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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA THIRTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1943

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
THIRTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF  THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOR THE YEAR 1942
PRINTED  BY
AUTHOBITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1942.  To His Honour W. C. Woodward,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Report
of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1942.
K. C. MacDONALD,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., December 7th, 194-2.  CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of Deputy Minister of Agriculture       7
Report of Statistician     16
Report of Markets Branch    20
Report of Horticultural Branch     26
Report of Field Crops Commissioner    47
Report of Provincial Plant Pathologist     53
Report of Provincial Apiarist     59
Report of Provincial Entomologist ■.     62
Report of Chief Veterinary Inspector     62
Report of Live Stock Branch.__      66
Report of Recorder of Brands     74
Report of Dairy Branch     77
Report of Poultry Branch .     81
Report of Women's Institutes     84
Report of Soil Survey Branch    87
Report of Boys' and Girls' Clubs     88
Reports of District Agriculturists—
Peace River District     91
Bulkley Valley     94
Nechako-Prince George     99
Cariboo-Lillooet  105
Kamloops-Nicola  108
Salmon Arm-Kootenay  118
Grand Forks  121
Fraser Valley  125
Appendices—
No. 1. Dominion Fertilizer Subventions—Spring-sown Crops  129
No. 2. Dominion Fertilizer Subventions—Fall-sown Crops  131
No. 3. Summary of Movement of Grain Screenings  132
No. 4. Threshermen's Returns, 1941  133
No. 5. Estimate of Honey-crop, 1942  134
No. 6. Summary of Premises visited and Cattle T.B.-tested, 1942  134
No. 7. Summary of Premises inspected and graded under " Milk Act," 1942.  134
No. 8. Fence-viewers  135
No. 9. Pound Districts  140
No. 10. Boys' and Girls' Clubs, 1942  141 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICERS
Honourable K. C. MacDonald, Minister.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A., Deputy Minister.
ADMINISTRATION AND GENERAL.
Ernest MacGinnis, Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
W. H. Thornborrow, Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
George H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
C. P. L. Pearson, Assistant Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
L. W. Johnson, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.    (On military leave.)
C. F. Cornwall, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
A. J. Hourston, General Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
A. H. Shotbolt, Exhibition Specialist, Victoria, B.C.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Survey, Kelowna, B.C.
James S. Wells, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.    (On military leave.)
Daryl Anderson, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
PLANT INDUSTRY DIVISION.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
E. W. White, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
E. C. Hunt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
M. S. Middleton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
Ben Hoy, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
R. P. Murray, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
C. B. TwiGG, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Creston, B.C.
H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, Vernon, B.C.
C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector, Salmon Arm, B.C.
John Tait, District Field Inspector, Summerland, B.C.
John A. Smith, B.S.A., Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.    (On military leave.)
G. L. Foulkes, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Victoria, B.C.
V. Tonks, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Vernon, B.C.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
W. R. Foster, M.S.A., Assistant Plant Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
Max Ruhmann, B.A., Provincial Entomologist, Vernon, B.C.
A. W. Finlay, Provincial Apiarist, New Westminster, B.C.
Cecil Tice, B.S.A., Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
S. S. Phillips, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Walter Sandall, Field Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
LIVE STOCK DIVISION.
W. R. GUNN, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.Sc, Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Henry Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Instructor, Kelowna, B.C.
F. Overland, Dairy Instructor, Vancouver, B.C.
G. H. Thornbery, Assistant (Milk Records), Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Knight, Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
Dr. M. Sparrow, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
Dr. J. D. MacDonald, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
J. R. Terry, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
George Pilmer, Brand Recorder, Victoria, B.C.
R. Cahilty, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
James Travis, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
Dr. E. C. Chamberlayne, District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
Shirley G. Preston, M.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
Wm. MacGillivray, District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
T. S. Crack, District Agriculturist, Pouce Coupe, B.C. REPORT of the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
REPORT BY THE DEPUTY MINISTER.
J. B. MUNRO, M.S.A.
The Honourable K. C. MacDonald,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report of the Department of
Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1942.
During six months of the year it was necessary for me to be absent on sick-leave,
but W. H. Robertson was named Acting Deputy Minister and discharged the duties of
the office satisfactorily. Since September 1st he has continued to give supervisory
assistance over the Department. In December he has represented the Department at
the Federal-Provincial conference convened at Ottawa.
NEW LEGISLATION.
The first session of the Twentieth Legislature passed an amendment to the "Animals Act" providing that where the Lieutenant-Governor in Council has, by a Proclamation, defined any area as a district where bulls over 1 year old may be allowed to run
at large, he may also appoint a committee of three persons representing the cattle
industry and the Department of Agriculture to have power to prescribe by order the
times during which and the conditions subject to which bulls may be so allowed at
large. This committee also has authority to prescribe the type, quality, and breed of
range bulls and has also other related powers.
Further, the amendment provides that the Lieutenant-Governor in Council may
make regulations conferring upon any committee such incidental powers as may be
deemed necessary and prescribing the manner in which the powers of the committee
shall be exercised and the procedure to be followed on any appeal which is made from
any order of the committee.
CONTAGIOUS DISEASES.
The vaccination of calves against Brucellosis has been continued in accordance
with the plan laid down last year. In all, 3,200 female calves have been vaccinated and
reported on by practising veterinarians.
The Provincial Department of Agriculture has obtained a permit to import up to
10,000 doses of fowl pox vaccine and infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine for trial
demonstration use to be handled under the supervision of Dr. S. N. Wood, of the
University of British Columbia. This work is being undertaken and the Animal
Diseases laboratory of the University is selecting a few Fraser Valley flocks in which
the diseases can be diagnosed for treatment.
On October 15th, W. A. Brown, Chief of the Poultry Marketing and Production
Services, informed this Department that the Federal Government was prepared to
accede to the requests of the poultrymen and hateherymen in British Columbia that,
for the duration of the war at least, blood-testing of pullets not used for breeding in
flocks of approved flock-owners may not be blood-tested, providing that the untested
pullets are kept properly segregated from the tested breeding stock.
This information was passed on to the approved flock-owners, but coming late in
the season it did not greatly alter the number of birds tested for bacillus pullorum.
FALL FAIRS.
The two Class "A" fairs as well as many of the small rural exhibitions were cancelled due to war conditions. This year only two Class " B " fairs, at Armstrong and
Chilliwack, were held. In addition, there were rural fairs held at Nanaimo, Cobble
Hill,  Duncan,  Lasqueti  Island,  Courtenay,  Ladysmith,  Saanichton,  Langley  Flower- X 8
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
shows, North Vancouver, Vancouver (Horticultural), Langley, Port Moody, Mission,
South Burnaby, Agassiz, Cloverdale, Haney, Abbotsford, Peachland, Celista, Inver-
mere, Golden, Reid Lake, North Bridge Lake, McBride, Fort Fraser, Woodpecker,
Williams Lake, and Quick and Kiskatinaw, in the Peace River District.
These fairs afforded an excellent opportunity for junior farmers and farmerettes
to exhibit their live-stock products and field crops.
FEED-GRAIN TRANSPORTATION.
It is now ten years since the reduced rate on feed-grains from the Prairie Provinces first came into effect. During those ten years advantage has been taken of the
favourable freight rates by our live stock and poultry feeders. From 1933 up to
November 30th, 1942, there has been a total of approximately 517,000 tons of feed-
grain, mill-feeds, screenings, etc., carried under this policy. A complete summary
appears below.
Federal assistance in paying feed-grain transportation is still available under the
policy in effect last year and Ottawa has made an announcement regarding future grain
purchases as follows, dated March 20th, 1942: " The Minister of Agriculture is hereby
authorized to pay the car-lot short rail freight charges from Calgary, Edmonton, or
other points in the Province of Alberta from which the direct car-lot rail freight rates to
destinations in British Columbia do not exceed the car-lot rail freight rates by the direct
short-line route from Edmonton or Calgary, whichever is lower, to such destinations
and to pay the coastal waters freight charges based on car-lot ratings from any coastal
port in the Province of British Columbia to any coastal point therein."
Further, under date of September 11th, 1942, His Excellency the Governor-General
in Council ordered as follows: " Payments at the rate of 8 cents per bushel are hereby
authorized in respect of western wheat purchased on or after August 1st, 1942, from
a dealer licensed by the Canadian Wheat Board or directly from the Canadian Wheat
Board for use exclusively as feed for live stock and poultry."
Total Feed-grains imported into British Columbia under C.F.A. Tariff 145,
Years 1933-42.
Year.
Wheat.
Oats.
Barley.
Mixed.
Screenings.
Corn.
Mill-feed.
Rye.
1933    	
Tons.
19,752
26,336
31,612
28,843
21,143
24,801
41,715
39,011
45,883
61,523
Tons.
1,904
2,538
7,070
4,552
3,940
5,565
6,653
3,683
14,278
13,580
Tons.
3,288
4,383
6,104
5,592
3,600
5,248
4,504
11,679
15,305
11,033
Tons.
Tons.
60
80
Tons.
Tons.
Tons.
1934                                             	
1935                ...	
575
288
124
626
302
906
2,393
2,276
1936     	
63
30
209
278
490
359
1,275
82
1937            -
1938                                   	
1,930
4,585
5,579
8,985
5,906
1939       -	
1940  _	
1941 	
384
5,334
1942 -  	
4
Totals...	
340,619
63,763
70,736
6,790
2,844
5,718
26,985
86
NAILS AND WIRE.
By order of the Federal Metals Controller, wire and nails were frozen in August,
1942, and farmers throughout the Province were unable to secure their nail supplies
for new farm buildings, repairs, and construction of fences. The same order prevented
the purchase of barbed fence-wire, bailing-wire, etc. On receipt of representations
made by many farmers, the matter was taken up with Ottawa and we were advised to
get in touch with D. W. Atkins, Regional Director for Steel Control, Marine Building,
Vancouver, who is in charge of West Coast operations for the Steel Controller. In
reply to our inquiry, Mr. Atkins advised us on November 4th, 1942, that " every effort
is being made to alleviate the existing situation by increasing the production of the
facilities available and to this end adequate steel supplies in the form of nail rods are DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 9
now available. Man-power is at present the only hurdle left and co-operation is being
received to satisfy producers' need of labour.
" It is believed that within the next few weeks a definite change will be effected
whereby nails again will be available for general civilian distribution. Prior to that
time it is essential that strict control be exercised over the disbursement of the product
since the greater curtailment effected at the present moment will bring about general
distribution more quickly.
" It must be understood that the quantity of nails required for defence projects at
this time has depleted all stocks and, in addition, is demanding every nail that can be
produced in existing facilities both in the United States and Canada."
In view of Mr. Atkins's reply all requests for nails and wire have been referred to
the Vancouver office of the Steel Controller.
WARTIME PRICES AND TRADE BOARD.
The Wartime Prices and Trade Board was originally constituted by an Order in
Council of September 3rd, 1939, P.C. 2516, now operating under the authority of P.C.
8258 of November 1st, 1941. It is charged with the administration of the price ceiling
and other matters set forth in subsequent Orders in Council. The Board operates
largely through its several Administrators and in order that the rulings of the Board
may be followed by our farmers we keep in close touch with the Administrators
responsible for each branch of industry.
Under the Emergency Laws, Orders, and Regulations there are set up an Agricultural Supplies Board, a Bacon Board, and a Dairy Products Board. There are also
Administrators of Feeds, Fertilizers and Pesticides, Flax Fibre, Hides and Leather,
Foods, Oils and Fats, Wool, and a Metals Controller.
It is recognized that there are, of necessity, conflicts of authority encountered
from time to time, but by correspondence and personal interviews any difficulties that
have been encountered have been satisfactorily straightened out. Our Agricultural
Production Committee keeps its mailing-list informed of new orders from time to time
and endeavours to secure suitable interpretations from the Administrators.
LOAN TO FLAX INDUSTRY.
The Provincial Government has decided to advance $85,000 in interest-free loan
to British Columbia Co-operatives for the purpose of encouraging the development of
the fibre-flax industry by the erection of a scutching plant.
The loans are being offered through the Fraser Valley Fibre Flax Co-operative
Association, which has given assurances to the Government that a minimum of 1,000
acres of flax will be harvested in 1943. The loans will facilitate the establishment of
an important spinning-mill and a number of flax co-operatives which should ultimately
make fibre-flax production one of our major agricultural industries.
The money advanced will be repaid over an eight-year period by annual assessments on the crop. This will permit of establishing a permanent spinning industry
aimed at supplying British Columbia's needs during the war and expanding production
after the cessation of hostilities when help will be more abundant.
IMPORTED EGGS.
In accordance with the " Eggs Marks Act," chapter 82, R.S.B.C. 1936, and amendments thereto, imported eggs and egg products entering British Columbia by the Pacific
Coast ports are examined upon arrival. If found to comply with the regulations as
set out in the above Act, these are released to the importer or, otherwise, held until
the requirements have been fulfilled.
Imported eggs and egg products entering the port of Victoria are examined and
recorded by John Noble, Federal District Inspector, stationed at that port, and reported
at the end of each calendar month to the Provincial Egg Inspector, Court-house, Vancouver.    The co-operation of Mr. Noble is much appreciated. X 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The imports during the past ten months ended October 31st are as follows: 22
standard cases of hatching-eggs from the United States were reported to have arrived
into the port of Victoria, and 15% dozen hatchings arrived into the port of Vancouver
from the same source.
AGRICULTURAL PUBLICATIONS.
Within the last eleven months the Publications Branch of the Department of
Agriculture has forwarded to British Columbia residents some 32,000 bulletins and
circulars on agricultural subjects, according to C. F. Cornwall, Senior Clerk.
It is interesting to note at this time that, due to hampered war-time production
through scarcity of labour and transportation facilities, the public is becoming conscious of threatening shortages in certain commodities and, as a result, is showing an
ever-increasing interest in alleviating that possibility through its own efforts in becoming, to some extent, self-sufficient. This is well pointed out in the fact that three
publications very much in demand this past year show marked increase in popularity
over previous years. The three publications, in order of their demand, are: " Bee
Culture," which, incidentally, leads all agricultural publications in demand; " Preservation of Food," an old favourite, but showing an increased demand; and " Gardening
on a City Lot." Requests received for the last-mentioned were indicative of the
interest shown by small property owners of their desire to help, in some measure,
themselves and their country.
Mention should also be made of the interest shown in horticultural crops, particularly small fruits.
This year saw 55,000 mimeographed stencils go out from the Department, the
Live Stock Branch leading the way with 14,535 stencils going out to those engaged in
that branch of agriculture. The Horticultural Branch sent out over 8,000 stencils and
the Agricultural Production Committee nearly 7,000.
The following is a list of new publications printed to date:'—
Thirty-sixth Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture.
Agricultural Statistics Report, 1941.
Climate of British Columbia, 1941.
Report of His Honour Judge A. M. Harper.
Field Crops Circular, " Sow Good Seed for Clean Crops."
Field Crops Circular No. 17, " Diseases and Pests of Cereals, Fibre, Forage,
and Root Crops."
Seed Production Series No. 1, " Cabbage Seed."
Seed Production Series No. 2, " Spinach Seed."
Seed Production Series No. 8, " Turnip Seed Production."
Seed  Production  Series  No.   9,   " Threshing  and   Cleaning  Vegetable  Seed
Crops."
Horticultural Circular No. 74, " Lettuce Production in British Columbia."
Horticultural Circular No. 75, "Asparagus Production in British Columbia."
Horticultural Circular, " Club Root of Cabbages and Other Crucifers."
Horticultural Circular, "Apple Saw Fly."
Bulletin No. A108, " The Cascara Tree in British Columbia."
In addition to the above, many of our previous publications have been reprinted
and, where necessary, revised.
A list of these publications may be had upon request to this Branch.
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION COMMITTEE.
The year 1942 has seen definite progress in the work being undertaken by this
committee. The trend toward the production of crops which are needed in the war
effort, for which this Province is well adapted and bringing better returns to the
producer, is becoming more pronounced each year.
Fibre Flax.—Fibre-flax growers in the Fraser Valley have formed a strong
co-operative and this year concentrated their production efforts in a smaller area
centring at Cloverdale and Ladner. Approximately 175 acres were sown and the crop
was very satisfactory as to quality and yield. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 11
In order to secure pulling machines the Honourable the Minister secured for the
co-operative the loan of $3,000 and assisted in the purchase of a deseeder. It is the
present intention of the co-operative to deseed and store the 1942 crop for scutching
in 1943, at which time tentative plans have been made for the erection of an up-to-date
scutching plant. Assurances have been given by a local cordage company that this
firm will install spinning and other essential machinery as soon as a sufficient supply
of scutched flax is available.
As the installation of spinning machinery for fibre flax could with little adjustment
be available for work on hemp, which would not compete in any way with fibre flax,
inquiries are being made with regard to the possibility of permits being secured for
the production of this crop and for a supply of seed from the United States.
Soy-beans.—Recent experiments by a leading Vancouver tea and coffee importer
and roaster have shown that soy-beans may be used satisfactorily to replace food
products now not easily obtainable. Peanut butter and a breakfast food of high
nutrient content are two of these items.
Considerable acreages of soy-beans, 1943 crop, are being contracted for in various
parts of the Province.
Seeds.—Notwithstanding unfavourable weather for several days at the end of
July the seed production this year will be very gratifying, both in quantity and variety.
Plans are under way for an increase again next year. Departmental fieldmen reporting on cauliflower-raising state that this is attracting interest, especially as information from those countries formerly producing cauliflower-seed is now unavailable and
the interchange of ideas and experiences thereby takes on added importance.
Sheep.—In August the committee sent a circular to all Farmers' Institutes,
Women's Institutes, Agricultural Associations, and the country Press from which the
following is an extract:—
" In view of the greatly increased requirements for wool in Canada, particularly
for military purposes, all Provincial Departments of Agriculture have agreed to
co-operate with Agricultural Supplies Board in a programme of immediate expansion
in sheep production in the Dominion, with the objective of increasing the sheep population by 1,000,000 head by 1943. In this programme of expansion additions of breeding animals will be required to be made to present flocks, and as many new flocks as
possible should be established in districts suitable for sheep-raising.
" In order to encourage and assist farmers in Canada to make provision for
increasing the production of sheep and wool, the Minister of Agriculture, through the
Agricultural Supplies Board, has authorized the payment of freight on shipments of
breeding females and the loaning of rams for newly established flocks of breeding
ewes."
Swine.—It is interesting to note that as compared with 1938 there has been a
building-up of herds on farms and increase in population of hens, chickens, cattle, and
hogs, the latter being up 85 per cent. Values on farms show increases of cattle, 50
per cent.;  sheep, 44 per cent.;  and hogs, 122 per cent.
Medicinal Roots and Plants.—During the year Professor Davidson completed the
revision of his brochure on the Cascara Tree which was printed by the Department
as Bulletin 108a. This included the regulations set up by the Forestry Branch for
the harvesting of cascara-bark.
Mustard has been grown in quantity and experiments are under way with
peppermint.
Sorghum,.—Through the co-operation of District Agriculturists and District Horticulturists it has been possible this year to have experiments undertaken in the production of sorghum as a source of sweetening in view of sugar rationing. In certain
areas the results obtained were very satisfactory and several individuals with Eastern
Canadian experience in extracting the syrup are prepared to undertake that operation
next year if a crop of sufficient quantity is produced.
FARM LABOUR.
In November a questionnaire was sent to all Farmers' and Women's Institutes and
to the agricultural press asking for information on the farm-labour situation.    Only a X 12
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
part of the completed forms have been returned to the Department but these show a
very serious situation confronting the farmers at the beginning of 1943. The farm-
labour survey shows:—
No. of
Reports.
No. 1.
No. 2.
No. 3.
No. 4.
No
. 9.
District.
A.
B.
" A "	
11
7
6
10
8
8
19
6
7
2
1,101
59
88
298
1,597
527
1,719
134
92
30
266
40
55
59
1,043
196
265
32
76
22
78
1
2
29
16
32
18
23
19
18
76
8
25
77
17
30
1
246
115
212
751
3,082
700
2,362
119
250
124
304
" B "	
142
" C "	
171
" D "	
787
" E "	
3,599
" F "	
749
" G "	
" H "...  ....	
2,511
119
" I "	
233
" J " 	
134
Totals	
84
5,645
2,054
186
294
7,961
8,749
Number of men enlisted in the armed forces  5,645
Number of men gone into war-work  2,054
Total men gone   7,699
Reports covered 8,749 estimated (1942) farm premises, an increase of 788 or 10
per cent, over the farm premises in 1939.
In the meantime outside labourers (186) had come into the districts and farmers'
sons (294) had reached maturity; total, 480—about one-half of 1 per cent, of the
number leaving.
Farmers' wives and children continue to be shown as participating to a large extent
in the farm-work.
SHEEP POLICY.
The Sheep Policy encouraged by the Federal Government has resulted in the interests of farmers throughout the Province being stimulated in farm flocks. No great
extension of the industry is noted in the average district because of the depredations of
coyotes and other predatory animals, but in the Peace River Block the farm flocks of
sheep are being increased.
Recently fourteen rams have arrived in the Peace River District; eleven of these
are under the Dominion Ram Club Policy and three are under the National Sheep
Policy. A slight extension is also noted from the East Kootenay and from the Central
Interior.
HARPER REPORT.
The report of His Honour Judge A. M. Harper, a Commissioner appointed by an
Order in Council of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, dated the 30th day of September, 1941, to specifically investigate and report upon the various schemes established
under the authority of the " Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act " was
received.    This report has been printed and made available to the public.
In order that this report might be studied by a committee of senior departmental
officials the Minister, under date of November 25th, 1942, named J. B. Munro, W. H.
Robertson, Henry Rive, Cecil Tice, and Ernest MacGinnis as a committee to study the
report. The observations and recommendations of this committee are being recorded
for the use of the Minister.
BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUBS.
As will be seen in the report of the Boys' and Girls' Clubs this activity of the
Department has continued to expand. British Columbia is in the favoured position
of showing an increase in membership in spite of war conditions which have stripped
many of the farms of the young people upon which the clubs depend. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 13
Again we sent the eight qualifying contestants in four projects to Toronto. The
result of the National Competition was satisfactory to the Province, for although none
of the teams won premier awards they all received the benefit of the splendid educational trip.
It is specially noted that club activities this year have included Victory Gardens.
Many of the young people in the rural parts have taken a keen and definite interest in
producing garden crops that are helping out many a family diet and at the same time
are instrumental in teaching the children economical use of farm land. From present
indications it is safe to assume that in the coming year rural and urban children will
take even greater interest in the growing of garden crops. This move is now being
sponsored by some of the rural municipalities as well as by mayors and councils of the
citics
FARMERS' INSTITUTES.
The office of Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes is for the time being held by
Ernest MacGinnis, who has efficiently attended to the many details of Farmers' Institute administration.
Notwithstanding war-time conditions, interest in Farmers' Institutes maintains
a healthy level and in many communities its influence in centralizing local activities
continues to make itself felt.
Of the 205 Institutes on the register, 60 per cent, are engaged in some type of
co-operative work for their members. The eleven Institutes doing the largest business
averaged over $15,000 for the year, with only a small proportion in stumping-powder,
fuse, and caps.
The reports of a number of Institutes have not yet been received, but the active
membership is estimated to be about 4,500.
Conventions were held in all ten districts, as follows:—
District " E "—New Westminster, January 16th.
District " A "—Nanaimo, May 19th.
District " F "—Nakusp, June 10th.
District " I "—Fernie, June 12th.
District " C "—Prince George, June 16th and 17th.
District " B "—Francois Lake, June 19th.
District " D "—Kamloops, June 25th.
District " J "—Clayhurst, June 25th.
District " G "—Salmon Arm, June 26th.
District " H "—Canim Lake, September 30th.
Conventions at Nakusp, Fernie, Kamloops, and Salmon Arm were attended by the
Honourable the Minister.    Due to illness, the Deputy Minister and Superintendent of
Farmers' Institutes was unable to be present at any of these gatherings.
The personnel of the Advisory Board remains unchanged and with the Institutes
are participating in the Labour Survey now being undertaken by the Department.
On December 14th and 15th the Farmers' Institutes Advisory Board members were
convened at Victoria at the call of the Honourable K. C. MacDonald. In all, the Board
dealt with approximately one hundred resolutions submitted by the constituent Institutes during the year.    The Advisory Board as at present includes:—
District " A," Vancouver and Gulf Islands—S. Pickles, Saanichton, B.C.
District " B," Telkwa and Skeena—C, J. Killer, Telkwa, B.C.
District " C," Nechako—R. Blackburn, Prince George, B.C.
District " D," Kamloops—Wm. Harrison, Pritchard, B.C.
District " E," Lower Fraser Valley—D. E. MacKenzie, New Westminster, B.C.
District " F," West Kootenay—O. B. Appleton, R.R. 1, Nelson, B.C.
District " G," Okanagan-Shuswap—Robert Wood, Armstrong, B.C. (J. Wood-
burn, alternate).
District " H," Cariboo—Walter Hogg, Australian, B.C.
District " I," East Kootenay—Wm. Dicken, Fernie, B.C.
District " J," Peace River—Thos. Jamieson, Pouce Coupe, B.C. X 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
STAFF CHANGES.
We regret to record the passing of H. S. French, B.S.A., on January 16th, 1942.
Mr. French was for many years District Representative stationed successively at
Cranbrook, Courtenay, and Prince George. We have also to report that R. G. Sutton,
B.S.A., died at Kamloops on October 2nd. The late Mr. Sutton was District Agriculturist for the Department of Agriculture and for many years was located first at
Prince George and then at New Westminster.
The following resignations are recorded: Miss E. M. Hudson, January 31st; Miss
H. Querns, January 31st; D. H. McKay, March 31st; J. E. Porter, May 10; Miss
G. C. B. Smedley, April 30th; Miss D. Davey, July 31st; J. S. Wells, July 31st; J. A.
Smith, August 31st; Miss E. Summers, September 30th; Miss E. M. Campbell, October
15th;  and W. T. Carlyle, November 30th.
J. S. Wells, J. A. Smith, J. E. Porter, and Miss Gladys Smedley have all resigned
to engage in military service, while Miss Summers transferred to the Department of
the Attorney-General.
The following appointments are recorded: Miss D. Davey, February 1st; Mrs.
A. B. Pinchbeck, May 1st; D. F. Anderson, June 1st; C. F. Cornwall, July 9th; Mrs.
M. Wyse, September 1st; Miss E. Cary, November 16th; Mrs. D. Moore, November
17th;   and Miss W. Laitinen, November 23rd.
Also recorded are the following transfers from casual labour to the pay-roll: W.
Baverstock, April 1st; E. C. Chamberlayne, April 1st; and Miss E. W. Eastwood,
May 1st.
SELECT STANDING COMMITTEE ON AGRICULTURE.
The report of the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture, as presented to the
Legislature on the 10th day of February, 1942, is reproduced here for purposes of
record.
" Mr. E. C. Carson presented the First Report of the Select Standing Committee
on Agriculture, as follows:—
" ' Report No. 1.
" ' Legislative Committee Room,
" ' February 10th, 1942.
" ' Mr. Speaker :
"' Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture begs leave to report as
follows:—
" ' Your Committee—authorized by Resolution of the Legislative Assembly " to
consider such matters affecting the agricultural industry as may be laid before it by
the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes, to call members of the British Columbia
Agricultural Production Committee, the Interdepartmental Committee on Farm Labour,
and such departmental officials as may be representatives on other agricultural bodies
with a view to securing information on matters affecting the agricultural welfare of
the Province, and to report its findings to this House "—held three sittings.
" ' At one of these sittings the Farmers' Institute Advisory Board presented a total
of thirteen resolutions dealing with the following matters:—
A. Predatory-animal bounties.
B. Farmer-member on Game Board.
C. Export on eggs assistance.
D. Agricultural lime bonus increase.
E. Grain-growers' assistance.
F. Bonus to feed-grain growers.
G. Starch factories.
H. Farmers' taxes.
I. School taxes.
J. Tractors used by farmers.
K. Farm-labour organization.
L. Drain-tile.
M. Old-age pensions. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 15
" ' Four of the above resolutions—namely, C, E, F, and L—were tabled pending
the securing of further information regarding representations. Six resolutions—
namely, G, H, I, J, K, and M—are deserving of consideration by the respective Departments of Government to which they are directed.
"' Your Committee recognizes the fact that Resolutions A, B, and D involve the
revenues of the Crown. However, they are of immediate importance and are passed
on to the Departments concerned with the recommendation of this Committee that they
be implemented in so far as possible. At the same time, your Committee recommends
that in view of the importance of the agricultural industry the appropriations for
agriculture ought to be sufficiently increased to permit of the extension and expansion
of such policies as that dealing with the subsidy on agricultural lime.
" ' Resolution A, referring to predatory-animal bounties, is of paramount importance in all sections where predatory animals are decimating farm herds and flocks.
We recommend, therefore, that a bounty of $5 on coyotes, $20 on wolves, and $30 on
cougars be paid from Provincial funds and that restrictions respecting the destruction
of birds damaging farm property be relaxed.
" ' It is further suggested by this Committee that, upon request, farmers be given
permission to destroy pheasants when they are found doing damage to crops.
" ' This Committee regrets to note that, while the appropriation for predatory-
animal bounties is.considerably decreased in the Estimates for the coming year, there
is provided a large appropriation to be used in the distribution of pheasants and other
game birds that are frequently detrimental to farm crops.
" ' Resolution B, advocating a farmer-member on the Game Board, is endorsed with
the recommendation that this suggestion receive the immediate attention of the
Honourable the Attorney-General, under whose Department game administration comes.
" ' Resolution D, asking for the lime bonus increase from 50 cents to $1 a ton on
lime used for soil improvement, is approved. In this connection your Committee points
out that the appropriation for agriculture is entirely inadequate to take care of extension and expansion, imperative for the sound establishment of farming as a primary
industry of a large number of our people.
" ' The Select Standing Committee on Agriculture has carefully studied the matters laid before it by the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes, and it concurs in the
opinion that an increase in the Estimates for the Department of Agriculture is
essential.
" ' With reference to Resolution K, it is the opinion of this Committee that leadership must be given by the Government in the organizing and making available of
suitable and adequate labour to assist in agricultural operations during the current
year.
"' Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture called in the Agricultural Production Committee in order to ascertain what further action had been taken with
a view to informing and advising farmers respecting their agricultural pursuits. We
express complete satisfaction with the findings resulting from the questioning of this
Committee. Since the outbreak of war in 1939 they have issued forty-six separate
circulars to agricultural organizations and the farm press dealing with pertinent farm
topics and advising on production matters of the greatest importance.
" ' The Agricultural Production Committee recognizes its responsibility and is
fully aware of the seriousness of the existing situation and the necessity for continued
vigilance and diligence in maintaining the agricultural efficiency of British Columbia.
" ' All of which is respectfully submitted.
E. C. Carson, Chairman.'
" The report was read and received." X 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS.
By George H. Stewart, Provincial Statistician.
A synopsis of agricultural conditions in British Columbia for the year 1941 is
presented herewith, being the most recent available figures.
The total gross agricultural revenue of British Columbia for 1941 is estimated at
$58,577,539, as compared with the revised estimate of $52,317,121 for 1940. This
represents an increase of $6,260,418 or 11.9 per cent. The 1941 figure is the highest
recorded since 1929.
Increases are shown in the revenue from farm animals, poultry and eggs, dairy
products, fruit and vegetables, grains, wool, tobacco, and seeds. Decreases are recorded
in the revenue from fodders, potatoes and roots, honey, hops, and fur-farming.
Prices during the past year have been approximately 10 per cent, above the preceding year. Costs of production and living have risen considerably, however, so that
the returns to primary producers are still short of parity with the returns to labour
and to industry.    A general shortage of farm labour has aggravated the situation.
The total value of imports is placed at $22,720,110, as compared with a value of
$18,710,703 in 1940.
Imports from other Provinces are valued at $21,068,649, compared with $16,524,455
in 1940; while imports from foreign points decreased from $2,186,248 in 1940 to
$1,651,461 in 1941.
The total value of exports is estimated at $11,648,588, an increase of $2,409,569
or 26 per cent, over the previous year.    The 1941 values are the highest ever recorded.
FRUITS.
In the fruit and vegetable producing sections of British Columbia the winter was
extremely mild, with more sunshine and less snowfall than is usually experienced at
this time of the year. The spring was comparatively early, followed by a summer
when more rain fell than is usual, particularly in the Interior. This excessive rainfall
was followed by warm weather which reached the maximum temperature about the
middle of July. At this time record temperatures were reported in all areas. The
fall was very wet in all sections, and the rainfall experienced from the middle of August
until the late fall interfered with the harvesting of crops in all sections and in some
cases caused serious loss. No low temperatures were experienced during the late fall
or early winter. Light frosts were recorded in the Interior districts but no frosts in
the Coast sections.
With the exception of apples, tree-fruits in all sections wintered satisfactorily.
The sudden drop in temperature last November in most of the fruit areas of the
Interior severely damaged the fruit-buds of apples, with resultant short crop in 1941.
Pears were an excellent crop and of good quality. Stone-fruits, such as peaches,
apricots, and prunes, were a heavy crop and in good demand. Cherries also were
a heavier crop than that of 1940. Rain seriously interfered with the harvesting of
this fruit and had it not been for the market demand for S02 fruit the loss would have
been heavy.
In the principal small-fruit areas all small fruits came through the winter in satisfactory condition. With the exception of strawberries, all crops, however, were lighter
than those of the previous year.
In the early spring it was anticipated that strawberries would be on the market
at a date previous to that of last year. Cool weather during the blossoming period
delayed ripening, with the result that the general picking dates were about the same as
in 1940 although, due to the cool weather, the season was longer than usual. Everbearing plantings suffered as a result of the dry, hot weather in July and August.
Hot weather also shortened the raspberry-crop in many sections. Due to the
demand, however, for raspberries, both for the fresh fruit and on the S02 market,
berries were taken by the buyers as long as they were available. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 17
Loganberries in the early part of the season gave promise of a heavy crop but the
hot weather at picking-time materially shortened the production. The hot weather
also reduced the blackberry-crop.
On the whole, the small-fruit crop was not sufficient to meet the demand and prices
generally showed an improvement over those of 1940.
*Q ,I™°tal Production of all fruits in 1941 amounted to 271,258,000 lb., valued at
$8 350,522, as compared with 319,552,000 lb., valued at $7,379,840, in 1940, indicating
a decrease of 48,294,000 lb. or 15.1 per cent, in volume but an increase of $970,682 or
13.1 per cent, in value.
Increases are recorded in the production of the following fruits: Pears, plums
prunes, peaches, apricots, cherries, and strawberries; while other fruits, such as apples'
crab-apples, raspberries, blackberries, and loganberries, were lower than that of the
previous year.
nf , JhG ^J^o^L0* commercial aPPles for 1941 is estimated at 188,106,000 lb.,
of the value of $4,484,187, as compared with 249,602,000 lb., value $4,415,650, in 1940
U± the other fruits, the estimated commercial production and value for 1941 are
as follows, with corresponding figures for 1940 placed within brackets • Crab-annles
JSK2Xlb" f6'812 (5>032>000> ^'203) ; pears" 16,622,000 lb, $571,230 (U514000
$415,303) ; plums, 5,166,000 lb„ $128,341 (2,036,000, $59,059) ; prunes 10 814 000 lb '
$380,758 (5,098,000, $161,547) ; peaches, 13,974,000 lb., $572,336 (ll,518,OOo' $390 079)'-'
Ti8?nnn'7«r?i^' $1f'6°? (3'384'000' *147'966) i berries, 4,994.000 lb! $424,580
(4,184,000, $340,412);   strawberries, 13,924,000 lb., $930,099   (12,252 000   $744 246)-
^Trro4fnnnTo!!ooff'48t (4'414'000' ?300,449) ;   blackberries,'778,000 lb.',
$42 590 (1,046 000 $40.290) ; loganberries, 2,014,000 lb., $112,251 (2,384,000, $99,616)
bush-fruits, 2,964,000 Ib„ $145,142  (3,870,000, $164,212).
VEGETABLES.
The past season has been one of the most unfavourable that the producers of
tomatoes and onions have experienced for some time. Rain during the late summer
and fall prevented the satisfactory ripening and harvesting of both crops Cannerv
prices for tomatoes were higher than they have been for a number of years and
growers were expecting an excellent year.    Weather, however, reduced the crop and
5 WCLWaS Olmferlor W&ht*- The onion acreage was only slightly less than that
of last year. The crop, however, was harvested under difficulties and in many cases
growers resorted to knn-drying that part of the crop that was intended for storage
purposes. atuiage
Other vegetable-crops show an increase and the production was on the whole satis-
sSard excePtion of cantaloupes, which were not up to their usual quality
tende^r^ ^"^ ^ ^^ greenhouse and outdo°r vegetable crops showed an upward
The aggregate of all vegetable-crops for the year 1941 was 76,359 tons, of a value
of $3,431,554, as compared with 69,539 tons, of a value of $2,770,467, produced in 1940
indicating an increase of 6,820 tons or 9.8 per cent, in quantity and $661 087 or 23 8
per cent, in value.
The total production of field and forced rhubarb in 1941 amounted to 1 602 tons
of a value of $70,264, as compared with 1,745 tons, of a value of $72,574 in 1940 a
decrease of 143 tons in quantity and $2,310 in value.
The quantity of field cucumbers produced in 1941 amounted to 1,317 tons of a
value of $68,708, an increase of 144 tons or 12.2 per cent.
The production of hothouse cucumbers is estimated at 310 tons, of a value of
$36,382, as compared with 311 tons, value $28,755, in 1940.
The production of hothouse tomatoes in 1941 amounted to 2,087 tons, valued at
$456,552, as compared with 2,011 tons, valued at $400,028, in 1940.
Field tomatoes produced amounted to 23,626 tons, as against 25,774 tons in 1940
a decrease of 2,148 tons. '
2 X 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Other vegetables produced in 1941 amounted to 47,417 tons, valued at $2,095,357,
as compared with the production for the year previous of 38,525 tons, valued at
$1,497,467.
GRAINS, FODDERS, AND ROOTS.
Crops sown in the fall of 1940 came through the winter in good condition and got
away to a good start. Spring-sown crops were sown early due to favourable weather
conditions. Germination of crops was good and frequent general showers during May
and June promoted crop-growth. July was warm and sunny and the crop reached
maturity in fine condition. The almost continuous rain during the month of September in most districts of the Province had a marked effect on threshing operations.
Considerable grain was lost in the stook and much turned out to be of low quality due
to weathering.    Yields of most crops were slightly under those of last year.
Hay-crops on the whole were very satisfactory but considerable loss occurred in
some districts due to wet weather.
Potatoes suffered badly, more particularly in the Coast districts, owing to bad
infestation of late blight caused by the continued wet and muggy weather in the fall.
No major changes occurred in the acreages of field crops and the reduction of
spring-wheat acreage is more than balanced by the increase in summer fallow.
The production of all grains amounted to 8,218,000 bushels, valued at $4,487,000,
as compared with a production of 8,888,000 bushels, valued at $4,130,000, in 1940.
Wheat production in 1941 is estimated at 1,695,000 bushels from 67,800 acres,
a yield per acre of 25 bushels, as compared with 1,999,000 bushels from 78,100 acres,
or 25.6 bushels per acre in 1940. Oats yielded 5,530,000 bushels from 121,000 acres,
as compared with 5,912,000 bushels from 118,000 acres in 1940, yields per acre of 45.7
bushels and 50.1 bushels respectively. Barley production is estimated at 549,000
bushels from 16,700 acres, or 32.9 bushels per acre, as compared with 580,000 bushels
from 17,300 acres, or 33.5 bushels per acre, in 1940. Rye is estimated to have yielded
101,000 bushels from 4,800 acres, as compared with 84,000 bushels from 4,200 acres in
1940, yields per acre of 21 and 20 bushels.
The production of mixed grains is estimated at 176,000 bushels from 4,700 acres,
or 37.5 bushels per acre, as compared with 183,000 bushels from 4,900 acres, or 37.3
bushels per acre, in 1940. The production of other grain crops, in bushels, is as
follows, with the 1940 figures within'brackets: Peas, 127,000 (97,000) ; beans, 31,000
(29,000);  flax-seed, 9,000 (4,000).
The average prices up to December 31st received by growers at the point of production for the 1941 crops are estimated as follows, with the prices for 1940 crops
within brackets: Cents per bushel—wheat, 75 (70) ; oats, 45 (36) ; barley, 58 (49) ;
rye, 62 (55) ; peas, 151 (130) ; beans, 180 (190) ; flax-seed, 115 (105) ; mixed grains,
50 (48).
Fodder-crops aggregating a total of 731,000 tons valued at $7,083,000 were produced as against the 1940 production of 745,000 tons, valued at $6,988,000.
Hay and clover production in 1941 amounted to 325,000 tons from 157,000 acres,
or 2.07 tons per acre, as compared with 333,000 tons from 158,700 acres, or 2.10 tons
per acre, in 1940. Alfalfa yielded 156,000 tons from 51,000 acres, or 3.05 tons per
acre, as compared with 157,000 tons from 51,000 acres, or 3.07 tons per acre, in 1940.
Fodder corn yielded 70,000 tons from 6,100 acres, or 11.53 tons per acre, as compared
with 71,000 tons from 6,100 acres, or 11.66 tons per acre, in 1940. Grain-hay is estimated to have yielded 116,000 tons from 53,000 acres, as compared with 116,000 tons
from 51,600 acres in 1940, yields per acre of 2.19 tons and 2.25 tons respectively.
The total yield of potatoes in 1941 was 93,600 tons from 19,500 acres, as compared
with 122,000 tons from 20,000 acres in 1940, the yields per acre being 4.80 tons and
6.10 tons respectively.
Turnips, etc., yielded 53,500 tons from 5,400 acres, or 9.90 tons per acre, as compared with 61,600 tons from 5,500 acres, or 11.20 tons per acre, in 1940.
The aggregate value of all field crops in 1941 is estimated at $14,552,000 as compared with $14,761,000 in 1940. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 19
DAIRY PRODUCTS.
During 1941 a considerable rise in total value of dairy products was experienced.
Prices which had hitherto been severely controlled were permitted adjustment somewhat more in accord with the increased overhead of the dairy producer. All feedstuffs
(concentrates particularly) had long gone up in cost and labour of the right kind is
still most difficult to secure.
Total milk production increased appreciably but some manufactured products
decreased in quantity. Creamery butter and cheese declined slightly, ice-cream gained
and evaporated milk showed an immense increase, amounting to nearly 27 per cent, over
the previous year. Some encouragement has been felt by the producer, but not enough
to compensate for the decade of low prices experienced just prior to the outbreak of
war and the haste to apply a ceiling price to butter and fluid milk.
On the whole the season was favourable to those producers with sufficient assistance but many small dairy-farm operators have left the business for work offering
more remuneration.
The total value of dairy production in 1941 is placed at $16,209,733, as compared
with the 1940 production of $14,218,825, an increase of $1,990,908 or 14 per cent.
The 1941 creamery butter make amounted to 6,062,442 lb., as compared with 6,189,-
036 lb. in 1940, a decrease of 126,594 lb. The average for the whole of 1941 was 34.3
cents per lb. of creamery butter as against 26.8 cents per lb. in 1940.
Factory cheese is estimated at 719,528 lb., valued at $148,892, as compared with
750,502 lb., valued at $122,158, in 1940, which represents a decrease of 30,974 lb.
Cheese averaged 20.6 cents per lb. in 1941 as against 16.2 cents per lb. the year
previous.
The quantity of evaporated milk manufactured exceeded all previous records. The
output of the condenseries during 1941 amounted to 581,806 cases, valued at $2,094,502,
as compared with 458,521 cases, valued at $1,467,268, in 1940.
The production of ice-cream also reached an all-time high. The combined output
of ice-cream and ice-cream mix amounted to 1,357,812 gallons in 1941, as against
1,122,127 gallons in 1940, indicating an increase of 235,685 gallons or 21 per cent.
The quantity of fresh milk consumed in 1941 was 21,865,000 gallons, as compared
with 21,520,000 gallons in 1940, which represents an increase of 345,000 gallons.
Increases are recorded in the 1941 production of chocolate milk, cottage cheese,
and skim-milk powder.
LIVE STOCK AND POULTRY.
During 1941, stockmen enjoyed a definite improvement in live-stock prices and considerable improvement in organization of their marketing'. Beef cattle netted them
returns above average and shipments have increased.
Lamb and wool prices have been good, but predatory animals are making it difficult for sheepmen to carry on in some sections.
A very definite improvement in swine marketings has been noted this year, with
co-operative mixed and truck shipments coming out of Central British Columbia and
the Cariboo. In one section of the Province rail grading of swine shows the percentage
of top grades to be highest in the Dominion.
The total numbers and values of farm live stock in British Columbia at June 1st,
1941, are estimated as follows, with the corresponding figures for 1940 within brackets:
Horses, 72,800, $5,460,000 (71,000, $5,396,000) ; milk cows, 130,700, $8,103,000 (129,400,
$6,988,000); other cattle, 231,900, $10,204,000 (197,800, $7,516,000); total cattle, 362,600,
$18,307,000 (327,200, $14,504,000) ; sheep, 170,600, $1,510,000 (174,700, $1,260,000) ;
hogs, 88,800, $1,399,000 (83,100, $1,205,000). *
The total value of all these descriptions of farm live stock in 1941 amounted to
$26,676,000, as compared with $22,365,000 in 1940, an increase of $4,311,000 or 19.2
per cent.
The total numbers and values of farm poultry in 1941 are estimated as follows,
with the 1940 figures in brackets: Hens and chickens, 4,399,400, $3,520,000 (4,719,300,
$3,634,000) ; turkeys, 53,400, $147,000 (56,200, $147,000) ; geese, 10,900, $22,000 (9,200,
$17,000) ; ducks, 31,200, $31,000 (34,900, $35,000). X 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total value of all farm poultry in 1941 amounted to $3,720,000 as against
$3,833,000 in 1940.
The average farm values per head of live stock and poultry in 1941 are as follows,
with the 1940 values in brackets: Horses, $75 (76) ; milk cows, $62 (54) ; other cattle,
$44 (38) ; all cattle, $50 (44) ; sheep, $8.85 (7.21) ; hogs, $15.75 (14.50) ; hens and
chickens, $0.80 (0.77); turkeys, $2.75 (2.61); geese, $2 (1.80); ducks, $1 (1).
The production of farm eggs in 1941 is estimated at 20,845,000 dozens, compared
with 20,350,000 dozens in 1940, an increase of 495,000 dozens. Returns to the producer
ranged higher than during the year previous.
MISCELLANEOUS.
Seed production in the Province shows a decided increase. In 1941 the value of
vegetable-seed produced was $456,256, as against $153,609 in 1940 and $72,130 in 1939.
Field roots and forage-crops seed production for the same period was $146,003, as compared with $140,705 in 1940 and $127,657 in 1939. Flower-seed production was valued
at $12,774 in 1941 and $18,063 and $26,456 respectively for the years 1940 and 1939.
The total value of all seed production for the year 1941 amounted to $615,033, as
against $312,377 in 1940, an increase of $302,656 or 96.8 per cent.
The demand for bulbs, due to conditions in Europe, continues to increase. Growers
are increasing their plantings each year and finding a ready sale for all that can be
produced. While bulbs of the highest quality can be produced and are produced by
many growers, there is room for improvement. Only by maintaining a high standard
of quality will it be possible for producers to hold the market which they now have when
normal conditions return and with it the European competition that may be expected.
That this industry is growing is shown by the fact that in 1929 there were 159 acres
in bulbs and in 1941, 315 acres.
The value of floricultural and ornamental nursery stock, etc., sold during the year
1941 amounted to $332,494, an increase from the previous year of $59,063 or 21.6 per
cent.
The abnormally hot dry spell experienced during the month of July greatly curtailed the honey-flow and as a result the crop was below normal. The production of
honey in 1941 is estimated at 1,169,040 lb., of a value of $210,427, as against 1,264,050
lb., of a value of $214,889, in 1940, representing a decrease in quantity of 95,010 lb.
Hop-crop indications for 1941 were excellent up until harvesting, when unfavourable weather conditions interfered seriously with the picking. Hops yielded 1,596,400
lb. from 1,506 acres, as compared with 1,691,500 lb. from 1,303 acres in 1940, yields per
acre of 1,060 lb. and 1,298 lb. respectively. The average value per pound of hops in
1941 is estimated at 35 cents, as compared with 33% cents in 1940.
Tobacco yielded 766,200 lb., valued at $140,200, from 640 acres, as compared with
507,600 lb., valued at $95,000, from 450 acres in 1940, the yields per acre being 1,197
lb. and 1,128 lb. respectively.    The entire crop was sold in Eastern Canada.
Wool produced amounted to 586,000 lb., valued at $130,000, as against the 1940
production of 645,000 lb., valued at $123,000. The average value per pound of unwashed
wool in 1941 is estimated at 22.1 cents, as compared with 19 cents in 1940.
REPORT OF MARKETS BRANCH.
Ernest MacGinnis, Markets Commissioner.
Since the outbreak of the war, the production and marketing procedure has been
constantly changing as new and unforeseen developments in the international scene
took place.
Realizing the relationship between production and marketing of agricultural products your Markets Commissioner is maintaining close touch with both activities. As
Secretary of the British Columbia Agricultural Production Committee, Acting Superintendent  of  Farmers'  Institutes,  and  departmental   representative  to  the   Dominion DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 21
Agricultural Supplies Board and the Agricultural Section of the Dominion Rehabilitation Council, all new and important moves in agricultural production and national
marketing movements are brought to the attention of this office.
The conditions outlined in the 1941 report as affecting the marketing of the British
Columbia agricultural crop existed in large measure during the year presently under
review, 1942.
The shortage of labour has been reflected in the short supply of several commodities, notably the berry-crop in the Fraser Valley, and in the same area heavy rains and
other conditions reduced potato yields.
With increased demand from the armed forces and war-workers, priorities on
machinery, and with a labour shortage restricting production, the marketing of agricultural produce has presented few difficulties. The apple-crop, up about 30 per cent,
over 1941, was marketed as in previous years under the " War Measures Act " by agreement with the Dominion Department of Agriculture.
COMMODITY PRICE CONTROL.
The following commodities are under the ceiling regulations of the Wartime Prices
and Trade Board: Potatoes, onions, all dried fruits (including apples), pears and
prunes, eggs, all honey sales (except sales by the producer to other than a consumer),
butter, cheese, evaporated milk, seeds (except bird-seed when mixed with imported
seed).
■ Though exempt from ceiling the Board exercises control in the event of excessive
prices being charged for fresh apples and all fresh fruits, exempting bananas. All
vegetables except potatoes and onions are exempt.    Fresh bunch onions are exempt.
Individual distributers have individual ceilings established during the basic period.
Basic period for dried onions, January 5th to 10th; basic period for potatoes, February
2nd to 7th.    Egg, honey, butter, and cheese ceilings are set by the Board orders.
Beef and pork are under a ceiling. Beef ceiling, October 13th, 1942; prices as
follows: 17% cents per pound in carcasses for commercial trade, 2% cents less for
cow beef. Pork ceiling, December 1st, 1941. Prices to be the same as prevailed in
the same store during the basic period, September 15th to October 11th, 1941.
MARKETING OF 1942 TREE-FRUIT CROP.
Apples.—Original estimates of the apple-crop were considerably reduced as the
picking season advanced. A poor set in some areas, inexperienced thinning help and
pickers, and a larger drop than usual because of late picking due to scarcity of help,
and the serious windfall and hail damage in some areas contributed to this condition.
At the same time the apples sized up to an extent of perhaps 20 per cent. The Prairie
markets absorbed large quantities and by the end of October had purchased over a
quarter of a million boxes more than up to the same period the preceding year.
A new development in tree-fruit marketing designed to absorb any shock that
might follow the withdrawal of the powers now enjoyed under the " War Measures
Act" at the conclusion of hostilities is a three-party contract between growers, their
shippers, and Tree Fruits, Ltd. The campaign for signatures was well received and
followed discussions and much committee work by the British Columbia Fruit-growers'
Association over a period of years.
Following are extracts from the agreement between the Minister of Agriculture
for Canada and the Okanagan Valley growers, as represented by the British Columbia
Fruit Board (which operates under the " Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act").
