BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

Contributions to the ethnology of the Kwakiutl Boas, Franz, 1858-1942 1925

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Full Text

     PRESENTED BY
DR.   FRANZ BOAS.
(vols   2,   3,   5,   )
  CONTRIBUTIONS
TO THE ETHNOLOGY OF THE
KWAKIUTL
 Printed by Kartographisches Institut, Vienna (Austria)
 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY CONTRIBUTIONS TO
ANTHROPOLOGY
Edited by Franz Boas
VOLUME HI
.   CONTRIBUTIONS
TO THE ETHNOLOGY OF THE
KWAKIUTL
BY
FRANZ BOAS
Sl
NEW YORK
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS
1925
  CONTENTS.
Introduction  V
Dreams (Nos. 1—68)  2
Rank, Property and Inheritance  56
Counter and Tally Keeper  56
The Assembler  58
Succession  64
A Family History  70
The Acquisition of Names  112
1. The name of the newborn child  112
2. The name of the ten moons old child  114
3. The name of the young man   118
4. Painting with song  120
5. Spreading out  122
6. (An accident)  132
7. Giving the winter dance to his own tribe   134
8. Giving away to his own tribe  134
9. The giving away of property to the tribes  142
10. Marriage  236
11. The purchase of a copper  282
12. Continuation of the marriage ceremonies  288
13. Maturity of the chief's sister  294
14. Building of a house  310
 INTRODUCTION.
The following Kwakiutl texts deal with dreams and
with information relating to the social organization of the
tribe. Since the expense of composition has risen enormously
during the last few years, the publication of this material
has been possible only by the employment of a photostatic
process.
The material was obtained from Mr. George Hunt of
Fort Rupert, British Columbia, a half-blood Indian who
speaks Kwakiutl as his native language, and whom I have
trained in phonetic writing. The material, therefore, continues the series of texts in the publication "Kwakiutl Ethnology" (Thirty-Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology) which was collected in the same manner.
As stated in the report referred to the phonetic rendering of Kwakiutl by Mr. Hunt is not absolutely reliable.
He is particularly uncertain in regard to the character of
vowels, and when words are unknown to me I cannot
decide whether u or wa, E or a are meant. On the "whole,
howewer, I believe the number of "words of this kind is
not very great.
I do not give a vocabulary accompanying the present
texts because a fairly full vocabulary has been published in
the Thirty-fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of American
Ethnology, and the additions to the vocabulary are not very
numerous.
The following list contains previous publications on
Kwakiutl ethnology in text:
1. The Social Organization and the Secret Societies of the
Kwakiutl Indians. Report of the U. S. National Museum
for 189S, pp. 311-738. Washington, Government Printing
Press, 1897. (The songs contained in this publication
were reprinted in revised form in No. 2 in this list.)
Kwakiutl Texts. Publications of the Jesup North Pacific
Expedition, Vol. Ill, pp. 1-832. Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1902-19O8.
Kwakiutl Texts - Second Series. Publications of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. X, pp. 1-269. Leiden,
E. J. Brill, 1906.
Ethnology of the Kwakiutl. 38 th Annual Report of the
Bureau of American Ethnology. Parts I and II, pp. 41-
1437, Washington, Government Printing Office. 1921.
The Rival Chiefs, a Kwakiutl Story, by George Hunt.
Boas Anniversary Volume, pp. 108 -136. New-York,
G. E. Steehert and Co., 1906.
2.
4.
 VI
6. Kwakiutl Tales. Columbia University Contributions to
Anthropology, Vol. II, pp. 1-498. New-York, Columbia
University Press.    1910.
7. Kwakiutl, An Illustrative Sketch in the Handbook of
American Languages, Part 1. pp. 423-587. Bulletin 40 of
the Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1911.
8. A Revised List of Kwakiutl Suffixes. International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. Ill, pp. 117-131. New-
York, Columbia University, 1924.
The following alphabet has been used:
E
i e, f, e, a, 6, o u
I e, e, a, a, a, o u.
a
6
o u
obscure e, as in flower.
are probably  the  same  sound, intermediate  between
the continental values of i and e.
i in hill.
e in fell.
has its continental value.
German o In voll.
are probably  the  same  sound,  intermediate between
the continental values of o and u.
a  somewhat  doubtful  sound,  varying  greatly  in  its
pronunciation  among different individuals between e
and el.
German a in Bar.
aw in law.
indicates that the preceding consonant is pronounced
with u position of the mouth.
Sonans.
Surd.
Fortis.
Spirans.
Nasal.
Velar
g
q
ql
X
Palatal
g(w)
k(w)
k!(w)
x(w)
Anterior palatal
g*
k-
k-!
X*
Alveolar
d
(dz)
t
(ts)
tl
(tsl)
s
n
Labial
b
P
pi
m
Lateral
]_,
L
L!
-1
1
Glottal Stop
h, y, w
 DREAMS
1. Mexes W§gwa£nak\ila.
LaEng*ek«  doqwaxEii klwai.a£yaxa mEtsa LO^Eng^eda xumde.
Wa, laEng'En he* g#Il d5qwasE£wun   xwaxumt Iayo •    Wa, laEng#en do-
x£waLElaq§xs qEkldsae.    WS, laEng#En dox£watElaxa dza£wiiri axtsl-
5    Sq.    WS,  la£mEn tslEX«£Ida.
2. Mexes TsEX£wIde.
MexElek*   g'ax£Eng*E  ue£lalas6£sa ex,£Eng-a bEgwanEma qaE-
ng'Eiiu£x« IS hanatlaEng'E  le£w§ lasng'EXwa at lex.    Wa, lasng'a-
£m§SEn lag'Sq.    Wa, k»!es£Eng*a£m§SEnu£xu aLEgilaxs laEng'ae
10    dox£waLElaxa gewas.    LaEng*§ wax*  han££IdEq,    Wfi,  laEng#e ylm-
££Id§ hanLEinx'da,    WS,  la£mEii tslEX»£Ida laxeq.
3. Mexes KlwaklwabalasEine.
LaEng*ek»  tEwIx*axa £mElxt.o laEng'EX Dzawade.    Wa,  laEng*-
En dox£wai_Elaxa nja£Ze  £itie1xl5.    Wa, laEng#En hanZ£IdEq.      Wa,
laEng'En £wila qjapaq.    WS, laEng'En ytral£IdEq qEn axSlex yt-
15    x^SEma^yas qen g*Ig"aaledalexa yIx«SEraaeye.    Wa, laEng'En wQ.ue-
laxa qa£y£la laEng#EXEn £nala£ye.    Wa, laEng'En dox£wIdEq.
LaEng'En dox£waLElaEng*EXa ma£le g»I£la uoina nEXwaia g*ax££ng*-
En.    Wa, laEng'En hSioraala dax«£IdXEn dEnwesElaEng'S qEn hSa:£I-
dexa £nEme.    Wa, laEng'a£me iE£la.    WS, laEng-En hanieidxa £nE-
20      inex'das.    Wa, laxL§£ine 5dzEg*aaLEle hani.a£yas.    Wa,  g'SxEEng^aE-
tt» dax-£Id g'ax£Eng»En.    Wa, la£mEn ts!EX»£Id laxeq.
 DREAMS
1. Dream of Wegwa£nakula.
I went to look after my mink and otter traps. Then the otter
trap was looked after by me first.. Then I saw that It had fallen.
Then I saw that a silver salmon was in It.  3hen I awoke.
2* Dream of TsEXewId.
I dreamed that I was asked by a handsome man to go hunting
with him in the woods.  I followed him and we had not gone far
into the woods when I saw a deer.  I was about to shoot it when
my gun burst.  Then I awoke.
3* Dream of KjwakJwabalasEme.
I dreamed I was going mountain goat hunting in Knight Inlet.  Then I saw two mountain goats. Tnen I shot them.  I
hit both and I butchered them.  I took out the kidney fat and
put the kidney fat down on the rock.  Then I heard the noise of
walking up the river from me. Then I looked there and then I
saw two grizzlybears quite near to me. Then I just had time to
take up my gun and I hit the one. Then It was dead. Then I
shot the other one. Unfortunately my shot missed It. Then It
took hold of me.  After that I awoke.
v
 4. Mexes Omx'IdS.
Jf t Xaeng'eg'a laxaxa x'lqayalasng'S lalaasng'E laxa Awlk*le-
nox*. Wa, laEng'En lag'aa lax G-ip!a. WS, laEng'En tsI*so£sa
k'Sk'agEdzEwayo. Wa, he*x.'£idaEng'a£mesEn laEng'E k-eLa. WS,
5 laEng'S qiedzfilaEng-En k*§LEmaxa mEieVe. Wa, laEng*a£me* e*k-En
nfiqa£ftasEn laEng'aena£y§ h§X'£idaEm qlEyouaxa mEl5k#£Eng'S. WS,
laEng'En etjed ts!EX£stEndaEng*EXEn k'euEmS. WS, g'Il£Eng*a6-
mesS £wI£la£staEng«a laEng'a axaase fism kusx*SlaEng-eda mEZek'S
laEng'E ladzodXEn k'StEme.    Wa,  laErg'En kluls£ldxa mEiSk^e! la-
10     Eng'EXEn k'§LErae.    WS, k» Jes£Eng»aem6sEn nEgSyodEX £wasgEmas£En-
g'asEn k'etEmaxs laEng-aasa gwE£ylm ladzEdEq.    Wa,  laeng'e ma-
x*£ideda gwE£ytm£Eng*a.    WS, laEng'En k# !es he*iomalaEng'E  tsjE-
X£stEndxa apsEX'seSsa k*§LEm g,axeEng,E g'exsala laEng'EXEn k-e-
tatsl§ bfita.    Wa, laEng*aerae qEpJat.a6ya bfite".    WS, laEng»a£ma
15    gwE£ylm £wI£laEng#E nex£wu£todxa k'SLEme.    WS, la£mEn tsiEX#£ld
laxeq.
5. Mexes  LlatjEiEwedzEmga.
MexEleg'asa qienEra£Eng'a dzaxun lasng*ex Dzawade.    WS,  la-
Eng*anu£xu xotasa xodayoEng'S laq wIsiaqEng'adzfinu£xu geg'litsl-
20    la xotaxs lasng-aS qotlanuexu xodatsjS xwaklunaxa dzaxun. LaEn-
g*Enu£xu nS£nakwa.    Wa,  g*ll£Eng'a£mesEnu£x« lag*aa laEng'EXEnu-
£xu k'lax'£Idxa dzaxun qaEng'Enu£x« k*Jag'aElSElaq. WS, lasng*-
a£me qotjSda enEmsgEme £lap]ES.    WS,  laEng'E£me x-Is£Elsa dzaxun
laxeqxa axtsjSEng-S laxa £lapjES£Eng-S.    WS,  la£mEn ts!EX'£Ida.
25 6.    Mexes GwagwadaxEla.
Wa, laEng'En hamsaxa ql§nEma qjEndzEk** lasng'Exwa SlISx le£-
wa q]5nEm£Eng'S gwadEma. WS, laEng'En qlsySLa. Wa, g-ax£Eng«En
he£laxa mokwa bebEgwanEm qa g'ax£Eng*e oxLoitialaq. Wa, laEng'a-
£mEn kjwelats lasng'Exwa mosgEmakwe Kwag'uia. WS^ laEng'En §tje-
30 da hamsaxa qkmdzEkw. WS, laEng'En yllkwa. Wa, la£mEn ts.?EX'£id
laxeq.
 4. Dream of Omx'Id.
I dreamed that I went aboard a steamer and I went to Rivers
Inlet. Then I arrived at G'tpla. Then I was given a drift net.
Immediately I went fishing. Oh, there were many sockeye salmon
in my net. Then my heart was glad because I had at once caught
many sockeye salmon.  Then I threw my net back Into the water*
Then as soon as It was in the water I dreamed that the sockeye
salmon were splashing and they went Into %my net • Then I took the
salmon out of my net. I had not reached the middle of the extent
of my net when a whale went into it. Then the whale swam away.
I had no time to throw Into the water the other half of the net
which was In my boat that contained the net. Then the boat capsized and the whale pulled out the whole net. I awoke after this.
5. Dream of LlaLlEiEwedzEmga.
I dreamed that there were many olachen In Knight Inlet* We
caught them In bag nets. We had not been fishing with bag nets
for a long time before the canoe containing the bag net was full
of olachen. Then we went home. As soon as we arrived we carried
up the olachen and put them on the ground. Then the hole in the
ground was full. Then the olachen which had been In the hole disappeared. Then I awoke.-1
6. Dream of GwagwadaxEla.
I dreamed I went to pick many salmon berries in the woods
and also many blueberries. I obtained many. Then I asked four
men to help me carrying them out of the woods. That was the time
when I gave a feast to the four Kwag'ui tribes. Then I went a-
galn to pick salmon berries and I hurt myself. After that I awoke.
Tnis dream signifies that there were many olachen in the
river but that the water was so high that the fisherman could not
use their bag nets.
 7. Ae*k*aEng'E mexes Haetaelas.
MexEle g'ax ganotasa Sx'sokwa tsjEdaqSEiigVE  g'ax Le£lalaEng'E
g'axEn qaEng'aEnu£xu le hamsaxa gwadEmcng'S.    WS, laEng'aemesEnuex«*
LaEng'Exox SlISxs Tsaxis.    A laEng'Eg'anu^xu dox£waLElaEng«EXa q.e-
5*   nEm£Eng'S gwadsm uo£Eng'eda ££Eng#a£ma la gEtgEtUsa £nox«mEsas5s
awtxaxLfilas£Eng'Sxa £noxwa.    Wa,  laEng'a£mesEnttSxu k'ltlts.ots la-
Eng*EXEnu£xu ham£yatsle laElxSEng'a.      WS a££Eng'a£wis§ qoqutlaEn-
g'anu£x« ham£yatsle laElxSEng'a.    WS, laem£n tsjEX-^Id laxeq.
Wa,  laEm qjale Haeua£lasaxs lag'aeue qju£lai laxa gwatlEnxe
10    laxeq.
8. Mexes Wai_ide.
MexElek'   la hamsaxa qEk*!aalecng*S laxwa aulex u5^Eng'5x Ma-
witsax.    WS, laEng*a£mesEnu£xu slloIse laEng'a lSg'a d6x£watElaEn-
g'Exa seiEm.    WS, laEng'anu£x^ k*il6Its.    Wa, la£mEn ts!EX,£Ida.
15 9.Mexes LlaiEmeg'i£laku.
MexEleg'aEng'E hamsaxa qjSnEmeEng»S nEklula laEng'EX G'iox.
Wa, laEng'En doqulaxa qIenEraeEng'S h&enon xwelawa laEng'EX wSs
G'iox.    Wa,  laEng'En kwexasEn SEk*!aganoEng*S laxa ha£none.    WS,
laEng'Enqleyolxa nEkluiS.    WS, g,axSEng,aemEn nS£nakwa.    WS, lEn
20    wSg'aa laxEn g'okwaxg'in lSk*   tsjEX«£Ida.
10.    Mexes uiaLiaiawIdzEinga.
MexElek'  laEng'E dzek'axa g#aw§q.anEmeEng»S laEng'EXwa i_jEma-
Is£Eng»ex.    WS, laEng'En dzek'a. Wa, k* Jes£Eng'a£mesEn geg'iles
dzek'a£Eng«a laasEn k'lllakwe ax£aLElaEng'E laxa tElqwa.    WS, g*a-
25    x£Eng»e ne££Ideda £walas£Eng'S tEqlwaxa dzEmsg^mlise.    WS,  la£mEn
tslEX'£Ida qaxg'in alek-  k-li£Id§s.
11.    Mixes QasElas
MexElek*  laEng'a Lax£wut.ralaEng'EX qIeiiisexlS.    WS,  laEng'En
dzex*£ida.Wa laEng'e qJenEma g*aweqIanEm£Eng'aEn dzeg'anEmEng»a.
Wa, laEng'a£mesEn gwai dzek'a. LaEng'En wax'   laxsd ax£edxEn dze-
g-atsle lExa£ya hSnxs£Eng'E  laxa tawatsle xwaxwagum.    WS, laEng'a-
 7. Good dream of Ha§La£las.
I dreamed last night of a pretty woman who came to call me to
pick cranberries. We went inland. Then we saw many cranberries
and blueberry bushes which were hanging down with many blueberries
hanging from the points (of the branches) and so we shook them into our berry picking baskets. Then our berry picking baskets were
full. I awoke after that.
Then Haeta£las knew that she was going to keep alive until
the season of cranberry picking*
8. Dream of WSuid.
I dreamed I was going to pick dogwood berries inland, together
with Mawitsa.  Then we went inland and I saw a snake. Then we were
afraid of it and J awoke*
9. Dream of L.aiEmeg*i&laku.
I dreamed that I went to pick many salal berries at G*15x.
Then I saw many hump^baoked salmon spawning in the river of G'iox.
Then I struck the salmon with my cane. Then I got many salal berries. Then I went home. Before I arrived at home I woke up.1
10* Dream of LlaLlaiawidzEmga.
I dreamed that I was going to dig clams on the beach here.
Then I was digging. I had not been digging long before my digging
stick struck something soft. Then there came out and showed itself
a large squid which had buried Itself on the beach. Then I awoke because I was very much afraid of it.
11* Dream of QasElas.
I dreamed I was going seawards to Shell Island. Then I was
digging.  I had obtained many clams by digging. Then I stopped dig-
ging. Then I intended to go to my canoe to get the clam basket	
1Thls dream signifies that the woman who dreams will live until
the salal berries are ripe but that she will be sick before that time.
 £mEn d5x£waLElaEng»EXEn Lawatsje xwaxwagumxs lae tsjaqfila lax gwa-
£na£yas QlEmsEXLa. Wa, laEng*a£m§ g'txfi . WS, he*£mesEn wul£Em
lElaxsE£yas£Eng'§. Wa, he'£mas lag* iiasEn ZaewunEmex gwex#€Id g-a-
XEn. Wa, la£mEn ts!EX»£Ida. Ala hasEla tEkulaxsn m£k.ub££yaqEn.
5 12. £yak*a£ng'E mexes LEgu£las.
Q,IenEm£Eng*aeda wasllaxa aEnte wanaeyaEng-a mexex laX'dSs
Elaq £nax«'£IdEX ^aalax'de. WS, lasng'e qJenEma aEnt^Eng'asEms
g*okul5ta Kwag'uie £nek*e LEgu£lasaxs lae mairaextsla qasn.
Wa, he'Em gWE£yosa g-ale baklum g'ax tsUk'.aZElSda hayaiie-
10 lagasaxs £yax'SE£maeda tslEX'qlolEmLa g*aXL qaeda aEntaxs he*£mae
tslEX'qlolEme ylxs mexayae lag*lias k'.etslenoxu Entjata tsjEX*-
qjaxa aEnte qaxs aEmsae lax Enfc.ats££wa aEnte qaxs g#tl£mae EntJ-
ata tsjEX'qlaxa aEnte lae h§x*£idaEm XEni£Ideda tsjEX'qla. WS,
he^mis lag'iias k*ilEm ha£ma£ya aEntasa ts.EX*q*£sa bakJurae.
15
13. Mexes WaiEwide.
MexElek* tex£staEng'EXg-anu£x« S£e|to£nakulaEng-ik« laxa 6x*-
sidza£yasa ha£yim£staEng'S. Wa, laEng-En fila k-££eida h§£mesEn
la tsjEX'£Idaase.
14. Mexes MElede.
20     MexElek' t!at!alax'da£nEmsa u£s£Eng'a laEng-Exwa aulex. WS,
laEng'En qlauElaEmxg'axs £naxwaEng'a£maex q.weiSIdaEng'En xaqex.
Wa, laEng'En £lap!qeqoyosEn g'okulota Kwag'ui. WS, weg'aale laEng' EXEn g*okwaxg«in iSk* ts!Ex-£Ida.
15* Mexes GwagwadaxEla. ^
25     MexEleg'aEng'E sex£wld LE£wun mokwex sasEm. WS, laEng*eifcg-a-
nu£x" laEng'EX Xumdasbe. WS, laEng'Enu£x« lag'aaEng'E lax nEgE-
tlas PlELEms laEng'aase pIslxElax*£Idaxa filaEng'S gEnk'a. WS, la-
 which was in the little clam digging canoe.  Then I saw that my
clam digging canoe was drifting about north of Shell Island.  It
was drifting away.  Tnen I shouted in vain.  Taat was the reason
why my husband called ma and I awoke.  My heart was beating violently.
12. Dream of I»Egu£las.
Much herring-spawn spawned the herrings. This was my dream
In the morning when day was almost breaking. There was much herring-spawn for our tribe, the Kwag'ui, said LEgu£las when he told
me his dream.
This was explained by the ancient Indians as meaning that the
spirits would come and that a bad epidemic would break out at the
herring spawning, for the spawn is an epidemic when one dreams of
it. Therefore no sick person is allowed to eat herring-spawn, for
it has an evil effect when herring-spawn is eaten, for when a sick
person eats herring spawn his sickness will increase. Therefore
is the eating of herring-spawn a cause of fear for the sick ones
among the Indians.
13* Dream of WaiEwid.
I dreamed I fell into the water while we were paddling at the
foot of the mountain in deep water. I was frightened very much,
and that was the moment when I awoke.
14. Dream of MEied.
I dreamed I fell from a tree here (behind the houses) Inland.
Then I knew that I had broken ail my bones.  Then I was dug up by
my tribe, the Kwag'uX. Then had not yet reached my house when I
awoke «
15. Dream of GwagwadaxEla.
I dreamed I was out paddling with my four children.    Then we
were going to Xumdasbe.    When we were opposite P.ElEms it became
very thick and foggy.       Then we were lost in the fog.    I was  just
 10
Eng*a£mEnu£x« plElxplElXELayanEma.    WS, &Eng'a£mesEn k.wag'aaZEWi
laEng'Enu£x« yayatslS xwakjuna.    Wa,  laEng*a£mEn gwal  sexwa.    WS,
SEng'a£mes£nu£x" la ts.EtsJaxsSEng'a.    WS,  laEng'e  §anol£Ida.  WS,
laEng'En mexsida.    WS,  laEng*€n tsUk' ]EXSdEndXEnu£xu yayatslS
5    xwaklunSxs lae qwa££Elyo lacng'EXa a£wlnak!wa.    Wa,  la pJslXEla-
x'sSma.    WS,  laEng'En k*Jes mait.Slaxa a£wlnak!wa.    WS, laEng'e
15s£ida.    Wa, laEng'En maartleg'aaLElaEng'Eqexs hSe Yui_!e.    IS, la-
£m£n tslEX'£id laxeq. ?~N£5
16. Mex§s  LiSqwadze.
10 MexEleg'asa iSk'aEng'S x'lqa^yala laEng'Exox LE£ladex.    La
Eng'e qiex*seda bebEgwanEm LE£wa ts.edax£Eng*S ieiE£laxEn laEng-a
qlasoxs pExume£stalae. Wa, laEng'En h§£aqaso£sa mamaia qaEng'Sda
£na2£nEmokwe bEgwanEsiEn qJasE£wasa nEqasgEme dala. WS, lasng'a-
xaa qlenEma gwlZgwSlaEng'SEn q*asE£wa.    WS,  laEng'S Loma Sk'En
15    naqa£yas£n qjEyoL.ena£ye laq.    WS,  la£mEn tslEX,£Id laxeq.
17. Mexes G'lLa.
MexElek'  laEng'E  sexwa LO£Eng*En gEnEme lalaaEng'E  laxa Awl-
k'ISnoxu k'ak'SLesa.    WS, laEng,anu£xu lag-aa lasng'EX Ogwiwa
laEng'aase mEiEg'Ilisa.    Wa, laEng'En wlsoguLEmeEng'Et.En latsjfi
20    laEng'Ex GwaigwaL.alalis.    WS, laEng'En wax'   lalot.a qEn laEng^e*
lax GEyaxstaeye.    LadzSk'as£Eng'aemev abeqwa msiasa.    la, laEng'-
a£m£n gEnEme wax*   tsSia.    WS., laEng*a£me wits leg* exa dEmsx'Sxs
qui£aiEX8Elayfi£€ laEng'EXEn sak'Ilise.    WS, laEng'aemEnu£x« qjwa-
qJwasSla Lo£Eng'En gEnEme.    WS, la£mEn tsjEX'£Id laxeq.
25 18".    Mexes EwanuxMze.
MexEleg'as LEelEndzEwek'a laxs£Eng'Exes ompe X'Sx'ElqJayo-
gwi£lakwaxs yayasElaaxes  g'asEline bfita.    Wa,  laEng'En yayaSE-
laxEn xwaxwagum£Eng'a.    WS,  laEng'e k-atfileda g'lltJaEng'S qle-
xaia.    Wa, h§Eng'a£mes£n la hanbEndaEng'e.    Wa, laEng-e X'ax'El-
30    qIayogwi£lakwe hanx'£Id lax apsbeEng'Ssa q.exaie.    WS,  laEng'e
LE£lEndzEwek*e lak* Undxa 6ba£yasa qlexaie  qa£s  g'ax£Eng'S qadzE-
 11
sitting still in our travelling canoe. Then I stopped paddling.
In my dream we were drifting about on the water. Then it became
night and I went to sleep. When I awoke our travelling canoe was
being rolled against the rocks. It was still foggy. I did not
know the rocks. Then it cleared up and I knew that this was Yul.§.
Then I awoke. If^lkl
16. Dream of L.aqwadze.
I dreamed that a steamer had been wrecked here at LE£ladj
and that many men and women had perished and that they were found
drifting about. Then I was paid by the whites ten dollars for
every man found by me. Many pieces of clothing were found by me.
Then I was very glad on acoount of the large amount that I received. Then I woke up. >^%a^
17. Dream of G'lta.
I dreamed that I was paddling with my wife to Rivers Inlet
to go fishing. When we reached Cape Caution a southeasterly gale
began to blow, but we were unable to enter Gwaigwatlalalis, Then
I tried to reach GEyaxstaeyS. Then the sea was boiling on account
of the southeasterly gale. My wife tried to bail out the canoe
but she could not cope with the sea.water which was thrown into
my boat. Then we cried, I and my wife. Then I awoke*.
18. Dream of EwanuxMze.
I dreamed of LE£lEndz5£, that she was going in the boat of
her father X'Sx'Elq2ayogwi£laku, and that she was travelling in
his gasoline launch. Then I went out In my ljLttle canoe. A long
log was drifting on the water and so I was on one end of the
drifting log in ray canoe, and X'ax'Elq.ayogwi£laku was in his
launch on the other end. Then LESlEndzc5 stepped on the end of
 12
iEneq g-ag-axaEng-E  g«ax£Eng'E.    Wa, wSg-aaEng'Etlexs laEiig'ae  te-
xsta.    Wa, laEng'E haylnsEla.    Wa,  laEng'En dEXUsta qsn das£lda-
Eng'e wuiEm alSqe laEng-Exa ba£ne.    WS, laEng'En k'!es q]5q.    Wa,
g»ax£Eng'En q!ax£wida,  laEng'En dox£watElax Guyosdedzasaxs laEng*-
5    ae qjElWESdeSElaEng'EX &E£lEndzEW§k'axs laEng'ae *E£la.     WS,  la£-
msn tsjEX*£Id laxeq.
19. Mexes £yak'fiyugwa.
Mex£l§g*aqe xumtanuexu g«oxu£Eng'S laEng'EX G'iox. WS, laEng* a£me £naxwa q.ulX'sIda£ng'EnueXu dedamalax'dS. WS, laEng-a£-
10 mEnu£x» Slak'Jala wlwasilag'a. WS, la^mEn ts.fEx-£Id laxeq.
20. Mexes Q.'walax-Ilayugwa.
G*ax£Eng*aeda £naxwa lelqwalai_a£ya plek1* laEng'EX AwaXElag'-
llis. Wa, laEng'e Lali£lale AwaxElag-Illsaq qa laEng*es uJsxwa
laEng'EX g'okwas. WS, laEng'e qatapjEX-£Ide tabide lo£ KEg'Sxa
15 g*igEmasyasa Mamaleleqala. Wa, laEng-a£rae klunxstowe Lablde. WS,
laEng'e NEg'S qlEltJodxa L.aqwa ga£s yax£wldesa qlEldEkwe L.aqwa
laEng'EX Lablde. Wa, laEng'e Lablde 5gwaqa qlElt.'edxa L.aqwa
qa£s yax£widaEng'es laEng'EX NEg'S* W§, laEng'a£me xomaiElaEng*-
eda Mamaleleqala LE£wa Kwag'uie. WS, laEng'En fila k-Ii£ida. WS,
20 hSEmxanawesEn lag* 12a ts.fEX'£Ide.
21. Mexes GuySsdedzas.
LaEng*ek*   sex£wida qEn IS laEng'Exa Mamaleleqala laqexs g'5-
kulaEng'ae lax HoxudEraa.    WS, laEng'En lag'aa.    IS, h§X'EidaeEng'a
£mesEn gwegugu£naxEn g'Ig'SZaakwe qasng'En k'll£wene£Lax K'lntsie-
25    gumexa q*Ew8x L.aqwa.    Wa,  laEng'a£me g&enaga q*enEmeEng'S dala-
Eng'E g'ax£Eng'En. WS, laEng'a£mEn 8k- Jeqala qaeda SEk'lapjEnx'E-
Ide loxsEmx'£Id dala guenesa Mamaleleqala g-ax£Eng'En.    WS, laEng'En jr£lx£wlts laEng'EX K'tnts.egura.    WS,  laEng'a£mEn tla^iats
laxeq.    WS, la£mEn tslEX'£Id laxeq.
 13
the log and walked across it towards me.  Before she reached me
she fell into the water ajld sank.  Tnen I jumped into the water
and looked in vain for her down below.  I did not find her.
Then I came up and saw GuySsdedzas carrying LE£lEndzoe in his
arms. She was dead. Tnen I awoke*
19. Dream of £yak'fiyugwa.
I dreamed our house In ©rSx was on fire. Then all our property burned up and we were very poor and I woke up.
20. Dream of Ojwalax'tlayugwa.
In my dream all the tribe came invited by AwaxElag'llis.
Then AwaxElag'llis invited the people to a feast, and they were
to eat in his house after their journey. Then Labid and NEg'S-,
chief of the Mamaleleqala quarrelled.  Tnen Labid promised to
give a potlatch and then NEg-a broke a copper and gave the pieces
to Labid.  Then Labid broke a copper and gave the piece's 'to NEg-a.
Then the Mamaleleqala and the Kwag'uZ"quarrelled and I was really
afraid. That must have been the reason why I awoke.
21. Dream of Guyosdedzas.
In my dream I paddled to the Mamaleleqala who weredllving
in NoxudEm.  Then I arrived there. Then I asked at once payment
for that which they had received from me, for I was intending to
buy the expensive copper K'lnts.egum. Then they paid me many
dollars andJE was glad on account of the five thousand dollars
which the Mamaleleqala had paid me. Then I bought the copper
K'lnts.egum with it. Then I was the owner of the copper. After
that I awoke*
 14
22. MSxes YaqOLas.
MexEleg'asa q!§nEm£Eng'S lelqwSlaL§e£ng'£  g'ax -.SZElancneEn-
g'ES NEqap.Enk'Eraol.    LaEng'e xwasaEng'eda g'Igfima£y6le laEng*fixes noiEma3:aena£y§.    WS,laEng'e q.Eltaxa L.'aqwaEng-S qa£s yaxEwi-
5    desa q.fEldEX»£Eng'a lax Agwi£la.    WS, laEng'5 Agwieioie" ogwaqa
qjEltJedxe's LlaqwaEng'S qa£s yax£widesa q.EldEkwS lax NEqaplEnk--
Emoi.    WS, laem£n ts.EX'£Id laxeq.
23. Mexes NoJbe.
MexElek*  laEng'E pjek» laEng'Exa DzawadEenoxwe.    WS, laEng*-
10    En doqulaxa g'Ig'Egama£yas qlEltapJxa L.aLjEqwa.    Wa, laEng'En
yax£witso£sa q.EldEkwe ylEng'ES Sesaxfilas.    Wa, laEng'En q.'Elt.'§-
dEX G'llg'ato Max£enox^xa qlEyoxwe  Ljaqwa qEn yax£widaEng-ex Se-
saxfilas.    WS, laEng*a£me  £yak'fiEng»E  g'SxEn.    WS, la£m£n ts.EX'-
£Id laxeq.
15 24.    Mexea Ts.ag'oi.
Ylkwl2:eEng'Sk'  le£w§ gEnEmSoZe KunxulayugwSx ganoLe.    WS,
laEng'e   bEx^k*JodEqalaEng'eda ts.Edax.    WS, la£ng'E£mox yaya-
kwIltsIlaEng'oxda Kwag'uZex.  WS, laEng'En gom§ku LE£wun gEUEm-
£6i.    Wa, laEng'e ts.Elk'Elakwa ylkwIlEm^Eng'S g'lng'lnanEmasa
20    tslEltsfElk'asa k'amasa tslek.wa.    WS, laEng'a£mEnu£xtt lasa£lay5
laEng^xa mosgEms g'Ig'5xu£Eng'a.    WS, g«ll£mesEnu£xu £wl£la lo-
££ng'eda Kwag'uZ laEng'E gwai lasalaxa mosgEmse g*ig*6kwa.    La-
Eng*eg'anu£x«    £wl£la hogwlL lax g'5xu£Eng'SEn.    WS, la£mEn ts.E-
x-£Ida.
26      2-;f:.l 25*    Mexes K-.SdeZEm.
MexEleg'ax ganoLasa mosmosa g'5x£Eng'E  qaqaEya g'ax£Eng'En.
LaEng'S hSitsiaXLS g'5x£Eng'En.    WS, laEng-e dax'dasaEng'E g'aXEn.
WS, he*£mes£n la ts.fEX'£Idaase laxEn mS£xena£ye.
26.    Ek'asng'E  qaeda h&nLJSnoxu.
MexElek' bak'OEng'E  LO££ng'En Lfilax ganoLe*.  Wa laEng'a£mEn
enExwa1aEng-E LE£wela£ng«Exwa aLanfi£yaxsa g'okulaxa fila x'isa.
LEn ts.EX'£Ida,
 15
22. Dream of YaqOLas.
I. dreamed that many tribes came invited by the late NEqapI-
Enk'Em.     Then the late  chief became ecstatic in his quality of
fool dancer.     Then he broke a copper and gave the pieces to the
late £gwl£la.       Then the late ftgwi£la broke a copper and gave
the pieces to the late NEqaplEnk'Em.     Then I awoke*
23. Dream of Noibe.
I dreamed that I had been invited by the DzawadEenox1*.
Then I saw how the chiefs broke coppers against one another*
Then Sesaxdlas gave a piece to me. Tnen I broke The Long Killer-
whale, an expensive copper, and gave it to Sesaxfilas. Thus he
was vanquished by me*  Then I awoke*
24. Dream of TsJag'S*.
I dreamed I had twins last nigkt with ray late wife Kunxa-
layugwa. One was a boy, the other a girl. Then the Kwag'uZ
followed the twin customs. I and my late wife painted our faces
with ochre. The twins each wore wing feathers of gulls. Then
we were led around four houses, and when we and the Kwag'ui finished walking around four houses we want into my house. Then I
awoke *
25* Dream of K* JedeiEm.
I dreamed last night that a bull followed me. Then he overtook me and overpowered me. At that time I awoke from ray sleep.
26. Good Dream of a Hunter.
I dreamed that I met my sweetheart last night and I lay
with her behind the village, and it seemed true. Then I woke up.
 16
27.    Aik'aEng'E raSxesa hanLlSnoxwax Orax-Id.
XwanalElaEng'Sk'   qEn laEng'5 la£sta laxwa wax  qaEn laeneLe"
hanaL.aZ.    Wa,  laEng'En aLOiElaEng-a qEn IS laEng'EX £nEldzasa
wax.    K'Jes£Eng'aemSsEn lag'aa laEng'EXEn h8mEnaia£ma laestaasa
5    laEng'eg'a dox£waLElaXEn tfilSxs  ts!ElXElgayaaxa iEnEmx-de.    WS,
laEng'En qas£Id qEn iSEng'e laq.    WS, h§X'EidaEng'aem§SEnuEx«
n£xwalax'£lda.    WS, g'li&Eng'aemesEnu£xu gwaia laEng'§g'anu£x*»
laestEX'£Ida LE£wun Lfila.    WS,  g'lleEng'a£mesEnaexu gwai la£sta
le£w€ laEng-a5 hS g*11 laEng-e na£nakwa.    WS, la£ra£n tsjEx-ei-
10    daxa ftla x'lsaEn mSxaSya.
28*    Me"xes K'lamaxalas.
Sa2aEng'§g-a L5£Eng'Sda -qienEma ts.edaqa laEng*exeuu£xu
g'Okwex.    WS,  g'll£Eng'a£m§SEnuexu geg-IllZ salaEng-a g'Sx^Eng'-
aasEn la£wunEmeEng'S g-axeL laEng'EXEnuex*» g'Skwa qa£s k* !ela-
15   x,eIde g*ax£Eng'En.    WS, laem£n ts.fEX'£Ide laxeq.
