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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1932]

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL EEPOET
OF   THE
LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES
OF   THE
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
YEAE ENDED DEOEMBEE 31ST, 1931
HON. N. S. LOUGHEED, Minister op Lands
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Ohaeles F. Banfielo, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1932.  Atictoria, B.C., March 11th, 1932.
To His Honour John William Fordham Johnson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Survey Branches
of the Department of Lands for the year ended December 31st, 1931.
N. S. LOUGHEED,
Minister of Lands. Victoria, B.C., March 11th, 1932.
The Honourable N. S. Lougheed,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Survey Branches of
the Department of Lands for the twelve months ended December 31st, 1931.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
H. CATHCART,
Deputy Minister of Lands. PAET I.
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of Superintendent of Lands     7
Revenue        7
Sale of Town Lots      8
Pre-emption Records, etc     9
Pre-emption Inspections   10
Summary    11
Letters inward and outward   12
Land-sales  12
Coal Licences, Leases, etc  12
Crown Grants issued  12  DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Victoria, B.C., January 23rd, 1932.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith statements containing details of administration
of lands by the Lands Branch of the Department of Lands during the year ended December
31st, 1931.
While it will be observed that figures in some features of our business show a slight falling-
off, other items show an increase that gives a balance for the year that can be viewed with a
measure of satisfaction, considering the severity of trade depression which continued during the
period under review.
General revenue is slightly below the past ten-year average, but the margin between this and
the preceding year is accounted for by one abnormal sale of Vancouver acreage in 1930.
Items of particular interest are the sale of reverted acreage outstripping that of similar
ordinary Crown acreage for the fourth consecutive year, the heavy increase in pre-emptions
issued, and pre-emption inspections.
While several districts have shared in this increase, the influx of settlement to the Peace
River " block " is mainly responsible, in which connection entrants in the main are described as
a particularly fine type of sturdy, self-reliant settler, in whose hands the future welfare of the
district may reasonably be considered safe.
It is gratifying to place on record that adjustments necessary in absorbing the business of
the Railway Belt, Peace River Block, and the Land Settlement Board have made satisfactory
progress and at a minimum of cost hardly anticipated.
I have, etc.,
NEWMAN TAYLOR,
Superintendent of Lands.
STATEMENT OF REVENUE, YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st, 1931.
Land-sales.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
Under " Coal and Petroleum Act
Under " Taxation Act "	
Townsite lots...	
Country lands	
Pre-empted lands.	
Mineral claims	
Totals.. ,
$600.00
52,488.20
6,077.43
0,245.37
i,471.00
$28,504.36
44,816.56
067.40
1,124.14
$75,472.46
$660.00
52,488.20
34,641.70
54,061.03
067.40
1,124.14
$143,043.55
Revenue under " Land Act."
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
Sundry lease rentals.
Grazing rentals	
Survey fees..	
Sundry fees	
Koyalty .'.	
Improvements	
Kent of property	
Totals	
$103,325.80
7,305.57
101.33
13,181.55
322.00
1,762.40
126,178.74
$2,168.21
6,201.00
1,507.21
$0,066.42
$103,325.80
$7,305.57
2,350.54
10,472.55
322.00
3,269.61
$136,145.16 Z 8
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1931.
Revenue under " Coal and Petroleum Act."
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$20,200.00
14,477.56
2,680.00
1,350.00
$20,200.00
14,477.56
2,680.00
1,350.00
Totals	
$38,707.56
    j       $38,707.56
Sundry Receipts.
Victoria.
Total.
Maps, blue-prints, etc	
Miscellaneous	
Interest, South Okanagan Project—.,	
Revenue from lands transferred from the Dominion
Totals	
$8,920.48
545.45
5,545.96
12,531.73
$27,543.62
$8,020.48
545.45
5,545.06
12,531.73
$27,543.62
Summary of Revenue.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$68,471.09
126,178.74
38,707.56
27,543.62
$75,472.46
9,966.42
$143,943.55
136,145.16
38,707.56
27,543.62
Totals	
$260,901.01
$S5,438.88
$346,330.80
Summary of Cash Received.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$346,330.80
8,329.93
2,218.62
49,300.00
46,583.06
2,442.01
1.97
$346,339.89
8,329.93
2 218 62
" Soldiers' Land Act "—
" Better Housing Act "—
49 300 00
46,583.06
2,442.01
1.97
Totals	
$454,215.48
$454,215.48
SALE OF TOWN LOTS DURING 1931.
Disposal of lots placed on the market at previous auction sales:—
26 lots in Vancouver   $16,960.00
8 lots in Vanderhoof   750.00
5 lots in Kimberley   600.00
2 lots in Prince George   675.00
3 lots in Trail   300.00
5 lots in Tulameen  275.00
3 lots in Quesnel  300.00
And some 62 lots in various other townsites        1,449.00
A total of 114 lots   $21,309.00 PRE-EMPTION RECORDS, ETC.
Z 9
During the year six auction sales were held, as follows:—
At Abbotsford, 67 lots offered, 9 lots sold (acreage)  $1,714.00
At New AVestminster, 1 lot offered, 1 lot sold (acreage)  1,775.00
At Powell River, 292 lots offered, 64 lots sold (suburban)  7,645.00
At Soda Creek, 14 lots offered, 5 lots sold (town lots)  550.00
At Sooke, 1 lot offered, 1 lot sold (island)  110.00
At Walters Cove, 39 lots offered, 18 lots sold (town lots)  595.00
A total of 98 lots for   $12,389.00
Disposal of home-sites in townships placed on the market at previous auction sales in New
Westminster District, 21 parcels, 368.78 acres, for $2,437.60.
University Hill Subdivision in District Lot 140, N.W.D.  (Endowment Lands).—Six lots
leased, value $14,985;   three parcels sold, value $45,705.
Southern Okanagan Project.—Twenty-two parcels were sold in 193L comprising 193.28 acres,
the purchase price being $7,143.40.
PRE-EMPTION RECORDS, ETC., 1931.
Agency.
Pre-emption
Records
allowed.
Certificates
of
Purchase.
Certificates
of Improvements.
2
65
5
2
65
175
18
53
1
1
7
45
16
1,766
8
112
37
19
28
10
6
21
57
13
5
22
70
2
34
10
4
54
114
15
59
68
58
2
13
5
137
9
663
1
Atlin	
15
1
Fort Fraser	
14
Fort George....	
21
1
7
2
1
2
2
2
14
7
16
5
2
Totals	
2,441
1,444
113 Z 10
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1931.
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REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1931.
STATEMENT OF LETTERS INWARD AND OUTWARD, 1931.
Letters inward   26,304
Letters outward  19,153
LAND-SALES, 1931.
,; Land Act "— Acres.
Surveyed  (first class)     4,506.45
Surveyed (second class)  9,412.85
13,919.30
Unsurveyed      2,551.00
Total    16,470.30
" Taxation Act "—
Surveyed  18,564.86
COAL LICENCES, LEASES, ETC.
COAL-PROSPECTISTG  LICENCES.
Number of licences issued, 203;  area, 129,920 acres.
Coal Leases.
Number of leases issued, 6;  area, 2,177.65 acres.
Sundry Leases.
Number of leases issued, 175 ;  area, 22,608 acres.
CROWN GRANTS ISSUED, 1931.
Pre-emptions    268
Purchase  178
Mineral   197
Town lots   64
Reverted lands  (other than town lots)    142
Reverted town lots  123
Reverted mineral  22
" Dyking Assessment Act " 	
"Public Schools Act"  .'.  3
Miscellaneous     30
Total      1,027
Applications for Crown grants   1,151
Certified copies   6
Total Acreage deeded.
Pre-emptions    41,191.82
Mineral claims (other than reverted)      9,029.63
Reverted mineral claims        896.69
Purchase of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots)     8,549.11
Purchase of reverted lands      9,874.92
Total    69,542.17 PART II.
SITKVEY BEANCH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
General Review of Field-work   14
Details of Field-work  15
Office-work  15
Survey Division   16
Geographic Division  17
Table A—Showing Acreages of each Class of Surveys Gazetted each Year since 1900   20
Table B—Summary of Office-work  21
Table C—List of Departmental Reference Maps   22
Table D—List of Departmental Mineral Reference Maps  24
Table E—List of Lithographed Maps   25
Reports of Surveyors—
Photo-topographical Survey, Northerly Vancouver Island   20, 27
Photo-topographical Survey, Hope-Princeton Area   29
Photo-topographical Survey, Quesnel Placer-mining Area  32
Triangulation, West Coast of Vancouver Island  36
Geodetic Survey, Northerly Vancouver Island  .'  36
Surveys in Chilcotin Area  :  37
Miscellaneous Surveys near Prince George  38
Surveys in Peace River Block  39, 41, 42
Surveys near Vanderhoof  45
Triangulation Survey, Cassiar District   46
Triangulation and Topographical Survey, Upper Skeena River  50 REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Victoria, B.C., March 10th, 1932.
The Hon. N. S. Lougheed,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report, on the operations of the Survey
Branch for the year ended December 31st, 1931:—
The fall in revenues which, in common with other countries, this Province has experienced
was reflected in a greatly reduced appropriation for surveys, with the result that attention had
to be confined to the most urgent items of work. For twenty years, as funds permitted, work
has been proceeding on a triangulation net covering the settled portions of the Province, with the
object of connecting all existing surveys and laying down an accurate and permanent foundation
for future maps. Only a few important gaps remain, and in order to benefit fully from the large
investment already made, these gaps should be closed with as little delay as possible.
We had the same full co-operation from the Dominion Topographical Survey as in 1930, and
by arrangement with them two aeroplanes of the Royal Canadian Air Force were employed on
photography in the Quesnel placer-mining area, and on Vancouver Island, without cost to the
Province. As its share, the Province carries out the necessary ground surveys for control and
the maps are then to be published by the Dominion as part of the National Topographic series.
In 1931 our surveyors developed a method for reducing the cost of ground control by making
extensive use of the surveying camera. This proved particularly effective in country open at
high levels and timbered below, such as Vancouver Island, and the combination of the various
methods promises the most complete maps at the lowest cost ever secured by the Province. These
maps will show contours, and from them it will be possible to work out the drainage areas
tributary to water-powers and the storage possibilities, areas of potential forest and agricultural lands in so far as these are governed by altitude and slope, height and character of all
passes and approaches to them, thus indicating the best transportation routes, without further
surveys. Such a map will double the field accomplishments of the Geological Survey workers,
and since fully indexed aerial photographs covering the entire area are on file, the most detailed
information concerning any particular feature is available.
Under the co-operative arrangement with the Dominion Topographical Survey, our aero-
topographical work was concentrated on northerly Vancouver Island and in the Quesnel placer-
mining region. The former was chosen on account of the resources of the Nimpkish-Coast copper
area in minerals, timber, and water-power, and the latter mainly on account of its placer-gold
possibilities. Experience in Great Britain, Italy, and the oil areas of California has demonstrated the worth of aerial photography in showing up relationships between features which to
one on the ground do not appear to be related. It is the belief that the proposed contour map
of this area, supported by the aerial photographs now on hand, will greatly improve the chances
of success in prospecting for ancient gold-bearing channels.
GENERAL REVIEW OF FIELD-WORK.
The general field-work of the Branch is divided into three main classes—namely, surveys of
Crown lands for settlement, industrial, and residential purposes; control surveys; and topographical surveys, including control for aerial photographs.
The following is a short review of the work done of the various classes:—
Crown Land Surveys.—Surveys of land for settlement were limited to areas likely to be
taken up in the very near future and, with the exception of some small scattered areas, attention
was confined to a series of hay meadows partly occupied by Indians in the Chilcotin area, to a
continuation of the re-establishment and completion of some surveys made thirty-eight years ago
near Vanderhoof, and to agricultural areas in the former Dominion Peace River Block. The
total area surveyed was 47,193 acres, and the cost per acre of this day-work was approximately
the same as under the pre-war contract rates.
Control Surveys.—The necessity for control surveys has been explained in past reports, and,
briefly, the system adopted is a triangulation network following the main valleys. To this all
older scattered surveys are steadily being tied and the aim is to have these permanently marked
triangulation stations so distributed that all future surveys can be tied to them at little cost. " Wild " transits have been substituted for the older type on the more important triangulation
nets, and owing to the reduced weights, the saving in back-packing will in some cases pay for
the new transit in a single season, and the results so far obtained also indicate a higher degree
of accuracy.
Triangulation networks in the southern part of the Province are well advanced, but owing
to lack of funds nothing was done on the few gaps remaining there. An attempt was made to
close the 70-mile gap between Peace River and Nass waters, but early deep snow on the higher
mountains prevented this, though essential information for the mapping of this region was
secured, and we expect, about July, to issue a new map of Northern British Columbia, the
former one being obsolete and now out of print.
DETAILS OF FIELD-WORK.
The following is an outline of the work carried on by field parties during the season, with
the names of the British Columbia Land Surveyors in charge of parties. Detailed reports by
these surveyors are appended.
A. J. Campbell and G. ,T. Jackson, of the permanent staff, on aerial photograph control,
Northerly Vancouver Island.
R. D. McCaw, of the permanent staff, on photo-topographical survey of Hope-Princeton
area.
N. C. Stewart, of the permanent staff, on aerial photograph control in the Quesnel placer-
mining area.
W. J. H. Holmes—Short season closing gap in triangulation on west coast of Vancouver
Island.
H. E. Whyte—Short season connecting geodetic survey of Johnstone Strait to Northerly
Vancouver Island triangulation.
D. M. MacKay—Short season on scattered surveys in Chilcotin area.
J. A. F. Campbell—Short season on miscellaneous surveys near Prince George.
John Elliott, E. H. Burden, and Duncan Cran—Full season on land surveys in Peace
River Block.
V. Schrjelderup—Full season on land surveys near Vanderhoof.
Frank Swannell and E. R. Foster—Full season on the triangulation gap between Peace
and Nass Rivers.*
OFFICE-WORK.
The office staff is divided into two main sections—namely, the Survey Division and the
Geographic Division. Reports compiled by Mr. F. O. Morris and by Mr. G. G. Aitken, who are
respectively in charge of these Divisions, follow, and following that the reports by surveyors
above referred to.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
F. C. GREEN,
Surveyor-General. Z 16 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1931.
APPENDIX TO EEPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
SURVEY DIVISION.
This Division deals with the general correspondence, supplying survey information, the
preparation of instructions for surveying, examining field returns, and plotting official plans,
compiling departmental reference maps, clearing all applications, and other incidental work.
During the past year 405 field-books were received, containing notes for 1,345 lots, and
including twenty-five books containing notes of traverses and triangulation control surveys.
The number of lots plotted and gazetted numbers 915; tracings of the plans of these lots
were prepared and forwarded to the various Land Commissioners. Numerous surveys of
reverted lands were also dealt with by this Division.
Miscellaneous tracings made total 88, while 972 tracings were made in duplicate for leases
and Crown grants.
A schedule of the various kinds of surveys examined and gazetted during 1931 follows:—
Acres.
Purchase surveys     11,209
Mineral-claim surveys       5,630
Timber surveys      31,226
Coal-licence surveys       1,259
Lease surveys  •   2,708
Government surveys      84,635
Total   136,667
A comparison of these figures with those of previous seasons is given in Table A, attached
to this report.
Right-of-way Plans.—Plans of rights-of-way through Crown lands for railways, logging-
railways, and power-transmission lines are examined and dealt with by this Division in connection with the applications of the companies for Crown grants or leases as may be required.
Information supplied,—A nominal charge is made for the preparation of copies of field-
notes, blue-prints, etc., required by surveyors, officials of other departments, and the general
public. The revenue derived last year from the copying of notes and for blue-prints was
$4,324.07. The total number of prints made was 27,630, valued at $7,941.31, of which the sum
of $3,617.24 covered departmental charges.
Correspondence and Accounts.—During the year the Branch received 6,616 letters and sent
out 5,276, not including form letters and interdepartmental memoranda.
