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A general history of birds. Vol. VIII Latham, John, 1740-1837 1823

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Full Text

  THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
WOODWARD HISTORICAL
COLLECTION
     GENERAL    HISTORY
BIRDS.
BY JOHN LATHAM,  M.D.
F.R.S.  A.S. and L.S.
Acad. Css. Nat. Curios.    Reg. Holm,   et Soc. Nat. Scrut. Berolin.   &e. &e.
VOL. VIII.
WINCHESTER:
PRINTED   BT   JACOB   AND   JOHNSON,   FOR   THE  AUTHOR:—SOLD   IN   LONDON   B\
m   AND   W.   B.   WHITTAKER,   AVE-MARIA-LANE ;   JOHN   WARREN,   BOND-STREET;
w. wood, 428, strand; and j. mawman, 39, ludgate-street.
1823.
  ORDER IV.     COLUMBINE.
GENUS LIV-PIGEON.
*  With moderate Tails.
10 Triangular Spotted
42 Black-spotted
1 Stock Pigeon
11 Spotted green
43 White-shouldered
2 White-rumped
12 Sumatran
44 Egyptian
A Biset
13 New Zealand
45 Malabar
B Rock
14 Brown
46 Green
C Roman
15 Hackled
47 Black-capped
D Rough-footed
16 Ruff-necked
48 Blue
E Crested
17 Scallop-necked
49 Berbice
F Norway
18 Squammous
50 Azure
G Barbary
19 Grey
51 Ring-tailed
H Jacobine
20 White-masked
52 Caribbee
1   Laced
21 Jenisee
53 Ferruginous-vented
K Turbit
22 Southern
A Var.
L Shaker
23 Porto-rico
54 Blue-topped
M Tumbled
24 Peregrine
55 Pacific
N Helmet
25 Pale
56 Antarctic
O Persian
26 Norfolk
57 Yellow-winged
P Carrier
27 Chestnut-shouldered
58 White-faced
Q Powter
28 Bronze-winged
59 Blue-naped
R Horseman
29 Gold-winged
60 Pied
S Smiter
30 Opaline
61 Striated
T Turner
31 Violet-naped
62 Saint Domingo
V Spot
32 Vlouvlou
63 White-crowned
3 Ring
33 Belted
64 Common Turtle P.
A Var.
34 Rousset
A Spotted-necked
4 Spotted-ringed
35 Geoffroy's
B Portugal Dove
5 Double-ringed
36 Emeraudine
C Luzonian D.
6 Nutmeg
37 Tambourine
D Chinese T.
7 Bay
38 Mustachoe
E Var.
8 White Nutmeg
39 Varied
65 Collared T.
A Var.
40 Surinam
66 Collared Senegal
9 Auricular
41 Mexican
67 Vinaceous
VOL.  VIII.                                                                          B
  WITH MODERATE  TAILS.
1—STOCK PIGEON.
Columba Oenas, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 589.     Lin. i. 279. 1. /3.    Faun. suec. No. 207.    Gm.
Lin. i. 769.    Frisch, 1.139.    Georgi, p. 173.    Faun. arag. 83.    Faun. arab. 7. 11.
Sepp, Vog. t. p. 13.   Eram. 358. 1.    Schosf. el. t.28.    Rait, 62. A. 10.    Will. 136.
t. 35.   Id. Engl. 185.    Brii.i. 86.   Zd.Svo.i. 20.    fin*/*. No. 203.    Borowsk. iii.
207. 2.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. 177.    Id. Ed. ii. 446.
Columba sylvestris, Roman. Orn. i. 82. 1.13.
 Lignorum proprie, Klein, 119. 8.    7tf. Ot>. 33.
Palumbus minor, Klein, Stem. 27. t. 29. f. 2. a—c.
Holtz Taube, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 88.    Naturf. xvii. 74.    Bechst. Deutsch. iii. 271.
Colombe Colombin,  Tern. Pig.fol. pi. 11.    Jd. 8vo. i. p. 118.
Stock Pigeon, or Stock Dove, Gen.Syn.'w. 604.   Id. Sup. 197.    Br.Zool. i. No. 101.
pi. 45.    Jd.ii. Add.    Id.fol. pi. 88. O.    Jd. £d. 1812. i. p. 390.     Arct. Zool. ii.
329. A.   ^/iim, ii. pi. 46.    Orn. Diet.
LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill pale red ; the head ash-colour;
hind part of the neck and sides green gold, glossed with copper, in
different lights; upper part of the back, and wings dull ash-colour;
lower part of the back, rump, and upper tail coverts paler ash ; fore
part of the neck the same, the lower and breast vinaceous; belly
thighs, and under tail coverts like the rump; the four or five outer
quills black, with the exterior edges white; the rest ash-colour, with
the ends black, and reach to the end of the tail, which is much like
the quills, with one-third of the end black; two of the outer feathers
white from the base to the middle, on the outer edge; the legs red,
claws black.
Inhabits various parts of England, and generally breeds in hollow
and rocky places on the coasts; not unfrequently in ruined buildings,
or holes of decayed trees.
B 2
J
 4 PIGEON 
2.—WHITE-RUMPED PIGEON.
Columba domestica, Ind. Orn. ii. 589.    Lin.i. 279.    Faun. suec. No. 207.
Scop. i. No. 177.    Kramer, 358. 1. /3.     Gerin. iii. 270.    Roman.
1.11.    Raii, 59. A. 1.    Will. p. 130.   Id. Engl. 180.    Bm, i. 68. 1.
13.    Klein, 118. 1.
Der Haustaube, Naturf. xvii. 75.
Pigeon commun, Buf. ii. 501.    PL enl. 466.
Colombo domestico, Cett. Uc. Sard. 135.    Borowsk, iii. 207.
Pigeon domestique, Tern. Pig.fol. p. 31.  pi. 12.    id.8vo.i. 193.
Common Pigeon, Br. Zool. No. 101. pi. 45.     Id.fol. t. 88.    id. £d. 1812. i. p. 303.
Sloan. Jam. 302.    Brown, Jam. 468.    Alhin, iii. pi. 42. 44.
White-rumped Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 605.    Bewick, pi. in p. 267.    Lew,
Donov. pi. 107.    Walcot,\\. pi. 186.    Pw/f. Dor*, p. 7.    Montag. O,
Gm. Lin. i.
Or». i. 76.
Id. 8vo. i.
iv. pi. 128.
Die?.
THIS is smaller than the former, and differs chiefly in having
the lower part of the back, and rump white.
We will not here insist, whether the two above mentioned are
distinct, or only one and the same species; as different sentiments yet
subsist on this point. Colonel Montagu, who has written last on
this subject, and on whose opinion I have much reliance, seems to
consider this as having originally sprung from the same source,
describing it under the name of Stock Dove, in his Ornithological
Dictionary ; and that the length is thirteen inches and a half, the
breadth twenty-two; weight eleven ounces; and the chief and
constant characteristic the black bars on the wings. Doctor Pallas
remarks, that the Common Pigeon is very numerous in the south of
Russia, breeding wild in the turrets of the villages, churches, and
steep rocky banks of the rivers, migrating to the south in winter. In
Siberia none are seen, except beyond Lake Baikal, where a peculiar
Variety, of a smaller size, and with a white rump, is seen, but too
like to be declared another Species : this last breeds in great plenty
among the rocks.
Authors have noticed the migration of numerous flocks of wild
Pigeons into England in autumn, from the more northern regions,
 and their return in spring, but later observations do not confirm the
continuance of this habit, at least it is not now noticed. Be it as it
may, many are found among the rocks, ruined edifices, and mountains,
in the more northern parts, the whole year, though others prefer the
woody tracts, building in the holes of decayed trees; hence the
different name of Rock Pigeon, Stock Dove, Wood Pigeon.
The first remove of Pigeons from their wild state is that to the
Dove-house, where finding every convenience for building the nest
at hand, added to the procuring food on much easier terms than
when absolutely wild, they are for the most part contented with
their situation; yet these may be called, but half domesticated, as
they vary but little in colour, and are very apt to return to such
haunts as they originally possessed: not so in respect to the tame
Pigeons; for they, looking only to their keeper for food, search no
further; nay, were they deprived of that, would be in hazard of
perishing for want, not being accustomed to provide for themselves;
we mean such as are kept by Pigeon fanciers, who teach them to
bear the confinement of the house; finding plenty of food, they do not
regret the want of liberty; indeed, there are many Pigeons kept by
various people, which are called tame, but are not attended to with
such strictness as the fancy Pigeons, and though they may find some
food at home, are obliged to seek the greater part abroad.
In the wild state, Pigeons have two broods in a year, and in the
first period of confinement, sometimes three, increasing in proportion as they are more or less domesticated; and when in complete
confinement, with a full supply of food, are said to lay ten or more
times in a year. This, however, will not appear so wonderful as at
first may be thought, as it is more or less the case with all kinds of
poultry, the origin of which is well known not to vary in the wild
state. It is on this ground that we are indebted, for all the varieties of
the finest fruits, luxuriant vegetables for the table, and endless variety
of the  flowering part of the creation, wholly owing to culture;
 all of which will degenerate, equally with the domesticated animals,
on their return to a state of nature.
Pigeons rarely lay more than two eggs at a time, and sit from
fourteen to seventeen days, and in general one is a male, the other
a female.*
Independent of their being esteemed for the table, they are valued
on other accounts; their dung is thought to be a most excellent
manure for some kinds of land ;t has been used as one article in
tanning the upper leathers of shoes ;J and by some applied as a
Cataplasm; indeed salt petre was formerly collected from it. The
greatest use of the Pigeon is at Ispahan, in Persia, where it is said
there are about 3000 Pigeon-houses kept by the Turks alone; Christians not being allowed to keep any.§
Tavernier says, that their dung is used to smoke melons. Pigeons
are fond of salt, and are found to be injurious to walls and tiling, by
picking out the mortar, especially when old, as it contains much
saline matter; hence the usual way to entice Pigeons to remain
where intended, or to decoy them from other places, is by means of
a salt cat, which is a mixture composed of loam, old rubbish, and
salt, but this mode is not only unneighbourly, but we believe illegal.
* Trifling a6 this number may appear, yet supposing we allow them to breed nine times
in a year, the produce from a single pair at the end of four years may amount to 14,762.—
Amcen. Acad. ii. 32. Stillin. Tracts, 75.    Linnaeus makes the number to more than 18,000!
f Plat.—A load of coals has been exchanged for a load of Pigeon's dung, and fetched
sixteen miles. Pigeon's dung used in Scotland at this day by Sir Alexander Diek, Bart.
He mixes it layer upon layer, with chaff, turning it before it is laid on the land. See Crit.
Review, December 1784. p. 441. forty or fifty bushels allowed to an acre.—Bath Papers.
p. 152. | Phil. Trans. 1778. p. 114.
§ Pococke and others mention the frequency of Pigeon-houses in Egypt, addin°-, that
these are reckoned a great part of the estate of an husbandman, and the common proverb,
in those parts is, that a man who has a Pigeon-house, needs not be careful about the disposal of his daughter.—Trav. i. 210. pi. 8. Pigeons are more numerous in Egypt than in
any country on earth. Every hamlet and town forms a vast Pigeon-house.— Savory, Letters
on Egypt, No. 3.
 As to the Varieties of the Common Pigeon, we shall be as short as
possible in our account of them here. Whoever may wish to know
more, may consult Wilhighby's Ornithology, Moore's Columbarium,
Treatise on Domestic Pigeons, with several other books, written
expressly on the subject; and in respect to the general nature, the
Histoire des Oiseaux of Buffon may be read with advantage.
A.—Columba Livia, Ind. Orn.n. p. 590./3. Bris. i. 82..3. Id. 8vo. i. 18. Gm.Lin.u
769. Raii, 62. 8. Will. 136. Id. Engl. 186. Klein, 119. 10. Raman. Orn. i.
83.    Gerin. iii. t. 371.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 279.   Id. Ed. ii. p. 447.
Colombe Biset sauvage, Tern. Pig.fol. pi. 12.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 125.
Le Biset, Buf. ii. 498.   PI. enl. 510.    Hist, Prov. u 490.
Hause Taube, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. 971.
Le Ramier, Hist. Surin. ii. 164. (m)
Stock Dove, Albin, iii. pi. 44.
Biset Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 605. 2. A.
Size of the others. Lower part of the back white; it has also
two black bands on the wings, and one of the outer tail feathers
white on the outer web; in other things it answers to the foregoing.
Some are of opinion, that the Biset is the stock from whence all the
others have arisen, which we cannot deny with any certainty.
B.—Columba rupicola, Ind. Orn. ii. 590. y.    Raii, 63. A. 11.    Will. 136.    Id. Engl.
186. 9.    Gm. Lin. i. 769.    Bris. i. 84.    Id. 8vo. i. 19.    Klein, 118. ix.
Rock Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 608.    Br. Zool. 1812. i. pi. 49.
Size of the last, but more inclined to ash-colour; the bands on
the wings of a blackish brown ; and the quills brown.
C—Columba Hispanica, Ind. Orn. ii. 590. 8. Lin. i. 279. Borowsk. iii. 210.
Columba Romana, Bris. i. 71. Id. 8vo.i. 13. Gm. Lin. i. 770. It. Wgoth. 8.
Pigeon romain, Bitf. ii. 510.    PI. enl. 110.    Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 21.   Jd. 8vo. 194.
 Columba Mutinensis minor, Gerin. iii. t. 277.
Columba domestica major, Raii, 60. 1.    Will. 181. t. 33.34.    Id. Engl. 181.
Roman Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 608.
This is double the size of the Common Pigeon, and measures
fifteen inches in length. It is decribed as greatly differing in colour,
and giving rise to all the Varieties in the list of our fanciers in this
branch.
D,—Columbadasypus, Ind. Orn. ii. 590. e.   Lin.i. 279. A.   Gm. Lin. i. 770.    Frisch.
t. 145.    Bris. i. 73. A.    Id. 8vo. i. 14.    Roman, i. 78.    Borowsk. iii. 210.    Zin-
nan. Uov. 32. t. 4. f. 12.
Columba domestica major pedibus pennatis, Gerin, iii. pi. 282.    Naturf. xvii. 75.
Rough-footed Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 609.    Will. Engl. pi. 33. 34.
This differs in having the legs covered with long feathers, quite
to the toes.
E.—Columba cristata, Ind. Orn. ii.
770.    Frisch, t. 144.    Gerin. iii
Pigeon huppe, Buf. ii. 510.
Crested Pigeon, Gen. Gen.iv. 609.
. Bris.i. 73. B.  id. 8vo..i. 14.   Gm. Lin.\
This is crested on the head, and has long feathers on the legs as
the last.
F.—Columba Norvegica, Ind. Orn. ii. 591. ,. Bris. i. 74. C. Id. 8vo. i. 14.   Gm. Lin. i.
770.    Gerin. iii. t. 284.
Columba mercurialis, Brun. No. 215.
Norway Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 609.
This has a crested head, legs as in the two last, but is almost as
big as a Fowl ;* the whole is as white as snow.
* The late Mr. Shipley, of Maidstone, had a Runt Pigeon, sent from Pisa, which outweighed a cock and hen Bantam Fowl, put together in the opposite scale; the weight was two
pounds and a half.
 G.—Columba Barbarica, Ind. Orn. ii. 591. 6. Bris. i. 74. D. Id. 8vo. i. 14.   Gm. Lin.
i. 770. Raii, 60. 8. Will. 132. 8. & 133.16. t. 34.    Id. Engl. 182. 8. & 16. pi. 34.
Klein, 118. 5.    Gerin. iii. t. 276.
Columba Turca, Brun. No. 217.
Barbary Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 609.
This has a short bill; a broad circle of tuberculated, meally, red
flesh surrounds the eyes; irides white; plumage bluish, with two
black spots on each wing. To this is allied the Bastard Bill, which
is larger, but has a shorter bill, and red eyes. The Mawmet* or
Mahomet, is much the same, but the eyelids are large and black;
plumage white, or cream-colour, with two distinct black bars across
the wings.
H.—Columba cucullata, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 591. *. Lin. i. 280. Faun. suec. No. 207. ?.
Frisch, p. 150. Gm. Lin. i. 770. Bris. i. 79. E. Id. 8vo. i. 15. Brun. No. 211.
Borowsk. iii. 211. Roman, i. 19. t. 12. Raii, 60. 6. Will. 132. 6. t. 33. Klein,
118. 5.    Gerin. iii. 273.   Id. Var. 280. 286 ?    Sepp, Vog. t.211.
Die Haubentaube, Naturf. xvii. 75.
Pigeon nonain, Buf. ii. pi. 19.    Temm. Pig.fol. p. 33.    Id. 8vo. p. 197.
Jacobin Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 610.    Albin, iii. pi. 43.
Bill short; the feathers of the hind part of the head and neck
turn forwards, giving the appearance of a Cowl. In this Variety
the head, quills, and tail, should be ofthe same colour, f In the
Leverian Museum was one of a dun-colour. Those called the Ruff,
and Capuchin, belong to this Variety.
* We read of the great Pigeon called Mehemeh, belonging to Kookultash Khan, possessed by Akbar, which he crossed with divers other Pigeons, and produced innumerable
varieties of breeds, all of which had their distinguishing name; whether this has any
reference to the Mawmet or Mahomet Pigeon, we will not pretend to determine..—See
View of Hindoostan,i\. p. 269. f Black ?
 mm
10
I.-*.Columba hispida, Ind. Or*. ii»-59L x.   Lm
Columba crisps, Bris. i. 76. G.    Id. 8vo.i. 15
, Gerin. iii. t. 282.
Pigeon frise, Buf. ii. 519.
Laced Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv.
Gm.Liu.i. 770.
This is wholly white, with the legs red. The feathers every where
loose in their webs, and curled or frizzled The Frill-back is al<»
somewhat like, the tip of each feather being bent upwards; it is
generally white.
K.-47olumbaTirrbita, !*<?. Orn. ii. ffel \. Lin. t. 280. Gm. Lin. i. 771. Brtoi i.r75; i
F. Id. 8vo. i. 15. Raii, 60. 7. Will. 132. 7. .FmcA, 1.147. Brun. Ns<*.-2MJi;
RorowsA. iii. 211.    Gerin. iii. 268.
Pigeon a cravate, Buf. ii. 513. pi. 23. Sownin. vii. p. 180. t. 59. Temm. Pig.fol. p.
33.   Id. 8vo. 197.
Turbit Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 611.
Tfcrifs is a small P?geon, with a very short bill; the feathers of the
breast reflected both ways. The Owl Pigeon differs in being less,
and always of one colour, whereas the Turbit is of various colours.
L.—Columba laticauda, Ind. Orn. ii. 592. /*.   Lin. i. 280.   Gm. Lin. i. 770.   Borowsk.
iii. 211.    Bris. i. 80. P.   Id. 8vo. i. 18.     Raii, 60. 3.    Will. 131. 3. t. 34.   Id.
Engl. 281. 3. & 4.    Frisch, t. 151.    Klein, 118. 3.    Gerin. iii. 268.
Breitschwam, Xaturf. xvii. 75.
Pigeon Pttoti, Bvf.n. Ml. pi,22.    .S'cwiii in.xi»„ t. 78.    Tear. Pig.JW. p. 34,   Jd, 8*o«
p. 199.
Columba tremula, Bra. i. 81. Q.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 18.    Raii, 60. 4.     Will. 132. 3. & 4.
Rntn. No. 209.    Sepp, Fog. t. 210.
Shaker Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 611.
This Variety is divided into two, the broad, and narrow-tailed ;
the former has a great number of feathers in the tail,* which is
always carried erect; they are also called Fan-tails: some of them
are wholly white.
* Often as far as 26.— Willughby.
 1-1
M.—Columba Gyratrix, Ind. Orn. ii. 592. v.  Lm&VSO. Gm. Lin. i. 771.    Bris.i. 79.
N.   /d.Svo.i. 17.   .FmcA, t-148.   Raii, 61. 10.    Will. 132. 10.   Id. Engl. 182.
Borowsk, iii. 212. 9.
Der Taumler, Naturf. xvii. 76.
Columba vertagaj Rrnw. No. 205. & Var.
Pigeon culbutant, Buf. vii. 517.    Temm. Pig.fol. p. 35.    Id. 8vo. 201.
Tumbler Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 612.
This is a small Pigeon, and, like the others, varies in colour; the
chief difference is the habit of frequently tumbling round while flying
in the air, throwing itself backwards; of these the Almond Tumbler
is most valued ;* they are called also Clappers.
N.—Columba galeata, Ind. Orn.ii. 592. £. Lin. i. 280.    Gm. Lin.i. 771. Bris. i. 80. O.
Id. 8vo.i. 18.   Raii, 61. 11.    Will. 132. 11.   7d.J5ng-Z.182.il.    Brun. No. 210.
Pigeou cuirasse, Buf. ii. 515.
Helmet Pigeon, Gen. Syn.ir. 612.
In this the head, quills, and tail are of the same colour; the rest
of the bird of a different one, but the colours of themselves vary.
O.—Columba Turcica, Ind. Orn. ii. 593.0.   Lin.i. 281. Gm. Lin.i. 771.    Bris.i. 76.
H.    Id. 8vo. i. 16.    Will. t.38.    Frisch, t.149.    Klein, 118. 6.    Roman, i. p. 81.
Gerin. iii. 275.
Pigeon Turc, ou Bagadais, Temm. Pig.fol. p. 32.   Id. 8vo. p. 196.
Persian Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 612,
The colour of this is dusky; bill yellow; space round the eye
red; nostrils gibbous, and beset with red tubercles; legs pale red :
by some called Turkish Pigeon.
* Eighty guineas are said to have been giveti for one of these.
7
 Columba tabellaria, Ind. Orn.ii. p.397. sr. Lh
77.1.     Id 8vo. i. 16.     Raii, 60. 5.     Will. 132. t-8
No. 213.    JiT/eiw, 118. 4.    BoroM>*Ar. iii. 213. 11.
Pigeon-Polonois, Buf. ii. 513. pi. 20 ?
Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 613.    Alb. ii. pi. 45.    Hayes'
Birds, pi. 16.
This is much like the last in colour, and remarkable for being
extremely tuberculated about the eyes and bill; irides scarlet; the
legs are red.
This sort was formerly made use of, for carrying letters, now
little heard of:* this was effected without much difficulty, for after
one of them had been confined for some time, it was carried to a
distance, and then let loose, and never failed to find its way home,
without delay, flying in a direct line; and by tying a letter or note
under the wings, it was Conveyed by the most speedy of all methods.f
281. Gm. Lin. i. 771.    Bris
t. 34.    Id. Engl. 181.    Bn
Columba Eques, Ind. Orn.ii. 593. <r.   Bris. i. 78. L.   Id. 8vo. i. 17.   Gm. Lin. K
771.    Raii, 61. 12.    Will. 132. 12.   Id. Engl. 182. 12.
Columba domestica rostro recurvo, Gerin. iii. t. 277.
Pigeon Cavalier, Son. Buf. vii. p. 199. pi. 63.
Light Horseman Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 614.    Albin, ii. pi. 45.
This Variety partakes of the two last; they are said to be excellent
breeders, and never forsake the place where they are bred ; on this
* Now discontinued in the East.—Russell's Aleppo.
f Said to fly about twenty-six miles in an hour ; and by experiment a few years since,
by a gentleman in Manchester Square, London, a bird of this kind flew from Salisbury to
that place, a distance of 83 miles, in three hours and seven minutes, which is more than 27
miles per hour. But Lithgow, in his Travels, mentions a Pigeon which exceeded this.; as
it went from Babylon to Aleppo, which is 30 days journey, in 48 hours !
According to .Elian, a purple thread was tied to the leg of a Pigeon, which in one day
flew from Pisa to .Egina—Hist. Far. Lib. ix. 2. And Pliny relates, that Swallows have
been made use of for the same purpose, of conveying intelligence: but in this case they
were painted with various colours, as agreed on between the parties interested Nat. Hist.
Lib. x. chap. 24.
A Carrier Pigeon flew from Norwich to London, 109 miles, in four hours and fifty-five
minutes, for a wager : the same bird arrived in London, from Bury, a few weeks before, in
three hours.—Hampshire Chronicle and Courier, August 31, 1819.
IL
 PIGEON. 13
principle they become good Carriers, and are oftener made use of
in England than the true Carrier, as that bird is in too great
estimation to risk the loss of it on every trifling occasion.*
R.—Columba gutturosa, Ind. Orn. ii. 593. p.  Lin. i. 280.    Gm. Lin. i. 771.    Bris. i.
78. K.    Id. 8vo. i. 16.   Klein, 118.2.   Id. Ov. 33. t. 16. f. 5.    Borowsk. iii. 210.
5.    Raii, 60. 2.   Will. 131. 2. t. 34.   Id. Engl. 181. pi. 34.    Frisch, 1.146. Brun.
No. 2. 2. & Var.    Sepp, Fog. t. 208.
Der Kropfer, Naturf. xvii. 75.
Pigeon Grosse-gorge, Buf. ii. 505. pi. 17. 18.    Sonnin. vii. p. 176. pi. 57.    Tern. Pig.
fol. p. 32.    Id. 8vo. p. 195.
Powter Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 613.
This is of the size of the Roman Pigeon, and has the faculty of
filling its crop with wind, till it appears of a monstrous size; it
varies much,f partaking of several others, according to the mixture
of breeds.
S.—ColumbaPercussor, Ind. Orn. ii. 593. r.    Bris. i. 79. M.   Id. 8vo. 17.    Gm.Lin.u
771.    Raii, 60. 9.    Will. 132. 9.   Id. Engl. 182. 9.    Brun. No. 218.
Smiter Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 614.
I do not find any particular description given of this bird, for it
is singular only from its clapping the wings together whilst flying,
so as to be heard at some distance; and from this violence the quills
are frequently so injured, as to render it a difficult matter for the bird
to fly at all.
* It is recorded of a Dragoon Pigeon, a breed between a Horseman and Carrier, that it
flew from St. Edmund's Bury, to Bishopsgate Street, London, in two hours and a half,
being 72 miles.— Treatise on Domestic Pigeons, p. 90.
f The Parasine (or Parisian) Powter is much esteemed, and it is said that 20 guineas
have been given for a pair of Powters. The Cropper, and Uploper also belong to this
Variety.    Buffon mentions 13 Varieties.
}
 14
T.—Columba jubata, Ind.
Engl. 182.  14.
Turner Pigeon, Gen. Syn.:
'Win. WZ. 14.    Id.
This Variety has a tuft of feathers hanging down backwards from
the top of the head, like the mane of a horse. To this may be
added the Finnikin, which is very like, but less in size.
V.—Columba frontalis, Ind. Orn. ii. 591. <?.
Columba fulicaria, Brun. No. 206.
—— maculata, Gm. Lin. i. 772.
Spot Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 6l5.    Will. 137.
17.   Id. Engl. 182. 17.
This has on the forehead, above the bill, a spot of the same colonial the tail; body and wings white.
To the above may be added, a singular Lusus of a Common
Pigeon, presented to me in 1778, and now in the Linnaean Museum :
the peculiarity of which consists, in every feather being incomplete ;
that is, enclosed in a kind of tube the whole of the length, which,
in some of the prime quills, is six inches. This kind of filmy case
surrounds all the feathers at their first pushing forth, and, in general,
gives way as the webs advance; but in the present instance, was of
so ftpm a texture, as to imprison the? feather to its utmost length : the
bird was otherwtsCThearthy during the time it lived.—See Lm. ZV«W8,
Vol.i. p. 257.
3—RING PIGEON.
Cttlumba Pfehraibusj Ind. Orn. ii. 601.   Lin. i. 282. Ftmn. suec. No. 208.    Gm. Lin.
776.     Seop. i.  No. 178.     Brun. No. 204.     Midler, No. 228.    Kramer, 389.
Georgi, 173.    Frisch, t. 138.    Faun. Arag.83.    Sepp, Vog. t. 4. 5. Bris.i. 8&
Jtt. 8»o.i. 20.    Borwsk. Nat. iii. 205. t.75. A.    Ge*f»t-iii. t. 272.
Palumbus torquatus, Raii, 62.    A. 9.    Will. 135. t. 35.    Id. Engl. 185.   Roman, w
i. 84. 1.14.    Faun. Helvet.
 PIGEON. 15
Colombe Ramier, Tt^fUm- £?*>•   AkJfcfeii. p. 444.   7d. Pig.fol. pi. 2s   J£ 8tw< i.
p. 78.
Pigeon Ramier, Bw/. ii. 531. pi. 24.   P/. en/. 3l6.    Hist. Prov. i. 490.
Columba Sassaiiiolo, Cet. uc. Sard. 189.
Columbaccio, Zinwan. Uov.$2. t. 4. f. 14.    0/in. mc. p. 54.
Ringel Tauben, Gnnf A. 2Ves*. n. %. t. 32.   Naturf. xvii. S. 76.   RecAsr. Dewr. iii. 949.
Ring Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 635.    Id Sup. 198. Br. Zool. i. No. 102.   jd./o/. 84. t. O.
Id. Ed. 1812. i. p. 392.   Arct. Zool. ii. 329. B.   Lewin's Birds, iv. pi. 129.   Albin,
ii. pi.46.   Bewick, i. pi. p. 270.    Hayes, pi. 15.    Waleot, ii. pi. 187.   Pult. Dors.
p. 7.    Orn. Die*.
THIS is a large Species, and full seventeen inches and a half in
length. Bill fourteen lines and* yelkwisb ; the nostrils cervtered wtffo
a meally, red, fleshy membrane ; irides pale yelfelv; head, wing
coverts, and scapulars bluish asb+cdour, deepest on the head; upper
part of the back brownish &jthe lower, rump, and fbre phrt of the
neck, pale ash-colour; the rest of the neek smd breast- vinaceous
mixed; belly, thigU&ttind vent dirty white? sides of the week green
gold* changing to blae and Copper in different lights; and on each
side of the neck a crescent of white ; the greater ^triLte*f&sky; all of
them, except the outmost, have the exterior edgesftwftitish ; seBOfirf;
qulftte greyish brown, at the base ofthe bastard* wing a dastoeof wfeite;
the tail ash-coloured above, and the entf bfacfefeh; but beneath both
the base and end are black, the middle hoary ; legs fe&thiered much
below Ifee'jfcwifit; legs and claws>black.
The female is like the male, but a trifle smaller.
The Ring Pigeon insufficiently Common in the woods of England,
and has beSr* ^wpposed to depart elsewhere at the latter end of iter
year, and to return early in spring; but if so, it cannot be said ofiW
wihsfre of them, as I have had them sent to me several times beyond
the .taiiidte of December. The truth perhaps is5 tbafc essceprt in deep
Woods they are rarely met with in wiftter, and therefore less observed;
but as spring approaches they pair off, and disperse afofOitel; rifid this*
happening within a small space or' time* h$$ given rise to the conjecture of their migration. They pair early in spring, and build on
the tops of trees, and not unfrequently have two broods in a year;
 16 PIGEON.
sometimes the nest is found in bushes, and in tall hedges, frequently
in fir trees, and it is suspected to be partial to the breeding places of
the former year, as one has been known to frequent one tree for
three years following. The nest composed of a few small sticks,
large, flat, and loosely put together. The eggs white, rarely more
than two in number. The male and female sit in turn, and the
young are hatched in fourteen days.
Their food is grain of all kinds, but they will eat turnip tops, and
greens of all kinds, as well as Ivy Berries, in want of other food;
often destroy crops of peas; one shot in the spring was found to
have no fewer than eighty-five peas in the crop, and these being
sown, produced in autumn 6064 in number, equal to two gallons in
measure, though the whole did not vegetate. From this may be
conjectured, the injury done, not only by these, but by the Pigeon
tribe in general, to the farmer, on whose lands they trespass.
This species is known in England by the additional names of
Queest, Cushat, and Wood Culver; said to be most plentiful in
Norfolk, and to be very destructive to the corn.
This species is known throughout Europe, except in the Arctic
Zone; and this not merely on account of the cold, but the defect
of food; common in the Russian forests; seen in Sweden only in
summer; is very scarce in Siberia, and unknown in Norway. To
the South we trace it as far as Spain; seen in Aragonia in winter;
likewise at Gibraltar, and on the Morocco shore ; is well known, we
believe, in Egypt, as it was also to the ancients, under the name of
Palumbus *.
It may probably be found in the East Indies, if the same with
one figured in drawings from thence. This was fifteen or sixteen
inches long; general colour cinereous grey, or slate-colour, belly and
vent pale ; quills black, but no gloss on the sides of the neck. Bill
and legs red.    The wings reaching half way on the tail.
* Palumbus torquatus, Mart. Epig. 1. 13. No. 67.
 A.—In the Museum of Mr. Bullock was a large Pigeon, seventeen inches long, in make like our Ring Species. Bill pale, head
and neck as far as the breast fine copper bronze, varying to yellow
and green; beginning of the back deep chocolate purple; wings and
tail ash-colour; quills and tail with a gilded gloss; beneath from the
breast wholly white; the quills reach to about the middle of the
tail; legs pale; claws black.
This was said to have been shot within a few miles of London; in
appearance very like the Ring Species, but without any trace of the
white crescent on the neck.
4—SPOTTED RING PIGEON.
Le Ramier Ramiron, Male, Levaill. Afr. vi. p. 67. pi. 264.
Columba arquatrix, Colombe Rameron,  Tern. Pig.fol. pi. 5.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 93.
