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BC Historical Books

A general history of birds. Vol. IV Latham, John, 1740-1837 1822

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  THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
     GENERAL   HISTORY
BIRDS.
BY JOHN LATHAM, M.D.
F.R.S.   A.S.   and   L.S.
Acad. Cjes. Nat. Curios.   Reg. Holm, et Soc. Nat. Scbut. Berolin. Soc. &e. &c.
VOL. IV.
WINCHESTER :
HUNTED   BY  JACOB   AND  JOHNSON,   FOR THE   AUTHOR ! SOLD  IN   LONDON   BV
G. AND W. B. WHITTAKER,  AVE-MARIA-LANE ;  JOHN WARREN,  BOND-STREET;
W. WOOD, 428,  STRAND ;   AND  J.   MAWMAN, 39,   LUDGATE-STREET.
  ORDER II.     PIES.
GENUS XXVIII—JACAMAR.
1 Green J. II        A Var. ll    4 Paradise J.
A Long-tailed green J. 3 Rufous-tailed J. 5 White-billed J.
2 Great J. | II
J. HE bill is long, strait, sharp-pointed, quadrangular* for the
most part.
Nostrils oval, placed near the base.
Tongue short, pointed.
Legs feathered before as far as the toes, which are situated two
forwards, and two behind.
This Genus is much allied to the Kingsfisher, but the toes are
differently placed. The food of the Jacamar is by no means the
same, as it frequents moist woods, and feeds on insects alone, whilst
the Kingsfisher, in general, inhabits streams of water, and has a
peculiar address in taking the young fry of fishes, on which it feeds.
We are not further acquainted with the manners and ceconomy of
the Genus here treated of; and in respect to the nest and eggs, we
believe that nothing is known concerning them.
* See a transverse Section at the bottom of the Plate.
^r
 1.—GREEN JACAMAR.
Galbula viridis, Ind. Orn. i. 244.    Gen. Zool. ix. 223. pl. 39.
Alcedo Galbula, Lin. i. 181.    Gm. Lin. i. 459.
Galbula, Bris. iv. 86i    Id. 8vo. ii. 65.    Gerin. t. 184.
Jacainaciri, Raii 44.    Will. 96.   Id. Engl. 139. pl. 22.   Elein 28. 15.     Edw. pl. 334.
Le Jacamar, Buf vii. 220. pl. 10.       Pl. enl. 238.      Spalowsk, Vog.  1.1. 8.     Vosm.
Monog. 1768. t. 4.    Ow. dor. (Jacam.) p. 2. pl. 1.    Robert Ic. pl. 4.
Der griine Glanzvo.gel, ScAwiW Fog. p. 42. t. 28.
Cupreous Jacamar, Gen. of Birds, p. 60. pl. 3.
Green Jacamar, Gen. Syn. ii. 603.
NEARLY the size of a Lark; length eight inches and three
quarters; extent of wing nine inches and a half. Bill black, two
inches long, square, a trifle incurvated, and sharp at the point, at
the base some stiff hairs, pointing forward; irides blue; plumage
in general most brilliant green, glossed with copper and gold, in
different lights; chin white ; throat and breast glossy green, like the
back ; belly and vent rufous ; the tail of ten feathers, cuneiform in
shape, the two middle ones three inches and a quarter long, the outer
very short; legs greenish yellow, very short, and weak; claws black.
In some birds the throat is rufous* as well as the belly; and in
others the chin is yellowish instead of white.
I do not learn the distinction between the sexes, but that figured
in the Genera of Birds, is said to have less green on the back ; and
the breast, belly, and part of the back are of a variable copper-colour.
Inhabits Guiana and Brazil, in moist woods, preferring such to
the more dry spots, for the sake of insects, on which it feeds : is a
solitary bird, seldom seen except single, and keeping generally in
the thickest parts : its flight quick, but short, perching on branches
of a middling height, where it sits all night, and frequently part of
* Jacamar k Gorge rousse,     Ois. dor. i.   (Jacam.)  p.  4.  pl. 2,  considered by  the
author of this work as a distinct Species.
  II
n.ix.
	
 the day, without stirring.—Though these birds are solitary, yet they
are far from scarce, as many may be met with. They are said to
have a short and agreeable note.
The natives of Guiana call this bird Venetore, and the Creoles
Colibri des grands Bois, Humming Bird of the Great Woods. Is
found in such plenty in some parts of Brazil, as to serve for food,
being esteemed by many for the table.
A.—Galbula Cauda longiore, Ind. Orn. i. 241. 1. /3.
Long-tailed Green Jacamar, Gen. Syn. ii. 605. pl. 26.
This Variety has the tail much longer in proportion, that part
being full five inches in length ; the upper parts of the plumage very
brilliant, and the ferruginous colour of the belly very clear; the chin
and throat white.
I observe among the drawings of Mr. Dent, a very small one,
not exceeding three inches in length, to the base of the tail: it is not
unlike the adult in colour, with a white spot on the chin, and a mark
of the same under the eye.    This is no doubt a young bird.
2.-GREAT JACAMAR.
Alcedo grandis, Ind. Orn. i. 245.    Gm. Lin. i. 458.   Pall. Spic. vi. p. 20 Note (b.)
Nat. Misc. pl. 833.    Gen. Zool. ix. 227. pl. 40.   Levail. pl. 6.
Le Jacamiciri, Ois. dor. i.  (Jacam.) p. 8. pl. 0.
Great Jacamar, Gen. Syn. ii. 605.
LENGTH nearly eleven inches. Bill two inches long, very
stout, broad at the base, and black ; general plumage above fine
gilded copper-green, beneath fine ferruginous ; the chin is first
gilded green, then a patch of white, but no green below the white
as in the G~^en Species; greater quills dusky; sides of the head and
B2
 chin green. Tail five inches and half long in the middle, but the
outer feathers scarcely two; above it is golden green, beneath.dusky;
feet very small, feathered on the outside to the toes, within plain.
Inhabits Surinam, and feeds on insects.—In the collection of Mr.
Leadbeater is a fine and perfect specimen. That mentioned by Br.
Pallas, was in the Prince of Orange's Museum, at the Hague; it has
been figured by Vosmaer.    Said not to be uncommon in Brazil.*
A.—Length twelve inches. Bill from the gape to the point one
inch and a half, dusky black, a trifle bent; plumage of the head
and upper parts most brilliant green, having a gloss of blue on the
forehead, chin, and cheeks; on the throat a large spot of white; from
thence the rest of the parts beneath are dull ferruginous, paler at the
vent; the tail three inches and a half long, rounded at the end, and
the wings, when closed, reach to the base; the greater quills are
dusky black, with the outer webs glossy green ; legs pale ash-colour.
Inhabits South America. I met with this in the collection of
Lord Seaforth ; and suppose it to differ in sex only from the other.
3— RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR.
LENGTH nine inches and a half. Bill two and a quarter long,
black; head and sides, including the eyes, the hind part and sides of
the neck, back, and wings most brilliant gilded green, with a gloss
of copper in various lights, the same continuing round neck above
the breast, as a collar; above this, the chin and throat are white;
breast, and all beneath fine rufous, paler at the vent; greater quills
 dusky, the lesser as the back; tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers
gilded green like the back, and three inches and a half in length ;
all the others fine rufous, the outer one two and three quarters long;
wings reach one fourth on the tail; legs dusky.
Inhabits Cayenne.    One of these is in my own collection, and I
have seen others in various Cabinets of Natural History.
4—PARADISE JACAMAR.
Galbula Paradisea, Ind. Orn. i. 245.   Lin. i. 181.    Gm. Lin. i. 458.
 longicauda, Bris. iv. 89. t. 5. f. 2.   Id. 8vo. ii. 66.   Germ. U 185.   Spalotcsck.
Vog. iii. t. 18.    Gen. ZooUvs.. 225.
IspidaSurinamensis, Klein 36. 9.
Jacamar alongue Queue, Buf. vii. 222.    Pl. enl. 271.    Ois. dor. [Jacam.) 5. pl. 3.
Swallow-tailed Kingfisher, Edw. pl. 10.
Paradise Jacamar, Gen. Syn. ii. 605.    Id. Sup. 113.
SIZE of a Lark; length eleven inches and a half. Bill almost
two inches and a half long and black, much pointed at the end, and
square.in shape, somewhat compressed on the sides; head dull violet
brown ; throat, neck before, and under wing coverts white; the rest
of the plumage dull green, very deep, and in some lights appearing
almost black, in others glossed with violet and copper bronze; the
tail composed of twelve feathers of unequal lengths, the two middle
ones six inches long, the next three inches and three quarters, the
outer one only an inch ; legs black.
The female differs, in having the colours less brilliant. I have
observed one of these birds with the crown brown, and the colours
every where more dull except the wings, which were very brilliant
coppery green : most probably a female or young bird. A specimen
of this was in the collection of Mr. Bullock.
 Inhabits Surinam and Cayenne, and feeds on insects; is seen more
often in the open places than the first species; flies farther at a time,
and perches on the tops of trees; frequently found in pairs, being not
so solitary a bird : the note also differs, being a kind of soft whistle,
often repeated, but not heard a great way off.
5.—WHITE-BILLED JACAMAR.
Galbula albirostris, Ind. Orn. i. 245.    Gen. Zool. ix. 226.
Le Venetou, Ois. dor. [Jacam.) p. 6. pl. 4.
White-billed Jacamar, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 113.
RATHER smaller than the Green Jacamar; length seven inches.
The bill quite strait, scarcely one inch and a half long, and white,
except the end half of the upper mandible, which is dusky; on each
side at the nostrils three or four stiff bristles; plumage on the upper
parts in general deep glossy green, inclining to brown on the crown;
on the chin a triangular white spot, just under the bill; within the
spot pale rufous; under parts of the body rufous, but deeper ; quills
dusky; tail short, much rounded at the end, the feathers green, the
two outer ones on each side rufous ; legs black.
Some of these have the plumage more dull, and the chin not
white ; top of the head, and all beneath, pale rufous ; and such are
supposed to be females.*
I met with one of these, many years since, in the collection of
the late Dr. Hunter, supposed to have come from South America;
and another is said to be in the Prince of Orange's collection at the
Hague.
 A.—Length eight inches. Bill nearly two inches, pale yellow,
the end half of the upper mandible black; plumage above fine gilded
green, beneath wholly rufous; crown glossy greenish black, with a
mixture of glossy blue at the nape; the same colour bounding the
green on the under jaw; tail three inches long; the two middle
feathers as the back, the others more or less rufous, the two exterior
wholly rufous; legs pale.
In the collection of Mr. Bullock.
 KINGSFISHER.
GENUS XXIX— KINGSFISHER.
* With four Toes.
C Var.
A Little
1 Great Brown
D Var.
B Var.
2 New-Holland
22 Collared
C Var.
3 Cape
A Var.
41 Crested
4 Gurial
23 Green-headed
A Seban
5 Great African
24 Venerated
B Var.
A Var.
A Var.
42 Eastern
B Var.
25 Respected
43 Ternate
6 Beautiful
26 Black-winged
A Var.
7 Black and White
27 Black-capped
44 Cayenne
A Var.
A Luzonian
45 Amazonian
B Var.
B Var.
46 Cinereous
8 Egyptian
C Var.
47 Belted
9 New-Guinea
D Indian
A Louisiane
10 Smyrna
28 Black-backed
B American
A Great Gambia
29 Libyan
C Jaguati
B Great Bengal
30 Nubian
48 Brasilian Spotted
11 Coromandel
31 Ferruginous-bellied
49 Spotted
12 Black-winged "
32 Common
50 Rufous and Gree
13 Dun
33 Baboucard
51 White and Green
14 Meningting
34 Red-headed
52 Brasilian
15 Biru
A Var.
53 Surinam
16 White-headed
35 Purple
54 Supercilious
17 Teriroujoulon
36 Rufous
A Little Green
18 Crab-eajpg
37 Blue-headed
55 Trinidad
19 Senegal
A Blue Tody
56 White-billed
A White-headed
B Var.
* * With three j
B Blue and White
C Var.
57 Tridactyle
20 White-collared
38 Rose-cheeked
58 Luzonian
21 Sacred
39 Blue-breasted
59 Javan
A Var.
40 Indian
60 Azure
B Var.
A Var.
-DIRDS of this Genus have the bill long, strong, strait, and generally sharp-pointed.
Nostrils small, and in many hid in the feathers.
Tongue, short, broad, sharp at the point.
 KINGSFISHER. 9
Legs short, three toes before, and one behind, except in a few
species, which have only three toes in all; the three lower joints of
the middle one united closely to those of the outermost.
Every part of the world is furnished with one or other of the
Kingsfisher tribe, but it appears that Europe possesses only a single
species.
Most of the Genus frequent rivers, and live on fish, the singularity
of catching of which is admirable: sometimes hovering over the
water, where a shoal of small fishes is seen playing near the surface;
at other times waiting with attention on some low branch, hanging
over the water, for the approach of one swimming within reach ; in
either case dropping like a stone, or rather darting with rapidity on
its prey; when seizing it across in the bill, it retires to a resting-
place, to feast on it, which it does piecemeal, bones and all, without
reserve, afterwards bringing up the indigestible parts, in the manner
of Birds of Prey.
The wings of most the Genus are very short, yet the birds fly
rapidly, and with great strength.
l.-GREAT BROWN KINGSFISHER,
Alcedo gigantea, Ind. Orn. i. 245.
1 fusca, Gm. Lin. i. 454.
Grand Martin-pecheur de la nouv. Guinee, Son. Voy. 171.   t. 106.     Buf. vii. 181.
Pl.enl. 663.
Martin chasseur, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxxviii.
Giant Kingsfisher, Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 53.
Great Brown Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 609.     Id. Sup. ii. 143.    White's Journ. pl. in
p. 137. Phillip. Bot. Bay, pl. in p. 287.
THIS is the largest species yet known ; length eighteen inches.
Bill very large, strong, thick at the base, bent at the end, and three
inches and a quarter long; the upper mandible black, the under
vol. it. C
 10
KINGSFISHER.
white, with the base black; the feathers of the head elongated
sufficient to form a moderate crest: these are narrow and brown,
streaked with paler brown; sides of the head above the eye, and
hind part of the head, dirty white, with a mixture of dusky ; beneath
the eyes and sides of the neck deep brown ; back and wings olive-
brown; lower part and rump fine pale blue green; outer edges of
the quills blue; within, and the tips black, the base of some of them
white, forming a spot; tail five inches and a half long, rounded at
the end, barred ferruginous and steel black, with a purple gloss ;
the end for one inch white; under parts of the body dirty white,
marked transversely with narrow dusky lines; legs yellow.
The female has a crest, but it is smaller, the crown plain deep
brown ; body beneath white, encircling the neck as a collar at the
lower part; back and wings olive-brown; some of the middle coverts
tipped with glossy greenish white; quills greenish brown, base of
several of the feathers white, forming a spot on the outer edge; sides
of the body mottled with dusky; tail as in the male, but less glossy;
legs deep brown.
Inhabits New-Guinea: described from specimens in the collection
of Sir Joseph Banks. Sonnerat's bird was two inches shorter.—It is
found also in New-Holland, but by no means numerous, and rarely
seen in pairs : feeds on insects, worms, and sometimes seeds ; for the
latter has been found in the stomach : the note compared to human
laughter, which should give the idea of cheerfulness ; hence called
the Laughing Bird, or Laughing Jack-Ass ; nothing is known concerning the nest or eggs, as they have never been met with. The
natives call it Goo-ge-na-gan : it varies in having more or less white
in the wings : it is a bird of slow and short flight, and when on the
wing seems to proceed with difficulty: from head to tail decreases
much in size, and the feet are very small in proportion to the bird.
There is also in New-Holland a smaller Variety, being only ten
inches in length, but differs too little in colouring to need a separate
description; is known by the same name among the natives as the
larger one.
 KINGSFISHER. 11
2—NEW-HOLLAND KINGSFISHER.
SIZE of the Great Brown Species. Bill the same in size; colour
brown, the under mandible pale ; head, neck, and breast, pale ash-
colour, streaked across with dusky lines ; chin' white ; head furnished
with a crest, consisting of elongated narrow feathers, streaked with
brown; shoulders dusky black ; lower part of the back and rump
fine glossy verditer blue ; wing coverts mixed with the same; quills
black, edged with deep blue ; tail deep dirty greenish blue, irregularly marked at the end with white; legs brown.
Inhabits New-Holland.—In the Museum of the Linnaean Society.
This seems to have great affinity with the former, yet differs in many
points, as may be seen, by comparing them together. We will not
however be positive of being distinct as a species.
3.—CAPE KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo Capensis, Ind. Orn. i. 246.    Lin. i. 180.    Gm. Lim i. 455.
Ispida Capitis Bonse Spei, Rm. iv. 488. t.36. 3.   Id. 8vo. ii. 181.
Martin-pecheur du Cap. de B. Esp. k gros bee, Buf vh. 184.     PL enl. 590.
Cape Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 610.    Id. Sup. 114.    Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 65.
LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill large, above one inch thick at
the base, and three inches and a half in length, colour red with a
blackish tip; top of the head ash-colour, verging to fulvous; upper
part of the body blue green, inclining to ash; the lower part of the
back, rump, and upper tail coverts glossy blue green ; greater quills
blue green on the outside, the inner webs ash-colour; shafts of the
wings, and tail feathers black above, and whitish beneath; under
parts of the body fulvous; chin white; legs red.
 12
KINGSFISHER.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.—A specimen in the Leverian
Museum had a streak of brown behind the eye ; the crown brown,
mixed with darker brown; and several of the prime quills black for
a good way from the end; but in other things answering to the above
description.
One greatly similar, in some Chinese drawings, which came
under my inspection, had the name of Tye-tzoy. I have also seen
representations of it, in three different collections of drawings done
in India.    Found also in Ceylon.
A specimen of one of these, sixteen inches in length, in Mr.
Bullock's Museum.
4.-GURIAL KINGSFISHER.
LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill three inches and seven-tenths
long, very strong, and red, with a brown point; eyelids scarlet;
irides brown; head, cheeks, and nape brown, and the feathers on
both sides turned up to a longitudinal ridge in the centre, from
whence they hang down the neck in a kind of crest; chin white ;
neck, breast, belly, thighs, sides under the wings, and tail coverts
tawny yellow; the feathers of the breast margined with brown; the
rest of the plumage more or less blue; quills black, the outer
edges blue, except at the tips ; tail rounded at the end, four inches
long, consisting of ten feathers, colour green, varying to blue;
legs red.
Inhabits India, and is the Maas Runga and Maas Gurial of the
Bengalese, which two words are generic; the first universal, and
signifies fond of fish; the last confined to the larger species of Alcedo,
and means, that they are as desirous of fish as Alligators. Found in
the neighbourhood of Calcutta all the year, building the nest in
mud-walls. I am assured by Dr. Buchanan, that the above is
distinct,  otherwise we might have supposed it to be a Variety of
 KINGSFISHER. 13
the Cape Species; and it is not unlikely to prove the same sort,
mentioned to have been seen in drawings from India, in the last
paragraph relating to that bird;
5—GREAT AFRICAN KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo maxima, Ind. Orn. i. 246.     Gm. Lin. i. 455.     Pall. Spic. vi. p. 14.    Bor.
Nat.ii. 144.
A Fowl frequenting the Rivers, Bosm. Guinea 251. pl. p. 262.
Great African Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 611.    Share's Zool. viii. p. 55.
SIZE of a Crow. The bill large, strong, compressed, and black;
the upper mandible longer; feathers of the head and nape elongated
into a small crest; the upper parts of the body deep lead-colour, the
under ferruginous; crown of the head and wings darker than the
rest, as is the middle of each feather in general; the plumage
marked with numerous spots of white, every feather having five spots;
viz : two on each side, and one at the tip ; on the sides of the neck
a stripe, dotted with white, beginning at the cheeks, and descending
obliquely down the neck ; chin white; throat and fore part of-the
neck black; the rest of the under parts pale ferruginous, and in some
birds, deep sanguineous; quills black, tipped with white, with a
series of white spots on each side; those on the inner web placed
transverse; the wings, when closed, reach beyond the middle of the
tail, which is even at the end, and marked as the quills ; legs deep
black, the outer toe connected to the middle one only half way.
The female differs, in having the throat, and half the neck pale
ferruginous, instead of black; the rest of the under parts white,
transversely marked with narrow lines of black.
Inhabits Africa.—Dr. Pallas says, that he has seen many of them,
all of which have been brought from the Cape of Good Hope.
 14
KINGSFISHER.
A.—Martin-pScheur huppe, Buf. vii. 188.   Pl. enl. 679.
Great African Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 612. 3. A.
Length sixteen inches; upper parts blackish grey, spotted transversely with white ; breast, vent, and under tail coverts rufous ; the
rest of the under parts white.    Bill black ; legs rufous.
This also inhabits Africa, and is probably a Variety of the last,
if not also connected with the following.
B.—Size of a Jackdaw ; length sixteen inches. Bill stout, two
inches and a half long, black, the extreme tip white ; irides brown ;
round the eye white; the feathers of the head long, and form a large
crest; they are narrow, margined and tipped with white, otherwise
black; the sides of the head, and on the ears the same colour; the
rest of the neck, breast, and under parts white; sides of-the neck
marked with dusky streaks; back, wings, and tail dusky black, with
numerous spots of white; those of-the wing coverts round, on the
back transverse ; quills barred with white; tail rounded at the end,
four inches and half in length, and barred with transverse white spots
as the quills ; tips of all white; the quills reach to the middle of the
tail; legs pale blue, claws black.
Inhabits India, and seems not far different from the Great African
Species, but wants the black on the throat, and fore part of the neck,
the under parts being wholly white, having no tinge of rufous. I
am indebted to Gen. Hardwicke for the above description, but have
not been able to obtain an account of the manners or name.
 KINGSFISHER. 15
6—BEAUTIFUL KINGSFISHER.
Dacelo pulchella, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 175.
LENGTH eight inches. General colour of the plumage above
fasciated with sea-green, black and white; the head brown bay;
crown azure ; chin and throat whitish; belly pale ferruginous.
Inhabits Java, and is a most beautiful species: native name
Tenke-watu. We have met with one, which nearly answers to the
above description. This had the top of the head black, wings black;
quills and tail very fine blue; chin white; belly and under wing
coverts fine ferruginous. Bill and legs red.—Said also to inhabit
Java.
7.—BLACK AND WHITE KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo rudis, Ind. Orn.i. 247.    Lin.i. 181.   Gm. Lin.i. 457.   Hasselq. It. p. 243.   Id.
Engl. 197.
Ispida ex albo & nigro varia, Bris. iv. 520. t. 39. 2.    Id. 8vo. ii. 190.    Klein 36. 8.
,   Le Martin-pecheur pie, Buf. vii. 185.    Pl. enl. 62.
Pied Kingfisher, Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 63. pl. 7.
Black and White Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn ii. 612.    Edw. pl. 9.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill near three inches long, and black;
head and hind part of the neck black, the feathers edged with white
on each side, so as to form longish lines of this last colour; on each
side of the head a stripe of white, from the base of the upper mandible,
passing over the eye towards the neck; back, wings, and upper
parts of the body, spotted irregularly with black and white; breast,
and sides the same; but the black spots are less; throat and under
parts wholly white; quills spotted white and black; the tips of the
greater black ; tail white, with a black band near the end, which is
 16 KINGSFISHER.
narrowest on the more outward feathers; besides which, the two
outmost have two semicircular black marks, one on each side, near
the margin; legs black.
Inhabits Asia and Africa. That described by Mr. Edwards, said
to come from Persia; found also about the banks of the Nile,* and
near Damanhour in Egypt, f I have likewise seen a specimen from
China.
A.—Martin-pecheur du Cap de bonne Esperance, Pl. enl. 716.
This is similar to the above, but smaller, being only eight inches
in length. Bill black; top of the head black ; back black, clouded
with white; the other parts of the body mixed black and white, not
unlike the first, but on the whole has a greater mixture of black in
the plumage, and the head feathers elongated at the nape; across
the breast a bar of black ; legs black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope; is found also in India, where
it is called Wasterman-Sokalie ouadrot
B.—Length twelve inches. Bill two inches and a half long,
black, less stout than in the Black and White species; the ridge of
the upper mandible nearly strait; the under inclining upwards in a
small degree; head crested at the back, crown black, with a few
whitish streaks; from the nostrils a broad white streak, passing over
the eyes to the hindhead; through the eye a broad one of black,
marked as the nape, the neck otherwise white, also the rest of the
under parts to the vent, but from the black streak on each side of
the head a narrow one of the same descends to the breast, on which
it forms a broad black band; back and wings black and white in
* Hasselquist. t Sonnini's Trav. ii. p. 55. 121. J Lady dive's drawings.
vfc,
 KINGSFISHER. 17
spots; wing coverts white, with large round spots of black, and the
same on the rump ; tail white, with one bar of black, an inch broad,
near the end ; legs black.
This beautiful bird inhabits India. I observe in Gen. Hardwicke's
drawings, that the wings are about half way on the tail; but in a
specimen in my possession, they reach almost to the end of it.
8— EGYPTIAN KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo iEgyptia, Ind. Orn. i. 247.    Gm. Lin.i. 457.    Hasselq. It. 245. 23.
Egyptian Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 013.    Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 61.
SIZE of the Royston Crow. Bill blackish, two inches long, and
more than half an inch broad at the base; the head, shoulders, and
back brown, marked with oblong ferruginous spots ; sides the same,
with lucid spots of the same colour, broadest at the tips of the
feathers; throat ferruginous white ; belly and thighs whitish, marked
with longitudinal, broadish, ferruginous spots; upper tail coverts
quite white; quills spotted with white on the inner webs, chiefly at
the tips; tail even at the end, inclining to ash-colour; legs pale
green.
Inhabits Lower Egjjgt; about Cairo; builds in sycamore and
date trees, and feeds on frogs, insects, and small fish, which last it
meets with in the fields, when they are overflowed : its cry is not
unlike that of the Common Crow.
9—NEW-GUINEA KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo novae Guineae, Ind. Orn. i. 247.    Gm. Lin. i. 456.
Martin-pescheur de la nouvelle Guinee, Son. Voy. 171. 1.107.
New-Guinea Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 614.    Shaiv's Zool. viii. p. 62.
SIZE of the Black and White Species.    Bill and irides blackish;
the whole plumage black, spotted, or marked with white irregularly;
 18 KINGSFISHER.
on the head, back, and wing coverts, the spots are small and round;
quills the same, but the spots of twice the size ; the neck and belly
have longitudinal ones, the feathers being, as it were, striped down
the middle; on each side of the neck are two large spots, one above
the other, the space between them narrow, and spotted like the rest of
the neck; the upper one is in the shape of a pear, with the point
upwards, and somewhat oblique, the under one round; legs blackish.
Inhabits New-Guinea.
10.—SMYRNA KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo Smyrnensis, Ind. Orn. i. 247.    Lin. i. 181.    Gm. Lin. i. 456.    Scop. Ann. i. No.
65.    Bor. Nat. ii. 145.
Ispida Smyjfeeirisis, Bris. iv. 499.    Id. 8vo. ii. 184.
Smyrna Kingsfisher, Gen. %?&m. 615.   Alb. iii. pl. 37.   Skaia"s Zool. viii. p. 68.  Nat.
Misc. pl.821.
LENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill two inches long, dull
red; irides whitish; head, neck, breast, belly, sides, thighs, under
wing and tail coverts, elegant chestnut; throat white; on the breast
a transverse band of the same, about half an inch in breadth ; lesser
wing coverts, and those next the body, dull green; the greater
farthest from the body, the same, but within blackish; quills the
same; the tail consists of twelve feathers, the two middle ones are
dull green, and the outer edges of the others the same; within and
beneath all of them are blackish; legs red.
Inhabits the neighbourhood of Smyrna.
 KINGSFISHER. 19
A.—Alcedo Smyrnensis, Lin. i. 181. 11. B.
Ispida, Klein Av. p. 35. 7.
Ispida Madagascariensis caerulea, Bris. iv. 496. t. 38. 2.    Id. 8vo. ii. 183.
Martin-pescheur bleu et roux, Buf. vii. 182.
Grand Martin-pescheur de Madagascar, Pl. enl. 232.
Great Gambia Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 616. 7. A.   Edie. pl. 8.
Length ten inches. Bill two inches and a half long, and dusky
brownish red; head, neck, and under parts of the body, fine chestnut,
deeper on the head, and hind part of the neck; throat dirty yellowish white ; wing coverts nearest the body violet black; the outer
ones beryl blue; the ten prime quills have the lower half the same
without, but are white within; the rest of their length black; the
remaining quills beryl blue on the outer webs, and black within, the
whole length; the tail rounded at the end, blue above, all but the
two middle feathers, blackish within ; and all of them black on the
under surface; legs red.
Inhabits Gambia and Madagascar; found likewise in Java, and
there called Tenkeorang.—I have also seen the same bird among
some drawings, copied from specimens m China, in Gen. HardwickeV
collection, made at Cawnpore, November 1798.
B.—Ispida Bengalensis major, Bris. iv. 501.    Id. Svo. ii. 184.
Martin-pescheur de la Cote de Malabar, Pl. enl. 894.
Great Bengal Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn.ii. 616. 7. B.   Alb. 3. t. 28.
Length ten inches and a half. Bill two inches and three quarters,
bright red; irides fine yellow; head and behitid*the neck fine chestnut, extending a little way on the back ; the back, scapulars, rump,
and upper tail coverts, light bluish green ; throat, fore neck, breast,
and upper part of the belly white; on each side of the last five
brown spots, pretty large; lower part of the belly, thighs, under
tail coverts and sides chestnut; wing coverts part blue, part chestnut;
D2
 blue green ; the insides and
20 KINGSFISHER.
outsides and tips of the prime quills
under parts blackish ; legs orange.
Inhabits Bengal, where it is called Paula Gumma. I have
observed one in which the crown, nape, and sides to the under mandible are black ; otherwise in all respects as in the last described.
11.-COROMANDEL KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo Coromanda, Ind. Orn. i. 252.    Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 174.
Martin-pescheur violet de Coromandel, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 212. pl. 118.
Coromandel Kingsfisher,    Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 143.    Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 75.
SIZE of a Blackbird. Bill and irides reddish ; the hind part of
the neck, back, wings, and tail of a reddish lilac colour, glossed in
various lights with violet and sky-blue ;* quills the same, but within
of a yellowish rufous colour ; on the rump a perpendicular, broad,
bluish-white streak ; throat white, the rest of the under parts light
rufous; legs reddish.
Inhabits the Coast of Coromandel.—It seems to agree in many
respects with the last species ; found also in Java, where it goes by
the name of Tengke-sumbo.
12—BLACK-WINGED KINGSFISHER.
LENGTH eleven inches and a quarter. Bill very stout, more
than two inches long; the upper mandible crimson, the base black,
passing obliquely to the middle of the edge; tip black, the under
mandible wholly so; top of the head cinereous; through the eye
a black streak; chin and some way on the throat white ; the rest of
the neck, back, breast, and tail fine glossy greenish pale blue; wings
black, with an oblique broad band of the same glossy blue,  arising
* Mr. Woodford.
 KINGSFISHER. 21
from the outward part of many of the quills being of that colour,
from the base to the middle; thebastard wing is also half black, half
blue ; under wing coverts white; the inner webs of the quills white
halfway from the base; tail blue, rather deeper than the rest, dusky
beneath; shape a little rounded, the outmost feather being about
half an inch shorteffifthan the tW*tfmidlll&>ones ; all the under parts
from breast to vent/Jctefisky bluish white; legs crimson.
Inhabits Sierra Leone.—In the collection of Mr. H. Brogden.
13—DUN KINGSFISHER.
LENGTH nine inches and a half. Bill two inches, colour yellowish, more inclined to that of box ; head, neck, beginning of the
back, and beneath the body, pale brown, or dirty rufous, nearly white
on the chin ; and on the back and belly rufous brown ; the feathers
of the crown elongated, but scarcely to be called crested ; wings and
tail pale blue green ; legs pale, almost white.
Inhabits Africa, and seems somewhat allied to the Senegal Species, but has a longer tail, and the wings reach only to the base.—
Mr. Woodford.
14—MENINGTING KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo Meningting, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 177.
LENGTH five inches and a quarter. Plumage above dusky
black; middle of the back sea-green; rump blue; beneath bay;
throat, and a spot on the neck on both sides, white; a dusky white
streak between the bill and eyes; and the scapulars marked with
some spots of blue.
Inhabits Java, called there Meningting.
 22 KINGSFISHER.
15—BIRU KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo Biru, Lin. Trans, xiii. ]p. 172.
LENGTH five inches and a quarter.   GeneraJ^our pale azure;
quills brown within ; chin, throat, afcdr^lffefeReath white.
Inhabits Java; called by the natives Meningting-watu.
16.—WHITE-HEADED KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo leucocephala, Ind. Orn.i. 248.
Trans, xiii. p. 174.
