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British Columbia Federationist Feb 6, 1925

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mmm Columbia federationist
A  Biological  View —We  Must
Faoe Conditions of an Artificial Civilization.
Nature Wipes Out by Periodical
Epidemics the Surplus
Human Product.
rPHE physical Ufe of man la governed by ithe same inexorable
laws us those which control the life
of other mammals. We admit, without argument, the fact that every
species of the lower animals, if allowed to exercise* unchecked lta natural powers of reproduction, would
completely overrun the earth. The
terrific death rate, especially among
the young, is the only factor whieh
prevents this catastrophe. in the
paat history of the human race, na
aural law hus operated to maintain
a fairly even balance between repro
dilutive powers and ihu effects of
war, pestilence und other destructive
forces. But, today, we have to faee
the conditiona of an artificial civilization which has produced the two
new phases affecting human life,
namely industrialism and humanHar-
lanlsm or Christian charity,
England, an older country than
ours, furnishes an excellent illustration ul thc working ont ol! the laws
of population. L'p till the nlnteonth
century, It was practically a self-
supporting country, living upon the
products of Us own soil. During ihi.s
tunc population increased"slowly. Although birth control was nol practised, tbe birth rate was balanced by
tliL* appalling ravages of diseuse. The
Ulack death destroyed between two-
thirds and three-fourths ot the population of England. Peoplo in country districts, ordinarily, died us rapidly as they die now In the slums of
great cities. Nature, by the methods
she applies to rabbits, wiped out by
periodical epidemics thc surplus humnn product.
When England became a manufacturing   country    conditions    radically
changed.   The capacity of the nation
to support a population became limited only by the  power to exchange
I    its manufactures for food produced in
*    other  parts of  the  world.    Between
k   the years 1S00 and 1900, the popula-
f   tlon   of   England   increased   300   pet-
cent.     Large   families   were   everywhere   the   rule   and   the   birth   rate
rose    lo    3G    per   thousand    in    tho
Concurrently with the rise of industrialism, there arose the application of Christian charity, labelled hu-
maitftarianlsm. Unlike the Greeks or
Romans, who practiced infantcide,
our Victorian grandfathers were disposed to "rescue the pershing nnd
care for the dying." Free education
free meals, free medical advice were
called into aetion to assist In the
"baby-saving" campaigns. The poor
proletariat wns encouraged to breed
to the limit, while the thrifty and
saving members of the community
were taxed to provide nsylums. hospitals and reform schools to preserve
(J~la Inferior progeny. Consequently,
the upper strata limited their •families
to two or thfee, while only road
.sweepers, dock laborers and others
of the unskilled workers cun tinned to
indulge in large families, England's
colonies and dominions overseas were
expected lo submit to a process by
\ which tho dumped ber slum-bred
population upon them under the
guise of "immigration." Being self-
governing, they naturally rerused to
be receptacles for the surplus of tbe
mothor country. Today, thanka to
industrialism and modern so-called
hiinianitananism, there exists a problem, whicb only scientific birth control can solve.
England has been chosen for iho
sake of illustration, bin every civil-'
Ized country Is faring the same conditions in regard to lhe uncontrolled
bieedlng of defective types. The only
remedy Is scientific birth control
made available to the masses through
legalized clinics.
At our weekly meeting on Tuesday
evening at the Municipal hall we hnd
n fair attendance.
Delegates from city reported progress re the central committeo now
forming to include North and South
Vuneouver in one central body.
Delegates were elected to Interview
the Reeve and Council on Thuraday.
next. Discussion arose respecting the
unfair methods of lotting work out to
contractors and bud- con tractors from
whom It Is difficult to get the wages
when earned—thus putting the unemployed In a worse position tban
Tt was stated that Vancouver was
likely to boom In tbe next ten years,
so tho problem to exist 'till then becomes more acute until the authorities grant some relief to tide the
worst cases over.—E, D. Brewer, secretary, 4854 James atreet, South Van.
Will  speakv >' "ler  auspices  of Women's  Internajip
Ii-   ,'e of Peace and Freedom on
Wedneso^y, February 11,1925
at 8 p.m.
752 Thurlow Street
Some Observations
Ex-Soldiers and Others Gravitate'
to the Oities Looking; for
Soviet Russia Will Not Recognize
Loans to Former Czarist
| By John Pickenshovol]
U. .1. ASHTON of the Soldiers Settle-
*-* mem board says: "While il is
true lhal we have men out of employment in our cities in the winter, our
percentage of unemployment is not
unduly heavy and some of them could
undoubtedly, find work in the country or the lumber camps If tbey were
willing to leave the city."
It is ulso true that many of the
returned soldiers that that individual
Is engaged in "settling" are among
the "unsettled." True, many of them
are In the cities, but that is largely
due to lhe fact that the conditions on
the land aro so unstable, that they
have to gravitate to the cities, whother for good or evil. He says that the
unemployed eould find work In tho
lumber camps. It so happens that
most of Ihe IngrtJt.g' camps In British
Columbia bave bcen idle for the
grenter part of the winter. If be
were in Vancouver during winter
among the unemployed men, instead of holding down a government
job at Ottawa, and learned something of the wages and condition*
offered for farm help, he would not
l,e surprised that men were reluctant
to devote ibdr energies to the tilling
of the soil. Regardless of the low
wages paid, by tho time he or any-
else has cleared a few acres of
stumps, be would not bo too enthusiastic ubout working Ihe land.
Mental froth, such as he offers is
scanty advice for unsettled men living in equally unsettled economic
conditions. Of course a steady government job Is a different kind If a
proposition than being the flotsam
and jetsam on tbe unstable sea of
economic circumstances.
a * +
A woman made $1,500,000 when
wheal leaps to $2,0!i per bushel. Tlie
woman In question calls herself a
"dirt farmer." It is a safe calculation to make, that Bhe would be a
long time tilling tbe soil before she
woilld reap a harvest like that. The
man who leaves Vuneouver in the
fall to "throw botjuets" on the prairie, kids himself Into thinking he
Is going to reap the "golden grain." j
He may be garnering the harvest of
'•grain," but judfflng from recent reports from  the stock   exchange,  tbe
Help the press that's helping
you.   The daily, capitalist press
is no friend of yours, comrade!
j   Why help it?
Says City Needs Cleaning: Up—
University ReUef Work—Re
Five-Day Week.
At.Tuesday night's meeting of the
Trades and Labor council a thorough
cleanup of tbe unsanitary places in
thc city was urged, Delegate W. (i.
ScrlbbOttB stated  that  the    city     wun
•quipped with a village stair of
sanitary inspectors to do the work ol
a largo and growing city,"
There wore four Inspectors t" look
after the city whicli was divided Into
four parts Tor the purpose. Nd sanitary survey of thc city had ever been
ittde, he declared.
It was said that small-pox might
easily be attributed to the filthy
spots In some of the elly districts.
The authorities should take some
action toward enforcing better sanitation.
The question of relief work at\ the
university site was discussed, if men
wished to atop at the camps there, it
wns said, they must have blankets, or
make the long ride and walk, night
and morning from and to work.
The Pninters nnd Carpenters'
unions were in favor of a five-day
Harvesting of the gold is done by they
who "toil not, neither do they spin".
Apparently, what wo seen tn the local
press about the farmers making
money must be correct, that is, making money for the stock exchange
gambler. Meanwhile the price of
bread has gone up.
Leonid Krassin, soviet uintessador
to Prance, says Russia will not recognize loans to former Russian governments. Logically, why should
that country do otherwise. Deserted
by Its former allies, and deprived of
its share of the spoils, Russia lias
been compelled to work out Ita own
economic salvation. Now it is asked
to make further sacrifices, in the intorests of tlie financial vultures who
thrive on wur. If Russia were to do
so, it would not be the preaent but
the future governments which would
do tbe paying. The children born in
Russia for the next 25 years would
be doing the paying. The Czar did
the borrowing and the children of today and tomorrow are asked to do
the pnying. The other countries of
Europe have mortgaged the future
population to an embnrrasslng extent, and are using every li\trlgue
possible to force Russia to endorse
their insane and unjust policy. Be
cause the Czarist regime preferred to
starve its own poople In order to fatten foreign bondholders, Is no reason
for the present adminiatration to do
likewise. Nor do wo have to revert
to the former Russian government
for examples of that policy. Alt
Europe todny is starving its population in the interests of the avaricious bondholders, Here in Canada
we were recently told by none other
than Premier MaqKenzle King, that
the govornmont would not be responsible for the debts owing to
those who fought and worked during
the war. In that case, if it Is justifiable for the Canadian government
to repudiate the Canadian people,
then the present Russian government.
Is justified in repudiating the foreign
financiers who want to bleed Its people. According to established policy
In ail capitalist nations, the bondholders muat be paid to the last drop
of Ibo peoples blood, and the "capi-
tallsl dictatorship" has issued hs
mandate to Russia, that It must conform. So long as tho "red flag" em-
blematlc of proletarian blood paid
for the greatest sociul revolution of
history flies over Russin, the debts
owing (n ibe bondholders wha supplied tho bullets for "Black Friday"
will bc repudiated. The same can be
aald, for the financiers who supplied
material and men for the counter-
revoluntlonary efforts against Russia,
und now have tho temerity to ask
through "thoir governments," that
i1"' People of that country reimburse tbem. ir Russia cannot see
any humor in Bitch efforts, li certainly has vivid recollections of or-
fflos ot persecution by tho Czarist
regime, and possibly has dreams of-
their repetition, If capitalism is ablo
to overthrow the soviet government.
However, Russia has proven at least
one Important fact, that the working
•'lass Is able to "mind Its own business," when it decides definitely to
ceaso looking after "the master's
(By Peripatetic Pagan.)
one of the difficulties Labor
leaders must have to contend with Is,
that while their Members of Parliament are perhaps closely in touch
with the harsher realties of life than
some other members, yet In their
speeches and proposed remedies they
seem to be further removed from the
real problems than the members of
the other parties. That men. who
talk most freely of the universal brotherhood of man, talk about it before
they have any real conception of it
■ . . that "we desire that wider
brotherhood as much as the members of. the Labor party." Holy Gee!
who does he include in the "we,"
and when did "we" ever show one
tinker's cuss (for workers, brotherhood of man, and the people, before
the Labor party put the hand-writing
on the wall, writ large!
* •    •
"Public Pays ln Wheat Gamble."
Of course they do! First, second,
third and all the time—they always
do and always—well, I don't know
about always will. One of these
times and pretty soon, may be, there
will be a deuce of a blow-off and
speculating robber barons in wheat,
meat, wool, rubber and other necessities may get a hand-out from an
Irate bad-tempered world of workers
who won't stand for it any longer.
* •    *
Read what E. F. Wise said early
this weclc at an important Labor
meeting, that "un orgy of grain speculation ut Chicago and AVinnipeg ia
responsible for the rising price of
bread." Well digest that, nnd shoot
it out next time one of these mathematical nuts tries to prove that It is
all caused by worhKshoi'tage.
*•    *    *
Oh yes, I am a good Canadian all
right altho I did happen to see light
in the home-land) and am proud of
now calling myself Canadian. Nature
has done fine for Canada and nature
muy well boast, but have thosC*"who
have and have had the control and
development of our country any
great  cause  for boasting".
* *    *
We have boundless resources and
we have lots of hungry- unemployed,
Tremendous yields of wheat, but,
even at the high price of bread now
in Rritnln we pay 'dearer ■ here
weight to cent. Unheard of possi
billties, yet so many idle hands. In
debt as nation, province nnd mttnici
pality, such a weight of it on a little
over eight millions.
How ia it wc tolerate and have
tolerated a system by which millions
of acres of land have been filched
from the people?
* •    *
Let us Canadians show practical
pride In our country and organize,
criticise, propagandise, teach the
common sense of Socialism to the
glory of a real Canadian democracy.
* »    *
Well, of course If they have not got
tbe thousand dollars, perhaps (?) the
brewers will lend it to them. What
u hello ubout a glass of beer! And.
as .1. It. says, they mustn't sins and
they mustn't dance even nfter a glass
or two of it. I can Imagine Johnny
the Cockney, saying, "Pretty muck
that to drink."