29*    MSxes Abayaa.
MexElek*  laEng'E hamsaxa q.enEm£Eng-a tSElxwa laEng*Exa
^fff   tSElx»madZEkulaEng'S eg'Emengwisa.    WS,  laEng'En maitleg-aaLE-
lasng'Eqexs he*£mek*  hamsaxa tSElxwe DzawadS.    WS, laEng'En d5x&-
20   waLElaEng'Exa mcwa g-Ig'lla.    Wa,  laEng'En hSZtsfise wax-a qaxs
g'5x£Eng'a£mae qaqa£yaEng»eda £nEma g*tla g-ax£Eng'En.    WS, laEng'e dax*£Id g'ax£Eng-En.    WS,  laEng'En dox£w!dEq £masL§s yfiSx
Tafanisex.    Wa, laEng'a£mox ^vax*  qa£s dax-dase g-ax^Eng-En.  WS,
laEng*Enu£xu dadEgfilaEng-a. WS, laEng*a£raEn Syak'a laEng-Eq.
2§   WS,  laEng'a£me £nEXwalax'£Id g-axEEng-En.    Wa,  laEng'En wax*  nS-
£nakwa.    Wa, laEng'En q.wadzEtfiya.    WS, la£raEn tslEX-£Ida laxeq.
30.    Mexes Ts£xwSsElasoe.
G-ax£Eng*aEn sasEm£53:a Le£lala g-ax£Eng-En qEn IS lax gWE£-
y£se Sx*£Eng'E a£wlnagwisa ylx IS £wI£lalaatsEns IS k-Jek-Uyowa.
 17
27.  Good Dream of the Hunter Omx-id.
- I dreamed that I made ready to bathe in the river here for
I intended to go hunting. Then I went inland to the upper part
of the river.  Before I came vo the place where I am accustomed
to bathe I saw my sweetheart coming through the salal bushes.
I went to her and immediately we lay down. After that we went
bathing, I and my sweetheart. After we had finished, I and she,
she went home first.  Tnen I awoke from this dream which seemed
as if it had really happened. *
28. Dream of K-Jamaxalas.
In ray dream I and many women were singing love songs In our
house.  After we had been singing for a long time my husband came
into my house and beat me.  Then I awoke.
29* Dream of A*bayaa.
I dreamed I was going to pick crabapples in a patch of crab-
apple trees which were growing on a pretty level place.  Then I
recognized that it was Knight Inlet where I was picking crabapples.
Then I saw four grizzly bears. I tried to run away for one of the
bears pursued me. It took hold of me. I looked at it, and what
should it be but this man Tsanis here. Then he said he would overpower me.  Then we took hold of each other and I succumbed and he
embraced me.  Then I wanted to go home. On the way I was weeping.
Then I awoke.** .
30 .Dream of TsEXwSsElasoe.
In my dream ray late child came to invite me to go from here to
•^This dream corresponds to the procedure of the hunter who tries
to secure good fortune.
, ^This dream means that Abayaa will be with child.
 18
WS    he"X'£idaEng'a£mesEn xwana2£ida.    WS, lsn ts*Ex-£Itsa    hadzEX-
stala.
31.  Eyak'aEng'E mexes £nEmokuyalis.
He*£maaxg'in laEng'eq LO£Eng'£n gEnEme laEng-Exa £walas£Eng'S
5 dzoyagEku g'5kwa. Wa, laEng*anu£xu axk',alaso£sa bEgwanEm^Eng-a
qEnu£x« la k!us£all£ laEng'Exa he*ik-JodEnegwIiasa oxLSHlasa g-o-
kwe. Wa, laEng-a£mesEnu£xu k.us£allia. Wa, laEng'En dox£waLEla-
qexs £naxwa£mae laEng-e lelEela q!enEm6Eng-S bebEgwanEmaxa £naxwa-
Eng*a£ma g*ayo2:£Eng'E lax g'lg* EgEmaSyoiasa Mamaleleqala ylEng'EX
10 GuyoiElas£wu£e L5£Eng*§ NEg-ESiS, wS h§Eng*aEm k.'udzei laEng'Exa
5gwiwa£lIl£Eng'Ssa g'okwe LoeEng*eda qJenEma qjulsqlulsyax bebEgwa-
nEm£Eng'S. Wa, lasng'S k* JagIg'aZtfi£ya saox»*eEng-a laxa t!ex-ila-
Eng-asa g-okwe. WS, he*Eng*a£raes§ k!udzEdzfi£ye T.'eqwapEwuZe lo£-
Eng'es ene£nEm5ku£wiliia. Wa, laEng'e GuySlElase yaqlEg'a£Za. Wa,
15 laEng'e Tleqwape dasdalas waidEmeEng'Ss GuyoiElas. WS, he*Eng«a£-
mes laEng'E k* lelax-£ldaasEX Tjeqwapde. Wa, laEng-aErae *E£le Tip-
qwapde. Wa, he*Eng-a£mes g«a£xats X'Ilx£Itol: Sxk'ISlaEng'E g'SxEn
LO£Eng'En gEnEme" qEnuex" IS hdqawElsa laxa g'5xu££ng-asa leslSle-
noxwe. WS, laEng'a£mes£nu£xu laxa t.ex'Ila qiaqlalak-lenux^s X'l-
20 lx£Ite. Wa, laEng'a£me £nek'a qa£so k-Jes la hoqawels laxwa g-5-
kuqEnuex»* la£mets XEk* Iax*da£xl*LOL, £n§k'S. WS, g'ax£Eng'a£mescn-
u^x1* na£nakwa yixs laEng'ae xoraaiElSda leslfilenoxwe.
Wa, h§Em swalas eyax'S£m mexa£ya. Wa, laEra tsJEk* lalElaqexs
£yax'SE£maeda tsjEX'q.olEinLaxa qiex*saasLasa bakiume ZeiE£li.
25 32. Mexes Ljaqwag*ilayugwa.
M§XEleg'asEn Lfiloia g«ax£Eng-E Le^lala g-ax£Eng-En qEnu£x*
laEng-e sex£wld LO£Eng*e. LaEng'En mElqwalaEntqexs gE£yoZa5la
iE£la. Wa, laEng'En £nex-qEXg-ln qlEmsek-. WS, J.a£ng-e £yak'IH-
ia qa£s dadEX-s££ll$a£ng-e g-ax£Eng-En. WS, la£mEn gwSgwaitsSgng-a
Wa, la£mEn ts!Ex-£Ida.
 19
the place which they call the beautiful Country, the place where
all those go who are no more. I got ready at once. Then I was
awakened by a noise*
31. Bad Dream of £nEmokuyalis.
It was this way, that I and ray wife were in a large house with
many platforms. Then we were asked by a man to sit down In the
house in the rear corner at the right hand side, and so we sat down
in the house. Then I saw all those who were dead, many men, some
of the late chiefs of the Mamaleleqala, that is, the late GuyoiE-
las, and thfc late NEg*e, who were sitting in the rear of the house,
and also many old men. And on a platform made of boards placed
over the door of the house, the late T.'eqwap was sitting with his
late friends.  Then GuyoiElas spoke and T.eqwap ridiculed the
speech of GuyoiElas. Then he killed T.Sqwap, and Tleqwap was dead.
That was the moment that the late X'Ilx£It asked me and my wife to
leave the house of the ghosts.  We went to the door led by X'll-
xeIt. Then he said, "If you do not ga out of this house immediately you will stay here forever." Then we went home while the ghosts
were fighting.
This is a great bad dream. It announces that a bad epidemic
is going to come and'that many Indians will die.
32* Dream of L.aqwag'ilayugwa.
I dreamed of my late lover who came to call me to go paddling with him, and then it occurred to me that he had been dead
for a long time. I said to him that I did not care to go. Then
he became angry and took hold of me. Tnen I cried out. Then I
awoke.
2*
 20
33.    Mexes K'Jamaxalas.
MexEleg-a *E£l£Eng-EX ganoLe laEng'En layosEn k' lesSEng'a1
mait.ei e*x'£Eng'E  ts.Edaq laEng'EXa Sg'EmengwisCEng'a a£wlnagwl-
saxa g-okulasasa ts.edaxsEm£Eng'axa k'JefisaEng'S EnEffl6x« bEgwa-
6   nEm bEkiuges.    WS, laEng*eda £n£m6xtteEng*S ,riiLa 8*axStng'En-.
wlx-soxda a£wlnagwlxex laxos n£qa£yex,  £nex'£Eng#e  g-ax££ng* En.
Wa, laEng'En xulxultsieqalaEng'E laq.    WS, laEng'a£mesEn neia-
Eng'Eq.    Wa, laEng'e k'aya g'5x£Eng'En.    WS, la£mEn ts.'EX-£Id laxeq.
10 34.Mexes  LlalEmeg-l£laku.
G-ax£Eng*aEn ompewuia doqwa    g*ax£Eng'En laxsn g-okwex.
Wa, laEng*aemese LeSlalaEng'E  g*ax£Eng'En qEn laEn lax g-okulas.
Wa,  laEng*a£m§SEn xwanaisIda qEn 1-S lSg-eq.     LaEng-eg-a mElx£wa-
LElaqexs gEyoiaoia iE£lEn omp£wu£a.    WS,  laEng'En fila  ts.'Enx^-
15    sexs g'axae  L§£lalaEng*E  g-ax£Engtn qaeda leslfilenoxwS.    WS, la-
sm£n ts!EX-£Ida.
35.    Mexes  L.aqwai.
LaEng-ek-  dzeg'EtJaxa g'aweqJanEra laEng-ex ALanodza£ye. WS,
laEng-a£mesEn    e*x-£ag-alis laEng-Exa g-awegade.    LaEng-ek-  dox-
20    £waLElaxa qJenEme ts.edaqa k!iitse£stalaxa' lEgwise.    WS, laEng-e
abas£wu2e LE£wis £nEmoxu£wua:e  L.aqwali£wu£§  LEewoxda lax XEnLEla
tslEX-qiox Gaaxstalasex k.wagelisxa haayaiilagas ylxEns gWEEyo
leslSlenoxwa.    Wa,  laEng-a£me  tsjesaxa g*aweq.anEm qass tsIekwSq.
Wa, laEng-e abas£wu£e  L§£lala g*axsEng*En qEn laEng'e ts!ats{§-
26    k.walaq.    Wa,  laEng*En aL§£sta qEn laEng-e k.wag'Ilise.    Wa,  laEng'En k* .es raaitjalaxa wa5ku  tsjedaqaxa gEyoi£wu2aXEnt Ze*E£la.
Wa, laEng'e Ljaqwal££wuie  £nex*   qEn tsjats.ekjwalexa tslSdzEkwe
g'aweqianEma.    Wa,  laEng'e  abas£wuie k*.es£Eng*E hSiq.alEn ts.e-
tsjekiwalaq   " qaxg'in k*Jesek*   £nex*   qa g-axesox, g-axEns  qa he'-
SO      x-sa£raesox q.ap.aiotEn xunokwae ia£wun£masox,M £nex-£Eng-§.     WS,
laEng'a£me abas£wuZe  £yalaqaEng«E  g-axEn qEn g'axe na£nakwa.  WS,
 21
33. Dream of K* Jamaxalas.
I dreamed last night that I was dead and I was taken away by
a pretty woman who was unknown to me to a nice beach to a village
in Which there were only women, not a single man among them. Then
one of thera asked me, tf How do you like this beach?" she said to
me. I felt depressed there and I told her so. Then she chased me
away. Then I awoke*
34* Dream of LiaiEmeg*ielaku.
In ray dream my late father came to see me in my house here *
Then he invited me to go to his village, and so I made ready to
follow him. Then it occurred to me that my late father had died
long ago. I became very angry because he had come on behalf of
the ghosts to invite me. Then I awoke*
35* Dream of L.aqwa*.
I dreamed that I was going digging clams on (the island)
ALanodza£ye* And so I approached the beaoh where there are clams.
I saw many women sitting around a fire on the beaoh. There were
your late mother and her late friend L.aqwali, and the sick Gaax-
stalas was sitting with the spirits, for that is the way we call
the ghosts* They were roasting clams and eating them*  Then your
mother called me to eat clams with them* I went ashore and sat
down.  I did not know the other women, but they probably died long
ago.  Then L.'aqwal* wanted that I should eat roasted clams with
them.  Your mother did not permit me to eat clams with them, " for
I do not wish her to come to us.  She shall remain with ray son,
her husband, "thus she said. Then your late mother sent me away
home. Then I left them and went aboard ray little travelling canoe.
Then I awoke*
 22
g'ax££ng*En ba"se qEn laxs£Eng'S laxEn yaeyats'S SEk'Ellsa.    WS,
la£mEn ts.EX'£Id laxeq.
36*    Mexes Gwuyosdedzas.
MexElek'  laEng*E  sex£widayosEn gag£mpewu£a.    LaEng'En ai£Em
5    qj£2:£aLElaEng'Eqexs gEvSZaoia £ESlaxg'anuSxu la£ng*5g'a qwesg-lla-
Eng'a.    WS,  laEng'e aL§£sta laEng'EX Sg'isbalis.    Iff, he*Eng'a£mesEr,
la b&Eng*£3 qEn g*ax£Eng*e qasaesElaEng-axg'ln g*£xek-  nS£nakwa.
Wa,  g-ax££ng'En lax G'iox.    WS, laEng-En k-.'efts gwSweClasSEng-E laxa was G'iox.    Wa, laEng'En wax*   gElx-£ida.    WS,  laEng'En Elaq wS-
10    x,£Ena.    WS, he*£mesEn la ts/EX'^Idaase.
'r<''m *- 37.    Mexes Yaqawlde.
LaEng'5g#a sexwa lalaaEng-E  lax Gwadze£yaxa ganu2£Eng-a. WS,
g'il£Eng-acmesEn lag'aa laEng-ex QismSEXLS lSsng'Sk'  wuLax£aLEla-
Eng*Exa qiek*iala ha£ya£a saelalaxa £n§X'eEng*ae qa£yasas;
15 Leu yayaex£alisak*as cnahErik'.Emlisaixahanhan g*Iyaeya;
ha ha yl£ya ha ha.
£ya oguxsalehesLEhahahan qJwahahats.ert§£La    qahahahan*
g*Iya£ya;    ha ha yi£ya ha ha.
Wa, ma££tSErak-lEnalaEng-a£mEn q.'aSE£we  laEng-EX qaeyas£Eng*Ssa sa-
20    lEmas hS£yaiaEng-asa leslfil.enoxu.    WS, laEng'Enhe*%iakula laEng'EX
Gwadze£ye. WS,  laEng-En lag-aaxa laEng*e na£nakula.    WS,  la£m£n
ts!EX-£Id laxeq.
38.    Mexes TsExEwIdS. *>V^
G*ax££ng*ek*   Le£lalaso£SEn orap€wuia qEn laEng'5 lax gWEey«ts
25    §k*  a£wlnagwisa.    WS,  laEng'a£m§SEn iSg-eq*    WS,  laEng'anuexw lag'aa lax g*oxl*£Eng*a£s.    WS,  laEng*anu£x« hogwUa laEng*ax g-okwas.
Wa,  laEng*e axk*Iala qEn kjwag-allie.    Wa,  la£ng*a£me neiaxs  lo£-
mae wlwosllaga laxes Sxase;      Dox£widasxEn ku£lelasex.    La£m£n
k'.ets mama,  laxaEn k*JeSs hSiila£ya,   £nex*£Eng*§ g'Sx£Eng'En.
30    Wa, £Eng*a£mesEn Lax£ullia qEn g*ax£Eng*§ nS£nakwa.    WS, la£m£n
ts!EX'£Ida.
 23
36. Bad dream of Gwuyosdedzas.
I dreamed that I was being paddled about by my late grandfather.  I only recollected that he had died long ago after we
were far away.  Then we landed on a sandy point.  I left him and
went along the beach and came home.  I came to G-I5x. Then I could
not get across the river of G'iox.  I began to swim and I was almost drowned. At that moment I awoke.
37. Dream of Yaqawld.
In my dream I was paddling to Gwadzee at night.  As soon as
I arrived at Shell Island I heard the voices of many young men
who were singing love songs and they said these words;
I give it up to win ray love in this world; ha ha yi£ya
ha ha.
Oh, in another way will go down my crying on account
of my love*, ha ha yi£ya ha ha.
I learned two lines of the words of the love song of the young men
of the ghosts.  Then I went right on to Gwadze£ and I arrived there
when the day broke. Then I awoke.
38. Dream of TsEX£wid.
In my dream I was called by my late father to a place which
he called the Nice Country. Then I followed him. We came to his
house. I entered his house. Then he asked me to sit down on the
floor. Then he told me it was a very poor place where he was-, (he
said), ff Look at my bed.  I have no cover, nothing to maintain myself.11 Thus he said to me. Then I arose and went home. Then I
awoke.1
^•After this dream TsEX£wid burned two pairs -of blankets and
food for the soul of his late father.
 24
39. Mexe"s HEX*hak*wae,dzEm§a.
(Koskimo)
Mexae'g-£m.ax neg-Exu y£k*atse qienEmx'st.aaxwa lak-as *E£2aa
tsletsjadaxstjaaxwa y£k*ast.aaxux Ak*ilayugwaoi LO£kwast.aaxwe S-
5 dahoik'astlaaxwe LO£kwast.aaxwe L.aqwag-ilayugwaolk'ast.aaxwe lo-
£kwastjaaxwe LlaLlaqwaoiwuiek-astiaaxwe. WS, hek-as£Emxati lak-as
geol lak-as £wl£lak-as ieEJaa. la, lak'astlaaxwe laxst.aaxu g-a-
x£allsk'adz6i lak'astJaaxux Xutes, WS, lak'ast.aaxwe Ak'ilayugwa
Le££a£EXsak'ast.aaxuX HEX-haklwaedzEmga l5£x*stlaaxwe L.'aqwaga.
10 Wa, lax'stlaaxwe hox£wal£Xst.'aaxu lak-astJaaxux ya£yats.as§ k* JS-
sk'ase la aomsk-asa. Wa lax•stlaaxwe LEXElesa. WS, lax*stlaaxwe
gagSlak'ast!aaxu Lex£edayox'stJaaxwa.  G-axk'asEn ddx£waLElak"asx*-
stjaaxusxe qJenEmk'ase me£mS Ek'aX'st|aaxu lak'asx-stiaaxuxe L.a-
sagwisk'atse gokwax'St.aaxu lak'asEX Xutes* Wa, lax-st Jaaxwe" tfa-
15 tJaqwaso£kwatse tJStJaq.wenoxuk'asase Gosg*imoxuk*as§• WS, lak'astiaaxwe qoqutjak'ase t Jat.'aq.'waats Jex- st Jaaxwas memanagolk'asa.
Wa, lak'as£EmxaEn tsjEX-£Id 1-ak'asxeq.
Wa, ylx gwebwiaasasa g'alaba£yasa mexacye qa HEX'hak.wae-
dzEm§a lo£ L.aqwa^a yixs he*£raae a£§s qiweqju£l§. WS, la laxse
20 bEX£una£yasex ya£yats!asa bebEX£una£yasa la §a£a £ei££la. WS,
laEm qjaleda mexElSxs lE£mae Elaq £e£E£la ma£l6kwe. WS, IS eIx-
La£ya mexa£yas qJenEm k'!6tEla, wS laEm qlalaxs lag'aeL§ qlfiS-
lal laxa k'JotjEnxe.
40. Hexes Ts.falallii£laku.
25 Mex-Elek*   laEng'E  Le£lanEmsEn orap£wuia laEng*ex Ts.Sde. WS,
laEng'En LUleweqexs gEyoiaola *E£la.    LaEng*a£mesEn lax g-5x«£-
E.ng'ase qEn laEng'e kjwali laEng-ex g-okwas.     WS,  laEng'e yaqjEg'-
a£ia,  laEng'e  £nek'a;       Gelak*as la  qlagwid,  esaeLEn Seiii £nex*   qEn
g-axe he'iieiSlaxes gwex-sdEinos qEn damodalexwa ts.§tsiEX*qJolEma-
30    qos 2:alaxw.lla£y£ qaxg* in doqula£meg*axs hem£nala£maaqos  tsiEX*q*a,
£nex*£Eng*e omp£wuiEn.    Wa,  laE-ng-e  LExomaxotses £wax-so£ts.ana£ye
 25
39. Dream of HEX-hak.waedzemga.
(Koskimo)
At night I dreamed of many dead women, of the late Ak-ila-
yugwa, the late Ada, the late lJaqwag*IlayugWa and the late L.'a-
Llaqwaoi.  They had all been dead a long time. They came a-
shore at Xutes. Then Ak*ilayugwa called HEX-haklwaedzEmga and
Llaqwaga to come aboard the canoe. They went aboard the canoe
of the supernatural ones. Tney steered away from shore. After
they had been under way for some time I saw many salmon jumping
on the beach seaward from the village Xutes. They were speared
by the spearsmen of the Koskimo, and the spearsmen's canoes were
full.  After this I awoke.
This is the meaning of the beginning of the dream for Hex--
hak.waedzEm§a and L.aqwaga — for they were still alive — whose
souls went aboard the canoe of the souls of those who had died
long ago. Then the dreamer knew that these two were almost dead.
At the end of the dream about the many salmon, she knew that she
would live until the salmon run.
40. Dream of TBj«lalilI£lak«.
I dreamed I was invited by my late father to Tsjade.  I
had forgotten that he was dead long ago. I entered his house and
sat on the floor of his house. Then he spoke and said,11! wish to
cure you of your w/ays and to remove those sicknesses which cause
you pain, for I see you are always ill." Thus said my late father.
Then with both his hands he squeezed both sides of my head downwards to the lower end of my back. Then he closed both hands and
 26
laEng-Exg-£n £wax-sanoLEmek*  haxalaEng'E  laxg'In odzoxedek*.    WS,
he*Eng*a£m§s la LElqox£wIdaats e£e6yasfis qa£3 mEqSstodesa tsjEX-qJo-
lEme.    Wa, laEng-e mopiEna he* gwex*£ide.    WS,  g*ll£mese gwa2££ng'a
lae £yalaqaEng-E g-axEn qEn g-axe nS£nakwa.    WS,  la£m£n tsiEX-£Id
5    laxSq.
41*    Mexes Q.'eqjEX-Lala.
MexElek'  laEng-e hanaL.a laEng-Exa megwatS laEng'EX MaplEgEm*
Wa, laEng-En qisyoLXa megwate. Wa,  g-ax£Eng-En nSenakwa laEng-exox
Tsaxisex.    Wa, he'x-£idaEng'E£raes£n tsjEX'£Idxa megwat£Eng'S.    WS,
10     g-£l£Eng-a£mesEn gwai tsJEX-aqexs laEng-eg*a ylml£IdEq.    Wa, laEng-En q.axa xw§£la£ng*S g'lts.fixa poxunsasa  ewalas5 megwata.  Wa,
laEng*a£mEn Logwalaq.    AEng*a£mesEn la qJwalaZldsq laEng*Exa SlII.
Wa, laEng'En kjwelaseltsa megwate laEng-Exwa Kwakwag'uiex.    WS,
g-ll£Eng'a£mesEn gwaZ k.welasa.    LaEng*§k*   t.ex'£all£a.    WS, la-
15     Eng'En mex£eda.    G#ax£Eng'eda bEgwanEma k.wag*alii lasng'EXEn L.a-
sallie.    Wa, laEng'e  £nek*a,   n We"g'a k' Jes ku£HlLE  le£w!s gEfife-
maosaxa mox£unxLa tsJawunxa aLas ameialax qaes  L5gwa£ya5sa xwe*la
g'axEn,M £nex*£Eng#eda bEgwanEm g*ax£Eng'En.    WS, la£mEn tslEX'-
£Id laxeq.
42.    Mexes Alak'ilayugwa.
MexEl§g*a laEng-E  lawil ya£yasEla£ng'Exa xwaxwaguma.    Wa,
k'ies£Eng'a£mes£n nEqfiLexs laEng-ae  tslaqlwag-lllsa.     Wa,  laEng'En LaZax NExa^ade.    WS,  laEng*E£me  qap.idaEng'En ya£yats.S xwaxwaguma.    Wa,  laEng'En lasgerndxa xwaxwagumaxs lae qEpfilaEng'a.
Wa,   laEng'En haxsEmeLeq.     Wa,  g'Sx^Eng-eda ts.eklwa p!ELE£nakula
qa£s g*ax£Eng'§ k.wasgEmdxa ag'lwa£yasa qEpfila xwaxwaguma.       WS,
laEng'e dax»£IdEXg»In aEyasok*1.    Wa,  laEng'e axk* lala  qEnu£xu qa-
qasamak'a. Wa,  laEng'a£menu£xu lag'aa lax Baas. Wa,  laEng*a£me   l§-
xs£ala g-ax£Eng*En qEn gwayi£lalas  qaeda £walasLa  tsjEX*qolEmixwa
he'EnxLEX £nex* £Eng*exs laEng'ae hox£w!tsa xwe£laEng*a. Wa,laEng'e
ax^aLElStsa xwe£le  laxg-In bEnbag'asg-in  L.'Emak.'ubSnok11 qa^s  lex-
20
25
30
 27
drew up the disease.  Pour times he did so. After he did so he
sent me home*  Tnen I awoke.
41. Dream of Q.eqjEX'Lala.
I dreamed I was going sealing near Map.egem. There I got
many seals. I came home here to Fort Rupert.  Immediately I
singed the seals. After I was through singeing I butchered them.
Then I found a quartz crystal In the stomach of a large seal*
Then I had a treasure. Then I hid it in the woods. Then I gave
a feast to the Kwag'uZ tribes with the seals. After I had given
the feast I lay down. Then I dreamed that I was asleep. A man
came and sat down by my side, towards the middle of the house.
Then he said, *You must not lie down with your wife for four years
else you will be unlucky, for you have received your treasure, the
quartz crystal, from me.n Thus the man spoke to me. Then I awoke.
42* Dream of Alak'ilayugwa.
I dreamed I travelled across the water in a small canoe. I
was not half way across when a northwesterly gale began to blow.
I steered towards NExagad,  Then my small travelling canoe capsized.  I climbed out of the small canoe that was drifting upside
down on the water.  I lay on it with my chest down. Then a gull
came flying and alighted on the bow of the small canoe that was
drifting on the water. It took my hand and told me to walk on
top of the water. Thus I arrived at Blunden Harbor. Then he
taught me what to do when a great epidemic should come In summer.
He said so, and spit out a quartz crystal. Then he put the quartz
crystal into my body at the lower end of my sternum and pressed it
 28
bEtEndSq. WS, laEng'S enek-a. WS, laEms nanaxts.Eewa g-aXEn qae*
yadEnLos qaxs l££maaqos £walasL paxalaLS*,  encx-eeng'Sda tsjek'wa.
Wa, ISles  LegadEits Q.»ueiEnts.»esEmSga lSxSq,    £n§X'£Eng-5da ts.5-
kwa.    td, laEmEn tsj£X'6Id laxeq.
43.    MexSs QEldedzEm.
He*£mexs lae   qjex-seda g-Ig'Egama£yasa  £naxwa  l«4(qwalaLa£ya
g-a&yala laxa £walas5 tsJEX*qlSlEma flu.    WS, la£mesEnu8xtt £naxwa
dSqulax QfiSElade ylxs a"la£mae" laEm XEULEla tsjEx-qJa qaxs lae ha-
yoles£Em la lEXOk.wala.    WS, laxae he'mEnwaleda iEnxsto ZEndEqu .
lax x*Indzasas.    WS, la tsjEk.walSs hasa£ye.    WS, laera§ k'Ss la
he'iats.'Sla qasa.    WS, la£m§  ts.'Ek-laiElasoxs lE£mae  qlEyokwe  IS
we*k'.£x*£Ida.    WS, la£m§ aLEboplEmxwa£s qElgwIia ylx QjuelSd5.
Wa, la yawaseId mex£ida.    Wa,  la£la§ mexElasa aLa£mEn g-ax g-axe-
La lax g'okwas.  Wa,  la£lae  £nek-a aLanEmaq:  Gwaldzfis he'  gweg-lle
Qlu£lad,  qast,  qa£s lads la£sta laxwa wax gaalaLa LE£wa dzaqwa.tMo-
p!Enxwa£SLe £nalaLes he'x*d£mLaos gweg'ilate qa£s5 ex*£edLO laEras
k-JoqulaLEX mgats.eLa qa£s tsex-£Ida5sas laxwa wax qa£so laZ k?wa-
£stallsL5i.     WS,  laLES  guqaitsia  £wabEts!fisa nagatsje  laxos ewanu-
ixawa£yaqos.    WS, maiEXLa £wabEts.Sla nagats.'es gux£Idayos laxos
he'ik- I5d£nuixawa£yaq5s-,  wa maiEXLaEraxaawis  laxs  gEmxanu2:xawa£yex,
£nex-£Eng-E£laeda SLanEm£Eng'Sx Qju£lade.    WS, la£mEn bfiweda aLa-
£n£m§.
Wa, he*x*£ida£mese Qlu£lSde ax£edxa nagatsje* qa£s IS g-ll£na-
kula qa£s IS kjwa£sta laxa wa qa£s  tsex*£Idesa nagatsie laxa  £wape
qa£s gux£Ides laxes he'ik-.5dEnu2:xawa£ye.    Wa,  la raaipjEna he' gwex--
£ide.    WS, laxae he*Em gw§x'£Idxes gEraxanu£xawa£ye.    WS, la gwaiEXS
lae gEl£nakulaxs lae laeL laxes g-okwexa lasm gSiak-as  £nala qaxs
qJSnEmaeda bebEgwanEm doqulaqexs lae k!wa£stalis laxa wa wax-dzfila
IexSxs k.'wastalisae-,  Esx-axati . WS, mopjEnxwaes£mes £nalS he* gwe-
g'ilaxs lae 2akjweraas£ida.    Wa,  la axk-.Jalaxa £naxwa bebEgwanEmxa
tslEx-qiasa flu qa ogwaqes la£sta laxa wa.    Wa, he"£mis  £naxwa ex*-
 29
in. Then he said, "Now make a rattle in my form (imitate me).
Then you will be a great shaman," thus said the gull.  "Now you
shall have the name Q*u£lEnts.§SEmega from now on." Then I awoke.1
43* Dream of QEldedzEm.2
It was at the time that many chiefs of all the tribes died
•of the great epidemic, influenza. Then we all saw that Q.u£lSd
was really sick, for he was coughing a?ll the time and yellow fluid
was running all the time from his nose. His breath was short and
he was not able to walk.  Then he Was informed of the death of
many people. For seven days he was In bed-, I mean Q.'u£lad. Then
he slept for a short time. Then it is said he had a dream of a
wolf which came into his house. Then it is said the wolf spoke
to him and said, "Do not act like this, QluelSd, good friend, but
go into the water of this river morning and evening. For four
days do this if you want to get well, and take a bucket and dip
water out of this river while you are sitting in the water, and
pour the water in the bucket over both sides of your neck. Two
buckets full of water in the bucket pour over the right side Of
your neck, and in the same way two buckets' full over the left side
of your neck." Thus said the wolf in the dream of QjuelSd. Then
the wolf left.
Immediately Qiu£lSd took a bucket and crawled away to sit
down in the water of the river. He took up water with his bucket
and poured it over the right side of his neck. Twice he did so.
Then he also poured it over the left side of his neck. When he
had finished doing so he drawled back Into his house a long time
4fter day had come; and many men saw him sitting In the water of
This dream is typical for the initiation of a shaman. The
novice dreams in this way of dying persons, of the War-spirit
(Winalag'llls) or of other supernatural beings (hayaiilagas).
2As a shaman this man had the name Qju£lad.
 30
£Ideda he* gwex*£ide waldEraas. £nEmoxu£me AwalasElai iE6lasa pepE-
xalaxa la£sta laxa wuda£sta wa, H§dEnu£x^ lag-IZa XEnyasasexs
ts.Elqwae ex* k*JaiEles ok.'wina£yas§s tsjslqwaxa gaalaxs lae la£-
sta laxa wuda£sta wa. Wa> n5gwa£mes doqulaq lo€ MEledS lo£ Agwi-
5 lagEma£ye l5£ KjwakJwabalasEma£ye LE£wa q.enEme ogula bebEgwanEma
wltngstsg-in waidErak-   qa Q.uelSde.    LaEm laba.
10
44.    Mexes Togumalls.
Wa, he*EmxaawIse gwala mexa£yas Togumalisxapaxrla, ylxs mexE-
lae.    G-ax£Eng*eda  tamlnase axk-Jalaq qa lSs laesta laEng-Exa
15    qlEweg*alasasa g*okula laEng*EXg'a TsaxisEk', ylxs lae XEnLElasa
£walas  tsjEX-qiolEma flu.     Wa,  laEng-aEmxaEn axk-Jalas5£  qEn IS
kjwa£_sta laqexa gaalaxs g-alae £na£nakula qEn xositesa wuda£sta
£wapa LE£wa la dzaxqjala.    Wa, heX'£idaEng'a£mesEn laEng'a iSg--
exa tamlnase.    Wa,  laEng'a£me  tsJats.'Emx-slla qEn gweg-ilasg'ln.
20    LaEng'ek*  la£sta.    Wa, he*£mesEn lag-iia he* gweg'ilexg-In lek-   1e-
xox£wida qEn hex,£idaeme la£sta laxwa qlEweg-alasaxsEns g-okwex.
WS, hS£mesEn lag-iia k-Jes la ts*EX-qJaenoxwe.    Wa, he*Em paxala-
masa  tamlnasax  Togumalls,     Wa, he£mis paxalamasa aLaEnEmax Qlu£-
lade.  --jg^
25 45.    Mexes GwagwadaxEla.
MeXElSg-asEn abEmp£wu£a g-ax£Eng-E axk-Jala qEn he*mEna2:a£m§
la qjwaxetasa qjwaxe laEng-Exa waEng*a laxwa aL§g*a£yaxsEns g*o-
kulasexa gegaala LE£wa dzadzeqwa. Wa, qa£so he*£ gweg*ilaL§ la-
£mets k* Jes ts.!EX*qJaenoxULOL      £nex*£Eng*aEn abEmp£wu3:e g*ax£-
50    Eng'En.    Wa, he*x'£ida£mesEn la la£sta laxeq.
 31
the river coughing all the time while he was sitting there and also
sneezing. After he had sone so for four days he became strong.
Then he asked the people who were suffering from influenza to go
into the water of the river. All those who acted according to his
words recovered. Only AwalasElai died, the only one among the shamans who went into the water of the cold river. And this is the
reason why we were surprised that the bodies of those who were sick
of the fever were steaming in the morning when they went into the
cold river. I myself say him, and MElSd and AgwilagEmeu and KJwa-
kJwabalasEme*£ and many other men were witnesses of what I say about
Qju£lad.  Now that Is the end.
44. Dream of Togumalis.
This was also the dream of the shaman Togumalis as he was
dreaming;  * A squirrel came here and asked me to go Into the water of the pond behind the village of Fort Rupert," for he was
very sick of the influenza. " Then I was asked to sit down in the
water early in the morning when day broke, and to spray myself with
cold water also late in the evening. And I obeyed the squirrel.
Then it showed to me what I was to do, and I went into the water.
Therefore I do this when I begin to cough.  Then I go immediately
Into the water in this pond behind our house. Therefore I am
never sick.,f  It was a squirrel that made Togumalis a shaman and
it was a wolf that made Qlu£lad a shaman.
45. Dream of GwagwadaxEla.
I dreamed of my late mother who asked me to rub my body always with branches of hemlock trees-'-in the river behind our village in the morning and in the evening, " and if you do this you
will never be sick," thus said my late mother to me. After that
I went immediately into the water.
This is the usual method of ceremonial purification.
 32
46.    MSxes emaxulag*llis.
MexEleg-asa qJen£meEng-a bebEgwanEm kJudzlZ laxa g'5x«*»
Eng-aEn la laeLas£Eng-a.    Wa, laEng'En &ySg*l©*lEmEEng*Esa g*Ig*-
ma£yasxa SlaEng*a Zawis££ng*E  g*ax£Eng*En.    WS, laEng*a£me k'avE-
5    wulsa g'ax£Eng'En.     Wa,  laEng'En neiasSesng*Esa ogu£la£ma bEgwa-
nEmEng*a.    WS, laEng*§ £nek'8Eng*a g-ax£Eng'En*    N5gwa8mEnuexu
tsJetsJax-qJolEma laxEnu£xu £naJenEmokJwena£ye bEgwanEma.    La£me-
SEnuEaC1* kjwala gwagwex's£ala laxEnu£x** lalasLaxwa he*EnXLex.      WS,
hag*a ISwuIsex,   £nex*eEng*§da bEgwanEmSEng'S g*ax£Eng'En.    WS,  la-
10    Eng*«En wax*  lawuls laxa tj$x- IlaEng-asa £walas£Eng'a g'okwa g*a~
x£Eng*aasa g*£lx*de yayaqjEnta£raa bEgwanEma g-axE£ng*In qa£s
q.'wes£ldeses he'lk* J53:ts.'ana£yeEng-a laEng*EXg- In he'ik- JodEnSdze.
