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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. T. D. PATTULLO,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1925

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
KEPOET
THE EOEEST BEANCH
OF   THE
DEPARTMENT  OF  LANDS
HON. T. D. PATTULLO, Minister
P. Z. Caverhill,  Chief Forester
FOE THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31ST
1924
PRINTED   by
authority of the legislative assembly.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Chaeles  F.   Banfield,  Printer to  the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1925.  Victoria, B.C., April 29th, 1925.
To His Honour Walter Cameron Nichol,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Eeport of the Forest Branch
of the Department of Lands for the year 1924.
T. I). PATTULLO,
Minister of Lands. The Hon. T. D. Pattullo,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There are submitted herewith statistical tables with a brief comment,
covering the main activities of the Branch during the calendar year 1924.
P. Z. CAVERHILL,
Chief Forester. Douglas fir, second growth
Natural reproduction.    Tl
for saw material.
se trees are already large enough RELATION
LUMBER PRICES INDEX FIGURES
AND ROYALTY
1909-1924
38
36
34
32
30        248
28        228
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26   ^ 208
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IO          4-8
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- Average   1909-13.
Index Figure         95
- Lumber Prices $ !4-ro
Royalty                           50
LEGE
- Sel ling Price
Costs
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5 REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH,
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The settlement of the royalty question was the premier event of the year in forestry. This
perplexing question arose out of.the " Royalty Act" of 1914, under which an attempt was made
to fix the royalties payable on timber cut for a period of forty years in advance. At the time
of passing this Act it was considered that advances In wholesale lumber prices would be almost
wholly due to increase in stumpage values or that stumpage values would follow closely wholesale prices. The possibility of rapid increase In cost of production was not foreseen. Almost
immediately after the passing of this Act the outbreak of the World War completely upset most
ideas on finance and we witnessed a rapid shrinkage in the purchasing power of the dollar,
until in 1920 it was worth only 40 pre-war cents. This drove the cost of producing lumber in
inverse ratio to approximately $30 per M.B.M. Since 1920 readjustments have taken place and
at present our dollar has increased in value to 60 pre-war cents. This means that the whole
basis of production is still much higher than considered possible in 1914 and is likely to remain
so for a long time to come. The old " Royalty Act" made no provision for these costs and
would have taken as royalty a sum larger than the spread between the present cost of production
and the value received for the sawn product.
Admitting that the purchasing power of the dollar will vary in inverse ratio with the index
of prices and that the whole cost of production will increase more or less m the same ratio
as the index, we then find that lumber prices to-day are relatively the same as pre-war. For
five years, 1909 to 1914, the average selling-prices was about $14.70 per M.B.M. and the index
figure as given for wholesale prices by the Department of Labour 95. To-day this index figure
is 160. Our ratio is 95; 160: $14.70; X or $24.75 as equivalent to $14.70 pre-war lumber. In
the same way royalty, during this pre-war period was 50 cents on all species and grades, would
now average 85 cents. In 1914 the Act provided for a royalty averaging 67 cents and an increase
of $4 or an $18 base before any further increase was made in royalty. These variations can be
better shown by diagrams as in Plate 1.
The new " Royalty Act" breaks away from the principle of a long period. Since it is only
by costly appraisal of stumpage values that a true basis of future values can be found with
any certainty, it fixes a definite royalty for ten years only, after which the question is left
entirely open to be settled as conditions then dictate. For five years the average royalty is
approximately 98 cents and thereafter for the second five-year period an increase approximating
25 per cent, is provided. This Act then provides reasonable stability for development of the
industry. It secures all legitimate revenue for the present and leaves no impediment to overcome when the question comes up for consideration ten years hence.
INDUSTRY.
From the standpoint of production the year 1924 showed a satisfactory record, the scale
of forest products including all material exceeding any previous years. The production of saw-
logs declined by 29,000,000 feet, board measure, but this was more than made up by increased
production of ties and minor products. Market conditions, however, were far from satisfactory
and remained weak throughout the year, with a corresponding reduction in price—the average
value received f.o.b. being a full $2 per M. lower than during the previous year. This was due,
partially at least, to overproduction, and yet the year disclosed a programme of expansion,
either in actual construction or in immediately planned construction of plants, which will add
1,000,000 feet per day to the capacity of our lumber-mills.
The fact that 2,500,000,000 feet B.M. of our stumpage was manufactured and put on the
market at a price that returned little more than the cost of manufacturing and marketing is
a question that concerns not only the industry itself, but all users of lumber products. When
one stops to consider that stumpage of the quality now being cut cannot be produced under any
system of forestry except at costs so high as to be prohibitive, and that the quantity of such E 6
Department of Lands.
1925
stumpage is limited, the question assumes an importance that deserves the most careful consideration.
The total value of lumber products produced in British Columbia was $80,702,000, as compared with $86,574,000 for 1923; the decrease of $6,000,000 being due to lower prices for sawn
lumber and a reduction in pulp production resulting from the closing-down of the Whalen Paper
Mills, Limited, Swanson Bay mill.
Estimated Value of Production.
Lumber	
Pulp and paper..
Shingles	
Boxes..
Product.
Piles, poles, and mine-props	
Cordwood, fence-posts, and mine-ties	
Ties, railway	
Additional value contributed by the wood-using industry-
Laths and other miscellaneous products	
Logs exported	
Totals .
$46,952,500
21,611,681
12,081,476
2,650,000
1,543,087
1,405,729
2,250,682
2,580,000
847,920
615,732
892,628,807
1921.
1922.
$33,533,000
$26,400,000
13,500,000
12,590,000
7,032,000
9,750,000
2,000,000
1,726,000
1,479,000
959,000
1,180,000
1,187,000
2,314,000
1,526,000
2,034,000
2,000,000
250,000
400,000
1,648,000
2,939,000
864,970,000
859,477,000
600,000
018,000
869,000
072,000
200,000
500,010
715,000
000,000
500,000
200,000
886,674,000
800,000
938,000
000,000
272,000
100,000
400,000
242,000
100,000
550,000
300.000
880,702,000
LUMBER TRADE EXTENSION.
The Department continued its trade-extension work in Eastern Canada, paying particular
attention to the railway-car shops, architects, and structural engineers.
The grade exhibit installed at the Toronto office has proved of great value and has been
most effective in aiding architects and engineers in drawing up their specifications. A free
distribution of the British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers' Grading Rules has also aided
greatly in the work. An exhibit of finished woods, shingles, etc., was again carried at the
Canadian National Exhibition, Toronto, and was viewed by a steady stream of interested visitors.
As business conditions in the East improve the results of this work and that carried on
for the red-cedar shingle will be reflected in the timber industry of the Province.
The bungalow exhibit at the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley, England, the material
for which was provided by the lumber-manufacturers, proved a marked, success, creating a
new interest in British Columbia woods and the uses to which they might be put in England.
This exhibit is being continued for another year.
WATER-BORNE  TRADE.
Water-borne shipments, with a total of 531,262,318 feet B.M., showed an increase of
10,000,000 feet or 2 per cent, over the record year 1923. The greatest increase was in shipments
to the United States, this market absorbing 313,000,000 feet as against 248,000,000 the previous
year.
The success of the Wembley exhibit is reflected in an increase of 25,000,000 feet in European
shipments, from 16,000,000 to 41,000,000, which is the largest since the heavy post-war years.
The situation was also assisted by the low prices ruling on this side, enabling exporters to
meet the European market on a better footing than for several years past.
There was a marked decrease in quantities shipped to Australia and Japan. Financial
conditions in the latter country retarded business, but Australia bought much more heavily in
Oregon and Washington than in British Columbia, at prices which British Columbia exporters
did not feel inclined to meet. Shipments to Australia totalled 35,000,000, as against 78,000,000
in 1923. 15 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 7
The following table gives details of water-borne trade for the past five years:
Wateb-bobne Lumbee Teade, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, and 1924.
Destination.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
Feet B.M.
32,218,155
4,159,099
5,523,102
14,911,232
5,990,266
61,217,805
7,380,531
5,619,747
4,162,845
2,996,123
1,479,950
1,015,414
Feet B.M.
27,275,928
4,553,603
1,317,825
41,944,011
52,447,160
13,592,562
2,931,969
8,429,403
25,553,543
1,158,805
20,668
941,422
8,568,400
Feet B.M.
55,949,129
4,516,862
3,244,776
24,640,268
72,339,531
12,698,383
2,415,600
7,249,487
83,856,504
94,764
30,065
1,841,578
4,269,953
Feet B.M.
78,003,428
11,262,890
717,600
36,398,234
105,916,915
16,201,290
8,221,032
4,803,236
248,611,600
4,361,139
994,341
3,665,241
677,756
1,705,394
177,041
Feet B.M.
34,848,783
12,169,230
752,906
25,595,993
79,107,984
41,527,008
10,681,208
2,228,150
313,104,821
134,690
544,604
3,454,183
Mexico	
Foreign, Unclassiified	
6,883,160
•229,608
Totals	
146,624,269
188,733,299
273,146,800
521,707,132
531,262,318
PULP AND PAPER.
The production of newsprint decreased by 6,600 tons or 4% per cent, over the previous year.
Wrapping-paper, however, increased 24 per cent, during 1924, showing a greater production than
any year since 1920. Sulphite-pulp production is down 10,000 tons, caused by the closing-down
of the Whalen Paper Mills, Limited, plant at Swanson Bay.
Pulp.
Pulp.
Sulphite	
Sulphate
Ground wood
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
Tons.
80,347
9,473
99,769
Tons.
92,299
16,380
108,665
Tons.
68,502
6,519
89,725
Tons.
86,894
9,674
100,759
Tons.
99,878
9,932
107,266
89,839
14,403
112,001
Papee.
Newsprint...
Other papers.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
Tons.
123,607
7,202
Tons.
136,832
9,792
Tons.
110,176
6,934
Tons.
124,639
7,945
142,928
7,709
136,281
9,653
PERSONNEL.
The permanent staff was increased during the year by fourteen and now numbers 245. The
increase in field force was three men added to the scaling staff, and three junior Foresters were
added more particularly to carry on the investigative work now being undertaken. The staff
at its maximum during the fire season numbered 509, of which 413 were fleldmen.
For aii organization such as the Forest Branch the question of recruiting, training, and
maintaining the personnel is an important problem. The examination system for selecting men
and subsequent advancement has been invaluable in raising the standard of the personnel. Short
Ranger schools, where the Rangers of a region can get together under woods conditions and,
in conjunction with the supervising officials, work out some of the many problems with which
they are faced, has been a marked success. Two such schools were held during the year, one
for Coast and one for Southern Interior Rangers. While these schools were only of one week's
duration each, much good was accomplished in standardizing methods and in building up an E 8
Department of Lands.
1925
esprit de corps. Scattered as our staff is, without some such contact they are bound to consider
their many problems as individual and to treat them as such, and through lack of team-play
much effort will lose in effect.
During the year we have again lost a number of our most promising men. That their
service should be lost to the public is to be regretted; at the same time it is encouraging to
see that the industry, in looking for the best material for their own needs, comes to the Forest
Branch.    We have also been fortunate in being able to supply their places through promotion.
DlSTBIBUTION OF FOKCE,  1024.
Permanent.
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FOREST INVESTIGATIONS AND RESEARCH.
The forests of British Columbia have a wealth-producing capacity the possibilities of which,
from a long-time view-point, have as yet been realized only in part. To transmute these possibilities into permanent actualities requires, however, the general acceptance of the fundamental
principles that the forest is a crop rather than a mine and that the management of forest land
must be conducted always with a view to perpetuation of the forests as such. It must be
acknowledged that the key-note of forestry is lumber production, and that future production
from cut-over lands and young stands is just as important as production from the present mature
commercial stands. There is far too strong a tendency among the public and operators toward
taking only present production into consideration without due regard for future needs; public
interest from a long-time view-point as well as present needs should govern in.determining the
conditions under which exploitation takes place. Forestry is a business proposition and business
considerations place definite limitations on what is feasible to do in the direction of intensive
methods. The business of forestry works on so narrow a margin of profit that it is necessary
to determine the most economical means of ensuring continuous production. The solution of
this problem is the work of forest research.
LOWER COAST PROJECTS.
The investigative projects carried out on the Lower Coast during the past summer may
be classified as reproduction studies, growth and yield studies, and fire studies.
The reproduction projects started in 1923 were continued in 1924, the work being confined
to areas logged by the present systems of high-lead yarding. One hundred and seventy-six
temporary plots representing various conditions were studied. This entailed seedling counts
and detailed examination in over 40 miles of strip. 15 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 9
The following table, which has been compiled from the data gathered so far, gives a general
idea of existing conditions:—
Seedlings per Acre.
Unburned.
Burned
once.
Burned more
than once.
Per Cent.
57
13
17
13
Per Cent.
30
10
18
42
Per Cent.
1
1,001 to 1,500	
6
£01 to 1.000	
25
68
The average number of seedlings per acre on the unburned area was 2,415 for all species;
on areas burned once, Douglas-fir type 1,134 and in the cedar and hemlock types 580. When
we consider that planting 8 by 8 feet would require 700 trees per acre, the indications are that
we will have ample reproduction on most of the areas if the fire problem is solved. These
seedlings, of course, will not be as evenly distributed as if planting took place, but at the same
time they are ample to ensure a new forest at the cost of protection, whereas to obtain equal
results through planting which costs from $15 to $20 per acre, or an outlay of nearly $1,000,000,
would be required to replace forests on the area cut annually.
Other studies indicate that seed is disseminated long distances and that forest lands when
cut over will eventually come back to forests even where the seed stored in the duff may "be
destroyed by successive fires.
The following table shows the number of seedlings established each year on an area which
was cleared, cut, and severely burned in 1915:—
Per Cent.
Species
BY
Number of Seedlings
ESTABLISHED.
F.
H.
c.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
0-20  	
43
42
15
2,450
2,061
1,809
1,409
1,249
761
534
555
478
20-40	
61
28
11
674
508
883
299
377
105
197
90
61
40-61	
46
48
6
208
179
203
274
236
154
138
70
12
60-80	
47
52
1
200
317
284
234
66
83
50
17
The stand at the margin of the cut-over area was 75 per cent, fir, with the remainder hemlock and cedar.   The soil was deep, reddish loam, characteristic of the Douglas-fir type.
Although nature in time will give us a fair crop on areas denuded of all tree-growth, this
establishment is often a slow process, resulting in a long period of little growth and great fire
risk, since the hazard on cut-over areas is not materially reduced until the young trees meet
and form a crown canopy. Unless destroyed, rapid regeneration, however, can usually be
expected from seed left on the ground by the previous stand. On this account it is desirable
to adopt for each year the method of slash-disposal which destroys least of this seed and which
at the same time is consistent with the requirements of protection and general economy.
