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SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1934-1935 BY THE… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1936

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Full Text

 SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
OF THE PROVINCE OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1934-1935
BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1935.   To His Honour J. W. Fordham Johnson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg respectfully to present the Sixty-fourth Annual Report of the Public Schools of
the Province.
G. M. WEIR,
Minister of Education.
December, 1935. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.
1934-35.
Minister of Education :
Hon. GEORGE M. WEIR, B.A., M.A., D.Paed.
Deputy Minister and Superintendent of Education:
S. J. Willis, B.A., LL.D.
Assistant Superintendent of Education:
D. L. MacLaurin, B.A.
Inspectors of High Schools:
B. DeLong, B.A., Vancouver. A. Sullivan, B.A., Victoria.
Inspectors of Elementary and Superior Schools:
*J. E. Brown, M.A., Smithers.
L. J. Bruce, Vancouver.
F. G. Calvert, Vancouver.
T. G. Carter, Penticton.
E. G. Daniels, B.A., New Westminster.
H. C. Fraser, M.A., Victoria.
*W. G. Gamble, B.A., Prince George.
G. H. Gower, M.A., Courtenay.
*W. Gray, M.A., North Vancouver.
T. R. Hall, B.A., Kelowna.
*T. W. Hall, Prince Rupert.
A. R. Lord, B.A., Vancouver.
V. Z. Manning, B.A., Cranbrook.
A. F. Matthews, M.A., Kamloops.
A. E. Miller, Revelstoke.
H. H. Mackenzie, B.A., Vancouver.
*W. A. Plenderleith, M.A., B.Paed.,
D. Psychology.
J. T. Pollock, Vancouver.
P. H. Sheffield, B.A., Nelson.
* These men also inspect the High Schools in their districts.
Municipal Inspectors of Schools:
George H. Deane, Victoria.
R. S. Shields, B.A., New Westminster.
SPECIAL OFFICIALS.
Officer in Charge of Technical Education:
John Kyle, A.R.C.A.
Director of Home Economics:
Miss J. L. McLenaghen, B.Sc.
Officer in Charge of High Correspondence School:
J. W. Gibson, M.A., B.Paed.
Officer in Charge of Elementary Correspondence School:
Miss Isabel M. L. Bescoby, M.A.
Registrar: J. L. Watson, B.A. Officer in Charge of Text-books: P. G. Barr.
Chief Clerk:  R. D. Smith.
NORMAL SCHOOL STAFFS.
Vancouver:
D. M. Robinson, B.A., Principal.
A. Anstey, B.A.
W. P. Weston.
H. B. MacLean.
J. A. Macintosh, B.Sc.
A. E. C. Martin, B.Sc.
J. M. Ewing, B.A., D.Paed.
Miss L. G. Bollert, B.A.
Miss E. M. Coney.
Miss Isabel Coursier.
Miss Margaret Maynard, B.A.
Victoria :
V. L. Denton, B.A., Principal.
B. S. Freeman, B.A.
H. L. Campbell, B.A.
John Gough, M.A.
Miss H. R. Anderson, M.A., Ph.D.
F. T. C. Wickett, A.R.CO.
Miss L. B. Isbister.
Miss Barbara Hinton.
Model School:
Miss Kate Scanlan.
Miss Marion James.
School for the Deaf and the Blind:
C. E. MacDonald, LL.B., Principal. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PART I.
Report of the Superintendent of Education-
Report on Normal Schools—
Vancouver	
Victoria	
Report of the Director of the Summer School for Teachers..
Report of the Officer in Charge of Technical Education	
Report of the Director of Home Economics	
Report of the Superintendent of Schools, Vancouver	
Reports of Municipal Inspectors—
New Westminster ~	
Victoria	
Report of the Principal, School for the Deaf and the Blind-
Reports of Officers in Charge of Correspondence Schools—■
High School and Vocational Courses	
Elementary School Courses..
Report of the Officer in Charge of the Text-book Branch-
Report on Work of Adult Education-
Report of Director of Recreational and Physical Education	
Report of the Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust	
Report of Commission on " Education of Soldiers' Dependent Children Act "..
Page.
32
32
34
41
48
49
55
56
58
60
63
64
68
75
77
79
PART II.
Statistical Returns—
High Schools (Cities)	
High Schools (District Municipalities)	
High Schools (Rural Districts)	
Superior Schools (Cities)	
Superior Schools (District Municipalities).
Superior Schools (Rural Districts)	
Junior High Schools (Cities).
Junior High Schools (District Municipalities).
Junior High Schools (Rural Districts)	
Elementary Schools (Cities)	
Elementary Schools (District Municipalities).
Elementary Schools  (Rural Districts)	
Summary of Enrolment in the Schools of each City	
Summary of Enrolment in the Schools of each District Municipality	
Enrolment  (Recapitulation)	
Names of Schools, Number of Teachers, etc., in each of the Electoral Districts..
2
14
18
21
21
21
27
31
32
34
66
84
103
106
109
110 PART I.
GENERAL REPORT.  REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF
EDUCATION, 1934-35.
Education Office,
Victoria, B.C., December, 1935.
To the Honourable George M. Weir, B.A., M.A., D.Paed.,
Minister of Education.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the Sixty-fourth Annual Report of the Public Schools of
British Columbia for the school-year ended June 30th, 1935.
ENROLMENT.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province increased during the year from 115,792
to 117,233 and the average daily attendance decreased from 103,389 to 101,893. The percentage of regular attendance was 86.91.
The number of pupils enrolled in the various classes of schools is shown hereunder:—■
Schools.
Cities.
District
Municipalities.
Rural
Districts.
Total.
High schools 	
Superior schools	
Junior high schools -
Elementary schools...
15,270
69
5,755
48,421*
3,468
236
644
19,650t
1,231
3,321
63
19,105
Totals, 1934-35..
Totals,. 1933-34-
69,515
23,998
23,720
69,175
23,132
23,485
19,969
3,626
6,462
87,176
117,233
115,792
* These figures include an enrolment of 79 pupils in the Provincial Government School for the Deaf and the Blind.
t These figures include an enrolment of 81 pupils in the Provincial Model School.
In addition to the numbers given above, there were enrolled in the—
High School Correspondence classes, regular students	
Elementary School Correspondence classes, regular students	
Night-schools	
Adult education—■
Relief camps—
Elementary School Correspondence Courses      211
High School and Technical Correspondence Courses      590
Technical School Courses       458
Schools in relief camps       146
Training-schools outside of relief camps   1,381
Recreational and Physical Education classes  2,689
Students.
1,000
886
6,874
Normal School, Vancouver
Normal School, Victoria 	
Victoria College	
University of British Columbia
5,475
160
86
243
1,752
Total..
16,476 S 10
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
DISTRIBUTION OF PUPILS BY GRADES AND SEX.
Grade.
Boys.
Girls.
Total.
Grade I   	
6,661
5,381
5,968
6,087
6,095
6,412
6,589
5,840
4,345
2,826
1,865
1,505
415
6,022
4,826
5,509
5,578
5,893
5,981
6,208
5,948
4,504
2,914
1,987
1,642
232
12,683
Grade II                  _   -_
10,207
Grade III —            	
11,477
Grade IV           	
11,665
11,988
Grade V                                            	
Grade VI                 	
Grade VII.	
12,797
11,788
8,849
6,740
3,852
3,147
Grade VIII	
Grade IX	
Grade XI  	
Grade XII.                               .   -                                   ..                                        	
647
Totals	
59,989
57,244
117,233
DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS AND PUPILS ACCORDING TO THE DIFFERENT
CLASSES OF SCHOOLS AND DISTRICTS.
The number of teachers employed in the different classes of schools, the number of pupils
and the percentage of the pupils enrolled in each class of school, and also the average number
of pupils per teacher are shown below:—
Schools.
.'h  VI
"H.S
0 u
i5H
is
'is»
ft 0
co."
*S B
o m
. -+j
O to
z£
o
H
W
ft
P
CM-v
•".2
°-3
6 m
Z  V
0 .J
lil
Zfm tl
01 ^ B
Oh oH
m C
Ax;
*> S
$Xi a)
m pT3
¥ S «
> B u
72 ft |
ri c; o
463
113
64
3
6
128
155
16
2
1,255
554
948
62
9
4
39
4
2
98
17
525
122
68
3
6
128
194
20
4
1,353
571
948
15,270
3,468
1,231
69
235
3,321
5,755
644
63
48,421
19,650
19,105
13.03
2.96
1.05
0.06
0.20
2.83
4.91
0.55
0.05
41.30
16.76
16.30
32
30
19
23
39
25
33
40
31
38
35
20
27
High schools (district municipalities)  	
25
16
20
22
32
Junior high schools (district municipalities) -	
34
33
30
Elementary schools (district municipalities) t	
Totals	
3,707
235
3,942
117,233
100.00
31
27
* These figures include 16 teachers employed by the Provincial Government and 79 pupils enrolled in the
Provincial Government School for the Deaf and the Blind.
t These figures include 2 teachers employed by the Provincial Government and 81 pupils enrolled in the
Provincial Model School. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
S 11
TEACHERS' CERTIFICATES.
The following table shows the number of teachers of each sex employed and also the
number of certificates of each class held by these teachers:—
Schools.
^
rt
•tt
d
T3
A
o
o
A
1
cfl
H
E-i
High schools (cities)  —	
High schools (district municipalities).
High schools (rural districts)	
Superior schools (cities)	
442
104
63
Superior schools (district municipalities).
Superior schools (rural districts) —
Junior high schools (cities)	
Junior high schools (district municipalities)..
Junior high schools (rural districts)	
Elementary schools (cities)* 	
Elementary schools (district municipalities) t-
Elementary schools (rural districts)	
Totals, 1934-35	
13
99
7
1
137
18
3
79
51
6
650
264
512
1,569
Totals, 1933-34-
862
1,490
1
461
260
388
1,150
1,218
32
9
51
237
231
333
64
42
1
2
56
95
9
3
311
141
285
192
58
26
2
4
72
99
11
1
1,042
430
663
1,342
2,600
1,283
2,590
525
122
68
3
6
128
194
20
4
1,353
571
3,942
3,873
* These figures include 16 teachers employed in the Provincial Government School for the Deaf and the Blind.
t These figures include 2 teachers employed in the Provincial Model School.
NEW SCHOOLS.
High schools were established in Canyon City and Lumby Rural School Districts, and
superior schools were established at Coalmont, Fort Fraser, and Westbank.
Elementary schools were opened for the first time in sixteen pioneer districts. The names
of the districts follow:—
Name of School District.
100 Mile House	
Riske Creek	
Wells  	
Garrett 	
Tete Jaune	
Blackpool, West
Electoral District.
Cariboo.
Cariboo.
Cariboo.
.Comox.
Fort George.
..Kamloops.
Deadman's Creek  Kamloops.
Brexton  Lillooet.
Minto City . Lillooet.
Sitkum Creek  Nelson-Creston.
Sproule Creek  Nelson-Creston.
Moberly Lake  Peace River.
Pine, East  Peace River.
Seven Mile Corner Peace River.
Sproat  Revelstoke.
Stirling Creek Similkameen.
The establishment of an elementary school was also authorized in the Wingdam District in
the Cariboo Electoral District. S 12
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
COMPARISON OF ENROLMENT AND EXPENDITURE FOR PUBLIC EDUCATION.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province for various years since 1877-78 and also the
cost of maintaining them are shown in the following exhibit:—
School-year.
VI 'P
m v
ii >.
6 a c
o
o
X
rr>  VI
»H.§
o m
. -w
o.2
Za
si
tag
0) X
ft o-
tt u
to c
6
c
to    t3
rt t*. B
<"   s
ft o<
Government
Expenditure
for
Education.
Total
Expenditure
for Public
Schools.
1877-78
56
69
128
267
429
607
816
1,597
1,859
2,246
3,118
3,668
3,7'84
3,854
3,948
3,959
3,912
3,873
3,942
45
59
104
169
213
268
189
359
374
575
744
788
792
803
811
830
821
827
762
2,198
2,693
6,372
11,496
17,648
24,499
33,314
57,608
62,263
67,516
94,888
108,179
109,588
111,017
113,914
115,919
116,816
115,792
117,233
1,395
1,383
3,093
7,111
11,055
16,357
23,195
43,274
49,377
54,746
77,752
91,760
94,410
96,196
99,375
103,510
104,978
103,389
101,893
63.49
51.36
48.54
61.85
62.64
66.76
69.62
75.12
79.30
81.09
81.94
84.82
86.17
86.65
87.23
89.29
89.86
89.30
86.91
$48,411.14*
60,758.75*
113,679.36*
174,775.43
290,255.26
473,802.29
544,671.60
1,663,003.34
1,885,654.11
1,653,796.60
3,176,686.28}:
3,532,518.951:
3,765,920.69$
3,743,317.08+
3,834,727.19}:
4,015,074.371:
2,849,972.02*
2,611,937.801
2,835,040.74t
1882-83          .     .          	
1887-88            —                             	
1892-93   	
1897-98 -  	
1902-03 - 	
$215,056.22t
425,555.10
604,357.86
1907-08
1,220,509.85
1912-13... -   	
1913-14    	
1917-18	
4,658,894.97
4,634,877.56
3,519,014.61
1922-23  --	
1927-28           	
7,630,009.54}:
9,261,094.98}:
1928-29 	
1929-30 - --	
1930-31-. - --	
1931-32.  _   - -
1932-33 	
ll,149,996.27t
10,008,255.661
10,061,387.99}:
9,719,333.81$
8,941,497.341
1933-34           	
8,213,369.04}:
1934-35             —
8,458,156.00t
* The total expenditure for public schools was borne by the Government.
t This amount does not include the expenditure   (not available)   made for incidental expenses in  city school
districts.
t This amount includes the annual grant from the Government to the Provincial University.
COMPARISON OF ENROLMENT AND COST PER PUPIL TO PROVINCIAL
GOVERNMENT.
The following table shows the enrolment during the last twelve years and also the cost
to the Provincial Government of each pupil:—
School-year.
Enrolment
at High
Schools.
Enrolment
at other
Public
Schools.
Total
Enrolment.
Percentage
at High
Schools of
the Total
Enrolment.
Cost per
Pupil on
Enrolment.
Cost per
Pupil on
Average
Daily
Attendance.
1923-24 	
1924-25 _ -	
1925-26  -
1926-27-  -	
1927-28   	
1928-29 	
1929-30 - -	
1930-31	
1931-32 - -	
1932-33 	
1933-34	
1934-35-	
9,889
10,597
11,779
12,906
13,516
14,545
14,675
16,197
18,134
18,552
18,932
19,969
86,315
87,357
89,909
92,102
94,663
95,013
96,342
97,717
97,785
98,264
96,860
97,264
96,204
97,954
101,688
105,008
108,179
109,558
111,017
113,914
115,919
116,816
115,792
117,233
10.27
10.81
11.58
12.29
12.49
13.27
13.22
14.21
15.64
15.80
16.35
17.03
$27.36
27.17
26.09
26.40
26.92
28.32
28.07
28.03
29.62
21.55
19.51
20.40
$33.21
32.17
31.06
31.41
31.74
33.03
32.79
32.74
33.18
23.98
21.85
23.47 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 13
COST PER PUPIL, ON VARIOUS BASES, FOR THE SCHOOL-YEAR 1934-35.
Grand total cost of education    $8,458,156.00
Less—
Grant re salaries of faculty of Victoria College  $4,130.00
General grant to Victoria College  5,000.00
Grant to University of British Columbia  287,500.00
Normal School, Vancouver  21,828.20
Normal School, Victoria   30,593.39
Cost of night-schools   18,093.43
Correspondence Schools—
High Schools   24,992.69
Elementary Schools   10,132.00
Cost of educational research   5,942.57
Adult education   35,007.06
         443,219.34
Net cost for total enrolment of 117,233 pupils    $8,014,936.66
Cost per pupil for year on total enrolment .  68.37
Cost per pupil per school-day (192 days) on total enrolment  .36
Cost per pupil per year on average daily attendance of 101,893 pupils  78.66
Cost per pupil per school-day (192 days) on average daily attendance  .41
Net cost to Provincial Government for total enrolment of 117,233 pupils for year
($2,835,040.74—$443,219.34)         2,391,821.40
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil for year on total enrolment  20.40
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil per school-day  (192 days)   on total
enrolment   .11
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil for year on average daily attendance
of 101,893 pupils  23.47
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil per school-day (192 days) on average
daily attendance   .12
Cost per capita for year on population (1931) of 694,263   *11.54
Cost per capita per school-day (192 days) on population (1931) of 694,263  *.06
Cost to Provincial Government per capita for year on population   (1931)   of
694,263   3.45
Cost to Provincial Government per capita per school-day  (192 days)  on population (1931) of 694,263   .02
* Computed on net total cost of $8,014,936.66. S 14
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
CHILDREN OF FOREIGN PARENTAGE.
The number of children of foreign parentage attending the public schools of the Province
during the year was as follows:—
EG
CJ
DO
0)
n
o3
3
3.2
w
m
52
sd
$
QJ
a)
h
O
Ha
W
m a
W
Ph
o
Ph
High schools   	
Superior schools ——	
City elementary schools - - 	
Elementary schools in district municipalities-
Pural elementary schools 	
Totals 	
High schools -	
Superior schools	
City elementary schools  	
Elementary schools in district municipalities-
Rural elementary schools	
Totals- -	
247
30
1,056
75
59
1,467
697
208
2,259
1,654
587
5,405
69
32
33
_L
213
62
813
354
518
1,960
10
3
32
13
46
47
15
179
47
70
358
112
549
378
233
1,344
27
6
140
27
75
275
_L
251
64
94
577
29
21
72
21
39
182
51
82
212
11
58
16
129
7
77
301
894
140
79
241
146
6
108
96
300
861
373
736
1,681
1,025
40
14
159
90
483
786
I
I
I
I
cu v
-u O
Oh
265
124
1,781
347
370
2,887
I
2,169
817
8,772
3,574
3,975
19,307
NUMBER OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS.
The following table shows the number and classes of school districts in which schools
were in operation during all or some portion of the year:—
City school districts      32
District municipality school districts      24
Rural school districts   706*
Total  762
* At the time this Annual Report was prepared 204 of these rural school districts were under the administration
of Official Trustees. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
S 15
HIGH SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city high schools during the year was 15,270. Of this number,
7,678 were boys and 7,592 were girls.
The number of schools, the number of divisions, the number of teachers, and the enrolment
for 1934-35 and for 1933-34 in each city are shown in the following table:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1934-35.
Enrolment,
1933-34.
Alberni District - - -	
1
5
5
137
116
1
3
3
100
111
1
11
14
355
356
Courtenay-	
1
3
3
75
69
Cranbrook - —	
, 1
7
7
195
202
1
3
3
69
57
1
4
4
121
102
1
2
2
41
27
1
7
8
181
172
1
3
3
68
88
Kamloops -	
1
10
13
327
315
Kaslo    - -   	
1
1
1
20
20
1
5
5
133
127
Ladysmith  	
1
4
4
101
96
Merritt    	
1
2
2
64
51
Nanaimo —	
1
8
11
235
235
Nelson —	
1
8
9
232
220
2
29
35
1,042
971
1
2
2
48
79
1
1
1
36
Prince George -	
1
3
3
98
90
1
7
8
254
218
Revelstoke	
1
5
6
148
164
1
4
4
104
115
1
4
4
127
137
1
1
1
9
7
Trail-Tadanac -	
1
8
8
254
251
12
229
285
8,663
8,338
1
14
15
510
434
1
6
6
210
242
1
39
50
1,313
1,310
Totals	
43
438
525
15,270
14,720
HIGH SCHOOLS—DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the district municipality high schools during the year was 3,468. Of this
number, 1,575 were boys and 1,893 were girls.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the year
1934-35 and the year 1933-34 are shown in the following table:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1934-35.
Enrolment,
1933-34.
Burnaby-
Delta	
Esquimalt-
Kent	
Langley	
Maple Ridge-
Matsqui	
Mission-	
Oak Bay	
Peachland -
Penticton _
Richmond	
Saanich—-	
Sumas-Abbotsford-
Summerland-	
Surrey 	
Vancouver, West-
Totals	
22
4
4
2
5
7
5
1
5
6
15
4
3
7
5
23
4
4
2
7
7
5
5
13
1
6
8
16
4
4
122
844
118
91
38
185
196
116
133
325
12
148
224
453
106
81
247
151
"3,468
741
112
95
34
144
168
93
106
293
14
171
174
395
91
80
206
154 S 16
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the rural high schools for the year was 1,231. Of this number, 578
were boys and 653 were girls.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, together with the enrolment for
the years 1934-35 and 1933-34, are given in the table below:—
Britannia Mine-
Canyon City-	
Cobble Hill-	
Comox- 	
Creston -	
Dewdney	
Ganges Harbour-
Golden- 	
Granby Bay	
Harewood —.
Howe Sound	
loco -—	
Keremeos	
Kimberley	
Kitsumgallum-
Lumby	
Nakusp	
New Denver-
North Bend-
Ocean Falls.—
Oliver	
Oyama-—	
Parksville	
Powell River-
Princeton	
Qualicum Beach-
Saanich, North—
Smithers	
Sauamish 	
Telkwa-  	
Tsolum	
University Hill-.
Vanderhoof -
Totals-
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1934-35.
1
1
2
2
3
2
1
1
2
4
1
1
1
6
2
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
2
5
4
2
2
3
2
1
2
4
1
34
20
33
37
73
30
20
20
28
43
26
26
20
133
18
20
28
14
23
28
27
11
30
113
86
26
43
54
38
12
39
51
24
Enrolment,
1933-34.
32
40
71
27
15
20
27
61
26
29
18
124
43
30
13
17
31
25
15
28
101
58
18
36
57
27
18
39
51
17
1,141
SUPERIOR SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city superior schools during the year was 69. Of this number,
41 were boys and 28 were girls.
The number of schools, the number of divisions, the number of teachers, and the enrolment
for the school-years 1934-35 and 1933-34 are shown in the following table:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1934-35.
Enrolment,
1933-34.
1
3
3
69
56 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
S 17
SUPERIOR SCHOOLS—DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the district municipality superior schools during the year was 236.
Of this number, 124 were boys and 112 were girls.
The number of schools, the number of divisions, the number of teachers, and the enrolment
for the school-years 1934-35 and 1933-34 are shown in the following table:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1934-35.
Enrolment,
1933-34.
Cowichan, North	
1
6
6
236
217
211
Totals
1
6
6
236
428
SUPERIOR SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the rural superior schools for the school-year was 3,321. The number
of boys was 1,649, of girls 1,672.
The following table gives the number of schools, the number of divisions, the number
of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-years 1934-35 and 1933-34:—
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1934-35.
Enrolment,
1933-34.
Ashcroft	
Athalmer-Invermere..
Baynes Lake	
Blakeburn	
Brechin	
Burns Lake	
Campbell River-
Cedar, North	
Chase	
Coalmont	
Dawson Creek..
Fort Fraser	
Fort St. John..
Hazelton.	