Martin-pescheur a tete et Cou couleur
Javan Kingsfisher, Shaw's Zool. viii. j
White-headed Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. i!
i. Lin. i. 456.     Nat. Misc. pl. 798.     Lin.
de paille, Buf. vii.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill near three inches long, and red;
head, neck, and under parts of the body white, with a tinge of straw
colour; chin white; top of the head streaked with black; wings and
tail deep greenish blue; back blue green; quills brown, edged wltl*
blue.
Inhabits the Island of Java, called there Tingke-buto.
17—TENROU-JOULON KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo flavicans, Ind. Orn.i. 248.    Gm. Lin.i. 456.
Ten-rou-joulon, Hist. gen. des Voy. x. 459. Buf vii. 191. Gen. Syn. ii. 617. 8.   Sect, ii
 ! p. 82.
Flavescent Kingsfisher, Shaw's Zool. v
SIZE of a Lark.  Bill red; head and back green; belly yellosHsfc;
tail of the finest blue imaginable.
Inhabits the Island of Celebes, and there called Teii^odfejfarilpn.
 KINGSFISHER.
?7This has been thought by M. Buffon to vary but little from the
test, but it is much inferior in size, and the head is expressly said to
be green.
18—CRAB-EATING KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo cancrophaga, Ind. Orn. i. 249.
Martin-pescheur, appelle Crabier, Buf. vii. 183.    Pl. enl. 334.
Crab-eating Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 618.    Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 71. pl. 8.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill deep ferruginous; upper part of
the body and tail fine blue green; the outer edges of the quills the
same, with black tips; on the wing coverts a large bed of black;
behind each eye a streak of the same; the under part of the body
pale fulvous yellow; legs ferruginous.
Inhabits Senegal, and called there Crabier; feeds on a small species
of Land Crab found in the woods, and rarely or never frequents the
water.
19.—SENEGAL KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo Senegalensis, Ind. Orn. i. 249.    Lin. i. 180.    Gm. Lin. i. 455.
Alcedo-semicoerulea, Forsk. Faun. Arab. p. 2. 5.    Gm. Lin. i. 455.
Grand M. pescheur du Senegal, Bris. iv. 494. t.40.1.    Id. 8vo. ii. 182.
Martin-pescheur a tete grise, Buf. vii. 194.    Pl. enl. 594.
Senegal Kingsfisher, .Gen. Syn. ii. 618. 9. A.    Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 72. pl. 9.
SIZE of a Starling; length nine inches. Bill two inches long ;
the upper mandible red, the lower black; head, throat, and neck,
light grey, deeper on the head; between the bill and eye a black
mark, reaching to the eye; back and scapulars blue; lesser wing
coverts, and some of the greater ones nearest the body, black; the
greater black, with the outer edges blue; quills white within at the
base, the outer margins blue green; the rest of them for their whole
 24
KINGSFISHER.
length, and tips black; tail black, the upper surface of the two
middle feathers, and outer edges of all the others, blue green; legs
black.
Inhabits Senegal, fonnd also about Yemen, in Arabia, by Forskal,
who minutely describes it. I observed in one, said to come from
Sierra Leone, that the black space between the bill and eye, is larger,
and quite surrounds the latter.
-Alcedo snbn
619. 9. B.
albis, &c.    Ind. Orn
Length above nine inches. Bill strait, an inch and a half
long, red; irides hazel; head and neck dusky white; wings black,
with a bar of blue across the middle; breast and belly ferruginous ;
some of the feathers of the former with yellowish margins; the inside
of the wings is first ferruginous, then whitish, and afterwards dusky;
tail blue above, dusky beneath ; legs red.
Inhabits St. Jago, particularly a small islet in the harbour, called
Quail Island; feeds on the blue land crabs, whose numerous
habitations are round and deep holes in the dry parched soil; found
also in Abyssinia, as I learned from the drawings of Mr. Bruce.
B.—Martin-pecheur blei
Gen. Syn. ii. 619. 9.
rdu Senegal,   Buf.v
. 194. PL enl. 356, low,
This is rather larger than the Common Kingsfisher; length
eight inches. Bill rufous ; upper part of the head and neck bluish
white; back, second quills, and tail deep blue; wing coverts and
greater quills black ; the upper parts rufous yellow ; legs reddish.
Inhabits Senegal.
 KINGSFISHER. 25
20—WHITE COLLARED KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo caerulea, Ind. Orn. i. 250.    Gm. Lin. i. 454.
Ispida Indica torquata, Bris. iv. 481. t. 37. 2. A.    Id. 8vo. ii. 179.
White-collared Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 620.     Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 94.    Nat. Misc.
pl. 269.
THIS is larger than our Common Kingsfisher; length six inches
and three quarters. Bill nearly one inch and three quarters long;
grey at the base, and blackish towards the tip. The plumage fine
blue above, and rufous beneath; on the throat very pale; above the
eye, from the base of the bill, a white line, and another round the
neck like a collar; under the eye a rufous spot; rump and upper tail
coverts fine green; legs grey.
Inhabits the East Indies.
21— SACRED KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo sacra, Ind. Orn. i.' 250.    Gm.Lin. i. 453.
Sacred Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 621.    Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 78.
THIS is bigger and stouter than the Common Kingsfisher; length
nine inches and a half. The bill strong, depressed, one inch and
three quarters long, and lead-coloured, but the under part of it is
white; the head and below the eye on each side, as well as the upper
parts of the body, light blue green, darkest about the ears; over the
eye a pale ferruginous stripe, beginning at the nostrils, and meeting
at the back part of the head; under the blue, beneath the eye, a
narrow orange ferruginous stripe, and beneath that, on the nape, a
band of blue; quills and tail blackish, the outer edges blue, appearing when closed wholly blue; all the under parts are white, with
a tinge of buff-colour round the neck like a collar; legs black.
 KINGSFISHER.
Inhabits Otaheite, and the other Society Isles in the South Seas;
at the first it is called Kooto-o-oo*
A.—SacredKingsfisher, Gen. Syn.ii. 621. 12. A.    Ind. Orn.i. 250. 15. /3.
This variety has a white band over the eye to the hindhead,
instead of ferruginous; beneath this, at the nape, one of black,
which is blue in the other ; the scapulars also are more inclined to
green, and darker than in the former bird; and the white on the
neck, and sides of the breast, has each feather fringed with ash-
colour; the knees of both are black, a very little way up on the
outside.—In one of these was observed a very slender black line,
dividing the white collar on the neck, in the middle.
-Sacred Kingsfishe
Lin. Trans, xiii. p
Gen. Syn. ii 622. 12 B. pl. 27.    Ind. Orn. i. 250. 15. y.
Size of the others. Bill the same; crown of the head greenish
black; over the eye a ferruginous streak; beneath, and even with the
eye, a broad black streak, passing to the hindhead, and surrounding
it; chin and throat white ; neck, breast, and belly pale ferruginous,
passing round the neck as a collar, and the feathers of the latter
margined with dusky; outside of the thighs blackish; back and
wings like the head ; rump pale bluish green; quills and tail blackish,
the feathers margined outwardly with blue; legs dusky.
Inhabits Ulietea.—This Variety is also found in Java, and simply
called Tengke.
C—Sacred Kingsfisher, (
Journ. pl. in p. 193.
en. Syn. ii. 612. 12. C.     Ind. Orn
Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 79. Var.
In this the crow is blue, the feathers very long, and formings
crest; the rest of the head black ; throat, and round the neck white?
* Cook's last Voyage, Append.
   KINGSFISHER.
a streak over the eye, the hind part of the neck, and the belly buff-
coloured ; vent black; wings and tail-Blue; round the knee black;
legs brown.
This was found at Dusky Bay, New Zealand, and called Ghotarre.
D.—Sacred Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. Sup. 114. 12. D.    Ind. Orn.i. 251. 15. e.
Crown of the head greenish black; over the eyes a streak, which
is whitish before, and greenish behind; round the neck a white
collar; back dusky black ; wing coverts pale green, with yellowish
edges; quills and tail black, edged with blue; under parts of the
body whitish, tinged with dusky yellow on the breast; vent and
under wing coverts very pale yellow.
Inhabits New Zealand, and there called Poopoo-whouroo-roa.
22—COLLARED KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo collaris, Ind. Orn. i. 250.
Martin-pecheur a Collier blanc,   Buf vii. 192.     Son. Voy. 67. t. 33.     Gm. Syn. ii.
623. 12. D.
Sacred Kingsfisher, Phill. Bot. Bay, t. p. 156.    Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 80.
ACCORDING to Sonnerat, it is less than a Blackbird. Bill
black : the lower mandible yellow at the base; head, back, wings,
and tail blue, tinged with green; the under parts of the body white,
extending round the middle of the neck like a collar; legs blackish.
Inhabits the Philippine Islands. From the distribution of the
colours, although not quite the same, this bird might pass for a
further Variety of the Sacred Kingsfisher; but the bill seems in Son-
nerat's figure to be longer, and more slender in proportion, and is
nearly strait.—A specimen in Mr. Bullock's Museum had a bar of
blue across the breast.
 28
KINGSFISHER.
A.—In a Variety found in New-Holland is a rufous spot between
the bill and eye, and from that a white stripe passing under the eye
to hindhead: this is seven inches and a half long ; the bill one inch
and a half, under mandible pale at the base; legs red.
Another, called by the English, Vernal Kingsfisher, blue above,
and pale rufous beneath; chin and vent nearly white ; between the
bill and eye a triangular rufous spot as in the other, but no white
stripe under the eye.
These were supposed to be male and female.
23— GREEN-HEADED KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo chlorocephala, Ind. Orn. i. 250.    Gn
t. Lin. i. 454.    Lin
. Tram
p. 174.
Martin-pecheur a tSte verte, Buf. vii. 190.
Pl.enl. 783. 2.
Green-headed Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 620.
Nat. Mis. pl. 525.
Shau
;'s Zot
>l. viii. p. 77.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill blackish ; head green, surrounded
with a streak of black, appearing like a green hood ; back dusky
black, changing to blue green on the wings and tail; beneath from
chin to vent white ; tail dusky beneath ; the quills and legs are also
dusky.
Inhabits Bouro, one of the Molucca Islands, and seems somewhat allied to the Collared Species. Dr. Horsfield met with this in
Java, where it is called Tengke-cheger.
24—VENERATED KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo venerata, Ind. Orn. i. 251.    Gm. Lin. i. 453.
Venerated Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 623.    Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 81.
LENGTH nine inches.    Bill one inch and three quarters long,
much depressed, and black, but the base of the under mandible for
 1
KINGSFISHER. 29
above half an inch is white; plumage above light brown, in some
parts mixed with greenish feathers, in others tinged only with glossy
green; from the eye to the hindhead this last colour is very conspicuous, forming a kind of wreath round the back of the head,
where it inclines to white; wing coverts brown, many of them
margined with green; the secondaries the same, and several as
long as the greater quills, which are only edged with green for
about half their length ; the under parts of the body are very pale;
the tail not quite four inches long, rounded at the end, and coloured
as the quills; the shafts of both quills and tail chestnut; legs dusky.
Inhabits Apye, one of the Friendly Isles, where it is sacred
among the natives, as is that of Otaheite.
A.—In Mr. Woodford's drawings is one eight inches and a half
long. Bill one inch and a half to gape, black ; top of the head very
pale brown, with a few dark streaks; over the eye, from the nostrils,
a pale line, fringing the crown quite round like a wreath; head,
neck, and back very pale brown; beneath from the breast dusky
white; wings and tail greenish brown ; legs red.
25.-RESPECTED KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo tuta, Ind. Orn. i. 251.    Gm. Lin. 453.
Respected Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 624.    Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 81.
SIZE of the Common Kingsfisher; length eight inches and a
half. Bill depressed, black, and one inch and a half in length, the
lower mandible white; the upper parts of the body are olive-green ;
over the eye a white streak; round the neck a collar of greenish
black ; under parts of the body from the chin white; tail longish ;
legs black.
 KINGSFISHER.
.Inhabits otaheite, «ad there called Erooro; is held sacred,* and
not allowed to bddjyUed or taken.
26—BLACK-WINGED KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo melanoptera, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 174.
LENGTH ten inches. The head and scapulars are black; back,
rump, and belly blue ; quills sea-green, tips and under sides brown,
B^fl^ed with broad white bands; the throat, and a collar round the
neck sooty bay colour; tail sea-green, beneath brownish.
Inhabits Java, known there by the name ot Tengke-urang.
27— BMCK-CAPPED KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo atricapilla, Ind. Orn.i. 251.    Gm. Lin. i. 453.
pflfertia-p^cbenr, .fcOoiffenoifenBuf.-^,.-J89.   PL en/,-*^; J-
-'Bl^siipepaKijJgsfesher, Gen. Syn. ii. 624.   Nat. Misc. pl. 465.    Sh,
LENGTH ten inches. Bill large, and of a bright red; the head
and hind part of the neck are black ; back, tail, and middle of the
wings deep glossy violet-blue; the shoulders, wing coverts, and ends
of the wings black; throat, fore part of the neck, and breast
white f encirclijajg the neck at the lower part near the back ; belly
pale rufous; legs red.
Inhabits China.
* These birds are probably esteemed as sacred, on account of their being seen fre-
■ quently flying about theMorais or burial places—Parkin. JoumJ 70. But the'K&jgfefisher
is not the only animal held sap^d<^yf4$iQ.JsJan4ers, as; Herons, Rats, and Fliisp,- enter the
same list.—Parkin. Journ. Errat. p. 22. Forst. Voy. i. 519.—Women and children were
most afraid of doing injury to the Kingsfisher ; yet all persons did not mtrtcHti^fc* some of
the natives were ready to point them out for our people to shoot a.t.~Forst; J§y. i. 378.
I fancy, therefore, $fcMlp.\(}vw no mora than what js paid bji; t^ep. nwpds. to the Redbreast and Wren, in England, only carried to a greater length,
t One in Lord Mountnorris's drawings had the collar and under parts verypale-fnfous.
 n
KINGSFISHER. 31
A.—Martin pecheur de Lu^on, Son. Voy. 65. t. 31.    Gen. Syn* ii.. 625. 15. A.    Ind.
Orn. i. 251. j3.
Less than a Blackbird. Top of the head, and behind the neck
brown ; this surrounds the eye, and passes below it on each side, to
the middle of the upper mandible; from the nostrils to the eye a
whitish stripe; the upper parts -and middle of the back brown;
rump and upper tail coverts glossy sky-blue ; tail deep blue; wing-
coverts brown ; quills blackish blue in the middle, and dull black
at the ends; throat to vent white; in the middle of each feather a
longish brown streak; round the lower part of the neck the white
passes round it like a collar.
Inhabits the Island of Luconia.
B.—Black-capped Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn ii. 626. 15. B.  Ind. Orn.i. 252. 18. $.
Length ten inches. Bill thick, two inches and a half long, and
red ; body above black, mixed with ferruginous, the feathers of the
head longest; quills and tail blue green within, and shafts dark
coloured ; throat and breast white; on the last some of the feathers
are tinged with pale green; belly ferruginous brown ; legs red.
Inhabits the South Sea, but what part uncertain.
C—Black-capped Kingsfisher. Gen. Syn. Sup. 115. 15. C.
Length eleven inches. Bill four inches, colour deep red; the
head and all above the body deep blue; wing coverts dusky black;
quills the same, with the inner webs of many white, and the tips of
all black; the under parts of the body white, running back like a
crescent at the lower part of the neck; legs black.
I met with this in the collection of the late Mr. Bodda&ffdl-It
appeared as a Variety of the Black-capped, if not diffeianghin sex
 32
KINGSFISHER.
I have also seen a drawing, in which one sex had the top of the
head, and dark parts of the wings and quills, brown instead of black.
D.—Length eleven inches. Bill one inch and three quarters,
red, and stout; the head, even with the under jaw, pale rufous
brown ; neck and under parts pale rufous yellow; wings pale blue
green; back and rump pale verditer blue; tail blue, but deeper;
quills black; legs dull red.
Inhabits India.
28—BLACK-BACKED KINGSFISHER.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill from the gape to point nearly two
inches, stout, and crimson; head, neck, and breast pale brownish
ash-colour ; top of the head and sides much darker; chin very pale,
but not quite white; belly, thighs, vent, under wing and tail coverts
ferruginous; at the beginning of the back a portion of black; but
the rest of the back, rump, and tail fine lucid blue, deepest on the
last, the under part of which is dusky, in shape rounded at the end;
scapulars and wing coverts black, the outer webs of the secondaries
glossy blue for the greater part of the length, the prime ones the same
halfway from the base, but within for the same space white ; legs
red, claws black-
Inhabits Sierra Leone.—In the collection of Mr. H. Brogden.
29—LIBYAN KINGSFISHER.
LENGTH six inches.    Bill stout, one inch and a half long, dull
red, with a dusky point, the upper mandible wholly dusky ; crown
 KINGSFISHER. 33
full of narrow, longish feathers, which may be erected as a crest,
the colour of them pale ash, streaked with black; behind the eye a
dusky streak, passing towards and surrounding:the nape; neck and
all round dusky white, with a narrow dusky streak down the shafts
of the feathers ; chin and throat plain white ; breast and belly pale
yellowish dun, with narrow, long, blackish streaks; vent the same,
but not streaked ; back and rump fine blue; lesser, wing coverts and
scapulars brown ; greater coverts whitish,. with black ends; the rest
of the wing pale greenish blue, except the ends of the quills, which
are black, the edge of the wing from the bend half way white, and
the greater quills white not far from the base; tail short, dusky blue;
the wings reach to about half the length ; legs pale red.
Inhabits Senegal.—From the collection of Gen. Davies. I found
also a specimen among Mr. Salt's birds, from Abyssinia, shot at
Chelicut, in the bed of a brook, closely shaded with trees and shrubs.
One, in the collection of Mr. Comyns, had the dusky black streak
continued from behind the eye wholly round the hindhead; the
greater quills white a little way from the base, forming a spot; the rest
of the length for one inch and a half dusky; the second quill fringed
with pale blue; and the middle of the. back and rump of this last
colour, very bright, and the greater wing;COverts streaked brown and
white, forming a longish patch on the wing.t v.
This was brought from Sierra Leone.
30.—NUBIAN KINGSFISHER.
LENGTH six inches. Bill stout, one inch and a half long
from the gape, upper mandible dusky, the lower orange, with a
dusky tip; head crested, and streaked as in the last described, but
darker; the middle of the back fine blue; scapulars and wing coverts
 34 KINGSFISHER.
brown, the margins of some of the last dusky white; quills white
within half way from the base ; greater quills dusky, outer margins
deep blue; all beneath from the breast dusky white, tending to buff
beyond the breast, streaked with narrow lines of black in the middle,
and broader ones on the sides; tail deep blue; legs orange.
In the collection of Mr. Salt, and probably differs in sex from the
last described; for though the distribution of colours is not far
different, it has the black streak from behind the eye to the nape.
31 .—FERRUGINOUS-BELLIED KINGSFISHER.
LENGTH nearly nine inches. Bill from the gape two inches
and a quarter, very stout, at the base near three quarters of an inch,
declining by degrees to a point, colour pale dusky yellow; crown of
the head and nape, and each side as low as the jaw, black ; chin and
throat to the breast dusky white, passing round the neck in a narrow
collar; back dark, toward the rump pale glossy blue; wing coverts
clouded, glossy blue; quills dusky, edged outwardly with bluish ;
beneath from the breast deep ferruginous ; tail blue; legs yellow.
The other sex has the lower part of the white throat, and collar
inclining to rufous; tail deep rufous instead of blue ; but whether
this is the male or female we are not informed.
Inhabits the South Seas, but the place not ascertained.
 KINGSFISHER. 35
32—COMMON KINGSFISHER,
Alcedo Ispida, Ind. Orn. i. 252.   Lin. i. 179.    Mus. Ad. Frid. i. 16.    Scop. i. No. 64.
Gm. Lin.i. 448.    Raii 48. A. 1.    Will. 101. t. 24.    Bris. iv. 471.   Id. 8vo.ii. 176.
Klein33. 1.   Id. Stem. t.5. f. 1. a.b.    Id. Ov. t.4. C.    FmcAt.223.    Mull. No.
105.    Bran, in App.    Gesn. Av. pl. in p. 513.     Faun. Arag. p. 73.     Bor. Nat. ii.
143.    Schcef El.t. 41.   BecAs*. Deaf*, ii. 534.   Id. JEd. 2d. ii. 1106.    Shaw's Zool.
Lect. t. 59.    Nat. Misc. pl. 129.    Tern. Man. 262.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 423.
Eissvogel, Guntk. Nest. u. Ey. t. 56.     Wirs. Vog. t. 3.   Naturf ix. s. 5.   Id. xiii. 182.
*>'• *j<*!*xii. 121.
Uccello pescatore (Santa Maria), Olin. Uc. t. p. 39.     Cett. Uc. Sard. 99.     Zinnan. Uov.
116. t. 22. f. 106.    Gerin. t. 493.    Spal. Vog. iii. 1.17.
Martin-pescheur, Bvf vii. 164. pl. 9.    Pl. enl. 77.
Der gemeine lasur blaue Eisvogel, Schmid Vog. 52. t. 40.
Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 626.    Id. Sup. 115.    Br. Zool. i. No. 88. pl. 38.    Id.fol. 82.
pl. 1.    Id. 1812. i. 326. pl. 42.    Arct. Zool. ii. 280. A.    J/im. i. pl. 54.    Collins's
Birds, pl. 2. f. 4. & pl. 11. f. 2.    Brad/. JVaf. 1.11. f. 1.    Will. Engl. 146. pl, 24.
Bewick ii. pl. p. 19.     Lewin Birds, ii. t. 52.     Walcot Birds, i. t. 52.    Donov. iv.
1.100.     Grav. Br. Orn. ii. pl. 13.      Wood Zoogr. i. 449. pl. 20.     Pult. Cat. p. 6,
Shaw's Zool. viii. 80. pl. 10.    Orn. Diet. Sf Sup.
THIS, the most beautiful of British birds, is in length seven
inches, in breadth eleven, and weighs one ounce and a quarter. Bill
near two inches long, and black, but the base of the under mandible
is yellow ; irides red; top of the head, side and wing coverts dark
green, changing into blue ; and marked with transverse spots of a
brighter, and very lucid blue; the tail deep blue ; but the middle of
the back, and the tail coverts are bright azure ; at the base of the
upper mandible an orange spot, at the upper corner of which is a
small patch of white, and under that a black mark; behind the eye
a broad rufous orange-coloured stripe, passing a little way on each
side of the neck, and beneath this, a patch of white; chin white,
with a tinge of rufous ; the rest of the parts beneath rufous orange;
legs red.
I do. not find any material difference between the male and female.
 36
KINGSFISHER.
This is a common species in England, as well as in the greater
part of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Specimens have been received
from China, Bengal, Ceylon, and Egypt,* precisely the same as to
colours with ours; that from China seemed to us smaller, and was
called Ju-loang. Belon remarks his having met with it in Romania
and Graecia ;f and Scopoli notices it as a bird of Camiola,$ where it
remains the whale year, as in England; and indeed, it bears in general
the rigour of the colder climates, so that it has gained among the
Germans the name of Eiszvogel, or Ice Bird.§ Olina speaks of it, as
not regarding the ice or cold; || and Gmelin assures us that it is found
in Tartary, Siberia;** and Russia, though only in the temperate
parts. It is an uncommon bird in Denmark,tf and not at all found
in Sweden, as it does not enter the list of birds in the Fauna Suecica
of Linnaeus. It certainly bears the cold of our climate sufficiently
well, yet there are few winters in which some of these birds do not
appear to perish from cold, as to my knowledge several have been
foundV-frozen stiff by the sides of even running water, without the
least sign of any mark of violence. It is chiefly seen about fresh
water streams, but not unfrequently in the neighbourhood of salt
water rivers4+
M. Daubenton is said to have kept Kingsfishers in a cage for
several months, by means of small fish put into basins of-water, on
which they have fed, for they refused all other kinds of nourishment.
The Kingsfisher lays as far as seven |||| semi-taatasparent white
eggs, in a hole in the bank of a river or stream which it frequents ;
sometimes two or three feet in depth, always ascending, and very
frequently makes use of an old rat's hole for that purpose ; at the
* Sonnin. Tr. ii. p. 55. f Nat. des Ois. p. 220. + Scop. Ann. i. 55.
§ Gesner. Av. 551. || Uccel. p. 39. ** Voy. au Siber. ii. 112. ff Muller.
XX It has been seen at times balancing itself over the water, in which a great many small
round shining beetles * were swimming swiftly in a circular, and which it makes its prey.—
Br. Zool. 1812. V. i. 335. |||| Gesner says, as for as nine, Av. p. 514. C.
• Gyrinus natator, or GUinmercbaffer, Zib.—See Wood's Illustr. of Insects, part i. p. 19. pl. 5.
 n
KINGSFISHER. 37
end, which is hollowed oatj and enlarged, i$ found a bed of fish
bones, on which the eggs are laid, and the young hatched; and it
is observed, that it is not the remains of the fish on which it feeds,
which foul the habitation, as the bird swallows the fish, bones and
all, and brings up the indigestible parts, like the birds of prey.*
The Tartars and Ostiaks are said to make use of the feathers of
this bird as a love charm, and put the bill, feet, and skin into a purse,
as a preservative against misfortunes.-]- The Kingsfisher, too, has
given rise to many fictions, to be met with among the poets, and
accounts of old authors: two, at least, of which we know to be
untrue—the one, its capability of calming the sea for a certain
number of days—the other, its preventing the depredation of moths
on woollen cloths, if kept among them in the wardrobe ; X again,
it is asserted, that if one of these birds is suspended by a string,
it will, by turning about, shew a change of weather; but the effect
is produced by the string alone, which coils and uncoils according
to the dryness or moisture of the atmosphere.
The more antient classical, as well as other writers, have noticed
the Kingsfisher. Virgil ranks it among the singing birds, and makes
its song to be equal with that of the Acanthis,§ probably either our
Siskin or Linnet, if not the Goldfinch ; all of which have pleasing
notes; but so distant is the Kingsfisher from a songster, that we
cannot learn that it has any note whatever beyond that of a scream,
frequently uttered whilst flying ;|| nor were Ceyx and his wife,
who, according to Ovid, were changed into Alcyons, remarked for
* Orn. Diet. f -drct. Zool.
X It has been called Oiseau de teigne, Drapier, and Garde boutique, from the supposed
property of preserving woollen from being moth-eaten; but so far from preserving them,
it falls a prey itself to the moth, equally with other birds:
§ Littoraque Halcyonem resonant, et Acanthida dumi.
Virg. Georg. iii. 1. 338.
Pliny, too, talks of it as a Singing Bird.—See B. X. ch. 32.
(I Col. Montagu in his Orn. Diet, says, that the young birds in the nest are continually
chirping, when impatient for a supply of food from their parents, insomuch as often to be*
tray the situation of their nest.
 38
KINGSFISHER.
singing before their transformation ;* we may, therefore, presume,
that the Halcyon of old authors, if really a singing bird, is not
likely to prove the Kingsfisher, at present known under that apella-
tion ; but, the reader will find this more fully treated of in the British
Zoology, to which we refer him.
33—BABOUCARD KINGSFISHER.
Ispida Senegalensis, Bris.
Le Baboucard, Buf. vii. IJ
t. 485. t. 39. I.
}.    Gen.Syn. ii
Id. 8vo. ii. 180.
, 618. 16. A.
Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 423.
SIZE of the last; length six inches and a half. Bill brown;
head and hind part of the neck dull green, each feather tipped with
a brighter green spot; on the sides of the head are two fulvous spots,
the one between the bill and eye, the other behind the latter, and
very small; the back fine blue green with a small mixture of brown;
rump and upper tail coverts bright blue green ; throat pale yellow;
the under parts of the body orange; the scapulars dull green; wing
coverts the same, tipped with bright blue green; quills brown • the
outer edge green, the inner orange; the lesser the same, but the
inner margins brown; tail brown, the two middle feathers, and the
outer edges of the others blue green; legs reddish.
Inhabits Senegal, whence it was sent by M. Adanson. It has many
things in common with the European one, and by some supposed to
be the same, but it is most probably a distinct species.
* Ovid. Metam. Lib. xi. I. 745,
 KINGSFISHER.
34— RED-HEADED KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo erithaca, Ind. Orn. i. 253.    Lin. i. 179.    Gm. Lin. i. 449.
Ispida Bengalensis torquata, Bris. iv. 503.    Id. 8vo. ii. 185.
Martin-p£cheur a front jaune, Buf. vii. 195.
Bengal Kingsfisher, Alb. iii. pl. 29.
Red-headed Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii, 629.     Shaw's Zool. viii. p. i
pl. 317.
SIZE of the Common Species; length six inches and a quarter;
Bill one inch and a half long, and red; upper part of the head
dull red; on the forehead a yellow spot; on each side of the head a
streak of black, from the base of the bill, through the eye; behind
it another band of deep blue; the hind part of the neck encircled
with a collar of white; from this to the rump, deep blue; the rump
itself, upper tail coverts, and tail, dull red; throat white; sides of
the head, under the eyes, and all beneath fine yellow; wing coverts
and quills light ash-colour; legs bright red.
Inhabits Bengal.
A.—Red-headed Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 629. A.    Gen. Birds 61. pl 5.
Less than the former. Bill red ; near the base of the upper
mandible a white spot; head and back part of the neck orange red;
from each eye, towards the back, a purple line, terminating in a white
spot, and within that one of black; chin white; back a rich blue,
the lower part of it light purple ; wing coverts black, edged with
blue; quills black ; breast and belly yellowish white; legs red.
Inhabits India, and somewhat resembles the following.
■I
 40
KINGSFISHEffc
35— PURPLE KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo purpurea, Ind. Orn. i. 253. Gm. Lin
Martin-p&cheur pourpre, Buf vii. 199. Pl.
Purple Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 630.    Shan
i. 449.
ml. 778. 2.
'sZool. viii. p. 96. pl. 11.
SIZE of the last. Bill red ; head, rump, and tail gilded rufous,
with a tinge of blue and purple ; back and wing coverts rich blue
black; quills black ; behind the eye a light purple streak, which
finishes at the back part with bright blue; throat white; the under
parts of the body gilded rufous white ; legs red,
Inhabits the East Indies; brought from Pondicherry.
36—RUFOUS  KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo Madagascariensis; Ind. Orn. i. 254. Lin. i. 179. Gm. I
Ispida Madagascariensis, Bris.iv. 508. t. 38. f. 1. Zd.8vo.ii. I
Martin-pecheur roux de Madag. Buf vii. 199. Pl. enl. 778. I.
Rufous Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 631.
ii
LENGTH five inches and a quarter. Bill sixteen lines long,
and red ; plumage on the upper parts of the body rufous; throa^,^^
fore part of the neck white; the rest to the vent rufous white ; quills
blackish; tail the same with the two middle feathers, and the outer
edges of all the rest rufous ; legs red.
Inhabits Madagascar, and seems much allied to the Purple
Species.
 KINGSFISHER. 41
37—BLUE-HEADED KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo ceeruleocephala, Ind. Orn.i. 254.    Gm. Lin. i. 449.
Martin-pecheur a tete bleu, Buf. vii. 198.
Petit Martin-pecheur du Senegal, PL enl. 356.—upper figure.
Blue-headed Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 631.    Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 100,
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill thirteen lines long, and
red; crown bright blue, waved with blue green ; back and wings
blue; quills blackish; throat white; the rest of the under parts
rufous; legs red.
Inhabits Madagascar, also India: there called Lokao mukie.
A.—Todus cceruleus, Ind. Orn. i. 266.    Gm. Lin. i. 444.
Alcedo pusilla, Nat. Misc. p. 159.    Shaw's Zool. viii, p. 101.
Todier bleu a ventre rouge, Buf. vii. 229.
Todier de Juida, PL enl. 783.    Salem. Orn. 126.
Martin-pecheur a dos bleu, Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. ii. p. 441. t. 62. f. 2.
Blue Tody, Gen. Syn. ii. 659.
This is no more than three inches and a half long. Bill flesh-colour;
upper parts of the body, wings, and tail deep blue ; throat white;
beneath the eye a purplish spot; sides of the head, neck, and belly
fine orange; legs flesh-colour.
Inhabits Whidah, in Africa. I have seen in some a few spots of
blue on the wing coverts.
B.—Alcedo caeruleocephala, Ind. Orn.i. 254. 27. y.
Blue-headed Kingsfisher, Gen, Syn. Sup. ii. 115.
Length four inches.    Bill red ; crown barred blue and black, the
feathers margined with rufous; the rest of the head to the breast
 42
KINGSFISHER,
rufous yellow; back and wing coverts fine blue; quills and tail
rufous brown; belly white; legs red.
C—Blue-headed Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 631. 20.    Sect. ii.
This differs from the last in having a white tuft on each side of
the neck near the wing. I received this from Guinea, from whence
the other Varieties were had ; we are informed also, that they inhabit
the Province of Congo; Var. A. being common at Malemba, on
the borders qfj^freams, and near the sea coasts, where it is called
Tjftgpzi; is very tame, and frequently seen to fly to the right and
left, for the purpose of telling the way to travellers, as the Negroes
think, on which account no one attempts to injure it.
D.—Alcedo ultramarina, Shaw's Zool. viii. 21. pl. 901.     Daud. An. Mus. Nat. ii. 443.
