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BC Sessional Papers

PART B. NORTH-WESTERN MINERAL SURVEY DISTRICT (No. 1). BY J. T. MANDY. British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1936]

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J. T. Mandy.
Chief interest in mining has been in gold deposits and development-work carried out in
recent years indicates the probability of increased gold production in the near future.
Although an increased silver price has stimulated several small operations, a material
increase in activity of silver properties is dependent upon a stable price for this metal.
Prospecting shows an increase over 1934 and has been very active throughout the district.
In this respect an increasing interest has materialized in the Unuk, Stikine, Liard, and Atlin
sections. New discoveries have been made in the Unuk River, Taku River, and in the McDame
Creek sections.
Normal production has continued from the Premier mine, Stewart, since March 9th, when
installation was completed of a new power plant to replace the one destroyed by fire. Towards
the end of the year an agreement embracing the formation of the Silbak-Premier Mines,
Limited, was consummated whereby the Premier Company undertakes the further development
and operation of the adjoining B.C. Silver and Sebakwe Company holdings. This will result
in commencement of production from these latter properties during 1936. Production from
Surf Point mine, Porcher island, has continued normally. A feature in the Stewart area has
been the increasing interest in small operations by individuals or syndicates aiming at small-
tonnage production of high-grade shipping-ore. Interest in this phase of operation is also-
materializing in the Alice Arm area. Small shipments have been made from: The Surf Inlet
Consolidated, Princess Royal island; the Edye Pass, Porcher island; Dunwell, Blackhill,
Lakeview, Spider, Ben Ali, Ida, Virginia (Excelsior Syndicate), and Moonlight (Northern
Prospectors) in the Stewart area;   and the Dolly Varden in the Alice Arm area.
Active exploration was carried out on many properties throughout the district. Encouraging results indicative of possible production in the near future have been achieved at the
Big Missouri, Stewart, by Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, and at the
Whitewater property, Taku river, by Duluth, Minnesota, interests. The expansion of exploration and the interest of large operating companies in the district is further indicated in the
active exploration of the Salmon Gold, Stewart, by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting
Company of Canada, and of the McKay Syndicate property, Unuk river, by the Premier Gold
Mining Company.    Continuation of both these operations is planned for 1936.
Placer-gold mining and prospecting by individuals, syndicates, and substantial company
interests has increased, especially in the Atlin area, where a feature has been the inauguration
of increased steam-shovel operations and the successful reopening by individuals of old drift-
Facilities for aeroplane transportation have improved in the district. Two efficiently
organized and operated local northern companies, the Northern Air Express and the Northern
Airways, based at Atlin, B.C., and Carcross, Y.T., have facilitated exploration of the more
remote interior sections.
During the year the Granby Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, Limited, closed
down its copper mine and smelter at Anyox and sold them to the Consolidated Mining and
Smelting Company of Canada. This action was the result of the exhaustion of ore reserves
to a stage where the company decided to close down rather than carry on for the possible short
remaining life of the mine.
The writer desires to express his thanks to prospectors, operators, and all those with whom
he has come in contact during the conduct of his work, for their co-operation.
The following is the gold production from No. 1 District during 1935:   Lode, 45,810 oz.j
placer, 14,099 oz.
Coast Area.
This group of claims is owned by R. Knox Paton and associates, of Vancouver,
Campania. and is located on Whale channel, on the north-west side of Princess Royal
island, 95 miles south-easterly from Prince Rupert and about 4 miles south
of Leading point. The area is most conveniently reached by launch from Butedale, the nearest
port of call of coastwise steamers, on the east coast of Princess Royal island. The claims
commence at the beach, which is characterized by a rugged, rocky, and densely timbered shoreline. The topography of the area is featured by a hillocked foreshore with a 25- to 35-degree
slope, which gradually steepens to mountain domes and ridges of about 5,000 feet elevation
forming the central part of the island.
The formation consists of hornblende-schist of the Prince Rupert series contiguous to,
and probably underlain at shallow depth by, granitic rocks of the Coast Range batholith.
In places granitic rocks outcrop and numerous acidic dykes intrude the schists. The mineral
deposit consists of a high-temperature quartz vein, in places pegmatitic, striking north 57
degrees west and dipping 60 degrees north-east. The vein is from 6 to 8 feet wide and very
sparsely mineralized with thin films of marcasite in minute cracks, some chalcopyrite and
The ground comprises a restaking in 1934 of the old Moose group, referred to in the Annual
Report of the Minister of Mines for 1920 under the heading of " Whale Channel Mines,
Limited." The Belmont-Surf Inlet Mines are reported to have worked on the claims during
1923.    In recent years no work has been done.
The appearance of the work done, consisting of several open-cuts, one shaft, and one short
adit distributed along the strike of the vein for a distance of about 1,200 feet between elevations
of 250 and 800 feet, indicates it was completed previous to the present restaking. In these
workings a width of from 6 to 8 feet of very sparsely mineralized quartz is exposed. At
elevation 450 feet an adit 72 feet in length is driven in a winding direction along the vein.
It starts on the vein at the portal, but gradually leaves it, passing through the hanging-wall.
At 51 feet it turns towards the vein and passes through it, continuing on the foot-wall side
to the face. At an elevation of 550 feet and about 500 feet south-easterly from the adit an
inclined shaft, filled with water at the time of examination and reputed to be 18 feet in depth,
is sunk on the vein.
A composite sample of the best mineralization selected from the various dumps and
exposures assayed: Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton; silver, 0.1 oz. per ton; copper, 0.2 per cent. The
described mineralization is very sparingly distributed through the quartz exposed in all the
This group, owned by F. T. Patterson, of Porcher island, consists of the
Edye Pass.      Jeanie and Nabob Crown-granted mineral claims and three adjoining claims
held by location.    The property adjoins the Surf Point mine on the north
and is situated on the westerly side of Porcher island about 25 miles south-westerly from
Prince Rupert.    Porcher island is reached by launch from Prince Rupert.
The topography of the area is featured by a comparatively flat or hillocked foreshore
deeply covered with muskeg and of about 300 feet general elevation bordering the steep slopes
to mountain domes or ridges of from 4,500 to 5,000 feet elevation that form the central part
of the island. This characteristic topography is conformable to the flat and doming structure
of the intrusive batholithic rocks, the low hillocked areas generally marking flat roof-horizons
of the batholith with remnants of preserved roof-rocks. It is in this flat roof-horizon that the
mineral deposits occur. Quartz veins, mineralized with gold-bearing pyrite, occur in the
roof-horizon of a quartz-diorite phase of the Coast Range batholith contiguous to the contact
of the quartz diorite with Triassic sediments and volcanics of the overlying Prince Rupert
series. The veins, varying in width from a few inches to several feet, outcrop along a rather
flat benched area of the diorite and strike generally easterly to north-easterly and dip about
vertically. They appear to occupy joint-planes in the diorite and are lenticular, erratic, and,
except where shearing as well as fracturing has taken place, restricted in continuity.
Quartz veins and lenses similar in character to those occurring on the Surf Point have
been discovered on this property.    Several lenses and veins of quartz well mineralized with NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 1).
B 3
gold-bearing pyrite have been exposed by extensive open-cutting and stripping and small
shipments of high-grade ore have been made from time to time.
Recent operations have been carried out on the Jeanie and Nabob claims.
On the Nabob claim, adjoining the Jeanie on the west, a trench 170 feet long, continuing
in an open-cut about 120 feet long, exposes a quartz vein in a well-defined shear varying from
6 to 41 inches in width. Samples taken from the face of this cut assayed as follows:—Across
41 inches: Gold, 0.6 oz. per ton; silver, 0.5 oz. per ton. Across 27 inches: Gold, 0.96 oz.
per ton; silver, 0.6 oz. per ton. A grab sample from about 40 tons of sorted ore on the dump
at this cut assayed: Gold, 1.76 oz. per ton; silver, 0.9 oz. per ton; sulphides, 18 per cent,
by weight.
v\n,_v. ,    Eagle M.C.
""    B.C.Department of Mines. 1936
Western   Hops M.C.
Edye Pass Group, Porcher Island.
About 30 feet south of the face of this cut the vein is exposed again and shows a width
of 30 inches of well-pyritized quartz. Farther south the projection of the vein is covered with
muskeg, but its possible continuity is marked by a trough-like depression which extends into
the adjoining Eagle claim in alignment with a deep draw about 1,000 feet south of these claims.
About 500 feet westerly of the main Nabob cut a lenticular quartz vein 18 to 24 inches
wide and well mineralized with pyrite is exposed for about 50 feet by stripping and two pits
in low muskeg ground.    Continuity of this showing is obscured by muskeg overburden.
On the Jeanie claim, about 600 feet south-easterly of the main Nabob cut, a quartz vein
from 12 to 36 inches in width, strike north 89 degrees east, dip vertical, is exposed in an open-
cut 130 feet long. A sample representing a length of 6 feet and a width of 12 to 16 inches
exposed in the floor of the cut 52 feet from its mouth assayed: Gold, 1.7 oz. per ton; silver,
0.3 oz. per ton; sulphides, 22 per cent, by weight. A sample across 36 inches of vein in the
centre of the face of the cut assayed: Gold, 0.84 oz. per ton; silver, 0.3 oz. per ton; sulphides,
8.5 per cent, by weight. A grab sample of 8 tons of sorted ore on the dump at the mouth
assayed: Gold, 4.5 oz. per ton; silver, 1.2 oz. per ton; sulphides, 36.5 per cent, by weight.
This vein has been traced intermittently in muskeg-covered ground for about 300 feet westerly
and 200 feet easterly of the cut.
About 400 feet south-westerly from the last-mentioned cut a deep open-cut about 120 feet
in length has been excavated on a well-mineralized quartz vein varying from about 6 inches B 4 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
to 3 feet in width. Several cross-stringers are exposed in the face of this cut and a sample
of the face, 8 feet high, in which a vein varying from 8 to 14 inches in width is exposed,
assayed: Gold, 1.2 oz. per ton; silver, 0.2 oz. per ton; sulphides, 13 per cent, by weight. At
the time of examination about 35 tons of sorted ore was on the dump at the mouth of the cut.
Several other veins and stringers, some of which are well mineralized with pyrite, are exposed
by open-cuts and stripping between 100 feet southerly and 240 feet northerly of the face of
this cut.
Bear River Area, Portland Canal.
This claim constituted part of the original holdings of the old Portland Canal
Gipsy. Mining and Development Company, Limited, which was organized in 1907.
The properties have recently been purchased for taxes by L. S. Davidson,
of Stewart. During operations by the old Portland Canal Company only some superficial
open-cutting and stripping was done and a shallow shaft sunk on the Gipsy claim. Whereas
higher silver values were found in the vein opened up in the old main workings, gold values
seem to predominate in the Gipsy vein.
The property is located in the southern section of what is known as the " Portland Canal
Fissure Zone " on the south side of Glacier creek, about 1V2 miles south-easterly from the
Dunwell mill. A good pack-horse trail following a generally steep grade leads to the property
from the Bear River road at the Dunwell mill.
The vein outcrops along a comparatively flat, thickly timbered and overgrown bench intervening along the north side of the hill, which slopes about 30 degrees to Glacier creek, about
1,500 feet below.
In this locality the argillites of the Bitter Creek formation (Lower Hazelton group) have
been intruded by a small cupola of granitic rock and by several lamprophyre and acidic dykes.
The mineral deposit consists of a quartz vein varying from a few inches to about 42 inches
in width, striking north 74 degrees east and dipping 60 degrees south. Due to the proximity
of the granitic intrusive the argillites are highly silicifled and cherty. The vein outcrops at
an elevation of 1,825 feet in the draw of a small creek, is adjacent to a granitic dyke, and
has been traced by a series of open-cuts and stripping for a distance of about 200 feet.
On the east side of the creek, contiguous to the main cut, an old shaft filled with water and
reported to be 60 feet in depth has been excavated. In the main open-cut at an elevation
of 1,825 feet the vein is 42 inches in width and composed of quartz and calcite gangue
mineralized with pyrite, galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, and some chalcopyrite.
A sample across 42 inches in this cut assayed: Gold, 0.50 oz. per ton; silver, 1.8 oz.
per ton; copper, nil; lead, 6 per cent.; zinc, 5 per cent. At the easterly extremity of the
work done at an elevation 1,840 feet an open-cut exposes the vein about 12 inches in width.
This group consists of the Miller (Lot 893), Pontiac  (Lot 894), Roosevelt
Roosevelt. No. 1 (Lot 895), Roosevelt (Lot 805), Northern Hill (Lot 897), Crown-
granted claims, and three mineral claims staked in 1934 and held by location.
The property is owned by Messrs. Feezey and Oliver and associates, of Victoria, and is located
about 1 mile up the North fork of Bitter creek, about 5 miles from the Bear River road and
12 miles from Stewart, in the Portland Canal Mining Division. It adjoins the Mayou and
Alamo groups on the west. A good pack-horse trail extends from the road at elevation 450 feet
to the cabin at elevation 1,500 feet. The mountainous and rugged topography of the Coast
range characterizes the area. The mineral deposits occur in a canyon section of the North
fork with steeply sloping rock bluffs.
The rocks underlying the area are argillites of the Bitter Creek formation of probably
Triassic age (Lower Hazelton group) striking northerly and dipping about 50 degrees west.
Intruding and disturbing this formation are numerous dykes of acidic or granitic character.
The mineral deposits consist of quartz veins with two different types of mineralization:
(1) Galena, sphalerite, pyrite, and silver minerals, with the latter predominating, and varying
gold values; (2) chalcopyrite and pyrite with appreciable gold but low silver values. The
veins occur in the argillite adjacent to or between granitic dykes.
