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A general history of birds. Vol. X Latham, John, 1740-1837 1824

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  THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
WOODWARD HISTORICAL
COLLECTION
fiir3tt^h^sMMr£9j» ^TOMEKBSaas
     GENERAL    HISTORY
BIRDS.
BY JOHN LATHAM,  M.D.
F.R.S.   A.S. and L.S.
Acad. Cjes. Nat. Curios.    Reg. Holm,   bt Soc. Nat. Scrut. Beroliw.   &c. &c.
VOL. X.
WINCHESTER:
PRINTED   BY   JACOB    AND   JOHNSON,    FOR   THE   AUTHOR: SOLD    IN    LONDON   BY
G.   AND  W. B.  WHITTAKER,   IvE-MARIA-LANE ;   JOHN   WARREN,   BOND-STREET;
W.   WOOD,  428,   STRAND ;   AND   J.   MAWMAN,   39,   LUDGATE-STREET.
I
1824.
  NAMES OF ADDITIONAL SUBSCRIBERS.
—»»e®«««-
Auber, Miss
Bowles, William, Esq. Fitzhams House, Abingdon, Berks
Collings, — Esq. Hampstead, Middlesex
DangerfieJfLjCaRt^jp, Calcutta
De Grey, Hon. and Rev. Thomas, Prebendary of Winchester
Doap, Right Rev. Bishop of
Forster, E. Esq. 6, St. Helen's Place, Bishopsgate
Gillman, John, M.D.   Calcutta
Graves, Mr. G.
Harman, Jeremiah, Esq.   Highham House, Essex
Hardwicke, General.—4 Copies
Hagfcjngs, Most Noble Marchioness of
Hinchman, — Esq. Great Orniond Street
Horsley, J. W. Esq. Chiswick
Latham, Richard, Esq. 20, Great Russel Street, Bloomsbury
Lewis, William, Esq. Brunswick Square
Lowis, Lieut. J. T. Calcutta
Masterman, Henry, Esq. Millbrook
Morris, Philip, Esq. Hurst, near Bisjjftfi's Castle
Newton, T. Esq. Cheadle Heath, Stockport, Cheshire
Ouvrey, Miss, Great Ealing, Middlesex
Palmer, John, Esq.   Calcutta
Pitcher, H. Esq. Northfleet, Kent..
Porter, Robert, Esq; Farnharn, Surrey
Tomkins, Mrs. Broughton, Hants
Wallich, Nat. M.D. Hort. Botan. Direct. Calcutta
_J
 Directions for placing the Plates.
167
168
RED-NECKED Phalarope   -     to face Page 3
African Finfoot  10
Crested Coot  17
Red-necked Grebe  27
American Avoset  39
Red Flamingo  43
Yellow-nosed Albatross  52
Heads of Auks  57
Marbled Guillemot  83
Chinese Diver           -___-_ 95
Black Skimmer  96
Sooty Tern                 102
Arctic Gull                        a        -        -        -        - 164
Giant Petrel             ------ 170
Hooded Merganser           ----- 206
Semipalmated Goose        -        -        -        -        _ 295
Pink-headed Duck  343
Little Pinguin  387
Woolly Pinguin      ------ 392
Spotted Shag  427
Red-tailed Tropic Bird  447
Black-bellied Darter       ----- 452
 ORDER VIII.   WITH PINNATED FEET.
GENUS XCI.—PHALAROPE.
* With slender Bills.
C Var.
4 Flat-billed
1 Red
2 American
5 Plain
A  Var.
** With flat Bills.
6 Ferruginou
B Var.
3 Grey
7 Barred
JljILL straight.    Nostrils minute.
Body and legs as in the Sandpiper,  but rather compressed on
the sides.
Toes furnished with a broad, and generally scolloped, membrane.
WITH SLENDER BILLS.
1.—RED PHALAROPE.
Phalaropus hyperboreus,   Ind. Orn. ii. 775.     Muller, No. 196.     Lin. Trans.
Tern. Man. 457.    Id. Ed. 2d. 709.    Frankl. Narr. App. 690.
Tringa hyperborea, Lin. i. 249.    Gm. Lin. i. 675.
Tringa lobata, Fn.Groenl. No. 75.    Fn. Suec. No. 179. first parag.    Id.Retz.
Phalaropus cinereus, Bris. vii. p. 15.    Id. 8vo. ii. 362.
Phalaropus Williamsii, Lin. Trans, viii. p. 264.
Larus fidipes alter nostras, Raii, 132. A. 7.    Will. 270.
Dei- Wassertretter, Schmid, Vog. 128. t. 111.
Johnson's Small cloven-footed Gull,  Will. Engl.Ztt. §. vii.
Phalaiope de Siberie, PI. enl. 766.    Bnf. viii. p. 224. Ph. cendre.
Cock Coot-footed Tringa, Edw. pi. 143.
Red Rhalarope, Gen. Syn. v. 270.    Br. Zool. ii. No. 219. pi. 76.    Id. 1812. ii
pi. 21.   Bewick, ii. 139.    Lewin, v. pi. 193.   Wale. ii. pi. 127.   Orn. Diet.
. p. 125.
Sf Supp.
LENGTH about seven inches.    Bill one inch long, slender, and
black; the general colour of the plumage above ash-colour, coming
 2 PHALAROPE.
forwards on the lower part of the neck; through the eyes, from the
bill, a dusky stripe to the hindhead; fcehind the eyes a rufous one,
reaching on the sides of the neck, and joining the other at the back
part; rump, and upper tail coverts banded dusky and white; all the
under parts of the body dusky white, but the sides marked with ash-
coloured spots; under wing coverts crossed with lines of black, the
upper ash-colour, the greater brown, tipped white, forming a band
on the wing; scapulars margined with rufous; quills dusky, some of
the secondaries tipped with white; tail dusky; legs dusky lead-colour.
The female has a mixture of rufous about the eyes; the rufous on
the neck less extended, and mixing with the cinereous; the spots on
the sides fewer, with some longitudinal streaks on the upper parts.
The above seems to be descriptive of the two sexes in a complete
state of plumage.
The Red Phalarope is very rare in England"; one is mentioned,
shot in Yorkshire, near Brignal; another on the banks of a fresh
water pool, in the Isle of Stronsa, in May, 1769; and a specimen in
the Leverian Museum, killed in England : is said to be more common
on the Continent, being found in Siberia, and in the neighbourhood
of the Caspian Sea; also in Scandinavia; comes into Greenland in
April, and1 departs in September; generally found in pairs, and
whilst swimming, frequently dips the bill into the water, after insects;
for it is said not to be able to dive, or does so with difficulty: that
described by Mr. Johnson was much on the wing; the wings sharp,
and the cry like that of the Greater Tern.
Inhabits also America; comes into Hudson's Bay the beginning
of June, and lays four eggs about the middle ofthe month, on a dry
spot: the young fly in August, and they wholly depart in September;
known there by the name of Occumushishisk, or A-coom-oo-shish.
That described by Mr. Simmonds, under the name of Phalaropus
Williamsii, answered to the description above. He met with them
in plenty at the edges of two or three fresh water lakes, in Sanda,
and North Ronaldsha, the two most northerly ofthe Orkney Islands;
   PHALAROPE. 3
in their stomachs were found the remains of Monoculi and Onisci; but
what appeared singular, the male had a great deficiency of feathers
on the belly, and from the great difficulty of driving them from the
tufts where the nests were supposed to be, it would seem probable,
that the males principally perform the business of incubation.
Pl. clxhi.
A.—Phalaropus hyperboreus, Ind. Orn. ii. 775. B.
Red Phalarope, Gen. Syn. v. 272. Var. A.—PL in frontispiece.    Orn. Diet. Supp.
Length eight inches and a half. Bill black, slender; plumage
on all the upper parts clouded brown, surrounding the breast, which
is paler; chin white; belly and vent the same ; on each side of the
neck a large, irregular, deep ferruginous red spot; tbe greater wing
coverts tipped with white, forming a bar; quills black; tail cinereous, but the two middle feathers dark, nearly black; legs dusky;
toes furnished with a lobated membrane on the sides, as in the first
described.—In the collection of Sir Joseph Banks. Found between
Asia and America, from lat. 66. to 69.
One in Mr. Donovan's collection had the head nearly black ; the
chin white; the whole neck and sides of the breast red, but the
middle of the last cinereous; belly white ; upper part of the body
dusky: an egg, exhibited with the bird, was much in colour like
that of the Common Plover, but smaller.
B.—Phalaropus fuscus, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 776.     Bris. vi. p. 18.     Id. 8vo. ii. 363.   Lin.
Trans, xii. 535.
Tringa fusca rostro tenui, Klein, Av. 151. 3.
Tringa lobata, Brun. Orn. p. 51. N. 171.
Coot-footed Tringa, Edw. pl.46.
Brown Phalarope, Gen. Syn. v. 274.    Arct. Zool. ii. 214.
Size of the others.    Crown of the head black ; plumage greatly
similar, but most of the feathers, on the upper parts, fringed with
 4 PHALAROPE.
light rufous; fore part of the neck cinereous, with a slight tinge of
blossom-colour; wing coverts and quills dusky, edged and tipped
with white; across the wing a bar of white, but not so broad as in
the first described; breast and under parts white, but the sides of
the breast, and flanks are light ash, and on the sides of the neck a
tinge of yellow; legs black.
Inhabits America ; one of these flew on board a ship on the Coast
of Maryland. It may appear to be a Variety only, if not a female;
but Captain Sabine, who met with a small flock on the west Coast
of Greenland, considers it as an immature bird.
C—Phalaropus hyperboreus, Amer. Orn. ix. 75. pi. 73. f. 4.
The one figured in the Amer. Ornith. although bearing the same
name, does not answer as to colour; it is said to be nine inches long,
and fifteen broad. Bill orange, one inch long; throat, sides, neck,
and lower parts white, thickly and irregularly barred with curving
dashes of chocolate; the upper parts deep slate, streaked brownish
yellow and black; the black scapulars broadly edged with brownish
yellow; rump and wings dark slate; the primaries nearly black, crossed
with white below the coverts; greater wing coverts broadly tipped "
with white, forming a large band ; vent white; the feathers immediately next the tail reddish chocolate; legs black on the outside,
yellowish "within ; middle toe small, and partly pinnate.
Inhabits America; found in Pennsylvania, but very rare.
2.—AMERICAN PHALAROPE.
Phalaropus Wilsoni, American Phalarope, Frankl. Nar. App. p. 691.
LENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill one inch and a quarter,
black, narrow at the base, and slender, with a very slight general
incurvation; forehead and crown clear, pale ash-colour; through
 PHALAROPE. 5
the eyes a narrow line to the side of the neck, where it widens considerably, and continues in a broad patch to the back; this mark is
at first black, but half an inch beyond the eye deep chestnut; chin
and sides of the head, between the above line, white ; neck dingy
white, slightly tinged with chestnut; belly and all beneath white;
at the back of the neck, between the two dark markings, a white
line; back and scapulars dark ash, with a little mixture of chestnut;
wings dark ash, larger coverts and secondaries slightly edged with
white; the two middle tail feathers ash-colour, the others the same
on the outer web; mottled ash-colour and white on the inner ; upper
tail coverts ash-colour, under white; legs black, bare near an inch
above the knee; toes lobed, the outer united to the middle one, at
a short distance from the base, claws small, curved, black.
Inhabits North America.    Received in  a collection dispatched
from Cumberland House, in the spring, 1820.
WITH FLAT BILLS.
3.—GREY PHALAROPE.
Phalaropus lobatus, Ind. Orn. ii. 776.    Amer. Orn. ix. 92. pi. 73. f. 3.
Tringa lobata, Lin. i. 249.    Gm. Lin. i. 674.    Midler, No. 195.
Phalaropus, Bris. vi. p. 12.    Id. 8vo. ii. 361.    Fn. suec. No. 179.
Phalaropus platyrhynchos, Tern. Man. 459,    Id. Ed. 2d. 712.    Parry's App. p. cci.
Tringa cinerea gutture albo, White-throated Coot-footed Tringa, Bartr.Trav. p. 302.
Le Phalarope a festons denteles, Buf. viii. 226.
Grey Coot-footed Tringa, Edw. pi. 308.    Phil. Trans. L. p. 255. pi. 6.
Grey Phalarope,   Gen. Syn. v. 272.     Br. Zool. No. 218. pi. 76.     Id.fol. 126. pi. E.
1. f. 3.     Id. 1812. ii. p. 123. pi. 21.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 218.    Bewick, ii. pi. p.
140.    Lewin, v. pi. 194.    Orn. Diet.
LENGTH seven inches and a half, extent sixteen; weight one
ounce and three quarters.   Bill black, flattened near the point, about
 6
PHALAROPE.
oneiinch long; trades dark; hind part of the head and neck dssky
brown, dashed with ash-colour; upper parts of the body, scapulars,
and wing coverts, cinereous grey, the feathers of the last darkest,
and edged with white; forehead, crown, chin, and all the under
parts, pure white, except the bend of the wing, and the sides of the
breast, which are cinereous; on the cheek a dusky spot.; quills
black ; tail dusky, edged with ash ; legs compressed like those ofthe
Diver, and pale ; toes scolloped, membranes serrated on their margins. This description is taken from a specimen killed in a pond at
Alderton, in Wiltshire, in the collection of the late Col. Montagu ;
tfoaffc of the Br. Zool. had the forehead white; crown dusky, hind
part of the neck light grey; the rest of the parte above deep dove-
colour, marked with dusky spots; scapulars edged with white; breast
and belly white; tail dusky, ^tbe feathers edged with ash-colour.
This was shot in Yorkshire, and communicated by Mr. Edwards.
Another, in my own collection, had the whole of the top of the
head, sides, chin, and neck white; hindheadand neck dusky; prime
quills plain; the secondaries margined with white; the scolloped
membranes yellowish. I have likewise met with another, with the
whole head and neck brown ; the chin alone being white.
The above mostly inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Iceland,
and Greenland; is frequent throughout Siberia, about lakes and
rivers, especially in autumn; has also been met with among the ice
between Asia and America, and, if the same as that in the Phil.
Trans, is found in the salt marshes, and in flocks about the borders
of the Caspian Sea: as to England, it is a rare species.
4—FLAT-BILLED  PHALAROPE.
Tringa fulicaria, Lin. i. 249.    Fn. Groenl. No. 76.    Brun. N
Tringa hyperborea, Gm. Lin. i. p. 676. Var. /3.