Clearances.—During the year the Surveys Division supplied to the Lands, Forest, and Water
Branches clearances of applications, as follows:—
Pre-emptions   2,590
Applications to purchase .-.     258
Applications to lease      364
Coal licences      209
Water licences       156
Timber-sales   1,068
Hand-loggers' licences       36
Crown grants       973
Reverted lands  1,198
Cancellations     1,173
Inquiries     2,685
A graphical record is kept of all clearances on the maps of the Branch. In many instances
it is necessary in the clearing of a single application to connect numerous departmental records
in order to ascertain that no other interests are affected.
An indication of the work involved in dealing with various matters covered by the work of
this Branch is given by the number of plans and field-notes consulted.    During the past year there were received from the vault for reference, and returned for filing, 28,507 documents of
this description.
Departmental Reference Maps.—In order to keep a proper graphic record of alienations and
inquiries, reference maps on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, drawn on tracing-linen, are maintained
by the Survey Division. There are now 170 reference maps and 54 mineral reference maps,
making a total of 224 maps. The work of keeping these up to date by adding new survey information as it becomes available, and revising same when worn out, forms a considerable portion
of the work of the Branch. During the past year eighteen (thirteen reference maps and five
mineral reference maps) were prepared.
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
The Geographic Division deals with the compilation and drawing of maps for lithographic
reproduction, the preparation of standard base maps and the calculations incidental thereto,
triangulation adjustment, the distribution of maps, and all photostat and map-mounting work;
geographic data and records of the Province.
The production for the year is outlined in the following schedules:—
Published.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
Kootenay, Osoyoos, and Similkameen.
Peace River Block, special	
Peace Kiver Block, special
5,300
4,200
5,200
8,000
1,000
2,000
2,600
5,000
Feb.,    1931
Feb.,    1931
Sept., 1931
Mar.,   1931
April, 1931
Aug.,   1931
June,   1931
Dec,    1931
IE
3Q
3q
lex
7.89 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 In.
60,000
9,600
9,600
Tete Jaune Pre-emptors' Map.	
3h
4p
6,000
3,400
In Course of Preparation,
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
Mineral Reference Map No. 6, Grand
3,000
4,000
4,000
May,   1932
May,    1932
June,   1932
M.R.M. 6
3j
3 k
4c
lH
4b
lA
1 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
1/1,000,000 or
15.78 m. to lin.
800
North Thompson Pre-emptors' Map...
9,000
11,400
3,100
160,000
3,100
372,630
Northern B.C	
During the year extensive and Important work was done in assisting the Dominion Bureau
of Statistics with the mapping requirements for the census-taking; also providing the arrangement for establishing permanent statistical publication areas in British Columbia for Dominion
and Provincial administration requirements.
Geographical Naming.
Regular progress was made in the establishment of permanent geographical naming in conjunction with the work of the Geographic Board of Canada, covering new map publications of
British Columbia submitted by Dominion Government departments—Geological, Hydrographical,
and Topographical—as well as the requirements for Provincial departments and map publications. The following map-sheets were edited for geographical naming, also individual applications, necessitating correspondence, searching of records, and correcting of maps:— Z 18 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1931.
Name of Map. For whom prepared.
1. Nelson Degree Sheet B.C. Government.
2. Penticton Degree Sheet B.C. Government.
3. North Thompson Pre-emptors' Sheet B.C. Government.
4. Lillooet Pre-emptors' Sheet  B.C. Government.
5. Peace River Block Pre-emptors' Sheet B.C. Government.
6. British Columbia Wall Map B.C. Government.
7. Topographical Sheets (Campbell) —
(a.)  Cheakamus and Green River Valley B.C. Government.
(6.)  Mamquam Valley Sheet B.C. Government.
8. Topographical Sheet (McCaw) —
Part of Kettle River Valley B.C. Government.
9. Topographical Sheet (Jackson) —
Kettle-Granny Sheet B.C. - Government.
10. Topographical Sheet (Austen-Leigh) —
Granby and Burrell Creeks Sheet B.C. Government.
11. Topographical Sheet (Stewart) —
Vicinity of Stuart and Fraser Lakes B.C. Government.
12. Reference Maps (13) B.C. Government.
13. Mineral Reference Maps (5) B.C. Government.
14. Forest Surveys—
(«.)  Long Lake Forest B.C. Government.
(b.)  Barriere Forest B.C. Government.
(e.)  Nehalliston Forest B.C. Government.
(d.)  Powell Forest B.C. Government.
15. Chart of Alberni Inlet Dominion—Hydrographic Survey.
16. Alice Arm Sheet Dominion—Geological Survey.
17. Shuswap Lake Sheet Dominion—Topographical Survey.
18. Revelstoke Sheet Dominion—Topographical Survey.
19. Salmo Sheet Dominion—Geological Survey.
Gazetteer.
The work of the Gazetteer—although completed and issued in 1930—goes steadily on.   Over
a thousand new names have been recorded during the year and, in addition, many of the place-
name cards have had to be revised and rewritten on account of new surveys and information.
Central Index.
This register (registering of plans under our " quad " system) has been kept thoroughly up
to date, and has been a great saver of time by the departments interested, in quickly finding
plans required and the gathering of information for the compilation of maps, etc.
Geographical Work done for other Departments.
Twelve orders (Provincial), with total cost, charged and received, $369.72.
Fourteen orders (Provincial), co-operative, not charged, value $1,051.19.
The intricate, special geographical records necessary in connection with the 1931 census of
British Columbia and the establishment of permanent statistical publication areas were prepared
at especial request for the Bureau of Statistics, Dominion of Canada, at a total cost of $2,119.54.
Map-mounting.
The following is a synopsis of the work accomplished in map-mounting for the year 1931:—■
Loose-leaf map-books—mounted maps in rexine covers and unmounted
maps in brown-paper covers   44
White, blue, and ozalid prints—joined, mounted, etc  1,724
Maps—joined, mounted, cut to fold pocket size, and mounted  1,000
Photostat prints—fitted, joined, mounted, etc  387
Official maps and charts—repaired, mounted, etc  109
Field-books and miscellaneous books—repaired, bound, etc.   13
Photos, pictures, sketches, and paintings—mounted   104
Maps—reinforced to hang, sticks top and bottom   44 APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Z 19
Work clone, Receipts and Credits.
Geographic and Survey Branch   $1,365.37
Lands Department   561.98
Other departments   490.94
Public     121.75
Total    $2,540.04
Map Stock and Distribution.
Maps issued to departments and public        25,183
Gazetteers issued to departments and public   77
Maps received into Geographic stock—
(1.)  Provincial Government maps   40,140
(2.)  Dominion Government and miscellaneous     1,008
        41,148
Cash receipts for printed maps and Gazetteers   $3,137.11
Credits (Lands Department) for printed maps and Gazetteers     1,072.26
Credits (Government Agents) for printed maps and Gazetteers       526.74
Value of printed maps and Gazetteers issued free to departments and
public     2,734.75
Photostat, 1931.
Requisitions—
Departments     541
Public  87
Charges—
Departments     $1,476.00
Public           345.85
Total :  $1,821.85
Letters received
Year. and attended to.
1928  1,796
1929 '.   2,548
1930   1,787
1931   2,259
Standard Base Map Staff.
Standard Base Map Sheets produced.
Type of Work.
No. of
Sheets.
Vicinity of.
Scale
Area in
Sq. Miles.
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
1
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 in. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 in. to 1 in.
20 ch. to 1 in.
40 ch. to 1 in.
690
Skeleton Control  (revised)	
700
770
730
Skeleton Control  (revised) ....
Skeleton Control
730
1,540
740
Skeleton Control	
Detail
Finlay River 	
2,000
90
Detail - ...".
360 Z 20
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1931.
Control nets were supplied as follows :-
Geographic Printed Maps.
Peace River Block.
Cranbrook Degree Sheet.
Tete Jaune Pre-emptors' Map.
Lillooet Pre-emptors' Map.
Wall Map of B.C.
Departmental Reference Maps, etc.
Surveys Branch Reference Maps Nos. 6a, 38b, 59, 63, 89, 90,
91, 30-32.
Mineral Reference Maps.
Forest Branch Departmental Maps.
Hydrographic Survey of Canada.
Geological Survey of Canada.
Photo-topographic Surveys of R. D. McCaw, G. J. Jackson,
A. J. Campbell, and N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S.
Triangulation Computation and Adjustment.
Least-square adjustments of the following triangulation control surveys were made during
the year:—
L. S. Cokely, B.C.L.S., season 1930, Finlay River.
F. C. Swannell, B.C.L.S., season, 1930, Ingenika River.
Wm. Hallam, B.C.L.S., season 1930, Columbia River.
J. Davidson, B.C.L.S., seasons 1927 and 1928, Telegraph Creek.
N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S., season 1931, Quesnel.
H. E. Whyte, B.C.L.S., season 1931, North Vancouver Island.
F. Nash, B.C.L.S., season 1930, Klappan River.
The above necessitated the adjustment of 280 triangles and 310 calculations for latitude,
longitude, distance, azimuth, and reverse azimuth.
A total of 1,884 triangulation stations are at present entered in the alphabetical and quad-
index registers.
Table A.—Showing Acreages of each Class of Surveys Gazetted each Year since 1900.
Tear.
Preemptions.
Purchase.
Mineral
Claims.
Timber
Limits.
Coal
Licences.
Leases.
B.C. Govt.
Surveys.
Totals.
1900..
1901..
1902..
1903..
1904..
1005-
1906..
1907..
1908-
1909..
1910..
1911-
1912..
1913..
1914..
1915-
1916..
1917..
1918-
1919..
1920-
1921..
1922..
1923-
1924..
1925..
1926..
1927-
1928..
1929..
1930..
1931-
Acr
22
20.
35,
37
48
42
33.
50
60
71
79
89,
99,
55
45
22
14
12
10,
8,
8.
3,
1
es.
873
493
297
615
124
660
573
460
788
316
273
485
461
202
551
746
335
632
835
514
172
078
268
991
180
Acres.
4,419
16,401
29,652
26,787
36,468
58,705
66,608
102,218
147,980
145,325
455,356
1,352,809
1,011,934
508,002
234,580
41,551
8,771
802
1,034
153
5,992
8,122
6,160
3,341
11,926
2,307
1,081
1,763
1,589
11,917
2,151
11,209
Acres.
33,441
33,400
31,057
18,115
20,549
15,535
9,894
10,017
14,607
10,744
12,499
21,325
16,645
18,043
7,546
8,339
7,677
8,386
9,247
10,264
12,5S0
6,290
.4,637
0,175
11,382
4,750
9,166
15,695
16,253
20,210
14,630
5,630
Acres.
59
2,027
1,040
127,992
155,279
214,841
77,829
83,016
167,925
426,121
509,201
686,909
804,730
1,181,355
1,105,635
512,62S
302,903
275,538
223,768
105,289
347,729
247,766
37,966
53,101
33,028
2,150
6,651
67,171
1,990
1,218
31,226
Acres.
026
48,670
137,218
41,312
20,367
9,821
8,310
43,303
120,938
99,236
72,719
36,098
29,245
10,983
2,843
953
160
22,143
4,423
2,520
4,480
7,561
320
10,437
t30,019
2,990
1,186
1,259
Acres.
664
593
1,026
2,003
3,009
806
9,566
4,387
2,580
15,239
5,864
6,500
8,560
4,740
4,209
S41-
5,145
2,960
2,342
1,495
3,227
11,884
3,094
2,790
1,437
2,273
2,641
5,411
3,484
2,122
2,155
Acres.
10,057
800
179
107
113,968
97,072
512,373
302,536
948,644
826,362
1,014,366
1,078,579
705,170
124,953
111,256
60,311
77,121
63,505
127,797
98,841
147,927
33,860
23,402
29,393
8,477
8,872
10,560
17,972
84,635
Acres.
71,513
79,094
98,698
213,312
312,278
469,872
238,842
444,433
506,773
1,189,42S
1,407,912
3,220,610
2,866,997
2,854,487
2,512,198
1,320,520
474,767
414,417
309,090
262,996
463,348
409,300
154,486
221,805
100,374
36,192
52,718
37,996
127,388
49,789
39,312
136,667
Allotted to surveyed land.
t Includes 28,548 acres surveyed as phosphate licences. APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Z 21
Table B.—Summary of Office-work for the Year 1931 and Comparative Figures for 1930,
Survey Division.
Number of field-books received 	
lots surveyed  '..*	
lots gazetted and tracings forwarded to Government Agents.
miles of right-of-way plans dealt with	
applications for purchase cleared	
applications for pre-emption cleared 	
reference maps compiled	
Crown-grant applications cleared 	
Total number of letters received by Branch :	
„        Crown-grant and lease tracings made in duplicate	
,,        blue-prints made	
Revenue from sale of blue-prints and survey information	
1930.
692
728
568
46
233
1,234
20
1,074
6,827
1,558
24,525
$4,655.23
1931.
405
1,345
915
161
258
2,590
18
973
6,616
972
27,630
$4,324.07 Z 22
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS. 1931.
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APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Table E.—List of Lithographed Maps.
Z 25
Map
No.
Year of
Issue.
Title of Map.
Scale,
Miles, etc.
Per
Copy.
Per
Dozen.
lA
flA
lex
lEM
la
1.1 C A
1912
1932
1931
1930
1916
1923
1923
1923
1923
1923
1923
1923
1925
1929
1920
1914
1929
1923
1924
1927
1930
1926
1923
1922
1928
1921
1927
1931
1932
1932
1929
1924
1931
1927
1931
1931
1913
1925
1913
1914
1926
1921
1923
1926
1927
1930
1931
1916
1929
1929
1929
1930
1927
1928
1928
1929
1929
1932
1930
1928
1907
1898
189fi
Geographic Series—
British  Columbia.    In  four  sheets.    Showing- roads and  trails,
railway systems, etc.
Wall Map of British Columbia.    In four sheets.    In course of
preparation
British Columbia.   In one sheet.   Showing-Land Recording Divisions
Kootenay, Osoyoos, and Similkameen.    Showing- Mining Divisions
Cariboo and adjacent Districts.    Showing Land Recording Divi-
' sions
British Columbia.    In one sheet.   Showing rivers, railways, main
roads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc.,
17.75 m. to 1 in.
1:1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to'l in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 tn. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1  in.
2 m. to 1  in.
2 m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
^ m. to 1 in.
\ m. to 1 in.
5 ni. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
-   1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
20 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
10 m. to 1 in.
6,000 ft. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
SI.00
Free
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.75
.75
.75
.75
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
iO
li
-^ 2
»2l
fc£ CJ  5
C aJ o
ja cj
C cs
M
.50
.50
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.5(1
.25
.50
.50
.50
2.00
.50
.60
.50
.50
.50
.50
.'85
Free
.10
.10
.10
s$10.00
1.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
lJC
ditto                        ditto                 and Land Recording Divisions.
4.00
4.00
1.IE
1JF
l.TGL
Ijgc
IK
It
ditto                         ditto                  and Assessment Districts	
ditto                           ditto                   and   Provincial Electoral Divisions
ditto                           ditto                   and Land Registry Districts...
South   Western   Districts   of   B.C.,   Commercial   and   Visitors.
(Economic Tables, etc., 1929.)
6.00
8.00
6.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
2 A
2b
Land Series—
4.00
4.00
2c
4.00
2D
4.00
2k
4.00
2k
3a
3b
Queen Charlotte Islands, Economic Geography (preliminary).  ...
Pre-emptors' Series—
4.00
2.00
2.00
3c
3d
Bulkley Valley	
2.00
2.00
3e
3 k
2.00
2.00
3g
2.00
3a
13..
|3k
3m
2.CO
2.00
2.00
2.00
3p
3Q
4a
Degree Series—
2.00
2.00
4.00
t4B
4.00
t4c
4d
2.00
4k
4 k
2.00
2.00
4g
4h
2.00
2.00
4.1
4.00
4k
4.00
4l
4M
4N
4p
5 A
5b
5c
Topographical- Series—
Omineca and Finlav River Basins, Sketch-map of	
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured),  South sheet (special) ...
ii                           ii                     H             North sheet (special) ...
