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BC Historical Books

A general history of birds. Vol. IX Latham, John, 1740-1837 1824

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  THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
     GENERAL    HISTORY
BIRDS.
BY JOHN  LATHAM,  M.n.
F.R.S.   A.S. and L.S.
d. C*s. Nat. Curios.    Reg. Holm,   et Soc. Nat. Scrut. Berolin.    &e.
VOL. IX.
WINCHESTER:
NTED   BY   JACOB    AND   JOHNSON,    FOR   THE   AUTHOR : SOLD   IN    LONDON   BY
G.   AND   W.   B.   WHITTAKER,   AVE-MARIA-LANE ;   JOHN   WARREN,   BOND-STREET,
W.   WOOD,   428,   STRAND ;   AND   J.   MAWMAN,  39,   LUDGATE-STREET.
1824.
B^toj^Sci -
  DIVISION II.    WATER BIRDS.
ORDER VII.     WITH CLOVEN FEET.
GENUS LXXI.—SPOONBILL.
1 White ||   2 Luzonian ||    3 Roseate ||    4 Surinagur ||   5 Dwarf
JjILL long, broad, flat and thin, the end widening into a roundish
form, not unlike a spoon.
Nostrils small, placed near the base.
Tongue sharp-pointed.
Face naked.
Feet semipalmated.
1.—WHITE SPOONBILL.
Platalea leucorodia, Ind. Orn. ii. 667.    Lin. i. 231.   Mus. Adolph. ii. 26.   Faun, suec."
No. 160.    Gm. Lin. i. 613.    Scop. i. No. 115.    Brun. No. 46.    Midler, No. 170.
Frisch, t. 200. 201.      Sepp, t. 88. 89.     Klein, 126. 1.     Id. Ov. 34.   t. 18. f. 4.
Dec. Russ. i. 164.   Faun. Helv. Tern. Man. 382.   Id. Ed. ii. 596.
Platea, vel Pelecanus, Aldr. Raii, 102.    Will. 212. t. 52.    Bris. v. 352.     Id. 8vo. ii.
300.    Borowsk. iii. 68. t. 45.    Gerin. iv. t. 437.    Gesner, Av. pl. p. 603.
La Spatule, Buf. vii. 448. t. 24.    Pl. enl. 405.    Voy. en Barb. i. 277.
Der Weisse Loffel reiher,   Bechst. Deut. iii. p. 2.     Id. Ed. ii.   p. 4.   t. 17.     Naturf.
xiii. s. 201.   Schmid, Vog. 116. t. 102.
Garza, ou Beccarivale, Zinnan. Uov. iii. t. 20. f. 99.
 I
SPOONBILL.
r Pelican, Alb. ii. pl. 66.    Will. Engl. 28!
Ray's Trav. p. 38.
White Spoonbill, Gen. Syn. v. p. 13.     Br. Zool. App
pl. 1.   Arct. Zool. ii. 441. A.   Id. Sup. 66.    Bet
Spoonbill
. t. 52.   Kolb. Cap. ii. 142. pl.
pl. 9.    Id. Ed. 1812. ii. p. 3.
ick, ii. pl. in p. 25.
LENGTH two &fc}ight inches; weight ft&ree pounds and a
quarter. Bill from six to eight inches long, very flat, and broadens
at the extremity into the shape of a spoon, in colour not always the
same; in some black, in others brown, and in a few spotted; from
the base to two-thirds of the length crossed with several indentations,
the rising parts of which are darker coloured ; tongue short, and
heart-shaped ; irides reddish ; lore, round the eyes, and throat bare,
and black ; the skin ofthe last very dilatable. The whole plumage
is white; the feathers of the head more or less elongated, and in old
birds so long as to grVe the appearance of a crest; in the adult likewise, there is a rufous yellow tinge on the breast, and the bare parts
round the eyes and throat are yellowish, inclining to red; the legs
dusky, or greyish brown ; the toes connected at the base with a membrane, between the outer and middle one to the second joint, and to
the inner as far as the first.
In young birds the shafts of the quills are black, and some of
the outer ones black at the ends.
The female chiefly differs, in being smaller than the male. This
bird is found in various parts of the Old Continent, from the Ferroe
Isles, near Iceland, to the Cape of Good Hope,* chiefly near the
sea ; met with on the Coasts of France and once in great numbers;
at.a village called Sevenhuys, not far from Leyden, in Holland, in
acertaiRgCQve; where they built, and bved ^sarly, on the tops of
high trees, m company with Herons, Night Herons, Shags, Corvo-
rants, &c. and the owner, when the birds were fit, with a hook at
the end of a long pole, catefeiog the bough with the nest, shook out
the young, j-
* Common about Sea-Cow River. Barrow.
t Willughby.    No doubt before the young birds could fly; the youn» Rooks   of the
-»- age, are eaten in this kingdom.    The wood has been long S^edesfco^.-^Seealso
Ray's Ti
. p. 38.
 SPOONBILL. 3
The eggs aFe three or four in number, about the srae of those; of
a Hen,* whitev With a few pale red spots. The Spoonbill is fouttd'ira
the temperate parts of Russia, and Siberia, and beyond the Lake
Baikal: changes its situation at different times of the year, more
southward in winter. It is also a native of India. In respect to
England, it is only an occasional visitant; rarely on the coast of
Norfolk, but in the year 1773, in April, a flock of them was seen
about Yarmouth, in the marshes :f has appeared, now and then, on
the coast of Devonshire; the last instance communicated by Dr.
Wavell, who informed me that one was shot near Axminster, in
December, 1822. And the late Mr. Boys mentioned one having
been killed some years since, on the Kentish coast, near Sandwich.
They are said to be very noisy during the breeding time, like the
Rooks: chiefly frequent the mouths of rivers, rarely being found high
up the stream. The food is fish, and they are accused of taking it
by force from other birds, in the manner of the Bald Eagle. Will
feed also on muscles, and other shell fish, and are mostly found where
these are in plenty. Said to devour frogs and snakes; as well as
grass and weeds, which grow in the water, in defect of other food.
The flesh is thought to resemble most that of a Goose in flavour, and
eaten by many; but the young birds are most esteemed. By some
authors this bird is called a Pelican.
Buflbn mentions, that the trachea is similar in formation to that
of the Crane, J but although it is bent, much in the same manner, it
does not enter the keel of the sternum as in that bird. §
A better comparison might be made with that of Demoiselle, "or
Numidian Crane,|| which it much resembles; for it has a double bend
* In Sepp they are pure white, placed on a layer of dry sedges, and green leaves.
f One mentioned by Dr. Thomas Brown, the year not said. He was knighted in 1671,
and died in 1682, and of course must have been between those two dates.
X La Trachee artere estsemblable a celle de la Grue, et fait dans le thorax une double
inflexion.—Ois. vii. 454.
§ Lin. Trans, iv. pl. xii. f. 4. || Lin. Trans, iv; pl. x. f. 4.
B 2
!
 4 SPOONBILL.
beyond the middle of its length, and the parts, so curving, are
somewhat flattened; the bent parts are each united to the side contiguous, and likewise connected in the hollow by a thin membrane.
My late friend Colonel Montagu informed me, that he has observed
this structure equally in the female bird.
2.-LUZONIAN SPOONBILL.
La Spatule blanche de Lucon, Son. Voy.
p. 15.   Var. B.
!9. pl. 52.    Ind. Orn. ii. 668.    Gen. Syn. v
SIZE ofthe White. The bill about seven inches long, or more,
and narrower in proportion, colour rufous grey, with red edges ; the
plumage entirely white, but the feathers on the head are elongated,
more loose in their texture, and forming a sort of crest; legs dull,
pale red.
—La Spatule blanche de Lui
Syn. v. p. 15.   Var. A.
pl. 51.     Ind. Orn. i. 668.     Gen.
In this the bill is reddish brown ; general colour of the plumage
white; legs yellowish. It differs from the other in having the wings
varied black and white, hence supposed a young bird.
Inhabits the Philippine Islands.—I observe one of these, with
the head finely crested, among the drawings of Sir J. Anstruther,
which was found on the Coromandel Coast. In this the throat
appeared bare, and of a dusky red. Has been found also at Oude,
where it is called Dawbul.
"L
  1
Mo^lte'.for^M/
 ^1
SPOONBILL.
3— ROSEATE SPOONBILL—Pl. cxl.
Platalea Ajaja, Ind. Orn. ii. 668.    Lin. i. 231.    Gm. Lin. i. 614.    Raii, 102. 3.    Will.
213.     Klein, 126. 2.     Borowsk. iii. 69.    Gerin. iv.   t. 438.    Nat. Misc. t. 90.
Bartr. Trav. 291.
Platea rosea, Bris. v. 356. t. 20.   Id. 8vo. ii. 302.
La Spatule couleur de rose,   Buf. vii. 456.     PL enl. 165.     Pernet. Voy. i. 184. t. 2.
f. 3.    Hist, de la Louis, ii. 116.
Bee a cuillier, Ferm. Surin. ii. 153.    Mem. sur Cay. ii. 257.
La Spatule, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 345.
Roseate Spoonbill, Gen. Syn. v. 16. pl. 73.    Will. Engl. 289.     Harris's Coll. Voy. i.
728.   Amer. Orn. vii. 123. pl. 63. f. 1.
THIS is a trifle smaller than the first; length two feet three
inches. Bill six inches long, in shape like the other, marked all
round with a furrow parallel to the edge, and of a greyish white,
somewhat transparent, so as to shew the ramification of the blood
vessels; irides red; the forehead between the bill and eyes, and
throat, bare and whitish ; plumage of a fine rose-colour, deeper on
the wings ;* legs grey ; toes as in the first species.
Inhabits the warmer parts of America; seen as far north as
Atamaha River, in Georgia : it is, however, according to Mr. Abbot's
account, very rare in those parts, but now and then to be met with
in the ponds about Savannah, migrating from West Florida, where
they are said to be in greater plenty. Prince Maximilian saw thirty
of them sitting together in a marshy spot near St. Salvador, in Brazil,
but so shy, as not to be approached within gun-shot. %
A.—Platalea Ajaja, Ind. Orn. ii. 668. jB.    Lin.i. 231. 2. 0.    Gm. Lin.i. 614. 2. j3.
Platea coccinea, Bris. v. 359.    7d.8vo.ii. 303.
  Mexicana, Tlauhquechnl, Raii, 102. 2. & 189. 5.    Will. 213.    Klein, 126. 3.
* In Mr. Bullock's Museum is one of a pale rose-colour, the lesser wing coverts fine
deep rich crimson; upper tail coverts the same; tail plain buff-colour. Another, supposed
a young bird, wholly pale rose-colour. f Trav. i. p. 93.
 Scarlet Spoonbill, Gen. Syn. v. 16.    Sloan. Jam. ii. 316.     Bancr. Guian. 170.    Will.
Engl. 289. § II.
This is like the last, but wholly of a beautiful red colour, with
a collar of black at the lower part of the neck ; irides red. Male
and female much alike.
Said to inhabit Jamaica, Guiana, Mexico, and other hot parts of
South America, and is probably a bird in the most complete plumage:
common in Paraguay, and expands from Pampas to Buenos Ayres :
some Guaranis call it Guirapito, Red Bird; others Guirati, White
Bird.    Has the manners of the European One.
4.—SURINAGUR SPOONBILL.
THIS is a large Species. The bill deep blue, the base for one-
third black, with several dusky spots on the sides, and for some
distance from the tip; down the middle for two-thirds from the base
yellowish, marked with transverse bars of black, the under mandible dusky red ; irides reddish; forehead and throat dusky black;
sides of the head, chin, and neck before to thefbreast, dusky white;
the same to the vent* but over the thighs reddish* with transverse,
red, curved bars ; and the breast marked with long, narrow, dusky
streaks; thighs pale brown, barred with black; the hind part of
the neck, the back, rump, and tail, dull rufous red, the end of the
last black ; wings pale red brown; the lesser coverts darker; across
the middle of the wing a broad, whitish bar, formed by the larger
coverts; quills black, and when closed, equal the tail in length;
legs dusky blue above the knee, and a little below it, the rest of the
length dull orange red, paler behind ; between the outer and middle
toes a membrane at the base; claws black.
Inhabits India; the specimen from which the above is described
was- brought from the snowy mountains of Surinagur, by the name
of Dubee.—Sir J. Anstruther.    In the dmwiag, the bird said to be
 in weight equal to a sare* and a quarter, about two pounds and
and a half; the length four times that of the drawing; and as the
latter is eighteen inches long, tbeMrd^tSelf would measure six feet.
It is said also to be found in Hindustan. Should no mistake have
occurred in respect to the size of the bird, we may fairly rank it as
distinct, both from the Roseate, and Scarlet Species.
5.—DWARF  SPOONBILL.
Platalea pygmea, Ind. Orn. ii. 669.   Lin. i. 231.   Mus. Ad. ii. p. 26.   Gm. Lin. i. 615.
Becasseau,  Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. civ.
Dwarf Spoonbill, Gen. Syn. v. p. 17.    Bancr. Guian. 171.
SIZE of a Sparrow. Bill black, longer than the head, and flat
at the end, not of rounded form, as in the others, but spread out
almost at right angles, so as to be nearly of a rhomboidal form ; the
angles and tip of the upper mandible white; tongue smooth; the
body brown above, and white beneath ; the quills have white shafts;
the tail rounded in shape, short, and brownish white; the feet with
four toes, and cloven ; claws pointed. Bancroft's description varies
somewhat. He says, that the bill is flattish, dilated, orbiculated,
and flat at the point, and that the toes are palmated.
Inhabits Surinam and Guiana. It is added, in the JMus. Adol.
that the head is slightly crested, and the tongue short and obtuse.
We have never met with this species in any collection, nor seen a
drawing of it.    M. Temminck places it in his Tringa Genus.
* Saar or Seer. It is probable that this either varies in different parts of India, or is
?rtqt well understood; as all authors do not agreexonceroing the weight of it. Some say it
is six-tenths of a pound; others near one pound weight; and lastly, that it equals two
pounds, and which we believe to be the generally received opinion.
 SIZE of a Turkey; length three feet four inches. Bill two
inches and a quarter long, and black ; the upper mandible a little
gibbous at the base, the under shutting beneath it, as in the Gallic
naceous Tribe; nostrils oval and pervious, near the middle of the
bill ; from the top of the head, near the forehead, arises a slender
horn, of more than three inches in length, sharp at the end, pointing
forwards, and movable in every direction, being only attached to
the skin ; irides gold-colour; plumage on the head, neck, and upper
parts of the body, black, the feathers of the first margined with
grey, and downy ; some of those round the neck also edged with the
same; the under parts of the wings pale rufous, appearing on the
shoulders and edges of them, when closed ; at the bend of the win^
two strong, sharp, horny, yellow spurs, one above  the other,  the
 rij
  ^furTttfri   < 'rrf-awwtr
W
  ==
SCREAMER. 9
uppermost one inch and a half in length; belly, thighs, and vent,
white; tail eight inches and a half long,, and black ; legs stout, and
dusky, the fore claws moderately bent, the hind one nearly straight,
not unlike that of a Cock, and one inch in length. Both sexes are
much alike, and both furnished with a horn on the forehead.
This inhabits certain districts of Cayenne, Guiana, Surinam, and
other parts of South America, but is by no means a common bird;
is found chiefly in the marshes, and wet Savannas, for the most part
near the sea ; observed to be met with in pairs; and it is said, that if
one dies, the other pines to death for the loss; the nest made of mud,
in the shape of an oven, of a large size, and placed on the ground,
the eggs two in number, in size equalling those of a Goose. The
young are brought up in the nest till able to shift for themselves;
they breed but once in a year, which is in January or February;
though if the first eggs are taken away, they will have a second
nest in April or May. Young birds are often eaten by the natives,
but the colour of the flesh is very dark, and that of the old ones
tough, and ill tasted. Some authors assert, that this bird feeds on
crabs, also birds, such as Pigeons, and poultry; and even to attack
sheep and goats, but this is denied by others, who say, that its chief
food is reptiles. In the stomach of one M. Bajon found only grass,
and seeds of plants, but he adds, that the bird had no gizzard.
These seem to be the birds mentioned by Ulloa,* called by the
inhabitants of Quito, Dispertadores, or Awakeners, from their giving
notice to others of the approach of danger; for, on hearing the least
noise, or seeing any one, though at a great distance, they rise from
the ground, and make a loud chattering like a Magpie, continuing
the same, and hovering over the object of their alarm, whereby other
birds, having notice of their danger, have time to escape : the noise
is said to be loud and terrible,t on which account Mr. Pennant was
induced to give it the name annexed.
* Voy. ii. p. 242.     Ulloa makes the size that of a Cock.    He says, that the head is
adorned with a tuft of feathers, perhaps he may mean the next species ?
■f- Terribili voce clamitans.—Lin.
TOl.   IX. C
 10
SCREAMER*
This bird is not uncommon in Brazil, met with by Pnnce Maximilian,* on the Rio Grande.de Belmonte. It is shy, but soon betrays
itself by its loud call, somewhat like that of the Wild Pigeon, but
stronger, called in these parts Aniuma, or Anhuma, or Brazilian
Crane.
2.-CHAJA SCREAMER.
Le Chaja,
THE total length of this bird is thirty-one inches. The bill
strong, and gallinaceous; base covered with short feathers; colour
dusky ; nostrils uncovered ; irides rufous brown ; round the eye bare,
andblood-colour; at the middle ofthe hindhead some diishe veiled
feathers, one inch and a half long, falling in a direction between
the bill and nostrils, forming a sort of fixed diadem : the head and
neck, for two inches, covered with soft, and cotton-like feathers, of
a light lead-colour; below this are two collars, each nine lines
broad, the upper one bare of feathers, and reddish ; the lower soft,
black, and cottony; the rest of the neck, back, rump, and under
parts whitish lead-colour: the tail consists of fourteen feathers, much
rounded, the outer one being shorter by twelve lines, in colour
blackish; quills, greater wing coverts, and scapulars the same;
the other coverts mixed brown and blackish white, or lead-colour,
beneath white ; bare part ofthe legs rose-colour ; claws Mack ; legs
and shins covered with strong hexagonal scales; the middle and
outer toe united by a membrane to the first joint; fctoe bend of the
wing ends in a pointed spur, and on the outer edge* are two others,
pointed, bony, very strong, and somewhat bent upwards.
Inhabits Paraguay, and on both banks of the River Plata;
perches on the tops of high trees; walks on the ground in a stately
manner. Said to make a large nest in a; bush near* the water, or
among the rushes, and to lay two eggs.    It has a strong, sharp, and
* Travels^ V. i.  p. 288.
 SCREAMER. 11
clear cry, day and night; that of the male like the word Chaja, of
the female Chajali, repeated alternately; sometimes seen in pairs, at
others in flocks; and both male and female are alike; wades in the
water like the Heron, but does not swim, as it is only for the weeds
it can collect, for it neither eats fish nor reptiles. It is a tame
species, and may be domesticated ?like other poultry.
M. Sonnini, the commentator on Azara, in a note says, he thinks
this to be different from the Horned Screamer, especially as it has
no horn. This seems very probable, especially as it is a much
smaller bird, the one here described being nine inches shorter; nor
does it seem to answer in the colours of the plumage.
 I
GENUS LXXII.*—CARIAMA.
BlLL as long as the head, bending towards the point.
Nostrils near the base, surrounded by short feathers.
Head furnished with a double tuft of feathers.
Legs long, bare considerably above the knee.
Toes three before and one behind; the latter short, and placed
too high up to be useful in walking.
BRAZILIAN CARIAMA.
-Pl. cxlii.
Gm. Lin
Palamedea cristata, Ind. Orn. ii. 669.    Lin. i. 232.    Gm. Lin. i. 616.
Cariama, Bris. v. 516.     Id. 8vo. ii. 348.    Buf. vii. 325.     Raii, 96, 6.    Will. 202:
t. 51.   Id. Engl. 276. pl. 51.   Marc. Bras. pl. in p. 203.
Dicholophus, Caziama, Tern. Man. d'Orn. Ed. ii. Anal. p. xcvi.
Le Saria, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 340.
Crested Screamer, Gen. Syn. v. p. 20. 2.
THIS is about the size of the Horned Screamer; standing erect
it is twenty-nine or thirty inches in height. The bill formed nearly
as in the Gallinaceous Tribe, strong, the upper mandible black, the
under orange, the length from the gape three inches; irides gold-
colour; round the eye naked and bluish ; the head large, the crown
furnished with a large crest, consisting of loose feathers, part of which
advances over the bill, the other tending backwards; the colour a
light nightingale brown; the rest of the head, and whole of the
neck the same, but paler, and freckled ; and the wing coverts have
a ferruginous tinge, growing deeper towards the quills, which are
deep brown; breast dirty freckled white ; thighs coyered with white
down, and behind them a border of striped hackles, with a brush of
yellowish, or brownish white; the feathers similar to those of the
   rJO'TtV'Z^O^ft'    u?a&
 I
 CARIAMA. 13
Paradise-Bird, but shorter; rump deep brown, patched with white;
tail nearly black, margins of the feathers white ; legs deep bronze-
colour; toes webbed at the bottom, nearly as far as the first joint.
For the above description I am indebted to Mr. Chevalier, jun.
who took it from a perfect specimen, in the Museum of Mr. Brookes,
of Blenheim-street, London, and furnished the drawing from the
same.
In addition to the above, M. d'Azara observes, that the irides are
yellow; above the eye a white line ; the wings black, with transverse
lines of white, and dotted with blackish; all the under parts soft,
like cotton ; tail eleven inches long, the two middle feathers brown,
the others with a broad black band in the middle; the naked part of
the legs orange, nails black ; three toes before, the middle one two
inches and a quarter long ; at the back a small one, placed so high
. from the ground, as to be useless, with the heel rounded, like that
of the Ostrich ; wings without any spurs.    Both sexes nearly alike.
Inhabits Brazil, and is by some kept tame; called by the Portuguese, Cariama; by the Guaransis, Saria: both these refer to its
sharp cry, which is compared to that.of a Turkey, but so loud as to
be heard a mile off": this bird is delicate as food, and the body very
fleshy; by some thought equal to that of the Pheasant, by which
name also many have called it. Is found in Paraguay, but is there
rare, and not seen towards the River Plata, although the cry has
been probably heard in 31 deg. of latitude. Is said to frequent the
borders of forests only, and to prefer wet, or watery places, feeding
on lizards and insects; generally seen in pairs, or in small flocks, and
at all times very shy : young birds may be domesticated, and in this
state will eat meat, but refuse maize, or any kind of grain, Its gait
is somewhat stately, carrying the tail low, and its neck high : it is
very scarce in collections, nor have we till now seen even a tolerable
figure of the bird; as to that in Will ugh by, it is merely a copy
from the one furnished by Marcgrave, and by no means a just
representation.
 GENUS LXXIIL—JABIRU.
1 American
2 Indian
3 New-
4 Tetas
5 White-bellied
6 Senegal
THE bill in this Genus is long and large, both mandibles bending
upwards; the upper somewhat triangular.
Nostrils small.
Tongue minute.*
Toes divided.
1.—AMERICAN JABIRU—Pl. cxliii.
Mycteria Americana, Ind. Orn.ii. 670.   Lin. i. 232.   Gm.Lin.i. 616.    Borowsk.'ni. 80-
Ciconia Braziliensis, Bris. v. 371.    Id. 8vo. ii. 306.
Jabira*g«jacu, Rati, 96. 5.    Will;W2. t. 47.    Id, Engl. p. 276.    Buf. vii. 282. pl. 13.
<      Wr-tnl. 817,
Touyouyou, Mem. sur Cay. ii. pl. 3 ?
Aouarous, Mem. sur Cay. ii. 254?
El Soldado, Gabin. de Madrid, ii. p. 57. lam. 25i
Le Coll|er 4q?ge, Voy. d'Azara,iv. No. 343.
Indian Stork's Head, Grew, Mus. pl. 5. f. 1. the bill.
American Jabiru, Gen. Syn. v. p. 12. pl. 75.    Nat. Misc. pl. 461.
THIS is a large bird, being, when full grown, six ieetf in
length, from the point of the bill to, the end of the tail. The bill is
black, thirteen inches long, % and often more, stout, not unlike that
of a Stork, and bending a little upwards.; irides black; the head,
and about two-thirds of the neck bare, and blackish^ the rest of tfe&
* According to Marcgrave there is no Tongue in the first Species.
t Individuals differ.    Azara's bird was only fifty-two inches and three quarters long.	
Barrere says, ifc fe six feet high as it stands.
X This vaajiesi much: in one at GeneKaLDa.vies.'fc the  bill was seventeen, i
the bird to which it belonged measured only five feet, eight inches.
5hes,l«ngfc]}ut
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 JABIRU. 15
neck also bare, but of a fine red; at the hindhead a few greyish
feathers; general colour of the plumage-white; the tail consisting of
twelve feathers; legs strong, of a great length, and covered with
black scales ; wings and tail very little differing in length.
The female is three or four inches shorter.
This bird is found in all the savannas of Cayenne, Gfuiatta, and
other parts of South America, and makes the nest on great trees,
which grow on the borders; lays two eggs, and brings nplfte young
in the nest, till they can descend to the e&fth J the food is fish". Young
birds are at first grey; in the second year cfrange to rose-colour; and
the third become pure wtrfte; are exceedfrigty tfoVa'cioUs, taking
great quantities of fish to satisfy them ; in their nature are very wild.
The flesh of the young bird is good to eat, but that of the old ones
very hard, rank, and oily.
Azara says, that it is called by some Aiaiai; is rare in Paraguay,
and not seen beyond the third degree of latitude; met with generally
in pairs, but never uniting into flocks; perches on trees, roosting
thereon at night; appears before the Bagua^i1, of* American Stork,
and prefers the great lakes to any otherttitfb'atfititt1.- He obs^rv^s*, <nW
the nest is spacfeus, made gefMeraKfy on the fork of a deea^icfltfeeV
on the borders, formed of small branches, laterally interwoven; the
bird using the same nest for several seasons-. The female said to want
the red collar, but this is not cerfeiiri, fyrihe mate does not getif*fef;
a great length of time.
