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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister. H. CATHCART, Deputy Minister.… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1936]

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister.
H. Cathcart, Deputy Minister. E. C. MANNING, Chief Forester.
REPORT
OF
THE FOEEST BEANCH
TEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST
1935
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1936.
PROVINCIAL LiSRARY
VICTORIA, B.C.  Victoria, B.C., February 24th, 1936.
To His Honour J. W. Fordham Johnson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch of the
Department of Lands for the year 1935.
A. W. GRAY,
Minister "of Lands.
The Hon. A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch during
the calendar year 1935.
E. C. MANNING,
Chief Forester.  In Mtmwg
of
PETER Z. CAVERHILL
Chief Forester
of
British Columbia
1920-1935
Whose untimely death
on  December 8th, 1935,
removed from the public service
a Forester
whose ability and integrity
will long be remembered.  REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH.
The year 1935 opened quietly for the lumber industry on the Coast. Heavy snowfall in
the woods in January and February slowed up log production, and with a dull market during
the first three months exports were considerably below the corresponding period for 1934.
Trade with Japan showed a very encouraging opposite trend, but this unfortunately was
entirely eliminated by an increase in tariff in July. In spite of this and some interference
from longshoremen's strikes, shipments overseas continued to show a steady improvement until
by the end of the year the total was only 5 million feet behind that of 1934.
During midsummer, due to strikes in the mills in Washington and Oregon, a considerable
amount of business unexpectedly developed for several months south of the Line in face of the
almost prohibitive duty of $4 per thousand board-feet.
Possibly the most encouraging sign was the improvement in Canadian sales, amounting to
approximately a 30-per-cent. increase over the sales of the preceding year. British Columbia,
the Prairies, and Eastern Canada, all showed an increased consumption, which was, however,
particularly noticeable in British Columbia and the Prairie Provinces. The Interior lumber-
mills participated in this improvement, but, with their former American market practically
closed to them until January 1st, 1936, and not having access to any extent to the overseas
markets, their condition was still far from satisfactory.
While at the end of the year a stiffening of lumber prices occurred, the average for the
year was slightly lower than that of 1934. Various factors influence price-levels, but those
over which the industry itself has some control should be given very careful consideration.
The shingle industry passed through both dark and bright spots. Prior to June, when
the NRA was declared unconstitutional, our cut was restricted, since approximately 70 per
cent, of our production in normal times is marketed in the United States. After this, with no
quota application and with a strike of considerable duration among the shingle-workers of
Oregon and Washington, there followed a period of activity. Since the strike has been settled
south of the Line, business has been about normal, with some improvement of price over that
of a year ago.
The pulp and paper mills started the year 1935 anticipating an increase in price of newsprint. This was not realized and the end of the year showed little price change, although a
small increase is again expected for the new year. Newsprint production was about the same,
but less pulp was marketed because the new Japanese surtax in July eliminated importations
of this product.
The reaction to the curtailed purchases of ties and poles in recent years is now becoming
evident. Although the price for hewn ties remained the same, there was an increase in production in 1935 of 50 per cent, over that of 1934. Similarly, pole and piling shipments
increased 90 per cent. A slight stiffening in the price of poles is evident, and, although a
betterment of the market is expected, increased competition, particularly from southern yellow-
pine poles, is seriously restricting the sale of our product in the United States.
A new export industry has been established in British Columbia, mainly as a result of a
preference granted on doors at the Empire Trade Conference held in Ottawa in 1932. From
a small initial output in the latter part of 1933, shipments to the United Kingdom increased
to 400,000 doors in 1934 and 1,100,000 in 1935.
The year's total production of all products was 2,649 million board-feet, an increase of
20 per cent, over that of 1934 and 65 per cent, over the recent low year of 1932. The value of
production likewise increased from $35,000,000 in 1932 to nearly $57,000,000 in 1935. There
is probably no better evidence of improving economic conditions in the Province.
Prospects for 1936 are encouraging. Supported by the general improvement in economic
conditions throughout the world, a further increase in our water-borne lumber shipments
should take place, particularly with the restoration on January 1st, 1936, of our trade with
Japan. The new reciprocal trade treaty with the United States gives us a partial re-entry
into our former American market. Although there is a quota limitation on hemlock and
Douglas fir shipped to that country, there is no such restriction on spruce. This should help
our Interior sawmills and, if a reduction in freight rates similar to that granted by the
American-railroads could be secured, lumber shipments from the Interior of the Province to the
Prairies and Eastern Canada should show a definite improvement. Our own Canadian market
probably holds the most promise of all for 1936. Z 8
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The forest industries have over the years been outstanding in their value of production,
employment of labour, and revenue to the Government. It is therefore only a matter of
ordinary common sense that thought be given to the source of the raw material and care be
taken to keep our forest areas under crop, particularly the more accessible and productive.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
Distribution op Force, 1935.
Permanent.
Temporary.
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35
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64
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Totals	
5
10
2
21
13
3
8
63
9
69
70
91
11
36
401
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
No new Forests were established during the year. There are now fourteen Provincial
Forests on the Coast and twenty-four in the Interior of the Province, covering 6,100 square
miles and 17,550 square miles respectively. The standing timber aggregates 40,000 million
board-feet in the Coast Forests and 20,500 million board-feet in the Interior Forests.
The establishment of these Provincial Forests is a step towards regulation of timber production and the adoption of a Province-wide policy of sustained yield as soon as economic
conditions allow. The rate at which this purpose can be achieved is dependent chiefly upon
the establishment of stable markets, upon the co-ordination of the interests of the Government,
as landlord, with those of the licensees who hold rights of cutting a large proportion of the
accessible mature timber, upon the success of measures adopted to provide natural reforestation of the cut-over lands, and upon protection from fire, especially in the Interior Forests.
When and where the problems involved in the attainment of these objectives can be
solved, the selection of working circles and regulation of production on a sustained-yield basis
will follow. In the case of those Forests which already have satisfactory markets (and in
fact some of them have been heavily overcut) the next step will be to construct detailed
working-plans, but as yet the technical staff required for this is not available.
The programme of survey of areas suitable for permanent forestry was continued. Two
field parties were engaged in the Interior and one on the Coast.
The survey of the Kettle River Forest, commenced in 1934, was completed by one of the
Interior parties and the other party made a survey of the watershed of the Upper Arrow Lake.
The Coast party continued the examination of the Lower Coast, working northwards from the
area covered last year. The country from Simoom Sound to Drury Inlet, including Kingcome
Inlet, was surveyed. Topographic and forest maps and estimates of this year's work are in
course of preparation.
Maps, estimates, and preliminary plans for management were completed for the proposed
Toba Forest, which was surveyed last year. This is a forest area on the Mainland Coast
between Powell River and Bute Inlet, including Toba Inlet and tributary watersheds. The
total area, 763,900 acres, was found to include the following:— FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1935.
Z 9
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber-
Mature timber—
Accessible 	
Inaccessible
Immature timber—
1- 20 years old
21- 40 years old
41- 60 years old
61- 80 years old
81-100 years old
Logged or burned, not reforested	
Reforested with non-commercial cover
Acres.
50,100
27,200
10,300
21,600
700
400
700
9,400
9,800
77,300
33,700
Total sites of productive quality	
Area incapable of producing Commercial Timber-
Barren, alpine, or scrub-covered	
Swamp and meadow	
Water	
Total non-productive sites
19,200
130,200
626,300
2,400
5,000
633,700
The timber was estimated as follows (over 11 inches D.B.H.) :—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
M.B.M.
465,700
424,600
428,500
250,500
31,500
30,900
21,400
M.B.M.
207,200
179,800
107,700
44,900
5,700
1,100
300
M.B.M.
672,900
604,400
536,200
295,400
37,200
32,000
21,700
Totals	
1,653,100
546,700
2,199,800
All the' alienated timber and 1,072,000 M.B.M. of the Crown timber is considered to be
accessible for logging under present conditions. During the last ten years an average volume
of 30,500 M.B.M. has been logged annually. The accessible areas could support a sustained
yield of 25,000 M.B.M. annually, but, assuming that market and logging conditions in future
will allow operations in the areas now considered inaccessible and that satisfactory reforestation can be obtained, an annual cut of 34,000 M.B.M. could be taken from the Forest indefinitely
without depletion.
It is interesting to note that only 29 acres of mature timber and 165 acres of young growth
were destroyed by fire during the last ten years. During the same period 6,142 acres of
logging-slash were burned, of which 4,825 acres were intentionally burned to remove hazards.
It would appear that the fire risk is negligible, given reasonable control of slash-burning.
