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FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF THE WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION BOARD OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR THE YEAR… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1918

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 FIRST ANNUAL REPORT
OF   THE
WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION BOARD
OF the
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31st
1917
PRINTED by
AUTHORITY  OF  THE  LEGISLATIVE   ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by William H. Ciillikt, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1918.  To His Honour Sir Frank Still-man Barnard, K.C.M.G.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The First Annual Report  of the Workmen's  Compensation  Board  of  this
Province is herewith respectfully submitted.
JOHN OLIVER,
Premier.
Premier's Office,
March, 1918. The Workmen's Compensation Board,
Vancouver, B.C., March. 11th, 1918.
The Honourable John Oliver, Premier,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C.
Dear Sir,—In pursuance of section 50 of the " Workmen's Compensation Act"
we enclose herewith Annual Report. Our Board decided that, in addition to the
ordinary statement of the transactions of the Board, it would be advisable in the
first report to give a general explanation of the different features of the Act, so
that it may act along educational lines.
We are,
Yours very truly,
E. &. H. WINN,
Chairman. REPORT OF WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION BOARD.
To the Lieutenant-Governor in Council,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The " Workmen's Compensation Act," being chapter 77, Statutes of 1916, requires that
annually, on or before the 1st day of March, the Workmen's Compensation Board shall make a
report of its transactions during the next preceding calendar year.    In accordance, therefore,
with the requirements of that Act, this report is made.    It contains:—
(a.)  Organization :
(6.)  A brief outline of what led up to workmen's compensation legislation:
(c.)  Methods adopted and work performed  by the subdivisions  of the organization,
which comprises:—
(1.) Assessments and audits:
(2.)  Claims:
(3.)  Medical division:
(4.)  Accident-prevention:
(5.)  Statistical.
(a.)  ORGANIZATION.
The members of the Board are: E. S. H. Winn, Chairman, appointed for ten years; Parker
Williams, Commissioner, appointed for nine years; and Hugh B. Gilmour, Commissioner,
appointed for eight years. The Board held its first meeting on the Sth day of January, 1917,
and effected a partial organization. It should be remembered that the Act came into operation
on the 1st day of January, 1917. The Commissioners had no previous experience in this class
of work, and were unacquainted with each other. The general effect was that the members
of the Board started on this immense work some few days after the Act had actually come into
operation. One can therefore quite understand the care that must be exercised in the creating
of precedents for the years to come. It was most necessary that the foundation should be carefully laid. The members realized the work that had to be -done and that a great amount of the
Board's future success would depend upon the first year's work. With what amount of success
this has been accomplished you may have already formed an opinion.
The Board has been confronted with the task of establishing immediately a complex system
of insurance and medical aid, unique in its general plan, broad in its scope, and marking an
innovation amongst the laws of its kind, for compensation insurance is new on this continent,
no law having been in operation longer than five or six years, and no two compensation laws in
the forty-two on the continent where they obtain being the same.
The system was unique, inasmuch as it was the only law of its kind in force at the time
that carried with it unlimited medical aid. It is broad in scope, because as of January 1st, 1917,
the compulsory features of the Statute became effective, whereby the entire accident business
of the industries covered by the Act would fall upon the Board, to be handled equitably,
accurately, promptly, and economically.
The background against which the law is operative includes an annual pay-roll of approximately $100,000,000, approximately 75,000 workmen, about 6,000 employing firms, 400 doctors,
2,000 nurses, 200 dentists, 150 druggists, ambulance companies or transportation concerns,
including automobile services, teaming, launches—in fact, every kind of transportation facility
that was necessary to bring injured workmen to the nearest medical practitioner. These were
affected directly, and yet the public as a whole was to be affected almost as vitally, for the
establishment of the new law meant a vast change in public policy in the treatment of the least
risk from industrial accidents.
The Board had therefore to face the problem of making effective in the most practical manner
this new principle which had been embodied in the laws of the Province; to do so meant much
pioneer work. K 6 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1918
Education.
The Board realized that the bringing into effect of the provisions of the present Act was
to overturn the long-established habits of employers, workmen, doctors, and lawyers—a truly
revolutionary proceeding. It meant the abandonment of the Courts as an institution for
awarding damages for personal injury by accident, as well as the elimination of the legal
profession.
The Board started a Province-wide educational campaign. The members of the Board, as
a body, in pairs, or singly, addressed labour bodies, commercial organizations, boards of trade,
medical associations, fraternal organizations, and social gatherings, delivering several hundred
addresses during the year, explaining the provisions of the law and soliciting co-operation from
these bodies as well as the public. The Act when explained appeals strongly to all on economic
as well as humanitarian grounds.
Many thousand circular letters were addressed to those affected and many thousand answers
to personal inquiries were made. Many difficulties were solved by personal contact with those
affected. Interviews with labour unions and committees thereof established a direct communication with the Board, and provided the elimination of the necessity of the workmen retaining the
services of others to assist them in getting their difficulties before us. (A very great many of
the difficulties of the first six months of operation have by this course been overcome.)
As the workmen, the employers, and medical men become conversant with the Act and
its limitations, then the load of the Board will be correspondingly reduced. Claimants are
encouraged to present their complaints or their requests direct to the Board, and so far as we
are aware no application for information or request for assistance has been denied.
We have been urging upon the employer the necessity of instructing his foreman or other
proper heads of their different departments to get the employees to report any accident to him,
no matter how trivial it may be, that may occur during the day; and, further, to make it
imperative that the accident be reported on the day upon which it happens. One of the great
difficulties with which we have been confronted is in the securing of reports of accidents promptly
from the employers. Such delay imposes a great volume of unnecessary work on the staff of
the Board in continually making requests for these reports. This is especially true in the case
where employees are not familiar with the requirements of the law, and therefore fail to report
accidents immediately to the employer; the employers quite frequently taking the position with
the Board that inasmuch as the employee has failed to report the accident they have no
knowledge of it. Oftentimes, too, where the injury in question is seemingly trivial, the employer
thinks no more about it, and accordingly dismisses the incident from his mind until requested
for a report from the Board some two or three weeks later. When such a request is received he
feels that he has been imposed upon by both the workman and the Board.
Many injuries throughout the year appear at the time of their happening to be most trivial,
but later on have developed into a serious condition, and in two cases have resulted in the death
of the workman. It is therefore deemed imperative that every employer carefully record every
injury reported, and that the workman report every injury and the manner in which it occurred,
as well as the witnesses of the accident. When this practice is adopted many seeming difficulties
will immediately disappear.
In case of an accident to a workman in an employment coming within the Act it is the duty
of the employer within three days after its occurrence to report the same in writing to the Board.
The failure of the employer to so report may subject him to a substantial penalty.
In every case of an injury to a workman by an accident in the industries within the Act it
is the duty of that workman or, in the case of his death, the duty of the dependents, as soon as
practicable after the happening of the accident, to give notice thereof to the employer. The
notice is to be in writing, and should show the name and address of the workman and state in
ordinary language the nature and cause of the injury, the time when and place where the accident
occurred. This notice may be served upon the employer by leaving the same with him or his
agents, or at his place of business where the accident occurred, or by sending it by registered
mail addressed to him at his last-known residence or place of business. The failure of the
workman to give notice of his accident, unless excused by the Board, may be a bar to his claim
for compensation.
Forms supplied by the Board that are required to be filled out by the workman, the employer,
and the doctor, where one has been in attendance, can be obtained from all Government Agents, 8 Geo. 5 Annual Report.
employers, and all physicians. Forms have also been supplied to the trades unions. When the
proper claim forms have been completed in accordance with the requirements, the Board thereupon proceeds to deal with the claim and awards payment or takes such other action as may
appear proper.
The Board desires to bear public testimony to the character of the services rendered by its
various members of the staff. There was but one employee on the staff who had had previous
experience in this class of work. The prescribed working-day seems to have been forgotten
entirely, and the members of the staff voluntarily remained at work long after hours, or overtime at night, during Saturday half-holiday, and other holidays. There has been prevalent, also,
a spirit of desire to understand the law and the practices of the Department in its various
activities, so that there has developed a flexibility which enables a given member of the staff
on short notice to undertake other than his or her usual work.
In the selection of the staff the Board exercised the greatest care, and were actuated only
by the desire to secure the highest efficiency.
At the outset a study of conditions revealed the necessity of dividing the work and placing
it under certain divisions having to do with assessments and audits, claims, medical, accident-
prevention, and statistical.
(6.)  A BRIEF OUTLINE OF WHAT LED UP TO WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION
LEGISLATION.
A brief outline of what led up to workmen's compensation legislation might be interesting
as a proper conception of the system that formerly prevailed, and is necessary to a thorough
understanding of the theory of workmen's compensation. In discussing the subject this Board
assumes that you are familiar with the principles applicable to those sustaining the relation to
each other of employer and workman, and we will therefore make only such reference to common
and statutory law on the subject of employers' liability as seems to be imperative.
The principle of systematic compensation for losses due to industrial accident has been
known in Europe for over a century, the earliest examples being found in the mining industries.