The history of this property is interesting in that it had the distinction of being named
the " Grizzly " by David James Rainey in 1899, and was the first claim staked in the Stewart
area. The holdings were originally incorporated into the Grizzly Mining Company, financed
by Seattle interests.    This company is reputed to have spent about $30,000 on exploration of -——
the showings and shipped about 10 tons of ore to Tacoma. The Grizzly Mining Company
allowed the ownership of the property to lapse and it was restaked as the Roosevelt in 1901
by Rainey in partnership with Graham Chambers, of Nass Harbour, and the Roosevelt Mining
Company was organized in 1907. This company is reported to have spent about $8,000 on
exploration and held the claims for several years. The property was finally bought for
taxes in 1933 by Messrs. Feezey and Oliver and associates, of Victoria. Some cursory exploration was carried out on the showings during the season of 1934, and in the late autumn of
1935 further operations under contract were commenced by Arthur Cameron and Jack Lenehan,
of Stewart, which are reported to consist of drifting on the galena vein. The property was
examined on September 29th before the commencement of the latter operations, so that this
report covers exposures only in the old workings.
At an elevation of 1,575 feet on the west side of the canyon and about 20 feet above the
creek-bed a quartz vein outcrops in the steep canyon-wall, in crushed and sheared argillite
between two granitic dykes. The vein is from 10 to 25 inches in width, consisting of stringers
and lenses of quartz and calcite mineralized mainly with galena, sphalerite, and pyrite,
striking north-westerly and dipping 85 degrees south-westerly. It can be traced up the
canyon-wall, which slopes about 70 degrees, for about 40 feet above the lowest outcrop.
Continuity up the mountain is obscured by overburden and the vein on the east side of the
creek has not been found. At the lowest exposure No. 2 adit has been driven on the vein
mineralized with irregular patches, blebs, and stringers of sulphides for about 30 feet. At the
face of the adit the vein is 25 inches wide in the roof and 10 inches wide in the floor and consists
of stringers of quartz and calcite with some pyrite, galena, and sphalerite. A sample across
16 inches of vein in the centre of the face assayed: Gold, 0.06 oz. per ton; silver, 32.8 oz.
per ton;  copper, trace;  lead, 5 per cent.;  zinc, 2 per cent.
About 750 feet northerly from this showing and on the same side of the canyon a quartz
vein 6 feet in width adjacent to a granitic dyke outcrops in the steep canyon-wall about 20 feet
above the creek. This vein, strike north 64 degrees west, dip 80 degrees south, is mineralized
mainly with pyrite and chalcopyrite. The vein has not been traced up the mountain-side or
across the creek. No. 1 adit, 79 feet in length, was started on this vein, but for the first 36 feet
veered away from it into the hanging-wall side. The last 43 feet gradually veered back
towards the vein and followed the hanging-wall for 20 feet, showing fair mineralization of
pyrite and chalcopyrite. A sample of 18 inches of well-mineralized quartz in the centre of
the vein exposed at the portal assayed:  Gold, 0.12 oz. per ton; silver, trace; copper, 1.2 per cent.
About 15 feet northerly from this showing a small open-cut exposes 13 inches of sheared
quartzose vein-matter in argillite adjacent to and between two granitic dykes. This vein,
mineralized mainly with pyrite and chalcopyrite, strikes north 48 degrees west and dips
85 degrees south-west. Its southerly projection should intersect with the southerly projection
of the vein exposed in No. 1 adit. A sample across 12 inches in the bottom of the cut assayed:
Gold, 0.40 oz. per ton;   silver, 1 oz. per ton;   copper, 5 per cent.
Salmon River Area, Portland Canal.
This group of Crown-granted claims, Mineral Basin, Mineral Basin No. 1,
Mineral Basin. Mineral Basin No. 2, Mineral Basin Fraction, and Golden Fraction, totalling
117 acres, is owned by Yail Rogenstain, W. L. Duff, and associates, of Hyder.
It is situated towards the southerly end and on the comparatively steep easterly slope of the
Missouri ridge, about 13 miles from the town of Hyder, Alaska, and about 15 miles from
Stewart, at the head of the Portland canal. The property is reached by the Salmon River
motor-road to the Premier power-house; thence 2 miles by a good trail with a comparatively
easy grade, rising about 500 feet to the showings. The claims were staked in 1918 and Crown-
granted in 1923, but until recently very little exploration-work has been done on them.
The showings are located in the steep and rock-bluffed section of the upper ridge terrain,
which flattens below the showings to a general slope of about 15 degrees to Cascade creek.
The rocks are Triassic andesitic tuffs and some porphyritic lavas of the Bear River formation (Hazelton group), intruded by several wide granitic dykes. On the Mineral Basin
Fraction two parallel shear-zones about 90 feet apart, striking north-westerly and dipping
about 60 degrees south-westerly, occur in tuffs near the south-westerly corner of this claim
at elevations of 1,700 and 1,775 feet respectively.    These can be seen outcropping across the B 6 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
faces of small bluffs, and can be traced along their natural exposures for about 200 feet, but
are obscured by overburden at the extremities of these outcrops. A parallel feldspar-porphyry
dyke 10 feet wide outcrops about 20 feet easterly from the westerly zone. The easterly zone
is crosscut by a feldspar-porphyry dyke about 8 feet wide striking east-west. At an elevation
of 1,720 feet an open-cut in the east zone exposes some oxidation and a patch of siliceous and
calcareous replacement 3 feet wide mineralized with galena, sphalerite, pyrite, and some
chalcopyrite. A sample of this mineralization assayed: Gold, 0.30 oz. per ton; silver, 16.8 oz.
per ton;  copper, trace;  lead, 16 per cent.; zinc, 6 per cent.
Twenty feet below this cut an open-cut 14 feet long continuing in an adit 18 feet long
and bearing south 89 degrees east had been made with the idea of intersecting the shear.
The working is adjacent to the feldspar-porphyry dyke and follows a cross-fracture. Some
patches of quartz and calcite veinlets are seen in the pyritized tuffs exposed in this working.
A crew of four men was employed on this work, but at the time of examination (September
15th) the adit had not progressed far enough to intersect possible continuity of the shear.
This group, owned by Fitzgerald Bros., of Hyder, Alaska, is situated on the
Silver Basin, east side of the Salmon River glacier, on the westerly slope of Missouri, ridge
about 20 miles from Stewart, Portland Canal Mining Division, and adjoins,
the Hercules group on the west, the Rambler claim of the Big Missouri holdings, and the
Day No. 3 claim of the Day group. The property is reached by motor-road to the Big Missouri,
a distance of 18 miles, from where a trail continues for about 2 miles along the east side of
the Big Missouri ridge to its crest at an elevation of 3,500 feet and descends to the showings
on the westerly ridge-slope to the Salmon glacier. In former years a little work was done
on silver-lead-zinc mineralization occurring in a shattered zone in argillite on the Silver Basin
claims just above the glacier. This showing occurs on the north wall of a small canyon in-
the steep hill-slope to the glacier.
Recent work has been done on showings located at a higher elevation towards the southeast corner of Last Chance No. 1 claim, situated south-east of the Silver Basin claims. These
were examined in 1934 but have not as yet been described. The topography of the immediate
locality is a rugged, hillocked, and ridged area varying from 3,000 to 3,500 feet in general
The showings are distributed over a gently sloping, meadowed, lightly timbered, knolled,
and bluffed section of the westerly ridge-slope. The rocks are mainly andesitic tuffs, with
possibly some porphyries, of the upper Bear River series (Hazelton group), close to and
easterly from the contact of these rocks with the overlying upper Jurassic sediments of the
Salmon River and Nass series.
The mineral deposits consist of siliceous replacements in tuffs, generally sparsely
mineralized in places with pyrite, some chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena. These appear
to follow structures striking generally north-easterly and dipping from 50 to 70 degrees
north-westerly. The most definitely defined structure observed outcrops in a creek-draw at
an elevation of 3,325 feet, on which an open-cut exposed a width of 7 feet of silicified tuff and
quartz stringers, sparsely mineralized with pyrite, some sphalerite and galena. Several
adjacent quartz stringers indicated a more extended width of silicification than exposed in
the cut.
At an elevation of 3,350 feet, about 500 feet north 31 degrees west from this cut, an
open-cut exposes silicified tuff 6 feet wide, with some pyrite mineralization. At an elevation
of 3,325 feet and about 300 feet south 69 degrees west from this an open-cut exposes a silicified
shear-zone 5 feet wide mineralized with pyrite, some galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite.
At an elevation of 3,275 feet and about 100 feet south-westerly from this cut a similar occurrence is exposed by a small open-cut. At elevations of 3,225 and 3,255 feet and about 150 feet
south 80 degrees west from this cut an open-cut exposes a similar occurrence. About 100 feet
southerly from this an adit has been driven north 64 degrees east for 20 feet with the objective
of intersecting silicified tuffs exposed on the bluff 30 feet above. About 600 feet south-easterly
at an elevation of 3,200 feet several small open-cuts expose silicified tuffs with quartz and
calcite stringers, sparsely mineralized with pyrite, some sphalerite and galena over a width
of 15 feet. A sample across 5 feet of the best mineralization exposed in these cuts assayed:
Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton;   silver, 0.6 oz. per ton. NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 1). B 7
Further work was carried out on these showings during the season of 1935, but this was
not examined.
Unuk River Area.
The Unuk river and its tributaries drain an area of about 850 square miles in the Coast
mountains in the region of latitude 56 degrees 30 minutes and longitude 130 degrees 30 minutes.
The mouth of the Unuk river at Burroughs bay, Alaska, is 124 miles north-westerly from
Prince Rupert. The barrier of ice on the summit between the Unuk river and the Salmon-
Bowser troughs prohibits efficient or convenient accessibility into the Unuk area from the
latter valleys except by means of aeroplane. The only possible route from this side would
be along the Bowser River trough to Treaty creek, from the headwaters of which there is a
comparatively low and glacier-free pass to the headwaters of Ketchum creek, a north-easterly
branch of the Unuk river, a total distance of about 50 miles from Tide lake, or about 85 miles
from Tidewater at Stewart. ,
The natural route into the area is up the Unuk River valley through Alaskan territory.
The mouth of the Unuk river may be reached by coastwise steamers from Prince Rupert to
Ketchikan, a distance of 98 miles, and from thence by launch to Matney's ranch at the river-
mouth, a distance of" 75 miles. It is stressed that on account of the involved hazards no
individuals, unless they are thoroughly experienced in swift-water navigation and have
intimate knowledge of this particular stream, should undertake the navigation of the Unuk
river alone. For navigation up the Unuk river especially constructed flat-bottomed shovel-
nose river-boats powered with outboard motors are required.
The river is navigable to the first canyon, a distance of about 16 miles from Matney's ranch
at the mouth. This stretch can be covered in one day. At favourable stages of water the
First canyon is also navigable to near its head, where a sharp bend in the upper river-channel
produces an extremely dangerous overfall and whirlpool. Navigation is at its best when the
ice goes out in the early spring, usually about the beginning of May. At about the middle
of November navigation begins to be impeded by ice. During part of the winter, dog-team
transportation over the frozen river may be possible. Except under very favourable conditions, the stretch of the river between the First canyon and the Boundary, a distance of
about 7 miles, is not navigable and can only be negotiated by means of continuous and arduous
" lining."
Starting at the International boundary, a trail extends for a distance of approximately
17 miles along the west bank of the river to a point about lVz miles above Sulphurets creek.
Along this trail convenient cable crossings have been constructed across Harrymel (North
Fork) creek, across the Fourth canyon to the south side of Sulphurets creek, and across
Ketchum creek 1% miles above this creek.
Accommodation at the mouth of the river can be arranged with Messrs. McQuillan and
King and farm produce may be procured from the ranch of Harvey Matney.
Arrangements for transportation up the river can be made with Messrs. McQuillan and
King or Bruce and Jack Johnstone, of Ketchikan, who are familiar with the intricate, swift-
water navigation of the stream. Quoted rates covering people and freight are 9 cents per
pound to the Boundary and 16 cents per pound from the Boundary to Sulphurets creek. With
the completion of trail facilities and the planned introduction of pack-horses, rates from the
Boundary on may be proportionately reduced.
On the Alaskan side of the Boundary, camps and cabins are situated at the mouth of the
river, at 12 miles, and at the mouth of the First canyon. On the British Columbia side of the
Boundary T. S. McQuillan has established cabins at the Boundary, the head of Third canyon,
the mouth of Fewright creek (2), and at the mouth of the Fourth canyon below Sulphurets
creek. In the upper area on Ketchum creek a cabin (" Jimmy the Bear ") is located on the
west bank about 6 miles above Sulphurets creek, and the Mackay Syndicate has constructed
cabins at the 'foot of Prout plateau about 8 miles north of Sulphurets creek. These cabins
are indicated on the accompanying map.
Very little is known about climatic conditions in the Unuk River area. The part under
discussion lies within the central and eastern part of the Coast mountains and rainfall is therefore less than on the west or coast side. Reliable reports indicate comparatively low winter
temperatures but moderate snowfall. Excellent stands of spruce, hemlock, cedar, balsam, and cottonwood are seen on the
hilllocked and benched areas adjacent to the river-bank. In some sections dense growths of
underbrush, especially " devil's-club," blueberries, and salmon-berries, thrive.
Spawning salmon of various varieties were observed in Ketchum creek as far inland and
slightly beyond the mouth of Sam Coulter creek in the headwaters section. Border creek and
lake are remarkable for the number and variety of salmon and Dolly Varden and cut-throat
trout. Numbers of a small variety of Dolly Varden trout were observed in some of the clear
spring streams along the east bank of the main river above the junction of Ketchum creek.
Many fur-bearing animals, especially mink and martin, are reported by T. S. McQuillan and
several fine specimens of mink were seen. Geese and ducks frequent the slough areas and
lakes, especially Border lake. Wolves and bear, both black and grizzly, are frequently seen.
Moose are scarce, but a few are to be found, especially in the fiat area between the main stream
and Sulphurets creek. Mountain-goat are plentiful in the higher altitudes. Some grouse were
seen, but they are generally rare. With the exception of fish and possibly mountain-goat,
edible game is, however, comparatively scarce and prospectors are warned not to rely on this
means of subsistence.