" Section 3: The Minister agrees to assist in the marketing of a maximum quantity of 4,750,000 boxes of apples, less any quantity sold by the Board outside of Canada,
by paying to the Board the sum or amount by which the f .o.b. value of all sales by the
Board of Canada for fresh consumption at prices authorized by the Minister totals less
than an average of $1.25 per box of wrapped pack and $1.15 per box of unwrapped
pack for a total quantity of 4,500,000 boxes less any quantity sold by the Board outside X 22
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of Canada, and the sum or amount by which the f.o.b. value of any additional such
sales not exceeding 250,000 boxes totals less than an average of $1 per box.
" The Minister further agrees to purchase from the Board up to 2,240,000 pounds
of choice quality evaporated apples, 22 per cent, moisture, resulphured, packed for
export, at 11 cents per pound f.o.b. shipping point.
" Powers of the Board: (1.) The Board shall have the exclusive right to sell, ship,
or transport apples for delivery outside of the Okanagan Valley or to designate the
agency by or through which apples may be sold, shipped, or transported, and to determine the charges that may be deducted by any such agency.
"Pooling of Receipts: (1.) The Board shall have authority to conduct a pool for
the distribution of all moneys paid by the Minister together with all moneys received
from sales of apples and after deducting all necessary and proper disbursements and
expenses and such compensation as may be determined by the Board for apples excluded
from marketing, to make payment to the growers or the growers' agents in accordance
with a scheme of distribution determined by the Board, which shall be on the basis of
like returns for apples of the same variety, grade, size, marketability, and packing
costs."
Crab-apples.—The crop of Hyslops required considerable additional advertising to
keep in motion, but eventually 115,000 packages were disposed of, which is a record
for several years.    Transcendents in smaller quantity were absorbed fairly quickly.
Analysis of Movement of 1941 Apple-crop.
Variety.
Domestic.
Export.
Cannery.
Shrink.
Total.
39,972
29,594
207,402
964,548
67,143
47,754
23,728
20,375
7,250
35,713
12,730
472,013
96,065
75,849
8,947
279,794
147,722
39,972
29,594
Wealthy    ...- -	
1,516
305,669
252,241
11,453
2,343
11
12,996
18,819
4,348
421,350
40,363
19,732
5,037
108,172
200,148
208,918
42
2
1,270,259
25,401
344,787
59,207
26,071
3,480
23,866
20,246
1,191
55,723
190
28
893,553
175 389
38,933
95,581
1,993
15,977
151
10
388,117
347,880
Totals                	
2,536,599
1,404,198
70,998
423
4,012,218
SOFT FRUITS.
The cherry season presented its usual number of problems due to the violent
weather fluctuations during the summer. Uneven ripening occurred in many fruits
and sometimes in different varieties of the same fruit. Towards the end of the cherry
season heavy rains caused considerable loss to growers, but, on the whole, this fruit
survived in fairly good shape. Price-levels were maintained and even rose slightly
towards the end of the season. A very substantial quantity was diverted to the
processors.
The peach season also shows a record of maintained prices rather in advance of
last year, and is complicated mostly by the fact that the semi-freestone varieties which
were set aside for cannery purposes showed a disconcerting tendency to remain clingstone, with resulting difficulties at the cannery. Apricots moved rapidly to the market.
Cantaloupes proved to be of outstanding quality and the demand held up satisfactorily
enough to market the entire crop at good prices. Plums and the balance of the soft
fruit also moved satisfactorily into consumption. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 23
STRAWBERRIES.
The strawberry-crop came on the market two weeks later than in 1941, cloudy
showery weather retarding the ripening, and the first car moved on June 6th. Sixty-
six cars were shipped to the fresh-fruit market compared with 195 the previous year.
Due to short supply, jobbers' floors were cleared every night. This quick movement
into consumption was reflected in the lower condition claims than might have been
expected.
It was anticipated at the time of shipping the first car that the peak movement
would come between the 18th and 23rd of June, but about that time the weather cleared
and extreme heat developed, affecting the berries and practically closing the deal.
The crop was marketed in almost equal proportions between the canners, the fresh-
fruit market, and the S02 deal for the British Ministry of Food.
Strawberries, raspberries, loganberries, and boysenberries were shipped to
Newfoundland; frozen loganberries to the United States; S02 black currants and
blackberries, strawberries, raspberries, and frozen black currants and raspberries were
shipped to Eastern Canada, and S02 strawberries and loganberries from Vancouver
Island were shipped to Eastern Canada.
The withdrawal of Jap strawberry-growers had a serious effect upon the deal as
many farms were not cultivated in the early spring and picking-help was short throughout the season. This, coupled with unusually bad weather conditions made the deal
a very difficult one to handle with any degree of satisfaction. The yield is estimated
to have been about 50 per cent, of normal.
HOTHOUSE TOMATOES AND CUCUMBERS.
First crop hothouse tomatoes moved into consumption at good prices to the producers and in volume. One agency reports 55,000 crates handled with distribution to
the three Prairie Provinces, Ontario, and U.S.A. Pool prices averaged $2.76 per crate,
the top price for one week being $4.61 for No. 1 after deducting V.F., C.L., and P.B.
White spine cucumbers moved from the same source in 5,926-box volume with an
average price of $2.46.
An item of paramount importance to the hothouse deal is the matter of fuel, few
houses having the usual supply on hand for the next crop. Second-crop tomatoes moved
satisfactorily and at well sustained prices.
POTATOES.
A survey of the potato situation in Western Canada shows that in 1941 the three
Prairie Provinces and British Columbia had an estimated production of 15,250,000
bushels. The estimated production for 1942 in the same area is 17,500,000 bushels.
The crop in British Columbia and Alberta is estimated to be the same as in 1941, but
the crop in Saskatchewan is expected to reach a total of 3,000,000 bushels more. The
crop on the Lower Mainland is estimated to be about 65 per cent, of normal, or about
the same as last year. Up to November 10th, seventy cars of Alberta potatoes had
been received on the Coast market, one car from Saskatchewan and one car from
Manitoba. During the same period 175 cars have been shipped by growers from the
Interior of the Province. Flooding and the labour situation and some blight were the
major causes of smaller harvests on the Lower Mainland as the acreage planted was
about the same as the preceding year. In some of the imported potatoes specimens of
bacterial ring-rot were discovered.
The turnover of the Interior Vegetable Marketing Board for the twelve months
ended November 30th, 1941, amounted to $413,613.52.
Included in the commodities merchandised were 6,349 tons of potatoes, 5,543 tons
of onions, and 2,800 tons of other vegetables, in addition to bunch vegetables, cantaloupes, corn, and cucumbers. For the processing deal 18,672 tons of tomatoes, onions,
carrots, and asparagus were handled.
The scope of operations of the British Columbia Coast Vegetable Marketing Boards
are shown in the subjoined tabulations. X 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table A.—Summary Gross Sales Value.
Potatoes—
Vancouver and Victoria, for period from June 1st,
1941, to March 31st, 1942; Sub-agencies, for
period June 1st,  1941, to October 31st,  1941,
only _,  $504,343.60
Vegetables—
Same as above      203,809.78
$708,153.38
Potatoes—
Pemberton and  Cariboo, for the period June  1st,
1941, to March 31st, 1942       22,683.75
Vegetables—
Same as above        14,073.84
$744,910.97
Produce sold to processors and canneries      $27,823.48
Total sales value of produce  $772,734.45
Table B.—Total Sales Values of Potatoes and Vegetables sold during
the Period from June 1st, 1941, to March 31st, 1942.
Month.
Beets.
Carrots.
Turnips.
Onions.
Parsnips.       Cabbage.
Potatoes
(all Grades
and
Varieties).
1941.
$216.70
901.69
876.07
624.64
820.86
973.93
1,394.26
692.49
162.50
229.00
$3,437.72
3,010.36
3,081.93
3,111.76
4,126.12
4,091.95
6,899.49
10,999.82
8,867.18
3,372.67
$1,768.95
1,183.36
324.85
4,729.40
10,182.46
5,007.68
3,934.23
10,097.75
3,768.00
6,065.75
$981.68
1,906.27
7,182.33
10,640.34
2,387.22
515.43
291.76
95.00
37.50
9.00
$405.33
$10,051.15
4,923.00
3,776.22
4,760.27
4,626.71
5,012.74
3,863.30
8,909.29
2,483.21
631.94
$75,849.76
50,785.12
24.38
357.05
921.13
539.16
2,539.74
2,568.62
1,988.54
2,013.82
44,432.16
September 	
October   	
November ...	
47,928.39
56,250.91
53,467.80
30,594.27
1942.
57,503 01
49,030.19
38,501.99
March   	
Totals  	
$6,892.14
$50,999.00
$47,062.43
$24,046.53
$11,357.77
$49,037.83
$504,343.60 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 25
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BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The Markets Bulletin suspended publication with the issue of May 5th, due to
war conditions. Inspection officials on the Prairies have agreed to continue their
appreciated service direct to this Branch.
During the year your Commissioner attended the annual meeting of the British
Columbia Fruit-growers' Association in January. In February, as Secretary, he was
present at a special meeting in Regina of the Sub-committee on Beef Grading and at
that time called on the Prairie fruit trade. Opportunity was also afforded on this trip
to sit in for a day on a conference of the P.F.R.A. Meetings of the Agricultural
Supplies Board and the Agricultural section of the National Committee on Reconstruction were attended and again the Prairie trade was contacted on the return trip during
July.
REPORT OF HORTICULTURAL BRANCH.
W. H. Robertson, Provincial Horticulturist.
From a horticultural standpoint the climatic conditions have been most variable.
The fall of 1941 was extremely wet, the excessive rain interfering materially with the
harvesting of fruit and vegetable and especially seed-crops of all kinds. The winter
was on the whole mild, with light snowfall in the Interior sections and less rainfall in
the Coast area than is usually experienced at this time of the year. Dry weather and
mild conditions generally permitted the early starting of spring work but growth on
the whole was late in comparison with 1941, as indicated by the following table giving
blossoming dates over a period of years for the Kelowna District, as submitted by
B. Hoy, District Field Inspector:—
Fruit.
1937.
1938.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
April 20
May     2
May     6
May   16
April 16
April 24
April 27
May     9
April 19
April 24
April 28
May     2
April   9
April 19
April 24
May     2
April   1
April 16
April 20
April 25
April 24
Pears  	
Apples  	
April 28
May     8
Unsettled weather with heavy rains was experienced in all districts up to the
middle of July. From that date until the end of October there was continuous dry
weather. This was very satisfactory for harvesting crops but in the case of the apple
and seed crops undoubtedly caused a general reduction over early estimates of production. During the month of November there was moderate rainfall in the Coast
sections with light snowfall in some of the Interior areas.
HORTICULTURAL CROPS.
Tree-fruits.
The apple-crop in all sections was smaller than anticipated. In the Okanagan
indications were for a heavy crop. At picking-time the crop was much smaller than
was forecast by spring and summer estimates. This was due largely to the dry weather
conditions which prevailed for the two months previous to harvesting. In the Kootenay
sections the crop was also materially reduced by disease as well as by the drought
conditions which were general there as well as in other areas. A reduction of approximately 20 per cent, from original estimates is indicated from the amount of fruit
picked.
The crab-apple and pear crops were slightly larger than in 1941 and prices in both
cases were higher than those of last year.
The crops of prunes, plums, and cherries were lighter than those of the previous
year. Harvesting was carried out satisfactorily and the returns for these fruits were
better than in 1941. Peaches and apricots were a heavy crop in all sections and of
exceptional quality.    Market demand for this fruit was good. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 27
Small Fruits.
In the main small-fruit areas of the Fraser Valley the small-fruit industry has
been largely in the hands of Japanese growers. Due to war conditions it was found
necessary to move these aliens to points away from the Coast. The result was that
many plantings of small fruits originally owned by Japanese were either partly or
wholly neglected, with resultant loss of crop. These difficulties, together with unsettled
weather at harvesting-time, reduced the tonnage below the anticipated crop in all
cases. The production of loganberries and strawberries was less while that of raspberries was about the same as that of the previous year. Prices generally were higher
than in 1941.
The labour situation also has been a factor in fruit-crop production this year.
Crops have been harvested but only with difficulty. In many of the Interior sections
stores in the towns and villages were closed for brief periods and business men and
women went to the orchards to assist in the work of harvesting the crop. Schools
were also closed or opened late in the fall in order to give senior pupils an opportunity
to assist in this work.
The following table shows the production of tree and small fruits for 1941, with
the estimated production for 1942:—
Kind.
Year.      Production.
Year.      Production.
Apples..
Crab-apples..
Pears	
Plums.-
Prunes—.
Peaches.
Apricots
Cherries.
1941
1942
1941
1942
1941
1942
1941
1942
1941
1942
1941
1942
1941
1942
1941
1942
Boxes.
4,478,692
5,450,000
121,138
141,300
395,750
399,500
Crates.
258,301
215,000
636,095
446,500
698,743
785,500
189,946
267,500
249,711
243,600
Strawberries-
Raspberries.—
Blackberries..
Loganberries .
Red Currants.—
Black Currants.
Gooseberries	
Grapes 	
1941
1942
1941
1942
1941
1942
1941
1942
1941
1942
1941
1942
1941
1942
1941
1942
Crates.
773,567
473,900
196,178
203,200
43,173
48,500
Pounds.
2,013,534
1,706,400
76,560
129,000
499,788
530,700
235,476
233,900
2,151,304
2,869,000
Vegetables.
On the Coast the season has been fairly satisfactory. The mild open winter
permitted the early preparation of land. The broccoli-crop matured satisfactorily and
no serious damage was done by the freeze in January. Unsettled weather at seeding
and planting time, and to some extent throughout the early part of the season, was not
conducive to rapid development. Production, however, has been on the whole good,
although some shortages may be expected during the coming months due to the
increased demand.
In the Interior the onion acreage exceeded last year's but tonnage was under expectations. Fall-planted onions produced an excellent crop of large size uniform onions,
but there were more of them than could be marketed through ordinary channels and
many were shipped to the evaporator.
Spring-seeded onions made excellent growth until the hot weather in August.
Thrips became numerous and mildew suddenly stopped growth. Onions at this time
were only two-thirds to three-quarters grown and did not develop further. This small
size accounts for the reduced yield. Harvesting weather has been the best in years,
practically no rain falling since the onions were pulled.
The cold, wet spring weather retarded growth of tomato plants and the crop was
late in starting.    From late July to the end of September favourable weather prevailed, X 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
but there was not time to make up for the late start. The bulk of the canning-crop
was harvested in September and late-picked tomatoes never have the quality of those
harvested in August. As last year the demand for canning was greater than the
supply, and though not a satisfactory tomato year it was an improvement over 1941.
The lettuce and celery acreage was very little larger than last year and the crops
somewhat below the average in quality. Celery blight was general in the principal
plantings at Armstrong and Kelowna. Asparagus yields were also below normal due
to unsatisfactory conditions during the cutting period.
Greenhouse vegetables such as tomatoes and cucumbers were produced in quantities approximately equal to last year and marketed at higher prices than in 1941.
The following table shows the estimated acreage of some of the principal outdoor
vegetables in comparison with the estimated acreage of the same crops for the
previous year:—
1941 Estimated     1942 Estimated
Kind. Acreage. Acreage.
Tomatoes    3,816 3,228
Onions   974 1,431
Lettuce   594 635
Celery   360 412
Cucumbers   190 171
Cabbage    588 578
Cantaloupes   322 224
Zucca Melons.
The Zucca melon is a comparatively new crop in British Columbia and was introduced into the Southern Okanagan a few years ago. It is used entirely for processing
and eventually finds its way to the market in the form of peel used by the housewife in
numerous recipes. The production per acre is heavy in a satisfactory season. A comparatively small acreage, therefore, will care for a fairly extensive market demand.
The crop in British Columbia is produced principally in the Summerland and Oliver-
Osoyoos Districts. Reporting on this crop R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector at
Penticton, has the following to say with regard to this year's crop:—
" Zucca melons, that have been grown for the past few years in a more or less
experimental way, got off to a very poor start. During the early summer it looked
as though this crop would be very much below normal, but with fine hot weather during
July and August, and a warm frost-free September and early October, the largest crop
of Zucca melon ever grown in Canada was harvested. It is expected that the crop will
reach 700 processed tons. This season the crop is being processed by a Coast firm as
well as the processing plant in Penticton."
Grapes.
In the Coast areas the acreage in grapes shows a gradual increase as many small
plantings are being made from year to year. The set of grapes this year was only
fair, but harvesting conditions were good with a satisfactory market demand.
In the Interior the largest grape plantings are in the Kelowna District. With
regard to these plantings, B. Hoy, District Field Inspector, Kelowna, reports as
follows:—.
" The yield this year will be greater than in 1941. Most varieties, though late,
set well this spring without frost damage, and no damage of consequence was reported
from cutworms or other insects. Campbell's Early in some vineyards were lighter
than last year owing to poorer set.
" Grape mildew was more in evidence this year than ever before, but was confined
almost entirely to European varieties.
" Though the crop was heavier than in 1941, the quality, owing to the late start
this spring, was not so good as in some previous years. Harvesting weather was
excellent, but owing to labour shortage was not completed until the last week in
October." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 29
Hops.
There is little to report with regard to this crop. The principal acreage of
approximately 1,400 acres is located in the Agassiz-Chilliwack area. The scattered
small plantings of the Western Canada Hop Growers' Association, belonging to the
Japanese, were in some cases operated by the large hop companies this year. A considerable portion of these plantings, however, received very little attention.
While weather conditions during harvesting were satisfactory the yields in a
number of cases were not so good as expected.
Tobacco.
This crop is now grown commercially only in the Fraser Valley. With regard to
the 1942 crop conditions, G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist, reports as follows:—
" The Sumas area continues to be the principal tobacco-growing area with approximately 400 acres this year, which is a reduction of about 240 acres. Early in the
season the apparent requirements for Virginia flue-cured leaf from this area would
not exceed 500,000 lb.
" The past season was not so favourable for the rapid growth and development as
has been usual. Some plantings are slightly down on the average yield, but present
indications are that the quality of the leaf will be up to standard requirements. Buyers
are now in the area but no agreement has been reached regarding prices or the
shipment of the crop."
Seed Production.
As pointed out in previous reports, there has been a marked increase in seed
production in British Columbia since the beginning of the war in 1939. Furthermore,
growers have been assisted by this Department in the appointment of J. L. Webster
to supervise all seed-extension work. An excellent summary of the present seed-
production work in the Province is given in the following extracts taken from the
1942 report of Mr. Webster:—
" Weather Conditions.—Weather conditions for seed crops and harvest during the
past season were on the whole very satisfactory, except for the following:—
"(1.) Apparently the excessive rainfall of July affected pollination of some crops
adversely. Onion-seed yields were reduced approximately 60 per cent, in the Grand
Forks area, apparently by rain which fell at the height of blooming, from July 27th to
28th. In the Okanagan and Kamloops areas there was about 30 per cent, reduction in
crop. On the total it is estimated that the onion-seed crop has been reduced by
approximately 40,000 lb.
" In addition, cauliflower-seed crops became infected with two diseases which,
according to the plant pathologists, are Alternaria sp. and Sclerotinia sp. These outbreaks can be chiefly attributed to the wet weather and the crop prospects were reduced
by almost 40 per cent., or about 700 lb., by this condition.
"(2.) An excessively hot spell of weather occurring after the damp, cool weather
greatly reduced the yield of peas by blasting the blooms and abruptly stopping growth
and podding. It has been estimated that the yield of the large Creston acreage of
peas was reduced at least 30 per cent.
" Harvesting weather in all districts of the Province has been almost ideal and is
a great contrast to the disastrous harvest season of 1941.
" Past Yields and Current Estimates.—A complete compilation of yields of vegetable-seed produced in British Columbia in 1941 was submitted on March 17th, 1942.
The total value of vegetable-seed produced was $456,255.81 as compared with $153,608
produced in 1940. Mangel and sugar-beet are not included in the above total. The
yield of mangel-seed in 1941 was 18,350 lb., valued at $4,587.50, as compared to 6,000
lb., valued at $1,500, for 1940.
" Sugar-beet seed, a new crop, increased from about 1,200 lb. in 1940 to 226,225
lb. in 1941, with a value of $18,098.
" Flower-seed, however, showed a reduction, with $12,773.73 produced in 1941 as
compared with $18,062.60 produced in 1940. X 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" Preliminary estimates of the 1942 vegetable-seed crop prospects were submitted
in detail on August 20th. The total for vegetable and root seed, not including sugar-
beet, was given at $858,717.50.
" Owing to the decline in crop prospects for onion, peas, and cauliflower seed, it is
now evident that the total value of the crops may be reduced by at least $100,000.
" Number of Growers.—We have endeavoured to maintain a record of all farmers
in the Province growing vegetable-seed. At present the list, although not entirely
complete, shows an increase from 150 growers in 1941 to about 250 this year. This
does not include farmers growing peas and beans on contract for four independent
firms, of which there appear to be at least an additional 200.
" Growers' Equipment.—The equipment which has been recently purchased or constructed by growers in the Province has been considerable. This equipment may be
roughly divided as follows:—
"(1.) Cleaners, threshers, special tools such as seeders, scarifiers, cultivators,
pullers, toppers, etc., the majority of which has been purchased.
"(2.) Seed barns, storages, drying equipment, trays, etc., principally constructed
and which is now becoming a considerable investment.
" There are now at least twelve combines in use for threshing vegetable-seed—
each with a value of approximately $1,000, in addition to threshers of factory and
home manufacture. There has been an increasing number of home-made threshers
constructed, some of which are most original and effective. There are now two vine-
seed threshers in use which have meant a great saving in labour for this class of crop.
There are now more than fifty cleaning-mills in the Province in use in cleaning
vegetable-seed crops.
" To the above one might add the equipment used by the large independent contractors for peas, beans, and sugar-beet, and which is a substantial investment.
" Trial Grounds.—A trial ground refers to a small area of land where various
varieties, strains, and selections are grown in standard plots. The purpose of the
plantings is to obtain an accurate record of performance of each strain or stock in
comparison with others in the trials. A properly conducted trial ground is essential
to primary producers of seed. It should be borne in mind, however, that its value is
in direct proportion to the amount of accurate study and records taken during the
growing season.
" The two main trial grounds in the Province are located at the University of
British Columbia and the Experimental Station, Saanichton, and lesser trials on a few
growers' farms.
"At the University our records show that 178 local samples of varieties or strains
were on trial in 1942. In addition, samples received from the Canadian Seed Growers'
Association bring the total to well over 200.
"At the Summerland Experimental Station fifty-nine local samples are on trial as
per our records, with an additional number received from the Canadian Seed Growers'
Association.
" Visits were made to both trial grounds as often as time would allow and assistance given to the trial ground supervisors. However, the observations made plus the
reports of those in charge of the trials have been very valuable in determining stocks
which are unsuitable for propagation as well as noting others which would be more
suitable.
" More extensive trials are recommended with closer co-operation by fieldmen from
the various seed firms.
" Field-work.—This is a very important phase of our work and it consists of
periodic visits to seed-growers' farms throughout the Province. As previously reported,
there are now about 250 growers in the Province, the majority of whom are visited
three times each year. In view of the increasing number of growers in widely scattered areas it is now becoming impossible to contact each grower as often as should
be done.
" The primary purpose of field-work is to visit seed-growers' farms and advise
them on matters pertaining to seed production.    This is a special type of work and a DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 31
wide range of information is required to advise on all the problems concerning the
many kinds and varieties being grown.
" Investigational Work.—A very large part of our work has been of an investigational nature. In the reviewing and constant studying of literature, together with
observations in the field, we have constantly been securing information which will
assist seed-growers in technique of growing of the many kinds and varieties involved
and with the many problems being encountered in all phases of production. This phase
assumes importance when it is realized that many of the seed-crops are new to the
Province and methods have to be suggested and tried—modified and at times new
methods evolved.
" Seed Production Series.—This series of circulars dealing with information relating to the growing of seed-crops is progressing as time will allow. Each pamphlet
deals with specific vegetable-crops. Those completed so far are (1) Cabbage, (2)
Spinach, (3) Cauliflower, (4) Parsnip, (5) Diseases, (6) Beet, (7) Carrot, (8) Turnip,
and (9) Threshing and Cleaning.
" Onion and vine seed crops are now being compiled and others will follow this
winter.
" Prospects for 1943.—As contracts and orders for seed are still coming in in large
volume, the market apparently will continue to take all the vegetable-seed which can
be grown next year.
"As mentioned, growers are now becoming better equipped and will be in a position to deliver larger quantities than during the current year. Larger quantities of
roots and bulbs have been grown which are being stored under ideal conditions.
" We therefore expect that the 1943 production of vegetable-seed may easily
exceed $1,000,000 value to growers.
" Scarcity of labour on farms may be a limiting factor in determining the 1943
production."
FIELD INSPECTION WORK.
Fire-blight Inspection.
Fire-blight inspection-work was carried out in a manner similar to that of previous
years. The following table indicates the districts in which inspection-work was done
and the acreage inspected:—
District.
Total Acres
inspected.
Inspected
and passed.
Not passed.
201
6,107
5,000
2,862
802
194
5,982
4,975
2,843
802
7
19
14,972
14,796
176
Nursery Stock Inspection.
The principal nursery stock inspection is undertaken during the fall when digging
of stock is being done and in the nursery yards in the spring previous to shipping.
Inspection is also carried out during the growing season in nursery plantings of stone-
fruits with a view to checking up on the presence of virus diseases and elimination
of same.
Pear Psylla Survey.
The pear psylla surveys carried out by Provincial, Dominion, and United States
Department of Agriculture officials during the past two years in Southern Okanagan
and Kootenay Districts were again carried out in 1942. The result of the 1942 survey
is reported by R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector, Penticton, in the following
statement:— X 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" As a result of further scouting work by Canadian and American authorities,
pear psylla was found in over 100 orchards in the Oliver-Osoyoos District, as well as
at Keremeos, Kaleden, and Penticton. Of all the orchards infested only one carried
a moderate amount of the pest, all the others being very light.
" In co-operation the Dominion Entomological staff and the Provincial Department
undertook some trial sprays, using various types of oil with nicotine and rotenone,
which were applied to the heaviest infected block with very satisfactory results. This
spray was applied August 19th, and on several subsequent inspections very few adults
or nymphs have been found. The weather was extremely hot when this spray was
applied, which may account for the very excellent controls obtained. No damage was
observed from any of the oils used.
" As this pest is new to British Columbia orchards, and also to combat the numerous rumours that had spread amongst the growers, it was decided to call on W. A. Ross,
head of the Fruit Insect Investigation Branch at Ottawa, to visit the district and
examine the situation. This was done, and after a survey of the district Mr. Ross
addressed a meeting of growers from the Oliver-Osoyoos District, outlining what he
considered the situation to be and the probable control measures necessary. Several
officials of the United States services interested in pear psylla control were also present.
This meeting was held in Oliver on the evening of August 19th. It was very well
attended with plenty of questions regarding pear psylla control; in addition it helped
' to spike' a lot of rumours that were badly upsetting pear-growers in the Okanagan.
" Control measures are being drawn up for the growers' use, and also an extended
programme of experimental work with various materials, some of which have not been
tried on pear psylla. Whether this pest will cause as much trouble in the hot dry
climate of the Okanagan as in Eastern Canada and United States remains to be seen.
In any event, it is another pest for the grower to consider, which means additional
expense in pear production."
Potato-beetle Inspection.
During the past year the potato-beetle control-work in the East Kootenay areas
was under the supervision of I. J. Ward, a member of the Dominion Entomological
staff at Kamloops. This co-operative arrangement was most satisfactory to both
Departments and it is hoped that it will be possible to continue it in the future.
In the control-work carried out calcium arsenate lime dust was again used. From
the supplies which we were able to secure two years ago there is still sufficient left to
continue the work next year. In addition to the regular control-work, Mr. Ward also
conducted a few trials with several rotenone dusts. The results were so satisfactory
that further trial work will be carried out during the coming year, with a view to
ascertaining the possibility of using such dusts to replace the calcium arsenate lime
dusts which have been in general use up to the present.
Bacterial Ring-rot Control.
With regard to the outbreak of this disease of potatoes in British Columbia, M. S.
Middleton, District Horticulturist, Vernon, reports as follows:—
" This new disease for British Columbia was discovered at Salmon Arm on the
Sequoia variety, which is a new introduction brought in from North Carolina by B. G.
Harrington three years ago. It is puzzling how the disease escaped the potato inspectors who had been keeping this variety under observation since its introduction.
Undoubtedly, weather conditions were more favourable this season for the development
of the disease and the wilting of the plants possibly took place earlier in the season.
In this stage the disease is quite easily observed. Your officials took immediate steps
to have the disease eradicated and have made a survey of all those who have any of
this variety, and made certain that none would be used for seed purposes. Fortunately
only two growers outside of Mr. Harrington had any appreciable quantity of the
potatoes, and these, in all about 11 tons, have all been stored in an isolated root-house
at South Canoe and will be brought over to the Bulman plant at Vernon for dehydrating
as soon as the drying of potatoes commences.    The growers will get the dehydrator DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 33
price for these potatoes and the Department will transport them to Vernon and attend
to all the disinfecting of the sacks, root-house, etc.
" The Department has had the fullest co-operation from Mr. Harrington as well as
all other growers who had and were prizing their stocks of this potato."
As a step in the control of this disease the Department of Agriculture is putting
into effect regulations prohibiting the movement of imported potatoes into the Province
unless such shipments are accompanied by a certificate indicating apparent freedom
from bacterial ring-rot. Further regulations dealing with the control of this disease
will undoubtedly be introduced in the near future.
HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION-WORK.
Strawberry Plant Selection.
This work is a continuation of similar work mentioned in previous reports. E. W.
White, District Horticulturist, Victoria, is in charge and reports for this year as
follows:—
" This work as reported in previous years was carried out at the Dominion Experimental Station in conjunction with E. C. Reid, who left early in 1941 for duty overseas.
After Mr. Reid's departure E. R. Hall took charge.
" The plot of British Sovereign which was set out in the spring of 1941 was allowed
to go to runners for commercial distribution. Unfortunately, this plot was allowed to
get very weedy in the fall and winter of 1941 and 1942. Nevertheless, between 15,000
and 17,000 plants were dug and distributed to growers through the Saanich Fruit
Growers' Association.
" A considerable number of growers secured plants and although they were somewhat small they will serve as a source of runners for planting out in the spring of 1943.
It is intended to watch these new plantings next year and see how they compare with
the growers' own stocks."
Greenhouse Tomato Variety Trials.
These trials have been carried out in the Victoria District under the supervision
of E. W. White.    His report follows:—
" Most of the main greenhouse crop of tomatoes grown in the Victoria District
this year was of the Vetomold variety. It proved quite satisfactory, but results have
shown that it is not immune to mildew or mould disease. A new strain of mould
appears to have developed to which Vetomold is subject.
" After reporting to O. J. Robb, of Vineland Experiment Station, in August, 1941,
on the performance of Vetomold, he replied that the same conditions prevailed in
Ontario in relation to Vetomold. However, Mr. Robb forwarded two packets of seed
of a new strain designated V 121, which was not claimed to be immune but highly
resistant to all types of mould. This seed was given to Riddle Bros, and H. F. Creed
for trial as a spring crop in comparison with Vetomold.
" As stated by Mr. Robb, V 121 proved highly resistant to mould, much more so
than Vetomold. The fruit was equally as good as Vetomold. As a result of the fine
performance of V 121 as a spring crop Riddle Bros, decided to plant heavily to V 121
as a fall crop. Another packet of seed was secured from O. J. Robb for this purpose.
This crop is being harvested at the present time and is proving very satisfactory. The
houses have been shut up for the past month to conserve fuel and heat and practically
no serious mould infection has developed. Riddle Bros, intend to plant their entire
crop to V 121 for the spring crop next year."
Ground Sprays for the Control of Apple-scab.
This work was undertaken in the Salmon Arm District under the supervision of
C R. Barlow, District Field Inspector.    Mr. Barlow reports as follows:—
" The ground spray experiment begun last year in Major C L. Armitage's orchard
at South Canoe was continued this season in a modified form. The work is carried out
in collaboration with G. S. Woolliams, Plant Pathologist at the Experimental Farm at X 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Summerland, B.C. The object and details of the work have already been explained in
your Inspector's Annual Report for 1941. Results obtained last year demonstrated
that while a 1-per-cent. Elgetol solution applied on the ground in the ' green-tip' stage
gave some measure of control, it alone could not be relied upon to effect efficient commercial control. It was indicated, however, that by using a modified programme of
summer lime-sulphur sprays in conjunction with it, commercial control might be
secured. This accordingly has been done this year. The orchard was divided into
three plots, one of which received the 1-per-cent. Elgetol ground spray only, one the
ground spray followed by lime-sulphur (1-60) in the ' pink ' stage, and one the ground
spray followed by lime-sulphur (1-60) in both ' pink ' and ' calyx ' stages.
" In checking results, counts were made on two Mcintosh Red trees in each plot.
As last year, the check-plot was located in Mr. Simpson's orchard a quarter of a mile
distant.
" In examining these results the exceptionally favourable weather conditions which
prevailed for the development of scab should be borne in mind. In Plot 1, 1 per cent.
Elgetol only, as last year, failed again to give commercial control. Plots 2 and 3, however, did, allowing for seasonal conditions, give results which may be regarded as
promising, while Plot 4 (the check-plot) did not produce a single marketable apple.
" There appears to be reason to expect that, given average seasonal conditions,
the programmes carried out on Plots 2 and 3 would give good commercial control, and
your Inspector would suggest that with certain modifications the work be continued
for at least another year. It is worthy of note that in some of the commercial orchards
where three or even four summer sprays were applied this year to control scab, the
results on Mcintosh Red were little, if any, better than those obtained on Plots 2 and 3."
Apple-scab Sprays.
The reports as submitted are a continuance of the reports dealing with the work
carried out in the Northern Okanagan and Kootenay Districts in previous years. H. H.
Evans, District Field Inspector, Vernon, reports on the scab-spray work as undertaken
this year:—
" This project continues the apple-scab control-work for the North Okanagan.
This season was the first in four years that scab infection was sufficiently severe in
the plot area that reliable comparative results were obtainable.
" The object aimed at was results to be obtained from use of standard materials
and applications with varying quantities in the formula. Materials used were standard
lime-sulphur, Sulphoron wettable, and calcium arsenate. Fluxit spreader was added to
all sprays.
" A little sulphur shock was noticeable in the straight lime-sulphur plot following
the pre-pink and calyx sprays; this, however, was not serious. Following the cover-
spray on June 16th and a long period of cool, humid conditions, a sudden change in the
weather in early July brought a short period of intense heat. Sulphur burn developed
in all plots during this period, nearly three weeks following application. Injury was
confined to the foliage and in severity affected the plots in the following order: 2, 1,
and 3. A very slight russetting on odd apples need not be considered. (During the
same period most orchards of the district where sulphur sprays were used received
injury from slight to severe. The degree of injury appeared to coincide with the
number of sprays applied and amount of materials used. Where pre-pink and calyx
sprays only were used no injury occurred. The injury developed following the cover-
spray and the degree seemed to be influenced by the strength of materials used and
closeness of application to the heat period. Under the above conditions our observations indicate that the wettable sulphurs used alone gave just as severe injury as lime-
sulphur alone, or a combination of these materials.) DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 35
" The following notes and table indicate the set-up and results on the plots :-
" Mcintosh—180 Trees.
Plot.
Materials and Quantities.
Apples
counted.
Per
Cent.
Culls.
Per Cent.
Scabbed
but
Marketable.
Per
Cent.
Clean.
Total.
1
Lime-sulphur,   1-60 ;   calcium   arsenate,   5
Ib.-lOO ;
plus
2,000
2,000
2,000
1,000
0.0
0.05
0.2
50.2
1.0
0.8
2.3
47.7
99.0
99.15
97.45
2.1
100
2
Pre-pink L.S., 1-100 ; Sulphoron, 8 Ib.-lOO ;
calcium arsen-
100
3
In   calyx   and   cover   same   materials   but
5 Ib.-lOO
Formula as for Plot 2, except only  l/2 ga]
Sulphoron   at
L.S. in each
100
4
100
" Sprays applied: Pre-pink, May 4th (weather cool, cloudy, windy) ; calyx, May
23rd (weather hot, cloudy, windy) ;   cover, June 16th (weather cool, cloudy, windy)."
As to the work with apple-scab sprays in the Kootenay, E. C. Hunt, District
Horticulturist, Nelson, reports as follows:'—
" The past season was one of the most favourable for the spread and development
of apple-scab in the history of the district. The disease had been building up for the
past two seasons under quite favourable spring and summer weather, so when 1942
came around the source of infestation was so great and weather conditions so unfavourable for spraying that most of the growers found it almost impossible to keep the
disease under control. Once the foliage and fruit became infected and later sprays
were applied severe foliage-injury occurred and a heavy drop in the fruit. However,
not all the drop and poor set was due to spray-injury. Weather conditions were very
unfavourable for insect life and pollination of the fruit. When you consider a rainfall
of over 12 inches for May and June you wonder how any fruit would set and how
difficult it was to carry out the apple-scab control-sprays. However, in one Willow
Point orchard where your assistant supervised spraying operations and equipment and
spray material was always at hand on very short notice, fairly satisfactory control of
the disease was made under very unfavourable weather conditions. In all, four sprays
were applied of lime-sulphur, 1 gallon to 60 gallons of water plus 4 lb. of calcium
arsenate to 100 gallons of the spray mixture. Total apples on two trees were counted
(medium crop but of small size) at picking-time, September 28th. Out of a total of
3,890 apples, 2,863 were clean and free of scab, while 1,027 were scabby, or 73 per cent,
clean fruit. The ones that were scabby were showing small scab spots and most of
them would qualify for Grade C fruit. Check and unsprayed trees were 100 per cent,
scabby and were all culls."
Bee-repellent Sprays.
The following outline of the work done during the past summer in the application
of bee-repellent sprays, and as carried out under the supervision of H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, Vernon, is self-explanatory and needs no comment:—
" During the past season, at the request of and in co-operation with W. H. Turn-
bull, Provincial Bee Inspector, the North Okanagan Beekeepers' Association and W.
Parker, of Armstrong, officials in the Vernon office, conducted a series of tests with
repellent agents added to the arsenical sprays.
" The object of the experiment was an endeavour to find a cheap, safe and satisfactory repelling agent which could be added to codling-moth sprays over the first
brood spray period, at least in the Interior Districts where the heavy applications of
arsenicals required for control of codling-moth annually takes a heavy toll of the bee
population in the orchard areas.
" W. Parker provided for the test a 5-acre block of more or less neglected orchard,
containing  apple   and   stone-fruit  trees   with   ideal   isolation   from   other   orchard? X 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
F. Bettschen, of Vernon, provided ten colonies of bees consisting of one old and nine
2-lb. package hives. W. H. Turnbull and one or more bee-keepers made inspections
and your officials conducted spraying operations.
" The block was divided into two plots as follows: Plot 1: Arsenate of lead, 4 lb.;
crude carbolic acid, 2 oz.; water, 100 gallons. Plot 2: Arsenate of lead, 4 lb.; commercial creosote, 1 pt.;  water, 100 gallons.
" The calyx and three cover-sprays were applied with spray-pump pressure at
500 lb.
" Total Materials used.
Lead arsenate, 128 lb., $14.10;  crude carbolic, 1 qt., 75 cents . $14.85
Creosote, 2 gallons, $1.80;  spreader, 8 lb., 72 cents       2.52
Labour and machine     60.00
Total cost  $77.37
" Results of this test appeared very satisfactory. The colonies were inspected
twenty-four hours prior to and twenty-four hours following spraying, for condition
of the bees; no dead bees were found after any spray application. The apiary produced a total of 2,160 lb. of extracted honey as well as a hive carry-over. This information as reported by the Inspector appears to your assistant an excellent record.
Observations made by your officials for evidence of spray-burn showed no indication of
such throughout the period.
" Mr. Turnbull and the Bee Association members appear enthusiastic with results
of this test, and have expressed a hope that the work may be continued in 1943 in an
orchard carrying a heavier stand of cover-crop."
Celery Variety Trials.
Celery variety trials were conducted in the Armstrong District. The work is
a continuation of the project started a number of years ago in an effort to ascertain
the most satisfactory type for commercial production. The trials have been under the
direct supervision of H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, Vernon. Mr. Evans submits the following report on the 1942 trials:—
" Seasonal conditions were subnormal. High summer precipitation resulted in
flooding of the early plot series and supersaturation of the soil persisted throughout
the season and adversely affected all vegetable-crops on these peat-muck bottom-lands.
" Normal production methods were carried out by the operator, but these were
severely handicapped by climatic and soil conditions.
" Spring Crop.—Plots, 1/50 acre. Frame seeded, March 30th; field planted, April
28th;   records taken July 15th and July 29th.
" Stocks of Seed-house No. 1.
"Plot 1: Epicure (Semi-green).—July 15th: Head medium tall, medium heavy;
stalk thick, ribbed, solid, brittle; good quality; odd seed heads. July 29th: Plot in
very good condition; 4 per cent, bolt; ready for market; medium bleach; 121-day
celery;  good succession type.    (Excellent.)
"Plot 2: Utah No. 10 (Green).—July 15th: Head tall, medium heavy, compact;
stalk long, medium thick, smooth rib, slightly stringy; late variety. July 29th: Plot
in good condition; medium suckering; odd plants bolted; not yet ready to market;
135-to 140-day celery;   good for late crop.     (Very good.)
"Plot 3: Utah No. 99 (Green).—July 15th: Head tall, large, medium loose,
medium suckering; stalk long, medium thick, slight rib, brittle. July 29th: Plot in
excellent condition; late, not ready for market; odd plants bolted; stalk brittle; good
quality;   135- to 145-day celery.     (Very good.)
"Plot 4- Autumn King (Dark Green).—July 15th: Head tall, medium heavy;
suckering heavy; stalk long, thin medium rib, stringy; strong flavour; medium bolt.
July 29th: Head tall, compact; stalk medium thick, stringy; flavour strong; 40 per
cent, bolted;   140-to 150-day celery;   not suited for early or mid-season cropping. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 37
" Stocks of Seed-house No. 2.
"Plot 5: Secaucus Green (Semi-green).—July 15th: Head medium tall, heavy;
medium compact; slight suckering; stalk thick, solid, brittle; heavy rib; good quality.
July 29th: Plot in very good condition; odd plants bolted; head solid; brittle; good
quality;   ready for market;   120-day celery.     (Very good.)
"Plot 6: Long Joint Wonderful (Yelloiv).—July 15th: Head medium tall, heavy,
compact; stalk large, solid, heavy rib, fairly stringy; quality very good. This plot
severely affected by flooding. July 29th: Crop in prime condition for shipping; good
early yellow;   5 per cent, bolted;   120-day celery.     (Very good.)
" Plot 7: Colorado Experiment Station No. 6-4 (348-4) (Semi-green).—July 15th:
Head short, thick, medium compact; slight suckering; stalk thick, coarse, heavy rib,
stringy. July 29th: Ready for market semi-green; head too dwarf; thick and fairly
compact; stalk heavy; rib coarse; some stalks blown; fairly good quality. (Not
suitable.)
" Owing to supersaturated condition of the soil, no plot in the above series was
able to give maximum performance.
" Fall Crop.—Plots, 1/40 acre. Frame seeded, May 22nd; field planted, June 15th;
records taken September 26th and October 22nd.
"Stocks of Seed-house No. 1.
"Plot 1: Epicure (Semi-green).—September 26th: Head medium tall, medium
heavy, medium open, light suckering; stalk brittle, solid, medium rib, thick; high
quality; nearly ready for cutting. October 22nd: Plot in good condition; head
medium open; stalk medium long; solid, thick, very brittle; high quality. Digging
for market, average weight of trimmed head 1 lb. 5 oz. Slight leaf-spotting of late
blight.    130-day celery.     (Very good.)
"Plot 2: Utah No. 10 (Green).—September 26th: Head tall, heavy, compact,
smooth, heavy suckering; stalk medium thick, solid, brittle, smooth; good quality,
slightly strong. October 22nd: Plot looks good; head tall, heavy, compact; stalk long,
medium heavy, solid, brittle; high quality; smooth rib; good for late crop; late
blight medium heavy on foliage; 150-day celery; average weight of trimmed head
1 lb. 14 oz.    (Excellent.)
"Plot 3: Utah No. 99 (Green).—September 26th: Comparative in almost all
points with Plot 2; stalk slightly heavier rib. October 22nd: Plot in fine condition,
except in slightly heavier rib of stalk, no comparative difference; average head weight
1 lb. 14 oz.     (Excellent.)
"Plot 4: Autumn King (Dark Green).—September 26th: Head medium tall,
medium size, open, heavy suckering; stalk medium size, solid, coarse rib. October
22nd: Head medium tall, thin, open, very heavy suckering; stalk medium thick, solid,
stringy, dark green; fair quality; late blight severe, running down stalks; average
head weight 1 lb.     (Not suitable.)
" Stocks of Seed-house No. 2.
"Plot 5: Secaucus Green (Semi-green).—September 26th: Head medium tall,
heavy, compact, slight suckering; stalk medium rib, thick, solid, very brittle; good
quality; ready to dig. October 22nd: Head medium tall, heavy, compact; stalk thick,
solid, brittle; good quality; some heads completely blown; very slight late blight on
leaf;   130-day celery;   average weight of head 1 lb. 9 oz.     (Very good.)
"Plot 6: Long Joint Wonderful (Yellow).—September 26th: Head medium tall,
compact, slight suckering; stalk thick, medium rib, solid, slightly stringy; good quality; ready for market. October 22nd: Remarks as for September 26th; late blight
very light; heads past best condition; 125-day celery; average weight of head 1 lb.
10 oz.    (Very good yellow.)
"Plot 7: Colorado Experiment Station No. 6-4 (348-4) (Semi-green).—September 26th: Head medium short, medium size, compact, heavy suckers; stalk fairly
smooth, medium thick, solid, fair quality. October 22nd: Head short, medium size,
compact;   stalk not heavy, smooth, not brittle, stalk quite pithy;   quality fairly good; late blight medium;   average weight  of  heads  1  lb.  4  oz.;    130-day celery.     (Not
suitable.)
" Growth conditions were far from ideal through soil saturation. Late blight
attacking the plots also affected development. A quantity of heads from each plot,
also from the commercial growers' strain of Utah, have been placed in common storage
at the Armstrong Packers' Warehouse for comparative records on keeping qualities,
also to check effect of late blight infection on storage quality. This is the first season
it has been possible to obtain storage samples of these green types. Results of storage
test will be available for the 1943 report. With considerable information now available
from several years' work with celery varieties, we would suggest for the present that
this project be discontinued."
Lettuce Variety Trials.
H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, Vernon, who has had charge of this work
since its inception, has issued the following report on the past season's trials:—
" This project continues several years' work in variety testing of lettuce in the
Armstrong District. The objects have been improvement of the commercial crops by
studying many varieties of head-lettuce as to their adaptability under Interior conditions on the North Okanagan muck soils. Quality, yield, shipping qualities, and
resistance to heat, frost, and diseases have been the main points of study.
" The many varieties and strains tested have provided a great deal of information
which has been of value to both producer and shipper. A number of varieties have
proven adaptable for either spring, summer, or fall cropping. With the present data
available to producers, it would appear advisable to discontinue the project for the
present or until further problems of production in varieties become evident.
" Spring Crop.—Plots, V4() acre each. Frame seeded, March 30th; field planted,
April 28th;   records taken, June 15th.
" United States Department of Agriculture Stocks.
"Imperial No. 456, Stock No. 10899m.—June 15th: Plant low growing, open;
head small, round, compact; good form; texture medium coarse; quality good; late
developing; mixed type; 60 per cent, fit to cut; 5 to 6 dozen per crate; no tip-burn
or slime.    (Very good.)
"Great Lakes, No. 14787m.—June 15th: Plant low growing, spreading; type
mixed; head medium size, uniform, compact; very firm; texture good; slightly bitter;
75 per cent, fit to cut;   5 dozen per crate;   no tip-burn or slime.     (Very good.)
" U.S.D.A. No. 15461m.—June 15th: Plant large, strong growth; head large,
filled, not solid; texture coarse; quality fair to good; 50 per cent, fit to cut; 4 dozen
per crate;   too large;   no tip-burn;   basal rot severe.     (Fair.)
" U.S.D.A. No. 13744m.—June 15th: Plant low growing, compact; excellent type;
head medium size, good form, filled and firm; late developing; all will cut; texture
very good; high quality; 60 per cent, fit to cut; 5 dozen per crate; no tip-burn or rot.
(Excellent.)
" U.S.D.A. No. 14593m.—June 15th: Plant low growing, compact; Iceberg type;
head medium size, good form, filled and firm, but not solid; texture and quality very
good; early; fit to cut June 9th; 80 per cent, fit to cut; 5 dozen per crate; tip-burn
and basal rot light to medium.    (Excellent, but not suitable in this area.)
"U.S.D.A. No. 12149M.—June 15th: Plant large, low growing, strong; head
medium large, heavy coarse texture, filled but not solid; quality good; 50 per cent, fit
to cut;  late developing; 4 to 5 dozen per crate;  no tip-burn or slime.     (Fair to good.)
"Stocks of Seed-house No. 1.
"Imperial No. 847, Stock S/N 405498.—June 15th: Plant low growing; medium
large, compact; head round; good type; very solid, uniform, even filling, texture and
quality very good; 80 per cent, fit to cut; 4 to 5 dozen per crate; no tip-burn or basal
rot.    (Excellent.)
" New York No. 199, Stock S/N 385541.—June 15th: Plant low growing, medium
size, compact, good type; head round, uniform, solid, even filling;  texture and quality DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 39
very good; 90 per cent, fit to cut; 5 dozen per crate; no tip-burn; slight basal rot;
fit to cut June 10th.    (Excellent.)
"Imperial No. -4-4, Stock S/N 415642.—June 15th: Plant low growing, small,
compact; head medium size, round, uniform; filled and firm, not quite solid, later
developing; texture and quality very good; 70 per cent, fit to cut; 5 to 6 dozen per
crate;   no tip-burn;   slight basal rot.     (Excellent.)
" Rocho, Stock S/N 415652.—June 15th: Plant low growing, medium small, compact, Iceberg type; head medium size, round, well filled and firm, not solid; texture
soft; quality very good; 95 per cent, fit to cut; 5 to 6 dozen per crate; early; fit to
cut June 8th;  no tip-burn or rot;  good for local home market.     (Very good.)
" Stocks of Seed-house No. 2.
"Imperial No. 941.—June 15th: Plant large, spreading, good type; head medium
large, good form, well filled, firm but not solid; texture and quality excellent; 95 per
cent, fit to cut; 4 to 5 dozen per crate; no tip-burn or slime; early; fit to cut June
10th.     (Excellent.)
" Summerland Stock.
"Sweetheart.—June 15th: Plant large, uniform good type; head medium large,
uniform, good form, well filled, firm but not solid; texture slightly coarse; quality
very good; 60 per cent, fit to cut; 4 to 5 dozen per crate; no tip-burn or slime. (Very
good.)
" Fall Crop.—Frame seeded, July 5th; field planted, July 25th; records taken,
September 26th.    Plots contained 50 plants each.
" United States Department of Agriculture Stocks.
"Imperial No. 456, Stock No. 10899m.—September 26th: Plant large, spreading;
head large, good form, filled and solid; texture slightly coarse, crisp; quality good;
80 per cent, fit to cut; no rots; frost-injury medium on cover-leaves only. (Very
good.)
" Great Lakes, Stock No. 14787m.—September 26th: Plant medium size, spreading; type mixed; head medium size, good form, filled, solid; texture and quality very
good; 90 per cent, fit to cut; size 5 dozen per crate; no frost-injury or rots.
(Excellent.)
"U.S.D.A. No. 15461M.—September 26th: Plant medium large, strong growth,
late developing; head medium large, filled, compact, fairly solid; texture coarse,
quality good; 75 per cent, fit to cut; 4 to 5 dozen per crate; not rots; slight frost-
injury on cover-leaves.     (Very good.)
" U.S.D.A. No. 13744M.—September 26th: Plant low growing, medium size, good
type; heads medium size, good round form, well filled and solid, uniform; texture and
quality very good; 95 per cent, fit to cut; 5 dozen per crate; no rots; slight frost-
injury on cover-leaves.     (Excellent.)
