7.25
7.25
8.00
8.00
7.50
8.00
10.00
10.00
September 23	
10.00
10.00
9.75
9.50
October 21                	
9.50
October 28          	
9.50
10.00
10.00
10.75
10.75 R 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Generally speaking, prices at Vancouver held in line with the beef prices as listed
above. No regular reports are received from this market. Prices for cattle at Vancouver, generally speaking, is Calgary price plus freight. Cattle and other live stock
are generally bought at country points on this basis.
The general tendency to market larger numbers of commercial cattle through
organized district sales reached a new high this year with the establishment of a sale
at Okanagan Falls. The sale was held under the auspices of the Southern Interior
Stockmen's Association. This association is a central organization made up of representation from all local associations. Your Commissioner, for years, has given encouragement to this method of centralized effort. It simplifies the work for every one and it
admits of more easily carrying on educational work dealing with cattlemen's problems.
Lastly, it encourages the spirit of co-operation amongst cattlemen, which is going to
be an absolute necessity in the future if the industry is going to withstand the shock
of post-war readjustment.
Coming out of their first year's experience the Southern Interior Stockmen's Association has learned where some minor changes can profitably be made. These will
include a change in date to suit market opportunities and the addition of certain equipment so as to classify cattle more easily. The layout of this sale is perhaps the best
to be found in the Province. The arrangement of the yards, pens, chutes, etc., includes
the ideas of all interested groups within the Association and within the Department.
The Association is very appreciative of the assistance received from the Department
and the financial support given by the Minister of Agriculture.
The Okanagan Falls sale, if carefully handled, should have a great future and could
develop into a marketing centre for the entire Southern Interior and Boundary Country.
It should also be able to develop one of the best bull sales in the Province. If the international market opens up after the war Okanagan Falls should attract United States
buyers for high-class commercial cattle as well as for quality bulls.
The Williams Lake sale made a record in entries for the Dominion. The condition
of the market was not particularly favourable at the time of the sale but prices were
quite good. The demand for plainer cattle, especially cows, and for cattle to supply
unrationed meats rather overemphasized this class of cattle in comparison to the choicer
kinds. The heavy marketing of these plain cattle, especially cows, will help to improve
the quality of the breeding cattle left on the ranges.
The Central British Columbia sale included too large a percentage of the plainer
type of cattle not carrying flesh enough to go for slaughter, except for canners and
cutters, and with not enough breeding and general quality to make good feeders or
breeding stock. These cattle, of course, are better off the farms and ranches, but the
question is whether they will be replaced by anything better as foundation stock. Here
is where further field service could be utilized to good advantage.
The Kamloops Fat Stock Show held December 2nd and 3rd suffered somewhat in
the general finish of the cattle presented. Shortage of labour on the ranches, along
with poorer feed conditions, were responsible for this situation. The strong support
given the sale in contributions from ranchers is evidence, however, of the fact that
cattlemen generally are in support of this sale and show as a regular annual feature.
The Elko sale, which was their second attempt, might be said to be quite successful. This year's sale will have added greatly to the experience of the executive and
should enable them to improve their future attempts. The sale was called rather too
late in the season to secure the best prices, with most markets and feed lots filled.
Cattle were slipping in flesh. The weather was uncertain and besides affecting the
cattle it also discouraged the attendance at the sale.    Improvements can now be made DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 81
by providing more yards and the present pens could be enlarged to advantage so as to
provide space for feed-racks and water-troughs. With these few changes this sale
should become one of the central features in the marketing of live stock from the
Kootenay and Columbia Valleys.
Your Commissioner feels that by giving close attention to this enterprise we will
get established in this valley a large cattle and lamb finishing business. This will
supplement other farming activities. It will utilize much otherwise wasted feed. It
will improve the land and it can furnish excellent facilities for the finishing of cattle
from the near-by Kootenay and Columbia Valleys ranges, cattle which otherwise would
have to go to market as feeders or plain killers. The whole effort calls for some further
direction for a few years, but if it succeeds it will justify the years of effort put into
it by your Commissioner. The addition to the staff of a District Agriculturist located
at Cranbrook should greatly facilitate the work and ensure its success.
A very fine herd of sixty head of quality Hereford breeding cattle was established
in the Creston Valley this year with an outstanding sire at the head.
Our pure-bred sire policy under the Farmers' Institutes continues to be one of the
most practical and useful efforts of the Department.
Other problems facing the beef cattle industry will be dealt with under the heading
" Nutrition and Animal Health."
DAIRY CATTLE.
This branch of the live-stock industry had another difficult year. Dairying is a
business which calls for regular and close attention to many details. - It is a business
which requires a lot of experienced labour. With the loss of this type of labour it
naturally follows that the industry must suffer proportionally. A scarcity of basic
feed supplies further encourages the reduction in herds in whole or in part.
One very encouraging side to the picture is the response on the part of the dairymen to our campaign against " brucellosis." This will be reported in detail under the
head " Brucellosis Control."
SHEEP.
The sheep industry had quite a successful year. The following are the prices for
lamb for the year in the Calgary market:—
January 7th, $12.75; January 14th, $12.75; January 21st, $12.75; January 28th,
$12.75; February 4th, $12.75; February 11th, $12.75; February 18th, $12.75; February 25th, $12.75; March 4th, $13; March 11th, $13.25; March 18th, $13.25; March
25th, $13.25; April 1st, $13.50; April 8th, $13.50; April 15th, $13.50; April 22nd,
$13.50; April 29th, $13.50; May 6th, $13.50; May 13th, $13.50; May 20th, $13.50;
May 27th, $13.50; June 3rd, $13.50; June 10th, $13; June 17th, $13; June 24th, $13;
July 1st, $14.50; July 8th, $14.50; July 15th, $14.75; July 22nd, $14.50; July 29th,
$12.50; August 5th, $12.50; August 26th, $10; September 2nd, $10.25; September
9th, $10; September 16th, $10.25; September 23rd, $10.25; September 30th, $10.50;
October 7th, $10.75; October 14th, $10.50; October 21st, $10; October 28th, $10;
November 4th, $10.25; November 11th, $10.25; November 18th, $10.25; December
2nd, $10.50.
No regular reports are received from the Vancouver market but, generally, prices
are in line with the-Calgary market, which usually means Calgary prices plus freight.
The National Sheep Policy resulted in some extension of the industry, but until
the sheep-killing dog and predators are brought more under control, the breeding of
sheep will not gain the position it should hold in the Province.
6 R 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The following is a summary of live stock killed by dogs:—
Year.
Sheep.
Compensation.
Poultry.
Compensation.
Goats.
Compensation.
1940
191
109
74
111
$1,659.25
988.50
828.00
1,156.25
531
203
306
489
$396.14
440.16
243.48
484.77
2
3
$17.00
1941
1942              	
1943 	
50.00
SWINE.
• About the only districts where swine-raising has made any substantial gains has
been in the sections of the Province where coarse grains are raised regularly in reasonable quantity. This means the Peace River Block, and could include some other sections if time could be found to develop these areas. There were 21,459 hogs shipped
from that area up to the end of November, with perhaps another 2,000 head to go
during December. These have been shipped from Dawson Creek. In addition, there
has been about three car-loads of stock going monthly from Tupper Creek. This would
be largely swine. This is an increase of 20 per cent, over last year's shipments. Mr.
Crack further reports that a shipment of nineteen head of registered boars recently
came into the Peace River Block.
The production of swine in most other parts of the Province is rather unsteady.
The price of pork as set is scarcely enough to make swine-raising particularly attractive
to our farmers with the price of feed at its present level. The present uncertainty over
the bacon contract with Britain is resulting in fewer sows being bred. In Central
British Columbia, where a lot of work has been put on swine improvement in the past
years, farmers are cutting down. Better money can be made in public and war work
and crops have not been so good this year, with the result that farmers are going out.
It will likely mean the same old story of going out at the wrong time. When prices go
up again or when the business seems more attractive, we will be asked by the same
farmers to secure breeding stock for them again.
A nice start has been made in the Rock Creek-Midway country with a foundation
of choice breeding.   A short crop this year held up further extension of this programme.
A shipment of choice breeding swine—thirty head in all, including a boar—was
selected by your Commissioner in the Okanagan for a Vancouver Island order.
NUTRITION AND ANIMAL HEALTH.
The control of animal disease, if it is to be successful, must be approached from
several angles. Individual animals and species of animals vary in their susceptibility
to disease—and that extends to include susceptibility to internal and external parasites
as well as to specific infections such as come from micro-organisms. This field of
disease control work has not been explored in animal breeding in this country to any
extent because other commercial interests overshadow. Again, there has not been any
serious educational work done along this line since we have not progressed sufficiently
in other approaches to disease control to perhaps, at this time, consider the part that
natural immunity and vigour plays in the whole picture of disease control.
The second factor and one of immense importance in the field of disease control is
that of nutrition. We have travelled far in the last decade in our appreciation of the
part that such accessory elements as minerals and vitamins play in the proper feeding
of animals—both man and the lower animals.
While there is much knowledge available and while people generally are aware of
these facts it is unfortunate that this scientific knowledge is not being put to practical
use more generally.    Moving about this Province as extensively as I do, looking into DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 83
the many problems of the live-stock man, making surveys of live stock in areas, I am
forced to the conclusion that much has to be done in the way of acquainting stockmen
generally with the need for correcting these fundamental errors. After this it means
developing real interest in the subject, and, lastly, making it possible for stockmen to
secure materials for correcting these deficiencies at a price in line with the returns
they are obtaining for their products.
The third approach to the final battle against disease is that of actual control of
the specific disease. That means control of the spread of the disease and actual treatment and stamping out of these diseases where this is possible.
Some diseases, such as tuberculosis, admit of eradication by testing and removal
of reactors. Other diseases can' be held under control by means of specific protective
precautions—such as preventive vaccination.
Into the general picture comes the place that quarantine measures take. That
always seems necessary in order to prevent the movement of affected animals, with
the resultant extension of the disease area. Hampering all this is man—I mean those
individuals who wish to carry on a buying and selling business—traders who see the
dollar and who are not interested in the general picture.
Still further modifying the whole scene is the effect that errors of management
have on the individual animal. It is impossible to educate all persons responsible for
the handling of live stock in the way they should manage their herds and flocks. The
rank and file of our stockmen are impossible to reach by meetings, literature, or letter.
Again, the business of live-stock production up to the present has not given enough
in the way of returns to enable stockmen to employ labour to undertake much of this
work.
Your Commissioner has endeavoured to so direct the work in the field as to
accomplish the most possible with the facilities available. Only by keeping closely
in touch with the situation—by personal, regular visits into the field—is it possible
to keep acquainted with the situation.
I will deal briefly with some of the most important diseases and nutritional conditions affecting the industry:—
.    Hemorrhagic Septicemia.—Perhaps this could be more properly called " shipping
fever."
More and more is this disease making its appearance in the Province. Since it
is a condition closely associated with the movement of live stock, it may be stated that
as cattle and other stock are moved about, especially during difficult weather, more
and more is the disease certain to appear. To-day it may be. said to be almost universally distributed throughout the country. With this in mind, your Commissioner
is endeavouring to acquaint stockmen generally with the proper method of control,
which means preventive vaccination. Some good work is being done along the line
of this policy by Dr. K. H. Thompson, Veterinary Inspector. He personally dealt with
breaks at Trail, Salmon Arm, Wardner, and Heffley Creek. Your Commissioner is
convinced that a more intensive campaign against this disease is a necessity. The
yearly losses run into thousands of dollars.
Coccidiosis.—The work done by your Commissioner on the development of a treatment for this disease is giving such satisfactory results that I can best express it by
putting it into the words of one big rancher: " It was one of my greatest problems
and constituted my heaviest loss. To-day I do not fear the disease at all. I follow
out your general management programme and treat any cases with your ' saline antishock ' treatment and in almost every instance a complete recovery is secured quite
promptly."
It just now remains to get the stockmen educated to recognize the disease and
use the treatment. R 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Mineral and Vitamin Deficiencies.—The publicity which vitamins and their uses
receive daily through press and radio has at least acquainted the public with what they
are, but there has been no general attempt made to employ them in live-stock feeding
generally, except perhaps in the feeding of poultry.
Stockmen are yet not aware of the fact that the good results which they secure
from the feeding of ready-mixed feed largely comes as a result of the fortification
they receive by the addition of minerals and vitamins.
Again, your Commissioner is convinced that the whole subject can be summed up
by saying that a study of the " soil and the season " must be our guide in the intelligent
feeding of our live stock in any particular district.
Personal observation definitely points to the soil generally being either deficient
or unbalanced in its mineral content; which, of course, means deficient feeds. We
have felt in the past that lack of three elements—namely, calcium, phosphorus, and
iodine—about covered the field. In places this might be due to a deficiency of one or
all of these elements;   in other places it was largely due to a lack of balance.
Observation over the last number of years has, however, caused me to doubt this
theory as a complete answer. We have been satisfied for several years that other
minerals in trace amounts have also been needed by the animal for satisfactory growth
and development. These might include those such as iron, copper, cobalt, manganese,
etc. It is my personal opinion that there are other trace elements which have a very
definite place in the proper feeding of live stock. Observations are now being made
on the place of a wide variety of trace elements in the rations of live stock.
The season of year and the latitude plays a very important part in the proper
feeding of live stock. In our northern latitude we have long periods when sunlight
is deficient and live stock must receive feeds fortified by the addition of Vitamins A
and D. This can be added in the form of certain fish-oils or irradiated yeast products.
These deficiencies become more evident where poorly cured hay is used.
The place that sugars and balanced proteins, especially some animal protein, play
in the proper nutrition of live stock needs more consideration.
Equine Encephalomyelitis.—It is a pleasure to announce that this disease did not
appear to any extent in the Province this year. This definitely can be attributed to
two things: Firstly, a better coverage with vaccination in the danger zones; and,
secondly, to a season which did not favour its development. The season was cool and
dry, which does not provide ideal conditions for its development. Despite this, however, the disease broke in the North Kamloops area at the Indian School. This area
is known to be a reservoir for a quite virulent strain of the disease. Vaccination
was not carried on to any extent in this area this year. This was the first year since
the disease appeared that the school farm did not vaccinate.
It is reasonable to say that in one or more of these infected areas some year
a serious epizootic in horses and possibly an epidemic in humans may appear. The
year 1943 being an off-season for equine encephalomyelitis we may expect less interest
in vaccination in 1944 and the possibility of a serious outbreak.
Caseous Lymphadenitis.—Progress is being made in the eradication of this disease
in sheep. Some of the owners of flocks under quarantine feel that, while the control
does not hinder them to any extent, it is an irritation to them and they would like to
see it removed.
It is unfortunate that certain persons not responsible in any way in this matter
have seen fit to appear in an advisory capacity. Some of the suggestions offered lacked
the element of practicability. There still continues to be one or two centres where the
disease seems to be established and where quarantine will perhaps have to be maintained. Some of these sheepmen should take more seriously the suggestions offered
in Circular No. 33, prepared by your Commissioner for their benefit.    The disease DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 85
is almost entirely spread by wound inoculation, chiefly at shearing-time, and while
due respect is given to those research-workers who argue that the mouth offers a very
important avenue of spread, I can only present in contradiction the very extensive
piece of work done by the special committee appointed by the New South Wales Department of Agriculture.
Blackleg.—This disease is finding its way into more and more districts of the
Province. Once established it can not be eradicated. Educational work is being carried on by your Commissioner with the help of the field service. Dr. Thompson was
particularly helpful this year in assisting, as was Mr. Travis and Mr. Middleton, of
this Department, and Mr. R. Norris, Secretary of the Rock Creek Farmers' Institute.
A break appeared in the Vernon area, another in the North Fork District, and several
smaller breaks in widely distributed parts of the Province.
Johne'.s Disease.—This disease was uncovered during 1942 to some considerable
extent in the central part of Vancouver Island. It had been suspected there some
years before but no organized effort was made to deal with the problem. Tests were
made of certain herds, reactors removed and slaughtered, and laboratory checks made
which verified the results of the test. Your Commissioner made the tests with Johnin
supplied by the Dominion Department of Agriculture, Animals' Diseases Research
Institute, on the request of the Dominion Health of Animals Division. The laboratory
checks were made by Dr. E. A. Bruce, Saanichton, of the staff of the Research Institute.
Our thanks goes to those who assisted. Further tests will be made, it is hoped, in an
effort to finally clean up this disease. Satisfactory progress has been made to this
end to date.
Actinobacillosis in Cattle.—This disease is making its appearance in almost alarming numbers in widely distributed points in the Province. The control-work undertaken to date is so very preliminary that little can be said. Here again we have to
acknowledge with thanks the help of Dr. E. A. Bruce.
Calculi in Range Steers was not reported to any extent this year. Evidently conditions were not favourable to its development. As previously reported by your Commissioner, the absence of Vitamin A seems to play a very important part in the development of these calculi. That was our first observation, which was subsequently reported
by workers. It is my further observation that there are other factors which play
a part in the formation of these urinary calculi, such as possibly certain minerals in
particular combination. Further observation is being made and later reports may
have something more to add.
Calfhood Vaccination against Brucellosis.—This work, as previously reported, is
conducted by the British Columbia Department of Agriculture. Vaccine is released
from a central depot to veterinary practitioners at the request of farmers to vaccinate
calves between the ages of four and eight months.
While individual applications still come in to the Department, more and more
farmers are joining up with local associations. This plan makes for an all around
economy and is very efficient.
To secure a proper picture of the manner in which this policy is being accepted,
a glance at a tabulated report of progress will serve:—
Our year begins on July 31st— No. of Calves
vaccinated.
First year  :     3,098
Second year     5,778
Total for two years      8,876
July 31st, 1943, to December 14th, 1943     2,739
Total  calves  vaccinated  from  July  31st,   1941,   to
December 14th, 1943   11,615 R 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Some additional work requires to be done in the near future coming out of our
past experiences.
Warble-fly and Tick Control.—Warble-fly control-work continues to extend to more
parts of the Province, and we can look towards the day when the entire Province will
be under control.
In this programme, being entirely a voluntary effort on the part of the cattlemen
with the material furnished free by the Department, there is a danger in later years,
when the infestation with warbles becomes light and cattle cease to be gadded by heel-
flies, that stockmen may not wish to continue energetically to treat so as to get the
last warble. Then, again, in the range country it may be hard to persuade ranchers
to make late applications so as to eradicate any of the late warbles which may be present.
The work of warble-fly eradication began in the Okanagan Valley, but, due to
a number of unforeseen conditions, it has not been so thoroughly carried out, although
a lot of good work has been done and the warbles greatly reduced. The farmers of
the Deep Creek Valley are proud of the fact that they had the first clean area in
America and take every precaution to keep it clean.
Stockmen in districts where the wood tick, Dermacentor andersonii, is prevalent
report that in herds being treated for warbles the tick is considerably less. Of course,
when it was possible to use full-strength derris on cattle before putting them out on
these badly infested ranges, very little trouble was encountered and no losses reported.
Derris is now being controlled by the Wartime Prices and Trade Board and it is impossible to do more than make a few trials. When this product is again available in
quantity it is expected that it will be used quite extensively. Some better control may
be developed at any time, but up to the present, despite arguments to the contrary,
our experience in the field still continues to be that this is the best and most practical
control we have.
REPORT OF RECORDER OF BRANDS.
George Pilmer, Recorder of Brands.
Shipments of beef cattle inspected during 1943 amounted to 56,181 head, an
increase of 8,600 over the previous year. Of this increase the Cariboo District
accounted for around 1,500; Kamloops-Nicola District, 2,500; Okanagan-Similkameen,
1,700; South-east British Columbia, 2,100; and Central British Columbia, 1,300; while
the Peace River District showed a drop of 400 head. Cattle auction sales account
largely for the increases in Kamloops, Okanagan, and South-east British Columbia
Districts.
Shortage of hay, owing to bad weather and scarcity of efficient help, caused many
ranchers to unload their stock early in order to avoid wintering more stock than they
could safely carry.
Shipments to Prairie and Eastern Provinces were around 4,500 head, being about
20 per cent, over 1942.    No shipments were made to the United States.
The number of hides shipped was 20,399, being just 500 less than the previous year.
A detailed report is given in Appendix No. 10.
INSPECTION SERVICE.
Owing to a number of Provincial Police joining the armed forces and inability to
secure new men, four detachments were closed—at Bridge River, Hedley, Yahk, and
Wardner.
Brand inspection work was carried on by the Police, however, at fifty-one shipping
points as follows:   Quesnel, Alexis Creek, Bella Coola, Clinton, Bridge River, Lillooet, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 87
Lytton, Spences Bridge, Ashcroft, Blue River, Chase, Salmon Arm, Enderby, Armstrong, Vernon, Lumby, Revelstoke, Nakusp, Kelowna, Penticton, West Summerland,
Princeton, Keremeos, Oliver, Greenwood, Grand Forks, Rossland, Trail, Fruitvale,
Castlegar, Salmo, Nelson, Kaslo, New Denver, Creston, Cranbrook, Kimberley, Fernie,
Natal, Invermere, Golden, Smithers, Hazelton, Terrace, Burns Lake, Vanderhoof, Prince
George, McBride, Red Pass, Pouce Coupe, and Fort St. John.
Brand inspection work is done by Deputy Inspectors at thirteen shipping points;
full-time Inspectors being stationed at Kamloops and Williams Lake, and part-time
Inspectors at Soda Creek, Lac la Hache, 100-Mile House, Pavilion, Nicola, Kitwanga,
Telkwa, Houston, Forestdale, Endako, and Dawson Creek.
Inability of the Police to handle the work at Dawson Creek required the appointment of a part-time Inspector there, and D. L. Fenton was appointed. A new
appointment was also made at Kitwanga in the person of Joseph A. Sampare.
As usual, we have been much indebted to the Provincial Police for a great amount
of brand inspection work and for the checking of licensees, etc., and, in addition, they
have also assisted the Department materially on the checking of importation of horses
from the Prairie Provinces under permit.
Range-riding.—The Clinton Ranchers' Association carried on their previous good
work this year, but had some difficulty in finding a suitable man. They finally secured
J. A. Bishop, but had to pay considerably more than in the previous years. As usual,
the Department assisted in this work by making a grant from the Horned Cattle
Purchases Fund.
PROSECUTIONS, ETC.
The following cases were prosecuted and convictions secured:—
Driving Stock without Inspection.—Three, at Nelson (two) and Salmon Arm.
Shipping Stock without Inspection.—Three, at Burns Lake and Trail (two).
Branding unlawfully.—One, at Ashcroft.
Dealing in Stock without a Licence.—One case was prosecuted at Kamloops, but
dismissed.    Another case was investigated at Nelson and licence secured.
Investigations were made by the Police into complaints of missing cattle in several
districts, movements of horses and cattle, non-payment of licence fees, etc.
LICENCES.
The number of licences issued during 1943 was as follows: Slaughter-hOuse, forty-
seven ; stock-dealers, seventy-nine; hide-dealers, sixty-four; horse-slaughterers, seventeen ;   beef-peddlers, eleven.
A complete list of the licensees appears in Appendix No. 8.
REPORT OF DAIRY BRANCH.
By Henry Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Commissioner.
Rather extreme conditions were experienced during the previous winter. Dairy
feeds were fortunately on hand in good quantities in most districts, but the severe
temperatures that prevailed caused much winter-killing of dairy crops, with disastrous
results later on. Fall-sown crops for green feed and the silo yielded fairly only, as did
roots. All grass mixtures.for hay or pasture were adversely affected, so that an actual
shortage of the former is to be anticipated before spring. With the rains, pastures
revived and held well into fall. , R 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
DAIRY-FACTORIES.
Twenty-five butter-factories, two cheese-factories, two condenseries, one milk-
powder plant, and two casein plants have been in operation. Nine other firms are
interested solely in the production of ice-cream for the wholesale market.
All dairy plants have been called on regularly by the Dairy Inspectors of this
branch. Methods in use, equipment, storage, and sanitation have been reported on.
Grading and testing practices in respect to milk and cream purchased from producers
have been investigated, checked, and suggestions for improvement offered.
CREAMERIES.
The total of creamery butter manufactured will be somewhat below that of the
previous year. Demands of the fluid-milk trade and of the condenseries have curtailed
supplies for churning and little increase can be looked for till the present situation
finds amendment. Early in the year a subsidy of 10 cents per pound butter-fat was
paid by the Agricultural Food Board. This was later reduced to 8 cents, which price
will prevail for the rest of this year, when a 10-cent payment will be resumed.
CHEESE.
Two cheese-factories have been in operation during the season. One is at Armstrong the other at Edgewood. The Federal bonus for cheese manufactured has been
continued throughout Canada and has been shared by these factories. There exists
good opportunity for development of the cheese-making industry in British Columbia
and it is to be regretted that more interest has not been taken in the institution of
factories in areas new to the project.
CONDENSED PRODUCTS.
Most condensed products have suffered considerable decrease. Evaporated milk
only has nearly maintained its output of recent years. § Little casein has been turned
out.
ICE-CREAM.
In spite of restrictions, ice-cream products have shown increase for the year. The
output of districts and firms is not regular, being subject very largely to the demands
of the services. It is, of course, due to the increase in population through war-time
movements that the output has gone up.
DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT.
The work of herd improvement of dairy cattle has continued under most adverse
conditions for several years past. The most severe hindrance has been the lack of
suitable supervisors to replace several who have left, for one reason or another, since
the war started.
