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A general history of birds. Vol. VI Latham, John, 1740-1837 1823

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  THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
WOODWARD HISTORICAL
COLLECTION
     GENERAL    HISTORY
BIRDS.
BY JOHN LATHAM,   M.D.
F.R.S.  A.S.   and  L.S.
Acad. Cjes. Nat. Curios.   Reg. Holm,  et Soc. Nat. Scrut.  Berolin.   &c.
VOL. VI.
WINCHESTER :
RINTED   BY  JACOB    AND    JOHNSON,     FOR  THE   AUTHOR :—SOLD    IN   LONDON   BY
G.   AND   W.   B.  WH1TTAKER,  AVE-MARIA-LANE ;    JOHN   WARREN,   BOND-S
w. wood, 428, strand; and j. mawman, 39, ludgate-street.
1823.
  Directions for placing the Plates.
Plate 93 VARIEGATED Tanager,   to face      -     Page 9
94 Capital Tanager               23
95 Crimson-crowned Finch 59
96 Parrot Finch  81
97 Duree Finch  115
98 Abyssinian Plant-Cutter                                     - 153
98* Cawnpore Flycatcher  176
99 Fantail Flycatcher  184
100 Red-bellied Flycatcher                                       - 209
101 Crimson-bellied Flycatcher                                - 215
102 Peruvian Flycatcher  257
103 New Zealand Lark  310
104 Pied Wagtail  320
104* Southern Wagtail  322
J
  ORDER III.    PASSERINE.
GENUS XLIII.—TANAGER.
1 Red-breasted Tanager
19 Showy
41 Variable
2 Brazilian
20 Sayacu
42 Grey-headed
A Spotted
21 Spotted green
43 Red-bellied
B Var.
22 Spotted emerald
A Var.
3 Olive
23 Green
B Var.
A Var.
24 Jacarini
C Var.
4 Red
25 White-headed
44 Black and Blue
A Scarlet
26 Yellow
45 Blue
5 Yellow-headed
27 Silent
46 Blue-shouldered
6 Mississippi
28 Caerulean
47 Elegant
A Var.
29 Capital
48 Black-crowned
7 Summer
30 Green-headed
49 Black-capped
A Variegated.
A Var.
50 Black
8 Louisiane
31 Paradise
51 Malimbic
9 Grand
32 Golden
52 Crimson-throated
10 Crested
33 Negro
53 Divaricated
11 Black-faced
34 Violet
54 Red-billed
12 Hooded
35 Turquoise
55 Jew
13 Black-headed
36 St. Domingo
56 White-billed
14 Furrow-clawed
37 Rufous-headed
57 Red-sided
15 Red-throated
A Var.
58 Orange-billed
16 Red-headed
B Var.
59 Poppy
17 Archbishop
38 Tuneful
60 Red-crested
18 Bishop
39 Yellow-fronted
61 Paraguan
A Var.
40 Virescent
Jo ILL  conoid,   a little inclining  towards the point, the upper
mandible more or less ridged, and frequently notched near the end.
I
 Birds of this Genus were generally supposed only to inhabit the
warmer parts of America, but there have been specimens obtained
from India and Africa, wi&4il*s so e&adtly corresponding with the
Tanagers, as justify our entering them among the rest ofthe Genus.
1.—RED-BREASTED TANAGER.
Tanagra Jacapa, Ind. Om. i. 419.    Lin. i. 313.    Gm. Lin.i. 888.
Lanius Carbo, Pall. Adumb. 114.
Cardinalis purpurea, Bm.iii. 49. t.S; f.2. 3 ?    Id. 8vo. i. 317.
Tangara purpurea, Spalowsk. ii. t. 38.
Avis Americana* Qarflinalis niger dicta, Gerin. iii. t. 334.
Ramphopis Jacapa, Shaw's Zool. ix. p. 439.
Le Bee d'Argent, Cardinal pourpr,e, Buf. iv. 259.    Pl. ml. 128. 12.
Ramphocele Bee d'Argent, Besm. Tang, pl.30.31.
Red-breasted Tanager, Gm. Syn. iii. 214.    Edw. p\. 267.
SIZE of a Sparrow; length six inches and a half. Bill stout,
and black, except the base of the lower mandible, which is -singularly rounded at the back part, broad, and silvery White; irides
brown ; the plumage in general is black, glossed with purple, except
the chin, throat, and breast, which are deep crimson; the fore part
of the head is also crimson in some specimens, and I have observed
one, in which all the nnder parts, quite to the vent, were crimson.
The female has nojt the conspicuous character of the under mandible so strongly marked as the male; the plumage dull purplish
brown; beneath reddish; wings and tail brown ; legs in both sexes
brown.
Inhabits Cayenne, Guiana, Mexico, and other parts of America,
living only on fruits; Comes frequently near habitations, and into the
gardens, generally seen in pairs: the nest is of a cylindrical form, a
trifle curved, six inches long, and four inches and a half in diameter,
composed of dried fibres and leaves, and lined with the latter; it is
fes&ned to the borizoDtal branch of a low tree, the opening beneath :
the female layls totoi white eggs* marked with si»all, pale red Spets,
 chiefly at the large end. The want of the character of the under
mandible in Brisson's plate, and the Pl. enlum. may mislead, but
Edwards's figure expresses the bird perfectly. As to the reference of
Linnaeus to Brisson's Muscicapa,* it is a different bird, of twiee the
size of the one here described ; and, as it appears to us, belonging to
the Chatterers.
2—BRAZILIAN TANAGER.
Tanagra Brazilia, Ind. Om. i. 420.   Lin. i. 314.    Gm. Lin. i. 888.    Borowsk, iii. 174.
Shaw's Zool ix. 241.
Loxia Mexicana, Ind. Om. i. 377.    Lin.i. 300.    Gm.Lin.i. 848.
Coccothraustes Mexicana, Bris. iii. 256.    Id. 8vo.i. 380.
Cardinalis, Bris. iii. 42. t. 3. f. 1.   Id. 8vo. i. 315.   Pl. enl. 127. 1.
Cardinalis non cristatus, Gerin. iii. 335. 2.
Avis Mexicana, &c. Seba, i. 101. t. 65. f. 1.
Tanagra rudis, Ind. Om. Sup. xlvii.    Mus. Carls, iv.  t. 94.
Passer erythromelas, Tije piranga, Raii, 87.     Will. 183.   Id. Engl. 251. § 8.
Chiltototl, Rati, 169. 173.
Ramphopis Brasilia, Gen. Zool. x. 440.
Ramphocel&sparlatte, Bestn. Tang. pl. 28. 29.
Passer Indicus porphyromelas, Raii, 87.    Will. 183.    Id. Engl. 251. § 8.
Brasilian Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 215.   Nat. Misc. pl. 234.—-male.
Rude Tanager, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 205. <9*-—female.
A TRIFLE larger than a House Sparrow; length six inches.
Bill black, in the middle a small process, the under mandible white
half way from the base, and continued far backwards; the whole
body fine crimson, except the thighs, which are black; lesser wing
coverts black, mixed with crimson ; the rest of the coverts, quills,
tail, and legs, of a full black ; the base of the feathers is also black
throughout, only the ends being crimson; the feathers about the
head and neck are rather shorter than the rest, not unlike velvet.
The female is about the size of the male. Bill pale horn-colour;
plumage above dark brown; crown of!$ieihead darker; round the
* Muse. Caym. nigra, T. ii. 386. tab. 38. f. 3.
B 2
\
 neck, the chin, throat, and breast, pale ash-colour; from thence the
under parts are pale ferruginous; quills and tail dusky, the former
short, only reaching a little beyond the base; legs dusky.
Both sexes were in the collection of Gen. Davies, brought from
Rio Janeiro; it is called in Brazil, Tije, and is there very common.
Inhabits also Mexico, Brazil, and other parts of South America.
Buffon mentions Canada also, but we have never seen any from
thence.    It is a much rarer species than the red, or following.
A.r-Cardinalis nsevius, Bris. iii. 44.   Id. 8vo. i. 215.    Gm. Syn. iii. 216. A.
Bill as in the last. General colour of the plumage crimson;
breast, and upper part of the back, marked with greenish lunated
spots; wings, tail, and legs, black.
B.—Cardinalis torquatus, Bris. iii. 45.    Id. 8vo. i. 316.
Passer cyanerythromelas, &c. Raii, 87.    Will. 185.
Rumpless blue and red Indian Sparrow,  Will. Engl252.    Gm. Syn.iii. 216. B.
Bill black, near the forehead white; plumage crimson, with two
semilunar blue spots on the sides of the neck; wings and tail black;
lesser wing coverts and margins of the first blue; legs short, and
black.—Inhabits Brazil, with the last.
3.-OLIVE TANAGER.
Tanagra olivacea, Ind. Orn. i. 421. Gm. Lin. i. 889.
L'olivet, Buf iv. 269. Besm. Tang. pl. 35. 36. 37.
Olive Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 218.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 237.    Shaw's Zool. x. 457.
LENGTH six inches. Bill bent, pointed; the lower mandible
passing much backwards, colour whitish; nostrils at the base, small,
the feathers coming close; plumage above fine olive green; beneath
to the breast yellow, from thence to the vent yellowish white; sides
 of the head and neck, and a streak over the eye, yellow; upper
wing coverts dusky, deeply margined with greenish yellow; quills
dusky, with yellowish edges; tail even, olive, two inches long,
colour as the quills, which reach about to one-third; legs stout,
pale; outer and middle toes united at the base.
The female has the body yellowish beneath, and the wings and
tail coverts dusky.
Inhabits Cayenne, found also at New York, in North America.
, Gm. Syn. Sup. 161. A.
This is six inches long; the plumage much the same, but with
a white streak in the direction of the lower jaw, as well as one over
the eye; lower belly and vent white; legs black.
Found at New York.—General Davies.
M. Desmarest mentions an Olive Tanager, which is only three
inches long; general colour olive-grey, paler beneath; lower belly
plain grey. He supposes this to be either an imperfect young bird
or a female. He met with it in the Jardin des Plantes, and only
heard that it came from Cayenne*
4 —RED TANAGER.
Tanagra rubra, Ind. Orn.i. 420.    Lin. i. 314.    Gm. Lin. i. 889.
Cardinalis Canadensis, Bris. iii. 48. t. f. 5.    Id. 8vo. i. 316.
Tangara du Canada, Besm. Tang. pl. 34.
Red Tanager, Gm. Syn. iii. 217.   Arct. Zool. ii. No.237.   Amer. Orn. ii. pl. 11. f. 3.4«
Shaw's Zool. x. 462.
LENGTH six inches and a half; extent of wing ten inches and
a half. Bill horn-colour; irides cream-colour, plumage in general
pale red; wing coverts black; quills brown,  margined within with
* See Euphone olive, Besm. Tang. pl. 27.
I
 6 TANAGER.
white for three quarters fofvp the base; the two nearest the body
black; tail black, a trifle forked, the feathers tipped with white;
legs bluish black.
The female is wfeplly greeQt, paler benea|&, inclined to yellow.
Inhabits North America, in the collection of General Davies.
It is found, also, as far south at least as Georgia; comes into
Pennsylvania the beginning of May, and extends as far as Canada;
makes a nest on a horizontal branch of a tree, mostly composed of
dry grass, and loosely fabricated; eggs three, of a dull blue, spotted
with dark, purplish mottlings; and generally departs the last week
in August; said to breed more than once in a year. These birds
chiefly feed on insects, but are fond also of fruits, of which they
sometimes, make much havock. Mr. Abbot met with it about Savannah, but only a single specimen.
A Merula Brasilica, Raii, 66. 8.    Will. 142.    Gerin. iii. t. 305.
Le Scarlat, Tangara du Canada, Buf. iv. 245.    Pl. enl. 156. 1.
Brasilian Merula,  Will. Engl. 193. §V.
Scarlet Sparrow, Edw. pl 343.    Gen. SynAiii. 217.    Var. A.
This is seven inches long, and twelve broad. It diflers from the
other, in not having the tail feathers tipped with white. These are
said to be shy birds, and to live for the most part in the deepest woods.
5—YELLOW-HEADED TANAGER.
Loxia Mexicana, Ind. Om. i. 385,   Lin: i. 304.    Gm. Lin. i. 854.    Bris. iii. 97.   Id.
8vo. i. 334.    Baud. ii. 432.    Shatv's Zool. ix. 266..
Emberiza flava Mexicana, Klein, Av. 92.
Linotte k t£te jaune, Buf. iv. 83.
Yellow-headed Linnet, Edw. pl. 44.
Yellow-headed Grosbeak, Gen. Syn.iii. 140.
LENGTH six inches.    Bill pale flesh-colour; irides hazel; the
head and throat yellow; behind the eyes a brpwn band, passing to
 the back; body above brown, spotted with black; beneath paler,
spotted with dull brown; quills and tail blackish; legs dull brownish
flesh-colour.
Inhabits Mexico. This bird has been ranked by different authors
under as many Genera, and thought by some to belong to the Grosbeaks, but on attending more cldsely to the figure giVen by Edwards,
it appears by the bill to be a Tanager, and we have placed it
^csctordi&gty; but how far it is a distinct specieis M\\ remains uncertain.
MvTemminck considers it as allied to the Red Tanager, and if so,
probably the female, or an imperfect male.
6.—MISSISSIPPI TANAGER.
Tanagra Mississippensis, Ind. Om. i. 421.    Gm. Lin.i. 889.   Nat. Misc. i. j#. 693.
Vieil. N. Bict. Hist. Nat. 3*96. t. 21.
Tangara de Mississippi, Buf. i 7. 252.    Pl. enl 741.   Besm. Tang. pl. 32.33.
Le Souiriri rouge, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 188.
Mississippi $teiger, Geh'. Syn. iii. 218. 5.    Shaki'b Zool. x. 463.
THIS is somewhat larger than the last. The bill bigger and
brown, both mandibles curved intvards; differs from the former, in
having the wings and tail of the same rfed colour as the rest bf the
plumage, though rather deeper; legs reddish.
Inhabits North America, frequent in the neighbourhood of the
river Mississippi; said to sing very agreeably, though much louder
than the Red Species. It has the reputation of forming a hoard of
maize against winter, in the manner of the Cardinal Grosbeak.
Du Pratz affifaiti it of both these birds, but I ha Vie nGVer met with
any person who could authenticate such a proceeding. In tfuth, the
bird chiefly feeds tin insects and fruits, nor has any hlaize been found
in its stomach on dissection.
 A.—Cardinalis Mexicanus, Bw.iii. 46.   Id. 8vo. i. 316.
Le Souiriri rougeobscur, Voy. d'Azara,iii. No. 189?
Mexican Tanager, Gm. Syn. iii. 219. B,    Gen. Zool x. 465.
Bill cinereous; irides white; head, wings, and tail, the colour of
an amethyst; neck behind green; under parts of the body and rump
crimson; Beginning ofthe wings green and red mixed; scapulars
yellowish; each wing feather encompassed with a greenish hue, running down from the middle; tail paler towards the tip; legs cinereous, inclining to violet.
Inhabits Mexico. I suspect this to be the same with Azara's
bird, which he says is seven inches and a half long, and twelve
inches in extent; eyelids white; head and neck above rufous brown;
wing-coverts black, edged with crimson; rump and under parts
crimson ; tail rounded; feathers of the crown a little elongated; on
the prime quills a spot of black near the ends.
Azara observes, that his bird is found about Paraguay in spring,
but is rare, and the male and female much alike; seen on towers>
the tops of churches, or other tall buildings, chacing after swallows.
7.—SUMMER TANAGER.
Tanagra sestiva, Ind. Om: i. 422.    Gm. Lin. i. 889.
Muscicapa rubra, Lin. i. 326.    M. ii. 432.   Id. 8vo. i. 277.
Fringilla rubra, Klein, 97. 4.
Preneur des mouches rouge, Buf. iv. 585.
Summer Red Bird, Cat. Car. i. pl. 56.    Edw. pl. 329.     Am.
Bartr. 288.
Summer Tanager, Gen. Syn.
Om. i. pl. 6. f. 3.4.
20.   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 236.    Shaw's Zool. x. 464.
LENGTH near eight inches ; breadth eleven. Bill stout, a trifle
bent, enlarged in the middle, and black; eyes large, black; the
whole bird scarlet, brighter beneath, except the tips of the quills,
which are dusky red; tail even, feathers rather pointed; legs dusky.
     TANAGER. 9
The female is brownish yellow, or olive green, on the upper
parts; full yellow beneath, at first sight appearing wholly yellow ;
forehead and above the eye brownish; quills and tail greenish brown,
fringed with green.    Young males, at first, are like the females.
Inhabits Carolina and Virginia, in the summer; at that time is
also frequent in Georgia: builds the beginning of May ; the nest
formed of dried flower stalks outwardly, lined within with hay; the
eggs generally five, mottled with brown,:!with a cast of green. According^ to the Amer. Ornithology, the male has a strong, sonorous
whistle, like the trill of a fife, and frequently repeated. The female
only cries Chicky-tucky-tuck at the approach of any one, when
disturbed; it frequents the flat sandy country, covered with wood,
interspersed with pines; in plenty in Carolina, Georgia, and Florida;
some also in Mexico.
Pl. xciii.
A.—Tanagra vanegata, Ind. Om. i. 421.    Gm. Lin. i. 889. 6. /3.
Loxia variegata, Gm. Lin. i. 849.
Yellow-bellied Grosbeak, Gm. Syn.iii. 125 ?    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 215 ?
Variegated Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 219. pl. 46.    Shaw's Zool. x. 463.
Size of the others; bill and legs brown; plumage varied with
crimson and greenish bufF-colour; the last in patches on the nape of
the neck, the whole of tbe wing, lower part ofthe back, and middle
of the belly; tail half crimson, half greenish buff.
Inhabits America, and is probably a young bird of the Mississippi, or Red Tanager, as we are informed, that for the first season,
the plumage is mixed in patches with greenish buff, in different
proportions, according to the age, in the same manner as is seen in
the Hooked-billed Red Honey-Eater, the full plumage of which in
the adult is fine red.
I have observed some specimens of the Summer Tanager, in
which the red is less bright, inclining to brick-colour.
VOL.   VI. C
 10
8—LOUISIANE TANAGER.
Tanagra Ludovic
, Louisiane Tanage
•. Om. Hi. pl. 20. f. 1.
LENGTH six inches. Bill yellowish horn-colour, edges of the
upper mandible rugged, as in others of the Genus. Shape of the.
body like that ofthe Red Species; fore part ofthe head, and beyond
the eyes light scarlet; back, wings, and tail black; greater wing
coverts tipped with yellow ; the next superior row wholly yellow,
forming a bar; neck, rump, tail coverts, and the whole of the under
parts greenish yellow ; tail slightly forked, the edges ofthe feathers
whitish, or very pale ; legs light blue.
In one, supposed to be a female, or young bird, the wings and
back were brownish ; it was also less in size.
Inhabits the extensive plains ofthe Missouri, between the Osage
and Maudan nation, and feeds on various kinds of berries : the nest
found in low bushes, and often among the grass.
In the work above quoted, this bird is distinguished from the
Red, or Scarlet Tanager; yet, from the description, it seems greatly
to approach to that species.
9.—GRAND TANAGER.
Tanagra magna, Ind. Om. i. 422.    Gm. Lin. i. S90.
Le grand Tangara, Buf iv. 236. pl. 11.    Besm. Tang. pl. 43.
Tangara des grand bois, Pl. enl 205.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ixx.
L'Habia a sourcils blancs, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 81. 82 ?
Grand Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 220.    Shaw's Zool. x. 442.
SIZE of a Thrush ; length eight inches and a half. Bill stout,
brown; upper parts of the body olive brown ; fore part and sides of
the head blue ; Over the eye a streak of white; on each side of the
lower mandible a black one, like a whisker; the throat red, in the
middle of it a white spot; the rest of the under parts pale red; vent
 TANAGER. 11
and thighs red; quills and tail olive brown, with pale margins, the
latter three inches long.
Inhabits the thick woods about Cayenne and Guiana, sometimes
approaching the inhabited, and more open spots, perching on the
bushes; both sexes are much alike as to colour, and mostly together;
the food fruits and insects: M. d'Azara says, the irides are rufous.—
The nest is found on thick bushes, near plantations, placed about
the middle of the bush, made of small twigs of the Liane dry, mixed
with leaves, with a lining of softer materials; it is of small dimensions, about four inches in diameter, and only two and a half within;
the eggs two, fine blue, spotted with black; has a song in pairing
time, varied, and not disagreeable: is sometimes kept in a cage, and
will feed on bread, husked maize, fruits, and many other things,
swallowing the food whole; but if too large, will break it with the
bill.—In the Leverian Museum was a specimen, dark ash-colour on
the breast.
One, supposed the female, in the collection of Lord Stanley, is
deep dusky ash-colour above, beneath pale greenish ash ; vent and
under tail coverts rufous buff; lower part of the thighs, next the
joint, pale yellow green ; tail three inches and a half long, rounded
at the end, the outer feather half an inch shorter than the middle ;
all but the two middle ones glossed with green ; over the eye a dusky
white streak, but obscure, with a dusky streak on each side of the
lower mandible: throat dusky white.
10—CRESTED TANAGER.
Tanagra cristata, Ind. Orn. i. 422.    Lin.i. 317.    Gm. Lin.i. 898.    Borowsk,iii. 174.
Tangara Cayanensis nigra cristata, Bris. Sup. 65. t.4. f. 3.    Id. 8vo.i. 319.
La Houppette, Buf. iv. 240.    Pl. enl. 7. f. 2. et 331.2..  Besm. Tang, pl.47^48.49.
Troupiale de Bois noir et couronue,' Voy. d'Azara^. No. 77.
Crested Tanager, Gm. Syn. iii. 221.    Shaw's Zool. x. 478.
LENGTH six inches and a quarter. Bill black; head cresjted,
the crest orange-colour;  chin, lower part of the back, and rump
 12 TANAGER.
pale buff-colour; the under ridge of the wing, and sides beneath it,
edged near the breast with buff; from the bend, for one inch, white;
on the scapulars a white streak ; the rest of the plumage black; legs
lead-colour.
Individuals vary much in colour: that in Pl. enlwm. 301, has an
erect crest, striped with orange and black, and wants the buff on the
throat; outer edge of the wing yellow, instead of white; and on the
scapulars not a line, but a patch of white; sides of the breast orange,
and of the vent ferruginous; bill and legs brown.
One, similar to this, was in the collection of General Davies: the
tail three inches long.    This came from Cayenne.
In the collection of Lord Stanley, as also in that of Mr. Bullock,
is a fine specimen, having the head feathers elongated into a crest,
falling over the nape; this is of a beautiful, glossy crimson, but at
the.beginning, or forehead, buff-colour; plumage in general dusky
black ; lower part of the back and rump buff; at the inner bend of
the wing a white streak ; under wing coverts white; on the chin a
pale patch of buff; tail two inches and three quarters long; legs
brown. This supposed to be the male, the others females, or young
birds.
This species is said to be common at Guiana, and lives on the
lesser kinds of fruits; the note like that of a Chaffinch ; found only
in open places. Those which Azara saw in Paraguay were called
Saihobis, or Orange-Eaters.
11—BLACK-FACED TANAGER.
Tanagra melanopis, Ind. Om. i. 422.
 atra, Gm. Lin. i. 898.
Le Camail, ou la Cravatte, Buf. iv. 254.    Pl enl. 714. 2.    Besm. Tang. pl. 42.
Black-faced Tanager,  Gen. Syn. iii. 222.    Shaw's Zool x. 454.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill moderately strong, and black; base
of the upper mandible whitish ; all of the fore part of the head, sides,
 TANAGER. 13
chin, and fore part ofthe neck black, ending in a point at the breast;
the rest of the plumage ash-colour, paler beneath; quills and tail
deepest, the last rounded at the end; legs dusky.
In the female the head and fore parts are brown, where the male
is black; and the upper parts ofthe body pale yellowish ash-colour;
beneath paler than above.
Inhabits the open parts of Guiana, and Cayenne; but is not
common.
12.—HOODED  TANAGER.
MALE.
Tanagra pileata, Ind. Om. i. 423.    Gm. Lin.i. 898.
La CoifFe noire, Buf. iv. 284.    PL enl 720. 2.    Besm. Tan. pl. 41.
Le Bee en poincon bleu et blanc, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 105.
Hooded Tanager, Gen. Syn.iii. 223.    Shaw's Zool. x. 443.
SIZE of a Hedge Sparrow; length about four inches. Bill
dusky; top of the head and sides black, passing down on each side
of the neck, ending in a point near the wing; between the bill and
eye a small white spot; the rest ofthe upper parts ofthe neck, body,
wings, and tail, bluish ash-colour, deeper on the two last; beneath
as far as the breast white, from thence to the vent greyish, or silvery
white; legs dusky.
Tangara Brasiliensis cinerea, Bris. iii. 17.    Id. 8vo. i. 308.
Tijepiranga 2da Species, Raii, 89.    Will. 184.   Id. Engl. 251.
Size of the other, but wants the black on the head; the upper
parts wholly bluish ash-colour; the under white.
These inhabit Guiana and Brazil.
 14
13.—BLACK-HEADED TANAGER.
Tanagra atricapilla, Ind. Om. i
Le Mordore, Buf. iv. 255.
Tangarajaune *tetenoire, Pl.
Black-headed Tanager, Gen. Syn
224.    Gm. Lin
enl. 809. 2
224.    Shaw's Zool, x. 443.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill stout, dusky black ; head, wings,
and tail, fine glossy black, on the inner edge of the wing a dash of
white ; the rest of the body fine rufous orange, (mordore) deepest on
the fore part of the neck and breast; the tail is rounded at the end ;
legs brown.
Inhabits Guiana, where it is rare.
14.—FURRO\Y-CLAWED TANAGER.
Tanagra-
striata, Ind. Or
n. i. 423.   G
L'Ongle
, Buf. iv. 256.
Lindo bl
eu, dore, et noi
fa- Vo^di'tAsf
Furrow-
lawed Tanager,
Gen. Syn. iii
LENGTH seven inches, breadth eleven; head striped black and
blue; upper part of the back black, the lower bright orange; upper
tail coverts olive brown ; upper wing coverts, quills, and tail black,
edged with blue ; under parts yelloifr ; claws singularly constructed,
each being furrowed on the sides, parallel to the edge.
The female has the head and wing coverts blue, mixed with
brown; neck behind, lesser wing coverts, half the back, and two
middle tail feathers gilded brown ; greater coverts, quills, and tail,
dull brown, edged with blue ; fore part of the neck rufous orange;
throat and beneath light brown, darker on the sides.
Inhabits South America; not unfrequent about Paraguay ; and
a few at Buenos Ayres. The females seem to be more numerous
than the males ; but this may be deception, perhaps from both sexes
appearing like females while young.
ten
 15
15.—RED-THROATED TANAGER.
Tanagra gularis, Ind. Om. i. 425.    Lin. i. 316.    Gm. ten. \. 824.
Cardinalis Americanus, Bris. App. 67. t. 4. f. 4.    Id, 8vo. i. 320.
Le Rouge Cap, Buf. iv. 267.
Tangara brun d'Amerique, Pl. enl. 155. 2.
■■    ■ rouge Cap, Besm. Tang. pl. 12, 13, 14.
Le Capita, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 137.
Red-headed Tanager, Gm. Syn. iii. 228.    Shaw's Zool x. 461.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill brown, beneath orange; irides
red; head,* chin, and throat, crimson, tending to a point on the
last, and there spotted with purple ; upper parts of the body, wings,
and tail, fine glossy black, the under pure white: tail three inches
long, and somewhat rounded ; legs dusky.
Male and female nearly alike. The one figured in the Pl. enlum.
has the upper parts brown; which, if not a sexual distinction, may
perhaps be the dress of a young bird.
Inhabits Guiana and Cayenne, but is not common; found more
frequently at Paraguay, and about the river Plate, where it is called
Capita and Acapita, or Red Head; by the Spaniards Cardinal; is
seldom seen amidst deep woods, or open plains ; the flight short, and
the gait progressive by leaps; unites into small flocks in winter, and
approaches settlements; bears confinement in a cage, and will feed
on all sorts of seeds, as well as insects: said to make a nest like
that of the Black-faced Finch, and to lay four eggs : the irides and
legs, in some, are red.
16.—RED-HEADED TANAGER.
Tanagra gyrola, Ind. Orn. i. 427. Lin. i. 315. Gm. Lin. i. 891.
Tangara Peruviana viridis, Bris. iii. 23. t. 4. 1. Id. 8vo. i. 310.
Fringillago viridis capite rubro, Gerin. iii. 333. 2.
* In Linnaeus's description, the head is called black, " capite nigro;" but I apprehend
this to be a mistake, as he describes from Brisson, whose bird has the head crimson.
 16
TANAGER*
Fringilla pectore caeruleo, Klein, .98.
Fringilla viridis capite spadiceo, Act. Petr. _
Tangara de Perou, Le Rouverdin, Buf. iv.
pl. 16. 7.
Tangara tachete de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 301. 1.
Red-headed Greenfinch, Edw. pl. 23.
Red-headed Tanager, Gm. Syn. iii. 2
:iv. 432. t. 15. f. 4. Var.
286,   Pl. enl. 133, 2.   Besm. Tan.
Shaw's Zool. x. 449.
SIZE of a Linnet; length five inches. Bill horn-colour;
general plumage shining green ; the whole head rufous; breast pale
blue; on the upper part of the wing a yellow spot; quills and tail
brown, edged with green ; the two middle feathers ofthe last wholly
green; legs pale brown.
Inhabits Cayenne, and other parts of South America. Is met
with at Guiana two or three times in a year, and frequents large
trees, which grow in the forests, in great numbers, to eat the fruits
as they ripen ; and disappears when such food begins to fail.
That described in the Petersburgh Transactions, has the thighs
pale chestnut.
The head of the bird figured by Edwards is dull scarlet, and the
neck surrounded with a yellow ring ; the breast blue, the rest ofthe
body green.
One in Lord Stanley's collection is five inches and a half long.
Head and sides of the chin rufous; rest of the plumage above fine
green ; beneath paler, with a bluish tinge ; thighs rufous ; the wings
of one colour, without any yellow spot, as in that figured in the Pl.
enlum; legs black.
The above seem to be mere differences from age or sex.
17—ARCHBISHOP TANAGER.
Tangara Archeveque, Besm. Tang. pl. 17.18.
LENGTH seven inches.    Bill and legs black; the head, neck,
and back greyish violet; lower belly and rump grey ; back olive;
 quills and tail brown black, edged with yellowish green; lesser wing
coverts above golden yellow, beneath white, towards the end dusky.
The female is rather smaller: colour grey brown, with a greenish
tinge on the upper parts, and with violet beneath; cheeks violet;
quills and tail dusky, edged with greenish ; the upper wing coverts
yellow, but less bright than in the male.
Specimens of both sexes are in the National Museum, at Paris.
18. -BISHOP TANAGER.
Tanagra Episcopus, Ind. Orn. i. 424.    Lin.i. 316.    Gm. Lin. i. 896.    Bris. iii. 40.
t. i. f. 2.    Hist. Louis, ii. 140.    Salem, 277. 1.19. f. 3.
Le Bluet, L'Eveque, Buf. iv. 265. t. 12.    PL ml. 178. f. 1. 2.
Sayacu, Edw. pl. 351. 1.
Tangara Eveque, Besm. Tang. pl. 15,16.
Bishop Tanager, Gen. Syn. ii. 226.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 240.    Shaw's Zool. x. p. 447.
LENGTH six inches and a quarter. Bill black; under mandible greyish ; plumage in general greyish blue, inclining to green
in some parts, and to grey in others; the lesser wing coverts mostly
blue; legs cinereous.
The female has the head, neck, and back, pale greenish brown :
wing coverts pale greenish ash-colour; quills deep brown, base of
most of them pale greenish ash, appearing as a patch, at the bottom
of the greater wing coverts; quills and tail fine brown ; all the under
parts pale greenish brown, more so than above ; before the eye, and
chin under.the bill, pale ash-colour; the quills reach half way on
the tail; bill and legs dusky.
In some birds, supposed females, the head, neck, and breast, are
blue-green; belly grey; back and wing coverts brown; across the
last an oblique greyish bar; quills and tail black, the latter somewhat forked.
Inhabits Cayenne; found also in Louisiana, especially about the
skirts of forests, and feeds on the smaller fruits, sometimes in large
VOL. VI. D
 Jg TANAGER.
flocks, but chiefly in pairs; roosts at night on the palm trees; has
little or no song, except a sharp, disagreeable voice may be called
so.    The inhabitants call it L'Eveque, or Bishop.
A.—Gracula glauca, Mus. Carls, iii. t. 54.
Length seven inches. Bill as the other; wing coverts, at the
bend, mixed bluish and white, beneath them whitish; greater quills
bluish green; the secondaries almost wholly brown ; tail bluish; the
legs dusky.
19—SHOWY TANAGER.
Tanagra ornata, Ind. Orn. Sup. xlvii.   Mus. Carls', iv. t. 95.
Showy Tanager, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. 205.    Shaw's Zool. x. 466.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill and legs dusky grey; plumage
above brownish green, beneath pale grey; head pale bluish violet;
lesser wing coverts not unlike the back, middle tipped withyellow,
making a bar on the wing; the rest brownish green; quills and tail
black, the outer margins greenish yellow.
Inhabits the East Indies. One of these, in the collection of Lord
Stanley, was a trifle longer: the head, neck, and under parts pale
•bluish violet; lesser coverts, at the bend of the wing, the same; the
second series yellow, forming a patch, like a bar, on the wing; rest
of them green; quills and tail dusky, edged with green; back and
rump dull dusky green; lower belly and vent yellowish. This seems
much allied to the Bishop Tanager.
20.—SAYACU TANAGER.
Tanagra Sayaca, Ind. Om. i. 425.
Tangara Brasiliensis varia, Bris. iii.
. i. 416.    Gm. Lin
Id. 8vo. i. 30.
 TANAGER. 19
Tangara tachete de Cayenne, Sayacu, Buf. iv. 288.   Raii, 89. 3.    Will. 188.   Id.
Engl. 256.   Salem, 273. 3.
Bee en poincou vert et blanc, 4 tete bleu de Ciel, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 106.
Sayacu Tanager, Gen. Syn. m: 227.   Shaw's Zool. x. 446.
LESS than the last. Bill and eyes black; general colour of the
plumage cinereous, mixed with sea-green, most so on the upper
parts; and the bird, if exposed to the sun, appears very glossy.
Inhabits Cayenne, with the Bishop Tanager, but more rare; is
called by the natives Sayacou. Some have thought this to be the
young of the Paradise Tanager,* but it seems a differently made
bird, and the tail shorter.
21.—SPOTTED GREEN TANAGER.
Tanagra punctata, Ind. Om. i. 425.    Lin. i. 316.    Gm. Lin. i. .897.     Bris. iii. 19.
t. 4. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 309.
Le Syacou, Buf iv. 288.    Besm. Tang. p. 8. 9.
Tangara verd tachete, Pl ml. 133. 1.
Spotted green Titmouse, Edw. pl. 262.
 Tanager, Gm. Syn. iii. 228.    Shaw's Zool. x. 455.
SIZE of a Linnet; the length four inches and a half; extent of
wing seven. Bill brown; plumage above green, mixed with brown;
rump wholly green; chin and throat brown, margins of the feathers
whitish ; breast the same, with a mixture of yellowish ; from thence
to the vent yellowish white, tinged with green; quills and tail brown,*
the latter one inch and a quarter long, edged with green ; the legs
brown.—Found at Cayenne, and is probably an incomplete bird, but
whether allied to the last species is not certain.
22.—SPOTTED EMERALD TANAGER.
THIS is nearly the size of a Chaffinch; and almost six inches
long.     Bill black ;   plumage  in general above fine grass-green,
* Ann. du Mus. Nat. Hist. ii. p. 149.—Daudin.
D 2
 20 TANAGER.
inclining on the back to emerald ; sides of the head yellow-green ;
just round the eye bright yellow ; between the bill and eye a black
spot; chin, throat, and breast, bluish white; lower belly, vent, and
over the thighs, pale green; under tail coverts pale yellow; the
whole marked with fine black spots, both above and beneath ; or,
in other words, the feathers on the upper parts are black, deeply
fringed with emerald, and beneath with pale blue ; but the sides of
the head, belly, thighs, and vent, are unspotted; wing coverts and
scapulars black, fringed with verditer-green ; quills and tail black,
fringed with green ; the quills reach to about one-third on the tail,
which is nearly two inches long, and is even at the end, or a trifle
divided in the middle ; legs black.
Inhabits the Isle of Trinidad, from whence a specimen was added
to my collection by Mr. Thompson. It is a most beautiful bird; but
we are not without suspicion, that it may be allied to the Spotted-
green Species, in its highest state of plumage.
23.—GREEN TANAGER.
s, Ind. Orn. i
426.    Lin. i. 317.    C
liensis viridis
Bris. iii. 25.    Id. 8vo
r, Gen. Syn.
ii. 229.    Shaw's Zool.
. 510.    Buf. i
LENGTH six inches and a quarter. Bill dusky; head and
upper parts green ; between the bill and eyes a black spot, beneath
which is a deep blue band, extending the whole length ofthe under
mandible ; throat fine black ; fore part of the neck yellow; the rest
of the under parts yellowish green ; lesser wing coverts glossy sea-
green; the others green; quills dusky, with bluish edges; tail the
same, but the middle feathers are greenish ; legs brown.
Inhabits Mexico, Peru, and Brazil.
 24—JACARINI  TANAGER.
Tanagra Jacarina, Ind. Orn. i. 429.    Lin. i. 314.    Gm. Lin. i. 890.
Tangara Brasiliensis nigra, Bris. iii. 28.    Id. 8vo. i. 311.
Carduelis Brasiliana, Jacarini,  Will. 190.    Id. Engl. 258.   Buf. iv. 293.   Edw. pl. 306.
Le Sauteur, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 138.
Moineau de Cayenne, PL enl 224 ?
Jacarini Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 238.    Shaw's Zool. x. 475.
SIZE of the Goldfinch Bill thick, ash-coloured; general
colour ofthe plumage black, with a polished gloss, reflecting green
and blue in some lights; inside of the wings white; tail rather
forked ; legs ash-colour.
The female wholly grey; the male is also the same in the time
of moulting, and sometimes partly grey and partly black, so as to
appear a different species.
Inhabits Brazil, and called Jacarini;* by the Portuguese, Ne-
grette : common at Guiana, most so in newly cultivated land,
frequenting small trees, chiefly coffee trees; observed to hop upwards
often from the branch, first alighting on one foot, and then the other,
each time accompanying the leap with a not unpleasing note, and
spreading out the tail. The leaping is only made by the male, the
female behaving like other birds. They build an hemispherical nest,
about two inches in diameter, of dry herbs of a greyish colour, and
lay two greenish white eggs, marked with small numerous red spots,
most so at the larger end.„
25.-WHITE-HEADED  TANAGER.
Tanagra albifrons, Ind. Orn. i. 431.
■       — leucocephala, Gm. Lin. i. 896.
Quatoztli, Seba, i. 58. et 36. 6.
Tangara Brasiliensis leucocephala, Bris. iii. 35.    Id. 8vo.i. 313.
White-headed Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 244.    Shaw's Zool. x. 468.
SIZE of the Golden Tanager; length four inches. Bill yellow ;
forehead white; plumage on the upper parts blackish brown; throat
* M. d'Azara rather supposes it should be Yacamiri, which means small head.
I
 22 TANAGER.
and fore part of the neck pale red ; breast and wings purple; belly
and vent pale yellow; tail blackish brown ; legs yellow.
Inhabits the mountainous parts of Brazil, called Tetzocano; the
name of the bird is Quatoztli.
26.—YELLOW TANAGER.
Tanagra flava, Ind. Om.i. 431.    Gm. Lin.i. 896.
Tangara Brasiliensis flava, Bris. iii. 39.    Id. 8vo. i. 314.
Guiraperea, Raii, 89.    Will. 188.   Id. Engl 256.    Buf iv. 300. 3.
Yellow Finch, Bancr. Guian. 180 ?
  Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 244.    Shaw's Zool. x. 468.
SIZE of a Lark. Bill short, thick, and black; plumage above,
and the lower belly, dark yellow, like wax ; the fore part, as far as
the breast, black; belly spotted with black; quills and tail dusky,
edged with sea-green; legs ash-colour.
Inhabits Brazil.
27.—SILENT TANAGER.
Tanagra silens, Ind. Orn. i. 432.    Nat. Misc. pl. 761.
L'Oiseau silentieux,    Buf. iv. 304.    Id. Sonnini, pl. 117.    Besm. Tang. pl. 38.39.40.
Tangara de la Guiane, Pl. ml 742.
Troupiale des Bois, a hausse Col, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 78.
Silent Tanager, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. 204.    Shaw's Zool x. 469. pl. 42.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill black; plumage in general green,
but the head and under parts are hoary; sides of the head black ;
over the eyes a white streak; throat white, beneath this a curved bar
of black; shoulders yellow.
Inhabits the thick woods of Guiana; is a solitary bird, oftener
found on the ground than perched on a tree, and by no means has
any thing like a song, except in the breeding season : is seen also in
Paraguay.
  (''/////st/. Vt&n<zgr4*.'
  Nt*,
 23
28.—CERULEAN TANAGER.
Tanagra canora, Ind. Om.i. 432.    Gm. Lin.i. 896.
Tangara ceerulea Nova Hispanise, Bris. iii. 15.    Id. 8vo.i. 307.
Xiuhtototl, Fern. N. Hisp. 13. cap. 120.    Buf. iv. 298. 1.
Ceerulean Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 245.    Shaw's Zool. x. 446.
SIZE of the House Sparrow. Bill brownish ; general colour of
the plumage blue, with a little mixture of fulvous; wings partly
blue, partly fulvous, with a slight mixture of black; tail black,
tipped with white; legs grey.
Inhabits Mexico, and called by some Elotolotl: said to sing well,
and to be good food.
29.—CAPITAL TANAGER.—Pl. xciv.
Tanagra capitalis, Ind. Orn. i. 432.
Capital Tanager, Gm. Syn. Sup. 162. pl. 112.    Shaw's Zool. x. 457. pl. 41.
LENGTH five inches. Bill stout, of a dusky flesh-colour; head,
throat, and fore part of the neck, to the breast, black; upper half
of the neck behind, the sides of it, and all the under parts yellow,
inclining to orange on the breast; the rest of the plumage pale olive
yellow; wings and tail darker, edged with yellow; legs flesh-colour.
In the Museum of the late Sir Ashton Lever.
One of these, in the collection of Mr. Brogden, had the back of
a high-coloured yellow; below the breast rufous orange; feathers
about the head short, and of a velvety texture.
Another in the collection of Mr. Comyns, is six inches long. Head
and beneath, to the breast, black; back of the neck chestnut; lower
part of the neck, back, and wings yellow; but when the plumage is
dishevelled, appearing mixed brown and yellow, as the feathers are
brown for three-fourths of the length; shoulders brown; quills the
 24 TANAGER.
same, edged with yellow; tail rounded, olive brown, not edged with
yellow; under parts deep yellow, deeper on the breast; and the sides
inclined to tawny.
Another of these, only five inches long, had the top of the head,
nape, throat, and breast, tawny yellow; sides of the head, including
the eyes, and the chin, black; above, the back and wings are mixed
olive yellow; but the greater coverts and quills deeply edged with
yellow; under parts and tail as in the other; legs in both pale.
These came from the interior of Africa. We suspect the former
to be an old male; and the last named, from its size, a young female.
We are aware of the very great likeness between this and the
Weaver Oriole, represented in the Pl. enlum. 376; but in the first
place, the bill in our bird is by no means that of the Oriole, being
stouter, more bent, and less pointed at the end; besides, the size
of the Weaver much exceeds it, being at least seven inches long;
whereas the largest of this that has come under our inspection,
has not measured more than six inches; several not beyond five.
30.—GREEN-HEADED  TANAGER.
Tanagra tricolor, Ind. Orn. i. 428.    Gm. Lin.i. 891.
Tangara Cayanensis varia chlorocephala, Bris. Sup. 59. t. 4. 1.    Id. i. 318.
Le Tricolor, Buf. iv. 276.
Tangara tricolor, Besmar. Tan. pl. 3. 4.
—— varie k t&te verte de Cayenne, PL enl. 33. 1.
Green-headed Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 234.    Shaw's Zool x. 450.
SIZE of a House Sparrow; length five inches and a quarter.
Bill black, the base surrounded with black feathers; general colour
of the plumage green; head and chin pale sea-green; upper part
and sides ofthe neck green gold ; on the throat a large spot of black;
upper parts of the back also black; the lower and rump orange-
yellow; fore part ofthe neck and breast sea-green, separated from
the black on the throat by blue; belly, sides,   thighs, and vent,
 TANAGER. 25
bright yellowish green; lesser and middle wing coverts violet-blue;
the greater greenish black, with the outer margins green; quills
much the same ; tail like the quills, marked with a small violet-blue
spot on the outer margin, near the tip; shape a little forked,
lead-colour.
A.—Tangara Cayanensis varia cyanoceph. Bris. Sup. 62. t. 4. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 319.
Pl enl. 33. 2.
Le Tricolor, Bufiv. 276.    Gen. Syn. iii. 235. Var. A.    Nat. Misc. pl. 537.
Size of the last. Bill the same, and alike surrounded with
black at the base; forehead pale green ; crown and throat violet-
blue ; sides of the head orange red, passing to the back part of the
neck, which is of the same colour ; upper part of the back black;
rest of the body green; across the wing coverts a stripe of yellow;
quills and tail much as in the last,  but the coverts are not blue.
These two birds are, we may presume; the same, differing only
in sex; but which of them is the male is not ascertained. Both of
these were from Cayenne ;* manners unknown.
In the collection of Gen. Davies was a beautiful bird, probably
the young of the Green-headed ; length five inches and a half. Bill
black; head fine pale blue, paler at the back part, with here and
there a black spot; the neck behind dull oker yellow, the feathers
spotted black in the middle; below this dull green, many feathers
black also in the middle; back pale orange red, growing yellowish
towards the rump, which is pale green ; chin and throat black; the
breast verditer blue; from thence pale green, with an orange tinge;
wing coverts dull green, marked with black; quills and tail black,
with green margins, and a trifle forked;  legs pretty long, dusky.
* Buffon mentions, that one of the last is in the cabinet of M. Aubri, and called Le
Pape de Magellan ; but it scarcely can be thought that the one came from the latter place,
if the former was from Cayenne.
vol. vi. E
1
j
 26
TANAGER.
31.—PARADISE TANAGER.
Besm. Tan. pl. 1.
I
Tanagra Tatao, Ind. Orn. i. 428.    Lin.i. 315.    Gm. Lin,
Avicula de Tatao, Seba, i. t. 60. f. 6.
Tangara, Raii, 84. 13.    Will. 197.    Id. Engl. 243.    Rm. iii. p. 3. 1.1. f. 1.    Jd. 8vo.
i. 304.    PL enl. 7. f-1.    Id. 127. f. 2.    Gabin. de Madr. ii. p. 17. lam. 44.
Le Septicolor, Buf iv. 279. 1.13.    Spalowsk. i. t. 41.
Die Siebenfarbige Merle, Schmid, Vog. p. 74. t. 60.
Titmouse of Paradise, Edw. pl. 349.
Paradise Tanager, Gm. Syn. iii. 23&    Nat. Misc. pl. 4.    SAau>'* Zool. x. 472.
THIS is somewhat less than a Goldfinch ; length six inches.
Bill black; crown and sides of the head yellowish green; feathers
small, and seem distinct from one another; hind part of the head
and neck, the upper part of the back, and rump, bright fire-colour,
verging to orange towards the tail; throat and fore part of the neck
glossy violet blue; breast, belly, sides, and vent, sea-green; thighs
dull green ; the lesser wing coverts green gold, the middle ones blue,
and the greater violet blue ; quills black, with blue margins; second
quills, tail,* and legs, black.
The females, and young males, have not the fiery colour on the
lower part of the back ; the male gains this at a mature age, but is
never attained by the female, that part being wholly of an orange-
colour, and in general the whole plumage is less brilliant; but both
sexes vary much, as some of them are bright red, both on the back
and rump, while others have those parts wholly of a golden yellow.
In a young male, in the collection of Mr. Francillon, the general
colour was dusky black; beneath pale glossy blue-green ; rump and
upper tail coverts orange; on the top of the head just breaking out
with yellow green, giving a singular appearance.
This most beautiful species is common at Guiana, about the
inhabited parts, appearing in flocks in the neighbourhood of Cayenne,
* In Pl. enl vii. f. 1. the tail is green and red; but this was copied from a specimen
which had a false tail added to it, and is not, therefore, to be regarded. Hist, des Ois.
 TANAGER. 27
first about September, and frequents a particular, large tree, which is
just then in flower, and as soon as the fruit sets, begins its depredations ; it generally stays six weeks, and then passes elsewhere ; but
returns again in April and May, at which time the fruit ripens; it is
about this tree alone, that the bird is found, for it does not frequent
others: it may be kept in a cage, will feed on bread and meal; said
to have no song, but only a short and shrill note.
32.—GOLDEN  TANAGER.
Tanagra violacea, Ind. Om. i. 429.    Lin. i. 314.    Mus. Ad. Fr. ii. 31.    Nov. C. Petr.
xi. 431. 3. 1.14. f.3.    Boroiosk, iii. 173. t. 69.    Gm. Lin. i. 890.
Reg. alter Cap. B. Spei, Gerin. iii. t. 359.    Nat. Misc. pl. 305.
Tangara Brasiliensis nigro-lutea,   Bris. iii. 31. t. 2. f. 2.—male.     7d. 8vo. i. 312.    Pl.
enl. 114. f. 2.—female.
Le Lindo bleu et dore, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No.- 99.
Teilei, Raii, 92. 12.    Buf. iv. 295.
Euphone Teite, Besm. Tang. pl. 21, 22, 23.
Teitei Guiranhemgeta, Geraundi.  Will. 194.    Id. Engl 266.
Golden Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 239.    Edw. pl. 263. 1.    Shaw's Zool x. 466.
SIZE of a Canary Bird ; length three inches and three quarters.
Bill black; forehead and all beneath golden yellow; the rest of the
plumage black, with a polished steel gloss ; quills within, two-thirds
from the base, white, except the three first; tail the same, except
the two middle feathers,,which are wholly black ; legs black.
The female is olive-green above, with the forehead yellowish;
on the chin a spot of yellow; rest of the throat cinereous; under
parts yellowish, with an olive hue ; the two outer tail feathers white
on the inner margins ; legs brownish.
The young birds are often parti-coloured, blue and olive-green
mixed; the yellow on the forehead very dull; but on the under parts
sufficiently distinct.
The female makes a nest not unlike that of the Jacarini, but
with reddish leaves instead of grey ones: is common at Cayenne,
 28 TANAGER.
Surinam, Brazil, and as far as Paraguay ; and often found in
company with the Jacarini; visits rice plantations in vast flocks;
and commits much depredation ; feeds also on the plants called Paco
and Mamao ;* often kept in cages, but has no song, only a chirp;
delights to live five or six in one cage.
A.—Tanagra chlorotica, Lin.i. 317.    Gm. Lin.i. 890. 5. /3.    Spalowsk.i. t. 43.
Tangara Cayanensis nigro lutea, Bris. iii. 34. t. 2. f. 3.    Id. 8vo. i. 313.
Euphone chlorotique, Besm. Tang. pl. 24, 25.
Tangara de Cayenne, Pl. ml' 114. 1.—male.    Gen. Syn. iii. 240. 35. A.