SIZE of the Ring Pigeon. Bill yellow; eyes pearl-colour, surrounded with a naked orange skin; crown bluish grey, on a brown
ground ; breast and beneath vinaceous brown, marked with triangular
white spots; wing coverts the same; quills and tail dusky, the outer
margins pale grey; legs yellow. The female smaller, less spotted,
and the colours in general more dull.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, very common in the Forests of
Hottniqua, generally in flocks, except in the breeding season. Makes
a nest, like the Ring Dove of Europe, and lays two white eggs, the
young hatched in fourteen days ; the young thought to be delicate
meat; only seen in the woods, except now and then in the plains
contiguous thereto. This bird, more often than any other, falls a
prey to the Noisy Falcon; the latter lying in ambush, for the purpose. The Pigeon has the habit of flying above the trees in circular,
or rather parabolic curves, and at the same time makes a singular
 noise, not unlike the friction of a pulley, when a great weight is to be
drawn up. At this time, which is only in the morning and evening,
the Hawk, being concealed in the tree, darts on its prey, which rarely
escapes. This specie/ chiefly feeds on a kind of wild olive, hence
called Olieu Duyf (Olive Dove), so that where this fruit is found the
Pigeon is of course met with.
&WDOUBLE-RINGED PIGEON.
lumba bitorquata, Colombe a double Collie
p. 301.    Lin. Trans, xiii. 183.
Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 40.     Id. 8v<
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill ten lines, dusky, with a pale
point; top of the head cinereous grey; neck, breast, and belly,
vinaceous; on the neck a double collar.l'fihe upper white, bounded
below by a black one; back and scapulars pale earthy brown ; wing
coverts cinereous grey ; quills blackish; tail four inches long, even,
the three lateral feathers of it black for three-fourths of the length,
from thence white on the outer web; tbe'%rtermediate ones tbe same
as the back; lower part of the belly white; legs red; the wings
pretty long, and reach about halfway on the tail.
Inhabits India, also Java, and4#tere called Puter-genni.
—Pigeon cuivre Mange
30.   Var. A.
r de Muscade, Son. Voy. 468. pi. 102.    TGen. Syn. iv. 637.
This seems to be very like the last described, and of the same
size; the head blue grey. Bill grey ; irides and legs pale carmine;
upper parts of the body green, glossed'with gold and copper; neck,
breast, and belly, reddish grey; under tail coverts yellowish white ;
quills and tail black.
j toterWte^w^Guinea.    One similar to this was in the collection
dPmte Joseph rnnks, wbieTPcame frottr^New Zealand.
 m
B.—This appears a small Variety, and only thirteen inches long.
Bill one inch, the nostrils rising into a knob; head and neck ash-
colour; irides orange; round the bill and chin grey ; upper parts of
the body green, inclining to red on the rump; beneath reddish brown ;
wings blue; quills edged with deep blue; tail dusky; legs red.
Met  with  at Amsterdam Isle,   or Tongo  taboo,   and   called
Orooba Ya.
6.-
NUTMEG PIGEON.
602.     Lin. i; 288.     Gm. Lin. i. 780.
Columba senea, Ind. Ot
184. 316.
Palumbus Moluccensis, Bris. i. 148. t. 13. f. 2.    Id. 8vo.
Pigeon Ramier des Moluques, Buf. ii. 538.    PI. enl. 164.
Colombe muscadivore, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 3 & 4.    Id. 8v<
Nutmeg Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 636.
SIZE of the last; length seventeen inches. Bill hooked, and
gibbous, dusky, inclining to green ; irides blue; head, neck, and
under parts, dirty white, tinged with vinaceous; back, rump, tail,
and its coverts green, glossed with gold- and copper; under tail
coverts purplish chestnut; quills ash-colour, the tips of the prime,
and outer edges, and tips ofthe secondaries, like the back; tail even
at the end ; legs red, covered half w«iy with feathers.
Inhabits the Molucca Islands, and feeds on nutmeg."** The
female is smaller, the plumage more dull in colour, and the head,
neck, and beneath, have a vinaceous tinge.
* In Java*. wHatealu*also Jcmnd^it ftadliOiVthe fruit of,th<*Batiuan TrefiMjWjws^
^iosa.—Lin. Called there Pohor Vrique. In Sumatra it is called Pergara. A Variet
Java named Geduwo.
D 2
 20
7.—BAY PIGEON.
Columba badia, Lin. Trans, xiii. 317.
LENGTH sixteen inches. Bill and legs red, the latter feathered
nearly to the toes; irides white; circle of the eyelids bright red, but
no naked space round the eye; back and wing coverts chestnut red ;
under parts bluish, with a vinous tint, extending round the neck,
and becoming bluish grey on the head and cheeks; wings deep
brown, approaching to black; tail long, nearly equal, almost black,
with a cinereous tinge at the tip.
Inhabits Sumatra, there called Lampattu, or Pergambu Kalabu :
It has a considerable affinity to the preceding.
8.—WHITE NUTMEG PIGEON.
mba alba, Ind. Orn. i
 littoralis, Colon
Pigeon blanc, Man
White Nutmeg Pigeon, Gen. Syn,
Gm. Lin. i. 780.
ie, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 7. . Id. 8vc
Muscade, Son. Voy. 169. pi. 103.
. p. 99.
THIS is of the middle size; length thirteen inches. Bill light
grey; irides yellowish; plumage wholly white, except the quills,
and one-third of the tail next the end, which are black; the legs
are light grey.
Inhabits New Guinea, also Java, and as well as the last, said
to feed on nutmegs, and serves to propagate this useful spice in the
same manner. It is most likely that the outer skin alone, or rather
the mace, serves them for nourishment; as to the nut itself, it is
voided whole, and so little altered, that after having passed the organs
 PIGEON. 21
of digestion, it is not rendered less fit for vegetation ;* from hence it
is that these birds, flying from island to island, sow and spread the
nutmeg in all of them, which they are known to frequent.t Called
in Java, Bouron-dora-louw, which signifies Sea Pigeon, being found
near the sea, and building in the rocks; probably allied to the last.
A.—A Variety of this, or what I take to be so, is wholly white,
except just round the eye, where it is black; the quills are also black,
but the tail is white; bill and legs pale red.
Inhabits China.—From the drawings of the late Capt. Broadley.
In a similar drawing, in the Collection of Mr. Dent, the eye is not
surrounded with black ; the tail is white, but the feathers edged with
black; the sides over the thighs are also mixed with black.
9— AURICULAR PIGEON.
Columba Auricularis, Colombe Oricou, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 20.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 236.
SIZE of the Biset Pigeon; length eleven inches.    Bill black;
plumage in general white; at the forehead a tuberculated, red, fleshy
* Son. Voy.    He seems to doubt the Pigeon being able to swallow a nutmeg, observing,
that some of our tame Pigeons have been choaked with small horse beans.
f A Pigeon was found, with two nutmegs in its stomach and craw, still surrounded with
the scarlet covering, or mace, at the Isle of Rotterdam.—Forst. Voy. ii. 332. Ditto Reply,
35. In a letter from Ceylon, in 1800, it is said, that while a neighbouring nation was in
possession of the Banda, or Spice Islands, not a Pigeon or Dove was to be found there,
although, in former years, they abounded in these birds; having been all destijojed, from
the apprehension of their swallowing the nutmeg and clove whole, and. voiding them in the
same state on the adjacent islands ; thereby carrying the seed of an article, which the owners
held exclusively to themselves. By this means, too, is the cinnamon propagated at Ceylon,
by certain wild Doves, thence called Cinnamon-Eaters, which occasion the rise of so many
young trees along the road, that they look like a forest.—Forrest's Voy. 345. (no description
of bird). Pigeons are also said to be the propagators of the Loranthus Stelis, of Linnaeus,
feeding on the berries, and voiding the stones on the trunks.of trees, where they grow.— '
Parkins. Voy. p. 38.
)
 <%% PIGEON.
substance; fcomrtbfef tafejugvin the eye, ami occupying tJaofchin and
throat, is a fleshy\a«ppendage, as in tfce Turkey, which also is in folds*
and changeable in colon*? quills and: outer edge of libel WHHg-iraas%;
Wa*ek; tail grey at tbe= base, for more or less thasK batf the lengthy
the rest black ; legs red.
Supposed to inhabit some of the Islands of the Pacific Ocean.
M. Temminck mentions a variety wholly white, and no part of the
tefttoack, and others having the*plumage spotted' with grey and
fcftMib, probably young birds.
10.—TRIANGULAR SPOTTED PIGEON.
Columba-Guinea, Ind. Orn. ii. 602:     Lin. i. 282.     Gm. Lin. i. 774.     Bris. i. 132.
Id. 8vo. i. 33.   Klein, 120. 25.
Le Ramier roussard, Levail. Afr. vi. 70. pi. 265.—Male.
Pigeon de Guinee, Buf. ii. 538.
Tourterelle du Cap. dp B, Espejaoce, Son. Voy. Ind. ii: 179.
Colombe roussard, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 16.—Male.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 214.
'WiaHguia*'shotted Pigeon, Gen. Syn,. iv. 639:    Edw. pi. 75.
SIZE of the Wood Pigeon; lengtfootpwelve inches and a half.
Bill blackish.; eye surrounded bry a& red skin ; irides bright yellow •
head, neck, and under parts pale ash-colour, with vinaceous margins ;
upper parts of the back, purplish/ brown, glossed with violet; wmg
coverts, and lesser quills the same, but each feather tipped with a
triangular white spot, the point upwards; the greater quills black,
edged with grey; lower part of the back and rump white; tail dull
ash-colour, tipped with black; legs pale red, claws brown. In Hie
female the colours are more dull.
Inhabits Guinea, in the southern parts; the rocky parts of Africa ;
and common about the Cape of Good Hope; there called BoscIp-
Duyf and Wilde Duyf, every where common, both at the Cape itself
and the interior; chiefly where wheat or barley grows, which they
often attack in large flocks ; roost at night in woods, or among the
     PIGEON. 2$
rocks, in both which they build their nest, and lay two white eggs.
In one of these, brought into England by Mr. Salt the lower part
ofthe back and rump, as well as the upper tail coverts, are very pale
ash-colour; belly and vent much the same. It is the common
domestic Pigeon of Abyssinia ; hundreds are seen round the house of
every chief, and being well fed, afford an excellent meal. The
Abyssinians do not object to eating them. T&e^r.are not apt to vary
in plumage.
11.—SPOTTED GREEN PIGEON—Pl. cxvra.
Columba maculata, Ind.'Om. ii. 605.    Gm. LiriA. 9*80.    Temm. Pig. 8vo. i. p. 465.
Spotted green Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 642.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill black, tip pale yellow; round
the eye somewhat naked; general colour of the plumage dark glossy
green ; head and neck darker than the rest; the feathers of the neck
longer than the others, and pointed, like the hackles of a Cock; wing
coverts and scapulars each tipped with a cinereous white spot, somewhat triangular, the point upwards; quills and tail black, the former
tipped with cinereous white; and the feathers of the latter with pale
ferruginous; shape even at the end; belly, thighs, and vent, dusky
black; legs reddish brown, the shins covered half way with downy
feathers; claws black.
We have only seen two specimens; one in the collection of Gen.
Davies, the other in possession of Sir Joseph Banks. In a drawing
of one at Sir Ash ton Lever's, the end of the tail is deep ferruginous.
12— SUMATRAN PIGEON.
BILL black; head, neck, artd ^#;l5eihfe1alftiSjpale blue grey;lbbck
and wings green ; quills and tail dull greenisfHciftre; legs red.
ImftiabiteSumatra.—India ftWSw^^s!'^
 24
13.-NEW-ZEALAND PIGEON.
Columba Zealandica, Ind. Orn. ii. 603.    Gm. Lin. i. 773
Colombe Haggarrero, Temm. Pig.fol. p. 120.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 371.
New-Zealand Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 640.
LENGTH eighteen inches. Bill one inch, red; irides, and
round the eyes, the same; upper parts of the body ruby red, glossed
with green on the fore part of the neck; quills dusky; rump blue;
tail black; under parts from the breast white, inclining to blue
towards the vent; legs red.
Inhabits New Zealand, called at Dusky Bay, Hagarre roo.
14—BROWN PIGEON.
i, Tnd. Orn. ii. 603.
, Temm. Pig.fol. p. Ii
Jen. Syn. Sup. ii. 267.
, p. 375.
BILL and legs blood-red ; crown, upper part ofthe neck, back,
and wing coverts red brown ; breast, fore part ofthe neck, and rump,
glossy green.
Inhabits New Zealand.
15—HACKLED PIGEON.
Columba Francias, Ind. Orn. ii. 604.
Pigeon Hollandois, Son. Voy. Ind. ii.
Colombe herisse, Temm. Pig.fol. pi
Hackled Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 64.
Gm. Lin. i. 779.
175. pi. 101.
19.   Id. 8vo. i. p. 228.
LENGTH thirteen inches and a half. Bill and irides crimson;
point of the bill yellowish; sides of the head naked, flesh-colour;
feathers of the head, neck, and breast, long, narrow, and pointed!
 and of a singular construction, appearing as a polished surface, in
the same manner as the appendages of the wing feathers of the
Waxen Chatterer, or hackles of the Wild Indian Cock ; round the
eye a naked, deep red skin ; back, wings, and belly, deep blue;
rump and tail deep crimson; shafts of the two middle feathers deep
blue; legs bluish black.
Said to inhabit the Isle of France, or Mauritius; and the flesh
supposed to be poisonous; though some think it not to be a native
of that place, but brought there from the Sechelle Islands.
16.   RUFF-NECKED PIGEON.
Ramier herisse, Levail. Afr. vi. p. 74. No. 267.
SIZE of the Biset Pigeon; length thirteen inches. Bill black,
with a pale tip; top of the head, and the neck as far as the breast,
covered with long, loose, slender feathers, of a whitish colour, with
brown edges; these are loosely webbed, and the end of each continued in a long, naked thread; base of the bill red, and bare,
continuing on each side round the eyes ; on the crown these feathers
are shorter than those of the neck, and stand nearly erect, as a crest;
the others fall loosely over the neck, breast, and beginning of the
wings; back and wings deep indigo blue, approaching to black;
beneath frOm the breast inclining to purple; and the tail, which is
two inches long, purplish violet, with a reddish tinge; base and
sides bluish ; the wings reach to about the middle of it; legs dusky,
with a violet tinge.   The female is smaller, and the colours more dull.
Inhabits the Molucca Islands; according to M. Levaillant, is
found also at the Cape of Good Hope, but as a bird of passage only,
for it does not breed there; met with about the Great Namaquas,
chiefly in woods; but not unfrequently in the plains in great flocks;
feeds on berries and seeds: said also to be found in Senegal.
 26 PIGEON.
In a collection of drawings made by Mr. Woodford, I find a
similar one, in which the forehead and fore part of the crest feathers
are dull crimson purple; bill, and bare part about the eye, pale
yellow; and the loose feathers of the head and neck considerably
more downy in texture: on comparing Sonnerat's engraving of the
Hackled Pigeon, with that of M. Temminck's Colombe herisse, it
will not be easy to reconcile the two ; in the former the feathers of
the neck, although said to be stiff and laminated, lie close to the
skin, whereas those of the head and neck, in the latter are long,
loose, and in appearanse downy: we can no otherwise account for
this, unless the bird should appear in a different dress at different
seasons, or the male at a certain time of the year is furnished with the
long flowing neck feathers, as is the case in respect to the male of
our Ruff Sandpiper.
17—SCALLOP-NECKED PIGEON.
Columba speciosa, Ind. Orn. ii. 605.
Le Colombe Ramiret, Buf. ii
Id. 8vo. i. p. 208.
Pigeon Ramier de Cayenne, PI. enl. 213.
Scallop-necked Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 643.
Id. Sonnin. 248.    Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 14.—Male.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill pale red, end yellowish, nostrils
protuberant, white at the base; head chocolate purple; the feathers
from the neck to the back black round the ends ; within this border
those of the neck are white, appearing as spots ; but on the lower
part of the neck rufous instead of white, appearing waved or scalloped; breast and belly dusky white, the feathers above bordered
with pale chocolate brown; vent and under tail coverts nearly white;
hack and wings fine deep rufous; quills dusky; tail rounded at the
enid, dusky bkck; legs red. The female is like ttheanale, but much
duller in colour.
 PIGEON. 27
Inhabits Cayenne.—In the collection of Mr. Mc. Leay, who
received it from JBerbice; is met with also in Brazil, on the east coast,
called Pomba trocaes, and near Bahia, Pomba verdadeira.*
18.—SQUAMMOUS  PIGEON.
\» !, <<^foimfoa. squama^ €tolom be ecaillee, Temm, Pig.fol. pi. 59.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 336.
Picuipinima, Marc. Bras. p. 204.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill black; general colour of. the
plumage brown ; crown and under parts much paler, inclined to
vinaceoyjs; the feathers every where appearing «caly, from each of
them being fringed atthe end with dusky; wing coverts much mixed
with white ; quills black ; tail three inches long, base black; the
four exterior feathers on each side with' white ends; the wings reach
only to the base of the tail; legs red.
Inhabits Brazil, about Bahia, and is a scarce species.
19.—GREY PIGEON.
Columba Coreusis, Ind. Orn. ii. 605.    Gm. Lin.i. 783.    Jacquin, Vbg. 31. 25.
Colombe a nuque ecaillee,  Temm. Pig. JW. ftf. 1©>    Id. 8vo. i. p. 211.
Grey Pigeon, Gen. Syn. Sup, 20*.
SIZE of the Common Pigeon; eyes red, surrounded with a
naked skin ; spotted with black ; general colour of the body grey ;
the feathers on the lower part of the neck appear changeable in
different lights as if scalloped, though really not of different colours;
tail even.
Inhabits Coro, in the district of Venetzuela, in South America,
and when eaten young, is esteemed by the inhabitants for food.
* Maxim. Trav. 217.
E 2
I
 20—WHITE-MASKED PIGEON.
Columba larvata, Colombe a Masque blanc, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 31.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 266.
Tourterelle a Masque blanc, Levail. Afr. vi. p. 80. pi. 269.
LENGTH about eight inches.* Bill bluish ; irides orange; the
whole front, to beyond the eyes, white; the rest of the plumage in
general rufous brown, with a purple gloss; wings and tail dusky,
edged with bluish grey ; legs vinaceous. In the female the colours
are less vivid.
Inhabits Africa; found in the inward parts of the Cape of Good
Hope, only in the country of the Hottniquas, and in the great woods
there: is difficult to shoot, being always on the ground among the
grass, and the thickets; when disturbed, flies among the thickest
of the low branches of trees and shrubs, in the bifurcations of which
it makes the nest, and lays two fulvous white eggs.
21.—JENISEE PIGEON.
SMALLER than the Common Turtle. Plumage in general
cinereous brown; rump white; tail crossed with a band of black.
This is said, by Dr. Pallas, in some M.S. descriptions, to be a
very scarce species ; found only in the southern latitudes, about the
River Jenisee, in Siberia; but in no other part, of it, except,
probably, the Great Chain towards the south.
22—SOUTHERN PIGEON.
Columba meridionalis, Ind. Orn: Sup. p. lx
Southern Pigeon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 270.
LENGTH ten inches.    Bill black, a trifle bent at the end ; the
nostrils apparent, but not swelling; corners of the mouth dark red;
 PfGEON. 29
the orbits bluish; irides dark; general colour of the plumage deep
vinaceous brown, paler on the breast; from thence, all beneath,
reddish white; quills deep brown ; on the lesser wing coverts three or
four blackish purple marks; tail short, greatly rounded, the feathers
rather pointed at the ends; the two middle black brown, with a bar
of black three-fourths from the end; the others brown, but white for
about one inch next the tip ; the two colours joining in a lunular
form; the outer one white on the outer web, the whole length ; the
legs are red.
Inhabits New-Holland.—In the collection of Mr. Swainson.
A.—In a drawing of one of these, the general colours are the
same; some of the second quills marked with a similar spot as on
the coverts ; on the inner webs, near the tips, and some others with
the ends, white; sides of the neck glossy violet purple ; behind the
eye a glossy violet spot, a quarter of an inch in diameter; below the
ear a longer one of the same ; the four middle tail feathers like the
back ; the others dove-colour, with pale grey ends, between which
is a curved bar of black.
The female, or young bird, is much the same, but with fewer
black spots on the wings, and the colours less bright.
One of the last described in the collection of Lord Stanley.
23—PORTO-RICO PIGEON.
Columba Portoricensis, Colombe a nuche ecaillee, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 15.
LENGTH fourteen inches and a half. Bill reddish at the base;
round the eye a bare, granulated, red space; back, wing coverts, and
under part of the body bluish grey; head and neck vinaceous ; back
part of the neck green and purple, the feathers changing alternately
into those colours, appearing like scales, and in some lights very
brilliant; legs red.
This specimen brought from Porto-Rico; the manners unknown.
 jpwPS
30
24.—PEREGRINE PIGEON.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill red ; plumage above pale brown;
wing coverts marked with white; the belly and under parts white;
second quills buff-colonr.; (primaries black; tail cuneiform, the two
middle feathers dusky; the others black, with the end half while;
the legs red.
Inhabits New South Wales.—General Davies.
25— PALE PIGEON.
Columba pallida, 7nd. Orn. Sup. p. lx.
Pale Pigeon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 270.
BILL and legs brown ; plumage in general greenish white; the
head and neck inclining to ash-colour; outer edge of the wing, and
quills dusky; the greater plain, the others marked regularly with
black on each side of the shaft; the two middle tail feathers dusky ;
the others very pale, or whitish.—Inhabits New-Holland.
26.—NORFOLK PIGEON.
Columba Norfolcienis, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. lx.
Norfolk Pigeon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. Add. p. 374.
LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill black ; head and neck to the
breast white; from the last to the vent black; quills black; back
and wings deep purple, with a few darker markings; tail dull
purple, inner webs of the feathers dusky ; legs red.
One, supposed to be the female, had the head, neek, and breast,
ferruginous; back and wiq'gs green ; quills dusky; belly, thighs,
rump, and vent, brownish purple; the two middle tail feathers
ferruginous, the rest pale brownish purple.
A third had the head, neck, and under parts, white ; tail greenish,
glased with copper.—Inhabits Norfolk Island.
 n
31
27— CHESTNUT-SHOULDERED PIGEON.
Columba spadicea, Ind. Orn. Sup. pi. Ix.
Colombe Geant, Tern. Pig.fol. pi. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 74.
Chestnut-shouldered Pigeon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. Add. p. 375.
LENGTH twenty inches. Bill red, with a yellow tip; irides
crimson; head and neck before, to the breast, glossy deep green;
towards the breast paler; belly white; shoulders deep chocolate
red, or chestnut; part ofthe neck glossed with copper; quills edged
w&b glossy light grey ; tail a trifle hollowed at the end, more than
seven inches long, brown, glossed with bluish purple, the end oker
yellow ; beneath pale grey; towards the; end a broad bar of brown;
the quiHsyrgaek to about the middle; legs red-
Inhabits Norfolk Island, one ofthe Friendly Group, but seems to
be a scarce species.
28—BRONZE-WINGED PIGEON.
Columba chalcoptera, Ind. Orn. ii. 604.
Colombe lumachelle,  Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 8.—Male.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 103.
Bronze-winged Pigeon,  Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 266.    Phil. Bot. Bay, pi. p. 162.    White's
Journ. pi. p. 146.    Lev. Mus. 227. pi. 55.
LENGTH fifteen inches sand a half. Bill red; plumage above
cinereous brown ; beneath cinereous, tinged with red on the breast;
on the middle of the wing, a double broad bar of beautiful, and
splendid, copper bronze, **avying to red and green, from the outer
coverts having a large oval bronze spot on the outer webs of each,
near the end; some of the adjoining ones have also similar spots,
but in a less degree, and making no part of the large patch ; some
ofthe outer second quills are also marked in a similar manner; the
tail-has eighteen feathers, much rounded, the two middle feathers
brown, the others dove-colour, crossed with a bar of black near the
end; legs red.
 In some specimens the forehead is buff-colour, nearly white; chin
the same, passing under the eye; but in others the whole face is
brown, with a dark streak through the eye; probably this may arise
from difference of sex.
Inhabits Norfolk Island, also various parts of New-Holland ; very
common in the neighbourhood of Sydney Cove, and Botany Bay;
frequents the sand hills, and all desert or burnt grounds, and a
sportsman can kill often six brace in a day during their stay, which
is from September to February; but from February to September
rarely one is seen; for although they may be said not actually to
migrate, they certainly shift their quarters at different seasons. They
make a nest on the ground, very slight, and open ; sometimes on the
stump of a tree, laying two eggs, and hatch in November. Feed on
fruits, chiefly on a sort of cherry, the stones of which are often found
in their stomachs; for the most part are seen in pairs, and have a
loud kind of cooing note, which at a distance may be mistaken for
the lowing of a cow. Is called by the natives, Goadgang ; by the
English, Brush Pigeon, and Ground Pigeon, from being mostly
seen on the ground, or low bushes. Its body is heavy, and it is
unable to take long flights.
29—GOLD-WINGED PIGEON.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill almost an inch long, and black;
forehead, as far as the middle of the crown, yellowish white; close
to the bill nearly yellow ; between that and the eye a slender black
line; sides round the eyes white, passing to the hindhead, and there
curving somewhat downward; chin white ; fore part of the neck and
breast pale purplish red; from thence to the vent, reddish white; on
each side of the neck, from the under jaw, a fillet of pale blue grey,
dividing the pale brown of the hind part of the neck, from the
breast; the general colour of the plumage, on the upper parts, pale
 PIGEON. 33
rufous brown, but the hind part of the head has a tinge of purple;
wing coverts fine blue grey, marked on each with a rich glossy spot
on the outer web, of a gilded hue, changing into copper ; the second
quills green, edged with grey, and have a resplendent gloss of metal;
bastard wing glossy green ;* prime quills and tail the colour of the
back, but the feathers of the latter are at the ends blue grey; the
tail is two inches and a half long, rounded at the end, and the quills
reach only to the base ; legs fine red, claws black.
This was brought from Malacca, and is a most beautiful bird;
in some things it coincides with the last described, but we think it to
be a different species; for, had it no other distinction, the comparison
of the length of the quills with that of the tail would be one ; as in
the present bird they reach no farther than the base, but in the Bronze
winged to full half of the length ; the tail, too, in the latter is shorter
in proportion. This is well represented among the faithful drawings
in the collection of General Hardwicke.
30—OPALINE  PIGEON.
Columba elegans, Colombe Labrador,  Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 22.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 240.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill dusky; crown, fore part of the
neck, breast, and under parts pale grey, with a rufous tinge on the
front; behind the eye a narrow streak of fine rufous chocolate,
passing backwards to the nape, and hind part of the neck, which
are of the same colour; on the throat a triangular patch of the same;
back and wings olive brown; across the latter two bands of most
brilliant patches of feathers, imitating the opal and ruby, in different
lights, or in the manner of the Labrador Spar; the ends of these
feathers are silver grey, the rest blue grey, with brown ends, within
rufous; tail grey, with a band of black, three-fourths from the base,
the end brown ; legs red.
Inhabits Van Diemen's Land. This has only fourteen feathers
in the tail, whereas the Bronze-winged has eighteen.
1
 34
31.—VI0LET-NAPED PIGEON.
iolacea, Colombe a nuque violett,e, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 29.  Id. 8vo. i. p. 260.
LENGTH nine inches.    Bill i
general colour of the upper parti
ddish ; eye in a naked red skin ;
of the body, wings, and tail,
purplish rufous; forehead and beneath white, with a rufous tinge on
the fore part ofthe neck and breast; nape and neck behind inclining
to violet, and glossy; the wings reach to about the middle of the
tail, which is a trifle cuneiform ; legs red.
Supposed to inhabit New-Holland.
32.—VLOUVLOU  PIGEON.
Columba holosericea, Colombe Vlouvlou,  Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 32.    Id. 8vo. i. p 2G9.
LENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill black ; general colour of
the plumage glossy green ; chin white; at the bottom of the breast
a black, transverse, narrow black band, within this one of white; from
thence to the middle of the belly, the vent, aiiii under tail coverts
fine yellow; on the wings two bands of light grey; thigji; feathers
dusky white, covering the shins halfway ; legs grey ; the great quills
are singularly shaped, being^ent outwardly like a sabre at the ends,
for one-fourth of the length.
Inhabjts the Sandwich Isles.
33.—BELTED  PIGEON.
Columba cincta, Colombe a ceinturon noir,  Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 23.    id. 8vo.i. p. 243.
LENGTH thirteen inches.     Bill yellowish white ; head white ;
neck and breast yellowish ; across the breast a broad band of velvety
 Tl
PIGEON. 35
Mack f back and wings glossy black; belly and thighs fine yellow;
under tail coverts grey, with yellowish margins ; rump greenish ; tail
of fourteen feathers* greenish black above, with the end greenish
grey; beneath cinereous, with the end white ; shins feathered to the
toes, which are yellow.
Inhabits the south parts of Asia, but uncertain where; the one
from which the figure was copied, said to have been sent from
Batavia.
34—ROUSSET  PIGEON.
Columba ruffina, Colombe Rousette, Temm. Pig. fol. p. 24.    Id. 8vo.i. p. 245.
Pigeon raraJer de Cjfysrnrfe, Bonn. Tab. Encycl. Orik* p*234. sp. 8.
LENGTH nearly twelve inches. Bill dusky; the lower part of
the neck, back, and lesser wing coverts, deep rufous, tinged with
violet; head much the same, with a greenish tinge on the hindhead;
back, rump, and under wing coverts, bluish grey; throat white;
belly and under tail coverts grey; quills and tail cinereous grey;
legs red, claws brown.
The females are without the glossy green on the hindhead ; the
tail short in both, rounded-, and the wings reach to half the length
of it.
Inhabits Guiana ; also found in Cuba, St. Domingo, and Jamaica.
35.-GEOFFROYS PIGEON.
Columba Geoffroyi, Goiombe Geoffroy,  TeMfryPi§.foK pi. 57.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 297.
THIS elegant Pigeon is eight inches long. Bill dusky ; general
colour of the plumage pearly grey, inclining to blown on the back ;
tail very pale; belly and vent white; on the shOtfMers five or six
spots of violet.fclacfc>.changing in difle¥ent*figto*s to blue^attd^gfl?ek?
 I
36 PIGEON.
on the middle of the wing some of the same, and others rufous snuff-
colour; quills dusky; tail short, a little rounded at the end; legs
red.—Inhabits Brazil, and some other parts of America.
36.—EMERAUDINE PIGEON.
Columba Afra, Ind. Orn. ii. 611.    Lin. i. 284.    Gm. Lin. i. 786.
Turtur Senegalensis, Bris. i. 122. t. 10. f. 1.    Id. 8vo.i. 30.
Tourterelle du Senegal, Buf. ii. 553.    PL enl. 160.
 emeraudine, Levail. Afr. vi. 84. pi. 271.
Colombe emeraudine, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 38. 39.   Id. 8vo. i. p. 291.
African Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 656.
SIZE one-third less than the Common Turtle. Bill dusky;
irides reddish; crown and nape ash-colour; forehead white ; neck
and under parts pale vinaceous ; vent white ; back vinous brown, or
dove-colour; greater wing coverts deep blue, approaching to greenish
black in some lights, forming two half bars on the middle of the
wing; rump crossed with two dusky bars; quills and tail otherwise
dusky, or cinnamon-coloured within ; legs vinous red.
The female is smaller, and the greenish bars on the wings narrow.
Inhabits the inward parts of the Cape of Good Hope, abundant
about the Rivers of Gamtoo, Louris, and Van Stade, as well as the
Great Fish River, and all the Caffres : makes the nest on bushes,
between the ramifications ofthe branches, and lays two white eggs;
is a wild species; and the cooing ofthe male in sound like Cou-cou-
cou-cou, in a languishing tone, repeated till out of breath.
37—TAMBOURIN PIGEON.
Tourterelle tambourette, Levail. Afr. v
Colomba tympanistria, Colombe Tambo
. 86. p. 172.
irette, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 36.    Id. 8vo. i. 287.
LENGTH nine inches.    Bill and irides brown ; top of the head
white, descending through each eye, and  finishing below it; body
 PIGEON. 37
above vinous brown, inclining to olive; under parts from the chin
white, but from the nostrils a streak of brown divides the white,
mixing below with the colour of the back ; a black mark, and in
some two, on the rump ; with the same spots on the wings as in the
last species, but bluish, not at all green.
In the female, the white is not pure; otherwise both sexes are
alike. —Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, chiefly towards the Caffre
Country, and contrary to the former, is a familiar bird, but far less
common; is called Tambourette, as the cooing, or what may be
termed so, imitates the tambourin. Both these are found together,
chiefly inhabiting deep woods ; making the nest on trees, and laying
two white eggs.
38.—MUSTACHOE PIGEON.
Columba mystacea, Colombe a Moustaches blanches, Temm. Pig.fol. p. 56.    Id. Svo. i.
p. 275.
LENGTH eleven inches and a half. Bill red, point yellowish;
eye in a red skin; plumage above generally brown, with more or
less reflections of green gold on the neck behind, and the beginning
of the back; also at the bend of the wing; beneath the eye a long
streak of white, passing almost to the hindhead; under parts ofthe
body pale vinaceous; belly much paler, nearly white; quills and
tail, except the two middle feathers, rufous; tail four inches long,
even at the end, and the wings reach to about the middle; legs red.