Patronize   Federationist   advertisers
our churches ure becoming tho
wmrters of n monopoly, and the
Working man sees and feels It, There
is no real democracy i„ the Church
In this day, with a few sfartllng und
gloriouB exceptions.—Rev, Dr. Plerscn
He who has moat humanity Is most
n man and therefore tbe one best filled to rule over other men. Hence,
humanity Is the foundation of society, and the best and noblest of all
the virtues.—Confucius.
Meet the man wo all know: He is
the follow who la temperamentally so
constituted, that if he can't bo thc
"big duck in the puddle," he will refuse to waddle.
Socialism means, tn short, the practical application of Christianity to
IlTe, and has In ll the secret of an
orderly and benign reconstruction.-—
■lames   Russell  Lowell.
Note   the  dato—Fri
canonist"   Day—ail
y.   oth—"Ft
v—every tl.
Let l's Sing
Some weeks ago lhe singing ot labor and pi.pular -songs was Introduced at Dr. Curry's Friday evening
meetings. Last week a number present expressed their dealre lo engage
an instructor, and organise a choir.
This Friday a musical director will
i>e presont. and ail uble ami willing
lo assist in this good work are cordially Invited lo attend al the C. I',
hall,  '..HI   Homer street, at   7:80  p. 111.
Dominion General Elections
IT IS high time to get together and prepare our organization for the approaching general election if we are
to do effective work.
This is true of all parts of the country, but especially
so of the big up-country constituencies, where the electors
are so scattered that they hardly know each other.
A meeting is being arranged at Silverton to organize a
branch of the Labor party, and we hope to hear of similar
action throughout Kootenay.
A campaign fund raised by small monthly subscriptions would place the party in a position to do effective
work in the crisis of the eleetion.
Burns9 Anniversary
pions Cause of Oppressed in
Prose and Poetry.
More Scottish Vernacular Verse
Written Since Burns' Time
Than Previously.
(Concluded From Last Week)
T)UT It was not only against mater-
ial poverty that Burns directed his
attacks. It being within his power
to give utterances to satirical expressions, probably unequalled in literature, he found himself, in thc early
part of his career, right in the heart
of what ultimately, very largely
through, his interventions, became a
nation-wide conflict between nation
allsm and established religion. He
took the side which was the only possible one for him. He stood for liberty, always. The side he took waB
the unpopular one, and by hiB
zea^ he made it the popular side.
The people were not desirous of
being set free from the thraldom of creeds. Their personal
devil was with them always and has
left his name associated with every
dark glen and thick copse, ovor the
length and breadth of tho land,
They were satisfied to quail before
the all-seeing eye. and vengeful arm
of a God who "sent ane to Heaven
and ten lo hell, a' for bis glory."
Burns was on the side of the new
theologans of his day nnd to him hfs
duty was to set the people free, not
from corrupt church government but
from the slavery of their own minds.
Munis' appeal was to the sense of
humor of his people. In half a dozen poems, written In the leisure moments of n working farmer's life, he
did in.nv for the Intellectual liberation  of tho Scottish  people than  all
Truth About War—Its Causes
and Effects Must Be Explained
in Sohool.
Heir of Ancient Tradition Cham-f work,  you  must  of  necessity ap
proach finally these last days in
It is a strange fact that most of
the brilliant geniuses who have
flashed across the pages of our
British literature have left us to
ruminate  of what  might  have  heen,
Personally I feol, that would to
God he had never gone to Edinburgh
and that be had never become a
After the disaster of Elllsand,
Burns, in an endeavor to secure himself and his family from the extreme rigours of poverty, and to
thereby hold himself free fn his
hours of leisure to follow the muse,
joined the excise, and lt seems to me
a matter of supremo regret that this
which was Intended for the rock of
his independence, became the rock of
his serfdom against which he dashed
himself in vain to secure release.
He was in his blood and marrow
a patriot, and from his earliest days
he had placed Wallace, and Bruce
on a pedestal and worshipped them
as representing his highest ideals of
patriotism. His patriotism was no
narrow and selfish creed. To him a
country enslaved was a country
to be set free. His love nf country
was indfssolubly associated with his
country's honor, and *a passionate
love for these family altars
from which rose the Incense of sacrifice made for liberty and righteousness, a Justifiable pride in the deods
whicli hnd made his country famous
tbe world ovor for great men, brave-
hearted women. This beloved land
of "his auld respeckit mithor,"
whose greatest story It wns, that It
hnd stood among the nations first
"or  the  principle of independence.
From this sprung his love of liberty, personal and national, and as
he bolieved In personal honor ao
wns he jealous of thc national honor
Although in these Inter days bo
Was   bent,   and   that   bending   was  a
>cess of menial conflict which Is
critics   have I Dettei* left unthoiight of, he was not
aught  them  In  their weak-
;'   bis   personality
"Nicky   Bon"   or
achieved since that time.
His   humor,   bitter  ami   klndl
turns, directed atfalnsl iheir Ingn
beliefs,  i
est part.
Tiie evil spirit, who iu tlieir crodu-* Wj""
lous minds, nightly stalked tbe earth, '
accompanied    i>y
neks,   lost   niucl
when   add
broken. Bo loft no doubt either to
bis contemporaries or To posterity as
to his attitudo towards these events,
tho French revolution, and the American war o! Jndopcnduncr, which
insumlag Kurope ami laying
ndallnn.fi of n  new  nation  tn
| America.
j Every word spoken in favor of
Washington and tho Ameriean patriots ami i-vcvy word spoken In sym-
! withy with the common people In
Prance, were words spoken ngainst
the British govornmont. his employers, who lui.i control of lit., matorial
If you are really in sympathy
with labor, he a booster. The
Federationist is out to do its bit.
Help it.
Labor Party
TP YOU subscribe to the
•*• principles for which the
P. L. P. stands, write your
name and address plainly
below, and send to Secretary Federated Labor Party,
Room 111, 319 Pender West.
•n souls il<>
rlghl   Unit
(I    li.
Text Books Should Be Beviied to
Teach Students Friendship
Between Nations.
[By h, B. J.]
TOURING the Oreat War, one of the
strongest accusations against
Germany was that, she had taught
her children militarism ln school and
thus made a mlllstarlstlc nation longing for domination.
Immediately after the war this accusation was conveniently turned Into
a pattern for our own schools, and
for several years a furious wave of
militarism passed through all our educational institutions. Publio sentiment against small boys carrying
muskets for an hour of military
drill soom made itself felt, and already the cadet work In our schools
has been greatly demilitarized, and
good physical exercises introduced.
If, however, physical exorcise ls to
replace military drill entirely In our
schools why retain the name "Cadet
Corp"? This carries with it all the
suggestion of wor and domination
and the idea of "dying for one's
country." In such an atmosphere lt
is difficult to teach the much-needed
truth, that if young men live intelligently enough for their country
they can prevent the necessity of
dying for it.
Nevertheless in many countries text
books have been revised In order to '
teach children thc Idea of friendship
between nations. Japan, Austria, the
United Slates and Germany, ns well
as Grent Britain have mode splendid
efforts in  this direction.
In Canada our text books still belong to the period of Jingoism and
national arrogance. If wo are to
escape tho reproaches not only of
other nations, but of our own children wo must demand the exclusion
from our readers and text books of
passages that glorify war or foster
international rivalry. In their plaoe
let selections be used that teach the
causes of war, the heroism of peace.
Md lbe unity „f mankind. When
"■111 such a time come?
Miss Agnes McPhall, M. ,,., „„-„,..
mg in Ontnrio recently, wns both
courageous and truthful when she
said; "Unless the fads regarding war
""'I its causes arc made available In
ie school text books there |8 littlo
likelihood thai the presenl widespread wm* psychology will be displaced by any universal movement
for peace,"
When these facts aboul war begin
- appear In tho texl books we shall
bid good bye to the grand old glorification „r war that has wnt mmtons
of young mon to kill each other un- *
der the delusion thai they wore* attaining n high ideal.
"Kondy buys ready, wo'll Hki,, and
well conquer again and again,"
1,1,1 ""' "  ut age nnd tradition
hangs  abont  sucb   poems,  nnd   thoy
1,1,1   ""•   lilsai ar  without   protests
n'"'"   "•■■■"■'   «> insider  the   post
more sacred than the future.
I" •!»• batllo Him is niging. ,,,„
light notion for every worker ami ior
ovory lover of justice Is to do his full
port, iu. matter nl whal temporary
loss, to spread the light m marshal
Hi" army, in shatter tho Inst fortress
ul oppression, and establish ibe roign
of Liberty over the oarth. Chas M
Wo speak of the errors of the past
Wo, with thai glorious presenl <• b
Is opening on us. shall never enter
"ii It, Bhnll never understand It, nil
we hnve li*ni*ni in boo In lhal past,
"**i   error,   bul   Instnlmenl   of  truth,
hnril-fought-for    ir     wrung    rait
Willi pnlnful nml heroic orfori, - .1
A.  Fn.iiili*.
Filled   fu'  o'  lowln'  brlmstano
Whoso riigln' (lame and soorcl
hen I
Wild  moll   llu   hardest   whiinslnm
The half-asleep starl  up wl' foi
And ihink they hear ii roarln'
When presontly it  doos appeal
"1'waB lnu si,nn* ncebor snoran—
Asleep nml  day.
Hums questioned  alike tin*  ne
slty I'm* human wrong and Hi" ni
Officers   Elected —D.   Charlton
•President—Next Meeting' To
Be "Hat Night."
Al   the  olei
I m
relationship with tin* Dlety.
The grt .reator to revere
Must sure become lhe creuluro.
But still the preaching can'l  forbi
And even the rigid featun
Vet ne'er with wll  profane t
Be complalsanoo extended,
■An atheist's laugh's n poor exchnng
For Dolly offended,
ul in plenauro'B
ui   officers
lh"  -1*   '-   '-   rHBdward'Beli
lo in the personnel
• ii. lho executive. Thoso elected for
tin* year are: ProBldent, D, Charlton:
vlco-proldont, W. lives; »ecrelnry-
trensurer, George Mitchell; executive
member*, II. Wostnmn nml  II   Web*
happlnoBB—so   far  as
I happliios, •!•■ ids ut , „ material
[fncis—is uni bound up win onomia
conditions? Ami b.™ shnll un equal
opportunity I'm* the pursuli uf hapnl-
jiiess In* guaranteed to nil snn* by n
jguarantee   of   economic   equality?*—
nny nf tin*
s committee will
in  good baseball
Interested    In
When rambllnt
llollglon mny in* blinded,
Or If Bhe gl'o ii random siln. *
It may bo littlo minded;
Bul when on life we're tempesl
A conscience lnu a canker,
A correspondence flx'd wl' Heaven
Is sura n noble anchor.
I iln mil know how olhors feel
about It, friends, but I nevor study
the life work or Hubert Hums with-
ran n pang nf regret, to think that,
from   whutever  nnglo  you   view  his
A Icntlon  r.u'tiis  t
ii now !••• obtained I
imbors.   The sunns
ngo  be  clnil   In  hi
| players     ra*
Tnnight. February 6th, the mombors nml frlohllB will meet ill Ihe
I if Mrs. Dnvld Reos, 0262 Chester   Btreet,   noar   Forty-ninth   avenue
I tnke     Fraser     enn      I'm*     u      snelnl
The next eiliienllnliiil mooting will
lie i: "hut night," wben each member
ivlll make uu Impromptu speech nn
lome subject tu he drawn from tin*
b.H. This will provido un opportunity
fnr   some    fun   ns    well    as    serinus
Km* nny further Information, phone
••iiiininiit 2.58-n, ut* eraser r.r,l-i_.
I bellov, Indeed, that under ordinary
circumstances ibe menus ul life wero
more abundam during ihe Middlo
Agoa than thoy are undor our modern
experience.      There   wits.   I   am   con-
vlneeii.  im extreme poverty—Thorold
The opposition In socialism will nut
••nine from the wealthy. II will rmna
from the stupidity and apathy of lho
very people mosi to in* bonoflted by
it'—from working men Ibeinaelves.—■
II. (luyfoid Wllshlre.
There Is n prlclplo which Is n bnr
against nil Information, ami whieh
will kee), a mnn In everlasting Ignorance: ihut principle is contempt
prlit* to Investigation,—Sponcer.
