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PART D ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR THE YEAR ENDED… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1937

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 PART D
ANNUAL EEPOET
OF  THE
MINISTER OF MINES
OF  THE   PROVINCE   OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
FOR  THE
Year Ended 31st December
1936
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY  OF THE LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Chaeles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1937. BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MINES.
VICTORIA, B.C.
Hon. George S. Pearson, Minister.
John F. Walker, Deputy Minister and Provincial Mineralogist.
James Dickson, Chief Inspector of Mines.
D. E. Whittaker, Provincial Assayer and Analyst.
P. B. Freeland, Chief Mining Engineer.
R. J. Steenson, Chief Gold Commissioner. »Mte£	
Hedley Townsile and Siimlkamcen River Valley.
Hedley Mascot Gold Mines, Ltd.     Mill.
■.:    •■:■■/.! Nicola Mines and Metals, Ltd.     Mill.
•■   • •*-•.-•,»•.■• VW"*-'
Coldstream Valley East of Verno SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 3
PART D.
SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL MINERAL SURVEY DISTRICTS
(Nos. 3 AND 4).
BY
M. S. Hedley.
v SUMMARY.
The year 1936 saw a satisfactory continuance of activity in mining in Nos. 3 and 4
Districts. Gold was the principal metal mined and sought for. The Hedley Camp in
particular has seen expanded development and occupies a prominent position in Nos. 3 and 4
Districts in the production of gold. There was little activity in silver except in the Beaverdell
area, where the principal producers operated as usual, and some exploratory work was done.
Base metals were not mined except in gold and silver ores.
The projected resumption of activities by the Granby Company at Copper Mountain will
be a boon to the southern interior and already, before the close of the year, work has been
going forward with rehabilitations, repairs, and improvements, particularly in the shape of
a new power plant.
There has been some revival in Greenwood-Phoenix area, particularly the milling of parts
of the old Granby ore-bodies at the former Superior mill at Greenwood. The Fairview
Amalgamated-Morning Star operated from June and the Dividend at Osoyoos had a successful
year.
The Geological Survey sent three field-parties to No. 4 District. Two parties, under
Dr. C. E. Cairnes and Dr. Carl Tolman, together mapped one square degree bordering the
south end of Okanagan Lake and south to the International Boundary. A third party, under
D. A. McNaughton, mapped in detail a considerable area in and bordering the Phoenix Camp.
These maps and reports are being looked forward to with interest.
In placer-mining, hydraulic operations were stopped on Rock Creek and considerable
preparatory work was done on Boundary Creek. Testing and hydraulicking was carried out
on Scotch Creek. An interesting discovery was made at Harris Creek, near Vernon, in ground
prospected sixty years ago.
Prospectors were active, but probably not any more so than during the two previous years.
The writer wishes to express his appreciation of the many courtesies extended him by
mine operators and others during the course of his work.
LODE-GOLD DEPOSITS.
Hedley Camp.
References.—Charles Camsell, Geological Survey of Canada, Memoir 2, 1910; H. S.
Bostock, Geological Survey of Canada, Summary Report, 1929, Part A; Annual Reports of
the Minister of Mines, 1901 to 1935, particularly 1901, 1903, 1906 to 1908, 1912, 1919, 1926,
1928, 1929, 1931,1933 to 1935.
The name " Hedley Camp " in former years referred particularly to Nickel Plate Mountain
and vicinity, but more recently has been expanded to include ground several miles distant
from the town of Hedley. It is not proposed here to define the boundaries precisely, but for
purposes of this report the Hedley Camp refers particularly to Nickel Plate, Lookout, and
Stemwinder Mountains and to the south side of Similkameen River, short of the height of land,
"between Sterling and Johns Creeks.
Revival of the Nickel Plate and development of the Mascot have paved the way for a
revival and expansion of activity that has been aided in no small measure by the enhanced
price of gold. Development-work at the Nickel Plate mine by Kelowna Exploration Company
has extended rather than decreased the known reserve of ore. Under the direction of Paul
Billingsley, exploration has been based on the theory that the occurrence of ore is consistently
related to geological structure, and as a result the company has extended favourably the D 4 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
Nickel Plate zone and the Sunnyside ore-body, and has found indications of an ore-body on
the Bull Dog claim.
On the Mascot Fraction, for many years idle in the midst of Nickel Plate ground, development by Hedley Mascot Gold Mines, Limited, to date has shown the ore-bodies to be larger and
more valuable than indicated by preliminary diamond-drilling. More recent diamond-drilling
has indicated values beneath the adit-level in previously unexplored ground. The significance
of this work is not known at the time of writing, but further drilling is in progress. The
company also carried out, during 1936, considerable surficial geological exploration on other
parts of their holdings.
January of 1937 saw ten companies in the camp and six others with ground marginal to it.
Of these, the Kelowna Exploration Company, Limited; Hedley Mascot Gold Mines, Limited;
and Gold Mountain Mines, Limited, were producing, and work of various degrees of intensity
was done by the others. Most of the work has been done on ground staked many years ago,
but recent investigations have added to the general store of knowledge.
Briefly stated, the regional geology consists of a great thickness of banded argillaceous,
calcareous, and quartzitic sediments intruded by irregular masses of igneous rocks. On Nickel
Plate Mountain and on the east side of Stemwinder Mountain the sediments are predominantly
calcareous, although limestone as such is subordinate. Elsewhere the rocks are more argillaceous. These rocks have, in the central part of the camp, been carefully subdivided by
Camsell and further subdivided by Bostock, although the individual formations have not been
traced far beyond the summit of Nickel Plate Mountain. The sediments are intruded by
masses of hornblende and augite diorite in the form of stocks, dykes, and sills, the greatest
concentration of which is on and between Nickel Plate and Lookout and Stemwinder Mountains.
The whole is hemmed in by, except on the west, large bodies of younger granodiorite, and
youngest of all are dykes of andesitic and lamprophyric character. Considerable faulting
has taken place on the west side of Nickel Plate Mountain, particularly along the Bradshaw
fault, which passes down the lowermost section of 20-Mile Creek and crosses the river directly
opposite.       „
The sediments, part of the western limb of a major anticline, dip westerly to northwesterly throughout most of the area. The dip is gentle on Nickel Plate Mountain but
becomes steeper to the west, and on the summit of Stemwinder Mountain the dip is nearly
vertical. Locally, as on Nickel Plate and Stemwinder Mountains, the sediments are contorted.
South of the river and west of Bradshaw fault the rocks are predominantly closely-folded dark
argillites in which contortion and some faulting make for reversals in dip.
The mineralization on Nickel Plate Mountain has been fully described by Camsell and
Bostock and is a type for the district. It consists of arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and rare sphalerite, disseminated in the rock formation. The arsenopyrite contains
practically all of the gold values, and while assays may be obtained from pyrrhotite, in some
cases at least the values are associated with included, microscopic arsenopyrite.* This type of
mineralization is not restricted to but has so far been found most intensely developed on and
near Nickel Plate Mountain. Farther afield, within and beyond the Hedley Camp proper,
similar mineralization has been found, of perhaps more local development.
The Nickel Plate type of ore occurs in lime-bearing rocks that are recrystallized to silicate
rocks of a medium but not intense degree of metamorphism, and occurs also, locally, in diorite.
The mineralization, favouring a certain type of altered sediment, tends to selectively follow
the bedding, but this is not invariable and is, strictly speaking, of local occurrence only.
Localization is controlled primarily by structure—i.e., Assuring of the rocks; secondly, by
intensity of metamorphism, implying more particularly temperature, as marked by zones of
garnetite, etc.; thirdly, by composition of the (metamorphosed) host-rocks. Consequently,
in a given zone of mineralization, in which the combined factors of Assuring and temperature
are favourable to deposition, mineral tends to occur selectively in certain rock-types and so
may follow a particular bed or series of beds. This bedded mineralization may not, however,
be continuous, depending upon the structural relation of the sediments to zones of Assuring
and metamorphism.
The early fissures, those along which mineralization was in many instances introduced
are of low dip, and later ones, some at least of which are post-ore, are of steep dip.    As most
* H. V. Warren and J. M. Cummings, B.C. Miner, May, 1936. SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 5
of the earlier fissures are now healed and only very rarely carry gouge, they are hard to detact;
often, particularly on Stemwinder Mountain, they are closely associated with steeper systems
of apparently the same age. When mineralized, the two or more sets may form together
a sort of box-work of patchy mineralization, with local extensions guided by intensity of
alteration, by igneous contacts, and by sedimentary structure. Flat fissures are to be found
also in outlying parts of the camp, some of which contain quartz veinlets, so it does not appear
as though the early fracturing along flatly-dipping planes was restricted solely to Nickel Plate
Mountain, but that the basic fracture-pattern is rather widespread. In the Nickel Plate,
however, these fractures follow more or less closely both bedding and sedimentary-diorite
contacts.
Quartz veins are rare but not absent in the central part of the camp. In the darken
argillaceous sediments mineralization is almost wholly restricted to quartz veins, although
rare bands of silicate rock may contain disseminated sulphides. In the argillites the zones
of metamorphism are of different character and extent; alteration is not so intense, and
mineralization, in the form of quartz veins, occurs in frequently irregular shear-zones.
Mineralization has been encountered within granodiorite on the Mission and Marathon groups
of claims, and may well be early Tertiary in age. The age-relation between this mineralization
and that found beyond the borders of the granodiorite batholiths is not known.
The Hedley Chief Mines, Limited, holds nineteen claims that extend across the property of
Hedley Amalgamated1 from the gravel benches immediately west of Hedley to the summit of
Stemwinder Mountain. The lower part of the ground rises steeply from the gravel benches to
precipitous bluffs which are composed of well-exposed and locally contorted calcareous sediments. The upper section of the property to Stemwinder Summit is one of steep grassy
slopes underlain predominantly by calcareous and argillaceous sediments, but including some
diorite.
Surficial work has been done at several widely-separated points which, due to scarcity
of outcrops, cannot be correlated. One open-cut, 3,500 feet south of the summit at an elevation
of 3,900 feet, shows a fiat, rather weak shearing in diorite carrying a little scattered arsenopyrite and pyrite. Fifty feet north-west is a cut in Ane-grained banded silicate rocks, nearly
vertical, cut by Ane calcite stringers and with traces of mineral; between these cuts is a
feldspar-porphyry dyke 15 feet wide. Above, near the central gully, elevation 4,275 feet, is
a 20-foot cut on a porphyry dyke. The sediments here strike about north 15 degrees east and
are vertical, and cross-fractures trend north 60 degrees west and dip 70 degrees south-west;
stripping near by shows some pyrite-pyrrhotite mineralization, including traces of chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite, in green silicate rocks, some of which is related to the Assuring.
Nearer the gully at the same elevation is a 25-foot adit driven east into crushed sediments.
Just below the summit of the mountain on the Skyline claim is an old shaft about 15 feet
deep in silicified diorite, part of the same body that forms a rib on the upper part of the ridge
and connects apparently with larger bodies on the 20-Mile slope; alteration, and some
pyrrhotite and pyrite, is parallel to a north-westerly-trending andesite dyke 4 feet wide. On
the summit of Stemwinder Mountain is a diorite porphyry that appears to be related to the
younger granodiorite, a large body of which lies to the north-west.
See Annual Reports, 1933 and 1934.    This company is capitalized at 2,000,000
Gold Mountain  shares of 50 cents par value, of which 1,810,000 are outstanding.    The office
Mines, Ltd.      of the company is at 626 Pender Street West, Vancouver;   G. Arnold! Birks
is president and J. C. Oswald is secretary-treasurer.    The property, comprising fourteen claims and fractions, lies on the south side of Similkameen River, 2 miles
west of Hedley.    The workings are between 2,000 and 3,000 feet south of the river, at an
elevation between 2,500 and 3,250 feet, on the west bank of Henri Creek.    Henri Creek flows
in a small narrow valley, on a bench of which the camp is situated;   the ground slopes at
angles of 20 to 40 degrees to the western valley-rim, which is just above the uppermost
working.    Timher is abundant and water is sufficient for mine and camp use.    An extensive
fiat on the riverJbank provides a site for the mill and attendant camp.
An excessively steep switchback wagon-road, 1 % miles in length, leads from the river-fiat
to the mine. The mill-site is reached by a road 2% miles in length from a bridge across the
river at Sterling Creek. D 6 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
Geology.—The property is underlain by a thick series of sediments that strike in general
north-easterly and dip steeply to the south-east. The whole series is locally contorted, although
the general attitude in the vicinity of the workings is quite uniform. These dark-coloured
rocks with blocky fracture are predominantly argillites, but calcareous and, less commonly,
cherty members are encountered; local bands of sedimentary breccia appear to follow the
bedding. Southerly from the workings about 1,000 feet, talus-slopes and rare outcrops are of
thin-bedded slaty argillite. Metamorphism is in no place extreme, and garnetite and silicate
rock are not produced.
Intrusive into the sediments is an irregular body of diorite, variable in character, but
similar to the diorites near Hedley. This is a stock-like mass with a westerly and a southerly
prolongation, in the angle between which lies the vein system.
The mineralization occurs as quartz-Ailed shear-zones in- the sedimentary rocks. The dip
is 50 to 75 degrees westerly to north-westerly, across the bedding of the formation. These
shear-zones pass into the diorite body, but in that rock are not mineralized except near the
contact. A nearly flat subsidiary fracture system is mineralized with quartz stringers which
are unimportant; these flat stringers in many cases roll into or are connected with steep
stringers of the same age.
The quartz is as a rule watery and occurs as veins or, just as frequently, breccia-Ailing
or a system of veinlets and lenses in rock. Mineralization includes arsenopyrite, pyrite,
sphalerite, and, rarely, chalcopyrite and galena. The mode of occurrence in the quartz is
very irregular, as scattered grains, lenses, or segregations, and also as seams parallel to the
vein-walls. Sphalerite is not abundant and is apparently not necessarily indicative of value.
Considerable of the gold is free (upon advice from Mr. Asselstine) and in an exceedingly fine
state, but free gold is rarely seen in hand specimens. One exceptionally rich pocket encountered on No. 4 level consisted of massive arsenopyrite studded with free gold. There is some
alteration of the walls of the shear-zone, but this is not always a prominent feature.
The property includes the old Pollock group, on which work was done, principally on the
Pine Knot vein, prior to 1913. A slight amount of work was again done in 1927 and 1931 and
the group was taken over in 1983 by the present company, which, after some exploratory work,
bonded the property in 1935 to the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada,
Limited. This company, after doing 750 feet of diamond-drilling, relinquished the option
late in 1935. Since that time Gold Mountain Mines, Limited, has further developed the
property and has built a 60-ton mill that commenced operation early in January, 1937.
Four veins are known on the property; only one of which, the Maple Leaf, has received
much attention.
The Pine Knot vein, which strikes north 25 to 30 degrees east and dips north-westerly at
50 to 65 degrees, is exposed by old workings which include an adit with 120 feet of drift, and
by cuts, shafts, and short adits over a length of 600 feet, most of which are in sediments.
On the north-east end, in diorite, the vein pinches. It varies from a foot or so to 12 feet in
width, the greater width when following an andesite dyke; mineralization of the quartz is not
heavy. The only work done in recent years, by the present company in 1936, is a 50'-foot winze
sunk from a 30-foot adit. Channel samples in a short crosscut in the bottom of this winze
returned:—
(1.) Sixty inches, horizontal, on hanging^wall of vein, quartz and bleached rock and
gouge:   Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton;   silver, 0.2 oz. per ton.
(2.) Forty-five inches, succeeding, to horse of waste: Gold, 0.03 oz. per ton; silver, 0.2 oz.
per ton.
(3.) Thirty inches, horizontal, on foot-wall below 58-inch horse of waste: Gold, trace;
silver, trace.
Two small and unimportant veins lie between the Pine Knot and Maple Leaf. These
occurrences are similar to the others, but widths rarely attain 1% feet.
Maple Leaf Vein.—This is an irregular, branching shear-zone striking about north-south
and dipping 60 degrees to the west. Numerous gouge-seams occur in the zone and pass into
the walls. Much of the mineralization is, properly speaking, quartz-filled breccia. The
accompanying map, from transit surveys by the company, shows the nature and extent of the
mineralized sections of the zone better than a purely verbal description. The zone itself varies
in width up to about 30 feet and strongly mineralized portions of the zone  (i.e., referring SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4).
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particularly to quartz) attain single widths as great as 12 feet. In the greater part of the
zone mineralization is associated with quartz only, alteration is not intense, and quartz and
wall-rock are sharply distinguished. In one section of No. 4 level at (C) on the accompanying
map there is strong alteration and some mineralization within the rock gangue. There
appears to have been a considerable amount of replacement in this section. Exploration has
been close to the contact with diorite and it is in the general vicinity of this contact that the
strongest mineralization has been encountered. Mineralization is not, however, continuous on
the dip of the vein in this section.
The workings include two adits. No. 1 adit, elevation 3,255 feet, explores the shear-zone
over a length of some 200 feet, but does not give a continuous section for that distance. From
this adit-level a winze is sunk 110 feet on the most promising section. No. 2 adit, elevation
2,999 feet, 970 feet in length, passes through the barren shear-zone which is explored by drift
across the diorite-contact for 200 feet. A raise later was driven to connect with the bottom
of the winze from No. 1, and a sub-level, known as No. 4 level, elevation 3,133 feet, was 206
feet long at September 15th, 1936. Since that date, besides further drifting south on No. 4
level, another sub-level, some 40 feet lower, was driven to tap the shear-zone; at a still later
date a crosscut is reported to have encountered mineralization on No. 2 level some 100- feet south
of the original crosscut.
Several short diamond-drill holes were put down by the company at an early stage of
development from a station at (A). Four holes were drilled from (B) by the Consolidated
Mining and Smelting Company to cut the shear-zone south of the crosscut, both level with and
above No. 2 level; a fourth hole was drilled on line from the face of the crosscut. The results
of all of this drilling are not known. The shear-zone is now, on No. 4 level, explored farther
south and higher than where cut by the southernmost drill-hole from the drill-station at (B).
Distribution of quartz in the various parts of the shear-zone is irregular and gold values
are erratic.    Channel samples taken by the writer illustrate this latter fact:—
(1.) Bottom of winze, south side, 42 inches horizontal on hanging-wall of zone: Gold, 0.82
oz. per ton;   silver, 0.4 oz. per ton.
(2.)   Succeeding 50 inches horizontal:   Gold, 0.0-9 oz. per ton;  silver, 0.6 oz. per ton.
(3.)   Succeeding 85 inches horizontal:   Gold, 0.05 oz. per ton;  silver, 0.2 oz. per ton.
(4.) Succeeding 16 inches horizontal on extreme foot-wall: Gold, 0.015 oz. per ton; silver,
0.2 oz. per ton.
(5.) Seam of heavy sulphides, W2 to 3 inches wide, in hanging-wall section: Gold, 4.84
oz. per ton;  silver, 1.6 oz. per ton.
(8.) No. 4 level, where zone was Arst encountered, 4>8 inches cut normal to a flatly^dipping
strand of quartz 6 feet from hanging-wall:  Gold, 0'.005 oz. per ton;  silver, 0.2 oz. per ton.
(7.) Same location, 52 inches horizontal on hanging-wall section of zone: Gold, 0.03 oz.
per ton;  silver, 0.2 oz. per ton.
(8.) No. 4 level,-40 feet south of last point, 22 inches: Gold, 0.80 oz. per ton; silver, 0.5
oz. per ton.
(9.)   Fifteen feet south of (8), 34 inches:   Gold, 0.30 oz. per ton;  silver, 2.3 oz. per ton.
(10.) No. 4 level, face of small drift north of (C), 6<0 inches: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton;
silver, 0.1 oz. per ton;  zinc, 0.7 per cent.
It is not a simple task to determine average values over more than limited sections of the
shear-zone. Very careful, close-interval sampling would be necessary to obtain general
figures, and development has not exposed the zone sufficiently to make this possible. Occasional very high assays are reported, and proper weighting of these in averages is a problem.
Physical difficulties in mining branching ore-bodies in sheared ground cannot at the present
time be assessed, but it is safe to say that mining will not always be easy. The writer consequently is not able to state any definite figures regarding tonnage of proven commercial ore.
No. 4 level is, at the north end, near the bottom of mineralization in this section of the
mine. Mineralization on this level is not quite as strong as on No. 1 level, and, except for a
central, rather narrow, vein-line section 120 feet long, is very irregular. Development here is
at a somewhat critical stage, because continuation of minable ore southward and downward
from the south end of No. 4 level is important.
It is not known whether the shear-zone continues to the south. Mr. Dollemore at one
time did some ground-sluicing about 1,000 feet south of No. 1 adit, which disclosed some heavy SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 9
quartz, apparently nearly in place, and roughly on the line of strike of the Maple Leaf vein.
Further work here would be justified, in spite of the difficulty of working on an excessively steep side-hill, at least to the point of proving the origin of this quartz. Further drifting southward- on No. 1 level is not feasible because of the nearness to grass-roots, and it is
evident that exploratory work is best carried out on No. 2 level.
A crew of some thirty men is employed at the mine under the superintendence of Frank
Dollemore. Late in the year a concentration plant near the river was designed by and built
under the direction of W. J. Asselstine, a tram-line was installed, and power was brought in
by a short branch line from that of the West Kootenay Power and Light Company. At the
mine a 580-cubic-foot Holman compressor is driven by a 100-horse-power 2,200-volt motor.
A 2-bucket jig4>ack gravity-tram with 1,000-lb. buckets has a cable distance of 2,900 feet
between terminals over a vertical rise of 1,20© feet. Ore from an 85-ton coarse-ore bin is
crushed to % inch by jaw-crusher and is elevated to a 200-ton fine-ore bin, and from there it
goes to a 6-foot by 36-inch Hardinge ball-mill with screen. Undersize is- fed to a Denver
unit cell and oversize and unit-cell tailings go to a Hardinge classifier, the overflow from which
goes to a 5-foot Denver conditioner. Flotation is in six Denver cells, concentrates from which
go to a 12-foot Denver thickener and 3-foot Oliver filter; flotation tails flow over blanket-tables.
Concentrates are sacked and hauled by truck to Hedley, whence they are shipped by rail to-
Tacoma.    The mill is operating at about 65 tons per twenty-four hours.
This company is capitalized at 2,000,000 shares, of which 950,000 are out-
Hedley Gold Hill standing. John W. Gallagher, of Hedley, is president of the company and
Mining Co., Ltd. McAlpine and Elliott, of Vancouver, are the fiscal agents. The property
consists of eight claims, the Gold Hill Nos. 1 to 8, situated on the south side
of Similkameen River, 1 % miles from the river and 3 % miles south-west of the town of Hedley.
Access is by pack-trail 2% miles in length from Sterling Creek over lightly-wooded, grass-
covered slopes; another, steep trail 1 % miles in length, leads from the camp of Gold Mountain
Mines, Limited, whose property adjoins on the north. The showings are on the summit of a
low rounded hill at an elevation of about 4,700 feet in an open grass-covered country with few
outcrops. The hillsides are not steep, but small bluffy slopes create an irregular, hilly topography. A tent-camp is located in a small draw below the workings and water is obtained from
a spring.
The most abundant rocks are members of a thick sedimentary series comprising chiefly
argillites and rare calcareous beds. The strike in general is north-south and the dip vertical,
but there is marked local contortion. Intrusive into the sediments is a medium to fine-grained
diorite that forms irregular bodies several tens to hundreds of feet in extent. The accompanying sketch-map does not clearly show relationship of diorite and sediments, but it appears
that there is one body of diorite to the south of the principal cuts and one body, with a northerly
extension, on the north-west. Three hundred and fifty feet north-west of the principal showings are three cuts in sediments, some 60 feet north of which is more diorite.
The impression is at first gathered that this is an area of sedimentary remnants existing
as the roof of a large intrusive mass. The writer does not, however, believe that this is so.
The region as a whole contains many dykes and stock-like bodies as well as some flat sheets of
diorite, and it is his opinion that here, in an area of structural disturbance, there is a complex
of interconnecting intrusive bodies rather than one large mass.
Workings.—A number of shallow cuts and strippings have been made, some in diorite and
some in sediments. A cut (1) from which a 12-foot shaft has been sunk discloses a large
mass of practically solid calcite which forms a rhombic outline about 20 feet on a side and,
except for the north-west corner, is entirely in diorite; the margins of this mass are not
perfectly regular and the extension in depth is not known. The calcite carries practically no
sulphides where exposed in the open-cut, but in a small chamber at the bottom of the shaft
there are lumps of pyrite and pyrrhotite up to fist size or larger. There is some shearing of
the wall-rocks, and a strong sericitization which produces white clayey granular material in
which the original dioritic texture can just be recognized. This complex of sericite, kaolin,
feldspar, and quartz contains no calcite. There is little evidence of mineralization in the
diorite except at the contact with massive calcite, although some sheared diorite is now oxidized
to a reddish to yellowish earthy material. The occurrence of this large rhomb of calcite is
abnormal, and it is not known whether it is a cavitjMilling or a replacement. D 10
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
North-west of the shaft in a long cut, at (2) and (3), argillites and some calcareous rocks
have been brecciated and filled with calcite. The sediments which elsewhere dip vertically
are here flexed into an east-west fold that plunges westerly, the southern limb of which is
nearly flat. In this flat section calcite fills between the bedding-planes and also in transverse
breaks to form a coarse-textured, calcite-filled breccia. Mineralization is erratic and consists
of pyrite in small seams and lumps to fist size, small amounts of pyrrhotite, and traces of
arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena. At (4) there is smilar breccia with less
calcite. South of (3) the mineralization, together with calcite-filling, decreases and in the
cuts north of (3) and (2) it also becomes less. At (4) there are fine, vuggy quartz stringers
which contain some fine chalcopyrite, galena, pyrite, and arsenopyrite. At (5) a bench has
been stripped that shows the flexure of north-south sediments into an east-west anticlinal
axis; there is a little pyrite here. In the three small cuts to the east, on the flank of the hill,
there is exposed a shear-zone in diorite. This zone is a foot or so wide in partly altered
diorite and contains a little pyrite. In the cuts aforementioned, 350 feet to the north-west,
there is a little mineralization in sediments, chiefly as rusty streaks.
An adit 10O feet below the small shaft has been driven from a draw at the base of the
hill through dense, grey calcareous rocks which contain thin bands- of diorite and- are speckled
•with a little pyrite and occasional very fine pyrrhotite, particularly along thin seams of alteration. This adit was 85 feet long at the time of the writer's visit. It was later extended to a
point immediately below the open-cut at (1).    It is reported that no diorite was encountered,
m
Adit j
/N    \ ,   ,   TO
.-,',-- IO>    -'    ,.. H
LEGEND
;.;,;:>; Diorite
Blank area is drift-
covered except for
small outcrops of   sediments
N<s Strippinq  and open cuts
ra   feet
Hedley Gold Hill Mining Co., Ltd.    Sketch-plan of Principal Workings.
but that there is some contortion in the sediments and some mineralization similar to that
on the surface. It appears from this that the diorite is not steeply dipping and must extend
downwards to the west.