As these industries were the first to be operated on a large scale with large numbers of employees
whose lives and safety depended on the care and skill of the manager and of the fellow-workmen,
and in addition had a high danger rate, it was but natural that attempts should be made to
provide in a definite manner for the relief of the distress of employees caused by accidental
injuries or other physical disability. The European example has been followed by practically
all the civilized nations of the world.
At the present time thirty-seven States, three Territories, and four Canadian Provinces have
adopted various forms of " Workmen's Compensation Acts."
At the time of the adoption of the common-law rules of liability, industrial conditions
radically differed from those which prevail to-day. The employer employed comparatively few
workmen, with whom in the performance of their work he was brought into intimate association and was able to exercise a supervising care and control. He was acquainted with the habits
and characteristics of each of his employees; the employees knew the employer personally
in the same way, and, moreover, were brought into such close relationship with one another
that their habits and peculiarities were mutually known and understood. The business carried
on was small in extent; the appliances which were used in the work consisted in the main
of hand-tools; the power, when any was used, was simple in character, afforded by the utilization of horses or of water-power applied directly to the machinery, which was neither
complicated nor particularly dangerous in character. Under these conditions the rules of the
common law originated.
The injured workman could recover from the employer only by showing that he was guilty
of negligence; that is, that in the given case he has failed to exercise a proper degree of care
and that the injury had resulted therefrom. From time to time in the development of the law
qualifications to the liability of the employer for negligence were introduced. It was held that,
notwithstanding the fault of the employer, if the employee himself had likewise been guilty of
negligence contributing proximately to his injury he could not recover; that he assumed the
natural and ordinary risks and perils incident to the performance of his services, and he was
denied the right of recovery whenever the injury was occasioned by defects in appliances or
premises with or upon which he worked with knowledge thereof, actual or imputed.    It was K 8 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1918
further held that where the injury was occasioned by the negligence of a fellow-servant he could
not recover. These various substantive rules and defences were not unjust or unreasonable
when applied to the conditions prevailing at the time of their adoption, but they have come to
be recognized, not only in this country, but all over the civilized world, as no longer justly
applicable to modern industrial conditions.
In the industries to-day, often thousands of men are employed in the service of a single
employer; the appliances with which they do their work consist in the main of more or less
complex machinery, kept in motion, and often in highly rapid motion, by the elemental forces
of steam and electricity. This machinery so propelled is not always under the immediate
control of the workman who uses it, but its operation is governed by other workmen at more
or less remote points. These and other changed conditions have so impressed intelligent observers
in this country that attempts have been made to modify the rules of the common law to meet
them, and from time to time legislation has been adopted, sometimes abrogating an existing
rule and sometimes altering it, in accordance with the opinions of the various legislative bodies
which have dealt with the question. Thus the doctrine of contributory negligence has in some
Provinces and States been so changed as to allow recovery where the negligence of the workman
is slight as compared with that of the employer. The doctrine of assumption of risk has been
so altered as to permit recovery where the defects, although known to the workman, consist in
the absence of safety appliances, etc., prescribed -by law. The doctrine of fellow-servant negligence has been modified by the introduction of the separate department and the superior-servant
rule. Statutes have been passed imposing specific duties upon the employer having for their
object the promotion of the safety of his workman and making him liable to workmen sustaining
injury because of their non-performance. These attempts and others which might be enumerated
all indicate a clear recognition on the part of Legislatures and Courts that the common-law
system of employers' liability for negligence, with its various controlling defences, can no longer
be justly applied to modern industrial conditions.
Not only has this been the case in our own country, but the same tendency is manifest in
the legislation of nearly every civilized country in the world. Most of these countries have gone
far beyond Canada and the United States in the direction of remedial legislation. England and
her colonies and the various countries in Europe, with few exceptions, have adopted laws which
either expressly or in effect abrogate the laws of liability for fault, and substitute the law of
compensation under which the injured workman, or, in case of his death as the result of
accident in the course of his employment, his dependents, receive certain definite compensation
proportioned in various ways to the wages paid at the time of or during a prescribed period
before the accident.
The general theory of workmen's compensation is that industry should bear the loss of life
and limb incurred in the production of its finished product, just as it bears the expense of
replacing worn-out and broken machinery; and that for every injury incurred in the course
of employment some fixed amount should be provided in the way of compensation to the person
incurring the injury, or to his dependents in case of his death; and this without regard to the
question of fault or negligence of the employee, because many injuries or deaths are bound to
occur under modern conditions, even when the utmost care is exercised by both the employer
and the employee. The practical application of the doctrine involves a virtual abandonment
of the common-law principles of employers' liability and the many statutory enactments commonly known as " Employers' Liability Acts," thus giving every employee injured in the course
of employment the right to secure something in the way of compensation for his injury, and as
soon as possible after he sustains his injury and at a minimum of expense.
The system as we now have it is better for the employee, because, while the amount of
compensation is limited and fixed in amount, it is certain, and compensation is payable for every
injury and for every death where persons are left wholly or partially dependent upon the deceased
employee.
It is better for society at large, because under its operation a vast sum of money is saved
that was expended under the old system in the way of law costs, Court costs, jury- and witness
fees, and for caring for those who had been incapacitated on account of injuries and as a result
thereof become public charges.
The new plan is definitely superior to the old plan, in that under its operations the settlement of disputes growing out of personal injuries is taken entirely out of the realm of private 8 Geo. 5 Annual Report. K 9
controversy. No longer is the employer arrayed against his injured or the dependents of his
killed employees in legal combat, in which the employer is seeking to escape all liability and
the employee or his dependents seeking the largest possible judgment that can be obtained, but
the employer and his employees have a common interest in seeing that those entitled to compensation receive precisely the amount due them under the provisions of the law.
As our Act is drawn it gives the Board the monopoly of furnishing workmen's compensation
insurance, whereas some other nicts permit insurance companies to engage in the so-called
" business" of writing workmen's compensation insurance policies. The opinion is rapidly
growing in effect that private interests should not be permitted to come between the employer
and the injured employee and conduct a business for profit, which profit must come from the
misery and distress of human beings. It is not a legitimate business, never has been, and can
never be made such. It would not be considered a legitimate business proposition for private
corporations to engage in the business of " policing " our cities and making prosecutions for the
violation of laws. That is a matter that is very properly considered one of the functions of
good government; so is the maintenance of a free public-school system, and we believe that the
administration of the " Workmen's Compensation Act" by which the injuries of employees of
our Province are cared for is as much a function of good government as the policing of our cities
or the conduct of our free public schools. If, then, the administration of such a law is a
function of good government, it cannot be considered a legitimate field for business. It has
several times been urged by interested parties that there should be a competition in the business
of furnishing workmen's compensation insurance and that the Province is not justified in creating
a monopoly. The answer, however, is, as before stated, that it is not a " business" but a
governmental function; and even granting it is a legitimate field for business, the Province has
not made a business proposition of it. The Board is simply acting as the administering agent
of a fund made up from contributions from all the employers of the Province; for the Board
seeks to make no profit, but pays out of its treasury in the form of compensation every cent
that is paid into the treasury by employers, less the cost of administration.
(c.)  METHODS ADOPTED AND WORK PERFORMED BY THE SUBDIVISIONS OF THE
ORGANIZATION.
(1.)  Assessments and Audits.
The moneys from which compensation and administration expenses are paid is received
from the employers by means of assessment upon their pay-roll. Basic rates are adopted in
accordance with what is believed to be the hazard in the particular industry. Rates as adopted
in this Province have been taken mainly from the experience of other Boards where like
conditions obtain. As time goes on, however, our Statistical Department will furnish us with
a basis upon which to settle the rates.
The Basic Rate and its Relation to Actual Cost.
The basic rate of assessment on pay-rolls for the different kinds of work is not to be
regarded as indicating the true cost to the employers in the various industries. The cost in any
year in each of the industries depends directly upon the amounts that have to be paid on account
of the accidents which have occurred in each of the several classes, and, as nearly as can be
estimated, depends upon the probable cost in each of the different kinds of work listed in each
of the classes.
Fortunately it is provided in the Act that the assessment each year should be payable in
instalments, as the needs of each class should require, and that so long as the funds to the
credit of any class were sufficient no further instalment should be required, and that it might
be deferred or altogether omitted.
By this means any efforts of employers which result in prevention of accidents result
immediately and automatically in a lessening of the drain upon the funds of the class in which
their industry is listed, and therefore makes it just so much the longer before it will be necessary
to replenish the class fund by paying another instalment.
Each instalment is collected at the basic rate on only one quarter of the pay-roll, and when
the proceeds are nearly exhausted, another instalment is collected on another quarter of the
pay-roll.    If only two instalments prove to be sufficient for the year, as was the case during K 10 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1918
1917 in most of the classes, the other two instalments are omitted, thus making the true cost
for the year in such classes only one-half of the basic rate, as that rate was collected on only
two-quarters, or one-half, of the actual pay-roll. Where, for example, the basic rate, as in the
case of sawmills, is 2.20 per cent., and but two calls each of a quarter of this rate was called,
the effect was that the cost to the employer in that industry was but 1.10 per cent.
