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A general history of birds. Vol. VII Latham, John, 1740-1837 1823

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  THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
WOODWARD HISTORICAL
COLLECTION
     GENERAL.    HISTORY
BIRDS.
BY JOHN LATHAM,  M.D.
F.R.S.   A.S. and L.S.
Acad. CiEs. Nat. Curios.   Reg. Holm,   et  Soc. Nat. Scrut. Berolin.   &c. &c.
VOL. VII.
WINCHESTER:
PRINTED   BY   JACOB    AND   JOHNSON,    FOR   THE   AUTHOR: SOLD   IN    LONDON   BY
G.   AND   W.   B.  WHITTAKER,   AVE-MARIA-LANE ;   JOHN   WARREN,   BOND-STREET,
W.  WOOD,  428,  STRAND ;  AND  J.  MAWMAN, 39,   LUDGATE-STREET.
1823.
  ORDER III.    PASSERINE.
GENUS XLIX.—WARBLER.
1 Nightingale Warbler
A White Nightingale
2 Greater N.
3 Silky
4 Pettichaps
5 Barred
6 Lesser
7 Black-cap
A Varied ditto
B Columbaude
8 Dalmatian
9 Reed Wren
10 Bog-rush W.
11 Marsh
12 Cetti's
13 Hedge
14 Redstart
A Var.
B Var.
15 Tithys
16 Grey Redstart
17 Redtail
18 Black Redtail
A Var.
B Var.
C Var.
19 Chestnut-bellied
A Var.
20 Blue-throated
21 Blue-necked
A Var.
22 Caffrarian
A Var.
23 Russian
24 Grasshopper
25 Danubian
26 Sedge
27 Dartford
A Var.
28 Carteian
29 Sardinian
30 Marmora
31 Rufous
32 Natterer's
33 Redbreast
A Var.
34 Rufous-throated -
35 Whiskered
36 Double-streaked
37 White-tailed Redbreast
A Var.
38 White-throat
39 Stoparola
40 Lesser White-throat
41 Gooda
42 Virescent
43 Green-backed
44 Whin-Chat
45 Wheat-Ear
A Grey ditto *
B Cinereous ditto
C Dwina
46 Russet Wheat-ear
47 Black-eared ditto
48 Rufous ditto
49 Cape ditto
50 Pileated
51 Cream-coloured
52 Stone-chat
A Var.
B Var.
53 Sibyl
A Var.
54 Proyenee
55 Spotted
56 Ash-crowned
57 Wren
58 Gold-crested Wren
59 Fire-crested ditto
60 Flowery
61 Leucomele
62 Black and white
63 Wood Wren
64 Swamp Wren
65 Yellow Wren
A Scotch Wren
66 Tailor
 67 Olive-backed
68 Tawny-rumped
69 Aquatic
70 Babbling
71 White-breasted
72 Epicurean
73 Fig-eater
74 Passerine
75 Subalpine
76 Gibraltar
77 Fantail
78 Mediterranean
79 Siberian
80 Yellow-browed
81 Gilt-throat
82 Moor
A Var.
83 Blue-tailed
84 Dauurian
85 Sultry
86 Senegal
87 Citron-bellied
88 Rufous-sided
89 Undated
90 Dusky      I
91 Flaxen
A Var.
92 All-black
9*3 Commander
94 Madagascar
95 Choirister
96 Piping
97 Strutting
98 Prattling
99 Isabella
100 Familiar
101 Luzonian
A Var.
102 Dark
103 Namaqua
104 Flame-coloured
105 Thoracic
106 Rufous-bellied.
WARBLER.
ned
107 Rufous-
108 Melodious
109 Black-crowned
110 Black-hooded
111 Cape
A Var.
112 Shrubby
113 BufF-rumped
114 Tractrac
115 White-eyed
A Var.
116 Spectacle
117 Ciliary
118 Sooty
A Var.
119 Coromandel
120 Philippine
121 Wave-tailed
122 Rufous-tailed
123 Sharp-tailed
124 Great-tailed
125 Citron
126 Red-rumped
127 Azure
128 Superb
A Var.
B Var.
129 Slender-tailed
130 Manilla
131 Harrison's
j 132 Long-tailed •
A Var.
B Var.
133 Rusty^htfuiatered- '■
134 Gauze-tailed
135 African
j|   136 Soft-tailed
137 Orange-rurnped
138 •MountaiTieer " >'=
139 Batavian
140 Fenny
141 Foodkey
142 Red-vented
143 White-crowned
144 Pink
145 Olive
146 Green Indian
A Quadricolor
147 Cingalese
148 Black-necked
149 Cambrian
150 Guzurat
151 Plumbeous
152 Asiatic
A Var.
153 Etherial
154 China
155 Bourbon
156 Maurice
A Var. •
157 Livid
158 Black-backed';
159 Susan
160 Persian
161 Dwarf
A Var.
B Var.
162 Black-headed
163 Bonnet
164 Buff-headed
165 Exile   I
166 Yellow-ventecl
167 Streaked
3 Terrene
169 Gold-bellied
170 Ruddy
171 New-Holland'.
172 Chaste
173 White-tailed
174 Crimson-breas
A Var.
175 Rusty-side ■
176 Wreathed
177 Bdtauy-Bay
178 Rufous-ventefe
179 Citrine
 180 Long-legged
181 Long-shanked
182 Equinoctial
183 Indigo
184 Rusty-headed
185 Buff-faced
186 Black-jawed
187 White-collared
A Var.
188 Long-billed
189 Awatcha
190 Patagonian
A Var.
191 Thorn-tailed
192 Magellanic
193 Shore
194 Caspian
195 Red-headed
196 Yellow-poll
197 Carolina
198 Prairie
199 New-York
200 Spotted yellow
A Var.
201 Umbrose
202 Golden-crowned
A Var.
203 Yellow-rumped
A Var.
204 Belted
205 Grasset
206 Yellow-throated
207 Orange-throated
208 Cape May
209 Yellow-breasted
A Var.
210 Yellow-bellied
211.Black,tbr-oated
212 .Blue-grey
213 Bloody-side
214 Red-throated
WARBLER.
215 Quebec
?jl6 Jamaica
217 Worm-eafcet
218 Tennese
219 Mourning
220 Hooded
A Louisiane       .
221 Cowled
222 Blackburnian
223 White-poll
224 Caerulean
225 Spotted-tailed
226 Gold-winged
227 Yellow-vented
228 Streaked-crowned
229 Grisly
230 St. Domingo
231 Pine
232 Green
233 Hang-nest
234 White-chinned
235 Palm
236 Banana
237 Cayenne
A Blue Manakin
B Var.
C Var.
238 Blue-headed
239 Paraguan
240 Blue-striped
241 Green and white
242 Brown-throated
243 Yellow-backed
244 Grey-poll
245 Black-poll
246 Orange-headed
247 Orange-bellied
248 Prothonotary
249 Crested
. 250. Half-collared
251 Olive-brown
B 2
252 Grey-throated '
253 Murine
254 Blue
255 Blue Indian
256 Guira
257 Ferruginous
258 Pensile
259 Spectacle
260 Guiana Red-tail
261 Rufous-tail
262 Ruddy-tail
263 Rush
264 Simple
265 Equatorial
A Var.
266 Greenish
267 Louisiane Wren
A Var.
268 Plata
A Var.
269 Barred-tail
270 Great Wren
271 Brown
272 Savannah
273 Gold-naped
274 Ruby-crowned
275 Regal
276 Grey
277 Yellow-fronted
278 Rufous and white
279 Rufous-necked
280 Yellow-shouldered
281 Nashville
282 Kentucky
283 Connecticut
284 Autumnal
285 Bay-breasted
286 Black and yellow
287 Blue-green
288 Pine-Swamp
289 Mountain
 290 Hemlock
291 Bearded
292 Tawny-bellied
293 Javan
294 Chret
295 Grey-headed
296 Gular
297 Olivaceouff
298 Bush
JtSlRDS of this Genus have a slender and Weak bill.*
Nostrils small, a little depressed.
Tongue, in general, cloven.
The exterior toe joined, at the under part, to the base of the
middle one.
This Genus, and that of the Wagtail, are blended by Linnaeus;
but are here separated, from their differing in manners.
Warblers perch on trees for the most part, and proceed by leaps,
rarely running,-]- and seldom emit any noise in flight: they are most
numerous of any, and the greater part inhabit the warmer regions,
where insects of all kinds abound, on which they principally feed.
Some birds, included under the head of Warblers, seem allied to the
Flycatchers, and perhaps, when more fully known, may prove to
be such.
We have made every effort, in respect to the above numerous list,
to discriminate the several Species as such ; but it must not be wondered at, if many, supposed to be distinct, may hereafter prove to be
merely Varieties, or incomplete in plumage; or that several, from
our present incomplete knowledge of them, may have been described
twice, under different appellations.
1—NIGHTINGALE WARBLER.
Sylvia Luscinia, Ind. Orn. ii. 506.    Scop. i. No. 227.     .
Motacilla Luscinia, Lin. i. p. 328.    Faun. suec. No. 244.    Gm. Lin i. 950.    Brun. No.
270.    Muller, No. 265.    Kramer, 376. 10.     Friseh, t. 21.      Faun. arag. p. 87*
Sepp. Vog. t. p. 123.    Raii, 78. A. 2.    Will. 161. t. 41.    Bris. iii. 397.   Id. 8vo. i.
420.    Borowsk. iii. 185.    Klein, 73. 1.   Id. Stem. 13. 1.16. 1. a. b.    Id. Ov. 24.
t. 10. 5.    Gerin. iv. t. 400. 2.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 105.   Id. Ed. ii. p. 195.
* In many, there is a slight notch n
f The Wheatear, and some few oth
rthe
:ip of the under mandible,
an exception to this.
 WARBLER. 5
Le Rossignol,  Buf. v. 81. pi. 6.1.      PI. enl. 615. 2.     Hist. Prov. i. 498.     Voy. en
Barb. i. 273.
Rusignuolo, Z'mnan. Uov. 54. t. 8. f. 42.    Olin. Uc. t.p. 1.
L'Usignuolo, Cet. uc. Sard. 214.
Nachtigall,   Gunth.Nest. 65.     Wirs. Vog. t. 55.     Naturf. xvii. 98.   Schmid, Vog. p.
87. t. 72.
Nightingale, Gen. Sy». iv. 408.   Id. Sup. 180.    Id. Sup. ii. 233.    Br. Zoo/. No. 154.
Id.fol. 100. t. S. 1. f. 2.   Id. Ed. 1812. p. 494.   _4rcf. Zool. ii. 416. A.   CW&«,
Birds, pi. 10. f. 5.6.    Albin, iii. pi. 53.   Id. Song Birds, pi. p. 67.    Russ. Alep.
p. 7.    Kcempf. Jap. 130.      JPi//. JEwg/. 220 pi. 41.     Gent. Mag. 22. pi. p. 265.
Beivick, i. pi. p. 199.    Shaw's Zool. x. 576. pi. 51.    Leioin, iii. t. 99.    Walcot, ii.
pi. 229.    Pult. Dors. p. 8.    Z>onot>. v. pi. 108.     Wood's Zoogr. i. p. 486.    Orn.
Diet. §• Sttpp.
THE Nightingale is rather superior in size to most of the British
Warblers; the length nearly seven inches, extent of wing nine;
weight three quarters of an ounce. Bill brown ; irides hazel; head
and upper parts pale tawny, with an olive hue, beneath pale ash-
colour ; towards the vent nearly white; quills brown, margined with
reddish brown ; tail deep tawny; legs cinereous brown. The female
rather smaller, otherwise like the male.
This bird is very common in England, but does not extend to the
more northern counties, and rarely far to the western. It generally
arrives in the middle of April, or at farthest the beginning of May.*
Yorkshire is the most northern part it is seen in; and to the west
very rarely in Devonshire and Cornwall.-f The males come first, and
in a week or ten days after the females. They depart before the
end of August. This separation of the sexes, has been before
noticed, in respect to the Chaffinch ; but we are assured, that in all
birds of the Warbler Genus, which migrate, the males arrive first,
and if the weather afterwards prove cold, with the wind at east or
* I once heard it in Kent on the 7th of April, and the late Mr. Lewin the 17th March,
both in 1791; from April 1, to May 1, according to the Naturalist's Calendar, p. 19.
f In the summer of 1808, it has frequently been heard in the gardens of the Earl of
Lonsdale, Fisher-street, Carlisle; two of them met with on the banks of the Forth, Stirlingshire, Scotland, in the year 1818.
 6 WARBLER.
north, all communication is cut off between the sexes, till the wind
changes, frequently for a fortnight or more, but if the weather is
warm with a south or west wind, the females follow in a few days;
and this arrival of the latter may be kn®wn, by the singing of the
males; if they are very vociferous, their mates may be immediately
expected; if on the contrary, none will appear, for both are actuated
by the same cause; this, therefore, seems to account for the males
only being caught at their first coming, rather than there being a
greater number of that sex.
The nest is made about the end of May, in a low bush, or a
quickset hedge, well covered with foliage, for the sake of concealment : it is composed of dry leaves, mixed with grass and fibres, and
lined witfc hair, down, or dry grass? sometimes the nest is made upon
a little rising ground; the eggs four or five, greenish brown, weighing-about 47 grains each. The male bird, as well as others of the
migratory Warblers, remains on the spot to which it first resorts,
attracting the female by its song; and if by accident the female is
killed, the male, which had become silent, resumes Ms song, and will
continue to sing late in the summer, or till he finds another mate ; in
which ease, these will breed at a later season } which accounts for the
appearance of this bird having two or more broods in a year.* It
may be observed, that the Nightingales rarely make the nest near
each other, but when from necessity it is the case, the males are
perpetually engaged in combat; shewing that harmony of voice,
smA that of disposition, are not always found in the same subject.
This admired Species is a summer inhabitant of France, Italy,
Germany, and Sweden,-]- and as far North as Siberia, also at Kamts-
chatka;  is well  known in  Greece, and the Isles of Archipelago.
* Hist. des. Ois.
t Linnaeus mentions six or seven, places?but we believe it is ranely fownd, except in the-
neighbourhood of Swart Sjo Palace, 60 miles from Stockholm, beloaghag to the Swedish
C?0wn, by tradition said to.have been first noticed there; two or three ane often heard thesei
at midnight, when many people attend to be witnesses of the circumstance.—Mr. Skoge.
 Hasselquist* speaks of it as being in Palestine; and Fryer,t about
Chulminor, in Persia; said also to be found in China and Japan, at
a«#fch last ^1 ace they are much esteemed, and sell dear-.J likewise at
Aleppo, || being there in great abundance; kept tame in houses, and
let'Out at a small rate, to such as choose it m the city, so that no
entertainment is made in the ispria^%i<fe©ut a concert of these birds.
Common at the bird shops at Moscow, singingiBi cages, as finely as in
their native woods, the price of one fifteen rubles; the same at Venice,
where itfn&merable cages of 4fcem are exposed for sale. In respect to
Africa, Sonnini§ speaks of their inhabiting Lower Egypt, and as
they are very common in the summer at Gibraltar, they may be
supposed to occupy some space at least of Barbary, on the opposite
shore. None but the vilest epicure would think of eating these
tfo^m3ng<«%nj^ters; yet we are told, that their .flesh is equal to that
of the Ortolan, and that they are fattened in Gascony forrthe table.
We read also of Heliogabalus eating the tongues of Nightingales;
and the famous dish of the Tragedian, Clodius iEsopus, composed
of those of every singing, or talking bird.^j
It does not appear that this has been ever found dn America,
tffaough many of their birds bear the name.** Whoever wishes to
learn more on this subject, may consult the Hist, des Ois. and Brit.
Zool. in both of which much more is said than we can here find
room for.
* Common on the shores of the Nile.
f " The Nightingale, the sweet harbinger of the light, is a constant cheerer of these
" groves ; charming, with its warbling strains, the heaviest soul into pleasing ecstacy."—
Trav. p. 248.
% Sell there for twenty cobangs a piece.,—^KcempJ'. Jap. i. 130. || Russ. Alep. p. 7.
§ At least in th lost eastern part of that quarter of the globe, and the Isles of the
Archipelago, at the period of emigration.—Trav. ii. 51. 52.
1[ Said to have cost about £6843 10s. of our money.—Plin. 1. x. ch. 51. Br. Zool. ii.
656. Note.
** Virginian Nightingale, American Nightingale, Spanish Nightingale, all birds of a
different Species, and even Genus.
 WARBLER.
The keeping this bird in confinement in a cage requires much
attention, for if an old one be caught at its first coming, it begins to
sing in about six or eight days, and after the usual time, the song
goes off; and again at the end of December, and so in every year :
but if brought up from the nest, it sings the whole year round,
except during the time of moulting, and often better than the wild
Nightingale. How long the life of the Nightingale may be, does not
seem well ascertained: a friend of mine* informs me, that a person
whom he was acquainted with in London, kept one for six years and
seven months, and its death was then supposed to have occurred from-
want of proper care ; and further, that he has kept one himself for
three years and a half, and that it used to sing all the winter, but the
chances against preserving the bird for even the last named period
are so few, as to dishearten most people from the attempt, and may
lead one to think with Thomson, that the Nightingale is—
' To brook the harsh <
" too delicately fram'd
mfinement of the cage,"
He adds, that when the Nightingale sings fluently, he is a most
charming bird, but not always disposed to do so at the will of its
master; in which case a small child's rattle, put into motion, has
been known to provoke it to obedience.
We have been informed, that Nightingales may be seen hanging
out of almost every other window at Warsaw, in Poland, and their
music, to any one passing through the street in the morning, is
delightful ; and it was understood, that both there, and at Saint
Petersburgh, where they are also kept in numbers, their principal
food was ant's eggs. A composition sold in London, called German
paste, is recommended for the food of this, as well as other slender-
billed, and soft feeding birds, but how far this answers we have had
no experience.
* Mr. H. Grimston.
 A.—Luscinia Candida, Bris. iii. 401. B.    Id. 8vo. i. 421.    Buf. v. 114.
White Nightingale, Gen. Syn. iv. 412.
This is wholly white: * others have been noticed, in which the
head, neck, wings, and tail were white; the rest of the plumage
brown and white mixed.
2.—GREATER NIGHTINGALE.
Luscinia major, Bris. iii. 400. A.    Id. 8vo. i. 421.    Frisch, t. 21. b.    Buf. v. 113.
Sylvia Philomela, Tern. Man. p. 106.    Id. Ed. ii. 196.
Greater Nightingale, Gen. Syn. iv. 411.
THIS is said to be considerably larger, and according to Frisch,
sings even better than the common one. The plumage rufous and
ash-colour mixed. How far the Nightingale extends to India we
are not certain, but we learn that a bird called the Hill Nightingale
is found in many parts there. This is seven inches long. Bill flesh-
colour; plumage in general brown; beneath whitish; legs lead-
coloured brown; but notwithstanding the name, we are not certain
that it belongs to this Genus. Kramer f mentions one smaller than
the other two, whose song is in proportion to its size, and that such
an one is not uncommon about the hedges, and also in orchards
in Austria.
3.—SILKY WARBLER.
Sylvia sericea (Natterer),  Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. 197.
LENGTH five inches and a quarter.    Plumage above dull grey
brown; sides of the neck and breast cinereous, inclining on the sides
* One of these, thought a present worthy of Agrippina, wife of the Emperor Claudius,
for which 6000 Sesterces had been offered.—P/m. Nat. Hist. B. x. ch. 29,
t See Elench, p. 376. 10.
 10 WARBLER.
to grey brown ; belly and under tail coverts brown; a streak above
the eyes and round them, the throat and middle of the belly pure
white; tail somewhat cuneiform.
Inhabits the Southern parts of Spain, among the bushes; several
specimens, obtained by Mr. Natterer, on the Brenta, during his stay
at Gibraltar. It is described as, having a more delicate and silky
plumage than either of the Nightingales, to both of which it seems to
have resemblance, but on comparison, will be found different; not
only from the size, but the shape of the wings; and the tail being
graduated in a different manner, it approaches somewhat to the
Coryphee of Levaillant—.our Choirister Warbler.
4.—PETTICHAPS.
i
Sylvia hortensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 507.     Gm
Lin. i. 955.     Tern. Man. d'Orn
.p.m. n.
Ed.n. p. 206.
Curruca, Bris. iii. 372.    Jd.8vo.i. 414.
Ficedula cinerea major, Bigia, Gerin. iv.
t.395. 1.
Die Bastard Nachtigale, Naturf. xxvii. s
.39. 1. (Bechstein.*)
Broemsluiper, Sepp, Vog. ii. t. p. 139.
La Fauvette, Buf. v. 117. pi. 7.    PI. er
/. 579. 1.    Hist. Prov. i. 506.
Lesser Fauvette, Bewick, pi. in p. 212 ?
Pettichaps, Gen. Syn. iv. 413.    Id. Sup.
i. 234.    Br. Zool. 1812. i. 506.
Shaw's Zool.
x. 581.    Lewin's Birds, iii. pi. 100.
Walcot, ii. pi. 230.    Orn. Diet
. Sf Supp.
LENGTH six inches; breadth nearly nine; weight five drachms.
The bill a trifle broader at the base than in the Common Whitethroat;
tongue jagged at the tip; irides dusky yellow ; plumage above light
brown, inclining to olive-green; quills and tail margined with the
latter; below the ears ash-colour; throat, neck, and upper part of
the breast dirty white, inclining to buff-colour; lower part of the
breast, belly, and under tail coverts white; beneath the wings buff;
* This gentleman has taken here some pains to discriminate this and five others of the
Wren kind, which had been, by the older writers, confounded with each other.
WMW-
 WARBLER. 11
legs dusky: in some old birds, a pale or yellowish streak appears
over the eye. The male and female are much alike, but the latter
is smaller.
This is not a very common species in England; we have met with
it in Kent, and in the neighbourhood of London; also received it
from Sandwich: Colonel Montagu found it in Gloucestershire and
Wiltshire; it is known to be in Berkshire and Hampshire, but believe
it not to be in plenty any where; however, it may possibly be more
so than generally imagined, from its likeness to the female Blackcap,
which, at a distant view, it much resembles.
The males generally arrive here about the last week in April, the
females a few days later; they build in thick bushes or hedges ; the
nest composed of dried fibres, some wool, and a little green moss,
lined sometimes with horsehair; the eggs four in number, weighing
each 36 grains, colour dirty white, with brownish specks, pretty numerous and confluent, at the larger end: Mr. Bechstein thinks the
song even more varied than that of the Nightingale, bursting into
various kinds of modulations as it proceeds, and at times warbling
like the House Swallow; indeed, some of its notes are sweetly, and
softly drawn, others are quick, lively, loud, and piercing, but reaching
the distant ear without inharmonious discord; its general food is
insects, which it searches for under the leaves, but will frequently come
into gardens, making free with the fruit likewise: the young are observed to remain in, the nest till almost as well feathered as the parents.
It is recorded as a bird of Sweden, appearing there in May, and
departing the end of August. We here and there meet with it on
the Continent of Europe, and can trace it as far as Gibraltar, at
which place it is seen, though sparingly, in the summer months.
M. Temminck mentions a bird which he calls Sylvia orphea,
which appears very similar, if not the same; and observes, that the
Fauvette, PI. enlum. 576. 1. is the female.
We have a specimen from Africa, so like this, as not to be
distinguished, but the under parts appear of a deeper buff-colour.
C 2
 Sylvi
-BARRED WARBLER.
a raye, Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 108.    Id. Ed. i
p. 200.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill brown; irides yellow;
head, cheeks, nape, and back deep cinereous; scapulars and rump
tipped with brown and white stripes; wings pale cinereous; tail the
same, the outer feather tipped with a white spot, which also occupies
part of the inner web; on the next the same, but the spot smaller;
the third and fourth only edged, and tipped with white; throat,
neck, breast, and sides white, striped across with cinereous grey
bands; middle of the belly white; the under tail coverts cinereous,
deeply edged with white. In the female the upper parts are more
plain, and the tail very little marked with white. The young bird
is striped across both above and beneath, and has a brown iris.
Inhabits the shrubs in Sweden, the North of Germany, Hungary,
&c. but is a rare species; lays four or five eggs, cinereous white, and
marked with spots of reddish ash-colour.
6—LESSER PETTICHAPS.
Sylvia Hippolais, Ind. Orn. i. 507.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. 122.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 222.
Motacilla Hippolais, Lin. i. 330.    Faun. suec. No. 248.    Gm. Lin. i. 954.
Ficedula septima Aldrov. Pettichaps,   Raii, 79. A. 7.      Will. 158.      Id. Engl. 216.
Zinnan. Uov. 44. t. 6. f. 29 ?
Motacilla Fitis, Naturf. xxvii. s. 50. 5.
Lesser Pettichaps,   Gen. Syn. iv. 413. 3.*     Id. Sup. ii. 236.     Br. Zool. i. No. 249.
for description.    Id. Ed. 1812. i. p. 508.    Arct. Zool. ii. 418. G.    Id. Sup. p. 64.
Nat. Miscel. t. 189.     Shaw's Zool. x. 746.     Bewick, i. p. 209 ?     Le
101.    Walcot, ii. pi. 251.    Pult. Dors. p. 9.    Orn. Diet. # Supp.
pi.
LENGTH five inches, breadth eight; weight two drachms. Bill
short, dusky, the under mandible bluish ; inside of the mouth flesh-
colour; above and beneath the eye, a yellowish line; head, neck,
and upper parts, cinereous;   quills and tail mouse-colour;   belly
 WARBLER. 13
silvery white; breast darker, with a silvery tinge; the wings, when
closed, reach to about one-third on the tail, which when spread,
appears a trifle forked; legs bluish lead-colour.
This is frequent in many parts of England; makes an oval nest,
with a small opening at top, of dry bents, with a little moss, thickly
lined with feathers, and placed either on the ground, or a low bush;
the eggs five, white, sprinkled with small red spots, chiefly at the
larger end. It comes early, often before the 20th of March, but
generally before the 1st of April, and goes away before the end of
September;* is in most places common, but has not yet been observed
in Guernsey, although the Willow Wren, a much scarcer bird here,
is there in plenty.
This species is perpetually singing, or rather chirping, the note
like the word Twit, five or six times delicately repeated, the three
last hastily and short. M. Bechstein calls it Fit; and from thence
has derived his trivial name.
7.—BLACK CAP WARBLER.
Sylvia atricapilla, Ind. Orn. ii. 508.     Lin. i. 332.    Faun. suec. No. 256.    Gm. Lin. i.
970.   Scop. i. No. 229.    Brun. No. 278. 279.   Muller, No. 277.    Kramer, 377.
Frisch, t. 23.    Borowsk. iii. 193.    Gerin. iv. t. 398. 1 ? 2.   Id. 399. f. 1.    Tern.
Man. d'Orn. 109.    Id. Ed. ii. 204.
Curruca atricapilla,  Bris. iii. 380. Id. 8vo. i. 416.    Klein, 79. 14.   Id. Oo. 26. t. 10.
f. 17.   Raii, 79. A. 8.    Will. 162. t. 41.   Id. Engl. 226.
Meissen Moenche, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 68.
Der Klosterwenzel, Naturf. xvii. 105.
Fauvette a tete noire, Buf. v. 125. t. 8. f. 1.    PL ml. 580.1.2.
Becfigue a tete noire, Hist. Prov. i. 507.
Capinera, Olin. t. p. 9.    Zinnan. Uov. 56. t. 8. f. 45.    Get. Uc. Sard. 216.
* Colonel Montagu observes, that some of these stay through the winter in the west of
England. He observed two or three of them the 16th of December, 1808; and both in
December and January, 1806 and 1807.
 14
Blackcap,   Gen. Syn. iv. 415.
1812. i. p. 505. Collins's Birds
Arct. Zool. ii. 418. F. Bewick
pi. 234.   Pult. Dorset, p. 9.    0
WARBLER
Br. Zool. i. Nc
o. 148. Id.fol. 101. t. S. 5. Id.Ed.
10. pi. 10. f. 4. Shaw's Zool. x. 648.
217.     Lewin, iii. pi. 116.     Walcot, ii.
LENGTH five inches or more, weight four drachms and a half.
Bill brown ; irides dark hazel; crown of the head black; plumage on
the upper parts-of the body greenish ash-colour; sides of the head
and under parts grey ; vent almost white; quills and tail cinereous
brown; the feathers margined with ash-colour; the two middle ones
a.trifle shorter than the rest; legs lead-colour.
The female has the crown ferruginous chestnut, instead of black.
The species is not uncommon in England, comes the end of April,*
and departs the end of September, or beginning of October; generally builds in a low bush, not far from the ground : the nest
composed of dried stalks, with a little wool and green moss, and
lined with the fibres of roots, thinly covered with black horses-hair;
the eggs four or five, pale reddish brown, mottled with a deeper
colour, sprinkled with a few dark spots. The male and female sit
in turn, and the young very early provide for themselves. It should
appear, that individuals sometimes remain in England throughout
the winter, as Mr. Lewin once shot a male in Kent, in January.
The food is for the most part insects, but these birds will also eat
the berries of Spurge laurel, Service, and especially those of Ivy •
and of these last seem fond, for we have found them in the stomach,
at a time when insects were in plenty; and more than once have
observed them to build in an old ivy, pretty high from the ground.
The song is much esteemed, and thought almost equal to that of
the Nightingale, scarcely deficient, except in the delightful Variety
of the last named; and has been called the Mock Nightingale • in
some counties Nettle Creeper, and Nettle Monger.
* Mr. White;says-jibs
me trooping all at oni
s.—Hist. Selb. p. 29.
, the first fine weather in April, and
 WARBLER. 15
It seems to inhabit most parts of the Continent of Europe, at
least as far as Sweden; is a summer inhabitant of Gibraltar, and
extends to the Morocco shore, but is not a plentiful species, nor is
it for certain known where it passes the winter. This bird, we are
informed, is found at Madeira, and known there by the name of
Tinta Negra.
A.—Curruca albo and nigro varia, Bris. iii. 383.   Id. 8vo. i. 417.
Ficedula varia, Zinnan. 44. t. 12. f. 29. 1.   Aldr. ii. 759.    Gen. Syn.iv. 416. A.
This is wholly variegated with white and black.
B.—La petite Colombaude, Buf. v. 131.    Gen. Syn. iv. 416. B.
Somewhat bigger. Upper parts very deep or blackish, edged
with brownish green ; above the eye a white streak ; throat white;
sides grey.    Frequent in the woods of Provence, in France.
8.--DALMATIAN WARBLER.
Accentor montanellus, Accenteur Montagnard, Tem. Man. Ed. ii. 251.
LENGTH five inches four lines. Bill yellow at the base, with
a brown point; top of the head and hindhead black; beneath the
eye a broad band of the same, ending on the ear; over the eye,
from the bill, a yellow streak as an eye-brow, and passing to the nape;
body in general above, and scapulars reddish ash, marked with
longitudinal streaks of brick-colour red ; wings edged with reddish
ash; and two series of yellowish points across the wing, forming a
double band; tail brown, the shafts reddish brown; under parts of
the bird yellowish Isabella colour, varied on the breast with brown
spots, and on the sides with reddish ash.
 16
WARBLER.
The female is brown on the head, hind head and ears, otherwise
like the male.
Inhabits the south of Europe, in Dalmatia and Hungary; also
Asia, in the same latitude.—Found by Dr. Pallas, in the east part
of Siberia, and in the Crimea.
9— REED WREN.
Sylvia arundin'acea,Ind. Orn. ii. 510.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. p..134.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 191.
Motacilla arundinacea, Phil. Tr. 75. p. 8. pi. 1.    Gm. Lin. i. 992.
Turdus arundinaceus minimus, Sepp, Vog. t. p. 101. I Id. p. 97.—Nest.
Passer arundinaceus minor, Raii, 47. A. 3 ?    Will. p. 99 ?
Luscinia palustris, Gerin. iv. t. 399. 2. & 400. 1.
Schilffmachen, Rohrsperling, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t 12.     Naturf xvii. s. 85. No. 174.
Bouscarle de Provence, Buf. v. 134 ?    PI. ml. 655. 2 ?
Lesser Reed Sparrow,  Will. Engl. p. 144 ?
Reed Wren, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 184. Gmt. Mag. v. 55. 462. pi. p. 640. Shaw's Zool. x.
588.   Lewin, iii. pi. 114.    Orn. Diet. Sf Supp.    Br. Zool. ii. 1812. i. p. 520.
THIS is five inches and a half long, extent of wing seven;
weight seven pennyweights. Bill half an inch long, rather broad
at the base, dark horn-colour, beneath flesh-coloured; inside of the
mouth orange ; tongue cloven, and ciliated; irides olive-brown ; eyelashes dirty white; general colour of the plumage greenish olive
brown ; quills and tail brown, the edges of the feathers paler, the
latter slightly cuneiform; chin white; the rest of the under parts
tawny white; base of all the feathers dusky; legs light olive; soles
of the feet bright greenish yellow. The female is half an inch
shorter, and smaller than the male.
Inhabits various parts of this kingdom, in watery places, where
reeds abound, between three or four of which it generally makes
the nest, fastened thereto by means of dead grass, &c. and composed
of grass externally, lined for the most part with the flowery tufts of
common reeds, and sometimes with fine dead grass, and a few black
horse-hairs to cover them, but the bird does not always confine
 WARBLER. 17
herself to the reeds; as we have seen the nest made in the forks of a
water dock, or in a trifurcated branch of a shrub, near the water;
the eggs are usually four, of a dirty white, stained all over with dull
olive spots, chiefly at the larger end, with two or three small, irregular black scratches.
It appears to be not uncommon in the marshes about Erith, in
Kent, and in various other parts of the coasts of that county and
Sussex, from Sandwich to Arundel, especially Romney Marsh ; yet
in Wiltshire, and Somersetshire, though the Sedge Warbler, another
inhabitant of the reeds, is common, not a single Reed Wren is to be
found : it is also frequent about the River Coin, in Buckinghamshire,
in the Lincolnshire Fens, and no doubt other places where reeds grow.
It is very shy, and though the nest is frequently met with, the bird
is not often taken : it may be easily mistaken for the Sedge Bird, but
is quite a different Species, for on viewing the bill of the latter, it
will be found much broader, and it may be distinguished from this
character without further comparison : it generally appears here the
end of April, or beginning of May, and leaves us in September.
It is certainly found in several parts of the Continent of Europe,
but has probably not been discriminated, from others inhabiting the
same spots; it is not known to have any song.
A.—Length five inches. Bill brown, three quarters of an inch
long, a few bristles at the base; irides hazel; general colour olive;
beneath white; breast and sides yellowish; legs ash-colour.
This is found at Calcutta all the year, and lives on insects ; called
Ticktickee, from the noise it makes; which resembles a lizard known
by this name, which is very common in the houses there, and called
Tickra, from its being in constant motion. It is the Ticktickee of the
Mussulmans; Tickra of the Bengalese; and Podena of Hindustan
Proper.—Dr. Buchanan.
 18
WARRLERV
We find a bird, of the nanie of Reed Warbler, in Lewin's figures
of the birds of New-Holland; this is said to be one inch longer than-
ours, but as to dibldur it is very similar : the tail, too, is in shape the
same. The account of it nfehtions, that it is frequent about Para-
metta, in summer, on the banks of rivers and ponds, and feeds, and
builds somewhat in the mariner of therEnglfeihriNi&htingale; that it
comes in September, and disappears in April.
10—BOG-RUSH WARBLER.
Sylvia Schcenobanu
s, Lid. Orn. ii. 510.
Motacilla Schcenob
inus, Lin. i. 329.    Faun, suec
No. 246.
arab. p. 6. 17.
Faun. arag. p. 81.
Accentor modularis
Tern. Man. p. 121.    Id. Ed.
i. p. 250 ?
Curruca sylvestris,
seu Lusciniola, Bris. iii. 393.
Id. 8vo. i
p. 171.
Motacilla Ivica, He
sselq.lt. 286. &>.r ''
Fauvette de Bois, o
u la Ronssette, Buf. v. 139.
Usignuolo di Fiuine
, Celt. Uc. Sard. 216 ?
Bog-rush Warbler,
Arct. Zool. ii. 419. L.    Shaw
s Zool. x.
Reed Warbler, G«
%. Syn. iv. 418.    Hasselq. Voy
206. 50.
Gm. Lin. i. 953.    Faun.
419.    Raii, 80. 1.    Will.
SIZE of the Pettichaps. Bill blackish; feathers of the head,
and all above brown, bordered with rufous; beneath inclined to
rufous ; quills brown, with rufous margins; tail wholly brown; the
legs whitish.
Inhabits France and Italy, and as far North as Sweden ; whether
it removes at any time from the last is not said, but it is certain, that
it passes the winter in France, changing place like the Whinchat;
makes a nest in the woods, of moss and wool, and lays four or five
sky-blue eggs. The young are easily brought up, and the bird in
general very tame and familiar; its song is not unpleasant, and in
addition, it sings in the winter season. M. Temminck unites this
with the Hedge Sparrow.
 WARBLER. 19
11.—MARSH WARBLER.
Sylvia palustris,  Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. 192.    Bechst. Natur. Deut. iii. 639. t. 26.
LENGTH full five inches. Bill broad at the base, and rather
flattened, under mandible yellowish; plumage above greenish olive
brown; wings brown, edged with ash-colour; from the base of the
bill, over the eye, a narrow, yellowish white stripe; the under parts
exactly the same as in the Reed Wren, but rather paler.
Inhabits moist places, and the banks of the rivers, where willows
grow, never among reeds; found on the Po, and the Danube ; also
in Switzerland, and some parts of Germany; makes a roundish nest
on the earth, among the roots of the willows, and other bushes; lays
four or five eggs, light ash-colour, with deeper and paler spots of
bluish ash. M. Temminck assures us, that it is a distinct Species, but
it appears to be very like the Reed Wren.
12—CETTI'S WARBLER.
Sylvia Cetti, Marmora,  Tern.Man. Ed.W. 194.
Bouscarle de Provence, PI. enl. 655. 2.
Usignuolo di Sardegna,  Celt. Uc. Sard. p. 216.     #©i«KH
LENGTH five inches. Bill narrow, slender, compressed at the
tip, pale brown; plumage above rufous brown; sides of the neck,
body, tfiighs, and belly the same, but palerjgjietween the bill and
eye a cinereous streak; throat, neck before, and middle of the belly
white; upper tail converts rufous, with whitish tips; tailjypad, the
ends of the feathers rounded ; legs pale brown.
Inhabits Sardinia, and other Southern parts of Europe; said to be
found   also  in England;   but,   according  to  M. Temminck,  has
been generally confounded with the  Reed Wren;  it continues in
Sardinia throughout the year, and has a melodious song.
D 2
 13— HEDGE SPARROW.
Sylvia modularis, Ind. Orn. ii. 511.
Motacilla modularis, Lin. i. 329.    Faun. suec. No
264.    Muller, No. 266.    Frisch, t. 21.    Boro
Accentor modularis, Tern. Man. p. 121.    Id. Ed.'x
Curruca sepiaria, Bris. iii. 394.    Id. 8vo. i. 420.
Sylvia gula plumbea, Klein, 77. III. 4.
■Curruca Eliots, Raii, 79. A. 6.    Will. 157.
Die Baum-Nachtigall, iVafttr/^ jcvii. 100.
E/oi>. 45. t.6. f.30. 1.
Buf. v. 151.    P/. en/. 615
Magnanina Aldrovandi,  Will. 157.    grab
Traine-buisson, Mouchet, Fauvette d'Hy
Passera salvatica, Celt. Uc. Sard. 205.
Braunelle, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. 1.1—lower fig.
Hedge Sparrow, Gen. Syn. iv. 419.    Br. Zool. i. No. 150.    Id.fol. t. S. 1. f. 3. 4.    Id.
Ed. 1812. i. p. 519.    Collins's Birds, pi. 9. f. 1. 2.    Arct. Zool. ii. 418. H.    Alb.
iii. pi. 59.     Id. Song Birds, pi. p. 81.     Will. Engl. p. 215.     Shaio's Zool. x. 661.
Bewick's Birds,\. pi. in p. 213.    Letom,Birds,iii. 102.    Wale. Birds,ii. pi.282.
Pult. Dors. p. 9.    Orn. Diet.    Graves's Br. Orn. V. iii.
THIS well-known species is five inches and a half long, and
weighs nearly six drachms. The bill is blackish; irides hazel; head
deep brown, mixed with ash-colour; the cheeks marked with oblong
spots of dirty white; the back and wing coverts dusky, edged with
reddish brown; quills and tail dusky; rump greenish brown ; throat
and breast dull ash-colour; belly dirty white; sides, thighs, and vent,
pale tawny brown; legs dull flesh-colour. In the female the colours
are less bright.
Inhabits this kingdom throughout, and seen every where in the
in the hedges, at all seasons; it generally begins to build in March,*
the nest composed of moss and wool, and lined with hair, laying
four or five pale blue eggs :f although it remains with us the whole
year, it is said to be migratory in France, coming there in October,
* In a sheltered valley of Wiltshire, the nest of a Hedge Sparrow was found, with three
eggs in it, on the 23d of January, 1796.
f " The eggs of this bird, neatly emptied, and wired, fair ladies wear at their ears, for
" pendants."—Ray's Letters, p. 135.