During the summer thirteen permanent sample plots were established to obtain further
data on the effect of burning at different seasons; the rate of establishment on-burned, and
unburned areas, the effect of seed-trees on regeneration and under what conditions they will
remain wind-firm, and the effect of density on rate of growth and mortality. Planting studies
were also started to determine the results of artificial regeneration. Through the co-operatjon
of the logging companies, who gave access to their plans and records, it was possible to prepare
detailed history maps covering ten operations. These represent experiments on a commercial
scale and will be an aid in solving many of the Important problems.
For commercial reasons it is of importance that timber-owners, whether Government or
private, know how fast the timber on any particular block of laud is growing or what the land
is capable of producing under forest management. Data for yield tables were gathered on
eighty-six sample plots in Douglas fir, hemlock, and mixed stands. This will be supplemented
by further studies next year. The following tentative table has, however, been prepared from
the data already in hand:— : .   ■       :«-.-   .   . E 10
Department of Lands.
1925
Peeliminaey Noehal Yield Table.
Douglas Fir.
Based on forty-five sample plots taken in fully stocked Douglas-fir stands on Lower Coast
and Vancouver Island. Site classification based on height-growth of trees forming the upper
crown canopy. Volumes computed from sample trees in cubic feet. Column A shows total yield
of wood material per acre. Column B shows yield per acre after deductions are made for 2-foot
stumps and tops above 5-inch diameter inside bark.    Basal area, 213 square feet per acre.
Site I.
Total Age.
Average Maximum
Height.
Average D.B.H.
Ho. of Trees per
Acre.
A.
Volume, Cu. Ft.
B.
Volume, Cu. Ft.
50
100
11.2
310
8,750
8,040
70
124
15.2
169
10,850
10,270
90
141
19 2
103
12,340
11,820
110
155
23.0
24
13,570
13,020
130
167
26.5
56
14,620
14,050
150
178
29.5
45
15,680
14,990
Site II.
50
79
8.1
595
6,830
5,740
70
99
11.9
276
8,670
8,020
90
114
15.4
165
9,980
9,440
110
126
18.3
117
11,030
10,550
130
137
2;.7
76
11,990
11,450
150
145
24.1
67
12,690
11,190
Site III.
60
60
6.6
890
5,250
4,040
70
77
9.0
482
6,740
5,860
90
89
11.2
311
7,790
7,140
110
98
13.2
224
8,580
8,020
130
105
15 1
171
9,190
8,680
150
110
16.8
138
9,630
9,160
These preliminary studies, though based on incomplete data, indicate the great productive
value of immature forests and cut-over lands, from which the supply of future generations
when the present virgin stands are exhausted must be drawn.
Northern Problems.
Forest management in the Northern Interior is faced with quite a different problem. The
principal stand in this section is spruce in mixture with balsam, cedar, and lodgepole pine.
Spruce is, of course, the superior tree for lumber or pulp production and at the same time it
shows less ability in reproducing and maintaining its position in the stand. This is plainly
indicated by the percentages of spruce in various sizes shown in the following study based on
count of eight-seven sample plots:—
Species.
Mature Trees,
8 In. D.B.H.
and over.
Poles, 4 to 8 In.
D.B.H.
Reproduction
under 4 In.
D.B.H.
Per Cent.
58.0
40.0
1.6
0.0
0.4
Per Cent.
32.8
64.0
0.6
1.0
1.0
Per Cent.
14.2
Fir	
81.4
0.1
0.2
4.1
A casual survey will show that after a fire has run through a spruce stand the reproduction
is scanty; or lodgepole pine comes in, in succession. Lodgepole, in fact, has become so general
over former spruce-sites as to require treatment as a distinct type.    The selection system, by   15 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 11
use of a diameter limit, is not applicable to our mature forests, since it takes either too many
or too few trees. In the East this system has led to a depreciation of the forest and to a conversion of the former spruce stands to one composed largely of the inferior balsam.
The solution of these various problems relating to spruce regeneration and the building-up
of proper management plans for these stands now becoming important as a source of lumber-
supply, and offering still greater prospect for future pulp-wood, is the motive behind the undertaking of research in the Northern Interior.
During the year a preliminary survey was made of the district and a progress report
prepared. A reserve covering 6,400 acres of virgin forest was set aside for the study and
practice of logging under various silvicultural methods.
FOREST RECONNAISSANCE.
Forest reconnaissance work was continued with two parties in the field; one working east
of Quesnel on the Cottonwood and Swift Rivers; the other completed the McKinley and Crooked
River drainage-basins and started work on the McGregor watershed north-east of Prince George.
The projects are discussed in some detail below.
Cottonwood River Area.—The Cottonwood is a tributary entering the Fraser from the east
about 12 miles above Quesnel. The drainage area is approximately 635 square miles and contains some areas of good timber. The party cruised 32,000 acres bearing commercial stands in
the main valley situated along the Cariboo-Barkerville Road and just south of Cottonwood
Post-office. The area is estimated to contain a stand of 414,000,000 board-feet, an average of
13 M.B.M. per acre, 67 per cent, of which is spruce, 22 per cent, lodgepole pine, 8 per cent, fir,
and 3 per cent, balsam. Owing to the small size of the trees the timber is more suitable for
the manufacture of pulp and railway-ties than for logs for sawmilling purposes. This tract
of timber should make an easy logging show. The Cottonwood River is considered drivable
for over a month each year and the timber may be taken down it to the Fraser River.
On the Swift, a tributary of the Cottonwood, the area of merchantable timber cruised
comprises nearly 10,000 acres. This tract lies on the headwaters of the Swift River and has
a stand estimated at 110,000,000, or 11 M.B.M. per acre, 68 per cent, of which is spruce, 25 per
cent, lodgepole pine, and 7 per cent, balsam. There is at present an infestation of spruce bud-
worm and tip-moth on this area, but the damage done to date is not serious. Owing to the
scattered nature of the timber and its distance from suitable transportation facilities the area
cannot be considered a satisfactory logging chance at present.
McKinley and Crooked River Areas.—This was a continuation of the work commenced last
year, when 75,000 acres containing over 1,000,000,000 feet B.M. of timber were cruised. The
party this year covered 24,000 acres containing merchantable timber with a stand of 395,000,000
feet, distributed by species as follows: 51 per cent, spruce, 28 per cent. Douglas fir, 13 per cent,
lodgepole pine, and 8 per cent, balsam. It averaged 16.4 M.B.M.. per acre. A considerable
amount of cedar is also present, but as this is very defective it has not been included in the
cruise.
The above area, in conjunction with that cruised last year on the Horsefly River, shows
a total stand of merchantable Crown timber of nearly 1,500,000,000 feet, of which nearly
1,000,000,000 feet is composed of species suitable for manufacture into pulp. The whole Horsefly
River drainage-basin offers an excellent logging chance for development by a pulp-mill. In
addition to the above timber-supply there is approximately 10,000 acres of timber land in
private holdings.
In addition to the above merchantable timber there are large areas of young timber not
yet of merchantable size, but which will be available when the mature timber has been cut out.
If the area is properly operated, sufficient raw material to supply a large pulp-mill for all time
should be obtainable.
There are sites suitable for a pulp-mill on the Quesnel River, and it is estimated that 32,000
horse-power may be developed at the west end of Quesnel Lake, while with storage this may
be increased to over 40,000 horse-power. At the Little Canyon, 20 miles up the Quesnel River
from Quesnel, 9,600 horse-power can be developed, or by the construction of a dam SO feet high
this could be increased to 22,000 horse-power. The maximum towing and driving distance from
the heads of the McKinley and Crooked Rivers is about 60 miles.    The Horsefly River will be E 12 Department of Lands. 1925
a good driving-stream after several jams have been taken out and improvements constructed
around a couple of small falls, while the Crooked and McKinley branches, with a reasonable
expenditure in clearing and controlling, will be drivafole. Except for one or two isolated tracts,
the maximum haul to the banks of a drivable stream will not exceed 3 miles. The area is better
suited for winter than summer logging, since the swampy nature of the site requires freezing
weather to make proper surface conditions for horse-logging.
McGregor Area.—The McGregor is the principal tributary of the Fraser above Prince
George. Rising in the main Rocky Mountains in several branches, it flows north-westward
and joins the Fraser 40 miles east of Prince George.
In 1921 a start was made on securing definite information on the timber resources of this
river. One block of approximately 15,000 acres was covered and showed a merchantable stand
of timber amounting to 150,000,000 board-feet.
During February and March, 1924, under the Surveyor-General's direction, a traverse of
43 miles was run on the lower river and a preliminary report made on the timber areas preparatory to further cruising. On the completion of the cruise on the McKinley and Crooked
Rivers in August one party was transferred to this area, where they worked until weather conditions in the early winter forced the closing of the camp.
Two tributaries of the main river, Otter and Seeback Creeks, were covered and found to
contain approximately 375,000,000 feet B.M., or 27,000 acres. The timber averaged 14,000 feet
B.M. per acre—73 per cent, spruce and 27 per cent, balsam.
Only a preliminary examination has been made of a portion of the remaining timber areas
on the Lower McGregor River watershed, which indicates that upwards of 1,000,000,000 feet
will be found. With improvement, the lower part of the McGregor River and several streams
emptying into it will be drivable for several months each year. Reconnaissance and cruising
in this area will be continued early in the year 1925.
Raft River.—The Raft River is a tributary entering the North Thompson 71 miles above
Kamloops. A preliminary extensive reconnaissance was made of the timber on this river. The
valley has suffered very severely from fires and there was found to be only 9,000 acres of merchantable timber containing about 50,000,000 feet B.M. The areas are so scattered and transportation difficulties so great that the logging of timber is not at present an attractive proposition
and for this reason does not warrant close cruising.
FOREST RESERVES.
The programme of placing lands incapable of agricultural development, but suitable for
timber production, under reserve as Provincial forests was continued. The reserve does not
mean that the lands are withdrawn from use. They are only set aside so that a stable policy
may be followed which will permit the continuous production of forest-crops. In selecting these
areas an effort is made, in so far as is practicable, to exclude all areas required for higher
development, and provisions are made for mining, grazing, recreation, and other uses within
the forest.
During the year five reserves were proclaimed, covering an area of 2,500,000 acres, as
follows:—
The Yahk Forest.—This reserve covers 788.5 square miles of mountainous country situated
and forming the upper valley of Yahk River. It is well timbered at present, the stands remaining
largely in the Government lands. The elevation and ruggedness of the country preclude agricultural development and as yet no highly mineralized belt has been located in this section.
The Kettle Valley Forest.—This reserve covers some 2,426 square miles. It is situated
across the headwaters of Kettle River and is a continuation of the Dry Belt reserves, serving
both for timber production and watershed protection. The timber, largely lodgepole pine, is
immature but will be valuable for ties.
The Nehaliston Forest.—This reserve forms the west divide of the North Thompson River.
It extends from the Dominion Railway Belt northward to the Mahood Lake and River, covering
900 square miles, and is the source of many small streams used for irrigation in the valley
below, such as the Whitewood, Skull, Peterson, Nehaliston, and Blackwater. The elevation,
about 4,000.feet, precludes agricultural development.    The reserve contains valuable stands of 15 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 15
spruce timber and lodgepole pine suitable for ties. In one tract, on- Skull and Peterson Creeks,
a cruise shows over 7,000,000 railway-ties.
The Aleza Lake Forest:—This is a small forest of 10 square miles situated just south of
Aleza Lake. It is a mature stand of spruce and is typical of the northern spruce type of forest.
The object of the reserve is an experimental area for securing data on regeneration in this type
of forest.
The Hardwicke Island Forest.—This reserve covers the major part of Hardwicke Island.
The area has been partially logged but still contains 200,000 M.B.M.—45 per cent, cedar, 25 per
cent, hemlock, 16 per cent. Douglas fir, 14 per cent, balsam, and other species. The logged areas,
except where heavily burned, are being reproduced and some excellent stands of seedlings and
small poles 20 feet high are located in this forest.
The work preliminary on reserving several other islands has been done and these will be
recommended for reservation during 1925.
SOIL AND LAND CLASSIFICATION.
Work under this division consisted of:—
.  . (a.)  Special soil studies and soil typing of unalienated lands at Stuart Lake- and sec
tions of the Yahk Forest Reserve.
(&.)  Classification of unalienated surveyed lots on west coast of Vancouver Island,
(c.)  Regular report from general staff on areas applied for under pre-emption or for
sale.
(a.) Stuart Lake Area.—A special party made a careful survey and soil map of 64,000
acres in the area reserved for settlement south-east of Stuart Lake. The report and map treats
of the area under the following soil types : Good clay soils ; clay soils badly burned; clay loams ;
sandy loams; sandy loams badly burned; gravel; peat soil; muskeg. Contour and cover maps
were also prepared from information secured by running strips every 40 chains across the blocks.
Samples of soil definitely located and representative of the main types were kept for detailed
analysis, both physical and chemical, to determine their value and characteristics. One large
sample, representative of 6-inch breaking on the most extensive type, was sent in to the Department of Agronomy of the University of British Columbia to be put through pot tests to ascertain
the need for fertilizer. Specimens of all plants encountered in quantity were taken to Victoria
and identified, and valuable information was in this way obtained concerning the natural forage
in the country.
Speaking generally of the area, a large portion having soil of sufficient " body " for general
farm practice may be easily cleared, half of which, with improved transportation, could be
profitably farmed. The report brings out very markedly the effect of burning. Owing to impaired quality through repeated fires the soil on 50 per cent, of the area will need some
building-up by fertilization.
In addition to this intensive study, a general survey was made of approximately 150 square
miles of non-mountainous land bordering on the lake itself for the purpose of defining areas
which would support settlement with prospect of success. This latter work was only sufficiently
intensive to allow for mapping the soil by broad physical divisions.
In the fall of 1924 a careful examination was made of certain lands within the Yahk Forest
Reserve to determine if any portions were suitable for agricultural purposes and what were
the possibilities of irrigation. The area of soil suitable for tilling was found to be limited to
2,300 acres in the eastern portion of the reserve. The area is too arid for dry-farming and
sufficient water is available to supply only a small portion of the 2,300 acres which has the soil
for cultivation.   The expense of installation of the irrigation system would be prohibitive.