There remain eleven associations operating fourteen routes, which by itself would
indicate little change during the past year. To keep these routes alive, however, it has
been necessary to extend the thirty-day interval between tests to forty days, permitting
three supervisors to care for four routes. In this way, the dearth of supervisors has
been temporarily overcome. About 350 herds containing approximately 7,000 cows
have been on test during the year. The average yield recorded for all milking periods
completed in 1942 was 8,224 lb. milk and 361 lb. butter-fat, with an average test of
4.39 per cent.
More assistance for the work is required by this Branch. A fieldman devoting
seven or eight months of the year to scrutiny of the Supervisors' labours and to the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 89
expansion of the service and the remaining months to annual compilations in the office
is greatly needed.
The " Twelfth List of Dairy Sires " is being completed and issued with much
difficulty, owing to lack of the necessary help to the Assistant in Charge, in spite of his
continued devotion to his work.
This Dairy Herd Improvement project as a departmental activity has now been
in continuous existence for thirty years, being taken by the Province from the
Dominion Department of Agriculture in the fall of 1913. Much good has been accomplished in the improvement of the milking qualities of dairy cattle and there exists
much useful material in the form of records of daughters, dams, and granddams to
serve for guidance in future breeding operations. The opportunity now exists of
greatly accelerating the rate of progress by the control of sales of pure-bred dairy
cattle. A measure to require, after suitable notice, that all pure-bred dairy herds,
selling to the dairy-farm public, should be on test at all times in some record of repute
is urgently required if this Province desires to take advantage of the start already
accomplished and the information to hand.
LICENCES ISSUED.
During the year, seven applicants for testers' licences were examined. Sixty
testers' licences were issued and thirty-nine combined testers' and graders' with one
single grader's licence. To fifty-seven persons, firms, companies, or associations creamery or dairy licences were issued.     (See Appendix No. 9.)
MEETINGS.
Meetings were attended and taken part in by members of this branch at Kelowna
(three), Armstrong (two), Lumby, Salmon Arm, West Quesnel, Vanderhoof, Matsqui
(two), Sumas, Chilliwack (two), Richmond, Langley (two), Victoria.
PUBLICATIONS.
Dairy Circulars No.-48 (stencil) and No. 49 (stencil), the " Twelfth List of Dairy
Sires " and the " Fourth Annual List of Long-distance Production Records," constitute
the publications of the year.
STAFF.
On March 1st an addition was made to the staff of this Branch by the appointment
as Provincial Dairy Inspector of George Patchett. Mr. Patchett has had many years
practical work in butter-making, cheese-making, and the handling of market milk supplies, besides spending several terms at the O.A.C., Guelph, Ontario. He should be of
great service to the industry here, having had a long term of dairy factory supervision
in British Columbia. He joins F. C. Wasson and F. Overland, Provincial Dairy Inspectors and Instructors, in the duties of factory and dairy plant inspection, with checking
of grading and testing work carried on in connection with supplies from producers.
All have displayed interest in and devotion to their allotted duties during the year.
OFFICE.
The usual volume of inquiries and returns has been dealt with. Much time is
given monthly to the assembling of statistical matter in co-operation with the Federal
Bureau.    The two stenographer-clerks have carried out their duties efficiently.
GENERAL.
Less creamery butter is again expected to be manufactured owing to the demands
of the fluid trade as well as to those of the condenseries. R 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Bonus claim forms for 8 cents per pound creamery butter allowed to producers
have been certified in this office for the Agricultural Food Board.
The dairy industry in British Columbia, as everywhere else in Canada, is in a
disturbed unsettled state owing to continued demands from unusual quarters. Much
readjustment in the disposal of supplies of milk from the producer will eventually
become necessary.
The text of the " Creameries and Dairies Act " has been revised in accordance with
present-day requirements and is suggested as an amendment if considered desirable.
REPORT OF POULTRY BRANCH.
J. R. Terry, Poultry Commissioner.
The New Year was ushered in by unprecedentedly cold weather all over the
Province. The Coast and Gulf Islands were visited by bitter cold winds and below
zero temperatures, which lasted for nearly three weeks. Coming immediately after
a very mild fall and early winter the results were disastrous; comb and feet freezings,
accompanied by heavy mortality from the same cause, almost complete cessation of
laying, and poor fertility with resultant low hatches. In many cases it was not until
early March had been ushered in before hatching results improved. Many layers
hatched the previous February and March, already moulting in November, were again
thrown into another feather-shedding.    The Leghorn breed suffered the most.
Freak weather prevailed in the month of March, it being one of the driest and
warmest on record. Forest fires were quite frequently reported. The weather for
the rest of the year has been very favourable for poultry keeping and production.
The usual shipments to the North have been forwarded, but less exports to the
United States were the rule.
The market for eggs has been brisk throughout the year, and the Province has
again sent forward its quota to the British Isles, almost wholly in dehydrated form.
Egg prices for the past ten years are herewith supplied for comparison. Prices are
those paid to the producer:—
1934 	
Cents.
  15
1939   __.. __
Cents
23
1935 	
  16
  21
  24
1940 	
  22
1936 	
1941 	
  28
1937 	
1942   _._
32
1938 	
 :__ 25
1943 (11 months) 	
  34
BREEDING OPERATIONS.
As obtained last year, many thousands of hatching-eggs were again shipped by
independent breeders to the Prairie hatcheries. These shipments were limited by the
fact that shippers were compelled by both Dominion and Provincial regulations to
belong to the Provincial Flock-approval Plan, which meant that all breeding stock used
had to be blood-tested for pullorum disease.
The biggest increase in hatching operations on record occurred this year. In some
cases the hatcheries operated for nearly ten months instead of the usual seven or
eight months. Orders for chicks, both day-old and started chicks, poured in from all
points throughout the spring and summer. One hatchery reported close to the million
mark in hatchings.
The boom in New Hampshire fowls showed no signs of abating. The demand was
so great that many beginners, some with very limited experience, entered the baby DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 91
chick market, with results not always profitable to either buyer or seller. Although
still numerically superior, the White Leghorn breed has not seemed to keep up to the
heavy-weight birds during the year.
Barred Rocks, Rhode Island Reds, and Light Sussex have also increased in.
numbers. Crosses of these fowls with the New Hampshire and Leghorns have been
again very popular. The sex-linking qualities of Barred Rocks and Light Sussex
females mated to New Hampshire males has again been taken advantage of.
TABLE-POULTRY PRODUCTION.
The ranks of those breeding table-fowls for meat production primarily have been
again increased, even at a greater rate than took place last year. Many beginners
starting absolutely " from scratch," as far as experience is concerned, have handled
as many as 1,500 chicks monthly for the best part of the year.. Although many losses
have been sustained both from vermin depredations and mortality, owing to favourable
prices very few have failed to make a profit on investment. It is to be hoped that
the experiences of those who were caught in the slump of 1921-22 will not be repeated.
Owing to the insatiable demand for poultry meats, many chickens were killed as
2-lb. broilers rather than being kept the usual fourteen or fifteen weeks and sold as
roasters, weighing on the average 4 to 5% lb. each.
Possibly due to the difficulty in getting sufficient Dark Cornish Indian Game males
for crossing purposes, very few breeders utilized this cross with Rocks or Sussex for
the highest quality table-poultry. This Branch has consistently advocated the use of
some Game blood for top crossing for the production of high-class meat for the table.
A rather unusual cross-was used by a well-known breeder this past season. The
results were worth recording. He secured a cross-bred cockerel from White Leghorn
male and Cornish Game hen. The bird was about 8 lb. in weight and practically all
white in plumage. He was mated with nearly a score of cross-bred hens from a New
Hampshire male and White Wyandotte hens. Starting hatching-eggs from this cross,
the breeder sold all the progeny, both sexes at 2% lb. weight, which was generally
reached in eight weeks. Fertility was excellent and over 600 chicks we're marketed
successfully.
Owing to war demands for certain concentrates, most mashes sold have been
slightly wider in nutritive ratio than in the past. Corn and corn-meal have been practically unobtainable and fish-meal and beef-scraps have been difficult to obtain in some
districts. Comparing conditions and prices with the same period of World War I.,
the writer is of the opinion that the market for eggs and meat is more profitable at
this time.
DEPARTMENTAL WORK.
Poultry displays at fall fairs were again judged by the Branch. After an absence
of ten years, the writer adjudicated at the Okanagan Fall Exhibition, and wishes to
testify to the excellence of the exhibits, which compared very favourably with past
shows. It was noted that the juvenile members (Boys' and Girls' Poultry Club) displayed nearly 90 per cent, of the exhibits. All the birds were well conditioned, matured,
and shown in tip-top form.
As in the past few years, exhibits at fall fairs were mainly composed of popular
utility breeds, which is to be commended. During 1916-19 a boom took place in geese,
but for some reason this past four years has not seen a similar condition. Only a few
choice specimens of geese were shown this year.
Records have been broken in regard to quantity of incoming and outgoing mails.
Inquiries dealing with all phases of the industry, but predominatingly regarding disease
troubles, were received. Many requests for visits were complied with whenever
possible. R 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Printed and stencilled circulars and bulletins were in great demand, and the following were revised and reissued: "Poultry-houses" (bulletin), "Poultry-farming
for Intending Settlers" (stencil circular), "Poultry-feeding" (bulletin), "Plans for
Dutch Oven " (stencilled circular), " Plans for Lamp-brooder " and " Plans for Stable-
lantern Brooder," both stencilled circulars, were published and appeared to fill a long-
felt want, especially as it has been difficult and almost impossible to purchase factory-
made brooders during the past two years.
Stencilled circular " Plans for Breeding-saddles for Turkeys " was also distributed.
Owing to the difficulty householders found early in the season in trying to get supplies
of water-glass for egg preservation, a circular " Lime-water for Egg Preservation "
was also prepared and stencilled. Through news items and radio notices, many copies
were asked for.
Breeders' Directories: Lists of members of the Provincial Flock-approval Plan,
Vancouver Rabbit Breeders' Association, British Columbia Bantam Breeders' Association, and Turkey and Geese Breeders were stencilled and issued.
Poultry papers and agricultural journals were supplied' with poultry articles as
requested. Again the Canadian Farm Broadcast, under the supervision of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, was supplied with short notes and items of interest.
BOYS' AND GIRLS' POULTRY CLUBS.
Most of the clubs were again organized by either District Agriculturists, Farmers'
Institutes, Women's Institutes, Poultry Associations, or school teachers.
CJubs were started in all parts of the Province, with the Mission clubs still operating as the oldest continuously run clubs, having been first organized in 1916.
The districts in which the majority of the clubs were held were as follows, the
numerals after each place denoting number of clubs organized: Prince George, 15;
Fraser Valley, 15; Mission, 10; Okanagan, 9; Vancouver Island, 5; Grand Forks, 3;
and Revelstoke, 2;  total, 59.
Most of the members in each district exhibited some of their flocks at their local
fairs during the fall, as in the past. Judging contests also took place in some of the
club areas.
POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS.
The British Columbia Poultry Association, which has been running- since 1910,
has decided to wind up, owing to lack of funds to operate. Organized originally for
the encouragement of poultry-farming by holding annual shows, and the organizing
of local associations wherever possible throughout the Province, it had at one time
thirty-two locals affiliated. It also had the honour of sponsoring and assisting in the
running of the first egg-laying contest on the American continent. This event continued for thirteen years and was the means of bringing fowls from Australia, New
Zealand, the British Isles, and the United States in competition. Most of the imported
birds, after winning a majority of the prizes, were sold to Provincial purchasers for
improvement of local flocks.
The Pacific Poultry Breeders' Protective Association again reports excellent
progress. As mentioned previously, this organization is concerned with looking after
the interests of its members, most of whom are commercial poultry-breeders.
Poultry shows were again held by the Ladysmith, Kamloops, Vancouver, and
Victoria associations, affiliated with the Provincial Association, which body presented
diplomas to member winners at shows and also at several fall fairs.
DISEASES.
Owing to the great increase in the number of breeders starting up, it has been
a very busy period for this Division with regard to disease incidence.    Daily through- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 93
out the year, reports and complaints were received as to the presence of disease in
flocks throughout the Province. Early in the season, whilst not a disease, a lot of
trouble was experienced with frost-bites—combs, wattles, and, in some instances, legs
were affected. This occasioned a great deal of loss, especially in the colder parts of
the Province. Many of the lighter breeds, Leghorns particularly, were the greatest
sufferers. Quite a few birds died or were killed owing to wattle-freezing. This form
of frost-bite is more dangerous than comb-freezing, as it causes the throat to swell
and oftentimes chokes the birds. In the case of large-combed birds, such as Leghorns,
the obvious remedy is to dub the birds before the winter frosts set in. The Division
has issued a circular fully explaining the operation of dubbing male birds, which has
been in considerable demand. Practically all of the larger breeders and hatcheries dub
all their Leghorn males before they are sold or placed in the breeding-pens. Experiments in Quebec show that dubbed males are more active sexually than those not
dubbed.
Many post-mortems were made by this Division and many more could have been
made if the breeders sending in dead fowls had prepared the carcasses properly. As it
happened, a big majority of the specimens received were too far " gone " for accurate
diagnosis. In such cases breeders are given instructions for proper shipping of dead
birds for post-mortem.
This Division wishes to record the co-operation and help of Dr. E. A. Bruce, V.S.,
of the Dominion Farm Laboratory at Saanichton.
Paralysis, particularly among early-maturing pullets, has been rife throughout
the Province. Lameness in the early fall months, particularly where there has been
a lack of greenstuffs, was reported, and in many post-mortems worm parasites were
found to be the cause of this symptom.
Many breeders appear to be ignorant of the importance of green feeding, especially to young stock, or, as in many cases investigated, are too dilatory to provide
such succulence. It is immediately noted in the State of Washington that apparently
every commercial breeder has a kale patch for provision of this important feedstuff.
It was recommended in our last report that sulphur drugs had been successfully
tried out as a specific for paralysis in most of its forms. Differences of opinion have
now to be reported on the matter. In some experiments conducted no benefits were
derived.
Coccidiosis, or " bloody diarrhoea," was apparently not so prevalent, due possibly
to the dry season throughout the growing period. It is noted that in wet seasons this
disease is very troublesome. Also the fact that many breeders now operated wire-floor
sun-parlours for the first eight or ten weeks of the chick's life would help to prevent
coccidia infection.
Colds and roup cases were again investigated. Wet and draughty shelters, damp
litter, and indifferent feeding systems are the most fruitful causes of this trouble.
Again the Division's advice, " clean out and clean up " is offered.
Attention is again called to the necessity of frequent culling of fowls for disease
detection. Particularly is this necessary in connection with heavy-laying fowls, many
of which may be suffering from vent disease, principally vent canker. There is grave
danger of entire infection of a breeding-pen where any hen suffers with this disease.
Male birds become infected and pass on the disease to the rest of the flock. In some
flocks culled, this Division has found as many as 10 per cent, of the females suffering
with this disease. Night culling, providing the breeder has a sensitive nose, will
easily and quickly solve this problem.
Leukaemia again took toll of the flocks in various parts. The main symptoms:
Enlarged liver, both internal and external tumours, and, in some instances, an enlarged
spleen.    Considering the value of even a healthy bird,  it is still puzzling to hear R 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
breeders ask quite seriously as to the chances of purchasing remedies for this and
other diseases. Killing and burning of all diseased fowls is the only safe rule to
follow. The sapient remark of a well-known breeder, " You cannot purchase vitality
in a drug-store," is worth remembering.
Worm infestation was reported from widely separated parts. A good home-made
remedy is as follows: To a cup of lard add two tablespoonfuls of spirits of turpentine,
and dry off the mixture with powdered sulphur. Make ordinary-sized pills, and give
one to suspected birds overnight. It is best to isolate the fowls to be treated so that
manure may be watched next day for evidence of worms or eggs. A feed of bread and
milk in which has been dissolved one-half teaspoonful of epsom salts per three birds
is also effective. Where wormy fowls are too emaciated for treatment, killing and
burning is always the safest plan.    Never bury sick fowls that have died or been killed.
Although the turkey-crop has been heavy this year, there have been fewer complaints of the appearance of enterohepatitis. Last year's recommendation of a dose
of worm purges, at least in the fall, is still good advice.
WATER-FOWL.
For laying qualities the Khaki-Campbell variety and also White Pekins have again,
proved most profitable. Duck-breeders mixing their own mashes have again found it
difficult to obtain sufficient animal concentrates, principally fish-meals or beef-scraps.
Corn and corn-meal have also been missed. Barley-meal has been substituted, but this
lacks the oil or fat found in corn products.    There has been little increase in ducks.
Geese production has been about on the same scale as last year, with Toulouse and
Embden breeds the most popular. The demand for both duck and geese feathers was
again good.
TURKEYS.
With a little higher ceiling price for high-class fowls, the production has been
substantially increased. Producers have found difficulty in getting high protein feeds,
so vital to young poults for the first ten weeks, and also corn products have been missed.
Small and damaged potatoes, boiled with barley, have been utilized by many breeders
for finishing off the birds. These two feed products are excellent for the production
of white flesh.
A demand has sprung up for white turkey feathers. The finer, softer ones are
used in making up high-class ladies' coatees and other boudoir clothing.
RABBITS.
There has been a considerable increase in the production of rabbits, principally
for meat purposes. There has also been a good demand for wool rabbits, principally
Angoras. The wool is utilized by the Air Force authorities for padding of airmen's
clothing.
REPORT OF WOMEN'S INSTITUTES.
Mrs. V. S. McLachlan, Superintendent.
The Women's Institutes continue their manifold war activities. Reports from 136
Institutes (with a total membership of 3,454 women) for last year show the following
figures:—
Jam made for the Red Cross by the Institutes (lb.)         2,998
Fruit canned in syrup for the Red Cross by the Institutes
(cans)    .         1,689 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 95
Quilts and wool-filled comforters for Britain   2,351
Articles knitted or sewn for the Red Cross, British Bundles,
etc.    37,915
Funds raised by the Institutes for War Services, Red Cross,
etc.  $4,107.90
Donations to Canadian Women's Institute special funds for
a mobile canteen and bombed people  $838.25
Parcels sent to men and women in the Forces  1,522
Purchase of Victory Bonds and war savings  $2,842
In the making of wool-filled comforters, Pavilion is outstanding. For the last
three years this Institute has sent two comforters a month to British Bundles, all of
them filled with real wool and beautifully made.
War Savings Stamps were universally used as prizes for Institute Flower-shows,
Victory Garden competitions, etc., and there has been a steady demand for the special
War Savings Stamp booklets issued by the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada.
PRODUCTION.
In spite of a poor fruit-year Institutes maintained their donations of fruit for
Britain this year. Reports are incomplete as yet, but Rutland and Osoyoos report
making over 2,000 lb. of jam each. Winfield contributed 200 lb. of honey for the same
purpose. Victory Gardens took a prominent place in all Institute programmes, both
for adults and the children. Nakusp organized two classes' in each of their schools,
one for children under 10 and the other for children up to 15 years of age. They report
a good number of entries and successful results.
Twelve Institutes report holding flower-shows, and McBride gave $80 towards the
funds of the local Agricultural Association for their fair. In addition to the Department's book prizes the Institutes gave War Savings Stamps as prizes.
The Women's Institutes supported the Emergency Farm Labour Service; and the
Provincial President, Mrs. Gummow, visited some of the camps for the young workers
and gave an interesting account of her visit over CBR.
MARKETING.
Mrs. Gummow is still an active member of the Regional Committee of the Wartime Prices and Trade Board. Last spring she tried hard to procure a larger sugar
ration for canning by country-women. The Branch recently has been asked to supply
the names of 100 women scattered throughout the Province who will report on rural
opinions and practices regarding rationing for the guidance of the future work of the
Wartime Prices and Trade Board at Ottawa.
WOMEN'S INSTITUTE BROADCASTS. '   '
Last spring the Provincial Board, in co-operation with this Branch, organized a
series of ten broadcasts on matters of interest to Women's Institute members. Some
of the talks were broadcast over CBR and others from Kelowna and Trail. These were
such a success and so popular with the Institutes, that CBR has consented to repeat
and extend the programme, and the Provincial Board is now working on another ten-
week series, most of which will be broadcast over CBR.
VISITS TO INSTITUTES.
In June I visited the Okanagan to attend the District Conferences at Penticton and
Salmon Arm, and then went up to Clearwater to attend a small but enthusiastic meeting held by the six Institutes in that area.    Every Institute sent at least four and R 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
some sent their entire membership to the meeting. Here I met the members of the
newly formed Star Lake Institute, which promises well. In July I visited Institutes
in the Kootenays and Arrow Lakes Districts, where the distances made it impossible
for them to hold conferences. Good work is being done, though in some places the
population has been so greatly reduced that there are hardly enough women left to
form a quorum at a meeting. The fact that labour shortage is obliging women to help
more with the field-work adds to their difficulties, but the members are doing their best
to keep their Institutes going.
On my return from the Kootenays I received word that H.R.H. Princess Alice
wished to visit a Women's Institute in the Bulkley Valley, so hasty arrangements were
made for her to visit Prince George. I was instructed to meet her there and visit the
Bulkley Valley Institutes on my way home. Owing to the unexpected visit to Canada
of Mr. Winston Churchill, Princess Alice had to postpone her visit to this Province.
However, I was able to help the women in Prince George to perfect their arrangements
for entertaining her, and afterwards visited Institutes as arranged. Many of these
had never been visited and seemed glad to see me. Since my tour new Institutes have
been organized at Smithers and Telkwa.
H.R.H. Princess Alice visited Prince George in August and was received by members from all the near-by Institutes. Every member was presented'to her, and afterwards she invited Mrs. Moffatt, President of Prince George Women's Institute, to drive
with her to the tea arranged in her honour by the General Officer Commanding the
District. On her return to Ottawa she sent a letter expressing her appreciation of the
valuable work which is being done by the Institutes in this Province. Her address at
Prince George was stencilled and sent to all Institutes in the Province; in it Her Royal
Highness said: " No Government can do anything well without the whole-hearted collaboration of every individual citizen, and the Women's Institutes have it in their power
to render an immense service to the community at the conclusion of the war. It is a
duty which you must undertake as Canadian citizens."
The Peace River District Conference was held at Doe River and, as usual, appears
to have been the great annual outing for the whole district, Institutes recording
100-per-cent. attendance of their members.
A meeting of the Provincial Board was held in Victoria in October, every member
attending. Two full days of meetings were spent chiefly in making plans for the Biennial Convention which it is hoped to hold in Vancouver in May or June next. The
Board also authorized the investment of another $200 in Victory Bonds for the Othoa
Scott Trust Fund, and a donation of $225 to the Solarium from the interest on the
$6,800 invested for- the Fund. The Institutes are making a special drive to reach their
objective of $10,000 for this Fund this year.
GENERAL OFFICE-WORK.
. Five new Institutes have been organized during the year—Glenwood and Telkwa
in the Bulkley Valley, Star Lake in the Salmon Arm District, and Rosedale and Sunny-
side in the South Fraser District; and the Whonnock and Ruskin Institute in the North
Fraser District has managed to find enough members to resume its activities. Four
Institutes have gone into abeyance until people return to their homes—Parkland,
Quadra Island, Upper Clearwater, and Ymir. There are now 181 Institutes in the
Province with a total membership of 3,804 women, as at June 30th last. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 97
REPORTS OF BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUB WORK.
S. S. Phillips, B.S.A., Secretary.
The development of Boys' and Girls' Club work has continued satisfactorily
throughout the Province in 1943. It is very encouraging to note that, although the
organizers and those developing club work in the various districts were hard pressed
for time to devote to this work, more clubs were organized this year than in 1942 and
the swine projects increased more than 100 per cent. Club exhibits were featured at
the Armstrong and Chilliwack Exhibitions and Kamloops Fat Stock Sale, as well as
many of the smaller fairs.
The following shows the number of clubs organized under department supervision
in 1943:—
Number
of Clubs.
Membership.
1942.
1943.
1942.
1943.
10
38
6
1
59
18
2
3
11
33
16
1
73
15
6
94
402
49
8
513
177
20
53
115
312
136
9
674
Potato —	
137
Alfalfa     _ 	
68
Totals  	
139
155
1,316
1,451
PROVINCIAL ELIMINATION CONTESTS.
Elimination contests were held this year at Chilliwack and Armstrong Exhibitions.
In the district eliminations at Chilliwack, September 15th, contests were conducted in
dairy, swine, and potato projects.
Dairy Contest.—This contest was won by Violet Paton and James Thatcher.
The contestants' names and scores are as follows:—
Contestant's Name. Individual Score.
Violet Paton   548
James Thatcher   476
Pat Thompson  420
Vera Schalz  410
Allan Moffard  377
Swine Contest.—This contest was conducted partly in Chilliwack and the carcass
judging was done at packing plants in Vancouver. Don McPhee and Ernie Oldham
won the contest.
Contestant's Name. Individual Score.
Peter Ewart  438
Ernie Oldham  538
Don McPhee  496
Potato Contest.—This contest was won by Hugh Davis and Frances Lidster. As no
teams entered from the Interior of the Province, this became the final contest. The team
was coached by Sid Gray, of Milner.
Contestant's Name. Individual Score.
Frances Lidster  490.5
Hugh Davis  499.0 R 98
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Contestant's Name.
Joyce Maddocks	
Arthur Maddocks ___.
Jim Ordog	
Blanche Peterson ___.
Ronald Tarves	
Margaret McLelan _
Jake Harder	
Bob Cartnell	
Individual Score.