Phalaropus Platyrhynchos, Flat-billed Phalarope, Lin. Tram
uPhalaropus rufescens, Bris. vi. 20.   Id. 8vo. ii. 363.
Muller, No. 195.-
, p. 536.
	
 1
PHALAROPE. 7
Tringa rufa, Red Coot-footed Tringa, Bartr. Trav. 292.    Edw. pi. 142.
Red Phalarope (female), Gen. Syn. v. p. 271.    Br. Misc. i. 1.10.
SIZE of the former. Bill the same; head, throat, hind part of
the neck, back, scapulars, and upper tail coverts black, margined
with rufous; over the eye a pale rufous streak ; rump white, spotted
with dusky; beneath, from the throat, dusky red, with a mixture of
white; wings and tail as before.
The above was killed on the 10th of June, out of a flock of four,
on the west Coast of Greenland, in lat. 68° ; they were swimming
in the sea, amongst icebergs, three or four miles from shore. This
appears to be in the summer plumage, at which time it is probably
in its most perfect state: this and the last appear to be related.
5—PLAIN PHALAROPE.
Phalaropus glacialis, Ind. Orn. ii. 776.    Lin. Trans, xii. p. 536.
Tringa glacialis, Gm. Lin. i. 675.
Plain Phalarope, Gen. Syn. v. 273.    Arct. Zool.ii. No. 415.
BILL black, slender, dilated at the end; crown dusky and dull
yellow ; across each eye a black line ; cheeks, and neck before, clay-
colour; breast and belly white; back and tertfals dusky, edged with
dull yellow; wing coverts, primaries, and tail cinereous; the last
edged like the tertials; legs yellowish ; the toes bordered with a
plain, or unscolloped membrane.
This was taken in the Frozen Sea, in lat. 69£° Jong-191^° and
supposed to be in incomplete plumage. In Capt. Sabine's Memoir,
it is set down as belonging to his Flat-billed Species, in change of
feather; on which we have only to observe, that if birds, in such a
dress, should be found hereafter, and the whole of them wanting the
serratures on the lobated toes, it is possible that the bird here described
may prove distinct: but Colonel Montagu mentions the probability
 8 PHALAROPE.
of the toes having been so much contracted in drying, at to make
the matter undetermined, though he gives his opinion of the bird
being only the young of the Grey Species.
6—FERRUGINOUS PHALAROPE.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill nearly one inch, brown,
with a blackish tip, and broader towards that part; plumage above
brown, the edges of the feathers ferruginous, appearing in streaks ;
behind the eye a patch of white ; chin dusky ; under parts from chin
to vent ferruginous, mottled under the wings with dusky; wings fine
ash-colour; shafts ofthe quills white; ends ofthe greater wing
coverts white, forming an oblique band on the wing; scapulars as
the back, and nearly as long as the quills; as are the under tail
coverts, in respect to the tail; middle of the belly whitish ; tail two
inches long, rounded, brown ; the wings, when closed, nearly reach
to the end of it; legs dusky, toes furnished with a finely scolloped,
brown membrane; claws black.
A fine, and perfect specimen of this was in the collection of Mr.
Bullock, shot near London, but the time ofthe year not ascertained;
n^r.iare we assured that it is distinct as a species ; we have, however,
thought right to repeat the various descriptions before detailed in the
Synopsis', as well as recorded by other authors, to give the reader a
clearer view; yet we are by no means averse to join in opinion of
compressing them into two Species only, according to the sentiments
of Col. Montagu and Mr Sabine,* and, indeed, from so few having
fallen under our own observation, we do not feel ourselves competent
to decide.
I
 1
PHALAROPE.
7—BARRED  PHALAROPE.
Phalaropus cancellatus, Ind. Orn. ii. 777.
Tringa cancellata, Gm. Lin. i. 675.
Barred Phalarope, Gen. Syn v. 274.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill one inch, black, shape
uncertain ; feathers on the upper parts of the body brown, edged
with white; under parts white, transversely barred with dusky;
quills dusky, with.brown ends, the margins and tips very pale ; tail
the same, spotted on both webs with white ; legs dusky.
Inhabits Christmas Island.—Sir Joseph Banks.
 10
GENUS XCIL—FINFOOT.
1    African Finfoot ||       2    American Finfoot
BlLL moderately curved, pointed, and elongated.
Nostrils linear.
Body depressed.
Tail somewhat cuneiform.
Legs short. Toes four in number, three placed before, and one
behind ; and furnished with an indented, or scolloped membrane;
claws sharp, and bent.
1.—AFRICAN FINFOOT.—Pl. clxiv.
SIZE of a Coot; length eighteen inches. Bill one inch and
three quarters in length, brown, formed like that of a Diver, somewhat bent, especially towards the point; the under mandible pale ;
nostrils in a depression, half the length of the bill, being a pervious
slit on the fore part; tongue three-fourths of the length of the bill;
plumage in general above brown, with several spots of the size of
peas, on the lower part ofthe neck, and beginning ofthe back, but
more numerous on the former; these are bufp-coloured, and margined
with black; over the eye sparingly beset with feathers, or rather
down ; from behind the eye a slender streak of white, passing down
on each side of the neck; chin and throat white; the rest of the
under parts dirty rufous white, inclining most to white on the breast;
vent pale rufous brown ; side feathers under the wings, marked with
two or more obsolete spots on each side of the shaft; under wing
coverts brown, spotted with white; tail cuneiform, stout, nearly six
inches long, the outer feathers about three; the whole of a dark
colour, with tawny yellow, stiff webs ; thighs bare a little way above
the joint; legs strong, four inches in length from the joint to the
foot, the toes all disunited, but furnished on each side with a triple,
   vxmfatr&
  !
scolloped membrane, in the manner of the Phalarope, or Coot; the
colour orange ; claws pretty long* and hooked, the middle one serrated oil tbe Inner edge; the wings reach to about one-third on the
tail.—Inhabits Africa. Tbe above description taken from a speci-
men in the collection of Mr. H. Brogden. I observe a second also
in that of Mr. Bullock; and a third in the possession of Mr. Lead-
beater ; but the last is smaller, the colour and spots less defined,
and most probably differs in sex, or may not have arrived at perfect
maturity.
2.—AMERICAN FINFOOT.
Plotus Surinamensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 896.    Gm. Lin. i. 581.
Le Grebe-foulque, Buf. viii. 248.    PI. enl. 893.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. cvi. Podoa.
Oiseau de Soleil, Descr. Surin. ii. 192.
Le Macas a doigtier, Voy. d'Azara,\v. No"; 446.  .
Surinam Tern, Brown, III. p. 90. pi. 39.
Surinam Darter, Gen. Syn.\\. 626.
SIZE of a Teal; length thirteen" inches, Bill one inch and one-
eighth long, pale, and sharp at the point; irides red; crown of the
head black, and the feathers elongated into a small crest; the head
small; the neck slender, and long in proportion to the body ; cheeks
blight:bay; from the corners of each eye aline of white; sides, and
hind part ofthe neck, longitudinally marked with lines of black and
white; back, wings, and tail dusky brown ; the last wedge-shaped, .
and tipped with white ; the upper coverts very long, giving the
appearance of two tails, one above the other; breast and belly white;
legs short, pale dusky; toes four in number, three before and one
behind ; the forward ones furnished on each side with a lobated
membrane, and crossed with several bars of black, four on the outer
toe, three on the middle, and two on the inner; claws rather bent,
and sharp; the hind toe free, but with a single plain membrane;
the quills reach to within an inch of the length of the tail, which,
towards the end, is crossed with a bar of dusky black.
c 2
j
 Inhabits Surinam, chiefly on the sides of rivers and creeks; feeds
on small fish and insects, more particularly flies, and in catching
them is so dexterous, as never to miss striking one with the bill; it
is often domesticated by the inhabitants, and known to them by the
name of Sun-Bird: said to be very active, with the head and body
continually in motion: from its very frequently expanding the tail
and wings at the same time, it has been thought to resemble the sun,
and from thence has obtained the above name.
We may observe how different the conceptions of authors are,
who have described this bird, which, to say the truth, does not
entirely correspond with any Genus yet known. Dr. Forster ranks
it with the Darters, from the connexion of the webs of all the four
toes, which, in the complete bird, he says, is sufficiently conspicuous.
In the specimens, however, which have come under our inspection,
such connexion has not been to us at all clear: one circumstance,
indeed, seems to shew the vicinity to the Darters, which is the
suddenly darting of the bill on the object of its prey; yet it differs
from them in not being bare on the sides of the head. Brown likens
this bird to the Tern, to which it approaches by the bill. Buffon
seems to come nearest to our ideas, by placing it between the Coot
and Grebe, though it does not entirely correspond with either. We
have therefore ranked it with our African Species, forming therewith
a distinct Genus—leaving to futurity the propriety of so doing, and
well knowing that Nature will not, in many instances, submit to the
confinement of system, however useful such method may be, in
assisting to arrange her works.
 1 Common Co<
A Var.
B Var.
C Var.
13
GENUS XCIIL—COOT.
D Var
2 Greatei
A Var.
3 Crested
4 Mexican
5 Cinereous
J3ILL strong, thick, sloping to the point; the base of the upper
mandible rising far up into the forehead ; both mandibles of equal
length.
Nostrils inclining to oval, narrow, short.
Body compressed; wings short.    Tail short.
Toes long, furnished with broad, scolloped membranes.
1—COMMON COOT.
lica atra, Ind. Orn. ii. 777. Lin. i. 257. Fn. suec. No. 193. Gm. Lin. i. 702.
Scop. i. No. 149. Brun. No. 190. Muller, No. 216. Kramer, 357. 1. Frisch,
pi. 208. Georgi, p. 172. Hasselq. Voy. 200. 34. Sepp, t. p. 61. Bris. vi. 23.
t. 2. f. 2. Id. 8vo. ii. 365. Raii, 116. A. 1. Will. 239. t. 59. Brown, Jam.
479.    Sehtef. t. 34.     Klein, 150. 1.     Id. Stem. 40. t. 40. f. 1.   a. b.     Id. Ov.
Fn. Helv.
Lin. Trans.:
?r. On
. 197.
. 61. pi. 73. 1.
36. t. 12. f. 3.     Borowsk. iii. 97.
Tern. Man. 454.    Id. Ed. 2d. 706.
Fulica vulgaris, Gerin. v. t. 425.
Le Foulque, ou Morelle,   Buf. viii.  211.  pi. 18.
Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 447.
Folaga, 6 Polon, Zinnan. Uov. 108. t. 19. f. 96.    Get. Uc. Sard. 282.
Kleiner Bloessling, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 29.
Das rnssfarbige Wasserhuhn, Naturf. xiii. 218.
Das gemeine Wasserhuhn, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 251.    Id. Ed. 2d. iv. 511.    Schmid, 136.
t. 119.
Common Coot, Gen. Syn. v. 275.   Id. Sup. 259.
220. pi. 77.    Id.fol. 132. pi. F.     Id. 1812.
No. 416.   Will. Engl. 319. pi. 59.   Alb. i. pi. 83.    Be
pi. 195.    Id. Eggs, pi. xxxvii. f. I.     Walcot, ii. 167.
vol. i
PI. enl. 197.     Hist. Prov. 352.
Id. Sup. ii. 328.    Br. Zool. ii. No.
i. 127. pi. 22. f. 2.    Arct. Zool. ii.
k, ii. pi. 133.    Lewin, v.
Donov. pi. 106.     Pult.
Dors. p. 16.    Graves, Orn. vol. ii.    Orn. Diet. 8c Supp.
SIZE of a small Fowl; length eighteen inches; weight thirty
ounces.    Bill one inch and one-third, greenish white; on the roof
 I   1
14 coot.
of the mouth several fringed appendages; the forehead bare as far
as the crown, and covered with a white skin ;* the head, neck, and
back, are black ; the last inclining to ash-colour; breast, belly, and
vent ash; outer edge ofthe wing white; just above the knee a
circle, or garter of yellow; the colour of the legs, and bare parts
yellowish green.    Male and female nearly alike.
The Coot is pretty common throughout England, at all seasons ;
sometimes met with, many together, in winter, but in breeding time
chiefly seen in pairs, about the borders of ponds, well covered with
weeds, rushes, &c. and both swims and dives well. The nest is large,
composed of weeds, well matted together, lined with grass, and the
eggs six or seven in number ;t these are two inches and a quarter
long, of a pale brownish white, sprinkled all over with chocolate
spots, some very minute, most at the larger end. The young take
to the water very soon after hatching, but numbers fall a prey to
the Buzzards, which frequent the marshes. The food small fish, and
water insects, and sometimes the roots of the bulrush, with which it
has been observed to feed its young; it will also eat grain : is frequently brought to market in the winter season.
The Coot is in great abundance in the Isle of Sheppey, and the
inhabitants do not suffer the eggs to be destroyed, as the birds are an
esteemed article of food; they are shot, or otherwise taken, from
August, throughout the winter; are eaten by most people, and
thought very good; are first skinned, and then dressed in various
ways, like Pigeons. In the same place may be seen 400 or 500 in a
flock; they are often salted, and supposed best in season in August
and September: are also observed in vast numbers on large pieces of
water, in various other parts of England. We find them recorded by
authors as inhabiting Greenland, Sweden, Norway, Russia, Siberia,
* In the Leverian Museum was one, having in i
minence, or kind of comb, of a dark red colour:
in which neighbourhood they abound all the wintei
f Others say fifteen or sixteen, and even
h bald front a small pro-
vas sent from Gibraltar,
many as eighteen and twenty.
 X
COOT, 15
Persia, and China, as well as several parts of India; also the Isle
of Java: we believe very few places of the Old Continent, and its
Isles, are without them; are not unfrequent in Jamaica, Carolina,
and other parts of North America. The Indians, about Niagara,
dress tbe skins, and use them for pouches; are called in Carolina,.
Flusterers: common in the ponds of Georgia, most so in the winter
season; extend also to South America, being met with in small
numbers in Paraguay.
A.—Fulica leucoryx, Masi.Cgrls. i. pi. 12     Gm. Lin. i. 703.    Gen. Syn. Sup. 259*
This Variety has the eyelids pale; the whole of the wing white,
but the shafts of the prime quills black ; in other respects like the
Common Species.
This was found dead in the park at Stockholm, in Sweden.
B.—Fulica .Ethiops, Mus. Carls, fasc. i. pi. 13.    Gm. Lin. \. 704.    Gen. Syn. Sup. 259.