Four samples returned the following: No. 1, selected sample from (3), taken to include
as much arsenopyrite as possible (about 20 per cent, pyrite with small amounts of pyrrhotite,
arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite) : Gold, 0,04 oz. per ton; silver, 0.2 oz. per ton. No. 2,
taken from shaft, selected sample of heavy red oxidized material in diorite: Gold, 0.19 oz.
per ton; silver, 0.8 oz. per ton. No. 3, selected' sample from shaft of pyrrhotite and pyrite,
taken to favour pyrrhotite, from within and at the margin of heavy calcite: Gold, 0.035 oz. per
ton. No. 4, from same locality, selected sample of practically pure pyrite taken from solid
calcite:  Gold, 0.08 oz. per ton.
Occasional samples have been reported from this ground that carry higher values than
those taken by the writer. These have all been, however, selected samples. Total percentage
of sulphides is not great and the calcite does not appear particularly favourable. It is
noticed that when there is a slight amount of quartz the mineralization is more diversified
and more promising than when- in calcite alone. This leads one to believe that should any
quantity of quartz be found mineralization would prove more interesting.
Half-way between the workings and Gold Mountain mine, an east-west fold is observed
in thin-bedded argillites, and it seems likely that this is the same line of crumpling as that
at Gold Hill. Although it may be that the presence of diorite is a necessary factor to mineralization, this structural axis might be worth prospecting. SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4).
D 11
This group of six claims is owned by H. D.  Barnes, of Hedley;   James
Mission. Walker, of Vancouver;  and George Winkler, of Victoria.    It is on the south
side of Similkameen River, 2% miles south-west of Hedley in a straight line.
The showings are at elevations of between 4,300 and 4,500 feet on the west side of Jameson
Creek, the first stream flowing into the river below Hedley. This is a hilly region a short
distance back from the edge of Similkameen Valley; the hillsides are steep but not precipitous
and timber cover varies considerably in thickness. The showings are on an open, grass-
covered slope, separated from rather thick woods on the south-west by an irregular, dry gully.
A foot-bridge crosses the river and a pack-trail climbs rapidly up the steep, bluff-covered
valley-wall to an elevation of about 3,000 feet; the trail then leads up the wooded valley of
Jameson Creek, in which there are few outcrops.    No permanent camp is maintained.
The showings are in a westerly-projecting tongue of the large body of granodiorite that
outcrops both north and south of the river in this locality. The rock here is a biotite granodiorite, brownish-grey in colour, and of medium grain. Surrounding the diorite and rarely
as inclusions of roof-pendants are sedimentary rocks, predominantly argillaceous in character.
One such mass lies immediately south-west of the principal showings. One or two andesite
dykes are intrusive into the granodiorite and appear to be older than the mineralization; the
geological age of these dykes is not known, but they may be Tertiary. Mineralization, entirely
within the granodiorite, has been disclosed in several shear-zones near an irregular, dry gully
Scale
200 400
Granodiorite
\
Feet
\
I
v^Barnes  ^one
\
''■* \      \        ft^X
% "ory.
V
Winkler V        £ \ s
zone l     \ N
J 1 ail      x      \
I        %        N      \
A~      fl      I   * Shaft
^-jl^haft   \y
Sediments
M I l I I I I I I l I
Mission Group.    Sketch-plan of Shear-zones in Granodiorite
(see sketch-map). There are few outcrops, and the finding and tracing of most of these zones
has been the result of careful and expert prospecting. There are three principal shear-zones,
known as the Barnes, Walker, and Winkler zones, on the first two of which small shafts have
been sunk; other zones have not been named. None of the numerous open-cuts are shown
on the accompanying sketch-map.
There is a strong alteration of the granodiorite in the shear-zones to a whitish granular
material in which the original texture can barely be recognized; this is composed of quartz,
white mica, a little chlorite, and traces of epidote and calcite. Sulphides occur in this material
as bands and masses, sometimes accompanied by dull white quartz, but the latter is never
abundant. The distribution and percentage of sulphides is hard to determine, due to a strong
oxidation which may, near the surface, obliterate all traces of metallic sulphides. These
include pyrite, fine-grained arsenopyrite, dark-brown sphalerite, and a very little tetrahedrite
and chalcopyrite, all in varying proportions and amounting, in total, from a trace to 40 per
cent, of a zone several feet wide. The strongest mineralization is in the Barnes zone, on which
a 12-foot shaft has been sunk and which has been exposed by open-cuts at close intervals for
250 feet, disclosing promising mineralization; the indicated length of the zone is about 800
feet. The zone is 10 to 15 feet wide and locally 2 or 3 feet wider, although the actual limits
are not readily determined. The Walker zone has been trenched at frequent intervals from
a 20-foot shaft to its junction with the Barms zone, a distance of some 300 feet. Sediments
show on the west side of the shaft, and fairly strong mineralization is evident in the shaft and
several of the trenches.    The  Winkler zone,  discovered  in  1936, has not been more  than D 12 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
surficially explored; less mineralization is evident, although oxidation has been sufficiently
heavy to obliterate much of the sulphides. Other shear-zones are geologically similar, but
are weaker structures than the three principal zones. All stop at the dry gully, which must
mark the presence of a fault or series of faults.
Sampling has failed to return values as good as might be expected from a study of the
mineralization.    Those taken by the writer follow:—
(1.) Selected from bottom of Walker shaft, quartz with 20 per cent, arsenopyrite and
a little pyrite:   Gold, 0.08 oz. per ton;   silver, 0.2 oz. per ton;   copper, nil.
(2.) Chip sample from bottom of Barnes shaft on south-east side in mineralized altered
diorite containing pyrite, some heavy arsenopyrite, and a little sphalerite: Gold, 0.04 oz. per
ton;   silver, 3.5 oz. per ton.
(3.) Selected from Barnes shaft-dump, heavy arsenopyrite with less pyrite and sphalerite:
Gold, 0.06 oz. per ton;   silver, 8 oz. per ton.
(4.) The same, picked to favour sphalerite: Gold, 0.20 oz. per ton; silver, 20 oz. per ton;
zinc, 10.8 per cent.
This group of seven claims consists of one Crown-granted claim, the Victoria,
Victoria. held on lease, and six located claims.    It is owned by T. C. McAlpine, of
Summerland, and associates. The claims are on the south-east side of
16-Mile Creek, 4 miles below Hedley. They are 1 % miles from the highway and the principal
showings are 1,500 feet from the creek at an elevation of about 3,550 feet. The lower part
of the hillside consists of timbered talus-slopes and at and above the workings bluffs are
prominent. A steep trail in overburden and slide material leads up the narrow creek-valley,
from which an old trail is followed with difficulty up to the workings.
The rocks are predominantly argillites; near the creek dark carbonaceous argillite
predominates, and at the workings the rocks are more hard and blocky and include fine-grained
quartzitic members. The structure is not known. The sediments are cut by andesite dykes,
and by diorite near by. The mineralization consists of a single quartz vein which strikes
south 30 to 40 degrees east and dips steeply south-west. The vein, free-walled in shattered
ground, consists of vitreous crystalline quartz bearing arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and
chalcopyrite and occasional seams and patches of chloritic material.
Workings consist of three adits as well as a few exploratory open-cuts, now caved. The
lowest adit, elevation 3,325 feet, is driven south 50 degrees east for 50 feet in rock. No. 2 adit,
elevation 3,550 feet, is 190 feet long at an average bearing of south 30 degrees east. The vein,
1 to 4 inches wide at the portal, splits and becomes lost in the right wall at 40 feet. At 80 feet
the vein, still narrow, is picked up beyond a steep cross-fault and is joined by the split from
the right wall at 110 feet; thence for 35 feet it averages 2 feet in width, when it is stepped
15 feet to the east by a steep cross-shear. In the inner 35 feet the vein averages 20 inches
wide. No. 1 adit is 215 feet distant, at a bearing of south 41 degrees east from No. 2, and
is 155 feet higher; it is 72 feet long, bearing south 40 degrees east. The vein varies between
18 and 26 inches wide and averages about 23 inches.
The distribution of sulphides in the quartz is irregular. In No. 1 adit heavy seams and
lenses of arsenopyrite form locally 25 to 50 per cent, of the vein-matter; in No. 2 adit sulphides
form a low percentage. A chip sample of the face of No. 2 adit, quartz 26 inches wide,
returned: Gold, 0.28 oz. per ton; silver, 0.3 oz. per ton. A selected sample of heavy arsenopyrite returned:  Gold, 0.13 oz. per ton;  silver, 0.25 oz. per ton.
This group of eight claims is owned by T. C. McAlpine, of Summerland, and
Toronto.        associates.    It is 3,000 feet south-west of the fork of 20-Mile Creek between
elevations of about 3,000 and 4,000 feet.    The region is precipitous and the
principal showing is at the base of prominent high bluffs.    The easiest approach is from the
fork of 20-Mile Creek by angling back up the valley-side.
The rocks are prominently-banded calcareous to argillaceous and cherty sediments intruded
by a complex of dioritic dykes. A body of coarse-grained granite of unknown extent occurs
a quarter of a mile south-west of the fork. Two veins of white quartz from 1 to 5 feet wide
occur in the granite; the strike is north 80 degrees east and dip 75 degrees south. A little
surface work, including a 12-foot shaft, was done on these veins many years ago, but assays
are reported to be low. SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS   (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 13
At the base of the eastern side of the bluff, elevation 3,350 feet, a 10-foot adit is driven
on a 5V2- to 6-foot mineralized zone in sediments. The zone contains strands of watery
quartz, associated with and between which are bands and streaks of pyrite and small amounts
of chalcopyrite and galena. Variations in width of the zone and of individual members are
frequent; the quartz in the vicinity of the adit attains a maximum width of 15 inches as
a foot-wall strand. The strike of the zone is north 80 degrees east and the dip 75 degrees north.
A sample in the adit of the foot-wall mineralized quartz, 11 inches wide, returned: Gold, 0.02
oz. per ton;  silver, 4.8 oz. per ton.
Apex Mountain Area.
This group of four located claims is owned by T. C. McAlpine, of Summer-
Nelson, land, and associates.    It is situated just south-west of the peak of Apex
Mountain at an elevation of about 6,750 feet and adjoins the Independence
and other Crown-granted claims.    The group is at timber-line on a grassy rolling hillside
with an average slope of about 15 degrees, and on which outcrops are few.    Timber is plentiful
at the lower edge of the claims and water may be obtained from a small stream.
The claims can be reached by car from the main Nickel Plate Road by an old road which
leads to a summit of 7,140 feet elevation, a distance of about 2% miles. From the summit it
is just possible to take a car down grass-covered slopes for an additional mile, practically to
the principal showing.
The rocks are altered sediments—silicate rocks, argillite, quartzite, chert, limestone.
Intrusive into these is diorite, the extent and distribution of which is not known, due to scarcity
of outcroppings. There are in this area impregnation deposits, chiefly of pyrrhotite, in rock,
but on this group the important showing is a quartz vein in silicate rocks close to a contact
with diorite. The quartz is white and crystalline and contains vuggy seams and lenses with
crystals up to 2 inches in length. Massive granular arsenopyrite is the principal sulphide;
pyrite is associated with the arsenopyrite, particularly where there is vuggy quartz; the
more pure pyrite is in porous crystalline masses. The vein strikes north 70 degrees east and
dips 80 degrees north.
There is one open-cut 38 feet long on the vein, the face of which is 10 feet high; a little
underhand stoping, now water-filled, has been done near the face. The vein is reported to be
a maximum of 3 feet wide, although all that can now be seen is a split section in the face
consisting of a 2- to 6-inch hanging-wall strand and 12- to 17-inch foot-wall strand. A small
shaft, now caved, with a little quartz on the dump, is westerly 135 feet from the cut. Easterly
for 140 feet from the open-cut, stripping, in diorite, has failed to disclose the vein, although
there is some evidence of a vertical fissure and of a little quartzose material. Beyond these
points there are no outcrops; it is probable that the diorite extends several hundred feet east
on the strike of the vein.
There are two piles of ore; one, of about 1V2 tons, contains 50 per cent, sulphide, and
the other, of about 30 tons, is more sparsely mineralized. Three samples returned: (1.)
Selected sample from dump of solid arsenopyrite with 15 per cent, quartz: Gold, 0.64 oz. per
ton; silver, 1.6 oz. per ton. (2.) Selected sample of arsenopyrite and pyrite with 30 per cent,
quartz: Gold, 0.44 oz. per ton; silver, 1.2 oz. per ton. (3.) Grab sample of larger dump:
Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton.
Keremeos Creek Area.
This public company was formed in June, 1936, to take over the undertakings
Gold Valley      of Gold Valley Mines, Limited, a private company.    The head office of the
Mines, Ltd.       company is 417 Vancouver Block, Vancouver;   A. K. Shives is president and
A. C. McDougall is managing director and secretary, and G. H. Shephard
is consulting engineer.    The property comprises nineteen claims and fractions, of which five
are Crown-granted.    It is situated on the west side of Keremeos Creek just below Olalla and
3 to 4 miles north of Keremeos.
The southern part of the property is on a steep, slide- and bluff-covered hillside that
ris?s from the valley to summits nearly 6,000 feet in elevation. The northern part of the
property is one of bare irregular slopes cut by occasional dry gullies. The Penticton-Keremeos
Highway crosses the east margin of the property. Workings on the Something Good and
A.C. Fractional claims are reached by steep switchback trail half a mile in length, and those D 14 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
on the Sunrise and No. 2 Fractional by a quarter of a mile of easy trail over drift-covered
broken slopes.
The rocks are dark-coloured bloeky cherts, quartzites, argillites, and greenstones.
Intrusive into these are pyroxenite, aplitic granite, and diorite. The pyroxenite is a coarse
green rock composed almost entirely of augite and including a little biotite; the largest body,
on the Something Good and Great Eastern claims, is, at the elevation of No. 1 adit, nearly
2,000 feet wide, trending north-westerly up the hillside. A second body, of unknown extent,
occurs on the No. 2 Fractional. On the north end of the property and about Olalla is a pink
aplitic soda granite and also some diorite; the relationship of these several intrusives is not
known.
On the A.C. Fractional, elevation 2,400 feet, and above, on the Something Good claim,
elevation 2,590 feet, are two adits. The lower adit, 315 feet long, bearing south 73 degrees
west, is in pyroxenite. The upper adit is in sediments 30 feet south of the large body of
pyroxenite, and is 40 feet north of a 100-foot offshoot of the same rock, which may be traced
400 feet up the steep slope and which joins the main body just above the lower adit. The upper
adit when examined was 255 feet long at about south 70 degrees west, and a crosscut was in
12 feet to the north at 185 feet from the portal. The adit follows the southern, steeply-dipping
foot-wall of an irregular shear-zone. This is about 4 feet wide at the portal, widens to 16 feet
about 40 feet above, and widens still more higher up precipitous bluffs; 100 feet or so up the
bluffs the zone splits and cannot be located with certainty beyond this point. On the surface,
except at the constriction in the portal of the adit, this zone is seen to be a thoroughly cemented
breccia of cherty to finely quartzitic rock; cementing material is sparse to absent and
mineralization consists of a slight amount of pyrite. In the adit, although the full width of
the zone is not shown, there is a foot-wall seam of fine crushing to a maximum width of 23
inches; in this material there are few fragments greater than an inch in size, and much is the
size of coarse sand; there is both calcite and quartz cement, and fine, sparse pyrite occurs
principally in the cement. About 100 feet from the portal the foot-wall zone is less marked,
and in the inner 100 feet the drift, although following a recognizable foot-wall, is in sheared
argillaceous sediments. Two samples across the face taken when the adit was 170 feet long
returned 0.01 oz. gold per ton. Two samples of the foot-wall zone: (1.) Eighty-five feet from
portal, 26 inches wide: Gold, 0.37 oz. per ton; silver, trace. (2.) Sixty-seven feet from portal,
22 inches wide: Gold, 0.74 oz. per ton; silver, 0.4 oz. per ton. Two grab samples from the
ore-bunker at the foot of the hill returned trace each in gold.
A small home-made bucket tram has been used to transport ore from No. 1 adit to a bunker
near the road. A portable compressor supplied air to No. 1 adit during the late summer of
1936.
On the Sunrise and No. 2 Fractional are quartz veins in granite, diorite, and in or n-^ar
pyroxenite. On one vein, in granite, is a 90-foot adit on the roadside, bearing south 75 degrees
west, which shows a tight-walled nearly-vertical vein 5 to 16 inches wide and containing a very
little cubical pyrite. A shaft, 250 feet to the west, said to be 45 feet deep, is on the same
frozen vein 8 to perhaps 20 inches wide. This may or may not be the same as a vein 8 to 18
inches wids exposed in an open-cut on the No. 2 Fractional; this vein is sparsely mineralized
and occurs between walls of fine diorite. An adit 100 feet lower (elevation 2,000 feet) and
150 feet north was 97 feet long, bearing south 15 degrees west, at the time of the writer's visit.
Another vein of white quartz is poorly exposed about 100 feet easterly from the adit. Thsre
are few outcrops in this locality.
Stump Lake Area.
This company is capitalized at $2,500,000, divided into 5,000,000 shares of
Nicola Mines and a par value of 50 cents each.    The head office of the company is 1015 Rogers
Metals, Ltd.      Building, Vancouver.    P. L. Bancroft is president and managing director
and T. B. Cosgrove is mine manager.    The property comprises twenty-six
claims, twenty-three of which are shown on the accompanying map, and three others, Big
Sandy, Empire, and Maiden, lie to the east of the main group.
The property is on the south-east shore of Stump Lake and lies partly on the western
flank and summit of " Mineral Hill." It is 31 miles north of Merritt and about half-way
between Merritt and Kamloops. A good road some 2% miles- in length connects the mine with
the main highway. SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 15
Relief on the property is 300 feet in a region of bare or sparsely-wooded hills. Rock bluffs
locally flank the lake and elsewhere the rise is in grassy, drift-covered slopes. Water for plant
use is- pumped from Stump Lake and for drinking purposes is hauled from Scott Creek, some
3 miles to the east. Timber, consisting of pine and fir, is scanty, but sufficient for present
needs.
The general geology is extremely simple: the rocks consist of greenstone of the Nicola
formation, which underlies the entire property. The Nicola greenstone is an andesitic rock,
usually fine-grained and rather bright green in colour; locally it is coarser-grained and is
dioritic to diabasic in texture. The rock is all altered (chloritized), but is on the whole
massive and is only locally sheared. Included in this formation are occasional bands of tuff
and breccia; the former are extremely fine-grained, finely-banded rocks which may be difficult to distinguish from the finer-grained phases of massive greenstone; the breccia contains andesitic fragments, up to fist size, similar in composition to the matrix.
The greenstones are steeply tilted in the vicinity of the principal workings. They strike
north 40 to 60 degrees east and dip nearly vertical. Just north-east of the property boundary
an exposure of tuffs shows a nearly flat attitude.    The major structure is not known.
The veins are quartz-fillings in shear and fracture zones, and are usually accompanied
by rather prominent alteration- of the wall-rocks. Younger than the veins are hornblende-
andesite dykes, dark in colour, some of which are faintly porphyritic and some are fine-grained,
holocrystalline. These dykes are from a few inches to 7 or 8 feet wide and are irregular in
attitude.    They cut the veins and tend in some cases to follow the vein-fissure.
A number of veins are known, which strike northerly and dip easterly. Two veins dip
north-easterly and strike at a large angle to the average trend. (See accompanying map,
which is from company surveys, with mine-workings brought up to date by the writer.) Of
the principal veins, the strike varies between north 45 degrees west and north 25 degrees east
and the dip between 45 degrees easterly and vertical. They are quartz-filled fractures and
shear-zones in which there has been in most instances an alteration of the wall-rocks. They
are free-walled and vary in width from- an inch or two to 6 feet, and pinches, swells, and
changes in attitude are characteristic. The walls are bleached and pyritized and do not carry
appreciable values; the total width of alteration-zone is not constant, but may attain a thickness of 15 feet.
The quartz is white and vitreous and is mineralized irregularly with sulphides which
include pyrite, galena, sphalerite, tetrahedrite, chalcopyrite (bornite). These occur in segregations, thin seams, and disseminations which make up usually a low proportion of the veins.
Gold and silver values are rudely proportional to the amount of sulphides in any one vein, but
the sulphides vary in amount and proportion in different veins'. Calcite is found as vein-
filling only in the Joshua vein at the south end; it occurs also as fracture-fillings in wall-
rocks but is not abundant.    Scheelite is reported as of rare occurrence in the Joshua vein.
" Mineral Hill " is mentioned in the earliest available reports, and claims' were there
staked between 1882 and 1885. Prior to 1890 the Nicola Mining and Milling Company put
down or started the Joshua, Tubal Cain, and King William shafts, and the- Star Mining Company put down the Star (now Enterprise) and Planet shafts; a small concentrating plant
was erected by the latter company. Work by these two companies was discontinued, and from
1889 to 1916 no serious work was done on this ground.
In-1916 the Donahue Mines Corporation, of Seattle, acquired eight claims and commenced
investigation of the Joshua and Tubal Cain veins. In the following year a mill was built
and three cars of concentrates were shipped, but the mill was shortly closed down. During
the next three years a little work was done by the same company, and finally, in 1920, after
shipping 62 tons of ore, operations were suspended.
Work was again started on the Enterprise (formerly known as the Star) vein in 1925,
and by 1928 the Planet Mines and Reduction Company of Nicola, B.C., Limited, had deepened
the shaft to 320 feet, had started an adit-crosscut at that level, and was building a mill.
Milling commenced in 1929, on ore from the shaft-dump, shortly before the Enterprise vein
was intersected by the crosscut adit, and from then on development was hard pressed to
keep ahead of a mill consumption of 60 tons a day. The company Anally abandoned operations
in February, 1931. D 16
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
El. 2460
Nicola Mines and Metals, Ltd.    Plan of Property showing Principal Veins and Underground Workings,
adapted from Company's Surveys. Nicola Mines and Metals, Limited, was incorporated in 1928 and, following cessation of
operations of Planet Mines and Reduction Company, acquired the eleven claims- held by that
company, which, together with Afteen additional, made a total of twenty-six claims held. In
1933 the company, with conditional holdings, proceeded on a development campaign that
included drifting on Tubal Cain and Joshua veins from the main 320-foot-level crosscut and
sinking of the Joshua shaft from the original 400-foot level to a total depth of 755 feet.
Development-work continued on the Enterprise vein and a winze was sunk to the 440-foot
level. After shipping some 200 tons of concentrates in 1934 the mine was closed down in
November, 1934, until July 10th, 1936, when, under new direction and management, operations
were resumed.    Operation has been continuous since the latter date.
Total production from 1928 to the end of 1936 has amounted to approximately 53,000
tons, of which 25,000 was mined by the Planet Mining and Reduction Company and the
balance by the present company.
Six principal veins are known, each of which has received development. These are the
Joshua, Tubal Cain, King William, Enterprise, Planet, and Silver King. Of these the
Enterprise is by far the most important.
Tubal Cain Vein.—This vein strikes north 20 degrees west and dips 65 to 85 degrees easterly near the surface, and splits at depth to two members which diverge to the south; one of
these is the almost vertical downward continuation of the vein at the surface, and one, the
more easterly, has an average dip of 75 degrees easterly. At the surface a shaft, elevation
2,939 feet, is reported to be 170 feet deep, and from it a short level, now inaccessible, exists at
60 feet depth. An adit, elevation 2,832 and 510 feet north, is driven south to connect with
the shaft and 110 feet beyond. A second- adit, now inaccessible, elevation 2,740 and 200 feet
north of the first, is 400 feet long. The vein in the upper adit attains a width of 2 to 3 feet
in a number of shoots, usually not more than 20 feet long, between which widths may be 10
inches or less; one swelling in the vein near the shaft reaches a maximum of 4% feet. The
sulphide content is consistently low. Wall-rocks are strongly altered and shearing is fairly
strong. An andesite dyke follows the vein throughout the length of the adit and crosses the
vein three times;  this dyke follows down on the steeper branch of the vein.
The Tubal Cain vein is intersected by the main crosscut on the 320-foot level of the
present mine-workings (elevation 2,600 feet) as two steeply-dipping shear-zones 700 and 950
feet east of the Enterprise vein; this at a distance of about 1,000 feet south of Tubal Cain
shaft. The nearly-vertical westernmost zone, with local reversals in dip, is one of strong shearing; it contains no more than occasional lenses of quartz and quartzose material over lengths
of several feet and widths of rarely more than 10 inches. This zone has been drifted on for
380 feet south and 7801 feet north of the main crosscut. The eastern zone is one of less strong
shearing and alteration. It has been drifted on for 125 feet immediately south of the main
crosscut, where not more than a few inches of weak quartz is to be seen. It has also been
intersected and drifted on between distances 860 and 1,040 feet north of the crosscut. In- the
latter drift a 45-foot section, which lies beneath the upper workings, has been sloped to a
maximum height of 25 feet, where there is a 5- to 8-foot zone of crushing and quartz-Ailing.
The quartz attains a maximum width of 3 feet and is locally well mineralized. In the
remainder of the drift very little quartz is to be seen.
Joshua Vein.—This vein fills a fracture-pattern of light shearing and some tensional
openings that strikes north and dips1 about 60 degrees east. It is narrow and is accompanied
by weak alteration; the vein-filling changes from quartz to predominantly calcite in the south
end of the drift on 320-foot level. The quartz is frequently low in sulphides, but higher-grade
shoots of irregular distribution and short length contain considerable sulphides, among which
tetrahedrite is prominent. Widths up to 36 inches occur locally, although commonly the vein
is 10 to 16 inches wide and narrower widths occur.
The vein is developed by a shaft (elevation at collar 2,925 feet) to a depth on the dip of
755 feet. Drifts are run from the shaft at 100 feet (110 feet north and 115 feet south), 200
feet (50 feet north and 160 feet south), 300 feet (140 feet north and- 380 feet south), 400 feet
(55 feet north and 210 feet south), and levels also are said to exist at 550- feet and 750 feet.
The shaft is connected by a drift on the 320-foot level at a point 330 feet north of the main
crosscut from the Enterprise workings and which is at an elevation of about 15 feet above the
old 400-foot level.    Below the 320-foot level the shaft is filled with water.
2 A little stoping has been done in the upper levels, but total production has been low.
On the 320-foot level the north drift includes an inaccessible stope 120 feet long, from which
a raise extends to the 3'OO^foot level. The south drift shows an irregular vein with local segregations of sulphides for 245 feet, then a weak quartz vein for an additional 200 feet, from
which point for 220 feet to the face is a 4- to 8-inch zone filled with quartz and calcite. Two
faults occur in the south drift which move the southern segments 36 feet and 20 feet to the
west.
The Joshua vein does not appear to be important as a producer. Local shoots occur
which are reported to be of good grade, but these are discontinuous and are narrower than
mining widths.
Planet Vein.—The Planet vein is seen only in and close to a shaft, elevation 2,620 feet,
some 2,800 feet south-west of the Enterprise workings. The vein strikes north 3 degrees east
and dips 80 degrees east. The shaft is said to be about 10Oi feet deep, but at present water-
level is 35 feet below the collar. A zone of alteration, 4y3 feet wide, contains a hanging-wall
band of quartz 13 to 18 inches wide as well as two small stringers. In the shaft and 10' feet
south of the collar the vein is narrow, and the quartz pinches down locally to a width of 8 inches.