Of the 33,700 acres of immature timber, 24,500 acres (73 per cent.) are natural reforestation, much of it thirty years old or more, following fires in green timber; 9,200 acres (27 per
cent.) of the young growth followed logging. There are 19,200 acres which have failed to
restock, 12,100 of them after logging. It should not be assumed, however, that natural
reforestation after logging in this Forest is less successful than usual on the Coast, because
several large areas of very recent logging are included in the above figures. It is estimated
that logged areas in this Forest have a 70-per-cent. chance of being reforested satisfactorily by
natural means after the present type of logging.    This percentage could probably be improved Z 10
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
at small cost by slight adjustment of logging-plans to provide for leaving groups or ridges of
seed-trees in the larger operations.
The area has practically no agricultural value. The Toba River Valley has a narrow belt
along the river of poor soil, chiefly sand, which will grow good timber but is unsuitable for
cultivation. The rest of the valley is swamp. The river overflows its banks once or twice
a year, carrying away the organic constituents of the surface soil and depositing a fresh layer
of sand over the low-lying land. A few attempts to settle the best sites have been made in the
past by people engaged in logging or fishing, but farming is impossible. The only access to the
outer world is by small boat down the river, and even a rowboat can only cross the sand-bars
at the river-mouth at high tide. It is recommended that the whole Toba Valley be reserved
for its best use, timber production.
Forest maps and estimates were completed for the proposed Nimpkish Forest, in the
northern part of Vancouver Island, which was examined last year by two forest engineers
who were taken in by aeroplane to the back areas of this tract. Good topographic maps were
available as the result of a previous photo-topographically controlled aerial survey. The total
area, 887,000 acres, was found to include the following:—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature timber  Acres.       Acres.
Accessible  224,600
Inaccessible :  109,900
  334,500
Immature timber—
1- 20 years old   5,900
21- 40 years old   5,400
41- 60 years old   2,900
61- 80 years old  10,100
81-100 years old   9,600
33,900
Logged or burned, not reforested     15,400
Reforested with non-commercial cover     15,100
Total sites of productive quality	
Area incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Barren, alpine, or scrub-covered	
Swamp  _	
Water ___.
30,500
398,900
454,300
5,900
27,900
Total non-productive sites   488,100
The merchantable timber, above 11 inches D.B.H., was estimated as follows:—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
M.B.M.
1,747,300
679,900
388,600
1,005,700
244,600
17,200
12,100
M.B.M.
2,247,000
1,445,000
1,711,900
1,011,400
285,300
64,300
31,200
M.B.M.
3,994,300
2,124,900
2,100,500
2,017,100
529,900
Sitka spruce 	
White pine	
81,500
43,300
Totals..
4,095,400
6,796,100
10,891,500
The Nimpkish Valley itself has produced some of the finest old-growth fir in the Province
and high-grade fir logs will be taken out for many years more. The rest of the Forest (the
Bonanza, Adams, and Tsitika drainages)  produces a hemlock - silver fir - cedar type which FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1935.
Z 11
will be a valuable source of pulp-wood as well as lumber. The average annual cut from the
Forest during the last ten years has been 54,500 M.B.M. The areas accessible under present
conditions could produce a sustained annual yield of 81,000 M.B.M. When the whole Forest
becomes accessible, and provided all logged areas are reforested, the annual cut could be
increased to 109,000 M.B.M. without depletion.
During the last ten years there have been eight fires in this Forest, six of them caused by
logging operations and the other two by campers. These fires burned almost entirely in
logging-slash. The old burns, prior to logging, occurred along travelled routes. Settlement
in this region is, and probably will be, confined to persons engaged in logging and the manufacture of forest products, so that the human factor can be controlled without great difficulty.
For the rest the evidence indicates that the fire risk in this Forest is small, due to favourable
climatic conditions.
FOREST RESOURCES INVENTORY.
The preliminary compilation of estimates of the forest resources of the Province, which
was begun about eight years ago, was completed last year with the publication of figures for
the Fort George District. A complete and detailed report is in preparation. A few important
changes have been made in the maps and figures since they were published seriatim by districts,
but obviously it is impossible to present an absolutely up-to-date inventory of natural resources
of the magnitude of the British Columbia forests. Revision of the Inventory by Districts is
being undertaken with a reduced staff.
During this year revision of the maps and estimates of the Prince Rupert District was
commenced. When completed, it is intended to revise those of the Vancouver District, including
Vancouver Island, which was first estimated in 1928. Corrections for logging, fire, and reproduction subsequent to the first inventory will then have been made for the whole Coast, where
most of the forest industry is concentrated. Later the statistics and maps of the Interior
districts will be revised in a similar manner.
This Forest Inventory has already proved extremely valuable in many ways. It has
indicated general and local effects of logging, fires, reforestation, and other factors, a knowledge
of which is an essential foundation for intelligent forest policy. The Inventory has provided
useful, and in most cases the only, field maps showing forest conditions available for Rangers
and other forest officers. They will continue to be so used until replaced by the more complete
and detailed maps prepared after Provincial Forest surveys. The latter have now covered
approximately 18,000,000 acres, about 10 per cent, of the organized area of the Province.
The following is a summary of timber and classification of land for the whole of the
Province.    More detailed figures will appear in a separate publication shortly.
Merchantable Timber of British Columbia.
(In millions of feet board measure.)
Total.
Accessible.
Species.
Coast.
Interior.
Total.
Coast.
Interior.
Total.
47,827
40,800
42,049
9,654
18,178
138
3,099
712
10,822
12,163
8,516
40,624
14,045
9,962
2,122
901
1,383
58,649
52,963
50,565
50,278
32,223
10,100
3,099
2,122
1,613
1,383
23,958
21,025
21,492
5,557
8,927
38
1,405
334
2,349
7,218
4,119
11,341
2,083
2,419
1,864
580
1,212
26,305
Douglas fir 	
28,243
25,611
Spruce  ._. 	
Silver fir   	
Lodgepole pine.     	
Cypress -  	
16,898
11,010
2,457
1,405
1,864
914
1,212
Totals     	
162,457
100,538
262,995
82,734
33,185
115,919 ■
Z 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Forest Classification of British Columbia.
(Acres.)
Interior.
Total.
Sites of Productive Quality.
Merchantable timber —. 	
Immature timber—
Over 25 feet high, fully stocked	
Over 25 feet high, sparse.
Under 25 feet high, fully stocked.
Under 25 feet high, sparse	
Total immature timber	
Not reforested—
Logged....	
Logged and burned..
Burned...	
Total not reforested.  	
Total sites of productive quality.
Sites of Non-productive Quality.
Barren _.._ 	
Scrub growth 	
Swamp and water-
Total sites of non-productive quality..
Agricultural Sites.
Cultivated..
Open grass.
Total agricultural sites..
Total area of British Columbia...
7,993,000
308,000
91,000
481,000
376,000
248,000
246,000
318,000
812,000
10,061,000
18,214,000
11,256,000
1,137,000
30,607,000
429,000
91,000
520,000
41,188,000
15,053,000
18,790,000
3,891,000
5,347,000
2,569,000
0,597,000
354,000
250,000
18,792,000
19,396,000
65,046,000
50,590,000
67,950,000
5,300,000
123,840,000
712,000
3,617,000
4,329,000
193,215,000
23,046,000
19,098,000
3,982,000
5,828,000
2,945,000
31,853,000
602,000
496,000
19,110,000
20,208,000
75,107,000
68,804,000
79,206,000
6,437,000
154,447,000
1,141,000
3,708,000
1,000
234,403,000
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land Act," 1935.
Forest District.
Applications for
Crown Grants.
Applications for
Grazing and
Hay Leases.
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
Applications to
Purchase.
Miscellaneous.
Vancouver-	
No.
7
2
Acres.
1,725
205
No.
1
3
61
Acres.
40
No.
8
7
23
41
2
Acres.
350
1,059
3,341
5,406
334
No.
30
11
13
39
35
Acres.
2,589
1,542
1,665
4,229
5,133
No.
18
18
11
43
2
Acres.
1,311
2,824
2,750
6,213
80
840
26,288
Nelson.—  	
Totals 	
9
1,930
65
27,168
81
10,490
128
15,158
92
13,178
Classification of Areas examined in 1935.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimate of
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
6,015
5,425
8,596
42,341
5,547
Acres.
902
1,317
3,146
2,729
1,295
Acres.
5,113
4,108
5,450
39,612
4,252
Acres.
70
320
150
M.B.M.
820
3,023
900
	
Totals. -	
67,924
9,389
58,535
540
4,743 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1935.
Z 13
FOREST RESEARCH.
The limitation of funds restricted forest-research activities for the year 1935 to the maintenance of studies and projects already in hand, supplemented by a considerable amount of
improvement-work on the three established experiment stations carried out by the Young
Men's Forest Training Plan crews and reported elsewhere herein.