 WARBLER. 21
and departing Northward in spring, though a few stay behind, for
now and then a nest is found there. Linnaeus observes, that it is
every where met with in September; and adds, that it sings agreeably in the spring, if in a cage; and feeds on hemp seeds; but we do
not learn from him if it remains through the summer: with us it is a
•winter songster, and the note is not an unpleasant one, beginning
with the first frosts, and continuing till the spring; it often repeats
a note like Tit, tit, tit, hence it has been named Titling; it is called
also, by some, Dunnock. The Cuckow frequently lays her egg in
the nest of this bird.
14—REDSTART WARBLER.
Sylvia Phcenicurus, Ind. Orn. ii. 511.    Scop. i. No. 232.   Tern. Man. p. 120.    Id. Ed.
ii. p. 221.
Motacilla Phcenicurus, Lin. i. p. 335.    Faun. suec. No. 257.    Gm. Lin. i. 987.   Brun.
No. 280.281.    Muller, No. 278.    Frisch, 1.19.20.    Kramer, 376. 11.    Georgi, p.
174.    Faun. arag. 89.    Borowsk. iii. p. 193.     Sepp. Vog. t.45.    Wirs. Vog. t.17.
Gerin. iv. t. 397. 1.
Ruticilla, Rail, 78. A. 5.    Will. 159. t. 39.     Bris. iii. 403.    Id. 8vo. i. 422.   Klein,
77. 2.    Id. Stem. 14. t. 16. f. 8. a—b.
Der Schwarzkehlchen, Naturf. xvii. 104.
Motacilla ochruros, Georgi, It. iii. 101. t. 19.
Rossignol de Muraille, Buf. v. 170. pi. 6. f. 2.    PI. ml. 351. 1.2.    Hist. Prov. i. 501.
Culo rauzo, Colo rosso, Zinnan. Uov. 53. t. 8. f. 41.    Olin. Uc. t. p. 47.
Redstart, Gen. Syn. iv. 421.    Br. Zool. i. No. 246.    Id. fol. 99. t. S. f. 6.7.    Id. Ed.
1812.i. 520.    Arct. Zool. ii. 416. B.    Will. Engl. p. 218.    Alb.i. pl.50.   Id. Song
Birds, pi. p, 62.    Collins's Birds, pi, 6. f. 3.—pi. 2. f.9.    Shaw's Zool. x. p. 670.
Hayes's Birds, pi. 40.    Bewick's Birds, i. pi. p. 208.     Lewin's Birds, iii. pi. 108.
Walcot's Birds, ii. t. 233. Pult. Dorset, p. 8. Donov. Birds, iv. pi. 82: Orn. Diet.
Sf Supp.    Nat. Misc. pi. 192.    Graves's Br. Orn. V. ii.
THIS bird is about five inches in length, and weighs nearly four
drachms. Bill black; irides hazel; forehead white; crown of the
head, hind part of the neck, and back, deep blue grey, in some
approaching to black; cheeks and throat black ; breast, sides, and
rump, rusty red; tail red, except the two middle feathers, which are
 22 .WARBLER.
brown; legs.blacker The female has the top of the/head* and back
^cinereous grey; chin white ; the rest as in the male, but less bright.
The Redstart comes to us the beginning of Ajpril, and rarely /stays
«Neyoud the end of September; it frequently approaches haMW^ti%
andidoes not seem afraid of mankind ; yet the least derangement of
$*e<«ggs, or even looking at them, if the female is at all disturbed,
will cause her to forsake the nest, which is usually]<ma>de in a hole of
ksifaee, or wall, where people are frequently passing by; it is-composed chiefly of moss, and lined with hair and feathers; the eggs are
four or five, not unlike those of the Hedge Sparrow, rather more
elongated, and of a paler blue.
Its song is agreeable, but not strong, and if caught young, will
imitate the notes of other birds, frequently singing by night, as well
as.jn the day time; the food is, for the most part, insects, flies,
spiders, ant eggs, &c. but, when brought up by hand, may be treated
a§4Be Nightingale, and if intended to be kept in a cage must be
taken young, for it will by no means submit to confinement if
caught when old : the song of the Redstart is soft and short, superior
to, though somewhat like, that of the White throat.
In respect to this kingdom, it affects the same parts as the Nightingale, not being found further north than Yorkshire, nor is it often
met with in Cornwall, and rarely west of Exeter, in Devonshire;*
nor are we certain that it is seen in Ireland. It wags the tail in a
singular manner, not up and down like the Wagtail, but sideways,
likea-dog when he is pleased.f
The Redstart is found in various parts of Europe, and>\admitting
some Varieties, in Africa, as far as the Cape of Good Hope : we can
trace it to Gibraltar, but it comes late there, and in no great abun-
'dttnce, and departs in autumn, not .onsErtfeemaining in the winter;
though specimens have been received, shot in Rarbary, and Algiers,
4tt> January.
 WARBEER.
2&
A.—Ruticilla pectore maculate^ BrftMii. 407.    Id. 8vo. i. 423.
Sylvia thoraCe argentato,   Klein, 78. 10.
Rothschwanzlein, Frisch, t. 20. f. 26.    Gen. Syn. iv. 423.
This is probably a female, having the breast spotted with red.
B—Ruticilla cinerea, Rm.iii. 406. A.    Id. 8vo.i. 423.
Ruticilla tertia Aldrovandi, Raii, 78. A. 5. Var.    Will. 160.   Id. Engl. 218.
Wald Rothschwenz, Gunth. Nest. 1.19. upper fig.
Tfefo appears to be a Variety of the male, has only a long line of
white on theffcrMifead; the back more cinereous; and the bottom of
the belly not white.
15—TITHYS WARBLER.
Sylvia Tithys, Ind. On
Motacilla Tithys, Lin.
ii. 512.    ScopA. No. 233.
335. 34. |S.    Gm. Lin. i. 98
cauda rufa, Kram. 376. 12 ?
:. Man. Ed. ii. 219.
.    Id. reise, iv. 151.
Garten Rothschwanz, Gunth. Nest. t. 30. lower fig.
Tithys Warbler, Shaw's Zool. x. 671.
Redstart Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 423.' Var. C.
THE male of this inclines to ash-colour; the throat and breast
black; belly, between the thighs, whitish; elsewhere varied with
black and white. The female wholly brown; in bath sexes, the two
middle tail feathers are brown; the othersj brown at the tips; the rest
of the tail and vent red.
This is called, in Italy, Moretto; by the Germans,, Hausroth
Schweiffl; found about thfi Gaspian Sea,tas;GmeliDimcrt witbiitihere
in May: Scopoli thinks that it is not a Variety of the Redstart, but
a different bird.
 24
16.-GREY REDSTART.
Sylvia Gibraltariensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 513.
Ruticilla Gibraltariensis, Bris. iii. 407. \
Sylvia corpore griseo.gutture nigro, Klein
Rossignol de Muraille de Gibraltar, Buf.
Grey Redstart, Gen. Syn. iv. 423. Arct.
Zool. x. 673.
Zool. ii. 417. C.     .Edw.pl. 29.    Sha;
THE length of the male is six inches or more; breadth ten ; the
weight three quarters of an ounce. Bill brown, inside of the mouth
bright yellow; the forehead, cheeks, eyes, and throat, are black;
breast black, and iron-grey mixed ; lower belly lighter grey ; crown
of the head ash-colour; back, and wing coverts dark iron-grey; the
lower part of the back blue grey; rump, tawny red; tail the same,
slightly tipped with brown; the two middle feathers dark brown,
edged with red, and shorter than the rest; quills dark brown, slightly
bordered with white; seven of the longer secondaries have half of
their webs white, forming a broad white bar; thighs barred across
with white and black ; legs black.
In the female, the head, neck, and back, are dusky olive; chin
whitish, obscurely spotted; throat and breast dusky brown; belly
lighter brown; quills brown ; secondaries lightly edged with white;
tail tawny red, as in the male, but with a broader bar at the tip ; no
black in any part.
The above inhabits Gibraltar, and its neighbourhood, throughout
the year, and abounds in all parts of the district, especially the retired
parts of the Rock; is a solitary and shy bird, seldom coming into
the town : the male is a much finer songster than the Redstart, and
although, in the formation of the bill, &c. it is not materially different
from that bird ; the circumstance of its remaining there continually,
whilst the Redstart migrates annually, is not easily accounted for.
 25
17—REDTAIL WARBLER.
Sylvia Erithacus, Ind.Orn. ii. 513.
 gula grisea, Klein, 78. 4. 5,
Motacilla Erithacus, Lin. i. 335.    Fan
n. suec. No. 258.    Gm. Lin. i. 988.
Phcenicurus torquatus, Bris. iii. 411.
Id. 8vo. i. 425.—male.
Phcenicurus, Bris. iii. 409.    Id, 8vo, i.
424. female.
Rouge-queue a Collier, Buf. v. 180.
Roth-schwentzel, Gesner, Av. t. p. 663.
Raii, 78. A. 5. Var. 2.    Will. 160.
218. vii. 2.
Rothrschwantzlein, Frisch, t. 20. f. b.
Naturf.xvn. 104.   /rf.xxv. 19.
Redtail, Gen. Syn. iy. 425,    Shaw's Z
oo/, x. 674.
THIS is a trifle larger than the Redstart. Top of the head, hind
part of the neck and back, scapulars, and lesser wing coverts grey;
rump and tail rufous; throat to vent whitish grey, with an irregular
mixture of pale rufous; the under wing and tail coverts of this last
colour; the greater wing coverts and quills grey brown, edged with
rufous; tail wholly rufous, the two middle feathers the shortest; the
legs black.
The male differs from the former, or female, chiefly in having a
large brown mark on the fore part of the neck, in shape of a horse
shoe, the concave part uppermost; between the bill and eye a small
brown spot; the two middle tail feathers brown, the rest rufous.
These are said to inhabit the Continent of Europe, and are
migratory; they arrive in Burgundy and Lorraine in May, and
depart in October, frequent in woods; make the nest in low bushes,
near the ground, of moss, lined with wool and feathers; the eggs
five or six, white, mixed with grey.* It has scarcely any song, only
a single note, like the word Suit, and wags the tail like a Redstart:
at the end of summer it is very fat, and well flavoured. This seems
to be very similar to the last Species, especially the female, and the
male is probably a young bird only of that sex—could we reconcile
* The weight of the egg is said to be the fourth part of a Caroline.—Naturf. xiv. S. 48.
 26 WARBLER.
he former being stationary with the latter, which is said to be a
migratory species.
The Rev. Mr. White formerly hinted to us his opinion, of the two
synonyms above quoted from Brisson, only differing in sex. He
adds, that they are found throughout the year in abundance in all
parts of the Rock of Gibraltar, especially the retired places; are
solitary, and seldom come into the town ; that the male is a much
finer songster than the Redstart, from which bird, too, it differs in
manners, for it never leaves the district, whilst the Redstart migrates
elsewhere. Some have supposed the Redtail to be the same as the
Moretto Warbler ; but Mr. White informs us, that having sent both
sexes to Linnaeus, he declared them to be different from the latter,
which he recorded in his 10th Edition, under the name of Tithys.
Notwithstanding the opinions of the authors above quoted, in respect
to this and the last bird, we are inclined to think them the same as
to species, with the plumage more or less mature.
18— BLACK REDTAIL WARBLER.
Sylvia atrata, Ind. Orn. ii. 514.    Gm. Lin. i. 988.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. 118.    Id. Ed. ii.
p. 218.
Black Redtail, Gm. Syn. iv. 426.
LENGTH six inches. The head, neck, back, and breast deep
black; crown of the head deep grey; the quills dusky, edged with
white; beneath from the breast, rump, and all the outer tail feathers
rufous red ; the two middle ones dusky; thighs dusky.
The female is pale brown where the male is black; eye placed in
an oval bed of dusky; otherwise like the male; the bill and legs in
both are black.
Inhabits India; called, in General Hardwicke's drawings, Terta-
campo; found at Futtehghur, in November.
 WARBLER. 27
A.—In this Variety the whole top of the head and back are grey,
palest on the crown; wings brown, edges of the feathers pale; front,
sides of the head, and breast deep black; from breast to vent, rump,
and tail rufous red, but the two middle feathers of the last brown.
The female as in the above description of that sex.
B. —This has the whole head, neck, breast, and beginning of
the back black; gape orange; wings deep brown; the under parts,
rump, and base of the tail pale rufous red, the end half brown, but
the outer feathers wholly rufous red.
The female brown, with a rufous tinge on the cheeks; the breast
cinereous; from thence white; rump and vent very pale rufous; tail
as in the male.
Met with at Cawnpore, in February; called Phirrera.
C.—Bill and legs dusky; general colour of the plumage black ;
crown of the head yellow brown; a streak of the same beneath the
eye ; wings brown ; edges of the feathers pale; from breast to vent
rufous orange; rump and tail the same; the wings reach two-thirds
on the latter.
The female generally brown ; the chin and vent pale ash brown ;
under the eye a bluish dusky mark ; beneath as in the male; the two
middle tail feathers reddish brown.
Found at Chittigong, by the name of Surdy.-—Sir J. Anstruther.
M. Temminck joins this with his Sylvia Tithys; but the Black Red-
tail, here meant, is not an European Species.
19.—CHESTNUT-BELLIED WARBLER.
Sylvia erythrogastra, Ind. Orn. ii. 513.
Motacilla erythrogastra, Gm.Lin.i. 975.   N. C. Petr.xix. 469.    1.16.17.
Chestnut-bellied Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 424.    Shaw's Zool. x. 672.
LENGTH seven inches.    Bill black; eyes brown; crown and
nape dirty, sooty white; round the bill, throat, cheeks, neck, and
E 2
 28
WARBLER.
between the wings deep black; breast, belly, and vent deep chestnut;
rump and tail the same; the middle of the quills, from the third to
the tenth, white, forming a spot across them; feathers round the joint,
or garter, black.
The female has a paler rump ; the tips of the outer tail feathers,
and the whole of the two middle ones brown; the rest of the bird
cinereous, deeper coloured above, with a mixture of rufous on the
belly.
M. Gueldenstaedt, the author of the above description, observes,
that it inhabits the gravelly hollows of the Caucasian Torrents, the
whole summer; that it is migratory, going southward in winter, in
search of food; runs on the banks of rivers; is restless, but not fearful;
often moving the tail, while it is sitting on the low shrubs; it makes
the nest between the branches of the sea buckthorn, of the berries of
which it is very fond.
A.—Length eight inches. Bill black; the whole crown above
the eyes white; the rest of the head, neck to the breast, back between
the wings, and the wings themselves, black; the breast, belly, vent,
lower part of the back, rump, and tail fine bright chestnut; the end
of the tail black; thighs and legs black.
Inhabits India; found at Coadwara, in April; named Gir-Cha-
ondeea.—General Hardwicke.
20.—BLUE-THROATED WARBLER
Sylvia Suecica, Ind. Ont.ii. 521.    Klein, p. 77. III.    Id. p. SO^xxiv,
Motacilla Suecica, Lin. i. 336.    Faun. suec. No. 259.    Gm. Lin. i. 989.    Frisch, 1.19.
f.3.4.    Georgi, 174.   Borowsk. iii. 194.    Geriri. iv. t. 397. 2.    Spalowsk. i. t. 36.
37.   Nat. Misc. pi. 661.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. 117.    Id. Ed. ii 216.
Cyanacula, Bris. iii. 413—male.    Id. 8vo. i. 425.
1 Gibraltariensis, Bris. iii. 416—female.    Id. 8vo. i. 486.
Ruticilla Wegflecklin, Raii, 78. A. 5. 3.    Will. 160.   Id. Engl. 219. 3.
Das Blaukehlchen, Naturf. xvii. 104.   Id. xxii. 139.
 WARBLER. 29
Blaukehlein, Gunth. Nest. t. 74.     Wirs. Vog. t. 9.
La Gorge bleue, Buf. v. 206. pi. 12.    PI. enl. 610. 1—male.     Id. f. 2—female.    Id.
f. 3—young.    PI. enl. 361. 2—an old male.
Blue-throated Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 444.   Arct. Zool.il 417. E.    Edw. pi. 28—fern:
Shaw's Zool. x. 660.
SIZE of the Redbreast, and much the same in colour above.
Over the eye a white streak; throat, and neck before bright azure
blue; beneath this a border of black, and below it the breast is red;
belly, thighs, and vent, dusky white; tail brown, but the base half
of all but the two middle feathers orange red.
The female differs in having the throat white; across the neck a
band of blue, bordered beneath with another of black; the rest of
the under parts dusky white.
Inhabits many parts of Europe, though no where so common as
the Redbreast, and we collect from the above synonyms, that it is
met with in various parts between Sweden, and Gibraltar; said to
frequent places near the water, among reeds and the like, and makes
the nest of grass, &c. on the willows. Authors mention, that it has
an agreeable song, singing in the night :* the young do not gain the
colour on the breast till after some time, as in the Redbreast, being
only spotted with brown on that part; and it has been remarked,
that the blue colour disappears if the bird be kept in a cage, not
obtaining it after the first moult: it is a pretty common species about
Alsace, and being thought palatable food, many are caught for the
use of the table.
Some birds, supposed to be old males, have a beautiful silver-
white spot, the size of a silver penny, in the middle of the blue, on
the fore part of the neck.
Mr. Edwards is said to have received his specimen from Gibraltar,
but Mr. White never once met with it during his stay there.
 30
21.—BLUE-NECKED WARBLER.—Pl. civ.**
LENGTH nearly six inches. Bill dusky; plumage above,
including the eye on each side, deep brown ; over the eye a streak
of white ; under parts dusky white; chin and throat pale blue, in
the middle of which is a rufous patch ; and the blue is also bounded
with rufous beneath ; the two middle tail feathers brown, and others
fine rufous half way from the base, the end half brown; legs dusky.
Inhabits India, called there Neelkunthee, Gunpigera, and Gun-
pedrah, also Neelkoarit, or Blue-throat.
A.—This is paler than the last, above the eye a white trace, and
a second on the lower jaw, but the blue on the throat, the red within,
and beneath the same.
Found with the last; and named Ganutta.
J*^" B.—This differs from the others, as the blue on the throat is
divided in the middle with a rufous semicircular band, bounded
below with rufous, as in both the others, and like them the tail half
rufous, half brown.
In a drawing of one of these, the name given to it was Gehoonau.
22.—CAFFRARIAN WARBLER.
Sylvia Caffra, Ind. Orn. i. 514.
Motacilla Caffra, Gm. Lin. i. 997.   Lin
Caffrarian Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 426.
. 1771. p. 527.
's Zool. x. 670.
SIZE of the White Wagtail; head and back olive; over the
eye a white streak; between the bill and eye  black; throat and
   WARBLER. 31
rump ferruginous; breast and belly whitish; quills brown; tail even,
ferruginous, the ends of the feathers brown.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
A.—A Variety among the drawings of Sir John Anstruther,
answered to the above, except in having a second stripe of white in
the direction of the jaw, growing wider behind, bounded above and
beneath with black; between the bill and eye black ; tail one inch
and three quarters long, and brown; rump brown; legs one inch and
a quarter long, rather stout, and yellow.
Inhabits India : with this another smaller, having the upper parts
pale brown; sides of the head and beneath white; chin and throat
pale rufous; bill and legs dusky.    This appears as a young bird.
23—RUSSIAN WARBLER.
Sylvia Certhiola, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 186.
LENGTH five inches. Bill black; plumage above olive brown,
with oblong dusky brown spots; chin, fore part of the neck, and
middle of the belly white; beneath the chin a zone of oval brown
specks; sides, belly, and under tail coverts, light rufous, the last
with white ends ; tail long, greatly cuneiform, the feathers on the
upper part tipped with ash-colour; beneath dusky, at the end for
some way whitish ash. The female paler in colour; hind claw very
long, and crooked.
Inhabits the South of Russia; said to be first described by Dr.
Pallas, in his Faun. Russica.
24—GRASSHOPPER WARBLER.
Sylvia Locustella, Ind. Orn. ii. 515.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. 129.   Id. Ed. ii. 184.
Locustella, Raii, 70. A. 7.   Id. Letters, p. 108.    Will. 157.
Ficedula pectore fusco,   Gerin, iv. t. 393. 2.
 r
32 WARBLER.
La Locustelle, Buf. v. 42.   Hist. Prov. i. 359.
Fauvette tachetee, PI. ml. 581. 3.
Titlark that sings like a Grasshopper,   Will. Engl. 207.
Grasshopper Warbler,   Gm. Syn. iv. 429.     Id. Sup. ii. 240.     Br. Zool. i.   No. 156.
Id.fol. 95. pi. Q. f. 5.   Id. Ed. 1812. i. 518.    Collins's Birds, pi. 10. f. 11. & pi. 10.
f. 9. Arct. Zool. ii. 419. L.   White's Selb. p. 45.   Shaw's Zool. x. 595.    Lewin''s
Birds, iii. t. 98.    Orn. Diet.
SIZE of the Reed Wren ; weight three drachms and twenty-four
grains; length rather more than six inches, breadth of wing seven
inches and a half. Bill slender, dusky, the under mandible whitish ;
over the eye in the male, an indistinct trace of buff-colour; plumage
on the upper parts somewhat like that of the Sedge Warbler, viz.
brown, with dusky markings, but the tail differs in being cuneiform,
the two middle feathers full two inches and a half long, and much
pointed at the ends, the outer one only one inch and a quarter, and
rounded, the intermediate ones decreasing in length and sharpness
as they are more outward; the first quill is shorter than the second ;
the under parts of the body are plain dull white, inclining to dusky
rufous on the breast; over the thighs, the vent, and under tail coverts
dull white, with a dusky streak down the shafts; the tail feathers,
viewed obliquely, appear to have eleven or twelve undulated bars of
a darker hue across them ; but in a full light, this vanishes; legs
one inch long, and yellow.
One of these, in the collection of Mr. Bullock, had the crown
mixed dusky black, with a pale streak down the middle, and the
teathers of the back dashed with black.
The female not unlike the male, but smaller. This species comes
to us about the middle of April, and frequents commons for the most
part, where it is seen among the bushes and furze, but excessively
shy, keeping constantly in the middle of a bush ; like others of the
Genus, the males arrive first, and are to be seen on the top of the
spray, having a kind of grinding note, and at times a very agreeable
kind of warble.    As soon as the females arrive, which is a week or
 WARBLER. 33
ten days,* they are heard only in the evening, and at this time the
note is so like that of a Gryllo-talpa or Mole-Cricket, as scarcely
to be distinguished. The nest is made of dried fibres, and clivers,
lined with the same, but finer materials; and is of a loose and
slovenly texture, though not inelegant; the egg is about the size
of that of the White-throat, not quite so round, of an elegant bluish
white, or pale blue : the bird goes away in autumn, but at what particular period does not seem certain. We have noticed this species in
various parts of Kent, and Col. Montagu has met with it in Hampshire, the South of Wales, and in Ireland ; but no where in greater
plenty than on Malmsbury Common, Wiltshire.—Mr. Johnson found
this in Yorkshire; for in his letter to Mr. Ray, he says, " I have
sent you the little bird you call Regulus non cristatus; we have great
store of them each morning about sun-rise, and many times a day;
besides, she mounts the highest branch in the bush, and there with
bill erect, and wing hovering, she sends forth a sibilous noise like
that of a grasshopper, but much shriller."t On the Continent, it
inhabits Sweden; is common in Siberia, though more scarce in
Russia; to the south, in France, and as far as Italy, but whether
reaching farther southward seems uncertain; is probably not uncommon in America; as I met with one very little varying in the
collection of General Davies.
25.—DANUBIAN WARBLER.
Sylvia fluviatilis, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. 183.    Meyer, Tassch. Dmt. i. 229.
Flussanger, Bechst. Deut. i. p. 562. sp. 22.
LENGTH five inches four lines. Plumage above olive, shaded
with brown; throat white, with numerous longitudinal, olive spots;
* I once had two of these birds, male and female, shot on Dartford Brent, as early as
the 15th of April, 1790.
t This can be no other than the Grasshopper Warbler, as may be imagined from a note
on this passage by Dr. Derham. See Ray's Letters, p. 108. The Regulus cristatus is
the Yellow Wren, for which Mr. Johnson has mistaken this bird.
VOL. Til. F
 g4 WARBLER.
breast and sides of the neck olive white, with lance-shaped deeper
coloured spots; middle of belly white; under tail coverts olive-
brown, with white ends; tail very cuneiform ; hind claw very long,
and crooked.
Inhabits Austria and Hungary, chiefly on the borders of the
Danube. This seems to be very nearly allied to the Grasshopper
Warbler, if not the same.
26.—SEDGE WARBLER.
n. suec. No. 249.     Gm. Lin. i. 955.   Khm,aoi
. b.    Id. Ov. 25. t. 10. f. 10.    Borowsk. iii. 184.
L33.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 190.
Id. 8vo. i. 415.
, .Bttii,
Will. 153.
ml. 581. 2.
Sylvia SaKcafia, Ind. Orn. ii. 516.
Motacilla Salicaria, Lin. i. 330.     P
74. 4.   Id. Stem. 13. 1.16. f. 2.
Sylvia phragmitis,  Tern. Man. d'Orn
Ourruca arundinacea, Bris. iii. 378.
Junco minor, Sepp, Vog. t. p. 98 ?—y<
Avis consimilis Stqparolse et Magnanini
Salicaria Gesneri, Raii, 81. 11.
Der Rdhrsanger, Naturf. xvii, 101.
La Fauvette de Roseaux, Buf v. 142.
Rohrsperling, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 12 ?
Der Denderich, Naturforsch, xxvii. s. 45.
Bird without a name, like the Stopparola of Aldrovandus, Will. Engl. 217.
Willow Latk, Br. Zool. iii. Ed. ii. 241.   Id. fill. 95. pi. 2. f. 4.
Sedge Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 430.   Id. Sup. 180.     Br. Zool. i. No. 155.     Id. Ei.
1812. p. 517.    Arct. Zool. ii. 419. M.    Hist. Selb. pp. 67. 71. 74.    Albin, iii. pi.
60.    Bewick, Birds, i. pi. p. 215. (Reed Fauvette) Shaw's Zool. x. 586.   Lewin,
Birds, iii. t. 105.     Walcot, Birds, ii. pi. 236.     Donov. Birds, ii. pi. 48.    Pult.
Dors. p. 9.    Orn. Diet. $ Supp.
THE length of this bird is five inches and a hal£ extent of
wing eight inches and a half; weight three drachms. Bill dusky,
paler beneath ; irides hazel ; head brown, streaked with dusky;
cheeks brown; over each eye a white line, and above that a black
one ; hind part of the neck and back reddish brown, the last marked
with black; wing coverts and quills dusky, the first edged with pale
brown; the under parts are white, with a tinge of yellow on the
breast and belly; tail brown, ■mtich rounded at the end, the coverts
tawny; legs dusky.    Male and female much alike.
 WARBLER. 35
This species is common in England, frequenting watery places,
where reeds and sedges grow. It makes a nest of moss and dried
fibres, lined with the same, but finer materials, and lastly with hair.
This is smaller than that of the Reed Wren, less deep, and is supported in an elegant manner, generally between three or four rushes,
or reeds, near the side of a river, not tied like that of the last named,
but the whole of the sides of the nest enveloping the reeds which
support it; at other times it is made on the ground, on a tuft of rushes,
or in a low bush, but always close to the water; the eggs are five or
six in number, brownish white, marbled with brown, each weighing
from 24 to 28 grains. It arrives about the middle of April, and
departs in September; the song is much esteemed, having great
variety, imitating that of the Skylark and Swallow, also at times
the twittering of the House Sparrow ; and this has, till of late, been
attributed to the Reed Bunting, which is now known to possess little
more than a scream; but as they frequent the same places, this circumstance might easily be mistaken; it has also been confounded
with the Reed Wren, which is not to be wondered at, since they both
have the same haunts, though the latter is not always found with the
Sedge Warbler, which is so common, that few watery places are
without it.
27.—DARTFORD  WARBLER.
Sylvia Dartfordiensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 517.
 Provincialis,  Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 211.
Motacilla Provincialis, Gm. Lin. i. 958.
Curruca sepiaria, Gerin. iv. t. 391. 2 ?
Pitchou de Provence, Buf. v. 158.    PI. enl. 655. 1.
Dartford Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. p. 435.   Id. Sup. 181.    Id. Sup.il 241.    Br. Zool. i.
389. pi. 56.    Id. Ed. 1812. i. p. 530. pi. 63.    Bewick, pi. p. 203.    Shaw's Zool. x.
717. pi.56.    Lewin, m. pi. 106.    Donov. pi. 10.    Walcot, Syn.u. pi. 237.    Lin.
Trans, vii. 280.    Id. v. 9. 191.    Orn. Diet.
THIS is not much bigger in the body than a Wren, but the tail
being half the length of the bird, it measures about five inches, and
F 2
 36 WARBLER.
weighs about two drachms and a half. Bill black, with a white base,
and the upper mandible a trifle curved at the tip; irides red ; eyelids
deep crimson ; the upper parts'of the head, neck, and body dusky
reddish brown; breast and belly deep ferruginous; the middle of
the belly white; quills dusky, edged with white; the bastard wing
white; exterior web of the outer tail feather white, and shorter than
the others; the rest dusky.
The female does not materially differ, but seems to incline more
to rufous than brown.
We have reason to believe, that this bird is more common in
England than was formerly imagined : it first came under our notice
from a pair being killed on Bexley Heath, not far from Dartford,
on the 10th of April, 1773 ; these were sitting on a furze bush, and
had the manners of the Flycatcher, springing from the bush, on seeing
a fly passing within reach, and returning to the spot repeatedly: after
this, the bird was detected on Wandsworth Common, from which
place more than one Cabinet was furnished with specimens, but we
owe to the researches of Colonel Montagu the continuance of their
history and manners. From this Gentleman we learn, that they are
in plenty both in Devonshire and Cornwall, having seen them there
in the winter season, two being shot on the 8th of September, 1802,
and proved to be male and female; in the gizzards of these were
found the elytra of some minute species of beetle, and some dark-
coloured seeds; they were seen occasionally in the same places till
the end of the year. The Colonel, continuing his assiduity, has
further proved, that the Dartford Warbler not only is a winter but a
constant resident, and that it breeds here: he was fortunate enough
to find two pair of old birds on the 16th of July, supposed, by their
clamour, to have young ones ; next day a nest was discovered, with
three young, placed among the dead branches of the thickest furze,
slightly fastened between the upright and main steins, but not in a
fork; it was about four feet from the ground, but so hidden from
common observation, as not to be found without great difficulty; the
1
 WARBLER. 37
nest composed of dry stalks of vegetables, particularly goose grass,
with tender, smooth, dead branches of furze, intermixed sparingly
with wool, and lined with a few dry stalks of some fine carex; it was
flimsy in its texture, not ill resembling that of the Whitethroat; the
eggs cinereous, or greenish white, fully speckled all over with olive-
coloured brown, most so at the larger end; general weight of the
egg 22 grains. Some young ones were also obtained, and brought
up by feeding them with grasshoppers for five or six days, after which
they ate a mixture of bread, chopped boiled meat, and a little finely
pounded hemp and rape seed : they soon became tolerably familiar,
but were in perpetual movement, putting themselves into various and
singular attitudes, erecting the crest at intervals, as well as the tail,
accompanied by a double or treble cry, like the words Cha, cha, cha ;
the song, or what may be termed so, was different from that of any
known bird, but in part resembled that of the Stonechat.*
Buffon says, it is a native of Provence, in France, and found
among cabbages, living on the small insects which harbour there;
that it flies in a jerking manner, from the length of the tail, in
comparison with the shortness of its wings, having a shrill piping
note, several times repeated: all this appears to be true, and we
have not a doubt of its being a constant inhabitant in France as well
as in England, although hitherto the circumstance had eluded
discovery.
A.—Length five inches and a quarter. Irides gold-colour; orbits
crimson ; crown black ; back dark ash, wings very short, dark brown;
throat white; neck, breast, and belly, white, mixed with ash-colour;
legs yellowish ; outmost feather of the tail white on the outer web
and tip; one or two of the next tipped with white, the middle feathers
the longest.
The female mouse-colour, without black any where; eyes and
lids as in the male; beneath wholly whitish, with a russet tinge in
some; tail as in the male, but dirty white on the sides.
* Lin. Trans, ix. 191.
 38 WARBLER.
This is a constant inhabitant of Gibraltar, among the bushes on
the hill, Isthmus, and adjoining country, in great abundance; is a
busy, restless, and chattering bird, and sets up the feathers of the
body, which are very long and loose, in a remarkable manner, when
disturbed.* It is not less common about Tetuan, than in Spain, and
is a mere Variety, if not the same,' with that*found in England^
28.—CARTEIAN WARBLER.
LENGTH five inches. Bill dusky black, the upper mandible
emarginated, the under yellowish, with a black tip % orbits crimson ;
the head and upper parts of the body pale ash-colour, in some
specimens inclining toreddash; beneath from chin to vent reddish
pearl-colour; tail cuneiform, as in the last species, colour as the
back; the outer feather half white ; legs light brown.
This inhabits the neighbourhood of Gibraltar, first found by
Mr. White, among the ruins of Carteia ;t frequently seen upon the
adjoining common, creeping low among the bushes, and very seldom
appearing on the wing; resides there throughout the year: this is
considered by Mr. White as a distinct species, but it certainly seems,
more probably, a mere Variety of the Dartford Warbler.
29—SARDINIAN  WARBLER.
Sylvia melanocephala, Ind. Orn. ii. 509,    Gm. Lin. i. 970.    Cett. Uc. Sard. 215.    Tern.
Man. Ed. ii. 204.
Sardinian Warbler, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. 236.—male.
Sylvia moschita, Ind. Orn. ii. 509.    Gm. Lin. i. 970.    Cett. Uc. Sard. 215.
Rufous-crowned Warbler, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 236.—female.
LENGTH five inches. Bill black, base of the under mandible
white ; irides brown ; round the eyes bare for a certain space, and
reddish.    The male is said to be like the Black-cap, but smaUejihj
* Rev. Mr. White. f Now called Boccadilla.
 WARBLER. 39
crown, hindhead, cheeks, and on the ears, black; throat, neck before,
and middle of the belly, white; nape, back, sides of the belly, and
wwig coverts, deep grey; wings and tail dusky; the outer feather
white on the ©titer web and tip; on the second a white spot; legs
brown. The female has those pants about the head, which are black
in the male, only dusky ash-colour; beneath the body as in the
male, but more dilute ; the bare space about the eyes the same as in
the male.
M. Cetti merely says, the male is greenish ash above, and grey
beneath; the crown black, with a red band over the eyes; and the
female lead-colour, with a rufous crown. From this latter description these two appear more like the two sexes of the Black-cap ; but
we are assured by M. Temminck, that this is a distinct species, found
in the south of Europe, Spain, about Algesiras, and near Gibraltar;
that it feeds on insects and their larvae, and sometimes small berries;
makes the nest in the bushes, and lays four or five yellowish white
eggs, sprinkled nearly all over with deeper yellow dots.
30—MARMORA WARBLER.
arda, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 204.
THIS is five inches long, and has the bill more sleroder than the
last. Crown, cheeks, and fore part of the neck, dusky ash-colour,
deepest on the forehead, and about the eyes; back and rump dusky
ash; nape, sides of the neck, breast, and flanks paler in colour,
inclining to rufous on the thighs; middle of the belly white, tinged
with vinaceous; wings and tail dusky; the outer tail feather fringed
with white; orbits surrounded with a naked skin of a vermilion-
colour; legs yellowish.
The female has in general the plumage lighter in colour, and
only dusky ash between the bill and eye.
 40
WARBLER.
This is found chiefly in barren and desert places, in Sardinia; is
not uncommon, and never found in company with other species; is
also most probably to be met with in Naples and Sicily ; feeds on-
insects; nest and eggs unknown.—The above account communicated
by M. Marmora, in the Annates de l'Academie du Turin, in 1719.
31.—RUFOUS WARBLER.
Sylvia rufa, Ind. Orn. ii. 516.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. 125.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 226.
Curruca rufa, Brw.iii. 387.    Id. 8vo. i. 418.    Gm. Lin. i. 955.
Muscipeta minima, Frisch, t. 24.
La petite Fauvette rousse, Buf. v. 146.    PL ml. 581. 1 ?
Weiden Sanger, Bechst. Dmtsch. iii. S. 649.
Rufous Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 431.    Shaw's Zool. x. 668.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Bill grey brown; the
plumage rufous grey above, pale rufous beneath; under the eye a
longitudinal streak of the same; quills rufous grey, with pale rufous
edges; tail the same; legs brown.
Said to frequent the gardens in France and Germany, making the
nest in a low bush or plant, lined with hair; laying five greenish
white eggs, spotted with a dark colour. The bird referred to in the
PI. enlum. can scarcely be the same, as it measures five inches and
three quarters at least; besides, the outer tail feather seems to be
white, the next tipped with white, and the legs yellow : probably
the mistake may have happened from a wrong quotation.*
32.—NATTERERS WARBLER.
Sylvia Nattereri, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 227.
LENGTH four inches two lines.    Bill brown, the lower mandible white;   crown and nape cinereous brown;  back and lesser
* Mr. Temminck supposes that in the PL enl. above quoted, to be a young bird of the
White Throat Species.
 WARBLER. 41
wing coverts the same, with a tinge of olive; over the eyes a broad
white streak; all the under parts clear white; quills and tail dusky
ash, with greenish edges; legs deep ash-colour. The female differs
in the colours being paler.
Inhabits Spain ; found by Mr. Natterer, in the district of Alge-
siras ; said also to be found in Italy.
33—REDBREAST WARBLER.
. 520.     Scop. i. 156. No. 231.     Tern. Man. d'Orn. 115.
Faun. suec. No. 260. Gm. Lin. i. 993. Brun. No.
mer, p. 376. 13. Frisch, t. 19. Sepp, Vog. t. p. 85.
, 39. Bris. iii. 418. Id. 8vo. i. 427. Klein, 77. 1.
c     Id. Ov. 26. t. 10. f. 16.     Borowsk, iii. 194. 16.
Sylvia Rubecula, Ind. On
Id. Ed. ii. p. 215.
Motacilla Rubecula, Lin.t. 337.
283.    Muller, No. 276.    Krc
Raii, 78. A. 3.    Will. 160. t
Id. Stem. 14. t. 16. f. 13. a—
Gerin. iv. t. 396. 2.
Das Rothkehlchen, Naturf. xvii. 104.    Schmid, Vog. p. 88.
Rothkehlein, Gunth. Nest. 32. t. 3. lower fig.    Wirs. Vog. t. 25:
Pettirosso, Olin. t. p. 16.    Zinnan. Uov. 46. t. 6. f. 32.
Rouge gorge, Buf. v. 196. pi. 11.    PL enl. 361. 1.    Hist. Prov. i. 508.
Redbreast, Gen. Syn.\v. p. 442.    Br. Zool. i. No. 217.    Id.fol. 100. t.S. 2.    Id. Ed.
1812. i. 502.   Arct. Zool. ii. 417. D.    Albin, i. pi. 51.   Id. Song Birds, pi. p. 55.
Collins's Birds, pi. 3. f. 56.    Shaw's Zool. x. 711.   Will. Engl. 216. Ch. 8.    Hayes,
Birds, pi.40.     Bewick, pi. p. 204.     Lewin,\\\. pi. 107.    Donov. 1.123.    Walcot,
ii. pi. 238.    Pule. Dorset, p. 9.    Orn. Diet.    Graves, Orn. V. 1.    Id. Eggs, pt. 1.
THIS is a well known bird; the length five inches and three
quarters. Bill dusky ; irides hazel; plumage on the upper parts of
the body, wings, and tail greenish ash-colour; the forehead, throat,
neck, and breast rufous orange; belly and vent whitish ; legs brown.
Male and female much alike.
Inhabits England at all seasons, but appears more numerous, near
inhabited places, in winter, as it retires to the woods, in summer, to
breed: the nest composed of dry leaves, mixed with hair, and moss,
lined with feathers; the eggs five or six, dusky white, marked with
irregular reddish  spots; the nest placed not far from the ground,
 42 WARBLER.
generally in a bush, though sometimes in an outhouse, or the retired
part of some old building. The young, when full feathered, are
spotted all over, and may be taken for different birds: the first
rudiment of the red breaks forth at the end of August, and about the
end of September is in full colour : it is a tame and familiar species,
closely attending the gardener when he is turning up the earth, for
the sake of worms, and will often, in winter, enter houses, where the
windows are open, picking the crumbs from the table, while the
family are at dinner;* the chief food, when at large, is insects-
It is observed, that the Redbreast will not touch a hairy caterpillar,
but will gladly take and eat any sort of smooth ones.f
The Redbreast is found in most parts of the European Continent,
from Sweden to Italy, and in great abundance in Burgundy and
Lorraine, where numbers are taken for the table, being thought
excellent; very common also in Spain, Gibraltar, Barbary, and
Algiers ; approaching habitations in colder weather, as it does elsewhere 4
A.—Rubecula Bononiensis, Bris. iii. 422.    Id. 8vo. i. 427.
Spipola prima Aldrovandi, Rati, 80. 3.    Will. 153.
Spippola maggiore, Zinnan. Uov. 50. t. 7. f. 36.    Gerin. iv. t. 389. f. 3
First Spipola of Aldrovand,  Will. EngL 210.    Gen. Syn. iv. 444. 38.
This is bigger. Bill brown ; head, neck behind, and back ash-
coloured ; throat white; fore part of the neck and breast rufous;
belly, thighs, and vent, rufous and white mixed; wing coverts varied
with black, white, and rufous; quills black, edged with white, and
the secondaries with rufous; tail as the quills-, legs yellow.