Channel samples taken by the writer on the north side of the shaft returned: (1.) Ten feet
below collar, quartz 14 inches wide: Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton; silver, 5.2' oz. per ton; lead, trace;
zinc, 0.02 per cent. (2.) Fifteen feet below collar, quartz 9 inches wide: Gold, 0.02 oz. per
ton; silver, 3.2 oz. per ton; lead, trace; zinc, O.0'6 per cent. (3.) Twenty-five feet below
collar, quartz 12 inches wide: Gold, 0.80 oz. per ton; silver, 5 oz. per ton; lead, trace; zinc,
0.2 per cent.
King William Vein.—This vein strikes north 20 degrees west and dips 85 degrees easterly
where opened up by a shaft at an elevation of 2,900 feet. Levels, now water-filled, exist at
40 and 170 feet, and stoping on a hanging-wall split was carried to the surface. The quartz is
12 to 36 inches wide at the shaft, the greater width being related to the above-mentioned
splitting. Immediately south of the shaft the present company, during 1936, mined a car-load
of ore from a 30-foot cut to an average depth of 8 feet, in which the vein averages 18 inches
in width. The ore was shipped direct to smelter as it was estimated to be of high grade, but
results are understood to have been disappointing. High-grade samples are reported to be
obtainable, but, while the writer did no sampling, there appears to be sufficient white quartz
to offset the value of extremely high assays'.
Eight hundred feet northerly from the King William shaft is an open-cut on the No
Surrender claim which is very likely on the same vein. In this cut a 30-foot vein-length
is exposed with a steep north-easterly dip; in the north end of the cut the strike is north 15
degrees west and in the south end is north 25 degrees west. A parallel strand 8 inches wide lies
40 inches in the foot-wall. The alteration-zone is about 7 feet wide and the vein, 20 inches
wide, is well mineralized with galena, chalcopyrite, pyrite, and sphalerite. Two samples from
the dump, taken by the writer, returned only low values in gold and silver. More work is
here warranted to freshen up the 30^foot section of vein in order that it may be thoroughly
sampled.
The King William vein strikes northerly under a heavy drift-cover so that prospecting is
difficult. With due regard to respective differences in elevation and variations in strike and
dip, this vein lines up well with the Enterprise vein, between the known extremities of each of
which there is a horizontal gap of about 900 feet.    (See general plan of surface.)
Other Veins.—On the Silver King claim is a vein which strikes north 20 degrees east and
dips 65 degrees east, upon which a small shaft has been sunk (water-level at 25 feet). An
alteration-zone, 4 to 6 feet wide or more, is poorly exposed. The vein is a few inches in width
with an additional few stringers in the zone. Mineralization is weak and the quartz contains
rock fragments. A near-by open-cut is caved, on the dump of which is some massive quartz
with weak mineralization that apparently represents another vein; the alteration-zone is
6 feet wide.
West and south-west of the Planet shaft are two veins which dip north-easterly and on
which a little work has been done. On the northerly of these, on the bluffs above Stump Lake,
a 10-foot shaft discloses irregular quartz to a maximum width of 32 inches and a minimum
width of 10 inches, containing sporadic sulphide mineralization.    Two hundred feet easterly Shaft
EI.2835
Outline of slope
only  approx
Scale
LEGEND
Andesi+e     dyke
Greensfone ^
Fault   or    clay     slip
GO
Quart i    vein -^
Stoped    areas
40 80 120
Nicola Mines and Metals, Ltd.    Plan of Enterprise Workings, adapted from Company's Surveys. this vein is a few inches wide. The second vein shows 12 inches of white quartz between
unaltered walls.
Enterprise Vein.—This is by far the most important vein on the property and the one
from which practically all production has come. On the assumption that the King William
is the same vein, the known length is some 3,300 feet, while in the present workings it has
been developed over a north-south extent of 1,500 feet. The accompanying map of the
Enterprise workings is from surveys by the company, and includes some correction and considerable addition by the writer, based on Brunton survey and direct observation.
The Enterprise vein differs in no material way geologically from those already described,
except that it is rather more irregular. As so far developed the plan of the vein is crescentic,
striking north-easterly in the northern and north-westerly in the southern section of the drifts;
farther to the south the strike is more nearly north-south. Local variations in strike are
numerous, and the dip varies between 40 and 80 degrees, averaging about 55 degrees in the
centre of the area and steeper in the south. A few branches pass into the walls, but these
have not proven important. Alteration of the walls is marked. Mineralization includes, in
approximate order of abundance, pyrite, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, bornite,
occurring as bands or lenses parallel to the vein-walls, and also as disseminations throughout
the quartz.    The mineralization varies considerably in intensity.
The vein is characteristically irregular and changes in thickness are frequent. The vein
may open up to a good width only to pinch down again with a change in strike or dip. These
enlargements do not appear to be related to particular sections or to particular dips and
strikes but are haphazard; perhaps more detailed study could furnish information of value
concerning localization of orejbodies. The vein attains locally widths of 5 to 6 feet, but is
commonly much smaller; it is difficult to obtain an average, and the figure is not greatly
important, but it is less than 2 feet. Mined sections are common in which the vein is about
16 inches wide. Ore-shoots are often as short as 20 feet, but on the 3-20-foot level ore has-
been mined continuously for a length of 820 feet. Ore-shoots appear to have, on a major
scale, a rake to the south, but this rake is not everywhere in evidence. Most ore has so far
been found on and above the 320-foot level, in the central section of vein which strikes nearly
north and south. This section appears to shorten in depth, but development during late
summer of 1936 indicates extension of good ore on the 440-foot level south of mined ore on
the 320-foot level; an extension of ore in the south end of the 550-foot level indicates at least
a partial effacement of a 250-foot barren section of vein on the 440-foot level above (see map).
Faulting on the vein is not severe and actual displacements are from a foot to 15 feet.
This faulting is not, for the most part, strictly post-mineral, but is closely related in origin
to the vein-fissure. Those barren sections of the vein on the 320- and 440-foot levels, 90 and
250 feet long respectively, at some 400 to 600 feet south of the winze, represent a zone of
combined shearing and cross-fracturing which takes the place of the vein, but which is not
continuous and does not represent strictly post-mineral faulting.
Original development on the Enterprise vein was by shaft, elevation at collar 2,835 feet,
which was sunk for a distance of 320 feet on the vein. The present workings are served by
an adit 760 feet long, which intersects the vein at an elevation of 2,600 feet and is about level
with the bottom of the old shaft. This crosscut continues easterly to cut the Tubal Cain and
Joshua veins, a total additional distance of 1,465 feet. A winze is sunk on the Enterprise vein
at the intersection to a depth of 355 feet on the vein and from it are three levels: 440^-foot
level, elevation 2,515; 550-foot level, elevation 2,421; and 675-foot level, elevation 2,325 feet.
At the time of the writer's vis-it, early in September, the shaft was being sunk towards the
675-foot level, which objective was reached about the middle of September.
Development includes, as at September 1st last, besides the shaft and winze, 700 feet of
drifting on the 190-foot level, elevation 2,695 feet, the south end of which for 320 feet is 17
feet higher than the original drift. On the 3'20-foot level drifting is 490 feet to the north and
1,230 feet to the south of the winze, a total of about 1,720 feet; on the 440-foot level drifting
amounting to 950 feet is all but 136 feet to the south of the winze; on the 550-foot level drifting
of 460 feet is all but 50 feet to the south of the winze. Splits in the vein have been followed a
short distance at several points on the 320-foot level.
Stoping has been carried on above the 190-foot level in two major sections, 210 feet and
.300 feet in length, to a height north of the shaft of about 100 feet and south of the shaft nearly D 20 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
to grass-roots. A small stope at the south end is about 30 feet high over a lengh of 45 feet.
Between the 320- and 190-foot levels the vein is completely sloped out for a length of 220 feet-
north of the winze, thence south to the end of the 190-foot level, and for an additional 120 feet
nearly to the same height as 190-foot level, making a continuous stope 820 feet in length.
South of the barren section already referred to is a stope 90 feet long, now inaccessible, but
about 50 feet in average height. On the 440-foot level all minable ore is stoped out north of the
barren section of the vein in four stopes, 80 feet, 36 feet, 110 feet, and 70 feet long. South of
the barren section a raise was being driven on September 1st to connect with the 320-foot level
beneath the southernmost stope; this raise encountered good ore to widths in excess of 5 feet.
On the 550-foot level one stope 75 feet long is mined out to 440-foot level, and three chute-
raises started south of the winze on a promising section of the vein.
The writer took eleven samples of the vein proper in the Enterprise workings;  these were
all channel samples except No. 10.
(A.)  On 320-foot level.
(1.)   On south side of 10-foot winze immediately north of projected raise from 440-foot
level south—37 inches:   Gold, 0.20 oz. per ton;   silver, 4.2 oz. per ton;   lead,
4 per cent.;  zinc, 5.2 per cent.
(2.)   On north side of same winze—36 inches:   Gold, 0.01 oz. per ton;   silver, 1 oz. per
ton;  lead, 0.56 per cent.;  zinc, 0.3 per cent.
(3.)   Two hundred and twenty-five feet south of same raise—14 inches:   Gold, 0.30 oz.
per ton;  silver, 1.5 oz. per ton; lead, 0.5 per cent.; zinc, 0.8 per cent.
(4.)   Forty-five feet from extreme south end of drift—21 inches-:   Gold, 0.20 oz. per
ton;  silver, 4.6 oz. per ton;  lead, 1.1 per cent.;  zinc, 1.4 per cent.
(B.)  On 440-foot level.
(5.)  Twenty feet north of south raise—37 inches:   Gold, trace;  silver, 1 oz. per ton;
lead, 1.3 per cent.;   zinc, 0.6 per cent.
(6.)   Thirty-five feet north of south raise—31 inches:   Gold, 0.01 oz. per ton;   silver,
1.6 oz. per ton;  lead, 1.5 per cent.;  zinc, 4.4 per cent.
(7.)   Eighty feet north of south raise—29 inches:   Gold, 0.12 oz. per ton;   silver, 9
oz. per ton;  lead, 1.5 per cent.;  zinc, 2 per cent.
(C.)  On 550-foot level.
(8.)   Face of south drift—47 inches:   Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton;   silver, 0.4 oz. per ton;
lead, trace;  zinc, 0.1 per cent.
(9.)   Sill-pillar in centre of south stope—27 inches:   Gold, 0.76 oz. per ton;   silver,
1.5 oz. per ton; lead, 1 per cent.;  zinc, 1.5 per cent.
(10.)   Chip sample at collar of 6-foot winze beneath same stope—18 inches1:   Gold, 0.12
oz. per ton; silver, 5.2 oz. per ton; lead, 3.5 per cent.; zinc, 2.6 per cent.
(11.) Sill-pillar at north end of same stope—17 inches: Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton; silver,
2 oz. per ton; lead, 3 per cent.; zinc, 1.5 per cent.
Mining has at all times been but little in advance of mill requirements. At September 1st,
1936, broken ore in the mine amounted in 550 south stope and 440 south raise to a total of
about 350 tons. It is difficult to place reserves in the usual classes of probable and possible ore,
particularly the latter, because the factors are rather uncertain at this particular stage of
development regarding ground in advance of actual drift-faces. The presence of ore beyond
these limits is more than likely, but it is impossible to assign to it concrete tonnage figures.
The following figures refer to ore that is blocked out with reasonable certainty. Ore between
440 drift south and 320 level, 2,400 tons; between 550 and 440 levels beneath mined stopes,
2,400 tons; downward extension of ore to a depth of 50 feet below 550-foot level, about 3,500
tons; a total of 8,300 tons. These figures are based on average stope-widths and not on width
of quartz alone. Ore reclaimable in pillars, due partly to filling of stopes and partly also to
the fact that pillars are usually in lean sections of the vein, would not amount to more than
several hundred tons.
Stopes are started from lagged-over drifts in some sections, and in others from chute-
raises ; little support is needed. Extraction is by open-stoping, with little broken ore at any
time left in the stope. Stopes beneath working-levels are later waste-filled, more from convenience than necessity; most of the stoped-out ground between 550>- and 440-foot levels is so SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 21
filled, and considerable of the ground between 440- and 320-foot levels; there is also some
filling beneath the southern extension of 190-foot level.
There is considerable overbreaking in the stopes, due partly to the choice of method, and
with very rare exceptions all material broken is milled. If the amount of dilution is to be kept
to a minimum, some modified system of shrinkage-stoping that would allow of more selective
mining and maintain narrow stope-widths would be preferable to the method at present in
force.
A concentrating plant is located conveniently near the adit-portal, and ore is milled at an
average rate of a little over 50 tons per day. Concentrates are hauled by truck to Nicola, and
are sold, as from January 1st, 1936, to British Metals Corporation. Ore is trammed by hand
to the 100-ton mill-bin; crushing is by jaw-crusher and rolls above a fine-ore bin of 100 tons
capacity. Milling equipment includes a Hardinge ball-mill, Door classifier, Forrester pneumatic flotation-cells, Wilfley table, Dorr thickner, and American filter. A single concentrate
is produced with a recovery of about 85 per cent. A Denver unit cell was installed in November
with intent to improve recovery and also to slightly increase capacity of the mill.
A power plant for the entire operation is housed in the mill building. Other buildings
include office, assay office, change-house, mess-house, and several small bunk-houses, in addition
to which are several private dwellings.    The combined operation employs about fifty men.
This property is dependent upon the Enterprise vein. Of the other veins, investigations
to date have not shown that any considerable tonnage is to be derived from them. The Tubal
Cain is a weakly-mineralized shear-zone of no great prospective value. The Joshua vein contains shoots that are minable at good metal prices, but tonnage from these will be low and
necessary development-work fairly high. The Planet vein is little known and- the shaft is not
particularly encouraging, even in view of some high assays obtainable. This vein might be
prospected on the surface by reliable geophysical methods to give an idea of the continuity of
the vein-fracture, and to indicate position of the vein and depth of overburden as a preparatory
step to stripping where cover is not too heavy. Extensive development of such a vein is
needed before any estimate can be made of tonnage and values, because, as is obvious, minable
ore is bound to occur in shoots which are not likely to be very large or continuous. The King
William vein has promise, particularly when it is considered that it is probably the southern
continuation of the Enterprise vein. It is not wide, but if as good as the known section of the
Enterprise vein there is to be expected- a considerable extension of minable ground. It is
likely that overburden is too deep for economic stripping. The present condition of the 320-
foot level is not good for the necessary long tram that would result in the continuation of the
Enterprise drift to the south.
A glance at the general plan shows a tendency to convergence of the Enterprise, Tubal
Cain, and Joshua veins both downward on the dip and to the south. An estimate of the actual
location of the point of convergence is of little value, particularly in depth, because this point
will vary in each section drawn, and it is even possible that there is no such convergence within
economically reached limits. There is no reason, moreover, to believe that a convergence would
mean a large or rich ore-body; in any event, the matter is one for investigation at a considerably removed date.
In the Enterprise workings development will have to be pushed aggressively if there is to
be an assured tonnage for the mill to operate at present capacity. The new 675-foot level is
now being developed and the southern extension on the lower levels should be investigated.
Although the vein is not commercial on the 320-foot level north, this section has not been
explored at depth; because of the rapid changes in vein-structure and of widths and value,
this northern section should again be investigated from, probably best, the 675-foot level in the
hope that ore-shoots may be found.
The life of the mine and success of the Enterprise is dependent upon systematized, efficient
operation at low costs and accompanied by an active programme of development.    Mill-heads
are at present so low as to put the operation into the marginal class.    The grade of mill-feed
could doubtless be increased by adoption of a different method of extraction that would allow
of cleaner, more selective mining.    It is unlikely that increased milling capacity is warranted.
(See Annual Reports, 1933 and 1934.)    This company controls a group of
Jenny Long     twenty-one claims, including the Jenny Long, Crown-granted.    The property
Mines, Ltd.       is about 3 miles south-east of Stump Lake and east of the MerritMPrinceton
Highway.    The region is one of open rolling range land in which the only D 22
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
permanent stream is Scott Creek. The Jenny Long workings are at an elevation of 2,800 feet,
a quarter of a mile south of the camp on Scott Creek, and are easily reached from the highway
by a side-road 1 mile in length.
68!-6O0
Stope
inaccess i ble
LEGEND
Fault or clay   slip
Sheared   ground
Quarts;   vein
Stripping
o
Scale
40
Jenny Long Mines, Ltd.    Plan of Workings, from Brunton Survey.
The rocks are andesitic lavas of the Nicola formation, rather highly altered to a green,
chloritic rock and locally sheared. The mineral deposits are quartz-filled shear-zones that
form part of a rather complex pattern of shearing and fracturing.    Vein alteration is not SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 23
strong and is not entirely restricted to walls of quartz. Mineralization includes pyrite, galena,
sphalerite, tetrahedrite, and chalcopyrite in a gangue of friable quartz and a little carbonate.
These sulphides vary both in relative proportions and in total amounts in different parts of
the veins. The accompanying plan, from Brunton survey by the writer, illustrates the
distribution of quartz and of broken ground on the two upper levels.
During the past season some development-work was done under the direction of J. F. Coats
by Kootenay Nevada Mines, Limited, now in liquidation. At the time of the writer's visit
the shaft was being sunk on contract and was, in early September, 40 feet below the 165-foot
level. Since that date some drifting has been done on a new 265-foot level. The 35-ton mill
was not operated in 1936.
Surface work, localized about the present shaft, shows two parallel north-south bodies of
quartz and one trending north-west and south-east. One isolated open-cut shows a north-south
strand of quartz not apparently related to the others. Six hundred feet south of this shaft
is a 20-foot open-cut on a 2- to 6-inch vein dipping 70 degrees east; 90 feet north of this cut
is an old shaft sunk 8 feet on a mineralized zone.    Outcrops farther afield are very scarce.
The shaft is sunk on the foot-wall or most westerly of two north-south quartz veins. The
average inclination of the shaft is about 56 degrees and the vein is followed for 90 feet when
it leaves the hanging-wall of the shaft. This vein is drifted on for 180 feet to the north, where
it joins a nearly parallel hanging-wall vein, and both swing to meet a north-west vein-zong.
The north-south system is believed to be one rather than two " veins "; as illustrated in the
plan, the foot-wall and hanging-wall bands converge to north and south. Over the total
explored length of 500 feet this vein system or shear-zone attains widths of quartz locally
as great as 6 feet, but averages less than 24 inches of auartz, the best widths being in the
northern and southern sections of the drifts. A central, narrow, and branching section is
probably too narrow to warrant mining. Some stoping has been done on the northernmost
foot-wall section, and the back has been taken down to a height of 6 to 20 feet in several places.
Shearing is most marked on the north, where the north-south and north-west systems meet.
Here there are a number of strands of irregular quartz associated with both parallel and
transverse gouge-seams of little displacement. The north-west vein-zone has been drifted
on for about 170 feet to a point where it is cut off by a fault. Widths are as great as 2V2 feet,
and on one such section 28 feet long is a stope that has been raised on to the surface.
In the original development of the 65-foot level the vein was stripped. This has resulted
in excessively wide drifts, and in most sections the vein is not in the best relation to the drift
for stoping and chute-construction. Some of the ground, particularly in the northern part,
is quite heavy.
The 165-foot level shows faulted north-south quartz and also north-west-trending quartz.
It is evident that some of the faulting was contemporaneous with mineralization and does not
simply displace the vein. Maximum width of north-south quartz is about 20 inches and that of
north-west quartz where crosscut is 30 inches.    The relation to the upper level is not clear.
Values, judging from the intensity and character of mineralization in different parts of
the mine, must be erratic, and close sampling is necessary for determination of averages.
Five channel samples taken by the writer on the 65-foot level north and north-east of the shaft
returned low values in gold, silver, lead, and zinc, the highest being: Gold, 0.12 oz. per ton;
silver, 6 oz. per ton; lead, 1 per cent.; zinc, 1.1 per cent. Some ore on the dump is heavily
mineralized with tetrahedrite.
Jewel Lake (Greenwood)  Area.
This company controls a group of claims lying south and east of Jewel Lake.
Greenbridge     Work during the past summer has been restricted to the North Star, which
Gold Mines,      is on the western edge of the major group and which is one of a group of
Ltd. five claims owned by Superior Mines, Limited, in 1935, and later acquired
by W. E. McArthur, of Greenwood.    The present company is in process of
purchasing this group, which, with those already held, makes a total of thirty-one claims.
The North Star and Cairn Gorn were first bonded by Leslie Hill in 1897 and two shafts
sunk, 50 and 60 feet respectively, on the vein. At a later date (not known) a crosscut 45 feet
long was driven to intersect the vein below the shafts and a drift driven 125 feet on the vein.
At a point about 45 feet along the vein some stoping was done and a shipment of ore made D 24
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
to the smelter. In 1932 R. L. Clothier and associates, of Penticton, leased the North Star
and shipped three car-loads of ore to Trail. In 1933 W. E. McArthur, of Greenwood, shipped
a car-load of ore from the same stope and drove the main adit ahead, as well as a semicircular
A
f~52
Legend
Quar+jitic    sediments [_
Biotite - syenite    dyke       \""S~\\
Andesite   dyke 1;~<-Z'l
Quarts    vein —   "~
Stoped    areas
N9I (Upper) Adit
El. 4750'
Greenbridge Gold Mines, Ltd.    Plan at North Star Workings, adapted from Company's Surveys.
side-drift on a branch vein.    In 1934 the Superior Mines extended the main drift in a northerly
direction through a porphyry dyke.    (From Annual Report of the Minister of Mines for 1935.) SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS   (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 25
The North Star claim, elevation 4,700 feet, lies just east of the timbered, rolling summit
of the mountain range flanking Jewel Lake on the east. It is easily reached by a branch road
from Dentonia mine. Water is scarce, the nearest natural supply being a small stream 1,500
feet to the east, at which the camp is situated.
The mineral deposit is a north-south quartz vein dipping to the east and crosscutting
a thick series of schistose quartzitic sediments. Syenite and andesite dykes of irregular shape
cut both sediments and vein. The vein may be traced completely across the claim in a series
of exposures of tight-walled rather barren quartz. As developed underground the vein is
erratic; a maximum width of 4 feet is only attained locally, and some sections are less than
4 inches in width. Mineralization consists of pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and
telluride in frequently crystalline quartz. Ore-shoots are not continuous and are localized
principally at abrupt changes in attitude of the vein.
The accompanying map, drawn from transit surveys by the company and with level detail
added by the writer, illustrates the geology of the ground. No. 1 adit is driven on the southern
boundary of the North Star claim. On the surface, on the south, the vein outcrops as heavy
barren quartz, and one caved shaft and some surface work do not clearly indicate the structure.
In the second shaft 4 feet of white quartz is followed down at 42 degrees dip, and at 25 feet
is 12 inches wide; rich pockets occur in this shaft. North, so far as shown, the vein is steeper
and is comparatively straight. Mineralization as seen in surface strippings and at the collar
of the northernmost shaft is scanty.
Underground the behaviour of the vein is different; it is a highly irregular structure,
with commercial ore localized where the irregularities are most pronounced. Dykes are of
two sorts; one, the most prominent, is a biotite syenite brownish in colour and sometimes
porphyritic when of medium grain, but grey in colour when fine-grained. This latter phase
of syenite is very similar in appearance to a medium and, locally, dark-grey andesitic dyke,
and it is the writer's opinion that the two are closely related in age and origin. The syenite
is evidently quite irregular, as in the No. 2 adit and north drift, where it occurs as a stock-like
body. One sharp roll in the vein has been mined above No. 1 level, and between No. 1 and
No. 2 on both sides of a post-mineral syenite dyke; in this section high-grade ore has been
recovered. Another section has been stoped farther south above No. 1 level and is apparently
worked out. Beneath this stope on No. 2 the vein is weak, but some ore is bound to occur
between the two levels.
The combination of irregular vein and post-mineral dykes makes for difficult development
in this section and, except for ground beneath the larger stope on No. 1 level, the future of the
mine depends on the northern continuation of commercial quartz. A winze, now water-filled,
sunk near the No. 1 crosscut, is said to be about 45 feet deep. Some promising ore is reported
from this winze which must be in sediments between the two diverging dykes, a condition
faintly suggested on the level.
Samples taken by the writer returned: (1.) From underhand stope 12 feet below sub-level
drift north, quartz 24 inches wide: Gold, 0.40 oz. per ton; silver, 1.6 oz. per ton; copper, trace;
lead, 1.3 per cent. (2.) In sub-level drift north, 15 feet north of roll in vein, quartz 29 inches
wide: Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton; silver, 0.1 oz. per ton. (3.) No. 1 north drift 28 feet from face,
quartz 24 inches wide: Gold, 3.90 oz. per ton; silver, 16.5 oz. per ton. (4.) Grab sample of
fines in small upper stope: Gold, 0.20 oz. per ton; silver, 1 oz. per ton; copper, mi?,- lead, trace.
(5.) No. 1 level in bottom below stope, opposite split in vein, 16 inches quartz: Gold, 0.36 oz.
per ton; silver, 0.8 oz. per ton; copper, trace; lead, 0.5 per cent. (6.) No. 2 level south drift
at short raise, 8 inches quartz: Gold, trace; silver, trace. High values appear to be related
to tellurides.
A crew of four men shipped three cars of picked ore during the past season principally
from the stope beneath No. 1 level. Electric power is obtained from the West Kootenay
Power Company, and air is supplied by a 230-cubic-foot compressor driven from a 50-horse-
power motor.
Midway Area.
These claims, 2 to 4 miles north-west of Midway, are owned severally and
Rainbow,        collectively by D. Murray, of Beaverdell, and by W. D. Murray and Frank
Riverview, etc.    Thompson, of Midway.    The claims are staked along a roughly east-west
line on or just below mountainous summits at about 3,500 feet elevation. D 26 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
On the north-west edge of the upland area the ground is sparsely timbered, broken, and hilly;
to the east a higher, prominent mountain range drops in long broken slopes towards the Kettle
River. A road leads to the upland area and from it any part of the ground is reached on foot
or on horseback without difficulty.
The geology is not well known, as it has never been studied in detail. The most striking
feature is a band of dolomitic limestones that strikes east-west and is about a quarter of a
mile wide. Outcrops are scarce, but on the west these rocks are in contact with andesite,
apparently bedded with the sedimentary series. The whole is cut by intrusive serpentine
and by a variety of dioritic dykes. The limestones are in many places mineralized with
sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and occasionally chalcopyrite at and near contacts, and also
apparently well within the limestone. One quartz-porphyry dyke is known to contain a
mineralized zone carrying gold and silver values. In the central part of the area, on the
Elinor and Ethel claims, ribs of silicification and bands of chert breccia are seen in two or three
places in the limestone that are very similar to some of the " jasperoidization " encountered in
the Phoenix Camp.
On the Rainbow claim on the extreme north-westernmost edge of the mountain-mass an
east-west vertical zone has been stripped to show a 20-inch band quite strongly mineralized
with galena and sphalerite. This is in altered, talcose members of the limestone series close
to a contact with serpentine. For 300 feet north-east stripping shows narrow bands and small
patches of the same sort of mineralization. On the Ida, to the east, sulphides are found
associated with calcite stringers at a contact with andesite.