This differs from the Common One, in having the feathers of the
breast and belly ferruginous, undulated with brown.
C—White Coot, Br. Zool. ii. No. 220. Var.    Gen. Syn. v. 277.
This Variety was wholly white, except a few feathers on the
wings, and about the head, and was shot at Spalding, Lincolnshire.
D.—Length sixteen inches. Bill as in the Common, with the
forehead bare but a very little way, scarcely half so much as usual;
the head and neck black ; the back very dark ash-colour; belly the
same, but paler; outer web of the first quill white, and shorter by
three quarters of an inch than the second; under tail coverts white ;
tail one ifieh and three quarters long.
Inhabits Georgia.—Mr. Abbot.
 2.-GREATER COOT.
llica aterrima, Ind. Orn
ii 778.   Lin. i. 258.    Gm. Lin. i. 703.    Borowsk. iii. 98.
i „| , , an,™,    vaa      -M. t.2. f. 2.    /rf. 8vo. ii. 366.     Faun. Helvet.    Rail, 117. 2.
1$. 239. 1.15.    Klein, p. 151.   /A Stem. 40. t.40. f. 2.    Id. Ov. 36. t. 12. f.3 ?
Gerin.iv. t. 524.
Fulica fuliginosa, Scop.i. No. 150.
Grosser Bloessling met der Weissen Blaze, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 36.
Das swarze Wasserhuhn, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. 259.
La Foulque ajarretieres rouge, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 448.
Greater Coot, Gen. Syn. v. p. 277.    Br. Zool. ii. No. 221.    Id. 1812. ii. p. 129.    Will.
Engl. 320.   Bewick, ii. p. 137.    Walcot, ii. pi. 168.
THIS is larger than the Common Sort, with a similar plumage,
but blacker; it is distinguished, too, by the bare part of the forehead
being white, and the garter of a deep red.
This is found in Lancashire and Scotland, and recorded by authors
as a distinct Species; said to be more plentiful on the Continent, and
very common in Russia, and the western part of Siberia; also about
Sologne, in France, where it is called Judelle, and allowed to be
eaten on Maigre Days; the flesh much esteemed.
A.—Size uncertain.    Bill flesh-colour; irides red; head, neck, and
body bluish black; back, wings, and tail deep brown; a large square
patch of white, near the edge, about the middle of the wine: leffs
ii- s
pale olive green.
Inhabits India, and called Khuskull.—Sir J. Anstruther.
M. Azara, in his work above quoted, mentions this as frequenting
the Rivers of Paraguay, having seen three or four pairs; that they
swam with great ease, though perhaps less so than a Duck; and
he thinks it to be distinct from the Common Coot.
  [y^^^^j^r/r
 ^HBKste*
J
  1
3.—CRESTED COOT—Pl. clxv.
Fulica cristata, Ind. Orn. ii. 779.    Gm. Lin. i. 704.
'     Grande Foulque a Crete de Madagascar, Buf viii. 222.    PI. enl. 797.
Crested Coot, Gen. Syn. v. 278. 3. pl.90.
LENGTH eighteen inches. Bill whitish, with the base red; the
whole crown bare, and of a deep red, rising upwards into a bifid,
detached membrane, like a crest, as in some of the Jacana Species ;
the whole plumage blue black ; legs dusky, and formed as in the
Common Sort.
Inhabits Madagascar, and probably China also, as such an one
may be seen painted in Chinese drawings. The garter above the
knee of three colours—red, green, and yellow; the name of the bird
Tzing Kye.
4—MEXICAN  COOT.
Fulica Mexicana, Ind. Orn. ii. 779.    Bris. vi. 31.    Id. 8vo. ii. 367.    Gm. Lin. i. 704.
Fulicse Mexicanae altera Species, Yohoalcoachillin, Rail, 117.
Mexican Coot, Gen. Syn. v. 278.
SIZE of the Greater Coot. Bill red, with a yellow tip ; forehead
bare, and red; head, neck, breast, belly, thighs, under wing and
tail coverts purple; back, rump, and wing coverts pale green, varied
with blue and fulvous; quills pale green.—Inhabits Mexico.
5.—CINEREOUS COOT.
Fulica Americana, Ind. Orn. ii. 779. Gm. Lin. i. 704. Frankl. Narr. App. p. 690.
Fulica Floridana, Great Blue, or Slate-coloured Coot of Florida, Bartr. Traix. 294.
Cinereous Coot, Gen. Syn. v. 279.
SMALLER  than the Common Coot.    Bill pale green; bare
space over the forehead smaller than in that Species, and chestnut;
f
J
 18 COOT.
plumage above dusky ash-colour; beneath the same, but paler;
chin dusky white; down the middle of the belly the same; legs
blue black; membranes on each side of the toes much narrower than
in any other of the Genus.
A specimen of this was in the Museum of the late Sir A. Lever;
supposed to have come from North America. Mr. Abbot says, it is
met with in some ponds in winter, but is not frequent. From the
great similarity of the plumage in some of the above, it may be
suspected that they are greatly allied, father thati distinct as to
species.
 19
GENUS XCIV.—GREBE.
3 Horned
4 Dusky
5 Red-necl
A Var.
6 Indian
7 Little
8 Black-chin
9 White-winged
10 New-Holland
11 Rufous-breasted
12 Cayenne
13 Black-breasted
14 Pied-bill
15 Louisiane
THE bill in this Genus is strong, and sharp-pointed.
Nostrils linear.
Tongue slightly cloven at the end.
Space between the bill and eyes, or lore, bare of feathers.
Body depressed; feathers thick set, compact, very smooth, and
glossy.
Wings short.    No tail.
. Legs placed far behind, almost at the vent; much compressed,
and doubly serrated at the back part.
Toes furnished on each side with a broad, plain, membrane, and
the toes with nails not unlike those of the human species.
This Genus is placed by LinnaBus, with the Guillemots, and
Divers, under the general name of Colymbus, without even a
division ; but they differ materially <from one another, more especially
in the legs; in the Grebes they are not webbed. The Guillemots,
though web-footed, have only three toes, all placed forwards; and
the true Divers are web-footed, and have three toes before, and
one behind.
 20
1.—CRESTED GREBE.
IN COMPLETE PLUMAGE.
Podiceps cristatus, Ind. Orn. ii. 780.   Lin. i. 222.   Fn.
No. 151.     Scop. i. No.
99.r Brun. No. 135.   Muller, No. 97,   Frisch, t. 183.   Sepp, t. p. 169.    Bor. iii.
56. t. 43.   Fn. Helv.   Tern. Man. 462.    Id. Ed. 2d. 717.     Daud. i. p. 96. pi. 8.
sceleton.
Colymbus major cristatus, et cornutus, Rati, 124. A. 2.    Will. 257. t. 61.    Klein, 149.
1.   Gerin, v. t. 521.
Colymbus cornutus, Bris. vi. 45. t. 5. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. ii. 370.
Ardea exotica aurita, Pet. Gaz. t. 40. f. 12.
Le Grebe cornu,  Buf. viii. 235. pi. 19. PI. enl. 400.
Smergo, Fisolo marino, Zinnan. Uov. 107. t. 19. f. 95.
Der Gehaubte Steissfuss, Schmid, 137. t. 120.
Der grosse Haubentaucher, Bechst. Deuts. ii. 783.
Le Macas cornu, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 443.
Greater crested, and Horned Ducker, Will. Engl. 340. § 5. pi. 61. f. 1.   Plot's Staff.
229. pi. 22.   Alb. i. pi. 81.
Crested Grebe,  Gen. Syn. v. 281.     Br. Zool. ii. 498. No. 223.    Id.fol. 132. pi. K.
Id. 1812. ii. 130.     Arct. Zool. ii. 498. A.    Bewick, ii. pi. p. 145.    Leicin, v. pi.
106.    Walcot, i. pi. 102.   Dot
pi. 68.   Orn. Diet.   Graves, Om. V. i
IN THE SECOND YEAR'S PLUMAGE.
Colymbus cristatus, Bru. vi. 88. 2. t. 4.   Id. 8vo. ii. 868.
 major cristatus, Klein, 149. 2.
 cinereus major, Raii, 124. A. 1.     Will. 257.    Albin, ii. pi. 75.    Gerin. v
t."518.
Le Grebe huppe, Buf.
233.   PI. enl. 944.
:d Loon, WiU. Engl. 340. § 4. pi. 61. f. 4.
'
IN THE PLUMAGE OF THE FIRST YEAR.
Podiceps urinator, Lin. i. 223.     Gm. Lin. i. 593.    Scop, i. No. 102.    Bor. ii,
Fn. Helvet.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 719.
Colymbus, Bris. vi. 34. t. 3. f. 1.   Id. 8vo. ii. 368.
—— cristatus major, femina, Gerin. v. t. 522.
—— major Aldrovandi, Raii, 125. 6.    Will. 256. fa 51.    Klein, 150. 3.
Le Grebe, Buf. vni. 227.   PL enl. 941.
Der Erztaucher, Bechst. Deutsch. ii. 792.
 GREBE. 21
Greater Loon, or Arsefoot, Will. Engl. 339. pi. 51.    Edw. 360. f. 2.
Tippet Grebe, Gen. Syn. v. p. 283.     Br. Zool. ii. No. 222. pi.78.    Id.fol. 133.    Id.
1812. ii. 134. A. pi. 23. f. 2.    Bewick, ii. pi. in p. 147.
THE above three sets of quotations are meant to discriminate
the three different stages of the Crested Grebe, and of which have
been made as many species, when in fact they are only one and the
same. The complete, and full aged, bird is nearly the size of a
Duck; length about two feet, and in breadth very little more; the
weight from two to three pounds. Bill two inches and three quarters
long, reddish flesh-colour, with a brown tip ; lore and irides crimson;
the head greatly enlarged with feathers, so as to make it appear
unnatural; the feathers are much elongated on each side of the
hindhead, appearing like ears, and from thence rounded like a ruff
to the under jaw; colour black, except the middle, which is bright
ferruginous; the neck behind, upper parts of the body, and wings
brown; sides of the head, round the eyes, and under parts, from
chin to vent, silvery white, and in many a mixture of pale ferruginous
across the breast; on the wings an oblique white bar; the inner ridge
of the wing is also white ; legs dusky.
A bird in the second year has the feathers of the head greatly
enlarged, dusky, or black, with a mixture of red, chiefly in streaks,
the division into two beginning to appear, though incomplete; in
other parts of the plumage similar to the fully adult, but the colours
less brilliant. The young bird, of the first season, is somewhat less
than when full grown, and wants both crest and ruff; the sides of
the neck striped downwards from the head, with a narrow line of
black and white; in other respects the colours and marks agree.
The female resembles most the male of the second year, weighing
less than two pounds, and about twenty inches in length. Bill light
flesh-colour; irides rufous brown; feathers about the head scarcely
elongated; plumage above dusky, dashed with ash-colour; the lore
brown; beneath it a stroke of small brown feathers, from mouth to
eye; the cheeks white, with a few black spots near the sides of the
 f^ai
ii ii
2^ OREBE.
throat; the under parts fine satiny white; shoulders and lesser wing
coverts'white; eleven first quill feathers dusky, the four last of tbem
tipped with white, the rest white; legs dusky without, inside pale
flesh-colour, edges yellowish; nails bluish.
The above are, we believe, the principal differences arising from
sex or age, but to describe every Variety that actually occurs, would
be difficult, for tbey vary exceedingly. We have had this matter
more fully ascertained, from the circumstance of a large flock of
them, which appeared, some years since, on various parts of the shores
of the Thames, from Gravesend to Greenwich, in the winter season,
many of which came under my inspection; and among them were
found the greatest Variety about the head, from being perfectly
without a crest, to the most complete one, with all intermediate
stages.
These birds are sufficiently common in some parts of England,
breeding in the Meres of Shropshire, and Cheshire, and in the East
Fen of Lincolnshire, where they are called Gaunts; and in some
parts are known by the name of Cargoose. The female lays four
white eggs, like those of the Pigeon ; and makes a nest of a large
size, formed of bogbean, stalks of water lily, pond weed, and water
violet, floating independent among the reeds and flags. It is penetrated by the water, and the bird sits on, and hatches the eggs in
that condition. The food chiefly consists of small fish, obtained by
diving, and sometimes vegetables;* feeds the young with small eels,
and the old bird will sometimes carry them, when tired, on its back*
rarely seen on land ; is a quick diver, difficult to be shot, darting
down on the least appearance of danger, and seldom flies farther
than the end of the lake which it frequents, f
These birds are well known on various parts of the Continent
of Europe;   common in the winter time on   the Lake of Geneva,
* B*. Haysferm mentions one of the Tippet ^ebe, ..having been shot near Carlisle
wh.ch had half-digested vegetables, and a great number of feathers, in its stomach.
f Br. Zool.
 GREBE. 03V
appearing in flocks often or twelve, and are killed ebtefly on account
of their beautiful skins; those of the breast, from their delicately
White and glossy appearance, being greatly esteemed,, and dressed
with the feathers on, are made into muffs and tippets, and each valued
at fourteen shillings;* is said also to be common on the Lakes of
Siberia, but not seen in Russia.f
2.— EARED GREBE.
Podiceps auritus, Ind. Orn. ii. 781.    Tern. Man. 469.    Id. Ed. 2d. 726.
Colymbus auritus, Lin. i. 222.     Fn. suec. No. 152.     Scop. i. No. 106.     Brun. No.
13$ 137.   Muller, p. 20.    Bris. vi. p. 54. 6.    Id. 8vo. ii. 372.    Borowsk. iii. 61.
Fn. Helv.    Gerin. v. t. 520.
Le petit Grebe huppe, Buf. viii. 235.
Der Ohrentaucher, Bechst. Deuts. ii. 796.
Eared Dobchick, Edw. pi. 96. f. 2.
Eared Grebe, Gen. Syn. v. 285.    Br. Zool. ii. No. 224. pi. 79.    Id.fol. 133.   Id. 1812.
ii. 135. pi. 24. f. 2.   Arct. Zool. ii. 499. B.     Boug. Voy. p. 61 ?    Bewick, ii. p.
149.   Lewin, v. pi. 107.    Donov. ii. pi. 29.    Orn. Diet. # Supp.
SIZE of a Teal; length twelve inches. Bill one inch, black,
bending a little upwards at the point, the base reddish; lore and
irides crimson; the head full of feathers, dusky black; the neck and
under parts of the body the same ; from behind each eye arises a tuft
of orange-coloured feathers, growing broader, and almost meeting
behind; breast and under parts silvery white ; sides of the body
ferruginous chestnut; legs black. The female is in all things like
the male, but the head less full of feathers.