Hedley	
Hope	
James Island	
Kaleden —
Lillooet 	
Lumby	
Malcolm Island-
Michel-Natal	
McBride	
Oyster, North -
Port Alice.	
Pouce Coupe	
Procter	
Queen Charlotte.-
Quesnel	
Rolla	
Rutland —	
Sand Creek,
Silverton	
Sooke — -	
Stewart	
Big-
Wellington, South.
Westbank	
Williams Lake.-
Woodfibre	
Yahk	
Totals..
11
3
2
3
3
2
2
4
3
2
3
3
11
3
2
3
3
2
2
4
3
3
3
3
4
3
4
5
3
128
91
92
35
98
160
64
72
53
79
54
113
113
80
97
97
36
98
151
60
66
50
70
113
85
42
58
74
60
56
54
53
86
87
48
54
46
43
81
77
111
70
59
366
382
59
63
54
48
63
59
76
84
55
58
23
28
129
154
67
70
285
271
21
59
68
71
77
70
64
105
102
77
	
114
115
81
3,283 S 18
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city junior high schools was 5,755. The number of boys was 2,950,
of girls 2,805.
The following table gives the number of schools, of divisions, of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-years 1934-35 and 1933-34:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1934-35.
Enrolment,
1933-34.
Kamloops    	
1
1
1
1
3
6
8
7
9
120
8
11
11
11
153
179
305
242
326
4,703
179
266
233
313
Vancouver  	
4,674
Totals   -   -     -         	
7
150
194
5,755
5,665
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS—DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the district municipality junior high schools during the year was 644.
Of this number, 311 were boys and 333 were girls.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-
years 1934-35 and 1933-34 are shown in the following table:—
-
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1934-35.
Enrolment,
1933-34.
1
1
8
8
10
10
342
302
Vancouver, West„
265
Totals...
2
16
20
644
531
1
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the rural junior high schools was 63. The number of boys enrolled
was 25, of girls 38.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-
years 1934-35 and 1933-34 are shown in the following table :■—
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1934-35.
Enrolment,
1933-34.
1
q
4
63
69 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
S 19
SUMMARY OF ENROLMENT IN HIGH AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.
The following is a summary of enrolment in high and junior high schools:—
Number
of
Pupils
enrolled.
Boys.       Girls.
Average
Daily
Attendance.
Number op Pupils in Grades.
„«
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
°'t 2
"3 -^ ■**
B tf cS
COS'S
High schools:
15,270
3,468
1,231
7,678
1,575
578
7,592
1,893
653
12,818.25
2,920.97
1,055.91
5,072
1,362
475
4,283
948
322
2,871
674
215
2,451
452
197
593
32
22
19,969
9,831
10,138
16,795.13
 | 6,909
5,553
3,760
3,100
647
Junior high schools:
Cities .	
5,755
644
63
2,950
311
25
2,805
333
38
5,035.36
554.51
59.15
2,330
229
22
2,112
219
20
1,313
196
21
	
6,462
3,286
3,176
5,649.02
2,581
2,351
1,530
26,431
13,117
13,314
22,444.15
2,581
2,351
8,439
5,553
3,760
3,100
647
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city elementary schools was 48,421. The number of boys was 25,073,
of girls 23,348.
The number of schools, the number of divisions and of teachers, and the enrolment for the
school-years 1934-35 and 1933-34 in each city are shown in the table below:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1934-35.
Enrolment,
1933-34.
Alberni	
Armstrong—
Chilliwack	
Courtenay	
Cranbrook	
Cumberland-
Duncan-	
Enderby	
Fernie	
Grand Forks-
Kamloops	
Kaslo	
Kelowna	
Ladysmith	
Merritt.	
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
New Westminster	
Port Alberni- 	
Port Coquitlam	
Port Moody—	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Revelstoke	
Rossland	
Salmon Arm 	
Slocan	
Trail-Tadanac.
Vancouver	
School for the Deaf and the Blind*~
Vancouver, North	
Vernon 	
Victoria — 	
Totals..
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1.
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
4
2
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
4
54
1
3
1
16
4
10
12
8
15
11
12
3
13
10
15
2
17
20
19
66
11
7
6
10
.   21
14
11
4
2
34
714
9
32
21
116
4
10
12
8
16
13
12
3
13
10
15
2
17
20
20
72
11
7
6
11
22
14
12
4
2
35
765
16-
34
24
125
160
406
470
305
521
437
468
105
504
368
559
76
686
308
299
761
684
2,622
430
256
210
381
806
508
466
140
62
1,314
27,718
79
1,276
870
4,166
138
416
441
303
552
427
423
105
514
371
552
66
642
284
287
734
701
2,707
398
230
197
384
774
534
431
144
57
1,268
28,083
77
1,307
830
4,354
1,353
48,421
48,734
* Provincial Government School. S 20
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the district municipality elementary schools was 19,650. The number
of boys was 10,233, of girls 9,417.
The following table gives the number of schools, the number of divisions and of teachers,
and the enrolment in each municipality during the school-years 1934-35 and 1933-34:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1934-35.
Enrolment,
1933-34.
Burnaby 	
19
16
2
5
2
9
1
2
13
7
,   11
8
2
1
1
1
7
15
8
4
1
23
5
2
108
39
4
12
2
18
11
6
31
30
20
20
18
2
14
5
38
52
10
10
8
51
20
14
125
39
4
12
2
18
13
6
31
30
20
21
21
2
15
5
39
52
10
10
53
20
14
4,346
1,248
126
442
59
597
407
191
1,137
1,053
678
643
660
54
598
179
1,449
1,878
294
311
311
1,743
697
549
4,322
1,175
126
399
43
Delta 	
603
Esquimalt   	
Kent  	
Langley	
Maple Ridge	
Matsqui  	
447
213
1,080
1,018
623
644
Oak Bay   .    ...
640
51
Penticton.  	
Pitt Meadows  	
580
1,424
1,984
Salmon Arm   -	
Sumas    	
272
324
292
1,585
Vancouver, North  	
697
560
Totals  	
168
543
571
19,650
19,102
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—RURAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS.
The  number  of  schools,  the  number  of  pupils  that  were  enrolled,  and  the  number  of
teachers employed in the elementary schools of the rural districts were as follows:—
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Pupils.
Boys.
Girls.
Number of
Teachers
employed.
Rural school districts
748
948
SALARIES.
The following table shows the highest, lowest, and average monthly salary   (quoted in
dollars only) paid to teachers during the school-year 1934-35 (ten monthly payments) :—
'
High Schools.
Junior High Schools.
Elementary Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Cities.
Alberni  '
$143
$85
$108
Armstrong 	
$175
$135
$148
160
85
111
Chilliwack  -	
180*
120*
137*
169
78
105
Courtenay   -	
135
120
125
160
70
104
Cranbrook  	
234
129
148
221
95
117
* These figures refer to the High School area. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
S 21
SALARIES—Continued.
High Schools.
Junior High Schools.
Elementary Schools.
Highest
Lowest
Average
Highest
Lowest
Average
Highest
Lowest
Average
Salary.
Salary.
Salary.
Salary.
Salary.
Salary.
Salary.
Salary.
Salary.
Cities—Continued.
Cumberland- 	
$176
$120
$139
$188
$78
$106
Duncan-—  	
183
128
142
170
78
95
Enderby -	
142
120
131
133
78
106
Fernie —	
275
133
156
129
83
102
Grand Forks	
204
130
158
180
90
109
Kamloops —- -
278
136
188
$160
$131
$143
224
99
131
Kaslo 	
162
162
162
131
100
115
252
145
174
270
115
146
129
93
115
Ladysmith— — —	
170
120
138
150
85
106
Merritt-  	
120
120
120
200
90
111
231
122
144
144
122
129
127
78
107
323
128
199
289
153
180
247
100
126
114
222
266
93
140
220*
140*
159*
215
98
117
209
122
165
126
80
95
150
150
150
130
80
95
Prince George.-— -	
190
126
147
190
90
113
183
125
141
180
95
121
250
145
176
220
96
118
Rossland— - -	
225
128
154
187
85
110
Salmon Arm - - -
210*
168*
178*
185
105
131
Slocan— - —- —
120
120
120
110
80
95
303
141
189
272
81
120
Vancouver - — 	
352
112
220
351
90
166
304
78
146
Vancouver, North  —
230
120
164
200
100
124
Vernon	
237
155
171
244
84
118
Victoria.   —
328
120
224
261
96
155
$352
$112
$203
$351
$90
$163
$304
$70
$138
District Municipalities.
Burnaby- -	
$245
$120
$168
$217
$78
$112
Chilliwack — -	
140
78
90
130
105
112
Coquitlam 	
119
82
107
102
90
96
Delta -  	
150
120
130
150
78
86
Esquimalt 	
222
150
185
239
106
132
Kent— - -—
120
120
120
112
80
91
Langley— - —
180
120
143
110
78
86
170
120
■   149
140
78
86
135
120
125
90
78
80
Mission - - —
200
130
151
200
80
98
Oak  Bay - -  	
297
144
216
289
107
156
130
130
130
102
90
96
240
140
163
$154
$100
$123
165
85
102
96
80
85
Richmond -	
189
126
140
178
78
100
Saanich	
240
120
165
184
78
105
Salmon Arm -	
110
80
92
Sumas — -	
100
80
85
130
120
122
200
140
161
200
90
115
160
120
129
112
78
85
Vancouver, North 	
142
90
108
244
165
189
204
126
147
169
96
127
For all district municipalities..
$297
$120
$158
$204
$100
$135
$289
$78
$101
Rural Districts.
$264
$120
$150
$200
$180
$192            S2fi5
$78
$88
* These figures refer to the High School area. S 22
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
S AL ARIE S—Continued.
Superior Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
$153
140
110
120
126
125
165
110
120
156
110
120
120
110
152
120
140
150
150
120
115
$80
110
80
85
78
90
115
82
90
101
105
78
100
78
85
100
100
95
96
85
98
$107
118
95
97
99
102
133
96
103
115
108
100
110
89
109
110
113
113
118
103
108
Malcolm Island 	
$110
153
120
110
120
120
126
110
150
128
168
150
120
150
110
110
145
130
120
$84
95
80
78
78
100
95
78
95
80
80
80
90
108
78
80
90
96
100
$93
105
95
Blakeburn	
Brechin... 	
Oyster, North-	
Port Alice	
94
99
110
Procter  	
Queen Charlotte -
111
94
113
Chemainus	
Rolla -	
105
102
Silverton -	
113
100
126
Greenwood—
Wellington, South	
Westbank- -—
Williams Lake-	
Woodflbre  	
Yahk	
96
93
Hedley 	
Hope 	
117
103
107
For all superior schools..
Lillooet. —. 	
$168
$78
$106
The average monthly salary (ten monthly payments per year) paid to teachers employed
in all public schools (high, superior, junior high, and elementary) of the Province for the
school-year 1934-35 was $130; to teachers employed in all high schools, $190; to teachers
employed in all superior schools, $106; to teachers employed in all junior high schools, $161;
and to teachers employed in all elementary schools, $114.
EXPENDITURE FOR EDUCATION FOR SCHOOL-YEAR 1934-35.
Minister's Office:
Salaries   	
Office supplies 	
Travelling expenses
General Office:
Salaries 	
Office supplies 	
Travelling expenses
Text-book Branch:
Free text-books, maps, etc.
Correspondence Schools—High:
Salaries 	
Office supplies 	
$4,158.00
150.33
1,039.81
$20,070.20
2,186.75
420.53
$5,348.14
22,677.48
53,550.55
Revision of courses-
Travelling expenses
Science equipment _.
Less fees
Correspondence Schools—Elementary:
Salaries 	
Office supplies 	
Revision of courses
Incidentals 	
$18,633.89
7,882.53
1,171.00
284.65
849.37
$28,821.44
3,828.75
16,828.16
3,217.05
76.49
10.30
24,992.69
10,132.00 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
S 23
Industrial Education:
Salaries   	
Office supplies 	
Travelling expenses
Grants in aid	
Night-schools 	
Inspection of Schools:
Salaries 	
Office supplies 	
Travelling expenses
Less amount paid by School Boards
Normal School, Vancouver:
$8,909.28
1,689.21
2,442.06
3,363.44
18,093.43
64,494.63
4,644.89
24,387.54
$93,527.06
4,055.81
Salaries (less deduction for rent, $468)    $30,453.12
Office supplies 	
Travelling expenses 	
Fuel, light, and water	
Transportation of students to outlying practice-schools..
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)	
Incidentals 	
Less Normal School fees
Normal School, Victoria:
Salaries (part by Public Works)
Office supplies 	
Travelling expenses 	
Fuel, light, and water (by Public Works)	
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)	
Transportation of students to outlying practice-schools..
Incidentals 	
Less Normal School fees	
School for the Deaf and the Blind:
Salaries (less deduction for rent, etc., $3,833).
Office supplies 	
Travelling expenses 	
Fuel, light, and water	
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works) -
Furniture, fixtures, and equipment 	
Provisions   	
Incidentals 	
Less amount received for board and tuition of pupils from
Alberta 	
2,221.17
92.25
2,030.58
292.84
567.01
736.23
$36,393.20
14,565.00
$29,812.73
1,894.62
117.84
2,578.62
3,445.55
356.15
147.88
$38,353.39
7,760.00
$22,686.62
1,094.99
198.24
2,050.53
845.45
1,325.73
2,772.79
549.76
$31,524.11
1,275.00
High. Junior High. Superior. Elementary.
Salary grants to cities-.. $253,633.46 $80,253.50 $2,301.25 $525,360.34
Salary grants to district
municipalities      73,951.97 12,941.30 .3,714.50 339,515.38
Salary   grants   to   rural
school districts      46,467.24 1,775.00 84,890.66 637,041.09
$34,497.42
89,471.25
21,828.20
30,593.39
30,249.11
861.548.55
430,123.15
770,173.99
$374,052.67  $94,969.80  $90,906.41 $1,501,916.81 S 24 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
School buildings, erection and maintenance and special aid to school districts        $27,622.18
Education of soldiers' dependent children and expenses  10,611.16
Examination of High School and Entrance classes  $33,961.78
Less fees for examination and certificates     29,981.34
  3,980.44
Conveying children to central schools   62,248.05
School libraries  _._  933.99
Summer schools and teacher-training for special certificates       $8,577.07
Less Summer School fees          6,573.42
  2,003.65
Official Trustee, Community School Districts:
Salary         $2,136.00
Expenses   887.49
$3,023.49
Less paid by districts         1,511.74
Board of Reference   $617.50
Less fees   270.00
Adult education:
Extension and adult education and education of the unemployed    $21,377.13
Recreational and physical education for youths over school age      13,629.93
1,511.75
347.50
35,007.06
Educational research and reconstruction of school finance—Salaries  and expenses   5,942.57
Educational reorganization—Salaries and expenses  2,155.58
Incidentals and contingencies   4,990.89
University of British Columbia  :.... 287,500.00
Special grant to Victoria College  5,000.00
Total cost to Government  $2,835,040.74
Amount expended by districts, including debt charges:
High. Junior High. Superior. Elementary.
Cities   $1,196,259.77    $416,490.38        $2,309.00    $2,510,019.48 4,125,078.63
District  municipalities..       210,654.50        28,283.41          6,843.00         559,460.00 805,240.91
Rural school districts—         86,088.61          8,372.11      105,463.94         492,871.06 692,795.72
$1,493,002.88    $453,145.90    $114,615.94    $3,562,350.54
Grand total cost of education  $8,458,156.00
EXAMINATIONS.
High School Entrance Examination, June, 1935.
The High School Entrance Examination was held on June 26th, 27th, and 28th at 239
centres throughout the Province.
Under the regulations of the Department, promotion by recommendation is granted as
follows:—
"(a.) Entrance pupils attending a public school in a school district where a high or
superior school is in operation and Entrance pupils attending a public school in a school district
adjacent to a district having a high or superior school who are reported by their teachers to
have covered thoroughly the work prescribed by the Council of Public Instruction for Grade
VIII., and who are recommended for promotion to high school by a committee composed of the
principal of the nearest high or superior school, and the Inspector of Schools, Provincial or
Municipal, having jurisdiction in that district, shall be issued Entrance certificates by the
Department. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
S 25
"(6.) In any other public school, where, in the opinion of the Inspector, the grading of
the pupils is satisfactory, their standing is of a high order, and a teacher of proven work is
employed, Entrance pupils who are reported by the teacher to have covered thoroughly the
work prescribed by the Council of Public Instruction for Grade VIII. and are jointly recommended for promotion to high school by the teacher and the Inspector for the district, shall also
be issued Entrance certificates by the Department."
The number of pupils who obtained certificates was as follows:—
By recommendation  (including 132 who entered the competition for
the Governor-General's medals)    5,682
By examination ,_   1,031
Total    6,713
Florence R. Tamboline, 13 years of age, a pupil of Richard McBride School, Vancouver,
had the honour of leading the Province with 524 marks out of a possible of 600.
The names of the winners of His Excellency the Governor-General's bronze medals were:—
District.
Name.
School.
Marks.
No.   1
Marjorie Ann Alldritt 	
Elizabeth Esme Burtt      	
Florence R. Tamboline -	
Iris Gertrude Elsie Smith —	
508
No.   2
519
No.   3
524
No.   4
No.   5
Brooks, Powell River.     	
Chilliwack  	
Agassiz   	
519
501
No.   6
No.   7
Mary Noelle Hicks   	
'      512
502
No.   8
Lydia Marv Rinaldi  	
Allan Edgar Bakken -— 	
Alfred Wikdal    	
Trail : 	
498
No.   9
No. 10
Cranbrook   —	
Booth Memorial, Prince Rupert-— 	
514
514
High School Examinations, 1935.
The following are the results of the examinations held in. the various high schools and
superior schools throughout the Province: —
June, 1935.
Total
No. of
Candidates
Writing.
Writing the Full Examination.
Writing Partial
Examination.
No. of
Candidates.
No. passed
in all
Subjects.
No. granted
Partial
Standing.
No. of
Candidates.
No. granted
Partial
Standing.
Grade IX   	
Grade X.   	
168*
110*
57*
4,152
874
117
43
21
2,101
425
64
19
11
1,429
251
53
24
10
672
174
51
67
36
2,051
449
49
56
Grade XI. 	
33
Grade XII 	
Senior Matriculation 	
1,835
402
Totals  -	
5,361
2,707
1,774
933
2,654
2,375
* Under the regulations of the Council of Public Instruction the teachers of superior schools have the right in
Grades IX. and X. and the teachers of high schools have the right in Grades IX., X., and XI. to determine promotions.
As a result, the number of candidates sitting for Departmental Examinations in these three grades is comparatively
small.
August, 1935.
No. of
Candidates
Writing.
No. passed
in all
Subjects.
No. granted
Partial
Standing.
Grade XII.                                                                            	
1,074
316
418
64
508
212
Totals                                                         	
1,390
482
720 S 26
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
Grade XII.
Of the 418 Grade XII. candidates who secured " complete" standing at the August
Examinations, 1935, 174 had written a full examination for the first time in June, 1935, and
obtained partial standing. Thus, of the 2,101 candidates who wrote a full examination for the
first time in June, 1935, 1,429 + 174, or 1,603, completed their standing in one year (1935).
This is 76.3 per cent.
Senior Matriculation.
Of the 64 Senior Matriculation candidates who secured " complete " standing in August,
1935, 38 had written the full examination in June and secured partial standing. Thus, of the
425 Senior Matriculation candidates writing the full examination for the first time in June,
1935, 251 + 38, or 289, completed their standing in one year (1935).    This is 68 per cent.
His Excellency the Governor-General's silver medals which are awarded annually to the
five leading Junior Matriculation students were won this year by the following:—
Name.
High School.
Per Cent.
90.5
Clara Edith Cartmell. _ 	
Chilliwack.   	
Lord Byng, Vancouver   	
Victoria ___ __	
89.7
89.4
Warren Lehman Godson. -— 	
89.3
89.1
The Royal Institution Scholarships awarded annually by the University of British
Columbia to the student obtaining the highest marks in the Junior Matriculation Examination
and to the seven others who led in their respective districts were won by the following:—
District.
Name.
High School.
Per
Cent.
Scholarship.
Philip Frederick Griffin ....
Warren Lehman Godson  -
Hisaye Florence Salsade -	
Doris Ada Kemp- —
90.5
89.3
86.2
88.7
89.4
89.7
88.5
85.9
$150
No. 1	
Victoria-  -  ^ 	
150
150
„    3	
Kitsilano, Vancouver	
Lord Byng, Vancouver. — —	
150
„    4
150
„    5
150
„    6
150
„     7
150
In addition to the above, the following candidates for Grade XII. Examination, whose
names are given in alphabetical order, passed with honours (80 per cent, or over) :—
Name. School.
James Ward Allen Prince of Wales High School, Vancouver.
Arvid Horace Wilhelm Backman...Britannia High School, Vancouver.
Frank Leonard Barnes South Burnaby High School, Burnaby.
Anne Margaret Bedner Fernie High School.
Robert Edward Bell Ladner High School.
Ernest L. Bishop Victoria High School.
Emil Grouer Bjarnason John Oliver High School, Vancouver.
Ella Marion Brett Kamloops High School.
Joanne Brown Magee High School, Vancouver.
Enid Lillias Butler Lord Byng High School, Vancouver.
William Sylvester Carr Britannia High School, Vancouver.
Frederick H. Clark Duke of Connaught High School, New Westminster.
Richard Cline Kitsilano High School, Vancouver.
Alfred Joseph Colliard Duncan High School.
Garrett Munro Cook Duke of Connaught High School, New Westminster. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 27
Name. School.
Catherine Rose Creighton Magee High School, Vancouver.
Vera Salome Cushing Kelowna High School.
Rose Frances Daem King George High School, Vancouver.
Johannes de Bruyn John Oliver High School, Vancouver.
Eva Dimock Smithers High School.
G. Mary Dingwall Courtenay High School.
John Herbert Doughty Trail High School.
George Olaf Dybhaven Prince Rupert High School.
Helen Mavis Eastham Lord Byng High School, Vancouver.
Robert Ernest Fisher Prince of Wales High School, Vancouver.
Neil M. Fleishman Prince of Wales High School, Vancouver.
Marino Fraresso Powell River High School.
Anchel Goldberg King Edward High School, Vancouver.
Margaret Lilian Goodyear Langley High School.
George Wheeler Govier King Edward High School, Vancouver.
Robert Wallace Henderson South Burnaby High School, Burnaby.
Howard George Hipkin Oak Bay High School.
Stewart Edgar Jamieson Rossland High School.
Robert Allan Michael Kerr Shawnigan Lake (Private) School, Shawnigan Lake.
Edith May Hart Lansdowne Lord Byng High School, Vancouver.
Lee Percival Leighton Victoria High School.
Arthur Ernest Lock Duke of Connaught High School, New Westminster.
Henry Gee Mah Cranbrook High School.
John Douglas Mair Kitsilano High School, Vancouver.
Sylvia Evelyn Mayer Smithers High School.
Roy Waldo Morel Trail High School.
Joseph Francis Morgan Vancouver College (Private) School, Vancouver.