Wa, laEng*5 £nek*a;    Yueais g-a£yalasLOda tsjEX-qJolEme la ax£a-
LEla Iol,  £nex-£Eng'§ g-axEn.    WS, laEm tsj£x-£Id laxeq*
15 47.    EySk'aEnk-  mexes LEk'fisa.
MexEleg-as Lag'Eyos£wui  g-ax£Eng'E kjwa£s laEng-ex  Ljasanfi-
EyasEn g*oxu£Eng*a.    WS,  laEng-e axk-Jala qa  ewI£lesox la£stEn
g-okul6t£Eng-a laxa waEng-aEn k*Jes maitieia qaeda  £walasLa  tsjE-
x'qJolEmxwa he*EnxLEX £nex*£Eng'e g'SxEn qaxs he*£mae k* J§s kjutja-
20    LElatsa ts.'Ex-qJolEma laLa    la£stal laxa wa £nex*£Eng'e g*axEn.
WS, laem£n tsjEX*£Id laxeq qEn la la£sta laxwa wax.
48. AEnk*aEnk"  mexes K*JedeiEm.
M§XEleg'asa g*ax£Eng'S doqwa g*ax£Eng*EnLEn ompEwuia.    LaEng'e  Lexs£ala g*ax£Eng*En qEn k* Jese XEiiLElanSiaitsjEm qaEng-eda
25    hSieEng'S g*ax£Eng*En qa£s dadaale g'ax£Eng*En qa£s SqaEng'e g'5-
x£Eng-En qaEng-En iE£le.    Wa, he*Eng*a£mes wa£le waidEraeEng'Ss€
g-ax£Eng'EnLaxg'ln.    LSk*   tsjEX'£Ida.
49. MSxSs £maxwalag'£lis.
He*Eng-ek-   q.'Elsale axas Dais.     Wa,  laeng-e  qJenEma aiogula
30     sesak-Eles hanamfila laEng-EXEn £wax-seLa£yexEn k-Jesa maitjei£-
Eng-a.    Wa,  laEng-En maitJeg-aaLElaeng-EX  SnEmSgwisxa Nakjwax--
 33.
46. Dream of £maxulag* His.
I dreamed of many men who were sitting in a house. I entered
but I was not welcome to the chief who was very angry against me.
Then I was addressed by another man who said to me: n We are the
diseases, every one of us men who are assembled here, and we are
discussing where we shall go next summer. Now go out!" said the man
to me. When I was about to go out of the door of the large house
the man who had talked to me came and pinched me with his right
hand in my right side, saying,  "You are going to die of the sickness which has taken hold of you now. "  And then I awoke.
47. Bad Dream of LEk'Ssa.
I dreamed that the late Lag'Eyos came and sat down on the floor
of my house and he asked my whole tribe to go into the water of a
river which I did not know, on account of a great epidemic which
was to come this summer. Thus he said to me,and those would not be
infected in the epidemic who would go into the river. Thus he said
to me. Then I awoke. Then I went into the water of this river.
48. Good dream of K* JedeiEm.
I dreamed I saw my late father who advised me not to be careless and to behave well and that he was going to " take something*a
on account of witchcraft practised against me in order to kill me.
That was the end of his speech to me and I awoke.
49. Dream of smaxwalag*llls.
In my dream I was at anchor at Dais. There were many canoes
nffhen a person is bewitched by bringing into contact some excretion of his" body with some part of a human skeleton, the witchcraft ray be counteracted by " taking" some analogous material and
repeating the action of witchcraft.
 34
da£xtt.    He*Eng*aEm mak-aie sak'Elisas laEng*EXEn hanwalase.    WS,
laEng*axae maltJeg-aaLEla g'ax£Eng'En.    WS,  la*Eng*e £nek*a*.    Eya,
nEgump, wag-iila yaLj^LEX qaoxda"hftng§L§s££waqEns.    YuEm hayaii-
lagasLox yox^ gwE£yfisa qJulsqJulyaxudSEns Wlnalag*lllsa,  Enex&En-
5   g'EXS lae dEnx'£Ida£Eng'ExSs qjEltsEme.    WS, wIsomalaEng*Etj5 wl-
xElise  qjEltsEmasexs lae  tsJax'SIdaEng*eda dEmax*e.    WS, laEng*a-
£me qjEkwaEng-eda awAsgEime  gElaeya.    Wa, laEng-a£m£n lo& Eacnio-
gwise aL§£sta qEnu£xu le laxa g-5kwe laEng-ex Dais.    WS, ai£Eng--
a£mesa hayaZilagas g*ax£eng*E  sex£wld qa£s  g*ax§ mExate laEng'exe-
10    nu£x"  Ljasa£yaxg-anu£x« lSk*   £wI£lo£ta* laEng* EXEmj^x1* yaeyatsJS
sesak*Elisa.    WS, laEmEn tsjEX-£Id laxeq.
Lsn Ststo raex£ida,  g*axE£ng*aasa bEgwanEm g*ax£Eng*En.    WS,
laEng'e n£ek*a:    LaEms hSlaxaxs laex halabala aL§£sta qaxs lEemae
xwanalEleda hayalilagas qa£s dag'lLayode lax'daexoL,    cneX'eEng*e
15    g*ax£Eng'En.    Wa,  la£mEn tsjEX,£Id laxeq.
50. Mexes LEk'fisa.
MexEleg'a laEng'E hanaijaxa megwate laEng'EX Xwegats.'e.    WS,
laEng-En lag-aala    laxox aLan££yaxs laEng'En lfiita" laEng*EXEn yae-
yatsje xwaxwaguma qEn mo gwanodSq.    WS, laEng'En qas£ida qEn laEng'e
20    laxa Ljasanfi£yas XwegatsJ§.    WS, laEng'En dox£waLElaxa ma*>2:tsEme
awfi raegwat g*E£yaEng*E  laxa kjwase.    Wa,  laEng'En hanaLjaq.    WS,
lEn dox£waLEla£ng-Eqexs sesESyatsJfixa g'llsg'lltja SE£ya laEng'EX
x'ix'Smsas.    Wa, laEng'e bebEgwanEmgEme  goguma£yas.    Wa,  laEng'a-
emEn qJSi£aLEla£ng*Eqexs he'Ejnae  LegadES bEgwIs.    WS, laEng'En k'l-
25    iEla hani£IdEq.    Wa,g-ax£Eng'En b£s,    qSEng'EULaxg'ln k'lielde-
g'as.    Wa,  lEn weg'aa laEng'EXEn xwaxwagumaxg'in lSk*   tsjEX'£Ida.
51. Mexes Omx'lde.
MexEleg'a laEng'E qasa LO£Eng'£n snEm5kwe YaxLEn. Wa, laEng' Enu£xu lax-sfi laxa tjEX-sfilaxa wadzo k-JSkJusxa k*Jese dogu-
30 ias 5gwSxtS£ye laEng'EXa e'k-Je. Wa, g* Il£Eng'a£raesEnu£xu lax's£-
xg*anu£xu laEng*ek- dox£waLElax £gEnEm£oias YaxLEU,ylEng-£x lJS-
 35
on both sides, on the water and they were not known to me.  Then I
discovered in his canoe close to me at the place where I was at
anchor £nEmogwis, the Nakjwax-da£xu. He said, " Oh, son-in-law,
take care, for these who are at anchor here are the spirits who are
referred to by the people of ancient times as War-spirits," thus
he said to me and hauled in his anchor. Before he had pulled up
his anchor a strong tide began to run. Big waves were breaking.
Then I and £nEmogwis went ashore and to the house in Dais. Then
the spirits came along paddling and stopped on the water near the
place where we had gotten out of our canoes. After that I awoke.
Then I went to sleep again and a man came and said, "You did
well to go ashore quickly for the. spirits were ready to take you,"
thus he said to me.  Then I awoke*
5o. Dream of LEk'fisa.
I dreamed I had gone sealing on XwegatsJe.  I arrived at the
point lying towards the mouth and stepped out of my small travelling canoe in order ta place the anchor line on shore.  Then I went
to the sea side of XwegatsJe.  There I saw two large seals lying
on a seal-rock and I was about to shoot them. Then I saw that
their heads had long hair and they had human faces.  I discovered
that they were what is called Sea-men. Then I was afraid to shoot
them. I went away from them. Now I was afraid of them. I had
not arrived at my small travelling canoe when I awoke.
51. Dream of Omx'ff.d.
I dreamed I was taking a walk with my friend YaxLEn. We were
passing through a door in a wide wall which was standing on the
ground.  Its upper end was invisible. As soon as we had passed
through I saw the late wife of YaxLEn, L.'alelIlayugwa. Then I saw
3*
 36
lSillayugwoii. WS, laEng'anuexu dox£waLElaEng'EqSxs he*£maax5L
g-Sx^Eng-Esa leslfilenoxwS. WS, laEng'e LjalelHayugwoI lS«15-
laxSs i5£wunErae YSxleu qa las laqSxs ku£l!las£Eng'5. WS, laEng*-
a£m§SEn £nEmokwe YaxLEn qa£s laEng*S kulg*a£H2: laq. WS, fiEng-a-
5 £mes£n la La£wlla x*ItsJax*llaEng*Eqexs lae araalfilaEng*a. WS, laEng'e Ljaleillayugwa axk*JalaEng*E g-axEn qEn g»5x3 nS£nakwa qaxs
la£mek* XEk*Jag*in Za£wunEmk', en§x*£Eng*5. WS, la£mEn tsjEX*eIda.
52. Mexes Tsopjale.
LaEng*ek* qasa laEng*Exwa SlJSss k'J§s£Eng*S£n maltjet ££wl-
10 nagwisa, WS, laEng'En d5x£waLElaxa g'OkulS lax oxusidza£yasa nE-
g'siEng-a. WS, laEng'En lael lasng'Exa g-okwe. WS, la£ng*e k* Jefis
kjwali laq. Wa, laEng-En dodEqwalliEla lax S£wl£stall2as.  WS,
laEng-En doqiilaxa xaixEqasa bEgwanEme qJenEm AxEmtsJfixa xexEtsEme.
WS, laEng'En Slak-Jala la ts.*End£k-ase. WS, la£m£n tsjEX*££d la-
15 x§q.
53. Mexes K'*edeiEma£y3.
G-ax£Eng-aeda haya£llagas£Eng\S qJenEm daEng-EXwa g-IgEma-
£yox £maxwax. Wa, laEng'ox qjEmsa la laq. Wa, fi£m§sox laEng-e
boyfi. WS, laEng-a£me dag-llXLaleda hayalllagasaxa babagumaxs laa
20 bfiEng-a. Wa, laEng-a£mEns g-Sulotex qJSk*aEng*EXa hayailla^asaxs
laa dag-IlxLalaEng-Exa babaguma. WS, laEng-e k-Jes qJasE£wa. WS,
la£m£n tsJEX-£Id laxeq.
54. Mexes Wak-as.
(Koskimo)
25     Mexae'k- lax-stjaax1* lak*astjaaxu g-Ig-IlisEla lak-asEX Made.
Lax*stjaax»*£wun dox£waLak'astJaaxUxe qJemAlax*stjaaxwa bebEkumala
Lo£k*ase tsjetsjsdaxx*stjaaxwa laostaalax'stjaax^k'as lak-asEX
was Made. L&k'astjaaxwa alLex*stjaaxu doxwaLak'astJaax** g'axk'a-
seu. Wa, lax'stjaaxwe dotjEg*a£lk*astJaax" g*axk*asEn. Wa, la-
30 x*stjaaxwe £nex*a: Gwak-asla g-ax g-eqElsa lak-asxo t.*EX-axs Ha-
yaiilagas.  Hek-as£EmxatJ Hayaillagask'asa lak-as laostala lak-as-
 that this was the'house of the ghosts. Ljaleiilayugwa called her
husband YaxLEn to come to her and to lie down.  Then my friend
YaxLEn went and lay down with her. I was left standing and saw
how they were playing together. Then Ljaleiilayugwa asked me to
go home, "for my husband is going to stay away,"thus she said.
Then I awoke.
52. Dream of Tsopjale.
In ray dream I went inland to a place which I did not know.
I saw a house at the foot of a mountain. I entered the house. I
did not sit down on the floor. I looked about in the house. Then
I saw human bones, many in boxes. I was frightened. Then I a-
53. Dream of K* led§i£ra.
In my dream many spirits came to get chief £maxwa, He, however, did not want to go along. Then he was left by them. When
the spirits went away they took along a boy. Then our tribe discovered that the spirits had taken along a boy. He was not found.
Then I awoke.
54. Dream of Wak*as.
(Koskimo)
I dreamed I was walking along the river of Made.   There I
saw many men walking about and also women. They were going up the
river of Made.   The last one (of these people) saw me and spoke
to me. He said, "Do not walk on the ground that belongs to these
spirits who are walking along this river, and they intend to bathe
in this river." Thus the man spoke to me. Then I awoke.
 38
xewa lak'asLaxaox g*Ig*iitalak*asLa lak'asxo wak'asex, SnSx»«,
stjaaxwa bEkumalax-staaxwe g'Sxk*asEn* WS, lak'asmEn tsjak-Je-
x£Ida.
55. Mexes GaySLElas. .
5     L5£mEn k*Ii£IdaEng*ESEn raexaEyax ganoL§, ylxg'ln mexElSk* se-
x£widaEng*a LasgEmex XwegatsJe. Wa, laEng*En ElSq lag*aala. LaEng* aasa dEmsx*e tsJa6lalaEng*a. Wa, laEng'En filax'it sex£wida.
K* Jets.'Em£Eng*a£mesEn lalax* Lalaxa .tsjala. Wa, laEng* a£mEn LasgE-
mex XwegatsJe, Wa, Sx- stJaakll-£Eng'a£m5 XwegatsJe la Lagut.'aia
10 g*aXEn. Wa, laEng*a£me g*ax qlenEma tsjekjwe. WS, laEng-En qjfi-
Z£aL£laqexs qwaxuLa£yaeda £yag'£mas XwegatsJe. Wa, laEng'En ftla
k-li£itse. WS, la£mEn gwex*£lts5eS£n gEnEme laxeq.
56. Mexes Kjwamaxalas.
LaEng-ek* dzadzots.'axa dzfile laEng* Exwa L.'Eraaisex. Wa, la-
15    Eng-En lag-aa laxa Dzodzade.    WS, laEng'a8mesEn dzadzots.'EX*£Ida.
Wa, heEng-a^mes aies raosgEm££ng*En dzadzotsJanEraaxs laEng-ae  p.'E-
lx£ldaxa„£1S gEnk'aEng'a.    WS, laEng'e g-axa filS    e*x's6ku bEgwa-
nEin£Eng'a.    WS, laEng'e yaq.'Eg-a£ia.    WS, laEng'e Enek'a:    Gela
Kjwamaxalas qEns la laxa qJeq.'adSxa dzfile,  Enex'^Eng-e g*aXEn.
20    Wa, h§x-£idaEng*aEmesEn laEng*e  lasgEmeq.    WS,  laEng-En kjes ma-
it Jalaxa bEgwanEm£Eng*a.    Wa,  lasng'En kJSs doqulaxEnu£x" lalaS
qaxs SlaEng'ae  la gEnk'asng'eda pjElXEla.     Wa,  laEng'anu£x" ho-
gwlL laEng'Exa £walas£Eng'S g-okwa.    Wa, laEng-e £nek'eda bEgwa-
nEm£Eng*a;    Yu£mEn g'Okwox. NSgwaEm Ljagwag-ila lewulgames .Qj.orao-
25    gwe.    Wa, la£mesEn gEg-adLos Kjwamaxalas qa lalag-iitsa k-Jex--
k'Jadztkwaxs  L§Lam lax £sa,     £nex-££ng*e Ljaqwag-ila g*axeEng'£n.
Wa,  laEng*a£mesEn e*x*ak*£Eng* ex waidEmas.    Wa,  laEng'En ia£wadES
Ljaqwag'ila.     Wa,  laEng*a£me  Loma ae*k* ila g'5x£Eng'En.    Wa,  la
£nex'£Eng'§  Ljaqwag'ila g-ax£Eng'En;    WSg*iila £yaLjfiLEX qaxs 1e-
30    £maex XEk*Jai g»axEn.    Wa,he*EmesEn tsjsx*£Idg*iie.
 39
55. Dream of GayoLElas
In my dream I was much afraid last night when I dreamed I was
out paddling and steered towards XwegatsJe.  I had almost arrived
there when a strong tide began to run. Then I paddled hard but I
could not make any headway against the tide. I was steering
towards XwegatsJe, but it was as though XwegatsJe was pushing me
away.  Then many gulls came. Now I knew that the sea monster of
XwSgatsJ§ was about to come up.  Then I was very much afraid.
Then I was awakened by my wife.1
56. Dream of Kjwamaxalas.
In my dream I was walking along the beach to get cockles.
Then I came to Dzodzad looking for cockles. When I had found four
cockles a thick fog came up. Then a very beautiful man came. He
spoke and said, m Come, Kjwamaxalas, let us go where there are
many cockles, "thus he said to me. I followed him at once. I did
not know the man, and I did not see where we were going, because
the fog was very thick. Then we entered a large house, and the
man said, " This is my house. I am L*aqwag*ila, the prince of
Qjomogwa*. Now I shall have you for ray wife, Kjwamaxalas, and
these carved posts I shall give to your father," thus said Ljaqwag'ila to me.  I agreed to his words and I had Ljaqwag'ila for
my husband. He was very kind to me. Ljagwag'ila said to me,
"Now take care. You are going to stay with me all the time." And
so I awoke*
1This dream signifies that a relative of the dreamer is going
to drown.
 40
57• MSxe.
MexEleg'a qaqESuls LE£wa £walas£Eng'S g'lla lax Dzawade". He*-
Eng-eg-a g-okul§. Wa, laEng*a£mesEn hanaLjaq laEng*aase lSxEweI-
*saEng*a qa£s yaqj£g*a£ie.g*ax£Eng*En. LaEng'e ^nek-a; Gwala xu-
5 noku. NogwaEms omp£wuios g'ayala laxg*In lax*gwex'sdEma. Hag-a
laxg*ada £nEldzeg-asa wax qa£s haos hani£Idaasg-a g* Hag-as., £nex*-
£Eng*eda £walas g*lla. Wa, laEng'En qas£ida-, laEng'En dox£waLEla-
Eng'Exa q.fenEm£Eng*a g'lla. Wa, laEng'En k*limits*   WS, laEn-
g'a£mEn he'ltsjfise. Wa, laEng'Eh dzElxula wax*a laEng*EXg*In la£-
10 mek* lai na£naXu£Eng*e laxEn g'5xueEng'S. WS, k* Jes££ng*atjEn
qwesg-ilaEng-£xg*In lag'a etJ§daEng*E dox£waLElaxa qJemfilaEng'S
g'ila. Wa laxEntEn fila k*$i6IdaEng* es lag* lia ts.fEX-£Ide.
58. Mexes HayosdesElasxa lJsllJayadza£ye.
He£maaxg*ln ku£leiek* laxEnu£xu g'Okwe lax Dzawade LE£wun ia-
15 £wunEme WaLede, £nek»e HayosdesElas.  WS, laEm malmextsJases mex-
a£ye g'SxEn ylxs LjaLjayadzayae Hayosde"SElase. WS, laxae LjaLja-
yadza£ye laEwunEmase WaLede. Wa, la enek'a:
He^maaxg'Enu5^4* kJutsjESeEng*ek* lax Ljasanfi£yaEhg*SsEnuexu
gokwaxa gaalaEng*S LO£Eng*ox WaLedexxa dzadzEXwelaEnxe. Wa, lasn-
20 g*anu£xu wul&X aLElaxa dEnxk*JalaEng*a laxa 5x£slwa£yas was Dzawade
g*ax£ustalaEng*a. Wa gwaiElaEng*a£mesenu£xu qJag*ex qayaseEng*asa
qjEmdEme dEnx£ala£yoEng-Esa dEnxk-Jala. WS, g*aemes qayatsa qjEm-
dEmase g*ada yix wuLEias HayosdesElas LO£Eng*es ia£wunEme*.
G*ag*ax£a nogwa laoLae* LOgwalae*s memEyoxwanae yoL lo-
25 gwalae*yahe*k*as£o, ha£yo, ha£yo, ha£yo.
G'ag*ax£ale'tk*as£ohos LOgwalaSs memEyoxwanae*sg*aho
mamEniEyes L5gwalae's meraEyoxwanae*.
Wa laEng*e qjwei£ededa dEnxE£lalaEng*EX L.fasamS£yas g*okwas
HayosdesElas, laEng-aas HayosdesElase dox£waLElaxa amasgEmala tsj-
30 Edax£eng*a g-ax g'Sx'£Ida£ng-E lax dEnxk-Jalasdasa dsnxEla q.fE-
iElaxa he*Eng«a gwex's ai£Em mayoLEm g'lnanEm qa£s laEng'e q.*Eik- J-
 41
57, A Dream*
I dreamed I had gone out and met a large grizzly bear in
Knight Inlet.  That is where I live. And so I shot at it, and it
stood up and spoke to me and said, " Do not do that, child. I am
your late father. I was killed by that which looks the way I
look now. Go up the river, and there is a place where you are
going to see grizzly bears." Thus said the large grizzly bear.
Tnen I went and in my dream I saw many grizzly bears. Then I was
afraid. I ran away from them intending to run home. I had not
gone very far when I saw many more grizzly bears walking about.
I woke up , evidently because I was very much afraid.
58. Dream of One of Twins.
"I was lying in our house in.Knight Inlet with my husband,
WaLed/said HayosdesElas. And then she told me her dream, for
HayosdesElas was one of twins, and her husband, WaL§d, was also
one of twins.  She said:
"I dreamed that we were sitting on the floor of our house, I
and WaLed, in the morning at the time when the olachen were rural"
ing. We heard the sound of a song at the mouth of the river of
Knight Inlet.  It was coming up the river. Then  we began to understand the words of the song which was being sung.** And these
are the words of the song heard by HayosdesElas and her husband;
The treasure of the salmon is coming to you, the
great treasure. Ha£yo, ha£yo, ha£yo.
Beautifully he is coming, the treasure of the salmon,
this MamEnia£ya of the salmon.
Then the singing in front of the house of HayosdesElas
stopped and in her dream HayosdesElas saw a small woman coming
from the place where the sound of the singing had been. In her
arms she carried something that was like a new born child, and
 I
6
42
ElgEntsa g'lnanEme laEng'EX HayosdesElas.    Wa, laEng'e x-is£Id5
da g'inanEmS laEng'EX tEk-Jas HSyosdSsElas.    Wa,  laEng'E  «nek'S
MEyoxwaxsEm laEng'EX HayosdesElas-.    LaEms texSedLES Mam£nia£ye
laxos LOgWa£y§x g-axEn,    £nek'§xs lae x«£s£Ida.    WS, he*Emls la
5    g'ag'iLElatsEn §En£me la bEwex£wItsox wlsax,  £nek'5 WSL§dS ylxs
lae maimextsja qaEn.    WS,  laEm laba laxeq.
Wa,  g'il£mese he*iogwIla bEwekwe Hayosde*8Elase lae mayoIEftsa
babagume.    Wa,  g'Il£mese ganui£Ida lae etjed meXElasa SmasgEmala
MEyoxwaxsEm»g'ax£Eng'E  kjwag-alli laxg'ln he*3:k'JodEnSdzelliEEng'-
lO    aEn.     WS,  laEng*5  qjEiElIlaxSx wlsax laEng'exox MaraEniaeyeX.    W8,
laEng'e yaqjeg-a£ia.    WS, laEng-§  £nek'  g-axe.Eng'ln:    LaEms Eyg.
lJSlol qast qag'as  LOgwex'doxg'os le£wos ia£wunEmex.    We*g*a hSmE-
naiaEm gomsasa gugum£ylra§  le6wos la£wunEm§, wS,  g*aEmesg*a MaraEn-
la£yek*.    Wa, he*£mis qa£s £naxwa£maos LaLanfi£los x*lx-5msaxa raa-
15    §maitsjaqe  tsJsltsjElk'sa k*a£mSsa tsjeg*inaga.    WS, laLe  gwa£ylme
k-JatsEmeLas xaapJaLasox.    Wa, he£maa qaso k'Jes nanageg-eLXEn wal-
dEme Iol laxa £nEmx-£idala la£mesEn g*ax etoxwaixwa g'tnanEmex,
£nex*£Eng*e g-axEn,  £nek*e HayosdesElax g*ax£n lae" maimextsja.
WS, la£m§ xaapelasEEwa qEXEyowe gwex-SEmala xaapja.    Wa,  la-
20    xaS ax£§ts££wa tsjEltsjElk*asa tsjeg-inaga qa L&LanEwes x*ix*omsas
HSyosdesElase  le£w1s ia£wunEme WaLede.    WS,  IS k-JeSs gwE£yoLasEX
gugum£yima.    Wa, he*tja la mos§Emek-Ilaxa £m£kule xunokwas Hayosde-
SElasaxs  g*axae  WaLede yix ia£wunEmas Hayosd§SElas laxg*in g*o-
kuk*, wS, IS £nek*a;     £ya qast, ySk-aEng-EULax ganoue    qaox wlsax.
25    Wa,  la£me maimextsja qaEn.    WS,  IS £nek-a;     G-ax£Eng-aa  £wllx*wil-
g*ELa£ya mema£ya mExamalis laEng*exox Tsaxisax laEng'aas Elaq £na-
x*£IdEX ga.alax*de.    Wa,  g*ax£Eng*e gwE£yfisEn gEnEme MEy5xwaxsEm,
g*ax£Eng*E  g-axeLa laEng*EXEnu£x« g*okwex.    Wa,  laEng*e filak'Jala
iawis g*axEnu£x«  LO£Eng*£n gEnEmox HayosdesElasex.     WS,  laEng*e
30    enek*a:     G;ax£mEnu£x» daxox MamEniayaEyexlaxEn waidEmx* £idS5L HayosdesElas qa£so k'Jes  £wieia nanageg*exEn L§xs£alayu qa£s 5xse£-
 she placed the child in the lap of HayosdesElas.  Then the child
disappeared in the body of HayosdesElas. Then the salmon woman
said to HayosdesElas, "You will call this treasure which yon received from me MaraEnia£ya," thus she ?aid and disappeared. "From •
that time on ray wife was pregnant with this child," said WSLed
when he was telling rae this dream. Now that is the end of this.
When HayosdesElas had been pregnant the right length of time
she gave birth to a boy. As soon as night came she dreamed again
of the little salmon woman. "She came and sat down on the "floor
of the house at my right side. She was carrying this little child
Mam£nia£ya in her arms and she spoke. She said to me, fNow be
careful, friend, of this your treasure, you and your husband. Always paint yourself with ochre, you and your husband, and also this
MamEnia£ya. And also put on the sides of the head two feathers of
a gull, and the painting on the cradle shall be a whale. And furthermore, if you do not obey what I tell you, I am going to come
and take back this child.'  Thus she said to me' in my dream," said
HayosdesElas to me as she was telling me her dream.
Then a cradle with a notched head piece was made and gull
feathers were placed on each side of the head of HayosdesElas and
her husband WSLed. They were not able to get any ochre. Now the
child of HayosdesElas was four months old. Then WaLed, the husband
of HayosdesElas came Into my house and. said,"Oh friend, last night
I had an evil dream relating to this child." And so he told me his
dream.- He said, "All kinds of salmon came to me in canoes here to
Fort Rupert in the morning when day was dawning. Then she of whom
ray wife spoke, the salmon woman, came into my house. She was very
angry with us, particularly with ray wife HayosdesElas. She said,
*We have come to take away MamEnia£ya, according to what I told HS-
yosdesElas, namely, if you did not follow all my instructions relating to the dress which Mara£nia£ya should wear (which I gave you
 44
wos qa qjwalax*its5x MamEniaya£yex laxos,  g-ax&ena£yS lax-da£x5L,
£nex*£Eng'§ MEyoxwaxsEmaxs laEng'ae  qjEiElIiaxa  g'InanEmaxs lag 15-
weIs laxa tjEX'lla.    Wa,  laEng*a£me laxse MEyoxwaxsEm laxa aLcnxe-
Eng'a xwakjuna.    WS,  laEng'e  £wl£la SEbELaeya qJenE.mEEng'S xwaxwak'u-
5    nasa memEyoxwana.
Wa, hex'£ida£mesEn tsJak*Jlx£Ida qsn d5x£wld§x Mara£niayaeye.
Wa,  lEn doqulaqexs ku*~lei£raae.    Wa, lEn gwex* £Idfex HayosdesElas§.
Wa,  la£mes£n maimextsJasEn mexa£ye.    WS,  g'£leraesEn £wl£la neiasEn
mexa£ye laq laasyaqjEg*a£ie HayosdesElase.    WS, IS Sne*k'a;    GwaiE-
10 . la£meg*in k'liala qaxs gwaiEla£mae Engk'a g»axe taotsox Mam£niayae-
yex g'axEns ylxs £nek'ae MEyoxwaxsEm g'axEn qaeso k'Jes £wl£la axe-
SdEixEn la  LeLEqalaso6 qa£s axsE£wos qa qjwaqjulax*LEns5x MaraEniaya-
Eyex g'axLEn xwelaqai daLEq    £nek#ae.    Wa, he*Emxanawis ^neenak*lits
MEyoxwaxsEme qaxgtns hewaxek'   IAlex  guguraeylma  qaox,     enek"5.
15 Wa, yudux£pjEnxwa£s£mes £nalasa g'InanEmaxs lae wlk*Jix£eda.
Wa, g'ax£mesEn axelaxg'ada qEXEyok14 gwex'SEraala xaapja.    Wa, laEm
laba laxeq.
59. Mexes Gaaxstalas.
MexEle g-ax ganoLasa £wI£wuls§Emakwa lelqwalaEa£ya g*ax£Eng*E
20    Leia£lam£m£Engi'E.sa g'xgameySiae NEg'Sdz§y5ia.    Wa,  laEng'e yawlx'l-
laxa SlaEng'a ek-Jeqala enaxwa£ng*«da bebEgwan£meEng*a LE£wa  tsje-
dax£Eng,,a.     Wa,  laEng'En axso£ qEn x»ls£Ide.     Wa, laEng"'a£raesEn x*l-
s£Ida.    Wa,  laEng-En doqulaEng'Exa tsjaqag'ila naualakwa, ylxs. laEn-
g'aa pjEi£tda qa£s la  taodaEng'En lax g'Skwasa  tsjaqag'ila naualakwa.
25    Wa,  laEng*a£rae  qJaqioLJamatsa tox£w!de g'ax£Eng*En £naxwS gwa£yi£-
iSlatsa tox£wide.    Wa,  laEng*a£me  qEX*£Id g*ax£Eng*En qa£s la 1S£-
stalIiElaEng*ESg-£n x*6rasEk*   laEng-Exa l£qawalii£Eng*asa £walas£-
Eng-a g*okwa.    Wa,  g*ax£Eng-e  xwelaqa ax£aLEl5daEng*ESg*in x*om-
SEk*.    Wa,  la£mEn ts!EX*£Ida.
30
 45
at the time) when he came to you.f Thus said the salmon woman, and
she took the child In her arms and went out of the door.  Then the
salmon woman went aboard the canoe from the side of the canoe which
was towards the shore. Then the many canoes of the salmon went away.
"As soon as I awoke I looked at MamEnia£ya. I saw he was lying
in the house. Then I called HayosdesElas and told her my dream. As.
soon as I had told my dream to her HayosdesElas spoke and said,
"Right from the beginning I was afraid on account of what she said
in the beginning when she brought Mam£nia£ya to us. For the salmon
woman said "If you do not do everything I tell you, if any of these
Is not taken for the dress of MaraEnia£ya, I shall come back and
take him," as she said this.  Now it seems the salmon woman means
that we never got ochre for htm.• "
Three days after this the child died. I have got the notched
cradle with the painting of the whale.  That Is all.
59. Dream of Gaaxstalas.
I dreamed last night about all the tribes.that had been invited
by the late chief NEg*£dze\ He gave a winter ceremonial and all the
men and women were very happy. Then I was taken and I was to disappear, and so I disappeared.  Tnen I saw the supernatural beings,
the Givers of the Winter Ceremonial.  They flew and took me to the
house of the magical powers, the Givers of the Winter Ceremonial.
That was the place where I was taught the war dance, all the ways
of the war dance. Then my head was cut off and I walked with ray
head around the fire in the middle of a large house. Then my head
was put back. After that I awoke*
 46
60. Mexes Q.JwalEntsJesxa paxala.
MexEleg*a laEng*e laxa e'k* JadzelisasEns £nalax. LaEng-En qa-
saEng*a. Wa, laEng-En dox£waLElaxa g*okwa. Wa, laEng'En gwa,£sta
laEng'Exa g'okwe. Wa, k*Jes£Eng*a£mesEn ex*£ag*aaLElaEng'E laqexs
g*ax£Eng'aeda fila ex'sok^ tsjEdax£Eng*a qa£s g*ax£Eng'e qaqa£yala-
Eng'E g'axEn. Wa, heEng*a£raes g'Il£Eng*E yaqj£g*a£ia tsjEdaqe
g«ax£Eng'En. Wa, laEng-e £n§k*a* Gelak-as£la ada. Soem£n gwE-
£y5 qEn ia£wun£ras. Gelag-a qEns IS hogwlLa laxg'a g6xug*asg*In
orapa, £nex,£Eng'eda tsjEdaqe g*ax£Eng-In. WS, laEng*acmesEnuexu
10. hogwlL laEng'Exa filS laEng'E e*x* g'okwa. WS, laEng'Ida tslEdaqe
neiaxes 5mp£Eng'Sxs lE£mae ia£wadEn. WS, laEng'e fila tsjEnkwa la-
qJulyox£un bEgwansms waidEmases xun5kwe. WS, laEng-asm k*Jes
he'iqjaleda bEgwanEmsn gEg'adES xunokwas. WS, laErig'Eema bEgwanE-
me £nex,£Eng'E qa£s k'Jelax'£ide g#ax£Eng'£n. Wa, laEng'En fila
15 k'Ii£Itse. Wa, he*EmxanawesEn lag'iia tsjEX'£IdS.
Wa, lEn etsto mex£ida qaxa k- Jesemae ex*aia qa£s Enax'Hde.
Wa, g'axxEn mexElasa tsjEdaqe etjeda. LaEng'e £nek*a* Hag'a lae-
sta laxa wa qa£s he*iaxeL6saxwa he*EnxLex qaxs he*emae ax* i£lSlax£ns
£nalaqEn ompe, £nex* £Eng*eda tsjEdaqe g-ax£Eng-En. WS, he*X'£ida-
20 Eng-a£mesEn la la£staEng-E laxa wa ogu£la laxox waxs Tsaxis. WS,
he'Eng-a£mesEn aie gwai la£staEng-E laxa waxg-tn lex* tsjEX'eIda.
Wa, g*Il£mesEn tsJak-lEX£IdEXg-In lSk* Lax£ul5i qEn la la£sta
laxwa waxs Tsaxis.
61. Mexes LEk-fisa.
25     MexEleg-a g*ax£Eng*E Le£lalaso£sa bEgwanEma qEnu£xu laEng'§
laEng*Exa e*k*JadzelisasEns £nala. WS, laEng'e dax*£IdaEng*Exg'ln
he*ik* JoitsJane a£yaso. Wa, laEng*§ wig*Ilsa daiax-saXEn a$yas5xs
lag'anu£x* nEqostfila e'k* JoiEla. Wa, la£ng*anu£xu lax'sfi laxa
tJex'HS laEng'EX nE§Edzfi£yos e*k* JadzelisasEns £nalax. WS, laEn-
30 g'eda bEgwanEma tsJatsjEmx'silasa £naxwa axaxli Jr- g-exa g*okwa.
Wa, laEng'e Engx* qEnu£x" IS qas£Ida.Wa, laEng*Enu£x« qas£ida.
 47
60. Dream of the shaman QjwalEntsJes.
I dreamed I had gone to the other side of our world the sky
I went up and saw a house. Then I approached the house. Before
I was close to it a very beautiful woman came up to me. Then the
woman spoke first to me. She said, *Thank you, lord. You are the
one to whom I refer as my husband. Come, let us go into into the
house of this,my father," thus the woman Said to me. Then we
entered the beautiful house. Then the woman told her father that
she had me for her husband. He became very angry, the one who was
a very old man, on account of the speech of his daughter. The man
would not permit me to have his child as my wife.  Then the man
said he was going to knock me down.  Then I was very much afraid
of him. This was evidently the cause why I awoke*
Then I went to sleep again, for it was not yet near morning.
Then the dream about the woman came again.  She said," Go into
the water in the river so that you may be successful this summer.
My father is the one who takes care of the world," thus she said
to me. Immediately I want into the water of the river, into this
river of Fort Rupert. After I finished bathing ! woke up*
As soon as I began to be awake, I went into the water of this
river of Fort Rupert*
61. Dream of LEk'fis.
I dreamed I had been called by a man to go with him to the
upper side of our world the sky .  He took my right hand.