Inhabits America, but the precise part is uncertain.
39—VARIED PIGEON.
Columba cinerea, Colombe Souris, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 58.   Id. 8vo. i. p. 299.
LENGTH seven inches.    Bill pale, with a dusky end; body
above and wings rufous brown; on the wing coverts and scapulars
y
 sfetf oe eight spots of glossy black; under parts, from the throat,
brownish!blossom-colour; under wing coverts black; greater quills
wholly black; tail rounded, the two middle feathers like the back,
the rest; black, fHnged at the ends with rufous, most so on the
exterior feather; legs very pale, or yellowish.
Inhabits Btaai!>—Itt the collection of Lord Stanley.
4».-~SURINAM^ PIGEON.
Columba Surinamensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 607. Gm. Lin. i. 7
La Tourterelle, D'escr. de Surin. ii. 165. Sonnin. Buf. i
Colombe Fermin, Temm. Pig. seconde suite, Id. 8vo. i. p
Surinam Turtle, Gen. Syn. ii. 647.
i. 304.
375.
LENGTH ten inclfes^ breadtn eighteen. Bill fine, long, deep
blue^. within red; head and neck ash-colour; throat mi'Xed7 green and
black ; exterior wing feathers brown; those ofthe middle ash-colour;
breast and belly whitish ; legs red.
Inhabits Surinam ; said to have two broods-in a year; makes the
nest in the woods, distant from habitation^. on. the highest trees**tike'
the Common Turtle, to which ithassome resemblance : the flesh is>
juicy,, and esteemed.v;ery delicious.
41.-
Columba Mexicans, IHdi-Orn,
Pigeon du Mexique, Buf. ii.
Cehoilotl, Raii, 63. 14.
Mexican Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv
MEXICAN PIGEON.
Gm. Lin. i. 777.    Bris. i.
THE whole related of this bird is, that the eyes are surrounded
with crimson ; irides black; the whole plumage brown, except the
breast and tips ofthe wings, which are white ; legs red.
Inhabits Mexico.
 PIGEON. 39
Among Mr. Dent's collection of drawings is one, probably the
same. It is a small species, between five and six inches long. Bill
black; head, throat, and hind part of the neck, fine pale cinereous
blue; all the breast white, from thence deep chocolate ; back, wings,
and tail, fine deep chestnut; quills dusky; legs red.
42—BLACK-SPOTTED PIGEON.
Columba naevia, Ind. Orn. ii. 601.    Gm. Lin. i. 777.
Oenas Mexicana, Bris. i. 100.    Id. Svo. 23.    Buf. ii. 525.
Hoilotl, Raii, 63. 12.
Black-spotted Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 633.
SIZE of a Common Pigeon. Bill black ; head, neck, and upper
parts, brown, spotted with black ; breast, belly, and thighs, pale
fulvous; under tail coverts, and under the wings, cinereous; quills
and tail brown ; legs red.
Inhabits Mexico, found in the woods in the colder parts.
43— WHITE-SHOULDERED PIGEON.
Columba Hoilotl, Ind. Oraai. 601.    Gm. Lin.i. 777.    Raii, 68. 13.    Buf.H.fm.
 montana Mexicana, Bris. i. 130.    Id. 8vo. 32.
Whfte-shouldered Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 654.
SIZJE p/ the Romafl Pigeon. Bill and legs scarlet; plunge of
a purplish rufous colour, except the jesser wing coveft®, which are
white.
Inhabits Mexico; some are pale fulvous, with the lesser frying
coverts white, as in the others; bill and legs reddish.
 i*
44—EGYPTIAN PIGEON.
Columba iEgyptiaca, Ind. Orn. ii. 607.    Faun. arab. p. 5. 15.
Colombe Egyptienne, Temm. Pig fol. p. 119.   Id. 8vo. i. p. $70.
Egyptian Turtle, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 267.
BILL black ; legs flesh-colour, with a tinge of violet; orbits
naked, and bluish ; feathers of the throat cuneiform, divided at the
ends into two slender, lobes, which diverge, have their ends
truncated, and are rusty flesh-colour ; back cinereous ; breast violet
flesh-colour; belly and thighs whitish; wings chiefly brown ; the
two outmost tail feathers are a trifle shorter than the others, and
cinereous at the base, black in the middle, the very tips whitish ; the
fifth on each side brown, in the middle dusky, and the two middle
ones wholly brown ; legs flesh-colour.
Inhabits Egypt, mostly seen about houses, but whether the most
common is not said,*   The Arabian name is Jemam.
45.—MALABAR PIGEON.
Columba Malabarica, Ind. Orn.ii. 609.    Gm. Lin. i. 779.
Tourterelle de la Cote de Malabar, Sonn. Voy. Ind. ii. 180.
Colombe Brame, Temm. Pig.fol. seconde suite, Id. 8vo. i. p. 376.
Malabar Turtle, Gen. Syn. Sup. iv. 652.
SIZE of the Collared Species. Bill and irides red; head, back,
and wings, pale cinereous grey; neck and breast light vinaceous
grey; the middle wing coverts marked with oval spots; the two
middle tail feathers grey, the others black for two-thirds, the rest
of the length white ; belly white ; legs red.
Inhabits the Coast of Malabar.
* Savary says, that in Egypt Pigeons are
being in such vast flights as to darken the air ;
_^very town; as we are told, forms one vast Pigei
lore numerous than in any other country,
hich appears credible, as every hamlet and
n-house—Letters on Egypt, No. 31.
 46.—GREEN PIGEON.
Columba viridis, Ind. Orn. ii. 653.    Lin. i. 283.    Gm. Lin. i. 780.
Turtur viridis Amboinensis, Bris.i. 152. t. 15. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 39.
Turvert, Buf ii. 555.  (first species)    Id. Sonnin. vii. 289.
Tourterelle a Gorge pourpree d'Amboine, PI. enl. 142.
Colombe a Gorge pourpree,  Temm. Pig. suite.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 374.
Green Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 653.
LENGTH seven inches and three quarters. Bill eight lines long,
red ; fore part of the head and throat ash-coloured; hind part and
neck, back, rump, wings, and tail coverts, and beneath from the
breast green gold, glossed with copper; fore part of the neck most
beautiful violet-purple; greater wing coverts edged, and tipped with
brimstone; under wing coverts ash-colour ; quills blackish, with the
edges and ends of the same colour as the body; tail blue green,
glossed with copper; the two middle feathers plain, and blackish on
the inner webs; the others tipped with brimstone, but beneath all
appear blackish, and the tips dirty white; legs red, half covered
with feathers, claws red brown.
Inhabits the Island of Amboina.
47—BLACK-CAPPED PIGEON.
Columba melanocephala, Ind. Orn. ii. 610.    Gm. Lin. i. 781.     Zool. hidic. 16. t. 7.
Sonn. Buf. vii. 290.    iVar. Misc. pi. 777.
Turvert, Buf. ii. 555.—Second Species.
Tourterelle de Batavia, PL enl. 214.
Colombe Turgris, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 30.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 263.
Black-capped Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 654.    Ind. Zool. 41. pi. 8.
LENGTH nine inches and a half. Bill black, tip yellow; irides
reddish brown ; head bluish ash-colour, the back part of it black ;
round the eye slightly bare; chin and throat fine deep yellow; neck
and body deep green ;  vent orange yellow; some of the outside
 up
4& pf&mm-.
feathers of the thighs tipped with the same, within white; vent
yellow; tail deep grey, a trifle cuneiform, the feathers pale at the
ends; under coverts nearly as long as the tail, and crimson; legs
red, shins half covered with feathers.
Inhabits the Island of Java, in the vicinity of Bognania Vangria,
in the deep woods. That figured in the Indian Zoology, has the
lower belly, as well as the vent yellow, and was found dead on the
ground.
48.—BLUE PIGEON.
Columba caerulea, Ind. Orn. ii. 601
Tlacahoilotl, Raii, 63.15. Buf. i
Blue Pigeon, Gen* %>» iv. 634.
. 140.   Id. 8vo. i. 35.
SIZE of the Common Pigeon. Bill, irides, and legs, red; head,
neck, and upper parts of the body, and thighs, blue; on the head
and neck a mixture of red, especially on the fore part; breast, belly,
sides, wing coverts, and beneath the tail red; quills and tail blue.
Inhabits Mexico.
49.—BERBICE PIGEON.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill black ; crown of the head
vinaceous purple ; the rest of the head and neck ash-colour; lower
part of the neck behind, the back, and wing coverts, fine purplish
red; breast the same, but paler; belly and vent^very pale ash ; round
the neck a slight gloss of claret; from the middle of the back to the
rump slate-colour; wings long, reaching three-fourths on the tail,
which is pretty much rounded, the two middle feathers four inches
long, the outer three; colour bluish brown, or dove-colour, the end
tor one-third much paler; legs yellow.
Inhabits Berbice and Surinam.—In the collection of Mr. Mc.
Leay, under the name of Wakpekwar.
 50.-AZURE PIGEON.
Columba caerulea, Colombe azuree,  Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 37.—Male.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 290.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill and legs red ; plumage in general
above turquoise blue ; before to the breast, vinaceous; sides under
flieeye and chin white ; breast, belly, and under tail coverts dusky
white.—Supposed to inhabit Bengal.
51—RING-TAILED PIGEON.
Columba Cariba?a, Ind. Orn. ii. 603.     Gm. Lin. i. 773.    Vieill. Am. 4.    Jacq. Vog.
30. No. 24.
Columba cauda annulo cincta Jamaicensis, Bris.i. 138.    Id. 8vo. i. 35.     Buf. ii. 539.
 cauda fascia notata, Raii, 63. 17. & 183. 22.    Sloan. Jam. 332. 27.    Brown,
Jam. 468.    Klein, 120. 19.
Colombe £ queue annulee, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 10.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 114.
Ring-tailed Pigeon, Gen. Btyrt. iv. 639.
LENGTH fifteen inches. Nostrils gibbous; irides crimson ; head,
fore part of the neck, and breast, purplish ; neck behind greenish
purple, with a silky gloss ; back, rump, and upper tail coverts, pale
blue; wings brownish ; belly whitish ; tail like the back, even at
the end, crossed with a band of black ; bill and legs red.
Inhabits Jamaica, there called Mountain Pigeon ; sometimes met
with in the Savannah woods in January; found also both in the
Caribbee and Bahama Islands; fond of various seeds, especially
coffee.
52.—CARIBBEE PIGEON.
Columba Caribaja, Ind*Ontui. 603. 36. /3.    Jacq. Vog. 30. No. 24.
Ring-tailed Pigeon, Gen. Syn. Sup. 199.
THE bill in this bird is greenish red ; space round the eyes bare,
and dirty yellow ; tail cuneiform, and about the length of the body;
G 2
 44 PIGEON.
general colour of the plumage inclines to blue. It is compared to
that described by Brisson, but the belly is not white, nor has it any
black bar across the tail, which being wedge-shaped, proves it not
to be the same bird.
Found in all the woods of the Caribbee Islands ; is pretty tame,
but never sufficiently so to be at large, though it will lay eggs when
confined in a cage. It is so much esteemed for food, that each bird
sells for a dollar.
4
53.—FERRUGINOUS-VENTED PIGEON.
Columba pacifica, Ind. Orn. ii. 600.    Gm. Lin. i. 777.
 cristata, Colombe-Largup, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 9.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 108.
Ferruginous-vented Pigeon,  Gen. Syn. iv. 633.
LENGTH thirteen inches or more. Bill black ; nostrils gibbous;
upper parts of the body brown, with a green gloss; breast reddish
buff, with a vinaceous, metalline tinge ; belly ash-colour, inclining
to brown doiwn the middle; vent and under tail coverts deep ferruginous ; quills dark brown, edged with greenish brown; tail five
inches long, black, with a greenish gloss; legs red, in some dusky.
Inhabits the Friendly Isles, in the South Seas.
A.—Ind. Orn. ii. 600. 27. /3.
In this the head, neck, breast, and belly, are whitish; back,
wing coverts and tail pale green; base of the bill very much enlarged into a knob ; round the eyes bare, and dusky red.
Inhabits the Islands of Otaheite and Tongo taboo.—In the
figure given by M. Temminck, the feathers are elongated, forming a
crest; head, neck, and under parts light grey; darkest on the belly;
beneath the eye a yellowish oker patch, reaching to the ears; chin
pale ; quills ferruginous red; back reddish chestnut.
 45
54.—BLUE-TOPPED PIGEON.
LENGTH sixteen inches. Bill red*; crown wholly blue; forehead and chin buff-colour ; through the eye to the nape cinnamon,
as in the other, but none of that colour under the chin ; under parts
ofthe body pale bluish white, with a tinge of blossom-colour on the
breast; on the wings eight spots, or crescents of red, margined with
yellow; the second quills have the ends red, fringed with yellow,
but not glossy ; legs red.
Inhabits New South Wales with the last.—General Davies.
55—PACIFIC PIGEON.
LENGTH eighteen inches. Head, neck, and breast, purple;
nape glossed with green; chin and throat white; the rest of the
body cinnamon-colour.
Inhabits Howe's Island.—General Davies.
56—ANTARCTIC PIGEON.
Columba Antarctica, Zool. N. Holl. p. 15. t. 5.
SIZE of a Wood Pigeon; length eighteen inches. Bill red,
narrow, hooked, the under mandible broad, and the upper one shuts
into it; nostrils black; plumage fine dove-colour; top of the head
crested, most so at the back part, where it hangs loose, and is ferruginous ; beneath this a streak of black; the neck feathers are narrow,
not unlike hackles, and fine grey; quills and tail black, the last even
at the end, marked with a bar of white, an inch broad, and a little
more than that space from the end; under part of the body blue
grey, near the vent white; legs red.
Inhabits New-Holland.—In the collection of Mr. H. Brogdon.
 46
57—YELLOW-WINGED PIGEON.
LENGTH fifteen inches. Bill small, pale; head and neck
cinereous, inclined to green near the breast, and on the belly to
blue; back and wings olive-green; across the coverts an oblique
yellow bar, formed by a series of yellow spots; below this green;
quills glossy deep green, nearly black, margined with green ; under
wing coverts, vent, and under tail coverts yellow; tail green, even
at the end; the wings reach to about the middle of it; legs scaly,
dusky, claws hooked.
Inhabits New-Holland.—In the collection of Mr. Harrison ;
another, at General Davies's, had the breast and middle of the belly
purple.
58—WHITE-FACED PIGEON.
Columba melanoleuca, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. lix.
Colombe Goadgang, Temm. Pig.fol. p. 118.
White-faced Pigecm./Oan.^SjW. Sup. ii. 268.
. p. 369.
THIS is above sixteen inches long. Bill and legs reddish; face
and sides of the head, as far as the eyes, white;" before the eye a
triangle of black, and behind a crimson spot; crown and hind part
of the head pale ash ; the rest of the neck dusky; body above, and
wings dull green, some of the inner quills ferruginous; beneath, from
the breast, white; sides of the breast, next the wings, black; sides
of the body marked with a double series of white spots; the wings
reach one-third-ori rthetail, which is even, dusky above, and pale
ash beneath, the ends approaching to white.
Inhabits New-Holland, called there Goadgang. Met with in
December.
 1
47
59.—BLUE-NAPED PIGEON.
LENGTH sixteen inches. Bill red; plumage in general cinnamon-colour ; front to the middle of the crown pale rufous; behind
blue; from the eye to the nape pale cinnamon ; from eye to eye,
taking in the chin, white ; beneath tin* cinnamon; the rest of the
under parts pale bluish white; quills dusky-; edges of the greater
wing coverts gilded, and some ofthe ends green.
Inhabits New South Wales, and these called Goadgang.
60—PIED PIGEON.
Columba picata, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. lix.
 -armHraris, Colombe grivelee,  Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 6.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 97.
Pied Pigeon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 268;
LENGTH sixteen inches. Bill and legs reddish; the whole
face, beyond the eyes, white; plumage in general above greenish
black, wholly surrounding the neck ; the rest of the Under parts
white; the black, besides passing round the neck, comes forward on
each side of the breast in an irregular manner, but does not meet in
front; on the sides of the body, near the wings, quite to the vent,
marked with several black spots, but less numerous than in the last
described; tail black, tipped with w*bifefr»^
Inhabits New-Holland with the last, perhaps differing in sex, or
agei; both of them seen atvtfopt Jaekson in December.
A.—is* the collection of Mr. Francillon was -ai IPi^eany wSbich
seemed allied, if not the same; length eighteen inches. BiH'pale
red ; plumage in general very dark slate-colour; head and neck blue
 48 PIGEON.
black; on the fore part of the eye black; behind and round it red ;
fail a little rounded, black, the three outer feathers tipped with white;
under parts of the body white, but the vent feathers clay-colour, in the
middle brown ; under wing coverts brown and white ; legs red.
Inhabits New-Holland, and there called Goadgang :* in another,
at Mr. Lambert's, the length is sixteen inches; the black on the
throat and breast is broken with a mixture of white on the sides ofthe
neck ; and the side feathers all along the wing are black, with white
margins ; thighs brown ; vent feathers clay-colour, black down the
shafts, and margined with white ; bill red, tip black; legs red: the
four last described seem much allied, if not Varieties of each other.
61— STRIATED PIGEON.
Columba Sinica, Ind. Orn. ii. G08. 1
Turtur Sinensis striatus, Bris. i. 107.
Colombe a ventre rouge, Temm. Pig. t
Tourterelle rayee de la Chine, Buf. ii.
Dove from China, Albin, iii. p. 46.
Striated Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 650.
in.i. 284.    Gm. Lin. i. 783.
Id. 8vo. i. 26.
idte.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 373.
p. 556.    Id. Sonnin. vii. 292.
SIZE of the Collared Turtle. Bill bluish ash-colour; irides
white; top of the head ash-colour; cheeks and sides of the neck
yellow; the feathers of the last tipped with red; which colour is
separated from the upper part of the neck by a longitudinal band of
blue; hind part of the head, and upper part of the neck, the back,
rump, and upper tail coverts, brown, transversely marked with narrow, black, arcuated bands; breast, belly, sides, and thighs, rose-
colour ; lesser wing coverts pale brown, varied with a black and white
mark near the tips; the other coverts black, tipped with white;
quills black, with white edges; tail palish brown ; legs red.
Inhabits China.
eons from New-Holland at
h the whole tribe is known ;
called by this name
and not any particula
hence we
species..
 49
62— SAINT DOMINGO PIGEON.
Columba Dominicensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 605.
Tourterelle de Saint Domingue, PI. enl. 487.
Colombe a Moustaches noires, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 51.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 361.
Saint Domingo Pigeon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 271.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill black; plumage in general
cinereous grey, somewhat undulated on the back; on the wings a
few dusky spots; breast vinaceous; forehead, throat, and sides of
the head, white, passing as a collar under the nape ; on the crown
a black spot; under the eye a band of black, growing broader
behind; on the middle of the neck a black collar ; vent white ; tail
grey, the ends of all but the two middle feathers white ; legs red.
Inhabits the Island of Saint Domingo. The one referred to in
the PI. enlum. has the whole body, above and below, cinereous grey ;
but the vent is white; the four middle tail feathers grey, the others
wholly white, at least so on the outer webs ; the tail appears to be
cuneiform.
63—WHITE-CROWNED PIGEON.
Columba leucocephala, Ind. Orn. ii. 594.   Lin. i. 281.     Gm. Lin. i. 772.     Raii, 63.
16.   Id. 184. 24.   Klein, 120. 8.
Columba saxatilis Jamaicensis, Bris. i. 137.    Id. 8vo. i. 34.
Pigeon de la Jamaique, Buf. ii. 529.    Id. Sonnin. vii. p. 216.
■ a la couronne blanche, Seligm. Vog. i. p. 50.
Colombe a calotte blanche,  Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 13.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 204.
Bald-pated Pigeon, Sloan. Jam. 303. p. 261. 2.    Brown, Jam. 468.
White-crowned Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 6l6.  Cates. Car. i. pi. 65.    Arct. Zool. ii. 189.
LENGTH from ten to thirteen inches. Bill red, with a white
tip ; eyes surrounded with a naked, white skin ; irides yellow; top
of the head white; beneath it changeable purple ; neck green and
 i*'
50 PIGEf
blue, glossed with copper; body
brown ; quills and tail brown ; the
the tail; legs and claws red.
Inhabits Jamaica, St. Domingo,
it breeds in vast numbers, making
on the berries of the sweet wood :
bitter, or pleasant, according to the
owing to the food ; for when the
berries, it is accounted excel'kfni;)S
above and beneath bluish grey
wings reach about two^thirds on
and the Bahama Islands, where
the nest among the rocks ; feeds
as to the flesh, it is said to be
time of year, and most probably
bird meets with plenty of sweet
64—COMMON TURTLE.
Columba Turtur, Ind. Orn. ii. 605.    Lin. i. 284.   Gm. Lin. i. 786.    Scop. i. No. 181.
Kram. 359. 3.    Frisch, t. 140.    Georgi, 173.    Faun. Arag. p. 88,    Faun. Arab.
p. 4. 14.    Sepp, Vog. t. p. 11.    Borowsk. iii. 212. t. 75. B.    Raii, 61. A. 2.  Will.
134. t. 35.    Id. Engl. 183.    Bris. i. 92.    Id. 8vo. i. 21.    Gerin. iii. 289. & 288 ?
Tern. Man. d'Orn. 280.     Ed. Ed. ii. p. 448.    Lin. Trans.xiii. 318.
Turtur auritus, Raii, 184. 26.    Sloan. Jam. 304. t. 262. 2?
Palumbus Turtur, Klein, 119. 12.   Id. Stem. 27. t. 29. f. 3. a. b.    Id. Ov. 33. 1.16.
f. 3. 8.    Roman. Orn. i. 89. t. 15. 1.    Id. p. 94.    White Faun. Helvet.
Turteltaube, Naturf. xvii. 76.    Bechst. Deut. iii. p. 1076.
Tourterelle,   Buf. ii. 545. t. 25.     PL enl. 394.     Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 42.     Id. 8vo. i.
p. 305.
Toitora, Zinnan. Uov. 33. t. 4. f. 15.    Olin. Uc. t. p. 34.    Cett. Uc. Sard. 143.
Common Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 644.    Id. Sup. 199.    Br. Zool. ii. 103. pi. 45.    Id.fol.
89. pi. O. 1.    Id. 1812. i. 394. pi. 49.    Osb. Voy. i. 158.    Hayes's Birds, pi. 14.
Bewick, i. pi. p. 272.    Lewin, iv. pi. 130.      Walcot, ii. t. 188.     Pult. Dorset, p.
7.   Orn. Diet.
LENGTH twelve inches, weight six ounces. Bill brown; irides
yellow; eye in a crimson skin ; top of the head cinereous olive; forehead and chin nearly white; on each side of the neck a patch of
black feathers, with white tips; the back ash-coloured, the feathers
margined with reddish brown ; scapulars and wing coverts much
the same, but the feathers black in the middle; quills brown, with
pale edges and tips;  fore part of the neck vinaceous; lower part of
 PIGEON. 51
the breast and sides dusky grey; belly, thighs, and vent, white;
tail rounded in shape, bladkisfa., tipped>5wkbfwh:ite ; the two middle
feathers whqliyndusky brown, and the outer one much shorter, and
white on the outer edge; legs red.
The female is a trifle smaller, and the colour less bright.
This is not uncommon in these kingdoms; appears in spring,#>
and disappears the beginning of September; for although we allow:
of some remaining; iii not all, ofthe Common and Ring Species, it.isr
probable, that the Turtle wholly migrates. It is pretty common in
Kent, in the skirts of woodsy frequenting the fields of peasp in flocks
of twenty or more, sometimes making great devastation.; said to be
ibund in small flocks in Romney Marsh, in August; annually visiting
the same spot; not uncommon in Buckinghamshire, Gloucestershire,
and Shropshire^rarelytas far southward as Devonshire ;f how far
north* they;are know©* in England, we have nit been able to deter-
mine.J We believe it to be a species which does not bear cold, and
think that it is not an inhabitant of Sweden, or Linnaeus would have
entered it in his Fauna Suecica. It is, however, noted by most
authors, and well known in all the moderate, and warmer climates
of Europe, as well as in Africa and Asia, and most of the adjacent
Isles; § extremely frequent in the south of Russia, and in the rocky
country beyond the Lake Baikal. Said to be highly* fevoured in the
Ifitffkish Dominions, where it is extremely plentiful; Government
allowing a certain rate percent, in respect to the duty on corn, on
their account; a crowd of these constantly alight on the vessels
which cross the Port of Constantinople,- ami carry their commodity
uncovered to the magazines, or mills; and the boatmen never oppose
* Mr. Markwick's earliest date of appearance is June 4
March, 31, 1792.    See Lin. Trans. Vol. i. 122.
J A flock of these seen at Prestwick Carr, in Northumt
them shot; this agreed with the Common Turtle, excepting the
neck, which was wholly wanting.—Bewick, p. 273.    No doubt a j
§ In Java, Ind. Zool. p. 42.      0*6. Voy. i. 158.      The Com)
with in the Island of Savu.—Mr. Pennant.    In India called Bark.
H 2
ViKenV
but I once sav
t Orn. Diet.
land, Sept. 1794, and one of
the mark on each side of the
t a young bird.
» English Turtle met
t
 52 PIGEON.
their greediness; this permission brings them in greater numbers, and
familiarizes them to such a degree, that they may be seen standing
on the shoulders of the rowers, watching for a vacant place where
they may fill their crops.* We have seen specimens from China and
India, not only of this, tout the Spotted-necked, as well as drawings
of some others, apparently not greatly differing-t That which was
from China, appeared brighter in plumage, and was a trifle larger
than ours; and another, from India, differed merely in having the
tail more cuneiform, the two middle feathers being four inches long,
the outer only two inches and a half. It builds the nest in woods,
chiefly in a tree, and for the most part the loftiest; it is composed of
twigs, ill put together; it lays two eggs;, like most ofthe Genus, and
is supposed to have only one broOd during the stay with us, which is
rarely more than four months. According to Brisson, this corresponds with the Ear Dove of Sloane ;$ and if so, should be a native
of Jamaica; but we may doubt this, as it does not appear to be
known on the American Continent.
A.—Spotted-necked Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 645. 40. A.    Ind. Orn. ii. 606.
This differs from the other in having almost the whole side? of the
neck black, instead of a patch only; the feathers not being tipped
with white, but having a round spot of it very near the end, giving
that part a most beautiful appearance ; the first, we observed of these
was in the Leverian Museum, shot in Buckinghamshire, since which
others have been noticed in other parts of England; found also at
the Cape of Good Hope, as well as in China§ and India, particularly
the latter, in which the bird is observed with different proportions of
* Memoirs of Baron d
j Hist. Jam. ii. 304.
§ In some fine drawii
Pan kiou ; Pan, signifies i
Tott.
. 262.
Syn. 184. 26.
\ by the late Mr. Pii
peckled; and Kiou,
 PIGEON. 53
black and white on the sides of the neck, but the plumage otherwise
much alike; some, indeed, had no markings on the neck, which
without doubt were young birds.
B.—Turtur Lusitanicus, Bris. i. 98.   Id. 8vo. i. 23.    Klein, 119. 14.
Tourterelle de Portugal, Buf. ii. 556.
Portugal Dove, Gen. Syn. iv. 646.    Albin, ii. pi. 48.
Bigger than our Turtle. Bill black; irides saffron-colour;
plumage in general deep brown; on each side of the neck, about
the middle, two or three shining black feathers, tipped with white ;
lesser wing coverts black, edged with white; the others brown, edged
with yellow; quills blackish, edged yellow; two middle tail feathers
deep ash, tipped with white; the others white on the outer edges and
tips, and ash-coloured within; legs red, claws black.
Inhabits Portugal.
C—Tourterelle grise de l'lsle de Luzon, Son. Voy. 52. pi. 22.
Size of a Turtle. Bill and irides the colour of carmine; head
and neck light ash-colour; on each side of the neck six or seven
feathers, tipped with black ; breast and belly vinaceous grey ; quills
black ; secondaries the same, but tinged at the end brownish yellow;
the two middle tail feathers black, the others white; legs reddish.
tiidfnhabits Manilla.—Among;ithe drawings of Dr. Buchanan is
one, greatly similar, from Luckipoor; it differed chiefly in the tail, .
which was black, tipped with white: it is the Googoo of the Ben-
galese, and the Penduky of Hindustan proper. The Bengal name,
Gugu, is common to several species of the Turtle Dove, and given
in imitation of their cooinar.
 g*mm
54
D.—Columba orientalis, Ind. Orn. ii. 606.
La Tourterelle brune de la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 177.
Chinese Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 647. Var. D.
Size of the others. Bill and irides red; head, neck, breast, and
back, dirty brownish grey, palest on the back ; on each side of the
neck some black feathers, with pale cinereous grey ends; wings
brown, crossed with a band of yellow; quills brown ; rump and tail
cinereous grey; belly and thighs vinous grey; under tail coverts
cinereous grey ; legs red.
Inhabits China. We are at a loss to fix where the Varieties of
the Turtle end, and the specific differences begin, as they seem to
differ most exceedingly; and nothing short of a naturalist residing
on the spot for some years, and being very inquisitive concerning
their manners, can ever decide the question. We will, therefore,
only mention two or three more, and finish the subject.
E.—This has the whole of the neck behind from the nape black,
dotted with white; the rest of the head blue grey; wing coverts
marked with a black streak at the tips, within this a pale spot; tail
as in the Common, but more of the end white. This is called in
India Chitka : some birds much darker than others.
4
F.—Bill pale; round the eye bare and blue ; head, neck, beginning of the back, and all beneath, reddish white; on'the sides ofthe
neck a blue grey patch, the feathers margined with grey white;
rump and vent cinereous white ; back and wing coverts pale brown ;
base of the quills ash-colour, forming a spot; the rest of the length
black ; tail short, black ; legs pale red.
Inhabits India : at first sight has the the appearance of the
Common Turtle ; called at Calcutta, Googoo.
 55
65—COLLARED TURTLE.
Columba risoria, Ind. Orn.ii. 607.    Lin.i. 285.    Scop. i. No. 182.    Frisch, t. 141. 1.
Brun. No. 220.    Borowsk. iii. 214.    Gm. Lin. i. 787.
Turtur torquatus, Bris. i. 95.    Id. 8vo. i. 22.    Roman. Orn. i. 92. t. 15.
Turtur Indicus Aldr. Raii, 61. 3.    Will. '134. t. 35.    Id. Engl. 184. • Klein, 119. 13.
Gerin. iii. t. 287.
Colombe blonde,   Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 44.     Id. 8vo. i. p. 323.      Levail. Afr. vi. 78.
No. 268.   Hist. Prov. i. 490.
Tourterelle a Collier, Buf. ii. 550. pi. 26.    PI. enl. 244.
Die Lachtaube, Naturf. xvii. 76.
Indian Turtle, Albin, iii. pi. 45.    Hayes's Birds, pi. 13.
Collared Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 648.
A TRIFLE larger than the Common Turtle. Bill blackish;
irides fine red ; plumage above, the head and neck, back and wing
coverts, rufous, or reddish white, nearly cream-colour; fore part of
the neck and breast vinaceous white; belly and vent white ; rump
greyish brown ; quSl&Sfehe same, with whitish edges; tail cinereous,
the two middle tail feathers plain, the others white at the ends, the
outer one white on the outer web; hind part of the neck marked
with a collar of black feathers; legs red, claws brown.
The female much the same, but the colours incline to grey.
Inhabits India; also common to France, and the other parts of
the European Continent ;* but certainly not met with at large in
England. M. Buffon is of opinion, that this and the Common
Species produce many Varieties. Is found wild in the confines of
the countries of Grand Namaqua, within the Cape of Good Hope;
lays two white eggs, as the Common Species, and has a similar
voice; makes a flat nest, placed on trees.
* Some,say as far as Sweden, but I think Linnaeus's words do not justify this ; he
says V Habitat in India, nobis communis Turtur," by which he probably only means, that
it is every where kept in cages, as with us in England. It is not mentioned in the Fauna
Suecica.
 56 PIGEON.
Another like this last, but larger, is also common. This is bluish
grey, varied with white on the sides of the neck; belly white. Bill
black; legs rose-colour. This makes the nest on bushes, and named
Tortel Duyf; is easily tamed, and in this state kept in cages.
66.—COLLARED SENEGAL TURTLE.
Columba vinacea, Ind. Orn. ii. 611. Gm. Lin. i
Turtur torquatus Senegalensis, Bris. i. 124. t.
Tourterelle 4 Collier du Senegal, Buf. ii. 553.
Collared Senegal Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 656.
Id. 8vo
ml. 161.
SIZE of the others. Bill blackish ; head, neck, and breast,
vinaceous, darker on the upper parts; back, rump, and wing coverts,
grey brown; belly and under parts dirty white; tail three inches
long, the two middle feathers grey brown, the others black for two-
thirds, the rest of the length grey; on the back of the neck a black
collar, which rises upwards on the sides ofthe neck ; legs reddish.
Inhabits Senegal, probably the same as the Collared Species.
A Turtur hybridus, Bris. i.
Hybridal Turtle, Gen. Syn. i
97. A.   Jd.8vt
. 649. 42. B.
p. 22.
This is a mixed breed between the Common and Collared Turtle.