* An anecdote, of a tame one whioh inhabited the Cathedral at Bristol, for 15 years,'
and usually perched on the pinnacle of the great organ, during^mne service, is mentioned!
in Gent. Mag. 1794. p. 154. f Ray's Letters, p. 13(5.
$ Brisson says, « appropinquante hyeme ad nos advolat," and means the same thing,
but misled Linnaeus, who put it down as migratory, which it is in no country.
 WARBLER. 43
Found about Bologna, appears to be the Redbreast in incomplete
plumage. Mr. White says, the Redbreast sings by candle-light;*
and, like the Wren, whistles the year round.
34.—RUFOUS-THROATED WARBLER.
LENGTH seven inches and a quarter. Bill black; the whole
of the upper parts of the plumage fine hoary lead or slate-colour;
beneath the eye a patch of feathers, with dusky white lines; at the
base of the under jaw another of dusky white, under eyelid white;
chin and throat fine ferruginous, within the ferruginous, on each side,
a fine dusky line somewhat obscure; breast fine dove-colour; belly,
vent, and under tail coverts, ferruginous, the last deepest; quills
dusky, with paler edges; tail three inches and a half long, rounded;
the two middle feathers dark, the exterior one white, but the outer
web from the middle to the end dusky; the next the same, but the
end, as well as the inner web, white; the third black, with the end
only white; the others black, but the two middle ones are of the
same colour as the back; thighs slate-colour; legs pale.
Native place uncertain.—In Mr. Bullock's Museum.
35.—WHISKERED WARBLER.
SIZE of the Redbreast. Bill pale red; general colour of the
plumage brown ; throat pale orange ; on each under jaw a blackish
whisker; quills edged with pale orange, and a patch of deeper
orange, inclining to ferruginous at the base; legs pale.
Inhabits China.—Described from a specimen in the collection of
Mr. Leadbeater.
* Hist. Selb. p. 101.
G 2
 44
36—DOUBLE-STREAKED WARBLER.
Le double Sourcil, Levail. Afr. vii. 109. pi. 128. f. 1. 2.
Motacilla diophrys, Double-streaked Warbler, Nat. Misc. xxiii. pi. 97?.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill rather stout, dusky black;
crown of the head deep rufous; plumage above pale ferruginous
brown, beneath dirty white, with a tinge of rufous on the flanks, and
under the tail; on each side of the head two streaks of black, the
one above the eye, the second beneath it, in the direction of the jaw;
tail greatly cuneiform, the two middle feathers three inches long,
the outer not more than three quarters of an inch, and all of them
pointed at the ends; legs the colour of the bill.
The female much like the male, but wants the black streaks
above and beneath the eye.
Inhabits Africa; observed only in the country of Karow, but
not common.    The nest has never been met with.
37—WHITE-TAILED REDBREAST.
LENGTH under five inches. Bill and legs dusky; irides hazel;
head pale bluish grey; back and wings pale brown; chin, throat,
and breast, pale rufous orange, as in the Redbreast; the rest of the
under parts white; thighs brownish; the two middle tail feathers
dusky black; the rest white, with the ends for half an inch dusky
black, most black on the outer feathers.
The female has the back and wings as in the male; head paler
brown, not grey; the forehead, and as far as the breast, dirty rufous
white; the rest of the under parts dusky white ; thighs brownish ;
tail as in the male, but the dark parts are less deep.    It may be
 WARBLER. 45
observed, that in this species the tail appears to be doubly rounded,
the two middle feathers being shortest, and the third, or middle one
of the five on each side, longer than the others.
Inhabits India.—General Hardwicke. Found at Cawnpore, in
November.
A.—Size uncertain. Bill slender, black; plumage in general
pale brownish ash-colour; chin and throat rufous; beneath from the
breast to vent white; quills and tail brown ; the two middle feathers
plain, the others, for about one-third from the base, white. The
female nearly the same, but wants the rufous on the chin and throat.
Inhabits India.—From the drawings of Sir John Anstruther.
In some the chin, throat, and breast, are pale red, much the same
as in the Common Redbreast, but wanting the red on the forehead.
38—WHITE-THROAT WARBLER.
Sylvia cinerea,  Ind. Orn. ii. 514.     Gm. reise, iv. 151.       Tern. Man. d'Orn. 113.     Id.
Ed. ii. p. 208.
Parus cinereus, Bris. iii. 549.    Id. 8vo. i. 463.    Buf. v. 409. 3.
Ficedulas aflinis, an Spipola prima, Raii, 77. A. 6.
Stoparola Aldrovandi, Raii, 77. A. 1.    Will. 153.    Id. Engl. 210.
Spipola prima Aldrovandi, Raii, 80. 3.    Will. 171. Id. Engl. 210 & 236. xvi.
Die fahle Grasmucke, Schmid, Vog. p. 87. t. 73.
Fauvette grise, ou Grisette, Buf. v. 132.    PL enl. 579. f. 3.
 rousse, PL enl. 581. 1.—a bird of the first year.
Vitrec a menton blanc, Salern. 226. 6.
Turdus Calamoxenus, Sepp, Vog. t. p. 97.—the bird.
Der Waldsanger, Naturf xvii.  101.
White Throat, Gen. Syn. iv. 428.     Br. Zool. No. 160.     Id.fol. 104. t. S. f. 4.    Id.
Ed. 1812. i. p. 528.    Collins's Birds, pi. 5. f. 6. 7.    Arct. Zool.W. 422.  S.    Alb.
iii. pi. 58.     White, Selb. p. 103.     Shaw's Zool. x. 597.      Bewick, i. pi. p. 219.
Lewin, iii. pi. 104.    Walcot, ii. pi. 235.    Pult. Dors. p. 9.    Orn. Diet.
LENGTH five inches and three quarters, weight four drachms.
Bill dusky, base beneath whitish;   irides yellow hazel; plumage
 46 WARBLER.
above cinereous brown; back reddish ; wing coverts margined with
rufous; throat white; breast and-belly reddish white, darker on the
breast and sides; quills and tail dusky, the feathers of both edged
with pale brown ; the outer one of the tail wholly white on the outer
web, and the inner the same, except at the base.
The female has the breast and belly wholly greyish white. Individuals seem to differ; in some, there is much mixture of reddish on
the upper parts, in others.plain brown; and they are also seen to
vary, in having more or less white in the two outer tail feathers;
but how far such birds are to be accounted Varieties, or differing
from age, does not seem apparent.
This species appears first about the middle of April, and leaves
as in autumn. The nest generally found in a low hedge, of a very
flimsy texture, composed of moss, dried grass and fibres, sometimes
having a few hairs within ; the eggs generally five, greenish grey,
marked with pale reddish brown spots all over, and weighing about
27 grains. It seems to be spread throughout the kingdom, and has
an agreeable and lively song, at which time it, for the most part,
erects the feathers of the crown into a sort of crest. It is more like
the Pettichaps than any other, but this latterhas never any rufous
tinge in the plumage, and the tail feathers are of one colour.
The White Throat, called by some the Nettle-creeper, feeds both
on insects and fruits, and may be seen in the summer in the gardens,
making havock among the cherries and currants; but by way of
recompence, destroys also a multitude of noxious insects, spiders, &c.
and is a well known and common species, both here and on the
Continent of Europe, as may be seen from the various synonyms
quoted ; by the people of Provence, in France, it is called Passerine.
It extends southward into Spain at the least, being well known in
the Province of Andalusia, and is said to be met with in Gibraltar
at all seasons.
 J
 /^////^J/W/:
**_
 I
  47
39—STOPAROLA  WARBLER.
Motacilla Sylvia, Lin. i. 330. 9.    Faun. suec. No. 250.    Gm. Lin. i. 956.    Brun. No.
275 ?    Muller, 269.    Faun. arag. 83. 5.    Borowsk. iii. 188 ?
Curruca cinerea, Bris. iii. 376. t. 21. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 415.    Buf. v. 409. iii.
Stoparola, Aldrov. Op. ii. 732.
SIZE scarcely larger than the Willow Wren. Head, neck, and
all the upper parts cinereous; the under white; quills cinereous
brown; tail the same, the exterior feather white, on the outer web, the
whole length, the second white at the tip; the breast of one colour.
Inhabits woods and groves, and called in Sweden Skogsknetter,
Mesar; Brisson, whom Linnaeus quotes as a synonym, says, it is five
inches seven lines long, the ten middle tail feathers brown, margined
all round with grey, the exterior pale cinereous, the outer web and
tip white.    We can scarcely think it distinct from the White Throat.
40—LESSER WHITE-THROAT WARBLER.—Pl. cv.
Sylvia Sylviella, Ind. Orn. ii. 515.
Motacilla longirostra, Naturf. xxvii. s. 43. 2.—Bechstein.
Lesser White-Throat,   Gen. Syn. Sup. 185. pi. 113.—bird, nest, and eggs.    Id. Sup.
ii. 239.     Shaw's Zool. x. 599.    Donov. iv. pi. 86.     Orn. Diet.    Br. Zool. Ed.
1812. i. p. 529.
SIZE and shape of the Yellow Wren; length scarcely five inches.
Bill half an inch long, slender, dusky, base of the under mandible
yellow; irides dark; plumage on the upper parts pale cinereous
brown, darker on the crown; under parts from chin to vent dusky
white; tail two inches long, the same in colour as the upper parts,
except the outer feather, which is paler on the outer web, the two
middle ones are shorter than the others, giving a forked appearance
when spread ; the wings reach to about one-third; legs deep brown.
Male and female much alike.
 r
E
I am indebted to my late friend, the Rev. J. Light foot, for the above,
who first informed me, that it was found in May and June, building
in the brambles, and other low bushes, about Bulstrode, Bucks.
The nest composed of dry bents, mixed with wool, lined with those
of a finer texture, with a few white hairs of a horse or cow, though
not sufficient to form a covering; the eggs white, four or five in
number, with small dots of brown, and some irregular blotches of
the same towards the larger end; also other blotches of a paler
brown mixed, but the small end quite plain. It is found in many
parts of this kingdom, but most plentiful towards the east**
I have set down the JWotacilla Sylvia of Linnaeus as distinct,
not being able to make it exactly correspond with our White Throat,
though many authors suppose it to be the same; nor can I clearly
reconcile it with the present one, as Linnaeus expressly says, that
two of the outer tail feathers have white in them, whereas in the
lesser White-Throat they are wholly brown, except the outer web of
the exterior, which is only paler, but not white; it approaches nearer
to the Babbler Warbler, though in reading the description some
differences will be found; however this may be, I received, a few
years since, a specimen of the Lesser White-Throat from Sweden,
under the name of Motacilla Curruca, but whether it was the same
with the Kruka of that country, or that which Linnaeus meant under
that name, is not so easily determined .j-
Mr. Bechstein makes the length of the bill a characteristic distinction, and it certainly is a trifle more elongated than in the Reed,
or Willow Wrens, or Lesser Pettichaps; but it appears longer than
it really is, from the face itself being prolonged : it both hops and
* Col. Montagu says, it is not found in Devonshire or Cornwall, and thinks he has met
with it in the greatest numbers in the enclosed parts of Lincolnshire.—.Orn. Diet.
t In the Fauna suecica, Linnaeus says, " extima (rectrice) margine interiore alba."
In the Systema Natural, he writes " extima (rectrice) margine tenuiore alba," no doubt
meaning, that the margin of the inner web is white ; yet at the end of the description in
the former, he adds, " Rectrices fuscae, sed margine exteriore longitudinaliter alba," which
is the case in our bird; at least the outer web is very pale, approaching to white.
 flies well, and may be observed sometimes sitting with the bill
upright, continually opening and shutting it, and harshly uttering
the words Aetsch Atsch.*
Although we have no certain knowledge of this bird being found
elsewhere than in Germany and Sweden, independent of our kingdom, yet we can scarcely doubt its being met with in the intermediate
places on the Continent of Europe, though perhaps confounded with
other species. Dr. Pallas, in some MS. notes, mentions a bird by
the name of Creeper-like Willow Lark, and says, " it is in colour
" like a Creeper, with a rounded tail, the lateral pens tipped with
" white ;" that it is common about Lake Baikal, but not elsewhere.
It is not possible from this short description to determine the species.
41.—GOODA WARBLER.
LENGTH about four inches. Bill slender, pale ash-colour, with
a hair or two at the base; general colour of the plumage pale
cinereous brown; over the eyes a whitish streak; beneath from chin
to vent, and upper tail coverts dusky white; tail rounded; wings
short, only reaching to the rump ; legs pale ash-rcolour.
Inhabits India, and there called Gooda.—From the drawings of
General Hardwicke, it appears more like the Lesser White-Throat
than any other, but it seems to be a smaller bird, or the draughtsman has painted it less than it ought to be, from inattention.
42.—VIRESCENT WARBLER.
LENGTH four inches. Bill dusky; plumage above olive brown;
beneath very pale ash, with a tinge of green- ©n the breast and sides,
* Naturforscher.
VOL.   VTf. H
 r
50
and in some lights on the back likewise; quills and tail brown;
legs dusky.—Inhabits Africa.—Mr. Bullock. It is at first sight
very like the Lesser Pettichaps, but is a smaller bird.
43—GREEN-BACKED WARBLER.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill dusky; plumage above
dusky green; beneath pale yellow buff-colour; the base of the
greater quills white, forming a spot on the wing; from the nostrils,
over the eye, a pale trace; quills and tail dark ash; on the two
outer feathers of the last, a dusky white spot on the inner web, near
the end ; legs brown, pretty long.
Inhabits Africa.—Mr. Bullock.
44. - WHIN-CHAT WARBLER.
192.     Gm. Lin. i. 967.     Brun. No. 277.     Muller,  No. 275.    Kramer, 375. 5.
Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 159.    Id. Ed. ii. 245. (Traquet Tarier).
Rubetra major, sive Rubicola, Bris. iii. 432. t. 24. I.   Id. 8vo. i. 430.
Sylvia Petrarum, Steinfletsche, Klein, 78. 11.   Id. Ov. 25. 1.10. f. 9.
Walde RothschwanU, Gunth. Nest. t. 95.
Whin-Chat, Gm. Syn. iv. 454. Br. Zool, i. No. 158. Id. Jbl. 108. t. S. 2. f. 3. 4.
Id.Ed. 1812. i. 525. Arct. ZooLii. 421. R. Will. EngL 234. Colling, Birds,
pi. 8. f. 3. 4. Show's Zool. x. 706. Hayes, Birds, pi. 60. 1.,-win. iii. pi. I09i
Walcot, ii. pi. 140. PnlU Dors. p. 9. Om. Diet. Graves, Br. Orn. v. iii. Id.
Eggs, Pt. I.
LENGTH five inches, weight four drachms and a half. Bill
black; irides hazel; head, neck, back, and rump black, the feathers
edged with rufous;   from the bill, over the eye, a white streak
 WARBLER. 51
passing almost to the hindhead ; beneath this the cheeks are blackish ;
chin white; the rest of the under parts rufous white, deeper on the
breast; on the wings, near the shoulder, a transverse white mark, and
another, smaller, on the outer edge, near the bastard wing; tail
white for two-thirds next the base, the rest of the length black ; the
two middle feathers wholly black ; legs black.
The female is paler, the spots on the wings and trace over the
eye less conspicuous; and instead of black, the sides of the head are
the same in colour as the other parts.
This is not uncommon in England ; seen with the Stone-Chat on
Heaths during summer, where it breeds; the nest is placed on the
ground, and formed of dried bents, and a little moss, much as in
the Stone Chatter; the eggs five or six, and bluish.
It seems to be less common than the following, and in the
northern parts of England disappears in winter. We have, however,
seen it in Kent, the whole of the year. The greater part, therefore,
may be supposed to migrate, or at least shift quarters, but some
few remain behind. We certainly do not find this bird in plenty
till the middle of April, and chiefly in places where furze grows;
hence by some called Furze-Chat. It is singular too, that it should
so very rarely be seen in Devonshire and Cornwall, but the same is
the case with some others of the Summer Warblers, giving reason to
suppose, that they arrive and depart from our eastern coasts, and from
thence spread more or less throughout England.*
This species is said to be common throughout the Continent of
Europe, in France, Italy, and Germany, the more temperate parts
of Russia, and even as far as the Uralian Chain, yet not reaching
any part of Siberia ;t but in general is more common than the Stone-
Chatter. The food is chiefly insects ; will also catch flies, which it
seizes on the wing like the Flycatcher: the flesh is thought by some
I * Appears on the Isthmus of Gibraltar, and sometimes on the hill in spring and sum
mer, but disappears entirely in winter.—White.
f According to Linnaeus it is found in Spitsbergen.
H 2
 52
WARBLER.
to be well flavoured, and equal to that of the Ortolan. The song is
a fhwt warble, having an elongated note at the end, but although
monotonous, is not unplea&ngltMd At is observed frequently to utter
this while suspended in the air on the wing.
I have seen two Varieties, one with the belly much variegated
with white; the other with a considerable portion of pale.grey<aa
the upper parts, and the tail feathers tipped with the same.
45.—WHEAT-EAR WARBLER.
Sylvia Oenanthe, Ind. Orn. ii. 529.    Scop. i. 156.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. 135.
Saxicola Oenanthe, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. 237.
Motacilla Oenanthe, Lin. i. 332.    Faun. suec. No. 254.    Gm. Lin. ;.£66.    Brun. No.
276.    Muller, No. 274.    Kramer, p. 374. 4.    Faun. Groenl. 122.     Sepp, Vog. t.
p. 163.    Raii, lb. A. 1.     Will. 168. t. 41.     Borowsk. iii. 192.     Lin. Trans, xii.
p. 532.
Vitiflora, Bris. iii. 449.    Id. 8vo. i. 434.    Klein, 78.    Gerin. iv. t. 383. 384. L
Culo bianco, Zinnan. Uov. 41. t. 6. f. 24.    Cett. Uc. Sard. 223.
Der Weiss schwanz, Naturf. xvii. 103.
Cul-blanc, Vitrec, ou Motteux, Buf. v. 237.    PI..enl. ,554. 1. 2.     Hist. Prov. i. 498.
Voy. en Barb. i. 273.
Steinschmazer, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 26. f. 1.
Wheat-ear, Gen. Syn. iv. 465. Id. Sup. 182. Br. Zool. i. No. 157. Id.fol. 102. t.
s. 1. f. 5. 6. Id. Ed. 1812. i. 521. Collins'* Birds, pi. 6. f. 1. 2. Arct. Zool. ii.
420. P. Will. Engl. 133. pi. 41. Albin, i. pi. 55—male, 54^tfemale» Edw.
Birds, pref. p. 12. Shaw's Zool. x. 565. Bewick's Birds, i. pi. in p. 229.
Lewin's Birds, iii. pi. 110. Walcot, Birds, ii. pi. 241. Pult. Dorset, p. 9.
O™. Dict.Sf Supp.    Graves's Br. Orn. V. iii.    Id. Eggs, pt. 1.
LENGTH five inches and a half, breadth nine inches and .1&ree
quarters ; weight six drachms and a half. Bill black, rather broad
at the base, and furnished with a few hairs; irides hazel; crown of
the head, hind part of the neck, and back, bluish grey; over the eye
a white streak; through the eye another of black, which grows much
wider behind it; quills black, edged with tawny ; the rump, upper
tail coverts, and base of the tail, white; the end half black; body
 WARBLER. 53
beneath yellowish white, changing into pure white at the vent; breast
tinged with red ; legs Jblack. In^fc$fi& female Jhessmark over the eyes
is rather obscure, and instead of the black mark under it, is a patch
of brown ; and the tail not so deeply marked with white. This is a
migratory species, coming into England about the middle of March,
and departing in September : the females arrive first. It is known
by various names;, sas JiasUow-finch, or Smich, White-tail, and Snorter;
also Chickel, Hedge-xebicker, and Chackrtbjrd.*
In some parts of England they are in great plenty, and much
esteemed for the table; but mo where,seen in greater numbers than in
Sdissex, about Eastbourne; are taken in snares made of horse hair,
placed beneath a turf, and being timid birds, the appearance of an
enemy, or even the motion of a cloud* wiU tovedhem for shelter to
these traps, and are then taken. The numbers, annually ensnared in
that district alone, amount to about 1840 dozens^ ithisisibe profit of
the Shepherds, who frequent the plains with, their sheep, and have
been known to fetch a shilling per dozen, formerly valued at sixpence.
Quantities of them are eaten by the neighbouring inhabitants, or
occasional visitors, others ,ipieked, and forwarded to the London
Poulterers; and many potted, being as laaaichiesteemed in England
as the Ortolan on the Continent.
The food is chiefly insects, and in wet summers feed much on
earth-worms, and I have likewise been told, that on opening them,
the stosaach was filled with a small black oureulio. £
It chiefly frequents heaths; but except in particular spots, only
a few scattered pairs are to be seen. The nest is usually under
shelter of a turf, clod, stone, &c. always on the ground, and not
unfrequently in some deserted rabbit burrow, composed of dry grass,
** Orn. Diet. f It is observed at Eastbourne, that the flights chiefly consist of
young birds, which arrive in greatest numbers when a westerly wind prevails, and always
come against the wind ; on the 15th or 16th of August, 1792, a Shepherd caught twenty-
four dozens, with only a few old birds ajmong them ; and in another instance, eighty-dour
dozens were caught in one day, by a single Shepherd.—Lin. Trans, iv. p. 17.
$ Sir Thomas G. Cullum, Bart.
 54 WARBLER.
or moss, mixed with wool, fur of the rabbit, &c.; the eggs from five
to six, of a light blue, a trifle darker at the large end, each weighing
about 43 grains ; the young hatched about the middle of May.
It is believed, that this bird in general migrates annually, but I
am clear that some few remain through the whole year; I have once
seen a single one a little after Christmas, and it is said, that some
have been occasionally observed about warrens, and stone quarries,
during the winter: the greatest number seen on the downs in Kent,
as far as my own observations go, is about the middle of April,* and
after staying a fortnight, rarely more-than one or two remain, but
return to the same spot in August, as we are told, though I cannot
say that I have remarked this return, oftener than twice or thrice.
Mr. Boys once informed me, that he had frequently seen them in
plenty about Sandwich, the second week in August.
This species inhabits the whole of the Continent of Europe, from
Greenland! on the north, to the Cape of Good Hope, and from thence
at least to the East Indies, as we have not only met with drawings
of the bird, but seen specimens, which were brought from that part
of the world;$ but it is in all places described as migratory; are
frequently known to fly on board of ships on entering the Straits of
Gibraltar, coming from the Barbary Shore, and observed to arrive in
that fortress from the end of March to the second week in April in
numbers; a few stay, and breed there, but the rest depart northward;
returning again to the rock in September, after which they disappear for the winter.
A.—Motacilla Oenanthe, Lin. i. 332. 15. /3.
Vitiflora grisea, Bris. iii. 452. t. 21. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 434.
Cul-blanc gris, Buf v. 244.
Grey Wheat-Ear, Gen. Syn. iv. 467.    Br. Zool. App.
This Variety differs in having a mixture of whitish and fulvous
on the upper parts, with very small grey spots on the lower part of
* Mr. Lamb saw five or six females on Heckfield Heath, near Reading, the 20th March,
t Met with by D'Entrecasteux. % Hist. Selb. p. 38. See also Edwards's Preface.
 WARBLER. 55
the neck; and the two middle tail feathers wholly black; the others
as in the Common Wheat-Ear, and fringed with pale rufous; bill
and legs brown.*
B.—Vitiflora cinerea, Bris. iii. 454. t. 21. f. 3.    Id. 8vo. i. 435.
Cul-blanc cendre, Buf. iii. 245.     Gm. Syn. iv. 468.
The forehead in this bird is white; the upper parts of the body
ash-colour; irregularly mixed with grey brown; rump grey brown;
in other things like the last described.
C.—Scopoli observes another Variety, found about Dwina, which
is white on the upper parts; throat, wings, and nearly the whole of
the two middle tail feathers black; and two black spots on the
other feathers of it.
46.—RUSSET WHEAT-EAR WARBLER.
Sylvia Stapazina, Ind. Orn. ii. 530.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. 137.
Saxicola Stapazina, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 239.
Motacilla Stapazina, Lin. i. 331.    Gm. Lin. i. 966.
Vitiflora rufa, Bris. iii. 459.    Id. 8vo. i. 436.    Klein, 80. 26.
Cul-blanc roux, Buf. v. 246.
Oenanthe altera Aldrovandi, Raii, 76. 2.    Will. 168.    Id. Engl. 233.
Stapazina, Arct. Zool. ii. 241. Q.
Russet Wheat-Ear, Gm. Syn. iv. 468.    Edw. pi. 31.—front figure.    Shaw's Zool.
SMALLER than the Common Wheat-Ear; length six inches
and a half, extent eleven; weight one ounce. Bill black : in the
male, the head, neck, back, and breast, are of a faint dirty orange,
* This bird was shot near Uxbridge, and described with the upper parts tawny, fore part
of the neck dull brownish yellow; from the bill to the eye an obcure dusky line; quills
black, edged with tawny and white; tail like the Common Wheat-Ear, with pale tawny
edges.
 11
56 WARBLER.
deeper on the back; across the lower part of the fedtlLsacrescent of
black spots; chin, cheeks, and throat, black; rump, upper tail
coverts, and lower belly, white; wings light brown ;. thieve middle
feathers black, the others white, with a narrow border of black;
legs black. The fe.mafe.>J9 said to be like the male, but the black
mark is round, and behind the eyes only, andvyabt ttttder the throat,
which part is white.
Inhabits Italy, about Bologna, but not common ^ found also at
Gibraltar. Notwithstanding the above description of sexes, I am
assured that the black mark indiscriminately belongs to either sex,
and that from the colours only it is impossible to distinguish the
male from the female. The young of the first year have a paler
yellow on the back than the old birds. It is one of the later migrators
into GibraWla'r, not appearing till the end of March ; by the second
week in April they abound in all parts of the hill, town, and isthmus,
being prior in their arrival to the Common Wheat-Ears ; they
gradually disperse through all the country, leaving always some few
that inhabit the rockuw its more retired parts ; but none remain after
the migration upon the flat country of the Isthmus. In May and
June the male sings with a very sweet and pleasing, but feeble note.
In autumn the whole of thi^speeies^departs tosBarfewFyf,'froHii whence
they came.
47—BLACK-EARED WHEAT-EAR.
Sylvia Stapazina, Ind. Orn. ii. 531. Var. 0.    Raii, 81.13.    Will. 168,
Saxicola aurita, Traquet oreillard, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 241.
tftiffora rufescens,  Bris. Hi^^ST, t. 25. 4.    Id. 8ro.-&48&>   ><
Cut blaric roussatKS, <Bitf, v, 245.
Russet Wheat-Ear, Var. A.   Gen. Syn. iv. 469.     Edio. 31.—back figure.      Will.
Engl. 233.
LENGTH six iwches and a quarter.     General colour of the
plumage above pale rufous, under parts white; through the eye,
 from the bill, a broad black patch which extends over the ears ; tail
for three-fourths of the length white, the rest black; but the wings
and the two middle tail feathers are black, and the outmost chiefly
so; bill and legs black.
In the female the mark on the ears is only dusky, mixed with
rufous; nape and back rufous brown; throat dirty white; breast
pale rufous, with some other trifling differences. The males at first
much like the females.
Inhabits the southern parts of Italy as well as the Russet Species.
Willughby says near Nismes, and Bologna; common in the neighbourhood of the Mediterranean Sea; has been usually taken for a
Variety of the Russet Wheat-Ear; but M. Temminck assures us,
that it is a distinct species. The description in Brisson is very good,
but the tail in his figure seems longer than in nature, approaching
to that of the Wagtails.
48—RUFOUS WHEAT-EAR.
Sylvia leucoriioa, Ind. Orn. ii. 531.
Motacilla leucorhoa, Gm. Lin. i. 966.
Le Motteux du Senegal,   Buf. v. 249.
Cul blanc du Senegal, PL ml. 583. 2.
Rufous Wheat-Ear, Gm. Syn. iv. 469.    Shaw's Zool. x. 574. pi. 52.
THIS is bigger than the Common Wheat-Ear; length seven
inches. Bill black; upper parts of the plumage rufous brown ;
wing coverts brown, edged with rafous; quills the same ; the under
parts of the body yellowish white, inclining to reddish on the breast;
the rump, upper and under tail coverts, and base of the tail, white;
the rest of the tail brown, edged with rufous, like the quills; legs
black.—Inhabits Senegal.
 58
49—CAPE WHEAT-EAR.
Sylvia Hottentotta, Ind. On. ii. 531.
Motacilla Hottentotta, Gm. Lin. i. 963.
Grand Motteux, ou Cul blanc du Cap de B. Esp. Buf. v. 248.
Traquet Imitateur, Levail. Afr. iv. 92. pi. 181.—male. 182.—yo
Cape Wheat Ear, Gm. Syn. iv. 470.    Shaw's Zool. x. 573.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill and legs black ; forehead
white, passing over the eyes as a streak; chin and throat white; top
of the head black; through the eye, from the bill, a streak of black,
curving on the sides of the neck, there finishing in a broad bar; the
rest of the under parts white; plumage on the upper parts of the
body and wings clay-brown ; rump white ; quills and tail feathers
dusky, with pale edges.
The female is smaller, the colours less bright, the white less pure,
and the black on the breast inclining to brown : in young birds the
black on the breast is wanting. It differs from the Pileated Warbler
next described, in being bigger, and the white streak passing over
the eye broader, which in the last named is only a slender stripe;
on the breast, too, in the latter is a band more than an inch broad;
it is probable that they may be allied. •
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, almost every where in the
neighbourhood of the Colony, chiefly among the cattle, and feeds
on insects and worms : it sometimes builds in a hollow in the earth,
or rock; at other times in some old ant hill, and lays five eggs, of a
turquoise blue. The Cape Wheat-Ear is probably the female. Both
this and the following are named Schaap Wagter.
 59
50.—PILEATED WARBLER.
Sylvia pileata, Ind. Orn. ii. 531.
Motacilla pileata, Gm. Lin. i. 965.
Black-headed Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 471.    Shaw's Zool. x. 569.
SIZE of the Wheat-Ear; length six inches. Bill black; head
black, uniting, on each side of the neck, with a deep crescent of the
same, which occupies the whole breast; over the eye a white streak ;
forehead and chin white; back and wings russet brown ; rump and
belly white; the two middle tail feathers black, the base of the others
white ; the rest of their length black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, where it is called Schaap
Wagter, under which name I have received it from thence. I have'
also seen it in Chinese drawings, as well as from India, where it is
called Carrowla-
51—CREAM-COLOURED WARBLER.
LENGTH five inches. Plumage in general dusky white, or
cream-colour; back, breast, and under parts, more inclined to dusky;
rump and tail wholly pale ferruginous; bill and legs black.
Inhabits India, and called Burra Carrowla : it seems a doubtful
bird ; not improbably a White Variety of the last Species, which
bears a name somewhat similar.
52—STONE-CHAT WARBLER.
Georgi, 174.
Sylvia Rubicola
Ind. Or
i. ii. 523.
Tern.
Ma
n. d'Oi
n. p. 140.
Sylvia Muscipet
i,  Scop, i
No. 236 ?
Motacilla Rubic
ola, Lin.
i. 332.    Ch
n.Li
n. i.
969.
Kram. p.
375.
6.
Gerin. iv. t
382. 1.
Motacilla Rossica, Nat. Misc. p. 649
I 2
 r
111
III
gO WARBLER.
Rubetra, Bris. iii. 428. t. 23. 1.—male. Ttf.Svo.i. '
• Saxicola Rubicola, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 246.
Oenanthe nostra tertia, Raii, 76. A. 4. Will. 169. t
Sylvia lutea capite nigro, Klein, 76. 8. Id. Ov. 25.
Swartzkehliger steinschmatzer, Bechst. Deut. iii. 694.
Traquet, Buf. v. 215. pi. 13. PL enl. 678. 1. His
Occhio di Bue, Zinnan. Uov. 52.
Tschecantschiki, N. C. Petr. xv
Dornreich, Gunth. Nest. «. Ey.
Stone-smich, Stone-chatter, M
Id.fol. 103.
f. 40.
489 ? t. 25. i
-lower figure
tling, Gen. Syn. v
448.    Br. Zool. i. No. 159.
Id. Ed.
. 520.
Will. Engl. 235. t. 41.
Collins, Birds, pi. 9. f. 10. & pi. 11. f, 8. Shaw's Zool. x. 709. pi. 55. Albin, i.
pi. 52. Hayes, Birds, pi. 39. Bewick, Birds, pi. p. 233. Lewin, Birds, iii.
pi. 108. Walcot, Birds, ii. pi. 239. Pult. Dors. p. 9.
Diet.    Graves, Br. Orn. V. i.    Id. Eggs, pt. 1
Donox
Orn.
LENGTH five inches or more; weight five drachms. Bill black,
Wltfo a few weak hairs at the base; irides dusky; the head, neck,
and throat, are black, or nearly so; the upper parts of the body
mixed blackish and pale rufous; the feathers margined With the
latter; on each side of the neck a transverse streak of white, giving
at a distance the appearance of a white collar; breast reddish yellow; belly paler; vent nearly white; rump quite white; quills
dusky, margined with ferruginous; those next the body marked
with a white spot near the base, and a second spot of white on the
edverts; tail black, the outer edges, and ends of the two outer
feathers, ferruginous ; legs black.
The female has the colotkrs less vivid; the head not black, but
like the rest of the upper parts; sides and throat palest; the white
on the sides of the neck less conspicuous, and that on the wings the
same, but the rump not white. Young male birds, of the first year,
have the black feathers on the head mixed and edged with rufous.
This is a common species, and for the most part inhabits dry
places, such as heaths and commons, living on insects, which it is
often seen to take in the manner of a Flycatcher, springing on the
flies which pass within reach, and returning to the twig it first sat
 WARBLER. 61
on : it is an early breeder, making the nest in a bush, near the
ground, or sometimes on the ground beneath a stone; it is composed
of moss and bents, lined with hair, and sometimes a few feathers; the
eggs five or six, of a bluish green, sparingly marked with faint
rufous spots; whether this bird partially migrates, or only changes
the abode, for the sake of a greater plenty of food, is not generally
agreed on; but although it is certainly seen the winter through, the
numbers are fewer, and I have had reason to think that at such
times more will be found in low marshy situations than elsewhere.
It is not on record for any thing like a song, except a warbling kind
of note, which it utters in the spring, and chiefly on the wing; but
the general note, according to Buflbn, imitates the word Ouistrata,
frequently repeated ; though in my opinion, more like a clicking of
stones together, one being held in each hand, hence perhaps the
name of Stone-chatter. It inhabits various parts of the Continent of
Europe, from Sweden to the Cape of Good Hope at least, but in no
place more common than at Gibraltar, where it is seen in every part
of the district, chiefly on the heaths and commons where furze
abounds, and there found at all seasons.
Inhabits India, comes to Calcutta in September, and departs in
April; often found among the thickets of Hogle or Typha, and feeds
on insects. I observe a pair of these in Gen. Hardwicke's drawings ;
in these the colours are the same as in the European Species, but
darker, and better defined.
A—Le Traquet patre, Levail. Afr. iv. 88. pi. 180. 1. 2.
This has the whole head brown black, round the neck white;
breast rufous ; lower belly, thighs, and rump, white; quills and tail
brown; on the middle of the wing a spot of white. This is the
male.
 11
ill
j: fi
ll
«
Le Motteux, ou Cul-blanc verdatre, Buf. iv. 248.
Orange-breasted Wheat-Ear, Gen. Syn. iv. 470.
This is smaller than the other; the upper parts black brown,
mixed with greenish brown ; on the wing a white spot; throat dirty
white; fore part of the neck the same, mixed with black; breast
orange, paler towards the belly; upper and under tail coverts white;
tail brown, all but the two middle feathers have the ends white.
This is the female.—The young bird is almost wholly brown.
These inhabit the Cape of Good Hope, and according to M.
Levaillant, differ only in sex; the name given to this is Schaap
Wagtertje.*
B.—In this the head is not wholly black, but only the chin and
sides above the eye ; the crown, nape, and all the parts, above being
pale brown, mottled with dusky; the under parts, quite to the vent,
white; sides of the neck, under the wings, and the rump pale ferruginous ; quills dusky, with pale edges; on the middle of the wing
a patch of white; tail dusky, nearly black, edged as the quills, the
two outer feathers more or less white.
The female is much the same, but paler, the fore part of the head
and chin not black, but rufous white; through the eye a dusky
streak.
These inhabit India, and seem to be further Varieties of the Stone-
Chat. From the last place we have also seen another, in which the
head and throat were black ; the crown black, spotted darker brown;
beneath pale rufous, the rump, and collar round the neck the same;
and appears very like the Common Stone-Chat.
* The Pileated Warbler is also called Schaap Wagter.
 53.—SIBYL WARBLER.
Sylvia Sibilla, Ind. Orn. ii. 523.
Motacilla Sibilla, Lin. i. 337.    Gm. Lin. i. 992.
Rubetra Madagascariensis, Bris. iii. 439. t. 24.    Id. 8vo. i. 431.
Traquet de Madagascar, Buf. v. 231.
Sibyl Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 450.    Shaw's Zool. x. 609.
THIS is allied to the Stone-Chat, but is a trifle bigger. Head,
neck, and upper parts of the body, black, but the feathers of
the back and wing coverts have tawny margins; it has the white
spot on the wings, but wants that on the rump, and all the tail
feathers are black; the under parts of the body are white, passing
backwards at the lower part of the neck, like a half collar; the
breast rufous.
Inhabits Madagascar, where it is called Fitert; at first sight may
be taken for the Stone-Chat. Is said to sing well. I have met
also with the same bird in drawings from India, where it is called
Cassia, a large kind of Sparrow.
A.—Length five inches. Bill black ; form of the bird and size,
as that of the Stone-Chat; crown marbled whitish and brown; sides
of the head plain brown; over the eye, from the bill, a broad pale
trace towards the nape; body above brown, streaked with dusky;
chin and throat the colour of the eye streak; breast and under parts
buff white; rump as the breast; wings dark brown, the feathers
edged with tawny buff; quills wholly dusky; tail even, dusky, the
feathers edged, and tipped with tawny; legs black.
Inhabits India.—General Hardwicke. Said to be common in
hedge rows about Anophere, in December.
 64
if:
54.—PROVENCE WHEAT-EAR.
Sylvia Massiliensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 531.
Motacilla Massiliensis, Gm. Lin. i. 965.
Le Fist de Provence, Buf. v. 194.    PL ml. 654. 1.
Provence Wheat-Ear, Gen. Syn. iv. 471.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill three quarters of an inch, dusky ;
top of the head and neck behind pale rufous brown ; the feathers
margined at the ends with blackish ; upper parts of the back rufous ;
lesser wing coverts black, margined with rufous; quills much the
same; beneath the eyes a yellowish white spot; body beneath reddish white, with small blackish spots about the neck and breast;
tail a trifle forked, dusky black ; the two middle feathers margined
with rufous, the three next on each side with white, the two outmost
wholly white; legs yellowish, hind toe pretty long, but the claw as
in the others.
Found at Provence in France, and called Fist, from its note;
when disturbed, it squats beneath a stone* till all is again quiet.-
55.—SPOTTED WHEAT-EAR.
%livia inaculata, Ind. Orn. ii. 532.
Motacilla maculata, Gm. Lin. i. 965.
La Pivotte Ortolane, Buf. v. 195.    PL enl. 654. 2.
Spotted Wheat-Ear, Gen. Syn. iv. 472.
SIZE of the last, and not much unlike it. Plumage above
brown, spotted with dusky black; rump and upper tail«overts plain
brown; wing coverts and quills black, margined with dusky white;
prime quills black ; round the eyes yellowish white; under part of
the body dusky white, spotted with black on the neck and breast
 WARBLER. 65
and dashed with the same on the sides; tail white at the base, the
rest black above, and dusky beneath ; the two outer feathers white
on the outer webs, and tips of both white; legs as in the last.
Inhabits the same places as the other, and both of them called
Becfigue. The last frequently accompanies the Ortolan, and taken
at the same time with that bird.
56.—ASH-CROWNED  WARBLER.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill brown; top of the head
ash-colour; from the nostrils a band of black passes beneath the
eye, where it grows broader, and ends on the under jaw ; back and
wings olive-green; tail slightly cuneiform, olive-yellow; all the
under parts, from chin to vent, full yellow; legs pale.
Native place uncertain.—In Mr. Bullock's Museum.
57.—COMMON WREN.
Sylvia Troglodytes, Ind. Orn. ii. "547.   Scop. i. No. 239.     Tern. Man. 128.    Id. Ed.
ii. 233. &&&•'
Motacilla Troglodytes, Lin. i. 337.     Faun. suec. No. 261.   Brun. No. 284.   Muller,
No. 279.    Gm. Lin. i. 993.   Kramer, 378.    Georgi, 175.     Frisch, t. 24.     Klein,
Av. 76. 1.   Id. Stem. 14. t. 16. f. 4. a. b.   Id. Ov. 25. t. 10, f. 13.   Faun. arag.
89.   Sepp, Vog. t. p. 110.    Borowsk. iii. 190.    Raii, 80. A. 11.    Will. 164. t. 42.
Gerin. iv. t. 389. 2.
Regulus, Bris. iii. 425.    Id. 8vo. i. 428.
Troglodyte,  Roitelet,   Buf. v. 352. t. 16. 1.      PL enl. 651. 2.     Hist. Prov. i. 510.
Robert, Ic: pi. 2.
Reattino, Olin. uc. t. p. 6.
II Lui, Cett. uc. Sard. 225.