" U.S.D.A. No. 14593M.—September 26th: Plant low growing, medium size; Iceberg type; head filled, not firming, inclined to bolt; texture and quality very good;
20 per cent, fit to cut; 5 dozen per crate; no rots; slight frost on cover-leaves. (Not
suitable here.)
" U.S.D.A. No. 12149M.—September 26th: Plant low growing, medium large, open,
pointed type; heads medium large, filled but not solid, uneven growth; texture and
quality good; 30 per cent, fit to cut. No. 2, 5 to 4 dozen per crate; slight frost on
cover-leaves.     (Not suitable here.)
"Stocks of Seed-house No. 1.
" Imperial No. 847, Stock S/N 405498.—September 26th: Plant large, open growth,
good type; head large, filled and fairly solid, uniform; texture and quality very good;
80 per cent, fit to cut; 4 to 5 dozen per crate, mostly 4's; no rots; frost-injury medium
on cover-leaves.     (Very good.)
" Neiv York No. 199. Stock S/N 385541.—-September 26th: Plant large, open
growth; head large, very loose and bolting; frost-injury medium severe. (Not
suitable for fall crop.) X 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" Imperial No. -M, Stock S/N 415642.—September 26th: Plant medium large, uniform, compact; head medium size, good type and form, well filled, solid; texture and
quality very good; 90 per cent, fit to cut; 4 dozen per crate; no rots; frost-injury
slight on cover-leaves.     (Excellent.)
" Rocho, Stock S/N 415652.—September 26th: Plant low growing, Iceberg type,
medium size, compact; head small, well filled, firm to solid; texture soft, quality good;
80 per cent, fit to cut; 5 to 6 dozen per crate; heads bolting, could have been cut
earlier; no rots; frost-injury slight on cover-leaves. (Good for home use or local
market.)
" Stocks of Seed-house No. 2.
"■ Imperial No. 94.—September 26th: Plant low growing, medium size, compact,
very late developing; heads medium size, filling and firming; good quality and texture;
none fit to cut;   frost-injury slight on cover-leaves.     (Not suitable for fall crop.)
" Summerland Stock.
"Sweetheart.—September 26th: Plant large, strong growth, fairly compact; head
large, good form and type, uniform, filled, firm, but not solid; texture and quality
good; some heads bolting; 75 per cent, fit to cut; 4 to 5 dozen per crate, mostly 4's;
no rots;   frost-injury medium on cover-leaves.     (Very good.)
" Note.—The past season has not been favourable for the best performance ol"
lettuce. This was noticeable in the commercial crops as well as the test plots. The
experience gained in watching and recording performance of the same varieties under
the variable climatic conditions of several seasons has been very valuable. This is
now available and will prove very useful to the commercial producers of this area.
" For the continued assistance and co-operation over the past several years in
procuring and supplying for testing purposes the many varieties and strains of both
lettuce and celery seed, your assistant desires to express his sincerest appreciation to
the Ferry Morse Seed Co. of California; Waldo Rohnert Seed Co. of California; Associated Seed Growers of California; F. H. Woodruff Seed Co., Connecticut; and Dr.
T. W. Walker, of the U.S.A. Horticultural Field Division. The great interest displayed by these individuals and firms in providing many new strains has enabled the
testing trials to establish suitability under our conditions of many of the improved
introductions, thereby making them available to producers at the earliest possible date
and with reasonable assurance of their satisfactory performance."
Sweet Corn Trials.
For a number of years the testing of sweet corn varieties and hybrids has been
undertaken in the Okanagan. In the Vernon District, where these trials are carried
out, the work is in charge of H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector. A report on the
1942 trials is herewith submitted:—
" The season as a whole was good for corn production, though cool, wet conditions
in the early growth period retarded development. Excellent cultural practices by the
operator ensured maximum performance of the plots.
" Injury sustained by all low-cobbing varieties from depredations of pheasants
would indicate a definite limitation to commercial adaptability in districts where these
birds are plentiful. From observations each season it has been noted that injury
occurs to any variety producing its cobs below 30 inches from the ground; the lower
cobs are borne, the greater the damage.
" Plots were ylCl0 acre each; hill planted, spacing 40 by 24 inches; twenty-five hills
checked in each plot. Quality and rating, maximum 10 points for each. Seeded, May
4th.    Records taken August 3rd and 14th. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 41
" Sweet Corn Comparison Table.
Variety.
Height.
Type and Colour.
Yield in
Cobs
per Hill.
Ready for
Fresh
Market.
Quality,
10.
Rating,
10.
Ottawa Hybrids.
Pickaninny, O.B. 829.
4 ft.
Cobs short, core med., low set, well filled,
8-rowed;   grain   deep,   med.   large,   little
sugar;   quality   fair,   white   and   purple
colour ; pheasant damage severe
4.4
Aug. 1
6.5
7.5
Dorinny, O.C 184
4 ft. 8 in.
Cobs med. low set, med. long, small core,
8-rowed,    well    filled;    grain    rich,    fair
sugar, good depth, med. size, skin tender,
pale yellow ; slight pheasant damage
5.1
Aug. 1
8.5
9.0
Dorick, O.C. 790	
4 ft. 6 in.
Cobs med. low set, med. long, large, core
med.,    10-12    rowed,   well   filled;   grain
small,  med.   shallow,   tender,   rich,   good
sugar   and   quality,    skin    pale   yellow;
slight pheasant damage
4.4
Aug. 8
8.5
9.0
3 ft. 6 in.
3.2
Aug. 6
8.0
8.5
med.,   10-12   rowed,   fair   filling;   Grain
pale yellow,  shallow, small, tender, rich,
sweet,   good   quality;   pheasant   damage
heavy
O.C. 804  	
4 ft. 3 in.
Cobs low set, small, short, core small, fair
filling, 8-rowed ; grain pale yellow, small,
shallow, tender, rich, sweet, good quality;
med. pheasant damage
3.6
Aug. 8
8.0
8.0
O.C. 810	
5 ft.
3.3
Aug. 6
9.5
8 0
fair   filling;   grain   pale   yellow,   large,
deep,    rich,    sweet,    very    tender,    high
quality; no damage
Gilgold, O.C. 785	
4 ft. 6 in.
2.8
Aug. 8
7 5
6.0
core med., fair filling; grain yellow, size
and depth med., sugar, richness; quality
fair, slightly tough
Swiftgold, O.C. 783 ...
4 ft.
Cobs low set, long, large, med.  core, well
filled, 10-rowed; grain yellow, large, shallow,   rich,   sweet,   good   quality,   slightly
tough ; pheasant damage medium
2.5
Aug. 8
8.0
8.5
6 ft
3.0
7 5
rowed,   fair  filling;  grain  yellow,  large,
shallow, med. sugar and richness; quality
From Stocks on Hand.
fair to good, skin slightly tough
Goldban  	
5 ft. 3 in.
Cobs med.  high set,  size and length med.,
small   core,    8-rowed,   well   filled;   grain
golden,    med.    size,    deep,    rich,    sweet,
tender ; quality excellent
4.0
Aug. 6
10.0
10.0
6 ft. 6 in.
3.1
Aug 8
small, 8-rowed, well filled; grain golden,
med.    size,    deep,    rich,    sweet,    tender;
quality very good
Topcross Bantam
7 ft.
Cobs very high set, med.  size, long,  late,
core   small,    well   filled;   grain    yellow,
med.    size,    deep,    rich,    sweet,    tender,
quality high, 10-rowed
3.9
Aug. 15
9.0
10.0
Golden Bantam	
6 ft.
Cobs high set, med. size and length, core
small,  8-rowed,  late; grain  golden,  rich,
sweet, high quality, skin slightly tough ;
grain large, deep, well filled
3.9
Aug. 12
9.0
10.0
7 ft.
4.5
9.0
10.0
form,   core   small;   grain   med.   size   and
depth,  yellow,  rich,  sweet,  high  quality,
skin slightly tough, well filled
Golden Early Market
5 ft. 2 in.
Cobs med. high set, large, long, well filled,
core   large;   grain   yellow,   large,   med.
depth, med. rich and sugar, good quality,
skin slightly tough
3.5
Aug. 6
8.0
9.0 X 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" In the quality and rating columns it will be noted the hybrid O.C. 810 appears to
rate low in comparison to its quality. The reason is an apparent habit of the plant to
produce early a very few perfect cobs, then later a secondary set which fill poorly and
are of poor form. Being the first year of testing this strain it is not possible to state
if this is a definite habit or was influenced by seasonal conditions. There are many fine
varieties and hybrids contained in this series."
Codling-moth Control.
The work dealing with codling-moth control has been reported in many of the
previous reports submitted by this Branch. Efficient and economical control of this
pest is the ultimate object not only of Provincial but Dominion officials as well.
This entails a study of the best methods of application of sprays as well as the most
satisfactory spray materials to use. This work is carried out in different districts
with the major portion of the work being undertaken in the Kelowna District. The
following report on codling-moth control, prepared by B. Hoy, District Field Inspector,
gives an excellent review of the whole situation:—
" The late summer and fall of 1941 was cool and wet and the second brood was not
as heavy as normal. For this reason the carry-over of worms was probably less than
in former years. Coupled with fewer overwintering worms the spring and early
summer was not favourable to worm activity and the first brood was in most locations
not difficult to control. Difficulty in spraying owing to wind and frequent rain throughout the first-brood period was experienced in all districts. The need for more equipment was brought home to many growers more forcibly than ever. Unfavourable
weather for moth activity, however, saved the situation.
" Owing to the cool weather in spring and the late first brood, second-brood worms
were later than normal and not so numerous. Good spraying weather prevailed
throughout the second-brood period and generally control was better than for many
years.
" Materials recommended for codling-moth spraying were the same as in 1941.
More Black Leaf 155 and oil was used than in any previous year, but the acreage
sprayed with the material was very small. Two or three growers used a lead and oil
mixture in one or two first-brood sprays for the first time. These two mixtures are
considerably more expensive than the ordinary arsenate of lead or cryolite plus fluxit
spreader and probably will not come into general use unless conditions become worse
than at the present time.
" As last year, a bulletin was prepared on codling-moth control early in the season,
and through the courtesy of the Tree Fruit Board mailed to each grower. This bulletin
was followed by regular broadcasts over CKOV, giving spraying information throughout the codling-moth season.
" At the Hart orchard in East Kelowna further tests were made by the Dominion
Entomological Branch in co-operation with this Department on the effectiveness of
natural cryolite compared with the synthetic material, also of the effectiveness of
various nicotine bentonite oil mixtures. Dr. Marshall has prepared a report on this
work which is attached to this report.
" In the Keloka orchard further tests were made by this Department in co-operation with the Dominion Entomological Department with various commercial spreaders,
in standard sprays of arsenate of lead and cryolite. Synthetic and natural cryolite
were compared in late sprays and Phenothiazene and oil.
" Assistance was given to the Dominion Department in checking damage to trees
where various strengths of oil and dinitrocresol had been anplied to destroy overwintering codling-moth. This experiment is located on the Dominion Substation at
East Kelowna and the main purpose is to find out what strengths and quality of oil may
be safely used in trunk spraying for codling-moth. No damage could be detected even
where 100-per-cent. oil was used on the trees treated last year from general observation
of growth. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 43
" The main facts brought out by this year's work with codling-moth are that:—
"(Ik) Synthetic and natural cryolite combined with a fluxit type spreader are
about equal in effectiveness and compare pound for pound favourably with arsenate of
lead in similar mixture.
"(2.) Calcium arsenate, 5 lb. plus 2% lb. of lime plus 1% lb. of zinc sulphate per
hundred, compares favourably with the standard spray mixture of 3% lb. of arsenate
of lead plus % lb. of fluxit type spreader.
"(3.) Phenothiazene in 1941 and 1942 gave consistently better results than
arsenate of lead and fluxit when used at one-half the strength of arsenate of lead.
"(4.) Nicotine bentonite and oil (Dominion Entomological Branch formula) was
equal pound for pound with arsenate of lead.
"(5.) Arsenate of lead or cryolite plus oil are more effective than without the
addition of oil.
"(6.) Trunk sprays with dinitrocresol and oil and moth sprays with sodium salts
of dinitrocresol added to the standard summer spray mixtures offer promise in more
effective codling-moth control."
Hormone Sprays.
Some work with hormone sprays has been mentioned in previous reports. Apparently it has possibilities, particularly when used on varieties of apples that have a
tendency to drop just prior to the most satisfactory picking period. The following is
a brief report on some work done in the Penticton District during the past season by
R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector:—
" A hormone spray to keep apples from falling was tried on ten Mcintosh trees at
Penticton. This material was applied September 11th and was well tested in a very
heavy wind September 15th. As soon as the trees had been sprayed, all windfalls were
gathered up so the ground underneath would show any fresh dropping. Under the
ten trees sprayed and before picking commenced the apples were again gathered, which
amounted to 1% boxes of fresh windfalls. Apparently this material worked quite
satisfactorily if applied during the warm weather and has beneficial effects for about
ten days to two weeks. This should make the material quite valuable to Mcintosh
growers by holding the fruit on the trees during the critical period just prior to
picking. There is a danger, of course, that where this material is used the fruit may
be held on the trees past a suitable stage of maturity for storage and consumption, in
trying to obtain better colour."
Mealy-bug Control.
The mealy bug is found in a few scattered sections of the Okanagan Horticultural
District but is widely distributed in the Kootenays. Here it is found in practically all
orchard areas extending from Nelson to Creston. The work undertaken in the past in
trying to establish satisfactory measures of control has been given in detail in previous
reports. The 1942 report of E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist, Nelson, gives his
observations and recommendations for the control of this pest:—
" This insect is still very troublesome and seems hard to keep under control. The
past season was quite a favourable one for the mealy bug, more or less a season of even
temperatures, no long hot spell, and plenty of moisture. Your assistant did not carry
out any control sprays for this insect this past season but did do a lot of checking up on
grower-spraying operations. To control this insect a very thorough spraying is
required in the dormant or delayed dormant stage after the immature mealy bugs have
left their wintering cocoons and moved to the twigs and fruit-spurs to feed. A warm
sunny day with no wind is the ideal weather for spraying for this insect. Growers
were not any too successful with the control of the mealy bug this past season. This
was partly due to poor spraying equipment but in most cases to faulty application.
Thorough spraying is quite expensive but is the cheapest in the end. Material recommended for the control of this insect is a 4-per-cent. dormant oil of a 110 viscosity type
or a 4- to 6-per-cent. oil of 44 viscosity (Diesel oil). A 6-per-cent. application of the
Diesel oil has been as effective as a 4-per-cent. application of 110 viscosity oil and the
cost is only about two-thirds as much.    A 4-per-cent. Diesel oil has also proven very X 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
effective in the control of the mealy bug under a two-year test, but it is thought now
after checking up on the growers' spraying operations this past season that the 6-percent. Diesel oil should be recommended in place of the 4-per-cent. Diesel as we feel that
the average grower will get better control with the stronger mixture in case of less
uniformity of application."
Cover Crops and Fertilizers.
The study of orchard production takes into consideration the question of the
maintenance of plant food in the soil through the application of fertilizers, both
organic and inorganic, and the use of cover-crops of various kinds. The officials of this
Branch have from time to time reported on the various fertilizer and cover-crop
demonstration plots which have been established in different sections.
In the Salmon Arm District a type of mulching is being followed that may prove
of advantage in that area where natural summer moisture is limited and no irrigation-
water available. This work was reported on last year and the work carried out in 1942
is again reported on by C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector, as follows:—
" The object of this experiment is explained in the annual report for 1941. The
block of trees on which the work is being carried out is located in Mrs. M. Scott's
orchard at Salmon Arm, and consists of ninety-six full-bearing apple-trees of Wealthy
and Mcintosh Red varieties, approximately 1% acres.
" The block is divided into two plots of eighty and sixteen trees respectively. On
the eighty-tree plot alfalfa is being applied as a mulch and on the sixteen-tree plot
clean cultivation practice is being followed. A plan of the block has been made and
data are being recorded with regard to vigour (as indicated by terminal growth and
foliage condition), yield per tree, quality of fruit, and trunk circumferences. Soil-
moisture and humus determinations have also been made. Records are being kept of
the quantity and value of the alfalfa used for mulching, also the cost of applying it to
the orchard. From the nature of the work it is clear that before any definite conclusions as to the merits or demerits of either system can be arrived at it will be necessary to continue observations and the collection of data over a period of several years.
Your Inspector wishes to acknowledge the valuable assistance which has been rendered
in this work by J. C. Wilcox, Horticulturist at the Experimental Farm, Summerland,
who has kindly made soil-moisture and humus determinations, also many useful suggestions as to procedure."
In the Vernon District the cover-crop work is twofold in its objective, as explained
by Mr. Evans in the following extract from his report:—
" This project laid down in the spring of 1941 in an 8-acre Mcintosh block of aged
trees is dual in purpose: (1) To obtain data on tree reaction and soil-building properties of various cover-crop plants; (2) as a medium for the Dominion Entomological
staff in studying the environmental preference of codling-moth larvae in hibernation.
" The series contains plots of sweet clover, alfalfa, wild white clover, and mixed
grasses. All of the crops are well established. A portion of the wild white clover plot
with a thin stand was reseeded last spring. No information is yet available from the
pest-control standpoint."
With regard to cover-crop work in the Penticton District, R, P. Murray, District
Field Inspector for that area, reports as follows:—
" The work that was started three years ago was continued again this season, using
barley, spring wheat, and oats for the annual crop, while observations only were made
on the sweet clover and alfalfa that was drilled in last year and left until this season
before disking under. Seeding was made on May 20th, due to the backward spring and
the difficulty of getting the seed-bed prepared. However, with abundant rains, all crops
made a heavy growth and were disked down early in Julv. The oats again outyielded
both the barley and spring wheat, which in turn outyielded spring rye and fall wheat,
two crops which had been dropped from the cover-crop programme. The sweet clover
and alfalfa, seeded in drills in 1941, have given quite a heavy stand in spite of competition from chickweed and shade. The sweet clover was approximately 5 feet high
throughout the plot before disking and the alfalfa 30 inches. The results with the
drilled alfalfa and sweet clover are so promising that it is intended to make a further DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 45
trial with this method of seeding next spring. It is interesting to report at this time
the improved physical condition of the soil where these trials are being held.
" Sainfoin was again tried as an orchard cover-crop. In spite of a very well prepared seed-bed, abundant moisture, and inoculated seed, the results were disappointing.
The stand was so light and uneven, it was disked down in late July. This is the second
trial with this crop and with the same results. It is being dropped from the cover-crop
programme."
In the case of commercial fertilizers, some work has been done in different sections.
The most extended programme has been carried out in the Kelowna area. The results
vary with the soil and general cultural conditions. The work will be continued,
although up to the present no outstanding results have been obtained.
Tarnished Plant Bug Control.
Dusting and spraying for the control of this insect was undertaken in the Summer-
land and Penticton areas. In the Summerland area the results were inconclusive as the
insect did not appear in sufficient numbers to do damage even in unsprayed orchards.
In the Penticton-Osoyoos area the situation was somewhat similar to that in
Summerland. The situation is best explained by Mr. Murray in his report on this
work:—
" The purchase of a dusting-machine by the Department enabled this office to carry
out rather extended trials on the control of tarnished plant bug in peaches this season.
Plots were laid out at Osoyoos and Penticton where the varieties were largely Rochester
and Vedette, varieties susceptible to tarnished plant bug injury. At Osoyoos a block
of about 233 7-year-old trees was divided into two. One half received an application
of dust in the full pink stage and both areas were again dusted at petal fall. In the
Penticton District the block consisted of 150 trees, about half Rochester and half
Vedette. This area was dusted in the full pink stage and again at petal fall. Possibly
due to weather conditions, it was impossible to obtain any data on the value of the dusts
used. The plots were checked at thinning time or when the peaches were about the
size of a pigeon's egg. As there was less than 1 per cent, tarnished plant bug damage
on both the treated and untreated areas it was not considered that these trials were of
any value and it will be necessary to repeat this work during the coming season.
" At Osoyoos eighty-four trees were dusted April 11th with Pyrocide and thirty-two
trees with Rotox, using 75 lb. of Pyrocide dust and 35 lb. of Rotox dust respectively.
The blossom buds were in the full balloon stage at this time with a few open. On May
5th, the same trees were again dusted with the same materials, but an additional eighty-
four trees were used in the Pyrocide trials and thirty-three trees added to the Rotox
block. This required 100 lb. of Pyrocide and 50 lb. of Rotox. The blossoms were about
95 per cent, fallen. This works out at 1.12 lb. of Pyrocide and 1.9 lb. of Rotox dust
per tree for the first application and 0.6 lb. of Pyrocide and 0.9 lb. of Rotox for the
second applications. It is rather difficult to explain the difference in amount of dust
used. Weather conditions may have played a part but probably more efficient handling
of the dusting-machine for the second application is the main reason.
" At Penticton two different lots of trees were used, one of 100 trees were given
two dustings with Pyrocide and fifty trees with Rotox. This block included a few
young trees just coming into bearing as well as some trees that had been dehorned;
75 lb. of Pyrocide were used and 50 lb. of Rotox for the two applications. They were
applied April 15th and May 7th. The varieties were Rochester, Vedette, J. H. Hale,
and Victor.
" The other block consisted of sixty trees, mostly Rochester, of a uniform size and
in good bearing;  50 lb. of Pyrocide and 25 lb. of Rotox were used in this trial.
" In addition to the 300 lb. of Pyrocide and 250 lb. of Rotox supplied by the Department, 495 lb. of Pyrocide dust purchased by individual growers was also applied, or a
total of 795 lb. of Pyrocide and 250 lb. of Rotox was applied by the Departmental duster
this season.
" Unfortunately for the trial work, no damage from tarnished plant bug was
experienced this season in any part of the district." X 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Pruning Demonstrations.
Instructional work in pruning was carried out in the different horticultural areas
according to the need. In some sections a group would meet with the instructor and
spend a day in being shown the best methods of pruning tree and small fruits, as well
as the details of top-working. In other sections it would mean that the district man
would call at a grower's orchard and advise him with regard to some pruning problem.
The   following table  indicates  briefly the pruning  demonstration-work for the
past year. No of Demon-        No. of
District. strations. Pupils.
Islands  :     20 425
Lower Mainland     22 542
Okanagan        6 25
Total     48 992
Raspberry Variety Trials.
In the various horticultural districts many new varieties of raspberries are being
tried out in order to ascertain their commercial possibilities. One outstanding variety
that is favourably commented upon from all sections is the Washington. This variety
originated at the Western Washington Experimental Station, Puyallup, Washington,
and was introduced into British Columbia for trial two years ago. At the same time
another variety was secured from the same station. This was the Tahoma. It does
not, however, seem to give the same general satisfaction as the Washington.
SPRAY ZONES.      ,
The spray zone policy of the Department was first started about fifteen years ago.
There are still one or two zones in existence that were amongst the first established.
Generally speaking, however, the majority of the spray zones have been discontinued or
their regulations are in abeyance for an indefinite period.
Last spring a new one was organized in the Creston area and is known officially as
the " Creston-Erickson Spray Zone."
Spray zones have, in the opinion of your Horticulturist, outlived their usefulness.
The grower of to-day who wishes to stay in the orcharding business needs to inspect
his spraying equipment, assure himself that it is able to do the work required, then
apply the necessary sprays thoroughly. The future success of orcharding does not
depend on Government regulation so much as upon satisfactory individual effort.
CROP REPORTS.
The Horticultural News Letter was again issued from the Vernon office during the
1942 season.    This was sent out every two weeks from May 16th to September 19th,
a total of ten issues.    Approximately 270 copies of each issue were sent out.    The
following crop estimates were compiled and issued with the News Letter:—
Small-fruit Estimates, May 30th.
Vegetable Acreages, June 13th.
Stone-fruit Estimates, June 27th.
Tree-fruit Estimates (Apples, Pears, Crabs, Grapes), July 11th.
Revised Tree-fruit Estimates, August 22nd.
The fruit and vegetable crop production figures for 1941 were compiled and tabulated in conjunction with the office of the Dominion Fruit Inspection Branch.
Estimates of fruit-crop prospects forms were compiled and supplied to each district
office for use in reporting the monthly fruit-crop estimates for June, July, August, and
September.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT.
Acknowledgment is herewith made of the assistance which the Provincial Horticultural staff has at all times received from the staffs of the Dominion Department of
Agriculture and the Agricultural Faculty of the University of British Columbia. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 47
REPORT OF FIELD CROPS BRANCH.
Cecil Tice, B.S.A., Commissioner.
The early part of the season was considerably later than 1941 but, generally
speaking, the season was about average for earliness. The rainfall has been below
average.
Crops on the whole grew satisfactorily and were harvested under good conditions.
The fall weather was excellent and this proved to be of considerable advantage to
farmers who were short-handed.
Hay-crops were good and some excellent crops of alfalfa were harvested. Pastures
were good until quite late in the season. The above-normal summer precipitation was
of distinct benefit.
Grain yields were generally satisfactory, although some of the crops lodged badly.
Field-crop seeds have turned out very satisfactorily. Good crops of timothy-seed
and alsike-seed were harvested in Central British Columbia. Alfalfa-seed production
in the Interior was below average.
The following is an excerpt of H. H. Evans's report on crop conditions in the
North Okanagan:—
" In the North Okanagan District the season of 1942 was quite favourable for the
production of general farm crops, the above-normal summer precipitation being of
distinct benefit to the dry-farming areas for all harvested crops and pasture lands.
Range pastures were also greatly improved as native grasses responded greatly to the
heavy precipitation in July. Hay, grain, root, and silage crops were very good. Some
loss was experienced with first-crop alfalfa, also a few early cuttings of second crop;
despite this the winter carry-over will be very good. Grains in general produced
heavily but some loss occurred in lodged crops. The best crop of silage-corn produced
for a long time has been stored under ideal conditions for winter feeding. The alfalfa-
seed crop has been the one disappointment of farm crops. Considerable acreage was
left for seed purposes but the general set was extremely poor. A number of fields were
not worth harvesting and were cut and burned. Many others have very low yields.
One bright spot in this picture is the production of an excellent yield of the Ladak
variety in the Vernon District."
B.C. FIELD CROPS UNION.
The B.C. Field Crops Union has had a satisfactory year, in spite of conditions. In
these times when farmers are short of labour they have not got so much time for
experimental work. However, the membership did not drop much below that of 1941.
There were 151 members as compared with 163 last year. The location of the members
was as follows:— Number of
District. Members.
Central British Columbia   40
Peace River Block  14
Vancouver Island and Islands   33
Interior  31
Lower Mainland      6
Kootenays      7
Cariboo   17
Northern British Columbia      1
Boundary      2
Thirty-three distinct tests were available to the members of the Union this year
as compared with thirty-four last year. The tests covered such crops as grains, forage,
and potatoes.
Your Commissioner is Secretary-Treasurer of the Association.
SOY-BEAN TESTS.
In view of the increasing demand for soy-beans, more particularly for the production of vegetable oil, it was considered desirable to undertake tests with several X 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
varieties in different parts of the Province. Accordingly, tests were arranged with
farmers in the following districts in co-operation with the district agricultural officials:
Armstrong, Kamloops, Enderby, Okanagan Falls, Keremeos, Grand Forks, and Mission.
The varieties tested were Pagoda, Kabott, Minsoy, Mandarin, Habaro, and Richland. Considerable information was already available regarding Kabott, Pagoda, and
Mandarin, but very little was known about the Minsoy, Habaro, and Richland varieties.
Your Commissioner visited most of the test-plots during the season and was much
pleased with the care which had generally been exercised by farmers who conducted
these tests.
It should be pointed out that the Pagoda soy-beans were supplied by the Division
of Forage Crops, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. Arrangements are being made
for samples of soy-beans of the different varieties from the various plots to be forwarded to the University of British Columbia for protein and oil tests.
It might be mentioned that soy-bean production has not assumed commercial
importance in this Province as yet, outside of the Creston Reclamation Area. In this
district over 1,000 acres were planted of the Minsoy, Pagoda, and Kabott varieties.
H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, reports as follows regarding the tests at
Enderby and Armstrong respectively:—
" The varieties tested were Mandarin, Minsoy, Kabott, Habaro, Richland, and
Pagoda. The size of the plot for each of the first four varieties was one-half acre and
for the two latter varieties, one-quarter acre.
" The object of these tests was to obtain knowledge of the adaptability of the
North Okanagan for soy-bean production and the range of varieties suitable for the
area.
" The cool, wet season was not favourable to the best development of this plant.
Growth was retarded considerably in the early stages. Plots on the warm, sandy soils
matured in a reasonable period but the stand was not heavy. On the rich, clay loam
plots growth was exceedingly heavy, but maturity delayed.
" The following notes indicate development and maturity of the different varieties
in each district.    Records were taken August 27th and October 8th.
"Armstrong Plots.
"(Seeded May 4th on upland sandy soil.)
"(a.)   Habaro—
Aug. 27: Height 20 inches, pod setting just commencing.
Oct.     8:  Pods well filled but not mature;   not yet harvested.
"(b.)  Richland—
Aug. 27: Height 16 to 20 inches, poor stand, pod setting just started.
Oct.    8:  Pod set light, immature and not harvested,
"(c.)   Kabott—
Aug. 27: Height 24 inches,  pod set good, maturing and starting to
defoliate.
Oct.    8: Crop harvested and shelling badly.
"(d.)   Pagoda—
Aug. 27: Height 16 inches, poor growth, maturity and harvest same as
for Kabott.
"(e.)   Mandarin—
Aug. 27: Height 24 inches, fair to good stand, full podded, fair set.
Oct.    8:  Crop harvested and in good condition.
"(/.)  Minsoy—
Aug. 27: Height 30 inches, heaviest and most uniform stand of all
plots, full bloom and podding freely.
Oct.    8:  Crop mature and ready to harvest.
"This crop lay on the ground too long before threshing and considerable shelling
took place. Habaro and Richland were still on the green side when threshed. Approximately 500 lb. total yield was obtained from this series of tests. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 49
" Enderby Plots.
"(Seeded June 2nd on bottom clay loam.)
"(a.)  Habaro—
Aug. 27: Height 30 inches, very heavy stand, bloom just starting.
Oct.    8: About 25 per cent, of pods filled, no maturity.
"(6.)   Richland—
' Comparable in all respects to Habaro.
"(c.)  Kabott—
Aug. 27: Height 36 inches, very heavy stand, full podded.
Oct.    8: Crop combined on October 6th;   quite green and commencing
to heat in sacks.    Yield, 400 lb.
"(d.)  Pagoda—
Aug. 27: Comparable in all respects to Kabott.
Oct.    8:  Crop combined on October 6th;   green and commencing to
heat in sacks.    Yield, 260 lb.
"(e.)   Mandarin—
Aug. 27: Height 30 inches, heavy stand, crop just podding.
Oct.    8:  Crop full-podded and starting to mature.
"(/.)   Minsoy—
Aug. 27: Height 30 inches, heavy stand, but patchy in wet spots, crop
just podding.
Oct.    8:  Crop full-podded and starting to mature.
" In this series only Kabott and Pagoda were harvested.    Sufficient Minsoy was
hand-harvested to obtain seed for an oil test.    All others had been ploughed under."
R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector, Penticton, reports as follows regarding
the tests in his district:—
" In co-operation with the Field Crops Commissioner, two trial plots of soy-beans
were arranged for, one at Okanagan Falls the other at Keremeos. The plots were one-
half acre in size for each of the Mandarin, Minsoy, Kabott, and Habaro varieties, and
one-quarter acre for each of the Pagoda and Richland varieties.
" Due to the shortage of labour on both ranches where these trials were made, all
plots were weedy and the crop did not have a fair chance, but, even under these
unfavourable conditions, Kabott and Pagoda had matured a fair crop of seed by September 18th. Had labour conditions been normal, all varieties would have undoubtedly
made a much better showing.
" The soy-beans at Okanagan Falls were sown May 8th. Kabott and Pagoda were
harvested September 15th, all other varieties October 18th. Under ordinary weather
conditions, frosts of sufficient severity can be expected before this late date to injure
an immature crop of soy-beans and any varieties that would not ordinarily mature by
September 20th to the 25th could not be safely planted for seed. It so happened that
no killing frosts occurred this season until about the middle of October.
" Of the six varieties sown, only two matured before September 20th. These were
Kabott and Pagoda.
"At Keremeos the seed was sown May 13th and 14th and harvested October 1st and
2nd. In this trial, as at Okanagan Falls, labour was scarce and the crop did not get
as much attention as it deserved.    The following varieties matured:  Mandarin, Minsoy,
Kabott, and Pagoda." _,
Corn Test-plots.
Corn test-plots were again conducted in co-operation with Dr. S. E. Clarke, Agros-
tologist of the Dominion Experimental Farm, Swift Current, Saskatchewan, and the
district agricultural officials concerned. The districts in which these tests were located
are as follows: Fraser Valley (two tests) ; Vancouver Island (three tests); Kamloops
(two tests.) ; Okanagan (four tests). The following is a list of the hybrids tested:
KE-104, KS-386, KM-426, R-603, KZ-50, Wisconsin 279, Wisconsin 355, Wisconsin 525,
Wisconsin 606, and Wisconsin 625.
Green weights have been taken of a number of the plots and samples for dry-
matter test have been forwarded to Dr. Clarke.
4 X 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
THRESHERMEN'S REPORTS.
In Appendix No. 4 to this report is shown the usual statement of the amount of
grain and seed threshed in the various districts of the Province, which has been prepared from the district agricultural officials' reports. Although this report does not
segregate combines and separators, it should be pointed out that there is an increasing
number of combines being used in the Province.
WEED-CONTROL.
Two seasonal Weed Inspectors were appointed for the Peace River Block; namely,
R. W. Holgate, of Rolla, and H. D. Mclvor, of Fort St. John. The former covered the
territory south of the Peace River and the latter covered the territory north of the
Peace River. These two Inspectors were under the immediate supervision of Sergeant
W. A. S. Duncan, of the British Columbia Police at Pouce Coupe.
In other parts of the Province complaints concerning the prevalence of noxious
weeds have, in the case of unorganized territory, been referred to the Provincial Police,
and in organized districts referred to the municipal officials. Educational work has
also been undertaken as time permitted by officials of the Department of Agriculture.
FEDERAL FERTILIZER SUBVENTION.
When the Dominion Government decided to extend its Fertilizer Subvention Policy
to British Columbia, your Commissioner was appointed Supervisor for this Province.
This work has taken up a lot of time and necessitated frequent trips to Vancouver.
Headquarters were established in the Court-house in Vancouver, as this seemed to be
the most convenient point and allowed the Supervisor to keep in close contact with the
fertilizer trade.
The subsidy covered both spring- and fall-sown feed crops. At the time of preparing this report a tabulation of the spring sales of fertilizers has been completed,
but it will be some time before a tabulation of the fall sales will be possible.
Approximately 1,500 farmers availed themselves of the subsidy as it applied to
spring-sown feed crops.    The total amount of the subsidy paid was more than $10,000.
The Dominion Government in paying a part of the farmers' fertilizer bill as a
subsidy hopes to encourage and assist in the production of those crops that will help
Canada send more food to Great Britain, particularly of meats, dairy and poultry
products essential to the maintenance of our people overseas in time of war.
The Fertilizer Subvention Policy has now been extended to December 31st, 1943.
In Appendices Nos. 1 and 2 are copies of the circulars which were prepared and distributed to fertilizer manufacturers, dealers in fertilizers, Farmers' Institutes, and
newspapers relative to the subvention as it affects both spring- and fall-sown feed crops.
SEED PRODUCTION.
In co-operation with the Dominion Plant Products Division encouragement continues to be given to the production of field-crop seeds. The following is a statement
of the quantity of each kind of field-crop seed produced in this Province in 1941:—
Quantity Produced.
Kind. Lb.
Alfalfa     30,000
Red clover      60,000
Timothy   750,000
Alsike clover    21,916
Crested wheat-grass      2,250
Corn        8,000
Fibre flax     32,368
Sugar-beet   226,225
Mangel      18,350
Perennial rye-grass  290 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 51
Quantity Produced.
Kind. Lb.
Reed canary-grass   200
Perennial rye-grass ) 18 000
Italian rye-grass      j
Creeping red fescue  300
Meadow-fescue      10,900
Field peas   500,000
The total value of all the above seeds was $146,003.18.
STOCK SEED OF CEREALS AND ROOTS.
The following table gives the kinds and quantities of stock seed of cereals and
roots distributed this year. This seed was produced by the Agronomy Department of
the University of British Columbia under the joint agreement with the Provincial
Department of Agriculture:— Lb.
Eagle oats       900
Alaska oats     700
Victory oats  2,300
Marquis wheat   1,150
Prolific rye  '.      500
Olli barley      700
Ridit wheat       850
Storm rye      496
Dawson's Golden Chaff wheat      220
Jones Fife wheat      557y2
Kharkov wheat   1,010
Stormont Gossamer flax ,  1,448
Yellow Intermediate mangel  -        29
SOIL TESTING.
A large number of samples of soil were received for testing; 219 samples were
analysed by S. S. Phillips, Assistant Field Crops Commissioner. This work takes up
considerable time and requires much correspondence. The soils are analysed for nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash content; also acidity and humus content. A complete
statement of all samples that were analysed is on file in the Field Crops office.
STRAWBERRY CLOVER.
Two demonstration plots of Strawberry Clover (Trifolium fragiferum) started in
the Okanagan were followed up during the year. Although both plots were slow in
starting, excellent stands of clover were observed on both of these plots when they were
examined in September. This clover is a perennial, low-growing, pasture legume
spreading vegetatively by creeping stems that root at the nodes. The leaves, stems,
and habit of growth are somewhat similar to white clover, making it generally difficult
to distinguish, when not in bloom, from certain types of white clover. The flower-
heads, seed-pods, and seed are very distinctive, however, making identification easy.
The tolerance of Strawberry Clover to seeped, saline, and alkaline soils containing
concentrations of salts that inhibit the growth of most other plants is of particular
importance.
CAMPBELL RIVER LOGGED-OFF LAND SEEDING.
On November 19th an inspection was made of the Campbell River logged-off land
seeding by L. Todhunter, who, in the spring of 1939, following the disastrous fire,
seeded some 2,000 acres of burned-over land to timothy and alsike clover, sweet clover,
white Dutch clover, and subterranean clover.
Mr. Todhunter reports as follows regarding his inspection:—
" The area seeded to white Dutch clover is still disappointing, although more plants
were in evidence at this time than were noticeable at the time of the last inspection in X 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
November, 1941, which would indicate that some reseeding had taken place during the
previous year prior to the disappearance of the original plants.
" The area seeded to timothy and alsike continues to be an excellent stand. The
clover, which at the time of last inspection had almost entirely disappeared, gives much
promise of becoming re-established, numerous plants being observed at this time.
There are heavy stands of timothy on the better type of soil, the plants being large
and fairly compact. There is also quite a lot of natural production in this area and
young plants are one-quarter to one-half inch in height. The old plants, which appear
to have borne a large amount of seed, had reached a height of from 2y2 to 3 feet.
" This particular area contains about 800 acres of exceptionally good grazing for
cattle or sheep. Other areas seeded to timothy and alsike on inferior soil are steadily
improving, many more plants being noted.
" The sweet clover now appears to have become fairly well established, the plants
being strong and healthy and carrying a large amount of seed. There were considerably more plants in evidence at this time than previously noted.
" An area located about one-quarter mile south of the forest nursery and where
the soil is rather a good silt loam, is seeded to subterranean clover. Here the stand is
very good, plants being very vigorous and healthy and spreading rapidly. There is
much evidence of reseeding and numerous seed burrs were noted. Other areas seeded
to subterranean clover, where the catch was not too good, are improving."
A fertilizer and lime experiment is being conducted on 2 acres of this area.
GRAIN SCREENINGS.
The following is an excerpt of the report of W. Sandall, Field Inspector, in the
Court-house, Vancouver, relative to the subject of grain screenings:—
" Grain screenings is a by-product, originating in the recleaning process of wheat
at the elevator. It is delivered from the cleaners in various separations and graded
accordingly.
" A pamphlet issued by the Board of Grain Commissioners of Canada (Bulletin
No. 4) provides for five grades of screenings which are identified as follows: Oat
screenings, No. 1 Feed screenings, No. 2 Feed screenings, Uncleaned screenings, and
Refuse screenings, graded according to official standards.
" In compliance with the British Columbia ' Noxious Weeds Act' and regulations
thereunder, grain screenings which contain weed-seeds in excess of the percentage
allowed by the ' Canada Grain Act' of the Dominion or the regulations made thereunder from time to time for No. 2 Feed screenings shall not be removed from any grain
elevator, mill, or warehouse to any place within the Province, except only by virtue of
permit duly signed by the Minister or by a person authorized in writing by the Minister, and issued at the office of the District Field Inspector, Court-house, Vancouver,
B.C.
" Permits above referred to consist of two specific forms—i.e., one permitting
removal of low-grade screenings by a dealer or grain merchant and one a feeder's
permit which entitles the holder to remove low-grade screenings conditional to prescribed regulations. These permits are available only to certain areas, mainly within
the boundaries of Greater Vancouver. Care is exercised in preventing the removal
of low-grade screenings to farming districts where the high percentage of weed-seeds
contained in such screenings may become a general menace, through the introduction
of many varieties of weeds.
" Up to October 31st, thirteen permits to remove screenings were issued to feed-
dealers covering various quantities and three feeder's permits for 100 lb. each were
issued during the same period.    All permits expire at the end of year of issue.
" A permit is not required for the removal of Oat screenings, No. 1 and No. 2
Feed screenings.
" Complying with section 4 of the regulations under the ' Noxious Weeds Act,'
managers' reports (the forms for which are supplied by the Provincial Government)
are submitted each month by all British Columbia grain elevators and Vancouver
dealers who handle screenings to the Hon. Minister of Agriculture, through the office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 53
of the District Field Inspector, Court-house, Vancouver. These reports show the movement of all grades of screenings, the name and address to whom they are delivered,
date of delivery, quantity, grade, number of permit (if any) and whether for local use
or export.
" During the first ten months of 1942, which ended October 31st, managers'
reports show that approximately 589 tons of screenings, including all grades, have
been consumed locally. This quantity is very much below the requirements for this
material, which are normally about 7,000 tons per year; however, it has not been
available due to the extremely light movement of grain shipments from British Columbia elevators, which correspondingly reduces the supply of screenings. While the local
elevators are filled to capacity, no grain-laden ships have been sailing from the Vancouver port for some considerable time. It is presumed that the situation will not
improve until this traffic resumes normal conditions again.
" Section 11 of the ' Screenings Regulations ' requires that screenings which contain weed-seeds in excess of the percentage allowed by the ' Canada Grain Act' or
regulations thereunder for No. 2 Feed screenings shall not be ground or otherwise
manufactured for sale within the Province. To comply with the above regulations,
feed merchants who obtain low-grade screenings from elevators reclean them in order
to raise same to the required grade before grinding; the refuse accumulated from
this recleaning process is usually exported to the United States where it is used in
stock-feeding yards. Approximately 68% tons were exported by dealers during the
month of April and 28 tons were shipped direct from a British Columbia elevator to
the United States during the same month.
" In an endeavour to control the weed situation which might arise from the use
of screenings, occasional visits have been made to co-operative associations and other
dealers in stock-feeds situated in or near the farming districts of the Fraser Valley
to ascertain if any unground screenings are being sold to the farmer consumer. These
investigations have definitely established the fact that no unground screenings are
being distributed in the country districts, thereby eliminating the danger of weed
contamination from that source. It may be mentioned here that Nos. 1 and 2 Feed
screenings are the only grades available to dealers or consumers in or near the farming
districts. It is also available to the farmer, although it is many years since an individual farmer was known to have purchased unground No. 2 Feed screenings, who in
this case was a poultryman. It is questionable if any grade of screenings contains
the food value per dollar as compared to other feed-grains. Ground screenings are
chiefly used in the manufacture of various feeds; other ground grains, etc., are added
which enhances its food value. The manufactured product is subject to inspection by
officials of the Dominion Plant Products Division, where it is analysed for weed-seed
content as well as protein, fat, and fibre.
" Appendix No. 3 will show the quantity of screenings of each grade removed
from British Columbia grain elevators each month, ending October 31st, 1942, as
compiled from the managers' reports."
REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL PLANT PATHOLOGIST.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist.
Special delivery tags to the number of 777 were issued during 1942, a considerable
reduction from last year's total of 1,025. In addition, 50 tags were issued for greenhouse stock only. Of the 534 shipments for which returns have been made, 277 contained ornamentals, 53 fruit-trees, 92 small fruits, 73 asparagus plants, 28 rhubarb
plants, 46 bulbs, 30 greenhouse plants, and 4 grape-vines. In addition, 94 shipments
without tags were inspected at Vancouver. These included some private shipments,
but were mostly small commercial ones, chiefly of ornamentals and small fruits. They
included raspberries to the extent of 762 plants and Caragana, mostly for Eastern
points in the Province, 500 plants. X 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
NEW OR NOTEWORTHY DISEASES.
The most important item to be recorded under this head is the finding of bacterial
ring-rot (Phytomonas sepedonica) in potatoes grown within the Province. As the
disease has been reported from every other Province in Canada and nearly all the
states of the U.S.A. it was probably inevitable that the disease would ultimately be
found here, but its introduction is none the less a serious matter. A suspected case
was found last year at Bridesville, but bacteriological examination did not confirm the
diagnosis. In this case there appears to be no doubt. The circumstances are peculiar
and difficult to explain. A grower at Salmon Arm brought in and planted a small
quantity of seed of the variety Sequoia in 1940, and no sign of the disease was noticed.
The crop was inspected three times for certification in 1941, but no indications of the
disease found, yet this year it appeared in the crop. No other means of infection
other than the original seed has been brought to light. Measures have been taken to
dispose of the crop in such a way that none will be used for seed. The situation is
complicated by unrestricted importation of potatoes from areas in the Prairie Provinces where the disease is known to occur. It is impossible to make adequate inspections of such shipments. While many of them have gone to army camps and are not
likely to lead to further trouble, some have gone into retail channels, chiefly in the
larger cities. The chief means of control is the use of disease-free seed, but certified
seed is still used only by a minority of the small cultivators and back-yard gardeners
and there is no means of preventing the planting of table stock. It is quite possible,
therefore, that the disease may be introduced in and around city areas by the planting
of tubers from such shipments. While the occurrence of the disease in such areas may
not immediately menace the commercial grower, it is a potential focus from which the
disease may spread.
Grey bulb-rot (Sclerotium tuliparum Kleb.) was found by Messrs. Hastings and
Bosher, of the Dominion Laboratory of Plant Pathology at Saanichton, at two places
in the Fraser Valley, while making their annual field inspection of bulbs. One case
was on tulips, the other on iris. This has not been reported previously from the
Mainland, though a light infection was found on tulips at Saanich in 1941 and a more
severe one on iris at Esquimalt in 1940. The disease is well known in Holland and is
destructive, the fungus growing through the soil and killing out the plants in patches.
Numerous sclerotia are produced in the soil which are capable of producing infection
for several subsequent years.
Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum (Lib.) DeBary was found on tulips at Saanich. This
fungus was identified by Dr. Drayton (R. J. Hastings). This parasite has a very wide
range of hosts, but there are few records of its attacking tulips,
A canker on the twigs of Russian mulberry was found to be rather abundant in
a nursery near New Westminster. The fungus isolated from this has been identified
as Fusarium lateritium Nees var. mori Desm.    It appears to be new to Canada.
A wilt of chrysanthemums, due to Verticillium dahlise, was found causing severe
injury among the stock of an amateur grower for exhibition. It has not so far been
noted in commercial houses.
Occasional cases of black knot (Dibotryon morbosum) have been noted for some
years past in or near the cities of Vancouver and New Westminster, chiefly in old
plantings. More recently specimens of the disease have been sent in from Cloverdale
and Mission.    All cases so far recorded have been on plum.
Douglas fir trees all around the Kootenay Lake suffered serious defoliation through
attacks of the rust fungus Melampsora albertensis Arth. which has its alternate stage
on species of poplar. Away from the lake, as at Creston and in the Columbia Valley,
the disease was not noticeable. Later, however, specimens were sent in from Kamloops with the information that the disease was severe " in spots," but not general.
This disease is not new to British Columbia and is known from most of the States west
of the Rocky Mountains, but its occurrence in such a severe epidemic form is unusual
and worthy of record. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 55
Black stem of alfalfa (Ascochyta imperfecta) was found 12 miles south of Fairmont as well as at Edgewater, both in the Columbia Valley. It was found at the latter
place in 1941.    It does not, however, seem to be causing serious injury.
The increase in " war-gardening " in and around Vancouver has resulted in a
corresponding increase in the number of inquiries at the Vancouver office for identification and advice concerning both plant diseases and insect pests. However, no new
pest in either category was brought in.
"LITTLE CHERRY" DISEASE IN THE KOOTENAYS.
The Plant Pathologist and Assistant Plant Pathologist left for the Kootenays on
July 2nd. A day was spent at Wenatchee with E. L. Reeves, of the United States
Department of Agriculture, and a specialist on virus diseases of stone-fruits. Through
his courtesy we were enabled to see various diseases of stone-fruits in the field, some
of which are not, to our knowledge, as yet present in the Province, but which may be
expected to appear sooner or later. We also had an opportunity to go over the experimental plots and the methods employed in transmission experiments. At Nelson we
were joined by Dr. Giissow, Dominion Botanist, and Dr. McLarty, of the Summerland
Plant Pathological Laboratory, who accompanied us on an inspection tour of the district
from Nelson to Kaslo. Mr. Reeves also joined us at Nelson and was able to look over
the " little cherry " situation for himself. So far, however, no disease quite identical
with Kootenay " little cherry " seems to have been found elsewhere.
An attempt was made to define more surely the present limits of the disease and
its spread since last year. This, however, was rendered unsatisfactory by the backwardness of the season and the necessity of making our visit according to dates originally planned on the basis of a more normal season. However, in the earlier part of
the area—i.e., that west of Nelson—the fruit was far enough advanced for observation,
supplemented by inquiry to give results which are probably reliable. Clear evidence
of the disease was found at Taghum, but this seems to be the western limit. No evidence of the disease was found either by observation or inquiry at Bonnington, South
Slocan, or Robson.
Inspections on the east side of the lake at Crawford Bay, Gray Creek, and Boswell
were less satisfactory. No evidence of the disease was found (July 17th), but Mr.
Hunt who made an inspection about ten days later reports finding evidence of the
disease in seven orchards at Boswell, one at Gray Creek, and one at Crawford Bay.
At Creston information was sought from the manager of the packing-house of any
orchards which had produced small cherries in previous years, as well as from Mr.
Twigg, the District Inspector. Only one instance of markedly small fruit was obtained
and inspection of this orchard showed the fruit maturing normally this season. Other
orchards examined also seemed normal. On July 28th Mr. Twigg reported having
found several trees in one orchard which appeared to have " little cherry " symptoms.
If this proves correct every fruit section in the Kootenay District, with the possible
exception of Kaslo, has now one or more foci of infection.
With Mr. Hunt we examined a small cherry orchard at Kootenay Bay with a view
to locating a site suitable for future experimental work. This orchard, which contains
fifty-five bearing Lambert trees, is isolated by a distance of several miles from any
other cherry orchard, so that there would be a minimum of danger of spreading the
disease to commercial orchards or of the natural introduction of the disease into the
orchard while experiments are in progress. The trees are apparently free from the
disease and, if satisfactory arrangements can be made, it would be much preferable to
the newly set out plantings at Columbia Gardens.
While in the Kootenays arrangements were made for the carrying-out by G. Thorpe,
of the Creston Sub-experiment Station, of some budding experiments. These are
reported more fully in Mr. Foster's report.
Owing to the difficulties of carrying on work in the Kootenays from the Coast
under war conditions, an agreement has been concluded with the Dominion Botanist and
Dr. McLarty, of the Dominion Laboratory of Plant Pathology at Summerland, whereby
future investigations of " little cherry " will be carried on from that laboratory. X 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In June, a mimeographed circular on " Little Cherry " was prepared and distributed to packing-house managers, local newspapers, and officials of the Dominion
and Provincial Departments, more particularly in the areas contiguous to those in which
the disease was known to occur.