Geographical Gazetteer op British Columbia	
Mineral Reference Maps—Printed.
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4 00
mrm2
4.00
4 00
4.00
4 00
Miscellaneous—
2.50
On app.
.50
MD
9
B.C. Mining Divisions and Mineral Survev Districts...   .
5
•2
Kootenay District, East, Triangulation Survey of...
.50
.50
tin course of compilation.
Note.—To avoid misunderstanding, applicants for maps are requested to state the " Map Number" of map desired.
Information supplied of maps of British Columbia printed and published at Ottawa, by the Canadian Geological Survey, also
the Dominion Department of the Interior, etc., etc.
Inquiries for printed maps —Address :—
Chief Geographer, Department of Lands, Victoria, B.C. PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, NORTHERLY VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By A. J. Campbell.
Victoria, B.C., January 14th, 1932.
F. C, Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report upon the photo-topographical surveys
carried out by me, under your instructions, during the past season:—
The work this year promised, and proved to be, extremely interesting. We were, for the
first time, to work in an area covered by vertical aerial pictures. This was somewhat of an
experiment, the idea being that ground control for plotting the aerial pictures in position could
be obtained from photographs taken from ground stations. This idea has been unquestionably
substantiated, and it is safe to say that any degree of such control could be obtained, depending
on the density of the photographic stations. This applies only to rough areas where points of
sufficient elevation to overlook the surrounding country are available. It is not possible to give
in any detail the system which will be used in mapping, as we are still in the throes of searching for a satisfactory method, but we have progressed sufficiently to feel assured of complete
success in the method.
In British Columbia topographical maps have been successfully made by the photo-
topographical method for many years, but in a heavily timbered and rolling country certain
deep creeks and other features may not be satisfactorily shown by the photographs, and these
details must be filled in by traverse and other means. By using aerial pictures iii conjunction
with the ground pictures much field-work is saved and yet all details are clearly disclosed.
Your instructions, dated June 6th, 1931, assigned Mr. G. J. Jackson and myself to work
together, and the area to be covered is described as the Nimpkish and neighbouring watersheds,
which were covered with aerial photographs by the Royal Canadian Air Force in the year 1930.
We were to use the Nimpkish Lake and the Klaaneh River above the lake as the dividing line
between the two parties.    The area lying to the west of this boundary was assigned to me.
The party was organized at Victoria on June 9th and proceeded via Vancouver to Engle-
wood, Vancouver Island. From Englewood we travelled by logging-railway to Nimpkish Lake
and to the head of the lake by motor-boat. Englewood, which is situated on Beaver Cove, is
the headquarters camp of the Wood & English Logging Company. This company controls extensive timber limits in the vicinity of Nimpkish Lake and has extensive logging equipment there.
Our thanks are due to the Wood & English Logging Company, which, through their superintendent, Mr. L. Frank Hoy, rendered us every assistance possible in the furtherance of the work.
A camp, situated at the head of Nimpkish Lake, was used as a base, and from there trips
were made in several directions. All transport on getting away from the lake, with the
exception of some small lakes which were rafted, was by man-power, which of necessity made
the work proceed comparatively slowly, but through the season forty-five camera stations, well
scattered and placed throughout the area covered, were occupied and thirty-two dozen plates
were exposed. Stations were occupied along the Karmutsen Range, lying to the west of Nimpkish Lake on the range stretching southerly to near Rugged Mountain, and on the hills lying
still farther to the west. It is expected from 400 to 500 square miles of country will be mapped.
Considerably greater area would have been covered if the season had been more favourable for
photographic work. During the parts of June and September the party was in the field it was
impossible to accomplish but very little on account of the heavy rains and low clouds which
made photography impossible. July and August were exceedingly fine months. It was particularly unfortunate that September was not better, as we were in position to occupy several
projected stations, which, along with those already occupied, would have added considerable
area to that which we are able to map. Several land-ties were made, in two cases by direct
readings from stations and in others by identifying position of post, or, rather, the crossing
of a stream by the survey-line, on the aerial view. This position will be plotted from the views
and hence position of post can be located on the plan.
To control the position of camera stations a connection was made by triangulation with
the Elizabeth and Georgina Geodetic Stations. This tie was made by Mr. H. E. Whyte,
B.C.L.S., using triangulation signals erected by the topographical parties. Generally speaking, the area may be classed as mountainous. The only considerable areas
of comparatively flat land are found along the Klaanch River, particularly around the head of
Nimpkish Lake, and around the junction of AVoss Creek and the Klaanch. It would be a difficult matter to estimate the area of land suitable for agriculture. Certainly there are areas that,
under present conditions, would not be classed as suitable for agriculture, which at some future
date will probably be considered good land. To the west of the range of hills bounding the
Klaanch Valley and Nimpkish Lake basin lies a peculiar wide valley or trough stretching from
Kathleen Lake on the north to the Leballos Valley on the south. Several streams with their
different branches have their rise in the hills on either side of this trough, and, joining together
into the main stream, break through the range of hills to the west to reach the sea. The trough
is broken up by low rocky ridges and hills, with small areas of flat land along the larger streams.
There are several passes in this range lying to the west of the Nimpkish Lake and Klaanch
Valleys which may be followed by future roads. The narrow valleys of the Kilapa and AVillow
Creeks, which flow into Nimpkish Lake, head in passes approximately 1,200 and 1,100 feet
altitude. The former leads over to Kathleen Lake waters, the latter to a branch of the Tahsish
River. Atluck Lake, also, through Hustan and Anutz Lakes, a feeder of Nimpkish Lake, fills
the next gap in the range. It is nested between the steep slopes of Finder Mountain and those
of Hustan Mountain. Its altitude is only 430 feet and the pass at its head, which leads over
to the Tahsish River, is only about 50 feet above the lake. AArere it not for the exceedingly
steep and rocky slopes on either side this would offer a very fine route across the island.
AA'olfe Creek heads in a pass about 1,100 feet altitude and leads over to the Zeballos Aralley.
Easy gradients on each side, in spite of its altitude, make it a very feasible route.
East of the Zeballos A7alley, and lying between that valley and the AVoss Lake basin, there
stands the much more mountainous area about Rugged Mountain. The steep rock walls and
the fairly large glaciers give the mountains a formidable enough appearance to suit any Alpine
enthusiast. In spite of its altitude of only 6,157 feet, it has all the attractions and thrills of a
mountain of 10,000 feet, and more in another setting. It is quite easily reached from the head
of Tasis Arm, on the west coast of the island.
Where altitude permits, the whole area is timber-covered. Above 4,000 feet altitude the
forest-growth begins to open out and alpine types only are seen. Only two small burns were
noted over the whole area—one on the north of AVillow Creek Aralley and the other about 4 miles
up the Klaanch. A considerable area has been logged around the head of Nimpkish Lake.
Hemlock, cedar, and balsam-fir are the most common species. Douglas fir is found more or
less scattered over the area. Maple-trees were seen along the banks of some of the streams.
The brush and undergrowth, which reports had stated as being exceedingly thick, did not prove
to be so.
Deer were very plentiful in the logged areas and also were seen over the whole area. Elk
were reported to be in the district, but none were seen. Black bear were encountered, but not
often.    Cougar are quite plentiful, as many are trapped but none were seen.
Trout, generally of small size, were caught or noted in all the lakes and streams of sufficient size.
I have, etc.,
Alan J. Campbell. B.C.L.S.
PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL  SURVEY,  NORTHERLY  VANCOUVER  ISLAND.
By G. J. Jackson.
A'ictoria, B.C., December 31st, 1931.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the photo-topographic Survey
made by me during the past summer:—
The area covered is on Vancouver Island, and includes the easterly slope of the Nimpkish
River Valley, the Kokish and Tsulton Rivers and Bonanza Lake Aralleys, and the Tsitika River
Valley, extending about 20 miles southward from Johnstone Strait. On the west it joins the
area done by A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., during the same summer. This area has all been covered by vertical aerial views, taken by the Royal Canadian Air
Force. Our instructions were to occupy and to take horizontal views from stations to furnish
ground control for the vertical views, and to obtain elevations, sufficient to make a topographical map combining the two systems of views.
The party was organized at Vancouver on June 9th and arrived in Englewood on June 10th.
Here we occupied several stations, but were only able to clear them and put up signals, as
continued fog and rain interfered with taking views and reading angles.
On June 16th we moved up to the head of Nimpkish Lake. The AVood & English Timber
Company took us up to the bottom of the lake by speeder and to the head of the lake by launch.
From this camp we occupied four stations on the east side of the lake. Then we had a fly-
camp on the summit between Nimpkish and Bonanza Lakes, from which we did four stations
along the ridge. As it rained or snowed nearly every day, it was not until July 2nd that we
completed this work.
We now packed to the head of Bonanza Lake by way of Steel Lake, and from here we had
fly-camps on the mountains between Bonanza Lake and Tsitika River. We occupied eleven
stations and established triangulation stations on Tsitika Mountain and on Twin Mountain.
Then we moved back to Englewood, reaching there on August 3rd. From here we completed the stations we had tried to do in June, and occupied eleven stations along Johnstone
Strait.    AVe also established a triangulation station on Mount Palmerston.
On August 13th we moved by launch to Robson Bight, at the mouth of the Tsitika River,
and proceeded to work up the river. AATe occupied stations for about 20 miles up the river and
got within reach of, and expected to complete, the headwaters, but the weather broke on August
29th and it rained continually, so we were able only to do one station and to reoccupy Twin
Mountain Triangulation Station between then and September 17th. On that date we moved down
the river and back to Englewood.    The party was disbanded in Vancouver on September 21st.
The weather was not at all favourable, as it rained nearly every day in both June and
September and several days in July and August. During August, while we were working on
Johnstone Strait, there was fog every morning, and it seldom cleared until afternoon. During
fair weather, however, the atmosphere was very clear and good views were obtained.
The triangulation was extended by H. E. AA7hyte, B.C.L.S., from the Elizabeth and Georgina
Geodetic Stations to Palmerston, Tsitika, and Twin Stations on the east of the Nimpkish River
and Karmutsen, Pinder, and Rugged Stations on the west. Elevations were obtained from
mean water-level on Johnstone Strait as zero.
During the season thirty-two dozen plates were exposed and the following stations occupied :
Triangulation stations, 3; camera stations, 40; separate camera stations, 47.
The only settlements in the area are on Beaver Cove. They are Englewood, the headquarters and mill of the AVood & English Timber Company, and Beaver Cove, just across, where
there is the mill of the Beaver Cove Timber Company. These are both ports of call of the
Coast boats and have school, post-office, and store. Alert Bay, on Cormorant Island, only 6 miles
away, is quite a fair-sized town, with a hospital, wireless station, Indian school, and a salmon-
cannery.
The area consists of three valleys, running in a general north-and-south direction. The
Nimpkish River Aralley empties into Johnstone Strait about 6 miles west of Beaver Cove, the
Kokish into Beaver Cove, and the Tsitika enters Johnstone Strait at Robson Bight, 12 miles
east of Beaver Cove.
, There are two large lakes in the area. Nimpkish Lake is 16 miles long and 1% miles wide,
and Bonanza Lake, about 6 miles to the east, is 5 miles long and 1 mile wide. These lakes are
separated by a mountain about 5,000 feet in height. Its western slope is gradual, but to the
east, towards Bonanza Lake, it. is very steep.
Eastward from Bonanza Lake and between it and the Tsitika River is a mountain range
reaching 5,700 feet. This is very rugged and steep. To the east of the Tsitika there is another
range of equal height and steepness. The Tsitika River A'alley is very narrow and the sides
are very steep.
The whole area is heavily timbered to timber-line, at about 4,500 feet. The predominating
species are hemlock and balsam, with some spruce, fir, and red and yellow cedar. Considerable
areas in the vicinity of Nimpkish Lake have been logged, but the rest has not been touched. PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, HOPE-PRINCETON AREA. Z 29
Due to heavy timber and difficulty of access, it is a hard country to prospect and little
has been done except in the vicinity of Nimpkish Lake. Here several prospects have been
located—one 3 miles up Lime Creek, located by E. L. Kinman, and where considerable drilling
and prospecting was done by the Consolidated Mining & Smelting Company.
The AVood & English Timber Company has a logging-railway from Englewood to the foot
of Nimpkish Lake, with spurs to logging operations in the vicinity. It also has several tugs,
launches, and scows on the lake.
A horse-trail is being constructed up the east side of the Nimpkish River, from the head of
the lake, by the British Columbia Department of Mines, to help open up the country for prospectors. Twelve miles had been completed by August. The first 8 miles, to Steel Creek, follows
along an abandoned railway-grade. A pack-trail up Steel Creek to Bonanza Lake branches off
the end of this grade.
There is a horse-trail for about 3 miles up Lime Creek from the head of Nimpkish Lake to
the Kinman prospect, at an elevation of 2,300 feet. From there a pack-trail goes to the summit
of the mountain.
From Beaver Cove there is an old horse-trail to Bonanza Lake and there is a small boat
and a raft on the lake. There is a pack-trail on the west side of the Tsitika River from the
mouth to the head at Davie Creek.
The Nimpkish River can be navigated by canoe from salt water to AVoss and Vernon Lakes,
near the headwaters, but only by experienced canoemen and at certain stages of the water.
The Tsulton and Kokish Rivers, flowing into Beaver Cove, are too small for a canoe and the
Tsitika River is too rapid and full of boulders.
Deer, blue grouse, and band-tailed pigeons were plentiful in the logged-off areas around
Nimpkish Lake. Pigeons collected in hundreds wherever berries were available. In other parts
of the area grouse were scarce, but deer were seen in most of the swampy meadows, and
occasionally on the mountains around timber-line. There were a few black bear and willow-
grouse along the creek-bottoms and ptarmigan on most of the higher peaks. Elk are reported
to be in the country at the head of the Tsitika and Nimpkish Rivers, but none were seen where
we were.
Considerable trapping is carried on each year throughout the area, the principal catch being
cougar, marten, beaver, otter, coon, and mink.
There are trout in all the rivers and larger lakes, while salmon of various kinds run up
the rivers. There is good fishing in the strait and considerable commercial fishing is carried
on both by trolling and purse-seining.
The work on the maps is now in progress and the usual plans are being prepared.
I have, etc.,
G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S.
PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL  SURVEY,  HOPE-PRINCETON AREA.
By R. D. McCaw.
Victoria, B.C., December 24th, 1931.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to report upon the photo-topographical surveys done by me during the past
season.
Under your instructions of June 5th, I was directed to survey, by photo-topographical
methods, the unmapped area In the Railway Belt east of the Coquihalla River, lying between
the Coquihalla Sheet of the Geological Survey and the south limit of the Railway Belt, this
latter boundary being the westerly limit of previous topographical surveys by Mr. G. J. Jackson,
B.C.L.S. It was suggested that a start be made at the northerly end and that the surveys be
carried south as far as possible during the season. I might here state that the unmapped area
consisted of a long narrow strip extending southerly from Henning Mountain (some 2 miles
easterly from Coquihalla Station on the Kettle A'alley Railway) for about 25 miles, then widening, being 9 miles in width along the Sumallo River.    From here the area widens rapidly. Z 30 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1931.
I left Victoria on June 8th, going to Kamloops to take over the light Ford truck stored there
last year, and drove to Tulameen the next day. All other equipment had been shipped to this
place previously. Upon arrival at Tulameen I found that work was being done on the " Summit
City " Road up the Tulameen River and that it was closed for about 6 miles from 8 o'clock a.m.
until 5 o'clock p.m. It was therefore necessary to move our equipment to fit in with these
hours, so we moved the bulk of the outfit the evening of the 9th, about 7 miles up the road,
and the balance before 8 o'clock the next morning, and the same day moved all some 14 miles
farther and located at Sutter Creek, in the north part of Township 5, Range 23, west of 6th
meridian.    The packer and pack-horses arrived in camp on the night of the 10th.