The Ketchum Creek fork of the Unuk river rises in a comparatively low divide of approximately 3,500 feet elevation at the westerly edge of the Interior Plateaux country and the main
stream in its central part cross-sections the Coast mountains. The main tributaries feeding
it have their source in glacier-tongues connected with continuous ice-fields of the mountainous
and rugged Coast mountains. With the exception of four canyons, the main stream occupies
a bed from % to 1 mile wide and is featured by innumerable shallow, fast-flowing and
continuously changing channels separated by sand and gravel bars and many small islands.
The valley of the river varies from about 1 to 2 miles in width. The chief tributaries,
Harrymel, Ketchum, and Sulphurets creeks, are extensive and rapid streams, with equivalent
and greater volume of water and valley-width in comparison to the Bear and Salmon rivers
of the Portland Canal area.
Densely timbered and rugged mountain-slopes terminating in domed ridges and precipitous peaks that vary from approximately 6,000 to 8,000 feet altitude confine the valley-trough.
Continuous glacier-fields feature the tops of the mountain ranges on both sides of the river.
The physical features of the Unuk river are typical of the larger glacier-fed streams of
the north Pacific area that have cut their way through the Coast mountains to the sea. Large
quantities of silt, continuously carried down from the upper ridges, have resulted in numerous
bars, sloughs, low-lying islands flooded at high water, and a network of channels. From the
mouth to the International boundary the river has a gradient of about 15 feet to the mile.
From this point to Sulphurets creek the gradient steepens to about 27 feet to the mile and
river conditions generally preclude any navigation of the stream except by means of practically
incessant lining.
Many small streams flow into the Unuk river from both banks. The most important
tributaries in British Columbia territory are Border, Len King, Ellison (Canyon), Fewright
(Glacier), Harrymel, Ketchum, and Sulphurets creeks. These tributaries and subsidiary
creeks all offer the best means of access to prospecting of the area.
During 1934 the writer entered the headwaters area by aeroplane from Stewart and in
1935, after a preliminary reconnaissance by aeroplane, the area was entered by way of the
river to the International boundary, and from there by foot up the main river and its chief
No topographical or geological mapping has been done in this area. The nearest section
mapped by the Geological Survey of Canada is the adjoining Salmon River area to the southeast, which is described in Memoir 132, 1922; Summary Report, 1931, Part A; and in Memoir
175, 1935.
On account of the increasing interest in the north-westerly extension from the Salmon
River district of the eastern contact area of the Coast Range batholith an examination of the
Unuk River area was deemed advisable. As very little was known about the mineral possibilities of this area, a rough geological map of the section was made with the object of showing
the relative areas of igneous and sedimentary rocks. These factors are incorporated in the
accompanying sketch-map, which it is hoped will furnish a working basis for prospectors and
others interested. Recent lava flows
|.,.,   Unconsolidated deposits
l-':':'■";"• I   (Sand and gravel)
nnrpn  Coast Range Intrusives.
l>LlJJ  granite, granodionte, quartz diorite, etc
te,sandstone,quartzite,some tuff
fe^l  Limestone
Mainly igneous rocks:
volcan ic tuffs and flows,some sediments
Geological boundary (defined)
\ys\   Bedding (inclined, vertical)
EH3   Trail
F^m   Glacier
Contours (500 feet)
BO Department of Mines. 1935
Geological Sketch-map of Unuk River Area. NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 1). B 9
The first discovery of mineral in the area is credited to a prospector named O'Hara, who
is said to have come out of the Unuk in 1893 with placer gold. As a result of this several
prospectors are reported to have outfitted at an old fishing camp named Loring, about 20 miles
from the present site of Ketchikan, Alaska, and entered the Unuk River country in 1894.
Some extensive cuts in bench-gravels are still to be seen at the mouth of Mitchell creek, and
at this spot, in comparatively good condition, is an old cabin. Over its door is an inscription:
" F. E. Gingras, H. W. Ketchum, C. W. Mitchell, 1898." At the mouth of Sulphurets creek
and around Mitchell creek scattered decayed remnants of several old-timers' cabins and a few
crude tools were found in the dense forest underbrush.
A few sketchy reports concerning the area indicate that some fairly extensive development
was done between the years 1900-1903. In 1900 the Unuk River Mining and Dredging Company purchased a group of five claims from Ceperley, Rounsefell & Company, of Victoria.
In the British Columbia Minister of Mines' Annual Report for 1901 a reference is made to the
Globe and Cumberland groups, and in 1903 the construction of a wagon-road by the Unuk
River Mining, Smelting,- and Transportation Company was started from Tidewater on
Burroughs bay to the Cumberland group on Sulphurets creek. This road was completed to
the " Landing " at the head of Third canyon, a total distance of about 31 miles from seaboard,
of which about 6 miles was in British Columbia.
Machinery destined for the Cumberland group never reached the property and its rusted
remains are to be seen scattered along the remnants of the old road. Erosive action of the
river, undergrowth, and windfalls have practically obliterated the old road, with the exception
of a few sections, the longest of which is in British Columbia.
In 1905 F. E. Wright, of the United States Geological Survey, visited the Unuk River area
in connection with his work on the Alaskan side and submitted a short report to the Canadian
Government. In 1920 George Clothier, of the British Columbia Department of Mines, travelled
up the river to the International boundary.
Doubtless, owing to difficulties and hazards of transportation, no further interest, with
the exception of that of one or two trappers, was displayed in the area from about 1903 to
1929, when some cursory prospecting was done by Thomas McQuillan and T. Terwilligen, of
Ketchikan. In 1930 Arthur Skelhorne and Terwilligen, prospecting for the Mining Corporation of Canada, explored the area up Lake Creek valley and down Gracey creek to the Globe
group on the main river. In 1931, 1932, and 1935 Ted Morris, a Stewart prospector, crossed
the glacier-covered divide from Bowser river into the headwaters section of the Unuk. In 1932
a prosnecting expedition into the Ketchum Creek area, with the aid of aeroplane transportation
from Stewart, was undertaken by T. S. Mackay, A. H. Melville, and W. A. Prout, representing
a syndicate of Premier, British Columbia, interests. This resulted in the discovery of a wide
area of mineralization in which gold values occur. Further exploration of these discoveries
was carried out by the MacKay Syndicate during 1933 and 1934, and in 1935 by the Premier
Gold Mining Company. This activity was accompanied by the influx of other prospectors
from Stewart and Prince Rupert and the staking of several more groups of claims in the
headwaters area. Durina: 1934 and 1935 T. A. McQuillan, G. E. King, Bruce and Jack Johnstone, of Ketchikan, Alaska, also entered the section by means of river navigation from
seaboard and staked several groups of claims in the central part of the area.
The Unuk river cuts across the Coast Range batholith, the eastern contact being about
3% miles north-east of the International boundary. At this point the batholith plunges
easterly under a sedimentary and igneous rock-complex, the contact, strike north-westerly,
crossing the river at the mouth of Ellison creek. Recent lava-flows cover Ellison Creek valley-
bottom and were observed along the length of First, Second, and Third canyons. The geology
of the headwaters area is described in the 1934 Annual Report.
In the lower and central sections of the drainage-troughs examined in 1935 the sediments
consist mainly of dark-coloured calcareous argillite. Towards the confluence of Gracey creek
and the main river a wide band of limestone, strike north-westerly, dip 60 degrees north-east,
extends from the vicinity of the headwaters of the Unuk to somewhere on the summit between
the Unuk river and Gracev creek. The argillaceous sediments of the Ketchum Creek section
(1934 report) differ from those of the lower area, in that they are darker or black in colour,
are intercalated with tuff-beds, and grade into a sandy complex. In general the sediments
of the lower and central areas are severely disturbed and folded.    At the easterly end of B 10 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
Sulphurets Creek canyon the sediments are vertical and towards the mouth of Fewright creek
severe and intricate folding is evident. In the vicinity of the batholith and other intrusive
contacts the argillites are silicified and cherty and in places epidote and biotite are developed.
The development of pyrite in the argillites and the resultant rusty, weathered outcrops
are also evident around igneous contacts. In places, notably on the south side of Sulphurets
creek in the area of Bejay and Jayjay creeks, the argillites are schistose.
The older rocks of the lower and central area are a complex of tuffs and crystalline rocks
mainly andesitic in type. The tuffs are generally calcareous, fine-grained and dense in texture,
and purplish, greenish, and dark grey in colour. The crystalline rocks are dense holocrystal-
line and porphyritic in texture, and greenish, greenish-brown, and grey in colour. A definitely
porphyritic phase occurs at the head of Sulphurets creek and holocrystalline rocks are found
between LaBrant and Gracey creeks. Structural evidence and texture indicate that the
crystalline group of older igneous rocks consists of lava-flows and intrusives. The contacts
of these rocks with the sediments are unconformable. Tongues of igneous rocks cut the
Gracey Creek limestone and epidote and garnet are developed in the contact-zone. They were
observed cutting the sediments at the head of Divelbliss creek, on the east bank of the Unuk
near the mouth of Gracey creek, south of Sulphurets Creek mouth, and east of the confluence
of Len King and Harrymel creeks.
Dykes of various kinds and sizes, granitic bosses and stocks which are satellitic to the
batholith, intrude the older sedimentary and igneous complexes. Such bosses are seen at the
heads of Divelbliss and LaBrant creeks, also westerly and northerly from Harrymel creek,
an outstanding example being Mount Helen.
Mineralization is widespread in the area. Although general geological conditions are
favourable for the occurrence of mineral deposits, some sections are more favourable for gold
deposits than others. Mineral deposits of the Ketchum Creek area are described in the 1934
Annual Report. Fractures striking generally north-easterly are characteristic of the lower
and central sections.
Well-mineralized float is common in the creek-beds, especially on Sulphurets and the
upper stretches of the main stream. This varies from small pebbles to fair-sized boulders
and consists of quartzose material containing mainly pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and in some instances tetrahedrite (grey copper). Close to the mouth of
Sulphurets Creek canyon, in a pebble 4 inches long, native gold was observed in association
with pyrite, galena, and sphalerite. An average sample from a boulder in the bed of Divelbliss
(Cabin) creek about a quarter of a mile above its mouth assayed: Gold, 0.20 oz. per ton;
silver, 6 oz. per ton; copper, nil; lead, 16 per cent. The sand-bars at the mouth of Sulphurets
creek and above the canyon contain abundant alluvial pyrite. A composite sample of this
material assayed:  Gold, 0.03 oz. per ton;  silver, trace;  copper, trace;  lead, nil'; zinc, nil.
Mineral discoveries have been made in several places and many claims staked. Those
in the headwaters section are described in the 1934 Annual Report. From the upper end of
Sulphurets Creek canyon at about Jayjay creek to Mitchell creek, a distance of about 3 miles,
gold-bearing gravels are known to occur on low benches. The gravels are somewhat rusty
in colour. Very little prospecting has been done and it is not known whether the old-timers'
workings penetrated to bed-rock.
The Johnstone Bros, prospected reconcentrations around the mouth of Bejay and Jayjay
creeks. Several creek claims and leaseholds have been staked on these deposits as well as on
those between the mouth and canyon of Mitchell creek. The heavy timber on this bench-
ground and the probable presence of boulders would make operations somewhat difficult.
The Ketchikan interests controlling this ground plan its further exploration by test-pitting and
by drilling with an " Aeroplane " Keystone drill which is at present being transported to the
On the Gold Run group on Geking creek a narrow gold-bearing quartz vein mineralized
with pyrite, galena, and sphalerite has been discovered in granitic rocks. On the Unuk Jumbo
group, on the west side of the Unuk and 1 mile south of LaBrant creek, an extensive contact-
metamorphic zone is reported to have been discovered. The oxidized outcrop of this zone can
be seen along the face of precipitous bluffs. Quartz veins with sulphide mineralization carrying
gold values have been discovered on the old Globe group of claims, Crown-granted in 1902, on
the west side of the Unuk, about 1 mile above Divelbliss creek. On the newly located Florence group, 1 mile south of the Globe, the discovery of a wide
quartz vein mineralized with pyrite, chalcopyrite, and galena with gold values is reported.
At the head of Sulphurets creek an extensive area of pyritic mineralization occurs. In this
section zones containing quartz veins of the replacement-type were discovered and claims staked
on them in 1935. The Big Showing group in this area is described in detail. The old Cumberland group of claims, Crown-granted in 1902, situated near the mouth of Sulphurets creek, is
also described in detail. Subsequent to the present reconnaissance, claims were also staked on
visible oxidized outcrops on the south-westerly ridge of Twin John mountain. Prominent
oxidized outcrops also occur in the canyon of Mitchell creek about 1 mile above its mouth.
Decayed posts indicate that this may at one time have been staked by the " old-timers."
Oxidized outcrops are also plainly visible along the northerly edge of the Gracey Creek
limestone-belt. Several prominent rusty outcrops are also seen in the areas adjacent to the
granitic bosses around the heads of LaBrant and Divelbliss creeks.
Possibilities for the occurrence of lode-gold deposits are in the areas of igneous rocks
indicated on the accompanying map, and especially in the vicinity of the granitic boss between
Mount Madge and Unuk Finger mountain, as well as in the vicinity of the granitic boss around
the head of Divelbliss creek.
This group, sometimes referred to as the Daly group, consists of the Cumber-
Cumberland. land, Silver Pine, Middlesex, Xyphis, and Ougma Crown-granted claims and
is owned by George E. Olmsted, Madison and Walnut streets, Danville, 111.
The property is situated on the Mount Madge ridge-slope to the south side of Sulphurets creek,
about 2 miles from its mouth. The main showings are at elevations of 1,200 and 1,350 feet.
Densely timbered and rugged slopes rise to the crest of the ridge, which is about 5,500 feet in
elevation. The ridge-crest continues easterly for about 2 miles and then rises abruptly to the
precipitous triangular peak of Mount Madge, the elevation of which is approximately 7,500 feet.
The property is reached by trail to the mouth of Sulphurets creek. The old trails that
once extended up the mountain-slope to the property are now so densely overgrown that the
easiest route through the " bush " is followed.
The property was staked about 1898 by H. W. Ketchum, who later in association with a
man named Daly and with Ceperley, Rounsefell & Company, of Victoria, sold the claims in
1900 to the Unuk River Mining and Dredging Company, of which E. Olmsted was secretary.