In this almost the whole of the crown is yellow; the same
colour beneath only from the breast; for the whole chin and fore part
of the neck, as well as the rest of the plumage, are black; the tail
feathers all of one colour.
33.—NEGRO TANAGER.
Tanagra Cayanensis, Ind. Orn. i. 430.    Lin. i. 316.    Gm. Lih. i. 894.
Tangara Cayanensis nigra, Bris. iii. 29. t. 2. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 311.
Euphone negre, Besm. Tang. pl. 26. 27.
Le Tangara negre, Buf. iv. 297.    Id. Sonnin. p. 358. pl. 48.    Vieill. N. Bict. d'Hist.
Nat. 391. t.21.
Negro Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 240.    Shaw's Zool. x. 477.
SIZE of the others. Bill and legs dusky; plumage in general
black, glossed with blue; under part of the wings, and a small space
on each side of the breast, at their insertion, yellow, but scarcely
seen when the wings are closed, so that the bird appears wholly
black; inner webs of some of the quills white.
Inhabits Brazil, Mexico, and Guiana, but less common at the
last place. I observe, in one specimen, the under wing coverts are
white, and none of the inner webs of any of the quills of that colour.
* Achras mammosa and Sapota.
 TANAGER. 29
34._VIOLET TANAGER.
Tanagra Bonariensis, Ind. Orn, i. 430.    Gm, Lin. i. 898.
Le Tangavio, Buf. iv. 241.    PL enl. 710.
Violet Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 222.    Shaw's Zool x. 450.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill stout, dusky black; the plumage
deep violet, with a greenish tinge on the wings and tail, but at first
view appearing black; legs blackish; claws strong and large.
The female has a black head, with a polished steel gloss; the
rest of the plumage dull brown, and a slight gloss of black on the
upper parts of the body and rump.
Inhabits Buenos Ayres, in South America.
35—TURQUOISE TANAGER.
Tanagra Brasiliensis, Ind. Om. i. 424.    Lin. i. 316.    Gm. Lin. i. 895.    Bris. iii. 9.
1.1. f. 4.   Id. 8vo. i. 306.   Klein, 97. 8.
Tangara bleu du Brazil, Le Turqnin, Buf. iv. 258.    Pl. ml. 179. 1.
Hotototl, seu avis spicse Mayzii, Raii, 170.
Guirajenoia, Will. p. 174.    Id. Engl. 241. §. III.
Turquoise Tanager, Gm. Syn. iii. 225.    Shaw's Zool. x. 453.
SIZE of a Chaffinch; length six inches. Bill blackish; head,
fore part of the neck, and lower part of the back, cinereous blue;
neck behind, upper part of the back, and round the bill, black; on
the breast a spot of the same; tail and legs black.
Some of these birds are white beneath.
Inhabits Brazil.
 30
36—SAINT DOxMINGO TANAGER.
Tanagra Dominica, Ind. Orn. i. 226.    Lin. i. 316.    Gm. Lin. i. 895.    Bris. iii. 37.
t.2. f.4.    id. 8vo.i. 314.
L'Esclave, Bufiv. 263.
Tangara de St. Domingue, Pl. enl. 156. 2.
St. Domingo Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 226.    Shaw's Zool. x. 453.
SIZE of a Sparrow; length six inches and a half. Bill stout,
and greyish brown; upper parts of the head and body olive brown ;
the under dirty^white, down sthe middle of each feather a dash of
brown; quills brown, edged withfolive; the tail cinereous brown, a
trifle forked, the two middle feathers olive brown, the others the
same, with the outer margins inclined to olive ; legs brown.
Inhabits the Island of St. Domingo, where it is called L'Esclave.
37.—RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER.
Lin. i. 315.    Gm. Lin.
, 21. t. 4. f. 3.    Id. 8vc
892.-
i. 309.
. 273.   Pl. enl. 201, 2.—male.
Tanagra Cayana, Ind. Orn. i. 427.
Tangara Cayanensis viridis, Bris. ii
39.    Besm. Tang. pl. 10, 11.
Moineau a tete rousse, Passe vert, Buf. iii. 494.   1
Tangara a t£te rousse, PL enl. 290, 1 female.
Le Lindo precieux, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 95.
Rufous-headed Tanager, Gm;>Syn. iii 231.    Shaw'
SIZE of a Linnet. Bill dusky; top of the head rufous; sides of
it black; hind part of the neck, lower part of the back, and rump,
pale gilded yellow, tingedrfcwath green in<y>some lights; upper parts
of the back, scapulars, and upper tail coverts, green; throat blue
grey ; the rest of the under parts confusedly mixed with pale gilded
yellow, rufous and blue grey, each appearing conspicuous in different
m
 TANAGER. 31
lights; the quills and tail brown, edged with gilded green; legs
dusky.—The crown of the female is rufous as in the male; upper
parts of the plumage pale green, the under dull yellow, mixed with
a tinge of green ; one of this sex, in Mr. Francillon's collection, had
all the under parts fine pale green.
In some specimens the rufous part on the head extends farther
down than in others; in some this colour is also seen on the breast
and belly; and again on the upper parts ofthe body ; and the green
now and then changing into blue; other slight variations might also
be mentioned.
Inhabits Cayenne and Guiana, where it is well known, and
called Le Dauphinois: comes into Paraguay in December ; frequents
open places, and now and then approaches habitations; feeds on
fruits, and among others, particularly fond of bananas and guavas.
In the rice fields said to destroy great quantities of the grain; but
although there must be numbers to effect this, yet they can scarcely
be termed flocks, as these birds always are in pairs; being only
guided to one place by the common attraction ofthe food they are
fond of,    They have no other note than a short and shrill cry.
A.—Passe-vert a tete bleue, Buf. iv. 27b.    Gm. Syn. iii. 232.
Le Lindo bleu et dore k tete d'un bleu de Ciel, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 88.
This is like the last, but the head fine bright blue; back greenish
yellow; fore part ofthe neck, breast, and belly, gilded yellow; wings
and tail plain green.—M. Azara met with five of them about Paraguay in June.
B.—Length five inches and three quarters. Bill black; head,
including the eyes, nape, and neck behind, fine rufous; between the
bill and eye black, surrounding the sides of the latter; upper half
of the back greenish black, the lower and rump pale glossy rufous
J
 32 TANAGER.
buff; under parts ofthe body pale bluish green; middle ofthe belly
white: vent, under tail coverts, and thighs, pale rufous ; wings
dusky, edged with green, and appearing wholly so, when closed ;
shoulders of the wings as the rump; tail rather forked, dusky, the
outer webs ofthe two middle feathers blue, those ofthe others green ;
1 legs black.
Inhabits Brazil.—In tbe collection of Lord Stanley. This bird
seems doubtful, having some markings in common with the Green-
headed one, especially the black at the beginning of the back.
A similar one was also in the collection of General Davies, which
may probably be also a young bird, or Variety : in this the head as
fer as the gape, and upper part of the neck quite to the back, dull
rufous; beginning of the back greenish black, from thence to the
rump more green; greater part of the wing coverts pale dusky green;
bastard wing black ; quills black, edged with green; all beneath
from the chin pale bluish green; wings and tail glossy ; bill and
legs black.
38—TUNEFUL TANAGER.
Pipra musica, Ind. Om. ii. 568.    Gm. Lin. i. 1004.    Nat. Misc. pl. 841.
L'Organiste, Buf. iv. 290.    PL enl. 809. 1.
Euphone organiste, Besm. Tang. pl. 19, 20.
L'Eveque, Hist, de la Louisiane, ii. 140 ?
Tuneful Manakin, Gen. Syn. iv. 534.    Shaw's Zool. x. p. 32.
LENGTH four inches. Bill dusky; forehead yellow ; crown
and nape blue ; chin, sides of the head below the eyes, and throat,
black; back, wings, and tail, dusky black, the last short; lower
part of the back and rump, breast, belly, vent, and thiffhs, oranse ;
legs dusky.
In a specimen in the collection of General Davies, and a second
in that of Mr. Bullock, the forehead was black instead of orange-
yellow.
 1
TANAGER. 33
Inhabits St. Domingo, and there called the Organist, from its
note, forming a complete octave, one note successively after another;
said not to be uncommon, but difficult to be obtained, for like the
Creeper, it continually shifts to the opposite part ofthe branch from
the spectator's eye, so as to elude his vigilance.
Du Pratz, in his history of Louisiana, mentions a bird whose
notes are so varied and sweet, and warbles so tenderly, as to be
thought superior to a Nightingale. It is said to sing for near two
hours, scarcely taking breath, and after respite for about the same
time, begins again; whether this is a different bird or not, from ours,
cannot be determined, as Du Pratz gives no description.
39—YELLOW-FRONTED TANAGER.
Tanagra flavifrons, Ind. Om. Sup. xlvii.
Emberiza flavifrons, Mus. Carls, iv. t. 92.
Yellow-fronted Tanager, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. 204. 2.    Shaw's Zool. x. 458.
SIZE of a Linnet. Bill and legs black; crown, hindhead, and
beginning of the nape blue, but the feathers are brown at the base;
forehead yellow ; the rest of the plumage green, inclining to yellow
on the throat and rump; quills and tail dusky black.
Supposed to inhabit South America.
40.—VIRESCENT TANAGER.
Vireo virescens, Vieill. Am.i. p. 84. pl.53.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Top of the head blackish;
eyebrows white: upper parts of the body greenish grey, beneath
whitish grey; the lesser wing coverts brownish green; quills and tail
brown within; under tail coverts yellowish.
Inhabits America; met with in autumn ; feeds on insects, leaping
from branch to branch after them: sex uncertain.
This and the last are probably allied ?
 34
41.—VARIABLE TANAGER.
iagra vanabi
iable Tanag*
;, Ind. Om. i
, Gen. Syn.ii
Gm. Lin. i. 89
Shaw's Zool. j
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill horn-colour; plumage
in general green, very glossy, and variable, appearing in some lights
blue, in others brown; between the shoulders much darker than tlie
rest, and towards the rump pale green; through the eyes a black
streak; quills and tail dusky, edged with green ; legs pale.
A specimen of this is in the British Museum: the native place
uncertain.
42—GREY-HEADED TANAGER.
is, Ind. Om. i. p. 427. 24.    Gm. Lin. i. 893.
Le Verderoux, Buf. iv. 272.    Besm. Tang. pl. 44.
Grey-headed Tanager, Gen. Syn. Hi. p. 231. 25.
LENGTH about five inches. Bill six lines; plumage green in
different shades; on each side of the forehead rufous ; and on each
side above this, a band ofthe same, passing to the back ofthe head,
which is cinereous grey; under parts of the body of this last colour.
Inhabits the deep forests of Guiana, and is a rare species.
43—RED-BELLIED TANAGER.
Sylvia velia, Ind. Om. i. 256.
Motacilla velia, Lin. i. 336.    Gm. Lin, i. 991.
Luscinia ex cseruleo et rubro varia, Klein, 75. 15.
Le Pitpit varie, Buf. v. 341.
 bleu de Surinam, Pl. ml. 669.3.
Tangara varie, Besm. Tan. pl. 2.
Red-bellied Warbler, Gm. Syn. iii. 504.    Shaw's Zool. x. 687.
SIZE of the Pettichaps.     Bill lead-colour, beneath  whitish ;
forehead bluish green; rump gilded green;   plumage on all the
 TANAGER. 35
upper parts fine black, mixed with brown ; breast and belly rufous;
greater wing coverts^ quills, and tail, black, edged with blue;; legs
cinereous.
Inhabits Surinam, Cayenne, and Guiana: said to be esteemed
for food, the flesh being as well tasted as that of an Ortolan.
A.—Sylvia Surinamensis cserulea, Bris. iii. 536.    Id. 8vo. i. 456.
In this the forehead and rump are gilded; the under parts bluish,
and the lower part of the belly chestnut.
B.—Red-bellied Blue Bird, Edw. pl. 22.    Bancr. Guian. 182 ?
This has the bill and legs dark lead-colour; plumage wholly
blue, in different shades, lower part of the back, and belly reddish
orange.
C—Rouge-gorge, Ferm. Surin. ii. 194.
This is said to be blackish brown on the back, with the breast
and belly crimson—paler in the female. The two latter appear to
be Varieties, but the description is too concise for us to form a certainty of it.
44—BLACK AND BLUE TANAGER.
Tanagra Mexicana, Ind. Orn. i. 426. Lin. i. 315. Gm. Lin. i. 893. Spalowsk. Vog. i. t. 42.
Tangara Cayanensis cserulea, Bm.iii. 6. t. 1. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 305.
  Diable enrheume, Buf. iv. 27.    Besm. Tang. pl. 5.
 ■ tachete de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 290. 2.
Le Bee en poincon bleu et roux, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 104 ?
Teoauhtototl, Raii, 170.
Black and blue Tanager, Gm. Syn.iii. 230.   Edw. pl. 350.    Shaw's Zool. x. 453.
LENGTH five inches. Bill black; crown and sides of the head
and throat, neck, breast, lower part ofthe back, and rump, fine blue;
J
 i
m
36 TANAGER.
hind part of the head and neck, and upper part of the back and
scapulars black; belly, thighs, and vent, yellowish white, spotted
black and blue on the sides, and with black on the thighs; upper
wing coverts glossy blue green, the greater black, edged with blue;
quills black, some of them edged with green, and others with white;
tail black, somewhat forked, edged outwardly with blue; legs black.
Inhabits Cayenne and Guiana, but not very common. The
Creoles call it by the name given by Buffon. If the same with that
of Ray, it is said to frequent fields, and mountainous parts of
Mexico, having an agreeable song, and the flesh well flavoured.
45—BLUE TANAGER.
Tangara Barbadensis cserulea, Bris. iii. 8.    Id. 8vo. i. 305.
Tangara bleu, Buf. iv. 282.    Pl. enl. 155. 1.
Passer Americanus, Seba, i. 104. t. 67. 3.    Gen. Syn. iii.  231. A.
SIZE of a House Sparrow; length five inches and a half. Bill
black; head, throat, forepart ofthe neck, back, scapulars, and rump
black ; wing coverts black, edged with blue; upper tail coverts
green ; belly, sides, thighs, and vent, white; quills and tail black,
with purplish margins; legs black.
Inhabits Cayenne.—Seba's bird was sent to him from the Islands
of the River Berbice,* in the neighbourhood of Surinam.
46—BLUE-SHOULDERED TANAGER.
Loxia virens, Ind. Om. i. 392.
Shaw's Zool. ix. 251.
Blue-shouldered Grosbeak, Gen. Syn.
. 303.    Gm. Lin.i. p. 853.   Baud. ii. p. 406.
THE general colour of this bird is green, but the wing coverts
on the shoulders blue; quills and tail black, margins of the feathers
* Ex Insulis Barbicensibus.    But Brisson's is made to inhabit Barbadoes, as he says
Barbadensibus Insulis—possibly the bird may be found in both places.
 TANAGER. 37
green.—Inhabits Surinam; has been supposed to be the Black and
blue Tanager, in imperfect feather.
47—ELEGANT TANAGER.
Tanagra elegans, Maxim. Trav. i. p. 160.
IN this the head is deep yellow; bacl$, black, with yellow stripes;
throat and breast greenish azure; belly and sides green.
Inhabits Brazil; appears to be a new Species, said to feed on
certain trees which bear black berries, and supposed to be their
principal food.
48—BLACK-CROWNED TANAGER.
Tanagra melanictera,   Jwd. Om. i. 423.     Gm. Lin. i. 898.     Nov. Com. Petr. xix. 465.
2. t. 13, 14.    Nat. Misc. pl. 669.
Black-crowned Tanager,   Gen. Syn. iii. 223.    Shaw's Zool. x. 444. pl. 40.
SIZE of the Common Bunting ; length seven inches and a half.
Bill livid, the sides of the under mandible bend inwards, and the
end of the upper one a little marginated, the base furnished with a
few hairs; irides brown ; top of the head, and sides beneath the eye,
black ; hind part ofthe neck and back ferruginous brown, changing
to rust-colour on the rump ; under parts of the body deep yellow ;
quills brown, with whitish edges; tail a trifle forked, brown, edged
with yellowish white; wings marked with longitudinal whitish
streaks, and reach to the middle ofthe tail; legs dusky flesh-colour.
The female is dirty ferruginous olive above, spotted with brown,
beneath whitish yellow.
This inhabits the neighbourhood of the Caucasian mountains,
and Teflis, in Georgia: frequents the Christ's thorn,* and makes the
* Rhamnus Paliurus.
 1
38 TANAGER.
nest on the branches of it, which being well defended with sharp
spines, secures the brood from birds of prey ; is also said to be very-
fond of the seeds of the above plant for food ; it is a solitary species,
and the note not greatly different from that of the Greater Titmouse.
49—BLACK-CAPPED TANAGER.
Cap Negre, Levail Afr. iii. 172. pl. 140, 1, 2.
SCARCELY six inches long. Bill brownish, less stout, but
rather longer than in the Titmouse ; tongue pointed, and dusky ;
the head to below the eyes black ; upper part of the body, wings,
and tail, olive-green, tending to yellow on the rump; all beneath
yellow, and under the wings; side tail feathers marked with white
at the tips. A second of these, a trifle smaller, had the head rusty
brown instead of black; rest ofthe plumage above dull clay-colour
in different shades; beneath pale yellow. These two probably differ
only in sex or age.
Inhabits the Isle of Ceylon.—Manners unknown. It seems to be
much allied to the Black-crowned.
50—BLACK TANAGER.
Tanagra atrata, Ind. Orn. i. 430.    Lin. i. 315.    Gm. Lin. i. 892.
Lamprotornis, Stourne,  Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal p. Iv.
Black Tanager, Gen. Syn.iii. 241.    Shaw's Zool x. 477.
SIZE of a Thrush.    Plumage wholly black, glossed with blue
OHithe back ; bill and legs black.
Inhabits India.
i
m
 39
51.—MALIMBIC  TANAGER.
Tanagra Malimbica, Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. ii. p. 148. t. x.
Tisserin, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ixx.
Malimbic Tanager, Nat. Misc. pl. 581.
LENGTH six inches. Plumage blue black; the head crested,
scarlet; chin and throat the same colour; bill black, with a small
notch near the end, and the feathers just round the base of the same
colour; legs black. The female is without the crest, with the crown
and back part of the neck scarlet.
Inhabits the lower parts of Africa, chiefly at Malimba, in the
Kingdom of Congo; found on trees bearing figs, similar to those of
Europe: the nest is round, open on one side, composed outwardly of
slender plants, artfully put together, lined with cotton, and placed
between the forks of the branches; the female lays four or five eggs,
of a greyish colour, and the male sits on them in turn. These birds
generally seen on the same tree, as long as the fruit remains, after
which they disappear till the next year; seen at Malimba during
autumn. This, though one exception to the rest of the Genus, is a
true Tanager, although found in Africa, for birds of this Genus have
hitherto been considered only to inhabit America.
A fine specimen of the male is in the collection.of Lor^Sianley.
52,—CRIMSON-THROATED TANAGER.
SIZE of a House Sparrow; length about six inches. Bill stout,
black ; general colour of the plumage dusky black, the leathers on
the lower part of the neck behind, and beginning- $£ the back mottled, or margined with a darker colour; chin and throat, fts far as
the breast, fine deep crimson ; tail one inoh and a half lQ»ff, somewhat forked; legs dusky.
 40 TANAGER.
In another, supposed to differ in sex, the crimson on the throat
occupied less space, not quite reaching to the chin, or so low towards
the breast, the under parts, too, are paler than the upper; in other
respects like the fonner.
The above are in the collection of Mr. H. Brogden, of Clapham
Common, who received them from Senegal.
These seem much allied to the Malimbic Tanager.
53—DIVARICATED TANAGER.
LENGTH six inches and a half; size of a Bulfinch. Bill stout,
red, the upper mandible curved; plumage in general glossy blue
black, as in the Martin ; beneath white; from the throat two lines
of black divaricate to the wings on each side; tail two inches or more
in length; even at the end; legs dusky black.
In the collection of Lord Stanley : native place uncertain.
54.—RED-BILLED TANAGER.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill, from gape to point, seven-eighths
of an inch, the under mandible passing backwards beyond the base
of the upper, which is rather curved; colour fine crimson; round
the eye a bare, yellowish skin; the plumage above, in general, pale
brownish ash, or mouse-colour; quills and tail darker; breast and
belly pale tawny buff; tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers three
inches and three quarters, the outer an inch shorter; shafts of the
feathers chestnut; the first four quills are nearly of equal length,
but the outer one longest, and reaches half way on the tail; the legs
three quarters of an inch long, stout, brown ; the middle toe much
the longest; claws brown.
 TANAGER. 4]
In the collection of Mr. Salt; met with everywhere in Abyssinia,
where there are droves of cattle; is constantly feeding on their backs,
picking out the larvae of the insects imbedded under the skin,* in
the manner of the Beef-Eater; to which it bears great resemblance
as to plumage, differing only in the form of the bill, which is clearly
that of the Tanager.
55—JEW TANAGER.
LENGTH about eight inches. Bill three quarters of an inch,
stout, blue, the tip and all the under mandible black, running to a
point; nostrils almost covered with feathers, and placed at the base;
plumage of the head, neck, back, and under parts mouse-coloured
brown ; wings lead-coloured black, or deep ash; outer webs of the
second, third, and fourth greater quills white from the base to near
the end; under wing coverts white; the tail consists of 12 feathers,
two inches and three quarters long, hollowed out in the middle; from
the second to the fourth white at the ends; that is, the two middle
ones are wholly black, as also the outmost; the others white at the
ends, and those in the middle being longer than the adjoining, gives
the appearance of being doubly concave; the wings long, and when
closed, reach a trifle beyond the end of the tail ; legs stout, black;
the claws bent.
Inhabits New South Wales, known there by the name of Jew
Bird ; is perhaps of a doubtful Genus, but seems more allied to that
of the Tanager than any other: manners unknown.—In the collection of Lord Stanley.
In a similar bird in the possession of M. de Fichtel, I observed
the length to be eight, and the extent seventeen inches and a quarter.
* Oestrus Bovis, &c.
VOL.  VI. G
 n
42 TANAGER.
Wing, from the shoulder, four inches and seven-eighths; a few hairs
about the nostrils and gape; over the eye a broad white mark; head
black; plumage above cinereous lead-colour, beneath deep mahogany
purple; outer toe connected with the middle to the first joint.
Another, supposed to be a young bird. Head, neck, and all
beneath ash-coloured; the wings black; between the bill and eye a
black spot; the quills reach three-fourths on the tail: the length of
this bird only seven inches, and extent of wing sixteen and a half:
bill, legs, &c. as in the others. I have also seen one, with all but
the two middle tail feathers white at the ends, but the outmost only
on the inner web.
56.—WHITE-BELLIED TANAGER.
LENGTH seven inches and a quarter; extent of wing seventeen
and a half. Bill very stout, three quarters of an inch long, diameter
at the base three-eighths of an inch, colour blue; general colour of
the plumage black; all beneath, from the throat, and rump white;
tail three inches long, even at the end, tips of the feathers fringed
with white; the wings reach a trifle beyond the end.
Inhabits New-Holland : in the collection of the late Mr. Thompson, of St. Martin's Lane, London.
57— RED-SIDED TANAGER.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill stout, yellow; upper parts
of the plumage in general lead-colour, beneath white; the eye surrounded with black, finishing in a point before and behind; sides of
the body, next the wings, tinged with pale, but glowing, red; tail
nearly even, deep ferruginous; legs stout, yellow.
Inhabits India, known there by the name of Sanahi.
 43
58— ORANGE-BILLED TANAGER.
L'Habia k bee orange, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 83, 84 ?   .
LENGTH more than eight inches, breadth eleven. Bill bright
orange; crown dusky, the rest ofthe upper parts lead-colour; beneath
brown, mixed with rufous, most of the latter near the tail; above
the eye a small streak of white passes behind the ears, where it
inclines to fulvous; throat the same, below which is a patch, like
black velvet, which extends on the sides ofthe head and front; quills,
and under wing coverts silvery white beneath ; tail even, on the outer
feather a large white spot at the end ; the next the same, but the spot
smaller, the rest of the feathers plain brownish lead-colour; legs
pale brown.
Inhabits Paraguay, to about the 32d degree; and is familiar,
approaching habitations, for the sake of the provisions found there.
Is caught in nets with bruised maize.
59—POPPY TANAGER.
L'Habia Ponceau,    Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 88.
LENGTH seven inches, extent of wing ten. Bill dull blue, a
trifle bent, pointed, and strong; irides dull rufous; top of the head,
neck, body, lesser wing coverts and tail dull poppy-colour, with a
tinge of brown; wing coverts and quills brown, with poppy-coloured
edges ; over the eye a fine line of most brilliant poppy; under parts
in general the same; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits Paraguay.    Two of these killed there in August.
 f
60—RED-CRESTED TANAGER.
L'Habia rougeatre, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No, 85.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill dusky, a trifle bent,
and pointed, with three indentations in the upper mandible, as in
some ofthe Tanagers; on the head a large, silky, loosererest, the
feathers more than half an-inch long, and fiery red ; front, sides,
back of the head, and under wing coverts, reddish brown; neck
before, under parts of the body, and tail, the colour of vermilion,
but dull, palest on the belly ; all the parts above dull vermilion.
Inhabits Paraguay : manners unknown. Three only have been
met with.
61.—PARAGUAN TANAGER.
L'Habia jaune, Voy. d 'Azara, iv. No. 87.
LENGTH eight inches, Bill strong, a trifle bent, pointed, and
not compressed ; on the edge of the upper mandible a deep indentation, and on the side a deep process; colour of billf!$»sky, beneath
sky-blue; plumage in general yellowish brown, beneath deep yellow;
over the eye a yellow streak; greater wing coverts and quills edged
with deep yellow ; legs dusky.
Inhabits Paraguay with the last, and equally rare. h^This and
the three last described, seem rather doubtful species, #one of which;
have come under our observation ; whether,  therefore, they more
properly belong to this Genus or the foregoing, seems uncertain ; or,
whether they might constitute a separate Genus.
 45
GENUS XLIV.—FINCH.
i House Sparrow
A White
B Yellow
C Black
2 Cisalpine
3 Spanish
4 Black-breasted Finch
5 Tree
A Var.
B Var.
6 Ring
7 Foolish
8 Speckled
9 White-tailed
10 Short-tailed
11 Dalmatic
12 Chaffinch
A Var.
B White
C Collared
13 Crimson-crowned
14 Red-crowned
15 Brambling
A White-nwnped
B White-headed
16 Lulean
17 Lapland
18 Snow
A Var.
19 Capsa
20 Alpine
21 Crescent
22 Lovely
23 Macao
24 Goura
25 White-breasted
26 Scarlet
27 Rosy
28 Tooty
29 Pine
30 Forest
31 Long-billed
32 White-cheeked
33 Black-headed
34 Brown
35 Eustachian
36 Frizzled
37 Collared
38 Goldfinch
A White-headed
B Striped-headed
C Swallow
D Whitish
E White
F  Black
G Saffron-fronted
H Spurious
39 Green Goldfinch
40 Beautiful
41 Red-faced
42 Parrot
43 Red-headed
44 Chestnut-bellied
45 Siskin
A Black S.
46 -Indian S.
47 Chinese Finch
48 Asiatic
49 Pale-rumped
50 Canary
A Mozambique
51 Serin
A Var.
52 Citril
53 Saffron-fronted
54 Yellow
55 Ultramarine
56 Black-collared
57 Tripoline
58 Linnet
59 Red-headed L.
60 Strasburg F.
61 Lesser Red-headed L.
A Var.
62 Arctic F.
63 Twite
64 Angola
65 Dusky
66 Gotah
67 Chinese Long-tailed
68 Blue-bellied
69 Amaduvade
A Var.
70 Senegal
A Danbik
B Var.
71 White-eared
72 Cape
73 Cuba
74 Ceylon
75 Brown-throated
76 Fire
77 Blue-headed
78 Azure-headed
79 Blue-crowned
80 Lunar
81 Green-rumped
82 Testaceous
83 Oker
84 Imperial
85 Sultry
86 Modest
87 Little
88 3>*arf
89 Barred
90 Duree
91 Temporal
 t
m
46
A Var.
B Nootka
130 Georgian
B Var.
109 Cinereous
131 Mustachoe
92 Nitid
110 Carthagena
132 Hybernal
93 Wave-breasted
111 Rusty-collared
A Var/
94 Slaty
112 Bahama
B Var.
95 Van Diemen's
113 Lepid
133 Rufous
96 Cream-coloured
114 White-throated
134 Lesser Rufous
97 American Yellow
115 Ash-crowned
135 Spotted-breasted
A Var.
116 Northern
136 Winter
.  B Var.
117 Striped-headed
137 Little Winter
C Var.
118 Yellow-pinioned
138 Rice-field
98 Mexican
119 Streaked-headed
139 Brazilian
99 Orange-tailed
120 Song
140 Blue-faced
100 Black-faced
121 Fasciated
141 Yellow-throated
101 Carolina
122 Grass
142 Cayenne
102 Swamp
123 Spotted
143 Bearded
103 Savannah
124 Summer
144 Surinam
104 Grey-headed
125 Norton
145 Variegated
J05 Bonana
126 Sharp-tailed
146 Autumnal
106 Black and orange
127 Long-tailed
147 Yellow-winged
107 Rufous-chinned
128 Orange
148 Sea-side
A Var.
129 Purple
149 Chipping
108 Glossy
A Crimson-headed
150 Tawny-rumped
A Var.
•OIRDS of this Genus have the bill conic, slender towards the end,
and very sharp-pointed; differing from the Grosbeaks, in which the
bill is rounded from the base to the point of each mandible.
In this Genus most of the birds, named Sparrows, enter: also the
Linnets, Siskins, Goldfinches, &c. &c.
1—HOUSE SPARROW.
Fringilla domestica, Ind. Om. i. 432. Lin. i. 323. Gm. Lin. i. 925. Faun. Suec.
No. 242. Scop. i. No. 220. Bmn. No. 264, 265. Muller, No. 263. Kramer,
369. 10. Frisch, t. 8. Georgi, 174. Sepp, Vog. t. p. 77. Faun. arag. 87. Bo-
rowsk, iii. 144. Shaw's Zool. ix. 428. pl. 64. Tern. Man. d'Orn. 211. Id. Ed.
ii. 350.
 1
FINCH. 47
Passer domesticus,   Raii, 86. A.      Will. 182.     Bris. iii. 72.     Id. 8vo. i. 327.   Klein,
88. 1.    Id. Stem. 17. t. 18.   f. 1. a. b.     Id. ov. 29.   t. 9.   f. 7.     Schwf. el. t. 53.
Roman. Orn. i. 99. t. 16. 1.    Faun. Helvet.    Gerin. iii. p. 340. 2.    Nat. Misc. pl.
329.    Robert, ic. pl. 3.
Le Moineau,   Buf. iii. 474. pl. 29. 1.     Pl. enl. 6. 1.—complete.     Id. 55. 1.—young.
Hist. Prov. i. 518.    Baud. Om. i. p. 91. pl. 3.—skeleton.
Rauch sperling, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 57.    Naturf. xvii. 96.
Passera domestica, Zinnan. Uov. 79. 1.11. f. 70. Olin. uc. t. p. 42.   Cett. uc. Sard. 204.
House Sparrow, Gen. Syn.iii. 248.     Id. Sup. 163.    Br. Zool. i. No. 127. pl. 51.    Id.
fol. 107.    Id. Ed. 1812. 1. p. 456. pl. 58.    Arct. Zool ii. 382. G.    Collins Birds,
pl. 4. f. 1,2.   Russ. Alep. p. 70.    JFi//. Engl 249. t. 44.   J#in, i. pl. 62.   Cheseld.
Anat. Cap. v.—skeleton.    Bewick, Birds, i. pl. p. 154.    Lewin, Birds, ii. pl. 77.
Walcot, ii. pl. 215.    Pult. Dors. p. 12.    Ornith. Bict.
LENGTH five inches and three quarters. Bill stout, dusky,
with a yellowish base; irides hazel; plumage on the upper parts
reddish brown, mixed with black ; on the under pale dirty ash-
colour ; crown of the head the same; between the bill and eye, and
round the last black; chin and fore part of the neck black, a little
mixed with grey; wing coverts chestnut and black mixed, with a
paler bar across them ; quills dusky, with rufous edges ; tail deep
brown, edged with grey, and a little forked ; legs grey brown.
The female has much the same markings as the male, but more
obscure ; behind the eye a white streak; no black on the throat;
the under parts dingy white, or flesh-colour,
This is every where common about our houses, and builds in every
place it can find admittance, as under a roof, corner of the brick
work, or hole in the wall.* The nest is of slovenly construction'
generally a little hay, ill put together, and lined with feathers : the
female lays five or six eggs, of a reddish white, spotted with brown;
is known sometimes to build in a tree adjoining to habitations, but
then takes more pains with the nest; but will more often drive
Martins from their abode, to save the trouble of constructing one of
their own : is said to have three broods in a year.
* A pair of these birds, about twenty years since, built their nest, and hatched the young
in the kitchen of an inhabitant of Salisbury, and the old ones were so tame, as to suffer the .
young ones to be fed, and themselves to be occasionally taken from the nest.
 48 FINCH.
From this species frequenting only habitations, and parts adjacent: it may be said, to be chiefly fed from human industry,
being as it were, domesticated ; for notwithstanding every precaution
it will partake with the Pigeons, Poultry, &c. in the food thrown out
to them; grain of all kinds being that best adapted to its taste, it
will, however, eat worms, and refuse of all kinds, from the kitchen.
Is a familiar bird, but will not so easily come into a snare as many
others; in autumn often collect into flocks, and roost in numbers on
the adjoining trees, when they may be shot by dozens, or caught at
night by a bat-fowling net; the flesh is accounted tolerable by many,
but far less esteemed than that of many birds. The Sparrow has no
song, only a chirp or two, frequently repeated, and far from agreeable. It appears to be spread every where throughout Europe, is also
in Egypt, Senegal, Syria, and other parts of Africa, as well as Asia.
We have seen it represented in drawings from China, as well as
India, where we have been informed it is common.
A.—Passer candidus, Bris. iii. 77. A.    Id. 8vo. i. 328.    Will. 182.    Aldrov. ii. t. p.
566.    Scop. i. 149.    Mus. Carls, i.  pl. 20.'
White Sparrow, Gen. Syn. iii. 250.    Id. Sup. 163.
The bird, described by Brisson, had the bill and irides yellow,
plumage wholly white. Sparrows, more or less approaching to white,
are to be seen in various collections,—viz. one above brown, beneath
dirty white : another marked as in common, very pale, with some of
the quills white : a third, the upper parts very pale, almost white;
under parts as in common : a fourth, every where pure white, except
a rudiment of black on the throat, shewing it to be a male; a fifth,
pure white, with a spot on the crown ; the nape of the neck, and the
back brown.*
* I have had two specimens given to me in Kent perfectly white. We are told, that the
neighbourhood of Fanscombe Barn, near Pichandon, a valley below West Downs, (now
pulled down,) was famous for a breed of White Sparrows, and White Mice. See Countess of
Winchelsea's Misc. Poems, p. 58. and Harris's Hist, of Kent, 344. Gough's Brit. We
have also observed numbers of White Mice in a Barn, near Bexlev, in Kent.
 B.—Passer flavus, Bris. iii. 78.   Id. 8vo. i. 328.    Will. 182.
Yellow Sparrow, Gen. Syn. iii. 251.    Will. Engl. 249.
This is yellow, with a tinge of chestnut on the upper parts: one,
in the Leverian Museum, is wholly of a yellow cream-colour.
C—Fringilla tota nigricans, Ind. Orn.i. 433.
Black Sparrow, Gm. Syn, iii. p. 251.
Sparrows, more or less of a black colour, are common in many
collections. One, in the Leverian Museum, had the bill of a deep
yellow: and I believe that the black variety is full as common as the
white one, though in general the colour has been dull; but Mr.
Tunstall informed me, that he has seen one, which was of as deep
and glossy a black as that of the Crow.
We believe the House Sparrow to be common to every part of
Europe, at least its name is on record in every Fauna; we can
trace it as far southward as Gibraltar, where it swarms, and is very
mischievous in gardens, more so, indeed, of late than formerly, as it
is supposed to have increased, by means of the greater number of
horses which have been kept there, and which has introduced a larger
supply of grain for these insolent freebooters. Found also northward
as far as Drontheim, in Norway, in plenty; but, as if destined to
subsist on the labours of the agriculturist, are very rare, and entirely
wanting in places not occupied by mankind; and it is said that they
were unknown in the greatest part of Siberia, before the Russians
attracted them by the cultivation of corn.*
2.—CISALPINE SPARROW.
Fringilla Cisalpina, Tern. Man Ed. ii. p. 351.
Passer volgaire, Gerin. Orn. pl. 340. f. 2. male—fig. 1.    White Var.
IN this, the top of the head, the nape, and upper part of the
back are bright chestnut, and, when in fine condition, the feathers are
l
J
 gO FINCH.
tipped with fine rufous, but this soon disappears; cheeks pare white;
in other things like the Common Sparrow.
The difference between the female of this and the Common sort
is but little; the crown and nape brown, and the band above and
behind the eyes rufous white.
This, if a Variety, as may be suspected, is not uncommon on the
Lower Appenines, along the Gulf of Liguria, and throughout Italy,
and has more the manners of the Mountain, than the common House
Sparrow.
3.—SPANISH SPARROW.
Fringilla Hispaniolensis,
Mpineau d'Egypte, Sevii
m..tf<a*.^d.i
Ois. d'Egypt,
, p. 353.
pl.3. f.7
Bill stout; body above black, feathers margined with yellowish
rufous; crown and nape deep bright chestnut: over the eyes a white
streak, tending to the hindhead ; cheeks white; throat, neck before,
and a narrow belt on the breast, black; middle of the belly white;
sides marked with long spots: female unknown.
Found in Sicily, the Archipelago, South of Spain, and as fer as
Egypt: described from a specimen sent from Gibraltar.
4.—BLACK-BREASTED FINCH.
LENGTH five inches. Bill dusky, brownish ash-colour; from
the nostrils, between the eye, and round it, black; sides of the head,
beyond the eyes, to the nape, ferruginous, growing broader, and
meeting at the back of the neck; the rest of the upper parts, and
wings are also ferruginous, marked on the back with short black
streaks; across the wing coverts a bar of white; the quills and tail
dusky; chin, just under the bill, black; the under parts in general
dusky white; on the breast a large patch of black; legs pale.
 FINCH. 51
The female is pale ash-colour above, and dusky white beneath;
over the eye a pale yellowish streak; across the wings a bar of the
same; bill and legs pale.
Inhabits India.—General Hardwicke. At first sight has some
resemblance to our House Sparrow, but is certainly a distinct species.
I observed a second, having the appearance of incomplete plumage :
this bird.had the top of the head and region of the ears pale ash-
colour; forehead straw-colour, passing over tlie eye as a streak;
under the eye a bed of the same, but between the nostrils and eye
white; chin pale yellow, passing m a broa4 stpeak under the ears,
and curving almost to the back of the neck; breast mottled much
with black, but not enough to form a patch; wings as in the female
above described, but the pale bar across them obsolete.
5—TREE FINCH.
Fringilla montama, Ind. Om. i. 433.    Lin. i. 234.    Gm. Lin. i. 925.     Faun. Suec. No.
243.    Id. Retz. 250.    Scop. i. 221.    Brun. No. 267.    Muller, No. 264.     Kramer,
370.    Frisch, 1.1.    Sepp, Vog. t. p. 79.    Borowsk. iii. 145.    Faun. Helvet.    Phil.
Trans, xiii. p. 405.     Shaw's Zool. ix. 432. pl. 64.     Tern. Man. d'Om. 212.     Id.
Ed. ii. 354.
Fringilla arborea, Tree Sparrow, Amer. Orn. ii. pl. 16. f.3.
Passer montanus, Raii, 87.    Will. 185.    Bris. iii. 79.    Id. 8vo. i. 329.    Klein, 90. 20.
Roman. Om.i. 45. 1.16. 2.
Loxia Hamburgia, Gm. Lin. i. 854.
19 -^ffrhula Hamburgensis, Bris. iii. 314.    Id. 8vo. i. :3^
Der Baum Sperling, Naturf. xvii. 97.
Friquet, Buf. iii. 189. t. 29. T. 2.    Pl. enl. 267. 1.    Hist. Prov. i. 519.
Le Hambouvreux, Buf iv. 398.
Passera montanino, Olin. Uc. t. p. 48.    Zinnan. Uov. 81. 1.12. f. 72.
Hamburg Tree Creeper, Alb. iii. t. 24.
Hamburg Grosbeak, Gen. Syn.iii: 149.
Tree, or Mountain Finch, Gm. Syn.iii. 252. Id. Sup. 163. Br. Zool. i. No. 128. Id.
1812. p. 458. pl. 159. Id.fol. 109. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 246. Will. Engl.252. t.
26. Alb. iii. pl. 66. Edw. 269. Bewick, i. pl. p. 158. Lewin's Birds, ii. pl. 78.
Wale. ii. pl. 216.    Bonov. Birds, iv. pl. 88.    Orn. Bict. Sf Supp.
SOMEWHAT less than the last; length five inches and a half.
Bill black; irides greyish hazel; head and nape chestnut; the chin
H 2
 black ; behind each eye a spot of the same; body above rufous brown,
spotted with black, inclining to greenish towards the rump; sides of
the neck, the breast, and under parts dusky white; wing coverts
rufous, edged with black, and crossed with two bars of white; the
greater coverts black, edges ferruginous; quills blackish, with rufous
edges; tail even at the end, rufous brown; legs pale yellow. The
female is duller, and wants the black on the ears and throat.
This species is found in England, but by no means plentiful, and
probably local; is tolerably common in Lancashire and Yorkshire,
but not further to the North, or in Scotland ; always makes the nest
in trees, and lays five eggs, of a pale brown, with darker coloured
spots, like chocolate, running together, and forming a cloud, covering
the larger end ; the smaller unspotted.
The late Mr. Hutchins informed me, that this bird, or one greatly
similar, comes into Hudson's Bay in April, and is called by the
Nepetherway Indians, Nepin-apathasish; but his bird differs somewhat in the placing, as well as the construction of the nest, being
made on the ground, among the grass, composed of mud without,
and straw within, lined with soft hair, or down; the eggs the same
in number, and colour, as our European Species.
Dr. Forster observes, that it is found in America, about Severn
River; length six inches and a half; breadth ten; and weight three
quarters of an ounce. Bill and legs black ; eyes blue; tail longer
than usual, and forked. He thinks this may prove a different bird,
on future investigation, yet he enters it on his list as the Mountain
Finch : it comes into Pennsylvania in April, with the Snow Birds;
seen in hollow thickets, near springs; has a low warbling note,
scarcely heard at twenty or thirty yards; if disturbed, takes to the
trees, like the White-throated Sparrow, but the latter is by no means
allied to it.
 53
A.—Passer campestris, Bris. iii. 82.   Id. 8vo.i. 3C9.    Gerin. iii. 341. 61.
Passer sylvestris, Raii, 88. 16.    Will. 186.    Frisch, t. 7.    Klein, 88. 2.
Red-headed Sparrow, Albin, iii. pl. 65.
Wood Sparrow of Aldrovand,  Will. Engl. 253. 17.
Bill yellowish white; crown rusty red; round the eyes white;
irides yellowish ; back, tail, and feet, dusky ferruginous, the tips of
the feathers yellow; from chin to tail ash-colour, the ends of the
feathers inclining to red, and the chin and underside of the neck
crossed with continued blackish lines; wings dusky ferruginous, but
the first feathers that cover their ridges end in a notable white—so
far Willughby, from Aldrovandus.
B.—Passer torquatus, Bris. iii. 85.   Id. 8vo. i. 330.
This is brown, varied with rufous above, beneath grey; crown
chestnut; throat black; neck surrounded with a white ring; tail grey
brown, the feathers edged with brown. In the female the crown is
not chestnut, and the black on the throat wanting. These are probably Varieties, or sexual differences ofthe Tree Finch, if not birds
in imperfect plumage.
6.—RING FINCH.
Fringilla Petronia, Ind. Om. i. 435. Lin. i. 322. Gm. Lin. i. 919. Frisch, t. 3. Klein,
96. 3. Id. Stem. 17. t. 18. f. 2. a. b. Id. ov. 29. t. 9. f. 8. Faun. He/v. Gerin.
iii. t. 341. 1. Faun. arag. 87. No. 7. Shaw's Zool ix. 434. Tern. Man. d'Orn.
p. 209.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 349.
Passer torquatus, Raii, 87.    Will 183.
Petronia marina. Raii, 80. 2. & 92. 10.    Will. 171.    Id. Engl. 267.
Passer Sylvestris, Bris. iii. 88. t. 5. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 331.
La Soulcie, Buf iii. 498. t. 30. f. 1.    Pl. ml. 225.
Der Graufinke, Naturf. xvii. 94.
 54
Passera marina, Zinnan. Uo%
Ringel Spatz, Gunth. Nest.
Ring SpkrroW, Gm. Syn. iii
. 80. t. 11. f. 71.
tt. Ey. t. 89.   Naturf. xvii. 97. No. 199.
254.   Id. Sup. 164.    Will Engl. 250.
LARGER than a House Sparrow; length five inches and three
quarters. Bill strong, upper mandible brown, lower pale grey, with
a brown tip; head, and upper parts ofthe neck and back dirty grey,
spotted with brown; rump the same, but not spotted; all beneath
dirty grey and white mixed; fore part of the neck yellow ; round the
head, above the eyes, a dirty white ring ;* wings as the back, some of
the coverts, and the second quills, white at the ends; quilb^and tail
dusky, the feathers edged with grey, all but the two middle ones
have a white spot on the inner web,t near the tip.
Inhabits various parts of Europe, but chiefly Germany; in some
parts of which it is pretty numerous; likewise Spain and Italy: is
migratory, and in greater numbers according to the warmth of the
climate, collecting into flocks at the end of July, and remaining so
till the spring. It frequents woods, and builctein the holes of trees,
laying dfour or five whitish eggs, marked all over with dusky bluish:{:
spots, and has only one brood in a year: lives both on seeds and
insects. It probably is found in Africa, at least in Barbary; as
flights pa^ in the spring and autumn over Gibraltar; the autumnal
flights by much the more numerous, and many are taken by bird-
catchers ; is often kept in cages, and soon grows familiar, but has
a very trifling note.
7.—FOOLISH FINCH.
Fringilla stulta, Ind. Om. i. 436.   -Gm. Lin. i. 919.    Shaw's Zool ix. 436.
Passer stultus, Raii, 87. 1.    Will. 182.    Bris. iii. 87.   Id. 8vo. i. 330.   R»m..Qrn. 10!
* In the Pl. enl. the whole, above the*yes, is rusty cream colour, sawounded-with
ing of black, and beneath that another of white.
t Linnaeus says, that the spot is o&abte:®titer w.<§h, but this is evidently a»mistj&e.
X Gunther.
 55
Passera mattugia, Olin. uc. t. p. 46.    Gerin. iii. t. 33. 1.
Foolish Sparrow, Gm. Syn. iii. 255.    Will Engl. 249,
SIZE of the House Sparrow.    Plumage  above rufous grey,
spotted With rust-colour; over the eye a white streak, anda yellow
spot on the throat; beneath yellowish ; two bands of white on the
wings ; tail blackish, edged with rufous.
Inhabits Italy about Bologna, probably the same with the last.
In the drawings of General Hardwicke, is a bird not far different
from the Foolish Sparrow ; length four inches. Bill pale; plumage
above, in general pale, cinereous brown ; beneath and rump dusky
white ; over the eye a pale streak, passing backwards, and curving
round the ear; on the throat a spot of yellow ; point ofthe shoulder
pale rust-colour; across the wing two oblique pale streaks; quills
dusky; tail much the same, somewhat hollowed out in the middle^
the wings long, reaching to near the end of it; legs pale blue.
Inhabits India.—In this drawing are both sexes. The female
seems much the same, but the colours are less bright.
8—SPECKLED  FINCH.
Fringilla Bononiensis, ImfyQru. i. 436.    Gm, Lin. i. 919.   Shaw's Zool.ix. 438.
Passer Bononiensis, Rm. iii. 91.    Id. 8vo. i. 332.
  maculatus, Raii, 87.    Will. 183.
Speckled Sparrow, Gen. Syn. iii. 255.    Will. Engl 250.
SIZE of the last. Bill yellow; irides white; head and neck the
same, marked with yellowish spots; back and rump black, white,
and yellowish mixed ; under parts yellowish white; quills dusky ;
tail and legs yellowish.
Inhabits Bologna with the two last, and it is most probable, tj>at
they all form but one species, in different periods of age.
 56
9.—WHITE-TAILED SPARROW.
Fringilla leucura, Ind. 0>
Passer albicilla Bononiensis, Bri
White-tailed Sparrow, Gen. Syn.
436.    Gm. Lin. i. 919.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 436.
Wis. iii. 92.    Id. 8vo. i. 332.    Raii, 87. 4.    Will. 183.
.    Will. Engl. 250.
THIS is yellowish above, spotted with chestnut, and streaked with
white; head and under parts yellowish white; tail cinereous white.
This is thought by M. Temminck to be an accidental Variety of the
Ring Finch; but we own, that there seems some confusion in the
four last described, which we cannot set to rights.
10—SHORT-TAILED  SPARROW.
Fringilla brachyura, Ind. Om. i. 436.    Gm. Lin. i. 920.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 435.
Passerculus Bononiensis,  Bris. iii. 93.    Id. 8vo. i. 332.
Passer brachyurus nostras, Raii, 87.     Will. 185.
Short-tailed Sparrow, Gen. Syn. iii. 256.    Will Engl. 252.
THE whole body in this bird is yellowish; breast and belly
much paler.    The bill of a deeper yellow.
The two last are also found about Bologna.
11—DALMATIC SPARROW.
Fringilla Dalmatica, Ind. Om. i. 437.    Gm. Lin. i. 920.    Shaw's
Passer Sclavonicus, Bris.iii. 94.    Id. 8vo. i. 333.
Emberiza Pithyornus, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 311.
 • Illyricus, Raii, 87.    Will. 183.    Gerin. iii. t. 343. 1.
Pine Bunting, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 203.
Dalmatic Sparrow, Gm. Syn. iii. 256.    Will. Engl. 250.
LARGER than a House Sparrow. Bill whitish; plumage on
the upper parts of the body reddish ; the under whitish ; tail forked;
legs pale yellow. —Inhabits Dalmatia. M. Temminck thinks this
to be the female of the Pine Bunting.
 12— CHAFFINCH.
Fringilla Ccelebs,   Ind. Om. i. 437.     Lin. i. 318. 3.—male,   )3. female,     Faun. suec.
No. 232.    Amcen. ac. iv. 595.     Gm. Lin.i. 901.    Raii, 88. 16. A.    Will. 186.  t.
45. f. 4.   Bris. iii. 148.    Jd. 8vo. i. 347.   fto, 96.1.    Id. ov. 29. t.9. f.9. & 10.
.Scop, i. No. 217.    Brun. No. 253. 4.     Muller, No. 255.    Kramer, 367.    .FmcA,
t. 1.    Sepp, Fog-, t. p. 141.    Faun. Arag. 87.    Borowsk. iii. 137. 2.    Roman. Om.
i. 142. t.22. f. 11.    Faun. Helvet.    Gerin. iii. t. 337. 1.     SAaie's Zoo/, ix. pl. 65.
Tc»t. .Mara. d'Orra. 219.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 357.