In only one class last year—namely, in Class 3, in which the operation of coal-mines was
listed—was it necessary to collect all four instalments. The collection of the full basic rate
from the employers in this class last year was directly attributable to the sad disaster at Fernie,
in which thirty-four coal-miners lost their lives.
In Class 2, in which the lighter forms of manufacture of wood are listed, and in Class 9,
which includes navigation, stevedoring, and wharf operation, it was necessary to collect three
instalments, owing to serious accidents which occurred in the work of these classes. In most
of the other classes two instalments were sufficient to pay the losses during the year and they
have provided a satisfactory working balance, which has deferred the time when it will be
necessary to require the first instalment for the present year.
Where two or more kinds of industry are listed in the same class, it is important that the
basic rates on each kind of work should be in proportion to the probable hazard in the respective
industry. So long as the basic rates for the different kinds of industry listed in any given class
fairly correspond to the different probable hazard of the industries, the amount of the basic
rate is not of especial importance to any employer, but the question that is of importance is on
how many quarters of his pay-roll is the basic rate to be collected. That question, as already
shown, depends directly on the care which is used to prevent accidents, and this in very large
measure depends upon the employers themselves, who by using the greatest possible care to
prevent accidents can very materially reduce the number of instalments that it will be necessary
for them to pay in any year.
Every employer is required, when commencing business, to furnish to the Board an estimate
of the probable amount of the pay-roll of each of his industries, together with any additional
information that may be required. This estimated pay-roll is required by the Board to be sent
in prior to the commencement of operation. Failure on the part of an employer to do this
means that that employer is liable to a substantial penalty, as well as having charged up to him
the full amount of the capitalized value of the compensation payable in respect of any accident
to a workman in his employ which happens during the period of default.
In the event of an employer being in default of the payment of assessment, the Board has
authority to issue a certificate stating that the assessment was made, the amount remaining
unpaid on account of it, the person by whom it is payable, and such certificate, when filed with
the District Registrar of the Supreme Court or with the Registrar of any County Court, becomes
an order of that Court and may be enforced in the same manner as a judgment of the Court.
This procedure, however, has been invoked in a very few cases.
For the purpose of pay-roll audits a number of field auditors have been appointed. These
auditors call upon employers and inspect and audit their pay-rolls. It is the intention of the
Board that the pay-roll of every employer is inspected and audited at least once a year.
It is requested that all the employers co-operate with the Board in obtaining from time to
time the names of those firms or individuals commencing business and report them, because it
means that the greater number of contributors in a class the less is the cost to the individual
operator. We seek by means of our auditors and with the co-operation of those already in
business to get the names of all new persons or firms starting business.
The total amount of -assessments received from the industries on account of the 1917
assessment, together with the interest on the Board cash balances, amounts to $939,869.97. Compensation claims paid out for 1917 accidents amount to $358,227.37. There has been set aside
for reserve to secure pensions the sum of $351,777.24. The balance is retained for the purpose
of paying pensions to dependents whose claims have not yet been satisfactorily proved, and for
the payment of permanent partial disability cases not yet surgically cured, etc. There has been
collected for the Medical Aid Fund, wherewith to supply the medical-aid features of the Act,
including interest on bank balances, the sum of" $93,094.92, and there has been disbursed of this
amount to physicians, hospitals, etc., the sum of $83,189.54. The cost of administration for the
year 1917, which includes salaries, travelling expenses of the Board auditors, as well as the
members of the Board, printing, supplies, postage, etc., investigation, accident-prevention, and 8 Geo. 5 Annual Report. K 11
permanent equipment, was $57,830.07. Of this amount, $9,614.68 is for permanent equipment.
The cost of administration, including permanent equipment, for 1917 is 5.977 per cent. Towards
the administration expenses the Government of the Province paid the sum of $10,000, together
with certain printing, supplies, and office space, so that the actual cost to the industries of
administration, including permanent equipment, amounts to 4.943 per cent of the moneys
collected from assessments.
Investments.
The Board has made the following investments to secure pensions : $25,000 Victory Loan
bonds, bearing interest at 5% per cent., for which was paid $24,776.99; $300,000 worth of
British Columbia Provincial Government bonds, bearing 5 per cent, interest, for which was
paid $261,842.05.    This latter investment will net the Board 6% per cent.
(2.) Claims.
The first work performed by the Board was the organizing of the Claims Department, so
that injured workmen would be in a position to receive their compensation with as little delay
as possible. The equitable and prompt handling of claims is one of the most important functions
of the Board, and to a very great extent the law itself, and its administration will be judged by
the result in handling claims. The end to be obtained must be simplicity, promptness, accuracy,
justice, and a broad interpretation of the Act. These requirements we have conscientiously
endeavoured to carry out.
The educational campaign referred to in the early part of this report has done much
towards assisting prompt adjustment of workmen's claims, and, in order to further assist, the
Board has had placards placed in each industrial plant in the Province pointing out to the
employee the necessary things to be done in order to secure prompt payment of compensation.
The workmen were requested, in accordance with the Act's requirements, to forthwith notify their
employers in writing immediately after the accident, no matter how trivial that accident might
he, and in such notice to give the time, place, and nature of the injury. If the injury was
sufficiently severe as to require medical attention, then the workmen are requested to see their
physician immediately, and upon seeing him to see to it that that physician promptly sends in
his report to the Board. The workman is not permitted to change physicians without first
receiving the consent of the Board. It is also pointed out that the attending physioian is
required by law to assist the workman in completing his claim form and without charge to the
workman, it being necessary on the part of the workman to carry out the physician's
requirements.
Some considerable difficulty has been met with by reason of a general lack of understanding
as to the limitations of the Act. Compensation can only be paid for cases of personal injury by
accident arising out of and in the course of the workman's employment, together with certain
industrial diseases as specified in the Act, or such other industrial diseases as the Board may add.
The Board after very careful investigation and consideration have added to the industrial
diseases already specified in the Act those of sulphur poisoning, trinitro-toluene poisoning, and
cedar poisoning.
The workman is urged to sign his name plainly and clearly on all papers and to always
sign it in the same way. In the event of any change in the address, to promptly notify the
Board, because otherwise all communications would be addressed to him at the address given in
his claim for compensation. If at any time information is required as to the interpretation
of the Act or the position of the workman's claim, the Board is prepared to promptly and
courteously answer same.
Scheme of Compensation.
Compensation is payable where in any industry within the scope of the Act personal injury
by accident arising out of and in the course of employment is caused to a workman, and its
being sufficient to disable the workman for a longer period than three days. The workman is
entitled to medical treatment for all injuries so received, no matter how trivial.
If an injury is attributable solely to the serious and wilful misconduct of the workman, no
compensation is payable unless the injury results in death or serious and permanent disablement.
Certain industrial diseases specifically mentioned in the Schedule to the Act, as well as such K 12 Workmen's Compensation Board'. 1918
others as may be added by the Board, are treated as accidents and therefore compensable. The
old defences of assumption of risk, negligence of fellow-workman, and contributory negligence
on the part of the workman are no longer applicable.
The provisions of the Act respecting compensation are in lieu of all rights of action against
an employer to which a workman or his dependents are entitled, either at common law or any
Statute.
The compensation payable: (a.) In the case of total permanent disability is a periodical
payment to the injured workman of 55 per cent, of his average earnings. The minimum shall
not be less than $5 per week. (6.) In case of permanent partial disability the compensation is
a periodical payment to the injured workman of 55 per cent, of his lost earnings, (c.) In case
of facial disfigurement, impairment of earning capacity may be recognized, and a lump sum
allowed in compensation, (d.) In the case of temporary total disability the compensation shall
be that as outlined in (a), (e.) In the case of temporary partial disability the compensation
shall be that as is outlined in (6).
The total number of accidents reported up to December 31st, 1917, were 12,684. Of this
number, 217 resulted in death; 12,267 of these were adjusted or otherwise disposed of during
the year. The balance of 1,417 are oases that came in during the month of December and where
the reports were not all in or were being investigated prior to adjustment. There are always
from 1,1*00 to 1,300 accident cases that cannot be adjusted until the reports are in or the necessary
time elapses in which to entitle the workman to payment. The average number of accidents per
month is 1,140. During the past six months this average has slightly increased, due to the fact
that the workmen are becoming more conversant with the Act, and therefore are now making
claims where in the past they said nothing.
During the past six months this Board has been adjusting claims where all information is in
within seven days after the file is complete.    This, we believe, is a record in prompt adjustment.
Where death results from the injury, the necessary expenses for the burial of the workman,
not exceeding the sum of $75, is allowed. If the accident results in death and the workman
leaves (a-) a widow but no children, the widow is entitled during life or widowhood to a payment
of $20 a month.
If the deceased workman leaves (b) a widow and children, the payment to the widow is $20
a month and $5 for each child under sixteen and each invalid child over that age, but not
exceeding $40 in all.
If the deceased workman leaves(c) children only, the payment is $10 a month for each child
under sixteen and each invalid over that age, but not to exceed $40 in all.