This species is not unfrequent in England, but, we believe, less
numerous than the Greater; most common in the fens of Lincolnshire,
wftere it breeds, but by no means the chief place of its residence, for
a pair of them were found many years since, in Sandwich Haven,
in the month of August; and Mr. Mark wick received one, killed
1
 24 GREBE.
near Battle, in Sussex, in May. Is found also in the northern parts
of Europe, and in most is migratory ; in Germany, seen the whole
year through; met with also in the temperate and hotter parts of
Siberia, and even in Iceland; and the breast, with the feathers
attached, as well as that of the Greater crested Species, held in great
estimation. M. Bechstein informs us, that the female lays, in May,
three or four, and sometimes five, eggs, the size of those of a Dove,
of a pale smutty yellow, spotted with dull brown;* the nest made
of water plants, among the reeds, and close to the surface of the
water, as in the first described, and the time of sitting is three weeks:
the young take to the water as soon as hatched, and are sometimes
seen with part of the shell sticking upon their heads. The flesh of
this, as well as others of the Genus, although it is sometimes eaten,
is rank and unsavoury. We believe this bird to be the same, met with
by Bougainville, in Falkland Islands, under the name of the Diver
with Spectacles.t
A.—Colymbus cristatus minor, Bris. vi. 42. t. 3. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. ii. 369.   Ind. Orn. ii.
p. 781. p.
Colymbus nigricans, Scop. i. No. 101.
Ash-coloured Loon, Raii, 124 ?    Will. Engl. 340. pi. 61. f. 4.
Eared Grebe, Gen. Syn. v. 286. 4. Var. A.
In this bird the head is not so full of feathers, but has two short
tufts, one on each side of the hindhead ; plumage above fine brown,
beneath white, which passes back below the hindhead, where the
brown advances forwards; the sides of the head, and fore part of the
neck spotted with chestnut, and the sides with brown; on the wings
a patch of white ; legs olive brown.
This is probably a mere Variety of the other, if not in some
progressive stage of perfection, as, like the Greater crested Species,
it varies much at different periods of age.
f The Orn. Diet, says, quite white.
t Voy. p. 61.
 25
3.—HORNED GREBE.
Podiceps cornutus, Ind. Orn. ii. 782.    Tern. Man. 467.    Id. Ed.n. 722.    Frankl. Nar.
App. p. 693.
Podiceps Caspicus, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 784.      Gm. Lin. i. 593.      S. G. Gmel. It. iv. 137.
N. Nord. Beytr. iv. p. 9.
Colymbus cornutus, Gm. Lin. I 591.    Bart. Trav. p. 293.
Colymbus cornutus minor, Bris. vi.  50.    Id. 8vo. ii. 371.
Colymbus, sive Podiceps minor, Raii, 190. 14.    Sloan. Jam. 322. t. 271. f. 1.    Klein,
p. 150. 4 ?
Ardea exotica aurita, Petiv. Gaz. t.43. f. 12.
Le petit Grebe cornu, Rm/. viii. 237.
Grebe d'Esclavonie, PI. enl. 404. 2.
Caspian Grebe, Ge«. Syn. Sup. ii. 329.
Eared Grebe, or Horned Dobchick, Edw. pi. 145.
Sclavonian Grebe, Orn. Diet. Sf Supp.     Gen. Syn. v. 288. 6.      Br. Zool. 1812. ii. p.
141.    Graves, v. iii.
Horned Grebe, Gen. Syn.\. 287. 6. pi. 91.
LARGER than the Dusky Grebe; length thirteen inches and a
half; breadth twenty-two. The bill nearly one inch, dusky; base
of the under mandible paler, inclining to pink, tip horn-colour ; the
lore crimson; irides the same, with a circle of white round the pupil;
head enlarged with feathers, those on the top greenish black; the
cheeks and throat the same, the feathers very long, forming a sort of
ruff; from the base of the upper mandible originates a broad bar of
dull orange yellow, passing through the eye to the hindhead, growing-
broader, and forming a tuft on each side, and capable of being erected
like ears; the forehead dusky ferruginous; the back of the neck
and upper part of the back dark brown, dashed with ferruginous;
from thence to the rump dusky, faintly edged with cinereous; wing
coverts, and first twelve quills brown; the thirteenth white on the
inner web; the eleven next all white, except the last, which is brown
on the outer web; chin black, a little mottled with white, the under
part of the neck and upper breast bright ferruginous, running far
 1 I
26 GREBE.
behind and down under the wings; the rest beneath glossy white,
like satin; the back part ofthe thighs ferruginous brown; legs
dusky on the outside, pale within ; toes pale down the middle, dusky
at the edges.
The above was killed near Truro, the beginning of May, and
proved a male; it seems to be no other than the Sclavonian Variety
of the Horned Grebe, which is found in North America; it first
appears there in May, about fresh waters, and lays from two to four
white eggs, in June, among the aquatic plants; and said to cover
them when absent from the nest; retires south, in autumn ; when it
appears at New York, staying there till spring, and then returns to
the north. For its vast quickness in diving, it is called the Water
Witch ; known at Hudson's Bay by the name Seekeep. There seems
to be some Variety among individuals of this species, which has
given rise to authors to mention them apart; but we believe on our
further acquaintance with the subjects themselves, it will be found
that they have one and the same origin. It may be observed, that the
bHl in the Eared Grebe, is different from that of the Horned, or
Sclavonian; for in the latter both mandibles meet in a conic point,
and both equally sloping; but the former has the upper mandible
straight, and the lower only slopes at the. point, giving the bill a
reflected appearance; besides, the plumage is very different; the
situation ofthe ears, or horns, as well as other particulars, equally
satisfactory.
4.-DUSKY GREBE.
Podiceps obscurus, Ind. Orn. ii. 782.
Colymbus obscurus, Gm. Lin. i. 592.
 r,w|i»Vg6$s.vi. 56-   Id. 8vo. ii. 373.    Klein, 1
Le petit Grebe, Buf. viii. 232.    PI. enl. 942.
Der Dunkelbraune Taucher, Bechst. Deuts. ii. 794. t. 26.
Black and white Dobchick,  Edw. pi. 96. f. h.
     n
GREBE. 27
Dusky Grebe, Gen:Syn. v. 286. Br. Zool. ii. No. 225. pi. 78. 1. Id.fol. 133. pi.
K. 1. Id. 1812. ii. p. 136. pi. 23. f. 1. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 4"20. Bewick, ii. pi.
p. 150.    Lewin, v. pi. 98.    Walcot, i. p. 106.    Donov. ii. pi. 44.    Orn. Diet.
SIZE of a small Teal; length eleven inches, Bill thirteen lines
long, black, with the sides red ; lore and irides red; the upper
parts of the head, neck, and body, are dusky brown; ridge of the
wing white; secondaries tipped with white; forehead, and all beneath, white; breast very glossy; at the throat the white passes
backwards almost to the hindhead; and the brown comes forwards
on each side to the middle of the neck ; on the thighs a few black
spots; legs flesh-colour, tinged with purple; in some the whole
neck is ash-coloured, and others are spotted between the legs with
black.—Inhabits the Fens of Lincolnshire, where it breeds, makes
the same kind of floating nest as other Grebes, and lays four or five
white eggs. It is occasionally offered for sale, and Mr. Edwards
mentions his having had several out of the London markets, from
whence we have likewise received a specimen. Is found in the winter
in our inlets on the coast, particularly in Devonshire, where it is by
no means uncommon; how it may belong to the Horned Grebe, we
are not prepared to determine.
M. Temminck says, it is the young of that bird, in its first
year's feathers.
5. -RED-NECKED GREBE— Pl. clxiv.
Podiceps rubricollis, Ind. Orn. ii. 783.    Tern. Man. 465.    Id. Ed. 2d. 726.     Frank!.
Narr. App. p. 692.
Colymbus rubricollis, Gm. Lin. i. 592.
 — subcristatus, Gm. Lin.i. 590.     Fn. suec. No. 152,—alia.     Brun. No. 138.
Jacq. Vog. 37. t. 18.     Schr. d. Berl. Gesell. vii.   s. 460.      Besek. Kurl. s. 54.
No. 104.
Colymbus minor ex nigro et rubro refectus, Gerin. v. t. 519.
■ Urinator, It. Poseg. p. 25 ?
 gris'eus, Schaf. eh Orn. t. 29.    Fn. Helv.
E 2
 28
GREBE.
Le Grebe a Joues grises, Jougris, Buf. viii. 241. PI. enl. 93l.
Der Graukehlige Haubentaucher, Bechst. Deuts. ii. 790. t. 35.
Red-necked Grebe, Gen. Syn. v. 288.   Id. Sup. 260. pi. 118.    Br. Zool. 1812. ii. p.
239.   Arct. Zool. ii. 499. C.   Id. Sup. p. 69.   Bewick, ii. pi. p. 152.   Lewin, v.
pi. 199.    Walcot, i. pi. 103.   Donov. i. pi. 6.    Orn. Diet. Sf Supp.
LENGTH eighteen inches, to the end of the toes twenty-four;
weight seventeen ounces. Bill black, almost two inches long, the
sides for three quarters of an inch, fine orange yellow ; lore dusky;
irides orange; the crown and sides of the head, above the eyes,
nearly black, and the feathers a little elongated; neck behind, back,
and wings, dark brown ; six ofthe middle secondaries white, a little
mottled with dusky at the tips; the two or three next outward more
or less white near the ends, and inner webs; chin, sides under the
eyes, and neck before, for more than an inch, pale ash-colour; the
rest of the neck ferruginous chestnut, mottled on the breast witb
dusky ; from thence to the vent white, with a gloss of satin, mottled
on the sides with dusky, irregular spots; legs black. Male and
female much alike. In the young bird the colours are less bright,
and the ferruginous colour of the neck broken and indistinct.*
A.— Colymbus Parotis, Gm. Lin. i. 592.     Mus. Carls, i. t. 9.      Brun. 139.   Ind.
Orn. ii. 783. Gerin. v. t. 523 ?
Colymbus vulgaris, Scop. i. No. 102. Gen. Syn. v. 283.—Note-fin this bird the whole top of the head, including the eye, is
black, but smooth; sides under the eyes, jaws, and throat, white,
marked with three or four irregular black streaks, pointing downwards; irides yellow; plumage in general brown above; sides of
the neck and throat ferruginous ; across the lower part of the neck
a white band ; breast and belly glossy white; on the wing a large
white patch ; sides and vent soot-coloured ; legs dusky.
* Colonel Montagu informed me, that five of these birds were shot on a lake near
Kingsbridge, Devon, in 1808; and that one of them, although a male, had no red on the
neck; hence it appears, that this characteristic mark does not appear till adult age
 GREBE. 29
This is probably only a young bird. We believe the Red-necked
Species to be more common in England than is usually supposed,
and that it certainly breeds with us. Dr. Lamb, of Newbury,
mentioned his having seen one on a pond opposite Burges Burgh-
field, in Berkshire, in May: it is probably widely extended on the
Continent; supposed to inhabit Denmark and Norway, as Mr. Pennant received one from Copenhagen ; and it is found, though very
rarely, towards the Caspian Sea. We find it not to be uncommon
in Carinthia, and other parts of the German Dominions, having the
same manners as the rest of the tribe, in respect to the nest and eggs;
and that it lays four or five of the latter, which are of a smutty
white ; it feeds on small fish, and water insects, as well as water
plants, and the flesh like that of others, oily and unsavoury. We
have observed this bird in drawings done in India, so may of course
suppose it to inhabit that part of the world.
6.—INDIAN GREBE.
SIZE uncertain. Bill thick and short, black, with a white tip;
at the base, on each side, a white mark, occupying all the lower,
and part of the upper mandible; irides yellow; head and neck black;
at the back of the low jaw, and round the neck before, for half way,
fine rufous; back dusky; breast and all beneath grey, and white
mixed ; legs greenish black.
Inhabits India.—Sir John Anstruther's drawings. It bears some
resemblance to the Red-necked, but appears to be a distinct species.
7.—LITTLE GREBE.
Podiceps minor, Ind. Orn. ii. 784.     Raii, 125. A. 3.    Will. 258. t. 61.     Tern. Man.
Ed. ii. 727.
Colymbus minor, Gm. Lin. i. 223. y.   Fn. suec. No. 152 ?    Frisch, t. 184.    Sepp, ii.
t. 119.    Gerin. v. t. 517.    Klein, Stem. 39. t. 39. f. 1.
 30
GREBE.
Colymbus fluviatiB*4SfW. vi. 59.    Id. Svo. ii. 374.    Fn. Helv.
Yacapitzahoac,  Raii, 177.
Der kleine Taucher, Bechst. Deuts. ii. 798.
Le Grebe de la riviere, on le CastagneuX, Buf. viii. 244. pi. 20.    PL enl. 905.
Dirfapper, Dipper, or Dobchick, WilL-Bngl. 340. pi. 61.
Little Grebe, Gen. Syn. v. 289.    Br. Zool. ii
ii. p. 137.    Bewick, ii. pi. in p. 154.    Lewin, v. pi. 100.    Id. xxxvii. 2.—the egg
Walcot, i. pi. 105.    Donov. ii. pi. 56.    Graves, Orn. v. i.     Orn. Diet. Sf Supp.
,+ No.-226.   Id.fol. 134. pi.
Id. 1812.
LENGTH ten inches, breadth sixteen ; weight seven ounces.
Bill reddish brown, almost an inch Jong ; irides reddish hasfel:?
plumageion the upper parts of the head, neck, and body, reddish
brown, very pale on the ruol$»; sides ofthe head and fore part of the
neck and chin yellowish grey; in old birds the cheeks are light fer-
ruginottS}|ofeeeast and belly white, mottled with ash-colour and red;
thighs andrwent grey ; legs dirty green. The male and female #re
much alike, and both vary according to age,  as in other species.
In some adult birds the general colour is cinereous, beneath paler,
mottled and waved with glossy white; on the wing a white patch ;
chin mottled dusky and white. One of misdescription was shot near
Putney, and in the collection of Mr. Plasted, of Chelsea. In the
same place is a younger specimen, brownish ash-colour above,
beneath paler, glossed like satin ; sides of the neck and the chin
striped with dusky; chin white; bill dirty red, With a black tip;
legs greenish black.    Shot near Battersea.