Der Buckfinke, Naturf. xvii. 93.    Schmid, Vog. p. 78. t. 65.
Le Pincon, B«/.iv. 109. f. 4.   Pl. ml. 54. 1.
Fringuello, Olin. t. p. 31.    Zinnan. Uov. 61. t. 9. f. 52.    Cet. uc. Sard. 203.
Finck,  Wirsing, Vog.t. 19.    Gunth. av. t. 19.
Chaffinch, Gm. Syn. iii. 257.     Id. Sup. 165.     Br. Zoo/, i. No, 125.    Id. 1812.1. p.
452.    Id. fol 108. t. 5. f. 2. 3.    Arct. Zool. ii. 381. F.    Collins, Birds, pl. II. f.
3. 4.    jRws. .4/ep. 70.     Albin, i. 63.     /d. Song Birds, pl. p. 25.     Bolton, Birds,
pl. 23. 24.    Bewick, Birds, i. pl. p. 160.    Lewin, Birds, ii. pl. 79.     Walcot, ii.
pl. 217.    Pult. Cat. Bors.    Om. Bict.
SOMEWHAT less than the Sparrow. Bill whitish, inclining
more Or less to blue, tip black ; irides hazel; forehead black ; crown,
nape, and sides of the neck, bluish ash-colour; sides of the head
throat, and neck before, reddish; back chestnut brown, greenish on
the rump ; belly, thighs, and vent, rufous white ; on the wing coverts
a large white patch, and a bar of the same on the greater ones; tail
black, a little forked; the outer feather has a longitudinal streak
placed obliquely, and the next to it a spot of white, near the tip of
the inner web; legs brown.
The colours in the female are more dull, inclining to green, the
vinaceous red colour is wanting; breast and belly dirty white; the
rest as in the male.
This in England is one of our most common Species;* makes
the nest in a well-clothed bush, not very high, formed of fibres of
plants and moss, lined with hair, wool, feathers, &c. the eggs are
five or six in number, of a pale reddish grey, marked with blackish
* It is called by different names a Pink, or Twink, Beech, and Horse-finch.
TOL. VI. I
 58 FINCH.
spots at the large end. The male is seldom found far from the nest.
This is ranked among our Singing Birds; very pleasing to some, but
does not continue the whole year ;* for the most part they are common at all seasons, but in Sweden the males only stay, the females
migrating southward, returning in spring-t A disposition in the
two sexes to separate has been observed in this kingdom : as Mr.
White says, that large flocks of Chaffinches, consisting of almost
all hens, appear towards Christmas in the fields about Selborne, in
Hampshire, remaining, in this separated state during the winter. $
This species is expanded throughout Europe ; likewise met with on
the coast of Africa, and to the Cape of Good Hope; also at Aleppo :§
is less common in Spain, but a few are taken in their March flights
at Gibraltar, by the bird-catchers.
A.—Fringilla alis et Cauda i
Gen. Syn. iii. 258. 10.
i Bris. Hi. 153. A.   Id. 8vo.i. 348.    Buf.v
In this the head and neck are ash-colour ; cheeks brownish ; back
and scapulars brownislt ash ; rump inclining to green; under parts
of tide body brownish flesh-colour; lesser and greater wing co\$$$s
white; the middle, quills, and, tail black ; the two outer feathers of
the latter half way white on the outer margins.
, jB.-rf^'ringilla Candida, Bris.
This is wholly white.
154. C.   Id. 8vo,
C—Fringilla torquata, Bris. iii. 155. D.    Id. Svo. i. 349.
This has the crown of the head, and a collar round tlie neck both
white, the rest as in common.-- Other Varieties might be added, and
which no doubt have occurred to many persons, interested in such
researches.
* Those of Essex most esteemed.—-Barringt. Essayr.    f Amcen. Acad. iv. 595. No. 127.
fe See White's Hist. Selb. pp.37. 43. 99. 155. The migration of one sex is not cpufi^d',
to this species : other birds wdl be mentioned in this work, whose manners coincide in this
particular. § Rus. Hist. Alep. p. 70.
  If
   59
13.—CRIMSON-CROWNED FINCH.—Pi
Fringilla flammea, Ind. On
915. Ilia. Prov. i. 51
Frihgilla cristata, M. iii.
Parus griseus, Ind. Om. ii.
Linaria, seu Luteola nigra,
Der Brandfink, Naturf. xv
Flaming Finch, Arct. Zool
.i. 438. Lin. i. 322. .
4. Shaw's Zool ix. 451.
155. E. id. 8vo. i. 349.
564. Gm. Lin. i. 1010.
Klein, 93.
i. 95.
ii. 380. D.
Zool. Ban. No,
Ci
-crowned Titmouse, Gen. Syn. iv. 539.
rimson-crowned Finch, Gen.Syn. iii. 259. pl. •
SIZE of the Redpole; length near five inches. Upper mandible
black, the under dull yellow ; plumage above, the wings, and tail,
brown; rump, upper and lower tail coverts, dull rose-colour; all
beneath rose-colour; not unlike the same in tbe Pine Grosbeak;
vent pale; crown of the head a glowing pale red, bounded on each
side, and in front, by a black streak; the feathers a little elongated,
but scarcely to be called a crest; and at tbe back squared off as in
the Blue-backed Manakin •'; base over the bill pale brown ; cheeks
before the eyes pale; tail even ; legs brown.
Inhabits Norland, and other parts of Sweden.*—In the collection
of Lord Stanley. We have included above our Crimson-crowned
Titmouse, en full conviction of its being one and the same bird, in
immature plumage.
Fringilla ruticapilla, Ind.Ol
Zool. ix. 446.
Red-crowned Finch, Gm. Syn. Sup.
14.—RED-CROWNED FINCH.
438.    Gm. Lin. i. 8S7.   Mus. Carts, ii. t. 44.    Shaw
206.
IN this bird the bill is brown ; plumage on the upper parts of
the body brown ; crown and bindhead reddish; margined before,
F Linnaeus.    Described by hi)
om Rudbeck's Pa
 60 FINCH.
and on the sides with black; face and cheeks white, dotted with
black ; chin ferruginous ; breast ferruginous ash-colour; belly and
vent ash-colour; tail black.
This is probably allied to the last, but the place where it is found
is not mentioned in the Mus. Carls, where only we have seen it.
15.—BRAMBLING FINCH.
Fringilla moutifringilla, Ind. Om. i. 439.     Lin. i. 318.     Faun. Suec. No. 223. -  Gm.
Lin. i. 902.    Amcen. uc. iv. .596.    Scop. i. No. 218.    Raii, 88.    Will. 187. t. 45.
Bris. iii. 155.     Id. 8vo. i. 349.     Klein, 96. 2.    Id. Stem.   19. t. 19. f. 16.   a—c.
Brun. No. 255, 256.   Muller, No. 256.    Kramer, 367. 3.    Frisch, t. 3 ?   Borowsk.
iii. 136.   t. 62.   A.     Naturf. xiii. 185.     Faun. Helvet.     Sepp,   Vog. iii. t. 116.
Tern. Man. d'Om. 221.    Id. Ed. ii. 361.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 444. pl. 65. 2.
Der Bergfinke, Naturf. xvii. 99.    Id. xxii. s. 132. (Tunnenfinke).
1   Pin5on des Ardennes, Buf iv. 124.    PL enl. 54. 2.
Fringilla montana, Roman. Orn. 146. t. 22. 2.    Gerin. iii. t. 338.
Fringuello montanino, Olin. Uc. t. p. 32.
Brambling, or Mountain Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 261.    Br. Zool No. 126.    Id. 1812. 1.
p. 454.   Id.fol. 108. t. V. f. 4.    Arct. Zool ii. 381. E.    Albin. iii. pl. 64.    Collins
Birds, pl. 12. f. 3. & pl. 4. f. 11.    Will. Engl 254. pl. 45.    Hayes Birds, pl. 36.
Bewick's Birds, i. pl. p. 163.      Lewin, Birds, ii. pl. 80.      Walcot, ii. pl. 218.
Bonov. iv. pl. 85.    Pult. Cat. Bors. p. 12.    Ornith. Bict.
LENGTH six inches and a quarter. Bill yellowish, with a black
tip; head, neck behind, and back black, the feathers margined with
rufous brown; rump white; throat, fore part ofthe neck, and breast,
pale rufous orange; lower part of the breast and belly white; lesser
wing coverts pale rufous; the middle ones rufous white ; the greatest
black, tipped with white, and those nearest the body with pale
rufous ; quills brown, with yellowish edges; tail a little forked; legs
grey. The female has the colours less defined ; is brown where the
male is black; and rufous grey instead of rufous.
This species migrates into England at certain seasons, but rarely,
if ever, breeds here;* is frequently found among the Chaffinches
. Mr. Bewick mentions their havi
i the Cumberland Hills,
 FINCH. 61
and sometimes in vast flocks, for I have had eighteen brought to me
at once, which were killed with a single shot; are also seen at certain
times in vast clouds in France, insomuch that the ground has been
quite covered with their dung, and more than 600 dozen were killed
each night ;* said to be particularly fond of beech mast, but will
also eat seeds of many other kinds: the flesh is eaten by some, but
is apt to prove bitter. Are said to build about Luxemburg, making
the nest on tall fir trees, of long moss, lined with wool and feathers;
the eggs four or five, yellowish, and spotted; the young fledged the
end of May.f This species is probably more or less common
throughout Europe; found in plenty in the pine forests of Russia
and Siberia, but those of the latter are darker in colour, and less in
size: J how far southward this species extends is not certain, but Mr.
White talks of their being now and then seen at Gibraltar, in their
periodical flights; probably to and from Barbary.
A.—Size of the Brambling. Upper parts of the plumage as in
that bird; over each eye a black streak, tending to the hindhead;
across the back part of the head another, meeting the first; on the
wing coverts a bar of reddish white, and below it a ferruginous one ;
throat and breast tawny; belly and rump white.
This was met with off the Coast of Japan, and in the collection
of Sir Joseph Banks.       S&^i
B.—-Montifringilla leucocephala, Bris. iii. 159. A.   Id. 8vo. i. 350.    Gen. Syn. iii. 262.
This is paler in colour than the Common Brambling, and the
head wholly white.
* Hist. des. Ois.—Willughby observes, that they are common in the poulterer's shops in
winter.—Mr. Lamb informed me, that twenty-four birds were killed in Berkshire at one
discharge of a fowling-pieee. f Hist, des Ois. X Mr- Pennant.
 62
I
16.—LULEAN FINCH.
Fringilla lulensis, Ind. Om. i. 452.    Ltnii. 318.    Faun. Suec. No. 134.     Gm. Lin. i.
902.    Muller, No. 257.   -Shaw's Zool ix. 457.
Fringilla flammea, Besek. Vog. Kurl. p. 79. No. 174.
Carduelis suecica, Bris. iii. 63.    Id. 8vo. i. 324.
Chardonneret k quatre raies, Buf.'w. 210.
Lulean Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 278.    Arct. Zool. ii. 380. B.
SIZE of the Goldfinch. Bill brown : the head and upper parts
olackish ash-colour ; throat and fore part of the neck white ; breast
rufous; from thence to the vent whitish ; lesser wing coverts rufous;
the next the same, forming a ban#; below this a band of black, and
then another of rufous : this is followed by a second of black, and
lastly by a white one; quills dusky; tail dusky ash-colour.
Inhabits Sweden; chiefly about West Bothnia. M. Temminck
esteems it as the female of the Brambling.
17.—LAPLAND  FINCH.
y
Fringilla lapponica, Ind. Orn. i. 440.     Lin. i. 317.     Faun. Suec.   No. 235. Id. Retz.
No. 219.      Gm. Lin. i. 900.      Faun. Groenl. 119. 82.     Phil Trans, lxii. p. 404.
Shaw's Zool ix. 489.
Fringilla montana, Bris. iii. 160.    Id. 8vo. i. 350.    Klein, 92. 10.
 calcarata, Pall. It. ii. 710. 20. t. E.
Emberiza calcarata,  Tern. Man. d'Om. p. 191. Id. Ed. ii. 322.
 melanocephala,   Scop. i. No. 208.     Ind. Om. i. 412.     Shaw's Zool. ix. 365.
Le grand Montain, Buf. iv. 134.
Greater Brambling, Albin, iii. pl. 63.
Black-headed Bunting, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 198.
Lapland Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 263.   Arc. Zool. li. No. 259.
LARGER than the Chaffinch ; lenph six inches and a half.
Bill horn-colour, tip black ; head blackish, spotted .tflftli rufous
white; upper part of the neck, back, and body, rufous, spotted
with brown ; behind each eye a curved white spot; throat, fore part
of the neck, and breast, pale rufous; belly, thighs, and vent, white;
 FINCH. 63
lesser wing coverts pale rufous; middle ones black, edged with
yellow, and tipped with white, forming a bar on the wing; quills
black, with pale yellowish green edges; tail the same, a little forked
in shape; Jkegs black, hind claw long.
The fetnale differs from the male, in being paler.
This species is found in Lapland, and in the Ferroe Islands; the
north parts of Siberia, and near the Uralian Chain, where it breeds;
arrives in flocks from the south, and frequents the fields at the first
flowering of the Whitlow grass: * note nearly like that of a Linnet,
but its flight is higher, and ift<^£;lasting; runs on the ground like a
Lark, and feeds on seeds : it also inhabits, though less frequently,
the fields of the inner Bay of Greenland, and makes a nest, in June,
of moss and grass, lined with feathers; lays five or six brownish
slate-coloured eggs, mixed with a duller colour. Migrates into
America in autumn; found at Hudson's Bay, and there called Tecu-
niashish; but it seems to differ in size, as Dr. Forster makes the
length only five inches, breadth seven, and weight half an ounce;
but adds, that the description in the Fauna Suecica best answers to
his bird: it is found about Severn Riv©#, in winter only, appearing
first in November, and is commonly seen among the juniper trees.
Fabricius, in his F^funaCfToenlgmdioa, thinks it to be the same bird
with my Passerine Bunting.
j8.—SNOW FINCH.
Fringilla nivalis, Ind. Orn. i. 440.   Lin. i. 321.    Gm. Lin. i. 911,    B$s. iii. 162. 1.15.
1.    Id. 8vo. i. 351.    Faun. Helvet.     Gmel Reise, iv. 168.     Shaw's Zool ix. 492.
Tern Man. d'Orn. 223.   Id. Ed.H. p.363.  ' "
Snow Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 264.   Amer. Om. i. pl. 21. f. 2.
LENGTH seven inches.    Bill black; head and hind part of the
neck cinereous; back, scapulars, and rump grey brown ; margins
* DrabaiVernans.
 64 FINCH.
of the feathers paler; upper tail coverts black ; thighs pale ash-
colour; all the under parts of the body snow white; also the wing
coverts, and second quills, except the two nearest the body, which
are brown; the bastard wing, and greater quills black; the two
middle tail feathers are black, the others white, tipped with black.
Inhabits various parts of the European Continent, particularly
near Dauphiny, in France; also about the snowy tops of the Caucasian Mountains, and those of Persia, descending into the plains in
winter.
One in the collection of Mr. Bullock differed in a few particulars;
in the middle of the throat was a large patch of black ; the under
tail coverts tipped with ash-colour, and the outer tail feathers wholly
white ; the bill yellowish.
I
—Fringilla nivalis,
Beytr. iv. 46.
Gmel. lt. iv. 168.      Pall. n. nord.
Length seven inches. Bill black; head and hind part of the
neck cinereous; back and rump grey brown; two middle tail feathers
black, the rest white, with the tips black.
Inhabits the Caucasian and Hyrcanian Alps; is also an inhabitant of North America.
19.—CAPSA FINCH.
Fringilla Capsa, Ind. Om. i. 440.
Le Dattier, Buf. iii. 487. Voy. en
Capsa Sparrow, Shaw's Trav. 253.
 ! Finch, Gm. Syn. iii. 265.
Gm. Lin.
Barbar. i
. 912.   Shaw's Zool. ix. 495.
272.
SIZE of a Sparrow. Bill short, and thick; black above, and
beneath yellowish; about the gape a few bristles; fore part of the
head, and throat white; the rest of the head, the neck, and whole
of the body grey, more or less inclining to red, most so on the
1
m
 FINCH. 65
breast; wings and tail black, the latter rather forked; wjijgs reach
two-thirds on it; legs yellowish.
Inhabits Abyssinia; found also in Barbary, to the south of
Tunis; it flies in flocks, and is frequent about granaries, like our
Sparrow; often seen in the date villages, to the west of the Lake of
Marks; has an exceedingly fine note, much better than that of a
Canary Bird, or Nightingale, but will not bear to be transported
from its native place.
20—ALPINE FINCH.
Sturnus collaris, Ind. Orn. i. 323.    Gm. Lin. i. 805. Scop. i. No. 192.
Motacilla Alpina, Gm. Lin.i. 957.
Avis Kyburgensi6, Gtesn. Av. t. p. 725.
Fringilla gularis, Fluelerche, Andr. Briefe aus der Schweiz, p. 202. tab. 13.
. Fringilla, in Etruria, Sordone dicta, Gerini, iii. 338. f. 1.
Accentor Alpinus,  Tern. Man. d'Om. p. 142. Id. Ed. p. 248.
Le Fauvette des Alpes, Buf. v. 156. pl. 10.    PL enl. 668. 2.
Collared Stare, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 8.    Shaw's Zool. x. 487.
Alpine Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 434. 25.
LENGTH seven inches, breadth ten. Bill seven lines long, rather
-stout at the base, sharp edged, and pointed at the end; pale yellow,
with a blackish tip ; irides hazel, or crimson ; plumage above dusky
grey, marked with spots of darker brown on the back; wing coverts
tipped with triangular white spots ; rump brown and white mixed ;
chin and throat white, marked with numerous, small dusky black
spots; breast and belly brown, the feathers undulated with faint
black lines; sides rufous orange; the tail dark brown, somewhat
hollowed out at the end; inner webs marked with pale rufous white
at the tips; legs yellowish horn-colour; hind toe long: we do not
learn whether there is any difference between the two sexes, but in
some birds the tip of the tail is dusky white.
Inhabits Carniola and Carinthia; found also on the Alps, and
high mountains of Auvergne, and Dauphiny, except in extreme cold
VOL.  VI. K
J
 66 FINCH.
and snowy seasons ; for the most part observed on the ground.
Gesner's bird was met with in Switzerland, one having come by
chance into the apartments of Kyburg, an old castle there, at
Christmas, 1559, and considered as a rare bird.
The Rev. J. White, who long resided at Gibraltar, observes, that
it is seen there in small flights of seven or eight, on the east part of
the rock, hopping from bush to bush, aud keeping pretty close
together: it feeds on seeds only, for Mr. White mentions, that two
having been shot, and one of them but slightly hurt, he put it into
a cage; it soon grew very tame, and was fed with canary seed, but
after a month it sickened and died: the other, which was killed,
being opened, nothing was found in the stomach but seeds. The
ranking it, therefore, with the Starling Genus, seems improper, as
that bird feeds only on worms and insects; and for the same reason it
should be removed from the Warblers, with which it was last placed.
It has a weak, slender note; fond of covered places, where it may
enjoy retirement, being a solitary and shy species, and oftener seen
on the ground than elsewhere: it is far from a common bird.
rliil;
21.-CRESCENT FINCH.
Fringilla arcuata, Ind. Om. i. 440.    Gm. Lin. i. 912.    Shaw's Zool. x. 530.
Passer Capitis B. Spei, Bris. iii. 104. t. 5. f. 3.    Id. 8vo. i. 336.
Le Croissant, Buf iii. 501.
Moineau du Cap de Bonne Esperance, Pl. enl. 230. 1.
Crescent Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 266.
SIZE of the House Sparrow; length six inches. Bill black ;
head, and neck before, as far as the breast, black; from the eye a
streak of white passes down on each side of the neck, and growing
broader, surrounds the fore part as a crescent; hind part of the neck
pale brown; back, scapulars, and lesser wing coverts chestnut; the
middle coverts black, tipped with white; the greatest and quills
 brown, edged with grey; tail long, much rounded at the end, deep
brown; legs brown.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
22—LOVELY FINCH.
Fringilla formosa, Ind. Om. i. 441.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 466.
Lovely Finch, Gen. Syn. Sup. p, 268.
SIZE of a Siskin, Bill red; the general colour of the plumage
green ; chin and fore part of the neck inclining to yellow; belly and
vent elegantly barred black and white; tail dusky black ; legs pale
red.—Inhabits India; met with among the drawings of Lady Impey,
as also in those of Mrs. Wheeler.
In the collection of Sir J. Anstruther is a similar bird; length,
in the drawing, under four inches. Bill and irides red : the general
colours much the same as the other; the vent pale greenish yellow;
tail much rounded, of a deep black, the upper coverts reaching to
the middle of it.
Inhabits the Coast of Coromandel.
23.—MACAO FINCH.
Fringilla melanictera, Ind. Om. i. 442.    Gm. Lin. i. 910.
Moineau de Macao, Buf. iii. 486.    Pl- ml. 224. 1.
Black and orange Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 268.
SIZE of a Linnet; length four inches and a half.    The bill pale
brown; plumage in general full black, except the wings and tail,
the feathers of which are deeply margined with ferruginous; and on
the belly a few white spots; legs brown.
Inhabits Macao.
K 2
J
 68
24—GOURA FINCH.
LENGTH five inches. Bill and legs pale brown; plumage in
general deep black; wings and tail deep rufous; the head feathers
elongated, and capable of being erected into a crest, particularly so
in the male, from some of them being longer than the others, giving
the appearance of a slender crest, and as long as the head.
The female is dusky brownish ash, mottled with dusky dots about
the head ; from the breast to vent very pale ash, with dusky streaks;
wings and tail brown, the feathers margined with pale rufous; the
head feathers a trifle longer, but barely distinguishable.
Inhabits India.—From the drawings of Sir J. Anstruther; there
named Kof-Goura.    This and the last seem to be much allied.
25— WHITE-BREASTED FINCH.
Fringilla melanoleuca, Ind. Om. i. 442.    Gm. Lin.
Moineau de Java, Buf. iii. 486.   PL enl. 224. 3.
White-breasted Finch, Gm. Sun. iii. 268.
, 910.    Shaw's Zool. i
SIZE of a Linnet. Bill and legs pale brown ; plumage in general
black, except an irregular bar of white across the breast.
Inhabits Java.
26—SCARLET FINCH.
Fringilla coccinea, Ind. Orn.i. 444
Scarlet Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 270.
Gm. Lin. i. 921.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 454.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill as in the Goldfinch, but
longer, and very sharp at the point, colour pale brown ; the general
colour of the plumage a brilliant deep orange, verging to scarlet;
 FINCH. 69
vrtttgs and tail dusky, the last even at the end; outer edges of the
quills fringed with orange, and the ends of the prime ones black.
Inhabits Sandwich Islands.—In the Leverian Museum.
27—ROSY FINCH.
Fringilla rosea, Ind. Om. i. 444. 33.    Pall It. iii. 699.     Gm. Lin. i. 923.   Shaw's
Zool.ix. 449.
Pyrrhula erythrina, Tern. Man. 205.    Id. Ed. ii. 337.
Loxia erythrina, Gm. Lin.i. 864.    N. C. Petr. xiv. 587. t. 23. f. 1.
  cardinalis, der Haubenblutfink, Bes. Vog. Kurl 77. No. 166.
Rosy Finch, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 207.
LENGTH near five inches, weight five drams. Bill brownish
horn-colour : lore grey ; head, neck, and throat, red ; lower part of
the neck whitish; nape and back cinereous, with a reddish tinge;
wing coverts brown, with reddish edges ; quills the same, margined
with luteous ; body beneath white, tinged with red on the breast
and sides; tail rather forked, the shafts of the feathers brown, with
luteous margins; legs as the bill.
The female wholly yellowish ash-colour above, marked on the
crown with yellowish spots; sides of the head almost white; chin
White; on the neck a few obscure brown marks; tail dusky brown,
margined with grey.
Inhabits the thick woods about the Volga and Samara, and there
called the Red Sparrow—is" a tame, foolish bird: the female makes a
nest of hay, between the branches of trees; found in small numbers
in winter, among the flocks of Snow-flakes, and feeds on the seeds
of plants ; is met with also in Siberia, about the River Tomsck.
In Pallas's bird the feathers round the base of the bill are silvery
white, and the margins of the tail feathers rose-colour.
M. Temminck takes in my Crimson-crowned Finch, as one of the
synonyms to this species, but I can scarcely be persuaded to join him
in the same opinion; more especially as in the former the whole of
the feathers of the crown are somewhat lengthened,  and  appear
 i
70 FINCH.
almost crested, of a beautiful glowing fiery red; but in the Rosy
Finch the whole head and neck are of a red colour, and the feathers
ofthe crown not conspicuously elongated.
28—TOOTY FINCH.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill rather stout, pale brown;
nostrils distinct, and covered with setaceous, reversed feathers, arising
at the base; tongue entire, short, fleshy ; eyelids and irides brown ;
head reddish, with a brownish lore; upper parts of the neck and
back brown, with a mixture of reddish ; chin, throat, and breast, red ;
belly and vent white; sides, thighs, and wing coverts, grey; rump
red; quills dusky, outer web margined with red; the wings reach
almost to the middle of the tail, which is forked, and marked as the
quills; legs brown.
The female the same size. Eyelids olive; plumage above dusky,
borders ofthe feathers greenish ; chin and breast dusky, the feathers
edged with yellowish; thighs and sides pale brown ; rump and upper
tail coverts olive; greater wing coverts edged with greenish, and
those next the body have dirty yellow points; the outer webs of the
quills margined with green ; under wing coverts dirty white, mixed
with yellow ; tail feathers margined with green.
This is one of the birds called by the natives of Bengal, Tooty;
but is not found about Calcutta.—The above account given by Dr.
Buchanan, who informs me, that he had the specimens from the
Sylhet, and that it is called Chuta Tooty. This, too, is well represented in various drawings of Indian birds of Sir J. Anstruther,
where it is named in one place (in the Persian)  Tooty Suffaid,  or
White Tooty;   in another Tooty Surk,  or Red Tooty. In  Lord
Valentia's drawings called Tutie. It seems to correspond in many
things with the Rosy Species.
 29.—PINE FINCH.
Fringilla Pinetorum, Ind. Om. i. 445.    Gm. Lin. i. 926.    Lepech. It. ii. 188.   Shaw's
Zool. ix. 503.
Pine Finch, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 207.
THE plumage of this bird is testaceous, inclining to rufous above,
and yellow beneath; on the breast a transverse ferruginous band.
Inhabits the pine forests of Siberia.
30—FOREST  FINCH.
Fringilla sylvatica, Ind. Orn. i. 446.    Gm. Lin. i. 926.    Lepech. It. ii. t. 7. 2.    Skaw's
Zool. ix. 528.
Forest Finch, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 207.
THE head of this species is fasciated; the body grey and black;
breast and belly hoary.—Found with the last.
31—LONG-BILLED FINCH.
Fringilla longirostris, Ind. Om. i. 447.    Gm. Lin. i. 900.    Skaw's Zool. ix. 459.
Fringilla Senegalensis, Bris. iii. 173. t. 15. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 355.
Le Pinson k long bee, Buf iii. 143.
Long-billed Finch, Gm.Syn. iii. 277.
LARGER than the Chaffinch; length six inches and a quarter.
Bill three quarters of an inch long, grey brown; head and throat
black; round the neck a collar of chestnut; back, wings, and rump,
brown and yellow mixed ; all the under parts orange-yellow ; quills
brown, edged with olive without, and fringed with yellow, for two-
thirds from the base within ; secondaries the same as the outer edges;
tail olive; all, except the two middle feathers, have the inner webs
fringed with yellow; legs grey brown.—Inhabits Senegal.
 M
72
32.—WHITE-CHEEKED FINCH.
Fringilla me via, Ind. Orn. i. 448.
White-cheeked Finch, Gen. Syn. iii
. 911.    Shaw's Zool. i:
SIZE of a Sparrow ; length five inches and three quarters. Bill
half an inch, pale ash-colour; head, neck, and under parts, the same,
streaked with dusky on the upper parts and neck ; beneath plain ;
back and thighs pale rufous, streaked with dusky ; sides of the head
white; through the eye a reddish streak, bounded on the under part
with black; on the under jaw a streak of black, which joins the
black above the eye at the hind part; tail dusky; legs black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.—From a drawing in the
collection of Sir Joseph Banks.
11
33.—BLACK-HEADED FINCH.
Fringilla melanocephala, Ind. Om. i. 448.    Gm. Lin. i. 911.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 531.
Black-headed Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 278.
LENGTH four inches. Bill red; head, and fore part of the neck
black; back, wings, and tail, ferruginous brown ; sides of the neck
and under the wings a little streaked with black; hind part of the
neck and belly white ; quills black; legs lead-colour.
34,
Fringilla fusca, Ind. Orn.
Brown Finch, Gen. Syn. i:
-BROWN FINCH.
448.    Gm. Lin. i. 911.    Shaw
THIS is a trifle larger than the Wren. Bill dusky; upper parts
of the plumage brown, the feathers edged with darker brown; under
parts brownish white; legs dusky*-—The two last described from
Chinese drawings, in possession of the late Captain Broadley.
 35.—EUSTACHIAN FINCH.
Fringilla Eustachii, Ind. Om. i. 448.    Gm. Lin. i. 911.
Fringilla Insuke S. Eustachii,   Bris. iii. 177. Id. 8vo. i. 356.     Klein, 90. 18.    Shaw's
Zool. ix. 476.
Le Pinson jaune et rouge, Buf. iv. 145.
Passer Africanus eximius, Seba, ii. 67. t. 65. f. 2.
Eustachian Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 279.
SIZE of a Chaffinch; length five inches and a half. Bill red ;
head, neck, and upper parts yellow; on each side ofthe head, under
the eye, a spot of blue; breast and under parts orange; wings, tail,
and legs, red.
The whole of the above has been originally taken from Seba,
who certainly does not say, that the bird is of Eustachian origin,
although authors following him have conceived as much. He merely
says, that he had a drawing of it sent to him from St. Eustatia; but
calls it the African Sparrow.
36.—FRIZZLED FINCH.
Fringilla crispa, Ind. Om. i. 449.    Lin. i. 324.    Gm. Lin. i. 927.    Bris. App. p. 86.
Id. 8vo. i. 370,    Gerin. iv. t. 368.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 480.
Le Pinson frise, Buf. iv. 148. t. 7. f. 2.
Black and yellow frizzled Sparrow, Edw. pl.271. 1.
Frizzled Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 28&.
SIZE of a Chaffinch. Bill white; the head and neck black;*
upper parts of the body, wings, and tail deep olive; beneath yellow;
legs brown; the feathers of the body all frizzled, as in one of our
breeds of Poultry.
Inhabits Africa, Angola ? The Portuguese call it Beco de Prata:
some think it is a native of Brazil.
* In the Pl. enl. is a streak of white from the forehead to the crown; a curved patch of
white beneath.the eye; and a spot of white on the wings.
VOL.  VI. L
 ^H
37— COLLARED FINCH.
Fringilla Indica, Ind. Orn.
———— torquata Indica, .
Le Pinson a double Collier
Collared Finch, Gen. Syn. \
p. 85.
. 449.    (
Ms. App
Bvfiv. 149.
i. 280.   Edw. pl
i. 928.    Shaw's ZooL'i
Id. Svo. i. 3G9.
SIZE of a Chaffinch. Bill and head black; round the bill and
eyes, and the throat white, passing round the neck as a collar; on
the lower part of the neck before a black bar; the rest of the under
parts rufous white; the upper cinereous brown, palest on the rump;
wing coverts black, fringed with glossy rufous; secondaries the same ;
greater quills black; tail and legs cinereous brown.
Inhabits India.
38.—GOLDFINCH.
ingilla Carduelis, Ind. Orn. i. 449. Lira.i. 31S. Gm, Un. i. 903. Faun. suec. No.
236. Id. Retz. No. 223. Raii, 89. A. 1. Will. 189. t. 46. Rm. iii. 53. 1. Id.
Svo. i. 320. Klein, 97. 4. Id. Stem. 20. t. 19. f. 18. a—c. Id. ov. 30. t. 9. f. 11.
Scop.i. No. 211. Brnn. No. 257, 258. Kramer, 365. 1. Frisch, t. i. Muller,
No. 258.    Faun. arag. 87.    Schcef EL Om. t. 24.    Roman. Om. 132. t. 20.   Me- '
. 138. 3.     Faun. Helvet.      Gerh
Shaw's Zool. ix. 160. pl. 63.
Olin.Uc. t. p. 10.
rian, Ins. t. 173.    Borowsk.
344. 1.    Nat. Misc. pl. 749.     S
239.    Id. Ed. ii. 377.
Cardellino, Zinnan. Uov. 58. t. 8. 47.
Calderugio,  Cet. Uc. Sard. 209.
Ber Bfetelfink, Naturf. xvii. 99.
Le Chardonneret, Buf. iv. 187. t. 10.
Av. pl. 37. f. 7.
Stigehz, Wirs. Vog. t. 9. & 30.    Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 3.—upper fi.
144.    Schmid, Vog. p. 80. t. 66.
Goldfinch or Thistlefinch, Gm. Syn. iii. 281.     Br. Zool. ii. No. 124,
447. IdLfd.. 108. t. V. f. U Collins, Birds, pk. 1. f. 7. & pl. 4. f. a Arct.Zool....
283. H.   Ives, Voy. 351.   Russ.Alep, 7<k I WilhEngl 246- pl.46.   Albin^U.
ml. t. 4. f. 1.   Hut. .
t. 353. I. &
Man. d'Om.
Johnst.
Natutf.-xxH.
" Id. 1812. i. p.
 FINCH. 7W
Id. Song Birds, pl. p. 18. Hayes, Birds, pl. 34. Bolton, Birds, pl. 21, 22.
Bewick, Birds, pl. p. 165. Lewin's Birds, ii. pl. 81. Wale. Birds, ii. pl. 219.
Bonov. pl. 103.    Pult. Cat. Bors. p. 12.    Orn. Bict. ' Graves Br. Omith.
SIZE well known. Bill white, tipped with black, the base
surrounded with a ring of rich scarlet feathers ; from the corners of
tjbj&inouth a black line ; cheeks white; top of the head black; the
white on the cheeks bounded, almost to the fore part of the neck, with
black; hindhead white; back, rump, and breast, pale tawny brown,
the two last lightest; belly white; wing coverts in the male black;
quills black, marked in their middle with beautiful yellow, tips
white; tail black, but most of the feathers marked near their ends
with a white spot; legs white.
The female differs in having the feathers at the base of the bill
brown, which in the male are black ; lesser wing coverts brown ; and
the black and yellow on the wings less brilliant.
The young bird is grey on the head, and by the bird-catchers is
called a Grey Pate. The Goldfinch in some parts of England is
called Thistle-Finch, and Goldspink; also Tailor, and Proud Tailor:
as far back as Shakespear's time at least.*   In Cheshire Jack Nicker, f
This bird is much esteemed for its fine note, as well as great
tameness and docility ;£ it makes a curious, and well-constructed
nest, of fine moss, liverwort, thistle down, &c. lining it first with
wool and hair, and then with the down, or gosling, of the Sallow:
lays five white eggs, marked with deep purple spots at the .larger
end; it has two broods in a year; often builds in orchards, and in
fruit trees; its principal food appears to be the seeds of thistles and
teasel, about which it is most commonly found, but will eat also
plaintains, chickweed, hemp, and other see4f>in turn; said to be a
long-lived bird, and will often exceed 20 years.§
It is in plenty throughout. Europe, and found as high as Sondmor;
whether  it goes farther north is doubtful :   common in Germany,
* See Hen. IV. Act. 3. Sc. 1.—note. f Archceol. Vol. 19. p. 29.
+ Those of Kent are most esteemed. § Gesner.—Baud. i. 126.
 76 FINCH.
France, and Italy; appears in the latter in April, and breeds there; also
in Spain, comes in prodigious flocks early in the winter to Gibraltar,
and continues all that season ; disperses in spring; very few seen in
summer; feeds on thistles during their stay: the bird-catchers take
them in vast numbers, and keep the stoutest of the males for singing,
the rest, with the females, are killed and eaten. Common in Russia,
and the greater part of Siberia; none beyond the Lena, and Lake
Baikal; is found in both Africa* and Asia,f but less common.
A.—Fringilla leucocephalos, Bris. iii. 57.   Id.Svo. i. 321.    Will 189.   Id. Engl. 257.
Var. 2.    Buf iv. 202.    Gm. Syn. iii. 282.   -
This is like the Common sort, except about the bill and the eyes,
which are white in this, instead of red, as in the Common Species.
ii
B.—Carduelis capite striato, Bris. iii. 58. B.   Id. 8vo. i. 321.     Buf. iv. p. 3.    Brown,
: Jam. 468.    Gen. Syn. iii. 183. B.
In this the head is striped, alternately, with red and yellow.
C. —Carduelis melanocephalos, j
Spalowsk. Vog. iii. t. 43.
Swallow Goldfish, AIbin, iii. 7(
. 322.   Buf. iv. 203.
a.    Gen. Syn. iii. 283.
Bill flesh-coloured; irides yellowish; the head, throat, and neck
black, spotted with red near the bill; breast, back, scapulars, and
rump yellowish brown ; belly, sides, thighs, and under tail coverts,
white; the rest as in the Common; legs flesh-colour.
* Dr. Forster met with it at Madeira.    See Voy. p. 26.
t At Aleppo— Russ. Alep. p. 70. I have seen it more than once in Chinese drawings,
though this circumstance will not, perhaps, prove it to be otherwise than a caged bird. I
have observed it also, with others, in drawings from India, but whether indigenous to either
of the last-named places, could not be ascertained.
 77
D.—Carduelis albida, Bris. iii. 59. D.    Buf. iv. 204.    Will. 25?. Var. 4.
This bird is red on the forehead, cheeks, and throat; the other
parts whitish, except the wings and tail, which are brownish ash-
colour, and the yellow on the wings dingy.
E—Carduelis Candida, Bris.lii. 60.   Id. 8vo. i. 322.    Buf.iv. 204.   Pl. ml. 4. f.2.
Will 189. 3.   Id. Engl. 257. 3.    Gm. Syn. iii. 283. E.
This is wholly white, except the outer edges of the quills, which
are yellow; a little mixture of the same on the wing coverts; the
ends of some of the quills half black, and tipped with white; the
. legs white.
One in the Leverian Museum white, with the parts, which are
usually rich scarlet, of a pale glossy red. A second wholly white,
and a third white, except the crown of the head, which is mottled
with red, and a crescent of the same under the throat; the wings
are yellowish.
Buffon mentions one having a black head; the red parts very
pale; beneath greyish white ; wing coverts pale olive; the yellow of
the wings as usual; wings and tail white; the bill and legs reddish
white.    This was caught at large.
F.—Cardaelis nigra, Bris. iii. 60. F. pl. 4. f. 5.    Buf. iv. 205. 7.    Gen. Syn. iii. 284. F.
General colour black, except four of the middle quills, viz. from
the fourth to the seventh, brimstone-coloured on the outer edge, and
white within, from the base to the middle; bill and legs whitish.
Goldfinches, entirely black, are not uncommon ; some have the
appearance of red about the head, others not; ofthe first I have one
 r
■m
in my collection, which had been a caged bird, and gradually became of that colour.*
G.—Carduelis nigra icterocephalos, Bris. iii. 61. G.    Id. 8vc
Cardueli congener, Raii, 90. 2.    Will. 189.
Bird, akin to the Goldfinch, Will. Engl. 257.' ■ Gen. Syn. iii.
. 323.    Buf. iv. 207. 8.
Rather larger than a Goldfinch. The bill surrounded with a
saffron-coloured ring; the rest ofthe head, and upper parts blackish;
breast greenish black; belly arid under parts brownish ash-colour;
edge of the wing greenish black; quills black, with more white than
common in them ; the usual yellow parts merely inclining to yellow ;
quills black.
, Br.
: iii. 62. H.
t. 355. 2.
H.—Carduelis Hybrid;
Carduelis spurius, Gei
Chardonneret metis, Buf. iv. Wf.
Canary GoWfiwclu.^ftiBi.iH; pl. 70. jB.
The head in this is not unlike that of a Goldfinch, but less
bright; upper parts ofthe body yellowish brown ; the under yellow;
wings as in the Goldfinch; tail yellow, tipped with black. This
Variety proceeds from a mixture between the cock Goldfinch, and
the hen Canary Finch.
Mr. Pennant mentions two other Varieties, one called a Cheverel,
from the manner of concluding its jerk, distinguished by a white
streak, or two or three white spots under the throat. This is taken
not above once in two or three years, by the London bird-catchers,
and sells for a very high price.
* This had hempseed for its usual 'food. Buffon me
once, after being four years in a cage. It kept so for ei^
its former colours, and this happened three times. An ek
head and yellow of the wings Six moKthsi after.
Ltions one thai changed black alt at
bt months, when it began to resume
:trifiedGol6"fihdi-Tost the Ve&'df'the
 1
The other is called a Nichol; this is smaller; the fore part ofthe
head ofthe male has a spot of dark red, almost approaching to black;
hind part of the head dusky brown; back and wings the same,
except a feather or two in the latter, of a dingy yellow; tail rather
forked; belly ash-colour, dashed with brown, irregular spots; the
note jerking, and rather hoarse, which is heard when the bird is in
motion : neck very short; the nest much like that ofthe Goldfinch,
but less, as are the eggs.
This is said to be an occasional visitant in the neighbourhood of
Wrexham, Denbigh; and probably other parts of North Wales.
39.—GREEN GOLDFINCH.
Fringilla Melba, Ind. Om. i. 451.    Lin. i. 319.    Osb. Voy. ii. 329.    Gm. Lin. i. 904.
Shaw's Zool. ix. 463.
Carduelis viridis, Bris. App. 70.   Id. 8vo. i. 326.
Maracaxao, Buf. iv. 211.
Gros-bec, Tern. Man Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxi.
Green Goldfinch, Gen. Syn. iii. 286.    Edw. pl. 272.—male.    128 female.
SIZE of our Goldfinch. Bill flesh-coloured; fore part of the
head and throat of a bright red ; between the bill and eye bluish ash-
colour ; the upper parts of the bird are yellowish green ; wing coverts
and secondaries greenisb^isjth red margins; quills dusky; breast
olive-green, changing to white on the belly and under the tail;
under parts of the bird variegated with dusky, broken, transverse
lines; rump and tail bright red; the last even at the end ; legs pale
brown.—The female has a pale yellow bill; top of the head and
neck ash-colour ; base of the wings and rump yellowish green,
instead of.red ; tail brown, edged with-dull red ; in other things.not
unlike the male, having the red face as in that sex.
Inhabits China; but Edwards's bird said to come from Brazil.
 r
80
40—BEAUTIFUL  FINCH.
Fringilla elegans, Ind. Om. ii. 441.    Gm. Lin. i. 912.   Shaw's Zool. ix. 465.
Le beau Marquet, Buf.iii. 497. pl. 30. 2.    Pl. enl. 203. 1.
Beautiful Finch, Gm. Syn. iii. 266.   Nat. Misc. pl. 505.
SIZE of a House Sparrow; length five inches. Bill red, a very
little bending; forehead, all round the bill, and throat red; breast
yellow; hind part of the head, and neck dusky ash ; back and wings
green ; tips of the quills dusky; breast, belly, and sides crossed with
irregular lines of white spots; lower belly, thighs, and vent, white ;
rump and tail red, inclining to chestnut; the last a little rounded;
legs flesh-colour.
Inhabits Africa. Found at Mosambique by Mr. Salt.—This
seems to have much affinity to the Green Goldfinch.
41.—RED-FACED FINCH.
Fringilla Afra, Ind. Orra.i. 451.    Gm. Lin. i. 905.   Shaw's Zool ix. 448.
Red-faced Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 286.    Brown. III. pl. 25.
LENGTH near six inches. General colour of the plumage deep
dull green; cheeks tinged with crimson; prime quills dusky, with
dull orange edges; tail dull crimson : legs yellowish.
Inhabits Angola, and probably differs from the Beautiful Finch
only in sex: one, in Mr. Bullock's Museum, has the same parts red
as in that bird; body plain yellow olive; wings, for the most part,
ferruginous orange; rump and tail chestnut red; bill pale.
I
Si
    i
m
 81
42.—PARROT FINCH.—Pl. xcvi.
Fringilla psittacea, Ind. Orra.i. 451.    Gm. Lin.i. 903.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 447. ph 66.
Parrot Finch, Gm. Syn. iii. 287. pl. 48.
SIZE of a Waxbill. Bill black; face, taking in the eyes and
throat, deep scarlet; rump and vent the same ; the rest of the body
Parrot-green, paler beneath ; outer edge of the quills green, the
inner cinereous brown; tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers deep
scarlet, with brown shafts; the others have the outer web scarlet,
the inner brown ; legs black.
This most beautiful species was shot by Dr. Forster, at New
Caledonia.
43—RED-HEADED FINCH.
Fringilla erythrocephala, Ind. Om. i. 454.    Gm. Lin. i. 903.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 458.
Red-headed Finch, Gm. Syn. iii. 287.   Brown. III. pl. 28.
LENGTH near five inches. Bill black ; head and neck rich
scarlet ; space round the eyes black; back, breast, and belly, olive;
wings black, with two bars of white on the coverts; tail black; legs
reddish grey.—Inhabits the Island of Mauritius.
M. Temminck thinks this to be the same as the Madagascar
Grosbeak; but in the specimens we have seen of that bird, not only
the head and neck, but every part, except the wings and tail, are
crimson ; though in some there is a mixture of black on the back.
If, therefore, at all allied, they may differ from one another in sex.
44—CHESTNUT-BELLIED FINCH.
LENGTH five inches.    Bill black; plumage above deep brown,
beneath deep ferruginous chestnut; legs black.
 82 FINCH.
Inhabits Sierra Leona.—Mr. Brogden. This resembles, in many
things, the Minute Grosbeak, but it is a larger bird ; the bill that of
a Finch, and without any white on the quills.
45.—3I8IUN.
a Spiuus, Ind. Orn. i
:
Lin. i. 322.     Faun. Suec. No. 237.    Gm. Lin. i.
914.    Scop. i. No. 212.    Brun. No. 261, 262.     Muller, No. 259.     Kramer, 366.
Frisch, t. 11.    Geongi, p. 174.    Sepp, Vog. t, p. 135.   Kleifi, 94.    id. Stem. 20.
t. <)& £ 4. prr^c.    ftorewfe, iii, W2-    .Fwh. Helvet.   Gerin. iv. t. 361, 2.   SAawV
Zoo/, ix. 467. pl. 69.    Tern. Man. d'Om. 225.    Id. Ed. ii. 372.
Ligurinus, Raii, 9. A. 5.     Will 192. t. 46.    Brfr. iii. 65.   Id. 8vo."i. 325.    Roman.
Om. p. 118. t. 18. f. 2.
Le Tarin,  Buf. iv. 221.   P/. en/. 485. 3.    Hist. Prov. i. 513.    Robert. Ic. pl, 3.
Der Zeisig, Naturf. xvii. 95.   Schmid, Vog. p. 80. t. 67.
Zeislein, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. 56. t. 13.—lower fig.   Naturf. xiii. s. 187.
Lucarino, Olin. Uc. t. p. 17.    Cet. Uo. Sard. 211.
Siskin, or Aberdevine, Gm. Syn. iii. 289.     Id. Sup. 166.    Br. Zool. No. 129. pl. 53.
Id. 1812. i. p. 459, pl. 0Q,     Zd,/o/..100. f. V.     Arct. Zool. ii. No. 24a.    Id. p.
383. 1.   Albin, iii. pl. 76.   Id, Swg. Birds* pl. p. 83.    Collins, Birds, p?. 8. f. 5.
6.    Bewick, Birds, i. pl. in p. 167.    Lewin, Birds, ii. pl. 82.     Bolt. Birds, i.
pl. 26, 26.    Walct.i, Birds, pl. -11.).    Qrn.-htii.Supp.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters,. Bill white, with a
black tip; top of the head black; hiudhead and all the upper parts
yellowish Oil ive,. With a dusky daahcjown the middle of each feather;
rump yellowish ; the under parts of the body greyish yellow; belly
whitish ; under tail coverts streaked with dusky ; thighs grey ; lesser
wing coverts olive; the middle ones blackish* tipped with olive;
greater ones the same; hence are formed two olive-green bands; the
three first quills are blackish, with the inner edges brimstone-colour;
the outer edge of the second and third yellow green ; the others half
blackish, half yellow^ edged with @ree»isK and tipped with grey ;
the tail a little forked; the two middle feathers blackish, edged with
olive; the others yellow, with the tips black, and the edges grey;
egs grc-
 FINCH. 83
The female has the crown ofthe head grey and black mixed, and
a whitish dbin; otherwise like the male, but much less bright.
Tbe Siskin is pretty comttifon throughout Europe, and not unfre-
qnent in England in the winter; but in some years much more scarce
than in others; during the dime it stays here, it may be seen mixed
with the lesser Red pole, on alder trees, and sometimes in great
numbers, often running on the under part of the branches, and
hanging with the back downwards, like the Titmouse, feeding on
the seeds of those trees: it departs in spring. In other countries they
frequent hop gardens,* where they eat the seeds, and no doubt many
other kinds of seeds also.f The nest, as figured by Sepp, is composed of dry bents and leaves, lined witti feathers of various colours,
and pretty full; the eggs are three in number* of a longish form, and
dull white. Those figured by Bolton are white, marked with purple
spots at the larger end ; in other parts with small purple spots or
points; these were five in number, and sent to him from Berlin. But
he has been assured, that they sometimes breed in Westmoreland s^
and Mr. Lewin once informed me, that he has now and then seen
them throughout the summer, and put into my possession two birds,
male and female, shot in his garden, in Kent, in the summer months;
however, we believe, this is not a common circumstance.^
In Sussex it is called Barley Bird, being s&gfl in that seed time.
About London known by the name of Aberdevine.
In the western and southern parts of Russia this bird is found in
plenty, but not met with towards the Uralian Chain, or hi Siberia>§
It is reckoned by some among the SOng birds, though l&r inferior to
many; is often kept, and paired with the Catihty Bird; witte which
it breeds freely. ||    It is a very tame and docile Species.
* This they are said to do in Germany, to the great detriment of the owners.
f On Joniper Berries.    Habitat in Europae juniperitis.—Lin.
X Mr. Markwick never saw this in winter, having only met with it from the 10th to the
30th of April, in 1780.—Lira. Trans, i. p. 120.
§ Mr. Pennant. || Twice in a season.—R. P. Bouget.    Hist. des. Ois. p. 227. (g.)
M 2
1
 84 FINCH.
We find, from authors, that these birds are not uncommon in
France, Italy, and Germany ; and probably they are known also in
Spain, at least in Aragonia; for I learn from Mr. White, that they
visit Gibraltar, but not constantly, appearing for the most part at
an interval of years: called by Olina, Lucarino, but some natives of
Italy call it Ungano.
niger, Bris. i
. A.   Id. 8vo. i. 325.    Buf. iv. 233.    Gen. Syn. i
This is black, with a yellowish crown ; and met with in Siberia.
Buffon mentions one taken at large, supposed to be a mixed breed
between the Siskin and a Canary Finch ; colour much like the former,
the upper parts mixed grey, brown, and yellowish olive; the last
chiefly on the neck, breast, rump, and thighs; quills, tail, and almost
all the wing coverts, blackish, edged with yellowish olive.
46.—INDIAN SISKIN.