AVork was commenced in the vicinity at once, and until July 9th operations were carried
northerly to the north end of the area. Moves were made by pack-horse as occasion required.
Practically no time was required for trail-cutting, as existing trails and open burns made easy
means for pack-horse travel. The numerous creek-valleys in the area are very narrow and the
featuring generally small, so that many photographic stations were needed. The streams consist of Sutter, Amberty, Railroad, McGee, Starvation, and Britton Creeks and many tributaries, all in the Tulameen River system. A main control station was placed on the summit of
Tulameen Mountain. The Geodetic Survey of Canada had placed a station on a low summit
north of this mountain, but it was useless for our purpose and we subsequently had to make
connection between the two, which to obtain with accuracy was difficult. It is unfortunate that
the geodetic station had not been placed on the summit, as it is easily accessible from the southeast. Another control station used for this area was a former geological station to the north
called Patches (Mount Thynne) and had been used by me some years ago when a large cairn
was left. The Geodetic Survey had included this in their net, which will strengthen positions
in that locality. Unfortunately the cairn was torn down and not replaced, causing us some
trouble. I would suggest that when old triangulation stations are used by the Geodetic Survey,
the request should be made to replace the signals for daylight observing when it is possible,
otherwise there is very often considerable loss of time when surveyors wish to use these at
a later date. Most of the cairns erected by the Geological Survey in their work on the Coquihalla area were still in place and were found very useful, especially that on Coquihalla Mountain.
June was very wet and much time was lost through rain and low hanging clouds.
From July 10th to 31st surveys were continued southerly to the. ridge separating the Tulameen River system from the Sumallo River. Two high peaks occur on this ridge within our
area—namely, Hopeless Mountain (7,368 feet) and Beaver Mountain (8,049 feet). (These
names will likely be changed later.) During the period a trip was made to the Patches Control
Station, which was occupied for triangulation. The cairn was rebuilt. A forestry lookout has
been established here, the summit being an excellent view-point for many miles around.
On August 3rd a camp was located on the Sumallo River, near Mile 23, on the old Sappers
Road from Hope. AVe moved in here via Snass Creek, two days being needed for the trip. The
balance of the season was spent in the Sumallo River Aralley. The south limit of this river
system is a steep rugged ridge with many jagged peaks falling on the south side to the
Klesilkwa Creek-Silver Creek Valley. The high feature on the ridge is Silvertip Mountain, a
glacier-hung peak 8,514 feet above sea-level, and is at the head of the main branch of the
Sumallo. A small portion of the Nicolum River watershed, unmapped, was done at this time
also. Horse-feed was a difficult problem in this area and trails off the existing road were nil,
so that it was necessary to cut some 6 miles of horse-trail up the river from the Bend at
Mr. A. B. Trites' ranch (14 miles from Hope). In the early part of August the truck was
driven around from Tulameen to Hope and up the existing road 14 miles. The road was so
poor, however, that it was used but little, and later, when the road camps were started, heavy
rains made it impossible for transport, supplies being brought in by pack-horse.
Heavy rains started the first of September and were the cause of continued delay, with just
an odd day when we could get any work done. On the 15th I decided to break camp as we
had completed the Sumallo Aralley, and on the 16th moved the bulk of the equipment down to
Hope by pack-train and discharged half the party. I then returned, packed up the balance of
the outfit, and moved back to the head of the Tulameen River, intending to occupy Snass
Mountain, a former triangulation station of Mr. Jackson's. Bad weather continued and after
waiting two days, with a fall of snow in the meantime, decided I would be very uncertain of
getting  the  readings  wanted,   which  were  to   the  south-west.    The. station   was   desired   to PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, HOPE-PRINCETON AREA. Z 31
strengthen our positions in the south, but was not absolutely necessary. AA'e continued on to
Tulameen, and on the 23rd I sent the packer and horses on their return trip to Ashcroft and
I went by train to Hope. The next day I brought the truck down from the summit, as the
road-gang had improved the road, so that this was possible. On (he 25th I drove to Vancouver,
shipped across to Nanaimo, and drove down to Alctoria. Next day the truck was turned over
to the Property Clerk with that portion of the outfit brought along. The balance was turned
in as it was received by freight.
GENERAL.
For the purpose of description the area done should be divided into two parts—namely,
Upper Tulameen River and Sumallo River. In the former the base altitudes were from 3,500
to 5,000 feet, approximately, leaving as a rule very easy climbing. The country, however, was
much broken up, necessitating numerous camera stations. Again, the area was a narrow strip
between the two sections done previously, with few former stations looking into it, so that
stations were needed along both sides as well as interior stations. All of this slowed down the
speed of the work, and in the same length of time, had no other work been done previously,
with the same stations, almost double the area could have been mapped. The country has been
very badly burned in past years and very little mature green timber remains, although some
areas are restocking. Much is covered with willows and other scrub. The road from Tulameen
ends at a group of mineral claims in the north-west part of Township 5, Range 23, west of 6th
meridian. During June and July this road was being widened and improved for about 6 miles
out from Tulameen, and from here a logging-road was being constructed northerly up Lawless
Creek (Bear Creek) for the purpose of hauling out logs from timber limits up that stream.
Before the end of the summer, spruce was being hauled by truck from these limits to Tulameen
and from there shipped by Kettle Aralley Railway to the Nicola Pine Mills at Merritt.
Special mention should be made of the mining activities in this neighbourhood. The
claims mentioned before in Township 5, Range 23, west of 6th meridian, are owned in groups
and constitute what is known as the " Summit Camp " and are located mainly on " Treasure
Mountain." Much development-work has been done in past years at this camp, although during
the past summer matters were practically dead. The Silver King Mining Company has done
a great deal of work and construction and has employed quite a few men. A small mill was
built a year or two back and a considerable quantity of concentrates was shipped to Trail.
Two other groups worthy of mention are the Eureka and Summit Camp Mines, Limited, whose
operations have been on a much smaller order. Along the Tulameen River for 12 miles out from
Tulameen a good deal of placer-mining was being done, and all through the district prospectors
might be met from time to time.
Deer and bear are very plentiful about the Upper Tulameen River and many goats were
seen in high altitudes. Blue grouse are very plentiful. There is a good growth of huckleberries in most parts and the upper part of Kelly Creek is the rendezvous of many berry-
pickers in the season.
Turning to the Sumallo River ATalley, we at once are in coast country. The valley-floor at
the Bailway Belt boundary is about 2,100 feet above sea-level, and at the Sumallo-Nicolum Pass,
some 10 miles north-westerly, is about 2,200 feet. The greater part of the area is badly broken,
with deep narrow valleys with very steep rugged sides. Here again stations had to lie numerous and were more difficult to reach, in some cases taking six hours of continuous climbing.
The slopes were very treacherous owing to much loose rock and some very narrow escapes were
experienced. The old Dewdney Trail, built under the supervision of the Royal Engineers, from
Hope, followed the Nicolum River to the summit and then the Sumallo to the Skagit. The
trail was built in 1860 and the next year Dewdney & Moberly took contract to make the trail
into a wagon-road. This road has been improved from time to time and has been part of the
Hope-Princeton Trail, over which much pack-horse traffic has moved and is still moving. The
route of the New Hope-Princeton Road, under construction, follows very closely the old road
through the area. At Mile 14 Mr. A. B. Trites has a large holding of valley-bottom for ranching
purposes. During the past summer considerable activity was taking place here in improvements, hay-making, and in the sawmill located on the property. AVe are much indebted to
Mr. Trites for courtesies shown while we were in the locality.
The Sumallo Aralley shows evidence in parts of fires and in one or two places almost clean
burn has occurred.    The greater part of the valley-bottoms are densely wooded with cedar, Z 32 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1931.
hemlock, and some white pine.    Jack-pine and balsam appear as altitude increases, until either
the alp-land is reached or steep bare rock-slopes.
Several mining properties are located near Mile 23, in the vicinity of the Railway Belt
limit. None of these are being developed at present. The most important, probably the Silver
Daisy, has done extensive development-work in the past and made small shipments. The ore is
silver-lead with a little gold.
The Sumallo and Skagit Rivers are full of rainbow and Dolly ATarden trout and are the
rendezvous of many fishermen in the season. Deer are rather scarce, except in the alp-lands
in the higher altitudes. Black and brown bear seem numerous and goats are seen high up.
Grizzlies are also said to be numerous in parts.
From an historical standpoint this part of the country is most interesting, and the efforts,
as shown in old documents, of the attempts of the Hudson's Bay Company to get trails across
the mountains must have been very difficult.
During the season some eighty-eight photographic and triangulation stations were occupied
and fifty-six dozen plates exposed. The nature of the area necessitated a great deal of moving
and, at times, over the same ground. An effort was made to sufficiently overlap work already
done, so that there should be no discrepancies in the join. The mapping is now being done
and will be submitted when complete.
I have, etc.,
R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S.
PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, QUESNEL PLACER-MINING AREA.
By N. C. Stewart.
Victoria, B.C., December 28th, 1931.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on main mapping control surveys
covering portions of Map-sheets Nos. 93 G/S.E. and 93 A/12 of the National Map of Canada, and
of the extension of the main triangulation (from stations previously established in the vicinity
of Prince George) southerly through these areas. The portion of Map-sheet 93 G/S.E. controlled
lies between latitude 53° 00' and 53° 22' and longitude 122° 15' and 122° 45', being approximately 400 square miles in extent.    This will be designated the Cottonwood Sheet.
Map-sheet 93 A/12 lies between latitude 52° 30' and 52° 45' and longitude 121° 30' and 122°.
Control was obtained over 300 square miles of this area. This will be called the Hydraulic
Sheet.
My party was organized in Quesnel .on May 18th. It consisted of two instrument-men, a
packer, two axemen, and a cook. Two motor-cars, one with a trailer, was provided for transportation. A small rowboat was bought for crossing the streams. Pack-horses were used for
two weeks during August.
Following your instructions, I proceeded with the extension of the main triangulation from
Stations Tabor (geodetic) and Hughes near Prince George, but owing to an exceptionally dry
spell in May, smoke from forest fires and land-clearing operations became so intense that
triangulation-work had to be discontinued.
On May 31st Flight-Lieutenant Phinney, of the Photographic Detachment of the R.C.A.F.,
took me for a reconnaissance flight over the areas which were being photographed by him and
which will eventually be controlled by our Department. Much valuable information was
obtained.    Fifteen fires were noted during the flight.
On June 1st I moved camp up the Quesnel River to a point near the old Hydraulic Mine, where
the control of air photographs taken in 1930 was commenced. This work was carried on until
August 12th, when a move to Quesnel was made to again undertake the extension of the triangulation which was started in the spring. The air photographs of the Cottonwood area having
arrived, I proceeded with the control of that area, utilizing the breaks in the weather to proceed
with the main triangulation.    Field-work was discontinued on October 9th. Seventeen main triangulation stations and eighty-six secondary stations were occupied during the season. Particular attention was given to ties to the cadastral survey (twenty-nine
lot corners being tied to the triangulation), so that the information contained in the field-notes
on file might be fully utilized. In addition, 54 miles of stadia traverse was made and sixteen
dozen photos taken with a surveying camera, chiefly to supplement the vertical control. Fifty-
five monuments were erected, consisting of twenty standard brass bolts cemented in rock, thirty-
one B.C.L.S. iron bars, and four wooden posts.
The air photos controlled consisted of parts of twenty-five flights containing 1,200 photos.
The amount of control obtained was considerably denser than in former years; consequently a smaller area was covered.
The final returns, which are now being prepared, consist of: (1) A duplicate set of the
air photographs duly marked with the information gathered in the field; (2) copy of the field-
notes; (3) projection sheets, on which all the information in the notes is plotted; (4) an index-
map to accompany the field-notes; and (5) a book of latitudes and departures, giving the
rectangular co-ordinates of the monuments and the control points. These will be forwarded to
the Topographical Survey, while the originals will be placed on file here.
A brief description of the two areas covered by the survey is as follows:—
THE HYDRAULIC SHEET.
Physical Features.
This area extends a few miles on either side of the Quesnel River from Quesnel Forks to
Beavermouth, a distance of about 20 miles, the southerly boundary being about 10 miles south
of the river and the northerly boundary about 7 miles north. The portion of the area immediately adjoining the river has a mountainous aspect, due to the narrowness and depth of the
river-valley. AVhen once on the valley-rim looking south and west the country appears to consist of rolling pine-clad hills, and to the north a broad valley is terminated in a few miles by
the Cariboo Mountains. The higher prominences, Beavermouth Mountain and Kangaroo, are
well under 5,000 feet altitude. The Quesnel River has several important tributary streams, the
largest of which is Beaver Creek. This stream, after entering the area near Beaver Lake Post-
office, broadens out into a series of beautiful lakes and is joined about 5 miles above its outlet
by Beedy Creek. Maud Creek, rising in a picturesque lake of the same name, flows northeasterly through the broad valley already mentioned, and into the Quesnel about 4 miles below
the " Forks." The north-westerly portion of this valley drains into tributaries of the Cottonwood River.
Forests.
The whole area is wooded; the present forest consists chiefly of reproduction lodgepole pine
and spruce. The remains of large Douglas fir, spruce, and cedar are found almost everywhere,
showing that before the coming of the miners this area supported a large stand of commercial
timber. Some remnants of this old stand are still found, notably in places in close proximity
to the Quesnel River and in a rather large stand south of a line joining Polley and Morehead
Lakes. This latter stand contains commercial fir, spruce, cedar, and balsam, some of the trees
reaching 5 feet in diameter. Quite a large percentage of this timber is overmature and most
of the cedar is hollow. A detailed description of this stand may be obtained from the Forest
Branch.
Minerals.
Since 1858 the Quesnel River and its tributaries have all been worked for placer gold.
There was a revival in the mining activity of this section during the past year. Hydraulic
operations were carried on at the famous Bullion Mine, but the results were discouraging.
A company was operating at Rose Gulch and another was making extensive preparations to
open up the hydraulic workings near the mouth of Morehead Creek. Single miners and miners
in groups of two to four were seen " rocking " on many of the bars of the Quesnel River and
' new prospect-holes were encountered continually throughout the district. A party of young men
was sluicing gold on a small creek north-west of Kangaroo Mountain. At the " Forks " a few
white men and some Chinamen were working the leases near the old townsite. A great number
of these miners were from outside, having reached the diggings mostly in old " flivvers " loaded
3 ,
Z 34 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1931.
down with the necessary equipment and supplies, a much easier way than that of the early
miners, who carried their outfits on their own backs. It appears from my inquiries that the
gold-output of the average miner was around $2 per day. These men lived very simply, obtaining meat and fish off the country, their expenses amounting to about $10 per month, which
included purchase of the " Quick " to retrieve the gold from the black sand. Many of these
miners prepared to winter in the mining country.
In the sixties this district was thoroughly covered and the remains of the placer-workings
are seen everywhere. However, the gold content of the bars is renewed to some extent by the
spring freshets, which are continuously breaking down gravel-banks too poor to work by man.
In some places this action of nature is aided, the operation being known as " feeding the bars."
Game.
Deer, moose, and bear (black and brown) were very plentiful last season. Fur-bearing
animals seen included beaver, bear, muskrat, mink, coyote, and squirrels. AArillow-grouse, spruce-
partridge, and rabbits were also plentiful. Excellent trout-fishing was found in Polley and
Morehead Lakes, and no doubt there is good fishing in most of the other lakes in the district.
The whole area is thoroughly covered by trap-lines.
Climate.
The field season started out with a dry spell which ended during the second week of June
and was followed by a very wet summer. Rain fell on sixty-two days, the downpours being
unusually heavy. Roads, where not gravelled, were rendered almost impassable. The highest
noon temperature recorded was 86° and the lowest 47°. Judging from the density of the forest-
cover and undergrowth, there is apparently considerable rainfall here each summer, and a large
snowfall, giving an abundant annual precipitation.