NURSERY INSPECTION.
Commercial nurseries on Vancouver Island and in the Fraser Valley were inspected
early in June for virus diseases of stone-fruit trees. No definite cases were found, but
some off-type plants were collected and sent to the Dominion Laboratory of Plant
Pathology at Saanichton, to be grown under observation in the test-plots there. This
is the third year that this inspection has been made and there is a distinct improvement
in the quality of the stock. Nurserymen are apparently following the advice given
them to rogue out all off-type or weak plants as soon as noticed.
WEEDS AND POISONOUS PLANTS.
No new weeds have been found or reported in the southern part of the Province.
The only finding worthy of record is that of smooth crab grass (Digitaria ischaemum
(Schreb.) Muhl.), sent in by the District Field Inspector from Vernon with the
information that it had taken possession of a large lawn in the district. Possibly the
seeds were introduced with the lawn grass-seed. The only other specimens in the
herbarium are from Chilliwack where it occurred in cultivated farm land. Common
crab grass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.) is of more frequent occurrence, but is
not yet common or reported as giving trouble.
The District Agriculturist at Prince George sent in for identification the two
following plants which are believed new to the flora of the Province:—
(1.) Field scabious (Scabiosa arvensis L.) family Dipsacacem. This is a perennial, rather coarse plant, reaching a height of 3 feet, with purplish-lavender coloured
heads of flowers. It is a native of Europe and established for many years on the
eastern side of the continent, but not previously recorded from this Province. It is
reported as a " regular infestation " on a portion of the Indian Reserve at Sinkut Lake,
Vanderhoof.
(2.) Fragrant giant hyssop or anise hyssop (Agastache anethiodora (Nutt.)
Britt.) family Labiatm. This plant of the mint family is a native of the Prairie and
Great Plains area, Manitoba to Alberta, and south to Nebraska and Colorado. It is
said to be common in the northern sections of Saskatchewan. It is reported to be a
common " weed " around Prince George. Whether it is a native plant which has been
overlooked, Central British Columbia not having been botanized very thoroughly, or
introduced from the Prairies is not known. It is quite possibly native and few of our
native plants have become serious weeds.
Another weed sent in from Prince George is the common ragweed (Ambrosia
artemisisefolia L.). Although this and allied species of the same genus are common and
objectionable weeds east of the Rocky Mountains, it is remarkable that no specimen has
been collected or reported from Southern British Columbia during the six years since
the herbarium here was begun. This is a matter of considerable interest to sufferers
from hay-fever, since the pollen of these plants is one of the most potent causes of this
distressing malady in the East. Inquiries are received each year on behalf of intending
visitors as to the presence of ragweed in the area to be visited. The absence of these
plants in most of British Columbia is perhaps not so widely known as it should be to
members of the medical profession treating hay-fever cases with pollen extracts.
In September Dr. Gunn reported serious trouble among cattle on a range near
Clinton and submitted specimens of a plant which it was suspected might be poisonous.
This proved to be arrow grass (Triglochin maritima L.), now well recognized as a cause
of hydrocyanic poisoning in arid and semi-arid areas. Another case at Dog Creek,
Williams Lake, where numbers of cattle had died over a period of years was investigated last year and is reported by Dr. Carlyle in the annual report for 1941. Another
case, involving horses at Okanagan Falls, was given in the annual report of this office
for 1939. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 57
At Windermere a farmer was visited who had lost 250 sheep, mostly breeding ewes,
and who believed it to be due to eating timber milk-vetch. One species, Astragalus
serotinus Gray, is very abundant in this area as elsewhere in the Dry Belt. Dr. E. A.
Bruce, working with what, following Henry's " Flora of Southern British Columbia,"
he identifies as Astragalus campestris Gray, reports many cases of sickness in horses,
cattle, and sheep from eating this plant, including some from the Windermere District.
He also killed sheep by feeding it to them. (" Astragalus campestris and Other Stock-
poisoning Plants of British Columbia." Bull. 88 Dom. Dept. of Agric. 1927.) From
recent investigations it seems doubtful whether A. campestris Gray occurs within our
limits and that the plant which has been referred to this species by Henry and others is
really A. serotinus Gray. While direct evidence, such as might have been given by an
examination of stomach contents, was not obtainable it seems probable that this plant
was responsible in this instance.
MEDICINAL PLANTS, ETC.
It was found possible to give assistance in the identification of plants required, to
a few persons collecting native medicinal plants for Eastern firms, mostly located in
the United States. Flower-heads of arnica, in particular, appear to be in demand,
without reference to any particular species, as a result of the cutting-off of European
supplies of Arnica montana. With the exception of A. cordifolia, which is plentiful at
highway level in certain districts in the Interior, most of our species are mountain
plants and collection of the flower-heads is not likely to prove remunerative, although
the price is now six or seven times what it was before the war.
The increase in the market price of cascara-bark also led to a good many inquiries
from persons who wished to supplement the information given in the new bulletin by
seeing specimens of the actual plants and to obtain any additional information available.
Tea rationing produced a slight flurry of interest in tea substitutes, and a number
of persons visited the herbarium to see specimens of Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandi-
cum) and the poisonous related plants which might be confused with it.
So far, however, as the cultivation of important standard drug plants is concerned,
it is regretted that little progress can be recorded, and it does not seem likely that any
industry will develop until there is a firm of manufacturing druggists established in the
Province to provide a local market. At the present time the nearest such firm is in
Ontario, and there appears to be a reluctance, perhaps not unnatural, to make longdistance contracts with intending growers who have had no previous experience.
At the request of the Division of Botany at Ottawa, a number of samples of native
rubber-producing plants were gathered, dried, and sent to Ottawa to be analysed for
rubber content.
HERBARIUM.
This now contains the most extensive collection of grasses and native forage plants,
weeds, and poisonous plants in the Province, as well as a good representation of the
general flora, at least of the southern part of the Province. The grass collection was
strengthened by exchanges with the Provincial Museum, the National Herbarium at
Ottawa, and the Department of Agronomy of the University of California, as well as
from some private sources. While special attention has been given to the above-mentioned groups, general collections have been made as opportunity offered. Four hundred and nine specimens were contributed last year to the herbarium of the Provincial
Museum and fifty-seven to the National Herbarium at Ottawa, both lots containing a
number of plants rare in our flora and a few of them apparently new records.
The report of the Assistant Plant Pathologist, W. R. Foster, follows:—
The investigation of " little cherry " disease in the Kootenays was continued. The
following budding tests have been carried out at Willow Point, the centre of the
infestation:—
(1.) Yearling cherry-trees of varieties Lambert and Bing budded on different root-
stocks in 1941 were planted out as follows to see if such stocks have any influence on the
symptoms of the disease:— X 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Variety Lambert on Mazzard, Mahaleb, Gold, and Royal Anne.
Variety Bing on Mazzard, Gold, and Royal Anne.
Four trees of each were used.
(2.) Buds from healthy Lambert, Bing, and Royal Anne were budded into a
Lambert tree known to have " little cherry."
(3.) Buds from healthy Olivet, Montmorency, and English Morello were budded
into Lamberts known to have " little cherry." The above varieties are believed to show
symptoms of the disease in the area of infestation, but not so definitely as in the case
of Lambert and Bing.    Fifteen buds of each were used.
(4.) Buds from the following root-stocks (four of each) were budded into diseased
Lambert trees—Black Heart, Gold, Mazzard, Mahaleb, and Royal Anne.
(5.) No symptoms of the disease have been noticed on peach-trees, even when
planted in or near orchards containing " little cherry." However, a direct test is being
made. Fifteen buds from healthy Lamberts have been placed into each of two peach-
trees and fifteen buds from diseased Lamberts into each of two others.
LEAF-MOULD.
Variety tests of varieties of tomatoes reported to be resistant to leaf-mould fungus
were continued. Only two varieties, Vetomold and Vetomold 121, were satisfactory
from the standpoint of commercial value in Canada.
Vetomold was resistant until 1941 when it became susceptible.
Vetomold 121 is resistant and is producing excellent crops of good quality.
Varietal Resistance of Different Varieties of Tomatoes to Cladosporium fulvum
and their Commercial Value.
Variety.
Resistant.
Commercial
Value.
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Vetomold 121                    	
Bay St. Selection 2.....  ■ 	
Fair
Fair
Globelle                       -  	
Fair
Vail x Globelle    	
138 M    	
Fair
SOFT-ROT OF CAULIFLOWER.
To determine the effect of the following dusts and sprays on the soft-rot in cauliflower for seed.
Plot No. Treatment.
1 7 Check, no treatment.
2 8 B ordeaux.
3 9 Bordeaux plus nicotine.
4 10 Copper lime dust.
5 11 Copper lime plus nicotine.
6 12 Copper lime plus lead arsenate.
Spray.—Bordeaux 4-5-40;  nicotine, 1 teaspoonful per gallon.
Dusts.—Add 1 tablespoonful of nicotine to each pound of copper lime or 5 table-
spoonfuls to the 5 lb. Must be mixed immediately before use. Add % lb. of lead
arsenate to 5 lb. of copper lime.
Little information came out of this experiment. The grower seemed to find it
difficult not to carry out his own ideas from time to time. The copper lime dusts
showed some evidence of being superior to Bordeaux in causing less injury and possibly
in protection from soft-rot. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 59
BUNT INVESTIGATION.
A considerable number of chemicals were tested in the hope of finding a seed treatment that would protect against soil-borne bunt infection. One substance showed some
promise, but reduced germination at the strength used. It is felt that publication
of the results should be withheld until the work has been completed.
DAMAGE OF COKE FUMES TO GREENHOUSE PLANTS.
Serious injury to a number of greenhouse plants in a greenhouse in Victoria from
coke fumes gave an opportunity to record their relative resistance and susceptibility
and to note the symptoms on each. The fumes from the furnace in which the coke was
used were allowed to enter the greenhouse by leaving the door open. Closing the door
stopped the injury, but failure to close the door a few weeks later produced the same
symptoms. The damage from the coke fumes only started with a change in the source
of coke.    Many of the fuchsias and calceolarias were killed.
The Effect of Coke Fumes on Different Plants in a Greenhouse.
Plants.
Symptoms.
Estimated
Index of
Damage.
0 to 10.*
Aloe	
Alternatha .
Begonia  (fibrous rooted)-
Boston fern	
Calceolaria	
Cup of Gold..._.	
Date palm...	
Fuchsia 	
Geraniums 	
None 	
Tip-burn. 	
Tip-burn, spotting -	
Tip-burn, spotting, yellowish...
Tip-burn, spotting, defoliation ..
None 	
Heliotrope	
Ivy geraniums..
General debility	
Tip-burn, spotting, defoliation..
Tip-burn, spotting _.
Tip-burn  	
Kentia palms	
Monterey cypress..
Nasturtiums	
Violas	
Tip-burn, spotting 	
Tip-burn....	
Tip-burn - 	
Tip-burn, spotting	
Edge of leaves discoloured .
* 0 means no apparent damage, 1 very slight damage, 10 means death of all plants.    The numbers from 0 to
10 give relative damage.
The following circulars and press articles were published during the year:—
Circulars—
" Diseases and Pests of Cereals, Fibre, Forage, and Root Crops."
" Club Root of Cabbage and Other Crucifers."
Press Articles—
Hybrid Corn.
Clean-up Garden this Fall.
Protect Potatoes from Late Blight Rotting.
Club Root of Cabbage.
Some Important Ornamental Diseases.
Rust Epidemic on Douglas Firs in Kootenays.
Brown-rot of Stone-fruits.
Seed Treatment.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL APIARIST.
A. W. Finlay, Provincial Apiarist.
Bees went into the winter of 1941 very light in stores, especially in the Lower
Mainland and Coast Districts, owing to excessive wet weather during the previous late X 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
summer. Weather conditions during the winter of 1941-42 were not severe, but continued unfavourable weather the following spring further depleted hive stores and
resulted in a heavy mortality of colonies from starvation. In the Fraser Valley bees
had to be fed until the middle of June; consequently, none but the most experienced and
careful bee-keepers were able to keep up brood-rearing and their colonies in shape for
the honey-flow when suitable weather finally arrived about the end of July. By this
time, it was estimated that fully 40 per cent, of all colonies had died on the Lower
Mainland and Vancouver Island, while most of the remainder were naturally below
normal in strength and had to build up on the late honey-flow. It appeared to Coast
bee-keepers that 1942 would be an absolute failure for honey production, the worst ever
experienced. Fortunately, a light honey-flow came on towards the end of the season
and continued during August, which provided winter stores and, in the better locations,
even a super of surplus honey, though the average production was the lowest ever
recorded for the Fraser Valley and Vancouver Island.
In the Interior of the Province, such as the irrigated districts of the Dry Belt,
conditions were entirely different. The excessive rains in the spring were not continuous and the weather was warm enough between downpours to allow bees to gather
sufficient stores to keep up brood-rearing with very little interruption. Even the roadside sweet clover that usually grows very dwarfed and dries out in July, grew tall and
luxuriantly green this season, providing a good honey-crop for the bees, additional to
the usual irrigated crop of alfalfa, etc. The honey-flow was better than normal through
most of the season and continued for at least two weeks longer than usual, resulting in
the best honey-crop the Interior has had for many years. Package bees that were
obtained in April gave a very good account of themselves. A number, under personal
observation of the District Apiary Inspector, produced 200 lb. surplus per colony.
Unfortunately, most of the package bees ordered from the South to replace winter losses
arrived very late, due to unfavourable weather conditions for queen mating and the
unusual demand for package bees by new bee-keepers. The total crop for the Province
is estimated at 1,333,600 lb., this being slightly better than normal. The quality is
about 90 per cent, light in colour, with good density.
REPELLENT SPRAY TEST.
Bee-keepers and fruit-growers alike were particularly interested in the results of
the spraying tests conducted by the Horticultural staff of the Department of Agriculture at Vernon. The formula, recommended by the Department of Conservation,
State of Massachusetts, was a mixture of creosote with the usual lead arsenate as used
for spraying fruit-trees for codling-moth. The creosote was intended to act as a bee-
repellent in the spray mixture to counter the slightly sweet taste of the arsenate and
prevent the heavy losses experienced by bee-keepers through the poisoning of their bees
where situated within flying range of the spraying operations of fruit-growers.
The bee-keepers in the Vernon District formed a committee to work in collaboration with Maurice Middleton, District Horticulturist, in testing the formula recommended. The bee-keepers supplied the bees, ten colonies, while the Horticultural staff
applied the spray. Four sprays were applied at regular intervals, and the colonies,
situated right in the orchard, were examined immediately before and after each spraying. No dead bees appeared on the ground and conditions within the hives were normal
while no burning of the foliage appeared on the trees.
A check-up was made of an apiary of seven colonies situated a few miles away and
adjacent to orchards sprayed the previous day with the regular lead spray without
bee-repellent. Many dead bees were found; as much as a quart of poisoned bees were
on the ground within a square yard of one colony, representing practically the whole
field force of that colony. The spraying of the two places was approximately the same
time, the temperature and humidity were therefore alike. The vital factor, as far as
the bees were concerned, was apparently the repellent in the spray.
The bee-keepers were enthusiastic over the results of the spraying test and they
appreciate the assistance given them by the Department in making the same. The ten
colonies used in the test orchard consisted of nine 2-lb. packages and one wintered-over DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 61
colony. The honey-crop produced by the package bees averaged 210 lb. each, and the
old colony 270 lb. in addition to winter stores. The results so far obtained were satisfactory enough to warrant a continuation of the experiment at least another year under
more varied conditions. The test orchard in the present instance was without cover-
crop, except pasture grass, and about one-half mile from water for the bees. It is
suggested that a site for continuation of the test be made where the usual cover-crops
of alfalfa and clover would also receive the spray. It is an important project to beekeepers and fruit-growers alike to find a bee-repellent that will be safe, easily applied,
and cheap enough for the orchardist to agree to use readily.
FIELD-WORK.
Apiary inspection began with a number of apiaries examined in March, but
weather conditions were unfavourable for systematic inspection during April and May,
causing the work to be delayed several weeks. Our Inspectors on the Lower Mainland
had to choose the odd warm days when colonies could be safely examined without danger
of chilling the brood at this time. V. E. Thorgeirson was appointed as District Apiary
Inspector in place of W. J. H. Dicks, who resigned to take up residence in the Interior.
Mr. Thorgeirson had charge of the district from Greater Vancouver to Haney and
carried out his duties to the satisfaction of bee-keepers in his district.
A number of field-days were held by members of the British Columbia Honey
Producers' Association, at which your District Inspectors attended and gave practical
demonstrations in manipulation of bee-keeping equipment in the production of honey,
etc., which were very much appreciated. Such field-days were limited this season and
were more local in nature owing to the necessary restrictions in transportation facilities.
The attention of the Department is especially drawn to the excellent work accomplished by our oldest District Apiary Inspector, H. Langton Johnson, of Chilliwack,
who has, during his long term of inspection work in the upper portion of the Fraser
Valley, succeeded in gradually reducing the amount of disease from the high point of
17 per cent, to less than 1 per cent, in his district.
Apiary inspection in the Interior benefited to a considerable extent by more favourable weather and the diligent work of Inspector W. H. Turnbull. As was expected of
this experienced apiarist, the percentage of bee-disease has already shown a considerable decline in the number of colonies examined in his district since his appointment
last season. Bee-keepers in the Okanagan have been inspired by his quiet manner in
imparting valuable information while carrying out his duties, and also his interest in
assisting in experimental tests in preventing the heavy mortality of bee colonies due to
spray poisoning in the orchard districts.
Following is a summary of the field-work of the Apiary Inspectors in the various
districts where honey production is a major interest.
District.
Examined.
Inspector.
Apiaries.
Colonies.
A.F.B.
478
12
261
225
610
2,022
144
1,210
413
5,061
114
J. Gillespie    -	
V ancouver Island  —- -
2
17
19
W. H. Turnbull	
Interior   - 	
197
1,586
8,850
349
OFFICE-WORK.
Applications for registration of 490 new apiaries were received and 467 cancellations were recorded. The system of card indexing over 4,000 registered apiaries is
proceeding according to opportunity as the stenographer finds time from other regular
duties. When completed, it will save considerable time in reference-work and a great
improvement over the present ledger system. X 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Sixty microscopic analyses of samples of diseased comb and smears sent in for
bacterial diagnosis were made, and reports sent out with instructions for treatment as
required. Supervision of Inspectors' reports and accounts, departmental reports, and
telephone calls were routine work of the office. Correspondence included the receipt of
1,484 letters and 1,715 were sent out. A considerable part of the increased correspondence was entailed by the necessity of your Provincial Apiarist having to endorse applications of bee-keepers for permits issued by the Wartime Prices and Trade Board for
purchase of sugar for feeding bees. A total of 332 permits were sent out for spring
feeding and 356 for winter feeding to date of this report. The commendation of the
Department should be accorded the office stenographer for the manner in which she has
so efficiently assumed the extra work of this office.
An estimate of the honey-crop by districts will be found in Appendix No. 5.
REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL ENTOMOLOGIST.
Max H. Ruhmann, B.A., Entomologist.
The Entomological staff during the past year consisted of Max H. Ruhmann, Entomologist, and Miss C. M. Bigland, Laboratory Assistant.
SEASONAL OBSERVATIONS AND ACTIVITIES.
Pear Psylla (Psylla pyricola).—The pear psylla has been definitely recorded. During a survey made by members of the Dominion Entomological staff in the Southern
Okanagan the pear psylla was found in a number of orchards in the Oliver-Osoyoos
District.
Colorado Potato-beetle (Leptinotarsa decimlineata).—During June and part of
July a close watch was kept for the reappearance of this beetle at Grand Forks. None
were found or reported up to the middle of July. This is the second consecutive year
that none of these beetles made their appearance.
Imported Onion-maggot (Hylemyia antiqua).—This insect was quite active in this
district for the first time, and injury to seedling onions was about equally divided
between this maggot and the ever-present wireworm. Very few thrips had made their
appearance on the onion-crop at Grand Forks up to the middle of July. The seed-crops
were making excellent development with practically no insect pests to check their
growth.
Due to ill-health I found it necessary to return to Vernon in the middle of July
and was therefore unable to complete the usual check-up of pests in this district.
Gladiolus Thrips (Tseniothrips simplex).—Several small infestations of this insect
were noted in local gardens in Vernon.
OFFICE-WORK.
General correspondence and library work was attended to. Miss Bigland rendered
stenographic assistance to the Horticultural office during the busy season.
REPORT OF CHIEF VETERINARY INSPECTOR.
Anson Knight, V.S., Chief Veterinarian.
During the year the Inspectors have visited the principal dairy and stock areas of
the Province for the purpose of investigating reported outbreaks of disease, and carrying out their regular duties of T.B.-testing and inspection of dairy premises. The
health of all domestic animals, as a whole, has been good, and no serious losses from
contagious disease have occurred. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 63
Grain and hay crops have been well up to average, the latter somewhat higher,
especially throughout Northern and Central British Columbia. Although the stockmen
and farmers were short of help, the crops were put under cover and, weather conditions
being favourable, winter feed should be of good quality.
Prices for live stock have been well maintained throughout the year, and above
average prices were paid for breeding stock. Swine production throughout the Peace
Block has greatly increased, the percentage of select hogs being around 29 per cent.,
which compares very favourably with the older Provinces of the Dominion.
The diseases specified in this report have been investigated. Your Inspectors have
endeavoured to assist the farmer and stock-owner with his live-stock problems.
STERILITY.
Sterility amongst cattle, due to vaginitis, which was prevalent some four or five
years in the western end of Central British Columbia, was not evident this year.
Through treatment and sanitary precautions, as advised by your Inspectors, the animals
affected have become normal and are now regular breeders. A small outbreak in four
small herds in the vicinity of Quesnel occurred. Remedial measures were advised.
A community sire was in service in this area.
ABORTION.
Your Inspectors in the Lower Fraser Valley and Vancouver Island report very
little evidence of this disease.
ANEMIA.
A number of calls have been made to ascertain the trouble experienced by swine-
breeders. In general, the trouble is one of anaemia, although faulty dietary practices
are sometimes found.
One breeder located east of Kamloops lost two litters of pigs, which might have
been due to the recently described condition known as acute hypoglycasmia.
BLACKLEG.
There was an outbreak reported in the Beresford District. Advice was given for
the injection of Aggressin. All carcasses affected were burned and the surrounding
area burned off. The corner of the field in which the dead animals were found was
fenced off, as animals had died there in previous years. Stress was placed on the
necessity of vaccinating all young animals with Aggressin each spring in an area which
is contaminated with the bacillus causing blackleg. In most cases, the rancher realizes
the possible loss from this disease and vaccinates all animals without fail.
Another outbreak occurred in the Louis Creek District. Losses stopped following
the injection of Aggressin.
It appears there were some losses from this disease in the Cranbrook District last
fall. Stock-owners were interested in knowing how to combat and prevent this condition. The programme of calfhood vaccination, as instituted by your Department, will
no doubt reduce or eliminate the incidence of this disease in future years.
ACTINOMYCOSIS  (LUMP JAW).
Isolated cases were observed in Central British Columbia and Cariboo Districts.
The stockmen recognize this disease and destroy advanced cases; early cases are either
treated or sent to the block. By observation, this disease is not so prevalent as in
former years.
COCCIDIOSIS.
No outbreak of this disease has been reported during the year to date. However,
a farmer in the Ashcroft District had some trouble which, on reporting after losses
had been suffered and the condition passed off, appeared possibly to have been one of
coccidiosis.    An outbreak was reported in the Kamloops District, but investigation X 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
proved the condition to be the one known as " winter dysentry."    Treatment was outlined and the trouble subsided.
EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS.
A few cases were reported as occurring in the vicinity of Kamloops, Okanagan,
Pritchard, and Nicola. Upon observing these cases, the symptoms shown did not correspond in all respects to those observed in Alberta a few years ago. The veterinary
practitioner at Armstrong forwarded a head from a suspected case to the Lethbridge
laboratory; the results proved negative. The cases coming under observation agreed
more closely with the outbreak which occurred in the Niagara District of Ontario in
1938, when sixty to seventy horses were affected. In this outbreak several brains and
numerous blood samples were sent to Guelph College and the Animal Disease Institute
at Hull for examination, and in no instance was the true virus of equine infectious
encephalomyelitis found, either eastern or western. Horses feeding on lucerne hay or
pasture during some years appear to develop a toxic encephalomyelitis, which can be
relieved by an active purgative and a grain of pilocarpine. Many cases observed in the
lower interior of British Columbia recovered, but I understand a number, not observed
by myself, had died.    The report of Dr. Chamberlayne on this outbreak is as follows:—
" Equine Encephalomyelitis.—An outbreak of this disease occurred over a widespread area, including the Okanagan, Kamloops, Similkameen, and Nicola Districts.
" It should be pointed out that very few horse-owners vaccinated their animals this
year; hence large numbers of susceptible animals existed throughout the country. This
seems rather unfortunate, for Department officials had repeatedly advised that all
horses should be vaccinated against encephalomyelitis.
" The first case was reported on July 17th from the town of Penticton, in which
district your Inspector happened to be working at the time. This case was soon followed by numerous others, all of which were quarantined together with the contact
animals. The horse-owners in the district were advised to vaccinate their animals,
providing they showed no signs of being affected with the disease. Four deaths were
reported in this district. The carcasses were sprinkled with quicklime and deeply
buried.    Specimens were obtained and submitted to the laboratory for inspection.
" The district was soon organized; horses were brought down off the range and
the majority of the unaffected animals underwent vaccination.
" Had the owners in the districts profited by the experience of the Penticton men,
the disease might have been checked before becoming so widely spread. However, surrounding districts were slow in vaccinating; hence affected animals began to occur
both north and south of the original outbreak. It is doubtful if the disease existed
east of the Okanagan.
" Nine deaths in all were reported. It has been learned since that other deaths
and far more affected horses existed than were officially reported. Horse-owners
explained that they had not notified the Department for fear of having the rest of
their horses quarantined just at their busy season.
" Probably the chief reason for this outbreak was due to the fact that a large
majority of the animals had not been vaccinated this year. Another factor leading to
such a widespread outbreak was the unusual floods occurring throughout the Interior
this year. This provided breeding-grounds for an abundance of insects incriminated
as possible vectors of the virus. It is to be hoped that most horse-owners will benefit
by their experience this year and immunize their horses next spring."
HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICAEMIA.
There is probably more occurrence of this disease than is genei-ally appreciated,
for, in talking to stockmen, losses are mentioned that were apparently due to
septicaemia.
An outbreak occurred this fall in the Nicola District. There were seven deaths
and a number of other animals affected. Animals were posted and specimens procured
for laboratory examination. This attack was of an acute nature and showed so few
of the normal pathological changes that haemorrhagic septicaemia was at first doubted. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 65
However, the laboratory diagnosis removed the doubt. As animals had been lost in
former years under similar conditions, suggestions were made as to a change in
handling of the stock.    Susceptible animals were vaccinated.
A stock-owner in the Jaffray District has lost a few head of cattle each year over
a period of time. An ailing animal was examined but did not show any symptoms of
the disease. However, consideration of the history of the condition has led to the
belief that the Salmonella bacillus is the cause of the trouble. This has been explained
to the owner, who has also been advised to try vaccination.
MALNUTRITION   (SHEEP).
At the request of the owner, a visit was made in the vicinity of Francois Lake to
inspect his sheep—eighty-five ewes and twenty lambs. The ewes and lambs were
herded on what appears to be good range with abundance of wild vetch, pea-vine, and
native grasses; no deleterious plants were found; the ewes were in fair condition,
but the lambs were thin and under-developed for their age. One lamb was killed and
posted; no evidence of internal or external parasites was found; all organs of the
body appeared to be normal; absence of fat on the internal organs and muscles of
the body was quite pronounced. The soil probably lacks some ingredient which the
forage cannot obtain, and thus the milk of the ewes would be deficient in certain elements that go to promote growth and thrift of the lambs.
The owner is willing to co-operate by carrying out feeding experiments this winter
for the purpose of finding out the cause of the deficiency as affecting his lambs and
ewes.
Some 12,000 sheep were examined for foot-rot prior to their grazing on Crown
range. During the inspection the flocks were put through a chute and examined
individually. Any sheep showing symptoms were examined more closely and the feet
pared out.
On the first inspection some flocks contained affected animals; consequently the
flock was quarantined with instructions as to treatment. All flocks, except one, were
finally free of the disease and allowed to go to range, the one exception was given
a special limiting permit by the Forestry Department.
A condition known as " big foot " is quite general and causes continual annoyance
to sheep-owners. The method of handling has been to lance freely and apply tincture
of iodine.    Good results have been obtained.
Certain ranges are contaminated with poisonous weeds and some losses are
experienced. An effort was made to point out to the sheepmen the dangerous plants
and ways of destroying them.
Some lambs were lost through " dirt eating," but apparently this loss was stopped
through the employment of a lamb creep.
JOHNE'S DISEASE.
Suspected cases of this disease were found on four farms over a period of a few
years. Advice was given by your Inspector as to control methods. This disease was
reported in the annual report of 1925.
TUBERCULOSIS.
Considerable time has been spent testing cattle for tuberculosis throughout the
Province, covering the Mainland coast, Lillooet, Kamloops (East and West), Nicola,
Okanagan, East and West Kootenays, Cariboo, Central British Columbia, and Peace
Block. A total of 7,147 cattle have been T.B.-tested and twenty-seven reactors found.
All reactors have been destroyed. Appendix No. 6 gives a summary of districts visited,
number of premises, number of cattle tested, and reactors found.
DAIRY INSPECTION.
The inspection of dairy premises and herbs under the " Milk Act" has entailed
considerable time.    Owing to scarcity of help, your Inspectors find it very difficult for
_ X 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the dairyman to pay attention to the essential details in milk production, such as the
proper sterilizing of milk utensils and the cleanliness of cows and stables. As building
material is difficult to secure no new barns have been erected, and very little remodelling
or repair-work has been carried out. A summary of districts visited, number of dairy
stock inspected, and grading of premises will be found in Appendix No. 7.
REPORT OF LIVE STOCK BRANCH.
Wallace R. Gunn, V.S., B.S.A., B.V.Sc, Commissioner.
The year 1942 has been in many respects a most favourable one, with live stock
and field crop production up to a high average in almost all parts of the Province.
The greatest single problem affecting live-stock production has perhaps been the
scarcity of adequately trained labour. National Service has drawn heavily not only
upon the supply of labour but, unfortunately, has removed many key men from farms
and ranches, which has resulted in a definite reduction of the productivity of these
farms or ranches.
HORSES.
Horse-breeding did not receive any marked attention this year in the Province.
Lack of labour made it inadvisable for farmers to attempt raising their own horses,
and there was no advantage in attempting to raise horses for immediate farm needs.
Consequently, the chief activity within the industry was the purchase of work-horses
to supplement machine-power where this was an absolute necessity. The following is
the classification of stallions in the Province of British Columbia: " A," 17; " B," 10;
"C,"7;   "D,"6;   "E,"5;  and " F," 2.
" A " and " B " class horses are the two top grades of registered horses and are
recorded as free from hereditary diseases and unsoundness and are fit for premium.
" C " class is for registered horses showing some minor unsoundness not felt by the
Inspectors to be of a serious nature. " D " class is for grade stallions, all of which
must be sound and up to a reasonable weight before being permitted to travel; " E " is
the interim certificates issued for pure-bred stallions, and " F " is the interim certificates issued for grade stallions.
Every effort is being made to eliminate the undesirable stallion carrying hereditary diseases from the field of breeding within the Province. Special mention should
be made of the very fine co-operation received from the Federal Department of Agriculture, in which they undertake to inspect all stallions coming into the Province.
Permits are only issued to top-grading stallions for entry to British Columbia, and
only to those passed by Federal Inspectors.
The usual encouragement is given to the purchase of good quality young pure-bred
stallions by farmers and horsemen throughout the Province to replace grade and other
undesirable individuals.
BEEF CATTLE.
The beef-cattle industry has had a very good year. Marketings have been somewhat irregular, due to uncertainty with respect to Wartime Prices and Trade Board
rulings, but, generally speaking, beef cattlemen have had a very satisfactory year.
The following are prices for good steers on the Calgary market: —
January 1st, $9.25; January 8th, $9.50; January 15th, $9.50; January 22nd,
$9.50; January 29th, $9.50; February 12th, $9.25; February 19th, $9.50; February
26th, $9.50; March 5th, $9.50; March 12th, $9.75; March 19th, $9.75; March 26th,
$9.75; April 2nd, $10; April 9th, $10; April 16th, $10; April 23rd, $10; April 30th,
$10; May 7th, $10.50; May 14th, $10.50; May 21st, $10.75; May 28th, $11; June 4th,
$12; June 11th, $12.25; June 18th, $12.25; June 25th, $12.50; July 2nd, $12; July
9th, $10; July 16th, $10.25; July 23rd, $10.25; July 30th, $10.50; August 6th, $10.50;
August 13th, $10.50; August 20th, $10.25; August 27th, $10; September 10th, $9.25;
September 17th, $9.25;  September 24th, $9.25;  October 1st, $9.25;  October 8th, $9.25; DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 67
October 15th, $9.75; October 22nd, $9.75; October 29th, $9.75; November 5th, $9.75;
November 12th, $9.75.     (Vancouver prices for this period were somewhat the same.)
Falling in line with an agreed departmental policy, the practice of district sales
in the Province has been further extended this year. Details of the Kamloops Bull
Sale and Fat-stock Show may be obtained from the report of the District Agriculturist, G. A. Luyat. I might say that the average for this year was $110.70 per head
for 453 head of commercial cattle, the grand champion individual bringing $70 per
hundred. Bull prices were as follows: The top price for Herefords was $850, with an
average of $319.80 for seventy-six head. Shorthorn bulls averaged $219.50 for thirty
head, and the total for the entire sale was $82,383.11.
The fall Stocker and Feeder Sale at Williams Lake in October saw 1,960 cattle and
60 bulls auctioned. The average for yearling steers was $9.01; two-year-old steers,
$9.27; yearling heifers, $8.90; and two-year-old heifers, $8.94. The total for the sale
was $162,340.93. Hereford bulls averaged $325 for 54 head, with a high price of $470.
The average for Shorthorns was $235 for 6 head;  the top price being $300.
The Central British Columbia Live-stock Association sale, held at Kamloops on
September 29th, saw 1,073 cattle sold for a total of $67,478.
For more details, I would refer you to the reports of the District Agriculturists
from Central British Columbia.
A most successful sale was held by Waldo Stock-breeders' Association, at Elko, on
October 17th, 1942, when 427 head of cattle of different classifications sold for
$28,320.10, making an average of $66.30 per head. Five hundred and fourteen head of
sheep sold for $2,950.94, making a total for the sale of $31,271.04. For more details,
I would refer you to the report of the District Agriculturist. This sale was definitely a
revelation to the people of the East Kootenays, and comes as a result of many years of
organization work within the territory in an effort to put the live-stock industry of that
district on a sound basis.
A large number of better sires have again been placed in different sections of the
Province under the Farmers' Institute policy. It is interesting to note that at the
recent Elko sale practically all of the top cattle at the sale were sired by bulls placed in
the district under this policy. Under the section " Nutrition and Animal Health " the
general problems facing the beef industry will be dealt with.
DAIRY CATTLE.
Perhaps no branch of the industry has suffered more as a result of labour shortages
than has the dairy-cattle industry. Where adequate help has not been available, dairy
herds must be reduced, and this is the situation that obtained in the Province during
the latter part of this year. The increase in butter prices established by the Wartime
Prices and Trade Board did considerable to stimulate production for butter manufacture, but even this could not overcome the effect of labour shortage. On the Lower
Mainland and on Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands sales were almost a daily
occurrence during the entire autumn. The unfortunate thing that should not be forgotten is that frequently all of the heifers and young cows that carried any flesh at all
were purchased by butchers for slaughter to take care of the temporary shortage in beef
that existed at that time. This shortage came about as a result of temporary market
disturbances when cattle shipments were being withheld. It is safe to predict that in
the course of the next year, or two years, that there might be a shortage in replacement
cattle for our dairy herds. During the year our campaign of calfhood vaccination
against brucellosis has got well under way. For a more detailed report, I would refer
you to the section under " Brucellosis Control."
SHEEP.
Sheep prices for the year might be said to be scarcely in line with the prices for
other agricultural products. The following are the prices for lamb for the year on the
Calgary market:—
January 1st, $9.25; January 8th, $9.25; January 15th, $9.75; January 22nd, $10;
January 29th, $10;   February 12th, $10.50;   February 19th, $10.50;   February 26th, X 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
$10.50; March 5th, $11; March 12th, $11; March 19th, $11; March 26th, $11.25;
April 2nd, $11; April 9th, $11; April 16th, $11; April 23rd, $11; April 30th, $11;
May 7th, $11; May 14th, $11; May 21st, $11; May 28th, $12; June 4th, $13; June
11th, $13; June 18th, $13.50; June 25th, $13.50; July 2nd, $13.75; July 9th, $13;
July 16th, $13; July 23rd, $13; July 30th, $11.50; August 6th, $10.50; August 13th,
$10; August 20th, $9.75; August 27th, $9.75; September 10th, $10; September 17th,
$10; September 24th, $10.25; October 1st, $10.25; October 8th, $10.25; October 15th,
$10.25; October 22nd, $10.25; October 29th, $10; November 5th, $10.25; November
12th, $10.25.     (Vancouver prices for this period were somewhat the same.)
The National sheep policy, developed on the suggestion of the Federal Department
of Agriculture, in which an increase of some 20 to 25 per cent, in the sheep population
of the Province was looked for, fell somewhat short. It is doubtful whether this aim
will be reached by the end of the year. Your Commissioner attended two conferences
held in Ottawa during the year, and is of the opinion that the best use was possibly not
made of the opportunities afforded. The programme was instituted somewhat too late
in the season to make the best use of the supply of breeding stock available. Again,
some little consideration might profitably have been given to.an increase in lamb, and
particularly wool, prices to bring them more in line with other agricultural commodities.
This would have definitely emphasized the whole programme to established sheepmen
and to other persons interested in making a beginning in the business. Your Commissioner advanced the idea of a slight increase in wool prices at the conference, but
was supported by one other Province only in the beginning.
It is hard to estimate at this time just how much our increase will be and whether
the reduction in some of our larger range flocks, as a result of labour shortages, will not
very nearly off-set the increases obtained under the policy.
It seems superfluous to constantly make reference to the two questions of predatory
animals and sheep-killing dogs, but I, nevertheless, must refer to them again, in face
of the demand for nation-wide increase in sheep production. Predators, without a
doubt, are definitely on the increase, with a corresponding decrease in sheep production
in the range and outlying centres of the Province. It is likely that the chief answer
will come in the way of increase in bounties. Until some one realizes the comparative
unimportance of certain wild animals as compared to the importance of the sheep
industry, little can be done to correct this particular situation. If fencing could be
secured, it is possible that coyote-proof fences could be erected on certain selected farms.
However, in order to get the plan generally adopted, a great deal of organization and
educational work would have to be done by this Department. Along with this must
also go work with tame pasture, a plan long advocated by your Commissioner. The one
other possible help, to a limited extent, would be the use of community bands, which is
being adopted in some districts, but which could be extended to other parts of the
Province to advantage.
Turning to the losses from sheep-killing dogs, the following is a summary:—
Year.
Sheep.
Compensation.
Poultry.
Compensation.
Goats.
Compensation.
1939                  	
361
191
109
74
$2,480.00
1,659.25
988.50
828.00
212
531
203
306
$176.86
396.14
440.16
243.48
6
2
$37.00
1940	
1941   	
1942  ...	
The sheep-killing dog is one of the greatest single problems facing sheepmen in the
mixed-farming areas of the Province. Many sections are definitely out of sheep as a
result of attacks upon their flocks by dogs. We must still record the fact that there
are many dogs still untagged and uncared for, and permitted to run about attacking
sheep. In some of the Coast centres where there are many military camps, dogs are
allowed to remain with no definite ownership and are known to frequently become sheep-
killers. Very good co-operation, however, has been received from those in charge in
trying to keep down this added menace to the sheep industry.    Under the section DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 69
" Nutrition and Animal Health " more will be said about the specific problems in this
field as it applies to the sheep industry.
SWINE.
Swine producers have had a very successful year. With more favourable feed
prices, coming as a result of the free freight policy on grain, coupled with an increase
in price for pork for export to Great Britain, swinemen have generally been able to
make reasonable profits. For the year 1942, Canada's contract with Great Britain
called for 600,000,000 lb. of bacon and pork products, and for the coming year this has
been advanced to 670,000,000 lb. The effort of this Department to encourage a legitimate increase in our swine production has been definitely shown to be on a sound basis.
To those farmers who refused to adopt the programme outlined by this Department,
it must now be clear that they would have been well advised to accept our suggestion.
Farmers must be prepared to look some little distance ahead and take a reasonable
chance in any undertaking. A certain number of brood sows under the Provincial-
Federal policy are continually being placed in small groups throughout the Province.
Generally speaking, the sows placed in the last year have been proving quite satisfactory. We are now in the position where very few outside sows have to be brought in.
Your Commissioner, working with some of the district officers, is aiming to develop
some new sections of the country as swine-raising districts. One of our greatest
problems in getting such policies established is the necessity for a volume of supply
sufficient to make car-load shipments possible. Already in some of our centres, where
some work has been done for the last several years, shipments are now regularly going
to market, and it is hoped that the industry has been permanently established in these
districts. Generally speaking, your Commissioner has endeavoured in all the work
attached to the Branch to try to attack the problems of agriculture on a general district
basis aimed to bring the most out of the particular community. This thought has been
kept in mind for many years, and is at last now making itself shown in several
communities.
NUTRITION AND ANIMAL HEALTH.
It may sometimes be asked why so much attention is being given to the problem
of animal nutrition and animal health in the work of the Live Stock Branch. It is the
approved policy of the Branch to deal fundamentally with first things first. If time is
taken to study the entire live-stock field, it will be agreed that any improvement must
rotate roughly around three main points—namely, sound healthy live stock ; properly
nourished live stock, and intelligently bred live stock. It can at once be seen from the
above that the third factor, while of paramount importance, can not possibly accomplish
anything of worth unless supported by the two fundamental factors of sound health and
proper nutrition. With this general idea in mind, the Branch has gone forward with
the idea of protecting the industry against disease; with the idea of eradicating or
controlling disease in general, and by the placing of emphasis upon a sound nutrition
and the correction of the deficiencies found so generally in feeding practices. With this
foundation work well under way, the final steps in the way of improved breeding, by
the addition of better bred and proven sires of approved blood lines, naturally follow.
In many parts of the Province we are able to report very fine work in this latter field.
This general plan brings us to the place where our organized sales finally round out the
programme.
I will now deal briefly with some of the more important diseases, and nutritional
conditions affecting the industry.
(a.) Hemorrhagic Septicemia.—The term " haemorrhagic septicaemia " is perhaps
too narrow a one to apply to this disease, as it is generally found and in the light of our
present knowledge.    Perhaps the term " shipping fever " is more inclusive.
With the cattle business rapidly becoming a more complicated activity, including
greater concentration of animals at central points, the movement of cattle from such
centres to feed-lots and back again to ranches, it is natural to expect a definite increase
in the incidence of this complex of infections included under the term " shipping
fever."    It is satisfying to note that we in British Columbia have again led in the field X 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of practical education to our industry in the control of this trouble. Predictions made
some years ago are to-day coming true, and the advice given at that time with respect
to the preparation of cattle for entrance to sales and feed-lots is now receiving the
attention of stockmen. If our advice is followed, all sales will soon be built upon the
definite requirement of preparatory vaccination before entries will be accepted.
Your Commissioner uncovered an interesting disease outbreak in the South Cariboo
area, affecting perhaps 40 per cent, of the cattle running on the particular range. This
is worthy of mention, as one of the peculiar conditions which may be included within
the wider group of closely related infections which we know as " shipping fever." This
outbreak appeared during the early autumn. Its dominant symptom seemed to be a
pronounced oedema of the glottis, causing profuse salivation, frequent coughing, definite
distress, and death in many instances from strangulation. Post-mortem finding did
not show any markedly dominant lesion except, in some cases, where evidence was found
of modifications in the intestines indicating a septicaemia. This is the first time this
condition made its appearance in such a severe or extensive outbreak. Some few
limited mild outbreaks have been noted from time to time in the past by your Commissioner. It is interesting to note that the cattle on the range where this outbreak
occurred have been exposed to addition of cattle from outside sources. It is of interest
to note, also, that shipping fever is making its appearance more generally in dairying
districts. A severe type of the disease appeared in midsummer in the upper end of
Vancouver Island. This outbreak seemed to be more of the true haemorrhagic form of
septicaemia. Your Commissioner has spent much time on educational work with this
disease, and endeavours to keep the industry informed upon the most improved methods
of control.    Circular 23 gives general information.
(b.) Coccidiosis.—Very few serious outbreaks of this trouble made their appearance in the range sections of the Province. Extensive work in this trouble amongst
range cattle herds of the Province carried on several years ago has resulted in a quite
effective control being developed. While the view is still taken that nutritional errors,
and perhaps even a virus, may contribute, one thought has been developed as a result of
observations made with a very effective treatment developed by your Commissioner.
I am of the opinion that fatalities in this disease come about finally as a result of
" shock " resulting from the copious loss of body tissue fluids escaping into the lumen
of the bowel, resulting in a more or less complete dehydration and deoxidation of the
body tissues. The treatment developed and as simply outlined in page 12 of Circular 27
which calls for the use of liberal quantities of physiological salt solution used as
enemata gives such consistently good results, especially with these very severe highly
dehydrated cases, that the above conclusion has been considered the most plausible
explanation. This treatment is now adopted quite generally in the Province and in
many sections of the range country of the United States.
(c.) Calculi in Range Steers.—The incidence of this condition was not so high
as had been anticipated, and it is felt that the rather energetic educational campaign
carried out may have helped to reduce the incidence of this trouble. The appearance
of this trouble in alarming proportions some five years ago in several sections of the
range country called for some attention. On examining the situation it was observed
that one unusual condition obtained, and that was that all affected steers were running
on open winter range, and were receiving no supplementary feed as in average years.
The deduction was made that this dry range grass, deficient in Vitamin A and low in
protein, coupled with a water-supply highly charged with alkali, furnished the proper
combination to secure this result. A similar condition was found in male pigs fed only
on grain and having access to alkali water.
The suggestion was made to put steer calves on good alfalfa-hay early- in the
autumn, regardless of weather, and it is pleasing to note that almost complete correction
of the situation has been secured. Pigs were given green feed with like result. It is
interesting to note that the recent findings of several groups of research-workers have
verified this opinion.
(d.) Mineral and Vitamin Deficiencies—These have been dealt with in earlier
reports and little can be added, except to say that at last our educational campaign is
securing Province-wide acceptance.    The general improvement in the nutrition of our live stock of all classes is evidence of the importance of proper mineral balance.
Coupled with this, and inseparable from it, is the need for close attention to a proper
vitamin content in all feeds. This field calls for copious study in order to keep abreast
of the times. All these deficiencies seem to closely supplement the effects of some of
our poisonous plants, such as astragalus campestris, which has been proven to be the
primary cause of such conditions as " knock-heel " in cattle, " Clinton horse disease,"
etc. Ranchers in these areas where this plant is prevalent report definite improvement
where attention is given to proper mineral balance.
(e.) A rather alarming condition made its appearance amongst young calves in
dairy herds. These calves were born apparently normal, but within a day or so would
develop a more or less violent digestive disturbance, appearing as a diarrhoea, and quite
different from the so-called " white scours." This would invariably be followed by a
fatal pneumonia, and death usually in less than a week.
Your Commissioner had warned, especially dairy cattlemen, the autumn before, of
possible trouble of this nature in calves. The thought came because of the bad hay-
supply generally in the Fraser Valley. This badly weathered hay was almost entirely
devoid of its usual Vitamin A content and, of course, the soluble protein. The pregnant cow, as a result, could pass but very little Vitamin A on to her foetus, and her
first milk would also be low in this vital product. As a result, all mucous membranes,
such as those lining the intestinal tract and tubes of the lung, would offer little or no
resistance to the usual attacking micro-organisms regularly found about stables. These
might include even the coccidium organism, as well as other organisms capable of
producing bowel and lung disturbance.
The suggestion was made that in susceptible herds, calves as soon as born be protected by means of high Vitamin A oils, such as cod-liver oil or shark oil. When this
practice was followed, the trouble invariable ceased.
(/.) Johne's Disease.—Your Commissioner begs to report the uncovering of the
above disease in the central part of Vancouver Island. The number of herds affected
is not yet known, but at least one herd shows the disease existent to quite a considerable
extent. An unusual set of conditions obtained in some herds in this particular district
for some years, and previous diagnosis and suggested treatment, made throughout the
years, did not seem to be securing results. Your Commissioner arrived at the conclusion that Johne's disease might be the cause of the trouble. Accordingly, Johnin
for the application of an intradermal test was secured from the Federal Department of
Agriculture, Animals' Diseases Research Institute, and tests were made on three herds
having a questionable history. One herd proved to have no reactors; a second herd
showed one suspect, and a third herd showed four reactors or suspects. This test was
completed on September 11th of this year. On September 20th your Commissioner
was able to perform a post-mortem on one animal in this herd, and was quite convinced
that the gross post-mortem symptoms indicated the trouble to be Johne's disease.
However, material was taken from this case for bacteriological examination and, with
the kind co-operation of Dr. E. A. Bruce, Pathologist in charge of the Dominion Government Pathological Laboratory, at Saanichton, the following report was received on
November 23rd: " With reference to specimens you recently submitted from a suspected case of Johne's disease—Ear-tag No. X16686—I beg to advise you that microscopic examination shows typical Johne's disease bacilli in abundance."
This confirmation of our field-work is quite gratifying, and gives us a basis on
which to attack this problem and furnish the necessary information to make eradication
of the condition possible.
(g.) Equine Encephalomyelitis (Sleeping Sickness in Horses).—The same type of
control of the above condition, through the medium of local committees, as was developed
on the first appearance of the disease in British Columbia, was undertaken. Each
committee received the usual advice and suggestions, with the definite request that they
continue their efforts to secure as complete a vaccination of horses in their district as
possible. On many occasions I expressed myself as being worried over being able to
retain interest on the part of horsemen in this programme. By quite complete vaccinations in previous years, we have been able in the past to hold down cases of the disease X 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
to almost zero. Horsemen in general have become more and more convinced in their
own minds that vaccination was not necessary. As a consequence, the number of vaccinations this year was quite low and, as predicted, the disease began to make its
appearance in greater numbers of cases than in any other previous year. It is interesting to note that adjacent to, and within the areas where the disease first made its
appearance, although only to a very limited extent, are the places where the disease
recurred and where it definitely began to extend this year. Another interesting point—
and one that I have frequently made inquiries about to see if workers with the disease
had any explanation to offer—is that in districts where we have no history of the
disease why the trouble should suddenly appear. The only reasonable explanation
I have to offer is that horses coming into these districts from outside the Province
somehow carried the infection, and this despite the fact that in every case they had
been vaccinated before shipment, because in many instances imported horses seemed
to be associated with these outbreaks.
Your Commissioner is of the opinion that there is a great deal yet to learn about
the control of this very important disease. Statistics continue to definitely demonstrate
the great importance the disease holds in the field of public health, and it is your Commissioner's considered opinion that some specific programme should be undertaken by
public-health authorities in order to protect the human population. It seems yet to be
the opinion of some authorities in the field of public health that the responsibility for
the complete control of this disease rests with departments of agriculture; but it may
be well to point out that, in the strict sense of the word, after such departments have
carried on sufficient educational work with farmers, showing them the necessity for
protecting their animals against the disease, their responsibility ends. However, up
until the present time your Commissioner has gone to great length in endeavouring to
control this disease, and in emphasizing its importance as a public-health matter and
hoping that public-health authorities would line up in an active way. It is possible
that the health people have felt that we were dealing with the matter fully and the
situation did not call for any additional effort on their part, but I would like to state at
this time that the whole matter has now got to the place where it requires joint action.
