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Western Clarion Nov 1, 1921

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Array of
Official Organ of
Twice s Month
VAV( nlVKK. !*.<;.'. ffOVEMBBR 1, 1921
ur Declining Standard of Living
A  Pointer for Pre-Election Audi
M'F. itstement quoted below show* a progres-
sjredeeline from 1806 to 1080 in the standard
of hvmg oi the American wage-working class,
ur; ,   ,n        'ii,-' that period society's produc
aajactty increased enormously, yet, both in re-
I io thi  !*"'•» standard and to the tneressing
-,-•:,, as] Si • ';■ . laSS and less of the products <>f
\ • Ut* fone to the working claaa as its l-eeosa-
I r '
I readers! Daring that period, the OapHslist
lalssM  fed   your   imagination   with   sounding
iv» ar.'i florioua promises!
titan ia no "Laud <»' Dream*."     I/mg
* (Stria, depresaion SSttlsd 09 our in-
IfeeU -        . ^e toia* it in lo*r% productive **n un-
*rke! providing the only break
|   n Themrtailmeiit of production, the
»•;• industry abort o! iu capacity, the part
MB oi m-h and the mateftal equipment of
hss 1-teome a necessity, a considered and
Ca\ poliey in industry—this, for the bustaesa-
Pfcrpate of (blaming profitable prieee in ih* bv
■•-. ' tJR owner* 0f industrial plant*.
[8aSB*r| is n-d operated to ita full capacity, as it
■ bi il (hi livelnVaod of the communities were
[UI eaesidersti >n, because it is in the control of
s^tttnen who have the market in view, and at
8R RSnsaud output is regulated.    Profits are the
>■■■' ! ..o '.-.'cnaiderntion in business, whleh is to
say, that industry is operated solely with a view to
***** ****** ' the mark-rt as will yield a surplus over
and above production cost—the surplus goes to various capitalist interests in th? form of rent, irft crest, snd industrial and eotmnereial profit.
Tin output of industry is produced, not to supply
the eoosUtapUon capacity of the communities, but
I- supply the demand of tbe market, the limit of
Whleh i* iUp "Returning capacity; that is to say, pro-
dnetion i* for sab for profit, and not for use.
We do not Know the limits of the consumption eap-
a* ity of the communities   Neithe/ do we know the
limits of the prol tetivc capacity of modern industrial power*.   As straight acienttue engineering pro-
positions, the problem of reaching the liniite of one
or the other capacity has never been considered,
mucfa less Sttempted    A profit system, needless to
say. ia no fit laboratory for such a social experiment.
Hut we do know tlie limits of the purchasing cap-
ity of the market.   For the market becomes glutted With commodities., r.:id. fa"consequence, the productive capacity of lhr communities has to he curtailed that Ea to say, the well-being of tbe communities 00 to be ssbotsged—all to serve the ends of
go d, safe and sound, and since the l^th century,
• honored business principles,
The productive capacity of the communities has to
be sabotaged b) the business interests, because the
purchasing capacity of the market does not keep
lences .
pace with the increasing productivity of modern industry. As the market capacity, with the passing of
time, lags more and more behind productive capacity, more and more must the business interests practice sabotage ou-4he communities, in the interest of
profitable prices for themselves. Not for nothing
are they called "the Interests."
And so, the army of the unemployed whom industry can not absorb, grows larger. The standard of
living (of the workers) has been declining since
1S96. beccuse there has been a permanently overstocked labor market. There is a permanently over-
stocked labor-market beeause the market for commodities ean not absorb all the commodities that industry is capable of turning out—a chain of economic facts inherent in the capitalist system of pro-
ductibn for sale for profit. The standard of living
declines, because modern industrial processes sre too
productive—what a paradox 1
^Competition betv een the sellers of the commodity
labor-power on an overstocked labor-market, has
operated like an* over-riding law of nature to defeat
all efforts to even maintain the level of 1896, not to
speak of raising that level in keeping with the progress of the arts of production since thst time. Even
the intense activities of the organized labor movement during 1918 and 1919, with conditions abnor-
(Continued on page 2)
The Great Illusion.
• 8M happens to suggest to the average "intc!-
k**0" that he ia a slave he usually resents
ft? «>ft   impeabment-sometimes   with   crett
***** » di to disprove the assertion,   to-
-*■! nut "disproofs" are more emphatic than
'Wag, an,| an- -,-,l*ject to eOttStdershle modi
*■■ Where for thr time we will leave him.
*«--">oi*stitutea'*freedom?" What dOCJ. it mean
"foil" "Freedom" is to fulfil, in » normal
Jj t|"' Beceasitioa of natural life, to be able to
I''"'"*"ith md satisfy rationally the laws of In-
11,81 being To he '-free" is to be m the eondi-
"*'■"■> the normal being can exercise fully and
'ir,l!lv the laws, 0r constituted being ami If therO-
£ "^Wad to live r, full, roundel and complete
y "'•o-'ver or whatever is prevented fipom tone-
J "* the common, healthy and natural pro-
[*''• foiiKtji*-,,--, being demand, ia not free.
^"i",n ,,a* nothing to do with the gpeeial plead-
UlUr™t, with the ideation derived from poli*
^«Hitv,   fortided  hy  political  success.   dh>
•NaT'' **** WitU ^•ii/n- vieissitude. Such
'** -I Of seeondnry aignilleaiice, implying
^p'Wtions, nnd wherever c)as« distinction*
■ *^aom declines, Class concepts of freedom
^'''^'"•tions in terms, of relative bearing, nee-
J ""beating particular interest, and although
.  '/>nall.v so<-i»ii in character are by no moans
"'xuh"'.   For primarily, class involves sub-
jOMtion and indivi.lualiwn--the antithesis of social
freedom A full and complete life can be secured
. on eondition ol fall freedom, and freedom is
1h; .„,...,.„■ r-atisfaction of natural wants. What
-,„.,, nr, the "natural wants- Of man. funda-
menunrt food and reproduction and from that basts
development proceeds.
Man emerges from the darkness of the past ta
lhoUkenesaof the wild short and squat deep-
,,,.rtta girthed like a beast, with curved Umbsand
tn, strong muse!., and wide of jaw, th*
;;.d     and feeble brained. Hi ing in bands throng
thcgloomv forests, feeding, breeding, Irving and
Mnglikothe wild around him, yet ^bnig.nant
■I",, nfuliv.vwththcpotcntialit.es of humanity.
^ygiaally weaker than: the wUd things around
, •     ,   Z*. driven to cunning and resource for pro-
1 : He ",.,;;  be maintained the struggle for
!o ,  '   r. favored him, lifted him to new
«* :":;;,;   :;:'-■>•. »..■« hi,»
•",,"";"r,   ,,,„.„,- . «ve dwelling plaiMmw,
*****   , tf,,„,» ..f,h..fi,H.n.l ««»*«.•**; i»-
""";1";";:;. ';,,,„.„ u *» ■«■■«** •» ***-*m
-•"•:.',;   ,„,i s..,>pii.-s. ,,„,.,,,,. h» wrfuti
ii."!"""1 "' mUrn. tnd for thousamla upon
i""'' :'S',   J',„•. WWed i" tl"' *ild hunting packs
thousands ol year""'
of e»r]y •»*'«*«'•    it^llfaM\ urged him oeasc-
and bone carried his social organisation to a higher
p'afte. his thought to a wider comprehension, his
conduct to a new unity. Misunderstanding the
forces of nature, he began a tortuous direction to
human development. He made gods in his own image and grovelled in fear at their feet. llis curiosity and greed were the forerunners of acieiico and
trade; his patience and courage, the foundations of
our highest culture. And each of such scrapie beginnings gave impetus and direction to further development and undreamed of consequence.
Vet, stern and crude as savage life and society
was, here was freedom. Outside of natural calamities, man found satisfaction of bi8 normal wants.
Free, he knew nothing of civilisation, its comparative culture, precarious amenities and doubtful protection. He could not exist apart from the tribe; he
dared not set foot on the territory of another tribe;
for the benefit of the commune (and himself) he had
to conform to the will of the commune.
Nevertheless, to wander over the face of the
earth is not freedom, nor is compliance with social
welfare slavery. This man did not starve in the
midst of plenty, nor did he go naked and shelterleao
in abundance. He was not broken with fruitless
and incessant toil, his lifejvas not held at the dictation of another. His society knew neither poverty nor wealth, theft nor prostitution, plunder nor
(Continued on page 3) PAGE TWO
The Rainmakers
T1IK credulity of men 0.VT veVbiaJ snd displays itself in a multi-va.-r'-t' of ways mu' ■
ing it a state common to all There is a story
told about a people who lived on an idand. Medi-
sehon, in the sea of Alkali, which ».a{.hasi/es li.is
quality in an unmistakable manner.
They were simple folk, the story say-;. «rl ■< used
the most primitive methods in training a livelihood.
PrrsaitiTe in this they were eqosJQj 1 •-.■• erd io
their notions, customs, and habits of 'sought—unaffected by the tremendous strides of Science, especially Met'-orolog\ •■-remarkable a this particular time in tho land of i.Jreat People. FVom which
they were cast adrift in a m> Jerd jf sjdeen by
The folklore of these simpb people relat*. s how
the land at one time WSS rich, for.Ue. ar.d *."*nep-
ously watered—just when and when il WSJ most,
needed—and was thickly co - d tv:'i- '.i-ng. lush
grass on which their stock "levc fat. and sled..
In those days ev-ry^n-: fare., sumptuously ou
tender steaks and JOhSJ cutlets r< nn.'*d out with
wholesome bread and delicious Mocha
Came a time, though, when the ran. ceased tx>
visit them. For some unkn-vi, e.v-se. the atmospheric eonditions changed an I wtrv :.ppo£'*d to them.
Consequently their lands v,.re parched: great
cracks, into which their stock did fall and die,
were seen everywhere.
Like all simple folk harrassed (>;• fear and worry.
thev opened their "josh"' (!) hl-u&ci and prayed
long and earnestly to Tosh ar*d nosh to bring back
again the gentle, life-giving rs   i&
From the Isle of MedisehoL *.o the land of Great
People came a traveller who * '...] to uae wise-acre
this strange phenomenon. Tt.- latUv listened attentively and, afterwards, med tated long and seriously. Then he. next, did pack at suitcase, some
trunks and boxes, filling all with queer contrivances,
much chemicals and many books. He did buy. too.
a ticket from Steamboat Bill who carried him to
The distressed people who met him, th - minds
immediately captivated by his sparkling wit and
charming manners: the womenfolk, seduced al once
by his modish clothes, his ;. .h«-.i.:an ehar.i ■* ; the/
did all agree that he was IT.
Having then established himself, he d:d ta du his
trunks and boxes. And one day when the h laresf
were heavy with dark grey euiiy^lae he set i., hia
Marvellous Machinery.
The wondering people gathered aron and
watched intently his every movement. Tur:. m to
the crowd, he said: "With this machine r*ud the
chemicals, which you see me mix, J. can bring back
to you the rains you need so much."
"For so many golden shekels I can giv* ypsj so
many inches of rain. Measured by the Health in
crops and stock that will accrue to yon, tht, pr:ce is
but a trifle."
The machine whirred: a cloud of stellar dust was
disturbed. And, fast on the heels of this event, there
came one man from a nearby village, much excited,
gesticulating wildly, crying—" Rain is falling on
Nogull lake."
The now agitated people looked at the stranger
from the land of Great People. Wearing a dejected
mien, a tremor of the lip, and with a note of gri"f
in his voice, he addressed his audience, saying:
"I am eorry- I-shot too much with the result, SS
you have heard, the rain was sent too far."
That night the wise-one reeeivci" a depntatirn
from the anxious people of Medisehon. They would
pay his* price. A week afterwards, according to the
story, .rain came. Everybody rejoiced—none more
so than the Rainmaker of Great People.