This is the most common of all the Genus in this kingdom, few
fresh waters being without it. It makes a large nest, in the water,
composed of grass, and other water plants, and lays five or six
cinereous white eggs, and the nest so placed is constantly wet; how
far this is essential to the hatching of the young brood, does not
seem manifest; it might be supposed, tbftf the natural warmth ofthe
bird, bringing on a fermentation in the vegetables, produces a hot
bed fit for the purpose; but Colonel Montagu assures us, that he
neve* couta discover the least warmth in the nest. It lives on the
same food as others ofthe Genus; is an admirable diver, and seems
 GREBE. 31
to make way under the water at a very great rate, often arising at
an inconceivable distance from the place it plunges in, and for the
most part, considerably beyond the length of gunshot. By some it
is said to be capable of staying under water for a quarter of an hour;
but it may be supposed, that it must take breath during that space,
as it is known to remain under water amongst the reeds, or other
water plants, with only its bill above the surface.
Inhabits also various parts of the Continent of Europe, France,
Italy, Germany, and Spain; is met with in the swampy parts of the
Isthmus of Gibraltar, and a few of them take up their abode in the
inundation in the winter.
The Little Grebe is common also at Hudson's Bay, in America,
where it is called Dishishet Seekeep.
A.—Le Castagneux des Philippines, Buf. viii. 246.    PI. enl. 945.    Ind. Orn. ii. 784.
Gen. Syn. v. 290. 10. A.    Lin. Trans, viii. p. 198.
This is rather larger than the last described, and differs from it in
a kw particulars. It is purplish brown above; the cheeks and sides
of the neck incline to rufous; in other things it resembles the former,
and appears to be merely a Variety.
InhabjtfvtkftiRjbyippine Islands. I have alsftobserved one similar
in some-<&ftwiflgs.done in India; it is likewise found in Java, and
called there Titihan.
8— BLACK-CHIN GREBE.
Podiceps Hebridicus, Ind. Orn. ii. 785.
Colymbus Hebridicus, Gm. Lin. i. 594.
Colimbo minore, Gerin. v. t. 519.
Black-chin Grebe, Gen. Syn. v. 292.    Br. Zool. ii. No. 227. pi. 79.    Id. 1812. ii. 138.
pi. 24. f. 1.     Bewick, ii. p. 156.     Leioin, v. pi. 201.      Walcot, i. pi. 207.    Orn.
Diet. Sf Supp.    Br. Misc. p. 19.- pi. 70.
THIS is scarcely larger than the Little Grebe; chin black; fore
part ofthe neck ferruginous; hind part mixed with dusky; belly
cinereous and silver intermixed.
 32 GREBE.
Inhabits Tiree, one of the Hebrides. One, corresponding with
this description, was shot near Kingsbridge, Devon, and appeared
to Colonel Montagu a further Variety of the Little Grebe.
According to the British Miscellany, a male and female with
the nest and eggs were taken in a pond, on Chelsea Common, in
June, 1805, and we are informed by Mr. Bullock, that they are not
unfrequent about Brompton, near London ; the egg of the Black-
chin Grebe is white.
M. Temminck thinks it is the Little Grebe, in its complete adult
state.
9.—WHITE-WINGED GREBE.
Podiceps Dominicus, Ind. Orn. ii. 785.
Colymbus Dominicus, Lin. i. 223.    Gm. Lin. i. 593.    Bris. vi. 64. t. 5.   f. 2.     Id.
8vo. ii. 376.
Le Castagneux de St. Domiugue, Buf. viii. 248.
LePlongeon, Descr. Surin. ii. 155.
Twopenny Chick, Hughes, Barb. 72.
White-winged Grebe, Gen. Syn. v. 291.
LENGTH from eight to nine inches. Bill pale, or dusky ;
head, neck, and upper parts of the body, chocolate brown ; beneath
brownish white; wings deeper brown ; quills white for three-fourths
ofthe length from the base, ends dusky; legs greenish. Individuals
vary; some have a black bill, upper parts ofthe body dusky;
cheeks, chin, and neck before, dusky grey; breast, belly, sides, and
thighs, silvery grey, marked with small brown spots ; quills greyish
white, more or less marked with greyish brown on the outer webs and
tips; legs brown.
The first described of these came from Berbice. I have seen also
a specimen from the Island of Trinidad ; another from the Island of
St. Domingo. I have received it too, from Jamaica, of an uniform
dusky lead-colour, except the middle ofthe belly, which had a large
patch of white; the quills were also as above described; this probably
 GREBE. 33
differs only in sest; it is called at the last named place, as well as at
Barbadoes, the Twopenny Chick. We have seen others from
Cayenne, with the belly wholly brown, and called there Soccove;
it inhabits likewise Surinam and Guiana; also as far south as Paraguay, but very rarely. Mr. Fermin adds another, which he says is
smaller, wholly covered with cottony white feathers; the bill yellow,
and legs short: this, he says, is only seen in the savannas, near
small ponds, and feeds on the lesser fish. Probably his may be a
young bird, and not distinct as to species.
Inhabits also India, or at least one in appearance so similar as not
to merit description. One mentioned by Sonnini,* found in Egypt,
varies somewhat; the first and last ofthe quills are blackish, the rest
white : probably allied to the White-winged Species.
10.—NEW-HOLLAND GREBE.
LENGTH from the bill to the end of the toes, eighteen inches.
Bill black; head and part of the neck dusky black; the rest of the
parts above waved dusky and pale grey; beneath pale grey; the
larger wing coverts and base half of the quills white, taking up a
large portion of the wing; the outer ridge is also white; on each
side of the neck a long streak of rufous, beginning just under the
eye; legs black, formed as in others of the Genus.
Inhabits New-Holland, and there called Magaga, orMagager;
is said to be rare.
11.—RUFOUS-BREASTED GREBE.
LENGTH from the tip of the bill to the end of the vent sixteen
inches. Bill one inch, black, with a white tip; from the nostrils
on each side a brownish bar, passing over the eye, and growing
* See Travels, ii. p. 237.
vol. x. F
 34 GREBE.
broader, meets under the nape; head, chin, throat, neck behind,
back, and rump, black; fore part of the neck, breast, and sides,
bright rufous brown ; belly and vent silvery white; wing coverts in
general brown ; greater quills black; secondaries white, forming a
bar, an inch broad, on the wing.
Found in the neighbourhood of Detroit, in North America.—
General Davies.
12—CAYENNE GREBE.
Podiceps Cayan
is, Ind. Orn. ii. 781.
Colymbus Caya
lensis, Gm. Lin. i. 593.
Le grand Grebe
Buf. viii. 242.    PL en
'. 404. f. 1.
Cayenne Grebe,
Gen. Syn. v. 284.
LENGTH nineteen inches and a half. The bill dusky, beneath
yellow at the base; the head, and upper parts of the neck and body
dusky brown; fore parts, as far as the breast and sides, rufous, the
last mixed with brown ; breast and upper part of the belly white; the
lower and vent brown ; legs dusky.—Inhabits Cayenne.
13—BLACK-BRjrtiSTED GREBE.
Podiceps Thomensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 784.
Colymbus Thomensis, Gm. Lin. i. 592.
Colymbus Insula; S. ThomEe, Bris. vi. 58.    Id. 8vo. ii. 374.
Le Grebe Duc-laart, Buf. viii. 240.
Black-breasted Grebe, Gen. Syn. v. 289.
SIZE of a small Fowl. Bill black, one inch long, tip pale; the
irides white; head, and upper parts dull brown; between the bill
and eye a white spot; the under parts white, except a large spot of
black on the breast; belly and sides spotted with grey; wing coverts
pale rufous ; legs dusky.
Inhabits the Isle of St. Thomas, and is called Duc-laart.
 35
14.-MED-BILLED GREBE.
Podiceps Carolinensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 785.
Colymbus Podiceps, Lin. i. 223.    Gm. Lin. i. 594.
Colymbus fluviatilis Carolinensis, Bris. vi. 63.    Id. 8vo. ii. 375.
Colymbus fuscus, Klein, 150. 5.    Bartr. Trav. p. 293.
Le Castagneux a bee cercle, Buf.^fu^. 247.
Pied-bill Grebe, Gen. Syn. v. 292.    Arct. Zool. ii. 418. pi. 22.    Gates. Car.\. pi. 91.
LENGTH fourteen.'iflches. Bill strong, a little bent, somewhat
in the manner of Common. Poultry; colour olive, with a dusky base,
and crossed in the middle of both mandibles with a bar of black;
nostrils very wide; irides white; the chin and throat glossy black,
bounded with white; neck above, and back dusky; cheeks and fore
part of tfcfe neck pale brown ; the breast and belly silvery, the first
mottled with ash-colour; the wings brown, ends of the second quills
white; toes furnished with a broad membrane.
The female wants the black bar across the bill, and has the chin
and throat of the same colour as the rest of the neck; it appears also
to be smaller than the other sex, being only twelve inches long to the
end of the rump, sixteen inches and a half to the end of the toes,
and twenty inches broad.
Mr. Abbot, who gives me this account, observes, that it is common
in the rivers and ponds about Savannah, in Georgia; makes the nest
in the water, like other Grebes; the egg of a dusky white, with
scarcely any perceivable markings of darker colour; called Didapper,
or Water Witch. Found as far north as New York; arrives there
late in autumn, and goes away in April; is called there the Hen-
beaked Wigeon. This is in the complete plumage, and the Louisiane
probably a young bird.
 36
15.-L0UISIANE GREBE.
Podiceps Ludovicianus,
Colymbus Ludovicianu
Le Grebe de la Louisia
Le Macas a bee crochu,
le Grebe, Gen..
d. Orn. ii. 785.
7m. Lin. i. 592.
Buf. viii. 240.    PL enl. S
).y. d'Azara,W. No. 44*-"
V. 289.   Arct. Zool. ii. 41
BILL slightly bent at the point; plumage above deep brown;
sides of the head and body, quite to the rump, rust-colour; about
the middle of the wing, outwardly, a small patch of white ; middle
ofthe breast dusky white; from the base of the neck to the thighs
marked with transverse black spots; legs dusky. In some the chin
is mottled with black.
Inhabits Louisiana; also Paraguay. Is probably the last in
incomplete plumage.
  —
ORDER IX.    WEB-FOOTED.
WITH LONG  LEGS.
GENUS XCV.—AVOSET.
1    Scooping 2   American 3    Red-necked 4    Oriental
JtSlLL long, slender, very thin, and bending considerably opwards.
Nostrils narrow, and pervious.
Tongue short.
Feet pal mated ; the webs deeply semi Inn a ted between each toe;
back toe very small, at a distance from the ground.
1.—SCOOPING AVOSET.
vocetta, Ind. Orn. ii 786.    Lin. i. 256.    Faun. suec. No. 191.    Amen.
It. Oeland. 89.    Gat. In. i. 693.    Sam. i. No. 129.    Brum. No. 188.
,172
. o <.
f.2.    Id. 8vo. ii. 504.    Raii, 117. A. I.     Will. 240. :. 60.    I<LE*gL3Zl.    Bor.
iii. 85. t. 50.    Fn. Hehet.    Gerin. r. fc 495.    Tern. Man. 379.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 591.
Pico Corbo, Gabin. de Madrid, i. p. 19. lam. 45.
Plotns Recnrriroster, Klein, 142. ii. p. 19.
Der gemeine Wassersabler, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. p. 223.     Id, Ed. ii. iv. 450. t. 25. 2.
Scfinzid, 131. t.115.
L'Avocette, Bnf. viii. 466. pi. 38.    PI. enl. 353.    Vow. en Barb. i. 280.    Safer*. Orn.
359.    Cett. uc. Sard. 287.
 38 AVOSET.
Scooping Avoset, Gen. Syn. v. 293. Id. Sup. 263. Br. Zool. ii. No. 228. pi. 80. Id.
fol. 134. Pl. C. Id. Ed. 1812. ii. 143. pi. 25. Aret. Zool. ii. 503. B. Albin, ..
pi. 101. Bewick, ii. pl. P. 15S. Lewin, vi. pl. 202. Id. pl. xxxviii. i. the egg.
Walc.u. pl. 165.    Don. pl. 66.    Pult. Dors. p. 16.    Orn. Diet.    Graves, Br. Orn.
SIZE of a Lapwing; length from eighteen to twenty inches to
the end of the tail, but to that of the claws about three more; the
breadth thirty; weight fo urteeir ounces and a half troy. Bill three
inches and a half long, slender, very flat, and turns up towards the
end, finishing in a sharp point; nostrils narrow, and pervious; the
irides hazel; top of the head, including the eyes, black, passing
some way down on the neck, and ending in a point; above and
beneath the eye a spot of white; the rest of the head and neck, and
all beneath white; back, greater^art of the scapulars, outer part of
the wing, lesser quills, and tail the same; inner scapulars, middle
wing coverts, the outer webs, and ends of the greater quills, black,
appearing as two black bars, three quarters of an inch broad ; wider
as they approach the rump ;j*legs very long, pale blue, and the thighs
naked for two inches; whole of the naked parts between six and
seven inches.    The male and female much alike.
The Avoset inhabitable?kingdom at all seasons^istfrequent in the
winter on the sea shores*; iriiGAoucestershire, at the Severn's Mouth ;
the eastern coasts of Suffolk and Norfolk, and sometimes on the
shores of Sussex and those of Shropshire,* as well as those of Kent:f
in the breeding season found in vast numbers near Fossdike, in Lincolnshire, in the fens of Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, and other similar
places; the female.generally lays two eggs, among the weeds, on
the edges of ponds or pools, about the size of those of the Pigeon,
one inch and three quarters in length, cinereous grey, whimsically
marked with deep, brownish, oblique black dashes, and some smaller
ones intermixed; the food is said to be worms and insects, + collected
from the mud ; often seen to wade far into the water; they will also
* Lin. Trans. + Mr. Boys twice met with them in October.
+ Ch.e% the^ancer^paleK and locusta-the sea-flea-and locust; and in thte-storhaeh of
one was found some small stones, and short hairs.—Dr. Lamb.
  Ji
PL CLXVU.
•34*nvn*xi*i/ ^>/wJe£
 L
•
  AVOSET. 39
occasionally swim, but always close to the shore;* are very bold in
defence of their young; and when disturbed in the breeding season*
hover over the sportsman's head like the LapwiWg; and fly with $&{$
necks and legs extended, having a sharp note like the Word Twit,
twice, or oftener repeated; hence have been called Yelpers; known
known also in some counties by the names of Butter-flip, Scooper,
Picarini, Crooked-Bill, and Cobler's-awl.