(6.) West Coast of Vancouver Island.—To avoid delay in dealing with applications for
settlement it was decided to examine a number of lots on the west coast of Vancouver Island
for their timber values and general suitability for agricultural use. A small party of men
spent the summer on this work, covering 391 lots with a total area of 63,000 acres. One hundred
of these contained timber in excess of 8,000 feet per acre and were classified, therefore, as timber land; of the remainder, 206 were suitable for settlement. In addition, forty-eight small
parcels of land containing 2,200 acres, applied for as reserves, were examined. E 16
Department of Lands.
1925
(c.) Reports from Ranger Staff.—Classification reports by the Ranger staff for miscellaneous
purposes of the " Land Act " totalled 1,190 cases, covering 201,472 acres; 61,492 acres were
classed as agricultural land and 35,047 acres were recommended for reserve. The timber on
the reserved land was estimated at 87,462 feet B.M.   Details of these are given below:—
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of " Land Act."
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook....
Fort George.
Kamloops	
Nelson 	
Prince Rupert
Vancouver ...
Vernon	
Totals
Applications for
Crown Grants.
520
360
160
555
1,228
621
449
3,893
Applications for
Grazing and Hay
Leases.
No.
45
2
47
Acres.
8,371
282
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
No.
83
100
16
16
61
110
31
Acres.
12,679
16,195
2,575
2,389
8,531
9,165
5,628
56,162
Applications to
Purchase.
No.
24
16
27
3
16
60
39
17
Acres.
1,632
7,119
9,681
313
1,998
4,113
5,458
1.S91
32,205
Miscellaneous.
21
39
323
8
2
54
43
6
496
Acres.
4,394
34,507
34,961
1,049
856
9,138
14,901
753
100,559
Classification of Areas examined in 1924.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook ..
Fort George..
Kamloops....
Nelson	
Prince Rupert
Vancouver....
Vernon 	
Totals
Total Area.
Acres.
27,596
41,986
59,997
3,937
5,798
23,010
30,145
9,003
201,472
Agricultural
Land.
Acres.
4,593
2,399
31,986
1,023
1,021
7,993
11,025
1,472
61,492
Area
recommended
for Reserve.
Acres.
320
24,427
2,602
'160
1,532
4,945
1,161
35,047
Estimate of
Timber on
Reserved Area.
6,706
8,688
15,264
905
25,189
23,351
7,359
87,462
FOREST ENTOMOLOGY.
During the spring of 1924 the work of controlling the epidemic outbreak of bark-beetles
(Dendroctonus monticola and brevicomus) in western yellow pine in the vicinity of Merritt
was continued. The work began on April 5th and continued until June 27th, when the last
camp was closed down on account of general emergence of the beetles.
The total number of men employed varied considerably, but averaged over ninety. At four
of the camps—namely, those situated in Voght Valley, near Canyon House, at Spearing, and
east of Kingsvale—areas worked over in previous years were recleaned and the work extended
to uncontrolled adjacent areas. A new camp was placed in the vicinity of Aspen Grove, first
on Otter Creek and later at Olson Lake, and a small, mobile crew was used in the latter part
of June to dispose of scattered trees in the Kane Valley.
A total of 13,002 trees were treated in the vicinity of Merritt. The average cost per tree
was $1.82 and the approximate average per M. board-feet was $4.88. These figures show a
reduction of about 10 per cent, from the control costs of 1923. In addition, the infested logging-
slash on 500 acres in the Midday Valley and on the Coutlee Plateau was piled and burned by
the Forest Branch as a control measure at a cost of $5 per acre.
'The history, causes, and methods of control of this epidemic, together with the effect of
logging operations on the spread of the beetles, were discussed in the 1923 Annual Report. As
the result of the enforcement of certain regulations affecting logging operations and the levying
of a portion of the control measure costs against the owners of timber lands, the Forest Branch
received vigorous protests. The contention was that the control-work was not effective; that
the infestation had spread to the Coldwater Valley from the original Princeton outbreak and
was in no way influenced by the logging operations carried on in that valley.
A committee was appointed to investigate and report on the results of the past five seasons'
control-work and to ascertain just what would constitute an equitable distribution of the costs. Mature yellow pine, British Columbia.    These are the stands endangered by bark-beetles
(Dendroctonus). A cage enclosing a tree attacked by bark-beetles.    This is used to entrap the emerging insects for
ascertaining their life-history, their associates and parasites.
iHSiBl
UPl
I
Treatment for control of hai-k-beetles.    Trees peeled ready for burning 15 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 17
This committee was composed of three men, representing the Mountain Lumbermen's Association,
the Timber Industries Council, and the Provincial Government. They held a public hearing at
Merritt on September 17th and later visited several epidemic areas to personally observe the
results of the control-work.    Their findings are as follows:—
" That it is possible that natural conditions in the Nicola Valley were ripe for an epidemic
stage of the pine bark-beetle, irrespective of whether the Princeton outbreak was carried into
the Nicola Valley or not.
" That the committee is inclined to the belief that the Princeton outbreak died from its
own severity and from the other parasites that multiply after the pine bark-beetle.
" That direct-control work is necessary and has been apparently effective.
" That the piling and burning of slash due to logging operations to the satisfaction of the
Forestry Department officials is necessary, except perhaps in the area known as the ' Midday
Valley.'"
A detailed survey made of the infected areas early in the fall of 1924 indicated that control
measures had definitely abated the spread of the main epidemic, and, unless an exceptional
increase of the beetles occurred over the winter period, that expenditure might be materially
decreased during 1925 and the succeeding year.
Kelowna Watershed.—The Dendroctonus beetle (monticola) has been attacking the lodgepole pine on the'Kelowna watershed, from which several important irrigation systems draw
their water-supply. This outbreak was first observed in the summer of 1920 in a small patch
of pine near Lorna. It was hoped that the attack would die out, but by 1923 it had spread
and appeared to threaten the pine, which constitutes the chief species in the reserve; therefore
two camps were undertaken, employing over twenty men on these areas during May and June.
Some 5,290 trees were treated at an average cost of $1.08 per tree. A recent survey of the area
shows that, allowing for a normal increase of the beetles over the winter period, probably 2,000
trees will have been treated in the spring of 1925 before the epidemic may be considered under
control.
The Coast Infestation.—Beetle infestations in the Douglas fir on the Coast were first noticed
about the year 1921, but nothing approaching an epidemic condition existed at that time. On
the infestations becoming more evident, Ralph Hopping, Dominion Entomologist, who co-operates
with the Forest Branch and is technical adviser on all questions of entomology in the Province,
was requested to make an examination and report on the situation. The following are extracts
from his report:—
"From the Sechelt Peninsula to Vancouver Bay the Douglas fir is in a state of epidemic
infestation, caused by the Douglas fir bark-beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugw). The infestation
is more or less in patches but is very widespread, being particularly bad on Nelson, Texada,
and Lasqueti Islands. Real epidemics of the Douglas fir bark-beetle in standing timber have
not existed, as far as is known, in the past. There have been a few small outbreaks which have
quickly subsided and in some few instances been controlled. Forest entomologists have not
looked upon this bark-beetle as being a particular menace to our Douglas-fir stands. The present
outbreak is therefore not only something of a surprise, but seems to be an epidemic which may
equal our epidemic in yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa). Most of the areas around Jervis Inlet
have been more or less logged and there is every indication that the infestation has slowly
gathered strength, especially where logging has ceased for two or three years. This epidemic
is so widespread that the cost of control of the whole area will be prohibitive.
" Epidemics in standing Douglas fir do not start as readily as in yellow pine. It is well
known that the Douglas fir bark-beetle prefers recently cut logs or windfalls. It seems probable
that the extensive logging, both by large concerns and hand-loggers, has for some years supplied
the needs of this bark-beetle, which has during several years been gradually gaining in numbers,
until on the more or less cessation of logging in certain districts the beetle has been forced to
attack standing timber and, having become epidemic, is spreading. Our efforts at control should
be confined, therefore, to stands of merchantable timber, especially those with natural
boundaries."
In addition to the above infestation, a small one consisting of about sixty trees has been
located farther north near Read Bay.   These trees will be destroyed early in the year 1925. E 18 Department op Lands. 1925
An epidemic among the white pine in the Nimpkish River Valley, caused by the bark-beetle
Dendroctonus monticola, was also discovered. Trees weakened by a light ground fire in 1922
were heavily attacked by beetles in 1923 and the infestation has spread to adjoining timber.
A recent survey shows that 11,000 trees are infested. Such epidemics in white pine are
always dangerous, but the small amount of pine in this valley does not justify the cost of control.
Spruce Bud-worm.—An infestation of spruce bud-worm (Cacoceia. fumiferana Clem) and
tip-moth exists over a large area of spruce and balsam stands east of QuesneJ. It was first
observed about ten years ago, but evidently subsequently died down. During the past two
summers it has become very noticeable and if the epidemic, continues may cause considerable
damage. To date it has, on some areas, affected nearly all the balsam, but killing only a small
proportion of the stand. The spruce has not suffered to the same extent. These insects are
defoliators and trees will generally endure their attacks for a number of years before succumbing. Even if not killed outright, the growth is retarded and the unhealthy condition of the
trees makes them more susceptible to attacks from other enemies. These insects show a preference for balsam, which is the first species attacked.
LOG-SCALING.
The timber scaled during the year shows, in total volume, an increase of 28,000,000 feet.
This increase is due to more extensive operations in ties and poles, ties totalling 3,730,619 pieces,
an increase of 30 per cent, over the previous year, while poles and piling increased 39 per cent,
totalling 23,360 M. lineal feet. The production of sawlogs, on the other hand, which includes
logs for the pulp-mill as well, dropped from 2,237,288 M. feet in 1923 to 2,208,817 M. feet board
measure. The Coast produced 80 per cent, of the total cut; the Southern Interior, 13 per cent.;
and the Northern Interior, 7 per cent. Cranbrook, Vernon, and Vancouver recorded a slight
loss in production, while the production in Cariboo increased 84 per cent.; Fort George, 55 per
cent.; Kamloops, 42 per cent.; Nelson, 41 per cent.; and Prince Rupert, 3 per cent.
Species Cut.—The distribution of the cut by species shows a marked falling-off in production
of Douglas fir, white and yellow pine. Hemlock remained almost stationary, while a considerable
increase is recorded in the cut of cedar, spruce, and lodgepole pine. Since lodgepole pine has,
at least until recently, been considered a tree of no value, it is of considerable interest to note
that it now stands fifth with regard to the quantity of lumber produced, the cut this year
exceeding 75,000,000 feet and exceeding the combined cut of both white and yellow pine. It is,
of course, used largely for ties and the increase in tie production accounts for the greatly
increased volume of this species. The increase in spruce production is largely due to the further
development in the spruce belt along the line of the Canadian National Railway east from
Prince George. 15 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 19
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Department of Lands.
1925
Species cut in 1924.
Forest District.
Cranbrook	
Fort George	
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Vernon	
Totals, Interior..
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver	
Totals, Coast	
Grand totals, 1924
Grand totals, 1923
Grand totals, 1922
■&*!
SB
OS
21,707
6,635
3,329
24,241
14,234
11,634
80,780
2,435
952,804
955,239
1,036,019
1,139,149
846,171
uS
■SB
St   •
MS
SS
£b
p.-;
Is
§«
E S
Is
bS
a
£
= B
a;    .
^3
S   .
o7
a
'?-S
■gB
OS ^
5,925
29,816
£a
jS
-s
o
o
s  .
c5
o<*
SB
OS
12
"■20
40
72
■s"
S
"o
tu
3«
10,829
78
368
186
2,976
4,073
18,510
6,025
21,748
o
"S
O)
P.
00*3
t. *^
.SB
OS
"2
3
44
49
43
117
160
209
313
243
4,886
2,682
189
13,678
39,858
7,880
58,770
59,478
446
12,869
3,526
1,912
74
1
184
14,310
1,408
5,698
43
40
105
6,683
36
4,648
26,987
38,354
2,824
584
18,245
1,231
45,925
582
32
1,062
10,386
685
69,173
32,145
508,883
137,001
14,569
7,294
16,900
41,875
58,775
22,884
37,409
56,896
86,667
44,231
46,384
261,762
2,359
32,116
6,370
3S,486
75,895
1,378
3,467
541,028
130,898
308,146
2,359
4,845
26,773
610,201
267,899
322,715
66,069
71,638
38,904
38,354
61,790
43,630
25,243
56,896
4,917
4,535
45,283
573,615
209,017
322,217
31,183
53,491
44,887
39,759
461,265
149,247
238,891
34,405
43,774
2,869
5a
0 *-■
159,045
103,390
4,414
52,408
108,340
55,394
482,991
223,093
1,843,616
2,066,709
2,549,700
2,521,735
1,899,158
Total Amounts or Timber scaled in British Columbia during Years 1923-24.
Forest District.
1923.
1924.
Gain.
Loss.
Net Loss.
Net Gain.
176,233,923
66,372,353
2,384,447
36,915,462
76,642,450
63,314,250
159,044,946
103,390,428
4,413,884
52,407,521
108,340,110
55,393,898
17,188,977
37,018,075
2,029,437
15,492,059
31,697,660
7,920,352
421,862,885
482,990,787
223,093,682
1,848,616,712
6,882,646
61,127,902
216,211,036
1,883,661,360
2,099,872,396
2,521,735,281
'40,045^648
2,066,709,394
2,549,700,181
33,163,002
	
27,964,900 15 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
B 21
TIMBER    SCALED
BY
DISTRICTS
CARIBOO
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1920
1921
CRANBROOK 1922
19 23
1924
1920
1921
KAMLOOPS     1922*
19231
1924
NELSON
PRINCE
GEORGE
PRINCE
RUPERT
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1920
1921
VANCOUVER 1922
1923
1924
VERNON
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
oooo o o o 6 o 6 00666 5 o o" 5~~c
oooooooooooooooooooc
~. W. fl t. "I ,'ib S 0) ,o> 2 - S! ■? J £ fi t 2 $}c
 Figures indicate Millions of Feet B.M E 22
Department of Lands.
1925
SPECIES     CUT
1924
^^^fc:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::i||||||||||||||
I920IIIIIIII
1921 llllll
SPRUCE                   1922 llll II
I925IIIIIIIII
HEMLOCK               1922 llll llll
i         wm. nil
WESTERN          J92I II
SOFT                       192211
PINE                     1923 III
1924 II
1926 II
LARCH                       1922II
1923II
1924II
1920 llll
ALL                     1921 llll
OTHER                 I922IIIII
SPECIES               19231^1111
I924IMIIIIH.                                __u
oooooooooooc
oooooooooooc
-CAim^io^Ncooo-a
Figures indicate Millions of Feet B.M.
SOURCES OF TIMBER OUT.