The bird described by Brisson, as Ciconia Guiarien^is',^ does not
probably belong to this Genus, but rafUeV to that of the KftJ£ a&titte-
bill curves downwards; in tfrat the netffr is^nalsted', and' bfafck? tWe-
rest of the plumage white, even tne quills and tail. This lust?fti1r<dt
has never come under our view, and we suspect that the ArileMbtfri1
and this have been confounded with each other, un1e&5*fhe latter"5may
hereafter prove to be no other tlian the Wood fbisft
* Bris. v. p. 373.
 INDIAN JABIRU.
Mycteria Asiatica, Ind, Orn. ii. 670.
Indian Jabiru, Gen. Syn. Sup. 231.    View of Hindoostan,
SIZE large. Bill dusky, almost straight above, near the forehead gibbous, the under mandible swelled beneath; from the base
of the bill, passing through and beyond the eye, a black streak;
general colour of the plumage white; lower half of the back, prims
quills, and tail, black; legs pale red.
Inhabits India: feeds on snails.—Lady Impey.
3.—NEW-HOLLAND JABIRU.
Mycteria Australis, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. lxi
New-Holland Jabiru, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii,
Lin. Trans, v. p. 34.
pl. 138.    Nat. Misc.
pl. 601.
THE length of this species is full six feet. The bill twelve
inches long ; neck fifteen inches; thighs ten ; legs almost the length
of the bill, the upper mandible of which is nearly straight, or very
little curving upwards, the under the same, but the curvature more
perceivable, colour black; the chin, for a little way, is bare of
feathers, and reddish ; irides yellow; the head pretty full of feathers,
and with about half the neck black, with a tinge of green in some
lights, in others purplish ; the middle ofthe wing coverts and second
quills, also the middle of the back, greenish black ; tail the same;
the rest ofthe plumage white; the whole ofthe legs, and bare parts
above the knee, of a fine red; the toes furnished at the end with
pale-coloured claws, shaped not unlike those ofthe human species.
Inhabits New-Holland.    Native name Barri enna.
The above description is taken from a specimen in the Leverian
Museum. Among the drawings of Mr. Lambert is a representation
of one apparently the same, in which the skin beneath the lower
 JABIRU. 17
mandible and throat is of a fine crimson, and said to be capable of
great distension; head, and half the neck, brownish black, with a
variable green and copper gloss; between the bill and eye grey;
the general colour of the plumage of the lower part of the neck,
the body, and wings, white, except on the shoulders, which appear
blackish, and tipped with the same copper and green bronze as the
head and neck; tail black.
This also inhabits New-Holland, and differs from the other
probably in sex only. As yet they have beeu found scarce, as only
two have been obtained; but are now and then seen on the muddy
banks of the Harbour of Port Jackson, searching for fish, when the
tide is out, and on which, no doubt, they principally live.
4.—TETAAR JABIRU.
LENGTH five feet. Bill twelve inches long, black; irides
yellow ; round the eye a little way bare, but not so at the base of
the bill; the head, and whole ofthe neck, well clothed with feathers,
and black, with a purplish or greenish tinge in some lights ; lower
part of the neck, beginning of the back, and all beneath, white;
greater wing coverts black ; back, rump, and tail, black ; the wings
are even with the end of the tail; legs red.
In some drawings from India I observe the crown of the head to
be blue; the rest of the head and neck, lower part of the back, tail,
and greater wing coverts, fine dark green ; but the beginning of the
back, lesser wing coverts, arid all beneath, white.
These two are no doubt the saine, and inhabit India; found in
the neighbourhood of Futtehguhr, and called Tetaar; builds in the
forests, on the summits of the most lofty trees, in June, and lays
two or three eggs. In the drawings abovementioned it is named
Tin tor, or Loho Syren, but more commonly Paunch Caprea; indeed,
 ]8 JABIRU.
it is by some  confounded  with  theMaleykb,   or White-bellied;
perhaps, it approaches nearer to the one preceding,    i
In the Museum of Mr. Bullock was one olthfi. first described ; in
this I observed, that the bill was black.from the base.to th&mi^dtei
and from thence to the end red brown'; the fore part of the neck, and
breast ashwcdlour, but very pale; belly and thighs quite white.;
legs red brown.
5.-WHITE-BELLIED JABIRU.
LENGTH labqut four feet. Bill, from gape ttf^oint, eight
inches; it is/one inch and a half deep at the base, and turns a little
upwards, colour dusky horn ; irides brown; between the bill and eye
a kind of lore, and the eye itself surrounded with a broad, oblong,
rufous, flesh-coloured, bare space; the chin and under mandible are
also bare; general colour of the plumage of the head, neck, and
breast greenish brown, approaching to black; but the back inclines
more to green,. :and the wing coverts, to purple; the rest of the wing
dull, dusky green; quills black ; tail inclining- to purple, and both
of them equal in length ; the lower part of the breast, belly, thighs,
and vent white; legs pale dusky flesh-colour; the toes are blunt,
and blackish.
Inhabitsilndia.—General Hardwicke; called Maleykh, On this
the General makes the following note :—This the Denoo Birdcatcher
distinguishes>ifrom the large bird, known *by the same name, at Futtehguhr, and calls it a female; and adds, that the male is larger,
and the bill red.
Among the drawings of Mr. Dent is a bird not greatly differing.
The bill yellowish horn-colour; head and neck dusky blue; back
waved brown and dusky; wings deep brown;..wing ooverts paler;
the under parts, from the breast, brownish white, and the feathers
longish and loose; legs dusky pale blue.
We suspect this last to be a bird dw dm mature plumage.
 6.—SENEGAL JABIRU.
■   Mycteria Senegalensis, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. lxiv.
Senegal Jabiru, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 247.    Lin. Trans, v. p. 32. pl. iii.—the head.
The length of this Species, from the bill to the end of the claws,
is six feet two inches; the bill itself thirteen inches; neck fifteen;
body twelve; the naked part of the thighs four inches, the feathered
part four; knee joint one inch ; legs thirteen inches and a half; the
middle toe five inches and a half, the two outer ones four inches and
a half; all slightly connected at the base; the upper mandible is at
first very pale for three inches; the under one the same for about an
inch and a half; then a ba^tlf black for about three inches, and from
this to the tip reddish, increasing in depth of colour to the end, where
it is deep vermilion; on each side of the base of the upper mandible a
large, semi-oval, and transparent space, which, at the back part, is
continued upwards in a curved direction ; across the fore part of the
eye, over the nostrils, a bare, flattened part, somewhat in the manner
of the Common Coot, and birds of that Genus; beneath the base of
the bill, just at the beginning of the feathery part, are two very small,
pear-shaped, pendent wattles, adhering by very small necks; the
head and neck are black; scapulars the same, with whitish bases,
and'fifteen inches in length ; the remainder of the bird white; wings
and tail both wanting; the legs very long, and the thighs, to a
distance nearly equal to that of the legs itself, quite bare; the whole
leg and thigh black, except round the knee, as well as round each
joint of the toes, where there is a pale zone; the whole length of the
leg and thigh is coated with hexagonal, longitudinal scales.
This appears to be quite new, approaching somewhat to the New-
Holland Species, yet differing in several particulars. Is said to inhabit
Senegal; described from the Linncean Transactions, in which it is
mentioned at large by Dr. Shaw, from a skin of one lent to him by
the Rev. Mr. Rackett, but the wings and tail were both wanting.
 20
GENUS LXXIV.-BOAT-BILL.
||    A Var. Spott<
||    B Var. Br<
THE bill in this Genus is broad, with a keel along the middle of
the upper part, like a boat reversed.
Nostrils small, lodged in a furrow.
Tongue small.
Toes divided.
CINEREOUS BOAT-BILL.—Pl. cxliv.
Cancroma Cochlearia, Ind. Orn. iu 671.    Lin.i. 233.    Gm.Lin. i. 617.    Borowsk. iii.
106.   Mus. Lev. t. 10.   Nat. Misc. pl. 713.
Cochlearius, Bris. v. 506.    Id. 8vo. ii. 344.
Der Kahnschnabel, Schmid, Vog. '.p. 117. t. 103.
Le Savacou, Buf. vii. 443. pl. 23.    PL enl. 38.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. cii.     .
Boat-bill, Gen. Syn. v. 26. pl. 76.   Brown, III. 92.pl. 86.*i:
SIZE of a Fowl; length twenty-two inches. Bill four inches
long, and of a singular form, not unlike a boat with the keel uppermost ; or, as some think, like the bowls of two spoons, placed with
the hollow parts together; the upper mandible has a prominent
ridge at the top, and on each side of this a long channel, at the
bottom of which are the nostrils; these are oval, and situated ob»
liquely ; the general colour of the bill is dusky; in some specimens
dark brown; the parts between the bill and eye bare and dusky;
under jaw capable of distension ; from the hindhead springs a long
black crest, the feathers of which are narrow, and end in a point;
in general the middle ones are six inches in length, the others lessen
by degrees, the outer ones being not more than one inch; but in
some specimens these long crest feathers reach quite to the back ;
plumage on the forehead white; the rest pale  bluish ash-colour.
   PL.CXLTV7
B^M^M/.
  BOAT-BILL. &1
across the lower part of the neck behind is a transverse band of
brownish black, which passes forwards on each side towards the
breast, ending in a point, but does not encompass it; the fore part of
the neck and under parts bluish white, except the belly and thighs,
which are rufous; the feathers which hang over the breast are loose,
as in the Heron; the tail three inches and a half long, and the wings
reach nearly to the end of it; the leg measures three inches; and
the thigh, from its insertion to the knee, four; the middle toe two
inches and a half; the bare part above the knee one inch and a half,
the colour of the bare parts yellowish brown, claws black; the toes
connected at the base by a membrane,' Which, as in the Umbre, is
deepest in the outer one.
A.—Cochlearius ntevius, Bris. v. 508.    Id. 8vo.ii. 346.    Ind. Orn.ii. 671. jS.
Spotted Boat-bill, Gen. Syn. v. p. 27.
This differs in being varied with spots of brown.
B.—Cancroma cancrophaga, Lin. i. 233.    Gm. Lin. i. 618.     Borowsk. iii. 105. t. 56.
Ind. Orn. ii. p. 671. y.
Cochlearius fuscus, Bris. v. 509.   Id. 8vo. ii. 345.
Gallinula aquatica, Tamatia, Raii, 116. 12.    Will. 238.    Id. Engl. 318. pl. 78.
La Cuilliere brune, Buf. vii. 443.    PL enl. 869.
Brown Boat-bill, Gen. Syn. v. 28.
Size of the others. Head and crest the same; the upper parts,
instead of ash-colour, are of a pale rufous brown; tail rufous ash ;
under parts wholly of a cream-colour; bill and legs yellow brown.
I find these birds to vary very much : in the first place, the crests
are by no means of equal lengths, for the Cinereous One, mentioned
by Buffbn, had a shorter crest than the Brown Sort, but in those
which have come under my inspection, it was just the contrary.* The
bills, too, differ in colour; some are black, others brown, and in one
* One in Mr. Bullock's Museum had the head perfectly smooth, with no appearance of
a crest.
 1
22 BOAT-BILL.
it appeared to have been yellow. If I la&yjke.iailpwed-a conjecture^
it is, tj?aklfre cinereous one4 first described, sisi.the male, the plain
brown one the female, and the spotted variety a young male, and
th,at probably the cresjts^f J>Qth may be equal in the adult. In the
Pl. enlum.,.1 observe a patch of grey in the middle of the greater
wing coverts, which is not in any specimen'that I have seen; the
figure referred to in Brown, is too short and squat; that in the Hist,
des Ois. worse, though the bill and crest are well figured; but both
in the Pl. enlum. are sufficiently expressed ; and it is to be hoped,
that our representation may not give an inadequate idea of so
curious a bird, m
This species, for I include all the above under one, inhabits
Cayenne, Guiana, and Brazil, chiefly in such parts as are near the
water; where it perches on the trees, which hang over the streams;
and like the Kingsfisher, drops down on the fishes which swim
beneath.    It has been thought to live on crabs likewise   whence the
Linnsean name;
but this
is n
ot cles
ir, the
.ml. l
We are certain,
however,
thai
fish
is the
most
only food.
  I tt^T\
4
<%fU®U?
 1
npressed laterally; along each side
row, running lengthwise, about on
ge, beginning at the base, and finisl
comes to fne point of the bill, where
the nostrils are a mere slit at the be
the furrow,.and about half.jm^taii
s less.deep at the base than tb^j^ei
is there a little truncated,'aid whe
  23
GENUS LXXV.—UMBRE.
JBlLL strong, thick, compressed,   the upper mandible appearing
to be composed of several pieces.
Nostrils linear, and placed obliquely.
Toes divided, with a slight membrane at the base.
TUFTED  UMBRE.—Pl. cxlv.
Scopus Umbretta, Ind. Orn. ii. 672.    Gm.Lin.i. 618.    Bris. v. 503.   Id. 8vo. ii. 343.
Ombrette, Buf. vii. 440.    Pl. enl. 796.
Tufted Umbre, Gen. Syn. v. 30. pl. 77.    Brown, III. 90. pl.35.
SIZE of a Crow ; length twenty inches. Bill threednches and
a half long, compressed laterally; along each side of the uppe
mandible is a furrow, running lengthwise, about one-eighth of an
inch from the ridge, beginning at the base, and finishing about half
an inch before it comes to the point of the bill, where it is somewhat
bent downwards : the nostrils are a mere slit at the base, placed at a
sharp angle with the furrow, and about half.an inch in length, the
under mandible is less deep at the base than the upper, grows smaller
towards the end, is there a little truncated, and when closed, shuts
in beneath the upper one; the colour of both brown ; from the
hindhead springs a crest of loose feathers, exceedingly full, and four
inches in length ; this, as well as the whole body, is of an uniform
brown colour, most like that of the earth called Umber; rather paler
beneath, and the neck feathers palest down the shafts; wings and
tail even, the last crossed with three or four bars of deeper brown,
and tipped, for about an inch, with the same; the legs long, and the
thighs bare for two-thirds of the length; the colour of both dusky >
between the toes a membrane, about a quarter of an inch deep
 24
UMBRE.
between the middle and outer, and somewhat less between it and the
inner ; claws small, and bent.
It is probable that the bird figured in the Pl. enlmn. is a female,
as there is not the least rudiment of a crest: the tail in this bird is of
a paler brown, crossed with five narrow, darker brown bars, and
tipped with the same. That described by Brisson is also without a
crest; the bird engraved in Brown's work appears a heavy and uncouth
figure, the legs much too short, and the membranes between the toes
continued as deep as the webs of a Duck's foot. I once saw a most
perfect specimen of the male at Sir Jos. Banks's, which came from
the Cape of Good Hope ; that of Buffbn was brought from Senegal;
it is, we believe, a scarce bird. In looking over the late Mr. Bruce's
drawings, I observed this bird, very well expressed, and the name
given to it was Hermetto; I think it was met with in the course of
this Gentleman's journey into Abyssinia, but am not clear in the
circumstance.
4
sua*
 26
GENUS LXXVL—HERON.
* With the Head Crested.
1 Crowned Heron
2 Demoiselle
** The Head Bald—Cranes.
3 Siberian
4 Indian
A Var. Red-collared
B Var.
5 Common
6 Japan
7 Black-bellied
8 Gigantic
ft Javan
10 Modun
11 Hooping
12 Brown
A Var.   Indian
13 Australasian
*** With Naked Orbits-
Storks.
14 White Stork
15 Black
16 Glossy
17 American  .
18 Violet
A Var.
B Var.
C Var.
*•** With the Middle Claw
Serrated within.
1» Night Heron
20 Caledonian Night Heron
21 Chestnut
22 Darter
23 New-Holland N. H.
24 Cayenne
A Var.
B Var.
25 Yellow-crowned
26 Jamaica
27 Gardenian
28 Obscure
29 Ferruginous
30 Little Bittern
A Var.
31 Duralia B.
32 Rufous
33 Rayed
34 Minute
35 Spotted
36 Wattled Heron
37 Common
38 Ash-coloured
39 Striated
40 Lohaujung
41 Great
42 Variegated
43 Rufous
44 Great Egret
45 Great White
46 Lacteous
47 Putea
48 Pied-tail
49 Specious
50 Little
51 Little White Heron
A Var.
52 Snowy
A Var.
B Var.
53 Black-created White
54 Red-crested
E
55 Sacred
A Var.
56 Gibraltar
A Var. Caboga
57 Reddish Egret
58 Demi Egret
A Var.
59 Rusty-crowned Heron
60 Streaked
61 Bittern
62 American B.
63 Freckled Heron
64 Lentiginous
65 White-bellied B.
66 Yellow B.
67 Brazilian
68 Lineated
69 Tiger
70 Philippine Heron
71 Zigzag B.
72 Green H.
A Var.
B Var.
73 Louisiane
74 Indian Green
75 Sguacco
A Var.
76 Coromandel
77 Red-legged
A Var.
78 Squaiotta
79 Castaneous
80 Swabian B.
81 Dwarf
82 Black-backed Sguacco
83 Cinnamon
84 Blue
J
 HERON.
96 Chalybeate
97 Cocoi
98 Chinese
99 Dusky
100 Dry
101 Pacific
102 White-fronted
103 New Zealand
104 Ominous
105 Black-shouldered
106 Lepid
107 Clouded
A Var.
85 Cinereous
86 Greater Red
87 Crested Purple
88 Purple
89 African
90 Malacca
91 Senegal
92 Specious
93 Sumatran
94 Painted
95 Agami
BlRDS of this Genus have a long, strong, sharp-pointed bill.
Nostrils linear.
Tongue pointed.
Toes connected by a membrane, at least as far as the first joint;
the middle claw of the true Herons pectinated.
108 White-throated
109 Blue-headed
110 Blue-crowned
111 Yellow-winged
112 Black
113 New Guinea
114 Cracra
115 Yellow-necked
116 Scolopaceous
***** Bill gaping in the
middle.
' THE HEAD CRESTED.
1.—CROWNED   HERON.
Ardea Pavonina, Ind. Orn. ii. 672.    Lin.i. 233.    Gm. Lin.i. 619.    Borowsk. iii. 73.
t.48.   Spalowsk. ii. t.27.
Grue, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. c.
Grus Balearica, Raii, 95.    Will. 201. t.48.    Bris. v. p. 511. t. 41. female.    Id. 8vo.i.
346.    Klein, 121. III.    Gerin. iv. t. 414.    Robert, Ic. pl. 12.
Grus Capensis, Petiv. Gaz. t.26. f. 9.
L'Oiseau royal, Buf. vii. 317. pl. 16.    PL enl. 265. male.
Grue tete de negre, Ferm. Surin. ii. 150 ?
Peacock, Kolb. Cap. ii. 245. pl. 7. f. 4,
Balearic Craue, Sloan. Jam. 314.    Will. Engl. 275. pl.48.
Crowned African Crane, Edw. pl. 192.    Voy. to Guinea, 250. pl. 11.
Crowned Heron, Gen. Syn. v. p. 34.    Gent. Mag. xx. pl. p. 264.
SIZE of the Common Heron ; length two feet nine inches.    The
bill two inches and a half long, straight, and of a brownish colour-
 HERON. 27
irides grey; the crown of the head covered with soft black feathers,
like velvet; on the hind part is a tuft of hair, or rather bristles,
rising near each other at the base, and spreading out on all sides in
a globular form ; this is four inches in length, and the colour reddish
brown; the sides of the head bare of feathers, being covered only
by a fleshy membrane, reddish at the lower part, and in shape not
unlike a kidney ; on each side of the throat a kind of wattle; the
general colour of the plumage bluish ash ; the feathers on the fore
part of the neck very long, and hang over the breast; wing coverts
white, the greater ones incline to rufous, and those farthest from the
body to black; the greater quills and tail black, and the secondaries
chestnut; legs, and bare part above the joint, dusky.
The female is black, where the male is blue ash ; and the wattles
on the throat are wanting; the long feathers of the breast are also
less conspicuous.*
This beautiful bird inhabits Africa, particularly the Coast of
Guinea; common about the whole country of Ardra; a few at, and
about Acra, and several at Whidah ;f found also at Cape Verd, and
one or two occasionally seen on the Slave Coast; J supposed to inhabit
Andalusia, in Spain, but upon the doubtful testimony of some
sportsmen, whom the birds did not suffer to approach near enough to
ascertain. |j
Why the name of Balearic Crane should have been given to this
bird is not well accounted for, as it is certainly not met with in the
Islands so called at this day. From its beauty we often meet with jt
in nwr Menageries, among other foreign birds, and, with shelter at
night, will often live for some years: the chief food is said to be
worms, and such.other things as the Heron Ti$be usually feeds on;
* Whether the «Bale has any singularity in the construction of the windpipe we have not
been able to investigate ; but are informed by Mr. Thomson, that nothing occurred in a
female dissected by him, more than in the Common Heron.
t Bosman. J Brought into Europe in the 15th century, at the first
discovery ,of Africa. || Mr. White.
E 2
 |
2g                                                               HERON.
also vegetables of all kinds; is observed to sleep on one leg, and
will run very fast; it also flies well, and continues the flight tor a
longtime: the flesh of this bird is said to be tough, and not well
|
El
tasted     Mr. Barrow met with it far inwards from the Cape of Good
Hope ; for the first time near the Melk River, not far from Candeboo.
!l
2.—DEMOISELLE HERON.
[I
Ardea Virgo, Ind. Orn. ii. 673.     Lin. i. 234.     Gm. Lin. i. 619.      Borowsk. iii. 84.
tj
Gerin. iv. t. 435 ? 436.    Robert, Ic. pl. 15. 17.
tM
Grus Numidica, Bris. v. 388.    Id. 8vo. ii. 311.    Klein, 121. VI.
•Ml
La Grue de Numidie; ou Demoiselle,  Buf. th. 313. pl. 15.    Pl. enl. 241.     Dodart.
Mem, iii. p. 3. pl. 35.^*Wbdpipe.
1            r 1
Kurki, Forsk. Faun. Arab. p. 9. 4 ?
Garza de Mallorka, Madamusela, Gabin. de Madrid, i. p. 19. lam. 9.
Dancing Bird, Pococke's Travels, ii. 207.
W
Demoiselle Heron, or Numidian Crane, Gen. Syn. v. 35.   Id. Sup. iL 297.    Alb. iii.
H         |I
pl. 83.   Edw. pl. 134:   Pitf. Mem. pl. p. 204.    Phil. Trans, lvi. 210. pl. 11. p.
215.—Windpipe.    Lin. Trans, iv. 105. pl. x. f. 4—Windpipe.    Wood's Zoogr. i.
p. 517. pl. 22.
SIZE ofthe Crane; length three feet three inches.    Bill two
9
inches and a half long, straight, greenish at the base, changing to
H
yellow, with the tip red; irides crimson ; crown of the head ash-
colour ; the rest of the head, greater part of the neck behind, and all
forwards to the breast, black ; the feathers of the latter very long,
m
some of them at least nine inches, and hang loose over the adjacent
parts; the lower part ofthe neck behind, back, and wings, tail, and
all beneath bluish ash ; behind each eye springs a tuft of long white
feathers, which decline downwards,  and hang in an elegant and
graceful manner; the greater quills and tail are black at the ends,
but from the length of the second quills, which are very long, and
conceal both, are not observed, while the bird is in a quiescent state;
J'li
"""""til
the legs are long, and black.    The two sexes are much alike.
J
 HERON. 29
Inhabits both Africa and Asia. In the first is met with on the Coast
of Guinea,* but is most plentiful about Bildulgerid,f and Tripoli;
from thence along the Coast of the Mediterranean Sea, also pretty
common in Egypt.^ Is found at Aleppo, || and in the southern
plains about the Black and Caspian Seas, also seen frequently beyond
the Lake Baikal, about the Rivers Selinga and Argun, but never
ventures to the northward. It prefers marshes, and the neighbourhood of rivers, as it feeds on fish, like others of the Heron Genus.
Authors are silent concerning the nidification and manners at large;
but we know that they are frequently kept in menageries, and bear
confinement well, insomuch as to breed in that state ; for we are told,
that six were at one time in a menagerie at Versailles, and that one
of them, which had been produced there, lived twenty-four years :
it is endowed with great gentleness of manners, and sometimes puts
itself into elegant attitudes, at others into strange and uncouth ones,
especially such as imitate dancing; and Keysler mentions one in the
Duke's gallery, at Florence, which had been taught to dance to a
certain tune, when played, or sung to it. § It is called in the east,
Kurki, or Querkey.
The circumstance of the singular construction in the trachea, or
windpipe, has been noticed by authors, but not generally known.
It does not, as in most birds, go straight into the lungs, but first
enters a cavity in the keel of the breast bone, for about three inches,
when it returns, after making a bend forwards, and then passes into
the chest.
This is a common species in India, being seen with the Indian
Crane in vast flocks, on the banks of the Ganges, ^J where it is
called Curcuma, and Currakeel.
* Hist, des Ois. f The ancient Numidia. % Hasselq. Voy. p. 287.
|| Russ. Alep. p. 69. § See Trav. ii. p. 34. Called by Pococke the Dancing Bird.
See his Travels, ii. 207. f Penn. Hind. ii. 158.
 -THE HEAD  BALD.
3.—SIBERIAN CRANE.
Ardea gigautea, Ind. Orn. ii. 674.    Gm. Lin.
i. 622.
Gm
el. reise, ii. 189.
Grus leucogeranos, Pall. It. ii. 714. 30. t. I.
Georg
. rei.
se, 171.    £)ec. r
Gmel. reise, iv. p. 137.
Siberian Crane, Gen. Syn. v. 37.    Arct. Zool
Iff. 455.
C.
/d. Sup. 67.
THIS is a large bird, and four feet and a half high, when erect.