Winifred Janet McBride Ladysmith High School.
Allan Douglas McKenzie Kelowna High School.
Maisie Florence McMurray North Burnaby High School, Burnaby.
Francis Evan McNair Prince of Wales High School, Vancouver.
Myne Burdett Nevison Kitsilano High School, Vancouver.
Elizabeth Frances Parlow Prince Rupert High School.
James M. Pepper Victoria High School.
Thomas Peter Pepper Victoria High School.
Lester Roy Peterson Howe Sound High School.
Derek William Pethick Penticton High School.
Stewart Phare Mission High School.
Joseph Francis Plaskett Duke of Connaught High School, New Westminster.
Robert Vernon Poole John Oliver High School, Vancouver.
Silas Raymond Price North Vancouver High School.
Elizabeth Margaret Priester Richmond High School.
Stanley Charles Roberts Kitsilano High School, Vancouver.
Struan T. Robertson Victoria High School.
Samuel Rothstein King Edward High School, Vancouver.
Genevieve Leonor Saunders Alberni District High School.
Susumu Seto McLean High School, Maple Ridge.
Paul H. Smith Victoria High School.
Beverley Dixie Taylor Granby High School.
Marian Susannah Vance Crofton House (Private) School, Vancouver.
Yoshitaro Yoneda Victoria High School.
Andrew D. Lim Yuen Vernon High School. S 28
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
The winners of the three scholarships awarded by the University of British Columbia on
the results of the Senior Matriculation Examination to (1) the two students obtaining the
highest standing in the Province, (2) the student obtaining the highest standing in districts
other than Greater Vancouver and New Westminster, were:—
Name.
High School.
Per Cent.
Scholarship.
Arthur Ernest Chapman	
Lord Byng,
Vancouver  	
86.3
85.1
84.6
$150
150
Elspeth Mary Lintott-	
Frances Marion Moran	
Trail „	
150
In addition to the above, the following candidates for Senior Matriculation, whose names
are given in alphabetical order, passed with honours (80 per cent, or more) :—
Name. School.
Signe Patricia Austring McLean High School, Maple Ridge.
Bertram Neville Brockhouse King George High School, Vancouver.
Gladys Ilene Corcoran John Oliver High School, Vancouver.
Thomas McCaul Dauphinee Duke of Connaught High School, New Westminster.
Jack Davis Kamloops High School.
John Duncan Leslie Magee High School, Vancouver.
Ethel M. McKinnon Little Flower Academy (Private), Vancouver.
Gordon Joseph McKinnon Junior Seminary of Christ The King (Private),
Ladner.
Mary Inez Smith John Oliver High School, Vancouver.
William Lang Stirling John Oliver High School, Vancouver.
CONSOLIDATION OF RURAL  SCHOOL DISTRICTS  IN  THE
PEACE RIVER DISTRICT.
For several years the disadvantages of administration occasioned by the existence of
a multitude of small rural school districts have been fully recognized by the Department of
Education. It was felt that the formation of larger administrative areas in rural districts
would prove quite as desirable as the creation of rural municipality school districts, effected
in 1906, had proven.
In September, 1934, Inspector William Plenderleith reported that of forty-four rural
school districts in the Peace River District, only five possessed Boards of School Trustees fully
qualified under the provisions of the " Public Schools Act." In addition, he cited numerous
other defects in the administration of these districts. This same Act provides that an Official
Trustee may be appointed to replace the Board of School Trustees and administer the affairs
of any school district. The conditions existing in the Peace River District gave the Department of Education further reason to believe that the formation of larger administrative areas
under an Official Trustee would best serve the interests of rural school districts.
The Consolidation effected.
In October, 1934, the long-cherished plan of the Department of Education was put in
operation by order of the Council of Public Instruction. The South Peace Rural School
District was created by abolishing the boundaries of nine existing rural districts and uniting
them into one district. The North Peace Rural School District was similarly created from
six former districts. The Central Peace Rural School District embraced fourteen former
units.    The East Peace Rural School District replaced ten formerly existing separate districts.
These four large rural administrative areas were placed under one Official Trustee,
Mr. M. S. Morrell, Government Agent at Pouce Coupe. In April, 1935, this Official Trusteeship
was transferred to Mr. William Plenderleith, Inspector of Schools for the district.
Some Disadvantages of the Small-unit System.
Among many disadvantages of school administration under the small school-district
system, the following may be cited:— PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 29
(a.) Three groups of authorities come into conflict—the school trustees and the ratepayers, the health authorities, the Inspector of schools and the teachers.
(b.) In many small rural school districts, only three or four persons meet the requirements of the " Public Schools Act" for the office of school trustee, and in many instances
these persons are absolutely unfitted for that office.
(c.) Many of those who fill the office of school trustee are not familiar with the provisions
of the " Public Schools Act." Moreover, even when the provisions of the Act are known, fear
of stirring up ill-will among neighbours often interferes with enforcement of these provisions.
(d.) Instances are not lacking where the direct and indirect authority exercised by
trustees over teachers has amounted to tyranny.
(e.) Differences of tax rates in contiguous school districts engender jealousies, lead to
friction, and retard educational progress. As an example of varying rates, it may be stated
that in the Peace River District the rates in thirty-six small school districts before consolidation varied from 1.6 mills to 25 mills. After these school districts were consolidated into four
large districts the range of taxation rates was from 4.6 mills to 7.3 mills.
(/.) In many small rural school districts the person appointed to be secretary of the
School Board is not qualified to keep financial accounts, nor is the auditor appointed qualified
to audit these accounts. This has always occasioned the Department of Education much
difficulty in its attempt to obtain accurate statements of the annual expenditure in these
districts.
(g.) The administration of school affairs by Boards of School Trustees in these small-
unit areas gives rise to unfair equalities among teachers' salaries, provides no means for
promotion of teachers on the basis of merit, and too frequently results in unfair administration
generally.
(h.) Some of these districts provide the services of a nurse, some do not; some keep the
school buildings in good repair and provide supplies for the teacher, others focus their attention
on keeping the mill rate low.
Some Advantages of Larger Administrative Areas.
(a.)   Conflict among authorities is greatly reduced.
(6.)   An Official Trustee fulfils his duties without fear or prejudice.
(c.) In the consolidation effected in the Peace River District the Inspector of Schools
reports that a saving of $1,600 has been made in one year's time on secretaries' salaries alone.
(d.) Teachers' salaries are being properly adjusted and promotions based on service
rendered.
(e.) Gradual adjustment is being made to provide all schools with adequate health service,
necessary supplies, and proper accommodation.
(/.)  Teachers are more satisfied and enabled to render better service.
(g.) All books and accounts in connection with school expenditure are kept accurately
and are audited by qualified auditors.
(h.) Reports from these districts submitted to the Department of Education as required
by the " Public Schools Act " have been accurately prepared and forwarded promptly.
(i.) Applications of ratepayers for transfer from one school district to another for the
purpose of getting into a district with a lower rate of taxation for school purposes have ceased,
and manipulations carried on in an endeavour to close schools and thereby reduce school taxes
have been rendered purposeless by the creation of the larger administrative areas.
So successful has the formation of these larger areas been in the Peace River District
that school districts strongly opposed to the plan when inaugurated have since admitted their
antagonism was unreasonable and have become ardent supporters, while several districts not
included at first in the consolidation requested to be admitted and are now included.
Commendation is due Dr. Plenderleith, Inspector of Schools and Official Trustee of thsse
larger areas, for the part he has taken in their establishment and successful administration.
SCHOOL FINANCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The Honourable Dr. G. M. Weir, Provincial Secretary and Minister of Education, and
the Honourable John Hart, Minister of Finance, constituted the British Columbia Commission
on School Finance.    Major H. B. King was retained as Technical Adviser to the Commission. S 30 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
Early in July, 1934, invitations were sent from the Department of Education to organizations throughout the Province, which have an interest in education, to send representatives
to a meeting to be held in the Provincial Parliament Buildings on July 30th. Public announcement was also made of this meeting through the press. Thus a large General Committee
was formed.
At the meeting held on July 30th and 31st the following members of the General
Committee were present:—
Mr. J. P. Carr and Mr. G. A. Grant, representing the B.C. Trustees' Association.
Mayor David Leeming of Victoria and Mr. R. F. Blandy, representing the Union of
B.C. Municipalities.
Mr. W. D. Knott and Mr. J. H. Creighton, representing the B.C. Teachers' Federation.
Miss E. J. Stevens and Mrs. C. C. Spofford, representing the Provincial Council of
Women.
Mrs.   T.   A.   Barnard   and   Mrs.   M.   Delmage,   representing   the   Parent-Teachers'
Federation.
Mr. E. W. Neel and Mr. H. Bose, representing the Advisory Board of the Farmers'
Institutes of the Department of Agriculture.
Mr. W. J. West and Captain F. C. Brown, representing the British Columbia Division
of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association (Mr. Brown represented, also, the
Vancouver Board of Trade).
Mr. Charles Chivers, representing the Victoria Trades and Labour Council.
Mrs. Paul  Smith, M.L.A.;    Mr.  Herbert Anscomb,  M.L.A.;    Rev.  Robert  Connell,
M.L.A.;   Professor H. F. Angus;   and Major H. B. King.
Mr.   Harry   Charlesworth,   General   Secretary   of   the   B.C.   Teachers'   Federation,
Chairman of the General Committee.
A Revision Committee was also appointed to review all briefs submitted and analyse all
recommendations made to or through the General Committee.    The members of this Revision
Committee were:  Mr. Harry Charlesworth, Chairman;  Mrs. Paul Smith, M.L.A.;  Mr. Herbert
Anscomb, M.L.A.;    Rev.  Robert  Connell,  M.L.A.;    Professor  H.   F.  Angus,  Mayor  David
Leeming, Mr. R. F. Blandy, and Mr. J. P. Carr.    The members of this Revision Committee,
especially the Chairman, Mr. Harry Charlesworth, performed many hours of most efficient
and valuable service.
The report of the Technical Adviser, Mr. H. B. King, including the report of the Revision
Committee, was published in March, 1935, in a volume of 230 pages under the title " School
Finance in British Columbia." Copies of this report may be obtained from the King's Printer,
Victoria, B.C.
CHANGES IN THE STAFF.
On May 1st, 1934, Mr. William A. Plenderleith, M.A., B.Paed., the Supervising Principal
of elementary, junior high, and high schools at Ocean Falls, was appointed Inspector of Schools
and assigned to the Peace River District, with headquarters at Pouce Coupe.
The appointment of Mr. J. Elmer Brown, M.A., Principal of Strathcona School, Vancouver,
as Inspector of Schools was made August 13th, 1934.    He was located at Smithers.
Miss Henrietta A. R. Anderson, M.A., Ph.D., the Principal of Queen Mary School, North
Vancouver, was appointed to the staff of the Provincial Normal School, Victoria, on September
1st, 1934.
On December 31st, 1934, Mr. S. H. Lawrence retired on superannuation from the
principalship of the School for the Deaf and the Blind, Vancouver. For over twelve years
Mr. Lawrence had administered the affairs of this institution. The personal interest that
he took in each pupil and the kindly attention he gave to the progress and welfare of each
were outstanding characteristics of his efficient service. At the same time the school lost
the most capable services of Mrs. S. H. Lawrence, the Matron, who also retired on superannuation. Both Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence will be long remembered by these boys and girls
to whom they gave so much. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 31
Mr. Charles E. MacDonald, LL.B., a native of Nova Scotia, was appointed on January
1st, 1935, to succeed Mr. Lawrence. For five years prior to his appointment Mr. MacDonald
was a member of the staff of the New Jersey School for the Deaf.
Mr. William Gray, M.A., Principal of North Vancouver High School, received an appointment as Inspector of Schools on April 1st, 1935. For the balance of the school-year Mr. Gray
inspected the schools of North Vancouver City and the District Municipality of North
Vancouver.
In July, 1935, Miss Lila B. Isbister resigned from the staff of the Provincial Normal
School, Victoria, to be married. Miss Isbister had been not only a most capable instructress
in her department of home economics, but a most kindly counsellor and friend to the young
women who attended that school.    Her resignation from the staff has occasioned a severe loss.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. J. WILLIS,
Superintendent of Education. S 32
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS.
THE PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF D. M. ROBINSON, B.A., PRINCIPAL.
The session of 1934-35 opened on September 12th. During the term, September to
December, 148 students—110 young women and 38 young men—were in attendance. Of this
total two young women were special students. During the term one student withdrew.
At the close of the term in December nine students with previous Normal School training
were granted diplomas. Two students discontinued the course at the close of the September-
December term.
At the opening of the new term in January 134 regular students and the two special
students returned. These were joined by five students with previous training and seven
special students (regularly certificated teachers from Saskatchewan or Alberta). Thus the
total enrolment for the January-June term was 148.
The following shows the enrolment and results of the session:—
Young
Women.
Young
Men.
Total.
112
9
121
3
5
104
39
39
2
37
151
9
160
3
Not awarded diplomas— -       -
7
141
The personnel of the staff remained as it was in 1933-34.
The instruction in physical education (Strathcona Trust) was conducted by Sergeant-
Major Frost and Sergeant-Instructor Hawkes. Grade B certificate was awarded to 139
students.
During the session eight weeks had been set aside for observation and practice-teaching.
In January all city schools were closed during practice-teaching week and consequently the
weeks of practice-teaching were reduced to seven—six weeks in graded city schools and one
week in one- or two-roomed schools in neighbouring municipalities and on Vancouver Island.
I should like to take this opportunity to thank principals and teachers for their very hearty
co-operation in this department of the work of teacher-training.
During the session the students have shown a wonderful spirit of enthusiasm in all school
activities.    A spirit of most willing co-operation with the staff has been strongly in evidence.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VICTORIA.
REPORT OF V. L. DENTON, B.A., PRINCIPAL.
The session of 1934-35 opened on September 12th, 1934, and closed on June 7th, 1935.
During the year eighty-six students were in attendance. Of these, four did not complete
the training, eight were repeating the course, and three were taking refresher courses.
Diplomas were awarded to seventy-three students, of whom eight received honour standing.
The following table presents a summary of the enrolment:—
Women.
Men.
Total.
51
1
5
22
3
4
Withdrew from course      - _	
Failed	
4
Totals      	
57
29
86 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 33
In the Strathcona Trust physical-training course seventy-three secured Grade B certificates. Miss Joyce E. Applegate received the award of the gold medal for greatest proficiency
in this work.
Practice-teaching was carried on in the municipal schools of Victoria, Oak Bay, Esquimalt,
Saanich, and in near-by rural schools. The principals and critic-teachers gave valuable
assistance in this important part of the work.
During the summer of 1934, Dr. H. D. Southam accepted an appointment to the staff
of McGill University and Miss Henrietta R. Anderson, M.A., Ph.D., joined the staff, taking
over the subjects of psychology, language, and history of education. Her rich background
and knowledge of the needs of education in British Columbia have been a constant source
of inspiration to the students of this school.
Although the class of 1934-35 was a little less in number, the students reached a high
standard of proficiency in their work as teachers-in-training. Their industry and co-operation
was notable and the staff were, in a sense, sorry to see them depart.
May I, at this time, thank the critic-teachers of the city and rural municipalities who
helped us with the practice-teaching, and the officials of the Education Department who aided
in making the year a success. S 34
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
SUMMER SCHOOL FOR TEACHERS.
REPORT OF JOHN KYLE, A.R.C.A., DIRECTOR.
A Provincial Summer School for Teachers was held in Victoria and Vancouver from
July 8th to August 9th, 1935.
The registration fee charged was $3;   the tuition fee ranged from $3 to $6.
The enrolment by classes in Victoria was as follows:—
Psychology	
Primary Grade Course 	
Special Course for Rural School Teachers
English 	
Arithmetic 	
British and Canadian History
Geography 	
Art Course I.	
Art Course II. 	
Applied Art	
Vocal Music I.	
Vocal Music II. 	
Choral Music	
The Art of Singing  £_
Piano Class for Adult Beginners 	
The Technique of Teaching 	
Dramatic Art	
A Practical Course in Short-story Writing
Penmanship 	
Typewriting	
Folk-dancing 	
Swimming and Life-saving
First Aid	
The enrolment by classes in Vancouver was as follows :-
Art Courses	
Woodwork 	
Commercial Subjects 	
Physical Education 	
15
113
40
27
8
14
22
33
6
10
10
12
24
13
4
34
20
12
9
28
32
25
8
44
14
40
57
20
Choral Singing, with Rudiments of Music and Melody and Harmony..
The total individual enrolment was 444 students.
The following members comprised the teaching staff:—
Victoria—
Miss Henrietta R. Anderson, M.A., Ph.D Special Course for Rural
School Teachers.
Arthur Anstey, B.A British and Canadian History.
Arthur L. Bagshaw Swimming and Life-saving.
Miss L. G. Bollert, B.A Primary Grade Course.
Mrs. E. Reese Burns, A.T.C.M Dramatic Art.
Miss E. M. Coney Vocal Music I. and II.
John M. Ewing, B.A., D.Paed Psychology.
Miss Nancy Ferguson, B.A Folk-dancing.
Miss Barbara Fraser, A.T.C.M Accompanist.
T. R. Hall, B.A The Technique of Teaching.
T. W. Hall English.
N. de Bertrand Lugrin . Short-story Writing.
A. E. C. Martin, B.Sc Arithmetic.
H. B.  MacLean Penmanship.
Heber Nasmyth The Art of Singing. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 35
Dr. William Plenderleith, M.A., B.Paed Geography.
V. G. Pritchard Typewriting.
William Roper First Aid.
Miss Isabel Routledge Librarian.
Mrs. I. D. D. Uhthoff, Dip. G.S.A Applied Art and Art II.
Christopher Wade ^ Piano Class for Adult Beginners.
W. P. Weston Art I.
F. T. C. Wickett, A.R.C.O Vocal Music II. and Choral Music.
Vancouver—
W. K. Beech, M.A., B.Paed Commercial Course.
Lome E. Brown Physical Education Course.
Miss Donalda Cameron Accompanist.
Miss Dorothy Colpitts Commercial Course.
C. E. Findlater, L.T.C.L., A.T.C.M., A.T.S.C Choral Singing, with
Rudiments of Music and Melody and Harmony.
Miss Coralie Fraser Physical Education Course.
Miss Mary J. Kildall Art Course.
Miss Grace W. Melvin, D.A Art Course.
Miss Susan MacDonald Accompanist.
Miss Sheila E. Mackenzie Commercial Course.
Miss Alice Parker Art Course.
Charles H. Scott, Dip. G.S.A Art Course.
Miss Dorothy Tisdall Art Course.
Miss Cleopatra Watkins Folk-dancing.
A. Wishart T ....Woodwork.
The social functions of the school in Victoria were well attended and much enjoyed.
Each Wednesday saw a large attendance at the dance held in the school gymnasium. A card
party was also arranged one evening.
Each Saturday a number of students were taken out by a well-known naturalist for
Nature-study. The following places were visited: (a) Goldstream Flats, to study the flora
at tide level and above tide influence; (6) Thetis Lake, where fresh-water fauna and flora
were studied; (c) Ten-mile Point, to study marine life at low tide; (d) Sooke River, to view
the falls and pot-holes and to study plant and animal life; (e) Elk Lake, where a most
enjoyable school picnic was held.
Arrangements were also made to visit other places of interest, including Butchart's
Gardens, the Meteorological Station at Gonzales Heights, the Observatory on Saanich
Mountain, the Archives at the Parliament Buildings, and Qualicum Beach.
The following illustrated lectures on Art were given by Mr. Arthur Lismer, R.C.A.,
Educational  Supervisor of the Toronto  Art  Gallery:    (a)   "Art in  a  Changing World";
(b) " Education Through Art ";    (c)  " The Art of Children."
A course of lectures on psychology was also given by Dr. John M. Ewing. These lectures,
open to all students, were particularly well attended and very much appreciated.
Mr. James Gibson, B.A., B.Litt. (Oxon.), conducted a course of six lectures on Contemporary International Affairs which was much enjoyed by a large audience. In each case time
was reserved for general discussion. Mr. Gibson lectured on the following: (a) Trends in
International Affairs since 1919 (a general survey); (&) The Legacy of Versailles: the
question of treaty revision, with special reference to the new or " succession states " of Europe;
(c) The problem of security in (1) Europe, (2) the Far East; (d) The possibilities of
disarmament, and measures of control of the private manufacture of and traffic in armaments
and munitions; (e) The importance of economic instability as a restricting influence in
international co-operation;   (/) The present position of the League of Nations.
An exhibition of pictures at the studio of Miss Emily Carr brought out about 250 teachers.
They were most appreciative of her kindness and of her distinctive interpretation of Indian
life.
During the last week of the session a. school concert was held which brought out considerable musical and dramatic talent. S 36 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
PSYCHOLOGY.
The purpose of this course was to give a brief but systematic outline of general and
abnormal psychology with a view to providing a scientific foundation for educational principles,
and with a further view to throwing light upon personality and class-room problems. Formal
lecturing was reduced to a minimum, emphasis being placed upon the presentation of case-
histories and upon the discussion of actual situations within the experience of various members
of the group. The success of the course was largely due to the lively and fruitful nature of
these discussions.
PRIMARY GRADE COURSE.
In the above course modern methods in primary education were discussed and evaluated.
Special consideration was given to the correlation of the different subjects under large class
activities, and stress was laid on the subjects of Reading, Language, Arithmetic, and Manual
Arts.
The lessons in Reading dealt with the principles underlying modern methods of instruction.
These were considered in relation to the new Reader Series.
The emphasis of Language-work was placed on story-telling and on the conversational
lessons as a means of developing thought and freedom of expression.
In Number-work was discussed the development of the number concepts and fundamental
operations by relating them to the children's needs and interests through some purposeful
activity.
In Manual Arts a comprehensive survey was made of the value and place of these in the
school programme, together with the technique of teaching and the handling of materials.
Due attention was paid to creative expression in the larger mediums, especially the use
of material that would be available in the average home.
Class lectures were given by Dr. Ewing, Mr. Weston, Mr. MacLean, and other specialists,
and these were highly appreciated.
A demonstration class of fourteen little beginners who had not been to school previously
met every day, and it was in this class that the theories of primary teaching were applied.
SPECIAL COURSE FOR RURAL SCHOOL-TEACHERS.
The aim of this course was to refresh and stimulate interest in the latest methods of
class-room technique and the newer interpretation of content matter. In this connection all
subjects of the elementary school curriculum were reviewed. A question-box was available
at all times and this led to many helpful discussions on the problems of the rural school-teacher.
The last week was devoted to the building of time-tables and suggestions as to really
purposeful seat-work.
ENGLISH.
This course included the purposes, aims, and relative values of Oral and Silent Reading;
of Oral and Written Composition; and the necessity in the senior grades for the study of
formal Grammar.
Considerable time was also spent on the attempt to show that expression is only one part
of the value of English, that appreciation is of equal if not of greater importance, and that
Literature is Life itself interpreted through the medium of words.