Zaunschlupper, Schmid, Vog. p. 89. t. 75. B.
Zaun Koenig, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. 28. t. 2.    Naturf. xvii. 105.
Winter Wren, Amer. Orn. i. pi. 8. f. 6.
vol. vir. K
 66 WARBLER.
Wren, Gm. Syn. iv. 506. Br. Zool. i. No. 154. Id.fol. 102. pi. 42. Id. Ed. 1812. i.
516. Collins, Birds, pi. 7. f. 7. 8. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 322. Albin, i. t. 53. B.
Id. Song Birds, t. p. 64. Will. Engl. 229. pi. 42. Russ. Alep. 71. Hayes, Br.
Birds, pi. 38. SAaw'* Zoo/, x. 763. pi.. 60. Bewick, Birds, i. pi. p. 227. Lewin,
Birds, iii. pi. 111. HWcof, Rird*, ii. 242. Pult. Dorset, p. 9. Orn. Diet.
Graves, Br. Orn. V. ii.    Id. Eggs, pt. 1.
THE length of this well known bird is four inches, rarely more^
and the weight two drachms and three quarters. Bill slender, and
dusky brown; irides hazel; head, neck, and back, reddish brown,
crossed with numerous obscure dusky lines; cheeks marked with
dirty white, mixed with rufous ; over each eye a pale reddish white
streak; the under parts) as far as the breast, of this latter colour,
the rest of the plumage crossed with brown lines; quills barred
alternate with reddish and black j and the tail crossed with dusky
lines like the back; legs pale brown.
This is common in England, and to be seen at all seasons; it
makes a nest of a curious- construction, in shape nearly oval, with
only one small entrance; chiefly made of moss or lichen, well lined
with feathers; and the bird is said sometimes to build twice in a year.
It will, however, vary the materials according to the situation it is
placed in, so as to make it as little conspicuous to the observer as
possible: the eggs are eight, or at most ten, dusky white, with reddish markings, chiefly at the larger end, and each weighing about
twenty grains : the nest is frequently found in the corner of an
outhouse, stack of wood, hole of a wall, &c. when near habitations;
but if in the woods, often in a bush near the ground, stump of a
tree, or on the ground itself. Its song is a short, though pleasing,
warble, much louder than could be expected from the size of the
bird, and continues it throughout the year. I have heard it sing
unconcerned, even during a fall of snow, and frequently very late
in the evening, when all but the Nightingale are silent.
This species is found throughout Europe, but less common in the
colder regions; it is however not unfrequent in Sweden and Russia,
and has been met with at Aoonalashka.    I trace it also as far south
 WARBLER. 67
as Aleppo. Said likewise to be in Barbary ; it inhabits the hill of
Gibraltar, among bushes, and loose rocks, and in the inclosed country
at all times, though rarely seen in the town. I have reason also to
think that it is a native of America, for I have received it from
Hudson's Bay, where it is called Chees, Chees, te, maw, tich, wa,
sue; have likewise seen a specimen from Georgia.* Mr. Abbot,
who furnished this, informs me, that it is common about Savannah,
there called the House Wren, frequenting old dead trees, lying on
the ground in swamps, and about plantations; and that it is so
gentle, as to come into houses, to pick up the crumbs; the egg
precisely like that of our species, it also builds the same kind of nest,
and often in outhouses.
The Redbreast, and the Common, and Crested Wrens, seem to
have been held in more respect than most othet birds, and have had
more familiar names applied to them ; the most common one given
to the first, has arisen from the red throat, f though several allusive
names may be observed.^ To the Common and Gold-crested Wrens,
in almost every nation, the epithet of Royalty is attached,|| independent of petty names in abundance.§
Both the Redbreast, and the Wren too, are held by the lower
class in a kind of veneration, so as to be highly favourable to their
preservation as Species; and it must be a most wicked and mischievous boy, who will not pay some sort of deference to a very trite
* In this the tail appeared to be a trifle longer, than in the European one.
f Das Rothkehlchen, Rostbrustchen, Rothele—by the Germans. Rouge-gorge, Gorge-
rouge, Rubienne, Rubiette, &c—French. Pettirosso, Petto-rosso—Italian. Pitirroxo—
Spanish.    Ruddock, Redbreast, Robin Redbreast—English.
+ Consigliere (Counsellor), Frate Gavina (Friar Mumps)—Italian.
|| Reatino, Re degli Uccelli—Italian. Reyezuelo—Spanish. Ave rei—Portugal, &c.
&c.; and the Saxon, ppamna, from whence our Wren is derived, is in signification not far
different.
§ Thomas i giaerdet, Tommeliden—Denmark.   Petermansmad, Muse broder—Norway.
And we the Jenny Wren, and Kitty Wren.    Musabrouir, in the Ferroe Isles, meaning the
Mouse's Brother, because, like the mouse, it creeps through the chinks in the wind houses,
and feasts on the dried meat.—See Landt's Description of the Ferroe Islands.
K 2
!
 68
WARBLER.
The Robin and the Wren, are God Al-
English proverb, viz.
mighty's cock and hen:" and in. some parts of France, it is known
by the epithet of Bceuf de Dieu. It is, however, only in one instance,
that I find the Wren to be dedicated to the Virgin Mary, where it is
called the Hen of our Lady.*
58—GOLD-CRESTED WREN.
Hi
>7.   Id. Ed.
Brun. No-
Sylvia Regulus, Ind. Orn. ii. 548.  Scop. i. No. 240.    Tern. Man. d'On
ii. p. 229.
Motacilla Regulus, Lin. i. 338.     Faun. suec. No. 262.    Gm. Lin. i. 99
285.   Muller, No. 280.    Kramer, 378.    Georgi, 175.    Frisch, t. 24.    Faun. arag.
89.    Borowsk. iii. 189. t. 72. B.    Nat. Misc. pi. 165.
Trochilus cristatus, Klein, av. 76. 3.   Id. Stem. 14. 1.16. 5. a—c. & t. 28. f. 2.
Regulus cristatus, Raii, 79. A. 9.    Will. 163. t. 42.    Bris. iii. 579.    Id. 8vo. i. 472.
Ph. Trans, xxviii. p. 170.   Bartr. Tr. 289.   Gerin. iv. t. 390. 2.   Hist. Prov. i. 509.
Fior rancio, Olin. Uc. t. 6.
Scriccialo, Cett. uc. Sard. 225.
Gold vogelein,  Wirs. Vog. t. 14.—male and female.
Der Haubenkonig/ Naturf. xvii. 106.    Schmid, Vog. p. 89. t. 75. A.
Gold-crested Wren, Gen. Syn. iv. 508.    Br. ZoolA. No. 153.    Id.fol. 101. pi. S. f. 3.
Id. Ed. 1812. i. 514.     Collins, Birds, pi. 3. f. 9. & pi. 11. f.9.     Arct. Zool. ii.
No. 321.    Id. Sup. p. 64.     Will. Engl. p. 227.    Edw. pi. 254. 1.    Alb. i. pi. 53.
Cat.  Car. App. 36. 37.     Hayes, Birds,  pi. 38.     Shaw's Zool. x.  758.   pi. 59.
Bewick Birds, i. pi. p. 224. Leioin's Birds, iii. pi. 112.   Walcot, Birds, ii. pi. 243.
Don. Birds, pi. 4.    Pult. Dors. p. 9.    Orn. Diet.    Graves, Br. Orn. V. ii.    Id.
Eggs, pt. 1.
THIS bird in length is rarely more than three inches and a half,
and weight from 76 to 80 grains.    Bill black; irides hazel; on the
* If   Than sayd the Wren, I am called the hen
Of our Lady most cumly
Than of her sun, my notes shall run
For the love of that Lady.    '
f   By title and ryght, the Son of Myght
She dyd hym well discus
Tu Patris,, syngyng witout any endyng,
Sempiternus esjilius. Armony of Byrdes.
1
 crown the feathers are elongated, of a fine orange-colour, bounded
on each side with black; the upper parts of the body yellowish
green, the under rufous white, tinged with green on the sides; wing
coverts dusky, crossed with two white bands; quills and tail feathers
dusky, edged with pale green, and some of the inner with blackish
edges; legs yellowish.
In the female the crown of the head is yellow, instead of golden
orange; and all the head feathers shorter. The young birds do not
gain the yellow feathers and crest till autumn.*
This, apparently delicate species, is found in England at all
seasons, and is more common than is generally imagined; but escapes
notice, perhaps from its diminutive size. It bears cold admirably
well, and is found even as far north as Shetland; but after breeding
there, returns southward in autumn, and it probably does the same,
in countries far north, but in a moderate clime is never found to
ptigrate. f
It seems to prefer oak trees, for I have more than once seen a
brood of these, in a tree of this kind, in the middle of a lawn, and the
whole little family with the parents, about ten in number, from their
continual motion, gave great pleasure to all who viewed them.    The
In the same song too, the Redbreast g
5T   Than the Redbrest, his tunes redrest
And sayd now wyll I holde
With the churche, for there out of the ay«
I kepe me from the colde
%   Te per Orbem Terrarum in usum Sarum
He sange cum gloria
Sancta was nexte and than the hole Texte
Confctetur Ecclesia.
* Orn. Diet. f It is perhaps rather from defect of insects, than mere cold, that
the bird is obliged to change place, yet that they are met with out at sea is manifest; as the
late Mr. Boys mentioned to me, that one flew on board a ship in the Downs, April 8, 1797 ;
and we are told, that the same thing has happened off the Coast of Japan.
 70 WARBLER.
nest is composed of moss, with a little wool, and is frequently, but
not always, open at top, the bird accommodating herself to the
situation in which it is placed; frequently in an oak tree as above
mentioned, and often in a pear, or other fruit tree, against a garden
wall, in the midst of an ivy bush, and in many instances, in a fork
beneath a thick branch of a fir tree; the eggs from seven to ten in
number, of a brownish white, darker at the larger end, and each
weighing nine or ten grains.*
In respect to the last mode of building, I have witnessed three or
four instances; one in particular in a fir tree near Bexley, in Kent,
the 20th of April, 1791 ; the nest made of fine green moss, and lined
with feathers, somewhat as in the Chaffinch, but much contracted at
top; it was suspended beneath the forks of a tree,f and as it were tied
with strings in three or four places, and contained nine eggs.
The places, which this bird is found in, need not be specified, as
it is every where known on the Old Continent, from Norway to the
Cape of Good Hope. It has a slight, weak note, more so than the
Common Wren, yet may be called melodious, and I was informed
by Mr. Pennant, that one of these, kept in a cage in Angermania,
sang very prettily. It is a very tame and familiar species. The late
Mr. Tunstall related to me a circumstance of one which had built in
a spruce fir in his garden, at Wycliffe, in Yorkshire, and permitted
the young to be handled several times, without the parents resenting
the intrusion .J
We learn, too, that this bird inhabits America, being met with
at New York, and among the red cedars, also throughout Pennsyl-
* Supposing the egg to weigh 10 grains, and the bird 80, when the female has laid ten
eggs which it sometimes does, that is, one every day, itjays its own weight in ten days.
t Mr. Pennant mentions a nest of one, suspended hi like manner by the corners, to the
boughs of a Spruce Fir, and that the materials were, moss, worsted, and birch bark, lined
with hair and feathers.—Tour in Scotland, 1769, p. 118. I was once shewn a nest by the
late Mr. Lewin, in which several lengths of sewing silk were mixed with the other materials.
+ In the Ornithological Dictionary Introduc. p. xxxiii. may be read some curious experiments relating to the extreme gentleness of this species.
 WARBLER. 71
vania, and from thence to Cayenne,* it is likewise not uncommon in
Georgia, but according to Mr. Abbot, if the same, it is four inches
long, and weighs as far as three drachms, breadth seven inches;
met with frequently in the woods there; but migrates northward
with the Sparrows to breed.
This pretty species is said to be subject to variety in colour, as
Col. Montagu mentions a pair in the collection of Mr. Luscombe, of
Kingsbridge, Devon, which were of a cream-colour, with the usual
yellow crown, by which the sexes are distinguished, and adds, that
in Cornwall it is called Wood Titmouse, and in Devonshire, Tidly
Goldfinch .f
59—FIRE-CRESTED WREN.
Roitelet, Poul Souci, Buf iv. 363. pi. 16. 2.    PL ml. 651. 3.
Regulus cristatus, Vieill. Am. ii. p. 51. pi. 106.
Sylvia ignicapilla, Roitelet triple Bandeau, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. 231.
LENGTH three inches five lines. Plumage on the upper parts
olive-green, inclining to yellow on the sides of the neck ; on the top
of the head the feathers are narrow, long, and of a glowing fire-colour,
on each side of which it is deep black, above the eyes and beneath
them a white streak, and through the eye a narrow blackish one;
forehead pale rufous; in other things it chiefly resembles the last
described.
Inhabits France and Germany.—Described by M. Temminck as
distinct from the Gold-crested Wren ; and that it is found in the pine
and fir woods, as well as in the bushes, and not unfrequently in
gardens; not uncommon in France and Holland, but rarely seen
in Germany. In winter time is common among the pines and firs in
the Jardin du Roi, at Paris; and has the manners of the preceding
species.
* The Specimen from Cayenne had the legs quite black. f Orn. Diet.
 72
60.—FLOWERY WARBLER.
Le Becque-fleur, Levail. Afr. iii. 142. pi. 134. 1. 2.
Sylvia minuta, Minute Warbler, Shaw's Zool. xxii. pi. 997.
THIS is the smallest Species M. Levaillant ever met with at the
Cape of Good Hope, being even inferior in size to the Golden-crested
Wren. The bill is excessively slender, and sharp as a needle; the
colour of it, as well as the eyes and legs, brown; plumage on the
upper parts of the body greenish grey; beneath pale yellow; throat
inclined to white; between the bill and eyes the feathers are longish,
dusky, and white, and are turned forwards; wings and tail brown.
The female is like the male, but the colours more faint, and
wants the elongated feathers on the forehead.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, about Heere Logements, and
from thence to the River of Elephants, and beyond ; found in troops
of eight or ten ; these are very active, and fly from flower to flower,
in search of insects; its cry is like Zi, zi, many times repeated; nest
and eggs unknown.
A bird, apparently of this kind, in Gen. Hard wickers collection,
scarcely three inches and a half long. Bill black; upper parts of
the plumage pale greenish grey; beneath dusky, greenish white;
over the eye a white trace; beneath it a second; legs brown; the tail
short, rather hollowed out in the middle; the feathers of that and
the quills with pale greenish white edges.
Found at Cawnpore, in October.
61.—LEUCOMELE WARBLER.
Motacilla leucomela, N. C. Petr. xiv. 584. t. 22. 3.    Falck, It. iii. t. 30.    Gm. Lin. i
974.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 158.   Id. Ed. ii. 243.
Motacilla pleschanka, N. C. Petr. xiv. 503. 1.14. f. 2.
 73
Muscicapa leucomela, Ind. Orn. ii.469.    Shaw's Zool. :
Leucomele Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 456.
LENGTH six inches and a quarter. Bill and irides dusky ;
forehead, crown, nape, lower part of the breast, belly, rump, and
greater part of the tail white; the other parts black ; the two middle
tail feathers black, the others white, with a broad band of black at
the end ; claws black.
The female is dusky, or cinereous brown above; head and neck
palest, beneath inclining to ash-colour; throat and neck before cinereous grey ; above the eye a white streak ; tail as in the male.
Inhabits the craggy, cavernous places about Saratow, and other
parts of the Volga, and like the Sand Martin makes a hole in
a bank, wherein to place the nest; this hole is horizontal, and
deep; the nest composed of dry stalks, and other materials; the
young ten in number. It is a bold bird, and sits on the stones and
stumps of trees, twittering almost like a Swallow; supposed to feed
on worms and beetles, as the remains of the latter have been found
in the stomach on dissection.
62.—BLACK AND WHITE WARBLER.
Motacilla melanoleuca, N. C. Petr. xix. 468. t. 15.    Gm. Lin. i. 948.
Muscicapa melanoleuca, Ind. On. ii. 469.    Shaw's Zool. x. 328.
Black and White Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 457.    Nat. Misc. pi. 629:
BILL and irides black; the whole of the back white; tail white
at the tip; about one-third of the ends of the two middle feathers
are black, from thence the black decreases, as the feathers are more
outward; thighs annulated brown and white.
The female is brown and dirty ash-colour where the male is
black and white.
This bird is met with, throughout the summer, about Teflis and
Cyrus, in Georgia; feeds on insects; frequents the banks of rivers
VOL.  Til. L
 I
I
74 WARBLER.
among the shrubs; said to be migratory. M. Temminck, who
thinks'this and the last to be the same, says, it is found on the banks
of the Volga.
63.—WOOD WREN.
Sylvia sylvicola, Ind. On. Sup. liii.
Motacilla Sibilatrix, Das Laubvolchen, Naturf. xxvii. s. 47. 4.    Tern. Ma
%. 103.    Id.
Ed.ii. p.225.
Muscicapa sylvicola, Yellow-throated Flycatcher, Am. Orn. i. pi. 7. f. 3.
Regulus non cristatus major, Bris.m. 482. A.    Id. 8vo. i. 442.    Ind. Orn.
ii. p. 550. S.
Will. 164.    Ray's Letters, p. 108.    Gm. Syn. iv. 514. C.
Green Wren, Alb. ii. pi. 86 ?    Br. Zool. Ed. 1812. i. 512.   Shaw's Zool. x.
748. pi. 57.
On. Diet.
Larger yellow Wren, White's Selb. p. 55.    Bewick's Birds, i. p. 220.
Larger, not crested, Wren, Will. Engl. 228.
Wood Wren, Lin. Trans, ii. 245. pi. 24.    Id. iv. 35. pi. 2. f. 1—the egg.
Gen. Syn.
Sup.ii. 237. 6.
THIS bird is not greatly different in colour from the Willow
Wren, but it is larger, of a more elegant make, and the colours
much brighter; the length is five inches and a half, breadth nine,
and the weight two drachms, 42 grains. Bill horn-colour, with a
few hairs at the base; irides hazel; plumage on the upper parts of
the body yellow green; the cheeks, throat, and under parts of the
shoulders yellow; over the eyes a streak of yellow; the breast pale
yellow; belly and vent a most beautiful silvery white; wing feathers
brownish, the margins outwardly green, and inwardly whitish; tail
rather forked, dusky brown, edged with green; legs horn-colour.
The female like the male, a trifle larger, and weighs three drachms.
This is a migratory species; the male, as usual in the Warbler Genus,
coming first; and there is a greater interval between the arrival of
the two sexes, than in any other, being sometimes at a week or ten
days distance; we first see it about the end of April, and lose sight
of it in September; chiefly met with in coppice woods of oak or
beech, on the most lofty .# which it may be-found, uttering a kind
 of sibilous note, during which it expands the wings, in a shivering,
or fluttering manner. Some have compared the note to that of the
Bunting, but more shrill;* and others to that of the Marsh Titmouse,
or the spring note of the Nuthatch ; and it may be observed, that it
is met with in woods only, and not in hedges or bushes; the nest is
made on the ground, beneath the shade of trees, of dry grass, dead
leaves, and moss, lined with finer grass, and a few long hairs, in
shape oval; the entrance near the top, as in those of the Pettichaps,
and Yellow Wren, except that the two latter line theirs with feathers;
the eggs about six in number, weighing from 18 to 22 grains each,
white, sprinkled all over with rust-coloured spots, and in some the
markings are confluent: the young are hatched in thirteen days.f
Mr. White, when at Gibraltar, found both this species, which he
calls the Shivering Wren, and the Willow Wren there; and as he
has seen the latter in the winter months, he suspects that the former
may remain there also throughout the year.
64.—SWAMP WREN.
I FIND likewise an American Species, mentioned by Mr.
Abbott, under the name of Swamp Wren, which seems to be greatly
allied. It is described as having the upper parts yellowish olive,
beneath yellow, except the chin, throat, and vent, which are white;
forehead yellow, passing through the eye, surrounding it; quills and
tail dusky, edged with yellow; bill and legs bluish.
The female differs in being paler. This is common in summer,
in the swamps of Georgia, frequenting the thickets of vines and sap-
* Mr. Lamb not only says, it is very much like that of the Bunting, but so astonishingly
shrill, as to be heard at more than 100 yards distance, and this repeated once in three or
four minutes.—Lin. Trans, ii. 245. Col. Montagu seems to think, that the note rather expresses the word Twee drawn out to some length, and repeated five or six times successively,
terminating with the same note, in an hurried manner, at which time it shakes its wings.—
On. Diet. f Mr. Bechstein.
L 2
 I
70 WARBLER.
lings; has a loud note. It builds the latter end of April, the nest
formed of rotten wood, small chips, and ground swamp moss, lined
with finer tree moss, and fine stalks, like hay; the egg is blush-
colour, with some small dusky specks; but for one-fourth next the
larger end white, at which part the specks are more numerous. They j
are supposed to migrate, but Mr. Abbot, having shot one on the
2d of February, and observed others in the winter season, gives
reason to think, that the greater part remain there throughout the
year.
65—YELLOW WREN WARBLER.
Sylvia Trochilus, Ind. Orn.
Id. Ed. ii. p. 224.
Motacilla Trochilus, Lin. i.
No. 286.    Mullet, No.
. 550.
Scop, i
No. 238.
338.
suec. No. 264.     Gm. Lin. i. 9t
Kramer, 378.   Klein, 76.    Frisch, t. 24,
arag. 89.   Borowsk. iii. 191.   Nat. Misc. pi. 189?
Regulus cinereus, non cristatus, Gerin. iv. t. 390. 1.    Will. Engl. 228.
Muscicapa cantatrix, Little domestic Flycatcher, Green Wren, Bartr. Tra
Motacilla Hispanica, Hasselq. It. 287.   Id. Voy. 206.
Asilus, Bris. iii. 479.   Id. 8vo. i. 441.   Raii, 80. A. 10.    Will. 164.
LePouillot, Buf. iv. 344.   PL enl. 651. 1.    Hist. Prov.i. 510.
Le Gabrier, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 152 ?
Der Weidenzeisig, Naturf. xvii. s. 54. 6.
lufer, Naturf. xvii. 106.
Brun.
Faun.
Gre
l Wn
Albin, 86.
Yellow Wren, Gen. Syn. iv. 512. Id. Sup. ii. 238. Br. Zool. i. No. 151. ld.fol. 101.
pi. S. f. 2. S. 2. f. 1. Id. Ed. 1812. i. 511. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 319. Nat. Misc.
pi. 189. Hist. Selb. p. 28. & 55. Collins, Birds, pi. 6. f. 7. 8. Hayes, Birds,
pi. 38. Shaw's Zool. x. 742. Bewick's Birds, pi. in p. 222. Lewin's Birds, iii.
pi. 113.    Donov. Birds, i. pi. 14.    Pult. Dorset, p. 9.    Orn. Diet.
THIS is larger than the Common Wren, but more slender, the
length four inches and three quarters, but some measure rather more
than five inches; weight two drachms and three quarters. The bill
dusky, beneath yellowish ; irides hazel; plumage on the upper
parts pale olive-green, the under pale yellow, and a streak of the
 WARBLER. 77
latter over the eyes; wings and tail brown, the feathers edged with
yellowish green; legs yellowish; tail a trifle forked; yet the outer
feather is shorter than the next.
. The female is paler, otherwise greatly resembling the male. This
little bird is common in England, as well as other parts of Europe,
more especially where willows grow; hence called Willow Wren ;*
it does not extend so far to the west as the Wood Wren, as it is
rarely met with in Cornwall. It is migratory, and appears with us
early, as we have heard it the beginning of April: it makes the
nest in holes, near the bottoms of old trees, in hollow banks, and
sometimes in a low bush ; it is nearly oval, inclining to round, not
unlike that of the Wren; formed of moss, with a lining of wool,
hair, or feathers; the eggs dusky white, six or more in number,
marked with reddish spots. It has a trifling note, scarcely uttering
more than Twit, twit, whilst running up and down the branches of
trees, in search of insects; but during incubation the song of the
male is soft and weak, though not unpleasing.
A.—Motacilla acredula, Lin. i. 338. 49. /3.   Schr. d. Berlin. Gesells. iii. s. 195.
Ficedula Carolinensis, Bris. iii. 486.    Id. 8vo.i. 443.    Klein, Av. 86. 11.
Sylvia Pumilio, Vieill. Am. ii. p. 39. pi. 100.
Oenanthe fusco-lutea minor, Raii, 186. 39.    Sloan. Jam. ii. 310.
LeFiguierbrunetjaune, Buf. v. 295.
Yellow-Titmouse, or Wren, Cates. Car. i. pi. 63.    Edw. 278. 2.    Gen. Syn. iv. 513. A.
Scotch Wren,  Br. Zool. ii. p. 379. No. 152.    Arct. Zool. ii. 420. N.    Id. Sup. p. 64.
Shaw's Zool. x. 744.    Orn. Diet.
This differs in being rather inclined to brown than green on the
upper, and more yellow on the under parts.
It is said to be found in Jamaica, Carolina, and other parts of
America; and has been sent also from Scotland; but in every case
it is suspected to be the young of the Willow Wren, perhaps a first
year's bird.
* Called also Ground Wren, and Ground Huckmuck.—Orn. Diet.
 78 WARBLER.
In General Hardwicke's drawings are three small birds, greatly
resembling the Yellow Wren. The first four inches and a half long;
above very pale ash-colour; beneath pale yellow buff; over the eye,
from the forehead, a conspicuous, pale yellow streak; bill dusky,
beneath paler; tail even ; legs pale.
Another, four inches and a quarter: above tender pale green,
inclining to brown on the back; beneath pale, cinereous, yellowish
white, with a tinge of yellow on the breast; tail even.
A third most like our Yellow Wren ; length four inches: above
pale olive green, beneath dusky white; over the eye, from the forehead, a white streak, surrounding the eye in a narrow rim ; bill and
legs pale brown; tail slightly hollowed out at the end. This last
said to have been found at Moue, in December.
One, similar to the above, is figured in the American Ornithology.
This is five inches in length, and eight and a quarter in extent: the
upper parts dull yellow olive; the wings dusky brown, edged with
lighter; greater and lesser coverts tipped with white; lower parts
dirty white, stained with dull yellow; tail dusky brown, with a white
spot on the inner webs of the feathers; head remarkably small; bill
broad at the base, furnished with bristles, and notched near the tip.
This is found in New Jersey, particularly in swamps; one of them
seen in an orchard, the end of April, was remarkably active, running,
climbing, and darting among the opening buds, with extraordinary
agility. Mr. Wilson ranks this with the Flycatchers, which it probably may belong to; but in external appearance in the plate,* it is
very similar to the Yellow Wren.
1 Amer.On. Vol. 6. pi. 5. f. 5.-   Muscicapa minuta, Small-headed Flycatcher.
 WARBLER.
79
66—TAILOR WARBLER.
Sylvia sutoria, Ind. On. ii. 551.
Motacillasutoria, Gm. Lin.i. 999.   Zool. Ind. p. 17. 1.18.    Nat. Misc. pi. 237.
Tati, ou Oiseau-Mouche,  W.Schout. Voy. Ind. ii. 513. t. p. 15.
Tailor Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 515.   Ind. Zool. 4to. 44. pi. 10.    Penn. Hindoost. i. 206.
Wood's Zoogr. i. 491.    Shaw's Zool. x. 753.
SHAPE of the Willow Wren, but smaller; length three inches
and a half. Bill a quarter of an inch long, nearly straight, and
black ; plumage on the upper parts of the body pale olive yellow;
chin and throat yellow; breast and belly dusky white; vent pale
yellow; quills dusky, edged slightly with yellow, the first quill
shorter than the second or third, which is the longest of the three;
tail dusky, legs brown ; quills reach to about the middle of the tail.
Inhabits Ceylon; one said to weigh only 90 grains, and to be no
more than three inches long. We have very little doubt of the bird
described above being the same as a specimen, which is in the
collection of Mr. Comyns, and named Kaha Tuhitya. It is chiefly
remarkable for the nest, which is curiously constructed, being composed of two leaves, one of them dead; the latter is fixed to the
living one as it hangs from the tree, by sewing both together in the
manner of a pouch, or purse; it is open at top, and the cavity filled
with fine down, and being suspended from the branch, the birds are
secure from the depredation of snakes and monkies, to which they
might otherwise fall a prey; the eggs are said to be white.
In my own collection is a nest of an equally singular construction;
it is composed of a single large leaf, of a fibrous rough texture, about
six inches long, independent of the stalk; five inches and a half in
breadth, and ending in a point: the sides of this leaf are drawn
together, so as to meet within three quarters of an inch; within this
is the nest, which is about four inches deep, and two broad, opening
at the top; and the bottom of the leaf is drawn upwards to assist in
 80 WARBLER.
the support of it. This inward nest is composed of white down, with
here and there a feather, and a small portion of white down intermixed ; the stalk about five inches long. I received this from Capt.
J. Sotheby, who brought it into England from China, in the year
1807. How far this nest is connected with the above described seems
not clear, but if made by the same bird, it serves to shew, that the
second leaf is not made use of, except in such cases as a single one is
not found large enough for the purpose.
Among the drawings of Sir J. Anstruther is not only a representation of this nest, but another of an equally curious fabrication ; it
appears to be composed of several leaves, like those of some kind
of hazel, sewed together, and an inner a nest formed of dry bents,
fibres, and hairs, suspended from a tree, by the main leaf, to which
the others are fastened. In this are figured two young birds, but
with bills stouter than in the Warbler Genus; the colour of them
rufous above,   and white beneath.     By the side of the nest are
1
1
1
11
drawing, Bay a.*
How far the three nests above described may belong to one
Species, is not easy to say; but if so, it shews the bird to be capable
of varying the structure of its habitation, as occasion may require :
if on the contrary, we may fairly conclude, that more than one or
two birds form similar nests, if not precisely the same.
In the collection of Indian drawings, belonging to Lady Clive,
is a bird not unlike the Tailor Warbler, but with an elongated tail,
under the name of Merops minimus, or Motacilla sutoria. From
the similarity of plumage, and manner of building the nest, there
may be some reason to suspect, that the Long-tailed and the Tailor
Warblers might form but one Species, did not the shape of the tails
so essentially differ.
* This name is
in the shape of a
here described.
ren to the Philippine Grosbeak, but the nest of that is described, as being
>ng-necked bottle, and made of grass, quite different from the Baya
 81
67.—OLIVE-BACKED WARBLER.
LENGTH three inches and a half. Bill dusky; upper parts of
the plumage in general olive green; beneath yellow, inclining on
the chin to rufous; feathers of the wings dusky, edged olive green ;
tail the same, with a large dusky black patch on each feather,
forming a band when spread.
In one specimen the crown of the head was brown, with minute
white streaks, and the under parts, from chin to breast, mixed dusky
and dusky white; the back too was darker; in other markings,
especially the tail, both were the same: probably differing only in
sex.—Inhabits Africa.—Mr. Bullock.
68.—TAWNY-RUMPED  WARBLER.
SIZE of the last. General colour of the plumage above dark
greenish olive, beneath buff yellow ; about the nostrils a very slight
tinge of rufous; rump, and one-third of the tail feathers tawny buff;
the rest of the tail dusky black, ending in dusky buff-colour; the
legs brown.—Inhabits Africa. —Mr. Bullock.
69 —AQUATIC WARBLER.
Sylvia aquatica, Ind. Orn. ii. 510.    Gm. Lin. i
. 953.
Tern. Man. d'Oi
Ed. ii. 183.
Sylvia Schcenobanus, Scop. i. No. 235.
Aquatic Warbler, Gm. Syn.iv.. 419.
THIS is said to be pale rufous above, spotted with brown; the
throat and breast inclined to rufous; belly and rump whitish; a spot
of the same above the outer corner of the eye, and a white band at
the base of the wing; tail feathers pointed.
 Vu'j-lj
1
82 WARBLER.
It builds on the ground, and is often seen sitting on the tops of
plants; migrates in autumn, and called by the Italians, Grisato. It
seems to correspond with the Bog-rush Warbler, but the circumstance
of its migrating, seems to give reason for supposing it a different bird.
70.-BABBLING WARBLER.
Sylvia Curruca, Ind. Orn. ii. 509.
Motacilla Curruca, Lin. i. 329.    Faun. suec. No. 247.    Scop. i. No. 228.    Muller,~No.
267.    Faun. arag. p. 88.    Frisch, t. 21.    Borowsk. iii. 187.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. p.
114.    Id. Ed. ii. 209.
Ficedula cannabina, Gerin. iv. t. 392. 1.
Curruca garrula, Bris. iii. 384.    Id. 8vo. i. 417.    Klein, 73. 2. 3.    Id. Stem. 13. 1.16.
f. 3—a. b.    Id. Ov. 24. 1.10. f. 6.    Will. p. 99 ? iv. t. 23.
Graas-Mucken, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. 61. 1.15.    Naturf. xvii. 100. No. 205.
La Fauvette babillarde, Buf. v. 135.    PL enl. 580. 3.
Beccafico canapino, Olin. t. p. 11. 2.
Cannevarola, Zinnan. Uov, 57. t. 8. f. 46.
Babbling Warbler. Gen. Syn. iv. 417.   Arct. Zool. ii. p. 442. U.    Shaw's Zool. x. 580.
LENGTH five inches. Bill blackish ; crown of the head cinereous ; the rest of the upper parts the same, with a tinge of brown ;
beneath the eye a streak of deep ash-colour; the under parts, and
edge of the wing rufous white; the quills brown, edged within with
white, and outwardly with rufous greyj but the greater ones with
ash-colour; tail brown, edged with grey, the outer feather with the
exterior web and tip white, on the interior bordered with white; the
middle feather the shortest, making the tail somewhat forked; legs
brown.
Inhabits France and Italy, frequenting the hedges, and building
therein; the nest placed not far from the,ground, the eggs greenish,
dotted with brown ;* it is said to feed principally on caterpillars.
Scopoli observes, that it is a restless, noisy bird, imitating the notes
* Ash-coloured, spotted with ferruginous. Faun. suec.
 WARBLER. 83
of others, and frequently seen in the gardens at Pisa, in the summer,
where it is called Bianchetto.
One greatly similar to this, if not the same, is among the drawings
of General Hardwicke, and inhabits India.
71.—WHITE-BREASTED WARBLER.
Sylvia Dumetorum, Ind. Orn. ii. 522.
Motacilla Dumetorum, Lin. i. 334.    Gm. Lin. i. 985,    Kramer, 377. 19.
Curruca tertia, Gesn. av.327.
White-breasted Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 447.    Shaw's Zool. x. 618.
THE brief description given by Linnaeus, of this bird, only
enables us to say, that the upper parts of the body are cinereous
brown, the head bluish ;* throat and breast white.
The late Mr. White, of Gibraltar, informed us, that he had one
of these birds, brought to him alive in the spring, taken on the
Isthmus. He observes, that it is larger than the Blackcap, and has
white irides, which last circumstance is the only one on record in the
Warbler Genus; Gesner says the bird makes the nest of flax, hence
it is called Lingetta. M. Temminck is of opinion that it is the same
as the Babbling Warbler.
72—EPICUREAN WARBLER.
Sylvia Ficedula, Ind. Orn. ii. 517.
Motacilla Ficedula, Lin. i. 330.   Faun. suec. No. 251.    Gm, Lin. i. 956.   Muller, No.
271.    Brun. No. 282.   Klein, 79.13.   Frisch, t. 22.—male.    Zinnan. Uov. 43. t.
6. f. 28 ?
Ficedula sepiaria minor, Gerin. iv. t. 393. 1.
Muscicapa luctuosa, Tern. Man. p. 102.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 157.
Fieedula, .Bris. iii. 369.   Id. 8vo.i. 413.    Raii, 81. 12.    Will. 163.
* Gesner says ash-colour, his words are " Tertia species pectore albo, conspicitur ca-
pite cinereo," and adds " hanc Nidum aiunt ex lino struere, hinc forte Lingetta Anglis
M 2
w"
 84 WARBLER.
Le Becfigue, Buf. v. 187.    PL enl. 668. 1.    Hist. Prov. i. 504.
Beccafico, Olin. t. p. 81.   Russ. Alep. p. 64.    Get. Uc. Sard. p. 221.
The 4th Becafigo of Aldrovand,  Will. Engl. 227.
Wustling, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 59.
Epicurean Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 432.    Arct. Zool. ii. 419. K.    Shaw's Zool. x. 592.
THE length of this bird is five inches. Bill blackish; the
upper parts of the plumage grey brown, the under greyish white,
tinged with brown on the breast; round the eye rufous white ; the
greater wing coverts incline to ash-colour, tipped with white, forming a band across the wing; quills cinereous brown, edged with
greyish brown, but the three nearest the body with white; tail
dusky, the feathers edged as the quills, the outer one white the whole
way on the outer web, and the next the same for two-thirds of its
length.    The female is like the male, but paler.
This bird is much esteemed for the delicate flavour of its flesh ;
it is not found in England, but met with in summer every where on
the Continent, from Sweden and Greece, retiring no doubt southward
in autumn. In the Isle of Cyprus and Candy are in such plenty as
to afford an article of commerce,* and the Italians are as fond of
them now as they used to be of old. The Chief food appears to be
insects, except in autumn, when they make great havock among the
figs and grapes ; whence it is supposed their great delicacy in some
measure arises. According to Gunther, the nest is of dried fibres, grass,
and moss, the eggs six in number, of a reddish white, almost covered
at the larger end with ferruginous spots, towards the smaller fewer,
and more scattered.
Mr. White observes, that this species is common at Gibraltar,
and there called Cyprus Bird or Beccafico; and hints the very great
* They are salted up in great numbers, and transported into other countries.—Will.
Probably potted, like our Wheat-ears. They also transport them in vessels filled with
vinegar and sweet herbs; and the Isle of Cyprus alone collects 1000 or 1200 of these pots
every year.—Dapper Archipel. p. 51.
 WARBLER. 85
resemblance between this and the female Coldfinch,* so much as
make one almost doubt their not being the same. It is supposed
to make its way to Africa in autumn, and there pass the winter, and
we are told, that in the neighbourhood of Alexandria, from the month
of August, immense numbers of Figpeckers are seen during their
passage, which lasts three months, during which the Egyptians
catch them in great quantities, by smearing birdlime on the trees
and bushes on which they settle.f
73.—FIG-EATER WABBLER.
. Sylvia naevia, Ind. On. ii. 517.    Gm. Lin. i. 957.
Curruca na?via, Bris. iii. 389.    Id. 8vo. i. 418.
Boarina, Will. 158. 171. 6.    Id. Engl. p. 216. ch. v. & 237. No. 6.
Muscicapa prima Aldrovandi, Raii, 77. 7.    Boarina.
La Fauvette tachetee, Buf v. 149.
Bouvier, Salem. Orn. 226. 7.
Der Feigenesser, Naturf. xvii. 101.
Fig-eater, Gm.Syn.iv. 433.    Albin, iii. pi. 26.    Shaw's Zool. x. 591.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill reddish brown; plumage
above rufous brown, varied with yellowish and ash-colour; beneath
white; breast yellowish, marked with black spots; quills blackish,
edged with white; tail the same, the two middle feathers shorter
than the rest; legs reddish, claws black.
Inhabits Italy, especially about Bologna, where it is called
Boarola, and Boarina ;% chiefly met with in pastures, where beasts
are kept; it makes the nest about a foot from the ground, on a shrub,
or strong plant, and when the young are hatched, the female is most
* It seems to be full as like to our Pettichaps, insomuch that on shewing one to an
Italian, he declared it to be a Beccafico ; but perhaps more than one bird passes under this
name, and both in Spain and Italy every small bird is eaten indiscriminately in autumn.
M. Temminck assures us, that this is no other*than a young Coldfinch Flycatcher.
t Sonnini's Trav. iii. p. 318. J Is persequendo Boves, vulgo Boarolam, seu
Boarinam nuncupantur.—Aldrov.
 r
86 WARBLER.
courageously bold in defence of them. M. Buffon has given the
figure in PL enl. 581. 3. as a representation of this Species, but it
must be remarked, that it has a long and cuneiform tail, such as the
Grasshopper Warbler possesses; whereas the tail of the Fig-eater is
not of half the length, and hollowed out in the middle, the wings
reaching to the middle of it.
74.—PASSERINE WARBLER.
Sylvia passerina, Ind. Orn. ii. 508.    Gm. Lin. i. 954.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 21
Curruca minor, Bris. iii. 371.    Id. 8vo. i. 414.
Muscicapa secunda Aldrovandi, Borin, Raii, 81.    Will. 158.    Id. Engl. 216.
ii. 733. t. p. 734.    Zinnan. Uov. 46. t. 6. f. 31.
Passerinette, Buf. v. 123,    PL enl. 579. 2.    Hist. Prov. i. 509.
Passerine Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 414.    Shaw's Zool. x. 739.
LENGTH five inches and a quarter. Bill slender, and sharp,
colour brown; irides red brown; plumage above pale ash-colour;
beneath greyish white, inclining to brown on the sides; * over the
eye a small whitish streak; quills and tail dusky; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits various parts of the Continent of Europe, but not in
this kingdom; common in Lombardy, Italy, Sardinia, the south of
Spain, and Portugal, &c. At Provence, in France, it is called Passerinette ; t by the people of Bologna Chivin ; at Marseilles, Becafi-
gulo; and by the Genoese, Borin. It is said to make the nest on a
low bush, near the ground, composed of dry grass, lined with finer
materials; the eggs are four in number, of a dirty white, spotted with
green of two colours, most numerous at the larger end; the note is
only a chirp or two, which it repeats when passing from one shrub
to another.