Half a mile farther east, on the Broadview, occasional outcrops and small strippings on
grassy hillsides show traces of sphalerite and galena in limestone and also a little quartz as
stringers and breccia-filling. On the Riverview, half a mile east of the road and overlooking
Kettle River, is a quartz-porphyry dyke, apparently about 200 feet wide and striking east-west.
In this dyke there is pyrite and some g'alena, which are found also in adjacent limestone.
In one cut on a steep-sided east-west ridge an oxidized mineralized zone is opened up over
a few feet, but, due to oxidation, the character of the zone is hard to determine. A sample
over 25 inches in the face of a small cut returned: Gold, 0.40 oz. per ton; silver, 23.5 oz. per
ton;  lead, 0.2 per cent.
Okanagan Lake Area. ,
This group of seven claims is owned by Otto and Pete Sandberg, of Kelowna,
Iron Horse.      and associates.    It is between the forks of Deep (Peachland) Creek near the
summit of a prominent ridge between 4,500 and 4,700 feet elevation.    The
south side of the ridge is steep and bluff-covered, and the north side is one of broken rolling
slopes.    Timber is plentiful but water is not.    The ground is reached by trail about 1 mile in
length from the road on the South Fork of Deep Creek, 9 miles from Peachland.
The rocks are principally limestones with less argillites and lime-silicate rocks, and are
intruded by granite. Granite is abundant in the district, and many areas of sediments,
including these, are remnants of former roofs of the batholithic rocks. The sediments are
mineralized with pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, and galena in the
form of disseminations, replacements, and, rarely, veins. Garnetite is not abundant on the
claims, but is prominently developed half a mile to the south-east.
On the south slope, elevation 4,450 feet, in limestone, is a 10-foot vein, strike south 70
degrees west, dip 55 degrees northerly, of heavy pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, and arsenopyrite. The vein is exposed by one open-cut and a little stripping over a length of about 200
feet, and appears never to have been traced any distance beyond, although it is a strong
structure. On the east side of the ridge, near the crest, a 12- by 6-foot cut shows nearly
massive pyrrhotite containing some chalcopyrite occurring as a replacement in gritty argillaceous rock; size and shape of the mineralization are not apparent. Two hundred feet
westerly from this cut is a little stripping that shows pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and
considerable sphalerite, occurring apparently as a flat body bedded in limestone and only
partly exposed. Samples taken at each of these localities returned very low values in gold
and silver and trace to 1.5 per cent, copper. Although no large body is indicated, the diversity
of mineralization in such a geological setting warrants further stripping to investigate the
amount of mineralization and possibility of commercial values. SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS   (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 27
Paulson Area.*
This property, formerly known as the Molly Gibson, Burnt Basin, consists
Molly Gibson,    of the following mineral claims:  Molly Gibson, Molly Gibson Fraction, Grey
Eagle, Irish Nellie, Manchuria, Pip, Tip Fraction, and Grey Eagle Fraction,
at present owned by the Molly Gibson Mines, Limited, Grain Exchange Building, Calgary.
Previous descriptions of the property may be found in the Annual Reports of the Minister of
Mines for 1917, 1920, 1922, 1923, 1926, 1928, 1929, 1930, and 1933.
The workings are situated 4% miles south-west from Paulson, a station on the Canadian
Pacific Railway, some 33 miles north-east from Grand Forks. They are on a summit, from
% to 1 mile south of the headwaters of Josh Creek, and between elevations of 4,800 and 5,200
feet, and may be reached from Paulson by a narrow-gauge wagon-road that leaves the main
Grand Forks-Paulson Road about 1 mile south of Paulson, and climbs 1,200 feet in the last
3% miles to the property. From the highway the first 2 miles of the road is along a very
steep side-hill that forms the west valley-wall of McRae Creek; the remaining distance goes
over the summit and along fairly level ground.
In the immediate vicinity of the workings the ground slopes gently northwards to Burnt
Basin, but 1,200 feet northward from the main shaft, a very steep and bluffy hillside slopes for
2,000 feet into the narrow valley-bottom of M'cRae Creek in vicinity of Coryell Station.
The rocks in the vicinity of the workings include altered and silicified limy sediments,
crystalline limestones, two varieties of older fine-grained and porphyritic alkaline-syenite
dykes. Excepting the syenite dykes, these rocks have regional strikes ranging from north to
north 20 degrees west and dips from 45 to 75 degrees east. The distribution of these rocks may
be seen on the accompanying plan. Southward beyond the area covered by this plan a large
area of biotite monzonite, traversed by numerous syenite dykes, outcrops on the stesp slope
into McRae Creek.
The group of metamorphic rocks is characterized by the presence of varying amounts of
biotite and feldspar, but may be lithologically separated into biotite-schist irregularly replaced
by calcic silicates, crystalline limestone, and andesitic sills.
The outcrops of the biotite-schist are dark grey in colour and frequently well laminated;
whereas fresh, unweathered surfaces are chocolate-brown, frequently mottled by light-green
patches and thin lenticular streaks of calcic silicates. Microscopic study of the different
phases of this schist reveal the presence of the following minerals, listed in relative order of
abundance: Biotite, calcite, medium-grained original, cherty, and coarse-grained later quartz,
actinolite, diopside, orthoclase, anorthite feldspar, and very small amounts of sillimanite and
scapolite. This rock represents a limy argillaceous sediment that has been subjected to both
regional and contact metamorphism, differing in kind and in time of application. The regional
type developed a predominant biotite-schist from the sedimentary rocks and a granular to
porphyritic rock containing scattered flakes of biotite from the interstratified sills. The second
and later type is contact metamorphic or, more correctly, contact metasomatic, insomuch as
replacing calcic silicates and sulphides have been developed in the biotite-schists, whereby
the schists were varyingly replaced by the green calcic silicates, producing a rock varying from
a phase containing only thin streaks and veinlets, through one consisting of islands of unre-
placed biotite-schist in a field of green silicates to one lacking all biotite and consisting of
varying amounts of green silicate, patches of pinkish chert or jasper, well-crystallized calcite,
hydrothermal quartz, and sulphides. It may be noted that some phases of the latter rock,
phases which were undoubtedly quite limy sediments originally, are very hard and Ainty and
are seen to consist almost entirely of patches of chert alternating with patches of calcite.
This rock is quite distinctive and has been locally called a jasperoid, relating it to the jasperoid
in the Phoenix Camp, from which it differs, however, in having less jasper and containing
disseminated pyrrhotite.
The biotite-schist and its altered phases are in sharp contact with conformable layers of
well-crystallized and fairly pure limestone; layers that are both massive and laminated, and
some siliciAed to dense, grey chert with perfect preservation of the Ane laminae of the original
sediment.
* By J. S. Stevenson. D 28
REPORT OF THE  MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
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Northward  slope
to   Burnt   Bosin
UsVSinger Adit
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LEGEND
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Alkaline   syenite    dyke I ^ ^ -^,1
Sulphide   lens f'——~ I
Replaced    biotite    schist ri 11IIII
not     markedly    schistose U 111111
Sills    /younqer'  mostly auqite porphyry Y////X
\  older,  diabasic    andesite R\\\Vl
^Crystalline   limestone
KWWN
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Feet
^
Heavily      wooded    slope
(2nS   qrowth)
Chert Cuts
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5    Steep   Bluffs    soulhward
and eastward   into  McRae Creek
Molly Gibson.    Surface Geology and Workings ;  the Latter after Company's Plan. SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 29
The sills may be divided into two closely-related types, neither of which is sufficiently
chloritic to be called greenstone. One is an older, Ane-grained phase, frequently laminated
by closely-spaced joint-planes, that weathers to a light-green surface disclosing a felted mass
of feldspar and light-green hornblende laths, which are now altered to an aggregate of chlorite
Abres. The other phase occurs as narrow dykes cutting the Arst and as sills ranging from
a few feet to 100 feet in width intercalated with the limestone-beds and conformable with the
band of altered biotite-schist. The dark weathered surface of this rock is both granulose and
porphyritic, the i/i-inch pyroxene-amphibole phenocrysts standing out conspicuously on the
weathered surfaces. Microscopically it is seen to consist of light-green, chloritic amphibole,
pseudomorphic after the original pyroxene, set in a granular ground-mass of Aaky biotite,
orthoclase, and anorthite. In contrast to the schist, neither calcic silicates nor sulphides have
formed in the intrusive rocks.
The metamorphic group is traversed by a series of alkaline-syenite dykes that range in
width from a few inches to 50 feet, the average of the long cross-country dykes being 50 feet.
These dykes are prevailingly of a light, fresh colour and are deAnitely porphyritic. Among
those seen on the property there were recognized: Augite syenite with prominent light-green,
altered augite; biotite syenite with large brown biotite Aakes; and amphibole syenite with
shreddy, dull-green amphibole laths. All these rocks contain abundant orthoclase with varying
amounts of plagioclase; but sulphides and calcic silicates are absent.
A large area of monzonite cut by numerous syenite dykes outcrops southwards on the
Manchuria claim and forms the lower slopes of the hillside into McRae Creek; this intrusion
of monzonite underlies the metamorphic group of rocks which strike southward into it.
The opinion of the writer is that the zone of mineralization is in a layer of highly-
metamorphosed limy sediments which lie in the hanging-wall of a lenticular band of crystalline
limestone about 10 feet wide, and are largely replaced by calcic silicates, patches of sulphides
and quartz.
From observations made of unmined remnants of ore the habit was concluded to be as
small lenses, probably 6 feet long by 2 feet thick by a maximum of a 10-foot length down the
dip; these lenses occur along the strike of the horizon described. They are highly-siliciAed
lenses containing a considerable amount of pyrrhotite with lesser amounts of chalcopyrite
and pyrite. The altered zone, which in general carries small amounts of disseminated pyrrhotite, has been traced by surface workings for 1,600 feet southward to the face of precipitous
bluffs; this same zone is, furthermore, also recognizable approximately 500 feet farther southward on the Singer property.
The property has been explored by an adit, the Purcell, which consists of 310 feet of drifts
and crosscuts; by an inclined stope and vertical shaft to this adit, the collar of the shaft
being 64 feet above the adit; by a new low-level adit, the Singer (38 feet long as of September
9th, 1936) ; by an open-cut and two short adits therefrom, " Twin Tunnels," 28 feet and 34
feet respectively in length;  and by several open-cuts.
Ore has been found in and mined from the shaft, the " Twin Tunnels," the " Lime Cut,"
and the " Magnetic Cut "; however, by far the greater tonnage came from the shaft. The
stope in the shaft represents the removal of approximately 800 tons of rock; how much of
this was ore is hard to estimate. However, during the period 1909 to 1935, inclusive, 260 tons
of ore was shipped; this would indicate that approximately one-quarter of the 800 tons was ore.
The original five claims of the Molly Gibson group were staked in 1905 and 1906 and the
remainder in 1933 and 1936.
Shipments were made from the property as early as 1909; these were probably from the
surface on the site of the present inclined shaft.
A crosscut, probably the beginning of the Purcell adit, was commenced in 1917, the object
being to tap the inclined shaft. By 1919 this had been advanced 265 feet, and from the shaft
a short drift had been driven on the ore; by 1922 the shaft was down 85 feet. During all this
time some surface exploration was also done.
After 1922 little development-work appears to have been done until 1933, when the present
programme of work was instituted. This has consisted of extending the Purcell workings,
starting the Singer adit, and doing surface exploration.
Shipments of ore from the property made in the years 1909, 1920, and 1933 have aggregated some 260 tons, containing 285 oz. gold and 119 oz. silver. D 30 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
The Purcell adit has been driven 255 feet in a direction south 60 degrees east to get under
a zone of ore-lenses followed downwards by the old stope and shaft, the collar of which is
some 64 feet above the adit. From the portal to the raise into the shaft, a distance of 165
feet, the adit is in the jasperoid-calcite phase of the schist, and carries a small amount of
disseminated pyrrhotite. From this point a short working has been driven south 27 degrees
east for 40 feet along the hanging-wall of a porphyritic biotite-syenite dyke that strikes south
25 degrees east and dips 50 degrees south-west; in the face of the branch working and in the
hanging-wall of the dyke there is a 3-foot band of crystalline limestone that strikes north 20
degrees west and dips 40 degrees east. Southward the main working has been driven for 50
feet through an adjacent dyke of amphibole syenite, porphyritic but finer-grained than the
biotite syenite. Striking north 15 degrees west and dipping vertically, it apparently cuts the
biotite syenite. Beyond this dyke and for 15 feet towards the face a portion of biotite syenite
again occurs, but the face of the main working and of a 15-foot working driven southward
show banded limestone and partly replaced biotite-schist that strike north 10 degrees west
and dip 50 degrees north-east.    No important sulphide-lenses have been found in this adit.
The collar of the shaft and inclined stope is 64 feet above the adit. For approximately
25 feet from the surface, it is a small glory-hole averaging 15 feet in width in an east-west
direction and ranging from 20 feet in length at the surface to 35 feet in a north-south direction
at 25 feet down. From this depth the floor slopes at 20 degrees for 60 feet south-eastward,
the back and the floor being only 7 feet apart in the last 30 feet, to a point connected by a
30-foot vertical raise with the Purcell adit, driven from a place 165 feet from the portal of
the adit. Several small lenses of quartz-sulphide ore have been mined from this hole, and
from the portions remaining it appears that most of them lay in the replaced biotite-schist
above a 4-foot band of crystalline limestone. An irregular and lenticular stringer of quartz
and pyrrhotite was seen in the southerly face in the usual silicated rock lying between the
above-mentioned lens of limestone and a lower lens that lay on the biotite syenite forming the
floor of the hole. This same syenite continues downward, crossing the vertical part of the
shaft and appearing in the drift where previously described.
The failure in finding the downward continuation of the shaft ore in the adit is probably
because that position occuoied by it in the sedimentary horizon has not yet been tapped by
underground work. The following bulk samples taken from the remaining portions of ore-
lenses are only indicative of the precious metal content of such:—
Gold. Silver.
Oz. per Ton. Oz. per Ton.
From a lens 3 feet long by 1 inch thick by 1 inch deep ....    0.04 Trace.
From a lens 2 feet long by 2 feet wide by 10 inches deep    3.10 0.1
The " Twin Tunnels " consist of an open-cut 50 feet long that has been driven through
fine-grained, younger, fine-grained intrusives for 40 feet, then for 10 feet through a combined
zone of silicated biotite-schist and limestone-pods to the portal of the underground work. This
consists of two closely-spaced adits, one driven south 10 degrees east for 28 feet and the other
south 20 degrees east for 34 feet, each through slightly laminated biotite-schist largely replaced
by calcic silicates and containing small lenses and very irregular stringers of quartz and
pyrrhotite. A sample taken across a lens 4 feet long and 14 inches thick assayed: Gold, 1.14
oz. per ton;   silver, trace.
The " Lime Cut" has been driven for 20 feet through banded, crystalline limestone, then
through 20 feet of largely replaced biotite-schist to the face, where limestone again occurs.
No ore was seen in this cut, but the walls of a small 2-foot excavation midway along it contained
small patches of pyrrhotite in a siliceous gangue, and it is reported that a small lens of ore
was mined from here. In the " Magnetic Cut" some sulphide mineralization has been con-
centrpted in an area 1 foot square in the altered rock adjacent to the hanging-wall of a
crystalline limestone-band. A small bulk sample from this assayed: Gold, 0.76 oz. per ton;
silver, 0.12 oz. per ton.
None of the other workings show lenses of ore; that is, lenses of highly silicified rock
containing sulphides; they only show altered wall-rock containing disseminated pyrrhotite
and occasionally an irregular discontinuous stringer of quartz. A small bulk sample of
rock containing disseminated pyrrhotite assayed:   Gold, trace;   silver, trace. SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS   (NOS. 3 AND 4). D 31
At present (September, 1936) the company is driving the Singer adit, 155 feet below and
400 feet north from the collar of the shaft, along a layer of impure crystalline limestone in
the hope of locating ore in the same zone as that explored by the shaft. It is quite possible
that more lenses of ore comparable to those found in the shaft will be found in the same
stratigraphic horizon below it on the level of the Singer adit. The cause for the localization
of the lenses along the strike of the zone is not yet evident, and hence an approximate idea of
the amount of ore on the property cannot be gained.
Chief among the problems of operation are: First, the absence of timber suitable for
mining purposes, that existing on the wooded slopes being scrub second growth; and, second,
an adequate water-supply; water for domestic purposes is at present obtained from springs of
small flow.
SILVER-LEAD-ZINC DEPOSITS.
Beaverdell Area.
This group of three claims, the Golden, Golden Fraction, and Rico Fraction,
Golden. is being developed by the Wallace Mountain Mining Company, an Okanagan
syndicate. The group is on Wallace Mountain on the east bank of Dry Creek,
half a mile south of the Rambler road. From openly-wooded, rolling, and locally broken
country, the ground slopes steeply to Dry Creek, which flows in a narrow valley. Access is
by a good trail half a mile in length. This trail leaves the Rambler road at the top of a steep
hill above Dry Creek, and traverses drift-cover and very little bed-rock.
The mineralization is all within Westkettle quartz diorite, and consists of narrow, steeply-
dipping east-west shear-zones, of which five are known. These contain galena, sphalerite,
pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, and native silver in varying proportions. The gangue
consists of rock, with varying amounts of quartz and (or) calcite in addition.
The principal work is on three parallel shear-zones about 50 feet apart, of which the central
and south zones are stripped at intervals for 500 feet and the north one for 150 feet. At the
east end, on the Golden Fraction, is an open-cut on the south zone 150 feet in length, from the
west end of which a 53-foot adit is driven east. The zone is seen in this work to vary from a
mere fissure to 24 inches wide and averaging perhaps 6 inches; a 14-foot section in the adit
is 8 inches wide and contains considerable light-coloured sphalerite. A selected sample from
the dump returned: Gold, 0.01 oz. per ton; silver, 247 oz. per ton; copper, 0.1 per cent.; lead,
26.5 per cent.; zinc, 22.3 per cent. At the west end of the line of stripping an adit was 34
feet long early in October, bearing 100 degrees. This was directed to locate the central zone
and was at that time at the contact with an east-west andesite dyke, the relation of which to
the zone was obscure. Fifty feet above the adit the zones are 3 to 18 inches wide and locally
contain considerable quartz. A sample of the south zone in semi-leached material returned:
Gold, 0.01 oz. per ton; silver, 112.6 oz. per ton; lead, 5.9 per cent.; zinc, 0.8 per cent. Samples
of the quartzose material, sparsely mineralized with pyrite and galena, from the south and
north zones returned traces in gold and silver.
Of two other similar zones, one, several hundred feet south-west from the large open-cut,
has a shaft sunk 50 feet in 1935 and a short adit 250 feet to the west; the second zone has an
'old short adit just above Dry Creek and two cuts made in 1936. These two zones are less
promising.
The season's exploration has been under the direction of William Faulkner. The three
parallel zones are small and are in relatively unfaulted ground; their worth depends on there
being a sufficient number of wider shoots to offset the undoubtedly narrow sections.
Coquihalla Area.
This group of five located claims is held by P. Y. Smith, of Princeton, and
Coldwater.       Dan Smith, of Vancouver.    It is 4 miles north-west of Coquihalla Station
and is three-quarters of a mile west of the Kettle Valley Railway. The
workings are on the extreme western edge of the broad Coldwater Valley, at the foot of a long
mountain-slope. A good trail leads from the railway on to a gravel terrace and across a nearly
flat bench with few outcrops to the foot of the 20-degree sloping hillside. The workings are
150 feet above the flat and are 400 feet above the railway. D E2 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
The rock formation is Eagle granodiorite of Cretaceous age, the contact of which, with
Tulameen greenstones, lies some 2,500 feet north-east on the strike of mineralization. The
mineralization consists of a narrow vein which strikes north 40 degrees east and dips 70
degrees north-west. The granodiorite is a moderately coarse-grained, massive grey rock in
which, besides the known vein, there is occasional evidence of tiny frozen quartz stringers
accompanied by traces of sulphide mineralization; some pyritic shear-zones a few inches wide
occur half a mile to the south.
Workings on the vein comprise a little stripping and one open-cut, immediately below
which is a short adit. The adit consists of a 43-foot crosscut bearing north 50 degrees west
and drifts 15 feet north-east and 20 feet south-west; a connection has been made with the
open-cut some 20 feet above. A second adit, 75 feet lower, has been faced off and would reach
the vein in about 250 feet; the ground flattens off a little below this point.
The vein is a mineralized shear-zone between gouge-planes within faintly altered granodiorite walls. It varies in width between 2 inches and 12 inches and averages 6 inches.
Sulphides include pyrite, galena, honey-coloured sphalerite, tetrahedrite, and, rarely, chalcopyrite; the gangue material consists of quartz and carbonate and, locally, of rock. The ore
is frequently banded, and crustification and drusy cavities are common; quartz is finely
crystalline to chalcedonic and the carbonate includes some rhodochrosite. The wall-rock
contains pyrite in seams and scattered grains to a distance of several inches from the vein.
Samples taken in the adit returned:—■
(1.) Vein, 6V2 inches wide, 25 per cent, gouge: Gold, 0.06 oz. per ton; silver, 19.2 oz.
per ton;  lead, 2.8 per cent.;   zinc, 7.7 per cent.
(2.) Vein, 12 inches wide, 10 per cent, gouge: Gold, 0.06 oz. per ton; silver, 22.6 oz. per
ton;  lead, 2.1 per cent.;   zinc, 4.9 per cent.
(3.) Vein, 1V2 inches wide, 75 per cent, sulphides: Gold, 0.16 oz. per ton; silver, 16.8 oz.
per ton;  lead, 2.6 per cent.; zinc, 10.9 per cent.
(4.) Vein, 5% inches wide, 90 per cent, sulphide: Gold, 0.08 oz. per ton; silver, 23.8 oz.
per ton;  lead, 6.5 per cent.;  zinc, 14 per cent.
The vein is traceable as a narrow oxidized zone 750 feet north-east of the adit and is
reported to extend a comparable distance to the south-west.
North Thompson Area.*
The Homestake group comprises three Crown-granted claims, the Homestake,
Homestake      Maple Leaf, Troublesome, and Argentum, and three mineral  claims, the
(Squaam Bay).  Maple Leaf No. 1, Maple Leaf No. 2, and the Arrow Fraction, staked in 1934
and 1935.    The group is owned by the Kamloops Homestake Mines, Limited,
32 Fairfield Building, Vancouver.    The property, on the Louis Creek-Squaam Bay Road, is
approximately 3 miles north-westward from the head of Squaam Bay, on Adams Lake;   or 18
miles easterly by auto-road from Louis Creek Station on the Canadian National Railway 36
miles north from Kamloops.    The main adit is about 700 feet above the road and has been
driven into the north-west side of a canyonous creek, Falls Creek, which is tributary to Sinmax
Valley, the main valley leading south-easterly into Squaam Bay;  the other workings are above
this adit and on the same side of Falls Creek.
Steep V-shaped gulleys, combining to form Falls Creek, prevail in the vicinity of the
workings, whereas a relatively unbroken hillside extends north-westward and south-eastward;
this hillside, constituting the north-easterly side of Sinmax Valley, consists of steep, partly-
wooded and talus-covered slopes.
The gully of Falls Creek and accessible slopes above expose a section of talcose-schist
approximately 2,300 feet in thickness. The rocks exposed consist of talcose quartz-sericite
schists and discontinuous, conformable lenses of phyllite, which strike north 40 degrees west
and range in dip from 35 to 50 degrees north-east.
Three gradational facies of the quartz-sericite schist may be discerned—a fine-grained,
fissile phase yielding talus of very talcose flakes, a nodular phase containing ovoid portions of
talcose rock which may represent the squeezed pebbles of a conglomerate, and a finely fissile
to platy phase that is partly chloritic. These phases probably represent gradational differences in the original sediments.
* By J. S. Stevenson. SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 33
The schists are well exposed and contain abundant pyrite. The exposed extent of a large
cross-sectional area of pyritiferous schists has been conducive to extreme oxidation of the
pyrite, resulting in sulphuric-acid solutions that have been further oxidized to yield the yellow
ferric sulphate which so conspicuously coats the outcroppings and schist talus fragments on the
walls of Falls Creek.
Where the bluffs steepen to vertical about 1,500' feet above the workings, the rock changes
to platy greenstone which may be of igneous origin.
A zone in the quartz-sericite schist has been partly replaced by massive barite and sulphides ; the barite preponderating in the foot-wall, known as the foot-wall lead, and the sulphides in the hanging-wall, known as the hanging-wall lead. These leads are commonly about
15 feet apart. Although some layers of the barite may range from 1 foot to a measured
maximum of 31 feet in thickness, one band has maintained an approximately uniform thickness
of 3 feet for an interrupted length of 200 feet. The number of bands in cross-sections of the
lead ranges from one to a maximum observed of three; it is probable, however, that other sections may show more and narrower bands. The barite of the foot-wall lead, although massive,
is banded by an alternation of dark- and light-grey bands, conforming in attitude to that of
the replaced schist; schist-partings, however, separate the different bands. Under the microscope the barite is seen to consist of a mosaic of equidimensional grains which average 0.2 mm.
in diameter; these grains are relatively free from twinning or gliding, which would indicate
that the barite is of late formation, post-dating the general deformation and metamorphism
of the replaced schists. Sulphides up to 1 per cent, in amount occur in discontinuous and
indefinite bands parallel to the banding of the barite. The hanging-wall lead contains a
greater amount of sulphides than the foot-wall lead and a greater amount of silver; it has
constituted the ore in the mining operations to date. The lead, where exposed at present, consists of alternating bands of schist, barite, and sulphides, the proportions of which vary greatly
from place to place. This lead is frequently cut by thin lenses of quartz that contain films
of argentite in the fractures of the quartz. The sulphides include tetrahedrite, galena, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, argentite, and a little native silver, listed in approximate order of
abundance; ruby silver and native gold have been reported. Pyrite and chalcopyrite occur
mainly in the hanging-wall lead; only an occasional grain being found in the foot-wall lead.
The pyrite-grains are unbroken, indicating absence of intense post-mineral deformation, but
replacement by the other sulphides tends to round the sharp corners of the cubes, and where
well-advanced to leave spherical grains of pyrite; the pyrite ranges in grain size from 0.2 mm.
(210 microns) to 0.02 mm. (20 microns). Areas of sphalerite, galena, and tetrahedrite are in
mutual contact, individual areas not being less than 0.3 mm. in diameter; they usually present
smooth, curving boundaries to each other. Argentite does not occur as an intergrowth in the
galena, but usually as thin films loosely adhering to the joint-planes of the quartz, which
frequently occurs as veinlets in the schist of the hanging-wall lead.