SIZE ofthe Common Siskin. Bill and legs pale; crown ofthe
head black; the rest ofthe neck, sides under the eyes, and all beneath
the body, yellow ; back, wings, and tail, black; rump pale, inclining
to green; across the wing coverts an oblique bar of white; greater
coverts tipped with white; tail black, tipped with white.
In a second, said to be the other sex; the head, neck, and under
parts are yellow, inclining to dusky on the upper; wings and tail
black, with two white bars on the wing coverts; tip of the tail
yellowish.
Inhabits India. Described from some drawings, in which they
were named, Male and Female Tusseeka.
 86
47-CHINESE FINCH.
Fringilla Sinica, Ind. Orn.i. 447.   Lin. i. 321.    Gm. Lin. i. 910.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 524.
Osb. Voy. ii. 329.    Bris. iii. 175. t. 7. f. 2.    Id. Svo. i. 355.
Tanagra Sinensis, Ind. Orn. i. 426.    Gm. Lin. i. 897.
L'Olivette, Buf.iv.lU.
Mesange de Nanquin, Son. Voy. ii. 204. pl. 114 ?
Chinese Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 229.
Chinese Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 277.
SIZE of a Linnet; length five inches. Bill yellowish ; plumage
above olive-brown, with a tinge of rufous on the wing coverts nearest
the body, back, and rump; round the bill, throat, and neck before,
olive-green; the rest of the under parts rufous, tinged with yellow
on the belly; under wing and tail coverts fine yellow; greater coverts,
farthest from the body, black; quills and tail black, the feathers of
both yellow, half way from the base; the yellow occupying more
space on the latter, as the feathers are more outward, shape forked;
legs yellowish.
The female said to be less bright in colour.—In the collection of
General Davies.
48—ASIATIC  FINCH.
Fringilla Asiatica, Ind. Om. i. 447.
 Sinensis, Gm. Lin. i. 915.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 470.
Le Tarrain de la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 202.
Chinese Siskin, Gen. Syn. iii. 293.
THE bill and head in this are black ; neck behind and back
olive-green ; fore part of the neck, belly, and vent, yellow; wing
coverts the same, the lesser crossed with two black bands, the larger
tipped with a black spot; quills black, the greater yellow half way
from the base; tail coverts yellow; tail even, from the base to the
middle yellow ; the rest black ; legs black.
Inhabits China with the last, probably differing in sex.
 86
48—PALE-RUMPED FINCH.
LENGTH four inches and half. Bill reddish brown; head,
neck, and beneath pale yellow, inclining to green at the nape; back
olive-green, then olive-yellow; and finally the rump, the upper and
under tail coverts, are pale cinereous; wings brown, across the lesser
coverts a pale rufous band ; below this a whitish one ; quills and tail
brown, the latter hollowed out at the end, all but the two middle
feathers marked with dusky white on the inner web at the tip; legs
brown.—Native place uncertain.—Mr. Bullock.
50—CANARY FINCH.
Fringilla Canaria, Ind. Orn. i. 454.    Lin. i. 321.    Gm. Lin. i. 913.    Brun. No. 259.
260.   Frisch, t.12.    Klein, 88.    Id. Stem. 17. 1.18. f. 3. a. b.    Borowsk. iii. 141.
Roman, Orn. i. p. 122. t. 19.    Shaw's Zool ix. 474.
Seriuus Canariua^ Mmifa 184s.    Id. 8vo. i. 358.    Raii, 91. 6.   Will 192. t. 46.   Kolb.
Cap. ii. 156?    Gerin. iv. t. 363, 364.
Le Serin des Canaries, Buf. iv. 1.    PL ml. 202. 1.    Hist. Prov. i. 512.
Passera di Canaria, Zinnan. Uov. 60. t. 8. f. 49. t. 9. 50.    Qlin. Uc. t. p. 7.
Canarien Vogel, Wire. Vog. t. 18. & 29.    Gunth. Nest.u.Ey. t. 83.   Natoerf* mm.; 94-
Canary Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 293.    Will. Engl. 262. pl. 46.    Albin, i. pl. 65.   Id. Song
Birds, pl. p. 84.   Bolton, Birds, pl. 35, 36.   Bewick's Birds, i. p. 169.
ABOUT the size of the Hedge Sparrow; length five inches and
a half. Bill whitish, or tinged with red ; colour of the plumage
yellow, more or less mixed with grey; tail a little forked ; legs pale.
The colour of these birds, in a state of nature, is chiefly grey,*'
but changes, into the greatest variety imaginable, from artificial
management, in the same manner as our common poultry.f   They
* The Canary Bird which grows white in France, is in the Island of Teneriffe almost
as grey as a Lionet,—Adam. Voy. p. 2&     The native CaAi#jr -Bird i6 of a g^fehMajftiil^
with some yellow feathers on his breast, which imrcrease in numiber is the bird grows older.	
Emb. to China, i. 122.
f Twenty-nine Varieties mentioned by name in Hist. des. Ois. p. 10.; and many more
by the Bird-fanciers.
 inhabit, in a wild state, chiefly the Canary Islands, as well as some
others at Palma, Cape Verd, Fayal, Madeira,* the South of Spain,
particularly the province of Andalusia, and the Island of Majorca;
some likewise are now and then seen in their native dress at Gibraltar;
and it is said, that they aflect to breed near watery places. I have
ventured to assimilate this with the Serinusof Kolbeu; w&wfois said to
be of a yellowish green, mixed with grey on the back, and to sing
like a Canary Bird, and therefore to suppose it a native of the Cape
of Good Hope; from which place I have received it, taken at large,
under the name of Cape Canary Bird. I have often seen the yellow
sort mixed with grey, more or less, in Chinese drawings; but whether
they had been caged birds, could not be ascertained ; the same with
respect to India, but these last seemed to be more like the native sort.
This bird seems to have been known in Europe, in 1655, when Belon
wrote.—-Aldrovand has given a bad figure of it; but the first tolerable representation will be found in Olina, from which Will ugh by's
figure has been taken, and that of Johnston ; since wliich time the
knowledge of this species has gradually increased, and sought after
by every nation as a songbird. As to the method of rearing this
favourite species in confinement, much has been said in various
authors, too diffuse to be inserted here. Buffon has allowed more
than fifty pages on this head ; and Willughby has treated lightly on
the same subject; likewise Albin, in his Hist, of Song Birds, as
well as others. We have, therefore, only to observe, that it breeds
freely with the Serin and Citril Finches, our two following species,
which in fact seem congenerous birds :—the first found in Italy,
Greece, Turkey, Austria, and Provence ; the other in Provence,
Dauphiny, Lyons, Bugey, Geneva, Switzerland, Germany, Spain,
and Italy.
* Hist, des. Ois. iv. pp. 35. 45. Forst. ffe^ii, 590. Id. Obs. p. 26. Canary inches
in the neighbourhood of Orotave in Teneriffe, said to be uniformly green, some with a yellow tint on their b&c\_.~Humboldt. In Salvage Island, said to be so abundant, that .in
breeding time, you can scarcely walk there without breakiag^thf ir eggs.
J
 88 FINCH.
The Canary Bird will also produce with the Siskin and Goldfinch,
but in this case, the breed generally proves sterile; the pairs succeeding best when the hen is the Canary, and the cock of an opposite
species.* It will also prove prolific with the Linnet, Yellowhammer,
Chaffinch, and even with the House Sparrow ;f but the male Canary
will not willingly pair with the female of these birds; the female
must ever be ofthe Canary Species, and even then the young for the
most part prove mule-birds.
This species will feed on various seeds, but their most beloved
diet is the Canary seed,X so called from growing naturally in the
Canary Islands, but now propagated in quantity in England, so as
to obviate the necessity of importation^
As to the song, so highly prized by most, it is needless here to
dwell on, as every thing on the subject may be read in a well written
essay on this and other singing birds, by the late Honourable Daines
Barrington.||
The breeding of these birds is carried on by various persons by
way of emolument, both on the Continent, as well. as in England;
and as a small article of commerce formerly; for Mr. B. mentions, that
four Tyrolese generally brought over to England 1600 every year,
* When a male Canary Bird is matched to a hen Goldfinch, or Siskin, it is not without
certain precautions, and great attention, that a brood will follow ; on the contrary, when
the male of either of the two last mentioned birds is made use of, the success is almost certain. We have seen a most beautiful specimen, the produce of the male Canary Bird and
Goldfinch; and a male Siskin has been known to couple with a Canary.
f A female Canary Bird, of the grey kind, which escaped from a cage, has been known
to pair with a House Sparrow, and to bring a brood in a bird pot, placed against a house.
Hist, des Ois. p. 11. note (p).    A few Canary Birds, that have escaped from an aviary, seem
to have bred, as such are frequently seen in the hedges at Paddington, in  Bedfordshire.^	
Bibl. Typog. Brit. 8. p. 13. art. 35. The circumstance also has occurred of the Canary
breeding with the Citril Finch, or Vengoline.— Barrington.
X Phalaris Canariensis.—Lira.
§ No where in England grown in greater quantities than the neighbourhood of Margate,
in Kent.
|| See Phil. Trans, lxiii. Br. Zool. ii. 666. Id. App. No. 5.—For the history of this
bird see Beckman's History of Invmtions, 1. 52. 57.    Also Encyclop. Britann.
 and though they carried them on their backs 1000 miles, as well as
paid £20 duty for such a number, yet, upon the whole, it answered
to sell these birds at five shillings a piece: the chief breeding place
is Inspruck, and its environs, from whence they are sent to Constantinople, and other parts of Europe.
How often they breed in a state of nature is not said, but that
they do several times a year in confinement is manifest, from an
account received from Bath many years since, that two Canary Birds
paired in the month of February, 1783, from which time, to the
first week in December, the hen had laid thirty-six eggs in eight
nests; two of them were broken by accident; seven times she bred
them up so as to be caged off, and had, at the time of writing, two
eggs in her ninth nest, whilst the cock fed three young ones in the
same cage.*
A.—Serins de Mozambique, Pl. ml. 364. 1. 2.    Gm. Syn. iii. 296. A.
This is about four inches and .a half in length. Bill and legs
pSale; upper parts brown; the feathers of the wings and tail with
pale edges; under parts and rump yellow ; between the bill and eye,
and over the latter yellow; under.the eye a yellow streak. Male
and female much alike.
These were brought from Mozambique, on the east coast of
Africa.
51.—SERIN FINCH.
ngilla Serinus, Ind. Orn. i. 454.    Lin. i. 320.    Gm. Lin. i. 908.    Kramer., 368. 7.
Skaw's Zool. ix. 473.    Tern. Man. d'Om. 214.   Id. Ed. ii. 357.
* Similar to this is a fact, recorded in an Eveniug Paper :—" Mr. J. Watson, Distiller,
George-street, Sunderland, has a young Canary Bird of last year, building her fifth
nest, lii t^ejfirst nest were four iaggs, which .prodsieed ftrua; birds; second, Sight eggs,
d^t,^ds5'iattrd,isei»en eggs, seyen^wrib.? and Ahe fora-th, six eggs, seven, tbittls, one of
the eggs producing twins."—London Chronicle^ August 23, «BB1B..    I
vol. vi. N
 90
FINCH.
Rai
2. 8.    Will 194. t. 46.   Id. Engl. 265.
Serinus, Bris. iii. 179.   Id. 8vo. i. 356.
Borowsk, iii. 140.    Faun. Helvet.
Loxia Serinus, Scop. i. No. 205.
Spinus, Roman. Orn. i. 116. 1.18. 1.
Serin, PL enl 658. 1.    Hist. Prov. i. 512. Citrini.
Serin Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 296.
LENGTH near four inches and a half. The upper mandible
grey brown, the under whitish; plumage on the upper parts of the
body brown, mixed with yellowish green; beneath greenish yellow,
marked on the sides with longitudinal spots of brown; on the wings
a greenish band; the quills and tail brown, margined with greenish
grey, the last somewhat forked in shape ; legs brown.
Inhabits Italy, Austria, and Stiria, as also the South provinces
of France. Scopoli observes, that it is gregarious in spring, frequenting orchards, is fond of cabbage, and hemp seeds; it often
takes sudden flights upwards, and after fluttering in the air for a little
while, and warbling, alights with expanded wings, nearly on the
same spot from whence it arose. Passes Gibraltar in spring and
autumn, at which seasons both sexes are taken in great plenty; known
by the name of Chamaris; is esteemed for its song, which is much
improved, by being educated among Canary Birds, The females often
have a mixture of white on the bright yellow on the rump.
A.—Serini, Faun. arag. p. 87. 3.
In this, the forehead of the male, and the breast are greenish
brown; the back and wing coverts brown and yellow mixed; rump
yellow; belly whitish; quills and tail brown.
Found about Epila, and other parts of Aragonia, in Spain; and
called Gafarron.
52—CITRIL FINCH.
Fringilla citrinella, Ind. Om.i. 454. Lin. i. 320. Gm. Lin. i. 908. Raii, 99. 7. Will.
193. t. 46. Borowsk, iii. 139. Faun. Helvet. Gerin. iv. t. 361. Shaw's Zool ix.
472.    Tern. Man.d'Om. 224.   Id. Ed. ii. 371.
 FINCH.
91
;    Serinus Italicus, Bris. Hi. 182.   Id. 8vo.i. 357;
Emberiza brumalis, Ind. Om. i. 412.    Gm. Lin. i. p. 873.    Scop. i. No. 213.    Shaw's
Zool. ix. 387.
Verzellino, Olin. Uc. t. p. 15.    Zinnan. Uov, 62. t. 9. f. 53.
Le Venturon de Provence, Pl enl. 658. 2.    Hist. Prov. i. 512.
Brumal Bunting, Gm. Syn. iii. 199.
Citril Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 297.    Will. Engl. 265. pl. 46.    Russ. Alep. 65.
THIS is rather bigger than the last. Bill brown; plumage above
yellowish green, spotted with brown; beneath, and rump greenish
yellow; the breast of the male much inclined to yellow; lesser wing
coverts greenish, the greater dusky, edged with green; quills and
tail much the same, the last a little forked ; legs flesh-colour.
This is common in the South provinces of France, and about
Rome; is found also in Greece, Turkey, and other neighbouring
parts: both this and the last are remarkable for their song, being
equal to that of the Canary Bird, to which they seem to have great
affinity.    In Tyrol called Citrinello.
53.—SAFFRON-FRONTED FINCH.
Fringilla flaveola, Ind. Om. i. 455.    Lin. i. 321.    Gm. Lin
i. t.35.
Saffron-fronted Finch,    Gen. Syn. iii. 296.
. 913.   Spalowsk. Vog.
SIZE of the Canary Bird. General colour yellow; bill pale>
with a brown tip ; forehead saffron-colour; back inclining to green;
quills and tail feathers edged with yellow, the last forked; legs pale.
Native place uncertain. A specimen was in the Museum of M.
de Geer, and another in the Leverian Museum, probably a mongrel
bird; as one in my collection, answering to the above description, was
given to me, as the produce of a Canary Bird and a Goldfinch. In
the collection of Gen. Davies was one, the same, only with the addition of a pale ash-coloured ring round the neck.
N 2
 m
54.—YELLOW FINCH.
11
i. 455.   Lin. n 821.    Gr,
Id. 8vo. i. 360.    Gerin. i
.Lin.i. 913.
i. t.333.    Kolb. Cap. ii. 251?
Shaw's Zool. ix. 477.
Indian Greenfinch, Edw. pl. $4;
Yellow Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 299.
Forst. Obs. p. 26.
SIZE of the Canary Bird; length four inches and a half. Bill
blackish brown, paler beneath; irides hazel; plumage above olive
green ; rump and under parts yellow; over the eye a yellow streak,
a smaller one or two beneath the eye, and one of green passing
through it; quills olive green, edged with white; tail forked, yellow
green; legs brown.
Inhabits the East Indies, and said to sing exceedingly well; also
the Cape of Good Hope, if the same with that which Kolben
describes; he says, it is the size of a Nightingale ; bill broad ; back
and belly grass green; most of the tail feathers green, and the wing
feathers mostly black.    Mr. Forster found this bird at Madeira.
A.—Length four inches and a half. Plumage in general on the
head, and upper parts, the colour of a Spanish olive; behind the
eye a yellow streak; throat pale orange; breast and upper part
of the belly greenish yellow; the lower belly and vent yellowish;
the lower part of the back orange, changing to yellow on the rump;
legs dusky, claws Wack.
I met with this in the Collection of General Davies, who supposed
it to have come from India, but was not certain; it seems somewhat
allied to the Yellow Fftffifi. "•;;
 93
55—ULTRAMARINE FINCH.
Fringilla ultramanna, Ind. Orn
L'Outremer, Buf. iv. 56.
Ultramarine Finch, Gen. Syn. i
. 457.   -Gm. Lin. i. 927.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 506.
SIZE of a Canary Bird, but has a rounder head. Bill white;
plumage wholly fine deep blue; legs red : young birds and females
are grey: the male gets the blue plumage in the spring of the second
year, bat the female ever remains of the simple grey polour.
Jjnhabits Abyssinia? said to have a fine song.
56— BLACK-COLLARED FINCH.
Fringilla Abyssinica, Ind. Om.i. 457.    Gm. Lin. i. 927.    Shaw's Zool.ix. 486.
Le Worabee, Buf. iv. p. 54.
Black-collared Finch,    Gen. Syn. iii. 300.
SIZE and shape of a Canary Finch. The bill as in that bird,
and black; sides of the head, beneath the eyes, throat, fore part of
the neck, the breast, and upper part of the belly black; the upper
part of the head, the rest of'the body, and lower part of the belly,
yellow; at the back of the neck a collar of black, meeting the black
at the fore part; wing coverts and quills black, with pale edges;
tail black, edged with greenish yellow; legs pale brown.
Inhabits Abyssinia, where it is met with in flocks, and known by
the name of Worab6e; it feeds on the seeds of a plant called Nuk,
which has a yellow flower, and the seeds produce an oil, much in
use am on sc the Monks.
 94
57—TRIPOLINE FINCH.
Fringilla Syriaca, Ind. Orn
L'Habesch de Syrie, Buf.
Tripoline Finch, Gen. Syn
i. 457.    Gm. Lin. i. 927.   Shaw's Zool. ix. 535.
THIS is a little larger than a Linnet. Bill thick, short, and of
a lead-colour ; top of the head fine bright red; cheeks, throat, and
fore parts of the neck, blackish, mixed with brown; the rest of the
neck, breast, upper parts ofthe body, and lesser wing coverts, brown,
dusky and yellow mixed; the greater deep ash-colour, with paler
edges; quills and tail the same, but the edges are bright orange,
the last a little forked; belly and vent dirty white, marked with
obscure yellowish and dusky spots ; legs lead-colour.
This is found about Tripoli, in Syria : is a bird of passage, and
sings finely.    The three last from the drawings of Mr. Bruce.
58— COMMON LINNET.
Fringilla Linota, Ind. Om. i. 457.    Gm. Lin. i. 916.
Linaria, Bris. iii. 131. Id. 8vo. i. 343. Frisch, t. 9. Faun. Helvet. Raii, 90. A. 1.
Will. 190.
Fringilla Linota, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 365.    ■
Fanello, Olin. Uc. t. p. 45.    Zinnan. Uov. 61. t. 9. f.-51.    Cet. Uc. Sard, 208.
La Linotte, Buf. iv. 58. pl. 1.    Pl. enl 151. f. 1.    Hist. Prov. i. 511.
Grauer Hanfling, Naturf xvii. 95.
Common Linnet, Gm. Syn. iii. 302. Br. Zool. i. No. 130. Id. 1812. i. p. 462. Id.
fol. 151. f. 1. Bradl. Nat. pl. 10. f. 1. Albin, Birds, pl. p. 31. Collins,
Birds, pl. 5. f. 3, 4. Bewick, Birds, i. 171. Bolton, Birds, i. pl. 27. Lewin,
Birds, ii. t.83f    Walk. Birds, ii. pl. 221.    Pult. Cat. Borset. p. 12.    Orn. Bict.
LENGTH five inches and a half.     Bill grey, with a brown tip,
inclining to blue in the spring; irides hazel; plumage on the upper
 FINCH. 95
parts dark reddish brown; the feathers pale on the margins; those
ofthe head very dark, with cinereous edges; sides of the neck cinereous ; on the throat a line of brown, bounded on each side with
white; beneath the body dirty reddish white; breast deeper than the
rest, and in spring becomes of a beautiful crimson ; on the wings a
longitudinal white mark ; quills dusky ; tail a little forked, brown,
the feathers edged with white, but the two middle ones have reddish
margins; legs brown.    The female wants the red on the breast.
This bird is sufficiently common in England, and breeds on low
shrubs, black and white thorn, and furze ; the nest composed of dried
herbs, grass, and moss, lined with wool and hair; the eggs four or five,
white, spotted with reddish brown at the larger end ; the first brood
is hatched in May, and sometimes the bird builds again in August,
in case the first nest is destroyed ; often found in flocks, during the
winter, and feeds on many kinds of seeds, and most so on that of flax,
called linseed, when in the neighbourhood of its growth ; hence the
name : is found throughout France, Italy, Germany, the south of
Russia, and many parts of Europe, and probably at the Cape of
Good Hope.
59— RED-HEADED LINNET.
Fringilla cannabina, Ind. Om. i, 458.    Lin. i. 322.    Faun. Suec. No. 240.    Gm. Lin. i.
916. Scop. i. No. 219.    Brun. 263.    Muller, No. 261.    Kramer, 368. 8.    Frisch,
t. 9. 1. 2.    Georgi, p. 174.    Faun. Arag. 87.    Sepp, Vog. t. p. 157.    Borowsk. iii.
142.    Bartr. Trav. p. 289.     Shaw's Zool. ix. 516.     Tern. Man. d'Orn. 216.    Id.
Ed. ii. p. 367.
Linaria rubra major, Bris. iii. 135.    Id. 8vo. i. 343.    Klein, 93. 1.   Id. Stem. 18. t. 18.
f. 8. a. b.    Id. ov. p. 29. t. 9. f. 13.     Raii, 91. A. 2.      Will. 191. t. 46.     Faun.
Helvet.    Gerin. iii. t. 357. 1.
La grande Linotte de Vignes, Buf. iv. 58.    Pl. ml. 485. f. 1.
Haenfling, Gunth. Nest. u. Eyer. t. 58.    Naturf. xxii. 96.
Greater Red-headed Linnet, or Redpole, Gen. Syn. iii. 304.    Id. Sup. 167.    Id. Sup:
ii. 209.    Br. Zool. i. No. 131. pl. 54.   Id. 1812. i. p.464. pl. 61.   Id.fol f. 110.
Arct. Zool. ii. No.261.    Collins, Birds, pl.3. f. 2. & pl. 4. f. 4.    Will. Engl. p. 260.
 96
pl. 46. Alb. iii. pl. 72
30. Bewick, Birds, i
Pult. Cat.Bors. p. 12
73. Id. Song Birds, pl. p. 60.
p. 173. Lewin, Birds, ii. pl.
Orn. Bict.
Bolton, Birds, i. pl. 29,
85.      Walcot, ii. pl. 222.
THE colours of the plumage id this bird coincide So math With
the last, as to make a recapitulation unnecessary; the difference,
according to the generality of authors, consists in the addition of a
crimson spot on the forehead, and the breiast tiilged with a fihe rose-
colour; and although it, with many, passes for a different species, yet
later observations assure us, that it is not distinct from the Grey
Linnet: in this sentiment I have been encouraged by my late friend,
and most excellent naturalist, Mr. Boys, of Sandwich; added to the
observations of Colonel Montagu, both of whom have long had their
suspicions in respect to this fact, as well as myself, and may be thus
accounted for :—The Common Linnet not being Complete, in respect
to the red ef the forehead, till the end of the second year at soonest,
is, notwithstanding, capable of breeding in the first spring after being
hatched. I have observed in the male of the Common Linnet, the
head feathers to appear, externally, like the rest of the upper parts;
but on lifting them up a tinge of red was very manifest. One of
these birds, brought to me in January, was seemingly in its change,
for the feathers of the forehead ^Fere apparently grey, but on raising
them up with a pin, they were fine crimson in the middle: as to the
red on the breast, it is well known, that it is only to be seen at certain
seasons, and if this bird be kept in a cage, it entirely loses it, so as
never to return during confinement.
60.—STRASBURG FINCH.
Fringilla Argentoratensis, Ind. Orn.i. 460.    Gm. Lin. i. 918.    Shaw's Zool ix. 538.
Linaria Argentoratensis, Bris. iii. 146.    Id. Svo. i. 346.
Gyntel de Strasburg, Buf iv. 73.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. 366..
Strasburg Finch, Gm. Syn. iii. 308.
SIZE of the Common Linnet. Head and upper parts of the body
in general, wings, and tail brown; beneath, as far as the upper part
 of the belly, and sides rufous, spotted with brown ; belly and vent
whitish; legs reddish.
Inhabits the environs of Strasburg, where it is called Gyntel;
said to lay as many as four eggs: how far this may be related to the
Common Linnet I am not able to determine, probably differing in
age or sex.    M. Temminck supposes it to be a mere Variety.
61—LESSER RED-HEADED LINNET.
Fringilla Linaria, Ind. Orn. i. 458.     Lin. i. 322.     Faun. Suec. No. 241.     Gm. Lin. i.
917.    Brun. p. 265.    Muller, No. 262.   Kramer, p. 369.    Frisch, t. 10.    Georgi,
p. 174.    Faun. Groenl. 121.    Faun. Arag. 87.     Borowsk. iii. 143.     Roman. Om.
137. t. 21.   Faun. Helvet.    Amer. Orn. iv. pl. 30. f. 4.    Id. ix. 126.   Shaw's Zool.
ix. 519. pl. 70.
Linaria rubra minor, Bris. iii. 138.    Id. 8vo. i. 344.    Raii, 91. A. 3.    Will. 191. t. 46.
Klein, 93.    Id. Stem. 18. t. 18. f. 10. a. b.    Id. ov. 29. t. 9. f. 14.     Gerin. iii. t.
356. 2.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. 227.
Schwarzbartchen, Naturf. xvii. 96.
Le Sizerin, petite Linotte des Vignes, Buf. iv. 216.    Pl. enl 151. f. 2.
Lesser Red-headed Linnet,  Gen. Syn. iii. 305.    Id. Sup. 167.    Br. Zool. i. 216.    Id.
1812. i. p. 466. pl. 61.    Id.fol. 111.     Barringt. Misc. p. 217.     Ellis, Voy. ii. p.
15.    Phil. Trans, lxii.  p. 405.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 262.    Will Engl. 260. pl. 46.
Albin,  iii. pl. 75.     Bolton, Birds, i. pl. 31, 32.     Bewick, i. pl. p. 174.    Lewin,
Birds, ii. pl. 85.    Graves, Br. Om.    Orn. Bict.
HALF the bulk of the last; length five inches. Bill dusky;
irides hazel; on the forehead'is a rich spot of purplish red; the breast
of the same colour, but less bright; back dusky, the feathers edged
with reddish brown; sides yellowish, or ash-colour, marked with
narrow dusky lines; quills and tail feathers dusky, fringed with
dusky white ; on the wing coverts two whitish bars ; legs dusky.
The female is less lively in colour; has no red on the breast, and
the spot on the forehead is of a saffron-colour.
Young birds have not the red feathers, and the males subject to
great variety, as in the greater species, and sometimes without any
red on the breast; but as the bird rarely, if ever,  breeds in the
vol. vi. o
I
 southern parts of England, the complete history will, perhaps for
some time to come, be unknown. The bird, however, is Botruttcom.-*
mon in the winter months, in the warmer counties of England, and
about London kaewn by the name of the Stone Redpoll; seen
often in large flocks. It breeds in Wales, also in Yorkshire, and no
doubt other places towards the north. Mr. Pennant found the nest
on an alder stump, near a brook, about two or three feet from the
ground; it was composed of dried stalks, and other plants, intermixed
with wool, and lined with hair and feathers; the eggs four, of a pale
bluish green, thickly sprinkled near the blunt end, with small reddish spots. The bird so tenacious of her nest, as to suffer herself to
be taken off by the hand, and when released would not forsake it.
We received one of the nests from the late Mr. Bolton, of Yorkshire;
this was made of bents, with moss, and the down of the willow, and
warmly lined with the latter. Authors mention, that this bird is fond of
the seeds of alder: this we can vouch for, having seen them many times
mixed with the Siskins, in great numbers, picking the seeds of that
tree in winter, and frequently with their backs downwards; and knew
a person so adroit, as to take many in a day, by means of a long twig
smeared with bkdflimey iastened to a pole ; being so intent on what
they were about, as not to heed what passed beneath them.
This species is plentiful throughout Europe, from the extreme
part of Russia to Rialy; and probably, as it is at all times seen at
Gibraltar, may possibly proceed occasionally to the Africato ^hore?
especially as large flights are seen at the former in spring and autamn*,
independent of those which reside constantly; is very common in
Greenland, and has been seen at Aoonalashka. In America is a
well-known species, and most likely common to tbe whole northern
part of the globe. We have seen drawings, of what appeared to be
a Linnet, from both India and China, and of different sizes,---feist do
not recollect any markings of red either on the forehead or breast.
 99
A.—tmkria "minima, Bris, iii. 142.    Id. 8vo. i. 345.    Faun. Helvet.
— pectore Sublufe<9* Klein, Av. p. 93.
Le Cabaret, Buf. iv. 76.    Pl enl. 485. f. 2.
Fanello dell'Aquila, Olin. Uc. t. p. 8.
Twite, Gen. Syn. iii. 307.    Var. A.
Length four inches and a half. Bill yellowish, with a brown
tip ; top of the head and rump red ; over the eyes a rufous band ;
upper parts in general blackish, the feathers edged with rufous;
beneath rufous, spotted with blackish on the throat; belly white;
legs brown, or black ; claws long, especially the hind one; between
the bill and eye a black brown spot, and on the chin another.
The female differs from the male, in wanting the red on the rump,
otherwise resembles the male; so far from Brisson, who gives the
Twite of Albin as synonimous, which probably rather belongs to
the one so called below, and this bird only a Variety of the Lesser
Red-headed Linnet.
62.—ARCTIC FINCH.
Fringilla flavirostris, Ind. Orn. i. 438. Lin.i. 322. Faun. Suec. No.239. Muller,
No. 260. Pall. It. ii. 710. Gm. Lin. i. 915. Shaw's Zool. ix. 523. Tern. Man.
228.   Id.Ed.ii. 375.
Arctic Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 260.    Arct. Zool. ii. 379. A.
IN this the bill is like yellow wax, with a brown tip; plumage
in general obscure sooty brown, paler beneath; the feathers of the
breast varied with garnet-colour at the tips; quills and tail dusky,
edged with grey, the last somewhat forked; legs black : the female
inclines more to brown. I
Inhabits Norway, and the north-east part of Siberia, very common
in the winter; migrates southward, frequenting inhabited places, and
is seen about barbs, being a tame species; common about the Jenisei
in the .severest part of winter, returning north earlier than the Snow
 100 FINCH.
Bunting; not seen in Russia, M, Temminck considers this to be no
other than the Lesser red-headed Linnet, before its second moult;
and the late Colonel Montagu described a similar bird to me, in
which some obscure spots, or rather sparks, of crimson were beginning to appear on the breast: I should therefore think that both
these Gentlemen were right in'their opinion in respect to the identity
of the bird.
917.    Sha
w's Zool. ix. 52]
Klein, 93.
Id. Stem. 18. t.
18. f. 9.
10.    Buf.
iv. 74.    Gerin. ii
i. t. 356.
63— TWITE   LINNET.
Fringilla Montium, Ind. Om. i. 459.    Gm. Lin. i
Linaria montana, Bris. iii. 145.    Id. Svo. i. 346.
a. b.    Raii, 91. A. 4.    Will. 191.    Frisch, 1
Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 369.
Mountain Linnet, Twite, Gen. Syn. iii. 307.    Br. Zool No. 133. t. 53.     Id.fol. 111.
Will Engl. 261.  Arct. Zool. ii. 380. C.   Collins, Birds, pl. 2. f. 5, 6.   Bolt. Birds,
pl. 33, 34.     Albin, iii. pl. 74.    Id. Song Birds, pl. p. 37.     Lewin, Birds, ii. pl.
86.    Pult. Cat. Bors. p. 13.    Orn. Bict.
LENGTH six inches, or rather more. Bill pale; irides hazel;
the feathers on the upper parts rather dusky, on the head edged with
ash-colour, the others with brownish red ; rump crimson; under
parts rufous white, with dusky spots on the throat and breast; belly
white ; wings and tail dusky ; legs pale brown. The female wants
the red mark on the rump.
This, like the Common Linnet, varies in plumage; some have
only the rump red, in others both the crown and rump are of that
colour; and we have seen some birds, in which the forehead, rump,
and breast were all of them red.
Twites are well distinguished by the bird-catchers in the neighbourhood of London, where they are seen in autumn in large flights,
with other Linnets. They breed in the more northern parts of England,
no doubt in Yorkshire, as the late Mr. Bolton, who resided near
Halifax, sent me a nest of one, which was composed of dry bents and
moss, lined with finer heath and fibrous roots, without wool.    The
 FINCH. 101
the size of those of a Linnet, bluish
white, faintly spotted with purplish red at the larger end, and some
scratches. The nest was built in a shrubbery, on a low branch of a
berry-bearing alder;* this is esteemed by M. Temminck as a distinct
species.
64—ANGOLA FINCH.
Fringilla Angolensis, Ind. Orn, i. 460.      Gm. Lin. i. 918.    Shaw's Zool ix. 539.
Serinus Angolensis, Gerin. iv. t. 361. f. 2.
Linaria Angolensis, Bris. Sup. 81.    Id. 8vo. i. 368.
Loxia cyanogastra, Bengali Cordon bleu, Baud. Om. ii. p. 436.
Vengoline, Buf. iv. 80.    Ph. Trans. Ixiii. 254.     Br. Zool. ii. App. p. 666.
Linnets from Angola, Edw. pl. 129.—male & female.
Angola Finch, Gm. Syn. iii. 309.
SIZE of our Linnet. Bill brown, round the base black; the
upper parts of the head, neck, and body, brownish ash-colour,
each feather darker in the middle ; round the eyes, and on each side
ofthe throat, white; the under parts of a plain dull orange; rump
and upper tail coverts bright yellow ; the greater wing coverts and
quills brown, edged with yellow ; tail the same, edged with grey;
legs flesh-colour.
The female is rufous brown above, each feather darkest in the
middle; sides of the head pale rufous; near the base ofthe bill a
brown mark, which passes towards the hindhead ; from the breast
to vent, pale rufous, spotted with brown; the rest partly like
the male.
Inhabits Angola: the male called Negral, or Tobaque; the
female Benguelinha; indeed their being of opposite sexes is not
certain. Mr. Edwards only supposes so, and it is probable, that, as
they are both said to sing well, they may have been males of two
different species, as females in general, seldom have a fine song.
* Rhamnus frangula.— Lin.
 The last bird is probably the Vengoline, mentioned by the Hon.
Daines Barrington,* which he says, will sing better than any bird
which is not European, except the American Mockin^-Bird.
65.—DUSKY FINCH.
Fringilla obscura, Ind. Om. i. 460.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 541.
Fringilla atra, Gm. Lin. i. 918.
La Linotte brune, Buf. iv. 84.
Dusky Finch, Gen. SyinSii. 309.    Edw. pl. 270.
LENGTH four inches. Bill ash-colour ; plumage in general
dusky brown, or blackish, inclining to ash-colour on the breast and
rump; and all the feathers tipped with a lighter colour; legs dusky.
Inhabits Angola, or Brazil. Mr. Edwards is uncertain of this,
as he took his description from a caged bird, and it was not known
from which ofthe places it originally came.
66.—GOTAH FINCH.
LENGTH five inches, or a trifle more. Bill black, curving a
little downwards ; top of the head, neck, and back, rufous brown ;
wings dull rwfoas ; tail deep brown, greatly cuneiform, the two
middle feathers two inches and a quarter long, the outmost one inch-
and a quarter; the four middle ones of nearly equal lengths, the rest
shorter by degrees ; between the bill and eye, and all beneath, pure
white; legs yellow : the wings reach to the base of the tail.
Inhabits India, and called Go tali.—From the drawings of Sir
J. Anstruther; with this is a second, probably differing in sex, said
to be about six inches long; bill and legs as in the other; plumage
much the same, and a white streak from the bill passes just over the
eye, finishing behind in a point: the tail is long, but as it is closed
3 Experiments and Observations, t
£ Binds-.—Ph. Trans. Vol. lxi
 finch. 103
in the drawing, we may conclude it to be cuneiform, though it does
not appear so.—.Inhabits India with the other, and called Gulab
Chesm, or Red Eye.
67.—CHINESE LONG-TAILED FINCH.
SIZE of a Sparrow; length, to tfoe ramp, four inches. Bill and
irides red ; plumage in general white; tail very long, cuneiform, the
two middle feathers, measuring at least three inches, are narrow, and
end in a point; on each side four or five others, shortening by degrees,
and pointed, all of them bending downwards; through the eye a
slender black streak : crown and nape yellow ; legs feathered almost
to the toes, which are red.
A fine specimen of this is among some Chinese paintings, in the
possession of Mr. Forster, Fitzroy Square, and is probably the same
with that mentioned before in the Synopsis,* of which I have a
a drawing, taken from one in the possession of the late Captain
Broadly; this answers to the last described, as to general appearance,
being wholly white, but the feathers of the crown are also white,
rather elongated, and end in a point at the nape; and the black
streak through the eye is wanting.
Both of the above said to be natives of China.
68—BLUE-BELLIED FINCH.
323.—male.   Gm. Un. i. 120.    Spalowsk.
Fringilla Benghalns, Ind. Orn. i. 461.
i. t. 34.    Dawd.ii. 435.
Fringilla Angolensis, Lin. i. 323. 3L—female.
Bengalus, Bris. ii. 203. 1.10. f. 1.   Id. 8vo. i. 363.   Germ. iv.
Le Bengali, Buf.iv. 92.   Pl ml. 115. 1.
Blue-bellied Finch, Gen. Syn.Hi. 310. 81.    Edw. pl. 131.—f
t.366.  Nat; Misc.t.150.
LENGTH  four inches and tbrte qiwwters.     Bill dirty Uesh-
colour; irides hazel; head and upper parts of the body grey; lower
* See Vol. iv. p. 563. par. 2d. in t&*note *.
 104 FINCH.
part of the back, the rump, and all beneath, blue; on each side of
the head a curved purplish red spot, placed beneath the eyes, and
rather behind them ; quills brown, edged with grey ; tail pale blue,
a little cuneiform ; legs whitish.
The female differs, chiefly in wanting the red spot beneath the
eyes. Some specimens have the under parts the same as the back,
only paler; in others, there is a tinge of red on the belly. Edwards's
bird was ash-colour, inclining to brown above, and pale blue on the
under parts, and tail, but without the red mark beneath the eyes.
What he supposed a female was cinereous brown, with only a slight
tinge of blue on the under parts, and probably was a young bird.
Inhabits Africa.—One in Mr. Salt's collection, said to be common every where in Abyssinia, close to the houses; in manners like
the Wren.
69.—AMADUVADE FINCH.
905.    Raii, 92.    Will.
Fringilla Amaudava, Ind. Orn. i. 461.    Lin. i. 319.    Gm. Lin. i
194 t. 46.    PetivrGaz. 53. f. 1.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 542.
Loxia Amandava, Baud. ii. 437.
Bengalus punctulatus, Rm.iii. 206. t. 10. f. 4.    Id. 8vo. i. 364.
Fringilla rubra minima, Klein, 98. 15.
Le Bengali picquete, Buf. iv. 96. t. 2, f. 1.    Pl. enl 115. 3.
Amaduvade Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 311.    Id. Sup. 168.    Will. Engl 266. pl. 46.    Albin,
iii. pl. 77.    Edw. pl. 355. 1.
SIZE of a Wren ; length four inches. Bill dull red ; plumage
on the upper parts brown, with a mixture of red ; beneath the same,
but paler ; middle of the belly darkest; all the feathers of the wing
coverts, breast, and sides marked with a spot of white at the tip ;
quills grey brown ; tail black : legs pale yellowish white.
The female differs, in having a mixture of white on the throat
and neck; belly pale yellow; otherwise like the male.
Inhabits Bengal, Java, Malacca, and other parts of Asia.
 105
—Bengalus fuscus, Bris
[ Gm. Syn. iii. 312. A.
. 205.   Id. 8vo. i. 363.    Buf. iv. 95.   Pl ml 115. 2.
Length under four inches. General colour of the plumage brown,
deepest on the belly; in some birds mixed with a little white on the
breast, and a small portion of reddish in others; on many of the
wing coverts a spot of white at the tip ; tail dusky black ; legs pale
yellow.
One, thought to be the female, was wholly brown, and the wing
coverts not spotted with white.
In some drawings from India, I observed two of these birds, the
one marked as usual, the other olive, probably meant for the two
sexes: and I learned from the late Mr. Tunstall, that having kept
them often, he observed that they became more spotted in proportion
to their age, and particularly one, which, when first in his possession,
had only here and there a white spot, became afterwards as it were
powdered with them.
70—SENEGAL FINCH.
Lin. i. 320.   Gm.Lin
Fringilla Senegala, Ind. Orn.
Loxia Senegala, Baud. ii. 438.
Senegalus ruber, Bris. iii. 208. t. 10. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 364.
Senegali rouge,  Buf iv. 99.    PU enl. 157. 1.    j
Senegal Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 312.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Bill reddish, edged
all round with brown, and beneath the under mandible a line of
brown, quite to the tip; the same on the ridge of the upper
mandible: the greater part of the plumage is vinaceous red, but the
hind part of the head and neck, the back, scapulars, and wing
coverts, are brown; the lower part of the belly, thighs, and under
tail coverts, greenish brown ; tail black; legs pale grey.
Inhabits Senegal.
 106
A.—Le Danbik, Buf. iv. 100.
Length four inches and a half. Bill red, ridge at top, and point
black; face, and Sides round the eyes, crimson, continuing on tbe
breast, but paler; the same on the sides under the wings; but is
there marked with minute white spots, four near the end of each
feather; body above olive-brown; lower belly and vent pale brown;
tail rounded, the upper coverts and outer webs deeply fringed with
crimson, approaching to the colour of dragon's blood.
The female smaller; no red about the head or breast; but the
same white spots on the sides.
Inhabits Abyssinia, brought from thence by Mr. Salt.
B.—Buffon mentions one of these being killed at Cayenne, but
it most probably had been a caged bird, which had escaped; this
differed a little from the first described, as the wings were lightly
edged with red, and the bill entirely so; the breast and sides spotted
with white ; the legs reddish.
It is observed, that these birds do not change the feathers more
than once in a year in this climate; however this may be, I have
now in my collection, a bird which died without a single spot
upon it, which once was full of them, and had been brought over
with other Spotted Amaduvades as one of those birds: hence we
may suppose, that the Senegal and Amaduvade Finches are very
nearly allied, if not the same, in different states of plumage.
The above named Finches are both natives of Senegal, and
feed on millet: this affords the natives an easy method of catching
them, by means of a hollow gourd, supported with the bottom
uppermost, on a stick, with a string leading to some covered place,
and some millet being strewed beneath, these birds hastening
in numbers to pick it up, are caught under the trap, by the stick
 FINCH. 107
being pulled away. The females said to sing as well as the males.
These are familiar, and when once used to the climate, will frequently
live five or six years in a cage. They have been bred in Holland,
by the fanciers of binds.
71.—WHITE-EARED FINCH.
Fringilla leucotis, Ind. Om. i. 462.. Gm. Lin. i. 905.
Loxia leucotis, Baud. ii. 440.
White-eared Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 314.    Osb. Voy. ii. 329, 330.
OS BECK mentions five small birds, which he describes as Finches;
the first had the head, back, and wing coverts, purple; the under
side of the body yellow; prime quills and tail fine blue; secondaries
green ; on the ears a white spot.
The second like the former, but the back and tail purple.
The third with a green head, and a purple breast and tail.
Fourth, the breast of a light green ; the head and lesser wing
Coverts brown.
The fifth had the head, back, wing coverts, and tail, of a fine deep
brown; under side ofthe body, and under wing, coverts, fine crimson.
Each of these birds had a white spot on the ears; hence it is
probable they may be Varieties of each other; at least, we shall
follow Osbeck's supposition of their being so, till justified, by fuller
authority, for the alteration.
The description, was taken from some Chinese drawings.
72.—CAPE FINCH.
Fringilla Alario, Ind. Or».i. 462.    Lin. i. 319.    Gm. Lin.
. 905.
Passerculus Cap. B. Spei, Bris. iii. 106. t. 5. 2.    Id. 8vo.
. 336.
Zool. ix. 543.
Sparrow from the Cape of Good Hope, 4U>f jji, pl, 67.
Cape Finch, Gm. Syn. iii. 315.
LARGER than a House Sparrow; length four inches and three
quarters.   Bill pale ash-colour; head and neck black; the black*
p 2
 ending in a point on the breast; but the breast itself, and the rest of
the under parts, white ; thighs rufous ; upper parts of the body
chestnut; quills blackish ; inner part of the lesser ones, and under
the wings, chestnut; tail the same, the four outer feathers marked
with a longitudinal blackish spot at the tip; shape ofthe tail forked;
legs brown.-
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
73—CUBA FINCH.
Fringilla Maia, Ind. Om. i. 462.    Lin. 323.    Gm. Lin. i. 924.    Bris. iii. 214. t
female.   Id. 8vo. i. 366.    Raii, 155.    Will. 297.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 511.
Loxia Cubeensis, Baud. ii. 442.
Maia de la Cuba, Buf. iv. 105. pl. 3.    PL enl. 199. 2.—female.    Will. Engl. .
Cuba Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 315.
LENGTH three inches and three quarters. Bill grey; head,
neck, and under parts ofthe body, blackish ; back and upper parts
purplish chestnut, brightest on the rump ; across the breast a purplish
chestnut band ; tail the same ; quills grey brown, edged with chestnut ; legs lead-colour.
The female has the bill whitish; head, neck, and upper parts,
fulvous; throat purplish chestnut; on each side of the breast a spot
ofthe same colour; the rest ofthe under parts dirty yellowish white;
quills and tail fulvous; legs and claws grey.
Inhabits the Island of Cuba, where the natives give it the name
of Maia. Found also in the East Indies ; is gregarious, flies in
innumerable flocks, and very hurtful to the rice fields; and in all
probability, may be found wherever that grain is cultivated : the flesh
is accounted good, and wholesome.
 109
74.—CEYLON FINCH.
Fringilla Zeylonica, Ind. Orn. i. 463.    Gm. Lin. i. 906.   Skaiv's Zool ix. 479.
Ceylon Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 317.
SIZE small. Bill and head black; the whole body yellow,
inclining to green on the back; the under parts white and dusky;
quills and tail dusky ; the outer edges yellow.
Inhabits China and Ceylon.—One of these had a reddish brown
head ; upper parts of the body and wings green ; breast and belly
yellowish white—probably the female.
Met with in some Chinese drawings.
75.—BROWN-THROATED  FINCH.
Fringilla fuscicollis, Ind. Om. i. 463.    Gm. Lin. i. 906.    Share's Zool. ix. 53. 4.
Loxia fuscicollis, Baud. ii. 440.
Brown-throated Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 318.
BILL red; crown of the head green; from the eyes a line of
white, passing backwards; throat pale brown, beneath a patch of
ash-colour, then one of pale red; back ferruginous; rump and vent
green; wings dusky; on the lower part of the quills a yellow spot;
tail half yellow, half black; legs yellow.
Inhabits China.
76— FIRE FINCH.
Fringilla ignita, Ind. Orn. i. 464.   Gm. Lin. i. 906.   Gerini, iv. 366.   Shaw's Zool. ix. 514.
Loxia ignita, Baud. ii. 448.
Fire Finch, Gm. Syn. iii. 318.    Brown, III pl. 2.
SIZE of the smaller Redpole.     Bill dusky, base yellowish;
general colour of the plumage glossy, brownish red;  vent rather
 Hi
110
FINCH.
darker; quills dusky; tail the same, rather cuneiform ; legs pale
flesh-colour.—The female pale reddish brown ; forehead and between
the eyes crimson; tail reddish, shaped like that of the male, with
the end dusky.
Inhabits Gambia, in Africa.
77.-BLUE-HEADED FINCH.
gilia cyauninelas^ Ind. Orn. i. 464.    C
 caerulea, &c. Nov. Com. C. Petr.
ai-fin noir et bleu, Buf. v. 327.
e-headed Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 319.
. 434. 1.16. f. 6.
SIZE of the Greater Linnet. Bill brown; head and neck blue;
between the eyes, across the forehead, a narrow black line; chin and
throat black; across the upper part of the back a semicircle of black;
wing coverts, lower part of the back, and rump blue; breast, belly,
and vent blue; quills blackish brown, edged with blue, appearing
green in some lights ; tail even, brown black ; legs brown.
Inhabits India.
78— AZURE-HEADED FINCH.
Fringilla picta, Ind. Om. i. 464.    Gm. Lin. i. 924.
Loxia picta, Baud. ii. 449.
Azure-headed Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 319.
LENGTH four inches. Bill red ; crown of the head pale blue;
hind part ofthe neck, throat, breast, and under tail coverts,, punish;
greater coverts green; lower part of the back and rump yellow;
quills and tail blue; legs red.
Inhabits China.—I saw this among some drawings in possession
of the late Dr. Fothergill.
 Ill
79.—BLUE-CROWNED FINCH.
■   Fringilla cyanocephala, Ind. Om. i. -464.    Gm. Lin. i. 924.   Mill. Ill No. 24.    Shaw's
Zool. ix. 509.
Loxia cyanocephala, Baud. ii. 449.
Blue-crowned Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 319.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill dusky; crown of the head blue,
bounded behind with red; round the eye white ; hind part of the
neck and back pale reddish brown; lower part of the back and
rump pale blue, beneath yellow; thighs and vent white; middle
and greater wing coverts margined with white; quills and tail black;
legs pale brown.
Inhabits Senegal.—The three last seem much allied.
80—LUNAR FINCH.
Fringilla lunata, 7rad. Om. i. 465.    Gm. Lin. i. 924.    Mill III. t. 30.    Shaw's Zool.
ix. 512.
Lunar Finch, Gm. Syn. iii. 320.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill slender, dusky black;
head, neck, and back, reddish ; the last inclining to brown; ramp
pale blue; across the throat a narrow black crescent, bounded below
with yellow; quills black, the ends of them blue, and marked $itl»
a white spot at the tips ; tail and legs black.
Inhabits the East Indies.
81—GREEN-RUMPED FINCH.
Fringilla multicolor, Ind. Om. ii. 465.    Gm. Un, i. 924.   Shaw's Zool. ix. 483.
Green-rumped Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 329.
BILL bluish; head, hind part of the neck, upper part of the
back, and tail, black; cheeks, chin, and the rest of the under parts,
J
 light yellow; wings black, on the coverts a white spot; the secondaries crossed at the ends with white ; lower part of the back and
thighs green ; legs grey.
Inhabits Ceylon.
82—TESTACEOUS FINCH.
Fringilla testacea, Ind. Orn.i. 465.    Gm. Lin. i. 928.   Jacq. Vog. 27. t. 12.    Shaw's
Zool. ix. 484.
Testaceous Finch, Gen. Syn. Sup. 169:
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill pale red ; irides black ;
head, neck, and back, ferruginous, mottled with black; breast and
belly the same, but paler; wings and tail brown ; legs flesh-colour.
Brought from Portugal to Vienna.    Native place uncertain.
83.—OKER FINCH.
Fringilla ochracea, Ind. Orn. i. 465.    Gm. Lin. i. 928.