Two years ago a human case was reported in the Province, and one possible human
death. The Director of the South Okanagan Health Unit reports in the Kelowna
" Courier " of November 2nd, 1942, that encephalomyelitis (sleeping sickness) was
contracted by one resident of the Kelowna District this year. All this, I would say
again, points to the importance of my oft-repeated statement that, if we do not take
organized action to deal with this problem, we will not only lose many horses, but may
have many human cases and possibly fatalities. Furthermore, the disease will, as a
result, become permanently established in many sections of this Province, which means
that at no time is our horse population or our human population free from danger from
the disease.
In this work I want to thank Dr. E. C. Chamberlayne, Veterinary Inspector of this
Department, for his very fine work in co-operating with the Branch in helping to control
the disease in the Interior of the Province. His work follows in line with that done in
previous years by Drs. J. D. Macdonald and D. H. McKay. I also wish to express
appreciation for the assistance given by Dr. J. M. Hershey, Health Unit Director,
Kelowna. A separate report in more detail will be forthcoming when district reports
have all been received.
(h.) Calf hood Vaccination against Brucellosis.—Following the permission received
from the Federal Department of Agriculture that brucellosis vaccine be imported into
the Province, a programme for the organization of dairy cattlemen was instituted, with
the idea of getting the most complete economical and efficient plan developed. Accordingly, your Commissioner spent some time in the early part of the year in such organization work in the Fraser Valley. To-day we have almost all of the Valley organized
into working units under Bang's Control Associations. Each of these districts has a
president, secretary, and a group of directors. The secretary is carefully selected as
an individual prepared to list all calves in the district, so that they may be vaccinated
within the prescribed period.    By group vaccination  under this plan, the cost per DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 73
annum has been kept down to a minimum. Only qualified registered veterinarians are
permitted to do the work. It is not possible at this time to give a detailed report of the
work, since we have not yet reached the end of our year. A detailed report will be
available at a later date. We have at the present time eighteen veterinarians
co-operating in this programme, and' to date 3,220 calves have been vaccinated. The
response that we have received would seem to indicate that farmers generally are very
interested in undertaking the control of brucellosis according to this plan. It is most
gratifying to your Commissioner to feel that the programme seems to be working out
so satisfactorily, since this method of procedure was consistently advocated by us when
most other groups had a different opinion. To-day, however, we are receiving the support of all interested bodies. There is a great deal of detail work yet to be done in
order to round out the work completely; that is being proceeded with as time permits.
As the years go on, it is hoped that the incidence of brucellosis in the dairy herds of
our Province will be definitely reduced. With a gradual reduction in the incidence of
brucellosis in the dairy herds of the Province I feel sure that we may look forward to
the time when this disease will not be a serious problem for our cattlemen, nor one to
draw the attack of public-health authorities.
(i.) Caseous Lymphadenitis.—I am pleased to report a very definite improvement
in the situation in flocks quarantined for the above disease. Detailed reports for the
year have not yet been fully received, hence it is impossible to give a complete report in
detail, but everything points to our being able to lift quarantine on a large part of the
flocks held for the above disease. The few flocks that remain should be cleaned up by
the fall of 1943, permitting the lifting of all quarantines. Close watch is being kept on
the situation, and it is safe to say that we are not likely to have the disease appear to
any great extent in any of our British Columbia flocks.
It is interesting to note that we have been able to reduce the incidence of this
disease from a percentage of around 22 per cent, in some flocks, running into a large
number of affected animals, to the point where some thirty-nine head only were recorded
at the end of our second year of control. This policy met with the general approval of
our sheepmen. Some, however, as would be expected, objected to any control. But, in
answer to those and any other critics, we only have to suggest that they examine the
results secured for their answer. The disease has world-wide distribution, and in some
countries has become of definite economic importance. Our action has prevented this
situation from developing in British Columbia. It is expected that other Provinces
will fall in line with a programme built on much the same plan as that established in
this Province.
(/.) Warble-fly and Tick Control.—The programme of warble-fly control in British
Columbia on the area plan was the first developed in Canada, and I believe on the
continent. This method of control by means of derris washes applied to the. backs of
infested animals has been consistently followed throughout the years, until we are in
the position to-day of having a good part of the Province under control. Almost all of
our large dairy centres situated in the Fraser Valley have been under control for several
years, and have reached the point where there will possibly be less than one warble per
animal recorded. In the North Okanagan, where the work was first undertaken, our
original area—the Deep Creek Valley—has long since been declared warble free. In
other adjacent dairying districts in that part of the Province most of the herds are
now free. One of our most heavily infested areas in and around Greater Kamloops has
been under partial control for some years and shows marked improvement. It is hoped
this year to finally round out the entire territory. For the past two years work has
been undertaken in the Cariboo country, particularly with ranch herds of beef cattle.
It is expected that this will be continued this year and extended to take in a greater part
of the range country. In Central British Columbia and the Peace River Block the
infestation has been reduced to the place where the warble is almost entirely eliminated.
A general round-up is expected to be made this year.
, It is interesting to note that this work has been deemed of such importance by the
Federal Government that it has seen fit to ask that an effort be made to entirely eradicate the warble from the herds of this Dominion.    I feel sure that we are many years X 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
in advance of any other Province in this Dominion, and that our infestation with these
pests is much lower than that of any other part of the Dominion of Canada.
I want at this time to thank the district officers who have so kindly co-operated in
undertaking the detailed organization work in the field. Without their very conscientious effort this programme could not have been undertaken. For more detail on this
work, I would refer you to the report of the district officers.
Many stockmen continue the use of standardized derris in the control of the wood-
tick, along the lines suggested some years ago by your Commissioner.
During the year 1942 I have to again report a definite increase in the work undertaken by the Live Stock Branch. Our many programmes have extended and developed
to a marked extent. Other new pieces of work have come up for attention. Your
Commissioner appreciates the opportunity given to follow the work intimately in the
field—this, I am convinced, is the only way to secure satisfactory results. Frequent
visits to the different parts of the country, discussing in detail the many programmes
with district officers, makes for much more satisfactory results. It has the added
advantage of keeping district officers better informed on departmental policies and
insures a uniformity of effort.
REPORT OF RECORDER OF BRANDS.
George Pilmer, Recorder.
It is not possible to make any proper comparison with the previous year's shipments of cattle until complete returns for 1942 are received in January.
In the early fall the regular movement of cattle to market was held up owing to
the uncertainty regarding prices under the Wartime Prices and Trade Board's ceiling
prices, but in October cattle began to move freely again, and it looks as if the figures
of last year's total shipments will be at least equalled, with variations up and down in
different districts.
This year, however, there was a large decrease in shipments to Prairie and Eastern
Provinces and to the United States, the number this year only being about 15 per cent,
of last year's figures. This is due largely to increased consumption of beef in the
Province by the armed forces and by tradesmen getting higher wages.
Final figures of shipments for the year will be supplied as soon as possible.
Brand-inspection work was done as usual by the Provincial Police at fifty-two
shipping points as follows: Quesnel, Alexis Creek, Bella Coola, Clinton, Lillooet, Bridge
River and Bralorne, Lytton, Spences Bridge, Ashcroft, Blue River, Chase, Salmon Arm,
Enderby, Armstrong, Vernon, Lumby, Revelstoke, Nakusp, Kelowna, Penticton, Summerland, Princeton, Hedley, Keremeos, Oliver, Greenwood, Grand Forks, Rossland,
Trail, Fruitvale, Castlegar, Salmo, Nelson, Kaslo, New Denver, Creston, Yahk, Cranbrook, Kimberley, Wardner, Fernie, Natal, Invermere, Golden, Smithers, Hazelton,
Terrace, Burns Lake, Vanderhoof, Prince George, McBride, and Red Pass.
At Kamloops and Williams Lake brand-inspection work is carried out by full-time
Inspectors paid by this Department, and by part-time Inspectors at nine shipping
points; namely, Soda Creek, Lac la Hache, 100-Mile House, Pavilion, Nicola, Telkwa,
Houston, Forestdale, and Endako.
Only two changes were made this year; namely, E. C. Barger, Telkwa, and H.
Viney, Endako, replacing previous Inspectors who had resigned.
The active and willing co-operation of the Provincial Police in carrying out the
work of brand inspection and much other assistance in connection with the operation
of the " Stock-brands Act " is greatly appreciated.
Range-riding.—A number of ranchers in the Clinton District co-operated again to
hire a man, Mr. Pigeon, to ride the ranges, as they have found by experience that this
work is well worth the money spent on it. The Department assisted them by making
a small grant from moneys collected under the " Horned Cattle Purchases Act " Fund. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 75
Convictions were obtained in the following cases:—Driving stock without inspection: Two, at Clinton. Shipping hides without inspection: Three, at Dawson Creek.
Shipping stock without inspection: Six, at Williams Lake (2), Fernie, Grand Forks,
Greenwood, and Nelson. Shipping beef illegally: One, at Hedley. Dealing in stock
without a licence:   One, at Fernie.
The Wartime Prices and Trade Board have just announced that on January 1st
all slaughtering of cattle and other live stock for other than private consumption may
only be done under permit from the Board. This is in order to give the Board a better
check on the supply of meats, and it should not interfere with our licensing of slaughter-houses under the " Stock-brands Act," which is for the purpose of ensuring that
slaughtering is being done lawfully. In the same way the business of dealing in hides,
which is licensed under the " Stock-brands Act," has also been licensed by the Wartime
Prices and Trade Board for the last year.
As a result of the better prices for beef many ranchers who had gone out of business some years ago are again raising stock, and many others have started raising
cattle, resulting in an increased demand for brands.
The number of licences issued during 1942 was: Slaughter-house, forty-one; stock-
dealers, seventy-five; hide-dealers, seventy-eight; horse-slaughterers, twenty-two; and
beef-peddlers, sixteen.    A complete list of the licensees is as follows:—
SLAUGHTER-HOUSE LICENCES ISSUED DURING 1942.
Christenson, A. C, Bella Coola; Nygaard, M., Bella Coola; Fardol, 0., Quesnel;
Hill, L. L., Quesnel; Pavilion Ranches, Ltd., Pavilion; Kamloops District Farm Co-op.
Association, Kamloops; Stephens, C, Kamloops; Cameron, A., Ashcroft; Parrottino
& Rizzo, Merritt; Belshaw, D., Merritt; Guichon Ranch, Ltd., Quilchena; S.A. Meat
& Produce Co., Salmon Arm; Burns & Co., Ltd., Salmon Arm; Johnston, S. S., Salmon
Arm; Carlson, E., Armstrong; Murray, F. J., Armstrong; Gaven, Fred, Vernon;
Burns & Co., Ltd., Vernon; Good, Jas., Vernon; Edwards, Lisle G., Vernon; Hill, John,
Lavington; Harper, J. O., Nakusp; Mrs. Bailey & Fraitzl, Nakusp; D. K. Gordon,
Ltd., Kelowna; Powick, John, Kelowna; Braham, H., Kelowna; Marshall, M. W.,
Kelowna; Hitchner, L. D., Westbank; Madill, J. S., Penticton; Campbell, J. R., Summerland; Marriott, T. W., Okanagan Falls; W. White & Son, Oliver; Burns & Co.,
Ltd., Grand Forks; Pennoyer, C. A., Grand Forks; Talarico, S., Grand Forks; Pen-
noyer, 0., Grand Forks; Harasimoff, Mike, Grand Forks; Wright, J. A., Rossland;
Muzzin, P., Trail; Pratt, E., Thrums; Burns & Co., Ltd., Creston; Walkley, Mrs. L.,
Cranbrook; Burns & Co., Ltd., Cranbrook; Burns & Co., Ltd., Invermere; Hansen,
P. R., Edgewater; Little, G., Terrace; Kelly, N., Tschesinkut Lake; Hawker, G. R.,
Vanderhoof; Cuthill, E. F., Fort St. John; Bullen, W. S., Dawson Creek; Lawrence,
G. S., Dawson Creek.
HIDE-DEALER LICENCES ISSUED DURING 1942.
Gosman, A., Williams Lake; Christenson, A. C, Bella Coola; Alexis Creek Trading
Co., Hanceville; Lundgren, C, Quesnel; Wood, R. E., Quesnel; Krestenuk, Ltd., Paul,
Quesnel; Krestenuk, P., Nazko; Wo Hing, Lillooet; Pavilion Ranches, Ltd., Pavilion;
Kamloops Dairy Farm Co-op. Association, Kamloops; Stephens, C, Kamloops; Salmon
Arm Meat & Produce Co., Ltd., Kamloops; Dillabough, G., Kamloops; Scott, F. W.,
Kamloops; Pollard, J. E., Kamloops; Agar, L. N., Westwold; McClounies Cash Stores,
Ltd., Falkland; Weightman, H. W., Chase; Rebagliati, G. A., Lytton; Rebagliati,
C. N., Lytton; Laidlaw, S. E., Merritt; Salmon Arm Meat & Produce Co., Ltd., Salmon
Arm; Burns & Co., Ltd., Salmon Arm; Johnston, S. S., Salmon Arm; Sauder, Mrs. A.,
Vernon; Huebner, W. P., Vernon; Gaven, Richard, Vernon; Camozzi, V., Revelstoke;
Harper, J. 0., Nakusp; Marshall, M. W., Kelowna; Sorensen, K., Kelowna; Powick, J.,
Kelowna; Madill, J. S., Penticton; White, G. E., Oliver; Johnston, Edward, Oliver;
Chechik, M. P., Oliver; Woodford, W. A., Princeton; Cousins, A. V., Princeton; Overton, C. S., Keremeos; Hochsteiner, W., Osoyoos; Burns & Co., Ltd., Grand Forks;
Brinkman, H. M., Grand Forks;   Kootenay Consumers Co-op. Association, Trail;   Mor- X 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
gan, J. P., Nelson; Union Packing Co., Ltd., Nelson; O'Neil, I., Creston; Wolfman, N.,
Creston; Gay, Camille, Creston; Biddlecomb, F., Kimberley; Weltman, J., Parson;
Seward, J. A., Golden; Gareb, J. E., Golden; Watson's Store, Ltd., Smithers; Bus-
singer, C. P., Telkwa; Cocks, W. H., Quick; Bickle, Wm., Grassy Plains; Anderson, S.,
Decker Lake; Bickle, W., Grassy Plains; Hawker, G. R., Vanderhoof; Johns, S. H.,
Prince George; McCall, Max, Prince George; Hanna, M. B., Pouce Coupe; Klundt,
E. J., Fort St. John; Bullen, W. S., Dawson Creek; Starns, H. M., Dawson Creek;
Lawrence, G. W., Dawson Creek; Hellerud, 0- W., Dawson Creek; Arnold, R., Vancouver; Bissinger & Co., Vancouver; Gilmore, M., Vancouver; Lister, R., Vancouver;
Burns & Co., Ltd., Vancouver; Jensen, Nels J., Vancouver; Leckie, J., & Co., Ltd., Vancouver; Morrison, W. B., Eburne; Paris, P., Vancouver; Patterson, A., New Westminster;
Pearl, S., Vancouver; Shepherd, A., New Westminster; Turcott, L., Burnaby; Vandt, S.,
Vancouver; Grimshaw, W. H., Vancouver; Bissinger & Co. (M. Miner), Vancouver;
Adirim, N., Nanaimo; Mouat Bros. Co., Ganges; Hubbard, H. W., Victoria; Cochrane,
S., Edmonton; Love, J. E., & Son, Calgary; Milne, P. R., Calgary; Halford Hide &
Fur Co., Edmonton; Wyman, A., & Co., Edmonton; Rosenbaum, L., Calgary; Western
Tannery (Frank Bowes), Edmonton; Bissinger & Co., Spokane, Washington, U.S.A.;
Beeman, C, Spokane, Washington, U.S.A.;   Dudley, George, Dawson Creek.
STOCK-DEALER LICENCES ISSUED DURING 1942.
Davidson, Geo. A., Williams Lake; Zirnhelt, J., 150-Mile House; Bourelle Bros.,
Hanceville; Pigeon, Aurelien Percy, Clinton; Pavilion Ranches, Ltd., Pavilion;
Alexander, S. E., Kamloops; Hay, Geo. C, Kamloops; Smith, Jas. A., Kamloops;
Butterworth, E., Kamloops; Wilson, T. P., Kamloops; Campbell, T., Kamloops;
Campbell, Edward, Kamloops; Schofield, F. D., Kamloops; Johnston, Alex., Black
Pool; Cameron, A., Ashcroft; Rebagliati, C. N., Lytton; Johnston, S. S., Salmon
Arm; Salmon Arm Meat & Produce Co., Ltd., Salmon Arm; Jackson, Geo. P.,
Salmon Arm; Clent, Ed., Salmon Arm; Murray, F. J., Armstrong; Blackburn, J.,
Armstrong: Gaven, Fred. Vernon: Smith. D. Carson, Vernon; Buerge, R., Nakusp;
Hughes, J. W., Kelowna; White, G. E., Oliver; Parker, S., Princeton; Richter, F. H.,
Keremeos; Overton, C. S., Keremeos; Hochsteiner, William, Osoyoos; Jackson, R.,
Midway; Guise, G. 0., Midway; Brinkman, H. M., Grand Forks; Wright, J. A., Rossland; Graham, John, Slocan City; Burns, Harry, Nelson; Eremenko, F., Castlegar;
Hlookoff, F., Castlegar; Luscher, W., Castlegar; Abey, F. H., Mirror Lake; O'Neil,
R., Wynndel; Nickel, Geo., Creston; O'Neil, Ivan, Creston; Bowman, J. W., Natal;
Weltman, Parson; Watson's Store, Ltd., Smithers; Bickle, W., Grassy Plains; Hawker,
G. R., Vanderhoof; Cummings, Robert Geo., Prince George; Long, F. A., McBride;
Millham, S. N., McBride; Fynn, J. H., Dawson Creek; Atkinson, G. W., Dawson Creek;
Dudley, S. E., Dawson Creek; Clark, A. F., Dawson Creek; Acheson, F., Vancouver;
American Live Stock Exporters, Ltd., Vancouver; Arnold, R., Vancouver; Atkinson,
E., Vancouver; Baird & Co., Ltd., Vancouver; Dew, C. B., Vancouver; Interior Live
Stock Co., Ltd., Vancouver; Macdonalds Live Stock, Ltd., Vancouver; Meltzer, N.,
Vancouver; Merin, Max, Vancouver; Nemetz, C, Vancouver; Pacific Coast L.S. Distributors, Ltd., Vancouver; Prosser, Lester, Vancouver; Slomen, H., Vancouver;
Smith, A. E., Vancouver; Turcott, L., Burnaby; Vandt, S., Vancouver; Jensen, Nels J.,
Vancouver; Todrick, Lloyd, Vancouver; Wrayton, Arnot, Fraser Valley; Williamson,
Geo., Cloverdale; Gosling, A. R., Abbotsford; Chadsey, A. E., Chilliwack; Atkinson,
G. W. (Ontario) ; Bryden, J., Mansville; Estrin, L., Calgary; Fowlie, Jas., Calgary;
Madorsky, M., Calgary; Massie Bros., Calgary; Reiber, L., Edmonton; Rosenbaum, L.,
Calgary; Weiller & Williams Co., Ltd., Edmonton; Connell, Morgan, Cayley; Holstine,
J. S., Lethbridge; Messer, Ford, Harvey Station, N.B.; Federal Packing Co., Everett,
Washington, U.S.A.;   Oxford, S. W., Amisk, Alberta.
HORSE-SLAUGHTERER LICENCES ISSUED DURING 1942.
Edmunds, W. H., Macalister; Buchanan, R. F., Canim Lake; Pigeon, J. R. Clinton; Frolek Bros., Kamloops; Skelly, J. W., Kamloops; MacLean, G. L., Notch Hill;
Collins, E. M., Ashcroft;   Albrecht, C. W., Lower Nicola;   Farina, G. B., Salmon Arm; DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 77
Fuller, D., Salmon Arm; Ruth, P. A., Salmon Arm; Mclntyre, H. W., Lumby; Jansen,
K., Brouse; Alpsen, N. T., Nakusp; Bird, C. L., Nakusp; Gold Medal Foxes, Kelowna;
Smith, Oliver, Summerland; Olson & Gustafson, Bankeir; Wiltse, P. M., Creston;
Avis, Harold, Perry Siding; Jensen & Nielsen, Edgewater; Hagberg, H. A., Fort St.
James;   Hargreaves, R. F., Mount Robson;   Nowell, H., Chilliwack.
BEEF-PEDDLER LICENCES ISSUED DURING 1942.
Pavilion Ranches, Ltd., Pavilion; Alexander, S. E. Kamloops; Moeller, J. F.,
Louis Creek; Johnston, Stan., Black Pool; Johnston, A. M., Black Pool; MacKenzie,
C. M., Merritt; Johnston, S. S., Salmon Arm; Jackson, G. P., Salmon Arm; McKeown,
W. B., Salmon Arm; Harkness, W. G., Mara; Twombly, C, Mara; Morrison, H.,
Edgewood; Mrs. Bailey & Fraitzl, Nakusp; Marriott, T. W., Okanagan Falls; Cochrane, G. S., Oliver; Pennoyer, C. A., Grand Forks; Eremenko, F., Castlegar; Hansen,
P. H., Edgewater;  Little, G., Terrace;   Robinson, P., Fort St. James.
REPORT OF THE DAIRY BRANCH.
Henry Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Commissioner.
The season has been unusual in many respects for the dairy producer. In spring
and early summer much cold and wet weather was experienced, detrimental to production of both crops and milk. Later, spells of excessive heat and drought were met,
equally unfavourable for production. Yields of hay were uniformly good, due to early
moisture, and pastures maintained growth until early fall. Forage-crops in general
and roots eventually gave fair returns. Prospects for dairy feeds for the coming
winter are therefore very good. Feed prices showed little change. Total production
of milk for the year will be little in advance of that of the season previous.
Prices and values of all dairy products have experienced periods of utter confusion.
Some stability has been restored by the measures of control introduced, but the situation remains far from satisfactory to the producer submitting to price ceilings for his
produce and faced with uncontrolled costs of production. Labour for the dairy-farm,
experienced or otherwise, is very scarce and wages are prohibitive to producers receiving wholesale prices.
DAIRY-FACTORIES.
Twenty-six butter-factories, three cheese-factories, two condenseries, one milk-
powder plant, and two casein plants have operated this season. Several plants besides
are devoted entirely to ice-cream production.
All dairy-factories and milk plants have been visited periodically by officials of
this Branch. Equipment and utensils, methods employed, storage and sanitation have
been regularly inspected and reported on. The grading and testing of milk and cream
furnished to plants in respect to practice and equipment have been continually under
scrutiny, and many checks of grades and tests allotted have been carried out and
results made known to producers.
CREAMERIES.
No increase in total manufacture of creamery butter is to be recorded. Huge
demands have been made by the greatly enhanced consumption of fluid-milk supplies
and by the requirements of condenseries. The newest of the creamery areas, that of
Central British Columbia and the Cariboo, will manufacture approximately 400,000 lb.
this year. Prices paid for butter-fat have increased gradually and, commencing with
July, have been further supplemented by the 6-cents-per-pound bonus of the Wartime
Prices and Trade Board for creamery butter manufactured. X 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
CHEESE.
Three cheese-factories have operated during the year. Recently one on the Lower
Mainland has ceased manufacture owing to diversion of milk supplies. Returns have
been satisfactory. Considerable growth of the factories in the Interior is looked for
with the benefits of the start in this industry now being enjoyed by producers. The
Federal subsidy based on quality of cheese manufactured has been participated in by
the factories of British Columbia.
CONDENSED PRODUCTS.
A further increase in quantity of evaporated milk manufactured is expected for
the year. Little whole-milk powder was made and not very much more skim-milk
powder or casein.
ICE-CREAM.
While all manufacturers anticipated a huge output from the demand during early
months of the year, the restrictions on account of sugar and butter-fat cut production
to a minimum in the early fall. Returns, while not yet available, consequently will
show about 60 per cent, only of last season's make.
HERD IMPROVEMENT.
Eleven cow-testing associations with fifteen routes employing fourteen supervisors
are in operation in the Province. Three associations employing three supervisors have
ceased operations since last year, owing to the lack of suitable applicants for supervisor
vacancies.    Comparative figures are as follows:—
Year.
Associations.
Routes.
Supervisors.
Herds.
Cows.
Cows per
Route.
Cows per
Herd.
1941                                      	
14
11
17
15
17
14
397
348
8,345
7,000
490
467
21
1942                            	
20
Average production shows very little variation during the past several years.
Completed lactation returns for 6,307 cows were compiled of which 4,353 qualified for
certification as showing the necessary minimum of 6,000 lb. milk with 300 lb. butter-fat.
The average yield recorded for all milking periods completed during 1941 was 8,267 lb.
milk, 361 lb. butter-fat, with an average test of 4.37 per cent.
Much time has been devoted to developing returns secured into means of applying
to practical uses in breeding the information obtained. The eleventh list of dairy sires,
now complete, contains production data of daughters of 233 pure-bred dairy sires of
which sixty-nine are listed for the first time. The third annual list of long-distance
production records gives yields of milk and butter-fat for 478 cows, each of which has
1 ton or more butter-fat to her credit. Thirty-two parental production summaries have
been prepared this year. It is hoped that war-time influences will not further restrict
recording activities too severely.
CREAM-GRADERS' LICENCE EXAMINATION COURSE.
The cream-graders' licence examination course of the year was held at Enderby,
March 16th to 28th, inclusive. The premises utilized were those of the Okanagan
Co-operative Creameries Association, by whom every facility was afforded. A class of
nine attended, all with previous experience.
LICENCES ISSUED.
During 1942, eleven applicants for testers' licences were examined. Sixty-four
testers' licences were issued and thirty-eight combined testers' and graders' with four
single graders' licences. To sixty persons, firms, companies, or associations creamery
or dairy licences were issued. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 79
VERIFICATION TESTS.
No verification tests were requested during 1942.
MEETINGS.
Meetings were attended and participated in by members of this Branch at Pitt
Meadows (2), Langley (2), Matsqui, Dewdney (2), Whatcom Road, Surrey, Richmond,
Ladner (2), Chilliwack, Victoria, Sumas, West Quesnel, Telkwa, Armstrong, Enderby,
Kelowna, Vancouver, Gordon Head, and Vernon.
PUBLICATIONS.
Dairy Circulars No. 46 (stencil), " Third List of Long-distance Production
Records," and No. 47 (stencil), "The Eleventh List of Dairy Sires" represent the
publications of the year.
OFFICE-WORK.
Reports, returns, and inquiries as to treating or manufacture of dairy products
and to markets, together with applications, notices, and correspondence regarding cream
grading, testing, licences, milk records, and dairy sires have maintained their volume.
The work of the two stenographer-clerks has been most satisfactory.
GENERAL.
Less creamery butter will be manufactured than usual owing to the demands of
the fluid trade as well as those of the condenseries.
' The bonus claim forms for 6 cents per pound creamery butter manufactured
allowed to producers have been certified in this office on behalf of the Wartime Prices
and Trade Board of Ottawa. For the months of July, August, September, and October
the sum of $82,965.84 has in this manner been refunded to British Columbia creameries.
A second short course for cheese-makers was held at the University of British
Columbia, April 7th to I6th, inclusive. As before, the class was conducted by T. Hicks,
of Ottawa, through the courtesy of the Dominion Dairy Commissioner, J. F. Singleton.
A fair number were in attendance.
Regular returns of manufactured dairy products are received and transmitted in
co-operation with the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Factory and dairy plant inspection with checking of grades and tests were carried out by F. C. Wasson and F. Overland, Provincial Dairy Inspectors and Instructors, while supervision of herd-improvement work, with dairy sire listings was in charge of G. H. Thornbery, Assistant in
Charge, Cow-testing Associations—all of whom have continued to show application and
devotion to their work.
MILK-TESTERS' LICENCES ISSUED DURING 1942.
Antilla, Lawrence E., Box 10, Vernon; Ardley, Ernest S., 2921 Windsor Street,
Vancouver; Atkinson, G. W., 3433 Dundas Street, Vancouver; Atkinson, L. A., 425
Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver; Austin, Philip, Box 1465, Telkwa; Bailey, Geo. H.,
c/o N. Stade, R.R. 1, Chilliwack; Barone, Adam, Box 351, Prince George; Barren,
Alex, 258 Steveston Highway, Steveston; Boutin, Henri J., Sub. P.O. No. 36, Vancouver; Brown, Geo. W., 1015 Yates Street, Victoria; Cameron, Wm. C, Enderby;
Campbell, Douglas G., Salmon Arm; Canavor, Leslie, 4301 Hastings Street East, Vancouver; Chevalley, Frank, R.R. 1, Sardis; Clare, Robt. R., 405 Eighth Avenue West,
Vancouver; Cranswick, P., 1002 Hastings Street West, Vancouver; Crawford, Wm.,
612 Kingsway, Vancouver; Dinsmore, D. R., 195 Twentieth Avenue West, Vancouver;
Drake, Geo. A., 441 Sixth Street, New Westminster; Drake, S. Stewart, 441 Sixth
Street, New Westminster; Earl, David D., Box 876, Kelowna; Evenson, A. H., Palm
Dairies, Kamloops; Falk, L. W., Box 123, Matsqui; Fawcett, Geo., 930 North Park
Street, Victoria; Gibbs, J. A., 930 North Park Street, Victoria; Hilton, C, 995 Forty-
first Avenue East, Vancouver; Hoy, Norman D., 1335 Howe Street, Vancouver; Hurst-
field, F., Williams Lake;   Ingledew, N. H., 1935 Twelfth Avenue West, Vancouver; X 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
James, Ralph Wm., 2119 Yew Street, Vancouver; Jensen, A. P., 1533 Marine Drive,
West Vancouver; Johnston, Wm. G., 415 Latimer Street, Nelson: Jokanovich, Robt.,
442 Salisbury Drive, Vancouver; Jones, Mrs. Mary J., Box 466, Penticton; Kendall,
W. G., c/o F.V.M.P.A., Vancouver; Lucas, Arthur R., 2642 Fourteenth Avenue West,
Vancouver; Marcy, Ella S., c/o F.V.M.P.A., Sardis; Martin, Geo. R., 405 Eighth
Avenue West, Vancouver; McLeary, Sam, Box 186, Cranbrook; Miller, Alfred, Prince
George; Miller, Ronald C, 22 Twenty-second Avenue West, Vancouver; Mullen, Jos.,
Armstrong; Murray, Hazel A., 208 Maple Avenue, Chilliwack; Nash, Sydney C, Armstrong; Norton, F. H. A., 1015 Yates Street, Victoria; Okulitch, V. J., Abbotsford;
Orr, J. B., R.R. 1, Sardis; Paulsen, Thorvald, Telkwa; Petersen, Martin, Telkwa;
Purves, A. N., Box 832, Kelowna; Rochon, E., 3437 Kingsway, Vancouver; Rose, Mrs.
Agnes J., Vanderhoof; Ross, Mrs. Rose, Nelson; Seller, G. A., 4994 Ross Street, Vancouver; Slater, Alfred, Edgewood; Smith, L. E., 3633 Jersey Avenue, New Westminster; Taylor, E. Willmore, Princeton; Turner, L. H., 666 Sixteenth Avenue East, Vancouver; Valentin, H. B. M., Box 533, Prince Rupert; Washington, F. J., 425 Eighth
Avenue West, Vancouver; Wells, Bruce, Abbotsford; West, Chas. H., c/o Avalon
Dairy, Wales Road and Forty-third Avenue, Vancouver; Wood, Geo. Roger, 3380 King
Edward Avenue West, Vancouver;  and Wood, R. K., 545 Cornwall Street, Victoria.
CREAMERY AND DAIRY LICENCES ISSUED DURING 1942.
Acme Dairy, Limited, 126 Hastings Street West, Vancouver; Arctic Ice Cream &
Dairy Co., Ltd., 1166 Hornby Street, Vancouver; Arlada Cheese Factory (Alfred Slater),
Edgewood; Armstrong Cheese Co-operative Association, Armstrong; Associated
Dairies, Ltd., 405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver; Avalon Dairy (J. Crowley), Wales
Road and Forty-third Avenue, Vancouver; Balmoral Farm Dairy (W. Young), 4301
Hastings Street East, Vancouver; Borden Co., Ltd., The, R.R. 1, Sardis; Borland Ice
Cream Co., Ltd., 1520 Sixth Avenue West, Vancouver; Cariboo Farmers' Co-op. Association, Box 34, Quesnel; Central Creameries (B.C.), Ltd., 325 Railway Street, Vancouver; Columbia Valley Co-op. Creamery Association, Box 25, Golden; Comox Creamery Association, Box 460, Courtenay; Cowichan Creamery Association, Box 130,
Duncan; Creston Co-operative Creamery Association, Creston; Crystal Dairy, Ltd.,
1803 Commercial Drive, Vancouver; Drake's Dairy (Geo. A. Drake), 441 Sixth Street,
New Westminster; Empress Dairies, Ltd., 1002 Hastings Street West, Vancouver;
Frasea Farms, Ltd., Eburne; Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, 425 Eighth
Avenue West, Vancouver; Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Sardis; Fraser
Valley Milk Producers' Association, Abbotsford; Gibson's Dairy Produce, Ltd., 7 Hastings Street West, Vancouver; Glenburn Dairy (C. A. Haslam), 3695 Hastings Street
East, Vancouver; Guernsey Breeders' Dairy, Ltd., 2405 Broadway West, Vancouver;
Hazelwood Creamery Co., Ltd., 355 Keefer Street, Vancouver; Hoy's Crescent Dairy,
Ltd., 1335 Howe Street, Vancouver; Hoy's Ice Cream, Ltd., 1335 Howe Street, Vancouver; Interior Creameries (Alf. Miller), Prince George; Interior Creameries (Alf.
Miller), Telkwa; Interior Creameries( Alf. Miller), Williams Lake; Jersey Farms,
Ltd., 2256 Broadway West, Vancouver; Kelowna Creamery, Ltd., Pendozi Street,
Kelowna; Maypole Creameries, Limited, 1001 Pender Street West, Vancouver; Meadow-
vale Creameries, Ltd., 8860 Hudson Street, Vancouver; Melrose Dairies, Ltd., 3396
Kingsway, Vancouver; Mission Farm Products, Limited, Mission; Nanaimo Creamery
Association, 625 Pine Street, Nanaimo; National Dairies, Ltd., 1132 Hastings Street
East, Vancouver; Nechako Creamery (H. E. Rose), Vanderhoof; Northwestern Creamery, Ltd., 1015 Yates Street, Victoria; Okanagan Valley Co-op. Creamery Association,
Vernon; Okanagan Valley Co-op. Creamery Association, Enderby; Palm Dairies, Ltd.,
Kamloops; Palm Dairies, Ltd., Grand Forks; Palm Dairies, Ltd., 685 Baker Street,
Nelson; Palm Dairies, Ltd., Nelson and Cambie Streets, Vancouver; Palm Dairies,
Ltd., 930 North Park Street, Victoria; Perfection Products, Limited, Monteith Street,
Vernon; Peter's Ice Cream Co., 3205-3207 Broadway West, Vancouver; Registered
Jersey Dairies, Ltd., 608 Broughton Street, Victoria; Richmond Milk Producers', Ltd.,
1508-1512 Hastings Street East, Vancouver; Royal Dairy, Ltd., 707 View Street, Victoria;   Salmon Arm Co-operative Creamery Association, Salmon Arm;   Salt Spring DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 81
Island Creamery Co., Ltd., Ganges; Taylor's Dairy (E. W. Taylor), Princeton; Turner's
Dairy, Ltd., 666 Sixteenth Avenue East, Vancouver; Twigg Island Dairy, Ltd., 612
Kingsway, Vancouver; Valentin Dairy (H. B. M. Valentin), Box 533, Prince Rupert;
and Valley Dairies (John Mitchell), Penticton.
COMBINED MILK-TESTERS' AND CREAM-GRADERS' LICENCES
ISSUED DURING 1942.
Akerman, J. E., Ganges; Anderson, E. E., c/o F.V.M.P.A., Vancouver; Arndt,
Gus, Box 324, Kelowna; Aven, John, Courtenay; Batey, H. S., 1015 Yates Street,
Victoria; Clarke, Everard, Vernon; Davidson, W., 1756 McSpadden Avenue, Vancouver; Drake, A. W., Ganges; Dungate, W., Prince Rupert; Ellis, Jack, 4328 Ven-
ables Street, Vancouver; Freer, Scott, Box 67, Vernon; Grahame, F. A. W., Box 67,
Vernon; Griffith, Cecil, Courtenay; Harkness, W., Suite 4, 2570 Hemlock Street, Vancouver; Haslam, W., 130 Robins Street, Nanaimo; Homes, Jas., 396 Twentieth Avenue
West, Vancouver; Hoskins, Alf. C, c/o F.V.M.P.A., Sardis; Innes, A. E., 325 Railway
Street, Vancouver; James, D. A., 3508 Eighteenth Avenue West, Vancouver; McKer-
richer, W. R., c/o F.V.M.P.A., Vancouver; McArthur, R. W., 8860 Hudson Street, Vancouver; Moore, Jas. K., Quesnel; Morse, A. O., 2685 Pandora Street, Vancouver;
Muraro, W., Box 366, Nelson; Patchett, Geo., R.M.D. 2, Duncan; Patten, L. W., Box
115, Vernon; Pyvis, Roy T., c/o F.V.M.P.A., Sardis; Rochon, J., c/o Melrose Dairies,
Ltd., 3396 Kingsway, Vancouver; Rolph, E. N., 613 Carbonate Street, Nelson; Ross,
Paul B., 608 Broughton Street, Victoria; Skelley, E., c/o Creston Co-op. Creamery
Association; Skelton, R. J., Salmon Arm; Sorensen, Walter, 1714 Fifty-ninth Avenue
West, Vancouver; Strachan, Jos., 325 Railway Street, Vancouver; Thomson, F. D.,
Box 19, Quesnel; Valentine, V., 3396 Kingsway, Vancouver; White, C. J., Box 308,
Penticton;  and Wise, Harold, 1031 Comox Street, Vancouver.
CREAM-GRADERS' LICENCES ISSUED DURING 1942.
Antilla, Lawrence, c/o Okanagan Valley Creamery, Vernon; Cameron, Wm., c/o
Okanagan Valley Creamery, Enderby; Evenson, A. H., Palm Dairies, Kamloops; and
Johnson, Wm. G., Palm Dairies, Nelson.
REPORT OF POULTRY BRANCH.
J. R. Terry, Poultry Commissioner.
Weather conditions throughout the year were, on the whole, favourable to both
meat and egg production. The winter months were a little above the average in maximum temperature and below the average in snow and rainfall. In fact, this year
throughout has been away below the average rainfall.
Production kept up well through the early winter, and on through the season up
until late spring. Cold winds at this period retarded chick growth and egg production
somewhat, and was accompanied by the usual false moulting.
The demand for eggs, both whole and dried, continued strong from the British
Isles, to which point the greater proportion of our exportable surplus was forwarded.
Early in the year the operation of additional egg-drying establishments was inaugurated, and now practically all the eggs exported are dehydrated beforehand. This
Province kept up its quota creditably. The usual shipments of eggs and meat to the
Northland again took place, and possibly the largest shipments of dressed poultry ever
to leave the Province were exported to the United States of America, Western States.
Meat shortages were reported as quite serious there, and many thousands of pounds of
fowl were shipped to Seattle and other near-by cities during the year. This demand
assisted in utilizing the large surplus of dressed fowl in storage at the commencement
of the year. X 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Eggs were in great demand throughout the year, especially this fall, as there were
no cold-storage eggs to help out. The following is a comparison of prices received for
the past ten years by the producer:—
1933	
1934	
Cents.
  15
  15
  16
  21
  24
1938	
1939	
1940	
Cents
  25
  23
1935	
  22
1936	
1937	
1941	
1942 (eleven moi
  28
iths)  32
BREEDING OPERATIONS.
Owing to the tremendous demand for chicks since the beginning of the year, many
of the hatcheries operated for ten months this season. Already some are again putting
down trial hatches to test fertility.
Practically all of the hatcheries and breeders selling chicks and eggs reported
increased sales at prices slightly higher than last year. In addition to the many thousands of chicks exported to the East, principally Alberta and Saskatchewan, a large
number of our breeders found a good market for hatching-eggs from the plants on
the Prairies. Owing to weather conditions being more favourable here for breeding
stock operation, the Eastern hatcheries are compelled to get eggs from British Columbia
for February, March, and April incubation particularly.
As in the past, the majority of the fowls raised are of the light-weight variety, or
crosses of this class with a heavy-weight breed. During the year a boom almost has
been experienced in the clamour for the comparatively new fowl, the New Hampshire.
This breed has many of the characteristics of the old-fashioned Rhode Island Red, but
true specimens of the breed have a bigger frame and carcass, and have, also, quicker
developing possibilities than the Reds. The New Hampshire makes a good cross with
Barred Rocks and White Wyandottes or Light Sussex. The last cross is perhaps the
most suitable one, inasmuch as it is sex-linked, and the cockerels, being light plumaged,
sell at a premium over dark plumaged fowl. In some localities as much as 2 cents per
pound premium is paid for fowls with white feathers.
Several breeders, especially on the Island, where brown eggs are particularly in
demand, utilize Barnevelder cockerels to mate with Sussex or Rock females. The
progeny lay large deep-brown eggs which is passed on by the male of this Dutch breed,
famous for its large deep-brown eggs.
TABLE-POULTRY PRODUCTION.
At the present time there are more persons engaged in this branch of the industry
than ever before. Many operators have contracts with hatcheries to supply cockerels
throughout the greater part of the year, and these are raised intensively, and marketed
at about fourteen or sixteen weeks in most cases. Early in the year, however, many
are sold as broilers at about eight weeks—weight about 2 lb.
Table-poultry production, to be successful, demands more knowledge than plain egg
production, and should not be started in a large way by inexperienced people.
Most of the broiler and roaster producers have their plants quite compact, and
intensively run. In most cases none of the stock is allowed on the ground. This prevents quite a lot of mortality and sickness, but, owing to the artificial nature of the
work, demands much greater attention to the feeding and management. Small colony
houses, with wire-floored runs on the south side of the building, are used. The runs
need to be wired top and sides. Special feeding mashes are the rule, and much milk of
all kinds is used—skim, sour, sweet, and buttermilk.
DEPARTMENTAL WORK.
During the year the usual Farmers' and Women's Institute meetings were
addressed by the Branch. A few poultry displays at fall fairs were judged as well.
A welcome change was noted in some of the fair exhibits, both in numbers and quality. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 83
Most all of the birds shown were of good utility type. The fancy birds shown were
mainly bantams of Old English Game breed. This is the best laying variety of any of
the bantam kingdom.
Several circulars and stenciled sheets were revised, and a circular entitled " How
Eggs are Formed " was published. This has been in great demand by students in
agricultural classes at high schools.
Breeders' directories: Lists of members of the Provincial Flock-approval Plan,
Vancouver Rabbit Breeders, British Columbia Bantam Breeders' Association, and
Turkey and Geese Breeders were stenciled and issued.
A circular in frequent demand, " Poultry Farming for Intending Settlers " was
revised and published. This has been asked for by settlers from all parts of the world,
especially California. A circular, " Sawdust and Cement Concrete," was also issued,
and plans of an improved metal yoke carrier. " Management of Turkeys" and
" Poultry-keeping on a City Lot" were reissued.
Articles were supplied to poultry papers and agricultural journals as requested.
Items of interest were supplied to the British Columbia Farm Broadcast under the
auspices of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
Many inquiries were received during the year, the majority being connected with
disease matters. Outgoing mail showed an increase over last year. Bulletins of all
branches of the industry were in demand and supplies were available.
BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUBS.
As with last year, most of the clubs were supplied with baby chicks and a few with
eggs. A considerable increase in the number of clubs is to be recorded. Last year
there were forty-one clubs and this year fifty-five were organized. Of this total, the
Okanagan had the largest number of clubs tabulated—twenty-one. The Fraser Valley
districts totalled fifteen clubs, and the Kootenays six. Vancouver Island shows seven,
and Northern British Columbia six.    Grand total of club members, 460.
Many of the clubs exhibited their flocks at their local fall fairs to compete for
special prizes donated by the Fair Associations. Judging competitions were also held,
and were well supported by the club members.
The Mission District Clubs were again operated. They have been run continuously
since 1916.
Two members of Langley Prairie District Clubs—Miss I. Lawson and H. Touhy—
were sent to Toronto to compete in the All-Canada Judging Contest. The British
Columbia team was placed second.
The majority of the Provincial clubs were organized by District Agriculturists,
Farmers' Institutes, Women's Institutes, Poultry Associations, and School Teachers.
POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS.
The Pacific Poultry Breeders' Association ends up the year with a greatly increased
membership, there being a number of new local branches organized. This organization
is concerned with securing improvements in all branches of the industry, and is not
engaged in marketing activities, as was the case with previous co-operative associations.
The Provincial Association has had to continue its work by correspondence as in
the past few years. Affiliated associations continue to function, but do not, of course,
hold as many poultry shows and exhibitions as in pre-war times. Shows are again to be
held at Vancouver, Kamloops, and Ladysmith. The Victoria Association held its exhibition in connection with the Saanich Fall Fair.
DISEASES.
As in previous years, many post-mortems were made by members of the Branch,
and wherever possible specimens were passed on to Dr. E. A. Bruce, V.S., in charge of
the pathological work connected with live stock and poultry.
Paralysis in its various forms was again reported fairly frequently throughout the
Province. In many cases investigated, it was found that green feed deficiency was the
cause, and in others worms.    Range paralysis amongst pullets and cockerels led all X 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
other varieties of this disease. Dosing with sulphur drugs has been recommended and
has apparently proved worth trying. In the matter of prevention, breeding only from
well-matured and disease-resistant stock has got to be given more attention. With such
a big demand for early hatched chicks, many breeders are forced to use eggs from
pullets that may be less than seven months old. In some cases investigated, paralysis
broke out in breeding stock shortly after the first few hatches had been secured. Under
such circumstances it is going to be difficult to overcome this trouble. Regular and
persistent culling is the best weapon to fight this or any other disease.
The usual trouble from colds and croup was experienced, and in many cases the
advice to " clean out and clean up " was all that was necessary to straighten things out
satisfactorily.
Several outbreaks of leukaemia were investigated, and in two instances it was
found that this disease had been causing heavy mortality for a number of years. Complete destruction of the breeding stock was advised and carried out in one case.
Coccidiosis was reported as having ravaged several flocks of half-grown young
stock, but possibly owing to the extreme dry weather during the rearing season the
outbreaks were not as numerous as in previous years.
A remedy that would appear to be giving fairly good results in preventing the
spread of coccidiosis is to add 2 per cent, flowers of sulphur and 2 per cent, charcoal
(oak, if possible) to each hundredweight of dry mash. The experimenters do not claim
it is a cure, but that it will check up the spread if the trouble happens to break out.
The usual outbreaks of enterohepatitis (blackhead) occurred in several turkey
flocks during the year. The giving of worm purges at least twice a year to turkeys
would appear to help considerably. Specimens which happen to survive an attack
should be marketed, instead of being kept over as breeding stock.
This Division wishes to acknowledge the ever-ready assistance of Dr. E. A. Bruce
in diagnostic work, particularly throughout the year.
WATER-FOWL.
Again the Khaki-Campbell duck variety has been among the most popular varieties,
for laying purposes especially. White Pekins and White Muscovy ducks were again
raised in large quantities for table purposes. About the same number of ducks were
produced.
Geese were again able to record a slight increase in production. Toulouse breeds
were the most popular. Geese feathers, as well as ducks', are in great demand,
especially now there are no importations from Europe.
TURKEYS.
An increase of turkeys is to be recorded, with the Bronze variety still away in the
lead. White Holland are second favourites, and the Red Bourbon in third place.
Breeders report a fairly successful rearing season and, even with a ceiling price fixed,
the majority appear to be finding the work profitable.
CONCLUSION.
The writer wishes to show appreciation for co-operative help from the Island-
stationed police officers for assistance in locating settlers; A. Hourston, departmental
mechanician; J. Allen, part-time Instructor in the Fraser Valley until June of this
year; and Miss M. Marquart for consistent good work, stenographic as well as office
routine.
REPORT OF WOMEN'S INSTITUTES.
Mrs. V. S. McLachlan, Superintendent.
The war-time programme of the Women's Institutes continues energetically along
the lines of conservation, production, and marketing, in spite of the fact that many
homes are short-handed with both sons and daughters away on war-work. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 85
CONSERVATION.
The convener, Mrs. J. F. Price, reports: " The ' Jam for Britain ' project in which
the Women's Institutes co-operate with the British Columbia Division, Canadian Red
Cross Society, was an outstanding success in spite of the shortage of labour and poor
berry-crops, and in some places poor plum-crop. Twenty-six Institutes co-operated in
the thirty-six centres which were organized. The largest contribution-—more than 5
tons—came from Victoria, where members of the local Institute worked with other
organizations." New Denver Institute reports that they made 1,008 lb. of jam.
Peachland made 636 lb. of jam and 348 cans of peaches. At Duncan, the three Institutes combined with other organizations to make 2,500 lb. of jam. In all, almost 50
tons of jam and processed fruit has been shipped to Britain. Osoyoos and Penticton
Institutes contributed towards a donation of 7 tons of fruit from the Okanagan Valley.
The Kelowna and Lumby Institutes, realizing that jam takes much shipping space,
decided to concentrate on the evaporation of surplus fruits and a number of Institutes
in the locality received instructions in this work from F. E. Atkinson, of the Summer-
land Experimental Station, but, to date, no report has been received of the results.
Twenty-nine Institutes, in districts where no fruit was available, contributed
$238.43 to buy sugar and cans. Donations were received from all over the Province,
as far north as Nor' Pioneer at Cecil Lake.
PRODUCTION.
Victory gardens for children have been sponsored in many localities, Cobble Hill
leading the way with the assistance of the Cowichan Creamery Association. The
Association provided seeds, fertilizer, and prizes, and the result was so successful that
it is intended to carry on the work next year. The average age of the gardeners was
twelve years.
A number of Institutes have succeeded in holding their annual fairs or flower-
shows, though the flowers have generally been changed to vegetables. Four of them
applied for and obtained the Department's book prizes, including North Bridge Lake,
which was delighted with their first effort at a show.
Last spring, to encourage the greater use of home products and more intelligent
use of available foods, the Provincial Board held a competition in the planning of
menus suitable to the four different seasons of the year. The entries were judged by
the Nutritionist of the Provincial Board of Health, and the winning entry from Pender
Island contains so much practical information that it is hoped to send copies of it to all
InStitutGS- MARKETING.
Mrs. B. F. Gummow, President of the Provincial Board, is an active member of
the Wartime Prices and Trade Board and at the request of the Board most Institutes
have appointed liaison officers to work in conjunction with the Board in Vancouver.
The Institutes, led by Mrs. Gummow, have been making strenuous efforts to obtain
an additional sugar ration for apples during the winter, but, so far, this request has
not been granted.
In August the Rations Division at Ottawa appealed to this office for some information on the sugar ration which they were unable to furnish. A questionnaire was
therefore sent out to representative Institutes in all parts of the Province and the
answers compiled and sent to Ottawa. In acknowledging the questionnaire, Miss
Speers stated that " the information will be useful as a guide to the work of the Rationing Division."
BRITISH COLUMBIA WOOL-FILLED COMFORTERS.
The making of comforters seems to be definitely established as an Institute activity.
Pavilion Institute sends in two every month. In May last, McBride reported they had
made twenty-four comforters since the beginning of the year. Most of the comforters
are sent overseas, but in some localities a number have been kept to equip the local
A.R.P. Post.    It is perhaps worthy of note that last spring a ship-load of comforters, X 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
etc., was salvaged from a wrecked vessel on this coast. The cases had been soaked in
salt water for about a fortnight when they were returned to British Bundles, but after
being thoroughly washed and dried the wool-filled comforters " looked like new."
POST-WAR REHABILITATION COUNCIL.
At the request of this Council, Institutes in the Fraser Valley, the Okanagan, and
the Kootenays were circularized regarding the tour of the Council last August and
invited to attend meetings and submit briefs. Great interest was aroused and some
constructive briefs have been submitted by Institutes.
DISTRICT CONFERENCES.