The discovery of the Homestake mineral-showings was made in Falls Creek in the summer
of 1893, and between that year and 1896 development was in progress, and it is reported that
20 tons of high-grade silver ore was shipped. In the old reports no mention is made of further
active work until 1918, when it was bonded by Eastern interests and hand-mining carried on by
H. D. Cameron until 1919, when the option was dropped; and work ceased. Again in 1923 the
property was honded to J. Trethewey, of Abbotsford, and associates, and' worked by them
through 1924, but then dropped. Up until this time most of the work had been done east of
the main fault, but Tretheweys are reported to have proved1 ore for 200 feet westward from
the fault. In 1925 W. J. Bell reopened the workings, and between 1925 and November, 1927,
when he ceased operations, shipped a considerable tonnage of ore. Bell sloped ground extending for approximately 150 feet westward from the main fault to the present No. 3 raise and
from the main drift for about 110 feet up the dip of the schists. At the eastern end of this
stope the lead is only a short distance from the surface, but in the vicinity of No. 3 raise it
would be about 275 feet along the dip from the surface. Because of the variability in width
and sulphide content of the hanging-wall lead, the amount of ore in this unstoped area is
indeterminate. Bell also operated below the main level, on what are known as the 40-foot,
75-foot, and 150-foot levels, connected by a winze; but according to reports ore higher than
25 oz. silver was not located. In 1935 the property was reopened by the Kamloops Homestake
Mines, Limited, which erected a mill of 30^40 tons daily capacity.    This company cleaned out D 34 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
the main adit and sank a winze from near the north-westerly end of the foot-wall drift. The
writer understands that this winze was sunk for about 85 feet and a sinuous drift driven
south-eastward in an attempt to connect with the old workings on the hanging-wall lead;
extremely bad ground apparently militated against the successful completion of this work.
Operations by the company ceased in the spring of 1936. References to the Homestake property, Squaam Bay, may be found in:   Geological Survey of Canada Annual Reports, 1894 and
1921, and the Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines for 1893, 1895, 1897, 1913, 1917 to 1919,
1922, and 1930.
The workings consist of three adits. The lowest and main adit is approximately 700 feet
higher in elevation than the highway; the middle or Apex adit is 72 feet above the main adit
and the uppermost is 77 feet above the Apex.
Extensive parts of these workings were caved at the time of the writer's examination.
The workings accessible in the main adit included the main entry-crosscut, workings lying
easterly from the main fault, the drift along the foot-wall barite, No. 4 and the uppermost
part of No. 3 raises.
The main adit has been driven north 20 degrees east for 240 feet to intersect the hanging-
wall and foot-wall leads. At 110 feet from the portal a drift has been driven along the foot-
wall lead north-westward for 300 feet; another drift 170 feet from the portal north-westward
along the hanging-wall lead a similar distance (this drift was entirely caved); at 160 feet
from the portal a drift east for 55 feet along what is probably the foot-wall lead; from this
drift a raise and winze have been driven from a point 20 feet easterly from the main adit;
and 10 feet farther along a crosscut has been advanced 60 feet north-eastward1.
In that drift going north-westward from a point 110 feet from the portal, and between
points 50 feet and 100 feet north-westerly from the main- adit, barite is continuously exposed; it
strikes north-west, dips 30 degrees north-easterly, and averages 3 feet in width; but the drift,
going westerly into the foot-wall, loses the barite and does not encounter it again until within
80 feet from the face, where a band of barite averaging 4 feet in width was followed for 45
feet until the drift turned into the hanging-wall for 30 feet to the face. Auxiliary workings
from this drift include: At a point in the drift 50 feet north-westerly from the main adit, a
raise (caved) and a short working going 30 feet in a direction north 75 degrees west, with a
raise driven from it for 17 feet vertically into the hanging-wall, and then south 70 degrees west
for 33 feet on a 30-degree slope. This raise is in a lens of barite, varying from 3 feet to 1 foot
in thickness and cut by a strike-fault which dips 45 degrees east; the barite-lens dipping 30
degrees—at 95 feet a caved working driven north-westward—at 220 feet a raise (No. 4) has
been driven beyond and above the band of barite that had been encountered in the drift below
and for 14 feet along a zone, 2 to 3 feet in width, of interbanded sulphides, barite, and schist,
which constitutes the so-called hanging^wall zone. This has been followed for a short distance
by a 20-foot drift south-eastward connecting this raise with No. 3 raise, now caved below, but
accessible on a 25-degree slope for 31 feet to its face; thin 1-inch bands of mixed sulphides and
barite were seen in this raise, but they disappear 'before the face is reached. Presumably the
raise, which is on a 25-degree slope, has been driven into the foot-wall of the zone; much of
the ground to the south-east of No. 3 raise is reported to have been stoped, and undoubtedly
represents the main work on the hanging-wall lead. A winze at 45 degrees from the face has
been sunk at 30 degrees down the dip of a 4- to 5-foot band of barite; this winze is reported
to have followed the barite down for 88 feet; water, however, prevented the examination of
the winze and associated workings. Four short crosscuts, mostly caved, connect this drift with
the main portion of the drift, now caved, which is 25 to 30 feet north-eastward and is on the
hanging-wall lead.
At 170 feet from the portal a drift, as indicated on old plans, has been driven northwestward for about 300' feet from the main adit;  this drift was- inaccessible.
At 160 feet from the portal a drift has been driven eastward for 55 feet, the accessible
portion, 30 feet, being along a barite-band, presumably the foot-wall band, which here averages
6 feet in thickness. From this drift a winze and a raise, No. 1 raise, have been driven on the
barite from a point 20 feet easterly along the drift from the main adit; 10 feet farther along,
a crosscut has been driven 60 feet north-eastward across crumpled schists. The winze was
inaccessible. SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 36
No. 1 raise has been driven on barite for its full length, 100 feet, on a 30-degree slope to
the surface, two small stopes, and a branching level lead from this stope, the most significant
working, being the level, 401 feet up the raise. At the face of the south-west branch of this
level, 50 feet from the raise, and the same distance in the longer north-east but partly-caved
branch, an important fault, dipping steeply westward and striking north 45 degrees- east, cuts
the barite-band. As indicated by the foot-wall barite occurrences westward, the western portions of this band must have been displaced approximately 40 feet south-westward by the
fault. This same fault outcrops on the surface between the entrance to No. 3 raise and the
portal of the Apex adit.
In the raise and associated workings the barite varies in width from 4 feet to a maximum
width of 15 feet.
The rock formation in this adit is grey, lustrous quartz-sericite schist, in which fissility is
so well developed that caving occurs in unsupported ground.
The Apex adit is 80 feet north-westward from and 72 feet above the main adit. It has
been driven north 28 degrees east for 37 feet, north 19 degrees west for 45 feet, and north 42
degrees west for 32 feet. South-east from the portal and 5 feet across the regional dip a
1-foot band of barite occurs, and at the portal two 18-ineh bands separated by 18 inches of
schist, and 30 feet in from the portal two bands of barite separated by 1 foot of schist—
namely, a 2-inch band and another which varies from 3 feet to 18 inches; all the barite-bands
strike north 45 degrees west and dip 30 degrees north-easterly. The adit is lagged from 30
feet in, to the face, and stoping is reported to have been done in the hanging-wall lead both
above and below the adit. Specimens from the wall along that portion of adit striking northwest consist of barite and sulphides that are typical of material from the hanging-wall lead.
For 50 feet from the face a broken quartz-lens, averaging 1 foot in thickness, strikes northwest and dips gently north-easterly across- the schist.    The rock formation is grey schist.
The upper adit is 75 feet above and 125 feet in a direction north 20 degrees west from the
Apex. Only 50 feet of this working was accessible; in this distance the adit has been driven
southward from the portal, and at 38 feet in encounters a 4-foot band of barite, which strikes
north 50 degrees west and dips 30 degrees north-east. The rock formation is a talc-sericite
schist.
The uppermost working of all is a 12-foot adit, 73 feet above and 80 feet in a direction
north 63 degrees west from the previously described adit. This is in barite and is at the base
of the Barite Bluff, which exposes a 31-foot thickness of grey barite. As seen in this working,
the lower contact of the barite is against a quartz-lens which cuts the schist up to the barite
and then spreads along the base of the barite-band; the upper contact is indefinite, consisting
of bands of barite decreasing in number and in thickness. This- thick band of barite does not
continue for more than 35 feet along the strike.
Numerous irregular and lenticular areas of quartz occur on the surface and in the workings. These are mostly conformable, but do crosscut the schists occasionally; however, they
do not cut the barite, but lens out either below or above a barite-band. The quartz is usually
barren, but in places carries pyrite. Frequently, however, the adjacent schists have become
silicified. Such lenses occur in the short adit below the Barite Bluff; in the Apex adit; in a
bluff between the surface entry to No. 1 raise and the portal of the main adit, and at several
places in the main adit. The quartz in the bluff consists of lenses- of watery quartz up to
2 feet in thickness and separated by thin layers of schist; the strike-length of these lenses is
not greater than 20 feet. In the adit the largest occurrence is a 4-foot interbedded mass of
barren quartz 75 feet from the portal. These lenses of quartz do not appear to be of economic
interest.
Numerous outcroppings of baritejbands occur in the shallow draw, which extends northward up the hill and a few feet west from the portal of the adits. These occur discontinuously
north-westward from the portal of the Apex adit for approximately 75 feet and consist of two
sets of bands, 15 feet apart across the dip; the bands are up to 1 foot in thickness and 15 feet
long, and probably represent a continuation of the foot-wall band as found in the Apex adit.
In addition to the main fault that strikes north-east and has displaced the ground to the
north-west of it for a maximum estimated amount of 40 feet horizontally to the south-west,
there are numerous other faults of lesser magnitude which cut and displace both quartz-lenses D 36 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
and barite, but the displacements have not been so great or indeterminant that continuations
of the leads have not been found beyond them.
The  North Star group  comprises  the  following  mineral  claims:    Lydia,
North Star      Creede, Reno, Petrus, Thelma Fraction, Faros Number 1, and the Lark.
(Birk Creek).   These claims were variously staked in 1924, 1933, and 1934 by the present
owners,  Nick Forsberg,  Oscar  Bolin,   Carl  E.  Johnston,  and  associates,
of Barriere.    The property is reached by 8 miles of good pack-horse trail up Birk Creek from
Carl E. Johnston's ranch at the end of the North Barriere Lake Road;  this ranch is 20 miles
north-east from Barriere, a settlement on the North Thompson River some 40 miles north of
Kamloops.
The claims lie to the south-west of the headwaters of Birk Creek and at elevations ranging
from 4,500 to 5,500 feet. The workings, as of June, 193'6, comprise a south and a north group.
The south group is the more extensive and consists of two short adits and several open-cuts,
which have been driven on showings in the steep, easterly-facing slopes of Creede Creek, the
uppermost south-west tributary of Birk Creek. The north group of workings, at an elevation of 4,500 feet, is some 4,000 feet north-west from the south and in the low-lying area at
the head of Birk Creek; these open-cuts, which have been driven into the bank of Birk Creek,
are badly sloughed and only surface exposures could be examined.
The rock-types constitute a conformable, slightly metamorphosed series consisting of lustrous phyllite, flaggy, cherty quartzite, pebble conglomerate, a highly-altered feldspar-porphyry
dyke, and two carbonate rocks, both conformable to the other rocks, but one consisting of
ankeritic carbonate and sericite and the other only of calcite, the former probably representing
the carbonization of some previous rock and the latter merely recrystallized limestone.
These rocks strike north 20* degrees west and range in dip from 50 degrees north-east to
vertical. An ideal section north-eastward across the dip and along the hillside on the level of
the upper adit would show by actual exposures and by projection of beds along their strike to
the section-line the following approximate thicknesses: Ankeritic carbonate zone, 20' feet;
grey cherty quartzite, 30 feet; phyllite, 20 feet; pebble conglomerate, 15 feet; impure quartzite
and phyllite zone, 40 feet.
The phyllite varies from a sandy shale with well-developad secondary cleavage to a black,
wavy phyllite, the cleavage surfaces of which are made lustrous by abundant sericite. The
quartzite is variable. A flaggy phase consists of ribs of light, greenish-grey or of black,
cherty quartzite, the ribs ranging from 3 to 4 inches in thickness and alternating with shaly
layers which range from V* to V2 inch in thickness. A more massive phase consists of a dark-
grey, coarse aggregate of watery quartz-grains accompanied by a few feldspar and hornblende
grains. Stresses on this rock have been sufficient to develop a periphery of fine-grained quartz
around the larger grains of quartz, but not to impart any marked lineal structures to the rock.
The fine pebble conglomerate to coarse grit contains both smooth and angular pebbles,
oriented with the strike of the main rock-mass, and ranging in size from Vi by % inch to
Vw by Vs inch. The pebbles represent dense, light-grey feldspathic and black cherty rock-
types and are set- in a fine-grained quartzitic matrix spotted by aggregates of replacing
ankeritic-carbonate grains. The ferruginous carbonate-zone occurs both in the south and
north workings. It is seen to consist of alternating patches of carbonate and densely-packed
sericite fibres that replace the carbonate and are evidently a manifestation of hydrothermal
action. A few large, irregular quartz-grains are also present. The limestone occurs in a few
scattered points between the north and south workings; unlike the ferruginous carbonate-zone,
the limestone does not weather brown but to a dark-greyish mass of granular calcite.
Medium-grained and highly-altered diorite outcrops north-westward up the creek from
the showings of the north-group;  it is in contact with the ferruginous limestone.
Quartz-sulphide bodies occur as irregular lenses and as more or less tabular veins cutting
the various members of the above metamorphic series. The sulphides in the veins are chiefly
galena and sphalerite; occasional bunches of pyrite and small amounts of chalcopyrite occur,
but no tetrahedrite was seen. Ankeritic carbonate, earlier in formation than the quartz veins,
is widespread in the rock formations and usually occurs as small scattered patches of rusty-
weathering grains. Gold values are low, but silver, lead, and- zinc values are comparatively
high. SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 37
South Showings.—These showings have received the greater amount of prospecting and
therefore will be described in some detail.
The workings may be divided into three generalized groups—(1) a western, disclosing a
tabular vein which strikes north-south in flaggy, grey, cherty quartzite; (2) a central group,
showing disconnected quartz-lenses in sheared phyllites and black quartzites; and (3) an
eastern group, exploring a roughly tabular quartz vein in phyllites, impure quartzite, and
conglomerate.
(1.) Five open-cuts and strippings beginning to the west of and continuing south from
the upper adit have exposed a tabular quartz vein, presumably continuous from the first
exposure, beginning at a place 30 feet south-west from this adit and extending southwards
a distance of approximately 150 feet on a 30-degree hillside sloping up towards the south.
The vein strikes north, dips from 45 degrees to 50 degrees west, and varies from 4 inches to
2 feet in width, but the change is gradual. The vein cuts flaggy quartzite that strikes north
30 degrees west and dips approximately vertical. The vein-matter is mostly quartz, but small
pockets of galena and pyrite occasionally occur.
(2.) Several open-cuts and one adit, the upper, have been driven on the various disconnected lenses of quartz comprising the central group, the description of which immediately
follows.
The most northerly of four cuts has been dug on the west side of the creek at a point
80 feet westerly from the cabin. These four open-cuts have been dug across a northerly-
striking zone of irregular quartz-lenses. Ninety feet of strike-length has been partly explored
by these cuts. The strike of the different portions of these showings varies from north to
20 degrees east and west of north; the dips are very variable. The widths range from a
few inches to 3 feet of quartz. Small segregations of galena occur in the lenses; such
material carries the values. A sorted sample taken by the Resident Engineer in 1935 from
the second cut southwards assayed: Gold, 0.54 oz.; silver, 40.6 oz.; lead, 62 per cent.; zinc,
trace.
The showings in that portion of the second group lying on the east side of the creek have
been explored by one large open-cut, the upper adit, and by intermediate strippings. The
open-cut is 140 feet south-east from the cabin; the adit is 120' feet south from this cut and 100
feet higher in elevation. The open-cut has been driven for 25 feet along a narrow zone, 4 to 5
feet wide, consisting of black, sheared phyllite that lies between two zones of flaggy, cherty
quartzite, striking north 20 degrees west and dipping 50 degrees north-easterly; black quartzite
lies on the east and a light-grey variety on the west of the sheared phyllite. The face of this
cut shows three irregular and connected quartz-lenses in the sheared phyllite; the maximum
width of any portion is 10 inches;  sulphides are scarce.
Between the 25-foot cut and the upper adit (the position of these has been given in the
foregoing paragraph) there are four irregular areas of milky quartz; they contain very little
sulphides.    The largest lens measures 16 feet across an irregular width.
The upper adit, 245 feet in a direction south 15 degrees east from the cabin, begins as
a deep open-cut driven south 32 degrees east for 36 feet, then as an adit at south 18 degrees east
for 26 feet and south 40 degrees west for 21 feet. Six feet from the face a 6-inch tabular
quartz vein containing patches of pyrite strikes north-south across the adit and dips 50
degrees east. Four feet farther from the face, quartz-lenses carrying similar sulphides occur;
on the east wall there being a group of 10-inch lenses and on the west wall 3 feet of lenticular
quartz. From 10 feet outside the portal to a point 15 feet in, there is a vein that is variable in
strike and dip but continuous; 10 feet outside the portal it begins at a place 4 feet and 2 feet
from the floor in the east and the west walls respectively, and 15 feet in it disappears in the
floor as a vein, striking north-west and dipping 20 degrees south-west; here it carries abundant
sulphides, and a sample taken across a 24-inch width by the Resident Engineer in 1935 assayed:
Gold, 0.20 oz.; silver, 19.6 oz.; lead, 32 per cent.; zinc, 4 per cent. The rock for 10 feet from
the face is grey, flaggy, cherty quartzite, striking north 20 degrees west, dipping 75 degrees
north-east in conformable contact with phyllite that extends to the portal and the open-cut.
(3.) The workings on the third or eastern group of showings consist of four surface cuts,
and a low-level adit, known as the lower adit, driven to intersect the downward extension of
quartz veins exposed in the upper open-cuts; at the time of examination the adit had not
encountered any vein-matter.    This lower adit is 165 feet in a direction south 58 degrees D 38 REPORT OF THE  MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
east from the cabin; it is also at approximately the same elevation as, and some 75 feet in a
direction north 70 degrees east from, the 25-foot open-cut on the east side of the creek and
described under group (2). It has been driven south 88 degrees east for 18 feet, south 40
degrees east for 25 feet, and south 7 degrees east for 21 feet. Twenty-five feet from the face
it follows a fault-zone approximately 8 inches wide and containing some gouge; the face shows
2 inches of gouge in this fault, which, at the face, strikes north 20 degrees west and dips 60
degrees east. Along the back there are many small drag-folded quartz stringers in the
phyllitic wall-rock. It is to be noted that the hanging-wall of the fault in the face is phyllite,
whereas the foot-wall is dark impure quartzite, which continues for 20 feet along the west wall
of the drift.
At a point 240 feet in a direction south 50- degrees east from the cabin, or 80 feet south
30 degrees east from and 60 feet higher than the portal of the lower adit, a short open-cut has
been driven across a shear and on a quartz-sulphide lens that averages 1 foot in width. A 20-
inch foot-wall sample taken across this by the Resident Engineer in 1936 assayed: Gold, 0.36
oz.;  silver, 40.6 oz.;  lead, 52 per cent.;  zinc, trace.    The rock is sheared phyllite.
Twenty-five feet above and some 15 feet south from the short open-cut last described, trenching has exposed a quartz vein ranging from 1 foot to 2 feet in width that strikes north and
dips 50 degrees easterly. The north end of this exposure is bent and dies out in a strong vertical shear-zone striking approximately north 20 degrees west, but the vein continues southwards up the hill to a third cut driven southward for 8 feet. In this cut the vein ranges in
width from 12 to 18 inches, and towards the face is drusy and contains a greater amount of
galena and pyrite than in the lower cut. It is to be noted that in the lower cut and in the
portal of the upper, the vein is in slightly sheared, impure quartzite, but towards the face of
the upper it enters a hard massive band of pebble conglomerate that is approximately 15
feet thick.
A band of conglomerate probably the same is exposed 160 feet south and some 50 feet
higher in elevation, where a stripping 30 feet long exposes a quartz vein which strikes north
and dips 55 degrees east; this vein attains a maximum width of 1 foot, becoming lenticular
when it passes from massive conglomerate and impure quartzite into sheared phases of these
and of phyllitic rocks. The continuity of this vein or its possible connection with that exposed
in the three lower cuts has not been proved by work along its strike. It is to be noted that the
only intrusive on these north showings occurs 25 feet west of the last-mentioned showing.
Here an 8-foot feldspar-porphyry dyke strikes west for an exposed distance of 40' feet through
impure quartzites, and has been so thoroughly carbonatized by ankeritic carbonate that the
surface outcrop is a brown earthy mass.
North Showings.—The north showings are some 4,000 feet north-west from the south
group and are in the upper stretches of Birk Creek at an altitude of approximately 4,590 feet.
The two workings on these showings consist of a combined open-cut and adit in south bank
of Birk Creek, and a second open-cut some 160 feet westerly up the creek; these have been
driven from the creek-level southward into a cut-bank that is approximately 30 feet high.
Since no recent work had been done, the adit was caved and the open-cuts badly sloughed at
the time of the examination.
The first, or easterly showing, consists of several sinuous quartz veins that range from
1 to 12 inches wide and occur in highly sheared phyllite and phyllitic conglomerate.
The sheared phyllitic rock is in conformable contact on the west, with a massive red
weathering and highly ferruginous carbonate-zone which strikes north 30 degrees west and
dips approximately vertical.
The sulphides in the quartz veins consist of abundant sphalerite and galena, with minor
amounts of pyrite and chalcopyrite;   no tetrahedrite was seen.
A section of rock approximately 40 feet long by 10 feet high has been exposed by the
sloughing of this old open-cut and short drift (reported length 10 feet) ; the latter was
apparently driven on the strongest of the quartz veins described above, although the face is
reported to contain material similar to some dump material which was seen to be a granular
quartzose rock made blotchy by scattered patches of galena, sphalerite, and ankeritic carbonate; this rock appears to represent incipient replacement of the impure quartzite by sulphides and ankeritic carbonate. SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4).
D 39
The second or westerly showing, approximately 150 feet north-westward up the creek from
the first, consists of one open-cut approximately 10 feet in diameter. Here a section of
pyritized quartzite lying in the foot-wall and east of some massive ferruginous limestone is cut
by a shear-zone 2 to 3 feet wide; the shear contains numerous 1- to 4-inch stringers of quartz;
mineralization is slight. The shearing is conformable to the general attitude of the rock,
which strikes north 20 degrees west and is approximately vertical in dip. It is to be noted
that this showing is westward from the easterly showing and is across the strike of the
formation.
No ore had been shipped at the time of examination.
This group consists of six mineral claims, Twin Mountain Nos. 1 to 6, inclu-
Twin Mountain, sive, staked in December, 1936, and owned by Henry Height and associates, of
Barriere. The camp, at an elevation of 4,500 feet, and the workings, at an
elevation of 5,000 feet, are on the west side of Adams Lake, the elevation of which is 1,360 feet.
They may be reached from Samatosum (Johnston) Creek, which is 6 miles up Adams Lake
from Agate (Squaam) Bay, by a steep pack-horse trail about 5 miles long. The cabin is on
a heavily-wooded, low plateau, but the showings are on a steep and also heavily-wooded hillside
which slopes south-westward to the plateau; they are some 500 feet above the cabin.
The workings consist of twelve trenches and strippings across a dolomite-zone that
averages 10 feet in width and is enclosed in rocks which vary from quartz-sericite to greenstone
schist. This zone strikes north-west and has been traced by the cross-trenches for approximately 4,600 feet. Inasmuch as the showings in these trenches are all very similar, they will
not be described in detail.
The dolomite-zone consists of a main layer, ranging from 9 to 20 feet in width, that is
accompanied by other thinner layers spaced a few feet on either side of the main one and which
range in width from 10 inches to 10 feet; all the layers are separated by beds of schist, with
which they are usually conformable. Where the zone is not conformable, however, it is seen
that the schist is bent in the direction of the dolomite layer, indicating that in such instances
the dolomite occupies a fault, movement along which bent and dragged the schist in the
direction indicated.
The schists strike north 45 degrees west and dip 50 degrees north-east. Frequently the
dolomite is cut by quartz-lenses which are quite discontinuous, pinching out within a few feet,
and which range in thickness from an inch up to 3 feet. The dolomite itself is by no means
pure, but is an intimate mixture of quartz, dolomite, and sulphides. Both the dolomite and the
quartz contain varying amounts of galena, sphalerite, pyrite, and chalcopyrite. Several
samples across the mineralized zone were taken, and these are enumerated below:—
Gold.
Silver.
Lead.
Zinc.
Nature of Sample.
Oz. per Ton.-
Oz. per Ton.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
0.50
0.3
0.84
3.7
Across 2 feet of heavily mineralized dolomite.                             *
0.02
5.0
36.50
3.5
Picked, heavy galena specimens.
Trace
3.0
18.90
Across 6 inches oxidized dolomite, but showing considerable
galena.
0.02
2.0
14.00
Selected heavy sulphides from contact of schist and dolomite.
Trace
Trace
Heavy pyrite in a quartz-lens.
The rock formations consist of a gradational series of schists that strike north 45 degrees
west and dip 50 degrees north-easterly. In the immediate vicinity of the dolomite they vary
from buff-coloured, paper schist—i.e., quartz-sericite schist—to a mottled, light-green phase—
i.e., one containing small amounts of chlorite. In the bluffs, which lie 25 to 100 feet to the
north-east, greenstone-schist occurs; this is quite green and chloritic and frequently more
massive than the quartz-sericite schist. It is to be noted that the greenstone is conspicuously
cut by many veinlets of dolomite.
Adams Plateau Area.*
Adams Plateau.—This plateau extends between Adams Lake on the west and the North
Fork of Scotch Creek on the east, a distance of some 12 miles from east to west.    The plateau
* By J. S. Stevenson. D 40 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
proper is at an elevation of 6,000 feet, is approximately 7 miles in diameter, and equidistant
between Adams Lake and Scotch Creek.
The writer wishes to state clearly that the names applied to the various groups of workings
described in this report are the names under which such groups have been described in the
Annual Report of the Minister of Mines for previous years, and that they are also the names
by which such groups are locally known. Because of the lapsing of claims and of restaking
during this summer (1936), the present ownership, grouping, and new naming of claims has
not been officially ascertained for this report.
On the plateau and close to its rim there are four properties, or rather groups of claims—
the Lucky Coon (McGillivray group), the King Tut, the Speedwell (Thornton-McLeod)- group,
and the Mosquito King (Bisehoff group).
The first three are near the headwaters of Spillman Creek and are reached from Adams
Lake; they were examined by the writer. The fourth is reached from Scotch Creek and was
not examined. The average elevation of these groups is 6,000 feet. Between the first three,
which are on the north-westerly edge of the plateau, and Adams Lake, there are two other
groups—the Donnamore (Lund) group at an elevation of approximately 4,500 feet and the
Delia group at an elevation of approximately 3,500 feet.
With the exception of the Mosquito King group, the above-mentioned properties are
reached from Adams Lake. A motor-road goes from Squilax, which is 41 miles east of
Kamloops on the Revelstoke Highway, to the south end of Adams Lake, 9 miles distant. From
here three routes may be followed—the best is by a good pack-horse trail which begins at the
south end of Adams Lake, approaches the plateau from the south side, following a route which
lies west of Nikwikwaia (Gold) Creek, climbing steeply for 5V2 miles to 6,000 feet elevation,
that of Adams Lake being 1,360 feet, and then along the top of the plateau northward for 5%
miles to the properties, which are near the headwaters of the main West Fork of Spillman
Creek. The second route is by motor-boat for 18 miles up the lake to Spillman Creek and
thence south-easterly by a steep foot-trail (McLeod's trail) for 6 miles to the properties. The
third route is by way of a very steep trail (Wilson's trail) from a point on the east shore 13
miles from the south end of the lake. This reaches the plateau and the properties within
a distance of approximately 4 miles.