During the subsequent two years some development-work was carried out on the property and
in 1903 the construction of a wagon-road from Burroughs bay was started. The attempt to
transport machinery to the property failed and operations ceased. In 1931 the group was
purchased by the present owner at a tax sale, but no further work has been done. At an
elevation of 1,400 feet and about 300 feet westerly from the upper adit the decayed remains of
a bunk-house and assay office overgrown by dense underbrush may be seen.
The rocks of the locality include argillites and dense andesitic tuffs and lavas intruded
by several light-coloured siliceous dykes and lamprophyre dykes. The mineral deposits occur
close to the contacts of the sediments and volcanics and have been developed by two short adits.
The mineral deposits include two types:—
(1.) A sheared fissure-vein mineralized with quartz, calcite, barite, pvrite, galena,
sphalerite, stibnite, tetrahedrite (grey copper), and argentite. The values are mainly in
(2.) A quartz replacement-zone mineralized mainly with pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite,
sphalerite, and galena, and carrying appreciable gold values.
At an elevation of 1,200 feet a sheared and brecciated zone intersected by a lamprophyre
dyke occurs in volcanics. The zone strikes north 39 degrees west, dips steeply north-easterly,
and contains small and irregular lenses and stringers of quartz, barite, and calcite. With the
exception of some pyrite, the zone is practically barren of sulphide mineralization where
exposed. On the north side of the dyke an adit, timbered for 20 feet from the portal, has
been driven for 51 feet in a direction south 39 degrees east. An irregular quartz vein up to
10 inches in width, also some barren quartz and calcite patches and stringers, are seen in this
adit between the timbering and the face. The latter is in crushed rock with a few horizontal
seams of calcite. A slip striking north and dipping a few degrees east crosses the working
about 15 feet from the face. The presence in a near-by small dump of cobbed vein material
of quartz, calcite, and barite gangue well mineralized with pyrite, galena, sphalerite, tetra- hedrite (grey copper), stibnite, and some argentite indicates that some mineralization occurred
in this working. The location of this mineralization may now be obscured by the timbering.
A grab sample taken from the dump assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz.; silver, 104.6 oz. per ton; copper,
0.5 per cent.; lead, 8 per cent.; zinc, 4 per cent. A reported dump of 20 tons of similar
mineralization prepared for shipment could not be located.
At an elevation of 1,350 feet, several hundred feet north-easterly from this showing, a zone
containing quartz veins of the replacement-type over a width of 20 to 30 feet outcrops up the
face of a bluff which slopes at 70 degrees to the canyon of Sulphurets creek 500 feet below.
The rusty outcrop can be plainly traced down the bluff-face for about 150 feet and is a
prominent feature of the landscape when viewed from the north side of Sulphurets creek.
The zone, striking north 15 degrees west and dipping 70 degrees east, occurs in a dense, highly
altered and generally silicified volcanic rock. At the top of the bluff a deep open-cut continued
as an adit follows the foot-wall of the zone for 30 feet and then crosscuts it for 21 feet in a
direction of south 64 degrees east. In this working veinlets and replacement-lenses of quartz
are accompanied by stringers, patches and disseminations of chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, pyrite,
sphalerite, and galena. A representative sample taken from a dump of about 15 tons at the
portal of the adit assayed: Gold, 0.26 oz. per ton; silver, 2.4 oz. per ton; copper, 0.3 per cent.;
lead, 3 per cent.;  zinc, 10 per cent.
This group consists of the Big Showing No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, No. U, No. 5,
Big Showing. Cedar, and Summit No. 1 and No. 2 mineral claims, staked in the summer
of 1935. The group is owned by Bruce and Jack Johnstone, Ketchikan,
Alaska, who, it is understood, staked some adjoining claims in the autumn. The property is
located on the north side of the head of Sulphurets creek, about 12% miles from its mouth,
and is reached by following an indistinctly blazed trapper's trail along the north side of the
creek. The source of Sulphurets creek is in a glacier-filled basin about 4 miles long and from
% to 1% miles wide.
The rocks of the locality are pyritized tuffs intruded by andesites in part porphyritic.
The mineral deposit consists of a silicified zone from 200 to about 300 feet wide in the andesites
adjacent to their contact with the tuffs. The zone contains quartz and calcite stringers,
numerous areas replaced by quartz accompanied by both massive and disseminated, fine-grained
pyrite. A few small crystals of arsenopyrite and some specks of chalcopyrite also occur in
the quartz veinlets. The zone forms a very prominent feature of the north side of Sulphurets
Creek glacier. Starting on the steep bluff-face above the end moraine, its rusty outcrop can
be seen striking about north 70 degrees east and apparently dipping steeply south-east. It
maintains this strike for about 2 miles and then it appears to trend about north 45 degrees east.
No work has as yet been done on this zone and, on account of its lateral and horizontal
extent, even adequate preliminary sampling would require extensive open-cutting and channelling. A chip sample across a section 50 feet wide assayed: Gold, trace; silver, 1 oz. per ton.
This section contains quartz veinlets and stringers and small amounts of chalcopyrite and
In the neighbourhood of Brucejack lake, at the head of Sulphurets creek, the Johnstone
Bros, have also discovered a deposit of barite.    This was not examined.
McDame Creek Area, Dease River.
This area is on the Arctic slope. McDame creek flows into the Dease river on its left bank,
about 60 miles north-easterly from Dease lake.
The area is reached by regular steamer service to Wrangell, Alaska, from where the
Stikine river is navigated by the river-boat service of the Barrington Transportation Company
as far as Telegraph Creek. Rates for this service are: Passengers, up-river $35, down-river
$5; freight, about $40 per ton. A motor-road 72 miles in length crosses the divide to the
Arctic slope close to Dease lake, and connects Telegraph Creek with Dease Landing on Dease
lake. The journey from Dease Landing down Dease river to McDame Post, a distance of about
70 miles, is made by small flat-bottomed powered river-boats. From McDame Post a good
wagon-road suitable for light motor-trucks extends up McDame creek from McDame Post to NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 1). B 13
within 3 miles of Centreville;   from the end of this road a good pack-horse trail extends to
" Quartz City " on Quartz creek, a total distance of about 32 miles.
To supply their trading-posts at Dease Landing, McDame Post, and Liard Post, the
Hudson's Bay Company operates a freighting service by tractor and trailer between Telegraph
Creek and Dease lake. From thence down Dease lake, the Dease and Liard rivers, a boat of
5 tons capacity is navigated by the Hope & Marion transportation system. The rates are
as follows:—
Passengers (to McDame Post), $10 per passenger and 50 lb. of baggage (board yourself).
Freight:   Telegraph Creek to Dease Landing, 4 cents per pound;   Dease Landing to
McDame Post, 3 cents per pound;  Dease Landing to Liard Post, 6 cents per pound.
The time involved in travelling is: Wrangell to Telegraph Creek, from 2 to 3 days;
Telegraph Creek to Wrangell, 1 day; Telegraph Creek to Dease Landing, 1 day (dependent
on road conditions) ; Dease Landing to McDame Post, 1 day; McDame Post to Liard Post,
1 day.
Coming up the river from Liard Post the time involved is: Liard Post to McDame Post,
2% days;   McDame Post to Dease Landing, 2 days.
Transportation up the Stikine river from Wrangell by the Barrington Transportation
Company begins about the middle of May; the time is, of course, dependent upon ice conditions.
The beginning of lake and river transportation from Dease Landing depends upon the freedom
of Dease Lake from ice and the first trip is usually about the middle of June.
Supplies can be purchased locally from the Hudson's Bay stores at Telegraph Creek, Dease
Landing, McDame Post, and Liard Post.
At Dease Landing R. F. Latimer also conducts a well-supplied store and furnishes hotel
accommodation.    Hudson's Bay quotations for supplies are as follows:—
Telegraph Creek—
Flour (100 lb.)   $6.90
Beans (per lb.)        .11
Rice (per lb.)        .08%
Fruits, dried (per lb.)  (average)        .20
Tobacco (tin)  (about city prices)     1.80
Tea (per lb.)        .50-.70
Canned fruit (2-lb. cans)       ,25-,35
Jams (4-lb. cans)       .75-85
Bacon (per lb.)       .45
Butter (canned)  ,       .45
Gasoline (case)      6.50
Coffee (per lb.)       .55-.65
Lubricating-oil (gal.) (about)     1.75
Dried milk (per lb.)       .50
Lard (per lb.)       .25-.30
Baking-powder (12 oz.)       .25-35
Syrup (5 lb.)       .75
Salt (per lb.)        .07
Pepper (spices), two for        .25
Soap (cake or bar)        .10
To these costs add, for Dease Landing, 4% cents per pound; for McDame Post, 8 cents
per pound;  for Liard Post, 11% cents per pound.
The Provincial Police established a post at McDame Post during 1935 in charge of
Constable R. J. Meek. A radio broadcasting set is installed here and, in this isolated locality,
is proving very useful. At Dease Landing an amateur broadcasting set is also operated by
R. F. Latimer.
The area is situated in the dry belt of the Interior Plateaux country and has a rainfall
of approximately 25 inches per annum. The snowfall is light and does not exceed an average
of from 3 to 4 feet. Winter temperatures are low, with probably an extreme average of about
20 degrees below zero, but the ground is not permanently frozen. No glaciers occur in the area.
During the summer months comparatively high, but not excessive, temperatures prevail in the
daytime, but the nights are usually cool. B  14
u. K C'E i, 3 c
0©®@®@© NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 1). B 15
Hardy vegetables can be cultivated to maturity and wild berries grow in abundance,
especially soap-olallie, saskatoon, and cranberry; the obnoxious devil's-cfub of the coastal areas
is absent here. The lower valley-slopes support open woods of spruce up to about 18 inches
in diameter, pine, balsam, larch, and birch, but the valley-bottoms contain alder and willow.
Moose, mountain-goat, mountain-sheep, grouse, ducks, and geese thrive and are numerous,
but caribou, rabbits, and grizzly bear are few. Grayling, trout, whitefish, and pike are
abundant in the Dease river and lakes. Mosquitoes and black-flies are very plentiful during
the summer months.
The area occupies part of an upland plateau varying in average elevation from 2,500 to
4,000 feet. The bare peaks and ridges of the Cassiar mountain range rise above the plateau
to altitudes which vary from approximately 5,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation. The area is
situated at the north-easterly margin of this range. Dissecting the plateau is the main
drainage system of the Dease river, flowing into the Liard river in a general north-easterly
direction. McDame creek is a major tributary of the Dease river and flows in a general west
to east direction, draining an area of about 350 square miles. The elevation at the mouth,
at McDame Post, is 2,420 feet above sea-level, and at Snow creek, about 25 miles up the creek
from McDame Post, it is approximately 3,000 feet above sea-level, and the head of the main
valley is about 3,250 feet in elevation; this is at Lang lake in Machita pass, which leads to
the Cottonwood valley. The tributaries of Lang, Trout, and Quartz creeks drain an extensive
section north-westerly from the main valley.
The Dease River trough is a broad drift-filled valley, rock-outcrops being scarce along the
stretch from Dease lake to McDame Post. The average gradient of the valley is low. McDame
Creek valley is a deeply entrenched, partly drift-filled depression from a half to three-quarters
of a mile wide in the lower section between McDame Post and Snow creek. Above Snow creek
the gradient of the stream flattens perceptibly and the valley broadens into a basin about 9 by
9 miles in extent. The main tributaries, Lang creek, Trout creek, and Quartz creek, each in
well-defined valleys, flow into the north-westerly quadrant of this basin.
Placer gold was discovered in McDame creek in 1874 and up to 1895 the yield was
$1,597,500 (?). Subsequent to that date placer-mining declined and only minor quantities of
gold were produced. Although several lode claims were staked during the early period, only
meagre lode-prospecting and no lode-mining was done. In the British Columbia Minister of
Mines' Annual Report for 1931 placer operations are described in detail and the lode-gold
possibilities of the area are indicated. In subsequent Annual Reports the eastern contact
margin of the Cassiar batholith has been recommended to prospectors as a favourable area
for the occurrence of lode-gold deposits.
In 1934 J. F. Callison visited the area from Fort Nelson and prospected the prominent
zone of quartz veins in Quartz Creek canyon, from which occurrence this creek derives its name.
These veins are mentioned in the 1931 Annual Report. Callison discovered native gold in these
and other quartz veins and subsequently prospected them. The news of these discoveries
resulted in a small rush into the area in the autumn and winter of 1934 and by October,
1935, about 350 claims had been staked. The discovery of sparsely distributed native gold on
some of these claims sustained and increased local interest. Many of these claims had been
staked for speculative purposes by agents of outside people. At the time of this examination
in July about thirty men were in the section. Very little work had been done or was in progress
other than general prospecting and small amounts of open-cutting and stripping on some of
the main showings. This limitation of work was mainly due to lack of funds and to the fact
that no powder was available in the section.
The McDame Creek trough extends easterly from the eastern contact of the Cassiar
batholith. Lang Lake, at the head of the main valley, is about 2 miles east from the contact.
The rocks of the lower and central sections are mainly of metamorphic and sedimentary
character and consist of brownish-coloured and thinly bedded shale and slate, greyish-coloured
sandy argillite, quartzite, limestone, dolomite, calcareous schists, and some calcareous tuff-beds.
Argillaceous and calcareous sediments, including some bedded tuffs, occur at the higher elevations encircling the headwaters basin-area of McDame creek. A complex of dense altered
andesitic flow-rocks and an altered series of rocks that are probably intrusives underlie the
low-lying hillocked basin. The andesitic flows are greenish to grey-brown in colour, fine
textured and highly altered, carbonatization being the dominant feature of the alteration. The intrusives are of a granitic to a coarse diabasic texture, are altered to varying degrees
and grade in composition from dacite to augite porphyry.
