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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS. HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister. H. CATHCART, Deputy Minister.… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1939

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister.
H. Cathcart, Deputy Minister. E. C. Manning, Chief Forester.
REPORT
OP
THE FOREST BRANCH
FOR THE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST
1938
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY  OF  THE LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1939.  Victoria, B.C., February 28th, 1939.
To His Honour E. W. Hamber,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch of the
Department of Lands for the year 1938.
A. W. GRAY,
Minister of Lands.
The Hon. A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch during
the calendar year 1938.
E. C. MANNING,
Chief Forester.  REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH.
Business reviews of the past few years have not uncommonly deplored the late depression,
expressed regret over the failure to attain the normal conditions of 1929, and noted with
restrained enthusiasm the current improvements. More recently a few well-qualified
observers have been suggesting that we deceive ourselves and cloud the prospect by persisting in holding the abnormal inflated conditions of 1929 for ever before us as a standard
for comparison and that business conditions during the past three years have, in actual fact,
been normal or better than normal.
However bank clearings, loadings, laboriously derived indices, and the thousand other
indicators may be interpreted by the economists, it is safe to say that it would be a good tonic
to accept this latter point of view.
Appraised on its own merits, then, the year 1938 in the local world of forestry and forest
industry presents a reasonably well-balanced account.
Against a disastrous fire season we can enter some important advances in protection
organization and technique; against wars, debased exchange, trade treaty negotiations, and
other depressive factors, a surprisingly well-sustained export trade under " normal" ocean
freight conditions; against a receding and less accessible supply of old-growth fir, a growing
market for cedar and hemlock; and against unsatisfactory prices, rather well-filled order files
and, perhaps more important still, a growing realization that these unsatisfactory prices are
in some considerable measure of our own making.
1929.
1936.
1937.
1938.
Average,
Ten Years to
1938.
(Nearest 1,000—add 000.)
2,940,308
3,526
153
39,489
s.sie.m
801,518
2,823,758
1,325
171
14,269
3,020,773
1,202,994
3,035,553
1,191
155
22,116
3,241,916
1,107,377
2,581,279
1,118
171
16,549
2,779,034
1,192,196
2,302,481
1,565
167
17,245
2,537,414
900,545
Hewn railway-ties, pieces
Cords	
Poles, piles, lin. ft. .	
Converted total scale, F.B.M.
Italics indicate record scales.
The Coast logging-year opened under the usual handicap of difficult seasonal weather
conditions, aggravated each year by the small, but accumulating, effect of receding timber
frontiers. A slight difference in elevation makes a marked difference in snow conditions on
the Lower Coast where the bulk of the log production has for some years been concentrated,
and as long-established operations work up the valleys and slopes snow has an ever-increasing
effect on winter operation.
Most of the large camps were closed from January 1st. A few camps opened during that
month but after a few days closed down again. Four feet of snow was reported in the
Menzies Bay and Alberni districts in February with practically all camps down. Camps
were opening up in March, but in spite of prolonged winter inactivity were forced to curtail
production in April, due in large measure to a failing demand for cedar and hemlock.
In May the logging industry was operating at about 70 per cent, of normal and by June a
general close-down was in prospect for July 1st. This pending decision was reconsidered
in the interests of maintaining employment, but an unprecedented fire risk accomplished the
intended curtailment by enforced closure under the " Forest Act" which stopped all woods
activities, from the smallest cordwood operation to the largest camps throughout the Vancouver Forest District, for just short of three weeks from July 21st to August 10th.
For the remainder of the year, until the usual holiday shut-down just before Christmas,
logging pursued a fairly even course, influenced only by business factors.
In the logging world the year 1938 established no peaks and plumbed no new depths. If
it was hardly good enough to characterize as " normal," at least there were no disastrous N 6
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
TOTAL.  LOG   SCALE!
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IN TOTAL ANNUAL CUT
Per cent of same
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breaks in prices, no extreme embarrassment in surplus stocks, and no labour disputes to add
discouragement to a somewhat curtailed production.
Total log-scale, which is detailed elsewhere in this report, reached a figure of 2,779,033,998
F.B.M., 16.9 per cent, below the record year and 14.2 per cent, below the 1937 total. Of this
total scale:— . PerCent.
Douglas fir constituted     51
Cedar      15
Hemlock     15
Spruce      5
Other species      14
Indicating a continued serious lack of balance between occurrence and utilization.
In the lumber industry the year was remarkable for its recurrent threats of complete
disaster and their failure to materialize. On the whole it exemplified remarkably well the
old philosopher's homely remark that he had had a lot of trouble in his life but most of it had
never happened. The days before the Munich pact gave some indication of what we might
expect in the event of actual war. Marking regulations, of short duration, threatened our
attenuated trade with the United States and forecast the length to which nuisance restrictions
could be extended. The trade-treaty negotiations between Great Britain, the United States,
and Canada were fraught with disquieting possibilities of loss of our best market, developed
with so much foresight and at so much cost in funds and labour. Apart from the imminent
possibility of actual war, the trade treaty was perhaps the outstanding feature of the year.
The treaty has been so thoroughly reported and discussed that it hardly seems necessary to
enter into any extended comment here. Suffice it to say, in words borrowed from a recent
editorial, " So far as probable trade results are concerned, the more we study the details of
the agreements, and the comments of those whose produce will be affected, the more we doubt
our own competence to pass judgment or to prognosticate. The only thing we feel reasonably
sure about is that the outcome will not be so mutually profitable as the optimists hope, nor so
dismal as the pessimists fear."*
In terms of actual business done, the Eastern Canadian market' fell off between 15 and
20 per cent., Prairie markets failed once more to materialize as predicted, and the United
States quota in fir and hemlock was only little more than half filled; but the overseas market,
especially in Great Britain, held up remarkably well. Prices were somewhat weak, but
opinion is not lacking that this most unfortunate factor can be laid in some measure at our
own door. Particularly disquieting in this respect is British comment, of which the following
brief extract from a leading British trade journal may be taken as a sample: ". . . At
present the price situation is largely controlled by competition, which continues as ever to be
very keen between big exporting interests in Vancouver. Buyers in this country (England)
have much to be thankful for that the western domestic squabbles enable them to secure some
excellent bargains from the Canadian sellers. That the Dominion receives poor value for its
exports of softwoods is scarcely open to question. For years past, Douglas fir and hemlock
have been sold at uneconomical prices, . . . the results achieved fall far below the figures
which ought to be realized.    .    .    ."f
Total water-borne export of 1,192,195,672 F.B.M. of lumber for the year, less than 1 per
cent, below the record export of 1936, was a remarkable achievement under existing business
conditions. In this field the United Kingdom continues to be the brightest spot with largely
increased sales wiping out the slight falling-off of the previous year.
One of the features of the year in the field of export business was the visit to the Province from August 25th to September 3rd of a party of some thirty-two prominent representatives of the trade in England, Scotland, Ireland, and France. This party, conducted by Mr.
W. A. McAdam, Acting Agent-General of the Province in England, and accompanied by Mr.
J. C. Berto, Lumber Trade Commissioner to the United Kingdom, were shown as much of the
logging and milling industries on the Lower Coast as could be well managed in a few days.
This visit, following up a precedent created in the tour of the representatives of the
Timber Trade Council of Great Britain in 1936, could hardly fail to have been mutually
advantageous.
* McLean's Magazine, January 1st, 1939.
t " Timber and Plywood," December 10th, 1938. N 8
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Ocean freight rates, which had constituted such a serious stumbling-block during the
preceding twelve months, returned to something near a normal level in 1938, with space correspondingly easy to secure. During 1937 rates to the United Kingdom, Japan, China, and
Australia increased more than 100 per cent. In December, 1937, they had dropped back
25 per cent, from their high level and by February, 1938, were close to the low of two years
previous.
A growing public interest in raw log export is being evidenced during the past few years.
In logging circles the situation in this regard is commonly well understood, but the case is
not so clear to those less intimately interested. Briefly stated, Crown grants prior to March
12th, 1906, did not restrict the export of logs. Export of logs from such lands cannot be controlled without modifying the terms of all Crown grants registered prior to that date, which
would involve land and stumpage values, and constitute a major issue of public policy. It is
from such lands that the major part of log export is made.
It is enacted that " all timber cut on Crown lands, or on lands granted after the twelfth
day of March, 1906" ("Forest Act," sec. 90), shall be manufactured within the Province,
except that the Lieutenant-Governor in Council may permit export " upon such terms and
conditions as he sees fit." The export of raw logs from these classes of lands has been confined to a legitimate relief avenue for disposal of logs cut for a local market which unforeseen events proved could not absorb them.
All applications in the Vancouver Forest District for the export of such logs are first
reviewed by an Export Advisory Committee, on whose advice the Government acts. This
Committee is composed of loggers and millmen, representative of the industry and familiar
with market conditions.    Their advice to the Government has been invaluable.
Breaking down the tables of log exports published annually in this report, it is found
that the following quantities have been exported from old Crown grants and under permit
from non-export areas:—
Raw Log Export.
(M. Feet B.M.)
Year.
Exportable.
Permit Export.
Total Export.
225,731
153,190
182,787
73,342
157,627
142,232
207,138
193,536
254,597
220,462
16,586
19,729
37,389
92,423
51,314
30,504
28,153
25,926
15,876
39,211
242,317
172,919
220,176
165,765
208 941
1934     -	
172,736
235,292
218,829
1937     ■     -	
270,472
259,673
1,810,642
357,111
2,167,120
Total log scale for same period, 25,374,142.
Total log export, 8.5 per cent, of total scale.
Permit export, 16.4 per cent, of total export.
Permit export, 1.4 per cent, of total scale.
Without venturing any comment on the merits of the case for or against control of log
export from old Crown grants, it is evident from the foregoing table that permit export must
have been reasonably well-confined to legitimate relief under unforeseen and uncontrollable
market conditions.
The shingle business and, to a lesser extent, cedar log-sales continue to be dominated by
the United States import quota. Export of shingles to the United States for each half year
in turn, since 1936, has been limited to 25 per cent, of the American market during the preceding six months.    Quotas have been:— Squares.
First Half-year. Second Half-year.
1936         1,419,747
1937  1,048,262       892,273
1938   916,246       864,881 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938.
N 9
Cedar shingles are gaining favour in overseas markets and we may anticipate an increased overseas trade in the course of time. In the meantime, and for years past, the United
States has been the principal outlet for the product of this not inconsiderable branch of the
industry.
The prevailing quotas have had a crippling effect in British Columbia, reducing the
shingle-mills to part time and, in many cases, unprofitable operation, with very doubtful long-
term value to our neighbours across the line. British Columbia edge-grain cedar shingles
found a place in that market on merit and it can only be retained on merit. It is at least an
even chance that the shingle market closed to British Columbia operators will in large
measure be lost to wood altogether in favour of competing roofing materials, a mutual loss to
the industry on both sides of the line.
Under the terms of the recent trade agreements the duty-free quota will be changed to
30 per cent, of the average annual United States consumption for the preceding three years.
Shipments beyond this quota may have a duty of 25 cents per square levied on them.
The pulp and paper industry, which seemed in early 1937 to have surmounted all its business difficulties and promised to lead the way to final unquestioned recovery, fell again on evil
days before the year was out. During 1938 local mills operated on part time or closed down
altogether.
These two years have achieved independence of the interlocking contract and a somewhat
better price, advantages more than offset for the immediate present by reduced demand.
Many explanations for sharply curtailed buying have been offered, one of which was that
surplus stocks of paper were acquired in 1937 in anticipation of the forewarned increase to
$50 per ton in 1938. This being the case, the exhaustion of these stocks and a return to
normal buying could be reasonably predicted for September or October. Unfortunately, the
normal buying failed to materialize and we must look further afield for our reasons.
Minor products, poles, cordwood, railway-ties, mine timbers, and miscellaneous production
of ranchers and small camps have, unfortunately, shared in the generally reduced output of
the year, and prospects for improvement are not particularly good. Current tie contracts
are being let on a reduced scale and the pole market is at. a virtual standstill.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
The permanent staff of the Branch has varied from a minimum of about 110 at the time
it was organized in 1912 to a maximum of 253 in 1926 and in 1931. It will be noted that with
a continuously employed " temporary " personnel of twenty the staff this year is back to the
previous high of 253, an increase from a depression low of 193 in 1935. The reduction in
staff subsequent to 1931 eliminated positions no longer necessary by reason of reduced business. The increase since 1935 is accounted for in appointments made essential by increasing
business, and are in no way directly related to prior eliminations.
An inevitable transition from a preponderance of large operations to a preponderance
of small operations is in progress in the logging field and will couple increased administrative
duties with decreased output and revenue. Two timber-sales, two inspections, two scales, and
two accounts will develop where one covered all requirements before; and with the cutting-
off of licences and Crown-granted lands which, whatever their attendant disadvantages,
produced maximum output with minimum supervision and book-keeping, operators may be
expected to turn more and more to Crown timber lands.
The effects of this transition are already felt and, coupled with increased responsibility
and many new lines of work, what was previously a reasonably adequate staff is no longer
able to cope satisfactorily with the load involved. More especially, ranger and technical
staffs will have to be increased in the future if the public interest in the forest resource is
to be safeguarded and its value enhanced.
No change of any importance was effected in the organization of the Branch during the
year, but it is proposed, before another year is past, to combine the existing Research and
Surveys Divisions of the Victoria office. These two Divisions, growing as circumstances and
necessity dictated—Forest Surveys from unrelated cruises following the war years and
Research from a technical forester assigned to growth-studies in 1921—have long since
assumed responsibility for various lines of highly essential forest-work, many of which can
no longer be clearly defined as belonging to one or the other. It is anticipated that an amalgamation will improve supervision and eliminate certain existing duplication of effort. N 10
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Distribution of Force, 1938.
Permanent.
Temporary.
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Personnel and Enrolment.
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FOREST DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, 1937-38.
In October, 1937, the Forest Development Projects were again undertaken on a scale
about twice the size of the 1936-37 programme. Provision was again made to employ during
the winter months the single homeless men registered on relief in Vancouver on projects
undertaken as a direct benefit to forest protection and development.