This is a small Species, of which the bill is whitish, tip fulvous ;
plumage blue, beneath fulvous; crown subcristated, striped transversely with black.
Inhabits Malemba, in Africa. Dr. Shaw thinks is most like the
Crested, but inclines to believe it a new species.
38.—ROSE-CHEEKED KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo ultramarina, Ultramarine Kings
Nat. Misc. xxi. pl. 901 ?
Daud. Ann. Mus. H. Nat. ii. p. 443 ?
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill one inch long, fine red;
crown of the head very deep blue, the feathers edged with obscure
paler blue; back, rump, and wing coverts fine deep blue, marked
oatfyftJafter with paier blue spots; quills and tail dusky, edged
with .blue ; the upper tail coverts reach half way on the tail, giving
 KINGSFISHER. 43
the whole a blue appearance; chin white ; sides of the head, and all
beneath pale rufous, passing round the neck as a collar; on each
cheek a large rose-coloured, purplish patch; legs pale yellow.
One, supposed "to be a female, had no paler spots on the wings,
and the rose purple patch on the cheeks much smaller; the greater
quills, with the inner webs, rufous for three-fourths of the length, as
also the tail feathers; legs red.
Inhabits Africa; supposed to have come from Sierra Leone, or
Malemba.
39— BLUE-BREASTED KINGSFISHER.
LENGTH scarcely five inches. Bill one inch and a half, black;
the head on each side even with the eyes, and bill blue; between
thi^nbstrils and eye a white streak; beneath from the chin white,
passing round the neck in a narrow ring, or collar; body above, and
wings verditer blue, coming forwards in a broad belt over the breast;
from thence the belly, thighs, and vent white; on the crown and
wing coverts some lighter coloured, and glossy feathers, mixed; quills
black; under wing coverts white ; tail blue; legs pale red.
This is a most elegant species, although the plumage consists
only of two colours, viz: verditer blue and white. Its native place
uncertain, supposed to be Africa.
40—INDIAN KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo Bengalensis, Ind. Orn. i. 254.    Gm. Lin. i. 450.
Ispida Bengalensis, Bris. iv. 475.    Id. 8vo. ii. 177.    Klein Av. 34. 2.
Martin-pecheur de Bengale, Buf. vii. 201.
Little Indian Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 631.     Edw. pl. 11.—lower figure.    Shaw's
Zool. viii. p. 102.
LENGTH four inches and a half.    Bill sixteen lines, black,
with the base of the lower mandible flesh-coloured; upper parts of
 44 KINGSFISHER.
of the body blue green; the head transversely striped with deep
blue; through the eye passes a rufous streak towards the neck on
each side; throat white; under parts of the body rufous; wing
coverts blue green; the feathers tipped with bright blue; quills and
tail brown ; the last consisting of twelve feathers, edged with blue
green ; legs dull red,
A.—Ispida Bengalensis minor, Rm. iv. 477.    Id. 8vo. ii. 178.    Klein, 342.    Ind. Orn.
i. 255. 25. /3.
Little Indian Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn ii. 632. 21. A.    Edw. pl. 11. upper figure.
This is rather less. Instead of the rufous streak through the
eye, it has two spots, one at the base of the upper mandible, the
other behind each eye; quills and tail brown.
Both these came from Bengal, and may be varieties, if not
differing in sex ; said to be called Chute Maus Runga by the Mus-
sulmen, and Maus Runga at Bengal; frequents the bushes near the
water about Calcutta, making the nest in banks or in mud walls;
eggs white.
B.—Little India
jsfisher, Gen. Syn, Sup. i
In Vosmaer's Monog. 1768, t. iv. are two of the genus, which
seem to belong to this, or the Blue-headed species ; both are rufous
yellow, more or less, but one of them has a blue back ; these are
the size of the common species.
C.—Gen. Syn, Sup. ii. 144. Parag. ii.
This is smaller than the last. Bill red brown ; general colour
greenish grey; under the ear a white patch; second quills blue;
tail dusky ; under parts of the body dull red ; legs lead-colour.
 KINGSFISHER. 45
I met with this last among the drawings of the late Mr. Pigou.
It inhabits China, and there called Taaou-yu-tchin, signifying the
catcher of fish. We have separated this and the following into two,
according to their synonyms, but think it most probable that they
form but one species.
41.—CRESTED KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo cristata, Ind. Orn. i. 255.    Lin.i. 178,    Gm. Lin.i. 447.     Seb. Mus. i.  t.63.
f. 4.      Bor. Nat. ii. 145.     Naturf xiii. 182.     Bechst. Deutchs. ii. 539.     Nat.
Misc. i. t. 13.
Ispida rostro luteo, Klein Av. 35. 5.
  Philippensis cristata, Bris. iv. 483. t. 37. 3.    Id. 8vo.ii. 180.
Petit Martin-pecheur huppe, Vintsi, Buf. vii. 205.    Pl. enl. 756. 1.
Crested Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 632.    Edw. pl. 336.    Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 98. pl. 12.
LENGTH near five inches. Bill almost an inch and a half long,
and black ; the feathers on the crown elongated, and form a crest;
these are greenish, barred with black; on each side of the neck a
fine blue stripe, beginning at the eye ; the back, rump, and upper
tail coverts bright blue; scapulars violet; cheeks rufous, passing
down each side of the neck ; throat rufous white; fore part of the
neck and beneath the body, pale rufous ; wing coverts violet, each
feather tipped with a bright blue spot; all the quills are brown, but
the edges of the lesser ones violet; tail the same, the two middle
and the margins of the others being of that colour; legs reddish.
Inhabits Amboina and the Philippine Islands; the natives of
the former give it the names of Tohorkey and Hitto, and of the
latter Vintsi. M. Professor Sanders also assures us, that it is now
and then met with in Germany, in the Upper Rhine, and Hesse,
although it is not common, nor has the nest been met with ; neither
is the common sort in much plenty.
 KINGSFISHER.
A.—Ispida indica c
ristata, Rm.iv. 506.
Id. 8vo. ii.
Avis auguralis Sala
czac, Phil. Trans, xx
ii. 1394. 14
Alcedo cristata &c,
Seb. i. 104. t. 67. 4.
Klein 343.
lowsck. Vog. i.
t.7.
Gen. Syn. ii. 633. 22. A.    Spa-
This is nine inches and a half in length. Bill light red ; the
head crested and marked as in the other; the upper parts of the
body the same; wing coverts beryl blue, but not spotted; wings and
tail the same.
Inhabits the East Indies.    Described from Seba.
42— EASTERN KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo Orientalis, Ind. Orn. i. 255, Gm.Lin. i. 447.
Ispida Indica, Bris. iv. 479. t. 37. 1. A. Id. 8vo. ii. 1
Eastern Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 633.    Shaw's Zool.
\ THIS is one-tMralrless than the Common Kingsfisher. Bill sixteen lines long and red; upper parts of the head and threat fine
blue ; on eaehftside, from the base of the bill, a stripe of the sarise^
through the eyes to the hindhead ; over the eyes a white stripe, and
beneath them a rufous spot; the upper parts of the neck, body,
wings, and tail, are very bright green, the under rufous ; quills^
blue; tail feathers green on the outer margins; legs and claws
black.
Inhabits the East Indies;
 KINGSFISHER. 47
43.—TERNATE KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo Dea, Ind. Orn. i. 256.     Lin. i. 181.      Gm. Lin. i. 458.     Bor. Nat. ii.  146.
Pallas Spic. vi. p. 10. note b. Galbula tertia*
Ispida Ternatana, Bris. iv. 525. t. 40.2.    Id. 8vo. ii. 191.    Seba, i. 74. t. 46. 3.
Pica Ternatana, Klein Av. 62.
Martin-pecheur, a longs brins de Ternate,  Buf vii. 196.    PL enl. 116.    Salern. Orn.
126.
Long-shafted Kingsfisher, Shaw's Zool. viii. 73.
Ternate Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii, 634.    Bradl. Nat. 1.12. f. 3.
SIZE of a Starling; length thirteen inches and a (fuarter. Bill
short, above half an inch thick at the base, and an inch and three-
quarters long, colour orange; head and neck behind glossy blue,
lightest on the crown ; back and scapulars brown, margined with
deep blue; wing coverts blue; quills the same, with the in sides and tips
black; the under parts of the body and rump rose-coloured white ; in
the tail are ten feathers, the two middle ones very long, and exceed the
next by four inches, and the outmost by five inches and a half; the
two long ones are webbed only about one-third from the base, and
again at the tips, the intermediate parts almost naked and blue;
the base and tips are rose-coloured white, with a blue spot on the
outer web, the rest of the feathers rosy white, with the outer edges
brown; legs reddish.
The long tail feathers in the male are said to exceed those of the
^jaale by one-third.
Inhabits Ternate, one of the Molucca Islands.
A.—Length twelve inches. Bill one inch and quarter, pale red ;
head feathers, or crown, elongated in a crest, and blue; sides,  in-
* Pallas in this note ranks it with the Jacamars. He says, it has two toes before and two
behind—perhaps it has the faculty of moving one of the fore toes behind, as the Owls and
some others are known to do.
 48
KINGSFISHER.
eluding the eyes, neck behind, and beginning of the back black, rest
of the back, and rump white; all the under parts of the body, from
the chin white, inner wing coverts and scapulars fine blue, the rest of
the wing tawny brown; the two middle feathers of the tail elongated,
and shaped as in the other bird, wholly pale blue; the remaining
ones white and cuneiform; legs pale red.
Among the drawings in Mr. Dent's collection is one of the above,
but without any history annexed.
44.—CAYENNE  KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo Cayanensis, Ind, Orn. i. 256,    Gm. Lin. i. 452.
Ispida Cayanensis, Bris. iv. 495.   Id. 8vo. ii. 182.
Taparara, Buf. vii. 207.
Cayenne Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 635.    Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 76.
RATHER less than a Starling, near nine inches and a half in
length. Bill two inches, the upper mandible black, the lower red ;
hind part of the neck, back, and scapulars of an elegant blue ; rump
and upper tail coverts, bright beryl blue; beneath the hindhead
transverse band of black; under parts of the body white; wing
coverts blue; quills edged with blue; tail the same, but the two
middle feathers wholly blue ; legs red.
Inhabits Cayenne and Guiana; called at the last Taparara, by
which name the natives likewise call all of the Kingsfisher tribe. In
this part of South America, which contains many rivers full of fish,
several of this Genus are to be found, but what is remarkable, they
never herd together, being always found single, except in breeding
time, in the month of September. They lay their eggs in the holes of
banks, like the Kingsfisher of Europe. The cry of this bird imitates
the word Carac.
 KINGSFISHER. 49
45-AMAZONIAN KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo Amazona, Ind. Orn. i. 257.
Le Martin-pecheur d'un vert sombre, Voy. d'Azara iv. No. 421,
Amazonian Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 116.    Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 60.
SIZE of the Belted Kingsfisher; length thirteen inches. Bill
three inches long, strait, and black, the under mandible yellow at
^he base; plumage on the upper parts of the body shining green ;
hin, throat, and belly white, passing backwards in a ring to the
nape; sides of the body, and thighs mottled with green ; the breast
is also clouded with the same ; quills spotted with white ; the two
middle feathers of the tail are green, the others darker green, spotted
on each side of the web with white; legs black.
Inhabits Cayenne; one similar also met with at Paraguay, but
it is scarcely eight inches long; extent of wing ten inches and a
quarter. Bill seventeen lines; on the fore part of the neck a bright
tinge of Spanish snuff-colour.
46,—CINEREOUS KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo torquata, Ind. Orn. i. 256.    Lin. i. 180.    Gm. Lin. i. 452.
Ispida Mexicana cristata, M. iv2 518. t. 41. 1.    Id. 8vo. ii. 189.
Achalalactli, Raii 126.    Will. 301.   Id. Eng. 390.    Buf vii. 208.
Martin-pecheur huppe de Mexique, Pl. enl. 284.
Cinereous Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 636.
SIZE of a Magpie; length fifteen inches and a half. Bill three
quarters of an inch thick at the base, three inches and a half, or
more, long and brown, the base beneath red; head crested; irides
whitish ; upper parts of the head and body bluish ash ; the under
chestnut; throat whitish, descending down the neck, and passing
VOL.  IV. H
 50
KINGSFISHER.
behind like a collar, ending towards the back in a point; between
the bill and eye a spot of white ; thighs fulvous, mixed with white ;
under tail coverts the same, transversely striated with black; lesser
wing coverts varied bluish ash, black, and yellowish; nearest the
body bluish ash, spotted with white; farther from the body blackish,
spotted with white on the outsides, and tips; greater quills, and tail
marked in the same manner ; legs red.
Inhabits Martinico, and Mexico ; at the last place called Acha-
lalactli.* Is found at Mexico, in the northern parts at certain seasons
only; supposed to migrate from the hotter countries.
47—BELTED KINGSFISHER.
, 180.
iv. 512.    Id. 8vc
Alcedo Alcyon, Ind. Orn.
t. 20.
Ispida Carolinensis cristata, Bris. i
Jaculator cinereus, Klein Av. 127. Seba i. 101. t. j
Belted Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 637. Id. Sup. 11(
Car. i. t. 69.    Amer. Orn. iii. pl. 23. f. 1.    Shaw's
Gm. Lin. i. 451.    Bor. Nat. i
. p. 58.
No. 169.    Cat.
SIZE of a Blackbird ; length ten inches and a half. Bill two
inches and a half long, and black; head crested; general colour
of the plumage bluish ash above, and white beneath ; on each side
of the head are two white spots, one between the bill and eye, and
the other beneath the latter ; round the neck a collar of white ; under
this, on the fore part, the neck is bluish ash; on the breast a chestnut band, three quarters of an inch deep ; the greater wing coverts,
and second quills have white tips; the prime quills black, with
transverse spots of white on the inner webs, and tipped with white;
end of the tail white ; legs brown.
* Mr. Adan^ja is said to have found this in Senegal, but although he might have met
with one bearing the same name, we have no further proof of its being the same bird.
 KINGSFISHER. 51
Inhabits Carolina, Georgia, and other neighbouring parts. Mr.
Abbot informs me, that it is common about Savannah, and usually
perched on trees about ponds, brooks, &c. making a loud chattering
noise, but the length reaches to twelve inches and a half, and breadth
twenty-one; it lays usually four eggs, in a deep hole in the sandy
banks. The colour of the egg is dull white, somewhat transparent
at the larger end.—It is common also at Hudson's Bay, and called
there Kiskeman, or Kiskemanasue* It breeds in the same manner
in sand banks, the holes running a long way horizontally inwards ;
lays five white eggs, and the young are hatched in June. It has the
same manners in respect to catching its prey as the European one,
being often seen fluttering over the surface of the water, and darting
down on a sudden, seldom fails to bring up a fish in its bill :f is said
also to feed on lizards.    It has likewise been found in Nootka Sound.J
Jaguacati-guacu, Raii 182.    Sloan. Jam. ii. 313. t. 55. 3.
Martin-pecheur de la Louisiane, PL enl. 715.
Belted Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 637. A.    Bartr. Trav. p. 287.
Length eleven inches and a half Bill two inches and three
quarters,colour dark brown; irides red; head crested, lead-coloured,
each feather darker down the middle ; before the eye a white spot;
chin and half the neck white, which, extending round, forms a collar
of an inch in breadth at the back part; below this the neck is bluish
ash-colour for another inch, passing backwards to communicate with
the hind part of the neck, which, as well as the back, wings, and
tail, is of the same colour; breast and belly deep ferruginous, and
* Mr. Hutchins. f Cook's Last Voy. ii. 296.
X This is probably what the "Rev. 3. Clayton calls the Fishing Hawk, which he says, is an
absolute species of Kingsfisher, but full as large, or larger, than our Jay, much of the
colour and shape of a Kingsfisher, though not so curiously feathered; it has a large crop.
Ph. Trans, v. xvii. p. 986.
H2
 52
KINGSFISHER.
separated from the blue ash on the neck by a line of white; vent and
thighs white; most of the coverts tipped with white ; second quills
marked with a larger spot of the same; bastard wing, and quills
black, tipped with white, the last clouded with white about the
middle of the outer web ; tail spotted white on both webs, the tips
of all the feathers white; legs red.
The female has all the under parts white, and the white collar at
the back of the neck is very narrow; otherwise like the male.
Inhabits Jamaica, from whence I have received them. According
to Sloane, they are pretty common there, and feed on testacea; they
haunt watery places near the sea, are usually perched on trees, and
make a chattering noise ; but are not thought to be good food.
One sent from Mr. Abbot, Oct. 1809, answered to Pl. enl. 715,
for, instead of the breast and belly being ferruginous, there is only a
narrow ferruginous bar, which passes down on each side under the
wings; a small white spot over the eye.
B.—Alcedo Alcyon, Ind. Om. i. 257. 32. y.   Lin. i. 180. 7. j3.
Ispida Dominicensis cristata, Bris. iv. 415.    Id. 8vo. ii. 188.
Martin-p&cheur huppe de St, Domingue, Pl. enl. 593.
American Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 639. 27. B.    Edic. pl. 115.    Boi
Size of the last; length the same, the lower mandible reddish
at the base; the plumage differs very little from the other, except
that the bluish ash feathers on the breast are only tipped with chestnut instead of having a band of that colour; the thighs and under
tail coverts mixed rufous and white; quills and tail feathers dotted
on both webs with white; legs red.
Inhabits St. Domingo; and according to Edwards, appears in
the spring and summer at Hudson's Bay.
 KINGSFISHER. *53
C—AlcedoAlcyoti, Ind. Om. i. 258. 32. 9.   Lin. i. 180. 7. y.
Ispida Brasiliensis cristata, Bris. iv. 511.    Id. 8vo. ii. 187,
Jaguacati guacu, Raii 49. 2.    JPiV/. 102.    Id. Engl. 147. 2. pl. 24.
Jaguacati, Buf. vii. 210.    Gen. Syn. ii. 639. 27. C.
This is smaller than the others, not exceeding the size of a
Thrush, Bill near three inches long, and black ; eyes black ; head
crested ; the upper parts of the head and body bright ferruginous ;
near the eye on each side a spot of white; round the neck a white
collar; throat and under parts also white; quills ferruginous, spotted
transversely with white ; tail marked in the same manner; legs black
Inhabits Guiana and Brazil, where it feeds on fish.
48— BRAZILIAN SPOTTED KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo maculata, Ind. Orn. i, 258,    Gm. Lin. i. 451.
Ispida Brasiliensis nsevia, Bris. iv. 524.    Id. 8vo. ii. 191.
Matuiti, Raii 165.    Will. 147.   Id. Engl. 199. pl. 38.*    Buf vii. 212.
Tamatia, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ixxvii ?
Brasilian Spotted Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 640.    Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 76.
SIZE of a Starling. Bill red ; upper mandible longer and somewhat bent at the point; the upper parts of the body are brown,
marked with pale yellow spots; throat yellow; under parts of the
,body white, with small spots of brown; legs dull ash-colour.
Inhabits Brazil. This is a doubtful Species, but can scarcely be
a Tamatia according to M. Temminck, if the toes are placed right
in Willughby's figure of the bird. ifePP;
* A very bad Figure.
 KINGSFISHER.
49.—SPOTTED KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo Inda, Ind. Orn. i. 259.   Lin. i. 179.    Gm. Lin. i. 448,
Spotted Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 642.    Edw. pl. 535.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill dusky, base beneath orange;
from the bill, through the eyes, a black line ; above and beneath
this arejfees of orange-colour; crown of the head black, changing
to green at the back part; sides of the head, beneath the eyes, green ;
the upper parts of the neck, body, wings, and tail are also green, but
the feathers of the two last, and the rump; are spotted with white on
the edges; the under parts of the body orange-colour; between the
neck and breast is a broad black band, edged with pale ash-colour.
Inhabits Guiana.
50—RUFOUS AND GREEN KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo bicolor, Ind. Orn. i. 258.    Gm. Lin. i. 451.
Martin-pecheur vert et roux, Buf vii. 215.    PL enl. 592. 1. 2.
Spotted Kingsfisher, Shawns Zool. viii. p. 83.
Rufous and Green Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 640.
SIZE of the Common Kingsfisher; length eight inches. Bill
.twftinches long, black; the upper parts of the body deep green,
marked with a few scattered small whitish spots; from the nostrils
to the upper part of the eye a rufous stripe ; under part of the body
gilded rufous, passing behind as a collar, round the lower part of the
neck ; on the breast a band of black and white, mixed in waves;
quills and tail spotted with white; legs reddish.
The female wants the band on the breast, and the collar at the
back of the neck.
Inhabits Cayenne.
 KINGSFISHER.
51.—WHITE AND GREEN KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo Americana, Ind. Om. i. 258.    Gm. Lin.i. 451.
Martin-pecheur vert et blanc, Buf vii. 216.    PL enl. 591, M. & fem.
White and Green Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 641.    Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 85.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill black; upper parts of the body
glossy blackishigreen ; under the eye to the hindhead a white line;
wings marked with white ; under parts of the body white, spotted
with green ; breast, and fore part of the neck rufous for an inch and
a half in breadth ; legs red.
The female wants the rufous colour on the breast.
Inhabits Cayenne.
52.—BRASILIAN KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo Brasiliensis, Ind. Orn.i. 259.    Gm. Lin. i. 450.   'c^l
Ispida Brasiliensis, Bris. iv 510.    Id. 8vo. ii. 187.
Le Gip-gip, Buf vii. 217.
Brazilian Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 641.    Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 86.
SIZE of the Common Sort. Bill and eyes black ; plumage on
the upper parts of the body rufous, chestnut, brown, and white
mixed; under parts of the body white; on each side of the head,
through the eyes, a brown stripe; quills and tail rufous, marked
Tjj#hifransverse white spots; legs brown.
Inhabits Brazil. It utters the words Gip-gip, like a young
Turkey.
 J
1
56
KINGSFISHER.
53.-
-SURINAM KINGSFISHER.
Alcec
oSurinamei
isis, Ind. Orn. i. 259.    Gm. Lin. i. 448.
Martin-pecheur, Fern.-Storm, ii. 181.
Surinam Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 642,
LESS than a Blackbird. Bill black, thick, strait, pointed, and
two inches long; inside of the mouth saffron-colour; top of the head
greenish black, marked with transverse spots of blue; back blue,
obscurely shaded with lines of black ; quills greenish blue; tail
short, dull blue; chin and middle of the belly white, with a mixture
of red; lower part of the belly, and beneath the wings, inclining
to rufous; breast rufous, the feathers tipped with light blue; legs
small.
Inhabits Guiana, and makes its nest in holes, about the water,
laying five or six eggs, and feeds on fish; perhaps allied to the last.
54—SUPERCILIOUS KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo an
percili
osa, Ind. Orn
. i. 259.   Lin. i. 179.    Gm. L
in. 450.
Ispida An
lerican
a viridis, Bri
s. iv. 490,    Id. 8vo. ii. 181.
supercilit
usKi
igsfisher, Ger
. Syn. ii. 643.   Edw. pl. 245.
Shaw'
s Zool.
LENGTH five inches. Bill sixteen lines long, and blackish, at
the base beneath inclining to red; crown, hind part of the neck,
back and rump green ; scapulars, upper wing and tail coverts the
same; from the bill, over the eyes, a narrow orange stripe; throat
and fore part of the neck orange; on the breast a band of green;
belly, thighs, and under tail coverts whitish ; sides bright reddish
 KINGSFISHER. 57
orange; quills black brown, spotted on both webs with rufous yellow ; the two middle tail feathers green, the others the same, spotted
on the inner web with white; legs black.
Inhabits America, Cayenne.—The above is Brisson's description.
It may be observed, that the one in Edwards has only a spot between the bill and eye, not continued over the latter, and the bill a
trifle bent.
A.—Martin-p&cheur vert et orange, Buf v
 petit vert, PL enl. 11
. 218.   Ind. Om. i. 259. j8.
. 2 male, 3 female.
The general colour of this is green above, with a few spots of
rufous on the wings; beneath bright orange, passing round the neck
in a narrow collar; across the breast a green band; chin and middle
• of the breast rufous white.*-   Bill and legs as in the other.
The female differs, in not having the green band on the breast.
Inhabits Cayenne.
55— TRINIDAD  KINGSFISHER.
LENGTH five inches. Bill one inch and a quarter, black, base
beneath reddish white; plumage on the upper parts fine glosy
green ; at the nostrils, before the eye, a rufous spot; chin and neck
before pale rufous, almost encircling the latter behind as a collar;
breast and sides of the body fine deep rufous ; middle of the belly,
and vent quite white; greater quills dusky, secondaries the same,
marked on the inner webs with white ; tail one inch and a half long,
* I have seen one of these with a single white spot in the middle of the belly ; and another
i which the middle of the belly and vent were white. In this last were some orange spots
etween the bill and eyes, but not a stripe.
vol. rv. I
 mr
58 KINGSFISHER.      f
even, greenish black, all but the two middle feathers marked with
four or five spots of white on the inner webs; thighs dusky; legs
dusky red; the quills reach one-third on the tail.
Inhabits South America, brought from Trinidad by Lord Sea-
forth, who added it to my collection: it is probably allied to the
Supercilious Species, approaching nearest to that figured by Edwards,
but has not a bar across the breast; neither does it greatly differ from
the female of Var. A. of the last named, but it is totally without the
rufous spots on the wings.
If
56_WHITE-BILLED KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo leucorynchos, Ind. Om. i. 260.    Gm. Lin. i. 450.
■ Americana, seu Apiastra, Seba, i. 87. t. 53. f. 3.
Ispida Americana casrulea, Bris. iv. 505. 16.   Id. 8vo. ii. 186.
 rostro albo, Klein Av. 35. 4.
Martin-pecheur a bee blanc, Buf. vii. 200.
White-billed Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 644.   Share's Zool. viii. p. 99.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Bill one inch and a
quarter, whitish; head and neck behind purplish chestnut; back,
scapulars, rump, and upper tail coverts bright blue green ; lesser
wing coverts, and greater ones nearest the back, the same, but those'
farthest off, and the quills greyish ash; under parts of the body pale
yellow ; tail blue above, and cinereous beneath.
Inhabits America, according to Seba.
 KINGSFISHER. 59
* * WITH THREE TOES.
57—TRIDACTYLE KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo tridactyla, Ind. Orn. i. 260.    Lin. Mant. 1771. 524.    Gm.Lin.i. 459.    Pall.
Spic. 6. t. 10. f. 1.    Vosm.Monog. 1768. t. 1.
Alcedo tridactyla, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 174.    (Ceyx Lacep.)
Three-toed Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. ii. 645.    Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 104.
LESS than the Common Kingsfisher; length four inches. Bill
square, yellowish white; crown ferruginous, with a violet tinge,
paler on the forehead; on the temples an azure spot, and beneath it
a longitudinal white one; between the shoulders and tips of the wing
feathers azure; cheeks, and under parts of the body, yellowish white;
throat pure white; quills ferruginous black; the inner margins and
tail ferruginous.
One, supposed to be the female, had the crown, rump, and some
of the feathers of the back tinged with violet; the breast more ferruginous, and the white on the belly more pure than in the others. Bill
and legs the same in both, and both furnished only with three toes,
two before and one behind.—Found by Dr. Horsfield, in Java, there
called Chuchack-urang.
Mr. Temminck, in his Analysis, joins the Purple Kingsfisher
with this bird as one species, which can scarcely be admitted, as the
former has certainly four toes on the feet, and the latter but three, as
may be seen both in Pallas's Spic. and Vosm. JMonog. but perhaps
Mr. T. has learned, that the purple one varies in individuals, in
respect to the number of toes, and if so, that circumstance has not
before come to our knowledge. We see a variation in regard to the
number of toes in more than one of the Woodpecker Genus, but this
I 2
 60
KINGSFISHER.
occurs only in the hind toes. We do not recollect any deviation of
the forward ones, in respect to number, in any individual which has
come under our inspection.
58— LUZONIAN KINGSFISHER.
Martin-pecheur de l'lsle de Lucon, Son, Voy. 66. t. 32.
THE whole head and upper part of the body in this are deep
lilac blue; wings blue-black; quills edged with blue; under parts
of the body white ; legs reddish ; toes as in the other. According
to Sonnerat, it is the most brilliant of birds : is much allied to, if
not a Variety of, the last.
59—JAVAN KINGSFISHER.
THIS is smaller than the last Species; length about four inches.
Bill white, stouter, and shorter than in the following : plumage in
general fine glossy, ferruginous orange, or rufous, deepest on the
crown, which, as well as the rump, has a tinge of purple in some
lights; all beneath yellowish white ; chin dusky white; breast tinged
with saffron-colour; legs reddish, with three toes only, two before
and one behind.
Inhabits Java, and called there Meningting.
 KINGSFISHER.
60—AZURE KINGSFISHER.
Alcedo azurea, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxxii.
Alcedo tribrachys, Nat. Misc. pl. 681.
Tridigitated Kingsfisher, Shaw's Zool. v
Azure Kingsfisher, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. ad
. Anal. p. Ixxxviii.
LENGTH six inches and a half, or seven inches; size of the
European One. Bill one inch and three quarters long, and black;
plumage on the upper parts of the body, wing coverts and tail fine
deep blue; between the bill and eye a buff-coloured streak; on each
side of the neck a long oblique One of white ; all the under parts of
the body, from chin to vent, deep buff-colour; quills brown; legs
red ; furnished with three toes only, two before and one behind.
Inhabits New-Holland.—The one from which the above description
was taken, came from Norfolk Island.
A.—Among Mr. Lambert's drawings from New-Holland, I observed a Variety. Bill the same, but instead of a buff-coloured spot
between the bill and eye there is a white one ; and behind the latter,
on the ears, a white streak, tending to the nape; chin and throat
white; the rest buff-colour beneath ; toes as in the other.
I have seen also some others,   in which the difference of colour
was the chief circumstance; but the description of the various tints .
the same, varying merely in being paler or more deep; and such can
only be esteemed as sexual distinction, or young birds.
 62
GENUS XXX.-NUTHATCH.
1 European
7 Jamaica
16 Ferruginous-bellied
A Lesser
8 Black-capped
17 Rusty
2 Black-headed
9 Spotted
18 Sharp-tailed
A Var.
10 Plumbeous
19 Green
3 Shoulder-Knot
11 Surinam
20 Orange-winged
4 Least
12 Cape
A Var.
A Var.
13 Long-billed
21 Senegal
5 Canada
14 Indian
22 New-Holland
6 Great
)   15 Frontal
THE bill of this Genus is generally strait, or very little bending;
on the lower mandible a small angle.
Nostrils small, more or less covered with reflected bristles.
Tongue short, horny at the end, and jagged.
Toes placed three forwards and one backwards, the middle one
joined to the outer at the base; back toe as large as that of the
middle, with a claw in proportion.
The general manners of the whole of the Genus are supposed to
correspond with those related under the first described, which is the
only one found in this kingdom.
1— EUROPEAN NUTHATCH.
Sitta Europsea, Ind. Orn.i. 261.    Lin.i. 177.    Faun. Suec. No. 104.    Gm. Lin. i. 440.
Scop. Ann. No. 57.   Kram. 362.   Muller, No. 102.    Brun. No. 42.    Frisch. t. 39.
Raii 47. A. 4.    Will. 98. t. 23.    Gerin. ii. 54. t. 193.    Bra. iii. 588. t. 29.    Id.
8vo. i. 474.     Borowsk ii. 139. t. 18.     Gesner Av. pl. p. 643.     Schoef El. t- 62.
Tern. Man. d'Om. p. 250,   Id. Ed. ii. p. 405.
Parus facie Pici, Klein, 87. 15.    Id. Stem. 16. t. 17. f. 6. a. b.    Id. Ov. t. 4. f. 6.
La Sittelle, ou Torchepot, Buf v. 460. pl. 20.   Pl. enl. 623. 1.
Blau Specht, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 64.    Naturf. ix. s. 56. Id. xxv. 18.
Klauber, Wirs. Vog. t. 7.
 NUTHATCH.
63
Die Spechtmeise, Schmid Vog. p. 62. t, 50.
Picchio grigio, Raparino, Zinnan. Uov. 74. t. 12. f. 65. 2.
Nuthatch, Gen. Syn. ii. 648.   Id. Sup. 117.    Br. Zool. i. No. 89.   pl. 38,    Id.fol. 81.
tab. H.   Id. 1812. 1.   p. 336. pl. 42        Will. Engl. 142. pl. 23.     Plot Oxf 175.
Collins's Birds, pl. 3. f. 8. male. pl. 5. f. 9. female.    Donov. iii. pl, 81.     Alb. ii.
pl. 28.  PA. Trans, xxviii. 170. Bewick, i. pl. p. 121. Shaw's Zool. viii. 108. pl. 13.
Lewin, ii. t. 53.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 170.    Orn. Diet.
SIZE of a Sparrow; length five inches and three quarters;
weight seven drachms. Bill strong, strait, and a trifle compressed,
three quarters of an inch long, colour dusky, beneath at the base
nearly white; irides hazel; crown of the head, back, and wing
coverts bluish grey; from the mouth a black streak passes over the
eye; cheeks and chin white; breast and belly pale orange buff-
colour ; sides and thighs ferruginous chestnut; quills dusky ; wings
beneath marked with two spots, one white at the root of the exterior
quills, the other black at the joint of the bastard wing; the tail
consists of twelve feathers, the two middle ones grey, the two exterior
tipped with grey; then succeeds a transverse white spot; beneath
that the rest is black; legs pale yellow.