This somewhat crude synopsis will give the reader a useful analogy which can be applied to the rain
makers st work in modern society. And nowhere
more sedulously employed than in Canada.
Maeken-ne King is tha esuef rainmaker f«r the
Mheral Pstty. The sedoetive but contradictory utterances of this honored gentleman awaken hope
in the tormcntcl munU af the agrarian and industrial eases* nts of thai eonuannity.
In brief and  in BBbsUnCC this i-* "hat his me*
saio to tbe people amounts to: |t\  taking olT SUCfi
tariffs jis present the I irmera from acquiring cheap-
cr agricultural implements from American producers eashling Canadian femora to pfodhaes grain at
lees cost while competing with their kind m other
On the other hand by placing tariffs ..ri such pro-
dueta as enter lore from other countrie*. and especially those that can DC produced as cheaply h< re
(given th** industrial developments), "Mae" thanks
he can aid the merchants and the workers of thia
fie forgets, if he ev.r knew, that shifting tariffs
from here to there decs not n'Teet the general economic situation but simp.y remove* thc burden from
cue shoulder to the oth-*) of the body politic.
And so. too. we find the honorable Meighsa jupi
ter-plnvi-inc for Wall St. Canadian exploiters never did posses BSUCh Capital Of their own. ami to keep
industry running even ;n normal limes they bad to
To carry out local, provincial, and dosaifiiOR improvements, the governments Rave had tn borrow.
And Wail St. is the m<*-*! convenient place ju*t now
.» borrow from.
"Art" is not so ambitious as ">fji*\" he ********
poses to keep tariff* jnst as they are, or a little
higher Which, in either *-&.**-, suits the usurers of
Wall St.
Bat what neither of#these potential Btstessnen understand*! is this: Canada in company with all other
countries *****. ts a market. And ** greal Is tbe pile
of national debts; so many the claims on pn*j*erty
that cheer* ., v e can pfodoee there is not in the pile
of surplus nines, which is appropriated by the capitalists, enough to pay these bills, keep industry running, and still have a margin of profit to themselves.
Vet Imperialism has not ceased to develop, the
State, already large, is but an infant prodigy, whose
maw will soon drip red again in the task of carving
out    another     market.     More- debts,   rainmakers;
. 4 then?
•        •        •        •       m
So far 1 have been dealing more or l--*s specif".
eally with the credulity of the exploiting class.
From here on I want to make a few comments on the
credulity of the workers snd  the methods of tlie
rainmakers who play upon them.
It is on record that a certain professor «f Chemistry spproaehod his class one day with the purpose
of determining thr power of suggestion. "I have
here." he said, "a small botde containing a colorless fluid which throws off a pungent odor. Members of this class can help me determine the strength
of the liquid in this way."
"Tin- moment I withdray the cork, start exercising your olfactory organs. And the first to perceive the odor let him raise and keep raised his hand.
I will keep my ey< n on the clock, in order to see how
long it takes the smell to travel throughout, the class,
until the last one of you has raised his hand."
The ticking of thc clock was marked by* the professor, each stroke was counted. A few seconds
passed and the first hand was stretched high; two
a intes elapsed before the last member of the clasa
had his hand raised in line with the rest.
The professor, with twinkling eyes, remarked,
'It's the first time to my knowledge that distilled
water carried such a powerful odor."
This power of suggestion is much in use by the
rainmakers operating among workers in tho Socialist movement. Sometimes with the best intentions
and, then again, often with the worst.
For instance east and west of the Rockies, tho
Socialist Partv of Canada is   ind u
long tune-considered « bat -,, furth,.r ^VJ
sry organisation in the part of   lass^sei^l
era   If ameaihetj*| th> Pa*y walkl^gS
Place or is invited to a Social ..,„ /*
"hen he is asked to speak el ;  J
a public sleeting, then instantl* one bom ii
volent custom of the Best   long* ,,.;.,.=
life in the West
The   Scribe*   and   Phari*  i i ,;. o, . ^
-dose their eyes diedainfoJl*.   ■
the member p*usss by.  Thaj whisper in i
make mysterious signs b thi A  j • . ,,!
era* Intereal in the part-,  . , 14M
is tunied  aside.     NVver pSQSiltg fori        -■
consider  why  these  tactica are n
whose   interest    he   toeters  si ih? pracl .   j
knowing; and eartng 1**** a . -      *i. fan    *
Socialist Tarty is to make i ts or wert i
religious enthusiasm for *< .   ; ,     ,        Hoimm]
the    80CIAL REVOLUTION       ravy tm •
Mr.  Printer -pleas**, nn.j  f.»r heaves't saki *sj
forgel the inverted eommss
Tbeea eletims «f an "infanti -   m
"d" and  a  little  "«'.     Ma. ai           ' ml
fondly imagine they are orgSJ g for s \k'.:m
Hevolutiun.     In srtRMN interests Rahuaaaenl
Thos#> Mho study >!arx, and '    !
801 operatiin? in Society, the     ' -     : r, i
gsaefated within  the capita;-'  eiasi   DQst asi
stand that there im one aumei r
who. shouldering the burden of n       saal *•'*
fearing   lh*»  outcome   of   ff.*>:' ■   x
ft cling (he depreciation of th*ir • ■ "snjl
values, (hey must *e**k te throv ,T I   • yoke, A
th«* w-.rker who Hnderstsnds ' "     '
dav! Kt
(Continued from Pag
mally in ita fa*.-*r, ttidvd to bring tbi asrken »
lo thc pre war standard
Capitalism is DO "Und o' Ores   I
grim realitie*.    Ami. but our ot • an* grim now
it has brought aud will continue lo bi   - '      Ai
working class is   A Declining Standard of Lsvici-
The followinir is from "The \
Oetober l.Mli
As » mailer of fart the SjaSCt* SO • ' '* f
b»n  -Inimtnc sln*c-  I8H   (»r the 0*<   ■^■•^ J°J^
ns to on alomsl |nif»»r«*es>iiWe.rljen afi*f        r '■' ^
more rspWIy, saa iu ih* mrly rmr*   ' '■> *'s*    .
most 'sisstrof-hic sp-e-J    The rtsoi ^
the worftsss o>irins ihe fsi rssrs oi UM i,:":(19w<,rai
»*r!n« them bsvrk e»en to I8S pn-wsr sl*wUM ^
thos-* staSsaassts *nh -Hime postUveaei    jw
ba»«l upon th»* rareful sio-ly of ProfMSS' PM        .
Ol the f'ntwrslty of * hlcsno. sad of r"T*u ^
as publlshH In the Fepiemt^r Bttmbar ol iss ^
■esaessfta its-vj*-**." tw* sradi <";' *• llm
Uv« work of Or, I. M tmbtSOM btrfori lh* J*^ ^
rommonplflTC of poUtlrnl as of bOUSeboW •••'■ ■ "Jj
SSOasV miltes -tlv-f s fallarlotn. criicr.ro <* J*■• ^|
What matl--rs Is not the Bttiafcef of <'"'' w
pay OTivti-lopc. (Hit the amount of real !!i** ,h
pay. or of eoal. or potelocs. or •*!**•• ••!"i "Ty,UB#f8
will buy. Comparing Ihe trend of a"'r ' |' rtlPhi'!
lngs In nftwrn slantlanl Imlitstrics «I"1 tm' pf f*t
power of money as measured by '»" "Stall P" ^ ^
(bSM oeonomlsts conelmlo tbat lbs real i i > ^ ^
wsftcs h-ut fallen aboot 6 per ceni hot«e< n
but that by 1913 US average worker **■■> ^
cent. less, and In 1917—the amarlnft r1'" ° v *****
rlriK before the workers RSOseedSd In for IM ^^^
nJl—37 per onnt    In othrr wor-f** In IW bufld»l
Uvlns of workers In the woollen, cotton. ' '|basib1
baklnr. atowsruttlng. prlntmg. and mm*•**' " ,vV,,c>n 1?
In the United Stales had fallen <t( one-thin"- '-      ](f
and HIT.   The wage Increases of llM b*"^'*_ ^ ^ . **•
from 63 per cent, of the
the Increases In 1919
*i*96 isanoard to •' *vr' jM- *m
and  !n ChS early l'"1'' "    ' A, tl
•*pt pace with rtotns ^      m
may more than have kept pace with rWn» °
high point wages hardly I
(luartera of the IStifi level.'
high point wages hardly returned to »*•""" WESTERN    CLARION
History of the Art of Writing
In Three Parts, Part 2.
eftsBSgrsi&i      The   nexf   ndvaneemani   ap
r. m ....  form  of  reluiH  or  image   writ
..vera!   objects   were combined
*hf     III      •''*'
J .        ,.   conundrum   called   rebus   is   the
.   ..       of    pinmogramx.      In   the    rsbua
',...,. 0{   an   object   is   taken   to   denote
art of word which has the same sound
■hi, , : the thing pictured.    It is iikelv thai
.. „ children like rebus writing is thst
:, age they- too, as ths race bus done,
•   ,-ugi of development.    If, like thi
I        !,,. we Rrere to adopt a eir le •
.... out ordmary symbol of lb- sun, then
ffM r pure ideogram, but if we «
E after tbe manner of the Egyptians <>r
\: , .    -,-.-.  (o use the same symbol to r«*pr«•-   il
•-.." we would have a phonograii
.. •  - type whieh has repeatedly served to
etween picture ideograms and pi
HJ !t is thought probable thftt ;
Ml important  step  by   which  the  sd-
u | ;.   from  ideogram*  tO phonogn
i-.. necessity ta express proper names
I      -j-   . ire (he graphic symbol* of sounds    As
i. • •))•) have arUeu out of eonvenl
i - whieh have bean taken to n
HI itead of things.    In the east
Rt saractera wt find the most notable instanc'
i r *   arhieh has never succeeded in ad
Ra    .' lib*  most rodiuiji ntary ■-!«•;•    f
lure^wriiing    It   has been  foun
tbt «       ■    intricate and Rttaev Chine*
k to their earliest forma or typ* •
id to be aonventiotmtixed forms
' rude pictures io which they now b
Planer.   The Chinese Isngi
th | m    I' j ..is. it has no terminations to d<
• ••<■<! or person; the same Word With
tmafi | form may he used as a noun. verb, adjec-
thv, advert or participle. It is a monosylsbic Ian
pate consisting almost entirely of homophon* a, Le.,
datum has to «]*» duty for several
1 rent words.     Etenee the use of "'key"
"■■*■■ called radicals or primitive    In
at Bfyptton snd CuneUormtheas4'keys*'arc
v In Knglish one learns whleh mi
■*>S<*t.. be conveyed by the aid of variant spelling,
ttNrifot, rue, wright, write. In order so be able to
•fit*, an ordinary business letter in Chinese one
"•oiiKl have to commit to memory some six or eei
thousand of these (-roups of characters, hence in
Hiiia aad in the countries ant poasessing sn alpha-
•** bv peop|4 i,,an, l0 rpfl,| am*  >vrite. nnd  thef
•m in> known as ths Iserned caste.