Studies in growth and yield were continued in the re-examination of twenty permanent
sample plots and establishment of seventeen additional permanent plots in South Coast types.
Revising the table published in the report of last year, the establishment of these plots now
stands as below:—
South Coast types  reqSred!'
Alder   1 o
Douglas fir and hemlock  :___ 100
Mid-Coast—
Sitka spruce  50
Southern Interior—
Lodgepole pine  _.__ 15
Yellow pine   25
Fir-larch  25
Central Interior—
Engelmann spruce   40
Lodgepole pine  15
Now
established.
71
.6
7
4
27
10
Totals
280
132
Regeneration on logged and burned areas in the spruce-balsam forests of the Central
Interior presents a major problem in forest-management. The number of seedlings establishing themselves on denuded lands is usually insufficient to restock the areas, and the inferior
balsam appears to be supplanting the valuable spruce, reversing the proportions of about
80 per cent, spruce in the present mature stands to 80 per cent, balsam. Studies in natural
regeneration, largely concerned with seed-bed conditions, have failed to indicate any solution
which could be considered practical under present-day methods of logging. On the other hand,
evidence is now appearing to indicate that over a long term of years the proportion of species
in the present residual stand may so change as to finally approximate that now found in the
mature forests.    It is proposed to continue these studies in 1936.
Thirty additional permanent plots established in connection with various studies were
re-examined.
In the fall of 1933 it was decided to raise the production of the nursery at the Green
Timbers Forestry Station to 500,000 trees per year. As it takes about three years to produce
planting stock, nursery and planting programmes must be planned at least that far in advance.
The first stock, about 400,000 trees, under this programme will be ready for planting in the
spring of 1936. As a part of the same programme about 35,000 acres of logged and vacant
Crown land, carefully selected possible planting-sites, were examined. Of this area, some
15,000 acres in three different localities at Campbell River, Read Bay, and Grassy Creek were
chosen as suitable for experimental planting on this scale. The first planting on this plan,
about 350 acres, will be undertaken in 1936.
Planting in 1935 was confined to some 20 acres at the Green Timbers Station. Planting
to date is reported below:—
Previously reported.
1935.
Total to Date.
Location.
Acres.
Trees.
Acres.
Trees.
Acres.
Trees.
259
545
166
36
285,450
234,500
191,050
22,850
20
22,900
279
545
166
36
308,350
234,500
191,050
22,850
Totals _..._ _	
1.006      1     73S.RB0
20
22,900
1,026
756,750 Z 14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The Young Men's Forestry Training Plan crew at Green Timbers completed an extensive
programme of improvement which will greatly facilitate the work there. Of special value a
well was dug which promises to supply ample water for nursery purposes. A distribution
system for this water is proposed for completion in 1936. Other work completed at Green
Timbers, Cowichan Lake, and Aleza Lake Experiment Stations included fire-breaks, improvement and extension of road and trail systems, maintenance and construction of buildings and
telephone-lines, installation of a water system at Cowichan Lake, and defining boundaries.
On November 26th and 27th a Conference was held at Ottawa under the auspices of the
National Research Council, at which all parties interested in Forest Research in Canada were
represented. More than 100 delegates attended. The British Columbia Forest Service was
represented by the late Chief Forester, Mr. Caverhill.
The object of this Conference was to define, if possible, the outstanding problems in
forestry in Canada and to find ways and means to correlate the work of the various Research
organizations.    To quote the Chairman of the Conference* in his opening address:—
" We will endeavour to find out what kinds of research each forest agency here represented
is equipped to carry out; what they are actually doing; what means of co-operation exist; and
we will seek to determine how all available resources can best be given that general direction
which is required to avoid duplication and wasted effort and to ensure that no vital element in
the problem is overlooked."
The Conference proposed, as a first step to these ends, a standing advisory committee.
The personnel recommended was representative of the National Research Council, three
Dominion and nine Provincial Government organizations, four universities, four forestry
societies, and the forest and wood-using industries. This committee is now in the process of
formation.
This Conference is reported here at some length as we believe it should prove of importance
in the development of forestry in Canada and in this Province. The field for forest research
is so great and the research resources so limited that the closest co-operation of all research
agencies is most desirable.
During the year the Research Division has supplied the forest schools of the Universities
of British Columbia and Toronto with data from our records for lecture and laboratory use
and has provided specimens and information for a number of other organizations. Lecturers
in forest surveys, advanced mensuration, and scaling have been loaned to the University of
British Columbia. We have likewise received many courtesies and assistance from other
forest organizations. Amongst these we are especially indebted to the Dominion Forest
Products Laboratory, the Vancouver office of the Dominion Forest Service, the U.S. Forest
Service, and the Los Angeles County Forest Department.
LUMBER TRADE EXTENSION.
" When there is no vision the people perish " is a spiritual quotation which must have
guided the policies of those in recent years who realized that steps had to be taken to rehabilitate the lumber trade, were it to survive the depression and the virtual loss of the American
market in 1932. The history of our trade-extension efforts has been described in the preceding Annual Reports, and 1935 showed a continuation of these efforts, especially in the
United Kingdom and South Africa.
The results in lumber shipments overseas in 1935 speak for themselves. The total for the
year was only 5 million under the record-breaking figure of 1934, despite the loss of the
Japanese business in July which had already reached a total of 42 million feet. But for this
new tariff barrier another record of water-borne shipments would have been created.
Shipments to the United Kingdom during the year equalled the record of 456 million feet
established the previous year, notwithstanding decreased timber importations, keen competition, and price-cutting on Russian timber in this market. The drop during the first quarter
was overcome by the increase in volume towards the latter part of the year. The stability of
this market should create confidence among the lumber exporters of British Columbia and lead
to its further development, as we are yet only securing about 10 per cent, of the business.
* Major-General A. G. L. McNaughton, President, National Research Council, Ottawa. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1935.
Z 15
The efforts of the lumber-trade delegation which went to South Africa in the latter part
of 1934 are now being supplemented by a Lumber Commissioner, Mr. William Johnston,
appointed in the summer of 1935 by the British Columbia Lumber and Shingle Manufacturers,
Limited. The late Chief Forester, Mr. P. Z. Caverhill, also did some more effective work while
attending the British Empire Forestry Conference held there in September of 1935. The
results of the foregoing are now becoming evident and a definite increase in trade with South
Africa should follow, particularly if the present handicap of a slow freight service can be
removed.
Several other promising fields for increased lumber-sales in 1936 are becoming evident,
and it is difficult to conceive of any line of trade activity more likely to yield returns for the
expenditures involved. The close co-operation existing between the Provincial Government
and the British Columbia Lumber and Shingle Manufacturers, Limited, in carrying forward
this work is adding materially to its progress. No unprejudiced person can seriously doubt
its effectiveness, especially where assisted by trade preferences. In 1929, before any such work
was undertaken, British Columbia's share of the total water-borne export of lumber from the
Pacific North-west to other than Canadian and American ports was 20 per cent.; in 1935 it
was 58 per cent, of the total.
The resignation in June of the Lumber Trade Commissioner at London, Mr. Loren L.
Brown, was much regretted by every one. His assistant, Mr. R. D. Roe, was appointed to the
vacancy created and is carrying on effectively the work so ably handled for several years by
Mr. Brown.
One phase of this promotion-work should receive special attention in the future. We
must in the future increase our efforts to familiarize importing countries with the excellent
qualities of our cedar and hemlock, particularly the latter species. The amount of hemlock
lumber we ship is so much out of proportion to the ratio between it and Douglas fir in our
timber stands that, if we continue as at present, we shall be in the same position as the manufacturer who is selling only one grade of his product. It means waste and decreased sales for
both the manufacturer and the lumberman.
Water-borne Lumber Trade (in F.B.M.).
Destination.
Australia 	
New Zealand— _
South America 	
China  —
Japan  	
United   Kingdom   and   Continent       	
South Africa 	
India and Stiaits Settlements
United   States  and  Atlantic
Coast  	
Philippine and Hawaiian Isls.
West Indies and Cuba	
South Sea Islands 	
Mexico and Central America—
Egypt 	
♦Belgium	
♦Denmark	
♦France ,
♦Germany	
♦Holland... 	