The lnbor movement Is not one of
self-seekers demanding lo get their
rights, but uf brut hers seeking lo put
things In rights.—Henry Demurest
seventeenth yeah.   No. H BRITISH   COLUMBIA  FEDERATIONIST Vancouver, b. c.
IRruary 6,
1925    I
British Columbia Federationist
Published every Friday by
The   British   Columbia   Federationist
Swaln-eas and Editorial Offi-co, U29 Howo St.
The policy of Thc B. G. Fedorationitit la
•ontrollt-d by tho editorial hoard of tho Fed*
•rated Labor Party of British Columbia.
Subscription Rato: United Statos and Foreign, IS.00 per year; Canada. $2.50 per
year, $1.50 for aix montha; to Unions subscribing in a body, 16c per member per
The Federatloniat is on aale at the  following newa stands:
E. J. OALLOWAY 910 Granville 8UW
  1071 OranTllU Iteeet
r. 0. MEWS STAND SSS Granville Mn«t
JOHN GBBEN  181 OarraU StrtM
 Oor. Haatinga and OotamkU Avaar
.Dor. Oarrall and Huting! StnaU
...._ _ 134 HaatUgs maata Bail
 135 Haatinga Stmt But
 -...183 Hastinga Strwt Waft
t\  est
'..Oor, Hutings and Abbott Strufci
W. H. ARMSTRONG 2402 Main Street
BEN TOON'S BOOK SHOP 421 Granville
BOULT'S BOOK STORE    313'/a Gamble St.
 999 Oeorgia Street Wait
 548 Georgia Streot
PROOHNAU & GATES ...160 Broadway Eaat
F. TURNER 915 Main Streot
B. A. WEBSTER 6993 Fraaer Street
SHOEMAKER & McLEAN... 6 Loiadale Are.
A. MUNOEAM 754 Columbia Street
DEPOT NEW STAND Interurban Depot
DAN MACKENZIE Columbia Street
  Oor. Yatea and Government
HORSE SHOE STAND.. 1223 Government St.
W. LEVY 644 Yatei Streot
T. A. BARNARD 63 Commercial Stroot
W. H.   DENHAM. Newa  Stand
EUGENE BELLEVUE Box 822 j we   should   do   something   to   protect
ALBERTA jour own interests.
since the unrest following- thc war,"
ho declared.
Another Senator, Bruco of Maryland, attacked the amendment as a
dangerous encroachment on state sovereignty, designed to check personal
liberty.   What next, we pray!
These men deal with lies and falsehoods -lhe the devil might be expected
to play with sin. They are the archenemies of humanity and human progress. Everything and anything aiming to improve the life of man, is, to
them, of bolsheviki origin. These
latter, we feel, should bo complimented. But such .senators, such hypo
crltes, can they boast of anything so
To such men as theso, state sover
elgnty and personal liberty, means
their right to treat human beings, in
dustrial slaves, ns mere cogs in there
great machine, which Is being operated and controlled for the beneflt
of the few. To them the lives of men,
women and children are as nothing,
compared with the fulfilment of their
desire for luxuries, wealth and power.
Surely It cannot be expected that the
worker.-, are going to stand for such
Inhuman treatment being meted out
indefinitely, to them selves and I heir
PPARENTLY the shipping interests down on tbe "great lakes,"
n Eastern Canada, are having a little
dispute among themselves, and us us-
ml, they have called upon Iheir
'Ighthand men, our'so-called Federal
representatives to come to their assistance. Canadian boats will not, according to .a recent ruling of the
United States attorney-general, be
permitted to carry to American ports.
Now, our Canadian shippers would
have us believe that their ships are
our ships; that our dignity and national honor is boing trampled under
foot   by   our   American   friends;   that
  204 Eighth Ate. W., Calgary
 109 Eighth Ave. W., Oalgary
...808 Centre Streot, Oalgary
 304 nrat Streot W., Oalgary
 125a Eighth Avo. E., Oalgary
...„ 810 Second Stroet E.. Oalgary
FRIDAY February  6,   1925
the role of adviser to the labor
leaders. He tells them that, though
in actual practice they aro more
closely in touch with tho harsher rO'
alities of lifo than are the members
of any other party, yet in their
speeches and proposed remedies they
seem to get furthor removed from tho
real problems than the members of
any other party. They should follow the lead of the old parties!
Certainly a knowledge of the stern
realities of life is essential if one Is
to be a useful and intelligent repre-
Premier Baldwin admits lhat the
members of all parties, othor than
the labor party, are lacking In that
knowledge. How then can he intelligently represent the great masses.
Baldwin, like the labor representatives, represents the outlook of thoso
witb whom lie is In Intimate touch.
In his case it is the big interests.
His conception of universal brotherhood la so at variance with that of
labor's, that he falls to grasp its real
Significance. He thinks that real
brotherhood can bo attained under
©ur present competitive system. That
Shows how little he knows about it,
*r if he does kno.w, then he is obviously i.pposed in it  being realized.
We frankly admit tho need for ad-
Vleo on the part of many
bur  leaders,   but   we   fall   I
good in Premier Baldwin's
Tho time is fast approaching when
wo will come lo realize, lhat we receive as little consideration from
Canadian ship owners as from American ship owners. Their greed for
profits is as pernicious in its influence
upon our citizens as is the greed of
the Americans. If wo were really
wise, as Canadians, we would really
own, control operate and build our
own ships co-operatively. Then we
would not need to worry about such
restrictions. In spite of our ship
owners concern over American restrictions, we are quite aware of tho
fact that thoy are much more afraid
of a Canadian co-operative system,
Thoy would have to vanish.
JOHN R. CLYNES, lord privy seal
In late labor government, ls reportod in the daily press to have asserted that, "there fs, however, an Increasing suspicion that more can be
done by them (the workers) within
thc limits of reasonable human endeavor. So far as restrictions of output may be due to the foolish notion
that the less one man may do the
more is left for another, this is the
very worst doctrine men could adopt
tn the interest of the workers thomsolves."
Clynes Is liko a few moro of our
would- be leaders in our trades union
movement both at borno and abroad.
He either does not understand soeial
economics, or Is playing Into the
hands of the masters, in such an In-
siduous manner as to render himself
I his position safe. .Some of these
leaders are exceedingly anxious to retain thcir newly-attained standard of
living, evon if la doing so, they are
being carried on the backs of those
thoy represent themselves as serving.
It might bo an excellent idea If sucb
loadors were compelled to return to
(be ranks lo keep their viewpoints
In harmony with the hend of (he
tion without education is being reduced very rapidly.
A great effort is being made to
eliminate illiteracy, and "many kinds
of educational activities are being
State administrative departments
are well organized and elliciently controlled.
Religious institutions havo complete freedom to exercise their religious beliefs.
The church has been disestablished,
and is now entirely maintained by
voluntary contributions.
No religious instruction is given
In schools or other educational establishments,
Every effort Is being mado to improve ihe moral life of Russia, and
prostitution, gambling and other vices
are rapidly being eliminated by educational effort and drastic state regulations.
By tho creation of workers' clubs,
rest houses, sport and physical culture centers, trade union organizations are securing for their members
trado union benefits in addition to
real wages, which is much appreciated.
Millions of new capital could be
properly and safely invested In the
development of the enormous economic possibilities. . . . Russia has so
far improved the material and moral
conditions of Its people as to have
earned a permanent place among the
European nations.
When the report of the delegation
is issued in full, it should not only
be in Ihe hands of all trade union
organizations throughout Canada, but
big business and farmer's organizations as well. Russia is a growing
economio power, and no nation can
any   longer   afford   to   scoff   and   Ig-
e this fact.
niHE SUN of tho 3rd instant, In a
1    special     front     page     editorial,
kes an attack on the British junkers, comparing their doing with
Iheir Prussian brother nuts, telling us
how they, lhe Bri'tisb specimens, with
their paid press (Oh. my aunt Maria!)
are determined to head the British
empire in  the same direction as the
'Ussian    beauties   did    the   Oerman
How the press—subsidized press—
loaded with leading editorials in fine
ponderous jingoistic strain urge tho
good Canadian to build up a prosperous free proud country and so
forth, on their particular lines and
Of courso the junker, the jingo of
the profiteer, the gambler In food
stuffs, do all those things. They have
the press here and practically everywhere.
They publish the news thoy wish,
market movements, crop reports,
dished up to suit their schemes. These
are all part of the box of tricks. Does
not the writer of this Sun editorial
know, as woll as we do. that what
is being engineered just now is in no
particular a special attack on Canada,
but that the peoples of Great Britain
the colonies the world over should be
good and accept what is, according
to their (the junkers') views, and
not seek to control their own productions, markets, utilities.
The Junkers know and they seo
the rising tide Retting stronger, that
the peoplos all will take their affairs
in hand sooner or later and, by the
token, probably sooner than they expect.
When disgraceful wheat pools, meal
combines, aud market riggings of all
sorts will be clean swept, their affairs
will be, intelligently and properly
handled by tlie people for tbe people.
Don't lte unduly alarmed, oh, anxious one, tlie British juniter press,
the Canadian junker press only aim at
one thing—to halt the rising tide of
tho world's socialistic activities. They
know their misdeeds, greed and
cruelty are perforce being attacked
and they are—just scared!
THERE haa boon rather an extensive orgy of Bumbling In wheal
of Into. There has been, in fact, an
excessive amounl of gambling in gen
eral, throughout tho world, n is e
pernicious habit at its best, but when
It comes to gambling in wheat,
food products of the peoplo at Iat
It Is aboul Ume thnl it was laker
hand, by those most vitally concerned,
the masses.
Nothing more effectually demonstrates tho Iniquities of our presont
system than tbls present orgy of
gambling. Millions of mon, women
and ohildren, who today are living in
A stnte of semi-starvation, in a land
Of plenty, aro going to bo pushed
further down, How far aro we going
to allow those human vultures to carry on their nefarious business. Men,
Women, arouse yourselves. You have
Other enemies than the Germans. Our
Worst enemies aro nearer homo.
T1HK  l.ritisl
I   appoints)
TTHB British trade union delegation
I ol the In si trade union
ivostlgato into conditions
I'D issued a partial slule-
■ conclusions, ponding a
hlch will be issued with
in Rum
full ro]
ill  the  I
i ■!.-■.
SENATOR BAYARD, or Delaware,
charged in lhe flrnale, thai tho
Child labor amendment Which was re-
Otntly urged In lhe United Stntes was
pari of "a communistic plot to cause
Industrial and social strife In the United States." "Its apparent defeat is
one   of   the   most   encouraging   signs
tubers of the delegation to
re; Mr, Puree!! (chairman)
nlon congress, Mr, Fred
Bramley, Mr. Bon Tillett, Mr. Herbert
Smith, Mr. John Turner, and Mr. A.
Flndloy. Nono of theae representatives are bolshoviks, or extremists,
ami all are prominent In their re-
spective organizations. Their full
report will bo eagerly looked fur-
ward to, and will have a prof pun*
influonco on the political life or lh
Labor party, as well as the Connor
vntlve party. The following Is a partial summary of tlieir conclusions:
Social industrial, and oconomic
ei,milt inns" bave enormously improved" since the Hritish labor visit
of 1920,
Russians have almost balanced
their budget, and financial stability
was  more secure than  expected.
Industry Is being rapidly developed
espoclatl electrically.
Workers' housing conditions are being rapidly improved, and bousing
schemos provide "for the erection of
model cottages superior to some of
the Govornment bouses provided in
Oreat Brttlan."
Workmen's clubs, holiday homos
and rest hpUSOS are also being used
for education of illiterates, Inchul
ing children and adults, and the pro
portion of the working class populii-
tho next war. Speaking to school
children at Deal, he said: "Prepare
you, ye boys and girls, for do not
think there will not be any more
war, because there will. ,'.'_,'..