8yllRb5-?ni   The stage in the progress of writing
■■ita lies) illustration iu ihe development of the
,,''*l"->   OUl  of the Chinese.     About the third ceo
'""•'• S.D., it about the time of the great eastern i«
"ns!" of the Buddhist faith, the Japanese earne
■^wntaet with Ihe civilization <-f OhhlS and ob-
Uin,,'l a knowledge of the characters m which the
"**«■ literature was written.   The -Japanese tan*
m^ Was polysyllabic, and the Chinese oharactsrs,
**H are verbal phonograms, could only be use I
'r ln«   expression   of   the polys} llahie   Japanmc
*"r',K by being treated as syllable signs.   A nurn-
^Weharaeters attffielent to constitute a ayUahaty
*-** been selected, it was found that the whole
■PPwatui of "keys" might be rejected.   Here, bow-
*- the development has stopped.   It might seem
*"J«e thai a people ns ingenious ns the Japanese
JWM not, -luring the one thousand years that have
J*Pwd itnee the introduction or the Chinese char-
J(>''rs' develop their syllabary into an alphabet, bui
••Oil remember that it ia only within the present
£*** that the Japanese have been a trading M
J1   T»a fact that-such a development has not
^ place is sufficient to show that the working
v.' of in alphabetic principle is not as easy w "''
0!ls " '"niter as might he Suppossd,    It »^W '"'
noted in passing th
ist now that the Japanese have
it- na-
...IL"   III.
Authorities who bavi
■   to tb<
* °   ******   u.mi iux -Japanese
M""" tii contact with Western civilisation and
overed bow eonvenient and limple the It-
alpha el ia, a movement to substitute it tor th
!■■■■■ * Ha ar;  has sprung up.
K up-
e studied the
matter have
• '■'- conclusion that there is a general law
*-"'• - advance from one itage in the devel.
»l writing to the next A next higher atage
ls'"■■•' -" d by transmission ol the graphic system Irom one nation to another. On addition to the
. usl cited, the trsnsmiasion oi the Aztec to
the Msyaa oi Yucatan, oi the Egyptian to the 8em-
'"   w»d tbe thrice repeated tranamission of the
The Zodiacal and planetary signs used by astronomers are also ideograms. Other ideograms used
by us are the crown and broad arrow, sundry trademarks and armorial bearings, together with several
printers' signs. Certain shop signs as the barber
pole with its spiral bandage, whieh is a significant
sign of blood letting; the three golden balls of the
pawnbroker is a curious survival of the boluses
(large pills) which denoted the ancestral calling of
the Florentine family oi the Medici. In £ s. d. we
have characters of alphabetical origin used simply
;is convenient phonograms standing for the words
pounds, shillings and pence. Most of the Arabic
numerals are degraded, from Semitic letters.
(To be concluded next issue)
elphabel   to   the   Aryan   nations—to   the
1        "    Persiaaa and the Indians, are facts
■ -■ this general role.   Tbe best example of
this gi             n ii found in the case of the repeated
--        ' ' ■  cuneiform writing.   It was in-
rented   j  \-  Turanian people, and transmitted to
&    die Aryans snd Babylonians, while out of the
■v-    "        ' eiforro arose, on one hand, the Turanian
• '■       '       «yl a ..•.-. • nd ••:. the other the cunei-
ol thc Aryan Persians,
a               -.. ■ - oi ;■ '!• rs represent ti e element-
ir   •        •    ■>> w\n<'.. thi syllables can be resolved.
■ extant inscription in the world is the
-■  in Un   Ashmolean Museum at Oxford   M.
Hal                - the date at about 4,700 B.C.   It was
erected          ung oi the second dynasty, and is con-
proof 1 ill even at that date the aieroglyphie
« aim .    an extremely ancient graphic
long  •'•'.'•■wi of  previous development
[retching oul        nd it.     The Egyptian picture-
writing     -    every other primitive method of writ-
• ire idi ograras, many of which
the very last.   Abstract ideas
tly represented, were expresa-
n ,    i* ri a • lie pictures, e.s.. the battle of
..      ,.   ,            tiding a shield the other a javelin.
.- stagi  must have been that the primitive
-.,-,,  [da c to the verbal phonogram and
later these verbal phonograms came to be used
- .    InaJ y these syllabic signs were
l    U to form compound phonograms, ou
if the rebua    Egyptian writing also
I   a! symbols out   of  which .our
,   .   ,,.,. prown.   Alphabetic symbols on the
K-rj ption raonumi tits go to show that the letters of
!t,             .  .., older than the pyramids, older pro-
-mv other existing monuments of human
on   v •    the  i ible  exception   of the
Thi, ifcbyionian, Assyrians, Medea and the Japan.-
BU ,,.';,. in passing only through the syllabic
\       which 1     • iero-jlyphie records of the Bgypt-
,1 .dalrea  ■ advanced to the great conception ol
hah tic writing.
... i, |a f01 vowel sounds are found mthesylla-
,,,,. nations, but the more diffun.lt, con-
•   .sonant, was not even approached.
r       .   ... ft consonant, a sound that cannot be
,   ,   ,,,.,,,   |u  conjunction  with  some  other
,    'th(   Mll}iil 0f ,he syllable into its ultimate
,h n.    , to be aonc was to sweep away the super-
'•'",lli;i,;i '        -.   Thi9 step  they never took,  hut
nTiidt«ce v-pietures side by side with that
;•-;;;,;.;;,,,;,,:,,, advancing to the use of
"' ' """ ,.,,,/,„ sounds. Kvenattheprcse.it
fl^d signs phonographic and ideo-
"■V"^T0 m considerable extent The Roman
irn" T\i 111 may be regarded-as pictures of
1111 ■ ' , «*"« nrohable that V. waa at first the
fiT^nnh fork of the hand, the fingers collected
P'^nreof the I r        ^ (hat vv. or X. represents
••'■■• ih%„"hile!V. nml VI. would bo a picture of
'rVrui .b-ub..act,cn or addition of a finger.
,!l,,,1'lU/1 SNinhoN used in technical writing Mir-
MW "' , ,,.,, „V(M1 in the midst of the highest
viV' t0 7eivili»tion the spirit of the earliest and
SXrof writing are not extinct.
(Continued from page 1)
its corruption. All that the community had to offer was common right; to all the requirements of
life; in all respects a free society.
With barbarism came' property right and its
corrollary, slavery. Came organized religion, organ-
isnl militarism, organised political so. icty. (for the
subjugation of man.) The savage was vanquished
by the merchant; the commune broken up v.y trade.
The natural patriotism of the tribesman for his
bunting grounds became a weapon for politieal ag-
gression: the reverence of ancestor-worship became
obedience to god ordained rulers; traditional custom,  transmitted to individual interest.-
ln such a society man is a slave. He has no
access to the necessities of life. He toils only at the
will of another and for the benefit of another. He
is bartered-— with all his potentialities for gain, and
out of all the wealth he created he is thrown a scrap
to support iiis miserable existence for further exploitation. Denied access to the means of life is to
be denied satisfaction of the natural functions of
life, and the accrued advantages of progress and enlightenment. Hence, as exploitation inevitably eats ils poverty, so dwarfed natural relations produce
vice and depravity, invariably. Whoever holds the
means of man's life holds man in bondage. Therefore, so long as political society shall persist, so long
must man be enslaved.
From primal necessity comes secondary consequence. Development had to he—it was, (is.) the
law of the cosmos—and, taking place, produced class
distinctions. But class distinctions are class interests, differing and opposite, and the interest which
happens to be dominant can, for a time, regulate the
forces of social and ethical progress to its own advantage. But to the disadvantage of others. Hence
the class struggle, and revolution. And hence also
the confusing variety of interlacing ideas, the overlapping of ancient tradition with modern thought,
and the struggle of conflicting philosophies, representing conflicting interests, which, by and through
such interests baffles us in our immediate aim, and
blind us to fundamental cause.
And truly, we are wedded to strange illusions.
We call our shacks •'honie"; the penury of continuous toil "prosperity"; spoliation, enterprise; greed,
incentive; impecunious necessity, thrift.
We call political domination, democracy; exploitation "eternal right;" war, "holy;" our civilisation "enlightened." In the densest of ignorance we boast of culture, of virtue, amidst the most
appaling corruption. We dub ourselves searchers
for truth—and we daHy crucify it. With dainty
conceit we lay claim to reason—that is no more than
self interest; to intelligence^—that rises no higher
than the impulse of emotion; to wisdom—unable to
distinguish fact from fancy. With silver tongue
we preach equality—and practice law; honesty, and
accumulate riches; fraternity, and advocate "preparedness." We call commerce, "foreign relations;" lying, "diplomacy;" hypocraey, "statesmanship": guile, "law"; piracy, "glory"; robbery,
"success" and the ethic overspreading this festering slough of pollution we call "divine will."
But surely, the illusion of "freedom" is the most
astounding of them all. R. pace tout*
Western Clarion
******** a MaSk by tha Soeialiat Party ef
481 react* Rtratt lest, Vaaeaavar, B. a
gajMaai 8888
itar-si at Q. P. O. M ft aawapapar.
._ E wen MssLsod
_ 11.00
« $1.00
A**tf-U *bls seaifcsr to m year addrasa laaaljeor
Comrades T). MacPherson and W. Erwin. hoth of
Wimborne, Alberts, now that the full significance
and sad realisation of a slim harvest has rewarded
their seasons lsbor, have acquired or appropriated .
some kind of a contraption that moves on wheels,
filled it full of socialist literature, ami have departed
for parte unknown but somewhere adjacent, to sow
the seed of wisdom among the farmers. Should this
perchance meet the eye of some farmer comrade
upon whom tbey may with design or intention descend for help, encouragement, or an argument, that
comrade ia accordingly commanded!
• •     •     •
The case of "The B. C. Federationist Ltd.,'' and
A. S. Wells, manager, at this moment of writing
stands adjourned until Monday Oetober 31st, when
it will again be presented at the Police Court, Vancouver, for hearing. The magistrate requires time
to read the book ("Left Wing Communism"). Legal
defence is sn essential matter aud in this case an
appeal is made for funds to that end. All moneys
received st this office for defence in this case will
be acknowledged in the names of the contributors
in the columns of the "Federationist."
• •     •     •
"Geordie's" series will, we hope he continued in
next issue. We promised continuation in this issue.
it is true, but we can't help being at fault once in a
while, snd the punishment, if there he any, must be
meted out to ns snd not to "Geordie."
• •     •     •
The following item is sent by the Manitoba Provincial Executive Committee.
"P. Kaplan, member of Local No. 3, Winnipeg,
ha* been suspended from the Party for six months
for s breach of Party discipline, in that he attempted to form a political compromise with persons out-
aide tbe Party, contrary to the Constitution. Since
his suspension he has sent his resignation to Local
No. 3.
• •      •      a
Comrade Prank Cassidy is roaming around New
Brunswick educating the folk in that region. He
reports good meetings en ronte from Alberta and
the way points, including Winnipeg, Toronto and
Ottawa. Prank says he is likely to be around the
Maritime Provinces for months to come and for the
sake of the innocent political consciousness of the
workers there we hope he will.
• •    •    •
The case of Robert Wslker, of Cumberland, B. 0;,
suspended from Party membership for 30 days, is
not yet definitely decided upon but is still under
investigation. Announcement will be made in due
• •    •    •
A letter to us from the Secretary of Local Vic
toria concerning a communication from the Communist Party of Canada advises us that Local Victoria considers itself well sble to look after its own
business without the sid of the unknown. Tbis message eaueed ns to send to Victoria for a copy of the
communication, and here it is.   It bears no address.
September 30, 1921.
Ts All tssrotSHss sf the aoelsllst Party of Canada
Will you kindly read the followlm* to yonr local at the
next niretluK*
comra<t*c*.~W« have wa:eh«! *-'* tateraat th,- dlacua-
glen Rates ha« been carried on dur ins 00 last few month*
in you.* offsets' ansa.
The dlacu«lon shows that there is a larse proportion of
your membership »ho (**d that UM IsUWSsAe ot U«* revolutionary movemsBt demand ywsrssUbnal enRi or the mil
Hants of the wot king claa*.