The value of Oral Composition as language-training in all grades was stressed. Methods
and devices for the encouraging of speech from the simplest narration by a Grade I. child
to the complex formal debate of the Matriculation student were presented and discussed.
In Written Composition it was shown that compositions are generally divided into three
main classes, each with a definite aim of its own—Narrative, Descriptive, and Expositive.
ARITHMETIC.
The historical background of Arithmetic as a school subject was studied with a view to
bringing out the changing aim in teaching this subject, and a fuller appreciation and understanding of the number system and the processes of computation as a rich inheritance.
Present-day aims of the subject as a whole were outlined and the changes in content and
method brought about by social demands and the teachings of modern experimental psychology
were discussed. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 37
The specific problems of the individual students were listed at the outset and attacked
at appropriate points in the course.
Each student was provided with stenographic copies of ten arithmetic lessons given in
British Columbia schools and required to grade these according to the McMurry Standards.
The results of this work were most satisfactory.
Groups of students took a year's assignVnent of Arithmetic, as prescribed in the Course
of Study, and divided it into monthly assignments, making provision for necessary review
and tests.
Methods of teaching the topics of the course were studied as they arose in the discussion
of these assignments.    The findings of experimental research were in constant use.
BRITISH AND CANADIAN HISTORY.
The aim of this course was to stress the inspirational, as well as the informational, value of
history-study, the story of the past being considered as an exemplification of social evolution.
The work was characterized by much class discussion and by the preparation, by the
students themselves, of material suitable for teaching-use as visual aids and for project
activities on the part of the pupils. The course included (a) a consideration of the objectives
of history-study; (6) an analysis of selected material with the purpose of organizing it into
learning units and also of the selection of suitable assimilative material for study by the pupils;
(c) a review of accepted teaching methods.
During visits to the Provincial Archives the Provincial Librarian and Archivist were
good enough to demonstrate methods of employing some of the valuable sources of material
there available, a veritable object-lesson of History in the Making.
GEOGRAPHY.
The Course in Geography was treated on the unit basis, the objective being to indicate to
the students the necessity of simplifying and balancing the material in order that all learning
might be of intrinsic value, and also the necessity of keeping the subject-matter within the
pupils' interest range and of arranging the subject-matter so that the laws of learning might
be utilized in practice as well as in theory. The necessity of emphasizing Human Geography,
based on the traveller's point of view and not on that of the navigator or the mathematician,
was also dealt with.
ART I.
The work of this course was planned with the idea of improving the power of the student
in drawing and design rather than supplying a set of graded exercises for future use. With
this end in view, attention was first given to time sketching, memory drawing, and drawing on
the blackboard. Two morning sessions were spent at the Provincial Museum and three
morning sessions at outdoor sketching. The result of these mornings was very gratifying
and justified the time given to this work. The remainder of the time was devoted to design
and lettering and in getting a better understanding of the aims of the Art Course in elementary
schools, together with the best methods of teaching.
ART II.
The Second-year Art Course consisted of those subjects required in High School—namely,
Nature Drawing, Poster Design, Lettering, and Colour Harmonies.
APPLIED ART.
The Course in Applied Art was arranged with the object of linking up the Drawing and
Design of the elementary and high schools with the hand-work done in the manual-training and
home-economics centres. Teachers were impressed with the idea that Art need not be confined
to drawing and painting on paper; that great value in teaching fundamental principles of
Design could come from instruction in Linoleum Block-printing, and from such as Leather-
work, Basketry, Gesso-work, and Weaving.
VOCAL MUSIC I.
The class, in above was composed of those students who were not prepared musically to
undertake the work for the Elementary School Music Teacher's Certificate (Music II.).    The S 38
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
students were of varying musical talent and thus it was not possible to work the class as a
whole. With the splendid co-operation of the students, groups were organized and the instruction progressed smoothly and effectively. The groups were brought together at intervals and
tests were frequently given.
VOCAL MUSIC II.
As in previous years, this course included the study of Elementary Harmony, Melody-
making, Rudiments of Music, and Choral Singing. Examinations were held at the completion of the course for those who desired to obtain credits for the British Columbia Teacher's
Elementary Music Certificate.
Choral Singing was also available for those not desirous of taking the full course.
ART OF SINGING.
The first period each day dealt with the principles underlying all correct tone production,
intonation, breathing, vowel formation, and sustained tone.
The second period was generally given to actual demonstrations; for example, the cause
and cure of breathy tone, relaxation in singing, correct blending of the registers of the voice,
classification of voices, care, preservation, and development of the child's voice.
The third period was devoted to the interpretation of the classic song, and songs by Robert
Franz, Handel, Schubert, Schumann, and Brahms were sung in unison by the entire class and
also by individuals.
During the last week lectures were given on " Diction for Singers," " The Development of
the Folk Song in England and America," and " History and Development of the German
Lieder."
PIANO CLASS FOR ADULT BEGINNERS.
At this class four students received a working knowledge of staff notations, time values,
key signatures, scales, primary chords, and elementary technique. Several elementary pieces
were studied with a view to encouraging self-development.
TECHNIQUE OF TEACHING.
This course attempted to present a background of general methods. To render the course
more practical, the various procedures were discussed in the light of actual class-room situations in the teaching of the various subjects. A considerable proportion of the time was given
to class discussions of such situations. The following were the chief topics considered: The
laws of learning; teaching aims and the resulting types of lesson—for habits and skills, for
mastery of knowledge, for appreciation; changing conceptions of the recitation; the project
method;  tests and examinations.
DRAMATIC ART.
" Dramatic Instinct " has been termed " Imagination in action," and the motive which
dominated the work of above course was towards developing that end as well as the awakening
of perception and so training the body that harmonic physical expression could be maintained.
A demonstration of this was given by the students and a Play entitled " 0 Bon Matsuri "
(The Feast of Lanterns) was staged under the direction of the author and two of the students.
A PRACTICAL COURSE IN SHORT-STORY WRITING.
The Course of Short-story Technique in the Summer School embraced the structure of the
short story according, to diagram and modern methods. Best types of short story were studied
and compared, and lectures delivered on the kinds of story interests, emotional purpose, unity,
the principles of drama, character complication, theme atmosphere, and multi-phase story.
Assignments covered written examples illustrating the above. Daily class criticism of homework, according to rule, was given. At least one complete story was expected from each
member of the class. Books on the best modern American, British, French, and Swedish short
stories were examined, compared, and discussed in class, as well as those of .Soviet Russia
and the best mystery and detective stories. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 39
PENMANSHIP.
The Course in Penmanship had a twofold object: (1) To improve the penmanship of the
members of the class; (2) to outline modern methods of teaching handwriting in the various
grades of elementary and high schools.
Each member of the class spent about one-half hour daily in supervised blackboard practice and one-half hour in penmanship exercises. The improvement made was very encouraging.
Additional exercises were assigned each day and each member submitted these for criticism
and suggestions.
Demonstration lessons were given, followed by criticism and discussion. Special attention
was given to Motivation, Demonstration, Explanation, Application, and Relaxation.
Among other features the following received special emphasis: Rhythm in writing;
manuscript and cursive writing in primary grades; the proper use of the Writing Compendium; speed tests; legibility; rapidity and freedom; left-handedness; grade standards;
blackboard-writing;  writing lesson plans for the various grades;  and rural school problems.
TYPEWRITING.
To use a typewriter is a desirable accomplishment for a school-teacher, and therefore an
opportunity was offered whereby individual instruction could be received at any time of the
day.    The class was well attended.
FOLK-DANCING.
Folk-dance students, who met in the gymnasium of the Victoria High School every day,
made a general survey (including value and aims) of Folk-dancing, Singing Games, and
Rhythmic Exercises. The course was graded, covering work suitable for children in primary
grades to that suitable for high-school students. Besides ranging from simple to complicated,
dances were also classified according to group-capacity; solo and couple dances to dances
requiring large numbers.
The actual dances taught were: Ten Singing Games (English, Swedish, Danish) ; four
English Folk-dances (prefaced by a general study of English steps and technique) ; five
Scottish Country Dances (prefaced by general study of Scottish technique and style) ; fourteen
Folk-dances from other countries—Ireland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Italy, Germany; one
Novelty Concert Dance;   Rhythmic Exercises and Interpretive Dance.
Students received mimeographed copies of the directions and music for each dance.
SWIMMING AND LIFE-SAVING.
Classes in Swimming and Life-saving were held both in Victoria and Vancouver. In
Victoria five students qualified for the Bronze Medallion and Certificate of the Royal Life-
Saving Society, one receiving an Award of Merit. In Vancouver five members qualified for
the Bronze Medallion and Certificate.
FIRST AID TO THE INJURED.
The lectures and practical work of above course covered the requirements for the St. John
Ambulance Certificate. Eight students took the examination and all passed their tests
successfully.
VANCOUVER SCHOOL OF DECORATIVE AND APPLIED ART.
For the first time in the history of this school a Four-weeks' Summer School Course was
held for teachers. The attendance was all that could be desired and the courses were an
unqualified success.
The following subjects were offered: Drawing and Painting; Print Technique; Pictorial Composition and Art Appreciation.
A Four-craft Course was also popular and embraced Pottery, Weaving, Leatherwork,
and Block-printing on Fabrics.
A Course in Design, Colour, and Stitchery was specifically organized for teachers of home
economics. This was well attended and there was nothing but the highest praise for the
instructors. S 40 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
TECHNICAL COURSE IN VANCOUVER TECHNICAL SCHOOL FOR
MANUAL INSTRUCTORS.
This course was arranged to cover certain of the requirements for the British Columbia
Technical High School Certificate " A."
The work was comprehensive and fundamental, consisting of Manual-training Projects
for Elementary Schools, Cabinetmaking and Simple Steel-square Operations found in Carpentry for High Schools. In addition, each student compiled a three-years' course of Woodwork covering practice and theory for the Technical " A " Certificate.
COMMERCIAL SUBJECTS.
These classes were arranged to prepare teachers for the British Columbia High School
Assistant Commercial Teacher's Certificate and for the British Columbia High School
Specialist's Certificate. The following classes were held: Elementary and Advanced Typewriting; Elementary and Advanced Shorthand; Economics; Commercial Law; Accounting
I., II., III.;  Arithmetic;  Business English;  Office Filing.
The attendance was regular and students worked hard and enthusiastically. " I believe
it has been the most successful Summer School we have ever conducted," wrote the Director.
An innovation this year was a School Service Course where, for three weeks, individual
instruction was given in Typewriting, Shorthand, and Multigraphing.
PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR THE BRITISH COLUMBIA PHYSICAL
EDUCATION CERTIFICATES.
This class was composed of those students who were trying for their Elementary and High
School Certificates. The course consisted of Physical Education Theory and Practice; Organized Games; Folk-dancing; and the Health Course as laid down in the Course of Studies.
The progress made by the men in apparatus-work was outstanding.
All students were given actual teaching practice in the class-room and on the gymnasium
floor.
A distinct difference was made between the elementary and senior courses. Activities
suitable for young children were emphasized with the elementary group, while those of a
more difficult and advanced nature were taken by the senior group.
A rare course in Folk-dancing was given, and the closing exercises were witnessed by a
large and enthusiastic audience.
CHORAL SINGING, WITH RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC AND MELODY
AND HARMONY.
The work of this course was credited towards the British Columbia School Music Teacher's
Certificate. The lessons on Music covered the work laid down by the Department of Education
in the Course of Studies.
The choral work consisted of two-, three-, and four-part songs; songs with descants;
study of articulation; treatment of vowels and consonants; interpretation. The Elgar Junior
Choir was in attendance. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 41
TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF JOHN KYLE, A.R.C.A., OFFICER IN CHARGE.
I have the honour of presenting a report for the year 1934-35 on the work of the following:—
(a.)  Manual Training (Woodwork) in elementary schools.
(6.)  Industrial Arts  (Woodwork, Metalwork, and Electricity)  in junior and senior
high schools.
(c.)  Technical Option Courses in high schools  (" A " Woodwork and " B " Metal-
work) . *
(d.)  High-school Commercial and High-school Agricultural Courses.
(e.)  Technical Schools in Vancouver and New Westminster.
(/.)  Vancouver School of Decorative and Applied Art.
(g.)  Night-schools for Adult Education.
(h.)  Mining Classes.
(i.)  Technical subjects by correspondence.
(j.)  Apprenticeship Council and " Apprenticeship Act."
(k.)  Teacher-training.
MANUAL TRAINING   (WOODWORK).
(Grades VI., VII., and VIII.)
This work is progressing satisfactorily throughout the Province, although it is to be
regretted that many students are still denied the privilege of having educational hand-work.
An endeavour is made to suit each course of study to the distinctive characteristics of each
district and in all cases to encourage creative skill and thoughtfulness in the young workers.
The following districts have manual-training centres in the Province: Burnaby, Chilliwack City, Chilliwack Municipality, Courtenay, Cranbrook, Cumberland, Esquimalt, Fernie,
Harewood, loco, Kamloops, Kaslo, Kelowna, Ladysmith, Langley, Maple Ridge, Nanaimo,
Nelson, New Westminster, Oak Bay, Ocean Falls, Penticton, Pitt Meadows, Powell River,
Richmond, Summerland, Surrey, University Hill, Vancouver, Vernon, Victoria, and West
Vancouver.
The total number of elementary-school centres in the Province, together with the number
of pupils attending, are as follows:—
Elementary-school manual-training shops i         96
Elementary-school manual-training instructors         53
Elementary-school pupils attending    7,364
High-school pupils attending elementary-school centres       723
JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS  (INDUSTRIAL ARTS).
(Grades VII., VIII., and IX.)
Where the junior high-school system has been adopted the work in Grades VII., VIII.,
and IX. is enriched by adding Metalwork and Electricity to the Woodwork.    In some cases
Printing is added.    The whole course is then entitled " Industrial Arts."
The total number of centres in the Province where Industrial Arts are taught, together
with the number of pupils attending, are given hereunder:—
Number of junior and senior high-school centres         19
Number of junior and senior high-school workshops at centres        38
Number of junior and senior high-school instructors         39
Number of junior and senior high-school pupils taking courses    4,730
As the work in the above two sections overlap in some centres and the same shops are
used for both, it would be well to give the number of individual shops, instructors, and students
in the Province.    These are as follows:—
Total number of individual elementary and junior and senior high-
school shops      133
Total number of individual elementary and junior and senior high-
school instructors 1         87
Total number of individual elementary and junior and senior high-
school pupils taking courses 12,817 S 42 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
HIGH SCHOOL TECHNICAL OPTIONS "A" AND " B."
(Grades IX., X., XL, or X., XL, XII.)
High School Technical Options "A" (Woodwork) and "B" (Metalwork) are accepted
by the University authorities in lieu of a second science or second foreign language, with credits
counting towards the Junior Matriculation Certificate.
The Technical Option Courses are scientific in character, the Draughting, Design, and
Theory being emphasized to equalize the bench-work. The subjects are invaluable as a
preparation for the Science Course in the University, but there is also room for a less
scientific and more artistic course for those high-school students who aim at the High School
Graduation Certificate.
The Technical Options are given in the following high schools: Kamloops; Kelowna;
Nanaimo; Nelson; T. J. Trapp Technical High School, New Westminster; Oak Bay; Penticton;
John Oliver High School, Vancouver; King Edward High School, Vancouver; Kitsilano Senior
High School, Vancouver; Lord Byng High School, Vancouver; Magee High School, Vancouver;
Technical School, Vancouver; Victoria High School.
In addition to the High School Technical Option Courses " A " and " B," which are
intended for students preparing for University, there is, in some high schools, an additional
straight technical course for Grades IX. and X. This is planned to form a connecting-link
with the Vancouver Technical School so that transference may be made and technical studies
continued along specific trade lines.
HIGH SCHOOL COMMERCIAL AND AGRICULTURAL COURSES.
Commercial subjects are taught in the high schools of Burnaby (226) ; Delta (16); Kamloops (42) ; Nanaimo (140) ; Nelson (41) ; New Westminster (168) ; North Vancouver (64) ;
Oak Bay (33) ; Penticton (108) ; Prince Rupert (35) ; Revelstoke (23) ; Saanich (144) ;
Vancouver (1,843) ; Victoria (297) ; West Vancouver (53); making a total of 3,233 individual
students.
The subject of Agriculture is at once scientific, technical, vocational, and educational.
It is recognized as the " mother of all the arts " and is therefore worthy of a place in the
high-school curriculum.
A course dealing with this subject will be found in the high schools of Chilliwack, Maple
Ridge, New Westminster, Richmond, Saanich, Salmon Arm, Summerland, and Victoria.
In some of these schools there is a serious attempt to link up the work in- the school with
the activities on the farm. There is also a certain amount of correlation between the farm
projects and the manual-training workshop. There is room, however, for great development
and expansion in this direction.
VANCOUVER TECHNICAL SCHOOL.
Vancouver Technical School offers to students several varied courses. Among these
are:—
(1.)   A Four-years' Course for those preparing to enter University.
(2.) General Course of Four Years for those desirous of obtaining a Technical School
Graduation Diploma.
(3.)   Vocational Course of Two Years.
(4.)   Courses for students taking advanced specialized technical instruction.
There was an enrolment of 1,075 students, which is very creditable considering the number
of technical courses which have been established in the high schools of the city.
When the desirable correlation between these high-school technical shops and the Technical
School is thoroughly understood we may confidently expect a great influx of students to the
vocational courses in the Technical School.
T. J. TRAPP TECHNICAL SCHOOL, NEW WESTMINSTER.
This school is of a composite character. The courses given embrace junior high, technical
high, vocational, commercial, and home economics. Students may prepare for University
Matriculation or for the High School Graduation Certificate. They may also prepare directly
for vocations of a technical, commercial, or home-maker's type.
The enrolment numbered 573. PUBLIC  SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
S 43
VANCOUVER SCHOOL OF DECORATIVE AND APPLIED ART.
This school lives up to its name. It is primarily a school of Applied Art and has, in consequence, a great appeal to students. Design, Applique and Embroidery, Lettering and Illumination, Show-cards and Posters, Clay Modelling and Pottery, Weaving, Leather-work, the
Decoration of Wood and Metal, together with Drawing, Painting, Picture Composition, and
Book Illustration, form the chief activities of the school.
The effect of this school is seen in the store windows of the city, in many small industries
which have been established, in the schools, and in the general appreciation of artistic things
throughout Greater Vancouver.
Fee-paying students attending the day classes numbered 67 and those attending evening
classes numbered 253.
SCHOOL DISTRICTS.
A full list of school districts participating in the work of technical education is appended.
This shows an enrolment of 9,999 day students taking courses as follows: Commercial, 3,233;
Technical, 3,622;  Home Economics, 2,635;  Agriculture, 442;  Art, 67.
School District.
Course.
Enrolment.
Commercial —  	
Agriculture 	
226
41
16
42
45
27
37
140
56
63
41
17
22
168
288
89
60
64
33
42
41
108
65
50
Chilliwack   — 	
Delta                         —	
Kamloops.-    	
Commercial   	
Agriculture  	
Commercial     	
Technical   	
Home Economics— 	
Nanaimo     	
•
Technical   	
Home Economics   ....
North Vancouver....   	
Oak Bay    _   .                	
Commercial , 	
Home Economics   	
Commercial   	
Home Economics  	
28
23
Agriculture   	
144
1,843
2,812
2,217
Art   	
60
Commercial   	
Technical.	
297
164
68
53
71
38
9,999 S 44 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
NIGHT-SCHOOLS.
There is no educational work more important than that carried on at night-school, for the
simple reason that the people who attend do so voluntarily and from an impulse to learn.
Hundreds of people are compelled to work at activities in which they have no particular
interest, but do so merely to earn their daily bread. At night-schools these people emancipate
themselves and study that into which they can put their heart and soul. It is not surprising,
therefore, to find many people starting at night-school to study their hobbies and finally making
their hobbies their daily work.
The undermentioned varied subjects were included in the Night-school Courses: Accounting (Elementary and Advanced), Algebra, Arithmetic, Art Metalwork, Automobile Engines,
Auto Electricity, Acetylene Welding, Applied Electricity (Armature Winding), Amateur
Gardening, Art, Architectural Drawing and Building Construction, Biology I., Book-keeping
(Elementary, Intermediate, and Advanced), Band Music, Business Correspondence and Filing,
Commercial Law, Commercial Arithmetic, Commercial English, Commercial Art and Pictorial
Composition, Chemistry, China-painting, Cooking, Chinese, Child Art, Current Events, Current
Economics, Current Literature, Cabinetmaking, Clothing, Choral Music, Choral Singing, Continuation Classes leading to High School Entrance, Drawing (Elementary, Intermediate, and
Advanced), Drawing for Teachers, Drawing and Painting, Design and Lettering, Diesel and
Steam Engines, Dressmaking, English Composition, English Literature, Electrical Engineering, English Country Dancing, Electricity, English for Beginners, English for new Canadians,
English for Japanese, Figure Drawing, Fine Arts, Folk-dancing, French, Geometry, Geology,
History of Art, Home Economics, Home Nursing, Lumber Grading, Lip-reading, Life Drawing,
Leather-work, Millinery, Machine Drawing, Motor Mechanics, Machine-shop Practice, Mathematics, Mechanical Drawing, Manual Training, Matriculation Subjects, Metalwork, Machine
Construction, Mime and Expressional Dance, Modelling, Music Appreciation, Operatic Training, Orchestral Music, Practical Mathematics, Painting and Decorating, Public School Work,
Physical Education, Physics, Pottery, Public Speaking, Psychology, Poultry Husbandry, Printing, Raffia Craft, Radio, Sign-painting, Sheet Metal, Show-card Writing, Shorthand (Elementary, Intermediate, and Advanced), Salesmanship, Singing, Spanish (Elementary and
Advanced), Short-story Writing, School Music, Speech Correction, Technical Theory, Typewriting (Elementary, Intermediate, and Advanced), Wireless Telegraphy, Weaving, and
Woodwork.
The enrolment at night-schools, not including the classes in mining, numbered 5,100
(2,903 males and 2,197 females).    There were 194 instructors.
MINING CLASSES HELD UNDER THE NIGHT-SCHOOL SYSTEM.
The classes in the above subject have been specially organized and conducted for the past
two years by the united efforts of the Department of Mines and the Department of Education.
The complete success of the scheme has been recognized all over the Province. Nothing has
done so much to create a mine-consciousness among the people of the Province as the lessons
given by the mining instructors. Students attending received a printed copy of each lecture.
Specimens of ore were at hand in order that the class members might recognize and become
familiar with the rock formations of their particular districts.
As will be observed from the number attending, the classes were popular and applications
came from far and near for copies of the lectures. Moreover, it was found desirable to
prepare a correspondence course for miners who live far from centres of habitation. This
course has also proved to be of great value.
The enrolment in the mining classes numbered 1,774 and the expenditure amounted to
$1,707.47.
The total number of students in the Province attending night-schools was thus 6,874. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
S 45
Summarized Statement of Attendance and Teachers in Evening Vocational
Schools for Period July 1st, 1934, to June 30th, 1935.
o
^-  QJ
O 3
t-IOi
o
6
E-iO
3
u
cs
o 2.3
q
a
se
-a §3
o °S
Number of Individuals
enrolled.