♦Italy 	
♦Norway and Sweden	
Spain   	
Foreign, unclassified	
Totals	
41,493,476
8,559,208
2,449,494
43,323,398
192,411,505
69,903,655
15,889,002
243,807
351,526,590
14,347,317
5,508,978
623,766
4,744,180
33,076,587
6,416,105
1,774,697
55,224,104
150,869,880
98,037,621
17,685,896
241,129
259,093,570
122,744
12,781,209
3,230,759
550,018
50,494,046
801,518,422
73,195,238
712,299,557
50,803,023
2,578,740
1,354,028
53,854,005
138,851,607
81,356,058
13,120,035
369,689
207,586,216
7,520,512
2,527,526
478,794
4,195,326
336,428
62,129
241,865
154,135
419,373
301,561
18,200
566,129,250
1932.
125,551,388
979.148
140,945
53,341,172
60,031,785
108,314,682
5,664,646
544,271
79,682,896
8,239,598
2,009,102
1,746,278
79,474
148,901
120,519
144,018
128,678
15,955
6,087
446,889,543
1933.
123,732,822
1,300,332
3,641,569
130,596,268
60,657,328
271,073,393
18,213,254
916,536
29,528,026
11,830,457
2,476,670
1,669,075
6,140,501
10,066
126,846
301,818
350,966
33,993
662,599,920
1934.
128,141,120
2,957,036
1,619,672
108,127,921
80,278,627
455,695,397
25,275,805
430,736
28,735,159
13,466,861
4,475,125
2,410,162
4,347,844
2,997,165
5,021
48,245
104,924
9,136
329,554
5,165
4,039
859,464,714
129,492,501
3,792,767
4,017,393
91,232,225
43,079,906
455,861,662
28,349,718
3,414,720
62,013,385
7,132,686
4,555,819
4,870,050
4,215,943
6,265,143
1,997
425,399
845,607
1,870,064
.1,869,109
7,976
456,753
207,658
853,978,481
♦ Previously included with United Kingdom. Z 16
.
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
THE FOREST INDUSTRIES.
Estimated Value of Production, including Loading and Freight within the Province.
Product.
1929.
1930.
Lumber 	
Pulp and paper..
Shingles	
Boxes	
Doors 	
Piles, poles, and mine-props	
Cordwood, fence-posts, and mine-ties
Ties, railway 	
Additional value contributed by the
wood-using industry 	
Laths and other miscellaneous products ._	
Logs exported	
Pulp-wood exported-
Totals.
$50,140,000
14,400,000
8,300,000
2,437,000
5,500,000
1,734,000
2,116,000
2,100,000
2,400,000
4,124,000
50,000
$93,301,000
$32,773,000
16,520,000
4,161,000
2,287,000
4,726,000
1,596,000
1,253,000
2,387,000
1,500,000
2,492,000
42,000
$69,737,000
1931.
1932.
$16,738,000
13,508,000
2,721,000
1,315,000
2,453,000
1,405,000
1,044,000
1,350,000
1,500,000
2,370,000
43,000
$44,447,000
;13,349.000
11,156,000
2,805,000
1,100,000
772,000
1,576,000
502,000
1,014,000
1,125,000
1,730,000
28,000
$35,157,000
1933.
$15,457,000
10,852,000
4,500,000
1,313,000
450,000
1,850,000
250,000
1,200,000
1,000,000
2,228,000
55,000
$39,155,000
$20,377,000
12,373,000
4,375,000
1,632,000
487,000
1,335,000
485,000
1,320,000
1,100,000
1,931,000
46,000
$45,461,000
$24,094,000
12,414,000
8,750,000
1,720,000
1,693,000
810,000
1,453,000
764,000
1,300,000
1,100,000
2,820,000
23,000
$56,941,000
Paper (in Tons).
Product.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
Newsprint  	
Other papers	
201,009
19,492
224,928
20,446
217,562
17,709
205,050
24,051
237,107
23,492
267,406
26,777
262,123
33,287
In addition to the 286,600 tons of pulp manufactured into paper in the Province, 75,200
tons were shipped out of the Province during the year. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1935.
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Logging Inspection.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-
sales.
Hand-
loggers'
Licences.
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
401
447
279
566
381
1
58
629
141
200
420
270
1,031
646
479
986
651
2,776
1,999
1,029
2,225
2,052
Totals, 1935..-.	
2,074
59
1,660
3,793
10,081
Totals, 1934 	
1,603
87
1,546
3,236
9,486
Totals, 1933 	
1,237
67
1,425
2,729
8,121
Totals, 1932           .    _	
1,124
37
1,316
2,477
7,273
Totals, 1931 	
1,562
92
1,675
3,329
8,969
Totals, 1930 	
1,932
100
1,862
3,894
8,859
Totals, 1929   _.	
1,907
99
2,002
4,008
9,512
Trespasses.
No. of
Cases.
Areas
cut
over
(Acres).
QOANTIT.
CUT.
No. of
Resulting
Seizures.
Forest District.
Feet B.M.
Lineal
Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
Amount.
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert	
40
10
14
37
20
124
52
72
192
115
1,494,031
480,961
381,655
567,801
119,038
8,951
2,894
8,942
27,398
2,780
268
457
216
288
54
8,951
1,356
1,439
1,321
1,011
2
1
$2,563.96
718.33
730.89
Kamloops.	
Nelson  	
1,495.93
568.47
Totals, 1935	
121
555
3,043,486
50,965
1,283
14,078
3
$6,077.58
Totals, 1934
101
720
3,270,608
30,555
1,385
4,825
6
$5,401.05
Totals, 1933 	
70
155
1,578,108
41,689
1,413
3,807
2
$2,727.81
Totals, 1932
95
368
767,896
35,484
2,140
9,265
14
$3,490.84
Totals, 1931
84
397
1,579,465
118,704
1,048
12,425
2
$5,633.68
Totals, 1930
96
1,000
969,351
165,729
1,457
9,612
4
$7,534.01
Totals, 1929
99
370
984,309
88,997
569
5,906
9
$5,431.07
Pre-emption Inspections, 1935.
Pre-emption records examined by districts are:—
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
327
192
738
848
121
Total     2,226 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1935.
Z 21
Areas cruised for Timber-sales.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Saw-      ^    Poles and
Acreage.          timber              Piles
(M.B.M.).   (Lineal Ft.).
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-ties
(No.).
Car Stakes
and Posts
(No.).
260
260
201
358
240
41,669
43,886
36,425
47,477
69,495
176,838
64,405
40,787
59,817
57,037
477,562
964,700
220,875
3,554,799
456,972
31,168
3,095
9,143
59,859
11,488
5,561
291,960
366,589
364,396
135,948
30,400
Nelson  	
44,300
Totals, 1935
1,319
238,952
398,884
5,674,908
114,753
1,164,454
74,700
Totals, 1934
1,331
223,391
356,264
2,856,619
80,101
1,235,766
73,766
Totals, 1933	
942
169,831
186,418
1,620,112
95,233
549,976
174,861
Totals, 1932
875
144,769
202,421
1,759,905
68,414
488,655
69,900
Totals, 1931.
818
145,214
297,825
2,629,054
62,680
664,413
142,400
Totals, 1930 .
943
197,065
526,261
10,345,822
26,431
731,640
620,100
Totals, 1929
1,061
214,874
500,420
13,043,603
17,629
1,305,110
185,740
Timber-sales awarded by Districts, 1935.
Forest District.
No. of
Sales.
Acre-       Saw-timber
age.        (Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.).
No. of
Posts.
No. of
Cords.
No. of
Ties.
Estimated
Revenue.
266
274
175
380
262
43,125
44,204
28,562
57,018
59,049
106,769,000
44,465,000
14,679,000
54,894,000
40,024,000
312,150
1,735,750
123,635
2,898,864
337,978
29,599
3,356
7,694
47,980
13,337
7,358
427,880
252,347
392,472
120,525
$264,169.20
27,300
144,353.07
55,167.69
241,465
40,060
212,340.26
86,396.82
Totals, 1935 	
1,357
231,958
260,831,000
5,408,377
308,825
101,966
1,200,582
$762,427.04
Totals, 1934	
1,324
219,969
250,629,000
2,721,540
316,910
67,902
894,970
$705,038.99
Totals, 1933	
948
190,794
145,696,000
2,490,244
295,905
76,777
432,513
$450,559.16
Totals, 1932.	
836
134,868
181,470,000
1,746,616
161,600
54,154
423,676
$450,528.10
Totals, 1931	
842
148,523
217,474,000
2,272,082
173,300
41,032
606,160
$624,596.27
Totals, 1930
866
162,043   j  199,485,000
9,963,164
398,150
19,997
494,202
$689,481.29
Average Sale Price by Species.
Figures for 1935.
Figures for 1934.
Figures for 1933.
Figures for 1932.