(d.) Where the dependents are parents, or other than the above mentioned, then a sum
reasonably proportionate to the pecuniary loss of such dependents shall be paid, but not
exceeding $20 per month to the parent or parents, and not exceeding on the whole $30 a month.
(e.) In any case covered by the above referred to (a) or (c), if the deceased workman
leaves a parent or parents who are dependents, an award may be made to the parents in an
amount not exceeding $20 per month, and not exceeding, with the compensation otherwise payable
under the preceding paragraphs hereof, $40 per month.
Where a widow marries again the periodical payment ceases on her marriage, but she is
entitled to a lump sum equal to the monthly payments for two years.
An important feature of the compensation under the Act is that it is payable periodically
rather than in a lump sum, and as a rule continues during disability or during life, as the case
may be.
Mr. Justice Meredith, in making his final report to the Ontario Legislature on the proposed
" Ontario Workmen's Compensation Act," says as follows:—■
" The relief should be as far as practicable by way of substitution for the wages of which the
injured workman and his dependents are deprived by the injury. It should as a rule be periodical
and not in a lump sum..
" The consensus of opinion amongst authorities on workmen's compensation is in favour
of this principle. Wage-workers are, as a class, unaccustomed to the handling of large sums
of money, and where compensation is paid in lump sums it is liable to be dissipated through
extravagance or improvident investment. Experience in the United States and under the present
English Act has shown also that where compensation is paid in lump sums a much larger
proportion is consumed in legal expenses than would be under a system of periodical payments. 8 Geo. 5 Annual Report. K 13
The prospect of a lump-sum payment as the probable result of an accident is also a larger
inducement to self - inflicted injury than the periodical payment of a proportion of wages.
Experience has, in fact, shown that most of the proven cases of self-injury have been occasioned
by the need or desire for an immediate sum not available by way of wages. It has been urged
also that the payment of the lump sum creates an inducement for the workman to live in
idleness while his funds last instead of going back to work and earning what he can. Finally,
except in the case of the death of an injured workman, it is impossible to estimate accurately
the extent of the injury. The fixing of compensation by arbitrary assessment on the basis of
an anticipated period of incapacity leaves room for the danger that the period has been underestimated, and the danger equally to be guarded against that it has been overestimated. Both
these difficulties are obviated by a system of periodical payments. Even the English Act
provides for periodical payments in certain cases. Where injuries result in disablement the
compensation is in the form of weekly payments on the basis of half the impairment of the
earning capacity. Provision is made, however, for the commutation of these weekly payments,
and as a -matter of fact they are in most cases commuted. This, of course, nullifies to a large
extent the intention of the Act, but some provision for commutation is almost indispensable in
an individual liability system, since the obligation of paying pensions for a period of years
should create an intolerable burden for most employers and add to the insecurity of the workman. This latter feature was recognized in England by making provision for the purchase of
Government annuities in commutation of periodical compensation payments, which provision
in itself constitutes the embryo of a state-insurance system", and the inclusion of the principle
of periodical payments even in its attenuated form in the English Act shows how far the English
Act has departed from the 'wergeld' theory, under which the damages payable for injuries
were regarded as commutation of the retribution which the injured person or his family was
considered entitled to mete out to the injurer."
Where an impairment of earning capacity does not exceed 10 per cent, the Board may in
its discretion fix the compensation in a lump sum. In the case of death or a permanent partial
disability or permanent total disability, upon the application of the workman or his dependents,
and at an agreed amount, the Board may fix a lump sum by way of compensation.
Compensation payments are not assignable, nor are they attachable. All questions as to
the right for compensation, and the amount thereof, is determined by the Board instead of in
the Courts. If any party feels aggrieved by reason of any award, the Board is always willing
to reopen and hear any additional evidence that may be produced, so that in the end justice may
be obtained.
The statement most generally used by the members of the Board in advising those affected
is " that in so far as we are concerned a case is never closed." This course has met with
universal approval and some have availed themselves of the opportunity so held out.
We have held many hearings, where the parties have had an opportunity of personally
appearing before the Board. These hearings may be described as a people's court, in which
every claimant is his own advocate. Cases of distress are frequently paid on the day of the
hearing. Where claims are payable monthly and the injured workman's family is in distress,
and it is brought to. the attention of the Board, an advance is immediately made on account of
compensation.    This is considered a duty, although it involves much extra work.
(3.) Medical Division.
In order to make a success of the carrying-out of the terms of the Act it was essential to
secure the hearty co-operation and patient service of the medical profession. The filling-out and
the forwarding of reports under our Act is performed cheerfully by 95 per cent, of the physicians
in accident, cases, and the Board will do what it can to see that such physicians are paid
reasonably for their work, not for making out the reports, but for the professional services
rendered injured workmen. The attending physician is the eyes and ears of the Board, the
expert on the ground, and the workmen must rely largely upon his knowledge and record of
the cases for adequate compensation.
The Board early recognized the absolute necessity of a medical fee tariff, inasmuch as the
different medical men placed a considerable difference in value on like services rendered. A
tariff was finally agreed to on June 15th, 1917, and since that time very few difficulties have
arisen in the adjustment of medical fees. K 14 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1918
The medical men throughout the Province are required to furnish from time to time such
reports of the injury as may be required by the Board regulations. They are also required to
give all reasonable and necessary information, advice, and assistance to the injured workman
and his dependents in making application for compensation and in furnishing in connection
therewith such certificates and proofs as may be required by the Board without charge to the
workman. All medical men, therefore, throughout the Province have been supplied with the
necessary workman's claim forms.
The medical department branch deals with all medical, surgical, and hospital treatment, the
supplying of transportation, nursing, medicines, crutches, and apparatus, including artificial
members, as may be required by the injured workman. It will therefore be seen that this
department deals with all medical men, druggists, dentists, all transportation concerns of every
nature and kind, artificial-limb houses, etc.
In the event of a workman being injured the first effort made is to get him to the nearest
place where medical treatment can be given, and the result is that every sort of conveyance is
brought into action. Some of those who supply these conveyances and other Board requirements
are inclined to be reasonable, whereas others are extremely unreasonable. The Board is generally
looked upon as a Government institution and that they should therefore compensate in a larger
amount than would be compensated by an ordinary individual. It is at times extremely hard in
the settlement of transportation and other charges to arrive at a fair basis of payment.
A workman is entitled under this Act to the very best treatment available. He is entitled
to just as good medical and hospital treatment as can be supplied to the richest man in the land.
It is necessary, immediately a workman is injured, that he obtain medical assistance if the same
is at all available, and either the Board or a medical plan approved by the Board pays for that
treatment.
There are two means by which the medical aid referred to in the Act may be provided—
namely, by the workman coming directly under the Board, in which case the sum of 1 cent per
day or part of day is retained from the wages of the workman. In the case of such contribution
the workman is entitled to all medical, surgical, and hospital treatment referred to heretofore,
and in addition has the right to select his own physician, the discretion of the selecting of a
physician being entirely vested in the workman.
The other method is by means of an approved plan. Any plan which provides for medical
aid to the workman, and which is in the opinion of the Board found on the whole to be not
less efficient in the interest of both the employer and the general body of workmen than the
provision for medical aid heretofore referred to, may be approved by the Board. This plan
must be sufficient in itself to provide all those things which the Board would had they the direct
handling of it.
It has been the practice of the Board to not approve any plan where there are a number of
physicians available. To do otherwise would mean the interference with the selective right of a
physician by the workman.
During the year this Department has in all cases insisted on the strict carrying-out of the
" Ambulance Act." This Act provides that every employer of labour directly or indirectly operating any mine, camp, or construction-work or industries employing more than thirty persons,
and being located more than six miles from the office of a medical practitioner, is at all times
required to maintain in or about such industry or work at least one person possessing a certificate
of competency to render first aid to the injured. The industry is also required to supply a good
and sufficient ambulance box or boxes. The carrying-out of such an Act means that the different
industries now have on their place a first-aid man, together with a first-aid kit.
Back Injuries.
These have a bad reputation. The workman quite properly looks at them with apprehension.
Under conditions prior to the coming into effect of this Act, the employers and insurance companies looked upon this class of injury with doubt, the medical practitioner with suspicion, the
lawyer with uncertainty, and the Court with as open a mind as possible under the circumstances.
This class of case creates one of our chief difficulties. The workman is depressed by the fear
of permanent disablement, the slow process of his illness, and the natural effects through enforced
idleness.   Many surgeons of the very best standing state that a good many alleged sprained-back 8 Geo. 5 Annual Report. K 15
conditions are undoubtedly due to rheumatism.    From a perusal of the reports of other Boards
it would appear that they have had a similar experience.
The Board is puzzled by conflicting and often contradictory reports of the surgeons and
suffer from lack of authoritative opinion in medical literature. It is only by a most careful
examination of the evidence in the file of each particular case that one is able to give even an
approximate opinion as to whether or not the workman is suffering personal injury by accident.
Hernias.
These present another difficulty of real magnitude.    Eminent medical authorities seem to
agree that hernia may, though very rarely, be due to a sudden strain.    Our Board compensates
for hernias where it can be shown that the same were caused by accident.