District conferences were held at North Pine in the Peace River District, Kelowna
in the Okanagan, Prince George in the Bulkley Valley District, Lumby in the Salmon
Arm District, New Westminster in the North Fraser and Abbotsford in the South
Fraser Districts, and Victoria in the South Vancouver Island District. I attended the
conferences at Kelowna, Lumby, New Westminster, Abbotsford, and Victoria. The
North Vancouver Island District decided not to have a conference at this time, and the
meetings planned for the Arrow Lakes District at Nakusp and for the Kootenays at
Greenwood were cancelled when they found I could not attend.
PROVINCIAL BOARD MEETING.
The Provincial Board met in Victoria on November 16th and 17th, with all members present. Much business was transacted and plans outlined for future work.
The following resolution was sent to the Minister of Defence at Ottawa: " In view of
acute labour shortage, exorbitant wages demanded by farm help, wholesale slaughter
of stock, and loss of crops from lack of farm help, and having regard to the success of
British Land Army, we the Directors of the Women's Institutes of British Columbia
strongly urge formation of Canadian Women's Land Army."
The Provincial Board is sending copies of this resolution to the Superintendents
and Presidents of Women's Institutes of all the other Provinces in the Dominion.
OTHOA SCOTT TRUST FUND.
This fund to aid crippled children continues to grow and during the recent campaign $900 worth of Victory Bonds were purchased. A donation of $225 was also made
to the Solarium from last year's income and this year the Board authorized the expenditure of up to $5 per month to help a sick boy in the Beatton River area who is too old
to go to the Solarium. The books of the fund were audited by Mr. L. Grogan and
found to be in good order.
GENERAL OFFICE-WORK.
A new Institute has been organized at Chilako in the Bulkley Valley District, but
Cortes Island, Coleman Creek, Trinity Valley, Whonnock and Ruskin, and Willow Valley
Institutes have been compelled to close down owing to lack of membership. Whonnock
and Ruskin, which had twenty-two active members in 1941, now has only three possible
members left in the district. Trinity Valley had seventeen last year and now has not
enough to form a quorum. The total membership of Institutes has also dropped from
4,080 last year to 3,800 in 1942. This decrease seems to be largely due to population
shifting to the cities, though transportation problems have a little to do with it. The
White Rock and Hazelmere Institutes seem to have found a good way to overcome this
problem. Small circles are formed of near-by members who meet regularly, and general meetings of all members are held only quarterly. The device has resulted in a
considerable increase of membership and both Institutes are doing good work. White
Rock is particularly active in making comforters and clothing for Bundles for Britain.
There are now 183 active Institutes in the Province.
During the year 1,482 letters and reports have been received in the office and 932
letters sent out.    This does not include circular letters, the monthly Bulletin, and a DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 87
good deal of material sent out on behalf of the Wartime Prices and Trade Board, the
National War Savings, and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
The Bulletin is sent to all Institutes, members of District and Provincial Boards
and others, and continues to be appreciated.
REPORT ON SOIL-SURVEYS.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Specialist.
In the summer of 1942 your Soil Surveyor was confined to office-work on reports
and maps. The field survey was managed by Dr. D. G. Laird, Professor of Agronomy,
University of British Columbia, and L. Farstad, Agricultural Scientist, Dominion
Experimental Farms Service.
The area classified in 1942 consists of about 960,000 acres in the Central Interior
District which lies between the Chilako River and Fraser Lake. This total contains
about 313,000 acres of potentially arable land and approximately 647,000 acres best
suited to forestry.
Summer office-work included the preparation of a soil-survey report and map covering 714,000 acres in the Prince George District. The report and map were brought
to the stage suitable for editing and publication. After this work had been done the
field party proposed a revision of the report and map to include an area classified
in 1942.
This area, which lies between the Chilako River and the east end of Cluculz Lake,
completes the western part of a climatic region peculiar to the Prince George District.
The locality between Cluculz Lake and Fraser Lake is a less humid sub-zone, with a new
group of soils that require separate description.
The summer office period gave opportunity for research and the development of
a Land Class Map to supplement the soil map of the Prince George District. This is
the first map of its kind to be developed and applied to an agricultural area in British
Columbia. Its purpose is to place the soils and native vegetation in use groups which
define their present economic value. In an area with soil resources the map gives
direction for development if agricultural expansion occurs in the post-war period.
Soils not suitable at present for farming are classed as " Forest Land." This
acreage may become a managed forest to be used as a source of income by adjacent
settlers. Its gravel-deposits are of great value for roads and general construction in
the arable clay soils of the district.
Soils of fine texture but with heavy forest-cover are grouped as " Temporarily
Non-arable Land." The cost of clearing and the cost of treating the high soil acidity
produced under coniferous forest are against its present use for farm development.
This land type contains mature and semi-mature timber. It would yield the best
results if reserved from sale for farms while more cheaply reclaimed arable land is
available.
Soils of fine texture with a light cover of aspen, willow, and alder are classed as
" Arable Land." This land type covers enough undeveloped acreage for present needs,
and it may be reclaimed at the lowest cost. The deciduous forest-cover is light enough
to be cleared off by specially designed tractor-driven machinery. The soil itself has
been ameliorated by the annual fall and decay of deciduous leaves containing bases,
and acidity is reduced. Settlers produce good crops without lime or commercial
fertilizers.
The grouping of soils and native vegetation into three categories simplifies the
problem of developing pioneer districts to a marked degree. Each land type has its
best economic uses and these can be worked into a general plan.
The Forest Land may best serve the local economy if reserved for the duration
of one timber crop before reclassification. The Temporarily Non-arable Land is a
middle class with nearer agricultural possibilities.    Since the quality of the soils make X 88
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
certain that this type will ultimately become farm land, the plan may include the
gradual reduction of the forest and its temporary replacement by deciduous growth.
In the meantime settlers, public works, and services can be concentrated in the larger
and most accessible of the Arable Land areas. Such measures are possible where the
Government is the most important land-holder. The Land Class Map, in areas covered
by forest, is also a basis for a Rehabilitation Act, which may be required for the systematic development of pioneer districts. Copies of these maps have been supplied to
the Department of Agriculture and the Post-war Rehabilitation Council.
War-time conditions at Ottawa have held up the drafting of the Okanagan Soil
Map. This work is progressing slowly with a smaller and less skilled staff, but the
publication date of the map and report can not be predicted. However, it will be kept
in readiness for publication by revision and improvement. The possibility of similar
delay before publication of the Prince George soil-survey report is to some extent
offset by the preparation of a few hand-made copies of the maps for official uses.
In the spring and winter of 1942 the usual advisory assistance was given on land-
drainage problems in Okanagan orchards. A substratum of cemented glacial till
underlies certain soil types in the Okanagan Valley; often within a few feet of the
surface. This permits the accumulation of excess irrigation-water in subsoils at the
toe of the slope and in basin-like depressions. The rise of ground water during the
period of irrigation reduces yields and destroys trees in many orchards.
This water drains away after the irrigation is shut off, and the winter season
affords an opportunity to investigate and establish drains while the soil is dry. Each
winter a limited amount of advisory assistance is given to growers who are prepared
to install drainage-works.
BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUB WORK.
S. S. Phillips, B.S.A., Secretary.
The year 1942 has been one of satisfactory progress for Boys' and Girls' Clubs in
British Columbia. The number of clubs organized increased by 34 and the membership
by 272 members. Considering such handicaps as shortage of transportation, the
organization of club projects in the various districts of the Province has been particularly successful.
The following list shows the number of projects undertaken by Boys' and Girls'
Club organizations under departmental supervision in 1942:—
Project.
Number of Clubs.
Membership.
1941.
1942.
1941.
1942.
8
32
7
1
39
16
2
10
38
6
1
59
18
2
5
75
322
57
8
371
193
18
94
402
49
Poultry.—     —  	
Potato     	
513
177
20
Alfalfa   .-	
Totals _	
105
139
1,044
1,316
A comparison of the 1942 figures with 1941 shows an increase in the number of
clubs and memberships in every project except swine, which dropped one club and eight
members, also five alfalfa clubs were organized this year with sixty-three members.
From the areas where the alfalfa clubs were organized reports have been received
stating that the club members are showing keen interest in these projects which should
work into the general production programme of the districts. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 89
PROVINCIAL ELIMINATION CONTESTS.
Elimination contests were held this year at Chilliwack Exhibition and at Armstrong Exhibition.
At Chilliwack on September 16th preliminary contests were held for dairy-cattle
judging. No teams were entered from the Interior of the Province in the potato and
poultry contests, so the final contests for these two projects were held at Chilliwack.
The following list shows the number competing in the potato-judging contest and
the standing of the teams:— individual     Team
Score. Score.
Hugh Davis, Langley j.  413
Jim Schatz, Langley  419
 • 832
Joyce Maddock, Richmond  372
Arthur Maddock, Richmond   376
•  748
Unfortunately, the winning team could not comply with the regulations governing
the National Contest, so no potato team was entered from British Columbia to compete
in Toronto this year.
m   mmmsw»^ t^mmmm.:mm m
wwmmmssm
''     fli-i "''
POULTRY TEAM.
Left to right: Irene Lawson, Sandy McLean (coach), and Walter Tuey.
Only one team entered in the final poultry-judging contest:—
Individual Team
Score. Score.
Irene Lawson, Langley Prairie  .  423
Walter Tuey, Langley Prairie _•  322
745
This contest was conducted by G. L. Landon, District Agriculturist, New Westminster, who stated that the team had been well coached by Sandy McLean and were well
up in their project, a fact that was later substantiated when this team won second place
in the National Contest.
Entered in the preliminary dairy-cattle judging contest were Dick Berry, of
Langley Prairie, and Ralph Barichello, of Murrayville; Allan Mufford, of Milner, and
Eldon Porter, of Murrayville; Frances Lidster, of Langley Prairie, and Violet Paton,
of Glen Valley; Pat Thompson, of Coghlan, and Claire Evans, of Chilliwack; and
Robert Irwin and Marie Irwin, both of Sardis. X 90
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
dairy team.
Left to right: Ralph Barichello, Tom Berry (coach), and Dick Berry.
At Armstrong Exhibition, September 23rd, final elimination contests were held in
dairy-cattle judging, swine and beef-cattle judging.
In the final dairy-cattle judging contest Ralph Barichello and Dick Berry, of
Langley, qualified for the Toronto trip. Others taking part in the final competition
were Peter Buff and Jack Payne, of Prince George; also Terry Fowler and Lawrence
Meggit, of Armstrong.
SWINE team.
Left to right: Stewart Phillips, Noland Boss (coach), and Tom Marshall. 	
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 91
In the final swine-judging contest Tom Marshall and Stewart Phillips, of Armstrong, qualified for the Toronto competition.
BEEF TEAM.
Left to right: C Turner (coach), J. McNally, L. McLeod, and G. A. Luyat.
Final beef-judging contest gave Jack McNally and Laverne McLeod, of Westwold,
first place; while Verna Shannon and George B. Gowans, of Kamloops, scored second
place. Alvin J. Wiley and Cato Loveng, of Francois Lake, were third; with Ross
Phillips and Gordon Sidney, of Armstrong, coming fourth.
NATIONAL JUDGING COMPETITION, TORONTO,
NOVEMBER 2ND-6TH, 1942.
The four teams from British Columbia ranked high at Toronto this year. The
dairy and poultry teams both won second place, the beef team third and the swine team
fifth in very close competitions. All the team members were well qualified, worked hard
at their projects, and were well coached. Two ex-contest members—Noland Boss, of
Armstrong, and Tom Berry, of Langley—coached teams that went East this year and
Warner Philip, of Brigade Lake, coached a beef team that stood second in the final
Provincial Elimination Contest at Armstrong.
In conclusion, I would like to report excellent co-operation from the members of
the Dominion Department of Agriculture interested in the various phases of club work.
Acknowledgment is also made to the University of British Columbia for conducting
judging demonstrations, field-days, and lectures to club members; the District Agriculturists who direct the club activities in their districts; Armstrong and Chilliwack
Exhibitions for making it possible for holding Elimination Judging Contests; and all
local organizations and associations that sponsored club projects in various parts of
the Province.
REPORTS OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS.
PEACE RIVER DISTRICT.
T. S. Crack, District Agriculturist.
The season has been exceptionally good, from seeding time until harvest, with very
little rain at the commencement of threshing and, generally speaking, harvest was X 92
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
gathered in and threshed in very fine condition. The wheat averaged 33 bushels per
acre and the average grade will be No. 2. Oats averaged 60 bushels per acre and
graded 2 C.W. Barley averaged 40 bushels per acre and graded 2 C.W. Flax averaged
12 bushels per acre and was of good quality.
Live Stock.
I have not been able to get the return of cattle and hogs shipped from this district
up to date, but as soon as possible will complete and forward same. There will be a
large increase over previous years.
Swine.
The Dominion-Provincial Brood Sow Policy continues to do good work throughout
this district by placing good registered boars in groups of twenty good type sows.
Four new Swine Improvement centres have been organized this fall.
Sheep.
A marked improvement and interest in the sheep industry has taken place this
year. Eleven rams are coming into this district under the Ram Loaning Policy and
three under the National Sheep Policy. Also two registered ewes, privately purchased.
Many more farmers are interested but have not the cash to purchase.   ■•
Cattle.
Five Live-stock Improvement Associations were organized, and five registered bulls
shipped in this spring through the Dominion Live-stock Improvement Policy. This has
done much during the past years to improve the live stock in this district and farmers
are taking greater advantage of these chances to improve their herds. A few farmers
are now buying registered heifers. Dr. Knight visited the district for the purpose of
testing cattle for T.B., north of the Peace River, but found no reactors. We have a
very good record in this district.
Warble-fly Control.
In districts where this control has been carried on for the past five years, a very
marked decrease in warbles has been found. In the two treatments last spring, only
223 warbles were found in 1,494 head of cattle.
Warble-fly Report, 1942.
Address of Cattle-owner.
Number of Animals.
Number op Warbles.
General
Bulls.
Cows.
2
Years.
Yearlings.
Total
Stock.
Bulls.
Cows.
2
Years.
Yearlings.
Total
Warbles.
tion of
Cattle.
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
62
22
70
123
90
48
64
120>
32
120
48
34
46
30
32
12
4
12
22
14
6
10
31
10
18
6
18
18
22
6
10
16
5
36
33
20
24
46
7
32
16
12
30
16
18
85
43
89
183
139
76
100
200
50
171
71
65
96
69
57
1
1
1
16
6
10
6
19
2
22
10
12
2
6
3
4
3
2
2
5
16
3
1
2
2
3
9
5
3
42
4
1
3
8
21
13
23
11
22
7
22
15
70
7
Good.
Good.
Clayhurst 	
Good.
Good.
Groundbirch 	
Kilkerran 	
Good.
Good.
Good.
Good.
Sunnybrook	
Good.
Good.
Good.
Good.
Good.
Upper Cutbank.	
Willow Valley   	
Good.
Good.
23
941
209
321
1,494
2
104
46
71
223 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 93
Seed-cleaner Report.
A total of 2,587,855 lb. of seed-grain was cleaned with the seed-cleaners purchased
by the Institutes through the Federal-Provincial Assistance Plan. These cleaners have
been very useful to farmers cleaning their own grain for a number of years past.
Flower-show.
•   The flower-show, held in Dawson Creek on August 8th was very successful and was
considered the best show of its kind held north of Edmonton.
Fall Fairs.
The Kiskatinaw fall fair was the only one held in this district this year. It was
quite successful. The other districts considered it better to postpone them until after
the war. This also applies to the Dawson Creek seed fair. Field-days have also been
put off until the war is over, owing to the shortage of gas and the replacement of tires.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
Only two clubs were held again this year—one Beef Calf Club held at Progress,
and one Potato Club at Groundbirch. Both these were very successful and I am of the
opinion that these clubs should be encouraged more until after the war, since the fairs
are being put off. This would give us considerable material to work on when we have
to re-establish after the war.
Threshers' Reports.
I have not yet received the complete returns from the threshermen, but would
estimate the following figures would represent about 50 per cent, of the whole district,
so far, as the returns show up to the present. Bushels.
Spring wheat  600,733
Winter wheat        1,424
Oats  600,955
Barley  149,639
Flax       8,151
Alfalfa and Clovers.
Considerably more alfalfa and clovers have been grown this season and harvested
in first-class condition;  much of the seed being registered and grading No. 1.
Weeds.
Summer fallow has been well worked this year. Weeds were bad at the beginning
of the season, but good co-operation among the farmers has helped considerably and it
is hoped next year will show still further improvement.
Meetings.
I have visited all districts throughout the year and in most instances have held
meetings which have been fairly well attended. The Women's Institutes are turning
most of their work towards Red Cross and war work.
General.
Most farmers are taking a keener interest in the improvement of their live stock
and general farming practices. The ground is now frozen with about 4 inches of snow.
Cattle are going into winter in very good condition and with plenty of good feed. Help
was hard to get this fall owing to men working on the Alaska Highway and wages were
very high. Farmers have not been able to dispose of their wheat this fall, which has
caused a hardship to those that are straight grain-growers; but the farmers that are
in mixed farming are doing very well.
I appreciate very much the co-operation I have received from all those with whom
it has been my duty and pleasure to work during the past year. X 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
BULKLEY VALLEY.
S. G. Preston, M.Sc, District Agriculturist.
The 1942 season has been the most favourable to the farmers of this district for
many years with a long frost-free period, sufficient moisture and fair weather at haying
time, harvesting, and threshing. The chief drawback has been an almost complete lack
of farm labour.
The live-stock business has been encouraging throughout with generally remunerative prices and this has led in turn to demand for improved breeding stock. Poultry
is only now receiving serious attention, but it would appear a considerable increase can
be expected in the next year.
Crops have been generally good with the exception of potatoes. Sufficient hay was
cut for local needs and there is the highest production of timothy-seed and cereals yet
harvested in this district.
Live Stock.
A favourable frost-free season with sufficient rainfall was reflected in the cattle
business through excellent grazing generally. Further, there is a definite improvement in the quality of beef and dairy cattle, sheep and hogs over a few years ago. The
farmers feel encouraged to improve their stock with the rising prices, but much credit
can be given to the Department of Agriculture through advice to the cattlemen and in
locating good sires for them. Through the Farmers' Institute, too, quite a number of
bulls and boars have been secured. Also with the Experimental Stations now situated
at Prince George and Smithers some Shorthorn bulls, Hampshire rams, and high quality
Yorkshire sows and boars have been made available to the farmers at reasonable prices.
The second annual sale of cattle and sheep at Kamloops on September 29th was
reasonably satisfactory. There was a marked improvement over 1941 in the quality of
stock offered for sale. In part this was due to much of the poor-grade stock being
marketed the previous year and, in the second place, the contributors, now having confidence in the endeavour, sent all their marketable stock to the sale instead of only the
poorer grades. A good deal of time and effort was put into the organization and
assembling for the sale again this season, but it is felt that a stronger and more active
executive body is required to obtain the best results. The competition was very strong
this year by private buyers and a number of producers may lose confidence in the sale
by reason of the high private prices being offered, and also because the sale this year
was put on prior to the ceiling price of beef being raised.
Fewer sheep were offered for sale at Kamloops than last year, but the grading and
weighing was better organized. There appears to be some doubt as to the advisability
of marketing sheep at the same sale as cattle. They entail almost as much trouble,
animal for animal, in the grading, and the buyers do not appear enthusiastic in purchasing sheep after the cattle have been sold.
Several good grade and registered beef bulls have gone into the Lake District during the past year and there was a wholesale exchange of bulls this fall. Considering
the number of grade and scrub bulls offered for sale at Kamloops the past few years it
shows most producers are looking for a better class of stock. The general demand in
the Lake District is for Herefords, but in the Bulkley Valley Shorthorns (both beef and
dual purpose) are in demand and occasionally there is call for an Aberdeen Angus bull.
With the increasing price for beef a few of the dairymen who have sufficient dairy stock
for the time being are turning to beef bulls so as to give them young stock of higher
beef quality.
Several dairy bulls were brought into the Bulkley Valley a year ago. The results
will not be apparent for some time, but it is significant that Guernsey bulls were purchased for a Red Poll and two Holstein herds. This would indicate that with the
increased price and bonus for butter-fat, the farmers are looking for more returns
from their cows. One of these bulls has since gone to the Kispiox District, where only
grade bulls were used previously.
The demand for butter-fat and whole milk is strong. Approximately 930 gallons
of milk a week are going to Prince Rupert and the surplus from one dairy goes to DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 95
Terrace.    Prince Rupert could handle additional quantities of milk if further dairymen
were prepared to fit their premises for the business.
While at Terrace during the summer with the Provincial Veterinarian a study was
made of the milk situation and supply at that place. It was obvious that much greater
quantities could be used at Terrace, but it was considered unwise to go to any lengths
to divert butter-fat sources of the Bulkley Valley to Terrace as there was every prospect
of an added demand in the vicinity of Smithers in the near future for whole milk. A
few farmers are cutting down on hogs, but on the whole there will be some increase
during the coming year. A start has been made to encourage farmers to divert part
of their timothy land to grain production so as to be able to feed more hogs and other
forms of live stock.
Until this fall very little interest was taken in sheep problems, but a sudden demand
arose in October for several rams and some breeding ewes. We are pleased to report
that in practically every case satisfactory sales and exchanges were made. One flock
of twenty-two ewes was shipped from Smithers to Hazelton under the free freight
policy and three rams were obtained under the Government Ram Loan Policy. Favourite breeds are Oxford and Suffolk with a few Hampshires being introduced.
The flock of sheep reported by Dr. A. Knight previously as suffering from ketosis
(malnutrition) began showing symptoms of trouble this Fall. Dr. Knight again made
an investigation. Cobalt preparations are now being fed and the owner reported
optimistically early in November that he was sure that they were now on the right
treatment.
Field Crops.
The largest crop of timothy-seed and grain in the history of the district was harvested this year. While a fair price is expected for timothy-seed it will not be anywhere near that of 1941. In most cases only sufficient hay was cut to carry over the live
stock for the season; consequently it is expected there will be a considerable demand
for hay by spring. Some of the more foresighted of the farmers do not see much
future in the timothy-seed business and as current demands are for hogs and beef they
are considering a drastic reduction in the timothy acreage and utilizing this land for
cereal grain production. This grain is to be for live-stock feed, particularly hogs and
poultry.
This district was well represented in the Field Crops Union, but as usual it was
impossible to inspect but few of the plots. Last season, in order to encourage the
growing of legumes in the Francois Lake District to supplement the timothy-hay now
fed, two lots of seed—red clover and alfalfa—were sent up by the Field Crops
Branch for trial. The alfalfa went to Uncha Valley and the red clover to Grassy Plains.
In addition, farmers in the Francois Lake and Tatalrose areas purchased considerable
quantities of alsike and red-clover seed. Careful instructions were given in every case
on inoculation, seeding, and preparation of the soil. However, the season was most
favourable and in every case excellent stands of these crops have been observed. Also,
it is believed that this is the first year alsike clover has been threshed in the Lake
District. A total of 120 lb. of good quality seed was obtained on a farm at Grassy
Plains.    This will be seeded on the same farm.
The thresher reports show that small quantities of creeping red fescue, meadow-
fescue, parkland brome, and crested wheat-grass are still being produced. This is in
the Francois-Ootsa Lakes Districts, but these crops take a good deal of care and few
farmers are willing to spend the necessary time in seeding and cultivation. Crested
wheat-grass is used on several farms in the Lake District for hay and pasture. In the
Bulkley Valley timothy and red and alsike clover are produced readily so there is little
demand for other hay-crops and alfalfa, too, is quite a safe crop.
Poultry.
During the past year the Poultry Production Service sent an Inspector through the
district to establish egg-grading stations and Professor E. A. Lloyd, of the University
of British Columbia, made a tour of the same area with a view to encouraging a greater
production of poultry and eggs. X 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
There is little doubt that lack of egg-grading facilities has discouraged the producer in putting first-class eggs on the market and, further, this same lack of grading
has greatly hindered disposal of the surplus. Grading stations are now situated at
Burns Lake, Telkwa, and Smithers. A heavy demand for eggs and no further visits
from the Inspectors has not contributed to the success of the stations at Smithers and
Burns Lake. Grading has been carried on at Telkwa for several years and practically
all eggs from that area are voluntarily put through for grading. It appears an educational programme among the poultrymen is required as well as a stricter enforcement
of grading regulations.
Professor Lloyd made his visit to the district and was able to meet a number of the
poultrymen and address two meetings. He was able to give valuable information on
poultry-house construction and ventilation as well as feeding practices and choice of
breeds.
The larger poultry producers have considerably increased their flocks this year,
but there is still opportunity for the sale of a great many more eggs and meat birds.
Data are being compiled for extension-work on poultry production and it is hoped by
spring more chickens and turkeys will be raised and an improvement shown in farm
flocks. A few more turkeys were produced this year than previously and indications
are that a good price will be realized for them.    Very few ducks and geese are produced.
Horticulture.
An investigation was made early in the year on the prevalence of anthracnose and
other tree-fruit diseases in the Terrace District. There was found to be widespread
infection, which was chiefly blamed on abandoned orchards. However, it was found
that in very few cases were trees systematically sprayed and cared for to keep down
infection.    Apple-scab is also prevalent for the same reason.
In the Kispiox area where successful plantings of departmental supplied trees were
made a few years ago there appeared an almost complete absence of diseases, but there
were indications of boron deficiency. Some study of this situation might be advisable,
both toward preventing apple losses as well as the possible relation of boron deficiency
to what has been blamed on " winter killing."
Annual plantings of apple and other trees supplied by the Provincial Department
of Agriculture have met with varied success. The two most satisfactory years were
1936 and 1941. The first were set out at Kispiox and Telkwa and have been bearing
for three to four years. The 1941 planting of 200 hardy apples and crab-apples was
most successful; but it has been very difficult to prevent damage by rabbits, which are
now very plentiful.
Gardens.—Gardens on the whole were particularly good. Truck-gardens at Terrace have found a ready market for all their produce and some from outside points is
finding its way to that point. Potatoes only were disappointing. There were heavy
rains in May and June and the soil remained rather cold for this crop. Yields were
half or less of what was expected. No doubt some potatoes will have to be brought in
before spring, although perhaps only to Prince George and Terrace. Some effort should
be made to see that these potatoes do not come from areas infected with bacterial
ring-rot, or at least that none of these introduced potatoes are allowed to be used as
seed. A few growers still carry on seed potato certification. It has been necessary for
the Provincial Representatives in Central British Columbia to make the second field
inspection and tuber inspection to enable growers to carry on with potato certification
as the volume produced does not warrant the expense of sending a Dominion Inspector
into the area three times a year. In respect to seed potato inspection, the disease
" witches' broom " has been on the increase despite careful roguing. We were able this
fall to determine that this was due to a " delayed infection " or " development " of the
disease and was not apparent at the time potatoes are ordinarily inspected. On two of
the larger fields it was found possible, only, to locate the delayed infection of " witches'
broom " after the first killing frost. Diseased plants were not affected in the same way
as healthy plants. More observations would be necessary to determine the reliability
of late roguing in the control of " witches' broom." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 97
Markets.
Practically all farm products are in demand now at remunerative prices. The
1941 timothy-seed was marketed at prices ranging from $9.50 to $10.10 per hundredweight. This year offers were made at $5 f.o.b. shipping-point but have later been
raised to $6.50. The growers are hopeful of eventually receiving $7, but that will
probably be the maximum obtainable. Locally grown feed-grain is being sold at $30
to $32 per ton and up to $40 for mixed ground grain. There should be ample supplies
of feed-grain, particularly wheat and oats.
Beef prices to the Central British Columbia producer have been varied and erratic.
Competitive buying prior to the sale at Kamloops was strong. Private buyers were
offering as high as $100 for 21/2-year-old butcher steers at the shipping-point. Sales
at Kamloops ranged from $8.75 for good feeder steers to $7 for rough butcher steers.
At the ceiling price of $15.75 (carcass weight) at the time of the Kamloops sale $8.75
would appear to be the best price that the packers could pay at Kamloops. This would
net the Central British Columbia shipper approximately $8 per hundredweight for
good steers after marketing costs and freight had been deducted. Other prices at
Kamloops sale were: Yearling steers, $8.10 to $10.40; calves, $10.85 to $12.50; cows
(other than poor canners), $5.05 to $7.30; bulls, $6.50 to $6.75. The top prices were
paid chiefly by feeder buyers. With the raise in the ceiling prices producers are now
receiving $9 to $9.75 on good quality steers. The sheep sold at Kamloops at an average
of $10.07 per hundredweight for No. 1 lambs and $5.50 to $8.25 on ewes. Very few
hogs have been shipped out since spring. It is expected the car-load sent to Vancouver
on November 19th will net the producer approximately $15.20, basis B1 grade. The
last car on May 14th netted about $13. Local butchers have been paying $16 per
hundredweight, if heads and feet are not removed; $17, less head and feet. Most
producers do not feel this is sufficient spread to warrant the trouble of killing one or
two hogs at a time and delivering them.
Egg and poultry prices have been following the Vancouver market very closely;
in fact, during the past month storekeepers, disregarding grading regulations, have
been paying 45 cents per dozen for eggs irrespective of size or quality and retailing
them ungraded at 55 cents. Turkey producers are expecting to receive 37 cents per
pound for good quality birds, but it is understood some have been contracted for at
31 cents.
There has been no change in the butter-fat price paid by the creameries. Whole
milk is being retailed at 14 cents and 15 cents per quart at Prince Rupert, 14 cents at
Smithers, and has recently been raised to 14 cents at Burns Lake. The whole-milk
shippers to Prince Rupert received 72% cents per pound butter-fat up to August 31st
and paid express of 66 cents per can. For September and October they received
72% cents net and, starting November 1st, received 90 cents per pound butter-fat and
again paid the express. From 90 to 100 10-gallon cans a week go to Prince Rupert
from seven shippers.
Junior Clubs.
Name of Club.
Bulkley Valley Dairy Club..
Uncha Valley Beef Club	
Danskin Beef Club	
Bulkley Valley Potato Club..
Quick Potato Club	
Bulkley Valley Swine Club..
Omineca Alfalfa Club	
Uncha Valley Alfalfa Club _
No. of
Members.
6
12
12
Supervisor.
Ray Oulton..
R. W. Wiley......
H. A. Durban..
A. J. Clotworthy-...
Mrs. C. J. Killer..
F. R. Annis 	
A. J. Clotworthy...
R. W. Wiley	
Remarks.
Royal Bank cup
winners, 1942.
District " B " Farmers'
Institute winners,
1942 cup.
New club.
New club.
New club.
First year.
First year.
I X 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The above eight clubs were all more or less active and satisfactory. Much more
valuable results could be obtained if district representatives and supervisors could
spend more time with the boys and girls. Series of questions and informative answers
were prepared for the Alfalfa and Potato Clubs, with special reference to local problems.
Where supervisors can take the responsibility of collecting and distributing the questions and necessary literature this system is very satisfactory and less time at meetings
is required. Another serious problem is the long distances between the homes of
members of the same clubs. This difficulty is partly overcome by the use of questionnaires and occasionally in having meetings after school time, or, if the teacher is agreeable, during the last period.
A judging team of two boys from the Lake District competed in the Provincial
elimination contest at Armstrong in the Beef Club class. The team placed third. One
boy placed second individually and the other sixth.
The Calf Clubs were judged through having the members and their calves brought
to central points. J. Manning, District Agriculturist, Prince George, acted as official
judge. The exhibits of potatoes from the Bulkley Valley and Quick Clubs were judged
at the Quick District Fall Fair. Alfalfa Clubs do not complete their work until next
season but in most cases the members have given their plots every attention.
Miscellaneous.
Diseases of Live Stock.—The district is still relatively free of live-stock diseases.
The Ootsa Lake area has had problems of photosensitization and what is believed to be
hsemorrhagic septicaemia. Both have received the attention of the Veterinary Division but complaints are received occasionally with regard to the latter disease. It is
not always possible, for a veterinarian to make an investigation when the trouble occurs.
No cases of encephalomyelitis have been reported. Round worms in hogs have given
trouble in a few isolated cases. Treatments were prescribed and sanitation methods
advised and for the most part the trouble has disappeared.
Predatory Animals.-—Wolves, coyotes, and bears are a distinct menace to the livestock and poultry business in some sections. At least two sheepmen have gone out of
sheep completely because of losses due to wolves and coyotes. The latter also kill many
chickens and turkeys annually. Wolves and bears destroy a number of calves, but the
actual losses are difficult to determine. The carcasses cannot be found in most cases.
Thus the owner may not know for what reason the cow has lost her calf. These matters
have been taken up by various persons and organizations, but no results have been
obtained. The chief demand is to have the bounty on these animals raised to the point
where it will be worth while going out to hunt the animals any time of the year.
Crop Estimates, 1942. Estimated Yields.
Spring wheat (bu.)    26,000
Fall wheat (bu.)     1,800
Oats  (bu.)    89,000
Barley (bu.)   22,300
Peas (bu.)   55
Rye (bu.)   220
Timothy-seed (lb.)   ....1,400,000
Clover-timothy mixtures (lb.)   150,000
Creeping red fescue (lb.)   3,500
Meadow-fescue (lb.)   4,000
Brome-grass (lb.)     1,500
Crested wheat-grass (lb.)   2,000 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 99
Ldve-atoek Shipments (Car-
loads).
Shipping-point.
Vancouver, etc.
Prince
Rupert.
Kamloops.
Cattle.
Sheep.
Hogs.
Cattle.
Sheep.
Cattle.
Sheep.
Smithers. 	
Quick    	
Telkwa	
1
1
15
1
2
1
3
1
11
1
1
1
4
3
1
1
1
1
10
Houston 	
Topley 	
Forestdale	
Barrett   	
1
Endako 	
Totals (61 ears)	
17
1
3
16
23
Smithers to Terrace —
2 cars cattle.
Dairy Products.
The following table summarizes the approximate amount of butter-fat marketed
through creameries:— Lb. Net Value.
Interior creameries     83,300
Nechako creamery     13,400
Totals     96,700
Whole-milk trade to  Prince Rupert and
Terrace      18,200
Totals  114,900
$35,779.00
10,875.00
$46,654.00
Precipitation Records as supplied by the Smithers Experimental Sub-station.
Month.
1942.
1941.
1940.
0.79
3.14
2.37
1.32
1.21
0.93
1.86
0.63
1.18
2.21
1.10
0.87
2.47
1.64
0.75
0 45
July  .......	
1.72
1.61
0.36
Totals	
11.62
10.07
7 28
NECHAKO AND PRINCE GEORGE.
J. E. Manning, B.S.A., District Agriculturist.
After a winter that was unusually mild for these parts, spring opened with promise
in the middle of the month of April and this promise was amply fulfilled when the crops
were harvested in the autumn. The land was being worked all over the district by the
end of April, and by the end of May all crops were seeded, with the exception of some of
the roots. There were four nights in June when light frosts were registered, but none
of them were damaging to the growing crops. From this date until August 26th tho
district was quite free from frost.
This office has rendered considerable service to the army authorities since the local
camp was established, and many conferences have been held concerning supplies and
on other matters. X 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In June the District Farmers' Institute held its annual convention at Prince George
and, at the request of the Rehabilitation Council, the delegates drew up a brief on
rehabilitation, which was afterwards submitted to the Council when it reached Prince
George.
This office was instrumental in obtaining much help from the military during hay-
harvesting operations, but could not get any assistance for the grain harvest.
At the end of September the second annual sale of the Central British Columbia
Live-stock Association was held at Kamloops, to which organization this office gave
every possible assistance.
Weather.
A mild winter, light spring rains when they were needed, and a long spell of dry
weather during the ripening period permits one to record almost a perfect year. Rainfall for the twelve months was 19.68 inches; yearly average, 24.40 inches. Maximum
temperature, 93.8 degrees on August 16th. Minimum temperature, 20 degrees below
zero on December 31st.
Crops.
It is estimated that slightly more acreage than last year was planted to oats, barley,
and wheat, but most of this extra acreage was ploughed in the spring owing to the wet
fall. In the Prince George area this is especially true, as it was found necessary to
plough up some of the alsike-clover fields that had been damaged during the previous
fall and winter. The circumstances of this destruction were unusual. The constant
rains during the previous autumn prevented the cutting of many fields of alsike-clover
seed and, as the crop was generally a heavy one, as it slowly rotted down it smothered
the roots beneath. When spring came it was found that many of these fields had
nothing on them but timothy grass, and so they were ploughed up and a grain-crop sown.
Unfortunately the annual threshermen's returns are slow in coming in, and so no
correct estimate of the total yield can be given at this time, but there is every indication
that these three crops will equal if not surpass the yields of any previous years. Vanderhoof District believes it has the best crop it has ever had in all three classes of grain,
with oats running as high as 120 bushels per acre, wheat at 70 bushels, and barley the
same amount. In the Prince George area the yields were slightly less than at Vanderhoof, but very heavy nevertheless. McBride District farmers are very pleased with
their crops, but a wet spell in early September delayed threshing there, and so some of
the fall stubble pasture was lost.
The alsike-clover seed-crop is as good this year as it was poor last year, when only
22,000 lb. were recorded as threshed. Up to the time of writing, the eighteen thresher-
men's reports that are already in record 101,000 lb. threshed, and of these eighteen
reports only two of them came from the larger operators. The total grass and clover
seed reported so far is 112,900 lb. against the full total last year of 39,600 lb.
Prices for alsike and other clover seed are good, but timothy-seed is low and there
are some fields that are yielding a mixture that runs more than 50 per cent, timothy.
For the first time this district has seen really competitive bidding for this crop, and
there is every indication that the farmers have greatly benefited by it. A new firm
has entered the field (McCabe Bros., of Winnipeg and Edmonton), and has been paying
cash on the spot for all they have bought. The buyer came into the Prince George
District twice during the season and told the writer on his final visit he had bought
200,000 lb. of clover and grass seed. His price was 20 cents per pound for No. 1 alsike,
f.o.b. Prince George, and from 4 cents to 5 cents for No. 1 timothy. The other buyers
came into the district after the former had made one visit, and their prices were 22
cents and 6 cents respectively, f.o.b. New Westminster or Vancouver. The Vanderhoof
District produced very close to 25 tons of seed, most of which is alsike, and most of it
will go to New Westminster or Vancouver.
There were not many potato-growers this year, principally owing to labour shortage, but at Woodpecker both E. J. Down and M. Kerkhoff planted several acres and have
managed to harvest them. Mr. Down took a contract to supply the local army camp
with 30 tons of potatoes and 15 tons of mixed vegetables, and has fulfilled the contract
satisfactorily.    Now Mr. Kerkhoff is seeking a similar contract, but for potatoes only. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 101
Potatoes are selling for from $3 to $3.50 per sack, retail, and may go higher. I believe
the contract price of Mr. Down's was $2.50 laid down in Prince George and $2 per 100
lb. for turnips. There are other farmers ready to supply turnips to the same market
and are likely to get contracts. The Down potato-crop was badly affected with wire-
worms, and the yield was cut down considerably owing to this infestation. It is the
only report of this nature that has reached this office.
Wheat has been offered and sold for $1.25 per 100 lb., both at Prince George and at
Vanderhoof, but there is very little of the oat-crop moving, and no price could be quoted
at Vanderhoof when an inquiry was made. The grower at Vanderhoof considers the
Free Freight Policy reacts against him.
Live Stock.
As no official report to the contrary has been received, it can be presumed that the
district's live stock is healthy, although it is necessary to report that recently it was
stated at Vanderhoof that part of a car-load of cattle shipped out of that place to Vancouver was found to be infected with tuberculosis. No confirmation of this report has
yet been received, but one man did volunteer the information that the infected cattle
had been shipped into the district from an outside point not long before.
Dr. A Knight, Provincial Veterinarian, paid his annual visit to the district and
covered the entire area from McBride to Fraser Lake. It would be of service to this
office if a report of Dr. Knight's findings were received, for there is a certain amount of
stock moving around the district and it would be helpful to be able to say that a certain
area was a safe one from which to bring stock.
The Provincial-Dominion Sheep Policy has made very little headway here, and this
in spite of considerable effort to promote it. The only actual purchases made under
this arrangement that can be given for this area were two small lots, but with the
assistance of Harry Bowman, of the C.N.R., who has been promoting the policy very
vigorously, it is possible that a full car-load may yet be brought in. A letter was sent
to N. Curtis, of Edmonton, to see if certain orders for sheep could be filled and it was
disappointing to learn that it might not be possible to fill the orders. The unexpected
placing of a date-limit of previous ownership to as late a date as May 31st was partly
the means of the loss of interest in the scheme.
A few nice herds of beef stock are being gradually built up, among these can be
mentioned the herds of Samuels Bros, and E. C. McGeachy, of Vanderhoof, in addition
to the large operations of the Frontier Cattle Company, also of Vanderhoof. At Prince
George there are W. Winterton, A. Miller, A. Fishback, and R. Pinko. With the exception of Mr. Fishback's herd of Angus, all these herds are of the Hereford breed. Both
Mr. Miller and Mr. Fishback shipped a few bulls to the Williams Lake sale, while
Samuels Bros, brought back one from this place, and W. Winterton one from the
Kamloops sale last winter.
The Experimental Station, under R. G. Newton, has been selling all the bull calves
it can spare from its pure-bred Ayrshire herd to dairy-farmers in the Prince George
and Beaverley Districts. In addition, the station has been selling its surplus rams
and has had many inquiries for breeding females, but has not yet sold any.
The second annual sale of the Central British Columbia Live-stock Association
took place at Kamloops on September 29th. Some objection was made by prospective
shippers that the date set was too early, but as it was set by the beef-growers in the
Burns Lake area, where the majority of stock comes from, no blame can be placed on
the management in this respect. To enlarge the sale and to make it of greater interest
to the buyer, an invitation was sent to the beef-growers of the North Thompson District to contribute some stock. The invitation was accepted and seventeen of these
growers sent in approximately 200 head, which realized $13,742. The Central British
Columbia growers' contribution was 870 cattle and 400 sheep, which realized $56,902,
and there were 194 contributors or members. Last year the sale realized $43,000 and
there were 140 members. The increase in gross returns and in membership is pleasing
to record and reflects much credit on those who had the organizing to do.
130.606 X 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
One of the original ideas that prompted this sale of Central British Columbia
cattle was that it would give the small grower an equal opportunity with the larger
grower to have his cattle or other stock " bid on " by auction, instead of having to
accept whatever might be offered by any itinerant buyer that happened to visit his
farm. This plan seems to be working out, for the majority of the shippers are small
producers and therefore there are many of them. The more shippers there are the
more book-keeping there will be, and here a serious problem presents itself. The only
individual connected with the association who may be said to receive a salary is the
secretary, who for the past two years has been R. Blackburn, of Prince George. This
official works intermittently before the sale and, as it has turned out during the past
two years of operation, for about one month steadily after the sale has taken place,
making out the statements and cheques in settlement to the contributors. It is quite
obvious that no one man could do such a task alone in so short a time. We learn from
those who have had experience in such undertakings that the surest way to instil confidence in the mind of a shipper to such sales it to settle his account as quickly as
possible. This has been done as far as was possible, but the secretary alone could
not possibly do it, and the only ones that seem available to help him are the two District
Agriculturists of the area covered by the organization—namely, Smithers and Prince
George. These officials have been instructed not to accept any official responsibility,
and they have not done so nor do they intend to, but unofficially they have had to undertake a very heavy load of extra work in the interests of the association. There is no
doubt that in their minds they are convinced that the association and its annual sale
is essential to Central British Columbia, and that they will do almost anything to keep
it actively alive, but there should be a limit on the amount of work they have to do in
this connection.    Recommendations from this office would be:—
First: That a competent auditor or accountant attend the sale and be responsible for keeping track of all accounts and expenses connected with the
sale. Knowing the total expenses and the receipts, he will be able to
strike the correct amount or rate of assessment each shipper must pay,
and before the other officials disperse he should strike a trial balance
showing there is enough money available to pay all accounts.
Second: The secretary to employ such help as he requires when making out
the statements. The district office in whatever end of Central British
Columbia the secretary lives might be used as a temporary office, as the
Prince George office has been for the past two years.
Third:   The association set the rate of salary that will be paid the secretary.
(This has not yet been done.)
Fourth:   The costs of the above will be paid by the association from the
assessed costs.
Fifth:   The District Agriculturists  (a)  to do all they can when the sale is
being organized, and to open their offices for the acceptance of cattle;
(b)   one or both to attend the sale for the purpose of identifying the
stock; (c) to be available for advisory purposes only when the settlements
are being made up;   (d)   attend the  annual meetings  in  an  advisory
capacity.
Such arrangements would relieve the district officials of much work and worry,
and would tend to make the association self-sustaining and independent.
The McBride District was organized for the first time in an attack on the warble-
fly. The work was under the leadership of W. C. Shovar, who is president of the
McBride Farmers' Institute. There were 185 head of stock treated twice. The seventh
year of warble-fly treatment in the Prince George District was not organized so well
as in previous years, but quite a number of cattle were treated in spite of this. The
Pineview District continued with the vaccine for encephalomyelitis and gave two treatments. So far there have been no cases of this disease, although Dr. Knight did
investigate one report that came from the Strathnaver District, where it was believed
a horse was suffering from this disease.    It proved to be otherwise. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 103
Horticulture.
Strawberries and raspberries are now being grown in certain parts of District
" C " in commercial quantities. One small farm at Chilako sold 200 cases of strawberries this year, whilst most of the farm gardens now have their patches of strawberries and raspberries. Black currants grow remarkably well throughout Central
British Columbia, but are occasionally badly infected with a grub which attacks both
leaf and fruit.
Some excellent apples are grown at a farm west of McBride, which compare in
size to many varieties that are imported into the district. In Prince George some very
good-looking apples other than " crabs" were produced this year, but, generally
speaking, tree-fruit growing has been disappointing. So many trees die when four
or five years old, some of these from sun-scald, and up to the present time no one
variety has been definitely proven to be suitable to certain localities. The Experimental Station has several hundred fruit-trees planted out, and it might be that from all
these some varieties will stand out as suitable to this climate and district. There have
been many inquiries from farmers for " free " fruit-trees, but it has been intimated
that this free distribution has been discontinued for the duration of the war at least.
Bees.
The services of this office were extended to the District Institute in the spring
when a large shipment of package bees was brought to Prince George for distribution.
In this shipment were fifty-four 3-lb. packages and several extra queens, and it was
distributed over the district from McBride to Vanderhoof. They all came from A.
Winn, of Petaluma, California, who has supplied package bees to this region for some
years. It is estimated that at least seventy-five packages were brought in last spring,
and many bee-keepers are attempting to hold their colonies over the winter.
The amount of honey produced varies greatly, and a fair average this year will
be around 50 lb. per colony. Honey was sold in the early part of the selling season
at 15 cents per pound, but this was quickly lifted to 20 cents and most of the supplies
have been bought up.
At the annual meeting of the Prince George Fall Fair, it was decided that through
the secretary, who is a bee enthusiast, they are prepared to bring bee-supplies into this
area on a wholesale basis, and so supply the local needs at the reduced rate.
Fall Fairs.
Fall fairs were held at Fort Fraser, Woodpecker, and at McBride.    At the first
and last places the District Agriculturist acted as one of the judges, and arranged the
judges for the Woodpecker fair.    All of these events went off very well, but all were
on a smaller scale than in previous years.    At the last minute the fair at Prince
George was cancelled as the military authorities were in possession of the only suitable
hall.    At a recent annual meeting of this body all arrangements were made to reopen
the fair next year. _ , x
Farmers Institutes.
Some of these organizations are having a difficult time to function, but the general
opinion is that they must continue. Some have particularly active executives and hold
regular meetings. During the past year every Institute has been visited, some several
times as they are easy to reach, and at every Institute moving pictures have been
shown, at least once during the year.
At the District " C " convention, which was very well attended and very well
managed, one-half day was spent considering a brief on rehabilitation which they had
been invited to prepare. The resulting brief was highly commended by the chairman
of the Council, who said its special usefulness lay in the fact that it dealt with Central
British Columbia, whose conditions were well known to the delegates who prepared it.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
The following is the list of clubs that were formed last spring and which have
been carried through to fulfilment:— X 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Six Poultry Clubs: Vanderhoof District (3), Salmon Valley (1), Tabor Creek
and Pineview (1), and Hixon and Woodpecker (1).
Two Calf Clubs:   Hixon-Woodpecker-Strathnaver  (1)  and Pineview-Beaver-
ley (1).
Two Alfalfa Clubs started for the first year.
Considering the times, it has been a successful year as there were over ninety
members in the ten clubs. Two special meetings were held in connection with each club
and stock-judging classes were held in Beaverley and Pineview. Two of the members
were again trained for, and attended, the Armstrong Fair, where they took second place
with three teams competing. They proved themselves proficient in the theoretical
examination but fell down in the actual judging. The boys and their parents were
very grateful to the Department for the favour extended. The writer was given the
privilege of driving the two teams who represented Central British Columbia to
Armstrong, where he worked with S. S. Phillips, who had charge of the Judging
Competitions.
Acknowledgment must here be made to the organizers of this District's Clubs.
They were C. Semerad, of Hixon; S. Zingle, of Prince George; and W. Kienzle, of
Beaverley. Without their unselfish assistance and interest the Clubs would in all likelihood have languished. As it was, every member who entered in the spring finished
the project. At Vanderhoof very much help was given by Miss Olds, school-teacher at
the Prairiedale School, and Mrs. W. Mcintosh, who together organized the two Poultry
Clubs, and N. E. Williams, organizer of the Ellesby and Webber Lake Poultry Club and
the Vanderhoof Alfalfa Club.
The Pineview Garden Club, sponsored annually by the Cariboo Women's Institute,
was not so strong in membership as formerly. The gardens of these members were
inspected twice and finally judged by the District Agriculturist, who also assisted other
inspectors when the Prince George City Gardens were rated for the Horticultural
Society.
Assistance to the Military.
Many conferences were held with various officers of the local camp, mainly dealing
with milk, vegetable, and straw supplies. An effort was made to find a local fresh-milk
supply for the camp, but as this called for from 500 to 700 gallons of milk daily it had
to be dropped. Most of the straw for bedding purposes was got from Vanderhoof,
where there was plenty of good, bright straw to be had. At the request of the Commanding General, the camp-site was inspected in the company of R. G. Newton and
recommendations for seeding-down made. Suitable top-soil was afterwards located for
the gardens it was hoped would be planted next season. Quite recently the Intelligence
Corps has requested much information on the district and this has been given to them,
with sketches of roads in various localities, and the location of " key men " should they
be required. A trip into the Vanderhoof District will be undertaken soon to obtain
similar information there. All the above work has been done by the District Agriculturist and seemingly to the satisfaction of the authorities. The military were able
to repay some of these " favours " during the summer, when upon request they allowed
over seventy-five men leave of absence for four-day periods to help in the hay-fields.
After this arrangement was started there were farmers who went direct to the camp
and got their men, so it is difficult to say just how many men actually helped. It was
a wonderful service and it made all the difference to the existing conditions here.
Owing to a change of orders, this service could not be obtained for the grain harvest,
but thanks to a long period of fine weather, the grain harvest was safely gathered in
and threshed.
Miscellaneous.
Visitors to the district who assisted in some way or other were A. Wirwick, of the
University Extension Department, who held meetings at Prince George, Vanderhoof,
and Fort Fraser, and spoke on the Co-operative Movement, and showed some excellent
pictures. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 105
Professor A. Lloyd also came through from District " B " and spent one day at
Prince George, where he inspected all the poultry flocks in or near the town and at
night addressed a well-attended meeting of poultrymen.
Both men did the district a good service and especially pleased their audiences.
T. G. Stewart, of the Dominion Department of Agriculture, made two visits of
inspection; N. Wright passed through the district on potato inspection; and finally,
A Falls, of the Plants Products Division, was up inspecting seed plots and grain. The
latter two men were given some assistance from this office.
Car-load Shipments of Live Stock from District " C " per C.N.R., 1942.
From.
Destination.
Cattle.
Sheep.
Vancouver  „_„_
1
2
2
1
2
1
9
3
2
1
1
1
2
McBride  	
"Vancouver  _„ _
1
Prince George     ,
Kamloops   _	
1
1
Totals 	
28
Summary.
To Vancouver   11 cars cattle, and 2 sheep.
To Prince Rupert     1    „        „
To Edmonton     3    „        „
To Kamloops  13    „        „       „   1     „
28 3
CARIBOO AND LILLOOET.
Wm. T. Carlyle, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.S., District Agriculturist.