  489.0
  468.5
.  453.5
.  394.5
._  410.0
.  280.0
._  327.0
  406.0
potato team.
liliiiiB
Left to right: Hugh Davis, Frances Lidster, and Sid Gray (coach).
Final Elimination Contests, Armstrong, September 21st, 1943.
Dairy Contest.—The Pure-bred Dairy Cattle Club from Langley, Violet Paton and
James Thatcher, won this contest.    The team was coached by Tom Berry, of Langley.
Contestant's Name. Team Score.
James Thatcher and Violet Paton, Langley Pure-bred Dairy Club 975
John Olson and Bert Marshall, Armstrong Pure-bred Dairy Club 947
Peter Buff and Jack Pain, Prince George Dairy Club  888
Beef Contest.—This contest was won by Uncha Valley Beef team, Alvin Wiley and
Terrance Lougheed.    Coached by Shirley Preston, of Smithers.
Contestant's Name. Team Score.
Laura Donchi and Bernard Donchi, Kamloops North Beef Club  618
Alvin J. Wiley and Terrance Lougheed, Uncha Valley Beef Club- 664 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 99
Swine Contest.—This contest was won by the Chilliwack team coached by Fred
Bryant, of Chilliwack, Don McPhee and Ernie Oldham.
Contestant's Name. Team Score.
Don McPhee and Ernie Oldham, Chilliwack Swine Club  855
Ross Phillips and Gordon Fowler, Armstrong Swine Club  791
dairy team.
Left to right:  James Thatcher, Tom Berry (coach), and Violet Paton.
NATIONAL JUDGING CONTEST, TORONTO,
NOVEMBER 22nd AND 23rd, 1943.
British Columbia sent four teams to compete in this contest—dairy, beef, swine,
and potatoes. All our teams showed up well in these competitions. The potato team
—Francis Lidster and Hugh Davis—took second place with a team score of 1,099 out of
a possible 1,200, only 17 points behind the winning team. The dairy team—Violet
Paton and James Thatcher—took third place with a team score of 809 points.
The swine team—Ernest Oldham and Don McPhee—took fifth place with a team score
of 890. Our beef team—Alvin Wiley and Terrance Lougheed—came fourth in the
beef contest but Alvin Wiley, who was the outstanding contestant in the Provincial
elimination contest at Armstrong, took ill with influenza and was unable to complete
the judging contests. It is interesting to note that this is the first time that Central
British Columbia has sent a team to compete in the National Contest at Toronto. R 100
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The results show that all of our contestants had been well coached and were well
informed in matters pertaining to their projects and they stood well up-in the strong
competition by teams from the other Provinces.
The oral examinations were held as usual in the Royal York Hotel, Toronto, and
through the co-operation of Dr. Christie, President of Guelph, Ontario, Agricultural
College, all the judging classes were held at Guelph.
Two new features were added to the programme this year. During the contest
club members were interviewed by members of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
Frances Lidster, of Langley, and Terrance Lougheed, of Uncha Valley, represented
British Columbia. This transcription was released over the C.B.C. during the Farm
Broadcast, December 6th.
swine team.
Left to right: Don McPhee and Ernie Oldham.
Addresses of Club Members.
One club member from each Province was required to give a five-minute address
after the club banquet, Monday, November 22nd. Hugh Davis, of Langley, told the
meeting how junior potato clubs have helped develop potato production in British
Columbia. This talk was instructive and well delivered as were those by representatives from the other Provinces. This feature caused a great deal of favourable
comment and will probably be continued in the future.
Appended to this report is a tabulated list showing all the clubs organized in the
Province. The development of this work although not spectacular has been steady and
the influence of organized clubs in the production programme of our agricultural DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 101
districts is of considerable productive as well as educational value. Our records show
that practically all the clubs organized were carried through to a successful conclusion.
In this regard we have been fortunate in having the assistance of a considerable number
of able club organizers, many of them ex-club members. Representative of the University of British Columbia, the Dominion and Provincial Departments of Agriculture
have contributed generously to the work. The Vancouver Exhibition, co-operating with
the Chilliwack Agricultural Association and the Armstrong Exhibition Association,
have done much to assist the development of the work.
BEEF TEAM.
BEEF TEAM.
jT
w
MS
Pilifii
If
Alvin Wiley.
::''::^'-W^0&-SMi?%^
Terrance Lougheed.
REPORTS OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS.
PEACE RIVER DISTRICT.
T. S. Crack, District Agriculturist.
After a very damp, cold, and long winter, the spring was late. The commencement
of seeding did not start until the end of April and was not general until the middle of
May, which was about ten days later than usual. There was plenty of rain up to June
20th with showers all through the remaining summer, making an ideal summer for
grain-growing. A little frost in some areas affecting the gardens was reported July
20th, but very little damage done. In some districts where the land is low the oats were
frozen before cutting, owing to the late harvest. The wheat averaged 30 bushels per
acre, average grade No. 2; oats averaged 60 bushels per acre and graded 2 C.W.;
barley averaged 40 bushels per acre and graded 2 C.W. A larger acreage of flax was
sown this year, averaging 12 bushels per acre, which is of very good quality. The
alfalfa and altaswede clover was very badly winter-killed. It turned out better than
originally anticipated, but the frost in the fall killed what seed was set. It is difficult
to say just what seed will be in the district, but am afraid very little for spring seeding. R 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Live Stock.
The following are the number of live stock shipped from Dawson Creek by the
Dawson Creek Co-operative Shipping Association up to November 30th, which represents approximately 75 per cent, of stock shipped, the remaining 25 per cent, has been
shipped by private buyers:—
Hogs  21,459
Beef cattle         928
Sheep  :       546
Veal calves   50
Baby beef         200
It is estimated that approximately 2,000 hogs and 100 head of cattle will be shipped
during December. There has also been an average of three cars per month shipped
from Tupper Creek.
Swine.
Several of the Swine Improvement Associations have been revised under the
Dominion-Provincial Brood Sow Policy. Recently nineteen registered boars were
brought in, some for new associations and some for reorganized. An increased number
of about 20 per cent, more hogs were shipped to Edmonton from this district than in
1942.
Sheep.
I am sorry to have to report that several sheepmen have had to dispose of their
flocks owing to losses due to the wolves and coyotes. These animals have been worse
this year than ever before and have done a considerable amount of damage. Only five
rams were brought in under the Dominion Ram Policy.
Cattle.
Three Live-stock Improvement Associations were organized and three registered
bulls shipped in last spring through the Dominion Live-stock Improvement Policy.
A few more farmers have been buying females from registered herds. Dr. Thompson,
Veterinary Surgeon from Kamloops, visited the district around the middle of September for the purpose of testing cattle for T.B. This proved to be a poor time of the
year for this work as all farmers were busy harvesting; consequently, very few cattle
were tested.    All live stock throughout the district are in a healthy condition.
Warble-fly Control.
The sixth year of this treatment was not so well organized as in previous years,
owing to the shortage of help and lack of transportation for men going around the
district. I have not yet received a complete list of reports, but a lot of cattle were
tested and several verbal reports are that very few warbles were found.
Fall Fairs and Flower-show.
These were all discontinued until after the war when, it is hoped, they can be
reorganized and get more interest in the organizations. It was thought better to discontinue them while still in good standing rather than let them drop out altogether.
They should all be easy to start up again when desired.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
One Beef Calf Club and one Potato Club were organized last spring and carried
through to completion. Both these clubs were very successful, much interest being
shown by the competitors. Two Alfalfa Clubs were organized, which have every
appearance at the present time of being successful. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 103
Field Crops.
The following quantities of stock seed was shipped into the district from the
University of British Columbia: 800 lb. of Red Bobs wheat, 1,800 lb. of Victory oats,
and 200 lb. of flax. There was also a large quantity of registered grain brought in and
sown last spring.
Farm Labour.
It was a hard problem to get sufficient help for spring work and it had every
appearance of being the same for harvest and threshing this fall, but on August 10th
a meeting of all interested farmers was called and an Agricultural Production Committee organized. A list of men needed by farmers was kept in this office and men
requiring work were sent here by the Selective Service, Dawson Creek. By this means
we were able to place men where required and got by without any great hardship on
any one.
Bees.
A large number of 3-lb. packages of bees were brought into the district last spring
but reports show they did not do very well, owing, no doubt, to the lateness of the
spring and the cold weather during the honey-flow. Most bee-keepers are trying to
keep their bees over the winter.
Threshers' Reports.
There are 109 threshing-machines and sixteen combines in this district. Up to
date have only received fifty-four reports.    The following are the returns to date:—
Bushels.
Spring wheat  355,333
Oats    614,529
Barley  116,408
Flax   12,820
Rye   300
Lb.
Sweet clover      12,946
Brome-grass       2,000
General.
There was a considerable shortage of potatoes last spring. Several of the merchants had a few car-loads shipped in in April. Egg prices were better during the
summer than ever before. Up to the end of November no snow had fallen and the
weather has been exceptionally mild. Farmers throughout the district are in a prosperous condition. Live stock are going into the winter in good shape with plenty of
feed on hand to carry them through. Summer-fallow has been well worked during the
summer.    General agricultural production has increased over previous years.
BULKLEY AND SKEENA DISTRICTS.
S. G. Preston, M.Sc, District Agriculturist.
The growing season of 1943 has been an extraordinary mixture of good and bad
growing conditions with indifferent weather for haying and harvest. The ultimate
results show a poor yield of hay and seed crops, fair yields of cereal crops with probable low germination, and fair garden and root crops. Eventually threshing was completed and a late spell of fine weather enabled the farmers to get much of the fall R 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
cultivation completed.    The cattlemen have disposed of some quantities of breeding
and young stock for reason of the hay shortage.
Live Stock.
Beef.—An improved quality is noted in beef stock marketed this year. The work
of the past few years is beginning to show results from the use of better grade bulls.
Not only have a few better quality bulls been purchased from outside, but there is
a more intelligent exchange of sires than previously. During the past year there have
been shipped in from Kamloops, Armstrong, and the Coast two Hereford bulls, one
Shorthorn, and three Red Polls. In addition, the Dominion Experimental Sub-station
at Smithers has in the past three years placed eleven fine dual purpose bulls of their
own breeding.
The amount of stock shipped out of this district during the past twelve months
shows an increase in beef production in the district. Further, toward an improvement
in class of beef stock produced in this district, the animal sale at Kamloops has offered
an outlet for the poor quality types for which there was formerly no market and thus
removed them from this district as potential breeding stock.
It is hoped eventually to conduct some work on finishing of beef cattle for sale
during the winter. Due to the indifferent supplies of feeds available this year, it did
not appear an appropriate time to initiate this work.
Dairy.—Returns from the creameries indicate there has been a general falling-off
of butter-fat production. This can be attributed to shortage of help and relatively
higher price of beef. Some increase is shown in the whole-milk sales but this has
been more than counterbalanced by the lower amounts sent to the creameries. In addition, by the use of the dual purpose Shorthorn and Red Poll bulls, the producers are
able to market their young stock as beef, rather than producing butter-fat if they are
short of help.
Sheep.—The sheep situation remains practically stationary. No great expansion
can be expected as long as the danger from wolves, coyotes, and bears continues. The
Oxfords and Hampshires are the favourite breed. Two " McClughan " Oxford rams
have been brought in this fall and several Hampshires from the Dominion Experimental Station at Prince George. Good Suffolk rams to meet the requirements were
traded or obtained locally.
Swine.—The production of hogs is rather unsteady. At present it is on the
increase, but should there be a further increase in feed costs without a relative raise
in pork prices, a slump in production can be expected. Some twenty sows were brought
into the Bulkley Valley in the spring under the Dominion-Provincial Brood Sow Policy.
These have turned out to be an exceptionally fine lot and the litters were better than
average.
Shipments of hogs from Central British Columbia during the past two years are
not indicative of an increase or decrease in hog production. Local consumption of
pork has greatly increased due to military and construction activities at Prince Rupert,
Terrace, Smithers, Vanderhoof, and Prince George. On the whole, there is evidence
of a steady, though not great, increase in production for the past three years.
Horses.—A survey has been made this year of the stallions in the district. The
results show: Percherons, six (three registered); Belgians, eight (two registered);
Clydesdales, five (two registered) ; and Morgan, one (grade). Horses are in demand,
but not excessively so. It is found that tractors, while not necessarily more economical
of operation, take less man-power and are becoming increasingly popular.
Diseases and Pests of Live Stock.—This district is relatively free of either diseases
or insect pests affecting live stock. There are occasional reports of swamp fever,
hemorrhagic septicaemia, etc., but as there is no resident veterinarian these cases DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 105
cannot be authenticated.    A few cases of photosensitization were observed this year
on light coloured Shorthorns from the Francois and Ootsa Lakes Districts.
The chief insect pest is the warble, which is widespread, but never in very great
numbers. Some 25 lb. of derris mixture was distributed to thirty-five farmers this
year. Reports are difficult to obtain, but on the average it is found that distribution
is fairly even between young and mature stock, except in the dairy herds, in cases
where the young animals are kept around home during the summer. Averages show
four or five warbles on mature animals, the same on young range stock and thirty to
forty on young dairy stock kept at home during the summer.
Field Crops.
Practically all thresher returns are in to date. Thus the report (Table 1) will
need little, if any, revision. Three or four new threshing-machines have been brought
into the district, making a present total of thirty-eight. As previously mentioned,
yields of hay and timothy seed were low this season, but cereal crops fair. Reduced
yields on perennial crops was due to heavy winter-killing and low rainfall in May and
June (Table 4).
Grain-crops were generally late this year and were caught by September frosts.
This hastened maturity but resulted in considerable shrinkage of the grain and no
doubt has adversely affected germination. Efforts were begun this month to locate
sufficient supplies of seed-grain for next spring.
Much of the loss of legume-crops through winter-killing will be made up by next
year through new seedings, natural reseeding, and some recovery of stands subject to
winter-injury. Farmers were advised to reseed and make new plantings as heavy
winter-killing is unusual. Farmers of this district are convinced that locally grown
legume-seed gives them more complete and hardier stands. It is quite possible this is
correct. Over a period of years the less hardy types will be eliminated, and especially
after the severe condition of the 1942-43 winter, this should be particularly true. The
newly named variety of alfalfa " Ferax " was introduced a few years ago under its
identification number. The grower threshed a few pounds of seed this year after
taking off a crop of hay.
Considerable interest was shown in sugar-beet production and there were numerous applications for the circular on extraction of syrup. The crop was very light,
however, as a result of a cool growing season and shortage of moisture.
Several of the Field Crops Union plots were inspected. The Grimn and Ladak
alfalfa made a notable showing for the first year. Peas and flax were planted rather
late and were more or less of a failure, but indications are that, normally, if seeded
on higher ground, good results could be obtained from both. A trial with boron and
fertilizers is being conducted on a 1942 seeding of alfalfa in the Uncha Valley. The
boron was applied this fall. The fall rye was not inspected, but if seeded sufficiently
early and not pastured too heavily this fall, there is little to fear from the results of
this seeding.
A trip was made by plane from Fort St. James in company with members of the
Prince George Forest Service and the District Agriculturist to the scene of the 1942
forage seeding of the burned-over area north of the Stuart River Settlement. This
was a most interesting and instructive trip and, in addition to information on the
feasibility of such seedings by plane, a comparison of several grasses and legumes was
observed. To date the timothy and alsike-clover plots are outstanding. (Of unusual
interest was an albino red clover plant in full bloom.)
The use of commercial fertilizers is becoming increasingly popular. Numerous
inquiries are received regarding their use and application. A car-load shipment is to
be brought in during the winter. Assistance has been given in selecting those types
considered most suitable to local conditions. R 106 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Poultry.
Production of eggs is down this fall. While it is evident that chicks were obtained
later than usual and thus will not start laying much before Christmas, this does not
account for the late start of the year-old hens.
Many of the farmers are already putting in their orders for baby chicks for next
spring. The favourite breeds are New Hampshires, Leghorns, and Barred Rocks.
Some are practising crossing and obtaining outstanding results.
The turkey " crop " is about normal, so with a remunerative price in view the
turkey-raisers are confident of a good return from their efforts, despite some losses
through coyotes.
It has been possible to give advice on poultry-house construction in a number of
instances.    Professor E. A. Lloyd, of the University of British Columbia Poultry
Department, was able to make useful suggestions in solving the ventilation problem
during cold weather. TT
Horticulture.
Gardens.—In most cases town and country gardens were a reasonable success.
Insect pests were almost wholly absent this season. The growing season could not be
considered first-class but nevertheless all staple vegetables did well but would have
yielded heavier with more rainfall.
Lack of rainfall reduced potato yields also, but the quality was very good. Wire-
worms were evident in a number of cases and more than the ordinary occurrence of
blackleg was noted.
Strawberries were pretty well winter-killed from Terrace to, and including, the
Bulkley Valley. The light coloured Alaska's survived, however. Yields of raspberries
and currants were fair in the Bulkley Valley and excellent from Hazelton to Terrace.
Many of the raspberries show some degree of raspberry mosaic.
The experimental apple-tree plantings are inspected when possible. A few more
each year are coming into bearing, although there is a percentage of loss each season
through rabbits and mice. A few more people are now purchasing their own fruit-
trees and we have sufficient data on hand to suggest the hardier varieties.
Seed Production (Vegetable).—Some effort is being made to produce vegetable-
seeds, notably among the Dutch settlers at Houston. Some 25 acres of spinach were
inspected this year for certification, besides small lots of swede turnip, cabbage, and
radishes. The spinach is mostly harvested by pulling. This gives a fine weed free
sample and off types can be eliminated.
Assistance was given to the Dominion Seed Branch and Seed Potato Certification
Division in seed inspection of oats, barley, spinach, and other vegetable seed crops and
the second inspection for potato certification.
Markets.
Live Stock.—Local markets have paid during the past year, dressed weights, 15
cents to 21 cents per pound for beef, 16% cents to 21 cents for pork, and 21 cents to
27 cents for lamb. During the peak prices for lambs in the summer, the general price
was 25 cents by the retail butcher to the producer as the consumer would not buy lamb
at the higher figures.
On the outside markets late summer and November shipments have brought up to
$11.50 for steers and $13 for lambs (live weight). During the fall sales peak the high
prices were around $10.50 and $11 per hundredweight respectively.
The Central British Columbia Live-stock Association sale at Kamloops brought
for two-year steers, $5.75 to $10.10 per hundredweight, average $8.90; for yearling
steers, $6.75 to $9.10, average $8.94; for cows, $4.35 to $8.20, average $6.03; for
heifers, $5.70 to $10.10, average $8.56; for calves, $6.50 to $11.10, average $8.81; for
bulls, $6.60 to $7, average $6.80. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 107
Poultry.—Turkey for Christmas trade sold a year ago from 35 cents to 38 cents
per pound; roasting chickens from 30 cents to 35 cents. During the summer the
producers have obtained 25 cents to 30 cents on old hens and 35 cents to 40 cents on
fryers and roasters. It is expected that young turkeys this month will sell close to the
market price (producer to retailer, ungraded, at 36 cents per pound).
Dairy Products.—Butter-fat prices have followed the Dominion schedule. Whole
milk for local consumption is 14 cents per quart at Smithers, 15 cents at Prince
Rupert. Whole milk, wholesale price, to Prince Rupert is 90 cents per pound. Butter-
fat f.o.b. Prince Rupert (see Table 3).
Field Crops Products.—The retailers have been paying the producer $30 to $33
per ton for feed-grain, raised recently to $35. Hay (No. 1 timothy) sold f.o.b. railway
shipping-point, $23 per ton early in the fall, was raised to $25, then $27 per ton, and
recently some hay has moved at a price of approximately $29.50. The ceiling price
of hay has not been enforced in this district to date, and as there is practically no
surplus left, there may be no need of such.
Timothy seed prices have risen steadily and now offers in excess of 10 cents per
pound are being made. To date, approximately 160 tons have been marketed at prices
ranging from 8% cents to 10 cents per pound. An advance of 2 cents per pound has
been offered over the harvest price of 21 cents.
Junior Clubs.
Five Boys' and Girls' Clubs were in operation this season, consisting of two alfalfa
clubs, one beef club, one dairy club, and one swine club. A second beef calf club organized had to be disbanded for lack of membership.
Two members of the Uncha Valley Beef Calf Club took first place at the Provincial
Elimination Contests at Armstrong in their class. The team proceeded to Toronto for
the National Competitions. Ill-health of one member, while at Toronto, left the team
with a particularly low mark.
Miscellaneous.
Assistance was given in judging at the Prince George Fair, the Fort Fraser Fair,
and the Quick Women's Institute Fair at Round Lake. Classes which I judged were
field crops, field roots, vegetables, and dairy products, preserved fruits and meats.
Considerable care was given to exhibiting field crops and vegetables this year, but the
quality and number of exhibits were below par. Gardens and crops had not matured
sufficiently to make possible the selection of first-class exhibits.
As for the past two years all the help possible has been given to the Central British
Columbia Live-stock Association sale at Kamloops on October 7th. The sale was generally successful this year, but it was very difficult to get the large number of stock
contributed graded, weighed, and checked prior to the sale. The buyers demanded
reweighings on those lots not checked, and in the end a shrinkage of 2% per cent,
resulted. It would appear that the stock should arrive in Kamloops twelve hours
earlier than usual and that part of the management should be on hand at Kamloops at
least two days before the arrival of the stock.
A good deal of time has been devoted to applications for postponement from military service and the farm labour problem. Excellent co-operation has been provided
at all times by the Provincial Police in the matter of applications for postponement.
This matter, as well as farm labour, was discussed in detail at the convention of District Agriculturists at Victoria and Vancouver a year ago, and with the Honourable
the Minister of Agriculture at Prince George this fall.
The convention of District Agriculturists held at Victoria and Vancouver was the
means of securing much information of value in our extension work, and the personal
contact with the other officials of the Department of Agriculture gave added incentive
to the work to be carried out. R 108
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
As a final item, the proposed packing plant to operate at Prince George is worthy
of mention. A recent communication from Mr. Manning indicates that the plant is
still under construction and cannot possibly be in operation before the new year. One
would hesitate to conjecture as to the sources of live stock to keep a plant in operation.
Particularly does it seem unlikely that supplies can be obtained locally during the next
six months as practically all surplus beef, pork, and lambs have now been marketed
elsewhere. Thus the only possible source is Alberta, which does not appear practical
with ample packing-house facilities already existent in that centre.
Table 1.—Crop Estimates, 1943.    . Estimated Yields.
Spring wheat (bu.)   9,569
Fall wheat (bu.)          453
Oats  (bu.)   44,463
Barley (bu.)   12,967
Peas (bu.)          530
Rye (bu.)   30
Alfalfa (lb.)  1,000
Red clover (lb.)   2,000
Timothy seed (lb.) 	
Clover-timothy mixtures (lb.)
Meadow-fescue (lb.) 	
Creeping red fescue (lb.) 	
Spinach  (lb.)  	
558,512
38,631
1,200
200
4,000
Table 2.—Live-stock Shipments (Car-loads) 11 Months, inclusive, November, 1943.
Shipping-point.
Vancouver.
Edmonton.
Kamloops.
Cattle.
Sheep.
Cattle.
Sheep.
Cattle.
Sheep.
17
2
2
1
1     .
2
1
2
1
1
8
2
_..
1
9
2
4
1
5
1
2
Topley 	
Knockholt   —	
Barrett   - —
1
Telkwa  —      '
Smithers—  	
1
Terrace   	
	
26
4
10
23
Totals:   Cattle, 59 car-loads;   sheep, 8 car-loads.
Table 3.—Dairy Products.
The following table summarizes the approximate amount of butter-fat marketed
through creameries:—
Interior creameries
Nechako creamery ..
Totals	
Lb.
74,040
3,000
77,040
Whole-milk trade to Prince Rupert and Terrace 20,020
Totals	
Net Value.
$31,175.11
14,494.48
97,060       $45,669.59 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 109
Table 4.—Precipitation Records as supplied by Smithers Experimental Sub-station.
Month.
1943.        I        1942.                  1941.
1
1.13
0.63
1.68
1.91
1.36
0.62
0.94
0.79
3.14
2.37
1.32
1.21
0.93
1.86
0.63
1.15
2.21
1.10
0.87
2.47
1.64
Totals                                        	
8.27        |        11.62
10.07
13.99         1        16.19
16.8
NECHAKO AND PRINCE GEORGE.
James E. Manning, B.S.A., District Agriculturist.
The earlier months of the year were cold ones, and it was the fourth week in
April before any serious work was done on the land in any part of this district. Total
precipitation for the year was normal, but the rainfall came in some instances when
it could not be fully appreciated. Two cold snaps in February were separated by two
thaws, and it was during this month that the fall grain-crops, the alsike-clover fields,
and the hay-fields generally received the set-backs from which they did not recover.
By the end of May most of the grain-crops were in, and by this date the winter
damage to fall grains, clover-fields, and some alfalfa-fields was clearly seen. Many
such fields were ploughed up and other crops planted.
The Dominion programme of crop and live-stock requirements was passed on to
the farmers of the district at every opportunity, and it can be positively stated that
they responded to the call in a splendid manner. No ground was permitted to lie idle
that could produce crops, and more live stock was raised than in any other year.
Poor harvest weather in some parts of the district in August meant the eventual
loss of considerable alsike-clover seed, but the majority of the crops were harvested
in good condition and without much trouble, thanks to considerable help coming from
military sources. Before all the alsike-seed was harvested four seed-houses had their
representatives in the field to buy the crop, and by the end of October practically all
the crop had been sold and sent out of the district. The usual small quantities are
being held by the grower to supply local orders next spring.