This bird is found also on various parts of the Continent: to
the north, in Russia, Sweden,f and Denmark, but not in plenty;
also in Siberia, but more frequent about the salt lakes of the Tartarian Desert, and about the Caspian sea.$ Met with on the Coasts
of Picardy, in France, in April and November, but rarely at
Orleans. In breeding time they are in such plenty on the Coasts of
Bas Poictou, that the peasants take the eggs by thousands in order
to feast on them.§ They also inhabit both Italy and Spain, but in
what numbers is uncertain. They likewise occur in drawings done
in India, by the name of Hun Sowry. Dr. Buchanan mentions,
that two of these were seen upon an Island in the River Hooghly,
January 1806, they were shot and wounded, one of them lived a
week, the other much longer; they were fed with the small fry of
fish put into a pan of water, which they scooped up very readily
with their bills.
2.—AMERICAN AVOSET—Pl. clxvii.
Recurvirostra Americana, Ind. Orn. ii. 787. Gm. Lin. i. 693.
Avosetta, Damp. Voy. iii. pl. in p. 123. f. 3. Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 592.
American Avoset, Gen. Syn. v. 295. pl. 92. Arct. Zool. ii. 241. pl. 21.    Amer. Orn.
vii. 126. pl. 63. f. 2.
THIS is larger than the last, and somewhat longer, being in
height as it stands, fourteen inches.   The bill black ;|| irides reddish ;
* One shot, swimnrrng with others, in SumrAig^Eye Lake, in Berkshire ; at another time
four were seen swififlnlng among the Ducks {in ;the month of April.—Dr. Lamb.
f Chiefly in the Isle of Oeland. $ Arct. Zool. § Salem.
|| That in Amer. Orn. bends a trifle downwards at the ends, and finishes in an extremely
fine point.
 40 AVOSET.
forehead dusky white; the head, neck, and upper part of the breast,
ofa deep cream-colour, in some inclining to ferruginous,: under the
chin palest; lower part of the neck behind white; back black; the
under parts from the breast white; the first and third order of wing
coverts, with the outer part of the wing between, and the greater
quills, black ; the middle coverts and some of the secondaries while;'
some ofthe last tinged with ash-colour; the legs and thighs together
measure about eight inches, the bare part above the knees two,
colour dusky; in some pale blue ; some have the whole of the back
and rump white.
Inhabits North America, and was found by Dainpier in Shark's
Bay, on the Coast of New-Holland; it is there scarce, but occurs
in drawings brought from thence; it has only been seen on some
Lagoons between Port Jackson and Broken Bay; the native name
Antiquatish. It varies in having more or less white; and in young
birds, the white is mottled, or freckled with dusky.
The American Avoset is first seen on the coast of Cape May late
in April, rears its young, and departs again to the south in October;
is there called The Lawyer; it breeds in the shallow pools of New
Jersey, associated with the Common Sort; the nest built among thick
tufts of grass, composed of small twigs, dry grass, sea weed, &c.
raised to the height of several inches; the eggs four, of a dull olive,
with irregular blotches of black, and others of a fainter tint.
The female differs in being two inches shorter than the male.
3— RED-NECKED AVOSET.
Recurvirostra rubricollis, Avocette a Cou marron, Tern. Man. Ed.xx. 592.
LENGTH fifteen inches and a half. Face, head, and upper part
of the back rufous chestnut; lower part of the neck, back, scapulars,
all the under parts, with the tail, pure white; on the scapulars a
broad band of black, which extends on each side, the length of the
back; the quills next the body black.-Inbabits the shores ofthe south
of Asia, and is to be met with in various ornithological collections.
 4.—ORIENTAL AVOSET.
Recurvirostra orientalis, Avocette orientale,   Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 593.     Cuvier Regn.
Anim. i. p. 464.
SIZE ofthe first Species. Bill black; plumage wholly pure
white, except the wings and scapulars, which are black ; and the
tail ash-colour; legs yellow.
Native place unknown. The description taken from a specimen
in the Jardin du Roi, at Paris.
 42
GENUS XCVL—COURIEft.
THE bill, in this Genus, is short, straight, with the gape very wide.
Legs long, thighs short.
Feet palmated, three toes before and one behind; the last^hort.
Corrira Italica, Ind. Orn. ii.
Corrira, Bris. vi. 542. Id. 8
Trochilus, vel Corrira, Aldrc
Id. Engl. 321. pl.60. (
Italian Courier, Gen. Syn. v.
7.    Gm. Lin. i. 653.   -
. ii. 505.   Johnst. Av. pl. 48. f. 3.
iii. 288. t. p. 289.     Raii, 128. 3.    Will. 240. t. 60.
irlet. Ex. p. 102. ix.    Id. Onom. 97.
THIS is less than the Avoset, and the legs shorter in proportion.
The bill shorter, straight, yellow, with a black tip; irides of two
colours, first white, surrounded with chestnut; the head, and all the
upper parts of the body, and wings rusty iron-colour; under parts
white; the two middle tail feathers are white, tipped with black;
the others black; toes webbed as in the Avoset.
This bird is said to inhabit Italy, and to run very fast, whence
the name given to it. Aldrovandus is the only one who has seen the
bird, and from him alone all succeeding authors have copied the
description and figure. It swims occasionally, but generally wades
five or six inches deep in the water. Some have supposed this bird
to be no other than the Avoset, with a mutilated bill; a circumstance
which I once saw, from both mandibles having been shot away within
two inches of the gape, and might have passed for quite a different
bird; yet the colours described by Aldrovandus by no means
correspond with those of the Avoset. Charleton calls it the Fin-
footed Runner. Johnston gives much the same account as Aldrovandus, from whom he has no doubt taken the description; and
Willughby's description and figure have originated from the same
  ^^■Zfr/tam/wn
  (\
 43
GENUS XCVII—FLAMINGO.
1    Red Flamingo || 2   Chili Flamingo
Jo ILL thick, large, bending in the middle, forming a sharp angle;
the higher part of the upper mandible carinated; the lower compressed ; the edges of the upper sharply denticulated ; of the lower
transversely sulcated.
Nostrils covered above with a thin plate, pervious, linearly longitudinal.
Tongue cartilaginous, and pointed at the end; in the middle
muscular; base glandular; on the upper part aculeated.
Neck very long.
Legs and thighs ofa vast length.
Feet webbed ; the webs extending as far as the claws, but deeply
semilunated.    Back toe very small.
1.—RED FLAMINGO.—Pl. clxviii.
Phaenicopterus ruber, Ind. Orn. ii. 788.    Lin. i. 230.    Gm. Lin. i. 612.    Scop. i. No.
214.    Bris. vi. 532. t. 47. 1.    Id. 8vo. ii. 502.    Raii, 117. 2.    Id. 190. 1.    Will.
240. t. 60.     Sloan. Jam. 321. 17.     Brown, Jam. 480.     Seb. Mus. i. 123. t. 67.
f. 1.    Phil. Trans, xxix. t. 2, p. 523.    Grew, Mus. p. 67. pl. 5.—the bill.    Klein,
126. B.    Borowsk. iii. 66. t. 44.    Spalowsk. i. t. 26.     Mus. Lev. t. 8.    Gerin. v.
t. 496.    Bartr. Trav. 294.    Gesn. Av. 623. pl. in 624.     Amer. Orn. V. 8. p. 45.
pl. 66. f. 4.    Tern. Man. 378.    Id. Ed. 2d. 587.    Robert, le. pl. 8.
Le Flammant, Buf. viii. 475. pl. 39.    Pl. enl. 63.    Hist. Prov. i. 345.     Voy. en Barb.
i. 288.    Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 366.    Schmid, 132. 1.116.
El Flamenco, Paxaro de Agua, Gabin. de Madrid, i. p. 45. lam. 20.
Red Flamingo, Gen. Syn. v. 299. pl. 22.    Id. Sup. 263.   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 422.   Cat.
Car. i. pl. 73, 74.    Alb. ii. 77.   Kolb. Cap. ii. 137.    Russ. Alep. 69.    Gent. Mag.
xx. pl. 264.    Sparrm. Voy. i. p. 30.    Dillon, Trav. 374.    Penn. Hind. ii. 159.
THIS singular bird is less than a Goose in the body, but the
neck and legs are in the greatest disproportion; the length from bill
G 2
 i
44 FLAMINGO.
to tail four feet two or three inches, and to the end ofthe claws more
than six feet. Bill four inches and a quarter long, and in construction different from that of any other bird; the upper mandible thin
and flat, and somewhat movable, the under thick; both of them
bending downwards from the middle; the nostrils placed in a blackish
membrane; from the base to the middle reddish yellow, the rest
black; the base, and quite to the eye on each side, covered with a
flesh-coloured cere, or skin ; the neck slender, and of a great length;
the tongue large, fleshy, filling the cavity of the bill, having twelve
or more, hooked papillae on each side, turning backwards, and cartilaginous at the tips; the plumage deep scarlet, except the quills, which
are black ; from the base ofthe thighs to the claws thirty-two inches,
but the part which is covered with feathers is only three; the bare
part above the joint thirteen inches; and from thence to the claws
sixteen; the colour ofthe bare parts is red ; and the toes are furnished-
with a web, as in the Duck tribe, but deeply indented.
This bird does not gain the full plumage till the third year: in
the first it is mostly greyish white, in the second the white is clearer,
tinged with red, or rather rose-colour, and the wings and scapulars are
red ; but it is not till the third, that a general glowing scarlet manifests itself throughout; the bill and legs, too, keep pace with the
plumage, obtaining colour by degrees, as the bird approaches to an
adult state.
The Flamingo prefers a warm climate; it is seen in various parts
of Europe, not often beyond 40 degrees north ; known on the Coasts
of Spain,* Italy, and France, lying in the Mediterranean Sea; now
and then being seen at Marseilles, and for some way up the Rhone :
comes to Gibraltar annually in spring, from Barbary, generally about
the beginning of May, and remains all the summer; sometimes as
early as April, when from six to twelve or fourteen haunt the rivers
which run into the Bay, and marshy grounds of the neighbourhood,
* About Valencia, in the Lake Alb u fere.—ZhV/onV Trav. 374.
 FLAMINGO. 45
and are sometimes seen swimming in the Bay, near the river. Are
every where to be met with on the African Coast, and adjacent Isles,
quite to the Cape of Good Hope ;* they breed in the Cape de Verd
Islands, particularly in that of Sal ;t in some seasons they frequent
Aleppo,$ and parts adjacent; also the Persian side of the Caspian
Sea, and from thence, along the Western Coast, as far as the Wolga,
though at uncertain times, and chiefly in considerable flocks, coming
from the north-east, mostly in October and November; but on the
wind changing, they totally disappear.§
The nest of the Flamingo is of a very curious construction, and
singularly placed; it is made of mud, in shape of a hillock, with a
cavity at the top; in this the female lays two white eggs,|| the size
of those of a Goose, but more elongated : the elevation of the nest
is such, as to admit of the bird's sitting on it conveniently, or rather
standing, as the legs are placed one on each side at full length.^ The
young cannot fly till full grown, but run very fast: they are very
shy, by no means suffering any one to approach near enough to
shoot them, yet Dam pier, with two or more in company, killed
fourteen at once, which was effected by secreting themselves ;** and
we learn from Catesby, that a person who can stand concealed, may
shoot as many as he pleases, for they will not rise at the report of a
gun, but the survivors will stand, as if astonished, and continue on the
spot, till most of them are killed. They are common in the warmer
situations of America, frequenting the same latitudes as in other
parts ofthe globe.    Are met with in Peru and Chili, as well as at
* In Zee-Coow River.—Phil. Trans. Doctor Sparrman met with large flocks between
Table and Simon's Bay, near Alphen, in April, seeking their food in pools and puddles that
were drying up. These, he says, were of a snow white, and the wings of a flaming rosy
hue.—Voy. i. p. 30.    Once plentiful in the Isle of France.—Voy. to Mauritius, p. 66.
f Damp. Voy.\. p. 70. % Russ. Alep. p. 69. § Decouv. russ. ii. 248
|j Said to never lay more than three, and seldom fewer.—Phil. Trans.
B They will sometimes lay four eggs, on a projecting part of a low rock, if sufficiently
convenient to admit of the legs being placed one on each side.—Lin.
** Davies talks of the gunner disguising himself in an ox's hide, and by this means
getting within gun-shot.—Hist. Barb. p. 88.
 1
4g PLAMINUU.
Cayenne,* on the Coast of Brazil, and the various Islands of the West
Indies. Sloane found them in Jamaica; but they more particularly
frequent the Bahama Islands, and that of Cuba, and breed there*
Their food chiefly consists of small fish,t or their eggs; also water
insects, which they search after by plunging* in the bill, and part of
head ; from time to time trampling with their feet to-make the water
muddy, and to raise their prey from the bottom. In feeding they
are said to apply the upper part of the bill to the ground ;$ whilst
feeding one of them stands sentinel, and when he sounds an alarm,
the whole flock take wing. The Flamingo is said to sleep on one
leg, the other being drawn up close to the body, with the head
placed beneath the wing.
The flesh is by some much esteemed, and thought to equal that
of the Partridge. The late Mr. White mentions the extreme softness
of the flesh on the breast; which may betaken out-fey the fingers,
and separated from the skin without a knife, and that the fat, as in
the Stork, is red. Davies§ observes, that thej* are oommonly fat,
and accounted delicate; yet the inhabitants'©!' Provence always throw
away the flesh, as it has a fishy taste, and only use the feathers as
Ornaments to other birds, at particular entertainments; || but the
greatest dainty is the tongue, which was esteemed by the ancients
as an exquisite morsel.%
* Called there Tococo. f Also small shelLfish.-r-
§ Hist. Barb. p. 8S. || Dillon. Trav. p. 374. <
f See Plin. N. H. L x. cap. 48.    Martial says thus c
" Dat mihi Penna rubens nomen, sed Lingua gulc
" Nostra sapit : quid si garrula lingua foret ? "-
£ Linnceus. Gesner.
»f it in one of his Epi
■Lib.:
i. ep.7\.
»< directions
Apicius, the celebrated Roman glutton, in his book de arte eoqut
for dressing the Flamingo, but says nothing about the tongue; and .whoever-reads the receipt must allow, that whatever genuine taste the bird might have, the high< rank nature
ofthe seasoning would effectually cover it, even if it were more ill flavoured than some suppose it.   See Apic. de Opsoniis, a Lister, p. 173.