All the 1934 and 1935 discoveries of quartz veins have been made in the igneous rock-
complex underlying the wide basin-area of the headwaters section of McDame creek. In this
section isolated quartz veins and zones of veins, sometimes of very appreciable width, commonly occur in the andesitic flows, dacite and augite porphyry. They occur chiefly in the
andesitic flows and are apparently localized at or near the contacts of these with the dacite-
augite porphyry complex.
The known vein systems may occupy three fairly parallel fracture-zones, each several
hundred feet wide and about 2 miles apart and striking north-easterly. Intermittent quartz-
outcrops of generally appreciable width and fair continuity occur, as well as smaller, isolated
vein systems laterally to the main zones. The southerly vein system occurs in the locality
of McDame lake. The central vein system outcrops about 3 miles up Snow creek on the
Snow Creek group, crosses the Red Rock group in the canyon of Quartz creek at its confluence
with Trout creek, and probably continues as the vein system on the George and Paige groups
to the south-west, a total distance of approximately 5 miles. The northerly vein system is
exposed on the Hopeful group on the north side of Trout creek, on the Mac group about 1%
miles north-easterly, and on the Cornucopia group about 1 mile north-easterly of the Mac, a
total distance of approximately 2% miles. The central vein system is probably the most
extensive of the three series. The quartz occurs in the zones as lenses usually of fair length,
appreciable width and frequency, and accompanied by numerous smaller connecting veins and
stringers which branch in various attitudes from the main quartz-masses.
Mineralization is sparse in the quartz-outcrops and these are generally excessively leached.
In some cases honeycomb-structure and angular cavities indicate the pre-existence of sulphide
minerals, and in a few instances of stripping and open-cutting a little pyrite and tetrahedrite
has been found in the veins. Small particles of native gold and a few occurrences of coarser
specks are seen, mainly in the honeycombed quartz of the smaller veins and especially where
residual limonite is present, indicating a previous association of gold and pyrite. Although
such occurrences of native gold were seen in several outcrops, they are comparatively rare.
Because of the indication that gold values are or have been mainly associated with sulphide
mineralization and because the unmineralized quartz is generally barren of values, the commercial importance of the quartz veins is mainly dependent upon the discovery and development
of a gold-bearing sulphide mineralization sufficiently extensive to constitute ore-shoots.
Available time did not permit examination of every quartz-exposure and claim-group in
the area. To exemplify the areal occurrence, however, the chief exposures and groups were
examined. Only exposures of mineralized quartz were sampled and where native gold was
observed it is mentioned.
This group of six claims and about seventeen adjoining claims is owned by
Snow Creek.     F. Crawford, of McDame Creek, and associates.    The property is located
on the southerly slope of Snow mountain, about 2 miles up Snow creek on
the north side of McDame creek, and is reached by a trail connecting with the main McDame
Creek trail.
The rocks of the locality constitute a complex of altered andesitic flows and altered,
probably intrusive, dacite. Alteration is more complete in the andesitic flows; however, in
both rock-types it is mainly carbonatization accompanied by the development of lesser amounts
of epidote, chlorite, and kaolin.
At an elevation of 3,650 feet approximately parallel quartz veins traverse two belts of
highly carbonatized and oxidized andesitic flows respectively 160 feet and over 130 feet wide,
which are separated by a band of a dense greenish mixture of andesitic flows and dacite that
is 200 feet wide. These showings outcrop on the steep westerly bank of Snow creek, but have
not been traced to the heavily overburdened easterly bank. The upper belt, although the width
is obscured by overburden, is probably over 130 feet wide. Six quartz veins about equally
spaced, striking north-easterly and varying in width from 6 inches to 4 feet, occur in this belt.
Owing to surface disturbance the actual dip is not clear, but it appears to be generally steeply
south. A small amount of open-cutting and stripping has been done on these veins. The
exposures are generally oxidized, but a small amount of pyrite was observed. On the dump
from the upper vein a few specimens were seen showing some minute specks of gold associated ^
Columbia Development Co., Spruce Creek, Atlin.     Drag-line Scraper,  Sluicing and Tailings-disposal Equipment.
Twin John Mountain—looking South-east from Prout Plateau, Unuk River Area. R
■   ■■    ■... :■'•-
J with limonite. A sample of this vein across 2 feet exposed in a small cut assayed: Gold, trace;
silver, 1.5 oz. per ton. A sample across 4 feet of oxidized quartz, containing a small amount
of pyrite, in the central vein of this belt assayed: Gold, trace; silver, trace. A sample of the
lowest vein of this belt, 6 inches wide, showing oxidized quartz and some sericite in ribboned
fractures, assayed:   Gold, trace;  silver, trace.
At an elevation of 3,775 feet on the top of the ridge, and about 500 feet south-westerly,
the probable continuation of this belt has been picked up in stripping and trenching across
about 150 feet. This work exposed five similar quartz veins from 30 inches to 6 feet wide,
striking from north 43 degrees east to north 53 degrees east and dipping vertically.
In the lower belt, about 160 feet wide, nine quartz veins 12 to 18 inches wide and
several smaller quartz stringers are exposed in highly oxidized and carbonatized andesitic
volcanics. The veins in this belt strike approximately parallel to those in the upper belt.
A sample from the upper vein in this belt across 18 inches of oxidized quartz, in which native
gold was reported to have been found, assayed:   Gold, trace;   silver, trace.
Several other quartz veins are reported to have been discovered on other claims of this
property, but these were not examined.
This group of twelve claims is owned by Pete Hamlin, of McDame Creek,
Jumping Jack,   and is located on the southerly slope of Snow mountain on the north bank
of Snow creek, adjoining the Snow Creek group. At the time of examination
no work had been done on these claims. The rocks are close to the contact of the igneous
complex and include argillaceous sediments and bedded tuff that is somewhat schistose. At an
altitude of 3,360 feet three parallel white quartz veins from 3 to approximately 5 feet in width
are exposed by intermittent outcrops along a distance of about 120 feet. The attitude of these
veins is not clear. No mineralization was observed in the veins and they are generally
About 200 feet northerly from these exposures the discovery of three similar parallel
quartz veins, about 3 feet in width, is reported.    These were not examined.
This group of eight claims is located on the south side of McDame lake and
Crawford.       is owned by F. Crawford, of McDame Creek, and associates, who also own
two adjacent blocks of four claims. The property is reached by a branch
trail from the main McDame Creek trail. The showings examined are in a flat area of about
3,030 feet elevation on the Camp and Porcupine mineral claims, about half a mile south of the
easterly end of McDame lake. The rock formation is an intrusive rock of granitic to coarse
diabasic texture. It is altered by carbonatization and by the development of epidote, chlorite,
and kaolin, but may have originally possessed the composition of dacite.
A white quartz vein 2 feet wide and about 30 feet long, striking north-easterly and dipping
45 degrees north, is exposed on the south side of a small knoll. Its continuity is obscured by
overburden. A few specks of gold up to about the size of rice and a little pyrite are seen in
the exposure. A selected sample from this exposure showing sparsely distributed pyrite and
oxidized material in somewhat honeycombed quartz assayed: Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton; silver,
trace. About 200 feet south-westerly from this exposure a well-defined white quartz vein
20 inches wide, striking north-easterly and dipping 75 degrees south, is exposed in an open-cut
and by natural outcrop for a length of approximately 45 feet. The easterly end of this
occurrence is obscured by overburden, but the vein did not appear in the rock-outcrops at the
westerly end. No mineralization was seen in this vein. About 90 feet north of the most northeasterly exposure an open-cut uncovers a quartz vein 18 inches in width, striking north-easterly
and dipping 75 degrees south. A possible continuation of this vein has been found at a place
up about 100 feet to the south-west, where a quartz vein 9 inches in width, striking northeasterly and dipping 75 degrees south, outcrops. A few minute specks of gold were observed
in dump specimens from this vein. At the westerly end of McDame lake, shallow open-cuts
have been excavated on several veins that range from 2 to 5 feet in width.
This group of three claims, owned by N. L. Callison, of Fort Nelson, is
Rocky Ridge,    located on Trout creek about 1 % miles from its mouth.    It is reached by
branch trail about 3 miles from Wing's cabin on the main McDame Creek
trail or by trail from the aeroplane-landing on McDame lake.    The showings are on the south
side of the deep canyon in the lower section of Trout creek.    The rocks of the area are a highly
altered complex of andesitic flows and probable intrusives of the dacite-augite porphyry
complex.    In the vicinity of the showings the rocks are extensively disturbed by shearing and
possible faulting.
At an elevation of 3,200 feet, about 75 feet above the canyon-bottom, a trench and open-cut
expose a well-defined quartz vein 30 inches in width for about 30 feet. This vein, strike north
18 degrees east and dip 60 degrees east, contains a little pyrite, chalcopyrite, and tetrahedrite.
Fine specks of native gold are reported to have been discovered in this exposure, but none were
found during the examination.
In the canyon-bottom at an elevation of 3,125 feet an open-cut has been driven into the
canyon-wall on an oxidized and sheared zone. This zone contains a shattered quartz-lens
varying from 2 to 3 feet in width and three oxidized stringers which are 8, 15, and 27 inches
in width respectively. A sample from this open-cut across 3 feet of the oxidized material
containing some pyrite assayed: Gold, trace; silver, trace. In a small oxidized quartz stringer
1 to 2 inches in width, exposed for about 15 feet on the east side of this cut, fine specks of
native gold were seen. A composite sample from this oxidized stringer over a length of about
15 feet assayed:   Gold, 1.40 oz. per ton;   silver, 0.4 oz. per ton.
Along the steep face of the canyon on the south side of Trout creek at a place about 600 feet
south-easterly from the above showings a sheared quartz vein 2 feet wide and two oxidized
quartz stringers 6 inches in width are exposed in a highly disturbed and oxidized belt of
andesitic flow-rocks. These veins strike north-westerly and dip steeply south-westerly. Fine
specks of gold were seen in the oxidized material of the two 6-inch stringers. A sample
representative of the most westerly stringer across 6 inches assayed: Gold, 1.36 oz. per ton;
silver, 0.4 oz. per ton. The veins in this exposure occur above a pronounced fault striking
east-west and dipping about 20 degrees south.
This group of seven claims, owned by N. L. Callison and associates, of Fort
Red Rock. Nelson, is located in the canyon-area of the mouth of Quartz creek, about
30 miles west of McDame Post, and is reached by the main road and trail
up McDame creek. A complex of highly carbonatized andesitic flows and irregularly intruded
masses of altered dacite comprise the rocks of the locality. The showings consist of a remarkable belt of quartz veins and lenses outcropping to a height of 150 feet and across a width of
about 700 feet along both walls of the precipitous canyon at the mouth of Quartz creek. This
is the exposure from which the creek derives its name. About 30 per cent, of the total width
of this exposure is quartz, which in the lower section of about 200 feet constitutes 75 per cent,
of the exposure. Bands of highly oxidized, sheared, and altered andesitic flows and altered
dacite intrusives are exposed between the quartz lenses, veins, and stringers. Ribbon-
structures and slickensiding of the quartz indicate shearing movement in the zone subsequent
to the deposition of the quartz. The zone frequently contains veins and lenses of solid quartz,
5 to 15 feet in width, which are usually connected by cross-stringers. The zone strikes about
north 73 degrees east and dips about 60 degrees south. The main quartz-structures are
conformable to the attitude of the zone except on the lower or hanging-wall side near the
confluence of Quartz and Trout creeks. Here a possible major fault striking north-west has
caused pronounced distortion and reverse dips of the veins. This dislocation is also indicated
in the absence of the expected continuity across Trout creek, about 500 feet to the south-west.
Much of the quartz is white, but iron-stained areas, small cavities, honeycombed quartz,
and crevices are frequently seen. Sulphides are extremely scarce and occur only as occasional grains of pyrite and patches of tetrahedrite. Very fine gold can be panned from the
fine oxidized talus at the foot of the canyon bluff. This may, however, be partly the result of
high-water concentration by the creek. Fine gold can also be panned from oxidized faces,
vugs, and crevices in some of the quartz veins along the base of the bluff. This may be partly
the result of accumulation of fine gold being gradually washed down the bluff-face and trapped
in these locations. To obtain information pertaining to this possibility the following samples
were taken from a heavily iron-stained outcrop of ribbon-quartz 11 feet in width occurring at
the base of the bluff and stated to contain good values:—
(1.)  Dense quartz lightly iron-stained:  Gold, trace;  silver, trace.
(2.) Selected honeycomb quartz containing limonite: Gold, 0.44 oz. per ton; silver,
12 oz. per ton.
(3.) Selected gossan, iron oxide, and fine wash-sand scrapings from faces and crevices:
Gold, 0.30 oz. per ton;  silver, 1.5 oz. per ton. NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 1). B 19
These results, together with those of a preliminary panning, indicate at least some residual
and gravitational gold accumulation (eluvial) in suitable traps.
A selected sample from an isolated and rare patch showing blebs of grey copper in quartz
towards the central section of the zone assayed:   Gold, 0.20 oz. per ton;   silver, 80 oz. per ton.
With the exception of a few superficial cuts and general prospecting, no recent work has
been done on this exposure. Several years ago, in the central part of the zone on the east side
of the canyon and from a place 15 feet above the creek-bed, a short adit was driven in a
direction north 53 degrees east through solid quartz and occasional patches of rock. A little
pyrite was observed in this working.
On the upper or foot-wall side of the zone a sheared structure crosses the creek about
midway along D. Wing's hydraulic sluice-boxes. This is mineralized with quartz stringers
and veinlets, some bands and patches of fine granular pyrite, and some disseminated acicular
crystals of arsenopyrite. A grab sample across about 15 feet of this structure, taken by the
writer in 1932 and reported in Bulletin No. 1, 1932, assayed: Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton; silver,
0.10 oz. per ton;  arsenic, 3.6 per cent.    No work has been done on this'structure.
This group of eight claims is located at what is known as " Quartz Centre,"
George. which is between Trout and Lang creeks and about 3 miles from " Quartz
.City," or 2 miles from Trout creek. The property is owned by J. Nadeau and
associates, of Juneau, and is reached by trail from " Quartz City." The hillocked and ridged
lowland topography of McDame Creek basin, with small and shallow subsidiary creeks,
characterizes the locality. A complex of medium-grained intrusive augite porphyry, altered,
carbonatized andesitic flows, and altered schistose sediments underlies the locality.