The outcrop of the mineralized zone on the main plateau groups (Lucky Coon and King
Tut) extends north-eastward along the rim of the plateau at an average elevation of 6,000 feet.
On the west and north-west the badly-burned hillside slopes steeply, 20 degrees to 40 degrees,
towards Adams Lake. On the east and south-east the country is gently rolling and is of
a typically alpine, open-grazing type, with interspersed meadows and thickets of scrub spruce
and balsam.
With the exception of the Delia (described in the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines
for 1934), which is a small showing of silver-bearing grey copper, all these properties are
lead-zinc prospects. The oldest groups and those on which most work has been done are the
Lucky Coon (McGillivray) and King Tut groups.
These properties were first described in the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines for
1927. At that time three main exposures were known on the Lucky Coon—namely, the main
Lucky Coon showing to the north-east, the showing in Spillman Creek, 4,000 feet to the southwest on the then Elsie claim, and an intermediate one in a small creek on the then Golden Eagle
claim. Apparently at that time very little work had been done. In 1928 the Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting, and Power Company optioned the Lucky Coon group and did 694 feet
of diamond-drilling, 3,420 feet of trenching, and 52 feet of drifting (Annual Report of the
Minister of Mines for 1928, page 210), then relinquished the option. From the 1930 Report it
is inferred that the Granby Company drilled six holes. A small amount of further prospecting
was done in 1929 by H. McGillivray (one of the original stakers) and associates.
Since 1930 no new work of importance has been done on the Lucky Coon group. One
thousand feet of surface work is reported to have been done in 1932 on the King Tut group and
stripping and the driving of short workings done on the Speedwell and Donnamore groups to
the north-west. Many of the claims have lapsed and were restaked this summer (1936), so
the exact ownership is not known. However, the names used are those under which the
properties have been previously described in the Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines. SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 41
References to the Adams Plateau area may be found in the Annual Reports of the Minister
of Mines for the years 1927 to 1932, inclusive, and for 1934.
The mineralization consists of narrow, slightly lenticular, layers of sulphides
Lucky Coon     and silicified rock, and represents the replacement of limy, quartz-sericite
(McGillivray)    schists, phyllites, and greenstone-schists, by mineralizing solutions.    That
Group. which has been considered as possible ore is a narrow layer, in places two
layers, ranging from 20 inches to 4 inches in width and averaging approximately 10 inches, that extends from the main Lucky Coon showing on the north-east to the
Elsie showing in Spillman Creek, a distance of approximately 4,000 feet. Typical specimens
of the sulphides were polished and studied under the metallographic microscope.
Except where extremely massive, the ore is definitely banded. The sulphides include
arsenopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and argentite and a little tetrahedrite in a very
siliceous gangue. The proportions of the sulphides to one another, or to the gangue, vary
considerably along the strike of any one bed.
Arsenopyrite, ranging from 1 to 25 per cent, of the sulphides, occurs as well-crystallized,
diamond-shaped grains ranging from 1 millimetre to 0.5 millimetre in diameter, or as smaller
grains averaging 0.02 millimetre, the smaller grains representing larger ones which have been
nearly replaced by sphalerite or galena.
Pyrite, ranging from 1 to 75 per cent, of the sulphides, occurs characteristically as cubes
that may be embayed or largely replaced by sphalerite or galena, but which are markedly
unbroken by fracturing. This indicates that there has been little or no stress on the pyrite
since its formation. The large cubes average 1 millimetre in size, but smaller areas average
0.05 millimetre. Many of the larger cubes are by no means solid pyrite, but may contain up
to 25 per cent, of small, cusp-shaped areas of replacing sphalerite and galena.
The sphalerite and galena are commonly intimately intergrown; the galena replacing the
sphalerite in such a manner that embayed islands of sphalerite with intricate cusp-shaped
borders to the galena prevail. A study of sphalerite-galena areas, free from other sulphides
or gangue, indicates that the galena may contain up to 40 per cent, sphalerite, an average size-
distribution of sphalerite areas being 5 per cent. 0.07 mm., 85 per cent. 0.035 mm., and 10 per
cent. 0.007 mm. Areas of single sulphides greater than 0.07 mm. in size are not common.
In addition to sphalerite, a field of galena may contain numerous islands of arsenopyrite,
pyrite, and gangue of similar size and shape, the aggregate amount of these exceeding that
of the galena.
Argentite occurs only in the galena and as small irregular areas averaging 50 microns
in size; it is not common and can only be seen by careful etching of a galena surface.
The rock formations affected by the sulphide mineralization include quartz-sericite schist,
greenstone-schist, and phyllite, all somewhat limy, ranging in strike from north 50 to 60 degrees
east and in dip from 30 to 50 degrees north-westerly; however, a large area of quartzite is
found in the vicinity of Nikwikwaia Lakes, lying 1% miles south-westerly from the Elsie adit
in Spillman Creek and approximately half a mile south-east from the projected strike of the
above rocks. The quartz-sericite schist is light grey in colour and so well foliated that the
weathering of outcrops gives rise to an abundance of Ane Aake-talus; under the microscope
the schist is seen to consist of wide bands of Ane-grained quartz containing an abundance of
sericite, and of narrower bands of chlorite and well-crystallized calcite. The greenstone-
schist grades imperceptibly into the above, the only difference being a marked increase in the
chlorite content. The phyllite is a lustrous black rock, the foliation-planes of which are
minutely crenulated; microscopically it is seen to consist of broad, wavy layers of cloudy,
carbonaceous material and Ane-grained quartz and of thinner, lenticular streaks of calcite or
of recrystallized quartz; minute Abres of sericite are very widespread. The quartzite is a
light, grey weathering rock cut by numerous, sinuous, quartz veinlets. Microscopically the
rock consists of a mosaic of clear quartz-grains containing numerous shreds and some lenticular
bands of sericite, and cut by veinlets of more coarsely-crystallized quartz.
The following description of the workings will conform as much as possible to descriptions
in previous reports:—
Cross-sections of the main band, which were available for sampling on the McGillivray
group, were few and only four samples taken.    These compare in kind with those reported by D 42 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
the Department in previous years, and indicate that in proportion to the lead there is a large
amount of zinc present and not large amounts of silver.
The most important showing on the McGillivray group is the main Lucky Coon showing.
Here a cut exposes a length along the dip of 15 feet and a width across the dip of 4 feet. The
sulphide-lens as exposed ranges from 10 to 14 inches in thickness and consists of banded galena,
pyrite, arsenopyrite, and sphalerite in a siliceous gangue; the latter constitutes about 10 per
cent, of the vein-matter. A sample taken across 14 inches assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton;
silver, 3.4 oz. per ton;   copper, nil;  lead, 3 per cent.;   zinc, 16 per cent.;   and arsenic, trace.
Immediately adjacent to this cut on the south-west the hillside (a dip-slope) has been
stripped in two sections, one 100 feet long and the other 65 feet long; both having a maximum
slope-width of approximately 25 feet. These strippings show that there is one, and sometimes
two, lenses of ore; a hanging-wall lens attaining a maximum width of 8 inches and a foot-wall
lens of 20 inches. A thin parting of schist separates them. Several large blocks of slide-rock
lie in this stripping. These blocks average 5 feet square, 1 to 2 feet in thickness, and contain
widths of ore comparable to that mentioned; it is evident from their orientation that these
slabs have moved only a few feet from their outcrop. A sample taken across the full width of
the mineralization-—namely, 12 inches—in one of these slabs assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton;
silver, 17 oz. per ton; lead, 14.5 per cent.; zinc, 24 per cent.; arsenic, 1.5 per cent. The rock
formation in the vicinity is a well-oxidized quartz-sericite schist.
One hundred feet south-west from this stripping a small trench shows a 3-foot section
across schist which contains a 1- to 4-inch band of pyrite, arsenopyrite, and a small amount
(approximately 1 per cent.) of galena in a very quartzose gangue.
Seven hundred feet south-west from the last a diagonal stripping south-westward up
the hill for 120 feet exposes a 1-foot lens of sulphides and quartz; heavy galena occasionally
is as wide as 3 inches.
One hundred and fifty feet south-west from the top of this there is a shallow, caved,
inclined shaft on a 10-inch lens of rusty schist, containing a few small kidneys of galena.
One hundred and fifty feet south-west from the incline another diagonal stripping southwest up the hill for 120 feet exposes 10 inches of quartz and mixed sulphides, arsenopyrite
being abundant.
The next showing is 800 feet to the south-west in a gulch. Here a short section, 10 inches
wide, of sulphides, chiefly sphalerite, lies in lustrous black phyllites; some beds are limy. Very
little work has been done here.
The last main showing is an adit referred to as the Elsie adit, driven for 25 feet north-east
into the bank of the main westerly branch of Spillman Creek. This is a drift along two bands
of heavy galena, 6 inches and 14 inches in width and separated by a 6-inch parting of black
phyllite. This is by far the best section of galena on the property. A composite sample across
these two bands and omitting the rock-parting assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver, 14.8
oz. per ton;   lead, 22 per cent.;  zinc, 16 per cent.;   arsenic, trace.
A sample was taken across the continuation of the adit-band across the creek and represents a 12-inch section containing three 2- to 3-inch lenses of mineralization similar to that in
the adit; this sample assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver, 10.2 oz. per ton; copper, nil;
lead, 17 per cent.; zinc, 32 per cent.;  arsenic, trace.
Just above the cap of the adit there is a large lens of barren whits quartz that is 4 feet
thick and extends 10 feet down the dip of the phyllites;  it is apparently a discontinuous bodv.
In the vicinity of the Elsie adit, Spillman Creek affords the best cross-section of the rocks
available. To the north-west of the creek adit—i.e., in the north-west section—the rocks are
exposed for 400 feet down the creek and are black, lustrous phyllites, with no sulphide lenses.
To the south-east the foot-wall section is exposed for 1,000 feet up the creek; here the rocks
are chiefly greenstone-schists, which for the last 200 feet on the south-east contain a few
intercalated limestone-bands. Other than one 3-foot indefinite lens of pyritie replacement,
no sulphide-lenses similar to the main one were seen in this section.
Although Spillman Creek affords the only section across the strike of the prospected band of
mineralization, it seems hardly possible that this section would have been so placed as to
miss all possible other lenses in the foot-wall or hanging-wall of the main band. It is probable,
therefore, that in this vicinity there are no other lenses or bands of galena-sulphide mineralization. SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS   (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 43
No heavy galena has been found south-west of the Spillman Creek adit. Several open-
cuts have been dug at intervals for a distance of 1,400 feet to the south-west, but these are
across three very quartzose bands of sulphides, which consist chiefly of pyrite and arsenopyrite;
although galena does occur in small amounts. Although the average width of these bands is
1 foot, a pit in the most north-westerly group shows 5 feet of strong silicification with accompanying arsenopyrite, a little pyrite and galena. A 5-foot sample across this assayed: Gold,
0.04 oz. per ton; silver, 3.4 oz. per ton; copper, nil; lead, 2 per cent.; zinc, 10'per cent; arsenic,
2.5 per cent.
The showings are on the old Thornton-McLeod property, the King Tut, and
King Tut Group,  adjoins the McGillivray property, Lucky Coon group, on the north and east.
The workings consist of two short adits, one of which is completely caved,
and strippings. The accessible adit is 225 feet north-east from the caved adit and is 3,000
feet north-east from the main Lucky Coon showing, first described. At present there are no
showings in the 3,000 feet between the King Tut -and Lucky Coon. The open adit is driven
north 50 degrees west across sericite-schists and 15 feet from the portal it cuts a 1%-foot
siliceous band, which contains a little pyrite, galena, and sphalerite.
Five hundred feet eastward across a meadow two strippings, each 25 feet long and 25 feet
apart, expose a hard siliceous rib, 2 to 2% feet wide. This is chiefly quartz but contains small
amounts of mixed sulphides, pyrite, arsenopyrite, galena, and sphalerite. A short 2- to 3-inch
lens of a fine-grained mixture of galena and- sphalerite was seen.
Approximately 1,000 feet north-east from here several trenches have been dug, but these
have all sloughed and no work was evident in any of them. Judging from the sparsity of
mineral samples on the dumps, nothing of importance was found in these trenches.
These workings are on a bench on the steep hillside about 6,000 feet in eleva-
Speedwell Group, tion.    They are below and 1 mile north 40 degrees east from the King Tut
adits. The mineralization is by no means similar to that in the Lucky Coon
or King Tut workings. Two short adits, one caved and the other locked, have been driven on
decomposed rusty schist and phyllite that evidently originally contained abundant pyrite as
the only important sulphide. The rock formations include quartzose-schist and phyllite in the
immediate vicinity of the workings and 200 feet north of them steep bluffs of monzonite.
The workings on this property are on a steep hillside sloping into one of the
Donnamore     eastern branches of Spillman Creek.    They lie between 4,500 and 5,000 feet
(Lund) Group,   elevation and are approximately 3 miles north 35 degrees east from the
Lucky Coon showings. At present the property may be reached by either of
two ways—by a steep foot-trail, approximately 4% miles long, and a climb of 3,200 feet from
the eastern shore of Adams Lake at the mouth of Spillman Creek; or by a steeper trail
descending 1,500 feet for approximately 1% miles from the King Tut showings.
The workings examined are very definitely off the plateau. The strippings show a predominant series of laminated argillaceous-quartzite rocks, silicified in varying degrees, and
containing a very strongly silicified band, 6 inches to 2 feet wide, the latter including occasional
concentrations of pyrite, galena, and sphalerite.
A sample across 2 feet of this material assayed: Gold, O.02 oz. per ton; silver, 1.6 oz. per
ton;  lead, nil; zinc, 22 per cent.; arsenic, trace.
This is on the east side of Adams Lake, some 3 miles south of Squaam Bay.
Lincoln Although it is not on the plateau, mention is made of it here to indicate that
Property.        the mineralization is not a continuation of that found on the plateau.    The
occurrence is a relatively clean 18-inch replacement-band of pyrite and some
quartz in grey quartz-sericite schists which strike north 45 degrees west and dip 45 degrees
north-east. The average strike of the schists, etc., on the plateau is north 50 degrees east and
the dip north 50 degrees west. The work done on this property consists only of one short adit
and three to four small strippings; they are all at lake-level.
PLACER DEPOSITS.
Harris Creek.
Harris Creek flows into the broad Lumby-Long Lake Valley at a point 3% miles south-west
of Lumby.    The creek heads in the Buck Hills and flows north-west some 14 miles to its- con- D 44 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
fluence with Nicklen Creek, and from this point, north and east to Shuswap River, the combined
stream is known as Bessette Creek. To avoid confusion the latter name is not used in this
report. From a point 13 miles east of Vernon, on the Vernon-Edgewood Highway, the creek
is reached by a side-road 2% miles in length.
The elevation of the lower section of Harris Creek is about 2,000 feet and that of the
near-by summits is 3,500 feet and more. Below the principal tributary, McAuley (Gold)
Creek, and for 2 miles above, a total distance of IVz miles, the creek flows in a flat-bottomed
valley with steep sides, the average width of valley-bottom being commonly 600 to 700 feet
and in a few places 300' to 400 feet; the grade is about 80 feet per mile. Immediately below
the mouth of Nicklen Creek is a section of canyon about 100 feet wide and 600 feet long, from
which the creek enters upon the broad Lumfoy Valley. A prominent gravel-bench level flanks
the Lumby Valley at a height of 200 feet and is preserved in sections in at least the lower
6 miles of Harris Creek Valley. Timber is heavy in the creek-bottom and on the south side of
the valley, the north side of which is openly wooded.
Geology.—The rocks of the region are principally schists and gneisses of considerable
age. At the mouth of the creek mica-schist is the common rock-type, and above the mouth a
grey-coloured, gneissose dioritic rock is plentiful. Abundant boulders of a dark-grey lava in
the stream-gravels point to the presence of Tertiary lavas near the headwaters. Little is
known of the distribution of these rocks, or of the precise age and character, beyond the fact
that the pre-Tertiary rocks form a complex assemblage of highly altered sedimentary and
volcanic materials intruded by one or more ages of granitic rocks. A few quartz veins are
known, and these undoubtedly have contributed some gold.
The creek-gravels are composed of resistant, gneissose, and granitic materials and a high
proportion of grey lava; boulders in excess of 2 feet are rare. Bed-rock is possibly not deeply
covered, but, although there is no direct evidence, there is probably at least 201 feet of gravels
in the valley-bottom. The high-level gravel benches are imperfectly exposed and so cannot
be well studied, but it is certain that they are stream-deposited, and remnants 220 feet above
the creek some 3 miles from the canyon show that the valley was at one time filled with gravels
to that level.
At the mouth of Nicklen Creek, Harris Creek has forsaken its former outlet, now gravel-
filled, to swing sharply west and then sharply north again in the short canyon already referred
to. In this canyon on the west side is a gravel-filled bedi-rock channel, the lowest point in
which is some 20 feet above Harris Creek. This channel, it is believed, trends westerly. Some
300 feet south-easterly, on the opposite side of the creek, is a rock-rim which is apparently a
remnant of the same channel less than 100 feet in length. This is a part of the pre-Glacial
drainage of the ancestral Harris Creek. A section of what is undoubtedly the same drainage
system has been shown to exist at two points, 3% and 4% miles up-stream, on the south-west
side of and about 20 feet above the creek. These sections show only the outer rim, and that
imperfectly, but indicate that possibly 2 miles of an old channel exists, buried to a depth of
100 to 200 feet, with gravels of probably mixed origin. Another section, on the north-east side
of the creek and about half a mile above the canyon, is perhaps indicated, but is not proved.
Short sections may exist elsewhere, but it is more likely that the channel has been eroded
away. The final course of the channel is not known, except that a highly suggestive gravel-
filled depression crosses Jones (Duteau) Creek to the west;  farther west nothing is known.
The gravel in this old channel is completely different from that in the present stream
and from that in the high benches. It is composed of brownish poorly-sorted materials, frequently in sharply-angular fragments of local derivation; i.e., composed largely of schists
and gneisses of the same character as the bed-rock. Unlike the gravels of Harris and other
streams, there is practically no Tertiary lava, " young-looking " granite, or quartzitic rocks,
and only very occasional small fragments of quartz are to be found. Some pebbles and
boulders have undoubtedly travelled far, but for the most part the gravels appear local in origin.
Bed-rock, in the few small places it has been exposed, is quite strongly weathered, as is practically all of the gravel. Many of the pebbles may be carved with a knife, a few can be
crushed between the fingers, and the larger boulders can be demolished with pick and bar.
Large boulders and blocks are common, 4 or more feet across, and one has been encountered
14 feet long. The gravel is stratified, and there is some evidence of shingling, but it is poorly
sorted and " dirty";   small pockets Of yellow clay are rather common, particularly about the SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 45
larger boulders. Many fragments, of all sizes down to the smallest, are sharply angular, and
this fact, coupled with the poor sorting and character of materials, points to a rapid accumulation of local detritus in probably a swift-flowing and steep-walled stream. In these gravels is
found heavy, well-worn gold of a character rarely found in the bed of Harris and never in the
tributary creeks. The gold is all coarse, in nuggets to 1 % oz. weight, is dark in colour, and is
thoroughly polished; it very occasionally contains included quartz, but no quartz has been
found adhering to the gold. There is extremely little black sand. In Harris and tributary
creeks is found (in small quantities) fine, light-yellow gold, frequently rough and with adhering
quartz, and with which is associated considerable black sand. This latter gold is believed to
be of local derivation.
No glacial deposits are to be seen in the bottom of Harris Creek Valley, and on the valley-
walls timber-cover and detritus are sufficiently thick in most places to mask the character of
the unconsolidated materials. Boulder-clay has been exposed in the hydraulic pit on the west
side of Harris Creek Canyon, and definitely overlies the gravel within the old channel. The
thickness of this boulder-clay is not yet known, but the base is at a lower elevation than much
of the gravels at one time built up by Harris Creek. On Jones Creek, in a shaft not seen by
the writer, glacial material is reported beneath several feet of surface gravels; this latter site
is below the one-time level of Jones Creek.
The geological history may be summed up as follows: In pre-Glacial times there existed a
narrow canyon stream that followed essentially the same course as the present Harris Creek
and then swung west towards Long Lake. With the advent of Glacial times this canyon
became choked with detrital materials washed down from the adjacent hillsides. Later still
the region became covered with ice which filled the choked valley. The valley at this time or
later was overdeepened and considerable parts of the former bed were destroyed; this over-
deepen(ing extended to a depth of about 50 feet or perhaps greater. The ice tongue or glacier
flowed straight through towards Lumby, and the westerly-flowing section of old channel
became completely filled with glacial deposits. Following recession of the ice, Harris Creek
built up its bed with gravels to a depth of 220 feet or so, and still later, when less heavily
loaded and with a general falling in level, cut down through the valley-fill. At this time it
forsook the glacial outlet into the major valley and cut a short canyon through and across
the older channel, which remained choked with detritus and covered by boulder-clay.
Whatever the origin of Jones Creek, great quantities of gravel were brought down by
this creek from a steep canyon-like valley, and were built up as a delta that nearly obliterated
the major valley at this point and reversed the course of at least part of the drainage in that
valley. More recently Jones Creek has incised this delta at the north-east margin and has cut
a canyon across what appears to be the rock rim of the ancestral Harris Creek.
Placer-mining.—Small quantities' of gold were found many years ago in the bed of Harris
Creek and of its tributaries, but until recently no more than surface-panning has been done.
This gold, with rare exceptions, is light in colour and occurs in fine rough particles, frequently
with adhering quartz, and accompanied by considerable black sand. In one or two localities
gold in coarser, darker, and more well-worn particles has been found, and this led Paul Johnson
and Alf. Brewer first to the belief that a former channel existed, and finally to its discovery,
in the summer of 1936, in the canyon of Harris Creek.
Leases have been staked covering the lower 8 miles of Harris Creek, the ground between
Harris and Jones Creeks, and a considerable portion of the valley-fiat at the mouth of Harris
Creek. Test-work has been concentrated in the lower or northern section, but a small amount
of testing has also been done for 5 miles up the creek.
In the uppermost working known to the writer, on the south-west side 4% miles from the
mouth of Harris Creek, on a lease belonging to Brewer, Sr., a drift has been driven 10 feet on
weathered rim-rock in weathered semiangular gravels. Some gold is reported from the actual
rim 20 feet above the creek. On ground three-quarters of a mile down-stream from this
locality a very little digging shows a rock-rim and similar gravels, but no real testing has been
done. The width and extent of this section of channel are not known, and it is not known
whether gold occurs in paying quantities. Other test-holes are scattered along the margin
of the creek-bed, none of which are conclusive. Testing in the bed proper has consisted of
surface-panning, and no pits have been sunk deeper than a few feet. D 46 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
The original discovery is on the east side of the creek at the head1 of the small canyon and
just below the mouth of Nicklen Creek. Here Brewer and Johnson report recovery of 12 oz.
of coarse gold from amongst large boulders- at and near irregular bed-rock over an area some
15 by 50 feet. This remnant of channel is not yet worked out and coarse gold can still be
panned. Brewer and Johnson then moved across to the channel exposed in cross-section on
the west side of Harris Creek and recovered 14 oz. of gold before optioning the ground to
James Armes, of Vancouver.
The lowermost gutter of this channel, 20 feet above the creek, is about 10 feet wide, 20 feet
above which the channel is 60 feet wide with steeply-flaring walls. Gravels as exposed are
about 45 feet deep, above which is boulder-clay to an exposed thickness of 25 feet, and total
cover, not all exposed, reaches a maximum depth of 160 feet at a point some 500 feet west of
Harris Creek where the ground slopes gradually towards Jones Creek. A lens of clean-
washed, rounded, and some angular gravel partly separates the dirty angular gravel from
overlying boulder-clay. Gold has been recovered in a pay-streak 10 feet to 25 feet above the
lowest gutter and to a lesser extent in the uppermost 15 feet of rather cleaner and smaller-
sized gravel; bed-rock has not been followed at any time. A monitor, fed by an 8-inch pipe
from a centrifugal pump run by a 65-horse-power motor, has made an excavation in the
centre of the channel totalling about 1,000 cubic yards. Water has been insufficient to handle
economically the boulder-clay, which has had to be blasted down. Water rights were secured
on Nicklen Creek and a dam built at the mouth of Nicklen Lake to store 2,000 acre-feet of
water; it has been estimated that with half a mile of ditch and flume 15 cubic feet of water
per second can be delivered at a head of about 300 feet. Late in 1936 James Armes's interest
was bought out by Mrs. Duncan Smith.    This group comprises eight leases.
On Jones Creek, 1% miles west, ground is being investigated by means of a shaft under the
direction of O. D. Frith, of Vancouver, who has optioned ground in that vicinity. The position
of the old channel here is not proved, but is strongly suggested by a prominent east-west rock-
rim through which Jones Creek has cut a canyon; immediately south of this rim are gravels.
As Jones Creek at this point and Harris Creek Canyon are at practically the same elevation
the channel would necessarily be 100 or more feet deep. At the end of 1936 a shaft was put
down 15 feet, at which point boulder-clay was encountered beneath (Jones) creek-gravels.
At the mouth of Harris Creek, on the valley-flat, several leases are staked and some test-
pitting has been done with a view to proving dredging-ground. Six or more pits were sunk, in
some of which interesting values have been reported, but only one, on the edge of the valley,
was put down to bed-rock. The ground here is flat, and Harris Creek has obviously swept back
and forth over a considerable area, planing down the gravel valley-fill and leaving faint evidence of former low gravel banks. In this locality, at the mouth of the canyon, it is likely
that any gold carried by the creek would be dropped, but it is not yet known whether this gold
is distributed evenly or in streaks, and the depth to bed-rock in the main valley is not known.
The whole area adjoins a ranching district in which water is a valuable commodity, and
any operation involving treatment of a considerable volume of gravel must be prepared to
dispose of tailings and guard against diversion of water used for irrigation. This need not,
however, be a serious handicap to placer-mining. Actual gold-recovery has so far been from
a restricted locality, and considerable testing is in order before any final estimate can be made
of location and continuity of " pay.
Winfield (Wood Lake).
Gold-bearing gravels have been found high up on the eastern hillside flanking Wood Lake.
These gravels are at an elevation of about 3,000 feet and are known to extend from near Clark
Creek north for a distance of about 2 miles. In the southern part of this section, near Clark
Creek, sparsely-wooded ground slopes gently, but is irregularly broken by small dry ravines
and short steep rises; bed-rock outcrops are not plentiful. In the central and northern parts
the gravels are found on a wooded slope cut by a few small gullies which are dry for all but a
brief period in spring; 100 or more feet below is the steeper Wood Lake valley-side. Immediately above are bluffs of basalt which rise in steps to plateau ground on the east 200 to 500
feet higher. The gravels are to some degree water-bearing and occasional springs occur at
and near the lower edge of the line of outcrop. SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 47
From the small settlement of Winfield, 14 miles north of Kelowna, on the Kelowna-Vernon
Highway, a branch road leads to a sawmill camp on Clark Creek, a distance of 4 miles; a rough
side-road 1 mile in length from near Clark Creek leads nearly to the chief site of activities, the
Hall and Eley leases.    From the end of this road a trail follows north along the hillside.