Sawn Timber.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
92,369,000
29,644,000
37,566,000
46,318,000
12,083,000
8,705,000
15,166,000
2,355,000
16,625,000
$0.96
.93
1.20
.70
.76
1.60
1.33
.77
.86
94,784,000
22,136,000
37,293,000
45,472,000
13,846,000
2,973,000
26,927,000
3,419,000
3,779,000
$1.26
.95
1.34
.73
.74
1.66
1.29
.76
.80
51,374,000
20,361,000
20,747,000
22,695,000
7,742,000
4,816,000
11,450,000
2,127,000
4,384,000
$1.16
1.17
1.15
.73
.73
1.94
1.19
.68
.69
44,105,000
28,217,000
31,151,000
41,552,000
12,498,000
2,565,000
9,807,000
2,081,000
9,494,000
$1.19
1.15
1.63
Hemlock 	
Balsam  	
.76
.77
1.43
1.25
.84
.94
Totals .____	
260,831,000
$0.97
250,629,000
$1.11
145,696,000
$1.08
181,470,000
$1.12 Z 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1935.
Districts.
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
Posts.
Vancouver _.       	
100,276,667
42,652,023
12,371,638
22,683,718
15,904,590
320,732
1,048,298
221,514
1,398,607
551,425
17,482.84
1,048.43
3,500.50
9,092.67
7,313.92
4,516
355,910
221,514
182,685
86,717
4,180
33,158
13,574
52,421
Nelson       	
46,626
Totals, 1935  	
193,788,636
3,540,576
38,438.36
851,342
149,959
Totals, 1934                        	
199,895,549
1,694,470
36,209.24
503,266
84,312
Totals, 1933        	
122,275,912
1,337,497
35,840.62
212,824
164,586
Totals, 1932          ._...
165,666,929
1,583,955
30,646.62
258,284
79,885
Totals, 1931         _ 	
177,172,765
5,697,152
15,499.20
662,120
255,545
Totals, 1930                              	
227,019,617
11,960,055
17,176.17
1,341,426
388,749
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province.
Operating.
Shut
Down.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Forest District.
d
z
Hi
O
nm  S
ss S
is*
s_a«
Ci $•
d
Z
rm
fl) ff  "
Jj   CS   Ul
riO *
Ul   TO jh
W«ra
d
z
cs
HI   S
is*
in rt    -
d
z
H   CS   ®
us CS cl
150
43
40
82
69
6,795
490
486
901
1,150
78
5
3
7
8,185
60
105
142
31
12
9
30
14
815
303
175
199
470
10
2
1
3
780
Prince Rupert
201
Kamloops
50
200
Totals, 1935  	
384
9,822
93
8,492
96
1,962
16
1,231
Totals, 1934. 	
349
9,152
82
7,311
129
2,999
13
1,228
Totals, 1933. 	
295
8,715
78
7,325
134
3,632
22
1,652
Totals, 1932                     	
293
7,641
45
6,813
139
4,621
13
1.470
Totals, 1931     	
334
10,167
46
7,470
158
4,109
19
1,871
Totals, 1930 _ 	
301
11,020
43
7,164
141
3,204
17
1,695
Totals, 1929 - 	
354
11,896
53
7,881
95
2,200
15
1,726 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1935.
Z 23
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.).
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
Fir	
7,652,407
1,088,621
25,070
115,037,455
12,421,291
965,582
605,364
43,100,990
11,361,511
1,246,536
1,270,157
165,790,852
24,871,423
2,237,188
1,875,521
34,473,606
2,401,975
1,687
2,904,634
734,880
34,473,606
2,401,975
1,687
2,904,634
734,880
Totals, 1935
8,766,098
129,029,692
56,979,194
40,516,782
235,291,766
Totals, 1934	
10,489,155
89,831,736
43,416,151
28,998,709
172,735,751
Totals, 1933 	
16,941,207
119,089,573
59,215,094
13,694,960
208,940,834
Totals, 1932
18,572,020
87,223,114
44,380,166
15,589,383
165,764,683
Totals, 1931
12,886,187
106,331,594
51,909,961
49,048,420
220,176,162
Totals, 1930 .... .'.	
11,571,481
86,502,990
40,147,841
34,696,715
172,919,027
Totals, 1929                             	
13,015,146
133,997,595
60,002,711
29,978,125
236,993,577
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
Forest District.
Quantity
Exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where marketed.
United States.
Canada.
Orient.
Vancouver—
Poles and piling  lineal ft.
Cordwood  cords
Pulp-wood - :  cords
Shingle-bolts	
Car-stakes 	
Prince Rupert—
Poles and piling	
Railway-ties 	
Fence-posts 	
Fort George—
Poles and piling	
Fence-posts  cords
Railway-ties No.
Mine-props   cords
Mine-timbers    lineal ft.
Kamloops—
Poles and piling  lineal ft.
cords
cords
. lineal ft.
No.
No.
. lineal ft.
Mine-props	
Fence-posts	
Nelson—
Poles and piling..
Fence-posts	
Mine-props 	
. cords
. cords
. lineal ft.
.cords
. cords
Lagging   cords
Railway-ties _  No.
Total value, 1935..
Total value, 1934.
2,473,771
6
5,097
22
27
1,248,418
294,799
44,895
170,266
82
235,112
32
2,950
2,028,688
112
423
1,930,602
4,271
3,924
50
196,274
$222,639
24
22,937
165
189
86,694
132,003
4,391
13,621
492
108,840
256
236
203,106
1,232
3,787
191,543
34,168
31,392
400
98,134
$1,156,249
$808,252
2,340,061
6
5,097
22
27
847,302
39,095
1,940,736
1,769,150
377
401,116
294,799
44,895
131,171
82
235,112
32
2,950
87,952
112
423
161,452
3,894
3,924
50
196,274
34,810 Z 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Land
TIMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued for the Years 1933
Old Crown grants	
Crown grants, 1887-1906 	
Crown grants, 1906-1914 	
Section 53a, " Forest Act" 	
Stumpage reservations	
Pre-emptions  under  sections  28  and  29,
Act" -
Dominion lands	
Permit berths 	
Timber berths	
Indian reserves 	
Timber-sales 	
Hand-loggers	
Special marks ..	
Rights-of-way	
Pulp leases	
Pulp licences	
Totals  1,666
Transfers and changes of marks       139
, 1934,
AND 1935.
1933.
1934.
1935.
227
238
217
92
74
72
76
96
82
206
303
286
55
61
82
9
9
6
1
1
2
1
15
18
14
5
13
16
946
1,324
1,348
26
13
8
1
	
2
1
1
4
3
7
1,666
2,154
2,141
139
204
221
Hand-logger Licences.
Number issued
83
52
46
Draughting Office, Forest Branch.
Number of Tracings made.
Blue-prints
Month.
Timber-
sales.
Timber-         Examination
marks.            Sketches.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
Reference
Maps.
January  _	
18
57
17
14
106
2
February 	
20
125
22
8
175
3
March 	
28
93
14
25
160
14
14
94
34
16
158
6
May  	
13
89
27
20
149
4
June  _.
21
75
26
21
143
2
July 	
19
72
33
21
145
2
16
69
25
15
125
2
September   	
14
65
13
19
111
4
October  .__	
13
65
19
20
117
5
November	
25
52
27
25
129
13
18
82
26
21
147
4
Totals
219
938
283
225
1,665
61 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1935.
Z 25
Year.
1919	
Crown-granted Timber Lands.
Area of Private
Timber Lands
(Acres).
     883,491
Average
Value
per Acre.
9.48
1920	
     867,921
11.62
1921,
                            845,111
10.33
1922.
         887,980
11.99
1923
883,344
11.62
1924.
                          654,668
15.22
1925_       _   .....
____   .                         654,016
40.61
1926	
    688,372
39.77
1927	
          690,438
39.01
1928 _.	
    671,131
38.62
1929.   	
         644,011
38.41
1930	
     629,156
44.74
1931   	
                          602,086
43.77
1934	
 :    557,481
37.25
1935	
     535,918
37.13
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1935.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
.   1934.
Average
Value
per Acre.
Change in
Value
per Acre
since 1934.
76,305
101,393
61,595
33,621
328
14,783
9,239
75,194
4,179
12,351
22,921
37,345
58,944
1,410
26,310
— 339
— 4,326
— 4,173
— 755
*
—12,407
*
— 602
— 2,092
+      185
+ 3,190
*
*
— 82
— 163
62.11
41.66
64.92
9.50
15.00
9.19
5.84
49,53
6.13
18.85
18.52
14.03
7.31
91.87
36.06
— 1.48
— 0.90
Cowichan  ,.     ,'	
Fort Steele    .   ...                            	
— 1.33
+ 0.09
+ 0.01
Golden                                          	
+ 1.28
*
— 0.42
Kettle River  _____ 	
Nelson        	
— 1.92
— 0.95
Prince Rupert _   __
-f 0.59
*
Slocan      	
Vancouver.  	