Crown grants, especially those issued prior to 1887, remain the chief source from which
our timber-supply is drawn. Twenty-four per cent, of the total cut is secured from this latter
source, which includes such grants as the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway lands, Eag"le Pass
Wagon-road lands, etc., and 40 per cent., or a total of 1,034,531 M. feet, is secured from all 15 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 23
classes of fee-simple lands. From special timber licences 20 per cent, of the total cut is secured
and 10 per cent, from timber leases, 14 per cent, from lands under Dominion jurisdiction; that
is, lands included within the Dominion Railway Belt, Indian reserves, etc. The timber-sale
provided for 301,064 M. feet for the year just closed, of which 230,184 M. was sawlog material,
the balance being railway-ties, poles, and for minor products.
Total Scale, 1924, segbegated, showing Land Status.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Fort George...
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver ....
Vernon	
Totals
m
Crown
Grants,
j
.2    (B
M.B.M.
33
0 ^
a, 053
2%
S s  -
yj-d
To
1887.
1887-
1906.
1906-
1914.
1914
to
5§
S3 a
hS
HvlK
sM
A. m S
QhJ
1,436
1,441
83
81
108
956
309
40,675
11,031
180
439
52,528
51,235
2,957
5,255
8,172
1,667
54
1,173
1,929
34,157
27,033
18,199
5,177
29,534
24,555
2,949
894
22,166
31,867
15,699
35
12,009
21,614
43,826
15,436
10,004
95,252
8,311
16
19,348
21,737
8,160
1,004
369,685
241,770
2,210
124,286
33,941
606,102
120,474
25,262
8,772
311,113
9,896
618,535
1,195
258,401
11,421
6,172
72,688
3,053
609,693
5,769
7,935
5,664
4,290
12,214
301,664
227,823
144,014
53,001
351,767
HS
4,414
159,045
52,407
108,341
103,390
223,094
1,843,615
55,394
2,549,700
LOGGING INSPECTION.
The inspection of logging operations to prevent trespass, infraction of the " Marketing Act,"
and other regulations governing the cutting of timber, fire-preventive appliances, etc., is an
important work of the Forest Branch. During the year 7,466 reports were received on the 3,167
operations which were active at some time during the year. These reports disclosed sixty-eight
cases of trespass against Crown lands. Trespassers had cut over 570 acres and were penalized
for such unauthorized cutting a total sum of $8,539.86. The number of inspections received is
the largest on record and the area cut over in trespass the smallest. Field officers of the Branch
are to be congratulated on this showing, and especially in the fact that the trespass area shows
a steady reduction during the past few years, and during 1924 was reduced to 570 acres, as
compared with 1,015 in the previous year. These figures appear to be conclusive evidence that
our field inspections are bearing fruit. In addition to the trespass against Crown lands, thirty-
seven cases of trespass against' privately owned timber were discovered and reported to the
owner for settlement, as compared with forty-five such cases for 1923.
Logging Inspection, 1924.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-sales.
Hand-lojr-rer s'
Licences.
Leases, Licences.
Crown Grants, and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. ol
Inspections.
31
118
45
145
145
343
325
93
53
16
63
49
128
218
308
263
596
228
94
167
173
363
453
659
937
321
Cranbrook	
217
830
1,272
3,464
Totals, 1924   	
1,245
69
1,853
3,167
7,466
Totals, 1923	
1,010
166
2,140
3,316
6,892
Totals, 1922	
914
691
159
1,579
2,652
4,654
Totals, 1921	
186
1,331
2,208
2,796
4,053
Totals, 1920	
605
220
1,961
2,703
Totals, 1919   	
365
200
757
1,322
1,884 E 24
Department op Lands.
1925
TREPASSES, 1924.
>rest District.
No. of
Cases.
Areas
cut
over
(Acres).
Quantity
CUT.
13 K
Ed v
PS 5
6 &o
fc.S
Amount.
Feet B.M.
Lineal
Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
6
5
4
10
10
12
15
6
20
80
20
46
88
143
78
95
8,000
278,223
15,585
229,318
886,215
197,603
466,400
102,464
375
7,245
18,633
18,690
9,125
172
18
24
553
635
3,154
218
600
1,367
180
1,592
'i
l
$     201 42
922 38
337 84
1,207 93
1,841 11
Prince'Rupert
827 32
1921    	
2,586 18
615 68
Totals,
68
570
2,182,808
6,712,868
3,002,881
3,222,673
54,068
121,202
98,903
209,395
767
7,646
2
$ 8,539 86
1923	
Totals,
105
1,015
1,598
2,591
20,082
8
16
$27,860 08
1922	
1921	
1920	
1919	
Totals,
9S
1,059
27,022
21,605
$16,406 30
Totals,
98
1,938
1,639
10
$15,924 22
Totals,
73
87
1,788
4,904,079
12,708,365
104,048
1,882
6,716
10
$17,119 85
Totals,
2,454
48,860
88
87,120
8
$21,730 12
TIMBER-SALES.
The number of timber-sales made and their estimated value show a reduction for the year.
This is due to a change in policy affecting the records in this work. Prior to 1923 the Department made a sale for a fixed period; if for any reason the logging was not completed during
this period a new sale must be secured. Since 1923 the contract provides, " at the discretion
of the Minister, for an extension not to exceed one year " to cover any unforeseen delays and
to permit completion of logging. This change permitted the cleaning-up of many areas under
the original contract which formerly would have required a new sale.
The average stumpage price received for sales shows an increase of 6 cents per M. feet
on an average of all species as compared with the previous year. This price is very satisfactory
when considered with the slower lumber market and general upset due to fixing a new royalty,
effective over most of the timber sold.
The quantity of material cut and the revenue received from timber-sales both show a substantial increase. The cut of railway-ties increased 84 per cent.; poles, 65 per cent.; and saw-
logs, 11 per cent. The Vancouver District still leads in the timber-sale business, but Is closely
followed by Prince Rupert. In fact, during the year more contracts were executed through the
Prince Rupert office than through Vancouver.
Timber-sales awaisded by Disteicts.
District.
No. of
Sales.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
No. of
Posts.
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(No. of Cords).
No. of
Railway-
ties.
Estimated
Revenue.
15
53
97
29
77
230
225
43
2,949
15,838
17,825
5,272
12,849
38,917
43,399
9,603
922,860
54,422,884
38,266,605
7,893,554
18,045,122
41,143,640
126,256,784
16,861,818
32,500
166,475
484,979
516,782
1,290,120
2,308,105
678,060
859,050
2,075
14,596
120
3,511
1,736
24,564
1,038
47,640
24,125
1,082,196
393,517
45,051
179,883
655,630
16,400
21,831
$      5,287.25
202,823 10
Fort George	
155,594 11
40,231 60
Nelson :...
Vancouver	
97,835 82
207,101 24
446,026 73
71,561 02
Totals, 1924...
769
146,652
163,464
302,813,267
6,336,071
2,418,633
2,304,161
880,307
993,417
$1,226,460 87
Totals, 1923...
852
516,397,438
6,234,342
23,150
$1,513,970 84
Totals, 1922...
671
108,501
249,572,808
188,971,774
3,304,254
2,479,096
2,811,095
149,300
41,580
%   862,888 49
Totals, 1921...
531
91,614
34,291
$   646,487 65
Totals, 1920...
594
121,690
440,649,755
245,209,300
86,726
62,557
6,415,349
957,804
$1,799,039 03
Totals, 1919...
356
61,809
2,899,000
378,080
5,000
$   654,372 09
Totals, 1918...
227
34,257
159,659,000
240,307,057
136,345,000
20,000
18,478
701,654
$   380,408 33
Totals, 1917...
255
44,914
1,517,450
40,000
43,756
381,200
$   483,281 50
Totals, 1916...
133
23,318
435,810
26,666
92,000
$   259,765 12 15 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 25
Average Sale Peice bv Species.
Douglas fir	
Cedar	
Spruce 	
Hemlock	
Balsam	
White pine	
Western soft pine.
Tamarack	
Other species	
Totals    .
Figures for 1924.
74,708,507
63,367,585
74,064,508
33,622,807
13,295,185
5,802,597
9,446,869
4,804,072
23,701,137
302,813,267
Price per M.
$1 73
2 28
1 63
1 21
1 10
2 63
1 83
1 63
1 50
$1 74
Figures for 1923.
75,915,023
61,303,504
101,703,592
43,956,950
17,580,743
4,184,830
28,211,030
5,824,306
6,402,401
345,082,438
Price per M.
$1 72
2 25
1 58
1 14
1 10
2 85
1 88
1 80
1 34
$1 68
Figures for 1922.
58,467,465
62,788,240
42,207,248
42,987,260
16,757,880
4,304,380
9,704,385
2,998,750
9,357,200
249,572,8
Price Per M.
$1 43
1 66
1 46
1 01
1 04
1 93
1 47
1 75
78
SI 39
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1924.
Forest District.
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
533,161
7,293,419
19,632,035
3,918,068
9,021,070
62,817,974
117,018,589
9,914,259
230,148,575
207,473,848
187,217,151
179,780,056
19,283
49,851
362,628
824,266
1,519,675
862,788
522,264
390,716
486.53
2,189.79
248.00
21.00
1,324.58
2,129.53
10,211.57
683.00
17,294.00
19,283
72,117
439,804
54,399
108,826
829,450
8,697
11,339
Totals, 1924	
4,541,371
2,753,532
1,543,915
Totals, 1923	
17,666.55
856,628
Totals, 1922	
1,523,744
2,169,550
37,345.91
495,672
Totals, 1921                     	
10,483.00
831,423
Totals, 1920   	
168,783,812
1,638,549
672,699
499,589
545,429
17,703.00
654,829
Totals, 1919                                      	
107,701,950
12,208.00
15,539.00
573,286
Totals, 1918	
113,927,610
146,807
Totals, 1917 	
99,078,832
14,862.00
8,425.00
34,937
Totals, 1916                            	
63,055,102
225,799
Areas cruised for Timber Sales, 1924.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(M.B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
fehingle-bolts
arid
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-
ties
(No.).
Cranbrook 	
Fort George	
Nelson   	
27
54
113
46
92
263
299
48
5,511
7,725
26,315
9,175
11,084
48,160
61,503
10,130
6,318
19,281
84,417
26,163
15,110
100,614
169,473
31,110
32,660
516.972
1,170,607
1,160,170
3,046,665
1,720,000
818,850
7,155
5,387
184
4,060
136
22,219
2,413
109,069
84,780
423,766
124,222
235,825
868,471
11,600
16,221
Totals	
942
179,609
451,476
8,465,924
41,654
1,873,954 E 26
Department of Lands.
1925
MILLING.
The sawmill capacity for ttie year was 14,C04 M.B.M. per day, an increase of 14 per cent.
-over the previous year and an increase of 25 per cent, in five years. Seventy-eight per cent,
of the mills, representing 82 per cent, of capacity, operated during the year, the lumber produced
representing approximately 50 per cent, of the total possible production if these mills had
operated "throughout the year. Shingle-mills had a capacity of 17,400 M. shingles per day.
Twenty mills, representing 10 per cent, of the capacity, remained closed throughout the year.
Seventy-eight mills operated some time throughout the year.
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province. 1924.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Foreist District.
d
-3
CJ
A|
* ci
tap-
a rf
3° si
1/3 ^
60
1,085
541
610
698
827
7,711
454
11,986
11,273
9,683
8,912
10,729
d
CJ
c a k
■so «
S >. ™
a.'3*3
ceS
345
15,291
15,636
16,144
16,544
d
CJ
8.15
„ o
ga
70
425
35
240
50
280
1,264
254
2,618
1,493
2,054
2,029
909
d
y
Shut down, Estimated
Daily Capacity,
Shingles, M.
11
29
20
36
25
23
186
29
'8
70
15
10
1
10
1
11
48
13
i
2
i
16
120
150
200
1,310
Totals for 1924	
359
78
103
20
16
1,780
Totals for 1923 	
352
107
72
745
Totals for 1922	
292
108
90
8
680
Totals for 1921	
289
79
10,885
13,426
78
6
788
341
109
37
2
30
Export of Logs during Year 1924.
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
F.B.M.
11,331,040
11,561,554
485,105
F.B.M.
37,030,624
69,207,421
5,115,814
F.B.M.
28,756,051
18.625,221
2,089,110
F.B.M.
2,589,766
3,250,217
38,933,105
3,464,732
7,526,050
55,763,860
F.B.M.
79,707,471
Fir	
99,394,196
10,940,246
38,933,105
26,845
12,272
23,416,816
26,081,071
281,118
166,039
111,801,016
35,921
42,832
3,808,616
7,747,193
Totals, 1924	
49,549.135
240,530,827
107,815,949
45,971,600
53,789,421
233,658,041 15 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 27
Shipment of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
Forest District.
Cranbrook—
Poles and piling..
Mine-props   ..
Cordvvood	
Fence-posts	
Ties	
Fort George-
Poles and piling..
Mine-props	
Fence-posts	
Ties	
Kamloops—
Poles and piling..
Mine-props	
Fence-posts	
Nelson —
Poles and piling..
Fence-posts	
Shingle-holts
Vernon—
Poles and piling..
Railway-ties	
Prince Rupert—
Poles and piling..
Fence-posts	
Railway-ties	
Vancouver—
Poles and piling..
Fence-posts	
Shingle-holts
Pulp-wood	
Total value, 1924,
Total value, 1923.
Quantit}- exported.
Lin. ft.,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
Cords,
No.
430,595
615,100
433
4,595
1,047,561
Lin. ft., 466,110
Lin. ft., 6,400
Cords, 492
No. 839,830
Lin. ft, 1,281,483
Lin. ft., 66,794
Cords, 108
Lin. ft., 4,620,638
Cords, 4,502
Cords, 1,587
Lin. ft.,
No.
761,060
510
Lin. ft., 2,234,109
Cords, 291
No. 765,730
Lin. ft., 7,315,289
Cords, 78
Cords, 614
Cords, 17,397
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
51,671
61,510
3,031
36,760
523,780
55,933
640
5,328
501,333
179,417
9,351
675
523,468
35,452
11,544
102,619
255
303,483
2,399
417,466
953,358
706
13,378
173,978
$3,967,535
$3,037,365
Whbrb marketed.
United States.
Canada.
75,567
355,02S
615,100
433
4,595
1,047,561
437,330
28,780
6,400
492
839,830
1,151,018
130,465
66,794
108
4,461,983
158,655
3,446
1,056
1,331
256
752,985
8,075
510
1,021,765
1,212,344
291
765,730
Other foreign
countries.
7,243,244
72,045
78
83
631
17,397
PRE-EMPTION INSPECTION REPORTS, 1924.