Then he went up holding my hand while we were going straight up.
Then we passed through the door in the middle of the upper side of
our world. The man showed me everything that was in the house
there. Then he said to me that we should go on. We went along.
Then we came to the hole in the edge of the world. Then he said,
 48
WS, laEng-£me snex» qa«s IS tsJatsjEmx'sllas kwaxunxelisasEns £na-
lax g*ax£Eng*En. WS, la£ng*Enu£x1' lag-aa laEng'Exa kwaxunxElisa-
SEns £nalax laEng*aas £nek*a; YuEm lalax*sfilatsa g*Ing-InanEmaxs
lae bEwex«iridayoses abEmpLe g-Sx'ld lax 8k*Jadzellsasa £nalax. WS,
5 hag*a lax-sox qa£s laos nS£nakwa. AEmLEn g'iwalaLSt qa&s k* Jesaos
iaxumala laxes qatsJene£Laos, £nex*£Eng*eda bEgwanEm g*ax£Eng*En.
WS, g*ax£Eng*En qas£ida. WS, weg'aatjEntaxg*In lSk' tsjEX-£Ida.
62. Mexes £raaxulag-Ills.
LaEng*Sk* pJaLi£lSla laEng*Exa Sk'le. H#Eng'E gwex'S lala-
10 dzolltsla axasasa tjotjo ylxs neialaEng'aEmaeda tjotjoxa Enala* Wa,
laEng'En £naxwa doqulaxox &SwISstaEng*SxsEns £nalax. WS, laEng'En
wax' £nex* qen g'axeEng*e bane£sta. WS, laEng'En k-Jefis gwex'eI-
daas£Eng»a. WS, lasng'En alak* Jala k'lieIda. WS, la^mEn tsUx'S-
Id laxeq.
15 63. Mexes £nax*nag*Em*
MexEleg-a laEng'E laxa g'okwasa mSesila laEng'EX Ljasodesa-
sens £nalax. WS, laEng'En k*Jes q!&LElaXEn lag-ii£Eng-a laq* WS,
laEng'En doqulaEng'EXEn omp£wuia laq. WS, laEng'e £yak*Jala g'ax£-
Eng'EnLaxg'ln lSk* lax &xas£Eng'Ses. Wa, laEhg-e axk* Jala g*axE£jog>Er
20  qEn g*axe na£nakwa. WS, laEng'En mElxewaLElaqexs gEyoiaoia iE^lEn
5mp£wuia. Wa, g*ax£Eng*En nSenakwa. WS, la£mEn tsjEX'Slda laxeq.
64. Mexes GwagwadaxEla.
MexEleg'a layoEng'E laxa qwesalS a£wlnagwisa ylEng-asa bEgwa-
nEmaEn k'Jes£Eng«E maitleia. WS, laEng-a£raEnuexu yayasElaxa ogu-
25  qaia xwakjuna. WS, laEng'En sngnk* Jex£Id qsn wuL&xa bEgwanEm6-
Eng*a lax g*ayo£las£Eng*as. WS, laEng*e yaqjEg'aSJa* WS, laEng'e £nek'a: QjfiLEla£raEnLaxs £n§nk*Jega£yaqJos ylxs £nek*aaqos
wuLaos laxEn g*ayo£lasa. WS, la£mesEn neiaLOL. NogwaEm maipjEna-
tosaxa £walase tjotjoxes doguio£saxa dzaqwa, £nex*£Eng*eda bEgwa-
30  nErae, WS, laEng*eu Sla k*ii£its waidEmas. Wa, la£mEn tsjEX#£Ida
lEn etsto mex£Ida.
 49
•Through this
(hole)
pass
the children
. when
they
are
born, when
they
come
from the
upper :
3ide *
Df the world.
Now
pass
through it and
go
home.
I am going to
help
you that it
may not be
hard for you to
pass
through.
" Then
I went on, but before !
C arrived
I awoke.
62. Dream of £maxulag'ilis.
In my dream I flew upwards. It was as though I was going to
the place where the stars are, for the stars were showing in the
daytime. I saw all around our world. Then I wished in vain to go
down again. I was not able to do so. I was very much afraid.
Then I awoke*
63. Dream of £nax#nag*Em.
I dreamed I was going to the house of the Master of the Salmon on the sea side of our world. I do not know why I was going
there. There I saw ray late father. Then he scolded me because I
had gone to the place where he was. He asked me to go back home.
Then I remembered that my late father had died long ago. Then I
went home. Then I awoke.
64. Dream of GwagwadaxEla.
I dreamed I had been taken by a man unknown to me to a distant
place.  We were travelling in a strange looking canoe. I thought
I would ask the man where he came from. Then he spoke to me and
said, "I know your thoughts. You wish to ask me where I come frora.
I will tell you. I am the great star which goes down twice and
which you see in the evening," said the man. Then I was afraid on
account of his speech. I awoke and I went to sleep again.
 50
G5. £ySk'aEng'E mexes Gaaxstalas.
LaEng'a laEng-Exwa SlJSx SEnqaxa dEenas LOeEng'En 2a£wunEmo-
ie-LElelEwek'£wuie. Wa, g-Il£Eng-a£mesEnu£xu aLEg-ila laEng'aEn
ia£wun£moie LElelEwek'£wuie axk'JalaEng'e g'SxSEng'En qEnusxu
5 kJus£Else. WS, laEng'anu£xw kJus£Elsa. Wa, laEng'a£m£n mElx£wa-
LElaqexs gEy5ia5i iE£la. WS, laEng'e Snek'a; 6ya, ada, Loma£-
mEn qJayaqElos. Wa, lEn filak'Jala lEng*as qa£s, qjagwida. WS,
lag*anEms k*Jes fiLatJa g*Ig*aex£edaenox« g*axEnLaxs la§x £a£wadE-
s5x Noiba£yax. WS, la£mesEn lal latsjal laxs bfitslaqjos qEn aba-
10 yadaos, £nek*exs lae x*Is£Ida. WS, laEng'En qas£ida qEn laEng-e
laxa wlg'EXEkula qEn SEnxE§d§ laEng' Exa e'x-pjeqala dzESEqwa. WS,
laEng'e qJenEm£Eng*En SEnganEme dEenasa. WS, laEng'En ylitSEmdEq
qEn 5xLEX'£Ideq. Wa, g'SxSsng'En na£nakwa laEng-exeuu£xu g-okwex.
Wa, he'x'£idaEng'a£raesEn tsjEk* JaiElaEng- EXEn la£wunEmex. WS, laEn-
15 g*a£rae babalEn ?taewunEmaxa gEyol£wuia iE£la. WS, laEng-a£me Eng»
k'En ia£wunEme qa£s k*Jelax*£Ide g*ax£Eng'En. WS, laEng'En filax*-
£Id k*li£Its lag-iia tsjEX'SIde* laxeq.
66. Mexes K»Jasogwieiak".
MexEleg*aqe g*ax£Eng*oxda £mEkulax laEng*Exwa ba£n5x a£w!Cna-
20 gwlsa. WS, g*HEEng*a£mese g*axEElsEEng*a g'axaasa bEgwanEma g-a-
XEwuls£Eng-a lax tjEnfi£yasa £ra£kula. WS, laEng'e L§xs£alaxwa
Kwag-uiex qa k*Jesesox LjeLjEsapJa lo£ qa k'JesesSx g*aloLapJax
dadEk*asases bExute lo£ qa k*Jesesox ienEmax gEnEmases bEXute.
He'Emis qa hSmEnaia£mesox tsjElwaqaxa bEkwelenokwaEns qa waxese
25  g'lwala lax*da£x5L, £nex'££ng*eda bEgwanEmasa EmEkula. WS, la-
emEn tsjEx* £Ida.
67. Mexes MElede.
MexElek' laEng'E laxa §k-Ja* a£wlnagwisaxa Slasng'a e*k-a.
LaEng'En doqulaxa qJenEm£Eng*Sxa £naxwax'stJaax«Ema tsjedaq.
WS, g*ax£Eng'eda £nEmokwe laq qa£s yayaqjEntE£me g'Sx£Eng'En.
WS, laEng'a£me L§xs£ala g*ax£Eng*En qEn gwailag'i Lelkjwala qax~
 51
65. Bad Dream of Gaaxstalas.
In ray dream I went into the woods to peel cedar bark, together with my late husband LElelEwek*. We were going inland. Then my
late husband asked me to lie down with him. Then we lay down.
Then it oocurred to me that he had died long ago. Then he said,
"Oh mistress, I am in great trouble for your sake. I long for you
very much, mistress. You do not think of me at all since you have
Noibe£ for your husband. So I am going to enter your womb that
you may become my mother," thus he said and disappeared. Then in
my dream I went to a cedar grove and peeled a good many cedar trees.
I had a great deal of cedar bark which I had peeled. Then I tied
It up and put It on my back. In my dream I came to my house and in
my dream I told my husband. Then my husband became jealous on account of the one who had died long ago. In my dream my husband
said he would beat me. Then I was afraid and therefore I awoke*1
66. Dream of K*JasogwIElak".
I dreamed that the Moon came down to our world. As soon as
she reached the ground a man stepped out of the side door of the
Moon. Then he told the Kwag'ui not to hate one another and not to
steal the property of their fellow men and not to seduce the wives
of their fellow men and also this, that they should pray to the Orea
tor of man, "that he may pity you and help you,1, said the moon man.
Then I awoke.
67. Dream of MEled.
I dreamed I was going to the upper world, which was very beau-
.tlful. Then I saw many people and all of them seemed to be women.
One of them came to me and spoke to me and advised me never to
•••This dream means that the dreamer will have a son, but also
that her husband will die shortly after the birth of the child.
 52
g-Enuexu qj£LEla£me g-axs he*raEnaiaemaaq6s Lelkjwalaxs yaq.'EntJa-
laaqos laxa kJwei.5 laxes g'Skwaos laxa ba£n§ at-wlnagwlsa. WS,
qaso h8x'sS gwek'JalaLe la£m§ts ialawaiElaL5i laxwa g'lgEraaq.'EimSx1*
qaso dadElItJasoitsox. WS, he*£mls qa£s k*Jesaos g-IlOLax dadEk'a-
5 8as £nEmwlyote. WS, he'£mis qa£s k* Jesaos Ljesilaxes bEX£wutds.
Wa, h8£maa qas5 nanageg*e* SwieiaxEn waidEmi*lSla lfiL ISles k*Jeas
k*i£lEmLoi, £nex'eEng'I g*ax£Eng'En. WS, laEng*a£me axk'Jala qEn
g-axe na£nakwa. WS, laEng-e axstodaxa tJex-HSsa aLanfi£yasa *>wa-
laseEng*S g*okwa. WS, laEng'En lawElsa. WS, ftEng*a£m§SEn h§pj-
10 aito dox^waLElaxEn g'OX«£Eng'S. WS, la£m£n tsjEX'£Id laxeq.
68. Mexes £raaxulag-Ills.
MexEleg'InLas Mr. Hall ganoLe £nek*e £raaxulag*llis g-axEn-
Laxa laxEnte ma£iEnxe tsjawunxas £nex*dEraas g-axEn. WS, la £nek-a;
Kjwaei£Eng'§k' laxa e§s£Eng'S nos g*5kwa laEng'En nanfiqSx'-
15 silaEng'EXEn nfiqa£ye SEnaEng'EX g*ogwadSsa £es£Eng*S.8x* g-SxuE-
Eng'En la kJwae£las£Eng'a. WS, laEng'S yaqJeg*ae£eEng'eda bEgwanEma laEng'EXEn a£waplellie. Wa laEng'e en5x-eEng'a; WS, Ehe-
mwEyot, £maxulag*£lls, £raasos axsEwex laxwa g-okwex £neX'eEng'S.
Wa laEng'En mEls£Ida qaEng'En d5x£wldeq. WS, laEng'En maitjeg'a-
20 aLElaqexs he*Eng*a§ Mr, A. J. Hall xa la£lElad5ias £yllise. WS,
laEng*aErae g'lltja tsJolEm£Eng*§ qJoxutsJfi£yas dadatsJawakwa. WS,
laEng'e tsJolEm£Eng*e LEtEml£Eng'Ss habEtSEma. Wa, laEng-e a£m5-
tse£staax«sa k'fileda LEtEmZ£Eng*Ss. WS, laEng'e lEqe£walaxa k'fi-r
le he'Eng'e §wex*sa LjesEla. WS, laEng'e qsnxalaxa gElg'EX'ftla
25 k'filk"jEn£Eng'a. WS, laEng'En Lax£ulii££ng'a qEn saiaEng-esEn
he'ik* JotsJanaEye, laEng'aem£n wax* £nek'££ng'a qEn dabaitsJaneq.
Wa, laEng'e £nek*a k'Je k* Je qaxg'ln laeme 6gux£Ida, qaxg'ln g*a-
£mek« L§xs£alayoiOL lax Tsaxise, ylxg'ln lak* qJwalax'LEna qaxg'ln
la£mek» laxa §k*a a£wlnagwisa. H§emesEn lag'iia k* Jes dabaitsJa-
30 nEndOL qaxs k*Jesaaqos £nEmx'£IdalOL laxsn Lexs£alayoiaoL £nex'£-
Eng'Sxs laEng'ae x'ls£Ida. WS, laEm labeda mexa£yas £maxulag-I-
 53
speak a lie," for I know that you always lie when you talk about
the feasts that you give to your tribe in the country down below.
If you go on talking this way you will fare 111 with our chief
here when he Judges you. And you shall not steal your brother's
property and you shall not hate your fellow men. If you obey
what I tell you will have no reason to fear," thus she said to me.
Then she asked me to go home. She opened the rear door of the
house and I went out. and when I looked up I saw my house. Then
I awoke.
68. Dream of Emaxulag'llis.1
"I dreamed this night of Mr. Hall,* said Enaxulag'ills to
me. It may be two years since he told me this dream. He said*.—
I dreamed I was sitting In a house, not mine, and I thought
in my mind who might be the owner of the bad house in which I was
sitting. Then a man behind me spoke and said, "Oh brother, £ma-
xulag'ilis, what are you doing in this house?"  I turned around
and looked at him and recognized Mr. Hall, the former missionary
at Alert Bay. He wore a long black coat and a black cap covered
his head. His black cap was embroidered all around with gold.
On his forehead he wore gold which shone like the sun. Then I
arose and stretched out my hand, intending to take his hand. Then
he said, " Oh, no J I am now different; for as I used to preach to
you at Fort Rupert I am dressed thus because I am now In the world
above.  I cannot take your hand because you did not obey what I
preached to you," thus he said and he disappeared. That was the end
of the dream of £maxulag'llis on the twenty-eighth of February.
This man Is known as a dreamer. He belongs to the SenLjEm.
 54
lisaxa ha£ma£igunaiExsagfila Enala laxa February.
WS, la Elaq labeda £mEkulasa April g-axaa k'JadEkwe g-Sx'It
lax England tsjEk'JaiElas Mr. Hallaxs wek-itXEedaaxa aLEboxsa-
gSla £nalasa £mEgwabfisa qJexElaxa February. WS, lex*a8mesEn la-
g*iia SqJusEX raexa£yas £maxulag'llise ylxs h8x'Eids£mae g-ax raa-
imextsJases mexa£yaxa gaalases mexElax'dEmas Mr. Hal18 qJwalEn-
kwa.
WS, h§fcm gwE£yosa bakjume filak'Jala mextsjasa lo£ aek*aEng*E.
 55
When the month of April was almost gone a letter came from
England telling of Mr. Hall's death on the twenty-seventh daV of
the month of February. The only point that makes me ; believe the
dream of £maxulag'llis is that he carae at once and told me about
his dream In the morning he had dreamed about Mr* Hall dressed up
in this way*
That is what is called by the Indians a true dreamer and a
good dream.
r—^
 RANK  PROPERTY AND INHERITANCE
GElpJSnoxu LE£wa t!agwig*e.
WS, he*£maexs klwelasaeda bEgwanEmaxa qJesgEmakwe leLqwalaLa-
£ya*, wS, g*ll£raese Ljopa tjEXusosxa £naxwa h8£ma5masaj wS, IS ax-
tsJSyowa ha£mSLasa klwele laxa JoElqJwe; wS, g*llemese la £wIEia
5 axtsjE£wakwa iOElqJwSsa he'£raaomase laas LaxEtUIia Elkwasa g'lgE-
maEyexa kjwelase.  WS, IS yaqjEg*a£ieda Elkwa. Wa, IS enek'a*
QaL qaLas he£maex gwek-Jalase, ex-laxaei_En qEnL5 Setti lax Laqax-sa-
x*eidlaxo qaox Mfi£nakulSxwa K'Jeseonokwax-sa gElpa qa aw*fixa£latsa
kJwele laxa £nai£nEmexLa ioqjwa. WS, s5£mets YSqoLjeqElas laEms
10 g'axL tjagwig*exg*ada gElpJenoxuk* ylxg*a Mfi£nakulak* yuLax k* Je-
k-jES£onokwaaqosasa he* gweg*lie enek*e ylxs g-ayoiae Mfi£nakula
lax £nE£memotasa SenL*Eme. WS, IS g*ayoie YaqoLJeqElase lax en£e-
memotasa kukwakJumasa GwetEla. WS, hex*£Ida£mese M££nakula lo£
,YaqoLleqElas g*ax lax £mExelasasa iSElqJwe qa£s h6sSIdeq. He'me
15 ^M££nakula hosaq laqexs Ljsnqaasa g'lltja tsJeSLala daax^s laxa
ioElqJwe. Wa, g*ll£mese nEqSxLeda ioElqJwa hose£s lae £nek*e Mfi-
£nakula nEqaXLa£ai. Wa, la YaqoLJeqElas tjax£wldxa £nEme laxes
qSmases h§lk*J5tsjana£ye laqexs fi£mae Elxi_a£ya tjagwig*a£ye YSqoLjeqElas yis M££nakulaxa §ElpJenoxwe. WS, g*Il£raese maltsEmg*u-
20 stfiwa ioElqJwe hSses M££nakula lae £nek*a raa£itSEmg*ast&ai. WS,
la YaqoLjeqElase t!ax£wldxes ts'smalax* tsjana£ye. Wa, hex*sa£mese
gweg-ile. Wa, g-ilSmese yuduxuSEmg*ust£wexLeda ioElqJwa lae la
 RANK,  PROPERTY A NDINHERITANC
Counter and Tally Keeper.
When a man gives a feast to different tribes/and when the clover
roots or all kinds of food are done,/the food that is to be eaten by
the guests is put into the dishes.  As soon as all(5)the food has
been put into the dishes, the speaker of the chief,/the host, stands
up, and the speaker speaks and says:/"Yes, indeed this Is the way to
speak. However, would it be good, if I should just ask anyone to
call out the names?/ For here is M££nakula, whose hereditary privilege
It Is to count the number of/guests to each dish. And you, YaqoLjeqE-
las, you(10)will come and count wltii Mfi£nakula, for you have this/
hereditary privilige of doing so,11 said he, for Mfi£nakula belongs to
the/numaym SenLlEm and YaqoLeqElas belongs to the/numaym KukwakJum
of the Northerners. And immediately Mfi£nakula and/YaqoLileqElas come
to the dishes that are on the floor, and begin to count. It Is(15)
Mfi£nakula who counts them pushing with the long tongs which he Is carrying/the dishes, and after he has counted ten dishes, then MSnakiila says/
"Ten dishes," and YSqoLjeqElas folds under/the thumb of his right hand,
for YSqoLjeqElas is the tally keeper/of Mfi£nakula, who is the counter.
And as soon as twenty(20)dishes have been counted by M5£nakula, he
says, "Twenty dishes," and/then YSqoLjeqElas folds down his first finger, and he continues/doing so, and as soon as there are thirty dishes,
 58
yuduxupjEna £hek*eda g'ElpienoxwS nEqSxLa. WS, lada tjagwig'a&ye
ylx YSqoLjeqElas tjax£wldx§s £nolax'ts2ana£ye. WS, g'll£mese
gwai hosaxa ioElqJwe lae Mfi£nakula lo£ YSqoLjeqElas qas£lda qa£s
IS Lax£wallida£xu lax L.'asalliasa kJweie* WS, la M&£nakul8 enSx«-
5 xes tjagwig'a£y§ YSqoLjeqElas; QjeqJaLjalaLOX laxa ^nEmexLa io-
qjwa, £nek*exs lae h5s£idxa bEgwanEme. We'g'a tJ&gwig'eLEX.
EnEmok1*, ma£lok«, yuduk", mok", SEk'Jok*, qjELjok*; enEmexLa io-
qjwa. £nEmoku, ma£lokl», yuduk«, mok«, SEk'Jok*, qjEL.Jok», maiEX-
La i5ElqJwa. £nEmoku, ma£lok«, yuduk*, rook*, sEk-Jok", qjELjok",
10 yuduxuxLa ioElqJwa. WS, h§£mis la tJSgwig-eso£8 YSqouJeqElas,
WS, hSEm k'Jek*jEs£onokwS Mfi£nakula lo8 YSqOLj§qElatses gwigwala-
g'llllase g'Sg'lLEla laxa nuxuneEmise lax QalogWis. WS, laEm
k* Jefis gwex'£tdaas las laxes tsjEdaqe xunSkwa ylxs k'Jefisae bE-
gwanEms saSEmas, wS, he£mises he'nax- £idaats las laxa bEgwanEme
15 xunoxuses tsja£ya Enaxwa ylx MA£nakula lo£ YSqJoLJeqElas* Wa,
la k'Jes qjunala hededa £nolastjEgEmaeye bEgwanEm xunoxusa gEl-
pJenoxu laats g^lpJenoxus§na£yases orape ylxs hSe" qjunala laatsa
gElpJenoxwa ama£ylnxa£yas sasEmas* WS, he*Emxaawise gweg-ileda
tJSgwig'§£ lax wafcdEmasa bakjum ylxs snek*aaq nEnolowa £nolastJ-
20 EgEmaEye sasEma. WS, la £nek'Eq nenfigadeda ama£ylnxa£yas sSse-
raas. Wa, laEm laba.
Kjwakjwaxsdalaxa qJap.!aenoxu.
Wa, he*£mae Kjwakjwaxsdalaxa qjapjaenoxwasa £nE£meraotasa
KukwakJumasa GwetEla. Wa, laEm £nEmox£um qJapJSxa aLEboxgEma-
25 k'jES £nai£nE£raematsa GwetEla. Wa, he*Em filak* Jala g'Sg'lLEle
KjwakJwaxsdala laxa tsjEtsJ&qd lax Qalogwisxa nuxune£mise. WS,
h8Em LegErase laxes Qjapjaenoxwae PEXEma£ya, ylxs lae yaqwasa l!S-
gEkwe LE£wa yasEkwe i_E£wa tsloina LE£wa qEmxwa laxa £naxwa bebE-
gwanEma LE£wa £naxwa tsledaqa LE£wa £naxwa g-Ing-InanEma.  Wa,
50 la LegadEs K- lS.de  laxa baxus. Wa, la i_egadES Tjeqwap ylxs lae
£walas kjwelatsa Lje£na lax Dzawade, ylxs gEgadaeda g-alas K*Ifi-
 then(l)the counter'says, "Three times ten dishes," and the tally
keeper,/YaqoLjeqElas, then folds under his middle finger, and after/
they finish counting the dishes, M££nakula and YaqotJeqElas go and/
stand at the outer end of the guests and M££nakula says(5)to his
tally keeper, YSqoLjeqElas, "There will be six men to each dish,"/
thus he says while he is counting the men," Now keep the tally. One
man, two men, three men, four men, five men, six men. One dishj/ One
man two men, three men, four men, five men, six men./ Two dishes J
One man, two men, three men, four men, five men, six men. (10) Three
dishesj"  Now YSqoLjeqElas keeps tally./ Tnis is the hereditary
office of Mfi£nakula and YSqoLjeqElas that they are doing/beginning
from the myth people at Crooked Beach. They/cannot give this to their
daughters if they have no/sons, and they must give it to the son(l5)
of their younger brothers, both Mfi£nakula and YSqoLjeqElas./ Often
it is not the oldest son who Is a counter. If the father is a counter,
then generally/the youngest one of the children will be the counter,
and this is also in the same way with/the tally keeper, according to
the words of the Indians; for they say that the oldest children are
foolish(20)and they say that the youngest children are clever./ That
is the end*
Kjwakjwaxsdala, the Assembler.
And now about Kjwakjwaxsdala, the Assembler of the numaym/of the
Kukwakjumasa of the GwetEla.  He is the only one who assembles the
seven(25)numayms of the GwetEla. And Kjwakjwaxsdala really began/from
the Winter Ceremonial at Crooked Beach of the Myth People./ And his
name is Assembler-Chief-Shaman, namely when he distributes/red cedar
bark and tallow and charcoal and eagle down to all the/men and all the
women and all the children(30). And his name is K*Jade in the. secular
season, and his name is Tjeqwap when/he gives a great grease feast"in
 60
dSs k*J5d§ias Wanukwa, ylx TsjEtsJalaie. H«£m baxus LegEms LEm-
k*Jale Wanuk". WS, la£lae xungwadEX*Eld5 K* Jane laxes gEnEmasa
babagume. WS, la Wanukwe LegEmg*Ilxi.alax Hayaik'lne qa LegEmses
tsJox^LEma. Wa, la£rae Legadeda g-InanEmas Hayaik'InS. WS, laelae
5 §tjed xungwadEX*£IdEsa babagume. WS, la£lae Wanukwe LegEmg*IIxlS-
lax HS£masi£lakwe qa LSgEmses tsJox«LEma. Wa, la£me Legadeda ba-
bagumas HS£masi£lakl*. WS, laEm g-ayoie Wanuft1* lax 6nE£memotasa
Wawulib££ye. WS, IS g-ayoie gEnEmas ylx WSLede laxa en£6meraotasa
WlwomasgEmasa Mamaleleqala ylxs k*Jedeiae WaL§dSs SSsaxfilas. WS,
10 g*Il£raese qjulsqjulyax£wlde Hayaik'ln LE^wes tsJS^yS HS£raaslelakwe
la hSEm la Ljayowe Hayaik-lnaxes omp K'JfidS. WS, laxae ax£edxa
qJ&pJS laxa tsjetsjeqa. WS, he*£mis tsjEX-£aLEla lax n£qa£yas tsja-
£yase Ha£masi£lakwe qaxs wax-ae ax£exsd qa£s heax£edxa qjapjekwe
lax k-Jes£fises ompe. WS, IS yax-sto£se Hayaik'tnas laxes tsja£ya.
15 Wa, he£rais lag-iias Ha£masi£lakwe la bfises orape qa£s la laxes abas-
k'Jote. WS, la£me §x£edxa qlaplaenox" qa£s IS q'ap'aenoxusa Wawu-
llb&£ye £nE£memota. WS, laEm qJapJaenoxusa £walas Kwag-ula laxeq.
WS, IS he'Eme Ha£masl£lakwe ax£edxa aLEbogug'lyowe bebEgwanEm qa
aaxsllaxa £naxwa doguits laxes ompe K- lS.de  LE£wa aaxsilaxa k-adzE-
20 kwe dedEgEmyfi LE£wa yasEku LE£wa tsjoina LE£wa LjagEkwe LE£wa qam-
xwa.  Wa, laEra Legade HSEraasi£lakwas LErak'Jala laxa tsJStsJeqa
laxeq. WS, la£me §Eg*adEX*£ide HS£masielakwas GwagwadaxEla ylx
k* Jedeias YaxLEnxag-ayoie* lax £nEEmemotAsa HaanLenfi. Wa, laEin
xungwadEX*£Ide Ha£masi£laku le£w1s gEnEme GwagwadaxElSsa babagume.
25 Wa, la YaxLEn LegErag*llxLalax HEX'hakJwaesagEme qa LegEmses tsJo-
xULEma. Wa, la etjed xungwadsx*£IdEsa babagume. WS, laxae YaxLEn
LegEmg-llxLalax T3Ex£wIdS qa LegEmses tsJoxULEma. WS, he*£mise
TsEX£wIde la LegadES Nux«ne£mis laxes qJSpJaenoxwae, ylxs lae bfises ompe qa£s la laxes abask-Jote.  WS, laEmxae ax£edxa q.'apJS
30 qa£s LegadES QjapJaenoxu pEXEma£ya. Wa,lS LegadES NuxUneEmis ylxs
lae £nEraox£um la qju£la ylxs lae wlk-jEX£Ide KjwakJwaxsdalax*de.
 61
Knight Inlet. At first KJfide(l) had for his wife a princess of Wanuku,
namely Tsjstsjfilai, and the secular name/of LErak*Jala is Wanuku. Then
K* J fide had a child from his wife,/a boy, and then Wanuk*» gave the name
Hayaik'ln as a marriage name to his/ grandson, and now the child had
the name Hayaik'ln. Then(5)he had another child, a.boy, and Wanuk*
gave the marriage name/HSEmaslelaku as a name to his grandson, and then
the boy had the narae/HSEmasi£laku.  Now Wanuku belonged to the nu-
maym/WawulabfiSye and his wife WaLed belonged to the nuraaym of/WIwomas-
gEra of the Mamaleleqala, and WaLed was the princess of Sesaxfilas.(lO)
Now as soon as Hayaik'ln and his younger brother HS£masi£laku were
grown up/Hayaik'in took the place of his father K* J fide and he also
took the/office of Assembler in the Winter Ceremonial, and so his
younger brother/HS£masi£laku became sick at heart for he wished in
vain to take the office of Assembler/from the privileges of his father.
Then Hayaik'ln did not want to give it up to his younger brother,(15)
and therefore Ra£masi£laku left his father and went to his mother's
side,/and he took the office of Assembler, and was Assembler of the nu«
mayra WawulibfiEye. Then he was Assembler of the Great Kwag-ui./ And
then Ha£masl£lakt* took seventeen men to/take care of everything seen
by him at (the house of) his father K'Jfide".  And he took care of the
soft cedar bark(20)for wiping the face, and the tallow and the charcoal and the red cedar bark and the down./':  And then HSemasi£laku
had the name LEmk* Jala in the Winter Ceremonial./  Then HS£masi£laku
had for his wife GwagwadaxEla, the/princess of YSxleu, who came from
the nuraaym HaanaLeno.  Then/HSEmasi£lakvl nad a child with his wife,
GwagwadaxEla, a boy,(25)and then YSxleu gave the marriage name HEX*ha-
kJwaesagErae£ to be the name of his/grandson. Then he had another child,
a boy, and YaxLEn/gave the marriage name TsEX£wId to be the name of his
grandson. And so/Ts£XeWId had the name NuxuneEmis as Assembler, for
he went and left/his father and went to his mother's side, and he also
took the office of Assembler,(30) and had the name Assembler-Head-Shaman. And now he had the name Nux»neEmis, for he/was the only one that
 62
Wa, la k*Jefis sasEm qju£las, wa, la k*Jefts raag'ii LeLELfilas. WS,
he'£mis lag-lias fiEm x-ls£Ide LSgEmas KJwakJwaxsdalax*de. WS, laxae he*Era gwex'£Ide LEmk* Ja£loie. LaEmxae £wl£la ieiE£la lag-lias
k'Jefis la qlapJaenoxusa £walas Kwag-ui. WS, la £nEraox«Eme RSx«ne£-
5 mlse gagSia qjfc£la. Wa, IS £nEmox£um la qjSpJa§nox«sa GwetEla le-
£wa Qjomoyfi£ye LE£wa £walas Kwag-uia. Wa, IS wek-Jlx£eda ylx Nu-
xune£misde. WS, la£mese bEgwanEm xunox«s HEX'hakJwaesagEmaxa Le-
gadSs Ha£masi£laku ylxs xunokwae Hd'£maslelakwas HEX'hakJwaesagEme
le£w1s gEnEme HEX-hakJwaSdzEmga ylx tsjEdaqe xunox^s Yaqai£Enlisxa
10 g'ayoiS lax £nEememotasa G'SxsEmasa NEqEmg-IlisEla. WS, he'Emese
Ha£masi£laku la Ljayoxes qJu£leyoie Nux-»ne£miswoie. WS, laEm qJa-
pjaenoxwe HS£masi£lakwe. LaEm LegadES Nux^neEraise laxa tsJetsJeqa.
Wa, la LegadES Omx-£ide laxa baxuse. WS, laEm tsja£ye HS£masielakw-
as sasEmas HEX-hakJwaesagEme ylxs tsjEdaqae K* Jasogw^lax^xa £nolas-
16 tjEgEma£yas sasEmas. WS, IS k*Jefis gwex*£idaas axeedxa qjApJa qaxs
tsjEdaqae. Wa, laLa he Em la Sx£edEX kJwa£yas HEX*hakJwaesagEmex*de
ylxs lae wlk*jEX£eda ylxs wax*6mae tsjEdaqa yix K*JSsogwl^lak". WS,
la£mesLa wuqjwase Ha£masi£laku ylx tsJa£ySs K*Jasogwi£lakwe ax£edEX
kJwa£yas TsEX£wIdexa la LegadES Omx*£Ide qaxs k-Jeasae xunox^s Om-
20  x-£Idoie, ylxs tsjaeyae TsEX£wIdas HEX'hakJwaesagEma£yexa raa£16kwe
bebEgwanEm sasEms YaxLEnoiS le£w1s gEnEmoie Aomoi£wuiexa tsjEdaqe
xunox^s Wadzeyoiexa g-ayoie laxa EnEemSmotasa QjEmqjEmtalaiasa De-
nax-da£xu. Wa, la £nex-so£xs he*Emae lag'iias Wadze la qJSpJaenox^sa
£nE£memotasa Q.'EmqjEmtalaiaxs lae Aomoi tsjsk* Jalelasa qj&pjaenox-
25  wes ia£wadaase qaxs k* Jefisae q.'apjaenoxusa DEnax-da£xwe g-alagwls
Aomoiaxs lae iaEwadEs YaxLEne. Wa, laxae he*Em gwala waidEmasa g*a«-
le Kwakug'ui qaeda £nE£m§motasa WlwomasgEmasa Mamaleleqala qa WS-
Ledaxs g'axae ia£wadES Wanukwexa qfipjaenoxwasa Wawulibfi£ye. WS,
laEmelae qjapjaenoxwe Sesaxfilasasa £nEmemotasa WlwomasgEm g'Sg'l-
30  LElaxs lae ia£wadES k'Jedeias Wanukwe qaxs k-Jefisae qJapJaenoxusa
Mamaleleqala g-alagawis WSLedaxs lae ia£wadES Wanukwe. WS, he'km
 63
was still alive, for now Kjwakjwaxsdala died and(l)he had no child
living, and he had no near relatives./ Therefore the name Kjwakjwaxsdala just disappeared. And/the same happened to LErnk'Jala. They
also were all dead, and therefore/there is no Assembler among the
Great Kwag'ui. Only NuxuneEmis(5)was still living, and he is now the
only Assembler of the GwetEla and/the Qjomoy££ye and of the Great
Kwag'iui. Then Nuxun§£mis died/  Now the son of HEX-hakJwaesagEmeE/
who had the name/Ha£masi£laku, that is, the child HS£ masi£laku was
the son of HEX-hakJwaesagEraeS/and his wife HEx-hakJwaedzEmga, the
daughter of Yaqoi£Enlis(10)who came from the numaym G-exsEm of the
NaqEmg'lllsEla.  And/Ha£masi£laku changed places with his late*uncle Nux«ne£rais. Then/Ha£masi£laku was Assembler and had the name
Nuxun§£mis in the Winter Ceremonial,/and his name was OmX'£Id in the
secular season. Now HSEmasi£lak'» was the younger/ son among the children of HEX'hakJwaesagEmeE, for a woman was K* Jasogwi£laku,/the oldest
(15) one among his children. She could not in any way take the office
of Assembler because she was/a woman, but she took the seat of the
late HEX'hakJwaesagEme6/when he died, although she was a woman, namely K-JSsogwi£lak*.  Now/her brother, Ha*£masi£laku, that is, the
younger brother of K-Jasogwi£laku,took/the seat of TsEX£wId, and he
took the name Omx-£Id, for the late Omx-£id had no child.(20) For
TsEx£wId was the younger brother of HEX-hakJwaesagEme£.among the two/
sons of the late YaxLEn and his late wife Aomoi, the daughter/of
Wadze who came from the numaym QjEmqjEmtalai of the/DEnax-da£xu.
And it is said that this is the reason why Wadze became the Assembler/of the numaym QjEmqjEratalai, that Aemoi told about the Assembler
- (25)for the DEnax*da£xu had no assembler before/Aomoi had for her husband YaxLEn, and also this is the saying of the former/Kwag-ui about
the numaym WlwomasgEm of the Mamaleleqala, that/WaLed came and had for
her husband Wanuku, the Assembler of the Wawulibfi£ye./ Then Sesaxfilas
of the numaym WlwomasgEm was Assembler, beginning(30)at the time when
the princess of Wanuk1* took a husband,for there was no Assembler of/the
Mamaleleqala before WSU»d took for her husband Wanuk*. This/a disgrace
 64
qJamSsa DEnax-da£xu LE£wa Mamaleleqala laxg*ada Kwakug'UiS qaxs
fiEmae £nEmax-ls lo£ g'lloLanEraaxes qjfipjaenoxwe. WS, laEm laba.