Bedi-rock is a grey, commonly porphyritic rock which varies between granite and granodiorite. Unconformably overlying the granite is Tertiary basalt in a number of superimposed
flows, 20 to 40 and more feet in thickness. Associated with the basalt are poorly consolidated
tuffs which occur beneath the lowermost and- between some of the succeeding flows. Considerable of the ground is masked by overburden which is generally referred to as glacial; glacial
deposits do exist, particularly at and near the south end of the occurrence of gravels, but
exposures are insufficient to allow of accurate determination of character and distribution of
these deposits.
The unconsolidated, goldl-bearing gravels lie above weathered bed-rock and beneath the
lowermost basalt-flow. Consequently, although the precise age of the basalts is not known,
the gravels are Tertiary in age. They are definitely stream-lain and represent part of an
ancient drainage system. The gravels are strikingly different from any others in the general
region; they are very light in colour, are well rounded, and are composed of highly resistant
materials. Pebbles up to 4 inches in size are commonest; there is not much sand and few
large cobbles, although boulders in excess of 2 feet are occasionally found. The commonest
material is a white or nearly white quartzite of fine grain, much of which closely resembles
vein-quartz; other materials include granite, syenite, diorite, quartz, obsidian, gneiss. Concentrates from panning contain abundant garnet but very little black sand. The gold is quite
pure, of a reddish colour, and is found as flattened pellets of match-head size and smaller.
In some localities much of the gold is reported! to be very fine and in others it appears that
pellets predominate.
Little is definitely known regarding the course and dimensions of the channel. It is very
probable that it flowed from north to south, because there is to the north a source for the white
quartzite pebbles and none to the south for many miles; differences in elevation must not be
relied upon too strongly, because some tilting of the land surface may have taken place in
Tertiary times and also because there may be tributaries, as yet unrecognized as such. The
base of gravel at the Aitkens and Staples lease on the north is about 200 feet higher than at
the Hall and Eley leases. Gravels are found at intervals from near Clark Creek, in an arc
round the side-hill, north for \Vi miles, and again at Aitkens and Staples lease, south of which
for over half a mile no gravels have been found; it is not known whether in this latter section
the channel has been eroded away or remains obscured farther to the east—in any event a
fairly sharp bend is indicated. At the south end either the hillside follows closely a bend in
the former stream or else the channel is several hundred feet wide. The channel is nowhere
exposed in cross-section, so it is not known whether it is simple or complex. The channel has
been faulted, roughly parallel to the line of basalt cliffs, and the outer or western segment has
dropped down.
The Tertiary channel was undoutbedly covered by basalt-flows. A tunnel driven on the
Eley lease below the cliffs definitely proves the existence of gravel beneath basalt. The base of
the gravel is here covered by coarse talus, just west of which is a ridge of basalt which is
an erosion remnant of the down-dropped fault-segment. Drifting in three places in this
locality and also on Aitkens and Staples lease is reported to have started on bed-rock, which
dips easterly, then has encountered an upswing 150 to 200 feet in and has ended in blocks of
basalt, seemingly dragged down by the faulting, and which lie amongst gravels on or close to
bed-rock. The faulting, of less than 100 feet displacement, has apparently been quite extensive
and roughly parallels the contour of the hill; open cracks in the basalt are found a few hundred feet back from the line of cliffs on the Summerville lease. At the southern end of the
known occurrence of gravels, erosion, and deposition of glacial materials, has obscured the
distribution of gravels and the relation of these to bedi-rock.
Of the many short drifts, test-pits, and open-cuts erratically distributed throughout the
2 miles of ground, some are in gravels, some in tuff, and some in glacial materials or overburden. Several drifts, 1001 to 360 feet in length, have been driven both by individual and
company endeavour, and of these only two are now accessible.    As detailed descriptions of D 48 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
workings seen by the writer would be incomplete, none will be attempted, more especially
because much of the evidence given by the workings is of doubtful value.
In the fall of 1935 J. A. Brusset, general manager of Western Canadian Collieries, Limited,
of Blairmore, Alberta, obtained an option on approximately 1,400 acres of leases. Work, under
the direction of D. J. McNeil, included two drifts on the Eley and Hall leases, as well as surficial
exploration at scattered points; the option was relinquished June 30th, 1936. In the first
drift, 350 feet long on the Eley lease, water-filled at the time of the writer's visit, testing on
bed-rock throughout returned disappointingly low values. In the second drift, 170 feet long
on the Hall lease and at a height of at least 10 feet above bed-rock, the gold content of the
gravels was insignificant. The writer is unaware of results obtained in any of the other
workings, and he did no testing.
Both reported recoveries and the clean, open character of the gravels seem to preclude
the possibility of gold occurring in paying quantities except at or close to bed-rock; if the
channel is a single trough, gold is to be expected within that trough; but, if complex, gold may
be concentrated in any one of the several troughs or gutters.
The shallow troughs in bed-rock encountered in the longer drifts on the Hall, Eley, and
Aitkens-Staples leases have not been proved to be cross-sections of the actual channel and
might conceivably represent a side-channel or channels.
Testing to the south-east has given little definite information and is difficult in view of
the amount and variety of unconsolidated materials.
Testing beneath the undisturbed basalt has not been attempted except by one short drift,
now caved.
The lack of conclusive information obtained by the already considerable amount of work
done indicates that if the channel is to be proved in cross-section and thoroughly tested, a
large-scale programme will have to be undertaken. Before underground work is contemplated
an accurate contour-map should be made of the entire stretch of ground, showing all geological
data in detail; some shallow test-work might then be done to advantage, and finally some
point of attack chosen for drifting. There is no site without its drawbacks, but at some place
on the Eley lease below the cliffs, in unfaulted ground, a drift would perhaps be able to prove
the eastward extent of the gravels. Bed-rock is not exposed here, and 100 feet or more of
gravels is indicated. From a drift as low down as it is possible to make a convenient entry
shafts would have to be sunk to bed-rock. Such a programme would necessitate considerable
capital outlay and would be warranted only if considerable ground was owned or controlled.
There is no basis at present for estimation of position, extent, or value of maximum gold
concentration in these gravels. It is to be hoped that prospecting farther afield, to the north,
may throw more light on the problem and that some point may be found where the channel
may be more easily and cheaply explored in cross-section.
Putnam Creek.
Putnam is a small easterly-flowing creek 12 miles north of Lumby. It heads in a
mountainous country and flows in a narrow valley some 5 miles in length to enter the broad,
terraced Trinity Valley. The mouth of Putnam Creek Valley is easily reached by automobile
from Lumby. The creek traverses a series of deformed and altered sediments among which
dark-coloured slaty argillites are prominent. Granitic and dioritic rocks of unknown distribution intrude the sediments, but are not abundant in the lower stretches of the creek. Quartz
veins are said to be of common occurrence in the district.
Gold was discovered in October, 1936, by Paul Johnson and Alf. Brewer, and four leases
were soon after bonded to Jack Hanna, of Greenwood, and associates. Since then the holdings
have been extended by additional staking.
The creek, for 2 miles above the limit of the Trinity Valley terraces, flows in a narrow
flat-bottomed and steep-sided valley 100 to 200 feet wide. The grade, as determined by
barometer and estimation of distance, is 5 per cent. The sides are of rock, largely masked by
slide materials, and one narrow canyon 400 feet long skirts a former blocking of the channel.
The surface gravels are composed predominantly of slates of local derivation and cobbles and
boulders of gneiss and granite are fairly common. Boulders are occasionally as large as 4 feet,
and sizes between 1 and 2 feet are common. There is not, in this lower section, any sign of
glacial deposits or of glacial action.    Two miles up-stream the valley widens and the bottom SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 49
is choked with glacial till and boulder-clay; this material is reported to be common for some
considerable distance up the creek.
Bed-rock is not exposed in the 1% miles below the canyon, but is not likely covered to
a depth of more than 15 feet; above the canyon the cover is deeper. Gold is scanty in the
surface slaty gravels, but is reported to be more abundant in underlying reddish gravels of
schistose and gneissose materials. The gold is heavy, well rounded, and is associated with
black sand. From several shallow pits interesting values were reported, but very little testing
had been done at the time of the writer's visit and bed-rock had not been reached.
This creek flows in a valley, the lower 2 miles of which do not appear to have been affected
by glaciation. Whether or not boulder-clay at one time lay in this lower section is not definitely
known, and neither is it known whether the underlying, reddish gravels are pre-Glacial. It is
very probable, however, that the gold is of pre-Glacial concentration and not deposited as
a result of the reworking of glacially-derived materials.
Scotch Creek.
Scotch Creek flows into the west end of Shuswap Lake and drains more than half of the
region lying north of the main body of Shuswap Lake and between Seymour Arm and Adams
Lake. North and east branches of equal size unite to form the main creek at a point 9 miles
north of Shuswap Lake, and it is in this section of the creek that placer gold has been found.
The region is one of marked relief and is heavily timbered. Adams Plateau, on the west,
attains an elevation of about 6,000 feet and summits north of the fork reach a maximum
elevation of 7,390 feet. Scotch Creek and the lower stretches of the two principal branches
occupy old, flaring valleys with steep slopes slightly indented by precipitous tributaries.
From an elevation of 1,850 feet at the fork the creek drops 700 feet in the 9 miles to Shuswap
Lake.
A good motor-road crosses Little Shuswap River and follows the north shore of the lake
as far east as Anglemont. The mouth of Scotch Creek is 8 miles from the bridge. A ferry
service is maintained from Sorrento on the south shore to a point 2 miles east of Scotch Creek
on the north shore of the lake. No trail exists up the creek from the mouth, but the upper
valley is reached by motor-road from Celista to the ranch of C. C. Sturdy, a distance of 6 miles,
from which point a forestry trail follows along the steep eastern valley-wall and extends north
and west to Adams Lake. The lower 2V2 miles of the trail have been widened to allow passage
of a narrow-gauge wagon, and a branch half a mile long leads down to the camp of Scotch
Creek Placer Mines, Limited, a mile below the fork. Foot-trails lead to other workings in that
vicinity.
Topography.—-The accompanying sketch-map is prepared from aerial photographs and is
not strictly accurate. A short distance above the fork the north branch flows in a narrow
canyon, with falls aggregating 100 feet in height; a canyon exists on the other branch about
2 miles north-east of the fork. Below the fork the stream is of a quite uniform gradient and
follows a somewhat meandering course; one canyon section 1% miles below the fork has a
minimum width of 50 feet, but elsewhere the stream is 30 to 100 feet wide in a valley-bottom
which, at a height of about 30 feet above the stream, is 200 to 800 feet wide.
The valley changes in character at a point opposite and just below Sturdy's ranch. Below,
the valley is typical of old streams in the interior of the Province; terraces of stratified gravels
occur on both sides of the stream to heights as great as 200 feet, and bed-rock is occasionally
seen on either side beneath the gravels or forming part of the valley-wall. Low gravel flats
10 to 30 feet above stream-level are not extensive. Above the delta, half a mile and more
above the road crossing, bed-rock is occasionally seen in the stream-bed, and it is not likely
that the gravels in the channel are in any place more than 20 to 40 feet deep. Above Sturdy's
the valley is wider; the creek follows close to the east wall and the western half or three-
quarters of the valley is occupied by a prominent bench 1,000 to over 2,000 feet wide and 300
to nearly 400 feet above the creek. In this upper section the creek flows close to bed-rock,
which is locally exposed, and, except for local low flats, bed-rock outcrops almost continuously
on the east side of the creek and the valley-wall rises steeply towards the summits. On the
west side of the creek the valley-bottom is bounded by steeply-rising banks composed for the
most part of stratified gravels. From the fork to a short distance below the canyon bed-rock
is frequently seen on the west side to elevations as great as 200 feet above the creek, but not D 50 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
as high as the gravel bench; bed-rock is next seen on the west side opposite and half a mile
above Sturdy's ranch. Bed-rock is nowhere seen on the bench proper, which rises very
gradually on the west to the well-defined, rocky valley-wall. In the lower section of the bench
there are no transverse streams—the lateral drainage becomes lost in gravels. Above the
canyon small streams show bed-rock only near Scotch Creek, and there appears, in this section
at least, to be a rock-rim flanking Scotch Creek on the west.
There is evidence, therefore, that in the upper section of the valley a channel buried deeply
by gravels exists parallel to the present creek. The outlet of this channel appears to be
opposite and below Sturdy's ranch, at the constriction in the larger valley. The bottom of the
channel is probably not much higher, if at all, than that of the present creek, and could not
conceivably be more than a few tens of feet lower. The upper end may join the north branch
as indicated on the accompanying map where a suggestive depression exists on the hillside;
whether or not this was only a temporary channel of the north branch is not known. The
relation of the east branch to the buried channel is not known.
One high rock-rim is known on the east side of the valley, a quarter to three-quarters of
a mile above the canyon and 100 feet above the creek. Elsewhere on the east the rocky valley-
wall appears to rise unbroken from the valley-bottom.
Geology.—The rocks of Scotch Creek Valley consist predominantly of schists. Greenstone
is prominent at the lower end of the valley, north of which calcareous, argillaceous, and less
often chloritic and sandy schists dip northerly from a few degrees to 45 degrees. A prominent
band of limestone outcrops half a mile due north of the fork and is reported to be found in
the canyon of the east branch. A dense, acidic, gneissose rock forms the western valley-wall
1 to 2 miles below the fork. A prominent body of coarse pink granite occurs just north-west
of the fork, and the greater resistance of this rock as compared with schists is responsible for
the falls on the north branch and must also have been responsible for falls on the upper end
of the postulated buried channel.
Scotch Creek has steep, flaring walls, relatively straight and little eroded by transverse
streams, rising from an incised valley-fill in which the present stream follows a meandering
course. In the lower 5% miles of the valley the stream swings from wall to wall, but in the
upper section the eastern wall is followed closely throughout, and the western half of the major
valley is occupied by a high-level bench. All of the bench-gravels are stratified, stream-lain,
and very free from clay; lenses and beds of sand are minor in amount. The geological history
of the valley is not simple and is difficult to decipher. The country has been glaciated and
changes in level have occurred both before and after glaciation. In the upper section of the
valley, although a cross-section of the larger bench is in no place seen, it appears that sections
of the present stream-channel existed as parts of a former broad valley-hottom of considerable
irregularity and probable complexity of channels. This valley was filled deeply with stream-
lain gravels at a time when erosive power was heightened, and later still the stream cut down
through these gravels, locally cutting new bed-rock channel and also exposing pre-existing
channels.
The gold is fairly coarse, is well-rounded and flattened, and is 860 fine. The maximum
size of nugget is % oz., but nuggets worth more than $2 are rare; adhering quartz is occasionally present. The source of this gold is undoubtedly quite local and is to be found in quartz
veins and stringers which are reported to be fairly abundant in this area. No appreciable
quantity of gold has been found in the main body of stratified gravels, nor is likely to be found
in such thick accumulations of clean, open gravels except for local concentrations in more or
less random pay-streaks. The sections worked are those at and near bed-rock where it is more
than likely there has been more than one period of concentration in the long history of the
valley.
History.—Placer gold was recovered from Scotch Creek many years ago and the creek
abandoned in 1877 (Geological Survey of Canada, Report of Progress, 1877-78). Although
there is no authentic record, it is probable that prospecting started in the early sixties.
Reference is made to the creek in the Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines as far back as
1885, and in the three years 1886 to 1888 $27,000 is reported to have been recovered. Brief
mention is then made in the Annual Reports for 1896, 1897, and 1898, from which it appears
that in those years a few Chinese were the sole workers. From the last date until recent years
little or no work has been done. SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4).
D 51
Bischoff Lease^ )
Scale
Road to
: Celista.
Sturdy Ranch
5 miles to
Shuswap Lake
Upper Scotch Creek.    Sketch-plan showing Location of Properties. D 52 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
The earlier work seems to have been concentrated in the upper 3 miles of the creek, and the
most intensive digging was done immediately below the fork and both above and below the
short canyon 1 % miles below. Traces of this work still remaining on flats a few feet to 60 feet
above the creek show evidence of the painstaking clean-up operations typical of Chinese miners.
Recent revival of activity dates from 1933, when some coarse gold was recovered from benches
and the greater part of the creek was staked. Recovery during the past four seasons is not
known, but appears to have amounted to several thousand dollars at most. Operations in 1936
included work by one company and a number of individuals.
This lease is on the north branch, 1 mile above the fork, and near the head
Bischoff Lease,   of the canyon.    A small amount of work has been done by hand 100 feet
above the creek on the west side, on what may be the rim of the former
channel of the north branch; the channel-rims appear to be about 200 feet high immediately
above the pit.    This pit is in clean, coarse gravel, including rough blocks 6 feet across that
rest on an irregular bottom of pink granite.    Recovery is not known.
This lease is on the west side of the fork where there is a low bench some
Bristow Lease.    20 feet above the creek and which is covered by no great depth of gravel.
The owner has built a short flume from a small stream, with the water from
which he intends washing the low bench, and possibly also one or more higher steps 200 to
300 feet from, and less than 100 feet above, the creek.    Practically no testing has been done.
This ground extends from the mouth of Wedge Creek, behind Bristow's
Johnson (2)     lease, to the canyon on the north branch.    A little hand-work has been done
Leases. on Wedge Creek near the mouth, in material that has been reworked by
that stream.    Recovery has been low.
In 1936 seven men staked claims on Wedge Creek above Johnson's ground
Hough et al.     and prepared winter quarters.    Old-timers worked the bed-rock section of
(9) Claims.     this creek for a distance of some 800 feet from Scotch Creek, at which point
the bed-rock is lost to view.    It is the intention to sink west of this rock-rim
and to investigate, if possible, what appears to be a buried channel.
These men hold ground above the canyon and are working co-operatively on
Greenwood (2)   a rock-rim within a bend on the east side of the creek.    A projecting spur
Leases and       of dark calcareous slates and schists 80 feet or so above the creek has an
Danroth Claim,   embayed rim filled with clean, stratified gravels to a depth of 40 feet, and
may represent merely a swirl in a former channel of the creek.    Water is
flumed from a small creek on the west side of Scotch Creek and brought across that stream
in a 3%-inch pipe under a head of 230 feet.    Water is sufficient to supply only one hose at
a time, so that two hoses are operated alternately in near-by pits on the adjoining properties.
Perhaps  10,000  yards  of gravel  have been moved, but recovery  is  not  definitely known.
Although bed-rock has been imperfectly cleaned, this ground does not appear to be very rich.
Gold is found commonly associated with accumulations of boulders one to several feet in size,
and work, with the water available, is slow.
This company, incorporated in 1935, has acquired all remaining ground, with
Scotch Creek    the exception of two leases, between the fork and Indian reserve land at the
Placer Mines,    upper end of Scotch Creek Delta.    The ground held does not completely
Ltd. cover the broad bench in the upper section of the valley, parts of which are
still open to location.    The head office of this company is Bank of Commerce
Chambers, 389 Main Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba.    V. J. Melsted, of Salmon Arm, is engineer
in charge.
In 1935 investigations and some testing were carried out, chiefly in the upper section of
the creek, and it was decided to hydraulic a bench half a mile below the fork and extending
2,400 feet south to Greenwood and Danroth ground. The rock-rim of this bench is 100 feet
above the creek on the east side. A 1-yard wood-burning drag-line shovel with 60-foot boom
was purchased, to be used partly as testing equipment, and was taken up the bed of the creek
as far as Boulder Creek by the spring of 1936.
On the high-level rim stratified gravels are up to 100 feet deep over a known width of
about 200 feet, although the ground has not been fully explored. Near the northern end a drift
200 feet long at right angles to the rim shows a broad, shallow depression to a maximum depth
of 7 feet at 100 feet from the portal.    Water is brought over from the west side of Scotch SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 53
Creek from the stream above Boulder Creek at 250 feet head in 200 feet of 12-inch, 1,000 feet
of 10-inch, and 600 feet of 8-inch pipe. Two hoses were used for sluicing, with insufficient
water for best removal of material, on a bank more than 50 feet high, and a few hundred square
feet of bed-rock had been exposed by the end of September. It is impossible to estimate the
value of gold here present; probably a number of large yardage tests will have to be made
before this can be done. It is almost certain that values will be largely restricted to the
vicinity of bed-rock. What work has been done indicates that some good values have been
found on bed-rock on the extreme outer edge of the rim, and that values tend to decrease
inward.
There has been no systematic test-work on the remainder of the holdings. A few pits
have been sunk in the valley-bottom a quarter to half a mile below the fork, but none of these
has been put down to bed-rock, and the information furnished by them is inconclusive. In the
lower section of the creek, not far above the delta, a little testing was done by the drag-line in
its passage up-stream, the results of which are not known. The bed of the creek was scraped
for 300 feet at the mouth of Boulder Creek, at a site near where there is evidence of work by
old-timers, but results proved disappointing. Late in September it was the intention to move
the drag-line up-stream to test the low-lying flats just north of the hydraulic pit.
SPECIAL REPORTS.
A limited number of mimeographed copies are available to those who specially request
reports on the following properties:—■
Marathon. Highland Valley. Speculator.
Shamrock. Jamieson-Lanes Creek Area. Bounty.
Lost Horse. Kennellan. Advance.
Arcan. Victory. Silver King-Silver Queen.
The properties described in these reports are not considered to have reached a stage of
development to be of sufficient interest as yet to warrant the inclusion of lengthy descriptions
in the Annual Report.
PROGRESS NOTES.
BY
H. E. Miard and John G. Biggs.
LODE-GOLD DEPOSITS.
North Thompson River Area.
Windpass Gold Mines, Ltd.*—A. J. Smith, general manager; William Elliot, mine
manager. This operation is situated about 5 miles from Boulder, on the Canadian National
Railway, and consists of two separate mines known as the Windpass and Sweet Home, at
elevations of 5,300 feet and 4,900 feet respectively and 2,500 feet apart.
The development of the Windpass is by means of an adit-level from which, at 400 feet
from the portal, a shaft inclined at 35 degrees has been put down 1,000 feet with levels off at
100-foot intervals; from the same point in the main adit a raise was put through to the surface
and greatly augmented the ventilation of the mine.
The ore from the Windpass is carried over a 2V2-mile aerial tram to the mill, which is at
an elevation of 1,700 feet; the tram is of the endless design, with track-cable 1-inch in diameter
and %-inch-diameter traction-cable, with eighteen V2 -ton-capacity buckets in use.
The ore from the Sweet Home mine is trucked to the tram. The mill is of 50 tons capacity
but is now being increased to 75 tons. The power plant consists of a 400-horse-power Diesel-
driven electric installation, situated at the mill, from which power is carried, at 2,300 volts,
to the mines.    There were sixty-five men employed during the year.
* By John G. Biggs. D 54 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 193«.
Hedley Camp.
Kelowna Exploration Co., Ltd.*—W. C. Douglass, general manager; Floyd Turner, mine
manager. This company operates the Nickel Plate mine, situated on Nickel Plate Mountain at
an- elevation of 5,400 feet and 3,800 feet above the town of Hedley, where the mill is located.
Transportation of ore is by means of 2 miles of electric-trolley motor from the mine to
the top of a 10,000-foot surface double-skip 20-degree incline, which delivers the ore to the
mill bunkers.
The main slope of the mine is on a 20-degree pitch and is double-tracked, haulage-power
being provided by a double-drum electric hoist.
During the year connection was made from one of the lower levels with the adjacent
Hedley Mascot mine and this greatly augmented the ventilation of both mines.
Development during the year consisted of 2,081 feet of drifting, 900 feet of crosscutting,
717 feet of raising, and 12,160 feet of diamond-drilling. Tonnage mined amounted to 64,594
tons, 64,854 tons were milled, and this yielded 22,613 oz. gold and 2,850 oz. silver.
Hedley Mascot Gold Mines, Ltd.*—W. R. Lindsay, manager. This mine, situated at an
elevation of 4,795 feet on the east side of 20-Mile Creek and 1 mile from Hedley, went into
production on the completion of the mill early in the year.
The mill is situated 2,795 feet below the mine, to which it is connected by a Quad-type aerial
tram, supported by steel towers, and 5,600 feet in length; the track-cables are 1% inches in
diameter and the haulage-cables are % inch in diameter, with skips of 3-ton capacity.
The mine is developed by an 8- by 8-foot adit driven 2,500 feet to the present ore-body
in the vicinity of the Nickel Plate mine of the Kelowna Exploration Company, the workings
of which have been contacted by the Hedley Mascot mine.
Haulage underground is by storage-battery locomotives. Power for underground operations is provided by Bellis and Morcam 2-stage electric-driven compressors having a capacity
of 750 cubic feet of free air per minute, with a smaller compressor to augment this when
necessary.
Developments during the year consisted of 177 feet of drifting, 59 feet of crosscutting,
1,225 feet of-raising, and 1,792 feet of diamond-drilling. Tonnage mined amounted to 30,265
tons; 29,962 tons were milled, and this yielded 13,524 oz. gold and 4,341 oz. silver.
There were sixty-two men employed throughout the year.
Olalla Area.
Gold Valley Mining Co., Ltd.*—John Pearson, manager. This mine is situated at Olalla
and consists of two adit-tunnels driven some 400 feet at 200 feet difference in elevation; an
aerial tram 2,100 feet long connects the mine with ore-bunkers near the Keremeos-Penticton
Highway; a small amount of ore was shipped to the Trail smelter. Power is supplied by
a portable Sullivan compressor.
Five men were employed and general conditions were found to be satisfactory.
Twin Lakes Area.'
Gold Standard (Fairview) Mining Co.*—Joseph Wukelich, manager. This company
operated on the Twin Lake property, situated 24 miles south-west of Penticton and at an
elevation of 4,700 feet. The ore is transported by truck from the mine bunkers to the 40-ton
mill on the property.    Ten men were employed.
Fairview Camp.
Fairview Amalgamated Gold Mines, Ltd.*—J. A. McKenzie, manager. During the year
the Morning Star and Fairview mines were amalgamated to facilitate the operation of both
properties.
The Morning Star mine is situated 4 miles west of Oliver at an elevation of 2,000 feet,
while the Fairview mine is 6,000 feet west of the Morning Star and at an elevation of 3,080
feet; the ore from the Fairview mine is trucked over 2 miles of road to the 75-ton-capacity
mill at the Morning Star mine.
* By John G. Biggs. SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 55
Development in the Fairview is by means of a 2,50'0-f oot adit, from which raises are being
driven on ore-chutes to ijhe surface; this, when completed, will greatly augment the ventilation,
which is now maintained by means of an electrically-driven fan, ventilation-pipes, and air-jets
which deliver 700 cubic feet of air per minute to the face; power for underground operations
is supplied by a 750-foot Gardner Denver compressor driven by a 150-horse-power motor.
The Morning Star is an adit and shaft operation; all the work during the year was done
above the 100-foot level, the lower workings being used as a water-storage for the mill
operation.