The head, neck, and breast, vinaceous; back dull, reddish ash-
colour ; belly, beneath the wings, and tip of the tail as in the other;
quills brown ; legs dull red.
67—VINACEOUS TURTLE.
Columba vinacea, Colombe vineuse, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 41.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 303.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill black; head, neck, and all the parts
beneath, fine deep purple, or the colour of wine lees ; wings, back,
and tail, deep bistre brown; legs red brown.
 PIGEON. 57
Inhabits Guiana.—Although M. Temminck gives it the same
appellation with the last description, he is of opinion that it is quite
a distinct species; and the only one known, at the time he wrote,
was in the Museum at Paris.
68—WHITE TURTLE.
Columba alba, Columbe blanche, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 46.    Id. 8vo. i. 333.
Tourterelle blanche, Sonnin. Buf. vii. No. 67. f. 2.
SHORTER than the Common Turtle. Bill and irides red ; the
wings are longer, and the tail shorter than in that bird; the former
reaching to about the middle of the latter; the whole plumage milk
white.
Inhabits China; often seen in Chinese paintings. A pair of
these in Gen. Hardwicke's drawings, from Persia, had the name of
Kurney. This may be thought a white Variety of the Collared sort,
but is most certainly distinct. We have seen, indeed, such white
Varieties, but some remains of the mark on the sides of the neck,
might be traced very distinctly.
69—SURAT TURTLE.
• Columba Suratensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 609.    Gm. Lin. i. 778.
 tigrina, Colombe a nuche perlee, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 43.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 317.
Tourterelle de Surat, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 179.
 grise de la Chine, Son. Voy. ii. 176. 1.102.    Sonn. Buf. vii. 307.
Chinese grey Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 649. 42. A.
Surat Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 652.    Id. Sup. ii. 270. 9.
SIZE of the Collared Turtle. Bill black; irides red; crown
pale ash-colour; head and neck before vinous grey ; breast, belly,
and thighs, the same, but paler; the feathers on the top of the neck
behind black, tipped with white ; on the lower part black also, but
 58 PIGEON.
with rufous tips; wing coverts pale ash grey, streaked with black
down the shafts, widening near the tips; quills black ; back, rump,
and tail, deep dirty grey brown, the four middle feathers plain, the
others grey at the base, then crossed with a black band, and finally
ending in white; legs yellow.
Inhabits Surat, in the East Indies, also Java, there called Fre-
courou ; in Madras it is known by the name of Kamta and Kamri :
it is also figured in Chinese drawings; said to be a tame and docile
species, and is kept in cages in China.
IS
70. -CAMBAIAN TURTLE.
Columba Cambaiensis, Lid. Orn. ii. 609. Gm. Lb
Tourterelle grise de Surate, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 180.
Colombe maillee, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 45.    Id. 8vc
pi. 270.
Cambaian Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 652.
. 779.
p. 329.    Levaill. Afr.
SIZE of the last. Bill, irides, and legs, the same; head pale
vinaceous grey; the feathers on the neck before black for two-thirds
of their length, the rest pale rufous; hind part ofthe neck and back
dirty grey; wing coverts cinereous grey ; quills black ; belly, thighs,
and vent, white; the two middle tail feathers dirty grey, the others
half black, half grey.
Inhabits Surat, and other parts of Cambaia.
A.—Columba SenegaMteis, Ind. Orn. ii. 610.
Turtur gutture maculato Senegalensis, Bris. i.
Tourterelle a gorge tachetee du Senegal, Buf. i
Senegal Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 655.
. 283.    Gm. Lin. i. 782.
:. 8. f. 3.    Id. 8vo. i. 81.
Length nine inches and three quarters. Bill blackish; head,
neck, and breast, vinaceous; fore part of the neck spotted with
black; back brown, the ends of the feathers tinged with  rufous;
 PIGEON*. 59
wing coverts, nearest the body, the same, the others ash-colour, as
well as the lower part of the back and rump; belly and under parts
white; quills ash-colour, beneath and within brown; tail much
rounded, the six middle feathers cinereous brown, the three exterior
on each side, dark ash-colour to the middle, and then white to the
ends; under parts half black, half ash-colour, but the three outer
feathers are white; legs red.
Inhabits Senegal, as well as other parts of the African Coast.
M. Thunberg shot this species near Picquet Mountain, at the Cape
of Good Hope ; but it is found in greater plenty farther up the
country, and was never met with so near the Cape till wHftiin seven
years before that time.*
71—PAINTED PIGEON.
Columba picturata, Colombe peinte, Temm. Pig.
. p. 315.
LENG/FH eleven inches. Bill and legs bluish ash-colour ; head,
hind part ofthe neck, and throat greyish: ash-colour; -fore part of the
neck, breast, and belly, light vinaceo#a; on the sides of the neck
some feathers bifid at the ends ; at the base they are black, but the
ends are pale vinaceous, and appear not unlike a coat of mail; back,
and lesser wing coverts, vinaceous ; scapulars, and second quills
brown; tail longish, and rounded at the end; the two middle feathers
brown, the others dusky grey, for one-foorth towards the end blackish.
This is met with in the Isle of France, where it is found for a
small space at certain times, appearing to rest there in the course of
its migration to some other place : it is probably a new Species.
f- Thunbei-g's Travels, ii
I 2
 72—JAVAN  TURTLE.
Columba Javanica, Ind.Orn.u. 610.    Gm. Lin. i. 781.    Lin. Trans, xiii. 183. 317.
Le Turvert, Buf. ii. 556. (third species.)    Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 26.   Id. 8vo. i. 252.
Tourterelle de Java, PL enl. 177.
Javan Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 654.
LENGTH nine or ten inches. Bill pale red, covered with a
white cere; head, neck, and breast, vinaceous red; forehead and
sides palest; back and wings deep green ; greater quills brown ;
belly dusky, very pale towards the tail, which is dusky beneath ;
legs red.
Inhabits Java, and called Delimu, and Glimukan ; is frequently
kept tame. That mentioned by Sir T. S. Raffles, had the head and"
neck cinereous blue; forehead and temples whitish. Is called also
Poonai Touna, because it is seen generally on or near the ground,
and rarely on trees. They are caught by means of the following
device:—a small hut is erected, sufficient to conceal the fowler ; a
space is cleared in front of it, and a tame Pigeon placed on it; a
trumpet is then blown within the hut, and the wild Pigeons are
attracted by the sound; when they alight, they are taken by a running noose at the end of a wand, which the fowler manages without
being seen by the birds. At Sumatra is known by the name of
Limoo-an.
A.—Columba caeruleocephala, Ind. Orn. i
Blue-crowned Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 655.
610.   Gm. Lin. i. 781.
In this the bill is red; crown of the head blue ; upper parts of
the neck and body green; neck and under parts reddish ; quills and
tail blue black.
Inhabits India and China, at the latter called Yaupan.
 61
B.—Columba Indica, Ind. Orn. ii. 598.    Lin. i. 284.    Gm. Lin. i. 785.   Klein, 120. 20.
Palumbus Amboinensis, Bris. i. 150. t. 15. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 39.
Green-winged Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv; 625.    Id. Sup. 198.    Edw. pi. 14.
Length ten inches. Bill scarlet, nostrils bluish ; eye dark; forehead white ; through the eye a white streak ; top of the head bluish ;
sides ofthe head, neck, and breast, reddish ; hind part of the neck
deepest; back and wing coverts green gold, glossed with copper;
ridge of the wing spotted with white ; lower part of the back, rump,
and upper tail coverts, ash-colour; belly, sides, thighs, and beneath
the tail, reddish brown ; quills brownish, the inner webs for two-thirds
from the base rufous; tail three inches long, the two middle feathers
black, the rest cinereous, with black tips; legs red, claws black.
Inhabits Amboina.—One figured in Lord Mountnorris's drawings
bad the forehead dirty white, the trace over the eye not very conspicuous ; all the tail feathers cinereous, with dusky black ends.
C.—This differs in having the top of the head reddish, not
inclining to blue; no white on the ridge of the wing ; lower part of
the belly, thighs, and vent, dusky rufous white.
Inhabits India, called Sonaka Pandock, or Golden Turtle Dove.
D.—This has the crown ash-colour, the rest of the neck vinaceous, paler on the belly and vent; wings deep green, clouded here
and there with black; inner ridge ofthe wing white; rump vinaceous;
tail short, wholly black ; it has the the streak over the eye, but
indistinct.
Found with the last; called Soon Faukta.—India drawings.
 62
E ColumbaIndica, Jacquin, Vog. &5. t. 16.   Ind. Orn.ii. 598. 16. £.
Green-winged Pigeon, Gen. Syn. Sup. 198.
This, Jacquin tells us, has the quills and tail green ; wing coverts
violet; iremp and vent blue.
73.—JAMBOO PIGEON.
Columbajambos, Ind. Orn. ii. 598, Gm. Lin.i. 7
Pooni Jamboo, Marsd. Sumat. p. 84. Lin. Trans.
Colombe Jamboo, Sonnin. Buf. vii. p. 265.    Temm
female.   Id. 8vo. i. p. 257.
Jamboo Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 627.
sin. p. 316.
Pig.fol. pi. 27. 18.—male a
LENGTH nine inches and a half. Bill yellow; round the eyes
a naked yellowish space ; irides orange; fore part of the head deep
pink, in some crimson ; back, wings, and tail, green; breast and
crop white; down the middle of the chin and throat a black streak;
on the front of the breast a light shade of pink ; the white of the
breast is continued in a narrow streak, having green on one side and
pink on the other, half round the eye, which is large and yellow.
In one specimen the whole face is fine pink-colour; chin -■browns
end of the tail yellowish white, beneath it black; vent brown; the
fore part of the neck brown; on the breast a reddish tinge; legs
feathered nearly to the toes, and red.
Inhabit the Isle of Java, and feeds on the&^iaies of the Rum-
pooni, but will &eely live on boiled rice and padda. One was brought
from China by Sir George S*aunton. The female has the forepart
ofthe head dull purplish pink; the rest ofthe head and neck greeny;
whereas, in the male, the fore part of the neck and breast are-white.
It is said to vary at different ages; when ysoumgpat is almost entirely
 PIGEON. 63
green ; the head first gets the red colour by degrees, the lower parts .
next become lighter, and only get the full whiteness when mature ;
the red spot on the breast is the last colour that appears, and it is
doubtful whether the female ever has it.
74—PURPLE-CROWNED PIGEON.
Columba purpurata, Ind. Orn. ii. 598.    Gm. Lin. i. 784.
Colombe Kurukuru, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 34. 35.—male and female.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 280.
Purple-crowned Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 626.    Boug. Voy. 247. 329 ?
LENGTH nine inches. Bill yellowish; irides pale yellow ;
forehead to the middle of the crown purple ; head, neck, and under
parts of the body, pale green, inclining to ash-colour; vent and
under tail coverts yellow; upper parts of the body beautiful deep
green, very glossy; quills black, the two outer plain, the others
edged with green; second quills fringed with yellow; tail three
inches and a half long, even at the end, the feathers pointed, colour
greenish black, margined outwardly with green; and when spread
open, a greyish bar appears near the end, but it is interrupted, this
colour occupying only the inner webs; legs rough, dusky black.
Inhabits Otaheite; described by a specimen brought from thence,
where it is not uncommon ; but these birds are subject to great
variety, according to the different Islands which they inhabit, for
they are found throughout the Pacific Ocean, within the Tropics.
At Otaheite the crown is faint purple; at Ulietea, and some other
Islands, deeper; the specimens from Tongo taboo have the crown
exceedingly deep and vivid purple, which is surrounded with yellow:
in one, the bill is dusky; vent almost orange ; legs deep red. Some
have not the least trace of red on the crown; but whether such are
different in sex, or young birds, has not been determined. At
Otaheite this bird is called Oopa, or Oopara. At Tongo taboo,
Kurukuru.    It lives on Bananas, and is easily tamed.    Whether the
 mm
the beautiful Turtle Dove mentioned by Bougainville* is the same,
cannot be well determined. This voyager mentions also, Pigeons of
a green and gold plumage, f with a greyish white neck and belly,
and a little crest on their heads ; but the description is too concise to
determine any thing about it.
In the collection of General Davies was one with the head and
neck pale bluish grey; on the top of the head a deep purple spot;
edges ofthe quills yellow; the rest as in the first described ; the bill
yellow; legs dusky.    This was brought from Tongo taboo.
We found, too, among some other drawings, a bird answering to
the description, but without the greyish bar near the end of the tail,
that part being of one colour, glossy rufous green, and a trifle hollowed out at the end, which is for half an inch' white: we observed
one bird with the crown dull crimson, and the feathers edged with
yellow; in another dusky purple, halfway pale crimson.
In that figured as a male by M. Temminck, there is an orange
broad band across, the belly, just before the thighs, and the tail
feathers are green at the ends.
75—RED-CROWNED PIGEON.
Columba cubricapilla, Ind. Orn. ii. 599.    Gm. Lin. i. 784,
Le Pigeon violet a tete rouge d'Antigue, Son. Voy. p. 112. t. 67.
Colombe Rouge cap, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 20.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 233.
Red-erowned Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 628.
LENGTH"ten inches. Bill grey, from the base of the upper
mandible a fleshy bright red membrane, which encircles the eyes;
the irides have two circles, a large one of red, and a lesser grey;
top of the head covered with slender feathers of a fine red colour,
forming a kind of hood ; the neck, upper part of the back, and breast
bluish grey, paler on the breast; the feathers long and loose; the
' Voy, p. 247.
t Id. p. 329,
 65
rest of the body and tail velvet black, changing into both violet and
blue in different reflections of light; legs grey, the shins covered
with short black feathers for half the length.
This was found at Antigue, in the Isle of Panay, by M. Sonnerat.
Several living specimens have been brought into Holland, where
they have survived a good while.
76—WHITE-WINGED PIGEON.
Columba leucoptera, Ind. Orn. ii. 595.   Lin. i. 617.    Gm. Lin. i. 773.   Jacquin, Vog
88. 27? S'
Columba aurita, Temm. Pig. fol. 25. & 25 bis.   Id. 8vo. i. p. 247.
 Indica, Bris. i. 105.   Id. 8vo. i. 25.   Klein, 120. 26.
 gymnopthalmos, Colombe Jounud, Tern. Pig.fol. pi. 18.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 225.
Brown Indian Dove, Edw. pi. 76.
White-winged Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 617.    Id. Sup. 197.    Brown, Jam. 468.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill dusky reddish yellow; round
the eyes a fine blue warted skin, reaching to the base of the bill;
irides crimson; forehead, cheeks, neck before, and breast, pale rufous
brown; hind part of the head and neck dullish brown; beneath
the ears a transverse stripe, visible only when the neck is stretched
out; beneath this the feathers have a gloss of green gold; below, as
well as behind the neck, the gloss changes to violet; upper parts of
the body dark brown, appearing in some lights blue; greater wing
coverts the same, with the outer margins and tips white; lower part
ofthe back and rump ash-colour; lower belly and under tail coverts
white; quills black, with pale edges; the two middle tail feathers
like the back, the others dull ash-colour, with white tips ; legs red.
Said by Brisson to inhabit the East Indies; but according to
Jacquin, it is found at Carthagena, in America.
 m
-AURITED PIGEON.
.Ppbjmba Martin
„ 104. 14.    Id. 8vc
. p. 25.
e Cayenne, Buf. ii
a, Colombe k Ore
3.    PL enl. 141.    Gen.JSyn. iv. 618. 7. A.
bleu, Tern. Pig.fol. pi. 25. 26.   Id. 8vo. i. p. 247.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill black ; round the eye bare and red;
head, neck, and breast, purplish chestnut; lower part of the neck
glossy, appearing as a kind of collar; body and wings rufous brown,
with some black spots on the coverts,-next 4he body; belly, thighs,
and under tail coverts light fulvous, with a vinaceous tinge; sides
and under wing coverts ash-colour; quills dusky, the outer edges
whitish ; second quills the same, with greyish-tips; the two middle
tail feathers rufous brown for two-thirds, the rest of the lengthT)lack,
with grey ends, and the exterior grey on the outside the whole length;
legs red, claws black. In M. Temminck's figure the chin is greyish
white; and on the sides of the neck, below the ears, a patch three
quartersof an ieeh long, of violet blue, gilded 'feathers. This is the
male. The female, as to general cOlo»rs;''is the same,i(he black spots
on*the swings more manifest, 4>ut without 4be- long patch of blue
on the sides of the neck, or any appearance of gloss about the
shoulders.
Inhabits Martinico, and no d oubt -various parts of'South America :
a similar one being in the collection of Mr. Mc. Leay, which came
from Berbice,. by the-name of Aderi.
78— PICAZURO PIGEON.
ro, Voy. d'Azara, iv. 128. No. 317.    Temm. Pig. Suit
LENGTH thirteen inches and a half.    Bill blue, meally, round
the eyes naked;  irides blood red; head,  chin,  and  neck before
 PIGEOJfJ 67
vinaceous red; neck behind and sides dusky, marked with curved
white spots, and others mixed with vinous ; back and rump
bright bluish lead-colour; upper part of the back and wings brown ;
tail dusky brown; under part of the body bluish ; under wing
and tail coverts light bluish lead-colour; legs red. The female
differs in being smaller.
Inhabits Paraguay. Called by the Guaranis, Picazu ; by the
Spaniards, Paloma, and Paloma torcas. Generally found in pairs,
but sometimes in great numbers, and chiefly on trees, not well
clothed with leaves, but never in deep, woods : is fond of the maize,
at its first sprouting from the ground ; it also feeds on fruits, and
has been known to pick up bits of raw flesh, from any recently
killed animal.
79.—TIGER PIGEON.
Columba maculosa, Colombe tigre©,- Temm. Pig. Suite.     Id. 8vo. i. p. 113.    Voy.
d'Azara, iv. p. 28. No. 318.
LENGTH twelve inches. Irides white ; head, neck, under part,
and sides of the body, under winjaf-coverts, back, and rump, light
lead or dove-colour; upper wing coverts brown, with a white spot
at the tips; but the lesser ones are also fringed at the end with white;
the neck feathers appear somewhat ruffled ; legs reddish violet.
Inhabits Paraguay, between 27 and 28 degrees  of latitude,
according to Azara.
80.—JUNGLE PIGEON.
LENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill one inch, pale; round the
eye a bare space; head pale cinereous grey, inclining to blossom
on the crown; neck surrounded with a pale bluish ring; beneath
K 2
 m
68 PIGEON.
this, on the fore part to the breast, blossom-colour; the rest of the
plumage pale cinereous grey; tail the same, in shape nearly rounded,
tip dusky white ; legs pale red.
Inhabits India, called in the Persian, Kubootu jungly, or Jungle
Pigeon. One greatly similar, is among the General Hardwicke's
drawings. In this the general colour is the same, but the wing
coverts are brownish purple; quills black,, outer edges pale; tail
plain dove or ash-colour, the end not white; round the eye a ring or
circle of red.    Met with in India in August.
81.—INDIAN PIGEON.
Columba Asiatics, Ind. Orn. ii. 597.
Indian Pigeon, Gen. Syn. Sup. 202. 60.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill bluish at the base, and white
towards the tip; head ash-colour; neck pale yellowish green; the
lower part all round, middle of the wing, near the shoulder, and
all the under parts white; outer edge of the wing and quills black,
with whitish edges; body above and tail greenish ash-colour, end
ofthe latter dusky; legs bluish, claWs black.
Inhabits India.—Mr. Middleton. One, among the drawings of
Mrs. Wheeler, had the legs yellow.
82—ASIATIC PIGEON.
BILL black; head bluish white ; behind the neck black;
general colour of the plumage above rusty ferruginous, or coffee-
brown ; lower part of the back and lower belly pale ; quills black;
tail bluish black ; legs grey.
Inhabits India, by the name of Jerra Guwa.—India drawings.
 83— RUST-FRONTED PIGEON.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill black; upper parts of the body
chocolate brown; forehead, sides, round the eyes, and all beneath to
the belly, fine ferruginous, passing round the lower part of the neck
as a ring; lower belly, thighs, and vent, pale reddish ash-colour;
wings greenish brown; quills and tail dusky; legs red.
In the collection of drawings in the possession of Mr. Dent.
84.—YELLOW-FRONTED PIGEON.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill black; forehead to the middle of
the crown deep yellow; behind deep green, and below this fine
chestnut; sides, beneath the eye, greenish white, and between the
bill and eye chestnut; upper parts of the bird brownish chestnut,
under wing coverts chestnut, with a yellowish mixture; all beneath
from the breast yellow, paler down the middle; vent pale; under
tail coverts pale ash; legs red.
Found with the last described.    Native place of both uncertain.
85.—PURPLE-BREASTED PIGEON.
Columba Eimensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 599.    Gm. Lin. i. 784.
Colombe a Collier pourpre, Tern. Pig. Suite.   Id. 8vo. i. p. 372.    Sonnin. Buf. vii. 263.
Purple-breasted Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 629.
LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill black; sides of the head, beneath the eyes, dusky; forehead, throat, and fore part of the neck,
pale rufous, or vinaceous; crown and neck behind dusky brown, the
former tinged with green; sides of the neck red-brown, changing to
glossy purple, or lake, in proceeding downwards,  and uniting on
 i
ft
both sides to form a bar on the breast, above which is a transverse
band of white ; wings purplish red, like the breast; quills and belly
dusky; legs red.—Inhabits the Island of Eimeo.
86— BLOSSOM-HEADED PIGEON.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill black; top of the head pale lilac ;
nape dull green; fore part of the neck and throat lilac and grey
mixed; belly whitish, the ends ofthe feathers for some length green;
hind part of the neck to the back the colour of red-lead, with a
chestnut tinge; upper parts of the body Parrot-green, marked on
the wing coverts with black spots; second coverts and second quills
green, with yellow edges; greater quills dusky black ; upperrtail
coverts as the back; tail deep, muddy green, rounded at the end, the
two middle feathers marked with a large purple lilac oval spot; the
others, much the same, but the spot paler, the inner webs grey ; legs
greenish.—Inhabits New-Holland.    In the collection of Gen. Davies.
A.—Crown purple; nape and neck behind green; chin and
throat ash-colour; round the neck vinaceous green ; on the shoulders
a blue glossy spot; across the breast a broad belt of deep indigo;
belly pale, mixed green and white; vent white; tail blue green,
paler at the end.
Seen among the drawings aforesaid, and is probably a Variety;
but as the tail was not expanded, no lilac spots were visible.
87-TEMMINCK'S PIGEON.
Columba superba, Colombe Poukiobou, Tern. Pig.fol. p. 75. pi. 33.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 277.
LENGTH nine inches and a hal£    Bill horn-colour; eye in a
small, naked, red skin ; crown of the head purplish.; on the ears
 PIGEON. 71
pale green; neck behind pale rufous brown ; back, wings, and tail,
green, consisting of sixteen feathers, the ends grey ; under parts
from chin to vent white, crossed on the breast with a broad band of
deep blue; the bend of the wing is also blue ; legs reddish.
Said to have been brought *from Otaheite, having a label tied to
it with the word Poukiobou, supposed to be the name of ^he bird.
88.—GARNET-WINGED  PIGEON.
Columba erythroptera, Ind. Orn.ii. 597.    Gm. Lin. i. 778.
Colombe erythroptere, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 55.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 273.
Pigeon a ailes rouges, Sonnin. Buf. vii. 223.
Garnet-winged Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 624.
LENGTH nine inches and a half. Bill three quarters of an
inch, dusky yellow, in some black ; forehead white, passing in a
streak over the eye, almost to the hindhead ; which, as well as the
nape is black ; the lower part of the neck behind, the shoulders, and
wing coverts, are of a beautiful deep garnet-colour; back, between
the wings, quills, tail, lower part of the breast, belly, and vent,
black; tail two inches and a half long, even at the end; the base
half greyish ash-colour, the end half black, beneath pale dusky;
legs brown.
Inhabits the Isle of Eimeo.
A.—Columba erythroptera, Ind. Orn. ii. 598. 15. /3.
This is about one inch longer. Forehead, throat, fore part ofthe
neck and breast, white ; hind part of the neck dusky ; over the eye
a ferruginous streak, passing a little down on each side ofthe neck;
back dusky black; belly dusky ; shoulders and wing covers as in
the other; quills and tail blackish.
Inhabits Otaheite.
 m
72
B.—Columba erythroptera, Ind. Orn. ii. 598. 15. y.
This seems to be between the two former, for it has the white
streak over the eye, as in the first described, and the fore parts to the
breast white, as in Var. A. The forehead, sides, and fore part of
the neck, are also white ; legs dull crimson ; belly and back reddish
black; tail rounded.
This last was brought from the Island of Tanna; and in the
collection of Sir Joseph Banks.
89—MADAGASCAR PIGEON.
Columba Madagascariensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 264.    Lin. i. 283.    Gm. Lin. i. 779.    Bris. i
140. t. 14. f. 1.   Id. 8vo. i. 36.   Nat. Misc. pi. 709.
Le Founingo, Buf. ii. 539.   Id. Sonnin. vii. 249.   Levail. Afr. vi. 72. pi. 266.    Tern
Pig.fol. pi. 17.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 221.
Pigeon ramier bleu de Madagascar, PI. enl. 11.
Madagascar Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 640.
LENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill and legs red ; eye in a
bare, naked skin ; plumage in general blue black, and very glossy;
the feathers of the neck narrower than the rest, with a mixture of
ash-colour; tail violet purple.
The female differs from the male, in being less bright in colour.
Inhabits Madagascar, called Founingo-mena-rabou ; seen also at
Cape of Good Hope, but not stationary; comes in February, and
departs in September; frequents the great woods, on high, well
clothed trees, on which it scarcely could be discovered, did it not
betray itself by the cooing ; which is so loud, as to be compared to
the sound of a hunter's horn : is said to live both on fruits and
grain.
 73
90—SHORT-TAILED PIGEON.
SIZE of a Common Turtle. Bill dusky; plumage in general
dull green ; chin and middle of the throat white, appearing as a
streak; across the breast a bar of black, bounded above with a narrower one of yellow, and below more or less yellow to the vent;
thighs green; second quills edged with blue grey; prime quills
black, reaching to the end ofthe tail, which is very short, appearing
at first sight as if the bird was without one; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits New South Wales.—In the collection of Gen. Davies.
One. among the collection of drawings of Mr. Dent, had the chief
part of the plumage yellow green, and was clothed with white
eathers from the joint to the toes, which were red; the under tail
coverts yellow; it had also a white streak down the middle of the
throat.
91—POMPADOUR PIGEON.
Columba Pompadora, Ind. Orn. i
Pompadour Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv
Id. pi. 20.—female.
. 597.    Gm. Lin. i. T.
624.    Id. Sup. 198.
wn, III. pi. 19.—male.
LESS than a Turtle. Bill bluish ; cheeks and chin pale yellow;
back, breast, and belly, pale green ; wing coverts fine Pompadour
purplish colour ; quills black, edged with yellow ; tail light green,
and long; legs red.
In the female the colours are paler, and the wing coverts the
same colour as the body.
Inhabits Ceylon ; always seen on trees, especially those known
by the name of Waringen* Grothebria, on the fruit  of which it
* Ficus Indica, or Broad-leaved Waringer
i Penn. Hindoost. i. 208.
VOL.  VIII.
See the account of catching the
F
 II
delights to feed. They are much esteemed, and are shot by the
Europeans for the sake of the flesh; are also caught by birdlime.
It is common about Bengal, where it is called Coucla. Inhabits
also various parts of India* has a whistling kind of note, not unlike
that of a Thrush, very different from that of other Pigeons.
92—PURPLE-SHOULDERED PIGEON;
Columba phcen
Purple-shoulder
, Ind. Orn. ii. 597.
on, Gen. Syn. Sup. 202^88. •£!"
SIZE of the Common'iBigeon. Bilb stout, dusky, edges pale;
head and neck olive-yellow; between the neck and back asij-colour;
back and wings olive; lesser-wing; coverts pale purple; the greater
and second quills striped longitudinally black and white; prime
quills black, but the outer edges ofthe first three are white ; breast
and belly pale ash ; tail olive-green, the end dusky; legs pale orange
yellow.—Inhabits India.—Lady Impey.
93V—HURRIAL PIGEON.
I!
I
SIZE and colour of the Pompadour Pigeon ; the length twelve
inches. Bill cinereous ; irides purple, surrounded by a scarlet rim;
the front greenish ash-colour, inclining to purple ; upper part of the
neck olive-green ; lower, with the chin and breast, yellowish ; round
the lower part of the neck a cinereous circle; back, rump, and upper
tail coverts cinereous green ; on each shoulder an ill defined, purple
spot; the lesser wing coverts part black, part green, margined with
yellow ; under wing coverts and sides cinereous; quills black, below
dusky, the outer margins yellow ; belly yellowish ash-colour; thighs
greenish; the joint, and almost the whole of the leg, covered with
yellow feathers; the vent and under tail coverts purple, tipped with
 white; tail dark ash-colour, tinged at the base with green ; below
black at the root, and the end half cinereous : some individuals have
more purple on the shoulders than others, as well as more brown on
the under taiMoverts, and want the green on the tail feathers : this
probably distinguishes the sexes, but which is the male appears
uncertain ; legs yellow, claws black.
This is the Hurrial,orHurtaGoogoo, ofthe Bengalese, and derives
a name in that language from the neck being the colour of orpiment;
it lives in very large fig trees, the fruit of which is its principal food;
is never seen on the ground, but keeps entirely on those fine shady
trees: found at Calcutta the whole year.—Dr. Buchanan.
One of these, in General Hardwicke's fine drawings, had the bill
and claws white; tail dove-colour: shot at Cawnpore, in March.
94—PARROT PIGEON.
in. Mant. 1771. 526.    Gm. Lin.
Columba vernans, Ind. Orn. ii. 599.
Trans, xiii. 318.
Columba viridis Philippensis, Bris. i. 143. t. 11. 2.    Id. 8vo
Pigeon vert des Philippines, Buf. ii. 528.    PL enl. 138.
Colombar Joojoo,  Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 10. 11.    Id. 8vo. i. 70
Columba Maderaspatana, Raii, 196. t. 2. f. 15.—Parrot Do-
Pigeon vert male de Luzon,   Son. Voy. 110. pi. 64.
 verd femelle de Luzon,  Son. Voy. 111. pi. G5.
Parrot Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 629.—male.    630.—female.
LENGTH nine or ten
to red at the base ; irfd'e¥
space round the eye not
neck pale chestnut, with
upper tail coverts, green ;
with brimstone, forming
to purple above; belly
towards the vent nearly
inehfeS. Bill slender, whitish, and inclining
of two circles, the outer red, the inner blue ;
naked ; head and throat dull olive-green ;
a vinaceous tinge ; back, rump, sides, and
wing coverts the same, the greater tipped
a bar on the wing; breast orange, inclined
and thighs, pale yellowish olive-green;
yellow; under tail coverts rufous, and as
L 2
 long as the tail itself; quills blackish above, and ash-coloured beneath, edged with brimstone; tail much the same in colour, with
the end pale ; legs red.
Sonnerat's bird had the crown pale greyish ash-colour ; the breast
the colour of orpiment, not orange.*
In the female, the head and upper parts are greyish green ; irides
apple green ; breast and belly yellowish green ; quills black, edged
with yellow, but the second quills have a reddish gloss ; tail black,
the ends of the feathers white.
The above birds inhabit the Islands of Manilla and Panay, and
supposed to feed on fruits. I observe one from India, with the
head rather dusky, the crown deep blue, nearly black; breast red;
shoulders and quills blue; tail short, the feathers fringed with rufous;
the general colour otherwise green.
Found in Sumatra ; called there simply by the name of Poonai.
95.—PURPLE PIGEON.
Columba purpurea, Ind. Or
1. ii. 599.    Gn
.Li
Purple Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv
628.    Brown
.III.
SIZE of the English Wood Pigeon. Front pale green; head
and neck fine purple ; breast orange ; back, scapulars, and belly,
light green ; vent scarlet; quills and tail dusky; the latter rounded
in shape. The female wholly green, paler beneath ; vent very pale
purple; quills and tail as in the male.
Inhabits Java, where it is called Jooan, from Joo, which signifies
greert, in, the Javan and Malayanf languages. A native also of
Malacca.    Most probably allied to the last, if not the same.
* Brisson mentions one seen by him froi
having the head fine greyish white.    Orn. i.
f Mr. Loten mentions, that he has know
on the Islands of Java, Celebes, and Ceylo
white, with black wings and tail; some bl
between scarlet and carmine; and some also
>nd the
, which differed ■
beyo
p. 145.
n more than 18 or 20 species of Wood Pigeons
a; some as large as a small hen, of a beautiful
lish green; some entirely dark, beautiful red,
like our European Turtle.
I
 77
96.—GREY-HEADED PIGEON.
Columba albicapilla, Ind. Orn.ii. 597. Gm. Lin. i. 775.
Pigeon vert a tete grise d'Antigue, Son. Voy. 112. t. 66.
Grey-headed Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 623.
SIZE of the last. Bill dull red; irides yellow; upper part of
the head dirty white; hind part of the head and sides of the neck
reddish brown, glossed with copper; second quills bright green,
with a changeable, metalline gloss; greater quills and tail black ;
between the bend of the wing and the body, a semicircular spot of
feathers, half green, half grey; the rest ofthe body green ; legs dull
red.—Inhabits the Isle of Panay.
97.—TABUAN PIGEON.