Succession.
HSEraaes wulSse£w6s laxa bEgwanEmaxs qjiqjapae laxes sasEme
5 LE£wi8 gEUEmS lax gwaiaasas Ljaifiylg-llisxa la yawas^Id LegadES
Hawllkulai laxes ompexa g-ayoie lax £nE£m§motasa Kukwakjumasa Qje-
mayfi£ye. WS, IS xunokwe SbEmpas tjalaylg'llisas TEleg-aledzEmga-
xa ts.'Edaqe xunoxus Wanukwexa g-ayoi§ lax enE£memotasa Wawulibfi£ye.
Wa, la he*x-saEm alaiaats Ljaiaylg'lliseda EnE£raemotasSs orapa Kukwa-
10 kjum. Wfi, laEm KukwakJumaxsEme Ljaiaylg*lllse laxeq. WS, IS k'Jes
alaia laxa £nE£memotas Wanuku£wuiasa WawulibfiEye ylxs fiyadae TEle-
g'aledzEraga Wanuku£wuie. WS, la Ljaiaylg-Ilise abayadss TEleg'al-
edzEraga. WS, he£mis lag* iias L.'aiaylg* Ilise Wawallpk** JotjEnaxsEme.
WS, IS k'.'es Elg*llge laxa EnEEmSmotases abask- .'5ta Wawalibfi£ye
15 qaxs hae filak*Jala Elg-Ilgayaasa £nE£memotasa Kukwakjumasa Qjomoya-
£y§ lax EnEEraemotas omp£wuias L.'al&ylg-Ilise ylxs fi£yadaas HawIlkJi-
lai£wule. WS, he*£mis lag* lias filak'Jala la KukwakJumaxsEm^ Ljaiaylg'lllse laxeq. WS, IS xungwadEX* eIdES A~dag-i£lakw§. WS, la Ada-
g*l£lakwe ax£edEX kjwa£yas Hawllkulai laxa £nE£memotasa KukwakJuma-
20 sa Ojomoyfi£ye qaLaxs en6lastjEgEma£ye Adag*l£lakwas sasEmas Ljaia-
ylg-llise. WS, la wek*Jlx£IdS Hamasaqa ylx wuqja £nolas TEieg-ale-
dzEmgaxa xungwadas Lja2ay!£g*llis§* WS, he*Emj.s iag*iias apsot.fEna£-
yas Adag*l£lakwe ax£edEX kjwa£yas Hamasaqoie qaxs en51awa'£lIiaS HS-
masaqoie. WS, laxae enolawS£lIi5 HawIlkulaiEwuie. WS, laxae Adag*I-
26 £lakwe £nolawSEHi.laxes abErape Ljaiaylg*Ilise. Wa, laxae SbEmpasee
TEleg*aledzEmga £nolawS£Hi laxes abEmpe WSLide lax lag* iias mamale-
lexk*JotEm§ Ljaiaylg*11ise. WS, he£maa qo xungwade Ra'masaqas enEmo-
kwa g'lnanEraa lalaxsde k*Jefis gwex*£idaas ax£ede Adag-i£lakwax kjwa-
£yas Hamasaqoie qaxs he'£melaxe xunox^laxas wax-£eiti tsJatsJadagEma
30 lalaxe ax£edEX kjwa£yas. Wa, la hewSxaEm xungwadEX*£Ide Hamasaqoie.
Wa, he*£mis lag*iias layowa kjwa£yas lax Adag*i£lakwe ylxs ma£i£nxae
 65
for the DEnax'daExu and the Mamaleleqala among the Kwag'ui tribes,
for/it Is just as if they had stolen the office of Assembler. Tnat
ts the end.
^|0V   Succession.
This was asked by you about a man who has many children (5)
with his wife  in the way (it was) with Ljaiaylg*Ills who for a while
had the name/Haw|lkula2; from her father who  came from the numaym Kukwakjum of the/Qjomoyfi£ye*.    She  was  the daughter,  the mother of l Jaiaylg'Ilis, TEleg*alIdzEm§a,/the daughter of Wanuku who came from the
numaym WawulibfiEye*./ And really Ljaiaylg*tils belonged to the numaym
of her father,  the Kukwakjum,(10)  and L*aiaylg*ills was a Kukwakjum
woman after this     She did nol/really belong to the numaym of the late
Wanuk*,  the WawulibfiEye, for TEleg'alldzEmga had for her father/  the
late Wanuk**, and Ljaiaylg-Ills had for her mother TEleg'alldzEmga./
Therefore,  Ljaiaylg'Ills was on one, side a WawulibfiEye,/ And she did
not stay with the numaym of her mother's side,  the Wawuliba£ye,  (15)
for she really stayed with the numaym Kukwakjum of the.Qjomoyfi£ye,/
the numaym of the late father of Ljaiaylg'His, fbr she had as her
father the late Hawllkulai,/Tneref ore,  Ljaiaylg-His was really a Ku-
kwakjura woman/ after this*    Then she had a child, Adag-i£lakuj and Ada-
g'leiaku/took the  seat of Hawllkulai in the nuraaym Kukwakjum (20)  of
the QjoraoyfiSyg,  for.indeed Adag«i£laku was  the eldest son among the
children of/LJaiaylg-Ilis*    Then Raraasaqa died,  the elder brother of
TEleg'alldzEmga,/who had for her daughter lJaiaylg'Ilis-,  and therefore, on one  side/Adag'i£laku took the  seat of the late HSmasaqa,  for
the late Hamasaqa belonged to  the eldest line of the house* And the
late Hawllkulai also belonged to  the eldest line of the house,  and A-
dag'lelaku  (25)  also belonged to the eldest line of the house  through
his mother Liaiaylg'llls,  and also her mother/TEleg-alldzEmga belonge(
to the eldest line of the house  through her mother, WaLid. And    there-
fore/LJaiaylg'Ilis was on one  side Mamaleleqala.    Now if Hamasaqa had
had one/child,  there would have been no way for Adag*i£laku  to take
5
 66
tsjawunxe fixele Ljaiaylg*Ilisaxa kjwa£yases 5mp£wuie Hawllkulai-
Ewuie LE£wa kjwa£yases qJul§Syoi§ Hamasaqoie". Wa, g'Il£mSse nEXLa-
ax-£Id la bEgwanEme Adag'l£laku ylx EnolastjEgEma£yas sasEmas Ljaiaylg* Ilisaxs lae lfisasa ma£ie kJwa LE£wa raa£i§ L§L£§£m laxes xu-
5 nokwe Adag-i£lakwe. WS, laxae lfisas kjwa£yas LEk-fisa laxa tsjEdaqe
xun5xusxa Legadas WaLide. WS, laEm §wa§waaqas laxa Mamaleleqala.
Wa, lex*a£mes la axeEiak1* las Ljaiaylg-Ilise kjwa£yas LjaqoLas£wu-
iS lo£ k* Jek-.'ES£fis. WS, laEm labawlsLa.
WS, he'£raae Ljaiaylg* Ills ylx k* jSdeias Hawllkulai£wuiexa wa-
10 x-££m ts.'sdaqa IS ax£edEX kjwa£yases qjul§£y§ Hamasaqa LE£wa dagE-
ma£ye lo£ Enaxwe k*JSk*jES£fis. WS, g*llemesS iE£le HSmasaqoii lae
Legade l Jaiaylg*tlisas Wak-adze laxa baxuse. WS, la LegadES lehi-
k* Jala laxa tsJets.'eqa. WS, laxaa LegadES Max£enox laxa gum£yasaxa
he'l£axLayo. Wa, la LegadES Kwax*s56staladze ylxs laS kJweiS L.'aia-
15 ylg'tlisxa la LegadES Wak'adzexs lae iE«l5s qJ&leSyoie Hamasaqoie
WS, laxae" gEg-ade Sps5t.'Ema£yas Wak'adzSsa LegEmases anes£wuie
TsjEtsJfil.ai£wuie laxa baxuseY WS, IS L§gadES QjSgEmala laxa tsJS-
tsieqa. Wa, IS LegadES Kuskus laxa gum£yasapjaeda ha£yai£a. WS,
la LegadES TsEXula laxa tsjedaqaxs he'e guma£yasapj§. Wa, ma£igu-
20 naitsEme LOLEgEmas oguela laxes tsjEdagEXLSyuwe Ljaiaylg*Ilia. qax3
ogu£la£mae yaqwasE£waxs lae ia£wadEses ia£wunEme Kjwak.'wabalasEma-
£yexEn xunokwe ylnLaxg'ln George Hun^. WS, he*EmeSEn lag'ila fila-
k'Jala qJfiLElax gwa£yi£lalasas £naEn£msgEmagowe L§LEgEmas Ljaiayl-
g'llisf laxeq. & £&
.25     ..Wa, IS iE£le ompas Ljaiaylg- llisexa la LegadES Wak-adze ylx
ompase Hawllkulai£wuie.  Wa, la£m§da la LegadES Wak'adze ax£edEX
kjwa£yases orapde LE£wa hoqwa3tfila g'okwa. Wa, he£rais raE£wexLa ie-
ioquliia*, wa, he*Emis LSLEgEmase Hawllkulalxa LeiE£layuxLaEyasexa
hamaiEla leElqulaLa£ya; he*£rais kJweladzEXLayfise Kwakux-filas; h§«-
30 mig§ t.'Enselax*LSyfis YaqoLadze; rca, he*£mise hei£ax-Layfise £wabido£V
wa, he£mise nSlEmaiax* LSyfise G*ag*lqOLJalag*Ills laxa tsjetsjeqa.
 67
the/seat of the late HSmasaqa* for it would belong to his child;
even if she had been a girl (30) she would have taken his seat. But
the late HSmasaqa never had a child/and therefore his seat went to
Adag'islakw. Then for two years (1) Ljaiaylg*Ills'kept the seat of
her late father, the late Hawllkulai,/and the seat of her late uncle,
the late HSmasaqa. And when he grew up/to be a man, Adag*i£lakui, the
eldest one among the children of L.aiayag*Ills,/she gave over to him
the two seats and the two names to* her son, (5) Adag*i£laku. And she
also gave the seat of L£k*&3to her daughter/who had the name WSLid.
Then she went over to the Mamaleleqala/and It is only kept by L.aia-
y£g*,llis the seat of the late L.aqoLas/and his privileges. And so
this is the end.
And now Ljaiayag'Ills, that is the princess of the late Hawllkulai, (10) although she is a woman, took the seat of her uncle Hamasaqa,
and the office of. giving away property/and all his privileges. And
When HSmasaqa died/Llai&ylg'His had the name Wak'adze in the secular
season; and she had the name/LEmk'Jala in the winter ceremonial; and
she had the name Max6enoxu for the giving away ceremonial/of the young
men; and she had the name Kwax'se£staladz§ when she went to a feast*,
she, LJaiaylg*His f (15) who had the name Wak*adz5 when her uncle,
HSmasaqa, died./ Now Wak-adze had as a wife "of the other sidef* the
name of her late aunt,/TsjEtsJfilai, in the secular season; and she had
the name Qleg^mala in the winter ceremonial;/and she had the name Kus-
kus in the giving away ceremonial of the young men; and/she had the
name TsEXUla when the woraen gave away property to one another. And(20)
she had all eight names in addition to her woman's name L.aiaylg*llis.
And/it is also given to her besides now that she is. married to Kiwa-
k*wab5lasEmeS,/my son, and I am George Hunt. And that is how I really
know/all about the nine different names of/L.ai&ylg'Ilis.
(25) And now died the father of Ljaiaylg*His, whose name was
now Wak'adze, that is/her father, the late Hawllkulai, And now she,
whose name was Wftocadze took the/seat of her late • father and the Vom~
5*
 68
WS, laxa§ g£g*ad3 SpsotjEna£yas ylxaases anes£wuiexa LSgadS £max'ra£-
wedzEraga. WS, IS LegadES MEniosElas laxa gwegtidza. WS, laxae LegadES Kjwekwes laxa tsjedaqaxs §umeyasapja§. WS, he*6mesa dagEma£yS
la laxa aie Hawllkulaia. Wa, g*ll£mese Elaq nEXtaax'eId bEgwahErae
5 Adag'lELakwaxa laeda aie Hawllkulai ylx Ljaiaylg* Ilise lfisa £wI£lasEn
la L§LEqa£layox Ljaiaylg*Ilise laxes £nolaStjEgEma£ye xunokwe Adag*i-
Elakwej wa, he£mise kjwa£yas Wak'adze Ewieia la lax Adag«i£lakwe £w£.
EUda LeLEgEme LE£wa tsJedagEXuaSyo L§LEgEma; wS, he*£raesa raaei§daia
da§Eraa£ya. Wa, la£me la ma£ie kjwa£yas Adag-iElax^xa la LegadES Wa-
10 k'adze lo£ Hawllkulai. WS, laEmxae lab a laXiq-*
Wa, he*smae Ljai&ylg*Ilise ylxs tsiatsjadag^maeda raak'Ilax Ada-
g-i£lakwexa la LegadES Wak'adze lo£ Hawllkulaixa LegadES WaLide. Wa,
laxae LjalAylg-Ilise lfisases LegEme LEk'fisa laxes tsjEdaqe xunokwe
WaLide. WS, lasm la Lfiga£y§ Wai_ide laxa £nEememotasa MamalSleqJam
15 laxeq lo£ £wl£l§ L§LE§Emas LE£wa g'okwe. WS, laEmS Ljaiaylg*Ilise
las WaLidexa la LegadES LEk-fisa laxes abask-lote laxa Mamaleleqala
lax kjwa£yas LEk*fis£oie. Wa, he*£mis la fjEnEms WaLidexa la LegadES Le-
k'fisaxes absmpe Ljaiaylg*Ilise. WS, IS lex'aEm axelax^s lJaiaylg*1-
lisa LegEme LjaqOLas lag*lias babaguxa laxa Mamaleleqala ylx Ljala-
20 ylg-Ilise. WS, fi£mise Ljaifiylg*Ilise la nomadzlitses xunokwe Hawllkulai.  Wa, laEm enEmax*is lo8 nfiqeg'ile Ljai&ylg-lllse qaes xunokwe Hawllkulai laxes £nE£memota Kukwakjumasa Qlomoyfi£ye. WS, laxaS
he*Era gwaia laxa £nE£memotasa Wawulibfi£ye qaes xunokwe. Wa, laEm laba laxeq.
 69
iting Beam house and also the four feasting dishes/and also the different names of Hawllkulai. the name for inviting (30) the different
tribes; and his feast giving name, Kwakux'filas; and also/his giving
away name YaqoLadze; and also his young man's name, ewabidoe; and al~
so/his fool dancer name G*ag'lqOL*alag*Ilis in the winter ceremonial.
(1) And now she had as her wife *of the other side" the body of her
late aunt whose name was £max-raEwedzEmga;/and she had the name MEnio-
SElas in the gwegudza; and she also had the name/Kjwekwes in the giving away of the young women. And also the office of giving away property/went to the new Hawllkulai. And when Adag*i£lak« was nearly a
full grown man,(5) then the new Hawllkulai, that is L.aiaylg*His,
she, Ljaiaylg*11Is, gave over all/that I have mentioned to her eldest
child, Sdag'ielaku./ And also the seats of Wak'adze all went to Ada-
g'lsiak1*, and all/his different names and the different women^s names
and also the two/offices of giving away property. And now Adag*i£laku
had two seatB, he whose name is now Wak'adze (10) and Hawllkulai.
Now this is she end of this.
And now about Ljaiaylg'His and her little girl, the next child
to Adag*i£laku/Wk°se name is now Wak'adze and Hawllkulai; and her
name is WSLid. Now/Ljaiaylg'Ills gave the name LEk'fis to her daughter/
WaLid. Then WSLid had her olace in the numaym Mamaleleqjam (15) and
all her different names and her house. And now L.aiaylg*Ills/gave to
WaLld whose name is now LEk'fis on her mother's side among the Mamaleleqala,/ the seat of the late LEk'fis. And now the wife of WSLid,whose
name is now LEk'fis, is/her mother. And Ljaifiylg'Ilis only kept/the
name LjaqoLas, and that is why LlaiSylg'His is a man among the Mamaleleqala. (20 )And Ljaiaylg'Ills Is only the old man of her child Hawllkulai*/ Ljaiaylg* His Is like the counsellor of her child/HawIlkulai
in the numaym Kukwakjum of the.Qjomoyfi£ye, And it is the same in the
numaym Wawulibfi6ye of her child. Now that is the end.
 70
A Family History
Wa, laemEn etJ§dEi gwagwex'S£alai laxes k»Jataey8s laxa aLE-
boxs£agfila &nala laxa £raEgwaba*£yasa tsjatapjexa December.
Wa, he*£raae £maxuraEwesagEma£yexa g'IgEma£yasa EnEEmemotasa
5 DzEndzEnx*qJayo. WS, IS gEg'adES LElEndzE£wek* laxa wuqJSs La-
lak*otsJaxa g*ayoie lax enE£raemotasa MamalSleqJam ylxs gEg'adae
Lalak'otsja yls Hamdzidexa tsjEdaqe xunox^s Yaqaisanlld£exa g*a-
yoie lax £nE£memotasa Nax*naxuelasa Qweq»*s5tJenoxu. WS, la£ma
k-'efis xunoxus Lalak'otsja le£w1s gEnEme Hamdzide. WS, la wuqJwS-
10 se L£lEndzEewelr le£w1s ia£wunEme £maxumEwesagEma£ye xungwadex*»I-
tsa babagume laxg*a TsaxisEk*. WS, g'll^mese. qjaleda filak-Jala
g*I§Ema£ye Lalak*otsJaxes wuqjwa LElEndze£wek'axs l££mae maSyoi6!-
tsa babagume, wa, la ae*k*lne nfiqaeyas Lalak'otsja qaxs lae qjala-
qexs bEgwanEmae ma5yoLEmas§3 wuqjwa. Lag* iias moxsasa £naxwa he£-
15 raaomas laxa £walase xwakjuna. WS, g*axe wawaiqalas laxes qjulese
emax«mEwesagEmaeye. WS, IS LegEmg'llXLSlax £maxulag*His qa LegEmses Loleeye. Wa, la£me Lalak'otsja neiaxes qjulese £maxumEwe-
sag£raa£ye ylxs lE£ma§ ax£edEixa g*InanEmixes Lole£ye qaes lala-
g*Iits gwaiElaEm ax£edLEX kjwasyas Lalak'otsja laxes *>nE£memota
20 MamaleleqJam enek*e. WS, fiEmise £naxwa e*x*Sak'a £nEmemotasa Dzen-
dzEnx*qJayo lax waidEmas Lalak'otsja. WS, laEm fiEm lai qjwa-
qJwaxaLEX 8maxulag* llisexSs LOl§eye. WS, la6m§ etjed la xungwa-
dex*£Ide LElEndzE£wek*asa tsJatsJadagEme. WS, IS he£me £raaX«mE-
wesagEma£ye Lex£§ts £walaSLala. WS, ma£l5kwe sasEmas LElEndzE6-
25 wek* le£w1s ia£wunErae eraaxttm£wesagEma£ye. WS, g*ll£mese nEXlaS-
x*£Id la bEgwanEme £maxulag*Ilise laas wekJlx*£Ide ompdSse ylx
£maxttmEwesE§Emex*d§. WS, la£me Sjnaxulag*ilise LaxstSdxes Smpde*
WS, laEm Legade £raaxulag*llisesas maxura£wesagEma£ye laxeq.
WS, k'estja gSiaxs g'axaeda £walas xwakjuna g*ax£alis qJS-
30 laxa bebEgwanEme. WS, hSstaEm £n££raemotsa MamalelEqJaraxa kJudzE-
xsala lax £walas xwakJunS. WS, h§£mis lag*alise LjEraaisas g*5-
 71
A Family History
Now I will again talk about your letter of the/twenty-
seventh of the Split Moon, that is December;/
It was £max'mEwesagEme£ who was chief of the numayra(5)
DzEndzEnx'qJayo. He had for his wife i.ElEndzE£wek*, the sister
of/Lalak'otsja who came from the numayra Maraaleleqjam, for Lalak'otsja had £or his wife/Hamdzid, the daughter of Yaqai£&aHdze/
who carae from the nuraaym Nax'naxu£la of the QwequsotJenox*. Now/
Lalak'otsja, and his wife Hamdzid had no children. And his sister
(10) LElEndzE£wek' and her husband £max*mEwesagEmes had a/son
here at Fort Rupert. And as soon as the great/chief Lalak'otsja
learned that his sister iElEndzE£wek* had given birth to a/boy,
the heart of Lalak'otsja was. very glad, for he had found out/
that the newborn child of his sister was a boy. Therefore he
loaded with all kinds of(15)food a large canoe and came to give
a marriage gift to his brotherTin-law/EraaxumEwesagEme£. And he
gave the marriage name £maxulag*Ills as a/name to his nephew.
Then Lalak'otsja told his brother-in-law £max*raEwesagErae£/that
he was going to take the child, his nephew, and that he should/
be ready to take the seat of Lalak'otsja in his numaym(20)Maraaleleqjam. Thus he said, and the whole numaym DzEndzEnx'qJayo
agreed to/what Lalak-otsja sajLd. Now he was just waiting for/
£maxulag'llis, his nephew, to grow up. Now LElEndzE£wek* had
another child, a girl, and It was £max'mEwesagEm§e/who gave her
the name £walasLala. Now they had two children, LElEndzE£wek'(25)
and her husband eraax'mEwesagEme£. As 3oon as/£raaxulag*His was
a full grown man his father,/Emax'mEwesagEme£, died, and now
*maxulag*llis took the place of his late father ./Then £maxulag*ills
had the name *max*mEwesagErae£ after this./
It was not long before a large canoe carae to the beach with
many(30)men, and they belonged to the nuraaym Mamaleleq J Am, those
who were sitting In/the large canoe. And It was there that they
came ashore at the beach of the house of(l)hira whose name was
 72
kwasa la LegadES £raaxUm£wesagEma£ye. Wa, g*axe £wl£la hox£wus-
desa laxa LlEmaise qa£s IS hogwiL lax g'Skwas fimaxumEwesagEmaEye
qa*s £wl£le kjus£alli lax a£wlLElSsa tjEX'llSsa g'Okwe. WS, la«-
mesEnu^1* £wl£la la hogwiL Sgwaqa qtnu£xu hOLelex lag'iias Xen-
5 LEla xulsa laxes g*ax£alesElae. WS, IS Lax£wallia enEmokwe laqxa
Legadas KJwaelask'En ylxs he'Emae Elkwasa g'lgEma^ye Lalak'otsja
ylx qjule£yas £maxumEwesagEma£ye. WS, la yaqjEg*a£i§ KJwaelask'En.
Wa, la £nek-a, G-ax£mEn Kwakug'ui, g*ax£mEn £yalagEma £yalagEmsa
Ewalasa g'IgEma£yaxa £walasa g'IgEma£yaEnsaxg*ins ha£maiElek* lel-
10 qwalaLa£yaxes maitjSiaos Kwakug-uixa qJanalS LeiEla l&xaxs ha£ma2E-
laex lelqwalaLa£ya,y!xa IS maraex£a*lallia ylxa £walasa g*Igama£ye*
Lalak'otsja. WS, he*Emis lag'liase £yalaqanuSxu qEnu£x« g'axe dfit
g'l^ame £maxumEwesa§Eme qaes laos kjwast51§3:axu kJwSx-das, qaxs
k*Jefisae heio ax£edEX kjwax'das oguela lfiL g*lgam§s, wS, xwelaqE-
15 les££raax'lns qEns he'its.'eqexs k* Jes£maa wuylmseal£ia, enek*§.
Wa, he'x* £ida;Eraese LElEndzE£wek-e ylx abEmpasa Si £maxi»mEwe-
sagEma£ya yaq.!Eg*a£ia. WS, IS £nek*a,qa £masewetses waidEmLaos,
ySLaxs £nE£meraotaaxsg*In xunokuk* qaxs he'x*sSEmaex gwaiexa w&i-
dEmasEn g-IgEma£ya wuqlwe Lalak'otsja ylx £walasa Kwax'llanoku-
20 ma£ya ylxs gwaiEla£maa £nek* qa yueraesEn xunSkwex LJayos. WS,
wag*ax»ins ha£li£lSla £ra5xsa qEns lalag'i ha£yaitsiaaqe Enek'f Le-
lEndzE£wek*e.
Wa, he'x'£ida£raese £moxsases £mEm£wala laxa xwakjuna. Wa,
g'Il£raese £wllxsa lae LEX£Ida. WS, IS lag-aa lax Merak-umlisaxa
25 la Elaq £nax'£ida. Wa, he'x • £ Ida £mese LElEndzE£wek' Ce£wIs xunokwe £maxumEwesagEma£ye la h5x£wusdes qa£s IS hogwiL lax g'okwasa
wawek'jEqle Lalak'otsja. WS, he'£mis kjwag'aliie £raaxUmEwesagEma-.
£ya raak'aia lax ho'ik'JodEnoLEmalliases qjule£ye Lalak'otsja. WS,
laEm Laaplellieda qlEyoxwe L.'aqwa, ylx Leta laxa wawek' ,fEqJa g'l-
30 gama£ya. Wa, la LanoLEmallia £nEmsgEme qjEyox L.'aqwaqxa Legadas
Qoloraa ylx k* ilk'IlwanEraas Lalak'otsja. WS, g'_Il£m§se g*ax £wl£-
 73
now emax*mEWesa§Eme8. And they all carae and walked up/the beach
and went into the house of £raax*mEwesagEmeE/and they all sat
down inside by-the door of the house. We all/of us went also
into the house to listen why(5)those who came to the beach were
very downhearted. Then arose one of them/whose name was KwJa-
elask*En, for he was the speaker of chief Lalak'otsja/the uncle
of £max'mEwesagEmee. Now KJwaelask'En spoke/and said;*' I-comer,
Kwag'ui, I come sent by, sent by the/great chief, our great
chief, that(10)it may be known to you, strange tribes, Kwag'ui,
that he who always invited you, strange/tribes, that he Is going
to sleep in the house, the great chief/Lalak'otsJa. Therefore,
he sent us that we should come and get/you, great chief £raax'mE-
wesagEme£, that you may go and sit down in his former seat, for
there is/no one who is the right one to take the seat, other than
you, chief. Now let us go back(.15)that we may reach there before he dies,M said he.
Immediately LElEndzE£wek', the mother of the new EmaxmEwe-
sagEme2/spoke and said; " What can you say/you, numaym of my son
here? For always were this way the words of the/great chief, of
my brother, Lalak'otsja, that &walas Kwax'llanokume£,(20)for he
has already said that my son here shall take his place. Now/
let us quickly load our canoes that we may reach him in time,'* *
thus said/LElEndzE£wek'.
Immediately they loaded their cargo in the canoe and/when
the canoe was loaded they started. They arrived at Memk'umlis(25)
when it was nearly daylight, and immediately LEl£ndzE£wek' and
her son,/£max'mEwesagEme£ went up the beach and went into the
house of/the dying Lalak'otsja, and there Emax'mEwesagEme£ sat
down/near the right hand side of his uncle, Lalak'otsja./Behind
the head of the dying chief stood the expensive copper Leta(30)
and at the side of his head stood another expensive copper named/
Beaver-Face, which had been bought by Lalak'otsja. As soon as the
 74
laeLS £nE£raeraotas Lalak'otsja laas yaqjEg«a£i8 Elkw&s Lalak-otsja
ylx KJwaelask'En. WS, IS £nek'a: G-ax£ra£nu«XU g-lgame£g-ax£mE-
nu£x»- hEla g'IgSmef. G-ax£raox £raaxUmEwesa§Ema£yex, g-axSmox g'l-
game* WSj he*Ein lae wale waidEraas, laalase bElaso£s Haradzlde ylx
5 gEnEmas Laiak-otsJa. WS, la£lae Snfk'S HamdzldSxs lae yaq.'Eg'a-
ia qaxs lE£mae iEne£staeie Lalak-otsja. Wa, g'okulot. Wa, la£-
ra5x, la£m5x ladze£raox x'oyoxwallsa Swalasdex g'tgama£yaxEn g'l-
qelaso£x-dex LESwun ompexox Yaqai£Snlldzex. WS, hag'lila g'lgi-
rae Lalak'otsja yoL Swalas Kwax-llanokurae^.hag'lila k-Jefiseg'In
10 mayadEma qaxg'ln filek* heiaxaraas ISxeu g-IqSlaenoyoL g'Ig&me,
£nex*£laexs laS dax#eidEX Letaxa £Walase Ljaqwa tEewa £nEmsgEma-
se ylx Qoloma. WS, la£laS Enek'a* WS, g5lag*a xunoku, gela-
dzela yuL £maxims we sag^me yuL ^walas Kwax'llanokume qaxs enex(£-
maox qlulex-dex qa£s he*Ema5s g*ll LegEme £walas Kwax'llanSkuma-
15 £ye. WS, laEmxaawise laLe kJwax-dSsox lfiL g'IgameeLOe k-Jek-Je-
s£oxl*dSsex qjulex'dex lfiL, yu£mesa g-ox^daxs-, wS, g*a£meseg*ada
LeLEgadEk' LjaL.'Eqwa laErak' lai lfiL, £nek*exs lae tsjfis lax £ma-
xuraEwesagEma£ye. Wa, la£m§ k*Jes qJaqJek-Elax Lalak-otsJaxs 1e-
£maaxoL wek-jEx£ida.
20     WS, laEmLa Emax^raEwesagEmaEyd ax£edxa raaEitsEme Lj&LjEqwa
qa£s g-exeq laxa Stsjfillie. Wa, la 6max1»mEwesagEraa£ye axk-Jfilax
Kjwaelask'Enxa Elkwe qa lSs L§£lalaxa Lawitsjes i_E£wa Madiibe
LE£wa DEnax'daSx1* LE£wa A£waICEla LE£wa DzawadEenoxu LE£wa Gwa-
waenox1* LE£wa Haxwarais LE£wa Qweq^sotjenox1* LEwa £nEmgis LE£wa
25 GwetEla LEeWa QjomoyfiEye LE£wa £walas Kwag'ui LE£wa Qjomk'JutJ-
ES qa lSs £wl£la wunEmtaxa g-Igamex-de Lalak-otsjax-de.
WS, la£rae LEX£Ideda motsjaqe xwaxwak.'una qa£s IS L§£lalaxa
yuduxusEEmagug'Eyowe !SlqwSlaLa£ya. WS, g'H£mise swisia la lex£-
Ida lasa waokwS amlex1* Mamaleleqala hogtbcs laxa ogu£la xwaxuxwa-
gum qa£s IS ekwax apsanfi£yasa Sma£ye LfitSEmala £mEk-fila lax £na-
ianoLEma£yas £raemkumlis qa dEk'aatsa g*Igamex-de. Wa, g-Il£mise
30
 75
(1) whole numaym of Lalak'otsja had come in, the speaker of Lalak'O--
tsJa,/Kwaelask'En, spoke and said, "We come, chief, we come/back,
chief. Now emaxwmEwesa§Eme£ has come, he came, chief."1/ And
there stopped his speech, for Hamdzid, (5) the wife of Lalak'otsja,
forbade him (to go on). Then Hamdzid said as she spoke that/Lalak'otsja was already unconscious; "Enough, o tribe, enough.*/
Now the great one will have a rest, the great chief whom I made
a chief/together with ray father, Yaqai£anlldze, here. Now go a-
way, chief,/Lalak'otsja, you, £walas Kwax*IlanokumeS, go away.
There is nothing (10) for me to regret, for I have done well in
making you a chief, chief.*/ Thus she said, and she took Leta,
the great copper,and the other copper,/Beaver-Face,and she said;
"NOW come, child, govob ,fyo\x   £maxumEwesagEmeE, you £walas Kwax-I-
lanokurae£, for/this your late uncle said that your first name is
Ewalas Kwax'Ilanokume£.(15) Now his former seat will also go to
you, chief, and the former privileges/of your uncle will go to you,
and his house, and also these/coppers which have names will go to
you", she said as she gave them to £max«mEwesagEmeE./ She did not
know that Lalak'otsja was/already dead.(20)
Tnen £maxumEwesagErae£ took the two coppers/and put them into
the bedroom. Then £maxumEwesa^Em§8 asked/KJwaelask*En, the speaker, to invite the LawitsJes and the Madiibe/and the DEnax-daEx1*
and the A£walLEla and the DzawadEonoxu and the Gwawaenoxu/and the
Haxwamis and the Q,wequsot Jenoxu and the £nEmgis and the (25) GwetEla and the Qjomoyfi£ye and the £walas Kwag*ui and the QjSrak* ,'u-
tjss/that all should go to bury the late chief, Lalak*otsJax'de./
Then four canoes started and went to invite the/thirteen
tribes,and as soon as they all had started/the other Mamaleleqala
who were left behind went in other small canoes (30) to clear one
side of the island on the south, side of/Memkumlis, which is covered with small trees, for the burial place of the past chief. When
 76
gwai ekwaxs lae g-okwelaxa g-ox^bidawe. Hayaiomalaa gwaiamasqexs
k*Jes£mae g*axa l§lqwalaLa£ye g*axtsJS lax MSmkumlis. Wa, laE-ratS-.
da nenfigade LJegurag'ila qa saleg-ayayoxa g*Igamex*dS. WS, laEm
qa£yas£Ents waxapjEnasas Leislaxa lelqwalaLa£y§ lo£ waXapiEnasas
5 kjwelatsa Ue£na loxs maipjEnae yag'lLElaxoda loxs £nEmpjE.na§ sak*-
axotsa xwaxukJuna loxs qJenEraae tjEnseladza£yas. WS, IS £lxi.a£ye
qjEtjEdza£yasexa LjaL.'Eqwa hastaEm la qa£yas£Enda£yoxa Ljegumasa
nenfigade. WS, IS n££wl£lal§ qa£yasasa £n£ms§Eme Ljegum SxSsa Zjie-
mokwe nfigadS g*Sg-lLEla lax g-llg'alisasa g'lgamex'de g*ax£aLEla
10 laqexs lae wek'.fEX£Ida.
LjSqJwalayo qa Lalak'otsja.
Hana, nana, hana. La£me k'oxsElese* qElqatawalesde"s£nala.
Hana, hana, hana.  La£rae q£lto£yak'IHs§ qEldEmx'des £nala.
Hana, hana, hana. La£me x'oyoxwalessns g'Igamedzex'dea.
15     Hana, hana, hana. La£me lax'staalesEns g'Igamedzex'dea,
Hana, hana, hana, xa hSlag'lledzSx'dea wfix*sbEndalax-dea
£wa£walasdEmx'sIlaxEns g*Igamedzex*dea,
Hana, hana, hana, xa pJepJadzEyosdea g'Igama£yaxa qJul§XLE£-
ya£ma Lalak'otsJadzex*deaxa £walasa g'Igamedzex'dea,
20     Hana, hana, hana, xa araaxulaidea g-Igama£yaxa qJulexLE£ya£raa
Amaxulaidzex'deaxa £walasa g-Igamedzex'dea,
Hana, hana, hana, xa sak*axodalaidea g-IgAma£yaxa qJulexLE£-
ya£raa Wlxw~qfigamedzex*deaxa £walasa g-Igamedzex-dea,
Hana, hana, hana, xa kJwSlasElaidzex-dea g*Igama£yaxa qjulex-
25 LE£ya£ma £walas Kwax'llanokuraedzex'deaxa £walasa
g*Igamaedzex'dea,
 77
they (1) had cleared it they built a small house and they tried to
finish it as quickly as possible/before the tribes came in to Mem-
kumlis. Then/the song makers made a mourning song to sing for the
late chief. They/put words into it (saying) how many times he had
invited the tribes, and how many times (5) he had given grease
feasts, and how many times he had given away property, and the one
time he had given away/Canoes, and how raahy^ times he had given pot-
latches to hlw own tribe, and last/how many times he had broken coppers. All these words were put into the mourning song by the/song
makers. And the words of another mourning song were the family history, the work of another/song makert  beginning with the first ancestors of the chief and coming down (10) to the time that he died.
Mourning Song for Lalak*otsJa.
Hana, hana, hana. It broke down, the post of the world./
Hana, hana, hana. It fell down to the ground," the post of the
world./
Hana, hana, hana. Our great chief has taken a rest.(15)
Hana, hana, hana. Now our past chief has fallen down./
Hana, hana, hana, the great one who continually gave away property at each end of the year,/who made great potlatches, our
great chief./
Hana, hana, hana, the one who made potlatches all the time, the
chief whose own name was/Lalak*otsJa, the great chief. (20)
Hana, hana, hana, the great chief who danced the potlatch dance,
** whose own name was/Amaxulai, the great chief. /
Hana, hana, hana, the one who gave the Giving-Away-Canoes dance,
the chief whose own name was/wIx£wuqfigEme, the great chief./
Hana,hana, hana, the one who gave the Feast-Giving dance, the
chief whose own name was (25) Efralas Kwax*IlanokumS, the
great chief.