Pre-emption records examined by districts are:—
Cariboo  76S
Cranbrook    66
Fort George   704
Kamloops   145
Nelson    '.  88
Prince Rupert  574
Vancouver    480
Vernon  298
Total  :  3,123
ANALYSIS OF ROUTINE WORK.
Number op Tracings made.
Blue-prints
from Reference Maps.
Ditto
Prints.
Month.
Timber-
sales.
Timber-
marks.
Examination
Sketches.
Hand-logger
Licences.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
40
10
30
23
24
11
26
21
12
30
25
19
116
157
153
92
100
65
66
22
79
81
79
92
38
29
27
32
38
28
34
35
29
37
22
15
4
5
9
17
10
20
12
4
3
4
2
13
103
26
62
152
144
197
16
27
17
16
62
58
33
223
263
371
308
369
140
155
99
139
204
186
172
2.629
53
56
82
170
32
160
34
41
34
74
19
167
750
206
379
349
May	
256
220
July 	
402
386
191
198
Totals
271
1,092
364
799
921
4,282 E 28 Department of Lands. 1925
TIMBER-MARKS   ISSUED.
1922. 1923. 1924.
Old Crown grants  129 146 133
Crown grants, 1887-1906   120 147 131
Crown grants, 190G-1914   132 188 168
"Royalty Act"    291 392 310
Stumpage  reservations    26 64 57
Pre-emptions under sections 28a and 28b, " Land Act" 20 45 21
Timber leases (50 cents royalty)   3 1          	
Dominion lands   58 115 So
Timber-sales    G71 853 769
Hand-loggers   58 55 30
Special marks   3 11
Totals      1,511       2,007       1,705
Transfers and changes of marks        345 267 258
HAND-LOGGERS' LICENCES.
1922. 1923. 1924.
Number issued        288 198 93
CORRESPONDENCE.
Letters inward, numbered and recorded      39,800
Letters, reports, etc., received, not numbered or recorded     15,000
Total      54,800
Outward typed letters     20,000
Outward circulars, form letters, etc     24.000
Total      44,000
REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.
The collection of revenue has been most satisfactory and exceeded 1923 by a small margin.
Licence fees declined by an amount equal to $135,000. This, however, was made up in added
collections from active operations, both stumpage and royalty showing a substantial increase.
The total revenue for the year was $3,4S3,353.12, as compared with $3,482,365.29 for 1923. This
does not include funds received through the Treasury Department for taxation of timber land
nor funds collected for forest-protection and scaling. The receipts from operations were
$2,271,890.61, an increase of 7 per cent, over the previous year and an increase of 47 per cent,
in the past five years. Administrative expenditures amounted to $377,150.36. Some $16,000 of
this, however, was extraordinary expenditure for permanent improvements, including a new
launch for the Vancouver headquarters staff and a residence for the District Forester at Williams
Lake. These items should properly be charged over the next fifteen or twenty years and would
leave the net expenditure for the year at approximately $362,000, or 17.3 per cent, of the operating revenue, as against 17.5 per cent, for the previous years.
The expenditure on trade extension increased from $19,757 to $37,093.12. This large increase
was due, first, to the installation of a special exhibit at Wembley and the expenses of sending
a Lumber Commissioner to London; second, to the installation of an exhibit at the Toronto
National Fair at Toronto; and, third, to expenditures in connection with the Imperial Forestry
Conference.
The demand for information with regard to pulp areas enforced greater activity in reconnaissance, increasing the expenditures on this account from $2S,000 to $50,000.
The insect-control vote was also increased, but it is to be noted that this expenditure has
now reached its maximum and will apparently decline beginning in 1925. 15 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 29
Forest Revenue.
Timber-licence rentals	
Timber-licence transfer fees	
Timber-licence penalty fees -.
Hand-loggers' licence fees	
Timber-lease rentals	
Penalty fees and interest	
Timber-sale rentals	
Timber-sale stumpage	
Timber-sale cruising	
Timber-sale advertising	
Timber royalty and tax	
Scaling fees(not Scaling Fund)	
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)..
Trespass penalties	
Sealers'examination fees	
Exchange	
Seizure expenses	
General miscellaneous	
Grazing fees	
Taxation from   Crown-grant   timber
lands	
Total revenue from forest sources
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1924.
$1,180 179 55
4,660 00
64,653 05
2,450 00
99,974 25
136 92
19 ,943 01
637,786 50
7,491 04
2,033 96
1,521,001 39
1,564 85
763 27
14,685 27
430 00
1,332 26
654 92
9,392 22
83,469,112 46
14,240 66
298,973 97
83,782,327 09
12 Months to
Deo. 81, 1923
$1,283,300 77
3,750 00
100,045 86
5,300 00
102,062 40
72 22
28,383 49
431,007 99
9,933 97
3,509 00
1,477,027 24
1,160 89
667 53
11,362 99
495 00
3,168 40
1,559 17
5,907 36
$3,468,714 28
13,651 01
308,041 92
$3,790,407 21
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1922.
$1,390,999 64
1,950 00
83,376 60
6,050 00
94,392 31
247 77
26,790 12
358,984 19
8,699 50
2,188 63
1,203,884 89
3,138 05
1,061 94
13,397 91
175 00
357 14
454 35
3,135 47
$3,199,283 51
8,171 21
$3,526,865 23
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1921.
$1,193,654 58
3,735 00
50,859 19
9,175 00
81,840 61
21 85
12,059 91
317.4S8 77
4,040 39
1,695 08
990,326 99
2,015 83
765 98
11,245 86
455 00
291 03
330 80
1,972 33
$2,683,174 20
11,221 79
261,896 49
$2,956,292 48
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1920.
$1,654,747 43
4,855))
232,309 85
6,526 00
81,989 68
12 59
17,881 40
247,234 71
7,642 80
2,749 93
879,003 16
25,476 91
5,041 71
18,114 34
670 00
2,519 43
530 03
3,363 90
$3,190,667 87
15,617 44
302,557 26
$3,508,842 67
12 Months to
Dec. 81, 1919.
1,236,580 41
i,7)l   00
49,259 95
7,260 00
85,101 37
845 10
10,045 26
219,012 08
3,763 49
1,929 71
788,746 69
64,571 19
13,072 79
7,464 12
205 00
3,550 80
280 12
1,055 67
$2,194,973 75
9,500 41
251,264 82
82,755,738 98
Revenue from Logging Operations, 1921/.
(Amounts charged.)
Royalty and
Tax.
Trespass
Penalties.
Seizure
Expenses.
Government Scale.
Scaling Fond.
Stumpage.
Forest District.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Total.
Vancouver & Is.
Cariboo .
Cranbrook ....
Prince Rupert.
Nelson   ...
Vernon 	
Fort George ...
$1,074,217 23
2,091 79
98,186 77
158,834 44
73,145 41
35,594 86
84,249 66
15,751 30
$1,542,070 96
$1,499,355 83
$1,149,746 76
$1,005,261 61
$5,636 82
358 77
499 07
1,338 42
491 90
563 98
1,677 32
294 44
$10,860 22
$25,508 75
$489 65
121 25
39 87
19 26
38 21
$213 44
26 90
281 03
27 00
$ 548 37
8 741 56
$1,933 72
$ 769 08
$819 81
1,359 61
$2,179 42
$1,175 22
$12,872 68
23 68
1,858 76
5 00
$14,760 12
$15,743 96
$94,758 05
8,933 66
$257,1*1 76
2,383 85
21,255 76
141,720 16
51,211 78
25,193 51
72,858 87
25,302 96
$1,446,201 94
4,784 41
120,113 43
314,365 95
124,868 35
61,356 85
158,785 85
41,413 91
Totals
$ 708 24
$ 746 59
$103,691 71
$108,713 66
$103,774 90
$597,071 65
$467,048 15
$2,271,890 69
Totals, 1923
$2,119,033 72
Totals, 1922
$14,926 63
$1,326 80
$1,940 08
$1,256 70
$12,407 50
$11,396 11
$375,607 42
$396,303 19
$1,661,662 81
Totals, 1921
$14,297 39
$ 616 85
$114,450 43
$1,544,251 36
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal . Year, 1923-24.
Headquarters .
Cariboo	
Cranbrook   ...
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince George.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver
Vernon	
Totals.
Forest District.
,015 00
745 00
405 35
474 52
821 68
781 79
617 06
471 29
350 00
$207,681 69
Temporary
Assistance.
S 2,090 96
1,116 58
987 08
1,097 03
3,534 00
1,570 50
1,842 00
500 00
2,090 96
$14,828 11
Lumber-trade extension	
Reconnaissance, etc	
Insect-eontrol	
Contingencies	
British Empire Exhibition	
Grazing: range improvement .
Expenses.
$ 29,925
8,041
6,357
4,227
6,674
5,275
22,469
67,017
4,650
$154,640 56
$115,
14,
16.
11.
21.
18.
45.
117.
15,
031 29
902 21
749 61
799 21
030 66
627 96
928 64
989 18
091 60
$377,150 36
30,561 26
50,109 65
25,262 26
2,673 02
6,531  86
7,169 84
Grand total    $499,458 25 E 30 Department of Lands. 1925
In addition to the above-named total the sum of $43,998.94 was expended by the Department
under special warrant in the purchase and shipment of lumber in relief of the sufferers from
the Japanese disaster.
The sums estimated as heing required for the fiscal year 1924-25 were as follows:—
Salaries  $219,S2S 00
Travelling expenses, Ranger stations, and wireless telephone       46,000 00
Lumber-trade extension       30,000 00
Reconnaissance, etc      60,000 00
Insect damage:   investigation and control       35,000 00
-Grazing:  range improvement      10,000 00
Total  $400,S2S 00
In addition to this total, sums were available from the main Lands Department votes for
temporary assistance, office supplies, maintenance of launches and autos, and miscellaneous
expenses; publicity, general investigations, and contingencies. The sum of $300,000 was also
voted as the amount of the contribution of the Government to the Forest Protection Fund.
SCALING FUND.
The Scaling Fund remains in a satisfactory condition. The present fee of 6 cents is not
meeting all expenditures and during the nine months the surplus was reduced by $19,000. There
still remains a surplus at the end of the year amounting to $21,506.84.
Balance brought down, April 1st, 1923  $ 50,092 72     	
Expenditure, fiscal year 1923-24  $141,386 29
Charges, fiscal year 1923-24      132,229 3«    	
Balance, March 31st, 1924       40,935 81
$182,322 10 $182,322 10
•   Balance brought down, April 1st, 1924   $ 40,935 81     	
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1924         $10S,921 00
Charges, 9 months, April-Decemuer, 1924       89,492 03    	
Balance, being excess of charges over expenditure        21,506 84
$130,427 84 $130,427 84
CROWN-GRANT TIMBER LANDS.
Area of Private
Timber Lands
(Acres).
1911   824,814
1912  ,  874,715
1913   922,948
1914   960,464
1915   913,245
1916   022,206
1917  .'.  916,726
ISIS   896,188
1919   SS3.491
1920   867,921 .
1921   S45,lll
1922   887,980
1923   883,344
1924   654,668
-eras
e Value
per Acre.
$ 8
72
8
60
9 02
9
66
9 55
9 73
9
61
9 60
9
48
11
62
10
33
11
99
11
62
15
22 15 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 31
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1924.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1923.
Average Value
per Acre.
Change in
Value per
Acre since
■    1923.
69,881
149,140
91,487
46,900
28,049
4,914
82,163
17,744
1,692
47,861
80,901
2,660
31,276
054,66S
+20,544
-40,130
-1,430
+ 17,168
-53,052
+6
-1,028
-177,967
+32
-749
No change.
No change.
+7,930
-228,676
$24 63
17 24
19 07
8 36
6 12
4 01
15 26
7 86
23 24
12 41
5 10
31 25
23 03
-$0 64
+ 3 19
-     50
-3 47
+ 1 35
+    09
•    - 1 39
+ 4 28
+ 9 34
- 2 01
No change.
No change.
+2 57
Totals	
$15 22
+§4 00
FOREST PROTECTION FUND.
The Forest Protection Fund shows a credit balance of $51,375.85 at December 31st, 1924.
The collections for nine months amounted to $162,151.56, which will be materially increased
during the last three months of the fiscal year.
Patrol expenses were $14,000 less than during the previous year, but on account of severe
fire hazard, fire-control was $249,382, as compared with $75,503 for 1923. It is encouraging,
however, to note that this expenditure is only 50 per cent, of the 1923 costs and that last year
the hazard was closely comparable with 1922.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as of December
31st, 1924:—
Collections, fiscal year 1923-24   $197,324 97
Collections under special levy       92,183 94
Government contribution      642,315 46
$931,824 37
Less amount transferred to Special Advance Account     59,195 45
$872,628 92
Balance (deficit) at April 1st, 1923  $283,616 10
Expenditure, fiscal year 1923-24   $433,366 32
Less refunds        13,962 17
 419,404 15
Refunds of revenue   567 94
703,588 19
Balance in hand  $169,040 73
Balance at April 1st, 1924  $169,040 73
'   Collections, April-December, 1924 (nine months)  $151,829 05
Collections, special levy, ditto       10,292 51
Government contribution, ditto    225,889 66
    388,011 22
$557,051 95
Expenditure, April-December, 1924 (nine months)   $517,098 41
Less refunds .'      11,422 31
505,676 10
Balance In hand    $ 51,375 85 E 32
Department of Lands.
1925
Forest Protection Expenditure.
FlSCAI
Years.
1917-18.
1918-19.
1919-20.
1920-21.
1921-22.
1922-23.
1923-24.
9 months,
April to Dec,
1924.
Patrols and fire prevention 	
Tools and equipment.
Im p r o ve m e n t s and
maintenance	
$81,531
28,283
91,470
10,601
$108,860
68,114
50,293
18,969
$135,452
64,563
165,688
26,555
$163,360
121,353
292,890
68,239
$227,738
118,973
106,891
17,779
$471,341
$202,994
91,812
508,992
37,609
$841,407
$254,792
81,408
75,503
21,667
$240,426
22,315
249,382    „
4,975
Totals	
$211,885
$246,236
$392,25 8
$645,842
$433,370
$517,098
Expenditure by Districts for Nine Months ended December 31st, 1924
Forest District.
Victoria 	
Cariboo	
Cranbrook ...
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince George
Prince Rupert
Vancouver ...
Vernon	
Undistributed
Totals
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention.
806 38
935 51
218 29
072 13
308 47
029 63
450 44
698 76
906 98
000 00
Tools and
Equipment.
$ 2,836 95
895 37
2,217 04
428 13
4,148 42
2,259 13
2,028 89
6,435 83
1,065 68
$22,315 34
Fires.