LENGTH about eight inches. Bill ash-colour; crown pale
crimson; the rest of the head, and neck to the breast, pale ash-colour;
plumage above green, margins of the feathers reddish; beneath
from the breast pale dull green; vent yellowish; on the breast a
large crimson spot; thighs grey ; legs brown : the tail was wanting.
Inhabits Tongo taboo.—In the collection of General Davies.
*.—WAALIA PIGEON.
Columba Abyssiuica, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. Is
Columbar, Levail. Afr. vi. pi. 276. 277.
 Waalia, Temm. Pig. fol. pi.!
Waalia Pigeon, Gen. Syn. ii. 269.    Bruc,
. & 9. male and female.    Id. 8vo. i. 64.
's Trav. iv. 282. 290.   Id. App. t. p. 186.
LENGTH eleven inches and a half.    Bill bluish white; nostrils
large; irides dark orange ; the general colour of the plumage green,
 tfgmm
TfS PIGEON.
inclining to olive ; head and neck dull green ; shoulder of the wing
beautiful pompadour-colour, the outer edge narrowly marked with
white; tail dirty pale blue, the end white ; under coverts pale brown,
with whitish margins; thriftsViand vent while? the tail consists of
fourteen feathers, blue grey above, and greenish white at the ends
beneath ; the belly is bright yellow as far as the thighs; legs feathered
for half their length ; toes red.
The female^father smaller; the belly not yellow, but of the
same green as the body; thighs only white, and the pompadour-
colour on the shoulder paler, and of lessextent; but the wing coverts
and quills in both sexes'are edged yellow.
Inhabits the low parts of Abyssinia, perches on the highest drees,
sitting quietly during the heat of the day; flies high, and in Itrast
flocks; mostly frequents a species of beech tree, on the mast of which
it chiefly lives: In the beginning of the rainy-season in the Kolla,
it emigrates to the south, and south-west, and is frequently so extremely fat, as to burst on falling to the ground. Mr. Bruce, from
whom the above is taken, observes, that it is the best of all the
Pigeon kiud ; yet the Abyssinians will not taste the flesh, holding it
in abhorrence: the name given by Mr. Bruce, is from the bird being
frequently met witlf at Waalia, which lies due N. W. from Gondar.
Mr. Salt observes, that it is a wild species, generally to be found
among the Daro Trees, near a stream; the one referred to in his
Travels, was shot at Ghella: he likewise says, that this bird is eaten
by the Abyssinians. Said to make the nest in the holes of high
trees, in woods, and to lay four yellowish white eggs; chiefly seen
in pairs.
99—PSITTACEOUS PIGEON.
Colomba psittacea, Colombar unicolor,  Temm. Pig.fbl. pi. 4.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 47.
LENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill horn-colour, bent, at the
base a reddish^ttuked skin; general colour of thetrilumage green ;
 PIGEON. 79
quills black, edged.syi.fch yellow; tail deep grey, towards the middle
black, - the enduyhate-; the two middle feathers plain green; the legs
dusky blue.    Male and female much alike.
Inhabits the IslooforEimfcr-? also found at Batavia.
100— AUSTRAL PIGEON.
Columba Australis, Ind. Orn. ii. 604.    Lin. Mant. 1771. 526.    Gm. Lin. i. 779.
Palumbus viridis Madagascariensis, Bris. i. 142. 1.14. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 36.
Colombar Maitsou, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 3.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 43.
Pigeon ramier de Madagascar, Buf. ii. 540.    PL enl. 111.    Sonnin. Buf. vii. 247.
Madagascar Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 641. 35. Var. A. .
LENGTH twelve inches and a half. Bill ash-colour, with a
reddish cere; head, neck, breast, belly, and sides, olive green ; back,
rump, upper wing and tail coverts, the same, but deeper; near the
bend of the wing a small, reddish* purple spot; the quills blackish
above, asb-coloured beneath, the outer edges brimstone; the greater
wing coverts tipped with the same ; lower part of the belly, and the
thighs, as the body, mixed withtjjjellow and blackish; under tail
coverts mixed rufous and yellowish white ; tail ash-colour, feathers
deeper at the base ; legs red, feathered to near the toes.
Inhabits Madagascar, there called Founingo-maitsou ; food and
manners unknown.
101—AROMATIC  PIGEON.
Columba
i, Ind. Orn. ii. 599.
oaboinensis, Bris. i.
Pigeon verd d'Amboine, Buf. ii. 528.
Colombar aromatique,  Temm. Pig. fol. pi. 5,
Aromatic Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 631.
Gm. Lin. i. 778.    Nat. Misc. 765.
145. 1.10. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 37.
PI. enl. 163.
Id. 8vo. i. p. 50.
SIZE of a Turtle; length ten inches and a half.    Bill greenislj;
upper part of the head light grey, deeper behind ; the sides, throat,
 ft J;i|,
m
neck, breast, belly, rump, upper tail coverts, and tail, olive-green,
inclining to yellow on the neck and breast; under part of the tail
black at the base, and greyish white towards the end ; coverts dirty
yellowish white; back and wing coverts fine chestnut; the tips of
of some yellowish, forming a band on the wing; and below this
black, edged with yellow; bend ofthe wing blackish ; quills black,
edged with yellow, narrowest on the prime ones ; legs grey.
Inhabits Amboina, also Java, where it is called Bouron-Jouane.*
A.—Bill and legs -dusky; head, neck, and under parts of the
body, fine pale blue grey; on the crown a large deep dusky spot,
inclining to purple; back and wings deep chestnut purple ; across
the lower wing coverts some feathers with whitish ends, forming a
bar; below this others with the ends white; on the middle of the
wing some ash-coloured ones, forming a patch ; greater quills and;
tail black; the wings reach one-third on the tail.
Inhabits India. We do not learn what food it prefers, but it is not
improbable, that part of its food may be the nutmeg, and that the name
may have been not improperly applied from the circumstance.
B.—Colombar aromatique, var. Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 6.    Id. 8vo. i. 53.
This has the head, neck, and breast, rufous cinnamon-colour;
belly and vent blue grey ; thighs and margins of the wing coverts
yellow ; tail black ; beneath all the feathers ending in dirty white.
From Batavia.
, and Bouron Bird.
  ffl
pl.cxvih.
ii
ii
z^-t^&i^
  fxnm
.
 81
102—SAINT THOMAS'S PIGEON.
Columba St. Thomae, Ind. Orn. ii. 600.     Bris. i. 147.    Id. 8vo. i. 38.   Klein, 119. 11.
Gm. Lin. i. 778.    Raii, 62. 7.    Will. 134.    Id. Engl. 183.
Columba militaris, Colombar Commandeur, Temm. Pig.fol. pi. 1. &2.    Id. 8vo. i. 39.
St. Thomas's Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 631.
THIS is a large Species, being twelve inches long. Bill grey;
the whole head to below the ears bluish grey; plumage in general
above light green; breast fine yellow, passing to the hind part of
the neck; from the breast to the vent light purplish grey; thighs
pale yellow; at the bend of the wing brownish purple; greater
coverts and quills black, edged with yellow; tail half green, half
grey, but the two middle feathers wholly green ; under coverts pale
purplish red, with yellowish margins; legs red.
The female is less bright in colour, the breast not yellow, but of
the same colour as the common plumage; in other things not unlike
the male.
Inhabits the Isle of St. Thomas.—M. Temminck adds, India,
but not any particular part.
103.—HOOK-BILLED PIGEON.—Pl. cxviii.
Columba curvirostra, Ind. Orn. ii. 600.    Gm. Lin. i. 777.    Lin. Trans, xiii. 318.
Hook-billed Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 632. pl. 59.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill sharply carinated at
top, and much incurvated at the end, the base red ; the rest yellow ;
about the eyes a naked, bright, glaucous-coloured space; general
colour ofthe bird green, yellowish beneath; on the wings two
yellow bars; some of the coverts and secondaries having yellow
ends; back and shoulders fine reddish chestnut, the outer part of
the thighs ash-colour; under tail coverts ferruginous; but the vent
vol. viii. M
 JP5P
82 PIGEON.
itself is white; tail rounded, the two middle feathers green, the others
dark ash-colour, with a bar of black about three quarters of an inch
from the end ; legs red.
One, supposed to be a female, had the back and shoulders green,
and the under tail coverts white, as well as the vent.
Inhabits the Island of Tanna, in the South Seas. M. Temminck
supposes this to be allied to the Aromatic Pigeon, differing only in
having a black band near the end of the tail. Said to be found in
Sumatra, and there called Poonai Ubar.
104.—TANNA PIGEON.
Columba Tannensis, Jnd. Orn. ii. 600.    Gen. Syn. iv. 632. 23.—last paragraph.
LENGTH eleven inches. The bill hooked, but less so than in
the former; round the eye bluish; general colour of the plumage
green; lesser wing coverts spotted with white; ends of the second
quills yellow on the outer webs; end of the tail very .pale ; vent and
under tail coverts yellow, the latter mixed with green ; legs dusky
red.—Found with the last, of which it may be a Variety, or young
bird.
1
Columba calva, Coloi
105.—BALD PIGEON.
bar a front nud, Tern. Pig.fol. p. 36. pl.'
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill stout, end of both mandibles
bent, and silvery horn-colour at the base, where it is tiald as in the
Coot, and orange-coloured; head, neck, and all beneath, pale green,
inclining to cinereous grey on the back; bend of the wing deep
violet; quills black, the secondaries edged with yellow; the ttwo
middle tail feathers green, the others light grey for>tteee>fcurths of
the length, then deeper, and lastly light grey rat the ends; under
 PIGEON. 83
tail  coverts rufous cinnamon,   tipped with white;   thigh  feathers
yellow, and covering great part of the shins; legs orange.
Inhabits Africa, the above specimen brought from Angola.
106.—GREAT-CROWNED PIGEON.
Columba coronata, Ind. Orn. ii. 596.     Lin.i. 282.    Gm. Lin. i. 774.     Pallas, Ad. 78.
Mill. III. 1.16. A.
Columba mugiens, Scop. i. 179.
Phasianus cristatus Indicus, Bris. i. 279. t. 26. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 78.
Faisan couronne des Indes, Buf. iii. 354. 542.    PL enl. 118.    Sonnin. Buf. vii. 253.
Colombi Hocco, Levail. Afr. vi. p. 107. pl. 280.
Colombi-galline, Goura, Temm. Pig.fol. pl. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 377.    Son. Voy. 169. pl. 104.
Kronvogel, Naturf. xvii. S. 32.    Id. xix. 88.
Great-crowned Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 620.     Edw. pl.338.     Damp. Voy. iii. pt.2. 93.
pl. 3.    Staunt. Chin. i. 249.    Penn. Outl. iv. 217.    Nat. Misc. pl. 457.
SIZE of a Turkey; length more than two feet. Bill black, two
inches long; from the base a streak of black through the eyes,
continuing a little behind ; irides red ; head, breast, and all beneath
cinereous blue; head feathers near fiy&inches long, the webs of a
very loose texture, forming a beautiful crest; and as some are much
shorter, when erected, it appears flat on the sides, and rounded in
shape; upper parts of the body deep ash-colour, with a mixture of
purplish chesnut on the upper part of the back and scapulars; at
the bend of the wing a horny excrescence; the lesser wing coverts
deep ash-colour, tipped with purplish chestnut; the greater ones,
nearest the body, ash-coloured within, white on the outsides, and
tipped as the others, the white occupying more space on the outside
than within; the greater wing coverts, farthest from the body, ash-
coloured within, and purplish chestnut on the outsides and tips; the
quills deep blackish ash-colour; tail the same, but pale ash-colour
at the tip; legs blackish, or ash-colour, in some spotted with red.
The female has the crest smaller, otherwise does not differ from
the male.
 This species inhabits the Molucca Isles, and New Guinea, and is
not unfrequent in Amboina; kept alive in the Menageries of England,
as well as other parts of Europe : Scopoli mentions a pair, that not
only made a nest on the trees,* of hay and stalks, in the place they
were kept in, but laid eggs; he observed, that the hen never sat on
the eggs, but stood over them, and it was probably from this cause,
that they did not prove prolific. In the East Indies they are kept
tame in the courtyards, by many, among other Poultry;f the note
is plaintive, yet cooing, like other Pigeons, only more loud in
proportion ; their mournful notes alarmed the crew of M. Bougainville, when in the neighbourhood of them, thinking they were the
cries of the human species.
Both Brisson, and Buffon, have ranked this bird with the
Pheasants, and the Pl. enlum. have retained that name; but it
certainly differs from other Pigeons only from its size, yet, in many
of its manners, has great affinity to the Gallinaceous Tribe.
M. Sonnerat, as well as Dampier, found them in plenty at New
Guinea, but the Dutch chiefly procure them from Banda, into which,
no doubt, they were originally transported from the former place.
107—NICOBAR PIGEON.
Columba Nicobarica, Ind. Orn. i. 605. | Lin. i. 283.    Gm.Ain. i. 783.    Bris. i. 153.
Id. 8vo. i. 40.    Klein, 120. 23.
Colombi-galliue a Camail, Levail. Afr. vi. 102. pl. 279.    Temm. Pig.fol. pl. 2.    Id.
8vo. i. p. 385.
Pigeon de Nincombar, Buf. ii. 541.    PL enl. 491.
Nicobar Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 642.     Edw. pl. 339.    Albin, ii. pl. 47. 48.—male and
female.
SIZE of a middling Fowl; length thirteen or fourteen inches.
Bill dusky; irides hazel; head, neck, and all beneath, dark bluish
*  Dampier says, they build on trees, and the eggs are as big as those of the Hen.
f The same at Batavia, where it is called the Crown Bird.    " The most familiar about
the House of the Embassador's Host, was the Crown Bird."—Staunt. Chin. i. 249.
 PIGEON. 85
purple ; the feathers of the neck very long, and pointed, reflecting
glosses of blue, red, copper, and gold, in different lights; back and
wings green, glossed equally with' copper and gold; body large and
massive, the belly dark green, almost black ; some of the outer
quills and coverts above them, fine blue ; tail short, the feathers of
it, and upper coverts white; the wings, when closed, exceed it in
length ; legs reddish, large, and scaly.
The female differs in being less glossy; neck feathers shorter,
and less brilliant.
Inhabits Sumatra, the Tsle of Nicobar, and other parts of India:
is a heavy bird, with rounded wings, and keeps on the ground in the
manner of other poultry; and, like them, feeds on grain, but occasionally eats insects, and all kinds of worms; will mix with other
poultry, and roost with them on the trees at night; they fly heavily,
and not a great way at a time, but run on the ground sufficiently fast;
are now and then brought into Europe, but with difficulty pass
through the winter, especially the first season, though by degrees
become more hardy; and we have seen them more than once in
England, in good condition : care should be taken to keep them in
a close and dry habitation, moisture being very destructive to them.
Among some drawings, done under the inspection of Dr. Buchanan, was a specimen answering in plumage to the above; but I
observed that the crown was black, and on the centre a wrinkled
kind of caruncle, resembling in miniature the comb of a Cock ; the
irides dark brown, surrounded with a pale ring; and the wings,
when closed, reached one inch beyond the tail.
This came from Malacca, and was alive in the Aviary when Dr.
Buchanan took his figure and description, and according to M. Tem-
minck is the male bird. It is probably scarce in India, for I do
not observe mention made of more than one. The flesh of this bird
is said to be very good and savoury.
 108.—CARUNCULATED PIGEON.
lumba camnculata, Colombi-galline a barbillon, Temm. Pig.fol. pl. 11.    Id. 8vc
p. 415.   LevaiL Afr. vi. p. 98. pl. 278.
SIZE of the European Turtle; length ten inches. Bill red at
the base, and black at the point; front surrounded with a naked
red skin, extending to the ears; on the middle of the throat a fleshy
kind of red wattle; the eye also surrounded with a bare red skin ;
plumage in general slaty grey, inclining to brown in some lights,
in others appearing, finely striped with brown ; scapulars and wing
coverts silvery grey, the last fringed with white; rump, under wing
eoy#rtS);sides, and outer edge of the exterior feather white ; tail very
short, and slightly cuneiform, above grey brown, and white at the
base beneath, much concealed above with the upper tail coverts;
legs red, claws hooked.
The female is smaller, and the colour more dull, without the
wattle of the male, and the wing coverts bordered with white.
Inhabits thsanterior of the Cape of Good Hope, at the foot of
the mountain of Namaqua, which being dry and sterile, most oi&e*
Doves avoid : the nest is made on the ground, in a small hollow,
covered with slender.tsticks, and some fine dry grass; the eggs six or
eight in number, ru&ms white; the male and female sit alternately:
the young, as soon as hatched, are covered withjgrey down, and keep
with their mother, who covers them with the wings like a Hen, and
feeds them with ant's»eggs, soft insects, and worms; but they subsist
afterwards both on insects and grain.: these keep all togetbjeiVitill they
pair for a new brood ; in tkkft foil owing the nature of other gallinaceous birds. The young run on the ground like Partridges, and the
old ones call after them, as a Hen does her chickens.
 87
109—HOTTENTOT PIGEON.
Colombi-Caille, Levail. Afr. vi. 116. pl. 283. male.
Columba Hottentotta, Colombi-galline Hottentot, Temm. Pig.fol. pl. 15.    Id. 8vo. i.
p. 429.
SIZE of our Quail. Plumage above rufous cinnamon-colour,
very bright, each feather terminated with brown; bill yellow brown ;
irides reddish; forehead and throat white ; fore part of the neck, and
sides light vinous grey brown, marked with.-scales of black, the
feathers being edged with black on the upper parts; middle of the
breast, belly, thighs, and under tail coverts light rufous; wings rufous,
like the back, within dusky; tail short, rounded, above cinnamon,
beneath rufous grey; legs reddish. The female is smaller, and the
colours are less vivid.
Inhabits Africa, found in the mountains of the Grand Namaqua,
within the Cape of Good Hope.
110.—BLUE-HEADED PIGEON.
Columba cyanocephala, Ind.'Orn. ii. 608.    Lin
Gm. Lin
778.    Jaequx
36.
.17.
Turtur Jamaicensis, Bris.i
Colombi-perdrix k cravate
Colombi-galline k cravate n
Tourterelle de la Jatnaique
135. 1.13. 1.   Id. 8vo. i. 34.   Klein, 11. p. 9
oire, Levail. Afr. vi. 112. pl.281. male.
Aite,.: Wemm. Pigifol. pl. 3.   Id. 8vo. i. p. 390.
Buf. ii. 558.    Pl. enl. 174.   Albvn, ii. pl. 49.
Blue-headed Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 651.    Id. Sup. \
.200.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill red at the base, and ash-coloured
at the point; crown and throat blue, descending a little way down
the middle of the neck before, beneath which theifeasthers are black,
and on some of them is a transverse stripe of white; from the lower
jaw to the hind part of the head, a stripe of'white, passinigibeneath
the eye; neck behind, back, rump, whig and tail coverts-^inaceous
 brown ; fore part of the neck, except just down the middle, and the
breast fine vinaceous; belly, sides, thighs, and under tail coverts the
same, but incline to rufous; the quills brown, edged outwardly with
rufous; tail dusky ash-colour above, and blackish beneath; legs and
claws red; shins rough.
Inhabits Jamaica, and other parts of America; very common in
Cuba, where it is caught in traps, and brought into the markets in
great numbers for eating; may be brought up tame, but in that state
will not propagate; this experiment having been tried in an aviary
for some time, without effect.
Levaillant says, they are about equal in bulk to our European
Turtle, but the wings and tail shorter in proportion ; legs longer,
tail carried downwards, like our Partridge ; forms into small bands ;
chiefly seen on the ground, on which it often squats, like that bird,
and does not pass the night on trees.
111.—PARTRIDGE PIGEON.
Columba montana, Ind. Orn. ii. 594.    Lin. i. 281.    Gm. Lin. i. 772.
Perdix montana, jRaii, Syn. 180.    Sloan. Jam. 302. pl.261.    Brown, Jam. 469;
Colombi-perdrix roux violet, Levail. Afr. vi. 114. pl. 282.
Colombi-galline montagnard, Temm. Pig.fol. pl.4.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 395.
Mountain Partridge, Edw. pl. 119.
Partridge Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 615.    Id. Sup. 197.
LENGTH eight or nine inches. Bill red, with a black tip; the
irides red, surrounded with a red warty skin ; upper parts of the body
rufous, with a purplish tinge; the under, as far as the breast, flesh-
colour; belly, sides, thighs, and vent inclining to rufous; under
wing coverts, quills, and tail rufous; legs red ; claws brown. The
female rather smaller, otherwise like the other sex.
Inhabits Cayenne, also Jamaica; that described by Edwards,
from the latter place, had the forehead clay-colour; head and neck
reddish purple; back, wings, and tail red brown, with a polished
 copper gloss; neck before reddish clay; breast, belly, thighs, and
under tail coverts, light clay-colour; besides which, is a spot of
white on each side, under the eye, and another at the side of the
throat, near the joint of the wing. These birds build in trees which
have low boughs, and make the nest with hair and cotton; at first
sight have greatly the appearance of Partridges.
How far we can allow of the above being found in Saint Helena,
cannot easily be determined ; for I find in Mr. Anderson's catalogue,
one set down by the name of Perdix montana, and said to be
common in that Island, but without further description.
112—MARTINICO PIGEON.
Columba Martinica, Ind. Orn. ii. 595.    Lin. i. 283.    Gm. Lin. i. 781.
 violacea Martinicana, Bris. i. 129. t. 12. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 32.
.     Pigeon violet de la Martinique, Buf. ii. 525.    Pl. enl. 162.
Colombi-galline roux violet,  Temm. Pig.fol. pl.5. 6.   Id. 8vo. i. p. 400.
Columba rufa Cayennensis, Bris. i. 131. pl. 12. f.2.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 32.
Pigeon roux de Cayenne, Pl. enl, 141. male.
———rouge etjaune, Voy. d'Azara,iv. No.321,
Martinico Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 618.
SIZE of a Turtle; length nine inches and a quarter. Bill red ;
eye surrounded with crimson tubercles; irides crimson ; head, neck,
and upper part of the body chestnut, with a violet gloss; chin and
throat flesh-colour; beneath the eye a long, flesh-coloured streak;
breast and belly, to the thighs, purplish flesh-colour; from thence to
the vent yellow ochre; quills violet chestnut on the outer edges, on
the inner rufous ; tail like the quills; legs red.
The female is much the same in colour, but wants the flesh-
coloured streak beneath the eye; and all the under parts, from the
breast, are the colour of yellow ochre, though somewhat paler than
in the male.
Inhabits Martinico, and there called a Partridge.
 90
THIS is said to be equal to the Red-legged Partridge in «ize.
Head and neck black, encompassed with a white ring, as in that
bird : further than this we have no description, or any account from
whence it came, except that it was seen in a Menagerie.
PIGEON.
113—TETRAOID PIGEON.
Columba tetra
oides, Ind. Orn. ii. 594.    Gm. Lin. i. 772.    Scop
Tetraoid Pige
m, Gen. Syn. iv. 616.
114—RED-BREASTED PIGEON.
Columba cruenta, Ind. Orn. ii. 611.    Gm. Lin. i. 785.
Colombi-galline poignarde, Temm. Pig.fol. pl. 8. & 9.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 407.
La Tourterelle grise ensanglantee, Son. Voy. Ind. 52. pl.21.    Son. Buf. vi
Red-breasted Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 657.
. p. 302.
SIZE of the Common Turtle; length ten inches and a half. Bill
black; irides ferruginous; top of the head whitish grey; the neck
behind violet, glossed with green, before white; on the breast a
blood-coloured spot, paler on the edges; the belly grey, tinged with
red; across the wings two grey bands, and between these two of
black; quills black; tail grey at the base, and black at the end ;
legs reddish violet.—Inhabits Manilla.
A.—In this Variety the neck behind is pale rufous red, but not
glossy ; back, between the wings, brownish grey ; wing coverts blue
grey; the rest of the wing rufous red; across the wing two blue grey
bands, but the spaces between not black ; tail deep blue black.
Inhabits India: the last described from drawings. Perouse met
with these, which he called Stabbed Doves, at Morvula, one of the
Philippine Islands.*
* Voy.ii. 299.
 115.—SANGUINE TURTLE.
Columba sanguinea, Ind. Orn. ii. 611.    Gm. Lin. i. 785.
Tourterelle blanche eiwanglantee, Son. Voy. Ind. 52. pl. 20.
Colombi-galline poignardi- variete,  Temm. Pig.fols pl. 9.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 407.
Sanguine Turtle, Gen. Sm.iv. 657.
| IN this the whole plumage is white, except the lower part of the
neck and breast, on which is the same kind of blood red spot as in
the other, appearing as if a sword had pierced that part, and the
blood had soiled the feathers.
Inhabits Manilla; it is probably a white Variety of the former;
as, on near inspection, although at first sight the whole plumage
seems white, the bands on the wings can be traced : on the same
principle, a white Variety of the Collared may be detected, as some
trace of the black of the hind part of the neck may be observed on
close inspection.
116—GROUND  TURTLE
Columba passerina, Ind. On,, ii. (il I.    I.hi. i. 285.    Gm. I.in.\. 787.    Scop. i. No. 183.
Jotqttin, Vog. 32. t. 26.   (
Turtur parvus Americanus, Bris. i. 113. t. 9. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 27.
Columbus minimus, Klein, 129. 24.    Bartr. Trav. 288.
Turtur Indicus, Cocotzin, Raii, 61, 62.  No. 4, 5, 6.  p. 184. 25.     Will. 185. t. 36.
Id. Engl. 184$. VI.    Buf.il 559.     Id. Soman, vii. :jds.    Tenmi.Fig.fol.pl.
13. 14.   Id. 8vo. i. 425.
Les petites Tourterelles, Pl. enl. 243. f. 1.—male.    2.—female.
W  fieTOWif Vmj.d'Azara, iv. No. 324 ?
Gro»fl<JriP»irek Gen, Sy&iv. 659.     Id. Sup. 200.     Arct. Zool. ii. No. 101.     Amer.
Orn. vi. pl. 40. f. 2. 3.     Gates. Car. i. pl. 20.     Sloan. Jam. ii. 305. pl. 261.  1.
Brown, Jam. 469.
THIS is a small Species, not much bigger than the Crested
Lark; length six inches and a quarter.     Bill pale red, with a
I
 92 PIGEON.
blackish tip; irides orange; upper parts of the head and neck ash-
colour; back, rump, and upper tail coverts, the same, but deeper;
the forehead, throat, fore part of the neck, breast, sides, belly, and
under tail coverts, vinaceous, spotted with brown on the fore part
of the neck and breast; the middle of each feather being of that
colour; some of the wing coverts deep ash-colour, others vinaceous,
marked with glossy green, or purplish spots, beneath rufous; qnills
rufous, edges and tips blackish ; the two middle tail feathers deep
ash-colour, the others blackish; the exterior one white on the
margin, round the end ; legs red. The female differs in being more
pale, and the spots on the wings inclined to blood-colour.
Inhabits the warmer parts of America, and contiguous Islands,
chiefly between the Tropics. Sloane mentions, that these birds feed
on the ground as Partridges, and spring as they do, taking a short
flight, and again alighting on the ground; are often seen many
together, and accounted very good meat: chiefly found in all the
plains ofthe Island, and feed on the grain, and seeds of vegetables;
often taken in clavanies, or traps made of reeds, baited with the seeds
of the Wild Cassada ;* is also common at Mexico, where it inhabits
mountainous places. Bancroft says, that it is the only Dove met
with in Guiana. Jacquin tells us, that it is plentiful in all the
Caribbee Islands, under the bushes: the French call it Ortolan ; the
English, Ground Dove ; the Dutch, Steen Duifje ; and the Spaniards,
Palemito. The voice is plaintive and weak, very like that of the
Common Turtle.
At Carthagena are some Varieties, larger than others, having
few brown spots, and the belly not scalloped; and others with the
belly scalloped, yet in a different manner. Is said to propagate in
a state of domesticity, having been tried at Vienna. It is sometimes
found as far as North Carolina, but not beyond. Mr. Abbot informs
me, that it is very rare in Georgia, only one having been killed in
Burke Country, in his remembrance.
* Jatropha elastica.
 93
117.-PASSERINE TURTLE.
Columba minuta, Ind. Orn. ii. 612.    Lin. i. 285.      Gm. Lin. i. 788.
Turdus parvus fuscus Americanus, Bris. i. 116. t. 8. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 27.
Colombi-Galline Pigme, Temm. Pig.fol. pl. 16.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 432.
Pigeon nain, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 325.
Passerine Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 660.
SMALLER than the last; length five inches and a half. Upper
parts of the body brown, the under more or less rufous white, with
seven small spots, the colour of polished steel; three on the lesser,
and four on the greater wing coverts; quills as in the last species;
the two middle tail feathers brown, the others first ash-coloured, then
black, with brown tips, the two outer white on the outer web, near
the tips ; bill and legs brown.
Inhabits St. Domingo, and some of the warmer parts of America.
Found in Paraguay.
118—TALPACOTI PIGEON.
Columbi-Galline Talpacoti, Temm. Pig. fol. pl. 12.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 421.
Cocotzin aliud Genus, Tlapalcotli, Will. 135.
Another sort of Cocotzin,  Will. Engl. p. 184.
Le Pigeon roussatre, Voy. d'Azara, iv. p. 134. No. 323.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill reddish brown, slender, a trifle
bent at the tip; top of the head blue grey; throat, and sides of the
neck, vinous grey; back, wings, and tail coverts, neck before, and
the rest of the under parts, deep rufous, with a vinaceous gloss; on
the greater wing coverts a few small black spots; quills dusky brown;
under wing coverts and flanks black; tail cuneiform, the two middle
feathers rufous brown, the rest black, the exterior margins and tips,
rufous; legs orange, with a narrow band of downy, short, feathers
on the outside* of the shins.
* Azara says the inside.
 Inhabits South America.—-This is, no doubt, the bird mentioned
by Willughby, under the name of Tlapalcocotli, from its being fulvous and black ; but further than this we have no account from the
said author. Azara observes, that it generally is seen in pairs,
perches on trees, or bushes, at a moderate height from the ground ;
that it is a tame species, and does not migrate; he adds, that the
name at Paraguay is Picuipita, or Red Turtle.
119.—WHITE-BELLIED PIGEON.
icensis, Ind. Orn.ii. 595.    Lin.i. 283.    Gm. Lin. i. 782.    BripfoJ§&
33.
• ventre candido, Raii, 63. 16. & 183. 23.    Sloan. Jam. 303. pl. 262. 1.
Columba Jar
Id. 8vo.
Brown, Jam. 469.
Pigeon de la Jamaique, Buf. ii. 529. pl.21.
——— brun a couvertures infer, des Ailes r<
White-bellied Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 619.
jes, Voy. d'Azm
iv. 310,
LENGTH nine inches. Bill dusky; the nostrils much elevated,
forming two tubercles at the base; irides white, or orange; top of
the head, and all the under parts white ; hind part of the neck varied
blue and purple; back, rump, and upper tail coverts purplish brown,
with a light tinge of red ; the tail blue, terminated by a small band
of white.
Inhabits Jamaica, found in the Savannas in January, probably
in its passage to some other parts; feeds on berries, is accounted good
food, being less, bitter than the White-crowned Species: it makes a
mournful noise on the trees, through the whole island, and sometimes
very loud and disagreeable. The Guaranis call it Yeruti; it is
sedentary, and according to Azara, is found as far as the River Plata;
it has a naked orange skin about the eyes, and to the angles of the
mouth, but scarcely visible in dried specimens.
 A.—Length eleven inches. Bill black ; crown blue grey, darker
at the back part; the plumage above, quills, and tail rufous brown ;
chin nearly white; breast vinaceous, or the colour of lilac; belly
and vent white, with a slight mixture of black on the latter; under
wing coverts rufous; the inner webs of the quills the same, but paler;
tail four inches long, a trifle rounded, the two outer feathers darker,
and tipped with a white spot; the third also darker, with a pale end,
but not white; wings reach to the jniddle of the tail; legs yellow.
Inhabits Berbice: in the collection of Mr. Mc. Leay, and called
Wiroe.*
120.—WHITE-FRONTED PIGEON.
Columba erythrothorax, Colombi-Galline a face blanche,   Temm. Pig.fol. pl. 7.    Id.
8vo. i. p. 405.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill slender, dusky ; round the eye bare,
and red; face white; top of the head, the neck, and breast, vinaceous;
belly and vent ferruginous; back, wings, upper tail coverts, and two
middle tail feathers, sooty brown ; at the lower part of the neck some
glossy green feathers, variable; the rest of the tail feathers dusky
black, with white ends; shape of the tail much rounded; legs red.
Inhabits Surinam.
121—GREY-FRONTED PIGEON.
Columba frontalis, Colombi-Galline -a front gris, Temm. Pig.fol. pl. 10.     Id. 8vo. i.
p. 411.
LENGTH nine inches and a half. .-BiHfalack ; front bluish grey;
back, wings, and upper tail coverts,  purplish olive; throat light
* Wiroe, Klyn Zoort (Lesser Sort), alluding, no doubt, to there being one larger.
 96 PIGEON.
rufous; breast, belly, and vent, pale vinaceous; quills rufous within
and dusky without; tail olive-brown; the ends of the three outer
feathers white; legs red. In the male the back has some gilded
reflections of purple.—Inhabits Guiana. Thought by M. Temminck
to be the same as the White-bellied Species.