The bill like that of a Crane, but larger, and red; the edges of the
mandibles serrated near the tip; face naked beyond the eyes, rugose,
red, and sprinkled with numerous, rufous tubercles; irides white;
plumage white, except the ten first great quills, with their coverts,
which are black; the scapulars are elongated, but shorter than in
the Crane; tail of twelve feathers, nearly even at the end; legs
long, and red.
In old birds, the hind part of the neck is yellowish, but in those
of the first year, wholly of an oker colour, with the nice, bill, and
legs of a greenish brown.
Inhabits the vast marshes and lakes in Siberia, especially about
the Ischim, and along the Rivers Ob and Irtish, and on the borders
of the Caspian Sea; makes the nest among the reeds, seldom accessible by man, upon rising, green, grassy tufts, composed of herbs
and grass heaped up together; the eggs ash-coloured, the size of
those of a Goose, and spotted with Jbrown; they are shy birds, always
on their guard against an enemy, and said to have an advanced
sentinel, to warn them of an approach, and on the least alarm cry
aloud, in the manner of the Swan, and fly off directly; hence it is
lib
 HERON. 31
difficult to get within gunshot, for as they stand nearly five feet high
from the ground, they are enabled to see any one at a great distance.
The sportsman, therefore, is obliged to use every art to effect his
purpose; sometimes under cover of a stalking horse, or other object;
at other times a small dog will divert their attention, which they will
attack withoufr&ar, while his master gets within reach of gunshot:
in breeding time are more bold, and will defend their young even
against men, so as to make it dangerous to come near their haunts.
The male and female said to guard the nest alternately ; the food is
chiefly small fish, frogs, lizards, &c. The summer residence is in
the more northern parts, coming there in spring, departing southward in autumn, probably wintering about the Caspian Sea, and the
parts beyond; always flying in pairs,   ft
A bird similar to this, if not the same, is often seen on Chinese
hangings ; I have likewise met with it in some private drawings of
Chinese birds, and is there called Tzew-ting-ha; the Russians know
it by the name of Sterchi.
4.—INDIAN CRANE.
Ardea Antigone, Ind. Orn. ii. 674.    Lin. i. 235.    Gm. Lin. i. 622.
Grus orientalis Indica, Bris. v. 378.   Id. 8vo. »i. 308.   Klein, 121. V.   Gerin. iv. t. 417.
Indian Crane, Gen. Syn. v. 38.   Id. Sup. 282,   Id. Sup. ii. 298.   Edw. pL 45.   Petm.
Hind. ii. 158.
THIS is also a large Species, standing five feet high. Bill
greenish yellow, dusky at the tip, nostrils pervious ; irides bright
reddish hazel; crown of the head bare and white; on each side of
the head, about the ears, a bare white spot; the rest of the head, and
a small part ofthe neck, covered only with a fine red skin; plumage
in general ash-colour, paler about the neck; the quills black; secondaries and tail ash-colour; those nearest the body pointed at the
ends, longer than the quills, and hang over them; the legs, and
bare space above the knees, are red; claws white; the middle and
outer toe connected by a membrane as far as the first joint.
 32 HERON.
Inhabits the East Indies, also the Mongolian Deserts, from
whence it migrates into that part of the Russian Dominions, which
lies beyond the Lake Baikal; keeping chiefly within the plains
below the Rivers Onon and Argun, which are the western extremity
of the Gobean Plain. It is very common in great flocks north of
Calcutta; is called in India, Saroos. In some drawings of Sir J.
Anstruther, the dimensions are set down as follow: from the tip of
the bill to the top of the skull, eight inches; from the last to the
breast, one foot seven inches; round the neck ten inches; from the
breast to the end ofthe tail, two feet; from the sole ofthe foot to the
top of the skull, four feet seven inches.
This is also well represented in Lord Mduntnorris's drawings,
where it is called Sawrace; found in Oude.
-Grue a Collie
Syn. v. p. 39.
Buf.v
. 307.   Pl. enl. 865.     Ind. On
Length four feet three inches and a half. Bill long, black; the
head and half the neck covered only with a reddish white down ;
round the middle of the neck a collar of red; the lower part of the
neck, and the'rest of the body bluish ash-colour; on the rump a
tuft of flowing feathers, which hang over the ends of the wings and
tail, as in the Common Crane ; tail black ; legs dusky.
Inhabits the East Indies.
B—Indian Crane, Var. B.
Gen. Syn. Sup. i
This differs from the others, in having the bill and fore part of
the crown yellowish; lore, and space round the top of the neck,
bare, and crimson; irides pale orange; chin and throat beset with
black bristles; general colour of the plumage dull pale blue; quills
and tail black ; legs and bare part of the thighs black, dotted with
white.—Inhabits New-Holland.
 33
5.—COMMON CRANE.
Ardea grus, Ind. Orn. ii. 674.    Lin. i. 234.     Faun. Suec. No. 161'.    Gm. Lin. i. 620.
Scop. i. No. 122.    Brun. p. 47.    Midler, p. 22.    Kramer, p. 345.     Frisch, t. 194.
Bris. v. 374. t. 33.    Id. Svo.ii. 307.    i?<m, 95. A. 1.    0W.200. t. 48.    Gerin.iv.
t.415.   .fiV«n, 121. I.    Id. Ov. 23. p. 17. f. 1.    Faun. Arag. 76.    Boroiw/fc. iii. 82.
.Fawn. f/e/KCf.    Besch. Berl. Nat. iv. 586. t. 16. Bloch.
Grus cinerea, Tern. Man. 346.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 558.
La Grue, Buf. vii. 287. pl. 14.     Pl. enl. p. 769.     iVafwr/. xiii. s. 202.    Schmid, Vog.
p. 112. t. 98.
Common Crane, Gen. Syn. v. p. 40.    Id. Sup. ii. 298.     Br. Zool. ii. App. 629. pl. 6.
Id. Ed. 1812. ii. p. 17. pl. 2.    Arct. Zool. ii. 453. A.    Will. Engl. p. 274. pl. 48.
Ko/b. Cap. ii. 141.    Archceol. i. p. 171.    ^/6in, ii. pl. 65.     Rus. Alep, 69.    PAi/.
TVawj. xxvii. 464?    Jd. lvi. 208. 215.  pl. 11. f. 4. the windpipe.    Lin. Trans.iv.
107. pl. xii. f.4. windpipe.    Bewick, ii. pl. p. 29.    Lewin, iv. pl. 143.    Walcot,ii.
pl. 124.    Orw. Die*. 4- Swpp.    ^ood'* Zoogr. i. p. 512.
THIS is a large bird, at least five feet in length, and weighs ten
pounds. Bill four inches and a quarter long, and greenish black;
the forehead, to the middle of the crown, covered with black down
or hairs; the hind part bare and red, with a few scattered hairs; on
the nape, below this, a bare space of two inches, and ash-coloured;
sides of the head, behind the eyes, and the neck behind, white;
between the bill and eyes, beneath them, and fore part of the neck,
blackish ash-colour; lower part of the neck and the rest of the body
fine ash-colour, deepest on the tail coverts; the greater wing coverts
blackish ; and those farthest from the body, with the bastard wing
and quills, black; from the pinion of each wing springs an elegant
tuft of loose feathers, curled at the ends, which may be erected at
will, but in a quiescent state hang over, and cover the tail; legs
black.    Male and female much alike.
This species seems far spread, being met with in great flocks
throughout Northern Europe and Asia, in Sweden, Russia in general,
Siberia, as far as the River Anadyr, migrating even to the Arctic
 34 HERON.
Circle. In Kamtschatka they are only on the Southern Promontory;*
are migratory, returning north to breed in the spring, and generally
choosing the same places occupied by them the season before, f In
the winter, inhabit the warmer regions, as Egypt, Aleppo,§ India,
&c.; likewise met with at the Cape of Good Hope, changing place
with the season. In their migrations often fly so high as riot to be
visible, their passing only known by the noise they make, being
louder than any other bird.|| In Spain inbabikihe marshes on the
sides of the Rivers Palmonas and Guadaranque in the summer,
departing again in winter. In France are seen in spring and autumn,
but for the most part, are only passengers. Not indigenous to Rome,
as Horace mentions " Advenam Gruem.?,*# Willughby says, "they
" come often to us in England; and in the fenny countries in Lincoln-
" shire and Cambridgeshire there are great flocks of them," tt though
at present they are not more known there than in other parts of the
kingdom : they were used at table here as early as the Norman
ConqueStj'tJ and at various intervals between that, and the time
of King Henry VIII.; the citizens of London, presenting him,
among other things, with twelve Cranes.§§ In 1500, three living
ones were valued at five shillings, |||| and twelve years after, they
fetched one shilling and four-pence each  when dead ;|||||| but at the
* Arct. Zool. One of the supposed reasons was the want of frogg, toads, and serpents;
none being found in Kamtschatka,—Hist. Kamtschatka. They have, howejr*^ ,plenty of
hzards. f Amcen. ac. iv. 589.
§ Russ. Alepp. p. 69.
|| Supposed to arise from, the -singular.eonformation of the windpipe, entering far into
the bone, which has a great cavity to receive it, and being there thrice reflected* goes out
again at the same hole, and so turns down to the lungs—Will. 274. pl. 48. The above
structure not very unlike that of the Parraqua Pheasant.
** Epod. ii. 1. 39—Willughby met-witJii«fciA at Rome, in the winter season.
tt Sometime, of course, prior to 1678, when his book was written
XX Dugd. Baron, i. p. 109. §§ HaU. Qhron. fol. clxv
IIH Gent. Mag. 1768. 259.    An Appraismt. Temp. vii. of Thos. Kebell
\\\\\\ Nor thumb. Househ. Book.
 HERON. 35
great feast of Archbishop Nevill, Edward IV. there were no less
than 204 Cranes, and 400 Heronshaws, among other things} serving
to shew, they were about half as plentiful as the Heron.
At the present day it is very rarely met with in England ; three
or four times only have occurred in my memory, viz.r^rOnce shot near
Cambridge; once on the Kentish coast, communicated by the late
Mr. Boys; a third near BurhaniP\)h the shores of the Med way, in
January 1794, mentioned to me by Sir Wmi°B?s'hop ; and a fourth,
which 'Halts' dependence on more slight authority.* A few years
since a i^air* fiV&k appeared in harvest, at Tingwall, iri'^etland,
one of wnieh was shot.f The structure of the Windpipe in this bird
is singularly curious, somewhat in the manner of the Wild Swan,
but is ddfiWly reflected, as may be seen in the figure referred to in the
Philosophical Transactions, as also in those ofthe Linnaean Society.
We are told, that they make'the nest in the marshes, and lay two
bluish eggs; they feetl'on reptiles of all kinds, and on green corn,
of which last ;f8re^ are very fond, and make so great havock, as to
ruin the farmers, wherever the flbicks of them alight. The young
birds are thought very good food.
In Lord Mountnorris's drawings one, called Koolung, seems to
partake of this, and the Japan Crane; general colour of plumage
ash-colour, not white, but the ends of the feathers which hang over
the tail, are black a good way up the shafts.
* Orn. Diet. Sup.    These were observed to feed on corn.
f In the year 1696, in the month of May,ftSame into Cardiganshire, two strange birds,
which, by the description, seemed to be Cranes, PhiL Trans, xxvii. 464. Much information
may also be gained concerning the Crane, in Archceol. ii. p. 171. In a curious Memoir, by
the Rev. Mr. Pegge, thought to have been in sufficient plenty in 1605 ; as they are merely
said to be in season from November to May. See Archceol. xiii. p. 141. &c. It is here
mentioned in the Northumberland Household Book, p. 534. that the price of one was sixteen pence; whereas, a Peacock was at no more than twelve pence.
 36
6—JAPAN  CRANE.
Grus Japonensis, Bris. v. 381.    Id. 8i
Spalowsk. iii. t. 26.    Johnst. Av.
Japan Crane, Gen. Syn. v. 42.
>. ii. 309.   Klein, 121. IV.    Ind. On
pl. 54. f. 4.
SIZE and shape of the Common Crane. Bill and legs dull
green ; the upper part of the head covered with a red skin, sprinkled
with a few bristly feathers; fore part ofthe neck black; behind, and
the rest of the plumage in general, white, except the greater quills,
which are black ; some of the secondaries pointed at the tips, and so
long as almost to reach the end of the tail.
Inhabits Japan. This bird is frequently seen in Chinese paintings, and paper hangings, as well as on porcelain; in all these the
loose feathers, which hang over the tail, are black. It also appears
to vary in other respects; for in the fine drawings of Lady Impey,
both the crown, as well as the neck before, are black; body and
wings white; and the long incurvated feathers on the rump ash-
coloured, tipped with black. In other drawings, in possession of
the late Mr. Pigou, the crown is red; it is named Chuting-nock :
Chu-ting means a red crown, and Nock the name of the bird.
In the drawings of Sir J. Anstruther, I find a fine Variety. The
bill dusky flesh-colour; plumage in general a delicate, bluish white;
between the bill and eye, forehead, as far as the crown, black; chin
and fore part of the neck deep slate-colour; nape the same; between
this and the black on the crown, numerous red papillae, the part
appearing bare; the back and wings have a greater mixture of blue
in the feathers; tail short, white; the outer ridge ofthe wing black;
part of the second quills and tail coverts very long, inclined to pale
ash, and marked at the ends with black, beginning down the shaft,
and growing wider to the tips, which are wholly black: these fall
over the quills and tail in a state of rest,
stout, and black.
and hide both ; the legs
 HERON. 37
Inhabits India, called Colong; is reputed a Variety of the
Saroos; in Lord Mountnorris's drawings called Koolung.
We have formerly been of opinion, that the birds called by Fryer,
Colum, and Serass, might mean the Whistling and Mute Swans, which
are well known to differ essentially in the conformation ofthe Sternum
and Trachea; but from later information we are led to believe, that
they mean no other than Common and Indian Cranes, the latter of
these being called in India, Sawrace and Serass, and corrupted by
some into Cyrus;* the former known by the name of Colong and
Koolung—sliding equally easy into Colum, as Fryer spells it.
7.—BLACK-BELLIED INDIAN CRANE.
SIZE large; length uncertain. Bill pale brown ; crown of the
head, as far as the middle, crimson ; from thence to the nape black,
and finishing in a point; between the bill and eye bare and crimson,
passing beneath the eye, and beyond it as a streak ; the rest of the
head and breast white, marked on the last with large, black spots;
belly, thighs, and vent black; back, wings, and tail dusky blue,
or lead-colour; quills black, and reach to the end of the tail, which
is to be seen at all times, as there are no scapulars long enough, as
in others, to obscure it; legs long, and yellowish ; above the joint,
for three-fourths of the length, bare; the rest, next the body,
feathery, and black ; claws black.
* The Cyrus seen in very large flights on the sands, in great rivers, and in shallow jeals;
their scream very shrill and loud, and in a still night may be heard two or three miles off:
serves for the purpose of falconry, and chased by a Hawk called Behree,* and often a fierce
battle arises between them, but the Hawk is mostly victorious, by getting above the Cyrus
while in the air, when seizing the latter by the head, both fall together to the ground...
Oriental Field Sports, V. ii. p. 68. This Hawk is also sent in pursuit of the Monickjoor,f
Currakeel,J or any of the larger, aquatic birds.
* See Vol. i. p. 175.
f Violet Her
I Demoiselle.
 38
HERON.
Inhabitslndia; said to frequent the snowy moutfttfiiis of JSiiriha^ur;
weight one sareawdia»»e%hth^nOTiabout two pounds and w quarter.
In the drawmg,>fromwhicte«the above is^deseribed, (rttecwMed in the
Persi*m££$au*u^rifthafsaid to be a Variety of the Saroos.
8.—GIGANTIC CRANE.-mP3A'Cxlvi.
Ardea Argala, Ind. Orn. ii. 676.
Ardea dubia, Gm. Lin. i. 624. '
ArgilJ, or Hurgilk\**tes, Voy. 183,   View of HkuhottifoASm lit
Boorong Combing, Booring oolor, Marsd. Sumat. p/98.
Gigantic Crane, Gen. Syn. v. 45.   Id. Sup. 232. pl. 115.
THIS seems to be the largest of the Heron Trofee-,. expanding,
from the tip of one wing to that of the other, fourteen feet ten inches ;*
from otbe 'point of the bill to the claws, seven feet and a half;
and wben-istanding erect is five feet high. The bill of a vast size,
sharp-pointed, compressed on the sides, of a yellowish white, or
horn-Colour, and opens-very far back into the head; the nostrils a
slit high up, near the base, at wfaich part it is sixteen inches in
circumference; the Whole head and neck are naked, the front yellow;
fore part of the neek^the same, but more dull; the hind part of the
neck redj-with here and there a warty excrescence, mixed with a few
straggling hairs, curled at the ends; on the lower part of the neck
before is a conical, large pouch, appearing inflated, like a bladder,
greatly elongated, hanging over the breast, atfd-sparingly beset with
short down, with a tuft of long hairs at the bottom; the upper part
of the back and shoulders furnished with white, downy feathers; the
back itself and wing coverts deep bluish ash-colour: second wing
coverts white on the outer web; second quills dusky brown; prime
quills and tail deep blackish lead-colour; the latter ten inches long,
* One, which was living i
expanse of wing, but it v
a Menagerie in England for some years, had only fourteen feet
lupposed not to be a full grown bird.
  lalf;
 f
  «ERoN. 39
consisting of tWefve>felattfe^sV{and very? little longer than the end of
ftae;quills, when the-bvfthfc&ftrest; the featheK of the sides, beneath
the wings, and those of the vent and under tail cOVerfe; are long and
downy, some of them nearly twelve inches; these, as well as the
breast and belly, are dusky white? legs long and black, naked far
above the knees, and very scaly; toes webbed at the base, and the
claws blunt.
This monster, as Ives not improperly calls it, inhabits Bengal,
as also Calcutta; at the last called Hurgill, or Argill; it stalks
majestically, and appears at first like a naked Indian. The common
opinion is, that the souls of the Bramins possess these birds, and they
are thought invulnerable; for when Mrrf Ves missed his shot at several,
the standers by observed with great satisfaction, that he might shoot
to eternity, and never succeed. It is found in Sumatra, and the Eastern
Islands, but no where so common as at Bengal.
It generally arrives before the rainy season comes on, and is called
Argala, or Adjutant;* also Bangou Sula, Burong Kambing, and
Burong Gaja ^likewise, from its immense gape, it has obtained the
name of Large Throat, and from its swallowing bones, the Bone-
eater, or Bone-taker: it is a most voracious bird, for on opening one,
a terapin, or land tortoise, ten inches long, was found in the craw,
and a large male black cat, entire, in the stomach-.f It is allowed
by all to be a most necessary animal, as it collects vermin from every
quarter, such as snakes, lizards, frogs, and other noxious reptiles;
and its si&ef requiring a large supply, it proves a most useful inhabitant, which the natives every where acknowledge, by holding it in
great estimation. I find that the downy long feathers of the vent, &c.
have for some time past been made use 0$ in the manner of those of
the Ostrich, in the head dresses of the ladies, to which purpose they
* It is thought, when looked on in front, or at a distance, to resemble a man having on
a white waistcoat and breeches.
f A description of the solvent glands of this voracious animal, by Sir Everard Home,
Bart, in the Philosophical Transactions, 1813. p. 77.
 40 HERON.
seem well adapted, being of the most delicate texture, and floating
with every breath of wind,* but hitherto have not been in sufficient
plenty to become common.
I am obliged to the late Mr. Smeathman for several observations
made on this bird during his residence at Sierra Leona, in Africa.
After saying, that an adult will often measure full seven feet; he
adds, that the head, covered with white down, thinly dispersed,
appears not unlike a grey-headed man, and his description corresponds
with what is before said; also, that they are met with in companies;
and when seen at a distance, near the mouths of rivers, coming
towards an observer, which they often do with their wings extended,
may well be taken for canoes, upon the surface of a smooth sea;,
when on the sand banks, for men and women picking up shell-fish,
or other things on the beach. One of these, a young bird, about
five feet high, was brought up tame, and presented to the Chief of
the Bananas, where Mr. Smeathman lived; and being accustomed to
be fed in the great hall, soon became familiar, duly attending that
place at dinner time, placing itself. behind its master's chair, frequently before the guests entered; the servants were obliged to watch
narrowly, and to defend the provisions with switches, but, notwithstanding, it would frequently snatch something or other, and once
purloined a whole boiled fowl, which it swallowed in an instant. Its
courage is not equal to its voracity, for a child, of eight or ten years
old, soon puts it to flight with a switch, though at first it seems to
stand on its defence, by threatening with its enormous bill, widely
extended, and roaring with a loud hoarse voice, like a bear or tiger.
Is an enemy to small quadrupeds, as well as birds and reptiles, and
slyly destroys Fowls and Chicken, though it dares not attack a Hen
with her young openly. Every thing is swallowed whole, and so
accommodating is its throat, that not only an animal as big as a cat
is gulped down, but a shin of beef, broken asunder, serves it but for
e lightness, fr(
gth, and seven
in breadth, and only
 HERON. 41
two morsels; known to swallow a leg of mutton of five or six pounds,
a hare, also a small fox, &c.: after a time the bones are rejected from
the stomach, which seems to be voluntary, for it has been known,
that an ounce or more of emetic tartar, given to one of these birds,
produced no effect.*
I observe this very singular bird in various drawings done in
India; and it appears subject to some Variety from sex or age: in
one the bill seems rather bent, the eye placed in the base of it, surrounded with dusky mottlings; head and neck bare, red; pouch as
usual, with here and there a short bristle ; on the top and back of
the head and neck sprinkled with hairs, and at intervals a narrow,
short, black feather : at the beginning of the back a kind of white
ruff of down, falling on each side over the edge of the wing ; the
rest of the plumage black; under parts dusky white; legs long,
stout, white, marked with numerous dusky spots ; claws black.
In another, the bill is very pale; the head and neck wholly
covered with short down, longer at the back of the neck and nape
and mixed with black streaks; the pouch before just visible, but
contracted, and furnished with long, undulated, dusky, downy hairs;
a larger downy ruff of white, and all the under parts white; the
rest black.
This last seems to be a young bird. I remark in one of the
drawings, that the bill of a full grown bird is said to measure seventeen inches in length, and that it is equally fond of putrid carcases
as the Vulture, for groups of both mix together over a dead animal,
never leaving it till they have completely picked the bones/f One
of the names given to it is Samcool.
* Oriental Field Sports, i. p. 100.
■f Lord Mountnorris, after mentioning the amazing flocks of Kites and Crows, which
cover the houses and gardens at Calcutta, and subsist on the remains ofthe great profusion
of food there dressed, and which the prejudices ofthe natives prevent their touching; adds,
that in the profession of scavengers, the Kites and Crows are assisted during the day by .the
Adjutant Bird, and at night by the Foxes, Jackals, and Hyaenas, from the neighbouring
jungles.—Valent. Travels, i. 510.
 42
-JAVAN CRANE.
p. 188.—Hoi
THIS is a large bird, and when standing upright, measures five
feet from the head to the ground ; bill eleven inches long; the body
is black, with a gloss of olive, beneath whitish; crown bare; neck
covered only with a kind of down, mixed with a few hairs; a broad
band of glossy brown passes the wing transversely.
Inhabits the Island of Java, called there Bangu ; it seems much
allied to the Gigantic Species.
10.—MODUN CRANE.—Pl. cxlvii.
LENGTH four feet two inches to the end of the tail, which
measures eleven inches and a half; the toes extend one foot three
inches and a half beyond the tail, and the wings, when closed, are
nearly even with it. Bill nine inches long, straight, sharp-pointed,
and somewhat compressed, of a pale dirty green, inclining above to
red; the two mandibles do not shut exactly, but diverge somewhat
in the centre; nostrils very narrow, almost obliterated 5 crown of the
head nearly a bave bone, covered only by its periosteum, of a dirty
green, colour; head reddish;  the neck dirty yellow, both Covered
Dr. Buchanan, after describing the Idol at Juggernaut, worshipped by the Hindoos*,,
I the natives, at Tanjore, and which, at certain times, is drawn on wheels, along the
eets, on an excessively ponderous machine, mentions the frequency of pilgrims and
gious devotees flingmg themselves under it, in order to meet the most welcome and
>py death, by being crushed beneath its wheels. He observes, there are four animate
hbe& seen devouring these hu-mftti•vietimS-r-the Dog, Jackal, "Vu-lts&rty
Id Hurgeela, called also Adjutant, or GiganthrCrane. The dogs and. Vultures fi«ft
both-feedings a carcase together, in which She? are joined by the Adjutant, sous
i no trace of the human frame but the bones.—Restfarthes tivisMi 18I3>V-lS4i-.':
 'X(2ratfid2
  HERON. 43
with a white down ; on the nape is a crest of loose, blackish feathers,
which diverge in all directions; the skin on the under part of the
neck is loose, but has no fleshy bag, or appendix; the feathers on
the back and rump black, with a gloss of green, and have obscure
palish, transverse bars; those on the under parts and sides are white,
with some black feathers round the base of the neck ; lesser wing-
coverts like those of the back, the greater with a tinge of brown;
under coverts dirty black; quills black, with a green gloss; the tail
rounded, colour as the quills; under coverts with beautiful, strong,
white down, almost as long as the tail feathers ; legs and feet obscure
bluish black, the middle claw not serrated.
This is the Modun Tiky of the Bengalese, and is frequently
confounded with the Argala, to which it has, in many points, a
strong resemblance, but it is abundantly distinct, and never frequents
villages near towns, but lives in the marshes and lakes, where it
catches fish and crabs. Modun Tiky implies, that the hair of the
head is beautiful as Cama, the son of Chrisna : Cama is supposed to
be a Deity of exceeding beauty, and hence every thing of that nature
is called Modun, which is one of his names. It is, however, from
irony, that the natives apply the name to this teird, as in fact every
part of it, especially the head, is remarkably ugly.**
I see this Species clearly distinguished from the Argala in the
drawings of Sir John AnstPether, where it is observed, that it is the
bird from which the Cotiamercolly feathers are got; no doubt meaning
the under tail coverts, as before mentioned, as both the last birds
«ftirnish them equally.