Although you are only children now,
when the next war does come— and
come it will—you will be called upon
to take your part."
Alas! poor children; but ours is
the task to teach them and the world
differently, and with fervent prayers
for the blessings of peace and no
more war.
Oeneral Sir Ian Hamilton, when
unveiling the war memorial at
Crewe, said the tears and blood of
tho old wars left no trace upon their
memories. The Iale war Itself was
passing away from the minds of th
new generation. Unless something
entirely unprecedented entered
liilokly Into the hearts of mankind
he orphans they were now bringing
i]i in tbeir turn would go to war
If II was a game, and find it, as tb
bad found it, a grave. . . a feelli
of hopelessness came over tho man!
win. wished lo point mil to his fellows tho wonders and beauty of
peaco. All be could do was to try
to show tbem the futility of war.
J3o long as thoy were still unveiling
memorials there yvafl a tendency to
sny thai they would all have been
slavos now had they stood out together with tho Unltod States. Who
dared to say what would havo happened ? They must not listen too
muoh, anyway, to tiie men who
mnde tlio war. They were bound lo
crack It up. Tbey must ask themselves one i|iiostlon when thoy heard
thoso speeches.
Imagine if the British cabinet of
July-August, 1014 — vacillating as
they woro known to have been—
bad beon vouchsafed a prophetic vision of those there upon tho plinth of
Crewe's meorial, inscribed with so
many mimes ttiftt ono could hardly
stick a pin In between them. What
would tbey have dono then? Would
John Burns and John Morley hnve
boon tbo only two to shrink back
from tbe suicido of a generation?
•    •    e
Thus Oeneral Hamilton: now rend
another view:
The Earl of Ypres, „8ir John
French, sooms fairly    certain    about
Civilization has produced two
kinds of robbers. The robber de
luxe who robs according to law and
goes scot froe—and the common
ordinary garden variety who breaks
tho law, and pays the full penalty
when he steals a plug of tobacco or
a pair of breeks.
The latter is oftener the victim
and result of the former, and is
harmless by comparison. The man
who robs according to law is powerful—a man of lho church and of
social standing—and for this reason
Is far more criminal, and moro dangerous,  than  the  petty thief.
This power for evi] and Its far-
reaching effects can be seen at intervals in Its unvarnished audacity—
as for Instance In the present wheat
Here are a few sleek, well-fed,
powerful men, able through their
control of press and government, to
carry on unmolested one of the most
diabolical gambling ventures known
In modern times—a gamble not In
wheat, but ln tlie lives of men, womon and childron—men able to say lo
tlie helpless masses, "Thou shall, or
thou shall not live according to my
decree." Greater power the kings of
old  did not possess.
In Europe millions are dying, half-
maddened through starvation, millions practically know no olher food
than a crust of bread. Now gamblers decree that even this dry crust
shall become harder to procure,
Tbey decide, these rich sub-humans,
to ring fhe last drop of blood out of
theso miserable victims of war and
enforced poverty,
In England the diet of millions Is
tea, bread and margarine. At best
these millions rarely if ever get a
square meal. Tlie mother must ration out the bread so that all will
Jiave a share; but now that the price
is soaring tho condition of these victims may better be imagined than
It will mean less bread for the
father and mother—in not a few instances, none—so that the children
may got a little. It will mean no
lunch for the children going to
school and to work. It will mean
lhat many parents will be compelled
to see their babies wilt, sicken, and
die. It will mean a lowered standard
of health and morality. It will moan
that more mothers will be forced out
of their homes to supplement tho
wages, or the dole. It will mean that
men and boys will be driven to steal,
and that women and girls will swell
tho ranks nf beggars and prostitutes.
The petty thief and the burglar
are hounded, jailed, lashed, and ostracized. He gets the full penalty of
the law, bul the worst enemy of society, the siimblers in life and food—
the robbers de luxe—lives in luxury,
is honored socially and often knighted for his business ability—his ability
to rob the weaker members of society. It is not the first time these
gamblers have held the world by the
throat, and wo can rest assured that
those sub-human vultures will continue their robbery so long as society
harbours so many fools. The petty
thief does most harm to himsolf, but
lhe thief de luxe, directly and indirectly,   kills   and   destroys  nations.
When will the masses arise to the
occasion and demand that those, the
roal enemies of society, be driven out
Where are their mothers and wives'
Aro thoy ignorant of the nefarious
business In which thoir men folk aro
engaged, or has closo association and
luxury dulled their finer senses to tho
cry of hungry mothers and babies?
Gambling Is wrong—but gambllus in
humnn lives is a crime of tho lowest
Scenes at Government Employment Bureau on Powell Street;
Scramble For Jobs.
Hard t<> Bear
She—My husband certainly does
enjoy smoking In bis den. Has your
husband a don?
Other She—No, he growls all over
the house—Williams Purple Cow.
The neighborhood busybody is
culled a snoop, but tho person Who
gets paid for the samo thing is called
an Investigator.—Illinois Stato Journal.
Our advertisers mako It possible foils to spread the gospel of Labor.
Wiow your appreciation by patroniz-
ik them on every possiblo occasion.
Lnbor Is the real measure of thp
exchangeable value of all commodities.—Adam Smith.
All beginnings are easy; It is tho
ulterior steps that are of most difficult ascent nnd most rarely taken,—
The jtrentent assistance thnt thr
renders of Tito Federatlonist can rett-
dor its nt this time. Is hy wM-urlmr n
new subscriber. By doing so ym
spread the news of the working cIhbs
movement and assist ua.
Gregarious Seagulls Botb Large
and Small Foregathering at
City's Garbage Depots,
[By John PIckenshovel]
QN THE corner of Slocan Street and
Grand view Highway there is a
depot in which the city authorities
are depositing refuse from all parts
of the city. If the reader is possessed
of sound intestinal organs, and is not
too sensitive of the aroma usually
arising from city garbage depots, he
or she might witness, as the writer
does every morning what he considers to be a splendid object lesson of
a very much pronounced situation
in our midst.
* *    *
We will arrive for example some
morning at the place abovo mentioned. Here we will observe what,
at first sight, appears to bo a poultry
yard. But the poultry in this caso
appears to be a flock of sea-gulls.
We will halt thero for a brief spell—
or as long ns our nostrils will stand
it— and  make a  few observations.
* *    *
We notice there are quite a flock
of these birds. We notice also that
thoy are quite gregarious in their
habits, that is, they appear to associate  in   flocks   or  herds.    They are
id to build their nests ou the
ground, or on rocky ledges, and are
able to walk on land, float on water,
and fly in the air. Their food consists mostly of refuse lhat floats on
tho water, though thoy also feed on
grubs and worms In sand or freshly
turned up soil. Tbey are wholly or
partially migratory, and move in the
winter fro mthe colder regions of tho
north to tho more temperate south,
The larger species prey fiercely on
other kind of birds, whilo the smaller content themselves with a diet of
smaller animals often insects and
As we staand and behold them, we
note a very strong similarity in behaviour to thnt of many othor animals. We notice a bird is picking at
some piece of partially decomposed
vegetable or animal matter. It is
soon joined by another bird possessing a similar appetite, which proceeds
morally or otherwise to help tho
other devour it. This does not meet
with the favor of all concerned, and
an argument starts up. As the dispute continues, another bird, hovering around In the same region proceeds without much display of conscience to grab hold of the subject of
the controversy and make off with It,
to the accompaniment of much
squawking on the part of the other
birds. Some of the birds appear to
be more peaceable tlmn the others,
anda content themselves floating a-
round In the water near-by picking
up what floats on the surface. As
we stand there becoming more and
more aware of the apparent similarity of their behaviour with that of
thc human animal, we suddenly notice some of the birds taking to flight,
and hovering for a while over the
dump. One or two of thom start flying In a certain direction, and are
followed by the rest of them. They
appear to he much excited over
something. While wondering what
may be the cause of the commotion,
wo hear in tho distance, tho sound
of a motor vehicle. It is the garbage
truck with another load for tho dump.
The scene then becomes one of great
animation and ns the truck reaches
its destination it almost appears as
if a riot has started. As tho vehicle
dumps its load over the pile, any
words tho writer could use would nol
describe tho condition of animation
that prevails. By that time, the spectators have seen enough—nnd possibly smell enough—for one day,
and   then   move   in   the   direction   of
the city.
* *    *
Tho next scone wc will visit is tho
govornment employment bureau on
Powell Stroet. Wo see a largo numbor of men standing both Inside and
out. Thoy aro a small portion of
Vancouver's unemployed. As wo enter, wo can scarcely move for mon
Tbe air is pulrlfiod with tho exhalation of tho men assembled. Some are
standing while others are silting.
Some aro absorbed In silent thought.
while others are engaged in some argument with their fellows. Somo are
reminiscent of the. days of lost opportunities, whilo others are young mon
standing still hopefully on the threshold of mnn hood. Most of thom are
standing near a counter on tho top of
which fs a wire railing, But they all
appear to bo gazing erstwhile at thc
boards on the wall for that whicli
comes and goos like a phantom—a
lob. Tl will be noticed that tho hoard
is covered with "vacancies". The
whole thing is vacant. Whatover the
men may be doing, bo they quietly
sitting down reading thc morning
dope sheets, or trying to decipher
crossword puzzles, or he they on-
gaged in some animated discussion,
their minds are nevertheless pitched
to a point of expectation. While wo
are standing there looking on, our
minds reverting bnck at times to the
sen-gull scene we hnve already witnessed, we suddenly hear the telophone bell ring. The place suddenly
becomes animated. The men rush to
points of vantago at the counter
Each gets his registration card ready
to pass over the counter. Thoy, o
courso do not know the subject mat
ler of the telephone message. They
seem to think, however, thnt It Is a
job, though when, where, or what
kind, they know not. They don't
know whether it Is a job to excavate
a sewer, or a Job as a bank managj
They don't know that it is ev
but they are there In expi
are closely watching the!
of the staff back of tho cbtfnfeiC Soon
ono of the staff proceeds to write
something on the board. The noise
and bustle that then follows reminds
us of the squawking animated seagulls we have already witnessed. The
notice is to the effect that 60 men are
wanted to clear land at the university site at the munlficient wage of
$2.00 per day—a wage that was con.
sidered fair for laborers twenty years
ngo. Inside of a minute, the required
number of cards have passed over
the counter, and just as we have witnessed In the case of the sea-gulls
continuing around picking up the
remanents after the garbage truck
has departed, so in the case we have
just described, those who were un
able to get their cards over the coun
ter in timo, tarry around waiting for
the next job to go on the board. As
Wo continue thero, we are much impressed with the possibility that what
Darwin, Huxley and others said about
the relation of the species was not
so fnr wrong after all.
Canadian Book Shelf
[By Rionzi]
•JJENS AND PIHATES,"  by KvilUaili
Arthur    Dencon,    Tin*    Ry'erson
Press, Toronto.
/"■ANADIAN readers should welcome
^   :•  booh  from lhe pen o! W. A.
Deacon,   better  known  as   "(. uidide"
ol' the Toronto Saturday Night.    Although   a   stnunoh    Canadian,    Mr.
Deacon's   philosophy   of   life   in   nol
"chauvinistic" or provincial.    Hi* possesses  a  spark   from   the   lire   which
Illumines    "time   anil    the    diverse
ei*as."    His boolt is mil hard lo read,
Whimis.al humor (loslm* from  main
page of these delightful essays. Hut
neath   bis smiles   there   is  n   great
, |    Store Opens at 9 a.m. and
Closes at 6 p.m.
At the New Low Prices
**■ silk hose with lisle top
and narrow sole, in black
and white, as well as 21 of
the new season's most fashionable colors. The new price
is $2.25 a pair. Heretofore
Also full-fashioned pure silk
throughout, with narrow-
fitting sole; black, white and
21 new colors. New price,
$2.85 a pair. Heretofore
—Drj\.tInlo's   Hosiery   Shop,
Main Floor
575 Granville Street
Phone Seymour 3540
99 O 9
merely tho outer garment
ing a rare knowledge of life and Its
lining. Wo must, with ;i blush,
ee with him when bo snys, "Canadian literature Is produced without
cheers from us nnd the makors of lt|
buy one-way tickets to New York.