The winter of 1941-42 was comparatively mild and there was very little snow. It
was an easy winter on feed and this was of considerable help to those who were not able
to put up as much hay as usual last year. Cattle were able to forage on winter range
to a much greater extent than in the average year.
The spring weather was backward, especially in the northern part of the area. On
the range, however, conditions were ideal and there was wonderful growth. Beef made
splendid gains at this time.
There was considerable rain in June but, due to the cool weather, growth was
generally slow. However, July was an excellent month for plant-growth, considerable
rain fell and this, coupled with hot weather, produced ideal growing conditions.
Haying was carried on with some difficulty due to wet weather and much of the
hay in the stack is coarse and weathered.
Showers on several days in September interfered with both haying and harvest.
However, the crops were harvested under better conditions than in 1941.
Sheep.
Certain areas in the Cariboo are much more suitable for sheep production than for
cattle.    In this regard one thinks chiefly of the areas east of the Cariboo Highway.    In X 106 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
spite of this, however, sheep numbers have been dwindling. This year several flocks
have been dispersed, whilst only four small flocks have been started for which assistance
was given by this office to obtain a Dominion Government loan ram. The reason for
the decline in numbers over the past several years can be directly attributed to predatory animals. Some large flocks were sold out this year for other reasons; the two
largest because the owners were retiring from farming. However, predatory animals
constitute an insurmountable stumbling-block to any one wishing to increase sheep
numbers here. Two methods are often suggested to avoid such losses. One is the
fencing of tame pastures and the other is the herding of several bunches of sheep
together.
In regard to fencing cultivated pastures, this has certain difficulties. Farmers
here need all their cultivated land to grow winter feed on. Fencing material is expensive and, due to priorities, it may be impossible to obtain. Such a fence must be
partly of woven wire to keep the sheep in and it must also have several strands of
barbed-wire, electrified, if bears are to be stopped. The herding of several bunches
together has been suggested to several sheepmen but they have not taken kindly to the
plan for one reason or another. Petty jealousies amongst neighbours seems to be the
chief reason.    At present the services of herders would be almost impossible to obtain.
Small operators can produce top market lambs while it may be difficult for them to
produce top quality beef. Sheep production could greatly expand without reducing
cattle production noticeably, each being adapted to a different type of country.
Dairying.
For many years now the Cariboo District has been served by the Quesnel Creamery,
operated by the Cariboo Farmers' Co-operative Association. In May, 1942, the Interior
Creameries of Prince George opened a new branch creamery at Williams Lake. During
the fall of 1941 they erected a very attractive up-to-date building. In this building
they installed up-to-date creamery equipment, capable of turning out churnings of
10,000 lb. a week. While part of the cream received has been obtained from shippers
formerly shipping elsewhere, the presence of a creamery locally has induced many
people to become cream-shippers. The quality of the cream received has been very
good.    All butter manufactured has been sold locally.
Cream prices for special ranged between 34 cents and 36 cents a pound butter-fat.
Since payment of the Dominion Government bonus started in July the price has been
40 cents a pound, bonus included.
Poultry.
Excellent prices have been received for both eggs and dressed poultry and the
season has been a profitable one. Between Marguerite and Quesnel one can visit some
very well-managed poultry plants which are sources of pride and profit to their owners.
To maintain production during cold snaps many laying-houses are artificially heated.
Pullets are separated from older hens for early winter production and properly balanced
rations are provided.
Hogs.
Good returns have been obtained by those engaged in hog feeding and raising.
Three ranchers in the vicinity of Soda Creek will have marketed around 1,600 hogs
during the year, and each has a planned expansion for next year. A prominent feature
of their operations is the importation of Prairie grain.
The Cariboo Live-stock and Fair Association.
This association, formed fourteen years ago, for many years conducted a successful
agricultural fair. In 1938 the first Annual Feeder Show and Sale was held, with which
was combined the Annual Bull Sale. This sale has become an annual event and has
been very successful in obtaining true market prices for the stock offered. In
November, 1941, the Cariboo Stockmen's Association and the Cariboo Live-stock and
Fair Association appointed a marketing committee to study ways and means of bringing about a more satisfactory system of marketing cattle from the Cariboo throughout
the whole of the shipping season.    The marketing committee met several times and DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 107
finally perfected arrangements whereby the Cariboo Live-stock and Fair Association
would conduct a marketing agency.
The manager has met with wonderful success in his efforts and has marketed the
greater majority of the cattle and sheep from this area. Sales are made at local
shipping-points on local weights. Sealed bids are received and the highest bidder gets
the cattle. The association makes payment after the sale has been made. This marketing scheme has been enthusiastically received and has been loyally supported by all—
small ranchers and farmers as well as the large outfits. The most pleasing feature is
the tremendous benefit it has been to the small men, not only in the higher prices
received but in the greater convenience it has been for them in being able to ship their
stock when they were ready. The operations have extended from the 100-Mile House
to Quesnel.
On September 9th a special show and sale of sheep was held, and $200 in prizes
donated by the Dominion and Provincial Departments of Agriculture was distributed.
Sales were made through the marketing agency. Approximately 1,200 head were sold.
The show classes were remarkably well filled. It was perhaps one of the best showings
of lambs made at Williams Lake for many years. In order to provide an opportunity
to market, which seemed an excellent way to help the sheep industry, your Agriculturist
served as manager of this event. The top lambs brought 10 cents a pound with some
of the prize-winners bringing 12 cents. No. 2's brought 9 cents and feeders 8 cents—
all local weights.
The Fifth Annual Cariboo Show and Sale was held October 5th to 9th, with the
auction sale on October 8th and the bull sale October 9th. Your District Agriculturist
again acted as manager of this sale. The number of cattle entered this year was less
than last year. This by no means depicts any falling off of support for the sale, but
rather was caused by some of those wishing to bring stock not being able to do so
because of late haying.
The auction sale was again conducted in record time—1,892 head of cattle passing
through the ring in three hours. Prices were the best received at any sale to date.
The announcement of the higher price ceiling came most opportunely the morning of
the sale.
Crops.
Vegetables.—Only in the area about Quesnel and south to Soda Creek are vegetables grown in a commercial way for sale. The growers in this region are to be commended for having formed a co-operative marketing agency known as the " North
Growers' Co-operative." Not only has this Co-operative obtained better prices for the
products sold for its members but many small lots of vegetables have a market provided
where otherwise there would be none. Also in bringing- in stock and poultry supplies,
fertilizers, flour and feed, they have performed a real service in considerably lowering
the prices of these products throughout the district. They are the sub-agents of the
B.C. Coast Vegetable Marketing Board in the area which they serve. This fall very
gratifying prices were received for their early produce. The September output was
sent to Prince George. This was a satisfactory compensation for the great drop there
has been in the Wells market.
Potatoes.—Yields were good and quality better than in 1941. There was slightly
more land in production than last year. About 800 tons will be marketed from the
district. Most of the potatoes will be shipped out this year. The Co-operative pool
prices each month.    No. 1 white potatoes obtained $56 a ton during September.
Turnips.—Turnips gave a good yield and were of excellent quality. There was a
larger acreage than formerly. Approximately 600 tons will be marketed from the area
this year.    One grower marketed 15 tons in September and received $60 a ton.
Grain.—Grain-crops yielded very satisfactory returns. Lands in the southern part
of the district that are not irrigated and which during average seasons yield light crops,
produced abundantly. Certainly the returns were much above the average. In the
Quesnel area, while grain-crops were good, they could not be rated as being much above
the normal good crop to be expected there. X 108 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Much grain was shipped in last winter under the Free Freight Policy applying to
Prairie grain. This will continue this winter. Many stockmen believe grain cannot
be produced as cheaply in the Cariboo as it can be obtained under this scheme.
Hay and Pasture.—Heavier growth has seldom been observed than during the past
season. Reseeding could perhaps very profitably be carried out over large areas of
range land. Crested wheat-grass and sainfoin are plants remarkably suited for such
reseeding purposes, as many tests carried on from this office over the past fourteen
years have amply demonstrated. On wet meadows Reed canary-grass and meadow-
foxtail have merit.
Tests of varieties of grasses have been carried on and the records of such forwarded to the Field Crops Branch.
Corn.—Assistance was again given by way of collecting orders for a bulk shipment
for those wishing to obtain seed-corn. Seed of the most popular variety, Rainbow
Flint, could not be secured this year and Minnesota 13 and Falconer were substituted.
The shortage of materials and labour rather precludes the extension of this valuable
crop at present. The prediction is made that the growing of corn as an ensilage crop
will one day become a valuable source of winter feed on those ranches with favourable
situation.
Soil Fertility.
Attention has been given to problems of soil fertility. Commercial fertilizers are
often purchased and doubts arose as to whether they were necessary or of the proper
kind. Working with the North Cariboo Growers' Co-operative much information has
been given out on fertilizers and some experimental plots laid out. The problem is a
complex one for many soil types are encountered.
KAMLOOPS AND NICOLA.
G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., District Agriculturist.
No snow accumulated at the lower levels during the winter of 1941-42, but light
flurries, which disappeared as quickly as they came, did, however, pile up at the higher
altitudes, the depth in these spots being recorded as 1% feet against 3 feet in a normal
winter. This has been the second winter without a normal snowfall. The short irrigation supply was relieved by the continuous heavy spring rains which turned creeks
into small rivers. Temperatures were very even and mild during the entire winter, the
lowest recorded being about 15° below zero and then only for a day or two at the higher
levels. Rains continued until the middle of July and impeded haymaking in the early
stages. An unbroken dry spell occurred from early August until the middle of September, which greatly eased grain-harvesting operations; from then on a few rains
came, but on the whole a good fall season was had. November to date has had excellent
weather with only a light snowfall on the higher hills.
Beef Industry.
The first shipment of grass beef moved out of the Nicola District to Calgary on
May 30th at $8, f.o.b. shipping-point. 'During June a few cattle moved, but the succulent condition of the grass retarded heavier shipping until July. In the meantime,
however, buyers were scouring the country for cattle and some were contracted for
early July delivery, particularly in cases where the buyer had army contracts to fill.
Steers for the early July delivery were settled for at prices ranging from $10.25 to DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 109
$10.75, but later in the month the price rose to $11 and $11.75—the latter figure being
paid in a few cases.    A table showing prices for the year is as follows:—
Month.
Cows.
Heifers.
Steers.
$7.00
8.00
8.50
9.00
7.50
7.00
7.25
7.50
.$8.25
10.00
9.00
8.50
8.50
8.75
$8.75
May        • _	
June                   	
11.75 (July 7)
9.00 (July 24)
9.75
9.10
9 10
August 	
September         	
November . 	
9.50
Feeder steers in September and October moved at prices ranging from $8 to $9.50,
with breeding heifers at $9. Heavy calves were unusually high and sold from $10 to
$12.50, the reason being that this stuff was in keen demand from the feeders and
breeders.
About 1,200 cattle were on feed in the districts of Kamloops, Ashcroft, and Nicola.
This number includes some cattle which were not exactly on full feed, but just warmed
up. The season of 1941 was very unfavourable for grain harvesting and no doubt
limited cattle-feeding, although a number of car-loads of feed-grain were brought in
under the Federal Freight Assistance Policy to help out this situation. Weather conditions were quite ideal for feeding as the weather was cold enough to keep yards from
becoming mucky. The total number of head shipped to date from Nicola and Merritt is
6,002 and from Kamloops-Westwold 6,025—1,076 of the latter being shipped from the
Central British Columbia sale at Kamloops.
The average calf-crop for the district was 75 to 80 per cent., which is a considerable
increase over that of 1941. Some cattlemen reported that they had no dry cows to ship
this year. This is explained by the fact that the cow herds were in good physical and
breeding condition during the breeding season of 1941, resulting from an easy winter
followed by luxuriant grazing on the ranges. The calf-crop is very largely dependent
on the protein intake of cows just prior to the breeding season. On account of the still
better grazing conditions existing in May and June of this year, it would be safe to
predict a further general increase in the calf-crop for 1943.
Ranges during the spring of this year were reported by pioneer stockmen as carrying a growth never seen so luxuriant heretofore in the history of the district. Heavy
continuous spring rains and cool weather stimulated a heavy growth of grass everywhere, even on the generally overstocked and overeaten ranges. There is a good reserve
of hay on all ranches, even though only one cutting of alfalfa was taken in some
instances on account of the shortage of labour. An accumulation of reserves resulted
from the two mild winters, when cattle were able to make full use of winter ranges
which, in turn, had greater carrying capacities because of the extra production of grass
from ideal conditions.
There has been a very favourable distribution of registered beef bulls in the district this year. Hereford bulls were picked up readily at an average price of $300.
A car-load of Hereford bulls was shipped to the Nicola from the Calgary sale. The
champion Hereford of the Calgary show, Donald Domino, offered by S. P. Gould, was
purchased by Bulman Bros., newcomers to the Hereford business. R. MacGregor, of
Pinantan, who has rapidly come to the front as a Hereford breeder, bought Domino
Caerleon 47th, bred by Edgar Bros. Another herd sire, Beau Baldwin 12th, bred by
H. Campbell, was purchased by E. Hysop, Chase, B.C. R. Taylor, Princeton, bought
Downsview Key, Junior Champion Shorthorn at Calgary.
The following breeders from this district contributed bulls to the Cariboo Bull Sale,
held on October 9th in Williams Lake: C. Turner, Westwold, ten Herefords; R. MacGregor, Pinantan, four Herefords; E. Hysop & Sons, Chase, four Herefords; and
R. Taylor, Princeton, three Shorthorns.    All breeders received splendid averages there. X 110
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Two car-loads of pure-bred Herefords were purchased by breeders in the Kamloops
vicinity at the R. N. Clerke disposal sale at Vernon. A part car-load of young bulls
from this sale went to the Nicola. Ten head of pure-bred Hereford females were
purchased at the Collicutt sale by the Western Canadian Ranching Company for their
Perry Ranch at Cache Creek. A further shipment from this sale went to the Woodward Ranch, known as the 23-Mile Ranch, recently purchased by Mr. Woodward, of
Vancouver. R. Taylor, of Princeton, moved a shipment of Shorthorn females from
his well-known herd to the new breeders, Hassard Bros., at Enderby.
The Twenty-fourth Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show was an outstanding
success. The highlights of the sale were a Hereford bull, Exl. Domino 14th, contributed by J. S. Palmer & Sons, Marsden, Saskatchewan, which sold to T. G. McBride,
Stump Lake, for $850; the Grand Champion fat individual of the show, contributed
by the Western Canadian Ranching Co., which sold to Safeway at $75 per hundredweight; and the boys' and girls' champion, contributed by George Turner, Westwold,
selling to Safeway at $70 per hundredweight. A table attached shows the progress
of the sale in the last five years. It may be of interest to note that the first sale, held
in 1919, had a turnover of $16,430 and twenty-four years later had one of $82,383.11.
The grand total of the turnover for the twenty-four sales has been $713,880.55.
The Third Provincial Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale was held on December
1st and 2nd, 1941. The outstanding feature of this show is the boys' and girls' division,
which is the climax to the club year, where they come together in competition. Thirty-
eight Beef Club members from the Kamloops, Westwold, and Armstrong communities
competed in the show-ring for placings in a showmanship competition and also in a
judging competition. Sixteen Lamb Club members also met for the same kind of
competitions. George Turner, Westwold, won the boys' and girls' championship and
his calf sold to T. Eaton & Co., Calgary, for $50 per hundredweight. Jack McNally
won the boys' and girls' lamb championship and sold his lamb for $21 to Charles
Frolek. The Grand Champion steer of the show, shown by Western Canadian Ranching Co., sold for $24 to Safeway, Ltd. The following table shows comparative averages
of prices and details of the sale since its inception:—
Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show Returns.
Year.
Breeding Stock.
Fat Stock.
Total.
1919                                   	
$16,430.00
22,000.00
19,722.60
12,402.50
9,275.00
9,837.50
7,650.00
16,526.60
13,155.00
15,227.50
22,505.00
22,220.00
11,363.00
7,835.00
6,066.00
11,065.00
10,085.00
8,235.00
11,935.00
10,970.00
13,345.00
17,800.00
19,100.00
32,235.00
$16,430.00
1920                     	
22,000.00
1921                                  	
19,722.50
1922	
$840.98
1,629.00
796.30
1,846.00
9,160.20
14,395.08
18,381.36
17,071.02
12,250.02
16,780.84
9,832.10
17,014.11
22,414.07
23,015.98
29,157.21
24,655.58
29,590.42
26,925.49
40,992.18
50,148.11
12,402.50
1923 .     .
10,115.98
1924                              	
11,466.50
1925   	
8,446.30
1926     	
18,372.50
1927    	
22,315.20
1928          	
29,622.58
40,886.36
1929   	
1930         	
39,291.02
23,613.02
24,615.84
1931	
1932  	
1933    - _	
15,897.10
28,079.11
32,499.07
31,250.98
41,092.21
35,625.58
42,935.42
44,725.49
60,092.18
82,383.11
1934   	
1935 	
1936	
1937   .i
1938 	
1939	
1940  .  ...
1941 	
1942   ...	
Totals  ,	
$346,984.50
$366,896.05
$713,880.55 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 111
Provincial Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale, Kamloops.
No.
or Entries.
High.
Average.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1941.
1940.
1939.
Cattle.
Car-loads of fifteen _ 	
Groups of five	
9
18
61
38
8
10
10
14
16
1
10
15
49
19
9
6
6
12
39
15
6
8
4
5
7
11
25
23
14
4
4
7
18
5
11
5
12
$11.75
11.80
24.00
50.00
12.00
12.10
13.70
17.00
16.50
$11.00
11.50
30.00
50.00
10.90
11.60
12.10
12.00
25.00
15.00
11.00
10.90
10.25
10.05
10.30
$12.25
10.75
75.00
35.00
10.20
10.75
11.00
55.00
9.25T
9.30
9.40
20.00
$10.42
9.79
10.51
12.50
10.46
10.70
10.55
11.74
12.46
13.50*
$9.22
8.36
9.89
11.72
9.80
9.14
11.19
10.57
10.79
10.80
10.92*
10.55*
10.19*
9.73*
10.05*
$9.52
8.15
12.34
Boys' and Girls' calves	
Lambs.
Car-lots of fifty	
11.65
9.96
10.46
10.49
Singles 	
Boys' and Girls' lambs 	
Swine.
Car-load, seventy-nine head —	
15.66
8.79+
9.12f
9.20t
10.60f
Boys' and Girls' swine  	
* Rail-grade basis.
t Live basis.
Number of Entries and Sales.
No.
op Entries.
Sales.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1941.
1940.
1939.
341
801
79
301
778
131
314
293
176
$33,875.08
7,740.27
2,043.89
$28,411.85
6,931.00
1,998.79
$30,433.23
2,813.02
3,235.53
Totals           	
$43,659.24
$37,341.64
$36,481.78 X 112
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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a DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 113
Unfortunately, the community car-lot of hogs made up of Kamloops shippers did
not command any premium, but that was because the packers were on a quota basis
and all but one company was filled on the allowed quota.
The Second Annual Central British Columbia Feeder Sale was another success,
with 1,076 cattle and 393 sheep yielding a total of $70,856.93. This total is only
exceeded by one other Kamloops sale, that being the 1942 Bull Sale. Thirty-seven carloads of live stock, making a total of 850 cattle and 393 sheep rolled into Kamloops by
special train from Central British Columbia. Two hundred and sixteen head of cattle
were entered from the North Thompson area. Four hundred and fifty-seven head of
cattle went to the feed-lots of the Interior—a statement which speaks well for the
purpose the sale was designed.    The averages for the sale are:—
Two-year steers  $8.50
One-year steers     8.60
One-year heifers     7.80
Cows      5.95
Calves   11.78
Bulls     6.65
Lambs  10.07
The highs paid were $10.40 for ten choice one-year steers and $12.50 for thirty-two
calves. The sale was held on September 29th when the ceiling was at its lowest for the
year and at the time when a deadlock was on between the packers and the producers.
The following Beef Calf Clubs and their members and supervisors were organized
during the spring of 1942:— „     •
No. of
Name of Club. Members. Supervisor.
North Kamloops Beef Calf Club ._ 14 T. P. Wilson.
South Kamloops Beef Calf Club  12 W. Philip.
Westwold Beef Calf Club  9 C. Turner.
Westwold Lamb Club  9 C. Turner.
Two beef teams were entered in the Provincial Elimination Contests at the Armstrong Fair. George Gowans and Verna Shannon representing South Kamloops Club
and Jack McNally and Laverne MacLeod from the Westwold Club. A third team from
the North Kamloops Club was not fielded because the members were all too young. The
Westwold team won first place in the eliminations and also was appointed as a team to
represent British Columbia in their project in the National Contests at Toronto. These
boys took third place in the East. They made good scores in judging and giving reasons
but fell down somewhat on oral questions.
Twenty-six calves were supplied in January, 1942, by the Diamond " S " Ranch,
Dog Creek, operated by David Spencer, Ltd., to the juniors of the Kamloops and Armstrong clubs as feeders for the 1942 Christmas Fat Stock Show. Two of the calves
were won outright as prizes at the 1941 event, when George Gowans, Bestwick, won
his for the Kamloops division. Thirteen calves in all were distributed to the three clubs
in the Kamloops District, the other thirteen going to the Armstrong clubs. There have
been no casualties amongst the calves and their new owners have made a splendid job
of preparing them for the forthcoming show. The Christmas Show and Sale completes
the club year for the boys and girls in a very adequate way.
A total of 5,630 head of beef cattle were treated for warbles in the spring of this
year under the supervision of Dr. W. R. Gunn, Live Stock Commissioner. A new control district was opened up in the Ashcroft country, where Alan Cameron rendered
invaluable service in organizing for the treatment. Nearly all cattle are treated along
and adjacent to the North Thompson road. Chase is another district using warble
control quite extensively. There are still a number of large ranches with smaller outfits adjacent who do not practise this prevention against damage and annoyance to
cattle.
8 X 114 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Sheep and Wool.
A total of 220,512 lb. of wool has been shipped from Kamloops and district, showing
an increase over that of last year. The price paid to the grower will be about 10 per
cent, over that of last year.
The first lambs from the range bands moved about the middle of June with prices
$12, f.o.b. shipping-point. Following this interval prices declined to a final low, $10.50
in September. One hundred and seven rams sold at the Annual Provincial Ram Sale
held on October 3rd in Kamloops. Average prices paid for each breed are as follows:
22 Suffolks, $83.86 (high by C. Turner, $155) ; 14 Southdowns, $33.57; 49 Hampshires,
$46.73; 8 Rambouillets, $36.25; 5 Cheviots, $27; 2 Kerry Hills, $25; and 7 Romnelets,
$35.71.
The total turnover along with some grade ewes was $6,095. Seven rams were
applied for through this office under the Dominion Ram Loaning Policy. Twelve Cor-
redale rams from Lethbridge were purchased by Heron Bros, and another two of this
breed by E. MacLeod, Westwold. Nine cars of whiteface ewes were brought in from
Alberta by the range band owners of this district. The sheep population for the district is hardly on the increase because of the lack of range. Lamb-crops have been
generally 130 to 135 per cent. Good spring lambing weather was had and there was
a plentiful supply of grass just afterwards, which gave lambs a good start, particularly
in the sustaining of twins by ewes milking well.
Dairying Industry.
The Government subsidy of 6 cents per pound of butter-fat to producer has
markedly helped to step up dairying in the Kamloops area. On the other hand, in
some localities, the shortage of help has caused some dairymen to dispose of dairy stock
or to let calves sired by beef bulls run with the cows. Heavy calves, not always strictly
of beef conformation, sold for $10 to $12 per hundredweight. It has been impossible
to get labour for dairying.
Prices for the period ended October 31st for No. 1 cream have been: January and
February, 29 cents; March, April, May, and June, 30 cents; July and August, 36 cents;
September, 38 cents; and October, 39 cents. July, August, September, and October
includes Government subsidy of 6 cents per pound.
The total number pounds of butter-fat produced for the period as recorded by the
Palm Dairies, Kamloops, is 96,617.7 lb., which shows an increase over that of last year
ended the same date.    Pastures were in excellent condition all year.
Swine Production.
The hog population has increased considerably during the year. This has been due
to the encouraging prices being received, along with the lower prices of grain and to
the Federal Freight Assistance Policy on Prairie feeds, and also to the fact that producers have become accustomed to selling on a rail-grade basis. They know now what
returns to expect if their material offered is not up to standard, and consequently they
are all striving for better breeding and employing better feeding methods. It might be
said that while more care is being given to avoid marketing underweight hogs, yet some
breeders are taking too long to put hogs up to that weight for economical hog production. As there is a general shortage of dairy by-products on most farms, more tankage
could be used at the prevailing hog markets in order to get quicker growth and quicker
returns. Quite a number of good boars were moved during the year and there is an
extra good demand at present for sires of the right conformation and breeding.
Horses.
Horse-breeding is on the decline. More and more tractors are coming into the
farm picture and doing quicker, cheaper, and more effective work. Improved devices
on the later models are drawing the attention away from horse-farming. Heavier farm
equipment is requiring tractor-power. The selling of draught horses has become rather
difficult. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 115
The Kamloops horse-breeding station was again in operation this year with four
thoroughbreds standing for service.
Horse.
Owner.
No. of Mares
bred.
Dolan—- __  	
26
Simo __	
Help Yourself ..._. _„__	
Jerry Mac 	
Brooks Ranches, Ltd., Kamloops _	
J. H. Owens, Ashcroft	
Holgate Ranch, Clinton .'„„
23
47
The stallion " Dolan," owned by Irving & Edwards, has further extended his reputation for breeding track-winning colts. Good prices are being paid for his get in
Canada and the United States.
Poultry.
Egg prices have been steadily high throughout the year. The low was 24 cents
per dozen and the peak has been 60 cents. Grain prices have been very reasonable and
egg production has been a very profitable undertaking. The Federal Freight Assistance Policy very definitely and advantageously affected egg production.
More interest is being taken in turkey-raising and the prospects for good prices
for the holiday season are bright.
The Kamloops Poultry and Pet Association put on a show in late December last
year at which a very creditable number of entries of the different breeds were on hand
for exhibition.   Very keen interest and competition were displayed in almost every class.
Field Crops.
The year 1942 has been most favourable for the growing and harvesting of all
crops. Heavy rainfalls during May, June, and part of July did delay the first cutting
of alfalfa somewhat, but more benefits were derived therefrom than damage to field
crops in general. Grains were harvested in good condition this year as August and-
the forepart of September were ideal weather for this work.
A further four or five small combines were sold in this district and the number on
hand now makes harvesting operations much easier. This year, weather conditions
were quite suitable for the handling of grain-crops with these mechanized outfits.
Alfalfa stands came through the winter quite well and only in a few cases was
there any damage reported. Winter wheat also came through the winter quite well
and yielded heavy crops. The spring varieties did not give as good results. Local
wheat is selling for around $21 to $22 per ton.
A number of contracts were again put out in the Chase and Westwold communities
by the Armstrong Pea Growers. The acreage, however, is somewhat less than that of
1941 when 200 acres were sown to this crop. The crop went in quite early and received
the full benefits of the spring rains and matured during good weather, unlike last year
when 75 per cent, of the crop was spoilt by bad weather.
The crop of potatoes was as follows:—
Late Potatoes.
Acres.
Kamloops    748
Chase      30
Merritt   125
Ashcroft   658%
Early Potatoes.
Acres.
104
5
1
Nil.
The yields of potatoes were less than in 1941. This crop has been moving readily
at $42 per ton, f.o.b. shipping-point.
Corn-crops for silage were not as good as they were in 1941 because of the cold,
wet weather in May and June. The maturity for silage-making was delayed somewhat and so put into the silo in an immature condition. The root-crops on the whole
did very well in the district, being favoured by the cooler season.
Seed-Crops.—The alfalfa-seed crop in the Lillooet and Lytton Districts is reported
as good.    Smaller amounts, about 2 tons, are grown in the Kamloops District and fair X 116
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
yields have been reported. A car-load of this seed will be sold by the Lytton-Lillooet
Alfalfa Seed Growers' Association. Mangel-seed of the yellow intermediate variety
was grown in Shuswap and Lillooet this year from stock roots grown by the Tranquille
farm.
Six varieties of soy-beans were tested out with Captain Hilliard, Kamloops, and
J. R. Carlson, Shuswap.
Grower.
Variety.
Acreage.
Date matured.
Yield.
Captain Hilliard-...
Mandarin
Kabott	
Pagoda 	
Minsoy	
Redland—	
Harboro....- _
Pagoda.-	
%8
Vis
8-10 days later than Pagoda.:
3-4 days later than Pagoda ...
271b.
20 1b.
301b.
Immature.-	
Immature..	
From this will be seen that three varieties of the six offered no possibilities of
production in this locality. The samples received are being sent to Dr. Brink, University of British Columbia, for their oil-content determination.
Corn.—C. Tice, co-operating with Dr. Clarke, Agrostologist, Swift Current Experimental Station, forwarded the following varieties of hybrid strains of corn to be tested
on the Harper Ranch at Kamloops and the Guichon Ranch at Quilchena: Wis. 525,
Wis. 606, Wis. 279, Wis. 355, Hybrid KE 104, Hybrid KM 426, and Hybrid FB. That
on the Harper Ranch was planted considerably later than in 1941. The year has not
been an extra good one for corn and these varieties, with the exception of Hybrid
KE 104 and Wisconsin 297, were all immature for good silage making. At the time
of silage making on these two ranches, time did not permit harvesting a 20-foot row
unit of each variety to determine the dry-matter content of one variety against the
other.
A small amount of Northwest Dent seed of an early variety was sent to C. F.
Hardy, Birch Island, for a test there against varieties he has been maturing for grain.
A report from Mr. Hardy of this trial is that this variety was not as early maturing
as the Twitchell Golden Pride which he has been using for some time now.
White Clover-seed Production.—A project on white clover with a view to harvesting some seed was started with Frank and John Woodward, of Little Fort, who are
very enthusiastic young men and can foresee the future in this crop, if it can be
handled in a practical and economical way. Conditions on their farm, both climatic
and soil, are extremely favourable to this plant and with no effort stands can be
developed by withholding grazing. A plot was established on their farm last spring
for the harvesting of seed. Two half-acre plots were each fertilized to phosphate and
potash at the rate of 200 lb. per acre. That plot with the application of phosphate
showed better and thicker growth than the one with the potash, and both plots showed
improvement over the untreated clover.
There was a very definite labour shortage on this farm as found everywhere else
and it was not possible to harvest the crop for seed production, but upon examination,
the heads were heavily laden with seed of a good quality. It is expected that this
project will again be tried during 1943 and the seed harvested if at all possible.
Efforts to encourage other growers throughout the district to take up this new
industry have been in vain and it can be quite clearly seen that the project resolves
itself into being successfully undertaken by one farm, after which others will follow.
Sainfoin and Crested Wheat-grass.—Approximately 349 lb. of sainfoin seed were
made available through the courtesy of Frank Arms, who had Indians on the Dog
Creek Range harvest this quantity by hand. This seed was distributed in this district
for use in reseeding ranges or pastures. This plant has the faculty of being able to
establish itself and hold its own on gravelly, dry soil—which kind of soil makes up
a fair proportion of some of our ranges throughout the Interior. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 117
A report was received from Dr. W. T. Carlyle on a sainfoin seeding established
in 1938 on the grounds surrounding the residence of the. District Agriculturist at
Williams Lake. He quotes as follows: " Average height on June 30th was 3 feet.
Remarkably heavy growth. These plants were in bloom on May 15th and could have
been cut for hay at that time. Besides a foliage value, sainfoin would appear to be
a valuable honey-crop. Its earliness would be an especially valuable feature. It certainly achieved a striking success in beautifying the grounds while it was in bloom.
Many people in town remarked about it and asked where they might obtain seed.
Thousands of acres could probably be reseeded to crested wheat-grass and sainfoin
in this area. The sainfoin about the residence was seeded in 1938 by G. A. Luyat.
He simply scattered unhulled seed. It seems to more than hold its own in competition
with the native grasses."
In the Kamloops and Nicola areas many hillsides are bearing this plant, which
no doubt came from hay-stands formerly grown in place of alfalfa by pioneer ranchers.
In the Nicola and Merritt Districts plots seeded to Crested Wheat-grass back in
1932 seem to be thriving and are extending through seed borne by plants from the
plots.
Some plots were seeded to Kentucky blue-grass, tall oat-grass, and meadow-
fescue, and in every case the Kentucky blue-grass made a perfect stand with the other
two kinds of grass disappearing almost completely. This grass seems to have a place
in reseeding our ranges because wherever this was seeded, American cheat-grass had
not been able to make invasion.
A project of seeding a mixture of sainfoin and crested wheat-grass was started
in the Upper Clearwater District on burned-over land with a very light soil. Indications at the end of this year are that the sainfoin has caught well and should make
a good growth next year. The crested wheat-grass is not yet showing, as it generally
takes a year or two before it becomes established.
Grasshopper-control.
Four committee meetings were held of the Nicola Grasshopper-control Committee
during the season and the annual meeting was held on November 7th. The total gross
expenditure for the year amounted to $1,945.28, of which the total assessable costs
for the year were $645.28. A balance of $1,300 was carried from last year's account
to meet the payment of a truck purchased at the beginning of the season. The service
of this truck has been invaluable to the control crews and with the use of a mechanical
bait-spreader they have been able to cut control costs down to a minimum. Mr. Buckell,
Dominion Entomologist, reports that the infestation is down to a low point where an
outbreak similar to those of former years could never again occur, providing that
control-work touching up the bad spots is carried on. L. Graham, of the Douglas Lake
Cattle Co., was the supervisor, replacing Charles Guichon who is now on active service.
The hopper population has flared up tremendously during the last year on the Tran-
quille range and is becoming a menace to the carrying capacity of that country.
Rodent-control.
A total of 800 lb. of gopher-bait made with oat groats as a base and strychnine as
a poison element were distributed amongst the settlers and farmers of the North
Thompson Valley. Some was shipped up as far as Valemount. All reported that it
has done very effective work in controlling the pest.
Pocket-gophers seem to be on the increase in the Nicola and their destruction of
the sod seems to encourage the American Cheat-grass which is gaining a foothold on
many of the ranges.
Honey-crop.
There has been a number of newcomers to the honey industry. Although perhaps
only in a small way, these extra hives help to relieve the sugar shortage. Large
apiaries in the district report a very fair honey-flow for the year. Honey commanded
a sale of 15 cents per pound and the supply lasted only a short time. X 118 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
General.
Several ranches changed hands during the year. T. G. McBride, proprietor of
the Stump Lake Ranch, has sold out his interest to the Stump Lake Ranching Co.
The Western Canadian Ranching Co. sold its property, known as the Harper Ranch,
to the Brooks Ranches, Limited.
SALMON ARM-KOOTENAY.
Wm. MacGillivray, District Agriculturist.
General.
The winter of 1941-42 was mild and snowfall light. Lowest temperature was 0°
on January 1st. Precipitation in May, June, July, and August was very heavy with
a record rainfall of 4.75 inches in July. Maximum temperature was 94° on July 3rd.
The spring opened about ten days later than in 1941.
The heavy summer rainfall was responsible for exceptionally heavy hay and grain
crops, but caused much lodging. Hay was made under difficult weather conditions and
much spoiling of the first crop of alfalfa occurred with considerable timothy and clover
also being lost.
Grain harvesting in its early stages encountered some rainfall, but later a long fine
spell enabled threshing to be completed in ideal weather. Some excellent yields were
reported and particularly on St. Mary Prairie which had the best crop in fifteen years.
Roots made very fine growth. Ensilage corn was a good crop, but difficulty was
experienced in ripening varieties that usually mature in the various districts. The wet
season, aided by shortage of labour for hoeing, resulted in a greater weed-growth than
in previous years.
Live stock in pastures and on ranges grew and throve in condition and, generally
speaking, are entering this winter in better flesh than for many years.
The prices received for many farm and ranch products show a material increase
over similar figures for 1941, and agricultural incomes are substantially higher. These
enhanced prices have not been ruling sufficiently long to enable our rural population to
pay off accumulated indebtedness, repair building, fences, and machinery, replenish
family wardrobes and household necessities, much less build up a cash reserve against
the future.
Agriculture in all its phases is being conducted under conditions of extreme difficulty. Lack of skilled labour or labour of any kind and the difficulty of securing
essential labour-saving equipment all affect production adversely.
Live Stock.
Beef Cattle.—Inspections and observations over the whole district indicate a definite trend toward better beef cattle. This is particularly evident in the East Kootenays,
South Okanagan, and Boundary areas. The departmental policy of assistance in the
purchase of registered sires is of very material assistance and should be broadened in
its scope.
Prices ruled higher than a year ago. In too many instances local and itinerant
buyers are purchasing from the producers at figures far below the market.
Perhaps a greater measure of improvement is observed in the East Kootenay than
elsewhere and the future of beef production there should be a bright one. Assistance
has been given in the purchase or exchange of sixteen beef type bulls.
Horses.—The writer cannot see a very bright picture for horse-breeding. Gas and
rubber shortages may cause a temporary demand till the end of the war, but the advance
in mechanization of farm power augurs ill for the future of the horse. There are some
good type stallions in these districts, but too many scrubs exist.
The day is not too far distant when drastic steps must be taken to destroy all
useless horses that are using ranges that can produce beef, mutton, and wool. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 119
Two suspected cases of sleeping sickness occurred at Salmon Arm. One died and
the laboratory report on the brain was negative, but this was due to the animal being
allowed to die instead of being destroyed before the brain was removed. The other
animal recovered and later won first prize at Armstrong Fair.
Sheep.—Comparatively few new flocks have been founded in the area covered by
your Agriculturist, and the response to the plea for increased sheep production was
poor. Until bears and coyotes are treated as vermin and their extermination well paid
for in live-stock districts sheep production will not increase.
There were more ewe lambs carried over by established owners than in previous
years but 5 cents a pound rise in wool values would have ensured a much larger increase.
Lamb prices have been very good. D. R. Piggott, of McMurdo via Golden, sold
two Suffolk stud rams at Salt Lake City, Utah, Ram Sale at $1,000 and $650. This was
a real advertisement for British Columbia Suffolks. Kamloops Ram Sale was the best
ever held and Suffolks averaged over $80.
Swine.—Again the North Okanagan and Salmon Arm Districts continued to ship
a very large percentage of the best quality hogs to Coast markets.
Losses in young pigs continue to reduce profits and hinder increased marketings.
Type is generally good but new blood is required.
Assistance has been given in the purchase or exchange of twenty-five registered
Yorkshire boars and seventy-five registered and unregistered sows.
Relative prices for feed and for hogs leave a healthy margin of profit if good
management is observed.
Dairy Cattle.—Assistance has been given in the distribution of eighteen dairy type
bulls, all registered and with R.O.P. backing. Several registered females have also been
located for purchasers.
Assistance was rendered in the distribution of Holstein heifer calves sold at a very
reasonable price to boys and girls in the Armstrong and Salmon Arm Districts by
members of the B.C. Holstein Association.
Butter-fat prices have been on a higher scale and the Federal subsidy of 6 cents
per pound for fat shipped to creameries since July has helped greatly. Average price
per pound for special grade butter-fat at Salmon Arm Creamery for the first ten months
of 1942 was 35 cents as compared with 33.2 cents in 1941 and 23.7 cents in 1940. In
addition, the 6-cent bonus applied since July 6th.
Production was down in the early part of the season but an increase following the
subsidy will bring it in line with that of 1941. Any further drain on man-power will
affect dairy production first. Many milking-machines have been installed, but it is now
almost impossible to secure the type required by the average farmer.
The use of minerals and protein supplements is on the increase.
Field Crops.
Very little time was devoted to any specific phase of field crops. Observations were
made of some hybrid corn experiments. The cold, wet summer following a late spring
rendered these of less value than usual. Hybrid E was very promising at Gleneden.
At Salmon Arm, registered Victory oats which yielded 24% tons from 11 acres was
noted.
The Salmon Arm Farmers' Exchange kindly supplied two sacks of fertilizer, ammonium phosphate and sulphate of ammonia. This was applied at the rate of 100 lb. per
acre on the crested wheat seeded in Gleneden in 1941. Both fertilizers caused a marked
improvement in yield and especially in the indigenous clovers present. This was
particularly true of sulphate of ammonia.
Much more time should be taken on crop and forage work. A great field remains
practically untouched. Pasture improvement by reseeding and fertilizing, soiling crops,
ensilage crops, stiffer strawed grain varieties; these and many other phases of this
work require and deserve time and effort.
Junior Clubs.
Fourteen live-stock clubs were organized and thirteen completed the year. There
were more chicken clubs than in any previous year located at Salmon Arm, Canoe, Larch X 120 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Hill, Deep Creek, Armstrong, and Vernon.   It was impossible to give any supervision or
make any inspection of these.
Swine clubs constitute a definite problem. Rail grading requires shipment at
various times during the season and prevents a proper showing. Some new plan to
meet the times must be evolved.
Beef calf clubs are the most satisfactory from an educational standpoint. There
was an excellent show of dairy and beef calves at Armstrong Fair.
The Armstrong Beef Clubs made fine records at the Kamloops Christmas Show
and Sale, December 2nd and 3rd. Stewart Phillips showed the champion boys' and
girls' calf with Murray Parker reserve.
Phillips's steer later became Reserve Grand Champion of the show and won the
Safeway Challenge Trophy. Armstrong teams were also reserve for the Hilliker Cup
and the City of Kamloops Trophy.
The Phillips's steer sold at 40 cents per pound; Parker's sold at 22 cents and the
rest of the calves averaged $13.92. These calves gained on an average 602 lb. in ten
and one-half months.
Meetings and Field-days.
During the year forty-five meetings were addressed on agricultural matters. The
annual meetings of the Grindrod, Armstrong, Revelstoke, Salmon Arm, and White
Valley Institutes were attended.
The writer was also present at the annual conventions of District " G " at Salmon
Arm, District " H " at Nakusp, and District " I " at Fernie.
Three field-days were attended:  Salmon Arm, Revelstoke, and Armstrong.
Three meetings, including the annual one of the Southern Interior Stock-breeders'
Association, were attended in the South Okanagan; one at Rock Creek, one at Nakusp,
one at Burton, two at Summerland among others.
The writer also attended the annual meeting of the B.C. Beef Growers' Association
at Ashcroft.
The Fernie convention was an outstanding success.
Sales, etc.
It was possible to put into effect part of the programme outlined in last year's
report in regard to the East Kootenays.
The delegation of ranchers from that area whom the Minister instructed the writer
to take to Alberta in 1941 to observe the operation of community auction sales returned
full of enthusiasm. Active steps were taken by the Waldo Stock-breeders' Association
to prepare for a sale at Elko.
A lease of the necessary acreage was secured from the C.P.R. Scales were purchased and installed, corrals erected and on October 17th the first community auction
sale ever held in Eastern British Columbia was officially opened by the Honourable
K. C. MacDonald.
Cattle were contributed from as far north as Brisco and Edgewater. Buyers were
present from points as far apart as Kamloops and Edmonton. A total of 438 cattle
was sold in thirty-six lots in fifty minutes by J. W. Durno, auctioneer of Calgary, for
a total of $28,315.45. The 514 sheep and lambs sold in twenty minutes for $2,950.94.
The grand total receipts were $31,266.39. Cattle from the sale were shipped to Vancouver, Kamloops, Grand Forks, Lethbridge, Calgary, Arrowwood, and Moose Jaw.
The sale was an unqualified success. Calves averaged $10.92 per hundredweight;
2-year heifers, $9.40; 2-year steers, $9.07; yearling steers, $9; bulls, $7; and cows,
$6.76. The top load of Angus calves realized $12.10 and the top load of steers $9.85,
the top load of cows $8.40 and top bulls $7.85.
It is impossible to estimate the educational value of this sale. Farmers and
ranchers were present from all parts of the East Kootenays and were greatly impressed.
Values on live stock were established on the basis of current market prices. Producers
saw their cattle weighed and sold to the highest bidder.
The writer devoted considerable time and effort to organizing and carrying out this
sale and feels satisfied the result justified every endeavour made. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 121
Plans are already in preparation to increase the corral space to twice its present
capacity and the general expectation is that 1,000 cattle will be sold at Elko next year.
The writer respectfully suggests that meetings be held at Creston this winter to
encourage farmers there to prepare to fatten cattle from the East and West Kootenays
and raise more hogs.
There is a real field of endeavour there that in the present emergency warrants
immediate action. This phase of live-stock expansion was stressed last year and is
again emphasized. Conditions warrant immediate action. As a result of the sale
orders have been given for about six registered bulls.
Summary.
Agriculture generally is in a more favourable position than at the same period in
1941. With the exception of those for grain, prices are in advance of those ruling the
previous year.
Too much grain is grown in much of the Interior and not enough pasture. Feed-
grains can be imported cheaper than they can be grown. Good pasture is our best
paying crop and further study of this fact will be well repaid.
Increased production of hogs, butter-fat, and eggs can be secured if farm labour is
not depleted further and if some assurance can be given that prices will be at a reasonable level for some time.
The extension of community sales is worthy of serious consideration.
GRAND FORKS.
J. Travis, District Agriculturist.
Following an extremely mild winter the season opened with a repetition of last
year's conditions, when the retarding influence of a late, cold spring caused delay in
planting and seasonal operations on the land. From May 27th the Kettle River continued to overflow its banks for several days, causing much damage to highways and
other roads of communication. Fields were flooded, cultivation was suspended, and
soil temperatures were low. Second sowings of vegetable-seed became necessary in
many instances. During the months of May, June, and July the 1942 precipitation
only slightly exceeded that of the previous year. From this period a striking contrast
was observed; whereas the adverse situation of 1941 persisted until the end of the
year, the month of August this year ushered in ideal harvesting and threshing conditions, continuing until the end of October.
Acreages of principal crops in the Grand Forks District were as follows:—
Alf alf a, 468 acres; potatoes, early, 73 acres; potatoes, late, 228 acres; onions, 134
acres; carrots, 87 acres; field corn, 95 acres; tomatoes, 327 acres; cereal grains, 792
acres;   miscellaneous roots and hay, 104 acres.
Car-lot shipments of potatoes and sundry vegetables as at November 15th amounted
to:  Potatoes, early, 31;  potatoes, late, 45;  onions, 30;   carrots, 5;   asparagus, 10 tons.
Producer price per ton delivered at packing-house averaged: Potatoes, $38; onions,
$28;   beets and turnips, $30;   parsnips, $40;   asparagus, 10 cents per pound.
Seed Production.
Much importance is attached to vegetable-seed production, which project is responsible for a considerable increase in acreage, due to trade expansion in Canada and
overseas. The principal crops grown are carrot, onion, and radish, with recent introductions of mangel, beet, lettuce, beans, tomatoes, and squash. Contract prices were
slightly in advance of the previous year and considered satisfactory by the growers.
Planting stock of onions held in winter storage was subjected to frequent inspection and picking over. Infection and subsequent rotting of the bulbs extracted a heavy
toll, in some instances as high as 50 per cent, of the total.    Conditions during the X 122 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
period of maturing and curing were anything but favourable. The yield from fall-
planted stock was cut down from 50 to 75 per cent, due to similar causes. On the other
hand carrot stecklings wintered over in good shape, with only slight losses due to
unfavourable storage conditions.
The following acreage for the year 1942 was distributed among seventy-six
growers producing registered, certified, and commercial seed:— Acres.
Onion   93%
Carrot   162%
Radish  168%
Mangel  :     15
Beet        2
Vegetable marrow  _■       9
Tomato      13%
Beans      32
Total  496
Growers are meeting the rapid expansion of this industry by introducing improved
methods of harvesting, threshing, and cleaning. There are at least half a dozen
privately owned small combines engaged in threshing, while the main volume of seed
receives its final cleaning at the local central seed-cleaning plant where three power-
cleaners are in operation.
On July 21st the regular convention of the British Columbia Seed-growers' Association met at Grand Forks. During this time a great deal of important business
pertaining to the seed-growing industry was transacted.
Throughout the entire growing and harvesting season numerous visitors and
officials affiliated with the seed industry visited the area.
Certified Seed Potatoes.
Some ten growers of certified seed potatoes were distributed over a wide area.
In the immediate district of Grand Forks 31% acres were planted to two varieties:
Chippewa and Netted Gem. In the Bridesville-Westbridge Districts m/i acres were
planted to four varieties:   Netted Gem, Early Epicure, Warba, and Irish Cobbler.
The following quantities of seed will be available from all districts: Netted Gem,
159 tons; Chippewa, 18 tons; Warba, 17 tons; Early Epicure, 4 tons; Irish Cobbler,
1 ton.
Fruit-growing.
In the small-fruit section the strawberry-crop was practically wiped out by weevil.
Raspberries returned good yields.    During the peak of the season 6 tons were processed.
An early estimate of the total apple-crop reached approximately 120,000 boxes.
For reasons previously noted in this report, it is doubtful if 10,000 boxes of marketable
fruit will be recorded.
A total of 700 cars of mixed fruit and vegetables and fifteen cars of prunes were
shipped out as at November 15th, 1942.
Grand Forks Canners.
Fearing a repetition of the previous year's disastrous results, growers were hesitant to enlarge their scope of planting to tomatoes. Consequently, the acreage set
aside for cannery tomatoes was considerably reduced. Transplants were held back
until late spring, awaiting more favourable growing conditions. The volume of business is less than the previous year's turnover on account of reduced acreage and adverse
weather conditions during the early spring. On September 17th-18th frost destroyed
much of the mature fruit on the vines, after which favourable climatic conditions permitted the harvesting of a good percentage of the remaining crop to the total of 15,000
cases as compared to last year's 30,000. Although returns are less than previously,
prices paid to growers are $2 per ton higher, averaging $19 for No. 1 and $14 for No. 2.
Approximately 10 per cent, of the crop graded No. 1.    The management feels that DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 123
some progress has been made, and there are indications that the business will be
carried on next year when other kinds of crops, besides tomatoes, may be introduced.
Plant Diseases.
Apple-scab took the heaviest toll of any disease during the season. Weather conditions were such that control spraying was almost hopeless. The crop of Mcintosh
Red, which constitutes the major portion of the apple-crop in the valley, was almost
totally eliminated.
Vegetable-seed crops were again carefully checked over by the Plant Pathologists
and Field Inspectors for suspected diseases associated with seed-crops. During the
storage period severe losses were encountered in connection with onion bulbs and carrot
roots. The former were badly affected with neck-rot and the latter with certain types
of fungi. Experiments in treatment of carrots with solutions of boric acid and chloro-
dine are being undertaken when roots go into winter quarters.
Ergot made its appearance throughout several parts of the district among the
cereal grains.    Infestation was slight, but bordering on severe in one or two instances.
Insect Pests.
Grasshoppers.—These pests were more numerous and making their appearance in
more districts than previously. A strict watch will be necessary next season to locate
suspected breeding-grounds. Throughout the Midway Control Zone the local committee kept the situation well under control during the past season and provision has
already been made to anticipate outbreaks next season.
Strawberry Root-weevil. — This weevil did considerable damage to established
plantings, and seriously reduced the yields from commercial plots.
Colorado Beetle.—During the normal season of activity no beetles were found or
reported. However, a late outbreak made its appearance on one farm at Rock Creek.
This slight infestation was promptly eliminated and a survey of potato plants on
adjacent farms failed to reveal any further outbreaks.
Pear Psylla.—Pear orchards in close proximity to the United States border were
inspected in co-operation with H. F. Olds, of the Dominion Plants Protection Division.
None was found throughout this district.
Field Crops.
Despite the delay to spring operations due to heavy rains and cold weather, there
was a marked improvement over last year in the performance of cereal grains and
general field crops. The season was favourable for tame and wild hay, while harvesting of first and second cuttings of alfalfa proceeded without interruption. Grain
profited by the long extended fair weather, which permitted the very few threshing-
machines to complete the season's work without being unduly held up; especially as
some anxiety was felt regarding the scarcity of farm labour. Yields of wheat, oats,
and barley are well up to average—quality being fair to good. Throughout the Rock
Creek-Kettle Valley District growers have been endeavouring to investigate the problem of securing a more profitable market for their surplus wheat. The subject will be
reviewed at the end of November in general meeting, when officials of the Department
of Agriculture will co-operate with the growers in an investigation of the situation
which may help to solve the problem.