$ 7,075 35
24,168 75
8,541 39
59,122 53
31,900 62
8,433 05
99,834 68
10,305 90
$249,382 17
Improvements
and
Maintenance.
$ 665 19
1,514 21
384 03
951 60
141 41
385 34
760 93
171 60
$4,974 31
$ 29,643 33
20,571 42
50,118 29
28,425 68
89,531 02
53,330 79
21,297 72
159,730 10
24,450 06
40,000 00
$517,098 41
For Twelve Months, April 1st, 1923, to March 31st, 192k.
Forest District.
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention.
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements
and
Maintenance.
Total.
$ 31,127 99
17,265 49
29,022 01
22,244 68
29,901 12
23,886 21
16,913 22
108,840 90
19,239 92
5,960 34
$304,401 88
- $ 2,068 49
3,416 49
2,182 92
2,269 50
4,444 24
2,391 51
1,937 41
14,568 82
587 08
$ 3,668 84
13,742 23
1,406 55
12,695 02
4,264 13
4,995 86
33,221 73
1,508 70
$ 1,855 61
2,097 88
1,667 65
2,404 92
812 84
1,029 29
6,827 66
2,902 62
$ 33,196 48
26,206 43
47,045 04
27,588 38
Prince George	
Prince Rupert   	
49,445 SO
31,354 69
24,875 78
163,459 11
24,238 32
5,960 34
Totals .-	
$33,866 46
$76,503 06
$19,598 47
$433,369 87
FOREST-PROTECTION.
The year 1924 was one of abnormal fire hazard in all sections of the Province. Following
the disappearance of snow in the Northern and Southern Interior regions, the forest-cover dried
out with extraordinary rapidity and numerous serious fire outbreaks were experienced before
May 1st. During the month of June the hazard was, however, appreciably lower, especially in
the south-eastern part of the Province, but this region, in common with the rest of the Province,
experienced drought conditions and low humidity during the month of July and August, the
crisis centring around the week commencing July 29th. To add to the normal hazard, numerous
dry electrical storms occurred and many lightning-fires had to be contended with.
The hazard on the Lower Coast in the early part of the season was not abnormally high,
but precipitation during the months of May to August was extremely low, rainfall for these
months totalling 3.81 inches, as compared with 6.16 inches for the previous year.   In this section 15 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 33
conditions were such that many of the operators suspended logging activities during the months
of June, July, and August. During this period no less than forty-four of the major Coast operations were closed down, resulting in the idleness of approximately 60 per cent, of the logging
machinery. This shut-down greatly minimized the fire risk from logging operation and was
a most important factor in reducing fire occurrence and fire loss. On the other hand, all reports
indicate that the number of tourists and campers using the woods was the heaviest ever
experienced in the Province. Rainfall became general throughout the Province about September
10th and there was no subsequent occurrence of serious hazard.
Following the theories recently accepted by various Forest Protective Associations and
agencies, that the measure of fire hazard in any season is determined largely by the number
of days of low relative humidity, or what have previously been known as bad fire days, rather
than sustained periods of drought and high temperature, further studies were carried out by the
Branch with a view to obtaining definite data regarding the relation between relative humidity
and fire occurrence and fire spread. Hygro-thermographs were placed at the following points:
Vernon, Prince George, Williams Lake, Cranbrook, Smithers, Nanaimo, and Nelson; and, in
addition, all Rangers were equipped with sling psychrometers. Humidity conditions as indicated
by these instruments were used as a basis for issuing fire warnings, strengthening patrols, and
to a limited extent for guidance in fire suppression.
-Daily readings of the hygro-thermographs were telegraphed to the Director of the Dominion
Meteorological Station at Gonzales Heights, Victoria, for comparison with weather reports
obtained by him from other sources, with a view to their co-ordination in preparing weather
forecasts. It is the intention of the Department to continue to send these reports to the
Meteorological Station in 1925. They will -be considered with other meteorological data and,
on the combined basis, daily weather probabilities sent out. It is further planned to broadcast
these weather reports daily during the fire season from the Department's Wireless Station at
Vancouver, Myrtle Point, and Thurston Bay for the benefit of the general public, and especially
those operating logging camps. A day's shut-down during extreme low conditions may save
many thousands of dollars in fire loss. There is little doubt that such warnings, if taken
advantage of, will be extremely helpful in reducing fire occurrence.
FIRE OCCURRENCE.
The number of fires occurring in the Province (2,174) in 1924 was the largest reported
since the organization of the Forest Protection Force, with the exception of 1922, when no less
than 2,591 fires were reported. This year is in sharp contrast to the preceding one, when 1,530
fires occurred.
Of the 2,174 fires in 1924, 767, or 35.28 per cent., were extinguished before they had reached
an area exceeding one-quarter of an acre; 782, or 35.97 per cent., were extinguished under 10
acres; and 625, or 28.75 per cent., exceeded 10 acres in size; 1,315, or 61 per cent., fires were
extinguished by the patrol forces without help or additional cost. Further analysis shows that
1,823 fires, or 83.84 per cent., caused damage less than $100 in extent; 259, or 11.92 per cent.,
caused damage between $100 and $1,000; and 92, or 4.24 per cent., destroyed over $1,000 worth
of property. These standards, while not as favourable as attained in the previous year, are
an improvement on the results obtained in 1922, which from a fire occurrence and hazard viewpoint is comparable to 1924.
The increase in the number of fires in 1924 presents a striking illustration of the relationship between " fire occurrence " and the seasonal conditions; while this, naturally, is very apparent in the case of fires due to unpreventable causes, such as lightning, it is also true in the case
of fires due to purely accidental causes, such as smokers, campers, etc. It is true that weather
conditions do not of themselves cause fires except in the case of lightning, but they do exert a
most important contributory influence in fire occurring from other agencies, inasmuch as when
weather conditions are adverse, many potential fires, such as cigarette-stubs and lighted matches
discarded by smokers, camp-fires, sparks from railway-locomotives, etc., left unextinguished,
die out, and inversely, when weather conditions are favourable for the rapid spread of fires,
these become real conflagrations which spread, burn until discovered, and must be extinguished
by human agency. E 34
Department of Lands.
1925
Fires, 1924, classified by Size and Damage.
Total
Fires.
Under \ Acre.
\ Acre to 10 Acres.
Over 10 Acres in
Extent.
Damage.
ci co
a co
Forest District.
H-S
H-g
£5
H-S
S3
H-|
S3
a
o
^«
.4iia
"IS
4iQ
°l
o|
o
o
^
o
o
g c
C c
C c
g c
g c
c s
b e
6
.    0>
6
O co
5>.s
Q co
6
Q co
Si.S
d
D   CO
u cu
O   CO
0)
is o
43 O
&
&.&.
to
H.6.
hb
to
&. fc.
hb
to
Pj[*<
&. &H
P
p4 4&
O
Cariboo	
129
5.93
18
13.95
2.34
35
27.13
4.47
76
58.92
12.16
78
41
10
Cranbrook	
238
10.96
112
47.0
14.61
84
35.3
10.75
42
17.7
6.72
208
21
9
173
411
7.96
18.90
75
197
43.3
47.9
9.78
25.68
64
136
36.9
33.1
8.18
17.39
34
78
19.8
19.0
5.44
12.48
155
347
13
48
5
Nelson	
16
Prince George	
281
12.93
38
13.5
4.95
112
39.9    14.33
131
46.6
20.96
224
36
21
156
597
7.18
27.46
45
252
29.0
42.0
5.86
32.86
48
194
30.3
33.0
6.14
24.80
63
151
40.7
25.0
10.08
24.16
131
615
16
64
9
Vancouver ,..	
18
Vernon	
189
8.69
100.0
30
15.9
3.92
109
57.6
13.94
60
26.5
8.00
165
20
4
2,174
100.0
767
35.28
100.0
782
35.97
100.0
625
28.75
100.0
1,823
83.84
259
11.92
92
Per cent   	
4.24
Totals, 1923..;......
1,530
673
519
338
1,396
82
52
100.0
48.99
33.92
22.09
91.24
5.36
3.40
Totals, 1922	
2,591
100.0
637
24.6
909
35.1
1,045
40.3
2,171
83.8
253
9.8
167
6.4
Number and Causes or Fiees, 1924.
Forest District.
&
a
■a
to
73
S   CO
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3
fa
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"   71
114
37
5
29
25
328
15.1
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9
18
18
58
37
21
69
13
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6
37
38
132
6
4
17
67
53
43
10
26
80
42
111
17
8
24
9
45
36
20
118
42
2
1
5
4
1
3
3
i
l
7
4
10
109
2
37
4
6
2
21
27
12
4
9
11
10
6
41
5
14
55
8
12
29
20
88
11
129
238
173
411
281
166
597
189
5.9
10.9
7.9
18.9
12.9
7.3
27.5
8.7
307
14.1
382
17.6
302
13.9
243
11.2
19
0.9
134
6.1
115
5.3
107
4.9
237
10.9
2,174
100.0
100.0 15 Geo. 5
Forest Branch,
E 35
Fires, 1924, classified by Place of Origin and Cost of Fire-fighting.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook	
Kamloops    	
Nelson	
Prince George   	
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver 	
Vernon	
Totals	
Per cent	
Totals, 1923..
Per cent	
Totals, 1922..
Per cent	
a
Extinguished
WITH-
Cost Money to
Total Cost of
o.S
a %
cs a,
o
a
T3
out Cost.
extinguish.
fighting
Fire.
a     ^
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129
85
44
81
62.8
3.72
48
37.2
2.21
7,075 35
2.84
238
32
206
143
60.0
6.58
95
40.0
4.37
24,168 75
9.69
173
64
109
130
75.0
5.98
43
25.0
1.98
8,541 39
3.44
411
152
259
234
56.9
10.76
177
.43.1
8.15
59,122 63
23.70
281
85
196
147
62.3
6.76
134
47.7
6.16
81,900 62
12.81
156
64
92
104
67.0
4.78
62
33.0
2.39
8,433 05
3.38
597
236
361
367
61.0
16 88
230
39.0
10.68
99,834 58
40.00
189
62
127
109
57.6
5.02
80
42.4
3.68
10,305 90
249,382 17
4.14
2,174
780
1,394
1,315
60.49
859
39.51
100.00
100.0
35.88
64.12
60.49
89.51
1,530
541
989
1,086
70.98
444
29.02
72,706 16
100.00
100.0
35.36
64.64
70.98
64.29
29.02
35.71
2,591
766
1,826
1,665
926
479,800 85
100.00
100.0
29.5
70.6
64.29
35.71
Average
Cost
r-ER Fire.
54 84
101 55
49 37
143 85
113 52
54 06
167 22
64 50
114 71
FIRE DAMAGE.
The total area burned over by forest fires in 1924 was 402,214 acres, 0.3 per cent, of area
patrolled. While this exceeded by nearly three times the total area burned over in 1923, it
was only approximately 25 per cent, of the area burned in 1922.
The merchantable timber destroyed is estimated at 103,421 B.M., as against 49,380 B.M.
for 1923 and 611,935 B.M. for 1922. Valuable reproduction destroyed by fire amounted to 106,019
acres, as against an area of 12,807 acres for 1923 and 210,474 acres for 1922.
Damage to other forms of property, which includes partially manufactured forest products,
logging machinery, etc., amounted to $540,291, as compared with $617,649 for 1923 and $693,016
for 1922. E 36
Department of Lands.
1925
Damage.   .
Per
Cent.
9.49
10.07
2.05
17.13
15.76
3.42
38.46
3.62
o
O
O
o
o
p
©
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$    63,142
67,010
13,672
113,873
104,630
22,783
255,SOI
24,107
00
co ©
<m   ■
it »
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r-"°
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r-   ■
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a
a
Per
Cent.
0.16
7.07
1.13
6.63
11.91
5.03
66 90
1.17
o
o
o
©
o
©
o
s
©
M. Feet
B.M.
335
14,663
2,327
13,764
24,725
10,434
138,959
2,444
207,661
100.0
87,371
100.0
729,941
100.0
Area.
Per
Cent.
12.80
9.94
1.75
19.04
27.24
4.61
21,67
2.95
o
o
o
o
o
©
©
©   ■
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Acres.
51,480
39,986
7,047
109,559
18,528
87,158
11,898
^f c
CM C
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722
823
3,494
2,174
286
18,795
295
lO -*
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16,661
3,253
11,372
34,012
5,800
105,634
2,240
CM OJ
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1,347
3,892
90,258
1,124
CM CO
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14,663
2,307
13,701
23,795
10,434
138,708
2,310
CCO CO
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10,495
758
3,846
4,955
1,269
5,720
1,247
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OOMfcSSS; 15 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 37
Damage to Pkoperty other than Forests, 1924.
Forest District.
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent.
of
Total.
$37,956
1,870
46,228
2.816
2,000
70,394
375
$ 1,725
32,650
885
64,980
37,870
470
28,410
28,200
8    800
5,258
1,200
7,020
320
128,462
12
$ 1,170
681
28,479
775
306
7,385
1,594
$    3,695
76,545
3,955
146,707
41,781
2,776
234,651
30,181
0.68
14.17
0.74
27.15
7.73
0-52
43.43
5.58
$161,639
$195,190
8143,072
$ 40,390
$540,291
100.00
Comparison of Damage caused by Forest Fires in the Last Seven Years.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
2,174
402,214
207,651
102,832
$665,078
540,291
$1,205,369
1,530
157,601
87,371
37,891
$74,238
617,649
2,591
1,568,586
729,941
117,006
$1,531,300
693,016
1,330
145,838
68,476
39,553
897,332
195,221
1,251
389,846
229,253
49,575
$485,963
473,900
$959,863
1,141
433,797
287,520
93,569
$393,183
345,787
$738,970
910
Standing timber destroyed or damaged (M. ft. B.M.)	
Amount salvable (M. ft. B.M.)  	
Damage to other forms of property..
140,085
42,886
22,387
825,930
200,335
$691,887
$2,224,316
$292,553
$226,265
FIRE-FIGHTING EXPENDITURES.
Fire-fighting expenditures reached the sum of $249,382, as compared with $72,708 for 1923,
$479,801 for 1922, and $146,527, the average for the past ten years.
In addition to the sum expended by the Department fighting fires, private interests spent
approximately $153,515, making a total expenditure for fire-suppression purposes of $402,S97
for the Province, or an average of $185 per fire.
The total estimated damage caused by forest fires, including fire-control expenditures,
amounted to $1,608,266.
FIRE  CAUSES.