Sir T. Stamford Raffles mentions a small Variety of the Argala,
with nearly black back and wings, whieh no doubt is this bird.f
 44
11.—HOOPING CRANE.
Ardea Americana, Ind. Orn. ii. 675.    Lin.i. 234.    Gm. Lin.i. 621.
Ardea Americana, or Whooping Crane, Amer. Orn. viii. pl, 64. f. 3.
Grus Americana, Bris. v. 382.    Id. 8vo. ii. 309.
Grue blanche d'Amerique, Buf. vii. 308.    PL enl. 889.
Grus clamator, Great Whooping Crane, Bartram, Tr. p. 290.
Hooping Crane, Gen. Syn. v. 42.     Arct. Zool. No. 339.     Id. Sup. p. 66.    Gates.
Car. i. pi. 75.   Edw. pl. 132.    Phil. Trans, lxv. 409.
LENGTH four feet and a half, and to the end of the claws five
feet seven inches. Bill six inches long, toothed at the edges, near
the end, and of a yellow brown colour; the top of the head, and
under the eyes, covered with a red skin, beset with black hairs,
which are so thick next the bill, as to appear nearly black, and end
in a point below the ears; behind the crown, on the nape, a triangular black mark; the general colour of the plumage is white,
except the bend of the wing, which is pale rose-colour; the nine
first quills are black ; the tenth black and white; the rest white;
legs and bare part of the thighs black; on the rump the feathers
are tufted, and hang curving downwards, as in the Common Crane.
Inhabits various parts of America, breeding in the northern, and
retiring southward, in autumn ; arrives at Hudson's Bay in May;
chiefly met with in unfrequented places, in the neighbourhood of
lakes, where it breeds: the nest made on the ground, composed of
grass and feathers; the female lays two white eggs, dike those of
a Swan, and sits twenty days. This bird has a loud, long note,
which may be heard at a great distance ; the food, chiefly worms
and insects, which it searches for at the bottoms of ponds. The
natives call it Wapaw-uchechauk :* how far south it proceeds is not
certain, but it appears in spring, about the mouths of Savanna,
Aratamaha, and other rivers of St. Augustine, going north to breed,
and returning in autumn.
Hutchins
 45
12.—BROWN CRANE.
Ardea Canadensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 675.    Lin. i. 234.    Gm. Lin. i. 620.
Grus freti Hudsonis, Bris. v. 385.    Id. 8vo. ii. 310.    Gerin. iv. t. 416.
Grus pratensis, Great Savanna Crane, Bartr. Tr. pp. 144. 199. 291. 218.
Grus Canadensis, Frankl. Narr. App. p. 685.
La Gruebrune, Buf. vii. 310.
Blue Crane, Phil. Trans. Ixii. p. 409.
Brown Crane,   Gen. Syn. v. p. 43.     Id. Sup. ii. 299.     Arct. Zool. No. 340.    Edw.
pl. 133.
SMALLER than the last; length three feet three inches; weight
seven pounds and a half. Bill nearly four inches, and dusky; the
tip of the under mandible flesh-colour; the top of the head covered
with a red skin, thinly beset with hairs; cheeks and throat whitish;
hindhead and neck cinereous; upper part of the back, scapulars,
and wing coverts, pale rufous, margined with brown ; the lower and
rump cinereous; breast, belly, thighs, and sides, ash-colour, changing
to white at the vent; greater wing coverts, farthest from the body,
blackish brown ; those nearest the body grey, forming a band on the
wing; the greater quills dark brown, with white shafts ; the secondaries pale rufous; some of the last long, and narrow, and reach
beyond the greater quills; tail deep ash-colour; legs and bare part
of the thighs black ; length of the leg seven inches ; of the leg and
thigh nineteen.     Male and female much alike.*
Inhabits America, migrating from north to south like the Hooping Crane : comes into Hudson's Bay in May, and has the same
manners as the last; is fond of corn, and sometimes occasions much
damage, by eating the maize : is called at Severn River the Blue
Crane; by the natives  Samak-uchechauk.     The female lays two
* Dr. Forster mentions one being sent to England, in which the plumage was more
dull, and the last row of white eoverts of the wing wanting; and this he suspected to be
the female. The author of the American Ornithology thinks this to be the young of the
last species.
 eggs, of a dusky white, marked with blotches of brown, for one-
third at the larger end, the smaller rather pointed; they form the
nests by collecting together, on an eminence, a heap of dry grass,
or such like material, nearly as high as the belly is from the ground;
and when they cover the eggs, for the purpose of hatching them, they
stand over this eminence, bearing their bodies and wings upon the
eggs; in this imitating the Flamingo, and, perhaps, many other
long-legged water birds: the male watchfully traverses, backwards
and forwards, at a small distance, during the time of the female's
sitting, but we are not certain whether he takes his turn or not. This
species frequents the pine'woods; in'Georgia, chiefly near the sides of
ponds, and is called the Sandhill Crane.
Mr. Bartram makes the above to be considerably larger than our
description; his words are, "this bird is about six feet in length,
" from the toes to the extremity of the beak when extended, and the
" wings expand eight or nine feet; it is above five feet high when
" standing erect," &c. : and in another place, talking of their regular
and elegant evolutions in the air, in flowing language, he adds, that
" when these birds move their wings in flight, their strokes are slow,
" moderate, and regular; and even, when at a considerable distance,
" or high above us, we plainly hear the quill feathers, their -shafts
" and webs upon one another creak as the joints or working of a
" vessel in a tempestuous sea." The flesh is by some thought tolerably
good, but is much esteemed when made into soup, and is then
said to be excellent.
Mr. Abbot says, they frequent pine woods in pairs, or small companies, when they fly high; their note is allowed to be a^mof
clear and cold weather; their*flesh reckoned, by some, good eatn%l
 47
A.—Grus Mexicana, Ind, Orn. ii. 676.    Bris. v. 380.    Id. 8vo. ii. 309.
Grus Indica, Raii, 95. 2.    Will. 201.    _K7«»i, 121. II.
Grue brune du Mexique, Buf. vii. 312.
Indian Crane,  Will. Engl. 275.
This is smaller than ours, and the bill straight, narrow, and longer
in proportion ; nostrils oblong; irides yellow; plumage ash-colour,
similar to the European Crane, but the greater quills are black ; the
secondaries are ash-colour, long, and pointed, and reach to the end
of the quills when the wing is closed ; the tail consists of twelve
feathers, and ash-colour. According to Willughby, (who seems to
have seen the bird), the chief difference from the Common Crane is,
that the top of the bead, from the bill to the crown, is bare of
feathers, only set with hairs, rough skinned, and of a red colour.
Inhabits Mexico, and there called Toquil-coyotl, and Cocea-
yauhqui.
13.-AUSTRALASIAN CRANE.
THIS is said to be of a large size. Bill long, straight, yellow;
top of the head bald, and of a yellowish white : between the bill and
eyes, and all round the rest of the head, to below the nape, fine
crimson, carunculated, and furnished on the chin and throat with
long black hairs, thickly set; irides yellow ; plumage in general fine
pale blue ash-colour, nearly white; greater quills and tail black, the
last very short; the legs are long and black, segments every where
white, or otherwise mottled black and white.
Inhabits New-Holland.—Mr. Francillon.
 STORKS,   WITH NAKED ORBITS.
14.—WHITE STORK.
Ardea Ciconia, Ind. Orn. ii. 676.   Lin. i. 235.   Faun. suec. No. 162.    Gm. Lin. i. 622.
Scop. i. No. 123.    Frisch, t. 196.    Brun. No. 154.     Muller, p. 22.    Faun. arag.
p. 76.     Raii, 97. A. 1.     Will. 210. t. 52.     Schcef. t. 26.     Bris. v. 365.   t. 32.
Jd.8vo. ii. 305.    Klein, Av. 125.     Id. Ov. 34. t. 17. f. 2.     Borowsk. iii. 78. 1.
Faun. Helv.    It. Poseg. p. 25.    Gerin. iv. t. 434.    Gesn. Av. pl. in p. 230.    Tern.
Man. d'Orn. 358.   Id. Ed. ii. 561.
ne blanche, Buf. vii. 253. pl. 12.    Pl. enl. 866.    Hist. Prov> i. p. 348.    Voy. en
Barb. 276.    Robert, Ic. pl. 7. & 13.   Johnst. Av. pl. 50. f. 1. 2.
Der weisse Storch, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. s. 48.    Schmid, Vog. p. 116. t. 101.
White Stork, Gen. Syn. v. 47.    Id. Sup. 234.    Arct. Zool. ii. 455. C.   Hasselq. Voy.
p. 32.      Will. Engl. 286.   pl. 52.     Albin, ii.  pl. 64.     Ives, Voy.   pp. 299. 307.
/Vyer, 7Yay. 251.      Russ. Alep. 69.      Bewick, ii, p. 32.      JLcwiw, iv.   pL 144.
JFafcof, Birds, ii. pl. 125.    Orn. Diet. Sf Supp.    Wood's Zoogr. i. p. 519. pl. 23.
LENGTH three feet three inches. Bill seven inches and three
quarters long, and of a fine red colour; the plumage in general
white, except the orbits of the eyes, which are bare, and blackish ;
some ofthe scapulars, the greater wing coverts, and quills, are black ;
the skin, legs, and bare part of the thighs are red.* There is little
or no difference in the sexes.
This familiar species inhabits various parts of the Old Continent,
but avoiding alike the extremes of heat and cold, being never met
with between the Tropics, or seen, except very rarely, more north
than Sweden, or in Russia, beyond the 58th degree: it never frequents Siberia, though sometimes seen in Bucharia, where it makes
* The bill and legs are sometimes brown ; such a Variety I once saw in the collection
of that well-informed Naturalist, the late Marmaduke Tunstall, Esq. to whom I owe many
communications in Ornithology.
 HERON. 4Q
its nest; tending towards the south in autumn, to pass the winter in
Egypt * In Lorraine, Alsace, and particularly in Holland, they
are every where seen on the tops of houses, and the good-natured
inhabitants generally provide boxes for them to make their nests
in; this they not only do, but are especially careful that the birds
suffer no injury, resenting it as done to themselves: are singularly
favoured at the Hague, and Amsterdam, where they are seen stalking
in the markets, perfectly tame, picking up offal, and garbage, about
the fish stalls; and have sheltered places appropriated to their use.
As to England, it must be called a rare bird, as but few instances
have occurred, of its being found here at large.
Willughby mentions one being shot in Norfolk ; and Albin a
second in Middlesex: in 1784, one was found dead on the shore, at
Sandwich Bay; and in the winter of 1785, another, shot at South-
fleet, in Kent. In the beginning of the winter 1789, a farmer, of
Downton, near Salisbury, killed a Stork; and in May 1800, one
was shot near Sandwich, by Mr. Boys. We have heard of some
other instances, but not having put them on paper, can say no
further. In the colder parts of France, they are in much less plenty
than towards the south ; frequent in Spain ; and in no place, more
so than Seville;\ common at Aleppo, and said to have two broods
in a year—the first towards the north ; the second in the warmer
* At Alexandria, aud other parts of Egypt, as also throughout Turkey, they are in the
highest degree esteemed ; and if a Christian should kill one, he would run much hazard of
. his life; and the house on which a nest is placed, is supposed to receive great blessings, &c.
Hasselq. Voy. p. 32. This was also the sentiment of the Ancients; as the same punishment,
was inflicted on any one who killed a Stork, as if he had killed a man; and the love of these
birds is said to have arisen, from their having freed Thessaly from serpents.—Pliny N. Hist.
1. 10. ch. 23.     Anach. iii. 316.—I find the Stork among Mr. Bruce's Abyssinian drawings.
t They are here very numerous in the winter season; almost every tower in the city is
peopled with them, and they return annually to the same nests. They destroy all the vermin
on the tops of the houses, and pick up a great number of snakes; so that they are welcome
guests to the inhabitants, and looked upon with particular veneration.—Dillon's Trav. 308.
Faber but once, and Aldrovandus never, saw them in Italy; yet Virgil speaks of their
being there as not uncommon:
__—-—_-—— ctun vere rubenti,
Candida venit avis longis invisa Colubris. Georg. lib. II. 320.
YOL.   IX. H
 50 HERON.
places; and are seen in vast flocks during their mig^to- Shaw
saw three flights of them leaving Egypt, passing over Mount
Carmel, towards the north east, in the middle of April, each oft^e^
half a mile in breadth, and they were three hours passing over; they
are also observed always to change their abode in thifoniaimer,* and
to rendezvous in amazing numbers before their departure, when of a
sudden they take flight.with great sileaoe,;and.are soon out of'.sjgbfc
At Bagdad, Mr. Ives observed a nest of t\ie$e, June 13, on the
dome of a decayed mosque, and says, that hundreds are to be seen
on every house, wall, and tree, quite tame.f At Persepolis, or
Chilmanor, in Persia, the remains of the pillars serve them to build
on, every pillar having a nest.1: It is said, that they are found in
Barbary throughout the year, breeding.there, and are esteemed by
the Moors; and a few of them appear in sp«ng and autumn, at
Gibraltar, on their passage elsewhere into Europe, but do not breed
there, though now and then one is seen on the Isthmus, on the sand
hills and plashes, in search of frogs, &c.; how much farther south
on the African coast it is met with is not well ascertained, but
we have authority for saying it is both in India and China, though,
perhaps not in great plenty. And Kaeaii,p.fer asserts, that the Stork is
in Japan, and stays in the country all the year ;§ but I rather suspect
that to be the Great White Heron, if not the Japan White Crane,
which we know is there a native. ||
—{|;
a cloud of Storks passed
into tw
* In the summer of 1765.
or bands, the lower within n
north west: they stopped for
other parts, during which one
from whence they came, and .su
p. xviii. The same happened i
Sept. 1811, p. 274.
t Ives, Voy.  pp. 299. 307. g Fryer's Travels, 251. § Kampf. Japan, p. 129.
|| Ardea alba et major, the White and Common. Heron at Japan.—Thunb. Travels, iv
p. 99. K^mpfer talks of two different kinds of Cranes, one the Common, the othe'r as
white as snow; and several kinds of them, the chief the White Heron, and *e Grey Her™
both very common ; and one of a bluish, colour, aluwsi a? big as a Crane.
troops,
of any one, the other much higher, and came from the
ie time to rest themselves, about the Observatory, and
s taken alive, and several others killed : it was not known
an event was in France very uncommon.—Guett. Mem. ii.
ie month of June, at Bamberg, in Germany.— Gent. 3Ia<r.
129.
—Kaempf. Jap.
 HERON. 51
The nest of the Stftfk^latge, composed of sticks, and the eggs
often four, of a dirty yeltowMi wtoite, the size of those of a Goose,
but a trifle longer: the young are hatched in a month, and are at
first brown. Both sexes said to watch them by turns, till of age to
take care of themselves. The Stork often rests, and sleeps on one
leg, and makes at intervals a singular, snapping noise with the bill.*
The food consists of frogs, snakes, and other reptiles; hence the
veneration of all sects for this bird, which frees them from these
pests; added to the flesh being no temptation as food, for it is
allowed on all hands to be unsavoury. Dr. Chandler, in his Travels
in Asia,-\ makes frequent mention of Cranes ; but by his description
it is evident that they were not Cranes, but Storks. " The Crane,
^!h,ei, say's, is tall like a Heron, but larger; the body white, with
" black pinion'sf the head small, and the bill thick; he adds, that
'* they build on walls and houS£s> £tid that the Turks hold them in
" veneration." All this agrees with the Stork only, and not the
Crane.
15—BLACK STORK.
Ardea nigra, Ind. Orn. ii. 677.     Lin. i. 235.     Faun. Suec. No. 163.     Gm. Lin. i. 623.
Scop. i. No. 124.    Brun. p. 46.    Muller, p. 22.    Georgi, p. 171.    Borowsk. ii. 79.
Faun.Helv.   It.Poseg.2b.    Spalowsk, iii. t. 27.
Ciconia nigra, Raii,97. 2.      Will. 211. t. 52.     Klein, 125. II.      Id. Ov. 34. 1.18. 1.
Gerin. iv. t. 433.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. 359.    Id. Ed.i'i. p. 561.
Ciconia fusca, Bris. v. 362. 1. t.31.    7d.8vo.ii. 304.
Cicogne noire, Buf. vii. 271.   PL enl. 399.    Dec. nw. ii. 77.
Der Schwarze Storch,  Bechst. Deutsch. iii. s. 56.
Aghirone nero, Celt. Uc. Sard. 175.
Black Stork, Gen. Syn. v. 50.    Arct. Zool. ii. 456. D.    itfill. Engl. 286. pl.52.    Alb.
ii. pl. 82.
SIZE of a small Turkey; length two feet nine inches. Bill five
inches and a half long, of a greenish grey, with a whitish tip; the
* In doltfg' this the head is turned backwards; the upper part of the bill placed on the
rump, and the under, set into the quickest motion, made to act on the other.—Ives, Voy.
307. t P« 96. X Archceol. xiii. p. 341. &c.
H 2
 iTlrtf
52 HERON.
top of the head brown, glossed with violet and green; throat and
neck brown, dotted with white, but the lower part of the neck is
glossed with violet, and dotted with grey brown ; back, wing coverts,
and scapulars, violet brown, glossed with green; rump pale brown;
from the breast to the vent white; quills brown, glossed with green
and violet; those nearest the body narrow, and as long as the greater
when the wing is closed ; tail rounded in shape; legs dull red ; the
claws broad and flat.
Inhabits many parts of Europe, but is less common than the
White, and like that, migrates south in autumn, but is much less
familiar, for it retires to the thick forests and marshes, at a distance
from habitations, to breed, being a solitary species. It is pretty
common in Poland, Lithuania, Prussia, aud Switzerland, migrating
much farther north than the White Sort; in the more temperate parts
of Russia and Siberia not uncommon,, and plentiful all along the
Don; perches on trees, and makes the nest on them in the depths of
forests. From its being less common, fewer authors have mentioned
it: it is said, however, to frequent the Caspian Sea, and to be met
with at Aleppo; like the White Species, it feeds on reptiles and fish,
and the flesh is said to be no better tasted ; the egg, according to
Klein, is pale, and smaller than that of the White Stork.
It has only been met with in England once, that I know of, and
in the Collection of Colonel Montagu, to whom a specimen was
brought, having only been wounded in the wing. The Colonel
informed me, that it lived in perfect amity among his aquatic birds,
and so tame, as to follow him for food, which it would take out of
his hands;* it lived on reptiles, and offal of all kinds, but eels were
the food it seemed most to delight in.
* See Lin. Trans. Vol. xii. p. 19. This bird had a bill seven inches long, the upper
mandible rather longer than the under; colour dusky red, with an orange tip; °and the irides
light hazel: lore and orbits bare, and of a dull red ; the general description much as above
mentioned: in respect to the changes of plumage, we refer the reader to the memoir itself.
Ii
 16.-GLOSSY STORK.
SIZE large, at least equal to the last Species. Bill long, stout,
crimson, and pointed at the end ; round the eye bare and red ; the
whole side, beneath the eye, also bare, brownish green, and rounded
behind, passing quite on the ears, and bounded at the back with red;
general colour of the plumage black, with a gloss of green in some
lights, and of purple in others; the feathers on the fore part of the
neck long, and hang loosely over it; all the under parts, from the
breast, thighs, and vent white; the second wing coverts long, and
hang over the great quills and tail, so as to hide both ; the legs are
long, stout, and red; between the toes a strong membrane.
Inhabits India.—Sir J. Anstruther.
17.—AMERICAN STORK.
Ardea Maguari, Ind. Orn.ii. 677.    Gm. Lin. i. 623.
Ciconia Maguari,  Tern. Man. d'Orn. 360.    Id. Ed. ii. 563.
Ciconia Americana, Bris. v. 389.    Id. 8vo. ii. 305.    Klein, 125. III.
Maguari, Raii, 97. 3.    Will. 211.    Id. Engl. 287.    Buf. vii. 275.
Le Baguari,  Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 342.
American Stork, Gen. Syn. v. 50.
SIZE of the Common Stork. Bill nine inches long, the base half
yellowish green, the rest bluish ash-colour; irides silvery; orbits and
bare skin between the bill and eyes red; plumage in general white;
the feathers, on the lower part of the neck before, long and loose;
tail white, but the feathers above it are black; the greater scapulars,
greater wing coverts, and quills black ; those nearest the body as long
as the quills; the legs and bare part above the joint red ; the claws
broad and flat.
 54 HERON.
Inhabits the warmer parts of North America, especially Brazil, and
accounted good food; said to snap with the bill as the Common Stork.
One of these, alive some time since, at Exeter Change, London, had
the beginning of the back pale rose-colour. M. Temminck informs
us, that some of these birds have been killed in France.
According to Azara4, the length-is forty-three inches; breadth
seventy-eight and a half. Bill seven; inehes;and a half; tail nine.
Inhabits Paraguay, and to> i&ei;S0uth of the River Plata ; the Spaniards call it Cieogne ; the Guatairis, Baguari* and Maguari; and
others Tuyuyu^gUazu : found in moist plaees, and there wades in the
water, but is often seen on dry land, eithepsingle, or utmost4n'pairs*
yet in January unites in flocks of' more than fifty, under 25 deg. lat.:
flies often to a great height, and said to perch on trees; makes a nest
towards the end of tlSe'year. The young birds'aredusky brown, witli
a white belly; and when getting the adult plumage, which it does
by degrees, appears marbled ; the young, when brought up, become
very tame and familiar, flying to a distance, and returning to their
master at meal times.
"~%1^
18.—VIOLET STORK.
Ardea leucocephala, Ind. Orn. ii. 699.    Gm. Lin. i. 642.
Ciconia leucocephala, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 188.
Heron violet, Buf. vii. 370.    Pl. enl. 206.
Hunch-baek Heron, Pennl Hind. ii. 158.    Id. Violet, 157.
Violet Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 97.    Id. Sup. 236.
THIS is thirty-eight inches in length. Bill ^fe^brfc#tf$tongue
extremely small; irides crimson ; lower part of the-nSck, the bod^
wings, and tail bluish black, glossed with'v^^tb^r&fcof the
head and neck white; vent and under tail coverts th^aine; the legs
reddish brown.
Inhabits the Coast of Coromandel, and, with a trifling^¥i#So1fl
colour, also Java; called there Sandang-lawe.
 5&
A.—Bill dusky purple; head and neck white; top of the head
black; body above black, glossed with purple and green ; the tail
black, the upper coverts mixed with white; legs as in the other.
Inhabits India, called Luglug.
|
B.—Bill dusky, the edges red ; irides red ; the sides of the head
bare, marked with grey specks ; crown of the head black; neck and
all beneath white; the rest of the plumage black,; wjth a tinge of
green on the wings; thighs covered a very little way with feathers;
the bare part and legs red.
Inhabits India.
C.—In another drying I observe one which is similar, having
the tail white, and the breast black; but as the specimeff is represented with the feathers soft and downy, it is probably a young bird.
The Violet Stork is said to be very common in the East Indies ;
in some the legs are yellow, and in others red; is called at Bengal,
Monickjore ; at Hindustan, Luglug; is accounted good eating, and
used for sport in falconry, in the same manner as the Common Heron
formerly was in this kingdom. Mr. Pennant, from the shoulders
being much elevated, has given it the name of Hunchback.
These birds are monogamous ; the male and female remaining
together at all seasons, at least in the vicinity of Calcutta, feeding on
worms and fishes.
The Mahomeddans do not eat this bird, though they do other
Herons, in respect to a Saint named Monik, the name of a prectofcs
stone, said to be found in the head of a snake; and Jur, a pair,
alluding to their living in pairs.—Dr. Buchanan,
 56
j HERONS.-THE MIDDLE CLAW SERRATED WITHIN.
19.—NIGHT HERON.
Ardea Nycticorax,  Ind. Orn. ii. 678.     Lin. i. 235.     Gm. Lit,
116.    Kramer, 347.   Sepp, t. p. 131.    M. v. 493. t. 39.
99. 3.    Will. 204. t. A
russ. ii. 77.    Gerin. ii
Ardea varia, Klein, 123. V
Ardea Kwaka, N. C. Petr
).    JVian.
, t. 422.
Id.Ste
xv. 452.
i. 624.
Scop.
i. No
Id. 8vo. i
. 341.
i?a«,
1.   Faun
Helv.
Dec.
arag. 76.    Borowsi
Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. 578.    Lin. Trans, xiii.
«. 29. t. 31. f. 1—4.   /rf. Ov. 34. t. 18. f. 2,
. 14.
Le Bihoreau, Buf. vii. 435. pl. 12.    PI. enl. 758.    Pwtc/. Foy. ii. p. 26.
Der Nachtreiher, Bechst. Deuts. iii. s. 37. t. 111.     Id. Ed. ii. V. iv. p. 54.    Naturf.
xiii. 206.    Id. xv. 1G1.
Nitticorace,   Cett. Uc. Sard. 273.
Night Heron, Night Raven, Gen. Syn. v. 52.    Id. Sup. 234.    Br. Zool. 1812. ii. p. 23.
Arct. Zool. ii. No. 356.    Will. Engl. 279. pl. 49.   Albin, ii. pl. 67.   Ray's Trm.'
p. 38.   Lewin, pi. 145.      Walcot, ii. pl. 126,     Orn. Diet. Sf Supp.     Amer. Orn.
vii. 97. pl. 61. f. 2. 3.
The YOUNG BIRD.
Ardea grisea, Lin. i. 239.    Gm. Lin. i. 625.    Bris. v. 41
Faun. Helv.    Dec. russ. ii. 146.    Sepp, t. p. 151.
Bihoreau, la femelle, Pl. enl. 759.     .
Der graue Reiher, Bechst. Deuts. iii. s. 38.
Female Night Heron, Gen. Syn. v. p. 53.     Lewin, pl. 146.