 	
PLAMINiGOi 47
I observe this bird in several drawings from India, and it certainly
is there sufficiently common ; its name in the Bengalese is Khonegil;
it is also called Hanse, and Hanse Taulkau.
It has been observed to us, that the Flamingo of the Old Continent, and that of America, are distinct as to species; but if so, we
have not hitherto received sufficient information, for distinguishing
the one from the other. Mr. Ten*minck mentions a smaller sort as
distinct, which inhabits India.*
2.—CHILI FLAMINGO.
Phsenicopterus Chilensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 789.      Gm. Lin. i. 613.     Molin. Chil. 214.
Id. Fr. ed. 222.
Chili Flamingo, Gen. Syn. Sup. 330.
THE height of this bird from the bill to the end of the claws is
five feet, and the body itself one foot; the back and wings of a
fiery red, the rest of the plumage of a beautiful white. The bill is
five inches long; the head small, oblong, crowned with a sort of
crest; the eyes small, but brilliant; the tail is short, and rounded ;
and the wings of a proper size; but in one particular the bird differs
from the'common sort; for the quills are of a*pure white,* isnhieh in
the others are quite black. The young said to differ from the adult,
in being of a grey colour.
This is probably one of the finest birds in Chili, and frequents only
the fresh waters. The inhabitants value it much on account of the
beautiful feathers, with which they adorn their helmets and spears;
'Ine^wings are also converted into fans, and other purposes. The
mariners, as to incubation, &c. are the the same as in the more
common sort.
* Manuel, p. cii.
 48.
WITH SHORT LEGS.
GENUS XCVIIL—ALBATROSS.
1 Wandering Albatrc
A Var.
B Var.
2 Chocolate
A Var.
3 Yellow-nosed
4 Sooty
BlLL strong, bending in the middle, and hooked at the end ofthe
upper mandible ; that of the lower abrupt; the lower part inclining
downwards.
Nostrils opening forwards, and covered with a large, convex guard.
Tongue scarcely perceptible, only the rudiment of one.
Toes three in number, all placed forwards.
1.—WANDERING ALBATROSS.
. 789.   Lin.
ii. 27.
Bris.
!14.   Gm. Lin. i. 566.    Borowsk. i
489.    Tern. Man. Ed. 2d. ex.
. 126.    Id. 8vo. ii. 394.     Buf. ix. 339,
Diomedea exulans, Ind. Oi
t. 27.    Gerin. v. t. 552.   Lin.
Plautus Albatrus, Klein, 140. t. 13.
pl. 24.   PL enl. 237.
Tchaiki, Pall. Spic.fasc. v. p. 28.    Hist. Kamtsch. 154.
Der Wandernde Schiffsvogel, Schmid, Vog. p. 144. t. 120.
Man of War Bird, Albin, iii. pl. 81.—the head.    Grew's Mus. t. 6. f. 1.—the head.
Wandering Albatross, Gen. Syn. v. 304.   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 423.   Edto. pl.88.   Staunt.
Chin. i. 222.
THIS is bigger than the Swan; and the length from three to
four feet; the extent of wing at least ten feet;* but many of our
* Above ten feet,—Forst. Voy. i. 87. Ten feet two inches, called an enormous size,—
Hawkesw. Voy. iii. 627. Eleven feet seven inches,—Parkins. Voy. 82. Eleven feet,—
Cook's Journ. 77. Twelve feet, MS at Sir Joseph Banks's. One in the Leverian Museum
expanded thirteen feet; and Ives even mentions one, shot off the Cape of Good Hope,
measuring seventeen feet and a half from wing to wing.    See Voy. p. 5.
11
 ALBATROSS. 49
voyagers mention them as greatly exceeding these dimensions: weight
from twelve to twenty-eight pounds. Bill dirty yellow; crown of
the head pale cinereous brown ; the rest ofthe body in general white,
crossed with blackish lines on the back and wings, and with spots in
the same direction towards the rump; greater quills black ; the tail
dusky lead-colour, and rounded in shape; legs flesh-colour. The
young birds are brown, more or less mixed with white; but do not
acquire the complete plumage till mature age.
These birds are frequent in many parts without the Tropics, both
to the north and south ; not being confined to the latter, as has been
by some imagined;* indeed they are in great plenty about the Cape
of Good Hope; and not only these, but other sorts also, as well as
in every temperate southern latitudef as far towards the Pole as has
been hitherto explored. Are seen in vast flocks in Kamtschatka, and
adjacent Islands, about the end of June, and there called Great
Gulls, but chiefly in the Bay of Penschinensi, the whole inner Sea i
of Kamtschatka, the Kurile Isles, and that of Bering; for on the
east coasts of the first they are scarce, a single straggler only appearing now and then. Their chief motive for frequenting these
places seems to be the plenty of food ; and their arrival a sure presage
of shoals of fish following. At their first coming they are very lean,
but soon grow immensely fat, for they are very voracious birds, and
will often swallow a salmon, of four or five pounds weight; but as
they cannot take the whole of it into their stomach at once, part of
the tail will often remain out of the mouth; and the natives, finding
the bird in this situation, knock it down without difficulty. Before
the middle of August they migrate elsewhere. They are also taken
by means of a hook, baited with a fish,$ though it is not for their
* Buf. ix. 339. f Seldom below 30 degrees; never in the Torrid Zone.—
Forst. Voy. i. 482.
J Forster mentions their being caught with a line and hook, baited with a bit of sheep's
skin.—Voy. i. 87.    Cook's Voy. i. 84.
VOL.  X. H
 50 ALBATROSS.
flesh that they are valued, it being hard and unsavoury,* but on
account of the intestines, particular parts of which they blow up
like bladders, and use as floats to buoy up their nets in fishing: of
the bones are formed many useful things.f The breeding places, if
at all in the northern atmosphere, are not ascertained; but we are
certain of their multiplying in the southern, as Patagonia,J and Falkland Islands. § To the last they come about the end of September,
or beginning of October, among other birds, in great abundance.||
The nests are made on the ground with earth,^[ of a round shape, a
foot in height, and indented at top ; the egg is larger than that
of a Goose, white, marked with dull spots at the large end, and is
thought to be good food, the white never growing hard with boiling.
While the female is sitting, the male is constantly on the wing, to
supply her with food ; and during this period they are so tame as to
suffer themselves to be shoved from the nest, while the eggs are taken
from them; but at other times, when caught, they will defend themselves stoutly with the bill; and not only in this case, but in general,
the cry is harsh and disagreeable, not unlike the braying of an ass.
The chief destruction of the eggs is from the Hawk,** which darts
on the nest, the moment the female leaves it, and flies away with the
egg. The Albatross is also greatly persecuted while on the wing,
by the Skua Gull, which attacks it on all sides, and particularly
endeavours to get beneath, w^hich is only prevented by the former
royagers. As soon as caught they were skinned, and
ing, then parboiled, and the liquor being thrown away,
tnd being served up with savoury sauce, they were much
, by way
* Yet they were eaten by our
soaked in salt water till next mor
stewed in fresh water till tender;
commended.—Hawkesw. Voy. i.
f The New Zealand women wear pieces of the down in the holes of their
of ornament.—Forst. Voy. i. 841.    Id. Obs. 310.    Hawkesw. Voy. iii. 66.
t Arct. Zool. § Clayton. || A part of New Zealand called Albatross
Point, from this circumstance.—Parkins. Voy. 113.
IT With sedges in form of a haycock, three feet in height.—Arct. Zool.
** Of two sorts.—Penrose.     One of them the New Zealand Eagle, Vol. i. p. 160.
pl. ix.
 ALBATROSS.
51
settling on the water;* but indeed, the Albatross rarely flies at a
great distance from the surface, except obliged so to do by high
winds,f or other causes. As soon as the young are able to remove
from the nest, the Penguins take possession, and hatch their young
in turn. It is probable, that they pass from one part of the globe to
another, according to the season; being occasionally met with, in
intermediate places.^ The food is supposed to be chiefly small
marine animals, especially of the mollusca, or blubber class,§ also
flying fish.||
A.—The general colour of the plumage in this bird is brown,
inclining to black above, with cinereous down, and whitish towards
the head; a red bill, with a dusky tip.
B.—In this the upper mandible is white, or reddish, the under
red, with the edges white ; plumage white; top of the head and
neck behind deep straw-colour; between the shoulders, the quills,
and tail feathers, dusky brown.
These two Varieties are mentioned by Gmelin without any reference. A Variety from New-Holland was among the drawings of
Mr. Francillon : in this the head, neck, and beneath, were white;
back, wings, and tail, black; bill and legs, which are long, yellow.
* Forst. Voy. i. 118.   Hist, des Ois.
f Sometimes appear to soar above the clouds.—-AmtBn. Ac. v. 75.
% Seen between six and seven hundred leagues from land, in the middle of the Southern
Ocean—Forst. Obs. 211. Met with in Sandwich Isles.—Ell. Narr. ii. 149. Also, in lat.
26. 31. north, on the 4th of April.—Id. p. 193. Off Japan and Jesso, October, 1771.—
Cook's last Voy. iii. 391.   Lat. 33. south, May 5.—Osb. Voy. i. 109.
§ Forst. Voy. i. 118.
j| Trigla volitans.—Amcen. ac. v. p. 75.   Arct. Zool. No. 505.
H 2
 62
ALBATROSS.
2.—CHOCOLATE ALBATROSS.
Diomedea spadicea, Ind. Orn. ii
Chocolate Albatross, Gen, Syn. -
Park, Voy. 83, 84 ?
Gm. Lin. i. 568.    Lin. Trans, xii. 489.   .
Cook's Voy. ii. 116. 150.*   Forst. Voy. i. 258.
THIS is larger than a Goose. Bill yellowish white; irides
brown; fore part of the head, round the eye, chin, and throat, white;
the general colour ofthe plumage fine deep chocolate; the neck and
under parts palest; inner ridge of the wing, and under wing coverts,
white; and the belly inclines much to white; tail short, rounded;
and the wings equal it in length; legs bluish white ; claws white.
It varies in having more or less white about the head, and in a
greater or less degree of purity; a specimen of this was seen in the
South Seas, in lat. 37. the end of December.
A.—Albatros de la Chine, Pl. enl. 963.
This bird is wholly greyish brown; bill and legs pale straw-
colour.—Inhabits China, and is about two feet and a half in length.
3—YELLOW-NOSED ALBATROSS—Pl. clxix.
Diomedea Chlororhynchos, Ind. Orn. i
Yellow-nosed Albatross, Gen. Syn. v.
. Trans, xii. 490.
9. pl. xciv.
LENGTH three feet, breadth seven. The bill about four inches
long, black, moderately stout, and hooked at the end, the upper
ridge yellow the whole length, quite to the tip; the base of the
* As few of the Voyagers have described the birds to which they have given names, we
cannot always be clear in respect to the Species meant; and therefore not quite certain it
was the one here described.    Chocolate Albatro
observed by him, except among the ice. Voy. i
beak.—Park. Voy. 83, 84?
258.
Jre mentioned by Forster; but not
Perhaps the Albatross with a white
 1\
  9
I
 fH!"
•
 ALBATROSS. 53
under mandible is also yellow; irides brown; the head grey; between
the bill and eye an obscure black spot; just over the eye a dusky
one; hind part ofthe neck dusky, the lower white; back, scapulars
and wings, dusky blue black; rump and under parts of the body
white ; tail dusky; legs yellowish white ; the fore part of them and
the webs dusky. We believe that the plumage in this species varies
as in the Gulls; for in a drawing of one, the whole head, neck, and
under parts were pure white. This is met with in the southern
atmosphere, from 30 to 60 degrees, all round the Pole.f One, taken
off the Cape of Good Hope, furnished the above description.
Inhabits the South Seas without the Tropics, and like the
Wandering Species, rarely flies above five or six feet above the
surface of the water. |
At least four Species of Albatrosses breed on the Islands of Tristan da Cunha. Among others the Yellow-nosed builds its solitary
nest in some sheltered corner; selecting in particular the small drains
that draw the water off the land into the ravines : the nest is of the
height of ten or twelve inches, of a cylindrical form, with a small
ditch round the base, and there is only one egg.% All of this tribe
nourish their young by disgorging the contents of the stomach ; for
as they feed on the blubber of dead whales, seals, &c. this would
melt away if carried in the bill to any distance. During the time of
incubation, no alarm is displayed on the approach of any man, as
the birds suffer themselves to be kicked, or pulled off their nests,
without the smallest resistance, and soon return again to their post.
Captain Carmichael, who furnishes this description, observes, that
when irritated, the feathers of the cheeks are separated, so as to
display a beautiful stripe of naked orange skin, running from the
corners of the mouth towards the back of the head.
* Lin. Trans, xii. 489. f One caught in lat. 57. 30. south, in February.
{ They frequently- merely chuse a dry spot, and making a slight concavity to prevent
the egg from rolling away: the egg is white, very large, and peculiar in shape, being long
in proportion, equally thick at both ends.
I
 I 111
jy
ALBATROSS.
4.—SOOTY ALBATROSS.
Diomedea fuliginosa, Ind. Orn.
Black Albatross, Lin. Trans, x
Albatross with a white eye-broi
Black-billed Albatross, Parkin
i. 791.    Got. Lin. i. 568
i. 489.
, Cook's Voy. i. p. 38 ?
. Voy. p. 84 ?
Sooty Albatross, Gen. Syn. v. 309.    Forst. Voy. i
91.
SIZE of a Goose; length nearly three feet. Bill black; irides
pale yellow; at each angle ofthe eye a nictitating membrane;
general colour of the plumage brown ; the head and tail inclining
to black or soot-colour; for a small space above, behind, and beneath
the eye white, but not on the fore part; quills and tail dark brown,
almost black, the shafts of the feathers of both white, the last pointed
in shape; legs pale brownish lead-colour; claws black.
This is a general inhabitant throughout the Southern Ocean,
within the Antarctic Circle; first met with in lat. 47. south;* was
called by our sailors the Quaker, from its brown plumage: is probably the same which Forster calls the Least of the Albatrosses,t
met with off Kerguelen's Land, in the month of December.^
This is also found to breed in the Islands of Tristan da Cunha ;
is gregarious, many of them building theif nests close to each other:
in the area of half an acre were reckoned upwards of a hundred.