Fringilla albo-ochracea, Jacq. Vog. p. 19. t. 15.
Oker Finch,  Gm. Syn. Sup. 169.
SIZE of a Chaffinch. Bill and legs yellow; general colour of
the plumage white, except the head, fore part of the neck, breast,
and wing coverts, which are, more or less, the colour of yellow oker.
This was said to have been caught in Austria. I suspect it to be
a Variety of some ofthe Finch tribe, and not a distinct species.
84.—IMPERIAL FINCH.
Fringilla Imperialis, Ind. Orn. i. 466.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 482.
Imperial Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 169.
SIZE of the Amaduvade Finch ; length three inches and a half.
Bill dusky red ; crown and all the under parts of the body yellow ;
 the upper parts pale ferruginous rose-colour; quills and tail dusky;
the last short; legs pale dusky red.
Inhabits China.—Described from drawings in the possession of
Sir Joseph Banks.
85.—SULTRY FINCH.
Fringilla calida, Ind. Om. Sup. xlviii.
Sultry Finch, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. 210.
s Zool. 544.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill dusky; general colour
of the plumage fine pale rufous brown; the under parts are plain,
but on the upper, each feather is streaked down the middle with
dusky black; especially the crown, where the streaks are very broad
and distinct; tail even at the end ; legs pale yellow.
Inhabits the Mahratta Country, in India.
86—MODEST FINCH.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill pale; plumage above
brown ; beneath paler, streaked with dusky; middle of the belly
and vent plain; tail rather forked, fringed with wlntish at the end ;
legs pale.—In the collection of Lord Stanley.
87—LITTLE FINCH.
LENGTH less than four inches. Bill short, sharp, dusky;
plumage in general, and tail fine greenish brown, paler beneath;
lower belly and vent approaching to white ; the throat mottled
with dusky spots; chin yellow; legs white; over the eye a slender,
obscure yellow streak; legs very pale, almost white.
In the collection of Lord Stanley.
VOL. VI. Q
 88.—DWARF FINCH.
LENGTH three inches and a half. Bill red, upper ridge and
beneath black ; plumage above pale brown; chin pale yellow; from
thence, down the middle of the belly, to the vent, and under tail
coverts bright deep orange, almost crimson ; sides pale ash-colour,
crossed with pale buff lines ; over the eye, from the nostrils, a deep
crimson streak; upper tail coverts crimson; quills and tail brown,
the latter darker, and much rounded ; legs pale brown.
A second of these, probably a female, had the bill, and upper
parts of the body, wings, and tail, as in the other; beneath, from the
the chin, buff-colour, and marked on the sides as in the former; the
under tail coverts orange, the upper crimson; but the streak over the
eye wanting.
Inhabits Senegal.—Tn the Collection of Lord Stanley. In another
specimen, the edges of all but the two middle tail feathers were
crimson: and we have also seen further trifling Varieties, no doubt
owing to age or sex.
89.—BARRED FINCH.
SIZE of the last. General colour of the plumage much the
same; the upper mandible black, the lower red; chin and throat
black; breast, and sides under the wings, crossed with eighteen or
twenty narrow bars of white, bounded above and below with brown ;
from the middle of the breast to the vent pale ferruginous chestnut.
One, supposed to differ in sex, was somewhat paler, and wanted
the black on the chin and throat; but the white lines or bars beneath
the body were much the same, and the colour down the middle of
the belly only deep buff.
  n
i
&.
   90.—DUREE FINCH—Pl. xcvii.
' H5IZE of aS^&t¥ow. Bill whitish; head and neck hoary; from
thVbase of the bill a black stripe passes through the eye, on each
side, to the nape; upper parts of the body, wings, and tail brown,
the margins ofthe feathers paler; chin and all beneath black, passing
on each side of :tfae neck as a half collar1; sides and thighs ash-colour;
tail rounded, dark brown, or black, with the centre feathers inclining
to ciner&dtis; the outer web, and point ofthe exterior one dirty white ;
legs dirty red, feet small, toes disttnctj ■
The female is like the male above;'round the eye, chin, throat,
breast, belly, under wing and tail coverts; sides, and; thighs whitish
brown ; quills bftfwnish, with pale margins; tail and feet as in the
male, but paler.      1<>if»i7v»i'i>j >■;» uJ
Inhabits Bengal throughout the year, found among the grass; is
the Duree of the Bengalese, and the Mussulmans—Dr. Buchanan.
The egg is dusky white,' with' pale cinereous spots, somewhat like
that of a^ Canary Bird, named Dula : found at Cawnpore, in May.
g£jL 91—TEMPORAL FINCH.
. H /; I, fFringitta Tetntidralis, Ind. Orn. Sup. xlviii.    Shaw's Zool ix. 533.
Temporal Finch, Gen. Syn. Suj>. ii. 211.
LENGTH between four and five inches. Bill and legs reddish
brown; crown of the head blue grey ; body above, wings, and tail,
pale brcv^'; beneath white; from the bill a dull crimson streak,
growing broader at the back part, and forming an oval patch ; rump
crimson. fWmtf.
Inhabits New South Wales, and called Goo-lung-ag-ga.    Is very
common  there, and easily domesticated,  being of a most lively
disposition when in  a cage; and even old birds will  be perfectly
reconciled, after being caught three or four days.
Q 2
 116
i Grosbeak, Letvin
v Holland Birds.
Length four inches and a half. Bill crimson, beneath black; head,
neck, breast, and sides, ash-colour, deeper on the crown, and paler on
the chin; from the nostrils a crimson streak passes over the eye, and
beyond it; back and wings olive-green; quills dark within ; rump
and upper tail coverts crimson ; tail dusky, somewhat cuneiform in
shape; legs yellow.
Said to be found generally in barren tracts about Sydney, and
Parametta, in large flocks in autumn; in spring chiefly in pairs;
builds in low bushes an oval nest, with dead grass, lined with sow-
thistle down: the eggs are five or six in number, flesh-coloured,
marked with dull red spots.    The male said to have a pleasant song.
Inhabits New Holland.—In the collection of Lord Stanley.
B.—In this the general colour is olive-brown, a crimson streak
over the eye, and on the rump, as in the others; all but the two
middle tail feathers fringed at the ends with white.
In the collection of Mr. Harrison.
Individuals of the Temporal Finch seem to vary considerably
from each other; some are olive-green where others are brown,
otherwise the same, probably owing to difference of sex ; but those
with the green plumage are larger, and the tail more even at the
end.—One of these last, from New Holland, was named Deroo-gnan.
In a specimen four inches long, the crown was ash-colour, the rest
ofthe upper parts ofthe body, wings, and tail, pale brown, beneath
pale cinereous grey; in the middle of the belly nearly white; from
the nostrils a pale crimson patch, spreading on each side beneath
the eye; upper tail coverts dull crimson; tail cuneiform, the two
middle feathers one inch and three quarters, the outer three quarters;
colour deep brown; the bill orange ; legs brown.
 117
92—NITID FINCH.
Fringilla nitida, Ind. Orn. Sup. xlviii. Shaw's Zool.ix. 536.
Nitid Finch, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 211.
SIZE of the House Sparrow. Bill pale red; legs pale yellow;
plumage above, including the tail, pale ash-colour; beneath white,
but the sides next the wings incline to yellow; quills dull ferruginous yellow; over the eyes a black band, passing down a little
way on the ears as a broad patch.
Inhabits New South Wales.
93.—WAVE-BREASTED FINCH.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill black; plumage above
green ; round the eye, and beneath to the breast grey, marked with
small brownish spots; breast and belly whitish green, with darker
green waves; quills dusky, with greenish edges; tail rounded; legs
pale buff-colour.
Inhabits New Holland.—General Davies.
94.-SLATY FINCH.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill dusky, with a few slender
hairs at the base; plumage above slate-colour; chin, even with the
eye, and throat white; on the breast a dusky crescent; beneath this
ferruginous; vent paler; thighs pale ash ; quills and tail dusky, the
feathers edged with grey; tips ofthe latter black; legs dusky black.
Inhabits New South Wales.
J
 95.—VAN-DIEMEN S FINCH.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill horn-colour, with a black
tip; head pale olive-green; from the nape to the middle of the back
slaty grey; the rest ofthe back and wings as the head ; beneath the
body pale, but across.the breast, as far as the slaty-colour reaches, it
is cinereous white; belly;between the thighs ferruginous; vent white;
quills and tail oliverg^re^^itiner webs of the feathers dusky ; shape
ofthe tail a little hollowed, or forked at the end;  legs pale.
Inhabits Van Diemen's Land,    f^fiife
96.—CREAM-COLOURED FINCH.
SIZE of a Linnet; length four inches and a half. Bill black;
plumage in general cream-colour, streaked with white on the C^own
and nape; but on the chin, throat, sides of the body, and back, with
dusky brown; region ofthe eye white; behind it a pale rufous streak,
reaching almost to the hindhead; breast and belly white ; quills and
tail dusky ; legs yellow, claws black.
Inhabits New South Wales.—General Davies.
97.—AMERICAN YELLOW FINCH.
Fringilla tristis, Ind. Om. i. 452.   Lin.i. 320.    Gm. Lin. i. 907.
Carduelis Americana, Bril iii. 64.     Id. 8vo. i. 324.     Klein, 97. No. 5.     Genu. iv.
t. 368. 2.    Bartr. Trav. 289.    Nat. Misc. pl. 749. & 361 ?    Shaw's Zool. ix. 464.
LeChardonneretjaune, Buf. iy. .212.    Pl. pnl. 202. 2.    Bescr. Surin. ii. 199.
Le Gaffaron, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 134.
Green Sparrow, Btmcr. Guian. p. 1SI ?—female.
American Goldfinch,- Gm. Syn. iii. 288.   Id. Sup. 166.   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 242.    Edw.
pl. 274.    Cat. Car. i. 43.    Amer. Om. i.  pl. 1. f. 2.
SIZE of a Linnet; length four inches and a half.    Bill white;
irides hazel; fore part of the head black ; rest of the body yellow;
 FINCH. 119
thighs and tail coverts yellowish white; wing coverts black, crossed
with a white band; quills black, the lesser edged and tipped with
white; tail black; legs white.
The female wants the black oh the head; plumage above olive-
green; "throat, breast, and rump, pale yellow; belly and vent white \
wings and tail as the male.
The young are at first olive-brown, the yellow breaking out
among the feathers by degrees, and the rump and under tail coverts
almost white ; also the middle of the belly. In the male bird the
head is at first mottled with black, as it does not gain the full
plumage till the following spring.
Inhabits North America, particularly about New York : found as
far as 54deg. of lat. numerous in Carolina, Mexico, Guiana, also at
Buenos Ayres: is a summer bird, and feeds on thistles like our
Goldfinch ; called the York Yellow Bird, also Thistle, Lettuce, and
Sallad Bird : feeds on various other seeds, as hemp, and observed
often to hang with the back downwards, as a Titmouse or Siskin : is
easily familiarised to confinement. The nest and eggs not mentioned
by any author.
I have been assured by the late Mr. Tunstall, who kept several
of them, that both sexes constantly lost their yellow colour in winter,
and became pale olive, but recovered their beautiful yellow plumage
in spring.
A.—L'Olivarez, Buf. iv. 232.    Gen. Syn. iii. 291. C.
Length four inches and a half. Bill cinereous ; plumage above
pale olive, beneath yellow, head black ; quills blackish, edged with
yellow more or less, and a stripe of the same on the wings; tail
a trifle forked; legs cinereous.
The female has the crown grey brown; cheeks and throat pale
yellow: said to be found in the woods about Buenos Ayres, as far as
the Straits of Magalhaen, and to sing better than any bird of South
America. rm^'te:
 120
B.—Le Tarin de la nouvelle Yorck, Buf. i
iii. 291.
New York Siskin, Arct. Zool No. 243.
. 231.     Pl. enl 292. f. 1, 2.    Gm. Syn.
In this the top of the head is black ; throat, round the neck, and
breast, yellow; rump yellow, changing to white on the upper tail
coverts; back olive-brown, edges of the feathers paler; wings and
tail black; the feathers mostly edged with white; belly and vent
whitish ; legs pale. The female as the male, but less bright, and
wants the black on the head.
Inhabits New York, and is probably in the winter dress.
C.—Length four inches and a half, breadth eight and a half.
Plumage mostly brownish yellow above, and pale yellow beneath,
nearly white; forehead mottled with black, one large spot over the
eye, and a dusky yellow one on the ears; wings black, the feathers
edged deeply with yellowish white ; tail black, edged as the wings
with yellowish white, shape forked.    The female paler than the male.
This last inhabits the neighbourhood of Savannah, in Georgia.
Mr. Abbot informed me, that it is met with in flights of five or six in
winter, and feeds on the seeds of flax, alder, &c. and is called in the
back parts of Carolina, the Flax Bird. As this species varies much
at different periods of age, it is probable, that the above, recorded
as Varieties, may be one and the same bird at different stages of
perfection.
98.—MEXICAN FINCH.
Fringilla Pinus, Pine Finch, Amer. Om. ii. pl. 18. f. I.
 Mexicana, Ind. Orn.i. 453. 66.    Shaw's Zool ix. 471.
 Cacatatotl, Ind. Om. i. 453. 67.
Mexican Siskin, Gm. Syn. iii. 292. 59 & 60.
LENGTH four inches, breadth eight.    Bill dull horn-colour;
irides hazel; head, neck, and back, dark flaxen, streaked with black >
 FINCH. 121
wings black, with two rows of dull white; quills, under the coverts,
rich yellow; rump and tail coverts yellowish, streaked with dark
brown ; tail rich yellow from the base to the middle, the rest of the
length, and the whole of the two middle feathers, bluish brown,
slightly edged with yellow; sides under the wings cream-colour,
with long streaks of black ; breast light flaxen, streaked with black ;
legs purplish brown.    Male and female much alike.
The birds inhabiting Mexico by the names of Acatechichictli
and Cacatototl, seem to be one and the same with this. Said to sing
agreeably, and to feed on the seeds of a tree called Hoauhtli.
99—ORANGE-TAILED FINCH.
LENGTH five inches and a half; size of a Reed Bunting. Bill
pale; plumage above brown, with darker streaks; over the eye from
the nostrils an obscure pale streak ; on the ears a dusky patch ; on
each side of the throat a streak of dusky brown, within which the
chin is dusky white, but just under the bill more dusky ; breast and
under parts of the body dusky white, streaked with rusty brown ;
middle of the belly, between the legs, orange; base of the greater
quills, for more or less than half the length, orange, the rest brown;
lower part of the back darker than the rest; rump paler; both plain;
tail feathers two inches long, all of the side ones orange for three-
fourths from the base, the rest of the length dusky black, the two
middle wholly dusky black ; legs pale.
In the collection of Lord Stanley.—Supposed to inhabit America.
100—BLACK-FACED FINCH.
ringilla cristata, Ind. Orr
. i. 434.    Gm. Lin.
. 926.
Shaw'
Zool.
.e Friquet huppe, Buf ii
. 496.
'Aroquira, Voy. d'Azara
J iii. No. 136.
 122
M&inean de Cayei
BlackTfaceA^ipd
| PL enl. 181. 1.
.Syn.
. 253.    Id. Sup. 164.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill red ; irides pale rufous}
plumage above, wings and tail reddish brown; beneath and rump
crimson ; top ofthe head crested, and ofthe last colour ; sides of the
head, under the crest, black; legs brown. The female is without the
crest, and the general colours are less bright.
Inhabits Cayenne, found also in Paraguay, but not seen farther
south than 30 deg. nor is it very common. Often kept in cages,
and fed with hulled maize; sometimes in winter seen in small troops.
Makes the nest of dry grass, lined with hairs ; eggs white.
101.—CAROLINA  FINCH.
Fringilla Carolinensis, Ind. Orn. i. 435.    Gen. Syn. ix. 439.
 cristata, Gm. Lin.i. 926.
Moineau de la Caroline, Buf iii. 496.    Pll'/mh. 181. f. 2.
Black-faced Finch, Ard.Zool. ii. No. 255.    Gen. Syn. iii. 253. 3.—2d. parage
IN this the top ofthe head, round the eyes, and chin, are black ;
neck to the breast crimson ; rump the same ; upper partso^iibe body,
wings, and tail, pale reddish brown ; quills black; on the breast a
bar of black ; the rest of the under parts white, mixed with a little
black on the thighs; legs brown.—Inhabits Carolina.
102.—SWAMP FINCH.
Fringilla iliaca, Ind. Om. i. 438.    Gm. Lin. i. 923.     Merrei
Zool. ix. 488.
Fringilla palustris, Swamp Sparrow, Amer. Om. iii. pi. 22. f.
Swamp Finch, Gm. Sun. Sup. H. 266.
. Ic. 37. t. 10.   Ska
LENGTH almost- seven inches,   breadth   eleven ; weight one
ounce and a quarter.    Bill yellow; top  ofthe head ferruginous,
 FINCH. 123
mixed with ash-colour; over the eye an ash-coloured streak, growing
broader, arid blending with the back of the neck, and beginning of
the back, which are the same, spotted with ferruginous; on the
cheeks, under the eyes, a mixed rufous patch ; back ferruginous
brown; rump and tail ferruginous; wings the same, inclining to
brown at the ends, and inner webs of the feathers; under parts ofthe
:bird white,- more or less marked with sagittal, broad, rufous spots,
running confluent on the breast; but on the middle of the belly
smaller dusky marks of the same shape; lower belly, thighs, and
vent, white ; legs flesh-colour; the wings reach about to the base
ofthe tail.
The female wants the'ferruginous on the crown, and the white
over the eye is indistinct.
Inhabits North America, from Hudson's Bay northward, to at
least as far as Georgia south ; at the former called Swamp Sparrow ;
in the latter, Red Sparrow; called also Wilderness Sparrow; arrives
there about the middle of November, and frequents the oak woods,
but is not very common. If the Swamp Sparrow of the American
Ornithology be the same, is said to arrive in Pennsylvania in April,
seen in the low grounds, and river courses; and has two, or even
three broods in a year; departing-as the cold advances, though some
few continue : it makes the nest on the ground, in tussucks of rank
grass, amidst the water, and lays four dirty white eggs, marked with
rufous spots; feeds on grass-seeds, wild«oats, and insects; has no
Song, but merely a chirp ; rarely seen on trees, but in swamps,
skulking from one bush to another.
103.—SAVANNAH FINCH.
um, Ind. Om. i. 443.     Gm. Lin.
. pl. 22. f. 3.—female.    Skaw's Zo
„ Bris. iii. 94.   Id. 8vo. i. 334.
R 2
. 921.    Amer. Om. iv. pl. 34.-
./. ix. 500.
 Passer Pratorum, Klein, 89. 11.
Savannah Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 270.    Raii, 188.    Sloan, Jam. ii. 306. pl. 259. 5.
LENGTH five inches and a half, breadth eight and a half. Bill
pale brown; eyebrows and ears Naples yellow; breast and under
parts pure white, on the former small pointed brown spots; upper
parts pale, whitish drab-colpur, mottled with reddish brown ; wing
coverts edged and tipped with white; tertials black, edged with
white and bay; tail slightly forked, plain ; legs pale flesh-colour,
hind claw pretty long.
The female has the back mottled black, bright bay, and whitish;
chin white; breast marked with pointed spots of black, edged with
bay, appearing as chains from the base of the under mandible on
each side; sides touched with long streaks of the same; on the
temples and ears a spot of delicate yellow; belly white, a little
streaked ; the rest as in the male.
Young birds are less, and much darker in colour. In winter this
species frequents the sea shores of Pennsylvania, going away in
spring into the interior. The nest said to be made among the grass,
and the young to fly about the end of May.
I have ranked the Savarinah Finch of Jamaica and this under
one head, on supposition of their being the same. Sloane tells us,
that in Jamaica it sits on the ground in the plains, and runs thereon
in the manner of the Skylark, and when disturbed, flies neither far,
nor high, but alights again very near.
104.-GREY-HEADED FINCH.
, Ind. On. i. 443.    Gm. Lin.i. 920.    Shaw's Zool.ix
)m. i.
443.    Gm. Lin. i
920.    Sk
Bris. ii
. 189.    Id. 8vo.
i. 359.
nereo :
uteo et fusco vai
a, Rail, 1
Sloan. Jam. ii. 311.   Klein,
89. 12.
Grey-headed Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 270.
LENGTH eight inches, breadth twelve.    Bill three quarters of
an inch, upper mandible bluish brown, the under paler; head and
 FINCH. 125
throat grey; upper part of the neck and body yellow brown; the
under parts yellow; vent white; wings and tail dull brown, streaked
with white lines; legs bluish; claws brown, short, and crooked.
Inhabits Jamaica.
105.—BONANA FINCH.
. i. 443.     Lin. i. 323.
Gm. Lin.
Zool.ix. 506.
>usque nigris,   Amcen. a
c. i. 497.
ina Bird,   Raii, 187.
Klein, 89
12.    Sloan. Jam. 311.
Le Bonana, Buf. iv. 139.
Le Saihohi, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 92.
Grey Grosbeak, Brown, III. pl. 26.
Bonana Finch, Gm. Syn. iii. 269.
SIZE of the Siskin; length five inches, breadth nine inches.
Bill black, upper parts of the plumage dull blue, the feathers very
soft; under parts paler, inclining to yellow on the belly; wing
coverts greenish blue; quills and tail the same; legs black. No
apparent difference between the sexes.
Inhabits Jamaica.
106—BLACK AND ORANGE FINCH.
Se
ino affinis
Avis e c
roceo et nigro va
ria, Raii, 188.
Skaw's 2
Sir
all black
ind oran
je-coloured Bird
, Sloan. Jam. i
. 312. 50.
LENGTH four inches; breadth six inches. Bill broad at the
base, and three lines long; head, neck, and back, black, with a
tinge of orange; wings and tail brown, the feathers fringed with
orange; wing coverts and breast orange; belly white; tail an inch
and a half long; legs black.
Inhabits Jamaica.—Said to feed on ants.
I
 126
107—RUFOUS-CHINNED FINCH.
Fringilla Noctis, Ind. Orn. i. 441
Lin. i. 320.    Gn
. Lin
i. 909.
Passer niger, Bris. iii. 118. t. 7.
1.    Jd.8vo.i. 339.
Skau
's Zool.
ix. 452
Yohualtototl, Raii, 171.
Pere noir, Buf. iii. 485.    PL ml
201. 1.
Rufous-chinned Finch, Gen. Syn.
iii. 267.
SIZE of a Sparrow; length near five inches. Bill black ; irides
red; the whole plumage black, except the chin, just under the
bill, which is rufous orange; and a spot of the same, between the
bill and eye; legs blackish.
Inhabits Jamaica, Martinico, Mexico, and other parts of South
America.
A.—Fringilla Martinicensis, Gm. Lin. i. 909.
Fringilla rufo-barbata, Jacq. Vog..p. 11. 8.
Tanagra ruficollis, Gm. Lin.i. 894.
Rufous-throated Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 241.    Id. Sup. 161.
Size of a Lark ; length five inches and three quarters. General
colour of the plumage deep indigo blue, inclining to lead-colour;
wings and tail dusky; on the throat a large rufous patch ; legs black.
Inhabits Jamaica.
108—GLOSSY FINCH.
Fri
ngilla nitens, 7nd. Om.
. 442.
Gm. Li
n. i. !909.
Shaw
Pa»
ser niger eryth
•orynchos
, Bris.
iii. 120.
Id. 8vo. i
340.
Pas
ser Indicus bis
chyurus
Aldr. Raii, 87.
Will. 114
Mo
ineau du Bresi
, Buf ii
. 486.
PL enl.
291. 1.
Short-tailed India
i Sparrow
, wm.
Engl.3&2. .
Gle
ssy Finch, Ge
i. Syn. ii
. 267.
THIS is four inches and a half long. Bill flesh-colour; irides
white; plumage wholly blue black, withm polished steel gloss j fthe
legs flesh-colour.
 FINCH. 127
In the female, the feathers on the upper parts are blackish,
margined with yellowish brown ; behind the eye a blackish streak;
ramp grey; beneath dusky yellowish brown; tail black, edged
with grey; legs reddish.
Inhabits Brazil, and is very common.—One, said to be a female,
in Lord Stanley's Collection, had the head, to below the eyes, deep
brown; above the eye a whitish streak, and a narrower one down
the crown.
A.—Fringilla. jEthiops,   Jnd. Orn. i. 442./3.     Jacq. Vog. p. 10.     Gm. Lin. i. 908.
Id. p. 910. 49. /3.
Moineau de Cayenne, PL enl. 224. 3 ?
Glossy Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 268. 21. A.    Id. Sup. 165.
Size of a Chaffinch.   Irides rufous; whole plumage deep black.
Inhabits the woods of Carthagena, in South America; also
Cayenne; said to have a very weak note, to produce which requires
great exertion, as the head feathers, during the time of singing, as
well as those of the neck, appear erect; feeds on fruits and seeds; is
easily tamed, and will be satisfied with bread, when kept in a cage.
B.—Nootka Finch, Gm. Syn. Sup. 170.   Ind. Orn.i. 442. 25. y.
Size uncertain.    General colour black, with a white bill.
Inhabits Nootka Sound, where it is called Mamat.
109.—CINEREOUS FINCH.
Fn
ngilla
cinerea,
Ind. Om. i
. 455.
Gm.Lin.i. 922
.   'Shaw's. Zool.
Ci
«WOU
Finch,
Gm. Syn.
.    Arct. Zool ii.
No. 260.
BILL long and dusky ; head* and upper partSicinereous brown,
edged wi*fr obscure rust-colour; at the corners of the upperimandiblfe
 128 FINCH.
a light grey line; on the cheeks beneath, a second band, bounded
by a dusky one; throat light grey; the under side of the neck pale
ash-colour, varied with whitish marks; legs dusky.-
Inhabits Aoonalashka.—Sir Joseph Banks.
110—CARTHAGENA FINCH.
Fringilla Carthaginiensis, Ind. Om. i. 465.    Gm. Lin. i. 907.    Jacq. Vog. p. 8.    Shaw's
Zool.ix. 491.
Carthagena Finch, Gen. Syn. Sup. 169.
A TRIFLE bigger than a Canary Bird. Bill and legs pale
brown; general colour of the plumage cinereous, spotted with brown
and yellow.
Found in the woods of Carthagena, in South America, and has
a note not unlike that of a Chaffinch.
111.-RUSTY-COLLARED FINCH.
Fringilla australis, Ind. Om. i. 466.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 503.
Rusty-collared Finch, Gen. Syn. Sup. 169.
SIZE uncertain.    General colour of the plumage brown; round
the neck a ferruginous collar.
Inhabits Terra del Fuearo.
112.—BAHAMA  FINCH.
Fringilla bicolor, Ind. Orn. i. 456.    Lin. i. 324.    Gm. Lin. i. 927.    Klein, 89.    Shaw's
Zool ix. 481.
Chloris Bahamensis, Bris. iii. 202.    Id. 8vo. i. 363.
LaVerdinere, Buf iv. 184.
Bahama Finch, Gm. Syn.iii. 300.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 247.    Cat. Car. i. pl. 37.
SIZE of a Canary Bird; length five inches.    Bill black; head,
throat, and breast the same: the rest of the bird dusky green.
 FINCH. 129
This is common in the woods of Bahama, where it sits perched
on the tops of trees, and sings prettily, not unlike a Chaffinch; it
varies in colour. One, in the British Museum, has an ash-coloured
belly, and the vent tinged with red : this came from Jamaica. We
have likewise observed two others, one of which had neither the head
nor the back part of the neck black, but the feathers of the head
inclined to ash-colour: the second brownish olive above, beneath ash-
colour; quills and tail dusky, edged with olive. The two last were
brought from Barbadoes.
113—LEPID FINCH.
455.   Lim i.. 320.    Gm. Lin. i. 907.   Jacq. Vog. vii. t. 2.
Fringilla lepida, Ind. Om
Shaw's Zool.ix. 513.
Lepid Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 299.    Id. Sup. 167.
LENGTH three inches and a half. Bill and eyes black; general
colour of the plumage greenish brown; over the eyes a fulvous stripe,
and a smaller one between them; chin fulvous; breast black; legs
grey.—Inhabits the woods about Havannah, in the Isle of Cuba,
and is easily tamed; sings frequently, but in so weak a tone, as to
be scarcely heard, except by very near approach : one of these had
several transverse streaks of black on the breast, instead of full
black ; over the eye, and the chin pale yellow: this probably may
be a young bird, or a female.    In the Collection of Lord Stanley.
114.—WHITE-THROATED FINCH.
Fringilla Pensilvanica, Ind. Orn.i. 445.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 499.
 albicollis, Gm. Lin. i. 921.    Amer. Orn. iii. pl. 22. f. 2.
Passer Pensilvanicus, Bris. App. 77.    Id. 8vo. i. 367.
White-throated Sparrow, Edw. pl.304.
White-throated Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 272.   Id. Sup. 166.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 248.
LENGTH six inches and a half; breadth nine; weight three
quarters of an ounce     The bill dusky blue ; irides hazel; from the
YOL. VI. S
I
 130 FINCH.
corner of the mouth, through the eye, a dusky streak; on the sides
of the crown a narrow line of white, and above the eye one of orange-
colour ; upper parts of the plumage reddish brown; throat white;
cheeks, and the rest of the under parts cinereous white; edge of the
upper part of the wing pale yellow ; tail a trifle cuneiform; the legs
flesh-colour. In the female the stripe on the head is light drab-colour;
the breast not so dark ; throat dusky white; the line of yellow above
the eye shorter; all beneath pale drab.
Inhabits Pennsylvania; has been seen in small flocks at New
York, in January, retires to the inland parts to breed; it comes in
October, and departs about the 29th of April; supposed to pass the
summer in Newfoundland; found in the winter in the States south of
New England, particularly about Roanoke River, but retires also
from these as summer advances.
Some birds have the orange spot at the base of the bill very
obscure, and want the white spot on the chin, from which circumstances such may be supposed to be females.
115.—ASH-CROWNED FINCH.
LENGTH six inches. Bill pale brown ; crown deep ash-colour,
surrounded with black as a wreath; below the nape a ferruginous
collar, passing to the throat before, where it is a little mingled with
dusky ; back brown, middle of the feathers blackish ; wings dusky,
the feathers margined with ferruginous; greater quills plain ; rump
pale brownish ash; tail even, plain brown ; under part of the body,
from chin to vent, dusky white; legs brown.
Inhabits South America.—Mr. Bullock.
 131
116— NORTHERN FINCH.
LENGTH six inches. Bill reddish brown; crown of the head,
nape, and sides, black ; down the middle of the crown a white streak;
through the eye a second; and a round patch of the same on the
ears ; a short white streak also at the under jaw ; under parts ofthe
bird from the chin yellowish buff, surrounding the neck; back dusky
black, the feathers margined with buff-colour; wing coverts tipped
with white, and a patch of white on the inner coverts; tail brown,
a trifle hollowed at the end, the two middle feathers ending in a
sharp point; the two exterior ones chiefly white, but brown for some
length on the the margins of the inner web to some way from the
end; and marked on the outer, a little way. from the tip, with the
same ; legs red brown.
Inhabits Hudson's Bay.—Mr. Bullock.
117—STRIPED-HEADED FINCH.
Fringilla striata, Ind. Om. i. 446.    Gm. Lin. i. 923.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 498.
Striped-headed Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 275.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 250.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill lead-colour; between
that and the eye, and the forehead yellow; on the head three black
stripes; behind the eye another; sides of the head whitish; the chin
white; all the upper parts of the bird the colour of a Linnet, the
middle of each feather being very dark ; wing coverts and tail plain
brown, the last ssomewhat cuneiform ; quills dusky; breast blue
grey; belly very pale ; legs pale brown.
Inhabits New York in the winter, first appearing at the end of
October,  chiefly among the brambles, brush wood, and thickets
departing in spring; extends also as far as Georgia,
S 2
J
 ^
]32 FINCH.
One, described by Mr. Abbot, was six inches and a half long;
nine broad; and weighed three quarters of an ounce. Top of the
head black, divided on each side by a white streak ; between the bill
and eye a yellow spot, passing backwards over the eye, and changing
into a white one, bounded behind the eye with a black streak
beneath ; sides under the eyes pale ash-colour; breast and belly the
same, but the latter paler; chin and throat white, separated from
the ash-colour by a narrow whisker of black; upper parts of the
body pale red brown, the middle of the feathers darker ; across the
wing two stripes, composed of white dots, the ends of the wing
coverts being white; rump inclining to ash-colour; tail brown ; the
wings red brown; outer edge, from the shoulder, yellow; bill and
legs pale.
118.—YELLOW-PINIONED FINCH.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill formed like that of the
Chaffinch, colour dusky ; head andf sides, including the jaws, black;
down the middle ofthe crown a pale ash-coloured stripe; over each eye
a white streak, descending on the side of the nape, as far as the black
continues; back, wings, and tail fine yellow olive ; bend of the wing,
and part of the lesser wing co Verts fine yellow, inclined to orange at
the bend; beneath the wing yellow; the under parts of the body
yellowislr white; chi#bnd throat pale buff yellow ; down the middle
of the breast pale buff; sides, under the wings, pale aish-colour;
Ipfillis,and tail the colour of the back, the former sorti^what Concave,
$%$ reach to about one-third on the tail, wliH&i4s nearly even at the
end; legs pale.
In the Collection of Lord Stanley. There seems to be some things
in common witHHihe three last described, yet in others they differ
considerably.
 133
119—STREAKED-HEADED FINCH.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters; breadth eight and eC
half. Bill pale red brown ; head and neck yellow; crown streaked
with black, as in many Yellow Buntings; a divaricated streak, made
up of spots, on each jaw; the upper parts of the bird marked with
purplish red spots on the back, each feather having a black streak
down the shaft; lesser wing coverts reddish buff, with a few black
markings; breast and sides marked with longish purple streaks; the
middle of the belly, thighs, and vent yellowish white; quills and
tail purplish brown, the edges of the feathers paler; tail moderately
cuneiform, or much rounded, the feathers somewhat pointed at the
ends; legs pale.
Inhabits Georgia, coming early in October, and retiring in spring;
chiefly found among weeds and grass, and is the most rare of all the
Sparrows; called the Grass Sparrow.—Mr. Abbot.
120.—SONG  FINCH.
Fringilla melodia, Son§
. Om. ii. pl. 16. 4.
THIS is six inches and'a half long, extent eight inches and a
half. Bill horn-colour; head above dark chestnut, divided by a pale
dirty white line; over-the eye a yellow oker line, inclining to ash ;
chin white; gape of the mouth and hinder angle of the eye dark
chestnut; breast, and sides under the wings thickly marked'with long
pointed, dark chestnut spots, centered with black, running in chains;
belly white; vent the colour of yellow oker; tail rounded, brown,
somewhat long, the two middle feathers streaked with black in the
middle ; wing coverts black, margined with <foay,ii3rabtipped*WMth
yellowislpwhite ; quilte*dusky brown.
I
 134 FINCH.
Inhabits New York and Pennsylvania ; builds the nest on the
ground, under a tussuck of fine dried grass, lined with hair; lays
four or five bluish white eggs, thickly marked with reddish brown
spots; sometimes has three broods in a year; but it does not always
build in the same manner ; for the nest has been found in a bush,
five or six feet from the ground ; frequents the borders of rivers
and meadows, swamps, &c. has a short sweet note, somewhat like
the beginning of a Canary Finch's, chanting for an hour together.
It passes southward in November; if wounded, or unable to fly, is
said to take to the water readily, and to swim with rapidity. Is
esteemed the most numerous, and most lasting songster.
121.—FASCIATED FINCH.
Fringilla fasciata, 7nd. Om. i. 445.    Gm. Lin. i. 922.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 505.
Fasciated Finch, Gm. Syn. iii. 273.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 252.
CROWN, hind part of the neck, and back, rust-coloured,
spotted with black ; the spots largest on the back; wings plain rust-
colour; primaries dusky, edged with dirty white; under parts ofthe
body white, marked with streaks of black, pointing downwards; tail
brown, crossed with numerous dusky bars.
Inhabits New York.      "!?§&■?
122.—GRASS FINCH.
Fringilla graminea, Ind. Om. i. 445.    Gm. Lin. i. 922.    Skaw's Zool.ix. 504.
Emberiza graminea, Bay-winged Bunting, Amer. Orn. iv. pl. 31. f. 5.
Grass Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 273.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 253.
LENGTH six inches, breadth ten. Bill dark brown, paler
beneath; round the eye a narrow circle of white; head, upper part
of the neck, and back, cinereous, rush-coloured,  and black, edged
 FINCH. 135
with white; primaries dusky, with white edges; lower part of the
neck and sides white, marked with small streaks; belly pure white ;
tail dusky, subcuneiform, outer feathers white on the outer edge
and tip; the next tipped, and edged for half an inch, with white;
the rest dusky ; bill and legs pale brown. The male and female are
much alike.
Inhabits New York, where it stays all the winter, and known by
the name of Grass Bird; it only winters in Georgia, and does not
breed there.
One sent to Mr. Francillon, similar, if not the same with this, had
the outer tail feather white, except the base half within ; the next
mostly white on the outer web ; the third white at the extreme tip;
this is called Summer Grass Sparrow, and is the only one which
stays the whole year; the rest leave Georgia in spring; it has a
pretty note, chiefly seen on the ground on the grass, the nest oij the
ground, of dried grass, under some small bush ; eggs small, oblong,
white: it generally has two broods in a year.
123—SPOTTED FINCH.
LENGTH six inches, breadth nine. Bill and legs pale;
plumage in general pale ash, marked with large brown spots, except
the quills and the tail, which are plain ; the under parts paler than
above, but have the same brown spots; tail a trifle hollowed; at the
top of the head a pale streak ; sides of it buff-colour ; over the eye
whitish, appearing as a stripe; behind the eye a dash of brown, and
on the lower jaw a longer one ofthe same.
Another, supposed to differ in sex, is six inches and a quarter
long, extent of wing ten. General colour of plumage as in the
male, but paler; on the crown an obscure whitish streak, and on the
under jaw a curved white one ; shoulders of the wings ferruginous,
the rest of the wing and tail brown,  the margins paler; tail a trifle
 136 FINCH.
forked, the outer feather white; the next white on the outer margin,
and near the tip ; bill and legs as in the other.
Inhabits Georgia, appearing there about the end of October, and
frequents fields and plantations throughout the winter, running
among the grass; and is more oftenseen on the ground than the rest
of the Sparrows.
Mr. Abbot, who communicated the above, calls it the Spotted
Sparrow. But although the above two are described as male and
female, he will not be positive of the circumstance.
124.—SUMMER  FINCH.
LENGTH six inches, breadth eight. Bill dusky, the under
mandible pale; plumage above pale ash-colour, marked with deep
reddish brown spots, the middle of each feather being of that colour ;
or in other words, deep reddish brown, the feathers deeply margined
with ash-colour; sides ofthe head, chin, and breast, dusky yellowish,
but pale; over the eye, from the nostrils, a reddish, obscure, long
streak ; chin, throat, and breast, pale yellow brown; belly, thighs,
and vent, white ; quills brown; bend ofthe wing yellow ; tail greatly
cuneiform, brownish ash-colour, pale ash beneath ; the two middle
feathers two inches and a half long, the outer one and three quarters;
legs yellow.
The female differs, in being paler in colour, and the dark parts
have a rufous tinge, less bright beneath.
Inhabits Georgia the whole year, frequenting fences, brushwood,
and thickets. The nest usually on the ground, among the grass,
under some small bushes ; it is composed of dried grass for the most
part; the eggs dusky white.    It is called the Summer Sparrow.
This bird is sometimes seen quite white. As Mr. Abbot informed
me of such an one being taken from a nest, in which all the others
were of the common colour.
 137
125.—NORTON FINCH.
Fringilla Nortoniensis, 7nd. Om. i. 446.    Gm. Lin. i. 922.    Shaw's Zool ix. 485.
Norton Finch, Gm. Syn. iii. 274.    Arct. Zool ii. No. 256.
HEAD, neck behind, and secondaries, black, edged with bright
bay; the middle order crossed with a white line; primaries dusky;
sides of the neck, and fore part, spotted down the middle with rust-
colour; tail dusky, edged with dirty white; along the middle of the
outer feather a pure white line, ending at the tip.
Inhabits Norton Sound.—Mr. Pennant.
126—SHARP-TAILED FINCH.
Fringilla caudacuta, Ind. Om. i. 450.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 515.
Sharp-tailed Finch, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. 208.
LENGTH five inches, extent of the wings eight. Bill and legs
pale; irides dark brown; plumage in general mottled brown, and
pale rufous, the last chiefly at the edges of the feathers; throat pale
•rufous, and a streak of the same over the eyes; lower part of the
neck behind rufous, but darker than the throat; tail even at the end,
but the tips of all the feathers slope off to a sharp point.
Inhabits the internal parts of Georgia, and, perhaps, may be
what is there called the Yellow-pinioned Grass Sparrow, which
frequents thickets and grass, round the sides of ponds, in Burke
Country; supposed to remain nearly in the same place throughout
the year. Is not very common. This appears to coincide in some
points with our Sharp-tailed Oriole, but differs in the shape of the
tail, being even at the end.
vol. vr. T
 138
127.— LONG-TAI&®D FINCH.
Fringilla.macroura, Ind. Orn. i. 460.    Gm. Lin, L 918.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 547.
Long-tailed Finch, Gm. Syn.Hi. 310.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill half ahjiaach long, pale
brown; plumage above not unlike that of a Skyladk beneath pale
ash-colour; some of the feathers of the back margined with yellow
olive ; wings yellowish oliJneT.green ; under wing coverts! yellow ;
quills brown, margined outwardly with yellow olive, making them
appear wholly of the last colour; tail very cuneiform, brown, the
two middle feathers three inches and a half in length, and pointed at
the ends, the outmost two inches and a half only; the others graduated, but all pointed ; legs pale, rather short, hind claw large.
Inhabits Cayenne, and other parts of America; has somewhat
the appearance of the Grasshopper Warbler, in respect to plumage,
but on a larger scale.
128,-ORANGE FINCH.
Fringilla Zena, Ind. Orn. i. 446.    Lin. i. 320.    Gm. Lin. i. 907.    Shaw's Zool ix. 497.
Fringilla Bahamensis, Bris. iii. 168.    Id. 8vo. i. 353.    Klein, 97. 6.
Pinson a tete noir et blanche, Bufiv. 140?
Bahama Finch,  Cates. Car. i. pl. 42.
Orange Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 276.    Arct. Zool ii. No. 244.
SIZE of the Chaffinch ; length six inches and a quarter. Bill
lead-colour; irides pale; head, fore part of the neck, back, and
scapulars black; on each side ofthe head two streaks of white, one
above, the other beneath the eye ; on the chin a large yellow spot;
hind part ofthe neck, rump, and upper tail coverts'dull red; breast
orange ; belly, thighs, and vent, white; wings brown, on the coverts
a band of white; tail brown; legs lead-colour.
 FINCH. 139
The female is more dull; head and neck ash-colour; uwderparts
of the body paler than the upper; and a tinge of ash thtfoftgh the
whole ofthe plumage.
Inhabits the Bahama Islands, Jamaica, and other parts of the
West Indies, and South America.    Manners unknown.
129—PURPLE FINCH.
Shaw'
. 399.
Zool h
507.
Fringilla purpurea, Ind. Orn. i. 446.    G&. Un. i. 923.
-    Eyrrhula Carolinensis violacea, Bris. iii. 324.    Id. 8vo. .
Bouvreuil violet de la Caroline, Buf. iv. 395.
Purple Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 275.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 258.    Cates. Car.l pl.41.   Bartr.
Trav. 289.    Am. Orn. i. pl. 7. f. 4. male.    Id. v." p. 87. pl.42. f. 3. young male.
SIZE of a Chaffinch ; length six inches; breadth ten. General
colour of the plumage crimson, with a tinge of purple or violet; the
rump brighter; the rest of the plumage with darker blotchings;
middle of the belly, thighs, and vent, dusky white ; quills and tail
brown, with pale margins; tail forked.
The female is rather smaller; general colour brown, except the
breast, which is spotted with white like a Thrush. In the Amer.
Orn. the female is said to be brown olive, streaked with dusky black;
the head seamed laterally with whitish lines; breast whitish ;* below
the hind part of the ear feathers two streaks of white; quills and
tail feathers edged with dull brown, instead of white. Perhaps these
two descriptions of the female may be owing to difference of age,
unless one of them>may be a male in imperfect^plumage.
Inhabits Pennsylvania, Carolina, and Georgia ; comes to the first
iii'ISeptember and October, and feeds on the seeds of Button wood,f
Juniper, and Cedar. As the season becomes severe, proceeds to
Georgia, and returns in April: assembles sometimes in small flights
i one in Vol. v. pl. 42, as a y
f Conocarpus erecta.
j male, in this the breast is spotted with broi
I
 140 FINCH.
retiring north as spring advances; is seen among the Cedar trees, but
is rare about Savannah ;# and although found in the Southern, is
certainly much more plentiful in the Northern States.
A.—Crimson-headed Finch, Arct. Zool. ii. No. 257.
Head and breast crimson, the first faintly spotted with dusky;
behind each eye dusky;, back, wing coverts, primaries, and tail,
black, edged with crimson ; belly white tinged with red.
Inhabits America, seen first at New York in April; frequent
among the red cedars, and shifts most nimbly round the stems.—
General Davies.
130.—GEORGIAN FINCH.
Fringilla Georgiana, Ind. Om. i. 400.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 537.
Georgian Finch, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 209.
LENGTH six inches. Bill dusky ; irides brown ; head brown,
full of feathers; middle of the back dusky brown, the under parts
white ; chin and throat grey; beneath the jaw a divaricated black
streak ; lesser wing coverts rufous; quills and tail feathers rufous on
the outer edges ; legs brown,
Inhabits Georgia, under the name of Grass Sparrow, which seems
to be a common appellation for several of the Finch kind.
In the collection of drawings from Mr. Abbot, I find a similar
bird under the name of Ground Sparrow. This seems to answer as
to the general description ; the tail brown, a trifle hollowed at the
end, the outer feather white, with the shaft dusky, the inner web
brown for three-fourths from the base ; the next white, fringed on
the outer web and tip, the rest brown ; legs pale brown.
* Mr. Abbot
 141
131.—MUSTACHOE FINCH.
LENGTH six inches. Bill pale brown; top and sides of the
head chestnut; forehead for one-third black; the crown divided down
the middle by a whitish line; over the eye, from the nostrils, a dusky
white line ; chin and throat white ; on each side of the under jaw a
long streak like a whisker; upper parts of the body brown, streaked
with darker; beneath dusky white; tail rounded, the outer feather
white on the outer web, and half of the inner; from the base to the
middle brown; the others brown, more or less, from the base on both
webs; the white shorter as the feather is more inward; the two centre,
or middle feathers, wholly brown; that is, on the first the white
occupies one inch ; on the second three-eighths of an inch; on the
third a quarter of an inch ; the fourth three-eighths; and fifth white
only just at the tip; the quills reach one-third on the tail; legs
yellow.—In the collection of Lord Stanley.
132—HYBERNAL FINCH.
Fringilla pusilla, Field Sparrow, Amer. Orn. ii. pl. 16. f. 2.
Passer agrestis, Little Field Sparrow, Bartr. Trav. p. 289.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters, breadth eight inches
and a half. Bill and legs pale; top of the head red brown, streaked
with black dots; sides of the head, and all beneath dusky white,
inclining to yellow on the sides of the head ; through the eye, from
the bill, an ash-coloured streak, curved behind ; and under the eye a
short curved one; back black, and pale cinereous yellow, mixed ;
lower part of the back and rump ash; wings dusky within, and the
outer margins of the feathers rufous; tail somewhat forked, the
feathers of it and the quills dusky, with pale margins.
 142 FINCH.
The female much like the male, but pale; in both sexes the
lower part of the neck, especially the back part, inclines to ash-
colour; forehead ash ; feathers of the wings and tail margined with
W&itkh, not indftning to red as in the male.
Inhabits Georgia ; very common in the winter, in trees and
thickets, in plantations.—Mr. Abbot.
A.—A Variety is mentioned, very pale rufous above, a pale
streak over the eye; the under parts, quills, and tail, white.
B.—A second Variety with the crown, back, shoulders, rump,
and ends of the tail, dusky spotted; the rest of fhe bird white.
This appears not uncommon in the lower parts ofthe country, about
SeH*annah, in Georgia; sometimes in Burke Country.
I have ventured to put the quotation from the Amer. Ornith. at
the head, supposing it to be the same here described; which the
author says, comes into Pennsylvania in April, makes a nest on the
ground, lined with hair, and lays six eggs, so thickly sprinkled with
ferruginous, as to appear wholly of that colour; that the bird has
mostly two, and sometimes three broods in the season. It will often
stay the whole year, but generally disappears in the winter months,
when a deep snow comes on, at which time they are found in numbers in Georgia ; from which last it departs on the return of spring.
Is the smallest of all the American Sparrows; has no song but a
chirp, not unlike the noise made by a cricket.—In this work the
male is described having a chestnut crown, divided by a slight streak
of drab, widening as it passes backwards; cheeks, line over the«yesi
breast, and sides under the wings, brownish clay, darker on the ears,
and paler on the chin.
The female much f&esame, but the chestnut crdwlw brighter in
the male.
 143
133.—RUFOUS FINCH.
LENGTH six inches, breadth teight. Bill.dusky; head brown,
streaked with rufous ; in the middle ofthe crown a cinereous stripe;
at the gape a broad stripe of pale ash-colour, passing through the
eye to the breast on each side, where it changes to white, and continues to the vent; chin ash-colour, streaked with brown ;, upper
parts of the body brown, mixed with ferruginous and black ; and'
some ofthe secondaries edged with white; rump streaked with black;
tail rounded, brown, the outet> margins ferruginous, the feathers
pointed at the ends ; the wings, when closed, scarcely cover the end
ofthe ramp; legs dull yellow.
The female like the male, but the colours less bright.
Inhabits Georgia, frequents thick briers and low grassy plats of
some plantations in the winter, but is not common.
134—LESSER RUFOUS FINCH.
LENGTH five inches, breadth seven and a half. Bill pale
brown; therwhole of the head and body tinged with rufous, most so.
on the crown; mixed wifikr paler spots on the back; second wing-
coverts wkhi whitish tif»8, formijftgira bar ; through the eye and sides
ofthe head pale, andithe breastspljain coloured; belly, thighs, and'
vent, white ; lesser wing coverts pale dull ash, the rest ofthe feathers
of the wing dusky, except the outer margins, which are rufous; tail
rather long, and a trifle forked, black, and one inch and a quarter
in length ; legs pale.
Inhabits Georgia in winter, frequenting plantations and thickets.
I am informed by Mr. Abbot, that this is known by the name ofthe
Lesser Rufous Sparrow, as the former is by that of the Greater.
 144
135.—SPOTTED-BREASTED FINCH.
LENGTH five inches, breadth nine. Bill pale; general colour
of the plumage purplish brown; down the middle of the crown a
pale stripe, and a broad cinereous one from the bill, occupying
almost the whole side ofthe head, divided behind the eye by a brown
streak; from the under mandible a kind of whisker; chin and and
under parts of the body nearly white* with patches and streaks of
brown, especially across the breast, but the middle of the belly is
plain; wings and tail brown, the latter very little rounded at the end;
the wings reach just to the rump ; legs pale.
Inhabits Georgia, often in company with the Spotted Finch, and
others; and called Spotted-breasted Sparrow.   -
136—WINTER FINCH.
Fringilla hyemalis, 7nd. Om. i. 44(
Winter Finch, Gm. Syn. iii. 274.