* Rump white according to Aldrovandus.
a. not sufficiently clear about.
 87
75.—SUBALPINE WARBLER.
Sylvia subalpina, Becfin Subalpin,  Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. 214.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Crown, cheeks, nape, back,
and scapulars, cinereous; sides of the neck the same, with a vinous
tinge; throat, neck before, breast, sides, and belly vinous; middle of
the belly white; wings cinereous black ; the quills and coverts edged
with rufous ash; tail blackish, a little rounded, the outer feather
white on the outer web and tip, the rest tipped with white; bill
brown above, and black beneath ; legs brown.
This was a female, the male unknown; it was found in the
neighbourhood of Turin, by M. le Professeur Bonelli, and is in the
Natural History Museum at that place; a second specimen has not
been met with.
76—GIBRALTAR WARBLER.
Turdus arundinaceus, Ind. Orn. i. 334. 28. /3.
Sylvia galactotes, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. 182.
Reed Thrush, Gm. Syn. iii. 33. A.
SIZE of a Nightingale; length six inches and a half. Bill pale
brown; upper parts of the body pale testaceous brown, the under
dusky white; above the eye a streak of the same; quills dusky,
edged with cream-colour; rump and tail rufous; all but the two
middle feathers of the latter have a bar of black near the end, which
is farthest from the end on the outer feather; from the bar to the tip
three of the outer feathers are white, the fourth white on the inner
web only; in the next to that the white is wanting; legs pale brown.
Inhabits Gibraltar, where it arrives the last week in April; is a
familiar bird, void of fear, perching on the tops of shrubs, hedges/
 and walls, in the manner of the Redstart; does not make the least
attempt to sing, even in the breeding season. At the end of June,
1771, a nest was taken, near the orange-grove, with six young, and
supposed to be that of the Nightingale, and nursed as such, all the
summer: in autumn five of them died, and one only survived till
December. This frequently chirped agreeably, but did not amount
to a song. In autumn these birds appear again in numbers about
the .gajrison, and totally disappear in September: are not to be
foutftk in flocks at any time, but straggle about like the Russet
Wheat-Ear. In manners it is solitary, always perching on the tops
of* the shrubs, and spreads the tail erect, by sudden jerks ; has a
piping kind of note, which rather seems a call to its companions
than a song. Found in the neighbourhood of Tetuan, as frequently
as any where, but it is uncertain whether it passes the winter there.
It has some resemblance to the Reed Thrush, but is a smaller bird.
We first met with a specimen in the Leverian Museum.
77—FANTAIL WARBLER.
Sylvia Cisticola, Becfin Cisticole, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 228 i
SIZE of the Common Wren ; length four inches and a half;
weight two drachms eight grains. Bill dark brown, slender, longer
than in the Yellow Wren, and somewhat incurvated; irides pearl-
colour ; head and back dusky brown, mixed with dark spots, as in
the Skylark ; throat white ; neck, breast, and sides, testaceous;
wings dark brown, short, and hollow; quills and secondaries nearly
of equal lengths; tail short, and remarkably round at the extremity,
the two middle feathers one inch and a half long, the exterior only
three quarters of an inch ; on the upper surface the tail is uniform,
dark brown, but beneath paler, each feather marked near the end
with a broad, round black spot, and the extremity beyond the spot
 WARBLER. 89
is white; legs pale yellow; all the tail feathers are round and broad
at the ends, not pointed, as in some of the Wrens.
One supposed to be the female, was in Mr. Bullock's collection ;
tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers two inches long, the exterior
three quarters of an inch, all of them marked with a dusky spot near
the end, the tip pale, but not white ; the whole plumage too is paler
in colour.
This species inhabits all the shrubby parts of the districj about
Gibraltar, ever darting with vast alacrity among the bushes;?. when
disturbed, takes long flights, chirping all the way, with a remarkably loud and shrill note; at other times makes no noise whatever.
When in motion it erects the tail, and spreads it into a circle, which "
appears very beautiful; hence the propriety of the name Fantail; is
common about the stone quarries beyond the Spanish Lines, and is
found at Gibraltar the whole year. The nest and eggs are unknown.
It is probable, that it is also an inhabitant of India, as we have
found it represented among other drawings in the collection of Gen.
Hardwicke. If the same referred to in the JWanuel, it is said to
make a funnel-shaped nest, among grass tufts, with small twigs,
mixed with some cottony substance, with a lining of the last material.
78— MEDITERRANEAN WARBLER.
Sylvia Mediterranea, Ind. Orn. ii. 551.
Motacilla Asilus, Gm. Lin. i. 996. S.
——  corpore ex fusco viridescente pectore ferrugineo, Hasselq. Voy. 186.
Mediterranean Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 514. D.   Id. Sup. ii. 244.    Shaw's Zool. x. 693.
THE bill in this bird is ferruginous, the upper mandible curved
at the tip ; general colour of the plumage greenish brown, beneath
ferruginous; fore part of the breast fulvous ; beneath the shoulders,
and end of the wing coverts, inclining to ferruginous.
Supposed to inhabit Spain, as one flew on board a ship in the
Mediterranean, near the shore.
VOL. VII. n
S
 r
iff
90
79*.—SIBERIAN WARBLER.
Sylvia montanella, Ind. Orn. ii.
526.
Motacilla montanella, Gm. Lin.
i. 968.    Pall. It.
ii. 695.
Siberian Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv
456.    Shaw's Zoo
1. x. 626.
A TRIFLE larger than the Whin Chat. Crown of the head
brown black; over the eyes a yellowish streak; chin the same, in
some white; ears black, placed in a bed of grey; back testaceous,
spotted with brown ; beneath pale yellow, like oker; the feathers of
the throat brown at the base; wings brown; greater quills edged
with grey; and the secondaries with white ; tail longish, pale ash-
colour, the two middle feathers and the outer one shorter than
the rest.
iv.Iahabits Siberia; comes into Dauuria in February, together with
the flocks of Hawfinches.
80— YELLOW-BROWED WARBLER.
Sylvia superciiiosa, Ind. Orn. ii. 526.
Motacilla superciiiosa, Gm. Lin. i. 975.
Yellow-browed Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 459.    Shaw's Zool. x. 723.
THIS is greenish above, and pale beneath; on the crown a pale
streak; over the eye a stripe of yellow.—Inhabits Russia.
■
81— GILT-THROAT WARBLER.
Sylvia ferruginea, Ind. Orn. ii. 516.
Motacilla ferruginea, Gm. Lin. i. 976.
Gilt-throat Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 459.
Shaw's Zool. x. 643.
THE upper parts in this bird are cinereous* the under whitish
throat and neck ferruginous.
Inhabits Russia, chiefly about the Tungtrska; River.
 WARBLER.
91
82.—MOOR WARBLER.
Sylvia Maura, Ind. Orn. ii
Motacilla Maura, Gm. Lii
Moor Warbler, Gen. Syn.
526.
, i. 975.   Pall. It. ii. 708.
v. 458.   Shaw's Zool. x. 640.
SIZE of the Whin Chat, and not unlike it; head and neck
black, edges of the feathers pale; back and base of the wings black,
the latter margined with grey ; sides of the neck, and all beneath,
white ; throat deep ferruginous; wings brown; on the coverts an
oblique yellowish white patch ; rump, and base half of the tail
white, the rest black. The female and young bird have the head
grey, clouded with brown; back like that of the Woodcock; the
rest of the body less defined in colour.
Inhabits Russia, frequenting the birch trees scattered in the
woods of Ural, and in the fields planted with them, between the
rivers Tobol and Irtisch, flying by pairs. It feeds on jnsects, and
makes the nest in the holes of the trunks of trees, formed by mice,
and other small quadrupeds.
A.—Length six inches. Bill black ; plumage above rufous
brown, beneath rufous white; chin and belly white; over each eye
a rufous streak; edges of the wing coverts rufous; quills black,
with pale edges; secondaries edged with rufous; rump and base half
of the tail white, the rest of the latter black, but the two middle
feathers are wholly black; legs black.
This was met with among the ice, between Asia and America.
83—BLUE-TAILED WARBLER.
Sylvia cyanura, Ind. Orn. ii. 976.
Motacilla cyanura, Gm. Lin. i. 459.    Pall. It. ii. 709.
Bee-fin, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxviii.
Blue-tailed Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 459.    Shaw's Zool. x. 646.
SIZE of the Redbreast.    Plumage in general above cinereous
yellow, with a tinge of green; rump bluish;   over the eyes,  the
N 2
 II
92 WARBLER.
throat, and under parts, yellowish white ; sides of the breast orange;
wings brown, the outer margins of the quills greenish yellow, the
inner yellow; tail even, the feathers rather pointed, brown, edged
outwardly with blue, appearing, when folded, wholly blue.
Inhabits Siberia, always at the beginning of winter. Frequently
met with in the woods about the rivulets of the southern parts of the
Jenisei, and from thence through the whole eastern parts.
84—DAUURIAN WARBLER.
Sylvia Aurorea, Ind. Orn. ii. 527.
Motacilla Aurorea, Gm. Lin. i. 976.    Pall. It. iii. 695.
Dauurian Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 460.    Shaw's Zool. x. 605.
SIZE of the Redbreast. Crown of the head and nape hoary;
forehead whitish ; throat and fore part of the neck black ; back and
wings black, with a triangular spot of white; under parts of the
body deep yellow; tail the same, except the two middle feathers,
which are black.
Inhabits the neighbourhood of the river Selinga, in Siberia,
among the willows.
I:
85— SULTRY WARBLER.
Sylvia fervida, Ind. On. ii. 525.
Motacilla fervida, Gm.Lin.i. 968.
Le Traquet du Senegal, Buf. v. 228.    PL ml. 583. 1.
Sultry Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 455.    Shaw's Zool. x. 635.
SIZE of the Whin Chat. Bill black ; upper part of the head,
neck, body, and wings, deep brown; edges of the feathers rufous;
on the wings two white spots; beneath the body yellowish white,
inclining to rufous on the breast; tail feathers dusky, with pale
margins; legs black.
Inhabits Senegal; has much the appearance of the female Whin
Chat.
iiffi
 86-SENEGAL WARBLER.
Sylvia Senegalensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 526.
Motacilla Senegalensis, Lin. i. 333.    Gm. Lin. i. 974.
Rubetra Senegalensis, Bris. iii. 441. t. 20. f. 3.    Id. 8vo. i. 433.
Senegal Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 456.    Shaw's Zool. x. 634.
LENGTH five inches and a quarter. Bill brown; plumage in
general the same; quills rufous, edged with brown; tail black, all
but the two middle feathers tipped with white.
Inhabits Senegal.—One of these, full six inches in length, was in
the possession of the late Mr. Boddam, and brought from the Cape
of Good Hope.
87—CITRON-BELLIED WARBLER.
Sylvia flavescens, Ind. On. ii. 537.
Motacilla flavescens, Gm. Lin. i. 982.
Figuier a ventre jaune du Senegal, PL enl. 582. 3.    Buf. v. 282.
Citron-bellied Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 477.    Shaw's Zool. x. 619.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill and legs dusky ; upper
parts of the head and body brown; quills dark brown, the feathers
edged with rufous brown; under parts of the body pale yellow;
sides of the head almost white ; tail even at the end, and marked as
the quills.—Inhabits Senegal.
-RUFOUS-SIDED WARBLER.
Sylvia rufigastra, Ind. On
Figuier du Senegal, PL e;
Shaio's Zool. x. 619.
. ii. 534.
/. 582.    Buf. y
282.    Gen: Syn. iv. 477. 95. parag. 2d.
LENGTH three inches and three quarters. Bill and legs dusky;
plumage above brown; feathers of the wings and tail paler on the
margins; under parts of the body pale, with a rufous tinge on the
breast and sides; tail even.—Inhabits Senegal.
 94
WARBLER,
89—UNDATED WARBLER.
Sylvia undata, Ind. On. ii. 534.
Figuier tachete du Senegal, PL e,
Undated Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. \
. i. 982.   Motacill
.    Buf. v. 282.
>o's Zool. x. 620.
LENGTH four inches. Bill Mack; plumage on the upper parts
black, margins<*>£ the feathers. ?ufou&; rump deep rufous; under
parts white ;. quills brown; tail the same, two inches long, and
greatly cuneiform, the feathers of it and the quills edged with rufous
white ; legs dusky.—Inhabits Senegal.
90—DUSKY WARBLER.
Sylvia fuscata, Ind. Orn. ii. 535.    Gm. Lin],
Figuier brun du Senegal, PL enl. 584. 1.
Dusky Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 477.    Shaw'i
982.   Motacilla.
SIZE of the Pettichaps; length six inches. Bill slender, and
dusky; the upper parts of the plumage brown^ the under grey, with
a reddish:tjnge on tl$$ sides and down the mjjk^l^j^ quills and tail
darker thaja, the upper- parts, the latter long, even, at the fpd ; legs,
yellow.—Inhabits Senegal,,
91.—FLAXEN WARBLER.
Sylvia subflava, Ind. Orn. u. ,535.    Gm. Lin. i. 982.    Motacilla,
Figuier blond dn Senegal, PL enl. 584. 2.    Buf. v. 284.
  a ventre gris, PL ml. 584. 3.—female.
Flaxen Warbler, Gen,Syn. iv. 478.    Shaw'.s ZooL x. 6H.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Bill dusky; plumage
above fine reddish brown, beneath pale yellowish white; wings
darker brown; tail long, cuneiform, the colour of the upper parts;
legs pale yellow.
 One in the same plate probably differs in sex: this has the upper
parts deeper brown, the under cinereous white; Wings artd tail as
the parts above; the latter cuneifoifh, but shorter than in the first
described ; legs pale yellow.
Both of the above inhabit Senegal.—One in Lord Stanley's
collection was much paler brown above, or reddish brown; beneath
pale, inclining to rufous; chin and middle of the throat white; two
middle tail feathers two inches long, the outer one only an inch.
A.—Length barely four inches and a half. Bill slender, black;
plumage above very pale ash-colour, beneath pale rufous white;
which colour includes the sides of the head, and above the eyes;
wings pale brown, edges of the feathers pale; tail cuneiform, two
inches long, colour as the quills; legs pale red, or flesh-colour.
The sexes differ but little ; in one the pale space reaches higher
above the eye than in the other, and appears as a broad streak of
white.—Inhabits India.—-Gen. Hardwicke.
92.—ALL-BLACK WARBLER.
Sylvia pammelaina, All-black Warbler, Salt. Abyss. App. p. lix.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill half an inch long,
black, with a very trifling notch near the tip; general colour of the
plumage throughout deep black; on the upper parts somewhat
glossy; quills and tail inclined to ash beneath; tail even at the end,
consisting of twelve feathers, and near three inches and a half long,
and the wings, when closed, reach to about the middle of it; all the
feathers rounded at the end; shins an inch long, not very stout, and
dnsky; the outer toe united to the* middle at the base'; the first quill
is about half the length of the second, which is about half an inch
shorter than tite fourth, or longest of all.
J
 96
WARBLER.
In the collection of Mr. Salt are two specimens, found in
Abyssinia. In one the plumage is more intensely black, and the
head feathers more elongated, so as to enable the bird to raise them
as a crest. This bird has in many things the air and appearance of
a Wagtail; but as the manners have not been handed down, nothing
more can be said about it.
93.—COMMANDER WARBLER.
Trapuet Cammandeur, Levail. Afr. iv. 115. pi. 289.
GENERAL colour of the plumage deep brown black, but the
bend of the wing and the coverts are rose-White: female the same,
but the white spot less defined. Young birds have a rufous brown
plumage, and the shoulders pure white, and in this state are mistaken for the Luzonian Warbler, but the latter has a stronger bill.
Inhabits the west coast of Africa, from 28 deg. of lat. S. and
departs after it has reared its young. Said to make the nest in subterraneous caverns, and to lay from five to eight eggs, and they are
often seen in families of that number; is found also at Malimba.
ill
11
94—MADAGASCAR WARBLER.
Sylvia Madagascarien
sis, Ind. On
ii. 507.    Gm. I
Luscinia Madagascari
ensis, Bris.i
i. 401. t. 22. 1
Le Foudi-jala, Buf.
&. 116.
Madagascar Warbler,
Gm. Syn. h
r. 412.   Shaw's
SIZE of our Nightingale; the length near six inches and a half.
Bill deep brown; head rufous; behind each eye a brown spot; the
plumage on the upper parts of the body olive brown; throat white;
breast pale rufous; belly rufous brown, tinged with olive; tail brown
above, and inclining to olive beneath; legs deep brown.
Inhabits Madagascar, where it is called Foudi-jala.
 97
95.—CHOIRISTER WARBLER.
Le Coriph^e, Levail. Afr. iii. 85. pi. 120. f. 1, 2.
SIZE of the Nightingale, and not very unlike it in general
colours. Bill and legs dusky black; irides brown; the plumage in
general above dull brown; beneath the same, with a rufous tinge ;
between the bill and eye a streak of black; over the eye, from the
the bill, one of white; chin white ; sides of the chin, and fore part
of the neck pearly blue grey; the tail rather long, and cuneiform,
dusky towards the ends of the feathers, all of which, except the two
middle ones, have white tips.
The female is smaller, the plumage less deep, and the whole of
the under parts, except the white chin, of a pearly blue grey.
Found in the neighbourhood of the Cape of Good Hope, in the
Mimosa woods near the Rivers Sondag and Swarte Kop, and from
thence to Camdeboo: it sings more like a Nightingale than any
other bird, with a note, perhaps less animated and lively, but more
tender and delightful; frequently in the evening, like our European
songster, and in dull weather, after soft rain, the whole day through.
It begins to sing in October, and in November makes a nest of moss
and stalks, lined with hairs; lays from three to five blue-green eggs,
changing to brownish grey towards the larger end. In the nest of
this bird M. Levaillant found the egg of the Crested black Cuckow,
which is white, and at least double the size of its own, yet was
hatched with them,
96—PIPING WARBLER.
Le Grivetin, Levail. Afr. iii. 80. pi. 118. f. 1. 2.
THIS is a trifle less than the Nightingale.    Bill, legs, and irides
light brown; base of the under jaw, the mouth, and tongue yellow;
VOL.  VII. O
 98 WARBLER.
head, hind neck, back and wings grey brown, inclining to rufous
on the rump, and upper tail coverts; under parts of the body dirty
brownish white; on the throat a few markings of the same, on a
whiter ground; from the forehead, over the eye, passes a line of
white, curving downwards; on the scapulars, and greater wing
coverts, some undulations of white; (^m\\s brown; tail cuneiform,
grey brown ; all but the two middle feathers deeply margined on the
outer webs and ends with white; legs bright brown. The female is
smaller, the colours more dull, and the rump not rufous.
Inhabits much the same places as the last, and makes the nest in
a low bush, laying four or five sea-green eggs; feeds on insects : the
male, while the female sits, has a song resembling the sound of a flute,
or flageolet; but the cry of the female is only similar to the syllables
Trictric trie, several times repeated. In the nest of one of these
M. Levaillant found an egg of the Noisy Cuckow, but on viewing it
another day, it was broken and cast out; hence it should seem, that
the eggs of the Cuckow are not always taken Care of by the foster
parent.
97—STRUTTING WARBLER.
ill
SIZE and shape of the Dartford'Warbler. Bill and legs
"brownish ; general colour of the'^fum^e^atlD^Ved'lirown, beneath
lighter, especially towards the lower belly and chin ; quiTls'ana^ail
rather deeper than the rest; tail cuneiform.*
The female is smaller, and the brown less deep, beneath light
coloured, or yellowish, marked on the breast with dusky streaks.
Inhabits the interior of the Cape of Good Hope, chiefly found
about the Bay of Blettenberg, or Lagoa, and in general in all the
country of Hottniquas; it flies with great difficulty, as the wings are
' According to M. Levaillant i
•nly ten feathers
li
 WARBLER. 99
very short, and weak in their texture. It builds among the reeds,
and has generally five young. In the time of incubation the male
expands the tail, in an erect manner, like the Peacock, quite on
the back.
5
I
98.—PRATTLING  WARBLER.
La Caqueteuse, Levail. Afr. iii. 90. pi. 121. 1.
SIZE of the White Throat. Bill, legs, and eyes, light brown ;
general colour of the plumage above dull brown, with an olive gloss;
beneath dusky white, marked about the chin and fore part of the
neck with pale brown; tail even at the end.
The female is like the male, but smaller, and wants the marks
on the neck.
Inhabits the inner parts of the Cape of Good Hope, found in the
marshes of Hottniqua and Verloore Valley; makes a nest in the
middle of the reeds, fastening several of them together, in order to
support it; the eggs are five or six in number, white, spotted with
brown. Is a cackling, noisy species, continually crying Gri-gri-gra-
gra, repeated in all tones. The male takes his turn with the female
in hatching the eggs.
99— ISABELLA WARBLER.
L'Isabelle, Levail. Afr. iii. 92. No. 121. 2.
SMALLER than the last. Bill shorter, more pale, nearly white;
the plumage much as in the other, with an Isabella hue; quills
rufous on the edges, but chiefly in the middle ; all the under parts
rufous white, or yellowish; quills and tail darker than the rest, the
latter even at the end.
O 2
 I
100 WARBLER.
This is found in the same places as the^last, with much the same
manners, and like that, fastening the nest between the reeds; the
eggs five or six in number, and white.
100.—FAMILTAR WARBLER.
Traquet familier, Levail. Afr. iv. 97. pi. 183. 1. 2.
SIZE of the Tree Sparrow. Bill and eye brown; plumage in
general grey brown, with a slight tinge of rufous, deeper on the
upper parts; the breast and flanks, ears and rump, rufous; the two
middle tail feathers brown, the others the same, with the outer edges
rufous; legs black.     The female smaller than the male.
Inhabits various parts about the Cape of Good Hope; is very
tame, and, like many others, has the appearance of being allied to
the Stone-Chat; is continually beating the wings, and flirting up the
tail; feeds on insects, and observed to sweep them off" a stone, the
rump of a horse, or other elevated object; the nest made under a
stone, or in a hole in the earth ; the eggs four in number, greenish
grey, spotted with brown ; both sexes sit in turn, and are always
together, and the whole family keep generally in company till the
following spring.
101—LUZONIAN WARBLER.
Sylvia Capfata, Ind. On. ii. 524.
Motacilla Caprata, Lin. i. 335.    Gm. Lin. i. 986.
Rubetra Lncionensis, Bris. iii. 442. t. 24. 2.—male. f. 3.—female.   Id. 8vo. i. 432.
Traquet Fourmilier, Levail. Afr. iv. 108. pi. 186. 187.
 de l'Isle de Lucon, Buf. v. 229.   PL ml. 235. f. 1. 2.
Luzonian Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 451.    Shaw's Zool. x. 630.
SIZE of the Stone-Chat; length four inches and a half.    Bill
dusky; the whole bird blackish brown, except the lesser wing coverts
 WARBLER. 101
nearest the body, and the vent, which are white; and in some the
rump is white; legs blackorown. The female brown above, beneath
rufous brown; throat whitish ; rump and upper tail coverts pale
rufous; beneath dirty rufous white; tail brown.
Inhabits Manilla, and called Maria-capra.
Levaillant describes his bird six inches and a half long. Bill stout,
black; general colour of the plumage brown, beneath paler, the
feathers edged with pale rufous; chin nearly white; on the shoulders
a white patch. The female is smaller, and wants the white on the
shonlders, otherwise brown ; the white is also deficient in young
birds.
This last met with about Sondag and Swarte-kop rivers, in the
environs of the Caffre Country, and differs from the other, as it
perches on great trees, and feeds on ants; which it is enabled to
procure, as the Ant Bear first roots them up. It lays the eggs in an
old mole hill, or hole in a rock ; they are five in number, and white;
for the most part the birds are found in pairs, and the whole of the
nest keep together for some time.
A.—In some Chinese drawings was one similar. Head, neck,
and upper parts blue-black, the under reddish white ; greater wing
coverts tipped with white, forming an irregular white bar; bill and
legs pale red.
102—DARK WARBLER.
Sylvia magna, Ind. Orn. ii. 525.
Motacilla magna, Gm. Lin. i. 968. mt'&0Bj&3«
Le grand Traquet, Buf. v. 232.
Dark Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 453.    Shaw's Zool. x. 698.
LENGTH seven inches and a half.    Bill one inch long; head
brown, mxed with darker brown; neck above, and body pale brown;
J
 r
lOa WARBLER.
throat whitish, mixed with brown ; breast brown ; wing coverts and
outer edges of the quills the same ; within half brown, half rufous;
the tail of these two colours,  the two outer feathers white on  the
outer webs; under part of the body pale rufous.
Native place uncertain.
I
103.—NAMAQUA WARBLER.
Traquet Montagnard, Levail. Afr. iv. 105. pi. 184. 2.
THE bill and legs .in this bird are black ; eye reddish brown ;
plumage in general black, except the belly, shoulders, upper and
under tail covertsj, and the outer margins of the side tail feathers from
the base, which are white*  The female, when perfect, is like the male.
Young birds are wholly of a fine grey* inclined to blue above :
quills grey on the edges; the two middle tail feathers black, the
others partly white; rump and shoulders whitish.grey; bill and legs
brown. After the second moult, the crown and nape are grey;
back and wing coverts, chin, throat, and breast, black; shoulders
mixed with white; chin and throat, rump and tail, as in the adult,
but the white less pure.
This inhabits-the Namaqua Country, and lives on soft-insects;
it approaches to the Rocar Tbrushy as it frequenteithe points of
rocks, and deep cavernous parts, where it builds, and has the same
finesse as that bird. It is rarely seen in the plains, only descending
thereto, on account of extreme drought.
104.-FLAME-COLOURED WARBLER.
Sylvia flammea, Ind. Orn. Sup. lvi.
Motacilla flammea, Mus. Carls, iv. t. 98.
Flame-coloured Warbler, Gen. Syn^.^ip. ii. 251.
Ska
THIS is an elegant bird, and of the size of a Wren.   Bill, legs,
wings, and tail, black; head, neck, and back, of a beautiful pale
 WARBLER. 103
orange, or flame-colour;   eyes black; tongue furnished with two
hairs at the end ; belly pale grey.
Inhabits the palm trees of Java.—Dr. Sparrman says, there are
seven prime quills, nine secondaries, and ten tail feathers, but in the
Warbler Genus we find in general not fewer than twelve.
105.—THORACIC WARBLER.
Le Plastron noir, Levail. Afr. iii. 96. pi. 123. f. 12.
Motacilla thoracica, Thoracic Warbler, Nat. Misc. pi. 969.    Shaw's Zool. x. 562.
SIZE of the lesser Pettichaps. Bill black; plumage above olive-
grey ; eye brown, placed in a patch of black; on the breast a broad
crescent of black; the chin and throat within this, white; belly and
vent yellowish white; quills dusky, edged with pale olive; the two
middle tail feathers the same, the others mostly white; beneath
wholly white ; 'shape of the tail rounded; legs yellowish.
The female is a trifle smaller has no collar; and the male appears
like the female till the second moult. Both sexes remain together
at all times, and the song is agreeable, especially in the warmer
season. In November and December the female makes the nest,
among the low bushes or plants, and lays six rufous white eggs.
This is one of the nests in which the Cuckow chuses to deposit her
eggs. M. Levaillant found in one of them a young of the Noisy
Species,' which was then the size of a Blackbird, and so large; as to
distend and to damage the nest: it had the mouth ever open for food,
which the foster parents, with great difficulty, supplied it with ; in
about a week it became too large for the nest to contain it, when it
fixed itself on a branch of Mimosa, and when M. L. left the spot,
the old birds still continued to feed it.
This bird is common in the interior of the Cape of Good Hope,
from the River of Elephants to the Tropics, but very rare towards
 11
Inliil
111111
I ill
104 WARBLER.
the Cape, though in plenty from 28 degrees of latitude to the Tropic,
especially on the Grand and Orange rivers; also met with among
the Caffres, but more rarely.
106—RUFOUS-BELLIED WARBLER.
Le Grignet, Levail. Afr. iii. 103. pi. 126. f. 1. 2.
SIZE of the White-Throat; length five inches and a half. Bill
dusky; irides greenish grey; all the upper parts of the body, wings,
and two middle tail feathers, slaty grey; beneath pale cinereous, or
whitish, marked on the throat with oblong dusky spots; lower belly,
and under tail coverts deep rufous red ; the two middle tail feathers
the same colour as the back, the rest mostly white on the outer, and
dusky on the inner webs; legs dusky. The female is like the male,
but one-fourth larger.
This species is very numerous within the Cape of Good Hope,
on the borders of the River Gaus Gold, or Gaurits, spreads also from
the Brake River, and lives in society; frequently seen among the
Mimosas in flocks, from eight to twelve, running about with great
velocity, probably in search of insects, or larvae under the leaves;
incessantly chatters like the Long-tailed Titmouse, when flying
from tree to tree.    Nest unknown.
A similar one in Mr. Dent's drawings, entitled " Le Culrou male
" dans sa grandeur naturelle, du Cabinet de M. Vaillant." This is
seven inches and a half long, and answers pretty well to Levaillant's
description: tail one inch and three quarters long, black, with the
greater part of the feathers more or less half white at the ends; the
forehead seems white; the vent only is rufous.
There is a Variety also, in which the greater part of the plumage
is white, especially the wings and tail, but the lower belly and
under tail coverts have a rufous tinge.
 WARBLER.
105
107.—RUFOUS-CROWNED WARBLER.
Rousse-Tete, Levail. Afr. iii. 98. pi. 124. f. 1. 2.
108—MELODIOUS  WARBLER.
L'Olivert, Levail. Afr. iii. 100. pi. 125. f. 1. 2.   Shaw's Zool. x. 360.
SIZE of the lesser Pettichaps, but the tail shorter in proportion ;
Bill grey; irides hazel; plumage yellowish green above, sides of
the head, from the nostrils, and all beneath, white; quills within
dusky; under the tail white; tail short; the wings reach almost to
the end of it.    Both sexes are alike.
M. Levaillant met with this species about Pampoen Kraal; it
had a melodious song, chiefly in the morning and evening, even in
the rainy season, when most other birds are silent. It is a bold bird,
perching, without fear, on every part of the tent, where M. Levaillant was.    Nest and eggs not known.
VOL. VII. P
SIZE of the Babbling Warbler. Bill and legs pale brown;
plumage on the upper parts of the body brownish grey, beneath
cinereous, growing white towards the belly; top of the head rufous
brown, or tan colour; tail even at the end; the wings, when closed,
reach very little beyond the rump.
The female is smaller, and the top of the head not rufous.
Inhabits the vicinity of the Cape of Good Hope; found in Cam-
deboo, also among the Caffres and Namaquas; but in the last named
less abundant; makes a nest of moss and down, lining with the
latter; and lays as far as six white eggs, marked with very small
vinous spots; the nest is not unfrequently chosen by the Coromandel
Crested Cuckow, as a place to deposit her eggs in.
I
II
 f
106
109.—BLACK-CROWNED WARBLER.
Merle a Calotte n
j Levail. Afr. iii. 48. pi. 108. 1. 2.
SIZE of a Sparrow. Bill orange; eye red brown; top of the
head and nape dull black, the rest of the plumage olive brown;
wings and tail deep brown ; under parts of the body bluish grey,
inclining to ash-colour; towards the vent white.
The female wants the brown on the head.
Inhabits, sparingly, the forests of Bruyntjes Hoogte, and feeds
on insects. The male has an agreeable song, perched on bushes
near the water, and chiefly sings morning and evening. Nest and
eggs unknown.
110. - BLACK-HOODED  WARBLER.
LENGTH five inches and three quarters. Bill black, at the
base two or three weak hairs; irides whitish ; top of the head, including the eyes, and nape, black ; the rest of the plumage cinereous
brown above, wholly white beneath; quills and tail like the upper
parts; the latter one inch and a half long; legs brown.
Inhabits India, called Culchuttia. It differs from our Blackcap,
in having the black of the head reaching below the eye and on the
ears; the tail longer, and the under parts pure white.
Ill—CAPE WARBLER.
. Muf. v. 233.
Sylvia sperata,
Ind. On. ii
523.
Le Traquet di
Cap de Bon
ne Esper
Sybil Warbler
, Gen. Syn. i
v. 450. 4
LENGTH six inches,
greenish brown; beneath £
Bill black; plumage in general above
rey, with a rufous tinge, as is also the
 WARBLER. 107
rump; wing coverts and quills brown, with paler edges; tail a trifle
forked, the two middle feathers blackish brown; the others obliquely
brown and fulvous.
One, probably a female, was dark brown above; throat white;
and the breast rufous.—From the Cape of Good Hope.
A.—Bill stout, a trifle bent; plumage above clouded pale brown,
beneath paler; the belly and vent white, marked on the breast with
small blackish spots; through the eye a narrow whitish trace; quills
dusky, with paler edges; base of the prime quills reddish, the ends
dark ; the tail rufous from the base, with the end black, the colours
obliquely divided, the outer feathers being black only at the tips;
the legs are pale.
Inhabits India.—From the drawings of Sir J. Anstruther.
112—SHRUBBY WARBLER.
Saxicola fruticola, Lin. Trans, xiii. 157.
LENGTH five inches. Plumage in general black; scapulars,
rump, and vent, white; breast and belly mixed ferruginous grey;
quills outwardly slightly edged with the same; outer tail feathers a
trifle shorter than the rest.
Inhabits Java, and there called Dechu.
113—BUFF-RUMPED WARBLER.
SIZE of the Redbreast. Bill pale; head chestnut; back and
wings pale olive-green; throat, neck, and rump, buf£-yelIow; belly
very pale green ; quills and tail olive-green; legs dark.
Inhabits Africa.—In Mr. Lead beater's collection.
P 2
 108
114— TRACTRAC  WARBLER.
Le Tractrac, Levail. Afr. iv. 103. pi. 184. 1.
IN this the bill and legs are dusky; general colour of the head
and upper parts cinereous grey ; lighter on the lower part of the
back, rump, and upper tail coverts; belly and vent white; irides
hazel brown; eyelids surrounded with a range of white feathers;
quills black brown, the prime ones bordered with paler brown, and
the others with white; tail even, black, terminated with white; the
four first feathers on each side bordered on the outer margins with
white, but the third and fourth have the white only at the base; the
outer one white the whole of the length.
The female smaller, and the white on the rump occupies less
space.    Young birds have the feathers bordered with pale rufous.
Inhabits the Country of Hottniqua, in the neighbourhood of the
Cape of Good Hope, frequenting the bushes, and flying often from
one to another, being a wild and restless bird. It scrapes a hole at
the foot of a bush, and collects a few dry stalks by way of nest, and
lays four greenish eggs, marked with minute brownish points; has
gained the name Tractrac, from the note expressing that word.
115—WHITE-EYED WARBLER.
Sylvia Madagascariensis, Ind. On. ii. 533.
Motacilla Madagascariensis, Gm. Lin. i. 981.
 Maderaspatana, Lin. i. 334.
Ficedula Madagascariensis minor, Bris. iii. 498. t. 28. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 446.
Le Tcheric, Buf. v. 279.    Levail. Afr. iii. 136. pi. 132. 1. 2.
White-eyed Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 475.    Shaw's Zool. x. 720.
SIZE of the Yellow Wren.    Bill black; irides brown; plumage
above olive-green, much as in that bird, but lighter, and inclined to
 A.—Head and fore heck brownish yellow; back very pale olive-
green ; beneath from the breast dusky white, clouded with black;
quills and tail dusky ; between the bill and eye blackish ; round the
eyes white.
WARBLER. 109
yellow; beneath nearly white; throat atld vent yellow; round the
eyes a fillet of white feathers, distinguishing it from other birds;
between the forehead and eye a yellow streak; quills and tail dusky,
edged with yellowish green outwardly ; legs grey.
The female is smaller, less bright, and the circle round the eye
smaller, and not so white; when young neither sex has the feathered
eyelids.
Inhabits many parts of South Africa, especially the River Duy-
vers-Ochs, among the Caffres ; at Bruyntjes Hoogte, and some other
places in the interior of the Cape of Good Hope ; and various parts
which are woody; it is called Glas-vog, and by the Colonists sometimes Kneut je; found in small flocks of six or eight, being the
parents, with the whole of their young. It makes a handsome nest,
like that of the Chaffinch, of small fibres, mixed with moss without,
and hairs within, scarcely more than two inches in diameter, and
placed generally at the ends of the lower branches of the Mimosa ;
the eggs four or five in number, and the male and female sit by
turns. It is a wild bird, and fierce in defence of its young; feeds
on insects, caterpillars, &c. The note is similar to the word Tititiri,
repeated when in quest of food.
It is also found at Madras, Madagascar, and the Isle of Mauritius.
At Madagascar called Tcheric, and at Mauritius White Eyes.
In General Hardwicke's drawings is a similar bird, met with at
Futtehguhr, and called Baaboonah. Another from India, named
Derreea-Gunge.
 110
WARBLER.
Inhabits India.—Sir J. Anstruther. The name given to this was
Mooti Choon, or Gooda; but I observe others both with the names
Mooti Choon, and Babooneh.*
116— SPECTACLE WARBLER.
Sylvia conspicillata, Bee fin a lunettes, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 210.
THIS is four inches and four lines long. Bill yellow at the
base and black at the point; irides brown; crown and cheeks cinereous ; between the bill and eye black, surrounding the space round
the eye, which is white ; back rufous ; wings dusky, coverts edged
with rufous; throat clear white ; the rest of the under parts reddish
white, inclining to rufous on the sides ; tail rounded at the end,
dusky, the outer feather wholly white, the next has the end white,
the third white just at the tip : legs pale yellow. The female not
much unlike the male.
Inhabits Sardinia, where it is not uncommon among the bushes,
or woods: not observed in the north of Italy, or in France; was first
noticed by M. de la Marmora, at the end of August, 1819. It has
much resemblance at first sight to the White Throat, but we are
assured by M. Temminck that it is a distinct species; sufficiently
distinguished, not only by its having the appearance of wearing
spectacles, but being smaller in size.
* A nest of a bird called Babooneh, probably this, is among the drawings of General
Hardwicke. It is about two inches and a half in diameter, open at the top, and fastened
to the bifurcation of a pendent branch of a tree, bearing leaves seven inches loner, and
shaped like those of a citron : the nest composed of pale downy materials, hemispherical,
lined with hair; eggs four, pale bluish white. It may be observed, that the nest is fastened
to the bifurcation by numerous threads, and hangs downwards.
■
 117.—CILIARY WARBLER.
LENGTH nearly six inches. Bill small, dusky; top of the head
and sides below the eye, and the upper parts of the bird in general,
the wings and tail, brownish ash-colour, beneath dusky white;
sides of the neck and breast, between the brown and white, pale
ferruginous, continuing on the sides of the body beneath the wing ;
tail above one inch long, even ; from the bill to the eye a blackish
streak, surrounding the eye, and the eyelids are composed of most
beautiful small white feathers; the wings reach to the base of the
tail. One supposed to differ in sex, was, as far as the breast, dusky
white, but less bright; the rest of the under parts pale ferruginous;
the ciliary processes and black lore, the same as in the other.
Inhabits New-Holland.—Described from a fine drawing in the
possession of Mr. Francillon. It seems to have much affinity to the
last species. The Spectacle Warbler has also the eye surrounded
with a white space, but this we believe is a species not seen out of
Europe.
118—SOOTY WARBLER.
Sylvia fulicata, Ind. Orn. ii. 524.
Motacilla fulicata, Lin. i. 336.    Gm. Lin. i. 990.
Rubetra Philippensis, Bris. iii. 444. t. 23. f. 3.    Id. 8vo. i. 433.
Traquet noir des Philippines, Buf. v. 230.    PL ml. 185. 1.
Sooty Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 451.    Shaw's Zool. x. 616.
LENGTH six inches and a quarter, Bill and legs brown ; irides
hazel; general colour of the plumage more or less violet black;
under tail coverts pale chestnut; on the wing coverts a long white
mark.—Inhabits the Philippine Islands.
A.—Size of the last. Head deep grey; chin and throat, reaching
to the eye, black ; the rest brown, with some white on the wing
coverts as in the others.
 112 WARBLER.
Inhabits India, by some called Guryelghee, but more commonly
Gutta-chutta.—In Sir J. Anstruther's drawings is one, probably a
female; this is wholly light brown, but paler beneath; vent reddish;
tail as in the male, but without any white in the wings. I have
remarked this bird in several drawings done in India, varying with
a reddish tinge on the breast; thighs brown ; the vent deep rufous
red.—In General Hardwicke's drawings the egg is represented as
pale grey, minutely speckled all over with brown, somewhat like
that of the Woodlark.
119.—COROMANDEL WARBLER.
Sylvia Coromandelica, Ind. On. ii. 524.
Motacilla Coromandelica, Gm. Lin. i. 968.
Petit Traquet des Indes, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 207.
Coromandel Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv; 452.    Shaw's Zool. x. 625.
SIZE of our Titmouse. Bill and legs black; irides rufous
yellow; head, neck, breast, and lesser wing coverts, black; on each
feather a yellowish spot; the rest of the coverts edged with yellow;
on the middle of them a spot of white ; quills and tail black ; rump
pale rufous; belly the same, crossed with irregular black bands.
Inhabits the Coast of Coromandel.
120— PHILIPPINE  WARBLER.
Sylvia Philippensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 525.
Motacilla Philippensis, Gm. Lin. i. 168.
Rubetra Philippensis major, Bris. iii. 446. t. 22. f. 3.    Id. 8vo.i. 433.