By the recent death of Pelor
MeArthur. journalist and poet, on hfs
homestead in Bkfrld, Ontario, wo
have lost one of tho sturdiest and
most picturesque figures in the world
of Canadian letters. From his poem
"The Stone," I would like to quote
a few lines of rugged Whit man esq no
"Tremble,  yo  Oppressors!   Quake,  ye
Financial Pirates!
Your dny Is at hand, for there  is a
man loose in Canada!
A  man  to  break  through  your legal
A Theseus to copo with your
corporate Minolaurs,
A Hercules to clean out your Augean
stables of grafters,
A man who moves stones  from  the
path of his fellows!
And makes smooth the path of the
And such a man may move you!
Tremble, I say!"
[Note—As many enquiries reach
tbis olllce from time to time, tho editor will reserve space to deal with
such matters, under the above heading. Communications addressed to
"Notes and Queries Editor" will be
handled as quickly as space permits.
ALLAN      SCOTT -YoU     arc     quito
right, bread is dearer In Canada oven
than iu Britain. Market reports of
the 2nd Rive ihe 4-pound loaf aa at
11 ponce; that is .4 ozs. for 22c.
Vancouver bread Is IS ozs. for 10c—
work It out and then—think. This
is Cnnada lhi- grain producing country of lbr .world!
I-:.   GRAY—Ri
ng your query. Wo aro Indebte
ho Citizen's Rosenrch Institute of
Canada for figures whicli you will
find on another page of this issuo.
X WILSON—F. .1. Harris, Mrs. A.
Smith.    See  roply   E,  ORAY.
P, A., Kamloops—Thanks, will
'eply noxt Issue.
UNCERTAIN JAMES—Your question Is a poser. Wc don't know how
to uilivs_e. As a Socialist wo know no
boundaries, but wo hate a good Canadian to go South because of slackness of work. Let ua say this much
—soon, perhaps' sooner than any of
us expect, a wave of Socialism may
waft our lenders up to power in
Britain, and such a movement wllj
affect us here iu Canada doubtless.
Wo Bhall profit by it and tho renl
good times will be with us, all and
overy. Now, In tho Stales, may bo,
thoy have more to no through when
tbo cloanlrig up comes tban bore In
Both  Tnlkcrs
A schoolmaster wroto this brief
criticism on a boy's report: "A good
workor, but talks too much." When
tho report came back signed according to rule by the boy's father, it
bore besides the signature this feeling retort: "You should heor his
Wonderfu1 Dresses
From Back East
HAVE yon seen them In the
"Famous*' windows] Yon
never sine such cn)»tlvntinK stylos
iitul bountiful rnlnrs! And through
exception-ally   lucky   buying   wo
rail Boll thom nt prices fnr below
Willi! Iboy'ro renlly worth! Conn,
find  see  for yourself I
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To meet tho desires of many clients,
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sparkling apple cider in pint bottles,
either puro sweet or government regulation '£% hard apple elder. These drinks
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Established 5* FRIDAY February   6,   1925
Thoughts of a Nineteenth Century  Thinker—"Glorious
War Does Not Exist"
[By Frances Wills.]
"Today force is called violence,
and begins to be judged; war Is arraigned. Civilization, upon the complaint of the human race, orders the
trial, and draws up the indictment of
conquerors and captains. The witness, History, is summoned. Thc reality appears. The brilliance is disr
sipated. In many cases the hero ia
but a species of assassin, The peoples begin to comprehend that increasing the magnitude of a crime
cannot bc its diminution; that, if to
kill is a crime, to kill much cannot
be an oxtonuating circumstance; that,
lf to steal Ik a shame, to invade cannot be a gloty; that Te Deiima do not
count for much In this matter; that
homicide l_ homicide; that bloodshed
is bloodshed, that It serves nothing to
call oneself Caesar or Napoleon; and
that in the oyes of the eternal Ood
the figure of the murderer is not
changed because, Instead of a gat-
low's cap, there Is placed upon his
head an emperor's crown. * * *
Let us dishonor war. Glorious war
does not exist; il is not good, and It
is not useful to make corpses. It
cannot be that men should bo born,
that people should plough and sow,
that the farmer should fertilize the
fields an dthe workman enrich ihe
city, that industry should produce
marvels, that genius should produce
prodigies, that lhe vast human activity should, in presence of the starry
sky, multiply offorts and creations,
nil to rosult in that frightful International exposition which is called a
field   of battle."
We shall all do well to remember
these words of the great French
writer. The now year 11.25 cnn bo
made a better year for us all if wc
boar In mind those truths that were
uttered many years ago. And they
who are proud to call themselves
sons of Britain * * * and still
there remains something to bo proud
of in that name—In that nationality,
ns Iu every other—and they would do
woll to remember that Britain's honoi
is nt slake in nunc tlmn one Issue at
the present time, particularly as re
gui'da those races that are realizing
themselves und their possibilities.
Freedom is supposed to be the greatest possession of tho British. Why
then should thoy consider it a less
precious possession of tho "subject"
races. Surely to the peoples of India
and Egypt and tho Soudan the wish
for freedom and Justico must mean
as much as freedom and Justice
meant to thc English, oppressed by
the foreign yoke of their overlords
in the fat-off early and medieval
periods of history.
As to us who wage the economic
struggle, wo, too, do well to bear in
mind what Victor Hugo said: "If international wur is wrong and hor-
rihle and futile, so is class-war." The
desperation and chaos to which the
present system is leading can never
be cleared up by blind hostilities
against we know not what. The fight
that Is to bo waged if we workers arc
ever to como into our own is against
our own Ignorance and apathy and
So perhaps Hugo himself would
havo told us had ho been with ub
at this prosont crisis. He would have
proclaimed the right of man to lifo,
tho right of conscience to liberty, the
sovereignty of reason, the holiness
or labor and tho beneficence of peace.
And, to use his own words, since
"night has come to us from the
thrones, light must come to us from
tlio tombs." For wo have not outgrown much of tho wisdom of the
Organic Evolution
n. S. C.
Premier Wellington
1500 ths. lump, $0.50
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Mei'tn aecond Mnmlar In tho month.    Pro-
ulilpnt, J,  It. Wlitto: socreUry,  R.  H. Neel-
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FEDERATED LABOR PARTY, Room Hini 9  p.'iitler St, Wnst—BuilnoM moetlngB
every   Wi iAnnid&y    .< ven in if.     A.   Miolnnii,
phuiriniin:   E, H.  Morrison, leMre-M,;  Geo.
1). Hwrlmm, 11B2 Parkor Street, Vancouver.
It   I!., cnr res pu ml fn tt m-cntary.
Any tiiRtrict In British Colombia d-pairin*
Informntion re securing epeahem ur th« foi-
iniitlon if local braluihea. kindly communicate
wilh provincial SenrctHry J. Lyle Telford.
594 Rirku Klili:.. Vancouver, Q. 0. ToIp-
j.Iir.no  Soyinmir 11182, nr Hnyvlew r<i>-*\
BAKERY  BALEPMEN,   LOCAL 371 — tfeeti
second   Thursday   ovory  month   In   Holden
BulMing,    Prosid.iit, J. nrlu'htwell; financial
■oorutnrjr, H. A, Bowron, 929— llth Avenue
Boilermakers, Iron MliiplmiMtra nml Hnlp-
«r» of America, Local 104—Meetings flret
mid third Monday's in each montb in Holden
Building President, P. WIUIb; secretary, A.
Fraaer,   OfTiue hours, 0 to 11 a.m. and 8 to 5
I' '"■ -	
f'lViC KMPLUVEKS UNION—M^eta firat
and third Fridays In each montb, at 445
Richards Street. President, David Cuthlll,
'jnr.2 Alb'-rt atreet! Beuretary-trntsurer, Ooo.
Harrlsun,  11B2  Parkor Stroet
[By  Charles Hill-Tout,  F.
F. R. A. I., etc.]
tAll   Rights  Reserved)
[N THE LAST article we traced the
evolution of the primitive chordates from aome early invertebrate
sea-worm. In this article we are to
onsider the first appearance of those
unimals which link up the land vertebrates with the aquatic vertebrates
—the Amphibia. These, as their name
im plies, are creatures which live a
double life, partly on the land and
partly In  the water.
But we must exclude from this
category all those warm-blooded
lung-breathing animals such as seals,
walruses, sea otters, etc. These present-day terrestrio - aquatic mammals,
though popularly classed as Amphibia, are not so regarded an'd classified
by zoologists. They are not what we
have to consider here. They are examples of tho principle of "reversed
evolution," of which there arc many
Instances in the life-realm, of animals
whose mammalian ancestors left a
land existence for one in the water,
impelled thereto, it may well be, by
the fierce strugglo for terrestrial existence; just as in the palaeozoic age
some of the aquatic invertebrates
were forced to adopt a life on the
land by reason of the intense pressure of the teeming, exuberant life in
the littoral regions of the soas. They
are not classed with the Amphibia
proper. We mean by Ihut term here
only vertebrates which breathe in the
early stages of their lives by means
of fish-like gills, and which generally
later lose this method of respiration
and iii-quire and breathe through
lungs. The best-known members of
this group arc thc frogs, toads, newts
and salamanders,
All these normally begin life in the
water as fish-like animals possessing
and breathing through gills after the
manner of true fish, thereby plainly
showing their aquatic origin and their
genetic affinity lo the earlier water
Between those well-known examples of tho Amphibia and tho gill-
breathing fish, wo have a less-known,
Intermediate type of Amphibia, from
the study of whoso more rudimentary
characters we can gather some very
clear indications of how the lung-
breathing vertebrates arose by progressive differentiation from the moro
primitive gill-breathing chordates.
These intermediate forms aro called Dipnoi, or lung-fishes, the term
signifying "double breathers," or animals that breathe in two ways. They
have both branchial (gill) and pulmonary (lung) respiration. Hence
their namo. Great numbers of fossil
fish of this kind are known to us;
also a few living forms found in different parts of the  world.
Thc lungs of theso creatures art.
transformations, it has heen found,
of thoir sounds or swimming bladders. Theso are sac-like organs common to many kinds of flsh. They
are filled with air, their principal
function being to regulate the equilibrium of the fish's body in its native
element. Ordinarily this sound Is a
single sac, but in all the modern
lung-fishes, with the exception of the
Australian form, it is seen to double
itself In the young fishes and develop
into two primitive lungs. One Is not
surprised lo find a single lung only
in the Australian lung-flali. The fauna
of this region is noted for thc prlml-
tiveness of its types nnd we may conclude from this fact that the one-
lunged fish of Australia represents
an earlier and simpler form of th*
Dipnoi than do the two-lunged fishes
of other regions.
Thc passage from the gill-breathing to tlio lung-breathing fishes was
not the work of a moment. It was
undoubtedly marked by many transitional phases and intermediate forms.
It Is possible lo gather some idea of
how the transformation came about
by observing the habits and characteristics of such modern flsh as the
migrating eel and others of thnt kind.
Phis water-breathing animal is apparently ablo to carry on respiration
f tlie water for a considerable
time as it travels overland from one
stream or body of water to another.
Chore Is also a strange species of fish
mown to us which at times leaves ita
liitural habitat and by means of its
peculiar spiky fins climbs trees. The
modern bony pike and the cat-fish of
India nre ablo also to use their suirn-
blnddera aa auxiliary breathing organs. They occasionally come to tlio
surface of the water and gulp
in groat mouthfuls of air. Then
there are l lie mud fishes, so-
called from  their habit of burrowing
of Steam and Operating, Local 882—
Meets every Wednesday at 8 p.m., Room
Hue, Holden Mil.. President, Charles Price;
tiusineHH /mnil and financial secretary, F. L.
Hunt;    recording secretary,  J.  T.  Vonn,
UNION, Local 145, A. V. ot M.—Meets In
G.W.V.A. Auditorium, 901 Dunsmuir Street,
aecond Sunday at 10 a.m. President, E- 0.
Millor, 991 Nelson Streot; secretary, **. A.