WITH CUNEIFORM LONG TAILS.
122.—MIGRATORY PIGEON.
Columba migratoria, Ind. Orn. ii. 612.     Lin. i.
205. t. 214.    Bartr. Trav. 288. 467.
Oenas Americana, Bris. i. 100.    Id. 8vo. i. 24.
Palumbus Caroliniensis, Klein, 119.
Pigeon de Passage, Buf. ii. 527.    Sonnin. Buf. )
Colombe voyageuse, Temm. Pig.fol. pl. 48. 49.
Passenger, or Migratory Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 6l
Trans, lxii. 398.    Kalm. Trav. ii. pl. in p. 85
Gm. Lin. i. 789.    Borowsk, i
ii. 210.    Cafes. Car. i. pl. 23.
Id. 8vo. i. p. 346.
1.     Arct. Zool. ii. No. 187.     Phil.
.    Amer. Orn. v. p. 102. pl. 44. f. 1.
Wood's Zoogr. i. p. 474.    Frankl. Narr. App. p. 670.
SIZE of the Common Pigeon; length from fourteen to sixteen
inches, extent of wing twenty-four ; weight about nine ounces. Bill
eleven lines long, and black ; round the eyes crimson ; irides orange;
throat and all the upper parts cinereous; wing coverts marked with
some black spots ; sides of the neck glossy, variable purple; fore
part of the neck and breast vinaceous; belly and under parts the
same, but paler; quills black brown, with pale cinereous white
edges, half way from the base, broadest on the inner ones; tail
greatly cuneiform, consisting of twelve feathers, the middle and
outer one differing in length five inches ; the two middle dove-colour
black, the next on each side very little shorter, of a pale lead-colour,
except the inner web, from the middle to the end, and about one
inch from the tip, where it is very pale, almost white; the next one
 PIGEON. 97
inch shorter, the same in colour, but only whitish at the end ; the
two next four inches and a half long, the exterior only four inches ;
these have also the ends white; the last white the whole length of
the outer web, and all of them, except the two middle, have a black
mark on the inner web, about two inches from their insertion ; legs
red.    The female is somewhat smaller, and the colours less vivid.
Inhabits North America, chiefly between 20 and 60 degrees of
latitude; breeding in the more northern, and retiring towards the
southern provinces, at the approach of winter. Is called by the
Europeans at Moose Fort and Severn River, Wood Pigeon, and
Passenger Pigeon ; by the natives Memewuck. They build in trees,
and are extremely good eating. It can scarcely be conceived in
what prodigious flocks they are seen in their passage from one part
to the other; often in strings of two miles in length, and a quarter in
breadth ; and during their flight over any plaee, quite darken the
air; frequently alight on trees, and sometimes in such vast numbers,
as to break down moderately strong branches. The people of Philadelphia shoot them from the tops of their houses ; and in New England
knock them down from their roosting places in the evening, which is
not difficult to do, as they are very tame at the time, or much fatigued ;
and the common people during flight time chiefly subsist on them.*
Their food consists of acorns,t or mast of all kinds, but they will
destroy corn, rice, peas, and other seeds, to the great detriment of
the fanners; they will also feed on juniper, and other berries; but
not when better food can be obtained.    Often do vast damage in
* They have also another way of taking them in Louisiana. A party of five or six goes
in the evening into the woods, having several flat dishes, with brimstone, which is set on
fire, under such trees as the birds roost on ; the fume of which so stupifies them, as to cause
their fall to the ground, and several sacks have at times been filled with these birds : in this
they are often accompanied by. the Ladies, who esteem it an agreeable evening's amusement;
independent of the stupefaction by brimstone, they are frequently confounded by a sudden
blaze of light of pine splinters, and multitudes are killed by sticks.
f Very fond of the sweet, small acorns of the Quercus aquatica, Sempervirens, Flam-
mula, and others, which induce these birds to migrate into such parts, as these trees are
found in.—Bartram.
VOL.   VIII. O
 98 PEGEON.
autumn by devouring the corn, before they begin their southern
flight. Now and then they come into Georgia in small flocks, probably from their not finding mast, acorns, &c. in other places, their
most usual rout of migration.
This Species is said only to have one young at a time, a circumstance observed in at least 100 nests; one of their breeding places
said to be near Shelby ville, in the state of Kentucky, which was several
miles in breadth, and almost every tree-furnished with nests, where-
ever the branches could accommodate them; so that by cutting down
one tree, they procure sometimes 200 squabs, which are almost a
mass of fat, in so much that many melt it down, to be used as a
substitute for butter and lard. An enlarged and amusing account
of this bird may be read in the American Ornithology.
123—CANADA PIGEON.
Columba Canadfe^aisi Ind. Orn. ii. 613.    Lin. i. 284.     Gm. Lin. i. 785.    Bris. i. 118.
Id. 8vo. i. 29.-
Tourterelle de Canada, Buf. ii. 552.    Sonnin. Buf. vii. 280. t. 43. f. 1.    PL enl. 176.
Canada Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 658.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 190.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill blackish ; upper part of the
head, neck, back, and wings, grey brown ; lower part of the back
and rump ash-colour; from chin to breast yellowish brown, greyish
on the sides ; beneath from the breast white; wing coverts marked
with blackish brown spots; quills brown, the greater edged with
yellowish ; tail cuneiform, ash-colour, the longest feather five inches
and a half; all the feathers tipped with white, but the outer one
wholly white, and all, except the two middle ones, marked within
near the base with a rufous spot, beneath which is another of dusky
black ; legs red. In the female the feathers of the head, neck, breast,
and upper parts, are tipped with dirty white, giving them a striated
appearance.
 PIGEON. 99
Inhabits Canada, and as it resembles in many things the Migratory Pigeon, may possibly be a Variety of that bird, if not
specifically different. M. Temminck thinks it to be the female of
the Migratory.
124—CAROLINA PIGEON.
Columba Carolinensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 613.    Lin. i. 286.    Gm. Lin. i. 789.
Turtur Caroliniensis, Bris. i. 110. t. 8. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 27.    Vieill. Am. iv. pl.
Picacuroba,  Will. 134.    Klein, 119.
Tourte, Tourterelle de la Caroline, Buf. ii. 557.    Pl. enl. 175.—female.     Temm. Pig.
fol. pl. 50.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 355.    Se/igm. Vog. i. pl. 48.—male.
Carolina Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 663.    Arct. Zool. ii. 188. pl. 14.    Gates. Car. i. pl. 24.
Bartr. Trav. 288.    Amer. Orn. v. p. 91.    pl. 43. f. 1.
LENGTH ten inches and a half, or more ; breadth eighteen. Bill
blackish ; eyes in a bare bluish skin ; irides black; the forehead, neck
before, and breast, reddish, glossed with green gold and violet; the
rest of the under parts pale rufous ; hind part of the head and neck
brownish ash-colour; back, wing coverts nearest the body, rump,
and upper tail coverts, ash-colour, mixed with rufous; the rest of
the wing coverts cinereous brown ; on each wing, near the tips ofthe
greater coverts, a few black spots; quills blackish ash-colour, with
whitish edges; tail cuneiform, consisting of fourteen feathers, length
five inches, the outer one little more than two, the two middle ones
ash-coloured brown ; the two next ash-colour, marked with black in
the middle, the others light ash-colour, .with the ends whitish, and
a black spot between the two colours; beneath, the two middle
feathers the same as above, but the end half white ; legs red.
The female wants the gloss on the breast, otherwise the same as
the male.
Inhabits Carolina, Brazil, St. Domingo, &c. ; found in the first
the whole year : met with also in Georgia ; it builds there in trees,
 msmmmtaamssa
100 PIGEON.
the beginning of May, the nest made of large dried stalks, and
fibres of plants, without any art; lays two white eggs. Is a common bird in the plantations in winter, but the nest is not often met
with ; in fact, numbers of them depart southward, but many remain
in Pennsylvania, and other parts, the whole winter. It is a very
tame and familiar species, and sometimes collects in great numbers
during the cold season, at which time they are killed by the inhabitants, as the flesh is savoury, and greatly esteemed.
125—MARGINATED PIGEON.
Columba marginata, Ind. Orn. ii. 614.
Turtur Americanus, Bris. i. 101. Id.
Tourterelle d'Amerique, Buf. v. 552.
Long-tailed Dove, Edw. pl. 15.—male.
Marginated Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 664.
JLiw. i. 286.    Gm. Lin
SIZE of the Common Turtle; length eleven inches. Bill horn-
colour, darker at the tip; irides dull rufous; from the gape to the
eyes a white streak ; the fore part of the head and throat rufous
brown; hindhead bluish ash-colour; between the two, under the
ears, a black spot, the size of a tare; neck behind, back, scapulars,
and wing coverts, dull brown; the two last marked with oval black
spots, of different sizes; the lower part ofthe back and rump incline
to ash-colour; neck before and breast rose-colour, paler on the sides;
belly and under parts brown, mixed with ash-colour; quills deep
brown, edged outwardly with rufous; tail cuneiform,* the two middle
feathers blackish, the others ash-colour, with white tips, and between
the two colours a black band ; legs red.
Inhabits America.—Edwards's bird was brought from the West
Indies.    M. Temminck supposes it the same as the Carolina Species.
* Edwards says, that in his bird the tail was like that of a Magpie, and more than the
length of the body.
 101
126-CRESCENT-BREASTED PIGEON.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill dusky red ; round the eye bare and
bluish ; general colour of the plumage above rusty brownish black;
forehead and chin pale rufous, or bufF-colour; feathers of the crown
rather elevated ; on the breast, before the wing, a clay-coloured
crescent, beginning on each side of the neck; and below this, from
the bend of each wing a second; belly clay-colour, the lower part
variegated with curved black marks as far as the vent; thighs black;
tail cuneiform, four inches long, the two middle feathers plain
brownish black, the others the same, tipped with white; the wings
reach to about the middle ; legs pale red.
This was met with in a collection of drawings, with no account
annexed, but supposed to come from America.
127—BLACK-WINGED PIGEON.
Columba melanoptera, Ind. Orn. ii. 615.     Gm. Lin. i. 790.     Molin. Chil. 308.     Id.
Fr. edit. 215.
Pigeon sauvage, Voy. d'Azara, iv. p. 129. No. 319.
Colombe melanoptere, Temm. Pig. 2de. Suite, Id. 8vo. i. p. 359.
Black-winged Pigeon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 271.
THE short description of this bird, from Molina, merely tells us,
that it is found in Chili, and of a bluish grey colour; black quills,
and a wedge-shaped tail ; but M. d'Azara describes one more at
large, probably the same, from Paraguay, twelve inches long, with
a cuneiform tail; the bill black ; irides of two circles, the inner ash-
colour, the outer garnet; fore part of the head, neck, throat, and
lesser wing coverts inclining to violet; behind the head deep rufous,
and gilded in some lights with green and crimson; wings and tail
 102 PIGEON.
blackish, but the feathers of the latter white at the ends; the rest of
the plumage rufous blue, paler on the belly ; found in October, and
not very common.
128—AMBOINA PIGEON.
Columba Amboinensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 614.    Lin. i. 286.    Gm. Lin. i. 790.    Bris. i. 127.
t. 9. f. 3.    Id. 8vo. i. 31.     Lin. Trans, xiii. 318.
Tourterelle d'Amboine, Buf. n. 557.
Amboina Turtle,  Gen. Syn. iv. 665.
LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill red ; plumage for the most part
rufous, but the feathers on the top ofthe head, the neck, and breast,
marked with a blackish band near the tips; those ofthe upper parts
of the back and wing coverts, deep brown, with the ends rufous ; the
lower, rump, and upper tail coverts, rufous; quills deep brown; the
tail very unequal, the outer feathers being very short; general colour
rufous brown ; legs red.    The female differs in being less bright.
Inhabits the Island of Amboina ; found also in Sumatra.
129—CAPE  PIGEON.
. 614.
/286.     Gm.Lin
Columba Capensis, Ind. Orn.
t. 9. f. 2.—male.    Id. 8vo. i. 29.
La Tourtelette, Buf. ii. 554.    Pl. enl. 140—male.    Sonnin. Buf. vii. 286. t. 43. f. 1.
Temm. Pig.fol. pl. 53. 54.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 366.
Tourterelle a Cravate noire, Levail. Afr;. vi. p. 82. pl. 273, 274, 275.
Cape Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 666.
THIS is a very small and beautiful Species, scarcely bigger than
a Lark, but in length nine inches and a half. Bill red; forehead
and chin nearly white; throat, and fore part of the neck, to the
breast, black ; head, neck, breast, back, rump, wing and tail coverts,
grey brown ; greater wing coverts tipped with black ; belly, sides,
and under tail coverts, dirty white; on each wing a bright spot like
 PIGEON. lQfJ
polished steel; greater quills rufous within, and brown on the outer
webs and tips; the second quills brown, edged with grey ; tail
greatly cuneiform, the two middle feathers four inches and a half
long, the outer one very short; the long ones blackish brown, with
a rufous tinge; the rest grey from the base, and blackish at the
ends; beneath black, except the outer one, which has the outside and
tip white; legs red.
The female is smaller, and has the throat and forepart of the
neck of the same colour as the head ; mottled with brown on the
breast; the crown waved with brown, and particularly the wing,
marked with crescents of brown and black, and appears in this state
a most beautiful bird; the greater wing coverts not tipped with black.
Inhabits Africa, both at the Cape of Good Hope, and Senegal,
and probably in all the southern parts of that quarter ; makes the
nest in bushes, of a moderate height, of sticks, like most ofthe tribe;
the eggs but two in number, white, and so transparent, that the
colour ofthe yolk may be seen through the shell. We have noticed
several variations; in some the forehead is black ; one had a stripe
of white across the head, and down each side of the neck, a bar of
white across the rump, and the spots on the wing blue green, instead
of black. In another specimen a crescent of very pale ash-colour
on the breast, and the sides, beneath the eye, mottled cinereous and
black. In the Pl. enlum. the forehead is dusky black, sides of the
neck from the eye to the wing fine pale, mixed grey ; wing coverts
and rump fine blue grey; tail wholly black; and the under parts
from the breast pure white.
Thunberg says, it is frequent in the gardens at the Cape, and
feeds on seeds, he calls it Maquas Duye, and Namaqua Dove. One
at Mr. Brogden's was brought from Senegal, but in this the whole
face to the eyes, as well as the throat, and neck before, was black.
 104
130.—MALACCA TURTLE.
Columba Malaccensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 612.    Gm. Lin. i. 788.
Colombe a large Queue, Temm. Pig.fol. pl. 67.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 339.
Petite Tourterelle de Queda, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 177.    Sonnin. Buf. vii. 305.
Malacca Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 661.    Shaw's Zool. xxi. pl. 929.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill black, tinged with yellow at the
base and tip; irides yellow; forehead and throat light cinereous
grey; hind part of the head the same, crossed with black lines;
back, rump, and lesser wing coverts pale cinereous grey, tipped with
a "black band; sides of the neck white, crossed with numerous lines
of black; breast and belly pale vinous grey ; sides of the last undulated with black lines ; quills brown ; middle tail feathers the same,
the others brown for two-thirds of the length ; from thence to the
ends white; thighs and under tail coverts white; legs like yellow
orpiment.
Inhabits Malacca, and is a most beautiful species ; the flesh said
to be extremely delicate. This has been transported to the Isle of
Mauritius, where it multiplies exceedingly.
131—BANTAMESE PIGEON.
Columba Bantamensis,. Ind. Orn. ii. 615.
—— striata, Mus. Carls, t. 67.
Bantamese Pigeon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 271.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill black ; plumage above hoary ash-
colour; beneath whitish, marked on the back, wings, and breast,
with slender, waved crescents; chin and vent nearly white; tail
cuneiform, the length of the body, consisting of fourteen feathers,
the six middle ones black, the rest the same, but white towards the
tips; legs red.
 PIGEON. 105
Inhabits the Island of Java ; exceedingly common rtear Bantam,
in the palm woods, where it fills the ears of the neighbouring
inhabitants with its pleasing, melancholy notes. We will not be
positive that this may not be a young bird of the Malacca Species,
if not the female.
One similar, said to have come from New-Holland, had the chin
nearly white; forehead paler than the rest; from the belly to the
vent very pale ash-colour.
Inhabits Sumatra, called Katitiran ;* but in this the breast is of a
vinous red, less bright in the female. Said to be three Varieties,
differing in size : this is the Turtle often kept tame, and trained to
fight with each other. Poonas is the generic name of the Doves,
which the Malays distinguish from the Balam, or Turtle family, by
being less exclusively granivorous.
132—BARRED TURTLE.
Columba striata, Ind. Orn. ii. 608.   Lin. i. 282.   Gm. Lin. i. 775.   Klein, 120. 21,
Jacquin, Vog. 32. t. 15.
Turtur Indicus striatus, Bris. i. 109.    Id. 8vo. i. 26,
Tourterelle rayee des Indes, Buf. ii. 557.   Id. Sonnin. vii. p. 292.
Barred Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. 650.    Id. Sup. 200.   Edw. pl. 16.
LENGTH nine inches and a half. Bill three quarters of an inch,
pale horn*-colour; nostrils pale blue ; irides blue grey; the eyes in
a bare white skin, which passes to the nostrils; forehead, cheeks, and
throat, pale blue; the top of the head and hindhead incline to
rufous; upper part ofthe neck, the back, and wing coverts, brownish
ash-colour, marked with transverse, arcuated bands of black ; rump
the same, but not banded; sides of the neck and body incline to
"blue, crossed with slender blue black lines; fore part of the neck,
breast, belly, and thighs, tinged with rose-colour; tail cuneiform,
the two middle feathers deep dove-colour, the rest black, with the
ends more or less white; under coverts white; legs pale red, claws
brown.
* Lin. Trans, xiii. 319.
 106 PIGEON.
Inhabits the East Indies and China, called in the latter, Fowat;
frequent at Malacca, as well as in the Island of St. Helena.' This
and the two last, according to M. Temminck, form only one and
the same species.
133.—MAUGE PIGEON.
Columba Maugei, Colombe Mauge, Temm. Pig.fol. pl. 52.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 363.
A TRIFLE larger than the Malacca Species ; ten inches. Bill
black ; top of the head light grey; nape chestnut; back and wings
pale reddish brown, the fringes of the feathers pale; quills deeper;
sides of the jaw, under the eye, deeper ash grey; neck and under
parts dusky white; the feathers of the former margined with dusky,
and of the latter with brown; tail very cuneiform, consisting of twelve
feathers, the eight middle ones nearly even, and the two outer
scarcely more than half their length ; the two middle like the quills,
the others black, with the ends white; legs black.
Inhabits South Asia; at first sight is like the Malacca Species,
but on comparison, is certainly a distinct bird ; besides other things,
differing much in the tail; as in the Malacca, it is equally graduated;
but in the present one, eight of the feathers are nearly of one length,
and only the two outer shortest.
134.—CRESTED PIGEON.
SIZE a trifle larger than the Common Turtle; length, including
the tail, fifteen inches. Bill black ; irides yellow ; head, neck, and
beneath the body, pale dove-colour; round the eye bare, and reddish;
neck behind, middle of the back, and lower part of the breast rufous
dove-colour, or brownish buff; at the nape several elongated, narrow,
 PIGEON. 107
black feathers, some three inches or more in length, giving the
appearance of the crest of the Coly; across the wing eight or ten dusky
bars ; quills brown ; on the middle a large, pale, gilded, bronze
spot, similar to that in the Bronze-winged Pigeon ; below this several
ofthe second quills are vivid purple and copper, bronzed with blue;
and all the feathers forming these vivid parts fringed at the ends with
white; tail cuneiform, five inches long, the outer feather, one inch
and a half, at least, shorter than the two middle ones; general colour
dusky black, with whitish ends; the two middle feathers glossed on
the edges tvith a greenish bronze tinge; legs red.
The male and female much alike in plumage.
Inhabits New-Holland.—A few of these were met with in the
vicinity of Macquarrie's River, but are far from common. A fine
pair in the Linnaean Museum.
135.—PHEASANT-TAILED PIGEON.
Columba phasianella, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 129.
LENGTH fourteen inches and a half. Bill and legs rufous
brown; plumage above dull rufous brown, inclining to chestnut;
on the crown and sides of the neck, a gloss of green and purple;
nape marked with broad bands of brown, and narrow ones of rufous;
quills dull brown, edged and tipped with rufous chestnut; tail very
long, and cuneiform, the middle feathers dull rufous, the lateral ones
bright rufous; about the middle a broad band of black; throat
rufous, the rest of the under parts purplish brown, transversely
banded with narrow black zigzags; flanks, thighs, and under tail
coverts plain bright chestnut.
Inhabits the interior of New-Holland, about Port Jackson.
 108
136—GREAT-TAILED PIGEON.
Columba macroura, Ind. Orn. ii. 615.    Gm. Lin. i. 790.
Le Tourocco, Buf. ii. 553.    Temm. Pig. 8vo. i. p. 344.
Tourterelle k large Queue, PL enl. 329.   Sonnin. Buf. vii. 285. t. (
Great-tailed Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. 667.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill red, base covered with a white
cere; head, neck, and upper parts of the body, reddish cinnamon-
colour ; breast, belly, and thighs, dusky white; tail very long,
cuneiform, and at least half the length of the bird, in colour like the
upper parts, the ends of the feathers white; legs red.
Inhabits Senegal: is said to carry the tail like the Crested
Curassow.
 ORDER V.     GALLINACEOUS.
GENUS LV.-
-PEACOCK.
Crested Peacock
II    2 Black-sbouldered
||    5 Iris
A Var*
3 Javaa
6 Thibet
B Var.
II    4 Japan
II    7 Malay
1 HE bill in this Genus is convex, and strong.
Nostrils large.
Head small, crested.
Spurs on the legs.
Feathers above the tail long, broad, expansible.
1.—CRESTED PEACOCK.
Pavo cristatus,  Ind. Orn. ii. 616.     Lin. i. 267.     Faun, siiec.   No. 197.     Gm. Lin. i.
729.    Scop. i. No. 162.    Brun. p. 58.    Kramer, p. 355.     Frisch, t. 118.    .Raii,
51. A. 2.    Will. 112. t. 27.    Bris. i. 281. t. 27.   Id. 8vo.i. 79.   Klein, 112. B.
Id. Ov. 32. t. 14. f. 1. 2.    Borowsk, ii. 164.     Gerin. ii. t. 217.    Spalowsk. ii. t.
28.   Roman. Orn. 26. t. 2. & 3.    Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 319.
Le Paon, Buf. ii. 288. pl. 10.    PL enl. 433. 434.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. xc.
Pfau, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 22.     Naturf. iv. s. 605.    Id. xvii. 66.   Schmid, Vog. p.
95. t. 81.
Pavone, Zinnan. Uov. 25. t. 1. No. 1.
Crested Peacock, Gen. Syn. iv. 668.    Will. Engl. 158. pl. 27.    Raii, p. 51. A. 2. &
183. 18.     Sloan. Jam. 88()2. No. 23.     Brown, Jam. 470.     Bewick, Birds, i. pl.
p. 289.
SIZE of a middling Turkey ; length from the tip of the bill to
the end of the tail three feet eight inches, and sometimes more than
 110 PEACOCK.
four feet. The bill is nearly two inches long, and brown.; irides
yellow; on the crown is a kind of crest, composed of twenty-four
feathers, scarcely webbed, except at the ends, which are gilded
green, the shafts whitish ; the' head, neck, and breast, are green
gold, glossed with blue ; over the eye a streak of white, and beneath
it another; the back and rump green gold, glossed with copper;
the feathers distinct, and lie over one another like shells;' the belly
and vent greenish black; thighs yellowish ; scapulars and lesser
wing coverts reddish cream-colour, varied with black; the middle
ones deep blue, with a gilded gloss ; the greater coverts and bastard
wing rufous; quills rufous, some of them variegated with rufous,
blackish and green ; the tail consists of eighteen grey-brown feathers,
eighteen inches long, marked on the sides with rufous grey ; above
the tail springs an inimitable set of long beautiful feathers or upper
tail coverts, adorned with a most brilliant and variegated eye at the
end of each, and of various colours, yellow gilded, a deep olive and
violet, with a black disk. These are very numerous, and of different
lengths: some equalling five feet, besides the quill, which is three
inches more : this grand train, or tail, as it is by some falsely called,
may be expanded perpendicularly upwards, being supported by the
feathers ofthe true tail ;•* the legs are short, greyish brown, and those
ofthe male furnished with a strong spur, three quarters of an inch
in length.
The female is smaller.    Bill white ; irides lead-colour; the crest
on the head the same; on the sides of the head a greater portion of
* One circumstance relating to this bird seems equally to have escaped Naturalists and
Philosophers—the power it seems to possess of communicating an electric motion to the
fibres of the long feathers of the the train when expanded ; for from no other cause can one
explain that tremulous movement, and horizontal position which the fibres acquire at certain
moments ofthe expansion, and which is accompanied with a noise like the emission of the
electric matter. Whatever command a bird may possess over the immediate tube of the
feather, the webs seem totally inanimate, and incapable of receiving any impulse whatever.
 PEACOCK. Ill
white; throat and neck green; the rest of the body and wings
cinereous brown ; breast fringed with white; legs as in the male, but
without a spur, though in some birds the rudiment of one is seen.
In some male birds the whole of the wing coverts and scapulars
are fine deep blue green, very glossy ; but the outer edge of the
wing and quills are of the usual colour.
This bird, so common in Europe, is of Eastern origin, and has
been the admiration of all ages from that of the King Solomon,* to
the present; found in a wild state in many parts of Africa and Asia,f
but no where so large and fine as in India;% more particularly in the
neighbourhood of the Ganges; all the Jungles in the Nabob of
Oude's Territories are full of Peacocks; about the passes in the
Jungleterrey District, especially Tehriagully, whole woods are said
to be covered with their beautiful plumage, not less than twelve or
fifteen hundred, of various sizes, being seen near one spot within an
hour :§ is a native of the Malay Peninsula, and of Java, but is not
common near Bencoolen; is known by the name of Mira, or Marak.
They make the- nest on the ground, ordinarily on a small bank, where
in some proper bush, they collect leaves, small sticks, &c. and sit
very close, usually on twelve or fifteen eggs, and hatch about the
beginning of November. By degrees they have spread into all parts,
increasing in a wild state in the warmer climates,! but requiring some
care in the colder.    In this kingdom it rarely comes to fullness of
* Every three years once came the Ships of Tarshish, bringing gold, and silver, ivory,
apes, and Peacocks, Ckron. ii. ix. v. 21.    1 Kings, x. v. 22.
•j* Not indigenous to China.
J Said to be natives of the Isle of Samos, and are represented on the coin of that state,
and from this Island to have passed into the rest of Greece, Anachars. vi. 253. The Roman
epicures prized those from Samos, above all others.
§ Chiefly found in the copses, or the banks of rivers, and no where more plentiful than
in the Bhaughulpore district, not far from Termbony Nullah, but the going after them is
often a dangerous undertaking, from the tigers, which are also abundant in the same vicinity.
Oriental Sports.
|| Not uncommon at Ceylon, but not so numerous there as in India: found wild at St.
Helena, also at Barbadoes, and other West India Islands.
 112 PEACOCK.
plumage till the third year. The female seldom lays more than five
or six eggs, which are greyish white, and of the size of those of a
Turkey, in some marked with a few blackish spots; sits from twenty-
seven to thirty days.
The young are usually fed with curd, chopped leeks, barley meal,
&c. also soft food, and insects, and in five or six months will feed at
large with the old ones. These birds prefer the most elevated places
to roost on during the night, such as high trees, tops of houses, and
the.like. The cry is loud, and inharmonious, a perfect contrast to
their external beauty,  which is no protection to them.*
Are said to be caught in India by carrying lights to the trees on
which they roost, with painted representations of the bird, and when
they put out the neck to look at the figure, a noose is slipped over
the head, by which they are secured, f In most ages they have been
esteemed as a salutary and agreeable food, and at the present day a
young Pea Fowl is esteemed a delicacy. Hortensius gave the example at Rome, where it was carried to the highest pitch of luxury
by selling very dear.J
The life of this bird is said by some to be about 25 years, § by
others to exceed 100. ||
* " Miraris quoties gemmantes explicat alas,
" Et potes hunc ssevo tradere, dure, coco ?"
Mart. Epig. L. 13.    Ep. lxx.
f Tavernier's Trav. iii. 57.    The inhabitants of the Mountains  on both sides of the
Ganges, catch them with birdlime, prepared from the milky juice of two sorts of trees, *
boiled with oils to a consistence, which proves sufficiently tenacious to entangle them, or
the largest birds.—Phil. Trans, lxxi. 376.
% Pliny, B. x. Ch. xx.—-They must have been in plenty notwithstanding, or the Emperor
Vitellius could not have procured sufficient for his large dish, called the Buckler of Minerva,
which was said to be filled with the livers of Scan, tongues of Flamingoes, and brains of
Peacocks,
§ Aristotle, Pliny, Buffon,
|| Willughby.    Ten or eleven years since, a Peacock, belonging to Mr. Henwood, of
Cordenham, in Cornwall, which had attained to 90 years, was killed by a ferocious ^"~
• Ficus religiosa and Indica, Lin.
  Pli.CXLX;
Q^^-fatfswJ tfk
   PEACOCK.
Pavo varius
, Bris
i. 288.    Zd.Svo.i. 81.    J
Borowsk. ii
166.
Gen. Syn. iv. 671.
113
Frisch, t. 119.    Ind. Orn. ii. 616. 1. j3.
This is probably a mixed breed between the Common and White
Peacock ; and of course is to be seen in every variety and proportion
of colour between these two birds.
B.—Pavo albus, Bris. i. 288.    Id. 8vo. i. 81.     Frisch, t. 120.    Raii, 51. A. 2.
Borowsk. ii. 167. . Gerin. ii. 74. 218.    Roman. Orn. ii. 37.
Le Paon blanc, Buf. ii. 323.
White Peacock, Gen. Syn. iv. 672. 1. Var. B.
This is wholly white, the eyes of the train not excepted; but
these are to be plainly traced out on the feathers by a different un-
dulation in shade, though apparently ofthe same pure white colour.
This Yariety is said to be more common in England than elsewhere.
To the above may be added a circumstance now and then occurring in the female of this species, having the external marks of
the plumage of the male. We have met with two instances of this;
one belonging to a particular friend, the other in the Leverian
Museum, formerly in the possession of Lady Tynte;* the latter of
these had bred for several years, but after ceasing to lay eggs, gained
by degrees the eyed feathers ofthe male, and at the time of its death,
appeared like a young male bird. The above is, however, not
singular, as we have known it instanced both in Pheasants and
common poultry; but we cannot at all account for the opposite
circumstance taking place in respect to a male Peacock changing
into a female, as mentioned by Ausonius in one of his Epigrams :—
n Vallebanae (nova res et vix credenda Poetts
" Sed quse de vera promitur Hisfjoria)
" Femineam in speciem convertit masculus Ales ;
" Pavaque de Pavo constitit ante oculos."
Auson. Epig. 69.
* Pl. cxix.
VOL.   VIII. Q
1
 114 PEACOCK.
Among some Chinese drawings which some years since came
under our inspection, was an extraordinary Variety of the Peacock.
It had a semicircular, yellowish skin, surrounding the hind part of
the head; the scapular feathers covered with eyes, and the feathers
of the crest adorned in the same manner; the tail, or train, fan-shaped,
the feathers with two eyes on each, with an outer circle of crimson ;
legs blue, with a sharp spur. We can only observe here, that as the
other birds in this collection of drawings seemed to be faithfully done,
it may form an apology for at least giving its description.
Independent of the value set upon the Peacock as an article of
food, the feathers were ever esteemed for ornament; for we learn,
that the crest made part of the dress of great men both in India,
and this Kingdom. In the reign of King John a fine was paid to
him by Ernald de Aclent, which consisted, among other things, of
Peacocks' crests ; and in the time of Queen Elizabeth, fans were in
use, composed of the feathers of the train of this splendid bird ;
probably before the folding paper, or leather, fans came into use,
and which seem to have originated with the Chinese. The feather
fans, we are told, were for the most part rather expensive: we may
suppose on account of the handles, in which the value chiefly consisted. One is mentioned as having been presented to the Queen, as
a new-year's gift,* studded with diamonds ;f and it is not uncommon
for a fan to cost £40.$ Silver handled fans are mentioned by many
authors, as also those of gold.
2—BLACK-SHOULDERED PEACOCK.
Pavo cristatus primus, Paon sauvage, Tern. Pig. § Gall. 8vo. ii. p. 28 ?
THE size of this beautiful bird is somewhat less than the Common
Peacock, and at first may be taken for a Variety of that Species;
* See the shape of such fan in Qu. Eliz. Progress, 1578. p. 106. also p. 53. where fans
of other feathers are engraved, one according to appearance composed of those of the
Ostrich. f Warton.    Id. p. 53. + Id. ib.—Malone.
 PEACOCK. 115
but there will, on comparison, be found some striking differences
between the two; the present one is rather more round in the body,
and better proportioned, and the general colours more brilliant; the
wing coverts and scapulars are entirely without those variations of
black, on a cream-coloured ground, seen in the first species; instead
of which those parts are wholly covered with black feathers, which
have the appearance of velvet, and in certain lights appear of a
most brilliant sapphire-coloured blue; the rest of the wing is not
unlike that of the Common Peacock, but more dusky.