Teachers.
School.
Male.
Female.
Total.
Male.
Female.
Total.
3
1
3
3
1
3
1
3
1
1
2
2
1
4
1
3
1
8
1
1
5
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
51
12
39
1
3
1
5
3
1
3
1
3
1
1
2
3
1
6
2
4
1
9
1
1
10
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
79
21
41
2
39
24
110
41
16
55
21
34
62
13
44
83
10
119
37
84
12
232
15
18
118
10
15
28
62
15
10
16
34
27
32
16
2,331
283
969
65
900
574.5
4,532
5,077
1,250
4,190
1,608
1,134
7,090
1,164
230
3,787.5
800
4,267
942
4,154.5
222
9,246.5
248
2,218
3,908
650
118
1,538
7,927
126.5
242.5
1,082.5
1,770
900
1,131
1,197
123,835
11,853
55,667.5
8,637
14
23
37
24
5
37
21
20
25
6
21
36
10
53
37
59
191
15
7
91
10
27
56
9
10
16
19
10
23
5
1,418
69
434
65
25
1
73
17
11
18
14
37
7
23
47
66
25
12
41
11
27
10
5
1
6
6
15
17
9
11
913
214
535
39
24
110
41
16
55
21
34
62
13
44
83
10
119
37
84
12
232
15
18
118
10
15
28
62
15
10
16
34
27
32
16
2,331
283
969
65
2
1
2
2
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
3
8
1
1
3
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
42
7
34
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
20
6
17
3
1
2
2
1
Courtenay.— 	
3
1
3
1
Greenslide 	
1
2
Harewood  - 	
Kaslo - 	
3
1
4
Langley  	
1
3
1
9
1
North Vancouver Mun. 	
1
6
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
South Wellington.	
Summerland	
Trail       	
2
1
2
1
62
13
51
2
Totals 	
221
5,100
274,208
2,903
2,197
5,100
136
58
194 S 46
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
Summarized Statement of Attendance and Teachers in Mining Classes
for Period July 1st, 1934, to June 30th, 1935.
Municipality or
School.
O
a
—i  01
•*J XI
O 3
En CO
o
6
^i
ts
HO
h
c —
_   .01
T3 -+J vi
o |J
hEo
4J
s
0)
ax
+>—-
$ b a
o °,S
hWd
Number of Individuals
enrolled.
Teachers.
Male.
Female.
Total.
Male.
Female.
Total.
1
1
28
506
22                 6
28
1
1
Burnaby:
1
1
37
738
37
37
1
1
1
1
62
1,536
62
62
1
1
1
1
78
1,652
78
78
1
1
1
1
1
1
30
36
746
654
27
36
3
30
36
1
1
1
Castlegar. __ _	
1
1
1
62
1,525
61
1
62
1
1
1
1
1
1
20
24
472
480
20
20
24
1
1
1
Fort Steele	
23     !          1
1
1
1
1.
1
21
125
151
1,934
19                2
124     :           1
21
125
1
1
1
Kelowna ,	
1
Lumberton  ,	
1
1
21
494
21
21
1
1
1
1
23
411
23
23
1
1
Minto -—   ".
1
1
36
132
36
	
36
1
	
1
1
1
42
850
41
1
42
1
1
Nakusp  ._ 	
1
1
59
1,384
57
2
59
1
1
Nelson - ,	
1
1
65
2,276
63
2
65
1
1
North Vancouver 	
1
1
42
892
42
42
1
1
Penticton •  	
1
1
69
1,310
66
3
69
1
1
Premier  __ 	
1
1
48
454
48
48
1
1
Prince George.  	
1
1
58
223
58
58
1
—
1
1
1
52
1,170
52
52
1
1
Princeton 	
1
1
24
384
23
1
24
1
	
1
1
1
18
287
17
1
18
1
1
1
1
1
1
25
72
588
5,290
25
72
25
72
1
1
1
Rossland.   ■
1
Skookumchuck 	
1
1
24
355
20
4
24
1
1
Smithers     	
1
1
25
104
23
2
25
1
1
Vancouver:
1
1
142
2,643
142
142
1
1
1
1
28
1,232
28
28
1
1
Victoria. 	
1
2
106
2,284
102
4
106
2
....
2
Vernon   	
1
1
171
2,754
163
8
171
1
1
1
1
1
1
32
9
548
288
32
8
1
32
9
1
1
1
1
Winfield          _.—	
1
1
60
958
59
1
60
1
1
Totals	
36
1,774
37,705
1,730
44
1,774
36
36
TECHNICAL SUBJECTS BY CORRESPONDENCE.
Conducted by the Director of High School Correspondence Courses.
The value of above classes, especially to apprentices who live in small communities, cannot
well be overestimated. Already it is possible to obtain instruction in such fundamental technical subjects as Mechanical Drawing, Engineering Drawing, and Mathematics. Trade
Courses are also available in Building Construction, including Roofing and the Carpenter's
Square; Practical Electricity; Automotive Engineering (Motor Mechanics) ; Diesel Engineering; Prospectors' Course in Geology and Mining; Lettering and Display-card Writing;
and Commercial Subjects.
Other subjects will be added thereto and before long the Department of Education will be
well prepared for most of the industries in the Province.
The enrolment of students at present taking Commercial Subjects by Correspondence
numbers 132; Home Economics, 30; Technical Subjects, 79; Agriculture, 10; making a
total of 251. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 47
VANCOUVER APPRENTICESHIP COUNCIL AND THE B.C.
" APPRENTICESHIP ACT."
For some time past the men who composed the Apprenticeship Council in Vancouver have
been working under great difficulties. Their great aim has been consummated, however, and an
" Apprenticeship Act" is now the law of the land.
It is satisfactory to know that those officials appointed to see the Act put into force
express their delight in what has been done by the Council. They find the ground well prepared for action, especially among those engaged in the trades of Carpentry and Joinery,
Sheet-metal Work, Machine-shop Practice, Motor Mechanics, and Printing.
One may look for a great step forward during the ensuing year and the Technical School,
Vancouver, will be found more important than ever as a centre of vocational training.
TEACHER-TRAINING.
For some years past teacher-training classes have been conducted in the Technical School,
Vancouver, for men who desire to act as instructors and teachers in day and night classes.
The students taking the teacher-training classes meet on Saturdays and at schools
arranged during the summer holidays, and it is from the personnel of these classes that we are
able to obtain satisfactory instructors not only for our day-school work, but also for night-
schools and the classes organized for the unemployed.
The following British Columbia certificates are obtainable at the above classes:—
(a.)  B.C. Manual Training Teacher's Certificate for Elementary Schools.
(6.)   B.C. Industrial Arts Certificate for Junior and Senior High Schools,
(c.)   B.C. Technical School Certificate.
(d.)  B.C. Physical Education Certificate for Elementary Schools.
(e.)  B.C. Physical Education Certificate for Junior and Senior High Schools.
(/.)   B.C. School Music Certificate for Elementary Schools.
(g.)  B.C. School Music Certificate for Junior and Senior High Schools.
(h.)  B.C. High School Assistant Commercial Teacher's Certificate.
(i.)   B.C. High School Specialist Commercial Teacher's Certificate.
We hope soon to see a School Art Certificate added to the list.
The enrolment in the above classes was as follows: Manual and Technical, 50; Commercial, 32;   Physical Education, 89;   Music, 30. S 48
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
TECHNICAL EDUCATION—HOME ECONOMICS.
REPORT OF MISS JESSIE McLENAGHEN, B.Sc, DIRECTOR.
Practical Arts courses justify their place in a curriculum to-day upon the basis of social
need as well as upon their cultural values to the individual, and therefore they have attained a
new status in education. They are gradually being regarded as a necessary agency in the
development of types of knowledge, skills, and attitudes which are increasingly necessary for
successful living in a new and extremely complex social and economic order. No longer are
they being looked upon by intelligent students of education as merely adjuncts to the real work
of education, nor as " fads " and " frills " in any sense, but, because of the controlling facts of
present-day life, they are becoming basic and fundamental phases of the education of youth.
The extension of the work in Home Economics in British Columbia is gradual but sure.
During the past year the new centres at Langley Prairie and University Hill operated successfully, and a good foundation was laid for future work. Plans have been completed during the
year for the introduction of a three-year course in Home Economics for Junior Matriculation
in the Victoria High School and for the opening of a new full-time department in Ladysmith.
The (CC) course has grown in popularity, though to date it has been offered only in the
small high schools. The emphasis on cookery in family quantities continues to increase with
most gratifying results.
The Home Economics (A) course by correspondence has functioned very successfully for
the past five years. The (CC) course is now available to correspondence students, and it is
anticipated that it will fill an even greater need than the (A) course.
During the past year, in co-operation with the Y.W.C.A., two courses of training for Household Helpers were given—one in Vancouver and one in Victoria, each extending over a period of
seven weeks. Diplomas were granted to thirty-four students in all. From the experience thus
gained, it was deemed advisable to increase the length of the term for future classes to three
months.    Graduates of these classes have found ready employment.-
A very successful Summer School course in Applied Art for home-economics teachers was
conducted last July by the Department of Education at the Vancouver School of Art under
the direction of Miss Grace Melvin. Twenty-two teachers attended and the enthusiasm was
exceptionally high.
The total number of home-economics centres in operation during the
year was..
The total number of home-economics teachers was.
The total number of pupils taking home economics was as follows:
In elementary schools	
In j unior high schools	
In high schools	
Of these, the total number taking:-
Home Economics (A) was	
Home Economics (B) was	
Home Economics (C) was ...
Home Economics  (CC) was.
.      81
72
- 5,642
. 2,986
. 2,593
.    507
.    665
1,197
188
53
The total number of boys taking home economics in junior high schools
was 	
"The total number of boys taking home economics in high schools was     105
The total number of young women in Normal Schools taking home
economics was     178
The total number of young men in Normal Schools taking nutrition was      68 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
S 49
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF H. N. MacCORKINDALE, B.A., SUPERINTENDENT  OF  SCHOOLS.
The total school enrolment in the Vancouver City schools showed a considerable decrease
in the years 1932 and 1933. This was in part caused by the decreasing birth-rate year by
year since 1919 (the highest). There was also a movement of population from the city to
rural districts. In September, 1933, the total enrolment was 705 less than in September, 1932.
Although there was this large decrease in total enrolment, the high school total enrolment
showed a considerable increase. In September, 1934, the decrease over September, 1933, was
only 97. It is difficult in these disturbing times to predict the enrolment for September, 1935.
It will probably show a reasonable increase over September, 1934. The following is a table
of the enrolment by grades in September, 1934, as compared with the enrolment by grades in
September, 1933:—
Enrolment,
Sept., 1933.
Enrolment,
Sept., 1934.
Increase or
Decrease.
Grade 1                     	
3,636
3,422
3,504
3,479
3,950
3,942
3,804
3,789
3,247
2,480
1,730
1,308
274
297
299
3,856
3,195
3,448
3,397
3,438
3,984
3,944
3,862
3,458
2,446
1,642
1,314
277
463
340
+220
227
Grade 11       '	
Grade III    	
— 56
Grade IV  	
— 82
Grade V   	
— 512
Grade VI    	
+ 42
+140
+ 73
+211
—  34
Grade VII 	
Grade VTTT.i'   	
Grade IX     	
Grade X 	
Grade XI  	
—  88
Grade XII   	
+     6
+     3
+166
+ 41
Grade XIII.   (Senior Matriculation)    	
Special classes   (subnormal)  	
Totals          	
39,161
39,064
— 97
SCHOOL COSTS.
During the past few years " certain groups " of our citizens have continued to " talk "
regarding the " mounting " cost of education. The statements made by these people have not
been based upon facts. The graph shown on page 50 gives the per capita cost in the Vancouver
City schools over a period of twenty-one years (beginning with 1913). The graph also shows
this per capita cost converted to the purchasing-power of the dollar taking 1913 as 100 (data
from Department of Labour Index, 1935). From this graph it will be observed that the cost of
education in terms of the purchasing-power of the dollar is only slightly higher than it was
twenty-one years ago. It should also be observed that this low per capita cost has been maintained in spite of an ever rapid increase in the high-school enrolment from approximately
9 per cent, of the total enrolment in 1913 to almost 24 per cent, of the total enrolment in 1934.
SCHOOL BUDGETS.
The 1934 budget for the Vancouver City schools as submitted by the Board of School
Trustees was not approved by the City Council. The sum provided for schools in the Vancouver City budget was approximately $255,000 less than the budget presented to the Council
by the Board of School Trustees. The City Council did not ask for arbitration as provided
under section 57 of the " Public Schools Act." This placed the City Council in the legal position
of having to provide the money necessary to operate the schools for the entire year. The Board
of School Trustees promised to curtail their expenditures if at all possible, to help meet the
financial emergency in which the city appeared to find itself. I am pleased to report that the
City Council met the School Board's expenditures for the entire year and that the operating
expenses for the year 1934 showed a saving of approximately $63,000 over the total budget
submitted by the Board of School Trustees.
4 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
The 1935 City School budget has also been under dispute. This year the City Council asked
for arbitration under section 57 of the " Public Schools Act," on the grounds that the total
amount of the school budget as submitted on February 15th, 1935, was " beyond the means "
Per Capifo Cost of Education in Vancouver, 1913'1934
kxkmwm      Cost in Dollars
miiiiimiiiiiiiii      Cost in Purchasing Power of Dollar,   191} as 100
(Department of Labour Index, 1935)
       High khool Enrolment(6rodes 9-) as %of Total khool Enrolment
%
25
90
19/3 !?/* 1915 19/6 1917  1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 192* 1925 1926 1917 1928 1929 1930 1931 I9JZ 193} I9J4-
of the city to pay. The City Council did not contend that the estimate of the Board of School
Trustees was excessive. The Arbitration Board of three members appointed under the
" Arbitration Act " brought in a majority report of two to one, quoted in part as follows:— PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 51
" We must therefore conclude that for this year (1935) the whole of the School Board's
estimate is within the means of the city and the estimate is hereby fixed at the amount of the
School Board's estimate, as appears in its estimate submitted to the Mayor and Aldermen of
the city under date February 15th, 1935."
SCHOOL ACCOMMODATION.
For several years the report of the Superintendent of Vancouver City schools has contained a section pointing out the need for more accommodation in our secondary schools (high
and junior high). In several high schools the class-rooms are overloaded. In many schools
emergency class-rooms have been constructed in the attics as well as in the basements. Classes
have also been housed in adjoining elementary schools and temporary wooden buildings have
been constructed on many school-grounds. Several auditoriums are used by large groups for
class-room instruction rather than proper auditorium instruction procedures. It is poor
economy to have school plants where the best of work cannot be accomplished by both students
and staff. In the interests of efficiency and economy, an extensive and progressive programme
of building construction should not be delayed any longer.
SCHOOL MAINTENANCE.
For the past three years the annual expenditure on school-building maintenance has been
approximately $125,000. On a school plant valued at ten millions of dollars this percentage
is entirely inadequate. Every property-owner is well aware that such a percentage applied
to the maintenance of business or residential properties would not begin to keep them in a state
of reasonable repair. In the interests of economy the estimate for this department of our
school budget must be considerably increased if our school plant is to be maintained in good
condition.
MANUAL ARTS.
In February, 1934, home economics and manual training in Grade VI. was replaced by
manual arts. The grade-teachers with aptitude for manual arts became, in the majority of
cases, the instructors in this subject. It is true some teachers of manual training now in
Grades VII. and VIII. of the traditional plan were used to teach certain groups of pupils of
Grade VI. In this way relief was found for some principals to supervise their schools by
having part time free from class-room instruction.
To accomplish our objectives, more and better teachers of manual arts had to be trained.
Courses of instruction were given by Mr. A. S. Hamilton, Supervisor of Manual Training; Mr.
Henry Hill, who was borrowed from the John Oliver High School to organize manual arts in
Grades I. to VI.; and Mr. S. P. Judge, Supervisor of Art for Vancouver City schools. The
Department of Education (thanks for their co-operation) awarded ninety-one teachers
Departmental Certificates to instruct in Grade VI. Light Woodwork. This course was taken
twice a week after school during the first half of the school term. In the latter half of the
school term 113 teachers were granted Departmental Certificates in Grades II. and III. for
Paper and Light Cardboard Modelling. There is still a large waiting-list of over 100 teachers
who are anxious to obtain certificates for Grades IV. and V. in Paper and Light Cardboard
Modelling.
A year ago I felt very gratified not only because of the economies resulting from this
reorganization, but because of the distinct advantage gained by this plan, now universally
accepted in all modern programmes of education. I have greater reason than ever to believe
that our objectives are being accomplished. I must thank not only the men mentioned above,
who gave these courses of instruction, but the principals and teachers of our schools who made
many sacrifices to assure the success of the reorganization. Their motto might well be " We
build." In conclusion, I should mention that there is no cost to the Board of School Trustees
in teacher-training classes. I am confident that the teacher-pupil enthusiasm for these courses
will be greater than ever.
ART.
The general aim in the Department of Art has been to stimulate and encourage creative
work rather than imitative work. At the same time the students themselves have become more
self-reliant in choosing and arranging form and colour suitable to the problem concerned. S 52 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
For years a background of dictated problems and projects, together with an over-emphasis
on technique, has curbed the initiative and creative thought of the child. Our thanks are due
to that progressive group of teachers of art whose influence is spreading to all the others.
I wish to express my personal appreciation to those many teachers of art in our elementary
schools who attended classes during the autumn term. I must pay particular tribute to our
Art Supervisor, Mr. S. P. Judge, whose untiring efforts are so well known to all of us. I trust
that during the coming school-year it will be possible to arrange to have many teachers of art
in our elementary schools visit particular classes in art for their instruction and observation.
In conclusion, I should mention the excellent influence which the Vancouver School of Art,
under the direction of Mr. Charles H. Scott, has on the teaching of art not only in our city
schools, but in the schools of the Province as a whole. It should be of particular interest to all
of us to know that the June number of " The Studio "—an art magazine of world-wide reputation, published in London, England—contained a two-page article, well illustrated, relative to
the work of the Vancouver School of Art. This I consider a very high honour indeed. It
should be noted that the Vancouver School of Art is practically self-supporting.
This year marks the completion of a decade given to the development of a School of Art.
After these many years we have not as yet a building for this truly great institution. May the
future be more generous in providing accommodation than has been the past. An institution
which so vitally concerns our whole community is more deserving of our consideration.
MUSIC.
Without hesitation it may be fairly claimed that the standard of music-teaching in our
schools is ever improving. In particular I should mention the sight-reading in the elementary
schools, where considerable improvement has been observed because of the co-operation of the
Department of Education in permitting the use of new supplementary sight readers. The
excellent co-operation of our teachers of music, along with the untiring efforts of our Supervisor, Mr. Waddington, should not be overlooked.
During the year several excellent teachers of music have been added to our staff. Our
Supervisor held instructional groups twice a week where the music of all the grades was
explained and demonstrated. We have many excellent teachers of music in our elementary
schools, but there is need for many more.
In the junior high schools, where we have full-time teachers of music who are specialists
in this department, excellent work also is being accomplished. I only hope that the time will
come when we shall have a similar group of specialists in our senior high schools. In passing,
I should pay particular tribute not only to the choral work in our secondary schools (junior and
senior high schools), but to our many bands and orchestras. It should be noted that these
activities have no provision for expenditures in the school budget.
Once a month our secondary-school students have again had the privilege of attending,
without charge, the final rehearsals of the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra. The attendance
at these rehearsals has been excellent. I am very grateful to the executive of the Vancouver
Symphony Orchestra and the manager of the Strand Theatre for making such wonderful
arrangements possible. In the larger cities of Europe and the British Isles, school-children
have been attending for years, free of charge, symphony orchestra concerts. We are very
fortunate in being able to keep pace with such advancement.
In conclusion, I should mention the British Columbia Musical Festival. For ten years
this institution has helped in many ways to build up music in our community and in our schools.
The long period of competition for trophies resulted in the elimination of entries which might
be considered good, but not excellent. The ultimate result of such a procedure would have
possibly left a half-dozen or more experts battling for the prizes. I visited the president and
secretary of the festival, asking them to eliminate trophies, marks, and places, and substitute
therefor constructive criticism, together with collective choral lessons and massed singing.
This change of policy was very gratifying indeed. Instead of having 28 teachers and 1,500
children entered in the festival, we had 119 teachers and 6,000 children. The number benefiting
from the festival increased fourfold. To those who heard Grades II. and III. sing as a massed
choir on one of the nights of the last week of the festival, I should like to direct this question:
Do you think those little children would have performed any better or sung more enthusiastically if they had been " hunting for a mug "? PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 53
PHYSICAL EDUCATION.
In the elementary and secondary schools more specialists in physical education were added
to our staff. The work of this very important department is ever improving under the able
direction of Mr. Gordon Brandreth. During the year group activities were extended in the
elementary schools by way of introducing games, using such as skipping-ropes, hoops, bean-
bags, and vaults. The programme of Danish gymnastics and folk-dancing has been greatly
extended. Many of our latest appointments to the elementary teaching staff are qualified to
teach folk-dancing and introduce elementary Danish gymnastics.
On July 1st 1,000 elementary-school children gave a display in folk-dancing which lasted
about one hour. This performance took place at the Oval at Brockton Point in Stanley Park.
Many thousands were thrilled by this beautiful performance. All children appeared in simple
coloured costumes.
Possibly the greatest exhibition of the year was on May 10th, when 800 girls and 800 boys
from our secondary schools gave a display to illustrate a cross-section of their gymnastic
activities during the winter months. The arena was packed with over 9,000 in attendance.
We Were honoured by the presence of Dr. S. J. Willis, our Superintendent of Education. He
spoke briefly to the gathering in a most appreciative manner. The Mayor of the city opened
the performance with a few brief and significant remarks.
Some may wonder why I have singled out music, art, handicrafts, and physical education
for special mention. I believe these are some of the subjects which will help to make our
schools more human. You show me a school where there is emphasis on art, music, handicrafts, and physical education and I will show you a school where the fundamentals will also
be above the average of any school where these subjects are lacking and " fundamentals " are
supposed to be stressed.
HEALTH SERVICES.
During the depression years our medical officers and nurses have made a valiant effort
to maintain some semblance of an adequate medical inspection service. In 1921, when our
school population was less than 20,000 pupils, there were one full-time and two half-time
medical officers. To-day, with slightly less than 40,000 pupils, we have only one full-time
and one half-time medical officer.
Standard medical services require the full examination of (1) all beginners; (2) pupils
in Grades IV., VII., and X.; (3) all pupils entering the city school system from outside; (4)
all secondary-school pupils taking part in major athletics; and the diagnosis of numerous
cases discovered by the nurses in their routine inspections of pupils. It is obvious that this
standard could not be maintained or attempted with such an inadequate staff. We had to
eliminate the examination by the medical officers of Grades IV. and X. These grades received
the inspection by the nurses and all suspicious cases were referred to the medical officers for
diagnosis.