Victoria       ..
— 1.03
—10.87
— 0.46
535,918
.   —21,564
37.13
— 0.12
* No change.
FOREST FINANCE.
The table below shows an increase in forest revenues of $375,000 over those of 1934; a
very satisfactory figure considering the nature of the increase. The largest single factor
contributing to the increase in revenues for 1934 over 1933 was the reinstatement of many
licences in the former year, prior to the expiry of the moratorium. The increase in 1935 was,
however, due to the royalty and stumpage on the increased production, which' was 20 per cent,
greater in volume than that of the previous year. Z 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
FOREST REVENUE.
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1935.
Timber-licence rentals _	
Timber-licence transfer fees	
Timber-licence penalty fees	
Hand-loggers' licence fees	
Timber-lease rentals 	
Timber-lease penalty fees 	
Timber-sale rentals 	
Timber-sale stumpage 	
Timber-sale cruising	
Timber-sale advertising-	
Timber royalty and tax	
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)
Scaling expenses   (not Scaling
Fund) 	
Trespass penalties 	
Scalers' examination fees	
Exchange  	
Seizure expenses _
General miscellaneous	
Timber-berth rentals and bonus
Interest on timber-berth rentals
and bonus 	
Transfer fees on timber berths
Royalty interest 	
Crazing fees and interest	
Taxation, Crown-grant timber
lands  	
Total revenue from forest
sources 	
$496,386.11
1,540.00
19,858.46
1,075.00
68,132.18
1,071.58
17,684.57
319,424.91
6,846.88
935.60
1,581,225.07
312.76
128.89
7,478.91
250.00
123.01
237.74
3,830.19
25,688.94
316.50
55.48
150.16
$2,552,752.94
14,522.41
333,128.08
$2,900,403.43
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1934.
$548,816.73
1,645.00
69,302.21
1,300.00
63,212.79
1,565.97
21,281.83
289,709.62
5,706.12
771.30
1,155,862.37
334.71
116.05
5,924.39
25.00
123.80
260.50
2,745.57
31,631.46
1,065.42
199.40
45.06
$2,201,645.30
11,411.56
8,283.15
$2,521,340.01
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1933.
12 Months to   12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1932.   Dec. 31, 1931.
$331,948.95
480.00
16,004.43
1,975.00
57,859.54
1,265.18
14,061.93
244,225.17
3,650.69
561.25
963,511.71
225.73
28.80
3,399.67
20.00
350.47
1,299.13
3,051.42
30,281.53
576.41
28.37
49.90
$1,674,855.28
11,759.13
320,150.96
$2,006,765.37
$478,458.93
930.00
11,687.62
2,000.00
70,025.38
848.88
12,009.29
279,034.76
3,359.20
569.30
1,046,070.65
374.42
20.30
2,535.16
40.00
305.02
1,057.39
4,265.74
33,601.49
597.54
270.00
489.34
$1,948,550.41
13,409.37
368,699.00
$2,330,658.78
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1930.
$721,931.98
1,330.00
20,632.72
950.00
78,202.93
944.24
11,675.17
454,391.36
5,722.83
771.55
1,218,363.02
911.07
24.94
3,686.89
175.00
171.23
1,367.72
4,495.07
33,295.42
688.97
63.84
1,136.04
$2,560,931.99
15,411.46
397,523.73
$2,973,867.18
$854,560.87
2,180.00
27,861.53
1,575.00
72,117.52
607.44
35,035.94
518,309.48
7,565.12
1,256.69
1,456,330.42
1,204.07
150.01
5,825.68
105.00
591.70
1,406.64
4,137.56
$2,990,820.67
12,251.88
422,274.04
$3,425,346.59
Revenue from Logging Operations, 1935.
(Amounts charged.)
Royalty and
Tax.
Penalty.
Seizure
Expenses.
Govt. Scale.
Scaling Fund.
Stump-
age.
Forest
District.
S=fng    Scaling
*"x'           Fees,
penses.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Total.
$1,303,866.37
119,454.03
37,933.86
62,720.23
81,347.42
$2,847.44
693.19
412.03
1,404.91
582.93
$95.50
11.80
36.79
24.35
45.50
$33.83
3.43
$213.50
12.37
1.00
$20,983.01
331.45
$116,539.41
7,885.80
1
S126.184.B7 Sl.570.763.fi3
84,189.10
31,453.63
62,227.02
33,305.26
212,581.17
69,837.31
126,376.51
21.50
5.00
115,307.61
Totals	
$1,605,321.91
$5,940.50
$213.94
$58.76
$231.87j$21,314.46
$124,425.21
$337,359.58
$2,094,866.23
Totals, 1934-.
$1,237,968.70
$7,382.38
$251.70
$106.36
1
$183.89j$17,436.57
$99,563.66
$324,116.42
$1,687,009.68
Totals, 1933-..
$918,663.03
$2,866.76
$197.93
$112.94
$200.66j$13,570.34
$82,212.92j$219,497.38
$1,237,321.96
Totals, 1932	
$1,046,588.92
$3,983.03
$368.73
$56.66
I
$225.73|$13,368.44
1
$71,596.21[$307,371.82
$1,443,559.54
Totals, 1931
$1,140,282.78
$4,950.55
$994.87
$42.20
$l,092.07j$16,444.18
$82,078.03|$425,978.06
l
$1,672,862.74
Totals, 1930
$1,460,367.16
$6,799.66
$1,601.76
$140.57
$1,265.33J$21,644.46!$106,553.34|$638,023.79|$2,236,396.07
Totals, 1929....
$1,851,535.62
$4,191.84
$1,555.56
$175.83
$1,215.22
$22,127.43
$118,481.18
$711,213.82
$2,710,496.50 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1935.
Z 27
FOREST EXPENDITURE, FISCAL YEAR 1934-35.
Forest District.
Salaries.
Temporary
Assistance.
Expenses.
Total.
$46,568.82
17,983.40
14,514.02
31,481.96
26,906.59
65,749.93
$23,391.52
13,982.86
5,089.17
12,050.81
12,075.42
8,467.75
$69,960.34
31,966.26
19,603.19
Kamloop s	
43,532.77
38,982.01
74,217.68
Totals
$203,204.72
$75,057.53
$278,262.25
Lumber-trade extension 	
Canadian Forestry Association .
Reconnaissance, etc _	
Grazing range improvements
Grand  total
53,130.00
3,000.00
5,406.19
3,324.17
$343,122.61
SCALING FUND.
Balance, April 1st, 1934 (deficit)
Expenditure, fiscal year 1934-35 _
Charges, fiscal year 1934-35
$33,379.77
101,008.69
$134,388.46
117,295.79
Balance, March 31st, 1935 (deficit)     $17,092.67
Balance, April 1st, 1935 (deficit)     $17,092.67
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1935       91,393.99
Charges, 9 months, April-December, 1935
$108,486.66
125,462.24
Balance, December 31st,  1935, being excess of charges over
expenditure     $16,975.58
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1934 ....
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1934   (under subsection (2), section 30a)	
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 30a	
$43,954.02
Expenditure, fiscal year 1934-35
Balance (credit), March 31st, 1935	
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1935   (under subsection (2), section 30a)	
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 30a	
$43,954.02
35,029.74
$8,924.28
43,927.21
Expenditure, 9 months to December 31st, 1935 .
Balance (credit), December 31st, 1935	
$52,851.49
33,423.04
$19,428.45 Z 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
FOREST PROTECTION FUND.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as at December
31st, 1935:—
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1934   $336,996.19
Expenditure  $353,623.95
Less refunds          9,645.34
     343,978.61
$680,974.80
Collections
$108,236.71
Government contribution     300,000.00
408,236.71
Balance (deficit), March 31st, 1935 .
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1935 ___.
$272,738.09
$272,738.09
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1935  $202,853.61
Less refunded          3,699.88
199,153.73
$471,891.82
Collections, 9 months, April-December, 1935      $76,851.12
Special levy !  54.45
Government contribution .
$76,905.57
225,000.00
301,905.57
Balance (deficit), December 31st, 1935
$169,986.25
Estimated and
Known Costs of
Forest Protection to other Agencies
, 1935.
Forest District.
Expenditures for
Tools and
Equipment.
Improvements.
Patrol.
Fire-
fighting.
Total.
Vancouver.   _	
$28,321.00
812.00
$2,436.00
85.00
$70,924.00
853.00
$46,998.00
605.00
150.00
382 00
$148,679.00
2,335.00
150 00
1,850.00
4,577.00
640 00
2,872.00
5,988.00
Nelson  	
12.00
625.00
774.00
Totals	
$35,560.00
$2,533.00
$160,044.00
_. ,.,... FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1935.