Development during the year consisted of 150 feet of drifting; 12,960 tons of ore were
mined, and this yielded 1,511 oz. gold and 21,334 oz. silver.
Osoyoos Lake Area.
Osoyoos Mines, Ltd.*—J. 0. Howells, manager. The mine is situated near the International Boundary in the Osoyoos District, and consists of the reopening of former workings
and new developments on the Dividend, Manx, and Lake View claims, which provide the ore
for the 50-ton mill on the property.
Power has been provided by Diesel motor, but it is expected, at an early date, to change
over to electrical power from the new transmission-lines of the West Kootenay Power Company.
Carmi Area.
Carmi.—R. Legiest and two associates shipped 55 tons of ore from this property to the
Trail smelter, the metal contents being 28 oz. gold and 241 oz. silver.
Rock Creek Area.
Imperial.—A shipment of 33 tons of ore made from this property by D. M. McKay, of
Grand Forks, yielded 2 oz. gold, 192 oz. silver, 885 lb. lead, and 1,415 lb. zinc.
Kettle River Area.
In addition, lessees worked for short periods on the Mogul and the Little Joe, small shipments of ore to the Trail smelter being made in each case.
Greenwood-Phoenix Area.
Brooklyn.—Owned by the Brooklyn-Stemwinder Gold Mines, Limited. Head Office, 678
Howe Street, Vancouver. A group of four lessees worked on the property throughout the
summer. A considerable amount of preliminary repair-work was necessary before mining
operations of any kind could be attempted.
Granby (Old Ironsides).—Operated on lease by W. E. McArthur, of Greenwood, who began
operations there in the month of September. Eighteen men were employed (three underground) , including the mill crew. The present operations are very near the surface and of
the glory-hole type. The ore is brought by trucks to the Providence mill, about 5 miles from
the mine. The tonnage mined was 4,438; the total metal contents being 511 oz. gold, 1,255 oz.
silver, and 153,250 lb. copper.
Bay.—Lessees working on this property shipped 35 tons of ore, yielding 136 oz. gold and
24 oz. silver.    Three men were employed.
Athelstan.—This property had been abandoned for twenty-three years when W. E.
McArthur began operations there in the late summer. Three men were employed in exploratory and development work. The ore is transported by trucks to the Providence mill. The
tonnage mined was 603, yielding 373 oz. gold and 292 oz. silver.
Rainbow Group.—Operations of an exploratory nature were conducted on this property
for several months, with a crew of ten under the direction of Chas. C. Walker, by the Greenbridge Gold Mines, Limited.
Number Seven.—Situated near Boundary Falls and owned by the Consolidated Mining and
Smelting Company of Canada, Limited.    During the first half of the year the lessee, W. E.
* By John G. Biggs. D 56 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
McArthur, employed seven men on the property and shipped a total of 1,039 tons, with metal
contents of 192 oz. gold, 5,707 oz. silver, and 18,225 lb. lead.
Dynamo.—Robert Forshaw, of Greenwood, shipped 8 tons of ore from this property, with
a total metal contents of 10- oz. gold and 11 oz. silver.
Jewel Lake Area.
Dentonia.—Owned and operated by the Dentonia Mines, Limited. Head office, 706 Credit
Foncier Building, Vancouver. Manager, Major A. W. Davis. The development-work undertaken during the year not having disclosed the presence of any further body of workable ore,
all underground operations were suspended in November, but the newly-erected cyanide plant
continued to treat the tailings from the flotation-mill.- The number of men employed passed
gradually from seventy (forty-two underground) at the beginning of the year to twenty-three
(thirteen underground) at the time of the last inspection. The tonnage mined was 11,612,
from which 568 tons of concentrates were obtained, these yielding 4,178 oz. gold, 27,638 oz.
silver, and 67,647 lb. lead.
Amandy.—The shipments from this property, on which four lessees were working for some
time, amounted to 96 tons of dry ore and 9 tons of concentrates, yielding a total of 30 oz. gold
and 448 oz. silver.
Grand Forks Area.
Yankee Boy.—Situated on Hardy Mountain, about 4% miles from Grand Forks. Owned
by the Riegel Mines, Limited. Manager, D. M. McKay. The property was operated by
lessees until the beginning of October, when operations were suspended for an indefinite period.
The development-work done during the year consisted of 390 feet of drifting, 80 feet of raising,
and 50 feet of sinking. The tonnage milled was 389; this yielding 460 oz. gold and 382 oz.
silver.    The largest number of men employed in the period of operation was nine.
Franklin Camp.
Union.—Owned and operated by the Union Mining and Milling Company of Wallace,
Idaho. Operations during the summer months were practically limited to the treatment of
20,174 tons of tailings, from which 103 tons of concentrates yielding 601 oz. gold, 17,904 oz.
silver, 686 lb. lead, and 10,261 lb. zinc were obtained.
SILVER-LEAD DEPOSITS.    -
Beaverdell Camp.
Highland Bell.—The Bell and Highland Lass mines passed under a single ownership at
the beginning of the year through the amalgamation of the two operating companies, the new
organization taking the name of Highland Bell, Limited. The headquarters of the new company are at Penticton. N. M. Mattson, who had directed the operations at both mines, remains
as manager. The small veins, of high-grade silver-lead ore, are intersected and displaced by
numerous faults in the vicinity of which the ground is often " blocky" and somewhat
treacherous. Natural ventilation is favoured by the general disposition of the workings, but,
on the other hand, it is somewhat hampered by the small dimensions of some of the openings.
The method of mining followed is overhand stoping with waste-filling, there being an abundance
of stowing material at all times. The number of men employed varied between thirty-two and
thirty-eight (from twenty-four to thirty underground). The development-work done during
the year consisted of 300 feet of drifting, 140 feet of raising, and 120 feet of sinking. The
total production of both mines, before and after the amalgamation, amounted to 3,274 tons,
which yielded 120 oz. gold, 501,415 oz. silver, 346,548 lb. lead, and 489,935 lb. zinc.
Sally.—Operated by the Sally Mines, Limited. H. B. Morley, secretary, Penticton.
Exploratory work in the older workings during the early part of the year failed to reveal the
presence of any ore-shoots of workable dimensions and grade. The number of men employed
was eighteen (ten or eleven underground), with John A. Hanna as manager, until the month
of July, after which operations were conducted on a very reduced scale, with a crew of only
four, under the direction of N. M. Mattson. It is intended to attempt further prospecting of
the section of the property adjoining the Wellington claim, from the 500-foot shaft, which has SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL DISTRICTS  (Nos. 3 AND 4). D 57
been idle for a number of months. Seventy-four tons of ore shipped to the Trail smelter yielded
3 oz. gold, 5,532 oz. silver, 4,101 lb. lead, and 5,660 lb. zinc.
Beaver dell-Wellington.—Operated by the Beaverdell-Wellington Syndicate. Manager,
Allan J. Morrison. The programme of development now laid out includes the sinking of the
winze to the depth of another level and the driving of a hoisting-raise to the surface, which
would permit the use of a Diesel-driven hoist and greatly facilitate the handling of the surplus
waste. The method of working is overhand stoping with waste-filling. Natural ventilation,
properly controlled, gives satisfactory results, for the mine-workings are not only extending
over a considerable vertical height, but they are also connected to the foot of the Sally shaft,
thus enjoying the benefit of a motive column 500 feet high. The number of men employed
varied between fourteen and twenty-one (eight and seventeen underground, respectively).
The development-work done consisted of 1,012 feet of drifting, 91 feet of sinking, and 342 feet
of raising. The tonnage mined and shipped amounted to 701, this yielding 37 oz. gold, 151,230
oz. silver, 110,987 lb. lead, and 161,798 lb. zinc.
Tiger.—J. L. Nordman and partner shipped 30 tons of ore from the property with a total
metal content of 3,484 oz. silver, 2,718 lb. lead, and 4,760 lb. zinc.
Beaver dell-Rambler.—Some development-work was done on this property by Yakima
interests, under the direction of P. E. Crane, who had charge of the operations during the
greater part of the period of activity. A small number of men, varying between four and six,
was employed more or less irregularly, until the end of the summer. Twenty-three tons of ore
shipped to the Trail smelter yielded 3,206 oz. silver, 2,463 lb. lead, and 4,972 lb. zinc.
Other properties in the Beaverdell area on which some exploratory work was done during
the year were the Wallace, on which three men were employed; the Advance, where two men
worked for several months; the Balaklava and other claims forming the Crater Lake group,
on which the Crater Lake Mining Company, Limited, employed five men for some time; and
the British, owned by the newly-organized British Silver and Gold Mines Syndicate, with
headquarters at Princeton, who employed three or four men during the greater part of the
year; all these operations being on Wallace Mountain. In addition, a second prospect-shaft
was sunk on the Olympic claim, owned by Louis Clery, of Westbridge.
Greenwood-Phoenix Area.
Silver Cord.—O. Johnson and two associates, of Greenwood, shipped 8 tons of ore from
this property to the Trail smelter, the metal contents being 3 oz. gold, 294 oz. silver, 294 lb.
lead, and 122 lb. zinc.
Keno.—L. Manzini and two associates shipped 89 tons from this property, this yielding
8 oz. gold, 889 oz. silver, and 2,410 lb. lead.
Skylark.—Small-scale operations carried on by W. E. McArthur with a crew of three on
this property resulted in the shipping of 99 tons of ore, yielding a total of 31 oz. gold, 5,705 oz.
silver, 4,107 lb. lead, and 4,979 lb. zinc.
Providence.—This property was operated on a small scale by the owner, William Madden,
of Greenwood, who shipped from it 26 tons of ore, yielding 11 oz. gold, 2,442 oz. silver, 905 lb.
lead, and 1,324 lb. zinc. In November, the Riegel Mines, Limited, took an option on the
property and began deepening the shaft, a crew of thirteen being employed, under the direction
of D. M. McKay. The work done at the end of the year amounted to 32 feet of sinking. The
mill on the property has been bought by W. E. McArthur, who is now operating it.
Lightning Peak Area.
Waterloo.—On this property, situated 43 miles by road from Edgewood, the Waterloo Gold
Mines, Limited (with headquarters at Penticton), employed a crew of ten, including an assayer
and two diamond-drillers, from July 30th to August 15th, and from the end of September until
November 20th, with R. W. Mowat in charge of the work. A raise started from No. 4 level
and intended to reach No. 2 had been driven for some distance when operations were discontinued for the winter.
Lightning Peak.—W. A. Calder, of Edgewood, shipped 2 tons of ore from this property.
The metal contents were 214 oz. silver, 363 lb. lead, and 228 lb. zinc. D 58 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
COPPER DEPOSITS.
Princeton Area.
Red Buck Mine.*—Operated by the Red Buck Mining Company, Limited. Fred F. Foster,
manager. This mine is situated on the Hope-Princeton Highway, 13 miles west of Princeton
and consists of a 600-foot drift from which some raising has been done; this is a hand-mining
operation employing ten men.
PLACER-GOLD DEPOSITS.
Greenwood Area.
Boundary Placers.—-The Boundary Placers, Limited, employed a crew comprising for
a certain time as many as eighty-five men in the construction of a' pipe-line 10,000 feet in
length, near Boundary Falls, to supply water for the hydraulicking operations which it is
intended to begin in the course of the present year.    J. W. Phillips was in charge of the work.
NON-METALLIC DEPOSITS.
The Gypsum Lime and Alabastine Co. of Canada*—Alex. Jessiman, manager. Falkland
quarries, known as Nos. 1, 2, and 3, are situated 1 mile from the Canadian National Railway
at Falkland, and the material from the quarries is transported to bunkers at the railway by
an aerial tram. The gypsum is carried by railway to the company's factories, where it is
manufactured in various forms of building material; a large part being used for fire-proof
finishing and building.
The quarries are worked with a high face and the numerous " slips " in the deposit make
it necessary to carry the face at considerable angles to provide for safety of the men. Twenty
men were employed.
Christina Lake Area.
Fife Lime Quarry.-—Owned and operated by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited. Eight men, working on contract, were employed from June to
October and shipped 15,114 tons of limestone from the property to the Trail smelter. No
development-work was done. This is a seasonal operation, the men working at the quarry
being employed at Trail during the winter.
* By John G. Biggs. INDEX.
D 59
INDEX.
A.C. Fractional (Osoyoos)	
Adams  Plateau  area,  report by  J.
Stevenson
Page.
_D 13
S.
... D 39
Advance (Greenwood)  D 57
(Kamloops)   D 53
Agate Bay D 39
Aitkens lease (Vernon), gold, placer D 47
Ainandy (Greenwood)  D 56
Apex Mountain  D 13
Arcan (Kamloops)  D 53
Armes, James (Vernon) D 46
Asselstine, W. J r_„ D 9
Athelstan (Greenwood)  D 55
Balaklava (Greenwood)
Bancroft, P. L...
 D 57
 D 14
Barnes, H. D D 11
Barriere  D 36
Bay (Greenwood)  D 55
Beaverdell Camp  D 31, 56
Beaverdell-Wellington Syndicate D 57
Bell (Beaverdell)   D 56
Bessette Creek D 44
Biggs, John G., report by D 54
Big Sandy (Nicola) D 14
Birk Creek (Kamloops) D 36
Birks, G. Arnold  D 5
Bischoff, Mr. (Kamloops) . D 40
Bischoff lease (Kamloops), gold, placer _.D 52
Bolin, Oscar D 36
Boulder Creek, tributary to Scotch Creak D 52
Boundary Placers, Ltd D 58
Boundary Falls  D 55
Bounty (Kamloops)  D 53
Brewer, Mr.  (Vernon) D 45
Brewer, Alfred (Vernon) D 48
Bristow lease (Kamloops), gold, placer _D 52
British (Greenwood)  D 57
British Metals Corporation D 21
British Silver and Gold Mines Syndicate. D 57
Broadview (Greenwood)  D 26
Brooklyn (Greenwood)  D 55
Brooklyn-Stemwinder Gold Mines, Ltd.—.D 55
Brusset, J. A. (Vernon) D 48
Buck Hills (Vernon), gold, placer D 43
Bull Dog (Osoyoos)  D4
Burnt Basin (Grand Forks) D 37
Cairn Gorni (Greenwood).
D23
Calder, W. A D 57
Cameron, H. D. (Kamloops) D 33
Carmi area D 55
Carmi (Greenwood)  D 55
Christina Lake, lime at D 58
Clark Creek (Vernon) D 46
Clery, Louis (Greenwood) D 57
Clothier, R. L D 24
Coats, J. F D 23
Coldwater (Greenwood)  D 31
Coldwater Valley (Yale) D 31
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co. of
Canada, at Number Seven (Greenwood)  D 55
Gold Mountain (Similkameen)  D 6
Coquihalla River D 31
B.
Cosgrove, T.
Crane, P. J._
Crater Lake
Crater Lake Mining Co., Ltd D 57
Creede, Birk Creek (Kamloops) D 36
(Greenwood) .
Page.
D 14
..D57
D57
Danroth (Kamloops)  D 52
Davis, A. W. (Greenwood) *_D 56
Deep Creek.    See Peachland Creek.
Delia (Kamloops)  D 40
Dentonia (Greenwood)  D 56
Dentonia Mines, Ltd D 25, 58
Dividend (Osoyoos)   D 55
Dollemore, Frank   D 8
Donahue Mines Corporation D 15
Donnamore (Kamloops)  D 40, 43
Douglass, W. C D 54
Dry Creek (Greenwood) D 31
Duteau   Creek   (not   Jones)    (Vernon),
gold, placer D 44
Dynamo (Greenwood)  D 56
Eley (Vernon), placer lease..
Elinor (Greenwood) 	
Elsie (Kamloops) 	
 D 47
 D 26
 D 40
Empire (Nicola)  D 14
Enterprise (formerly Star)   (Nicola) D 15
Ethd (Greenwood)  D 26
Fairview (Osoyoos)  D 54
Fairview Amalgamated Gold Mines, Ltd. D 54
Fairview Camp  D 54
Falkland, gypsum at D 58
Falls Creek (Kamloops) : D 32
Faulkner, Wm D 31
Fife (Grand Forks), lime D 58
Forsberg, Nick D 36
Forshaw, Robert D 56
Foster, Fred F D 58
Franklin Camp  D 56
Gallagher, John W  D 9
Gold, lode deposits  D 3
Gold, placer, Clark Creek D 46
Duteau Creek D 44
Greenwood   D 58
Harris Creek  D 43
Putnam Creek  D 48
Scotch Creek D 49
Trinity Valley  D 48
Winfield D 46
Wood Lake D 46
Gold  Creek   (Kamloops).    See  Nikwik-
waia Creek.
Gold  Creek   (Vernon).    See  McAuley
Creek.
Gold Hill (Similkameen)  D9
Gold Mountain Mines, Ltd D 4, 5
Gold Standard   (Fairview)   Mining Co.,
Ltd.   D 54
Gold Valley Mines, Ltd D 13, 54
Golden (Greenwood)  D 31
Golden   Eagle,   Adams   Plateau   (Kamloops)  D 40
Golden Fraction (Greenwood) D 31 D 60
INDEX.
Granby property at Phoenix..
Grand Forks	
Great Eastern (Osoyoos).
Page.
.D 55
...D 56
__.D 14
Greenbridge Gold Mines, Ltd D 23
Greenwood lease  (Kamloops) D 52
Greenwood Mining Division, reference to
properties  D 55
Gypsum, Falkland D 58
Gypsum Lime and Alabastine Co. of Canada, Ltd D 58
Hall (Vernon), placer lease D 47
Hanna, John A. (Greenwood) D 48, 56
Hardy Mountain (Grand Forks) D 56
Harris Creek (Vernon), gold, placer	
 D 43, 44, 45
Hedley D 54
Hedley, M. S., report as Resident Mining
Engineer  D 3
Hedley Camp  D 3
Geology   D 4
Hedley Chief Mines, Ltd  D 5
Hedley Gold Hill Mining Co., Ltd  D 9
Hedley Mascot Gold Mines, Ltd D 4, 54
Height, Henry D 39
Henri Creek .  D 5
Highland Bell, Ltd D 56
Highland Lass (Greenwood) D 56
Highland Valley (Kamloops) D 53
Hill, Leslie  D 23
Homestake, Squaam Bay (Kamloops) D 32
Howells, J. 0 D 55
 D26
Ida (Greenwood) 	
Imperial (Greenwood)  D 55
Independence (Osoyoos)  D 13
Iron Horse (Vernon) D 26
Jameson Creek (Similkameen) D 11
Jamieson Creek (Kamloops) D 53
Jenny Long (Nicola) D 21
Jenny Long Mines, Ltd D 21
Jewel Lake D 23, 56
Johnson, Mr. (Vernon) D 46
Johnson, 0. (Greenwood) D 57
Johnson, Paul (Vernon) D 48
Johnson leases (Kamloops), gold, placer.D 52
Johnston, Carl E D 36
Jones Creek (Vernon) D 44
See also Duteau, gold, placer.
Josh Creek  D 27
Joshua (Nicola)   D 15
Kamloops Homestake Mines, Ltd D 32
Kelowna Exploration Co., Ltd. D 3, 54
Kennellan (Kamloops)  D 53
Keno (Greenwood)  D 57
Keremeos Creek D 13
Kettle River area D 55
King Tut (Kamloops) D 40, 43
King William (Nicola) D 15
Kootenay Nevada Mines, Ltd D 23
Lakeview (Osoyoos)  D 55
Legeist, R. D 55
Lightning Peak (Grand Forks) D 57
Lightning Peak D 57
Lime, Fife Quarry D 58
Lincoln (Kamloops)  D 43
Little Joe (Greenwood) D 55
Lost Horse  (Kamloops) D 53
Lucky Coon (Kamloops) D 40, 41
Page.
Lumby D 44
Lund, Mr. (Kamloops) D 40
Lydia, Birk Creek (Kamloops) D 36
Madden, Wml (Greenwood) D 57
Maiden (Nicola)  D 14
Manchuria (Grand Forks) D 29
Manx (Osoyoos)  , D 55
Manzini, L. D 57
Maple Leaf (Similkameen)  D6
Marathon (Kamloops)  D 53
(Osoyoos)   D 5
Mascot (Osoyoos)   D3
Mascot Fraction (Osoyoos)  D4
Mattson, N. M D 56
Melsted, V. J D 52
Miard, H. E., report by D 53
Midway D 25
Mill, Amandy D 56
,   Dentonia  D 56
 D 23
 D 54
Jenny Long (Nicola)	
Morning Star (Osoyoos).
Providence (Greenwood)
 D55, 57
Star Mining Co. (Nicola) D 15
Union (Grand Forks) D 56
Mineral Hill (Nicola) D 14
Mission (Osoyoos)   D5
(Similkameen)  D 11
Mogul (Greenwood)  D 55
Molly Gibson group D 27
Molly Gibson Mines, Ltd D 27
Morley, H. B D 56
Morning Star (Osoyoos) D 54
Morrison, Allan J D 57
Mosquito King (Kamloops) D 40
Mowat, R. W D 57
Murray, D. D 25
Murray, W. D . D 25
McAlpine, T. C D 12, 13
McAlpine & Elliott  D 9
McArthur, W. E D 23, 55, 57
McAuley Creek (not Gold Creek)   (Vernon)  D 44
McDougall, A. C D 13
McGillivray, H. (Kamloops) D 40
McKay, D. M D 55, 56, 57
McKenzie, J. A. (Osoyoos) D 54
McLeod, Mr D 40
McNeil, D. J. (Vernon) D 48
McRae Creek  I D 27
Nelson (Osoyoos) 	
Nickel Plate (Osoyoos)-
D13
D3, 54
Nickel Plate Mountain, geology  D 4
Nicola Mines and Metals, Ltd...- D 14, 17
Nicola Mining and Milling Co D 15
Nikwikwaia Creek (Kamloops) D 40
Nikwikwaia lakes  D 41
Non-metallics, Gypsum Lime and Alabastine Co. of Canada, Ltd    D 58
Falkland  D 58
Nordman, J. L D 57
North Star (Greenwood) D 23
Birk Creek  (Kamloops) D 36
North Thompson area, report by J.  S.
Stevenson  ' D 32
No Surrender (Nicola) D 18
No. 2 Fractional (Osoyoos)  D 14
Number Seven (Greenwood), Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co. of
Canada at D 55 INDEX.
D 61
Page.
Okanagan Lake D 26
Olalla D 54
Old Ironsides (Greenwood)_
Olympic (Greenwood) 	
Osoyoos Lake	
Osoyoos Mines, Ltd	
Oswald, J. C	
Paulson 	
Peachland Creek	
Pearson, John (Osoyoos)
Phillips, J. W...__
D55
_D57
D55
D55
. D5
.D27
..D26
..D54
D58
Phoenix  D 55
Pine Knot  (Similkameen)  D6
Planet (Nicola)  D 15
Planet Mines and Reduction Co. of Nicola,
B.C., Ltd D 15, 17
Pollock  (Similkameen)    D6
Princeton, copper at D 58
Providence (Greenwood), mill at D 55, 57
Putnam Creek (Vernon) D 48
Rainbow (Greenwood)  D 26, 55
See also Greenbridge Gold Mines, Ltd.
Red Buck (Similkameen) D 58
Red Buck Mining Co D 58
Reno, Birk Creek (Kamloops) D 36
Riegel Mines, Ltd D 56, 57
Riverview  (Greenwood)   D 25
Rock Creek (Greenwood) D 55
Sally (Greenwood)  D 56
 D 56
 D 39
 D 26
 D 25
Scheelite, Joshua (Nicola) D 15
Scotch Creek (Kamloops), gold, placer...D 49
Scotch Creek, North Fork..- D 39
Scotch Creek Placer Mines, Ltd D 49, 52
Shamrock (Kamloops)  D 53
Shephard, G. H D 13
Shives, A. K D 13
Shuswap River D 44
Silver Cord (Greenwood) D 57
 D 53
 D 17
 D 32
 D 57
 D 31
 D 46
 D 31
Sally Mines, Ltd..
Samatosum Creek _
Sandberg, Otto	
Sandberg, Pete
Silver King (Kamloops)..
(Nicola)  	
Sinmax Valley	
Skylark  (Greenwood)
Smith, Dan (Yale)	
Smith, Mrs. Duncan —
Smith, P. Y....
Something Good (Osoyoos) D 13
Southern Mineral Survey District, report
by Resident Mining Engineer  D 3
Speculator (Kamloops)  D 53
Speedwell (Kamloops)
Page.
D40, 43
Spillman Creek (Kamloops) D 40
Squilax  D 40
Staples lease (Vernon), gold, placer D 47
Star (later Enterprise)  (Nicola) D 15
Star Mining Co. (Nicola) D 15
Stemwinder Mountain (Osoyoos)  D5
Sterling Creek  D 5
Stevenson, J. S., report on Adams Plateau  D39
Report on North Thompson area D 32
Stump Lake D 14
Sturdy, C. C. (Kamloops) D 49
Summerville lease, gold, placer D 47
Sunrise  (Osoyoos)   D 14
Superior Mines, Ltd D 23
Tacoma  smelter.  Shipments from  Gold
Mountain Mines, Ltd  D 9
Thompson, Frank D 25
Thornton, Mr.   (Kamloops) D 40
Tiger (Greenwood)  D 57
Toronto (Osoyoos)  D 12
Trinity Valley, gold, placer D 48
Tubal Cain (Nicola) D 15
Turner, Floyd  D 54
Twin Lakes (Osoyoos) D 54
Twin Mountain (Kamloops) D 39
Union (Grand Forks).
..D56
Union Mining and Milling Co., Ltd D 56
Victoria (Osoyoos)  D 12
Victory (Kamloops)  D 53
Walker, C. C. (Greenwood) D 55
Walker, James D 11
Wallace  (Greenwood)  D 57
Wallace Mountain  D 31, 57
Wallace Mountain Mining Co D 31
Waterloo Gold Mines, Ltd D 57
Waterloo No. 3, Lightning Peak (Greenwood)  D 57
Wedge Creek (Kamloops) D 52
Western Canadian Collieries, Ltd., placer
at Vernon D 48
Westkettle quartz diorite D 31
West Kootenay Power and Light Co. at
Hedley  D 9, 25
Wilson,Mr., Adams Plateau (Kamloops). D 40
Winfield, gold, placer, at D 46
Winkler, George  D 11
Wood Lake (Vernon), gold, placer D 46
Wukelich, Joseph D 53
Yankee Boy (Grand Forks) D 56 D 62 ILLUSTRATIONS.
ILLUSTRATIONS.
Page.
Gold Mountain Mines, Ltd.—Plan .  D 7
Greenbridge Gold Mines, Ltd D 24
Hedley Gold Hill Mining Co.—Plan D 10
Jenny Long Mines, Ltd.—Plan . D 22
Mission Group, Similkameen '. D 11
Molly Gibson, Grand Forks—Plan D 28
Nicola Mines and Metals, Ltd.—Plan  D 16
Nicola Mines and Metals, Ltd.—Plan, Enterprise Workings (insert)  D 19
Upper Scotch Creek—Sketch-plan showing Location of Properties D 51
victoria, B.C.:
Printed by Charles P. Hanfield. Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1937.
4,725-237-4740  

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