Whllo we realize thai nil imoorunt question* of poll-y
require carelul eon*Herat)oa, we f-**'l that ampl* time
hfii been taken in this OSSS for every vlewp-Snl SS he 8»
presaed, and for every member to take a dritnit**- stead
Comrades; the time for •;. r.on it here We aa-peal lo
you to demand a Tarty OoavenUOB at OSCS to BSttls this
vital Question. Should thi* ■1-m.ind lie not <*«mpn<***l with,
we hereby lus'rurt ail millt.uit* to leav-- the 8 T ot «\
and aiipn (hsmsSlws mil-*, the Int* rnattonak of th-* World
Revolution, through the Cossmsalst Tarty «•' ' an.»da
Central Eiecutive Committee,
(Skirted)  T. JOHNSON.
•   •   •   •
Concerning the same communication We have (lie
following (dated Oct 84) from Local Equity*—
K. MacLeod, Editor.
"Western Qarion."'
Dear Comrade*
Bneloaed typewritten communication from Um
Communist Petty of Canada was addressed to undersigned and the request t" secretary iherein eon*
tained was duly complied with. Winn a reply to
them direet is not possible for wont of knowing
their whereabouts, a< n«> sddrCUS is givert. I waa in
struct ed by the I»cal to send our answer to them
to the "Clarion*" and have it published, if our Comrade Editor should see fit.
We are aware that Slteil an OTgSlliasjion a* the
Communist Party of Canada existed in "name.'"
but we, the members »>f Local "Equity" have not
yet met any of the peraonell of thai Party, nor have
ws received any of their literature. So we an- somc-
what inclined to believe them trading upon a name,
with but little stock in trade, if any at all. We
hesitate to *uiy anything derogatory to yon'until wc
know more of you. bal yoti somewhat arouse -«ur re.
sentSMOt and distrust when you proceed to "instruct" un militants of the S. P. of C. to leav*- that
Party if we fail to obtain a Party Convention demanded by you to settle the qosatmn «»f affiliation
with the Third International. All this you demand
without explanation either a* to the benefit to be derived from such a consummation of your own qualification for making and) a sweeping demand. And
if you, after having "watcltcd with interest UM discussion in our official organ on this question of affiliation" have Come tO the conclusion that wc "militants" can he stampeded hy your appeal into the
Third International you are afflicted with hyeterie*.
We are not moved by impassioned appeals but hy
the loffje whereupon it is conditioned, though of
course only .is far an our knowledge permit* 08 to
Will you wonder, friend, that we consider your
method of doing business aimilar to the notorious
Keu-KluxKlan? We an "militant*." hut not to tho
extent of using coercive methods toward** our Comrades.
Now, wc would like to know who "we" **ro that
make this appeal to us. What is the date aud place
of your birth? "four record iu the proletarian move.
menU Justification for yonr exi*t*-iic< ~ personell
and strength,   Princfyles and program and mode of
procedure of putting these principle* into practise!
You have our ear, and we are open lo conviction.
We will respect your enoJSdenec if entrusted to us.
But we are noj an object for dictation nor victims
of bombastic pretension. Friend, you will have to
come out into daylight for inspection, for nearly all
danger to the proletariat is to be found reared in
hidden places, so we eschew it. If you arc a giant
olthe right quality you may depend on us. If you
arc not-though you be a giant we stall disown
you. •
Yours for Socialism,
Local Equity No. 87.
P. O. Seal, Alberta. (Signed) If. II. Hanson,
It appears that the Communist*, are worrying
much and plenty shout our overwhelming aslm, j„
face of tbe fact that thsaesamewi
Iwivc from time to lime read 1nnhuH;;r°flhe
have consigned u* ami all our ••n-j-     *ervip«
the grave.   With all tl '
shove document pobl
era "hunch" that there „-ay ,„
of the grave.  With all fce^bth! l° ^ °bH
the above document puMieitv an i J Zm**M
..*- ..  -'I...«.*.*- au-a£ ''      Ul *« b.-ref.y *«2
' "1"re.r.llv,
y t*2\hm
th08e alleged by iu ^ru^ U^rT^
now    '
^^^mJ^tMjBMjMtMJe*Ai   *a*mm.  .
The    Worker*'    (;,,.„,; u.    ^^
more changes vet u>-some for if «,. „ m -J
another tone has hem sailed, and we hares aet
that this play-aetmg businem behind Uteaeeana:
everyday Ufe ia dn^ for a r-.,   ,   .- yitttek.
The heroic* of seaf-4mposed    iUegaiitv' udaj
eaffsred to h** unancceaaful nnd Unfruitfoj aadR
a wrongful toternreietion ol ;     •. uy-tar -m
now   that   thc iiiter|*refati<n .i-* well M the 1   -
have aome to hand ihe rudder oi & <    . u.
ahlp g«*-*s over a pomt or two o?«r to BUlitr.  Em.
em Canada w ill eome \>> Its seneei *$**
rani hlhsd thsmaslvcs to Ihe I        i     : bat
e\ eryday facta of life for--*-- r   that   • | * Hde*| taer|
eotne into e«»n(»ct with them
\» to us ami thc inatt.r of the rt • tmi
oneation of atnitation with the i: ,r,j un^raatsssl
and the rcfercnihim, w« are aot i  (
of the conddence and good scan exj ::im
I-oeal*.    It is worth anting in this - ptissj
Ueeal Equity have already, In ti;. coarse «>f 4a«a-
<*.on   of   the   qtie*ti-*i,   .; |     Bfttflvei       IM
Clarion columns n* favoring a*    . • We bM
this to any    that confidence srill BOl   I I    -     sal
wc may ssar further, thst rflorti    .    to wsrriR
<* a m
our judgment by the C  P **r its igeats, n-sloril-
leg«d. in no way tend to dn*. ■■'■ •
a       a       *       *
As wi* go to pri-s.1 tin* is*;, we are assisW
driven into a eorner f«»r tmu    S00 nstt * ■
"The Farmers' policy—aa laid down bj Ur CrSTR
by C *%* snd a l»ook re\-e*>. ol !' Psra Rh
Politics,"-—the bank bj Wm Irvu ndtsen-
vieia by Jack Harrington are nnfort utstely tret*
ed out. They will keep till asst Rsai snd mrRf
• mer reader* may look for an Issni " -r,f" ^
tluir activities c«me m for *.;•-' Isl m-*!!'!"'5
e      ♦      •      •
And  O!  Itefore  WS  g«>   Bos   •      ' '
yen «m:d (to yourself | you'd settdl   Yoa BSTi  I
The Tokio correspond...( of londoa    !'     ^
press" on June T2, sent a sensstionsl telefrse '
titiedi "Hays of War oa the PSetfe Ocean-
He states tbat Japanese insurane- c*ompsi»»W
been asked hy their slientS to » eepl insiimH -  m
the riak of war belweeo Japan and the I > •
ing tne next twelve mouths. The eolTespoiides
/   l.,)t 1  !M|in'
thai the naval armament programmes <>' <   ■     _^
tries is interpreted as a proof of I"' I •••••f!"" -
The correspondent *tat<* thai an ilUlu'^„m
war is already being fell in the Bast-*
NAVAIMO   W. A. Prlteh8rd
VANCOUVER (.« Beats)—
-   Hnrrnrd: J. D. Harrington
, Centre: T. O'Connor
SoRthl .1. Kavanagh
Centre: II. II. I'artliolei.irw
North: 11. B. Russell WESTERN     CLARION
Ten-Minutes' Talks With New Students
Lv>i mohth in discussing povertj we saw that
so long os tool* remained primitive, poverty
was bound to be tne eommon lot of msn.   We
.   however,-, that  although  poverty  waa 1111-
, in the early stages of nan's history, just
!„• aus« his productive capacity was -.«■ low, such sn
aid n*u be true of todaj s poverty. It
could ii"' b« tru< beeauas of ths wonderful mscbin-
M-i iovented under the athnuloa of eapitalism
, through that wonderful machinery, 1.  •>
v,iv,-■; th< problem af prodnetion, bui it ha* left a
r _■        em unsolved  -the problem of distribution,
, diown u- how to produc, the **•>■")*, but not
to liatril ute them.   And the feet that tin* pro-
. still onsolved is strikingly evident whenever
*** look around us today.
When sr« examine ths Sctivitiee of tbe capitalists,
w, find them actually destroying thing*- thai much
r baa sane to prodaee and (hinge of wl■••■ h gi
r the people are in dir.* need,    You will 1.. •
i   •     fruit trust tumbling hansna* into the
m • ip price**, and of the rahher-gr iwers eat-
prodnetion ly 28 p<r sent for Ihe i
In l'ra/il, when the coffee harvest exceeds
.Mint, the surplus i* by law automsties
■ - roved  despite the fact thai there are a        -
tbe i        '• dad to ret it.   Obviously, then i   i I
--thing  far  wrong   with   diet) I        .   when
n       that f*-rriir ragalarly.
w. are ...jittiHully being told tha( millions of
dttctivc JaW-r arc lov« every year through
rtrtkes    These *tri*te* occur Imt.iu-*' the *•-  r   ^
led tl.it they are getting their shar     I
■ •  daeed -l'e-**auin* they arc not satisfied
n rthoda of distributing the goods     Here,
n r« have evidence of the unsolved problem of
' on.
We I.;..*.-• lieard much recently ahoul "ea1 eanny."
We've been told that the workers do not work as
bard u they eooid do.   To whatever extent thut is
i- is "rue because many of the j>r- M nt bad meth
ods of distributing tbe products of their labor, work,
ing hard enri lies not them, hut the boss. In other
-voids, the unsolved problem of distribution encourages ea' canny.
When we turn to the gigantie numbers of the unemployed, we find they are not onemployed because
of lack of to -Is or raw material- because they can't
produce things; or because the things they can pro-
dnes are not required bj the masses; but because
these things cannot be distributed at a profit!
If production 'u»* ity- burning problem ol the past,
distribute ii is the burning problem of the present.
It is this failure in distribution that is causing on-
told misery to the world's workers. Their situation
retuirds one of the equally desperate situation in
whi h a chicken finds itself once in a lifetime. For
the tirst tl.rel- weeks of its life the chicken lives within tbe egg where it is rerj warm and comfortable,
and where there is plenty of food. When the first
tl ree weeks of ita life are np, it discovers that be-
f.veej. it and the food outside Ls the hard wall of the
egg-shell. Unless it breaks through, it starves to
th. Thsl i.s the position of the working class to-
. The problem of distribution is the wall that
PUtt tl -i i ofl from wealth, leisure and culture; and
Ihere j*- only oni way out f<>r them -and that is to
h**eali down the wall.
Production today i-s artificially strangled by the
method oi distribution. Goods are only distributed
,.- long as a profit follows: "No profit, no distribu-
n .n." toy tho ■ apitslists. The result is idle machinery, destruction of goods, army corps of workiess
nnm. Profit fails ;.* a regulator of distribution- a
ueu regulstoi must be found, not individual profit,
n-1 the profit ol a class but general need.
IV espttslist dasa will never attempt to bring
ah it web ■ revolutionary change. That is the
great task history has set the working «lass. It is
a task thai can only be solved by a working class
thst understands it Hence, the need for the independent education of the working class,
"The Plebs."
trar A. A. Jones, pnllA 6 to 10; place of sitting, 1897
Powell street. ,
Ward 4--J. F. Forbes (1-3), Woods Hotel, Hastings street east: Jos. Harlow (4-5). 526 Georgia
street east; Chas Mitchell )6-7), &O0 Hastings street
east; P. F. Seharschmidt (8-14), 1395 Keefer street;
V,\ If. P>rett (15-21), 2154 Williams street; A. L.
manue! (23-25), 1709 Cotton Drive.