Field-crop Trials.
Field Corn.—Some progress has been made during recent years with many varieties of grain or feeder corn. Wis. 355 has again outranked the others, while a variety
designated " Kings Cross " is worthy of mention. These varieties reached maturity
before the middle of October, having stood up to severe winds during the month of
August. It is expected that field corn will, in future, play a prominent part in the
feeding of hogs and live stock generally throughout the various districts.
Soy-beans.—A centrally located demonstration plot was planted to six varieties of
soy-beans: Mandarin, Minsoy, Kabott, Habaro, Pagoda, and Richland. This seed
could not be sown prior to June 1st on account of unsuitable soil and weather condi- X 124 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
tions. Of the foregoing varieties Kabott and Pagoda yielded a light crop of seed.
Judging by the performance of two seasons' tests it is quite evident that, under suitable
conditions, seed should be sown about the middle of May.
Live Stock.
With ample moisture carried over from the previous fall and winter, pasture on
the ranges provided plenty of good grazing, which was supplemented by generous
spring and early summer rainfalls. As a result cattle and sheep were in prime condition. Prices of beef and mutton were upheld and a further improvement in the condition and quality of stock reaching the market is noted.
From the district immediately adjacent to Grand Forks some four cars of cattle,
one car of hogs, and one car of sheep were shipped to Coast markets. A nice bunch
of yearling heifers was purchased by a local farmer at the stock-breeders' October
sale held for the first time at Elko. From the Kettle Valley District about ten cars
were shipped to Vancouver and fifty head, mostly calves, went to the South Okanagan
as stockers and feeders. On November 15th there remained a few feeder cattle for
sale in this latter area, not more than fifty head.
From time to time during the summer months reports were received at this office
when horses were attacked by sickness, indicating that encephalomyelitis was suspected.
These reports were promptly attended to and officials of the Veterinary Branch were
notified.    No cases of sleeping sickness were encountered.
Under date of March 9th, Dr. W. R. Gunn, Provincial Live Stock Commissioner,
directed a circular letter to horsemen in which a programme of vaccination against
this disease was recommended. The warning contained therein received wide publicity
and was responsible for some measure of prevention by vaccination being undertaken
by horse-owners throughout the district. In several instances Farmers' Institutes
and Stock-breeders' Associations have gone on record as favouring some form of compulsory treatment.
Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs.
Four clubs were organized in the Grand Forks District. Dennis Smith and members of the Grand Forks school staff assisted with membership enrolment. Baby chicks
of Rhode Island Red and White Leghorn breeds were used. A total membership of
thirty-eight was enrolled.    Many of the members are from Doukhobor families.
Two additional clubs were formed in the Kettle Valley District under the direction
of Miss Pearl Lindsay, Rock Creek. Total membership is fifteen. New Hampshire
Reds were again featured, this being a popular choice throughout the district.
The Rump & Sendall Challenge Cup, open to members from all districts, was
awarded to Miss Joan Harper, Rock Creek, for the highest score among the 1941
competitors.
Apiary Inspection.
On June 22nd, 23rd, and 24th a thorough inspection of apiaries was undertaken in
co-operation with Wm. Turnbull, Provincial Apiary Inspector. During this period
thirty-two individuals were interviewed. The bee population of forty-four hives
affected with American foul-brood was killed and equipment treated in the manner
prescribed. An equal number of neglected vacant hives, with equipment constituting
a dangerous menace, was also disposed of. This wholesale clean-up should prove of
great material benefit to local apiarists who are seriously engaged in commercial production as well as those endeavouring to build up a few hives.
Weed-control.
In checking up the several experiments conducted with fall applications of weed
chemical, some satisfactory results were obtained in the treatment of quack grass.
On October 3rd, 1941, a field plot was sprayed with a 12-per-cent. solution of
sodium chlorate. Quack grass killed out to over 50 per cent, and the remainder was
severely weakened. The weather during the month was moderately cool with intermittent rains. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942. X 125
On December 4th a field plot of quack grass in the Rock Creek District was treated
with sodium chlorate mixed with dry sand. On that date snow was falling heavily
and five days later freeze-up occurred. This application at the rate of 180 lb. per acre
was applied to an unusually heavy stand of quack grass which had been broken up in
the spring of 1941 and had grown even stronger than before. In the spring of 1942,
100 per cent, kill was recorded. On May 15th roots examined were withered and dried
and showed no sign of renewed growth.
Poison Ivy.—On June 10th the proprietors of a near-by tourist park requested
advice concerning th% growth of poison ivy on their property. A demonstration of
spraying with atlacide was given. Recommendations with regard to having the property posted with warning notices, and fenced to protect children coming in contact
with the plants were adopted.
FRASER VALLEY.
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., District Agriculturist.
The winter of 1941-42 was fairly mild, followed by a late spring and a period of
extreme wet weather in June and up to about July 20th. After that, the weather turned
fine and a long period of dry weather was experienced to nearly the end of October.
This was ideal for harvesting the crops.
General Agricultural Conditions.
The long, wet spell in May and June produced a large quantity of poor quality
clover and mixed hay. Quantities of the first clover-crops were put into silos and some
of the crop was lost entirely. The wet spell, however, produced a large second crop of
hay which was harvested in excellent condition. The oat-crop was disappointing in
yield, owing to severe lodging in many areas and failing to fill out. Pasture conditions
have been good all year. The clover-seed crop increased from 35 tons in 1941 to possibly 125 tons this year, which is below the 1940 crop.
The acute shortage of farm labour is having a marked effect on the production of
all farm crops in the Fraser Valley, as well as milk, eggs, hogs, etc. Unless something
is done to remedy the situation soon the year 1943 will witness a decline in practically
all farm products.
Live-stock Conditions.
Market conditions have been the best in years for milk, eggs, hogs, beef, and
mutton, etc., but expected increased production is not being secured due partly to farm
labour shortage and partly to increased cost of production. The ratio of cost of feed
to market prices for milk, eggs, and pork is still favourable and the demand is unlimited.
Where satisfactory production is being secured, the returns to the dairymen are good,
also to poultry producers.
The lamb-crop was good and the wool-clip good with prices set by the Wartime
Prices and Trade Board. Circulars were sent out to sheepmen this year with a view
to increasing their flocks. However, the drawback in the Fraser Valley is the dog
situation. Veteran sheepmen state that no increase can be expected with the dog
situation as it is.
Hog prices remained good all year with unlimited demand, but production has
steadily decreased during the past fifteen months. Some are of the opinion that the
Fraser Valley is the ideal location in Canada to raise two litters per year. This is
undoubtedly true as far as climate is concerned, but economic factors do not favour
any great increase in the production of hogs. Practically no skim-milk is available
on Fraser Valley farms, owing to whole milk being shipped to the dairies and the
demand for skim-milk powder for war purposes. Furthermore, nearly all feed has to
be purchased, although the Free Freight Policy has helped the dairymen, poultrymen,
and hog producers. Labour shortage is also a factor in limiting the production of
hogs on the Lower Mainland. X 126
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The demand for dairy cows remains very good with prices much higher than the
average cow is worth. Demand is also good for pure-bred bulls, boars, and rams of
good quality stock. In fact the demand is so keen for good boars that practically none
are available.
Interest continues keen in both draught- and light-horse production. Large numbers of farm horses were imported into the Valley from the Prairies this year.
Bangs-free Areas.
Several meetings were held during the spring months by cow-testing associations
in the Fraser Valley at which organizations were formed to control Bangs disease in
cattle by vaccinating all calves in the area. These meetings were addressed by Dr.
Gunn, G. H. Thornbery, and others, including your District Agriculturist. In most
instances, these associations are working very efficiently and good results should be
apparent in a few months' time from these vaccination campaigns.
Field-crop Conditions.
Field crops were affected by the wet spell during the first six months of the year.
Yields of corn were below average, and the late hay-crop above average.
The potato-crop was severely damaged by late blight and floods in certain areas
during June. At this time, it is not known just how much of the potato-crop will spoil
in storage owing to blight.
Approximately 150 acres of fibre flax were grown with a good yield in most fields
and an excellent crop of seed, harvested under ideal conditions. Some very fine fibre
has been produced this year. Two flax-pullers were procured which have given the
industry quite a boost and with the organization of the Fraser Valley Fibre Flax
Growers' Co-operative Association it is expected that the industry will develop
considerably.
Warble-fly Control.
Warble-fly control made considerable expansion in 1941 and in 1942 the whole
Fraser Valley area was included, except Richmond Municipality. A separate report
was forwarded to Dr. Gunn giving details of the project. The warble wash was prepared at approximately twenty-five centres for distribution. Some 50,000 head of
cattle were treated this year with some 825 lb. of Rotox being used. More cattle are
being treated with less material being used owing to greater experience by the committees in handling the wash and to the campaign to avoid wasting it. Personal supervision of each area is not possible now. First treatment was applied on February 16th
and the last treatment on March 27th.
The following table shows the districts under control and the reports received.
It is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain the report forms, and also difficult to get
volunteers to cover each road in an area, owing to gasoline and tire restrictions.
No. of
Herds.
No. of
Stock.
Estimated
No. of
Warbles.
Agassiz	
Chilliwack —
Aldergrove..
Dewdney	
Langley	
Matsqui, Mount Lehman, and Poplar .
Mission    	
Pitt Meadows -1 - 	
Surrey    - —
Sumas and Yarrow -
Delta 	
Otter —  	
Miscellaneous _	
30
623
193
39
314
120
71
111
94
208
21
209
2
Totals .
466
10,669
1,265
1,008
2,940
1,256
828
2,051
1,301
3,436
472
1,226
27
26,945
1,064
4,098
2,701
456
7,856
1,111
1,157
7,838
1,764
6,866
1,756
1,609
114
38,390 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 127
Junior-club Work.
The various junior-club projects had a very successful year in spite of war conditions. Junior-club work continues to be a major project in the Fraser Valley and
enjoys support from all sections of the district. A new feature was introduced this
year by holding a conference in New Westminster on March 27th. A report on this
conference is appended to this annual report, and I may say it was a very successful
meeting.
The following table gives the statistical data on junior clubs for the past three
years:—
Year.
Swine
Clubs.
Calf
Clubs.
Poultry
Clubs.
Potato        Grain
Clubs.        Clubs.
Total.
1940 	
1 17
2 21
2         1         23
20
19
15
8         |        2
8                  2
5                  2
1
48
1941	
52
1942      	
47
Local fairs were held at Agassiz, Mission, Chilliwack, Abbotsford, Langley, and
Surrey, at which calves, pigs, and chickens were exhibited by the club members.
The Vancouver Exhibition was cancelled this year and an arrangement was made
by the Vancouver Exhibition Association to stage the junior-club show at Chilliwack
in co-operation with the Chilliwack Agricultural Association. This proved to be the
outstanding feature of Chilliwack Fair and approximately 400 boys and girls were
present from Fraser Valley and Washington State for the various competitions.
Approximately 150 calves were shown in the junior section, and most of these were
out in the showmanship competition causing very favourable comment from the large
crowd in attendance. The financial assistance given by the Ayrshire, Guernsey, Jersey,
and Holstein Associations in paying transportation charges of the calves materially
helped to make the junior section an outstanding success.
Special mention should also be made of the financial support given by the Vancouver Exhibition Association to the junior-club fair. Approximately $1,500 was
appropriated for this work in spite of the fact that no Vancouver Exhibition was held.
Judging Classes and Competitions.
In nearly every district where junior clubs are organized, judging classes were held
during the year. These had to be curtailed this year due to labour shortage, tire and
gasoline restrictions. Great credit is due the local organizers who carried on this year
in spite of many difficulties.
Several outstanding field-days were held during the year at which junior-club
members participated in the various judging competitions. These included the British
Columbia Ayrshire Breeders' field-day at the University of British Columbia; a junior
club field-day at the University of British Columbia in May; the British Columbia
Swine Breeders' field-day at Agassiz Experimental Farm; British Columbia Holstein
Breeders' field-day at Colony Farm, and the field-day at Swift Canadian plant in New
Westminster and Colony Farm.
The competitions at Chilliwack drew more competitors than any previous competition held in British Columbia, particularly in the swine-carcass judging and halter-
making competitions. Many had to be turned away in the halter-making competitions
owing to lack of rope.
The following table gives the data on the competitions in the junior section at
Chilliwack.
Competition. No. of Competitors.
Stock-judging   41
Poultry-judging   12
Showmanship  84
Swine-carcass judging   37
Halter-making   26
Three boys and one girl from the Fraser Valley made the trip to Toronto, representing the Province in the Canadian Council competitions.    The dairy team of Dick X 128
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Berry and Ralph Barichello were members of the Langley Holstein and Jersey Calf
Clubs. The poultry team of Irene Lawson and Walter Tuey were members of the
Langley Poultry Clubs. Both teams made an excellent showing, placing second in their
respective competitions and were only a few points below the winning teams.
The team members had a very nice trip and related their experiences at the annual
social evening of the Langley Agricultural Association held at Milner, November 19th.
Your District Agriculturist accompanied the teams to Toronto and a separate report
has been forwarded on this trip.
In connection with the junior-club work in the Fraser Valley, I would like to mention the assistance given by the local organizers in each district. The dairy team was
coached by Tom Berry, Chris Hagelstein, and John Farquhar, and the poultry team by
Sandy McLean, of Langley. Mention should also be made of the assistance given by
Hector Ford and Harold Steeves, of the Dominion Live Stock Branch; Dean Clement
and his staff of the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of British Columbia; H. S.
MacLeod and his staff of the Dominion Plant Products Division; G. M. Stewart and his
staff of the Dominion Plant Products Division; T. A. Leach and Ralph Cudmore, of
Canadian Industries, Ltd., fertilizer division, and many others.
B.C. Lime Committee.
Dr. D. G. Laird and myself constitute the Lime Committee at present, and pass on
all applications for lime transportation subsidy.    Agricultural lime is becoming very
scarce and a serious situation may develop in 1943 unless steps are taken to ensure an
adequate supply. Fall Fairs_
Your Agriculturist attended the following fairs:—Chilliwack Exhibition: Supervised the junior club programme. Mission: Judged poultry classes and supervised
junior judging. Langley: Judged poultry classes. Surrey and Abbotsford: Supervised judging of calf clubs.
Farmers' Institute and other Meetings.
Farmers' Institute meetings, Poultry Association meetings, Cow-testing Association meetings were attended during the year and motion pictures were shown at Langley, Pitt Meadows, and other districts.
Field Crops Union, etc.
Owing to the heavy programme with junior clubs, warble-fly and poultry-flock
approval, very little time is available for field crops work. Attempts were made to visit
experimenters in the field crops union. Tests of seven varieties of hybrid corn were
made at Sullivan and Vedder Crossing and the results will be available later on.
Tests of Habaro, Mandarin, Kabott, Richland, Pagoda, and Minsoy varieties of
soy-beans were made at Matsqui and the results will be available later on.
Poultry Programme.
Blood-testing and approval of poultry flocks continues to be one of the three major
projects in this district. Two Inspectors are working on the flock-approval in the
Fraser Valley and, in addition, approval-work on Vancouver Island and in the Interior
is being supervised from this office. A detailed report is submitted each year and
the following table gives statistical data on this work since its inception in British
Columbia:—
Year.
No. of Flocks
approved.
No. of Birds
Blood-tested.
Percentage of
Reactors to
Pullorum.
1935     	
117
127
143
149
194
194
244
42,074
77,493
93,008
92,178
115,543
121.954
158,867
6.09
1936	
2 42
1937 _	
3.47
1938  	
2.00
1939	
1 84
1940	
2 65
1941	 Indications point to this year's total exceeding any previous year, in spite of the
fact that Leghorn pullets not used for breeders have been exempted from the test.
With a view to reducing car mileage and making for more efficient procedure, all
blood samples this year are being shipped by express and public cartage to the University laboratory. This has resulted in a great saving in time for all those connected
with the blood-testing programme.
Miscellaneous.
Routine office-work continues to take up a considerable amount of time. It is
becoming increasingly difficult to call on individual farmers and the calls are limited
almost to direct calls for assistance. The work programme has been outlined with a
view to reducing car mileage as much as possible. Every effort has been made to
co-operate with other officials in reducing car trips and travelling together.
The office-work has become very heavy for Miss Woodward to handle in view of
the increased flock-approval work and the large amount of correspondence, etc., involved
in the work of A. W. Finlay, Provincial Apiarist. Efforts are being made to reduce the
office-work to a minimum.
APPENDICES.
APPENDIX No. 1.
Dominion Department of Agriculture.
Fertilizer Administration.
Dominion Fertilizer Subventions.
(Applicable January 1st to July 1st, 1942.)
1. The Purpose.—The Dominion Government, in paying a part of the farmers' fertilizer
bill as a subsidy, hopes to encourage and assist in the production of those crops that will help
Canada send more food this year to Great Britain, particularly of meats, dairy, and poultry
products essential to the maintenance of our people overseas in time of war.
2. The Crops.—The subsidies therefore apply only to fertilizers used on the following
crops that will provide food for live stock and poultry:—
(a.)  Pastures.
(6.)   Clover, alfalfa, and grass hay crops.
(c.)  Field corn for ensilage or husking.
(d.)   Spring wheat, oats, barley, and spring-mixed grains for grain production.
(e.)   Mangels and turnips for feeding live stock.
3. Fertilizers on which Subsidies are allowed.—The subsidies will be allowed only on the
fertilizers listed below and which are recommended as best suited for the crops named in paragraph 2 above by the British Columbia Fertilizer Board. It is necessary also that the mixed
fertilizers listed below be registered under the " Fertilizers Act."
(a.) Mixed Fertilizers (of single or double strength) 0-10-16, 2-16-6, 4-10-10,
5-10-5, 6-10-10, and 6-30-15.
(b.) Fertilizer chemicals: Sulphate of ammonia 20% N; Nitrate of soda 16% N;
Cyanamid 20% N; Superphosphate 18%, 20%, and 38% Av. P20.-,; Ammoni-
ated superphosphate 2% N 20% Av. P205; Ammonium phosphate 16% N, 20%
Av. P20-, and 11% N, 48% Av. PoO-;; Muriate of potash 50% and 60% W.S.
K20;   Potash manure salts 25% and 30% W.S. K20. X 130
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
4. Subventions Allowable.—The subsidy that may be allowed is based on the kind and
analysis of the fertilizer eligible for the subsidy, calculated from 40 cents per unit of nitrogen,
20 cents per unit of available phosphoric acid, and 20 cents per unit of potash in the ton of
fertilizer.
Thus the subventions on the following fertilizers which are eligible for the subsidy in
British Columbia are:—
Analyses.
Subvention Allowable.
Per Ton
(2,000 Lb.).
Per y2 Ton
(1,000 Lb.).
Per Vi Ton
(500 Lb.).
Mixed Fertilizers—
0-10-16  __  	
2-16-6    ...
4-10-10     	
5-10-5  --   	
6-10-10    	
6-30-15    	
Fertilizer Chemicals—
Sulphate of ammonia, 20% N	
Nitrate of soda, 15% N  	
Nitrate of Soda, 16% N  _	
Cyanamid, 20% N _ _ 	
Ammonium phosphate, 11% N-48% Av. P2O5	
Ammonium phosphate, 16% N-20% Av. P2O5 	
Ammoniated superphosphate, 2% N-20% Av. P2O5-
Superphosphate, 18% Av. P2O5 	
Superphosphate, 20% Av. P20r,  	
Superphosphate, 38% Av. P205 _	
Muriate of potash, 50% W.S. KoO 	
Muriate of potash, 60% W.S. K20 _	
Potash manure salts, 20% W.S. K20   ...	
Potash manure salts, 2,5% W.S. K20	
$5.20
5.20
5.60
5.00
6.40
11.40
$8.00
6.00
6.40
8.00
14.00
10.40
4.80
3.60
4.00
7.60
10.00
12.00
4.00
5.00
$2.60
2.60
2.80
2.50
3.20
5.70
$4.00
3.00
3.20
4.00
7.00
5.20
2.40
1.80
2.00
3.80
5.00
6.00
2.00
2.50
$1.30
1.30
1.40
1.25
1.60
2.85
$2.00
1.50
1.60
2.00
3.50
2.60
1.20
.90
1.00
1.90
2.50
3.00
1.00
1.25
5. Limits of Purchase.—The regulations provide that not less than a total of 500 lb. of
any one kind or analysis or a total of more than 5 tons of all fertilizer eligible for the subsidy
can be bought by any one farmer.
6. British Columbia Fertilizer Board.—The different fertilizers eligible for subsidy are
required to be used as recommended by the Fertilizer Board of the Province. For this information communicate with the Secretary of the British Columbia Fertilizer Board, University
of British Columbia, Vancouver.
7. How to obtain the Subventions.—The proper form has to be filled out as a basis on
which the subsidy can be allowed. When the farmer buys his fertilizer he should ask the
fertilizer manufacturer, his agent or dealer, or whoever he buys from, to prepare the form
and allow him the subvention. It is important that all the details asked for be given in the
form.
When a subsidy is allowed on a fertilizer, such fertilizer can only be used on the crops
named in paragraph 2 herein. It is a serious offence of regulations established under the
" War Measures Act" to use the fertilizer on which the subvention has been allowed on any
other crops than on those named in paragraph 2.
The regulations require also that the subventions shall not be allowed to more than one
person on a farm, and no farmer shall purchase fertilizers on which a subvention is allowed
for or on behalf of any other person. When several farms are operated as separate economic
units by the same owner, the subventions will apply to the fertilizers bought for each farm
separately.
8. Provincial Supervision of Subventions.—The application of the subventions in British
Columbia is under the supervision of Mr. Cecil Tice, who is also a representative of the British
Columbia Fertilizer Board. Any inquiries should be addressed to him as the Supervisor of
Fertilizer Subventions in British Columbia, Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
FERTILIZERS ADMINISTRATOR.
Ottawa, March 18th, 1942. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 131
APPENDIX No. 2.
Dominion Department of Agriculture—Fertilizer Subventions.
Mixed fertilizers and chemicals eligible for subventions in British Columbia under
Order in Council P.C. 5482 for the fall season 1942—the fertilizers to be purchased for use
on pastures, meadows, ensilage, or green-feed crops, fall wheat, and other fall-sown grains
for feeding purposes.
Under no circumstances will subventions be allowed on mixed fertilizers or chemicals
not listed below.
Amount of Subvention.
Analyses.
Per Ton
(2,000 Lb.).
Per y2 Ton
(1,000 Lb.).
Per % Ton
(500 Lb.).
1. War economy mixtures, the use of which should be emphasized as generally the most economical according to soil and crop requirements—
4-10-10  	
$4.20
3.90
8.55
3.90
6.00
4.80
6.00
10.50
7.80
3.60
2.70
5.70
9.00
$2.10
1.95
4.28
1.95
3.00
2.40
3.00
5.25
3.90
1.80
1.35
2.85
4.50
$1.05
2-16-6  	
6-30-15   	
2. For peat soils—
0-10-16	
Chemicals—
Nitrate of Soda, 16% N       -	
Cyanamid, 20% N 	
2 63
Ammonium phosphate, 16% N-20% Av. P>Os	
1 95
90
Superphosphate, 18% Av. P9O5-     _	
68
Superphosphate, 38% Av. PoOr......	
1 43
Muriate of potash, 60% W.S. KqO 	
2 25
Note.—Any other analyses of the chemicals listed above will be eligible for the subventions based on their plant-food content to the lowest whole number.
General Information.—
(1.) All claims for subvention on fall sales must be received by the Provincial Supervisor of Fertilizer Subventions, Department of Agriculture, Court-house, Vancouver, not later than November 15th, 1942.
(2.) The amount of the subvention is based on 30 cents per unit of nitrogen and 15 cents
per unit of each of phosphoric acid and potash in the ton of fertilizer.
(3.) The subvention is applicable up to a total of 5 tons of all fertilizer purchased, or
a total payment of $25 for subventions to any one farmer.
(4.) On signing a form in triplicate stating that they will use the fertilizers on the crops
referred to above, farmers are allowed the amount of the subsidy off the price of
the fertilizer when making their purchases. The seller of the fertilizer is then
repaid by the Dominion Government.
(5.) In the case of home-mixed fertilizer the amount of the subvention shall be calculated from the quantity of the chemicals used and not the analysis of the mixture.
(6.) Not more than one person on any one farm shall be allowed the subvention and no
farmer shall purchase fertilizer for or on behalf of any other person.
(7.) Two or more farms operated by the same farmer with the same machinery or personnel, wholly or in part, shall be regarded as one farm.
(8.) Fertilizers purchased for farms operated by or for a Government, municipality,
industry, or corporation, except ecclesiastical or charitable corporations, shall be
ineligible.
(9.) Farmers are advised to consult the list of recommendations of the British Columbia
Fertilizer Board as contained in pamphlet issued by the Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, before making their purchases.
Vancouver, B.C., October 27th, 1942.
PROVINCIAL SUPERVISOR. X 132
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 3.
Summary of Movement of Grain Screenings, January 1st to October 31st, inclusive.
Consumed in British Columbia.
Export
direct from
Elevator.
Total per
Month.
Month.
No. 1 Feed.
No. 2 Feed.
Uncleaned.
Refuse.
All Grades.
All Grades.
Tons.
Lb.
Tons.
Lb.
Tons.
Lb.
Tons.
Lb.
Tons.
Lb.
Tons.
Lb.
January	
February.—	
30
29
600
270
30
57
89
34
4
62
1,100
1,580
1,580
3
2
1
1
670
400
1,000
1,000
27
1,600
33
59
89
1,770
92
34
62
100
3
20
123
1,100
May.
Jnly.        	
40
fin
i   1 1 finn
September.. _ 	
October.	
17
1
121
1,000
1,000
270 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 133
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BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 5.
Estimate of Honey-crop, 1942.
District.
Apiaries.
Hives,
Honey-crop.
Average
per Colony.
640
480
780
380
680
250
150
2,600
2,500
7,000
2,900
5,200
1,730
850
Lb.
52,000
62,500
280,000
43,500
676,000
164.350
55,250
Lb.
20.00
25.00
Lower Fraser —	
40.00
15.00
130.00
Kootenays  	
95.00
65.00
Totals	
3,360
22,780
1,333,600
58.54
APPENDIX No. 6.
Summary of Premises visited and Cattle T.B.-tested, 1942.
District.
No. of Premises.
Cattle tested.
No. of Reactors.
419
25
139
11
80
5,645
182
803
50
467
17
1
9
Totals                         	
694
7,147
27
Total number of premises visited..
Total number of cattle tested	
Total number of reactors —	
Percentage of reactors	
694
7,147
27
0.37
APPENDIX No. 7.
Summary of Dairy Premises inspected and graded under " Mdlk Act," 1942.
District.
No. of
Premises.
No. of
Cattle.
Gkade of Premises.
Ungraded.
a.
B.
C.
258
25
157
11
2,541
342
4,984
182
940
50
40,947
6,378
18
4
16
176
200
210
3
15
4
2,239
87
26
5
7
122
55
4
18
121
4
Coast points and Vancouver Island.....  	
3,334
53,481
414
2,558
215
147 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 135
APPENDIX No. 8.
Fence-viewers appointed under " Line Fences Act," Chap. 95, R.S.B.C. 1936.
Albemi-Nanaimo Electoral District.
Name.
Address.
Order in
Council No.
Date.
Robert Laird ,	
53 Fifth Street, Nanaimo _
640 Haliburton Street, Nanaimo	
564 Rosehill Avenue, Nanaimo	
1530
1530
1530
717
717
717
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
June
June
June
22, 1940
22. 1940
J. Charles Ward 	
Walter Ford .-...	
E. C. Catling _	
11, 1934
11, 1934
Chilliwack Electoral District.
George Israel Thornton.  	
Sardis  	
Lindell .__  	
1
221         |    Feb.      26, 1926
221         |    Feb.      26, 1926
Lindell
326        |    March 22, 1930
1
Columbia Electoral District.
Alexander Ritchie 	
Invermere  - -	
Invermere 	
Wilmer      	
301
301
301
301
301
1530
1530
1530
1530
March 16, 1926
March 16, 1926
Edgar E. Tunnaclifle _	
March 16, 1926
March 16, 1926
March 16,  1926
Galena P.O.      	
Nov.     22, 1940
A. H. Soles
Nov.     22, 1940
Nov.     22, 1940
Golden	
Nov.     22, 1940
Cariboo Electoral District.
Robert Barlow	
James M. Macalister...
Louis Crosina	
Thomas Douglas	
Kersley	
Macalister	
Williams Lake
Quesnel	
855
855
855
1078
June 24, 1942
June 24, 1942
June 24, 1942
Aug. 7,, 1942
Comox Electoral District.
Robert Merle Halliday	
James A. Carthew—	
Chales H. Potter	
Thomas Archibald Millicheap .
Howard Cox —
George Cyrus Bigelow	
Sandwick 	
Comox 	
Lasqueti Island .
Lasqueti Island .
Sandwick	
Courtenay	
230
326
1335
1335
1572
| March    2, 1926
| March 10; 1914
j Nov.      15, 1923
| Nov.     15, 1923
| Dec.      31, 1930
| May      18, 1937
Cowichan-Newcastle Electoral District.
William George Manley	
Henry Hamilton Hollings.
Andrew Parker	
Lewis M. Thatcher	
Arthur James Godfrey..
Henry Bendle	
R.R. 1, Cobble Hill.
R.R. 1, Cobble Hill.
South Wellington....
South Wellington ...
South Wellington ...
South Wellington ...
54
|    Feb.
13,
1901
45
[    Jan.
14,
1924
337
|    April
11,
1928
337
|    April
11,
1928
337
|    April
11,
1928
337
|    April
11,
1928 X 136
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 8—Continued.
Fence-viewers appointed under " Line Fences Act," Chap. 95, R.S.B.C. 1936—Continued.
Creston Electoral District.
Name.
Address.
Order in
Council No.
Bate.
H. Hugh Taylor _ 	
970
970
885
885
836
Sept.       8, 1925
Victor Carr _ _ 	
James Compton	
Creston   	
Creston 	
Sept.       8, 1925
Aug.       2, 1932
Aug.       2, 1932
June     20, 1935
Delta Electoral District.
1
         |    Dec.      24, 1884
Chas. T. Mufford	
1
1
Dewdney Electoral District.
285
286
385
385
385
2469
May
May
July
July
July
Oct.
18, 1905
18, 1905
12,  1906
12, 1906
J. F. Harris     _	
12, 1906
J. W. Handy        	
23, 1918
Esquimalt Electoral District.
A. T. Peatt	
Joseph J. Rhode.
Albert E. Wale...
George Ball—.	
Thos. F. Helgesen.
R. B. Moulton	
T. Wilkinson	
G. P. L. Taggart._.
W. Bell  	
Colwood 	
Happy Valley .
Langford	
Rocky Point.—
Metchosin	
Cobble Hill.	
Cobble Hill......
Cobble Hill	
Cobble Hill _._.
Jan.
18,
1882
491
May
5,
1915
1538
March
16,
1918
1538
March
16,
1918
1538
March
16,
1918
739
May
1G,
1929
739
May
16,
1929
739
May
16,
1929
739
May
16,
1929
Grand Forks-Greenwood Electoral District.
Joseph Richter	
Cecil Seymour Floyd-
Chester Charlton	
William Lawless	
George Henry Pitman..
Oscar Pennoyer 	
Kenneth Calvin Murray...
Luman Frank Billups	
George Higginbottom	
Midway.	
Eholt _	
R.R. 2, Bridesville.
Bridesville 	
Rock Creek	
Grand Forks	
Grand Forks 	
Bridesville	
Bridesville	
1200
Aug.
22,
1913
1537
Oct.
23,
1929
92
Jan.
29,
1927
92
Jan.
29,
1927
92
Jan.
29.
1927
1529
Nov.
22,
1940
1529
Nov.
22,
1940
1529
Nov.
22,
1940
1529
Nov.
22,
1940 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 137
APPENDIX No. 8—Continued.
Fence-viewers appointed under " Line Fences Act," Chap. 95, R.S.B.C. 1936—Continued.
Islands Electoral District.
Name.
Address.
Order in
Council No.
Date.
William Deacon	
George E. Ackerman
James Bradley	
Gerald B. Young	
S. Percy Beech	
Rodd McLeod	
George Copeland	
George Clark 	
Alan Calvert	
Nathan E. Watts	
Mayne Island	
Fulford Harbour...
Port Washington ..
Ganges 	
Ganges  -	
Saturna Island	
Saturna Island	
Sidney _	
Sidney 	
Sidney  	
242
242
242
242
242
242
242
242
242
1098
March
March
March
March
March
March
March
March
March
Sept.
1931
1931
1931
1931
1931
1931
1931
1931
1931
1936
Kamloops Electoral District.
Wentworth F. Wood-
Owen S. Bachelor	
Robt. B. Homersham..
David H. Campbell.....
Andre Goudreau	
John T. Tucker	
Angus McKay	
Kamloops	
Kamloopa	
Heffley Creek
Kamloops	
Louis Creek.....
Louis Creek ....
Rose Hill	
674
Dec.
24,
1904
674
Dec.
24,
1904
469
April
7,
1919
469
April
7,
1919
469
April
7,
1919
469
April
7,
1919
469
April
7,
1919
Kaslo-Slocan Electoral District.
44
44
44
836
836
Jan.
Jan.
Jan.
June
June
14, 1924
14, 1924
14, 1924
14, 1938
14, 1938
Lillooet Electoral District.
Walter C. Green                      -
724
1765
1765
860
1529
1529
1529
June
Oct.
Oct.
Aug.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
30, 1925
7, 1920
Agerton 	
Pemberton  	
Clinton   	
7   1920
7,  1926
22, 1940
22, 1940
22, 1940
North Okanagan Electoral District.
W. J. Webster ....
Howard Derby....
R. W. Neil 	
T. Mellish	
Frank Hassard ..
John Robertson.
Wm. A. Mack   ...
William Allingham	
Bertram Pothecary	
Alphonse Deschamps .
Robert Davison	
Albert Hayhurst	
Geo. Moultrie Salt	
Ooldstream..
Lumby..	
Vernon..	
Armstrong...
Enderby	
Mara ._	
Enderby	
Oyama	
Oyama ...	
Oyama	
Deep Creek .
Deep Creek-
Grindrod	
185
April
12,
1900
185
April
12,
1900
1100
Sept.
16,
1914
1100
Sept.
16,
1914
1100
Sept.
16,
1914
797
June
80,
1930
797
June
30,
1930
995
Aug.
2,
1934
995
Aug.
2,
1934
995
Aug.
2,
1934
995
Aug.
2,
1934
995
Aug.
2,
1934
995
Aug.
2,
1934 X 138
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 8—Continued.
Fence-viewers appointed under " Line Fences Act," Chap. 95, R.S.B.C. 1936—Continued.
North Vancouver Electoral District.
Name.
Address.
Order in
Council No.
Date.
485
485
485
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
28, 1891
Thos. Grafton	
28, 1891
28, 1891
Omineca Electoral District.
Hubert      .            	
737
813
813
813
1358
1358
1355
1355
1529
1529
1529
1529
June
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Sept.
Sept.
Oct.
Oct.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
16, 1922
Vanderhoof __	
Vanderhoof
11, 1927
11,  1927
11,  1927
Francois Lake
Francois Lake.	
17,  1929
Jacob W. Henkel  	
17,  1929
30,  1934
Telkwa    ..                     	
30, 1934
Telkwa          	
22, 1940
J. Hickey, Sr	
22, 1940
22, 1940
J. Keefe	
Francois Lake  —	
22,  1940
Revelstoke Electoral District.
Hugh Smythe	
Robert Tapping	
Samuel David Crowle..
Henry Colbeck	
Revelstoke...
Revelstoke..
Revelstoke _
Revelstoke.
Sept.     13,  1906
Oct.      23, 1929
Oct.      23, 1929
Rossland-Trail Electoral District.
Charles John Dobie _
Alfred G. Dilling	
Adam Cruickshank...
Fruitvale
Fruitvale
Fruitvale
1718
Dec.
19,
1941
1718
Dec.
19,
1941
761
June
3,
1942 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 139
APPENDIX No. ^—Continued.
Fence-viewers appointed under " Line Fences Act," Chap. 95, R.S.B.C. 1936—Continued.
Salmon Arm Electoral District.
Name.
Order in
Council No.
Date.
Patrick Owens .._ —
Thos. J. Clemitson	
Joseph Brown	
Alex. Flather _	
George Chas. Chase.	
William Charlton	
Henry D. Layland	
James R. Rammage 	
Joseph Henry Harbell	
George Henry Hoffman	
Samuel Henry Calhoun	
A. E. Boyd 	
Phil de Leenheer	
William Spencer Peacock	
Jesse Victor Pullin	
George Henry Sweeten 	
Ernest Frederick Wm. Hysop
Charles Riley  	
Henry Herman Wulfers.	
Robbins McGregor 	
John Richard Carlson	
Leslie Robert Pearse	
Rupert Morley Duck	
Bernard Harold Johnston	
Theodore Albert Moilliet.	
Salmon Arm .
Westwold	
Celista	
Celista	
Chase	
Duck Range..
Monte Creek..
Pritchard	
Salmon Arm..
Shuswap	
Tappen	
Pritchard	
Pritchard 	
Notch Hill	
Notch Hill—..
Tappen	
Tappen	
Celista	
Magna Bay —
Pinantan	
Pritchard	
Monte Creek..
Holmwood	
Vavenby	
Vavenby	
674
469
469
469
469
469
469
469
469
469
469
2054
2054
796
796
796
796
796
796
796
796
796
796
796
796
Dec.
April
April
April
April
April
April
April
April
April
April
Dec.
Dec.
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
1904
1919
1919
1919
1919
1919
1919
1919
1919
1919
1919
1920
1920
1930
1930
1930
1930
1930
1930
1930
1930
1930
1930
1930
1930
Skeena Electoral District.
Charles F. A. Green	
Rodolph Heppell _
James Nelson	
Charles Herbert Thomas
William Shaw Henry	
Eric Edlund . 	
Ray Trenholm Oulton	
Terrace-
Terrace—
Terrace.—.
Terrace
Smithers-
Glen tan na
Smithers...
869
July
9,
1930
869
July
9,
1930
869
|    July
9,
1930
869
|    July
9,
1930
1190
|    Sept.
25,
1934
40
j    Jan.
10,
1935
836
j    June
14,
1938
Similkameen Electoral District.
Yale Electoral District.
Thos. H. Murphy   	
246
3
3
3
April
27, 1905
F. Richter (Jr.) 	
Keremeos 	
5-Mile Creek, Princeton	
Jan.
Jan.
Jan.
6,  1926
6,  1926
6,  1926
say
South Okanagan Electoral District.
John E. Reekie -	
561
1200
1530
May
Nov.
Nov.
14, 1924
10   1936
E. B. Powell - 	
22, 1940
Lawrence Guichon..
Harry Collett 	
Robert Dodding	
James Batten 	
Quilchena ,
Merritt	
Lower Nicola..
Nicola	
1529
Nov.
22,
1940
1529
Nov.
22,
1940
1529
Nov.
22,
1940
1529
Nov.
22,
1940 X 140                                                     BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX
No.
9.
Pound Districts.
Under the provisions of the " Pound District
Act" the following Pound Districts have
been constituted in British Columbia:—
Ashcroft.
Keremeos.
Ainsworth.
Kimberley.
Alice Siding.
Kaleden.
Allison Subdivision of Princeton
Kootenay Reclamation Flats.
Townsite.
Kathlyn Lake, Evelyn, and Doughty.
BX.
Ladysmith.
Baldonnel.
Longbeach.
Boswell.
Lumby.
Balfour School.
Lytton Townsite.
Brilliant.
Bull River.
Mountain (Nelson).
Benvoulin and Mission Creek.
Mill Bay—Cobble Hill.
Burton.
Mirror Lake.
Briar Ridge.
Montney.
Murdale.
Carrols Landing.
Chase.
Nelson & Fort Sheppard Company's
Castlegar.
Land Grant.
Cowichan (Bay).
North Saanich.
Colwood—Happy Valley.
Naramata.
Corra Linn, Bonnington, and
North Bend.
South Slocan.
Needles.
Cranberry Lake.
Nakusp.
Cecil Lake.
North Kamloops.
Cawston.
North Shore.
Creston Flats.
North Enderby and Grindrod.
Nicks Island.
Dewdney.
Dawson Creek.
Oyama.
Okanagan Centre.
Elko.
Oliver.
East Kelowna.
Okanagan Mission.
Ellison.
Osoyoos.
Erickson.
Procter.
Enterprise Valley (Pender Harbour).
Perry Siding and Appledale.
Princeton.
Fire Valley and Edgewood.
Fort St. John.
Pouce Coupe.
Powell River.
Passmore.
Golden.
Patricia Bay.
Gray Creek.
Giscome.
Queens Bay.
Grand Forks.
Renata.
Hedley.
Remo.
Harrop.
Rose Prairie.
Harrison Hot Springs.
Robson.
Halfmoon Bay.
Rossland (South).
Rutland.
Kelowna Rural.
Rolla.
Kaslo (Suburbs).
Rosemont Addition to City of Nelson. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1942.                               X 141
APPENDIX No. 9—C
Pound Districts—Co'
Saskatoon Creek.
Stoddart Creek.
Salmo.
Sechelt.
Swan Lake (West).
Squamish.
South-west Vernon.
Tates Creek.
Thetis Lake.
Thetis Island.
mtinued.
itinued.
Vallican.
Vernon (Airport).
Wardner.
Willow Point.
Westview (Powell River).
Wildwood.
Wynndel School.
Youbou.
10.
S, 1942.
APPENDIX No.
Boys' and Girls' Clue
Beef Calf Clubs
Name of Club.
Organizer.
Secretary.
Membership.
Armstrong Beef "A" 	
H. McCallan, Armstrong	
H. McCallan, Armstrong ..—	
Warner Phillip, Brigade Lake
T. J. Wilson, Vinsulla	
7
Lenora Wood, Armstrong __	
Lillian Hutchinson, Knutsford
14
Francois Lake 	
Cobble Hill	
Cato Loveng, Grassy Plains 	
Annie Brodersen, R.R. 1, Cobble
Hill
Nora T. Spankie, Southbank	
9
Motherwell & Moulten, R.R. 1,
Cobble Hill
R. W. Wiley, Southbank ' .
H. C. Hannam, Progress	
Charles Turner, Westwold 	
Allaster Munro, Newgate 	
Joe Fenton, "Westwold	
Phyllis Charlesworth, Newgate 	
Newgate, Roosville and District
Total (10 Clubs)	
8
94
Swine Clubs.
]0
Clifford Freeman, R.R. 1, Milner ...
Bulkley Valley 	
Helen Oulton, Smithers	
8
G. H. Bryant, R.R. 1, Chilliwack .
Fred Murray, Armstrong  	
Fred Murray, Armstrong	
8
9
8
Total (6 Clubs)	
49
Sheep Club.
Westwold — -	
Charles Turner, Westwold     Sheila Talbot, Westwold	
8
Grain Clubs.
Ladner    	
Richmond 	
Total (2 Clubs)
Wm. Montgomery, R.R. 1, New
Westminster
Ed. Gilmore, c/o Buckerfield's,
Ltd., New Westminster
Jack Guichon, Ladner	
7
13
20 X 142
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 10—Continued.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs, 1942.
Poultry Clubs.
Name of Club.
Organizer,
Secretary.
Membership.
8
W. R. Peppar, Vernon.— 	
8
9
7
8
T
10
W. R. Peppar, Vernon 	
10
10
15
10
10
"A"
10
"B"
5
"C"
C. E. Clay, Armstrong 	
C. E. Clay, Armstrong	
10
"A"
10
"B"
10
"C"
7
" D "
W. L. Dence, R.R. 1, Milner	
W. L. Dence, R.R. 1, Milner...	
W. L. Dence, R.R. 1, Milner	
W. L. Dence, R.R. 1, Milner	
W. L. Dence, R.R. 1, Milner	
W. L. Dence, R.R. 1, Milner. 	
W. L. Dence, R.R. 1, Milner.....	
James Ramsay, Sidney.. 	
G. A. Jones, Box 280, Mission City.-
G. A. Jones, Box 280, Mission City
G. A. Jones, Box 280, Mission City_
G. A. Jones, Box 280, Mission City
G. A. Jones, Box 280, Mission City
G. A. Jones, Box 280, Mission City
J. S. Reid, Matsqui  	
W. L. Dence, R.R. 1, Milner	
8
12
9
Island Red
11
Rhode Island Red
8
7
12
Red
7
8
8
8
Rock
Mission and Cedar Valley Rhode
Rhode Island Red
Alfred Crape, R.R. 1, Mission	
7
7
and Barred Rock
Cedar Valley and Hatzic Rhode
8
Island Red
Tena Isaak, Abbotsford 	
Audrey Dignan, 5th St., Sidney
8
7
8
Sooke Rhode Island Red    .,..'.
Mrs. E. I. Noury, Sooke.....	
Rev. C. McDiarmid, Ladysmith
Rev. C. McDiarmid, Ladysmith—	
Dennis Smith, Grand Forks _
8
North Oyster Rhode Island Red..
Diamond Rhode Island Red.	
Grand Forks White Leghorn, 1___
Oliver Wright, R.R. 1, Ladysmith...
Wilda Hoggan, Cassidy 	
8
8
7
Peter Kastrokoff, Grand Forks
Grand Forks Rhode Isl. Red, 1   .
10
Grand Forks Rhode Isl. Red, 2	
Dennis Smith, Grand Forks — __
Alfred Beauregard, Salmon Valley-
Charles Semerad, Hixon	
Mary Zak, Grand Forks    .
12
Antoinette Beauregard, Salmon
Valley
Thora Colebank, Woodpecker	
Esther Gausaukus, Vanderhoof
Hixon and Woodpecker New
Hampshire
8
11
Hampshire DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1942.
X 143
APPENDIX No. 10—Continued.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs, 1942—Continued.
Poultry Clubs—Continued.
Name of Club.
Organizer.
Secretary.
Membership.
Mrs. W. Mcintosh, Vanderhoof
Mrs. W. Mcintosh, Vanderhoof
S. Zingle, Prince George..	
Tom O'Meara, Vanderhoof	
Shirley Andros, Vanderhoof	
Merle Zingle, Prince George	
10
Vanderhoof, 2.... _	
Pineview Barred Rocks	
10
7
8
Bert Pitman, Rock Creek..	
Thomas Cross, R.R. 2, Victoria
7
Mrs. M. A. Clark, R.R. 2, Victoria...
7
7
Dorothy Rutherford, Salmon Arm...
Geoffrey Homes, R.R. 3, Salmon
Arm
George D. Hudson, R.R. 3, Salmon
Arm
David Mitchell, R.R. 1, Oliver	
7
Larch Hill New Hampshire.	
H. Killingley, R.R. 3, Salmon Arm_.
H. Killingley, R.R. 3, Salmon Arm..
James Campbell, Oliver __	
8
8
12
Margrette Lund, Canoe	
Edith French Cobble Hill
10
Cobble Hill.
Walter H. Norie, Cowichan Station
G. A. McMurray, R.R. 1, Enderby...
7
Enderby   	
Richard Johnston, R.R. 1, Enderby
7
Total (59 Clubs)
513
Potato Clubs.
Bulkley Valley	
A. J. Clotworthy, Telkwa	
Mrs. C. J. Killer, Telkwa....	
10
Quick	
Wendy Wearne, Quick	
9
8"
Frank Marshall, Armstrong.	
Frank Marshall, Armstrong— ...
Frank Marshall, Armstrong. „..
Frank Marshall, Armstrong.	
Frank Marshall, Armstrong	
7
T
8
8
10
10
Big Eddy Mount MacPherson
A. S. Parker, Revelstoke..	
A. J. Christmas, Cloverdale -
A. J. Christmas, Cloverdale.	
S. J. Gray, R.R. 1, Milner	
Arnold Chadwick, Lower Town,
Revelstoke
William Markin, R.R. 1, Cloverdale
Eva Bradley, R.R. 3, Cloverdale
11
13
9
11
10
11
G. A. Jones, Mission City.—	
Mrs. May Wetherill, Groundbirch...
Joe Maxwell, R.R. 1, Steveston
Jim Ordog, R.R. 1, Mission City
Phyllis Wetherill, Groundbirch
Joyce Maddocks, R.R. 2, Eburne
12
Groundbirch	
11
12
Total (18 Clubs).	
177
Alfalfa Clubs.
Beaver ley-Pineview 	
W. Kienzle and S. Zingle, Prince
George
Paul Teichman, Beaverley 	
10
Vanderhoof   _	
N. E. Williams, Vanderhoof	
Charles Smedley, Vanderhoof	
10
Prince George	
10
George
Omineca  	
A. J. Clotworthy, Telkwa....	
Leonard George, Telkwa— —
11
R. W. Wiley, Southbank	
Glen W. Wiley, Southbank 	
12
Total (5 Clubs)
53 X 144
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 10—Continued.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs, 1942—Continued.
Dairy Calf Clubs.
Name of Club.
Organizer.
Secretary.
Membership.
Hugh McLeod, Salmon Arm—	
John Syme, R.R. 1, Salmon Arm _._
John Syme, R.R. 1, Salmon Arm _„.
7
stein
7
"A"
8
"B"
Ina Sahlstrand, Hixon .	
9
Ben Thornton, Armstrong	
8
14
Tom Marshall, Armstrong.	
Noland Boss, Armstrong  	
Noland Boss, Armstrong  ....
Noland Boss, Armstrong	
Noland Boss, Armstrong 	
9
Armstrong Grade Jersey " A "~
Armstrong Grade Jersey " B "...
7
10
7
8
Jack Pain, Beaverley 	
Bob Carmichael, Harris Road,
Matsqui
Douglas Smith, Mount Lehman
A. Kotiwich, Matsqui __'.„_.
11
R. B. Whitson, 3923 Towline Road,
Matsqui
R. B. Whitson, 3923 Towline Road,
Matsqui
R. B. Whitson, 3923 Towline Road,
Matsqui
11
12
9
15
John Farquhar, R.R. 1, Langley
Prairie
C. E. Hagelstein, R.R. 1, Langley
Prairie
John Peers, R.R. 3, Sardis	
Archie Stevenson, R.R. 2, Chilliwack
T. E. Law, R.R. 2, Chilliwack
D. S. Heelas, Abbotsford „	
Pat Reid, R.R. 2, Abbotsford	
Pat Reid, R.R. 2, Abbotsford
7
Langley Jersey —	
Chilliwack Pure-bred Guernsey—
Chilliwack-Fairfield Pure-bred
Ayrshire
Patricia Thompson, R.R. 1,
Coghlan
Vera Vanderveen, R.R. 2, Sardis ...
James Stevenson, R.R. 2, Chilliwack
13
14
12
19
12
9
Sumas Prairie Grade Jersey
Daphne Layton, R.R. 2, Abbotsford
Phyllis Gibbard, Matsqui	
Joyce Maddocks, Eburne 	
William Hay, 7721 Windsor, Vancouver
Helen Oulton, Smithers	
11
8
Jersey
G. G. Grimes, 142 Blundell, Steveston
Angus L. Hay, 7721 Windsor, Vancouver
G. H. Bryant, R.R. 1, Chilliwack ..
Joe E. Wingrove, Cloverdale	
T. Brandon, Telkwa  	
T. F. Isbister, Denman Island	
16
Richmond Guernsey  	
Bulkley Valley ... __	
9
8
Rosedale Ayrshire _   	
9
Ralph Main, Cloverdale __	
Wendy Wearne, Quick 	
Elnetta Millard, Denman Island	
Lois Berry, Agassiz 	
Ronnie Chartrand, Agassiz _	
Molly Appel, R.R. 1, Agassiz -	
Ewen McKimmon, Deroche _	
Tom Farquhar, R.R. 1, Langley
Prairie
Tom Farquhar, R.R. 1, Langley
Prairie
13
11
Agassiz-Harrison Pure-bred
Jersey
W. G. Harris, R.R. 1, Agassiz
Bro. T. Girard, St. Mary's School,
Mission
John Farquhar, R.R. 1, Langley
Prairie
John Farquhar, R.R. 1, Langley
Prairie
12
Langley Pure-bred Ayrshire
Langley Ayrshire	
9
18
Total (38 Clubs)	
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. BixriELD, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1042.
1,500-1242-2428

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