Accessibility.
The motor-road from AVilliams Lake to Likely traverses the southerly part of this map-
sheet. A road forks from it at Hydraulic Post-office, going down the Quesnel River to the town
of Quesnel; this road is not in good condition and becomes almost impassable after the heavy
rains which are so prevalent in this section of the Province. Another road, with a rather steep
gradient, connects with Quesnel Forks and the Bullion Mine. The road into Polley Lake can
be travelled almost to the south end of the lake, where a wagon-trail continues easterly to a
hunting-lodge on Quesnel Lake. The local roads to Chambers and Joan Lakes and along Beedy
Creek are very poor. The road constructed by the old Hydraulic Mining Company at 20-Mile
Creek is now almost obliterated. All the old pack-trails are grown over and covered with windfalls, with the exception of the Maud Creek Trail from Quesnel Forks, which has been kept
open by trappers.
Settlement.
Quesnel Forks, or the " Forks," as it is known locally, was a town of considerable size in
the sixties, for it was the headquarters for large numbers of miners operating in every direction
from it. Now it is but a ghost town, consisting of one store run by Chinese and a few residences
occupied by white miners, the remainder of the buildings being empty and going to ruin. There
are post-offices at Beaver Lake, Hydraulic, and Quesnel Forks. A few farms and ranches are
located on Beedy and Beaver Creeks and three along the Quesnel River. The Government
telephone is located along the road to Likely.
THE COTTONAVOOD AREA.
Physical Features.
This area lies to the north of the town of Quesnel and on both sides of the Fraser River.
It includes about 20 miles of the Cottonwood River. It is mostly rolling plateau, cut up by the
Fraser and Cottonwood Rivers, which are approximately 600 feet below the general level of the
country. Other streams worth mentioning are the Ahbau, which drains Ahbau Lake and is a
tributary of the Cottonwood, and Canyon Creek, which flows north-westerly into the Fraser near
Hixon. That portion of the area between the Fraser and Canyon Creek and north of the
Cottonwood is rough and rolling, the ridges being mostly gravel, but in a few places rock in PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, QUESNEL PLACER-MINING AREA.        Z 35
place. The highest point in this section is 3,100 feet above sea-level. Near Canyon Creek the
land becomes more level and the soil improves, and several good farms are located there. The
general aspect of the country between the Cottonwood and the town of Quesnel is much the same,
except that a larger percentage of the land contains better soil and is therefore more suited to
agriculture.
Forests.
Although forest fires have been prevalent and have destroyed immense quantities of timber,
there still remain in this area several stands of good timber. The largest of these is found north
of the Cottonwood River and between the surveyed portion and the Fraser River. West of
Ahbau Creek and north of the Cottonwood there still is a large stand of merchantable timber,
although a portion has been logged. In Lots 8641, 8642, and 8643 there is some good fir and
spruce. Between Mouse Mountain Lookout and the Cottonwood River there is also a fair stand
of merchantable timber.    The principal trees are spruce, fir, and pine.
Minerals.
Here also many placer-miners were seen working the gravel-bars of the Fraser and its tributaries. Such activity had not been seen for a great many years. The orderly piles of gravel
and stones now partly overgrown by brush still stand as a monument to the work of the early
miners, and create a plausible background for the stories of the millions in gold-dust recovered
in the early days. An outfit was working the Tertiary gravels exposed at the lower end of
the Cottonwood Canyon and another was developing the diatomaceous earth outcrop which is
located at the big bend in the Fraser, about 8 miles above the town of Quesnel.
Game.
Similar to Hydraulic area.
Climate.
Similar to Hydraulic area;   possibly a little drier.
Accessibility.
The Cariboo Highway leading to Prince George runs due north through this area from the
town of Quesnel. The road to Barkerville crosses the sheet hear its south boundary, and the
road to the Nazko country crosses the Fraser over a splendid highway bridge at Quesnel and
proceeds westerly through the southerly part of the area. These are good roads. The old
highway to Prince George via the Blackwater has not been kept in good condition, but one can
get as far as the Blackwater River with a car. The district is served by many branch roads
that are not very suitable for motor transportation. Very little traffic was seen on the Fraser
River, which, not so many years ago, was the main artery for the whole country to the north.
Settlement.
The town of Quesnel, although not in the area being mapped, is the distributing-point for
the district. It is a complete little town with all modern facilities. It has two good hotels,
a bank, numerous stores, churches, schools, Government offices, and a creamery. It is the
present terminus of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway and is connected with all parts of the
country by good motor-roads and by Government telephone.
The settlement extends in every direction from Quesnel and nearly all the land suitable for
agricultural purposes has been alienated. The main crops are hay and grain, but good root-
crops are also obtained. The country is most suited to mixed farming, for there is always a
ready sale for cream and meat.
Continued activity in mining is expected in the Cariboo country. These districts will support a larger agricultural population when more intensive methods of farming are required to
meet the demands of new and larger markets.
I have, etc.,
N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S. Z 36 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1931.
TRIANGULATION, WEST COAST OP VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By W. J. II. Holmes.
Victoria; B.C., October 31st, 1931.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to report that, in accordance with your instructions, I have during the past
season completed a triangulation tie between Sydney Inlet and Nootka Sound, thus closing the
gap between extensive triangulation nets south and north of those points.
I commenced on Sydney Inlet, carrying forward from my survey of 1930, and from stations
on the wide part of the inlet jumped directly to the mountain-tops, and after the use of seven
mountain stations dropped into Muchalat Arm and tied to the triangulation net there established
by me in 1925.
I also completed a triangulation to the head of Sydney Inlet for the purposes of topography
and to tie to Indian Reserve No. 29, to which are tied the several timber-limit surveys in the
valley to the north.
The country is all mountainous, with altitudes up to 4,000 feet, and I saw no agricultural
possibilities. The valleys and mountain-sides are all heavily timbered with hemlock, cedar,
spruce, and fir, practically all of which is covered by surveyed timber licences.
Inaccessibility is a striking feature; there are no trails and travel is slow and extremely
difficult. Scarcity of game of any kind was particularly noticeable. This locality seemed to be
this year infested by cougar, trails of which I saw everywhere, and the deer had apparently
left for other parts.
Any further remarks appear to be unnecessary, as the ground has been so often covered in
previous reports.
I have, etc.,
AV. J. H. Holmes, B.C.L.S.
GEODETIC SURVEY, NORTHERLY VANCOUVER ISLxlND.
By H. E. AVhyte.
A'ictoria, B.C., October 28th, 1931.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Acting on your instructions of August 5th, I proceeded to Englewood with one man,
and first of all visited the Elizabeth and Georgina Geodetic Stations on Gilford Island. At both
these points a lot of very heavy clearing was necessary, as the vistas already cut were very
narrow, being used for night-light signals only, and, in addition, several new vistas had to be
cleared. This work took longer than was anticipated, but during the time it was being carried
out the weather was not favourable for reading angles in any case. A large tripod signal
covered with white cloth was erected at each of the above stations.
A large cairn was then erected on the north end of the Franklin Range to the south-west of
Robson Bight. Angles were read on this cairn subsequently, but the station was not occupied
owing to the fact that Messrs. Campbell and Jackson had read on a station about IV2 miles
farther south, and in order to get closing angles I used their station instead.
The following stations were occupied during the season: Elizabeth, Georgina, Franklin
(Jackson's), Palmerston, Karmutsen, and angles were read to numbers of signals set by the
two above-mentioned surveyors.
Much delay was caused by bad weather, especially during the time I was trying to read
angles from Franklin. Hence it was too late in the season to attempt the second part of the
programme—namely, setting a cairn on Victoria Peak.
I regret that owing to the above conditions this work was not carried out in a shorter time.
I have, etc.,
H- E. Whyte, B.C.L.S. SURVEYS IN CHILCOTIN AREA.
By D. M. MacKay.
Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1931.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the surveys made by me for your
Department in the Chilcotin area of Cariboo District during the past season:—
My work consisted of the survey of sixteen lots and the necessary connecting traverse ties.
Eight of these parcels are situated in that area north of Alexis Creek Post-office lying between
the outlet of Tautri Lake and the headwaters of Narcosli Creek, one in the vicinity of Redstone
Post-office, and seven in what is locally known as the " Brush meadows," Chezacut.
Instead of organizing a regular survey party, I carried out the work with the assistance of
two men, and because of the localities in which the surveys fell, the transport, equipment, and
supplies could be limited to the bare needs of the work to ensure moves being made with freedom
and expedition. Reports of former years having covered the main characteristics of the area
in general, my remarks are confined to the parcels surveyed and immediate surrounding lands.
On August 16th I established my camp on the east bank of a small stream running northerly
through Lot 10267, from which I laid out Lots 10268 and 10269, areas of meadow and pasture
land suitable for stock-raising. Nearly all the meadow acreage of these parcels can be flooded
by the waters of Tautri Lake, which draws its main supply from a large spring creek having its
rise in the swampy areas immediately to the east of Lot 7142. The westerly portion of Tautri
Lake is gradually assuming' a sluggish appearance, numerous water-plants, grasses, and weeds
and accumulations of decayed vegetation cover its surface, and in midsummer its flow is hardly
perceptible. A new bridge 250 feet long, situated about 10 chains east of the south-east corner
of Lot 10268, provides access to the easterly side of the lakes. This bridge as well as the old
one it replaces was built by Indian Long Johnnie and required much time and labour to construct.
On August 20th I moved southerly a distance of 5 miles to the outlet of a small lake to
survey Lots 10270, 10271, and 10272. These parcels contain small wild-hay meadows and tracts
covered with patches of low willows and grass, suitable as pasture or late fall range. The
surrounding land is uneven, with numerous grassy flats and runways; low gravelly hummocks
occur to the east and west, while to the south the land rises gradually in a succession of narrow
benches to an altitude of 600 feet above the small lake referred to. Northerly to Tautri Lake
the country is generally undulating, with occasional low stony ridges. In this area there are
numerous small meadows, willow-swamps, and glades, which provide considerable late fall feed
for stock. The forest-cover is mostly pine interspersed with clumps of poplar and scattered
spruce, wide tracts of which have escaped the ravages of fire.
The area is served by a rough wagon-road which runs in a general northerly direction from
Alexis Creek Post-office to Helwig's ranch, a distance of 40 miles. Nearly all the suitable land
along and in close proximity to this road has now been surveyed.
My next work necessitated a move by a somewhat circuitous route by way of the Anahim
Indian meadows and Pelican (Stum) Lake to the headwaters of Narcosli Creek, to survey an
acreage of wild-hay meadow and pasture land used by Dan Lee, of Hanceville. This parcel,
which was given No. 10273, embraces good meadow acreage on both sides of Narcosli Creek,
the yield from which is heavy and of good quality.
■ In the spring of 1930 the Alexis Creek-Pelican Lake AAragon-road was improved and
extended northerly to Narcosli Creek. The new road has been fairly well located and can
without great expense be made passable for light cars. The country traversed by this road is
generally undulating, with scattered low, gravelly ridges; the forest-cover is mostly small pine
and spruce, and is particularly dense along the lakes and bordering the numerous meadows,
runways, and marshes which form the pasture and grazing acreage of the area.
The survey of Lots 10274 and 10275 brought the work in the area north of Alexis Creek
Post-office to a close. These parcels are situated in the vicinity of Lot 9504 and cover small
wild-hay meadows and land mainly suitable for use as pasture. I explored the country for a
few miles to the north of Lot 10275 especially with a view to the examination of some small
meadows wanted by Indian Alexander, of the Anahim Indians, but found these meadows,
although used by this Indian, to be of insufficient size and value to warrant survey. Z 38 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1931.
AVith the exception of Lot 10273, the above surveys cover lands claimed and being used by
the Anahim Indians.
REDSTONE AND CHEZACUT.
On September 13th I commenced moving to the Boyde Ranch at Chezacut and on the following day reached Redstone, where I closed in the vacant area of the Crown lying between
Lots 8960 and 9142 and gave same No. 10276.
Redstone, which has a post-office and good general store, has a weekly mail service and is
on the AVilliams Lake-Bella Coola Telegraph Line.
The remaining seven surveys were made for Redstone and Chezacut settlers desirous of
increasing their holdings, and fall in two groups in what is known throughout Chilcotin as the
" Brush meadows," an extensive acreage of slightly undulating land forming part of the Chezacut
Settlement. The area is well suited for the raising of beef cattle for market and nearly all
the settlers are engaged in this industry. Cattle shipments from Chezacut continue to show a
steady increase, and, despite the prevailing low prices for beef, herds are being increased and
lands generally improved, especially with a view to greater hay production.
The Chezacut Settlement is reached by a good road from Redstone which runs northwesterly for about 28 miles, terminating at the Maxwell Ranch. Good branch roads, all passable
for light cars, lead off from the main road to the various ranches. Chezacut has a semimonthly mail service;   the post-office is located at Mr. Mulvahill's ranch.
GENERAL.
The Indians of the district informed me that their returns from trapping continue to show
a steady decrease and that this one-time extensive business no longer provides a livelihood for
them. These people are becoming more and more dependent on other ways of making a living;
some are now engaged in cattle-raising in a small way, while others are employed from time to
time throughout the year by white settlers.
Alexis Creek has a number of new residences and other improvements and is gradually
taking on the appearance of a village.
AVilliams Lake is the nearest town; freight and mail for the various Chilcotin settlements
is handled by motor-trucks from this progressive centre.
Much rain fell during our stay in the area, delaying considerably the harvesting of hay and
other fodder-crops.
I have, etc.,
D. M. MacKay, B.C.L.S.
MISCELLANEOUS SURVEYS NEAR PRINCE GEORGE.
By J. A. F. Campbell.
Prince George, B.C., October 16th, 1931.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to report as follows, on the resurvey of a small area adjacent to the Fraser
River and opposite the month of the A\Tillow River, Cariboo District:—
Part of the survey consisted of surveying into smaller lots two timber limits that had been
logged off, while the balance of the work was relocating posts that had been destroyed by fire.
Most of the area surveyed had been burned over some years ago, the fire being especially
severe on the north side of the Salmon River and extending west from the Fraser River to the
. main Prince George-Summit Lake Road, some 7 miles in length and 3 miles in depth.
The two timber limits in question have been logged over and the slash and any small standing timber were burnt by the fire, leaving some very excellent agricultural land, practically ready
for cultivation after the stumps are removed.
The land outside the timber limits was just as badly burnt, but, as the timber was all
standing during the fire, the windfalls, though easy to clear, make travelling across country
somewhat difficult. SURVEYS IN PEACE RIVER BLOCK. Z 39
Most of the land surveyed lies about 50 feet above the Fraser and may be classified as bottom
land, as it occupies an old channel of the river. Gravel shows in a few places, but as a whole
the soil is a rich river-silt.
Nowhere is the timber heavy. Most of the timber is burnt clear or else is fire-killed and
lying in windfall. Evidently many years before the more recent fire parts of the area were
burnt over, and these patches have reproduced with poplar, at present having an average
diameter of about 3 inches.
A road leaving the Prince George-Summit Lake Highway near the bridge crossing of the
Salmon River is now being built towards the Fraser River and will traverse the southern part
of the area surveyed. Across the Fraser and 2 miles east lies the town of Willow River, and
until the road mentioned is completed the easiest way to reach the area is by road from that
town, though there is the disadvantage of crossing the Fraser River.
The C.P.R. survey from the Peace River, completed last year, passes through the locality
and a suitable bridge crossing was found just below Lot, 4974. Added to the excellent quality
of the land are the two factors of a motor-road and a projected railway, and no doubt all three
have made the area very attractive to the dozen or more settlers who have located there during
the past year.
I have, etc.,
J. A. F. Campbell, B.C.L.S.
SURVEYS IN PEACE RIVER BLOCK.
By John Elliott.