Human agencies were again responsible for no less than 85.9 per cent, of the fires which
occurred in the Province; lightning, the only unpreventable cause, being responsible for 14.1
per cent. Analysis of the tables illustrating fire causes reveals that, with the solitary exception
of " industrial operations," there was a marked increase in the number of fires due to all other
human agencies, such as campers, smokers, etc.
Reference has already been made to the minimized risk due to the suspension of logging
operations in the Lower Coast during the fire season. There is no doubt that this shut-down,
while due to economic reasons rather than the result of premediated action in the interests
of forest-protection, was the principal factor in reducing fire occurrence from industrial causes.
It unquestionably kept down very substantially the damage previously suffered by Coast
•operators, and certainly bears out the oft-expressed conviction that during a season of abnormal
hazard suspension of operations is advisable in the hazardous areas of the Lower Coast if
disastrous conflagrations are to be avoided.
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Nine Years.
Lightning	
Campers and travellers	
Railway operation	
Railways under construction	
Smokers	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing) .
Public road-construction	
Industrial operations	
Incendiary	
Miscellaneous known	
Unknown causes	
Totals.
307
382
302
243
19
134
115
107
237
274
262
199
iso
154
12
170
35
71
173
1922.
246
626
332
355
22
203
69
202
536
2,591    1,330
164
308
136
20
119
40
64
204
304
246
227
I
7
104
32
"69
165
1,251     1,141
115
310
146
22
"97
5
129
21
140
156
134
158
104
1
'166
2
80
15
72
224
48
209
335
6
59
13
55
214
1916.
67
268
121
148
12
69
22
19
148 E 38
Department of Lands.
1925
0
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; cj cu- 15 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 39
PUBLIC EDUCATION.
It has long been realized that the solution of the fire-prevention phase of the forest-fire
problem is largely an educational process, and since the establishment of the Forest Service
in the Province it has been the aim to carry out an educational campaign in the interests of
forest-fire prevention vigorous and wide enough in scope to arouse every citizen and every user
of the forest to the realization of the fact that it Is his and his children's heritage he is risking
by his careless match or camp-fire.
The educational programme in 1924 was the most diverse and comprehensive yet attempted.
It embraced many forms of written appeal, including, in addition to the usual legal posters
aud signs calling attention to the provisions of the fire law, newspaper advertising and a variety
of specially designed posters, campers' guides, leaflets, road-signs, etc.
The week of April 27th to May 3rd was proclaimed " Save the Forest Week" by His
Excellency the Governor-General of Canada. During this week an intensive publicity campaign
was put on by this Branch in the interests of forest-protection, in which every available officer
took part.
The campaign included special lectures illustrated by motion pictures, lectures to all schoolchildren of the Province, Boy Scout rallies, etc. An appeal to the general public to co-operate
in making this campaign effective met with a most encouraging response. Window displays
and free advertising were contributed by many firms. Moving-picture theatres exhibited forest-
protection slides and the film '; Red Enemy," aud also offered the use of their theatres for forest-
protection lectures. In numerous other ways assistance was also given by public-spirited
citizens with a view to make the object sought by the originators of forest-protection week
possible of accomplishment.
Many Service Clubs and similar organizations were addressed on the subject of forest-
protection by members of the staff. Speeches on forest-protection topics were broadcasted each
evening from the Department Radio Station at Vancouver. During the week, through the cooperation of the R.C.A.S., an aeroplane flight over the various settlements and logging camps
on the Coast was made and forest-protection propaganda in the form of leaflets distributed
from the air.
An essay competition was held for school-children on the subject of " Forest Fires, Their
Effect, and How to Prevent Them " ; gold, silver, and bronze medals and certificates being offered
as prizes. A very large number of essays were received, many of which were of a very high
grade. This competition undoubtedly resulted in bringing the lesson of forest-protection into
thousands of homes in the Province in a more effective way than it would be brought in any
other way.
Camp-sites.—With a view to concentrating the risk and preventing fire-setting by campers,-
a number of additional Forest Branch camp-sites were established during the season at various
places throughout the Province. Forest Branch camp-sites have been the subjects of much
favourable comment on the part of the users. At several of the camp-sites camp registers were
kept, and the written comment of the visitors contained therein certainly indicates that this
form of forest-protection publicity will undoubtedly bring in commensurate results in reducing
the risk from campers' fires wherever they are established.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT.
After making due allowance for the effect of abnormal weather conditions on fire occurrence,
the large increase in the number of fires in 1924 as compared with 1923 and years previous to
1922, is, to say the least, disconcerting; moreover, this increase occurred in a year which saw
probably the greatest efforts of fire-prevention propaganda yet attempted in the Province.
The continued annual occurrence of large numbers of forest fires is not, however, a situation
peculiar to British Columbia; in the neighbouring States to the south more fires occurred in
1924 than in any year since forest-protection was placed upon an organized basis. No less
than 8,454 fires occurred, of which over 70 per cent, were man-caused as reported by the Western
Forestry and Conservation Association. Forest fires have not decreased in proportion to the
progress made in other forest-protective endeavours, and it is felt that more rigorous enforcement of the fire law in respect to careless fire-setting is essential if advancement in fire-prevention
is to be achieved.   This was particularly emphasized at the fourteenth annual meeting of the E 40
Department of Lands.
1925
Western Forestry and Conservation Association held in Vancouver, December 2nd. to 4th, 1924,
when the following resolution was passed:—
" The discouraging number of man-caused fires indicates the existence in our population
of a careless and criminal minority which cannot be reached by any argument except vigorous
prosecution. We therefore propose the development of a forest constabulary assigned directly
to enforcement of our forest-fire laws to the end that man-caused fires may be reduced."
The recommendation embodied in this report is worthy of serious consideration in so far
as its adoption may be feasible in British Columbia. Prosecution procedure is a matter for
which the ordinary forest officer has little aptitude. It would seem advisable, therefore, with
a view to ensuring that prosecution for fire-law violation will be made where circumstances
warrant, that special training be afforded forest officers in this work, and the forest-protection
staff be augmented by one or more men experienced in the technique of securing clues and
preparing evidence. It is obvious that if we are to stop fire-setting, whether due to carelessness
or rank incendiarism, we cannot depend on education alone. Strong disciplinary measures are
the only cure for the wilful and the criminally careless.
Prosecutions
FOR  FlKE
Tbespass, 1924.
-w
„p
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3
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|
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1
INES.
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Forest District.
No.
Amount.
JO
'5
ci
d
1
* o<K
Ogg<
Om<
O is
Ooi-<
CCS,
fc,
—T-
1
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Cranbrook —
4
1
3
2
§375 00
2
1
l
1
25 00
Nelson	
8
1
6
1
2
50 00
1
5
Prince George .
15
9
1
5
9
225 00
1
5
Prince Rupert.
lb
i
1
ii
2
io
350 66
1
2
9
1
1
1
Totals    ,
45
83
l
2
28
4
2
7
18
7
24
$1,026 00
Si,260 00
2
3
13
14
15
7
2
Totals, 1923.
1
9
35
14
45
3
HAZARD  REDUCTION.
Dangerous Debris.—The total area of slash burned over during the close season and the
number of burning permits issued shows a considerable decrease as compared with the years
1923 and 1922. This was due in part to the occurrence of favourable burning conditions, which
permitted a larger amount of the clearing to be done and for which no record is kept prior to
the announcement of the fire season.
Industrial Operations.—The number of locomotive and donkey engines operating in the
woods was greatly reduced during the greater part of the fire season of 1924, but compliance,
on the part of the firms that did operate, with the regulations regarding maintenance of fire-
preventive appliances was very satisfactory. A large quantity of additional fire-fighting equipment was purchased by logging companies, which included steel railway tank-cars equipped with
high-power steam-pumps, portable gasolene fire-pumps, hand tank pumps, and In addition large
quantities of the usual fire-fighting tools, such as mattocks, axes, shovels, etc.
One additional spark-arrester for donkey-engines was tested by the Department, in conjunction with the Boiler Inspection Department, and approved, making a total of seven types
of arresters for locomotives and donkey-engines which have now received official registration.
FIRE-CONTROL.
The general plan of organization followed in previous years was continued in 1924. Emergency lire-organization charts have now been compiled for every section of the Province. These
charts are an inventory of the resources, human and material, available in each section for
fire-fighting purposes.   The work of developing this emergency fire organization into an efficient 15 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 41
fire-fighting machine was continued with a view to not only securing prompt and efficient action
on every fire, but also in minimizing fire-suppression expenditures.
It is gratifying to note that a further substantial increase was made in enrolment of
Honorary Fire Wardens and Fire Prevention Officers. The number accepting these appointments in 1924 being 894, as against 650 for the previous year. The interest taken by the public
generally on the growth of this branch of the fire-protection staff is an encouraging augury for
future progress not only in fire-fighting efficiency, but also in fire-prevention.
FIRE-DETECTION.
The 1924 fire season again demonstrated the value of permanent lookouts established on
prominent mountain points for rapid fire-detection purposes.
A new standard lookout was constructed on Mount Swansea, in the Cranbrook Forest
District, which has a commanding view of all the country tributary to the headwaters of the
Columbia and Kootenay Rivers.
The existing lookouts on B.X. and Little White Mountains, in the Vernon Forest District,
were also substantially improved. In addition, the Patrol Force established many lookout
points this year on high points of lands, which are visited during the course of the day's patrol
and from which a commanding view of the patrol area is obtained. No permanent fixtures
are placed at such points, but they act as temporary lookouts until replaced by the permanent
type on higher and more commanding elevations.
Increased service from the auxiliary Fire Prevention Force and Honorary Fire Wardens
has greatly strengthened the work of prompt fire-detection.
By arrangement with the R.C.A.F., flying-boats of the Jericho Beach Air Station were
utilized on a small scale again this year for fire-detection and reconnaissance purposes on the
Lower Coast.
COMMUNICATIONS.
The Department's radio-telephone system again proved its indispensability, the number of
messages sent, including relays, totalling 7,026, and words 263,980. Minor alterations to the
receiving part of the sets resulted in greater range and better receptivity being obtained. A
new direct-connected crude-oil-power unit was installed at Myrtle Point Station, replacing a
gasolene-engine, belt-driven generator set, and is giving much more satisfactory results at a
considerably lower hourly operating cost.
Efficient service was obtained over the various land telephone-lines in the Province operated
by the Department for forest-protection purposes. The various lines were maintained in good
order and some minor extensions made.
MECHANICAL TRANSPORT AND FIRE-FIGHTING- EQUIPMENT.
Transportation service was obtained from Forest Branch owned mechanical transportation
equipment as follows :—
Launches.
Year.
Number of
Units.
Total Miles
run.
Average Miles
per Unit.
Total Cost.
Average Cost
per Mile.
1924 	
43
40
119,703
106,500
2,784
2.662
816,094
19,493
SO.134
1923	
.183
3*
13,203*
122*
S 3,399t
«0.049f
Motor-cars.
1924	
59
52
327,495
275,000
5,551
5,288
$14,105
13,100
SO.043
1923	
.047
7*
52,495*
263*
a 1,005*
*0.004f
Railway Speeders.
1924	
16
15
45,696
38,500
2,856
2,566
$1,149
1,614
1923	
.041
1*
7,196*
290*
$   475t
».016t
t Decrease.
Does not include depreciation. E 42 Department of Lands. 1925
Departmental transportation costs for 1924 were lower than in the year previous, taking
into consideration the increase in total mileage, in average mileage per unit, and in the number
of units operated. It is believed that these costs and figures will compare very favourably
when set against corresponding data available from private concerns operating similar equipment in the Province.
There are now three crude-oil-engine-powered vessels in the service—the " B.C. Forester,"
the headquarters launch of the Vancouver Forest District, which was placed in commission
early in the year; the launch " Euclataw," which was equipped with a new engine, replacing
one worn out in service; and the launch " Scaler." All of these launches are giving satisfactory
engine service at a considerably less operating cost than gasolene or distillate engines of similar
power.
Fire-fighting Equipment.—The value of portable fire-pumps in combating fires was again
demonstrated, the hours run totalling 4,063, equivalent to a quantity of over 6,000,000 gallons
of water pumped. A new type of light-weight pump was tested out in the field. This pump,
which weighs only about 40 lb., is mounted on a tripod, one leg of which is used as a suction-pipe.
Two of these units were purchased and through the season demonstrated their usefulness and
portability under varying conditions at a low operation and maintenance cost.
Fire-hose to meet requirements for replacements of that expended and worn out in service
and for additional fire units was purchased. Various samples offered (some fifteen in all) were
given a rigid test with a view to determining the hose best suited for our needs. The grade
possessing the best qualities was selected and purchased. Reports of its performance from the
field indicate that the choice was amply justified.
The old-type screw hose-couplings are being replaced, as the hose wears out, by a new
type instantaneous coupling specially developed for forest-fire use. These couplings permit
either end of the hose to be used, do away with loose joints and hose-wrenches, and save considerable time in laying and taking up hose at a fire.
A change in design of the 5-gallon hand tank pump in use was made for increased portability
and usefulness. Numerous instances since it was adopted have proved the value of this piece
of equipment as an adjunct to the equipment carried by patrolmen.
EQUIPMENT, IMPROVEMENTS,  AND  MAINTENANCE.
„     . Caeiboo.
Equipment-
Four Ford cars  % 2,580 00
Eight hand tank pumps     109 00
Fire-fighting tools  594 00
Portable telephone    112 00
Hygro-thermograph and screen   163 00
Three sling psychrometers   36 00
Total   ? 3,594 00
Improvements—
Williams Lake Garage   % 525 00
Quesnel Lake Boat-house   525 00
Lac la Hache Camp-site   169 00
Cottonwood Camp-site   13 00
Total  $ 1,232 00
Maintenance—
Mount Begbie Lookout Cabin   ?      75 00
Quesnel Lake Boat-house   33 00
Carried forward   $    108 00 Result of repeated fires—a statue to destruction.
Compare with Frontispiece.  15 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 43
Cariboo—Continued.
Brought forward  ? 108 00
Maintenance—Continued.
Bear Lake Ranger Station Cabin   26 00
Mount Begbie Lookout Trail   22 00
Canim Lake Boat-house —- 17 00
Miscellaneous     59 00
Total  % 232 00
Cbanbrook.