The female is smaller, less bright in colour, and weighs one
drachm less.
This species is to be found in the woods of this kingdom throughout
the year, but chiefly in the more southern parts, being less frequent
in the northern, or western: it makes its nest in the hollows of trees,
more frequently in those deserted by Woodpeckers; in which case,
when the entrance is larger than necessary, the bird nicely stops up
part of it with clay, leaving only a small hole to pass in and out;
whereby the former inhabitant is precluded from entering again its
old habitation; and in case the plastered entrance is destroyed, it is
soon replaced. The nest is composed chiefly of moss, lichens, and
dried leaves, especially those of the oak, and the eggs six or seven
in number, dirty white, blotched with rufous or sanguineous, with a
few spots of the same; when the hen is sitting, if any one invades
 64 NUTHATCH.
the nest, she hisses like a snake; and is so attached to her eggs, that
she will sooner suffer herself to be taken, than fly away. During
the time of incubation, the male supplies his mate with sustenance.
The general food consists of caterpillars, beetles, and other insects, also
nuts. Willughby observes, that it is a pretty spectacle to see her fetch
a nut out of her hoard, when placing it fast in a chink, she stands
above it, with the head downwards, and striking it with all her force,
breaks the shell, and catches up the kernel.
The noise occasioned by the Woodpeckers rapping the hollow
trees with the bill, has been by some attributed to the Nuthatch, but
the attempt to force open the nut with the bill may be heard at some
distance, though a different kind of noise from the other.
In the spring the male has a strong kind of whistle, not unlike
that of a man; at short intervals, perched on the top of a tall tree.
In autumn this bird not unfrequently visits orchards and gardens, at
which time it has a note not unlike Tuit-tuit-tuit, Ta& quickly repeated. The Nuthatch runs both up and down trees with equal
facility, different from the Woodpecker, who rarely, if ever descends,
except sometimes obliquely. It is supposed not to sleep on a twig
like other birds, for it has been observed, that when kept in a cage,
notwithstanding it would perch now and then, yet at night it crept
into some hole or corner to sleep in; and it is remarkable, that when
at rest, it has the head downwards for the most part, and not elevated
like other birds.
It is known by the various names of Nut-jobber, Woodcracker,
Twit, Nutcracker, Blue Woodpecker, Loggerhead, and Jarbird.
This species is rather scarce in France, though it extends pretty
far north on the Continent, being met with in the forests of Russia,
Siberia, and Kamtschatka, as well as Sweden and Norway. It inhabits India, and supposed by some to be found also in America .
but we rather suspect it to be the next, or Black-headed Species,
which is distinct.
 NUTHATCH. 65
A.—Sitta minor,  Bris. iii. 592.   Id. 8vo. i. 475.    Belon 305.
La petite Sittelle, Buf v. 470.
Lesser Nuthatch, Gen. Syn. ii. 650. A.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 112.
Belon describes this bird as being altogether like the other, but
much smaller, and far more noisy; that it is seldom seen but in
company with its mate, and very quarrelsome; for, on meeting with
another of its race, it attacks, and does not cease to fight, till the
enemy yields the victory. We suspect this to be a young bird of the
common sort.
2—BLACK-HEADED NUTHATCH.
Sitta Carolinensis, Ind. Orn. i. 262.    Lin. i. 177. /3. (Europ^a).    Bris. iii. 596.    Id.
8vo. i. 476.    Am.Om. pl. 2. f.3.
Sittelle k t£te noire, Buf. v. 473.    Var. 5.
Smaller Loggerhead, Brown Jam. 475.
White-breasted Black-capped Nuthatch, Am. Orn. pl. 2. f. 3,
Black-headed Nuthatch, Gen. Syn. ii. 650. B. Id. Sup. 117.    Id. Sup. ii. 145.    Arct.
Zool. No. 171.    Cotes. Car. i. 22.    Bartram, 287.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 112.
LENGTH five inches and a quarter, in breadth eleven, weight
thirteen pennyweights five grains. Bill three quarters of an inch,
and black; top of the head, and neck black, the rest of the parts
above cinereous, the under cinereous white, except the lower belly,
and under tail coverts, which are mixed with ferruginous; quills
blackish, edged with cinereous; tail of twelve feathers, the two
middle ones cinereous, the next three black, tipped more or less with
white, most so on the outer webs, and all have the white on the tips
touched with black; the others spotted with black and white ; legs
brown, hind claw large; the wings reach the end of the tail.
Male and female alike.
Inhabits Carolina, where it breeds, and remains the whole year.
 NUTHATCH.
11
A.—Mr. Abbot informs me, that a similar one is frequent in
Georgia, four inches and a quarter long, and eight and a quarter
broad; but from his drawing and description it varies a little; the
whole top of the head, and neck behind quite to the back, glossy
black; the two middle tail feathers are grey like the back, with
dusky ends; the others black, with a white oblique band, crossing
the whole when spread ; in the middle of the outer feather taking up
one-third, and passing nearer the end as each is more inwards; so
that the one nearest the two middle is only obliquely white at the tip.
It makes the nest in hollow trees, sometimes under the eaves of
houses, and lays six or seven eggs of a bluish white, with numerous
ferruginous spots, which increase in size, and are more thick at the
large end ; said to be among pines in the-jfinter, now and then met
with near Savannah, but very rare.
3—SHOULDER-KNOT NUTHATCH.
Carolina Nuthatch, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii: 145.
LENGTH five inches, breadth seven inches and a half, weight
two drachms. Bill triangular, short, and black; head, throat, and
breast glossy black; back brownish black, with faint orange streaks;
belly mottled with; black, orange, and white ; venttwhite ; near the
junction of'the. wings some long feathers of a bright orange, not
^unlike a shoulder-knot, passing down on the sides, and ending on
the thighs, where tfyqy becomepale; -lesser. wing coverts black, the
greater brown, tinged with red; quills, brown, mostly edged with
pale red, the two .middle tail feathers the. same; the two next on each
side marked with an oval orange spot on the outer web; the other
six orange, tipped with brown ; legs black; the hind toe remarkably
long.
 Inhabits Hudson's Bay, called there Nemiscu-apethay-shasli;
the first word signifies thunder, and the bird so named, as it is supposed to be most noisy before the approach of it. We have every
reason to think it a distinct Species, and not a Variety of the Black-
headed, as has been conjectured.
4—LEAST NUTHATCH.
Sitta pusilla, Ind. Om. i. 263.
  Carolinensis minor, Bris. iii. 598.    Id. 8vo. i. 477.    Klein, 87. 15 ?
La petite Sittelle X t6te bleue, Buf. v. 474.
Brown-headed Nuthatch, Amer. Om. ii. pl. 15. f. 2.
Loggerhead, Sloan. Jam. t. 259. f. 2.
Small Nuthatch, Cat. Car. i. t. 22.    Arct. Zool. ii. 172.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 113.
Least Nuthatch, Gen. Syn. ii. 651. C.   Id. Sup. 118,
LENGTH three inches and a half, rarely four. Bill bluish
black; under mandible pale at the base ; top of the head and sides,
taking in the eyes, of a mouse-colour, in some specimens inclining
to rufous; which last passes on each side a little way in a broad
band; the upper parts of the body pale bluish ash-colour, the two
exterior tail feathers black halfway from the base, then a broad bar
of white, and from that to the end mouse-colour; the third black,
with the end mouse-colour, and no white bar; the fourth and fifth
wholly black; the two middle like the back ; at the hind part of the
neck, between the nape and back, a large patch of white; cheeks
nearly white; all the under parts from the chin to vent reddish
white; legs pale.
The female is like the male, but the colours less bright; and the
top of the head has a mixture of grey with the mouse-colour.
Young birds are a very trifle smaller; the general colour above
pale slaty-blue; on the hindhead a large white patch; through the
K2
 MP'
68 NUTHATCH.
eyes a dusky black streak; under parts of the body white ; top of the
head not reddish, but like the back.
Inhabits North America, also Jamaica.
A.—Least Nuthatch, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 145.
Length near five inches, breadth seven, weight five pennyweights. Bill short, black, triangular, with fine hairs; irides dark
blue; head brown; inclining to ash-colour; back and scapulars dusky
brown; throat dusky white; on each side of the breast a broad yellow
spot; belly, vent, and thighs tinged with yellow ; lesser wing coverts
dull green, the greater inclining to black; quills black, the outer
margins greenish, within paler; the four middle tail feathers black,
the others yellowish, the ends for nearly one-third black; legs black.
The former of the two last is found in Georgia, and according to
Mr. Abbot, chiefly frequents pines, and builds in the holes of old
trees; the nest formed of rotten wood, lined with bits of straw, and
pine cotton; the egg like that of the Black-headed Species, but
smaller, the spots more numerous, and darker. The latter I give
from the late Mr. Hutchins, who informed me, that it inhabits
Hudson's Bay, and there called Keeke min nuc ca ha mauka sliish,
building in old willows, and laying four eggs, which are hatched in
June; it is migratory, and has obtained the name from being remarkably fond of some particular berries, which it carries to such
excess, as to attack other small birds feeding near it.—The term
Loggerhead seems misapplied, being by no means so stupid, as has
been handed down to us. Chiefly inhabits the Southern States, or
at least most abundant there, and often found in company with the
Sklit Woodpecker; climbs well in an^ direction, and is perpetually
making a screaking noise.
 NUTHATCH.
69
5—CANADA NUTHATCH
Sitta Canadensis, Ind. Om. i. 262.    Lin. i. 127.    Gm. Lin. i. 441.   Bris. iii. 592. t. 29.
f. 4.    Id. 8vo. i. 475.
Sittelle, ou Torchepot du Canada, Buf. v. 471.    PL enl. 623. 2.    Gerin. t. 193.
Red-bellied Black-capped Nuthatch, Amer. Orn. pl. 2. f. 4.
Canada Nuthatch,  Gen. Syn. ii. 651.     Arcf. Zool. ii. No. 170.     Bartr. 287.    Shaw's
Zool. viii. 116.
LENGTH four inches and ten lines. Bill seven lines and a half
long, blackish ash ; upper parts of the body cinereous ; throat and
cheeks whitish, the rest beneath pale rufous; nostrils covered with
bristles; from thence a stripe of white over each eye, and behind it
another blackish one ; greater wing coverts brown, edged cinereous;
quills the same, except the first, and the inner edges whitish; the
two middle tail feathers cinereous; the next black, with the end
cinereous; and the four outer ones black on each side; the ends
cinereous on the outside, on the inner white; legs grey brown.
Inhabits Canada. Found chiefly in pairs, and frequently in
company with others: said to be fond of the seeds of pine, among
which trees it is found; has the usual manners, running up and
down the bodies of trees, like the Woodpecker, in search of insects.
This is supposed by some, to be allied to the Least Nuthatch, of
which it is thought to be a young bird.
6— GREAT NUTHATCH.
Sitta major, Ind. Orn.i. 263.    Gm. Lin.i. 442.    Raii 186. 34.
Grande Sittelle a bee crochu, Buf. v. 575.
Another sort of Loggerhead, Sloan Jam. 301.
Great Nuthatch, Gen. Syn. ii. 653.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 113.
LENGTH seven inches and a half.    Bill almost three quarters
of an inch, and differs from the others in being thicker in the middle.
 70 NUTHATCH.
and crooked at the end; nostrils round; head and back grey; throat
and under parts of the body white; quills and tail brown, edged
with orange.
Inhabits Jamaica, and feeds on worms, cimices, and such like.
-JAMAICA  NUTHATCH.
Sitta Jamaicensis, Ind. Orn.i. 262.     Lin.i.
Id. Svo. i, 476.   Borowsk. ii. 140.
Sitta major capite nigro, Raii, 185.
Sittelle k huppe noire, Buf v. 472.
Loggerhead, Brown Jam. 475.    Sloan. Jam.
Jamaica Nuthatch, Gen. Syn. ii. 652.    Shaw
. 441.    Bra. iii. 594.
ii. 300.
's Zool. v
SIZE of the Common Species; length five inches and a half.
Bill ten lines, and black; head larger; the crown black; upper
parts of the body cinereous, the under white; quills blackish
with cinereous edges; tail blackish, all the feathers except the two
middle ones, marked with transverse lines of white towards the end ;
legs black.
Inhabits Jamaica and Guiana, and feeds on insects; found both
in thickets and savannahs, and said to be so tame and foolish, as to
suffer any one to approach near enough to knock it down with a stick:
hence the name Loggerhead.
A smaller is also mentioned, which is probably a Variety.
8.—BLACK-CAPPED NUTHATCH.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill slender, three quarters'
of an inch long, inclining a trifle upwards, colour bluish ; crown
and nape black ; over the eye a white streak, passing through the
 NUTHATCH.
71
black to the ears; below this the black curves downwards on each
side ; all the upper parts of the body are slaty grey ; cheeks under
the eyes white; quills plain dusky; under parts from the chin tawny,
deepest at the vent; the chin nearly white; tail one inch and a half
long, somewhat rounded; the two middle feathers like the back, the
others black ; the three outer ones wholly so for three-fourths of the
length, then white, and finally ending in ash-colour, the two intermediate entirely black ; th e wings reach nearly to the end of it;
legs pale, or yellowish.
Inhabits Georgia.    The description taken from a specimen sent
from thence by Mr. Abbot.    It appears to be a new Species.
9.—SPOTTED NUTHATCH.
Sitta nsevia, Ind. Om. i. 263.    Gm. Lin. i. 442.
La Sittelle grivelee, Buf. v. 476.
Fourmilier, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lviii.
Wall-creeper of Surinam, Edio. 346.
Spotted Nuthatch, Gen. Syn. ii. 634.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 114.
LENGTH six inches. Bill one inch, dusky brown, compressed
sideways and curved at the tip ; head and upper parts dark bluish
lead-colour; all the wing coverts tipped with white; the inner ones
dusky, edged with white, throat white; breast and all beneath
bluish ash-colour; paler than above, marked with white down the
middle of each feather, ending in points; legs dusky brown.
Inhabits Surinam.
10. -PLUMBEOUS NUTHATCH.
BILL black, and a trifle curved at the point; general colour of
the plumage on the head and upper parts that of lead, not very dark;
 72 NUTHATCH.
the under parts, from the middle of the belly, are white; wings
wholly black, each feather of the coverts tipped with white; tail
black, edged with a paler colour; legs dusky black.
The above was in the Museum of the late Sir A. Lever, but as I
did not notice the length of the specimen, I had only the drawing
to direct me, which was four inches, or very little more in length.
It seemed to me new, but where it inhabits not known.—I met with
it also among the drawings of Gen. Davies. In some of the markings it seems similar to the foregoing, but differs so much in size,
as to scarcely justify the placing it as a Variety.
11.—SURINAM NUTHATCH.—Pl. lxn
Sitta Surinamensis, Ind. Om. i. 263.    Gm. Lin. i. 442.
Avis de Corarao, Gerin. Om. t. 401.
Surinam Nuthatch, Gen. Syn. ii. 654. pl. 28.    Shatv's Zool. viii. 119.
THIS is a beautiful species, and perhaps the least yet known ;
the length being no more than three inches and a half. The bill a
trifle bent, and dusky brown ; the under mandible paler ; the head
and hind part of the neck are rufous chestnut; through the eye a
dusky streak ; the forehead plain as far as the middle of the crown,
the rest marked with longitudinal black streaks; the middle of the
back, when the wings are quite closed, appears white, which arises
from the inner webs of the scapular feathers being of that colour; the
wing coverts black, tipped with white ; prime quills plain black;
secondaries the same, with white margins; under parts of the body
dirty white, with a tinge of chestnut; belly dirty white ; tail black,
even, all the feathers tipped with white; legs black.
 . . !„//),/<■/.
  NUTHATCH.
12—CAPE NUTHATCH.
Sitta caffra, Ind. Orn.i. 264.    Gm. Lin. i. 442.    Mus. Carls. Fasc. i. t. 4.
Cape Nuthatch, Gen. Syn. Sup. 118.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 117.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill three quarters of an inch, strait,
bluish black; the forehead, hind part of the neck, and back, brown
and yellow mixed; sides of the head, neck, breast, and under parts
dusky yellow; tips and margins of the quills the same ; tail feathers
ten in number, above dusky black, beneath olive, with dusky yellow
tips; the two middle ones longer than the others; legs black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
13—LONG-BILLED NUTHATCH.
Sitta longirostra, Ind. Orn. i. 264.
Long-billed Nuthatch, Gen. Syn. Sup. 118.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 118.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill beyond an inch in length, and
black, the base pale, almost white; from the mouth to the eye a
black line, passing through the eye, growing broader behind it, and
leading down the sides of the neck, which, with the cheeks and
forehead, are white; crown, and the whole of the upper parts, and
wings, light blue grey; tips of the prime quills brown ; belly pale
tawny, or dirty buff-colour; legs pale brown ; claws large.
Inhabits Batavia.—From the drawings of Lady Impey. In one
specimen the cheeks and forehead were dirty buff-colour.
14.-INDIAN NUTHATCH.
LENGTH from four to five inches.    Bill pale, with a dusky tip;
upper parts of the body, wings, and tail, fine blue-grey; from the
 nostrils a narrow black streak, which growing wider, encircles the
eye, after which it increases in breadth, becomes irregular, and passes
down on each side to the wing; all the under parts, from chin to
vent, pale reddish white; the quills reach three-fourths on the tail,
both of which are like the back in colour; legs bluish green; claws
black, very strong, and hooked.
In some birds, supposed to differ in sex, there is a trace of white
over the eye, above the black; the chin and throat are also white.
Inhabits India. One of these, in Sir John Anstruther's drawings,
was named Culfurna. I observe them, too, among the drawings of
General Hardwicke.
15—FRONTAL NUTHATCH.
Sitta frontalis, Lin. Trans.
. p. 162.—HoysGeidi
LENGTH five inches. Above sky-blue, beneath testaceo-vina-
ceous ; forehead, and streak over the eyes, deep black; quills black.
Inhabits Java, and most probably India, as I met with a similar
one in some drawings from thence; in this the bill and legs are
brown-black; under parts of the body purplish eriinfeon; between
the two a line of black, beginning at the gape, and passing through
the eye to the shoulders; on each side of the throat, beneath the eye,
a long patch of white. These two seem most probably allied, and
may differ from each other in sex—not without suspicion of their
being related to the Indian Species, last described.
16— FERRUGINOUS-BELLIED NUTHATCH.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters.    Bill black, base
pale; through the eye a black streak, growing very broad behind,
 NUTHATCH. 70
and reaching to the wing; the rest of the parts above, wings, and
tail blue-grey; the two middle feathers of the last as the back, the
others have the inner webs black, and a white spot near the tip;
chin and throat white; the rest of the parts beneath deep ferruginous
brown; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits India; met with at Cawnpore, in August.    The three
last described seem to be alike in many particulars.
17— RUSTY NUTHATCH.
LENGTH four inches and a half. The bill dusky, the upper
mandible strait above, inclining upwards at the under part; lower
mandible strait for half the length, then inclining upwards to
accommodate with the superior, base of the under pale ; the general
colour of the plumage deep rust, marked with pale, short stripes on
the crown; over the eye a pale streak, and on each side of the under
jaw another of white; sides of the head ash-colour; beneath dusky
white; breast and under parts of the body pale dull ferruginous
brown, striated with dusky white; chin and throat the same, but
paler; tail rounded, one inch and a half long, ferruginous; the two
outer and two middle feathers plain, the others dusky on the inner
web; the first quill shorter by a quarter of an inch than the second,
which is the longest of all, and the wings reach to the middle of
the tail; legs bluish black; claws stout, hooked.
Inhabits the Isle of Trinidad.—In the collection of Lord Stanley,
18— SHARP-TAILED NUTHATCH.
LENGTH five inches.    Bill dusky; the upper mandible strait,
the under curving upwards; plumage above dull cinnamon-colour;
 76 NUTHATCH.
on the crown of the head deepening into brown, with a few pale mot-
tlings on the sides under the eyes; chin dull buff-colour ; beneath
from the breast brown, marked on the latter with streaks of dusky
white; quills as the back; tail two inches and a half long, cuneiform,
the outer feather only one inch and a quarter, all of them very stiff,
and the shafts extend some way from the ends ; colour bright rufous
cinnamon; legs brown.
In the collection of Mr. Bullock ; supposed to inhabit Africa.
19.—GREEN NUTHATCH.
Sitta Chloris, Ind. Orn.i. 264.    Mus. Carls, fasc. ii. t.33.
Gobe-mouche, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxii.
Green Nuthatch, Shaw's Zool. viii. 120.
THE length of this bird is about three inches. Bill longer than
the head, strait, and dusky; head, hind part of the neck, back,
and shoulders green; throat, breast, and belly white ; quills brown,
the outer margins greenish, but near the base yellowish, producing
a transverse band of that colour; lesser wing coverts greenish brown;
the lower, and those next the bend of the wing, white; the rump
yellowish; tail short, black, all the feathers tipped with yellowish
white; the wings reach to about half the length ; legs long, dusky
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, particularly the Province of
Akter Brunties Hoogtens; met with there by Dr. Sparrman. M.
Temminck ranks it with his Gobe-mouches. As to ourselves, having
never met with a specimen, we have only to rely on Dr. Sparrman
for the Genus in which he has placed it.
  Ill   !
li
■naj!^ ^.syZ/AaAAt
 Inhabits
chiefly ;
difference of th<
Mr.. Bullock's I
upper part of
 .'■■.    ■•' '•
 NUTHATCH.
20—ORANGE-WINGED NUTHATCH—Pl. lxiii.
soptera, Gen. Syn. Sup. xxxii.
inged Nuthatch, Gen. Syn. Sup. i
146. pl. 227,    Shaw's Zool. '
LENGTH almost four inches. Bill brown-black, slender, and
nearly strait; irides reddish; general colour of the plumage brownish
ash-colour, streaked on the upper parts with dusky ; beneath bluish
white; rump and upper tail coverts the same ; tail dark brown,
nearly black ; base and ends of the greater quills the same, in the
middle tawny orange-colour ; all but the two middle feathers of the
tail tipped with dusky white; legs lead-colour, claws moderate.
Inhabits New-Holland; native name Murrigang.
A.—Size of the other. Bill the same and black; back ash-
colour, with dark brown streaks down the shafts of each feather;
quills brown, but when a little expanded a large bed of rufous
appears, arising from a bed of that colour in the middle of each quill,
chiefly so marked on the inner webs, the outer being ash-colour;
under parts of the body and rump pure white, but the under tail
coverts are barred black and white; tail black, all the feathers more
or less white at the tips, the outer feathers having most white.
Inhabits New-Holland, and is probably a Variety, or sexual
difference of the other. Both of them described from specimens in
Mr. Bullock's Museum. We have seen one of these in which the
upper part of the plumage was uniform in colour, without any
streaks on the feathers.
 78
P §1
21—SENEGAL NUTHATCH.
LENGTH four inches. Bill five-eighths of an inch, stout, dusky,
a trifle bent at the tip ; base of the under mandible white; the whole
top of the head to the nape, and even with the eye dusky, streaked
wiitb black ; chia, sides under the eye, and just before it, and as far
as the breast, white, with dusky streaks; general colour of the body,
wings, and tail, greenish ash, paler beneath: wings darker, the
feathers with pale yellowish edges; tail much the same, a little
rounded at the end, the wings reaching just beyond the base; thighs
long and slender; legs also,slender, dark brown; claws long and
hooked.
Inhabits Senegal,—-In the collection of Mr. H. Brogden. The
manners unknown; has somewhat of the air of a Thrush.
22—NEW-HOLLAND NUTHATCH.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill three quarters©** an iaehj
bent d#«8Wards; general colour of the plumage above olive browo*
ij^fting to cteereoiis: oa the rump ; the feathers ©f the- forehead
obsoletely margined with a paler colour; chin and throat white; tile
bceast, arnd middle of the belly, dusky buff; feathers on the sides
margined all round with dusky, giving a spotted appearance; first
^#11 very sfyort, increasing to the fourth, which is longest;- most of
f&e quails parked with a large pale oval spot, »®<> far from the bas©*
tq® two inches; and a half long, a Idttle rounded; the two middle
feathers wfeolly eiaereous lead-colour; the others the same, from the
base to the middle, but from thence to the end blaefe, wftfethe very
 NUTHATCH.
79
tips lead-colour; the wings reach more than half way on the tail;
legs rather long; toes greatly so, especially the hind one; the claws
large, and hooked ; outer and middle toes united just at the base.
Inhabits New-Holland.—In the collection of Lord Stanley. It
has, from the general appearance, that of a Nuthatch, though the
bill is somewhat similar to that of a Creeper; hence may be esteemed
rather a doubtful species.
 80
GENUS XXXI.—TODY.
* With Bills moderately broad.
A Var.
21 Red-breasted
1 Green Tody
11 Ferruginous-bellied
22 Yellow-bellied
2 Variegated
12 White-rum ped
23 Blue-grey
3 Cinereous
13 Rusty
* * With exceedingly broad
4 Brown
14 Yellow-rumped
Bills.
5 White-headed
15 Yellow-crowned
24 Great-billed
6 Short-tailed
16 Guinea
25 Broad-billed
7 Plumbeous
17 Rufous
26 Javan
8 Dusky
18 African
27 Sumatran
9 White-chinned
19 Red-crowned
28 Boat-billed
10 King
20 Black-headed
29 New-Holland
AN this Genus the bill is thin, depressed, broad; base beset with
bristles.
Toes placed three before and one behind ; the middle one greatly
connected with the outer.
Birds of this Genus inhabit the warmer parts of the world, and
vary considerably in their bills as to breadth, but all of them have
a certain flatness or depression which is peculiar. They bear great
affinity to the Flycatchers, and, to say the truth, the two Genera
run much into each other; however, in one thing they differ materially, for in the Tody the outer and middle toes are much connected, but in the Flycatcher they are divided to their origin.
Perhaps more might be brought into this section, but as many
birds are only to be seen on paper, if the draughtsman should not
think a just expression of the toes to be a matter of consequence,
we must remain in the dark, where the writer has omitted it in the
description,
Concerning the birds here described, authors have held different
opinions. M. Temminck only allows the first to be a true Tody,
making the Cinereous a Gobemouche, and entering the Plumbeous
 TODY. 81
and King Species as Moucherolles. Our great and broad-billed
Species he has made a Genus of by the name of Platyrinche, from
their excessive breadth of the bill; to which may be added, one
under the Genus Eurylaimus, by Dr. Horsfield; and our three last
described have also bills similar; we have therefore thought it right
to unite all the above under one head, with two divisions, to avoid
creating a new Genus.
1— GREEN TODY.
Todus viridis, Ind. Om. i. 265.    Lin. i. 178.    Gm. Lin. i. 442.    Bris. iv. 528. t. 41. 2
Id. 8vo. ii. 192.     Bor. Nat. ii. 141. t. 19.     Pall. Spic. vi. p. 16.    Vieill. Am. i
p. 87. pl. 56.
Sylvia gula phoenicea, Klein, 79. 16.
Rubecula viridis elegantissima, Raii 187. 40.     Sloan. Jam. ii. 306. t. 363. 1.     Browi
Jam. 476.
Todier de l'Amer. Sept. Buf. vii. 225. pl. 11.     PL enl. 585. 1. 2.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii
Anal. p. lxv.
Green Sparrow, or Humming Bird, Edw. pl. 121.
Der grune Plattschnabel, Schmid Vog. p. 69. t. 56.
Green Tody, Gen. Syn.ii. 657. 1.      Gen. Birds, p. 61. t. 6. f. 1.      Shaw's Zool. viii
129. pl. 16.
SIZE of a Wren; length four inches. Bill nearly three quarters
of an inch long, much depressed, or flattened, like that of a Duck,
and rounded at the tip; the upper mandible brown, the lower orange;
irides hazel; plumage of a beautiful, and peculiarly elegant, green
on the upper part of the body, beneath yellowish white ; sides over
the thighs rose-colour ; on the throat a spot of very fine red ; legs
grey.
The female is less vivid in colour, the throat of a paler red, and
the sides over the thighs of the same colour with the under parts :
such is the description of two sent to me, as a pair, from Jamaica :
 82 TCTBV.
but, according to Buffon, the male has the upper parts of the body of
a pale blue; the belly white; breast and sides rose-colour ; and if
so, I have not seen -thfet sex.
This pretty Species inhabits the warmer parts of Ame^ica^if^P
found at St. Domingo, Jamaica, and other Islands of the West Indies.
It is a solitary bird, frequenting the lonely part of moist places,
where it is observed to sit in a crouched manner, its head drawn in
between the shoulders, and so stupid as almost to suffer itself to be
taken by the hand. It is supposed to feed on soft insects, and is
called by the French at St. Domingo, Perroquet de Terre.*
Borowski calls it Bastard Eisvogel. Is said to make the nest of
dry grass and moss, feathers, cotton, and other soft materials within,
laying three or four blue eggs, the size of those of the Redstart, f
Is not unfrequent in Brazil, where it makes a remarkable conical
bag-shaped nest, composed of wool, closed at the top, with a narrow
entrance, and builds it in the neighbourhood of a certain species of
wasp, for the purpose, as it is believed, of rescuing it from the attacks
of its enemies.^
M. Temminck forms a Genus of this single species, by the name
of Todier.
2.—VARIEGATED TODY.
Todus varius, Ind. Orn. i. 266.    Gm. Lin
Todier varie, Buf vii, 229.
Ispida Indica, Aldrov. Av. iii. 520.
Variega^d^ody, Gen. Syn. ii. 659.    She
SIZE of a Wren. Bill black; head, throat, and neck blue
black; wing coverts green; tail black, the feathers edged with
green ; the rest of the body mixed blue, black, and green, marked
here and there with spots of paler green; legs black.
,»*»iSBfe»*rie Ont. 126.
: Maxim. Trav. i. 164.
 TODY.
83
Said by Aldrovandus to inhabit India.    A very doubtful species,
as far as respects its belonging to this Genus.
3.—CINEREOUS TODY.
Todus cinereus, Ind. Om. i. 265.   Lin. i. 178.    Gm. Lin i. 443.    Bris. App. p. 134.
Jd.8vo.ii. 193.    Bor. Nat. ii. 141. 2.
Le Tic-Tic, ou Todier, Buf vii. 227.    Pl. enl. 585.
Grey and yellow Flycatcher, Edw. pl. 262.    Pall. Spic. vi. t. 3. A. the bill.
Cinereous Tody, Gen. Syn. ii. 658.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 130. pl. 16.
RATHER larger than the Green Tody. Bill shaped the same,
dusky, with a reddish base, where it is beset with bristles; forehead
black; the upper parts of the body deep cinereous; the under
yellow; wing coverts and quills brownish black, margined with
luteous; the tail consists of twelve feathers, and is somewhat cuneiform ; the two middle ones are black, the others brown, tipped with
white; legs deep flesh-colour.
The female has the colours less bright, and the tail feathers not
tipped with white. A Variety, if not differing in sex, had the chin
white, streaked with dusky black, and some markings of the same
on the breast, which, as well as the belly, are paler yellow.
Inhabits Surinam and Guiana, where it is called Tic-tic, from its
note. It lives on insects, and frequents the more open places, not
being found at all in thick woods, though sometimes among bushes.
Todus fuscus, Ind. Om. i.
Brown Tody, Gen. Syn. ii.
4—BROWN TODY.
Gm. Lin. i. 444.
Gen. of Birds, 62. pl.6. f. 2.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 131.
LARGER than the first Species. The upper part of the body
ferruginous brown; across the wing coverts a dusky bar; lower parts
of the body olive, spotted with white; tail ferruginous.
Inhabits the hotter parts of America.
M2
 n
\M§
5—WHITE-HEADED TODY.—Pl. lxiv.
Todus leucocephalus, Ind. Om. i. 266.   Gm.Lin.i. 444.   Pall. Spic. vi. p. 19. t.3. f. 2.
Bor. Nat. ii. 141.
La t£te blanche, Voy. d'Azaraiii. No. 176.
White-headed Tody, Gen. Syn. ii. 660. pl. 29.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 127.
SIZE of a Redstart. Bill blackish, the upper mandible wholly
so ; the under white, with a black tip ; nostrils depressed; base of
the bill beset with bristles; head and throat white, the former pretty
full of feathers, so as to appear crested; the rest of the body dull,
but deep, black; wings short; the quills on the insides, and tips,
brownish ; tail short, even at the end, and black; legs black ; the
outer and middle toes united to one-third from the base.
The White-headed Tody seems to be the same bird described by
Azara, under the name of La T£te blanche ; and, accord in g to him,
the female has the forehead, as far as half the head, and all the
parts beneath white; the rest of the upper parts brown ; tail dusky;
under wing coverts brown and white: total length of the bird five
inches and a quarter; extent of wing eight inches,
Inhabits:South America; found in the marshes about Paraguay,
but rare; feeds on insects, both on the wing, and when at rest; seen
more often on the reeds, in marshy places, and often observed to
perch on the tops of them.