Larger acreages of vegetables were planted than ever before, and most of the
crop has already been sold to the military camps located along this railway-line. The
quality of all these vegetables has been excellent and very little or no damage from
pests has been reported.
The third annual sale of live stock by the Central British Columbia Live-stock
Association was held in October and was well patronized by the whole of Central
British Columbia growers.
The unexpected closing of the Vanderhoof creamery at the beginning of the year
was a blow to the dairy industry generally and to the immediate district especially.
Although April and May were cool months, the season can be considered a normal
one until the middle of July, when followed a wet period which continued until the end
of August. The end of August was wetter than normal, and this interfered with the
harvests all over the districts, and resulted in the loss of most of the already depleted
alsike-clover seed-crop in Pineview and some at Vanderhoof. Three and one-half inches
of rain fell in August. The February thaws, followed as they were by very cold
periods, left the fields covered with an ice cap, and this is believed to have resulted in
the winter-killing of much of the fall-sown grains, and alsike-clover crop. R 110 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Field Crops.
Most of the land that suffered from winter-killing was resown to coarse grains,
but at Vanderhoof some of the farmers were fortunate in finding another crop to sow,
and good seed being supplied for the crop. In April, S. Thompson, of the Canadian
Canners, visited Vanderhoof, looking for suitable acreage on which to sow canning
peas. With the assistance of this office, farmers were found who agreed to sow 105
acres to Early Surprise peas and to ripen the crop. Seed was supplied them at 8 cents
per pound, and the crop, subject to germination tests, would be bought by the sponsors
on the basis of 5% cents per pound, No. 1 seed, f.o.b. Vanderhoof. The total seed
shipped out will be close to 60,000 lb., which is a little more than one-half of the estimate made in July when podding was well advanced. The crop will be repeated at
Vanderhoof next year, but with smaller acreage, and the same firm hopes to find enough
farmers in the Prince George District to grow acreage sufficient to produce a minimum
car-load of seed.
The coarse-grain crops yielded well in spite of some frost at Vanderhoof in August.
Some of these crops will be for sale, but it can be reported with assurance that more
grain will be fed this year to hogs than has been fed in previous years, leaving less
for sale outside the district. The Vanderhoof farmers and others in the Prince George
District still consider the Free Freight Assistance Policy reacts against them, and are
trying to get some measure of assistance that will place them on the same basis as the
prairie farmer as growers of grain.
The alsike-clover seed-crop will be from one-third to one-half of the 1942 crop,
when the largest tonnage the district has produced was safely harvested and sold at
good prices. First-class yields were obtained at Salmon Valley, Reid Lake, and parts
of Vanderhoof. Fair yields at Woodpecker and Strathnaver, with little or none in the
Pineview District owing to winter-killing, followed by wet harvest weather in August
and September. At the time of writing this report there is still considerable acreage
to be threshed at Vanderhoof, and as some of this is still in the fields we can expect
that all of it will not be threshed until in the spring. The twenty threshermen's
reports already in the office show 68,000 lb. of alsike-seed and 43,400 lb. of timothy and
alsike mixtures threshed. It is estimated that another 30,000 lb. of pure seed and
mixtures might yet be forthcoming when the complete returns are in, which would
place the total crop at approximately 145,000 lb. The price at which the crop was sold
was from 20 to 23 cents for No. 1 seed at shipping-point, an increase from 1 to 2 cents
per pound over last year's crop. There are fifty threshing-machine operators in District C, three of these men using both combine and the ordinary threshing-machine.
Summarizing the machines, there are nine combines and forty-four threshing-machines.
There are four seed-cleaning machines in the district, which are located at McBride,
Woodpecker, Pineview, and Vanderhoof. All these machines are used in the spring to
clean the seed-grain to be sown, but only the Woodpecker machine is likely to handle
any of the alsike and timothy seed produced this year. Most of this district's seed
was bought on the farm under an arrangement whereby the cleaning would be done
at the purchaser's own plant; consequently, there-were few, if any, "export certificates " issued to local farmers.
Vegetables.
The vegetable-crop will be the largest yet produced in the district. Largely in
response to the call for greater production, larger acreages of potatoes, cabbage, carrots, and turnips were planted, and the resulting crops have been very good. The
market for most of these will be the army camps, the bulk of the remainder going to
construction camps. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 111
Fibre Flax.
One small plot of fibre flax was sown in the Salmon Valley area, and a sample of
the fibre as well as the seed was sent to the Field Crops Commissioner, who reports
the quality of the sample was surprisingly good.    The plants were over 3 feet long.
Live Stock.
More live stock was shipped to outside markets than in any previous year, partly
from necessity owing to shortage of roughage and partly in response to the call for
greater production. The following table will show the amount of stock shipped out
and the points from which the shipments were made:—■
Shipping-point.
Destination.
No. of
Cattle.
No. of
Sheep.
No. of
Hogs.
Kamloops "       _
Kamloops _	
Kamloops	
Kamloops	
Kamloops.__  	
Kamloops.  	
Kamloops	
Kamloops.. .._ __	
12
33
29
28
136
58
64
38
73
55
66
59
685
111
150
77
131
94
26
52
33
153
783
Kidd                   -	
41
6
Edmonton  .	
Edmonton .	
1,925
1,021
47
Carloads: Kamloops, 18; Vancouver, 50; Edmonton, 12; and Prince Rupert, 1.
Total, 81 car-loads.    Via C.N.R., 75 cars, and via P.G.E., 6 cars.
Shipments for 1942:   28 car-loads of cattle and 3 car-loads of sheep.
Undoubtedly, the trend is towards producing stock of the beef type. Among the
shipments that went to market were many animals of dairy type, indicating a falling-
off of interest in dairying. Vanderhoof and Prince George areas especially were heavy
shippers of this latter type of animal, and it is anticipated that there will be a greater
shortage of fluid milk and cream for butter next spring than exists at present. A distinct shortage in these commodities is already to be noted.
Some of the better beef herds in the district are supplying selected young bulls
for breeding purposes to other farmers. Some of these are registered, and the breeds
in demand are Angus, Shorthorn, and Hereford.
Hogs.
There are more hogs being produced in the district than ever before, although the
table of shipments would not indicate this.
When the call went out for more hogs last spring the Farmers' Institutes and some
other organizations got together and made plans to increase production of this class
of live stock. The Prince George Board of Trade drew up a scheme, with the help of
this office, whereby the farmers in the immediate district would enter one or more
brood sows and their litters in competition with one another.    Substantial prizes were R 112 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
offered, based on the number of and the quality of the litters. Seemingly, there were
insufficient brood sows in the area, the competition languished, and the scheme dropped.
In the Vanderhoof area there are at least four men who have herds of pigs well in
excess of 100, and there are as many farmers in or near Prince George whose herds
number from fifty to seventy-five head.
The tremendous increase in the district's population during the past eighteen
months has increased the demand for all kinds of meat, and so the majority of the
hogs raised have been sold to local butchers or direct to construction and logging camps.
With the large increase in hog production as noted above, we can expect to see car-load
shipments of hogs going to outside markets again in the near future.
Central British Columbia Live-stock Association Sale.
The third sale of this organization was held at Kamloops in October. District C
patronized the sale to the same extent as in previous years by shipping about 40 per
cent, of the stock shipped from Central British Columbia.
Central British Columbia Packing Company.
This company is building a small packing plant on the Fraser River, about 3 miles
south of Prince George. From information given by the plant's promoter from time
to time we expected to see the business operating long before this, but at the time of
writing, it is not operating.
The building is roughly 85 feet square, and the plans suggest the plant will operate
as an abattoir only, at least for some time. The capacity of the plant's cooling and
chilling system is for eighty beef carcasses, and the promoter considers they will
butcher cattle for three or four days a week and hogs one day per week. This plant
will be reported upon as it develops.
Warble-ply Control.
The Pineview farmers treated their cattle for the sixth year in succession. Two
hundred and fifty head were treated and reports show an average of one warble found
per head treated.
At McBride the second annual treatment was carried out and nine warbles per
head was the average found. It is hoped that the area covered in this district will be
enlarged another year, as it is obvious that warbles are to be found in altogether too
large numbers.
Horticulture.
In years past, the Department has supplied a considerable quantity of fruit-trees
to the farmers, and these were distributed over all parts of the district.    A fairly close
check on these trees discloses that the following varieties are doing well:—
At Fort Fraser—
Apples:   Duchess, Blush Calville, Yellow Transparent, Greening, Haralson.
(All these are bearing a good quality of fruit.)
Crabs:  Osman, Olga, Dolga, Rescue.    (All bear fruit, some of them heavily.)
Plums: Aparta.    (Bearing well.)
Cherries:  Tom Thumb and Assineboine.    (Hardy and bearing.)
At Woodpecker—
Crabs:  Hyslop, Robin, Florence.    (All bearing well and hardy.)
Apples (large):  Duchess, Blush Calville, Haralson.    (All producing well.)
Plum:  Oppata.    (Bearing well.)
Pears:  Not doing well.    Most of the trees having been winter-killed.
The above varieties are recommended as likely to do well in all parts of this district. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 113
Small fruits, such as raspberries, currants, and strawberries, are grown by most
farmers, and some fruit is being sold in commercial quantities. All of the currants
need to be sprayed regularly, as they are becoming affected with maggot.
Gardens.—Victory Gardens were planted everywhere, both in town and country,
and the gardens were very good. Most of the schools had garden competitions, and at
least 75 per cent, of the projects were successfully terminated. In the Prince George
and Woodpecker Districts the District Agriculturist, at the request of various organizations, twice inspected seventy-five children's gardens and selected the winning plots.
The sponsors for these competitions were School Boards, Parent-Teacher Associations,
and Women's Institutes. __
Bees.
The district has been interested in bee-keeping for a number of years, primarily as
a means of improving the alsike-clover seed-crop, but of late the interest was stimulated
in the expectation of a resulting honey-crop.
Under the auspices of the District Farmers' Institute, this office supervised the
bringing-in of over 200 3-lb. packages of bees from Petaluma, California. At the same
time T. Tobiasen, of the Experimental Station staff, assembled a co-operative order for
bee equipment which totalled something over $1,100. Both bees and equipment were
distributed from Dunster, in the eastern end of the district, to as far west as Fraser
Lake. These bulk shipments assured the bee-keepers their supplies at a time when
all supplies were scarce.
The honey-crop was a failure, and an average of 20 lb. per colony was not exceeded.
Individual hives produced well over 100 lb., but many hives produced nothing at all.
Honey was produced by the bees in July and August, but in many cases, when the
hives were examined in early September, it was found that the bees had been feeding
off the supers. Many new bee-keepers lost their interest at once, and there were some
cheap bees for sale by the end of September. A good many of the older bee-keepers are
attempting to winter their colonies, and from the present mild weather we can expect
they will have some success.*
An organization, known as " District C Bee-keepers' Association " has been formed,
and it is expected that it will take care of all orders for bees and equipment in the
future. Already orders for bees are being received by this office, but the inquirers have
been directed to the new Association. This office will give every assistance to the
Association, but does not intend to take charge of an order for bees or equipment.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
A particular effort was made this year to increase the number of Boys' and Girls'
Clubs to the limit of what the district could stand. Now that the work is almost
completed it is in order to .say that possibly the programme was a little too ambitious,
in view of the fact that so many extra things had to be attended to during the year.
A total of twenty clubs was in operation, with a membership of 175, summarized
as follows:  Alfalfa, 2;  swine, 2;  calf, 3;  poultry, 13.
Vanderhoof District—
Poultry, 4; swine, 1; alfalfa, 1; membership     53
Woodpecker-Hixon—
Baby-chick, 2;  swine, 1; calf, 1; membership     38
Beaverley—
Calf, 1;  membership       7
Salmon Valley and Pineview— ,
Poultry, 3; calf, 1;  alfalfa, 1;  membership    46
Ferndale and Giscome— .
Poultry 3;   membership     31
Total  175 R 114 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The difficulty this year was to find time to properly supervise and inspect the
clubs, as they were widely scattered. The organizers were busy men, and so unable
to give as much time as they normally would have wished. In the end every club was
inspected at least twice, and some more frequently. Total prizes distributed this year
amounted to $362.
Weeds.
The destruction of Canada Thistle and other noxious weeds was carried out on
a fairly large scale by the Nechako Farmers' Institute at Vanderhoof. The Institute
purchased several drums of Atlacide and sold it to members at cost. The two pumps
belonging to the Department were loaned and the District Agriculturist assisted.
Assistance was also given to the Fort Fraser Institute who undertook to control
the infestation of Canada Thistle on a farm at Fraser Lake. The materials and some
of the labour costs in this special case were supplied by the owner who resides in
Victoria.
It is pleasing to report that the Canadian National Railway co-operated with this
office in destroying weeds on the right-of-way. This summer they sent a special weed-
killing unit through the entire district, which sprayed the main line and most of the
sidings as well.
It is expected that the village of Fort St. James will undertake to control the
growth of Canada Thistle, which is at present infesting the settlement.
Cattle-lick.
A large cattle-lick was discovered near Fraser Lake, and the circumstances reported
to the Field Crops Commissioner. In September, at his request, a survey of the area
was made and samples of the earth taken, which were sent in with a plan of the ground.
Soldier Labour.
This district did not obtain any soldier help through the Emergency Farm Labour
Service. As there were soldiers available in this area, the Director of the Service
agreed that we make whatever arrangements would satisfy our conditions and circumstances. After a series of interviews with Headquarters, a plan was formulated that
allowed farmers to get soldiers for periods of four days, and as many as they needed.
The farmer received an order from this office, which asked that a certain number of
men be permitted to accompany the farmer, who would supply transportation both
ways and pay each man $2.50 per day and board. The soldier also received his regular
pay. The farmer frequently asked for an extension of leave for his men, and invariably
it was granted. It was a wonderful service and it meant that the crops were saved
when otherwise they might not have been. Not only was the grain harvest handled,
but soldiers were available when the root-crop was being dug. The quality of the labour
supplied was of the best, and all farmers have stated their complete satisfaction with
the arrangements.
Inspection of Seed Plots near Vanderhoof.
In June, 1942, approximately 40 acres of burned-over land was seeded to various
grasses and clovers by members of the Forest Branch at Prince George and the District
Agriculturist.
At the end of August of this year an opportunity was given to inspect the results
of the seeding. S. G. Preston, of the Smithers office, and the writer went in by plane
with representatives of the Forest Branch and made the inspection the same day.
Timothy, alsike clover, red clover, reed and meadow fescue, wild rye, orchard, and
brome were planted, and it was found that good germination had taken place in all
varieties other than the brome-grass, which was almost a complete failure. A complete
report on the findings has gone to the Field Crops Commissioner. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 115
CARIBOO AND LILLOOET.
C. F. Cornwall, District Agriculturist.
The season of 1943 has not been favourable in so far as weather is concerned.
The spring was cold and drawn out and followed a long and hard winter. Growth was
very backward and it was late in the spring before it really got started. At the end
of May vegetation was at least three weeks behind normal.
During June there were several good rains, the weather warmed up, and growth
was rapid from there on. The weather remained unsettled during the summer, with
the resultant difficulty of harvesting crops. A killing frost was experienced on September 1st. The fall has been beautiful and extended till late November. This has been
a direct benefit in many respects.
Field Crops.
Reports from outside would indicate that this district was one of the few to be
favoured with normal crop production, and, while in some instances they were light, for
the most part average crops were harvested.
Haying operations commenced the end of June and continued on into October.
A good deal of hay was spoiled during harvesting due to continual stormy weather.
However, in spite of this and the shortage of labour, most ranches succeeded in getting
all their tame hay up.
Wild and swamp hay in many instances had to be left standing due to the fact that
the land did not dry out sufficiently to get the hay off. Any live stock that it will be
necessary to sell over and above the annual turn off will be for fear of a repetition of
last winter, and also for fear of a shortage due to depletion of hay reserves from
previous years.
Hay-crops, owing to the late season and further delayed by the wet weather and
shortage of labour, were late in being harvested, with the result that there is a good
deal of poor quality hay and a product that will have lost an appreciable percentage of
its nutritional value, as much of it was overripe before cutting, and, again, much was
spoiled by continuous rain after harvesting had commenced. It is only reasonable to
believe that this hay will be lacking in Vitamins A and D and should be fed with a
supplement, if live stock are not to be predisposed to disease.
Some winter-killing was suffered last winter in alfalfa, particularly in the area
north of Williams Lake.    On some farms, 25 to 50 per cent, was killed.
Grain-crops on the whole were average to former years, but were late and uneven
in ripening.
Vegetable-crops were lighter in yield and not up to the usual quality of former
years. Most growers estimated about a 50-per-cent. potato-crop, with a large percentage of undersized tubers.    The cold, late season was no doubt responsible for this.
Corn.—Only one test plot of Hybrid corn was planted this year. The varieties
were planted late, and due to the cold season and early frost, no test for dry-matter
content was made.
Fertilizers.
In the Quesnel District great interest has been shown and successful experiments
have been made with commercial fertilizers. In many cases the use of fertilizer has
become a regular farm practice and it is encouraging to see the increasing interest.
The practice of sowing fall rye in the spring as a cover-crop for the finishing of
beef cattle in the fall was proven very beneficial, and the cattle turned off were comparable to grain-fed stock and have brought equally good prices.
A 35-acre plot of crested wheat-grass in the Dog Creek District has proven capable
of carrying more live stock per acre than the native bunch grass. Advice is being
given to live-stock owners to supplement their range feed by reseeding with this grass. R 116
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Live Stock.
The beef industry has had a very successful year, prices have been good, and the
market has been active throughout the year. Many cattle moved to market this year
before they were justly finished, partly due to the wet summer and the range feed did
not harden off until fall.
Beef cattle on the whole are steadily improving in quality and finish, and much
credit goes to the Department of Agriculture for their educational programmes in
improved breeding, improved nutritional standards, and educating producers in the
treatment and control of disease.
The total number of cattle marketed from this district for the year 1943 will be
a little in excess of 18,000 head. This compares with 17,551 head in 1942, 20,318 head
in 1941, and 14,528 head in 1940.
The annual feeder and bull sale conducted by the Cariboo Live-stock and Fair
Association in conjunction with the Cariboo Cattlemen's Association was again a great
success. Some 2,451 head of cattle were sold through the sale ring by auction for a
total of $209,702.86. Average price for steers was $10,095 per 100 lb.; heifers, $8.99
per 100 lb.;   cows, $6.19 per 100 lb.
Ninety-five bulls were sold for a total of $27,030. Top priced Hereford bull
brought $575, and the average price for Herefords was $293.35. Top price for Shorthorns was $320 and the average price $209.50. Five registered heifers were also sold,
the highest price being $190 and the average price $176.
The following table shows the average prices and weights of different kinds of
cattle for each month of the year. It is interesting from a point of view of profitable
marketing, as well as comparative value:—
Steers.
Month.
Average
Price per
Head.
Average
Weight per
Head.
Average
Price per
100 Lb.
January..:     :....	
March   	
April    	
May    	
July    	
August    	
September   	
October   	
November    	
Average for year, excluding December..
$104.05
113.00
93.62
133.74
122.69
112.13
102.52
97.20
104.17
$101.76
Lb.
1,041
1,005
770
1,137
1,083
1,011
1,005
974
1,025
994
$10.00
11.26
12.16
11.75
11.325
11.09
10.20
9.98
10.16
$10.24
Heifers.
$95.68
99.60
90.405
78.74
66.31
78.69
Lb.
814
924
855
801
765
856
$11.75
9 83
$75.27
804 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 117
Cows.
Month.
Average
Price per
Head.
Average
Weight per
Head.
Average
Price per
100 Lb.
January      ... 	
$59.21
100.08
93.42
94.36
78.57
68.58
61.07
49.45
Lb.
990
1,251
1,080
1,082
1,034
1,100
1,079
1,007
$5.98
8.00
May   .'.     	
8.65
•Ti.lv                             	
8.72
7.60
6.235
October  .   .                      .   ..
5.66
4.91
$62.79
1,057
$5.94
Note.—Above fijures, which were computed from books of the Cariboo Cattlemen's Association, are not audited.
Diseases.
A few small outbreaks of disease have been recorded, and assistance by the Department has been given in each case.
Actinobacillosis has been the most serious in its persistence. Fortunately, it is
confined to only one area. Nine head of infected animals were shipped to Vancouver
for slaughter and examination by Dr. Bruce, Animal Pathologist. Dr. Bruce and Dr.
Gunn, Live Stock Commissioner, are working for a more effective control of this disease
than the one now prescribed.
Ccccidiosis.—Some forty to fifty head brought in from the Anahim Lake District
were sold as feeders and stockers to local ranchers. Of this bunch, 80 per cent, showed
symptoms of coccidiosis. The outbreak, no doubt, was due to the long drive and" the
frozen grass consumed en route. All responded to treatment, with the exception of
three fatalities.
Necrotic Stomatitis.—Ten or twelve cases reported and investigated in the Lone
Butte and North Bonaparte area.    All recovered with only two fatalities.
Swine.
The production of hogs for the most part in this district is carried on in small
numbers, and are sold to one of the three large producers in the Soda Creek area upon
reaching the 100-lb. class. Over 5,000 hogs will go to market from the district this
year.
Serious complications in disease and nutrition broke out during the latter part of
the summer and a call for assistance was met by the Department of Agriculture, when
competent men were sent in for investigation. A plan of treatment and control was
laid down and has proven to be effective, and the trouble has subsided.
Sheep.
The area east of the Cariboo Road is more favourable to the production of sheep
than cattle, but the producers are, unfortunately, confronted with high losses by predatory animals, and this fact alone discourages any interest in increasing their flocks.
The fencing of cultivated pastures is the only solution, and at present materials are
difficult and expensive to obtain.
Dairying.
It is the general consensus of opinion among farmers that it does not pay to ship
cream to the creameries when taking into consideration the price of beef as against
that of butter-fat.    Many farmers ship cream only during the months they are able to R 118 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
pasture their cows, and assert that it does not pay them to feed their cows with
butter-fat at 42 cents a pound.
The Williams Lake creamery reports shipments of cream have fallen off considerably since October as compared with 1942. Their approximate total production from
January 1st to November 30th is 43,000 lb.
Poultry.
Prices for both eggs and dressed poultry have been very encouraging to producers,
with the result that more care and interest is being given to this part of the farm-work.
In the Quesnel and Kersley Districts, poultry plays an important part of the farm programme. However, other parts of the district are also taking advantage of the
profitable prices of to-day.
Warble-fly.
The control programme against warbles was carried out quite extensively, particularly along the Cariboo Road, where about 95 per cent, of the ranchers co-operated in
the work. Organization is progressing to bring outlying parts of the district into this
control programme.
Marketing.
With the exception of one or two individuals who prefer to make their own transactions, all live stock from this district are marketed through the agency of the Cariboo
Cattlemen's Association. The agency is kept well posted on current prices and market
activity. It is competent in the grading of stock and is, therefore, better able to deal
with the buyer than the producer who, in many cases, does not have the opportunity to
be as well informed.
The members of the Association are well pleased with their progress and much
credit goes to these men who lead the way in British Columbia in organizing the
producers of live stock.
The producers of British Columbia have purchased the stockyards at Vancouver
to assure an outlet for live stock on the open market, should packer prices become
unfavourable at any time.
Live stock sold through the agency this year will be well in excess of $1,000,000,
an increase of some $200,000 over 1942. Organizing of live-stock producers in outlying
districts is a project now under way. The lack of organization amongst sheepmen is
evidenced in their failure to market at opportune times.
Grasshopper-control.
A heavy infestation of grasshoppers was suffered throughout the whole district
this year. The hopper was not the usual Comnula pellucida and Melanoplus mexicanus
species commonly known on the range lands, but was a species that has been known
here for many years but never in numbers of threatening proportions. He is the
femur-rubrum species, known as the " red-legged hopper."
Considerable damage was done to crops in certain parts of the district and many
ranges suffered severely. The South Riske Creek Control Committee's expenditures
amounted to $278.16 and the Clinton Committee's expenses were $267.50. In both
areas, more control-work should and could have been done, but lack of efficient labour
to carry on terminated the work for this season.
The fear is expressed by E. R. Buckell, Dominion Entomologist, that next year
we may expect to see an infestation on a larger scale than experienced this year. Both
the above control committees are making preparations for next year's operations. Two
other districts—Empire Valley and Kersley—intend to apply to the Lieutenant-Governor
for the constitution of a control area. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 119
Labour.
The Williams Lake War Agricultural Production Committee, under the direction
and in conjunction with the Dominion-Provincial Emergency Farm Labour Service,
brought in sixty-five labourers to help with the harvesting of crops. The situation in
this district at the beginning of the summer appeared very drastic, and stockmen
visualized wholesale reductions in their herds for fear of there being insufficient hay
for winter feeding.
The effect of this outside labour being sent in was twofold in results. Firstly, the
men themselves accomplished a considerable amount of harvesting, and, secondly, the
moral effect on Indian labourers was in itself a tremendous contribution to the situation.
This Indian labour was holding out for $7 and $8 a day wages, and when men from the
Coast were sent 150 miles into the Chilcotin the Indian came down to earth.
Agricultural Production.
The plea made by the Minister of Agriculture last spring for the farmers to
maintain production has not gone unheeded. Despite the difficulties and obstacles
encountered in securing the necessities of production this has been accomplished, and
from among the commodities that were so essential to our war effort there are two from
this district that were actually increased—namely, beef and bacon.
KAMLOOPS AND NICOLA.