Again, enrolment of the men for the twenty-five camps was entirely in the hands of the
Provincial Relief Office in Vancouver, while the selection and supervision of the projects was
undertaken by Forest Service officers. The plan dovetailed nicely with the summer Forest
Protection activity, as many Assistant Rangers temporarily employed during the summer
assumed supervisory positions with the Forest Development' Projects immediately the protection-work terminated. Apart from certain administrative expenditures, the Dominion
Government again contributed 50 per cent, towards the cost of the programme.
The experience of the Assistant Rangers in the programme of 1936-37 proved invaluable
to them in meeting the increased enrolment in the 1937-38 plan. In a great many cases the
camps they had administered the first season were doubled in capacity, which created a corresponding increase in responsibility.
Rates of pay for the enrollees were the same as last year—namely, 30 cents an hour for
regular labourers and $30 a month and board for flunkies and bullcooks.    Straw-bosses were FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938. N 11
paid 35 cents an hour and all hourly men were deducted 75 cents a day for board and lodging.
Weekly hours of work were limited to forty-four. The system of deferred pay cheques was
abolished and $4 vouchers issued which were negotiable singly at interims of one week at
certain post-offices throughout Canada.
The maximum number of enrollees in camp at any one time was 1,906, but owing to the
rotation system, 4,005 regularly enrolled men passed through the camps and 205,006 man-days
of work were accomplished by these men. The work may be divided into four distinct
classes:—
(1.)   Park Development, 47.4 per cent, of total man-days.
(2.)   Watersheds, 6.4 per cent, of total man-days.
(3.)   Provincial Forest Reserves, 19.6 per cent, of total man-days.
(4.)   Forest-protection, 26.6 per cent, of total man-days.
Park acres developed included Dean Park, Thetis Lake, Mount Douglas, Englishman
River, Little Qualicum, Elk Falls, Capilano Canyon, Stamp Falls, Grouse Mountain, Medicine
Bowls, and Cultus Lake. Particular attention was given to the rendering of these areas
suitable for the recreationally-minded public.
Watershed development is limited in scope because of the rigid medical restrictions placed
on camps and workers in those areas; however, in both the Nanaimo and Seymour Creek
watersheds fire-guards were constructed and slash-disposal work carried out.
The Provincial Forest Reserves that could be conveniently improved through the use of
this labour received a favourable amount of attention. Green Timbers Forest Experiment
Station, Cowichan Lake Forest Experiment Station, Campbell River Ranger Station, and the
Sayward Forest provided the material for a variety of types of work; land-clearing, road-
building, snag-falling, erection and repair of permanent buildings, and fire-line construction.
The main item in connection with the forest-protection phase was the opening-up of old
railroad grades into particularly hazardous areas, making them accessible to truck traffic;
and, in conjunction with this, attention was given wherever possible to the elimination of
particularly bad snag-hazards.
Although the winter season cannot be recognized as the most suitable time of the year
to undertake work of this nature, yet the quality of the work done, particularly with reference to park development, shows that a substantial return is being received for the expenditure involved. Not only is the critical unemployed situation arising in Vancouver each winter
relieved, but areas are being improved which were heretofore inaccessible for recreational
purposes. With improvement these have become immediately popular. Three years ago half
a dozen visitors to the Elk Falls Park would have been a red-letter day; but last summer,
even in spite of the unfavourable fire season, no less than 2,000 cars visited the park. With
this increase in interest displayed so conspicuously, it is apparent that such an interest can
be maintained only through adequate provision to maintain the developments carried out
during the past two seasons under the Forest Development Projects.
Number of projects  .  25
Enrolled at one time (maximum)   1,906
Total men enrolled   4,005
Man-days worked  (supervisory included)   230,744
YOUTH FORESTRY TRAINING PLAN, 1938.
A training-ground for British Columbia's unemployed youth was provided for the fourth
successive season, but the summer of 1938 marked only the second consecutive summer that
this training was put into effect as an integral part of the Dominion-Provincial Youth Training Projects Agreement, financed jointly by the Dominion and Provincial Departments of
Labour and supervised by British Columbia Forest Service officers.
Since the inception of the plan in 1935, the applications have increased from 891 in that
year to 1,440 in 1938, showing a decided increasing interest in the programme as a training
field. Out of the 1,440 applicants, 689 were enrolled in the training course. The Department
of Labour was again instrumental in setting standards of enrolment and selecting eligible
trainees, who were required to be between the ages of 18 and 25, preferably with some high
school education, resident in British Columbia at least since the summer of 1933, and
physically fit. Preference was given to applicants whose families were in necessitous circumstances. N 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Among the 689 enrolled with the Youth Forestry Training Plan, 91 secured employment
during the training period; 55 left to return to school, and 40 quit for no specific reason;
9 left because of injury or sickness, and 24 were discharged. The rate of wages remained
unchanged from previous programmes and was set at $1.75 per work-day, with a deduction
of 75 cents a day being made for board, lodging, and transportation. Ranger Assistants
resident at home were paid $45 a month with expenses when away from Headquarters. In a
few cases, $55 a month was paid to Ranger Assistants who were forced to board away from
home because of a lack of suitable applicants in the vicinity of the Ranger stations. Total
expenditure under the plan was $169,762.13.
As the majority of applicants came from the Coast area of the Province, three clearing
centres were set up; one at the Green Timbers Forest Experiment Station, one at the University of British Columbia Demonstration Forest, and one at the Cowichan Lake Forest
Experiment Station. At these clearing stations successful applicants received their initial
training to determine their fitness before being allocated to the various crews throughout the
Province. The Aleza Lake Forest Experiment Station also served as a clearing centre for
the northern section of British Columbia. At Green Timbers an additional area was cleared
and improvements made to permanent buildings. The road into the Cowichan Lake Forest
Experiment Station was ditched and gravelled to allow it to hold up under year-round traffic;
the foreshore was also cleaned of accumulated debris, a new boat-house float constructed, and
clearing of snowbreak undertaken on the North Arm Reserve. Although the University
Demonstration Forest only served as a temporary clearing station, the trainees gained valuable experience in forest stand improvement on that area. At Aleza Lake new foundations
were built under several of the station buildings and the system of trail communications
improved throughout the reserve. All work at the Experiment Stations was supervised by
technical forest officers.
Aside from the Experiment Stations, thirty-two separate Forest Development and Protection Projects carrying from six to twenty men were undertaken throughout the whole of
British Columbia. By the end of the three and a half months training period these field
crews had constructed 105% miles of new protection-trail and had reconditioned 69% miles
of old trail, built 6% miles of new forest-protection road and reconditioned 28 miles of old
road, constructed 5 lookout towers, built 40 bridges, strung 14% miles of telephone-line, placed
150 lineal feet of cribbing, and constructed 21 permanent buildings, ranging from a wood-shed
to a 20- by 40-foot log boat-house.
These accomplishments for the most part were of a direct benefit to the Forest Protection
Service; but the Provincial Game Board, fish and game clubs, and Irrigation Boards were
also able to benefit directly by the work accomplished in connection with the Youth Forestry
Training Plan. A limited amount of attention was given to certain recreational projects at
King George VI. Park, south of Rossland, the Kokanee Glacier Park, and the Silver Tip
Falls Park.
Each of these crews received, in addition to their practical training, lectures on forest
topics given by a special instructor, supervisor, Ranger, foreman, or a member of the Headquarters staff. The training and work in the three larger forest districts was again aided
by special field supervisors who proved invaluable in correlating the efforts of the training
crews with those of the district offices.
The value of Ranger Assistant services to the Rangers was proven beyond a doubt this
season. Not only were more Ranger Assistants in demand, but their services during previous
summers had been so satisfactory that almost without exception the Rangers requested the
same trainees be appointed again this summer. The total number of 115 Ranger Assistants
were appointed and the Department of Labour tentatively waived the regulation that no
applicant was to be entitled to more than one season's training and allowed more than half
this number to take over their Ranger Assistant duties for a second summer.
THE MULTIPLE USE OF FOREST AREAS.
In the Government report to the Rowell Commission this year it was stated that the total
area of the Province was 234,403,000 acres and the tillable area was 4,240,000 acres. This
latter constitutes only 2 per cent, of the total area of the Province. It is, therefore, quite
obvious that the citizens of British Columbia must largely depend for their economic and
social welfare upon the uses to which we put the remaining 98 per cent, of our Province. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938. N 13
The resources of this area may be roughly divided into two classes—" non-renewable "
and " renewable." The mines constitute the " non-renewable," and little can be done about
them except to avoid waste—each ton of ore removed from the earth means one less ton as an
asset of the Province.
The " renewable resources " comprise not only the important timber crop, but the closely
associated wild-life crops of fish and game. Dependent upon these is the sport of hunting
and fishing and the development of the growing tourist trade is closely related. All forms
of recreation, such as camping and ski-ing, are further uses of our vast outdoors. Upon the
vision and imagination which we display in the perpetuation and development of these commercial and recreational assets will largely depend the prosperity and welfare of the next
generation.
FOREST SURVEYS.
In the first annual report of the Forest Branch, for the year 1912, the then Chief
Forester stated that investigations had " gone far enough to show that British Columbia
contains not less than one hundred million acres of forest land, and that the total stand of
commercial timber is certainly not less than three hundred billion feet, and probably much
more." The report continues to point out that use amounted to about one billion and a
quarter feet per year and that " at the present rate of cutting, making no allowance at all for
annual growth, it would take nearly 250 years to use up merely the mature timber now
standing."
In 1918 the Dominion Commission of Conservation published its comprehensive " Forests
of British Columbia " which embodied the best available information of the day and in which
timber stands of the Province were estimated, in round figures, to be 350 billion feet.   .
Forest management was based on these estimates, sufficient for their day, until a conviction gained strength that they left much to be desired and that more accurate data must
be secured if major blunders were to be avoided. Out of this conviction grew by gradual
development the Forest Surveys Division of the Branch, now charged with the vital responsibility of maintaining an accurate inventory of our resources, the first revised statement of
which was published in " The Forest Resources of British Columbia " in 1937.
The inventory constitutes the forester's stock-sheet and is even more essential in forest
management than is the stock record in other business endeavour.
Coupled with the inventory a second important function of the Division is the defining
of productive forest units as required by statute and the preparation of working plans
designed to meet the special features of each such unit. These are the Forest Reserves, or
Provincial Forests, which have been progressively reported on herein for some years past.
In developing field and office work incident to these duties, tried and proved methods have
been adapted to British Columbia conditions and some important innovations have been
originated. The most recent improvements in methods have been the adoption of aerial
photography and the Hollerith punch-card system of recording data, both of which are
further dealt with elsewhere in this report.
The records of the Division, other than those of a confidential nature, are freely available
to the public and increasing use is being made of them each year.
Four new Provincial Forests, the Kingcome, Seymour, Upper Arrow, and Lower Arrow
were created during the year. Three of these—the Kingcome, Seymour, and Upper Arrow—
have already been reported on. There are now forty-three Forest Reserves; seventeen on
the Coast and twenty-six in the Interior, totalling 8,910 and 19,257 square miles respectively,
and aggregating 28,167 square miles.
Lower Arrow Forest.—The estimates, forest and topographic maps, and preliminary
management recommendations were completed for the Lower Arrow Forest this year, following the survey in 1936. This Forest is located in the Nelson Forest District and comprises
approximately the drainage areas tributary to the northern half of Lower Arrow Lake. It
includes some of the best growing sites in the Southern Interior of British Columbia.
In its present condition the Forest could supply a sustained annual yield of 9,800,000
F.B.M. from accessible areas. The output could be increased to 10,800,000 F.B.M. by including the areas considered to be inaccessible at the present time. The annual cut averaged
3,300,000 F.B.M. over the past decade, but when fire losses of mature timber are taken into
consideration the average annual  depletion totals  5,200,000  F.B.M.    The  surplus capacity N 14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
should aid materially in balancing the overcutting and excessive fire depletion in certain
portions of the Southern Interior.
The Forest was found to contain the following:—
Productive Forest Land—
Mature timber— Acres. Acres.
Accessible      26,920
Inaccessible
Immature timber—
1-20 years old
21-40 years old
7,670
11,110
20,450
41-60 years old     31,750
61-80 years old        9,460
81-100 years old     11,710
101-120 years old 	
Not satisfactorily stocked—
Logged 	
Logged and burned 	
Burned 	
Deciduous forest 	
1,910
  80
  190
  19,800
  19,700
Non-commercial conifers   22,920
34,590
86,390
62,690
Total sites of productive quality.
183,670
Non-productive Areas—
Barren, alpine, and scrub	
Swamp and water	
Alpine grazing and wild hay .
Total non-productive sites
290,520
4,930
2,070
297,520
Total area of Forest     481,190
Timber values are estimated as follows  (over 11 inches, D.B.H.) :—
Species.
Accessible.
Total.
Engelmann spruce..
Western red cedar...
Western hemlock	
Silver fir (balsam)..
Douglas fir	
Western white pine-
Western larch	
Western yellow pine..
Lodgepole pine	
Cottonwood	
M.B.M.
50,910
46,340
42,710
29,830
23,630
14,260
7,250
1,670
300
90
Totals .
216,990
I
M.B.M.
85,780
50,220
48,280
41,260
24,010
14,930
8,490
1,670
870
275,600
In addition, there are 185,000 M.B.M. available as thinnings on 43,940 acres of immature
timber.
Crown ownership of timber values aggregates 91 and 93 per cent, of the accessible and
total volumes respectively.
E. & N. Railway Grant.—The forest and topographic maps, estimates, and report have
been completed for this area, culminating the survey which was commenced in 1936. The
primary objective of the survey was to determine the productive condition of the logged-over FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938.
N 15
areas, but it was later extended to obtain a detailed inventory of the forest resources on the
Grant. The work on this project was greatly facilitated over portions of the area by the
use of vertical air photographs supplied by the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Air Survey
Section of this Division.
At the time of examination 25.5 per cent, of the areas logged or logged and burned had
restocked satisfactorily. Allowing a reasonable period of ten years for natural regeneration
to become established, and deducting the areas logged or logged and burned during regeneration period, it was found that 44.4 per cent, of the remainder was satisfactorily stocked.
The following table provides a more complete analysis of the conditions of logged-over
lands, E. & N. Land Grant:—
Period.
Condition of Areas, in per Cent.
Classification.
Satisfactorily
stocked.