Le grand Traquet des Philippines, Buf. v. 230.    PL ml. 185. 2.
Traquet de Manille, Salem. Orn. p. 225.
Philippine Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 453.   Shaw's Zool. x. 616.
LENGTH six inches and a half.     Bill dirty yellow ;   head
reddish white, in some parts inclining to yellow; neck dirty red;
 HI
WARBLER.
113
across the breast a bluish band; belly and vent reddish white; back,
wings, and tail, violet black ; across the middle of the wing coverts
a long white mark, on the outer edge of the wing; below this
another, and some of the greater coverts being edged with white,
make a third in the middle of the wing; the outer tail feather edged
with rufous white on the outer web; legs ferruginous.
Inhabits the Philippine Islands.
Traqui
121.—WAVED-TAIL WARBLER.
Jueue striee, Levail. Afr. iv. 111. pi. 188. f. 2.
BILL and legs black; irides chestnut; general colour of the
plumage glossy black; on the shoulders white; part also of the wing
coverts and scapulars white, each feather marked with a black spot
near the tip ; in the middle of the belly a rufous spot; under wing
coverts rufous; ends of the quills brown ; tail much rounded, black;
the feathers deeply undulated across, so as to be felt by the finger.
The female is rather smaller, and the colours less vivid.
Inhabits the bushes and Mimosa woods, in the Caffres Country,
making a nest on the ground, under a thick bush, and laying four
greyish eggs: both sexes sit by turns. It flaps the wings like the
Stone-Chat, frequently uttering the notes Tac-tac-trac, and flirting
up the tail at the same time.
Found also in the neighbourhood of Bengal.
122—RUFOUS-TAILED WARBLER.
Traquet a Cul roux, Levail. Afr. iv. 113. pi. 188. 1.
SIZE of the last. Bill and legs black; head, neck, back, breast,
and wings, black; belly, lower part of the back, rump, vent, and
side tail feathers, rufous; the middle ones black ; shape rounded at
the end.—The female differs in being somewhat smaller.
VOL. VII. Q
mmT
 114 WARBLER.
Found in the same places as the last described, having much the
same note, and manners as the European Stone-Chat. Nest and
eggs unknown.
123— SHARP-TAILED WARBLER.
Motacilla oxura, Sharp-tailed Warbler, Nat. Misc. xxii. pi. 957.
Le Figuier a acutipennes, Levail. Afr. iii. 140. pi. 133. 1. 2.
SIZE of the Yellow Wren ; length scarcely five inches. Bill
dusky, a trifle curved at the point; irides red brown ; plumage
bright rufous, beneath citron yellow, growing white towards the
vent; the two first prime quills, and the ends of seven or eight others
brownish; the tail is greatly cuneiform, the tips of the feathers bare
of webs, so as to appear like sharp needles;* the wings reach just
beyond the base.
The female has the under parts dirty white, being yellow only
on the throat, otherwise like the male.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, frequenting the Mimosa trees
on the borders of Grande Riviere, and the small Isle named Hippopotamus. M. Levaillant only met with two specimens, and found
the remains of insects in the stomach. Its note is a slight warble,
but agreeable enough.
124.—GREAT-TAILED WARBLER.
Sylvia macroura, Ind. Orn. ii. 545.
Motacilla macroura, Gm. Lin.i. 953.
La petite Fauvette tachetee, Buf. v. 161. PL ml. 752. 2.
Le Capocier, Levail. Afr. iii. p. 125. pi. 130. f. 1.—male. p. 111. pi. 129.—fern. & nest.
Merion, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxviii.
Great-tailed Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 500.   Shaw's Zool. x. 724.
LENGTH six inches.     Bill brown; irides pale brown; all the
upper parts of the body brown, the under yellowish white, dashed
* It does not appear
merely run to a point, as
o in Levaillant's plate, for i
i the Grasshopper Warbler.
i that* the tips of the tail ifeathsrs
 WARBLER. 115
with blackish on the breast and sides, with others more minute on
the chin and throat; from the nostrils a white line: passes over the
eyes; tail two inches and a half long, and occupies above half the
length of the bird, the end paler; legs reddish.
The female is smaller, the brown above paler, the under parts
yellowish white; over the eye, in both sexes, a faint yellowish streak.
Inhabits various parts about the Cape of Good Hope, as well as
other places, especially the East Coast, on the borders of Sondag,
Swart Kop, and more particularly Swartland, and the downs of
Saldanie Bay. Makes an oval nest of down, somewhat in the
manner of the Long-tailed Titmouse, mixed with moss and fibres,
very irregular outwardly, with an opening for entrance two-thirds
from the bottom, the inside perfectly smooth and strong. It is nine
inches long, though the cavity is only five inches. The female lays
seven or eight eggs, pale green, spotted with rufous brown; both
sexes sit in turn, and are for the most part seen together.
M. Levaillant observes, that in many of these nests were found
the egg of the Crested Cuckow, but it seemed remarkable, and
unaccountable, how it could be placed there.
125.—CITRON WARBLER.
Le Citrin, Levail. Afr. iii. 106. pi. 127. f. 1. 2.
THIS is smaller than the Babbling Warbler, but the tail as long
as the body. The male has the bill brown; eyes light rufous;
plumage above, wings, and tail, pale yellowish brown, tending to
Isabella colour; throat and fore part of the neck whitish, the rest
of the under parts pale yellow, changing to white beneath the tail;
on each side of the breast a brown mark, accompanied with smaller
ones, but does not pass round as a eollar; the tail is cuneiform, the
outer feather very short; bill brown ; legs yellow.
Q 2
 Hi
H6 WARBLER.
The female is rather smaller, wants the brown on the breast; and
the colours are more inclining to rufous, partaking less of the Isabella colour.
They inhabit the Namaqua Country, about the Cape of Good
Hope, from the river Epine Noire to beneath the Tropic, but not for
certain elsewhere. They live in society, and make a nest of the
down of plants, of an oval shape, having a small hole of entrance
two-thirds of the way up, in the same manner as the Great-tailed
Species. It is of a stout fabric, and placed in the middle of a low
bush, at a moderate height; the eggs are four or five, rufous white,
spotted with brown.*
126—RED-RUMPED  WARBLER.
LENGTH about seven inches. Bill black, with a yellow base,
where are a few slight, short, scattered hairs; irides red; eyelids
white, appearing as a circle ; plumage above pale brown, beneath
white; lesser wing coverts the colour of the back; at the bend of
the wing, on the edge, a patch of pale blue ; the rest of the wing
black; upper and under tail coverts fine rufous red; tail black;
legs dusky blue; the wings reach to the base of the tail.
Inhabits India; called Schurriah.—Sir J. Anstruther.
127.-AZURE WARBLER.
LENGTH five inches. Bill slender, black; plumage in general
blue; over the eyes a slender white line; from the throat down the
middle to the belly, a streak of white; belly and vent white, mottled
on the latter with dusky; quills and tail black; legs black.
Inhabits India.    Said to be a male.
* This is one of the nests in which the Crested Black Cuckow lays her eggs.
  a /*>„■/ '//„M,r)
  I
III
 «%
128— SUPERB WARBLER.—Pl. cvi.
Sylvia cyanea, Ind. Orn. ii. 545.
Motacilla cyanea, Gm. Lin. i. 991.    Ellis's Narr. p. 22.    Cook's last Voy. i. 109.
 superba, Nat. Misc. pi. 10.
Merion, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxviii.
Superb Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 501. pi. 53.    Phil. Bot. Bay, pi. p. 157—male. 159—
female.    White's Journ. p. 256—male and female.    Shaw's Zool. x. 754. pi. 58.
THE length of this beautiful Species is five inches and a half.'
Bill black; the feathers of the head long and silky, and for the most
part stand erect, as a crest; from the forehead to the crown bright
blue; from thence to the nape black, and like velvet; through the
eyes, from the bill, a line of black; under the eye a tuft of the same
rich blue feathers as on the crown; and on the ears a similar blue
patch, uniting with that under the eye, and continuing in a slender
line across the nape, of the texture of velvet, and the whole head
has a greater appearance of bulk than is natural; chin and throat
deep blue, almost black, and like velvet; the hind part of the neck,
and upper parts of the body and tail deep blue black; under parts,
from the breast, pure white; wings dusky, the shafts of the quills
chestnut; tail two inches and a quarter long, and cuneiform, the two
outer feathers very short; legs brown, claws black. The female is
brown above, and white beneath; tail as in the male.
Inhabits the most southern parts of New-Holland. Specimens,
answering to the above description, are in several Collections, but
they vary exceedingly, whether from age or sex cannot at present be
determined.
A.—This Variety has the under parts of the body dusky; shafts
of the quills nearly black, and instead of the blue transverse line at
the back of the head, a large triangular patch of fine blue, with the
point downwards.
 r
118
B. In another Variety, the fore part of the neck is mixed with
blue, and the scapulars of equally fine blue with the head.
Among the drawings of Mr. Dent is one of these, figured with
a nest, which is perfectly round at top, scarcely two inches in diameter, and rather more in depth; composed, apparently, of tender
fibrous materials, and suspended, by fastening between the forks of
a branch.
We learn, from Mr. Lewin's account of the birds of New-Holland,
that these birds are seen in low bushes, creeping close to the ground
in search of food; always in small flocks, among which it is remarkable, that the male only is to be seen in full plumage.
129—SLENDER-TAILED WARBLER.
LENGTH four inches and a half; size of the Yellow Wren. The
bill small, bent, with two or three curved hairs at the base, colour
yellow brown; the plumage on the upper parts, even with the eye,
brown; beneath dusky white, inclining to bun? on the sides; tail
long, cuneiform, and slender; the two middle tail feathers two inches
and a half long, the outmost half an inch shorter; the wings short,
reaching only one-fourth from the base; legs long, pale.
Inhabits New. South Wales.—Lord Stanley: probably a Variety
of the female of the Superb Warbler.
130—MANILLA WARBLER.
Gobe mouche a t£te bleue de Plsle de Lu9on, Son. Voy. 58. pi.27. 1.
SIZE and shape of the Long^-tailed Titmouse.    Bill blackish;
irides pale red; head, throat, and nape, deep blue; neck, baok> fcreast,
 WARBLER. 119
and belly, slaty grey; wing coverts brown, appearing as a large
spot; quills and tail black, the two middle feathers of the latter
longer by half than the others; legs reddish.
Inhabits the Isle of Manilla. This, if not a further Variety, is
greatly allied to the Superb Warbler.
131.—HARRISON'S WARBLER.
SIZE and shape of the Superb Warbler, but less than five inches
in length. Crown of the head, a patch on the jaw, and the nape,
a fine blue; shoulders brown ; the rest of the body as in the Superb
Warbler: the tail less than two inches long, nearly even, the two
middle feathers rather shorter than the rest, and all of them white
at the tips, and rounded at the ends; bill and legs black. In some
the tail feathers were wholly of one colour.
Inhabits New-Holland.—We have placed this as a distinct species, chiefly on account of difference in shape of the tail, being
rather concave in shape than cuneiform, as is to be seen in every
Variety of the Superb Species. A specimen of this bird in Mr.
Harrison's Museum.
132.—LONG-TAILED WARBLER.
Sylvia longicauda, Ind. Orn. ii. 525.
Motacilla longicauda, Gm.Lin.i. 954.
Le petit Figuier a longue Queue, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 206.
Merion, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxviii.
Long-tailed Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 501.    Shaw's Zool. x. 756.
THE length of this pretty Species is five inches and a half; size
of the Smallest Wren. General colour of the plumage olive-green,
paler beneath, though in some inclining to brown; top of the head
pale rufous; quills olive-brown; tail long and slender, the two
middle feathers exceeding the rest in length; bill and legs very
pale brown.
 f
X20 WARBLER.
The female differs chiefly in the tail, the middle feathers of which
are very little longer than the others, but in both the tail is in shape
cuneiform.
Inhabits China, frequent among the trees, with which the
Chinese adorn the courts about their houses; is very tame, and has
an agreeable note. Is common at Bengal, where it is called Toon-
toonee. The nest found among the Mango trees, most commonly
in shape of a purse, generally composed of two living leaves attached
together by fibres, somewhat in the manner expressed in the Indian
Zoology, as belonging to the Tailor Warbler, though not with so
wonderful a construction ; the hollow space between the two leaves
is lined with cotton by way of nest; and the eggs are three in
number, whitish, marked with flesh-coloured spots, in length three-
fifths of an inch.
A.—Length five inches. Bill five-eighths of an inch, pale and
slender; crown pale rufous ; plumage pale greenish above, beneath
white; wings dusky; tail cuneiform, two inches and a half long,
the two middle feathers very slender, and exceed the others by half
an inch at least; the redundant parts nearly filiform.
The female is much the same as to colour, but the sides beneath
the eyes are marked with obsolete dusky spots ; and the two middle
tail feathers do not exceed the others by more than a quarter of an
inch.—Inhabits India.—Sir J. Anstruther.
B.—This Variety differs in the general colour of the plumage
being rufous, inclining to brown above ; wing coverts and rump
pale ash-colour ; quills and tail brown, edges of the feathers pale;
the latter cuneiform, about half the length of the bird ; the two
middle feathers but little elongated.
Inhabits  India with  the others.—In  the collection  of Lord
Valentia. h
 WARBLER.
133.—RUSTY-SHOULDERED WARBLER.
LENGTH six inches. Bill and legs brown; plumage in general
above rufous brown; from the middle of the crown to beyond the
nape ferruginous; the feathers falling on the shoulders, and the lesser
wing coverts the same, but paler; under wing coverts dusky white ;
quills and tail as the back ; all beneath dusky ash-colour, but very
pale, marked on the chin with blackish streaks, and on the throat
with transverse dusky ones; the tail very cuneiform, the two middle
feathers three inches long, the outmost, but one, an inch and a half,
and the exterior only three quarters of an inch ; all of them swelling
towards the end, but finishing in a sharp point, the inner webs
being very broad; the whole appear slight in their texture, and bend
a trifle outwards.
In the collection of Lord Stanley.—Native place uncertain.
Appears to have some relation to the Long-tailed Species.
134—GAUZE-TAILED WARBLER.
La Queue gazee, Levail. Afr. iii. 125. pi, 130. 2.
SIZE of a Wren, but on account of the length of tail, the total
measure is seven inches. Bill dusky ; legs brown ; general colour
of the plumage rufous brown ; fore part of the neck blue grey, with
a singular gloss like a pearl, or oriental agate; hind part of the
neck black brown, waved with paler brown ; the tail longer than the
rest of the bird, and cuneiform, the shafts nearly black, or deep
brown, but the webs are rufous brown ; and so very loose in texture
and transparent, that if laid over a printed book, the page may be
read, notwithstanding.
This inhabits Java, and is in the cabinet of M. Temminck, of
Amsterdam.
vol. vir. R
J
 rrr-T—m—iwim
122
WARBLER.
135.—AFRICAN WARBLER.
Sylvia Africana, Ind. Orn. ii. 518. Gm. Lin. i
Curruca naevia Cap B. Spei, Bris. iii. 390. t. i
Fauvette tachetee du Cap de Bonne Esperance
LeFluteur, Levail. Afr. iii. 61. pi. 112. f. 2.
Merion, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ixvii.
African Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 436.    Shaw's 2
Buf.v. 160.
LENGTH seven inches and a quarter. Bill horn-colour; crown
of the head rufous, dashed with blackish ; neck behind, back, and
scapulars black, edged with rufous grey; lower part of the back,
rump, and upper tail coverts the same, but the margins more rufous;
beneath the body dirty rufous white, in some dashed with black on
the sides ; on each side of the throat a longitudinal black streak;
quills brown, fringed with rufous; the tail very loosely webbed, and
somewhat cuneiform; the four middle feathers brown, with rufous
margins; the four outer, on each side, rufous outwardly, and brown
down the shafts ; legs grey brown.
The female is smaller, and the tail shorter, and the plumage not
so bright in colour.    They are very seldom seen but in pairs.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.—M. Levaillant seems to think
this bird much allied to the Thrush Genus. Its note said to resemble
the sound of a flute, whence the name given to it. Is chiefly found
on the borders of streams, among the reeds; its flight slow, and it is
frequently observed fixed to the stalk of the reed; feeds on all kinds
of insects, and their larvae. It is for the most part fat, and the flesh
in much estimation, being very delicate ; very common in the
marshes about Constance, and along, the East Coast, but never
except where reeds grow.
 123
136.—SOFT-TAILED WARBLER.
Muscicapa malachura, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. Iii.   Shaw's Zool. x. 407.
Merion, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxviii.
Soft-tailed Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. 224.   Lin. Trans, iv. 240. pi. 21.
LENGTH from bill to rump three inches. Bill brownish black,
with strong bristles at the base, and curved at the point; nostrils
large, and low down; plumage in general ferruginous, but the
feathers of the back and wings are brown in the middle, and those
of the rump soft and silky; middle of the belly dusky white; from
the base of the bill a pale blue streak, passing over the eye; throat
and fore part of the neck the same in, colour, and in some birds a
few minute, bluish spots beneath the eye ; wings short, scarcely
reaching the base of the tail; quills dusky, with ferruginous edges;
tail cuneiform, and of a singular structure, four inches or more in
length, the shafts of the feathers weak and black, but the webs on
each side consisting of slender, hairy, black filaments, placed at
distances, and distinct from each other as in those of the Cassowary;
legs pale brown, claws large.
The female like the male, but without the blue streak over the
eye; and the chin and throat of the same colour with the rest of the
plumage.
Inhabits New-Holland, found about Sidney, and Botany Bay, in
marshy places, abounding in long grass, and fine rushes, in which
it hides itself very dexterously; and among which, like the Bearded
Titmouse, it makes the nest. When disturbed, the flight is short,
but it runs on the ground with great swiftness. The native name
is Merion Binnion, and the Settlers call it Cassowary Bird. Supposed to feed on small flies, and other insects, which lurk in the
grass and bushes. Another name for this bird is Merean geree, from
the resemblance of the tail feathers, which seem totf heavy for the
bird when in flight, to those of the Cassowary.    It is called Emeu,
 124 WARBLER.
or Cassowary, Titmouse; is of short flight, scarcely 100 yards at a
time, and is so feeble and delicate as to be run down with the greatest
ease. It is also called Murreanera in another drawing; however,
the tail feathers are not strictly like those of the Cassowary, as each
shaft has only a single feather, whereas in the Cassowary two
feathers spring from one shaft: the tail seems to differ much in length,
as in some it measures full five inches.
137— ORANGE-RUMPED WARBLER.
;apa melanocephala, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. 1
j-rumped Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii.
s Zool. x. 406.
win, N. Holl. Birds ?
HEAD and neck black, and full of feathers; back and rump
orange-colour, or reddish ; all beneath the body white, with several
longish streaks of black on the breast; wings and tail brown, the
feathers of the latter much separated, and distinct from each other, as
in the Soft-tailed Species ; legs pale brown. That of Mr. Lewin, if
the same, has the head brown ; lore orange ; under the eye black.
Inhabits New South Wales ; is an active bird; frequently carries
the tail erect, and expands it at the same moment it springs on its
prey, which is insects; observed to leap from branch to branch for
that purpose, many times together, returning to the same spot.
138—MOUNTAINEER WARBLER.
Brachypteryx montana, Lin. Trans, xiii. 157.
LENGTH six inches. Bill rather stout; nostrils large, placed
in a hollow, closed above, and at the back part, with a membrane;
plumage in general bluish grey, paler beneath; belly whitish;
wings very short; quills brown, margined outwardly with blue grey;
 WARBLER. 125
tail the same, rounded in shape, and longish ; the legs also are
elongated, and the middle toe greatly so; as are the claws, especially
the hind one.
Inhabits Java, by the name of Ketek.
139—BATAVIAN WARBLER.
Brachypteryx sepiaria, Lin. Trans, xiii. 158.
LENGTH   five inches.     Plumage in general  fulvous olive,
paler beneath; chin and middle of the belly whitish ; vent testaceous
bay; quills and tail brownish bay, externally more inclined to bay,
but the two middle tail feathers are of one colour.
Inhabits Java, and there called Chichohan.
140.—FENNY WARBLER.
Megalurus palustris, Lin. Trans, xiii. 159.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill rather stout and compressed, and
straightish, with a notch ; nostrils at the base, covered with a membrane; plumage brown, mixed on the back with testaceous grey ;
head varied brownish grey, beneath whitish; breast tenderly streaked
with brown; tail greatly elongated, and cuneiform; legs rather stout.
Inhabits Java, by the name of Larri-angon.—Dr. Horsfield says,
it holds an intermediate place between his Motacilla Anthus on one
side, and Alauda on the other, though strictly neither.
141 — FOODKEY WARBLER.
SIZE of the Lesser White-Throat.    Upper parts of the head,
neck, and body,   pale ash-colour, beneath yellowish white; wings
 126 WARBLER.
and tail brown; the latter long, and cuneiform, the outer feathers
very short, all of them crossed near the end with a bar of black;
bill dusky, rather stout; legs pale red, claws very pale.
Inhabits India.—From the drawings of Lord Mountnorris, and
named Food key.
142.—RED-VENTED WARBLER.
SIZE of the Hen Redbreast. Bill and legs dusky; plumage
above, wings, and tail, pale cinereous brown; on the wing coverts
an oblique white streak, and a second smaller, arising from the
middle of the first, and placed transverse;to it; all the under parts
from the chin, and even with the eye blue, as far as the thighs;
lower belly and vent ferruginous; thighs white; tail rounded, pale
dusky brown.
Inhabits India.—Sir J. Anstruther.
143.—WHITE-CROWNED WARBLER.
Sylvia albicapilla, Ind. Om. ii. 532.
Motacilla albicapilla, Gm. Lin. i. 964.
White-crowned Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 472.
. 642.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill black; plumage above pale olive-
green, beneath dusky white ; chin pure white; on the crown of the
head a white spot; and behind the eye another; legs black.
Inhabits China.—Described from some private drawings, brought
from thence by the late Capt. Broadley. I have also seen the same
in various Chinese paintings.
 127
144.—PINK WARBLER.
Sylvia caryophyllacea, Ind. Orn. ii. 532.    Gm. Lin. i. 964.
Pink Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 473.    Brown. III. 84. pi. 33.   Shaw's Zool. x. 693.
SIZE of the Willow Wren.     Bill reddish ; plumage in general
pale pink colour; wings and tail inclined to dusky; legs red.
Inhabits Ceylon.
145.—OLIVE WARBLER.
Sylvia olivacea, Ind. Orn. ii. 532.    Gm. Lin. i. 964.
Olive Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 473.   Brown. III. 33. pi. 34.    Shaw's Zool. x. 590:
SIZE of a Hedge Sparrow. Bill whitish, with pale yellow
feathers round the base ; head, upper parts of the body, wings, and
tail, olive ; breast and belly white.
Inhabits Ceylon.—Jerks up the tail so high, as to make an
acute angle.
A.—Length five inches. Bill rather stout, pale lead-colour, with
a few hairs at the base; plumage above and tail pale olive-green,
beneath dusky white; throat and breast tinged with rufous; wings
black, the feathers pale greenish on the edges; tail two inches long,
rounded; legs dusky black.    Both sexes nearly alike.
Inhabits India.—In the collection of Sir J Anstruther.
146.—GREEN INDIAN WARBLER.
Sylvia Zeylonica, Ind. Om. ii. 632.    Gm. Lin.\. 964.
Motacilla Tiphia, Lin. i. 331.    Gm. Lin. i. 963.
Ficedula Bengalensis, Bris. iii. 484.   Id. 8vo. i. 442.    Klein, 75. 17
Le Figuier vert et jaune, Buf. v. 278.
J
 128 WARBLER.
Ceylon Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 474.   Id. Sup. 182.    Brown, III. pi. 36.
Green Indian Flycatcher, Edw. pi. 15.—Male. pi. 79.—female.
Green Indian Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 474.    Shaw's Zool. x. 688.
SIZE of the Pettichaps. Bill black, with the base yellow;
plumage above olive-green, paler on the rump; cheeks, and under
parts of the body greenish yellow ; lesser wing coverts deep brown;
the others the same, tipped with white, forming two bands on the
wing; quills and tail blackish, with the edges yellow ; legs blackish.
The female differs in being paler, the tail pale green, not black.
Inhabits India, called Tuflika; is.theChahtuck of the Bengalese;
found in the neighbourhood of Calcutta, but not common.
A.—Le Quadricolor, Levail. Afr. iii. 198. pi. 141. 1.
Size a trifle less than the Great Titmouse, but the bill as in the
Warbler; crown of the head, sides including the eyes, and the nape
black ; back and scapulars grass green; quills black, bordered with
yellow; the greater and middle wing coverts marked with white at
the ends; tail even, black, the feathers edged outwardly with yellow ; the rest of the body beneath, from chin to vent, jonquil yellow;
the white on the wings less pure than in the first described, and less
conspicuous, having a tinge of olive.
This appears to be a young male of the Green Indian Warbler,
as M. Levaillant had both sexes sent from Columbo, in Ceylon.
One, of the male, in Mr. Comyns's collection, is named Kaha
Batta.
147.—CINGALESE WARBLER.
Sylvia Cingalensis, Ind. On. ii. 533.    Gm. 1
Green Warbler, Brown, III. 82. pi. 32.
Cingalese Warbler, Gm. 5yn. iv. 474.    Sha
. 964.    Motacilla.
LENGTH four inches and a half.    Bill brown ; plumage above
changeable green; beneath the neck orange ; breast and belly yellow.
Inhabits Ceylon.
 129
148—BLACK-NECKED WARBLER.
Sylvia nigricollis, Ind. Orn. ii. 553.
Black-necked Warbler, Gm. Syn. Sup. 187.    Shaw's Zool. x. 704.
BILL yellow, base blue; crown and hind part of the neck
black; the feathers of the former longish, so as to enable the bird to
erect them as a crest; sides of the neck, breast, and belly, reddish
white ; back and wing coverts light grey ; primaries and tail black ;
legs yellow.—Inhabits India.
149.—CAMBAIAN WARBLER.
Sylvia Cambaiensis, Ind. Orn. ii, 554.
Cambaian Warbler, Gm: Syn. Sup. ii. 246.   Shaw's Zool. x. 705.
SIZE of a Nightingale. Bill black; plumage above dusky
brown ; beneath glossy black; bottom of the belly and vent dull
rufous; wing coverts white; tail three inches long, even at the end ;
legs brown.
Inhabits India, found in the kingdom of Guzurat.
150—GUZURAT WARBLER.
Sylvia Guzurata, Ind. Orn, ii. 554.
Guzurat Warbler, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. 246.    Shaw's Zool. x. 725.
SIZE of the Yellow Wren; length four inches and a half. Bill
and legs pale brown; body above dull green, beneath white; crown
chestnut; quills and tail brown, the feathers margined with green ;
tail rounded at the end.—Found with the last.
 irm- mnrnn —hj
130
151—PLUMBEOUS WARBLER.
Sylvia plumbea, Ind. Or
Plumbeous Warbler, Gt
. ii. 553.
.. Syn. Sup. 188.
s Zool.
THIS is only three inches and three quarters in length. Bill
short, dusky brown ; plumage above deep lead-colour, nearly black;
beneath pale ash; quails and tail dusky; legs deep brown.
Native place uncertain.
152.—ASIATIC WARBLER.
Sylvia Asiatica, Ind. Orn. ii. 554.
Asiatic Warbler, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. -247.    Shaw's Zool. x. 602.
SIZE of the Nightingale. Bill dusky, with a few hairs at the
base; head and neck black ; lore and chin white; body brown above,
yellowish<beneath; on the breast a few..spots of white; £ail three
inches and three quarters long, cuneiform, brown % ithie two middle
feathers plain, the others pale half way to the end.
A.—In this the forehead, a streak over the eyes, and all the under
parts are white; and such of the tail feathers as are pale in the
other, are in this quite white.
These are found in India, about Guzurat, and most probably
differ from each other merely in sex.
158.—ETHEHAL WARBLER.
LENGTH five inches;; size of the Redhreast.    Bill blaek, with
a hair or two at the base; head, neck, upper parts of-thebody, and
 WARBLER.
131
tail fine deep blue, deeper on the chin and throat; breast rufous, as
in the Redbreast; from thence to the vent white; quills dusky, with
bluish edges; bastard wing dusky; legs yellow.
Inhabits India; described from the Collection of Lady Clive. I
observe another Blue-headed Warbler in the same, but only the
head and throat are blue; the rest, for the most part, brown.
Sylvi
Chin;
154.-
. Sinensis, Ind. On
Warbler, Gen. Syr
CHINA
,ii. 533.
WARBLER.
960,
Gm. Li
Motacilla.
689.
LENGTH six inches. Bill pale dusky red; plumage in general
green; from the eye to the nape a pale streak; on the ear a pale
spot; under parts of the body flesh-colour; tail pointed; legs dusky.
Inhabits China.
155.-BOURBON WARBLER.
Sylvia Borbonica, Ind. On. ii. 533.
Ficedula Borbonica, Bris. iii. 510. t. 28. f. 3.    Id. 8vo. i.-449.
Figuier de l'Isle de Bourbon, PL enl. 705.  2.
Le petit Simon, Buf. v. 280.
Bee-fin, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxviii.
Bourbon Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 475.    Shaw's Zool. x. 600.
SIZE of the Yellow Wren. Bill grey brown; plumage above
the same, beneath dirty yellowish grey ; quills and tail brown, the
feathers edged with grey brown; legs grey brown.
Inhabits the Island of Madagascar, and Bourbon; at the latter
called by the inhabitants, Petit Simon; makes the nest in September,
composed of dried plants, lined with hair, and generally placed on
trees, which stand singly, as in orchards; the eggs three in number,
and blue. These birds always keep together in flocks, and feed on
insects, and tender fruits; they set up a particular cry, when seeing
S 2
 132 WARBLER.
any thing running on the ground, and hence become a good criterion
for the sportsman, in respect to game, which might otherwise escape
his observation.
156—MAURTCE WARBLER.
Sylvia Mauritiana, Ind. On. ii. 534.    Got. Lin. i. 981.   Motacilla.
Le Figuier bleu, Buf. v. 282.    PL ml. 705. 1.
Maurice Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 476.    Shaw's Zool. x. 665.
LENGTH three inches and three quarters. Bill blackish ;
plumage on the upper parts of the body blue grey, on the under
white; quills and tail black, edged with white; legs bluish.
Inhabits the Island of Mauritius;  probably a Variety of the
last, or sexual difference.
A.—Length of the other. Bill yellow, with a few hairs at the
base; head, neck, and back, fine pale blue grey; beneath from the
breast nearly white; wings and tail brown, the edges of the feathers
paler; tail short; the wings reaching to about the middle of it.
Inhabits India, called there Toota foorka. It differs from that
in the PI. enlum. as the bill is blackish, and the legs pale, which
in the other are exactly opposite; in the PI. enlum. the rump seems
white, which is not so in Buffbn's description; nor are the quills and
tail black in our bird, though considerably darker than the rest.
157— LIVID WARBLER.
Sylvia livida, Ind. Orn. ii. 534.   Got. Lin. i. 981.   Motacilla.
Figuier bleu de Madagascar, PL ml. 705.
Contre-maitre brun verdatre, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 157 ?
Madagascar Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 476.
LENGTH   four inches and a half.     Bill and legs pale lead-
colour ; plumage above deep blue grey, paler beneath, changing to
 WARBLER. 133
white at the vent; quills blackish, edged with white; tail more than
one inch and half long, black, but the two outer feathers are white.
Supposed to be the male of the last, but the length of tail in PI.
enlum. is different, though similar in appearance. M. d'Azara's
bird appears somewhat like this, as compared thereto by his anno-
tator; but as these two birds inhabit places so widely distant, we
must suspect them to be different species.
158—BLACK-BACKED WARBLER.
Ivia obscura, Got. Lin. i. 978.    Gmel. reise, i
ick-backed Warbler, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. 245.
. 178.    Pall. n. nord. Beytr. iv. 56.
Shaw's Zool. x. 634.
SIZE of a Nightingale. Bill rather triangular, brown; irides
yellow; eyelids naked; crown and hind part of the neck greyish
brown ; back and rump cinereous grey, the feathers chestnut brown
in the middle, with dusky tips; head and neck before, dull yellowish
grey; belly and vent mixed grey and white; wing coverts as the
back, marked with a pale yellow spot at the tips; quills dusky,
margined with chestnut brown; tail the same; legs dusky.
Inhabits the mountainous parts of Russia.
1
159.—SUSAN WARBLER.
Motacilla ochrura, Got. Lin. i. 978.    Gmel. reise, iii. 101. t. 19. f. 3.
THE head in this species is ash-colour ; nape and part of the
back deep black; throat and breast glossy black ; belly yellow.
Inhabits the mountainous parts of Persia.
 134
WARBLER.
160.—PERSIAN WARBLER.
Sylvia Sunami'sica, Ind. On.
Motacilla Sunamisica, Gm. Li
Beytr. iv. 60.
Persian Warbler, Gen. Syn. Sup.
i. 978.    S. G. Gmel. Tt. iv. 181. 18.    Pall, i
. 633.
rrd.
. 246.    Shaw's Zool. j
SIZE of the Blue Warbler. Bill black ; irides brown ; plumage
in general rufous ash ; chin and throat black ; breast and belly pale
rufous, the feathers tipped with white; wing coverts and quills white
on the outer edges and tips ; over the eye a line of white, passing
towards the nape ; vent white; the two middle tail feathers brown,
the rest fringed on both sides with fulvous; legs black.
Inhabits the rocky parts of the Persian Alps, and feeds on insects.
161— DWARF WARBLER.
Sylvia pusilla, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. lvi.
Motacilla pusilla,  White's Journal, pi. in p. 257.
Bee-fin, Teni. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxviii.
Dwarf Warbler, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 251.    Shaw's Zool.x. 647.
SIZE of the Superb Warbler. The upper parts of the plumage
brown; beneath pale, with a band of brown towards the end of the
tail; the last even at the end ; bill and legs black.
Inhabits New South Wales.
A.—Length three inches and a half. Bill brown, at the base
two or three minute hairs; plumage in general above pale olive-
green, beneath .pale yellow; chin and throat tinged with rufous;
quills and tail brownish, the feathers edged with olive-yellow ; tail
feathers marked with a blackish spot, a quarter of an inch long,
about one-sixth from the tips, which are rather pointed, and when
spread, appearing as a broad bar; legs broWn.
Inhabits New-Holland.—In the collection of Lord Stanley.
 WARBLER. 185
B.—Length three inches and a half. Bill slender, at the base
two or three minute hairs; plumage above pale olive-brown; beneath,
under wing coverts, rump, and base of the tail, for one-third, yellowish buff-colour; middle of the tail dusky, the end pale buff, the
outer feather the same on the outer web; legs slender, pale brown.
Found with the last, and in the same collection.
162.—BLACK-HEADED WARBLER.
SIZE of the Coldfinch ; length six inches. Bill somewhat
broad at the base, but without hairs; head black; at the nape, a
Httle behind the eye, a streak of white ; chin and all beneath white;
upper parts of the body and tail fine olive-green; lesser wing
coverts brown..—Inhabits New-J-Hplland.
163.—BONNET WARBLER.
LENGTH six inches. Bill pale orange, top of the head,
including the eyes, black; irides red ; the rest of the upper parts,
back, and wings, rufous, or red brown ; second wing coverts, and
second quills, barred with black; greater quills black, edged with
wshilte^ the under parts of the body pale yellow; chin, thighs, and
vent, white; tail long, cuneiform, rufous for half the length, the
rest inclining to pale yellow; legs pale orange.
Inhabits New-Holland, and is said to be rare.—Mr. Francillon.
164.—BUFF-HEADED WARBLER.
SIZE of the Gold-crowned Wren ; length nearly four inches.
Bill pale brown, bene£$& whitish; head, neck, and under,pants, buff-
I
 11
ill
136 WARBLER.
colour; chin and vent nearly white; back and wings brown, with
darker coloured streaks; lower part of the back, rump, and upper
tail coverts, buff-colour; quills and tail dusky brown, with pale
margins, and fringed at the tips with buff*; legs pale, longish ; tail
one inch and a quarter long, rounded at the end, and the wings
reach to about one-third.
Inhabits New South Wales.—Lord Stanley.
165—EXILE WARBLER.
SIZE of the Yellow Wren ; length nearly four inches. Bill half
an inch; head above, neck, back, and wings, brown, streaked with
darker brown ; rump and upper tail coverts tawny; all beneath
dusky white, tinged with buff on the breast; thighs tawny; tail
cuneiform, an inch and a half long, brown, towards the end dusky,
fringed at the tip with buff; legs longish, pale.
Inhabits New South Wales.—Lord Stanley.
166.—YELLOW-VENTED WARBLER.
Sylvia anilis, Ind. On. Sup. p. liv.
Yellow-vented Warbler, Gen. Syn. Sup. i
247.    Shaw's Zool. x. 725.
THIS is pale brown, beneath dull white; under tail  coverts
yellow; irides red ; bill and legs brown.
Inhabits New South Wales ; met with in January.
167.—STREAKED WARBLER.
Sylvia sagittata, Ind. On. Sup. liv.
Streaked Warbler, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 247.    Shaw's Zool. x. 658.
SIZE and shape of the Hedge Sparrow.     Bill  black; irides
dusky blue; upper parts of the plumage as in the Hedge Sparrow,
 B*
WARBLER. 137
but inclining to rust-co^ui* on the rump; under parts white, with
•sagittal black streaks; top of the head black, streaked with white, and
the upper parts of the body with black; from the nostrils, through
the eye, a ferruginous stripe, passing some way behind ; tail loosely
webbed, brown; legs dusky.
Inhabits New South Wales in July; said to sing remarkably well.
One supposed to be the female, had the whole crown and upper
parts plain brown, with a few obscure darker mottlings on the wing
coverts; no ferruginous stripe through the eye; beneath white, and
streaked as the other, but not so dark.
168.—TERRENE WARBLER.
Sylvia inornata, Ind. On. Sup. liv. VwfWS'i-j)
Terrene Warbler, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 248.    Shaw's Zool. x. 696.
THE bill and legs are black; general colour of the plumage
greenish yellow, inclining to brown, beneath paler; quills black,
the ends of tail feathers pale ash-colour.
Inhabits New-Holland, not uncommon at Port Jackson; is a
bird of short flight, more frequently seen on the ground than on the
trees,  like the Wagtail.
169.—GOLD-BELLIED WARBLER.
Sylvia flavigastra, Ind. Orn. Sup. liv.
Gold-bellied Warbler, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 249.   Shaw's Zool. x. 726.
LARGER than a Sparrow. Bill and legs dusky black ; head,
hind part of the neck, back, wings, and tail, pale ash, or slate-colour;
wings and tail darkest; rump yellow; all the under parts golden
yellow ; from chin to the breast deepest; between the bill and eye,
and just round the latter, black.
Inhabits New South Wales.
 I
II
SI
il
III
138
170.—RUDDY WARBLER.
Sylvia rubricata, Ind. Orn. Sup. li.
Ruddy Warbler, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. 249.    Shaw's Zool. x. 697.
SOMEWHAT larger than the Redbreast. Bill slender, dusky;
irides hazel; plumage above brownish ash-colour; beneath wholly
ferruginous, inclining to yellow ; wings and tail brown, the last
roundedL; legs yellow.—Inhabits New South Wales.
171.—NEW-HOLLAND WARBLER.
LENGTH six inches. Bill black ; irides dark, round the eye
black; plumage above ash-colour, inclining to rufous yellow on the
rump; all beneath from the chin yellow; wings and tail darker than
the rest; the last even, the wings reach just on the base of it; legs
black.—Inhabits New South Wales. Native name Thadaguan. Is
a very common and domestic bird, with the actions of the Redbreast
of Europe ; has many things in common with the last: probably the
female.
lilt
172—CHASTE WARBLER.
Sylvia casta, Ind. On. Sup. Iv.
Chaste Warbler, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 249.    Shaw's Zool. x. 731.
SIZE small; length four inches. Bill and legs black; plumage
above ferruginous brown, beneath yellowish white, clouded on the
breast with pale blue, and on the sides with ferruginous; over the
eye an irregular dusky brown streak, behind the eye a few dusky
specks ; tail rounded, or slightly cuneiform, dull pale yellow,
blotched down the middle of the shafts, with six or seven large spots
of brown, but these do not touch the outer margins.
Found with the last.
 WARBLER.
173.—WHITE-TAILED WARBLER
Sylvia leucophcea, Ind. On. Sup. Iv.
White-tailed Warbler, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. 249.    Shaw's Zool. x. 658.
T1IIS is brown above, and bluish white beneath; quills black,
across the middle of them a white patch ; tail longish, all but the
two middle feathers white ; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits New South Wales, has the outward appearance of the
Dirigang Honey-eater, but is a distinct species; said to be a familiar
bird, following the gardeners and workmen in the fields for the sake
of worms, &c.—Mr. Francillon.
174.-CRIMSON-BREASTED WARBLER.
Sylvia rubricollis, Ind. On. Sup. Iv.
Crimson-breasted Warbler, Gen. Syn. Sup.
, 250.    Shaw's Zool. x. 703.
SIZE uncertain.    Bill and legs brown; plumage above dusky
blue; beneath white; fore part of the neck and breast fine crimson.
Found with the former.
A.—Length four inches and a half. Bill black; head, neck,
back, and wing coverts, black; over the eye an irregular white
streak; chin white; breast and belly fine crimson; lower belly and
vent white; on the middle of the wing an oblique streak of white;
quills and tail brown ; legs black.