The main showings consist of a very extensive outcropping of white quartz veins and of
lenticular masses near the northerly boundary between George No. 5 and George No. 6 claims.
The exposures occur between elevations of 3,410 and 3,470 feet on a comparatively level benched
area of the gentle southerly slope of an east-west-striking ridge. The quartz-zone appears to
strike north 50 degrees east, diagonally across the ridge, but its approximate dip could not be
determined. It occurs in a band of highly oxidized and carbonatized rocks about 600 feet wide
that lies between altered andesitic volcanics on the west and altered, medium-grained augite
porphyry on the east. Approximately 50 per cent, of this 600-foot width consists of intermittent outcrops of quartz in the form of stringers, veins, and lenticular masses. In the
central section of the zone close, intermittent quartz-outcrops at elevation 3,425 feet indicate
a width of about 100 feet of nearly continuous white quartz. On either side of this central
section several quartz veins from 3 to 10 feet wide may be traced by short intermittent outcrops
for distances varying from 20 to about 300 feet. These veins strike approximately parallel
with the zone and in one a dip of 50 degrees south was observed.
Sulphide mineralization is extremerly rare in these outcrops and where observed consists
of specks and small blebs of pyrite. Occasional small jagged cavities indicate the pre-existence
of sulphides. The outcrops are generally bleached white and show only small amounts of iron
oxide, rarely copper-carbonate stain, and in one open-cut across 10 feet a pronounced development of manganese oxide. At the time of examination two open-cuts had been excavated on
this showing.
On the George No. 1 and No. 2 claims, about 1,800 feet south-easterly from these showings,
two open-cuts about 300 feet apart expose an iron-stained quartz vein 4 feet wide which contains
sparse blebs of pyrite. No intermediate tracing has been done between these cuts, but their
alignment indicates that they may be on the same vein. About 300 feet farther to the southeast a shallow open-cut and some stripping on a small knoll exposes a width of 12 to 15 feet
of iron-stained quartz. A sample of this exposure assayed: Gold, trace; silver, trace. The
formation in the vicinity of these showings is mainly coarsely crystalline augite porphyry.
This group of eight claims joins the George group on the south and is owned
Paige. by J. Nadeau and associates, of Juneau.    The main showings are about
5,000 feet south-westerly from those on the George No. 5.    The area is close
to the contact of the igneous complex and the sedimentary series, and the rocks consist of
oxidized and altered andesitic flows associated with some bands of limy argillite, sandstone,
shale, and schist. B 20 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
At about elevation 3,400 feet, on the slope of a ridge, open-cutting and stripping exposes
a quartz vein for a length of 50 feet, its continuity being obscured by overburden. The vein
is about 15 feet wide, strikes north 80 degrees east, and dips 60 degrees south. The outcrop
is oxidized and shows only a little pyrite. About 100 feet south-westerly a quartz-outcrop 4 feet
wide may possibly be aligned with this showing. Two similar outcrops about 50 feet southerly
probably belong to other veins.
About 4,500 feet north-westerly from these showings much quartz float is seen in the bed
of a shallow creek and beaver-dam lake, in a formation of sandstone and calcareous argillite.
Adjacent to the lake two open-cuts and stripping expose a white quartz vein 5 feet wide, strike
north 83 degrees east for a distance of 200 feet. No mineralization was observed in these
This group of eight claims is owned by P. McNamara and associates, of
Hopeful.        Telegraph Creek.    The property is located in the Trout Creek valley easterly
from " Quartz City " and is reached by trail from the main McDame Creek
trail.    The rocks of the locality are mainly altered augite porphyry and some irregularly
distributed carbonatized andesitic flows.
The main showings are located about 1 mile easterly of " Quartz City " at elevation 3,450
feet on the ridge-slope to the north side of Trout creek, extending from 180. to 500 feet from
the creek-bed. They consist of three main parallel quartz veins about 30 and 50 feet apart
respectively, striking south 87 degrees east and dipping about 70 degrees south. The northerly
vein has been traced by natural outcrops and some stripping for a distance of about 350 feet.
An open-cut at elevation 3,425 feet at the easterly end exposes a 10-foot width of quartz
sparsely mineralized with pyrite, siderite, ankerite, and some tetrahedrite. A sample from the
best mineralized section of this cut assayed: Gold, trace; silver, trace. The central vein can
be traced by intermittent outcrops showing iron oxidation and a little pyrite up to 5 feet wide
for about 400 feet.    No work has been done on it.
The southerly vein is traced by stripping and intermittent outcrops for about 450 feet.
Near the westerly end an open-cut on a small knoll exposes a width of 6.5 feet showing a few
blebs of pyrite and some iron oxidation.
Some isolated quartz-outcrops on either side of these veins and also on the north and south
banks of Trout creek indicate that additional veins occur in this locality.
This group of eight claims is owned by P. McNamara and associates, of
Mac. Telegraph Creek, and covers the easterly and westerly sides of Quartz creek
in the vicinity of " Quartz City." This locality is underlain by a complex
of carbonatized, andesitic flows and dacite intrusives. On the Mac No. 1 claim, a short
distance north-westerly from " Quartz City," a series of eleven approximately parallel veins
and stringers outcrop across 300 feet of the south-westerly slope towards a small gulch. They
vary in width from a few inches to 6 feet, strike east-west, and are usually vertical. A small
amount of open-cutting and stripping has been done on them. On the westerly side of the
gulch an open-cut in the face of a steep bluff on the Mac No. 3 claim exposes a vein 3 feet wide
which may be the westerly continuation of one of the structures about 400 feet to the east.
With the exception of some iron-stain and oxidized patches, no mineralization was observed
in these exposures.
On the Mac No. 2 claim, about 350 feet northerly from the showings on the Mac No. 1 claim,
an open-cut in the easterly bank of Quartz creek exposes a quartz stringer 2 inches wide which
is adjacent to a granitic dyke. This stringer strikes north 68 degrees east, dips 50 degrees
north, and contains pyrite, some arsenopyrite, and oxidation products. Small particles of
gold were seen in samples reported to have been taken from this stringer. An assay representative of the mineralization exposed in the vein in this cut assayed: Gold, trace; silver, trace.
Two hundred and fifty feet easterly from this showing an open-cut has been excavated in the
east bank of Quartz creek, exposing a quartz vein 12 inches wide, striking north 78 degrees
east, dipping 70 degrees south, and fairly well mineralized with pyrite and some arsenopyrite.
Both walls adjacent to this vein are altered and slightly silicified and contain cubic crystals of
pyrite. A sample across 12 inches of well-mineralized vein exposed at the bottom of this cut
assayed:   Gold, 0.80 oz. per ton;   silver, 0.6 oz. per ton. NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 1). B 21
This property, owned by Phil Hankin and partner, is on the southerly slope
Klondike        of Sheep mountain, about 1 mile north-easterly from " Quartz City."    The
Fraction.        rocks are mainly altered andesitic flows close to the contact with the sediments exposed at higher elevations.    At an elevation of 3,680 feet an open-cut
6 feet long exposes a quartz vein 30 inches wide striking north 73 degrees east and dipping
80 degrees south, which is mineralized with a little pyrite, a few crystals of arsenopyrite, and
an occasional bleb of a soft, grey, unidentified mineral.    Thirty-two feet north-easterly from
this exposure an open-cut exposes an oxidized quartz vein 5 feet in width striking about east-
west and dipping 70 degrees south.    Blebs of the soft, grey, unidentified mineral, cited as
occurring in the previous cut, were noted and a speck of gold was observed in the oxidized
quartz gangue.    This vein is probably the continuation of the vein exposed at elevation 3,680
feet.    Fifty feet north-westerly from this cut, surface-stripping exposes 5 feet of quartz and
highly oxidized material which may possibly represent a parallel vein.
This group of seven claims is owned by J. C. Simpson, of Telegraph Creek,
Cornucopia.     and adjoins the Klondike Fraction on the west and the Mac group on the
north-east.    The rocks exposed include altered andesitic flows and some beds
of tuff which strike north 50 degrees west and dip 70 degrees north-east.    At the time of
examination no work had been done on these claims and only quartz-outcrops were observed.
About a quarter of a mile north 50 degrees west from the Klondike showings a quartz
vein outcrops for 25 feet along the southerly slope of a small knoll at elevation 3,660 feet.
The vein is well defined, from 12 to over 18 inches in width, and strikes about east-west and
dips 85 degrees south.    Westerly from this showing three other parallel veins varying from
10 inches to 1 foot in width strike transversely across the ridge of this knoll.
These claims are owned by P. Hankin and partner, of Telegraph Creek, and
Superior and    adjoin the Cornucopia group on the north-west.    At the time of examination
Dawson. no work had been done on the property, but outcrops of several parallel
quartz veins and stringers varying from a few inches to about 3 feet wide
were observed at an elevation of 3,800 feet striking transversely across the north-westerly
continuation of the Klondike ridge.
Kean Creek Basin.—Kean creek has its source in a wide basin on the north-westerly slope
of Sheep mountain. In this locality altered argillaceous sediments and tuff-beds are uncon-
formably in contact with the igneous complex of McDame Creek basin. The sediments strike
north 5 degrees east and dip 45 degrees west. At the head of the basin a coarse-grained
granitic dyke about 100 feet wide and striking east-west cuts the sediments, accompanied by
silicification of the contacts. At an altitude of 5,700 feet a band of oxidized quartz lenses,
veins, and stringers about 40 feet wide cuts transversely through the dyke, but does not
continue into the bordering sediments. The dyke material between the quartz is highly altered
by carbonatization and oxidized. No mineralization was observed in these veins other than
iron oxide and carbonate.
These claims are owned by W. L. Hohensee and J. Sexsmith, of Telegraph
Good Hope and  Creek, and are located on a benched area of the south-easterly slope of
Blackbird.       Cariboo mountain, on the east side of Quartz creek, about 2 miles southeasterly of " Quartz City."   Highly carbonatized andesitic flow-rocks underlie
the locality.    Two well-defined quartz veins, 30 feet apart and respectively 5 feet and over
12 feet plus in width, are exposed in shallow open-cuts at an elevation of 3,700 feet.    The veins
are parallel,  strike north 78 degrees east,  dip  75  degrees  south,  and  show typical  iron-
oxidation products along fractures and in cavities and small amounts of pyrite.    The veins
have been traced for about 100 feet by outcrops and stripping.
These adjoining groups of eight claims each are owned by J. Nadeau and
Martin and      associates, of Juneau, and are in the basin on the easterly slope of Caribou
Council. mountain, about 5 miles north-west of " Quartz City."    The rocks are altered
argillaceous  sediments and bedded  andesitic tuffs  associated  with  some
altered, carbonatized andesitic flows, along the contact of the sedimentary series of the higher
elevations and the igneous complex of McDame Creek basin.    At the time of examination no
work had been done on these claims.    At an altitude of 4,700 feet a quartz vein 3 feet wide
outcrops in a bluff in mixed sediments and andesitic flow-rocks.    This vein strikes north
73 degrees east and is traced for 100 feet up the bluff-face, where it terminates in comparatively unaltered andesitic rocks.    Some iron oxide and a little pyrite was observed in the quartz.
Outcropping adjacent to this is a quartz-lens 5 feet wide and 15 feet long.
Dease Lake Area.
This group of eight claims, and two additional claims staked in 1935, is
Dalvenie. owned by the Dalvenie Syndicate, of Victoria. It is situated on the easterly
slope of a prominent unnamed mountain (" Dalvenie ") rising above the
plateau to an altitude of 6,000 feet on the divide between Gnat creek, a tributary of the upper
Tanzilla river, and Ptarmigan creek, a tributary of the upper Stikine river. The group is
about 22 miles in a direction south 12 degrees east from Dease Landing at the head of Dease
lake. The property is reached by following the Tanzilla trail for about 2 miles from the
Telegraph Creek-Dease Lake road to the Tanzilla river. At this point the Tanzilla river is
crossed and, as there is no trail, the most unobstructed route is taken across country through
a lightly timbered and extensively burnt-over rolling plateau which gradually rises to the
slope of " Dalvenie " mountain. The mineral deposit was first staked in 1899 as the Big Chief
group by Joseph Clearihue and has been restaked several times since, most recently by the
Dalvenie Syndicate.
The rolling lowlands of the plateau are extensively covered by deep glacial drift and rock-
outcrops are scarce. Rising about 3,000 feet above the plateau-level, " Dalvenie " mountain,
about 4 miles long and 2 miles wide, forms an outstanding feature of the topography. The
prominent form of this mountain is composed of a boss of gabbro varying in texture from fine
to coarsely holocrystalline and from fine to coarsely porphyritic. This intrudes slates and
quartzites. About 5 miles westerly from the north-easterly-striking axis of " Dalvenie "
mountain there is a parallel mountain of about 6,000 feet elevation which is composed of
oxidized limy slate and limestone. Several thin remnants of pyritic quartzite roof-rocks, in
places hybridized by partial digestion in the intrusive, are preserved along the easterly slope
of " Dalvenie " mountain. These are generally characterized by rusty outcrops. Along the
lower elevations of the easterly slope the slate roof-rocks are more common.
The mineral deposit consists of a replacement-zone with an indicated width of 20 to 34
feet traced for 1,200 feet by thirteen shallow open-cuts and one pit 3 feet deep on the Dalvenie
No. 3 claim. The zone strikes north 10 degrees east between an elevation of 5,075 feet at the
southerly end and 5,100 feet at the northerly end; the dip could not be determined definitely.
In places the zone contains horses and tongues of barren or sparsely replaced gabbro and
quartzite. The zone occupies the upper horizon of the gabbro boss, mineralization occurring
in both the gabbro and the hybrid slate, but apparently not extending into sections roofed by
quartzite. The northerly 600 feet of the zone is marked by a depression about 30 feet wide in
which short cuts have been driven into the west rim, exposing heavily oxidized material. The
most extensive work has been done along about 500 feet of the southerly end of the zone in
gently sloping and swampy ground. All exposures are extensively oxidized, but in the deeper
cuts there is considerable pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, and arsenopyrite in a gangue of
altered rock, quartz, and some barite.