(4.)  Accident-prevention.
The primary purpose of workmen's compensation legislation should be to prevent injuries
to workmen. All realize that no sum of money can compensate a widow and orphans for the
loss of a husband and father. It is therefore much better to prevent accidents, retaining the
earning power of the workman, than to have the accident occur and also loss of earning power
ensue with the resulting loss to the community. Compensation is at the best a poor exchange
for the loss of a limb, and the mere monetary award can never compensate a workman for a
lifelong disability. Accident-prevention is therefore as desirable from an economic view-point
as from the humanitarian side.
To evolve a proper accident-prevention organization it has been the experience of other
Boards that statistics should first be obtained before definitely settling on accident-prevention
plans. This Board, shortly after the starting of its operations, arranged by means of the
different Government Inspectors under the " Factories Act," the " Boilers Inspection Act," and
the " Mineral Act " to get a report from them on all accidents happening within their jurisdiction.
By reason of the workmen being the ones most interested in accide-ht-preventlon, and being
on the spot where the work in question is being done, and also realizing in many cases what is
the best thing to do to prevent accidents in their particular place of employment, we have from
time to time urged upon them to write us confidentially, making suggestions as to how best to
improve their condition, as well as to protect against injuries to their fellow-workmen. In order
to further encourage suggestions from injured workmen as to the best course to be adopted to
prevent against accidents of the nature of which befell him, a question was placed on his claim
form in these words: " Suggest anything you can to prevent such accident"—at the same time
advising the workman that his suggestion would be treated as absolutely confidential and thereby
assuring him that there would be no possible means by which his suggestion could reach the
knowledge of his employer. The reason for such a course is quite obvious. Many valuable
suggestions have been made by workmen, and in the case of every suggestion the same has been
carefully inquired into and in many cases adopted. The different Government departments
authorized their Inspectors to receive instructions from the Board, and in every single case
where a request has been made for a particular inspection the same has been made and a report
made thereon to the Board. In addition to that, the different Inspectors in reporting an accident
to their departments send a duplicate of that report to this Board. By reason of the activity
of the Board in this behalf many hundred more inspections have been made this year than
hitherto, and it is generally conceded throughout the Province that by reason thereof very many
accident-prevention measures have been adopted.    This is but the start.
Rules for accident-prevention have been drafted by the Board for submission to public
hearings which will shortly be held in accordance with the requirements of the Act.
It is provided by the Act that the employers in each class of industry must take care of
and pay for their own accidents. Therefore there should be a strong incentive on the employers'
part to reduce the number of accidents to the minmum as an economic consideration in addition
to the humanitarian phase. In a large number of industries it is impossible to put the workman
in the same condition as he was before the accident, provided he suffered a permanent loss, and
which is also a permanent loss to the community. On the other hand, if the employers by safety
regulations or safety methods can reduce the number of accidents, they thereby reduce the cost
of the operation of this law to them. Some of the employers in the Province have their plants
well safeguarded and also have their employees organized along safety lines. In the last six
months of this year considerable work along these lines has been perfected. K 16 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1918
It has also developed another peculiar phase of the situation. An employer who has adopted
safety measures is active in seeing that other employers in his class do likewise, and therefore
it quite frequently happens that an employer takes up with other employers in his class the
advisability of installing certain safety devices, and in some cases have reported to our Board
the failure of some other employer in his class as not being active in that regard; in other
words, we find an active co-operation on the part of the employers in the majority of classes
towards adopting the most recent safety apparatus and devices.
(5.)  Statistical Department.
Statistics are simply a collection of facts so selected and arranged as to bring out the
bearing of experience upon a particular problem. For the better administration of workmen's
compensation laws it is therefore necessary to have an accurate statistical record of all accidents,
their nature and their disposal.
The Board started'in August last and hopes to maintain a small but well-organized Statistical
Department which will analyse claims to discover causes of accidents, and thereby present an
opportunity of adopting safety measures which will prevent the reoccurrence of such accidents.
It would also further present an opportunity of promulgating information thereon, thereby .
offering a constant incentive to both the employees and employers to adopt safety measures
and devices. The information in the hands of the employers should fully develop the theory
that it is better to prevent accidents than to compensate the losses arising therefrom. It is
also necessary to have such a Department for the purpose of the settlement of rates. This
Department will tabulate and promulgate information as to the relative cause of the different
classes of injury and thus keep the employees, the employers, and the public generally informed
of the average cause and aggregate cost of industrial accidents.
To serve these ends accident statistics must be analysed by industries, by cause of accident,
and by nature and location of injury and extent of disability, and must be so cross-analysed as
to show the correlation of each of these sets of facts with every other. It is important to know
the number, ages, and relationship of dependents in fatal cases and the age and wage groups
of the injured in all cases. It goes without saying, also, that the pay-roll exposure should be
obtained from industries and the wage loss and amount of compensation and of medical aid
should be shown by industries by cause of accident and by nature and location of injury and
extent of disability.
It will necessarily take some little time before this Department will be of much use,
inasmuch as it is necessary for time to elapse to get the information.
Merit Rating.
In order to introduce the merit-rating system contemplated by the Act, a complete record
of the accidents happening in each employer's plant is being carefully kept. Rates may then
be equitably adjusted to the particular conditions of individual plants. This plan is designated
to enable employers who have reduced the hazards in their rilants by the installation of safety
devices and by measures for accident-prevention to secure a proportionate reduction on rates
through merit credits, and on the other hand penalize employers who neglect safety equipment
in their plants and tolerate conditions dangerous to life and limb of their employees by imposing
a demerit differential in addition to the regular rate.
Grouping of Employers.
The Act further empowers the Board to rearrange any of the groups and to set up new
groups at its discretion. Acting under such authority the Board has. created four new groups.
These are known as Class 13, the Provincial Government employees; Class 14, municipalities;
Class 15, canning and fishing;  and Class 16, explosives.
ACCIDENT STATISTICS. *
Tables Nos. 1 to 7 deal with the accident statistics for the year 1917, these being obtained
from the finalled non-permanent total disability claims on which time awards were paid.
Owing to the time taken up in organization-work it was found impossible to commence the
gathering of these statistics until the fall of the year. It is obvious that only claims which
have been finally disposed of can be used for statistical purposes. 8 Geo. 5 Annual Report. K 17
Table No. 1 shows the above accidents tabulated according to their respective classes of
industries. The number of accidents in each sub-class is shown, together with the time awards
paid. It will be seen that the total number of finalled non-permanent total disability claims
during the year was 5,483, involving time awards of $209,828.83*.
In Table No. 2 the duration of disability is shown, the accidents being arranged according
to class of industry.
Table No. 3 shows the nationality of the injured workmen, arranged according to their class
of industry. It will be seen that 2,700 come under the heading of " British," this being almost
50 per cent, of the total.    Canada follows with 732, and the United States with 380.
Tables Nos. h and 5.—In these tables are shown the causes of the accidents; one table
showing the mechanical and the other the non-mechanical cases. The injuries from mechanical
causes are 26.17 per cent, of the total number, and the compensation paid on same is 27.24
per cent, of the total, with reference to these finalled cases.
Table No. 6 is self-explanatory, showing as it does the average wage of all the workmen
involved in these claims, also the average wage of the English-speaking and other races.
Table No. 7 gives the nature of the injuries received, and the time lost in connection with
same.    The average duration of disability per accident of each kind is also given.
LIST OF CLASSES.
The following is a list of the classes, with the nature of the industries in each class, for
the year 1917 :—
Class 1.
1. Creosoting-works.
2. Lath-mills.
3. Logging, including cutting, river-driving, rafting, booming.
4. Pulp and paper manufacturing.
5. Sawmills.
6. Shingle-mills.
7. Spokes, staves, and heads manufacturing.
8. Travelling wood-saw.
Class 2.
1. Artificial limbs.
2. Barrel-manufacturing, including stave-manufacturing.
4. Brooms and mops manufacturing.
5. Carpentering;   shop only.
6. Coffins, manufacturing.
7. Cooperage;   no stave-manufacturing.
S. Excelsior and veneer manufacturing.
9. Furniture, manufacture of.
11. Pails and tubs, manufacture of.
12. Picture-framing.
13. Planing-mills.
14. Sash and door factories.
15. Trunks, manufacture of.
16. Vehicles, manufacture of.
17. Wooden boxes, manufacture of.
18. Wood-working plants.
Class 3.
1. Coal-mining.
2. Shaft-sinking only.
Class 4.
1. Artificial stone and cement blocks.
2. Cement, manufacture of;  no quarry.
3. Cement, manufacture of;   with quarry.
4. Clay, gravel, sand, or shale pits.
5. Clay, gravel, sand, or shale pits;  hydraulic only. K 18 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1918
6. Concentration of ores by water.
7. Earthenware, bricks, roof-tiles, terra-cotta, or sewer-pipes.
8. Gypsum-quarry.
9. Gypsum, manufacture of;  no quarry.
10. Lime-kilns;  no quarry.
11. Metal-mining.
12. Monuments, lettering and setting.
13. Quarrying.
14. Stone-crushing.
15. Stone cutting or dressing.
16. Smelting or reduction of ores.
Class 5.