Jnmioson, 991 Nelson Street; financial seen*
tary, W. E. Williams, 991 Nelaon Street;
or«an Iter, F. Fletcher, 991 Nelion Street.
ATION—Meets at 991 Nelaon Street, at 11
a.m. on tbe Tuesday preceding the 1st Sunday of the month. Preaident, Harry Pearson,
091 Nelson Stroet; Secretary. E. A. Jamie-
aon, 991 Nelson Street; Business Agont, F.
Fletcher, 991 Mellon St,
dent, R. P. Pettipiece; vice-pn-sident L
P, Campbell; secretary-treasurer, B. H, hm*
tanda, P. 0. Bm 6tt. M-Bufli last Suuday of
eaeh month at 2 p.m. In Holden Building, 10
Hastings Street East.	
UNION, No, 418—President, 8. D. Maedonald, eeeretarytreaaurer, 3. M. Campbell,
p. O. Bot 689. Meeta last Tiaradey of eaeh
fthe  heart   of  the  Amphibia and  the
higher animals.
With such evidence of progressive
differentiation before us, then, it Ib
not possible to doubt that this was
the manner in which the evolution of
the lung-breathing vertebrates came
about. We know that the Cambrian^
Silurian and Devonian seas, and especially the latter, teemed with fish
life. This was the age, par excellence, of fishes. The struggle, therefore of marine existence must have
been exceedingly fierce and keen. The
fish of the marginal zones would be
forced into the adjacent swamps and
marshes, of which there were many
in those days, and such forms as
were capable of making response to
these new conditions of life would
slowly adapt themselves, first to a
marshy existence—sueh as has the
present-day siren or mud-eel, with
its single pair of short limbs and permanent external gills, or that most
primitivo of the modern salamanders,
the mud-puppy or water-dog, as it is
variously called — and later, under
still further pressure from behind, to
life on the land.
The period of transition probably
occupied thousands of years, beginning in Upper Silurian times and con
tinulng through the Devonian into
the Carboniferous age. That such
was the course of evolution we cannot doubt, for many of the major
steps and stages have been stereotyped for us as we have seen, in those
animals in which the transitional
phases hnve become fixed and hereditary, such as tho Dipnoi, the siren and
the mud-puppy.
From    observation    of    these    we
should expect the primordial Amphibians to resemble closely tbe commonest  fish-like  forms.    This   is  exactly
what   the   palnconlologlcal   evidence
reveals   to   us.     The   earliest   known
fossil    Amphibians    were    those    of
small - bended,    long - bodied,    short -
limbed,   tall-propelling   typos,   represented by tlie mud-eel, newts and sal-
anuinders of today.    Confirming and
reinforcing   these   facts   in   the   most
indubitable   manner   is   the   evidence
from  embryology.    Here in the Indi
vldual llfo-hfstory of the modern am
phibian wo seo a fairly complete recapitulation  of  tho  successive  evolutionary phases displayed by the inter-
mediate forms wliich bridge over the
gap  between  tho lung-breathing amphibian   and   the   gill-breathing   fish.
Let   us  dwell  upon  these  phases  for
a moment;   they are very  instructive.
All the Amphibia normally lay eggs
in water.    These hatch out there as
do tho eggs of the fishes.   The young
take on a purely fish-like existence,
breathing   wholly   through   gills   till
they   reach   a  stago   of   development
when their amphibian metamorphosis
takes    place.      They   now   gradually
shed   their   fish-like   characters   and
become lung-breathing, terrestrial animals.
That the palaeozoic fishes possessed
this power of adaptive response to
changed conditions of life, we here
suppose thom to havo shown, we cannot for a moment doubt. It is a
common attribute of all organic
forms, and that the same responsive
power was passed on to their amphibian descendents becomes abundantly
clear from thc extraordinary adaptive responses to environmental
changes which some species of frogs,
toads and salamanders make today.
Normally these creatures return to
the wnter—the ancestral habitat—
for purposes of reproduction. This
inherited habit is so deep-seated in
their constitution that they depart
from it only under very abnormal
conditions. Lot us deal with the habits of the frogs first. Not all of
these live the same kind of lives.
Some are water-frogs and rarely take
to tiie land. Others of the land species havo learned to climb and live
in trees. These are thc tree-frogs,
and 'they return to water only for
breeding purposes. Other of the lund
frogs do the same. But thero are
some species which never return to
tho ancestral element oven for reproductive reasons. They have become to all intents and purposes
land animals. Ono of these, found
In Chile, and known ns Darwin's
frog, never lays its eggs In water.
They are stored away by tbe male In
his craaking-sacs, from whtch the
young Inter emerge as fully-formed
frogs,  literally jumping oui   of thoir
parent's niouib.
Still another method of depositing
and hatching its eggs is that adoptod
by one Of lho South American tree-
frogs (Notot renin). This creature
carries Its eggs in a pouch on its
back until tbo young frogs tiro ready
to leap out.
A    still    moro    novel    method    of
even a more remarkable and decisive
instance of the influence, external
conditions may exercise upon the
lives and habits of animals.
There are two distinct species of
this kind of batrachian, Salamander
atra and S. maculosa. The present
habitat of the former is a dry alpine
] region of relatively low temperature.
The latter occupies a low region with
plenty of water and a high temperature In the dry region of S. atra.
we find the eggs are hatched out as
land animals; there is no fl-^h or
tadpole stage.
In the wet region of S. maculosa,
en the other hand, the embryos are
less developed when hatched; they
possess gills like fish, and complete
their larval development as aquatic
animals. Thus it becomes clear that
each species adapts itself to its immediate environment. To illustrate
how strong and active this adaptive
power of a living organism is, we
have only to transport S. atra to a
wet region with a relatively high
temperature, to see it return to the
ancestral mode of developing its
young. Under the new conditions of
life, imposed by the change of location, it straightway deposits Its eggs
In a less advanced state; with the
[■onsequence that the young hatch
out in the gill-bearing stage and complete their development in tho water
in lhe same manner as do tho young
of S. maculosa. Conversely, If we
place S. maculosa under alpine conditions its eggs are not deposited until
the embryos .have passed beyond the
gill-bearing stage,- with the result that
they are born as lung-breathing, laud
These instances of modification of
habits and functions arc interesting
not only as illustrations of the evolutionary history of the batrachia themselves, but also as instances of that
adaptive power whii-h is the common possession of every organic form
throughout the whole life-realm. So
much for the evolution of the lunge
of the Amphibia, but what o.f their
penlndaclylic limbs? How did these
(iegenbaur,   one   of   the   most   dis
tinguished  of the German  compart,
tive  anatomists  of   the   last   century
held and  taught that  the prototypi
of the limbs or the land  vertebrate;
was to be  found In the fins of the
modern   lung-fish   of   Australia—t
Ceratodus.    This  view  was  accepted
by  biologists  generally  til)   a  second
and different one was later put forward  by  a British   scientist,  Francis
Balfour, a  professor of animal  morphology,  at  the University  of  Cambridge.    His view  is known as  "The
Lateral Fin Hypothesis."    Under this
conception the origin of the limbs of
the   land   vertebrates   Is   based   upon
certain similarities in the paired and
the unpaired fins of certain fishes.   Tt
is supposed that the paired (ins arose
by the  persistence  of parts of  what
was originally a continuous fin along
each side of tho body.
Balfour attacked the problem from
the embryological standpoint. IT
found that the pectoral (fore) and
pelvic (hind) fin rudiments were tn
the earlier embryonic life of the flsh
actually continuous with one another,
nnd he drew from this discovery the
conclusion that the limbs of the Amphibia, and consequently of all the
land vertebrates, were remnants of
these original, continuous i'ins.
These two views shared the biological field betweon them until some
more direct evidence later came In
from palaeontological sources. This
gave rise to n third view which more
or less superseded the other two. Tin-
discovery of primitive types of the
fringe-finned, ganoid fish led to the
belief, especially in palneoril'-Iogienl
quarters, that this class of fish rather
than the Dipnoi represented tho ancestral line of the Amphibia, and their
fins the source of the Amphibian
Mm lis.
The fins of th.ese ganoids, with
their spreading, fan-like fringe or
(formal rays at their extremities, were
seen to be stiffened and strengthened
by cartilaginous rods. From these,
by' modifications—induced b.v adaptive responses tn tlie change from
existence in tl littoral zone to one
in n muddy, shore zone—thero resulted ultimately the articulated, five-
d'igited limbs of tbe Amphibia. Such
fi radical transformation presupposes,
j stretch of geologic
kindred   case   of   the
represented in the axolotl, a tailed
amphibian of the newt or lizard type,
found today In Mexico. These creatures leave the tadpole stage of their
existence seemingly very reluctantly;
at times retaining their external gills
throughout life. In appearance they
resemble gigantic tadpoles some six to
nine inches long, with gill-tufts
stretching out some distance beyond
the side of their necks. Kerr found
similar structures in several genera of
aquatic vertebrates, notably in the
lung-fishes Lepidoslren and Pro-
topterus; from which fact he drew
the conclusion that these external
gill-septa form a more primitive system of breathing than the system observed by Gegenbaur in Ceratodus of
Australia, whose gill-septa are flush
with its body.
Pie claims that the physiological
possibility of external gills evolving
into limbs must be admitted without
cavil. Limbs, he points out, are essentially projections of the body for support and propulsion. The balancers
of Urodeles show us n form of external gill actually converted Into
simple leg-like supports; and observation of the flicking movements of the
external gills in the live animal,
makes it fairly clear how they could
be evolved into organs of propulsion.
According to this viow the limbs of
the land vertebrates were In their
earliest phase styliform structures for
pushing against solid objects, He
further takes the view, in common
with the majority of biologists, lhat
the' primitive vertebrates, although
aquatic in origin were not pelagic, but
marginal animals. He regards the
pelagic environment as ihe most
homogeneous of all possible environments, tlie tendency of which Js to
check- up or hinder variation. The
marginal zone, on the contrary, Is
the natural nursery or forcing ground
for new types; and he locates in this
zone Ihe home and scat of vertebrate
evolution. He also takes occasion to
point out that here we may perceive
something of the process by which
the limbs of the land animals arose
by modification from these external
gill-septa, by observing the young
Lepidoslren today as he clambers
about on his stylt-form, hind limbs.
We see tho points of them bent over
by die weight of the fish like a foot
and other parts of them like incipient ankle- and knee-joints.
Which of these two last views, both
seemingly equally supported by material evidence, will ultimately pro-
vail, or whether others still more
plausible, will hereafter be put forward to take their place, remains yet
to be seen, One thing, however, is
quite clear and that is that these
limbs, whatover their source, have
been evolved, like the pulmonary
organs of the Amphibia, from some
earlier organ, by a slow and gradual
The question of whether it was by
way of tho gills or the fins is after
all n relatively minor one. Tbe main
point is that nobody who takes all
tbe facts ot thfs transformation Into
account, cnn have nny doubt that th'
limbs of thc Amphibia arose originally In some such manner as is
suggested  by these hypotheses.
We actually soe the sounds of the
lung-fish undergoing transformation
under our eyes today. We cannot
therefore, consistently doubt that tlie
limbs of those transltlonary forms
arose   in   somo   similar   i
Hudson's Bay
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and burying themselves in the mud hatching its eggs is that followed by
during the dry sensons, when the the Surinam toad. Thla animal press-
waters in which they live evaporate ea ttrt Qgga by tho help of the mule
nnd disappear. They are able thus to parent Into llllle pockets in the skin
survive through long periods of|0f its \mQ\^ from out of which the
drought.    Many  of thom  have  been uUie   tojidH   eventually   emerge   fully
transported without Injury or Inconvenience to themselves from one part
of tho globe to nnother wrapped
merely in a coaling of mud.