Equipment-
Five Ford cars   ? 3,016 00
Eighteen hand tank pumps  —- 276 00
One Evinrude pump  (2-cylinder)  376 00
One Evinrude pump (single cylinder)  .....:  252 00
Hose for fire-fighting pumps   450 00
Fire-fighting tools, etc  547 00
One hygro-thermograph and screen   163 00
Four sling psychrometers   4S 00
Total   $ 5,12S 00
Improvements—
Bridge Creek Trail   ? 216 00
Sheep Creek Trail   900 00
Ward Creek Trail   725 00
Swansea Mountain Lookout and Telephone Line   1,593 .00
Flathead Road   100 00
Camp-sites     415 00
Total   $ 3,949 00
Maintenance—
Moyie Mountain Lookout   $ 111 00
Elk Valley Telephone Line   325 00
Camp-sites    135 00
Whitefish Creek Trail   60 00
Weary Creek Trail  !  80 00
Summit Creek Trail   105 00
Phillips Creek Trail   75 00
Wigwam River Trail   87 00
Casey Mountain Telephone Line   75 00
Flathead Trail   244 00
Lodgepole Creek Trail   50 00
St. Mary River Trail (East Fork)   65 00
Kootenay River Trail   150 00
Goat River Trail   60 00
Corbin Trail   54 00
Wildhorse  Trail     80 00
Miscellaneous    42 00
Total   % 1,798 00 E 44 Department op Lands. 1925
Kamloops.
Equipment—■
Three sling psychrometers   $      36 00
One  Ford  ear    610 00
Three- boats and shelter  139 00
One Evinrude outboard motor   124 00
One canoe   151 00
Eight hand tank pumps  125 00
Fire-fighting hose   112 00
Fire-fighting tools   61 CO
Total  :  $ 1,353 OO
Improvements—■
Myrtle Crossing-Clearwater Trail   $    351 00
Dunn Lake Camp-site   72 00
Clearwater  Camp-site    34 00
Bear Creek Camp-site   31 00
Canyon Ranger Station Cabin   24 00
Shelters for boats   52 00
Miscellaneous    :  10 00
Total  $    580 00
Maintenance—
Barriere-Adams Lake Trail   $    105 00
North Thompson-Columbia River Trail  '... 64 OO
Adams Lake-Seymour Arm Trail   118 00
Canoe River Trail    116 00
Adams River Wagon-road  416 00
Upper Thompson River Trail  158 00
Blue River Ranger Station Cabin   114 00
Seymour Arm Scow   55 00
Grlzzley Mountain Trail  72 00
Avola Ranger Station Cabin   60 00
Clearwater Trail  142 00
Green Mountain Trail   64 00
Mica Lake Trail   98 00
Rawhide Trail   44 00
Raft River Trail   50 00
East Barriere Lookout Trail  36 00
Goldstream Ranger Station Cabin   46 00
Clearwater-Blue River Trail   36 00
Barriere Forks-Brennan Creek Trail   28 00
Blucher Mountain Trail   -  36 00
Miscellaneous     387 00
Total   $ 2,245 00
Nelson.
Equipment—
Four Ford cars   $ 2,506 00
One Evinrude pump   376 00
One Pacific Ross pump   315 00
Carried forward    $ 3,197 00 15 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 45
Nelson—Continued.
Brought forward   ¥ 3,197 00
Equipment—Continued.
Fourteen hand tank pumps   212 00
Hose for fire-fighting pumps   1,600 00
One hygro-thermograph and screen   163 00
Six sling psychrometers  72 00
Total   % 5.244 00
Improvements—
Fry Creek Trail   $ 1,043 00
Campbell Creek Trail  2'il 00
Davis Creek Trail   110 00
Little Slocan Telephone Line   136 00
Pingston Creek Trail   120 00
Saddle Mountain Trail   127 00
Wilson Creek Trail    285 00
Midge Creek Trail    60 00
Big Sheep Trail   116 00
Duck Lake Cabin   30 00
Salmon River Camp-site   62 00
Miscellaneous  61 00
Total   ? 2,361 0O
Maintenance—
East River Cable Crossing   $ 35 00
Howser-Lardeau Telephone Line   41 00
Miscellaneous     76 00
Total   $     152 00
Peince Geoege.
Equipment—■
Three  cars     $ 1,954 00
One Elto outboard motor   171 00
Two new boats   110 00
One gasolene-speeder   485 00
Fire-fighting tools   1,739 00
Hand tank pumps  175 00
One hygro-thermograph and screen   163 00
Seven sling psychrometers   84 00
Total   S 4,881 00
Improvements—
Ten semi-portable tool-caches  $    119 00
Prince George Garage (proportionate payment)    500 00
Total   $    619 00
Maintenance—•
Miscellaneous   S      40 00 E 46 Department of Lands. 1925
Prince Rupert.
Equipment—■
Three Ford cars-  $ 1,959 00
Launch " Sycamore "  1,350 00
Fourteen hand tank pumps   ISO 00
Hose for fire-fighting pumps   283 00
Fire-fighting tools  1,183 00
Four boats and dinghies   329 00
New engine for " Euclataw "   4,388 00
One hygro-thermograph and screen  163 00
Four sling psychrometers   48 00
Total   $ 9,883 00
Improvements—
Francois Lake Boat-house   $    550 00
Endako Tool-cache   58 00
Topley Tool-cache   64 00
Walcott Tool-cache  65 00
Kitwanga Tool-cache   56 00
Total   $     793 00
Maintenance—
Miscellaneous     $      30 00
Vancouver.
Equipment-
One hygro-thermograph and screen   $    145 00
,   Twenty-one sling psychroineters  252 00
Ten Ford cars   6,036 00
Four bicycles   200 00
One Elto outboard motor   168 00
One Pacific Ross pump   332 00
Twenty hand-pumps   470 00
One  Star car   836 00
Seven gear-pumps   456 00
Auxiliary engine for Thurston Bay   980 00
Launch  "Check  Scaler"  3,100 00
Launch " Chestnut "   700 00
Launch  " Scaler "    6,500 00
Six dinghies   525 00
Fire-fighting hose,  etc  2,500 00
Fire-fighting equipment and tools   1,270' 00
Total   $24,470 00
Improvements—
Big-Little Blackwater Trail   $     139 00
Shawnigan Lake-San Juan River Trail   200 00
Nitinat-Cowichan Lake Trail   135 00
Alice Lake Trail   68 00
Cameron Lake Camp-site   112 00
Camp-sites and camp fireplaces   997 00
Carried forward   $ 1,651 00 15 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 47
Vancouvee—Continued.
Brought forward   $ 1,651 00
Improvements—Continued.
Mooring " Beatrice R."   17 00
Sanitary equipment, Thurston Bay Houses   760 00
Total   $ 2,428 00
Maintenance—
Myrtle Point Ranger Station and Mooring   $ 181 00
Beaver Creek Ranger Station  98 00
Squamish Ranger  Station    81 00
Thurston Bay Ranger Station   35 00
Cowichan Lake Boat-house   7 00
Lang Bay Tool-cache   35 00
Myrtle Point Telephone Line   29S 00
Haslam Lake Shelter  7 00
Total  $ 742 00
„    . . Vernon.
Equipment-
Five Ford cars   ? 3,165 00
Twelve hand tank pumps   156 00
Fire-fighting hose, etc  298 00
Fire-fighting tools   250 00
Three field telephone sets   ISO 00
One Evinrude pump   376 00
Miscellaneous  45 00
One hygro-thermograph and screen   163 00
Four sling psychrometers   48 00
Total   $ 4,681 00
Improvements—
B.X. Telephone Line   $ 124 00
Little White Mountain Telephone Line   63 00
Miscellaneous     16 00
Total   $ 203 00
Maintenance—
Mabel Lake Cabin   $ 42 00
B.X. Trail   21 00
Miscellaneous    53 00
Total  $ 116 00 E 48 Department of Lands. 1925
GRAZING.
General Range Conditions.
The forage-growth on the Crown ranges throughout the grazing country of the Province
north of the Railway Belt was excellent during the past season. Rainfall was abundant and
unusually evenly distributed, resulting in a very satisfactory hay-crop for the year. All live
stock came off the ranges in good condition at the close of the grazing season. The large hay-
crop for the year, together with surplus supplies due to- the two past winter seasons being very
mild, renders it possible for stockmen to feed well this winter with a view to marketing early
beef during 1925.
South of the Railway Belt, particularly in the Nicola District, where the grasshoppers
gave considerable trouble this season, range conditions were not so good on the untimbered
portions of the range. Throughout the balance of the southern ranges, however, conditions in
general can be said to have been satisfactory. The timber or midsummer ranges were all good
and were not affected by grasshoppers in territory where they were particularly bad, as they
infest chiefly the open, warmer areas.
Live-stock Prices.'
Live-stock prices have, in general, shown a satisfactory advance during the past year, and
even in the case of beef, the price of which on the hoof has been at a low point for some time.
There are indications of much better times for the grower who pays attention to uniformity
and quality and the marketing of his beef.
Better care must be given to the winter-feeding of beef throughout the range country. Good
winter condition in the cattle means maximum growth on the range, where practically all the
growth of the range animal is made. Growing condition at the opening of spring makes early
beef possible in districts from which such shipment can readily be made. Good condition
throughout the summer renders it possible to arrange for shipments at any time. Increased
attention must also be given shipping to avoid glutting the market, and if effective efforts are
expended along these lines beef prices will be satisfactory.
Authorization.
The grazing of the following numbers of cattle and horses and sheep and goats was authorized in the various established grazing districts:—
!-,. .„,„f. Cattle and Sheep and
Dlstrlct- Horses. Goats.
Cariboo     30,000 4,000
Cranbrook  2,500 10,000
Fort George   500                  	
Kamloops     4,000 1,500
Nelson  2,000 500
Prince Rupert   300                  	
Vancouver     200                  	
Vernon  (Nicola and Princeton)   15,000 5,000
Vernon  (Okanagan-Similkameen)    5,500 5,000
Totals       60,000 26,000
Permits for the following numbers of live stock have been covered by applications for the
season of 1924 to date, November 30th:—
Number of applications        295
Cattle and horses   40,292
Sheep and goats     4,270
The heavy slump of the past few years resulted in quite a cut in beef herds and the decrease
in sheep values drove most of the range sheepmen out of business. The restocking has, however,
begun and prices are excellent at this time for both wool and mutton, with every indication of
maintaining a high figure for a long time. Efforts of ranchers to again engage in the sheep
business are handicapped through a scarcity of breeding ewes in Canada and the continuance
of the embargo on shipments from the United States owing to the recent foot-and-mouth disease
epidemic there. 15 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 49
Applications were also received from 184 Indians, covering 2,136 horses and 1,077 cattle.
Efforts are being made to allot the Indians community ranges upon which their live stock can
be gathered for summer grazing. This is having a tendency to reduce friction on the range
owing to the disinclination of most of the range Indians to adopt progressive measures in cattle
and range control.
Approximately 3,000 head of milk cows and work-horses are using Crown range adjacent
to the settlements in the range country under free permit.
Range Improvements.
Great progress has been made in range-improvement work in co-operation with the permittees of the range during the past season. Preliminary discussion with the stockmen of each
range unit is providing for the most-needed improvements on each unit to build up the range
and to facilitate the handling of the stock.
The following summary covers both completed and incomplete projects and the figures are
indicative of the line being taken in this work by the stockmen:—
Completed Improvements.
Total receipts to date (December 31st, 1924)   $21,571 96
Total expenditures—
33 drift-fences     $12,163 92
46 mud-holes     4,432 52
8 stock-trails    1,108 50
8 water-developments     199 00
9 corrals     477 20
1 holding-ground    559 51
1 bridge    47 85
3 experimental reseeding   17 40
2 salt demonstrations   49 00
 $19,054 90
Balance, cash oil hand   $ 2,517 06
Partially Complete and Improvements under Way.
Drift-fences     14 Corrals     4
Mud-holes   24 Holding-ground   1
Stock-trails         4 Bridge  1
Water-developments      5
Burning and Reseeding on the Crown Ranges.
While the reseeding experiments are being carried along with the end in view of ascertaining whether or not some cultivated species of forage can be found which will be superior
to and which will replace the native vegetation on burns, there is little agitation from stockmen in the matter of burning over timber range. It is being noted that general burning is
not productive of good to the range, and that with the judicious placing of salt on even rough
timbered range cattle get a most satisfactory and even use of it, with benefit to both the cattle
and the overgrazed open ranges. The timbered ranges of British Columbia are superior to
any such ranges on the Pacific slope, and, as this is being realized, there is developing a keen
desire to conserve and use them properly.   The future welfare of the stock-ranches demands it.
Wild Horses.
During the past eight to ten years there has been no demand for light horses of the range-
horse type, with the result that an amazing increase in these animals has taken place. Between
the actual wild bands and those permitted to roam at large for years without attention by
their owners the range country to a great extent has become infested with these animals.
They are generally small, untractable, and usually worthless when captured.    They are doing E 50 Department of Lands. 1925
heavy damage to the range in particular during the early spring when they first come down
from the mountain meadows to the open range.
A bad feature is the extraordinary number of stallions among them. These animals do
not hesitate to break down pasture-fences and drive away the good mares from the ranches.
Very heavy losses have been occasioned the ranchers from this cause alone, for it is most
difficult for the horse-owners to recapture these animals after they get away with the wild
bands.
The situation is so bad in the Chilcotin District that the ranchers in seven divisions have
petitioned the Government Agent and have secured the appointment of seven men to destroy
these stallions during this winter. Through co-operative work with the Department it is
reasonably certain that a large number of the most vicious animals will be destroyed.
Round-up work carried on by the Department in the Okanagan and Similkameen country
has practically cleared those ranges of unbranded and wild horses. A sad phase of the
situation is the very noticeable number of old and crippled horses on the range. Undoubtedly
they suffer very much, particularly during long winter periods and periods of deep snowfall.
It would be merciful to destroy them.
The round-ups have resulted in the capture of many lost horses and the owners have
been enabled to recover animals which otherwise it would not pay them to hunt for.
General.
The future of the range country in the matter of live-stock production is excellent. Great
interest has developed among sheepmen from the other Provinces and from the United States
regarding the opportunities available in British Columbia to engage in a successful range-
sheep business.
Many experienced men have been looking over the available and suitable ranching properties and one firm has already become established in the  Province.
Undoubtedly British Columbia can produce the best wool and mutton in Western America,
and while there may never be many very large range outfits operating, there will take place
a most successful development in the farm and the " one-band" range flock throughout all
parts of the Province. The locations of over 1,000 small flocks in British Columbia to-day
indicates that every portion of the Province is suited to the production of superior mutton
and wool.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Chahles F.   Banfield,  Printer to  the  King's  Most  Excellent Majesty.
1925. 15 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 13
0 H o-nsfefly Cru I se 19Z3
[£) OolrCoriwooci Cruii
®   -Swift:   River  Crui
©   Powei?  Sites
S-c ale.

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