Z 29
Expenditure
for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1935.
Forest District.
Patrols
and Fire
Prevention.
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
$61,780.18
17,170.73
17,491.52
41,356.90
46,471.69
16,790.62
$6,201.21
1,021.85
854.56
2,415.69
4,707.31
399.90
$8,932.35
676.18
298.10
20,315.13
102,892.30
$1,298.62
133.60
510.80
1,224.05
680.66
$78,212.36
19,002.36
19,154.98
65,311.77
154,751.96
17,190.52
Kamloops 	
Nelson 	
$201,061.64
3,911.67
$15,600.52
$133,114.06
5,733.67
$3,847.73
$353,623.95
9,645.34
Net expenditure, F.P.F  	
" B.C". Loan Act, 1932 " _____
$197,149.97
10,383.08
$15,600.52
$127,380.39
$3,847.73
$343,978.61
10,383.08
Total net expenditure 	
$207,533.05
$15,600.52
$127,380.39
$3,847.73
$354,361.69
Patrols and fire prevention .
Tools and equipment	
Fires       _
Improvements 	
Total
$207,533.05
15,600.52
127,380.39
3,847.73
$354,361.69
PUBLICITY.
The forests have always been such an integral part of our lives in British Columbia that
many fail to perceive their range of influence, extending all the way from the recreational to
the industrial. Subconsciously Mr. Man-on-the-street may take for granted certain facts and
figures concerning the importance of the forest industries in the economic life of the Province.
He may even have some notion that their beneficial influences reach into every home, but any
concern over their perpetuation is left for others. The tourist enthusiast unconsciously pays
a glowing tribute to the forest when he invites others to come to the " Evergreen " playground,
but the information that our forests supply raw materials for the manufacture of products
worth many times our tourist trade will generally surprise him.
Though the care of our forests is placed in the hands of the Forest Branch by the people
of British Columbia, the nature of the task and the limitation of funds at its disposal is such
that real progress is not possible without the active co-operation of the people and their
informed sympathetic interest.
Realizing the foregoing, the Forestry Committee of the Legislature at its last session
recommended the Forest Branch carry on more publicity work. Certain officers of the Branch,
mostly in their own time, prepared and gave addresses before service clubs and school-children,
and showed pictures before audiences in various parts of the Province. By these means the
value of our forests and the need of increased care with fire was impressed upon some 9,600
persons. The reception met with everywhere was very encouraging and it is felt that this
programme should be greatly extended.
THE YOUNG MEN'S FORESTRY TRAINING PLAN.
The Young Men's Forestry Training Plan was an experiment inaugurated in 1935 to
assist unemployed young men by putting them at useful forestry-work, which would give a
return to the Province in keeping with the expenditure of public money involved. The project
was financed and the men selected by the Department of Labour, and then turned over to the
Forest Branch for administration.
The men were paid a reasonable subsistence and given practical training and personal
instruction.    Where possible, lectures were incorporated in the scheme.
Approximately 500 men were enrolled. They were employed as assistants to Forest
Rangers, on forest development and trail projects, and as improvement crews at each of the
three Forest Experiment Stations. Z 30
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The ranger assistants gained experience and gave effective service on all classes of ranger-
work. They acted as dispatchers, clerks, compass-men; repaired and maintained telephone-
lines, trails, lookouts; assisted in fire-suppression and maintenance of tools and equipment.
Fifteen trail crews were organized, each under a competent foreman. These crews cleared,
or built new, 382 miles of pack-horse trail, 10 miles of standard telephone-line, many miles of
emergency telephone-line, several cabins, and a number of bridges.
The crews at the Experiment Stations cleared land, fire-breaks, boundaries, trails, and
roads; renewed bridges, repaired existing buildings, and constructed additional new ones;
developed water-supply systems; maintained and installed telephone-lines; and assisted
generally in routine work.
The Forest Branch is particularly well qualified to participate in a scheme of this description with the Department of Labour. Seven thousand six hundred miles of existing forest
trails and 1,000 miles of forest telephone-lines require extensive maintenance and repair due
to the limited funds available for this work during the past few years. These improvements
constitute only a portion of the development-work essential to adequate forest-protection in
the Province. Detailed plans are available for many projects requiring immediate attention.
It is all outdoor work, well calculated to improve young men mentally and physically and to
develop initiative and self-reliance.
The experiment was a complete success in every respect and proved to be a valuable work
programme, as well as a relief measure. The reaction of the men themselves was most
gratifying and forty-six of them, through the co-operation of the industry, were assisted in
securing jobs in the logging camps and sawmills. The excellent co-operation received from
the officials of the Labour Department and the unselfish personal interest taken in the young
men by the Forest Officers throughout the Service did much to promote the success of the plan.
FOREST PROTECTION.
The fire season 1932 proved to be the most favourable experienced in the Province in a
long period of years. It appears now that that year ushered in a cycle of favourable weather
which has continued unbroken to the present time. The season 1935, in point of number of
fires, distribution, cost, and damage done, proves to be the fourth in succession of " most
favourable " years in our forest-protection history.
The season opened with the promise of a severe early hazard. Temperatures were rather
high and humidity fairly low. Early vegetation was slow in appearing and dead grass and
debris of the previous year dried out quickly. There was very little rain during the spring
and early summer and the stage was set for a general outbreak of disastrous fires, which,
however, failed to develop. General rains in early June completely relieved the situation. No
further risk developed until September, when we were once more relieved by general rains
before conditions became really critical. The September rains marked the end of the fire
season.
Province-wide precipitation for the year was below the long-time average, and for the
summer months hardly average. The highly favourable effect from a fire-protection standpoint must be ascribed to fortuitous occurrence and distribution. In spite of some failure in
rainfall over the whole season, July and August were comparatively wet months. The following table of a few items of statistics for various periods illustrates the favourable conditions
which have been encountered:—
Number of fires	
Number of cost fires	
Number of no-cost fires..
Total acres burned	
Acres per fire burned	
Total cost of forest-protection..
Cost of fire-fighting	
Cost per fire	
Annual Average
since 1912.
1,500
650
860
426,000
280
$470,000
$192,000
$130
Average, Past
Ten Years.
1,700
800
870
479,000
280
$520,000
$277,000
$160
Average,
1932-35.
1,300
450
800
353,000
280
$173,000
$54,000
Note.—Figures rounded to facilitate comparison. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1335. Z 31
The effect of favourable weather conditions is reflected in these figures, but is clouded
materially by the effect of the withdrawal of the Forest Protection Fund during the years
1932 and 1933. During these two years the seasonal Forest Protection staff was reduced in
1932 by about 320 men to 40, and in 1933 by about 237 men to 123. Fire-fighting was restricted
to the protection of life and property. For these two years the number of fires and general
hazard was closely comparable with the year 1935. The effect of withdrawal of protection
(or the measure of the value of the renewed protection) is illustrated in the following table:—
Annual Average,
1932-33 Season 1935
(Minimum (Protection
Protection). renewed).
Total cost of protection  $45,000 $250,000
Number of fires  1,170 1,110
Total acres burned  360,000 48,000
Acres burned per fire  300 40
Acres merchantable timber killed  38,000 1,800
Stumpage loss   $179,000 $9,000
Acres reproduction killed  63,000 11,000
Note.—Figures rounded to facilitate comparison.
The Forest Protection Fund, once more available, will make itself felt in protection
afforded to valuable forest-growth, to life, and to property within the limits of the funds
provided.
The history of the Forest Protection Fund was briefly outlined in last year's report.
Average annual income for ten years ended 1931 was $735,000. Average annual expenditure
for the same period was $742,164. Income in 1934 was $408,000, and estimated for 1935,
$400,000.
Three major lines of activity must be provided for from these sums—prevention, organization, and suppression. The term " prevention " as used here covers such items as tools and
equipment, trails, lookouts, communication system, and public education. It may be said to
include all preparation other than organization. " Organization " covers the salaries and
expenses of the permanent and temporary protection staff. " Suppression " covers actual
fire-fighting expenditures.
Expenditures for 1934 and 1935 have been kept within our reduced income, but in order
to do so the total sum available had to be allocated in the first instance to organization and
fire-fighting. The strictest economy must be practised in anticipation of expensive outbreaks
which may develop, and prevention, logically the first consideration, suffers accordingly, with
the added probability of increased fire-fighting cost and loss.
The forests of the Province have been valued at $265,500,000. A Protection Fund of
$400,000 represents about one-sixth of 1 per cent, of the value of forest property protected.
This is about one-half to one-quarter the sum considered necessary on a similar basis for fire-
protection elsewhere. The opinion expressed in last year's Annual Report regarding expenditures from the Forest Protection Fund for the protection of private property is repeated.