Gm. Lin.
irct. Zool. i
922.   Shaw's Zool. i
No. 254.
HEAD, neck, and breast, light brown, mottled with black; fore
part of the neck, breast, and sides, white, marked with, small brown
spots; belly plain white; wing coverts and primaries brown, edged
with white.—Found at New York in the winter.
One sent by Mr. Abbot from Georgia, under the name of Winter
Sparrow, was six inches and a half long, and nine broad.
137—LITTLE WINTER FINCH.
LENGTH five inches. Bill as in the Linnet; crown chestnut
brown down the middle, body above ash brown, the feathers darker
within; wing coverts dusky, edged with tawny:, the second and third
 FINCH. 145
coverts with pale edges; rump ash-colour; beneath the body cinereous white, darker on the breast; tail a trifle forked, two inches
and a quarter long, dusky ; legs pale brown.
The female differs but little; the chestnut on the crown paler, and
a little mixed, and no spots on the sides in either sex.
Inhabits Georgia, sent from thence by Mr. Abbot, under the
name of Little Brown Winter Sparrow.
138— RICE-FIELD FINCH.
LENGTH five inches. Bill pale; plumage above rufous brown,
spotted with black; down the middle of the crown a whitish streak ;
from the nostrils, over each eye, a pale one; wings dark, edges ofthe
feathers rufous brown ; those of the back brown, with whitish edges;
under parts white; throat, breast, and sides, spotted with brown;
chin and belly plain ; legs pale.
Inhabits  Georgia;   called by Mr. Abbot,   Winter Rice-field
Sparrow.
139.—BRAZILIAN  FINCH
319.
Fringilla granatina, Ind. Orn. i. "463.     Li
t. 9. 3.    Id. 8vo. i. 367.    Borowsk. iii. 140. t,
Zool.ix. 546.
Loxia granatina, Baud. ii. 446.
Passer Mexicanus, Gerin. iii. t. 343. 2.
Le Grenadin, Buf iv. 169.   pl. 7. f. 1.    PL enl.
Brasilian Finch, Gm. Syn. iii. 316.    Edw. pl. 191
Gm. Lin. i. 906.
I. B.    Spalowsk. i
Bris.
t. 33.
ii. 216.
Shaw's
SIZE of the Siskin ; length near five inches. Bill like red coral;
irides dark; eyelids scarlet; sides ofthe head, round the eye, blossom
coloured, inclined to violet; base of the bill above blue; throat,
lower part of the belly, and thighs, black ; rest ofthe head and body
J
 146 FINCH.
chestnut; back and scapulars brownish; rump blue; quills brown;
tail cuneiform, black ; legs pale grey.
The female has a red bill; a little purple under the eyes; top of
the head fulvous; back grey brown ; throat and under parts pale
fulvous; lower part of the belly and vent whitish, the rest not fer
different from the male, but less bright.
Inhabits Brazil and Guiana. Has an agreeable song, and frequently kept in cages by the Europeans : is a very lively bird.
Several Varieties occur; some have a spot of brown between the
bill and eye; and the hind parts of the body, both above and beneath,
violet. In others, the lower belly and thighs are of the same colour
as the upper parts; and in a few the tail is reddish. ;:*
Fringilla tricolor, Ind, Orn. i. 464. Lii
American Sparrow of Seba, Bancr. Gu.
Blue-faced Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 318.
140.—BLUE-FACED FINCH.
323.   Gm. Un. i. 923.  Sha
THE forehead, temples, and throat of this bird, are blue ; region
of the nostrils black ; back the same ; shoulders green ; under parts
yellowish white; quills black, the primaries green on the outer edge;
tail black,  even at the end.
Inhabits Surinam.—Bancroft's bird had the breast lively blue ;
rump deep green ; wings and tail purplish black.
141.-YELLOW-THROATED FINCH.
Fringilla flavicollis, Ind. Om. i. 465.    Gm. Lin, i. 926.    Shaw's Zml. ix. 478.
Yellow-throated Fiftc^ Gen. Syn. Sup. 168.   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 249.
BILL and legs bluish grey; head and upper parts of the body
cinereous| prime quills dusky, edged with pale brown; chin wh$&j
on the throat a pale yellow spot; belly dirty white.
Inhabits New York.
 147
142.—CAYENNE FINCH-
LENGTH five inches and half.    Plumage above brown, beneath
very pale ash-colour, streaked with brown; quills and tail dusky
black, the latter rounded at the end.
Inhabits Cayenne.—In the collection of Mr. Francillon.
143.—BEARDED FINCH.
Fringilla barbata, Ind, Om. i. 456.    Gm. Lin. i. 915.    Molin. Chil. 219.    Id. Fr. Ed.
227.   Shaw's Zool. ix. 484.
Bearded Finch, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 208.
SIZE and habit of the Canary Finch. Bill white at the base,
and black towards the tip 5 head black and velvety; body yellow,
with a greenish tinge; wings variegated with green, yellow, red,
and black; tail brown ; from the chin hangs an elongated tuft of
black feathers, like a beard ; which in very old birds extends to the
middle of the breast.
The female is wholly grey; wings spotted with yellow; but is
without the beard-like feathers from the chin.
Inhabits the mountainous parts of Chili, next tbe sea ; builds in
trees, making the nest of straw and feathers, the eggs only two in
number; said to breed several times in the year; hence it is very
numerous, and caught by the natives by thousands; some to be kept in
cages, but the chief part to be eaten, as the flesh is accounted savoury,
and in much estimation. The male is valued for its song, which the
other sex does not possess in the least. The male will also, besides
its own, mimic tbe notes of others ; called by the Spaniards Gilghero,
or Goldfinch, which it somewhat resembles in colour; feeds on seeds
of various kinds, and in particular the Chili Chervil.*
* Scandix Chilensis.
I 2
IIL
"'li
J
 ■^1
144— SURINAM FINCH.
Fringilla Surinama, Ind. Orn. i. 447.
ix. 487.
La Linotte de Surinam, Ferm. Surin. i
Surinam Finch, Gm. Syn. iii. 276.
. 900.     Shaw's Zool.
SIZE uncertain. Bill sharp, yellow; body grey; belly whitish ;
quills black, the prime ones near the base white ; secondaries white
both at the base and tips ; tail even, blackish ; the first and second
feathers have a white spot on the inside, the third, fourth, fifth, and
sixth, white at the tips.
Inhabits Surinam; and may probably be the same bird mentioned
by Fermin, which he says, is bigger than a Sparrow; of a greyish
ash-colour; with a yellowish bill and throat. He adds, too, that the
song is very trifling, but the flesh much esteemed.
145—VARIEGATED FINCH.
Fringilla variegata, Ind. Orn. i. 448.    Gm, Lin. i. 911.    Shaw's Zool ix. 527.
——-— varia novae Hispanise, Bris. iii. 178.    Id. Svo. i. 356.
Le Touite, Buf. iv. 146.    Seba, i. 175. t. 110. 7.
Variegated Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 279.
SIZE of a Chaffinch ; length five inches and three quarters. Bill
yellowish ; head pale red, mixed with purple ; breast pale yellow,
shaded with deeper; the feathers of the body variegated, or marbled
with red, yellow, blue, and white; quills the same, and tail; but
the latter margined with white at the tip; legs red.
Inhabits New Spain, and there called Tuite
 149
146.-AUTUMNAL FINCH.
Fringilla autumnalis,   Ind. Orn. i. 455.    Lin. i. 320.    Gm. Lin. i. 908.    Shaw's Zool.
ix. 481.
Autumnal Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 298.
THIS is said to be greenish in colour; top of the head ferru
ginous; vent testaceous; tail even at the end.
Inhabits Surinam.
147.—YELLOW-WINGED FINCH.
gilla passerina, Yellow-winged Sparrow, Am
. pl. 24. f. 5.
LENGTH five inches, extent eight. Bill dusky, beneath pale
bluish white; head above blackish, divided by a slight line of white;
hindhead and neck above, marked with short lateral touches of black
and white; above the eye, from the nostril, aline of yellow ; cheeks
plain brownish white; back streaked black brown, and pale ash;
shoulders above .and below, and lesser wing coverts, olive yellow ;
greater coverts black, edged with pale ash ; primaries light drab;
tail the same, the feathers rather pointed at the ends, the outer ones
white; breast plain yellowish white; belly and vent white; three or
four slight touches of dusky at the sides of the breast; legs flesh-
colour.    Male and female much alike.
Inhabits the lower parts of New York and Pennsylvania ; very
numerous in Staten Island, and along the sea coast of New Jersey :
makes the nest on the ground, among the grass, of loose materials,
lined with hair, and fibrous roots; lays five greyish white eggs,
sprinkled with brown. A female found sitting the 1st of August:
feeds both on insects and seeds; does not remain there during the
winter; the breast, being pale ochre, distinguishes it from the Savannah Sparrow, pl. 22. f. 3.
 150
148.—SEA-SIDE FINCH.
Fringilla maritima, Sea-side Finch, Amer. Om. iv. pl. 34. f. 2.
LENGTH six inches, extent eight. Bill dusky, pale blue
beneath, and rather elongated ; irides hazel; crown brownish olive,
divktedl laterally by at stripe of slate blue, or fine light asti; back,
wings, and tail, yellowish brown olive, intermixed with ifejy pale
blue; chin pure white, bordered on the sides by a stripe of dark
ash, from each base of the under mandible; above that another of
white ; from the nostrils, over the eye, another of rich yellow,
bordered above with white, and ending with yellow olive; breast ash-
colour, streaked with buff; belly white ; vent buff, streaked with
black; greater and lesser wing coverts tipped with dull white; edge
ofthe wing, at the bend, rich yellow; primaries edged with the same
immediately below their coverts ; tail cuneiform, olive brown,
centred with black ; legs pale bluish white. Male and female
much alike.
Inhabit the rash-covered sea islandis along the i Atlantic coast,
keeping within tbe boundaries; of the tidewater in general, searching
among the interstices of the sea weed and wrack, with a rapidity
equalled only by the nimblest of our Sandpipers, and much in their
manner. The 'flesh is not good, as it tastes fishy, or sedgy, owing
to the bird eating shrimps, minute shell-fish, &c. the stomach being
always found full of fragments of the latter: often roosts on Ibe
ground, and runs about after dusk.
149—CHIPPING FINCH.
Fringilla socialis, Chipping Sparrow, Am. Orn. ii. pT. 16. f. 5.    Bartr. Trav. p. 291.
LENGTH five inches and a. quarter,, breadth eight.    Bill Mack,
under mandible, in  summer,  flesh-coteur; frontlet black ; crown
 FINCH. l£l
chestnut; chin and line over the eye whitish; back varied black,
and bright bay; rump dark ash-colour; wings black, the feathers
broadly edged with bright chestnut; breast and sides of the neck
pale ash ; belly and vent white; tail rather forked, dusky, slightly
edged with pale ochre yellow; legs pale flesh-colour.
The female differs, in having less black on tbe frontlet, send the
bay duller; but both sexes lose the black front in moulting, only
having it in the summer; and the young wholly without it the first
season.
Inhabits Pennsylvania ; is domestic and sociable, building in the
streets and gardens, on the branches of trees, and in cedar by preference, picking up crumbs from the yards and doors; the nest lined
thickly with hair; the eggs four or five, light .blue, with a few
purplish spots near the great end : at the end of summer, when the
weather is severe, departs for the south.
150—TAWNY-RUMPED FJNCH.
LENGTH six inches. Bill dusky; head pale :ash-co!our,
blending by degrees with the back, which is tawny brown; lower
part of the latter, rump, and upper tail coverts, fine tawny, or very .
pale rust; wing «©verts tsmmy; the rest of the wing most inclined to
brown; quills brown, the exterior margins tawny ibrown; under
parts from the chin very pale, or whitish asfe-colour; middle erf the
chin and throat white ; the under tail coverts the same; tail longish,
even at tjhe end, the feathers brown ? legs brownish yellow.
A specimen «of th»S3s'ii*Ttbe collection of Lord -Stanley; but without
certainty of its native place. I have seen others in the collection of
Mr. Bullock.
 r
lii!
1
j\
152 PLANT-CUTTER.
GENUS XLV— PLANT-CUTTER.
1   Chili   Pl. C. || 2   Abyssinian   Pl. C.
BlLL conic, straight, serrated on the edges.
Nostrils oval.
Tongue short, obtuse.
WITH FOUR TOES.
1.
CHILI PLANT-CUTTER.
d.) 234.   Sha,
Phytotoma Rara, Ind. Om. i. 466.    Molin. Chil. (F
Phytotome du Chili, Baud. ii. 366.
Le Dente, Voy. d'Azara, iii, No. 91.
Chili Plant-Cutter, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 212.
SIZE of a Quail. Bill very strong, pointed at the tip, half an
inch long, indented like a saw on the edges; tongue very short,
blunt; irides brown; back dusky grey; the under parts paler; tail
of a moderate length, rounded at the end ; quills and tail feathers
spotted with black; the foot furnished with four toes, three before
and one behind; the back toe much shorter than the others.
Inhabits Chili, where it is not uncommon : its voice is rough,
and the bird, at intervals, utters the syllables Ra, Ra, very distinctly;
its food is vegetables, perhaps preferring the parts next to the root,
for with much pains, it digs about, and cuts off the plants with its
bill, as it were with a saw, close to the ground; from this circumstance, it does much injury to the gardens, and is detested by the
inhabitants.
  WP
Ml
'//„//.'"'""" l/f/<r,.<l-ca&k^D
   PLANT-CUTTER.
153
These birds build in high trees, well clothed with leaves, and in
unfrequented places; the eggs are white, spotted with red M
d Azara says, the bird is seven inches long, and more than nine broad
One only of this species seen in Paraguay.
WITH THREE TOES.
2.-ABYSSINIAN PLANT-CUTTER-Pl. xcvm.
866.   Nat. Misc, pl. 725.
Loxia tridactyla, Ind. Om. i. 397. 93.    Gm. Li
Phytotoroe d'Abyssinie, Baud. ii. 366. pl. 28.
Hyreus Abyssinicns, Shaw's Zool ix. 338. pl. 53.
Le Guifso Balito, Buf. iii. 471.
Three-toed Grosbeak, Gen. Syn. iii. 159.
Abyssinian Plant-Cutter, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 213. pl. 133.
SIZE of the Common Grosbeak; length about six inches. Bill
stout, brown; head and fore part of the neck red; the rest of the
plumage black; about the shoulders brownish, tinged with green;
the greater wing coverts appearing as black scales, margined with
white, slightly tinged with olive; tail a trifle forked; legs brown,
with only three toes, two before and one behind.
This is the description of M. Daudin, from a drawing sent to him,
copied from a Nubian specimen ; it seems, however, to differ a little
from that described by Buffon, for his bird is said to be black, with
not only the head, and fore part of the neck of a beautiful red, but
that colour prolonged in a narrow band, quite to the vent; the wing
coverts brown, edged with white, and the quills edged with green.
Buffon took his description from Mr. Brace's drawings, done in
Abyssinia, where it is said to be a solitary species, living on the
kernels of almonds, the shells of which it easily breaks with the bill.
The name it is known by in its native place, is Guifso batito dimmo-
won jerck.
 FLYCATCHER.
GENUS XLVL—FLYCATCHER.
1 Spotted Flycatcher
2 Melodious
3 Small
4 Waved
5 Coldfinch
A Var.
6 White-fronted
7 Cape
A Var.  •
8 White-necked
9 Variegated
10 White-hooded
11 Black and white
A Var.
12 Clicking
13 Pririt
14 Collared
15 Senegal
16 Black-fronted
17 White-tailed.
18 Coromandel
19 Spotted yellow
20/-iMiiC.oloured
21 African
22 Madagascar
23-Undulated
24 Indian
25 Rufous-vented
26 August
27 Flammeous
28fiCrin*§9£-Tpnjpcd :;.
30 Cawnpore
31 Supercilious
32 Javan
33 White-browed
34 Broad-tailed
35 Wreathed
36 Vittated
37 Azure
66 Black-collared
A Var.
A Var.
B Var.
67 Desert
38 Azure-headed —**»
68 Maculate
39 Lucknow
. 69 Cambaian
40 Blue-crowned
70 Starry
41 Verditer
71 Celestial
42 Blue-headed
72 Cochin
43 Yellow-throated
73 Crested Senegal
44 Fan-tailed
74 Bourbon
45 Long-tailed
75 Mantled
46 Society.
76 Spectacle
47 Tufted
77 Dun
48 Red-vented
78 Red-faced
A Yellow-vented .
79 Obscure
49 Guava
80 Indigo
A Var.
81 Banyumas
50 Yellow-breasted
82 Passerine
51 Green
83 Yellow-fronted
52 Nitid
84 Yellow-headed
A Phodgy
85 Pied
53 Grey-necked
86 Luteous
54 Yellow-necked
87 Neevous
55 Orange-vented
88 Red-bellied
56 Black
A Var.
A Var.
B Var.
57 Philippine
C Var.
58 Manilla
D Var.
59 Delicate
E Var.
60 Parti-coloured
S9 Scarlet-bellied .
61 Paradise
90 Sandwich
A Cape
91 Dusky .
B Crested long-tailed Pye
92 Spotted winged
C Seban
93 Rusty-throat
62 Mutable
94 Black-crowned
63 Schet-all
95 Rufous-fronted
A Schet Vouloulou
96 Black-topped
64 Nebulous
97 Crimson-bellied
65 Velvet-headed
1 98 Black-cheeked-
 '■ V ,
FLYCATCHER.                                                        X55
99 Rose-winged
1  125 Canada
152 Rufous-bellied
100 Hooded
126 Black-headed
A Var.
101 Rose-breasted
127 Rufous and black
153 Rufous
102 Southern
128 Ferruginous
1  154 Brown
103 Grey
129 Cinnamon
155 Orange-breasted                                                          #    1
104 Yellow-eared
130 Yellow-rumped
156 Slaty
105 Ruff-throated
131 Cayenne
157 White-sided
106 Australasian
132 Dwarf
158 Ash-barred
107 Red-backed
A Var.
159 Striped
108 New-Holland
133 Petty
160 Cock-tailed
109 Pacific
134 Minute
161 Paraguan
110 Solitary
135 Fork-tailed
162 Mustachoe
111 Rusty-crowned
136 Swallow-tailed
163 Full-winged                     f    '.   '
112 Barred-tailed
137 Yiperu
164 Annumbi
113 Murine
138 Waved Tyrant
165 Peruvian
114 Olive
139 Tyrant
166 Blue-billed
115 Striped
A Lesser Tyrant
167 Whistling
116 Cinereous
140 Crested
168 Brown and white
A Wood-Pewee
141 Louisiane
169 Noted
117 Lesser crested
142 Yellow-crowned
170 Solitary
118 Black-capped
143 Orange-crowned
171 Little
119 Querulous
144 Whiskered
172 Tufted-naped ;
120 Red-eyed
145 Round-crested
173 Yellow-throated
A Canada Olive
146 Streaked
174 Rock
ill \
121 Warbling
147 Hanging
175 Choral
122 Chattering
148 Petechial
176 Rust-bellied
123 Marti nico
149 Active
177 Broad-billed
A White-crowned
150 Surinam
124 Golden-throat
151 Cat
1 HE general characters of the Flycatcher Genus are—the  bill
more or less flattened at the base, and at that part furnished with a
few bristles; at the tip of the upper mandible a slight notch.
Toes divided to their origin, for the most part. *
* This character must be dispensed with in some species, which, though true Flycatchers
in every other particular, are more or less united at the base, but never so much as in the
Tody Genus.
X 2
 n<
FLYCATCHER.
1.—SPOTTED FLYCATCHER.
.467.    Lin.i. 328.     Gm. Lin.i. 949.    Id. >
Raii
81.     Will. 153. 171. 7.    j
383.
Tern. Man. d'Om. p. 99.    ,
159.
Id. Engl 210. 217.     Zinn
Muscicapa Grisola, Ind. Om
203.     Bris. iii. t. 35. f. 3.    Id. 8vc
Engl. 211.    Borowsk. iii. 176.     Ge«'«
Ed. ii. p. 152.
Stoparola Aldrovandi, Raii, 77. A. 1.    JFi/
Uov. 45. t. 6. fig. 30.
Sylvia fusca, Klein, Stem. 14. 1.16. f. 9. a—c.
Curruca subfusca, Frisch, t. 22. f. 1. b.
Sylvia pestilentialis, Klein, Av. 79. 12.    Id. Ov. 25. t. 10. f. 7. 8.
Der gestreifte Fliegenfanger, Naturf. xvii. 98. 99 ?
Geebeckter Fliegenfanger, Bechst. Beuts. iii.  421.
Gobe-Mouche, Buf. iv. 517. t.25. 2.    PL enl. 565. 1.
Cobweb, Morton's North. 426.
Beam Bird, Collins's Birds, pl. 12. f. 5. male—pl. 10. f. 2. female.
Spotted Flycatcher, Gen. Syn.iii. 323.    Arct. Zool. Sup. p. 64.    Br. Zool. i.
Id.foL 99. t. P. 2. f. 4.    Id. 1812. i. p. 471.    Bolton's Birds, pl. 37.    Skat
x. 332.     Bewick,i. p. 196. .   Lewin's Br. Birds, iii. pl. 87.     Walcot,i\
Pult. Cat. Bors. p. 11.    Orn. Bict.    Lin. Trans.i. 126.    Id. iv. p. 16.
. 257.
fo. 134.
t. 224.
SIZE of the White Throat; length five inches and a half. Bill
dusky, base beset with short bristles; inside of the mouth yellow ;
irides hazel; head large, brownish, obscurely spotted with black;
back mouse-colour; wings and tail dusky; quills edged with white;
breast and belly white; throat, and sides under the wings, dashed
with red ; legs black.    Male and female much alike.
This bird comes into England the beginning of May, and departs
in September; builds against any part of a tree that will support
the nest, often in the hollow, caused by the decay of a large limb;
or hole in a wall; frequently on an old post, or beam of a barn, and
found in the same place one season after another: the nest is chiefly
composed of moss, often with a mixture of wool and feathers; the
eggs four or five, pale, and marked with reddish spots; feeds chiefly,
if not wholly, on insects, wliich it collects on the wing; seen sitting
on a branch, post, or the like; and when an insect flies past, it springs
 FLYCATCHER. 157
after, and having caught it, returns to its place, and this I have
observed the bird to do many times together; has the reputation of
eating cherries, but the fact does not seem to be well ascertained :
be this as it may, this bird is known in Kent by the name of
Cherry Sucker, also Bee Bird; and Beam Bird, from its manner of
building.* The note is weak, scarcely more than a chirp, but Mr.
Bolton, on supposition of its having a warbling note, has entered it
among his song birds. It appears, according to Colonel Montagu,
to be more generally diffused in England than the Redstart, being
met with in several parts of Cornwall, while the last named is rarely
seen ; and it is more common, too, in the West of Devonshire.
This species frequents the warmer parts of the European Continent, but rarely more northward than our kingdom; said to come
into Sweden in April ;f in the South of Russia is pretty common,
and a smaller Variety found beyond Lake Baikal; met with, also,
in the wilds ofthe Province of Ghilan, in Persia, feeding on insects;
is common both in France and Italy, but how much farther South is
not clear; it comes, however, into Gibraltar, about the middle of
April, but often much later, being the last of the summer birds, as
it is with us; and is generally accompanied by the Blackcap, Wheat-
ear, Stapazino, and Redstart; supposed to retire early, as it never
appears there in autumn ; is rarely observed about the town, or hill,
but chiefly in the enclosed grounds, where shrubs grow.
2—MELODIOUS FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Aedon, Ind. Orn. ii. 478.    Gm. Lin.i. 947.    Pall, reise, iii. 695. 11.*
Melodious Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 215.
SIZE of the Reed Thrush. Plumage above ferruginous brown,
beneath yellowish white; tail cinereous brown, pretty long, the two
middle feathers equal in length; the others much shorter.
* Colonel Montagu adds the name of Chanchider.—Om. Bict.
f Mr. Pennant, Arct. Zool. App. 64.   Not mentioned in the Fauna Suecica.
 158
FLYCATCHER.
Inhabits the rocky and sunny places in Dauuria, where it is not
uncommon; sings sweetly, and even in the nq*ht, like the Greater
Nightingale, to which it is not inferior in melody, and fully supplies
the place of that bird, the Nightingale not being found in Siberia.
3—SMALL FLYCATCHER.
uscicapa parva, Gobe-mouche
159.    Beckst. Nat. Beuts. i
ougeatre, Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 103.    Id. Ed. '.
. p. 442.
LENGTH four inches, five lines. At the base of the bill some
very long hairs; the plumage above reddish, inclining to rufous
towards the rump; quills edged, within and without, with rufous;
the greater and middle wing coverts marked with a small rufous spot
at the ends; round the eyes, and the throat yellowish white; the tail
daidsysbrown; the side feathers white from the base, towards the end
brown, shaded withruufous on the outer webs. The female does not
difler from the male; the young are more inclined to rufous.
Inhabits thedforests of Germany in the breeding* season; feeds on
insects; .and makes the nest between the forks of trees.
4.—WAVED FLYCATCHER.
,    L'Ondule, Levail Afr. iv. 24. pl. 156. f. 1. 2.
THIS is four inches and a half long. Bill and legs black;
plumage in general dusky brown, deeper on the wings and tail, the
last rounded, the feathers of it with pale margins; under parts
dusky white ; across the breast dusky,  ii;
The female is smaller, the colours paler, and the breast whiter,;'
as well as the margins of the wing feathers; in both a pale streak
between the nostrils and ey§i and from the bill to the eye dusky.
 FLYCATCHER.-
159
Inhabits Africa* in the neighbourhood of the Cape of Good
Hope; found in the Hottniqua Country, especially the Pays de
Natal/; making the nest, among the bushes, of grass and hair. The
note of the male expresses the words Tzirer chrest: the female has
no note whatever. At first sight it resembles our Spotted Flycatcher,
but it is more^than one inch shorter. In our common one the wkigs
reach three-fourths on the tail, which is somewhat forked, but in this
the tail is rather rounded at the end.
M. Levaillant observes, that his bird is subject to vary, some
having the wings and tail quite white; and the young birds often
with the edges of the feathers inclining to rufous; the brown also
tinged with that colour, especially on the rump.
5.—GOLDFINCH FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa atricapilla,   Ind. Om. ii. 467.     Lin. i. 326.     Gm. Lin. i. 935.     Kramer,
377. No. 16.    Jacq. Vog. 41. t. 39.    Borowsk. iii. 176.
Luscinia:alisvariegfffeis, Klein, 75. 12.
Emberiza luctuosa, Scop. Ann. i. No. 215.
Rubetra Anglicana, jBm.iii. 436.    Id. 8vo. i. 271.
Die schwarze Fliegenfanger, Naturf. xvii.97.    Schmid, Vog. p. 68. t. 55.
Traquet d'Angleterre, Buf. v. 222.
Muscicapa luctuosa* Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. 157.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 155.
Curruca tergo nigro, Frisch, t. 24.
CEnanthe nostra quarta, Raii, 77. A. 5.    Will. 170.    Gerin. iv. 381.
Coldfihch, Will Engl. 236.    Edw. pl. 30.
Pied Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 324.     Br. Zool i. No. 135.   Id. 1812. i. p. 473.    Arct.
Zool. ii. 391. B.    Id. Sup...64.    Bolton, Birds, i. pl. 39, 40.    Bewick, i. pl, in p.
195.    Lewin, Birds, iii. t. 88.      Walcot, ii. 225.     Bonov. i. pl. 22.     Orn. Bict.
Shaw's Zool x. 320. pl. 30.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Bill black; irides
hazel; plumage merely black and white; the upper parts of the
body, wings, and tail are black; forehead and under parts white;
there is also a white spot on the wing; two, and sometimes three of
 160
FLYCATCHER.
the outer tail feathers are white on the outer webs, almost to the
end;* upper tail coverts black and-white mixed-;-f legs black.
The female wants the white on the forehead, and is brown where
the male is black; the under parts are dusky white; the white on
the wings less pure.
This is indigenous to England, but a very local species, and no
where common ; most so in Yorkshire, Lancashire, and Derbyshire ;
Mr. Bolton says, that it visits the West Riding of Yorkshire in
April, and departs with the young in September, but not regularly
every year; the nest, which he describes, was built on the branch
of an almond tree, and well concealed ; the structure was loose, the
outside composed of moss, hay, small sticks, roots, &c. and lined
with finer roots, hairs, and a few feathers; the eggs in number five,
wholly of a pale bright blue; the cock sings in breeding time, not
far from the nest, his song like that of the Spotted Flycatcher, but
more sprightly, and with more energy: it sometimes approaches
towards London, as a young male was shot by Mr. Curtis, Surgeon,
hear Uxbridge, and now in Mr. Harrison's Collection : also seen on
the walls of the old castle at Winchelsea.J Is known in many parts
of the Continent of Europe; comes into Lorraine and Brie, about
the middle of April; said to build in the hole of some tree, not very
near the ground :§ found as far North as Sondmor, staying there the
whole year, and during winter frequently taking refuge in the very
houses; || seen in Russia, but only between the Kama and Samara;
returns to Sweden in April; appears at Gibraltar the middle of that
month, but in small numbers, and stays but a little while, being soon
dispersed in the open country, none remaining about the town after
the spring season.
* This mark is different in different birds. f Jn some wholly black.
X Lin. Trans, iv. p. 5. Col. Montagu observes, that it is not in the more western c
ties of England, and that it does not inhabit the neighbourhood of Penrhyn, in Cornwj
§ Kramer,  Arct. Zool Sup. p. 94. || Act. Nidros. v. 543.
 FLYCATCHER.
ii. 381.    Id. 8vo. i. 264.    Gen. Syn. i
161
This is said to be five inches and a half long, and differs in
having a mixture of grey on the upper parts; thighs mixed brown
and white, and three ofthe outer tail feathers white on the margins.
6—WHITE-FRONTED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa albifrons, Ind. Orn. i. 469.    Gm. Lin. i. 948.    Mus. Carls, i. t. 24.
White-fronted Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. 175.   - Shaw's Zool. x. 401.
LENGTH five inches and three quarters. Bill black, slender,
a trifle curved at the point, and a few hairs at the base; forehead
dusky white ; hindhead, nape, shoulders, wing coverts, and second
quills, sooty black; prime quills brown, edged with ferruginous;
fore part of the neck and breast dusky white, the shafts of the
feathers brown ; belly pale ferruginous; tail two inches long, black;
legs black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope: it seems greatly similar to the
Coldfinch, but wants the white on the wings, and the tail feathers
are all of one colour.
7.—CAPE FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa torquata, Ind. Om. ii. 468.   Lin. i. 328.—male.   Gm. Lin. i. 945.   Bris. iii.
379. t. 36. 4.   Id. 8vo. i. 263.
Gobe-mouche k collier du Cap, de B. Esp. PL enl. 572. 2.
Cape Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. iii. 326.    Shaw's Zool. ix. 330.
SIZE of the last. Head, throat, back, wings, and tail, black ;
sides of the neck white, passing behind in a narrow collar; breast
rufous; belly, thighs, vent, and a large spot in the middle of the
wing white; bill dusky; legs brown.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
 162
FLYCATCHER.
A.—Muscicapa ttlplftSis, lin. i. 327.    Gm. Lin. i. 945,   Bris. ii. 372. t. 36. t9.   Id.
8vo.i. 262.
Gobe-mouche du Cap. de B. Esp. Pl. to&JM. I.    Gen. ^iJffi.' W.' 3. A.
Top of the head and sides black ; throat white, passing almost to
the nape on each side; hind part ofthe neck, back, and rump, brown ;
tail and its coverts black; tips of the tail feathers white, and the
outer ones almost wholly so on the outer web; wing coverts brown,
across them a rufous bar; quills dusky, edged with rufous grey; on
the breast a band of black ; the rest of the under parts white; legs
yellowish brown.
Inhabits the Cape with the last;  probably differing only in sex.
8.—WHITE-NECKED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa atricapilla, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 468. 2. y.
Gobe-mouche noir k Collier, Buf. iv. 520. pl. 25. 1.    PL enl. 565. f. 2. 3.    Kramer,
377. 16.    Jacq. Beytr. 41. 1.19.
Muscicapa albicollis, Tern. Man. p. 100.    Id. Ed. ii. 153.
Pied Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 325. 2. Var. B.
LENGTH five inches. Plumage in general black above, with
a slight mixture of white on the rump ; on the quills a large patch
of white; all the under parts white, passing round the neck as a
collar; the forehead Is «fcfee( Vvnite. The female differs from the male
much as in the Goldfinch, having only a small spot of white on the
forehead; general colour of the plumage brown, or ash-colour; the
two outer tail feathers edged with white; and the white surrounding
the neck less apparent, but the under parts in general are white: in
the Wiht& the difference between the se&6s is less apparent, and the
male is ftflly black only in the breeding season.
Inhabit the warmer parts of Europe ; according to M. Biiflfeh,
is well known in Lorraine and Brie, whOfe it comes &e beginning df
April, and builds in the hole of a tree, not far from the ground,
 FLYCATCHER.
163
J3y«?# SJifc greenish blue eggs, lnaj-ked with frmforgfpn spots at the
J^rgf r end : in the JjTofthern parts of France, and in GeHP^jiy, less
frequent, and in the South of Italy very rare; has not been observed
in Holland, but said to be found in Russia, between the Rivers Sama
and Kamara.*
9— VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa variej
Pied Flycatcher,
ata, Lin.i. 328.    Gin. Lin.i. 949.
Gen. Syn. iii. 326. 2. Var. C.
SIZE of the white Wagtail. Plumage in general brown; front
and sides of the head, and all the under parts white; also a line of
white from tb&$boulders to the middle of the back; the outer tail
feather white just at the tip.
Inhabits India, seen in various drawings from ttygnpe, as well as
from China, but in the last the spot on the forehead was very minute;
and in one the tail feathers seemed to be worn on the end.
10.—WHITE-HOODED FLYCATCHER.
Gobe-mouches a capuchon blai
ail. Afr. iv. 33. pl. 159. 1. 2.
SIZE of the Common -Flycatcher. Bill brown, a little bristly at
the base; eyes red ; plumage black ; head, neck, and as far as the
breast white; under tail coverts white; the feathers of the head
elongated into a crest, which the bird erects at will; tail rounded, a
little fringed with white at the end; legs black.
The female is rather less; the white Ijood greyish, and the crest
not so conspicuous; the rest of the plumage black brown, and the
wing feathers bordered with grey.
* Mr. Pennant.
Y 2
 16
FLYCATCHER.
Inhabits the inward parts of the Cape of Good Hope, among the
rocks of the country of the Houzouanas, but is difficult to obtain;
feeds on insects.
11.—BLACK AND WHITE FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa bicolor, Ind. Orn. ii. 464.    Gm. Lin.i. 946.
Gobe-mouche. k ventre blanc, Buf. iv. 542.    PL enl. 586.
Black and white Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 327.    Edw. pl. 348. 1.    Shaw's Zool. x. 323.
SIZE of the Pied Flycatcher, and much resembling that bird ;
length four inches and a half. Bill and irides black ; forehead, sides
round the eye, fore part of the neck, rump, and under parts of the
body, white; the rest ofthe plumage black, except the bastard wing,
which is white, and a bar of white on the greater coverts; tail black,
all the feathers tipped with white ; legs black.
Inhabits Cayenne.
A.—Gillit de Cayenne, Buf. r
Le Dominicain, Voy. d'Azara,
542.   PL ml 675. 1.    Gen. Syn. iii. 328. A.
ii. No. 175.
Bill and legs black; hind part of the head, neck, wings, and
tail, black, the rest white ; edges ofthe second quills bordered with
white.    The female is of an uniformly grey colour.
Inhabits the moist meadows of Guiana, where it is called Gillit,
extending to Paraguay. Two nests were seen at the end of October,
but the colour of the eggs not mentioned.
12—CLICKING FLYCATCHER.
Le Gobe-mouches Molenar, Levail. Afr. iv. 35. pl. 160. 1. 2.
SIZE of a Colemouse.    Bill and legs black brown ; irides light
orange; general colour of the plumage above rufous brown, with a
 FLYCATCHER.
165
tinge of olive; beneath white ; eye placed in a black streak, which
passes behind; throat black, lengthening to the nape half way on
each side; across the breast a black streak, taking in the bend ofthe
wing, on the middle of the wing coverts a rufous patch, sides under
the wings rufohs$ quills and tail black, outwardly fringed with white.
Female smaller, like the male, but the throat and across the
breast rufous, instead of black; wings the same; lower belly and
thighs rufous; the wings reach one-third at least on the tail.
Inhabits the environs of the Cape of Good Hope; the male and
female always seen together among the bushes, rarely in the woods;
many about the River Duywenhoe, from thence to the Hottniqua
Country; at which latter place, however, they are rarely or never
seen ; the eggs are said to be white, and six in each nest; the bird
feeds on insects, and at first sight appears not unlike a White Throat;
the note like two stones clicked together.*
13—PRIRIT FLYCATCHER.
Gobe-mouches Print, Levail. Afr. iv. 38. pl. 161. 1. 2.
SIZE of the last, and the male black and white. Bill and legs
horn-colour, at the base of the former several hairs; eyes pale yellow;
the chin and neck before i^liite, passing behind; top of the head
blue-grey; across the breast a black band, but the rest of the parts
beneath white; wing coverts black; the rest of the wing patched
and mixed with white; quills and tail black, the last rounded, the
feathers margined with white.
The female is smaller: throat and breast pale rufous, passing
back to the neck, as the white does in the male; through the eye
the same kind of broad black streak, and the top of the head is grey;
plumage on the upper parts of the body pale rufous, with a blackish
* The Stone-Chat has a similar note.
 166 FLYCATCHER.
tinge; rump streaked white and black; quills brown, edged with
white; tail as in the male. It is not unlike our Stone-Chat, and
might be placed as a Warbler, were it not for the bristles at the base
of the bill.
This is common on the West Coast of Africa; male and female
always together; the note like the words Pririiprirjilffiis a wild bird,
and difficult to procure: common on the bonders of the Riviere jdes
Poissons, and in all the Caffre Land, especially in the Mimosa
Woods, bordering on the great river.
14.—COLLARED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa collaris, Ind. Orn. ii. 471.
————— melanoptera, Gm. Lin. i. 939.
 Senegalensis torquata, Bris. ii. 370. t. 36. 1.    Id. 8vo.i. 261.
Gobe-mouche k gorge brune de Senegal, Buf. iv. 533.
 rousse, Pl. enl. 567. 3.
Collared Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 330.    Shaw's Zool. x. 374.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Bill black, broad at
the base, and depressed at the tip ; a trifle curved, with a few hairs
at the base; head, and all above to the rump, deep ash-colour;
throat and neck beloee brownish ehestaut, bounded below with a
transverse black line; breast and under parts white; thighs dusky
and white mixed; wings black: across the coverts a white band<;
quills black, edged with grey ; tail black, all but the two middle
feathers ^ped withrwjhite, the outer one white on the outer web ;
legs ash-col our, claws black,
j >2&frab^iJfeBfagpL<»-~A specimen shewn to me by Mr. Walcot
was laiger#istn,ihe above, and afuW inch longer, it answered to the
general description* Jbut in some lights the tail feathers appeared to
feefeHWftrsely unddalated.
 FLYCATCHER.
167
15.—SENEGAL FLYCATCHER.
MALE.
Muscicapa Senegalensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 470.    Lin.i. 327.    Gm. Lin.i. 938.    Bris. ii.
374. t. 37. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 26&   '
Gobe-mouche k bandeau blanc du Senegal, Buf. iv. 528.    PL enl 567. 1.
Senegal Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 328.    Shaw's Zool. x. 333.
LENGTH four iiiches and three quarters. The bill flat, broad,
black, with a few hairs* of about half the lefrgtb, at the base; crown
of the head and sides dusky black; from the nostril a ferruginous
streak, passing over the eye to the hindhead, which is of the same
colour; chin and throat white ; across the breast a bar of ferruginous;
from thence to the vent white; back and wings dusky btown, across
the latter an oblique pale ferruginous bar; quills dusky, fringed with
ferruginous; lower part of the back, and rump mixed with white;
upper tail coverts black; tail near two inches long, even, black, the
outer feather wholly white on the outer web, and for three-fourths
from the base on the inner; the next white on the outer, and black
on the inner, the whole of the length; legs black.
Muscicapa Senegalensis
Gobe-mouche 4 poitrini
Lin.i. 327. 15.(3.
pectore nigro, Bri
. 376. t.37.
I 567. 2.    Gm. Syn. i
\.   Id. 8vo.I7i©.!
. 329. 5. A.
Hie one here quoted is supposed to be the female, and differs
from the other in some particulars. The head is black, with a white
streak over the eyes to the hindhead, instead of a ferruginous one;
back and the wings much the same, but instead of a ferruginous bar
across the breast, there is a similar one of black, and the bar across
the Wings is white; tail the same in both.
Inhabit (Senegal.—-In the Collection of Lord Stanley.
 FLYCATCHER.
16.—BLACK-FRONTED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa nigrifrons, Ind. Orn. ii. 47
Black-fronted Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. '.
Gm. Lin.
} 331.    Ska
939.
<'s Zool. x. 407.
SIZE of the Coldfinch; length four inches and a half. Bill
dusky; front and sides of the head black, ending in a point behind
the eye; the rest ofthe upper parts brown ; chin and throat yellow;
belly olive-brown ; tail the same, except the second middle feathers
which are plain brown ; legs black.
17— WHITE-TAILED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa leucura, Ind. Om.ii. 471.    Gm. Lin. i. 939.
White-tailed Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. iii. 331.    Skaw's Zool. x. 376.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill black, with a few hairs
at the base; plumage above olive-brown, in some cinereous grey,
beneath white, inclining to brown on the breast; the two middle
tail feathers black, the others black and white obliquely; the outer
one nearly all white; legs black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and various parts of India;
common about Calcutta, and also at Bengal; there called Chutki,
or Tirki.—Dr. Buchanan.
18—COROMANDEL FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Ponticeriana, Ind. Om. ii. 471.    Gm. Lin. i. 939.
Gobe-mouche de Pondichery, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 198.
Coromandel Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 331.    Skaw's Zool. x. 375.
A LITTLE bigger than a Sparrow. Bill black; the head deep
cinereous grey; over the eye a white streak, reaching almost to the
hindhead; neck behind, back, wings, and tail like the head; wing
 FLYCATCHER. 169
coverts tipped with a triangular white spot; tail grey half way from
the base, from thence white, but the two middle feathers are wholly
grey; neck before, breast, and belly white; legs black.
Inhabits the Coast of Coromandel, and called the Indian Nightingale, for its song is said to be very agreeable.
19.—SPOTTED YELLOW FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa afra.
Spotted yellow
ii. 472.    Gm.Lin.i
, Gm. Syn. iii. 332.
940.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill broadish at the base, and slightly
curved at the tip; gape bristly; crown of the head rufous, streaked
with black; wings and tail rufous, the first edged with dusky brown;
quills dusky brown; body dirty pale yellow, with irregular dusky
spots on the upper parts of the head and neck; on the sides of the
latter two or three dusky blotches, and from the corners of the mouth
a streak of the same; under parts marked with irregular transverse
spots, and the thighs lengthwise; legs dusky ash-colour.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
20—ASH-COLOURED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa cana, Ind.Om.ii. 472.    Gm.Lin.i. 940.
 Madagascariensis cinerea major, Bris. ii. 389. t. 37. 1.   Id. Svo. i. 366.
Le Kinki-manou, Buf. iv. 584.
Grand Gobe-mouche cendre de Madagascar, Pl ml. 541.
Echenilleur, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxii.
Ash-coloured Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 332.    Skaw's Zool.x. 398.
SIZE of the Cinereous Shrike; length eight inches and a half;
Bill black, with black hairs at the base; head, nape, and throat
blackish ash-colour; the rest of the neck, and upper parts fine ash-
colour; from the breast to the vent the same, but paler; vent white;
VOL. VI. Z
 170
FLYCATCHER.
quills dusky, with cinereous edges; tail black; the two outer feathers
pale ash-colour at the tips, and the two middle ones wholly so, with
blackish ends.
Inhabits Madagascar, known there by the name of Kinki-manou.
In the Pl. enlum. the tail seems cuneiform, at least the outer feather
is much shorter than the rest. We have followed the sentiments of
preceding authors, having only seen drawings of the bird, but must
remark, that it appears to have much of the habit of a Chatterer.
21.—AFRICAN FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa ochracea, Ind. Orn. i. 472.    (
African Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. Sup. 175.
m. Lin.i. 947.    Mus.
Shaw's Zool. x. 405.
LENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill pale; head and back
brownish; the neck and breast ferruginous ash-colour, the feathers
narrow, and sharp at the ends; region of the ears covered with a
tuft of longish narrow feathers; belly the colour of rusty oker; the
quills, wing coverts, and tail, black at the tips, and inner sides, the
outer white; tail the length of the body; legs black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope; it seems somewhat to resemble
the last species, but differs materially in the shape of the tail, and
the feathers of it are equal in length.
22.—MADAGASCAR FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Madagascariensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 472.    Gm. Lin. i. 940.
Ficedula Madagascariensis major, Bris. iii. 482. t. 24. f.5.    Id. 8vo.i. 442.
Le Vira-ombe de Madagascar, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 198.
Madagascar Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 333.    Shaw's Zool x. 371.
SIZE of a Lark; length seven inches and a half.    Bill one inch
long, the upper mandible bent at the tip, colour brown; the general
 J"LYCATCHER. 171
eolour of the plumage olive green, paler beneath; throat yellow; on
the fore part of the neck and breast a yellowish tinge; legs grey.
Inhabits Madagascar, where it is called Tictic.
23.—UNDULATED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa undulata, Ind. Orn. ii. 472.    Gm. Lin. i. 940.
Gobe-mouche de l'lsle de France, Buf iv. 527.
Undulated Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 333.    Shaw's Zool. x. 324.
LESS than the Coldfinch, and shorter in the body. The head
blackish brown; wings rufous brown ; the rest of the plumage composed of an irregular mixture of whitish and brown, in shape of
waves, or small spots.
One, supposed to be the female, has a greater portion of white,
with a mixture of pale rufous, on the breast and belly; the brown
on the various parts -ef the body inclined to grey, but the colours
disposed as in the former.
Inhabits the Isle of France.
24.—INDIAN FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Tectec, Ind. Om. ii. 473.    Gm. Lin. i. 941.
  borbonica, Bris. ii. 360. t. 39. 1.   Id. 8vo. i. 258.
Indian Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. iii. 334.    Skaw's Zool. x. 397.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Bill, brown ; head
and hind part of the neck, brown, marked here and there with small
rufous specks; especially on the margins ; back, ttump, and wings,
much the same; throat and fore part of the neck dirty white ; from
the breast to the vent pale rufous ; quills and tail brown ; the first
 172
FLYCATCHER.
edged and tipped with rufous; the last only edged with the same;
legs brown.
The female is dirty white, in those parts which are rufous in the
male.—Found at the Isle of Bourbon ; where it is called Tectec.
25.—RUFOUS-VENTED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa rufiventris, Ind. Orn. ii. 473.    Gm. Lin. i. 941.
Gobe-mouche de 1' Isle de Bourbon, Pl ml 572, 3.
Rufous-vented Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 334.    Shaw's Zool. x. 367.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Colour wholly black,
except the vent and under tail coverts, which are rufous; legs pale
red.—Said to inhabit the Isle of Bourbon.
A.—Head, neck, back, upper belly, and thighs, black; upper
and under wing coverts, sides under the wings, and base half of the
side tail feathers, rufous orange; quills dusky ; the two middle tail
feathers black, the others black from the middle to the end; rump
and vent nearly white, the feathers of the latter margined with
dusky ; bill and legs dusky.
Inhabits India, chiefly those parts within the Bay of Bengal,
and is, not unlikely, the female of the Rufous-vented.—Sir J. An-
struther.
26—AUGUST FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill half an inch, pale grey; head,
chin, throat, and all behind to the beginning ofthe back black, with
a blue gloss, the rest ofthe body fine orange red ; wings blue black,
 FLYCATCHER. 173
irregularly marked in the middle with orange red, and a patch or
two of the same on the second quills; tail cuneiform, the two middle
feathers blue black to the ends, the others more or less halfway from
the base the same, the end half orange red; legs dusky.
The female is pale brown, or ash-colour above; over the eye
yellow; all the under parts from the chin yellow; wings and tail
marked in the same manner as the male, but the colours different;
for the plumage is pale ash and yellow, where the male is black
and orange.
Inhabits India.—Gen. Hardwicke. On examining one in the
collection of Gen. Davies, I find the six middle tail feathers all of
one length, or three inches and a half; the next two inches and
three quarters; the adjoining two inches and a quarter; the exterior
only one inch and a half; the two middle black; the others black
at the base, and the rest of the length obliquely orange; rump
orange; thighs and legs black; the wings, when closed, reach to
the middle of the tail. * The bill is not depressed as in the Flam-
meous Species, but somewhat approaching to that of the Shrike.
This was said to have come from Ceylon.
One, in General Hardwicke's collection, had the colours black
and deep scarlet: the female brown and yellow, as above mentioned.
The name given to it was Sat-Sukhey-ka-peea.
27.—FLAMMEOUS FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa flammea, Ind. Orn. ii. 474.    Gm. Lin. i. 935.   Zool. Ind. p. 25 t. 15.    Lin.
Trans, xiii. p. 146.
L'Oranor, Levail. Afr. iv. 17. pl. 155. 2.
Flammeous Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 338.    Id. Sup. 171.   Ind. Zool. 4to. 43. pl. 9.
Male and Female.   Shaw's Zool. x. 372.
LENGTH six inches.    Bill black, with a slight notch near the
tip; head, neck, and upper parts,  black; back, across the wings,
 174 i FLYCATCHER.
rump, and upper tail coverts, fine glowing orange; breast and belly
orange; vent yellowish white; thighs black ; tail very cuneiform,
the two middle feathers three inches long, the outer one inch and a
half, colour black, the ends of all but the four middle ones more or
less orange-coloured ; legs black.
The female has the upper part of the head, the neck, and back,
ash-coloured; about the cheeks and throat dusky; breast orange ;
belly white; band across the wings yellow ; rump and upper tail
coverts the same; tail as in the male.
Inhabits Ceylon, and other parts of India; also in Java, and
called there Uwis ; by some Semuttan.—In the collection of Capt.
Paterson, is a most perfect and fine specimen, with the orange parts
so deep coloured, as to be nearly red.
28.—CRIMSON-RUMPED FLYCATCHER.
Parus peregrinus, Ind. Om. ii. 564.     j
t. 48. 49.
Parus coccineus, Gm.Lin. i. 1015.
——- Malabaricus, Ind. Orn. ii. 564.
La Mesange de laC6te de Malabar, So'
Malabar Titmouse, Gen. Syn. iv. 555.
Crimson-rumped Titmouse, Gen. Syn. i
. 342.    Gm. Lin. i. 564.    Mus. Carls.
Gm. Lin. i. 1012.
. Voy. Ind. ii. 204. t. 114. 1.
Shaw's Zool. x. p. 49.
r. 539.   Id. Sup. ii. 255.   '
BILL black; head neck, and back, ash-colour; the base of the
bill, with the chin, blackish; fore part of the neck and breast orange,
growing white towards the vent; rump orange; wings tdack, crossed
with a bar of orange; under part ofthe wings pale brimstone; tail
moderately long, hollowed a little at the end, the two middle feathers
black, the others half way from the end orange; legs black.