Vancouver, B.C., January 4th, 1932.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following general report on my surveys of the past
' season as carried out under your instructions of May 26th, 1931:—
In order to have a car always available in ease it was found possible to utilize same in
connection with my work, I drove from Vancouver to Fort St. John. A stop was made at
Edmonton to secure a supply of Dominion standard survey posts, and after an uneventful trip
Pouce Coupe was reached on the evening of June 3rd. The next morning, after an interview
with the Government Agent and the heads of various departments, the trip was continued to
Fort St. John, which became headquarters for the season.
Examination of the report of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway resources survey of 1930
indicated three areas which seemed suitable for survey operations. First, an area north of
Fort St. John and close to the north boundary of the Block; second, an area to the westward
around the forks of Cache Creek ; and, third, the country east of the Beatton River. After due
consideration of the trend of settlement, the cost of providing access, and utilities, the first of
these areas was selected as most suitable for survey at the present time, and Mr. Burden and
Mr. Cran commenced work in that district, a detailed description of which should appear in
their reports.
Before proceeding with a particular description of any definite areas it is perhaps well to
insert the following few remarks descriptive of the country as a whole: It is generally a
rolling plateau, becoming rougher as it approaches the mountains to the west, and deeply gashed
by the valleys of the Peace and its tributary rivers and creeks. The soil is generally a clay
loam on deep clay subsoil and would seem capable of producing very good crops of grain. The
covering is usually a light to medium stand of poplar, interspersed with areas of spruce and
tamarack and of the so-called muskeg. These muskegs as far as noticed consist of deposits of
peat and muck in shallow depressions in the clay and seldom exceed 2 feet in depth, and when
the adjacent land is cleared and cultivated they will have a tendency to dry up and become
capable of cultivation. At the moment they have considerable value as reservoirs to conserve
the moisture falling as snow or rain. Summer feed for stock is plentiful, wild grasses, peavine,
and vetch growing more or less abundantly over the whole area, but no winter range was
noticed. It does not seem that any part of this country was ever true prairie. It at one time
probably carried a fairly heavy and uniform stand of spruce which has been destroyed by forest Z 40 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1931.
fires. These fires, often recurring, have not only prevented the reproduction of the spruce, but
have prevented the rapidly growing poplar from maturing over any large area. The clean burns
of recent date form the open lands of to-day. Practically all the open land which is accessible
has been surveyed and taken up, so that any extensive settlement from now on must be in the
poplar. But, as experience has proved that poplar-covered land when cleared by man-power is
often more productive than that cleared by fire, legitimate settlement by bona-fide home-seekers
should not be greatly retarded.
As your instructions were to survey as many as possible of the squatters who were in
occupation prior to the reversion of these lands to the Province, investigation was made as to
their whereabouts. It was found that those north of the Peace River lay in two rather compact
but widely separated groups—one group around the forks of Cache Creek in the westerly portion
of the Block and the other adjoining the Alberta boundary a short distance north of the Peace
River;  and arrangements were made to survey these in the order mentioned.
Five parcels were surveyed in Township 85, Range 22, thirteen in Township 85 and five in
Township 86, Range 23. Twelve squatters were found in actual occupation and three others,
though absent at the time of survey, had erected dwellings and no doubt expected to return.
As most of them had located hut a year ago, the amount of land prepared for cultivation was
not very great. An exception to this must be noted in the case of the South-east Quarter of
Section 18, Township 85, Range 23. The settler on this quarter, who has resided there for
several years, had about 40 acres of very nice-looking oats. These lands lie in the narrow
valleys of the forks of Cache Creek or on the slopes of the pronounced ridges which separate
them. They have a light and scattered stand of poplar with extensive openings and carry a
very good growth of wild grasses, vetch, and peavine, providing very good summer range for
stock. Although feed for a long winter would have to be grown and stored, it would seem that
this district is better suited for stock-raising than for any other purpose. The soil is a uniformly
good clay loam on deep clay subsoil. AVater can be obtained from the forks of Cache Creek,
although in some places it is difficult of access, and a few springs occur over the area. This
district may be reached from Fort St. John over the old wagon-trail which extends to Hudson
Hope in conjunction with roughly constructed branches leaving same at the mouth of Cache
Creek and at the mouth of Halfway River. The completion of the highway from Fort St. John
to Hudson Hope, which I believe is now under construction, will improve this means of communication to some extent. It is probable that sufficient land suitable for settlement could be
obtained here to occupy one survey party for a season, but until the means of access is improved
it is doubtful whether further settlement should be encouraged.
The second group of squatters dealt with lie in Townships 82 and 83, Range 13, and in
Township 82, Range 14, just north of the breaks of the Peace and close to the Alberta boundary.
Twenty-five quarter-sections were surveyed here, of which nineteen were claimed by squatters.
This is a very gently rolling country with a slight general rise to the north. It is comparatively
open, the poplar being very light and scattered. There is a very fair growth of wild grasses,
vetch, and peavine. The soil is a heavy clay and will probably produce very good grain-crops.
Water is scarce. It was found difficult to find even enough to supply the survey camp in
August. At present this district is in closer touch with the settlements south of the river than
it is with Fort St. John. By crossing the river to Rolla Landing it is possible to reach Rolla
and the railway by motor-car, whereas the trip by wagon to Fort St. John is a long roundabout
. one, over a very poor road which is passable only under favourable conditions. A ferry across
the Peace in this neighbourhood would render this district comparatively easy of access and
would draw into British Columbia considerable trade from the settlement immediately adjoining
in Alberta. Examination of the lands west of the Alces River would probably reveal some
suitable for settlement, but not to any very great extent.
One squatter was surveyed at the point where the old Dunvegan Trail crosses the Alces
River, in the North-east Quarter of Section 33, Township 84, Range 14. This quarter, though
badly broken by the river-valley, is very useful as a home-site and watering-place in conjunction
with the operation of leased lands adjoining.
Six parcels were surveyed on the north side of the Pine River in Townships 81 and 82,
Range 20. These places lie on level benches several hundred feet below the general elevation
of the plateau and have been occupied for many years. The occupants have quite an area under
cultivation and carry considerable stock.    The soil is usually clay, except along the river where SURVEYS IN PEACE RIVER BLOCK. Z 41
sand predominates. AVater is always abundant in the Pine River and numerous springs are
found over the area. They are reached by a rough wagon-trail from the mouth of the Pine
River, which enters the Peace just above the highway ferry crossing. This ferry at certain
times of the day will cross the Pine and so afford communication with the settlements on either
side of the Peace. In the surveys here the township system was dropped, as owing to the shape
of the various improvements and owing to the distance from the nearest base-line it was not
considered suitable or economical. The same will apply to the survey of the remaining squatters
south of the Peace, as they all seem to be on small areas along the rivers isolated from each
other and nearly always at some distance from the nearest control-lines.
AVith the exception of such cases as those mentioned in the last paragraph, the Dominion
third system as followed this summer has many admirable qualities. It renders the identification of any particular parcel of land very easy. It is familiar to and well liked by the majority
of intending settlers and the standard posts with pits and mound make a splendid monument,
but is best adapted to the survey of large areas and is not well suited to the survey of small
selected parcels, where its rigid application would probably divide the usable land suitable for
one holding among perhaps four sections and break it up with useless road allowances.
I have, etc.,
John Elliott, B.C.L.S.
SURVEYS IN PEACE RIVER BLOCK.
By E. H. Burden.
Prince George, B.C., March 10th, 1932.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report of my surveys in the Peace River
Block, north of Fort St. John, during the months of July and August, 1931:—
Leaving Prince George on Tuesday, June 15th, I proceeded via Edmonton and Pouce Coupe
to Fort St. John, where I organized my party, consisting of a picketman, chainman, cook, packer,
and four axemen, all of whom were engaged locally.
We left Fort St. John by truck and car on an excellent graded road which we followed for
about 20 miles, at which point we transferred our supplies and equipment to two wagons, reaching the settlement of Rose Prairie, 26 miles north from Fort St. John, the same evening. The
next morning we travelled by team another 6 miles, where we transferred to pack-horses,
following an old trail northerly for another 5 miles, where we made our first camp in the centre
of Section 9, Township 88, Range IS; at that time unsurveyed. Here we started our surveys,
spending the next two months working in a northerly and westerly direction; completing the
survey of nine sections in the South-west Quarter of Township 88, Range 18, as well as fifteen
in the East Half of Township 88, Range 19.
Of these twenty-four sections, about ten in the southerly portion of the work were considerably below the standard of the average land in the Peace River Block, there being large areas
of swamp intermixed with strips of excellent bottom land with rich loam soil, the whole,
however, being covered with a fairly heavy stand of spruce and poplar, 6 to 12 inches in
diameter, making the clearing very difficult.
As we worked north, and especially in Range 19, the country improved considerably,
becoming more open, with a rich growth of various native grasses and peavine. Here, however,
the water-supply may constitute a serious problem, as there are no creeks or springs and no
surface water after the middle of July. I believe that in a good many of the quarter-sections
water would be found at no great depth if wells were dug, but as yet this has not been attempted
in the neighbourhood.
I completed the survey of two sections adjoining the north boundary of the Peace River
Block, and as the land is already surveyed for another 5 miles north of that point, there is now
ground available for at least 300 families in this neighbourhood, extending to the Blueberry
River.    In 1930 the Canadian Pacific Railway engineers surveyed a line through here, and when Z 42 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1931.
this road is completed I expect to see this area one of the most valuable in the Block; it being
practically level throughout and, on the whole, has a better water-supply. There yet remains
a large area of excellent land to be surveyed both east and west of the northerly portion of my
work. There are at present two means of access to this district—the first by car to Rose
Prairie, then by a good trail to the easterly sections, or by car to Section 18, Township 87, Range
19, known locally as the " Hold-up," and then by an excellent trail north to the Blueberry River.
The nearest schools are at Section 15, Township 87, Range 18; at Rose Prairie in Section 3,
Township 87, Range 18;  and at Montagneuse in Section 12, Township 87, Range 19.
On my way back to Fort St. John during the first week of September, I surveyed Sections
36 and 25, Township 86, Range 20, as there were four families of squatters settled on this land
already, with considerable work done. This land is on the Montagneuse (Fort St. John) Creek
and accessible by car from Fort St. John.
I returned to Fort St. John on Saturday, September 5th, where the party disbanded.
I have, etc.,
E. H. Burden, B.C.L.S.
SURVEYS IN PEACE RIVER BLOCK.
By Duncan Cran.
Fort St. John, B.C., October 1st, 1931.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Herewith is report covering the area surveyed by me in the Peace River Block.
SITUATION AND ACCESS.
This area, which consists of Sections 19-21, part of 25, 26-35, and N.W. %, 36, Township 87,
Range 18, and Sections 22-27 and 34-36, Township 87, Range 19, west of the 6th meridian, is
situated 21 miles due north of Fort St. John and extends from the Beatton (or North Pine)
River westwards for 8 miles. By highway, which is at present graded for 22 miles out of Fort
St. John, the distance is 29 miles. A road running straight north from Fort St. John, the grading
of which has commenced, would cut this distance down 5 or 6 miles. A car can be driven from
Fort St. John to within about a mile of the area in dry weather. From there on access to the
area is by way of wagon-trails and a pack-trail which runs north-westerly through it, passing
the cabin of the only settler in the area in the extreme south-east. An old trail follows Whisky
Creek from Rose Prairie into the centre of the area, and a well-beaten pack-trail leads from the
Hold-up Settlement, in the Montney Valley, north-easterly through the north-west corner. Rose
Prairie, which is the nearest settlement, is 3 miles south. There is a post-office and school here,
with another school a little north of it just opened.
CLIMATE.
A record of the climate (a diagram of which is herewith attached) taken between June 15th
and September 3rd shows the lowest temperature on June 28th, being 3° ofr frost. The mercury
dropped below the freezing-point on June 27th and 2Sth, July 1st, 11th, and 15th, and on August
5th and 6th. A maximum of 80° was recorded, in the shade of the woods, on July 8th and 20th
and on August 1st, the average maximum temperature being 70° in the shade. The heaviest
rains were in June and rain occurred several times during the period. Electric storms occurred
once each month, but were not of a serious character. The winters in this district are featured
by Chinook winds, which at times lay the ground bare of snow, of which, generally speaking,
there is not a heavy fall. This district does not experience as severe winters as many districts
much farther south, although there are short periods of extreme cold. The prevailing wind is
from the south-west and there is a considerable amount of wind in the district. Serious
blizzards do not occur and occurrences of hail are seldom of a serious nature. In regard to
summer frosts, it would appear that the area being described compares favourably with the
more settled areas to the south. SURVEYS IN PEACE RIVER BLOCK. Z 43
SOIL.
On an average there is a covering of 5 inches of loam over a subsoil of clay. Nearer the
Beatton River the clay is of a sticky or " gumbo " nature, while the western part has a clay
subsoil of a lighter nature. In two or three sections in the south-west corner the clay is
gravelly or stony.
TIMBER.
The largest patch of spruce timber, which runs up to about 18 inches in diameter, is found
to the east of the centre of the area and covers between 800 and 900 acres. This timber has been
logged to some extent for house-logs. There are much smaller patches of such timber scattered
throughout the area, and this timber is a great asset to new settlers. At different periods, some
quite recently, fires have run through the area, with a resultant variety of forest-covering.
A considerable part of the land between the patch of timber above mentioned and the Beatton
River consists of brule, the second growth of poplar having been killed by fire and another
growth of poplar and willow appearing. There are no large areas of open land except that held
by the settler referred to. Along Whisky Creek there are small patches of semi-open country
and ground-birch. Generally speaking, the area is covered by poplar of an average diameter of
4 or 5 inches, intermingled with willow, spruce, and birch, some Cottonwood, and jack-pine, and
tamarack in the swampy areas.
UNDERGROAVTH.
The undergrowth consists of high-bush cranberry and soapberry bushes (the former growing
in profusion in many places), rose-bushes, fireweed, peavine, and grass. In the small, semi-open
areas along some of the creeks, such as Whisky Creek, there is feed for a limited number of
horses.
AVATER.
The great supply of water for this area during the dry season (from the middle of July)
is in the spruce-swamps, which are not properly muskegs, as there is a clay bottom below 2 to 3
feet of moss and peaty material. This moss is saturated with water. The following notes,
taken in reference to a pit dug in one of these swamps in the south-west part of the area, show
the nature of these swamps and their value as water-reservoirs: August 15th, 1 foot of moss,
1 foot of peaty substance (4 to 6 inches of which is frozen), 2 inches of ashes and charcoal,
clay subsoil. August 21st, good water in pit 12 inches below surface of moss. August 23rd,
water fallen 2 inches. On July 14th, in the spruce-swamp in the centre of Section 28-87-18, on
probing through the moss it was found to be frozen 16 inches below the surface. On July 28th
a similar, condition was found in another spruce-swamp. The spruce in these swamps are about
4 inches in diameter and are more or less -scattered. A creek which flows from one of these
swamps in the western part of the area had ceased to run by August 20th, but there were pools
of good water in it on September 3rd. At this time the water in AVhisky Creek had practically
ceased to flow (at this latitude). There are several small creeks throughout the area which dry
up in July, hut in many cases there are opportunities of cheaply constructing dams to conserve
the water. There is one lake in this area, 28 acres in extent, near the south-west corner, and
an examination proved that water was still flowing south from it on August 23rd.
CLEARING.
Compared with the land that was first taken up by settlers in the Fort St. John District,
this area presents a more difficult proposition to clear, but a judicious use of controlled burning
would in most cases do a great part of the work. In regard to this, although the forest-growth
presents difficulty in bringing the land under cultivation, complete or uncontrolled burning-off
of the latter would not be wise, as belts of trees would act as wind-breaks and serve to conserve
moisture (and, as has been noted, there is a considerable amount of wind in the district). Also,
it is reasonable to suppose, the supply of water in the swamps would fall off following too widespread clearing.    Generally speaking, stumps can be uprooted without the use of powder.