Some compensation should be made to this fund for such expenditures.
From savings in hand at the end of the past two seasons tools and equipment have been
purchased, so that we approach 1936 with fairly adequate stocks. It has not been possible to
maintain improvements, which are deteriorating badly.
Some relief in the maintenance of improvements was secured in 1935 through the activities
of the Young Men's Forestry Training Plan, and any continuance of this plan will very
materially assist in this very necessary work. During 1935 fifteen trail crews opened up a
large mileage of protection trails and did other work which could not have been otherwise
undertaken.    A complete outline of this work is given elsewhere in this report.
Detailed statistics of the fire season are given in the tables on the following pages. Z 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Fire Occurrences, 1935.
Forest District.
April.
May.
June.
July.
August.
Sept.
Oct.
Total.
21
7
5
9
83
27
19
35
39
78
5
10
47
19
95
8
21
44
104
94
14
6
32
84
74
8
20
36
50
1
1
3
12
446
69
77
Kamloops      _ _	
202
317
42
203
159
272
230
188
17
1,111
3.78
18.27
14.31
24.49
20.70
16.92
1.53
100.00
Number and Causes of
Fires
in Province, 1935.
Forest District.
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141
47
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446
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Prince Rupert	
21
2
16
21
1
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69
6.21
14
19
1
12
19
2
3
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77
6.93
29
40
21
54
16
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202
18.18
Nelson  — __ 	
104
59
25
66
24
1
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21
15
317
28.53
Totals 	
173
217
65
289
127
11
45
72
97
15
1,111
100.00
Per cent	
15.57
19.54
5.85
26.01
11.43
0.99
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6.48
8.73
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Damage to Property other than Forests, 1935.
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years.
Causes.
1934.
1933.
1932. I  1931.
I	
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
Total.
Lightning  	
Campers  _	
Railways operating 	
Railways under construction	
Smokers  	
Brush-burning    (not   railway-
clearing )   	
Road   and   power-   and   telephone-line construction	
Industrial operations .'_	
Incendiarism _._	
Miscellaneous (known causes) _
Unknown causes 	
Totals  	
173
217
65
11
45
72
97
15
320
312
103
415
117
10
41
65
188
19
285
234
77
197
77
7
32
65
90
18
336
230
156
197
108
18
17
127
64
13
1,082
475
470
295
435
243
44
57
355
96
48
892
344
149
294
171
262
68
23
638
358
267
9
387
167
22
65
139
100
36
322
274
282
294
149
13
80
103
512
182
185
163
78
7
50
36
52
19
557
351
376
157
14
104
68
126
156
4,510
2,972
1,955
9
2,909
1,394
175
530
1,292
965
1,266      2,518   |  2,271
I I
1,642
1,284      2,147      17,(
I I FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1935.
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Fires classified by Size
ANE
Damage,
1935
Total Fires.
Under Vt,
Acre.
Vt to 10 Acres.
Over 10 Acres in
Extent.
Damage.
Forest District.
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77
202
317
40.14
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6.93
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28.53
180
30
33
74
226
40.36
43.48
42.86
36.64
71.29
33.15
5.52
6.07
13.63
41.63
167
20
30
96
76
37.45
28.98
38.96
47.52
23.98
42.93
5.14
7.71
24.68
19.54
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19
14
32
15
22.19
27.54
18.18
15.84
4.73
55.31
10.61
7.82
17.88
8.38
406
67
76
197
310
21
1
1
5
7
9
1
Kamloops  _.	
Totals	
1,111
100.00
100.00
543
48.87
100.00
389
35.02
100.00
179
16.11
100.00
1,056
95.05
35
3.15
20
1.80
Totals, 1934	
1,590
100.00
100.00
665
41.82
100.00
565
35.54
100.00
360
22.64
100.00
1,442
90.70
88
5.53
60
3.77
Totals, 1933	
1,082
100.00
100.00
410
37.89
100.00
414
38.26
100.00
258
23.85
100.00
957
88.46
1
771     48
7.111  4.43
Causes, Cost, and Damage, 1935.
Causes.
No.
Per Cent.
Cost.
Per Cent.
Damage.
Per Cent.
Lightning 	
Campers 	
173
217
65
289
127
11
45 .
72
97
15
15.57
19.55
5.84
26.03
11.44
0.98
4.04
6.47
8.74
1.34
$2,413.75
3,054.00
7.89
10,132.99
2,390.15
123.22
3,555.15
2,666.12
419.97
99.72
9.71
12.28
0.04
40.76
9.61
0.49
14.30
10.72
1.69
0.40
$4,059.10
5,357.30
160.49
88,454.17
2,314.00
108.75
182,159.50
5,340.28
1,495.74
94.77
1.40
1.86
0.05
30.55
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing) _
Road, power, telephone, and telegraph..
0.79
0.04
62.92
1.84
0.52
Unknown causes	
0.03
Totals	
1,111
100.00
$24,862.96
100.00
$289,544.10
100.00
Prosecutions for
Fire Trespass,
1935.
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1
2
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—
1
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1
1
1
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Totals 	
18
2
2
1
3
9
1
9
$300.00
8
1
Totals, 1934
21
10
2
3
5
1
8
$305.00
3
4
6
-
— FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1935.
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GRAZING.
Conditions on most ranges during the past year have been somewhat unsatisfactory. The
spring was late and cold, which delayed grazing on the ranges three to five weeks. The summer
was unusually wet, frosts came early in the fall, and the condition of the stock was rather
below average. Conditions better than the foregoing, however, prevailed in the Southern
Interior.
The Dominion Range Experiment Station at Manyberries, Alberta, are continuing their
comprehensive study of range and cattle conditions at the Tranquille Sanatorium. Mr. T. P.
MacKenzie, former Grazing Commissioner for the Province, is in charge, and the progress of
these studies will be followed with much interest by the cattle industry.
Grazing reconnaissance covered a total of 80,000 acres. The work done in previous years
has proved very helpful in making our yearly grazing plans.
Foot-rot in bands of sheep using the high mountains, particularly between the Okanagan
Valley and Shuswap Lake and west to Kamloops, is getting out of control. Unless effective
measures are immediately taken, the entire range-sheep business in that part of the Province
will be seriously threatened.
The co-operation of the stockmen in range-management continues to be enlisted through
meetings with the various groups of range-users and through the construction of range
improvements financed by the fund established for that purpose under the " Grazing Act."
Many more trails and drift-fences would promote increased and better use of the Crown ranges
and those entitled to the benefits of the Range Improvement Fund should apply to the Department for consideration under it.
During 1935 the greatest hay-producing area of Crown land in the Province, that in the
vicinity of Creston, was much reduced in size through the success of the local reclamation
scheme. Though the loss of hay-cutting rights must be felt by some of the stock-owners, the
more intensive use of the land is to be commended.
Market Conditions.
Beef prices were better in 1935 than in 1934, fall beef bringing an average of probably a
little over 4 cents per pound for tops. A further improvement is expected in 1936, partly as
the result of the new tariff arrangements with the United States, which dropped from 3 cents
to 2 cents per pound the duty, on animals weighing over 700 lb.
While there was some variation in prices for lambs compared with 1934, the average for
1935 was probably a shade higher, with a tendency to firm at the end of the year. Wool prices
were better by from 1 to 3 cents per pound.
Live Stock on Crown Ranges.
The number of live stock grazing under permit on Crown ranges during the past three
years was as follows:—
Cattle and Horses. Sheep.
1933    58,770 34,329
1934     69,960 36,569
1935    60,864 36,902
Collection of grazing fees during the calendar year 1935 amounted to $14,527.01.
Range Improvements.
Increased settlement and fencing of alienated lands in late years, together with overgrazing in some areas, has tended to reduce the available area of Crown range, while large
areas of timbered range are being damaged by the falling of insect-killed trees. The profitable
use of the remaining range will depend on proper range-management, which calls for considerable improvement of range conditions. During 1935 the sum of $1,491.33 was expended
from the Range Improvement Fund, providing for the following improvements: Fencing two
mud-holes; building 43 miles of stock-trails, 7 miles of drift-fence, three water-developments,
three holding-grounds, one bridge;   and establishhing two experimental seeding-plots.
The work of clearing the ranges of wild horses was continued with results beneficial to
the forage. Shooting has been resorted to in some places and in others the horses all rounded
up and sold for fox and dog food. Very few large bands of wild horses now remain and the
small bunches are being eliminated. This work will need to be continued, as wild bands soon
build up again from the nuclei of strayed mares and wild' stallions. VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Chables F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1936.
1,325-136-7195  

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