1. Auto-repairing.
2. Iron beds, manufacture of.
3. Blacksmiths' shops.
4. Bolts, nuts, nails, spikes, manufacture of;  cold process.
5. Bolts, nuts, nails, spikes, manufacture of;   hot process.
6. Cans, manufacture of;  no hand-feed stamping.
7. Cans, manufacture of;  hand-feed stamping.
8. Engines and boilers, manufacture of.
9. Foundries, iron, steel, or brass.
10. Furnaces and stoves, manufacture and installation of.
11. Machine-shops.
12. Metal, steel, or iron products, manufacture of;  not elsewhere stated.
13. Metalware, small, manufacture of.
14. Ornamental-iron works;   shop only.
15. Rolling-mills.
16. Sheet-metal works;  shop only.
17. Structural steel, fabrication.
18. Welding;  shop only.
Class 6.
1. Awnings, tents, and sails, manufacture of.
2. Bakers and confectionery;   no delivery.
3. Bakers and confectionery manufacture;   with delivery.
4. Beverages and liquors, manufacture of, including bottling and delivery.
5. Butchers, retail.
6. Canning and packing fish.
7. Canning and packing fruit and vegetables.
8. Carting and teaming, warehousing and storage.
9. Chemicals and compounds, manufacture of;   not elsewhere stated.
10. Cigars, manufacture of.
11. Cleaning and dyeing.
12. Cloth, clothing, and textiles, manufacture of.
13. Coal and wood yard; operation of.
14. Cold-storage plants;   no teaming.
15. Cold-storage plants ;   with teaming.
16. Creameries, including delivery.
17. Drugs, manufacture of.
18. Elevators, operation of.
19. Explosives, manufacture of.
20. Fertilizer, manufacture of.
21. Flour-milling.
22. Food products, manufacture of;   not elsewhere stated.
23. Grain, handling of.
24. Glass, bevelling, leaded, or silver-plated works.
25. Glass, manufacture of or repair of.
26. Ice, manufacture of, including delivery. 8 Geo. 5 Annual Report. K 19
27. Janitors.
28. Jewellery, manufacture of.
29. Knitting-mills.
30. Hand-laundries.
31. Power-laundries.
32. Leather tanneries.
33. Leather shoes, manufacture or repair of.
34. Leather goods, manufacture of;   not elsewhere stated.
35. Oyster-cultivation.
36. Oil, refining and distribution of.
37. Packing-houses ;   with slaughtering.
38. Packing-houses;   no slaughtering.
39. Paints, manufacture of.
40. Paper, tarred, pitched, or asphalted, manufacture of.
41. Printing, engraving, or lithographing.
42. Rubber or rubber goods, manufacture of.
43. Stationery, manufacture of.
44. Upholstering.
45. Wholesalers ;   with teaming.
Class 7.
1. Acetylene welding;  away from shop.
Ia. Erection of awnings by manufacturer.
1b. Boats and small launches.
2. Bridge-building, steel.
3. Bridge-building, wood.
4. Buildings, construction of;  not elsewhere stated.
5. Carpentry, structural.
6. Dams, flumes, or reservoirs, construction of;   with blasting.
7. Dams, flumes, or reservoirs, construction of;  no blasting.
8. Dredging.
9. Dry-docks, construction of.
10. Electric wiring of buildings.
11. Fishing.
12. Floor-laying.
13.
14. Heating and plumbing.
15. House moving and wrecking.
16. Installation of boilers, engines, marine elevators, iron stairs, or ornamental-iron work.
17. Installation of elevators.
18. Irrigation-works, construction of.
19. Lathing.
20. Marine railways, operation of, including repair of ships.
21. Mason-work.
22. Painting.
23. Painting high buildings.
24. Parkmen.
25. Pier-construction.
26. Pile-driving.
27. Plastering.
28. Reinforced-concrete construction.
29. Road-making;  with blasting.
30. Road-making;  no blasting.
31. Roofing.
32. Scavenging or street-cleaning.
33.
34. Sewers, operation and maintenance of.
35. Sewers, construction or extension of. K 20 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1918
36. Sheet-metal erections.
37. Steel-frame erection.
38. Steel-ship building;   shop only.
39. Steel-ship building;  away from shop.
39a. Street-paving.
40. Subaqueous construction.
41. Tunnelling or well-digging.
42. Waterworks, construction of plant.
43. Waterworks, construction of stand-pipes or water-towers.
44. Waterworks, maintenance, including new connections.
45. Well-drilling.
46. Window-cleaning.
47. Wooden-ship building;   shop only.
48. Wooden-ship building;  away from shop.
Class 8. *
1. Auto transportation;  country stage.
2. Electric light and power plants, lines and appliances, construction of.
3. Electric railways, construction of.
4. Electric railways, operation and maintenance of.
5. Fire departments.
6. Gasworks, construction of, and extension of existing plants.
6a. Gasworks, operation of.
7. Logging-railways, construction, maintenance, or operation of.
8. Motion-picture machines, operation of.
9. Police departments.
10. Railway express delivery.
11. Steam-railways, construction or operation of.
12. Telegraph and telephone systems, construction of, including line-work.
13. Telegraph and telephone systems, operation of.
14. Theatre stage;  operation only.
Class 9.
1. Navigation.
2. Stevedoring.
3. Operation of wharves.
Class 10.
1. Canadian Pacific Railway Company.
2. Canadian Pacific Ocean Services, Limited.
3. Consolidated Mining & Smelting Company of Canada, Limited.
4. Dominion Express Company.
5. Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Company.
6. Kettle Valley Railway Company.
7. West Kootenay Power & Light Company, Limited.
Class 11.
1. Canadian Express Company.
2. The Grand Trunk Pacific Coast Steamship Company, Limited.
3. The Grand Trunk Pacific Development Company, Limited.
4. Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Company.
5. Grand Trunk Pacific Telegraph Company.
Class 12.
1. Canadian Northern Pacific Railway Company.
2. Canadian Northern Express Company.
3. Great North Western Telegraph Company of Canada.
FATAL S, 1917.
The number of fatal cases reported was 217, and up to December 31st reserves had been
set aside in eighty-four of these cases to the amount of $306,161.75. 8 Geo. 5
Annual Report.
K 21
Coal-mining Industry.
The number of fatalities from mine-explosion alone was thirty-eight, of which thirty-four
occurred on April 5th at the mine of the Crow's Nest Pass Company at Fernie. In connection
with this disaster twenty-five cases involved payment of pensions and have been disposed of,
the reserves on same amounting to $99,594.46. The remaining four mine-explosion fatals occurred
at the mine of the Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir), Limited, at Cumberland, and in three of
these cases reserves have been set aside to the extent of $11,589.51.
There were six other fatal cases attributable to the coal-mining industry. Four of these
were caused by falling coal, one by derailment of coal-cars, and in the remaining case the
workman (a Japanese) was electrocuted.
Metal-mining.
There were nineteen cases in this class.    Five were caused by explosions of powder, five
by fall of rock, etc., and three by falling from a height.
Logging Industry. ,
The logging industry was responsible for forty-three fatals, but up to the end of the year
only eight dependents' claims had been disposed of. with reserves totalling $29,605.05. The
causes of the accidents in this class are as follows:—
Rolling or falling logs    9
Cable or hoisting apparatus    9
Falling  trees    12
Locomotive or donkey-engine     3
Drowned by slipping from logs   3
Suffocation by forest fire    2
Collapse of bridge     1
Other causes      4
Sawmills and Shingle-mills.
There were eighteen fatal accidents in this class, the causes being shown in the following
table :—
Power-saw accidents     2
Struck by log-carriage      1
Shafting     2
Rolling or moving logs or lumber   5
Cables or chains     2
Falls, burns,  etc   6
STATISTICAL TABLES.
Table No. 1.—Non-permanent Total Disability Claims finalled during 1917, showing the
Number of Accidents in each Class and Sub-class, with the Amount of Time Awards.
Class   and   Sub-class.
Number of
Accidents.
Total in
Class.
Amount of Compensation paid.
Total Compensation
paid in each. Class.
1— 1
1— 3
1— 4
1— 5
1— 6
1— 7
2— 1
2— 4
2— 5
2— 8
2— 9
2—13
2—14
2—17
2—18
3— 1
2
530
139
511
190
7
1
1
1
7
15
61
S
46
5
67'
1,379
145
677
$
5
32
31,516
55
6,516
37
15.345 18
7,873 06
114 07
$
38
57
39
15
75
24
182
76
289
65
1,765
77
144
44
993
10
81
S9
?
29,747
90
$61,370 55
3,610 57
29,747 90 K 22
Workmen's Compensation Board.
1918
STATISTICAL TABLES—Continued.
Table No. 1.—Non-permanent Total Disability Claims finalled during 1917—Continued.
Class  and   Sub-class.
Number of
Accidents.
Total in
Class.
Amount of Compensation paid.
Total Compensation
paid in each Class.