Unsatisfactorily stocked.
Total
Area
Fair.
Poor.
Nil.
Total.
Logged and logged-and-burned |
areas                                            j
Up to December
31st, 1936	
Up to December
31st1926
25.5
44.4
7.7
8.1
52.5
43.3
14.3
4.2
74.5
55.6
391.105
208,095
The forest area of the Grant is summarized briefly as follows:—
Productive Forest Land—
Mature timber— Acres.
Accessible     665,440
Inaccessible         5,140
Acres.
670,580
227,800
Immature timber 	
Unsatisfactorily stocked       414,910
Total sites of productive quality   1,313,290
Non-productive and Non-forest Land—
Scrub, alpine, and rock  :  622,270
Swamp and water   61,880
Clearings, cultivated, villages, etc.  :  70,060
Total non-forest sites
754,210
Total area
2,067,500
Land ownership is divided as follows: 2 per cent, vacant Crown land, 48 per cent. E. & N.
Railway Company holdings, and 50 per cent, other Crown-grant holdings. Productive forest
sites on vacant Crown land involve 4,860 acres of mature timber, 16,460 acres of immature
timber, and 16,760 acres of unsatisfactorily stocked areas.
The timber values are estimated as follows  (over 11 inches D.B.H.) :—
Species.
Accessible.
Douglas fir.	
Western hemlock	
Western red cedar	
Silver fir (balsam) —
Western white pine..
Sitka spruce.	
Yellow cedar (cypress).
Totals	
M.B.M.
12,340,720
3,123,970
1,716,910
550,800
156,940
8,520
2,780
17,900,640
M.B.M.
12,387,150
3,135,360
1,723,920
557,530
158,150
8,520
2,780
17,973,410
Of the total volume 73,860 M.B.M., 8,555,660 M.B.M., and 9,343,890 M.B.M., are owned
respectively by the Crown, the E. & N. Railway Company, and other Crown-grant holders. N 16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Moresby Forest.—This Forest is located in the Prince Rupert Forest District and comprises Moresby Island and adjacent small islands in the Queen Charlotte Islands group.
The preliminary management recommendations and estimates for the proposed Moresby
Forest have been completed. Forest and topographic maps will be available for distribution
in the near future.
Vertical air photographs, supplied by the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Air Survey
Section of this Division were plotted in detail, thus providing an accurate basis for all
mapping.
This area is recommended as a Provincial Forest to be managed in conjunction with
Graham Island, or the southern portion of Graham Island, as a working circle. Under
present conditions the Forest is capable of supplying a sustained annual yield of 100,500
M.B.M. from accessible areas and of a quality acceptable to existing markets. When the
inaccessible areas are taken into consideration the output could be increased to 107,000
M.B.M. for continuous production. The Forest is essentially a pulp unit, though high-grade
lumber and special products, such as aeroplane stock, are also available. Utilization during
the five years prior to the survey averaged 80,000 M.B.M. annually. There.are now three
logging operations in the Forest, cutting being chiefly in privately owned timber. Their
output for 1937 totalled 105,000 M.B.M.    Fire losses are negligible.
For the time being improved management practice should be concerned with obtaining
natural regeneration on the cut-over areas. The necessity for research-work in this respect,
and in other management problems, has been emphasized in the detailed report on this Forest.
The Forest was found to contain the following:—
Productive Forest Land—
Mature timber— Acres. Acres.
Accessible     218,060
Inaccessible        20,100
     238,160
Immature timber—
1-10 years old   1,430
11-20 years old   3,330
21-40 years old   1,260
41-60 years old   1,310
61-80 years old   870
81 years and over   680
Not satisfactorily stocked—
Logged     14,000
Deciduous forest   390
Non-commercial conifers   1,210
8,880
15,600
Total sites of productive quality      262,640
Non-productive Areas—
Barren, scrub, and alpine      575,980
Swamp and water        13,270
Total non-productive sites      589,250
Total area of Forest       851,890 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938.
N 17
INDEX MAP
- Scale-15.78miles = 1 inch. N 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Timber values are estimated as follows (over 11 inches D.B.H.)
Species.
Accessible.
Total.
M.B.M.
984,290
2,707,900
2,079,880
71,660
M.B.M.
1,085,370
2,852,780
2,219,150
78,080
Totals     	
5,843,730
6,235,380
Out of a total of 3,110,920 M.B.M. of Crown timber, 2,795,300 M.B.M. are accessible. The
alienated timber is chiefly held in timber licences and pulp leases.
Skeena River Cruise.—The detailed report and forest-type maps were completed for the
cottonwood resources of the lower Skeena River. The area involved lies between Kwinitsa
and Terrace. Prior to the field-work vertical air photographs were taken over the area and
from these accurate maps were plotted.
The volume of cottonwood resources totals 197,400 M.B.M., 75 per cent, of which is held
privately, chiefly on timber licences. In the event that a local industry utilizing cottonwood
could be developed an annual production of 4,700 M.B.M. could be maintained under a
sustained yield management plan. The average annual cut during the past decade has been
negligible. Spasmodic attempts have been made, without success, to introduce a cottonwood
industry in this area.
The cottonwood areas are summarized as follows:— Acres.    Acres.
Merchantable timber      7,930
Immature timber—
1-20 years old .      350
21-40 years old   1,550
41-60 years old   1,370
Not satisfactorily stocked-
Logged   	
Brush   	
210
1,730
3,270
1,940
Total
13,140
Lower Arrow Lake South and Rossland.—The detailed report and maps of the Lower
Arrow Lake South and Rossland Regions were completed. The productive forest capacities
of these areas have been greatly reduced following forest fires. Smelter fumes have intensified the problem in the Rossland Region. These factors, combined with the difficulty of
providing adequate fire-protection at reasonable cost in a region having an excessive fire-
hazard, render the areas of doubtful value for forest reserves. There are, however, certain
valuable productive blocks which could be considered in future administrative policies as
community Forests. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938.
N 19
The detailed summary of the Lower Arrow South Region- is as follows:—
Productive Forest Land—
Mature timber— Acres.
Accessible       9,810
Inaccessible       7,710
Acres.
Immature timber—
1-20 years old  13,440
21-40 years old     1,840
17,520
41-60 years old...
61-80 years old...
81-100 years old.
101-120 years old..
Logged selection ...
Unsatisfactorily stocked—
Logged   	
Logged and burned 	
Burned  	
Deciduous   	
Non-commercial conifers
15,830
4,700
8,030
1,790
3,490
2,280
1,590
56,090
5,130
12,230
49,120
77,320
Total sites of productive quality 1  143,960
Non-productive and Non-forest Land—
Scrub, alpine, and barren   192,740
Swamp and water   300
Alpine pastures, cultivated, etc.   2,370
Total non-forest sites   195,410
Total area   339,370
The timber, practically all of which is of Crown ownership, is estimated as follows (over
11 inches D.B.H.) :—
Species.
Accessible.
Total.
M.B.M.
M.B.M.
17,330
19,130
8,520
10,800
12,540
12,540
3,050
9,070
850
2,200
7,350
11,630
2,860
8,990
13,720
43,490
1,610
7,090
Douglas fir 	
Western larch—	
Western yellow pine..
Western white pine—
Lodgepole pine	
Western red cedar	
Western hemlock	
Engelmann spruce	
Silver fir (balsam) —
Total	
67,830
124,940 N 20
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The detailed summary of the Rossland Region is as follows:-
Productive Forest Land—
Mature timber—
Accessible   	
Inaccessible   	
Immature timber—
1-20 years old—.
21-40 years old—.
41-60 years old—.
61-80 years old—
81-100 years old..
101-120 years old..
Unsatisfactorily stocked—
Logged  	
Acres.
9,600
1,850
19,590
6,320
21,470
1,100
7,990
2,040
3,190
Logged and burned      7,500
Burned    52,130
Deciduous growth      5,770
Non-commercial conifers       2,990
Acres.
11,450
58,510
71,580
Total sites of productive quality
Non-productive and Non-forest Land—
Scrub, alpine, and barren 	
Cultivated, cleared, etc. 	
Swamp and water 	
Alpine pastures 	
Total non-forest sites
141,540
89,420
2,660
530
110
92,720
Total  area    234,260
The timber values are estimated as follows (over 11 inches D.B.H.) :—
Species.
Accessible.
Total.
M.B.M.
M.B.M.
13,140
19,330
11,500
12,330
9,760
11,630
10,260
10,990
8,550
8,810
3,490
4,610
2,750
2,840
530
610
Engelmann spruce.—
Western red cedar.....
Western larch _
Western hemlock	
Western white pine..
Silver fir (balsam)...
Douglas fir 	
Lodgepole pine	
Totals	
59,980
71,150
The accessible Crown timber aggregates 45,230 M.B.M. out of a total of 56,400 M.B.M.
Alienated timber, all of which is accessible, totals 14,750 M.B.M., 78 per cent, being held
under timber licences.
Current Projects.—The field survey of the proposed Graham Forest, Queen Charlotte
Islands, was completed, and maps, estimates, and preliminary management plans are now
being prepared. Resurveys of the Okanagan Forests, Hardwicke, Sonora, and East and
West Thurlow Islands were undertaken. Maps, estimates, and detailed management recommendations, involving in particular sustained yield production, are now in the course of
preparation.    It is anticipated that field-work in  the  Okanagan  Valley will be  completed FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938.
N 21
during the 1939 season. It is significant to note that each field project was conducted on areas
over which vertical air photographs were made available either through the Royal Canadian
Air Force or through the operations of the Air Survey Section of this Division.
Air Survey Operations.—The year marked a successful continuation of air survey photographic operations inaugurated by the Forest Branch two years ago. Rounding out the
skeleton air survey camera equipment acquired last year, chartering of a faster, more
powerful aircraft, more experienced and specialized personnel, and a season characterized by
an unusual proportion of bright clear weather, all contributed to a record year for area
covered. The quality of photographs and the low cost per square mile of this modern method
of obtaining complete, accurate, and detailed information of British Columbia's forest lands
were notable.    A summary of the season's field activities is as follows:—
Projects.
Area
photographed.
Number of
Photographs.
Island Forests, Johnstone Straits..
Prince Rupert pulp-wood areas	
Kemano, Kitlope, Gamsby, and Kimsquit Rivers 	
Timber Sale, X5201, Hardwicke Island (special low altitude).
" Bloedel " fire, Vancouver Island	
Okanagan Watershed 	
Douglas Forest (control strip)    	
Sq. Miles.
310
2,600
175
15
225
3,700
60
220
3,300
245
100
310
5,105
45
Total, vertical photography..
7,085
9,325
Grazing reconnaissance, Kamloops District (oblique photography).
Total photographs    	
120
9,445
This work aggregated 119 hours and 39 minutes flying-time with a chartered aircraft
especially fitted to accommodate the Forest Branch camera and accessories. An additional
3% hours were used up on non-photographic reconnaissance flights for party chiefs and
Rangers working in the districts flown.
In addition to these field operations, the Air Survey Section completed the plotting of
air photographs over Moresby Island, Graham Island, the E. & N. Land Grant, the Bloedel
fire, and the Island Forests. Compilation of the current photographic projects are in process.
Improvements and additions to office equipment for plotting air photos have been made.
After four years of development, a Forest Service stereoscope has been perfected and produced at low cost. These instruments have been supplied, upon special request, to several
private and public agencies in the Province and one to the Surveyor-General of British
Honduras. An efficient and highly specialized personnel, whose value to the service increases
steadily, is gradually being developed.
A growing demand for air photographs from the Forest Branch negatives has been
experienced.    These have been supplied at cost, as follows:—
Source of Demand.
Number op Photographs supplied.
Verticals.      Scenic Obliques. Total.
Other Forest Branch Departments  (seven items)
Other Government Departments  (five items)	
The Logging Industry  (four items)	
Others  (twelve items)	
Totals (twenty-eight items) -
307
311
552
422
464
319
552
501
1,592
244
Requests for advice and information on the application of air photos to various activities
continue to be dealt with by correspondence and consultation.
Lookout Photography.—A technique has been developed for taking panoramic photographs and for organizing these photographs for effective use on lookout stations as a medium
for locating and reporting forest fires.    Work in this connection has so far been confined to N 22 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
the Vancouver, Kamloops, and Nelson Forest Districts. A more complete report on this
project is provided under Forest Protection.
Forest Resources Inventory.—The Hollerith punch-card system for recording and sorting
details of forest estimates was introduced into the forest resources inventory this year. A
detailed code permits the recording of miscellaneous data, provided by the forest atlas, which
can be readily summarized mechanically. The new system of keeping forest resources records
is proving to be efficient and will provide the means for obtaining greater detail in analyzing
forest statistics than has heretofore been practical. The electrical equipment necessary to
carry out this work has been made available through the co-operation of the Bureau of
Economics and Statistics, Department of Trade and Industries.
The Vancouver Forest District atlas and inventory is being revised and the statistical
data summarized on punch-cards, 125 watersheds having been completed out of a total of 183.
Upon completing the Vancouver District it is proposed to continue this system of tabulation
for the Prince Rupert Forest District.
Reconnaissance-work and assistance to Forest Rangers in forest-cover mapping were
confined to nine ranger districts, three in the Vancouver and six in the Nelson Forest Districts. This work involved, primarily, a general revision of major forest-type boundaries,
classifying immature timber by age-classes, and defining commercial deciduous stands from
non-commercial forests.
Field reconnaissance was hampered to a certain extent by smoke from forest fires. An
examination and brief report of the White and Lussier River watersheds, covering 400 square
miles, was completed. The forest-growth on this area is principally immature timber of older
age-classes approaching commercial sizes suitable for minor products. The mature timber
present is not considered accessible at the present time. The recreational value of these
watersheds is emphasized in the report, exceptional scenic attractions being available.
RESEARCH.
For some years it has been necessary to restrict activities in the Research Division to the
maintenance of the more important studies already in progress. Somewhat more generous
provision for this work this year, however, permitted a start on the study of outstanding
problems which have been demanding attention for some time. This applies particularly to
soil classification in connection with silvicultural investigations which have been long in hand.
Growth and Yield.
A two-man field crew carried out the periodic remeasurement of thirty-one permanent
plots, established to study the growth and mortality of both uncut and cut-over spruce-balsam
stands in the Northern Interior. An additional party of three men spent two months gathering information on the growth of red alder.