(Socialist Candidate—J. Kavanagh)
Area 1, comprising polling divisions 10,11 and 12,
registrar, J. E. T. Yewdall, corner of Granville and
Seventieth avenue; area 2, polling divisions 1, 13
and 14, W. W. Crompton, 937 Seventeenth avenue   •
west; area 3, polling divisions 2, 3, and 4, A. J. Pat-
erson, 2131 Firty-fii-st avenue west; area 4, pollings
divisions 5, 6 and 15. J. A. Lindsay, corner twenty-
ninth and Dunbar street; area-e, divisions 7, 8 and 9,
Wm. Crane, 4055 Twelfth avenue west; area 0, polling divisions 16 to 2li, inclusive.   A. Williams, 4106
Main street; area 7, polling divisons 27 to 33, nclu-
sive, B. Carruthers, 6486 Main street; area 8, polling divisions 34 to 43  inclusive, L. It. Taylor, 6434
Fraser avenue; area 9, polling divisions 44 to 51, inclusive, and 54, J. F. Lohb, 1617 Kings way; area 10,
polling divisions 52, 55. 6i, 62 and 63, W. D. Grice,
572S Victoria road; area 11, polling divisions 56 to
GO. II. E. Adams. 386 Joyce road; area 12, polling
divisions 53 to 64, J. B. Stoddard, 7129 Victoria
Here and Now.
Regiitmion Particulars for Vancouver. Burrard,
Centre and South.
Registrars will ait from October 31 lo November
" a m. nil ii p.m. with the exception of meal
"*, and   th<*   returning   officers   appeal   to   the
Ion lo make a point of seeing ss soon a<* posst-
'■ ether their nemos are on the list, snd if not to
'     ''   * names put on.
Persona who have moved from one polling div-
'" to another have the option either of going to
•he division in which thev nr.  registered *» order
to vote, or applying to the reglstrsr in the division
lr> nhich they nre now resident to have their name
Put on the lim for thai division.   If a name sppesrs
■J t"" divisions the responsibility docs not lie on
Je voter, bui on the organisation of the outside
liiV|s""'. *hoee duty it will be to bsvc ths osmea
':   "1 In eases where the elector has n gtstered else-
Tln'1 returning of Bean are r. W hit taker for Van*
",,!lv"' Centre, with central offices al 201 Rogers
•-JUrling- m n, Hirsden. for Burrard, with central
Jfnces al m Rogers Bldg., nud Adam Barnes, for
venrouver South, with offices st 3939 Mai" Street,
Tbe list of registrar! polling divisions, and places
D» tilting nf the registrars are 88 folloWSS
(Socialist Candidate: J. D. Harrington)
Sixteen to 21. K. Leah, 2117 Yew street.
Twenty-two to 24. K. D. Davies, 1995 Fourth ave.
Twenty-Jive to 28, I). A. Imrie, 1503 Fourth ave.
rwenty-nine to 32, W. McDonald, 1427 Broadway
Thirty- three to 38, B. Johansson, i*73 Broadway
\\ ut,
i'hiriv n'.'.c to 45, A. B, Lord, 553 Broadway West
Port) -si*, to 48, K. Me line. 105 Broadway East.
Forty-nine to 55, R. Forgie, south-west comer
Kings way and Broadway.
Kip- sue to 61, K. Pepler, 57! Broadway East
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1121 Kingewsy.
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I1 istings and Clinton street.
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Be «ond svenue east
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Ninety-three to 98, W. T. Cosgrove.
Ninety-nine to 106, R. W. Salter. Dundarave Blk.,
Avenue, North Vancouver,
(Socialist Candidate—T. O'Connor)  •      I	
Ward One   Registrar, L. C. Ford; Polls 1 to 6,    j, Davies, Roy Reid
A certain character, well (and once popularly)
known in what we may call the annals of conjectural history is reputed to have said, '"Cast your
bread upon the waters and you may expect a bakery in*return," or an encouraging, cheerful and
helpful word to some such effect.
Whether or not the allurement of paradise has a
hearing on the case, now that the harvest days are
over the fact has it that our "Here and Now" acknowledgments are- due in the main (this issue) fo
the prairie provinces.
In making special mention of this fact we have
no intention of copying the example set by those
politieal windbags who would set town against
country in antagonism these days. We mention it
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Our sub totals this issue, while they may be
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bo. R. P. Miller, F. Isaacs, D. McTavish, N. C. Nelson. T. Hanwell, E. Waterson, J. Lavery, C. Butt,
B. W. Sparks, W. Fleming, Abe Karme, J. J. Zender,
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Fisher, M. H. T. Alexander, W Henderson, T. Shaw,
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A   Woodward, polls 7 to 15; place of sitting. 1033
Registrar das. Bushell, polls
Georgia ^tvoet west,
"™>Quui8i candidate: J. u. ntur.--o.v--/ ^^^"pTace ol sitting, 1600 Georgia street west,
'"'•mrd District tnkes in that part of Vsncouver iu*       .ij   K   ,)()I111(I|alli pi,,|s 23 to 21); place of
.,">' s""h of False Creek. HssrtingS Park and from o k-       ^   ^  ^  ^^    ,J(1),istrar A   H    L(UV<
1Urr)l,'l  Inlet   between  Nanaimo ati r  «d.w« tXi\\ol\0 to 35; place of sitting, 1750. Nelsona treet
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low *f>i>-
Above, Clarion subscriptions received from 14th
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■ •ii* i      in-*-,-, feu     .-tiiiiiiiiii*.    •.---•-—- --p^p^pj
""UH|l"'.v Of Burnnbv 88 far south sa Twenty-ninth
"!l,i"     H  also taken in  ihe whole of the  North
Jpof Rurrard Inlet, from Indian 4.ver U) Brit*
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Hitting '•'••'• Pender street west.   Registrar
\ p'McNeil*- polls 7 to 10; place of sitting, 76S Haiu-
lt m '"street    Registrar George Vernon, polls 11 to
I*,'   place of sitting. Barron Hotel, 1006 Grnnville
." ; place 0
Ward ThreeRegietrsr Wm. B.Johnson, polls 1 to
sitting. 247 Hastings street east. Regis-
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to 27th October, inclusive, total $35. PAGE SIX
Materialist Conception of History'
la-sson 22. traffic so beneficial to the nation.-' He whs support-     the Niger, and with other powerful tl
AFRICAN CONTINENT ,(' ,,v t'1*' monarchy, the aristocracy, and the com-    cm Nigeria.                                                     '      '
  meieial  world and eeelcsiastisism alike in Ihe de-        The   !•!•-.. ri..I   Brilt-»l>   Rut   I-..I
• ...in   nun,!  i „||..   ,
BY PETER T. LECKIE. ren** °* ■*• ****** ,-'-*,-<' ***** !'! Erectly benefited    founded with ths result that rery
aaaneiaily theretrom. the interior, right ap to th- great
IN examining the great development of Capitalist *■«• eaUSSensus of opinion 0 that the sieve fared    British surcronity.    **% tl..   South   •
industrv from about the 70s and "80*8 wherein   &*•* nuder Portuguese, the Danes, the Freneh, and   conflict between the Boers and r
Britain, France and Germany have carted out    n"' -Nl»«niards. an.I worse maler the Mutch and the    the   the  diseovery  of  diamond,
for  themselves spheres of influence  in  Africa for     British.   Thg Dutch and British, having accepted tbe    gold, and the advent of CeeU Shod  I   arete
the  exploitation  of  African   resources  and   native    edoptlOU of tin* religion of capitalism which ih Pro     to change the whole face Of affaira
labor, to obtain raw materia!  for thier home in- testanJsni-, had not the same reiigous serurdea ghost        A third treai nowar   Cnn-nv   -»i
dustries. I will first give an outline of Africa previews *'" '** SUem                                                                        had figured tttMpieuoUslj m the p
to this earving-out process. fo the Portuguese belongl the credit of making    ing up of Africa, b*fOttght ahOttl I •            ;■.•■
European  trade on the  West  Coast and Arab >*■•' tost  attempt   to explore  the COSsta of Africa    QermattJ.    Thin was Opposed I - ftii                  tk*
trade on (he East Coast is many centuries old.    It **l"'-.v  in  the  15th century, and  to fade  with  the    election of 1884, when liismnr- K         •
was from the West (oast. too. the bulk el the slaves natives in gold and spices,   fin * effOHa, prosecuted    *'• -Ionia I Party iu order t'« he rtiari
were   taken,   inter-tribal   wars   being   encouraged fa aoSae three ecntun-v resulted in the creation of    stag,    All Una StTUfgis aeof tht d\\              \
by the slave traders, and the prisoners captured in numerous Portuguese settlements On the Weal and     Oiled  the diplomatic  world  of  I.
the course of time «ere bought and carried overseas. BS8t Coasts.    Tht British and Others followed hard    quarrels, whieh were fought h*   I
it   is computed  in  American   records  that   the npon the heels of the Portngueae m the attraction     fan  by  the comMing reliifimir.\.   *.;.'.        '
British were responsible in the twenty years. 1630- ©f profits from g dd and apiees with the birth of the    red with native blood owing t<  I
1100 for importing 100,000 Africans into the West Slave trade. contrmporaueou-dy  with much aeslous    thc   Preach   Partv    MMinosed   of   I
Indies and the mainland. miwioimry work.                                                                Ka.h<ni Mt* ,-„ UnU%h Ht%) ,
We noticed in an earlier lesson how the Spanish Tl-rough concern for Indus and to obtain a acre-   ant miaasonarieo.   KiagLe-opoldII.nl
Imperialistic monopoly of the Americas broke down togieal point of import-ine,. Britain was iu political    sm Sttrseted hy ftanlev „ .!,„
with the ns.ng powers of France und Britain, when occupation of the Tape of Good Hope before ihe   of the Congo, sttsut-oned the - v
Britain secured the monopoly of the slave trade to modern scramble for African territorj began to pro-    and d^paleh-M him on behalf of Uh I
supply the Spanish Colonies, shown i>* the Treaty teet Ihe interests of her Indian Empire again* the     Aviation ths king had found-d   |
of Utrecht 1713. French.   The desire to occupr Egypt waa al*o in.   all *!,»„« the bank, af the Cong	
This monopoly was conferred bv the British Gov- BUcneed becsuse of British inter.*** In ,uA,»               ... -,„„f„ ,;        ,       ,    ,,                                          ,
r ■-mm imii.mi mi-    **.* m imiia.           •expre-wme t»rr*fuuitd shhorrenee  •• *       i|     »
eminent upon the South Sea Com pan v. The exeat scramble of Furor..-  <.  \* ».   -    ;.    »t     i   it       .     i    i    >              ,           i                          j
1      .                                   ' .                            a" H  OI  r«urop. ^n j   ue.*-*- to At*     half ea*le> Arab slave trader*, wb                -.-.had
The extension of the slave trade was regarded rtCS started in the BCVentk-i he-r-j-tmsM* ,.f Am -—---«-     i                   *   ,  *                .         .             ,,
.,,.,„,.                                 h ■      **-mtttHi***m-s o-<au*e oi the greatly     hecn  revealed  bv  several  explorer*
as a capital object of huglish commercial polk-v, and extended development of ea*-it'-!**t it*A**a*tam \e   i**, i    *   • *,     u t    it         .     t v*
.                        .            ,. a,»iuuisi raoaaxty. wa had    to tne phiionlhroptsta of Europe to ap;
it became the main object of national policy to en- that ever aeeurrino ncriod of ,i,...r,.kk,.... ... i .                           t •*.*.*   .              »     ,
,.,         .        -            ,   ,            ;     , .                   wiru-jf p-nou oi *icprewuon and unem-     ntive, which b»* d** larr«t to lie ih. mot
courage kidnapping of tens of thousands of negroes plovment.  with  fall in*? nrisaj     Tl»»  r, .,  r    -xia    ui                           ,     ,,          .  .             tt-,     a***
...          .                    ,                     ,           * i    .         •   *■•» inuuu  prceea.     I ne taetor-*. whieh    n! re*?eiifration of sad-browed Afn   i              s <■■
and their consignment to slavery.   Chatham boasted brought shout a fallmsr one.. u». m-mUm.     ,«     i         .         ,    M^                 .   .