Bewick, ii. pl. in p. 43.    Amer. Orn. vii.  pl. 61. f. 3.—y
. t. 36. f. 1.   Id. 8vo. ii. 317.
Id. t. xxv.
ung bird.
THIS elegant species is in length twenty inches; breadth forty.
Bill stout, three inches and three quarters long, black, with the
base yellowish ; irides orange ; lore and round the eye green ; crown
of the head greenish black, reaching a little way on the back of the
neck, and there ending in a point; from the hindhead spring three
very narrow feathers, nearly six inches in length, of a pure white,
 i
HERON. 57
with dusky tips; the hind part of the neck and its sides are ash-
colour ; the upper part of the back dull green; the lower, rump,
wings, and tail, pale ash-colour; the forehead, and the rest of the
body, white ; legs yellowish green ; claws dusky.
The young bird is nearly of the same size. Bill the same ;
lore white; length twenty-one inches, breadth thirty-six ; weight
fourteen ounces twelve drachms. Irides brown ; till the second
year it has the following plumage :—Crown of the head brown and
glossy; the upper parts ofthe body the same, but inclining to grey;
the hind part of the neck palest, the feathers streaked with brown
down the shafts; the lower part of the back and rump almost grey;
over the eye, from the nostrils, a whitish streak, mixed with brown;
cheeks mixed white and brown; chin white; fore part of the neck
grey, with a yellowish streak down the middle of each feather, those
towards the bottom of the neck longest; the rest of the under parts
are grey, growing white on the belly and vent; wings grey brown,
streaked with yellowish white; some of the greater coverts tipped
with white ; quills cinereous grey, the eighteen first with white tips ;
tail of the same colour, all but the two middle feathers more or less
white at the ends; legs grey brown.
The female, when in complete plumage, scarcely differs from the
male. This species is common both in Europe and America, and
we believe, with some exceptions as Varieties, in Africa and Asia
likewise. The instances of its being found in England are but few,
not more than two or three having occurred to our knowledge.* Is
frequent in the southern parts of the Russian dominions, within the
latitude of 53. Is probably not met with in Sweden, or it would
have been noticed in the Fauna Suecica.    Is found on the River
* One in the Leverian Museum, shot in the year 1782 ; and another taken in Suffolk,
at Cockly, about seven or eight miles from the sea coast, which was wounded in the wing,
and preserved alive in the year 1797; a third shot at Cliefden, in Buckinghamshire ; a fourth
near Lewes, in Sussex, in 1816.—Communicated by Mr. Pennant. Col. Montagu mentions one shot in the summer of 1791. ^iU^k
 58 HERON.
Don, where it builds on trees; also at Astrachan during summer;
was formerly in plenty at Sevenhuys, about four leagues from
Leyden, with the Spoon-bills, and other birds, but the wood that
grew there has been for some time destroyed.* Like many of the
Genus it migrates according to the season; is not uncommon in
Carniola, Austria, Germany, and Switzerland : is met with in France^
but by no means common : often shot in Spain, and frequently seen in
the marshes and rivers about Gibraltar, but is every where more rare
than the Heron. Is found at Aleppo, and may be seen figured in
Chinese drawings ;f we have observed it likewise in those from India,
with very little variation; and most certainly, is not uncommon in
the province of Oude, as I find it among the drawings of Lord
Mountnorris, under the name of Soobuke; called at Bengal, Wak.
Is found in Java, where it is known by the name of Guwo.
This bird inhabits various parts of America, being met with about
New York and Rhode Island, and probably reaching; to Cayenne.
Mr. Abbot describes it as a native of Georgia, where it frequents the
ponds in summer, but is not common : he calls the length twelve
inches only, and the breadth forty; and though we have every
reason to think it the same as ours, it is certainly much smaller; X the
legs deep yellow; it is said to make the nest in trees, but sometimes
builds it among the rocks, and lays three or four bluish white eggs,
two inches and a quarter long, by one inch and three quarters broad :
the food consists chiefly of frogs, reptiles, and fish. The flesh, in
general, is not palatable for food. It is called in America the Qua
Bird, from the note imitating that word, in a hoarse kind of voice,
It I
iron Pelembere
r the sake
* In the year 1663, rented at 3000 gilders per annui
of the birds and grass.—Ray's Travels, p. 38.
t One of these in the speckled dress, in possession of Sir J. Banks, was brought from
thence; in this every wing feather was tipped with white, and the spots more distinct than
in the European one. Pernetty met with it in Falkland Ish
ii. p. 26.
J The Night Heron said to build on the high Bignonias
the same as the European, but larger.—J|fo»i». Tr. i. 107.
See Voy. aux Malouin.
Brazil.    Supposed to be
 HERON. 59
not ill resembling a person attempting to vomit. The Amer. Orn.
informs us, that contrary to the generally received opinion, both
sexes, when adult, are so alike in colour, as not to be distinguished,
and both are furnished with the slender plumes at the hindhead; and
that the reputed female is no other than the young bird in its first
year's dress; but that they gain the full plumage the succeeding
spring; for on their first arrival in April, no birds are to be seen in
the speckled plumage ; but soon after they have bred, these become
more numerous than the others.    They migrate early in October.
20.—CALEDONIAN NIGHT HERON.
Ardea Caledonica, Ind. Orn. ii. 679.    Gm. Lin. i. 626.
Le Tayagu-guira, Voy. d 'Azara, iv. No. 357 ?
HSt'G&ledonian Night Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 55.    Cook's Voy. ii. p. 111. pl. 50.
LENGTH twenty-two inches. Bill straight, shaped as the
Night Heron, and black; between the bill and eye bare and green;
irides yellow ; from the nape spring three long feathers, reaching to
the back, as in that bird; crown black; over the eyes, between that
and the crest, a streak of white; general colour of the plumage
ferruginous, inclining to brown, the neck palest, the feathers of it
loose before; breast, belly, and under parts, white; legs yellow;
claws dusky.
Inhabits New Caledonia, where it is called Collinah ; one similar
in plumage from New-Holland was in the collection of Mr. Bullock.
Among Mr. Francillon's collection of New-Holland drawings
was one, probably the female. Bill dusky, pale rufous beneath;
round the eye bare and bluish ; irides yellow; plumage in general
rufous brown; crown of the head dark; parts above dusky brown,
beneath white; neck streaked with dusky ; back and wing coverts
mottled, and marked with pale spots, with the addition of a few
I 2
!
 60
HERON.
rufous ones on the wing coverts; quills rufous, with pale ends,
reaching to the end of the tail; legs blackish. This was probably
a young bird.
A.—Caledonian Night Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 299.
•This slight Variety has the bill and legs brown ; general colour
of the plumage chestnut brown, paler on the fore part of the neck ,*
belly white; on the breast, and each side of the back, towards the
tail, the plumage is very soft and downy, appearing of a silky texture,
and to the touch full as delicate as that of Swan's skin, of which
powder puffs are made.
Inhabits New-Holland, and seems not greatly to differ from the
Caledonian one; and perhaps it may be doubted, whether this last
is not a Variety of the Common Night Heron, which has been met
with in almost every part of the globe yet known, not excepting
our own kingdom. We suspect this to be the Hog Bird of Azara,
called by the Guaranis Tayazu guira, and found about Paraguay, in
South America, in small flocks, in the marshes, and other inundated
places; for in description it comes so near to the Caledonian, as
to make one suppose it to be the same ; it is said to take the name
of Hog Bird, from its making a grunting, somewhat like that
animal; and the lower classes think, that if it flies over the houses, it
presages death.
Ardea badia, Ind. On
—CHESTNUT HERON.
.686.    Gm. Lin. i. 644.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. 3
Cancrofagus castaneus, Bris. v. 468.    Id. 8vo.ii. 334.
Crabier roux, Buf. vii. 390.    .
Der Castanien braune Reiher, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. s. 3
Chestnut Heron, Gen. Syn. v. p. 73.
SIZE of a Crow.    Bill four inches long,  brown; irides pale
yellow; head and body above chestnut; beneath dirty white, with
 HERON. 61
a streak of pure white down all the fore part of the neck and breast,
quite to the belly ; wing coverts incline to blue ; quills black ; tail
chestnut; legs red.
Inhabits Siberia; builds in high trees, and feeds on fish, insects,
&c.; supposed to be a young Night Heron, not in full plumage.
22.—DARTER HERON.
LENGTH nineteen inches, of which the neck is seven, and the
tail three. The bill almost three inches, it is straight, compressed,
sharp, and carinated ; both above and below yellowish, point black;
the gape wide, reaching to the middle of the eye; below the nostrils
yellowish green, above livid, upper mandible emarginated, and both
slightly serrated near the point; nostrils linear, and pervious, placed
in a slight furrow; tongue long, black, sharp; lore and orbits
naked, greenish; irides yellow, with a brown circle; neck much
compressed, and the vertebrae and windpipe disposed as in the Pnrple
Heron; the front and crown are brownish ash-colour; at the nape
three long, lanceolate, white feathers; chin and throat dirty white ;
sides of the neck pale dirty yellow, or drab-colour, mixed with ash
at the lower part, and some of the feathers are broad ; intermixed
with these, especially below, are many that are very narrow, and
paler than the others; shoulders the same colour as the head ; the
upper scapulars loose-webbed, and incline to yellow, the under close
webbed, and white ; between the shoulders arise many broad, loose,
chestnut feathers, inclining to purple, which cover the whole back,
and reach to the end ofthe tail; all the rest ofthe plumage is white,
with a yellowish tinge on the upper wing and tail coverts ; the naked
part ofthe thighs, the legs, and toes, pale green ; a web between the
two outer toes as far as the first joint, the middle toe serrated within.
Inhabits India: it is the Couch of the Bengalese, Crouch of
the Sanscrit, and is the most common of the small Herons near
J
 6*2 HERON.
Calcutta : it seems to differ considerably from the bird of the same
name, though its manners are much the same:* it draws.its neck in
between the shoulders, and darts it out to its utmost length on a
sudden, in the manner of the Bittern.
In the drawings of Sir J. Anstruther is one, very nearly answering to the last described; head and neck yellowish buff-colour; from
the nape two long feathers. Bill yellow, half the end black ; bare
part between the bill and eye green ; all the back chestnut brown ;
the wings, under parts, and thighs, white ; legs yellow. With this
is another, streaked and spotted as the reputed female of the Night
Heron. I make no doubt but the male had lost at least one of the
usual'three elongated nape feathers, but in two others I observe at
at least six long ones at the nape, in other respects the figures do not
materially differ. One of these answering to the last description, in
the drawings «£ iLord Mountnorris, had six feathers at the nape;
the wings and tail even in length; name, Bugha.
2&tt^EW-HOLLAND NIGHT HERON.
r
LENGTH two feet; shape ofthe Night Heron. Bill like it, and
black; plumage above brown, thickly marked with dusky streaks,
and many of the feathers edged with ferruginous; several of the
lesser wing coverts pale, or whitish, with dusky black shafts; quills
dusky, four ofthe outer ones white, for one inch and a half from the
base, and the inner parts of the webs white; tail eight inches long,
and grey, the middhMfeathers more or less barred with dusky; the
three outer ones white within, but barred and tipped with dusky;
tail cuneiform; legs black; from knee to toe six inches.
Inhabits New-Holland : probably a female bird.
 63
24.—CAYENNE NIGHT HERON.
Ardea Cayanensis* Ind. Orn. ii. 680. Gm. Lin. i. 626.
Le Bihoreau de Cayenne, Buf. vii. 430. PL enl. S99.
Cayenne Night Heron,  Gen. Syn. v. p. 56.
SIZE of the European Species, but more slender, and the legs
longer; length twenty inches. Bill black; lore pale green ; crown
of the head white; a streak of white from the nostrils, passes beneath
the eye, towards the hindhead ; the rest of the head black, ending
in a point on the back part of the neck; from this last springs a
crest of six long feathers, of unequal lengths, half of them white;
the rest black ; the general colour of the rest of the plumage bluish
ash-colour, darkest on the back and wings, which are marked with
a blackish streak down the shaft; quills black : it is high mounted
on its legs, and the thighs bare for a great length, the colour of
which, as well as the legs, is yellowish.
Inhabits Cayenne.
A.—Size of the Night Heron. Bill the same and black; head
and neck black; forehead and crown white; from the nape three
long white feathers as in the European Species; under the ears an
oval patch of white ; general colour of the plumage pale blue grey ;
but the feathers on the back and wings are blue black, with silvery
grey edges; quills and tail blue grey, the last short; legs yellow.
Inhabits New-Holland.
B.—Length twenty-two inches. Bill dusky*, three inches long,
with a slight notch near the tip; crown ofthe head white* pending in
several long feathers hanging behind, the rest of the head black;
on the cheek an oval large patch of wibjte,, finishing at each end in
 a point; the rest of the neck, breast, and beneath, pale blue grey, the
two last paler; the back and wing coverts have long narrow feathers,
of a sooty black, with narrow greenish edges, appearing as alternate
blackish and whitish streaks, but the beginning of the back is plain
dull ash ; quills and tail pale bluish ash ; legs dull red.
In the collection of General Davies, and in that of Mr. Bullock
were specimens of this bird, said to have been brought from New-
Holland.
25.—YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT HERON.
. i. 238.
.Lin.i. 634.
Ardea violacea, Ind. Orn. ii. 690.
65. f. 1.
Ardea stellaris cristata Americana, Klein, Av. 124. ix.
Cancrofagus Bahamensis, Bris. v. 481.    Id. 8vo.ii. 337.
Ardea ca;ruleo-nigra, Raii, 189.    Sloan. Jam. ii. 314. pl. 264. f. 5.
Ardea violacea, Crested Blue Bittern, Bartr. Trav. 291?
Le Crabier gris-de-fer, Buf. vii. 399.
Rother Reyger, Naturf. xiii. 208.
Grey-crested Gaulding, Brown, Jam. 478.
Crested Bittern, Cates. Car. i. pl. 79.
Yellow-crowned Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 80.   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 352.
LENGTH fifteen inches and a half; weight half a pound. Bill
nearly two inches and three quarters long, black ; irides red; the
bare skin round them green ; crown of the head yellow,* ending in-
a crest, lengthening into four or five white feathers, the longest nearly
six inches; the rest ofthe head blue black ; from the corners of the
mouth, on each side, a white streak, passing to the hindhead; back
streaked black and white ; and from the lower part are long narrow
feathers, which hangover the tail, as in many of the Genus; under
parts from chin to vent dusky blue ; quills bluish brown ; tail dull
blue; legs yellow, claws dusky.
Male and female much alike.
* In Amer. Ornith. pure white.
 HERON. 65
Inhabits Carolina, chiefly in the rainy season; at the Bahama
Islands they breed among the rocks, in the bushes on the banks, and
are called Crab-catchers; in the Bahamas they are in such plenty,
that a boat may be loaded with the young ones in a few hours; and
so far from shy, that they will scarcely get out of the way of those
who mean to take them :  the young are pretty good eating.
The above seems to be the one called Poor Job, which Mr. Bar-
tram mentions as arriving in spring, in Carolina, and Florida, from
the south; and after breeding, and bringing up the young, returning
from whence it came.
26.—JAMAICA NIGHT HERON.
Ardea Jamaicensis,  Ind. Orn. ii. 679.    Gm. Lin. i. 625.
Le Heron brun tachete, Voy. d 'Azara, iv. No. 355.
Jamaica Night Heron, Gen. Syn. v. p. 54.
LENGTH one foot eleven inches. Bill four inches long, and
dusky; upper mandible bending a trifle downwards at the point,
the ridge blackish; irides pale straw-colour; before the eye, and
round it, bare and greenish; the head somewhat crested; crown
dark brown, the feathers streaked with ferruginous; neck the same,
but the colours more dull and paler; chin and throat white; neck
feathers loose ; upper part of the back darkest; the rest of the back
and scapulars yellowish brown, some of the last tipped with white ;
wing coverts like the back, but the lower order of them much paler,
giving the appearance of a broad bar; all the coverts white down
the shafts, spreading out to the tip, and forming a longish, triangular spot; quills the colour of the lesser coverts; primaries and
bastard wing tipped with white; secondaries plain; breast and belly
white, streaked with obscure pale brown ; vent white; legs brown.
I received this bird from Jamaica, under the name of Clucking
Hen; said to frequent the woods, contrary to the rest of the Genus,
 1
which haunt morasses. It is scarce, affl very -shy ; as I fear* from
the friend who sent it to me; and is larger than the Night Heron,
but seems to have great affinity with it. It is>tsaid to have been met
with in Paraguay.
27.—GARDENIAN NIGHT HERON.
Ardea Garden
Botaurus naev
, ind. Orn. ii. 685.    G
us, Bris. v. 462.    Id.
m.Lin.i. 645
8vo. ii. 332.
.    Tern.
Frisch,
Man
9.
Butor tachete
ou Pouacre, Buf. vii.
427. Pl. enl.
939.
Der geflechte
Reiher, Bechst. Deuts.
iii. 35.
Spotted Heror
Gardenia n He
, Gen. Syn. v. 71.
on, Arct. Zool. ii. No.
355.     Br. Z
ool. Ed
181
2. V.
Lin. Tran
s. v. p. 276.    Orn. Di
ct. Supp.
LENGTH twenty-two inches. Bill strong, dusky ; head, neck,
breast, and belly, whitish, elegantly streaked downwards with short,
fine lines of black; crown and hind part darkest; upper part of the
back streaked with white, the lower dusky and plain ; the whole
wing of the same colour; lesser coverts marked with small yellowish
spots; the greater with a small spot of white on each feather, forming
two rows across the wings; primaries edged with dull wfeite, the
ends tipped with ttoe -same; fcail duslsy; legs deep dirty yellow.
The late Mr. Pennant received a specimen, from which the above
description was taken, sent by Dr. Garden, of South Carolina, where
it frequents ponds and rivers, in the interior of the country, remote
from the sea; seen also about Savannah, in Georgia, and there
called Indian Pullet; frequently found in the rice fieMsi4  •
In the collection of Colonel Montagu was a bird, with so many
characters of the above, as to incline one to think it the same : the
length twenty-three inches. Bill two iwehes and a half; crown of
the head chocolate brown, shaded to a dull yellow at the nape,
wViere the feathers are much elongated; chin and throat nearly
white; on each side, behind the ears, a black mark ; the feathers on
the neck long, with fibrous webs like the Common Bittern; those in
^g
 HERON. 67
front pale yellow, with broad streaks of chestnut, usually one web
of each colour; the feathers ofthe breast long, and chocolate brown,
glossed with purple, and margined with yellow; belly and sides the
same, but less bright, the brown marks becoming speckled ; vent
yellowish white; back and scapulars chocolate brown, with paler
margins, minutely speckled, and glossed with purple; wing coverts
dull yellow; quills and greater wing coverts dusky lead-colour,
slightly tipped with brown; tertials and tail like the back; toes
long, the middle claw slightly serrated.
This was killed in Dorsetshire; another near Cliefden, as mentioned by Mr. Pennant; a third shot in Oxfordshire, in 1798; and a
fourth shot from the bough; of a tree, on which it perched, near St.
Asaph, in Flintshire, in 1810.
It also inhabits Germany, according to M. Bechstein, who seems
to think it allied to the Common Night Heron.
28.-OBSCURE NIGHT HERON.
Ardea obscuray Ind, Orn. ii. 679.    It. Posseg. 24. ii.
Obscure Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 300.
SIZE and habit ofthe Bittern. Bill rather bent, blackish green;
on the hindhead a dependent crest of one feather; forehead, crown,
and nape, dull chestnut; back andi wing coverts the same, with a
gold green gloss; neck behind ferruginous chestnut; before, with
the breast and belly, chestnut, spotted longitudinally with white and
ferruginous; quills dull chestnut, tipped with white; tail chestnut;
legs short, greenish.
Inhabits Sclavonia, about Possega. We have retained several
of the above as different in species, though with much, uncertainty;
especially as the Night Heron is subject to vauy naneht in the various
stages of life ; and henee, perhaps, may lead into the supposition of
more than one being distinct, when in reality they are Varieties only
of tbstsame original.
 Ill
29—FERRUGINOUS HERON.
Ardea ferruginea,   Ind. Orn. ii. 688.     Gm. Lin. i. 634.     N. C. Petr. xv. 457. t. 16.
Gmel. reise, iii. 253.
Ferruginous Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 76.
LENGTH twenty-one inches and a half. Bill greenish flesh-
colour, with the end brownish; the upper mandible somewhat bent
at the tip; lore and over the eyes green; irides saffron-colour;
feathers of the head, neck, and back, longish, black, and tipped with
ferruginous; those ofthe crowrt somewhat elongated; chin yellowish
white; wing coverts black brown, the outer ones tipped with ferruginous ; those nearest the body varied with rufous white; quills
black; rump, breast, and belly, variegated with ferruginous, whitish,
cinereous, and brown ; thighs with rufous and cinereous white; the
wings, when closed, reach a trifle beyond the tail; legs green.
This species is found in the summer about the River Don, supposed to come from the Black Sea, and departs in autumn : feeds on
fish and insects ; frequently found with Castaneous species.
30.—LITTLE BITTERN.
, i. 646.
Ardea minuta, Ind. Orn. ii. 683. Lin. i. 240. 26. /3. Gm.Lin
10. Frisch, t. 206. 207. Sepp, t. p. 57. f. 1. 2. Boroi
Orn. viii. pl. 65. f. 4 ?    Tern. Man. d'Orn. 372.    Id. Ed.
Ardeola, Bris. v. 497. t. 40, f. 1.    Id. 8vo. ii. 341.
Le Heron rouge et noir, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 360.
Le Blongios, Buf. vii. 795.    PL enl. 323.
Der Kleine Rohrdommel, Bechst. Deut. iii. s. 39.    Id. iv. 71.
Bo-onk, Long Neck, Shaw's Trav. pl. p. 255.
275.    Gent. Mag. xix. pl. p. 427.   Lewin, iv. pl. 14".
Little Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 65.    Id. Sup. 235.    Br. Zool. App. 663. pl. 8.
1812. ii. p. 18. pl. 4.      Arct. Zool. ii. No. 359.     Bewick,
Birds, ii. pl. 128.   Donov. pl. 54.    Pult. Dors,
Kramer, 348.
. 584.
. Alepp. 71. pl. 10.     Edw. pl.
Id. Ed.
pl. p. 51.     Walcot,
Orn. Diet. Sf Supp, -
mm^
 Ardea minuta, Lin. i. 240.    Faun. Helv.
Ardeola naevia, Bris. v. 500. t. 40. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. ii. 342.
Le Blongios tachete, Buf. vii. 395.
Little Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 66.    Edw. )
275.
THE male of this species is scarcely bigger than a Thrush ;
length fifteen inches. Bill greenish yellow, the upper mandible
black at the tip, the edges jagged ; the top of the head, the back,
and tail, dull green ; neck very long; the fore part of it, breast, and
thighs, buff-colour; belly and vent white; the hind part ofthe neck
bare of feathers, but covered by those growing on the sides of it; at
the inner bend of the wing a large chestnut spot; the lesser wing
coverts yellowish buff, the greater whitish ; the web of that next the
back half buff, half black; quills black; legs dusky; thighs
feathered to the knees; middle claw serrated.
The female is of the same size; the crown blackish green ; the
feathers of the upper part of the body brown, margined with pale
rufous; beneath the same, but paler, and the feathers more deeply
margined with rufous; forehead edged with chestnut; the feathers
on the fore part of the neck long, as in the other; belly white; tail
blackish green, margined with fulvous at the end ; legs greenish.
These two birds are by most authors considered as the same
species, and the last being the female. They have been found
frequently in Switzerland, also in Arabia, though scarce in other
parts.* In France they are also rare, only now and then one being
met with ; are said to be common on the River Coic, near Aleppo;
and that they are observed frequently to stand with the neck stretched
straight upwards. According to the Brit. Zool. a male has been
once shot, perched on one ofthe trees ofthe public walks in Shrewsbury; a second killed in 1773, near Christchurch, in Hampshire,
* I have seen it in drawings from India, &c. we are assured that it is found at Bengal,
View of Hind. ii. 158.
 70 HERON.
in the Museum ofthe late Mr. Tunstall; and a third shot near Bath,
in autumn, 1789, perched on the stump of a tree, on the banks of
the River Avon ;# and another shot near the River Creedey, in
Devonshire. The nest is placed on the ground, composed of short
sticks, interspersed with a few leaves of flag; the eggs four in
number, and white, about the size of those of a Blackbird, one inch
and a quarter long.
Mr. Pennant says, it inhabits from New York to Carolina, ex-r
tending to Jamaica. Mr. Abbot observed a few of them in a
particular pond, about Savannah, in Georgia, in the summer; and
adds, that it breeds there, but is not a common bird. We are inclined
to think it not far different from Le Heron rouge et noir of Azara,
aboVe quoted ; of which it is said, that the natives of Paraguay find
them about the river of that name, and that they are easily taken
by the hand, not being able to fly.
31—DURALIA  BITTERN.
Little Bittern, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 301.—parag. 2d.
LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill pale, two inches long; round
the eye bare, and greenish ; irides red ; plumage above pale rufous
brown ; neck the same, but much paler, the feathers longish, hanging
loose; on,the tower part of the seek, down the middle, six black
spots; chin, belly, vent, and thighs, white; lesser wmg* coverts
ferruginous, marked with many spots of black; q«tH§ dj*sky, m$r
pale edges, and equal to, if not exceeding the tail in length; legs
dusky yellow, darker about the knees; toes tong^ claws crooked,
pale.
Inhabits New South Wales; found there inDtecember. Native
name Duralia; chiefly met with in marshes or moist ground,
* Other instances are mentioned by Dr. Puhmey, via.^one shot on the. Bere. River, by
Harvey Ekins, Esq.; another killed at Upton; and a third at Lytchet.
Jul
 71
32.—RUFOUS BITTERN.
Ardea
Sologniensis, Ind. Orn.
ii. 681
.    Gm. Lin
i. 63
Botaur
tis rufus, Bris. v. 458.