During the course of the alder study, data were collected on fifty-five temporary yield
plots, and stem analyses were made on 115 felled trees. These measurements, together with
the information previously gathered from a series of permanent plots, form the basis for
volume and yield tables for the species.    The volume tables are presented herewith:— FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938.
N 23
Volume Table for Red Alder (Alnus rubra).
Volume in Board-feet based on 8-foot Logs to a Top Diameter of 8 Inches.
Stump-height, 1 Foot.
Data collected Fraser Valley and Squamish, 1938.
Basis:   110 trees.
Aggregate deviation =0.09 per cent. low.
Average deviations +9.0 per cent.
Frustum form factor method used.
D.B.H.
Total Height in Feet.
(Inches.)
60,
66.
70.
75.
80.    85.
j
90.
95.
IM.
105.
110.
8	
12
36
59
83
15
17
20
45
75
107
136
168
200
241
280
23
48
81
115
146
183
216
259
300
336
385
430
25
51
86
124
157
198
232
276
319
359
410
460
28
54
91
132
167
212
248
292
338
382
435
490
550
31
57
97
34
60
102
148
157
199
257
296
348
9	
39
65
91
117
42
70
99
126
10	
11  	
140
178
227
264
312
358
406
460
518
12	
105
188
210
13	
139
168
153
184
223
261
290
335
242
280
272
14 	
312
15
330
377
429
485
548
367
16	
397
453
510
576
416
17          . ...
313
360
477
18 ...
535
19	
372
402
606
20	
Volume Table for Red Alder (Alnus rubra).
Volume in Cubic Feet based on 8-foot Logs to a Top Diameter of U Inches.
Contents inside Bark, excluding 1-foot Stump.
D.B.H.
(Inches.)
Total Height in Feet.
60.
65.
70.
75.
80.
85.
90.
95.
100.
106.
110.
8	
8.5
10.7
13.2
16.0
9.6
10.2
11.0
13.9
17.4
20.2
24.6
29.0
33.0
38.2
44.1
50.0
55.5
61.2
11.8
14.7
18.6
22.0
26.1
31.5
35.2
41.0
47.5
53.6
59.5
66.0
12.5
16.0
19.5
23.3
28.0
32.6
37.8
43.8
50.0
56.4
63.2
69.7
13.1
16.9
20.2
24.8
29.2
34.0
40.0
45.3
52.2
59.0
66.0
72.8
79.0
14.0
17.8
21.5
18.5
23.0
27.1
33.1
39.5
46.0
52.8
9	
12.0
14.6
17.8
20.9
13.1
16.0
19.2
23.0
27.0
31.0
35.3
42.0
46.5
10	
11	
26.0
30.8
36.0
42.2
47.5
55.5
62.7
70.0
76.5
12	
19.0
32.2
38.0
44.0
50.2
58.4
66.0
73.6
80.0
13	
22.5
25.8
30.0
25.0
28.8
14  	
15	
32.7
16	
38.0
43.0
60.5
68.3
76.0
82.8
63.2
17	
70.5
18  .
19  	
52.4
57.0
63.5
68.6
76.0
77.5
86.0
20	
67.8
74.2
79.0
72.2
77.5
84.0
76.0
82.1
88.0
84.0
91.0
98.0
88.2
96.0
104.0
92.0
99.0
108.0
95.0
21	
86.0
92.0
103.0
22 	
112.0
Data collected Fraser Valley and Squamish, 1938.
Basis:   117 trees.
Aggregate deviations+0.8 per cent.
Average deviation = ±4.4 per cent.
Alinement chart method used (2). N 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Reforestation.
(a.) Nursery Technique.—The first Forest Branch nursery was located on Shelbourne
Street, Victoria, and it was there in 1928 that the initial seed-beds were sown. Ten years
have now passed, and with their passing it is interesting to note some of the changes in
nursery technique which have been inaugurated with a view to producing sturdy planting
stock at a low cost. Where the first seed-beds were 4 by 12 feet and shaded by rigid shade
frames in 6-foot sections, the beds are now 4 by 50 feet and shaded by snow-fencing which
can be rolled up in one bundle, thus greatly facilitating the operation of covering and
uncovering the beds during the early life of the seedlings. The cost of weeding young
seedlings, a tedious and expensive task, has been substantially reduced by the use of a high-
pressure torch whose extremely hot flame on being quickly passed over the surface of the soil
kills the first crop of annual weeds without injuring the young shoots which are almost ready
to push through the ground. Another costly operation is that of lifting, root-pruning, and
transplanting one-year seedlings and, to avoid this expense, many North America forest
nurseries root-prune the stock as it stands in the bed by means of a stationary blade drawn
through the soil about 4 inches below the surface. At Green Timbers there has been
developed a root-pruner which is unique in that it features an oscillating blade. Pruning
with this machine results in the trees having essentially the same root system as is obtained
by transplanting, and at the same time effects quite a reduction in the cost of production.
By substituting for the oscillating blade a stationary one set at a slight angle to the horizontal, the pruner is used for lifting, thereby obviating the laborious task of using a spade
for getting the trees out of the ground preparatory to shipment to a planting-site.
(6.) Planting and Nursery Development.—Planting operations were conducted at Great
Central Lake, Sayward Forest, Elk Falls Park, and Green Timbers, with an aggregate of
150,325 trees being planted on 161.4 acres. This brings the total to date for number of trees
and acres planted to 1,003,400 and 1,322 respectively.
On August 9th the Hon. the Minister announced that as soon as the necessary facilities
could be established it would be the policy of the Department to plant up to 10,000 acres of
cut-over land per year on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland. Our experience has
been that a spacing of 6 by 6 feet will produce satisfactorily stocked plantations, and that it
requires about 1,000 trees per acre when this interval is used. Therefore the programme will
necessitate an annual production of about 10,000,000 trees. With this in view it is planned
to increase the capacity of the Green Timbers nursery to 6,000,000 per year and to establish
immediately a nursery on the Quinsam River, about 1 mile east of the village of Campbell-
ton, Vancouver Island, to produce the remaining 4,000,000. Forest Development crews are
now clearing an additional 4 acres of land at Green Timbers, and are preparing the Quinsam
Nursery for sowing to cover-crop next spring. Should no unforeseen delays occur, it is
anticipated that the goal of an annual production of 10,000,000 trees will be reached in 1942.
(c.) Seed Collections.—The current crop of cones on Douglas fir, western hemlock, and
western red cedar was better than average over the south-eastern portion of Vancouver Island
and in the Lower Fraser Valley. In the Interior portions of the Province the crop of Douglas
fir and white spruce cones was poor, while on the Queen Charlotte Islands the Sitka spruce
crop was very poor to nil.
In planning a large sustained programme of planting, one point to be kept in mind is the
periodicity of seed-crops and the necessity of always keeping in reserve at least one year's
seed requirements. Our cone collections this year were the largest we have ever made, and
will yield sufficient seed to maintain the increased nursery production programme for two
years.    The details of the collections are as follows:—
Species.
No. of Bushels
of Cones
collected.
No. of Cones
per Bushel.
Yield of Seed
per Bushel
of Cones.
Quantity of
Clean Seed.
4,207
10
900 to 1,600
Lb.
0.45
1.00
1.00
Lb.
1,893
10
61,800
48
Total                          	
4,265
1,966 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938. N 25
(d.) Pathology.—The tree diseases which occur in areas of abundant natural regeneration and kill a large number of young plants may have little or no effect on the final stand,
since a high proportion of the trees must necessarily die as the age of the stand increases.
On the other hand, these same diseases may have a much more serious effect on the final stand
in plantations and, in addition, the damage to seedlings in a nursery may be extensive.
During the past summer, Dr. M. L. Wilson, of Edinburgh University, an expert on
Douglas-fir diseases, spent several weeks inspecting the Green Timbers Nursery and the
plantations at that point and at Campbell River. In his report Dr. Wilson states that " no
serious and widespread fungal diseases were found," although evidence was found of die-back
and canker on Douglas fir, honey fungus attacking small groups of Douglas fir, and black
leaf-spot on western red cedar. Only a very few trees have been killed in any case. No
fungal disease was found among the seedlings in the nursery, nor was any found on Sitka
spruce, yellow pine, Scot's pine, and hemlock, in the plantations.
Silvicultural Studies.—Current re-examinations were carried out on ten plots already
established to study the rate of natural regeneration on cut-over land, seed-tree survival,
seedling survival, seasonal height-growth in young stands, root-rot disease in young Douglas-
fir stands, and the practicality of artificial regeneration by means of seed-spotting.
The factors upon which forest-management practice is based includes an intimate knowledge of the phenomena of seed-production, seed-dissemination, the survival of disseminated
seed, germination, and, finally, seedling survival. As regards Douglas fir, our own work,
together with that of the Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station, at Portland, has done
much to point the way toward perfecting a management technique; however, many phases
need elucidating. With this in mind, two new studies were undertaken to further investigate
the fruiting habits of Douglas fir and the effect on reproduction of broadcast burning clear-cut
areas in the Douglas-fir region.
The fruiting habits of forest trees are, on the whole, very imperfectly known, mainly due
to the technical difficulties involved in making such studies. For some years there has been
under way at Cowichan Lake a study whose objective is to develop a method of estimating
the size, quality, and periodicity of cone-crops for our principal commercial species in stands
or on scattered trees left after logging. Supplementing and expanding this study is the one
undertaken this year, whereby groups of trees have been placed under observation in nine
fully-stocked stands of varying ages and on three cut-over areas where seed-trees have been
left. It is anticipated that the results will relate size of cone-crops to the age-class of stands
or scattered seed-trees, to the crown class of trees, to the quantity of seed released per unit
area, and, possibly, to factors of site and climate. The quality of the seed produced will be
determined on the basis of germination tests of samples caught in seed-traps. As the data
from these studies are compiled, the results will be of value in estimating the collection of
seed for artificial reforestation, in quantities for one or more year's requirements, and also as
a basis for the development of silvicultural systems of natural regeneration.
The problem of securing natural regeneration on cut-over land has been attacked from
many angles, and numerous theories have been brought forward in explanation. Some of the
theories appear to be contrary to casual observation, but one must always bear in mind that
there is no universal rule applicable to every set of conditions, and due consideration must be
given to the changing combinations of factors which occur between one locality and another.
The problem of the effect of slash-burning on natural reproduction is an example of this conflict of opinion, and we find that one school of thought favours burning as a means of promoting regeneration while a second group is equally convinced that burning is a detriment.
In both cases factual proof is brought forward, but in nearly every instance an analysis
reveals that the areas under comparison are not homogenous with respect to either slope,
aspect, soil conditions, vegetative cover, or seed-supply, and areal differences between any one
of these factors tend to invalidate conclusions one might draw. Thus, during the past
summer, with a view to furthering the knowledge on the comparative effects of logging with
burning, and clear-cutting without slash-burning, careful selection was made of a homogenous
site in the Alberni District. Following logging, half the area was slash-burned and the
remainder left unburned. Study of this area will yield valuable information concerning the
effect which broadcast burning of slash has on natural regeneration;   soil-texture, structure, and composition;  and the character of the vegetation.    However, most of our broadcast burning is done because of the necessity of reducing the fire-hazard.
Soils.—The nature of the soil and parent material determines not only the kind but, to a
great extent, the distribution of vegetation. Water and nutrients for the tree are provided
by the soil, so that there is scarcely a physiological process which is not controlled by it nor a
silvical characteristic not dependent upon it. Rate of growth, yield, longevity, form, quality
of wood, tolerance, and rate of reproduction are all influenced and may be modified in one way
or another by the soil.
Soil-studies are therefore an integral part of a programme of silvicultural research, and
a soil survey is basic to the initiation of such work. During the past summer Dr. D. G. Laird,
of the University of British Columbia, conducted an intensive survey of the Cowichan Lake
Experimental Forest. Analyses were made of the principal soil-types and a map was drawn
to show the boundaries of the types as determined by texture.
It was found that, in general, the most favourable soil for forest-growth in the area
under examination was a deep one of more than 40 inches to the " C " horizon, having a humic
layer, at least reasonably thick, underlaid by a red gravelly sandy loam to a depth of 18
inches or thereabouts and lying upon a brown horizon to " C." Such soils, including a brown
type, appear to be more adequately provided with moisture than the fawns.
Co-operation.—An amendment to the United States Revenue Act, effective July 1st, 1938,
gave white spruce (Picea canadensis) lumber a substantial tariff preference over the same
product cut from Engelmann spruce (Picea Engelmanni). Naturally this differential was of
vital concern to the operators along the Canadian National Railway between Prince George
and McBride, and it was essential that they have accurate information regarding the proportion of the stands occupied by white spruce. The Northern Interior Lumbermen's Association therefore requested the Forest Branch to co-operate with them in conducting an intensive
dendrological study to secure this data.
Six areas were examined between Giscome and Urling. A total of 975.5 chains of strip
were run in five areas and 295 acres were sampled at random. In all, 2,189 trees were
examined, of which 2,167 were identified as Picea canadenis and 22 as Picea Engelmanni.
The conclusions arrived at were as follows: —
(a.)  Both white and Engelmann spruce occur in the forests of the Upper Fraser
River Valley.
(b.)  Of these two species, the white spruce vastly preponderates,
(c.)  Because of the strong numerical preponderance of white spruce in the forests
of the Upper Fraser Valley, the stands may be considered as a pure white
spruce-balsam   forest-type,   and   the   designation   of   locally-produced   spruce
lumber as " white spruce " is justified and well within the limits of reason.
Improvements.—The location of forest-development crews at the experiment stations has
further enhanced their value through the maintenance of existing roads and trails, the construction of new trails, replacement of a boat-house float, cleaning up of foreshore, and stand-
improvement work. In addition, these crews constructed 275 seed-traps for use in research
studies, collected 80 bushels of cones, repainted two buildings, and completed numerous small
jobs of miscellaneous improvements.
FOREST BRANCH LIBRARY.
1936.
1937.
1938.
Totals.
149
1,703
426
19
301
75
118
406
87
286
2,409
688
Total                             -                — - 	
3,283
54
54
12,000
54
3,277
64
16,227 FOREST
BRANCH REPORT
j
1938
N 27
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
THE FOREST INDUSTRIES.