.                   *                  < •*               n *********% price wan not only the *tag     ley returned with the treati.**- in hi* I
that hm con,H«U w, Afnc..tad pUced almost the tmtxm of -raid prod-BtMO, l,„ al„, thl. ,m|,r„vfll    ,„;„„, th„ worl,, ,„ r,.Wi.11„. „,.   ..
otoh -Itnr. trade m BnO.hb.mk   tven P.tt, after mea... „f tr»n,Poria,i.„, with tl,. bofldln, „f rail.    tn. a.,1 in.l,Kmle.,« Ifrie„ gl
tiie war with rrance which broke French sea- power, wnvs and oceanic liner** .».»•..-,».,.. i^--                /        ra          ■     . ■ #    .
. ,    .            iU         -.       v    ,    ,         -     , ,                                         opening up large tracta of        Britain * chief object  at  tbu time v a» I
went back upon the position he had previously as- land in Ruxsia no.l  ii-ms-l «   „«►.             # n         .       .-.                   - .                                                  ;/
i   ^i         i         a*_                            ; a nuiaia ana America, causing a fall m ths    Francs out of the Congo basin, omnc I          : *
sumed.   The result was that in consequence of the cost of production of forMUti-*T« ««i -.-... .    .       i     »• r t     /*   .        *.   *   *                        i i.   .      .--.-!..
T> ... ,                        ,      .      ,,,.,..   . ^.          *  W'H"""" •■ »<*««iMutTs and raw material,    tial tsnffn bv which trance oppo<M*-l              •*"■
British conquests and under the shelter of the Brit- The same tseaoa of tra*mui*Li.li— k-»«.k« -..                         .           .      , **         ..     ,  .                  i    .
. .  a      A.      ,             ,   .                            .          »   a •                                  iransportauon brought into in-    everywhere     Lord tiranvrilr- did not tr
ish flag, tne slave trade became more active and the timate proximitv th<-*»e \mttAm ,«.„.. *-Ui u        i     .-.       ,,    "                         ,
,,,.;,.,,.,,.„. pru-aiuiu-. uu*e lain!-, over whieh. under the    II..   ami   Bttpportcd   the   Portuguca.    (i
hngliah slave trade doubled under Pitt. innr of i?old nt*t*At***ti«** *.;.      u-.   ....           . .           .                                                         . s..
v       tat*?*   t-ra.i                 In-      - ,                  production mi... - 1k,1. the capitalistic    whieh imssed counter claim*., baaed 0|
rrom lbbb to lr6b there were three million slaves industry had irnatlv a*««suUi  ..--«./                               ,                                         ,               t******m\
*mr,n**~\ Ka- -i. n ;♦- i    i      :.,.   ti.vi tT    . ,     ?        "<naIi> extended its onormoua forces   torlaal aehi*Mre«-sots of her exploren     Pwisj*
imported by the British alone into British, French of production in Kiu-h.i.,1   lv,,., „  -•                   ..-,.,                            ,                 . i.
,  u      • .   .                    ,    .                                 , „ ' rouuiun" ,"1 wiiriaiiil. hranep, t.crmaiiy and the    had elaumd it for eeulune-.. and i-             f fYeael
and BpaniBBl Ainsriean colonies; one quarter of a Eastern portion of tkm !*,.;»   i «,„.       /   »                      * ■          ,.                                      . -     i.   . „■   il.
;„•      ,-  ,       «                                  J /         '   n   " M Um   ' »'•*•« Mates of America.    ambiUons Portugal wa* supported b)               A
million died on the vovage. After Ilia ***nm-\m nr u*i .-.         i .       •   .                                                   •*•«     •**>? *********
r«*»Z tfifa-Li7as -i v           i i - .   n ♦• l !                    Um' n,,,!*'llt J»ll,»s{n«l wav   «boU-*h European ,H.«em had not
Between lC**ui-l,r56 slaves imported into British- petition broke onl soon* Hem   w*kla** -.. •
4                  ,    -            .      ,             .... miHuig mem, woteti at limes re-    guese aovereiffnitv   nun- reeoartiued
American colonies numbered two million and one dueed prices below the ro-t *r -.e, i.. .                ,
a        a     a        ,    ,■          . "              u-i«i*rt   ,n*   co***i   ot   pHMiuctloH    which     Airrccd  riot  lo (M-riinv tht* terntorv      «r         Hn»»«"
hundred and thirlv thousand (2,1-iO/iOO) endetl ha tariff *•** t   r    . .-                ..                     oaneii noi io mcupj mis nrruorj.
171fi 17*io «„ mZ***\m\Z Z «k«W^    l .                          ,,m,t "* r0IUlM,tl""» •« f'""*      refund  to rCOOfniSS   PoHUgSl's claw,,  i           g    *»
imnort!;I   nt    tl      vT          T         " ^ "T'r Sr!^ ^ "^ "iarkH"    *"*»»** ***** <*     U^U Government initiate,, nego,,,.  B     r88     B
ported mto the Aaaersesa colonies, or a total of 1 Tl:^France 1881, an,, ^ ,, a A> M,.Kml,.v tariff    ^^^  ^   ^   ™£  ^   „„
'.;.,. ;r., ,            ,                 *-.«*-., °     W'         UrUr* niH bdi* •Neeasfnl in staring   r>anea cavs one of har sxplorers power to mste
The *****} .„™-™ of ttw variou. eountri™ proved -» n,,.,.,, ,„ 20 ,.„„• tim„ lhat tll, ,r.ull. ,,f      \„   ^MorlutMM.   Q ,„„„,  ,-,   «*
' By the British            3M0O |££ '"""<' """i""" " """"" "^ "'"n "'*•    li"'""1 " ""r' "' j,,i"1  "•"' 0W " " '     Z
By the Portugese         10000 Belw.e,, Iwy,-. ibh .,                      .                       ***** n,,,">""'1 **********) '"',' - '"" n   '' ^
Bvth. Dnteh                              aZ „           "•>' 1 *•• 1W-tin- emu-ration from Britain,    Itkm from O-nwajr, &*m*nk WM now in the h»*
Bv the Pr«.eh *lm*\ ."T''     ",r"'- R'""i" ""' ""'•v **- "'"""""f    "f "•- "'■""»» OAoU*.   The der— mettto*
Bv the Danes     oT, *"" ***T, B"v""""-""'I """»>»» to top .hi, mov    nn afraid the Am-l».P.-rt,„-.,.-»e . „nv nl    »"'
The nei-vturn to' 1 iven,'o„l i„ ,.;/'r    r ""* p0p"^"" "'"W ••"•' •*» ««« 'h.y koum **    h.,rt their trade.   Th- Wnermann l.inv hid    "-'»' ,
ine nei return  io raverpool m the eleven (in- vious of.the colonud ..*.,<-„..•,.., „r -.t.          - . .               .           .                                           . .    .     >i iir")'1
d»iv.) yeara from W83-1T98 amonnted to £12.294, The-^f re        d    i T     "      ,     i'T     "' ■     * """""• "'"' '"'"" m. '" ""'   r'           W U«
116.   Liverpool monopolized five eiRhu of the Bri . pe.pIe a. d m...   fa        r  ,       " "'.T     '"* **    "T™* "' «""'"'w'''r- '*"'' ' f "<,|U0,I     S
tab .lave trade and three-aeventh, of tie Md .lave emmenta ttj " a. *L\?£%££ T»    u "2T   ''''"' ,r"'fi" '" """"'i"" V'^   ,   „.
trad, .f the worid.   Ther. waa the donble profit of their P,,»eJ,„ M^.     7   1   " r    T           A"    ""T""'' '""" " ,0"" "' """"^ '""'     Z ve»
filing U.e artiele. of Britiah m.nnfaetnre  largelv confined TLttoTtoiZ rlT,           I '"      Par'    '" ***^ ,W* ?"* ""'" "'"" ,)"r'"""
eotton irood^ di.po«d of i„ Afri« for 2 .Uvea'' whieh were ZZ\„2   <     *   " w""','     'm">"y'    "''* m'V""< '"' *** r"li,>"'
p«|jl and the profit from the -te of the ...v-a    „   eoaH 7   IT ,    tlthS T".'       '"" I "'"" *W '"" i"""" ww"!.dreeM
.          u      «-                    ... IUI'    i>ruiKii HtatCKinen, nlarmed at    vent on be.inisi- nt... *rno,*m   the treaty  ^»s '"'
U, Amenc*.    ********* ***"•****-J**l*r P™; the pr.gre»s of the Pom* on Uie We.t Co..,. ,„,k    ,a                   w, "   ,,     Kr'   ..,.,,d Ger  '•'"
by the Coloniata of tne iMorui \*aa ignored. while there wss yet time   A charter-w-h« tr--..r.r..i «-.   i».                      ,   ,    .   ,    >      ,i thii treaty-
•     * rx -j.     ..*k   ***** Q-ei-^t,«- «r c.„»» /^   .u^ #i                                 tnani.r wan granted or    Britain announced she hai   abandoned uu
Lord Dartmouth, the Secretary of State for the conferred upon a body of mcrehanta who   .„ui»-.    i -**.,. «            #                      n   i ... whicii Britain,
« .    •     •    -i-r-rr ,i....i..--«J • '-w* «ftnimr .ii/a™ ♦*,« 4i.^*-        #.i    ».                 niinnauis mho,  under    I.ntsr on a conference was called at win"'
Colonies in 1775 dclsred.    *e cannot allow the the name of the Royal Niger Company made treat-    Belgium   Holland   Portuga'   Spain,  th.   • 's   A
eolonies to check or to discourage m any degree a tea with hundreds of potentate* along the bankn of                                                              8*
k uniinn oi (Continued on page >4*1 WESTERN     CLARION
The Psychology of Marxian Socialism
Hy   H.   RAMIM
I Til*
LrrOR 8 NOTE.- The tollowlnR article forum ihe main
Uatu intr*xl">rtor* elUflae to llook I. of a asrsH st
LbooSi tt* * In oourss ot* preimration oo thi- sobjen
*   ,   ...  ready- 81 M>. With a t'r«-fa.e b)   W   \
'.'. , copasa, pales M root*, in ton- <,i ...
... stall osst i» rapininod kf i sawsdS ""tanas
-., <■ : ibat Basaetal straiu Hav-* porwittod t*M
. tarn  h»m<lr<-*1 eoplaa.    An »-r,. ..*iraK!n--
.   !   will rnai-le Mm to pro «**<l at <»*■ .
.,'   ,, j;    Th*  »u-\H-«t U important atel oa it a *******
%n. . ■ o|   Unosaaasa an»l • onirowr*)   pravslbi
jgrii ■•■li-nl*. n« **.»<!)•    Tre*t«<i from a Hater
U ets *■••'' ■»d ehors of » eevtsta mtstsrlnnsni
•   ■   iMsrsWy  #'-rroun«l*  tt  l'«>« -h-*in--y,
a    , -ur   of  »   So-ial 1st   laictttlcat/rr   sli
11 mt\
tad laUflBtlag addition to our sladi-M
7   v: .   School of Boeialism considers a*- valid
S   principle**  govcniin;:   -e   .,..',   - ben-
orn iad ex] Isnsl ry there..f.
■ ■   ■' thia work ii. to substantiate th
|n les in aueh a manner that, la tl
»   . >   the physical t*\ !«• -.f the |if<
r.:..   I 10 ;«-ty nt well a* it* pej ibolog
ta *bnll be treated sscompl
loea v they are naturally found to exist,
the Marxian vie* of the aortal pro
In rail"  em   rchonsiva.