G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., District Agriculturist.
There is a definite increase in the number of beef cattle kept on the ranches and
farms of the districts of Kamloops, Nicola, and Ashcroft, in spite of the fact that some
operators had to sell off heavier this fall because of hay shortages. The number of
cattle shipped from the following points up to the end of October is shown below.
1943. 1942.
Kamloops  6,383* 4,894* (end of October)
Nicola  5,601 5,765 (end of October)
Ashcroft  2,302 3,415 (to end of year)
* These figures represent cattle originating in the district and not including cattle
shipped in from other districts for purposes of marketing them by auction. A further
1,111 head were shipped from Kamloops during November and approximately another
1,000 from the Nicola-Merritt District.
Prices throughout the year have been as follows:—
Month.
Steers.
Heifers.
Cows.
Heifers.
Cows.
January ..
February
March 	
April 	
May  	
$10.00
Early June  (grain-fed)   —	
Late June and early July 	
July 15th  (first grass steers)
August     	
September 	
October   (early)  	
October   (late)    	
12.00
11.50
11.50
11.00
10.50
10.00
$11.00
11.00
11.00
10.50
9.75
9.25
$10.00
10.00
10.00
8.75
7.25
7.00
(Jan.)
$8.75
8.25
11.75
9.00
9.75
9.10
9.10
9.10
10.00
9.00
8.50
8.50
8.50
$7.00
8.00
8.50
9.00
7.50
7.00
7.25
7.25 R 120
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Throughout November prices advanced one-half cent over all classes of cattle.
Feeder cattle during September and October sold at $8.50 to $9.50, depending on the
quality.
With a much prolonged feeding period during the winter and early spring of 1943,
hay reserves built up over a period of easy winters were depleted completely. Hay-
crops as a result of a cold backward spring yielded only approximately 50 to 75 per
cent, of a normal crop. Labour conditions were acute but were compensated somewhat by an excellent harvesting season.
Market cattle came off the ranges in good shape, particularly so in consideration
of the scarcity of grass in evidence everywhere but in the Nicola, where grasshoppers
did little damage. Winter ranges are still Bare of snow providing feed which will
compensate the short hay-supply.
There was an increase in the number of cattle put on feed during the winter of
1942-43. Approximately 1,700 head went into the feed-lots of the Nicola, Kamloops,
and Ashcroft Districts, the length of the feeding periods varying from a warmed-up
condition to a long period extending into May grass. Approximately 100 car-loads of
coarse grains were brought in under the Federal Freight Assistance Policy during
the year. As a light feed of grain will winter cattle much cheaper and more efficiently
under present conditions, some grain will be fed out this winter as a maintenance
ration to replace hay, which cannot be purchased. Some cattle were lost last winter
and spring from a weakened condition as a result of the severe winter, when a light
daily feed of grain would have saved them and paid the operators handsome dividends.
Many cattlemen are now adopting as a general policy the feeding of grains to wintering calves and find that losses on the feed-lot from disease and other winter troubles
are curtailed and, as well, more pounds of beef can be put on 2-year-old steers at
marketing time as a result.
There was a slight increase in the calf-crop over last year, with an average of
about 80 per cent. Again there has been much activity in the exchange of pure-bred
breeding stock. Quite a number of Hereford breeders from here attended the Alberta
breeding cattle sales and bought back their share of bulls and females to add to the
quality of the Hereford pure-bred industry. Several high-priced bulls were purchased
at the Calgary bull sale by commercial breeders of this district.
The twenty-fifth Provincial Bull Sale was another very successful event. The
long-standing highest price of $1,200 paid for a Shorthorn bull in 1921 was broken
this year by a Hereford contributed from Carstairs, Alberta, selling for $1,725 to the
Western Canadian Ranching Co.
Average.
Hish.
Prize.
Contributor.
Purchaser.
$13.68
13.68
14.12
16.96
437.73
275.00
262.66
$15.00
17.60
30.00
40.00
1,725.00
340.00
500.00
First
Champ.
Res. Gr.
Grand
Second
First
Champ.
O.K. Invest.
Safeway.
Spencer's.
Safeway.
Western Canadian Ranch.
D. Stewart.
Boys' and girls' bulls	
Ninety-five Hereford bulls	
Francis Bros. 	
R. Ballhorn ...	
R. Taylor    	
The Fifth Provincial Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale, held on December 1st
and 2nd, which spotlights the Boys' and Girls activities in beef clubs, was again highly
successful both as to prices received and the quality of cattle exhibited. A total of
sixty-two calves was shown by members of the North Thompson, Kamloops South, Westwold, and Armstrong Beef Calf Clubs and including a few non-club members from
outlying communities.
Average.
High.
Prize.
Contributor.
Purchaser.
$14.20
13.36
15.01
14.44
15.73
$15.50
16.70
50.00
34.00
20.00
Champ.
Champ.
Gr. Ch.
Res. Ch.
Champ.
Douglas Lake	
Frolek Ranch	
Earlscourt Farms
Lee Taylor	
The third annual Central British Columbia Feeder Sale was held on October 7th
with a total of 1,473 head of cattle and 823 lambs sold. Taking into consideration the
scarcity of hay on the ranches where cattle are generally fed, a very fair number of
these cattle were sold as feeders.    Most of the cows offered went east to Alberta.
A new sale was started at Okanagan Falls by the Southern Interior Stockmen's
Association, the date of which was September 30th. The bulk of the cattle offered
at this sale were in good condition and showed good breeding and therefore went to the
"packers for slaughter. Quite a number of smaller operators took the opportunity to
unload some of their cull material through the medium of this sale.
At the time of the fall sales, the prices slackened and this was reflected in the
prices received at these events. This condition was rather odd in view of the great
demand for beef by the consuming public, but packing firms were finding that because
of the shortage of labour on the killing floors cattle were piling up on them, and this
was aggravated more by the fact that larger numbers of cattle were being disposed
of owing to the lack of winter feed.
The following Beef Calf Clubs and Lamb Club and their membership and supervisors were organized during the spring of 1943:—
Name of Club. Members. Supervisor.
North Thompson Beef Calf Club  18 T. P. Wilson.
South Kamloops Beef Calf Club  11 Warner Philip.
Westwold Beef Calf Club  10 Charles Turner.
Westwold Lamb Club     7 Charles Turner.
Twenty calves were supplied in May of this year by the Diamond " S " Ranch,
Dog Creek, operated by David Spencer, Ltd., to the juniors of the Kamloops District
clubs as feeders for the 1943 Christmas Fat Stock Show. This ranch is to be commended for the support they are giving junior activities throughout the Interior.
At the time of the Christmas sale this year this ranch again supplied fifteen calves to
the Kamloops clubs to be fed for next year's sale. Fifteen calves were purchased
outright by the juniors of the Kamloops area. A new club is being formed in the
community north of Barriere and its leadership is being taken by W. Watt, Barriere.
There are thirteen prospective members for /this new organization, who already have
their calves. There is also a possibility of a club being formed in the Princeton area
under the leadership of Robert Taylor.
A total of 11,640 head of beef cattle with some dairy cattle was treated for
warbles in the spring of this year under the supervision of Dr. W. R. Gunn, Live Stock
Commissioner. This figure does not include the cattle treated experimentally by the
Animal Insect Division of the Dominion Entomological Branch. Alan Mail, formerly
head of this division, experimented with a power sprayer on some 250 head at E. M.
Hall's, Barnhartvale, the same number of head at Guichon Ranches, Quilchena, Hat
Creek Ranch, and the 100-Mile Ranch. Treatment in the Nicola and Ashcroft were
80 to 90 per cent, effective. That at the 100-Mile House was less efficient because of
mechanical reasons.    More work is being done in this line.    A power sprayer with two nozzles and good handling equipment can handle about 250 head in one and
one-half hours. An automatic currying device equipped with brushes and a small
reservoir containing medicated oil is now being advertised widely in the United States.
If practical, this would save labour and should destroy a bigger percentage of grubs by
cattle helping themselves daily to the treatment and catching the grubs at the right
time.
Sheep and Wool.
There has been a very slight decrease in the amount of wool produced in this
district because of the fleeces not being up to par in weight; 219,523 lb. were shipped
from Kamloops and district.
Lambing started towards the end of March, with results not so good as last year
owing to inclement weather. Ewes and lambs moved to the hills in early July, being
later this year because of the presence of snow on the sheep ranges. The sheep population seems to maintain itself at a fairly constant level, although this year a number of
smaller operators have gone out of the sheep business, primarily because of the labour
shortage, with other factors affecting the industry as well. There is a shortage of
winter feed and also there is the coyote and bear menace. The former seems to be
building up despite the high prices paid for its pelts.
Three car-loads of white-faced breeding ewes were brought in from the Prairies
this fall.    No rams were brought in.
There were 92 rams sold at the Provincial Ram Sale in Kamloops on October 2nd
with an average of $43.72. Breed averages are as follows: Thirty-three Suffolks,
$60.68; thirty-nine Hampshires, $36.79; eight Southdowns, $31.87; seven Rambouil-
lets, $28.93; one Cheviot, $25; two Lincolns, $25; one Dorset Horn, $27.50; three
Suffolk ewes, $48.83.
New ranges are slowly being opened up and tried. One case of lupin poisoning
occurred when over sixty head of ewes died on the trail to summer range. The ranges
opened up later and it happened that the lupin were in pod at the time of trailing the
sheep.
Swine Production.
There is a definite increase in the hog output of this district as reported by the
marketings during the year. Towards the close of the year with hog production costs
up and no further price advances, there was some dissatisfaction amongst the producers,
which may threaten production for 1944.
The movement of grain in from the Prairies under the Federal Freight Assistance
Policy has greatly stimulated better management and feeding of hogs. The percentage
of premium hogs is steadily improving. Rail-grading of hogs has encouraged economical swine production and to-day, unlike a few years ago, growers are producing on
a scientific basis, feeding hog protein concentrates with a view to marketing hogs at
six months of age.
Two bred Yorkshire gilts were brought in in August from Toronto. These gilts
are outstanding in type and several young boars have been sold from the litters. Quite
a number of boars were moved during the year. There has been some trouble with
gastric enteritis in baby pigs in some quarters and efforts are being made to change the
grounds.
Dairying Industry.
The shortage of help has caused the dairy industry much worry; however, there
has been an increase in butter-fat produced in the district.
Pastures were slow in getting started in the spring but were good by early summer
and remained so until late fall. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 123
Horses.
There was more activity in heavy horses this year because of the lumbering
industry. But, even with this demand, horses are hard to move generally. The Kamloops horse-breeding station was again operated this year with two stallions standing
for service. A third stallion was inspected but did not pass the test. There is a fair
demand for riding-horses.
Poultry.
More and more poultry-keeping is becoming a scientific endeavour, although there
still remains the small neglected poultry side-line of the stock ranches and farms more
for home consumption than for the market. The Federal Freight Assistance Policy has
helped the poultryman considerably. The lowest price of the year paid the producer for
eggs was 30 to 33 cents per dozen, while the high was 44 cents in November. Turkeys
brought 37 cents to the producer, with the supply not being too plentiful.
The Kamloops Poultry and Pet Association held their annual show on December 7th
and 8th with more entries than usual on display. Quite a number of birds were sent
from Coast exhibitors.
Field Crops.
The hay yields were about 75 per cent, of that of 1942 because of the cold, backward
spring. Alfalfa stands were killed out completely in some localities while in other
places killing appeared spotted. There is a growing belief that alfalfa is not killed by
frost but rather from drought. Indications are that if stands are well irrigated in the
late fall killing does not occur. Harvesting conditions were good for both first and
second crops. The first cutting was not made until the middle of June. Hay, because
of the shortage, sold at $30 to $35 per ton.
Grain-crops were not nearly up to normal in yield. The all-average was about
10 bushels per acre for dry farming. Some shrivelling of kernels took place in the
spring wheat, reducing the yield somewhat. Grasshoppers took this year's, fall planted
wheat as soon as it appeared and in some places took the second seeding.
Good quality wheat sold readily at $35 per ton f.o.b. on the car for distilling
purposes.
The potato yields were not up to par. The acreage was up about 30 per cent, over
that planted in 1942.
Corn and silage crops suffered at the beginning of the season but recovered during
the summer, yielding a good quality silage. Roots, particularly Swedes, did well
because of the long, open fall.
Seed-crops.
The alfalfa-seed stands of the Lillooet-Lytton Districts were badly riddled with
the red-legged species of grasshopper. Some stands were cut by 50 per cent, as a result
of the damage. Some stands which were untouched by grasshoppers were reported as
yielding only 100 lb. of marketable seed to the acre. At the time of writing figures
were not available on the final returns per acre and the total-threshed.
Grasshopper-control.
' Five committee meetings of the Nicola Grasshopper-control area were held during
the season and with the concluding annual meeting on October 30th. Expenditures
were as follows:— 1943. 1942.
Gross expenditure   $4,869.95 $1,945.28
Total assessable   $3,998.14 $645.28
Expenditures were up considerably, but not without good effects. The grasshopper
infestation increased tremendously everywhere in the Interior, and the Nicola, although
comparatively free as seen by the 1942 expenditures, showed a proportionate increase. R 124 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
But this increase did not result in any damage to the range or crops. The committee
sought to exterminate as far as possible the natural increase as a protection for the
future. There was a predominance of the red-legged species which is much more
difficult to handle than the roadside type. All other parts of the Interior were badly
infested with the same species. In many areas where an outbreak is not a common
occurrence, mechanical bait-spreaders would enable communities to control hoppers
very effectively.
SHUSWAP, REVELSTOKE, AND NORTHERN OKANAGAN.
H. E. Waby, District.Agriculturist.
Farm commodities have reached a higher level in prices than for a number of
years, but the profits to the farmers were reduced considerably owing to adverse labour
conditions, hay-baling charges, hauling charges, etc., and whilst the Farm Labour
Board helped to meet the labour shortage considerably the type of farm labour available
added considerably to the cost of handling and shipping.
Climatic Conditions.
The winter of 1942-43 was unusual and in some respects abnormal. Sub-zero
weather occurred, commencing about the middle of January and continuing until about
January 25th. Heavy snowfall during this period also caused considerable hardship,
delaying shipments of hay and live stock from a number of farms, thus causing a strong
demand for feed, and a shortage was in evidence for some time during the months of
January and February. Strong north winds accompanied the low temperatures of
January, which was unusual for this district. Sub-zero weather was also recorded for
the month of March, but owing to the early and heavy winter snowfall most of the
spring thaw, went into the soil and little or no run-off occurred.
The spring of 1943 was one of the most backward and unfavourable for many
years. Farm operations were retarded owing to land being too wet and cold. During
the months of April and May temperatures were unusually low, light frosts and high
drying winds were quite frequent, which resulted in poor germination and slow backward growth. No satisfactory growth was noticeable until the middle of June and
most crops showed the effects of one of our most unusually poor growing seasons. Late
seeded crops in some instances showed more promise.
Hay, Grain, and Root Crops.
Owing to the unusually poor growing conditions, first-cut alfalfa was unusually
light, especially in older seedings. Generally speaking, however, most farmers were
able to save their crop in good condition owing to unusually good haying weather.
It was quite noticeable that although fair weather conditions occurred after the first
cut of alfalfa, the second cutting was unusually light, and altogether it has proved one
of the poorest hay-crop years this district has experienced for some time.
Good grain-crops, however, were more general, although early sown crops were not
so good. Pea acreage has been much reduced in the Salmon Arm District, but crops
were up to average and prices appear to be satisfactory.
Most root-crop yields were up to average, except potatoes, which were slightly
lower than usual; prices are good and most crops moving out satisfactorily. Owing to
the long, open fall all crops have been harvested and hauling to market was not delayed
by bad weather conditions.
Live-stock Data.
In the early months of the year butter-fat shipments had increased over 1942
some 23,000 lb. to the Salmon Arm creamery, 562,000 lb. of butter so far being recorded DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 125
for this year. Unfortunately, however, this increase has been adversely affected by
the sale of quite a number of cows for shipment to Calgary and cream shipments have
dropped 4,000 to 7,000 lb. butter-fat in the last two months. This sharp drop is
attributed to feed shortage compelling farmers to sell cows that would otherwise be
carried. Pasture conditions were also exceptionally poor and the increase in butter-fat
in the early part of the season must, therefore, be attributed to an added interest by
farmers in dairying and retaining of more dairy cows, owing, of course, to improved
prices over former years. Mineral mixtures and concentrates are now freely used
and a reduction in sterility and milk fever, etc., is noticeable.
Beef Cattle.—Whilst Salmon Arm is not noticeably a beef-growing district, a few
breeders are in evidence and good prices have been obtained for all types of beef
animals. In the North Okanagan, however, quite a number of beef animals are raised,
with Hereford and Shorthorns predominating. Quite noticeable are the exceptionally
good junior beef calf clubs at the Interior Provincial Exhibition. No complaints are
now heard of buyers purchasing beef cattle at too low levels and breeders generally seem
well satisfied with present and future prospects. Here again, however, the feed shortage has had a bad effect, as too many cattle are being liquidated and a serious glut on
the market occurred during November. At the time of writing, however, the situation
seems to be easing somewhat.
Disease conditions appear to be below normal. Two calls were received in the
Salmon Arm District in which cattle had died suddenly. Unfortunately^ the first deaths
that were reported had been buried before being reported, three cattle died. When the
second case occurred the owner was instructed to leave the animal unburied until
contact could be made with the Provincial Veterniarian. Dr. Thompson was called at
Penticton and he promptly arrived to inspect the carcass and pronounced it hsemorrhagic
septicemia. All farmers have been advised to inoculate. One report of sudden death
and sickness was also received from the Notch Hill District. Dr. Thompson was asked
.to call but, at the time of writing, information had not been received as to the nature of
the disease.
.Swine.—Steady production of swine in all districts covered is to be noted; quality
has improved and a very substantial revenue is flowing into the districts of Salmon
Arm, Enderby, Armstrong, and Vernon. A number of good boars are constantly being
purchased and we are of the opinion that most breeding operations are being carried
on a sound basis. Whilst hog prices continue good, the recent sharp increase in feed
prices will necessitate careful handling and sound management if production is to be
kept up to past high levels. We should like, however, to add a word of warning; quite
frequent returns to shippers have shown T.B. readings. The writer was instructed to
investigate some of the reported cases, and following up our visits to breeders and
discussions with large buyers, veterinarians, etc., it would seem that there may be
opportunity for improvement in this matter by breeders having in mind that hogs need
warm quarters in which to sleep and lots of warm, dry bedding. Far too many hogs
are allowed to sleep on cold, bare ground which is often wet.
Horses.—Owing to labour shortage more tractors are being used and there does
not seem to be very bright prospects for any warranted increase in horse-breeding,
although a fair demand has been in evidence this fall for bush-work. Several car-lots
of horses were brought into Salmon Arm and Armstrong from the Prairie Provinces
and for the most part were sold at fair prices. N,o cases of sleeping sickness in horses
have been reported this year.
Poultry.—Poultry has had a reasonably good season, both for eggs and dressed
fowl; feed prices were such that sound practice in the poultry yards assured reasonable
returns. The situation does not look quite so bright for the coming season as the
recent, sharp increase in feed prices will necessitate careful handling and sound practice R 126 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
to insure good returns. Quite a number of calls for advice were received and numerous
troubles, such as worm infestation, nutritional and breeding problems were corrected.
Calls were also received from a number of turkey-breeders and some blackhead was
found in several flocks;  advice given and good results obtained in most cases.
A very successful winter poultry-show was held at Kamloops on December 7th and
8th and credit is due for the interest shown, and especially the good classes of utility
fowl, with good prizes allotted for same.
Blood-testing in this district has increased sharply and birds tested for 1943 have
about doubled those of previous years. Nearly all flocks tested are farm flocks and
the sale of hatching-eggs has added considerably to the revenue from farm poultry.
Flocks are widely scattered and in some instances an increase in numbers of birds
would make for more profitable production. About 50 per cent, of flocks tested were
free from reactors, mostly flocks that had tested in previous years. Considerable
improvement in condition of birds and buildings was noted over former years and good
results were expressed by a number of owners. One more approved hatchery has been
added in Salmon Arm. One lot of turkeys were tested,' and flocks were inspected from
Silver Creek, Salmon Arm, Enderby, Armstrong, Vernon, Lumby, Sugar Lake,
Okanagan Landing, and Kelowna.
Apiary Inspection and Demonstration.
A demonstration hive was established at Mount Cartier, in the Revelstoke District,
and several visits were made to this district by the Provincial Bee Inspector, and a keen
interest is shown in the above district in the work being done. Mr. Turnbull accompanied the writer in visits to the local bee-keepers and gave a lot of necessary information which, in some instances, was much needed. It is hoped that this district can,
with such advice and assistance, be readily made self-supporting in honey.
Rodent-control.
Pocket-gophers are receiving especial attention in this district and upwards of
1,000 lb. of poison-bait was sold, at cost, from the mixing-sheds in Kamloops.    Many
farmers expressed satisfaction at results obtained.    Several farmers are still worried
over the menace of Columbia ground-squirrel and find Cyanogas hard to obtain but,
generally speaking, previous years' work on this pest has proven so effective that most
districts are fairly free. _ _
Insect Pests.
Grasshoppers were quite bad in several districts for the first time and control
methods were advised with information given on supplies of poison-bait. Cutworms
appeared to be below normal in most districts. Several infestations of what would
appear to be an unusual occurrence of the black army worm, never before seen in this
district, were found; in one instance cleaning off 5 acres of alfalfa. An immediate call
was made for entomological advice and this pest will be closely watched next year. One
or two calls were received from the Revelstoke District of serious blight conditions on
spruce hedges, and this was also turned in to the proper officials. Rust conditions on
grain were very bad in this same district; in some instances leaving little grain to
harvest. An effort is being made to see if winter wheat would not be more advantageous to grow. _ __      '
Fertilizers and Test Plots.
Quite an increase is noted in the intelligent use of commercial fertilizers; upwards
of 155 tons being sold by the Salmon Arm Farmers' Exchange, an increase of 75 tons
over 1942. The Grindrod Farmers' Institute also has supplied to its members a considerable increase over former years, about 80 tons being sold consisting largely of
0-15-0 and 0-38-0, with the balance made up of a complete 4-10-10 and 2-16-6. This
Institute also supplied to its members seeds to the value of $800, and $350 worth of salt. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 127
Two tests were carried on with fertilizers and gypsum and both tests were made
with the co-operation of the Salmon Arm Farmers' Exchange and the Gypsum, Lime &
Alabastine Company of Canada, through its management at Vancouver and Falkland.
Both the above-named firms supplied the material for the tests. The fertilizer plots
were composed of: Plot 1, tankage; Plot 2, sulphate of ammonia; Plot 3, ammonium
phosphate and sulphate of potash of equal proportions; Plot 4, check. Plot 3 gave
considerably better results but the dry season did not, however, lend itself to conclusive
results from use of fertilizer. The gypsum results, however, gave an exceptional
surprise in that results were not only in two instances very noticeable but that these
results were obtained in so short- a time in such an unusually dry and abnormal season
and one of short fodder-crops generally. One test was on alfalfa sod, one on clover
with a barley nurse-crop, one on barley alone, and one on fodder corn. All were broadcast late in May and well worked into the soil at the rate of 2 and 4 tons per acre.
The alfalfa test gave surprising results. The second crop was cut the first week of
August and gave a good crop, with the check-plot not being worth cutting. The difference, however, was arrived at by cutting both plot and check. The test-plot cut
nearly thirty coils of good quality hay and the check only five coils. Clover and barley
plots also gave exceptional results in that on the gypsum plot the clover had grown to
at least twice the height of the check-plot with very pronounced broad leaves and
healthy colour. In the straight barley test a noticeable difference was seen in the
colour, growth, and lack of drying in the stem; kernels of grain when threshed were
larger and had a more plump appearance. The fodder-corn plot did not show any
noticeable difference.
About 35 tons of the gypsum has already been purchased by this district for a fall
application and one test will be carried out with an addition of 2-18-0. These plots
will be watched closely by the surrounding community in the next year's growing
season. The rebate offered by the Honourable Minister of Agriculture of $1 per ton
on gypsum should encourage the use of this product, as we feel there are a number of
districts that should benefit from its use.
It is noted that a test is being carried on on one farm in this district with Austrian
winter peas and, if possible, to be followed with buckwheat; the idea being to determine the value of same as a cleaning-crop and following, after available seed is acquired,
a green crop will be grown of winter peas and ploughed in in the spring and a crop
grown the same year; thus the land can be ploughed and cultivated three times in the
twelve months and no loss of cropping land—a very important consideration to most
small farms.
Number of Entries for the Poultry, Swine, and Calf Clubs, 1943.-
Poultry. No. Clubs.     No. Members.
Armstrong  9 89
Vernon  5 44
Salmon Arm   2   • 17
Larch Hill  2 16
Canoe  :  2 17
Grindrod   2 16
Deep Creek   1 8
Gleneden  1 10
Mount Cartier  1 8
Twelve-mile South (Revelstoke)   1 8
Totals   26 233 R 128 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Armstrong
Dairy Calf.
     7
61
Salmon Arm
     2
14
Totals
     9
75
Armstrong
Sivine.
     3
21
Salmon Arm
     1
10
Totals
     4
31
EAST KOOTENAY.