For the past seven years we have had the pre-school examination in June of all children
enrolling in September.    This year we had to withdraw this service.
Only two of the dental clinics in the school system are in operation. These clinics have
concentrated on the cases found in the first four grades. In the Dental Department more
extension-work must be started soon if we are going to provide for over 3,000 children who,
through no fault of their own, find their permanent teeth in a very bad state of repair.
Various researches on school medical services have been made. They all agree that these
services prevent retardation to the extent of from 3 to 3% per cent, of the total enrolment.
This is because the average daily attendance of the pupils is high in a school system with
adequate medical services. It is in consequence poor economy to curtail as we have done in
our medical and dental services. The cost of retardation will greatly exceed the total cost of
an adequate school medical service.
I could continue ad infinitum in such realms as sight-conservation classes and open-air
classes to show the utter inadequacy of our present services. It is imperative that there should
be a much larger appropriation in our 1936 budget to provide these preventive services which,
if not provided now, will cost the State much more at a later date. S 54
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
BUREAU OF MEASUREMENTS.
Under the Director, Mr. Robert Straight, Inspector of Schools, the Bureau assisted various
group studies by teachers. There was much work done in endeavouring to improve the
" written examination " itself, as well as in testing various schools concerned. This work will
eventually result in standardized tests for various subjects. Score-sheets and answer-keys
were supplied for:—
No. of Copies.
.  1,551
.  1,026
Test.
Latin I	
Latin II	
Latin III  735
French I  2,809
French III  1,431
Test. No. of Copies.
Algebra I  2,705
Algebra II  1,964
Algebra III  1,384
English Grammar  1,529
The expense connected with the construction of these tests was paid by the teachers'
organizations. We are always glad to help any who are endeavouring to solve any of our
many educational problems.    Nothing but good can come out of such an effort.
Testing.—In the fall of 1924 Mr. Peter Sandiford gave tests in general science, algebra,
and French to matriculation classes in the high schools of Vancouver. Some of the same tests
were given by the Bureau of Measurements under the direction of Mr. Robert Straight in the
fall term of 1934. It was not possible to give these tests to all matriculants in our high schools.
In consequence we selected certain schools.
The following tests were used: Henmon French Test; Rueh-Popenoe General Science
Test;  Hotz Algebra Test.
Dr. Sandiford informed Mr. Straight that the scores made by the Vancouver pupils in 1924
were not available for comparison and that the answer papers had been destroyed. Accordingly, Mr. Straight selected for testing in each subject the high schools that had most nearly
approached the same Provincial average on the Junior Matriculation Examination in June,
1934.
Mr. Straight gave and supervised the making of all these tests. In the schools selected
all students in the matriculation class were tested.
Test Scores, 1924 and 1934.
Name of Test.
Cases, 1934.
Median Score,
Vancouver,
1934.
Median Score,
B.C. Cities,
1924.
Ruch-Popenoe General Science 	
Girls  	
Boys	
Girls and boys	
Girls '   ._	
Boys	
     51
     78
  129
 _.    40
     55
     95
30.0
51.5
42.5
32.5
35.3
34.2
184.3
175.6
181.5
27.50
40.83
38.75
34.20
33.40
Girls  	
Boys	
Girls and boys.  	
-     59
     53
  112
125.77
135.23
High-school enrolment as a per cent, of total school enrolment, 1924, 13.5 per cent.;   1934, 24.5 per cent.
The Vancouver City schools suffered a severe loss when death removed the following
teachers who had given long and faithful service of the highest type: G. W. Gourlie, W. E.
Grant, Miss F. M. White, W. L. Rand, and W. R. Smith.
The following retired from the service on superannuation. It is needless for me to refer
again to their long and excellent service in the Vancouver City school system: Miss E. J. Trem-
bath, Mrs. M. A. Martin, Miss E. M. Dickieson, Mrs. A. C. Huggard, Miss E. J. Laird, Miss
C. M. Bridgman, R. W. Suter, Mrs. F. R. Milne, F. C. Wilson, Mrs. A. Duff ell, Miss A. E. Kerr,
Miss A Noble.
May I take this opportunity of expressing my appreciation of the excellent co-operation
I have had not only from the Department of Education and all its officials, but also from the
Board of School Trustees, its officers, principals, and staff. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 55
REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS.
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF NEW WESTMINSTER.
REPORT OF ROY S. SHIELDS, B.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
The pupil enrolment of the schools of New Westminster for the school-year ended June
30th, 1935, was 3,664, with 107 teachers on the staff, approximately the same as in 1934.
School buildings, recreation-grounds, and equipment were maintained at a high standard
and reflected credit on the Board of School Trustees for unselfish service in the interests
of youth.
The Course of Study used throughout followed the 8-4 plan, or eight years in the
elementary and four years in the high school. At the end of Grade VIII. a pupil may enter
either the Duke of Connaught High School for the purpose of proceeding to senior matriculation inclusive, or he may enter the T. J. Trapp Technical High School and specialize in
commercial, home economics, or technical work ot prepare for high-school graduation or
matriculation to University. It is of interest to note that, because of the growth of the Home
Economics Department, it was necessary to secure the services of an assistant teacher and
Miss Kathleen Shearer was appointed.    A Junior Technical class was also conducted.
Steady growth and professional development have been characteristic of our school-life
this past year. This was furthered by the ever-increasing desire on the part of alert teachers
to better their standing by attendance at various summer-school educational centres. The
direct results of such courses are most noticeable in the work of these teachers.
All departments of school-life co-operated actively throughout the year; choir-work and
glee clubs, folk-dancing, athletic and track teams, public-speaking groups, and cadet-work.
The organization of regular weekly vocational talks by leading business, professional, and
industrial men into a co-ordinated series as a branch of the work in social studies emphasized
especially vocational objectives; this latter phase of our work was particularly successful
at the T. J. Trapp Technical High School.
Intelligence and achievement tests recommended by the Department were used and grading
of pupils was consistently carried out, thereby reducing retardation to a minimum.
Two departments of our school system are worthy of special commendation—the Medical
Department, with Dr. D. A. Clark in charge, ably assisted by Miss A. S. Stark, R.N., and
the Dental Department, in charge of Dr. J. A. Sampson, ably assisted by Miss Marion Rennie.
The high pupil-attendance average was in no small measure due to the work of these departments. That a close bond between teachers and health-workers is desirable is shown by the
following excerpts from the report of the Dental Surgeon:—
" It is a well-known fact that the condition of the teeth is responsible for or contributory
to, in a large measure, the general health of the pupil; that dental ills have a direct influence
on the physical welfare, mentality, and school progress of a pupil.
" Heretofore our work was in curative dentistry, now it is both curative and preventive;
and to carry out the latter the hearty co-operation of the teacher must be had; and to
increase pupil benefit, definite steps need to be taken to have the subject of dental health
education included with the subjects taught in our training-school for teachers; instruction
should be given by a dentist trained in modern normal school methods; the opposite is also
true, that in our dental colleges special training in methods of modern education should be
offered for those entering dentistry who might elect to fit themselves for this important phase
of their work.
" Consider the possible saving to taxpayers through eliminating the absences resultant
upon dental discomfort. The average cost of educating a child for one year is about $60;
it is estimated that over a year period 16 per cent, of the absentees are traceable to dental
defect.
" Retardation, too, as a result of dental abnormality is also worth consideration.
" Preventive dentistry when reviewed from this angle alone becomes a very forceful
feature of the economics of school education." S 56 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
The attitude of the public throughout was most favourable toward the part taken by the
schools in the commemoration of special occasions, such as Armistice Day, Empire Day, and
Visitors' Day Programmes, Safety-first Week, Fire-prevention Week, May Day Celebration,
Sports' Day, School Exhibition at Kiwanis Hobby Show, and the Folk-dancing at Vancouver
Festival by pupils taught by Miss E. B. Madill, Lord Lister-Kelvin School.
Early in 1933 representatives of the Teachers' Federation placed before the Board of
School Trustees a request for salary revision. As no definite agreement could be reached,
it was left to an Arbitration Board, consisting of Justice Harper, Mr. H. Charlesworth, and
Mr. George Grant; this Board awarded the teachers for the calendar year 1934 a salary
schedule equal to that in operation in 1932, an increase amounting to approximately $15,000.
One-fifth of this increase was paid in December, 1934, by increasing the December pay-cheques.
In January, 1935, the Teachers' Association representatives met the Board of School Trustees
and agreed to waive the unpaid balance of the award, provided the salary schedule for 1935
would be the same as obtained in 1932.    This was agreed to by the Board.
The 1935 estimates presented to the City Council were refused and arbitration was
demanded under section 57 of the " Public Schools Act " as amended by section 12 of chapter
57, 1933. A second Arbitration Board was set up. The members of the Board were Judge
Forin, Chairman; Mr. R. L. Reid, K.C., for the Board; and Mr. H. L. Johnston for the City
Council. This Board, sitting on May 11th and May 15th, 1935, found for the Council and
cut the estimates from $246,382 to $234,143.38.
Evening classes were carried on most successfully at the T. J. Trapp Technical High
School under the directorship of Mr. R. B. Vaughan, M.A., and an opportunity was given
through the special assistance of the Department of Education so that those not regularly
employed might participate.
Classes for young men and women in physical recreation were also held under the leadership of Mr. Ian Eisenhardt, Mr. Ernest Lee, and Mrs. Lee, with the hearty co-operation of
the Board of School Trustees.
Miss Eva R. Cadwallader, Lord Lister-Kelvin School, exchanged with Miss Marion Proom,
of Sunderland, England, while Miss Thelma Fawcett, of Herbert Spencer School, exchanged
with Miss Jean McLeod, of Prince George, B.C. At the close of the year Mr. E. R. McMillan,
M.A., of the Duke of Connaught High School, retired on pension. The best wishes of his
many friends go with him.    Mr. Kenneth Miller resigned to take postgraduate work in France.
Again it is our pleasure to express appreciation to the Department of Education, to the
Board of School Trustees, to parent-teacher organizations, and to others whose assistance and
interest have made the past year so successful.
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VICTORIA.
REPORT OF GEORGE H. DEANE, MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of the City of Victoria for the
school-year 1934-35:—
The total enrolment was approximately 150 lower than 1933-34. This decrease resulted
in a slight reduction in staff at the close of the school-year. Since 1930 the total enrolment
in the Victoria City schools has decreased about 550 (9 per cent.) and the staff has been
reduced proportionately.
Following the lead of the City Council, the School Board gave a 3-per-cent. salary increase,
effective May 1st, 1935. This was only a partial restoration as teachers' salaries had been
previously reduced 16 per cent.
The Building and Grounds Committee of the Board did commendable work in carrying
out a programme of improvements at a comparatively low cost.
There was little change in school organization and a satisfactory standard of efficiency
was maintained. The subjects of health and physical education received greater attention.
The principal objective of health education is to have pupils form correct habits of health,
and in the elementary schools particularly the instruction with respect to the anatomy and
physiology of the body should cover only what is necessary to achieve this aim intelligently.
J PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 57
Instruction in " first aid " was included in the Health Course, and in the Quadra School
90 per cent, of the pupils enrolled in Grades VI., VII., and VIII. qualified for the junior
certificate of the St. John Ambulance Association. Too many teachers, apparently, fail to
appreciate the value of good posture and to realize the harmful effects of bad posture.
An effort will be made to improve this condition during the forthcoming school-year. Also,
in view of the increasing casualty toll, accident-prevention and safety education will be
planned more definitely.
The physical-education programme covered a wide variety of activities, such as physical
exercises and games from the prescribed syllabus, folk-dancing, singing games and rhythmic
movements, cadet drill and organized outdoor games. The number participating in these
activities was limited by available accommodation and future school planning will have to
provide more adequate facilities for this important work. The exhibition of exercises in the
School Pageant commemorating King George's Silver Jubilee received well-deserved public
commendation. At the annual inspection Oaklands Cadet Corps again received the highest
marks for general efficiency.
The academic work of the schools was characterized by an earnest effort to cover rather
heavy limits of work and, as measured by inspections, school tests, and departmental examinations, the general proficiency at the close of the year was satisfactory. The high school is
still the graduating school for the great majority of pupils, and it is essential that the revised
curriculum provide a well-balanced but not overloaded programme of studies which will give
the pupil the opportunity to progress according to his aptitudes and which will promote
character-building and mental development. For, after all, intellectual reactions in after-life
will be the main test of the efficiency of our schools.
At the end of 1934 Mr. George Jay retired from the Board after serving the city as
trustee for over thirty years, during nearly all of which period he acted as Chairman. This
is an outstanding record of service and constitutes a worthy contribution to the educational
welfare of the city. Two teachers, Mr. W. H. Binns, City Supervisor of Technical Education,
and Miss Alice L. Johnston, retired from the staff at the close of the school-year. Mr. Binns
served the Board efficiently for thirty-five years. Miss Johnston's record of efficient service
is outstanding and probably unparalleled in this Province. She taught thirty-four years in
the Girls' Central School and during that long period of continuous service she was absent
from duty only four days due to illness and death of a near relative. S 58
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
THE SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND THE BLIND.
REPORT  OF C. E. MacDONALD, LL.B., PRINCIPAL.
It becomes my duty and privilege to submit the following annual report of the School for
the Deaf and the Blind for the 1934-35 school-year:—■
ATTENDANCE.
The following table presents a summary of the enrolment for the year:—
Deaf.
Blind.
Girls.
Boys.
Girls.
Boys.
Total.
8
19
11
23
4
3
1
10
24
55
Totals  	
27
34
7
11
79
Three students were enrolled from the Province of Alberta. Of the remaining seventy-
six from all parts of British Columbia, the City of Vancouver contributed 28.9 per cent.
An examination of the records shows the assigned causes of deafness and blindness of
those in school to be as follows:—
Congenital
Unknown ..
Measles .	
Deaf.
  22
  20
  3
  5
  1
  1
  1
  1
  2
Whooping-cough  2
Scarlet fever  2
Fall  1
Blind.
Spinal meningitis ..
Infantile paralysis
Convulsions 	
Poliomyelitis 	
Otitis media 	
Influenza 	
Congenital 	
     8
Unknown 	
. ..    3
Accident  ...
.   4
Cataracts (congenital)
Measles    .
1
.    1
Buphthalmus	
     1
Totals  61
... 18
Of the total number, three have one or both parents deaf, one has a blind parent, and
one has related parents.
The average age of the whole school enrolment as at July 1st, 1935, is slightly over 13
years.
HEALTH.
Aside from such slight ailments and minor accidents as are common to children, there
has been no serious illness amongst those in residence.
Shortly after the Easter vacation, all the pupils were carefully examined by an eye, ear,
nose, and throat specialist, Dr. William Ainley, and recommendations for treatment made
to the parents in all cases where it was believed such treatment would measurably improve
the individual's condition.
In addition to the constant care and attention given to the children by the matron and
supervisors, the healthful location of the school, abundance of fresh milk, eggs, and vegetables,
quantity and quality of balanced meals prescribed by a dietitian, spacious playgrounds, regular
hours of study, play, and exercise, must be considered as important contributing factors
towards the general health and physical development of the children. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 59
IMPROVEMENTS.
Early in the spring the girls' sitting-room was refinished and attractively furnished.
A comfortable room was decorated and newly furnished for the older deaf boys and, at the
same time, a radio-room was provided for the blind boys, with a radio extension to the girls'
sitting-room for the blind girls.
In June of this year the older boys' dormitory, smaller boys' dormitory, smaller boys'
sitting-room and bath-room were redecorated by the Public Works Department. Substantial
improvements have been effected in the lighting arrangements and work is to be started in
the very near future on the driveways surrounding the school.
A new poultry-house is near completion which will replace the building now in use. The
new house is designed to accommodate a greater number of laying hens and to provide an
opportunity for training in poultry-raising for a number of older blind and deaf boys.
TEACHERS AND OFFICERS.
In January the profession lost the valuable services of a highly respected educator of the
deaf and blind through the retirement of Mr. S. H. Lawrence, who had served as principal
of this school since the fall of 1922.
Two replacements were made this spring in the supervising staff to carry forward the
out-of-school activity programme. One of these, a young Y.M.C.A. man, was placed in charge
of the older boys, while the other, a young Y.W.C.A. leader, was assigned to the activities
of the older girls.
The teaching staff of the previous school-year efficiently carried forward the academic
programme. At the close of school Miss A. Bond and Mrs. E. Acteson went East to attend
University Summer School sessions for further training in their respective fields.
PROGRESS OF THE ACADEMIC DEPARTMENT.
Shortly before Easter the Pure Oral Method was replaced by the Combined System for
the Deaf. Under this system, which embraces the oral, manual, and acoustic methods,
instruction is offered through that medium most suitable for the individual.
Equipment has already been purchased for the purpose of establishing a Sight-saving
class for the partially blind from sections where opportunities for this special type of instruction is not provided.    It is expected that this class will be ready to open in the fall.
A course of study has been developed for the deaf in primary grades through teacher
conferences. It is planned to continue such conferences in the fall to extend further this
course of study and develop or revise those of other departments.
Before the closing of school a questionnaire was sent out to all schools for the purpose
of determining the number of deaf, blind, partially deaf, and partially blind in the Province.
Returns are still being received and it is quite impossible, therefore, to make an intelligent
report on the returns thus far received. The results of this investigation, however, should be
of inestimable value to the Department and to this school.
It seems only fitting that in concluding this report I should express my deep appreciation
to the teachers, officers, and our Parent-Teacher Association who have contributed to the
success of the school-year. Their zeal and devotion made possible the continuation of
standards of the past. This same support carried several new programmes to a successful
beginning, contributing much of promise for the future growth of the school. S 60
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
REPORTS OF OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF CORRESPONDENCE
SCHOOLS.
HIGH SCHOOL AND VOCATIONAL COURSES.
REPORT BY J. W. GIBSON, M.A., B.PAED., OFFICER IN CHARGE.
The year ended July 31st, 1935, has witnessed a substantial advance in the work of
correspondence education. In the number of courses offered, as well as in the number of
students receiving instruction, there has been a notable increase. The total enrolment for
the year was exactly 1,000, as compared with 702 for the preceding year. The total enrolment
in unemployment camps was 590.
COURSES AND SUBJECTS.
The following courses and subjects were offered:—
1. Regular high-school courses in English, Social Studies, Health, Mathematics, Science,
Languages, Art, Book-keeping, Shorthand, and Typewriting.
2. Senior Matriculation courses in English, Mathematics, History, French, and Physics.
3. Technical and Vocational courses in Drafting, Building Construction, Practical
Electricity, Engineering Drawing, Automotive Engineering, Lettering and Display-card
Writing, and the Prospector's course in Geology and Mining (organized in conjunction with
the Mines Department).
New courses starting in autumn, 1935, are:—
1. Senior Matriculation Latin and Agriculture.
2. Advanced courses in Secretarial Practice and Accounting.
3. A new course in Home Economics which includes the study of foods, nutrition, household management, clothing and textiles, and applied art.
4. Vocational courses in Diesel Engineering, Radio, Steam Engineering, and Lumber-
grading.
There is a growing demand for practical courses of a vocational nature and, as circumstances permit, it is hoped that the demand will be met.
RESULTS OF INSTRUCTION.
Many expressions of appreciation have been received, both from parents and students,
during the year. Parents are grateful for the opportunity of securing for ambitious boys and
girls a fair measure of secondary education in this way when attendance at high school is,
for them, out of the question. We have also earned the gratitude of many young people
who have had to seek gainful employment in order to help to support the family at home in
these times of discouraging depression. They manage to keep up a moderate study programme
whilst engaged in earning a livelihood for themselves or for others. The number of patients
in hospitals and sanatoria who follow a controlled programme of study is larger than ever
before. For them many a weary and monotonous hour has been turned into an occasion for
interesting and profitable occupation. As in former years, a goodly number of students who
had been attending high school and had failed in a subject or two, or who wished to have
instruction in a few special subjects not taken in their former courses, were happy to take
advantage of our correspondence courses in order to reach their objectives. By concentrated
effort they are able to achieve surprisingly good results in a comparatively short time.
All correspondence students, on completing our courses leading to Junior Matriculation
and Normal Entrance, write the final public examinations set by the Provincial Board of
Examiners, and their papers are read by the same examiners that read the papers written
by regular high-school students. As all candidates write under assigned numbers the
examiners are quite unable to identify individual students. Correspondence students therefore have exactly equal chances with other candidates writing on these examinations. This
year sixty-three correspondence students wrote on the Grade XII. examinations, in whole or
in  part, with  very  satisfactory  results.    Altogether,  these  sixty-three  students  wrote  on PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 61
 e .
179 papers and passed on 149; that is, on 89 per cent, of them.    This is as good as the average
for the high schools of the Province;   in fact, is almost identical with them.
CORRESPONDENCE  COURSES IN RELATION TO  ADULT EDUCATION.
No age-limit has ever been set for applicants for correspondence instruction and from
the beginning we have had a large number of students over 18 years of age whom we regard
as adults. Approximately one-third of our students from year to year are adults. If we
included those students now registered for Senior Matriculation courses the proportion of
adults would be about 40 per cent. Of course all students in unemployment camps are
classed as adults.
As the opportunities offered for beneficial study through correspondence courses become
more widely known, and as the number of vocational courses increases, the proportion of
adults registering will also increase. There is much to support the prediction that three years
from now we shall have as many students over 18 years of age as under it. This is a good
sign and one that augurs well for the future of the Province. It may be quite true that the
hope of the future lies within the keeping of the children of to-day, but, as conditions are in
this as in most other countries at the present moment, the hope of the immediate future—
for the solution of the momentous problems confronting us—lies in the enlightenment and
increased efficiency of the adult portion of the population. The place that correspondence
instruction, combined with other forms of educational extension work, can be made to fill
in the realization of this future hope is very great indeed. The opportunity for action has
arisen, the need is urgent, and the time factor pre-eminent. The recently organized Canadian
Association for Adult Education will, no doubt, do a good deal to clarify and to co-ordinate
all movements and services throughout the Dominion planned for the educational advancement
of the people. It is also encouraging to know that a Province-wide survey in the interests
of educational extension amongst adults has been undertaken by a special committee of the
Senate of the University of British Columbia. Through this survey the expressed wishes of
the people in widely scattered communities are being recorded with a view to the formulation
of a well-concerted plan adaptable to the needs of each particular community. In all probability the use of home-study courses, following the correspondence method, will be found
useful in supplementing group-study and lecture courses.
CORRESPONDENCE COURSES AS AN AID TO HIGH SCHOOL
INSTRUCTION.
Most of the high schools of the Province are constantly faced with the administrative
difficulty of providing for each individual student the particular selection of subjects desired.
In the smaller high schools it is extremely difficult. More and more these schools are finding
out the advantages to be gained by having certain pupils register for the departmental
correspondence courses in those subjects that cannot be provided for in the school time-table.
Provision has been made for all such cases in the regulations governing High School Correspondence Courses and during the past year more high-school students than ever before
have been attracted to the idea of carrying one of the language or science options by
correspondence. During the class periods when optional subjects in which they are not
interested are in progress they work on the subject that they are carrying by correspondence.