If mm looks at the east amount of litersfon
hn*n Boeisltsm, *n< h a*» the earbr-r and elan
r*rk» of atsrx, Ettgess, Lafargue, Lenriola, and "
aa  •••       Dtctsgen, K-iuuky, B»x. etc-, one is
k • '  •     ■    Socialist Philosophy as well as the
F "      >"■« in lint  Movement efficiently dn
A le* capitalist aiwdogints engaged in teacl
,v'" ■*' Psychology in the public arhooU ai
8stmatif« I v    written some work* on Social Psj
' "■"     11    is bias intrude* bto these works
■ i writera' ii tereats in capitals*! and ■   [< - astiesl
J8saanoi >.-,! insthutiona thai, for the work
f** "     STf neither to their purpose nor in the pro
''""''   r inti re*t*.
lea dealing with tlie psychologies) as-
"•**■*■ ■■■' S       ;-,;•„ bttve not been presented beretofore
eorkern and general reading public in aueh *
***** 0 would illuminate the soeisl problem on it*
rntw nd# ;>n.i be of practical utility in lurtha    |
a ama] adjustments urged from the working ciasi
peal ftief
n lot tin.,- „f Marx and Bngels, Psychology wss
Iu!! ! l !,ranrb of philosophy and hsd no
f* stub!, of its own.
.,     ' f":  osfanea, Bngeht1 classic polemic
I" "'•■ing. slresdy referred to.    He therein reviews
I * wei philosophers, anaxgoru and&emocritusj I
P ■•' ahilosopbera, Baeon. Bobboa, tiecke and Homi
!^'!t Kmhim of the (Jeruuins. Kant. Hegel 81 I
*******, IS these were recogni-cl as advanced phil
[•wxal thst time.
•vsbol ■ ■■> at „ot referred to in those works ;»** "f
P^portsnee, ns it then itood nn a branch of phil*
PW dealing with the subjectivity of mind bj In
•Peetion, or objectively concerned with phrenol-
Tl       n
^» Science or Psychology is regarded today aa s
■^ w,,1|il» subjects the states of human conscious
'tfs" "all.-
"•>in«l  and all. their correlate human-life
,.,        c»Ued behavior, to qualitative and qusnti
« MialysU, experimentation, research and general
J0*-, just nn any other science proceeds to deal with
*«* Pbenomena;
j,     considerable amount of experimentation on dtl
cell,"]' f°nn*1 uf WftnJte life f**01" t,,,, »imPlfl nni"
^*0 amoeba to the more complex forms, such as
«a*hr. , h)^'[H- ****** ****, ***% &*m% raonkeys, etc.,
J l0o'i made in order to find out the simplest types of
jTWehological trait* correlated to their behavior,
Iiavo'l'' ">niV i,l,or,,H<»»g olmervations and experiments
^ |J«i made mi the infants of the human specie^ for
Purpose of discovering what continuity can be de-
finitely ssUUUed between animal and human life
' nM"/n   he Dmi^y or difference of psychological
dements w these forms of life.
it; ^e time an infant becomes an adult il is found
'•'   °««ch of iU experience U forgotten or eUmin-
: ■:■ selection nnd otherwise so segregated into a
ground "f """,;'l content that the adult will not,
reeogniae or ordinarily re -all into eonseioua.
'•   of his own mind, owing to its conflicts with
'        '    established  consciousness  standard  and
'■    " " Book vm. abnorms] Psychology.)
An adult often does nol know part-; of his own
thei fore, himself, owing to the peculiar
' '  '     -,! method of the mind mentioned in last
psrsgrsph    A itudy of child paychology is. therefore,
of no leas, if not of greater, importance than a study,
■ f adult paychology.
A bn ocfa of Psychology called Abnormal Psychology
: benomens of unconscious or subconscious,
i     • ■ •   n and displacement of mind parts, subnormal
■ minded, and the so-called geniuses, to sup-
ply '     IstS of psychology.
data of psychology gsthered from
I life, child life, abnormal individ-
■. em ititutc an insignificant num-
• r ■ •-,   . and the normal adult person as a social
:' the groups snd races, is now fairly sufii-
cienl      . -   orgai      I as can be applied with benefit
     I ems of Sociology.
T: • | .- | ' _•;. of mind or eons -iousness as cor-
relsl 11 the bfe of human aociety is no more an un-
detei •   ■ • speculation, but a fairly determin
ed, • r ' la nee, and of practical utility to life,
lagn i the sciei as of astronomy, chemistry, mechanics, pbysicJ and the useful arts.
Marxian school has reduced social science to
... •'. . :' m ; in ental laws and principles, thus simplify-
. g •■    •■'  |i >. >ial problem' the controversial element In ing reduei d to a negligible minimum.   There are
v,? .••    •  ... variety of •'socialisms" like "Christian
l*   '•   "Democratic   Sociali>m."   " Laborism,"
I other ut pian types, products of social interests.
Ti-.- thinkers of the working class today however.
-reement   ss  to  the  fundamentals,  such as
arc  iu
The Law of Surplus Value, The Theory of Value, The
Economic or Matcria'ist Interpretation of History,
.;•;■;       of social evolution through class
v...     •   ,    •,•..•.. eventually, the working class, by
Lgses  through   their  numerical  strength
..     g I, e, would usher in a new Social order:
The < ,i operative Commonwealth.
]i,   Socialist  Movement  lays emphasis upon the
Bjuilt-j   of  developing  cbiss-consciousness  amongst
the world's workers snd an intelligence in the social
-},.., as conditions on their mental side along with
failing economic conditions which the eontra-
r,tof thi fspitalist system of production and dia-
. ,„; ojt fast generating, in order that a desirable
,     ■ |   onatruction can bc accomplished.
We hsve mov the psychologiesl data on human be-
;,v,„. -md eonsciouaness, together with the methods
,,;;, procM8es of intelligence in the human spee.es,
;v,.vh PompriseS S v-rv large percentage of producers
workingn-en and women) and a very small proper-
ud Qn80f,iai, owning and exploiting group.
Tll, physical  conditions,  the economic situations,
, he phangM in the means, instruments and methods
of production directly affect the status quo of the weU
b,ing and standard of Uving of the members of society.
u tbe time of writing society is in the midst of a
.      nomifl (,.isis involving the non-employment of
j,,,, of worker, and a keen struggle is to   before
m*tlZe working classes to majntam thmr standards of
.. ,, „,.. in ieopardy through falling wages.
!-™«7h;fCVe JkingSay, and by the "onen-shop"
lD°r      , the employing classes, evidencing a given
1:1 '■     .1,.   behavior  of  members   of the social
change m  ""   ,tM
mt^th i Purpose of this work to investigate tlie re-
.Jl^.dsoUd eonditions nnd the behavior of the.
members of society, and reduce these relationships to
general principles and laws.
The mode of reasoning and enquiry followed in
this work is what is called Dialectics in contrast with
the modes or reasoning found in metaphysics and
formal logic. The Dialectic is now recognized as the
most accurate mode of investigating social and material history, principles of which are the following:—
(T Dialectics take into account the positive fact
that there is an unceasing change in everything: nothing is, everything is becoming.
(2) When two necessary conditions of an object
appear to be contradictory to each other, and if a synthetic view by taking them together reconciles the contradictions, the problem may be taken as solved. Thus
a Thesis and an Antithesis may become a unity by a
Synthesis of the two views. As an illustration we may
take the story of the two knights who fought over a
shield made of gold on the one side and of silver on the
other side, one holding it was made of gold and the
oth'-r asserting that it was made of silver, each knight
looking only at one side of the shield.
(3) Dialectics does not say yea yea, nay nay; it
collects all data and then proceeds to treat it genetically, through all its relationships, into a whole view.
Fngels has devoted a whole chapter to Dialectics in
his book "Socialism Utopian and Scientific" (pp 76-
rear-oning in contrast with the defects of the metaphysical mode in a sentence (page 80) which I quote
here- "the metaphysical mode of thought . . becomes one sided, restricted, abstract*—lost in abstract
contradictions. In the contemplation of the individual
things, it forgets the connections between them. In
contemplation of tbejr existence, it forgets the beginning and the end of that existence; of their repose, it
forgets their motion. It cannot see the wood for the
A drop of water is at one time hydrogen and oxygen gases, at another, time it is a fluid, still another
time it is solid (icei and it may exist as vapour. To
understand it it must be viewed in all its relationships,
and it is exactly the same with the problem of society.
Marx and Engels collected the data of history from
the time of thc primitive communes to the date of their
career, that is the state of capitalist development then
extant.   By applying the Dialectics to this data they
were able to formulate the laws of human society as
we find them in their written works and which the best
of the economists and the socialists of today take into
consideration when the problem of society is discussed.
When the laws of the social conditions and human
behavior are explained in Psychological terms under
the guidance of the dialectical mode of analysis, the
mental side of the social problem will have been described in as simple terms as the Marxian theories of
the Law of Value, the Materialistic Interpretation of
History and the Class struggle which are derived from
the study of the life history of the social organism.
It is intended to distribute the subject matter of
this work into 8 hooks, so written that each can be
studied separately. It will bc left to the discretion of
the student to rend the books on the basis of the particular phase of the psychological aspect of Socialism
he feels inclined to follow independently of the order
here laid down.
Book I. Introduction to the Psychology of Marxian
Socialism. The principles of nerve energy and the
human nervous system.
the efficiency of the brain process is supposed to be.
Neurones in this part are correlated to the states
of consciousness, and therefore to the adaptive behavior of the organism. We repeat that the relationship of the nervous system with consciousness, behavior and general psychological phenomena is so intimate that one does not exist without the other as
far as human knowledge is concerned. But this
branch of study is very extensive and one must refer
to the works specializing with the subject if one wants
to study it in detail. All that was necessary here
was to give a cyrsory but essential account of the
principles of nerve energy and the nervous system. ?AGB EIGHT
Analyzed and contrasted from the Marxian
and Darwinian points of view. By William
Montgomery Brown, D.D- The writer, a Bishop
of the Episcopal Church, smites supernatural-
ism in religion and capitalism in politics.
Comments: ''One of the most extraordinary
and annihilating books I have ever read. It
will shake the country." "I call it a sermon.
The text is astounding:—Banish the gods from
the sky and capitalism from the earth." "It
came like a meteor across a dark sky and it
held me tight." "Bishop Brown is the reincarnation of Thomas Paine and his book is the
modern Age of Reason." "It will do a wonderful work in this the greatest crisis in all history." "A remarkable book by a remarkable
man of intense interest to all."
Published in October. 1920. Fiftieth thousand now ready, 233 pages, 2$ cents or six copies $1; postpaid (Canada 5 copies for $1).
Send M. O. (United States rate).
Thc Bradford-Brown Educational Co., Inc.,
Publishers. 102 South Union Street, Galion,
Ohio or from
401 Pender Street E., Vancouver, B. C.
Socialist Party of
TV*, ths  Socialist Party of Canada attlrm our all**-
lanca to. and support of   ths principles and procramrao
of teba revolutionary workta-** olaaa.
Labor, applied to natural rosoorcaa. products all
wealth. Tha prosont •ooaacnte aysten lo based upon
capitalist o-wnarship of tfc* meana of production, eonee-
qoentJy. all the product* of labor belong to the capital-
let otaen Tbe eapltailat la *ber*for«. maater; tbe
vcrker a slam
So long ae tbe capitalist elaas remain* In poeaeaaioa
of tbe ralfaa of **»*rerncnent ail tb* powers of ts* Stat*
will be need to protect and'defend it* property rifbt* ta
tbe means of wealth production and R* control ef tbe
product of labor.
Tbe eepttalint myatam -rtvs* to th* capitaliat aa ever-
swaUIn** stream ef proflt*. end to tbe worker, an e-rcr-
laersasls*- m«a*ure of misery and daf-radation.