The female has also evident traces of the difference of sex; in
her the shoulders are not wholly black, but marbled with dusky
white, the feathers bein£ chiefly cream-coloured, deeply margined
with black, and the addition of some streaks and bars.
The young males more or less resemble the female parent, till
the third year, when their plumage becomes complete.
A pair of these gorgeous birds was in the Leverian Museum, and
said to be natives of Japan ; but from later information are rather
supposed to inhabit Thibet, in Tartary ; are scarce birds, and little
known except in our kingdom, and Holland; they are often met with
at the shops of the dealers in birds, but at a most extravagant price :
how far this is distinct, or a Variety only of the Common Sort, we
are not prepared to answer, but it is certain, that they multiply with
each other, and the produce, as may be expected, varies accordingly.
M. Temminck observes, that the original Peacock chiefly differs
from the domesticated one in the colour of the wing coverts, which
have a gold green and blue gloss, instead of cream-colour, varied
with black, as seen in the birds bred in confinement.
The ahove black-shouldered one seems to approach near to the
Wild Species.
 116
3.-JAVAN PEACOCK.
Pavo javanicus, Lin. Trans.-urn. p. 185.—Horsfield.
THIS chiefly differs from the well-known Crested Species, in that
the crest is not composed of distinct feathers, enlarged at the end;
but is a kind of upright tuft of slender ones ; feathers of the neck,
breast, and back, glossy green gold, terminated with a violet black
band ; scapulars and lesser wing coverts mixed, glossy emerald-green
and sky-blue.
Inhabits Java, where it is called Merak ; further than the above
we are not furnished with a description ; but we think it to be not
much differing from the following, a specimen of which is in the
Museum at the India House, London.
This is in shape like our Crested Species, but smaller; from i^
crown arises a loose tuft of several pale feathers, about four inches
in length ; chin and throat bare of feathers; back and rump gilded
green, the feathers narrowly edged with blue; neck waved with
glossy brownish green feathers, deeply edged with gilded green ;
outer ridge of the wipg- half way buff; quills brownish, deep green ;
body brownish green, the feathers with black edges. The train as
in our Peacock, but smaller in proportion, and furnished with eyelike spots as in that bird, which are in the middle deep blue encircled
with fine green, then a large bed of brown, and finally surrounded
with a margin of gilded copper-colour; legs stout, brown, furnished
with a single, strong spur.
This last described was from Java, or Sumatra.
4.—JAPAN PEACOCK.
Pavo muticus
Ind. Orn. i. 617.     Lin.
i. 268.     Gm. Lin
i. 731.     Borowsk. ii
 Japanicu
s, Bris. i. 289.   Id. 8vo.
£>81.   Aldr.Av. ii.
t. 33. 34.   Johnst. Ai
 Spicifer,
Nat. Misc. pl. 641.
 PEACOCK. Ml
Le Spicifere, Buf. ii. 266.
Pheasant one kind of, Kcempf. Jap. Engl. Ed. p. 129.
Japan Peacock, Gen. Syn. iv. 672.
SIZE ofthe Crested Peacock. The bill larger, and ash-coloured;
space round the eyes red; irides yellow ; on the top of the head an.
upright crest, four inches long, bj^some compared to an ear of corn ;
colour green and blue mixed; the tpp-of the head and neck green&hti
with spots of blue, which have a white streak down the middle of
each ; back greenish blue ; breast blue and green gphhmixed; bafty*.
sides, and thighs, ash-colour, with black spots, streaked with whfil$t
on the belly; wing coverts and secondaries, not unlike the baciWfo
greater quills green, transversely barred w^th .black ljajes,.but growing
yellowish towards the ends, where they are black; the upper tail
coverts are fewer than those of the Common PeacoGkijyjet longer than
the tail; they are chestnut brown, with white shafts, and have at
the end of each a large spot, gilded in the middle, then blue, and
surrounded with green; legs ash-colour, and not furnished with spurs.
The female is smaller, the belly quite blac^and the upper tail
coverts much shorter; the tail green, edged with blue, and w^iN
shafts.
This inhabits Japan, and is no doubt the bird which Kcempfer
calls a Pheasant, "remarkable for the various colours and lustre
" of its feathers, and for the beauty of its tail, which equals half a
" man's length, and in a curious variety and mixture of the finest
" colours, chiefly blue and gold, in no ways inferior to that of a
" Peacock."
This bird is also known in India, as it is well represented in the
curious collection of drawings belonging to Sir J. Anstruther. In
this the bill is dusky, or pale blue; crown of the head and back, at
the nape, and round the chin^ deep blue, nearly black ; sides of the
head pale blue, and bare, in the middle of w*ftieh are thfceyes ;
beneath this, on the ears, a deep crescent of yellow skin, divided into
two parts, the rest of the head deep blue,j,ffr^Mfl*>the back part of the
 118 PEACOCK.
crown springs an upright crest of loose feathers, two inches at least
in height, and pointed at the top ; the rest of the neck and breast
glossy changeable green, the edges of the feathers very brilliant,
giving the appearance of undulations; the wings are reddish brown,
mixed with green on the shoulders and back; under parts of the
body dusky; quills brown, some of them margined with green and
bluish, and towards the ends very pale ; tail uncertain ; train not
unlike that of the Common Peacock, the feathers glossy green, with
white shafts, and an eye at the end of each, of a gilded brown, in
the middle of which is a large green spot, within that a blue one,
and finally in the centre a cordated spot of black; the feathers of
the train seem shorter than in the Common Species, and perhaps less
in number, as the eyes appear not so numerous; legs dusky ash-
colour, furnished with a single spur behind.
Inhabits India; found at Chittagong and Bhauglepore; not
uncommon in the east parts of Bengal.—Sir J. Anstruther.
It is most probably the same with the Japan Species,* which has
been known to Europe only by means of a painting, sent by the
Emperor of Japan to the Pope. In this representation the legs had
no spurs, but this might have been overlooked by the draughtsman.
5—IRIS PEACOCK.
Pavobicalcaratus, Ind. Orn.ii. 617. Lin.i. 268. Gm. Lin.i. 730. Borowsk,ii. 163
t. 26.    Spalowsk. iii. t. 32.    Mus. Lev. t. 6.    Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 319.
Pavo Sinensis, Bris. i. 291.    Id. 8vo. i. 82.    Gerin. ii. 219.. 220.
Phasianus pavoneus, Klein, 114. 6.—male.    Id. Ph. fuscus.—female.
Polyplectron Chinquis, Eperronier Chinquis, Temm. Pig. Sf Gall. 8vo. ii. p. 363. Ic
Sonnin. vi. 227. pl. 46. f. 2.
L'Eperronier, Buf. ii. 368. Pl. enl. 492. 493. Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. xci. Em
Orn. p. 178. pl. 83.
* The late Mr. Woodford mentioned to me his having seen, among the French King's
collection of drawings, one called Spicifere, which was clearly the Impeyan Pheasant.
 PEACOCK. 119
Le petit Paon de Malacca, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 173. pl. 99.
Peacock Pheasant, Ediv. pl 67. 69.
Iris Peacock, Gen. Syn. iv. 673.
SIZE of a Dunghill Cock, or bigger. Bill grey, tip dusky;
irides yellow; between the bill and eye, and round the latter, ash-
colour, and almost bare, being only covered with a few scattered
hairs; head, neck, and back the same, mottled with fine lines, and
dots of white; behind the neck some dusky spots; chin and throat
nearly white'; breast, and all beneath, marked with greyish white
and brown, in waves, two or three on each feather; those of the
rump, sides of the tail, and coverts with whitish margins, and within
them numerous dots of white; wings marbled with whitish, on which
are rows of gilded, bronzed, purple red, spots, about the size of a
silver penny ; these are less regular on the coverts, and smaller, and
all of them changing into blue and green in different lights; the
back, between the shoulders, is also spotted; the tail feathers, or
rather the elongated coverts, have likewise the same lucid spots, but
more oval, one on each side of the shaft, not far from the end; the
legs are brown, and on the back part of each two spurs, one above
the other.
The female is smaller by one-third, and the colours less vivid ;
the eyes on the wings much the same; tail brown, appearing between
the coverts, which are less numerous, and only here and there one
charged with splendid glossy spots, so conspicuous in the male; and
which in this sex are comparatively more dull; the legs not furnished
with spurs.*
These beautiful birds inhabit China and India, from both which
they are now and then brought alive to Europe.f The bird described
by Sonnerat had three spurs on one leg, and two on the other, but
this was most probably a Lusus Naturae.    In the drawings of Sir J.
* I observe one, supposed a female, in drawings, having two spurs, probably a young male.
f One of these was in the Menagerie of the late Duchess Dowager of Portland, alive,
some years since.
 120 PEACOCK.
Anstruther I observe a bird of this kind which had only two or three
feathers of the tail marked with resplendent purple spots, and but
few on the wings; it was said to be a female, but is probably a young
bird, called by the people of Asam, Deo-Kukura. It is frequent
-throughout the Malay Peninsula, and is known also in Sumatra, and
there called Kuaow Chirmin.
6—THIBET PEACOCK.
Pavo Tibetanus, Ind. Orn. ii. 617.     Lin. i. 26. 2. /S.    Gm. Lin. i. 731.    Bris. i. 294.
t. 28. A. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 83.    Gerin. ii. t. 221.—a WfirteVariety.
Le ChiiiqtiK, tBftJftifi. 365.    Teni.¥ig.Sf Gall. 8vo. ii. p. 363.
Eperonnier, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. xci.
Thibet Peacock, Gen. Syn.iv. 675.    Nat. Misc. pl. 441.
SIZE of the Pintado ; length two feet one inch and a half. Bill
one inch and half long, and cinereous; irides yellow; head, neck,
and undef'parts ash-colour, with blackisiMines; wing coverts, back,
and rump, grey, with small white dots; besides which, on the wing
coverts and back are large round spots of a fine blue, changmg'ffi •
different lights to violet and green gold; quills and upper tail coverts
grey, with blackish lines; on the quills two round blue spots on
each, like those of the coverts; on the outer webs, and on each tail
feather, four of the same, two on each side of the web, one above
the other ; the middle coverts are the longest, the others shorten by
degrees; the legs are grey, furnished with two spurs behind, one
above the other, the upper one the shortest of the two.
Inhabits the Kingdom of Thibet. Described from a drawing
taken from the living bird by M. Poivre. ^11 is probably too, in
China, as I found it well figured among the Chinese drawings of
the late Mr. Pigou, where it is called Kin-chien-Kee, or Gold
Fowl. I observed it also in some drawings in possession of Sir J.
Banks, Bart, but in this figure there is only one spur on each leg.
     i
PEACOCK. 121
Linnaeus supposes it to be a Variety of the Iris, or last Species.
M. Temminck joins the two as one and the same, under the name
of Polyplectron.
7.—MALAY PEACOCK.—Pl. cxx.
SIZE large. Bill white; greater part of the head, and upper
part of the neck naked, having only straggling bristles, and of an
indigo colour; from the bill, along the summit of the head, is a line
of short, black, bristly feathers, reversed on the nape, and forming
a short crest; the lower part of the neck, breast, belly, and thighs
dark glossy brown ; neck variegated with longitudinal, rust-coloured
lines, and the breast waved with lines of the same colour; back, and
wing coverts marked with dark brown, or black, white, and ferruginous, beautifully disposed in dots and waves ; in the fore part, the
ferruginous, behind the white, is most prevalent; wings as long as
the shorter feathers of the tail, and, when folded, appear of a fine
brown, with a purple gloss, marked with many longitudinal waved
black lines ; quills, next the body, at the tip dark ferruginous, with
many large white spots, surrounded with large, black, angular lines;
from the root, to within five or six inches of the summit, the outer
web is pale ferruginous, with a purple gloss, but near the shaft
inclining to yellow; towards the edge it is marked with several
longitudinal black, waved lines, which, near the margin, consist of
approximated spots; near the shaft is a row of about sixteen eye-like
spots, consisting each of two black incurved lines, including a space,
which towards the roots is ferruginous, and towards the apex becomes
gradually lighter, until it is white ; between these eyes are several
irregular, black, transverse lines ; the inner web, towards the shaft,
dusky, towards the edge white; in the dusky part a row of round,
 l$*i PEACOCK.
large, black spots, each surrounded with a pale circle; in the wfafhk
part are many black, circular spots; the tail is compressed, straight,
and the feathers placed vertically in two rows, the uppermost vastly
longer than the others, have white tips, and are acuminated; on the
upper web they are greyish, and on the inner brown, on both
innumerable white spots, each surrounded by a black ring; rump
pale rust-colour, with many large, black, irregular spots on each
feather; legs and feet naked from the knees, bright red, the hind toe
small; the leg not furnished with spurs.
This bird has not been unfrequently met with in aviaries in India,
and the above description was taken from a fine male specimen, by
Dv. Buchanan, and by him communicated to me. These birds, he
believes, have always been brought from the Malay Penitts%fe, and
have, at times, the power of spreading the tail as the Peacock,
which it is observed to do now and then: according to the Doctor, it
is a distinct species from the Argus Pheasant, which differs in many
particulars, as will be noticed in the description of that bird.
Should this be the case, which we think by no means improbable, it
serves to shew, that we have not yet seen a complete specimen ofthe
latter in England ; but this is not the only bird of which we have jfti
imperfee4Ktdea, as may be seen in respect to the long-tail f of some
sort of Pheasant, brought from China, of which we have little more
than conjecture; the same also may be observed in several Paradise
Birds, as we are only in possession of their fragments.
Among the drawings of General Hardwicke is a male, with his
fine gaudy plumage displayed; and in the same drawings, one also
of the female, which, as the General was informed by an intelligent
friend,* had the general plumage buff-colour, mottled with grey, not
Wflike the back of the Little Bustard. In this drawing, the sides
of the head, and neck before, were bare, and of a bluish colour;
crown and hind part of the neck with elongated brown feathers;
► Captain Griffiths.
f See Pl. cxxiv.*
 PEACOCK, 123
neck and breast rufous. It is said that these birds are found in the
greatest plenty in Sumatra, in the^fiiiflst *>f the deepest woods, a#d
are easily *akm by tsaares, laid for them in the night, during which
time >they seekrsth^ic food, »«ver appeariip^g in the day time; that they
assemble in great flocks, and the noise of their wing?, .and their cries,
may be heard at a great distance.
A drawing of jthfeiard, of the full size, in General Hardwjcjke's
collection, of which we have given a figure, measured six feet in
length, and differed in some particulars; the head wbojjjjycovered
with j&atbjers, variegated, and waved with dusky, dull orange, and
whitish. Bill and legs pale reddish brown ; the two centre tail
feathers are about four feet long, waved on the edges, ending in a
blunt point; and although the colour of the plumage in general
nearly answers to the former description, yet the whole is much
darker, and appears less brilliant. This is probably either a female
bird or a young male, yet from its very complete plumage it is more
probably the former. Among some drawings of this bird in the
Museum at the India House, is a figure of one, in which the predominant colour above is dusky plain black; the whole of the head,
neck, and all the belly, marbled red brown and black, in concentric
circles ; in other parts inclining to rufous ; legs red, smooth, without
any spur.
In a book of drawings belonging to A. B. Lambert, Esq. is a
singular, large bird of the Gallinaceous Tribe, supposed to be
hybridous. It is of the size of a small Turkey. The bill dusky,
under mandible paler, shaped as in others of the kind ; the head, as
far as the eyes, yellowish white mottled ; the feathers of the crown a
trifle elevated or tufted ; the general colour of the plumage red
brown, paler-on the under parts of the body, and the margins of the
feathers in general palest; many of the longer tail coverts mottled
with black and red brown; but the tail itself is for the most part
 124 PEACOCK.  .
black, the feathers fringed with white at the ends; though two or
three of the outer ones are white; as are the ends of many of the
quills; the thighs are feathered to the joint; legs stout, pale brown;
toes furnished with a kind of nail; between the toes a slight web.—
A bird of this kind was sent by Lord Wellesley, from Bhaughulpore,
in the East Indies. The natives supposed it to be an hybrid of the
Peacock, and common Jungle Fowl. I have seen the same among
the drawings of Gen. Hardwicke; likewise those of Sir J. Anstruther;
but whether they were copied from a single specimen, or whether
it was a circumstance which commonly occurred, we are left to
conjecture.
 GENUS LVL—TURKEY.
1    American Turkey || 2    Honduras Turkey
-DILL convex, short, and strong.
Nostrils open, pointed at the end, lodged in a membrane.
Head and neck, or throat, covered with naked, carunculated
flesh ; the skin of the last flaccid, and membranaceous.
Tail broad, extensile.
Legs with a blunt spur behind.
1.—AMERICAN TURKEY.
Meleagris Gallopavo, Ind. Orn.ii. 618.    Lin. i. 268.    Faun. suec. No. 198.    Gm. Lin.i.
732.    Bris. i. 158. 1.16.   Id. 8vo. i. 41.    Raii, 51. A. 3.   Id. 182. p. 16.     Will.
113. t. 27.    Phil. Trans, xviii. 992.     Id. lxxi. 67.     Faun. arag. 80.    Borowsk, ii.
168.    Frisch, t. 122.     Gerin. ii. 75. t. 222.—226.    Schcef el. Orn. t.37.     Klein,
112.1.    Id. Ow.32. t. 13. f. 4.    Daud.Orn. i. p.95. pl.7. Skeleton.    Johnst. Av.
pl. 24. f. 1. 2.    /d. pl. 29. f. 1.     Temm. Pig. $ Gall. 8vo. ii. 381.—and Pl. Anat.
iii. f. 15.
Gallina Indiana, Zinnan. Uov. 27. t. 2. f. 3.    Rom. Orn. i. 47. t. 5.
Der Kalekutische Hahn, Naturf. xvii. 66.
II Gallinacio, Ce«. E7c. SW. 111.
Der Gemeine Truthahn, Schmid, Vog. p. 96. t. 82.    Bechst. Deutsch. iii. 1112. t. 41.
Le Dindon, Buf. ii. 132. pl. 5.    Id. Sonnin. v. 228. pl. 38. f. 1.    Pl. enl. 97.
American Turkey, Arct. Zool. ii. No. 178.    Gen. Syn. iv. 676.    Bartr. Trav. p.288.
Domestic Turkey, Gen. Syn. iv. 679.    Br. Zool. i. No. 97.     Will. Engl. 159. pl. 27.
Albin, iii. pl. 35.    Bewick, i. pl. in p. 286.
THE Turkey, in its domesticated state, rarely exceeds three feet
and a half in length, and four feet and a half in breadth ; as to size
and weight, it varies very considerably; 14 or 15 pounds is reckoned
a very fine bird, but it has been known, though rarely, to exceed 25
pounds. The bill is formed not unlike that of the Peacock, but
stronger; the head and neck not only destitute of feathers, but the
 126 TURKEY.
skin is very dilatable, and much carunculated, especially round the
throat, where there are large tubercles; from the forehead springs
an elongated, fleshy appendage, capable of great extension, so as
frequently to hang downwards over the bill, to some length; the
colour of the tuberculated parts is various—white, red, or blue,
according to the quiescent, or irritated statedn'which4he&ard appeains-;-
as to the'plumage, it for the most part inclines to black, in some
ligfhts appearing of the most *resplendent, gilded, copperHcaletir, in
others glossy jafreen, here and there inclining :to ipurple; the greater
wing coverts are glossy brown ; quills green -gold, growing black
towards the ends, and whitish at the tips; the tail consists of 18
feathers, brown, mottled with black, the ends black; the coverts
with whitish margins; on the breast a tuft of black hairs, full eight
inches in length; the legs Iv^ry strong, with a short, stout, blunt
knob at the back part.
The female is smaller ; the tuft of hairs much shorter than in the
male, .in syoung.hirdSiScarcely perceivable; and .the legs quite smooth
behind. Such is the plumage of a bird in the usual high estate of
black feathers iii1 this kingdom.
Although some have asserted the contrary, we have not a doubt
of the Turkey having originally been brought from America, and
they are said to be found largest in the northern parts of that Continent,* where they are met with by hundreds in a flock ; in the day
* Fermin.«bseryiea, that they weigh at Surin
upwards, in Carolina; and others forty or more;
to be true : but Clayton, in his account of Virg
weighing 50, or even 60 pounds.—Phil. Trans.
England, as is supposed, about the year 1524;
a, 25 lbs. Catesby speaks of 30 lbs. and
ind this General Davies.has-averred to me
lia, asserts, that they are met with there,
'iii. p. 992. They were introduced into
is certain, that the name does not occur
in the list of Archbishop Nevil's Feast :* nor is it mentioned in the Earl of Northumberland's Household Book, so late as 1512. The ancient Naturalists do-not seem to have known
it; nor could it, in fact, be known before the discovery of America;. Was first seen in •
France in the reign of Francis I;f and in England in that of Henry VIII:% but even to
this day I cannot find it to be any wherein a wild state, except in America.
igned from 15 15 tc
% Not mentioned in the MS.
 TURKEY, $g£
time frequent the woods, and feed on acorns, and returning a£ night
to roost in the swamps, on the trees. Are frequently taken by means
of dogs, which they will at first, outrun, but the dogs persisting in
the pursuit, the birds soon grow fatigued, when they take to the
highest trees, and will suffer themselves to be shot one after another.
The hen begins to lay ea#$s in the spring, but in general produces
only one brood in a year, which frequently amounts to. sixteen or
seventeen, though some assert a greater number; the eggs are white,
twos inches and a half long, marked with reddjsk yellow spots,
appearing asfreckles; and it is said that the hen may be allured to
attempt a second brood, by putting fresh eggs under her as soon as
the first set are hatched; but this covetous conduct, as may be supposed, greatly injures the bird.*.
The male Tunrkey is said to tweak the eggs, during the time of
incubation, if he can by any means get at them ; but Mr. Oedman
g*i«ves am instance of a Turkey Cock hatching the eggs by sitting on
them, f
Turkies are bred in large quantities in some of the northern
counties of England, and are driven up to London, towards autumn
for sale, in flocks of several hundreds, which are collected from
various cottages about Norfolfe4: Suffolk, and neighbouring counties,
the inhabitants of which think it well worth their while, to attend
carefully to them, by making these birds a part of the family during
the breeding season.
* They are said to have as many as three broods in a year, in the West Indies.
f See New Stockh. Trans. Vol. x. and Phil. Mag.  Vol. iii. 309.
J It has long been a custom for the inhabitants of Norwich to send annually great
numbers of Turkies to London, either as presents or on purchase, and the account now
lying before its, is well authenticated, that in the year 1793, were sent by the coaches, between one -Saturday morning' andr-Sunday- .night, W09 Turfcies, weighing 9 tons, 2 cwt,
1 quarter, and 2 pounds—value supposed   £680 sterling, and two days after half as many
 128 TURKEY.
It is pleasing to see with what facility the drivers manage them
by means of a piece of red rag, fastened to the end of a stick; which,
from their antipathy to it as a colour, acts on them as a scourge to a
quadruped.
It is needless to specify here the places where the Turkey is now
found, as it appears to be domesticated every where; and in France
those of Languedoc and Provence are in as high estimation, as those
of Norfolk are in England.
The note of the Turkey, if so it can be called, is a kind of
guttural scream, several times repeated, which is termed a gobble,
but that which the hen utters, when in fear for the safety of the
young ones, from a Kite, or other Bird of Prey, being in view, is
compared by Dr. Darwin to the words Koe-ut Koe-ut.*
It is needless to say more here, as the history of this bird is treated
of at large in the Histoire des Ois. and not less scientifically in the
71st Vol. of the Phil. Trans.^ by my late friend, T. Pennant, Esq.
above referred to, and the mode of rearing them in a state of domestication largely discussed by M. Temminck, in the 2d volume of the
Histoire des Pigeons et Gallinacees.
The Varieties of this Species which have arisen from domestication, are not easily recorded; the most common are dark grey in
various shades, inclining to black, or barred dusky white and black.
There is also a beautiful Variety of a fine deep copper-colour :
the greater quills pure white; the tail dirty white; and is, when old,
and in full plumage, a most beautiful bird.
Another Variety with the plumage wholly white, J is now not
unfrequent; it is a very handsome bird, and was once esteemed as a
* Zoonom. p. 153.
t See also in the same Transactions, for 1807, p. 144—
the Turkey, by Sir E. Home, Bart.
+ The packet of hairs on the breast excepted, which i
ties, and as conspicuous in this as in any of the others.
issertation on the Stomach of
ick throughout all the Varie-
W 1 h[
m i
 TURKEY. 129
great rarity, the breed supposed originally to have arisen in Holland.*
In the Leverian Museum was also a Common Turkey with a large tuft
of feathers on the head, much resembling one figured by Albin,t
and in the same place a fine specimen under the name of Georgian
Turkey, which differed from the usual Black Sort, in having the most
resplendent gloss in the plumage, varying in different situations of
light, but for the most part every feather had a black margin; in this
the green, and copper bronzes were chiefly conspicuous. This, whatever place originally produced it, was formerly held in great esteem,
and sold dear, but is now very rare, from having mixed with the
Common Black Sort, the produce of which, although gaining part
of the gloss of the Georgian, is so very inferior to it, as to be little
more esteemed than the Common Sort.
2— HONDURAS TURKEY.
SIZE of the first. Bill as in that bird ; head and neck as far
as the middle, bare; the forehead, crown, and about the eyes
bare, red, and carunculated ; with an elongated appendage over the
forehead ; feathers of the back in waves of fine blue, margined near
the ends with black, and fringed at the tips with gilded brown ; over
the shoulders a large patch of copper glossed ; wings mottled, and
mixed with blackish and white; tail of twelve feathers,X marbled
and barred blackish and grey, with the ends gilded brown as in the
* Phil. Trans, lxxi, p. 68. This is probably an early Variety, as a pair of White
Turkies are represented going into Noah's Ark, among others, in a Painting of Bassan.*
f Vol. iir pl. 35.   See Brit. ii. p. 161.    Schcef. el. t. 37.    Gerin. pl. 224.
% We are by no means certain that this was the original number; indeed it may rather
be supposed to the contrary, as in all the Gallinaceous Tribe, they are considerably more
• This Painter was born in the year 1510, and died in 1592.
I
 130 TURKEY.
feathers of the back ; but the bars and fringes are half an inch or
more in breadth; legs stout, brown red, at the back part a large
spur, one inch and a half long, and pointed.
Inhabits South America.—In the collection of Mr. Bullock, of
the London Museum. Said to have come from the Bay of Honduras.
How far it may be right to notice this bird, as distinct in species,
we cannot determine; but most certainly the brilliancy of colours
throughout, as well as distribution of them, encourages an appearance of propriety in so doing. As we can scarcely suppose that the
mere difference of climate, in the warmer and colder parts of America,
is sufficient to account for the great difference of plumage.
 131
GENUS LVII— GUAN.
1 Crested Gui
2 Piping
3 Yacou
4 Marail
?Guan
5 Cryir
6 Obscure
7 Supercilious
8 Eyebrow
9 Motmot Gui
10 Parraqua
JjILL naked at the base.
Head covered with feathers.
Throat naked.
Tail consisting of twelve feathers.
Legs without spurs.
1—CRESTED GUAN.
Penelope cristata, Ind. Orn. ii. 619.    Gm. Lin. i. 733.
 Jacupema, Merrem, Ic. ii. 42. t. 11.
Meleagris cristata, Lin. i. 269.    Borowsk. ii. 170.
Gallopavo Brasiliensis, Bris. i. 162.    Id. 8vo. i. 43.    Gerin. >
Phasianus fuscus Brasiliensis, Klein, 112. 4. 114. 2.
Penelope cristata, Penelope Guan, Tern. Pig. Sf Gall; iii. p.
the windpipe.
Der Penelope mit den Sohopfe, Schmid, Vog. p. 98. t. 84.  .
Jacupema, Raii, 56. 2.    Will. 118. t. 28.    Id. Engl. 165.
L'Yacu-apeti,* Voy. d 'Azara, iv. No. 337.
Guan or Quan, Gen. Syn. iv. 680.     Edw. pl. 13.     Lin. fr
the windpipe.
SIZE of a Fowl; length thirty inches. Bill two inches long,
black ; irides dirty orange; the feathers on the top of the head one
inch and three quarters long, not pointed at the ends, but forming a
kind of crest; general colour ofthe plumage black, with a greenish
gloss, the margins of the feathers mostly white; the head feathers
45.   Id. t. 6. f, 1, 2, 3-
. 101.   pl. x. f. 1—
i-apeti in the lar
e of the Guaranis, means Yacu with white spots.
w
 132 GUAN.
and those of the neck and breast much the same ; those on the sides
of the breast are also margined with white on the edges, but not at
the ends; belly rufous, mottled with dusky black ; wing coverts like
the back, but the lower part of the latter is deep brown ; tail much
rounded, or very slightly cuneiform ; the two middle feathers nearly
fourteen inches long, the outer one not quite ten ; the first quill
feather is shorter than the next by four inches and a half, each
growing longer by degrees to the fifth, which is the longest; the
colour brown, especially on' the outer webs ; the sides of the head
covered with a naked, purplish blue skin, in which the eyes are
placed ; beneath the throat, for an inch and a half, the skin is loose,
fine red, and covered only with a few hairs; legs red, claws black.
Some birds have little or no crest; are a trifle smaller; and
supposed to be females.
Inhabits Brazil, and other parts of South America, where it is
often made tame, and frequently makes a noise like the word Jacu :
the flesh is much esteemed. The above described from a specimen
in the collection of A. Mc. Leay, Esq. who received it from Berbice,
by the name of Maroedi.
A great singularity is observable in respect to the trachea, or
windpipe of this species, similar indeed to that of the Marail,* and
Parraqua Species, but far exceeding them in structure; for it descends
so low on the belly under the skin, as nearly to reach the vent, before
it returns upwards, to pass over the clavicle into the cavity of the
thorax; besides which, it has a double upwards on the lower part of
the belly; it differs, too, in passing down on the right side of the
breast, and not on the left, as in the others. What end the above
construction of parts is meant to answer, we are yet to learn ; nor is it
certain that both sexes have the trachea formed in the same manner.
* Buffon confounds the Guan with the Marail, from which it differs in the internal
structure; but this proof, now fully convincing, was not known at the time, when that
author wrote.
  1
Hi
PL.CXXT.
34e,fl/ar
   133
2—PIPING GUAN.
Penelope Pipile, Ind. Orn. ii. 620.    Gm. Lin. i. 734.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. xciii.
Crax Pipile, Jacquin, Vog. 26. t. 21.
Penelope Pipile, Siffleur, Temm. Pig. Sf GalL iii. p. 76.
Piping Curassow, Gen. Syn. Sup. 205.
SIZE of a Hen Turkey. General colour of the plumage more
or less inclining to black ; bill dusky, moderately straight, and very .
little curved towards the point; the cere, orbits, and top of the head,
are white, the white reaching beyond the eye behind; head not
crested ; beneath the throat a wattle of a deep blue colour; the back
inclines to red brown, spotted with black ; on the wing coverts a
great mixture of white ; belly black ; legs red, claws black.
Inhabits South America, chiefly in the neighbourhood of the
River Oronooko, particularly Cumana.   The voice is low and piping.
3 —YACOU GUAN —Pl. cxxi.
Penelope Cumanensis, Ind. Orn.ii. 620.     Gm. Lin.i. 734.     Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal.
p. xciii. W0i$jgEi
Penelope leucolophos, Merrem, Ic. 43. t. 12.
Crax Cumanensis, Jacquin, Vog. 25. 19. t. 12.
Cumana Curassow, Gen. Syn. Sup. 205.
Yacou, Gen. Syn. iv. 681. pl. 61.   Mem. sur Cay. i. 39& pl. 5.    Buf. ii. 387.
LENGTH twenty inches or more. Bill black; irides pale rose-
colour, and very brilliant; head feathers long and pointed, forming
a crest, which for the most part hangs behind, but may be erected at
will: this crest varies in colour, in some it is white, or mixed with
white; but in others the colour of the rest of the plumage ; space
round the eyes naked, of a reddish  blue, not unlike that of  a
 134 GUAN.
Turkey, and surrounds the base of the bill as a cere; beneath the
chin a naked membrane, or kind of wattle, capable of elongation,
but not at all times elongated, or liable to change colour as in the
Turkey ; plumage in general brown, with some markings of white
on the neck, breast, wing coverts, and belly; the three exterior quills
are most bent towards the end, growing narrow and ending in a
point; the tail is long, consisting of twelve feathers, and even at the
end ; legs red.
In some birds the general colour of the plumage is nearly black,
and the breast marked with short white streaks, in the middle of each
feather: probably these variations may be owing to differeme of sex.
Inhabits Cayenne, but is somewhat rare, being met with only in
the inner parts, or about the Amazon's Country; is in much greater
plenty up the River Oyapoc, especially about the Camoupi; and
indeed those seen about Cayenne are for the most part tame ones, for
it is a familar bird, and will breed in that state, and mix with other
poultry. It makes the nest on the ground, laying five or six eggs,
and hatches the young there, but at other times mostly seen on trees.
It frequently erects a crest, when pleased, or taken notice of, and
will sometimes spread the tail like a fan, in the manner of a Turkey.
It has two kinds of cry, one like that of a young Turkey, the other
lower, and more plaintive ; the first of these is thought by the
Indians to express the word Couejovoit, the other Yacou. It lives
on fruits, worms, insects, &c. Merrern observes, that the trachea
in this bird proceeds at once into the cavity of the thorax, not extending over the external muscles, differing in this particular from
the following species.