Estimated Value of Production, including Loading and Freight within the Province.
Product.
1932.
1934.
1935.
1937.
1938.
Ten-year
Average,
1929-38.
Lumber  	
Pulp and paper.—	
Shingles 	
Boxes  	
Doors 	
Piles,  poles, and mine-
props—	
Cordwood,   fence-posts,
and lagging  —
Ties, railway  	
$13,349,000
11,156,000
2,805,000
1,100,000
$15,457,000
10,852,000
4,500,000
1,313,000
Additional value contributed by the wood-using
industry	
Laths and other miscellaneous products 	
Logs exported 	
Pulp-wood exported	
772,000
1,576,000
502,000
1,014,000
1,125,000
1,730,000
28,000
450,000
1,850,000
250,000
1,200,000
1,000,000
2,228,000
55,000
$20,377,000
12,373,000
4,375,000
1,632,000
487,000
1,335,000
485,000
1,320,000
1,100,000
1,931,000
46,000
$24,094,000
12,414,000
8,750,000
1,720,000
1,693,000
810,000
1,453,000
764,000
1,300,000
1,100,000
2,820',000
23,000
$36,160,000
14,950,000
7,800,000
1,629,000
2,718,000
1,434,000
1,489,000
623,000
1,350,000
1,200,000
2,646,000
11,000
$40,638,000
17,214,000
6,875,000
2,122,000
2,971,000
2,346,000
1,459,000
560,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
3,782,000
5,000
$36,296,000
11,066,000
6,875,000
1,964,000
1,353,000
1,615,000
1,455,000
560,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
3,238,000
$28,602,200
13,445,300
5,716,200
1,751,900
873,500
2,059,300
1,535,200
815,700
1,492,100
1,362,500
2,736,100
30,300
Totals-
5,157,000
$39,155,000
$45,461,000
$56,941,000
$72,010,000
$80,872,000
$67,122,000
$60,420,300
Paper (in Tons).
Product.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
1936.
1937.
1938.
Ten-year
Average,
1929-38.
Newsprint... _	
Other papers  .	
205,050
24,051
237,107
23,492
267,406
26,777
262,123
33,287
276,710
41,443
264.136
53,026
179,639
39,348
233,567
29,907
In addition to 203,610 tons of pulp manufactured into paper in the Province, 45,000 tons
were shipped out of the Province during the year.
Total Amount of Timber scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1937-38
(in F.B.M.).
Forest District.
1937.
1938.
Loss.
2,693,167,199
157,637,888
2,304,440,326
112,341,760
388,726,873
45,296,128
Prince Rupert   ,	
Totals, Coast 	
2,850,805,087
2,416,782,086
434,023,001
21,391,790
66,058,332
147,820,267
155,840,164
18,603,310
64,608,831
137,319,569
141,720,202
2,788,480
1,449,501
10,500,698
14,119,962
391,110,553
362,251,912
28,858,641
3,241,915,640
2,779,033,998
462,881,642 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938.
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£ S^fesa StCPhs S*fea safes Safes safe: N 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Logging Inspection.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-
sales.
Hand-
loggers'
Licences.
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
664
391
463
760
396
1
22
752
105
193
432
322
1,417
518
656
1,192
718
3,569
1,825
1,180
Kamloops  	
Nelson    	
2,396
1,858   ,
Totals,  1938 	
2,674
23
1,804
4,501
10,828
Totals, 1937 -     ~ -	
2,404
46
1,932
4,382
11,507
Totals, 1936	
2,354
35
1,883
4,272
11,138
Totals, 1935.„	
2,074
59
1,660
3,793
10,081
Totals, 1934	
1,603
87
1,546
3,236
9,486
Totals, 1933	
1,237
67
1,425
2,729
8,121
Totals, 1932                 	
1,124
37
1,316
2,477
7,273
Totals, 1931                     .   _      :...
1,562
92
1,675
3,329
8,969
Totals, 1930
1,932
100
1,862
3,894
8,859
Ten-year average, 1929-38	
1,887
65
1,710
3,662
9,577
Trespasses.
to
OJ
rt
O
■n
O
6
u
OJ
>
o
Ori.
in y
CJJ   g
£<
Quantity cut.
bo
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m a
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.   N
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a
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QJ
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CO
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a
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S
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58
15
26
29
21
383
70
103
206
54
3,416,890
444,890
189,520
172,000
85,730
7,000
142,875
4,890
34,360
14,050
975
1,279
390
230
140
115
800
270
4
0
1
3
2
$5,825.48
1,512.38
4,040
3,490
1,225.40
585.40
Nelson	
Totals, 1938	
149
816
4,309,030
203,195
3,014
1,185
7,530
10
$9,653.86
Totals, 1937             	
156
1,147
8,239,813
143,860
1,607
2,132
35,017
7
$17,439.52
Totals, 1936 	
153
501
2,067,130
75,272
1,632
2,452
13
$5,243.00
Totals, 1935... 	
121
555
3,043,486
50,965
1,283
14,078
3
$6,077.58
Totals, 1934  	
101
720
3,270,608
30,555
1,385
4,825
6
$5,401.05
Totals, 1933   	
70
155
1,578,108
41,689
1,413
3,807
2
$2,727.81
Totals, 1932..... 	
95
368
767,896
35,484
2,140
9,265
14
$3,490.84
Totals, 1931. -	
84
397
1,579,465
118,704
1,048
12,425
2
$5,633.68
Totals, 1930 	
96
1,000
969,351
165,729
1,457
9,612
4
$7,534.01
Ten-year average, 1929-38	
112
602
2,680,919
95,445
1,555
6,569
7
$6,863.24 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938.
N 33
PRE-EMPTION INSPECTION.
Pre-emption records examined by districts are:—
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert      180
Fort George 	
Kamloops 	
Nelson 	
Total
Average, Ten Yrs.
1938.
1929-38.
264
325
180
227
495
639
712
712
165
184
1,816
2,087
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land Act," 1938.
Forest District.
Applications for
Hay and Grazing
Leases.
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
Application to
Purchase.
Miscellaneous.
Vancouver  	
No.
1
11
50
1
Acres.
80
1,141
13,731
37
No.
11
10
12
32
2
Acres.
488
1,480
1,714
3,916
10
No.
24
4
6
28
17
Acres.
2,138
191
303
1,808
1,566
No.
62
20
8
53
13
Acres.
1,548
906
757
Kamloops  	
4,488
1,644
Totals- 	
63
14,989
67
7,608
79
6,006
146
9,343
Classification of Areas examined in 1938.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Vancouver   — —	
Acres.
4,174
2,657
3,915
23,943
3,257
Acres.
1,512
1,434
1,863
5,282
1,712
Acres.
2,662
1,223
2,052
18,661
1,545
Acres.
807
18
119
40
M.B.M.
3.003
113
1,316
Kamloops    	
210
37,946
11,803
26,143
984
4,642 N 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Areas cruised for Timber-sales.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-
timber
(M.B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Ft.).
Shingle-bolts
and            Railway-ties
Cordwood           (No.).
(Cords).
Car Stakes
and Posts
(No.).
473
228
196
416
173
71,343
40,578
31,674
132,860
48,948
262,704
34,128
44,673
63,378
77,797
644,333
750,450
721,291
2,789,496
824,196
66,395
1,976
21,186
26,132
10,640
6,400
237,525
217,751
261,936
80,628
15,700
Nelson	
154,200
Totals, 1938- -
1,486
325,403
482,680
5,747,765
126,329
804,240
169,900
Totals, 1937	
1,471
278,386
633,216
9,658,000
140,820
753,408
160,450
Totals, 1936	
1,415
252,036
464,402
8,535,045
148,606
1,083,746
63,200
Totals, 1935	
1,319
238,952
398,884
5,674,908
114,753
1,164,454
74,700
Totals, 1934	
1,331
223,391
356,264
2,856,619
80,101
1,235,766
73,766
Totals, 1933	
942
169,831
186,418
1,620,112
95,233
549,976
174,861
Totals, 1932	
875
144,769
202,421
1,759,905
68,414
488,655
69,900
Totals, 1931	
818
145,214
297,825
2,629,054
62,680
664,413
142,400
Totals, 1930-	
943
197,066
626,261
10,345,822
26,431
731,640
620,100
Ten-year average,
1929-38      	
1
1.165       1       218.992
404,897
6,187,083
88,099
878,141
173,502
Timber-sales awarded by Districts, 1938.
Forest District.
No. of
Sales.
Acreage.
Sawn Timber
(F.B.M.)
Poles and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.).
No. of
Posts.
No. of
Cords.
i\t~    tt     No. of
No. of      -ir
Tip-         Xmas
iles-       Trees.
Estimated
Revenue.
449
218
171
437
226
73,001
42,735
27,909
81,150
49,629
226,439,000
60,432,000
26,664,000
46,038,000
56,174,000
580,168
676,150
999,430
2,884,093
794,645
67,839
1,878
9,030
29,256
12,850
11,200
181,655
136,982
226,856
90,698
$663,330.54
140,450.26
29,100
150,506
112,300
81,244.32
Kamloops	
Nelson	
66,793
30,272
181,091.12
137,769.13
Totals, 1938 	
1,501
274,424
415,747,000
5,934,486
291,906
120,853
647,391
97,065
$1,203,885.37
Totals, 1937 	
1,449
278,988
450,798,000
9,864,973
363,950
122,143
644,223
$1,271,475.20
Totals, 1936	
1,443
252,624
358,804,000
8,332,542
235,600
122,979
823,181
$1,082,793.87
Totals, 1935	
1,357
231,958
260,831,000
5,408,377
308,825
101,966
1,200,582
$762,427.04
Totals, 1934	
1,324
219,969
250,629,000
2,721,540
316,910
67,902
894,970
$705,038.99
Totals, 1933	
948
190,794
145,696,000
2,490,244
295,906
76,777
432,513
$450,559.16
Totals, 1932	
836
134,868
181,470,000
1,746,616
1     ■
161,600 j    54,154
423,676
$450,528.10
Ten-year average,
1929-38 	
1,154
211,041
317,306,000
5,809,086
1
292.021       75.100
767,285
$914,888.60 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938.
N 35
Average Sale Price for Species.
Figures for 1938.
Figures for
1937.
Ten-year Average,
1929-38.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
154,698,000
58,274,000
57,770,000
69,193,000
19,988,000
6,608,000
20,709,000
22,041,000
6,466,000
$1.46
1.17
1.32
.72
.70
2.05
1.48
.86
.82
174,804,000
61,853,000
68,518,000
78,607,00(0
25,963,000
7,644,000
17,313,000
9,350,000
6,746,000
$1.31
1.16
1.16
.70
.70
1.95
1.59
.77
.85
973,014,000
352,885,000
661,314,000
494,659,000
149,924,000
71,164,000'
150,793,000
66,776,000
70,555,000
$1.28
1.23
1.36
Hemlock 	
.75
.78
White pine— — —-	
1.89
1.39
.96
Other species - — 	
.86
Totals  	
415,747,000
$1.21
450,798,000
$1.13
2,991,085,000
$1.19
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1938.
District.
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
Posts.
Xmas
Trees.
175,394,920
41,499,145
37,147,712
41,925,821
39,013,856
1,176,828
1,256,793
577,555
4,159,540
1,039,895
35,143
1,576
5,515
8,544
6,562
7,733
153,120
158,216
241,555
88,022
844
33,390
12,814
56,001
72,197
58,354
Totals, 1938 -      .-.
334,981,454
8,223,100
57,340
648,646
175,306
58,354
384,628,267
8,603,582
49,981
724,483
197,859
Totals, 1936           	
286,001,433
5,241,658
62,763
813,764
154,630
Totals, 1935      -                     	
193,788,636
3,540,576
38,438
851,342
149,959
Totals, 1934 _	
199,895,549
1,694,470
36,209
60(3,266
84,312
Totals, 1933
122,275,912
1,337,497
35,841
212,824
164,586
Totals, 1932
165,666,929
1,583,955
30,647
258,284
79,885
240,744,750
5,584,827
36,856
757,103
193,287 N 36
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province.
Operating.
Shut Down.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Forest District.
d
Estimated
Daily Capacity,
M.B.M.
d
ft
■g
■»sa
cj H   -
£   Cl   til
l*s
til  CO _C
BflS
d
55
Estimated
Daily Capacity,
M.B.M.
d
JZ,
oj y -
*■ rt co
eVS
S t,«
+JT--.K
co rt j-
Vancouver   	
191
43
50
112
85
8,656
530
690
1,058
1,225
73
4
4
7
7,992
79
33
80
43
17
15
37
14
612
154
148
187
305
15
3
1
183
112
20
Totals, 1938...       .
481
12,159
88
8,184
126
1,406
19
315
Totals, 1937	
434
11,042
80
9,124
131
1,685
16
402
Totals, 1936 	
410
11,401
86
8,859
122
1,699
10
316
Totals, 1935 	
384
9,822
93
8,492
96
1,962
16
1,231
Totals, 1934 	
349
9,152
82
7,311
129
2,999
13
1,228
Totals, 1933	
295
8,715
78
7,325
134
3,632
22
1,652
Totals, 1932	
293
7,641
45
6,813
139
4,621
13
1,470
Totals, 1931 	
334
10,167
46
7,470
158
4,109
19
1,871
Totals, 1930	
301
11,020
43
7,164
141
3,204
17
1,695
363
10,302
69
7,862
127
2,751
16
1,190 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938.
N 37
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.).
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
Fir   	
3,50(6,679
797,166
82,525
67,275,10(1
23,260,499
7,974,523
127,367
36,885,040
22,635,419
13,936,507
1,193,687
107,666,820
Cedar     ...
46,693,084
21,993,555
1,321,054
74,753,044
5,709,214
887,676
96,000
163,000
389,635
74,753,044
5,709,214
	
887,676
	
96,000
163,000
389,635
Totals, 1938               	
4,386,370
98,637,490
74,650,653
81,998,569
259,673,082
Totals, 1937--  	
4,924,298
114,991,217
66,611,218
83,947,361
270,474,094
Totals, 1936	
4,028,567
107,007,342
49,061,362
58,731,564
218,828,835
Totals, 1935 	
8,766,098
129,029,692
56,979,194
40,516,782
235,291,766
Totals, 1934       ....	