 78
Hana, hana, hana, xa lax'ScEnda"'aidzex*deaxa qjEqlcltalaidea
g*Igama£yaxa q*ulexLEeyaema Lax*seEndalaidz5x'deaxa
£walasa g-Igamedzex-dea,
Hana, hana* hana, xa sapstEndalaidzex-dea g- Igama£yaxa q.'ulex-
5 LEeya£raa Henolox*deaEns £walasa g'Igamedzex'dea 151-
qwalaLe',
Hana, hana, hana, xa LjEmkwalaidzSx'dea g*Igamaeyaxa qjulex-
LE£ya£ma YaqaxElag*lIlsdzex*deaxa £walasa g*IgfimS-
dze*-dea,
10 Hana, hana, hana, xa k*JSlak'Elaidzex'dSaxEns g*Igama£yaxa
qJulaxLEeya£ma K'ilEmgll6dzex*deaxa Swalasa 8**-
gamedzex'd§a,
Hana, hana, hana, xa qotex'alaidzex'deaxEns g*Igama£yaxa qju-
lexLE6ya£ma Emaxuya£lisdzexdeaxa £walasa g'lgarae-
15 dzex*dea,
Hana, hana, hana, xa k*JSdadaenoxwalaidzex*d§axEns g*Igama-
£ya xlulexLE£ya£ma G*Igamedzex'd§axa 6walasEaxallsa
g'lqaxalisdzex'dea,
Hana, hana, hana, xa tsokulaldzex-deaxEns g-Igama£yaxa qjule-
20 XLEeya£ma YSqawIdalaZdzex'deaxa £walaseaxallsa g*I-
qaxalisdzex*dea,
Hana, hana, hana, xa £yag*lLElaxodalaidz5x'deaxEns g'Igamae-
yaxg'Ins lelqwalaLe'xa qJulexLE£ya£ma LaLellLalaia
Ha£mase£yasdze Haradzldeadzex'deaxa £walaseaxalisa
25 g*Iqaxalisdzex*deaxaEns g*Igama£ya. Haladze lag*a-
x*lns g-Igamedzex-dea, la£me qElyax*£alisa £walas-
£axalisa g-lgama£ylns lelqwfilaLe',
Hana, hana, hana, nfiya. Hana nfi.
WS, he*£mis g-alaba£ya raBsgEmakwe Kwakwag-uiaxs g-axae £yI£yE-
30 pEmaies £yaeyats!Sxs g-axae SEltaia eaLEx-Sla £naxwaEm dEnxalases
g-Ig-HdzE£yala LleLjaqJwala laxes £nal£nEmsgEmakwe.  Wa, he*Em
1
 79
Hana, hana, hana, the one who gave the Property-Destroying dance,,
the Copper-Breaking dance,/the chief whose own name was Lax*-
s£fendalai, /the great chief.
Hana, hana, hana, the one who gave the Throwing-into-the-Water
dance, the chief whose own name was NEnolo, the great chief of
all the/tribes. (7)
Hana, hana, hana, the one who gave the Giving-Away-of-the-Roof-
Boards dance, the great chief/whose own name was YaqaxElag*!-
11s, the/great chief.(10)
Hana, hana, hana, the one who gave Striking-to-Kill dance,the
great chief/whose own name was KHEragllls, the great/chief./
Hana, hana, hana, the one who gave the Marriage-Debt*-Paying
dance, our great chief /whose own name was emaxwaya£lis, the
great/chief.(16)
Hana, hana, hana, he who gave the Paying-for-his Princess dance,
our great chief/whose own name was G-Igarae, the great chief/
who came down from above./
Hana, hana, hana, the one who gave the Canoe-Breaking dance, the
great chief whose/own name was Yaqawidalal, the great chief
who came/down from above. (22)
Hana, hana, hana, the one who gave the Giving-Away-Bad-Things
dance, our chief,/tribes, whose own name was LaLeliLalal,
HamasQftya, Hfimdzid, the great chief who came down from above,/
our chief. Go now, great one, go great past chief. Now he
i3 taking a rest/who was really a great chief, who came down
from above, tribes.(28)
Hana, hana, hana, nfiya. Hana nfi. /
The four tribes of the Kwag*ui were the first to come-(30)
When their canoes came abreast they approached slowly singing
their*/ancestral songs for the dead. That is (1) what is re-
 80
gwu£y5sa g*al§ bakjura g*ex*gwa£lala LjSqJwale. WS, g'llSmlsS
g*ax£alisa Kwakwag'uie g*axaasa £nEmgise mExaLe lax LjaseLaeyas.
WS, g*axeda LawitsJSs mEXaLe lax tiaseU^yasa £nEmglse, g*a gwS-
ieg*su WS, g*ll£raise £wl£la g*ax m£xaLa£-
Kwag*ui
5 ya yuduxus£fmagug*Eyowe lelqwalaLaEya lae £nEmgls
Lawitsjes
qjwei.£ld £wl£la LjSqJwalsu WS, he*£mis La-       Madiibe
DEnax-da£ xu
x£uiEXS laxSs £ya£yatsje NEqapjEnk'EmoiS*        A^walLEla
Dzawad£enoxu
WS, la£rae tsjElqwaqax emax'»mEwesagEma£ye.        Gwawaenox"
Haxwamis
WS, laEm LegadES £walas Kwax*ilanokume ylx       Qweq^sotJenoxu
10 snErasgEme LegEras Lalak*otsJax*de.
WS, g*il£raise qJulbe tsjElwaqJena£yas NEqapjEnk'Emoie laas
Lax£wuiExsa g*Igama£ye Hawllkulaiwuiexa xamagEma£ye g'Igamesa
EaE£raeraotasa Kukwakjumasa Qjoraoyfi£ye. WS, laxai tslElwaqax £wa-
las Kwax'HanSkume. WS, g'ilemise qjulbe tsjElwaqJena£yas lae
15  Lax£uiEXwa g*Igama£ye HS£masaqoie qaes tsjElwaqax £walas Kwax*I-
lanokum§; ylx HS£masaq5iaxs g'ayoiae lax enE£memotasa WawulibfiEye. WS, IS Enaxwa £naisnEmokwe tsjElwaqSsa filak*Jala g*Ig*Ega-
raesa £nai£nEmsgETnakwe laxa l§ElqwalaLa£ya.
He*tJ lag*iias lex-asm tsJslwaqeda filak*Jala g'lg-Egamexs wlk'J-
20  Ex£edaeda filak* Jala g*Igama£ye Lalak-otsJax-de. WS, g'HEmise
wlk* jEX£Ideda k* lead nfixsfila bEgwanEma, wa, fiEjaisa filak* Jala
g'Igame qJweLaiaxs lae tslElwaqeda k*Jese nfixsfila bEgwanErax xun5-
x^dSsa la wlk* Jex£Ida.
WS, g*H£mise £wieia gwai tsjElwaqeda g* Ig-ig£ma£yasa leEl-
25  qwalaLa£yaxs lae Leiwuito£yosa Elkwas £walas Kwax*Hanokume ylx
KJwaelask'En. WS, la£me £wl£la hox£wuitfi£wa bebEgwanEm laxes
£yae'£yatsje. WS, la£me lai wunEmiaixa g*Igamex*de laxa la gwa-
ia g'oxuhidos qa§. Wa, la k*Jes gaieda wunEmtSxa g-axae aedaa-
qa qaxs lE£mae dzaqwa gaxg'In la£mek* g'iwala, yln George Hunt,
30  laxa wunEmtSxa g'Igamaoie. WS, g*ll£raise g*ax £wisieda bebEgwa-
nEraaxs lae Sxk*Jalaso£ qa las £wl£la hSgwiL lax g*okwasa la l§-
 81
Kwag'ui
£nEmgis
Lawitsjes
Madiibe
DEnax*da£xu
A£walLEla
DzawadE§noxu
Gwawaenoxu
Haxwamis
Qwe q1* so t J e nox«
ferred to by the ancient Indians as the mourning song for a lost
chief* And when/the Kwag-ui had come to the beach, there arrived
the £nEmgis and stopped outside of them/ And then came the Lawitsjes and stopped outside the £nEragis in
this manner./ And when they had all come
and stopped,(5) the thirteen tribes,then
they/stopped singing their mourning songs*
Then/NEqapjEnk*Em arose in his canoe/and
comforted smaxumEwesagEme£/ whose name was
£walas Kwax'Ilan6kurae£, the (10) other name of Lalak'otsja.
As soon as NEqapjEnk'Em ended his speech,/arose chief Hawllkulai, the head chief of the/numaym Kukwakjum of the Qjomoyfi£ye,
and he also comforted/£walas Kwax*llanokume£. And when his comforting was at an end (15) chief Hamasaqa arose and comforted
swalas Kwax'llanokume£-,/Hamasaqa came from the numaym Wawulibfi-
£ya./ And each of the real chiefs/of every tribe spoke comforting words. irjM
The reason why only real chiefs spoke comforting words was
that (20) Lalak'otsja who died was a real chief. When/a man
dies who Is not noble, then those who are real chiefs/are silent
and only men who are not noble speak comforting words/to the children of the deceased.
As soon as the chiefs of the tribes had finished speaking
their words (25) they were called ashore by the speaker of £walas
Kwax*Hanokum§e, that is/Kjwaelask*En.  Tnen all the men went a-
shore from their/canoes. They were going to bury the chief in the/
small house which was now ready for him. It was not long before
he was buried and they came/back for It was evening. And I, George
Hunt, (30) helped them burying the chief. When all the men came
back/they were told to go into the house of him (1) whose name was now
6
 82
gadEs £walas Kwax'llanokuire. WS, la£m§ L.'EXwIlag'lia ha£maiEla
l§ElqwalaLa£ya. WS, la£me he'wSxa kjwe£lala dEnx£eda; wa laxae
he'wSxa LjSqJwala. qaxs aSk'ilaSda g'SlS bfikjum LjSqwalaxa dzaqwa,
ylxs £nek*aeda g*ale bakJuraqexs en£6maillaaxa Lja£yflxa la JtEelaxs
5  Ljaqjwalaeda wunEmdELEla lelqwfilaLa£yaxa la Elaq dzaqwa.
WS, g-ll£mise gwSi LjEXwIda ha£raaiEla leElqw&laLexs lae* ewl£*
la hoqawEls laxa g*5kwa. WS, lex'a£mis k*JSs hoqawElsa qjaqjastfisa
ha£raaiEla l§Elqw&laLa£ya. WS, la£m§ gweiEalSlEms KJwaelask'En,
ylxa Elkwa. Wa, la ax£edxa kJwaxLa£w§ e'x-lax xfisE£w5 qaes tsjawa-
10 na£qes laxa qjaq.'asto. WS, leda qjaqjasto xoxox«sealaxa kJwaxLa£-
we. WS, g'll£mls5 k'otaq lasm hSi£alis xexfiEyaxs la§ KJwaelask'En
fixk*Jalaxa qjeqjaqjasto qa £nEmag*lilies k*atEral£iElasa xokwe
kJwaxLfi la L§Laxwa£yasa aioguqjEse £na2EnEEmematsa yuduxuSE £magu-
gEyowe leElqwalaLaEya. WS, he*Emxaawis§ waxokwa qjeqjaqjastowe yu-
■*•*' dugug*Eyfi£e bebEgwanEraa. WS, la k* Jes eeg-IlIiEXS lae gwaia.
WS, leda Elkwe KJwaelask'En niiax £walas Kwax-Ilanokumexs
lE£mae gwaia qjeqjaqjasto. WS, g-axe £walas Kwax-Ilanokurae kjwa-
g*a£lli qa£s wataneqexa qjeqjaqjastowe lax awaxagEwasa LaLEXwa6-
yasa ha£maiEla l§ElqwalaLa£ya. WS, IS L5xeld£X'daexux aaLEbopi-
20 Enyag'ala qJaq.'aLjESgErag'ustfila ma£igunaloku la ha£was£waku heya-
gowa bebEgwanEme. WS, la£rae ax£wuitJalIiasE£wa maEipjEnx-6ide
loxsErax'£Id p.'ElXElasgEma qa£s g'axe £mogwa£lI£lEm laxa he*ik- Jo-
tlwaliia loxsEmx'EIde; wS, la axea£H£lEma l6xsEmX'eIde laxa gEmw
xotewallie.  Wa, he*£mis la danEwesS^sa qjeqjaqjastowe qa£s ySqo-
25 mes laxes g'ig'okulote.
Wa, g'HEmise £wIlxto£wa £naxwa kjwekjwalasa ha£mai£la leElqwalaLaEya IS g'll ax£edEX EyaqulaLaxa mak'jEXSda£ye £yaqulai pJe-
lxElasgsma qa bEnaeies lae £raogwa£lIlElas laxa nEqewa£l!iasa g-o-
kwe". Wa. IS, e'k'Ja£llie pjElxElasgEme £yaqulaixa EnallLElasa g'ale
30 la ax£a£H£lEma. Wa, la §k'jEnxa£ya pjElxElasgEme £yaqulaixa GwetEla. Wa, la bEna£yeSxLasa Qjomoyfi£ye; Wa, la bEnaeyeaXLasa £wa-
 85
•walas Kwax'llanSkume*. Then they gave food to the different/
tribes. They never sang feasting songs and they/never sang
mourning songs, for the ancient Indians were careful not to sing
mourning songs in the evening/for the ancient Indians said it
would bring short life to the one who takes the place of the dead
one when(5) they sing mourning songs at the burying by the tribes
when it is near evening*
After the various tribes had eaten they all/went out of the
house, and the only ones who did not go out were the name-keepers
of the/various tribes. They were distributed in the house by KJwaelask'En,/the speaker. Then he took eedarsticks which split readily
and distributed them (10) among the name-keepers. Then the name-
keepers split up the cedar sticks/and as soon as they thought they
had split enough KJwaelask'En/told the name-keepers to put down at
the same time the split/cedar sticks for the seats of the various
numayms of the thirteen/tribes. That is also the number of the name-
keepers, who are thirteen (15) men. They did not take long doing this/
Then the speaker, KJwaelask'En, told £Waias Kwax*HanokumeE/that
the*" name -keepers had finished. Then ewalas Kwax-IlanokumeE came and
sat down/and asked each of the name-keepers how many seats/there
were in the various tribes, and they gave the names of (20) six
hundred fifty eight seats, counting/all the men. Tnen they took
two/thousand blankets and put them down, on the right hand side/
one thousand, and one thousand on the left hand side ./And the name-
keepers took them from there and gave them (25) to their tribes*
When they are giving to all the seats of the different tribes,/
they first take the blankets which are to be given to the last one/
so that they are underneath when they put them down in the rear of
the house/and on top of them are the blankets which will be given
to those next before those that (30) had first been put down* And
the top pile of blankets will be given to the GwetEla/and under thera
are those for the QjomoyfiyS, and under them those for the (l)£walas
6*
 84
10
las Kwag'uie; wS, IS hEna£yeaXL8S8 ^Jorak'JutjEsas £walas Kwag'ui;
wa, la bEnasyeSxLasa £nEmgls; wS, la bEna£yeaxLasa Lawitsjes; wa,
la bEna£yeaxLasa Madiibe;wa, IS bEna£ya plElXElasgEmaxLasa DEnax*-
da£x*-; wa la bEna£yeaxLasa A£walLEla; wa, IS bEna£yeaxLasa QwSqU-
5 sotjenox*; wa, IS bEna£yeaxLasa DzawadEenoxu*, wS, IS bEna£yeaxLasa
HSxwamis; wa, la bEna£yeSxLasa GwawaenoxH. WS, he*Em raag*ii bEna-
llla Gwawaenox" qaxs lex*a£mae e1xl§ eyaxEwitsSx lae EW£ixtowa ha-
EmaiEla l§ElqwalaLa£ya. Wa, g'il£mese gwaia qj§qjaqjast5xs lae
yawas£Id mex£Ida qaxs gag'UstfiwiLe £w££iaLa ha£maiEla leElqwalaLa-
ya.
Wa, g-ll£mlse £Bax*£Idxa gaala lae &wl£ia tsjEX'£Ideda ha£ma-
i£la leElqwaLa£ya. Wa, IS h§Em gaaxstalls g'Ig'aeLElase. Wa, g'l-
l£mise gwai gaaxstalaxs g'axae LeEifilaso6 qa£s lalag'l h5gwe*La
lax g'okwas £walas Kwax-IlanOkuraS. WS, lax-da£xwe £wl£ia hSgwita.
15 WS, g'H£mis§ £wI£la§La laase Kjwaelask'Enxa Elkwax'dSs Lalak'o-
tsjax'de yaqjEg'a£ia. WS, la£rae m5£lasa ha£maiEla leElqwalaLexs
lae £wl£la hogwlLa. WS, la gwegEmx'EId laxes g'okulota Mamaleleqala ylxs hae" kjus£a£eda 5gwiwa£lliasa g'Skwe. Wa, IS *>nek'a:
Wag*Ilia g'Skulot. Wag'Iila ladzaqwaLEX qa£s Ljaqjwalaos ylsa
20  g'Ixgwalala£yfios g'okulot, Enek'e. WS, IS ax£ets££wa qJenEme
k*Jes awfi tjessraa qa£e IS tsJawanaedzEraa maema£itsEm laxa £naiE„
UEraokwe bebEgwanEmsa Mamaleleqala. WS, g*llemise £wilxtosa maeraa-
£itsEme lasfilayo tJesEmsa L.'SqJwala laas dfiqfile TsJox«ts JaesOiexa
nfigadSsa Qweq«s5t.'enoxwe. WS, la£me £naxwQ dEnx£Ideda Mamaleleqa-
25 lasa nEwe£lalas g-llg-alisas Lalak'OtsJax'de Ljaqjwala. Wa, g*ll£-
mise q.'ulbeda nEwe£lalayo LjSqJwala wS, IS dfiqfile Tsatsoyalldexa
nfigadSsa £nE£memotasa Mamal§leqjamasa qJayfilSx waxapjEnasas L§iE-
laxa Enaxwa l§lqwSlaLa£ya lo£ tjsnselaaxes g-okulote l5£ sak*Je-
dza£yasesa xwaxuk.'una laxa £naxwa lelqwalaLa£ya lo£ waxapjEnasas
Lje6.nag.iia kjwelasa lo£ waxapJenasas q.fEltaxa LjaL.'Eqwa lo£ waxapjEnasas L.fErakwas sSlSses g'Skwe l5£ waxapjEnasas yawix*Ha qaeda
30
 85
Kwag*ui, and under them those for the Qjorak* Jut Jes of the  £walas
Kwag*ui,/and under them those for the £nEragls, and under them those
for the iawitsJSs, and/under them those for the Madiibe, and under
them those for the DEnax*da£xu,/and under them those for the A£wal-
LEla, and under them those for the 0vweq«sotJ§noxtt,(5)  and under them
those for   the DzawadEenox1*,  and under them those for the/Haxwamis,
and under them those  for the Gwawaenox^, and nearest to the floor
are  those for the/Gwawaenox1*,  for they are the last to whom it is
given when it is given to all the different/tribes.    And when the
name-keepers are ready,  they/sleep for a little while, for all of
the  tribes are  going to rise early in the morning.(10) —/
As soon as  it becomes day in the morning,   the various  tribes
awake/and they eat their breakfast, and after/they have finished
taking their breakfast,  they are called to go Into/the house of *wa-
las Kwax'llanokume*, and they all go in*(15) And when they were all
in KJwaelask'En,  the  speaker of the late Lalak'otsja,/spoke and
thanked the various tribes/that they all had come inside.    Then he
turned his face  to his tribe,  the Mamaleleqala,/who were  sitting
in the rear of the house,  and he  said,/"Now, my tribe,  cry and sing
the mourning song of/(20)  your lost chief, my tribe,'"said he.   Tnen
were  taken many/stones that were not large, and two were given to
each/of the men of the Mamaleleqala, and as  soon as each had two/
"time keeping stones for the mourning song",  then Tsjox^ts.'a§s,/
the  song maker of the QwSq»sotJ§noxu,  began a song and all the Mamaleleqala  sang  (25)   the family history about the first Lalak'otsja
as a mourning song.    And when the/family history mourning song was
at an end,  then Tsatso8yalid/the song maker of the numaym MaraaleleqJ-
ara,  began a song counting the number of times he had invited/all the
tribes, and given away property to his own tribe, and given away/
canoes  to all the tribes; and the number of times  (30)  he had given
grease feasts; and the number of times he had broken coppers; and
the number of times/he had given away the roof of his house; and
 £naxwa lelqw&laLa£ya lo£ waxapjEnasas tjEnslla ySwix'Ila; wS, he*8-
mis waxapjEnasas aiosgEma LeiElaxa £nErasgE£makwe laxa lelqwalaLa8y§;|
wa, he£mis waxapjEnasas aiosgEma yawix'lla qaeda £n£msgEmakwe laxa
lelqwSlaLa£ye; wS, he*8raise wSxaplEnasas aiSsgEma sak'axotsa xwaxu-
5 kjuna laxa £nEmsgE£makwe lelqwalaLa8ya; wa,he*8mise waxapjEnasas
aiosgEma L.Te£nag*ila kjwelas qaeda enEmsgE£makwe l8lqwfilaLa8ye;wS,
he*£mise waxapjEnasas LjEmkwax salases g-okwe qaeda EnEmsg££makwe
lelqw&laLa£ya le£w!s LlEmkJudza8ye qaes g*okulot. WS, g'llSmlse"
£wl£la la qa8yatsa Ljaq.'wala ylXg'ada lak' k'Jataia, lae e1xl§ qa-
10 Eyas£Endayuwe waxapjEnasas qotex'a lo8 Lak°E8ya8yas qi§q.*Eyox lJ5-
LiEqwa lo£ waxatsJagasasa kjwaxsalatsJe xwaxukjuna. WS, g-Il£mise
£wl£laxs lae fiEm la qjwei£ideda dEUXElSsa LjSqJwalaxa filS g'ilsg'-
iltja Lj§LjaqJwala.
WS, g'Il£mise qJulbSda ma£itSEm§ LOLjSqJwala laas Lax£walli5
15 Kjwaelask*Enxa ElkwSs Lalak*otsJax*de. Wa, IS yaqJcg*a8i8,* WS,
la £nek*a; £ya, "ha£maiEi leElqwSlaLS, lEEmas wulElax gwalag*HI-
dzasasa £waiasdS g*IgEraa£y§ Lalak'otsJax*dS ylx £walas Kwax*Ilano-
kuma£ya £nek*§xs la§ L§8lalax eraax«mEwesagEma£7e, ylx LOlex-das
Lalak*otsJax-de. WS, hex*8ida8ralse £raax;*m£wesagEma£ye la La8wuno-
20 dzElIiax KJwaelask'En. WS, IS Kjwaelask-En £nek'a; Weg-a dox£wi-
d£X ha£maiEl leElqwalaLe*, g*ax£Emk* g*ax8Eng*ln g*Igamek* alolx8-
wida. G-ax£Erag*a £walasEk* Kwax*Ilan5kumaeya; fiEmk* alomas£Id g*I-
gama£ya; fiErak* la e*k*g-In nfiqek* , na8maiEl leElqwalaLai. LaEmLEns
wax*sadzEn lo£ Lalak*otsjS laxes IS laasa* Wa, laEmesEn lai ax8e-
25 dElxa yaq.fEntpJeqasa g*Igamex*dS qa lalag*lse laxg-a £walaSEk*
Kwax*Ilanokuraa£ya, £nek-§xs la8 latsjfilli laxa otsjfillie. WS,  -
k-j§stja gaiaxs g-axae dalaxa yaqjEntpJeqe lo£ QolSma lo8 Leta qa£s
IS tsjfis laxa la LegadES 8walas Kwax'llanokume, ylx 8maxura£wesagE-
raaSye. WS, la 8waias Kwax-Ilanokume dax-8Idxa ma8itsEme' LjaLjEqwa
30 LE£wa k'Jeg*edEkwe yaqjsntpjeqa, wS, IS xaLjEX*8Id yaqjEg*a8ia.
WS, la £n§k-a; £ya, lelqwalaLai, wSlJemasLa£wesEn qEn £nErax*£ida-
 87
the number of times he had given a winter dance to  (1)  all  the
tribes; and the number of times he had given a winter dance to his
own tribe; and/the number of times he had invited eaoh one of the
other tribes;/and the number of times he had given a winter dance
to each of the other/tribes; and the number of times he had given
canoes  (5)   to each of the other tribes; and the numter of times/he
had given a grease feast for each of the other tribes;/and the number of times he had given away the roof of his house to e&ch/ot the
other tribes; and the number of times he had given away the roof of
his house to his own tribe. And/all Qf this was In the words of the
mourning song that is now written down here.     Tnen the last (10)
words were the number of times he had paid the marriage    debt, and
when he had put up an expensive copper as a mast/ftnd when his princess had been sitting in the canoe.    And when/all of this was done}
only then stopped the singing of the mourning songs.  They are really
long/the mourning songs for the dead*
As soon as the two mourning songs were at an end/KJwaelask*En,
the  speaker of Lalak'otsja, arose, and he spoke and (15)  said; *'0h,
tribes, did you hear what was done/by the great chief, Lalak'otsja,
that Ewalas Kwax'llanokume8?w/saIa he as He called 8max»raEwesagEme8,
the nephew of/Lalak'otsja*     Immediately 8maxum£wesaffEme8 went and
stood alongside of (20) KJwaelask'En.    Then KJwaelask'En said,"Look
at him/tribes, he came, he came, my new chief./ Now come,  £walas
Kwax*Hanokume£,   It is only a new chief./  Now my heart feels  glad,
tribes. Now we  are/parted on each side from Lalak*etsja,  from the
place where he hars gone  to.    How I shall  go and take  the  (25)   speaker's staff of the late chief that it-may go to Ew5ias/Kwax*Ilanoku-
m§8J M Thus he  said and went Into the bedroom.  It/was not long before he carae out carrying the speaker's staff and the  (eoppers) Beaver and Leta, and/gave  them to him whose name was now 8walas Kwax--
IlanokumS8,  that is 8raax«raEwesagErae8V Then 8walas Kwax-Ilanokume8
took the  two coppers   (30-*| and the  carved -speaker^s  staff and he  spoke
 1
iesEn IfiLanEmLa lax gwSlag-HIdzasasEn g'lgamex'dS qjul§8ya, 8nek*e.
Wa, la8m§ qjwei£id laxeq. Wa, la8me 8yax£widayowa pjElxElasgEme
laxeq laxa ha£raaiEla leElqwalaLa£ya. Wa, la8meda Elkwa, ylx KJwaelask'En la Elkwas £walas Kwax*nanokuma£ye, wa la8me Kjwaelas-
5 k*En neiaxa g*Ig*Egaraa8yasa ha8maiEla leElqwalalaLes waidEmxLSs La-
lak'otsjax'de, ylxs lae wawek'.'EqJa qaes kek* .*ES8ox*dexa 8wI8laEm
gwu£yos qa les laxa la LegadES 8walas Kwax*IlanSkume laxes mag'iide
L0le8ya.
Wa, la wuLaso£s NEqapjErik*Em; 8mase gwu8yfisEn 8nEmoxude qa les
10 laxox SmaxWraEwesagEmaSySxwa lax L§gad£S £walas Kwax'llanokume qa£s
£naxwa8ma5s L§LEqElaq 8nek*e. WS, hStJ £nenak*its NEqapjEnk*Emoi§
ylx lag* iias XEnLEla tsjasaia laxes gw§kjalag-Illlas qaxs he*8mae
qjEltapJots NEqapjEnk'EmoiS Lalak-otsjoie* lag*iias 8nEmalaee g-I-
qjena8yas. WS, la£me Kjwaelask*Enxa Elkwa £n§x*xa a8lli£las waidE-
15 meE lS8las Lalak*otsJax*de qa lesa k'Jek**ES8fis lax 8walas Kwax'llanokume .Wa, la KJwaelask'En yaqjEg*a8ia*WS,lS Snek'aj He*Em gwu8-
yfisEn g'Igamex'dS qa les laxox 8walas Kwax'Ilan5kuma8ya dagEma8ye
LE8wa g'Okwex LE£wa ioslqwalliexwa nanex iSqwallia, yu8raesa sIse-
yuL§x ioqwallia, yu8misa tsjawex ioqwalIia,yu8raesa dzonoqjwax ioqwa-
20 Ilia; wS, he*£mis kjwa£yas-, he*£mesa g-ag-IgElaqula dzonoqjwala; he*8-
misa g-ag*IgElaqula xaxalolaqwala; hHsmisa yaqjantJalasa yaq.fEnt-
pjeq; he*£misa yalaxLEne laxa baxuse; wS, he*8mlsa q.'EltElg'lsxa lJS-
qwasa g-Ig*igama£ye; wa, he*£ralsa qjapjenox* laxa tsJStsJeqa le£w!s
yiySlaxLEne*, wS, yudze£misox Letax le£wox Qolomaxwa awa£wex lJS-
25 L^Eqwa, LjaqwaIi£awesEn g*IgSraex*da, £nek*e. WS, la£me 8walas
Kwax-tlanokume he*Em dagEmexes yaqwala pjElXElasgEraa laxa ha8maiEla
leElqwaLa£ya. Wa, la£me yax£witsa pjElxElasgEme laxes L§gEme 8ma-
x«mEwesagEma£ye laxes enEmempta DzEndzEnx'qJayo qaxs he*£raae LegE-
raas daiax klwa£yas laxes £nE£memote. Wa, g*Il£mise g'ax na£naku
30 laxg*a TsaxisEk* laxae dagEmeses £nE£raemota DzEndzEnx-qJayfix yaqwa-
asa pjElxElasgEme loxs k'ak-Jalae ylsa ioqjwe laxa 8walas k.'we£la-
 89
a few words ./He said; l!Oh tribes,  I shall not be weak,  that I may
equal   (1)  what was done  by my chief, my uncle,'     said he ./After this
he  stopped speaking.  Tnen the blankets were given away/to  the different tribes. Then Kwaelask*En,/the  speaker of  £walas Kwax*tlanoku-
me£,(5)told the  chiefs of  the various  tribes the last words of Lalak-otsja/ when he was dying,  referring to  the. privileges and all/he
had wished to  give to him whose name  was now £walas Kwax*Ilanokume£,
the next one  in his house,/his nephew.
Tnen he was asked by NEqapjEnk'Em; ,fWhat did my past friend
refer to  (10)   that should go  to  8maxuraEwesagErae8 here, he who  is
now called 8walas Kwax-Hanokume8,  that/you all give him that name,"
said he.    And this was what NEqapjEnk'Em meant,/the reason rhy he
urged very strongly what he was speaking about was because/NEqapjE-
nk'Em was £he rival in copper breaking of the late Lalak-otsja.
Therefore, their chief's rank was of equal value./    Now KJwaelask'En,
the speaker,  told thera the various  (15)  wishes of Lalak'otsja that
his privileges should go to 8walas KwaX'lianokurae8./    Then KJwaelask'En spoke and said,  "This was referred to/by my past chief,  that
it should go to £walas Kwax*£lanokume8 the office of giving away
property,/and this house and these house dishes,  the Grizzly-B6ar
house dish and also the Double-Headed-Serpent/house dish, and the
Beaver house dish and the Dzonoqjwa dish (20)  and also his seat,
and the Dzonoqjwa cry and also/the cry of Driving-Away, and also
the  speaking with the speaker's staff/and also the secret song of
the secular season, and also  the copper breaking of the coppers/of
other chiefs, and the Gatherer of the winter ceremonial, and his/
secret songs, andVlso this great Let a find Beaver,  the great coppers  (25)  left behind by my past chief,w/said he. Now 8walas Kwax*-
llanokume*8 had the office of giving away property and the giving
away of-blankets to the different/tribes.    And he gave away blankets
to his own name *max*-mEwesagEmo8/in the numaym DzEndzEnx'qJayo,  that
is, hi8 name/In which he holds the seat In his numaym* As soon as he
 90
tsja L|5£nat    HfiSEmxaex EmaxumEwesagEmaSyS k'Jes8fi g'Sg*lL£laxs
g-alae bEkumg'alisa nGxunemJ.se"*
Wa, he*Em k'Jes qjunala la laxa tsja8yaxa dagEma8ye  qaxs lex--
a8maeda 8nolastjEgEma8ye xunox" ax£edxa dagEraa«yaea £nai£nEmeraasasa
5    £naxwa lelqwfilaLa8ya, wax*8Em tsJsdaqa £n51astjEgEma£yas  sasEmasa
dSgEma£y§, le ax8edaEmq§xs wax*8mae tsJedaqa.    WS, IS qjunala wa-
x*a bEgwanEme tsja8yasa £nolastjEgEma8yS tsjEdaq iSnEraaexsdxa da-
gEma£ye laxes £nola.    WS, IS 8naxwa£raa g*Ig'Egama£yp ySx-stSts
qaxs k'JesaS layo laxa raak'llaxa  8nolastjEg£raa8ye.    WS, lex'a8mis
10    lax'dEmsa dagEma8ye laxa tsJa8ySxs i£8laes 8nSlastj£g£ma8yS*    WS,
laEm k' !es h§nax»8Idayo laq.    WS, h§Era hSx'dEms gwex'8IdExs k* JS-
sae he'iomala xungwadEX* 8Id§ £nolastjEgEma£yasexs lae i£8la.    WS,
g*Il8mis he'wSxa xungwadEX* 8Ideda dagEma8ye laS fiEm xwayEnkJwax
8nolastjEgEma8yas sasEmases mag*lie  L§L£Lfilaxa nfixsfila bEgwanEma.
15 Wa, la£me la 8wl8lases k'JSk'jEs8© laq LE8wa dagEma8ye qSLaxs 1e8-
raae* xungwadES. WS, la k-Jefis £yax*SEm waidems tsjatsja8yasa dagE-
ma£ye.lax§q.
WS, la£me  8walas Kwax'llan5kuma£ye ha8nlifilaxa £walase g'll-
das laxes g'Skwe lax Memkumlis.    WS,  g'llSmise' yaqwaso8sa pJeIxe-
lasgEraases g*okulote la lSlelSISs ax8edxa yaqJweraSs pjElxElasgEm
qa8s la axtsjots laxa £walase g'Hdasa.    WS, IS qjunala he*£me
ElkwSse KJwaelask'En Sx8§dEX yaqJweraSs 8walas Kwax-llanokume qa8s
1§ latsjb"ts laxa 8walas§ g'lldasa qaxs he'£mae g'okumts Jfilli€
Kjwaelask'Ene g*okwas £walas Kwax*Ilanokuma8ye'.    WS, he*Em he*x*-
dEms gweg-ilatsexs g*axaa  £walas Kwax*Ilan5kuma8ye l&xg'a Tsaxi-
SEk*.    WS,  g'H8rais§ g'ax laxg'a TsaxlsEk', wS,  la yaqwanokwe
8nE8raeraotas 8walas Kwax'llanokuma8yasa pjElxElasgEme lax Memkumlis.    Wa, IS he*8m§ ElkwSs,  ylx KJwaelask'En dagEmexa p.fElXElas-
gEme1.    Wa, lasm raExUstE£wes £walas Kwax- Ilanokuma8ye\laxeq.    WS,
20
25
 91
comes home (30) here to Fort Rupert he has also the office of giving
away property to his numaym DzEndzEnx'qJayo when they give away /
blankets and when they give feasting dishes in a great grease feast
(1). It is also 8maxWmEwesag£m§8's privilege Coming from the/time
Of the myth people*/
This office of giving away property never goes to a younger brother; it is only/the eldest child that takes the office of giving a-
way property to all the different (.5) tribes. Even if a girl Is the
eldest one of the children/of .the one whose office is to give away
property, she takes It although she is a woman. Often/the younger
brother of the eldest sister tries to take away/the office of giving
away property from his elder sister, but all the chiefs do not agree/
because it never goes to the next one to the eldest. The only time
(10) the office of giving away property is given to the younger brother is when the eldest one dies, then/I^ cannot be denied him. The
time when this is done Is when' the eldest one does not live long e-
nough to have a child before he dies./ When the one whose office *ls
this,to give away property, never had a child, he adopts the/eldest
one among the children of his nearest relative, a nobleman.(15) Then
all his privileges go to him and also, the office of giving away property, for indeed he is/now-his child. Then no bad word is said by
the younger brother of him whose office is this to give away property/
after this./
Now 8walas Kwax*Ilanokurae8 left a very large box/in his house
at Memkuralls and when his tribe came to give him blankets(20) then
his relatives took the blankets that wet?e given to him/and put them
into the large box, and often it Is/the speaker KJwaelask'En who
takes what is given to 8walas Kwax'ilanSkume8 and/puts it into the
large box, for/ KjwaSlask*En lives in the house of £walas Kwax*ilanokurae8. The time he does (25) this is when 8walas Kwfix-Ilanokurae£
goes to Fort Rupert./ And when he coraes here to Fort Rupert and one
of the/numaym of £walas Kwax*Ilanokurae8 gives away blankets at Mem-
 ni
92
laxae ha8n£ia 8walas g-Hdas lax g-okwas laxg* a Tsaxieik* qa ax-
tsjfilats yaq.'wSraSs pjElXElasgEin laxes 8n£rasgEm§ LegEme 8maxUmE-
wesagEma8ye, laxes 8nE£m§mota DzEndzEnX'qiayowS.