6. -SHORT-TAILED TODY.
Todus brachyurus, Ind. Orn. i. 266.    Gm. Lin. i. 449.
Todi Species septima, Pall. Spic. vi. p. 18.
Short-tailed Tody, Gen. Syn. ii. 660.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 125
LESS than the Redstart.     Bill dusky, and much flattened;*
the forehead, sides of the head, and under parts of the body are
* Compared by Pallas to that of the Paradise Flycatcher.
   P1.LXIV.
'if^J^M^^.
  TODY. 85
white; the upper parts black; the inner margins of some of the quills
and the shoulders beneath, snow white; tail very short and black.
Inhabits America.
In the distribution of colours, it much resembles the black and
white Flycatcher,* but the great breadth of the bill, and shortness
of the tail, prove it to be a different bird.
7—PLUMBEOUS TODY.
Todus plumbeus, Ind. Orn. i. 267,    Gen. Syn. i. 444.
Todi Species tertia, Pall. Spic. vi. p. 17.
Moucherolle, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal, lxvii.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 128.
Plumbeous Tody, Gen. Syn.ii. 661.
SIZE of a Wren. Bill like that of the Cinereous Tody ;t the
upper part of the plumage hoary lead colour, inclining to black on
the crowu of the head; beneath, from chin to vent, white as snow;
quills and tail dusky black ; the outer edges of the quills white;
tail even at the end ; legs dusky.
Inhabits Surinam.
8.—DUSKY TODY.
Todus obscurus, Ind. Orn.i. 267    Gm. Lin.i. 445,
Todi Species quarta, Pall. Spic. vi, p. 17.
Dusky Tody, Gen. Syn. ii. 661.    Arct. Zool. ii.  No. 173.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 129.
SIZE of a Hedge Sparrow, Bill brown, half an inch long,
broad at the base, somewhat indented over the nostrils, and a little
curved at the point, base beset with bristles; the under mandible
white; the plumage, on the upper parts of the bird, dusky olive brown,
* Edw. pl. 348. i. f Pall. Spic. vi. tab. iii. A.
 with, two obscure pale narrow bars across the wings ; beneath yellowish white; chin pale; quills and tail dusky, edged with grey;
the latter two inches in length, and very little hollowed, nearly
even at the end ; legs dusky, slender, weak; the quills reach to the
middle>df the tail.
Inhabits North America, where it frequents the decayed parts
of trees, and has all the actions of a Flycatcher. It has an agreeable note, two or three times repeated, but not what may be called
a song.    It feeds on insects.
I have received this Species from Rhode Island ; it is also found
in Georgia; one sent from thence, named by Mr. Abbot, Lesser
Peewee Flycatcher.
9—WHITE CHINNED TODY.
Todus gularis, Ind. Om. i. 268.
 novus, Gm. Lin. i. 446.
White-chinned Tody, Gen. Syn ii. 663.    Shaw'i
Zool. viii. 123.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill one inch and three quarters long,
much depressed, three quarters of an inch broad at the base, and
ending in a point, near the end bending upwards; nostrils oval,
placed near the base; the plumage brown above; chin white; forepart of the breast the same, somewhat mottled with brown, which
mottling seems to take place round the neck at the lower part
behind, though not mixed with white ; belly and vent white ; tail
three inches long, rounded at the end; legs brown, one inch and a
half long ; on the shins seven indented oblique segments ; all the
toes full of rough segments, ten in number at least on each.
I met with this preserved in spirits at Sir Joseph Banks's, many
years since, but the place it came from could not be ascertained.
 87
10.—KING TODY.
Todus regius, Ind. Om. i. 267.    Gm. Lin. i. 4
Roi des Gobe-mouches, Buf iv. 552.
Tyran huppe de Cayenne, PL enl. 289.
Moucherolle, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. lxvi.
King Tody, Gen. Syn. ii. 662.   Shaw's Zool..
, 124. pl. 14.   Nat. Misc. pl. 405.
THIS singular and beautiful species is seven inches long, The
bill ten lines, very broad at the base, quite flat, and tending to a
point at the tip, Which is a little bent; colour deep brown; at the
base several black bristles, projecting forwards, and as long as the
bill itself; on the crown is a crest of a singular structure, placed
transversely across the head; it is composed of four or five ranges of
feathers, one shorter than the other, the longest above three quarters
of an inch in length, each feather is rounded at the end, and finishes
with a black spot; the rest of the length red, inclining to chestnut;
the hind part of the head, neck, and back black-brown, which passes
forwards, and surrounds the neck before as a collar, half an inch
broad; chin white; over the eye a white streak; wing coverts reddish
brown; quills dusky; breast dusky white, crossed with transverse
blackish lines; belly, vent, rump, and tail, pale rufous, the last
darkest, and two inches in length; legs flesh-colour.
Inhabits Cayenne, and is very rare.
A.—Todus criststfus, Ind. Orn. i. 267.
Shaw's Zool. viii. 125. pl. 15.
Gm.Lin. i. 446.   Naturf _.
Size of the other. Bill the same,* and beset with long hairs;
nostrils small; head furnished with a transverse crest of an uncommonly fine, dull red colour, tipped with black; head, neck, back,
* See the bill on the top of the plate in Naturf.
 and tail, fine grey brown, spotted with white on the wing coverts;
quills blackish; throat whitish grey; breast and belly crossed with
dull grey and brown stripes; vent plain; under side of the tail as
the upper; the two middle feathers blackish.*
Native place uncertain; supposed to be the West Coast of Africa.
11.—FERRUGINOUS-BELLIED TODY.
Todus ferrugineus, Ind. Orn. i. 267.    Gm.Lin. i. 446.
Ferruginous-bellied Tody, Gen. Syn. ii. 662.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 126.
LENTH seven inches and an half. Bill three quarters of an
inch, black, much depressed, and ending in a point, which is a
trifle bent; nostrils oval, near the base, where four or five slender
hairs take rise, pointing forwards; the plumage on the upper parts of
the body rusty black, most of the feathers having a ferruginous
tinge on the edges; sides of the head spotted dusky and white ;
chin, and all the parts beneath, dull ferruginous; over the eyes,
and rather behind them, a short pale streak ; quills dusky, the four
first ferruginous on the inner webs, in the middle, and most of the
others on the middle of the outer webs, making a bar half across
the wing; the tail consists of twelve feathers, even at the end, and
two inches and three quarters long, of a plain dusky brown; legs
dusky.
Inhabits South America; supposed from Cayenne,
I have met with one in which the upper parts were brown, not
black. *#•%"
1 In the engraving the
: fourteen feathers, probably a-.-nyajt^ke..
 12.—WHITE-RUMPED NUTHAT6H.
LENGTH about five inches. Bill five-eighths of an inch, black,
broad, and turns a little upward ; plumage above brown ; lower part
of the back and rump white; beneath dusky white; quills black,
from the base to the middle ferruginous; the secondaries tipped with
white; tail black, hollowed out in the middle, one inch and a quarter
long, the tip more or less white; the wings rather exceed the tail in
length; legs yellow.
Native place uncertain.—Mr. Woodford.
13—RUSTY TODY.
LENGTH six inches. Bill brown, broad, with several hairs on
each side of the gape; the general colour of the plumage above
ferruginous, mixed with brown ; about the head a mixture of ash-
colour ; the under parts paler ash; quills brown; tail cuneiform,
two inches and a quarter long, but ferruginous for one inch from the
base ; the rest of the length brown.
I found the. above among the drawings of Mr. Woodford, but
without any account annexed.
14—YELLOW-RUMPED TODY.
LENGTH four inches and an half. Bill dusky brown, broad
and flat, on each side hairs nearly the length of it; under mandible
white, the very tip brown; plumage above olive, or greenish brown;
 80 TODY.
lower part of the back and rump pale brimstone-yellow; all the
under parts pale dusky yellow; under wing coverts yellow; down
the middle of the crown mixed yellow, from each feather having a
streak of greenish yellow down the middle, giving a sort of gilded
appearance; tail even, plain brown, two inches long, the quills reach
to about one-fourth of the length; legs slender, brown, outer and
middle toes united at the base; were it not for the size, it would
appear allied to the Whiskered Flycatcher, but the one here described
is a much smaller bird, with the whole of the lower part of the back
and rump pale brimstone; the crown marked with streaks of yellow,
not the whole of the feathers.
A specimen of this in the collection   of Lord Stanley; native
place uncertain.
15—YELLOW-CROWNED TODY.
LENGTH six inches. Bill blackish, broad at the base, and
rather stout; head to below the jaw, and neck behind deep chocolate
brown; over the eye a broad grey streak ; on the crown a streak of
yellow; general colour of the body, wings, and tail brown, the
feathersiiwith yellowish margins; chin and throat pale ash-colour;
breast and beneath pale dusky yellow; obscurely streaked with
brown ; under wing coverts pale dusky yellow; legs brown, outer
and middle toe much united at the base ; legs brown.
In the same collection with the last.
16—GUINEA TODY.
SIZE of the Redbreast; length six inches and a half. Bill rather
stout, dusky, with many hairs at the base, and reaching to more than
half its length ; head, including the eyes,  nape,  and neck behind
 WSWf. 91
black, coming forwards On each side, and forming a natrHIW'?ebHBhh
just above the breast; except this all the under parts from chitftl©
vent are white; back and wings dusky black, the feathers fringed
with white at the tips; above the eye a bare, oval, carunculated,
crimson spot, the size of a pea ; legs pale brown.
One, supposed to differ in sex, had the upper parts, wings and
tail more or less deep grey, with an oblique long band of white from
the shoulders to the ends of the second quills; chin, just under the
bill, white, from thence to the breast-ferruginous red, bounded below
with a narrow dusky band; the rest of the under parts white, but
the thighs mottled with ash-colour; tail as in the other, also the bill;
but the bare crimson space above the eye smaller, and in the shape
of a crescent.
Inhabits Senegal.
17— RUFOUS TODY.
BILL broad, with hairs at the base ; feathers of the crown
elevated into a high crest; general colour of the plumage and beginning of the sides of the breast rufous ; tail rounded, long, rufous.
Inhabits Africa.—In the collection of Mr. Leadbeater.
18— AFRICAN TODY.
LENGTH near six inches. Bill half an inch long, black, very
broad at the base, and depressed ; point curved, at the gape several
hairs, pointing forward ; head, neck, back, wings, and tail fine pale
$&&grey; breast, and under parts very pale ash-colour; quills dusky
!mth*n, the outer webs pale bluish ash-colour; tail greatly cuneiform,
N2
 92 TODY,
the two middle feathers two inches and a half long, the outer not
one inch ; legs slender, pale ash-colour.
Inhabits Africa.—Mr. H. Brogden.
rill
19— RED-CROWNED TODY.
SIZE small; general colour brown, with a streak of red down
the middle of the crown, and two bars of buff across the wing.
Native place uncertain. Met with in the collection of Mr.
Leadbeater.
20— BLACK-HEADED TODY.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill dusky black, very broad at the
base, where it is furnished with bristles; head, neck, and upper parts
of the body, wings, and tail fine glossy black; beneath from the
breast white; under wing coverts white, mottled with dusky; tail
three inches and three quarters long, even at the end, and the
feathers somewhat pointed at the tips; legs slender, dusky brown.
Inhabits New-Holland.
21—RED-BREASTED TODY.
Todus Rubecula, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxii.
Red-breasted Tody, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 147:    Shaw's Zool. viii. 126.
SIZE of a Yellow Bunting;   length six inches.     Bill  stout,
broad, furnished with some bristles at the base; tongue bifid, the
 TODY. 93
points on each side of the cleft a little divided or feathered; the
crown full of feathers; general colour of the plumage above slaty
gr^?' wings and tail brown, the last two inches long, darker in
colour, and even at the end ; throat and breast orange, from thence
to the vent nearly white; legs slender, dusky.
Inhabits New South Wales, but not common, as only two or
three have been met with : in one of these, supposed to differ in sex,
the chin and throat were dark coloured, nearly black, not orange;
the rest as in the first described.
22—YELLOW-BELLIED TODY.
Todus flavigaster, Ind. Orn.i. 168.
Yellow-bellied Tody, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 147.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 132.
SIZE of the Brown Tody ; length six inches. Bill short, broad,
and pale, with a few bristles at the base; tongue the shape of the
bill; head, chin, and all the upper parts of the plumage ash-colour,
inclining to brown, the wings deepest, but paler in the middle; all
the under parts, except the chin, yellow; tail even at the end, and
the wings when closed, reach to about the middle of it; legs dusky.
Inhabits New-Holland, in the collection of Mr. Wilson.
23.—BLUE-GREY TODY.
LENGTH six inches. Bill five-eighths of an inch long, broad
at the base, and much depressed, at the gape some hairs pointing
forwards; general colour of the plumage fine glossy blue-grey, very
pale; from the breast to vent pure white; under wing coverts white;
tail three inches long, even at the end; that and the quills darker
 lii;
nHlll
94 *lffla«
than the rest; the wings reach half way on itihe tail; legs slender,
black.
Inhabits New South Wales.    In the collection of Lord Stanley.
WITH   THE   BILL   EXCEEDINGLY  BROAD.
24—GREAT-BILLED TODY—Pl. lxv.
Todus nasutus, Ind. Orn. i. 26
Platyrinque, Tern, Man. Ed. i
Great-billed Tody, Gen. Syn. i
Gm. Lin.
Anal. p. I*
664. pl.30.
i. 446.
LENGTH eight intehes. Bill one inch and a quarter, very broad
at the base, and pate'Biue, inclining to orange beneath, be^etat the
base with black bristles, two or three of which are nearly the length
of the bill; nostrils oval, not far from the base; the head, neck, and
upper half of the back, are black£wfitba bluish gloss, in some lights;
from under the ears, across the throat, a broad crescent of crimson*;
the breast and all the under parts &Te also crimson, as are^lsejdkiwer
half of the back, rump, and upper tail coverts; wings and tail in
general, black; six or seven of the scapulars are white on the outer
webs, forming a patch of white streaks, and part of the outer edge
of wing is also white; tail mueh rounded, the two middle feathers
two inches long, the exterior only one; on the two outer, about the
middle, an oval spot of white on the outer web; the qmll&Teach
scarcely to the base of the tail; legs pale blue; claws flattened on
the sides.
Inhabits India. One of these in the collection of the late General
Davies had the bill and legs black; it is figured also among the
  m
i
lilfj
   TOdWV 9&
drawings of the late Sir John Anstruther; a second, supposed to
differ in sex, had the head, neck, and the whole of the breast, the
upper part of the back, the wings and tail, black; on the throat a
broad crescent of crij^son, extending on each side, under the ear;
lower belly, vent, lower part of the back, rump, and upper tail
coverts, crimson ; in other respects answering to the former description,
and several of the scapulars marked with white as in the other; the
edge of the middle of the wing yellow, which in the other is white.
When we described the one from the Leverian Museum, from
which our figure in the Synopsis was taken, the bird was supposed
to be unique, and no doubt but the tail in that specimen was imperfect, for having met with more than one since, we have found that
part to be much rounded at the end.
We have also seen various drawings done in India, both in the
collection of Sir J. Anstruther, and Lord Valentia, from which we
learn, that it inhabits various parts of Hindoostan, as well as being
met with in the Straits of Malacca.
25—BROAD-BILLED TODY.
Todus rostratus, Ind. Om. i. 268.
Todi octava species.  Pallas Spic. vi. 19. t. 3. the bill.
Todus platyrhynchos, Gm. Lin. i. 446,
Platyrinche, Tern. Man.Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxvi.
Broad-billed Tody, Gen. Syn. ii. 664.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 122.
SIZE of a Nightingale, and remarkable for the bill, which is
very broad, resembling that of the Boat-bill; it is flat, pointed at
the tip, and whitish; the nostrils in a hollow at the base, on each of
which are three large bristles, and others smaller, with a few hairs
on the forehead ; crown of the head lead-colour, in the middle of it
an oblong white spot, in the manner of the Tyrant Shrike; the back
is luteous brown; beneath luteous; throat whitish; quills brown;
tail even, brown; legs yellowish.
Described from a specimen in the Museum of the Prince of Orange.
 26.—JAVAN TODY.
aimus Javanicus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 170, Horsfield.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill shorter than the head, horn-colour,
very broad at the base, and attenuated at the end ; gape very wide,
furnished with a few hairs at the base, at the side of which the
nostrils are placed, roundish in shape and open ; the head and under
parts of the body are vinaceous ; back and wings brown, with yellow
lines in the middle of the former, and the latter varied dppegularty
with the same colour; middle quills marked outwardly with a spot
of white; the first greater quill shortest, second and fourth equal,
and the third the longest of all; tail black, the two middle feathers
plain, the adjoining one marked with a white band on the inner,
and the exterior with the same on both webs, near the end; legs of a
moderate size; toes salient.
Such is nearly the description of a bird inhabiting Java, which
appears to differ considerably from the Broad-billed species, although
at first sight may.seem to be much like it.
27— SUMATRAN  TODY.
SIZE about that of a Thrush in the body. Bill very broad,
not greatly differing from that of the Broad-billed species, at the
end pointed, and a little bent downwards, colour black ; plumage in
general black, striped with yellow on the upper parts and wings;
the tail rounded at the end, consists of twelve feathers, the two
middle ones plain black; the others the same for half the length,
beyond this more or less yellow to the end; legs slender, black.
Inhabits Sumatra and Java. This seems to coincide with the
last in respect to the bill, though different in the plumage.
 28—BOAT-BILLED TODY.
LENGTH four inches. Bill remarkable in structure, being three
eighths of an inch broad, and not more in length ; upper mandible a
little bent at the point, the whole much depressed as in the Boat-bill,
colour brown; the under mandible white; plumage above olive
brown; sides of the head olive; inclining to rufous; top of the
head darker, inclining to ash-colour; all the under parts, from chin
to vent, dull pale yellow, tinged with rufous on the breast; quills
and tail brown; the latter short, and even at the end; legs pale.
Inhabits Asia.    Mr. Bullock-
29.—NEW-HOLLAND TODY.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill broad, blunt, with some
hairs at the base; top of the head brown; between the bill and eye
a buff-coloured patch; plumage in general on the upper parts of the
body brown ; towards the rump a mixture of white; on the wings an
oblique white bar; chin and throat white; breast ferruginous; belly
white; thighs mottled brown and white; legs slender, dusky black.
Inhabits New-Holland. In the collection of Mr. Bullock. This
seems to coincide in many points with the last described
 lii:
GENUS XXXII—HOOPOE.
1 Common H.
2 African H.
3 Madagascar H.
4 Mexican Promerops
5 Californian Pr.
6 New-Guinea brown P
7 Grand Pr.
8 Orange Pr.
9 Yellow Pr.
10 Red-billed Pr.
A Abyssinian Pi
11 Lesser black Pr.
12 Blue Pr.
13 Tufted Pr.
14 Cape Pr.
15 Crested Pr.
1111 If'
THE characters of this Genus are as follow: —
The bill long, slender, and bending.
Nostrils near the base.
Tongue various.*
Toes placed three before and one behind, the middle one connected
at the base with the outmost.
Of the above birds, only the first species is found in Europe, and
in fact, only this and the two following conform wholly in character
with the Hoopoe Genus. Yet, as the Promeropes of other authors
seem to differ chiefly in being destitute of a crest, they claim some
right to have place here, according to the opinion of Linnasus and
other authors. The manners of the first we are pretty well acquainted
with, but as to the others we know little or nothing, beyond the bare
descriptions, taken from dried specimens.
* In the first species it is short and sagittal; in respect to the rest, as no other than dried
skins have been before us, the part in question can rarely be ascertained. We know, however, that in the Madagascar and Cape Species, the tongues are in both found to be elongated, and divided at the ends, in this coinciding with the Honey-Eaters; but as these two
have already found place in the Hoopoe Genus, we shall not, merely on this circumstance,
alter their situation.   M. Temminck has placed the Cape Species among his Souimangas.
U
 1—COMMON HOOPOE.
Upupa Epops, Ind. Orn. i. 277.    Lin.i. 183.    Faun. Suec. No. 105.     Gm. Lin. i. 466.
Scop.Ann.i. No. 62.     Raii 48. A. 6.     Will. 100. t. 24.     Bris. ii. 445.   t. 43. 1.
Id. 8vo. i. 285.    Gesner Av. pl. p. 703.    .FmcA t.43.    Brun. No. 43,    Muller No,
103.    Kram. 337.     Geor#i p. 165.    Se/>p. Fog-, t. p. 129.    Ror. 2Va*. ii. 152. t. 22.
Faun. Arag. p. 74.    Sch. el. t. 70.     Klein 110. 14.     id. Stem. 24. t. 25. f. 2. a. b.
f. 3. a. b.    Jd. Oy. p. 31. 1.11.    Hill Prov. i. 489.    Voy. en Barb. i. 274.    Bechst.
Deutsch. ii. 544.    Tern. Man. d'Om. 236.    Id. Ed. ii. 414.   Id. Anal. p. lxxxv.
La Huppe, Buf vi. 439.   pl. 21.     Pl. enl. 52.     Om. £>or. i.   (Promer,)  p. 7. plate 1.
Johnst. Av. pl. 42. f. 14.
La Bubbola, Olin. Uc. t. p. 36.    Cett. Uc. Sard. 101.
Wiedhopf, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 27.      Wirs. Vog. 1.15.     Naturf. ix. s.58.     Id. xxii.
120.    Jd.xxv. 17.    Schmid Vog. p. 56. t. 43.
Hoopoe, Gen. Syn. ii. 687.    Id. Sup. 122.    Br. Zool. i. No. 90. pl. 39.    Id.fol. 83. t. L.
Id. 1812, i. p.342. pl. 43. Arct. Zool. ii, 283, A.    Will. Engl. 145.    Pocock's Trav.
ii. 209.    ^5. ii. p. 42. 43.    Edw. pl.345.    Gent. Mag. xlvii. pl. p. 313.    Bewick.
i. pl. p. 123.     Lewin Birds, t. 54.      Wale. Birds, pl, 53,     Z>owo». Birds, i. pl. 9.
Pwft. Dors. p. 7.    Ror/os. Cora. p. 246. pl. 24. f. 14.     Graves Br. Orn. ii. pl. 12.
Om. Diet.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 135. pl. 17.    Nat. Misc. pl. 309.
THE length of this beautiful species is twelve inches; breadth
nineteen, and weight three ounces. The bill is black, two inches
and a half long, slender, and incurvated; tongue triangular, small,
placed low in the mouth ; irides hazel; the crest consists of a double
row of feathers*, the longest two inches or more; the tips black;
the lower parts of a pale orange colour; the neck pale reddish brown ;
breast and belly white; but in young birds marked with narrow
dusky lines, pointing downwards ; lesser wing coverts light brown •
back, scapulars, and wings, crossed with broad bars of whit and
black; the outer quill feather the shortest; rump white; the tail
consists of ten feathers, even at the end, the colour black, marked
Twenty-four or 26 in n
umber—Willughby
e the number is not alw
lys the same.
O 2
 l      I,
100 HOOPOE.
with white, and when a little expanded, appearing as a crescent,
the horns downwards; legs short and black; the outer toe united at
the bottom to the middle one.
The female resembles the male, but it is said that the crest is
smaller. The nest is made generally in the hollow of a tree; in some
instances the eggs have been laid on the bare rotten wood, at other
times a sort of nest is composed with a lining of moss, wool, leaves,
feathers, &c. but in this last case, the bird is supposed to have made
use of an old deserted nest of some other bird; it is said also to lay
and hatch the young in holes of walls, or even on the ground. The
eggs are four or five in number, sometimes more, the colour bluish
white, marked with pale brown spots; * the food chiefly consists of
worms, caterpillars, and various insects, especially beetles, the
exuviae of which, being left in the nest, cause it to stink so much, that
some of the older authors have asserted, it was made of excrement.f
Olina supposes the life of this bird to be three years, perhaps he
means in a confined state. Buffon mentions two instances,one where
it lived with a lady for three months, subsisting only on bread and
cheese; the other was kept for a year and a half on raw meat, and
would eat nothing else. This may be called a terrestrial bird, as it
seldom perches on trees. In a natural state the crest falls behind on
the neck, nor is it erected in the manner seen in most representations,
unless the bird is agitated by surprise or pleasure.
I believe the Hoopoe to be met with, and even to breed in England, oftener than is generally supposed, as I have had them several
times sent to me; and can bring various instances in support of this
opinion ; not that it is constant in its migrations into this island, for
although in some years many are met with, in others few or none.
The year 1783 seems to have been more abundant in them than any
other, one of them being shot near Orford, in Suffolk, in May;
* Cinereous, and two in number.    Faun. Suec.
t To stink like a Hoopoe occurs as a proverb in some parts of Germany.    Bechstein.
 HOOPOE. 101
another seen near the same place June 24 following: these, no doubt,
had bred thereabouts. The place where they were met with was
remarkably barren. In September of the same year, two were shot
at Holderness, and many seen in various other parts of Yorkshire,
and as far north as Scotland; three others, killed in September,
at Cam in Gloucestershire, in Epping Forest, and in Surrey; about
twenty-five years since a pair had begun to make a nest in Hampshire, but being too much disturbed, forsook it, and went elsewhere.*
In 1785, October 21, one shot at Cavendish, -f In the year 1786, I
received a young bird full fledged, shot near Southfleet, in Kent,
but the old birds had not been observed; and in the year 1808, one
was shot near Winchester, and another also near that place, in the
year 1805; likewise two were killed near Chichester, in the month of
April, of the present year, and which probably had they not been
prevented, would have bred there. Several more instances might
be adduced, but the above will suffice to prove, their not being
uncommon in England.
On the Continent it is met with in various parts as far as Sweden,
and in different parts of Germany; common in the South Deserts of
Russia and Tartary, grows scarcer beyond the River Ob; yet
some are seen beyond Lake Baikal. That the bird has no objection
to filthiness is proved by Dr. Pallas, who found the nest of one in
the privy of an uninhabited house at Tzaritsyn, assigned to him for
quarters. I am informed, that every year small flocks of ten or
twelve are seen at Gibraltar in March, hence called March-Cocks,
but are rarely known to build there, perhaps from being too much
disturbed. These are supposed to come from Africa, and on their
passage to some other place, as they sometimes stay only a few
hours to rest themselves. They have a dipping kind of flight like
that of a Woodpecker, J and certainly do not fly strong, nor endure
* Mr. Tunstall. f Gent. Mag; 1786. p. 42.
i its note, or screechj compared to those of the Jay, as well
Wans. xiv. p. 14.
$ The flight, as well
s its general habits.    Lin.
 102 HOOPOE.
long flights, as they are frequently known to rest on ships in the
passage. In August they return the same way, in six, seven, or
eight in a flock, supposed to consist of families.* In Egypt, said
to be more common than elsewhere, and to assemble in small troops;
very common at Cairo, building in the streets, on the terraces of the
houses. Sonninif observes, that they are more plentiful at the
beginning of the winter; and that there is scarcely a sandy spot,
however small, provided it be near cultivated ground, where
Hoopoes are not seen, scratching with their feet, and thrusting their
long bills into the ground.
I have observed this bird among paintings, both from China and
India. The name given to it, in a drawing from the Province of
Oude, was Oudud.    It is also found both in Java and Ceylon.
2.—AFRICAN HOOPOE.
LaHuppe d'Afrique, Om. Z>or.i. (Promerops) p. 11. pl.2.
Upupa or Hoopoe, Kolb. Cap. ii. 157.
Smaller Hoopoe, Shaw's Zool. viii. 139.
THIS, at first sight, might be taken for our Common Species, and
Kolben asserts, that those met with at the Cape differ in no respect
from that generally known; however this may be, M. Audibert
speaks of it as distinct, being in length nine inches only; the rufous
colour is more conspicuous; the crest not so high, and the feathers
of it have no white, as in the European bird; likewise the colour of
the wings is not disposed the same, and the white arch on the tail
placed nearer the base.
* Gen. Davies.    Rev. Mr. White,
moist garden, in the manner of the Pee
to subsist for a long time on board a si
mould, and the bird bored after them in
t into a box <
 HOOPOE. 103
This, according to the last named author, is met with at the Cape
of Good Hope, but in most plenty at Malemba, in the kingdom of
Congo, in Africa. Kolben talks of several sorts of Hoopoes at the
Cape, some grey, some ash-coloured, others green, but without any
description. And Gerini mentions seeing one at Florence, and on
the Alps, which had the crest bordered with sky blue.
3—MADAGASCAR HOOPOE.
Upupa Capensis, Ind. Om. i. 277.    Gm. Lin.i. 466.
Huppe du Cap de B. Esperance, Buf. vi. 463.    PL enl. 697.
LaHuppe grise, Om. Dor. (Prom.) p. 12. pl. 3.
Hoopoe, Gen. Syn. ii. 690.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 140.
LENGTH sixteen inches; breadth eighteen; weight four ounces.
Bill twenty lines, bent, much pointed, and yellowish; the upper
mandible notched near the tip ; tongue divided at the end into several
threads; palate full of tuberosities; the crest smaller, and tends to a
point behind, as in the Madagascar Cuckoo; the crest, throat, and
under parts of the body, plain white ; the upper parts from the crest
to the end of the tail are brown in different shades; on the wings is a
white spot; the tail consists of twelve feathers, the two middle ones
shorter than the others ; legs and claws yellowish.
Inhabits Madagascar, also the Isle of Bourbon, and the Cape
of Good Hope; it frequents the thick woods, feeds on seeds and
berries, and in July and August is very fat. In the Ois. Dor. the
bird is only nine inches and three quarters in length,
 4—MEXICAN PROMEROPS.
Upupa Mexicana, Ind. Orn. i. 278,    Gm.Lin.i. 467.
Promerops Mexicanus, Bris. ii. 463.   Id. 8vo. i. 286.
Avis Ani Mexicana, cauda longissima, Seba, i. t. 45. 3.    Klein, 107. iii. 4.
Promerops a ailes bleues, Bufvi. 467.    Om. Dor. (Prom.) i. p. 21,
Mexican Promerops, Gen. Syn. ii. 691.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 148.
SIZE of a Song Thrush; length eighteen inches and three
quarters, of which the tail is twelve inches and a half. Bill one inch
and eight lines, colour blackish, but the sides incline to yellow ;
the head, throat, neck, back, and rump, are dull grey, glossed with
sea-green and purplish red, in different lights; belly, sides, thighs,
and under tail coverts, light yellow; above each eye a spot of the
same; greater quills light blue; the lesser the same colour as the
back; tail blackish grey, glossed with green and purple, four of the
middle tail feathers much longer than the others.
Inhabits Mexico, where it frequents high mountainous places,
feeding on caterpillars, flies, beetles, and other insects.
5— CALIFORNIAN PROMEROPS.
Promerops of New California, La Peyrouse Voy. i. p. 200,
IN hopes that some future Naturalist may elucidate more fully,
what LaPeryouse has given a very imperfect description of, we only
mention in his words, that the bird is dark above, and light beneath;
that the tail is cuneiform, each feather tipped with a light colour.
Inhabits New California.
 105
6—NEW-GUINEA BROWN PROMEROPS.
Upupa Papuensis, Ind. Om. i. 279.
Merops fusca, Gm. Lin. i. 468.
Promerops raye, Om. dor. i. (Promer.) p. 16. pl.7.
1 ' brun de la Nouvelle Guinee, Son. Voy. 164.
, Buf vi. 471. pl. 22.
1.100.    PL enl. 638.
Striped Promerops, Sha
's Zool. v
erops, Gt
. 144.
. 694.   D'Entrecast. Voy.
LENGTH twenty-two inches. Bill two inches and a half long,
considerably bent, and of a shining black ; the top of the head and
sides the colour of polished steel; neck and throat black; hind part
of the neck, the back and wings, scapulars and tail, brown; the
three first tinged with brownish green; the breast, and under parts
of the body, are transversely striped with black and white, each
feather having two black and two white bars on it, with a grey base;
the tail consists of twelve feathers, greenish brown, and very cuneiform ; the two middle ones thirteen inches in length, the outer only
four; the wings, when closed, reach about four inches beyond the
base; legs black.
The female differs, in having the head and neck brown, otherwise
like the male.
Some birds have a tinge of rufous on the head.
Inhabits New Guinea.
 106
7—GRAND PROMEROPS—Pl. lxvi.
Upupa superba, Ind. Om. i. 279,
Upupa magna, Gmel. Lin. i. 468.
Grand Promerops,   a paremens frises, de la nouv. Guinee,   Buf. vi. 472.   PL enl. 639.
Son. Voy. 166. pl. 101. Om. dor. i. (Prom.) p. 18. pl. 8.
Superb Promerops, Shaw's Zool. viii, 145. Nat. Misc. pl, 981.
Grand Promerops, Gen. Syn. ii. 695. pl. 32.