Id. 8vo. ii
330.
Ardeae stellaris tertium Genus
, Raii
100.
Will. 108.
Butor
roux,  Buf. vii. 425.
Quoim
eau, Salem. Orn. 315.
Aldrov
. 3d sort of Speckled Heron,
Will.
Engl.
283.
Rufou
3 Bittern, Gen. Syn. v.
60.
A TRIFLE less than our Bittern. Bill blackish, horn-colour
beneath; irides yellow; crown of the head black; the rest of the
head, throat, and neck, ferruginous and white mixed ; greater quills
blackish, lesser ferruginous ; tail blackish ; legs brown.
Inhabits the neighbourhood of Bologna, in Italy. Salerne
thinks it may be the bird called Quoimeau, about Sologne, in
France.    This seems to be very like the Little Bittern.
33—RAYED BITTERN.
Ardea Danubialis, Ind. Orn. ii. 681.    Gm. Lin. i. 537.
Botaurus striatus, Bris. v. 454.    Id. 8vo. ii. 329.
Le Butor brun raye, Buf. vii. 424.
Der Gestrichelte Reiher,   Bechst. Deuts. iii. s. 34.
Rayed Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 61.'
SIZE of the last. Bill brown, yellowish beneath; lore naked,
yellow ; plumage above, as well as the belly and vent, crossed with
lines of brown, black, and pale rufous; mixed irregularly, so as at
a distance to appear wholly brown ; fore part of the neck and breast
whitish : legs grey.
Inhabits the Banks of the Danube. Thought by M. Temminck
to be the Little Bittern in immature plumage.
 34—MINUTE HERON.
Ardea exilii
i, Ind. Orn.ii. OS
Le Heron v
arie, Voy.d'Azm
Minute Bit
tern, Gen. Syn. v.
SIZE of a Thrush in the body ; length eleven inches and a half,
Bill two inches long, greenish, with a pale point; irides straw-
colour ; crown of the head dark rufous chestnut; sides of the neck
rufous; the feathers pretty long, and meeting behind, where it is
nearly bare; chin, and fore part of the neck White, with a series of
pale, ferruginous feathers on each side ofthe white, with a blackish
line down the shaft of each; on the lower part of the neck the
feathers are long, and loose, some of them nearly white, and hang
over the breast, which is brownish black : this colour passing upwards on each side to the back, like a crescent; but the feathers have
whitish margins; those of the back rufous chestnut, margined with
pale yellow; the first and third order of the wing coverts like the
back, but plain; the middle ones ferruginous, with a dusky line
down the middle ofthe shaft; quills black; some of the inner prime
ones chestnut at the tips; secondaries the same, some few of them
wholly chestnut; belly, thighs, and vent, white; tail black; legs
green, bare for three quarters of an inch above the joint.
Inhabits Jamaica, from whence I received a single specimen : it
is said to be a rare bird.
Azara compares his to the Little Bittern, as to size and shape.
The bill orange, with a dusky base ; irides yellow ; on the crown a
longitudinal black streak ; parts above more or less rufous, dashed
down the shafts with black ; neck behind, scapulars, back, and tail
feathers, darker in the middle, edged with light rufous; wing
coverts the same, but the outer are the colour of Spanish snuff; neck
before marked with obscure streaks, on a pale rufous ground ; breast
  ii
plcxcvoii.
r«
^^/^
   HERON. 73
and sides the same, but on a paler ground; belly white; thighs
covered with feathers above the joint; legs green before, and yellow
behind.
This bird was met with in Paraguay.
35—SPOTTED HERON.
Ardea maculata, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. lxiv.
Spotted Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 305.
THIS appears, at first sight, not unlike the Little Bittern. The
bill is dusky green ; under mandible yellow at the base; round the
eye bare, and greenish ash-colour; irides yellow; general colour of
the plumage pale brown above, spotted on the back and wings with
white; quills pale ferruginous, with paler ends; under parts of the
body dusky white; legs dusky green.
Inhabits New South Wales: probably of the female sex.
36.—WATTLED HERON.—Pl. cxlvhi.
Ardea carunculata, Ind. Orn. ii. 691.    Gm. Lin. i. 643.
Wattled Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 82. pl. 78.
SIZE of a Stork; length five feet and a half. Bill red, and
; carunculated for one-third next the base; rest of the length dusky
black ; round the eye bare and red ; irides pale red ; top of the head
blue grey; the rest of the head, neck, and breast white, ending on
the latter in a point; under the chin are two appendages, nearly four
inches long, hanging like wattles, but covered with white feathers,
like the rest of the neck ; back and wings blue grey; on the back
some long narrow feathers, as in many other Herons, hanging over
the tail; quills black, and about even with the tail; between the
shoulders, the breast, belly, and under parts black; legs dusky
blue grey.
 Inhabits Africa, but is not a common species. One of them was
for some time tame in the Company's Gardens, at the Cape of Good
Hope, from which a drawing was taken, in the collection of Sir
Joseph Banks ; also, a complete specimen of the bird was in the
collection of Mr. Bullock.
37—COMMON   HERON.
Ardea cinerea, Ind. Orn
Ardea major, jL^.j. 23(
t. 199.    Raii, 98.
Lin. Tran.
. Man. d'Orn. 362.    Id. Ed. i
Gm,Lin.i. 627.   Scop. i. N
. 1.     Will. 203. t. 49.    Fau
. 188.
Id. 8vo. i
313.
117.
Helv
K
Gerin
346.
iv. t
. 427. 428.
Klein
■22.2.
Id
Stem
. 28.
.s. 195.  Schmid,
Ardea cristata, Bris. v. 396. i
t. 30.   Id. Ov. 34. t. 17. f. 3.   MoHn, CMk£&7.   Id. Fr. Ed. 214
Alia Ardea, Gesn. Av. p. 195.—the head.
Le Heron huppe, Buf. vii. 342.    Pl. enl. 755.
Der gemeine Reiher, Bechst.Deuts.ii. s. 5. & 18. tab. 1.   Naturf. xii
Vog. 114. t. 99.
Garza cinerizia grossa, Zinnan. Uov. 113. t. 21. f. 101.
Le Heron couleur de Plomb, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 347.
Crested Heron, Alb. i. pl. 67.
Common Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 83.     Id. Sup. ii. 303.    Br. Zool. ii. No. 173.    Id,fol.
116. pl. A.   Id. Ed. 1812. ii. p. 10.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 343.     Cheseld. Osteogr.
Introd.—sceleton.   Lewin, iv. pl. 118.   Walcot, ii. pl. 129.   Pult. Dors. 14.    Orn.
Diet. Sf Supp.
dea cinerea, Lin. i. 236. Faun, suei
Muller, p. 22. Frisch, t. 198. B
Id. Ov. 34. t. 17. f. 3.     Borowsk. ii
). 165.
. 892.
.    Fam
Scop. i. 117. Brun. No. 156.
Id. 8vo. ii. 312. Klein, 122; 1.
. Helv.     Schcef. EL Qrn. t. 21.
. p. 187.    Sepp, iii. t. p. 289.
Ardea pulla, sive cinerea, Gesn. Av,
Ardea Rhenana, Naturf. xiii. 195.
Heron, Buf. vii. 342. pl. 19.    PL enl. 787.    Descr. Sarin, ii. 151.    Sift Pro*, i.346.
Reiger, Guntk. Nest. u. Ey. t. 44.    Bechst. Deut. iii. 15. t. 1.
ti&
 HERON.
nnoi
x Heron,
fern
.   Gen. Syn. v
83.
Br. Zool. i
Ed.
18
2. p
. 10
Pl
3.    Arct
Zool
. ii. No
343.
pl.
78.
Leu
148.
Id. XXV.
No.
I.—the
Graves,
Br.
On
. 173. pl. 61. Id.fol. 116. Id.
Bewick, ii. p. 37. Atbin, iii.
Wood's Zoogr. i. p. 323. ,pl. 24.
THE male of this species is three feet three inches in length,
breadth five feet one inch; weight three pounds and a half. Bill
six inches long, dusky, base beneath yellowish ; round the eye
greenish, and tmre ; irides yellow; forehead and crown white; sides
of it over the eye black; all the feathers ofthe crown long, two in
particular sometimes exceeding eight inches, and on the whole
forming a most elegant crest; neck white ; the fore part of it marked
with a double row of black spots; wing coverts bluish grey; outer
edges of the wings white; bastard wing and greater quills black;
middle of the back almost bare, covered by the scapulars, which are
long, narrow, and loose in texture ; colour grey and white mixed ;
the feathers on the lower part of the neck before are much the same,
and hang loosely over the breast ; on each side, under the wing, a
bed of black feathers; breast and under parts white; legs dirty
green ; inner edge of the middle claw serrated.
The female much resembles the male, has little or no crest; head
grey; feathers of the breast short; and the scapulars of not so
loose a texture as in the other sex.
This species is very common in these kingdoms, and except in
breeding time',;is* found dispersed throughout the marshy places, and
edges of streams, in which it may be seen standing motionless for
hours together, waiting the passing by of a fish ;* at this time the
head is crouched between the shoulders, and the body frequently
resting on one leg. It also feeds on frogs, and other reptiles* as well
as mice; and at times, even on vegetables.    In flying, it draws in
* Are great destroyers of fish.    We have seen one of ten inches long,  taken out of the
stomach ; and 17 small carps have been found in another; and one kept tame has swallowed
50 small roaches and dace, one day with another.—Dr. Lamb once found six perch, weighing one ounce and a half each, in the stomach of a male bird.
L 2
 the head, between the shoulders, the legs hanging, or straight out
behind.—In breeding time they unite in large societies, and make the
nests on the highest trees, composed of twigs, lined with a few
rushes and wool, sometimes feathers: the eggs are pale greenish blue,
four or five in number; they sometimes make the nest in high cliffs,
over the sea.* They may be brought up tame, if taken from the nest,
but if old birds are caught, they refuse nourishment, and pine awayv
Although this bird, in moderate climates, is a constant inhabitant,
in the more northern it is only seen in summer; found in Russia and
Siberia, but not very far north. Crantz says, it has been seen
in the south of Greenland, but this must have been a rare instance,
as we do not find it in Fabricius's List; yet it certainly inhabits
Romsdale and Nordmer, in the severe climate ofthe diocese of Dron-
theim ; and not only this, but the other wading water birds, for the
most part, retire more southward to pass the winter. We can trace
this bird every where in Africa and Asia; it is found withkhtbe Cape
of Good Hope;t anc^ is also a native of both India X and China,
which drawings, brought from thence, will amply testify; found all
the year at Calcutta and Bengal, at the latter place called Unjan, and
Angeen; builds on large trees, but it differs somewhat from climate,
as it has no black transverse lines on the scapulars, or any white. In
the marshes at Calcutta, but never comes to the rivers ; has the name
from the black streak over the eyes, resembling the mark, that the
native women make on the eyelids, with a powder called Unjan, or
Soorma of Hindustan. Is a native also of Java, and there called
Changa-awu. We find it also in America, being said to come into
New York in May, and retiring in October; frequent in Carolina,
and breeds in flocks as in England.
* A Description ofthe manners of the Common Heron may be seen in Gilpin's Remarks
on Forest Scenery, 2d Vol. 8vo. 1791. Called in Cheshire Yern, or Yarn—Archceol. V.
19. p. 42.
t This Species and Blue Heron both found in the Velooren valley.—Thunb. Trav. ii. 143.
X One of the male among Lord Mountnorris's drawings called Pawbooth, from the
Province of Oude.
 HERON. 77
The circumstance of this species living in societies is, we believe,
general; and so fond are they of company, as to build as many as
80 nests on one tree. They generally chuse a group of the tallest and
most stately ones for the purpose, which are termed Heronries;
several of which may be seen in England, viz. at Penshurst Place,
in Kent; at Hutton, the seat of Mr. Bethel, near Beverley, in
Yorkshire; in Gobay Park, on the road to Penrith, near a rocky
pass, called Yew-cragg, on the north side of Ulleswater; and a
considerable one at Cressi Hall, six miles from Spalding, in Lincolnshire; in addition to which, Colonel Montagu mentions one on
a small Island, in a Lake, in the north of Scotland, whereon was
only one scrubby oak, which not being sufficient to contain all the
-nests, many were placed on the ground. These Heronries were in
former days sO favoured by law, that the killing one of the birds
subjected the offender to the forfeiture of twenty shillings, or three
months, imprisonment, or bound by two sureties in twenty pounds
each.*
Heron Hawking, too, was a favourite diversion with our ancestors, and no one permitted, without his own ground, to take any
Herons, unless with hawking, or long bows, on pain of six shillings
and eight-pence ;t and for taking any young out of the nest, ten
shillings;J and to take or destroy the eggs, from March 31 to June
30, imprisonment for a year, and to forfeit eight-pence for every
e©g-§ We are told that in the northern parts, where Eagles frequent,
they greatly annoy the Herons, by frightening them from their nests,
when the Crows take the opportunity of stealing the eggs. || The
whole of this custom of encouragement of the breed of Herons is
now subsided, the diversion of hawking being scarcely continued
any where; and their flesh, though rated at a price equal to the
i 1 James, c. 27. s. i
I 25 Hen. 8. ch. II.
f 19 Hen. 7. ch. 11.
II Tour in Scotland, 1772.
 'rtdfl
yg HERON.
Peacock* in former times, is no longer valued.—The crests of the
male bird are used as ornaments, and bear a considerable price, not
only here, but every where throughout the east. Chardin mention*
that the Persians catch the Heron, and after depriving it of the long
feathers, suffer it to depart, t In another place, we are told, that
these feathers form a part of the Persian crown, or bonnet.J
The Common Heron is probably the one mentioned by Azara;
but if not, it resembles it very nearly: the South American one is
siix inches longer than ours, and eight inches more in-extent of wing,
thought to be the largest sort found in the Bay Lagunes of Paraguay,
where they are chiefly met with, but even there not common; said
to make the nest on trees, and to have a cry somewhat like gaaa.
ASH-COLOURED HERON.
, Ind. Orn. i
;d Heron, C
648.
t Zool. i
No. 853.
LENGTH two feet one inch. Bill strong, black; cheeks and
chin whitish; neck pale, cinereous brown, streaked before with
white; back, wings, and tail, cinereous, clouded round each feather
with dusky; feathers on the sides of the back long, and broad,
hanging over the end of the wing; belly white; legs yellowish.
Inhabits New York; arrives in May; breeds, and departs in
October ; suspected by Mr. Abbot, to be a young bird of the Common Species.
* « At principal Feasts-Item, it is thought in likewyze that Hearonsewys be bought
« for my Lordes own mfees.; so that they be at xiid. a pece."     We likewise here see the
'ie, by the comparison,:—A Goose, selling for 3d. or4d. at most ; Partridges, 2d.  a
es, three for a penny ; also that the Herons, Bytters,
all equal in value.—North. Hous. Book. p. 104.
piece; Woodcocks,   Id. or l^d.; Snip
Pacocks, Fesaunts, and Curlews, were
t Travels, p. 82.
+ Not only the real feathers of the
n.the shape of Heroofofeadbe
and some of these so valuable, as to be
'. of Solyman, iii. p. 40. 41.
fjrecK>us
t tufts of diaa
the Dhul-bandtof the Persian Monarch,
than twenty thousand pounds sterling.	
 39—STRIATED HERON.
Ardea striata, Ind. Orn. ii. i
Heron of Guiana, Bancr. C
. Striated Heron, Gen. Syn.
Lin. i. 638.
u 171.
SIZE of the Common Heron. Bill straight, compressed, furrowed on the sides; head slightly crested ; crown black; hind part
of the neck and back hoary ; fore part of the neck ferruginous;
wings brown ; secondaries black at the points.—Described from Dr.
Bancroft; who adds, that it inhabits Guiana and Surinam. Linnaeus
observes, that the back in his bird is hoary, and striated ; and the
secondaries white on the margins, at the tip. It seems to be the
same bird mentioned in the Decouv. Russ.; said to be found at
Astrachan,  in March.
40—LOHAUJUNG HERON.
Ardea Indica, Ind. Orn. ii. 701.
Lobaujung Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 2
Penn. Hindoost. i
LENGTH three feet. Bill nine inches long, black, straigfet,
pointed, lower mandible somewhat convex ; nostrils in a slit near
the base, where it is a little indented at top; fore part of the head,
as far as the throat, and the sides, of a rich green; crown of the
head and neck deep brown, with a few great green spots; upper
part of the back brown, the lower like the neck ; wing coverts
white ; second quills fine deep green; breast, belly, and prime quills,
white; tail black; legs long, scaly, reddish; toes webbed at the
base; claws short.
Inhabits India, where it is common, and called Lobaujung.—
Among the drawings of Lady Impey is another, which differs in
having the beginning of the back mottled black and white, and the
 . -7; .-"   '^
80 HERON.
white on the otlier parts not pure; it varies too, in having the
whole of the upper part of the back, and under parts pure white.
Probably this variation of plumage may arise from difference of sex.
41— GREAT HERON.
Ardea Herodias, Ind. Orn< ii. 692.   Lin. i. 237.    Gm. Lh
Amer. Ornith. viii. p. 28. pl. 65. f. 5.
Ardea Virginiana cristata, Bris. v. 416.    Id. 8vo. ii. 318.
Le grand Heron d'Amerique, Buf. vii. 385.
Largest Crested Heron, Cates. Car. App. pl. 10. f. 1.
Great Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 85.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 341.
. 630.     Scop. i. No. 118
Ardea Hudsonias, Ind. Orn. ii. 693.    Lin. i. 238.    Gm. jLin. i. 632.
Ardea freti Hudsonis, Bris. v. 407.    Id. 8vo. ii. 316.
Heron de la Baye d'Hudson, Buf. vii. 386.
Ash-coloured Heron, Edw. pl. 135.
Red-shouldered Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 86.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 342.
THIS is a very large Species, from bill to end of the tail four
feet, and the length more than five to the end of the claws. Bill
eight inches long, brown, inclining to yellow on the sides ; the head
is crested, some ofthe feathers five inches in length; lore pale yellow;
neck and breast rufous, spotted before with brown ; the upper parts
of the body, belly, and tail, brown; quills black; legs brown,
middle and outer toe connected to the first joint.
Inhabits Virginia, frequenting the lakes and rivers; lives on
lizards, frogs, and fish.
The female is smaller. Bill five inches and a half, black, the
under mandible orange; crown of the head black, and crested, the
longest' feather only four inches g lore greenish yellow; sides and
under part of the head white;   neck feathers  long and slender,
A Iv
mn
 HERON. 81
marked with dusky bars behind, and before with broad white dashes
down the middle of each feather; the back and upper part of the
body cinereous brown ; Wing coverts palest; inner edge of the wing
reddish; breast white, with long spots of black; thighs reddish brown;
belly and vent white; legs dusky ; middle claw pectinated, hind
claw very long.
Inhabits North America, from New York to Hudson's Bay,
frequenting the inland lakes of the last in summer. Mr. Abbot
observes, that it frequents the sides ofthe ponds and rivers of Georgia
all the year; that it is four feet long to the end of the tail, and five
and a quarter to the end of the toes, breadth six feet; the general
colour of the plumage brownish ash ; shoulders of the wings pale
ferruginous; thighs the same, dashed with brown; legs yellowish
dead-colour. The Great Heron is called in Georgia the Long-Shore
> Man. jS§$fe
Young birds <>f the first year have the whole ofthe upper part of
the head dark slate; they want the long plumes of the breast and
back, and have the body, neck, and lesser wing coverts, tinged with
ferruginous; but when adult, both sexes are much alike; they build
on the tops of tall cedars, in swamps, ten or fifteen pairs often occupying a particular spot; the nest large, made of sticks, and lined
with twigs, each occupying the top of a single tree; the eggs four
in number, larger than those of a Hen, plain, light greenish blue :
the young hatched about the middle of May, and only one brood in
a season.
42.—VARIEGATED  HERON.
Ardea variegata, Ind. Orn. ii. 692.    Scop, i,
Variegated Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 304.
THIS is ferruginous, spotted with brown ; beneath paler; throat
white; forehead black; thighs rufous; legs brown.
This was in the collection of Count Turrian, supposed by Scopoli
to be a Variety of the Great Heron; but the size is not mentioned.
 43.-RUFOUS HERON.
Ardea rufa, Ind. Orn. ii. 692. Gm. Lin.
Der braun rother Reiher, Bechst. Deuts.
Rufous Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 99.
. 642.    Scop. i. No. 119.    Kn
SIZE of the Common Heron. Bill seven inches long ; from the
eye to the nape on each side a black streak; head, neck, belly,
quills, and tail, black; breast rufous ; temples and thighs ferruginous ; lower part of the neck whitish, with longitudinal brown
spots; upper part of the neck, back, and wings, cinereous brown;
legs brown.
Inhabits Austria, among others in the marshes, and according to
M. Bechstein is a young Purple Heron ; but M. Scopoli supposes it
to belong rather to the Great Heron, which seems more probable.
44.—GREAT EGRET.
Ardea Egretta, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 694.     Gm. Lin. i. 629.      Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 367.
Id. Ed. ii. 572.    Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 188.
Guiratinga, Raii, 101. 17. & 189. 1.    Will. 210.    Id. Engl. 285.
Le grand Heron blanc a Manteau, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 348.
La grande Egrette, Buf. vii. -377.    Pl. enl. 925.    Robert, Ic. pl. 16 ?
e Silber reiher,   Bechst. Deuts.'i'ii. s. 41. tab. 4.
Great White Heron, Amer. Orn. vii.  106. pl. 61. f. 4.
Great Egret, Gen. Syn. v. 89.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 346.    Bougainv. Voy. p. 67.
THIS is double the size of the Common Egret, and is three feet
and a quarter in length ; extent of wing five feet. The bill is more
than six inches long, dirty yellow, with a dusky tip; lore green ;
irides pale yellow ; the whole plumage white ; from the back spring
numerous feathers, which are very long, narrow, silky, with unconnected webs, hanging over the wings and tail, concealing the latter;
the feathers of the breast are also long, and hang pendent;  the legs
 HERON. 83
black, bare for three-fourths of the length above the knee, the inner
edge ofthe middle claw pectinated. Both sexes are alike in plumage,
but the female is smaller.
Inhabits Louisiana, and other parts of North America. Found
from Guiana to New York ; first seen in the United States in February ; does not frequent the shores, but the vast marshes, and
overflowed tracts, making the nest among the islets in the wet
savannas; not met with on the borders of salt water rivers, near
the sea, but only near stagnant waters, or rivers, where it can shelter
itself among the reeds; is very shy, does not collect into flocks; is
not uncommon.
Bougainville met with Egrets in Falkland's Isles, and took them
for Common Herons; these towards night made a harsh, barking
noise, not unlike that of the wolf, which frequents those parts.
One seen in 28 deg. lat. S. and another to the south of Buenos
Ayres,  but not plentiful.
One similar, if not the same, frequent in India, measures two feet
ten inches, of which ten inches are occupied by the head and neck,
and five by the tail; and the wings, when closed, reach nearly to the
end of the latter. The plumage the same in all respects as above,
and the long silky feathers exceed the tail by two inches.
This is common about Calcutta, and called by the Mussulmans,
Torra Bugula: it is the Bok of the Bengalese; and resembles in
manners the other Boks. In some drawings I find the name of
the male Great Egret to be Boghletar; the bare part of the thighs,
and a little below the knee, white ; the rest white on the sides, and
black before and behind,    lifts seems larger than the Egret.
I observed one of these birds also among the the drawings of
'General Hardwicke, but the bill was wholly black. The Indian
name given to it was Bogla or Boghee Mullung. In the Island of
Java, where it is also found, it is called Kumtul.
 g4 HERON.
These birds breed in several of the cedar swamps, in the lower part
of New Jersey; making their nests in trees, and like Herons, in
society. The nest composed of small twigs, roughly constructed,
and the eggs three or four, of a pale blue; their food chiefly frogs,
lizards, fishes, and insects; and sometimes mice and moles : if taken
young they are easily domesticated.
45.—GREAT WHITE HERON.
3ea alba, Ind. Orn. i
Scop. i. No. 126.
695.
Faun. Helvet.
. 49.    Gerin. iv.
Lin. i. 239.     Faun. suec. No. 166.
346. 2.     Klein, 122. 2.     Gesn.
Tern. Man. 367.    Id. Ed. ii. 573.
Ardea Candida, Bris. v. 428.    Id. 8vo. ii. 322.
Ardea alba major, Raii, 99. A. 4.    Will. 205.
Ardea immacnlata, Bartr. Tr. 291.
Ardea Egrettoides, Gmel. reise, ii. 193. t. 35.
Le Heron blanc, Buf. vii. 365.    Pl. enl. 886.
Der grosse weisse Reiher, Bechst. Deuts. iii. s
Garza bianca,  Cett. Uc. Sard. 276.
Great White Gauldiug, Brown, Jam. 478.    Sloan. Ji
Great White Heron,   Gen. Syn. v. 91.     Br. Zool.
. Zool. ii
, pl. 150.    Orn.
Gm. Lin. i. 639.
v. t. p. 189.    It.
Id. Ed. 1812. ii. p. 19. pl. 5.
Engl. 279. pl. 49.    Lewin, v
Jam. 314; pl. 266.
Raii, 189. 1.
i.   No. 175.   pl, 62.
Id.fol. 117.
No. 234.     Id. Sup.
p. 66.      Will.
Diet. Sf Supp.
SIZE of the last. Bill, lore, and irides, the same; the plumage
also, like that, of a snowy whiteness throughout, but differs in not
having the fine, long, pendent feathers from the back as in the other.
Birds of this kind are found more or less in many parts of Europe,
but not far to the north ; rarely seen in Sweden.* In the Russian
dominions, about the Caspian and Black Seas, the Lakes of Great
Tartary, the River Irtish, and sometimes as high as lat. 53. t Said
to have been seen now and then in England, $ but except the single1
instance, of one being shot, some years since, in Cumberland, we
know not of its being found in this kingdom.    It is a species  pro-
* Arct. Zool. f Td. X Willughby.