J. S. Allin, B.S.A., District Agriculturist.
Climatic conditions adversely affected agricultural production to a very large
extent this year. The late wet spring, dry summer, and early autumn frosts were
responsible for a marked decrease in yield in practically all crops, although the condition of grass on the range was fairly good, and cattle made good gains up until the end
of July. Conditions during the summer months, however, were such that the range
was soon depleted and, in general, the cattle coming off the range in October were only
in fair shape.
Field Crops.
Hay.—Yields of hay-crops this year were markedly reduced due, firstly, to adverse
weather conditions last winter and this spring. Some winter-killing occurred and a
very poor start was made in the spring. Secondly, bad weather during the haying
season meant considerable damage to the hay-crop in many localities; and thirdly,
large numbers of both deer and grasshoppers reduced the hay-crop.
Seed Production.—In several instances, interest in seed production is increasing.
In localities where a farmer is particularly well situated and adapted to this type of
farming, the enterprise is being encouraged. For the most part, alfalfa, white Dutch
clover, and barley were grown for seed production purposes this year. The grain production from dry-farming areas was this year below normal. It is expected that a
greater acreage will next year be devoted to the production of seed, of various crops.
Roots.—It is apparent that root crops, such as mangels, turnips, swedes, carrots,
and potatoes, can be very successfully grown in this district. This past year there was
a greater acreage planted to potatoes, and very good field inspection reports have been
received. Unfortunately, the yield of potatoes this year was much below a normal
yield, many crops yielding only 2 to 4 tons per acre. This is true of the Wardner,
Jaffray, and Newgate Districts. The Columbia Lake-Windermere District produced a
heavier yield, but even the yield from these areas was below normal, averaging approximately 6 to 8 tons per acre. The production of a high-grade seed potato continues to
be a very successful operation in this district. A large demand for seed potatoes from
these areas, particularly Columbia Lake and Windermere Districts, continues to exist
and, in fact, seems to be increasing. Poor weather conditions adversely affected the
tubers this year in that considerable off-type and rhizoctonia was noted. It is believed,
however, that this situation will be improved under more favourable weather conditions,
and it is expected a greater acreage will be planted to potatoes next year.
General.—In this district, more attention possibly should be paid to hay and
pasture crops and root crops.    It is intended to conduct experiments with different DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 129
grasses and legumes for hay and pasture purposes, and also experiments with fertilizers, etc., with a view to increasing the yield of these crops, which in turn will enable
a farmer or rancher to increase his herd of cattle. It is also intended that range
improvement experiments be conducted, the range in many areas of the district being
greatly run down. Some further studies regarding suitable varieties of various crops
are indicated. The need is felt for the operation of one or two illustration stations
since at present none exists in the district. This, together with trials carried on under
the Field Crops Union, should prove of value to the farmers and ranchers of the district.
Entomology.
Colorado Potato-beetle.—Increased infestation of the Colorado potato-beetle was
experienced this year. This is particularly true of the Jaffray and Cranbrook Districts, where considerable damage was done. Potato-beetle poison-dust (calcium arsenate) was distributed to the areas most heavily infested until the existing supply was
exhausted. Districts in which the Colorado potato-beetle was in evidence during previous years—namely, Camp Lister, Newgate, and Fort Steele—were relatively free this
year. A fairly heavy infestation might be expected in certain localities next year, and
preparations for controlling such an outbreak are now being made.
Warble-flies and Ticks.—These two pests continue to give trouble in areas, particularly east of Cranbrook, and more specifically in the district surrounding Waldo and
Newgate. It is intended to carry on a warble-fly control programme next year, and
the co-operation of stock-breeders in two areas at least is assured.
Grasshoppers.—A plague of grasshoppers of considerable size extended throughout
most of the district this past year. Much damage was done to practically all crops,
extending even to the horticultural field. No control-work was carried on, but preparations should be made to combat an expected increase of grasshoppers next year. At
the present time, two centres (Windermere and Cranbrook) are discussing the possibilities of. organizing grasshopper-control zones.
Junior Clubs.
The South Country Boys' and Girls' Beef Calf Club continued to operate this past
year, and is the only one in the district so organized. A successful competition and
sale was held on October 23rd at the time of the feeder stock sale at Elko. This office
intends to pursue this line of activity to a greater extent next year, and in this connection the co-operation of the Department of Education is much appreciated. It is
felt that a great deal can be accomplished through the medium of these junior club
activities in educating not only the boys and girls, but also the adult farmers and
ranchers, and it is hoped that these clubs will form the nucleus for reorganizing fall
Farmers' Institutes.
As many Farmers' Institute meetings as possible have been attended, some proving
to be very worth-while meetings, while other Institutes appear to be functioning with
difficulty. It is felt that the Farmers' Institutes could prove to be much more valuable
to the farmers and ranchers than they are at present, and a memorandum is being
prepared outlining suggestions for improvement along this line. Preparations are now
being made to conduct a series of educational evenings for the farmers of the Creston
Valley. This will include talks by various officers of the Provincial Department of
Agriculture, motion pictures, and general discussion on the different phases of agriculture. The programme has been drawn up and will be conducted through the united
efforts of the representatives of the Departments of Agriculture and Education. It is
hoped by all concerned that this concrete evidence of the co-operation of the two Departments will be continued and enlarged, proving of mutual benefit to education and
agriculture.
9 R 130 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Live Stock.
Sheep.—Sheep production seems to be increasing generally throughout the district; the area from Edgewater to Golden constitutes one of the more progressive areas
in this field of agriculture. Several flocks of sheep are being built up and improved
upon in the country between Yahk and Creston, and sheep production in the Fernie
District is enlarging. The predominating breeds are Suffolk and Hampshire, with
some Dorset-horn, Southdown, and Oxford. Greater attention is being paid to improving the flocks through breeding and good rams are in demand. Predatory animals,
notably coyotes, have been responsible for many sheep-breeders being forced out of
this line of production.    This is particularly true of the Windermere District.
Swine.—Swine production has increased in general throughout the district,
although at the present time with the high price of feed, and the lack of marketing
facilities and a secure hog market for the future, many farmers feel that they can not
expand their enterprise, and, in fact, some feel that a reduction in hog production will
result. Assistance has been given in exchanging and purchasing good type boars, and
improvement in the type of hogs now being kept is noted.
Dairy Cattle.—Little time has been found to be able to adequately study this line
of production. It is noted, however, that dairy cows are in great demand and good
animals are hard to locate. The dairy industry from Edgewater to Golden and surrounding district continues to be a major source of income, and it is reported that the
year's make of butter at the Golden creamery will total approximately 70,000 lb. Dairy
herds of Ayrshires and Jerseys are continually being improved and some fine stock is
to be noted in that district. The dairy industry surrounding Cranbrook would seem to
demand attention and certain improvements should be made during the coming year.
At present, a start is being made to organize the dairy producers with the formation
of a Dairymen's Association. This will include dairymen of Cranbrook and Kimberley,
and every attempt should be made to ensure that the Association continue active,
following attention to immediate problems requiring solution.
Beef Cattle.—There is a steady improvement to be noted in quantity and quality
of beef cattle produced in this district. The improvement of the grade of cattle is
being accomplished in several ways. Stockmen are paying much more attention to the
selection of good herd sires and are continually weeding out the undesirable individuals.
Very valuable assistance has been given the farmers by the Department in the purchase
of registered sires, and it is to be hoped that this assistance will continue and even be
enlarged. The annual cattle sale at Elko has done much to improve the type of stock
by means of supplying the farmers with knowledge concerning the weights, prices, and
other selling characteristics of the various classes of cattle. This sale has been a very
valuable help in educating the stock-breeders and providing them with an insight into
the kind of stock which more nearly meets market requirements. The beef industry in
the East Kootenays should continue to improve if guided along proper lines. It is felt
that this district is primarily a feeder-stock producing area, and the production of
high-grade butcher beef seems to be impractical in this area. The cattle generally are
improving, especially as regards uniformity, and considering the type of animal from
which the present herds have developed, a great improvement has been made in developing a better type of beef animal. It seems unfortunate that good type beef animals of
high-grade, with years of breeding behind them, could not be introduced and distributed
through the district. Assistance has been given the ranchers and farmers through this
office in purchasing or exchanging good beef type bulls, and it is believed that attention
to this item, together with systematic culling and forage improvements, will do much to
further improve the beef industry in this district. It is hoped that the amendment to
the "Animals Act " dealing with the organization of Bull-control areas will do much to
improve the type of animal running on the range in those areas.    Three centres at the DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 131
present time have this matter under consideration, which in itself shows a willingness
on the part of the stock-breeders to co-operate with themselves and with the Department. These centres are Fernie (Hereford), Baynes Lake-Waldo (Aberdeen Angus),
and Windermere (Hereford).
Cattle Sales.—The second annual sale of feeder stock was held this year at Elko on
October 23rd. The sale showed a marked increase over the one held last year, as evidenced by the number of head entered and the gross receipts. There were 438 head of
cattle entered in the sale last year, selling for $28,315.45, as against 975 head, grossing
$51,713.11, this year, with the top price of the sale going for a car-lot of Aberdeen
Angus calves which sold at $11.50. Buyers were present representing interests from
Vancouver on the west and Montreal on the east, and it is particularly interesting to
note that some of the stock was purchased and will be fed by farmers of the Creston
Valley. A memorandum outlining suggested improvements for the sale has been prepared, which among other things includes the fact that the Stock-breeders' Association
sponsoring the sale should in future be prepared to pay for the services of competent
officials, including a sales manager-secretary. Although the average price per head
realized this year was lower than that of last year, two factors must be considered in
accounting for this fact: (1) At the time of the sale, market conditions were not
favourable; (2) too many low-grade animals were entered in the sale. It should be
noted here, however, that good grade stock brought good returns and some provision
should be made in the future for limiting the numbers of low-grade stock entered in
the sale. Considering, however, the above two factors, the sale was generally recognized as being successful, and certainly every effort should be made to continue and
improve such a valuable method of marketing.
Feeder Cattle.—The East Kootenay District is primarily a producer of feeder stock
rather than finished butcher stock. There is, however, adjacent to this area the
Creston Valley, where quantities of grain, forage-crops, and various by-products or
commonly wasted materials are produced and available for live-stock feeding purposes.
Five car-loads of cattle were shipped into the Creston District this year and the finishing of feeder stock in that area is being conducted. As this first experiment proves
successful, it is believed that increasing numbers of feeders will be handled with mutual
benefit to the farmers of Creston Valley and ranchers of East Kootenay. An available
market such as this will enable the stock-breeders of the East Kootenay to more nearly
approach a cow and calf basis, and in doing so will be able to increase the size of and
improve the breeding herd.
General.—Predatory animals continue to take a relatively high toll of farm animals. Coyotes particularly do considerable damage in flocks of sheep and poultry. The
district has been comparatively free of live-stock diseases. No cases of encephalomyelitis have been reported this year. Worms in sheep and hogs require some attention. There seems to be a general trend towards increased protection against blackleg
and haemorrhagic septicemia, but considerably more attention should be paid to feeding
methods and particularly to conditions resulting from mineral deficiencies.
Marketing.
The marketing of agricultural products from the East Kootenay District remains
as a major problem. It is believed that further organization on the part of the farmers
themselves, together with Government assistance, will do much to ease this problem.
Improved transportation facilities and lower transportation costs are factors to be
considered. The proximity of markets in Alberta and the United States make these
natural outlets for produce from this district. There is a general feeling among
farmers of this district that improved methods of production and plans to increase
production are defeated unless steps are taken to similarly improve the marketing of R 132 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
such produce. In this connection there seems to be a growing tendency for farmers
to inquire into co-operative buying and selling, controlled marketing, etc., but there
needs to be assistance given to ensure success in this line of endeavour.
GRAND FORKS AND DISTRICT.
J. Travis, District Agriculturist.
The winter of 1942-43 was generally severe in contrast to the previous winter.
Snow fell early in November and at intervals throughout the entire winter. Below
zero temperatures were a common occurrence from January 15th. The months of
February and March continued cold and wintry. April month ushered in a decided
and more favourable change in the weather, but, nevertheless, the spring season was
retarded with below normal growing conditions. Throughout the summer months
growers had to depend largely on irrigation moisture, there being"little or no rainfall
during this period. Ideal harvesting and threshing conditions obtained throughout
the entire fall period.
Agricultural Production and Crop Acreages.
The call sent forth to the farmers of British Columbia by the Minister of Agriculture for a greater agricultural production during the present year met with an
immediate favourable response throughout this area, where maximum production of
essential farm commodities was attempted. Some apprehension was felt in connection
with the farm labour situation, but confidence was restored under the direction of the
Dominion Provincial Emergency Farm Labour Services, when the British Columbia
Government took the necessary measures to set up and put into operation an administration to function in conjunction with the National Selective Service.
Acreages of principal crops in the Grand Forks District were as follows: Alfalfa,
395% acres; potatoes, early, 129% acres; potatoes, late, 156% acres; cereal grains,
273% acres;  carrots, 82 acres;  onions, 32 acres; corn, field, 31% acres;  hay, 279 acres.
Car-lot shipments of potatoes and sundry vegetables as at the end of November
amounted to: Potatoes, early, 43; potatoes, late, 63; onions, 33; carrots, 15; asparagus, 10 tons.
Producer price per ton delivered at packing-house averaged: Potatoes, $29.60;
onions, $50;   beet and turnip, $34;  parsnip, $45;   asparagus, 11 cents per pound.
A bumper crop of good quality carrots was harvested, permitting a surplus of 500
tons to go forward to Vernon for dehydration purposes.
Seed Production.
Vegetable-seed production continues to hold the spotlight throughout the immediate district of Grand Forks. Onion, carrot, and radish seed still represent the
greater volume, while smaller acreages are occupied with diversified crops, including a
few annual flower-seeds. Contract prices hold steady with an upward trend. Growers
are in a position to fulfil or exceed their contracts, with the possible exception of
carrot-seed, which is short on delivery due to losses of stecklings attacked by root-rot
in storage.
The following acreage for the year 1943 was distributed among ninety-nine
growers producing registered, certified, and commercial grades of seed:—
Average Yield
per Acre.
Crop. No. of Acres. Lb.
Onion  232 700
Carrot    240% 250 DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 133
Average Yield
per Acre.
Crop. No. of Acres. Lb.
Radish    188 600
Lettuce   89% 250
Beans   34 200
Beet   19 1,600
Parsnips   6 1,600
Marrow and squash  :  5 400
Tomato   2 150
Miscellaneous  3
Total   818%
Each successive year shows more enterprise on the part of the growers in providing for the safe threshing and protection of seed-crops. Several additional threshers
are owned and operated by groups of individuals, and more power fanning-mills are
being purchased. Storage-sheds for drying and housing the harvested crop are located
on each farm.
By the end of November the third car-load of vegetable-seed had been shipped to
headquarters of the Growers' Association in Vancouver.
Canning Industry.
Several attempts by interested parties were made to enlist growers in the production of beans and various crops in place of tomatoes, which latter crop has not been
entirely successful during past seasons. However, prices for truck-crops to be marketed
through the regular channels were sufficiently attractive, with the result that the local
cannery did not operate.
Throughout the past year fieldmen representing the canning industry have visited
the district and investigated the possibility of introducing other kinds of crops in addition to tomatoes.    It is expected that the local cannery will resume operations in 1944.
Plant Diseases.
Despite the fact that more attention was paid to seasonal spraying of fruit-trees
than previously, apple-scab was again responsible for a great deal of damage. The trees
had not sufficiently recovered from the wide-spread attacks of scab and injury sustained
last year, and consequently were carrying only a light crop. Several operators of a few
of the larger orchards were inclined to attribute the cause to some other source, such
as damage from sulphur fumes. Complying with grower requests for field inspection
these orchards were visited during the season on more than one occasion by plant
pathologists.
Vegetable-seed crops were frequently checked over by Plant Pathologists and Field
Inspectors on the watch for suspected diseases associated with these crops. During the
storage period severe losses were encountered in connection with carrot stecklings,
which were attacked by black-rot (Alternaria Nadicina). This disease is assuming
serious proportions and much study is being devoted to same in an endeavour to establish methods of prevention and cure. There are evidences that seed treatment and
proper storage will prove important factors in this connection.
Onion-bulbs were well cured during the fall of 1942 and planting stock survived
winter storage in excellent shape. During the growing season downy mildew made its
appearance in most of the onion-seed fields (and in some cases bulb crops), causing
much alarm. There was little appreciable damage to ultimate yields of seed during
harvest which could be traced to mildew. R 134 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
A small acreage planted to tomatoes for seed production was attacked by late
blight.    This outbreak was controlled by spraying with a Bordeaux mixture.
During the month of June several commercial asparagus-beds were placed under
observation to determine the cause of rotting or wilting in the crowns. Pathologists
were of the opinion that boron deficiency might prove to be the cause, and the fields in
question received an application of commercial boron when the season's cut was taken
off at the end of June. Insect Pests.
Visitation of insect pests in quantity and kind was the heaviest in many years.
Throughout the entire season not one district escaped infestation.
Grasshoppers were particularly bad and the damage done to crops of all descriptions was serious. Many vegetable-gardens were eaten down until nothing remained.
Commercial garden truck also suffered from these pests which encroached on all sides
from surrounding dried-up pasture. Even plantings of fall wheat were eaten down in
September. Throughout the Midway District, where control is organized, much work
was done under the direction of the local committee. This committee endeavoured
to extend some assistance in the way of supplying material, when available, to applicants from adjacent territory. There is a movement on foot towards the formation of
control zones throughout the Rock Creek and Bridesville Districts, where grasshoppers
were especially numerous this year.
Colorado Potato-Beetle.—Spot infestations were found in many places during the
normal season of activity for this insect. Outbreaks were particularly numerous in
the vicinity of Grand Forks, especially in private gardens. Whenever located or
reported the area was visited, plants dusted, material and descriptive bulletins supplied.
Two departmental dust-guns were made available, while the Grand Forks Growers'
Exchange co-operated with this office in locating outbreaks and supplying additional
equipment. Other outbreaks occurred at Midway and Rock Creek, and these were
similarly dealt with. A complete record of names and localities has been added to
the office files, a copy of which has been forwarded to the Provincial Entomologist.
Damage from onion-maggot, onion-thrip, and wireworm cut the onion-crop down
somewhat. Another insect, blister-beetle, attacked vegetable-gardens in great numbers, doing much damage.
Pear Psylla.—United States Department of Agriculture officials, in co-operation
with representatives of the Dominion and Provincial Plants Protection Division, conducted their annual inspection of pear orchards in close proximity to the United States
border. _, _
Field Crops.
Preparations for seeding of field crops were delayed during spring owing to
unfavourable weather and soil condition. Throughout the principal grain-growing
districts around Rock Creek and Kettle Valley field-work was only just commencing
on April 12th. Thresher reports indicate scant harvest, while some machines remained
idle. Consequently feed-grain is scarce, in direct contrast to the problem facing the
farmers last year of securing a market for surplus grain, especially wheat. To further
aggravate the feed situation, only a light crop of hay was harvested. In order to
conserve winter feed, both range and domestic cattle were carefully culled over and
shipped to market.
During the season an effort was made to encourage growers to conduct some
experimental work with linseed, flax, and soy-bean crops, as suggested by the Provincial Field Crops Commissioner. A late season and adverse local conditions hampered this project.
Live Stock.
Live stock came through one of the most severe winters in years in good shape
and there was sufficient feed carried over to meet requirements of a delayed spring. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 135
There is a definite tendency towards improvement of all classes of live stock. More
attention is being devoted to the purchase of pure-bred sires, and here again the
Farmers' Institutes, under the departmental policy of assisting purchasers, were active
in taking advantage of the assistance available. Several good Hereford bulls were
secured in this manner. It was unfortunate that, as the season advanced, all districts
dependent on rainfall were subjected to severe drought, which prevailed throughout
the entire period. Consequently, culling of the older stock commenced early in the
season in order to conserve feed. During the month of August a few cars of mixed
cattle were marketed.
Shipments of cattle from the Grand Forks District totalled some thirteen carloads. From the Kettle Valley District over 800 head and one car-load of sheep were
shipped out. Nearly all of these cattle went to Vancouver. A few head of stocker-
heifer calves were sold to the Nelson District. Some dressed beef was hauled to Trail
and Oliver Districts (approximately fifty head all told). The foregoing shipments
represent a big increase in the slaughter of cattle, caused largely by a short crop of
winter feed. Cattle which might have gone into feed-lots were side-tracked into the
slaughter pens on account of the increased cost of grain.
The Southern Interior Stockmen's Associations' feeder sale at Okanagan Falls
on September 30th attracted the attention of stockmen from the Grand Forks and
Boundary Districts. This first annual sale turned out to be a highly successful event.
Elmer Hall, Westbridge, contributed ten head of Registered Herefords. Some 904
head, including thirty-two lambs, were auctioned off at satisfactory prices; the grand
total bordering on $64,000.
Live-stock Diseases.
Vaccination of horses against sleeping sickness was again practised by those horsemen who prefer to insure their animals in this manner. This habit is gradually being
transmitted from farmer to farmer, who are largely influenced by means of live-stock
circulars in addition to public addresses given by the Provincial Live Stock Commissioner and his officials.
An outbreak of blackleg in cattle throughout the North Fork District, which
might have developed to serious proportions, was arrested by the prompt action of
the settlers in that neighbourhood, who enlisted the services of the District Agriculturist. Quantities of vaccine were purchased and co-operative action was organized.
Losses from this disease were confined to a minimum. Approximately 300 head of
young stock were vaccinated over the above district.
A campaign against warble-fly was launched in February. Members of the Grand
Forks Farmers' Institute took the initiative, with R. H. Macintosh, resident Inspector,
Department of Lands, co-operating on behalf of the Doukhobor settlements. Approximately 836 head of cattle throughout the Grand Forks District were treated with
warble-wash; 50 lb. of wash material being distributed; 7,087 warbles were counted,
or an average of eight per head.
Control measures were also introduced throughout the Rock Creek District under
the auspices of the Rock Creek Farmers' Institute; 41 lb. of material was distributed
in order to provide at least one treatment before the cattle were turned out on the
range.
Victory Gardens.
Acting in co-operation with a committee appointed from members of the Grand
Forks schools staffs two Victory Garden Clubs, composed of students selected from
the higher and lower grades, were organized. A total membership of twenty-four
was enrolled. These clubs were sponsored by the Grand Forks Gyro Club, which
donated a substantial sum of prize money. Periodical judging visits were conducted
throughout the season, when members of the above school committee assisted.    This R 136 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
project proved highly successful and keen interest was exhibited by the contestants
and the community at large.
LOWER MAINLAND.
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., District Agriculturist.
The winter of 1942-43 was mild until the January snowstorm which blocked roads
and piled up snowdrifts all over the Lower Mainland and delayed shipments of milk,
etc., for a week or more. This was followed by a late, cold spring with considerable
rainfall all summer. A fine spell of weather was experienced in the fall, which enabled
farmers to harvest good crops.
The cold wet spring delayed seeding of many crops and affected the yields of
others. The hay-crop generally was light but cannery-crops of peas and beans were
very heavy, the pea-crop probably being the heaviest on record. Pasture conditions
were good all year. The acreage in oats is declining, owing partly to the freight
policy of the Dominion Government in paying $6 per ton on feed-grain imported into
the Province from Alberta. It is no longer economical to grow cereals in the Fraser
Valley.
The acute labour shortage in 1942 was felt in 1943 but was remedied to a considerable degree by the Emergency Farm Labour Service of the Dominion and Provincial
Governments, organized under the direction of Hon. Dr. K. C. MacDonald.
Live-stock Conditions.
Market conditions continue good for milk, eggs, hogs, beef, and mutton, etc., but
production of some of these commodities is falling off. The ratio of cost of feed to
market prices for milk and eggs continues good but not so good as in 1942. Pork
production probably dropped slightly, although prices for weanling pigs were very
high during the early part of the year. Prices for swine club pigs were as high as
$9 each. Economic factors do not favour any great increase in bog production in the
Fraser Valley. A great increase was shown in the junior swine clubs as will be shown
in the report on club activities.
The demand for dairy cows continues good, with prices remaining very high, due
primarily to the demand from the United States. Sales of dairy cattle continued
during the year, although not as extensively as in 1942.
Interest continues good in both light-horse and heavy-horse production. The
market was weak for Prairie imported horses during most of the year.
Bangs-free Areas.
The areas organized in 1942 were extended during 1943 and new districts formed.
Excellent progress is being made in vaccination of calves in all parts of the Fraser
Valley, the secretaries in most cases being supervisors of the cow-testing associations.
Incidentally, no group of men in the Fraser Valley are doing more effective agricultural work than the supervisors. As a result of the vaccination programme, Fraser
Valley dairymen will be in a position to take advantage of the post-war demand for
good dairy stock.
Field-crop Conditions.
Field crops, particularly hay, were affected by the late, cold spring and the wet
summer weather. Yields were better than expected of silage-corn, cannery corn, and
other crops. The potato-crop acreage was heavy and the yield very high in many
districts. Some world records were experienced in Richmond and other municipalities.
Late blight and flea-beetle damage was heavy in the Chilliwack and Upper Valley areas,
but not extensive in the Lower Valley areas. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 137
About 1,000 acres of fibre flax were grown by members of the Fraser Valley Fibre
Flax Growers' Co-operative Association. A modern plant was constructed near White
Rock to handle the retting and scutching processes. Several more pullers were purchased and modern machinery installed at the plant. Indications are that a permanent
industry has been established which will prove a valuable addition to Fraser Valley
agriculture.
Yields of seed in the various crops is estimated as follows for 1943: Fibre flax,
1,000 acres;   oil flax, 50 acres;   red-clover seed, 850 acres (175,000 lb.).