They stand midway between the
ordinary water-breathing fishes and
the Dipnoi. Their air-bladders are
seen to be connected with their gullets by a permanent open duct, and
they also have an unusual blood supply, by means of whicli they are able
lo act as incipient lungs. From theso
to the Dipnoi, or lung-fish propor,
tho transition is easy, In the Dipnoi
we find the air-bladder Is mueh more
highly developed than In lhe mud
fishes. Their nostrils, too, open directly into the mouth cavity, which
is not tho caso with any other kind
of flsh. They also possess a pulmonary artery and vein, and the auricle
of tho heart Is partially divided Into
two compartments, thus foreshadowing the two auricles characteristic of
That all theso batraohians, oi* rathor their ancestors, onco brought their
offspring to maturity in the ordinary
way ns young fish or tadpoles In a
watery environment, becomes clear
from the interesting and significant
fact that wo sometimes find the eggs
of thc tree-frog species developing
into tadpoles, thus showing a reversion to the earlier ancestral mode
of development,
Wc can only regard the method*
of rearing their young displayed .by
these three batraohians as adaptive
responses to alterations in their environment. There seems no othor
reasonable wny of explaining changes
of function and habit so deep-soatod
and long-Inherited as these. The
same conclusion Is again forced upon
us when we observe what takes place
among the salamanders, croatures of
llzard-IIke characters.    Here wo have
ciscly this way was, we may, with
our rapidly increasing knowledge of
physiological processes and of primitive, fossil forms, hope to learn, beyond contention or doubt, before long.
(To be continued)
ltenl Comedy at Orphouni
When the popular London actor-
manager, Percy Hutchison, and his
powerful company return to the
Orpheum theatre, Vaneonver, on
Monday, Fob. 9th, for three days, they
will produce the farcical-comedy
"Nightie Night" on the Monday and
Tuesday evenings, and "Tlio Luck of
the Navy" at the Wednesday matinee
and evening performances. "Nightie
Night" is the funniest play produced
in modern times, it is a farce with
ii prologue and three acts. Hs keynote is unrestrained laughter. Hilly
Moffat, a young married man, meets
Trixle, the wife of his old friend,
Jimmie Blythe, in a Pullman ear,
and discovers that Trixle has been
twice married—first to a man who
has died, leaving her wilh a little
boy; and, secondly, to her old linnet
Jimmio, whom she has kept in ignorance of her first marriage and IU
issue. Fearful of the effect of hei
silence, Trixle flees from JlnunU
What "three hours alter marriage. With tm
best intentions in tho world, Billy
volunteers to set this matrimonial
tangle straight, and ut once plunges
Into a sea of troubles. His own wife
becomes jealous. His brother-in-law
adds to his woes by sub-letting Billy's
flat to Trlxie, unknown to Billy. His
wife resents the presence under her
roof of a supposed rival. Then there
Is Jimmie's vengeanco to be reckoned
with, and, to cap all, Billy is under
suspicion of being the father of the
boy in the background. Wo have
Trlxlo rushing about in the famous
Black silk pyjamas, which became
the vogue In London when the play
was   first   produced   thore.
Every reader of The Federatlonist
can render valuable assistance by renewing their subscriptions ns soon as
tbey nro due, and by inducing nnother
worker to subscribe. It does not take
much effort to do this.   Try It.
ROOMS and bathroom; 66-
ft. corner; terms monthly us rent.
Apply Landa Dept., Wty Hall.
>f courei
o  !
ime, iih
in ll
of ll
'omul  In
r .1-1 ll
origin of
iot dim.
ill i
fringe al
> 111
I lie
This I- reodllj
IrelehlDK   f	
iv    as    piiKHibl*.
nnil   mode   oj
ii* limbs,  il   is j
iv thla l'iiii-lili**j
o tin oould ac:
spreading f* ••
er muddy su,*
tn propel Its owner
faces. Indeed, the ovidence In fuvi
nf iiii.i view as sol forth i*y Pn
Osborn, one of America's foromo
authorities on Palaeontology, In 181
scorned to have definitely Bottled fi
nil lime tlio quostion of He* direoll
line of dcsconl of thc Amphlb|a, and I
the mode of origin of their limbs.
More recently, however, a new view
hns in*.*n presonted by Prof. Oraham
Korr. of Glasgow. This is known as
"Thc External Olll Hypothesis." nnd
is. ill a mensure. n return to the
earlier views of Oegenliaur undor n
modified form. Hoth views nre "glll-
sepla" hypotheses, ono taking tho surface septa and tho othor tho external
septa as the basis or starting points
of their contentions. Kerr is an em*
bryologlsl nnd naturally regards tho
problem under Ils embryologieal as*
poets. In his studies of archaic vertebrates he gave particular attention
to thc breathing organs of Ihcse creatures. These organs are the gill
arches which stand well out beyond
thc surface of Ihe body nud lire
known as "external gills." Thev also
possess muscles by whieh thoy can be
moved backwards and forwards.
Wc   find   these  external   gills   well
Official Organ of the
Published in the Interests of All Workors
rPHE party is desirous of making' what contribution it can to the betterment of society. It realizes that the most effective method to accomplish this end is by educating the masses through the medium of its press,
and likewise the best literature procurable regarding thc Labor movement. There is no other means available to the workers to voice their
opinions. Work with us to make The Federationist a mighty power for
good in Vancouver and throughout British Columbia. Principles, not
personalities, are alone desirable.
Contributions for The Federationist are always welcome. Be brief
and write on one side of the copy paper, Matter for publication should
reach this office by Tuesday. Advertisements received up to Wednesday
You must have The Federationist in thc home each week to keep ill touch
with the City, Provincial and Federal and International Labor Movement.
Subscription Rate: United Stales and foreign,
$2,50 per year, $1.50 for six months,
i.00 per year; Canada,
Estimates will be furnished on all kinds of work,
gladly offer his services to those desiring them.
Our solicitor will
FRIDAY February  6,   1926
Only $375 New
The Doherty Piano
The most popular piano in the Dominion and most popularly priced. A standard make of over half a century—
artistic and rich in tone. 'R^T'?
Our price new, only *""   **
A Regular $450 Quality
443 Hastings Street West
Near Richards Phone Bey. 2444
Woman and the
Game of War
Vaudeville at tlio Orpheum
Leo Carrlllo, lato star of "Mike
Angelo" and "Magnolia," and who
was for years tho star of "Lombard!,
Limited," one of the greatest ot
Broadway successes, will be at the
Orpheum theatre on February 12, 13
and 14, to present a great routine of
dialect stories and imitations, including an Inlmltablg Chinese story, an
exceedingly funny "wop" story about
a baseball game and various otbers.
A new offering in vaudeville dance
and song is that of the Lorraine Sisters, assisted by Roy Sheldon and
Billy Taylor. Their offering exceeds
in class und brilliancy anything they
have been seen in. By lhe simple
application of her stenographic skill,
Birdie Reeve, sixteen-year-old prodigy, keeps an audience "on their
toes for fifteen minutes." She is the
world's champion typist and speller,
possesses a vocabulary of R4.000
words and is a lexicographer with
few erniiils. Leon Kimberly and Helen
Page have produced a real little
novelty skit called "The Heart
Broker." It is expert advice to the
lovelorn—but the advice is not to be
THE undersigned will receive tenders up
to 12 o'ciook noon, Tuesday, Fobrunry
the 10th next, for tho -supply ol tho following :
26     8-lnch   Volves.
25    8-lnch  Valves.
25   12-Inch  Valves.
All   for   cast-iron  pipe.     Pull   particulars
and   specifications   can   ho   obtained at  the
office of the City Engineer.
Purchasing Agent
TAKE NOTICE that the Annual General
Meeting of the shareholders of the Central Oity Mission Ltd. will be hold at 233
Abbott, in the City of Vancouver, British
Columbia, on Monday, 16th day of Feb.,
1925, at tho hour of 8 o'clock p.in,, for
the purpose of electing directors and offlcors for the ensuing year, receiving of nn-
nual reports and transacting Buch other
business as is usually trnnimctcd nt the
annual general mooting of a company.
DATED  ot   Vancouver, this   15th   day of
Jan.,  1925.
' Socrotary.
taken seriously 'but humorously.
Lorin Rakin and Company have a
novelty act thnt always creates
plenty of amusement. Robin and
Hood present an artistic treat, which
is something new in vaudeville, not
because Us artistic, but from a novelty angle. The Australian Mendozas,
Achgps Fables, Topics of the Day nnd
tlie Orpheum Concert Orchestra com
plete the bill.
WOltkl Its   ANI>   WORKING
(By J.  C.  Harris, British Columbia.)
"He   that   will   not   work,    neither
shall  he eat."
Let  tliem  shout  produce,   produce,
We   will   answer,   "What's  the  use?"
The  bird  that  laid  the golden egg
Was nothing hut a goose.
The important thing to know
Before our crops we grow
Is who's to get the benefit?
And  where the crops will go?
There are deadheads all around,
As we farmers ol't have found,
Who contrive to get the very best
That grows upon the ground.
Then   let  us  all  unite
To  down  each   parasite,
From     the     cutworms      to     the
Who prove that black is white.
Wc shall conie into our own,
When the frauds are overthrown,
And  the  once  despised  producers
Are seated on the throne.
The old Gospel of St.  Paul
Would   make  all   frauds  look   small,
And the land hog and thc plutocrat
They wouldn't eat at all.
Let us make them do their bit,
As is  only just  and   fit.
By conscripting all to labor,
Till the slackers show their grit.
Then  our Cannda will  be
Truly happy, great and free;
And  our country lead all others
In the fight for liberty.
Get your workmate to subscribe for
rhe FederationiBt.
Dr. Gallant, Chiropractor, 712 Robson
Ask for CATTO'S.     l*'oi* salt' nt all Government Liquor Stores
T_if advertisement ie Dot published or displayed by the Liquor Control Botrd or
by the Government of British Columbia   	
WHIST SCORE CARDS, (16 or 25 games),
Cowan Brookhouse, Ltd*
1129 HOWE STREET        Phones: Sey. 7421, 4490
Five Hundred Score Tablets, 20c each
Court Whist Cards, ISc per dozen; $1*25 per 100
Fresh   Cut  Mowers, I'mieritl  Designs, Wedding  Bouquets, Pot Plums,
Ornamental anil Shade Trees, Seeds. Bulbs, Florists' Sundries
Brown Brothers & Co. Ltd.
,o n..lln«i Street East Sey. 988*872    085 OranvUle  Street Sey.  9513*1391
lti Mt&l «»•? W.S Sey. 1370    1047 Oeorgia Street West S.y. 74U
Burns' Anniversary
(Continued from page 1)
STOVES AND RANGES, both malleable and steel,
McClary's, Fawcett's, Canada's Pride, installed
free by experts; satisfaction guaranteed. Cash or
$2.00 per week.
Canada Pride Range Company Ltd.
346 Hastings Street East
Sey. 2399
rf~Vi— picture presented by lln.' militarists to the world today,
\J seven years alter "the war to end war," is a terrible one,
hourly grows more menacing.
The issue is clear, challenging nnd distinct tn women. The
ijuestion before tliem now is: What shall we do to save our boys
flesh of our flesh, bone of our bone—from being slaughtered in
thc "next war"? How can wc stay this holocaust of death from
overtaking and entrapping our innocent lads? How can we stay
this "profitable industry of war"?
How can we thrust out these blind statesmen, these vicious old
diplomats, these despoilers of life, beauty and treasure, who led us
into lhe last war and who are today planning and prating about the
next war"?
This is the ringing challenge of Hie youth of the world to their
mothers.   This is thc question the women must set themselves to
solve lest they betray their dead and condemn the living through
their ignorance and indifference to death, to the lowest of all games
"the game of war."
Woman and War—The Next War
lf the women of the world are ever to organize themselves or
their children for peace, they must become conscious of the forces
making for war.
So far, peace societies have been dealing with this question—
the most diabolical of all crimes against mankind—from the sentimental point of view. Approaching it iu a "diplomatic way,"
courting the approval of "leading citizens," being careful not to
antagonize," and always declaring their loyalty to "Empire," "Republic" and "Flag," indirectly influencing "representative people."
I do not question thc sincerity of such people. 1 have met and talked
with many sueh men and women, and onc and all convey the impression of sincerity and devotion to the cause of peaee. But devotion
aud sincerity is not enough. A mother may be a devoted slave lo
her child, yet see it die by inehes because she lacks the knowledge
of child welfare and fails to understand ils needs and constitution.