Inhabits New South Wales; native name Boad-dang; is allied
to the Crimson-breasted : probably differing in sex.
 ill
140
WARBLER.
175.—RUSTY-SIDE WARBLER,
Sylvia lateralis,. Ind. Orn
Rusty-side Warbler, Get
Sup. Iv.
. Syn. Sup. ii
LENGTH between four and five inches. Bill dusky, pale
beneath, nostrils covered with a kind of flap ; the greater part of
the head and wings, lower part of the back, and all except the two
middle tail feathers, green; hind part of the neck, beginning of the
back, and two middle feathers of the tail, blue grey ; tail even at the
end; body beneath whitish, but ferruginous on the sides; between
the bill and eye a narrow streak of black; legs pale.
Inhabits New South Wales.
176— WREATHED WARBLER.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill slender, pointed, dusky;
head, and on each side to the jaw, glossy steel black; from the eye
round to the nape a white line, passing backwards, and surrounding
it as a wreath at the back part; back and wings olive yellow; quills
and tail dusky within; beneath the body wholly white, also the
wing coverts; tail two inches and a half long, somewhat cuneiform,
the outer feather being half an inch shorter than the two middle ones;
legs brown.
The female has the head mouse-colour, with the same kind of
wreath as in the other, but pale; under parts of the body dusky
white, and the upper parts of the plumage dusky green.
Inhabits New South Wales.—Lord Stanley.
 177—BOTANY-BAY WARBLER.
h: LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Bill black; plumage ,
above pale ash grey; beneath wholly cinereous white; quills brown,
with pale edges; tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers nearly two
inches in length, the outmost one inch and a half; the six middle
ones are even in length, and black ; the next black, with the tip for
a quarter of an inch white; the next white for half the length from
the tip, and wholly so on the outer web; the outmost entirely white;
the three exterior are also of different degrees of length, though the
six middle ones are equal; legs pretty long, black.
Said to inhabit Botany-4)ay. Is very like the Grey-throated
Warbler.
178.—RUFOUS-VENTED WARBLER.
Sylvia rufiventrisi Ind. Orn. Sup. p. liv.
Rufous-vented Warbler, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 248.    Shaw's Zool. x. 696.
SIZE of the Redbreast. General colour above, win^s, and
tail, ash ; chin and throat, to the breast, bluish white; from the base
of the bill a deep dusky blue streak, passing on each side of the
neck, bounding the throat at the bottom part, and finishing iia;a
deep crescent on the breast; from this last to the vent deep rufous;
bill and legs dusky; tail even at the end, the wings reaching a very
little way beyond the base of it.
17.9.—CITRINE WARBLER.
Sylvia citrina, Ind. On. ii. 529.
Motacilla citrina, Got. Lin. i. 979.
Citrine Warbler, Gm.Syn.iv. 464.    Shaw's Zool. x. 601.
SIZE of a Wren; length three inches and a half, Bill three
quarters of an inch, straight, and black; irides very pale blue; the
I
 142 WARBLER.
plumage above yellow, streaked with dusky; the sides of the head,
beneath the eye, fore part of the neck and breast, white; the belly,
thighs, vent, and rump yellow; wings black, across the middle a
bar of yellow; tail short, only half an inch in length, rounded at
the end, black, the ends of the feathers dull yellow, and when at
rest appearing yellow; crossed with a curved black bar, like a
crescent; legs one inch in length, dusky; claws large, and crooked.
Inhabits Dusky Bay, New Zealand.
180—LONG-LEGGED WARBLER.
Sylvia longipes, Ind. Orn
Motacilla longipes, Gm. j
Long-legged Wj
Ger,
. 529.
i. i. 979.
, Syn. iv. 465.
Id. Sup. p. 181.   Shaw's Zool. x. 721.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill three quarters of an inch
long, straight, and black; irides bluish ash-colour; plumage on the
upper parts elegant pale green; forehead, and sides under the eyes,
brownish; sides of the neck ash-colour; above the eye a semicircular
white mark; breast and under parts very pale ash-colour; thighs
and vent greenish ; tail very short, as in the last described ; the legs
more than one inch long, and flesh-coloured; toes and claws stout.
Inhabits Dusky Bay, and named E Teetee tee poinam. The two
last from the drawings of Sir Joseph Banks.
181.—LONG-SHANKED WARBLER.
Sylvia minima, Ind. Orn. ii. 529.
Long-legged Warbler, Gm. Syn. Sup. 181.   Shaw's Zool. x. 722.
THIS is probably a Variety of the last; length three inches. The
colour brown, instead of green; under parts white.    As to size it
 WARBLER. 143
seems to be very minnte, as one weighed by Mr. Anderson* equalled
only 120 grains; bill and legs yellowish.
From Van Diemen's Land.
182—EQUINOCTIAL WARBLER.
Sylvia sequinoctialis, Ind. Orn. ii. 553.
Equinoctial Warbler, Gm. Syn. Sup. 187.   Shaw's Zool. x. 678.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill dusky; plumage above
testaceous brown, paler on the rump; beneath white; quills and tail
brown, the latter rounded, and crossed with obsolete bars.
Inhabits Christmas Isle; sings somewhat like the Babbling
Warbler; has a kind of twittering note, and not unpleasing. From
the papers of the late Mr. Anderson.
183—INDIGO WARBLER.
Sylvia Cyane, Ind. On. ii. 541.
Motacilla Cyane, Got. Lin. i. 992.    Pall, reise, iii. 697.
Indigo Warbler, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. 243.   Shaw's Zool. x. 655.
SIZE of the Kamtschatkan Thrush. General colour of the
plumage on the upper parts deep blue, beneath white; from the
bill to the wings on each side a streak of black; tail blue, outer
feathers white.
Inhabits the extreme boundaries of Dauuria, between the Rivers
Onon and Argun, in the spring, but is a scarce bird.
184.—RUSTY-HEADED WARBLER.
Sylvia borealis, Ind. On. ii. 522.
Motacilla borealis, Got. Lin. i. 986.
Rusty-headed Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 448.   Shaw's Zool. x. 690.
LENGTH five inches. Bill pale; forehead, throat, and sides
of the head, ferruginous; the two first palest; plumage on the upper
* Papers at Sir Joseph Banks's,
 r
Hi
1
If'
144
WARBLER.
parts of the body green, the under yellow, both tinged with olive;
tail rounded, the tips of all but the two middle feathers dusky white;
legs dusky.—Inhabits Kamtschatka.
185— BUFF-FACED WARBLER.
Sylvia lutescens, Ind. Orn. ii. 523.
Motacilla lutescens, Gm. Lin. i. 986.
Buff-faced Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 448.    Shaw's Zool. x. 701.
LENGTH six inches. Bill dusky; forehead and chin dusky
buff-colour; on the ears a dusky red patch ; body above, and tail
coverts ferruginous brown, beneath reddish white; breast mottled
with dusky ; legs pale brown.
Native place uncertain.
186.—BLACK-JAWED WARBLER.
Sylvia nigrirostris, Ind. Orn. ii. 522.
Motacilla nigrirostris, Got. Lin. i. 986.
Black-jawed Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 447.    Shaw's Zool. x. 731.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill black, base pale; plumage above
olive-brown, the middle of each feather darkest; from the bill to the
eye rufous yellow; throat the same; on each side of the jaw a blackish
streak; breast rufous, dashed longitudinally with blackish; belly
white; dashed on the sides with dusky black; wing coverts dark
olive-brown, tipped with reddish white; quills darker, with yellowish edges; tail even at the end, the feathery. pointed, the outer
one white, the end of the second white, the rest brown; legs pale
yellow brown.
In the collection of Sir Joseph Banks.—Country uncertain.
 187—WHITE-COLLARED WARBLER.
Sylvia Tschecantschia, Ind. On. ii. p. 552.   Lepech. It. ii. 186.
Motacilla rossica, Russian Warbler, Nat. Misc. pi. 649.
White-collared Warbler, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 245.    Shaw's Zool. x. 695.
THIS is dusky above, and ferruginous beneath; head black ;
nape whitish ; back black; round the neck a collar of white, and
an oblong spot of the same on the wing.
Inhabits Siberia.
A.—Size of the Chaffinch. Head black; plumage on the upper
parts of the body brown, the margins of the feathers paler brown ;
hind part and sides of the neck white ; breast and under parts rufous;
the side tail feathers white.
Supposed to inhabit Russia. Described from a specimen in the
collection of Mr. Thompson, by the name of Russian Warbler.
It seems greatly allied to our Stone-chat.
188—LONG-BILLED WARBLER.
Sylvia Kamtschatkensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 552.
Motacilla Kamtschatkensis, Got. Lin. i. 986.
Long-billed Warbler, Gm. Syn Sup. ii. 245.    Shaw's Zool. x. 603.
IN this the bill is long, the upper parts of the plumage olive-
brown ; cheeks and chin pale ferruginous.
Inhabits Kamtschatka.
 189.—AWATCHA^ WARBLER.
Sylvia Awatcha, Ind. Orn. ii. 553.
Motacilla Awatcha, Got. Lin. i. 986;
Awatcha Warbler, Gen. Syn. Sup. 184.   Arct; Zool. ii. 422. T.    Shaw's Zool. x. 614.
THIS has the crown, upper parts of the neck, and body, deep
brown; throat and breast white; the sides of the former, and all
the latter spotted with black; from the upper mandible to the eye,
an oblique line of white; sides pale rust-colour; middle of the belly
white; prime quills edged with white; the lower part of the five
outer feathers of the tail deep orange, the ends brown; the two middle ones wholly brown.
Inhabits Kamtschatka.
190.- PATAGONIAN WARBLER.
Sylvia Patagonica, Ind. Orn. ii. 517.
Motacilla Patagonica, Got. Lin. i. 957.
Patagonian Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 434.    Dixon's Voy. pi. p. 359.   Shaw's Zool. x. 603.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill one inch and a quarter long, very
slightly bent towards the tip, and black, with cinereous edges ;
general colour of the plumage above brownish ash-colour; wings
darker, marked with pale brown, and a bar of the same across the
coverts; quills edged with brown; chin and throat white ; the rest
of the under parts paler than the upper, and marked with white
streaks; over the eye a white streak, tending to the hindhead; tail
longish, even, or scarcely rounded at the end, in colour like the back,
the outer feathers white; legs dark brown, or black ; toes longA hind
toe and claw long and stout.
The female like the male, but with fewer streaks of white on the
breast.
 i
  ■1
i
 Hfii
 Inhabits Terra del Fuego, and varies both in size and length of
bill; frequents the sea beach, and supposed to feed on shell fish, or
sea worms.
II
A.—Length eight inches and a half. Bill black;-with no hairs
at the base; plumage brown, beneath olive-brown, but much paler
than above ; chin mottled grey and brown; tail three inches long;
legs dusky; hind claw large, and very little crooked.
Inhabits Falkland Island. I met with a specimen of this at
Mr. Humphries, in Long Acre, London.
191—THORN-TAILED WARBLER— Pl. cvii.
Sylvia Spinicauda, Ind. On. ii. 528.
Motacilla Spinicauda, Gm. Lin. i. 978.
La Queue en Aiguille, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 227.
Grimpereau, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxxiii.
Thorn-tailed Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 463. pl. 52.    Shaw's Zool. x. 694. pl. 54.
SIZE of a Sparrow ; length six inches. Bill three quarters of
an inch, brown, straight, but a little curved at the tip, base of the
under mandible white; at the corner of the mouth a few black hairs;
irides brown; head and upper part of the body dusky reddish brown,
mottled with yellow on the crown; between the bill and eye yellow,
passing in a streak over the eye to the hindhead, where it is rufous,
mixed with brown ; shoulders white; under parts of the body, from
chin to vent, white; greater wing coverts and quills brown,with pale
margins; tail cuneiform, and the feathers almost bare of webs for
one-third of the length, ending in points; the four middle ones are
ferruginous, the others reddish brown, with white ends; legs one
inch long and brown.
Inhabits Terra del Fuego; is also, now and^tben, met with about
Buenos Ayres and Paraguay, but we believe far from common,
u 2
J
—"
 148 WARBLER.
Both sexes supposed to be alike, as some pairs of them have occasionally been met with, which did not differ the one from the other.
M. Azara describes a black line from the angle of the mouth, crossing
the eye to the ear, another broader of white, parallel to the hind-
head ; under parts glossy white, tinged with rufous.
The Sharp-tailed Warbler has the end of the tail featheFs ending
in points, but that species seems confined to the Cape of Good Hope.
192—MAGELLANIC WARBLER.
Sylvia Magellanica, Ind. On. ii. 528.
Motacilla Magellanica,   Got. Lin. i. 979.
Magellanic Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 464.    Shaw's Zool. x. 590.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill half an inch; irides
reddish ; visage somewhat prolonged ; upper parts of the body yellow brown, waved with black, and a mixture of red, especially over
the wings; under parts cinereous yellow, crossed with blackish ;
chin and throat ash-colour; tail cuneiform, yellowish brown, mixed
with red, barred with lines of black, and very short, the longest
feather measuring only one inch ; legs three quarters of an inch long,
stout, and yellow.
Inhabits Terra del Fuego.
193.—SHORE WARBLER.
Sylvia littorea, Ind. On. ii. 552.
Motacilla littorea, Got. Lin. i. 977.    S. G. Gmel. It. iii. 1.19. f. 1.
Shore Warbler, Gen. Syn. Sup.ii. 245.    Shaw's Zool. x. 691.
THE upper parts in this are dull green, beneath yellow white;
quills and tail dusky.
Inhabits the shores of the Caspian Sea; said to be a singing
bird; lives on worms.
 194.—CASPIAN WARBLER.
Sylvia longirostris, Ind. Orn. ii. 552.
Motacilla longirostris, Got. Lin. i. 977.    S. G. Gmel. It. iii. t. 19. f. 2.
Caspian Warbler, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. 245.    Shaw's Zool. x. 630.
THIS is ash-coloured above, and white beneath ; the bill long.
Inhabits the mountains bordering on the Caspian Sea.
195—RED-HEADED WARBLER.
Sylvia petechia, Ind. Orn. ii. 535.    Vieill. Am. ii. p. 33.
Motacilla petechia, Lin. i. 334.    Got. Lin. i. 983.
Ficedula erythrocephalos, Bris. iii. 488.    Id. 8vo. i. 443.
Figuier a tete rouge de Pennsylvanie, Buf. v. 286.
Yellow Redpole, Edw. pl. 256.    Bartr. Trav. 290.    Am. Orn. iv. pl. 28. f. 4.
Red-headed Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 479.    Arct. Zool. ii.  No. 289.    Shaw's Zool. x.
p. 733.
SIZE of the Black-Cap ; length four inches and three quarters ;
breadth eight. Bill black ; crown of the head red; upper parts of
the body olive green, the under bright yellow, spotted with red on
the breast and belly; over the eye a line of yellow; the wings deep
dusky brown, feathers edged with yellow olive; tail as the quills,
slightly forked.
The female is paler in colour, wants the red on the crown, and
the yellow on the under parts is less brilliant; the streaks on the breast
fewer, and less distinct; in some scarcely spotted.
This is found in Pennsylvania, in March or April, in its passage
northward ; feeds on the stamina of the flowers of the maple, then
in bloom, else winged insects; is a lonely bird, keeping in thickets,
and low bushes, seldom perching on tall trees; departs in September,
but the nest is not described by any one. Some of these birds are
found in the winter in Georgia.
 150
196 —YELLOW-POLL WARBLER.
Sylvia sestiva, Ind. On. ii. 551.    Vieill. Am. ii. p. 35.
Motacilla aestiva, Got. Lin. i. 996.
Sylvia citrinella, Blue-eyed yellow Warbler, Am. On. ii. pl. 15.
Ficedula Canadensis, Bris. iii. 492. t. 26. 3.    Id. 8vo. i. 444.
Le Figuier tachete, Buf. v. 285.    Pl. ml. 28. 2.
Yellow-poll Waisbjgr, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 515.    Id. Sup* 183.    A,
Shaw's Zool. x. 750.    Frankl. Narr. Ap. p. 674.
/. Zool. ii. No. 292.
LENGTH four inches and a half; breadth six inches and a half.
Bill black; irides blue; head, all beneath, and under wing coverts
fine yellow, marked on the neck and breast with longitudinal reddish
spots; the upper parts, and edges of the quills olive yellow; quills
brown, margined with yellow; tail as the quills, the two middle
feathers wholly dark brown; the others brown on the outer webs
and tips, the rest of the feather yellow ; inner webs yellow ; the legs
black. In the female the spots on the breast are scarcely visible,
and narrow; the yellow above inclines to olive; quills and tail as in
the male: in one specimen the inner webs were full yellow.
Inhabits America, found as far as Hudson's Bay in summer; is
first seen there in June, chiefly among the willows in the woods; is
perpetually flying from tree to tree, and makes a soft noise, by some
thought agreeable, and compared to that of a Linnet: it makes a
compact nest of moss, grass, hair, and feathers interwoven, at the
bottom of a bush, though sometimes higher up, and lays from three
to five white eggs, marked with rust-coloured spots; called in
Hudson's Bay, Sowowpethaysish ; is found also in Guiana, and parts
adjacent in summer, but is not common there; called, by some, the
Mock Canary Bird. Met with also in Georgia, but considered there
as a rare species.
 I
WARBLER.
w
1
197.—CAROLINA WARBLER.
1
Sylvia Carolinensis, Ind. On. ii. 551.
ii
Figuier tachete, Buf. v. 286.    Pl. ml. 58. 1.
il
Olive Warbler, Arct. Zool. ii. No. 307.    Gm. Syn. iv. 515. No. 158. Var.
Id. Sup. 183.
1
Shaw's Zool. x. 752.
LENGTH full five inches. Bill rather stout, dusky; above
the plumage is fine olive-green, beneath fine, full yellow; lower
belly and vent pale ash-colour; wings dusky brown, across the
coverts two whitish bars, from the tips of the feathers being of that
colour; quills plain; tail two inches and a quarter long, a trifle
forked, colour as the quills, which reach to about half the length ;
legs brown.
The female is olive-brown above, pale ash beneath, with a tinge
of yellow on the breast; wings brown, crossed with two pale cine^
reous bars on the coverts : in both sexes the three outer tail feathers
are marked with white on the inner webs; the exterior white on the
inner web, except one-fourth from the base, and just at the tip ; the
next the same; but the third with only one spot of white on the
inner web; the tail otherwise dusky brown.
Inhabits Carolina; found also about Savannah in Georgia; received
from Mr. Abbot, by the name of Yellow Poll.—In the collection of
Mr. Francillon.
198.—PRAIRIE WARBLER.
Sylvia minuta, Prairie Warbler, Am. Orn. iii. pl. 25. f. 4.
LENGTH four inches and a half, breadth six inches and a half.
Bill brown ; general colour of the plumage above olive-green, beneath yellow; on the beginning of the back, the middle of the
feathers are ferruginous, forming spots; the middle wing coverts
 152 WARBLER.
have the ends yellowish, forming a bar; from the nostrils through the
eye, a yellow streak ; under the eye a broad black patch ; on each
side of the neck two or three spots of black; all beneath from the
chin fine yellow, much paler at the vent; tail even, dusky, the outer
feather white, but down the shaft black, enlarging quite to the tip ;
the second much the same, but the white begins a little way from
the base; third the same, but the white does not reach more than
half way, and none of the end white ; the rest of the feathers of one
colour; quills dusky fringed with greenish on the margins; legs
dark.
Inhabits Georgia in the summer, but is a rare bird. Described
from a specimen sent by Mr. Abbot, and called the Yellow Warbler.
According to the Amer. Ornith. this bird makes a very delicate
pensile nest, generally hung on the fork of a low bush, or thicket,
formed of green moss, mixed with bits of rotten wood, and caterpillars silk, lined with fine fibres of Grape Vine Bark, the whole
weighing scarcely a quarter of an ounce : the eggs white, with a
few brown spots at the larger end. Is migratory, and departs in
October, southward ; is not a very shy species; the food is small
caterpillars, and winged insects.
199—NEW-YORK WARBLER.
Sylvia Noveboracensis, Ind. Om. ii. 518.
Motacilla Noveboracensis, Got. Lin. i. 958.
La Fauvette t&chetee, Buf v. 161.    Pl. enl. 752. 1.
New-York Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 436.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 308.    Shaw's Zool. x. Qgl.
LENGTH about six inches. Bill slender, longish, and black;
plumage above olive brown, mixed with ash-colour; over the eye,
from the nostrils, a streak of yellow; beneath, from chin to vent,
pale yellow, streaked on the sides of the jaws, and particularly on
the breast, with  black; likewise  on  the  sides,  somewhat in   the
 WARBLER. 153
manner of the Titlark; on the chin a few specks of black; down
the middle of the belly plain yellow; quills and tail plain brown ;
legs pale brown.
Inhabits New York and Louisiana; seen frequently about the
hedges, and appears at times gregarious; not uncommon in Georgia,
and called there the Little Brown Thrush.
200— SPOTTED YELLOW WARBLER.
Sylvia tigrina, Ind. Orn. ii. 537.    Vieill. Am. ii. p. 34. pl. 94.
Motacilla tigrina, Gm.Lin.i. 985.
Ficedula Canadensis fusca, Bris. iii 515. t. 27. 4.    Id. 8vo. i. 451.
Le Figuier tachete de jaune, Buf. v. 293.
Spotted yellow Flycatcher, Edw. pl. 257.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 302.
Spotted yellow Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 482—the male.    Shaw's Zool. x. IX
LENGTH four inches and a half Bill dusky; plumage above
brown, and feathers margined with olive; behind each eye a large
rufous spot; under parts and rump yellow, marked with small
blackish spots on the neck and breast; the lower belly, thighs, and
under tail coverts, dirty yellowish white; across the greater wing
coverts a band of white; quills and tail fringed outwardly with olive
green; the last a trifle forked, the two outer feathers whitish on the
outer webs, near the tips; legs brown.
I
A.—Ficedula Dominicensis fusca, Bris. iii. 513. t. 28. f. 5.   Id. 8vo. i. 450.    Gm.
Syn. iv. 483. 106. Var. A—female.
This is like the last, but paler; under parts whitish, and the
breast spotted with brown ; the white band on the wings wanting.
The first of these birds said to be found in Canada, the other in
St. Domingo, but as both have been taken on board a ship between
these places, it is probable that they migrate alternately from one to
the other, and that they differ only in sex.
FOt.  VII. x
 154
WARBLER.
M. Vieillot says, the New-York Warbler, and this, are the same
bird, and the former is a male.
201.—UMBROSE WARBLER.
. 162.
Sylvia umbria, Ind. Orn. ii. 518.
.   Motacilla umbria, Gm. Lin. i. 959.
La Fauvette ombree de la Louisiane, Buf. \
 tachetee, Pl. ml. 709. 1.
Dusky Warbler, Arct. Zool. n. No. 309.
Umbrose Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 437.    Shaw's Zool. x. 636.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill slender, black f plumage
above greyish brown, with a few obscure dusky spots on the back,
and a yellowish tinge on the sides and rump; wing coverts, upper
tail coverts, and tail dusky, edged with white; greater quills dusky;
beneath the body white, with a few scattered spots of black ; legs
dusky.
Inhabits Louisiana.—M. Buffbn thinks it allied to the last, but
the bills differ much in strength, and the last described has a longer
tail in proportion. It should rather seem to have affinity to the
following, as in the Pl. enlum. the bird is figured with a yellow
crown, one characteristic of the next species.
202.—GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER.
Sylvia coronata, Ind. Orn. ii. 538.    Vieill. Am. ii. p. 24. pl. 78. 79.
Motacilla coronata, Lin. i. 332.    Got. Lin. i. 974.
Ficedula Pensilvanica cinerea naevia,  Bris. Sup. p. 110.    Id. 8vo. i. 460.
Parus aureo vertice, Bartr. Trav. 290.
Le Figuier couronne d'Or, Buf. v. 312.    Pl. ml. 731. 2.—-young bird.
Bee-fin, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxviii.
Golden-crowned Flycatcher, Edw. pl. 298.
Golden-crowned Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 486.   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 294.    Shaw's Zool.
x. 636.
LENGTH six inches. Bill dusky; plumage above cinereous
blue, spotted with black; crown and rump yellow; forehead and
 WARBLER. 155
through the eye, dusky black; chin, lower part of the breast, belly,
and vent, fore part of the neck, and upper part of the breast, white
and cinereous mottled; sides of the breast yellow, falling over the
wings, which are dusky; across the coverts two white bands; quills
edged with grey; tail the same, but the inner webs of the three outer
feathers marked with a spot of white near the tip;  legs blackish.
The female inclines more to brown above, wants the black through
the eye, and all the under parts dusky white and pale brown mixed ;
the crown and rump are also of a less deep yellow than in the male.
These arrive in Pennsylvania in spring, and after remaining three
or four days, proceed northward to breed ; the same in Nova Scotia.
I have also received both sexes as above, from Mr. Hutchins, which
came from Hudson's Bay. Mr. Abbot informs me, that they are not
uncommon about Savannah, in Georgia, and called Yellow Rump;
come there in numbers among other birds, but in general depart in
company of their own species ; are often very fat and well flavoured,
hence reckoned by the French among the rest of the birds called
Grassets.
A.—Length six inches, breadth ten. Bill and legs dusky;
plumage above greyish olive brown, with dusky spots on the back ;
throat, breast, and under parts white; on the middle of the crown a
large yellow spot, and another at the shoulder of the wing; the
rump also is yellow; tail black, the four middle feathers plain, the
two outer ones marked with a white spot within near the end.
The female has the head, including the eyes, olive-yellow; an
obscure yellowish streak on the crown ; back as in the other ; rump
yellow; beneath white, but the breast inclines to yellow, streaked
with dusky; wings and tail pale cinereous blue; tips of the lower
wing coverts and margins of the quills very pale ; tail blackish, the
two outer feathers yellowish within near the ends.
 156
203v—YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLER.
Sylvia maculos
a, Ind. Orn. ii. 526.    Vieill. Am. ii. p. 33. pl. 92.
Motacilla mac
ulosa, Got. Lin. i. 984.
Ficedula Pena
lvanica nsevia, Bris. iii. 502.   Id. Svo. i. 447.
Parus Cedrus
uropygio flavo, Yellow Rump, Bartr. Trav. 290.
Le Figuier a t
ete cendree, Buf. v. 291.
Yellow-rumpe
d Flycatcher, Edw. pl. 255.
Sylvia coronat
a, Yellow-rump, Am. Zool. ii. pl. 17. f. 4.    Id. Vol.
v. pl. 45. f. 3.
Yellow-rum p«
d Warbler, Gm. Syn.xv. 481.    Jd. Sup. 182.     Arct
Zool. ii. No. at
SIZE of the Pettichaps. Bill brown ; top of the head and sides
ash-colour; neck behind and back olive-green, spotted with; black.;
throat, breast, and rump, fine yellow, marked on the breast with
oblong black spots; belly and vent white; across the wing two bars
of white; quills deep ash, edged with white; the two middle tail
feathers black, the others blackish, with a large white spot on the
middle of the inner webs; legs brown.
Inhabits Pennsylvania.
A.—Length five inches; breadth six inches and a half; weight
five drachms; irides bine, orbits white; lore and ears black ; on each
side of the head a streak of white; throat and belly light yellow;
breast and thighs longitudinally streaked black and yellow;, vent
white; back blfcck, streaked with dull green;scapulars green and
dove-c©Janr; lesser wing-coverts grey, the greater white, longitudinally streaked with black; quills blaek, edged with grey; tail
coverts yellow, tipped with black nearest the tail, the leathers of
which are black edged with white; all of them, except the two
middle ones, have a large white spot on the inner web; legs black.
Inhabits Hudson's Bay in the summer, makes the nest among
the willows of grass and feathers, laying four dirty white eggs, with
 157
il
grey brown markings, and the young are hatched in July; feeds on
flies ; cries against rain, with a shrill kind of note, which it lengthens
out considerably at that time,- hence the natives call it Kimmewan
Apaykuteshfsh.
204—BELTED WARBLER.
Sylvia cincta, Ind. Orn. ii. 539.
Motacilla cincta, Got. Lin. i. 980.
Motacilla Canadensis, Lin. i. 334.
Ficedula Canadensis cinerea, Bris,. Ki. 524. t. 27. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 453>
Le Figuier a ceinture, Buf. v. 303.
Belted Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 487.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 306.
LENGTH five inches. Bill black ; plumage above cinereous
blue, nearly black; on the middle of the crown a spot of yellow ;
over the eye a white streak; round the eye the same; across the
wing coverts two white bands; under parts of the body white, but
the lower part of the neck and breast spotted with blackish; across
the breast a yellow band, a quarter of an inch broad; tail coverts
yellow; quills brown, edged with grey ; tail rather forked, blackish,
the feathers edged with ash-colour, the outer one marked within
with white near the tip; legs brown. ^&li%<
The female is brown above, the upper tail coverts not yellow.
Inhabits Canada.
On comparing the Golden-crowned, Yellow-rumped, and Belted
Warblers, so many markings appear in common, as to cause suspicion of a near alliance between them; which seems confirmed from
the observations in the American Ornifkoiogy ; and that the male,
in a most perfect state of plumage, is fine slate-colour, streaked with
black ; crown, sides of the breast, and ramp, rich yellow; wings
and tail black ; on the wings two bars of black ; on the three outer
tail feathers a Jong patch of white on the inner webs; cheeks and
front black ; chin, and line over and under the eyes, white; breast
 158 WARBLER.
light slate-colour, streaked with black, extending under the wings ;.
belly and vent white, the latter spotted with blue.
The female differs but little, the colours being only less vivid; in
October the slate-colour changes to brownish olive, the black streaks
incline greatly to brown, and the white stained with brown; the tail
coverts retain their slaty-hue, and the yellow on the crown, and sides
of the breast, nearly obliterated.
The young of the first season are brown olive above, till February
or March, then change to fine slate; in the middle of April the
change is complete; while in the brown olive dress, the yellow on
the breast and crown is scarcely discernible, except the feathers
are separated, yet that on the rump is vivid, the black spot on the
cheeks is also then observed; from the above we learn, that the three
birds described as distinct, are merely different ages of one and the
same species. It often winters in Virginia, Carolina, and Georgia,
arid is called Myrtle Bird, as it feeds on the berries of that plant.
205—GRASSET WARBLER.
Sylvia pingnis, Ind. Orn. ii.
543.
Motacilla pinguis, Gm. Lin
i. 97
Le Figuier Grasset, Buf. v.
319.
Bee-fin, Tern. Man. Ed. ii.
Anal.
Grasset Warbler, Gm. Syn.
iv. 4
BILL black; plumage above greyish olive; on the head a
yellow spot; on the body some dashes of black; rump yellow;
throat and neck before pale rufous, with a mixture of ash-colour;
the rest of the under parts whitish; greater quills brown, edged outwardly with grey, and with whitish within; secondaries blackish,
edged and tipped with grey ; tail black, the feathers edged with
grey, and the four outer ones with a white spot on the inner webs,
near the tips; legs black.
 WARBLER. 159
Inhabits Louisiana; called Grasset, from gaining a great degree
of fat, and sought for by the lovers of good eating. This seems also
to coincide with the four former.
206.—YELLOW-THROATED WARBLER.
-      Sylvia flavicollis, Ind. Orn. ii. 518.    Vieill. Am. ii. p. 45.
Motacilla flavicollis, Got. Lin. i. 959.
Parus Carolinensis griseus,  Bris. iii. 563.    Id. 8vo. i. 467.
Parus Americanus gutture luteo, Klein, 87. 14.    Bartr. Trav. p. 290.
La Mesange grise a gorge jaune, Buf. v. 454.
Yellow-throated Creeper, Gates. Carol, i. pl. 62.
Yellow-throated Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 437.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 286.    Amer. Orn. ii.
pl. 12. f. 6.   Shaw's Zool. x. 679.
SIZE of a Goldfinch ; length five inches and a half, breadth
nine. Bill black; forehead the same; on each side of the bill, at
the base, a spot of yellow; throat and neck before bright yellow,
bounded on each side of the latter by a band of black, which begins
at the corners of the mouth, and passes through the eyes; upper
parts of the head, neck, and body, elegant grey; beneath white,
spotted on the sides with black; sides under the wings streaked with
brown; wing coverts brown, crossed with two white bars ; quills as
the coverts, but plain ; tail very slightly forked, and black, all but
the two outer feathers white on the inner webs.
The female is yellow on the throat, and more dark and dingy in
colour. The young is neither marked with black nor yellow, which
so eminently distinguishes the male; nor has the young the yellow
throat.
Inhabits Carolina and Georgia, where it is seen creeping about
the trees after insects; the nest suspended to the branches of small
shrubs, made of dry grass, stalks, &c. and the eggs four in number,
white, spotted with black,   j
 160
207.—ORANGE-THROATED WARBLER.
Sylvia auricollis, Ind. On. ii. 536.    Vieill. Am. ii. p. 46.
Motacilla auricollis, Gm. Lin. i. 986.  '
Ficedula Canadensis major, Bris. iii. 508. t. 26. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 449.
Le, Figuier a gorge orangee, Buf. v. 290.
Orange-throated Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 481.    Arct.Shil.ii. No,504.
Sh
x. 735.
LENGTH five inches or more. Bill brown, beneath whitish;
plumage above olive-green, changing to ashy-colour on the rump ;
throat, neck before, and breast, orange ; belly pale yellow; vent and
thighs.nearly white ; greater wing coverts ash-col our ; quills brown,
edged with ash ; the two middle tail feathers ash, the others black
on the outside and tips, and white within ; legs grey.
The female differs, in having the orange on the belly less lively.
Inhabits Canada.
208.--€ARE;MAY  WARBLER.
Sylvia maritima, Cape May Warbler, Amer. On. vi. pl. 54. f. 3.    Shaw's Zool. x. 739.
LENGTH five inches and ahaAf,. extent eight and a half. Bill
and legs black; whole upper part of the head black; line from the
nostril over the eye, chin, «nd sides of the neck, rich yellow; ear
feathers orange,'which also tints the back part of the yellow line
over the eyes ;<at the anterior and posterior angle of the eye a small
touch of black:; hindhead and whole back, rump, and tail coverts,
yellow olive, thickly streaked with black; across the wing a broad bar
.of white; the rest of the wing dusky, edged dark olive yellow; throat
and whole breast rich yellow^the same on the sides under the wings,
with spots of black running in chains; belly, and vent yellowish
white; tail forked, dusky black, edged yellow olive, with a spot of
white on the inner webs of the three exterior feathery.
 WARBLER. 161
Inhabits America.—One of these was discovered in a Maple
swamp, in Cape May country, not far from the coast, and proved
to be a male.    Manners unknown.
209—YELLOW-BREASTED WARBLER.
Sylvia Trichas, Ind. On. ii. 519.    Vieill. Am. ii. p. 28. pl. 85.
Sylvia Marilandica, Maryland Yellow Throat, Am, On. i. pl. 6. f. l.—male.     Id. ii.
pl. 18. f. 4.—female.    Edw. pl. 237.    Petiv. Gaz. t, 6. f. 1.
Turdus Trichas, Lin. i. 293.    Got. Lin. i. 811.
Ficedula Marilandica, M. iii. 506.     Id. 8vo. 448.
Le Figuier a Joues noires, Buf. v. 292.
Yellow-breasted Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 438.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 283.    Shaw's Zool.
LENGTH five inches, breadth seven. Bill brown, with a few
scattered hairs at the base; irides dark hazel; plumage above deep
olive-brown; forehead black, communicating with a large spot of
the same on each side of the head; in the middle of which the eyes
are placed; crown of the head reddish brown; throat and breast
light yellow; belly and vent yellowish white; the latter more inclined to yellow; quills and tail margined with yellowish olive ; the
last cuneiform ; legs dull flesh-colour.
The female wants the black through the eye; throat pale yellow;
top of the head and sides fine pale grey.
Young birds are greenish brown above, and pale yellow beneath.
Inhabits the moist woods of Carolina, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, in the summer; met with also in Brazil; frequents bushes
and low grounds, near rills of water; quits the country in autumn.
The nest made the middle of May, in low bushes, formed of dry
twigs and a little moss; the eggs four, white, dotted with black, or
reddish brown; often hatches twice in a year, once as soon as it
arrives, which it does the middle of April, the other in July; it
departs in autumn; the nest sometimes placed on the ground, among
 162 WARBLER.
dry leaves, sometimes arched over, with a hole for entrance; and is
composed of dry leaves, and fine grass; feeds on insects ; the note
may be compared to the word Whitititiee repeated.
A.—La Fauvette a poitrine jaune de la Louisiane, Buf. v. 162.   Pl. ml. 709.
Le Contre-maitre vert a poitrine d'Or, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 155.
Orange-thighed Warbler, Arct. Zool. ii. No. 284.    Gen. Syn. iv. 439. A.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill black; forehead to the
middle of the crown black, this continues between the bill and eye,
and passing beneath, finishes in a broad patch behind it; from eye
to eye, across the crown, a band of white ; upper parts of the body
olive, the under yellow, inclining to orange on the sides; tail rounded;
legs reddish.
Inhabits Louisiana, and is a very beautiful species.
One from Georgia had the lower belly and thighs reddish buff-
colour, and named the Black Cheek ; the irides brown ; across the
middle of the crown a transverse streak of white, between the black
and the brown, taking in the eyes, and passing above them, bounded
the black behind, but not so broad as in the Pl. enlum.
The female wants the black on the head, and the young birds are
like the females. In young cocks of the first summer, the band on
the head is more or less brown, and the black not perfect, having only
a small oval spot of black, otherwise no black on the head. The
female has a pale streak over the eye, and the whole ©f the under
parts yellow.
This is common in the large bays in the lower parts, frequenting
thick branches, or brooks in the summer, coming about the middle
of March, and sings prettily on its first arrival. Mr. Abbot says,
he once saw it in January, the only time he has metVith any at that
season. The nest is generally built in a bush, over the water, the
beginning of May, formed of dried or rotten leaves, lined with pine
straw,  and small fibres of plants;   the egg blush-eolour, nearly
 WARBLER. 163
White at the larger end, where it is marked with  many minute
blackish specks.    Mr. Abbot supposes this last to be a perfect adult,
and the Yellow-breasted Warbler a young male.
According to M. Azara it inhabits Paraguay.
210—YELLOW-BELLIED WARBLER.
Sylvia fuscicollis, Ind. Orn. ii. 520.
Motacilla fuscicollis, Got. Lin. i. 955.
Fauvette a gorge brune et ventre jaune, Buf. v. 163.
Yellow-bellied Warbler, Syn. iv. 440.    Shaw's Zool. x. 680.
SIZE of the Yellow Wren. Bill somewhat broad at the base;
plumage on the upper parts of the head and body greenish brown;
throat the same; breast and belly yellow, with a fulvous tinge; wing
coverts and quills brown, margined with pale rufous; tail greenish.
Inhabits Cayenne.
211—BLACK-THROATED WARBLER.
Sylvia Canadensis, Ind. On. ii. 539.    Amer. On. ii. pl. 15. f. 7.
Motacilla Canadensis, Lin. i. 336.    Got. Lin. i. 991.
Ficedula Canadensis cinerea major, Bris. iii. 527. t. 27. 6.    Id. 8vo. i. 453.
Le Figuier cendre de Canada, Pl. enl. 685. 2.    Buf. v. 304.
Blue Flycatcher, Edw. pl. 252.
Black-throated Warbler,  Gm. Syn. iv. 487.    Arct. Zool. ii. 285.    Shaw's Zool. x. 651.
LENGTH four inches and a half, breadth seven. Bill black;
plumage above deep cinereous blue; sides of the head, throat, and
fore part of the neck, black ; sides spotted with the same, communicating with the black on the sides of the throat; belly and under
parts whitish; quills dusky black, on the outside of the greater, near
the bastard wing, a white spot; tail very slightly forked, cinereous
blue, the three outer feathers white within at the base, and near the
end; the two next whitish within at the tip; the wings reach to about
Y 2
1
 *t
164 WARBLER.
the middle; legs brown. This is the male, which varies in the black
on the chin not being pure, the feathers fringed with grey; sides of
the body tinged with yellow over the thighs; sides under the wings
mixed with black in both; there is a tinge of green also in the
plumage; the three outer tail feathers have less white. The last is
probably a young bird.
The female is olive above, and dull pale yellow beneath, with a
narrow dusky streak on each jaw ; spot on the wing as in the male,
the white on the tail feathers takes up less space, and has a dirty
tinge.
Inhabits Pennsylvania, arrives there in April, and after breeding,
goes away in autumn; but is not common ; also found in the swamps
of Georgia, but in these the black occupies more of the sides of the
head, than in the Pl. enlum. as it completely takes in the eyes. One
of them was taken at sea, in a calm, eight or ten leagues from Saint
Domingo.
212. -BLUE-GREY WARBLER.
Sylvia eaerulescens, Ind. Orn. ii. 520.    Vieill. Am. ii. pl. 80.
Motacilla eaerulescens,   Gm, Lin. i. 960.
La Fauvette bleuatre de S. Domingue, Buf. v. 164.
Blue-grey Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 440.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Plumage above cinereous
blue; wing coverts and quills brown, on the former a spot of white,
the latter edged with cinereous blue; throat black, the rest of the
under parts white.
Inhabits St. Domingo, and neighbouring Isles; for the most part
seen on tall trees, from whence it darts down on insects, in the
manner of the Flycatcher; observed to wag the tail like the Wagtail.
This, and the Black-throated, supposed by M. Vieillot, to be one
and the same.