This plan is being widely adopted in Nebraska and some other States where, during recent
years, hundreds of schools are making use of supervised correspondence courses. It means
the saving of the teacher's time, as well as providing the special subjects desired by the
students. It is of particular value in cases where students find it necessary to change their
courses.
More than ever before those teachers and school principals who may truly be ranked as
educationists are coming to grips with their own local educational problems. They are
becoming impressed with the futility of that type of educational regimentation whereby
students, to whom the intricacies of secondary education have never been properly explained,
are consigned to courses which lead to either Junior Matriculation or Normal Entrance, and
nothing more. These wideawake principals, sometimes after consultation with their inspectors,
have gone to some pains to ascertain the real needs of the individual students in attendance
at their respective schools.    It did not take long for them to find out that many of these S 62
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
young people had not the slightest notion of proceeding to the university. They could remain
for one, two, or possibly three years, and during those precious years of their early or middle
'teens, they hoped to get something from their studies and from their school experiences that
would help them to make a success of their lives. First of all, there was the problem of
finding their own particular life-work and the principal was almost forced to play the role
of vocational guidance officer. As a result the question of combined courses—partly academic
and partly vocational—are being planned and will be tried out during the coming year.
In one school several of the girls will carry our new Home Economics course, which combines
the study of foods, nutrition, and dietetics, with household management, and the study of
textiles and artistic design applied to the making of clothing. In another school some of the
boys will carry one or two of our vocational courses which include such subjects as drafting,
building construction, automobile mechanics, and practical electricity. In still another our
correspondence business courses will be used in making up a suitable programme for a number
of the young people. Whilst the suggested combined courses must be regarded as experimental,
and are being planned for the personal benefit of students whose formal education will be
over in two or three years, there can hardly be any doubt as to the practical outcome. The
field of usefulness of correspondence instruction has definitely broadened during the past year,
and we believe that still greater opportunities for educational extension along similar lines
will arise during the coming year.
The report on the work done in the relief camps will be found under " Adult Education." PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 63
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL COURSES.
REPORT OF MISS ISABEL BESCOBY, M.A., OFFICER IN CHARGE.
By reorganizing the offices and staff and rewriting the courses of lessons, the Elementary
Correspondence School was able, during 1934-35, to provide its students with an enriched
programme of work and a more vital school-life than heretofore.
At the beginning of the year, lessons were rewritten in all subjects for Grades I. to VI.
The new lessons are informal and stimulating. They are featured by self-corrective testing
exercises.    A high standard is required in all work submitted to the school for correction.
Optional work, involving the making of project-books, has been provided for brighter
students.    The new lessons have been highly appreciated.
Here is the comment of one parent:   " There is far greater variety and so much more of
the ' play' element in the new lessons that I have found D quicker to learn and far less
easily bored or tired."
Another mother writes as follows: "I do think the course is splendid for any pupil.
It certainly is thorough."
Many undertakings have given pupils a personal interest in their school. In comments
on written lessons and in personal letters, the instructors made special efforts to take account
of their pupils' living conditions. Children in most isolated districts have replied with
delightful accounts of rural life. The members of the Imperial Order of Daughters of the
Empire have continued to take a kindly interest in needy students by providing text-books,
current reading material, and clothing. The Canadian Red Cross Society sent a regular
news-letter monthly to Intermediate and Senior Grade students and a monthly magazine to
Senior students. The Society also co-operated in a Frontier and City Comrade Plan whereby
Correspondence and City School pupils exchanged letters. Fortunately, too, the Travelling
Library was able to extend its services to lone pupils. Selected volumes were purchased and
reserved for the use of Correspondence School pupils. Book reports of this outside reading
were submitted to the school.
The total enrolment, with or without adult registrations, shows an increase over all
previous years. Moreover, the enrolment figures are more exact than hitherto. Follow-up
letters were mailed monthly to pupils submitting work irregularly and the names of inactive
students were immediately removed from the grade registers. The total annual enrolment
by grades was as follows:—
Grade I.   127 Grade  VI.       82
Grade II.   115 Grade VII.       97
Grade III.   142 Grade  VIII.       91
Grade IV.   115 	
Grade V.   117 Total  886
The work of handling the papers and marking the lessons of these 886 students, together
with the work conducted in relief camps, was undertaken by, twelve instructors and stenographers. All members of the staff are qualified as teachers in British Columbia, while a
number are stenographers as well.
The report on work done by correspondence in the relief camps will be found under
'.' Adult Education." S 64 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
TEXT-BOOK BRANCH.
REPORT OF P. G. BARR, OFFICER IN CHARGE.
We have just completed a school-year with " Free Books " on the " Lending Plan," and it
is most gratifying to note the co-operation which has existed between principals, teachers,
all school officials, and this Branch in connection with this major change in policy. Undoubtedly, large sums of money have been saved and will continue to be saved in the future;
furthermore, it is obvious, from the manner in which most of the Annual Report Forms on
Free Texts are filled out, that the school officials are interested in and appreciate the change
over from the " Giving Plan." Unfortunately there is the odd case which still looks like
extravagance through unnecessary wastage in books, but careful records are being kept in
this office of all such cases, so that if necessary they may be dealt with through the Department. We again plead for sound economy in connection with the destroying of books considered unfit for further use. It is suggested that all pupils be taught how to open any new
book. For detailed information in regard to this very important matter see pages 66 and 148
in the Teachers' Manual Highroads to Reading, Book II., or pages 66 to 68, Teachers' Manual,
Book III.
Through the co-operation of two of the banks we have been able to distribute without cost
to us paper covers so that the life of the text-book may be prolonged. We hope these and
" home-made " covers will be put to good use in every school in the Province.
The Annual Reports and Free Requisitions for the year were on the whole carefully filled
out. In some cases a little time could be well spent in reading the instructions before attempting to complete the forms—all items listed must be reported on.
Much time will be saved and better service rendered if all principals, teachers, and others
would please note that books supplied on a free basis may be issued only if they are applied for
on a Free Requisition Form properly completed. If no Free Requisition is on hand and time
permits, please write this office for one; if time will not allow for this, then the application for
additional supplies may be made by letter, but full information in regard to numbers in grade,
stock on hand, name of school, etc., must be furnished. Two separate letters or forms must
be used when requesting free and saleable books. The Price List Order Form may be used
only when books are being purchased. If the above suggestions are not strictly adhered to it
entails unnecessary labour and correspondence and the shipment will be delayed.
In regard to School Libraries, we now have on hand some copies of a revised Library
Catalogue. Copies of this will be lent to schools contemplating the purchase of Library Books
if a request for a copy is made to this office.
The total number of free text-books issued during the school-year 1934-35 to the public
schools (elementary, superior, high, night, etc.), and in connection with the Correspondence
Courses for High School and Elementary School pupils, was as follows: 1,854 Canadian First
Reader; 1,339 Canadian Second Reader; 1,252 Canadian Third Reader; 1,040 Canadian
Fourth Reader; 1,877 Canadian Fifth Reader; 8,785 Highroads to Reading, Primer; 8,442
Highroads to Reading, Book 1; 9,458 Highroads to Reading, Book 2; 10,309 Highroads to
Reading, Book 3; 10,394 Highroads to Reading, Book 4; 10,923 Highroads to Reading, Book 5;
10,908 MacLean Practice Compendium No. 1; 9,695 MacLean Practice Compendium No. 2;
11,255 MacLean Practice Compendium No. 3; 15,368 MacLean Practice Compendium No. 4;
9,195 MacLean Senior Writing Manual; 100 Teachers' Writing Manual; 8,975 Spelling for the
Grades; 5,135 New Canadian Arithmetic, Book 1; 5,603 New Canadian Arithmetic, Book 2;
2,263 Junior High School Mathematics, Book 1; 2,813 Junior High School Mathematics, Book
2; 1,198,740 sheets of Drawing Paper, 6 by 9 inches; 48,222 sheets of Drawing Paper, 9 by 12
inches; 157 Teachers' Manual of Drawing; 385 Teachers' Record Book of Free Texts; 47
Principals' Record Book of Free Texts; 1.526 Monthlv Reports of Attendance, Cities; 656
Monthly Reports of Attendance, Municipalities; 1,297 Monthly Reports of Attendance, Rural;
101,561 Monthly Reports to Parents; 1,274 Register of Pupils, Large; 95 Register of Pupils,
Small; 35,374 Progress Record Cards; 65 Smith and Roberts' Arithmetic, Book 1; 75 Smith
and Roberts' Arithmetic, Book 2; 31 Citizenship in B.C. (Angus) ; 264 Progressive Road to
Reading, Book 1; 237 Progressive Road to Reading, Book 2; 82 Progressive Road to Reading,
Book 3;  42 Progressive Road to Reading, Book 3a;  354 Everyday Canadian Primer;  248 Silent PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 65
Study Reader, Book 2; 26 Silent Study Reader, Book 3; 55 Silent Study Reader, Book 4;
27 Trees and Shrubs, Food, Medicinal, and Poisonous Plants of British Columbia; 661 Syllabus
of Physical Training; 30 Flora of Southern British Columbia; 28 Bird Study in British
Columbia; 49 Wall Maps, World (Spring Roller); 47 Wall Maps, Canada (Spring Roller);
55 Wall Maps, British Columbia (Plain Roller); 44 Wall Maps, British Isles (Spring Roller);
45 Wall Maps, North America (Spring Roller); 170 Flags, Small; 48 Flags, Large; 3,412
Annual Public Schools Report, 1933-34; 318 Manual of School Law (complete with amendments); 292 Programme of Studies, Elementary; 147 Programme of Studies, Junior High;
787 Programme of Studies, High;   15,547 Honour Rolls.
Twenty-four free libraries of approximately forty titles were issued to new schools and the
usual service was given the School Boards who wished to purchase books for libraries.
The usual report forms were forwarded to all School Boards where and when required.
To purchase and distribute the free books and supplies listed above required an expenditure of $53,539.60, and 3,660 Free Requisitions were received and filled.
During the school-year 1934-35, 11,446 orders were filled from dealers, School Boards, or
others throughout the entire Province, and the sum of $151,688.52 was deposited in the Treasury
from these sales.
In regard to saleable books, it is necessary again to point out that in districts where there
are no dealers saleable books may be ordered from this office by School Boards, and if the
orders are submitted by the Secretary, the dealers' discount may be allowed. When the books
are resold to pupils a fair overhead may be charged, but they must not be resold at more than
the Department's List Price. Please note that the order must be signed by the Secretary and
amount to $2 or over before discount will be allowed, and books purchased through this office
by School Boards are not returnable for credit. If, because of communication difficulties, it is
not possible to obtain the signature of the Secretary or Official Trustee, teachers may order
direct on us and apply for the discount, but a satisfactory reason for the omission of the official's
signature must be given.
The following is a copy of the Annual Report of the Text-book Branch for the fiscal year
ended March 31st, 1935 :—
Victoria, B.C., August 28th, 1935.
The Honourable the Minister of Education,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Officer in Charge of the
Text-book Branch, together with the Balance-sheet and Profit and Loss Statement for the
twelve months ended March 31st, 1935.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
P. G. Barr,
Officer in Charge, Text-book Branch.
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE OFFICER IN CHARGE, TEXT-BOOK BRANCH,
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st, 1935.
In presenting the third annual statement in connection with this Branch, I am pleased
to be able to report a most successful year's business.
Stock.
It will be noted that the value of our stock on hand has been reduced considerably, and
it is now approaching a more reasonable figure. There is still a certain amount of reserve
stock included in the total " stock on hand "; however, the entire stock is " live " and saleable.
Improvements are continually being made in connection with storing and handling, and our
operating charges are therefore low.
Our total sales for the year amounted to $176,903.88, an increase of 12% per cent, over
those of the previous year; discounts allowed to dealers, School Boards, etc., totalled $24,836.83.
The distribution of free texts, etc., cost $53,561.76, against an estimated figure of $60,000.
5 S 66 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
Sales.
The volume of sales shows an increase over last year. This is accounted for mainly
through a slight general increase over the entire Province for the year. The sales were
not so heavy at school opening, but there has been a heavier volume of repeat orders. This
entails extra labour; however, it is a service which is appreciated by the dealers and buyers
throughout the Province.
Profit.
It will be noted that the net profit for the year amounted to $2,783.20, and once more we
have carried our entire overhead and conducted the Branch along business lines at a reasonable profit.
Again, in conclusion, I wish to express my appreciation of the splendid spirit of loyalty
and co-operation shown amongst the employees of this Branch, who during our busier periods
are required to give much additional service, and for the courtesy and co-operation shown
by all members of the Department of Education, School Boards, and dealers throughout the
Province.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
P. G. Barr,
Officer in Charge, Text-book Branch.
August 28th, 1935.
Profit and Loss Statement, Year ended March 31st, 1935.
Gross sales .  $176,903.88
Less discount       24,836.83
Net sales   $152,067.05
Stock on hand, March 31st, 1934     $91,692.77
Purchases for year:
Cost  $98,249.55
Freight and duty        2,703.06
    100,952.61
$192,645.38
Stock on hand, March 31st, 1935       58,641.61
Net cost of goods sold     134,003.77
Gross profit for year      $18,063.28
Expenses:
Salaries and wages      $11,617.52
Freight and delivery        2,801.43
Packing and general expenses  865.22
       15,284.17
Net operating profit for year       $2,779.11
Bad-debt recoveries   $12.52
Less bad debts written off   8.43
  4.09
Net profit, transferred to Consolidated Revenue        $2,783.20
Certified correct. Certified correct.
J. F. Meredith, P. G. Barr,
Clerk. Officer in Charge. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
S 67
Balance-sheet, March 31st, 1935.
Assets.
$126.57
Refund cash:
On hand
      ....           $50.00
In bank     ... ..    .. ...	
            150.00
200.00
Stock inventory:
Reserve .    	
       $9,695.50
Active 	
       48,946.11
58,641.61
Accounts receivable:
Departmental   .... .....   . .
       $3,557.95
General .   .     ...
         ....           497.77
Less reserve for bad debts
$4,055.72
500.00
Liabilities.
3,555.72
$62,523.90
Treasury advances          	
$200.00
Operating Account 	
61,573.90
Reserve for obsolescence of stock	
750.00
Certified correct.
P. G. Barr,
Officer in C
$62,523.90
Certified correct.
J. F. Meredith,
Clerk.
'harge. S 68 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
REPORT ON THE WORK OF ADULT EDUCATION,
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
BY JOHN KYLE, A.R.C.A., OFFICER IN CHARGE OF TECHNICAL
EDUCATION.
Committee.—Major J. G. Rycroft, Department of National Defence; Mrs. Paul Smith,
M.L.A.; Miss J. L. McLenaghen, Director of Home Economics; Harry Charlesworth, Secretary
of Teachers' Federation; Ian Eisenhardt, Director of Physical Education; John Kyle, Officer
in Charge of Technical Education.
I have the honour of presenting a report on the work of Adult Education as conducted
in British Columbia from October 1st, 1934, to October 1st, 1935.
The statement does not include the work of night-schools carried on by School Boards
and grants for which are paid by the Department of Education. Neither does it include the
Mining classes conducted by the combined efforts of the Department of Mines and the Department of Education. While all such work could well be classed as Adult Education, we have
confined this report to that which was paid for from Votes No. 65 and No. 63 (a). These
special grants were intended as relief measures for men and women who were out of employment, and the particular object in view was the preservation of their skill, self-respect, and
morale. From this point of view the classes were a decided success. The effect on the students
from participation in the work was decidedly noticeable; their self-reliance and confidence
increased, and this was responsible for numerous successful interviews and for many finding
work.
The classes referred to may be placed in three divisions: (I.) Instruction for men in relief
camps—through schools established in camps and by courses of study conducted by correspondence. (II.) Instruction for men and women not in relief camps—through* day and night
classes established with the assistance of local School Boards. (III.) Recreational and
Physical Education classes for the unemployed.
It will be seen from the following detailed statement that in Division I. 1,405 men in
relief camps have been receiving instruction either in camp schools or by the aid of correspondence courses. In Division II. 1,381 men and women not in relief camps have received
instruction in equipped shops or by the aid of correspondence courses or at free night-schools.
The report for Division III. of this work is found on page 75.
This report, which embraces Divisions I. and II., is perhaps rather brief, but there will
be found appended the following details:—
(a.)   Course of Radio Addresses.
(6.)   Course in Economics.
(c.)   Reports from Miss Isabel Bescoby and Mr. J. W. Gibson, Officers in Charge of
Correspondence Courses, and from Mr. F. Fairey.
Division I.—Division I. deals with the educational work which is carried on in relief camps.
Three school buildings have been erected by the Department of National Defence, three
instructors being provided by the Department of Education. The camp school provides a
centre for study and a tutor in charge to whom an appeal for help can be made. The instruction is given principally through the medium of correspondence courses issued by the Department of Education. In addition to the ordinary elementary- and high-school subjects, there
are fine courses in the following technical subjects: Mechanical Drawing, Building Construction, Engineering Drawing, Practical Electricity, Automotive Engineering (including Ignition) , Geology, Drafting, Technical Mathematics, and the Carpenter's Steel Square.
A School of Camp Cookery has also been opened at University Hill Relief Camp. Eighty-
four assistant cooks were brought from camps in the Province and have undergone further
training in the culinary art. It is intended to continue training groups of men until a balance
between supply and demand is reached. After that we shall seriously consider a continuance
of the class along vocational lines with the object of training chefs, restaurant cooks, and
cooks of every conceivable kind. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
S 69
The following is a list of the camp schools, together with the instructors:
School.
Subject.
Instructor.
University Hill Relief Camp, Vancouver^.
Camp Cookery..
Otter Point Relief Camp, near Sooke._..
Deroche Relief Camp, Harrison Mills.
Wilson's Landing Relief Camp, Kelowna..
General Subjects..
General Subjects..
General Subjects-
W. J. Levirs; James
Mathews (Secretary).
A. E. Waterman.
Alan S. Catt.
E. H. Merrick.
The total enrolment in Division I. was as follows:—
Correspondence Courses in Relief Camps—
Elementary School (see Miss Bescoby's report)	
High School and Technical (see Mr. Gibson's report).
Technical  (see Mr. Fairey's report)	
Relief Camp Schools 	
Total.
. 211
. 590
. 458
. 146
1,405
Division II.—The classes in Division II. are, for the most part, held in disused school
buildings and the programmes are of three types: (a) The first distinctly vocational in
character; (b) the second more in the nature of providing occupations or hobbies; (c) the
third purely recreational.
The first type (a) has well-equipped shops for Woodwork, Electrical Work, Automobile
Engineering, and a combination of Wood and Metal Work. Skilled practical men are in
charge of these shops and a foundation can be well laid for such trades as Cabinetmaking,
House-building, Electrical Engineering, Automobile Engineering, Drafting, Typewriting,
Stenography, Foods and Clothing.
The following is a list of the schools for the unemployed, with the instructors in charge:—
School.
Subjeet.
Instructor.
Macdonald School, Hastings Street, Vancouver..
Macdonald School, Hastings Street, Vancouver..
Sanford Fleming School, Vancouver  	
Carleton School, Kingsway, Vancouver   _„
School for New Canadians, 337 Carrall Street, Vancouver..
Strathcona School,  Vancouver.   	
Ridgeway and High Schools, North Vancouver  	
Queen Mary School, North Vancouver-
West Vancouver High and Pauline Johnson Schools, West
Vancouver
T. J. Trapp Technical High School, New Westminster-
Victoria West School, Victoria.
Automobile Mechanics,.
Building Construction	
Cabinetmaking 	
Electricity _„ __	
English for New Canadians	
Clothing  .„ x	
Foods and Clothing. __.
Motor Mechanics 	
Woodwork and Electricity.	
Typewriting and Stenography
Spanish— —	
Auto Mechanics	
Clothing    ___	
Woodwork and Sheet-metal
Work._._ _,„	
Electricity..  	
Home Economies  	
Home Economics '   _._	
James Rodgers; E. A.
Cahill; Albert Cox.
Thomas Porteous.
A. E. Sykes.
W. R. O'Neill.
R. H. Sheridan.
Mrs. F. Wesley.
Mrs Janet Mill.
Ernest A. Cole.
Fred Wilcock.
Mrs. W. Reid.
V. Cianci.
J. Banks.
Mrs. S. Derrick.
Frank R. Corp.
R. Henderson.
Miss M. Bannatyne;
Miss K. Shearer.
Miss E. Latimer. S 70
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
The second type (6) consists of classes operated by the Community Self-Help Association
and the A.O.T.S. (As One That Serveth) Society.
The following is a list of the subjects taught, together with the instructors:—
School.
Subject.
Instructor.
I
A.O.T.S.   (As One That Serveth)   Polytechnic, 138 Cordova
Street East, Vancouver
This is an organization which has been active in good deeds.
The Scandinavian Church Building on Cordova Street East
was placed at its disposal.
Community   Self-Help   Centres,   Vancouver.    Office,    1675
Tenth Avenue West
Drafting.— _
Wood-carving-
Commercial Subjects-
English for New Canadians	
Free lectures on Mining were
also held there, but this is
included in the report on the
Mining classes.
Spinning, Weaving, Dyeing,
Dramatics, Choral Singing,
Orchestral Music, Folk-dancing, Pottery, Wood-carving,
Literature, Painting, Carpentry, Quilt-making, Rug-
making, Dressmaking.
W. Edington.
W. G. Donaldson.
M. Brown ; T. W.
Edwards.
R. H. Sheridan.
Miss V.  Meyers and
others.
Miss M. F. Pollard,
Secretary.
The Community Self-Help Association is sponsored by the Local Council of Women and
the Department of Education. The group does not undertake to teach trades; they are busy
helping housewives make the most of discarded material and also adding value to materials
which are of no further use to the owners. In Spinning and Weaving the raw wool is washed,
spun, dyed, woven, and made into garments, all of which may be classed as vocational.
The enrolment of above classes was as follows:—■
New Westminster	
North Vancouver	
West Vancouver 	
Vancouver	
Victoria 	
Students taking correspondence courses ...
Total..
. 133
. 145
. Ill
946
23
23
1,381
It will thus be seen that these shops have been tremendously successful. The development
of these is imperative, especially if the camps are dispensed with. Additional shops should
be equipped at North Vancouver, Burnaby, Victoria, Nanaimo, and Ladysmith. The courses
of work given in these shops are distinctly vocational in character, and the instructors are
competent craftsmen and good teachers. They are members of our teacher-training classes.
Division III.—The third type of work, Division III., consists of Physical Education, and
this is recreational in the best sense of the word. The fact that 2,689 young men and women
attended the classes proves that the programme appealed to the people. The Director, Ian
Eisenhardt, who had full charge of this work, has a separate report (page 75).
The enrolment for Adult Education, not including those attending night-schools in the
usual way or the classes for prospectors, was as follows:—
Division I.  1,405
Division II.   1,381
Division III.   2,689
Total	
A separate report will be found for night-schools.
5,475 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 71
ADULT EDUCATION RADIO ADDRESSES.
"THE   SOCIAL PROBLEMS  OP  BRITISH  COLUMBIA."