This and the former inhabit Brazil, and are called Jacutingas;
thought by some to be the same, differing in sex, age, or variety of
plumage.
 135
4.—MARAIL GUAN.
Penelope Marail, Ind. Orn. ii. 620.    Gm.Lin. i. 734.    Buf. ii. 390.   Id. Sonnin. v. p.
307.    Id. Addit. 310. pl. 49. f. 2.    Bonat. Tab. Encyc. Orn. 171. pl. 83. f. 4.
Faisan verdatre de Cayenne, PL enl. 338.
Penelope Marail,  Temm. Piglet Gall. iii. p. 56.    Id. tab. An&t.l. f. 1.—.Windpipe.
Maraye, Mem. sur Cay. i. 3S3. pl. 3. 4.    Descr. de Surin. ii. 149.
Marail Turkey, Gen. Syn. iv. 682.    Lin. Trans, iv. 100. pl. 9. f. 2.—the Trachea.
SIZE and shape of a full grown Fowl; length about two feet.
Bill and irides blackish; round the eye bare, and pale red; chin,
throat, and fore part of the neck scarcely covered with feathers, but
the throat itself is bare, and the membrane elongated to half an inch
or more; both this, and the>skin round the eyes, change colour, and
become deeper, and thicker, when the bird is irritated ; the head
feathers, too, are longish, and appear like a crest when raised up,
or when the bird is agitated, at which time it erects the feathers of
the whole head, and so disfigures itself, as scarcely to be known :
the general colour of the plumage is greenish black ; the feathers on
the fore part of the neck tipped with white; the wings are short;
tail long, consisting of twelve feathers, rounded at the end, and
generally carried pendent, but capable of being erected, in the
manner of that of the Turkey; legs bright red ; claws crooked, and
sharp. The female differs in the plumage being more dull, and the
head feathers shorter.
This is not uncommon in the woods of Guiana; also about Rio
de Janeiro, in Brazil, there called Jacupemba; chiefly at a distance
from the sea, but not generally known; is rarely found but in small
flocks, except in breeding time ; for the most part seen in pairs, and
on the ground, or low shrubs, but passes the night on high trees:
the female makes the nest on a low bushy tree, near the trunk, and
lays three or four eggs ; after ten or twelve days the young descend
with the parents, who act as other Fowls, scratching on the ground
like a Hen, and brooding the young, which quit their nurse as soon
 136 GUAN.
as they are able to shift for themselves : they have two broods in a
year, one in December or January, the other in May or June. It is
by some called the Brazilian Turkey, and the flesh is much esteemed.
These birds are met with in the morning or evening on such trees
as they frequent for the sake of the fruit, and may be discovered by
some of it falling to the ground; the young are easily tamed, seldom
forsake the places in which they have been brought up, and give
very little trouble, as they prefer the roosting on tall trees to any
other place; its cry is not inharmonious, excepting when irritated,
or wounded, when it is harsh and loud; the flesh is much esteemed.
The windpipe in this species is of a singular construction, passing
down the neck to the entrance of the breast, where it rises on the
outside of the flesh under the skin, and after proceeding a little way
downwards, returns, and enters the cavity of the chest. It is kept
in its place on the outside by a muscular ligament, which is perceivable quite to the breast bone. This circumstance is found in
both sexes, and proves, that it differs essentially from the Yacou,
which has no uncommon elongation of the windpipe in either sex.
This is probably the bird mentioned by Bancroft, as common at
Guiana, under the name of Marrodee, which he says, is wholly
brownish black; bill black; legs grey; that they perch on trees,
and the Indians imitate their cry so exactly, as to lead to the discovery of the places they are in, by their answering it: the flesh
compared to that of a Fowl.
One of these, which came under my view, from Cayenne, was
twenty-eight inches long. The bill as in the Fowl, brown, rather
hooked; round the eye bare ; head crested; feathers of the neck
before tipped with white ; breast and belly rufous brown ; the rest of
the plumage greenish brown; tail eleven inches long, and rounded at
the end; the quills reach just beyond the rump; legs brown, claws
hooked.
Another in Mr. Mc. Leay's collection, was twenty-two inches
long.    The head chestnut, tinged with violet; plumage above red
 GUAN. 137
brown; the quills darker; round the eye bare, the chin scarcely
feathered, the skin being rather beset with hairs; the under parts
in general pale light ash-colour; tail cuneiform, the two interior
feathers ten inches long, the outer six inches and a half, the two
middle ones olive-brown, the others fine chestnut; the wings reach
but little beyond the rump; legs red brown.
This was brought from Berbice, by the name of Karoeba.
5—CRYING GUAN.
Penelope vociferans, Gm, Lin. i. 735.
Phasianus vociferans, Ind. Orn. ii. 625.
Chachalacametl, Raii, 163.    Fern. H. N. Hisp. ch. 41.
Chacamel, Buf. ii. 394.
Crying Curassow, Gen. Syn. iv. 696. 4.
SIZE of a small Turkey. Bill stout, rather bent, the nostrils
placed near the base, colour bluish; orbits bare, and bluish ; and the
breast has a tinge of blue; but the general colour of the plumage is
brown ; belly and under parts paler ; tail rather long, and rounded
at the end ; legs dull yellow.
Inhabits Mexico, and cries like other Fowls, but so loudly, and
continually, that it may be compared to the whole family of the
poultry crying out at once; for one of these will often make as much
noise as all the rest together; hence has arisen the name of Chachalacametl or Crying Bird : in its wild state it is found in mountainous
parts, and frequently with the Curassow Birds, who are fond of the
same haunts. In a drawing which came under our inspection, the
two outer feathers of the tail were rufous, the rest of the tail brown.
6.—OBSCURE GUAN.
Penelope obscura, Yacuhu, Temm. Pig. Sf Gall. iii. p. 68.     Voy. d'Azara, iv. p. 163.
LENGTH twenty-eight inches.     Bill black; eye surrounded
with black, extending to the base of it; irides reddish ; from the
VOL.   VIII. T
 138 GUAN.
lower mandible, a red membrane passes downwards for two inches,
in the manner of the Turkey, but when the bird is irritated, this
disappears; at the base of the bill some short, narrow, black feathers;
the forehead, crown, and one-third of the neck, are black, the rest of
the neck, upper part of the back, and wing coverts dusky black, the
feathers slightly edged with white ; the rest of the back, belly, and
thighs, chestnut; quills and tail black, the last much rounded in
shape, and consists of twelve feathers, the outer being shorter than
the middle ones by three inches.
This is not uncommon at Paraguay; there called Yacuhu, or
Black Yacu; by the Spaniards about the River Plate, Pabo di Monte,
or Mountain Turkey. Is is mostly found about rivers and lakes, trees
being most abundant in such places : it has a sharp cry like the word
Yac, Yac, frequently repeated, and very loud : said to make the
nest in October, and to lay eight eggs. Nothing more of this bird
is known, than what is collected from M. d'Azara.
7—SUPERCILIOUS GUAN.
Penelope superciliaris, Peoa, Temm. Pig. Sc Gall. 8vo. p. 72.
LENGTH twenty-three inches,. Bill fourteen lines long, dusky
purple; irides reddish brown; forehead and crown smooth, but on
the first some straggling hairs; sides of the head covered with a
dusky p»rple, naked skin; head and nape dusky brown; at the
lower jaw arises a black band, and passes over the ear; from the
nostrils a band of white, passing over the naked part to the ears;
beginning ofthe back greenish, the feathers edged with grey ; wing
coverts, second quills, and tail coverts deep green, bordered with
light rufous; lower part of the neck and breast cinereous brown,
with whitish edges; thighs, belly, and rump, chestnut; the throat
and upper part of the neck bare of feathers, the skin membranous,
and loose, but furnished with a few straggling hairs; tail green, with
 GUAN. 139
a rufous tinge, eleven inches in length, and very cuneiform; legs
bluish horn-colour.    Male and female much alike.
Inhabits Brazil, particularly in the district of Para, called  by
the Indians Jacu-peoa.
8—EYE-BROW GUAN.
SIZE of a small Hen Turkey. Bill dusky, shaped as in our
common poultry, and a trifle bending downwards ; nostrils pervious;
feathers of the crown and hindhead somewhat elongated, and incline
upwards; plumage in general dusky brown ; over the eye a white
streak, passing some way down on the neck on each side; chin, and
neck before, as far as the breast, bare of feathers, and yellow orange,
with here and there a few hairs ; several of the feathers of the sides
of the neck before, also on the breast, and wing coverts, with whitish
margins; the tail about one-third ofthe length ofthe bird, cuneiform;
legs stout and scaly, not unlike those of a Turkey, but shorter, and
the claws more hooked.
The female is smaller, and paler, with more undulations of white
among the feathers; round the eye not covered with feathers; throat
bare and reddish as in the male ; and the feathers of the head less
elongated.
Inhabits South America; and seems to be very similar to, if not
the same as the last described.—General Davies.
9—MOTMOT GUAN.
Phasianus Motmot, Ind. Orn. ii. 632.    Lin. i. 271.    Gm. Lin
Phasianus Guianensis,  Bris. i. 270. t. 26. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 76.
Faisan de la Guiane, Pl. enl. 146.
Penelope, Temm. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. xciii.
T 2
 140
Iii
Le Katraca, Buf. ii. 364.
Avis Motmot Brasiliensis color
Motmot Pheasant, Gen. Syn, i
spadicei, Seba, i. 103. t. 67. 2 ?
SIZE of a Fowl; length eighteen inches. Bill reddish ; head
feathers elongated, rufous, the head deep brown; neck and upper
parts olive-brown; breast, belly, sides, and thighs, rufous brown;
under tail coverts chestnut; quills and two middle tail feathers like
the back; the rest blackish, except the outer, which is rufous; shape
of the tail cuneiform ; legs blackish, claws brown.
Inhabits Brazil and Guiana. That figured by Brisson, and in
the Pl. enlum. have cuneiform long tails ; but the one in Seba's plate
has that part much shorter, and even; the description, too, in this
author, is not quite the same; he calls the size that of a Pigeon, with
a large head and short neck, a short and thick bill as in the common
Fowl, and the legs ofthe same make; plumage in general chestnut;
quills greenish blue; and the base ofthe bill bordered with blackish
feathers. He adds, that the flesh of this bird, well dressed, is very
well flavoured.
One of these in the Leverian Museum was somewhat bare, and
reddish under the chin; the tail cuneiform., This and the following
bird do not seem to be sufficiently known, at least not enough to
identify, how far they may be related to each other, or distinct species.
II
10.-PARRAQUA GUAN.
Phasianus Parraqua, Ind. Orn. ii. 632.     Gm. Lin. i. 740.     Mem. sur Cay. i. 378. pl.
1. 2.    Buf. ii. 394.   Id. Sonnin. vi. 320. & Add. 323.    Tern. Pig. Sc Gall. 8vo. iii.
p. 85. & Anat. t. viii.—Windpipe.
Hannequaw, Bancr. Guian. p. I7G ?
Yacu caraquata, Voy. d'Azara, iv. p. 164. No. 336.
Parraqua Pheasant, Gen. Syn. iv. 722.     Lin. Trans, iv. 101. pl. ix. f. 3.—Windpipe.
SIZE and make of a small Fowl; length twenty-three inches.
Bill dark rufous,  shaped as in the common Fowl; eyes brown;
1
 GUAN. 141
plumage in general deep brown above, and fulvous beneath ; the
top of the head of this latter colour, and the feathers longish, but
not sufficient to form a real crest; wings short, the webs of some of
the quills incline to rufous; the tail about one foot long, and consists
of twelve feathers, of equal lengths, and though capable of being
erected, is carried pendent for the most part; legs dark rufous, inclining to black, claws like those of other Fowls.
The two sexes of this bird are said not to differ externally, but
in the male the windpipe is of a peculiar structure : it is of a great
length, and instead of directly entering into the cavity of the breast,
it first passes over the left clavicle, on the outside of the flesh of the
breast, being covered only by the skin, to more than half way, and
then making a bend, returns upward on the right side, and lastly
turns over the clavicle into the hollow, there to unite with the lungs;
somewhat of this construction is seen in the Marail Turkey, but in a
much inferior degree, and observed too in both sexes, but in the
Parraqua it is only seen in the male.
This species is common in the woods of Guiana and Cayenne,
and many other parts of South America. At sun-rise, sets up a
violent cry, which is thought to be the loudest of all the birds of
the new world. At this time the eyes appear red, and a small red
skin appears on the breast, which at other times is not visible, nor at
all noticed, except when the bird makes such exertions, or is angry:
the cry supposed to resemble the word Parraqua, and is repeated many
times together; frequently many are heard at once, or answering one
another, but mostly in breeding time, which is twice in the year,
when they lay from four to six eggs; make the nest in low branches, or
stumps of trees, and treat the chickens in the same manner as Hens
do; the food is grains, seeds, and herbs; but they collect worms and
insects for the nestling birds ; these inhabit the woods by day,
leaving them for the open savannas, in the morning and evening, to
W
 142 GUAN.
feed, when they are killed by the natives and others;; are frequently
brought up tame, and the flesh much esteemed.
The Hannequaw mentioned by Bancroft is probably the same ;
he says it is black, roosts in trees, and may be heard early in the
morning, distinctly, but hoarsely, repeating the word Hannequaw,
very loud,     rfci^g
One related to this, but smaller, is very irequeht in Brazil; called,
on the East Coast, AracUan, and esteemed good food: size of our
Pheasant; is always seen in pairs, and rises with great noise J it is
not easy to kill them, as they mostly frequent the thickest woods and
bushes. Probably this is Humboldt's Phasianus Garpftlus.* M.
Temminck is of opinion, that the Motmot and Parraqua form but
one Species.
Hi
11.-
-COURIER GtJAN
Phasis
mis Mc
, Ind.0
-n. ii. 632.    Gm.
Lin. i
741.
Perdi
Hispani
ee, Ind. Orn. m 653.    Gm
Lin.
. 76&
Cotur
nix maj
or Mex
cana, Bt
is. i. 257.    Id. 8
vo. i.
72.
HoitU
llotl, I
laii, p.
158.    W
ill. 304.     Buf. i
. 395.
Fern
Legr
md Col
in, Buj
P. ii. 485.
Long
Bird, o
rHoitL
Hotl, WiU. Engl. 393.
Mexican Qua
1,  Gen
Syn. iv.
786.
Couri
er Pheasant, Gen. Syn.
v. 723.
N. Hisp.
FOR the description of this bird we are indebted to Fernandez,
who has given but an imperfect account; it is said by Willughby to
be nine inches long. The bill black above, cinereous beneath, three
inches long, and moderately thick; tail green, three inches long,
with a purplish splendour; the feathers of the whole body from
white tend to fulvous, but towards the tail from black to the same
colour, yet the upper side of the body is black, sprinkled with white
spots ; the wings are short.
 143
Inhabits the hotter parts of Mexico, | it flies near the ground,
" and makes but short flights ; but runs so swiftly* that it far exceeds
" the speed of the fleetest horses."    Its flesh is not in much esteem.
The bird described by Brisson from Fernandez, is said to be much
larger than our Quail. The bill and legs black; head and neck
varied white and black ; back whitish, the rest of the body fulvou*rf
the quills tipped with white.
It is much to be wished that a more accurate account could be
had of this bird.
 144
GENUS LVIII—PINTADO.
1 Guinea Pintado
A Var.
2 Egyptiai
3 Mitred
.DILL convex, strong, short; at the base a carunculated cere, in
which the nostrils are placed.
Head and neck naked, slightly beset with bristles.
A conical protuberance reflected, and large, on the head.*
Wattles hanging from the cheeks.
Tail short, pointing downwards.
1.—GUINEA PINTADO.
Numida.Meleagris, Ind. Orn. ii. 621.    Lin. i. 273.    Mus. Ad. Fr. ii. 27.     Gm. Lin. i.
744.    Scop. i. No. 165.    Borowsk. 182. t. 20.    Gerin. ii. t. 230.   Hasselq. It. 274.
Id. Voy. 202. 42.     Frisch, 1.126.     Schcef. el. Orn. t. 46.     Rom. Orn. i. 69. 1.10.
Bris. i. 176. 1.18.    Id. 8vo. i. 49.   Klein, 18. 2.    Id. Stem. 25. t. 26. f. 1.—a. b.
Id. Ov. 32. t. 23. f. 5. 6.    Gesn. Av. pl. in p. 424.
Gallus et Gallina Guineensis, Raii, 52. 8.    Id. 182. 17.    Will. 115. t.26,27.
Gallina de Africa, 6 de Guinea, Gabin. de Madrid, ii. p. 31. lam. 51.
Peintade, Buf. ii. 163. t. 4.    Id. Sonnin. v. p. 270.
f.4.    Bonat. Tab. Enc. Orn. 191. pl. 83. f. 1.
et Gall. 8vo. ii. 431. Id. PL Anat. i. f. 4. 5.
Perle Hvtner, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 94.    Naturf. s
Guinea Pintado, Gen. Syn. iv. 685.     Id. Sup. 204.
p. 19.    Sloan. Jam. 303.    Brown, Jam. 470.   Pitf. Mem.
pl. p. 293.    Walcot, Birds, ii. pl. 179.
Pl. enl. 108.    Zinn.Vi
Voy. en Barb. i. 268.
Tern
. 69.    Schmid, Vog. p. 97. t.88.
Will. Engl. 162.     Sparr. Voy. ii.
p. 174.    Bewick, Birds,
THIS well known bird is bigger than a large Cock ; the length
twenty-two inches. Bill reddish horn-colour; head bare of feathers,
and bluish ; on the top, at the hind part, a bluish red protuberance,
conical in shape, and compressed laterally; from the base of the
upper mandible hangs, on each side, a bluish red wattle; the neck
* In one Species a crest of feathers.
 PINTADO. 145
is sparingly beset with hairy feathers, and the skin, which appears
between, is bluish ash-colour; the lower part of the neck is feathered,
and inclines more to violet; the rest of the plumage black, marked
with round white spots of different sizes, and crossed in the intermediate spaces with grey lines, the wings and tail not excepted ; legs
greyish brown. The female has the wattles rather less in size, and
red, which in the male are inclined to blue.
The native place of this bird is on all hands allowed to be Africa,*
and is the Meleagris of old authors; it is, however, supposed to have
been originally from Nubia/j- and esteemed in the Roman banquets;
met with in flocks of two or three hundred, by various travellers.
Dampier found them in numbers in the Island of Mayo,J and
Forster speaks of them, as being in plenty at St. Jago :|| are common
in various parts about the Cape of Good Hope, being found in the
road from Zee Cow River, to near Sunday River, in flocks, and are
very shy and cautious; fly low, and straight forwards, like our
Partridges, and although they perch in the night together on trees,
they appear to get the greatest part of the food on the ground, and
Mr. Sparrman once met with such numbers at roost, that he killed
six of them at one shot, and wounded several others; the flesh,
however, in his opinion, was dry, and much inferior to that of the
Common Hen. &.$$ jl
M. Levaillant gives much the same account, as being in great
plenty about Droog Riviere; but adds, that when frightened from
* Africae hoc est Gallinarum Genus, gibberum, variis sparsum plumis, quae novissimse
sunt peregrinarum avium in mensas receptae propter ingratum virus.—Plin. 1. x. chap. 26.
Mnesias Africae locum Sycionem appellatum, et Cratin amnem in oceanum effluentem e lacu
in quo aves quas Meleagridas et Penelopas vocat, vivere.—Plin. lib. 37. cap. ii.
f Hasselquist; from whence he says also, Apes, Parrots, &c. are brought to Cairo, and
other parts of Africa; met with in the plains of Zarai and Admara, in Abyssinia, in plenty,
Valent. Voy. iii. p. 4.
X Damp. Voy. iii. pt. 1. p. 23. || Voy. p. 39.
VOL. VIII. U
 146 PINTADO.
the trees, they run a good way, and on their attempting to take wing
again, are often «aMght in numbers by the dogs, without firing a
shot; and sometimes by the dogs barking at the foot of the trees, on
which they roost at night by hundreds, they are so frightened, as to
become an easy prey to those who wait for them below : are likewise
very common on the mountains in the Isle of Hinzuan, or Joharii$as$
They are found also in various parts of America, the West India
Islands, and ia several are not only domesticated, but found in
a wild state.
In this kingdom the young birds are much esteemed for the table,
but ialfcfaough (they are fond of ranging at large, are never found but
in a domesticated state. The female lays many eggs in a season,
which by some are set (Under Hens, and, in general, care is required
in bnmgang upe>the young birds, yet in many .seasons they may be
raised without difficulty. Although the hen of this species does not
readily submit to the confinement of an enclosed and sheltered
building, to sit on her eggs"; she will often secrete a nest, and appear
on a sudden with twenty young running after her: the egg is smaller
than that of a Hen, and rounder, from end to end two inches and a
quarter, the colour reddish iwhite, obscurely freckled with a darker
colour, f It is a very clamorous bird, having a harsh kind of note,
by some compared to a door turning on rusty hinges, by others^d
an ungreased axle tree; and is easily disturbed avihen on the roost, so
as to hinder a family from taking rest, on account of the noise. I
* Asiatic Research, ii. p. 86.—Guinea Pintadoes have their origin, most probably, from
Africa, but when introduced here is not certain. The Pintado does not occur in the list of
birds in the famous feast of Archbishop Nevill, in the reign of Edward IV. nor in the Duke
of Northumberland's Household Book, 1512; neither is it mentioned in that of the House- •
hold of King Henry VIII. although Peions (Peacocks) make a conspicuous share in all of
them.
f Said frequently to 1
what under two ounces.
f 24 eggs, and e
s far as 27.     The egg said to weigh some-
 A.—Meleagris pectore albo, Bris. i.
Bechst. Deutch. iii. p. 1147. 2.
White-breasted Pintado, Gen. Syn. i
A.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 50.     Roman. Om. i. 72
m. Pig. Sc Gall. 8vo. ii.  p. 681.
f.    Albin, ii. pl. 35.    Brown, Jam. 470.
This has a white breast^ marked, with large spots of black, in
. which are smaller ones of white; the four first quills, and the same
number of the outer greater wing coverts, are also white.
This Variety is found in Jamaica, and perhaps in England also,
as it varies gjreatly ; in some the ground is bluish insteadI of black ;
in others so very pake; as to make the white spots little conspicuous,:
and not unfrequently of a pure white throughout,* specimens of
which are extant in several Museums?,of Natural History ; besides
which, one is mentioned by M. Bechstein, a mule bird, between the
Pintado and Common Cockv b«wt ;as a rare occurrence^
2.—EGYPTIAN PINTADO.
Numida .Egyptiaca, Ind. Orn. ii. 622.    Gerin. ii. 80. t. 232.
Egyptian Pintado, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 272.
THIS has a pale red bill; head and neck rufous, thinly furnished
with hairs, appearing nearly naked ; on the top of the head the
feathers are long, and stand upwards, forming a crest; on each jaw
a folded, rugose, pale, blue skin, but scarcely to be called a wattle ;
the body is black, marked with bluish spots, much larger than in
the Crested Species, of which it may probably prove only a Variety.
The above description taken from a living specimen in the Aviary
at Versailles, in the year 1728.
* See Gerin. Orn. ii. t. 23*.
f Deutsch. iii. 1147. i
 !
148
3.—MITRED PINTADO.
Numida mitrata, Ind. Orn. ii. 622.    Gm. Lin. i. 745.    Pall. Spic. iv. p. 18. t. 3. f. 1.
the Head.    Borowsk. ii. 184. 3.
Peintade mitree,  Sonnin. Buf. v. 311.     Encyc. Orn. 192.   pl. 85. f. 3.      Temm. Pig.
Sc Gall. 8vo. ii. 444.
Mitred Pintado,   Gen. Syn. iv. 688.
SIZE of the Common One. Bill yellowish ; the head crowned
with an helmet, but smaller than in the other; the crown, and about
the bill, dirty red; on each side of the gape a longish linear portion
of flesh, pointed at the end, longest in the male, and red at the tip;
under the throat a kind of wattle, somewhat similar to that of a
Turkey; the upper part ofthe neck is bluish, and naked; body
black; the lower part of the neck transversely undulated with white,
and the body spotted with the same as in the Common Sort; but the
ground colour is more black, and the spots larger; legs blackish.
Inhabits Madagascar and Guinea, but is not common.—Pallas
seems to think that it may be the bird mentioned by Columella,* as
differing from the common one; which will account for Pliny'sf
having thought the Numida and Meleagris to be different birds.—
This species is common at Mosambique, as also in Abyssinia.
4.-CRESTED PINTADO—Pl. cxxii.
Numida cristata,   Ind. Orn. ii. 622.      Gm. Lin. i. 746.      Pall. Spic. iv. p. 15.   t. 2.
Borowsk. ii. 184. 2.    Nat. Misc. pl. 757.
Peintade Cornal, Temm. Pig. Sf Gall. 8vo. ii. p. 448.
Peintade a Cr6te, Sonnin. Buf. v. p. 313.    Encyc. Orn. 192. pl. 85. f. 3.
Crested Pintado, Gen. Syn. iv. 688. pl. 62.
THIS is less than the Common Sort.    Bill  horn-colour; base
covered with a sort of cere, in which the nostrils are placed; there
* De re rustica, lib. viii. cap. 2. f Nat. Hist. lib. x. cap. 26 & 48.
  i
I
 PJL.CXXTT.
(?T^J%n*u£:
 1
 PINTADO. 149
are no wattles, but at the angles of the mouth is a kind of fold; the
head and neck, beyond the middle, are naked, of a dull blue,
sprinkled only with a few hairs; the space round the ears most
covered; the fore part from the throat sanguineous ; on the head is
a large crest, of thick-set, slender, black feathers ; the greater part
of which turns backwards, but inclining on the forepart over the
bill; the whole plumage is black; the neck and fore part of the body
plain; the rest covered with bluish spots, little bigger than millet
seeds; on some of the feathers four, on others three on each web ;
prime quills blackish brown ; secondaries the same, with four spots,
two or three on the outer margins broad and white ; the tail, which
has fourteen feathers, is crossed with undulated broken lines, but hid
by the upper coverts; legs blackish ; hind claw elevated from the
ground, bent, and blunt at the end.
Inhabits Africa ; all the three species above described are found
at Mozambique, but the Crested one most beautiful, and variegated
in plumage.
In the drawings of Mr. Dent is a Crested Guinea Fowl: the bill
yellow; plumage wholly blue black, with innumerable minute white
spots, in rows, appearing like beads, but the neck and crest are black;
the feathers of the last long, and curved backwards on the nape; the
whole head otherwise bare, wrinkled, and red ; legs brown.
Found at Sierra Leona; perhaps related to the one which
Marcgrave mentions from that place, and said to have a kind of
membranaceous collar about the neck, of a bluish ash-colour, and
a larger roundish black crest.
I am greatly indebted to the late Lord Seaforth for the skeleton
of the breast of the Pintado from Africa, of which he had once the
living bird in his possession ; and as doubts had arisen in some minds
of the probability of the various sorts being related to each other, on
the death of it he was enabled to prove the fallacy of this supposition;
for in the Common sort the Trachea proceeds at once straight to the
lungs, in the usual way, but in the other is so totally different in
I
 150 PINTADO.
manner, as to merit description. The construction of the windpipe
had nothing singular, but the circumstance, and situation of it, in its
passage to the lungs, differs from any other yet noticed ; it passes on
the fore part of the neck in the common course? land instead of
entering the chest, is greatly elongated, and continues down between
the divarication of the clavicle, to the bottom, which finishes in a
kind of pouch, compressed on the sides, and about three quarters of
an inch in depth, into which it is received ; and bending again
upwards, passesinto the cavity,of the chest, somewhat in the manner
of the Wild Swan, but differing, in that the keel in this Pintado is
narrow, without any cavity, as in the Swan; and the bend of the
trachea in its case stands about half an inch from it, but attached
thereto by a membrane.
We have been for some time uncertain to what precise Species
this curious construction above mentioned belonged, it being merely
called the African Guinea Bird; appearing, however; to have no
relation to the first, with which it has been by some compared.
This doubt has been cleared. ;up to me by the ingenious and indefatigable Mr. Cliff, of the College of Surgeons, whoyisbewed me the
bird, from which; a breast bone and trachea were taken, precisely
similar in structure, and was no other than the Crested Species.
 CURASSOW.
GENUS LIX.—CURASSOW.
1 Crested Curass
2 Red
A Var.
B Var.
C Hybrid
3 Globose
4 Wattled
5 Blue
6 Razor-billed
7 Cushew
8 Galeated
151
nd thick, the base covered with  a cere,
JljILL convex, strong
often with a large knob.
Nostrils small, lodged in the cere.
Head sometimes with a crest of feathers, curling at the ends.
Tail large, straight.
1.—CRESTED CURASSOW.
Crax Alector, Ind. Orn.ii. 622.      Lin. i. 269.      Gm. Lin. i. 735.      Scop. i. No. 263.
Klein, 111. 3.    Borowsk. ii. 170. t. 28.
Crax Guianensis, :&ris. i. 298. t. 29.   Id. 8vo. i. 84.    Frisch, 1.121.
Mituporanga, Raii, 56. 6.     Id. 183. 19.      Will. 115. t. 28.—the Head.     Johnst.Av.
p. 153. t. 27. 28.    Temm. Pig. Sc Gall. 8vo. v. 3. p. 27. & t.5. f. 1. 2.2.—Anat.
Mitu, vel Mutu, Brasil. Gerin. ii. 79.  t. 228.    Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 338.
Hocco de la Guiane, Buf. 375. pl. 13.    Sonnin. Buf. v. 253. & 267. pl. 47. f. 1.    Desc.
Surin. ii. 149.
Indian Cock, Pitf. Mem. pl. p. 190.    Phil. Trans. Ivi. p. 215. pl. x. f. 3.—Windpipe.
Mem. de I'Acad. Sci. iii. part 1. p. 221.
Pheasant of Guiana, Bancr. Guian. p. 173.
Crested Curassow, Gen. Syn. iv. 690.      Brown, Jam. 470.     Sloan. Jam. 302. t. 260.
Damp. Voy. ii. part 2. p. 67.     Id. iii. part 1. p. 75.     Lin. Trans, iv. 104. pl. x.
f.2. 3 Windpipe.    Nat. Misc. pl. 117.—Male.
SIZE of a Turkey; length nearly three feet. Bill one inch and
three quarters long and horn-colour, covered from the base to the
middle with a skin or cere, which passes quite round, and behind
the eyes; plumage in general a full black ; the feathers of the neck
soft and velvety ; on the crown an upright crest, composed of twisted
long black feathers; the longest three inches, the othe^mwcfeshorter;
 152 CURASSOW.
lower part of the belly, vent, and thighs, white; the tail is eleven
inches long, and consists of fourteen feathers, rounded at the end,
and black ; legs strong, dusky brown.
In the wild state both sexes are nearly alike, but the crest is
smaller. It varies in having the belly barred with white ; and the
end of the tail of the same colour.
These are frequent at Guiana, and are called Powese, from their
cry, which is supposed to imitate that word ; are pretty numerous in
the woods, and make great part of the food of the planters, being
supplied by the Indian hunters; the flesh reckoned delicate, being
much like that of a Turkey. Are frequently brought up tame, and
common in the Dutch Settlements of Berbice, Essequibo, and De-
merary ; are called at Brazil, Curasso, and by some, Peacock
Pheasant, and Mutum.
We learn that they breed freely in the Menageries of Holland,
and have also done the same in this kingdom, but the climate of
either does not seem sufficiently warm for their nature.
The construction of the trachea, or windpipe, is curious, not
going into the breast bone at once as usual in most birds, but making
a bend downwards, increases in breadth, and is flattened; it then
rises upwards, becomes smaller, and proceeds to the lungs. This is
represented in the various plates referred to.
2.—RED CURASSOW—Pl. cxxiii.
Crax rubra, Lin. i. 270.    Gm. Lin. i. 736.
 Alector, femina, Ind. Orn. ii. 623.
 globicera hybrids,  Temm. Pig. _Sf Gall. 8vo. iii. p. 25.
 Peruvianus, Bris. i. 305.    Id. 8vo. i. 86.    Klein, Av. 112. 4 ?
Hocco de Perou, Buf. ii. 375. pl. 14.    PL enl. 125.
Coxolitli, Raii, p. 57.    Temm. Pig. S; Gall. 8vo. iii. p. 21.
Red Peruvian Hen, Albin, iii. pl. 40.
Crested Curassow, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 693. pl. lxiii.
THIS is a beautiful Species; the size much the same as the last.
Bill gibbous at the base, the colour of yellow oker, with a brown
   pl. cxxm
J^ ete^CL
 r
!i
i
 CURASSOW.
153
tip; sides of the head covered with feathers, and black ; crest white,
tipped with black ; the whole of the neck encircled with alternate
black and white rings; body and wings red brown ; tail the same,
crossed with eight or nine yellowish white bars, powdered with minute
dusky spots, bounded above and beneath with blackish ; the legs
yellowish ; the claws dusky. The gibbosity above mentioned varies
greatly in respect to size, being most conspicuous in old birds;
always smaller in the female, and in the young birds very little
elevated; the space round the eyes also, not always the same, in
some being bare, in others covered with short feathers.
InhabithBeru and Mexico, and are kept in a do