10,489,155
89,831,736
43,416.151
28,998,709
172,735,751
Totals, 1933	
16,941,207
119,089,573
59,215,094
13,694,960
208,940,834
Totals, 1932	
18,572,020
87,223,114
44,380,166
15,589,383
165,764,683
Totals, 1931 -   -	
12,886,187
106,331,594
51,909,961
49,048,420
220,176,162
Totals, 1930                        	
11,571,481
86,502,990
40,147,841
34,696,715
172,919,027
Ten-year average, 1929-38  -
10,558,053
107,265,733
54,637,435
43,720,058
216,181,279 N 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
Forest District.
Quantity
exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where marketed.
United States.
Canada.
Vancouver—
Poles  -	
3,836,009
25,406
54
75
6
31
1,121,366
102,326
25,976
312,679
208
130,456
23,330
17
6,237,760
954
12,040
305,162
345
1,023,805
29,670
6,324
168,533
5,043
$383,600
3,048
645
375
110
315
97,993
53,321
5,218
25,014
1,248
60,110
1,866
102
623,740
8,106
662
152,581
1,380
102,381
1,780
50,592
84,267
40,344
3,836,009
25,406
54
75
6
31
682,365
Piling	
Prince Rupert—
439,001
.. .   No.
102,326
 No.
25,976
Fort George—
Poles    	
 lineal ft.
177,585
135,094
208
 No.
130,456
23,330
17
Kamloops—
5,327,760
909,640
954
 lineal ft.
  No.
12,040
305,162
345
Nelson—
966,460
57 345
Piles  	
29,670
848
5,476
 No.
168,533
5,043
Total value, 1938 _.	
$1,698,798
Total value. 1937  	
$2,610,116 FOREST BRANCH REPORT,
1938.
N 39
UMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued for the
Years 1936
, 1937, AND
1938.
1936.               1937.
1938.
Old Crown grants 	
267
85
102
285
73
298
86
129
282
69
258
103
124
272
59
Crown grants, 1887-1906
Crown grants, 1906-1914
Section 57, " Forest Act " .
Stumnaee reservations 	
Pre-emptions under sections 28 and 29,'
Timber berths 	
Land Act"
5
17
3
9
9
Indian reserves
13             18
1,443        1,451
11               4
5               1
6
1,501
3
6
Timber-sales __..
Hand-loggers   _.
Special marks	
Pulp leases	
2
1
Pulp licences	
2
1
1
Totals .
2,310        2,352
264           339
ch, 1938.
2,342
321
Transfers and chane-es of marks 	
Draughting Office, Forest Bran
Number of Tracings made.
Blue-prints
Month.
Timber-
Timber-
Examination
Miscel
Reference
sales.
marks.
Sketches.
laneous.
January  	
25
96
27
31
179
7
February  	
38
106
13
42
199
7
35
17
124
103
35
29
20
36
214
185
4
April -  	
21
May     	
23
118
32
26
199
2
June   	
30
85
30
25
170
4
20
74
25
49
168
7
August  —-
17
63
12
20
112
7
September...	
19
46
28
11
104
11
13
11
79
57
52
31
15
32
159
131
15
November  	
32
December - .—	
Totals.... 	
20
72
26
9
127
9
268
1,023
340
316.
1,947
126 N 40
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Crown-granted Timber Lands.
Year.
Area of Private
Timber Lands
(Acres).
Average
Value
per Acre.
1921
        845,111
10.33
1922
     887,980
11.99
1923
883,344
11.62
1924
          654,668
15.22
1925
.._         __    654,016
40.61
1926	
■    688,372
39.77
1927	
.     —.             690,438
39.01
1928
     671,131
38.62
1929-
.           644,011
38.41
1930
    629,156
44.74
1931-
     602,086
43.77
1932
....        552,007
43.73
1933
      567,731
41.18
1934
......          557,481
37.25
1935	
         535,918
37.13
1936
    515,924
36.61
1937
    743,109
23.32
1938_„	
    754,348
23.05
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1938.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1937.
Average
Value
per Acre.
Change in
Value
per Acre
since 1937.
77,788
129,617
93,298
39,741
328
9,488
2,595
90,023
3,330
629
12,397
22,578
37,345
199,212
1,474
34,505
— 759
— 366
+ 3,258
— 1
*
— 1,225
*
+ 6,844
*
+     629
*
+     114
*
JU
*
-f 2,745
45.39
28.64
38.03
5.05
14.99
5.71
7.91
36.67
6.10
6.03
18.63
17.35
13.91
2.16
48.07
39.47
—    .75
— 1.70
— 2.42
—    .44
*
— 1.S2
Kettle River    	
—    .01
+    .27
*
+ 5.03
+    .08
—    .03
*
Prince Rupert - - — 	
*
Vancouver—    .....
*
+13.33
754,348
+11,239
23.05
* No change.
FINANCE.
From the standpoint of revenue collected, the year 1938 leaves little room for criticism.
Even though the log-scale dropped 15 per cent, below that of 1937 it showed a comfortable
margin of 10 per cent, above the average of recent years; and income shows favourable
comparisons from all angles, totalling 2 per cent, more than in 1937 and 15 per cent, more
than the average for the past ten years, in spite of lowered scale. In sources of cut and
sources of income, which are closely related, there is no apparent tendency to major changes.
Old Crown grants appear to be producing a little larger proportion of the cut than formerly
and later Crown grants a little less. Leases and licences maintain a fairly constant proportion of about 40 per cent, and the production from timber-sales shows a modest tendency to
increase. An anticipated reduction in income from rentals is indicated in a drop from about 34
per cent, of the total income to about 27 per cent.; stumpage maintains a very even 15 per
cent.;   and royalties show a slight upward trend in relation to the total.
As licences and leases are no longer granted, this source of income (principally rentals
in the accompanying tables) must of necessity fail in the course of time. The increase during
1938 is directly attributable to the forewarned repeal of section 44 of the " Forest Act."
This section provided for the reinstatement of licences long in arrears, and some hundreds
of licences were so reinstated during the few months before it was withdrawn, resulting in
largely increased rental revenue.
Million Feet
B.M. and per Cent, of Totals.
Log-scale Source.
Annual
Average,
1924-28.
Annual
Average,
1934-38.
1938.
From Crown grants—
Old Crown grants (prior to 1887, no royalty)	
Late Crown grants (after 1887, pay royalty)	
From Crown lands—
Per Cent.
29          819
15           420
33           920
11 306
12 363
Per Cent.
33           905
8          212
45        1,265
13           348
1            51
Per Cei
36
7
40
15
2
t.
1,001
202
1,113
Timber-sales (pay stumpage, royalty, and rentals)..
414
49
Total log-scale—   —
100        2,828
100        2,781
100
2,779
Revenue—
48      $1,712
16           556
34        1,207
Thousand Dollars.)
58      $1,649
15           413
24           678
55
16
27
$1,710
535
738
Total forest revenue.  	
100      $3,548
100      $2,831
100
$3,089
Collections as compared with charges continue in a satisfactory state. Some of the chief
sources of income cannot be considered as charged; as for example, in the case of licence
and lease rentals. If paid they constitute revenue. If they are not paid the licence or
lease lapses, but there is no outstanding account against the holder.
The chief revenue-producing item, royalty, on the other hand, constitutes a definite
charge. Under this item collections for the year exceeded the total of accounts issued, and
collections over a ten-year period ended 1938 totalled 99.1 per cent, of charges.
Stumpage collections exceeded the year's charges and over a ten-year period have totalled
99.3 per cent, of the sums charged.
In both these items, royalty and stumpage, the 0.9 per cent, and 0.7 per cent, not collected
include a normal unpaid balance in outstanding current accounts.
One new account, the Range Improvement Fund, has been added to the published statements this year, and the statement of one other account, the Scaling Fund, has been radically
changed.
The Range Improvement Fund is made up of a statutory contribution each year of one-
third of the grazing-permit fees collected during the previous year. It is expended on the
ranges building drift-fences, fencing mud-holes, improving watering-places, and on any work
of common value to the permittees calculated to give commensurate returns in improved
grazing conditions. In this first published statement the fund is carried back to its inception
in 1920.
The statements of the Scaling Fund previously published have struck a balance between
amounts charged and expenditure. Collections on this account have been excellent, totalling
98.5 per cent, of amounts charged since the fund was established in 1920, and in the 1.5 per
cent, remaining are included normal outstanding current accounts which will be collected in
due course. Nevertheless, a system of balancing expenditures against charges involves an
accumulating total of accounts not collectable which must give an increasingly erroneous
picture of the standing of the fund. In the following pages the cash is carried forward from
1920, when the fund was established, and cash balances will be shown hereafter. Amounts
charged will be found if required in the table of " Amounts Charged " (formerly " Revenue
from Logging Operations"), published in this report each year.
4 N 42
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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N 43
FOREST REVENUE.
Fiscal Year 1937-38.
Timber-licence rentals    $549,033.51
Timber-licence transfer fees   820.00
Timber-licence penalty fees   29,543.00
Hand-loggers' licence fees   825.00
Timber-lease rentals     62,636.41
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest  85.47
Timber-sale rentals   28,096.52
Timber-sale stumpage   559,225.51
Timber-sale cruising  .  9,080.03
Timber-sale advertising   1,572.20
Timber royalty  „ 1,880,591.91
Timber  tax    64,245.91
Scaling fees  (not Scaling Fund)    235.99
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)   93.99
Trespass penalties   19,261.87
Scalers' examination fees   535.00
Exchange     177.01
Seizure  expenses     537.60
General miscellaneous   2,406.71
Timber-berth rentals, bonus, and fees   24,034.30
Interest on timber-berth rentals   312.39
Transfer fees on timber berths   91.03
Grazing fees and interest   24,083.69
Taxation, Crown-grant timber lands 	
Total revenue from forest resources
3,257,525.05
269,285.54
3,526,810.59
Ten-year Average.
$644,661.00
1,579.00
30,551.00
1,292.00
68,165.00
807.00
23,080.00
422,786.00
7,315.00
1,112.00
1,373,688.00
97,092.00
638.00
97.00
6,977.00
201.00
258.00
991.00
3,234.00
21,684.00
202.00
67.00
14,390.00
$2,720,867.00
349,439.00
$3,070,306.00
FOREST EXPENDITURE, FISCAL YEAR 1937-38.
Forest District.
Salaries.
Temporary
Assistance.
Expenses.
Total.
$58,581.18
23,354.22
21,171.18
41,310.70
30,577.81
69,245.11
$296.83
$50,099.86
12,393.94
5,287.54
17,506.58
10,893.93
12,666.68
$108,977.87
35,748.16
26,458.72
58,817.28
390.00
125.35
41,861.74
82,037.14
$244,240.20
$812.18
$108,848.53
$353,900.91
50,000.00
4 000 00
4,963.29
13,331.22
12,700.35
4,811.28
400,000.00
51 574.29
$895,281.34
* Contributions to special funds detailed elsewhere. N 44
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IZ FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938.
N 45
SCALING FUND.
Fiscal Year.
Scaling Fee
per M.
Collections.
Expenditure.
Balance.
1920-21
1921-22...
5c. (1-4-20)
10c. (1-6-20)
$94,104.64
122,320.02
123,011.53
125,315.72
125,182.71
139,586.67
130,797.95
135,477.44
139,980.62
134,480.55
118,993.68
100,537.57
80,177.96
104,180.89
111,824.68
151,351.08
159,791.42
$102,351.10
89,837.94
122,963.11
141,386.29
153,550.57
146,958.97
140,289.37
139,242.26
147,601.87
142,359.06
128,359.26
110.417.94
78,691.02
92,428.15
101,008.69
120,307.65
131,363.54
Dr. $8,246.46
Cr. 24,235.62
1922-23-
6c. (1-4-22)
Cr. 24,284.04
1923-24...
Cr.   8,213.47
1924-25...
Dr. 20,154.39
1925-26-
Dr. 27,526.69
1926-27-
Dr. 37,018.11
1927-28...
Dr. 40,782.93
1928-29.  	
Dr. 48,404.18
1929-30
Dr. 56,282.69
1930-31	
Dr. 65,648.27
1931-32  - 	
Dr. 75,528.64
1932-33 	
Dr. 74,041.70
1933-34     	
Dr. 62,288.96
1934-35 _	
Dr. 51,472.97
1935-36  -   	
1936-37 _	
5c. (1-1-37)
Dr. 20,429.54
Cr.   7,998.34
Balance. April 1st. 1937	
         $7,9
38.34
36.12
Collections, fiscal year 1937-38  (fe
3, 5c.  M.)	
     149,6
Expenditures, fiscal year 1937—38	
$157,6
     152,1
34.46
36.87
Balance, March 31st, 1938 (credit)
,
       $5,5
77.59
Balance. Anril 1st. 1938                	
       $5,5
77.59
14.45
Collections, 9 months, April-December, 1938  (fee, 5c. M.)
Exnenditures                                       .___    	
117,5-
$123,1
     117,8
22.04
71.36
Balance, December 31st, 1938 (crec
it)
       $5,2
)0.68
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1937  $14,101.49
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1937  67,669.16
$81,770.65
Expenditures, fiscal year 1937-38 ,.  51,574.29
Balance (credit), March 31st, 1938  $30,196.36
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1938, (under subsection  (2), section 32)  74,907.62
$105,103.98
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 32..
Expenditures, 9 months to December 31st, 1938.
55,051.53
Balance (credit), December 31st, 1938.
$50,052.45 N 46
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND.
Fiscal Year.
Government
Contribution
(% of Collections) .
Other
Receipts.
Total
Receipts.
Expenditure.
Balance.
1920-21   -
$3,398.00
$3,398.00
$3,398.00
1921-22        ,''    -
5,314.89
5,314.89
$5,564.72
3,148.17
1922-23 —	
3,602.38
3,602.38
1,582.04
5,168.51
1923-24	
2,949.00
$61.51
3,010.51
7,231.35
946.67
1924-25.                       _
4,910.94 }
5,000.00 \
' 4,407.80
22,79
9,933.73
9,292.64
1,588.86
1925-26	
459.35
4,867.15
5,872.31
583.70
1926-27
4,679.82 }
5,000.00 \
4,923.72
9,679.82
6,149.89
4,113.63
1927-28
4,923.72
7,892.19
6,041.91
1,145.16
1928-29
4,904.08
4,904.08
7.33
1929-30'                               	
4,187.18 ]
2,500.00 \
4,578.64 ]
2,500.00 f
6,687.18
3,907.74
67.20
1930-31.	