4— 4
4— 6
4— 7
4—10
4—11
4—12
4—13
4—14
4—16
5— 1
5— 2
5— 3
5— 4
5— 5
5— 7
5— 8
5— 9
5—10
5—11
5—12
5—15
5—16
5—17
5—18
6— 1
6— 2
6— 3
6— 4
6— 5
6— 6
6— 7
6— 8
6— 9
6—12
6—13
6—14
6—15
6—16
6—18
6—19
6—20
6—21
6—22
6—23
6—25
6—26
6—27
6—30
6—31
6—33
6—36
6—37
6—38
6—39
6—40
6-41
6-43
6—45
4
1
393
1
14
1
65
24
3
2
3
1
45
13
42
1
147
16
3
1
4
1
1
1
14
12
13
57
24
46
10
6
23
1
5
16
3
22
9
5
15
2
1
2
2
i
13
2
12
12
1
12
5
21
482
306
380
2 75
1,023 10
75 47
35 20
20,195 18
42 35
568 33
11 55
2,893 21
732 84
41 48
11 14
34 45
47 85
590 48
243 16
2,259 04
10 50
4,215 24
464 88
48 20
2 50
41 09
19 80
$   14 85
38 95
225 27
247 82
178 64
2,046 97
380 66
1,751 67
147 33
38 96
417 36
3 03
204 91
385 05
285 31
875 99
261 38
84 81
345 19
23 65
2 75
29 89
42 17
7 65
374 11
26 98
590 71
222 11
257 22
26 97
31 76
274 12
48 10
304 78
$24,847 14
8,762 65
10,197 12 8 Geo. 5
Annual Report.
K 23
STATISTICAL TABLES—Continued.
Table No. 1.—Non-permanent Total Disability Claims finalled during 1917—Continued.
Class   and   Sub-class.
Number of
Accidents.
Total in
Class.
Amount of Compensation paid.
Total Compensation
paid in each Class.
7— IB
7— 3 .
7— 4 .
7— 5 .
7— 6 .
7— 7 .
7— 8 .
7—10 .
7—11 .
7—14 .
7—15 .
7—16 .
7—17 .
7—20 .
7—21 .
7—22 .
7—24 .
7—25 .
7—26 .
7—27 .
7—28 .
7—29 .
7—30 .
7—32 .
7—34 .
7—35 .
7—36 .
7—37 .
7—38 .
7—39 .
7—39a
7-41 .
7-^2 .
7—43 .
7—44 .
7^15 .
7—46 .
7—47 .
7—48 .
8— 2 .
8— 3 .
8— 4 .
8— 5 .
8— 6 .
8— 7 .
8— 8 .
8— 9 .
8—11 .
8—12 .
9— 1 .
9— 2 .
9— 3 .
10— 1 .
10— 2 .
10— 3 .
10— 4 .
10— 5 .
10— 6 .
10— 7 .
1
2
108
8
4
1
26
4
17
8
1
6
2
7
14
6
3
19
17
3
38
1
5
10
1
7
3
6
49
185
6
7
6
2
3
1
1
21
262
11
1
54
26
6
59
3
9
61
2
46
239
29
188
21
372
9
16
26
1
871
232
314
11 00
24 54
4,527 98
222 90
184 08
32 18
677 50
191 64
1.280 34
. 367 03
23 93
349 37
35 09
264 50
587 52
152 83
65 53
470 38
725 00
59 54
761 32
4 95
140 33
163 17
6 60
69 86
238 98
164 72
1,333 75
4,495 46
202 89
292 01
125 76
127 02
69 72
101 48
20 63
937 23
7.333 49
234 82
121 36
1.244 65
626 52
98 26
3,700 63
37 12
1,307 99
1,646 58
65 61
$
1.707
94
9.220
57
674
11
6,559 20
872 82
13,003 45
184 12
309 02
566 31
633
$26,842 25
9,083 54
11,602 62
21,503 58 K 24
Workmen's Compensation Board.
1918
STATISTICAL TABLES—Continued.
Table No. 1.—Non-permanent Total Disability Claims finalled during 1917—Concluded,
Class  and  Sub-class.
Number of
Accidents.
Total  in
Class.
Amount of Compensation paid.
Total Compensation
paid in each Class.
11— 2	
1
1
11
13
51
$           3 30
30 61
379 S3
11— 3	
11— 4	
$   413 74
1,847 17
12— 1	
51
$    1,847 17
Totals	
5,483
$209,828 83
Table No. 2.—Duration of Disability of Non-permanent Total Disability Cases finalled
during 1917.
Class.
Duration   of   Disability.
9  10
11
12
Totals.
Not more than 6 days
From  6 to 12 davs
12 to 18 „
18 to 24 .,
24 to 30 „
30 to 36 „
36 to 42 „
42 to 48 „
48 to 54 „
54 to 60 ,.
60 to 66 .,
66 to 72 „
72 to 78 „
78 to 84 .,
84 to 90 „
90 to 96 ,.
96 to 102 „
102 to 108 ,.
108 to 114 „
114 to 120 „
120 to 126 „
126 to 132 „
132 to 138 .,
138 to 144 „
144 to 150 „
150 to 156 ..
From 156 days to 7 months
From 7 months to 8 months
Over 8 months 	
Totals	
88
5
40
59
375
37
166
119
200
25
139
93
171
21
92
63
144
22
61
39
90
9
38
22
76
6
30
22
41
4
25
15
34
4
18
9
19
1
6
8
28
6
13
5
24
1
8
4
14
3
4
15
1
8
2
6
3
3
10
1
5
5
o
4
6
1
5
2
1
3
1
1
1
3
2
1
2
1
2
5
1
2
1
1
2
1
o
1
8
9
2
1
1
1
2
1.379
145
677
482
31
96
63
35
29
8
15
10
5
4
3
3
49
105
80
35
29
24
11
8
10
10
5
3
380
102
277
162
106
60
44
22
26
16
9
6
6
7
3
871
30
54
50
28
15
15
1G
5
6
2
1
1
2
1
1
232
27
79
53
48
2.8
19
12
10
7
10
5
4
3
314
86
170
139
79
43
30
19
14
15
633
13
I
14
7
6
4
2
4
51
527
1,495
1,013
686
474
301
234
158
124
78
77
59
37
40
16
26
19
12
11
11
13
8
10
7
4
3
30
6
4
5,483 8 Geo. 5
Annual Report.
K 2E
STATISTICAL TABLES—Continued.
Table No. 3.—Nationality Table, Non-permanent Total Disability Cases.
Nationality.
Class.
10     11     12
Totals.
Canadian	
British  	
United States ..
Italian   	
Swedish   	
Norwegian	
Danish  	
Chinese	
Japanese   	
Austrian   	
Spanish   	
French  	
Belgian    	
Russian   	
Dutch	
Greek   ,
Montenegrin   .. .
Serbian   	
Mexican	
Portuguese
Bulgarian   .:. .
Native of India
Native Indian ..
Roumanian
Swiss   	
German   	
Macedonian . ..
Chilian	
Not stated	
Totals
180
400
153
46
40
25
4
209
162
20
1
2
5
58
4
"l
38
9
3
19
Ift
71
9
1
1
2
22
13
53
381
14
72
3
37
14
45
' 4
4
26
2
7
1
3
60
171
41
.43
42
14
3
3
18
20
7
3
25
1
2
5
19
1,379
145
677
482
55
208
22
4
4
2
2
1
1
60
235
22
16
2
1
2
14
9
1
1
1
10
134
577
45
35
11
15
6
2
7
3
2
1
10
38
125
26
13
3
3
' 7
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
36
220
8
17
85
281
34
126
10
4
"9
3
45
14
306
380
871
232
314
633
13
51
732
2,700
380
376
120
73
18
303
236
138
11
12
13
148
7
31
8
30
1
43
15
6
4
8
1
3
66
5,483
Table No. 4.—Mechanical Injuries for the Year 1917,  Non-permanent Total  Disability
Cases finalled during the Year.
Agency.
No. of
Accidents.
Compensation  paid.
Motor-engines,  dynamos,  etc	
Air-fans, steam-pumps, etc	
Gearing,  cogs,  etc	
Set-screws   	
Shafting 	
Belts and pulleys 	
Cables	
Conveying and hoisting machinery
Elevators  	
Cranes and derricks	
Slab and spelt conveyors  	
Railway and rolling-stock	
Coupling cars  	
Falls from trains 	
Struck by trains	
Collision and derailment	
Hand-cars, push-cars, speeders, etc.
Coal-cars, dump-cars, trailers  ....
Other railway causes	
Hand-brakes   	
8
3
42
9
10
34
35
183
14
64
1
20
49
52
7
27
15
181
33
4
436 34
99 88
2.521 25
770 63
242 00
1.592 37
3,394 56
7.677 96
631 26
1,922 67
6 47
936 11
1,764 64
2,207 40
327 08
1.505 14
408 37
7.672 55
1,164 72
101 06 K 2G
Workmen's Compensation Board.
1918
STATISTICAL TABLES—Continued.
Table No. 4.—Mechanical Injuries for the Year 1917—Concluded.
Agency.
No. of
Accidents.