Wa,  laEjftEn lfisL lax 8walas Kwax*Ilanokuraa8yaxs lae wIfct!J-:xC-
5     Ideda bEgwanEmqJalaraexa LegadSs HawasEjaZxa g'ayoiS lax 8n£8memo-
tasa WlwomasgEmasa Mamaleleqala.    WS,  la gEg-adS HawasElaias HS-
kjug'ilaogwaxa tsjEdaqe xunox**s TsjEX8wId5xa g'ayoie lax 8nE8me-
motasa SlsEnLa£yasa Mamalelaqala.     WS,  la sasEmnokwe Hak.'ug- ilao-
gwasa yudukwe e£e*X'Sokl* tsjEdaqa laxSs g*ale ia^wunEme Gwa8wlnaxe
10     g'ayoiS  lax  £nE£raemotasa MamalSleq.'am.     Wa,  laEmxae bEgwanEmqJa-
lame Gwa£wina. Wa,   la waLade HawasElaias Hakiiig* ilaSgwa.    Wa, fi8-
mis la kjwatoxste HawasElaie   LE£wis   Lfile. Hak.'ug* ilaogwa.     WS,  la-
8m§ mawa HSkJug'Ilaogwa LE8wis yudukwe tsjedaq sasEm lax g'okwas
HawasElai lax g'okwas  8walas Kwax'HanokumaSye.    WS,  la£rae HawaSE-
15    lai k'Jes pjEtsJenoxwa k-Jesxat.' kJwelatsJSnoxwa.    WS, he*8mis la-
g'lias  Leqalas3£s  qJulSEm lax  gwek-Jalasaxa k*Jes  kjwelatsJenoxu-
xes g'okulote.WS,8nEmpj£naEm8JLaS pJesaxes g-okulotaxa Mamaleleqala;
lag'iias LegadES .HawasElai..   Wa,  la£m§ nfiqe g*ilag'iitses kjwatoxs-
dote HakJug*ilaogwa.    Wa,  la£rae  8nSk*e HSkJug'ilaogwa qa£s lalag-i
20     £nElk*ila laxa Tsjamase ylses yudukwe e£e*x*soku ts.edaqa qa las
LjEtaso£sa mamai8a qaxs k*Jefis8raae laEra ia8wadEsa yudukwe xunyln-
g'os HawasElaie.    Wa, la£me la laxa Tsjamas SEk*Jalaxa xwedEkwe
xwakjuna.    Wa,  la£me lag*aa laxa Ts Jamas.    WS,  la8me  UJ§L.!fisgas8-
ideda yudukwe e8e*x*sok« 8nEra§magas tsjedaqa L08mis SbEmpe HSkJu-
25    g* ilaogwa. W$,  8nEmx8Enx§  tsjawunxas he'leda  Tsiamasaxs  g-axae nS-
8nakwa.    WS,  la£me qjEyoL? HawaSElaiaxa dala.    WS, he'x*£Ida£mise
k-Ilxwax Sex8etg-ila Max*tsJolEmxa q.'Eyoxwe  L.'aqwa.    WS, laEm k-I-
lxwe HakJug*ilaogwa  le£w!s yudukwe  tsjedaq sasEmxa  Ljaqwa.     WS,
la  sEpiets  lax HawasElai.  wa',  la  tsjExqjEX*£ideda ama8ylnxa8yasa
30    yudukwe  £nEmemagasa.    Wa,  IS k*Jes gaei qslgwliaxs lae wlk*jEX£Ida.
Wa,  laxae" wlk* .fEX£Ideda qJfiylwex'dSs sasEmas HakJug'ilaogwa.    WS,
 93
kumlis,/then it is that the speaker KJwaelask'En, performs the office of giving away property with the blankets./ He is the representative of £walas Kwax'Ilanokum§8 In this way* And (1) he also has
a large box in his house here In Fort Rupert, to put Into it/the
blankets that are given to him In nis other name 8maxUmEwesagEm§8/
in the numaym DzEndxEnx'qJayo*/
Now I will pass over from 8walas Kwax-IlanSkume8".^) There died
a common man whose name was HawasElai, who belonged to the numaym/
WlwomasgEm of the Mamaleleqala. HawasElai had for his wife Hakju-
g*ilaogwa/the daughter pf TsjEX£wId who came from the numaym/SIsEn-
lJ§£ of the Maraalelaqala. Now Hakjug'ilaSgwa had three pretty
girls as children from her first husband,Gwa£wlna, (10) who belonged,
to the numaym MaraaleleqJ&m, and Gwa8wina was also a common man./
Then HawasElai had HSkJug'ilad"§wa as his sweetheart, and they just/
lived together, HawasElai and his sweetheart HSkJug'ilaogwa. Then/
Hak Jug-ilaogwa moved with her three daughters to the house Of/HawasElai, in the house of 8walas Kwax'Ilanokume£. And HawasElai (15)
never gave a potlatch and never gave a feast, and therefore/he was
called "clay-face,f, as they call those who never give a feast/to
their tribe. Only once he gave a potlatch to his tribe,the Mamale-
leqala,/and therefore his name was HawasElai. Now he .was instructed
by/HSkJug'ilaogwa with whom he livedo and HSkJug'ilaogwa said that
they should go (20) south to Victoria with her three pretty girls that
they should be/prostitutes among the whites, for none of them had a
husband, the three step-daughters/of HawasElai. Now they went to Victoria, five in a long-nosed/canoe  Now they arrived In Victoria,and -
they became prostitutes,/the three pretty sisters and their mother,
Hakjug*ilaogwa.(25) They stayed one winter in Victoria and then they
went home./ Now HawasElai obtained much money from this and immediately bhey/bought the expensive copper, *Dry-Mouth-Maker-Gause-of-
Shame.1' Then/HSkJug'ilaogwa and her three daughters bought the copper
and/gave it to HawasElai. Now the youngest of the (30) three daughters
 94
laxaeda £nolast.*EgEmex'de wIk'jEx£Ida.     WS,  la£me  £wl£la i§lE8leda
yudux^de  tsjedaq sasems HSkJug'ilaogwa*    Wa,  la HSkJug-ilaogwa we-
qjwanux«sa LegadSs Tjeqwap.    WS,  la£m§ T'eqwap 8nex*qexs eqasE£wa-
es  LOLalegasde qaes gwex,£idaasaxs lae k'llxwax Sex£etg-ila Max*-
5    tsJolEma qa HawasElai  qaxs fi£mae bEgwanEmqJalEraa qaxs k'Jesaeda
filak'Jala g'Ig'EgSrae he'iqjalaxa bEgwanEmqJalErae k* Ilxwaxa qJeqjE-
yoxwe LjaLjsqwa.    WS, he*£mis £nenak*iits  TjSqwapaq egEkwSs LOLalegasde.    Wa,  la£me k*ll8£de HawasElai laxeq qaxs lE£mae  ts.*EX'-
qjEX-£Id Sgwaqa.    WS,la£me  Le£lalaxes  8nE8m§motaxa WlwomasgEme**
10    WS,  g'H£raise g*ax 8wI8la§La lax g*okwas 8walas Kwax*llan5kuraa8ye,
wa la yaqEg*a8ie HawasElai*    WS,  la 8nek'a; Bx'8ma lax k'Jes gSia
SEnaxEn lag'iia L§8laloL 8nE8memot.    He*dEn lag*lia l§8UL15l qa8s
g'axaos hoLelaxg*ln waidEmLEk*,  8nek*exs lae daxEIdEX Sex8etg*ila
Max'tsJolEmxes ai8Em k'HwanEra L.'aqwa.    Wa,  IS 8nek*a:    Doqula8-
15   raaaqos g'axEn yuL £walatSEm EnE^memot, yuL WlwomasgEmxg'ln k*Jefis-
ek*   xunokwa qa ax8§dEXg*ada 8walasEk»   Legad Ljaqwa.    WS,  lex'a8m-
IsEn dogui e*x*  laatsEk*   laxox 8walasex Kwax'llanokuma8ya LE8wun
Laxwa£ye  LO£gun LegEmg- In.    WS,  gelag-a xunox" yui. £walas Kwax'I-
lanokume dax*8Idg'as  Ljaqwag-Ss.    LaEms  L§gadEits Sexuqfila lax
20    8nE£memotasa WlwomasgEme,  £n§k'§.    WS, he'x*8Ida8mlse  £walas Kwa-
X'Hanokuraa£ye la dax»£Idxa Ljaqwa qa8s moles' waidEmas HawasElai-
xa laEra XEnLEla tsjEx-qJa.'   Wa, k'JestJa gSiaxs lae wlk* ,*EX8Ida.
Wa,g'Il£mise  g'ax na8nakwa wunEmtSx Hawasslaide <lae  8walas Kwax'I-
lanokuma8y§ pjEsasa p.!ElXElasgEm§ laxa Mamaleleqala.    WS,  la8me" g*a-
25    8yoqfi laxes aie   %E8raeraotaxa WlwomasgEme*    WS,  la8me  LegadES S§xuqa-
la laxeq.    WS,  la k'Jes dagEma8ye Sexuqfila laxes yaqulaxa pjElxslas-
gEma qaxs k'.'esae HawasElaide dagEmeses 8nE8m§motasa WlwomasgEme
qaxs fi8raae bEgwanEmqJalEma,  ylxs hS§ NEg'S dagEmSsa £nE8meraotasa WlwomasgEme.    Wa,  la8me yudux^SEme   LeLEgEmas, wa,  la yuduxwe kjwekjwa-
30     £yasxEns  gwu£yo  Lei_axwa£ya laxa yuduxUsE£makJuse  £nai£nEmemasa.
WS,  la ma£ia dagEma£ye la aaxsllax"a*    WK,  la raak* jEXsda£ye  Lax-
 became  sick and she was not long sick in bed before  she died*/And
then the  second of the children of Hak Jug* ilaogwa died, and (1)
then the eldest one also died*    All died,  the/three daughters of
HakJug*ilaogwa.    Now HSkJug*ilaogwa/had a brother whose name was
Tjeqwap.    low T*§qwap said his nieces had been bewitched/on account
of what  they had done   in buying the  copper,   *Dry-Mouth-Maker-Cause-
of-Shame'' (5)  for HawasElai,  for he was only a common man and/the
real chiefs do not allow a common man to buy expensive/coppers*  Tnat
Is what Tjeqwap meant when he said that his nieces had been bewitched*/ Now HawasElai became afraid after this,  for he became  sick/also.
Tnen he called his numaym,  the WlwomasgEm,(10) and as soon as they
were all in the house of 8walas Kwax*Ilanokurae8,/HawasElai spoke and
said; wIt  is  good  that you do not  long/guess  the reason why I called
you,/that you may corae to listen to what I say. • Thus he  said and
took   'Dry-Mouth-Maker-/Gause-of-Shamef   ,   the copper he had  just
bought, and he said, "Look at mej(15) you great numaym, you WlwomasgEm,  that I have no/child to take this great copper which has a name.
Now I shall  only/see  that It will best go to this 8walas Kwax'Ilanokurae8, and/also my seat and ray narae.    Go child, ypu E^ralas Kwax*ilanokurae8,/take hold of your copper. Now your name shall be Sexuqfila
in the   (20)  numayra WlwomasgEm. *    So he  said, and immediately 8walas
Kwax•Ilanokurae8/took the  copper and thanked for his speech HawasElai/
who was now very sick*    He was not long In this way before he died*/
And as  soon as  those came home who had buried HawasElai,  then 8walas
Kwax'Hanokurae8/gave away blankets  to "the Mamaleleqala*      He  gave
these out  (25)  of his new numaym, WlwomasgEm.    And now his name was
Sexuqfila/after this.    Now SSxuqfila has not the office of giving a-
way property when he gives away blankets,/for HawasElai had not the
office of giving away/property to his numaym,  the WlwomasgEm,/for
he was only a  common man,  and it was NEg*a who had the office of
giving away property in the nuraaym WlwomasgEm./ Now he had three
names and three  seats.(30)   that we call  standing placeSj in the  three
 wa8yas laxa £n££meraotasa WlwomasgEm, ylx Laxwa£yas HawasElaide*. IS,I
laEm yawas£Id laba.
WS, la£mesEn gwagwex-s£alai lax Tjeqwapxa g*ayoi8 lax 8nE8me-
motasa SlsEnLja8yasa Mamaleleqala ylx WEqJwSs HSkJug-ilaogwa ylx
5 kjwatoxsdotas HawasElaide ylxs tsja8yae Tieqwapas HSk Jug* ilaogwa.
WS, lax'da£xwe sasEmsa LegadS Hayaik'Enxa bEgwanEmqJalEme g'ayoi
lax £nE£ra§motasa SlstnLje£. Wa, IS ^Eg'ade Hayaik'Enas Qwaqwane-
dzEmgaxa fi£maxatj tsjsdaqax-sala. WS, la£me Tjeqwap nfigades begwa-
nE8mena8y§ ylxs qJeqJSdaaxa dadEk'ase. WS, IS hewaxa gEg-adaxes
10 8wa£wasdEm§ bEgwanEma g'ax£aLElaqexs lae iE8la. WS, la8mlse TjS-
qwape hSmEnaiaEm p.'Esa laxae he'niEnaiaEm babax^sEgolii kjwelasxa le—
lqwalaLa8ye. Wa, IS LegadES Tieqwap laxa kiwSlaS. Wa, IS LegadES
Wamis laxapjEsasa pjElxElasgEme. Wa, he*8miSEn lai LeqElayuqe
Wamise laxEn k-!atJena8yas. Wa, laEmxae Wamise LjSdzEitsa g'lg-E-
15  gama£yasa Mamaleleqala qaxs g*H£mae pjEseda £n£raokwe laxa g-Ig-E-
gama8y§ la§ Wfimis Sgwaqa pjssasa pjElxElasgEme, he*  gwex'S aEmiaia-
s§s g*Ig*EgEma8ye lax§s gweg'ilase. WS, lex*a8mes LeLELfilasa Wa-
mis§ 8walas Kwax'HanSkumaSye* Wa, IS axlla Wamisax K* Ja£naxa
qjEyoxwe Ljaqwa. WS,la8lae k'li8Ide Waralsas g'Ig'Egfima£yases g'5-
20 kulStaxs he*raEnaia£mae gEnaiaso8 qa iE8les. WS, he8rals lag*iias Legale Wamisaxa Mamaleleqala qa lSs 8wl8la hogwiL lax g'okwas. WS,
g'll8mise g-ax £wI£la§La laas hamg* Ilaq. WS, g'H8mise gwai ha8-
mapa kjweiaxs lae yaq.fEg'a8ie Wamis. WS, IS 8nek'a; WSEntsos ho-
Lelaxg'ln waidEmLEk' lfiL, g'okulot qa gwSiaasases nenfiqaySs qaEn
25 ylxs waiaqelaaqos qEn k' Jeaxu£wide laxwa 8nalax,yu.Laxa g*Ig'EgEma8-
yaaqos. Wa, la e*x'8mis waiagsios, 8nek»exs lag dax'£idxes Ljaqwe
K*Jana. Wa, la £nek'a; Gela xunok", yoL £walas Kwax'Hanokume*'"
qsns g-axe qjwaei laxg*a, 8nek»e. Wa, he*x'8ida8mise 8walas Kwax-1-
lanokumaEye la La8WEnodzElIiax Wamise. Wa, la Wamis tsjfisa Ljaqwa
30  lax 8walas Kwax* Hanokuma8y*S. WS, la 8nek'§ Waraisax 8walas Kwax--
Hanokuma£y§'. We*g*a dax* £IdEXg*as k* JotElag-os, g-Lgame* laxg-a
 97
tribes,/and he had two offices of giving away property to take
care of, and his last(1)seat was in the numaym WlwomasgEm. It
was the seat of HawasElai. Now/for a while this is ended*/
Now I will talk about Tjeqwap who belonged to the numaym/SIsEn-
lJ§8 of the Mamaleleqala, who was a brother of HakJug*ilaogwa who
(5) lived together with HawasElai. Now Tjeqwap was the younger brother of HSkJug'ilaogwa/and they were the children of one whose name
was Hayaik'En, a common man of the/numaym SIseulJS8. And Hayaik'En
had for his wife QwaqwanedzEmga/who was also only a common woman. '
Now Tjeqwap was clever In his ways,/for he had much property. And he
never had a wife (10) in his lifetime, from the time when he became
a man until he died. And then/Tjeqwap always gave potlatches and he
also gave feasts to the tribes, although he had no wife./ And he had
the name Tjeqwap for the feasts and the name/Wamis for the giving
away of blankets, and I shall call him hereafter/Warnis in ray writing
about him. Now Wamis was also hated by the chiefs (15) of the Mamaleleqala, for when one of the chiefs gave away property/then Wamis
also gave away blankets, just as if he were making fun of/the chief
in doing so. The only friend of Wamis/was 8walas Kwax'Han5kum§8.
Now Wamis kept Crow,/the expensive copper. Then Wamis-became afraid
of the chiefs of his tribe (20) for they kept on threatening to kill
him* Therefore,/Wamis called the MamalSleqala to come all into his
house* And/when they were all inside he gave them to eat and after
the guests had eaten/Warais spoke and said; "Now listen/to what I say
to you,ray tribe, on account of the way your hearts are all against
(25) me, for you wish me to disappear from the world, you chiefs./
Now your wish is good,,! said he and he took his copper/Crow and he
said: "Come, you child, you 8walas Kwax*Ilanokurae8,/and let us stand
here, n said he. Immediately 8walas Kwax*Ilanokume8/stood by the side
of Wamis. Then Wamis gave the copper (30) to £walas Kwax*nanokume8./
Then Wads said to 8walas Kwax*ilanokume8; " Take hold of your salmon
chief, of this U) Crow. Now you will go to ray seat, which will be
 98
K'Janak*. LaEms lai laxsn i_axwa£ye laxes ISlos 8nE8memota SlsEnL.'a-
8ye\ Wa, ISles laxotEixox K-Janax qa8s pJssaosas k-IlwayoLaqu laxes
gwu8y6Laos qa8s p.fEsaso8Los. Wa, IS gwegEmx'8Id laxa Mamaleleqala.
Wa, g-okulot, la£m£n iE£la laxes waiagEios , g-okulot, WS, la8mEn
5 Sx8edEXg-ada g*Igamek* laxg*a WaralSEk* qa les laXEn kJwSx*dS. WS,
he*8meq, 8nek*§. WS, la8me mole 8walas Kwax*llanokuma8yas waldEmas.
Wa, laEm la k* Jefis LaxtreS" Tjeqwape ylxa L§gadx*dS Wamise laxeq qaxs
lae £wl£lases Ljaqwax*de k*Jana le£w§s LaxwSx-de lax £walas Kwax-i-
lanokuma£ye. Wa, fi£mise tsJawunX£IdEXS lae wlk- .'EX8Ide Tjeqwapde.
10 Wa, la£me raowe kjwekjwa£yas. 8walas Kwax'llanokuma8y5 laxeq, ylxs
k'Jesae LeLELfile £walas Kwax-tlanokuma£ye lax Tjeqapde ylxs lex'a£mae
lag* lias he' gwex,8ide qaxs lex*a8ma.e 8walas Kwax'llan6kuma8y§ k-Jes
moma8yalax Tjeqwapde. WS, laEraxae yawas8Id laba.
WS, la£me m5x£widaia kJwekJwa£yas 8walas Kwax'HanokuraS laxeq.
15  WS, lEn k*Jes qJfiLElax lag*iias la Lfigex 8nE£meraotasa L§lE8wag'il-
asa DzawadESnox1* ylxs Legadae 8walas Kwax*llanokuma8yas Yaqfilase"
laxes 8nE£memota LelE£wag*lia* WS, laEmxae dagEmesa 8nE8raemotasa
Lele8wag*ila. He'£me"sEn lag* iia k'Staqe g* Igama8ye IS LaxstE8wesos
lax 8nE8memotasa LelE£wag*ila qaxs he'£mae maraaitJek* Jesa bakJuma-
20  qexs g'Igamaeda dag£ma£yaxa 8naxwa l5iqwSla*.a8ya. WS, la8m§ SEk* J-
ax*8idaia kjwa£yas £walas Kwax*nanokuma£ye laxeq. Wa, la £naxwaEm
hax'han£eia awa£we g-Ilg'Ildas laxa g-og*5kwas laxes £ne£nE8memote
qa SxtsJfilaSEX yaqJwSmas p.TElxElasgEm LE£wa qjEng'Sxtfila LE8wa da-
leg'a k'Jokwala. He*Era 8wl£la la axtsjfilayo laxa g*ilg*lldas ylxs
25 k-Jesae nEgese £walas Kwax*IlanakumS^ lax g*ox«dEmsas"ls £nai£nE8me-
mase qaxs he*£maeda g*Ilg*Hdase LEewa LeLEgEmas daiax kJwekJwa8yas
laXa s'Ek-Jax*£Idaia kjwekjwas laxa SEk* JasgE£makJuse £nai8nEE)nemasa.
Wa, la gEg*ade £walas'Kwax-HanSkumes K-ogwlsllaogwa ylx k* Je-
deiaS G*exk*Enxa g*ayoie lax £nE£raemotasa lJSlJElaminasa 8n£mges*
30 Wa, la xixngwadEx-£Itsa babagume. Wa, la G-exk-En LegErag-IlXLalax
Wasalaas qa Leases tsJoxULEma. Wa, la£rae LegEmsa babagume Wasa-
 99
yours in the numaym SlsEnLje£-,/and you will sell this Crow to give
away the price/to whomever you ",ish it to be given.11 And he turned
his face to the Mamaleleqala-./ "Now, tribe, now I am dead, according
to your wish, tribe. Now I (5) take this chief here, this Wamis,to
go to my seat./ * This is all,1 said he.  Then £walas Kwax*llanokume8
thanked him for what he had said./ Now Tjeqwap had no seat after
that, he whose name had been Wamis, for he had given/everything,his
copper Crow and his seat to £walas Kwax*Ilanokurae8./ When winter
came Tjeqwap died,(10) and now £walas Kwax*Ilanokume£ had four seats
after this. But/£walas Kwax*llanokume£ was no relative of Tjeqwap.
It was only/because £walas Kwax*llanokume8 did not hurt with words
Tjeqwap. Now this is at an end for a while.
Now £walas Kwax-ilanokurae had four seats after this.(15) I do
not know why he stands among the numaym L§lE8wag*ila/of the Dzawa-
dE§noxu, for £walas Kwax-llanokume has the name YSqfilas/in the numaym LelE£wag'ila, and he has also the office of giving away property in the/LelE£wag*ila, Therefore I suppose that it was the chief
whose seat was given to him/in the numaym L§lE£wag*ila, for it is a
sign among the Indians (20) that he is a chief, the one who has the
office of giving away property among the tribes* Now/£walas Kwax*l-
lanokum§8 had five seats after this, and they/kept large boxes in
his houses in his numayms/and put into them the blankets that were
given to him and the button blankets and the silver/bracelets. All
these were put into the boxes when (25) £walas Kwax*Ilanokurae8 was
not present in the villages of the numayras,/for the boxes are for
the names of his different seats/in the five different numayms.
Now 8walas Kwax< llanokume*8 had for his wife K*ogwisIlaogwa,
the princess/of G*exk*En of the numaym lJSlJElamin of the £n£mges.
(30) Then they had a child, a boy, and G*exk*En gave the marriage
name/Wasaiaas for the name of his grandchild, and the name of the
boy was Wasaiaas.(l) Then they had again a child, a girl, and £wa-
 laase".    WS,  IS StJSd xungwadEX* 8Itsa tsJatsJadagErae*. WS,  IS £walas
Kwax*Han5kuma£yS  i_ex£ets YasEkwe laq.    WS,. laLa G*5xk'EnS  LegEm-
g-llxLalax ME£iedS qa LegEmses ts;oxuLEmagase,    WS,  la£m§ LegEme"
ME£ledasa tsJatsJadagEme.    Wa ma8lokwe  sasEmas  £walas Kwax*Hano-
5    kuma£ye  le£w1s gEnEm§ K*5gwisilaogwa.    WS,  g*n£Emiwise iE8lL§
8walas Kwax*Han5kuma£y§ 1Sl§ WasaiaasS £wl8la ax£edEixa SEk* Ja-
x*£idaia k!wekJwases omp§  lo£  £naxwa k-Jek*Jes£5s.    WS, hestaEm
k-Jefis gw§x-£idaats la k*Jes£ogulXL§s 8walas Kwax* HanoTcuma8 yes
g-Sg-lLEla LeLEgEm laxes g-Hg'alisS laxes nEgurape le£w1s g-5kw§
10     L££wa ioElqwalliS.    WS,  lex*a£mis la k*lSs£ogulxLeseda k'j§s£6gu-
lxLa£yases nEgumpe  laq.
wa,he*£mae  £walas Kwax*Ilan5kuma£ye ylxs hSaEl gwe£nakula g-S-
g-lLElaxs g-alae" bEgwan£raX'8Ide DzEnx'qJayowe lax  Tayagwoie,ytxs he*-
waxa§ k-Jes xungwadEX* £Id§da g-alas  £maxttmEwesagEmesa £nEm6kw** baba-1
15     gurae he£misa £n£mokw§ ts Jats JadagEme. WS he'tja qjunfilatsexs £nem5xu£-
maeda babagume xunox^s. WS,g*ll£mise' ma£lokwe  sasEmas la h*Jx'sS8ma   1
babagume  £n5la.    Wa, IS tsja£yeda tsJatsJadagErae qaxs k*Jes8maaEl
8nEmp.fEna ma8loku bEgwanEmx*sS sasEmas 8max"mEwesagEma£ye ylxs a£mae*
Ittf bEXUk* JodEqElSda tsjEdaqe.    WS, h§£mis he'waxag- iits x-ls£ld§  LegEmaiB
qaxs heiomalae" xungwadEX- £IdEXS k* Jes£mae iE8la*
Wa,  la8misEn gwagwex*s8alai lax 8walasLala, ylx wuq.'was
£maxUmEwesagEma£ye,  ylxs lae ia£wadES Hawllkulaixa xamagEma£ye
g*Igamesa £nE£memotasa Kukwakjumasa Qomeyfi£ye.    WS, la xungwadE-
x*£Itsa babagume.    Wa,  la Hawllkulai L§x£ets Adag-i£lak« laxes
25       xunokwe.    Wa,  laEjn g-lniEXLalax Adag- l£lak«.    WS, la 8max«mEwesa-
gEma£ye, ylx £walas Kwax*Han5kuma£ye  LegEmg*llXLalax Wabido£ qa
LegEmses  LOle£ye,    WS, la£me 8nEmoxueEm Xun5x8s Hawllkulai  le£w!s
gEnEme  £walasLala.    Wa,  g*H£mise Elaq nEXLaax*£Id bEgwanEmxs lae
Hawllkulai  Lex£Its Haxuy5s£raa£ye lax Adag*I£lak«.     WS,  laEm has£Em
Hawllkulaie  LexLEgEmiia ylx HaxuyosEma£ye.    WS,  la tsjEX*q.fEX*£Ide
£walasLala.     Wa,  la wlk- ,'EX£Ida.    Wa,  laxae  ts.'Ex-qjEX* £Ide HSxu-
20
30
 101
las/Kwax*Hanokum§8 called her YasEk**. But G-exk-En gave the name/
ME£led as a name for his granddaughter. Then the name/of the girl
was ME£led. Two children had £walas Kwax-Ilanokurae8 (5) and his
wife, K-ogwisilaogwa, and when he is dead/that is £walas Kwax*llanokume8, then Wasaiaas will take all the five/seats of "his father and
all his privileges, but there is/no way for £walas Kwax-Ilanokum§£
to give these privileges in marriage to his son-in-law, the names
which carae down from his ancestors and his house (10) and the house
dishes. The only privileges he can give away are the privileges
given to him/by his father-in-la*./
And thus it is about £walas Kwax*llanokume8, for it is said
that it happened this way/from the beginning when first DzEnx-qJayu
became a man at Tayagwoi, that/never once did 8max,*mEwesagEm§8 nave
no child, but that he had one boy (15) and also one girl. But generally they had only one/son, and when there were two children, always/the elder one was a boy and the younger one a girl. For not
once,/it is said, were both children of 8maxumEwesagEme£ boys, but
it was/a boy alongside of a girl. And therefore the name has never
disappeared,(20) for they came to have children before they died./
Now I shall talk about 8walasLala, the sister of/£maxumEwesa-»
gEm§8, for she had as husband Hawllkulai, the head chief/of the
numaym Kukwakjum of the Qjoraoyfi£ye. They had a child,/a boy, and
Hawllkulai gave the name £dag*i£laka to his (25) ohild. Now Adag*I-
8laku is his child's name. Then 8mSxumEwesagEme8/that is, 8walas
Kwax*llanokume8,,gave the marriage name Wabido8 for/the name of his
nephew. Now he was the only child of Hawllkulai and his wife,
8walasuala. Now when he was nearly a grown man,/Hawllkulai gave
Adag*i£lak** the name HSxuyosEme8. This (30) HSxuyosErae8 was Hawl-
kulai's family name. 'Then 8walasLala became sick/and she died.
Then HSxuyosEme"8 became sick (1) and he also died. Then Hawllkulai
 yoBEmaSye.WS,  laxae wlk* .fEX£Ida-    WS, la8rae HawHkCQaii gEg'adE-
x*£Its TEleg'alldzEmga, ylx k*JedSias Wanukuxa g*ayoi§ lax 8n£8m5-
motasa Wawulibfiy§8.    WS,  la gEg'ade Wanukwas WSuidexa k'*e*deias
LEk'fisaxa g*ayoi§ lax £nE8memotasa Mamaleleqjam*    WS, IS xungwade*
5     Wanukwas Hamasaqa laxes g'aloia gEnEme UsUtsJfilaixa k'Jedeias H§-
motElaso£xa g'ayoie lax 8nE8memotasa DzEndzEnx'qJayo.    WS, la gEg'ade Hamasaqas HfinosEnagaxa tslEdaqS xunoxtts LalaganogwiElakwexa.
g»ay5ie lax 8n£8raemotasa Kukwakjumasa Qjomoyfi£ye.    WS,  la£me he*wS-
xa xungwadEX-£Ide HSraasaqoie le8w1s gEnEmoie* HfinosEnagoiS.    WS,
10   laxae he'waxa xungwadEX*8Ide* LEk'fisoie*  le8W1s g£n£raoi§ XwelageLas-
wuiexa tsjEdaqe xunox^s G'ayosdSswuiexa g'ayoie lax SnESmemotasa
WlwomasgEmasa Mamaleleqala.     Wa,  laLa Hawllkulai  le£w!s  gEnEme  TEleg'alldzEmga xungwadEX'8Itsa  tsJatsJadagErae*"*    WS,  la Wanukwuie
LegErag'IlXLalax LjaiEylg*Ilise qa LegEmses tsJox^LEmagase.    Wa, la-
15   8me  LegEmaa tsJatsJadagEme  LjaiEylg'lllSe"laxeq.    WS, la8rae  8n£m5x-
8um xunox»-s Hawllkulaie LjaiEylg*Ilise.    WS,  la8me wlk* J'EX8IdS Wa-
nuxMe.    Wa,  la Hamasaqoi he*Era ax£ed Ewl8lax k.'Jek* jES8oxudases
Srapde lo£ kJwax-dSs.    Wa,  laxae wlk-jEX£Ide LEk'fisax'de lax £memkum-
lls.    Wa,  ylxs hae g*alagawe wlk*jEXulde.WSLidases ompde LEk*fisax*dS
20 WS, he*£mis lag* iias he*£ra§ TEleg'alldzEmga £wl£la &x8§dEx k* Jek* Jes—
8fis le8w1s k.'wa£y§. Wa, laEra L§gade TEleg'alldzEmgSs LEk'fisa la-'
xeq. Wa, la Hamasaqa LegadES Wak'adze, ylx 8nEmsgErax'de" LegEms Wa-
nuxude. WS, IS wIk'.fEX8Ide TEleg-alldzEmgax'dxa lax'de LegadES LEk'fisa laxes 8nE£memotasa Mamaleleqjam.    WS,  la  LjaiEylg*Ilise  Lax-
25   stodxes abEmpde lax LEk'fisa laxa EnE8memotasa Mamaleleqjam.    WS,
la£me  LjaiEylg*Ilise bEguxLalax LEk'fisa.    WS,  laEm 8wl8la ax8ededa
aie LEk-fisax k* Je*k* jEs8fis LEk'asoiS lo8 LegEmas.    WS, IS wlk'jE-
x£Ide Wak'adze,  ylx HSmasaqa,  laas LEk'fisa,  ylx lJaiEylg*Ilise
£wl£la ax£edEX  LegEmas HSmasaqa, ylxs ogu8la8mae kjwa8yas lax kjwa-
30 £yas Wanukwuie laxes £n£memotasa Wawulibfi£ye, ylxs g*Il£maS wlk*J-
EX8Id§ Wanukwuie lae HSmasaqa ax8edEX kjwa8yas lo8 8nEmsgEirie  LegEms
 103
took, for his wife/T£leg*alIdzEraga, the princess of Wanuku who came
from the numayra/Wawulibfi£y§. And Wanuk1* had for his wife WaLid,
the princess, of/L£k*fis who came from the numaym Mamaleleqjam. Now
Wanuk» had a child, (5) Hamasaqa:, by his first wife, TsjEtsJfilai-,
the princess of/HemotElaso8 who erne from the numaym DzEndzEnx'qJayo.
And/HSmasaqa had for his wife HfinosEraaga, the daughter of Lalagano-
gHi&liik:*/from, the numaym Kukwakjum of the Qlomoyfi£ye. Now they never/had a child, HSmasaqa and his wife HfinosEnaga, and (lo) LEk'fis
also never had a child with his wife Xwelage*Las,/the daughter of
G*ayosdas who carae from the nuraaym/WlwomasgEm of the Mamaleleqala.
But Hawllkulai and his wife,TEleg'alldzEmga,/had a child, a girl,
and Wanuku/save the name LjaiEylg'His as a name to his granddaughter. Now (15) the name of the girl was LjaiEylg'Ills after this.
Now/lJaiEylg*His was the only child of Hawllkulai. Then Wanuku
died/and HSmasaqa took all the.privileges of his late/father and
his seat. Then LEk'fis died at 8memkumlls*/and WSLid had died before her father, LEk'fis; (20) therefore, TEleg-alldzEmga took his
privileges/and his seat, and now the name of TEl§g*alIdzEmga was
LEk'fis after this./ Then HSmasaqa had the name Wak'adze*, one of
the other names of Wanuk**./ Then TEleg'alldzEmga died, whose name
was now LEk'fis/in the numaym Mamaleleqjam. Then LjaiEylg*His took
the place of her (25) mother, LEk'fis, in the nuraaym Mamaleleqjam.
Now/LjaiEylg*His had the man's name LEk'fis. Now the new LEk'fis
took all/the privileges of the late LEk'fis and her name. Then died/
Wak'adze, namely Hamasaqa, and LEk'fis, namely LjaiEylg*His,/took
all the names of HSmasaqa, for his seat was different from the seat
of (36) Wanuku in the nuraaym Wawulibfi8ye, for when Wanuku died HSmasaqa took his seat and another name. (1) of Wanuk*, that is Wak*a-
 104
Wanukwuie Wak'adze lo8 8wl8le k*Jek*jEs8fis. WS, la8me ma8l6xu la
bEgwanEme HSmasaqa lo8 Wak'adze. WS, g*ll8mis5 yaqweda pjEsasa
p.'ElXElasgEm lae yax8w!tSE£we Wak'adze. WS, IS etjed yax£wItsE8we
HSmasaqa lax gwaLElas. Wa, la8m§ yuduxus£aia IS LjaiEylg*Ills la£-
5 me uegadES LEk*fisa laxa Mamaleleqjam; wS, IS LegadES Wak'adze lo8
HSmasaqa laxes £nE£memotasa Wawulibfi£ye, WS, IS wlk*jEX8Id§ Hawll-
kulaide ylx orapdSs LjaiEylg*lllsxa xamagEma8ye g*Igam§sa Kukwakjumasa Qloraoyfi8ye. WS, la8rae Legade LjaiEylg* Ilisas Hawllkulai laxeq. WS, la8ra§ ax8ede LjaiEylg*llisaxa hoqustfila g-okwa LE£wa £nax-
10 wa k*Jek*jES£o g*Ix*g*aeiEq LE8wa dagEma£ye. WS,laEm Laxoma8ya aie
Hawllkulaitsa EmEkuma8yas 8nal8nE8memasasa QjomoyfiSyexa KukwakJu-
me. WS, laEm tsjEdaxstEweLElaxes ompde HawIlkulaidS. WS, laEm mos-
gEmS LeLEgEmas. WS, he*EmaXaawis§ £waxa kjwekjwa8yas. WS, la ax8e-
daEraxaax dagEraa8yas Wak*adzeoie laxa EnEEjugmotasa WawulibfiEye". WS,
15 la maie dagEma8yas lo8 dagEma8yas5s orapde.