9.00
7,087.64
6,047.64
3,826.77
1931-32.           	
221.50
4,221.60
4,500.44
3,547.83
4,000.00
and balance
1932-33   	
5,211.64
36.35
5,250.99
2,445.62
6,353.20
1933-34      	
5,004.43
8.50
6,012.93
2,145.34
9,220.79
1934-35  	
3,324.17
6.50
3,330.67
1,202.78
11,348.68
1935-36	
3,818.10
23.75
3,841.85
1,651.58
13,638.95
1936-37.	
4,356.36
110.00
4,466.36
4,669.73
13,335.68
1937-38                           	
4,811.28
255.00
5,066.28
8,069.07
10,332.79
$93,382.43
$1,217.25
$94,599.68
$84,266.89
$10,332.79
April 1st, 1938—
Balance (credit) 	
Collections, April 1st to December 31st, 1938.
Expenditure, April 1st to December 31st, 1938..
Balance  (credit), December 31st, 1938	
$10,332.79
7,518.07
$17,850.86
3,150.35
$14,700.51
STANDING OF FOREST PROTECTION FUND, DECEMBER 31st, 1938.
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1937  $181,936.97
Expenditure      464,899.18
Collections, tax   $145,331.44
Collections, miscellaneous        38,911.93
Government contribution      400,000.00
$646,836.15
Balance (deficit), March 31st, 1938..
$584,243.37
$62,592.78
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1938       $62,592.78
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1938     753,225.79
Collections, tax 	
Collections, miscellaneous
Government contributions
$150,635.90
6,813.08
330,000.00
$815,818.57
487,448.98
Balance  (deficit), December 31st, 1938.
$328,369.59 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938.
N 47
Estimated and Known Costs of Forest Protection to other Agencies, 1938.
Expenditures.
Forest District.
Tools and
Equipment.
Improvements.
Patrol.
Fire-
fighting.
Total.
$61,908.00
50.00
$600.00
$63,478.00
$377,019.00
1,291.00
1,538.00'
10k772.00
10,802.00
$503,005.00
1,341.00
1,538.00
906.00
12,325.00
11,678.00
2,199.00
25,326.00
Totals-	
Totals, 1937	
$75,189.00
79,531.00
$600.00
4,245.00
$65,677.00
64,796.00
$401,422.00
24,474.00
$542,888.00
173,046.00
Expenditure for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1938.
Districts.
Patrols
and Fire
Prevention.
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
$104,786.04
21,521.03
22,630.18
57,110.79
64,121.40
54,256.68*
$19,216.26
3,623.91
12,815.64
21,608.83
26,927.22
16,667.76
$5,695.95
2,501.25
2,097.13
2,906.23
16,155.31
$5,959.08
607.26
583.62
2,350.03
1,767.58
$135,657.33
28,253.45
38,126.57
Kamloops—	
Nelson 	
Victoria	
83,975.88
107,961.51
70,924.44
Totals -	
$324,426.12
$100,859.62
$28,355.87
$11,257.57
$464,899.18
* This includes purchase and maintenance of trucks, tractors, etc., for use by Forest Development Projects, and
a total of $30,474.91 for rent of same was refunded to Forest Protection Fund.
FOREST PROTECTION.
Mention has been made in former reports of the cyclical behaviour of fire weather
wherein the fluctuations from good to bad fire-years and back again were noted. The change
is usually not so sudden as between 1937—one of the most favourable seasons on record—
and 1938, one of the worst. The prediction of 1937: that before long we must expect change
from a series of good years, was borne out emphatically in 1938. The number of fires jumped
from 1,193 in 1937 to 2,412 in 1938; damage rose from $155,000 to $2,231,000; and costs of
fighting fires went from $28,000 to $500,000.
The reasons for this were plain in the weather records. In the Vancouver District,
the hardest hit of all, practically no rain fell from early May until September 6th, during
which time high drying winds and low fuel moisture prevailed for considerable periods.
In this district the fire season developed from May 18th. A stretch of hot dry weather
was responsible for forty-eight fires in the ensuing week. This hazardous condition was only
broken by short periods of favourable weather and culminated in an extremely serious situation, beginning July 13th with no let-up until August 8th. In this twenty-seven-day period
178 fires occurred, many of major proportions; examples being Sechelt, 5,500 acres; Lund,
4,500 acres; Pender Harbour, 3,700 acres; Mission, 2,900 acres; and Powell River, 2,600
acres. During this period many fires which had originated earlier escaped control, the most
serious being the fire at Campbell River, which started July 7th and ultimately covered nearly
75,000 acres and on which over $250,000 was expended by the various agencies.
Hazardous weather again occurred during the last ten days of August, when two major
fires occurred; one at Cowichan Lake of 3,600 acres and another at Lund of 3,400 acres.
This period was followed by favourable weather until September 14th, when a three-day
hazard was responsible for twelve fires, including a 3,500-acre fire at Port Alberni, following
which the fire season ended.
Elsewhere in the Province similar conditions occurred; while notably in the Nelson District over one hundred lightning fires were set on September 1st. In the northern part of the
Province early spring hazard was not alleviated to any great extent during mid-summer and N 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
large, uncontrolled fires burned until late in the fall in the Peace and Findlay River regions
—fires that did damage unknown because of their remote location and lack of staff to report.
The protection staff of 263 in 1938, including the permanent force of Rangers, is not yet
up to the standard of 1931 of 322 men, even then considered inadequate. Those areas more
difficult of access at present—but the future source of much of our forest wealth—must be
given adequate protection if this Province is to continue to make full use of the productive
capacity of all its forest land.
The only answer to lack of sufficient staff is to endeavour to increase the efficiency of the
existing force. This has been done through better equipment, improved methods, and closer
contact between supervisory and field officers. Co-operation has been maintained with other
forest services, notably that of the United States, with the object of sharing ideas on all lines
of forest-protection.
Prevention of forest fires, the first line of defence, has two main lines of approach: First,
the prevention of fires escaping from legitimate industrial and private use; and, second, the
prevention of accidental fires from unnecessary, careless, or illegal use.
The industrial use of fire in engines, waste destroyers, and in clearing land is controlled,
through the " Forest Act," by power to refuse permits to operate unless all requirements are
met. An increase in inspection efficiency was made in 1938 and regulations more carefully
enforced. As a result fires from these sources were very considerably less than in the last
bad fire year.
The only avenue of approach to the prevention of careless fires is through public and
private contact. Our educational work continued in 1938 and several new avenues were tried,
notably sound moving-picture trailers in theatres and short broadcast announcements over
practically all radio circuits. Several new motion pictures were made and have been shown
extensively throughout the Province; newspaper and magazine space was used through
advertisements and articles. Many firms carried a forest-protection message on letters and
accounts; merchandise labels likewise bore a slogan; several large department stores were
assisted in decorating a window with suitable material; upwards of 100,000 staffers were
distributed through photo-finishing studios; and, finally, 19,000 people—children and adults
—at over 190 meetings were reached through talks, some accompanied by motion pictures.
In spite of all preventive efforts fires continue to occur, and when hazard conditions
become acute it is necessary to take drastic steps to prevent them. Under the authority of
the " Forest Act " certain areas of particularly high hazard are closed each fire season to
travel without permit. This enables the forest officers to control such travel when the situation eases and to stop it entirely when the hazard is acute. In 1938 the following closures
were effective:—
Area. Dates.
Alouette April 25th
Great Central June 16th
Campbell River June 25th
Gordon Pasha Lakes July 21st
Nanaimo Area July 22nd
Theodosia River July 22nd
Jordan River July 22nd
- Lifted Sept. 8th.
Alexander Creek June 10th
Moyie River June 10th
Sheep Creek i July 6th
Copper Mountain August 3rd
Lifted Sept. 12th.
The results of these closures have been generally effective and it is felt many fires have
thereby been prevented in most hazardous times and places. The restrictions were generally
accepted by the public as necessary and with little complaint.
A primary objective in protection is to secure, with the least delay, reports of fires starting. In British Columbia there have been established fifty lookout points on which men are
constantly on the watch for fires during hazardous weather. These points have been chosen
to cover areas of high hazard not seen by any other agency capable of reporting fires. The
number is still very inadequate, but every effort to increase their efficiency is being made.
Notably, a new method of locating fires by panoramic photographs has been developed and FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938. N 49
twenty-five lookouts were equipped for their use in 1938. This project should be brought to
completion in 1939.
• Prior to the development of reliable radio sets it was necessary to connect lookout stations
and headquarters by telephone-line. Even the cheapest form of construction cost about $150
per mile, with few stations requiring less than 5 miles of line. Reliable two-way radio has
now been developed which can be bought for less than the cost of 2 miles of line. By its use
the cost of establishing lookouts has been reduced materially and temporary lookout points
may now be manned at a reasonable cost. The sets are portable and have also been used to
great advantage by patrolmen and especially on large fires. Established at the fire camp or
right on the line they enable the officers on the job to keep in touch with headquarters for the
movement of men and supplies as dictated by the situation, without the delay formerly caused
through having to send out foot-messengers.    Forty such sets were bought in 1938.
The Youth Forestry Training Plan was continued in co-operation with the Department of
Labour and the Dominion Government. This plan, reported on more fully elsewhere, has
become a highly important and valuable aid in the protection of British Columbia's forest
wealth, and through the training given the young men by forest officers is continuing to
develop individuals who qualify as forest officers and a large body of citizens aware of and
trained to the needs of forest protection. The continuation of this scheme is highly important
to the protection of British Columbia's multiple-use forests.
The large-scale logging operations in the Lower Coast region creates each year upwards
of 40,000 acres of cut-over land. One immediate result of these operations is the creation of
slash (brush and debris) which becomes highly inflammable in the fire season and a very
definite hazard. On January 1st, 1938, section 113a of the "Forest Act" came into force,
designed to make obligatory the disposal of slash considered a hazard by the Forest Service,
and setting penalties for non-disposal. This had been found necessary because of the failure
of existing legislation to accomplish the desired purpose.
During the year two special experienced officers were attached to the Vancouver Forest
District to assist and advise operators in the disposal of their slash. They handled some of
the large and difficult cases and advised with the regular field staff who continued to deal with
the others. The result of this increased emphasis on hazard-reduction was a total area
burned under control of approximately 50,000 acres, which included a large acreage of slash
more than a year old. Compared with 27,000 acres burned in 1927 and a ten-year average
to 1927 of 8,000 acres, the results are most encouraging. With the continued co-operation of
the logging industry slash-hazards should never again get beyond a current basis.
Research was continued into the behaviour of fires under varying conditions, the effect of
weather on fire occurrence and action, the forecasting of fire weather, the proper location of
lookouts and testing the efficiency of lookout-men. Progress has been made along these lines
and will be continued in 1939.
Savings made during the favourable years before 1938 made possible a reduction in the
Forest Protection Fund deficit from $345,813.82 on April 1st, 1933, to $62,592.78 on April 1st,
1938. At the same time the organization was built up towards what it was in 1931 and considerable sums were expended on badly-needed equipment and improvements.
The year 1938, however, was so severe that the Forest Protection Fund provided was not
nearly adequate to the drain for fire-fighting. Despite rigid economy and neglect of inaccessible fires, the net result of the fire season was an increase in the Fund deficit to $328,369.59,
as at December 31st, 1938.    This will be reduced by the end of the fiscal year, March 31st,
1939, by further Government contributions of $70,000. The total cost of fire-fighting of
approximately $500,000 was responsible for this condition.
Over the past twenty years it is found that 51 per cent, of the costs, 51 per cent, of the
area burned, and 47 per cent, of the total damage occurred in the five worst years. Although
the other years showed some costs and damage they were kept well within an allowable
maximum. It is quite apparent, therefore, that a forest-protection organization, to be effective, must be developed to cope with the bad years. This means closer control of fire-hazards
through existing legislation, broader educational and public relations work, greatly increased
numbers and efficiency of lookouts and other field staff, and adequate research and supervisory
force. Forest protection is the most complicated and exacting of all forest activities. It calls
for the keenest, most alert, and best-trained personnel, without whom this great asset of the N 50
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Province may be ruined.    The burden, at present, is too heavy for the staff to handle with
full efficiency and secure the time so necessary for planning, training, and development.
The size of the problem is indicated in the detailed statistics of the fire season given in
the following tables:—
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1938.
Forest District.
April.
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Total.
Vancouver. —	
5
7*
10
35t
7
74
36
92
99
28
154
24
58
165
66
195
30
55
185
122
126
26
60
145
175
108
27
59
73
161
2
1
1
1
664
151
334
703
560
Totals  	
64
329
467
587
532
428
5
2,412
Ten-year average, 1929-38
79
221
233
462
516
197
16
1,717
* One in February.
t One in March.
Number and Causes of Fires in Province. 1938.
Forest District.
to
6
to
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oi
tc ,
c >,
•9 rt
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Vancouver  -	
86
131
25
215
37
59
65
39
7
664
27.53
18
45
7
37
18
1
9
16
151
6.26
94
79
6
25
75
2
7
14
6
26
334
13.84
227
126
9
129
33
1
6
18
139
15
703
29.15
278
61
25
118
17
1
3
15
38
4
660
23.22
Totals    _                       	
703
442
72
524
180
4
77
121
238
51
2,412
100.00
29.15
18.33
2.99
21.73
7.46
0.16
3.15
5.01
9.86
2.16
100.00
Ten-year average, 1929-38..
460
313
133
330
137
16
45
130
121
27
1,717
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1938.
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent.
of
Total.
Vancouver.—	
$409,358.00
81.00
396.00
3,966.00
972.00
$85,476.00
470.00
$145,854.00
$19,111.00
250.00
406.00
4,606.00
1,310.00
$659,799.00
801.00
802.00
11,388.00
2,376.00
97.75
OS
.12
Kamloops 	
Nelson  	
2,795.00
70.00
21.00
24.00
1.69
.36
Totals	
$414,773.00    |    $88,811.00
$145,899.00
$25,683.00
$675,166.00    |    100.00
Ten-year average, 1929-38 .