Likewise, a mother, through her ignorance, may feed her children a
mental poison which may be the cause of sorrow down lo the "third
and  fourth generation."
The ignorance of women combined with the ignorance and
greed of man, hourly dig pilfalls lor the race. If woman, the life-
giver, would eease to be the co-partner of man in his destruction
of life, she must arm herself with knowledge, demand lhe righl to
question his authority to decide wor, tu squander aud destroy the
life which she went into the shadow anil valley of death to bring
Too long have women been fed on the romance, lhe glory, the
redeeming virtues of war. Too long have the realities of war been
hidden from them under a mess of hypocrisy and lies. Too long
have the moans of the dying been drowned by the din of martini
music, and the scars of body and soul covered up under the gaudy
uniform, the gold lace, plumes and medals. Too long have men
fooled and flattered women into the belief that they were fighting
for their honor, thcir home, their God, when in reality they were
fighting for oil wells, coal fields, markets and "spheres of influence"
over "backward peoples."
lf women would be thespirit of life, light and truth, wliich they
were destined to be, they must no longer be fooled by illusions, misled
by catch phrases, deceived by speculators, cajoled by politicians
and lulled into a "God's-will-be-done" attitude by ministers of tbe
Gospel. Keepers of the kingdom of heaven who blaspheme lhe very
name of Christ by thcir words and deeds in time of war.
Flower of Manhood Sacrificed
Women must scorn to accept lhe sacrifice of millions of the
flower of the manhood of tbe world in the name of tlieir "honor,"
'homes" and "Qod." The cost lo the world i'or generations to
conic is too great a priee; besides, when analysed, this is also found
o be but one of the illusions and catch phrases of the war mongers.
Instead of war protecting women, it poisons and befouls the very
air tbey breathe. It desecrates all that is noblest, it robs them of
home ond security of the love and companionship of father, husband,
lover and son. ft spreads disease, famine and desolation in its tracks.
Its law is the law of the jungle. It rapes, robs, burns, plunders,
poisons and lays waste all thai conies within reach of ils firey breath
and cloven hoof.
Reluctantly women have been compelled to faee the questions
poverty, prostitution, unemployment and infant mortality. She
would fain have left these questions lo men, but having proven their
indifference and inability to solve them, she now joins with him
in politics, education and industry lo remove these enemies of her
home and children.
Resolutely, fearlessly, she must now face lhe causes of war, or
see the race exterminated.
Men assert that during Hie war women were fiercer in Iheir
passions, stooped to meaner and cruder methods of attack, and
were more relentless in their desire for revenge against lhe "enemy"
than were the men.
Scarcely anyone able lo retain tlieir sanily during lhe war and
watch the effect of its psychology on women will dispute this
accusation. In times of peace, at best, women are, witli notable
exceptions, but the echo, lhe product of man's laws, man's morally,
man's education, political, industrial and religious institutions.
lu lime of war when the world goes mod, when all restrictions
are let down, when men mock and laugh at their own moral and
ethical codes, when the only appeal is lo woman's primitive emotions, nnd she is swept into every excess. She becomes the blind,
senseless Idol of lhe blind, senseless men, whom she has endowed
wilh life and who rule the world. Men who march in their millions
lo fighl unknown enemies, ami lo fill unknown graves, because someone lobl thoill so lo do. Woman's "because," in face of male logic,
is reason indeed.
Men are ignornnl because women are ignorant. Men nre slnves
because tin* creatures who gave tbem birth nnd trained Ihem arc
slaves, anil the human race must remain in ignorance and slavery
so long as woman are looked upon as inferiors and do nol lake their
full responsibility wilh man I'or lhe welfare of the race.
Woman Bears the Burden
Woman bears Ihe burden of lhe race in times of peace, as well
as in limes of war. She bears not arms nor does she destroy armies,
but she bears and nurtures the armies, both industrial and military,
before, during and after tin* war. The war to end war is snid to
have required:
10,000,001) soldiers killed.
20,297,551 wounded.
30,000,000 died from wnr causes.
34,000,000 famine-stricken children.
And a world-wide epidemic of influenza, killing 6,000,000—not counting the 8,000,000 iu India, victims of influenza, and those who have
died since peace was declared from cholera, typhus, famine block*
ades, civil wars and malnutrition.
The life-blood: yea. life itself, of some woman was given to
bring forth and nurture lliese millions, lhe victims of man's ruthless
folly. Given not in lhe cause of freedom, but in thc cause of mammon. What a waste of woman's life; what a waste of love; what
a waste of labor and sacrifice; what a toll; what a condemnation
of man's religion, morality and government!
The war claimed, says one journal, 10,000 miles of dead.
Another presents the following picture—a march of the dead
down Fifth avenue, New York:
"Al daybreak Ihey start, twenty abreast. Until sundown they
inarch . . . and Ihe next dny, nnd the next, nnd the next. For ten
dnys Ihe British dead pass in review. For eleven days more the
French dead file down 'the Avenue of the Allies.' For the Russians
it would require the daylight of five more weeks. Two months and a
hnlf would be required I'or Ihe Allied dead to pass a given point.
The enemy dead would require more than six weeks.    For four
the oppressor was sufficient to arouse
his passionate protest. He spoke out,
and in doing so, deserves more credit
than he has ever received.
There are those of his commentators who helleve that he ought to
have remained silent.
They did not know Robert Burns!
More than his indignation at the
treatment of tho American colonist,
was his grief that his nativo land
was an associate in the deed wliich
saw the Jealous Bngllsh home llnk'd
with such damned deeds of everlasting   shame.
Without   counting   of   the   consequences the poet hurst into the only
reproachful words he ever addressed
to his native country.
Thee Caledonia, they wild heaths
Famed for Lhe martial deed, the
heaven  taught song;
To thee I turn with swimming ayes.
Where  is thut  soul  of freedom  fled,
Immingled with the mighty dead,
Beneath the hallowed turf where
Wallace lies,
Hear it nol, Wallace, in thy bed of
Ve  babbling winds In silence sweep
Disturb not ye the hero's sleep
Nor give the coward secret breath.
Dispeace followed and his no doubt
expressed regrets but it is significant
that he dared say no more. In a
lettor referring to an offer made by
Mr. Perry of the Morning Chronicle,
he said. "Nay, lf Mr. Perry—whose
honor .after your character of him,
1 cannot doubt, will find me an ad
dress safe from spies. I will now
and then send him nny bagatelle that
T may write."
Thus has truth and honor ever
been suppressed even to tho present
Here we have an Insight into one
of the phases of Burns' work which
it remains for generations ycl unborn
to thoroughly appreciate.
We have thousands of orations to
the memory of Burns the poet of
nature, of patriotism and of
brotherhood, but it is no', yet generally realized that lie stood for
something more lhan patriotism, he
stood for a standard of national and
Intel-national honor.
There has been no attempt to
bring to the light of dny, tlio figure
of Mums the reformer, who tho' loving his country, yet darod lo say
her policies were wrong in waging
war on a free people, and who had
courage to say "may our success in
the present wnr be equal to the
justice of our causo."
His last duys were contemporary
witli tho real beginning of the reform
movement In Scotland, and while the
leaders were being transported to
Botany Bay, he was at handgrips
with poverty and wns effectually silenced, but who shall say that he
did not lay the foundations for the
growth of our national liberty to
what lt will some day be, when ho
■first discovered the rights of the
plain people.
Por whnt ho did, for what he
made it possible for us to do, for
what will be done in days to come,
for liborty, for honor, nnd for the
brotherhood of man, we in our day
still pay him homage and when the
day comes, when mankind shall beat
their swords into ploughshares and
their spears Into* pruning hooks, the
spirit which will animate them
in that final adventure, will be that
which dominated Robert Burns, the
Ayrshire  ploughman.
His message is with us today. His
finger still points forward. Fain
would we see its consummation but
lo deny its practicability is rankest
For a' that and a' that,
Us comln' yet for a' that,
That man to man the warld o'er
Shall blithers be."
j /tfany/riends j
. \%*ehavewoiv- jl
\withour, I
]full-weight kA
[The opinions and ideas expressed
by correspondents are not necessarily
endorsed by The Federatlonist, and
no responsibility for the views expressed ls accepted by the management.]
I*hrii\*_r.s' Conference
Editor, B. C. Federationist: Next
week there is to be a farmers' conference in Vancouver, Probably we
shall hear again a reiteration of the
o]d remedies for their woes and solemn discussions thereon—tariffs, railway rates, buying of Canadian goods,
immigration, taxation, appeals to government, etc., etc.
What I would like to see done is
this: Reprint the six articles recently published In the Federntlonist "on
the Farming Solution," by Mr. G. F.
Stirling, in tho form of a pamphlet
and present it to them, and let them
read, discuss and digest it at their
conference. In these articles the author states the plain, unvarnished
truth as to the cause of the farmer's
\\-ons, and every farmer at the coming conference will agree with him.
The remedy and the only remedy for
then, he has also clearly outlined
and lt Is here whore enjightonment
is noedod.
If the coining assembly of farmers
would devote tho whole of the thre
flays to tho consideration of those ar
tides, if it did not nt once relievo
them of Iheir woes it would at lenst
show thom tlio path they will have
Ultimately to take to find that reliof,
and thetr time and monoy would not
he wasted as it probably will be.
That their wives at loast nood this
enlightenment, was clearly demon
stralerl at a recent conference of
country women connected with tho
Vomer's Institutes, who. after many
j prom lades much fluttering, solemn
uonfa'bs, crood graciouslng and other
weak and gentle femino expletives,
appointed a city lady, resident of a
elly flat, who had probably never
grown a turnip in her life to bo
Provincial Convener of Agricultural
for P. C, hut who hold hor audiences
spellbound by her eloquence in relating how she has been the moans
of selling a few pounds of chutney
for a former's wife.    NRMFRIR.
Vancouver. P. C. Fobrunry A, 1 f>25.
Tlie Foderationist i_ out to hell
the workers. There is no noblei
work. Join us in the light. Get
your  friends  to  subscribe.
Mo who makes himself hated has
everything to fear.—Plato.
Charity suffereth  long,  but  not so
long as he who live on it.
Chiropractor, 700 Dnn<*muir St.; 10 till fl,
Sey. 0708. Evgs. by uppt.; Sunday*, 8 till 4
killed in tlie war, passing steadily' twenty
months men acti
abreast "
Reflect, oli, mothors of lho world, reflect! These are your
children, your men, your boys, the babes you have put to bed and
pulled tbe covers over, a thousand limes pelted, and nursed, and fed,
and brought up to be men. The human bossoms of love for whom
you have scrimped and saved and worked to give a trade, profession
or a better education ho tbat they hughl have a botter opportunity
in life than their forebears had. (To be continued)
$10 Per Ton
Leslie Coal Co. Ltd.
Phoue: Seymour (1108-1528
They are made of
first quality leathers on comfortable
good  fitting lasts.
For WorJ_ or dress
At all leading Shoe Stores.
B   CANADA  nnd It. S. _\.
^ Union MustciansEmpIoyed Exclusively i
Workfrs! Support Your Own Press!
•£Y O FREQUENTLY we hear workers complaining about the injustice of
" the "daily" or "capitalist" press, and about how unfair it is toward the
cause of labor—and yet they continue to give their hard-earned money to
perpetuate that institution.
The capitalist press today is thriving on the one and five-cent pieces of
thoughtless—or ignorant—workers, while their own press has to straggle
against long odds in its efforts to serve them. Why be your own oppressors?
Why serve in the ranks of the enemy?
If you are desirous of improving your own condition, and that of your fellowmen, then support the press that is honestly endeavoring to fight your
battle for you. That is the very least you can do for your own cause.
Show your own sincerity of purpose and willingness to serve by subscribing for The Federationis*.—the workers' friend. Pass your copy on to
some fellow-worker after you have read it.  Urge him to subscribe.
Help The Federationist in its fight for the emancipation of mankind.
The greater our circulation, the more effectual will our efforts be. Apathy
and indifference on the part of the workers is more to be feared than the antagonism of the forces of reaction.
Be true to your cause!  Help boost your own press.
Official Organ of the Federated Labor Party


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