In a cut, 40 feet long, transversely across the west side of the zone at its southerly end,
a sample of unoxidized sections mineralized with pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and arsenopyrite, with quartz and barite gangue, assayed: Gold, trace; silver, trace; copper, 0.3 per cent.;
arsenic, 2.3 per cent. At the north end of this cut a compass-deflection of 62 degrees east was
observed. In an open-cut 22 feet east from the south end of this cut, a sample across 15 feet
of the east side of the zone assayed: Gold, trace; silver, trace; copper, 0.3 per cent.; arsenic,
2.1 per cent. A sample across 22 feet of the easterly side of the zone exposed in an open-cut
midway along the zone at an elevation of 5,100 feet assayed: Gold, trace; silver, trace; copper,
1.7 per cent.;   arsenic, 2 per cent.
About 2,500 feet north 8 degrees east from the cuts on the Dalvenie No. 3, a possible
continuation of the zone has been exposed on the New Deal No. 1 claim adjoining the Dalvenie
No. 6 on the north. Here, at an elevation of 5,000 feet, a cut 10 feet long exposes heavily
oxidized material and honeycomb quartz with some patches of pyrite. A selected sample of
pyrite in this cut assayed:   Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton;   silver, trace. SILVER-LEAD-ZINC DEPOSITS.
Stewart-Portland Canal Area.
This company was incorporated in 1909 with a capitalization of 1,000,000
Glacier Creek shares of 50 cents par value, all of which are reported as issued. R. Stewart,
Mining Co., Ltd. of Victoria, is managing director and the registered address is 101 Pemberton
Building, Victoria. The property consists of the Nellie V., Riverside, Last
Chance, Lucky Boy, Lulu, and Victory Crown-granted claims adjoining the Dunwell on the
south and situated on the north side of Glacier creek, about 4 miles by road from Stewart.
The property was inactive until 1934, when the crosscut was continued for about 200 feet to
the intersection of a vein at 795 feet from the portal. Drifting on this vein was carried out
in the early spring of 1935 and ceased in May.
The deposit, consisting of quartz veins sparingly mineralized with pyrite, galena, and
sphalerite occurs in argillaceous sediments of the Lower Hazelton (Bitter Creek Series)
group. The area embraces part of the westerly limb of an open anticlinal structure. The
veins occupy shears striking north-westerly and dipping from about 30 degrees to 60 degrees
south-westerly and are partly conformable to the attitude of the formation. They are
brecciated and contain unaltered fragments of the argillite wall-rock. With the exception
of one vein occurring on the Lucky Boy at elevation 600 feet, all the known veins on this
property occur between two major faults which strike north and dip west and constitute what
is known as the " Portland Canal Fissure Zone." The structural difference between the veins
on this property and those on the adjoining Dunwell is that, if projected, they will intersect
the hanging-wall of the east fault, whereas the Dunwell veins will intersect the foot-wall of
the west fault. This difference may have influenced the process of mineralization. The
projection of the Lucky Boy vein will intersect the hanging-wall of the west fault. Another
factor which possibly affected mineralization is the location of the Glacier Creek veins in a
higher horizon than the southerly-plunging Ben Ali stock in which the Dunwell veins occur.
Exposures of the veins in the adits show no evidence of oxidation, leaching, or secondary
enrichment; because of the small amount of back above the adit it is not probable that this
condition would alter, towards the surface.
A feature of the area is the number of more or less parallel quartz veins varying from a
few inches to several feet in width. Where exposed on surface and in the underground
workings they contain very little mineral. The best mineralization observed on the property
is exposed in the main adit, elevation approximately 1,000 feet, along the 1935 north and
south drifts.
A sample taken across 12 feet of the vein as exposed in a crosscut from the north drift
and about 60 feet from the main adit assayed: Gold, 0.08 oz. per ton; silver, 1 oz. per ton;
lead, nil; zinc, 4 per cent. A selected sample of the best mineralization exposed in the north
drift in bands and stringers of pyrite with some galena and sphalerite assayed: Gold, 0.20 oz.
per ton; silver, 5.6 oz. per ton; lead, 4 per cent.; zinc, 4 per cent. A sample of the muck
from the face of the south drift assayed: Gold, trace; silver, 0.30 oz. per ton; lead, nil; zinc,
trace. A selected sample of the best mineralization showing in the south drift in pyritized
argillite and quartz stringers assayed: Gold, 0.06 oz. per ton; silver, 0.08 per ton; lead, nil;
zinc, 2 per cent.
In the Little Wonder adit (Victory mineral claim) at about elevation 940 feet a lens of
good mineralization about 15 feet long and from 2 to 18 inches wide occurs in a small stope
above the adit. A representative sample of this assayed: Gold, 1.84 oz. per ton; silver, 4 oz.
per ton; lead, 5 per cent.; zinc, 6 per cent. Another lens of fair mineralization about 10
inches wide and 30 feet long occurs in the floor of this adit about 60 feet from the face.
A composite sample of this lens assayed: Gold, 0.28 oz. per ton; silver, 4.6 oz. per ton; lead,
6 per cent.;  zinc, 8 per cent.
(See Annual Reports for 1930 and 1932 and Geological Survey of Canada
Virginia K. and Summary Report, 1931, Part A, under Excelsior Prospecting Syndicate.)
Virginia K.      The property, consisting of eleven claims and eight fractions, is situated
Extension.       near the head of American creek on the east side, about 25 miles from
Stewart.    The claims are reached by the Bear River motor-road for 14
miles to American creek and thence by trail along the west side of the creek and across the B 24 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
glacier to the camp-site at altitude 2,300 feet. A horse could be used over this trail for about
the first 9 miles. The ground covered by the claims on the west side of American creek
extends from the valley-bottom at elevation 1,550 feet to the crest of the glacier at almost
4,500 feet. On the east side the Virgina K. claim extends from the valley to about an altitude
of 3,800 feet.
The formation in this area consists of argillites, sandy argillites, sandstone, conglomerates,
tuffs, and breccias, gently folded and occurring near the boundary between the underlying
Bitter Creek and the overlying Bear River series. Where the formation has not been subjected
to acute folding it has a general easterly dip of from 15 to 20 degrees. The sedimentaries in
this section are generally gently, in some places acutely, folded and are intruded by tongues
of a porphyritic andesite lava.
Three types of ore deposit are represented: (1) Replacement shear-zone in argillite;
(2) bed-veins between interbedded sandstone, sandy argillite, and tuffs occurring near the
top of the Bitter Creek series; (3) fracture-zone consisting of quartz veins and veinlets in
reticulated structure.
On the replacement-zone on Virginia K. No. 3 eight open-cuts have been excavated between
elevations 3,500 and 3,740 feet, along a distance of about 1,000 feet. The zone strikes north
81 degrees east and dips 77 degrees north, with widths exposed in the cuts of from 10 to over
20 feet of severely crushed, decomposed, and highly manganiferous vein-matter. In places
appreciable horses of rock occur in the structure. In some of the cuts seams of unoxidized
ore in a quartz gangue carrying a mineralization of galena, sphalerite, and pyrite can be seen.
As sampling of the oxidized portions of the structure would give no information regarding
values that might be contained in the sulphide ore, this was not sampled. However, representative samples of the exposed unoxidized ore were taken, and assayed as follows:—
No. 1 cut:  Gold, trace;  silver, 3 oz. per ton; lead, nil; zinc, 4.1 per cent.
No. 4 cut, elevation 3,640 feet: Gold, trace; silver, 2 oz. per ton; lead, nil; zinc, 11.8
per cent.
Slightly westerly of the replacement-zone on Virginia K. No. 5, open-cuts have been
excavated on bed-veins, exposing widths of from 3 to 4 feet of highly oxidized vein-matter
striking north 19 degrees west and dipping about 15 degrees east, conformable to the formation.
It would seem fairly certain that these structures do not represent, as they were formerly
thought to, the continuation of the replacement-zone, but are entirely unassociated from this
structure. They occur in what appears to be a gradation of sedimentary and tuffaceous rocks
on the border between the Bitter Creek and Bear River series.
Near the south-east corner of Virginia K. Extension No. 2 some work has been done on a
fracture-zone or small stockwork about 20 feet in width occurring in tuff. This consists of
quartz stringers from % to 1 inch in width, fairly well mineralized with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite, and some sphalerite.
Under the names of B.L.K., Bryant, Dundee, and Virginia K., this group was staked in
1929 on discoveries made by D. D. Kimball. Late in the same year the Excelsior Prospecting
Syndicate was formed in Stewart, which, it is understood, was capitalized for $150,000,
divided into units of $10 par value.
Alice Arm Area.
This group consists of the Velvet and Velvet No. 1 claims and the Velvet
Velvet. Fraction and is owned by D. A. McPhail, Alice Arm.    The claims comprise
the restaking of the old Ouray and Victoria claims and Bertha Fraction.
The property, referred to in the Annual Reports for the years 1916, 1918, and 1926, adjoins
the west side of the Wolf property, about 1 mile north of Evidsen creek and 1,500 feet west
of the Kitsault valley. A good trail extends from the main trunk trail in the Kitsault River
valley at elevation 1,300 feet to the cabin at elevation 2,000 feet.
The original workings are on the crest of a small rise in the general slope of the hill.
The surface is largely covered with overburden and rock-exposures are scarce. The rocks
of the area include tuffaceous sediments and andesitic fragmental and flow rocks of the
Kitsault River and Dolly Varden formations (Hazelton group).    The mineral deposit consists of a replacement-zone about 70 feet wide striking north 27 degrees west and dipping 50 degrees
north-easterly with the slope of the hill. The hanging-wall of this zone is adjacent to the
westerly boundary of Wolf No. 3 claim and outcrops along the brow of a benched area which
slopes towards the Kitsault river. Its projection along the dip would extend into the Wolf
No. 3 claim within a comparatively short distance. Along the brow of this bench are several
old open-cuts in which highly oxidized siliceous replacement material containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena is exposed. The new workings consist of a short adit on the
hanging-wall side at an elevation of 1,900 feet and about 300 feet south-easterly from the cabin.
Several extensive open-cuts have also been excavated on the foot-wall side of the zone on the
flat benched area behind the cabin. These expose heavily oxidized material on the surface,
and where this has been penetrated the replacement-quartz is well mineralized with pyrite,
some chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena across widths ranging from 10 to 15 feet. At an
elevation of 2,000 feet and 50 feet in a direction south 30 degrees west from the cabin an open-
cut on the foot-wall side of the zone exposes a width of 15 feet of replacement-quartz mineralized with pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite. A sample across 56 inches of the best mineralization in this exposure assayed: Gold, 0.05 oz. per ton; silver, 0.8 oz. per ton; copper, 0.3 per
cent.; lead, nil; zinc, trace. About 145 feet in direction south 15 degrees east from the cabin
an open-cut at an elevation of 1,960 feet exposes a width of 15 feet of oxidized replacement-
quartz containing some barite and disseminated pyrite.
About 190 feet south from the cabin an open-cut at an elevation of 2,000 feet exposes an
oxidized cross-fracture containing some pyrite and galena. This is again intersected about
65 feet farther south in an open-cut and adit 30 feet long at an elevation of 1,950 feet.
Lode-gold Deposits.
Coast Area.
Surf Inlet Consolidated Gold Mines, Ltd. (formerly Princess Royal Gold Mines, Ltd.).—
In January stockholders of Princess Royal Gold Mines, Limited, ratified a change in the
company's name to Surf Inlet Consolidated Gold Mines, Limited. Shares were exchanged on
the basis of one Surf Inlet Consolidated for three Princess Royal. For general information
regarding this operation see Annual Report for 1934. In May, 1935, a crew of three was
working at the beach camp and twenty-eight at the mine. A small mill, treating about 25 tons
per day, had been installed and was operating intermittently as ore-supply allowed. Underground work was continuing in the old Pugsley mine on the 1,000-foot level, and the incline
shaft from the 900-foot adit-level had been pumped out and exploration carried out mainly
by crosscutting west through the " Big " (or east) vein to its hanging-wall and drifting north
and south on the hanging-wall side.
The south drift had advanced about 140 feet. A crosscut (No. 3 west) off the south drift
projected to intersect the " Small " (or west) vein had passed through the hanging-wall of the
" Big " vein.
No. 1 north drift in the central section of the " Big " vein had also been extended south
about 40 feet.    Side-swiping had been carried out at the face.
Surf Point.—This property is fully described in former Annual Reports covering operations to the end of 1934, together with a detailed report and map of the workings in 1934.
In 1935, operations were continued by the N. A. Timmins Corporation in the workings on
the Trixie and the Western Hope claims.
Redbird.—This claim is owned by J. H. Jones, of Porcher island, and is situated adjacent
to the Edye Pass group and Surf Point on the north. The topography of the area is described
in the 1934 Annual Report in connection with the Surf Point mine and the geology and
character of mineralization is similar to that described for the Edye Pass group. Further
open-cutting and trenching was done on this vein during 1935, thereby extending the continuity
to elevation 215 feet for a total length of about 400 feet. About 250 feet from the eastern
extremity of the exposure a cross-vein from 6 to 14 inches in width, striking north 4 degrees
east and dipping 70 degrees west, has been uncovered by stripping and open-cutting. B 26 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
La Porte.—A group of seven claims on the east side of the Ecstall river is owned by
P. LaPorte and partner, of Prince Rupert. Surface exploration, consisting of open-cutting
and stripping, was continued during the season.
Eagle.—J. Dawson, owner of this claim, adjoining the Surf Point on Porcher island, did
further open-cutting and stripping.
Cumsheiva.—This group, owned by E. C. Stevens, is situated on Cumshewa inlet on the
east coast of Moresby island.    Open-cutting and stripping was done this year.
Hastings Arm Area.