 HERON. 85
bably far spread, as we have seen it in Chinese drawings, and once
a specimen from India ; and, according to an account brought with
it, said to be known to the Teleuganas by the name of Tillekenga.*
Is found also in the southern parts of America, going northward in. spring: seen at New York from June to October, also in
Jamaica; j" and was observed by our circumnavigators both at
New-Zealand J and New-Holland. §
Authors have, in general, considered this, and the last, as two
distinct species, but from various observations made by Mr. Wilson,
he asserts them to be one and the same, at different periods of age,
haying traced them in their progress through the different stages;
and that when fully grown, both sexes are not only alike, but the
train is equally long in both.
46—LACTEOUS HERON.
Ardea Galatea, Ind. Orn. ii. 696.    Gm. Lin. i. 634.   Molin. Chil. 207.   Id. Fr. Ed. 214.
Le Grand Heron blanc, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 350.
Lacteous Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 304.
LENGTH about three feet. The bill four inches long, and
yellow ; round the eye bare, greenish yellow ; irides pale ; the head
somewhat crested ; the plumage as white as milk; the neck two feet
and a half in length ; legs much the same, and of a beautiful crimson.
Inhabits Chili, and other parts of South America. M. Azara
met with two specimens in Paraguay.
47—PUTEA   HERON.
LENGTH two feet ten inches; but to the end of the toes three
feet; from the end ofthe bill to the gape four inches; the colour
* General Davies. f Sloane. X Dusky Bay, Cook's Voyage,i. 177.
| General Davies received one from this place.
 that of saffron, with the point of the upper mandible black; nostrils
linear, pervious; lore and eyelids yellowish;green ; irides yellow;
the plumage entirely white, except a slight tfege of brown on the
outer edge of the greater wing coverts next the body; the head
without any crest, being perfectly smooth ; but on the lower part
before are some dependent feathers, composed of bristly webs, remote
from each other; the inferior scapulars of the same texture, the
superior broad; and both reach to the root of the tail, which is
rounded, and five inches long; the legs, feet, and claws, are black,
the middle and outer toes united at the base by a short web ; claws
sharp, that of the middle serrated within.
Inhabits India, and is one ofthe smaller Herons, included under
the name Bok of the Bengalese; called Putea Bugala, by the
Mussulmans; is every where found near water, about Bengal, and
multitudes of this kind of bird roost and build in the same tree: it
agrees with the Great White Heron, except in size; called at
Sumatra Bangou Puti.
48.—PIED-TAIL HERON.
THIS species, standing erect, is nearly four feet high; length
three feet. Bill orange; crown black ; plumage in general white ;
under the pinions bare, and bright red, as in the Flamingo; quills
twenty-four in number, the tips glossy black ; the eight middle
feathers of the tail white, the two outer on each side black; shape
ofthe tail forked ; legs black, outside of the thighs the same, within
white.
Inhabits Abyssinia.-
on the plain of Serawe.
•Mr. Salt* killed one of these in August,
* See Voyage to Abyssinia, p. lxiii. note *
 49—SPECIOUS EGRET.
Ardea affinis,   Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 189 Horsfield.
SIZE uncertain. Bill yellow; general colour ofthe plumage
white; the head, crest, fore part of the neck, and feathers of the
back fulvous chestnut; the crest is setaceous, and the elongated
feathers of the back filiform ; legs dusky black.
Inhabits Java, and called Kuntul-chilik.
50—LITTLE EGRET.
Ardea Garzetta, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 694.     Lin, i. 937.     Gm. Lin.
Faun. Arag. p. 76.    Faun. Helvet.    It. Poseg. 25.    Gerin. i
s.208.    Tern. Man. 368.    Id. Ed. 575.
Egretta, Bris. v. 431.    /d.8vo.ii. 322.
Garzetta, Raii, 99. 5.    Will. 206.    Id. Engl. 280.
Petit Heron blanc a Manteau,  Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 349.
L'Aigrette, Buf. vii. 372. pl. 20.    PL enl. 901.    Descr. Surin.
Der Kleine Silber reiher, Bechst. Deutsch. iii, s. 43.
Criel Heron. Harris's Coll. Voy. ii.  p. [468.]
Little Egret,  Gen. Syn. v. p. 90.    Br. Zool. App. pl. 7. * Id. Ed. 181
Arct. Zool. ii. No. 347.- Bewick, ii. t. p. 45.    Lewin, iv. pl.149.
Wa/cot, ii. t. 130.    Om. Diet.    Graves's Brit. Orn.
628.     Kram. 346. 3.
t. 423.    Naturf xiii.
251.
SIZE of a Fowl ; length near one foot; the weight one pound.
Bill black; irides pale yellow; hindhead crested, two of the feathers
five inches long, and very narrow, hanging down behind in an elegant
manner; lore, and round the eye, bare and green; the whole plumage
pure white; on the back a set of loose-webbed feathers, which cover,
and hang over the rump ; legs greenish black, claws black.
 88 HERON.
This Species is found in all the moderate and warmer parts of the
globe, and was once plentiful in this kingdom,* though now so
scarce as to be recorded as a rare occurrence, one being shot in
Anglesea,t some years since ; and another near Christchurch, Hants,
July 3, 1822.
In many parts of Europe it is not uncommon, as well as in Asia;
in Egypt it is called the Ox-keeper, as it frequents plains with the
oxen, and often perches on their backs to feast on the larvae of the
Oestrus, which infest them. M. Levaillant met with them inwards
west from the Cape of Good Hope, as well as the Great one, though
much less common ; found also in several parts of Africa, and in the
Isles of Madagascar and Bourbon; in plenty at Siam, and in most
of the drawings done in India.
In America met with at New-York, and Long Island, some of
the West India Islands, arid Cayenne;X associating, for the most part,
with its congeners in the marshes, and banks of streams, feeding,
like them, principally on fish. Said to be found in Paraguay, and
from thence as far as Buenos Ayres. We are informed, that the
Egret is slate-coloured the first year, the next grey, spotted with
white, and gains the complete dress on the third, which it retains
ever after. I received a bird, with the mixed plumage, with other
drawings, from Mr. Abbot, of Georgia. In this the bill-was very
pale blue, yellowish Jbeneath; legs pale green. It was called the
Young of the Blue Heron, but I rather thought it to be that of the
White, if not the Egret, for there appear two feathers, longer than
the rest, at the back of the head, and some rudiments of elongated
scapulars, and breast feathers.
* In the list of the famous feast of Archbishop Nevill
of 1000 of these birds is noticed. In 1605 it was probably n
the account of provisions for a nobleman's table, as bein<
V. xiii. 347, 348. (Mem.)—This bird is not named in'
Book, in 1512. f Br. Zool. App. 631.
X Mem. sur Cayenne, ii. 217.
in April.—Archceol.
mberland Household
 8J)
51.—LITTLE WHITE HERON.
Ardea aequinoctialis, Ind. Orn. ii. 696.    Lin. i. 240.    Gm. Lin. i. 641.
Ardea alba minor, Little White Heron, Bartr. Tr. 291.
Ardea Carolinensis Candida, Bris. v. 435.    Id. 8vo. ii. 324.    Klein, 124. 10.
Crabier blanc a bee rouge, Buf. vii. 401.
Heron blanc moyen, Voy. d'Azara, iv. p. 351. 352.
Red-billed Heron, Arct. Zool. ii. Sup. 66.    Br. Zool. 1812. ii. p. 25.
Little White Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 93.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 345.     Cat. Carol, i. pl. 77.
Lin. Trans, ix. p. 197.   Orn. Diet. Sf Supp.
LENGTH eighteen inches. Bill two inches and three quarters
long, and red ; lore the same ; irides yellow; plumage wholly white;
the secondaries and prime quills nearly of equal length ; legs and
bare part above the joint green.
Inhabits Carolina in the spring, and probably breeds there, not
seen in winter; common at New York; and I have received one,
apparently the same, from Jamaica; but at both these places the bill
is black, though in my specimen the lore was brownish, or faded
red. I observed too, in some instances, that the ends of the secondaries were brown.
In the Museum of the late Colonel Montagu was a specimen
of a female, which was killed in Devonshire, the latter end of
October 1805.
A.—Ardea Mexicana Candida, Bris. v. 437.   Id. 8vo. ii. 324.
Avis Mexicana minima candidissima, Hoitzilaztotl, Raii, 102. 22.
Heron blanc du Mexique, Buf. vii. 408.
Little White Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 94. Var. B.
Size of a Pigeon.     Bill and legs purple; lore yellow; plumage
wholly pure white.
Inhabits Mexico,  where it is called Hoitzilaztotl.
 1
Ardea n
5l—gN0WY
ii. 696.     G,
HERON.
, M.Oni. ii. 696.     Gm. IM. i. 640.     JV. G Petr.xv. 458. t. 17.    Dec.
russ. i. 164.    Tern. Man. 368.    Id. Ed.ii. p. 376.
Ardea Caprea dicta, Gerin.'rv. 424.
Ardea candidissima, Gm. Lin. i. 633.    Jacq. Vog. *& 13.
Ardea xanthedactylos, Gmel. reise, iii. 253.
Yellow-slippered Egret, Penn. Hind. ii. 158.
Snowy Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 92.   Amer, Orn. vii. 120, -pk 62. f. 4.
LENGTH more than two feet. Bill stout, straight, three inches
and a half long, and black; skm round the eyes yellowish blue;
plumage in general White; the head smooth, but on the neck ate
some feathers standing out, and those of the lower part hanging
over the breast; back terminated with very long, yellowisn white,
narrow, feathers, very loosely webbed, curling up at the ends, and
hanging over the tail; legs black; toes saffron-colour; claws black.
The female is less, and the neck and back feathers shorter.
This is found about the River Don in the spring, coining from
tne Black* oea; and returns ^otrth "hvatrtuimi, making the nest on
the highest trees. We have seen a specimen of this bird brougtrt
from China, and it is not uncontmon in India,t as confirmed by
drawings/froinxnence, where it is called 'Guss'ka.^: In some specimens the lower half of the bill is pale; lore dusky; plumage whbll^
white; legs black, the lower part of them, and the toes greenish
yellow ; the two feathers at the back part of the head were wanting:
supposed to be a young bird.
* Greece.—Dec. russ.i. 164.
icke, called Boghee Kirtcheea,
* Pr
obably froc
Q  Ef
'.yp
, Arabi
t La
dy Impey,
-Si
Jo
hn Anst
X Or
e of -these,
the dra
Bogh
ee Bontahc
 91
T Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. No..236.
In this the bill is black; irides the same; the whole plumage
white as snow; hind part of the head and neck, sides of the breast,
and back, covered with long, narrow, hair-like feathers, flowing
very beautifully with every pufF of wind; those of the hindhead
longer than the rest, forming a slight crest; legs black, toes yellow.
This bird inhabits the neighbourhood of Carthagena, in South
America, called by the Spaniards* Garca Blanca. The voice is loud
and disagreeable; is sometimes eaten by the Indians. One of
these in the drawings of Mr. Abbot, said to be twenty-three inches
and a half long, and tbfrtyrsix broad. In this the bill is three
inches long, with an elegant crest; plumage perfectly white; scapulars herring-boned, and turning up over the tail; bill slate-colour ;
base and lore yellow; bare part of the thighs pale blue; legs black,
the bend of the joint behind yellow; feet and toes yellow.
Young birds, ofthe first season, have neither the long plumes of
the breast nor back ; but the female differs very little from the male,
except that the crest, and other ornaments, are not equal in length.
These birds come into the United States in April, and depart in
October; found chiefly in the salt marshes, during the summer, and
feed on the fiddling crabs,* mud-worms, snails, frogs, and lizards.
One of the breeding places is among the red cedars of Sommer's
Beach, on the Coast of Cape May, making the nest on the branches;
some trees containing three, and others.fonr nests, which are formed
wholly of sticks; the eggs generally three, pale greenish blue, one
inch and three quarters long, by one inch and a quarter broad ; and
Very well tasted; and the young, which are in general fat, are
esteemed good eating.
* Cancer vocans.—Lin.
N 2
 92
B.-Ardea Candida minor, Bris. v. 433.    Id. 8vo. ii. 325.    Genn. xv. **> r
Ardea alba tertia Aldrovandi, Raii, 99.    Will. 206.
Garzette blanche, Buf. vii. 371.    Gen. Syn. v. 94. Var. A.
The third small White Heron of Aldrovandus,  Will. Engl. 280. §. vi.
In this the bill is small, thick, and yellow; lore and irides the
same ; top of the head and neck nearly of a saffron-colour; breast
the same, but paler; rest of the plumage white ; legs saffron-colour.
Found at Bologna, in Italy. From the colour of the legs we
suspect it to belong to the Snowy Species.
Ardea pileata.
Ardea Brasilii
53—BLACK-CRESTED WHITE HERON.
Ind. Orn. ii. 695.    Gm. Lin
. i. 639. 24. /3.
Bris. v. 434 ?    Id. 8vo. ii. 323 ?
, Buf. vii. 380.    Pl.enl. 907.
Gen. Syn. v. 92. 60. A.
LENGTH two feet. Bill black; plumage wholly white, except
a patch of black on the crown; from the hind part of the latter a
pendent crest, composed of six narrow feathers, of unequal lengths;
the legs black.
Inhabits the Rivers of Guiana, and is a rare species; we have,
with doubt, admitted Brisson's bird: it is seven inches shorter than
the White Species, and eleven longer than the Little White Heron;
therefore uncertain whether it may be the young of the Greater Egret,
or a female, for it has no crest, and the bill not saffron-coloured. Said
to be common in Brazil; that it has a yellowish white body, and a
fine blue bill.* We much doubt this bird having relation either to
the Egret, or Great White Heron, for the proportions of the whole,
independent of the size, do not tally; in both these there is a
correspondent length of legs, and bareness above the knee, but in
the one last described, the legs are more stout, and shorter; and the
parts above the joint bare only for half the length.
* Maxim. Tr. i. p. 139.
 93
Ardea erythrocephah
Gm. Lin. i. 633.
Red-crested Heron,
54—RED-CRESTED HERON.
Ind. Orn. ii. 688.     Molin. Chil. 207.     Id. Fr. Ed. 214.
. Syn. Sup. ii. 302.
SIZE of the Common Heron. General colour of the plumage
white; from the head springs a long crest of a red colour, reaching
quite to the back.—Inhabits Chili.
55.—SACRED HERON.
Ardea sacra, Ind. Orn. ii. 696.    Gm. Lin. i. 640.
Sacred Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 92.
SIZE of the Little Egret; length two feet three iuches. Bill
four inches long, dusky brown.; general colour of the plumage white;
on the middle of the crown a few obscure dusky streaks, down the
shafts of some of the feathers; several of those of the back, wings,
and tail coverts marked in the same manner; scapulars dashed with
black; greater quills more or less dusky at the tips; the tail feathers
marked with dusky down the shafts, and at the end, for an inch and
a half, except the outer one, which is plain ; legs yellow.
Inhabits Otaheite, and the neighbouring Isles, where it is held
sacred.—From the collection of Sir Joseph Banks.
A Sacred Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 93. Var. A.    Ind. Orn. ii. 696. 69. /3.
This varies but little, The crown plain white ; scapulars, some
white, some black; on the neck before loose, long feathers, black and
white mixed, hanging over the breast; and some others of the same
loose texture, and mixed colours, falling on the tail; the wing coverts
have likewise some black feathers intermixed; quills plain white;
tail the same, except one feather, which is wholly black ; legs black.
 94
66.—GIBRALTAR HERON.
LENGTH to the end of the tail twenty inches, to the middle
claw twenty-seven inches, breadth three feet; from the eye to the
point of the bill two inches and five-eighths. Bill, irides, and lore,
yellow; the whole plumage snowy white, except in old birds, where
the crown of the head is pale orange, as in the Soland Pelican;
upper mandible brown at the tip, emarginated, and serrated towards
the end; legs bare above the knee, for one inch and a half, dirty
green, the front of the shins and the toes black, the middle claw
serrated.
These are often seen at Gibraltar, coming from Barbary, in
flocks, in autumn ; and remain about the rivers in the neighbourhood
in winter; are observed to follow the cattle in the pastures of Barbary,
and perch on their backs, relieving them from the larvae of the
Oestrus.
A specimen of this Was in the Leverian Museum, sent by the
late Rev. Mr. White, of Gibraltar. This gentleman mentioned a
similar one, about the same size and colour, differing only io having
the back pale ash-colour, and the beak, orbits, legs, and feet, bright
and beautiful green. One specimen only brought into Gibraltar to
the market, from Spain.    This was probably a young bird.
Hindoost. ii. 158.
Length sixteen inches.     Bill three inches-,   pretty stout,   and
yellow; irides orange; plumage wholly white; legs black.
Inhabits Bengal j called Caboga, seems allied to the last.
 57.—REDDISH  EGRET.
Ardea rnfescens, Jnd.Orn. ii. 694.    Gm. Lin. i. ffiB.
L'Aigrette rousse, Buf. vii. 378.    PL enl. 902.
Reddish Egret, Gen. Syn. v. 88.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 348.
LENGTH two feet. Bill yellowish, with a dusky point; lore,
and round the eye green ; the head and neck are covered with long,
loose feathers, of a rusty rufous colour; the long feathers of the back
the same; the rest of the body blackish grey ; legs black.
Inhabits Louisiana.
58—DEMI-EGRET.
Ardea leucogaster, Ind. Orn. ii. 694.
Gm. Lin. i
628.
Ardea Ludoviciana, Louisiane Heron,
Amer. Orn.
viii. pl. 64. f. 1
La derawaigrette,   Buf. vii. 378.
Heron bleu&tre a ventre blanc, Pl. en
1. 350.
Demi-Egret,   Gen. Syn. v. p. 88.
LENGTH scarcely two feet. Bill and lore dusky yellow; the
head and neck, as far as the breast, and the upper parts, wings, and
tail, deep blue black; the under parts of the body, under wing
coverts, and thighs, iwtoiite ; legs yellowish ; from the hindhead spring
two long feathers, of the same colour as the head; tail very short,
blackish ; from the lower part of the back are a few long, narrow
rufous feathers, which fall over the tail, and obscure it.
Inhabits Cayenne.
A.—A Variety of this, in a collection of South American birds,
was full two feet in length. Bill yellow, ^ip Mack; crest long, and
•while; head and neck radKning to violet; chin and throarf;'mettled
ttfitfa rufous white ; the 'long featfhers'of the rwmp 'grey-; legs ferown^
in other things it answered to the former description.
 It is said, in the American Ornithology, to frequent the swampy
shores of the Mississippi, particularly below New Orleans, where it
builds on trees, among the inundated woods, and is migratory ; has
the manners of the Blue Heron, quick in its motions, darting on its
prey with surprising agility ; feeds on small fish, frogs, lizards, tadpoles, and various aquatic insects.
RUSTY-CROWNED HERON.
Ardea rubiginosa, Ind. Orn. ii. 693.
Rusty-crowned Heron, Gen. Syn. v. i
m. Lin. i. 632.
Arct. Zool. x
SIZE of the Bittern. Head smooth, slightly crested ; bill seven
inches long, slender, yellow; irides the same ; forehead dusky;
throat white; crest and back part of the neck deep ferruginous; on
the fore part four streaks of black ; feathers of the breast long, and
loose; a dark line passes from the breast upwards to the back of the
neck; back and wing coverts deep ferruginous, marked with a few
black spots; quills dusky; tail short, lead-coloured; belly and
breast dirty white, striped with, black ; legs dirty yellow.
Inhabits North America.
Streaked Hei
60—STREAKED HERON.
Tnd. Orn. ii. 693.     Gm. Lin. i. 643.
i Gen. Syn. v. 87.    Arct. Zool. ii. No,
LENGTH seventeen inches. Bill two inches; crown dusky ;
cheeks and hind part ofthe neck rusty and black; chin, throat, and
neck before, white; the last streaked with black; wing coverts
streaked black and pale buff-colour ; outer edge of the wing white 3
quills dusky ; legs greenish.
Another of these, supposed to differ in sex, had a white line on
each jaw; scapulars and greater wing coverts dusky, spotted with
white at the ends.—Inhabits North America.
 97
61—BITTERN.
Ardea stellaris, Ind. Orn. ii. 680.    Lin. i. 239.    Faun. Suec. No. 164.    Gm. Lin.i. 035.
Scop. i. No. 125.    Brun. No. 155.    Midler, p. 22.    Kramer, 347.    i^mcA, t. 205.
Georg-i, p. 171.     %>/>, p. 74. t. 40. 41.     Raii, 100. A. 11.      fff|! 207. f. 50. 52.
Klein, 123.     Id. Stem. 29. t. 32. a. b.     Id. Ov. 34. 1.18. f. 3.
Borowsk. iii. 76. 5.    Faun. Helvet.     Gesner, Av. pl. in p. 190.
Tern. Man. d'Orn. 374.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 581.
Botaurus, Bris. v. 4M. t. 37. 1.    Id. 8vo. ii. 327.
Le Butor, Buf. vii. 411. pl. 21.    PL enl. 789.   Hist. Prov. i. 349.
Garza bionda, o di color d'oro, Zinnan. Uov. 112. t. 20. f. 100.
Garza dorado, Gabin. de Madrid, i. p. 13. lam. 6.
Tarabuso, Cett. Uc. Sard. 274.
Der Rohrdommel, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. s. 24.     Naturf. xiii. p. 208.
105. 1.100.
Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. p. 56.    Id. Sup.2U.     Id. Sup. ii. 300.     Br. Zool. ii. No. 174.
Id.fol. 711. t. A. 1.    Id. 1812. ii. p. 14.    Will. Engl. 282.    ^4/6. i. 08.     Bewick,
ii. pl. p. 47.    Hayes's Birds, t. 19.    Zeroin, iv. pl. 146. Id, pl. xxv. No. 2.—egg.
0Wco*, ii. pl. 127.    Puit.Dbrs. p. 14.    Graves's Br. Orn.     Orn. Diet. Sf Supp.
Faun. Arag. 76.
Gerin. iv. t.432.
Schmid, Vog.
THIS is somewhat less than the Heron ; length two feet and a
half. Bill brown, inclining to green beneath; irides yellow; the
head feathers long, and those of the breast loose, and waving; crown
of the head black ; the lower jaw on each side dusky; the plumage
in general beautifully varied, spotted, and barred with black ; the
ground ferruginous yellow, paler beneath ; legs pale green; clawsft
long and slender, and the inner edge of the middle claw serrated.
The female is less, darker coloured, and the feathers on the head
and neck less flowing than in the male.
The Bittern is a common bird in this kingdom, and we believe in
most of the temperate parts of the Continent: in some of the colder
migratory, but with us it remains the whole year; frequents marshy
places, and especially where reeds grow, among which it makes the
nest, in April, chiefly composed of a bed of rushes, &c.: the female
lays four or five eggs, of a pale greenish ash-colour; the young are
hatched in  twenty-five days.     Is an  indolent  bird, stirring very
 1
little in the day, and not roused without difficulty ; flies slowly, and
frequently alights again at no great distance, hence is easily shot.
In the evening it becomes more alert, and is often seen to soar aloft
in a spiral manner, till quite out of sight, making at the same time
a singular noise; it has also another noise, like that of a bellowing
bull; beginning in February, and ceasing after breeding time; but
this is made while the bird is on the ground. The bellowing noise
is supposed to arise from a loose membrane, which can be filled with
air, and exploded at pleasure, the situation of it is at the divarication of the windpipe, is capable of great distention, and is probably
the cause of this singular phenomenon ; observed we believe in no
other bird, at least in the same degree.* We have had no opportunity
ourselves of witnessing this, but are informed by Dr. Lamb, that on
dissecting a female, he observed, that after the trachea had passed
into the thorax, to the lower part of the sternum, it was reflected to
the superior portion of the latter, and then on a second reflection
divided, and passed into the lungs. If attacked by men, or dogs,
it defends itself obstinately, drawing in its head between the shoulders, and in a moment darting it out to its utmost extent, always
aiming at the eyes; and we have heard of one instance wherein a
person, in attempting to secure one that he had shot, received so
severe a blow in the eye from the sharp beak, as to destroy the use
of it. The food is frogs, mice, and other reptiles, swallowing them
whole, as well as fish, f and in the stomach of one was also found
several warty lizards, perfect, besides the remains of several toads,
or frogs, probably taken out of the mud, in shallow water, in the
The Rev. Mr. Ward,
cumstance; and I have
:xploding it again sud-
* Willughby talks of this membrane, but not its probable v
in his Natural History of Birds, Vol. iii. 150, mentions this
been assured, that by rilling the trachea with air after death, and e
denly, a similar noise will be produced.*
f I once found two middle sized trouts whole in the stomach of a Bittern ; and on another
occasion, Dr. Lamb found in the stomach of one an undigested Reed Bunting.
* Some compare this to the noise of beating on the head of an empty cask.
 HERON. 99
swamp where it was shot: the lizards were not differing from those
in our waters in summer, having the fin on the tail.
In the breeding season Bitterns are, for the most part, found
only in the wet and reedy marshes, at others, chiefly in the neighbourhood of streams; and certain it is, that a greater proportion is
met with in cold weather. Mr. Boys informed me, that they are
never seen about Sandwich, except in the winter, and that in particular, in the severe season of January, 1784, great numbers were
shot thereabouts. Of late years we see both this and the Heron
exposed for sale in the London markets; and they have long been
esteemed for the table in Ireland, and sometimes half a guinea given
for one of the former. It is called in some parts of England, Butter-
Bump, and Bumpy, also Miredrum.
This species is found on the Continent, in various parts of Russia,
and in Asia; in Siberia, as far as the River Lena, and continued
considerably to the north. Inhabits Sweden, but, with all the other
Herons, disappears at the approach of winter. We trace this bird
through France, Italy, and Spain, as far as the Coast of Barbary;
and small flocks of six or eight appear about Gibraltar, in the
autumn, on their passage from the opposite shore; but how far it
goes to the south on the African coast is not certain. We have seen
it represented both in Chinese drawings, and in those from India,
but certainly is every where less frequent than the Heron, which last
is very common at Bengal.