In the female the upper parts are pale ash-colour, beneath dusky
white ; vent yellowish ; wings and tail as in the male, but the bar
on the wings is yellow; and the rump, and outer tail feathers,
paler orange.       ^■P^
 FLYCATCHER. 175
It must be observed, that in Sonnerat's bird the tail seems at
least rounded at the end, if not strictly cuneiform; hence it is possible
that some mistake may have occurred by the draughtsman, in respect
to that part in the Carlsonian JVLuseum, as it there appears forked.
In short, it seems so like the Flammeous Flycatcher in some of its
changes, that it is with difficulty we have kept the two separate.
Both this and the last are found in various parts of the Cape of
Good Hope and India, as also China; for I have observed many
drawings from both the latter places; one name given to it in India
is Sukeesa lehen ; is observed to vary much, the rump in some mixed
grey and pale red ; lower part of the neck orange red ; breast and
belly pale oker yellow; thighs and vent white ; patch on the wings
rufous yellow.    This called at Ajineabed, Suda Sohagee.
In Lord Valentia's drawings is one, answering to the Malabar
Titmouse, with a longish, brown, rounded tail, having a ferruginous
tinge near the end, quite to the tip. The name given to this in
Oude, is Sukkhy. A bird, apparently a female, and scarcely five
inches long, flew on board a ship, between the coast of Africa and
the Island of Madeira, perhaps a young one, as no mention was
made of red on the rump.
29.—CINNAMON FLYCATCHER.
iomea, Lin. i. 335.    Gm. Lin. i. 985.
lea, Ind. Orn. ii. 474. 23. /S.
ler, Gm. Syn. iv. 447.   Shaw's Zool. x
THIS is said by Linnaeus to be like the Red-tailed Warbler;
the upper parts of the body hoary; throat black ; breast, belly, and
rump, crimson ; quills black; the four first red at the base, forming
in one sex a spot on that part; tail black, the four middle feathers
obliquely rufous on the sides.
 176 FLYCATCHER.
Inhabits Ceylon.—The above is Linnaeus's description, and although
it does not precisely coincide with the Flammeous Species, it is not
improbably a Variety of it.
Among the drawings of General Hardwicke is a nest and eggs,
said to be of the Cinnamon Flycatcher; the nest seems composed
chiefly of whitish lichen, with a round opening at top, lined and
surrounded with pale reddish hairs; it is attached to the fork of a
branch, tapers conically downwards to half an inch, and is, from
top to bottom, about four inches : the eggs four in number, pale
reddish white, thickly marked with small red specks at the large
end, and very sparingly elsewhere; the nest flat, and quite open at
top; eggs three quarters of an inch long.
30.—CAWNPORE FLYCATCHER.—Pl. xcviii.*
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill broad at the base, with a
few short hairs, and black; head, neck behind, upper parts ofthe
back, and wings, for the greatest part, black; lower part of the back,
and breast orange red, the rest of the under parts white; down the
middle of the wing a streak of white; the second coverts have the
outer webs white, the inner black; tail very cuneiform, the two
middle feathers two inches and three quarters long, the outer one inch
and three quarters; all but the two middle more or less white half
way to the ends, the exterior wholly white; legs slender, black.
Inhabits India, found at Cawnpore in July, there called Sokeea
Soleil.—Gen. Hardwicke.
31— SUPERCILIOUS FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa superciliosa, Ind. Orn. ii. 447.    Gm. Lin. i. 944.
Supercilious Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 341.    Shaw's Zool. x. 386.
LENGTH four inches and a half.    Bill black; upper parts of the
body cinereous; before the eye black, passing above it in a slender
  ORE FLYCATCHER
• part of the back,
white; down the
   FLYCATCHER. 177
line; under parts of the body pale reddish white; tail.cuneiform, the
two middle feathers black, the next white at the tip, the. others all
white; legs brown.
Native place uncertain.
32.—JAVAN FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Javanica, Ind. Orn. ii. 490.     Mus. Carls, iii.  t. 75.
146. 313.
Javan Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup.ii. 218.    Shaw's Zool. x. 400.
Lin. Trans, xiii. i
SIZE ofthe Spotted Species; length six inches. Bill and legs
black; upper parts of the body dusfcyr margins of the feathers
ferruginous; under parts white; on the neck beftim a dusky bar;
over the eye a white streak; tail pretty long, cuneiform, the four
middle feathers black, the others black, with the ends white.
Inhabits Java, called Sikattan, also Moorai Kandang.
33.—WHITE-BROWED FLYCATCHER.
SIZE of the Common Wagtail; length six inches and a half.
Bill black, with several hairs at the base; forehead to the middle of
the crown white; descending on each side, in a broad patch, over
the eye to the nape; but down the middle of the crown and the nape
black; from the gape, through the eyes, a broad band of black,
increasing in breadth, and curving downwards; chin and under parts
wholly white; back, rump, and wings, pale ash-colour, the last
spotted with white, the rest of the wing black; tail rounded at the
end, three inches and a half long, the outer feather shorter by half
anjinch; colour black, but the three outer feathers are white at the
endsi most so on the exterior, wJmJie it is whsUe for above half the
length; legs long and black.
 178
FLYCATCHER.
Inhabits India.—From the collection of Gen. Hardwicke. The
nest composed of fibres and hairs, lined with others darker, is about
two inches and a half in diameter at top, and two inches deep, placed
on the fork of a branch, but only attached at the bottom : the eggs
ofthe size of those of our Flycatcher, greyish white, with a zone of
dusky spots round the middle, and others scattered above and below.
34—BROAD-TAILED FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. The bill black, soft, much
depressed at the base; the upper mandible carinated, and slightly
curved at the point, near which it has a notch; nostrils oval, pervious;
tongue lacerated at the point; base of the bill surrounded with
many strong bristles, turned forwards, almost as long as the bill; the
feathers of the frontlet erect; irides dark brown ; plumage {flack, inclining to ash-colour on the body, and to dusky beneath on the quills
and tail; above each eye a whitish line^ and another running from
the throat, beneath each ear; tail rounded, the two middle feathers
four inches long; the outer ones much shorter, colour black; the four
outer tipped with white; legs dirty purple, the middle and outer toe
united at the base, as far as the first joint; hind claw the strongest.
One of the sexes has the upper wing coverts margined with brown,
and the plumage nearly black.
Inhabits India, found about Calcutta, but is not common; feeds
on insects, always seen in pairs; called by the Bengalese and Mussulmans, Chakdyal; and in the Persic, Chuk-da-heel, for it is considered, though falsely, of the same Genus with the Dyal Grakle; it
is called Chak, or Wheel Dyal, from its turning frequently round,
hanging its wings, and spreading the tail in the manner of the
Fan-tailed Species.—Dr. Buchanan.
 FLYCATCHER. 179
In the drawings of Sir J. Anstruther are two Varieties : in one,
the head, neck, wings, and tail, are black; beginning of the back
brown; all beneath white; over the eye a white streak, across the
chin another; tail cuneiform, the feathers wholly black; bill dusky;
legs pale cinereous blue.
The other five inches and a half long. Plumage above brown
black,- beneath white; over the eye a broad white streak; the chin
ash-colour; wing coverts spotted with white; tail two inches and
three quarters long, the six middle feathers black; the exterior
wholly white ; the two next white at the ends; bill and legs as in
the others: the name given to it Teeloet.
35.—WREATHED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Sinensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 475.    Gm. Lin. i. 942.
Le gobe-mouche verdatre de la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 107.
Wreathed Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. iii. 336.    Shaw's Zool x. 344.
BIGGER than a House Sparrow. Bill black; irides red; head
black; over the eye a white streak, from the bill to the hindhead,
making a sort of wreath; neck behind, back, rump, wing coverts,
and tail greenish grey; quills yellowish green; throat white; neck
before, and breast greyish ;  belly and vent pale yellow; legs black.
Inhabits China.
36—VITTATED FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill dusky, rather bent at the point;
plumage above pale ash-colour, beneath dusky white ; over the eye,
from the nostrils, a broad, dusky white streak, reaching almost to
the hindhead ; on the wing cOverts two series of white spots, arising
from the second and third coverts being so tipped; quills and tail
 180 FLYCATCHER.
rather darker than the upper parts; the latter three indies and three
quarters long,4nuch rounded, or slightly cuneiform; the wing reaches
about a quarter of the length ; legs pale ash.
Inhabits India.—From the drawings of Sir John Anstruther.
It seems somewhat allied to the last.
37— AZURE FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa caerulea, Ind. Om.H. 476.    Gm. Lin.i. 943.    Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 312.
Le petit Asut, Buf. iv. 524.
L'Azur a calotte eta Collier noir, Levail. Afr. iv. 11. pl. 153. I. 2.
Gobe-mouche bleu des Philippines, Pl. enl. 666. 1.—female.
Azure Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. iii. 339.    Shaw's Zool x. 383.
LENGTH near six inches. Bill black, at the base a few short
hairs; plumage in general glossy azure blue; belly, thighs, and
vent, white; at the hindhead, and on the breast, a spot of black;
quills and tail blue black, the first edged with blue grey; the last
rounded at the end, the feathers rather pointed; legs pale reddish
brown.
Inhabits the PhilippineJislands.—Tn Levaillant'sdWrd the black
on the lireast is in the shape of a crescent.
The female is smaller, the colours paler, and more uniform;
no gloss on the top of the head, nor black crescent on the breast;
but the belly and vent are white as in the male; legs slender, black:
in both the tail is much rounded.    That in the Pl. enl. is the female.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope. Both sexes usually found
together, in the great woods <m the coast ofNssfcai, orCaffre country;
seen on the tops of great trees, catching flies; makes a nest of dried
fibres, and moss wrtfebut; eggs rdfbtts grey* wnd'five in number.
A.—Length five inches and a half.     Bill black, base hairy;
plumage fine blue; belly and vent white; across the back part of
w
 FLYCATCHER.
181
on the throat a
the head a broad black patch ; forehead black
narrow black crescent.
Found in the neighbourhood of Calcutta, called in the Persic,
Bauns Putta.—One, in the drawings of .Gen. Hardwicke, had a
black patch on the nape, another about the nostrils, and a slender
crescent on the breast.
B.—Azure Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. 172.
The general colour of this bird is deep Indigo blue; belly
whiter the bill very hooked at the point, with long hairs, springing
from the base, some of them even reaching beyond the tip; irides
yellow, surrounded with black; top ofthe head mottled with black;
on the lower part of the neck a narrow black crescent.
This is not uncommon about Calcutta, and other parts of India;
found also in Java.
38.—AZURE-HEADED FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH six inches. Bill black, with long hairs at the base;
head fine blue; the west-of <fce plumage in general cinereous brown,
or mouse-colour; belly and vent dusky white; tail longish, a trifle
rounded at the end, the outer feather j white at the tip, on the
outer web.
Inhabits India, called Chutta Hineea.—Sir J. Anstruther.
In some drawings, done in India, is another, with the head
and neck pale bluish ash-colour, the rest mostly pale brown; under
parts whife; tail longish, cuneiform; bill bluish, with Jhsatsnt the
base; legs bluish.
Inhabits India; known by tbe name of Doomchui&y.
 182
FLYCATCHER.
39—LUCKNOW FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH four inches. Bill black, a few hairs at the base;
head, neck, back, and rump fine blue ; paler on the crown, deeper
through the eyes, and nearly black; just over the eye a white streak,
passing downwards; chin, middle of the neck, and breast, belly,
and vent, white; tail short, even, more than one of the outer feathers
white some way from the base ; legs dusky.
One, called the female, is pale brown above ; on the ears a pale
spot, inclining to rufous; beneath to the breast dusky white; the
rest pure white. Found about Lucknow, in India, in March.—Gen.
Hardwicke.
40—BLUE-CROWNED FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH five inches and a half. The bill broad at the base,
depressed, with a few weak hairs, colour pale brown ; crown of the
head, above the eye, fine deep blue; from the nostrils, sides of the
head, including the eyes, all round the neck, and breast full black;
from thence all the under parts are white; back, wings, and tail
deep blue; tail feathers white for one quarter next the base, but the
two middle ones are wholly deep blue; shape even at the end, length
two inches and a half; the quills reach three-fourths on the tail; legs
dark.—In the Collection of Lord Stanley. In some specimens, the
under parts, from the chin to the breast, have a blue gloss.
41— VERDITER FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH six inches. Bill black, furnished with a few hairs at
the base; whole plumage fine verditer blue; tail two inches and a
half long, rather hollowed out in the middle; legs dusky blue.
 FLYCATCHER.
183
Inhabits India: in some drawings I observe a similar one ei^ht
inches and a half long. Bill and legs black; plumage in general
very pale greenish blue, as in the male Bishop Tanager, paler
beneath; from the base of the bill, round the eye, dusky; quills
dusky within; tail even, the wings reach on it one-third.
42—BLUE-HEADED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa cyanocephala, Ind. Orn. ii. 477. Gm. Lin. i. 943.
Gobe-mouche k tete bleuatre de Lucon, Son. Voy. 57. t. 26. 1.
Blue-headed Flycatcher, Gen. Syn.iii. 339.    Shaw's Zool x. 403.
SIZE of a Linnet. Bill brown; head deep blue, nearly black;
throat, back, wing coverts, and tail, for almost the whole length,
deep red; tips of the feathers of the last black, in shape forked;
breast, belly, and vent pale brown; legs brown.
Inhabits the Island of Manilla.
43 —YELLOW-THROATED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Manillen
Gobe-mouche a gor
Yellow-throated Fly
is, Ind. Orn. ii. 47
;ejaunede Lucon,
catcher, Gen. Syn.]
. 340.    Shaw's Zool x.
LARGER than the last. Bill brown ; top and sides of the head
black; hindhead grey, below this black; on the cheeks two bands
of white, beginning at the gape; the one rising in a band above the
eye, and beyond it the other, passing beneath, and shorter; the
throat yellow; breast reddish; middle of the belly yellow; sides of
it and vent white; upper parts of the bird grey; middle of the back
chestnut, extending itself over the wings, which are crossed with a
white stripe; quills black, edged with brown; tail nearly even, or
very little rounded ; the two middle feathers black, the others white,
towards the base dusky; legs brown.
Inhabits the Island of Manilla.
 1M FLYCATCHER.
44.—FAN-TAILED FLYCATCHER.-Pl. xcix.
Muscicapa flabellifera, Ind. Om. ii. 477.    Gm. Lin. i
Moucherolle, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal p. lxvii.
Fan-tailed Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 340. 33. t. 49.
v's Zool. x. p. 340. pl. 31.
SIZE of the Bearded Titmouse; length six inches and a half.
Bill black, a little bent, and furnished with bristles at the base; irides
hazel; the whole head, taking in the eyes, black; this descends on the
back part lower than the nape, from whence it passes forwards in a
narrow collar to the throat; the chin, throat, and sicfes of the neck,
except where this coHaar passes, a*& white; and over the eye a white
streak like an eyebrow ; tbempper parts ofthe body are olive-brown,
the quills darkest, and some of the wing coverts tipped with white,;
the under parts yellowish rust-colour, growing whitish towards the
vent; the tail very long, and cuneiform in shape; the two middle
feathers black, the others white ; legs dusky.
Inhabits the southern Isle of New Zealand.—Dr. Forster informed
me, that it is exceedingly familiar, constantly hunting after insects
and flies, always with the tail spread like a fan ; is easily tamed, and
will then sit on a person's shoulder, and pick off the flies. It has a
chirping note, not to be called a song ; and is called by the natives
IWggo-wagh-wagh.
It is subject to Variety. One from the Island of Tanna, was
darker in colour; the two middle tail featfeera sooty-black, with
white shafts; the inner margins and tips whitish; the.©tfeersi witli
fee inner webs deep black, the shafts paler black, the outer webs
almost grey.—A second Variety, in the collection of Sir Joseph
Banks, had only the outer tail feathers white, the others white; W&fe
dfcstty margins. This was seven inches in len^h, and brought fr;&*H
Dusky Bay.
«L
 —
^J
 II
I
a.
D
«L
 &^6tM^Sfac
U-*
  FLYCATCHER.
185
45.—LONG-TAILED FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill black ; head crested and black ;
on each side of the jaw a white streak ; upper part of the body deep
olive; breast and belly black brown ; middle of the breast white;
tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers six inches long, the exterior
three inches and a half; the three outer ones on each side white at
the ends; legs brown.
Inhabits New South Wales.—In the collection of Mr. H. Brogden.
46.-SOCIETY FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa nigra, Ind. Orn. ii. 474.    Gm. Lin. i. 947.   Mus. Carls, i. t. 23.
Society Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. 174.    Shaw's Zool. x. pl. 327.
LENGTH six inches. Bill one inch, stout at the base, and a
trifle curved at the point, base bristly; plumage in general black,
but the bill, head, space between the shoulders, and legs, are of a
much deeper colour than the rest; the wings reach one-third on the
tail.—Inhabits Otaheite, and the Islands contiguous.
Among the papers of Sir Joseph Banks, recorded by Mr.
Anderson, I find one, which has the appearance of a Variety. The
bill is lead-coloured, and the back, and wing coverts, incline to
brown ; otherwise it is black; likewise a second, supposed to be a
female, the whole ofthe plumage of which is uniformly black.
47.—TUFTED FLYCATCHER.
i Muscicapa comata, Ind. Orn. ii. 474.    Gm. Lin. i. 941.
Tufted Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 334.    Shaw's Zool. x. 331.
BILL black, and crooked at the point; head crested; that, the
cheeks, and chin, black ; hind part of the neck, back, wings, and
 186
FLYCATCHER.
tail, the same; the two middle feathers ofthe last tipped with white;
rump, sides of the neck, breast, and belly, white; vent yellow ; legs
bluish.—Inhabits Ceylon.
48—RED-VENTED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa hsemorrhousa, Ind. Orn. ii. 475.    Gm.Lin.i. 941.
Turdus hsemorrhous, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 147.
Red-vented Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. iii. 335.   Brown, III. 78. pl. 31.   Shaw's Zool. x. 834.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill bluish ; head black, and
slightly crested; the neck and upper parts of the body clouded brown;
breast and belly white ; vent red ; tail black ; legs dusky.
Inhabits the Island of Ceylon.
A.—Yellow-vented Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 335.    Brown, 111. 76. pl. 3L
Size of the last. Bill black; forehead and crown Mack, and
crested; sides of the neck, breast, and belly, white} vent yellow;
tail long, dusky,crossed, near the end, with a bar of wirite; legs dusky.
Inhabits the Island of Java. Probably differs from the last in
sex : it is six inches and a half in length, and the name given to it,
by the Javanese, is Ketilan.
il
49 —GUAVA FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Psidii, Ind. Orn. ii. 475. Gm. Lin
Petit Goiavier deManille, Son. Voy. 59. t. 28.
Guava Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 335.    Shaw's
RATHER less than a Sparrow. Bill black; irides pale yellow;
crown of the head black ; over the eyes a line of white, extending
almost to the hindhead; from the base of the* l^Wer jaw to the eye
 FLYCATCHER. Ig7
another of black ; the upper parts of the body are dull brown, like
umber; quills and tail deeper; the under parts white; vent pale
yell6w; legs black.
Inhabits Manilla; common about habitations; observed frequently
to perch onthe Guava, ofthe fruit of which, the natives suppose it to
be fond; but it is more probable, that its search is after the insects
which frequent the trees, than the fruit itself.
A.—Length four inches and a half. Bill and legs pale lead-
colour ; head black, with two yellowish stripes; one above the eye,
the other, broader, beneath; plumage above brownish yellow; the
whole of the wings, and under parts from the chin to vent, dull
yellow; tail brownish ash, rather hollowed out at the end, but not
forked.
Inhabits the coast of Coromandel.—Sir J. Anstruther.
50.—YELLOW-BREASTED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa melanictera, Ind. Om. ii. 475.
Gm. Lin.
. 941.
Yellow-breasted Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. iii
336.    Bro
wn, III. 80. |
1. 85
x. 364.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Bill slender, dusky;
head to middle of the crown, all before the eyes, chin, throat, and
sides of the last black; the rest of the plumage above brown, the
feathers margined with rufous yellow; greater quills dusky; under
parts of the body pale yellow, the feathers mixed, or fringed with
white; tail dusky, rather hollowed out at the end, and brown, the
feathers with pale, or yellowish margins; the exterior white on the
outer web; legs black.
Inhabits Ceylon, and there called Malkala-kourla; is much
admired for its song, and is often kept in cages for that purpose;
also found at Hindustan, and other parts of India.
B b2
 188
FLYCATCHER.
51.—GREEN FLYCATCHER.
icapa nitens, Ind. Orn. ii.
1 Flycatcher, Gm. Syn.iii.
475.
336.
. 942.
SIZE of a large Humming-Bird. Bill slender, rather long;
head, back, and wing-coverts variable green and gold ; tail long,
dusky, with the outer webs green ; wings dusky; throat and breast
fox-colour; rump and belly yellow.
Muscicapa nitid
Nitid Flycatche
52.-NITID FLYCATCHER.
i, Ind. Om. ii. 489.
, Gen. Syn. Sup. 173.    Skaw's Zool. x. 388.
SIZE small. Bill black, beneath yellow; tongue lacerated;
plumage pale green; wing-coverts edged with white; quills and tail
dusky, the feathers edged with yellow; over the eye a conspicuous
line of white ; legs brown*.
The female is much the same, but the white over the eye not very
plain.—Inhabits China and India. At Bengal it is called Zerd
Futki, or Phodgy.
A.—Length four inches and a half. Bill, as in the other, somewhat triangular at the base, and a trifle curved at the point; irides
dusky; head, neck, and upper part of the breast, cinereous, darker
on the crown ; back and wings green, inclining to yellow on the
rump; belly and vent pale yellow, tinged with green on the breast;
quills blackish, with yellow edges; tail nearly even, or a trifle
hollowed at the end; legs dull flesh-colour.
Inhabits India, found at Bengal with the other, and is also called
ZunJ Footkee; seen at Calcutta, in dry seasons.—Dr. Buchanan.
 FLYCATCHER.
189
53.
Muscicapa g
Grey-neckec
-GREY-NECKED FLYCATCHER.
Tnd. Orn. ii. 476,    Gm. Lin. i. 942.
tcher, Gm. Syn. iii. 337.   Shaw's Zool. x. 404.
THIS bird is black above; beneath the fore part of the neck i
dark grey; breast and belly pale red; across the wing coverts
white band; tail a little cuneiform; legs yellowish brown.
Inhabits China.
54.—YELLOW-NECKED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa flavicollis, Ind. Orn. ii. 476.    Gm. Lin. i. 942.
Yellow-necked Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. iii. 337.    Skaw's Zool. x. 353.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill red; forehead, over the
bill, dusky black ; on each side of the jaw a streak of the same, like
a whisker; round the eye yellowish, continuing in a streak behind,
and pointed; upper parts of the body green ; fore part of the neck
yellow; sides of the breast inclining to red; top ofthe head pale
yellow ; belly pale green, with three yellow spots, one above another;
quills dusky, edged with yellow ; tail the same, and much forked; the
two middle feathers tipped with white; legs reddish.
From China; and called there Quy lum long su.
55—ORANGE-VENTED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa fuscescens, Ind. Om. ii. 476.    Gm. Lin. i. 942.
Orange-vented Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 338.
LENGTH six inches. Bill red ; head a trifle crested; upper
part of the plumage pale brown; the under dusky white; rump and
vent orange; tail somewhat forked; legs purplish.
Inhabits China.—From the drawings ofthe late Dr. Fothergill.
 IS
190
FLYCATCHER.
56.—BLACK FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Lucionensis, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 476. 34. Gr
Goube-mouche noir de Lucon, Son. Voy. 58. pl. 27.
Black-Flycatcher, Gm. Syn.iii. 338.    Shaw's Zool
. Lin. i. 942.
SIZE of the Long-tailed Titmouse. Bill black ; irides brownish;
head, throat, and all the upper parts of the body, black, glossed with
violet; beneath, from the breast, dusky grey; on the middle of each
wing a spot of white; legs black.
Inhabits the Philippine Isles, and Madagascar: called at the
last Tessacourb6.
A Black Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 172.
Size and shape of the Goldfinch. Bill black, with whitish edges;
head, neck, breast, belly, and tail, black; wings the same, marked
with a single white spot in the middle; ends of the greater coverts
ferruginous; some of the prime quills apad secondaries edged with
yellow; legs black.
Inhabits India; called Grey Peedaw.—Lady Impey.
57.—PHILIPPINE FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Philippensis, Ind. Om. ii. 476.    Gm. Lin. i. 943.
Moucherolle des Philippines, Buf. iv. 565.
Philippine Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 339.    Shaw's Zool. x. 339.
SIZE of a Nightingale. Plumage above grey brown ; above
the eyes a streak of white ; under parts of the body whitish ; at the
base of the bill some long hairs.
Inhabits the Philippine Islands; also India.—Lady Impey.
 FLYCATCHER. 191
58—MANILLA FLYCATCHER.
Gobe mouche de Luson, Son. Voy. 58. pl. 27. 1.
SIZE and shape of the Long-tailed Titmouse. Bill and legs
dusky; irides reddish; head, throat, and upper part of the neck
behind deep blue; breast and belly slaty grey; lesser wing coverts
brown; quills and tail black; the two middle tail feathers half as
long again as the others.
Inhabits Manilla.
59—DELICATE FLYCATCHER.
Le Mignard, Levail. Afr. iv. 14. pl. 154. 1. 2.
THIS is the smallest of the Flycatchers of Africa; perhaps not
exceeding four inches \n length. Bill black; general colour bluish
grey; sides ofthe head and throat white; from the gape a broad long
black streak passes under the eye to the ear; sides ofthe belly white;
wings dusky blue, the edges ofthe feathers pale; on the throat and
top of the breast a slight reddish.tinge; and on turning back the
feathers, appearipg as if slightly wounded: the tail is cuneiform, the
two middle feathers black, the others white for the greater part, the
outer one mostly so. The female differs, in being paler, and less
in size.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope; most abundant in tbe Caflre
country; said to make the nest in bushes, and to lay white eggs;
feeds on insects and spiders, and has great agility. Its note like
Zizizit, uttered continually.
^J
 1
192
FLYCATCHER.
60—PARTI-COLOURED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa dichroa, Ind. Om. ii. 490.    Gm. Lin. i. 949.
  bicolor, Mus. Carls, ii. t. 46.
Parti-coloured Flycatcher, Gm.Syn. Sup. ii. 218.    Shaw's Zool. x. 342.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill and legs dusky; plumage in
general above cinereous, beneath the colour of yellow oker; wing
coverts hoary on the margins; tail the length of the body, the feathers
of it oker-coloured, and cinereous.
Inhabits the southern Coasts of Africa.
61.—PARADISE FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Paradisi, Ind. Om. ii. 480.   Lin. i. 324.    Gm. Lin. i. 929
Borowsk. iii. 175. t. 70.
TodusParadisaeus, Gm.Lin.i. 445.
Pica Papoensis, Bris. ii. 45.    Id. 8vo. i. 167.
Icterus Maderaspatanus cristatus, Bris. ii. t
Muscicapa cristata alba Capitis B. Spei, Br.
.  Avis Paradisiaca orientalis, Seba, i. t. 52, 3.
Manucodiata cristata, &c. Raii, 195. 13. t.
Le Moucherolle huppe k tete d'Acier poli, j
La Vardiole, Buf iii. 105.
Gobe-mouche blanc huppe du Cap. de B. Esp. PL t
Moucherolle, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal p. lxvii.
Le Tchet rec be, Levail Afr. iii. 209. pl. 144, 145, 146.
Pied Bird of Paradise, Edw. pl. 113.
Paradise Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. iii. 345.   Id. Sup. 172.   Shaw's Zool. x. 416.
SIZE of a Lark; length uncertain, at least eight or nine inches.
Bill blackish, an inch or more in length, broad at the base, nearly
straight, and ending in a blunt point; gape beset with bristles; head,
neck, and throat, fine glossy greenish black; feathers of the crown
elongated into a crest, which extends beyond the nape; general
2.    Jd. 8vo.
i. 181.
s. ii. 414. t
41. 2.
Klein, 63.
9.
2. f. 13.
luf iv. 558.
sp. PL ml
234. 2.
 FLYCATCHER. 193
colour of the plumage white, but the wing coverts have black shafts;
greater coverts black, margined all round with white; quills the
same, edged with white; tail cuneiform, the feathers white, with
black shafts; besides which, the two middle ones extend, more or
less, beyond the others; legs lead-colour.
A.—Muscicapa;cristata Cap. Bonse Spei, Bris. ii. 418. t.41. 1.   7d.8vo. i. 273.    Gm.'
Syn.iii. 346. 44. A.
The head, neck, and throat are as in the last, likewise the crest,
fine greenish black; the rest of the upper parts pale chestnut; neck
before, and breast grey; belly and vent white; quills pale chestnut,
the outer one shortest by an inch and a half; tail cuneiform, chestnut,
shafts paler; legs as the last.
B.—Gobe-mouche hupe du Cap de Bonne Esperance, PLml.234. 1.
Crested long-tailed Pye, Edw. pl. 325.    Gm. Syn. iii. 347. B.
This differs in having all the under parts white, except the breast,
which is bluish ash-colour. Such an one is among the collection of
drawings of General Hardwicke.
Found at Cawnpore, in India.    I observed the elongated head
' feathers of one, in the late General Davies's Collection, to be rather
broader towards the end, and not pointed, as in many crested speciesf
The two first mentioned inhabit the Cape of Good Hope.
C—Muscicapa Brasiliensis cristata, Bris. ii. 416.     Id. 8vo. i. 273.     Gm. Syn. iii.
347. C.
Cuiriri akamaku, Seba,H. t. 87. 2.   Klein,70. 31.
This is described by Seba with a crested head, the colour of a
Crow ; upper parts of the body pale chestnut; wing coverts gold-
colour ; breast and belly white; the bill red; eyes fire-colour.
TOL. VI. C   C
 194 FLYCATCHER.
This is given for a Brazilian Species, but Seba must have been
misinformed, as no such bird inhabits that part of the world ; in his
plate it seems imperfect, especially in the tail, and is no doubt one
of> tbe aforegoing.
We have hitherto been fecrfrom clear concerning the birds above
described. M. Levaillant seems to have elucidated the matter sufficiently to prove, that there are several distinct Species, which have
been confounded, and that they inhabit only India, and its Isles, as
Ceylon, &c.; and even of these he has suspicion that some may
be jdistinct, which have hitherto been considered as Varieties, and
clearly ascertains, that the white, and the rufous one, are not merely
distinct as to sex, but that they have.ajternately the white, ggjl rufous
plumage, in various moults, or perhaps at different periods of age ;
and that the difference of sex is conspicuous only in the length of
crest, and two middle feathers of the tail; and even the male Has the
elongated tail feathers only for about three months, during which
it breeds.
We find these birds represented in various drawings from India ;
but unless accounted for on the principle abovementioned, seem to
contradict each other; in some the white one appears as the male,
and the rufous the female; in others, both sexes are rufous, differing
only in the length of the two middle tail feathers; and in one drawing
the male is wholly rufous, except the crested head and neck, which
are blue black ; the other the same, with the under part blue grey ;
in this the exuberant tail feathers are only two inches longer than
the others; whereas, in the male they are at least eight: in both the
bill and legs are blue, the bristles at the base of the bill very long.
The nest is composed of twigs and fibres, attached in several places,
to the ends of forked branches, in shape like a deep purse, open at
the top; and two young appear in the nest.
These are said to have come from Malacca; are common in the
Province of Oude. The name given to them in India is Shawbul,
andScha Bulbul ; or, King of the Singing Birds, from its having a
most delightful note.
 FLYCATCHER.
195
Among the Indian drawings of Gen. Hardwicke is one, said to
be a female, seven inches long ; in this the head, includingtthe eyes
only, bluish black, but neither the throat nor neck; a crest at the
nape as in the others, which is bluish at the end; the rest of the
neck, chin, throat, and under parts fine pale ash-colour, nearly
white on the belly, thighs, and vent; back, wings, and tail, pale
chestnut; tail rounded at the end, and three inches only in length.
The above said to be the real fefiiale, which, besides other things,
probably may never have more than the upper part of the head and
eye black; btirtatbe male has the whole head, neck, and throat,
black, when arrived at his stage of perfection.
62—MUTABLE FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa mutata, Ind. Om. ii. 481.    Lin. i. 325,    Gm. Lin. i. 930.
Muscicapa Madagascariensis varia longicauda, Bris. ii. 430. t, 40. 3,    Id. 8vo. i. 276.
Gobe-mouche k longue Queue et ventre blanc, Buf. iv. 568.    PL enl. 248. 2.
Schet noir, Levail. Afr. iii. 220. pl. 148. f. 1, 2.
Moucherolle, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal p. lxvii.
Mutable Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 347,    Shaw's Zool. x. 418.
THIS is about eleven inches and a half id length, of which the
tail is seven inches and a half. The bill flattened at the base, three
quarters of an inch long, and black, base beset with bristles; irides
yellow; eyelids bare, and blue; the head is crested, greenish black,
and glossy; plumage on the upper parts of the body blue black |
under parts from the breast white, inclining to grey on the belly'
and under tail coverts, but the latter nearly black; greater quills
black, the secondaries the same, margined with white; the wing
eA^rts are also margined with w*hit¥; tail cuneiform, black, the two
middle feathers double the length of the others, nearly white, with
the shafts black.
The female smaller, the bare eyelids less coflgpicuous, and without
the elongated tail feathers.
 196
FLYCATCHER.
The male varies, in having the long tail feathers sometimes black,
at other times black on one side, and white on the opposite; these
are more narrow in the middle, growing broader towards the ends.
It is said, that the bird does not gain the elongated tail feathers till
three years old.—Inhabits the Country of the Caffres, within the
Cape of Good Hope.
In one, among the drawings of Gen. Hardwicke, the two middle
tail feathers exceeded the others by seven inches, being in all fifteen
inches and a half long; the space round the eyes bare, and blue.
This was found at Cawnpore in India, in July, serving to shew,
that the bird is not confined to the Cape of Good Hope, exclusively.
63.—SCHET-ALL FLYCATCHER.
Musci
. 424. t.40. 1.
°L ml. 248. 1.
* Madagascariensis longicauda,
Gobe-mouche a longue Queue de Mada^
Schetroux, Levail Afr. iii. 216. pl. 147. 1.2.
Schet-all, Buf iv. 568.    Gen. Syn. iii. 348. 45. A.
SIZE of a Goldfinch. Head, as low as the eyes on each side,
dull green, with the gloss of polished steel, very full of feathers, and
elongated at the back part, so as to form a sort of crest when erected ;
bill three quarters of an inch long, black, with a few hairs at the
base; irides yellow; eyelids blue; general colour of the rest of the
plumage rufous, but less glossy than in the first species, and in parts
inclines to brown; the wings black, with the margins, and ends of
several of the coverts white, forming a long patch of white down the
middle of the wing; the ten side feathers of the tail are cuneiform in
shape, but the two middle ones as long again as the others ; where
they begin to elongate are more narrow than towards the ends,
becoming there wider.
The female is smaller, and the colours less bright. M. Levaillant
found this in the Country of the Caffres, but could not obtain any
account of the nest or eggs.
 FLYCATCHER.
A.—Muscicapa Madagascariensis albic. longicauda, Bris
p. 276.
Schet-Vouloulou, Buf. iv. 569.    Gen. Syn. iii. 348. B.
. 427. t. 40. 1.   Id. 8vo. i,
This seems a trifling Variety, in which the two middle long tail
feathers are white, bordered with black for half the length, shafts
black; the four next on each side chestnut; the outer one black,
except the inner web, which is white for nearly the whole length.
Inhabits Madagascar; called there Schet Vouloulou. In Mr.
Salt's Collection are some Varieties: in one, the head and neck are
glossy steel black ; the back tine chestnut; beneath, from the breast,
dusky black; wings as in the other, but with more white in them;
the two middle tail feathers eleven inches long, white, with black
shafts; the others four inches only; the middle one of the short
feathers on each side is also white, with a black edge, the rest
chestnut; breast and belly slate-colour. In another the two long
tail feathers are cinnamon; and all the others, except that adjoining
to the middle ones, which is white, with a black shaft.
We believe that these were brought from Abyssinnia, and were
thought to be male and female, being found together on a fig tree
at Ghella.
64.—NEBULOSE FLYCATCHER.
Le Nebuleux, Uvail. Afr. iii. 223. pl. 149. f. 1. 2.
SIZE of a Goldfinch, but longer. The bill black, longer, and
less flat than in some others; the head scarcely crested; irides hazel
brown; plumage in general pure white; wings and tail black, the
latter cuneiform; the two middle tail feathers more narrow, and four
times the length of any of the rest; legs black.
The female smaller: the plumage earthy brown-, paler on the
forehead, throat; and belly; wingsand tail black, less deep than in
 ill
i
198 FLYCATCHER.
the male, and this sex never acquires the long feathers: in winter
the male loses the summer dress, and has much the appearance of
a female. The young male has the two middle tail feathers marbled
with white.
Inhabits Africa, within the Cape of Good Hope, in the Country
of the Grand Namaquas; appears to be confined to the vicinity of
the Fish River, not that of the Caffre Country; makes a nest of
tender stalks of plants, covered with moss, and lined with very fine
fibres; the eggs five in number, green, spotted with brown; the nest
generally placed on the branches which hang over the wkfer; the
male and female sit by turns: it has asoairtnf cry, somewhat like the
word Tchirit.
65.—VELVET-HEADED FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill three quarters of an inch, stout,
and black; the whole head black, the feathers short and like velvet;
body and wingsmostly fine rufous orange; greater quills black, the
others the same, bordered with orange; tail brownish orange, cuneiform, two inches and three quarters in length ; the wings reach to
the base of it; legs dusky.
Inhabits Africa.—In the collection of Mr. H. Brogden.
66.—BLACK-COLLARED FLYCATCHER.
Le Cordon noir, Levail. Afr. iii. 227. pl. 150. 1. 2.
THIS is a trifle smaller than the Nebulose one. Bill black;
irides brown; head and sides, including the eyes, the neck, as far*a^
the back black, coming forwards to the breast, and round it as a
collar; back, scapulars, and wirags, light dusky brown; forehead,
chin, and throat, white; also a large portion of white on the wirigs^
 FLYCATCHER.
199
tail rounded in shape, the side feathers black, edged with white;
the two middle ones three times as long as the others, very narrow,
and pure white; legs brown.
The female differs, in having the band across the breast pale
rafc^sibsown, instead of black ; the colours in general more dilute;
adsoiipss white on the wing; the two middle long feathers at all times
wanting.
Inhabits the inward parts of the Cape of Good Hope, chiefly in
the Country of Coraquois and Kabobiquois, towards the Tropic of
Capricorn.    Nest and eggs unknown.
A.—Length nine inches and a half. Bill as in the last, with a
slight notch near the tip; head feathers elongated at the nape ; head,
neck, breast, and back, black; lower part of the breast and belly
bluish white; vent and thighs black; wing coverts black and white
mixed; quills black, the outer margins hoary, most so nearest the
base ; tail feathers mixed black and white, but the two middle long
ones are white, and exceed the others by four inches and a half;
bill and legs pale ash-colour.
67.—DESERT FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Deserti, Ind. Om. ii. 478.    Gm. Lin. i. 948.
 fuliginosa, Mis. Carls, ii. t. 47.
Desert Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. 217.    Skaw's Zool. x. 414.
SIZE of the Long-tailed Titmouse. Bill yellowish; plumage
in general dusky rust-colour; wings and tail black, the latter half
as long again as the rest ofthe bird ; the four middle feathers even,
the others gradually shorter; legs black.
Inhabits the Deserts of Africa, met with between the River Heui,
and the Spring Quamodacka.
 200 FLYCATCHER.
68.—MACULATE FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill pale ash-colour ; head,
neck, back, and wings, brown, marked with obscure, roundish, pale
spots; edges of the second and third coverts, and second quills pale;
greater quills and tail black, the latter short, and the wings reach
to about half the length of it; legs pale brown.
Inhabits India.—Sir J. Anstruther.
69—CAMBAIAN FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Cambaiensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 490.
Cambaian Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. Sup. iv. 219.    Skaw's Zool. x. 361.
SIZE of the Black-capped Flycatcher. Bill depressed, rather
broad, dusky, and a few hairs at the base; plumage above black,
tinged with yellowish green on the back ; beneath fulvous yellow ;
across the wing a double band of white ; legs bluish.
Inhabits Cambaia and India.—In the British Museum.
70.—STARRY FLYCATCHER.
Etoile, Levail. Afr. iv. 28. pl. 157. 1. 2.
SIZE of the Common Flycatcher, but the legs longer. Bill
black ; irides red brown; head blue grey, before the eye a spot of
white; across the throat, beneath the grey, a band of white ; general
colour above the body olive-green, inclining to yellow ; beneath the
body jonquil yellow, clouded with pale olive on the breast and sides;
quills slate-coloured, with pale borders; tail as the back, even at
the end ; legs black brown.
 FLYCATCHER.
201
The female has the head and all the upper parts olive-green,
paler than the male; throat and cheeks paler; beneath the body
pale yellow, with an olive tinge on the belly, and beneath the tail;
but this sex has not the blue grey head, nor white across the throat,
as in the male. The young bird resembles the female, gaining the
dark head at the second moult, though at all times may be perceived
by blowing the feathers aside.
This species is found in the interior of the Cape of Good Hope,
in the neighbourhood of the Bay of Blettenberg, or Lagoa, and
rtotvstfrds Le Poort; it builds in the forks, at the ends of the branches
of trees, the nest made of dry grass, covered with lichen, and dry
-fibres within, but neither hair nor feathers; the eggs four in number,
greenish grey, dotted with rufous; the hen sits sixteen days. M.
Levaillant notices a singularity in the male, which is, a kind of fatty
protuberance on each side of the ventolin the shape of a small egg,
white, like a gland, and filled with oily matter, as on the rump;
but whether this was a natural production, or a disease, M. L. was
not able to determine.
71—CELESTIAL FLYCATCHER.
Gobe-mouche Azuron, Levail. Afr. iv. 31. pl. 158. 1. 2.
SIZE of the last. Bill and legs brownish; eyes bright orange;
general colour azure blue above, beneath bright rufous orange; the
thighs, and beneath the wings and tail white.
Female smaller, the blue paler, and white beneath. Young males
have only the orange-colour under the throat.
Found with the last; the male and female always together; the cry
like Piereret, three times repeated; feeds on caterpillars and snails; the
nest-made on the Mimosas, between the forks of the branches, with
twigs; it is deep, but no soft lining ; the eggs are five or six, of an
olive-green, dotted withowfiMispforinin^aieikSecf'ound the larger end.
 y
202
FLYCATCHER.
72.—COCHIN-CHINA FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Cochinsinensis, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. lii.
Cochin-china Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. Add. 374.    Shaw's Zool x. 379.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Bill dusky, sharp at
the end, as in the Goldfinch, but less stout, and furnished with several
hairs at the base; crown, nape, and hind part of the neck, back, and
wings, olive-brown, darker on the forehead; sides level with the
eye, and all beneath to the vent, pale fulvous, lighter about the
throat and neck; quills dusky; on the outer edge of the wing a
white spot; tail brown, but paler than the back, and greatly cuneiform ; the two middle feathers two inches long, the outer five-eighths
of an inch ; the three outer ones white at the ends, with a crescent
of black just within the white; legs pale red.
Inhabits Cochin-China.
73.—CRESTED SENEGAL FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa cristata, Ind. Orn. ii. 470.    Gm.Lin.i. 938.
 Senegalensis cristata, Bris. ii 422. t. 39. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 274.
iche huppe du Senegal, Buf. iv. 530.    PL enl. 573. 2.
il. Afr: iii. 203. pl. 142. 1. 2. pl. 143.—the nest.
Gm. Syn.iii. 329.    Shaw's Zool. x. 325.
Gobe-tri
Le f chi
Crested Senegal Flycatch
SIZE of the Goldfinch, but longer in proportion.; the total
length of the male is twelve inches; the two middle tail feathers
exceeding the others by six inches ; the bill is bluish, with some hairs
at the base ; the head, throat, and fore part of the neck, glossy, or
steely black, changing to green in some lights ; the feathers narrow
and long, forming a crest; plumage on the upper parts ofthe neck,
wing coverts, scapulars, back, and rump, rufous chestnut; breast
and under parts deep ash-colour; greater coverts and quills brown,
 FLYCATCHER.
203
with chestnut edges; tail purplish chestnut, greatly cuneiform in
shape; and in some specimens the two middle feathers exceed the
others.by several inches; legs grey.
The female is smaller, as is also the crest, and the colours in
general are less bright; the fore part of the neck and all beneath
iron-grey. In the female the middle feathers are longer than the
side ones, but never projecting far from the rest, as in the male; and
this sex only retains them during the breeding season. In both sexes
the eyelids are fleshy, moveable, and of a fine blue, but in the female
smaller, and less conspicuous.    Young birds are like the females.
This species is common on the East Coast of the Cape of Good
Hope, from Duywehoch to the country of Caffres; also on the
borders of Sondag, and Swartekop, but not near the Cape itself.
The nest is of a singular construction, in shape of a long cone bent
at the point, and hanging downwards, fastened by the mouth,
between two branches of a Mimosa, length about eight inches, and
two in diameter at top, the depth only three inches, so that all below
this seems unnecessary; it is composed of fine strips of bark, and
lined with down, wool, or hair.    Eggs and young unknown.
74.—BOURBON FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Borbonica,  Ind. Orn.Ji. 470.      Gm. Lin. i. 939.      Bris. ii. 420. t. 39. 5.
Id. 8vo. i. 274.
Gobe-mouche huppe de 1' Isle de Bourbon, Pl. ml. 573, 1.
Moucherolle, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ixvii.
Bourbon Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 330.    Id. Sup. 171.    Shaw's Zool. x. 326.
LESS than the last; length five inches and one-third. Bill grey;
head greenish black, glossed with violet; throat and all beneath
ash-colour; back, lesser wing coverts, and tail, pale chestnut; the
second and third coverts black, the first tipped with rufous, the last
with white; quills black, edged with chestnut; tail even at the end,
or very little rounded; rump grey; legs brown.
 1
204
FLYCATCHER.
Said to inhabit the Isle of Bourbon.r—Brisson adds, that the
female has the head ash-fcccdour. Levaillant is of opinion, that this
is a young bird, or a female of the last species.
75 -MANTLED FLYCATCHER.
Le Gobe-mouches mantele, Levail Afr. iv. p. 5. pl. 151.
SIZE and proportion of the Crested one, but without the long
tail feathers. The bill is moderate in size, and beset at the base with
bristles; head featheFSiyelongated, black, with a blue gloss; upper
parts ofthe body, rump, and upper tail coverts, bluish grey ; on the
wing coverts an oblique band of white; under parts from the breast
white; quills black, edged with bluish grey; tail the same, a trifle
cuneiform ; bill and legs bluish black; irides cinnamon-colour.
The female is smaller, and the crest less conspicuous; wings and
tail light brown, otherwise like the male; bill, irides, and legs, paler.
Inhabits the Mimosa woods of the Caffre Country, and the forest
of the Hottniquas; is not a wild species; as a pair came into a tent,
in the manner of the Redbreast, and by management were caught. *
The male has a little sharp cry like Schrret, Schrret.   Nest and eggs
unknown.
76.—SPECTACLE FLYC■ ATC H ER.
Gobe-mouches k lunettes, Levail Afr. iv. p. 9. pl. 152. 1. 2.
LENGTH six inches and a quarter. Bill and legstbrown; irides
hazel; plumage above and thighs dusky pale brown, beneath white;
round the eye, on the upper part, a kind of white eyebrow ; across
the middle of the neck before a brownish black crescent; tail long*:
cuneiform, the^three outer feathers tipped with white.
 FLYCATCHER.
20^
The female is smaller, and the colours paler; has no blackish
crescent on the throat; and/th^undec parts are dusky white.
Inhabits the great forests near the River Gamtoos, the only place
where it is found ; it has no crest, but the base of the bill in both
sexes ris broacLand flat, and with hairs at the base ; is only seen on
the tops of trees, and spreads the *tail as a fan ; and, like otheremof*
the tribe, catchiesiflies on the wing; has a slight cry : the nest never
met with.
-DUN FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Sibiri
Dun Flycatcher,
a, 7nd. On
Gen. Syn. i
ii. 482.    Gm. Lin. i. 936.
i. 351.    Arct. Zool. ii. 390.
Skaw's Zool. ix. 411.
to  ash-colour beneath
GENERAL   colour brown,   inclining4
throat and vent spotted with white.
Inhabits the parts  about Lake Baikal, and the East part of
Siberia ; observed also at Kamtschatka.
I
78—RED-FACED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa er.ythropis, Ind. Orn. ii. 482.    Gm. Lin. i. 937.
Red-faced Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 351.    Skaw's Zool. x. 339.
THE upper parts of this bird are mottled; the undejifjwhite<5-
beneath the wings rufous ; the forehead red.
Inhabits the country about the River Jenisei.
79.-  OBSCURE FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa obscura, Lin, Trans, xiii. p. 146.
LENGTH five inches. Plumage above black, with a steely
green gloss; beneath and rump white. In some the colour is
brownish grey; the quills deeper, and the tail deep brown.
Inhabits Java.
 1
206 FLYCATCHER.
80.—INDIGO FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Indigo, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 146.
LENGTH three inches and three quarters. Colour of the
plumage obscure sky-blue; quills and tail black; the feathers of
the last, the base of the axillaries, the belly, and vent, whitish; the
tail feathers, the exterior ones excepted, are outwardly margined
with obscure sky-blue ; the two middle ones plain black at the base.
. Inhabits Java, and called Nil-nilan.
81.—BANYUMAS FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Banyumas, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 146.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Plumage above deep azure-
blue, beneath chestnut, paler on the belly; quills and under part
of the tail black.
Inhabits Java: met with in the Province of Banyumas, and
called Chiching-goleng. One of these in the collection of Mr.
Comyns, differed, in having the throat and breast pale rufous ; belly
rufous white.    This last came from the Island of Ceylon.
82.—PASSERINE FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Passerina, Ind. Orn. ii. 490.
Passerine Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. 175.    Shaw's Zool. x. 337.
SIZE uncertain. Plumage on the upper parts ofthe body dusky
black, beneath whitish; tail black.
Inhabits the Isle of France in the Southern Ocean.—From the
drawings of Sir Joseph Banks.
 FLYCATCHER.
207
83— YELLOW-FRONTED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa flavifrons, Ind. Orn. ii. 479.
Yellow-fronted Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. iii
Gm. Lin. i. 944.
342.    Shaw's Zool x. 351.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill pale lead-colour, with a
very few hairs at the base; upper parts ofthe body yellow-olive; forehead and under parts yellow; eye yellow, round the back part of it a
half-crescent of white; wings brown, the feathers edged with yellow ;
quills blackish, edged with the same; tail olive-brown, the end
palest; legs pale blue.
Inhabits the Isle of Tanna.
84.    YELLOW-HEADED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa ochrocephala, Ind. Orn. ii. 479.    Gm. Lin. i. 944.
Yellow-headed Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 342.    Shaw's Zool. x. 410.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill rather stout, bent just
at the tip; nostrils covered by a membrane; base ofthe bill bristly;
irides hazel ; head, neck, and breast, golden yellow ; upper parts of
the body dusky, pale, yellowish green, inclining on the rump to ash-
colour; belly, thighs, and vent, white; legs black, claws long.
Inhabits Queen Charlotte's Sound, in New Zealand.
85.—PIED FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill black, stout, a trifle hooked at the
end ; head and throat black; neck behind, middle ofthe back, wing
coverts, and much of the rest of the wing, and tail, black; breast
and under parts white, passing nearly to the back ofthe neck, as a
collar;  scapulars mixed with white; several of the second quills
 208
FLYCATCHER.
edged with white, forming a streak on the wing ; some of the margins ofthe outer tail feathers are also white ; the wings, when closed,
reach to about the middle ofthe tail ; legs blue black.