Compensation paid.
Saws  (power-driven)   	
Planers    	
Jointers	
Lathes   	
Log-carriages    	
Live rolls, cables, etc	
Cooperage machinery	
Other wood-working machines 	
Paper-making machinery   	
Printing-presses, etc	
Laundry machinery  	
Textile machinery   	
Automobiles, motor-cycles	
Drilling and milling machines  	
Drop and other power hammers  	
Cement-mixers    	
Contact with grindstones, etc	
Struck by fragments of polishing-wheels,  etc.
Baking machinery  	
Machines  (not elsewhere stated)   	
Shipyard machinery  (not elsewhere stated)   .
Can-making machinery, hand-feed  	
Totals 	
217
48
6
33
14
25
1
13
14
9
3
1
45
74
17
2
8
13
4
61
14
22
1,435
, 9,758
51
1,418 96
339
79
646
91
441
93
547
96
11
00
283
01
432
53
181
51
55 98
3
75
1.482
70
2,559
79
476
44
16
00
186
32
64
75
293
50
1,931
50
337
57
306 24
57,159
11
Table No. 5.—Non-mechanical Injuries for the Year 1917, Non-permanent Total Disability
Cases finalled during the Year.
No. of
Accidents.
Compensation paid.
Time Awards.
Explosives   	
Explosion of gas, dust, etc	
Escaping steam, etc	
Other injuries, steam, etc	
Caustics   	
Explosions, molten metals  	
Other accidents, molten metals   ....
Vats, etc.; not liquids, etc	
Electricity   	
Fire and heat (not elsewhere stated)
Fall  from  ladder,   scaffold   	
Fall from machinery, trucks  	
Fall, collapse of support  	
Fall, opening in floor  	
Fall,  hoistway,  shaft   	
Fall on stairs, steps, etc	
Fall  on  level,  slip   	
Fall on level, tripping	
Fall, jumping  	
Other falls 	
Falling overhead coal, rock  	
Slide or cave-in	
Falling pile of material  	
Falling   timber,  lumber,   etc	
Falling trees  	
Rolling or moving logs   	
Other  falling  objects   	
Objects  dropped  by  others   	
9
16
14
17
21
14
27
17
22
18
159
44
146
30
1
18
259
86
35
43
265
34
55
83
24
123
311
19
347 88
464 78
578 85
374 29
614 05
1,518 44
1,284 76
525 24
1,235 31
559 65
7.272 62
1,921 95
5,610 48
985 89
21 10
441 68
8,269 72
3,395 23
1,022 68
1,574 09
14,092 71
1,646 94
2,057 04
3,945 53
1.581 41
6,956 75
9,676 58
500 54 K 28 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1918
STATISTICAL TABLES—Continued.
Table No. S.—Showing the Number of Fatal Accidents reported during 1917 and the Cause
of Death.
Mechanical Causes.
Motor-engines  1
Shafting   2
Cables   9
Conveying and hoisting machinery    1
Elevators     1
Railway and rolling-stock    1
Coupling railway-cars   *  1
Falls from trains   5
Struck by trains    10
Collision and derailment    5
Coal-cars     1
Saws   (power-driven)     3
Log-carriages     1
Drilling machinery  1
Total mechanical            42
Non-mechanical Causes.
Explosives      10
Mine explosions    38
Molten metals        1
Electricity        3
Forest fires, heat, etc     8
Fall, collapse of support      3
Fall through opening in floor      1
Fall down hoistway or shaft     5
Fall on level     1
Other falls        9
Falling overhead coal or rock   12
Slide or cave-in      S
Falling timber, lumber       6
Falling trees     12
Rolling or moving logs     15
Other falling objects      6
Handling lumber      1
Lifting        1
Flying objects        3
Accidents by animals       2
Inhalation of poisonous gas       2
Drowning   22
All others        6
Total  non-mechanical          175
Grand total   217 8 Geo. 5 Annual Report. K 29
STATISTICAL TABLES—Concluded.
Table No. 9.—Nationality Table, Fatals, 1917.
Canadian    25
British     84
United States   12
Italian     14
Swedish    8
Norwegian    4
Danish     4
Chinese   7
Japanese     15
Austrian   3
French     9
Belgian    1
Russian     13
Greek     1
Serbian     1
Native of India   2
Swiss  1
Not stated   13
Total     217
NAMES, POSITIONS, AND SALARIES OF STAFF.
Secretary's Office—
F. W. Hinsdale, Secretary   $325 00
Miriam L. Worswick, Stenographer    75 00
Accounting and Auditing Department—
F. J. Harding, Cashier and Office Manager   175 00
Grace E. Tait, Assistant Cashier   65 00
Douglas C'reighton, Accountant    150 00
F. P. Archibald, Accountant   115 00
Mae Murphy, Stenographer   60 00
Madge Collins,  Stenographer    70 00
Aileen Tuttie, Stenographer    60 00
Beatrice Williscroft, Clerk     65 00
Marie E. Hirscli,  Clerk    70 00
Winifred Underwood,  Stenographer    60 00
Claims Department—
R. Gardom, Chief Claims Officer   150 00
J. M. Armitage, Chief Claims Adjuster   125 00
R. B. Fulton, Correspondence Clerk   125 00
Maud Ledingham, Clerk   75 00
Alma Irene Till, Stenographer    75 00
Beatrice Fennell, Clerk   70 00
Eleanor Streeter,  Clerk     70 00
Norah L. Wilson, Stenographer   70 00
Florence M. Maxam, Clerk   70 00
Dorothy R. Brown, Clerk     65 00
Ada Small, Stenographer   60 00
Lillian Grassett, Clerk  60 00
W. M. Meston, Claims Adjuster   100 00
Medical Department—
Dr. G. A. B. Hall, Chief Medical Referee   300 00
Madeleine Macrae, Chief Clerk     70 00
Isabella Westwood, Clerk    60 00 Medical Department—Concluded.
May,   Sully,  Clerk     $ 60 00
Linda Macrae,  Clerk     60 00
Chairman's Secretary—
Olga M. Freeman   80 00
Information Department—
F. V. Bodwell     115 00
Statistician—
T. Maitland  100 00
Departmental Solicitor—
E. N. Brown, Departmental Solicitor    175 00
Estelle Abbott,  Stenographer    60 00
Auditors—-
W. B. McDonald   150 00
Wm. McNeish   125 00
T. P. Wilson    100 00
T. S. Brown   100 00
H. Mackenzie   100 00
Wm. Morris     100 00
Exchange Operator—
Helen Fennell     40 00
Victoria Office—
H. Pontifex, Auditor   115 00
May Croft, Stenographer    70 00
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by William H. Collin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1918. 8 Geo. 5
Annual Report.
K 27
STATISTICAL TABLES—Continued.
Table No. 5.—Non-mechanical Injuries for the Year 1917—Concluded.
Agency.
Compensation paid.
Time Awards.
Falling material, trucks, etc	
Handling  trucks,  barrows,  etc.   ...
Handling heavy machinery  	
Handling lumber, timber, etc	
Cause insufficiently described   	
Lifting   	
Struck in eye by piece of glass, etc.
Other injuries by flying objects . . .
Vehicles and accidents by animals
Hand-tools 	
Hand-tools with other workmen . ..
Caught on nail, etc	
Cut on glass  	
Cut by axe or adze	
Injured by stepping on nail   	
Injured  by  hand-saw   	
Injured by pick, peavy, etc	
Puncture, splinter, cable, etc	
Inhalation of poisonous gas	
Lead poisoning 	
All  others   	
Totals 	
1,470 64
2,290 54
6,190 70
13,672 37
170 88
3,064 08
13,502 21
1,505 24
2,628 06
6,097 92
910 56
822 83
290 17
7.039 25
491 87
1,399 98
1,050 36
2,314 36
177 83
4,262 10
10.241 49
$152,669 72
Table  No.   6.—Wage  Average  for  1917   of   5,483  Non-permanent   Total   Disability
finalled during 1917.
Cases
Of the total of 5,483 cases the average daily wage was  $3 61
„   3,S11 English-speaking the average daily wage was  3 70
„     453 Latins the average daily wage was  3 70
„     214 Scandivanians the average daily wage was  4 02
„     155 Germans and Austrians the average daily wage was  3 81
„     588 Orientals the average daily wage was  2 65
„     191 Slavs the average daily wage was  3 44
Table No. 7.—Nature of Injuries, Non-permanent Total Disability Claims finalled
during 1917.
Number of
Injuries.
Duration of
Disability.
(Work-days).
Average Duration
of Disability for
each Accident
(Work-days).
Cuts  	
Bruises   	
Sprains   	
Punctures   	
Fractures   	
Dislocations ....
Amputations ....
Scalds and burns
Infections   	
All others  	
Totals .
1,117
1,658
579
232
674
60
137
141
701
184
5,483
20.626
33,040
10,653
3,466
31,380
1.888
5.536
3.092
20,318
4.070
134,069
18.46
19.93
18.39
14.94
46.57
31.47
40.41
21.93
28.99
22.12
Average disability of 5,483 eases, 24.45 work-days.

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