Mastodon.—This group, owned by Carl Ecklund and associates, of Anyox, is situated on
the east side of Hastings arm about 12 miles northerly from Anyox. Open-cutting and
stripping showed the siliceous replacement-zone to extend south-easterly above Granite creek
(Annual Report, 1934).
Alice Arm Section.
Gold Leaf.—This group, owned by Oscar Flint and associates, of Alice Arm, is situated
on the west side of the head of Kitsault River valley. Open-cutting and stripping were
continued on this property.
Bear River Area, Portland Canal.
Lucky Date.—J. Hepson, owner of this group at the head of the North fork of Bitter
creek, continued work in the adit.
Mayflower.—(See Annual Reports of Minister of Mines, 1918, 1922, 1925, 1928, 1930, and
Geological Survey of Canada Memoir No. 159.) This group of eight claims, situated on the
east side of the Bear river, is reached by a good trail about half a mile long commencing at
a point about 6 miles by road from Stewart. In former years open-cuts and adits were
excavated on showings in proximity to the cabin. In recent years a new discovery was made
in an open-cut at elevation of 800 feet in a creek-draw several hundred feet south of the above
work. In the late autumn further exploration of the property was taken over by Clay Porter,
of Hyder, and underground operations commenced.
Dunwell Mines, Ltd.—The head office of this company is at 101 Pemberton Building,
Victoria, and the property is on the east side of Bear River valley, about 4 miles from Stewart
(see 1934 Annual Report). The company operated the property during January and
February and May and June. Lessees commenced operations in August with a crew of fifteen
men. In September the mill was treating 20 tons of Dunwell ore per day, and Ben Alt ore,
about 30 tons. Stoping on the Dunwell was done chiefly above No. 3 sub-level. Three men
mined the Ben Ali claim of the Dunwell Company under contract. Due to contingencies of
weather conditions, operations ceased in the late autumn, but at the year-end a deal is reported
to have been consummated for continuance of the operation in 1936 by a new group of lessees
under the supervision of N. E. Nelson, formerly with the Granby Consolidated Company at
Ruth and Francis.—This group of eight claims, owned by James Nesbitt and associates, of
Stewart, is located on the north side of Glacier creek, about 4 miles from the Dunwell camp
on the Bear River road. The main showing outcrops in the steep and bluff-walled bed of the
creek and has been explored by two adits. The upper one, at elevation 3,500 feet, is about
60 feet long. In recent years considerable open-cutting and stripping has been carried out
on a shear-zone 4 to 10 feet wide occurring about 1,000 feet easterly of the old showings. This
zone has been traced between elevations of 3,700 and 4,400 feet along a horizontal distance of
about 300 feet by a series of open-cuts and two short adits.
Salmon River Area, Portland Canal.
Premier Gold Mining Co., Ltd.— (See former Annual Reports.) Under date of May 23rd,
1935, an agreement was reached between the Premier Gold Mining Company and the Selukwe
Company, controlling B.C. Silver and Sebakew Mines adjoining the Premier holdings, wherein
a new company, to be known as Silbak Premier Mines, Limited, will operate the properties of
the three companies. The authorized capital of the new company is 3,000,000 shares of a
par value of $1 each, of which 2,200,000 shares will be issued for properties (1,100,000 shares
to Premier) and 300,000 shares will be subscribed in cash at par to provide working capital, NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 1). B 27
Premier and Selukwe Gold Mining and Finance Company, Limited, each subscribing one-half
of this amount. Premier will receive the net proceeds of all ore mined from its present
properties during the period ending May 15th, 1937.
In accordance with the terms of the new agreement, the Premier Company commenced
development of the B.C. Silver in October, 1935, extending Premier mine levels into B.C.
Silver ground and diamond-drilling. At the close of the year Premier had completed in this
ground 336 feet of drifting and crosscutting and 1,677 feet of diamond-drilling.
Upon completion of the new Diesel power plant to replace the one destroyed by fire,
normal milling operations were resumed on March 9th.
Development-work and stoping in the Premier mine was largely concentrated during the
year on small parallel occurrences on the foot-wall of the main ore-body; 149,672 tons of ore
was mined.    An average of 303 men were employed.
Big Missouri.—The Big Missouri property is owned and operated by the Buena Vista
Mining Company, in which the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada holds
a 60-per-cent. interest. The property is on the east side of the Salmon glacier and distant
18 miles by road from Stewart (see Annual Report for 1934). Present operations consist of
drifting and crosscutting on the 3,000-foot sub-level, diamond-drilling on the 2,850 (Province)
level, and drifting south on the 2,300 (Day) level to the projected position of the raking
ore-shoot indicated on the 2,850 and 3,000 levels. Diamond-drilling, raising, and sub-levelling
between the Day and Province levels is also being carried out. A crew of forty-five men was
Salmon Gold.—This group is owned by Salmon Gold Mines, Limited, and under option .
to Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited.    It is situated on the
west side of Summit lake, about 8 miles by trail beyond the Big Missouri.    Diamond-drilling
was continued during the season.
Unuk River Area.
Mackay Syndicate.—The Unuk and Barbara groups, owned by this syndicate in the
Ketchum Creek area, Unuk river, were optioned to Premier Gold Mining Company, Limited,
and development-work continued with a crew of twelve men. The work consisted of diamond-
drilling, open-cutting, and general prospecting.
Unuk Valley Gold Syndicate.—Premier interests control the Vera D., Pawn, and S.K.
groups adjoining the Unuk group on the north. About twenty open-cuts were made during the
Taku River Area.
Whitewater.— (See Annual Reports for 1929 to 1933, also Bulletin No. 1, 1930; Bulletin
No. 2, 1932; and Geological Survey of Canada Summary Report, 1930, Part A.) This group,
owned by Art. Hedman, Ray Walker, Ray Rice, and associates, of Juneau, was worked during
the year by E. C. Congdon and associates, of Duluth, and 1,000 feet of drifting, crosscutting,
and side-swiping was done, mainly from the adit started by the Alaska Juneau Gold Mining
Company to investigate the faulting indicated on the surface. During the season eleven men
were employed.
Placer-gold Deposits.
Queen Charlotte Islands.
Several individuals worked on the beach black sands on the east coast of Graham island
and recovered small quantities of fine gold.
Terry Consolidated.—Testing operations on nine leases owned by this company at Cape
Fife were done under the direction of N. Terry.    A crew of nine men was employed.
Stikine River Area.
Barrington.—E. J. Brown, under a leasing agreement, worked this drag-line scraper
operation.    Two men were employed and 219 oz. of gold was recovered.
Little Muddy River Area.
About nineteen individuals, engaged in about ten operations, were active in the Gold Pan
Creek-Little Muddy River areas. B 28 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
Dease Lake Area.
Keystone-drilling was done at the mouth of Dease creek by a San Francisco syndicate.
Five individuals also operated on the creek.
Several individuals were " sniping " on Thibert creek and making wages.
Gibson Hydraulic Association.—A crew of seven men carried out work preparatory to
the commencement of hydraulicking in 1936.
Atlin Area.
The main operations in the Atlin area are on the O'Donnel river, Bull, Wilson, McKee,
Spruce, Pine, Birch, Boulder, Ruby, Cracker, Otter, and Wright creeks. A constructive
development on Spruce creek has been the reopening of old drift-workings by individuals
working on " lays."
Old McCloskey Drift.—C. Lykkergard and one man were tramming dirt 1,050 feet from
a new face behind the old workings. This face was along the edge of the old pay-channel
and about 550 feet into the hill from the left bank of Spruce creek. They were drifting
nearly parallel to Spruce creek in a direction of south 77 degrees east.
Some sections of remarkably rich ground were encountered in the central section of Spruce
creek below its confluence with Dominion creek.
Columbia Development Co.—A feature of this operation in the central section of Spruce
creek is the installation of a novel mobile sluicing plant designed by D. Eastman and J. Walsh
(see illustration). The plant has operated efficiently and a similar one has been completed
on additional ground, on the lower section of the creek, acquired during the year. A crew of
fifteen men was employed.
Compagnie Francaise des Mines d'or du Canada.—This company ceased operations and
lessees took over the operation. Drifting operations have been on the main bed-rock channel
and one about 20 feet higher. The bed-rock channel is sinuous and the pay-streaks apparently
conform to the straight stretches and the inner sides of the bends.
Tatshenshini River Area.
Squaw Creek.—About forty-five whites and Indians are reported to have worked on
Squaw creek during the season. The majority were engaged in individual or small partnership
Silver-Lead-Zinc Deposits.
Bear River Area, Portland Canal.
United Empire Gold and Silver Mines, Ltd.—Reports and references to this property are
contained in the Minister of Mines' Annual Reports for the years 1924, 1925, 1928, 1929, 1930,
1933, and 1934. The property is also described in Geological Survey of Canada Memoir No.
159, 1929. Subsequent to the work described in the 1934 Annual Report, about 1,235 feet of
diamond-drilling was done and some further exploratory drifting, with some crosscutting, in
the east and west drifts, which lead from the main crosscut. The west drift-workings driven
from the main crosscut adit comprise a total of about 1,071 feet. For a few days previous to
the time of examination (September 22nd to 24th) two or three men had been engaged in
cleaning out old surface cuts and the underground workings. The surface exposures have
been described in former reports.
Palmey.— (See Annual Reports of Minister of Mines for 1930 and 1931.) This group
consists of twelve claims owned by W. Tooth, of Stewart, and adjoins the Dalhousie and
International groups on the south and south-west and the M.C. group on the north. The
property is situated on the easterly slope of Mount Bunting of the Bear River ridge, about 7
miles from Stewart, and is reached by a trail from the Bear River road. Recent work consists
of further tracing by open-cutting.    Exploration was also carried out at higher altitudes.
Ida.— (See Annual Reports for 1919, 1922 to 1928, and Geological Survey Memoirs 159
and 175.) This group comprises the L. and L. Fraction, L. and L. No. 1, Columbia, and
Sunshine Crown-granted mineral claims, which were part of the old L. and L. Consolidated
Mines, Limited, and were acquired by purchase for taxes by L. H. Davidson, of Stewart.
The property is situated at the head of the North fork of Glacier creek. The work in 1935
consisted of stoping in the floor of No. 2 adit, elevation 3,440 feet, for a distance of about 60 feet from the portal.    At an elevation of 3,425 feet, about 50 feet northerly from the portal
of No. 2 adit, a drift 21 feet long was driven on the vein.
Northwestern Aerial Prospectors, Ltd.—This company owns a group of some fifteen
claims on the west side of American creek near its headwaters, about 26 miles from the town
of Stewart. The area is reached by trail from the end of the Bear River road at American
creek. The main showings on the Moonlight claim are described in the Annual Reports for
1930, 1931, and 1932. During 1935 some stripping and open-cutting was done on a quartz
stringer on the Moonlight claim at an elevation of 3,000 feet on a ridge in the valley of
American creek.
Salmon River Area.
Spider.—This group, owned by B.C. Bonanza Mines, Limited, is situated on the east side
of Cascade creek, a mile north of Long lake or about 2% miles northerly from the Big
Missouri. O. McFadden and partner, lessees, carried out open-cutting and stoping and
shipped 3.85 tons of selected ore to Tacoma.
Alice Arm Area.
Esperanza Mines, Ltd. (N.P.L.).— (See former Annual Reports and also the Geological
Survey of Canada reports covering this area.) During 1935 the " Alice " adit, elevation 1,730
feet, was continued towards the intersection of the " Alice " vein-outcrop. A small-tonnage
mill was erected late in the year. A single-line tramway, about 1,200 feet long, was also
constructed from the portal of No. 4 adit to the mill. In preparation for mining, the 36-42-
horse-power semi-Diesel engine and a 2 by 120 Gardner-Denver compressor were moved from
No. 9 adit to the portal of No. 4 adit and housed there.
Dolly Varden.—This property is described in detail in former Annual Reports and also in
those of the Geological Survey of Canada on this area. During 1935 the property was leased
by T. W. Falconer, Alice Arm, who employed two men on high-grading operations. This work
was done in two small open-cuts on the east and west sides of No. 1 glory-hole, on a pay-streak
in the hanging-wall side of the vein.
Stikine River Area.
Jackson.—This group is owned by Frank Jackson and associates, of Jackson's Landing,
and adjoins the Lady Jane group on the east. The geology and mineral deposits are described
in the 1929, 1930, and 1931 Annual Reports. During 1935 further open-cutting was done on
a cross-vein outcropping down the steep hill-slope at elevation 2,925 feet, about 750 feet above
Connover creek and 700 feet north-east from the cabin. About 25 feet west from this cut
a cross-vein 18 inches in width is exposed.
Taku River Area.
Banker.—This group of five claims and one fraction is owned by J. L. Hill and associates,
of Juneau, and is described in detail in the 1929 and 1930 Annual Reports and in Bulletin
No. 1, 1930, " Taku River Area."
On the adjoining Potlatch group, owned by Buck Sparling, of Juneau, the owner was
engaged in sinking a shaft through overburden at a place about 70 feet north-westerly from
the Banker showing, with the objective of picking up the extension of this showing.
Copper Deposits.
Observatory Inlet Area.
Granby C.M.S. & P. Co., Ltd.—The property and operations of this company at Anyox,
Observatory inlet, are described in former Annual Reports, and in the Annual Report for 1934
more recent operations are mentioned. Normal operations were continued at Anyox during the
first part of the year, but in July preparations for cessation were begun. In September
operations ceased completely and the crew, staff, and residents gradually left. Non-metallic Deposits.
Coast Area.
Sericite.—This group, owned by C. Jedder and P. J. Ray, is situated on Baker inlet.
Development-work was continued by two men. Samples of mica sent to the Department of
Mines, Ottawa, were favourably reported on regarding character and grade of material.
A test shipment of 1.5 tons was made to Vancouver.
Koeye River.
This river flows into the east side of Fitzhugh sound about 7 miles south of Namu cannery.
About half a mile from the mouth on the right bank, P. Christensen is operating a limestone-
quarry and during 1935 shipped 6,255 tons of crude limestone to the Pacific Pulp and Paper
Mills at Ocean Falls.


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