Among the drawings of birds received from New-Holland, in
the collection of Mr. Francillon; is a dark coloured one, which is so
like our species, as not to merit description apart.
The Bittern in Gen. Hardwicke's India drawings, called Ghole.
 100
62.— AMERICAN BITTERN.
Botaurus Freti Hudsonis, Ind. Ornl ii. 680.    Brit
Le Butor de la Bayed'Hudson, Buf. vii. 430.
Marsh Bittern, or Indian Hen, Bartr. Trav. 291.
Hudson's Bay Bittern, Edw. pl. 136.    Arct. Zool.
Trans. Ixii. p. 410.    Gen. Syn. v. 58. 19. A.
, No. 357.    Id. Sup. p. 67.    Phil.
THIS is smaller than the CoinjHon Bittern, and two feet three
inches in length ; it is like it in all respects, but the ground colour
darker, more inclined to brown, and the bill longer in proportion
than in our species.
Inhabits Hudson's Bay, appears at Severn River the latter end
of May; lives chiefly among the swamps and willows, where it
makes the nest, «nd lays four eggs at a time, of a cinereous green;
the nest composed of water plants, placed on some dry spot, among
the long grass r, the young are at first black; it is called by the
natives Mokohosne; is said to be delicate eating; it for the most
part retires in October. Is found as far at least as Georgia, where it
is called the Brown Bittern; chiefly seen about ponds, in the wet
savannahs, in the pine woods ; is a- shy bird, and not common : the
young are speckled like a fawn, and are much less shy than the old
ones. Some esteem this as a Variety of the Common one; but it
differs, in not bellowing like the European Species. Mr. Abbot
observes, that this bird has a thin skin at the inner corner of the
eyelids, which it can pass over the eye at pleasure, but this we
believe is not singular; the White Heron, and others possess the same.
In the American Ornithology it is said to have twelve feathers
in the tail, and that in the Common Species there are only ten. But
we believe this is not strictly true, as in both sorts it consists of the
higher number.
 101
63.—FRECKLED HERON.
Ardea lentiginosa, rFreckled Heron, Orn. Diet. Supp. with a figure.    Franklin's Narr.
App .p. 685 ?
COLONEL MONTAGU mentions a Heron shot in the west of
England, and in his collection, of which he cannot precisely ascertain the species. It is twenty-three inches long. Bill two inches
and three quarters; in colour more like the Common Bittern than
any other, but not half the size: the plumage altogether much
darker, and the markings extremely different; legs long, slender,
greenish, middle claw pectinated. It possibly may prove a female,
or young bird, of one of the two last described ; but this is only
conjecture: it is more fully described in the Supplement to the
Ornithological Dictionary.
64—LENTIGINOUS HERON.
Ardea lentigino
Botaurus lentig
Ardea minor, A
, Compend. Orn. 136.
osus, Shaw's Zool.
.erican Bittern,   Amer. Orn. H
i. 35. pl. 65. f. 3.
LENGTH twenty-two inches. Head small; crown chocolate-
brown, shaded to a dull yellow, where the feathers are elongated;
throat white, with a row of brown feathers down the middle; back
and scapulars chocolate-brown ; legs greenish.
Shot  by  Mr. Cunningham,   at Middleton, in Dorsetshire, in
autumn 1804.    It seems much allied to the American Species.
65—WHITE-BELLIED BITTERN.
LENGTH three feet.    Bill three inches, dusky blue, the upper
ridge inclining to yellow ; lore and bare space round the eye bluish ;
 n
■
I
irides yellow; upper parts of the head, neck, and back, variegated
with yellow, rufous, and brown, in the manner of the Common
Bittern; the chin, neck before, and breast, not unlike, but paler;
and the whole marked with large, long, sagittal, rufous brown streaks,
barred on the sides ; the cheeks, beneath the eye, plain, pale dusky
yellow ; the belly, thighs, and vent, white, marked with long dusky
streaks, but not barred on the sides ; quills dusky, and reach to the
end of the tail; wing coverts mottled as the back, spotted and
varied with rufous brown ; legs pale blue.
Inhabits New-Holland, and frequents the marshes there; said to
be a rare bird.
66.—YELLOW BITTERN.
Ardea flava, Ind. Orn. ii. 682.    Gm. Lin. i. 638.
Botaurus Brasiliensis, Bris. v. 460.   7d.8vo.ii. 331.
ButorjauneduBresil, Buf. vii. 429.
Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 64.
LENGTH two feet three inches. Bill four inches and a half
long, serrated next the point, brown, with a pale green base; irides
golden yellow; head and hind part of the neck pale yellow, streaked
with black; back brown, with yellowish streaks; throat white; fore
part of the neck, breast, and belly, white, waved with brown, the
last edged with yellow; quills black and green mixed, the ends
white; the tail like the quills, but crossed with white lines; legs
dark grey.
Inhabits Brazil, and is accounted good eating.
67.—BRAZILIAN BITTERN.
Ardea Brasiliensis; Ind. Orn. ii. 681.    Lin. i. 239.     Gm. Lin. i
Id. 8vo. ii. 326.
Soco, Raii, 100. 14.    Will. 209. t. 51.   Id. Engl. 284. pl. 51.
L'Honore de Bois, Buf. vii. 433.
■
 HERON. 103
Clucking Hen, Brown, Jam. 478.    Damp. Voy. iii. part i. 75 ?
Brasilian Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 62.    Brown, III. 88. pl. 34.    Gent. Mag. Vol. 42.
pl. p. 209.
THIS is one-fourth less than the Common Heron, and two feet
and three quarters in length. Bill reddish yellow; head and upper
part of the body deep orange red, finely barred with black; chin
whitish red ; fore part of the neck pale red, with oblong black spots;
the feathers long and loose ; belly white, spotted with yellow; thighs
barred with dusky; quills black, with white tips; rump and tail
coverts dashed with white, black, and yellow, narrow lines; tail
black, crossed with a few white lines, and tipped with the same ;
legs dull rust-colour.
Another of these, probably differing in sex, had the long neck
feathers white on their lower parts; the breast and sides white, with
regular rows of large black spots; middle of the belly white; quills
as in the other, and besides spotted on the exterior web with white;
legs pale brown.
These inhabit the lakes and rivers in the hot parts of America,
and several of the West India Islands. They feed on fish, yet are
reckoned good eating, especially the young birds. The fowlers
watch in the sedges, and shoot them.
68.—LINEATED BITTERN.
Ardea lineata, Ind. Orn. ii. 682.    Gm. Lin. i. 638.
L'Onore raye, Buf. vii. 432.    Pl. enl. 860.
Le Heron d'un brun bleuatre, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 354.
Lineated Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 64.
LENGTH two feet and a half. Bill and lore blue, the last bare,
surrounding the base; upper parts of the head and neck bright
rufous, crossed with numerous brown lines; down the fore part
passes a streak of white, beginning at the chin ; this is bounded half
 way by dashes of brown, and the lower half mixed with the white ;
the upper parts crossed with fine waved, rufous, pale yellow, and
brown lines; the under parts of the body dirty white; quills and
tail black ; legs yellow.
Inhabits Cayenne; frequents the banks of rivers, and mostly
found single; when one of these is shot, it makes great defence,
darting out the head and neck suddenly, when it can strike the
enemy with advantage, aiming at the eyes. One of these birds kept
tame, was found ofIsingular use in destroying rats, watching them
with all the attention of a domestic-feat, and even with better success.
-TIGER BITTERN.
Ardea tigriasi, J.id. Orn. ii.
Heron tigre, Ferm. Surin.
L'Onore, Buf. vii. 431. 1
Tiger Bittern, Gen. Syn. v
63.   Nat. Misc. pl. 620.
LENGTH two feet six inches. Bill greenish ; irides pale yellow;
top of the head black; throat and sides of the neck pale rufous,
with regular spots of black; neck feathers very long; the rest of
the plumage deep rufous, marked with black, like the skin of a
tiger; chin white; the under parts much as the upper, but the
ground yellowish white; vent plain white; tail black, crossed with
four narrow bars of white; legs green.
Inhabits Cayenne, Surinam, and other parts of South America.
It does not seem to be a rare species, as I have met with several. It
lays seven or eight rounded, whitish eggs, spotted with green,
making the nest on the ground. It hides itself in the reeds, like our
European Bittern, and frequents the same kip^ of places. It is a
most beautiful species.
 70—PHILIPPINE HERON.
Ardea Philippensis, Ind. Orn. i
. 686.    Gm. Lin. i. 644.
Cancrofagus Philippensis, Bris
v. 474. t. 37. f. 2.    Id. 8\
Crabier des Philippines, PL enl
. 898.    Buf. vii. 395.
Philippine Heron,   Gen.' Syn. v
72.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill greenish yellow; lore green ;
top of the head and upper part of the neck rufous brown, inclining
most to brown on the head; back crossed with rufous and brown
lines; wings black, the feathers edged with rufous white; quills
and tail black; fore part of the neck dirty rufous white ; belly,
thighs, and vent, white; legs yellow.
Inhabits the Philippine Isles.
-ZIGZAG BITTERN.
Ardea undulata, Ind. Orn. ii. 681.    Gm. Lin. i. 637.
Le petit Butor de Cayepne, Buf. vii. 530.    PL enl. 763.
Zigzag Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 61.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill brown, under mandible pale;
lore bluish;* the plumage yellowish, or rufous grey, crossed with
narrow streaks of black brown ; these are pretty regular on the back,
but elsewhere undulated, and in a zigzag manner; the top of the
head black, and the neck feathers so full, as to make it appear
almost as big as the body; fore part of the neck palest, the brown
markings less in number; the belly and thighs have only a few
irregular zigzags ; legs yellow.
Inhabits Cayenne, and is a most beautiful bird. M. Temminck
is of opinion, that this is a young one of the Philippine Species.
* In the Pl. enlum. red.
VOL.  IX. P
 106
72— GREEN HERON.
Ardea virescens, Ind. Orn. ii. 684.    Lin, i. 238.    Gm. Lin. i. 635.
Ardea stellaris minima, Klein, 123.
\ 1.    Id. 8vo. ii. 339.
Cancrofagus viridis, Bris. v. 486. t. 37. f.
Le Crabier verd, Buf. vii. 404.
Small Bittern, Cates. Car, i. pl. 80.
Green Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 68.    Bart. Ti
, p. 291.    Amer. Orn. vii. 97. pl. 61. f. I.
LENGTH eighteen inches, Bill greenish brown ; beneath
yellowish-next the base; between that and the eye bare and yellow ;
irides yellow; crown ofthe head blackish^ gilded green, with a
gloss of copper in some lights, and the;feathers elongated, forming
a handsome crest; neck ferruginous bay; chin and throat white;
the rest of the neck before streaked with white ; in the direction of
the under jaw, beneath it, a ferruginous streak; back, tail, and
wings, dusky brown, with a tinge of lead-colour; the lesser wing
coverts and prime quills like the back, edged with buflT-colour; the
middle and larger wing coverts glossy dark green, with ferruginous
edges; breast and belly dusky j the feathers on the lower part ofthe
neck narrow, and fall over the breast; those of the back the same,
covering the rump ; legs greenish.
The female has the crown dusky, the feathers-scarcely elongated ;
those ofthe neck pale brown, sfreaked ?wdmf srtlitof! back and scapulars brelwnq the last marked with white at the end ; all the wing
coverts have a triangular white spot at the tip; the last row tipped
as the others, and margined with the same ; second quills dusky
green, with pale edges$:!the greater ■Jarowrt^glossed with green, and
tipped with white; the under parts of the body pale ash-colour;
bill and legs as in the male.
Inhabits New York, and several parts of North America; also
Jamaica, and other West India Islands. I have received birds from
both, and observe, that the Jamaica one is highest coloured. Supposed to breed in Carolina, as they are found there only in summer :
mm
 HERON. 307
they feed on small fish, frogs, and crabs. One of the customs of
this bird is to sit with the head drawn in between the shoulders, for
a long time together, on a branch of a tree hanging over the water;
from whence, it has the chance of darting on a fish, in the same
manner as the Belted Kingfisher; which, as well as this Heron, is
called Crab-catcher in Jamaica.
These frequent the ponds, lakes, &c. about Savanna, in Georgia,
and build in the bushes in the small Islands therein, making the
nest of sticks, and lay green eggs like those ofthe Blue Heron, but
smaller. Mr. Abbot observes, that the top of the head is blue, and
all the wing feathers green, margined with pale buff"; legs yellow.
A.—Le Crabier a tete et queue vertes, Buf. v
p. 69. 30. Var. A.
Pl. enl. 908.     Gen. Syn. '
SIZE of the last. Bill black ; head crested, gilded darkish
green ; plumage in general pale slate-colour; fore part of the neck
white, marked with longitudinal, ferruginous streaks ; chin white;
wing coverts blackish green, margined with rufous; tail short, of
the same colour as the crest; legs yellow.
Inhabits Cayenne; a Variety of the last, or differing in sex.
B.—Ardea fusca, Klein, 124.
Ardea stellaris minor, Raii, 189. 4.    Sloan. Jam. 315. pl. 236. f. 2.
Botaurus Americanus naevius, Bris. v. 464.    Id. 8vo. ii. 332.
L'Etoile, Buf. vii. 428.
Crab-catcher, Brown, Jam. 478.    Bartr. Trav. 291.
Brown Bittern, Cat. Car. i. pl. 78.    Gen. Syn. v. 70.
Length twenty inches. Bill greenish black, beneath pale green;
lore naked, and the same; irides gold-colour; plumage in general
brown, paler beneath; wings spotted with white; tail bluish ash-
colour; legs greenish yellow.
 "1
I  if
108 HERON.
Inhabits Jamaica, Carolina, and other parts of North America :
is probably a female of the Green Heron, having been sent to me,
as such from Jamaica, and North America.
Mr. Abbot observes, that when in adult plumage, there is no
great difference between the sexes; that on their arrival in Georgia
in the spring, the young ones of the second year are only beginning
to moult, and it is some time after that before they acquire the full
adult plumage; but not only the female, but the young males are
spotted more or less in proportion, as they advance towards maturity.
C.—Size of the others. Bill brown, with a dusky tip; general
colour of all the upper parts fine green ; the head furnished with a
long crest; wing coverts white, marked with large green spots;
beneath from chin to vent rufous white; legs green.
This was in the museum of the late Sir A. Lever, but from
whence it came uncertain.
73 —LOUISIANE HERON.
ArdeaLudoviciana, Ind. Orn. ii. 690.    Gm. Lin.i. 630.
Crabier roux a tete et queue vertes, Buf. vii. 407.
Crabier de la Louisiane, PL enl.  909.
Louisiane Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 81.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 350.
LENGTH sixteen inches. Bill dusky; lore pale yellow; top
of the head deep green, lengthening into a crest at the nape; the
rest of the head and neck rufous; fore part of it white, marked with
long rufous spots; back cinereous, tinged with purple, and the
feathers long and narrow; belly rufous brown ; wing coverts dull
green, the edges fulvous; quills blackish, many of them tipped with
white; tail blackish green ; legs yellow, claws black.
 HERON. 109
Inhabits Louisiana. It seems much allied to the Green Heron,
and may perhaps hereafter prove to be a Variety of that bird. . Is a
summer resident in Georgia, making a nest of sticks in a bush, the
eggs round, of a. pale green.
74—INDIAN GREEN HERON.
SIZE small; length uncertain, not more than fifteen inches.
Bill large, dusky, the base, lore, and round the eyes, dusky green ;
top of the head black, the feathers elongated into a crest behind ; in
the direction of the under jaw a black streak ; the rest of the head
and neck pale ash, or dusky; vent the same, the feathers pale and
pointed ; wing feathers green, with pale edges ; greater quills brown,
the margins pale; all beneath the body dusky white; legs dusky
pale yellow.
The female has the bill and lore the same; neck brown, streaked
with dusky white; back brown, the edges of the feathers pale ;
wings dusky, with pale margins, and a spot of white at the tips of
the feathers ; greater quills plain, but edged with pale yellow ; legs
as in the other.
Inhabits India.—Sir J. Anstruther. It is like the Green Heron,
but seems to be a distinct species. Is found at Cawnpore, in April
and May, and breeds there : the eggs pale blue.
75— SGUACCO  HERON.
Ardea comata,  Ind. Orn. ii. 687. Gm. Lin. i. 632.    It. Poseg. 24.    Gerin. iv. t. 418.
Pall, reise, ii. 715. 31.
Cancrofagus luteus, Bris. v. 472. Id. 8vo. ii. 335.
Sguacco, Raii, 99.    Will. 206.   Id. Engl. 281. viii.    Buf. vii. 391.
Crabier de Mahon, Buf. vii. 393. Pl. enl. 348.    Faun. Helvet.
Sguacco Heron,   Gen. Syn. v.  74. Br. Zool. 1812. ii. p. 26.      Lin. Trans, iii. 335.
Orn. Diet. Supp.
SIZE ofthe Blue Heron.    Bill livid red, with a brown tip;
lore greenish; irides yellow; crown of the head much crested; six
i
i
 a
ofthe feathers hanging quite to the back; these are narrow, white,
margined with black ; neck and breast pale ferruginous; the feathers
ofthe first very long and loose ; back ferruginous, inclining to violet,
the feathers long and narrow, reaching beyond the wings when closed,
and fall over them; wings, rump, tail, belly, and vent, white; tail
pretty long; legs stout, greenish yellow, claw of the middle toe
serrated.
This elegant species inhabits the bays of the Caspian Sea, and
slow streams of the Southern desert; also about Bologna, in Italy,
where it is called Sguacco; is said to be a bold and courageous bird.
One of these was shot at Boyton, in Wiltshire, by Mr. Lambert, in
the year 1778 ; and another taken on the 20th of July, 1822, in a
fisherman's net, whilst drying, at Ormsby, in Norfolk.*
In the British Museum is one with the crest composed of several
long feathers, striped dusky and white, and reaching to the middle
of the neck ; those of the lower part of the back narrow and long,
reaching beyond the tail; legs brown.
A.—Ardea comatee simillima, It. Poseg. p. 24.    Ind. On
Der Sguacco, Reiher, Bechst. Deuts. iii. s. 46.
Sguacco Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 302.
. 687. 39. y.
The bill in this is white, tipped with black; head not crested;
forehead and hind part of the neck testaceous white, the feathers
margined with black; tail white, the two middle feathers pale testaceous at the tips ; rump, belly, and sides, white.
Inhabits Possega, and other parts of Sclavonia, in Hungary;
supposed to be a young bird of the Sguacco.
* This was within fifty yards of the spot where the African Her
the possession of Col. Montagu, and now in the British Museum,
since.—Lin. Trans, xiii. 617.
I No. 89, formerly in
as taken -a few years
 Ill
76—COROMANDEL HERON.
Crabier de Coromandel, Buf. vii. 393.    PL enl. 910.
Sguacco Heron, Gen. Syn. v. p. 75. 39. A.
LENGTH twenty-one inches. Bill yellow; between that and
the eye bare and grey; the head not crested; plumage in general
white, with a rufous tinge on the back and wing coverts : hind part
of the neck inclining to rufous; the long feathers, which hang over
the breast, the same; legs yellow.
Inhabits India, and frequently seen in drawings from thence.
The male is said to be crested: in one drawing the name given to it
was Lurkea. In Gen. Harwicke's fine collection it is called Boghee
Soorkeea, or Gow-Boghla; in these the bill is yellow, two inches
and a half long, and a trifle inclining downwards towards the point.
We can esteem this no otherwise than belonging to the Sguacco,
either a female, or incomplete in plumage.
77.—RED-LEGGED  HERON.
Ardea Erythropus, Ind. Or
n. ii. G86.    Gm. Lin. i. 624.
Cancrofagus rufus, Bris. v.
469.    Id. 8vo. ii. 334.
Ardea hsematopus, seu Cirr
is, Raii, 99. 7.    Will. 106.
t. 50.
Le Crabier marron,  Buf. v
i. 390.
Red-legged Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 73.    Will. Engl. 281. pl. 50. f. 1.
SIZE of the Green Heron ; neck short. Bill blue green, with
a black tip ; irides yellow, incircled with red; head crested, yellow
and black, the feathers very long, and from the forehead hang
down all over the upper part of the head and neck; throat, neck,
and whole body, saffron-colour, inclining to chestn,u|f;, >palegfr above;
tail very short&<Jegs deep red, like those of a Pigeon ; claws black;
toes very longhand slightly joined, with a small membrane, at the
base.- Inhabits Italy, chiefly about Bologn#,
 ^
112
-     A.—Cancrofagus rufus nsevius, Btis. v. 471.    Id. 8vo. n. 3S5.     Gen. Syn. v. 75.
Aldr. Av. iii. t. p. 399.
This differs in having the neck spotted with black on the sides;
otherwise like the last; the legs yellowish instead of red : probably
a young bird.
78.—SQUAIOTTA HERON.
Ardea Squaiotta, Ind. Orn. ii. 686.    Gm. Lin. i. 634.    Tern. Man. 372.
Cancrofagus, Bra. v. 466.    Id. 8vo. ii. 333.
Squaiotta, Raii, 99.    Will. 207. t. 50.    Id. Engl. 281. pl. 50.
Le Crabier Caiot, Buf. vii. 389.
Squaiotta Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 72.
LENGTH eighteen inches. Bill three inches and three quarters,
yellow, with a black tip ; lore yellow ; on the head a tuft of about
thirty feathers, the middle ones white, the others black; independent
of these, the plumage is fine chestnut; scapulars long, narrow, and
white at the base ; legs green.
Inhabits Italy, about Bologna, where it is called Squaiotta.
79— CASTANEOUS HERON.
Ardea castanea, Ind. Orn. ii. 687.    Gm. Lin.
xv. 454. 9. t. 15.    Gmelin.     Id. reise,
Ardea ralloides, Scop. i. No. 121.    Tern. Ma
Der Rallen reiher, Bechst. Deuts. iii. s. 45.
Castaneous Heron, Gen. Syn. v. p. 75.
i. 633.     Dec. russ. i. 164.    N. C. Petr.
ii. 253.    Gerin. iv. t. 419? 420 ?
t. 370.   Id. Ed. ii. 582.
Id. 2d. Ed. iv. 47.
LENGTH twenty-two inches. Bill nearly three inches long,
black, with a livid base; lore green ; irides saffron-colour; crest
long, reaching to the middle of the neck; throat white; sides of
the head yellowish; neck the same, inclining to  chestnut; back
 HERON. 113
Rufous-chestnut, covered with long narrow feathers; breast, belly,
wings, rump, and tail white, tinged with yellow in some parts;
inner webs of some of the quills with a few spots of black, and the
tips of the tail feathers marked with black; legs saffron-colour;
claws black, much bent, except the hinder one.
Inhabits Russia, about the Don, coming from the Black Sea and
Arabia, but not far inland ; builds on trees ; has been thought to be
a Variety of the Sguacco Heron ; but M. Temminck unites both this
and the last to that bird as one, and the same species.
80—SWABIAN BITTERN.
Ardea Marsigli, Ind. Orn. ii. 681.    Gm. Lin. i. 637.
Botaurus minor, Bris. v. 452.    Id. 8vo. ii. 329.
Petit Butor, Buf. vii. 425.
Ardea viridi-flavescens,. Klein, Av. 124.
Der Schwabische Reiher, Bechst. Deuts. iii. s. 33.
Swabian Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 60.
THIS is much less than the Common Bittern. Irides whitish ;
bare space between the bill and eye yellow; head, upper part ofthe
neck, breast, belly, sides, rump, and tail coverts, rufous, striated
with brown ; back much the same, but the striae are broader, and
more numerous; throat and fore part of the neck white; upper part
of the thighs brownish white; quills pale brown, crossed with bars
of deeper brown ; tail whitish; legs pale yellow.
Inhabits the Banks of the Danube.
81.—DWARF  BITTERN.
Ardea pumila, Ind. Orn. ii. 683.    Gm. Lin. i. 644.    N. C. Petr. xiv. 502. t. 14. f. 1.
Dwarf Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 77.
LENGTH nineteen inches and a half.    Bill three inches, black,
with yellow edges; the lower mandible yellowish white, with a dusky
 114
HERON.
head feathers,  neck behind,  and
base; lore and irides yellow
sides, white, or rufous white, with dull chestnut margins, and white
tips ; throat white ; from it a stripe of the same passes down the fore
part of the neck to the breast, which is yellowish white ; belly the
same; scapulars, lesser wing coverts, and back, chestnut; the other
coverts mixed white and pale yellow; the two first quills are ash-
colour on the outer webs, the rest only at the tips, obscurely shaded
with rufous and white; rump and tail white; legs dusky, claws
blackish.
Inhabits the borders of the Caspian Sea. These seem to be
further Varieties of the Sguacco Heron. M. Temminck says, that
they are birds in the second year's plumage.
82.—BLACK-BACKED SGUACCO.
BILL yellow, with a dusky tip; bare space before the eye
greenish yellow; head and neck rufous white; the lower part of the
peck behind, and all before to the breast rufous orange, the feathers
much elongated on the latter; back between the wings, and rump,
violet black ; but the wings, all beneath from the breast, and tail,
are white ; legs yellow.
Another, supposed the female. Bill and legs yellow ; head and
neck pale, streaked all over with brown ; chin white; the back deep
ferruginous brown; wings, under part from the breast, and tail
white.
The first of these, with the exception of the black back, has
much affinity with the Sguacco Heron, the other answers, iri most
respects, to the Senegal Bittern. We have seen these figured in
the same drawing, leading one to think them merely differing in
sex; and the late Mr. Thompson received specimens of both from
New-Holland.
 83— CINNAMON HERON.
, Ind. Orn.
Gen. Syn.
9.    Gm.
Id. Suj
Lin. x. 643.    Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 191. 326.
235.    Pen. Hind. ii. 158.
LENGTH sixteen or eighteen inches. Bill two inches and a
half long, yellow; g