AGRICULTURAL POSSIBILITIES.
The greater part of this area can be brought under cultivation and no doubt could grow
crops as any other in. the district, and mixed farming, which is so often advocated for the
district in general, should apply here.   The supply of water, when stock-raising is considered, Z 44 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1931.
would be a valuable asset. The matter of clearing has been discussed above, and although it
presents difficulties in this area, the amount of open or prairie land still unalienated is very
limited throughout the whole district, and if the country keeps on receiving new settlers the
area being described will soon be taken up.
ADJACENT INDUSTRIES.
A portable sawmill is being operated at Hold-up, about 3 miles west of the area, obtaining
its logs from the Blueberry timber to the north, and a small stationary sawmill is operating
16 miles to the south on Charlie Lake, obtaining its logs close by. At Fort St. John an up-to-date
flour-mill of fifty barrels capacity is now under construction. This will be a market for some
of the excellent wheat that is grown in this district. Farming is quite well advanced and the
crops of grain and vegetables are heavy for the areas sown. Horses, cattle, and hogs are
successfully raised.
WILD LIFE.
There are a fair number of moose, deer, and bear and numerous prairie-chicken, while, this
year, rabbits are in great numbers. A flock of mallards was seen on the small lake mentioned
and muskrats were seen swimming there. A trap-line was found in the woods, attesting to the
presence of other fur-bearing animals.
ELEVATION AND CONTOUR.
The elevation is approximately between 2,300 and 2,400 feet above sea-level and about 400
feet above the Beatton River. The eastern part of the district is nearly level or slightly rolling,
the creek-bottoms being not deep till they get within about half a mile of the Beatton River,
where they become increasingly deep gulches. The extreme western part of the area is rolling,
with a small ridge having its highest point a little more than a mile from the west boundary of
the area and falling gradually to the east for 1% miles and dropping about 175 feet in this
distance.    AVhisky Creek is in a depression about 300 to 400 feet wide and 15 to 20 feet deep.
MARKETS.
Shipments of hogs and cattle have been made by way of the rail-head at Dawson Creek,
50 miles distant from Fort St. John. Grain has been shipped out and the new mill will absorb
a certain amount.
SURVEY.
A crew of men, including a packer who had his own horses, six in number, was obtained in
the vicinity of Fort St. John. The party consisted of six (at first), including myself, but it
was found necessary to add another axeman later. Leaving Fort St. John on June 12th, a stop
was made at the Tin Shack, Montney, and the next evening the first camp was pitched in the
North-east Quarter of Section 27, Township 87, Range 18, at the junction of a pack-trail and a
small stream. A wagon and team were employed to transport the posts and part of the equipment, but only for the two days. At the commencement of operations work was considerably
retarded by the brule mentioned elsewhere in this report. It was noticed at this camp that the
ground remained very wet for some time after the rain had ceased, and the pack-horses had to
flounder through deep mud when bringing in supplies, most of which were obtained at Rose
Prairie. The second camp, to which we moved on July 15th, was nearly 3 miles west on a
small stream flowing into Whisky Creek. Use was made of a boundary-line as a pack-trail,
a little more work being done on it to make it fit for bringing in supplies. Still making use of
the line as a trail for some of the distance, we moved about l1/^ miles to our third camp on
August 7th. The water at this camp, which came from a spring, appeared to contain a certain
amount of sulphur and its effect was disagreeable. In order to commence the chords, from the
meridian through the centre of Range 19, we pitched a fly-camp at a creek near the north-east
corner of Section 22, and we also ran part of the meridians from the control-chord from this
fly-camp. On August 21st we moved to our fourth and last camping-place on the same stream
on which we had pitched our fly-camp, but a mile down-stream. This creek, which flowed from
a spruce-swamp, supplied us with good water, although it had ceased to run before we moved
there. In setting the posts, generally speaking it was found advisable to wait until intersections
were made.    One or two men were then taken off line to dig the pits.    In the case of two I SURVEYS NEAR VANDERHOOF. Z 45
would help with an axe on line, and sometimes some of the post-setting could be done when lines
were being retraced or at times when the men could be spared from the line. Two men working
together would set four or five posts in a day, depending on the nature of the ground. The
centre posts were set as we went along, without waiting for closures.
In laying out the area in sections, the third system of survey, as adopted by the Dominion
Government, was followed, road allowances being provided for every mile east and west and
every 2 miles north and south, but, in addition a standard post (a brass-headed iron post) was
set at the centre of sections. Three sections were left unsubdivided in this way, as they consisted largely of spruce-swamp or heavily timbered areas. Thirteen and a half sections were
surveyed in Township 87-18 and nine sections in Township 87-19, being an area altogether of
14,400 acres.
Thirty-one photographs accompany this report. On account of the difficulty in obtaining
points of vantage, it was impossible to get many comprehensive views of the country.
I have, etc.,
Duncan Cran, B.C.L.S.
SURVEYS NEAR VANDERHOOF.
BY  V.   SCHJELDERUP.
Victoria, B.C., December 10th, 1931.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In compliance with your instructions dated the 9th day of June, 1931, I this year
completed the re-establishment of boundaries and the running of centre lines in Township 11,
Range 5, Coast District (originally surveyed as Tp. 1, AAT.R. 1, N.).
Standard galvanized iron posts 36 inches long were again used in marking the corners and
intersections. These posts are all marked and driven 30 inches into the ground. Except where
the iron posts are set in concrete, reference posts, 3 inches by 3 inches by 3 feet cedar, were also
driven within a few inches of the iron posts, and in addition four pits were dug at a distance of
1 foot from the iron posts.
A total of 148 miles of line and 15 miles of river traverse was run in completing the said
township. The accuracy of the survey is shown by a closing error of about half a link per mile,
and the cost is less than 22 cents per acre, including the preparation of office returns.
The original survey was made by Mr. J. Strathern, P.L.S., during the summer of 1893, and
according to field-notes and plan all the section-lines were run and y± S. posts established, but
no centre lines were run, nor was the Nechako River traversed.
Some fifteen years later the Nechako River was traversed, but as I could not make the
actual banks of the river correspond with the banks as shown on the plan, I had to make a
completely new traverse in order that a correct plan might be prepared and true fractional
quarter-section acreages calculated.
The larger islands in the river were traversed and all the small ones tied in by intersections and tangents from the main traverse.
Although both the south and east boundaries of the township are shown as run between
posts in the original field-notes, I found these boundaries run on offsets varying from a few
links to some 5 chains. Neither in the field-notes of subsequent surveys adjoining Township 11
is there any mention of these offsets, except from the south-east corner of Section 24 to the
north-east corner of Section 36, where the offset is only a small one. In the interior of the
township at least half of the original lines were also run on offsets.
Generally speaking, however, the survey of Township 11 in 1893 was carried out far more
carefully than the survey of Township 12, and in so far as could be ascertained most of the
% S. posts were set over on the true boundaries.
As in Township 12, I found but very little trace left of the original survey, and in many
instances I had already marked in my notes, " no trace of old line " when an old blaze or cutting
would be found.
At several corners I located parts of posts, whereas the bearing-trees had totally disappeared.    In some instances these bearing-trees were shown in the original field-notes to be Z 46 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1931.
large spruce-trees, but all that could be found of them was some rotten wood, insufficient even
to determine where the roots had been. In other places there was no trace of the old posts,
but bearing-trees were found not only alive, but still of the same diameter as given in the field-
notes of the survey carried out some thirty-eight years ago.
The G.T.P. Branch of the C.N.R. runs through the township and a considerable number of
corners were re-established in accordance with the ties as shown on the right-of-way plan.
Another few corners, where posts and bearing-trees had disappeared owing to road-construction,
were re-established from ties shown in the field-notes of the survey of the 124th meridian.
Within the boundaries of Township 11 are some of the best and largest farms in the
Nechako Aralley, and even this year, when farmers have had a hard time of it owing to the
abnormally low prices for farm produce, extensive areas have been cleared and broken ready
for next year's crop.
A good many fences and strips of cleared land are off and cross the lines, but nothing but
satisfaction was heard regarding the survey, as it has settled the uncertainty of boundaries
and the many squabbles which have existed for years.
Field-notes and plan covering the season's surveys are now being prepared and will be completed and filed at an early date.
I have, etc.,
Y. Sciijelderup, B.C.L.S.
TRIANGULATION SURVEY, CASSIAR DISTRICT.
By Frank Swannell.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Herewith my report on the triangulation survey made by me during the field season
1931.. Your instructions were to push the main triangulation chain carried during previous
seasons by various surveyors, including myself, from Prince George to the Upper Ingenika River
westward so as to close the gap between this and the triangulation being carried up the
Telegraph Trail by Mr. Foster, B.C.L.S. It is much to be regretted that, largely owing to
adverse weather conditions, this main objective of a rigid triangulation tie could not be obtained.
To offset this, however, a tie was made through to the triangulation made by Mr. P. M.
Monckton, B.C.L.S., carried eastward from the main system extending from Telegraph Creek.
The circuit closed by this tie is approximately 1,000 miles. The error of closure as shown by
the preliminary calculation is 4.22 chains in latitude and 3.59 chains in departure. The result
is gratifying, taking into consideration the weakness of several links in the chain of triangulation.    For mapping purposes the error is negligible.
Connection was also made to a triangulation made by Mr. T. Rognaas, C.E., in 1914. My
computed' length of a side of his triangulation rather over 1,000 chains in length differs only
11 links from his. This is excellent, especially in view of the fact that Mr. Rognaas' triangulation was a rapid one executed purely for the purpose of obtaining control for a topographical
sketch-map. The accuracy of Mr. Rognaas' work being thus proved, it may be used to complete, although not rigidly, the tie to Mr. Foster's work, as it was started from Taylor's principal meridian in the Groundhog country.
Reverting to my own triangulation: The number of main stations occupied was twenty-
four, all monumented by large cairns, and in most cases by brass bolts or galvanized-iron bars.
Minor stations, a considerable number of which are permanently monumented, would number
considerably over sixty. Most of this minor system is in the neighbourhood of the three large
lakes, Thutade, Tatlatui, and Kitchener, and is used as control, vertical and horizontal, upon
which to adjust sketch topography.
A rough track-survey was made on the way out of the region lying between the headwaters
of the Ingenika River and the Omineca. The scant information on existing maps as to this
area has been found to be hopelessly inaccurate. I endeavoured to carry a rapid triangulation
down to connect with a cairn set on Peggy Peak, near the Omineca, in 1914. This scheme had
to be abandoned, however, on account of deep snow and continuous bad weather. TRIANGULATION SURVEY, CASSIAR DISTRICT. Z 47
GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHY OF AREA EXPLORED.
The area over which fairly complete topographic information was obtained may be described
as a belt 70 miles from east to west, 30 miles in breadth, roughly 2,000 square miles in area.
The eastern boundary is 126° AV. longitude, the western limit close to the 128th meridian, and
the mean latitude 57° N. It is a jumble of mountains intersected by deep, broad, alpine valleys.
The lowest elevation is that of Thutade Lake (3,647 feet). Few of the valleys are below 4,000
feet; the general elevation of the summits is over 6,000 feet, but peaks rise to over 8,000 feet
in the vicinity of Sustut Lake.
The most striking physiographic feature is that the region under discussion contains, in a
curiously interlocking system, the headwaters of three of the main rivers of British Columbia
and those of the greatest river flowing into the Arctic. AA'estward the streams drain into the
Skeena. The Sustut and Asitka Rivers are main feeders of Bear River, itself a tributary of
the Skeena. The northerly draining streams are headwaters of the Stikine—all these Pacific
waters. Northward and eastward run the Finlay and Ingenika, which eventually form the
Peace and ultimately, as the Mackenzie, reach the Arctic Ocean. The three large lakes, Thutade,
Tatlatui, and Kitchener, and the broad alpine valleys at, their heads radiate from a common
centre like the spokes of a wheel, with the Pacific waters running in a diametrically opposite
direction from the mountains lying between.
THUTADE LAKE.
The Sikanni name I was told meant " long narrow lake," the pronunciation being
" too-ta-day." The lake is aptly so named. It is nearly 27 miles long, shaped like a boomerang,
and only in a few places more than a mile wide. Twelve miles up, where the lake swings into
the south-west, are narrows, where horses may be crossed with not more than a 250-yard swim
at low water. These narrows are caused by the large delta of Niven River (75 feet wide), the
sand and silt deposited by the stream having formed bars which nearly cut the lake in two.
Thutade is not a typical mountain lake, in that nowhere except at the head do the mountains
drop steeply into the lake. Elsewhere comparatively flat country borders it in a densely
timbered belt several miles in width. At the head the mountains are very rugged, some carrying small glaciers. A turbid glacier stream enters here through swampy meadows and is
slowly silting up the end of the lake. Niven River, and the Attichika, entering from the east
5 miles from the outlet, are the only other large streams flowing into Thutade Lake.
The Finlay River flows out at the north end for a short distance, smooth-flowing although
swift, but shortly dropping into a gorge; about 4 miles down are the falls, 50 feet in sheer
drop, with a crest 100 yards across broken by a rock in the middle. Below, as far as visible,
the river was swift, its bed strewn with broken rock fragments. From the lake to the head of
the falls the drop of the river is probably 60 feet.
It is evident from the forest-cover that at the head of Thutade the snowfall is much
heavier and in summer the rainfall much greater than at the outlet. Along the lower arm there
is much jack-pine, particularly on the gravelly benches, and where the soil is better a heavy
stand of spruce. Above the narrows the timber steadily becomes scrubbier; the pine disappears, being replaced by balsam, until at the head of the lake the vegetation is almost alpine.
This change of climate was further evidenced by the fact that early in June the snow was still
lying in large banks at the head, although at the outlet it had completely disappeared several
weeks previously.
TATLATUI AND KITCHENER LAKES.
Tatlatui Lake is about 14 miles long and considerably higher than Thutade, its height above
sea-level being 4,085 feet. It is much more picturesque, the shore-line indented by deep bays,
some of which are studded with islands. At the head the mountains on the west shore run
sheer down into the lake and are slide-swept and almost bare of timber. Due to the higher
altitude the forest-cover close to the lake is quite alpine in type, mostly spruce, pine, and
balsam.    There is much swampy upland meadow.
The lake waters are greenish in tinge, quite turbid owing to glacial sediment in solution.
Hoy River, heavily charged with glacial mud, enters at the head through a swamp-meadow
dotted with ponds and sloughs, the remains of old channels. Mud-flats border the head and
shallow water extends far out.    No other stream of any magnitude enters the lake. Z 48 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1931.
The view at the outlet of Tatlatui is rarely beautiful, the country being park-like in character, open grass lands, and clumps of pine and spruce. The river for the first quarter of a
mile runs smoothly over a gravel-bed and at the ford of the Bear Lake Trail is 150 yards wide.
Pack-horses may be crossed in August without the water reaching the packs. Farther down the
river are wild rapids; in one place a natural dam of rock so regular in outline as to appear
artificial is broken through by the river in several narrow chutes. Below are falls and rapids
with fantastically shaped islet-dotted lake expansions between. The outlet of Kitchener Lake
enters 4 miles down and after several more miles of alternate lake expansion and connecting
rapids the river enters into canyon for some miles above its junction with the Finlay.
The branch flowing out of Kitchener Lake is about 5 miles long, the lower 3 miles a succession of riffles and rapids, with one cataract of 60-foot drop. It is a large stream, some 100
feet wide, and even in its upper reaches, where it flows smoothly over gravel, is in most cases
too deep to ford.
Kitchener Lake (4,281 feet) is 11 miles long and lies nearly east and west, except at the
head, where it swings into the south-west. The south shore is densely timbered, with much
swamp and mountains rising abruptly behind in an unbroken line, in striking contradistinction
to the north side, where sandy beaches and park-like country make travel easy. The pack-train
was taken through without any trail having to be cut whatever.
Five miles up the north shore of Kitchener Lake a large creek enters through grassy flats.
It drains a wide depression or trough valley running back north-west by west for 10 miles.