Warble-fly Control.
, Warble-fly control was extended to include the entire Fraser Valley during 1943,
the first time every municipality and other areas were included. A separate report
has been forwarded giving details of the project. The warble-wash was prepared at
approximately twenty-five centres for distribution. About 50,000 head of cattle were
treated again this year, as nearly as can be estimated. The gasoline and tire restrictions have interfered considerably in the distribution of the warble-wash. The labour
shortage has also been a factor, as it is now very difficult to get farmers to work on
committees and to cover their districts. First treatment was applied on February
25th and the second treatment on March 27th. Third treatments were given in some
areas.
Reports received indicate that the early emerging warbles have been cleaned up
but the late warbles are increasing. This is a difficult problem to solve, since farmers
cannot be organized into committees to distribute the material after the spring work
starts. Some feasible means will have to be developed to control the late April and
May warbles.
The following table shows the data secured from districts under control, bearing
in mind the difficulty in securing reports under present conditions.
District.
No. of Herds.
No. of Stock.
Estimated No.
of Warbles.
21
14
45
89
8
59
61
53
137
55
169
549
430
509
722
312
1,326
2,188
588
1,012
514
2,877
328
290
764
711
11,027
1,382
Junior Club Work.
Junior club projects in the Fraser Valley had a most successful year, the best
since club work commenced in fact. There was an increase in all projects except the
grain clubs, which dropped out this year. The most interesting feature was the
increase in swine clubs from two to seven and the increase in poultry clubs. The
greatest increase in poultry clubs was shown in Surrey Municipality where the junior
club committee of the Lower Fraser Valley Fair Board made real progress. This committee staged a junior poultry show in December with over 200 entries and a very
fine display of nice quality birds, one of the best poultry shows for several years.
A second very successful conference on junior club work was held at Mission in
March, at which the organizers, Fair Board officials, and Department officials reviewed
the work and made plans for 1943.
10 R 138
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The following table gives the statistical data on junior clubs for the past four
years:—
Year.
Swine
Clubs.
Calf
Clubs.
Poultry
Clubs.
Potato
Clubs.
Grain
Clubs.
Total.
1940          .                     	
1
2
2
7
17
21
23
25
20
19
15
24
.8
8
5
6
2
2
2
48
1941              	
52
1942..   	
1943           -    .	
47
62
All the local fairs held at Agassiz, Mission, Abbotsford, Langley, and Surrey
featured junior club work and those at Abbotsford and Surrey cancelled their regular
fairs to hold entirely junior club fairs. Very fine exhibits of calves, swine, poultry,
and potatoes were made by the club members at these fairs.
For the second year in succession the Vancouver Exhibition Association staged
the junior club fair at Chilliwack Exhibition in co-operation with the Chilliwack Agricultural Association. This was bigger and better than ever, with several hundred
club members from the Fraser Valley and Washington State competing.
Approximately 150 calves were shown in the junior section and about fifty pigs.
There was also a large entry of potatoes in the junior potato club section and a fair
entry of poultry in the poultry section.
The Ayrshire and Holstein sections were judged under the Danish, or group,
system this year, also the showmanship competitions. With such large entries this
was considered much the fairer method. The Holstein, Guernsey, and Ayrshire Associations assisted financially in staging the fine exhibit and are doing much to further
junior club work in the Province.
The British Columbia Swine Breeders' Association is this year contributing a sum
of money to club members who keep one gilt and raise a litter or more next year. This
has already created much interest in swine club work in the Province.
Great credit is due the Vancouver Exhibition Association for their support and
interest in junior club work. Their budget this year provided $2,000 for the junior
club fair. President John Dunsmuir and his board of directors are enthusiastic supporters of club work.
Judging Classes and Competitions.
In every district where clubs are organized judging classes were held during the
year in spite of travel restrictions and labour shortage. Every credit is due the local
organizers and organizations for carrying-on under difficult conditions.
Interesting field-days were held during the year with record attendances, as
follows:—
University of British Columbia, in May  160
British Columbia Swine Breeders' Association, in June  100
Agassiz Experimental Farm, in June     90
Swift Canadian plant and Colony Farm field-day at Sapperton
and Colony Farm  150
In addition local competitions were held at Cloverdale, Sumas, and other points.
The following table gives the data in the junior fair section at Chilliwack:—•
Competition.
Stock-judging  	
Poultry-judging 	
Showmanship 	
Swine-carcass judging
Halter-making 	
No. of
Competitors.
_-__ 55
._.__ 12
_____ 90
_____ 45
  42 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 139
National Competitions.
Four boys and two girls from the Fraser Valley represented British Columbia
this year at Toronto. The Chilliwack swine team of Don McPhee and Ernest Oldham
placed fifth in the swine project. The Langley dairy team of Violet Paton and James
Thatcher placed third in their project. The Langley potato team of Frances Lidster
and Hugh Davis placed second in their project. They had a very good trip and gave
their impressions to a large crowd at Langley on December 3rd.
Coaches of these various teams were Tom Berry, John Farquhar, and Chris Hagel-
stein of the dairy team; Fred Bryant and Arthur Renney of the swine team; and Sid
Gray of the potato team.
I would like to record my appreciation of the assistance given by the following in
junior club work: H. S. Ford, Harold Steeves, R. C. Trimble, and T. G. Stewart, of
the Dominion Live Stock Branch; H. S. MacLeod and his staff, of the Dominion Plant
Production Division; Dean F. M. Clement and his staff at the University of British
Columbia;   T. A. Leach, Ralph Cudmore, Arthur Laing, and others in industrial work.
British Columbia Lime Committee.
The Lime Committee is now composed of Dr. D. G. Laird, Cecil Tapp, and myself.
Several meetings were held during the year and more applications were received than
in 1942. The lime situation is still not good, although a considerable quantity of
Cheam Lake marl is being marketed to Fraser Valley farmers. The calcium content
of this product is somewhat variable. Separate reports are submitted by the Lime
Committee at the close of each fiscal year.
Crop Tests.
Variety tests of hybrid corn were made at Pitt Meadows, Sullivan, and Columbia
Valley and samples sent to Mr. Tice.    The results have been tabulated.    In addition,
there were several crop tests under the supervision of the British Columbia Field
Crops Union. _, __
Poultry Programme.
Blood-testing and approval of poultry flocks has become one of the major projects
of the Department of Agriculture, and this year the increase has been tremendous.
Three inspectors are working in the Fraser Valley and J. R. Terry and H. E. Waby are
testing the flocks on Vancouver Island and the Okanagan respectively. In addition,
flocks were done at Prince George and Grand Forks.
The following table gives the statistical data on this work from 1935 to 1943:—
Year.
No. of Flocks
approved.
No. of Birds
Blood-tested.
Percentage
of Reactors
to Pullorum.
1935                                                    	
117
127
143
149
194
194
244
331
450
42,074
77,493
93,008
92,178
115,543
121,954
158,867
197,127
325,000
6 09
1937                            	
3 47
1938                                    	
1939                               	
1 84
1940  	
2 65
1941	
1942                                                                        	
The enormous increase in the number of birds to be blood-tested this year has
imposed a great strain on the University laboratory and on the Department to get
them done early enough for the hatching season. Difficulties have been experienced
in shipping in the blood samples by public conveyance and returning the empty
tubes, etc.
It would appear that nearly every hatchery in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba has contracted for eggs in British Columbia this year, and it was found necessary
to cancel applications in several outlying areas.
The blood-testing programme has involved a great deal of extra wOrk in the New
Westminster office. R 140
BRITISH .COLUMBIA.
APPENDICES.
APPENDIX No. 1.
Gross Value of Agricultural Production in British Columbia, Years 1941-42.
Description.
1941.
1942.
Quantity.
Value.
Quantity.
Value.
Horses     _..No.
Cattle and calves   - - „
Sheep and lambs — „
Hogs            „
Total live stock  	
Poultry     „--   lb.
Eggs    „-      doz.
Total poultry and eggs 	
Butter   (creamery)     lb.
Butter   (dairy)    _ — „
Cheese   (factory)      — ,,
Milk   (as fresh)       gals.
Milk   (evaporated)    cases
Ice-cream      _ gals.
Ice-cream mix          „
Miscellaneous (cottage and farm cheese, chocolate milk,
whole-milk powder, skim-milk powder, condensed buttermilk, casein, buttermilk, etc.)   — — lb. fat
Total dairy products 	
Apples     - lb.
Other tree-fruits - „
Small fruits  _. — „
Vegetables      tons
Total fruits and vegetables  	
Grains  - bu.
Hay and clover  tons
Other fodders      „
Potatoes      _   „
Turnips,   etc   —  ,,
Total field crops  	
Honey - lb.
Beeswax      - „
Wool       „
Hops      _ „
Tobacco „
Goat's milk   _ gals.
Rabbits       No.
Field, flower, and vegetable seeds  lb.
Floricultural and ornamental nursery stock, etc. No.
Fur-farming        „ -
Total miscellaneous _	
GRAND TOTALS  _ _    ....
20,848,000
6,062,442
2,750,000
719,528
21,865,000
581,806
1,240,410
117,402
192,466,000
55,580,000
23,212,000
76,359
6,899,100
400,000
324,000
74,900
34,650
1,169,040
17,535
459,000
1,596,400
766,200
380,000
154,000
4,239,000
400,000
2,473,000
7,266,000
1,468,000
5,108,000
22,376,000
6,576,000
2,085,068
687,500
148,892
7,652,750
2,094,502
1,411,343
122,278
2,007,400
5,357,027
2,557,500
879,787
23,525,000
603,467
1,306,274
106,431
16,209,733
4,580,999
2,245,958
1,523,565
3,431,554
250,032,000
53,708,000
17,744,000
84,265
11,782,076
4,061,000
4,400,000
3,204,000
2,097,000
416,000
7,743,000
484,000
336,000
75,500
39,800
14,178,000
210,427
7,014
101,000
558,900
140,200
190,000
80,000
615,033
332,494
256,000
1,333,600
20,000
507,000
1,202,700
373,000
400,000
2,491,068
58,502,877
235,000
5,321,000
386,000
3,382,000
9,324,000
1,869,000
6,937,000
8,806,000
1,896,075
716,100
179,730
8,704,250
2,413,868
1,497,743
114,605
2,140,000
17,662,371
7,789,710
2,867,415
1,552,571
4,476,393
16,686,089
4,746,000
5,808,000
3,588,000
3,398,000
597,000
18,137,000
280,100
9,600
130,000
664,492
74,600
200,000
85,000
901,515
493,468
294,000
3,132,775
73,748,235 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 141
APPENDIX No. 2.
Summary of Movement of Grain Screenings, January 1st to October 31st, inclusive.
Consumed in British Columbia.
Export
direct from
Elevator.
Total per
Month.
Month.
No. 1 Feed.
No. 2 Feed.
Uncleaned.
Refuse.
All Grades.
All Grades.
Tons.
Lb.
Tons.
Lb.
Tons.
Lb.
Tons.
Lb.
Tons.
Lb.
Tons.
Lb.
January.	
40
62
180
ISO
210
31
1,830
264
220
February  	
1
1,590
18
75
38
1,770
128
1,560
March       	
	
41
41
April   _
36
420
30
5
1,000
67
840
139
260
2
800
2
80
June  -
120
151
1,100
271
1,100
30
30
August	
2
800
2
800
30
34
1,600
September.—	
97
60
97
60
October—	
43
34
770
10
90
266
850
443
1,620 R 142
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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O
Ph DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 143
APPENDIX No. 4.
ESTIMATE OF  HONEY-CROP,  1943.
District.
Apiaries.
Hives.
Honey-crop.
Average
per Colony.
760
576
936
456
816
300
180
3,240
2,980
7,780
3,280
5,880
1,980
1,000
Lb.
129,600
95,360
427,900
82,000
411,600
69,300
60,000
Lb.
40
32
55
25
70
Kootenays   	
35
60
Totals       	
4,024
26,140
1,275,760
48.8
Increase in registrations, approximately 20 per cent.
Value  of honey-crop,   19431  __. _-.
Value  of  beeswax,   1943    	
average, five colonies.
Total _
$197,742.80
9,185.48
$206,928.28
APPENDIX No. 5.
T.B. Tests, 1943.
District.
No. of Premises.     No. of Cattle.     Reactors,
Interior—
12
46
35
227
14
12
1
■
428
601
761
1,928
113
194
43
2
1
6
34
299
2
11
50
28
188
33
118
Totals       	
453
4,723
11
Total herds T.B.-tested
Total cattle T.B.-tested
Total reactors 	
453
4,723
11
APPENDIX No. 6.
Dairy Premises inspected and graded.
Total premises   2,769
Total cattle inspected   53,191
Total Grade A   391
Total Grade B  .  2,119
Total Grade C   152
Total ungraded premises   107 R 144
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 7.
Number op Herds inspected and Premises graded under " Milk Act," 1943.
No. of
Premises.
No. of
Cattle.
Grade of Premises.
Ungraded.
District.
a.
B.
C.
Lower Fraser Valley—
Delta                               	
657
162
10
58
531
143
281
105
55
225
14,845
3,974
198
1,258
7,893
3,439
4,983
2,449
1,516
3,656
33
22
10
17
30
11
16
3
19
568
139
55
487
111
249
74
50
193
56
1
3
27
2
21
15
2
13
	
Kent                       ~	
Langley  — —
Mission       — —	
Surrey    	
Totals        .—	
2.227
44,211
161
1,926
140
43
142
2
5
9
27
Vancouver Island—
Alberni  	
Cowichan 	
13
30
27
37
63
19
81
357
686
614
855
1,186
376
1,600
10
12
20
37
33
12
65
3
18
5
30
7
16
2
Nanaimo    	
	
Sooke and Metchosin   	
Totals	
270
5,674
189
79
2
Interior—
18
8
10
30
97
319
79
191
744
1,285
3
6
24
13
6
7
19
52
5
2
5
21
Totals	
163
2,618
33
97    |    .	
33
19
162
4     |    ..__.
15
34
299
5
7    |        3
18
13
85
1
1
11
APPENDIX No. 8.
Slaughter-house Licences.
Cariboo District.—A. C. Christensen & Son, Bella Coola; M. Nygaard, Bella Coola; C.
Allertson, Hagensborg; O. Fardol, Quesnel; L. L. Hill, Quesnel; Spencer Realties, Ltd.,
Pavilion.
Kamloops-Nicola District.—C. Stephens, Kamloops; E. Butterworth, Kamloops; A. Cameron, Ashcroft; Parrottino & Rizzo, Merritt; Armstrong's Department Store, Ltd., Merritt;
Quichon Ranch, Ltd., Quilchena.
Okanagan District.—Salmon Arm Meat & Produce Co., Salmon Arm; Burns & Co., Ltd.,
Salmon Arm; S. S. Johnston, Salmon Arm; E. Carlson, Armstrong; C. Horrox, Armstrong;
Burns & Co., Vernon; Jas. Good, Vernon; L. G. Edwards, Vernon; Fred Gaven, Vernon;
J. O. Harper, Nakusp; Mrs. Bailey & Fraitzl, Nakusp; D. K. Gordon, Ltd., Kelowna; John
Powick, Kelowna; H. Braham, Kelowna; M. W. Marshall, Kelowna; L. D. Hitchner, West-
bank; G. S. Madill, Penticton; J. R. Campbell, Summerland; T. W. Marriott, Okanagan
Falls;   W. White & Son, Oliver.
Siviilkameen-Boundary District.—Burns & Co., Ltd., Grand Forks; C. A. Pennoyer,
Gran'd Forks;   S. Talarico, Grand Forks;   Greenwood Meat Market, Greenwood.
South-east British Columbia District.—J. A. Wright, Rossland; P. Muzzin, Trail; E.
Pratt, Thrums;  Burns & Co., Creston;  Burns & Co., Cranbrook;  Mrs. L. Walkley, Cranbrook.
Golden-Invermere District.—Burns & Co., Ltd., Invermere;   P. H. Hansen, Edgewater. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 145
APPENDIX No. ^—Continued.
Slaughter-house Licences—Continued.
Northern British Columbia District.—G. Little, Terrace; N. Kelly, Tschesinkut Lake;
G. R. Hawker, Vanderhoof.
Peace River District.—E. F. Cuthill, Fort St. John.
Hide-dealers' Licences.
Cariboo District.—A. Gosman, Williams Lake; A. C. Christensen & Son, Bella Coola;
Alexis Creek Trading Co., Hanceville; C. Lundgren, Quesnel; Paul Krestenuk, Ltd., Quesnel;   Spencer Realties, Ltd., Pavilion.
Kamloops-Nicola District.—C. Stephens, Kamloops; Salmon Arm Meat & Produce Co.,
Ltd., Kamloops; G. Dillabough, Kamloops; F. W. Scott, Kamloops; F. D. Schofield, Kamloops; L. N. Agar, Westwold; H. W. Weightman, Chase; C. N. Rebagliati, Lytton; G. A.
Rebagliati, Lytton.
Okanagan, etc., District.—Salmon Arm Meat & Produce Co., Ltd., Salmon Arm; Burns
& Co., Ltd., Salmon Arm; S. S. Johnston, Salmon Arm; E. Carlson, Armstrong; Mrs. A.
Sauder, Vernon; W. P. Huebner, Vernon; Richard Gaven, Vernon; McClounie's Cash Stores,
Ltd., Falkland; V. Camozzi, Revelstoke; J. 0. Harper, Nakusp; M. W. Marshall, Kelowna;
J. Powick, Kelowna; G. S. Madill, Penticton; A. E. Hickson, Summerland; G. E. White,
Oliver;   E. Johnston, Oliver.
Similkame en-Boundary District.—W. A. Woodford, Princeton; C. S. Overton, Keremeos;
W. Hochsteiner, Osoyoos; C. G. McMynn, Midway; Burns & Co., Ltd., Grand Forks; H. M.
Brinkman, Grand Forks;   S. Talarico, Grand Forks.
South-east British Columbia District.—J. P. Morgan, Nelson; Union Packing Co., Ltd.,
Nelson;   Ivan O'Neil, Creston;   C. Gay, Creston;   F. Biddlecombe, Natal.
Golden-Invermere District.—J. Weltman, Parson; J. A. Seward, Golden; J. E. Gareb,
Golden.
Northern British Columbia District.—Watson's Store, Ltd., Smithers; C. P. Bussinger,
Telkwa;   W. Bickle, Grassy Plains;   G. R. Hawker, Vanderhoof.
Peace River District.—H. M. Starns, Dawson Creek; G. Dudley, Dawson Creek; H.
Soifer, Dawson Creek.
Coast District.—Bissinger & Co. and two agents (M. Gilmore and M. Miner), Vancouver;
Burns & Co., Ltd., Vancouver; J. Leckie & Co., Ltd., Vancouver; P. Paris, Vancouver; A.
Shepherd, New Westminster; N. Adirim, Nanaimo; Mouat Bros., Ltd., Ganges; H. W.
Hubbard, Victoria.
Outside British Columbia.—S. Cochrane, Edmonton; J. E. Love & Son, and one agent
(P. R. Milne), Calgary; Halford Hide & Fur Co., Edmonton; A. Wyman & Co., Edmonton;
Bissinger & Co. with two agents (C. Beeman and R. Walton), Spokane, Wash., U.S.A.
Stock-dealers' Licences.
Cariboo District.—J. Zirnhelt & Son, 150-Mile House; J. A. Blatchford, Alexis Creek;
C. R. Wolfe, Lillooet;   Spencer Realties, Ltd., Pavilion.
Kamloops District.—S. E. Alexander, Kamloops; Geo. C. Hay, Kamloops; Jas. A. Smith,
Kamloops; E. Butterworth, Kamloops; T. Campbell, Kamloops; F. D. Schofield, Kamloops;
G. A. Davidson, Kamloops; Macdonald Livestock, Ltd., Kamloops; W. F. McLeod, Bestwick;
A. Cameron, Ashcroft;   C. N. Rebagliati, Lytton.
Okanagan, etc., District.—Salmon Arm Meat & Produce Co., Ltd., Salmon Arm; S. S.
Johnston, Salmon Arm; G. P. Jackson, Salmon Arm; Wm. Hopkins, Salmon Arm; F. J.
Murray, Armstrong; J. Blackburn, Armstrong; Fred Gaven, Vernon; R. Buerge, Nakusp;
A. Tibi, Burton; J. W. Hughes, Kelowna; J. Powick, Kelowna; M. W. Marshall, Kelowna;
L. D. Hitchner, Westbank;   G. E. White, Oliver.
Similkameen-Boundary District.—F. H. Richter, Keremeos; W. Hochsteiner, Osoyoos;
R. Jackson, Midway; M. N. Barisoff, Grand Forks; H. M. Brinkman, Grand Forks'; John
Harasimoff, Grand Forks;   C. A. Pennoyer, Grand Forks.
South-east British Columbia District.—G. 0. Guise, Rossland; J. A. Wright, Rossland;
T. G. Chutskoff, Perry Siding; F. F. Hlookoff, Castlegar; W. Rebalkin, Thrums; F. N.
Davidoff, Thrums;   R. O'Neil, Wynndel;   Ivan O'Neil, Creston. R 146 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 8—Continued.
Stock-dealers' Licences—Continued.
Golden-Invermere District.—J. Weltman, Parson.
Northern British Columbia District.—Watson's Store, Ltd., Smithers; H. Eaton, Francois
Lake;  W. Bickle, Grassy Plains;  G. R. Hawker, Vanderhoof;  George Streigler, Vanderhoof;
B. W. Boyer, Prince George;   J. R. Burwell, Prince George.
Peace River District.—A. F. Clark, Dawson Creek;   G. Dudley, Da,wson Creek.
Coast District.—American Live Stock Exporters, Ltd., Vancouver; E. Atkinson, Vancouver; Baird & Co., Ltd., Vancouver; C. B. Dew, Aldergrove; N. Meltzer, Vancouver;
Max Merin, Vancouver; C. Nemetz, Vancouver; L. Turcott, Burnaby; H. Estrin, Vancouver;   G. Williamson, Cloverdale;   A. R. Gosling, Abbotsford.
Outside British Columbia.—M. Connell, Cayley, Alta.; J. D. Enns, Lethbridge, Alta.
Jas. Fowlie, Calgary, Alta.; J. S. Holstine, Lethbridge, Alta.; S. W. Oxford, Amisk, Alta.
L. Reiber, Edmonton, Alta.; L. Rosenbaum, Calgary, Alta.; 0. R. Halvor, Wrentham, Alta.
R. Ireland, Edmonton, Alta.; J. Doran, Loyalist, Alta.; A. Wende, Alta.; P. Lanyon, Alta.
R. Eales, Calgary, Alta.;   J. S. Ross, Richdale, Alta.;   Kerr & Bell, Calgary, Alta.
Horse-slaughterers' Licences.
Cariboo District.—W. H. Edmunds, Macalister.
Kamloops District.—Jimeva Farms, Ltd., Kamloops;   Mrs. M. Beauchamp, Kamloops.
Okanagan, etc., District.—G. B. Farina, Salmon Arm;   D. Fuller, Salmon Arm;   G. T.
Turner, Salmon Arm;   H. W. Mclntyre, Lumby;   K. Jansen, Brouse;   N. T. Alpsen, Nakusp;
C. L. Bird, Nakusp;   Gold Medal Foxes, Ltd., Kelowna.
Similkameen-Boundary District.—Olson & Gustafson, Bankeir.
South-east British Columbia District.—Harold Avis, Perry Siding; P. M. Wiltse, Creston.
Northern British Columbia District.—H. A. Hagberg, Fort St. James;   R. F. Hargreaves,
Mount Robson.
Beef-peddlers' Licences.
Cariboo District.—Spencer Realties, Ltd., Pavilion.
Kamloops-District.—S. E. Alexander, Kamloops.
Okanagan, etc., District.—S. S. Johnston, Salmon Arm; F. G. Mobley, Tappen; D. E.
Cameron, Armstrong; M. Morrison, Edgewood; Mrs. Bailey & Fraitzl, Nakusp; T. W.
Marriott, Okanagan Falls.
Similkameen-Boundary District.—C. A. Pennoyer, Grand Forks.
South-east British Columbia District.—F. Eremenko, Castlegar.
Golden-Invermere District.—P. H. Hansen, Edgewater.
Northern British Columbia District.—G. Little, Terrace.
APPENDIX No. 9.
Milk-testers' Licences issued during 1943.
Ardley, Ernest S., Box 100, Mission; Atkinson, G. W., 3473 Franklin Street, Vancouver;
Atkinson, L. A., 425 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver; Barone, Adam, Box 351, Prince
George; Bayly, Mrs. S., R.R. 1, Cumberland; Bloch, Verna Marie, 4276 Eighth Avenue West,
Vancouver; Brown, Geo. W., Whiteside Street, Sevenoaks P.O.; Campbell, Douglas G.,
Salmon Arm; Canavor, Leslie, 4301 Hastings Street East, Vancouver; Chevalley, Frank,
R.R. 1, Sardis; Chevalley, Paul, F.V.M.P.A., Abbotsford; Clare, Robt. R., 405 Eighth Avenue
West, Vancouver; Clegg, Robt., 2125 Argyle Avenue., Hollyburn; Colwell, C, Box 605,
Courtenay; Cranswick, P., 1002 Hastings Street West, Vancouver; Crawford, Wm., 612
Kingsway, Vancouver; Dinsmore, D. R., 195 Twentieth Avenue West, Vancouver; Drake,
S. Stewart, 441 Sixth Street, New Westminster; Fawcett, Geo., 2632 Burdick Avenue, Victoria; Gibbs, J. A., 930 North Park Street, Victoria; Hardy, Miss Lorna, Suite 104, 1851
Haro Street, Vancouver; Hilton, C, 666 Sixteenth Avenue East, Vancouver; Holmes, C,
2305 Maple Avenue, New Westminster;   Hurstfield, F., Williams Lake;   Jokanovich, Robt., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943. R 147
APPENDIX No. 9—Continued.