W£, la£lae WSLidoie" ylx gEnEmoias Wanukwuie' LoElSnux^s Ljaqo-
Las. Wa, he*Era g*ogwadEsa g*okwe LegadES Qjaatsje g*5kuxa g'ayoie
laxa £nE£m§motasa WlworaasgEmasa Mamaleleqala, ylxs he*£mae" £nE£ra5-
raots omp£wuias LjaqoLasxa L.'aqoLasLa£maxatJ. WS, hS£latJa abEmpas
20 LJaqOLas ylx OmaeiI£laku tsja£yas WaLide, ylx gEnEmas Wanukwuie,
wS, la k'Jefis xunoxus tJaqoLase le8w1s gEnEme Gaaxstalas. Wa, la
tsjEX'qjEX'£Ide LjaqoLase. WS, la8lae* 8nex* qa h§8mis§ LjaiEylg'l-
lise ylxa aie Hawllkulai 8wl8la ax£edEX LegEmas le£w1s k*Jek*j£S8b
LE£wa Legade g*okwa, ylx Qjaatsje. Wa, la8m§ wlk*jEX8Ida ylx l5S-
25 qoLasde. WS, la£me" Hawllkulai £wl£la Sx8edEX LegEmas lo8 kjwa8yas
lo8 k'Jek'.'ES8as LE8wa g'ox»»das. WS, la8m§ SEk'JasgEme" LeLEgEmas,
ylx HSmasaqa lo8 Wak'adzS lo8 Hawllkulai laxg-a TsaxlsEk'. WS, he*-
8mis LEk'fisa lo8 LjaqoLas LeLEgEras laxes Mamalelexk*JotJ§na8y§.
Wa, fi8mlSLa tsjEdagEX'LSlax lJaiEylg*Ilise. WS, la8me. 8naxwa£m ha-
30 8neia awa8w§'g-llg-f Idas lax g'ig'okwas Hawilkulale qa latsJfilasEx
. yaeqiwemas laxa pjEsSsa pjElxElasgEme LE£wa q.fEng*Sxtfila LE£wa d§-
 105
dze, and all of his privileges. Now he was two men/namely HSmasaqa and Wak'adzS, and when they gave away/blankets they gave to WS-
k'adze and they also gave to/Hamasaqa as a second place. Now LjaiEylg' His had three places.(5) She had the name LEk'fis among the
Mamale'leqjam and she had the names Wak'adze and/Hamasaqa in the numaym WawulibfiEye. Then Hawllkulai died,/the father of LjaiEylg-1-
lis, the head chief of the Kukwakjura/of the QjomoyfiEye. Then LjaiEylg-His had the name Hawllkulai after this./ Then LjaiEylg'His
.took the Vomiting-Beam-House and all (10) the privileges belonging
to it, and the office of giving away property. Now/the new Hawllkulai stood at the head of the first numaym of the QjomoyfiEye. the
Kukwakjum./ (Although) she was a woman she stood in the place of her
late father, Hawllkulai. Now she had four/names, and that also was
the number of her seats. And she also took/the office of giving a-
way property of Wak-adze In the numaym WawulibfiEye. Then (15) she
had two offices,, his office of giving away property and the office
of giving away property of her late father./
Now it is said that WSLid, the wife of Wanuku, had a nephew,
LjaqoLas*/ He owned the house whose name was Qjaatsje, the house
which belongs/to the numaym WlwomasgEm of the Mamaleleqala, for
that was the nuraaym/of the father of LjaqoLas who was also LjaqoLas. And it is said that the mother of (20) LjaqoLas, 0£maeil£laku,
was the younger sister of WSLid, the wife of Wanuku./ They had no
children, 08maeil£lak1' and her husband Gaaxstalas. Then/LjaqoLas
fell sick, and he wished that LjaiEylg-Ills,/the new Hawllkulai,
should take his narae and his privileges/and the house named Qjaatsje.. Now LjaqoLas died.(25) Then Hawllkulai took all the names
and seats/and privileges and his houne. Now she had five names,/
HSmasaqa and Wak'adze and Hawllkulai at Port Rupert, and/LEk-fis and
LjaqoLas on the side of the Mamaleleqala./But LjaiEylg*His was just
her woman's name. Now there were (30) large boxes in all the houses
of Hawllkulai to put into them/what is given to her in the giving
 106
lSg*a k* Jokula qaxs k* jSsaS 8nEmpjEna L.fEleweso8sa pjEsSsa pjElxElasgEme. WS, laEm yawas£Id laba.
WS, la Hawllkulai, ylx LjaiEylg*Ilis§ la ia8wadES Kjwakjwaba-
lasEma£y§, yixg'In qjfiy££wek* xunokwaxa LegadSs Jonathan Hunt laxa
5 raamaia. Wa, la xungwadEX*8Itsa babagume. WS, IS LjaiEylg*ilise
Lex£ets Adag*i£lakwe laxes xunSkwe qaxs he*8mae g'll g* IniEXLSyosa
Hawllkulai£nakulaxs g'SlaoiSx £nag'lliS£ns Engiax. Wa, g'llEjnisS
tsJatsJadagEma £nolastjEgEma8ye lae i_ex£etso£s Adaga. Wa, IS etied xungwadEX*£Itsa tsJatsJadagErae. WS, he'Eraxaawise Hawllkulaie
10 LegEmg'ilXLalax WSLlde qa LegEmses xunokwe. Wa, "'asm ax£ed lax
LexLEgEraeias laxes abask* Jote qa k'Jefisae gwex*£idaas LegErag'Hx-
Lalax Adag'i£lakv* qaxs g'ayoiae LegEm laxa g'Hg'allsa Hawllkulai,
ylxs Leqelayae Adag-i£laku qaeda 8nolast jEc*Ema8ye. WS, la k*les
layowa LegEm Adag*i8laku laxa tsja8ya. Wa, la8me raa8lokwe sasEmas
15 Hawllkulai le8w1s ia8wunEme KjwakJwabalasEma£ye lax Adag*l8lakw§
lo8 WSLlde. WS, laxae etjed xungwadEX'EItea tsJatsJadagEme. WS,
la Hawllkulai LEX8§ts 8raaxl*raEwe'dzEmga laxa tsJatsJadagErae lax LegEmas wuqjasa g*alS Hawllkulaia. WS, laxae Stjed xungwadEX*8Itsa
babagume. Wa, la Hawllkulai LEX8§ts Gaaxstalas laxa babagume.
20 WS, la£me* Hawllkulaie Sx£edxa LegEme" lax LexLEgEraeias LEk'fisa laxa
Mamaleleqala qaxs L§gadaa£lae abE-rap£wuias LEk'fisSs Gaaxstalase.
Wa, la Hawllkulaie L§x8ets Gaaxstalas laxes babagume. xunokwa. WS,
IS e"t.'ed xungwadEX'£Itsa tsJatsJadagErae". WS, la Hawllkulaie l§x-
8ets LElak'EnedzEmga laxes tsJatsJadagErae xunokwa. WS, la8me ax£-
25 §de Hawllkulaiaxa LegEme lax LexLEgEralias Wanuk£wuie, ylxs LElak'-
EnedzEmgax'Laa£lae abEmpas Wanuk£wuie. Wa, la8me LegEmsa tsjatsj-
adagEme LE-lak* EnedzEmga laxeq.
Wa, SEk'Jok'Ewe sasEmas Hawllkulaie ylx LjaiEylg'HIse le8w!s
ia8wunEme KjwakJwabalasEma£yexa g-ayoie lax enE^meraotasa HaanaLe-
30 nfisa Ql.omoyfi8y§.
 107
of blankets and of button blankets and of silver (1) bracelets, for
she is never once forgotten in the giving away of blankets./ Now
this is the end for a while./
Then Hawllkulai, namely, LjaiEylg*His, took for her husband
KjwakJwabalasEme8,/my middle son, whose name is Jonathan Hunt among
the (5) white people, and they had a boy. Then LjaiEylg*Ills/
named her child Adag'ieiak^for that was the child's name of/Hawllkulai in the beginning when the first light came into our world.
And when/the eldest child is a girl, she Is called Adaga* And then
again/she got a child, a girl, and Hawllkulai gave/the marriage name
WSLid for the name of her child. Then she took the (10) family name
from her mother's side, for she cannot give away in marriage/the
name Adag'i8laku because the name belongs to the ancestors of Hawllkulai,/for the name Adag*i8laku is given to the eldest one, and
never/is the name Adag*i£laku given to a younger brother. Now two
children had (15) Hawllkulai and her husband, K|wakJwabalasEme£.
ldag*i£laku/ahd WSj-id. Then she had another child, a girl./ Then
Hawllkulai called the girl 8maxumEwedz£mga, the name of/the sister
of the first Hawllkulai. Then she had another-child,/a boy, and
Hawllkulai gave the name Gaaxstalas to the boy. (20) Now Hawllkulai
took the family name of LEk'fis among the/Mamaleleqala, for it is
said'the mother of LEk'fis had the name Gaaxstalas./ Now Hawllkulai
named her son Gaaxstalas. Then/they had another child, a girl, and
Hawllkulai named/her daughter LElak'EnedzEmga. Now (25) Hawllkulai
took the name from the family name of Wanuku, for LElak'EnedzEmga,/
it is said, was the name of the mother of Wanuku. Now the name of
the girl/was LElak'EnedzEmga after this.
Now Hawllkulai, that is LjaiEylg'ilise, had five children with
her/husband, KjwakJwabalasEme8, who belonged to the numaym Haanai_e-
no/of the Qjomayfi8yS.
 108
llli
10
Wa,  la£mes Hawllkulai  £nex-   qa p.'ESes Adag'i£lakwaxa Gw§tEla
LE£wa Ql5moyfi£ye  qa weg-is  LegadES £raEmx'fi HSmasaqa.    WS, la£rae
laLa £nErasgEme  LegEms Hawllkulaie laxes xunokwe Adag'isiak1*.    WS,
la8me lfisa Hawllkiilaiasa dagEma£ye laxes xunokwida la LegadES £raE-
5      mx'fi Hamasaqa LE£wa £naxwa k-Jek-lES£fis HamasaqSie  LE8wa g-okwS
8wl8la.    Wa,  la£me dagEma£y§  8mEmx'fi HamasaqSses    8n£Eraeraotasa Wa-
wulibfi8ye*    WS,  laxae Hawllkulai, ylx  LjaiEylg-IlisS Le*8lalaxe"s
8nE8memotaxa Kukwakjumasa Qlomoyfi8ye qa las  8wi£la hogwiL lax g'O-
kwasa g'ale Hawllkulaia.    WS, g'HSmise g'ax 8wI8la§La lae hfi8ra-
g-Ilaxes 8nE8raeraote.    WS,  g'H8raise  gwai ha8mapa kJweie laas yaqj-
Eg*a£iS Nolisxa g'ayoie  lax 8nE8memotas.    WS,  la  8nek*a; WSEntsSs
hOLelax nos 8nE8m§mot laxg'a gwSiaasLEg'asg'ln waidEmLEk-.    qSl,
qSi.axs hSiaxaqlamae ylxg'a HawIlkulaiEk*  ylxs lSk' SB^roi8IdESg'as
ompEk'xg'ada h§lemasEk'   laxg'a 8raErax'fi HSraasaqak'.    WS,  laEm lak*
15      lfisaig'a HawIlkulaig'asS  LegEmS Hawllkulai lax £m£rax'fi HSmasaqa
LE£wa kjwa£yas  LE£wa hoqustfilax g*-5kwa LE8woxda £naxwax k» Jekr* Je-
s85 g*ix*g*aei laq1*,  wa he8raisa dag£ma8ye.    WS, la8rae  8wl8la,
8nek*e.
WS,  la£mEn gwai  Leqalas Hawlllnllai lax LjaiEylg'His qaxs 1e-
£raaS etjed tsjEdaxse8stal*Cia.    WS, la ax8etSE8wa ma£ipjEnyag'l
p.'ElxElasgEma qa8s g'axe mogwale£lEm lax  La£wl£lasas Nolise.    WS,
la Nolise dax-£Idxa    8nEraxsa pjElXElasgEma qa8s dalallieqexs lae
L§8lalaxa aie Hawllkulaia lax Adag-i£laku, yixa la LegadES 8raErax-fi
HSmasaqa.    WS, he'x-8ida8misa la LegadES Hawllkulai la qa8s  La8wu-
nodzElIlex Nolis.    Wa,  la yaqjEg'a8i§ N5lise.    WS, IS 8nek-as  8wa,
8nE£memot, we*g*a dox£widEx g*ax£Erak*  g-ax£Emg*ada x-omsg*Ins n5s
8n£8m"lmot laxg'a HawIlkulaiEk*xg*ada lak*   lJayEwI8lSlakwaxg*ada
aloraasEk*   la g*Igama£yaxg*ada axn5gwadg*asa nEqewaleiasa g*okwS
qaxs kjwa£ya,  £nek-e.    Wa,  la  LEpJedxa 8n£raxsa pjElXElasgEma* WS,
la8me  8nek*a;  LaEm pjElxslasgEm qa8s GwetEl,  laEm p.'ElxElasgEm
qa8s 8walas Kwag-ui;  laEm pJslXElasgEra qa8s Qjorak-JutJes.    LaEras
20
25
30
 109
Now Hawllkulai wished Adag*i8laku should give away property to
the Owetela/and the Qjomoyfi£ye in order to be called £m£mx-S HSmasaqa. Now/one name of Hawllkulai was to go to her child Adag*i£lak**
Then/Hawilkulai passed over the office of giving away property to
her child, whose name was now (5) £mEmx*£- HSmasaqa , and all the
privileges of HSmasaqa and the house./ Now 8mEmx-fi HSmaaaqa had the
office of giving away property to his numaym, Wawulibfi£ye,/ Then
Hawllkulai, that is LjaiEylg*His, called her/numaym, the Kukwakjum
of the Qj6mayS£ye*, to come into the house/of the first Hawllkulai.
And as soon as they were all in (10) she gave her numaym to eat.
After the guests had eaten,/Nolis, who belongs to her numaym, spoke
and said.; "Listen/to me, my numaym, to what I am going to tell you
.^here. Indeed/indeed, she has done right, this Hawllkulai, for she
has given birth to this,/her father, a good man, this £mErax*fi Hamasaqa. Now (15) Hawllkulai will give over her name Hawllkulai to
8mEmx*fi Hamasaqa,/and her seat and the Vomiting-Beam House, and all
the privileges/that are owned by her, and also the office of giving
away property* That is all,'/said he./
_-  Now I will stop calling LjaiEylg*Ills Hawllkulai, for she is
(20) again only a woman. Now two hundred/blankets were taken and
put down at the place where Nolls stood in the house* And/NolIs
took up one pair of blankets and held it up as he/called the new
Hawllkulai, that is Adag-IElak1*, the one whose name was now ^lEmx-fi/
HSmasaqa. Then immediately the one who had the name Hawllkillai went
and stood by the side of (25) Nolis* Then Nolls spoke and said,
**Oh,/numaym, look at him. He came, he came, our head, our/numaym
to this Hawllkulai, who has been changed about/and is now a new
chief, who-owns the rear of* the house/as his seat," said he.  Then
he unfolded one pair of blankets and (30) said, *Now this is a
nianket for you, GwetEla; this is a blanket/for you, £walas Kwag-ui;
this is a blanket for you, Qjorak*JutjES. Now (1) you will come and
 110
g*axL x-itsJax'IlaLEX WSLlde xunokwa^ Hawllkulai laxg'adEXs maEi-
pjEnyag'Ig'ada pjElXElasgErak',  £nek'§.    WS,  la£meda aie Hawllkulai
la xungwadEses wuq.'we WSLide  qaxs k- Jes8raae xungwadsSnoxwe Hawllkulaie, ylxs he*§ gweg-ileda g-ale bakluraa.    WS, g-il£mise xungwada
5    lae he'Em ax£etsE£wes xunSkwe qa£s IS ylxwa qa pjSyfis p.fElxElasgEma.
WS^  la£me  £nEraax'lsa raa£ip.fEnyag'i pjElxjilasgEm l5£  Elg'aaLElotsa
LegEme Hawllkulai lax Adag'i£lakwe".   (£nEmax'is  LE8wa lEbElSdaxs
tsasEyodaaxa g'ing-InanEme qa  s_egadesises LegEme.) WS, he*8mls tsa-
SEyodaene£sa bakjuraaxs pjEsae ylsa pjElxElasgEme qa Elg'aaLElesa
10    LegEme laxa g-lnanEme  LO£ma g-Ig-Egama£yaxs g'll£raae mEni£Itses
g'IgEXLayo  LegEma lae pjES£Itsa pjElxElasgEme  qa Elg'aaLEleses gwil-
£yo qa£s al  LegEma,  £nE'max'ls  lo£ haiaqe"da IfiLaxa aloraas LegEmaxa
£naxwa bebEgwanEmasa pjElxElasgEme  qa LeqElesesa aitSEme  LegEm laq
WS,  la£me he£m§da aiS Hawllkulai dagEmexa pjElXElasgEmaxs lae* ya-
15    qwas laxa GwStEla  LE£wa  £walas Kwag'ui   LE£wa Qjorak'JStJEsS.    WS,
laEm yawas£Id laba.
WS, h^tlaLEn edzaguraLe  £walas Kwax'£lah6kuma8ye, ylxs SEk'Ja-
X'8Idalaes kjwa£ye.    WS, hSEmaexs  Legadaas emax,imEwesagEma8y§ laxa
£walas Kwag'ui.    WS,  la gEg'adts Lelak*EnedzEragaxa fiEm LegEm 8nEms-
gEmses abEmpe  laxa baxus.    WS,  la  LegadES X'ItsJax*IlasogwI8lakw
20    laxa tsjetsjeqa.    WS,  la Smax^mEwesagEraa^^ye  LegadES  LS8la8laku laxa ts.jetsjeqa.    Wa, he'Em lag'lias gEg'adEsa LegEmaees abErape ya-
qwapja£maaxaeda tsledaqe laxa baxuse.    WS, laxae yaqwapJaEmxaaxs
lae  tsjetsjeqeda Kwakwag-uie loxs lae pjeku laxa aioguxsE8makwe
lelqwalaLa8ya.
'25 WS,  la Emax^raEwesagEma8^  LegadES  8walas Kwax'Ilan5kuma£y€
laxes abask-Jota Mamaleleqala.    WS, la  LegadES  £nErasgEmk'Jala laxa
tsjetsjeqa.    WS,  laxae gEg'adEsa  LegEme ME£ledexa LegEmalas Snes8-
wuias Lalak-otsjoie.    WS,  la  LegadES TEitsJaas laxa tsj§tsJeqa.
WS,  laxae  £maxuraEwesagEma£y§  LegadES Sexuqfila laxa Mamaleleqala.
30    WS,  la LegadES Lax-s£ala lfixa tsjetsjeqa.    WS,  IS gEg'adEsa LegEme
 Ill
see WaLid,  the child of Hawllkulai,  with/two hundred blankets,"
said he.    Now the new Hawllkulai/had for his- ch?ld his sister,
WaLid,  for Hawllkulai was not yet old enough to have children./
For  that is the way of the ancient Indians, when (a person) has a
child  (5)   that child Is taken to dance  in the giving away of blankets./    The .two hundred blankets are   just like fastening/the name
Hawllkulai on Adag'iElak^.tThis is  just like a priest/baptising the'
children to have  their names.)    And it  is the/baptising of the Indians;  the giving away of blankets fastens  (10)  a name on a child.
And chiefs,  when they are tired of/their chldf's name,  they give '
away blankets to fasten on whatevei/new name they want,   just as
though, in obtaining a new name with blankets/all the men were paid
to call him the new name./    Now the new Hawllkulai had the office
of giving away property and blankets in the giving away  (15)  to
the GwStEla and the  £walas Kwag'ui and the Qjomk'JutjEs  .    Now this
is ended for a while.
Now the subject of my talk will be again 8walas Kwax*llanokume8
who had five/seats.    Now his name was  SraaxUmEwesagEme8 among the/
£walas Kwag'ui.    And he had for his wife LElak'EnedzEmga;  that is
just another name/of his mother in the  secular  season, and her name
was X'ItsJax'IlasogwI8laku  (20)   in the winter ceremonial.    And 8max«-
mEwesagEmS8 had the name LS8la8laku in the/winter ceremonial, And the
reason why he had for his wife  the name of his mother/is that the women give away property to one another in the  secular season; and the
Kwag-ui also give away property to one another/during the winter ceremonial and when they are invited  by other/tribes,/
(25) And Smax^mEwesagEme8 had the name  8walas Kwax*Ilanokurae8/on
his mother's  side among the  Mamaleleqala.     And he had the  name  8nE-
msgEmk'Jala  in the/winter ceremonial;  and he had for his wife  the
name ME8led,  the name of an aunt of/Lalak'otsJa, and her name  is
TEitsJaas  in the winter ceremonial./ And 8maxumEwesagEme8#had the
name Sexuqfila among the Mamaleleqala;(30)  and he had the name Lax*-
 112
LjaiLjaiElIsIlaogwa laxa baxus; wa,  la LegadES K'JanawSga laxa
tsjetsjeqa.    Wa,  laxae  8raaxuraEwesagEma8ye  LegadES Wamise laxa Mamaleleqala.    WS, IS LegadES Wig'His laxa tsjStsjSqa.    WS,  IS ge- .
g*ad£sa LegEme K'JSsogwi8laku laxa baxus; wS,  IS L§gadEs MEnlo-
5   sElas laxa ts.'ets J§qa.    WS, laxae Emax11 toe we sagEma8ye*  LegadES Ya-
qoLas laxa 8nE8raeraotasa L§lE8wag'ilSsa DzawadEenox'*; wa,  la LegadES Dzax»tsjfila laxa tsj§tsjeqa»    WS,  IS gEg'adEsa LegEme LE8waIi~
qjanaku laxa baxus; wS,  IS LegadEs 8ra£k*alEls laxa tsjetsjeqa. WS,
laEm laba laxeq.
10 Wa\, he*Era gWE8yfisa bakJume gEg*adEses SpsotJena8ye lax gwSia-
asas  8maxumEwesagEma8y§*    Wa,  IS filax-8Id la gEg-adES K'ogwisIlaogwa.    Wa,  g*H8mise g£g*adEX* 8IdEs K*ogwisilaogw£ lae x*IsaLEle
gEnErabuiSsexa fiEm LegEme LElak'EnedzEmga qaxs lE£ma§ filax»£Id gE-
g'ada.    WS, ISlS mosgEma LeLEgEm gEgEnEms.
15 Wa,  lEn k* Jes q.'fiLElax gwegum8yadzEXLayfis Sraa^mEwesagEmaSye
laxes 8waxaase  LE£wis gEgEnEme.    WS,  laEm laba..
The Acquisition of Names.
1. The name of  the newborn child.
^a,  he'Emaaxg  g.giae ma£yuL6  l Jax'L JalldzEmgSsa babagume,  ylxs
%0     ia£wada§  lJSx'LjalldzEragas  LjaqoLasxa xaraagEma8ye g'lgaraesa 8n£8me-
mutasa Yaex'ag£ma8yasa Qloraoyfi8ye lax Tsaxis.    WS, he'x* £ida£rais
#8   Legadeda babagumas Tsaxis.
 113
s8ala in the winter ceremonial.    And he had for his wife  the name/
(1)  LjaiLjaZElIsIlaSgwa in t&e secular season,  and she had  the name
K'Janawega in the. winter/ceremonial*    And 8maxUmEwe*sagEme8 also had
the name Warais among the Samaleleqala/and his name was Wlg'llis in
the winter ceremonial*    And he/had for his wife the name K'JSsog-
wi8laku in the secular season, and her name was MsniosElas/  (5)  in
the winter ceremonial.    And EinaxumEwesagEme8 also had the name Ya-
qoLas/  in the numaym LelE8wag*ila of the DzawadE§noxu, and he had
the name Dzax^tsJfila/in the winter ceremonial*    And he had for his
wife  the name LE8waIiq,anaku/ln the  secular season, and she had the.
name 8ra£k'alEls  in the winter ceremonial.    Now/that is the end* of
this.   (10)
This is what is called by the Indians "to have for a wife  the
other side,w   namely the way/£max,*mEwesagEme£   (had names for wives).
Now he really had for his wife K'OgwisIlaogwa./ And when he  took
K'ogwisllaogwa for his wife the  Imaginary wives disappeared./  That
is, LElak'EnedzEmga was only a name,  for now he really had a wife./
There were still four names as his wives.   (15)
I do not know the ochre names of 8maxuraEwesagEme*8,/their
whole number, and those of his wives.    This is  the end.
The Acquisition of Names
1. The  name of the newborn child.
When Ljax'LjalldzEraga first gave birth to a boy, for/(20)   Lja-
x'lJalldzEmga had for her husband LjaqoLas,  the head chief of the
numaym/ YaSx-agEme8 of the Q,*omoyfi8ye at Port Rupert,  then at once/
the child had the name Port Rupert.
 114
2. The name of the ten moons old child*
if.
Wa, laEm nEqasgEme £m£kulasa babagume g-Sg*lLEla lax xa£yuidE-
mas Ljax*LlalIdzEmgSs LegadES Tsaxis. WS, g*ll8ml85 hSiogwilaxs
lae LjaqoLas, ylx orapas Tsaxis L?£lala 8wl£laxa KwakwaV uie qa lSs
5 £wl£la hogwiL lax g*okwasxa £nek'a qasa ma8lokwa bebEgwanEm* G*a-
x£mEnu£xu qasae* qans le gwagum£yala laxwa he'iogwilax, 8n§k'5 lax
tjEX'Has g*ig*okwasa Kwakwag'uie. WS, g*ll8mlse g*ax 8wI£laeLa
£naxwa bebEgwanEm LE£wa ha8yai8a Lo£ma g*Ing*lnanEmS, laas axk'Ja-
lasE£weda ts.'Edfiqe LegadE AoraSixa g*ayoi§ lax 8nE8memotasa HaSnaLl-
10 nfisa Qlomoyfi8ye qa lSs ts.'EX'SEmdEx SE8ySs x'orasasa hSlogwila baba-
guraa, qaxs he£raae k* Jes£os Aoraoia ts.'ex-sEmdaxa he'iogwila g-Ing-Ina-
nEma. Wa,lS Le£lalaSE8wa 5gu8la ts.'Edaqxa gumsaLasa gumse laxa
g'lnanEme. WS, la ^e8lalasE8jwa ma£lokwe k* Jes8onuxl*sa kunxwetSsa
kunxwedEm. WS, he'Em Legadeda 8ma815kwe tsjedaxs kwekunxwetjenox^.
15 Wa, la Legadeda gumsElg*lse ts*Edaxs gdmsElg'isxa he'iogwila. WS,
la Legadeda ts.*EX*SEmdLax SE8ySs x*omsasa babagumas tsJsx'SEmdEl-
g'lsxa he'iogwila.
WS, g*ll8mise la £wl£la kjus8allla SEk*Jfikwe ts*e*daq laxa
5gwiwa£lliasa g*okwe lax kjwaelasas lJSx* LlalldzEraga, ylx abErapas
20 Tsaxisxa he'iogwila babaguma, wa, la Aomoie &x£edx§s LjEmqJax*S xagEme qaxs g*ax£mae dalaxa LiEmqJax*a xagEma LE£wa ae*k* Jaakwe* xSk1*
kJwaxLa£wa. He'Em Legadeda xokwe kJwaxLa£was tse8nanoxa tsjEX'SEmdax
SE8yasa he'iogwila. WS, la AoraoiS Sxk* Jalax L.'ax* LjalldzEmga qa ha-
qwaiesa g'lnanErae lax 5kwSx'a8yas. WS, la Aomoie xax£etsa LjEmqJax*S
25 xagEm lax SE8ySs x*orasasa g'lnanEme qa 8naxwes qlwax*8Ideda SE8ya.
WS, g*il£mis§ 8naxwa la qjwaieda SE8ya laS ax8edxa xokwe kJwaxLa8wa
qa8s m£x*LEnd§s oba8yas laxa lEgwIiS. Wa, g*Il8mise x'Ix8ed£XS lae
dax'Eltses gEra£x5itsJana£ye laxa LjEmqJax*a xagEma qa8s mak'Ilsales
oxwS8yasa xagEme lax Ljesas he*ik* .'5dEn6LEma£yas x'omsasa g'lnanEme.
30 wS, lasm nenElatfile SE£yasa g'lnanEme lax e*k* Jptx*Syasa xagEme. WS,
he'Emis la tsjetsjEX'atfiso£s Aomoie. WS, IS k-Jes geg-HIiExs lae
 115
2. The name of the ten moons old child.
For ten moons the boy,  beginning from the  time when he was
born by/Ljax'L JalldzEmga had the name Port Rupert.      As soon as
he had the right age, (that is ten moons old),/then LjaqoLas,  the father of Fort Rupert called all  the Kwag'ui  tribes  to go  (5)   into his
house,  and the  two men who invite  said,  nWe  come/to  invite you to
help to paint  this one who  is  ten moons old."    Thus they said at
the/door of the houses of the Kwag'ui  tribes*    And when all  the men
had come  in/and the young men and also the children,  they asked/ a
wpman whose name is Aomoi,  who belongs  to  the numaym HaanaLino  (10)
of the Qj5moyfi8ye,  to scorch off the hair of  the head of the  ten
moons old boyJ for this  is the privilege of Aomoi,  to scorch off the
hair of  the ten moons old child./    Then other women were called,  the
one who was to paint the child with ochre/and the  two were called
whose privilege  it is to put on the leg/and arm-rings. And these two
women have  the name   Tne-0nes-to-Put-on-the-Leg-and-Arra-Rings,(15)
and/the one who scorches the hair Of the head of the boy has the
name Scorcher-of-the-/ Ten-Moons-Old-Child*
As soon as the five women had sat down in the/rear of the
house, where  sat  Ljax*LjalldzEraga,  the mother  (20)  of Fort Rupert,
the ten moons old boy,  then Aomoi  took her yew wood/comb,  for she
carae  carrying her yew wood comb and well  split/cedar wood.    And
this is the name of the cedar wood, means of scorching off/the hair
of the ten moons old child.    Then Aomoi asked Ljax*LlalldzEmga to
put on his stomach/the child on her knees.    Then Aomoi  combed with
the yew wood (25)   comb the head of the  child so  that each hair stood
on end./ And when all  the hair  stood on end,  then she  too't the  split
cedar wood/and lit it in the fire.    And when it caught fire she/too):
with her left hand the yew wood comb and put/the  teeth of the comb
close to the  skin of the right hand side of the head of the child
(30)  and then the hair of the child showed on the upper side of the
comb. And/then it was that Aomoi scorched off,and it was not long
8*
 116
gwaia.    Wa,   g-ll£mise  gwaie Aomoie"  tsjEX'SEmda lae ax8edxa he  gwSx*Ba
loqjwe qa8s gwaxtsjodesa wuda£sta £wape laxa kwSdzatsJ§Laxa g'lnanEme*    WS, IS dax*£Idxa tsJesLala qa£s k'JlpJldls laxa k*jSs§  £walas
x*IxsEmala tJesEma qa£s k'JlpstEndes laxa £wab£tsjfiwasa kwadzatsjSLa-
5    xa g*Inan£me\.    Wa, ra03gEraa x*Ix-IxsEmala tJSflEm he£yago k* Jlp£stanos
iSxa £wabatsjfiwasa kwadzatsjSLaxa hSiogwila g*lnan£raa.    WS,  g*ll8mls§
gwaia lae Aomoie qjai£ldxa g'lnanEme qa£s nEik'ax'allieaexs lae mopj-
Ena ax£stEndxes he'ik* JoitsJana£ye laxa tsjElx8stax.'s5kula 8wapa qa£s
raopjEne  LoxsEmtses kjunkwaxtsjana£ye lax x'orasasa g-lnanEme.    WS 12-
10    wiSLe kwas£Id£x x'Smsas.    WS,  g'ilBmise  gwaia la? tsJoxwitledEX 5kjwi-
na£yas.    WS,  g*ll£mise gwaia lae ax£ede ASraoiaxa ae*k* Jaakwe qiuyaaku
k-adzEkwa  qa£s deg*it Je*de*s laxa g'lnanEraS.     WS,  laEm gwaie ea£xena£-
yas Aomoie.    Wa, he*Em k* Jes£os g-ag-^LEla laxa nuyfmballsas ASraoie.
Wa,  le*da raa8lokwe tsjedaq qJalaxLa8yaxa g*$nanErae lax AomoiS
15    qa^s k'EnxwitJedesa k-EnxwidEmasa g'lnanEmexa Legadas Tsaxise. Wa,
g*n8mise gwaia ma£lokwe  tsjedaq k'EnxwItasa k'EnxwidErae laxa g'lnanEme laaea gtimsElg'Ise  tsjedaq q.'aiaXLa£yaxa g'lnanEme laxa tsle-
daq§ qa£s kJwak'Sx*al*ti§s.    WS,  la£me waxeda tslEdaqaxa £naxwa bebEgwanEm LE£Wa ha8yai8a L08ma 8naxwa g*lng*lnan£ra qa wSg*is 8naxwa
20    guras8lda,  fi£rae  £nek'£xs la§ gums£Idxa x-omsasa g'lnanEraS  LE£wis
goguraaEye.
WS,  g*il£mise  gwaia  LE£wa £naxwa bebEgwanEm gurasa laasa qEX'-
atodElg-llse tsjedaq qJaiaxLa£yaxa g'lnanEme laxa gumsElg*lse
ts.'edaqa. Wa, he'Em qsx-atotsa wawade yEmElk° lax x*orasas Tsaxisaxs
25     g'alae ma£yoLEmses abEmpe Llax'L.alldzEmga qa g'HtEmes  TsaxlsS.
WS,  laEm qEX-atotsa laiaxwiwa8ye laxa g'lnanEme.
Wa,  g'HEmisS gwaia laas Lax8wallie Ljaqotas, ylx 5mpas  Tsaxise.
WS, la yaqjEg'a8ia.    WS,  IS 8nek*a. WS,  g'oig-uknlot,  la8rae gwaiale-
ia ylx ea£xena£yasa SEk*Jfikwex tsjedaqaxwa k*Jek*Jes£onukwex yls5s
30    gwegwSlag-£11 £lasaxg* In xunokuk'  laxg*a TsaxisEk*.    WS, laErak-   l!S-
yux«LSL.    LaEms gwai  LeqalaLES    Tsaxise lax g*In xunokuk*.    LaEms
 117
before she (1) finished* And when Aoraoi had finished scorching off
the hair, she took some thing like/a dish and she poured cold water
into it as a wash-basin for the child./ Then she took tongs and
picked up red-hot stones which were not large/and she put them into
the wash-basin for the <5)"child. She put four red-hot stones/Into
the water In the wash-basin/7 for the ten moons old child. As soon
as/she had finished Aomoi took the child in her arms and laid It on
its back. And four times/she dipped her right hand into the lukewarm water and/four times she pressed her wet hands on the head of
the child, and,finally, (10) she washed Its head. When she had finished she washed its body,/and when she had finished Aomoi took the
well rubbed shredded/cedar bark and wiped off the child with.it.
How is finished the work of/Aoraoi, and this is her privilege beginning from the family history of Aomoi./
Then the two women took the child from Aomoi (15) and they put
- the straps on the child whose name was Fort Rupert. And/when the
two women had put the straps around the legs and arms of the child/
the painter woman took the child away from, the women/and put. It on
her knee. Then the woman said to all the men/and the young men and
all the children to go ahead and (20) to paint themselves with ochre
She just said so and painted the head of the child and its/face*/
After she had finished and when all the men had painted themselves,/ the woman who puts the kerchief around the head took the
child from the painter/woman. She Is the one who put the split
kelp around thn» head of Fort Ruper-t when (25) he was firart born by
his mother, Ljax*L*alIdzEmga, so that Fort Rupert might have a long
head./ Then she put the kerchief around the head of the childy
When she had finished, arose LjaqoLas, the father of Fort
Rupert*/ He spoke and said; •'Oh, tribes, now is finished/the
work of these five women, of those who have the privilege of doing
what (30) they have \>een doing to my child, Fort Rupert. Now/his
name will be changed. Now you will stop calling my child Fort Ru-
 118
LeqalaLES Wawaik'lne iSqEk*. WS, laEitik' g'iniaxuSlax Wawaik'lne'
qa fiene£raaLas ma£yoLaXLayowe Tsaxise", 8nSk'S. WS, la8me yax8wltsa
qJenEme laalaxwlwe" laxa 8naxwa bebEgwanEm LE£wa g*Ing*InanEme• WS,
laEm he*iogwilaxLSyowe Wawaik'lne. WS, lasm gwai laxa raa£ltSEme
5 LeLEgEma.
3. The name of the young man.
WS, g*ll8mise moxsa 8nalSsa k-EnxwidEina laas lawuya*. WS, la-
£me Le£lal§ LlaqoLasax