(Arranged by Mr. Charlesworth.)
1935. Speaker. Subject.
Jan.        8. Dr. H. M. Cassidy Health and Welfare Services.
„       15. Mr. P. C. Boyes Your Boy and Mine.
„       22. Mr. Ian Eisenhardt Physical  and  Recreational  Education in  British
Columbia.
„       29. Mr. J. Kyle Educational   Opportunities   for   Unemployed   of
British Columbia:   What has been Done and
What Might be Done.
*Peb.       5. Miss I. Bescoby : Education in the Outposts of British Columbia—
Elementary Correspondence School.
* „ 6. Mr. H. N. MacCorkindale Recent Changes in Education.
* „ 7. Dr. G. G. Sedgewick Education and the Arts.
„       12. Mr. F. C. Boyes Reclaiming the Boy—The Industrial School.
„       19. Dr. J. R. Sanderson The Functions of a Modern High School.
„       26. Dr. G. Davidson The Work of the Welfare Department.
March   5. Mr. J. W. Gibson High  School  Correspondence  Schools of British
Columbia.
„       12. Dr. Kaye Lamb The Work of the Provincial Library and Archives.
„       19. Postponed.
„       26. Mr. Harry Charlesworth What can Education do for World Peace?
Note.—On February 8th the Minister of Education spoke over B.C. Network on " The
State and Education." All station times for this address donated by Canadian Radio Commission, on behalf of Canadian Education Week sponsored by Canadian Teachers' Federation.
April   16. Mr. W. G. Brandreth .Health and Physical Education.
„       30. Dr. H. M. Cassidy Social and Health Insurance.
May     28. Prof. F. H. Soward Britain and the European Crisis.
* Education Week.
NIGHT-SCHOOL CLASS IN ECONOMICS.
(Organized by Mr. Charlesworth.)
INSTRUCTOR:   PROFESSOR DRUMMOND, UNIVERSITY OF B.C.
The above class was held in Richard McBride School, Vancouver. The course extended
from February 15th to March 29th and the following report came from the Principal of the
School, Mr. F. A. Armstrong: —
REPORT ON CLASS IN ECONOMICS.
The class has been carried on weekly since the initial meeting on February 15th, with
Professor Drummond in charge.
As was to be expected in any such undertaking, the attendance has fallen off considerably
since the first meeting, but those at present attending appear to be genuinely interested.
We are hoping that their interest may be sustained, so that we may have a very enthusiastic
group to start with in the fall, and that it may be possible to build up a small library for
their use. We would undertake to care for the books and their distribution in the school.
As an aid to summer reading, Professor Drummond will prepare a list for distribution at
the next meeting. S 72 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
Following is a statement of attendance since the class first met on February 15th:
February   15  60 March    8  39
22  53 „      15  30
March 1  28 „      22  25
Our last meeting for this season will be held next Friday evening, the 29th.
ELEMENTARY CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL.
MISS ISABEL BESCOBY, OFFICER IN CHARGE.
On November 1st, 1934, notices were sent out to the unemployment camps that we were
prepared to give lessons to the men free of charge. Very soon twenty-eight men enrolled
and from that the numbers have steadily increased until there were 211 on the register.
Among these men are many foreigners who began work as simple as Grade II. and who
have now acquired a good working knowledge of English. " Madam," writes one, " I should
like to thank you, also the authorities of the Province of B.C., for your assistance in helping
me to learn read and writing in English language correctly."
A new Language Course has been compiled especially for the use of foreign adult pupils.
While the course in English was very popular, the Grade VII. and VIII. Arithmetic lessons
have also been much demanded. The request for Senior Grade Arithmetic has come from
English-speaking pupils who have had a limited education in Canada.
The following shows the number of men in unemployment camps enrolled about the end
of the school-year:—
English—
Writing  ■;     66
Spelling   113
Grammar      19
Language   106
Literature      20
  324
Arithmetic   125
History  ..       2
Geography        2
Drawing        2
Total   455
The total number of individual students was 211.
As men became irregular in submitting lessons we wrote follow-up letters inquiring
about their progress.
The work of sending out and marking these papers has been handled by two fully qualified
teachers.
The following letters of appreciation were received from two of the students:—
"I am expecting a job at the end of March; may I continue with my Arithmetic and
Spelling studies?    I would like to have a fair writing and spelling knowledge."
" I wish to thank you for the certificate which you sent me. I am forwarding it to some
relations of mine to put safely by for me, and also to show the younger members of the family
who are attending school that the old man is just as good a scholar as they are."
We were pleased that during the summer while they worked temporarily outside their
camps, a number of adult pupils continued to submit lessons. Enrolment early in the school-
year 1935-36 indicates that some at least will pursue studies to the end of Grade VIII. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 73
CORRESPONDENCE   COURSES  IN  HIGH  SCHOOL AND  TECHNICAL
SUBJECTS TO MEN IN UNEMPLOYMENT CAMPS.
J. W. GIBSON, OFFICER IN CHARGE.
By arrangement with the Department of National Defence instruction by correspondence
was introduced in eighty-three unemployment camps in the Province. The total enrolment in
high school and vocational correspondence courses was 590. Approximately 42 per cent, of
those who sent in applications dropped out or left the camps without sending in any work; the
remaining 60 per cent, did fairly creditable work on the whole, but most of them did not complete the courses which they started. Only thirty students (approximately 5 per cent.) completed the courses for which they enrolled and about twice that number succeeded in passing
the half-way mark by midsummer. Quite a considerable number of the men expressed a desire
to complete the courses for which they had registered and in which they were making satisfactory progress. A number of the men who had succeeded in securing employment and had
left the camps requested permission to continue their studies and willingly paid a small tuition
fee in order to do so. They were allowed to purchase, at a reduced price, the books and equipment loaned to them whilst in camp. These men are in earnest and will likely succeed. Whilst
in camp the men were not called on to pay anything towards the cost of instruction and all
necessary books and equipment were loaned to them through their respective camp foremen.
Extensive correspondence was carried on with the men direct, and during the six months,
November to May, while the courses were in operation, not an unpleasant or disagreeable
remark reached us from any of them. When one considers the very serious handicap, due. to
the absence of suitable facilities for study, under which these men attempted to do their work,
one cannot but admire their determination and wish that proper conditions for study could
have been provided. In three of the camps supervising instructors were engaged by the
Department of Education and a special school-room provided. Needless to say, the best results
were achieved in these three camps and, if the work of camp instruction is to be resumed, this
type of accommodation should be stipulated as a requirement. A second condition should be
a proper classification of the men with respect to the vocations in which they are most interested or which they definitely wish to follow. Under these improved conditions the men would
respond in very much larger numbers and would undoubtedly benefit greatly from their study
courses. We gained sufficient knowledge during the last six or eight months to be able to say
with a measure of certainty that correspondence instruction in camps, under anything
approaching respectable working conditions and with a supervising instructor in charge in
each camp, can be made of great personal value to the men and ultimately of genuine benefit
to the Province.
CORRESPONDENCE COURSES IN TECHNICAL SUBJECTS FOR MEN
IN RELIEF CAMPS.
REPORT BY FRANK FAIREY, VICE-PRINCIPAL, TECHNICAL
SCHOOL, VANCOUVER.
I beg to submit herewith a report covering the work undertaken by a number of the staff
of the Vancouver Technical School in connection with the above-named subjects.
It was agreed, early in November, that the Correspondence Branch, Department of Education, would take over certain of the courses formerly conducted by this school, and that the
school would continue to offer such courses for which the Correspondence Branch was not then
prepared. Our work was to be confined, as last year, to the unemployment relief camps.
These arrangements resulted in Electricity I. and II. and Engineering Drawing being taken
from us, leaving us the responsibility for the courses shown below.
The quality of work has been uniformly good. The instructors in Automotive Engineering, Geology, and Steel Square report that the work this year was of a higher standard than
during the previous year. S 74 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
In general, all courses were arranged on a unit basis. A unit consists of sufficient
instructional material and assigned questions to occupy approximately ten hours of the
students' time.    Twenty such units comprise a course.
Certificates, showing the number of units completed and the grade of work done, have been
forwarded to all students who have completed a reasonable amount of satisfactory work.
All instruction sheets and lessons were rewritten by the teachers in charge and were sent
out in mimeographed form, together with sufficient blank paper upon which the assigned work
was to be completed. Envelopes addressed to the school were also provided. Simple drafting
^equipment was sent to all enrolled for Drafting.
Many letters have been received from the men, all of whom express appreciation and
testify to their enjoyment of the work.
In conclusion, it is my pleasure on behalf of the staff of this school to record my thanks to
the officials of the Education Department in Victoria for their co-operation in making the
administration of the work so simple and yet so effective.
The enrolment of men taking technical subjects was as follows:—
Drafting     75
The Carpenter's Steel Square !     75
Technical Mathematics      52
Automotive Engineering  231
Geology  107
Diesel Engineering !     25
Number of individual students, 458. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 75
RECREATIONAL AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF IAN EISENHARDT, DIRECTOR.
On November 9th, 1934, the Honourable the Minister of Education, Dr. G. M. Weir,
announced the establishment of classes for recreational and physical education.
The aims and objects of the new work were to protect the youths of British Columbia from
degenerating effects caused by enforced idleness, and to build up the morale and character
which rest on a good physical basis. Within a short time of Dr. Weir's announcement, centres
were established in six cities—Nanaimo, 1 centre; New Westminster, 3; North Vancouver, 2;
Vancouver, 8; Victoria, 3; and West Vancouver, 2 centres. Unanimous support was given
by City Councils, School Boards, and other public and semi-public agencies. The nineteen
centres which were established were located mostly in school gymnasiums, but in some instances
private halls, church halls, and swimming-pools were used. The primary aim was to serve
the unemployed youths and adults, but very soon employed people who did not make sufficient
money to join agencies such as the Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., church clubs, or private gymnasiums,
registered in the classes. The response from the public was immediate and enthusiastic. The
informal and yet firm way in which the classes were conducted appealed to the youths, and the
extensive programme which was conducted made it interesting for every one who joined. At
the end of the season—March 31st—3,000 people, men and women, had joined the centres in
the Province.    Of these, 2,689 came regularly to the classes.
The classes provided physical education—gymnastic exercises, ball games such as volleyball, basket-ball, and handball; a soccer league was also conducted. Tumbling, pyramid-
building, apparatus-work, folk, tap, and natural dancing were included on the programme also.
In order to carry out such an extensive programme it was necessary to engage experts
in every line of gymnastics and sports. In this matter the Director was fortunate enough to
secure the services of well-qualified male and female playground directors who had worked
with him for years on the Vancouver playgrounds. These men and women co-operated fully,
believed in their work, and were very enthusiastic about it. There is no doubt but that their
influence was one of the best under which the temporarily unemployed could be placed.
The foundation-work for all the classes for both men and women was gymnastic exercises
—the most democratic substitute for sports, games, and athletics. In the centres they could
assemble in groups and take part in gymnastics and sports in which they could not participate
otherwise. Gymnastic exercises are very inexpensive as they require little or no equipment.
Throughout the season, however, to stimulate interest in the centres, competitions and special
social events were held. Of these I might mention the cross-country race in January in Vancouver; the novice boxing championships at McDonald School, Vancouver, in February; the
swimming meet at the Crystal Garden, Victoria; numerous ball leagues; and closing displays
at the six cities in which centres were operating. The greatest display was staged in the
Beatty Street Drill Hall in Vancouver on Friday, March 22nd, 1935. Several thousand people
came to watch the 500 men and women who had come from New Westminster, North and West
Vancouver to demonstrate what they had been taught during the winter season. The display,
consisting of Danish and Swedish gymnastics, apparatus-work, pyramid-building, dancing,
and marching, was most enthusiastically received by the public.
This Recreational and Physical Education is filling a great need. The classes teach the
young people of British Columbia how to keep fit, how to keep healthy, how to get the most
from life, and how to serve best. A full existence depends upon a healthy, active mind. Discipline of body leads to discipline of mind. The leisure-hours, which will increase even when
better times arrive because of the mechanization of the world, will demand further activities
of the kind this work promotes. Unless wholesome and healthy activities are provided, we
have only ourselves to blame if the young people waste their time and form bad habits through
undesirable associations. From all sides requests for centres have poured into the office.
School Boards and City Councils have urged us to operate also in their respective cities, in
order to give these young people an objective, something to do, an outlet for their energy, and
some place to go to prevent their forming into gangs on street-corners.    The centres provide S 76 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
the young people with the opportunity to make friends, teach them co-operation in play, and
help toward the building of a community spirit.
Naturally, in such a social experiment as this, mistakes are bound to be made, but they
will be eliminated one by one; and it is the hope of the Director that within a short time
policies will be formulated through the constructive criticism which has been given him from
various sides.
The total expenditures for such a scheme did not amount to much more than $12,500 for
the five months the centres were operating. When one considers that rentals have to be paid
out of that sum, as well as the salaries of the instructors, and new equipment purchased, it is
rather surprising that it was possible to carry out a scheme of that magnitude with so small
an outlay. It was only possible through the strictest economy on the part of every one on the
staff, and through the co-operation given by the School Boards and other public bodies from
which we rented halls, gymnasiums, and swimming-pools.
In a report of the activities of the National Recreation Association in New York City, it
was stated that the cost for free recreation in the community centres of the U.S.A. amounted
to about 10 cents per person each time a facility was used, meaning that every time a man or
a woman came to the community centre the cost amounted to 10 cents each. Our expenditures
compare very favourably with the expenditures shown in the budget of the National Recreation
Association.
In conclusion, may I again thank the various Advisory Committees which were established
in every city. The Minister of Education, Hon. Dr. G. M. Weir, who initiated the programme,
gave most helpful advice and encouragement to all who were charged with the responsibility
of carrying it out to a successful issue. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35. S 77
THE STRATHCONA TRUST.
REPORT OF J. L. WATSON, B.A., SECRETARY, LOCAL COMMITTEE.
PHYSICAL TRAINING, 1934-35.
A total of 246 prospective teachers received theoretical and practical instruction in physical
training at the Normal Schools during the year 1934-35, a decrease of fifty-six in the number
qualifying during the previous year. This decrease was due to the smaller Normal School
enrolment.
The gold medals, awarded annually by the Local Committee to the students gaining the
highest rank for instructional ability in physical training, were won by Miss Louise M.
Kennedy, Vancouver, and Miss Joyce E. Applegate, Victoria. Both winners of these awards
were outstanding students in the other subjects of the Normal School Course.
At the annual meeting it was decided to arrange for the purchase of four gold medals for
presentation at the close of the Normal School session in June, 1936. These medals are to be
presented to the male student and the female student at each of the Normal Schools holding
the highest rank in instructional ability in physical training.
At the annual meeting held October 25th, 1934, provision was made for the granting of
ninety-five prizes of $8 each for competition among the various schools for the year 1934-35.
A total of eighty-four recommendations was received from Government and Municipal
Inspectors and $672 distributed as prizes. The full amount of each award is to be expended
for a picture or some piece of apparatus (suitably inscribed) for the room or school in which
the prize was won.
PHYSICAL TRAINING, 1935-36.
For competition in the various schools 100 prizes of $7 each have been granted. These
prizes are to be allocated as follows: Three prizes to each of the twenty-one inspectorates;
twenty-seven prizes to Vancouver; four prizes to Victoria; and two prizes each to New Westminster, Saanich, and Sumas-Abbotsford-Matsqui. For purposes of competition and inspection, the schools of each of the twenty-one inspectorates are to be divided, where possible, into
three groups, namely: Group A, of five divisions or more; Group B, of two to four divisions,
inclusive; Group C, of schools containing only one division. In any inspectorate or municipality where this classification is not applicable, the matter of deciding what schools or
divisions of schools are to receive awards is to be left to the discretion of the Inspector in
charge.
CADET CORPS, 1934-35.
A continued improvement in the work done in physical training by cadet corps was
apparent during the past year. Very fine displays were given at Oaklands, Boys' Central,
and Victoria West Schools in Victoria and Duke of Connaught High School in New Westminster.
Eight hundred and fifty cadets received general instruction in first aid, and eighty-five of
these secured junior certificates of the St. John Ambulance Association.
Seventy-five boys attended special courses in cadet signalling and received certificates and
the usual bonus.
During the past year there were twenty-six active corps with 1,662 high and elementary
school cadets enrolled.
At the annual inspection Oaklands Elementary School Cadet Corps, Victoria, in charge
of Lieut. A. J. Stevenson, was given the highest mark for general proficiency. Second place
was awarded Duke of Connaught High School Cadet Corps, New Westminster, under command
of Capt. W. Minaty.
A total of $195, divided into eleven prizes, was distributed in accordance with the schedule
adopted at the annual meeting. The following schedule was adopted: 1st prize, $30; 2nd prize,
$25; 3rd prize, $20; 4th and 5th prizes, $18; 6th prize, $16; 7th to 10th prizes, inclusive, $14
each; 11th prize, $12. One-half of the award was given to the instructors of the corps and
one-half to the principal of the school to be expended in the interest of the student body. S 78
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
RIFLE SHOOTING, 1934-35.
Twenty-four cadets from eight corps qualified for prizes for rifle shooting. The sum of
$30 was distributed as prizes, allocated as follows: Eight prizes of $1.50 each; eight prizes of
$1.25 each; and eight prizes of $1 each.
FIRST AID, 1934-35.
During the past year 609 junior certificates for first aid were obtained by pupils in the elementary and high schools. A total of 274 of these certificates was awarded in Vancouver; 215
in Victoria; 94 in Burnaby (Edmonds Street School); 7 each in Nanaimo and Princeton; and
5 each in Coal Creek and Fernie. Sexsmith School, Vancouver, with an enrolment of 353
pupils, secured 97 certificates, the highest number obtained by any school, and Edmonds Street
School, Burnaby, with an enrolment of 605 pupils, obtained 94, and Quadra School, Victoria,
with an enrolment of 239, obtained 87.
From surplus funds available a total of $120 as prizes for securing junior certificates for
first aid was distributed as follows: $40 each to Vancouver and Victoria Schools; $10 to
Edmonds Street School (Burnaby) ; and $7.50 to Coal Creek, Fernie, Nanaimo, and Princeton
Schools. In each case the full amount of the award is to be given to the principal of the school
to be spent by him in the interest of the student body.
From surplus funds available a sum of at least $105 has been voted to be used in 1935-36
as prizes for encouragement of training in first aid.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT.
The funds at the disposal of the Local Committee for the year 1934-35 amounted to
$1,961.42 and the expenditure for the year $1,054.98, leaving a balance of $906.44. Of this
amount, $700 has been voted for physical-training prizes for 1935-36; $105 as prizes for the
encouragement of training in first aid during 1935-36; and $72 for the purchase of gold medals
for presentation to students at the Normal Schools in June, 1936.
Receipts.
1934-35.    Balance on hand from 1933-34  $914.67
Uncashed cheque returned to funds  7.00
Interest on deposit  27.69
Allowance to Secretary added to fund  10.00
Grant for 1934-35  1,002.06
$1,961.42
Expenditures.
1934-35.    Prizes for physical training..
Prizes for cadet-training	
Prizes for rifle shooting	
Prizes for first aid	
Gold medals for Normal Schools-
Revenue stamps	
$672.00
195.00
30.00
120.00
36.00
1.98
Balance on hand..
$1,054.98
$906.44 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
S 79
EDUCATION OF SOLDIERS' DEPENDENT CHILDREN ACT."
REPORT BY MISS G. M. J. DAVIES, SECRETARY OF THE COMMISSION.
Since the time of its inception up to the present year, the " Education of Soldiers'
Dependent Children Act" has benefited just over 1,000 children in all. In its first year there
were no more than eighty-six applicants, with a sum of $12,000 allotted to this work; in
1934-35 there were over three times the original number of applicants and the amount voted
was $10,000.
To be eligible for assistance under the terms of the Act, a candidate must have obtained
at least admission to high school and must be under 16 years of age at the time the application
is made. In addition, each applicant must furnish evidence that his parent or guardian was
actually a resident of British Columbia prior to enlistment and that there is a real need for
financial assistance. At the two regular meetings held during the year 252 applicants fulfilled
these requirements and were awarded grants, 199 receiving $46 for the year, and fifty-three
$24. During the first year of the operation of the Act it was possible to make each candidate
an allowance of from $100 to $125. This year forty-three applications were found lacking in
one or more of the necessary conditions and had to be rejected. After the second meeting
applications continued to come in, and in April, 1935, since twenty-four students had dropped
out, it was possible to make grants to thirty-one new candidates.
Although the majority of the students come from the larger cities, the full-year grants
were distributed all over the Province, as the following table shows:—
Alberni	
Armstrong ...
Atchelitz 	
Burnaby 	
Camp Lister
Canoe	
Chase	
Chilliwack ....
Cloverdale	
Cobble Hill...
Courtenay	
Duncan	
Egmont P.O.
Enderby	
Esquimalt 	
Fernie	
Fort Langley	
Fulford Harbour
Fraser Lake	
Ganges 	
Happy Valley
Heffley Creek ..
Hilliers	
Kamloops	
Kaslo 	
Kelowna	
Magna Bay
Merville	
Milner	
Milnes Landing .
1
2
1
10
1
2
2
3
1
4
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
3
2
1
1
4
1
1
1
2
3
1
Nanaimo 	
New Westminster
North Vancouver .
Oak Bay 	
Peachland	
Penticton 	
Port Hammond
Port Haney	
Port Moody	
Red Gap 	
Ryder Lake 	
Saanich 	
Salmon Arm
Sardis	
Skookumchuck
Smithers	
Spillimacheen
Squamish 	
Steveston 	
Stewart  .
Surge Narrows ..
Telkwa 	
Terrace	
Union Bay	
Vancouver 	
Victoria	
Westbank	
West Vancouver
White Rock	
1
7
3
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
22
2
2
1
1
2
1
3
1
1
2
1
2
106
24
1
2
3
The scholastic attainment of the students throughout the year was highly satisfactory.
All reports from the school principals were closely checked. The majority of the students
were rated " good " both in progress and in conduct, and several were graded " excellent." S 80 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1934-35.
One boy headed his class at each examination. Another received badges for scholarship,
proficiency, and athletics, and was elected president of his school. Ninety-four per cent,
passed on to a higher grade at the end of the year. Six of these students were promoted with
honours—one girl making an average for the year of 89.66 per cent.—one ranked fourth, and
two came first in their respective classes, one of these receiving 100 per cent, in three of her
subjects. In the examinations conducted by the Department of Education eight students
matriculated—one boy taking 97 per cent, in Algebra and 84 per cent, in Physics—three passed
both Matriculation and Normal Entrance, and six received partial Junior Matriculation
standing.
The total cost of administering the Act for 1934-35 was $59.66.
From the above information it is obvious that the " Education of Soldiers' Dependent
Children Act " is making a very definite contribution towards educating some of the youth of
this Province. Every year sees a rapid rise in the number of applicants and a corresponding
decrease in the amount it is possible to allow each candidate. A larger sum could be spent to
good advantage. PAET II.
STATISTICAL RETURNS. S 2
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