Milk-testers' Licences issued during 1943—Continued.
442 Salisbury Drive, Vancouver; Jones, Mrs. Mary J., Box 466, Penticton; Kendall, W. G.,
c/o F.V.M.P.A., Vancouver; Laker, D. H., 176 Fifty-second Avenue East, Vancouver; Marcy,
Ella S., c/o F.V.M.P.A., Sardis; Martin, Geo. R., 405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver;
McLeary, Sam, Box 186, Cranbrook; Millard, Robt. P., 5505 Culloden Street, Vancouver;
Miller, Alfred, Prince George; Miller, Ronald C, 22 Twenty-second Avenue West, Vancouver; Mullen, Jos., Armstrong; Murray, Hazel A., 208 Maple Avenue, Chilliwack; Nash,
Sydney C, Armstrong; Norton, F. H. A., 1015 Yates Street, Victoria; Okulitch, V. J.,
Abbotsford; Orr, J. B., R.R. 1, Sardis; Otter, H. J., 4201 Albert Street, Vancouver; Peterson, Martin, Telkwa; Pheiffer, Lillian M., 753 Cardero Street, Vancouver; Purves, A. N.,
Box 832, Kelowna; Robinson, John, 2607 Blenheim Avenue, New Westminster; Rochon, E.,
3437 Kingsway, Vancouver; Rose, Mrs. Agnes J., Vanderhoof; Ross, Mrs. Rose, Nelson;
Seller, G. A., 4994 Ross Street, Vancouver; Slang, Lloyd, 1126 Pandora Avenue, Victoria;
Slater, Alfred,'Edgewood; Smith, L. E., 3633 Jersey Avenue, New Westminster; Thompson,
Douglas E., 2296 Cornwall Street, Vancouver; Turner, L. H., 666 Sixteenth Avenue East,
Vancouver; Valentin, H. B. M., Box 533, Prince Rupert; Washington, F. J., 425 Eighth
Avenue West, Vancouver; Wells, Bruce, Abbotsford; West, Chas. H., c/o Avalon Dairy,
Wales Road and Forty-third Avenue, Vancouver; Wood, Geo. Roger, Room 1, 2448 Cambie
Street, Vancouver;   Wood, R. K., 545 Cornwall Street, Victoria.
Combined Milk-testers' and Cream-graders' Licences issued during 1943.
Akerman, J. E., Ganges; Antilla, Lawrence E., Box 10, Vernon; Arndt, Gus, Box 324,
Kelowna; Aven, John, Courtenay; Batey, H. S., 1015 Yates Street, Victoria; Cameron, W. C,
Enderby; Clarke, Everard, Box 10, Vernon; Drake, A. W., Ganges; Dungate, W., Prince
Rupert; Evenson, A. H., c/o Palm Dairies, Kamloops; Freer, Scott, Box 67, Vernon;
Grahame, F. A. W., Box 67, Vernon; Hargreaves, J. A. D., 1132 Hastings Street East, Vancouver; Harkness, Wm., Box 463, Ocean Falls; Haslam, W., 130 Robins Street, Nanaimo;
Holmes, Jas., 396 Twentieth Avenue West, Vancouver; Hoskins, Alf. C, Box 365, Chilliwack;
Innes, A. E., 325 Railway Street, Vancouver; James, D. A., 4579 Blenheim Street, Vancouver;
Johnston, Wm. G., 415 Latimer Street, Nelson; Leavitt, Harvard B., 280 King George Terrace, Victoria; Livingston, J. B., 3396 Kingsway, Vancouver; MacKerricher, W. R., 325
Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver; McAllister, C. W., c/o I.X.L. Dairy, Free Press Block,
Nanaimo; McArthur, R. W., 8860 Hudson Street, Vancouver; Moore, Jas. K., Quesnel;
Morse, A. O., 2685 Pandora Street, Vancouver; Muraro, W., Box 366, Nelson; Patchett, Geo.,
R.M.D. 2, Duncan; Patten, L. W., Box 115, Vernon; Pyvis, Roy T., Box 152, Chilliwack:
Rochon, J., 441 Sixth Street, New Westminster; Rolph, E. N., 613 Carbonate Street, Nelson:
Skelley, E., Creston; Skelton, R. J., Salmon Arm; Sorensen, Walter, 1714 Fifty-ninth
Avenue West, Vancouver; Strachan, Jos., 325 Railway Street, Vancouver; Thomson. F. D .
Box 19, Quesnel;   Wise, Harold, 1031 Comox Street, Vancouver.
Creamery and Dairy Licences issued during 1943.
Acme Dairy, Limited, 126 Hastings Street West, Vancouver; Arctic Ice Cream & Dairy
Co., Ltd., 1166 Hornby Street, Vancouver; Arlada Cheese Factory (Alfred Slater), Edge-
wood; Armstrong Cheese Co-operative Association, Armstrong; Associated Dairies, Ltd.,
405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver; Avalon Dairy (J. Crowley), 5805 Wales Road, Vancouver; Balmoral Farm Dairy (W. Young), 4301 Hastings Street East, Vancouver; Borden
Co., Ltd., The, R.R. 1, Sardis; Borland Ice Cream Co., Ltd., 1520 Sixth Avenue West, Vancouver; Cariboo Farmers' Co-op. Association, Johnston Avenue, Quesnel; Central Creameries
(B.C.), Ltd., 325 Railway Street, Vancouver; Columbia Valley Co-op. Creamery Association,
Box 25, Golden; Comox Creamery Association, Box 460, Courtenay; Cowichan Creamery
Association, Box 130, Duncan; Creamland Crescent Dairy, Ltd., 1335 Howe Street, Vancouver; Creamland Ice Cream, Ltd., 1335 Howe Street, Vancouver; Creston Co-operative
Creamery Association, Creston; Crystal Dairy, Ltd., 1803 Commercial Drive, Vancouver;
Drake's Dairy, Ltd., 441 Sixth Street, New Westminster; Empress Dairies, Ltd., 1002
Hastings Street West, Vancouver; Frasea Farms', Ltd., Eburne; Fraser Valley Milk
Producers' Association, 425 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver;   Fraser Valley Milk Producers' R 148 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 9—Continued.
Creamery and Dairy Licences issued during 1943—Continued.
Association, Sardis; Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Abbotsford; Gibson's Dairy
Produce, Ltd., 7 Hastings Street West, Vancouver; Glenburn Dairy (C. A. Haslam), 3695
Hastings Street East, Vancouver; Guernsey Breeders' Dairy, Ltd., 2405 Broadway West,
Vancouver; Hazelwood Creamery Co., Ltd., 351-355 Keefer Street, Vancouver; Interior
Creameries (Alf. Miller), Prince George; Interior Creameries (Alf. Miller), Telkwa; Interior
Creameries (Alf. Miller), Williams Lake; Island Farms, Ltd., 608 Broughton Street, Victoria;
Jersey Farms, Ltd., 2256 Broadway West, Vancouver; Kelowna Creamery, Ltd., Pendozi
Street, Kelowna; Maypole Creameries, Limited, 1001 Pender Street West, Vancouver;
Meadowvale Creameries, Ltd., 8860 Hudson Street, Vancouver; Melrose Dairies Co-operative
Association, 3396 Kingsway, Vancouver; Mission Farm Products, Limited, Mission; Nanaimo
Creamery Association, 625 Pine Street, Nanaimo; National Dairies, Ltd., 1132 Hastings
Street East, Vancouver; Northwestern Creamery, Ltd., 1015 Yates Street, Victoria;
Okanagan Valley Co-op. Creamery Association, Vernon; Okanagan Valley Co-op. Creamery
Association, Enderby; Palm Dairies, Ltd., Kamloops; Palm Dairies, Ltd., 685 Baker Street,
Nelson; Palm Dairies, Ltd., 1060 Cambie Street, Vancouver; Palm Dairies, Ltd., 930 North
Park Street, Victoria; Perfection Products, Limited, 243 Monteith Street, Vernon; Peter's
Ice Cream Co., 3205 Broadway West, Vancouver; Richmond Milk Producers', Ltd., 1508-1512
Hastings Street East, Vancouver; Royal Dairy, Ltd., 707 View Street, Victoria; Salmon Arm
Co-operative Creamery Association, Salmon Arm; Salt Spring Island Creamery Co., Ltd.,
Ganges; Turner's Dairy, Ltd., 666 Sixteenth Avenue East, Vancouver; Twigg Island Dairy,
Ltd., 612 Kingsway, Vancouver; Valentin Dairy (H. B. M. Valentin), Box 533, Prince
Rupert;  Valley Dairies (John Mitchell), Penticton.
Cream Graders' Licence issued during 1943.
Colwell, C, Box 605, Courtenay.
APPENDIX No. 10.
Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1943.
Cariboo—
Williams Lake
Lac la Hache, Soda Creek, Quesnel      2,099
Clinton,  Lone Butte,  100-Mile House,  Lillooet, Pa
vilion 	
Bella Coola 	
Kamloops, Nicola, etc-
Kamloops, Chase
Nicola 	
Ashcroft, Lytton       2,864
Salmon Arm	
Cattle.
Hides.
11,956
258
2,099
432
5,074
571
114
19,129
1,375
10,136
1,643
7,444
678
2,864
159
628
1,146
21,072 3,626
Okanagan—
Vernon, Lumby        866 2,105
Armstrong, Enderby __._     1,963 647
Kelowna          743 1,418
Penticton         916 517
„.   .„                                                                                              4,488 4,687
Similkameen—
Princeton, etc.         886 629
Oliver         945 681
1,831 1,310 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 149
APPENDIX No. 10—Continued.
Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1943—Continued.
South-east British Columbia—
Grand Forks, Greenwood __
Nelson, Creston, etc. 	
Cranbrook, Fernie 	
Invermere, Golden, etc. 	
Central British Columbia—
Prince George, Vanderhoof, etc.        1,748
Smithers, Telkwa, etc.  ■_	
Burns Lake '	
Peace River—
Pouce Coupe, Fort St. John, Dawson Creek
Cattle.
Hides.
1,638
780
378
3,319
1,408
1,320
721
1,021
4,145
6,440
1,748
961
806
548
1,130
19
3,684
1,528
1,832
1,433
Totals compared.
District.
1943.
1942.
1941.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
19,129
21,072
6,319
4,145
5,516
1,375
3,626
5,997
6,440
2,961
17,551
18,629
4,608
1,996
4,796
1,566
3,947
6,277
6,536
2,573
20,318
16,047
4,362
2,539
4,357
2,477
4,293
6,631
6,556
2,552
Central British Columbia and Peace River	
56,181
20,399
47,580
20,899
47,623
22,509
APPENDIX No. 11.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs, 1943.
Alfalfa Clubs.
Name of Club.
Organizer.
Secretary.
Membership.
Paul Teichman, Beaverley	
Marjorie Holtslander, Groundbirch
Leonard George, Telkwa	
Glen W. Wiley, Southbank	
10
Groundbirch    —
Omineca  	
Uncha Valley   , * __ 	
M. A. Linsley, Groundbirch	
A. J. Clotworthy, Telkwa 	
R. W. Wiley, Southbank	
N. E. Williams, Vanderhoof.	
15
11
12
10
Willow Valley _ -
Cecil Scott, Sunset Prairie	
10
Beef Calf Clubs.
Armstrong _	
Armstrong — — —
Cobble Hill- -	
Danskin  __	
Groundbirch ... — —
Kamloops South —_ -
Lower North Thompson _
Uncha Valley  —.
Westwold —-	
Woodpecker-Hixon..
South country	
William Parker, Armstrong	
Hilliard McCallam, Armstrong	
Andrew Motherwell, Cobble Hill —
B. Durban, Grassy Plains _„ 	
Mrs. May Wetherill, Groundbirch..
Warner Philip, Brigade Lake—	
Tom Wilson, Heffley Creek 	
E. W. Stevens, Southbank	
Charles Turner, Westwold. _
Charles Semerad, Hixon	
Allaster Munro, Newgate 	
Gus Leduc, Armstrong _
Cato Loveng, Grassy Plains _
Helen Linsley, Groundbirch _
Verna Shannon, Knutsford...
Bernard Donchi, Vinsulla „_
Alvin J. Wiley, Southbank ....
Janice McLeod, Westwold	
Ina Sahlstrand, Hixon _.
Marion Earl, Newgate	
11
7
4
7
12
12
21
7
11
10
13 R 150
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 11—Continued.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs, 1943—Continued.
Dairy Calf Clubs.
Name of Club.
Organizer.
Secretary.
Membership.
Agassiz — .
Agassiz-Harrison _	
Norman MacKenzie, Box 51, Agassiz
W. G. Harris, Agassiz 	
14
Eva Chandler, Agassiz 	
Johnny Olson, Armstrong	
10
11
Armstrong 	
Armstrong -	
Ben Thornton, Armstrong-	
L. A. Johnston, Armstrong	
L. A. Johnston, Armstrong	
L. C. Brydon, R.R. 1, Armstrong—
Roy Oulton, Smithers ... 	
John Peers, R.R. 3, Sardis 	
T. E. Law, R.R. 2, Chilliwack	
Andrew T. Motherwell, Cobble Hill
Thos. S. Isbister, Denman Island ...
Archie Stevenson,  R.R.  2,  Chilliwack
John  Farquhar,  R.R.   1,  Langley
Prairie
T. K. Berry, Langley Prairie. 	
C. E. Hagelstein, Langley Prairie __
R. B. Whitson, Matsqui  ..__	
R. B. Whitson, R.R. 1, Matsqui
R. B. Whitson, R.R. 1, Matsqui
T. Girard, Mission	
7
Gordon Fowler, Armstrong.	
Stanley Fowler, Armstrong —
Bert Marshal, Armstrong  _
Mabel Oliarny, Smithers —
Vera Vanderveen, R.R. 2, Sardis.—
8
9
9
Bulkley Valley    _	
8
Chilliwack __._     __	
12
14
Cobble Hill
10
Audrey Millard, Denman Island
Freda Hayton, R.R. 2, Chilliwack ..
Diana Bond, R.R. 1, Coghlan	
Gordon Berry, Langley _	
June Hagelstein, Langley Prairie __.
8
7
Langley	
Langley	
Langley 	
14
12
11
9
Matsqui  	
Matsqui  	
Keith Smith, R.R. 1, Matsqui	
Peter Dempster, Matsqui 	
6
3
7
8
Richmond  _	
Angus L. Hay, Vancouver .	
G. G. Grimes, Steveston .
Fred H. Bryant, R.R. 1, Chilliwack
S. Zingle, Prince George 	
J. A. McCurdy, Salmon Arm	
William Hay, Vancouver .__ 	
Patricia James, R.R. 2, Eburne ____
Elizabeth Lewis, R.R. 2, Chilliwack
12
14
Rosedale __ __	
8
9
7
7
0. N. Wells, Sardis    	
7
Pat Reid, R.R. 2, Abbotsford __
D. S. Heelas, Abbotsford              	
Guy Marcy, R.R. 2, Abbotsford
11
16
Pat Reid, R.R. 2, Abbotsford	
John Farquhar, Cloverdale _	
W. Kienzle, Prince George __	
Daphne Layton, R.R. 2, Abbotsford
11
6
7
Potato Clubs.
Armstrong _.__	
Armstrong	
Armstrong	
Armstrong „	
Armstrong	
Big Eddy —_
Chilliwack District
Grindrod   -.
Groundbirch	
Langley    ...   	
Mission District	
Mission District	
Richmond._ 	
Surrey	
Frank Marshall, Armstrong	
Frank Marshall, Armstrong	
Frank Marshall, Armstrong—.	
Frank Marshall, Armstrong	
Frank Marshall, Armstrongs	
A. S. Parker, Revelstoke -
Arthur Renney, Chilliwack 	
M. A. Dangel, Grindrod. ___.
Mrs. May Wetherill, Groundbirch
Sid Gray, R.R. 1, Milner _	
G. A. Jones, Mission City _
G. A. Jones, Mission City 	
Jack Maddocks, Steveston 	
A. J. Christmas, Cloverdale __ __
Muriel Parker, Box 322, Revelstoke
Hellmuth Stobbe, R.R. 1, Sardis ___.
M. G. Dangel, Grindrod _.   	
Thomas Harris, Groundbirch 	
Hugh Davis, Milner	
Blanche   Peterson,   R.R.   1,   Mission City
Ella Johnson, Mission City	
Evelyn Wright, R.R. 1, Steveston ...
William Markin, R.R. 1, Cloverdale
7
10"
9
7
7
12
11
8
7
13
9
10
11
Poultry Clubs.
Canoe-Shuswap	
Cedar Valley.	
Cedar Valley _	
Chilliwack District _
Chilliwack District _
Cloverdale	
County Line	
Ferndale and Hatzic.
Ferndale School	
Miss Eva F. Ireland, Prince George
G. A. Jones, Mission City ..„.
G. A. Jones, Mission City	
Arthur Renney, Chilliwack	
Arthur Renney, Chilliwack  	
G. J. Wallinger, Cloverdale	
C.   W.   Lawson,   R.R.   2,   Langley
Prairie
G.   A.   Jones,   Box   280,   Mission
City
Mrs. L. E. Speight  _.._	
Margrette Lund, Canoe	
Edwin Ulmer, R.R. 1, Mission City
Virginia Cromer, Hatzic 	
Jack Logan, Chilliwack   	
Ernie Bailey, R.R. 1, Chilliwack .....
Lome Lacey, R.R. 3, Cloverdale ____
Niomi McCormick, Mission City —
Emily Zilkie, Prince George
13
9
13 DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1943.
R 151
APPENDIX No. 11—Continued.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs, 1943—Continued.
Poultry Clubs—Continued.
Name of Club.
Organizer.
Secretary.
Membership.
G. A. Jones, Mission City _ 	
H.   Bradley,   R.R.   3,   New   Westminster
H.   Bradley,   R.R.   3,   New  West
Irma   Albright,   R.R.   1,   Mission
City
Muriel   Campbell,   R.R.    3,    New
Westminster
Cora-May   Wilson,   R.R.   3,   New
Westminster
June McKee, Giscome 	
8
Fleetwood  	
9
15
Giscome and District 	
minster
Miss J. M. Walker, Giscome..	
Miss J. M. Walker, Giscome	
Miss J. M. Walker, Giscome	
Mrs. J. H. Honey, Salmon Arm	
8
8
Giscome and District	
Gleneden  _._	
Viola Tereschuk, Giscome ..
Evelyn   Kuusisto,   Gleneden,   Salmon Arm
Kathleen Curran, Grand Forks
7
10
13
R. K. Bradley, Grand Forks	
8
Mrs. M. Nelson, Enderby _ _.
Mrs. M. Nelson, Enderby	
G. A. Jones, Mission City 	
G. A. Jones, Mission City 	
W. B. Allison, R.R. 2, Cloverdale ....
Rev. C. McDiarmid, Ladysmith
Rev. C. McDiarmid, Ladysmith
Rev. C. McDiarmid, Ladysmith
Rev. C. McDiarmid, Ladysmith
C.   W.   Lawson,   R.R.   2,   Langley
Prairie
C.   W.  Lawson,  R.R.   2,   Langley
Prairie
C.   W.   Lawson,   R.R.   2,   Langley
Prairie
C.   W.   Lawson,   R.R.   2,   Langley
Prairie
Mrs. Amy G. Enoch, R.R. 1, Enderby
Mrs. Amy G. Enoch, R.R. 1, Enderby
Grace McMurray, R.R. 1, Enderby.
J. S. Reid, Matsqui	
G. A. Jones, Mission City —
G. A. Jones, Mission City—	
Jean Halksworth, Grindrod 	
Bill Kohut, Grindrod  	
Joyce Ulmer, R.R. 1, Mission City-
Ernest Thompson, R.R. 1, Mission
City
Ronald Kitzel, R.R. 2, Cloverdale ....
Audrey Thompson, Cedar	
Wylda Hoggan, Cassidy     _ —
Billy Ashwell, R.R. 1, Ladysmith ....
Olive Wright, R.R. 1, Ladysmith...
8
7
Hatzic and Mission 	
00 oc
Hazelmere ___   	
Ladysmith  	
Ladysmith _  	
Ladysmith    	
Ladysmith.— ._	
13
8
8
8
8~
11
Langley 	
7
10
9
Larch Hill 	
Geordie Hudson, Salmon Arm	
Kay Loring, Salmon Arm	
Warren M. Wales, Salmon Arm
Gordon Borg, Matsqui 	
Ella Slack, Hatzic 	
Rodney Brausseau, Mission City ...
Blanche   Peterson,   R.R.    1,    Mission City
8
Larch Hill   .... 	
The Little Red Hen 	
Matsqui Poultry	
8
8
10
8
8
7
8
Murrayville  	
C.  W.   Lawson,   R.R.   2,   Langley
Prairie
James Ramsay, All Bay, Sidney
S. Zingle, Prince George 	
9
10
Pineview and District	
Joan Kempster, Prince George	
Bert Pitman, Myncaster ... __._	
Barbe Blackburn, Salmon Arm
Mervyn Horsley, Salmon Arm _	
Lorraine Caron, Salmon Valley	
Erica Bowyer, Salmon Valley	
Rudy Makton, Surrey Centre.	
Kenny Millar, Revelstoke	
Shirley Andros, Vanderhoof	
Pat Haggerty, Vanderhoof	
Michael Eva, Vanderhoof	
Juanita Mitchell, Vanderhoof	
Shirley Andros, Vanderhoof	
D. Pearse, Vernon.   _.
10
10
9
8
A. Beauregard, Salmon Valley	
9
8
Surrey Centre  	
John Bowles, Cloverdale 	
12
8
Vanderhoof .— 	
Vanderhoof Ellesby._	
Miss N. C. Olds, Vanderhoof	
N. E. Williams, Vanderhoof	
N. E. Williams, Vanderhoof	
Miss N. C. Olds, Vanderhoof .-	
Miss N. C. Olds, Vanderhoof	
W. R. Pepper, Vernon 	
W. R. Pepper, Vernon  _■_	
W. R. Pepper, Vernon	
W. R. Pepper, Vernon. 	
W. R. Pepper, Vernon	
F. J. Welland, Haney___	
C. Semerad, Hixon 	
C. Semerad, Hixon   :	
S. G. Ash, R.R. 1, Cloverdale	
9
14
10
Vanderhoof 	
10
9
Vernon   	
9
8
8
Vernon   	
Vernon -._ __ 	
A. Fraser, Vernon 	
M. Torpochak, Vernon 	
12
7
10
Woodpecker-Hixon.	
Woodpecker-Hixon 	
10
Beatrice Morgan, Strathnaver	
Beverley Woodward, R.R.  1, Cloverdale
Norah Husband, Armstrong	
Michael Smaha, Armstrong	
Alta Johnson, Armstrong	
Hazel Olson, Armstrongs      .
Willard Bieber, Armstrong   -	
Clarence Hendricks, Armstrong ....
Harry Klim, Armstrong  	
Mary Hawryluk, Armstrong.	
Robert Wallace, Armstrong _„ 	
9
10
C. E. Clay, Armstrong 	
C. E. Clay, Armstrong 	
C. E. Clay, Armstrong	
C. E. Clay, Armstrong ____	
C. E. Clay, Armstrong— 	
10
Armstrong  _ 	
Armstrong  _ —	
Armstrong  	
9
8
9
10
10
C. E. Clay, Armstrong 	
C. E. Clay, Armstrong 	
C. E. Clay, Armstrong ___	
14
9
Armstrong—    	
10 R 152
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No.  11—Continued.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs, 1943—Continued.
Swine Clubs.
Name of Club.
Organizer.
Secretary.
Membership.
Agassiz	
Armstrong.	
Armstrong	
Armstrong	
Bulkley Valley..
C hilli wack	
Chilliwack	
Coombs	
Coombs	
Langley 	
Mission District	
North Saanich	
Richmond	
Salmon Arm West-
Van derh oof  	
Woodpecker-Hixon-
R. B. Briskham, Agassiz	
C. E. Clay, Armstrong 	
C. E. Clay, Armstrong.	
C. E. Clay, Armstrong	
Ray Oulton, Smithers	
Fred H. Bryant, Chilliwack _
Arthur Renney, Chilliwack...
James Campbell, Coombs	
James Campbell, Coombs _—.
Clifford Freeman, Milner	
G. A. Jones, Mission City	
James Ramsay, Sidney...
G. G. Grimes, Steveston —
J. A. McCurdy, Salmon Arm..
N. E. Williams, Vanderhoof ..
C. Semerad, Hixon. __.
Vernon Briskham, Agassiz _
Mabel Oliarny, Smithers	
Bobby Nickolson, Chilliwaek-
Ernest Oldham, Chilliwack —
Margaret Ordog, Mission City	
Billy Dignan, Sidney—	
Patricia James, R.R. 2, Eburne..
Mervyn Horsley, Salmon Arm ....
W. H. Williams, Vanderhoof	
Ivan Richet, Red Rock 	
7
7
7
7
11
13
5
9
4
14
10
10
9
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1943.
1,805-1243-7229

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