The Uitcreat of the wort*da« elan* lie* la eettlaf Itaelf
free from eapttaltat eiploMatfc-n by tbe abolition of the
wage system, under which tt*** exploitation, at th* point
ef production, la cloaked. To ecoompllah Chen aeaenslt-
ate* the tre-asformeUon of sapstsJls; property la tbe
matin* of wealth prodnetion Into aoclaUy controlled eeen-
omie force*.
Tbe trrecreaslhle conflict of intereat between th* enp-
ItaUat and tbe worker nsccaaaiily expreseea Itaelf aa tt.
struegle for political supremacy. Tht* I* th* Claaa
Therefor* w* eaU upon all worker* to organise nnder
tarn banner of the Socialist Party of Canada,  with th*
object of ormquertn*- the poUttcnl power* for Ch* pur-
of sorting op and    enforcing* tbe econc-mic   proof tbe worklnc class, aa follow*:
1—Tb* t-nsantfoi-nrntion. a* rapidly aa possible,
of capitaliat property  la   the    mean*   of
wealth production (natural resouroes, factor-
tori**. mUla. railroads. *U.)   Into ooileetive
meana of production.
I—The organisation and management ef lnauatry
by tli* working da**.
S—Th* estafallakmant. as epeedUy as possible, of
preduotion for use Instead of production for
-     OF WAR
Prafaoe by tha author.
(Continued from l'ajre tit ^
were invited, and later Russ^-Austrta, Hungry,
Italy, Tnrkov and Onnany. They agreed BO a "*••**■•
rami Act of the Western African Conference." We
were told tlie powers were to deal with hnmaiiilatv
inn interests, nnd yet tho Qeneral Art itself had
only two ont of 38 articles dealing .with hnmsnitar-
i.misni Iji order t-* prevnt conflicts between Ru>
ropean powers ii ^a.s agreed thsl nil marking of new
territories must he preceded hy due nniifiVati'Ui to
all the Towers. The Powers wish t«* prohibit the
sale of*l>o;iz». ami firearms, hut  t'-in Tade WM ***
good a paying speculation f<>. them to create ma-
ehinery to dVal with tin ir prohJhitioa f.Ynuan
bOOCe traders prevented it in 1886 and an ed -<f 1890
WSS not put into fo*'*- until 1902, owing to the opposition of the traders of Holland, whose j?ov.*-
ment feared the new regulations would -M-Hou-dy
affeet their trad.* in the Upper Congo.
In  1894 the Congo State and   Hritain  **ij?ii<d  a
boundary   eonTention   exchanged   foe  leaashoWa
Hritain receiving recognition in WW part of the
Sudan at th" south-nest corner of l.ake Tanganyika
and a narrow strip connecting Ijramla with \*nke
Taniranyika, Oermany STOUSed such lively protests
that Hritain was forced to gr»8 up the small piece of
land whieh would have -ompleted the Capo to Cairo
The Congo state was eonspelled !»y Prunes to limit
her territory on the northeast of the Congo. Kiiiff
Leopold II let out districts to eomjianie*. hut was
careful to retain a lart'e share of the eapital stoek.
Trade increased fnou #'i.'Xi*M*>o in ]<<'! to *:"7.00<V
000 in 1907, while larire fortunes wen- made hy the
king and ether shar'-hoi.!---*.    it j* estimated that
King Leopold took *J20,000,000 (twenty millions) dollars out of the CottgO-,
The Congo Free .State respited from the Ilerlin
Conferenee of 1885, whieh recognized thr International African  As*o-"iation  found-d hy  King Leopold II. of Belgium, which is known since 1908 as the
Holeian Conco.    Native n-fhts in nine-tvntha of the
Congo terrritory were de dared nonexistentj thin
t^ok away the risrht of the natives from the planta
snd trees   whieh   yielded   ruM-er,   oil, reain.   dyea,
etc.; they had no right to any animal, vegetable or
mineral, and any European endeavoring to purchase
from the natives swdi produee were guilty of robbery.    The natives were taxed for revenue and aa
they were alienated from thc means of life were
forced into slavery by the most brutal atrocities that
have been recorded in history.   The fabulous divi-
denda in rnv)"v'r. with nominal shares of 100 dollars
at on* lime freely dealt in at 6,000 dollars and upwards, was too profitalle a proposition to attend to
humanitarian protests against the horrible mutilation of thc natives.
The CottgO system lasted 20 years, and in Stanley 'a
time the population was dense, estimated at twenty
to thirty millions.    In Hill ftri official eensiut showed that only eipht and one half million people were
Left,  the decrease  being a  result  of the horrible
butchery of the natives.      Stanley wa* more inv
pp-ssed with the diaoovery of great stores of ivory,
gums and oil than his finding of the leal mis*ionary,
Livingstone.    In an interview with De Fontaine, at
tho time financial editor of the New York "Herald,"
Stanley dreams of the lovely mansion house with
its lakes, etc., lo- was going to build when he had
tapped the wealth and resources of Central Africa
wherein to rest for the remainder of hia days.
The natives of the Congo, paid for services in
kind, had to trade the paymentg back again to the
fir 09*7. * Ommtm,
lam oooies ap, 10 seats
*" ^Fa* 1*14.
— of the-
(Fifth Edition)
tor copy  — io oeats
Fsr 25 ecpiss  fj
Feat Paid
Company's stores, so they reeehred nothing forth,
lost land of their labor but ft p„j,M,. exftt*
The unlives rebelled against wodttferced labori*
inlrodueed 16934808 and the ill tr-a-,...,*- 0* Z
natives was increased until European powers \tm
forced to interfere, when the oonditi . ' j^
Uely known.   Belgium was rite-end to (al        ..''■',','-
the Congo and no longer leave il w, the IumhK „f,;'.
Ktrife and his company.
The    Hru**.el«»   e-M-r.-spou.bnl    ,.f   ii,„   t . „,
•TuneH,      '2'2  Al.gllHl   190S,  w,d:  "H'-,.,  ;,
nn* snxious to ihare in the movement of < .!,,,,.
i.on and eommerce for it is essential to t
omie ptogreai of the Belgium nation,'1
(Afriean Continent Continued m Son [asue
Literature Price List
Clolh Bound j.„
1*0*11*1 • «iut'-om-!> of Pniisaesay (Dtatssas nu
Woman IToder 8ecS*ltsai (n*-b«rti j-*:
rn«l  Of Ihe   Wafts'   iHHftb*) j*--
« o'-JHions of tho Wotkinn t U»» la J!*i*-;*r.:   . \m
taasset*) }***
A   l»   C. of K*o?«lton  fitr-.*****) |5 j-
Booaomk t>itorsamiam  tv&rcc) -*•?,
<-+'*] *tv, %tt<\ .Modern 8ctSaO< <ivr*f|i     * j;-
I'hrsiral fl*a « of Mint an 1 Mors!*  ?» |] -*
l^tslmarlis c*f '-Jfte-stiee Soej*ji*m (Bajwls) i:*,
!n-t«*^H»i Hartery of BaaSSMl (H  DeOiw ut;
Tb-*. Sitjd«-r*t'i  Mart  fAvattilt) |iu
steataUao of ia* M** of o«**ci (Oraai Alt* ins
RiT*initm and har* l*ro«r«-»* (Hayermfl) Ittl
Kroly'ioa of i*rop<*rtr (l*f«r**ti-»> m;
f"riH*|**» of I'olHiral stSSasSsy (Man) st TS
RasOBSttSS *nd «'o*m!#r Renototio*-.  (Msn) I! U
rhti'*-oohi<ai amasys CUstsmm) im
ifi*«nrr of i*»r'-i COBMBsma (LtsssaStfoy) i.
Aaesew* Roeisty 't- It  JSore»n» nv
Inimdo^lfrin to RoefOtSfS <Ant»nr M   Levis] 1'."
' s;l'all»l Prt>ftMc«»oa (First Was »ftd "2r*-*2    !>*;!■>?•
< ap!**l.~ toI   I. <SI*nl !!***
•siras** f*nrvlv»?-i <M«*ot*)                    . 1'
VnaJ Piut-sSSM m fSoctal F*o!MUcn .!>*!»! M
**«r»*n**<- and ltStSS*aC8an  (r*-f*fm»n> .    W
Th# Milluat l»r*?"#t*r*«« fXewts) >*
K-rolntlon  <toel*J snd Orsmnie fl^wls) M
Tba rlr*r'%\ Roiolttlloa  (Kaal#l»r) >*
t'tmat mnjsst* rKaolaky)       -. *«
rmltaalsm (ttaitj) M
Ti»# Worlds fa*»*tt»tuiHn« (Psmiaao* t*)
Fihie* aad Hi*ior* (Ksataky) >*
Uf» snd n»a(h 'Dr  ■  T*l hm*nn> tt
law of ?! otrnoftit   (Moor*| W
fk»-"taJ fliudl*»« ftAf-.rctii»)
r;*rw» of Jsllod tn Man's (II  fl  rrmoemt **"
Papmr Covtr* I r* **t
Twd T*tt*t on Hlftnrr (« BlSSlMsSSeS *rA 0 Pt" !«) at
Tha rrlmlnsl roort Jods#. and The Odd "Tttel [I B
Mai I ***
f •-**• a y
ommnn!*!   MBoifwStO jjj
Wsrr-t^ahor snd c'«i»Hal *•**
Thr* Vr**e*\\ T.ex>*\ovtiie S>s?«nt »Frof »'  A  B0B8H      J*
t-Uw'aH«m. rtoz>i»n aftd Bttemtttie ]['
Kls-r* of th* farm
Msnlfesto. S   l»   of r
Krohttlon of Man fFrof  Bol#rh#)
f*a*jaoa ot llaUat In F-o-J (l-sf»nm*>» J^
Th* 8«nfr*«r* of Rorltl !ti*-*«l* fltorophrl*-* ","
Shop Tall* on Eeonoml.** fMarcy) ]'"
V»lu#. Frle* snd Frofl!  (M»n» [J"
Beonomle 'ans#s of Wsr fl^rklei **
The Frot*rtton of F^hor ln Pof!«! RumU iK-vp! ;t*
CfrB War in Fran**a 'Msrti J^
Ktffhlaartb nmtnslm fMnrtl JJ
rhrl-rtisnlim and rommnnUm 'n'«*.op W  M  Brown)   m
Ousf-tltv Pat a* on f>an«r Covartd PamoMri*
Two Kasays oa RtStOCy : '" ./
rrlmlnsl Oestti J«dir-- *■ «**",
I omreimlsl MsnlfMio M f°<   ' ''  ,
W«*«»-!ai-or and ranlisl ?'  ror-*>« {J-J
Frrwnt Feonomle Sriiem W "•;*" { .,
Porlallnm. rtot-fan and 8el-»nfinr H *''<•■'•' •*»
Slat* of th* Farm ?* r0',M J!^
Manlfeifn of «   V  ot C •'    " :,!<>* [',.,
Fvolutlon of Man *   •'•, "" J, IT
Feasas of n**ll-»f In «od -   -*1 «"• '" Jl'.",
Valo*. Prfr* snd FroSt ?<i r':'!'" !,^
Keonomle f'snaes of War ln rt ',' * J; ,\
fhrlailsnlsm snd rommunlam I 0*0** *'
All Prices Includs PoMspe.
Msk* sll mona-ra navaMe to I   IfoLaod.  WI ' -v ■"
sStreef. Faist. Vanronter. B. C     Add dlrteount on -***r*
All iihow- lltfrslur* ean he eMalned at Ihe -mm- I*rwn
f>ost paid. from-J. Baaderaon. n.)i ITI*, Winnipeg  MW-
(This is ss hsndv n wav ss nnv to send your iubl*1
Wsstem Clarion, 401 Pender 8teret East
Vancouver, B. 0.
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