$101,707.00    |    $45,313.00
$66,851.00
$14,270.00
$288,042.00    |
1 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938.
N 51
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P N 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years.
Causes.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
Total.
Lightning 	
Campers 	
703
442
72
524
180
4
77
121
238
51
263
269
74
242
107
14
55
20
124
25
524
256
81
321
78
6
29
74
152
26
173
217
65
289
127
11
45
72
97
15
320
312
103
415
117
10
41
65
188
19
285
234
77
197
77
7
32
65
90
18
336
230
156
197
108
18
17
127
64
13
457
470
295
435
243
44
57
355
96
48
892
344
149
294
171
29
39
262
68
23
638
358
267
9
387
167
22
65
139
100
36
4,609
3,132
1,339
Railways under construction ....
9
3,301
Brush-burning  (not railway-
1,375
Road and power- and telephone
165
457
Incendiarism	
Miscellaneous (known causes).
Unknown causes..... —
1,300
1,217
274
Totals 	
2,412
1,193
1,547
1,111
1,590
1,082
1,266
2,518
2,271
2,188
17,178
Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1938.
Total Fires.
Under Vi Acre.
Vi to 10 Acres.
Over 10 Acres in
Extent.
Damage.
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151
334
703
560
27.53
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29.14
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256
70
123
263
343
38.56
46.36
36.83
37.41
61.25
24.27
6.63
11.66
24.93
32.51
266
43
115
209
152
40.06
28.48
34.43
29.73
27.14
33.88
5.48
14.65
26.63
19.36
142
38
96
231
65
21.38
25.16
28.74
32.86
11.61
24.83
6.64
16.79
40.38
11.36
576
130
286
592
511
47
15
27
73
31
41
6
22
38
18
Totals              	
2,412|100.00
1,0551   	
100.00
785
 1100.00
572
100.00
2,094
193|   125
100.00[   	
43.741	
32.551    ...|	
23.71|    |   	
86.81
8.001 5.19
Ten-year average, 1929-38.
1,717
734
588|
395
1,537
357
64
Causes, Cost, and Damage, 1938.
Causes.
No.
Per Cent.
Cost.
Per Cent.
Damage.
Per Cent.
Lightning	
703
442
72
524
180
4
77
121
238
51
29.15
18.33
2.99
21.73
7.46
0.16
3.15
5.01
9.86
2.16
$91,906.77
68,999.67
6,240.28
58,225.95
5,504.05
18.76
14.07
1.27
11.90
1.13
$262,447.06
268,743.94
42,566.44
124,945.77
30,880.92
20.00
1,122,241.21
199,856.32
32,918.91
146,394.43
11.76
12.04
1.91
5.60
1.39
170,492.46
59,173.91
17,921.15
11,449.20
34.83
12.07
3.64
2.33
50.30
8.96
1.48
6.56
Unknown causes..	
2,412
100.00
$489,913.44
100.00    [$2,231,015.00
1
100.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938.                                        N 53
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Damage caused by Forest Fires, 1938, Part I.
Merchantable Timber.
Immature
Timber.
Not satisfactorily
STOCKED.
Non-commercial  Cover.
Forest District.
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Prince Rupert	
Fort George	
Kamloop s	
Acres.
24,689
4,308
6,930
45,903
10,555
M. Ft.
B.M.
531,183
39,925
110,555
325,417
40,461
M. Ft.
B.M.
395,722
173
953
2,947
732
$
427,774
6,308
42,686
312,617
30,004
Acres.
35,169
4,403
21,235
37,853
15,270
$
289,494
10,147
81,919
93,177
47,328
Acres.
35,071
170
327
4,714
758
Acres.
50,479
61
9,335
14,651
1.988
Acres.
3,276
11,713
18,151
65,475
15,414
$
44,413
5,972
13,647
34,751
9,022
Acres.
35,022
8,888
24,470
74,926
19,386
$
16,139
4,444
12,228
27,748
9,469
Totals	
92,385
1,047,541
400,527
819,389
113,930
522,065
41,040| 76,514
114,029
107,805
162,692
70,023
Per cent—
12.97
100.00|    38.23
52.66
16.05
33.56
5.75|    10.75
16.02
6.93
22.84
4.50
79,285
1
415.1781  84.485
400,140
108,515
347,811
DAMAGE CAUSED BY FOREST FlRES, 1938, PART II.
Grazing or
Pasture Land.
Non-productive Sites.
Grand Totals.
Forest District.
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Quantity.
Damage.
Vancouver            	
Prince Rupert	
Acres.
2,223
768
2,117
35,654
116
$
112
38
106
1,759
6
Acres.
15,860
5,965
8,290
19,637
20,598
$
7,921
2,983
4,140
9,804
9,698
Acres.
201,789
36,276
90,855
298,813
84,085
Per
Cent.
28.34
5.10
12.77
41.98
11.81
M. Ft.
B.M.
531,183
39,925
110,555
325,417
40,461
Per
Cent.
50.70
3.82
10.56
31.06
3.86
$
785,853
29,892
154,726
479,851
106,527
Per
Cent.
60.51
1.92
9.94
Kamloops   	
Nelson . _	
30.85
6.78
Tntnln
40,878
2,021
70,350
34,546
711,818
100.00
1,047,541
100.00
1,655,849
100.00
5.74
0.13
9.88
2.22
100.00
  |     100.00
	
Ten-year average, 1929-38	
24,892
1,306
512,040
415,178
830,944 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938.
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41»
i 2 N 56 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
GRAZING.
There was a fairly late spring in 1938 which depleted available hay-supplies and resulted
in many herds going on the range in poor condition. As the summer progressed it developed
into drought conditions that interfered materially with the growth of forage on the important
open ranges and even cut short the growth in the higher, timbered summer-grazing areas.
This condition was ameliorated by heavy rains in August, which had the immediate effect
of stimulating forage-growth and thereby improved the condition of the stock. As the
cattle were put into the feeding season they were generally in good shape.
Although there are, in places, considerable areas of summer range still available, it
cannot be used economically without the corresponding spring and fall range. The latter is
practically all being used and has been for some years. This unbalanced condition, with other
factors, has led to the ranchers crowding too many cattle on the spring and fall grazing-
grounds; while lack of sufficient winter feed has forced them to turn out too early. Overgrazing has been the result, with much destruction of valuable forage species, impoverishment of the soil and the remaining forage, with, ultimately, a poorer grade of stock produced
at greater cost.
Range-management attempts to alter these conditions by prescribing turn-out dates and
numbers according to the forage condition on each particular range; by planning rotations so
that an ample amount of rest and seeding-time is given each range; by building drift-fences
to protect the range from harmful grazing, and by developing trails and watering-places so
that unused ranges may be utilized.
There are several million acres of Crown range in the Interior of the Province and more
than 700 permittees using them. The proper management of these vast areas, involving the
plans of so many individuals, is a problem of no small magnitude. It requires a knowledge
of the location and capacity of the range, of the growth-habits and feed values of the forage
plants, of the prevalence of harmful weeds, and of the seasonal handling of stock.
We are gradually building up a fund of information in the form of maps, reports, and
tabulations showing the location and capacities of the various ranges. This is accomplished
largely through the work of the Forester in charge of grazing at Kamloops and two assistants
who covered an area of approximately 171,000 acres in 1938. Of this area 23,000 acres were
sheep range not previously used. The balance was cattle and sheep range that has been
used for some years but never before mapped.
Mapping of the range would be of little use without some knowledge of the forage value
and growth-habits of the plants on it. Grazing officials are experienced botanists or agricultural graduates who have devoted considerable time to the study of range-forage. They also
have the benefit of the research-work being done by the Dominion Range Experiment Station
at Kamloops, which is concentrating on the practical aspects of the range and live-stock
management on typical British Columbia range-lands. As definite knowledge is developed
it will be applied to Crown ranges.
In the early summer of 1938 two grazing assistants from Kamloops were afforded the
opportunity, at the invitation of the United States Forest Service, of attending an instructional course in intensive range reconnaissance of two weeks' duration. This course took a
group of young men and gave them thorough instruction in the survey methods used, the
botany of the range-forage, the estimating of carrying capacity, and the mapping and reporting of the results. Conducted by recognized experts and at no cost to the Province save
travelling expenses to and from Montana, the results will undoubtedly be of value in the
improvement of range management. The appreciation of the Department has been expressed
to the United States Forest Service for their courtesy in this matter.
Our policy of co-operation with live-stock associations, especially those recognized under
the " Grazing Act," was continued actively during 1938. The associations are encouraged
and officially recognized for the purpose of getting a consensus of opinion on range conditions,
range-management from the stockmen's view-point, and any matters of general interest or
conflict on the Crown range. As a general rule such associations are of great value to the
administrative officers and give their co-operation generously. During 1938 one new association was formed and twenty-three meetings held with twenty-six associations.
Co-operation with the Game Commission has continued on an active and mutually satisfactory basis. Three contentious cases involving the grazing of sheep on high mountain
areas were decided on the ground by members of both organizations. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938. N 57
The grazing of live stock undoubtedly has some effect on wild life, the relative amount
being the subject of much contrary opinion. The recreational values of forest lands are
increasingly recognized and must be balanced against the values derived through the production of live stock. We confidently expect that any differences of opinion that may arise
between the stockmen and the sportsmen will be settled on a co-operative basis as were the
cases mentioned above.
Beetle-killed pine on summer ranges continues to give trouble. For the past twenty
years pine beetles have devastated great areas of lodgepole pine forests in the interior of the
Province and as time goes on the dead trees fall in greater and greater numbers. The
resulting tangle makes an impenetrable barrier to stock and actually covers up great areas
of excellent forage.
This epidemic infestation is still spreading and will continue to reduce the available
summer range. Various remedies have been suggested, among them being fire and clearing.
Fire results in devastation and ruin of the soil where it is hot enough to remove the dead
timber, while clearing on any large scale is too expensive. The most satisfactory solution
found has been the cutting of trails through the deadfall areas. These trails allow the
stock to get in and out to feed and water and are ameliorating, somewhat, the damage done.
Market Conditions.
Prices for range beef remained fair during 1938, although the foreign shipments were
not up to those of 1937. For various reasons American buyers were not in the Canadian
market as strongly as the year before, but the British market took three times as many beef
animals. With a lowering of the United States tariff on certain classes of beef by Vk-cent
per pound, there appears to be a little better outlook in that market for 1939.
Prices throughout 1938 have ranged from 5 cents to 7% cents per pound live weight for
No. 1 steers, with ordinary bringing only 3% to 4 cents. Good cows brought 3% to 4 cents,
spays and heifers 4 to 5 cents, and poor quality animals as low as 2% cents per pound.
Good-quality beef comes from well-managed ranges and properly run feed-yards. The
difference is in the amount of intelligent work put on the range and animals. The Forest
Service has followed the policy of encouragement and assisting ranchers in range-management and the Range Improvement Fund is used for that purpose.
The range-sheep industry in British Columbia is of considerable importance and value,
making use of large areas of early, low range and, in summer, the high, sub-alpine meadows
and ridges. Quality in lambs and wool count no less than with beef and returns are in
accordance therewith.
During 1938 lamb-prices were fair to good, around 6% cents a pound on the average
but running to 8 or 9 cents for better grades. Wool was turned in to the co-operative association with an advance of 5 cents per pound and will probably net another 5 to 7 cents on
final  sale.    Although  these  prices  would  show  no  great  profits,  they  enable  the  careful
rancher to stay solvent. _   ,    _ ' _
Live Stock on Crown Ranges.
During 1938 there were 738 individual grazing-permits issued. A comparison with the
numbers of live stock permitted on Crown ranges during the past five years follows:—
Year. Cattle and Horses. Sheep.
1934   69,960 36,569
1935   60,864 36,902
1936   77,137 46,084
1937   77,451 42,185
1938  .  75,022 37,060
Range Improvements.
The Range Improvement Fund, made up of one-third of all grazing fees collected, is used
to build such improvements on Crown ranges as will improve the forage in quantity and
quality. This involves drift-fences to protect the range; trails to open up new areas; water
development to make range usable; mud-hole fencing to make possible the use of range
without loss;   and experimental work.
During 1938 the sum of $3,234.17 was expended to build or improve 11% miles of drift-
fence; 92 miles of stock trails and driveways; 4 bridges; 1 cattle-guard; 1 bull-pasture;
and fence 7 mud-holes.    One hundred and forty wild horses were removed from the range. N 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, 1939.
Victoria Office.
E. C. Manning Chief Forester.
C. D. Orchard Assistant Chief Forester.
G. P. Melrose Forester—Protection—Grazing.
E. E. Gregg Assistant Forester.
R. G. McKee Assistant Forester.
J. H. Blake Mechanical Superintendent.
E. B. Prowd Forester—Management.
S. E. Marling Assistant Forester.
F. S. McKinnon Forester—Economics.
H. J. Hodgins Assistant Forester.
K. C. McCannel Assistant Forester—Parks and Recreation.
S. W. Barclay Royalty Inspector.
H. H. Smith Chief Accountant.
W. L. Thomas Chief Draughtsman.
Districts.
Vancouver.
C. J. Haddon District Forester.
C. C. Ternan Assistant District Forester.
W. Byers Supervisor of Scalers.
M. Gormley Assistant Forester.
W. S. Hepher Assistant Forester.
D. B. Taylor Assistant Forester.
J. G. MacDonald Fire Inspector.
A. H. Waddington Fire Inspector.
Prince Rupert.
R. C. St. Clair District Forester.
L. S. Hope Assistant District Forester.
J. E. Mathieson Fire Inspector.
Prince George.
R. D. Greggor District Forester.
L. F. Swannell Assistant District Forester.
Kamloops.
A. E. Parlow District Forester.
T. A. Clarke Assistant District Forester.
C. W. Walker Assistant Forester.
C. L. Armstrong Assistant Forester.
J. A. Pedley Fire Inspector.
E. A. Charlesworth Supervisor of Scalers.
Nelson.
R. E. Allen District Forester.
E. W. Bassett Assistant District Forester.
R. R. Douglas Assistant Forester.
W. Holmgren Fire Inspector.
victoria, B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfibld, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1939.
1,325-539-9518  

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