THIS beautiful species is about the size of a middling Pigeon in
the body, but measures near four feet in length. The bill is three
inches long, pretty much curved and black ; the head, hind part of
the neck, and upper part of the belly, are glossy green; the rest of
the upper parts black, changing to violet, with a tinge of blue on
the wingsrin some lights; but the fore-part of the neck, and lower
part of the belly are without gloss; the scapulars are of a singular
construction, the webs, on one side, being exceedingly short, and on
the other of a great length, and falciform in shape; they are of a
purplish black colour, with the ends, for three quarters of an inch, of
a most brilliant, gilded green, though some of them reflect a blue
gloss; beneath each wing springs a thick tuft of dusky feathers,
eight inches and a half long, and of a texture resembling the loose
herring-bone ones in the Greater Paradise bird; and besides these, on
each side of the tail are five or six feathers with unequal webs like
the scapulars, but curved only in a moderate degree; these are half
dusky from the base, the remaining part, brownish green and gilded,
the two colours divided obliquely; the tail consists of twelve feathers
of very unequal lengths; the two middle ones measuring twenty-
eight inches; the outer one only five; the general colour of them
blue-black, with a polished steel gloss, but the inner ones are
chestnut; legs black.
Inhabits New Guinea.
 FLLXVL
tS^Mm^
  Such is the description of a perfect specimen, formerly in the
collection of Miss Blomefield, of which I have hazarded the
position of the feathers, as in the engraved plate. The bird, on her
first receipt of it, had been manifestly distorted, almost every feather
being twisted out of its place; as to Sonnerat's bird, or that figured
in the Pl. enl. both of them want the tufted feathers, which hang
over the thighs; Sonnerat, indeed, talks of two sets of feathers, the
first taking rise above the wings, the second beneath them, but
omits, the loose, herring-bone ones, so conspicuous in the bird from
which I have taken my description; and that of the Pl. enl. is destitute of both the last, as well as those which hang on each side of
the tail. The representation, given in the Ois. dorees, has the feathers
with glossy ends disposed differently from those in my figure, as are
the colours, but I do not see any remark made on the circumstance ;
and it may yet be a long time before we learn the true situation of
these highly ornamental and singular parts, to be only ascertained
by some naturalist, who may be fortunate enough to see the living
bird ; for in this, as well as in the whole of the Paradise Birds, the
natives either throw away such parts as they consider useless, or so
transpose them as may make the whole appear to the best advantage;
considering it as a mere ornament, and as such only esteemed by
them.
At General Davies's, I met With one of these before it was put
into attitude, but the parts so much separated, or distorted, as to
cause great uncertainty in respect to their true situation. In this
the two middle feathers were thirty-two inches long, and the exterior
only five; the next to the middle ones two inches shorter, but after
that lessening in a greater proportion, as they proceed outwards. In
all fourteen ; beneath the wings are eight feathers on each side, with
glossy ends, and six others three quarters of an inch longer, having
tbe«nds dull deep black, but all of them with the points ti*f*ft ing up,
somewhat in the shape of battle axes. The loose feathers, which in
my engraving hang over the thighs, in this specimen seem rather to
p 2
 ]08 HOOPOE.
belong to the vent, and under tail coverts, and the long pointed
particoloured ones hang five on each side of the tail. The glossy
feathers of the belly appear green, or blue, in different reflections of
light. This is all the amendment of what was already known, concerning the bird; but it is to be hoped, that some future draughtman
maybe so fortunate as to obtain the sight of one alive, or newly killed,
the only means of obtaining a just idea of the plumage of so curious
a bird. M. Temminck considers this and the New Guinea one to be
male and female.
8.-ORANGE PROMEROPS.
Upupa aurantia, Ind. Orn. i. 279.    Gm. Lin. i. 468,
Promerops Barbadensis,    Bris. ii. 466.    Id. 8vo. i. 287,
Promerops orange, Buf. vi. 474. Male.
Avis paradisiaca, Americana, elegantissima, Seba, i. 102. t. 66. 3.
Orange Promerops, Gen. Syn. ii. 697-8,    Shaw's Zool. viii. 149.
SIZE of a Starling; length nine inches and a half. Bill thirteen
lines long, very pointed, and of a gold colour; round the base a
few reddish feathers; head and neck gold-colour; the rest of the
body orange yellow; the greater quills, reddish orange; the lesser
orange yellow; the tail three inches and three-quarters long, the
feathers of equal lengths, and of the same colour as the quills; legs
yellow.
Inhabits Berbice.*
* Brisson supposes this to be Barbadoes, but Seba's words are " Accepin
usulis Barbicensibus," which most probably means Berbice.
  I
I:
  IIP'
111
 109
9—YELLOW PROMEROPS.
Upupa aurantia, Ind. Orn.i. 279. 8. (3.
Cochitototl, Raii Syn. p. 168.    Fernand. N. Hisp. ch. 161.
Promerops Mexicanus luteus,    Br is. ii. 467.    Id. 8vo. i. 288.
Promerops orange, Bufvi. 474.  (female).
Promerops jaune, Ois. dor. i. (Promer.) p. 21,
Yellow Promerops, Gen. Syn. ii. 697. 8.    Var. A.
SIZE of the last. Bill black; irides pale yellow; head, throat,
neck, and wings, cinereous and black, irregularly mixed; the rest
of the bird yellow;  legs ash-colour,  claws black.
Inhabits the hotter parts of Mexico, where it feeds on small worms
and seeds.
Supposed to be the female of the other.
10—RED-BILLED PROMEROPS.—Pl. lxvii.
Upupa erythrorynchos, Ind. Or-n.i. 280.    Cimel. Phys. t. 22.
Promerops a bee rouge, Ois. dor. i. p. 15. pl.6. Promer.
Red-billed Promerops, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 124, pl. 110.    Nat. Misc. pl. 533.    Shaw's
Zool. viii. 150. pl. 18.
SIZE of the Common Hoopoe; length fifteen inches. Bill two
inches and a half long, curved as in that bird, but stouter, colour
red, nostrils oval, near the base; head covered with short, velvety
feathers, and appears rather full, the feathers not lying smooth; the
plumage in general black, with a gloss of red in some lights, and
others of green, the wing coverts partaking of the latter; the head,
neck, breast, and beginning of the back have also a green gloss;
 HO HOOPOE.
belly velvet black, inclining to green, and not glossy; quills and
tail glossy blue black; on the inner webs of the first six prime quills
an oval white spot, not far from the tip ; tail cuneiform, the longest
feathers eight inches; the outer, or shortest, only three; the two
middle ones plain black; the others black, marked with an oval
white spot on each side of the web, about an inch from the end;
these are placed obliquely, but not quite opposite to each other; legs
one inch long, stout, the outer toe united to the middle one pretty
deeply, colour red ; the legs feathered before for half the length.
Inhabits Africa.—Described from a specimen in the possession of
the late Dutchess Dowager of Portland. I have since seen it in the
Museum of Gen. Davies; in that of Mr. Comyns; as well as in other
collections of Natural History.
The figure in the OiseaUfX dorees appears to be too glossy, and
gilded, unless it may probably be a high-coloured male, and the
above described the female. Is said to creep on the branches of trees
in search of insects, resting in troops in different holes of great trees,
and the cry to be like the syllables Gra-ga-ga-ga.
In the collection of Mr. Brogden is one, with the bill considerably
less curved than in that above described.
A.—In a collection of birds from Abyssinia, made by Mr. Salt,
is the following, which does not seem to differ materially. Length
fourteen inches and a half. Bill two inches and a half long, curved,
and black; head and neck velvety black; chin and throat dusky
pale chestnut brown; the rest of the neck, breast, and back blacky
with a purplish gloss on the neck and back; breast and belly plain
dull black.; wing coverts violet, with a steely glossy *he rest of the
wing black, but the feathers of the bastard wing have the ends
black, forming a spot; the quills, eleven in number, have a langte
ovail spot of white on the inner wdb; the tail cuneiform, ibfetek, With*
 HOOPOE. Ill
a violet gloss, iharked as in the last bird; legs red; hind toe and
claw long, and all the claws hooked, strong, and black.
With this^ is a Variety, having an uniformly black tail. These
said to be in Abyssinia, in flocks of 20, 30, or more, in each ; often
observed feeding on the figs of the Ficus Sycomorus, and when they
are disturbed, to make a prodigious chattering.
11—LESSER BLACK PROMEROPS.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill one inch and a quarter long, dusky
brown ; head glossy black, with a purplish tinge; body, above and
beneath, deep brown black ; wings and tail black, and glossy; the
greater quills black, but about the middle white, more or less, on
both webs, but the two outer only on the inner, forming a bar; the
ends of all ash-colour, deeper nearest the tips; the tail slightly
cuneiform, four inches and a half long, the outer feather three inches
and a half, colour wholly plain black; legs black; the first quill
shortest, the three next of one length, after which the rest shorten
by degrees.
A second of these was marked much in the same manner, but the
upper parts of the neck and back having a gloss of bright-copper,
and all beneath from the chin dusky brown black; the quills much
the same, as to the white bar across them; but the bastard wing is
white : there is also a square spot of white near the end of the outer
web of the exterior tail feather.
These birds are in the cofifection of Mr. Comyns, who obliged me
with them for the sake of the description, and are said to have been
from Senegal. I have also seen, in Mr. Bullock's Museum, one
similar in size with the above, but with markings of white both in
the quills and tail; at first sight they may be supposed to be the
young of the Red-billed species; but it must be observed,that although
 112 HOOPOE.
the smaller sort has the quills and tail spotted, the spots are not
round as in the Red-billed, nor precisely in the same! situation; it is
true, that both these birds equally vary in the presence or absence of
the spots of the tail, and we may conclude from thence that such
difference may mark the sexes; as to circumstance of having a red
or black bill, that may arise from variation only. Sonnini mentions
a Hoopoe being found in Africa wholly black*.
12—BLUE PROMEROPS.
Upupa Indica, Ind. Om. i. 280.
Promerops bleu, Om. dor. (Prom.J p. 20. pl. 9.    Tern. Man. Ed. 2. p. lxxxvi.
Blue Promerops, Gen. Syn. ii, 124.    Shaw's Zool, viii. 142.    Nat. Misc. pl. 985.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill two inches long, stout, and
curved, much as in the Red-billed species, but somewhat more bent,
and black; plumage, in general, blue, paler about the head, and
under parts; tail moderately cuneiform, more than four inches in
length; legs pale lead-colour.
Inhabits India.
13— TUFTED PROMEROPS—Pl. lxvii*
LENGTH about fifteen inches. Bill, strong, black, bent the
whole of the length, which is between four and five inches, with a
very slight notch near the tip. The feathers round the eye like cut
velvet, or plush, coming forwards for three quarters of an inch on
.Buf. I
, p. 187.    Note
   J5I*/ • £
  ■n
HOOPOE. 113
the nostrils, the same on the under mandible; on the crown they are
scaly, stand somewhat erect, and of the most brilliant blue green
imaginable; those of the nape much the same, but folded; on each
side, below the ears, a bare space three quarters of an inch long;*
from the chin to the breast are the same brilliant blue green, scaly
feathers, having on the fore part a purplish gloss; across the breast,
at the bottom of the brilliant patch, a deep blue band, and beneath
it a broader of black; many of the feathers, composing it, tipped
with gilded orange, and appearing, as an irregular, fire-coloured,
narrow band; the sides of the neck behind, the back, wings, tail,
and under parts from the breast, purplish black, but next to the
band on the breast,'tinged with green; and the back of the neck
glossed with purple; the tail is near five inches long, even at the
end, black, except the two middle feathers, which are glossy blue ;
from beneath the wings springs a set of long, loose-webbed feathers,
barbed on the sides, of different lengths, waving, and appearing like
those of the Paradise bird, but black, and some of them exceed the
end of the tail by four inches; legs stout, black; claws hooked.    .
This bird seems to unite the Promerops with the Paradise bird ;
having the bill as in the former, and the velvet-like feathers about
the bill, and the long loose webbed ones beneath the wings, as seen
in the latter; the wings reach very little beyond the base of the tail.
A specimen of the above was in the Museum of Mr. Bullock, but
I observed in this, that each feather, from the chin to the breast, had
a dash of black down the shaft; from thence the under parts to the
vent blackish chestnut. In this specimen the fire-coloured band
across the breast is not very conspicuous. I find a fine representation
of the bird among the drawings of Mr. Dent, but in neither case is
there any mention from whence the respective species was brought.
In this last figure,   I observe  five  or six distinct stouter feathers
* This occurs in the specimens in Mr. Bullock's Museum; but I do not see it in the
drawings I have met with of the bird, and cannot therefore be certain of the circumstance.
VOL.  IV, Q
 III!
114 HOOPOE.
springing from beneath each wing among the others, which are
longer than those of the common tuft, and it is these that are mentioned above as exceeding the length of the tail, for the common^
ones do not reach much beyond the middle of it.
14—CAPE PROMEROPS.
Upupa Promerops, Lin. i. 188.    Gm. Lin. i. 467.    Mill. III. t. vi. A.
Merops Cafer, Lin. i. 183.  Gm. Lin.i. 462.   Spalowsck. Vog. iii. t.19. Mus. Leskean.i.
No. 64. t. 1. No. 1.
Merops fuscus, ani regione fla.va,.JV. C*. Petr.xi. 429. t. 14. f. 1.
JPromerops,  Bris. ii. 461. t. 43.   f. 2.     Id. 8vo. i. 286.     Buf vi. 469,     Pl. enl. 637.
Ois. dor. i; -flb-bmer.)  p. 13. pl. 4.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 143.
Souimanga, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal.p.\x_iy.iv.
Le Gnepier gris d'Ethiopie, Buf. vi. 492.
Le grand Sucrier, ou le Sucrier du Protea, Levail. Afr.vi. 139. pl, 287. 288.
tape Promerops, Gen. Syn. ii. 692.
LENGTH seventeen inches, but the body is no larger than that
of a Lark. The bill not very stout, one inch and five lines long,
and black; irides brownish chestnut; the tongue longer than the
bill, and ciliated at the end; general colour of the plumage on the
upper parts brown; rump and upper tail coverts olive green ; throat
white, with a longitudinal band of brown on each side; the fore part
of the neck, and breast tinged with rufous; belly white; quills and
tail brown; the former, from the second to the fourth or fifth, with
the shafts scarcely webbed for about half the lengfh, then the web
grows quite broad, and finishes in a point; sides pale rufous, mixed
with white; the tail consists of twelve feathers ; the six middle ones
twelve inches and a quarter in length, the others much shorter, the
outer one being two, the next three, and the third four inches ; vent
yellow; legs black.
 HOOPOE. 115
This is probably the female, if not a young bird; but I have
observed in some specimens, which I suspect to be males, that they
are not only spotted on the sides, but likewise on the breast and
belly, and in these the feathers of the forehead and crown are narrow,
pointed, and mixed with grey; the tail feathers also are somewhat
longer than in the other, the colour of the whole plumage is likewise brighter; but M. Levaillant says, the female differs merely in
being smaller, and the tail shorter, insomuch that as the male changes
plumage twice in the year, and has the excess of tail feathers only in
the breeding season, at that time only the sex can be distinguished.
It is abundant about the Cape of Good Hope, and in all the
Western Parts of the African Coast, in every place where the Protea
Trees are in flower; called by the colonists, Pyl Staert (Arrow Tail),
having the appearance of an arrow in passing through the air; others
call it Suyker Voogel met lange Staert, and Koning der Suyker
Voogel.* It makes the nest on the Protea thickets, in an hemispherical form, of moss and lichen, with a lining of wool,&c.; never
met with in the deep forests, but very common in the Country of
'^fipftniqua; not seen on the Western Coast beyond Mount Kamis.
Tney will easily become tame, and may be fed with the flowers of
the Protea, brought fresh daily, or otherwise the great nettle, or
ofSiig'e flowers; and when these fail, with honey and water; and by
such means have been sustained on board a ship for a good while,
but not throughout the whole passage to Europe.
Mr. Salt met with this at Mozambique.
' Long-tailed Sugar Bird and King Sugar Bird.
 116
15— CRESTED PROMEROPS.
Upupa paradisea, Ind. Orn. i. 278.    Lin. i
Klein, 110. 15.
Promerops Indicus cristatus, Bris. ii. 464.    Id. 8vo. i. 287.
Avis paradisiaca cristata orient, alis rarissima, Seba i. t. 30. f. 5.
Le Promerupe, Buf. vi, 465.    Ois. dor. (Prom.) i. p. 21.
Le Moucherolle,  Tern. Man. Anal. p. lxvii.
Paradise Promerops, Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 147.
Crested Promerops, Gen. Syn. ii. 691.
Gm. Lin. i. 467.    Bor. Nat. ii. 152.
SIZE of a Starling ; length nineteen inches, including the tail,
which is alone fourteen inches and a half. Bill thirteen lines long,
lead-colour; head, throat, and neck, very fine black; the feathers of
the crown two inches in length, forming an elegant crest; back,
rump, scapulars, wing, and tail coverts, quills,and tail, pale chestnut;
- breast, belly, sides, thighs, and under-tail coverts, pale ash-colour;
the two middle feathers exceed the rest in length very much ; being
fourteen inches long, whereas the others are not more than three
inches; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits the Indies, and said to be very scarce. If we except
Seba, no other author has given a figure of this bird, nor are we
certain of its existence in any Museum of the present day, neither
does Seba mention from what collection he has taken his figure;
we mayjjherefore suppose it to have made part of his own superb
Museum.
 BEE-EATER.
GENUS XXXIII—BEE-EATER.
1 Common Bee-Eater
2 Arabiau
3 Indian
A Bengal
B Egyptian
C Philippine
D Var.
4 Hurruwa
A Var.
5 Yellow-headed
6 Supercilious
A Var.
B Persian
C Senegal
7 Abyssinian
8 Philippine
9 Variegated
10 Chestnut--throated
11 Javan
12 Angola
13 Calonian
14 Eastern
15 Blue-green
16 Coromandel
17 Yellow
18 Red-throated
A Var.
B Var.
19 Scarlet-throated
20 Malembic
21 Red-headed
22 Blue-headed
23 Superb
24 Red-winged
25 Swallow-tailed
A Var.
26 Pirik
27 Olivaceous
28 Chestnut
A Var.
29 White-fronted
30 New-Holland
31 Dusky
32 Fork-tailed
33 Barred-tailed
34 Blue-crested
35 Cayenne
36 Surinam
37 Brasilian
38 Cinereous
39 Chestnut-quilled
40 Rufous
JBlLL quadrangular, a little ineurvated, sharp-pointed.
Nostrils small, near the base.
Tongue various, in general slender.
Toes three forwards and one backward, the outer connected more
or less with the middle one.
This Genus, for the most part, inhabits the Old Continent, but
excepting the first species, never known to visit these kingdoms. The
first seems to be found in various parts of the world, but the rest are
more confined, and much more scarce. The general food supposed to
be insects. In the formation of the nest, imitate the Kingsfisher,
making it in the holes of banks of rivers. Said to be fond of wasps
and bees. I do not find that birds of this Genus have any note beyond
a whistle, and that far from agreeable.
 m
BEE-EATER.
-COMMON BEE-EATER
Merops Apiaster, Ind. On
Scop. Ann. i. No. 63.
194.    Klein, 110. 10.
,i. 269. Lin.i. 182. Mus. Ad. ii. 21. Gm. Lin. i. 460.
Raii 49. 3. Will. 102. t. 24. Bris. iv. 532. Id. 8vo. ii.
Id. Stem. 24. t. 25, f. 1. a. b.    Faun. Arag. 73.   Bor. Nat.
ii. 147.    Dec. Rus. i, 107.    Vosm. Mm. 1768. p. 6.     Gerin.
Gesell. iii. s. 194.    Nat. Misc. t. 262.    Voy. en Barb. i. 274.
541. t. xix.    Tern. Man. d'Om. 160.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 420.
Merops Galilseus, Hasselq. t. 247.    Id. Eng. 198.   Fn. Arab. p.
Bienenfraas, JFir*. Vog. t. 27.   Naturf. ix. s. 57. No. 62.
r gelbkehlige Bienenfresser, Schmid Vog. p. 57.
t, 494.   Shr. d. Berl.
Bechst. Deutsch. ii.
Le Guepier, Buf vi. 480. pl. 23.    Pl. enl. 988.   Jer
La Merope, C<*. l/c. Sard. t. p. 93.
Ispida cauda molli, Kram. EL337.
Aveiaruco, Gabin. de Madrid i. p. 47. lam. 13.
Gnat-snapper, Kolb, Cap. ii. 154.
Bee-eater, Gen. Syn. ii. 667. Id. Sup. 119. Id. Sup. i
Will. Engl. 147. Alb. ii. pl. 44, Lin. Trans, iii
339.    Om. Diet.     Shaw's Zool. viii. 152. pl. 19.
.Suri
, 148.   Nat. Misc. t. 69. m. & f.
333.    Br. Zool. Ed. 1812. i. p.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill one inch and three quarters long,
and black; base of the upper mandible covered ^th dirty wmfe
feathers; irides red; the forehead blue-green, behfrfffit green ; top
of the head chestnut, tinged with green ; hindhead and neck chestnut; growing paler towards the back; from the bill to the nape a
black stripe, passing through the eyes; back and scapulars pale
yellow;' Whh a chestnut, and a green tinge in different lights ; rump
and upper tail coverts yellowish blue-green; throat yellow ; under
parts of the body blue-green, paler towards the belly; lesser wing
coverts dull green, the middle ories raf&U^, the greater rufous gr<*Src
quills for the most part sea-green without, and riten^ of the intra*
ones rufbuk; the first very short, the second lorigfeifc of all; 'f£fa
wedge-shaped, consisting of twelve feathers, with the shafts brown
above, and whitish beneath; the two middle ones are sea-green,
 BEE-EATER. 119
with a shade of rufous, the rest the same, but margined with cinereous white, the two middle exceed the others in length, by three
quarters of an inch ; legs reddish brown.
In the female, only the forehead is yellow green ; crown rufous;
the rest of the upper parts brownish green; in other things both
sexes are alike, except in the two middle tail feathers, which exceed
the rest in a greater proportion in the male than in the female.
In young birds of the first year, the tail is rounded, or slightly
cuneiform, but the two middle feathers do not exceed the rest in
length, in either sex, till the second year.
This bird inhabits various parts on the Continent of Europe, and
has been seen in Sweden, though mentioned as a rare circumstance;
the same in respect to England; but in the year 1793, a flock of
about twenty was seen at Mattishal, in Norfolk, and one of them
shot by the Rev. Geo. Smith, and now in the possession of Sir J. E-
Smith, M.D. President of the Linnaean Society; this flock passed
near the above place in June, and again on its return in the October
following, but in reduced numbers. The Bee-Eater is now and then
met with in Lorraine, though only in pairs; but in the South of
France and Italy, in Cano^i,* and other Islands of the Mediterranean, in the greatest plenty, as well as in Palestine, and Arabia,
insomuch as to serve in many places for food. It is very common in
Spain, and Gibraltar, appearing at the latter the first week in April,
in flights of 50 or 60, and the note, which is a kind of whistle, not
unlike that of the Whistling Duck, or more like what is used by
sportsmen to animate their spaniels, when beating through thick
covers; they often pass without stopping, and even then, though
tap
I It is said that the boys hunt for it here with Cicadse, as they do for Swifts, after tbi«
—Bending a pin like a hook, and tying it by the head to the end of a thread, they
thrust it through a Cicada, as anglers bait a hook with a fly, holding the other end of the
thread in their hands ? the Cicada, so fastened, mounts notwithstanding into the air, which
the Bee-Eater spying, flies after it with all its force, and catching it, ^j^iJIqws the pin also,
wherewith she is caught.—Will. Orn. 148.    Gesner. Av. 540.
 120
BEE-EATER.
frequently so high in the air as scarcely to be perceived, their whistle
may be distinctly heard; but in case the weather is showery, the
whole of the flight come down into the gardens, and recruit themselves with insects, more particularly bees, wasps, and other
Hymenoptera, and not unfrequently butterflies and grasshoppers, as
both of the last have been found whole in their stomachs; but bees
seem to be their principal or most coveted food. Some of the names
of this bird appear to be derived from the circumstance. Virgil, in
his choice of a good situation for bees, says, among other enemies to
be avoided—
: aliseque Volu.
Georg. 4. 1. 14.
By these two enemies are meant, no doubt, the Bee-eater and Swallow. It can scarcely be denied that Virgil, by Meropes, meant the
Bee-eaters, now so called, but many of the translators of the passage
above referred to, have thought otherwise ; May & Trapp make them
Woodpeckers; Addison, Woodpeckers; Ogilby, the same; Dry-
den, the Titmouse, and the Peckers Hungry Brood;* but Martyn,in
his Translation gives it the true appellation of Bee-eater, which may
be also observed in other notes on the passage.
In the neighbourhood of Gibraltar the whole country is stocked
with them by the end of May, when they make the nest in sandy
banks, in the manner of the Sand Martin, penetrating three feet
horizontally, and then turning at right angles three feet farther,
making a hole large enough to admit a man's arm, and widening at
the end to the size of the crown of the hat; the female lays six or
seven white eggs, rather less than those of a Blackbird, on the bare
* It is not to be denied, that Woodpeckers will destroy bees; as the circumstance has
been mentioned, in respect to  the Black Woodpecker, which abounds about the Caspian
Sea, and its neighbourhood, and is very destructive to bees See Vol. iii. p. 339. Dec.
Russ. iv. p. 9,
 WS
BEE-EATER. 121"
ground, and after hatching the young,* more generally depart the
beginning of August. It is observed that this bird, as well as the
Kingsfisher, rejects from its stomach the indigestible parts of its food,
which are found in the shape of small pellets about its haunts.
The Bee-eater is no where more frequent than in the southern
latitudes of Russia, chiefly about the Rivers Don, Volga, and Jaick ;
some are met with about Tobolschi, on the Irtisch, though few or
none further in Siberia. They appear about Woronesch, and neighbouring parts, about the 24th of April in vast flocks, making the
nests in the clayey banks; which they perforate in so many places,
as to give the appearance of a honeycomb. They depart in September, and are observed by thousands in their flight south ward, t
In Egypt this bird is called Melino-orghi, Bee's Enemy, and there
eaten for food,J at the Cape of Good Hope is named the Gnat-
snapper, and is said to be a guide to Hottentots, by directing them
to the honey, which the bees lay up in the clefts of the rocks ;§ it is
common also in the Isle of Ceylon, and various parts of India.
2—ARABIAN BEE-EATER.
Merops chrysocephalus, Ind. Orn. i, 273.    Gm. Lin. i. 463.
■ Schaeghagha, Forsk. Faun. Arab. i. No. 3 ?
Grand Guepier vert et bleu k gorge jaune, Buf vi. 502.
Yellow-throated Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn.ii. 678,    Siaw'sZool. viii. 176.
LENGTH ten inches.    Bill twenty lines long; the forehead,
eyebrows, and all the under parts of the body blue green; the throat
* This they do notwithstanding the size of the stomach, which occupies the whole of the
lower belly, in the same manner as in our Cuckow.
t Gen. Davies observed to me, that when the sun shines upon them in flying, they are
most pleasing objects, as they appear gilded,
% Sonnin. Trav. iii. 318. § Kolb. Hist. Cap. ii. 254.
voi. iv. R
 m-\?mm
Sill
122 BEE-EATER.
fine yellow, extending on the neck, under the eyes, and a little
beyond, where it is terminated by brown; the crown of the head
and neck behind are bright golden red; upper parts of the body
green-gold; tail coverts green; the two middle tail feathers longer
than the others by seven or eight lines.
The above described from M. Buffon, who esteemed it as a new
Species, for which he was indebted to M. Sonnerat, but the native
country is not mentioned. It is probably the Schaeghagha or
Schaekah of Forskal; said to be found in the woods of Yemen, in
Arabia Felix, where it is not uncommon. M. Temminck supposes
it to be the same as the Common sort, and indeed, it seems to coindid®
with it in many points.
3— INDIAN BEE-EATER.
Merops v
ridis, Ind. Orn. i.
269.
Lin. i. 182.    Gm
Lin.i
. 460.
Amce
n. Ac. iv
Bor.
Nat. ii. 146. t. 21
Ispida vii
idis supra ferrugin
ea, Osb. It. 96,
Id. E
igl. i.
147.
Apiaster Madagascariensis torquat
is, Bris.
iv. 549.
t.42.
2.   Id. 8vo.i
. 198.
Guepier
i Collier de Madag
ascar,
Pl. enl.
740.
Guepier
Hi a. gorge bleue,
Buf.
fi. 497,
Indian B
e-Eater, Gen. Syn
.Sup.
ii. 672.
Edw.
pl. 183.    Gen
of Birds, 60.
P
Shau
's Zool. viii. 156.
SIZE of a Sparrow in the body; length eight inches and three
quarters. Bill thirteen lines and a half long and black, the tongue
ending in two bristles ; irides crimson ; plumage on the upper parts
green gold, inclining to blue on the tail coverts; beneath the body
green, changing to blue under the throat, but much less observable
in some specimens; on each side of the head a band of black, passing
under the eye; beneath the throat another transverse black band,
like a collar; under the wings fulvous; quills mostly green, with
 Mtt-£*
BEE-EATER, 123
the inner webs more or less fulvous; beneath chiefly cinereous, tip*-
ped with black ; tail green, the side feathers margined within with
cinereous, and all of them cinereous beneath ; the two middle ones
exceed the others by two inches, and the elongated part is very
narrow and blackish ; the shafts of all of them are brown above and
whitish beneath; legs brown.
The two sexes resemble each other, but the female is less brilliant
in colour.—That of Edwards has the forehead, cheeks, and throat
blue; breast and belly light green; behind the head and neck
orange red; between the blue and green, on the breast, is a black
crescent, and a black streak through the eyes; back and wing
coverts Parrot-green; rump blue-green; greater quills black; the
middle ones orange, bordered with green, and spotted with black
within the tips, which are orange.
In some Indian drawings it is called Chuta Pateronga; one which
seems to correspond with Edwards's bird, was named Oora Mutch6
Rungah. In the drawings of General Hardwicke named Ptringa,
Bonse-peter and Soo choora. Met with at Anoopshere, the end of
December.
Young birds are without the black streak across the throat, and
I have seen some witi»4he fore part of the neck rufous brown.—This
species is to be found all the year near Calcutta, called commonly
Bonsputta, and by the Bird catchers Purtinga: feeds on insects,
especially grasshoppers.
Inhabits Bengal; has also been met with at Java.
A.—-Apiastfer Bengalensis torquatus,   RrM. iv. 552.     Id. 8vc
270. 2. /3.
j Begg?! Bee-Eater, Gm. Syn. ii. 671. A.    Alb. iii. pl. 30.
ii. 199.     Ind. Orr,
Length eleven inches and a quarter.    Forehead blue, in other
respects much like the former.
 I
BEE-EATER.
-Merops J2gyptiu
, Faun. Arab. p. 1. No. 2.
Gen. Syn. i
. 671
270. 2. y.
124
The only description I find, given by Forskal, mentions that
the bird is wholly of a green colour; the throat yellow; the bill
black and rather strait; tongue bidentated; tail consisting of twelve
feathers, and even at the end; legs flesh-colour.
Inhabits Egypt; the Arabian name is Chaddaejr. The young are
sold in the month of June.
C—Apiaster Philippensis minor,
•    Syn.ii. 672. C.    Ind. Orn.i
. iv. 555. t. 42. f. 2
Length six inches and a half. Plumage the same with the others,
excepting that the streak on each side of the head, and the band
on the throat are blue ; the two middle tail feathers do not exceed
the others in length, but are narrow the whole way, and black. It
is very probable, that the bird might have lost the two old feathers,
and had been supplied with two new ones, not yet arrived at the
full growth; in which case, this bird would be very little shorter
than the first described, as the excess of length in that arose merely
from the two middle feathers.
D.—Indian Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 120.    Ind. Om. i. 270. 2. t.
This variety has a yellow forehead, and a deep blue throat; the
rest of the plumage as in the first described.
This is a common species in India, where they are often seen
flying about, and are said to be fond of plantains.
  Ill
:
tfCuMuccw Mu^-^U&U
  Ill
hi iii
, .
 BEE-EATER.
4— HURRUWA  BEE-EATER.—Pl. lxviii.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill eight-tenths of an inch
long, slightly compressed, a trifle bent, sharp, and soft; the gape
reaching far back, colour black; nostrils oblong, naked; tongue
long, hairy at the point; eyes dark, with many minute feathers on
the eyelids; the plumage in general green, with the base of the
feathers cinereous; front orange, mixed with green; the chin black,
mixed with blue; the quills black, the outer webs green; beneath
dusky; on each shoulder some beryl blue feathers; the tail consists of
twelve feathers, even at the end; above green, with some black on
the inner margins, but of this there is very little on the two central
ones; beneath all are dusky; legs ash-colour; the outer toe united
to the middle almost as far as the first joint; hind toe very strong,
and as long as the lateral ones.
One, supposed to be a male, differs. The front, nearly as far as
the crown, of a bright orange, inclining to red; from the gape a band
of black, passing through the eye, and forming a curve or crescent,
on each side, unites on the throat; within this the chin is clear bright
blue; at the hind part the black crescent is bordered with orange
yellow, which finishes below the black on the breast.