Three miles up is a lake 1% miles long, a short reach of stream, and a second lake 2% miles
long. Beyond these lakes the valley, now only sparsely wooded with scrub balsam and spruce,
branches north and south.
To the northward, crossing a low divide, a beautiful open valley was discovered—the headwaters of the East Fork of the Stikine River. Southward over a lower divide still, we could
see far down into the valley of Duti Creek and catch glimpses of the mountains south of the
Skeena.
Another very easy route to the Stikine waters is that used by the Caribou Hide Indians
down the wide meadow-filled valley of Sturdee Creek. Kitchener Lake probably once drained
this way, as the large meadows to the east of the lake merge into this valley without, there
being any perceptible height of land. This extremely broad valley would appear to belong to
a drainage system antedating the present one. Its continuance can be traced to Tatlatui Lake,
across to Thutade, south of Jorgensen Mountain, and thence, occupied for a while by Niven
River, through to Sustut Lake. It is by this route that the Indians occasionally take horses
through to Takla Lake.
ROUTES INTO THE LAKE COUNTRY, HEADAVATERS OF FINLAY RIVER.
Four men of the survey party and 4,000 lb. equipment and provisions were brought in by
aeroplane, from Burns Lake, the trip being broken by first relaying everything to Takla Landing.
The route taken from Takla Landing was up Takla Lake by the Driftwood Aralley to Bear Lake
and thence flying over the summits of a high range at altitude 10,000 feet to Thutade Lake.
The distance from Takla Landing to the foot of Thutade Lake is 125 miles, the flying-time 1 hour
and 30 minutes. A more usual route, avoiding the crossing of the high range, is to swerve up
Sustut River and through a narrow pass strike the headwaters of Niven River.
Two men with six horses loaded light were sent up by trail from Fort St. James and made
an exceedingly quick trip in, considering that the feed was poor, the passes still blocked by snow,
and all the streams and rivers very high. They left Fort St. James on June 5th and arrived
at Thutade Lake on the 28th, having travelled 317 miles. The whole party returned to Takla
Lake by the same route in the fall. A detailed description of the Kitchener-Takla Lake Trail
follows.
TRAIL ROUTE, KITCHENER TO TAKLA LAKE.
The Indians on their annual migration from Caribou Hide Arillage to Takla Lake come
up the Sturdee Valley, in the upper part of which there is no beaten trail, the country being
open. Crossing Rognaas River a short distance below Kitchener Lake, in 4 miles the trail
arrives at the Tatlatui Ford, at the other side of which it forks, one branch running across to
the head of Thutade Lake and eventually to Bear Lake—a very execrable trail as we had
occasion to know.    The other branch runs down the Tatlatui Aralley 9 miles and then climbs out of it into alpine meadows, the summit being 5,080 feet. There is a steep and bad descent
to the outlet of Thutade Lake where horses are swum across. From Kitchener to Thutade
Lake by this route is 23 miles.    Mileages from here on will be reckoned as from Thutade Lake.
THUTADE LAKE TO McCONNELL CREEK.
The trail follows Thutade Lake some 5 miles and thence up Attichika Creek, the bed of
which it crosses, repeatedly taking advantage of bars and high-water channels. From about
17 miles out it follows a string of lakes and enters the semi-alpine depression in which lies
Fredrikson (North Fork) Lake. At Mile 24, Snowslide Creek, the North Fork of*MeConnell
Creek, is crossed and the trail climbs over a summit of about 5,000 feet, with a steep descent
into MeConnell Creek.
This creek was the scene of considerable mining excitement in 1908, being staked from
end to end for placer. No work is being done at present, except by Peder Jensen, staker of
the original discovery claim. A full account of MeConnell Creek, both as to geology and
physiography, may be found in the Report of the Minister of Lands for 1908.
Leaving MeConnell Creek, the trail cuts across through rough, burnt country into the broad
valley of the Upper Ingenika, which it crosses at Mile 38, the river here having dwindled down
into a mere brook flowing through open grassy alpine country. The Ingenika Summit (5,100
feet), a broad plateau, mostly open meadow, is at Mile 40. From here a steep descent and truly
execrable trail, all mud-holes, roots, and boulders, leads down into Granite Creek. This creek
is really the Sustut River, the lake of that name draining into it through a much smaller creek
a few miles below. At the head of Granite Creek is reported a low divide, across which is the
broad valley of Swannell River.
The altitude of the trail crossing at Granite Creek is 4,550 feet. Gold Creek is 6y2 miles
south of Granite Creek and 1% miles farther is a good pack-train camp at Dortatelle Creek.
Both these creeks drain into the Asitka River, which heads in a lake only a very short distance
from, and much the same elevation as, Sustut Lake.
Leaving Dortatelle Creek, the trail runs for 2% miles down the Asitka Aralley and then
turns up a large creek, which it crosses at Mile 63 and climbs steeply up into AA'histler Basin
(4,850 feet)—an open grassy summit. The snow lies late here, there being 3 feet the latter end
of June. The descent down into Quenada Creek is gradual across pine benches. Quenada
Creek is 30 feet wide and 1 foot deep at extreme low water. The altitude at the crossing is
4,370 feet and about 8 miles down the creek enters the Asitka, here flowing south-west.
CARRUTHERS PASS.
Climbing out of Quenada Creek in 3 miles and at an altitude of 4,500 feet, the headwaters
of the North Fork of the Omineca are reached and at Mile 73 Bates Basin. The much-dreaded
Carruthers Pass commences here. There is a steep side-hill ascent through scrub balsam to the
summit (5,350 feet) at Mile 74; a steepish dip into Carruthers Lake (5,260 feet), a third of
a mile long. The trail then drops steeply down a Ar-shaped gorge to Mile 76, and then more
gradually through brushy side-hill swamp and springy ground to the pack-train camp at Mile 79.
On October 9th there was a foot of new snow in the pass and the trail beneath one long mud-
hole.    On June 21st our packers encountered 5 feet of old snow.
The descent from Mile 79 down into the Omineca Valley affords the only bit of good trail
on the whole route. The Omineca River is forded at Mile 85; the river at low water only knee-
deep, but in June swimming water.
It is 26 miles across from the Omineca to the pack-train camp at the Rock Bluff on the
Driftwood River, the trail crossing the Arctic-Pacific Divide through large summit meadows.
This trail, especially on the Omineca slope, is extremely bad, horses miring continually. Bluff
Camp to Bulkley House, at the head of Takla Lake, is 20 miles, and from this point Fort St.
James on Stuart Lake is reached by boat. The total mileage from Thutade Lake to Fort St.
James is 265.
The far northern latitude of the area dealt with in this report, but more especially the high
altitude (the greater part being above 4,000 feet), preclude there being any possibilities for the
area agriculturally. The same altitude factor has resulted in a stunted timber-growth, there
being little timber of commercial value, although plenty would be available for mining purposes
should mineral be found. At present, however, apart from a little prospecting and placer-mining
4 Z 50
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1931.
at MeConnell Creek, there is no mining in the district. Spruce occurs to quite a large size along
Thutade Lake wherever a creek has built a flat out into the lake. Pine and balsam, especially
the latter, are very scrubby. There is no Cottonwood and only a couple of patches of poplar
were seen the whole summer.
Climatic conditions, to judge from last summer, are unfavourable. The rainfall was heavy
and storms in the mountains frequent. The mass of very high mountains extending to the
Omineca and Bear Lake on the south and on the west to the Skeena seemed to be a veritable
storm centre. All our bad weather came from that direction. A weather record was kept, the
results being tabulated below:—
Month.
Temperature.
Eain fell.
Snow fell.
6 a.m.
6 p.m.
June 17-30	
July	
44
47
45
36
31
48
55
54
44
39
Days.
9
12
14
6
6
Days.
4
October 1-14	
4
GAME AND AVILD ANIMALS.
The country is well stocked with game, as owing to its inaccessibility it has never been
hunted except by a few roving Indians. Caribou were seen almost every day, mostly high in the
mountains, where as many as sixteen were counted in one band. On a dozen occasions caribou
or moose were observed swimming across Thutade Lake. The latter animal, while fairly
common, ranged in the valleys and kept out of the higher mountains.
No sheep were seen and goat far from plentiful, although one band of twenty-five was seen.
Bear are very scarce and only two grizzly were seen the whole summer. There are no deer,
very few wolves, and only a few beaver. Among smaller game the spruce-partridge or fool-hen
was plentiful and in large coveys; there were a few willow-grouse and an occasional blue grouse.
Ptarmigan were found above timber-line. Four or five specimens of a very rare animal, a pure-
black chipmunk, were seen at localities 20 miles apart. They would appear to be found only
in this district.
The fishing was disappointing. No trout could be caught on the troll in the lakes and we
had equally bad luck with the net. Large trout are to be caught in the eddy below the Finlay
Falls, but elsewhere on the Finlay our luck was poor. Tatlatui and Rognaas Rivers are well
stocked with trout, but, although at times they took the fly voraciously, at others we would not
get one rise in an hour.
I have, etc.,
Frank Swannell, B.C.L.S.
TRIANGULATION AND TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY,
UPPER SKEENA RIVER.
By E. R. Foster.
Nanaimo, B.C., December 10th, 1931.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report on the survey made by me during the season 1931 in the
vicinity of the source of the Skeena River.
The object of the survey was to extend north-easterly the existing triangulation net, which
commences at Hazelton, so as to connect with the net of Mr. F. C. Swannell, B.C.L.S., extending
north-westerly from the Ingenika River; the junction was expected to be in the neighbourhood
of Kitchener Lake. A connection was also required to the Dominion astronomical monument
at Sixth Cabin on the Telegraph Trail. TRIANGULATION, ETC.,  SURVEY, UPPER SKEENA RIVER. Z 51
The party proceeded north from Hazelton on June 13th, but was delayed at different points
along the route by the very heavy rains and consequent floods of the Skeena River and its
tributary streams, which washed out some of the bridges, and at other points necessitated the
cutting of a new pack-horse trail.
The triangulation was extended from the last two stations" established during the 1930
season to the south of Fifth Cabin, and a station was occupied within about 2 miles of Sixth
Cabin; from here a tie was made to the monument near the latter by triangulation and then
traverse along the Telegraph Trail.
The party moved easterly and then northerly along the Groundhog Trail. This access to
the Groundhog country has been little used of recent years and in parts considerable work had
to be done to get the pack-train through.
From a peak near the Slowmaldo River it was observed that just to the south of the group
of mountains comprising the Groundhog country there was a pass with a comparatively easy
grade running north-easterly to the Skeena River, and approximately half-way along there
appeared to be a meadow which would afford ample feed for the horses. After establishing a
station on one of the Groundhog peaks, it was decided to cut a pack-horse trail to this meadow
and back-pack our camp and supplies from there on. Unfortunately an accident to the writer's
knee put back-packing out of the question for a time, and the cutting of the pack-horse trail
was continued through to the Skeena River. AVhile the grade of the trail was for the most part
excellent, thick willow, scrub hemlock, and windfall rendered the progress slow, and during the
whole season so far there had only been seventeen entirely fine days in two and one-half months.
A peak had been selected to the east of Duti Creek for occupation, so the Skeena was
crossed in a rubber boat which was carried with us. Even at this point the Skeena is a
comparatively large river, being almost 250 feet wide, 4 to 6 feet deep, and running swiftly.
After about a mile of cutting trail it was discovered that Duti Creek was misplaced on the
existing map, and that we were still on the westerly side of it; no suitable crossing could be
seen, so it was evident that the best approach to the mountain in prospect would be to cross
the Skeena below its junction with Duti Creek, which here is almost as large as the Skeena
River itself.
The weather, however, still continued bad and it became very doubtful if connection with
Mr. Swannell could be made. It was essential that one other station to the south should be
established, and this having been done it was decided to take the necessary angular readings in
order to complete the net as far as possible. On one of the stations subsequently occupied snow
fell almost continuously for six days.
ACCESSIBILITY.
The only artery to the territory traversed is the Telegraph Trail, which, as its name denotes,
stretches along the Dominion telegraph running from Hazelton to Dawson City. Considering
the nature of the country crossed, this trail is fairly well maintained by a party of about eight
men, who work for about five months each year, rebuilding bridges, replacing corduroy, clearing
windfalls, etc. Its location, however, as far as the Nass River is in a wet belt with heavy
snowfall, and consequently there is perpetual mud over a considerable part of it.
The Groundhog Trail, which leaves the Telegraph Trail about half-way between Fifth and
Sixth Cabins and runs northerly, has evidently been well located and built, but has recently
fallen into disrepair, and at present cannot be considered to be any better than the 17 miles of
trail built by us this summer from the Groundhog Trail to the Skeena River.
The Skeena River itself is too swift and hazardous to permit of any navigation, but when
frozen is often used in parts by trappers with dog-teams.
AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES.
The amount of land suitable for agriculture in the entire area covered by our season's work
is very limited. There are no settlers. In the valleys of the Kilankis and Damdochax Rivers
there are fairly extensive hay meadows, but the Indian squatters have made no attempt to
cultivate any portions of these. It is probable that the season is too short to properly mature
most vegetables.
The Skeena Aralley south of the junction of Duti Creek widens in places up to about 3 miles;
this continues for several miles south-easterly, and from the mountain-tops from where it was viewed would appear to he very swampy.    If drained this area could probably be used for
stock-raising purposes.
As no tests have been made, it is difficult to estimate the agricultural possibilities of this
district.
TIMBER.
The timber is principally balsam, with scattered spruce and hemlock. Although the average
diameter would not exceed 15 inches, the whole country is thickly wooded, except where snow-
slides have taken place. As the Skeena River has great power possibilities, this area may at
some future date be used for the production of pulp.
VEGETATION.
Owing to the rain and heavy snowfall, the underbrush is consequently thick and hard to
penetrate, especially the willow and creeping alder. Sufficient hay and swamp-grass were nearly
always available for horse-feed. Blueberries and huckleberries are fairly plentiful along most
of the creeks.
CLIMATE.
The precipitation this summer has probably been greater than usual; there were only
twenty-five days without rain or snow. On the warmest day the thermometer recorded 82°.
Night frosts during August and September were numerous.
MINERALS.
The formation being principally shale, no evidence of mineral other than coal was observed.
One distinct outcropping of coal was seen on the pass between the Groundhog and the Skeena
River.
ANIMAL LIFE.
The area between the Groundhog and Telegraph Creek is probably the best game country
on the North American Continent, and if proper game restrictions can be enforced after transportation has been facilitated, this territory will always be an important asset to the Province on
that account.
Each year a number of big-game parties enter these parts, some via Hazelton and others
coming south from Telegraph Creek. Each hunter on these parties is satisfied to pay about
$50 per day for the trip, most of which is occupied in travelling to and from the hunting-grounds.
Caribou, particularly, are to be seen in large numbers, but the hunter can always be sure
of a complete set of trophies, including moose, grizzly and black bear, mountain sheep and goats.
In the valleys willow and blue grouse are numerous. Trout are plentiful in the Damdochax
River, but none were caught in the Upper Skeena.
In August we met Mr. John Utterstrom and party near the Groundhog; this gentleman has
been through these parts for years as hunter, trapper, and surveyor's assistant. During these
trips he conceived the idea of producing a moving picture showing the animal life in its superb
natural setting, and at the same time introducing sufficient of the human element to ensure
against monotony. He accordingly wrote a scenario in his spare time, and returning to Sweden
had no difficulty in interesting a film company in the production thereof. Mr. Utterstrom
expected to expose about 15,000 feet of film before reaching Telegraph Creek. It is to be hoped
that this may eventually find its way back to British Columbia.
GENERAL.
As far as possible all topographical data were noted and a map of the area is being prepared.
It is unfortunate that most of the photographic records were spoiled by the wet, when one of our
pack-horses was nearly lost in the Kilankis River.
I have, etc.,
Edward R. Foster, B.C.L.S.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Chables F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1932.
UI-432-8642

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