 165
213—BLOODY-SIDE WARBLER.
Sylvia ruficapilla, Ind. Orn. i. 540.
Motacilla ruficapilla, Got. Lin. i. 941.
Ficedula Martinicana, Bris. iii. 490. t. 22. 4.   Id. 8vo. i. 444.
Le Figuier a tete rousse, Buf. v. 306.
Bloody-side Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 489.    Shaw's Zool. x. 699.
LENGTH four inches and a quarter. Bill brown; plumage above
olive-green; crown rufous; throat, neck before, and breast, yellow,
with longitudinal rufous spots; belly and vent plain yellow; wing
coverts and quills brown, edged with olive-green; tail as the quills,
but the two outer feathers are yellowish within; legs grey.
Inhabits Martinico, said to be continually in motion, and to have
a trifling song, yet very melodious.
314.—RED-THROATED WARBLER
Sylvia Pennsylvanica, Ind. On. ii. 540.    Amer. Orn. ii. pl. 14. f. 5.
Motacilla Pennsylvanica, Lin. i. 333.    Got. Lin. i. 971.
Ficedula Pennsylvanica icterocephala, Bris. App. 105.   Id. 8vo. i. 458.
Figuier a poitrine rouge, Buf. v. 308.
Red-throated Flycatcher, Edw. pl. 301.
Bloody-side Warbler, Arct. Zool. ii. No. 298.
Red-throated Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 490.
SIZE of the Pettichaps; length five inches, breadth seven and
three quarters. Bill black; irides hazel; body above olive-green,
spotted with black; crown of the head yellow, hind part black;
beneath the eyes a broad band of the same; sides of the head, and
under parts of the body white; top of the breast and sides deep red;
wing coverts dusky, crossed with two whitish bars; quills dusky,
some of the inner ones edged, and tipped with olive-green; tail
dusky, the outer feathers spotted within with white; legs black.
 166 WARBLER.
The female wants the black at the hindhead, the back is not
spotted, and the sides scarcely marked with red; the colours in
general less bright.
Inhabits Pennsylvania in spring, on the passage northward,
where it breeds, and passes the summer; feeds on insects.
215—QUEBEC WARBLER.
Sylvia icterocephala, Ind. On. ii. 538.    Vieill. Am. ii. pl. 90.
Motacilla icterocephala, Lin. i. 334.    Got. Lin. i. 980.
Ficedula Canadensis icterocephala, Bris. iii. 517. t. 27. 2.    Id. 8vc
Le Figuier a tete jaune, Buf. v. 299.
Yellow-crowned Warbler, Shaw's Zool. x. 623.
Quebec Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 484.   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 305.
LENGTH four inches and one-third. Bill dusky; top of the
head yellow; between the bill and eye a large triangular spot of
black; beneath it a white mark; hind part of the neck, and all the
upper parts black, edged with yellowish green; throat and under
parts whitish; across the wing coverts two yellowish bars; quills and
tail dusky, edged with olive-green and whitish; the inner webs of
the three outer feathers of the latter yellowish white, from the middle
to the end ; legs dusky.
Inhabits Canada, and the northern parts of America; first seen
the beginning of April, among low shrubs, and under branches of
the Red Cedars; departs in autumn. This and the Red-throated
seem to agree in many things, and M. Vieillot thinks the male to
differ only in being more or less in an adult state.
216—JAMAICA WARBLER.
Sylvia Dominica, Ind. On. ii. 538.
Motacilla Dominica, Lin.i. 334.    Gm. Lin. i. 980.
Ficedula Dominicensis cinerea, Bris. iii. 520. t. 27. 3.    Id. 8vc
 WARBLER.
Figuier cendre i
. gorge j
iune, Buf. v, 300.
Muscicapa e caer
uleo, cir
ereo, fusco et luteo vari
Klein, 75.
16.
Jamaica Warble
r, Gm. „
?yn. iv. 485.    Shaw's Zi
Sloan. Jam. ii. 310.44.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill brown; plumage above
ash-colour; throat and.neck before yellow; from thence to the vent
white; between the bill and eye a yellow streak ; beneath the eye a
large black spot, and behind it a white one; sides of the breast
marked with a small black spot; wing coverts brown, with two
white bands; quills and tail cinereous brown, edged with grey;, the
two outer feathers with a spot of white on the inner webs, near the
tips; legs brown.
Inhabits Jamaica, and St. Domingo.
217.—WORM-EATER WARBLER.
p. 43.    Amer. On, iii. pl. 24. f. 4.
Sylvia vermivora, Ind. Om. ii. 544.    Vieill. Am. i
Motacilla vermivora, Got. Lin. i. 951.
Ficedula Pennsylvanica,  Bris. Sup. 102.    Id. 8v
Le Demifin, Mangeur des Vers, Buf. v. 325.
Worm-eater, Gen. Syn. iv. 499.      Edw. pl. 305.
Zool. x. 730.
. 457.
LENGTH near six inches, breadth eight. Bill dusky, flesh-
coloured beneath; irides hazel; from the corners of the mouth,
through the. eye, a narrow lime of black; over it a yellowish «ne, and
above that an arch of black; the rest of the head, throat,, and breast,
reddish yellow, gradually changing white towards the vent; the
upper parts of the body, wings, and tail, dark oHve^green ; inner
wing coverts and under the tail ash-colour; legs flesh-colour. Male
and female much alike,
Inhabits Pennsylvania in July, in its passage northward, but
has not been observed on its return in autumn.
 r
sif
f
168 WARBLER.
Among Mr. Abbot's drawings is a bird, pale brown above, over
the eye a pale streak, and through it a brown one; under parts dusky
white; wings and tail brown. This appeared a young bird, and was
killed in Briar Creek Swamp, Georgia, the only one met with.
A bird similar to the Worm-eater is found in Georgia, but it is
scarcely five inches long; olive-green above, and pale dusky olive
beneath ; down the crown a black streak, with the other streaks as
in Edwards's figure of that bird; with the addition of a pale rufous
spot at the setting on of the wing. It was named Black streaked-
headed Warbler, and appeared a Variety of Edwards's bird. This
and another, a female, found among weeds in plantations in autumn,
but not common ; feeds on caterpillars and spiders; the note a feeble
chirp; is an active bird : found also in the forests and groves of
Paraguay; the note of the male somewhat imitating the word Chichi chi hi chi cha.
218—TENNESEE  WARBLER.
Sylvia peregrina, Tennesee Warbler, Amer. On
. pl. 25. f. 2.    Shai
LENGTH four inches and three quarters, breadth eight. Bill
pointed, somewhat thick at the base, dusky, paler beneath; irides
hazel; head above and cheeks light bluish colour, with an olive
tinge; from the nostrils, over the eye, a pale yellow line, fading
into white; back, rump, lesser wing coverts, and those of the tail,
rich yellow olive, the rest of the wing feathers deep dusky, broadly
edged with yellow olive; throat and breast pale cream-colour; belly
and vent white; tail forked, olive, relieved with dusky; legs purplish
brown.
In the female the yellow line over the eye is. more obscure, and
the olive tint in the plumage not so rich.
 J
 Inhabits North America ; first found on the banks of Cumberland
RivefVin the state of Tennesee, but only two have been seen; it belongs
to, or at least comes nearest to, the Worm-eater; has the habits of
the Titmouse; feeds on caterpillars, and winged insects; its notes
are few and weak.
219—MOURNING WARBLER.
Sylvia Philadelphia, Mourning Warbler, Amer. On
. pl. 14. f. 5.
LENGTH five inches, breadth eight. Bill black, paler beneath;
frides pale hazel; plumage above deep greenish olive; head dull
slate-colour; on the breast a crescent of alternate, transverse lines of
glossy white and deep black; the rest of the under parts brilliant
yellow; tips of the wings and two middle tail feathers brownish, the
latter rounded at the end.
Inhabits Philadelphia, and its neighbourhood. One shot early
in June, on the borders of a marsh, within a few miles of it. The
note was a kind of warble.
220—HOODED WARBLER.
Vieill. Am. ii. p. 23. pl. 77.
Sylvia mitrata, Ind. Orn. ii.
Motacilla mitrata, Got. Lin.
Parus Carolinensis torquatus
Hooded Titmouse, Cates. Car, i. pl. 60.
Hooded Flycatcher, Amer. Orn. pl. 26. f. 3.
Hooded Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 462.    Arct. Zool.
578.   Id. 8vo.i. 471.   Klein, So.
. No. 287.    Shaw's Zool. x. 399.
SIZE of a Goldfinch ; length five inches and a half. Bill black;
forehead, cheeks, and chin, yellow; a broad black list encompasses
the head, and neck behind, like a hood, passing forwards to the fore
part of the neck as a collar; upper parts of the body dirty olive-
green, the under yellow; tail a little rounded, the two outer feathers
 170 WARBLER.
nearly white, with a dash of dusky from the tip on the outer web,
narrowing upwards; giving the appearance of the inner web being
white; the outer brown, growing broader towards the tip ; legs
brown.
In the female the green is more dull, the feathers edged with ash-
colour ; and the yellow parts are paler.
Inhabits thickets and shady places in the uninhabited parts of
Carolina.—From the description of the late Mr. Hutchins, a similar
one, if not the same, inhabits Hudson's Bay, by the name of Mo-
chia a naka shish. In this the three outer tail feathers are chiefly
white, but dusky on the outer web, the four middle plain dusky.
The female much the same in colour, but without the black hood.
The young male resembles most the female, but is inclined to brown
above ; forehead and under parts yellow, passing from the forehead
through the eye, ending in two streaks on the ears; from the gape,
on each side, a whisker of dusky black; and across the breast a
curved mark of the same ; down the belly a dull mottled pale ferruginous band.
It is seldom seen in Pennsylvania, and the Northern States; but
through the whole extent of country south of Maryland, from the
Atlantic to the Mississippi; partial to low situations, where there is
thick underwood, among canes, in the state of Tennesee, perpetually
in pursuit of winged insects, when it utters three loud, and not unmusical notes, like Twee, twee, twitehee ; is very active. The nest
neat and compact, chiefly in forks of small bushes, composed of
moss and flax, or broken hemp, lined with hair, and sometimes
feathers ; the eggs five, greyish white, marked with reddish spots at
the larger end. Is migratory, and rarely seen about Philadelphia;
probably winters in Mexico, or the West India Islands.
 WARBLER.
171
A.—Le Gol
Syn.iv
Pl. enl. 666. 2.     Gm.
In this the forehead, round the eyes, and the cheeks, are fine
yellow; the rest of the head, chin, and neck before, velvety black ;
from thence to the vent yellow ; all above greenish grey.
This seems a trifling Variety of  the male;   it is seen
the
swamps, about Georgia, and frequents the thick branches in the
summer; known by the name of Yellow-cheek, but is not very
common.
221.—COWLED WARBLER.
Sylvia cucullata, Ind. Orn.
Cowled Warbler, Gm. Syn
ii. 528.
Sup. ii.
THIS is greenish above, white beneath; forehead and cheeks
black ; tail cuneiform.
A specimen of this was in the Museum of the late Sir A. Lever,
without any history annexed ;  seems to be allied to the last.
222.—BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER.
SylviaBlackburnise, Ind. On.ii. 527.    Vieill. Amer. ii. p. 36.   Amer. Orn.pl. 23. f. 3.
Motacilla Blackburnise, Got. Lin. i. 977.
Bee-fin, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxviii.
Blackburnian Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 461.    Arct.Zool. ii. No.317.   Shaw's Zool.x. 527.
THE bill and legs in this are dusky brown; crown deep black,
divided by a line of rich yellow; from the corner of the upper mandible another of the same; through the eye a black one, reaching
beyond it, bounded beneath by a narrow one of yellow; sides of the
neck, throat, the middle of the breast orange; sides of the body
 172 WARBLER.
spotted with black; vent and thighs white; lesser wing coverts
black, the greater white; quills dusky; the middle tail feathers
dusky, the three outer ones on each side marked with white on the
inner web.
The female is yellow where the male is orange; and the black
streaks more obscure, and less numerous.
This is scarce in Pennsylvania, coming the beginning of May ;
is an active and silent bird. The nest not known. Only one or two
found in a season.
M. Vieillot is of opinion, that the Canada Flycatcher belongs
to this species, but the last is a bird in a younger state of plumage,
and the colours less lively.
223.—WHITE-POLL WARBLER.
Sylvia varia, Ind. Orn. ii. 539.
Motacilla varia, Lin. i. 333.    Got. Lin. i. 979.
Certhia maculata, Black and White Creeper, Amer. On. iii. pl. 19. f. 3.
Certhia varia,  Vieill. Am. ii. p. 69.
Ficedula Dominicensis varia, Bris. 529. t. 27. 5.    Id. 8vo. i. 454.
Muscicapa e fusco et albo varia, Raii, 186.    Sloan, t. 265. 1.    Klein, 75. 11.
Figuier varie de St. Domingue, Buf v. 305.
Grimpereau varie, Ois. Dor. ii. pl. 174.
Black and White Creeper, Edw. pl. 305.
Pied Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 234. pl. 34.
White-poll Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 488.   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 293.   Shaw's Zool. x. 639.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Bill dusky; top of
the head white ; sides of it black, marked with two white streaks;
throat, back, and rump, white, with large black spots; breast and
belly white, spotted with black on the breast and sides; wing coverts
black, with two white bands; quills blackish, edged with grey,
some of tbem nearest the body almost white; tail a trifle forked, the
feathers edged outwardly with grey; the two outer ones, with a large
W>hite spot on ffee. inne* web, near the tip, but that on the exterior
 m&
WARBLER. 17S
much larger; legs greenish brown. The female and young bird
want the black on the throat, and the colours are less bright.
Inhabits Pennsylvania, coming the end of march, or beginning
of April, and departing in Autumn; likewise met with among the
maples, about New York, during the summer, and in swampy places;
probably passes the winter in Jamaica, St. Domingo, and other parts
in the same latitude.
I observe this among Mr. Abbot's drawings, by the name of
Black-streaked Warbler; said to frequent the swamps and Oak
woods of Georgia, in summer, and to run about trees, in search of
insects like the Creeper. Is subject to much Variety, at different
periods of age.    It is ranked by some authors among the Creepers.
224— CERULEAN WARBLER.
Sylvia cserulea, Ind. On. ii. 540.    Vieill. Am. ii. pl. 87.
Motacilla caerulea, Lin. i. 337.    Gm. Lin. i. 992.
Muscicapa cserulea, Small Blue-grey Flycatcher, Amer. Om.ii. pl. 18. f. 5?
Ficedula Pennsylvanica cinerea,  Bris. Sup. 107.    Id. 8vo. i. 459.
Le Figuier gris de Fer, Buf. v. 309.
Contre-maitre bleuatre, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 158.
Little Blue-grey Flycatcher, Edio. pl. 302-
Cserulean Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 490.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 299.    Amer. On ii. pl.
17. f. 5.    Shaw's Zool. x. 653.
LESS than the Pettichaps; length four inches, breadth seven
inches and a half. Bill black, base beneath reddish; head and
upper parts of the body blue-grey; eyelids white; from bill to hind-
head a stripe of black; under parts white; wings cinereous brown;
quills edged within with whitish, as also the outer edges and tips of
some of the inner ones; tail rounded, two inches long, the eight
middle feathers cinereous blue, the outer one of these white at the
tip, but the two outmost on each side wholly white, except just at
the base; legs slender, black.
The female wants the black streak over the eyes, and the eight
middle tail feathers are cinereous brown; the rest as in the male.
 174 WARBLER.
In one sent from Georgia, the outmost tail feather is white; the next
black, with one-third from the tip white; the third black, the tip
only white ; the rest wholly black.
Inhabits Pennsylvania; arrives early in spring, and returns in
autumn ; the nest is often seen on the tops of trees, and singularly
constructed, composed of fine downy matter, with an outside of
moss and liver-wort, lined with horse-hair, in form cylindrical,
placed between the forks of the branches of a tree, and open at the
top ;* rarely seen after the 20th of August, when it retires southward ; has the habit of a Flycatcher. This is one of the birds, in
the nest of which the Cowpen Oriole lays its eggs.
A.—Le Figuier a tete noire, PL enl. 704. 1.    Gen. Syn. iv. 491. 117. Var. A.
This is like the last, but the whole of the upper part of the head,
above the eyes, is black; the greater quills wholly black, as are the
six middle tail feathers, the others white.
This was brought from Cayenne. According to Mr. Abbot, this
bird is called Blue Titmouse, or Spindle legs, from their being long
and slender; the bill, too, is small and delicate; commonly seen in
the woods in summer, and is continually in motion, creeping about
the trees and bushes, in search of insects; said to be found also in
Paraguay, but is not common there.
225—SPOTTED-TAILED WARBLER.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Bill slender, half an
inch long, dusky, the under mandible pale; plumage in general fine
pale blue, much like the colour of the Blue Titmouse ; this extends
on the upper parts of the head, neck, and body, and surrounds the
* Well represented in Edwards's Plate.
 WARBLER. 175
breast before, as a narrow band, continuing on the sides under the
wings; all the under parts otherwise are white; across the wing
coverts two bands of white; quills dusky; tail One inch and a half
long, even, dusky black, the feathers fringed outwardly with blue;
all but the two middle ones marked with an oval white spot on the
the inner margin, near the end, most considerable on the outer ones;
lower part of the back marked with some dusky streaks, the rump
paler blue, and plain, upper tail coverts blue, fringed with dusky
round the end ; legs slender, black.
In the collection of Lord Stanley.    Native place uncertain.    It
seems to coincide much with the Caerulean Species.
226—GOLD-WINGED WARBLER.
Sylvia cbrysoptera, Ind. On. ii. 541.    Vieill. Am. ii. pl. 97.
  flavifrons, Ind. Orn. ii. 527.
Motacilla chrysoptera, Lin. i. 333.    Got. Lin. i. 971.
 flavifrons, Gm. Lin. i. 976.
Ficedula Pennsylvanica cinerea gutture nigro, Bris. Sup. 109.    Id. 8vo. i. 458.
Le Figuier aux ailes dorees, Buf. v. 311.
Gold-winged Flycatcher, Edw. pl. 299.    Bartr. p. 290.
Yellow-fronted Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 461.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 296.
Gold-winged Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 492.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 295.     Amer. On
pl. 15. f. 6.    Shaw's Zool. x. 624.
SIZE of the Caerulean Warbler. Bill black ; crown of the head
yellow, on the sides white ; through the eye a black streak ; upper
parts of the body deep ash-colour, throat and neck before black;
the rest of the under parts white; on the' wing coverts a spot of
yellow ; tail a trifle forked, the outer feather marked with a spot of
white on the inner web ; legs black.
Found in Pennsylvania in April, passing northward to breed ;
returning in autumn; has the habit of a Titmouse; is by no means
a common bird.
 17$ WARBLER.
In some birds the middle of the crown only is yellow, in others
the forehead also; and the black band is bounded on each side with
white; the yellow spot on the wings larger, occupying the middle,
and greater coverts, and forming a large patch.
227.—YELLOW-VENTED WARBLER.
LENGTH five inches and a half; breadth eight and a half. Bill
and legs pale brown; crown chestnut; plumage above pale olive
brown, the margins of the feathers paler, nearly yellow, inclining
more to yellow on the rump; the under parts of the body yellow,
growing more intense at the vent; over the eye a yellow streak;
through the eye a dusky one; under the jaw a narrow black line like
a whisker; on the breast several pale ferruginous dashes; tail black,
one or more of the outer feathers white, half way from the base.
Found about Georgia, in autumn, and the first part of the winter,
in small flocks, about old fields and plantations. According to Mr.
Abbot, the outer tail feather is white on the inner web, one-third
from the end; the next the same for about half, and the third white
only just at the tip; the general colour otherwise blackish brown.
The female has not the chestnut crown; under parts of the body
pale yellowish brown, with a few streaks on the breast; the vent a
full yellow.
228.—STREAKED-CROWNED WARBLER.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill three quarters of an inch,
black; plumage above pale cinereous grey, beneath very pale whitish
ash ; lower belly and vent white; the wings darker, cinereous grey;
middle and greater wing coverts with white ends, forming two bands;
quills dusky, fringed with white; down the middle of the crown a
white streak; tail the colour of the quills, but nottrfraaged on the
margins, and rather hollowed out at the end ; legs slender, black.
In the Collection of Lord Stanley.
 229.—GRISLY WARBLER.
Sylvia grisea, Ind. Orn. ii. 532.
Motacilla grisea, Got. Lin. i. 964.
Le Grisin de Cayenne, Buf. iii. 408.   Pl. ml. 643. 1.2.
Grisly Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 473.    Shaw's Zool. x, 585,
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill black; crown of the
head dusky black; throat, fore part of the neck, and breast black;
through the eye a white streak; upper parts of the body, wings, and
tail cinereous grey; the feathers of the first bordered with grey, the
last tipped with white; belly, thighs, and vent white; legs cinereous.
The female is more ash-coloured above, and the black parts not
so deep.—Inhabits Cayenne.
230.—SAINT DOMINGO WARBLER.
Sylvia albicollis, Ind. On. ii. 535.
Motacilla albicollis, Got. Lin. i. 983.
Ficedula Domimcensis, Bris. iii. 494. t. 26. 5.   Id. 8vo. i. 446.
Figuier a gorge blanche, Buf. v. 287.
Saint Domifigo Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 479.
LENGTH nearly five inches. Bill horn-colour; plumage above
olive green; sides of the head, and all beneath, pale yellow, but the
fore part of the neck and breast are dirty yellowish white, marked
with longitudinal reddish spots; quills ana tail brown, edged with
greenish yellow; all but the two middle tail feathers yellowish on
the inner webs; legs grey brown. The female is greenish ash-colour,
instead of olive, on the hind part of the neck.    '
Inhabits St. Domingo.
 178
WARBLER.
231—PINE WARBLER.
Sylvia Pinus, Ind. On. ii. 537.    Vieill. Am. ii. p. 44.
Certhia Pinus, Lin. i. 187.    Got. Lin. i. 470.
Sylvia solitaria, Blue-winged Yellow Warbler, Amer. On. ii. pl. 15. f. <
Parus Americanus, Bris. iii. 576.    Id. 8vo. i. 471.
Grimpereau de Pin, Ois. Dor. 2.
Le Figuier des Sapine, Buf. v. 296.
Pine Creeper, Edw. pl. 277.    £oc(r. 7Y. 287.    Cat. Car. i. pl. 46 ?
Pine Warbler, Ge». Syn. iv. 483.     ;4rcf. Zoo/, ii. No. 318.     Amer. Or,
f. 4.    S/iaw>'* Zoo/, x. 737.
. pl. 19.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Bill brown; head,
neck behind, back, and rump, olive; through the eye a black streak;
throat, neck, and breast yellow ; belly and vent white ; upper wing
coverts brown, marked at the ends with a spot of white, forming two
bars on the wings ; quills brown ; tail a trifle forked, brown ; the
outer webs of the outer feathers white ; legs brown.
In the male the two outer tail feathers have the inner webs mostly
white, except near the tip; the second much less, having more the
appearance of along oval spot; but both hrown at the end. We
have seen some males without the streaks through the eye; such
probably are young birds.
The female has the colours more dull, but without the black
streak through the eye; and the bands across the wings only dusky
white. This is common about Carolina, in summer, but many remain-
there throughout the winter, when they are now and then seen among
the pine and other trees, in the manner of the (Creeper, in search of
insects; first seen in Pennsylvania in April, and departs south>Ml
autumn; said also to feed on the buds of trees; associate in flocks
of twenty or more ; frequent the deep woods, and often seen on the
lofty boughs, hanging with the head downwards like the Titmouse;
the nest is suspended from the horizontal forks of a branch, formed
 WARBLER.
179
outwardly of grape vine bark, rotten wood, and caterpillar's webs,
with some pieces of hornet's nests, intermixed, lined with dry pine
leaves, and fine roots of plants; the eggs four in number, white,
marked with a few dark spots at the large end.
232— GREEN  WARBLER.
Sylvia virens, Ind. Orn. ii. 537.    Vieitl. Am
Motacilla virens, Gm. Lin. i. 985.
Ficedula Pennsylvanica gutture nigro, Bris
Le Figuier a cravate noire, Buf. v. 298.
Black-throated Green Flycatcher, Edw. pl. 300.    Am. On. pl. 17. f. 3.
Green Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 484.   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 297.   Shaw's Zool. j
ii. pl. 92.
Sup. 104.   Id. 8vo. i. 548.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters, breadth seven. Bill
black; plumage above olive-green; sides of the head and neck
bright yellow; throat and fore part of the neck black ; upper part
of the breast yellow; the lower, belly, and vent, white; sides black
and white; lesser wing coverts olive, the middle and greater, nearest
the body, deep ash-colour, tipped with white, forming two bands
across the wings; outer coverts and quills ash-colour, the last edged
with white; tail deep ash-colour, the three outer feathers marked
with white on the inner webs; legs brown. The female has no
black on the throat.
Inhabits Pennsylvania, appearing first in April, in its way to
the North, hut does not stop long; it returns the same way back in
September; seen often on the high branches of trees, feeding on
insects; is a lively bird, frequently chirping ; rarely seen after the
10th of May; some few remain in Pennsylvania throughout the
year, as one was shot in June; but the nest not met with.
 180
WARBLER.
233.—HANG-NEST WARBLER.
Sylvia calidris, Ind. Orn. ii. 543.
Motacilla calidris, Lin. i. 329.    Got. Lin. i. 950.
Ficedula Jamaicensis major, Bris. Sup. 101.    Id. 8vo. i. 457.
American Nightingale, Edw. pl. 121. 2.
Hang-nest Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 497.    Shaw's Zool. x. 702.
SIZE of the Redbreast, or a trifle larger. Bill stout, blackish,
beneath flesh-coloured ; upper parts of the plumage greenish brown,
paler on the rump, and ends of some of the tail feathers, all but the
two middle ones of which are rufous within ; sides of the head, and
under parts dirty orange; through the eye a brown line, and beneath
it a second, pointing downwards; the wing coverts have yellowish
edges, and most of the quills are rufous on the inner webs; the legs
are blackish.
Inhabits Jamaica. Mr. Edwards thinks this to be the Watchy
Picket of Sloane, and Linnaeus joins him in the same opinion : Mr.
Ray* compares it to the Jupujuba or Japu of Marcgrave ; but this
is our Black and yellow Oriole,t before described ; neither can it be
the Watchy Picket of Sloane,$ which is also an Oriole ; nor do the
colours of the plumage in this agree with our bird. We therefore
must esteem it as a totally different Species, and are by no means
clear about the mode of nidification, whether it suspends the nest on
twigs of trees, or fabricates one like the generality of other birds.
234—WHITE-CHINNED WARBLER.
Sylvia Bonariensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 543.
Motacilla Bonariensis, Gm. Lin. i. 951.      .|frgtg$k
Demi-fin noir et roux, Buf. v. 328.
White-chinned Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 497.    Shaw's Zool. x. 703.
LENGTH five inches and two-thirds.    Bill slender, blackish;
irides chestnut; plumage above, wings, and tail full black; beneath
* Ray's Syn. p. 184.        f Hang-nest Onole, Syn. ii. 437.        £ Jam- P- 300. pl. 258. f. 3.
 WARBLER. 181
ferruginous; between the bill and eye white; chin, middle of the
belly, and tips of the outer tail feathers white; hind claw large.
Inhabits Buenos Ayres.
235.-PALM WARBLER.
Sylvia Palmarum, Ind. On. ii. 544.    Vieill. Am. ii. p. 21. pl. 73.
Motacilla Palmarum, Got. Lin. i. 951.    •
Le Bimbele, ou Fausse Linotte, Buf. v. 330.
Palm Warbler, Gm: Syn. iv. 498.    Shaw's Zool. x. 607.
LENGTH five inches. Bill sharp pointed; irides pale brown;
plumage above brown, deeper on the head; rump and upper tail
coverts olive green; wings and tail brown, with paler edges; the two
outer feathers have a band of white on the inner web, near the tip ;
the under parts of the body are dirty yellowish white as far as the
belly; from thence pale yellow; the wings reach one-third on the
tail, which is even. The female has no trace of white over the eye;
ends of the tail feathers white.
Inhabits St. Domingo, and called by the negroes, Bimbele; the
song consists of four or five notes only, neither varied nor striking,
though not unpleasant; it lives both on seeds and fruits; keeps
among the palm trees, in which it makes the nest, laying two eggs
only.
236— BANANA WARBLER.
Sylvia Bananivora, Ind. Om.ii. ate.
Motacilla Bananivora, Gm. Lin. i. 951.
Le Bananiste, Buf. v. 332.
Banana Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 498.    Shaw's Zool. x. 728.
LENGTH three inches and three quarters. Bill black, pointed,
and a trifle bent; plumage above deep grey, almost black, inclining
to brown on the wing coverts and tail; on the former a white spot,
 182 WARBLER.
the latter tipped with white; shoulders yellow; over the eye a white
streak, and one of black from the base of the bill to the hindhead;
throat greyish ash-colour; breast, belly, and rump pale yellow; the
sides, thighs, and vent pale yellow, and grey mixed ; the legs slate-
coloured.
Inhabits St. Domingo; is said to make the nest in the withs which
entwine among the trees; is often seen on the Bananas, on which it is
supposed to feed ; also on Oranges, Papaws, and other fruits, though
it will eat seeds and insects likewise: found often among the bushes,
in the unfilled grounds; flies by jerks, but quick, making a twittering
note, for it has only a trifling song, and but little varied. It is called
Bananiste.   ;
237—CAYENNE WARBLER.
Sylvia Cayana, Ind. Om. ri. 545.
Motacilla Cayana, Lin. i. 336.    Gm. Lin. i. 990.
Sylvia Cayanensis cserulea, Bris. iii. 534. t. 28. 1.   Id. 8vo. i. 455.
Elotototl quarta, Raii, Syn. 170 ?
Le Pitpit bleu de Cayenne, Buf. v. 339.    Pl. ml. 609. 2.
Bec-en*po.in<j!on noir et bleu de CieL, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 103.
Bee-fin, Tern. Man.. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxviii.
Cayenne Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 502.    Shaw's Zool. x. 655.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Bill blackish ; forehead and sides of it, part of the back, wings, and tail, of a fine deep
black; the rest of the plumage blue ; legs grey.
A—BlueManakin, Edw. pl. 263.    Gm. Syn. iv. 503.
This differs in having only the throat black; the head wholly
blue; wings, tail, and body, as in the other.
 WARBLER.
183
B—Le Pitpit bleu de Cayenne, PL enl. 669. 1.    Gen. Syn. iv. 503.
In this the body, wings, and tail, are as in the others, the head
of a plain blue.
All these are found at Guiana.—Brisson supposes the bird
described by him to be the Elotototl of Fernandez.
C.—Length five inches and a half. Bill black; between the
bill and eye, the chin, and down the middle of the neck, black;
head, neck, breast, belly, scapulars, lower part of the back, and
rump, pale glossy greenish blue, changing into either in different
lights; quills and tail black, the feathers margined outwardly with
green ; lesser wing coverts black; second and third covierts blue
green; legs red brown.
I found a specimen of this in the collection of Mr. Mc.Jdfiay,
who received it from Berbice, by the name of Jauraszini, or Creeper.
M. Sonnini thinks the Blue Manakin of Edwards, to be a
Variety, and that this and the next are probably allied. M. d'Azara
compares his Bec-en-pompon bleu et blanc bleuatre, * with the
Elotototl above quoted, and if the fact is so, it will make it a Variety
of the Cayenne Warbler.
238.—BLUE-HEADED WARBLER.
Sylvia cyanocephala, Ind. Orn. ii. 546.
Motacilla cyanocephala, Got. Lin. i. 990.
Sylvia viridfc, Bris. iii. 531.  t. 28. 4.   Id. 8vo. i. 455.
Bee-fin, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxviii.
Pitpit vert, Buf. v. 338. n.
Bec-en-poincon noir et bleu de Ciel, Voy.oJAzara, iii. No. 103.—female.
Blue-headed Warbler, Gen, .Syn. vr. #03.   Shaw's Zool. x. 684-
LENGTH four inches and three quarters.    Bill brown; head
and lesser wing coverts blue; throat bluish grey; the rest of the
* Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 107.
 184 WARBLER.
body and greater wing coverts bright green; quills brown, edged
with green ; legs grey.—Inhabits Cayenne.
239.—PARAGUAN WARBLER.
Le Tachuris, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 142.
LENGTH four inches, extent six. Bill dusky, straight, a little
curved at the point; corners of the mouth orange ; head and neck
behind slaty lead-colour; round the base of the upper mandible
white; upper parts of the body and lesser wing coverts greenish
brown, the greater dusky, with bright-rufous ends; throat white;
neck before pearly grey; breast and belly white; bend of the wing
yellow ; margins of the quills and tail white beneath ; legs dusky
lead-colour.
Inhabits Paraguay, but is not common.
240—BLUE-STRIPED WARBLER.
Sylvia lineata, Ind. On. ii. 546.
Motacilla lineata, Gm.Lin.i. 990.
Le Pitpit a Coiffe bleue, Buf. v. 342.
Blue-striped Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 504.    Shaw's Zool. x. 656.
BILL black ; on the top of the head a longitudinal spot of blue;
forehead deep bright blue,^ passing over the eye, quite to the middle
of the back; on the breast a stripe of white, reaching to the vent,
growing broader as it passes backwards ; the rest of the under parts
blue; legs black.
Inhabits Cayenne.
 -J
 185
243.—YELLOW-BACKED WARBLER.
The FEMALE.
Sylvia pusilla, Ind. On. ii. 520.
Motacilla pusilla, Got. Lin. i. 960.     ''l*.'^ '\
Blue Yellow-backed Warbler, Amer. Orn. iii. pl. 28. f. 3.—female.
Sylvia torquata, Vieill. Am. ii. pl. 99.
Figuier cendre de la Caroline, Buf. v. 301.   Pl. ml. 731.
Yellow-backed Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 440.   Shaw's Zool. j
. 1.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill dark above, pale beneath ; plumage above cinereous blue; between the shoulders olive
yellow; throat and breast yellow; belly white; ends of the wing
coverts the same, forming a bar; end of the tail very pale; legs pale
brown.    This is the female.
The MALE.
Parus Americanus, Ind. Orn. ii. 571.    Lin. i. 341.    Gm. Lin. i. 1007.
Ficedula Carolinensis cinerea, Bris. iii. 522.   Id. 8vo. i. 452.
Sylvia pusilla, Blue Yellow-backed Warbler, Am. Orn. iii. pl. 28. f. 3.
Le Bee en poin$on a poitrine doree,  Voy. d'Azara, iii. 102 ?
-..Finch Creeper, Cates. Car. i. pl. 64.
Creeping Titmouse, Gen. Syn. iv. 558,   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 326.
This, which is the male, differs in a few particulars: over and
under the eye is a white spot; on the wings two bars of white;
across the throat a clouded brown bar, in some dusky, in others dark
blue; on the sides a few reddish spots; two middle tail feathers
cinereous blue, the others edged with it; the two outer marked with
a white spot within at the tip; legs yellowish.
Inhabits Carolina, and other parts of America, for the most part
all the year; also in Canada, where it chiefly breeds, and departs
in autumn; said to chirp like a grasshopper. Frequents the oak
swamps, and woods of Georgia, but chiefly in summer; has a loud
VOI,. VII. B B
I
 186
WARBLER,
note for so small a bird; called there, Yellow-breasted Titmouse,
having the manners of that Genus, as it creeps up and down the
bodies of trees, in search of insects. Is found also in numbers at St.
Domingo and Porto Rico.
244.—GREY-POLL WARBLER.
Sylvia incana, Ind. On. ii. 527.    Vieill. Am. ii. p. 45.
Motacilla incana, Gm, Lin. i. 976.
Grey-poll Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 461.    Arct. Zool. ii. 291.
IN this the head, sides of the neck, and upper tail coverts, are
fine grey; chin and breast fine yellow; throat orange; belly whitish
ash-colour; wing coverts crossed with two bars of white; quills and
tail dusky.
Inhabits New York: seems much allied to the Yellow-backed,
perhaps differing in age or sex.
245.—BLACK-POLL WARBLER
Sylvia striata, Ind. On. ii. 527.    Vieill. Am. ii. p. 75.
Motacilla striata, Got. Lin. i. 976. '
Fauvette rayee, Vieill. Am. ii. 22. pl. 73.—male. 76.—female.
Black-poll Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 460.    Id. Sup. ii. 243.    Arct. Zool. ii. 290.    Amer.
On. iii. pl. 30. f. 3.—male.   Id. Vol. vi. pl. 54. f. 4.—female.   Shaw's Zool. x. 645.
LENGTH five inches and a quarter, breadth eight and three
quarters. Bill pale brown; irides hazel; crown black ; cheeks
white, passing round the nape, as a mottled white ring; plumage on
the upper parts ash-colour, streaked with bladfe; wing coverts and
prime quills dusky, the former ^marked with two white bars; secondaries edged with white; throat white, streaked on each side with
black; breast and belly dirty white, streaked«downwards with black;
tail dusky, even ; at the end of the two outerrlfeathers a white spot;
legs whitish. ^ itogft
 WARBLER. 187
The female is very pale ash-colour, with some dusky streaks
down the back, and a few on each side of the throat; the rest of the
under parts white; the crown is not black; wings and tail as in the
male, but the bars on the wings less conspicuous, and the spot at
the tips of the tail feathers smaller; legs very pale red, or dirty
orange.    The young male is very like the female.
Inhabits Newfoundland and New York, in summer; appears in
May, and goes away in August; except in breeding time is solitary.
Called at New York, Sailor, perhaps from the singularity of outward
habit. Nest unknown. Seen also in Georgia, the latter end of
April; most common in the lower parts of the country.
246.—ORANGE-HEADED WARBLER.
Sylvia chrysocephala, Ind. Orn. ii. 541.
Motacilla chrysocephala, Got. Lin. i. 971.
Le Figuier orange, Buf. v. 313.
 etranger, Pl. enl. 58. 3.
Orange-headed Warbler, Gm. Syn, iv. 492.    Shaw's Zool. x. 700.
BILL black; top and sides of the head, fore part and sides of
the neck, fine orange; over the eye a brown band ; beneath it a
second, but paler; upper parts of the body and quills reddish brown ;
wing coverts black and white; breast and belly pale yellow ; tail
black, the feathers edged pale yellow; legs yellow.
A single specimen of the above found at Guiana.
247.-
ORANGE-BELLIED WARBLER.
p. 46,
Sylvia fulva, Ind. On. ii. 542.    Vieill. Am.
Motacilla fulva, Got. Lin. i. 973.
Figuier a gorge jaune, Buf v. 317.
Orange-bellied Warbler, Gm. Syn. iv. 495.
Arct. Zool. ii. 312.   Shaw's Zool. x. 726.
BILL brown, paler beneath ; head and upper parts of the body
olive-brown, the under to the breast yellow, inclining to brown on
Bi$2
 188 WARBLER.
the last; the rest of the under parts rufous, growing yellow at the
vent; under wing coverts yellow, mixed with brown ; quills brown,
the secondaries edged with olive, and the greater with pale grey;
growing paler the more they are outward, the exterior quite white;
tail feathers brown, edged with olive; legs yellowish brown.
Inhabits Louisiana.
248.—PROTHONOTARY WARBLER.
Sylvia Protonotarius, Ind. On. ii. 542.    Vieill. Am. ii. pl. 83.
Motacilla Protonotarius, Got. Lin. i. 972.
Parus aureus alis caeruleis, Bartr. Trav. 290 ?
Le Figuier Protonotaire, Buf. v. 316.
 a ventre et tete jaunes, Pl. en/. 704. 2.
Prothonotary Warbler, Gen. Syn.iv. 494.    Id. Sup.ii. 242.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 310.
Amer. Om. iii. pl. 24. 3.    Shaw's Zool. x. 642.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Bill rather long, black;
irides dark hazel; head, neck, breast, and belly fine jonquil yellow;
back the same, inclining to olive; rump ash-colour; vent white;
quills and tail blackish; the four middle feathers of the latter of one
colour, the two outer white within, except at the tip, the rest black;
the third the same, but the white occupies less space; and the fourth
wholly black, except a white spot in the middle of the inner web;
the tail one inch and three quarters long, and the wings reach very
little beyond the rump; the under tail coverts elongated almost to
the tip of the tail; legs black.
The female differs, in having the colours less vivid; the young
birds, as soon as full fledged, have the bright colours of the male.
Inhabits Louisiana, and Georgia; at the former called Protonotaire, at the latter, The Gold Bird, but is not a common Species.
According to Mr. Abbot, it is five inches long, and nine in extent;
frequents the swamps only, in the summer about the lakes and waters;
 WARBLER.
189
the male is like that in the Pl. enl. but it is pale, not black, and the
tail is longer; builds the beginning of May, the nest of swamp moss,
and placed at the extremity of a limb of a tree, hanging over a lake
in a swamp; the egg purplish, pale blush-colour for two-thirds from
the tip; at the large end transparent, and yellowish, and marked
with numerous minute reddish specks, with here and there a larger
one: is most frequent about Ogechee River; the nest attached to four
reeds, like a hammock, in a curious manner; is a rare bird, only
seen in summer; has a few screaking notes, but nothing like a song;
abundant in the Mississippi, and New Orleans, near the river, rarely
on high ridges.
249.—CRESTED WARBLER.
Sylvia cristata, Ind. Orn. ii. 541.
Motacilla cristata, Gm. Lin. i. 972.
Le Figuier huppe de Cayenne, Pl. ml. 391. 1.    Buf.