Inhabits India, and is the Hurrial or Hurryba of the Hindostanese,
pronounced Hurruwa; is most frequent in the Western Provinces,
but not found at Bengal, or at least has not hitherto been noticed as
a bird of that part; is said to sing very prettily, from whence the
name Hurry, various, and Ba, voice.—Dr. Buchanan.
A.—Indian Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. Sup. 120. 2. D. parag. 2d.
Length six inches.    The general colour of the plumage in this is
pale green, beneath lighter; forehead inclining to orange; between
 126
BEE-EATER.
the bill and eye, the chin, and throat black, mottled on each side of
the under jaw with an obscure trace of blue; tail even at the end;
bill black; legs pale brown.
This bird is in the British Museum, and probably not in adult
plumage, but whether allied to the Indian Species, or the Hurryba,
is perhaps not easily determined.
5—YELLOW-HEADED BEE-EATER.
Merops congener, Ind. Om. i. 270.    Lin. i. 183.    Gm. Lin. i
103.    Klein, 110. 12.
Merops alter, Gesn. Av. t. p. 541.
Apiaster icterocephalus, Rm. iv. 537. Id. 8vo. ii. 195.
L'lcterocephale, ou Guepier k t^te jaune, Buf vi. 510.
The other Bee-Eater of Aldrovandus, Will. Engl. 148.
Yellow-headed Bee-Eater, Gen, Syn. ii. 672.    Share's Zool. v
THIS is larger than the Common Bee-Eater. Head, throat, and
all beneath yellowish; on each side of the head a broad black band,
passing through the eyes towards the neck; back and scapulars fine
chestnut; rump and upper tail coverts mixed green and yellow, the
greater entirely yellow; quills black, tipped with red; the tail half
yellow, half green; legs yellow.
The above said to inhabit various parts of Europe. That which
Gesner describes was met with at Strasburgh, by Jthe name of
Seeschwalm, but he mentions it as being very rare there.
 mm
BEE-EATER.
127
6—SUPERCILIOUS BEE-EATER,
Merops superciliosus,. Ind. Om.i. 271.    Lin.i. 183.    Gm. Lin.i. 461.
A piaster Madagascariensis, Rm. iv. 546. t. 42. 1.    Id. 8vo. ii. 197.
Guepier de Madagascar, Patirich, Buf. vi. 495.    Pl. enl. 259.
Supercilious Bee-Eater, Gen.Syn.ii. 673.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 164.
LENGTH eleven inches and one-third. Bill one inch and three
quarters long, and black; on the forehead a transverse greenish white
band, passing over each eye; another of the same colour from the
base of the lower mandible, under the eye, both tending towards the
hindhead; between these the parts are black, and in the middle of
this the eye is placed; the upper parts of the head dull greenish
chestnut, varying in different reflections of light; neck behind, and
upper parts of the body dull green, lighter towards the rump; the
greater wing coverts green, margined within with brownish-ash-
colour, the throat yellowish white, below chestnut; under part of
the body green, paler than above, especially near the vent; quills
green, many of them black at the ends, the first shortest; tail dull
green, the inner webs of all but the two middle feathers cinereous*
the shafts brown above, and whitish beneath; the two middle ones
twice the length of the rest, and pointed; legs brown.
Inhabits Madagascar; called by the natives Patirich Tirich; is
common about the Manioca Plantations, in Mozambique, which the
bees frequent; said also to be found in some parts of Russia, and to
breed about the mouths of the Rivers Volga and Jaick, as well as
in some high banks about the Caspian Sea.
A.—Autre Guepier de Madagascar, Buf vi. 496.    Gen. Syn. ii. 674. 4. parag. 2d,
This is of the same size and colours, but less distinct; the bill
weaker, and the two middle feathers not longer than the others; the
stripe on the sides of the head, and the rump, sea-green.
 1
228 BEE-EATER.
One of these had the two middle tail feathers longer than the
others, which probably was a male, or more approaching to an
adult state.
B—Merops Persica, Pall. It. ii. 708. t. D.    Ind. Orn. i. 271. 4. y.
In this the forehead is blue; from the bill a black streak through
the eye; beneath the neck a large space of a rufous red colour.
This is about eleven inches in length, and inhabits the banks of
the Caspian Sea, making the nest in the crags thereabouts, and is a
migratory species.
C.—Length ten inches and a half. Bill one inch and a quarter,
stout, and black; crown of the head black; forehead white, continuing over the eye in a broad streak, to the hindhead; from the
gape a streak of black, passing through the eye; chin and throat
white; above the throat a triangular patch of black ; general colour
of the rest of the plumage pale dull green, much paler beneath; the
nape inclining to chestnut; the lower part of the black, on the
breast, bounded with pale blue; the wing coverts incline to jjbrown,
also the lesser quills; the greater outwardly margined with dusky;
tail rounded at the end, two inches long, greenish, but the two
middle feathers of double the length, narrow, and end in a point;
the parts exceeding are black ; legs dusky, pale; lower belly and
vent pale grey.
Inhabits Senegal.—General Davies. In the collection of Mr.
Brogden.
 BEE-EATER.
129
7—ABYSSINIAN BEE-EATER.
LENGTH near twelve inches. Bill almost two inches long,
black; crown of the head brownish black; forehead, and under the
chin, bluish white, passing in a broad streak on each side of the
head to the nape; in the middle of this a dark streak, in which the
eye is included; general colour of the plumage above, wings, and
tail olive green ; beneath the same, but paler, and inclining to blue;
under wing coverts reddish buff; chin and throat pale chestnut; the
inner webs of the quills more or less reddish buff; the second quills
bifid at the ends; the tail consists of twelve feathers, three inches
and three quarters long, green above, and dusky beneath, and on
the inner webs; the two middle ones exceed the others by two inches
and a half, and end in a point; legs dusky.
Supposed to inhabit Abyssinia.—Described from a specimen in
the collection of Mr. Salt, and is a singularly beautiful species.
8—PHILIPPINE BEE-EATER.
Merops Philippinus, Ind. Orn. i. 271.    Lin. i. 183.    Gm. Lin. i. 461.
Apiaster Philippensis major, Rm. iv. 560. t.43. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 201.
Guepier vert k queue d'Azur, Buf. vi. 404.
Grand Guepier des Philippines, Pl. enl. 57.
Philippine Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. ii. 674.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 165.
THE length of this species is near nine inches. Bill two inches
long, and black; the head, neck behind, and upper parts of the
body dull green, glossed with copper, but the rump and tail coverts
are blue green; on each side of the head is a stripe of black, which
begins at the upper mandible, and passes through the eye; beneath
Ml
 130
BEE-EATER.
this one of blue; throat yellow; belly pale green; quills as the back,
but fulvous within, and black at the ends; tail the same, the two
middle feathers narrow, and longer by an inch than the rest; shafts
blackish above, and white beneath; legs brown.
The female does not differ materially in plumage, but instead of
the blue stripe, beneath the black one, passing through the eye, is
one of white; the yellow on the throat much paler, and the belly
greenish white; tail feathers even at the ends.
Inhabits the Philippine Islands; found also in various parts of
India; by the Hindoos called Boropertinga; at Bengal, Bons-
puttah.* Are sometimes caught alive, and attempts have been made
to keep them in cages, but they seldom survive long, as they feed
only on the wing, and on living insects. We have met with this
species in more than one collection in this kingdom, and frequently
in drawings, where it likewise is named Pateronga and Pelique.
Found also in Java.
9—VARIEGATED BEE-EATER.—Pl. lxix.
Merops ornatus, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxxv.
Mountain Bee-Eater, Lewin N. Holl. Birds, pl. 18.
Variegated Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. Sup.ii. 155. pl. 128.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 158.
SOMEWHAT larger than the Red-winged Species. Bill black;
top of the head, and nape, dull orange, the middle of the feathers
darker; through the eye, from the base of the bill, a broad black
streak, continuing a good way behind it, and ending in a point;
beneath this a pale blue streak; chin orange yellow; on the breast
a triangular patch of black; after this the under parts are yellow,
but the belly itself, thighs, and vent are bluish white; back part of
* These seem to be general names.
   f^^aa^^^&^r.
  BEE-EATER. 13l
the neck, and wing coverts green; the back mixed green, and
brownish orange; lower part of it, and rump blue; the middle part
of the wing has some series of green feathers, with fulvous margins,
and others wholly fulvous; quills green, with the inner margins
black; the second quills edged with yellow; the two middle tail,
feathers continued to double the length of the others, as in several of
the Genus, the additional part very narrow, and furnished with very
slender webs, the colour of them blue; the rest of the tail chestnut;
legs dusky.
The female, or,one supposed to be so, had the forehead, to the
middle of the crown, blue, the nape only being orange, which colour
also occupies the chin ; the black through the eye, the blue beneath,
and the patch on the throat, the same as in the other; back brownish
green; rump blue; the two middle tail feathers as in the former, the
others black; wing coverts like the back; the rest of the wing not
much differing from the other, but less brilliant.
Inhabits New South Wales; the first met with in the collection
of General Davies, the other among the drawings of Mr. Lambert.
Known in New-Holland by the name of Dee-weed-gang. Mr. Lewin
says, it inhabits mountains, and frequents the Hawkesbury River,
near that part, running under the mountains; a few breed there every
summer; appears in the greatest numbers the end of September, and
migrates about April.
10—CHESTNUT-THROATED BEE-EATER.
LENGTH nine inches and a half. Bill two inches long, black ;
general colour of the plumage gilded yellow green, but the lower
part of the back and second quills are dull green, and the wing
coverts spotted with the same; through the eye, and beneath it, a
long streak of black, bounded above and below with pale blue; the
S 2
 ] 32 BEE-EATER.
chin pale yellow ; on the throat a triangular chestnut spot; the tail
feathers are dull green, with dark chestnut shafts, and the two
middle ones exceed the others by full two inches, ending in a point;
legs ash-colour.
Inhabits India; met with at F'uttehghur, in June.—General
Hardwicke. Found also in the Island of Ceylon. Beneath a drawing
of one of these is a figure, said to be that of the egg, which is white,
and perfectly round, in diameter seven-eighths of an inch.
In a specimen of this bird, in the collection of Lord Stanley, the
under wing coverts, and sides, beneath the wings, are pale rufous:
the same in one in the possession of Mr. Comyns.
11.—JAVAN BEE-EATER.
II
Merops Javanicus, Lin, Trans, xiii. p. 171.
LENGTH eleven inches. Plumage in general olive green, with
a gloss of copper; a line of black from the forehead to the ears; the
frontal line margined with an obsolete sea-green band; chin sulphur-
coloured ; throat chestnut; vent and rump sea-green; sides of the
vent whitish; middle of the belly the same, but more dull; sides
and axillae fulvous ; prime quills and secondaries with a black band
at the tips,
Inhabits Java, there called Kachangan. This and the last
described are most probably the same, chiefly differing in being
larger, and measuring, in length, more by one inch and a half; and
both of them answering* in many respects, to the Variegated Species.
 mm
BEE-EATER.
133
12—ANGOLA BEE-EATER.
Merops Angolensis, Ind. Om. i. 273.    Gm. Lin. i, 463.
Apiaster Angolensis, Bris. iv. 558. t. 44. 1. A.   Id. 8vo. ii. 200.
Petit Guepier vert et blanc a queue etagee, Buf. vi, 503.
Angola Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. ii. 679.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 176.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill three quarters of an inch,
and black; irides red; upper parts of the head, neck, body, and
wings green, with a slight gloss of gold ; on each side of the head
an ash-coloured stripe, dotted with black, from the bill, through the
eye; throat yellow; fore part of the neck of an elegant chestnut;
breast, belly, sides, and thighs, greenish blue, with a slight gold
tinge; under tail coverts greenish, with a little mixture of chestnut;
quills green, within and beneath cinereous; tail beneath cinereous;
above green, the side feathers margined with cinereous; the shape
cuneiform, each feather shortening as it is more outward, so that the
last is very short; legs ash-colour.
Inhabits the kingdom of Angola in Africa, from whence a drawing was sent to M. Brisson, by M. Le Poivre.
13.—CALONIAN BEE-EATER.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill black; head, shoulders, upper
wing coverts, scapulars, and two middle tail feathers yellow-green ;
between the bill and eye a black line, passing beneath the latter
and growing broad behind it, ending in a point; chin and throat
yellow ; on the breast a blackish mark, bounded below with dark
reddish brown; belly and vent rufous yellow ; prime quills reddish
 134 BEE-EATER.
brovra;  tail very little rounded,  all but the two middle feathers
rufous, with black tips, and edged with green; legs black.
From the drawings of General Davies, who copied it from a
specimen in the Museum of M. Calonne.
14—EASTERN BEE-EATER.
Merops Orientalis, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxxiii.
Eastern Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 152.    Shai
SIZE of the Red-winged Bee-Eater. General colour: of the
plumage dull green, the feathers rather full; quills red, but not
bright, the outer edges dull green, with black tips; tail green; the
two middle feathers produced beyond the others, where they are
narrow, and black.
Inhabits the Mahratta Country in India.—In the British Museum.
15.—BLUE-GREEN BEE-EATER.
Merops caenilescens, Ind: Orn. Sup. xxxiii.
Blue-green Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 152.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 159.
LENGTH eight inches. Colour of the wfhole plumage blue-
green, with a deeper gloss, appearing black in some lights; legs
black.
Native place uncertain.
 BEE-EATER.
135
16—COROMANDEL BEE-EATER.
Merops Coromandus, Ind. Om. i. 272.   Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 213. t; 119.
Coromandel Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. Sup. 120.
BILL black ; irides pale rufous; head, and hind part of the neck
pale yellow; from the bill, through the eye, a streak of black,
finishing behind it; throat pale green ; fore part of the neck, breast
and belly greenish yellow; sides of the neck deep yellow, undulated
with greenish blue; quills and tail deep yellow, the lesser quills
tipped with black; legs black.
Inhabits the Coast of Coromandel.
17.—YELLOW BEE-EATER.
Merops flavicans, Ind. Om. i. 272.    Gm. Lin. i. 462.
Apiaster flavicans, Bris. iv. 539.   Id. 8vo. ii. 196.
Manucodiata secunda Aldr. Raii 21. 2.    Will. 56. t. 11.   Klein 63. 2.
Le Guepier k tSte jaune et blanche, Buf. vi. 490.
Aldrovandus's second Bird of Paradise,   Will. Engl. 91. t. 11.
Yellow Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. ii. 676.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 159.
BIGGER than the Common Bee-Eater; breadth twenty inches.
Bill two inches long, yellowish green;- irides yellow; the head white,
marked with spots of yellow, and others of gold; back and scapulars
yellowish; rump and taili coverts ferruginous; the under parts in
general are white, hut the breast inclines to red, and under the
wSfflgs ferruginous; quills the same, and some of the intermediate
ones cordated, and emarginated; tail composed of twelve feathers,
whitish at the base, and ferruginous the rest of the length; the two
 136 BEE-EATER.
middle ones exceed the others about eight inches,* and end in a
point; colour of the legs uncertain. The place from whence it came
unknown.
18.—RED-THROATED BEE-EATER.
Merops gularis, Ind. On
Red-throated Ree-Eater,
. Sup. xxxv.    Nat. Misc. pl. 337,
Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 157.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 177.
SOMEWHAT less than the Common Species; length eight
inches. Bill one inch and a half long, black; general colour of the
plumage above black ; forehead fine blue, passing a little way over
the eye, behind which is a patch of the same; fore part of the throat
and neck fiery red; rump blue, marked with spots of black; belly
clouded blue and black ; some of the quills and tail feathers edged
with blue; base of the greater quills ferruginous, forming a patch
on the wing, and when closed reach but little beyond the base of the
tail, which -is nearly even at the end, and two inches long; legs
dusky.
Inhabits Sierra Leone in Africa.
A.—Size of the other. Bill one inch and a quarter long, a trifle
curved, somewhat quadrangular, and black; front over the bill fine
blue, appearing tufted, and passing over the eye in a narrow streak;
the rest of the head and back, tinged with green; across the chin,
at the base of the bill, a broad band of fine crimson, but not continuing on the throat; body in general greenish black; the lower
part of the back, and shoulders, have the feathers margined with
dull green; fore part of the neck from the chin, the breast, and belly
* Willughby says, about two palms length.
 &1
BEE-EATER. 137
much like the back, with a greenish blue streak down the shaft of
each feather; rump, and upper tail coverts verditer-blue; vent, and
behind the thighs, much the same ; quills dusky, with red shafts;
insides of the scapulars rufous ; tail two inches and a quarter long,
rounded, the feathers dusky, edged with blue green; legs short,
black, claws moderately hooked.
In the collection of General Davies, said to have come from
South America, but I suspect this to have been a mistake, and that
it is a native of Africa, as well as the former.
B.—This is scarcely six inches long. Bill seven-eighths of an inch,
dusky; general colour of the plumage black; from the forehead,
over the eye, a faint blue streak ; sides of the chin marked with a
narrow red, or crimson streak, three quarters of an inch in length ;
rump pale blue; belly spotted irregularly with the same; thighs
and vent blue ; on the wings a patch of red, from the base of some
of the quills being of that colour; tail short, little more than one
inch in length ; the wings reach only to the rump; legs pale grey.
From the drawings of Mr. Woodford.—The distribution of
colours is certainly much the same as in the Red-throated, but it
differs in many things; the bill little more than half the length, and
the tail in the same proportion; nor do either the blue or red colours
occupy so much space as in the last named. I find no history annexed
to the representation, but we may conjecture it to be a young bird of
the Red-throated Species.
19.—SCARLET-THROATED BEE-EATER
LENGTH nine inches. Bill one inch and a half; formed as in
others of the Genus, and black; nostrils pervious; crown of the
head blue green; through the eye a black streak, growing broader,
 138 BEE-EATER.
and finishing on the jaw; chin and throat bright scarlet; the rest of
the under parts, and under wing coverts pale ferruginous; across the
belly, just before the thighs, a white band ; lower belly, vent, and
under tail coverts fine deep blue ; plumage in general above bluish
green ; wings the same, all the second quills black at the ends; tail
four inches long, even, dull green at the end, and rufous green the
rest of the length; the two middle, and the exterior feathers green ;
the quills reach half way on the tail; legs slender, black.
Inhabits Senegal, in the collection of Lord Stanley, a fine specimen was also to be seen in Mr. Bullock's Museum.
20—MALEMBIC BEE-EATER.
Merops bicolor, Am
. de Mus. national, ii
Nat. Misc. pl. 701.
440. pl. 62. f. 1.
Shaw's Zool. viii.
SIZE of the Common Bee-Eater; length ten inches; breadth
sixteen. Bill and legs black ; irides red; head and neck slaty grey;
chin white, extending in a stripe on each side of the throat; through
the eyes a black-brown streak ; body, wings, and tail, reddish vina-
ceous-colour; throat, breast, belly, and sides, fine sanguineous rose-
colour, paler towards the vent; the two middle tail feathers exceed
the others by half an inch, and end in a point; quills black ; under
parts of the wings and tail greyish brown.
Inhabits the vicinity of Malemba, in Africa, three months of the
year: seen in troops, which have a quick flight, like the Swallow,
in chace after hymenopterous insects ; seldom perching on branches
of trees, and more rarely seen on the ground.
 BEE-EATER.
21.—RED-HEADED BEE-EATER.
Merops erythrocephalusi Ind. Orn
A piaster Indicus erythrocephalus,
Guepier a tete rouge, Buf. vi. 50
Red-headed Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn.
i. 274.    Gm. Lin.i. 4f
Bris. iv. 563. t. 44. 3. ,
Id. 8vo. ii. 201.
. 679.   Nat. Misc. pl. 357.   Sha.
LENGTH six inches. Bill sixteen lines long, black; irides red;
head, and upper part of the neck fine red; on each side of the head
a black band; from the bill through the eyes, back, scapulars, rump,
and upper tail coverts fine green ; throat yellow; the rest of the
parts beneath yellowish, shaded with red; under the wings deep
green ; under tail coverts yellowish, edged with light green; quills
and tail above deep green, beneath and margins ash-colour; legs
dusky ash.
Inhabits the East Indies.—M. Brisson describes this from a
painting of M. Le Poivre.
22—BLUE-HEADED BEE-EATER.
Merops caeruleocephalus, Ind. Orn. i. 274.    Gm. Lin. i. 464.
Guepier rouge k tete bleue de Nubie, Buf. vi. 506.    PL enl. 649.
Blue-headed Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. ii, 680.   Nat. Misc. pl. 613.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 168.
pl. 21.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill one inch and three quarters, black;
head, throat, rump, and upper tail coverts blue green, deeper on the
two first; through the eye, from the gape, a black streak; fore part
of the neck, and beneath as far as the thighs, crimson, with a rufous
shade;  back, wings, and tail glossy,  faded,   brick-coloured  red,
T2
 140 BEE-EATER.
inclining to brown on the wing coverts; three or four of the quills,
nearest the body, greenish brown, tinged blue; greater quills tipped
with bluish grey, blended with red, ending in blackish brown, the
tips of the scapulars greenish; tail somewhat forked, four inches
long, dull brick-colour, greenish at the end ; the two middle feathers
exceed the rest by three inches, the elongated parts greenish black ;
the quills reach three-fourths on the tail; legs pale ash-colour.
Inhabits Nubia;  taken  from Mr. Bruce's drawings.—That in
the Pl. enlum. has no elongated feathers, and is probably a female.
23.—SUPERB BEE-EATER.
Merops superbus, Inc
. Orn. Sup. xx
xiii.    Nat. M
sc. t. 78
Superb Bee-Eater, G
en. Syn. Sup. i
. 152.    Shau
's Zool.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill black; general colour of the
plumage red; the forehead, round the eye, throat, and rump blue ;
the two middle tail feathers are longer than the rest, and the parts
so exceeding are black.
This is in the British Museum, but from whence unknown; it
has many things in common with the last described, but differs
materially in the shape of the tail.—One of these, in the collection
of Mr. Francillon, had a streak of black through the eye.
24— RED-WINGED BEE-EATER.—Pl. lxx.
Merops erythropterus, Ind. Om. i. 274.    Gm. Lin. i. 464.
Gu&pier rouge et vert du Senegal, Buf. vi. 507.    PL enl. 318,
Red-winged Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. ii, 681. pl. 31.     Id. Sup. ii. 149.     Shaw's Zool.
175.
LENGTH  near seven inches.     Bill black;   plumage on  the
upper parts, wing coverts, scapulars, and two middle tail feathers,
  H
P
 P1.LXX.
I
ife^^-5^
  "%
BEE-EATER.
141
dull green; from the nostrils a black streak passing beneath the eye;
chin and throat full yellow, beneath this a triangular patch of black;
between the two a fine blue line : breast pale rufous chestnut; belly
and under wing coverts the same, but paler; quills deep cinnamon-
colour, with dusky ends ; the lesser quills rufous as the breast, with
the ends black, and somewhat bifid ; all the side tail feathers rufous,
with black ends, the very tips cinereous; legs black.
In some specimens the under parts are dusky white.
Inhabits Senegal, and other parts of Africa, likewise Abyssinia:
flies very swift, in the manner of a Swallow, and is difficult to be
shot. It seems to be a numerous species, as few collections brought
from Africa, are without containing several specimens. We likewise
observe, that they vary in size; but how far such may arise from
variation only, or difference of sex, we are at a loss to determine.
25.—SWALLOW-TAILED BEE-EATER.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill one inch and a half, black ; head,
neck, and upper parts fine green; throat and chin fine yellow,
bounded below with blue; breast as the back; from thence to the
vent inclining to blue; rump, and under tail coverts pale verditer
blue ; under wing coverts deep buff; upper ones as the back; second
quills deep buff orange, black at the ends for half an inch, and bifid
at the tips; tail very forked, the two middle feathers three inches
long, the exterior four inches; colour dusky pale blue without, and
dusky on the inner webs, the same towards the end; the two middle
ones plain, pale blue ; the rest, except the outermost, have the ends
nearly white, the shafts black above, and white beneath; legs dusky.
Inhabits Abyssinia.—In the collection of Mr. Salt.
 142 BEE-EATER.
Two specimens of this beautiful species were shot near Adowa.
One in Mr. Bullock's possession answered in all things, but had a
streak of black through the eye.
A.—Length eight inches and a half. Bill near one inch and a
half, and black ; plumage above fine green ; through the eye black;
over the eye a fine blue streak; chin orange yellow, beneath this a
fine deep blue band ; next to this tawny, growing paler by degrees
to the vent, which is very pale; under wing coverts red buff; prime
quills dull green, the ends dusky; secondaries greenish orange for
three-fourths of the length, then black for three quartes of an inch,
the ends bifid, and fringed with white; scapulars plain green ; the
first quill half the length of the second ; tail even, three inches and
a half long, the two middle feathers green, the others tawny buff;
the ends for one inch black, the tips fringed with white, the outer
web of the exterior green ; legs dusky.
In the collection of Mr. Salt, and except in the shape of the tail,
seems very little to differ from the one described above, a circumstance
which would rather lead us to consider it as distinct.
ill
26.— PIRIK BEE-EATER.
. 172.—Horsfield.
LENGTH eight inches. Above glossy olive-green ; beneath and
rump the same, with a sea-green tinge; crown, hind part of the
neck, and interscapulary feathers chestnut; chin and throat sulphur-coloured ; a line of black on the temples, and a similar band
of the same on the b. east; tail above dull sea-green, beneath dusky;
tips of the quills black.
 ■"^
BEE-EATER. ]43
Inhabits Java; known there by the name of Pirik.—In Mr.
Bullock's Museum is one similar, but rather less in size ; bill one
inch and a half long, rather stout, and bent; head flat above;
plumage on the upper parts of the body olive green, beneath ash-
colour, streaked with brown ; tail short, rounded at the end, where
the feathers are pale; legs stout, brown.
Said to have been brought from Java, and most probably
related to the former, if not differing in sex. From the corresponding
similarity in many points, of several of the Bee-eaters reported as
distinct, it will most probably be hereafter found, that they are more
nearly allied than at first imagined, and that the difference may arise,
from the periods of growth of the birds, as well as sex.
27.—OLIVACEOUS BEE-EATER.
Le Promerops olivatre, Ois.
Olivaceous Bee-Eater, Shan
or. i. (Promer.) p. 14. pl. 5.
\ Zool. viii. 180.
SIZE of the Cape Promerops; length seven inches. Bill ten
lines long, black brown; plumage of the head, and upper parts
inclined to olive, beneath the same, but paler, with a yellowish tinge,
growing white towards the vent; from the gape arise two yellow
marks, which pass beneath the eye, and a little beyond it; tail even
at the end, consisting of twelve brown feathers, edged with olive-
yellow ; quills the same; legs grey.
Inhabits one of the Islands of the South Seas ; met with there by
La Peyrouse; and considered as a new species.
 BEE-EATER.
28—CHESTNUT BEE-EATER.
Merops castaneus, Ind. Orn. i. 273.
 badius, Gm. Lin.i. 462.
Apiaster ex Franciae Insula, Bris. iv. 542.
Guepier marron et bleu de l'lsle de France
Senegal Bee-Eater, Shaw's Zool. viii. 163.
Chestnut Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. ii. 677.
. 44. 2.   Id. 8vo. ii. 197.
Buf vii. 493.    PL enl. 252.
LENGTH near eleven inches. Bill one inch, seven lines long,
and black; upper part of the head, neck, and scapulars, elegant
chestnut; on each side of the head a brown stripe, from the mouth
to the hindhead, beneath the eyes; throat, fore part of the neck, and
breast, blue green; lower part of the back, the rump, belly, sides,
thighs, upper and under tail coverts, the same, but paler; upper
wing coverts green, the under fulvous ; most of the quills are green,
with great part of the inner web fulvous; the four inner ones wholly
green; thirteen of the middle ones have black tips, all of them grey
brown beneath ; tail blue above, the under side grey brown; the two
middle feathers exceed the others in length by two inches and a
quarter, and end in a point; shafts brown above, whitish beneath ;
legs reddish.
Inhabits the Isle of France.
A.—Le Guepier marron et bleu du Senegal, Buf. vi. 494.
Senegal Bee-Eater, Shaw's Zool. viii. 163.
Guepier a longue Queue, PL enl. 314.    Gen. Syn. ii. 678. A.
'
This is twelve inches in length; the colours much the same, only
somewhat differently distributed; the chestnut extending in this to
the wing coverts and quills, except those nearest the back; and to
all the tail feathers, except the part which exceeds the rest in length,
which is black—Brought from Senegal by Mr. Adanson.
 "%
BEE-EATER.
29-WHITE-FRONTED BEE-EATER.
Merops albifrons, Ind. Or
White-fronted Bee-eater,
v. Sup. i.
Hen. Syn
Sup.ii. 156.   Shut
LENGTH eight inches. Bill brown; tongue longer than the
bill, and pointed; back and wings fine rufous; forehead and all
beneath white; the feathers of the latter each marked down the shaft
with a black line, as are also the rufous ones above; between the bill
and eye, sides of the head, the crown, and nape wholly black ; sides
of the body, under the wings, marked with five bluish bands; quills
and tail pale blue, spotted with white on the outer edge, within
darker; tail even at the end, or a very trifle rounded; the wings,
when closed, reach to the middle of it; legs yellow brown.
The female has the back and wings brown, beneath dirty yellowish white, with dashes down the shafts as in the male ; forehead
brown and white spotted, the rest of the head brown, which is black
in the male ; the tail, too, seems shorter, and appears to be wholly
spotted with dirty yellow and brown, or rather dirty yellow, with
the brown spots in bars; bill and legs as in the male.
Inhabits New-Holland.—I am obliged to Gen. Davies, for the
above description, taken from specimens in the possession of Captain
King, which were brought from New South Wales,
30.—NEW-HOLLAND BEE-EATER.
Pied Bee-Eater, Shaw's Zool. viii. 165.
LENGTH nine inches at least; size of a Song Thrush.     Bill
one inch long, pale; plumage in general black; sides of the head
VOL. IV. u
 146
BEE-EATER.
behind the eyes, the sides and throat white, divided by a black line;
from the breast to vent white ; shoulders of the wings white, continuing in a broad streak down the wing, appearing within the qurns
when the wing is closed; rump and tail white, but the ends of the
two middle feathers of the latter are black for two inches, and the
ends of the others the same, but the black in less proportion, so that
the outei- ones are only tipped for one inch; but all the feathers are
ultimately white at the tips, and the two middle ones only just
fringed within ; the tips of the second quills are also white ; legs
rather long, and black.
Inhabits New-Holland. In the collection of Mr. H. Brogden.—
I have ranked this with the Bee-eaters on some uncertainty, for
independent of appearance of the Bee-eater, it also somewhat approaches to that of the Honey-eater, and on our farther acquaintance
may possibly prove to belong to the last named Genus.
31— DUSKY BEE-EATER.
SIZE of the last. Bill longish, bent, black; plumage above
plain dusky; crown fine grey ; chin, throat, and breast white ; belly
dusky; sides of the head, through the eye, the same; tail Jong,
rounded, the ends of the feathers more or less white, increasing in
depth as the feathers proceed outwards; legs black.
Inhabits New-Holland. It seems somewhat connected with the
last described.
32— FORK-TAILED BEE-EATER.
LENGTH from the point of the bill  to the end of two middle
tail feathers seven inches; but the two outer ones are at least two
 "%
BEE-EATER.
147
inches longer. Bill one inch, curved, black ; crown of the head red,
changing to chestnut at the nape; back and quills dark, blackish
green, the first marked with nineteen or twenty spots of white ; lesser
wing coverts pale green, the greater margined deeply with whitish ;
forming a bar on the wing; lower part of the back and rump pale
chestnut; over the eye, from the nostrils, a pale yellow, broad streak,
and a second of black from the gape, passing under the eye, and
finishing on the ears, where it is broad and rounded ; in the middle
of this last part, a reddish brown spot; the chin, throat, and sides of
the neck pea-green; on the upper part of the breast a spot of white;
the rest of the under parts rufous red; tail greatly forked, the two
middle feathers pale green, with four or five paler yellowish bars,
the others deep blackish green; the outer feathers for one inch, where
they begin to exceed the others in length, are broad, but growing
by degrees very narrow, finally curve outwards, with an enlarged
fringed end; legs dusky.
The other sex differs a little ; the head more varied, and blended,
instead of pea-green; also the throat and chin ; these last parts
being rufous yellow; the white on the lower part of the throat
wanting.
The nest is not unlike that of the Philippine Grosbeak, and
hangs between the forks of the branches of trees.
Supposed to inhabit the interior of India.
33—BARRED-TAILED BEE-EATER.
LENGTH six inches. Bill black, with a few hairs at the base,
and bent at the tip ; head, neck, under parts,and rump dull rufous
yellow, brighter on the crown ; from the nostrils a streak of bright
blue passes through the eye to the hindhead; back and wings dusky
olive-brown; across the middle of the wing a bar of blue; on the
u 2
 148
BEE-EATER.
throat a large patch of blue; below this a curved, dull red mark ;
tail long, rounded at the end, dusky black, crossed with three bars of
buff colour, dotted minutely with dusky; the two nearer the base
double, so as to make five bars in all; wings reach one-third on the
tail; legs long, and dusky blue.