The nest is of mud, raised five or six inches, and slightly depressed
at the top : when the young birds are more than half grown, they
are covered with a whitish down : they stand on their respective
hillocks like statues, till approached close, when they make a strange
clattering with their beaks, and if touched, squirt a deluge of foetid,
oily fluid from the stomach. §
* First met with about the time of first falling in with the ice.—Cook's Voy. i. 38.
t Voy. i. p. 91. X Cook's Last Voy. i. 87. § Captain Carmichael.
 1 With a compressed Bill.
1 Great Auk
2 Tufted
3 Puffin
A Var.
4 Labrador
55
GENUS XCIX.—AUK.
5 Razor-billed
6 Black-billed
7 Crested
8 Dusky
9 Perroquet
10 Ancient
11 Little
12 Minute
** Witk a depressed Bill.
13 Flat-billed
BlLL smooth-edged, short, compressed,* convex, frequently transversely furrowed.
Nostrils linear, parallel to the edge.
Tongue almost as long as the bill.
Toes three in number, placed forwards.
* WITH A COMPRESSED BILL.
1.—GREAT AUK.
Alea impennis, Ind. Orn. ii. 791.    Lin. i. 210. 3.    Fn
Bran. No. 105.    Muller, p. 17.    Fn. groenl. No. 52.     Borowsk.
iv. t. 497.
Alea major, Bris. vi. 85. 1. t. 7.    Id. 8vo. ii. 382.
Pingouin brachiptere, Tern. Man. Ed. 2d. 939.
Penguin, Raii, 118.     Will. 242. t. 65.     Id. Engl. 322. t. 65
Misc. pl.417.
Le grand Pingouin, Buf. ix. 393. pl. 29.    Pl. enl. 367.
Great Auk, Gen. Syn. v. 311.    Br. Zool. ii. No. 229. pl. 81.
ii. 146. pl. 26.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 424.     Edw. pl. 147.
Lewin, vi. 21. pl. 222.    Walcot, i. pl. 86.    Orn. Diet. $
No. 140.    Gm.LinA. 550.
32.    Gerin.
Edw.
Id.fol. 136.   Id. 1812.
Bewick, ii. pl. p. 162.
SIZE of a Goose; length three feet.    Bill four inches and  a
quarter, covered in great part with short downy feathers, the colour
* The last excepted, in which it is depressed.
i
i
 1
I:1
56 AUK-
black, crossed with several furrows. The plumage of the head,
neck, and upper part of the body, the wings, and tail, black, the
rest white; also a large oval spot of the same, occupying most of
the space between the bill and eye; the second quills are tipped
with white, forming an oblong stripe on the wings; which are so
small as to be useless for flight, the longest quill feather being little
more than four inches; legs black.
One of these, in the Museum of the late Mr. Tunstall, had only
two or three furrows on the bill, and the oval white patch between
the bill and eye spotted black and white: probably a young bird.
This, as far as we can learn, is by no means a common species;
it appears on the Isle of St. Kilda the beginning of May, and retires
in June, and probably breeds there; it lays one large egg, close to
the sea mark, about six inches long, white, irregularly marked with
purplish lines, and blotched at the larger end with black, or ferruginous spots; and it is said, that if the egg is taken away, the bird
will not lay a second; is supposed to hatch late, as in August the
young are only covered with grey down ; it never ventures far out to
sea, rarely beyond soundings. Sometimes frequents the Coast of
Norway, the Ferroe Isles, Iceland, and Greenland; feeds much on
the Lump fish, Father lasher, and others of that size, but the young
birds will frequently eat Rose root,* and other plants; the old ones
are rarely seen on shore, though the young are often met with ; if is
a shy bird, and from the situation of the legs, being placed far
behind, walks badly, but dives well, and is taken in the manner used
for the Razor-bill and Puffin; the skin between the jaws is blown
into a bladder, and in this state used, attached to the darts of the
Greenlanders: f it inhabits also Newfoundland,^: and it is said, that
the skin of the body is used by the Eskimaux Indians for garments. ||
This bird was found by Mr. Bullock, during his summer excursion
in 1813, in Papa Vestray, one of the Orkney Islands ; it was sufficiently familiar with the boatmen about those parts, but would not
* Rhodiola rosea.— Lin:       f Faun. Groenl.       + Arct. Zool.    Br. Zool.       \\ Arct. Zool.
  2
■■>■'-'^y.-4/"„.,^
 1
  AUK. 57
admit of his coming, as a stranger, within gun shot, though in their
company; but afterwards suffering the boatmen, by themselves, to
approach so near, as to knock it down with an oar. This specim en
was in good preservation in Mr. Bullock's Museum. The sexes of
this species are called King and Queen of Auks; and by some
Gair-Fowls.
2.—TUFTED AUK.—Pl. clxx.   f. 1.
Alea cirrhata,   Ind. Orn. ii. 791.      Got. Lin. i. 553.     Pall.Spic.v.   p. 7.   t. 1. & 5.
Borowsk. iii. t. 38.
Le Macareux de Kamtschatka, Buf. ix. 368.    Pl. enl. 761.
Igilma, Hist. Kamtsch. 183.
Tufted Auk,   Gen. Syn. v. 313. pl. 95. f. 1.—the head.     Arct. Zool. ii.   No. 432.
Cook's Last Voy. ii. 411.
THIS exceeds the Common Puffin in size, and is nineteen
inches in length. The bill nearly two inches long, crossed with
three furrows; similar in colour and shape to that of the Common
Puffin, and like that, compressed and furrowed on the sides; irides
yellowish brown; the sides of the head and chin are white; over
each eye arises a tuft of feathers, four inches, or more, in length,
falling elegantly on each side of the neck, and in some specimens
reaching almost to the back; these are white as far as they are
attached to the head, but beyond it fine buff-yellow ; the rest of the
plumage is black, beneath paler, and inclining to ash-colour, the
shafts of the quills white; tail very short, and consists of sixteen
feathers; legs brownish orange; claws black.
The female is smaller,* but scarcely differs in plumage from the
male; the bill crossed with two furrows instead of three; and the tufts
smaller.—This species inhabits Kamtschatka, and the neighbouring
Islands.
F Some of these, which we have
■n, measured only fourteen inches and a
I
w
 58 auk.
It was first met with a little to the south of Cape Hermogenes,
and after that daily, sometimes in large flocks.* Pallas remarksf
that the Kamtschatkan girls imitate the tufts of these birds, by
placing a similar strip ofthe white skin ofthe Glutton J behind each
ear, hanging down behind, by way of ornament, and is a well
received present from a lover to his mistress. The bills of these, as
well as of the Common Puffin, were formerly held by the natives as
charms, and worn by the priests as amulets ; they are yet seen round
their head dresses, but supposed at this time to be only by way of
ornament: the skins are made use of for clothing, and sewed
together for that purpose. The bird is called in Kamtschatka,
Muechagatka;§ and in Ochotka, Igilma,|| In manners it coincides
with the last Species, and like it burrows under ground, lining the
nest with feathers, and sea plants; lays a single egg, the end of May,
or beginning of June, wdiich is eaten, but the flesh of the bird is
hard and insipid. It feeds on crabs, shrimps, and shell fish, which
last it forces from the rocks with the bill.^J
3 —PUFFIN AUK.
Alea arctica, Ind. Orn. ii. 792.     Lin. i. 211.     Fn. suec. No. 141.      Gm.Lin.i. 549.
Brun. No. 103.   Muller, No. 140.    Frisch, t. 192.    Borowsk. iii. 31.    Sibb. Scot.
ii. 20.   pl. 16. f. 1.   Olear. Mus. t. 15. f. 5.   Pall. Spic. v. p. 1.   Fn. GroenLb3.
Fratercula, Bris. vi. 81. t. 6. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. ii. 380.    Gerin. t. 551.
Mormon Fratercula, Macareux Moine, Tern. Man. 614.    Id. Ed. 2d. 934.
Alea deleta, Brun. No. 104.—a bird of the first year.
Arias aratica, Raii, 120. A. 5.    Will. 244. t. 65.
Plautus arcticus, Klein, Av. 146. 3.
Le Macareux, Buf. ix. 358. pl. 26.    Pl. enl. 275.
Papagaay Duiker, Sepp, Vog. 4. t. p. 359.
Lunda, Seligm. Mus. ii. s. 11. t. 11. f. 21.
Ipatka, Hist. Kamtsch. p. 153.
* Cook's last Voy. ii. 411. f Spicil. Zoolog. + Mustela Gulo.—Lin.
§ Mitchagatka—Alea monochroa sulcis tribus, circo duplici utrinque dependente—Alea
Arctrca Cirrhata.-P^V. Trans. Ii. p. 482. Found in America, opposite Kamtschatka, as
also the Unli, and Kaiover, or Kaiour. || Hut. Kamts. p. 183. f Arct. Zool.
I
 AUK. 59
Arktische Alk, Schmid, Vog. p. 162. t. 139.    Bechst. Dents, iv. 723.
Puffin, Gen. Syn. v. 314.     Br. Zool.n. No. 232.    Id.fol. 135. pl. H.     Id. 1812. ii.
152.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 427.    Tour in Wales, ii. pl. 20.    Will. Engl. p. 235. pl.
65. f.   Hiit. Groenl. ii. pl. 1.    Albin, ii. pl. 78, 79.    Edw. pl. 358. f. 1.    Bewick,
ii. pl. p. 168.     Lewin, "i\. pl. 225.     Jd. pl. xlvii. f. 2.—the egg.     Donov. i. pl. 8.
JPa/c. i. pl. 87.   Pu/f. Dors. p. 17.    Ora. .Die*. Sc Supp.    Graves, Orn. ii.
SIZE of a Teal; length twelve inches or more; weight twelve or
thirteen ounces. The-foill of a singular shape, one inch and a quarter
long, much compressed, and near one inch and a half deep at the
base, from whence both mandibles tend in an arched manner to the
point, where it is a little curved ; across the upper are four oblique
furrows, on the under three; half of the bill, from the point, is red,
the base half blue grey, and at the base a sort of elevated cere, full
of minute holes ; the nostrils are a long, and narrow slit on each side,
near the edge of the upper mandible, and parallel to it; the irides
greyish hazel; edges of the eyelids crimson ; on the upper a callous,
triangular protuberance, on the under an oblong one of the same
texture; the top of the head, neck behind, and all the upper parts
of the plumage are black, passing round the throat in a collar; the
sides of the head, chin, and all beneath pure white; quills dusky;
tail short, composed of sixteen feathers; legs placed very backward,*
orange; the claws back.
The male and female are much alike, but in some birds there is
a great portion of a dusky mixture on the cheeks, and a patch of the
same on each side of the under jaw. The Puffin is observed to vary
exceedingly in the bill, owing to different periods of age; in the first
year it is%taaill, weak, without any furrow, and of a dusky colour;
in the second larger, stronger, pale, with a faint appearance of a
* Among the various authors who have figured this bird, some have represented it swimming, and others-as* resting not only on the feet, but on the back part of the shins also,
propped up behind wrfli the tail. We have never seen this bird in a living state, but the late
Rev. Hugh Davies, of Beaumaris, assured me, that the bird, though sufficiently awkward
in its gait as to walking, can do so, by means of the feet only, as in the Duck ; though
most certainly may be called an upright posture, in comparison with the last named.
I 2
 1
ill
60 AUK.
furrow at the base; but as the bird advances in years the bill is more
vivid, and increases in strength; it is therefore supposed not to be
perfect, till the third year ; especially, as not a single one has been
observed at Priestholm, which had not the bill of full growth.*
These birds frequent several parts of the Coasts of England,
appearing about their breeding places the first week in April, but
do not settle there immediately, as they go away, and return twice
or thrice, before the first week in May, when they burrow; but
many of them dislodge the rabbits from their holes, and save the
trouble of forming one of their own ; in the last case, they are so
intent on what they are about, as to be caught by the hand ; they
are also taken by ferrets, in the manner of rabbits ;-\ but where the
soil is scanty on the rocks, they are content to deposit a single white
egg, sometimes marked with a little cinereous, in a hole or crevice.
It has been remarked, that the male performs the greater part of the
task of forming burrows where necessary, and likewise assists in
incubation, which has been proved by observation; the young are
hatched the beginning of July. About the 11th of August they
depart, but not completely; for the young ones, which have been late
hatched, are deserted, and left a prey to the Peregrine Falcon, who
watches at the mouth of the holes, till tbey, through hunger, are
compelled to come out. Notwithstanding this appearance of neglect,
no bird is more attentive in general, the female suffering herself to
be taken, in defence of the young; biting, with savage fierceness, the
hands, or any other part of the person who seizes it, as if actuated
by despair; and if released, instead of flying away, will often hurry
again into the burrows, to the young: about two years since, one
was caught alive in the middle of the town of Newbury.£ The food
chiefly consists of sprats, and the smaller kind of crabs, shrimps,
and sea weeds; the flesh is excessively rank, yet the young ones are
* See Tour in Wales, ii. p. 252. pl. 20. for figure of the bill in the different stages,
t Breed in vast numbers in Iceland.—Hooker's Tour, p. 36. + Dr. Lamb.
 AUK. 61
preserved with spices, and pickled, being by some much relished.*—
A few of these birds frequent the rocks of Dover, and the neighbourhood ; and great numbers about the Needle Rocks, adjoining the
Isle of Wight; also at Beachy Head, and other parts, but no where
in such plenty as at Priestholme Isle, where they are in flocks
innumerable, and sometimes seen in winter, on the south coast of
Devonshire ;t are common also in Ireland, on the Island Sherries,
three leagues N. N.W. of Holyhead, and in the south stack, near
the latter, breed in plenty.^ Inhabit also Iceland, and Greenland,
breeding in the extreme parts, especially on the west of Disco,
aud the Island Orpiksauk. Found in the Ferroe Isles, and called
there Lunda. In the Farn Isles, Coulterneb, from the shape of the
bill; also Tom-Noddy, and Skout: it is known also by various
other names, as Guldenhead, Bottle-nose, and Helegug, in Wales;
at Scarborough Mullet, and in Cornwall Pope.||
We believe that in the warmer parts of the Continent of Europe
they are less plentiful, but can be traced as far as Gibraltar, where
they are seen throughout the winter: they first appear there in
October, and depart in March ; are very troublesome to the fishermen, taking their baits under water, on which element they seem
to live constantly, rarely being observed on the wing. If kept tame,
they will take no fish, except first thrown into the water, as in a tub,
when they dive directly after them. Mr. White, who resided long
on the spot, seems inclined to think, that the migration of this, and
the Razor-bills may possibly be performed wholly through the water,
as their diving, and