Inhabits New-Holland.-^In the collection of Mr. Francillon.
86— LUTEOUS FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa lutea, Ind. Orn. ii. 478.    Gm. Lin. i. 944.
Luteous Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 342.    Shaw's Zool x. 359.
I
LENGTH six inches. Bill three quarters of an inch, lead-colour,
rather stout, straight, and a trifle bent at the tip ; base hairy; irides
1 lead-colour; plumage in general like yellow oker, mottled with
dusky on the wing coverts and quills; tail one inch and three
quarters long, dusky for one-third next the end; legs pale ash-
colour.—Inhabits Otaheite, and called Oomamao pooa hoii; is not
uncommon.
87.—K2EVOUS FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa nsevia, Ind. Om. ii. 479.    Gm. Lin. i. 944.
Nsevoiis Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. iii. 343.    Shaw's Zool x. 338.
LENGTH eight inches and three quarters. Bill black, three
quarters of an inch long, bent at the tip, and a few hairs at the
base; irides pale ash-colour; eyelids black; plumage above dusky
black; beneath?paler; middle of the back and shoulders marked
with'white ; legs black.
Inhabits New Caledonia.—Sir Joseph Banks.
 Hi!
 li
i
Mm
   H
MS;
 FLYCATCHER.
209
*.—RED-BELLIED FLYCATCHER—Pl.
c.
Muscicapa erythrogastra, Ind. Orn. ii. 479.    Gm. Lin. i. 944.
Crimson-breasted Warbler, Lewin's New-Holland Birds, pl. 5 ?-
Red-bellied Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. iii. 343. pl. 50.    Id. Sup. ii. 216.     Nat. Misc
147. Skaw's Zool. x. 400. pl. 32.
pl.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill black, a little curved at
the end, the under mandible yellowish at the base; head, neck,
back, sides, thighs, wings, and tail, black; forehead, and lower
wing coverts, white; breast and belly deep carmine; vent reddish ;
two, or more, of the outer tail feathers white for two-thirds of the
length ; legs long and slender, yellowish brown.
The female is brown where the male is black; chin, and between
the eye and bill, cinereous brown; breast and belly pale orange;
vent, sides, and thighs, yellowish white.
Inhabits Norfolk Island, chiefly in the most unfrequented parts
of it; met with also in New South Wales, but less common ; comes
into habitations in winter, in the manner of our Redbreast in
England, and has a note not unlike it; is a solitary bird, or at least
not seen in flocks; is subject to some Varieties.
A.—In one from Port, Jackson, the head, neck, back, and wings,
slaty black; quills and tail black; chin and throat the same, but
paler; on the forehead a white spot; breast purplish, or deep red
lake-colour; belly and vent white.
B.—In this the forehead is not white; instead of which is a white
streak over the eye; chin white; and the general colour, as in the
others, black; breast and belly crimson; vent white; tail rather
shorter than in the first described.
The native name of this is Boaddang.
 IH;
li ii
2*0
FLYCATCHER.
C,—A third Variety has an obHque streak of white on the wings,
and most of the outer tail feathers white; but it is also seen with the
tail feathers wholly black.
D.—This is black above; beneath wholly deep crimson ; forehead
white; on the wing coverts some mottlings of white.
E.—In a further Variety the general colour of the upper parts is
dusky, ©n cinereous black;.• chin, neck before, and breast, crimson;
a spot on the forehead, an oblique, broad, longitudinal streak on the
shoulders of the wings^. and all the beUy and vent white;,
Inhabits Port Jackson, in New Southi Wales.—Genewal Davies.
I observe that, in the male figured in< Lewin's work, the belly and
ventj are white ; and in.the; female the whiteparts on the wkigj, belly,
and* vent, incline to yellow;, base ofi the tail in both the same; the
two outer feathers, and the tips of the others white. :-,
Some other Varieties have also occurred, some having no white
on the forehead ; all from the chin scarlet; belly white ; vent pale
red; tail short, the wings reaching to near the end of it ; whereas in
the others they do not reach half way. These differences cannot be
well reconciled ; nor can we, from these circumstances, be positive
that the whole of the above relate to one and the same species.
89.—SCARLET-BELLIED FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH eight? inches. Bill black, wo» perceivable hairs at the
base;? irides blue ; head, neck, chin, back, wings, and tail, black ;
forehead white ; throat and all beneath bright scarlet, paler towards
the vent; thighs dusky;  wing coverts edged witfe white; also some
 FLYCATCHER.
of therquills^ tail rather hollowed out in the middle, asad several of
the outer feathers margined with wlrite; legs black ; the wings reach
a little beyond the base of the tail.
Inhabits New-Holland.—Mr. Francillon. Known by the name
of Karreet: is a domestic bird, and frequents fields and gardens,
similar to the Redbreast in England; called the Robin of New
South Wales, and Norfolk Island, where it is most numerous. In
the female the breast is much paler; and the back, head, and tail,
instead of black, are brown.
90—SANDWICH FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Sanduicensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 479.    Gm. Lin. i. 945.
Sandwich Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. iii. 344.    Shaw's Zool. x. 395.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill black, bristly at the base,
and yellowish; forehead bufl-coloured ; over the eyes a white line;
upper parts of the body brown ; wing coverts edged wi$i pale rust-
colour ; greater quills brown, both of them tipped with dusky white;
tail brown, all the feathers except the two middle, tipped with white;
chin pale, marked with dusky streaks; on each side of the neck a
mixture of white ; breast rust-colour; belly and vent yellowish white.
Inhabits the Sandwich Islands.—In the collection of Sir Joseph
Banks.
91.—DUSKY FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa obscura, Ind. Orn. ii. 479.
Dusky Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. iii. 344.
Gm. Lin. i. 945.
Shaw's Zool. x. 405.
LENGTH seven inches and three quarters. Bill broad at the
base, with a few bristles, and slightly notched near the tip ; plumage
in general brown, paler beneath, inclining to ash-colour, tinged with
 212
FLYCATCHER.
rufous on the belly; tail three inches lon£
feathers rather pointed; legs dusky.
Inhabits the Sandwich Islands.
even at the  end, the
92—SPOTTED-WINGED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa maculata, Ind. Orn. ii. 480.    Gm. Lin. i. 945.
Spotted-winged Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. iii. 345.    Shaw's Zool. x. 390.
BILL black, base of the under mandible yellow on the edges;
plumage above ferruginous brown, the head palest; wing coverts
tipped with a white spot; rump ferruginous; quills dusky; beneath
the body pale reddish brown, changing to reddish white on the
bottom ofthe belly; vent the same, but paler; tail brown, the outer
feathers white at the tips of the inner webs; legs black.
Supposed to inhabit the Sandwich Islands.
93—RUSTY-THROAT FLYCATCHER.
mperciliosa, Ind. Orn. Sup. p
. Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. i
1. Mus. Carls, iv. t. 96.
220.    Shaw's Zool x. 3
SIZE of a small Thrush. Bill black, base pale brown; upper
parts ofthe head, including the eyes, neck, back, and wings, dark
brown ; from the nostrils, over the eyes, a broad streak of white ;
chin and throat ferruginous; from thence to the vent fine pale ash-
colour; tail rounded at the end ; the two middle feathers like the
back, the others ferruginous, the inner margins, and tips, brown;
legs black.
94—BLACK-CROWNED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa meloxantha, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. 1. Mus. Carls, iv. t. 97.
Black-crowned Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 220.    Shaw's Zool. x. 368.
SIZE of the White-throat. Bill black; plumage:above dusky
ash ; crown and forehead black; wing coverts the same, with the
 FLYCATCHER. 213
tips and margins yellow ; under parts from the chin to vent yellow;
quills black, edged with yellow; tail short, rounded, black, all the
feathers tipped with white, but the outmost has the end, for nearly
a quarter of its length, of that colour; legs dusky.
Native place of this and the last uncertain.
95.—RUFOUS-FRONTED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa rufifrons, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. 1.
Orange-rumped Flycatcher, Lewin's N. Holl. Birds, pl. 13.
Rufous-fronted Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 220.    Shaw's Zool x. 373.
SIZE of a Nightingale, but more slender. Bill black, slender,
with a few fine hairs at the base; crown of the head, neck behind,
* wing coverts, half the tail, and under parts of the body, from the
breast, pale brown; forehead, middle of the back, and base of the
tail deep rufous, inclining to red; the chin, neck before, and breast
yellowish white, spotted on the ears and breast with black; on the
middle of the neck before a large patch of black ; tail rather long,
and in a small degree cuneiform; bill and legs pale brown.
Inhabits New South Wales, known there by the name of Burril;
has only been met with in November; found in low bushes, is always
in motion; has a chattering kind of note, and is in the habit of
frequently jerking up the tail.
That figured by Mr. Lewin differs in some particulars; the upper
parts are darker brown than in the former, and the quills, and tertial
coverts pale red on the edges; the rufous red colour occupies the
lower part of the back, rump, and upper tail coverts, and continues
half way to the middle of the tail feathers, the outer ones of which
are at least rufous on the outer webs; instead of black spots on the
ears, there is a continued patch; the same on the throat; beneath
white, as far as the breast, the feathers black in the middle, with
I
 214 FLYCATCHER.
whitish margins; chin, belly, and vent yellowish white; the end half
of ithe tail feathers black, fringed at the Yery tip with buff-colour;
bill black; legs dull flesh-colour.
This bird seems to vary much in its markings, as may fee sseen
both in specimens and drawings sent te this Kingdom : in some, the
tips of all the tail feathers are white; chin white, passing on each
side of the neck, and forming a collar before; on the breast some
black markings, and from thence to the vent white. In others, the
rufous colour on the forehead passes over the eyes; the base of the
tail, for one-third, as well as the back, is rufous, then brown, and
finally tipped with paler rufous; but in most the tail is half rufous,
half brown; the wings generally reach about one-third on the tail;
legs dusky. The above differences may probably arise from age or
sex, but we do not sufficiently know the history of them, so as to
ascertain the fact.
These birds are reported to be of very short flight, generally
found among inrush and rotten wood, often on marshy ground, and
likewise oear the sea shore.
96—BLACK-TOPPED FLYCATCHER.
Motacilla atricapilla, Ind. Om. Sup. p. liii.
Black-crowned Wagtail, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 231.
SIZE and habit of our Wagtail, Bill and legs yellow!; icrown
of 4ibe head black; body above pale brown, beneath white, inclining
to orange on the breast; quills black ; tail long, somewhat cuneiform,
the.middle feathers a little pointed; colour of all of them red-brown
half way from the base, from thence to the end yellowish.
Inhabits New South Wales, and is a scarce ibiird ; has much the
appearance of a Wagtail, but on a later investigatiaa, seems to be
much allied to the Rufous-fronted Species, of which it is probably a
young bird, if not a female.
  Vwt#risAcmr.6e/&&z> K^Zy^a/cavr.
mtsmammmmmm
 the tail.—Inhabi
^CHEEKE
egs btaish
 I
L
 FJ-YCATCHER. 215
97.—CRIMSON-BELLIED FLYCATCHER.—Pl. ci.
Muscicapa coccinigastra, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. 1.
Crimson-bellied Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. 221. pl. 134.    Shaw's Zool. x. 391.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill and legs brown; plumage
above olive-brown* but from the base of the bill to the middle ofthe
crown, taking in the eyes, black, passing backwards, and ending in
a point on the ears; chin and sides of the neck white; breast and
belly deep crimson ; wings black, but the quills are white half way
from. the. base, forming a large patch ; tail longish^ the two middle
feathers wholly black, the others the same from the base to the
middle, the rest of the length white; the wings reach ones-fourth:on
the tail.—Inhabits New South Wales, and is a scarce speduasu
98.—BLA€m,CHEEKED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa barbata, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. li.
Black-cheeked Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 221.    Shaw's Zool x.. 338. i
SIZE^of'the White»-Tfcroat'. Bill1 black; plumage above brown ;
beneath pale yellow, towards the vent white; crown of the head
blatrk, with a broad streak of the same, occupying the sides of the
cheeks, beginning under the eye ; quills darker than the rest, some
of them edged with yellow; tail longish ; legs bluish.
Inhabits New South Wales, found there in July.
99._ROSE-WINGED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa rhodoptera, Ind. Om. Sup. p- li-
Rose-winged Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 222.    Shaw's Zool. x. 383.
SIZE of a Nftgh*in#ale.     Bill  and  legs brown ; plumage in
general brown ; beneath white ; fearers of the crown loose, giving
1
 wi
216 FLYCATCHER.
the appearance of a crest, and spotted with black; the middle of the
outer quills and the four middle tail feathers from the base, to three-
fourths ofthe length, rose-colour; the latter marked with a few spots
of black.—Inhabits New South Wales.
100.—HOODED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa cucullata, Ind. Om. Sup. p. li.    Skaw's Zool. x. 399.
Hooded Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 223.
BILL and head black, the latter full of feathers; plumage in
general clouded black; the under parts white; wings and tail black,
but the lesser quills are fringed with white; legs dusky.
Inhabits New South Wales.
101—ROSE-BREASTED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa rhodogastra, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. lii.
Rose-breasted Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. Sup. ii. 223.    Skaw's Zool. x. 412.
BILL brown, longish, and bent towards the point; irides bluish ;
upper parts of the bird pale brown, the under pale; breast rose-
colour, inclining to carmine ; on the wing coverts a few pale spots;
legs brown.—Inhabits New South Wales.
102.—SOUTHERN FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa australis, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. li.
Southern Motacilla, White's Journ. pl. in p. 239.
Southern Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 219.    Shaw's Zool. x. 369.
RATHER larger than the Cinereous Species. Bill and legs
pale brown; plumage in general cinereous brown above, and the tail
beneath fine yellow; chin and vent palest; over the eye a yellow
streak, and a double trace behind.
 FLYCATCHER. 217
Inhabits New-Holland.—In some the crown, neck behind, and
back, are bluish brown; wings brown ; edges of the quills whitish,
the traces above and behind the eye white, and the ends of the two
middle tail feathers white; the crown, too, seems fuller of feathers :
probably these two differ in sex. One ofthe last, at Gen. Davies's,
was six inches and a half long. Bill with hairs at the base;
plumage above slate-edlour, beneath pale yellow, clouded on the
lower part of the throat with pale ash ; tail two inches and a half
long, a little cuneiform, the edges of all but the two middle feathers
wtiite.    This was from Van Diemen's Land.
A similar one, in the Collection of Lord Stanley, measured six
inches. The bill black, notched near the tip, and hooked; head,
neck, and half the back, pale ash, with a yellowish tinge; lower
part of the back, and rump bright olive yellow; all beneath, from
the chin, bright yellow; under wing coverts dusky white; the quills
ash, fringed outwardly with white; tail two inches anM a half long,
lifcag the quills, but all the feathers white just at the tips, except the
two middle, which are plain, the outmost with most #hite; legs
long, feathers about the joint ash-colour, hind claw large.
One, seemingly a further Variety, had the bill and legs dusky
red ; irides dusky blue; lesser wing coverts marked with black spots,
some faint bars beneath the tail.—Mr. Francillon.
103—GREY FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa flavigastra, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. lii.
MottCherolle, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal pl. lxvii.
Grey Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 223.    Shaw's Zool. x. 343.
SIZE of a Sparrow. Bill broad, with a few bristles at the base,
and black; plumage on the upper parts of the body, and wings,
slaty grey; the under, from chin to vent, pale yellow; the quills and
tail dusky black; legs pale brownish flesh-colour.
Inhabits New-Holland.
J
 218 FLYCATCHER.
104—YELLOW-EARED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Novae Hollandise, Ind. Om. ii. 478.
Yellow-eared Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 215.
Zoolx. 384.
White's Journ. pl. p. 161.    Ska
LENGTH seven inches. Bill broad at the base, and yellowish ;
general colour of the plumage brown, beneath whitish; belly pure
white; behind the eyes, and beneath them, a yellow streak, growing
broader behind; tail pretty long, the two middle feathers rather
shorter than the others.—Inhabits New-Holland.
105.—BUFF-THROATED FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. The bill stout, somewhat
depressed at the base, three-quarters of an inch long, with a slight
notch at the tip, and several hairs at the base, pointing forwards;
between the nostrils and eye a dark trace; the general colour of the
plumage, including the eye, glossy black, with a tinge of blue on
the head and neck, as also on the wing coverts; under wing Coverts
dull black ; from the chin to vent white, with a pale rufous or buff-
coloured tinge above the breast, on the throat; tail three inches and
a half long, even at the end, wholly glossy black; quills dusky,
and reach about half way on the tail ; the tips of the outer feathers
of the latter have a minute speck of white; legs weak, black.
Inhabits New-Holland.—In the collection of Lord Stanley.
106.—AUSTRALASIAN FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH six inches and a half.    Bill stout, rather broad at the
base, with a few slight hairs, deep brown, the under mandible pale
 FLYCATCHER. 219
at the base ; plumage above pale olive-brown, with a narrow,
obsolete, darker streak down the shaft of each feather; rump more
inclined to green; beneath dusky yellowish white, with numerous
dusky streaks; quills dark, with pale margins; tail as the quills, the
feathers rather pointed at the ends; the quills reach more than half
way on the tail.
Inhabits New South Wales.—In the collection of Lord Stanley.
107—RED-BACKED FLYCATCHER.
Scarlet-back, Lewin's Birds, pl. 14.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill black, half an inch long,
with a few hairs at the base, curving forwards; tongue lacerated on
the margin; head, neck, breast, belly, and vent, black; rump and
tail the same; the latter one inch and a quarter long, and rounded
at the end ; wings, quills, and thighs, brown; scapulars darker; on
the coverts a broad, curved, black mark; shoulders, and back to the
rump crimson ; legs pale brown.
Female brown above, pale yellow beneath; over the eye a reddish trace; tail long and slender, like the Long-tailed Titmouse;
and often carried erect; over the eye a dull red trace, and some
mottlings on the neck and breast; back and wings as in the male.
Inhabits New South Wales.—Gen. Davies. Generally found in
forests, near the banks of rivers, especially Paterson River, in low
bushes; in winter migrates southward. The male has a pretty song,
much like that of the Superb Warbler; now and then seen in small
flocks; and frequently flirts up the tail. There is some similarity
between this and the Orange-rumped Flycatcher, but the tail is deep
black, and full webbed, though cuneiform; in this circumstance
materially differing, otherwise might be mistaken for the opposite
sex. The native name in Mr. Franeillon's drawings is Temmench.
F f2
 220
FLYCATCHER.
108.—NEW-HOLLAND FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill slender, bent at the point,
pale at the base, and dusky at the tip ; plumage above dusky, shafts
of the feathers white; beneath dusky and white clouded; wings
deep ash-colour, the second, third, and fourth quills, white on the
outer edges, making a long streak on the wing; tail black, and
appears as if it were doubly concave at the end ; all but the two
middle feathers tipped with white; legs dusky.
Inhabits New-Holland.
109.—PACIFIC FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH eight inches. Billkbroad at the base, and dusky;
plumage above glossy black, beneath from under the eye whblFjr
white; quills brown; tail a little rounded; the wings reach about
to the middle of it.
Inhabits New-Holland.—From the drawings of Mr. Lambert.
Ill'
110—SOLITARY FLYCATJ^ER.
Motacilla solitaria, Solitary Warbler, Lewin's N. Holl. Birds, p. 3. pl. iii.
LENGTH five inches. Bill scarcely half ygin^ach?long, du$l$#
brown; plumage above broYsarish grey■;■?wingsiand tail brown ;..i&jf}
whitish in the middle; the-y^sf of the under parts ferruginous chestnut; paler, and inclining to orange on the tbr&at, but mottled with
ferruginous; thighs,laaiown ; tail one inch and a quarter in length,
hollowed out a little in the middle, and nearly black; legs brown.
 FLYCATCHER. 221
Inhabits rocksjoinaccessible caverns, and deep rugged places,
creeping about; is a shy and cautious bird; the note sharp and
shrill: always found in the same places throughout the year; but is
not numerous, or commonly met with.
111.—RUSTY-CROWNED FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH between eight and nine inches. Bill black, with a
few hairs at the base; top of the head ferruginous, with dusky
streaks ; the rest of the neck, and all beneath, very pale yellow, or
brimstone-colour ; neck behind marked with numerous, dusky, narrow streaks; the lower part and sides with large blotches of the same,
and two or three in the direction of the jaw; on the breast a few
irregular transverse lines, and some streaks on the thighs ; wing
coverts ferruginous; quills dusky; tail three inches and a half long,
cuneiform; legs black.—From the drawings of Mr. Dent.
112.—BARRED-TAILED FLYCAJ£HER.
LENGTH five inches. Bill half an inch long, made as in the
Common Wren, but stouter, with a few hairs at the base, colour
brown ; all the upper parts of the body, and wings olive brown, with
a rufous tinge on the lower part of the back ; over the eye a trace of
white, beginning at the nostrils, and reaching behind; upper tail
coverts bufl-colour; the chin, throat, and breast, buff-colour, with numerous dusky streaks; the rest of the under parts paler, almost white;
sides olive brown ; under tail coverts pale ferruginous; tail cuneiform,
the two middle feathers two inches and a quarter, the outer one inch
and three quarters, colour reddish brown, with a bar of black near
the end ; beyond this whitish, or very pale ash-colour ; the legs pale
yellow, claws black.
 lllfL
V
222
FLYCATCHER.
Inhabits New-Holland.—In the collection of Lord Stanley. Is
found chiefly in the grass, and is unable to take distant flights, for the
wings being short, and the tail long, causes it to fly with difficulty.
113.—MURINE FLYCATCHER.
LENGTH six inches. Bill broad at the base, and black; the
plumage above mouse-colour, beneath dusky white; quills and tail
brown; tail rounded at the end, the outer feather whitejsrtbe next
white, with the base brown ; the third half brown, half white; the
fourth tipped with white ; the rest of the feathers brown.
Inhabits New-Holland.
114.—OLIVE FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Caledonica, Ind. Orn. ii. 478.    Gm. Lin. i. 944.
Olive Flycatcher, Gm. Syn. iii. 342.    Shaw's Zool x. 351.
SIZE of a Chaffinch ; length six inches; general colour of the
plumage olive-green above, yellowish white beneath ; chin and vent
yellow; quills ferruginous ; legs dusky.
Inhabits New Caledonia.
115.—STRIPED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa striata,  Ind. Orn. ii. 481.
Ph. Trans, lxii. p. 406. 428.
Sylvia striata, Vieill. Am. ii. p. 44.
Striped Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 349.
Gm. Lin. i. 930.     Miller, III. No. 15. A. B.
. No. 277.   Skaw's Zool. j
LENGTH five inches, breadth seven ; weight half an ounce.
Bill black, base beneath yellowish; crown black; hindhead black
and white;   cheeks white;   throat yellowish  white,  spotted  with
 FLYCATCHER.
223
brown ; breast whitish; sides spotted with black ; belly white;
back greenish ash-colour, striped with black; rump inclining to
ash, and spotted with black ; on the wing coverts two bars, the
upper one yellowish white, the lower white; tail brown, the outer
feather with a spot of white on the inner web, the second the same,
but smaller ; the third only margined with white within; legs
yellow, claws pale brown.
The female has a greenish yellow head, streaked with slender
black linje^; over the eyes a line of yellow; eyelids yellow; throat,
cheeks, and breast, whitish yellow, sprinkled with oblong spots of
brown, from the sides of the mouth to the breast; the rest as in the
male, but more green on the back, and streaked more sparingly.
Inhabits North America, found at Severn River, only in summer,
and feeds on grass seeds, &c.
116.—CINEREOUS FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa virens, Ind. Om. ii. 482.    Lin. i. 327.    Gm Lin. i. 936.
 Carolinensis cinerea, Bris. ii. 368.    Id. 8vo. i. 261.    Klein, 74. 7.
Gobe-mouche brun de la Caroline, Buf. iv. 543.
Little brown Flycatcher, Cates. Car. i. 54.
Cinereous Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 350.    Arct. Zool ii. No. 270.    Skaw's Zool x. 363.
SIZE ofthe Spotted Flycatcher; length six inches. Bill black,
depressed at the base, tip curved, yellow; head and upper parts
dark ash-colour; the under yellowish white ; wings brown, the
second quills edged with white; tail even, brown, the outer web of
the exterior feather yellowish half way from the base; legs slender,
black. The female differs but little, but is darker; but few hairs at
the base of the bill in either sex.
Inhabits Carolina in summer, and departs in Autumn. Found
in Georgia, where it is generally seen the whole year; builds the
middle of May, in the hollow of an oak; the nest composed of
swamp moss, pieces of the shed skin of a snake, and a few feathers;
 224 FLYCATCHER.
the eggs pale dusky white, marked wifch irregular chestnut, or red
brown streaks, of different shapes, giving' it a singular appearance.
Is called; in Georgia, Martin and Ree Weight, from its note.
One described by Mr. Abbot was seven inches long, and eleven
broad.       Weptis**
A.—Muscicapa rapax, Wood Peewee Flycatcher, Am. Om. ii. pl. I&;fc>5«jWC
This is six inches long, and tehforoad. BiH stout, and swelling,
under mandible yellow; the plumage above greenishPiftbuse-coloured
brown; feathers of the crown darker than the rest, and elongated;
under parts of the body pale yellow, nearly white; legs slender.
This comes into Pennsylvania the beginning of May; found in
low situations and in shady woods; it makes the nest on a limb or
branch, chiefly of moss, without mud, aS* lined with soft materia^';
the eggs generally five, and white: both sexes nearly alike; it has
a singular note, somewhat like Petoway, petoway, petoway; is not
unlike the Pewit Flycatcher, but differs in manners : said in the Am.
Orn. to be the same with the Cinereous Species.
117.—LESSER CRESTED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Acadica, Ind
'  Lesser-crested Flycatche
x. 381.
ii. 489. . Gm. Lin. i. 947.    Vieill. Am. i. p. 71.
n Flycatcher, Am. Om. ii. pl. 13. f. 3.
. Syn. Sup. 174.    Arct. Zool ii. No. 268.    Skaw's Zool
LENGTH five inches; extent of wing nine. Bill remarkably
flat and broad, dusky above, and flesh-colour beneath ; back part
of the head crested; head, neck, and upper parts of the bodytraftHp,
pale, cinereous green; breast, and belly whitish, tinged with yellow;
across the wings' two yellowish white bars, and a pale ring round the
eye; the breast darker than the rest of the tmaer parts; wings and
tail dusky; second quills edged with white; legs black. Male and
female much alike.
 FLYCATCHER. 225
Inhabits Nova Scotia; found in the deep woods of Pennsylvania,
chiefly seen on the lower branches of trees; has a sharp squeak, also
a querulous kind of note; builds on the upper part of a limb, and
lays five white eggs ; departs the beginning of September; is a rare
and solitary species; feeds on insects, bees, and huckle berries.
A similar bird, we believe the same, was communicated to us
under the name of Swamp Flycatcher.    Found in Georgia.
118.—BLACK-CAPPED FLYCATCHER.
cicapa fusca, 7nd. Om. ii. 483.    Gm. Lin. i. 931.    Vieill. Am. i. p. 68. pl. 40.
 Phoebe, Ind. Om. ii. 489.    Gm. Lin. i. 946. 80. atra.
 Carolinensis fusca, Br is. iii. 365.    Jd. 8vo. i. 260.   Klein, 74. 5.
• Nunciola, Pewit Flycatcher, Amer. Om. ii. pl. 13. f. 4.
Gobe-mouche noiratre de la Caroline, Buf. iv. 541.
Le Suiriri commun,  toy. d'Azara, iii. No. 179.
Dusky Flycatcher, Arct. Zool. ii. No. 275.
Phoebe Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. 173.
Black-capped Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 353.    Arct. Zool ii. No. 269.    Gates. Car. i.
pl. 53.    Shaw's Zool. x. 384.
SIZE of a Nightingale; length six inches and a quarter, extent
of wings nine and a half. Bill black, bristly at the base; top ofthe
head black; the rest ofthe upper parts brown ; the under yellowish
white ; breast inclining to ash-colour; quills and secondaries dusky,
the latter edged with white ; tail dusky, the outer web ofthe exterior
feather white, a trifle hollowed at the end; legs black.
The female chiefly differs, in having the top of the head not so
deep coloured, being dusky instead of black.
Inhabits Carolina and Pennsylvania, the first week in March,
and departs in November; is a solitary bird, frequenting streams
under, or near bridges, caves, &c. sits on a twig and cries Pewee,
Pewittee, pevee, for a whole morning; darts after insects, in the
manner of its congeners; often flirts up the tail as the Wagtail; is
silent towards the end of June; makes the nest on some projection,
J
 it
fl
m
226
FLYCATCHER.
under a shed, or eaves, composed of mud, mixed with moss; it is
large and solid, and lined with flax or horse hair; the eggs five in
number, pure white, with two or three dots of red at the large end ;
is said to have two, or even three broods in a year ; appears at New
York the latter end of March, but retires before September; called
there Phoebe Bird, or Bee-eater, as among other insects it is fond
of bees.
119—QUERULOUS FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa querula, Vieill. Am. i
Wood Flycatcher, Shaw's Zool :
p. 68. pl.
378.
LENGTH five inches and one-third. Bill bent at the tip,
brown, the under part yellow; plumage above grey, beneath white;
wing coverts tipped with dirty white; legs dusky.
Inhabits America; comes into the United States in April, and
departs in September; called there the Smaller Pee wee; has a plaintive cry, chiefly at the time of perching ; builds in trees, and lays
four dull white eggs, spotted with brown ; is not difficult of approach,
especially when intent on seizing its prey, which is insects. It
appears to be allied to the Black-capped Species, though the short
description given does not amount to a certainty of the fact.
120.-
RED-EYED FLYCATCHER.
Gm. Lin. i. 938.    Vieill. Am. i.
Muscicapa olivacea, Ind. Om. ii. 482. Lin.i
71.   Amer. Orn. ii. pl. 12. f. 3.
Muscicapa oculis rubris, Klein, 74. 6.
 Jamaicensis, Bris. ii. 410.    Id. 8vo. i. 271.
Gobe-mouche de la Caroline, et de la Jatnaique, Buf iv. 539.
Olive-coloured Flycatcher, Edw. p. 253.
Red-eyed Flycatcher,   Gen. Syn. iii. 351.     Arct. Zool. ii. 271.     Cates. Car.
Brown, Jam. 456.    Bartr. Tr. 288.    Shaw's Zool x. p. 379.
, pl. 54.
LENGTH five inches and a half.    Bill lead-colour; pale at the
base beneath, and beset with bristles, point hooked;  irides red;
 FLYCATCHER. 227
plumage above greenish olive-brown; through the eyes a brownish
streak; and above them a whitish one; the under parts greenish
white; quills and tail deep olive, edged with white; under tail
coverts, and beneath the wings, yellowish white; legs brown.
The female is like the male, but the colours more dull.
Inhabits Carolina in summer, and breeds there; common in the
woods about Georgia, especially swamps, and where oaks grow;
comes in the middle of March; sings early in spring and summer,
with a loud variable note, not unlike that of a Thrush, and is known
there by the name of Hooked-billed Grey-pate ; builds frequently
in trees having a thick foliage, hanging over the water, from which
it darts on flies and other passing insects. The nest is formed the
beginning of May, of dried stalks outwardly, lined with hay; the
egg reddish white, with small rufous specks, most numerous, and
nearly confluent, at the larger end. It is also called by some the
Black, striped-headed, Olive-back. Is seen in the winter months
at Jamaica, where it is known by the name of Whip Tom Kelly.
Said to be one of the adopted nurses of the Cowpen Oriole;* and
according to the Amer. Orn. makes a pensile nest, between two
twigs of dogwood, or other small sapling, four or five feet from the
ground.
A.— Muscicapa Canadensis olivacea, Bris. ii. 408.    Id. 8vo. i. 271.
This differs in wanting the pale streak over the eyes; but has two
pale bands across the wings; under parts yellowish white.
Inhabits Canada.—I received one, shot at Albany Fort, the 4th
of June. I have also seen a bird from India, very little differing ;
it was brown above, whitish beneath; through the eye a blackish
line, and over it a white one; between the bill and eye pale. In this
the irides were not red, but pale reddish brown ; but this difference
was remarked in a drawing of one from Georgia, in which the irides
were also brown.
* See Vol. iii. p. 100.
G g2
 228
FLYCATCHER.
121.—WARBLING FLYCATCHER.
uscicapa melodi
Zool.x. 382.
, Warbling Flycatcher, Am. Om. v. p. 85. pl. 42. f. S
THIS is five inches and a half long, and eight inches and a half
in extent. Bill dull lead-colour above, and notched near the point,
beneath pale flesh-colour; the irides dark hazel; sides of the head,
including the eye, and all the under parts white, with a pale greenish
yellow tinge near the breast; upper parts pale green olive, inclining
a little to ash on the head; wings brown, broadly edged with pale
olive green ; tail slightly forked, edged with olive; legs pale lead-
colour.    Male and female nearly alike.
Inhabits North America; it arrives in Pennsylvania about the
middle of April, and departs late, having been heard in October;
it inhabits the thick foliage of orchards and high trees; the voice
is soft, tender, and soothing ; often heard among the weeping
willows, and Lombardy poplars, rarely in the woods: gleans among
the leaves, occasionally darting after winged insects, and searching
for caterpillars; its general appearance resembles the Red-eyed Flycatcher, but on close inspection, differs in many particulars: it has
no white on the wings, and, in the figure given, there is no appearance of hairs at the bill; the irides also differ in colour.
122.—CHATTERING FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa viridis, Ind. Orn. ii. 482.    Gm. Lin. i. 936.
Icteria dumicola, Vieill. Am. i. p. 85. pl. 55 ?
Merula viridis Carolinensis, Bris. ii. 315.   Id. 8vo. i. 245.
Pipra polyglotta, Yellow-breasted Chat, Am.Om.i. pl.6. f. 2.
Turdus pectore luteo, Klein, 69. 26.
 FLYCATCHER.
229
Merle vert de la Caroline, Buf iii. 396.
Yellow-breasted Chat, Cates. Car. i. 50.
Chattering Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 359.
pl. 356.
lartr. Trav. 300.
Arct. Zool. ii. No. 266.   Shaw's Zool •>
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill ten lines, black, strong,
slightly bent, ridged at the top; nostrils oval, half covered by a
membrane; head and upper parts of the body dull green; over the
eye a streak of white, and beneath a small white spot; in the
direction of the jaw a slender line of white; the lore black, curving
beneath the eye; throat, and beneath, as far as the belly, yellow;
from thence to the vent dirty white; quills dull green; tail brown ;
legs black.
Inhabits Carolina and Pennsylvania, but rarely within 2 or 300
miles of the sea; frequents the banks of great rivers, and is very shy;
fjies with extended wing; sings well, and with great variety; imitates
various creatures, and has the faculty of uttering a coarse, hollow,
sounding noise in the throat or crop, seeming at one time to be at a
great distance, at another very near; comes in May, and after breeding, returns in autumn.
M. Vieillot thinks this bird to have great affinity to the Oriole, in
the bill, but as, in his opinion, it is neither Thrush, Flycatcher, nor
Oriole, he has formed a new Genus for it: he describes it as only six
inches, two lines in length: the male grey-green, with two white
streaks on each side of the.head, one passing round the eye; onthe
side of the head also a black spot; throat and breast orange yellow;
the belly white; tail slightly cuneiform. The female less bright, and
no black on the sides of the head. Young birds are greenish grey
above, and very pale yellow on the throat and breast.
They feed on the Carolina nightshade.*
According to the Amer. Orn. the female has the black and white
about the eye less pure; inside of the mouth dirty flesh-colour, which,
in the male, is black; that it arrives the first week in May, and
* Solanum Carolinense.—Lin.
J
 230
FLYCATCHER.
returns the middle of August, the males coming first; builds in the
brambles, bushes, and thickets; the nest of dry leaves, four or five
feet from the ground; lays four flesh-coloured eggs, spotted with
red or brown ; is fond of large black beetles, &c. likewise whortle
berries : most numerous on the borders of rivulets ; frequently seen
in Guiana and Brazil, but not in the Islands.
123—MARTINICO FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Martinica, Ind. Orn. ii. 483.    Lin. i. 325.    Gm. Lin. i. 930.
Muscicapa Martinica cristata, Bris. ii. 362. t. 36. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 259.
Martinico Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 352.    Shaw's Zool. x. 377.
LENGTH six inches. Bill brown, base hairy; feathers of the
head and upper parts brown; those of the crown long, whitish at
the base, and when erected into a crest, appear mixed; under parts
ash-coloured; quills brown, with whitish edges; tail brown; legs
ash-colour.—Inhabits Martinico.
i
5
A.—Muscicapa albicapilla, Vieill. Am. i. p. 66. pl. 37.
Length five inches and a half. Bill brown ; legs dusky; crown
of the head white, the feathers elongated, so as to form a crest, and
towards the end greenish grey; plumage in general above greenish
grey; breast white in the middle, and yellow on the sides; under the
wings grey; chin and throat greyish blue ; across the wing coverts
two whitish bars; tail brown, nearly even at the end, and the wings
reach to about one-third on it. The female is chiefly brown above,
and white beneath.
Inhabits St. Domingo, and the adjacent Islands; is probably a
Variety of the last described, if not differing in sex.
 FLYCATCHER.
231
124—GOLDEN-THROATED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa ochroleuca, Ind. Om. ii. 489.    Gm. Lin. i. 946.    Vieill. Am. iii. p. 46.
Golden-throated Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. 173.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 276.    Shaw's
CROWN of the head, and upper parts of the neck and body
dirty olive; throat and ridge of the wing very rich yellow; breast
and belly white, tinged with yellow; the primaries and tail bright
olive green.
Inhabits New-York.
125.—CANADA FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Canadensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 484.    Lin. i. 327.    Gm. Lin. i. 937.
 cinerea, Bris. ii. 406. t. 39. 4.    Id. 8vo. i. 270.
Canada Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 354.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 273.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill grey brown, with bristles
at the base ; irides hazel; crown of the head cinereous, spotted with
black ; between the bill and eye, and round the latter, yellow;
beneath the eye black, descending on each side ofthe throat; upper
parts of the plumage cinereous, the under yellow; the fore part of
the neck marked with small black spots; under tail coverts nearly
white; wing coverts cinereous, within grey brown; quills and tail
brown, edged with cinereous; legs pale yellow.
Inhabits Canada ; also occasionally met with in Georgia, as Mr.
Abbot has now and then seen it in Savannah River swamp; he
describes it under the name of Spotted Grey Pate, but with some
little difference; for in that, the crown is cinereous, spotted with
black ; from the nostrils a yellow streak over the eye, and also under
it, except between the eye and gape, which is black ; on each side
of the neck, beginning under the yellow beneath the eye, a streak
 I
232 FLYCATCHER.
composed of black spots, and communicating with the black lore;
wings and tail somewhat darker than the back. This seems to differ
from the other in sex; is said to be solitary, in the lower part of
Pennsylvania rather scarce; more common in the interior, especially
among the mountains. Only two specimens were met with. Mr.
Vieillot thinks it much allied to the Blackburnian Warbler.
126—BLACK-HEADED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Ruticilla, Ind. Or.
p. 66. pl. 35. 36.     Amer
female.
Muscicapa Americana, Bris. i
Motacilla flavicauda, Gm. Lir
Serino affinis e croceo et nigro
. ii. 473.    Lin. i. 236.
Orn.i. pl. 6. f. 6—mai
. i. 935.    Vieill. Am. i
. p. 119. pl.45. f. 2.-
383. • Id. 8vo. i,
i. 997.
aria, Raii, 188.
Sloan. Jam. 312.    Klein,
Ruticilla Americana, Redstart, Bartr. Tr. 290.
Le petit noir Aurore, Buf iv. 546. ,? v^ttf
Gobe-mouche d'Amerique, PL enl. 566. 1.
• Small American Redstart, Edw. pl. 80.    Cates. Car. i. pl. 67.—male.
Yellow-tailed Flycatcher, Edw. pl. 257.—female.
 Warbler, Arct. Zool. ii. No. 301.
Black-headed Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. 427.   Arct. Zool ii. No. 282.—male. Id. 301.—
female.    Shaw's Zool. x. 362.
SIZE of the Pettichaps ; length four inches and three quarters.
Bill blackish, base broad, and bristly ; head, neck, and upper parts,
black ; wings black, with an orange bar across the middle ; sides of
the body orange; belly, thighs, and vent, pale orange; tail orange,
with one-third ofthe feathers from the end black, but the two middle
ones are wholly black ; legs brown.
In the female the upper parts are brownish ash-colour, the under
white; wings, sides of the body, and tail, the same as in the male, but
yellow instead of orange.
Inhabits the shady woods of North America, as far as Hudson's
Bay in summer; departing southward in winter; at that time found
 ELYCATCHER.
in Jamaica, and the neighbouring Islands. Is seen in Georgia
throughout the summer, in the swamps, and oak woods, but is not
a common species.
The young males, of the second spring, sing like the adult bird,
but are scarcely to be distinguished from the females in colour, except
in having a yellow bar across the wing, nor do they acquire the full
plumage till the end of the second summer. This species is called
in Georgia, Broad Tail, as it often hovers on a branch spreading the
tail and wings. Mr. Abbot describes the length as six inches and
a half, and breadth eight and a half.
The Amer. Orn. says, it builds on low bushes, in the fork of a
small sapling, a few feet from the ground ; the nest of hay, mixed
with lichen, and lined with very soft downy substances. The eggs
white, sprinkled with grey, and specks of blackish.
127—RUFOUS AND BLACK FLYCATCHER.
Sylvia multicolor, Ind. Orn. ii. 541.
Motacilla multicolor, Gm. Lin. i. 972.
Figuier noir et jaune de Cayenne, Pl. e
Rufous and black Warbler, Gen. Syn. i
(/. 391. i
v. 493.
Buf. v. 314.
LENGTH five inches. Bill brown; head, throat, and upper
parts of the body and wings, black, the larger coverts tipped with
rufous, forming a band on the wing; sides of the neck and breast
rufous; but the middle of the breast, belly, and vent, is white;
tail from the base to the middle deep rufous, from thence black, the
two middle feathers wholly black ; legs brown.
Inhabits Cayenne, but is rare ; it seems to have so many things
in common with the Black-headed Flycatcher, that we cannot but
consider it as one remove only from that species. A pair sent from
Georgia  had the orange very high coloured ;  the middle of the
J
 23*
FLYCATCHER.
breast mixed with black; sides under the wings high orange; belly
and vent flesh-coloured wbitef under Wing coverts buff; under tail
coverts black; the wings reaching about halfway on the toil.
128— FERRUGINOUS FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa ferruginea, Ind. Orn. ii. 477.    Gm. Lin. i. 947.    Merrem, Ic. p. 19. t. 6.
Ferruginous Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 214. Shaw's Zool. x. 395.
SIZE of a Goldfinch; length five inches and a half. Bill bl«K&,
depressed at the base, the edges chestnut; plumage in general grey
browffj beneath yellowish- white; throat white; wings black; margins ofthe quills ferrttginous; tail short, and black; and the wings,
when closed, reach to the base.—Inhabits Carolina.
129.—CINNAMON FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa cinna'momea, Ind. Om. ii. 484.    Gm. Lin. i
Cinnamon Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 354.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill stout, rather straight, and black ;
the base furnished with bristles; plumage in "general yellowish cinnamon-colour, in different shades ; the rump, and under parts much
paler* almost yellow; wing coverts tipped with yellow, forming a
band on the wings ; quills dusky, margined with ferruginous.
Inhabits Cayenne.
130—YELLOW-RUMPED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa spadicea, Ind. Om. ii. 484.    Gm. Uw,H 937.
Yellow-rumped Flycatcher, Gen. Syn.iii. 354.    Skaw's Zool. x. 403.
LENGTH seven inches.     Bill one inch, brown, base bristly;
plumage above reddish brown ; wing coverts margined With rufous;
 FLYCATCHER. 235
quills brown; rump yellow; belly and vent buff-colour; tail even
at the end, three inches in length, and of the same colour as the
quills.—Inhabits Cayenne with the last.
131—CAYENNE FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Cayanensis, Ind. Om. ii. 484.    Lin. i. 327.    Gm. Lin.i. 937.    Rm. ii. 404.
t. 38. 4.    Id. 8vo. i. 270.
Gobe-mouche k ventre jaune, Buf. iv. 550.    PL enl. 569. 2.
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 359.
Cayenne Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 355.    Id. Sup. 173,    Shaw's Zool x. 358.
LENGTH seven inches and a quarter. Bill dusky, beset with
bristles; top of the head brown ; the feathers down the middle yellow
at the base; from the bill over the eye, to the hindhead, a streak of
wMl&; before and behind the eye a deep brown spot; all the upper
parts of the body brown, edged with olive; upper wing and tail
coverts brown, with rufous edges; chin white ; the rest ofthe under
parts yellow; quills and tail brown, with rufous edges; legs blackish.
Inhabits Cayenne.—Buffon mentions one with a conspicuous fine
yellow streak on the crown, which is probably the male. One from
Berbice, in the collection of Mr. Mc. Leay, was named Telale.
132.—DWARF FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa pygmsea, Ind. Orn. ii. 488.    Gm. Lin. i. 933.
Le petit Gobe-mouche, Gobe-moucheron, Buf. iv. 554.   Pl enl. 831. 2.
Dwarf Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 363.    Shaw's Zool. x. 246.
THIS is scarcely three inches long; bill in proportion, a little
curved at the point, and dusky; head and neck behind rufous,
spotted with black; back and wing coverts deep ash-colour, with
 236
FLYCATCHER.
greenish edges; wings black, edges of the feathers grey; all the
under parts straw-colour; tail short, black; scapulars and rump
pale ash ; under the eye a pale streak; legs flesh-colour.
A.—Length three inches and a half. Bill half an inch, brown,
the under mandible whitish ; head and neck ferruginous, streaked
with black ; forehead plain ; wings black, the coverts marked with
white at the tips, forming two rows of spots ; quills black, edged
with white; back black, with some white markings; rump ash-
colour ; tail black, very short, all but the two middle feathers tipped
with white; beneath the body rufons, very pale, with dusky streaks;
chin white ; legs bluish.
Inhabits South America.—In the collection of Mr. Bullock.—It
has hitherto been received as a Flycatcher, but there are no hairs at
the base ofthe bill, insomuch as to rank it with the Warblers; yet,
no doubt, this might be determined by the manners. This appears
to be the male of the Dwarf Species, fid
lit
133—PETTY FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa tninuta, Ind. Om. ii. 488.    Gm. Lin. i. 933.
Gobe-moucheron, Buf. iv. 553.
Petty Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 364.    Shaw's Zool. x. 347.
THIS is somewhat larger than the last. Plumage deep olive
grey, tinged with green on the upper parts of the back and belly ;
wings blackish, here and there streaked with yellowish white.
Inhabits Cayenne, and other parts of South America, which
abounds with the greatest variety of the Flycatcher tribe; a proper
check to the myriads of insects, the scourge of those parts.
 FLYCATCHER.
237
134.—MINUTE FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa minuta, Minute Flycatcher, Am. Om. vi. 62. pl. 5. f. 5.
LENGTH five inches, extent of wing eight. Bill broad at the
base, furnished with bristles, and notched near the tip; irides dark
hazel; head remarkably small; the upper parts ofthe plumage dull
yellow olive; wings dusky brown, edged with lighter; greater and
lesser coverts tipped with white; body beneath dirty white, tinged
with dull yellow, particularly on the upper part of the breast; tail
dusky brown, with a white spot on the inner vanes ofthe two exterior
feathers; feet yellowish.
Inhabits North America; found in the swamps of New Jersey in
June, where it is supposed to breed ; the one from which the above
description is taken, shot in an orchard, 24th April.
135— FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa Tyrannus, Ind. Om. ii. 484.    Lin. i. 325. - Gm. Lin. i. 931.    Vieill. Am. i.
p. 72. pl. 43.
Tyrannus cauda bifurca, Bris. ii. 395. t. 39. 3.    Id. 8vo. i. 268.
Savana, Tyran a Queue fourchue, Buf iv. 557. pl. 26.    PL enl. 571. 2.
Les petits'.Ciseaux, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 190.
Muscicapa Nunciola, Pewit, or Black Cap Flycatcher, Bartr. 287.
Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 355.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 365.
SIZE in the body of a large Lark; length fourteen inches. Bill
black, at the base a few bristles; upper part and sides of the head
black; on the middle of the crown the feathers are yellow at the
base; neck behind, back, rump, and scapulars, cinereous; upper tail
coverts black; all the under parts white ; lesser wing coverts cinereous, greater brown; quills brown, with the jnner margins white;
tail greatly forked, the outer feather being nine inches in length, and
J
 Ill
238
FLYCATCHER.
the middle ones not two; all of them black, but the outmost has
the exterior web white for half its length ; legs black.
In some birds the yellow on the crown is wanting, and such are
probably females j in others the outer margins of the quills are
white, as well as the inner.
Inhabits Canada, and from thence to Surinam, but no where
common. The Canadian one has black temples, and a cinereous
back; but in 4hat from Surinam the body is black. This species
extends to Buenos Ayres,, and Monte Video. The Guaranis there
call it Guira Yetapa (Scissars Bird) from its opening and closing the
tail feathers, like a pair of scissars. Comes into Paraguay the
middle of September, and departs in March ; found chiefly in moist
places, and streams near woods; is a bold bird, and will attack
others;; ;anest, (Supposed toibelong to this, was large, made of earth
without, and small roots within, lined with a cottony substance; it
contained three young, and one white egg, spotted brown and rufous.
M. Nosada says, he has found the nests several times, that they are
small, made of leaves, and pieces of bark, and the eggs white.
136.—SWALLOW-TAILED FLYCATCHER.
Muscicapa forficata, 7nd. Om. ii. 485.    Gm. Lin.i. 931.    Vieill^sim. i. p. 71.
Moucherolle k Queue fourchue du Mexique, Buf iv. 564.    PL enl 677.
Great crested Yellow^Jbellied Flycatcher, Bartr. p. 287.
.Swallow-tailed Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. 356.    Shaw's Zool. x. 413. pl. 33.
is
LENGTH ten inches. Bill straight, compressed, weak, black;
irides red; head and back, light grey,*«sith a reddish tinge; under
parts of the body white; sides and beneath the wing red, and when
closed, this colour appears just above the bend ; lesser wing ©averts
ashrcolour, with pale edges, giving/the appearance of .scales; greater
 FLYCATCHER.
239
wing coverts marked in the same manner, but blackish ; quills
black, edged with grey; tail greatly forked, and half the length of
tbe rest of the bird; the outer featBers five inches, the middle only
two, colour black, edged with rufous grey, the outer ones white on
the exterior web for half the length ; legs black : in some the tail is
«M»eh«shorter.
Inhabits Mexico : seems much allied to the last.
137— YIPERU FLYCATCHER.
L'Yiperu, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 75.
THIS singular bird is about the size of the others, but including
the long tail feathers is fifteen inches and three quarters long, and
fifteen inches in extent of wing. Bill seven lines long, broad at the
base, five lines thick, a trifle curved, with a hollow at the base of
the;upper mandible, and a notch near the point; behind the eye a
bright rufous spot, which extends over the ear, and passes down on
each side of the neck; at the nostrils some hairs, reaching to the
corners of the mouth; throat, belly, and under wing coverts, white;
head, breast, the whole neck, the rufous curved streak excepted, pale
lead-colour; shafts ofthe feathers brown, with the points unwebbed;
back and wing cov