Another of these, for the most part, dark olive-green; crown,
rump, and vent rufous yellow; on each side of the head the same
streak of blue ; as also on the throat, and across the wings; tail the
same, but only with three dotted yellowish bars, some of them being
bifid.
The nest is of a round shape, open at the top, tied to forks of
branches, composed of fine fibres, lined with soft materials.
34—BLUE-CRESTED BEE-EATER.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill nearly one inch, swelling
a little at the base, the under mandible shorter; tongue sharp at
the end, colour of both reddish; at the base a few scattered bristles;
on the head an erect, blue crest, or tuft, pointed at top, and conical;
head, and half the neck dull red, inclining to chestnut; the rest of
the body reddish orange, verging to brown on the back; from the
nostrils, even with the eye, and round the throat black ; above the
breast a large black, round patch, with a circle of red in the middle ;
wing coverts blue, marked with small, round, orange spots, below
this a transverse pale yellow band; quills brown ; tail two inches
long, blue, crossed in four places with treble lines of pale brown;
legs dusky.
A second bird, in the same drawings, has a blue crest, and the
head and half the neck are not red, but chestnut; the body has a
brown tinge, and the marks on the breast are wanting; the space
round the chin and beneath the eye, not black, but dusky.
 BEE-EATER. 149
The nest is in shape of a deep purse, round at the bottom, and
suspended on a mimosa, chiefly by one point, elsewhere slightly,
composed of fine fibres, and has a large oval opening on one side.
The above three species I found among the drawings of the late
Sir J. Anstruther, Bart, and were supposed to inhabit the internal
parts of India; but as no history was annexed, or name given to
them, and the drawings came into his hands unauthenticated, nothing
further can be conjectured concerning them; but we may suspect
that the birds do exist, and probably at Surinagur, especially as the
drawings of them were done in the same style as the others, which
were ascertained to inhabit that part of India.
35.—CAYENNE BEE-EATER.
Merops Cayanensis, Ind. Orn. i. 274.    Gm. Lin.i. 464.
Guepier vert k ailes et Queue rousses, Buf. vi. 509.   PL enl. 454.
Cayenne Bee-eater, Gen. Syn. ii. 681.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 160,
BILL black and stout; plumage, in general, light brownish green;
much paler on the throat, the feathers being mixed with white; quills
and tail rufous, the feathers of the former white at the base, sides of
both black; the tail long and even at the end; legs yellowish brown,
and longer than usual in this Genus.
Inhabits Cayenne, but Buffon does not seem to credit it, as he
believes the whole of the Genus to belong to the Old Continent. Be
this as it may, I observe in Fermin's description of Surinam, two
kinds of Bee-Eaters, or, at least, what he supposed to be such.
 Ill III ii
BEE-EATER.
36.—SURINAM BEE-EATER.
Merops Surinamensis, Ind. Orn. i. 275.    Gm^HZih. i. 464.
Le Guepier, Ferm. Surin.ii. 184.
Surinam Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. ii. 682.
SIZE of a Black-bird, in shape resembling the Kingsfisher^
Irides red brown; plumage varied; behind the head reddish; neck
greenish yellow; quills greenish, mixed with black and blue; claws
black.
Said, by Fermin, to inhabit Surinam, and to feed on Bees, and
other insects. He mentions also a second, smaller, with the same
habits, and found in the same places.
37—BRASILIAN BEE-EATER.
Merops Brasiliensis, Ind. Orn. i. 272.    Gm. Lin. i. 462.
Apiaster Brasiliensis, Bris. iv. 540.    Id. 8vo. ii. 196.    Klein 110. 12.
Le Merope rouge et bleu, Buf. vi. 479.
Brasilian Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. ii. 676.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 162. $tk
SIZE of the common sort. Length nine inches; bill one inch
and an half, yellow; the head, throat, and under parts of the body
of a splendid glowing ruby red ; lesser;wing coverts deep red ; the
rest of the wings, and upper parts of the body, varied with brown
and black ; under the wings yellow; quills and tail pale blue ; tail
even at the end ; legs yellow.
Inhabits Brazil.
 ■M
BEEFEATER.
151
38—CINEREOUS BEE-EATER.
Merops cinereus, Ind. Orn. i. 272,.jj|in. i. 183.    Gm. Lin. i. 462.   Klein, 110, 11.
Apiaster Mexicanus, Bris. iv. 541. Id. 8vo. ii. 196,
Avicula de Quauhcilui, Seb. Mus. i. 50. t. 31. f. 10.
Guepier k tete grise,  Buf vi. 491:
Cinereous Bee-Eater," Gen. Syn. ii. 675.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 178.
SIZE of a Lark. Total length nine inches and a quarter; bill
one inch and an half long, bright green ; head elegant grey ; upper
parts of the body grey, varied with red and yellow; breast and
belly light yellow, shaded with red; quills grey; the two middle
tail feathers, which are much longer than the rest, are red, the
others grey.
Said to inhabit Mexico.
39.-CHESTNUT-QUILLED BEE-EATER.
LENGTH seven inches and an half. "\J5ill black; plumage in
general brown ; inner webs of the quills pale chestnut, the outer
ends brown; tail greatly cuneiform, brownish; all but the two
middle feathers white at the ends; legs black.
A specimen of this in Mr. Bullock's Museum; from whenee
uncertain.
40— RUFOUS BEE-EATER.
Merops rufus, Ind. Om. i. 276.    Gm. Lin. i. 465,
Fournier de Buenos Ayres, Buf vi. 476.   PL enl. 739.    Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 221.
Ophie, Tern. Man. Ed. ii.   Anal. p. lxxxiii.
Rufous Bee-eater, Gen. Syn. ii. 683.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 182.
LENGTH eight inches and an half.     Bill one inch and an
half, pale ash-colour; plumage in general rufous,  deeper on the
 152
BEE-EATER.
upper parts, and inclining to yellow beneath; quills brown, the
outer edges rufous; the wings, when closed, reach to within an
inch of the end of the tail, which is three inches in length; the
toes separated to their origin ; hind claws very stout.
Inhabits Buenos Ayres, and seems to be an intermediate species between this genus and that of the Hoopoe, not having the
toes united, and yet it has the toes longer, and tail shorter, than in
the latter. Found about the river Plate, where it is named Hor-
nero (Fournier), and at Tucuman, Cosero-Menagere. These names
are in allusion to the nest, being in form of an oven. At Paraguay,
where it is not uncommon, it is called Alonzo-garcia. The nest is
built generally on the naked, great branch of a tree; sometimes on
the windows of houses, or some part of a fence, projecting beam of
a high house, or other building, mostly at several feet from the
ground, made in form of a baker's oven, composed of earth, and
the bird will often construct such an one in two days, as both sexes
act in concert in the undertaking. This nest is generally six inches
or more in diameter, and one inch thick ; the opening on one side,
twice as high as wide, within separated by a division, which begins
at the entrance, and carried circularly, so that the eggs are deposited
in the inner chamber on a bed of grass, four in number, white,
dotted with rufous. The Swallows, Perroquets, and other birds,
often attempt to make use of this ready-made mansion, but are
generally driven away by the right owners. The song is trifling,
scarcely more than Chi, chi, repeated at intervals, but may be heard
at some distance, and both sexes equally make it.
 HONEY-EATER.
153
GENUS XXXIV.—HONEY-EATER.
* With Thrush-like Bills.
1 Poe Honey-Eater
2 Yellow-tufted
3 Wattled
I A Var.
B Var.
C Var.
4 Golden-winged
5 Mellivorous
• 6 Knob-fronted
7 Cowled
8 Hooded
9 Chattering
10 Black and yellow
II Graculine
A Graculine Creeper
12 Pale-cheeked
13 Blue-cheeked
A Blue-faced Honeysuck.
B Var.
14 White-naped
15 White-crowned
16 Carunculated
17 New-Holland
A Van Diemen's Warbler
18 White-browed
19 Mocking
20 White-fronted
A Var.
21 Olive
22 Ignoble
23 Black-headed
A Var.
24 Black-eared
25 Mustachoe
A Var.
26 Streaked
27 Pacific
28 Buff-winged
29 White-jawed
30 Barred-tail
31 Murine
32 Hoary
33 Lunulated
34 Doubtful
35 Yellow-bellied
A Var.
36 Dirigang
A Var,
37 Rufous-vented
38 Golden-crowned
39 Hoary-headed
40 Black-eyed
A Var.
41 White-eared
42 Yellow-crowned
43 Coach-whip
A Var.
44 Marbled
45 Dusky
46 Black-chinned
47 Molucca
**  With Creeper-like i
48 Great Hook-billed
49 Sickle-billed
50 Hook-billed Green
51 Hook-billed Red
52 Slender-billed
A Var.
53 Flapping
54 Yellow-eared
55 Black-cheeked
56 Tufted-eared
57 Yellow-winged
58 Chirping
59 Cardinal
60 Crimson
A Female
61 Cochineal    .
62 Sanguineous
63 Red-rumped
64 Spotted
65 Red-eyed
66 White-collared
67 Agile
68 Ccerulean
69 Brown
70 Barred-bellied
BlRDS of this Genus have the bill somewhat triangular at tin
base, and more or less bent at the tip.
Nostrils roundish, partly covered by a membrane.
 154
HONEY-EATER.
Tongue, more or less, extensile* bristly, fringed, or divided at
the end into thready portions.
Legs made for walking.
I have elsewhere remarked the difficulties which have occurred
in arranging birds under the Creeper Genus, arising from the
difference of the organs given them for collecting their food, and
particularly such as, with a bill in common with others, proper to-
feed on insects, have, instead of a short, fleshy, and pointed tongue,
one differently formed, for the purpose of collecting honey from
flowers; and which, although it may not be the only, yet is supposed
to be their principal food. In the greater part of these birds the
tongue is not only ciliated, or bristly at the end, but in some of them
divided into two, three, or four portions* «fld even these portions are
bristly, or more or less hairy; in many, too, this organ is capable of
great elongation, whenever the bird may have occasion to protrude
it beyond the end of the bill.
Birds, thus furnished, are for the most part natives of New-
Holland, or other Isles distant from the Continent; and certainly,
from these distinctive characters, claim to be placed ha* a new Genus.
At first, the knowledge of many here recorded was imperfect, from
being acquainted with them only by means of drawings, in which,
if the bill was represented as shut, and no notice being taken of the
tongue, the describer could not do otherwise than place them in the
Genus to which each bore most resemblance: and this will account
for several having been formerly ranked with the Bee-Eaters; others
with the Thrushes, and again with the Flycatchers; but the point,
in respect to many of them, has of late been more fully ascertained,
from being enabled to view a great number of real specimens, and
to judge, in course, of the parts in question, by which we have been
determined in our opinion of forming such into a separate Genus.
It is now many years since Mr. Anderson, in his manuscript
observations of the birds of New-Holland, placed as many as he
 Ill
HONEY-EATER. 155
then knew under the name of Anthophagus, and recent observations
have fully established his opinion.
M. Audebert also, in his Oiseaux Dores, has noticed many of
them among the Creepers, under the appellation of Heorotaire, a
title adopted by him from the natives of Atooi, who give that name
to the Red Hooked-billed Species.* Many others, yet classed under
the Genus of Creepers, &c. must still remain in uncertainty in this
particular, some of which, no doubt, when better known, may
hereafter find a place in this Genus.
Under this predicament must at present stand a few belonging to
the Old Continent, or of African origin—as the Ceylonese, Loten's,
Yellow-winged, and Long-billed Creepers, in which the tongue is
elongated, and which occasionally extract honey from flowers; but
in these rthe bill appears to be that appropriated to the Creeper
Genus of former authors, and there placed accordingly, on which
account we do not feel inclined to alter their situation.
As the birds which form this Genus differ greatly in the shape of
the bill, although otherwise conformable in the tongue, we have
thought right to make two divisons of them ; the one containing
such as have the bill more stout, approaching to that of the Thrush;
the other with more slender bills, as in the Creepers, and some of
them curved in a very considerable degree.
* Mr. Lewin has also, in his publication of the birds of New-Holland, distinguished the
f he has described, by the name of Howejr-fSucker.
 156 HONEY-EATER.
WITH   THRUSH-LIKE    BILLS.
1—POE HONEY-EATER.
Merops cincinnatus, Ind. Orn. i. 275.
 novae Seelandiae, Gm. Lin. i. 464.
Sturnus crispicollis, Daud. ii. 314.   Levail. Ois. pl. 92.
New-Zealand Creeper, Brown III. xviii, pl. 9.    Forst. Voy. i. 519.
Philedon,  Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxxvii.
Poe Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. ii. 682.    Cook's Voy.i. p. 48. 150.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 269.
pl. 22.
RATHER bigger than a Blackbird; length eleven inches. Bill
one inch and a quarter long, bent, black; inside of the mouth and
tongue yellow, the last black at the end, and furnished with a few
bristles ; general colour of the plumage deep greenish black, and in
many parts very glossy; neck feathers fine and long, the webs of a
loose texture, and somewhat curled, standing from the neck not
unlike a ruff, and each feather has a streak of white down the shaft;
on each side of the neck a bunch or tuft of curled feathers, wholly
white; greater wing coverts white, forming a bar ; tail coverts rich
blue ; tail the same as the rest of the body, and even at the end; legs
black, outer and middle toe united for part of their length.
I have observed in some drawings, birds of this kind, without the
tuft of curled white feathers on the neck, and which we may suppose
were females, if not young birds.
Inhabits New Zealand, and called Kogo, but better known by
the name of Poe Bird : is held in great esteem by the natives.* Said
to sing remarkably well.f
* Forst. Voy. i. 519.
luxury the woods afforded v
f Its note is sweet, and the flesh delicate, and the greatest
-Cook's Voy. i. p. 68.
 HONEY-EATER.
157
2—YELLOW-TUFTED HONEY-EATER.
Merops fasciculatus, Ind. Orn. i. 275.
—— niger, Gm. Lin. i. 465.
Gracula nobilis, Merrem Ic. p. 7. f. 2.
Moho, Ellis Narrat. ii. 156.
Philedon, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxxvii.
Yellow-tufted Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. ii. 683.   Id. Sup. 120.   Id. Sup..
LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill one inch and a half long, pretty
much bent, and sharp at the tip; nostrils covered with a membrane;
tongue divided into threads at the end; general colour of the plumage glossy black, the feathers about the throat short, and pointed;
beneath each wing a large tuft of yellow feathers, which does not
appear when the wing is closed; on the vent another patch of the
same colour; tail greatly cuneiform, the two middle feathers seven
inches in length, the outer ones only two, and white both on the
outer webs and tips, the others black, the ends pointed; legs black,
the outer and middle toes united to the first joint.
Inhabits Owhyhee, and others of the Sandwich Islands, in great
numbers; where the natives catch them alive, and after plucking
out the yellow feathers, give the birds their liberty again, making
use of the feathers so separated, in various ornaments and dresses, of
which great variety is to be seen in different collections. Fly-flaps
are also made of the tail feathers, the handles to which are not
unfrequently made of an arm, or leg bone, of an enemy slain in
battle.
A.—.Yellow-tufted Bee-eater, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 149. A.    Dixon's Voy. pl. 19.
In this Variety the ends of all the tail feathers are white.
 158
HONEY-EATER.
B Yellow-tufted Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 149. B.
Among many specimens I have remarked more than one, in
which the tail feathers were wholly black; sides under the wings
rufous ; but whether such birds differed in age or sex was not-known.
The general name of this species in the Sandwich Islands is Moho.
3—WATTLED HONEY-EATER.
Merops carunculatus, Ind. Orn. i. 276.
Corvus paradoxus, Jnd. Orn. Sup. xxvi.
Pie k Penddoques,'©taVfiTr. 246. pl. 16.
Wettledi€row,^Gea..^%». $zp. ii. 119.
Philedoa, Tern. Man. Ed.ii. Anal. p. lxxxvii.
New-Holland Bee-Eater, Phil. Bot. Bay. pl. p. 164.
Wattled Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 150.    Whites Joum. pL p. 144. male.    Id. 240.
pl. in. 145. female.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 173.
THI$.is,about fifteen inches in length, though some measure as
far as nineteen, or even more. Bill black; nostrils pervious, but
covered in.part by a membrane; tongue divided, for near half the
length, in three portions, -like:JjMis#es; crown dusky; at the gape a
kind of silvery band; behind the base of the under jaw an orange
coloured caruncle, or wattle, which in some birds is qne inch and a
quarter long, hanging down as in the cock; plumage on the upper
parts of the body brown, the shafts of the feathers whitish; .quills
and tail dusky, the first white at the tips, the latter very cuneiform,
the two middle feathers ten inches and half long, the outer six, all of
them more or less tipped*-with white; legs brownish, outer and
middle toe connected at the base. It varies in having the middle of
the belly fine yellow ; the vent -dashed with brown.
 ■*fc
HONEY-EATER.
159
The female is said to* be the stouter of the two, nrarce brilliant in
plumage, the bill more curved, and the tail shorter. The wattle in
liiisisex is wanting, but the feathers on the chin are dark, long, and
hang in a diffuse manner.
A.—Length twelve inches. General colour brownish black,
marked all over with brilliant white streaks, most minute, and
numerous on the crown of the head, the streaks in general passing
down the shafts, and swelling but into a spot at the tip of each
feather. This may probably be a young bird, it is one-third smaller,
and has no wattle.
B.—In this the head and neck behind are dusky black; the rest
dusky ash-colour, margins of the feathers whitish; on the back of
the neck and back a few dashes of white; the top of the head,
including the eyes, black; under parts of the body paler than above,
with a few obscure markings; bill black, with a red caruncle on
each side of the jaw ; legs pale ferruginous.
C,—Length twelve inches. Bill one inch long, somewhat bent,
and dusky; general colour of the plumage brown, streaked with
white lines; quills plain brown, more or less rufous within, the inner
ones for nearly the whole of their length; five of the outer ones
tipped with white, the first very short, scarcely half the length of
the second; under parts of the body white, dashed with brown; the
tail consists of twelve feathers, and cuneiform, the two middle ones
six inches long, the outer only five, colour brown, the four outer ones
with white ends; the wings, when closed?, reach half way on the
tail; legs brown.    rMkis was without the wattle.
 160 HONEY-EATER.
All the above inhabit New-Holland, seen especially on the sea
shores, and are pretty numerous; they chatter much, and are bold
to a great degree, for when other birds, even larger and stronger
than themselves, approach, they drive them away. The chief food
said to be insects, but they are likewise fond of sucking of honey
from the different kinds of Banksia. It has been known that two
or three of them will drive off a flock of blue-bellied Parrots, as they
are always at war with birds of this Genus. They are known to the
natives under the name of Goo-gwar-ruck, whieh the kind of note,
they are incessantly making, much resembles.
4—GOLDEN-WINGED HONEY-EATER.
Merops chrysopterus, Ind. Om. Sup. xxxiii.
Golden-winged Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 153.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 180.
LENGTH about twelve inches. Bill black ; tongue bristly at
the end; general colour of the plumage brown, down the shafts very
pale; greater quills darker than the rest, the middle part of four or
five of the outer ones, for two-thirds, golden orange, the ends white;
tail greatly cuneiform, brown, consisting of twelve feathers; the
outer one inch and a half shorter than the two middle, except which,
all the rest are tipped with white ; legs black.
Inhabits New-Holland, and feeds not only on flies, and other
insects, but also on honey, which it extracts from the various kinds
of Banksia, &c. in the manner of the Wattled Species. The natives
of New South Wales call it likewise, Goo-gwar-ruck ; the English,
Queerick, both from the note. In a drawing at Mr. Francillon's, it
was named Wadde-ergal. There seems a similarity of manners between
this and the Wattled Species, and both are called by the same name,
but the latter has no yellow on the quills, nor has the present one any
wattle; it cannot therefore be supposed that they are allied to each
other.
 HONEY-EATER.
161
5—MELLIVOROUS HONEY-EATER.
Certhia Mellivora, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxxvii.
Le Go-ruch, Om. Dor. ii. 126. pl. 88.
Goruck Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 243.
Mellivorous Creeper,  Gen. Syn. Sup.ii. 166.
SIZE of a Thrush. Bill moderately curved, and black; tongue
bristly at the tip; general colour of the plumage black, marked on
most of the feathers with slender white crescents, and short streaks of
the same; this arises from the shafts of the feathers being white, and
the ends fringed with it, giving them a crescent-like appearance;
the axillary coverts have pale edges, and the margins of some of the
quills the same; some of the greater wing coverts longitudinally
marked with rufous; on the rump a few markings of white; end of
the tail very pale, nearly white.
Inhabits New South Wales, and is also called Goo-gwar-ruck;
is a numerous species, seldom seen but near the sea shore, where the
natives especially resort; it is a lively bird, constantly in action in
sucking honey, taking flies, or contending with other birds; two or
three will rout a flock of the Blue-bellied Parrots, a genus of birds
to which these, as well as the Wattled Species, seem to bear great
antipathy.
6—KNOB-FRONTED HONEY-EATER.
Merops corniculatus, Ind. Om. i. 276.
Corbi-CaJao, Levail. Am. et Ind. i. 69. pl. 24.
Knob-fronted Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 151.
Zool. viii. 183.
White's Journ. pl. p. 190.    Shut
SIZE of a Missel Thrush; length fourteen inches. Bill one inch
and a half long, a iMtle bent, pale brown, the tip dusky; nostrils
 162
HONEY-EATER.
pervious, oval, in a hollow, the feathers coming forward to near the
middle of the bill to meet them ; tongue bristly at the end; on the
forehead a short, blunt eminence, like the rudiment of a horn; the
plumage on the head whitish, streaked with brown; the feathers
very short, and downy; sides round the eye brown ; upper parts of
the body brown, the feathers margined with olive brown; quills and
tail darker; the first quill only half the length of the second; under
parts of the body pale; chin, breast, and belly dusky white; tail
about six inches long, even at the end, the shafts and tips of all but
the two middle feathers whitish; the wings, when closed, reach to
about the middle of it; legs brown; segments, near the toes, rough
and scaly; outer and middle toes united at the base; hind claw very
long, and stout. i;*B.9rlJ
Inhabits New-Holland, and is a singular species; that figured in
White's Journal is exact. M. Levaillant describes the head and neck
as bare, only the chin being feathery: to account for this is not easy,
unless.it becomes so in old birds, or the circumstance may distinguish
the sex. This Species is found perched on the topmost boughs of
tall trees; the food insects and honey, extracting the latter from
various flowering plants and shrubs. The Perroquets are in enmity
with this bird, nor do they ever part before a severe combat. It is
called by the English in New-Holland, The Friar-Bird.
7—COWLED HONEY-EATER.
Merops Monachus, Ind. Om. Sup. xxxiv
Cowled Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 15
THIS is a large species. Bill stout, bending, and black, having
a rising over the nostrils, as in the Knob-fronted, but less conspicuous;
neck feathery before, as in that bird; tongue very bristly at the end,
like a brush ; head and part of the neck black, and covered with a
 HONEY-EATER.
163
sort of down; the nape, at the back part, elongated with a kind of
bristly tuft; hind part of the neck and back brown, the first mottled
with a paler colour; under parts white, marked on the chin and
throat with dusky, sagittal streaks; quills and tail dark brown ; legs
dusky blue.
Inhabits New-Holland; found about Port Jackson, in January;
the hindhead projecting, and being of a black, downy texture, gives
some resemblance to a cowl or hood, and has occasioned it, as well
as the last, to be called the Frier; by the natives it is named Wergan.
8.-HOODED HONEY-EATER.
Merops cucullatus, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxxii:
Philedon, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ix:
Hooded Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 1
LENGTH nine or ten inches. Bill yellow, curved, very stout;
tongue twice the length of the bill, and fringed at the tip ; front of
the head whitish; across the crown black, passing through the eyes,
on each side, to the throat; rest of the head whitish grey and dusky,
in fine transverse streaks; belly dirty white, crossed with clouded,
dusky lines; upper parts of the body pale lead-colour brown ; lower
belly, and vent white; the six outer quills brownish, the first very short;
six or seven of the middle ones greenish yellow on the outer webs,
about the middle; tips greenish yellow ; tail rounded, pale greenish
lead-colour, with a dirty white tip; legs yellow brown ; toes united
to the first joint.
Inhabits New-Holland, where it is very common, and a chattering,
noisy species, always at war with other birds.—In the collection of
General Davies.
 164
HONEY-E ATER.
9—CHATTERING H*)NET-EATER.
Merops garruli
Chattering Bet
uSup.
t-Syn.
Sup.
LENC3FPI8 eleven- or twelve inches. Bill moderately' stout, as m
the Thrush, and a little bent, yellow ; nostrils in a slit near the base;
tongue bristly at the end, and longer than the bill; across the crown
black, passing down on each side behind the eye to the ears, and
there finishing; within this, close behind the eye, a large yellow bare
space like Morocco leather; general colour of the plumage above
grey or pale brown, marbled with a darker colour; forehead, and
all beneath, white, waved as far as the breast with cinereous; thighs
barred dusky and white; wings, dusky brown, in some black; but
the greater part of the prime quills yellbw, with dusky, or black
ends, giving the appearance of a yellow, long streak down the wing;
tail four inches and a half long, and slightly cuneiform, the feathers
dusky, with white ends, most so on the outmost ones; legs strong,
and yellow; in some birds pale brown; the outer and middle toes
united* at the base ; the wings reach to the middle of the tail.
Inhabits'NeW'Sfontfi Wales; is a noisy, chattering species, and
pretty numerous, always at war- with the rest of the feathered race;
alarms others in Hie manner of our Jay, thereby giving notice of the
approach of man to the Kangaroo or Pottegorang, so as to prevent
the sportsman from attaining the ends of his chace."
 ■*%
HtSN&tf-EATEItf.
165
10.—BLACK AND YELLOW HONEY-EATER.
Merops Phrygius, Ind. Om. Sup. xxxiv.    New-HollaiUfr'Birds, p, 13. pl. 4.
Le Merle ecaille, Levail. Afr. iii. p. 70. No. 46.
Philedon, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ixxxvii.
Warty-faced Honey-sucker, Lewin. pl. 14
Embroidered Bee-Eater, Shaw's Zool. viii. 167.
: Black and yellow Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn.Sup. ii. 154.
SIZE of a Song Thrush ; length eight inches and a quarter.
Bill black; tongue longer than the bill, and bristly at the end;
general colour of the plumage black, but the feathers of the breast,
back, and belly are margined with golden yellow; wing coficeftsr
much the same, but the greater have the ends more or less of that
colour, as also the outer margins of the quills, though the ends are
for the most part tipped obliquely with black; from the bill a
greenish yellow streak runs through the eye, which is broader in the
middle, and in some specimens descends on the lower jaw; the
feathers are very short, and intermixed with yellow warts, or oblong
excrescences; tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers black, fringed
at the ends with yellow ; the others wholly yellow; vent the same ;
legs pale brown, but in some both bill and legs are dusky; the
wings, when closed, reach about halfway on the tail.
Inhabits New-Holland ; seen about Parametta in.gjjeat numbers;
frequently observed flying from one to the other of the Blue Gum
trees, being fond of the blossoms, from which it extracts the honey
with its tongue; supposed to be migratory, as it is not met with
there at all seasons.
It varies in respect to plumage considerably, having a greater or
less mixture of yellow, and that more or less deep in colour.
 166 HONEY-EATER.
11.—GRACULINE HONEY-EATER.
Gracula cyanotis, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxix.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 474.
Meliphaga cyanops, Lewin's N. Holland Birds, pl. 4.
Blue-eared Grakle, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 130.
LENGTH eleven inches and a half. Bill, forehead, crown, and
sides black; round the eye a bare space, of a bright blue colour;
chin, throat, and breast lead-colour; beneath the cheeks, sides of
the neck, and all from breast to vent white ; at the back of the head
a white crescent; neck behind, shoulders, back, wings, and tail
yellowish green; quills dark brown, with yellow margins, towards
the ends grey; legs blue black ; claws black, and hooked.
Inhabits New-Holland.—In the collection of Gen. Davies.
-Heoro-taire Gracule, Ois. dor. ii. 125. pl. 87.
Graculine Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 242.
This differs principally in having the naked skin round the eye
yellow, instead of blue; the tongue plumose, as in the rest of this
Genus; length about ten inches; bill yellow, with a black tip; the
legs greenish.
Inhabits New-Holland, with the other, from which it probably
differs only in sex ; the gait is said to be leaping, and the general
action on the ground that of a Magpie; it has a very sharp cry,
repeating it continually; chaces bees, and other insects, on which,
as well as honey, extracted from flowers, it feeds.
 HONEY-EATER.
16?
12—PALE-CHEEKED HONEY-EATER.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill three quarters of an inch, yellow;
tongue longish, bristly at the end; irides blue; head, neck behind,
back and wings dusky, greenish, pale blue; round the eye an oval
patch as in the last, but pale; chin, neck before, breast, and belly
dirty, yellowish white ; quills and tail dusky, the edges inclining to
blue; wings reach one-third on the tail; legs pale brownish yellow.
Inhabits New South Wales.—Mr. Francillon. Said to have been
taken in November. This seems to be an immature bird of the
Graculine Species,
13—BLUE-CHEEKED HONEY-EATER.
Merops cyanops, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxxiv.
Blue-cheeked Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 154.    Shaw's Zool. .
LENGTH sixteen inches. Bill black, tongue bristly at the
end ; body above, wings, and tail brown ; top of the head, including
the eyes, nape, and back of the neck black; throat, and fore part of
the neck the same; but from the gape begins a streak of white, which
passes down on each side of the neck, dividing the black, and continues on the breast, and all the under parts; the eye placed in a
large, blue, bare patch, lengthening behind to the ears, and ending in
a point; in texture like soft silky leather; tail even at the end; legs
scaly, blue.
Inhabits New-Holland.
 HONEY-Ei&FER.
A—Blue-faced Honey-Sucker, Lewin's N. Holland Birds, pl. 25.
Head and neck black ; plumage above olive; a streak of white
on each side to the breast, and from tbejace to the vent, as in the
former; nostrils covered with a large membrane, the opening forwards,
very small; the blue patch round the eye as in the other; tail
rounded, the ends of the three or four outer feathers dusky white.
This is chiefly met with in forests, particularly among the Blue
Gum trees, searching among the crevices of the bark for insects,
winch it extracts with its long tongue, also makes use of the same
to obtain honey from various flowers.
This is called by the natives Derogang.
B.—One of these measured only eight inches and a half; differs
in the black at the back of the neck, coming farther down, and that
before being only dusky. Bill shorter, pale, with the tip black; at
the nape the feathers stand out as a short crest, and are white, filling
up the space between the naked blue patch on each side; the wings
reach beyond the base of the tail. This is also called Derogang.—
In another I found the feathers at the nape to be pale blue instead of
white.    These and the two last, appear to be allied.
14 —WHITE-NAPED HONEY-EATER.
LENGTH from five to six inches. I'tSftLl, head, and sides of the
neck black ; tongue long, fringed at the end; across the nape a white
band ; the rest of the upper parts and tail olive-green ; wings olive-
brown ; all beneath from the chin white; over and behind the eye a
crimson, granulated spot, half surrounding it; legs pale brown.
 ■*%
HONEY-EATER. 169
One, supposed to differ in sex, had the band across the nape
pale blue, instead of white.
Inhabits New-Holland; met with about Parametta and Hawks-
bury in December and March, but uncertain at what other times;
frequents thick brushy woods, and is a lively little bird; is often
seen contending with small Parrots for flowers. It is much smaller
than the last described, but seems to have many markings in common with that species.
15—WHITE-CROWNED HONEY-EATER.
SIZE of our largest Thrush. Length at least twelve inches;
bill tone inch long, dusky, with a yellowish base; tongue long, feathery at the end; head, to below the eye, black; round the eye a
bare yellowish, or willow green space, resembling morocco leather ;
neck behind, back, wings, and tail olive-green; beneath white,
but the chin is dusky, passing to the breast in a point; across the
tpp of the head, from eye to eye, a crescent of white, the concave
part towards the bill; between that and the bill the feathers are
short, thin, and deep lead-colour. The wings reach about one-third
on the tail; legs dusky.
Inhabits New-Holland ; is a rare species, living on insects and
flies, as also honey; supposed also to kill and eat small birds, as
one, kept in confinement, attacked a small Warbler put into the
cage in which it was.
 170
HONEY-EATER.
16—CARUNCULATED HONEY-EATER.
Certhia carunculata, Ind. Om. i. 295.    Gm. Lin. i. 472.
Le Foulehaio, Ois. dor. ii. 103. pl. 69. male. p. 105. female.
Phrledon, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxxvii.
Wattled Creeper, Gen. Syn, ii. 332.   Id. Sup. p. 129.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 2!
LENGTH seven inches and three quarters. Bill one inch long,
bent a little at the tip, and dusky; tongue extensile, divided for half
the length into four segments, like threads, or bristles; at the base
of the under mandible a kind of membrane, or small yellowish
wattle, about one-sixth of an inch in diameter; this is surrounded
with a patch of yellow feathers, extending beneath the eye ; irides
cinereous ; plumage in general olive-green, inclining to brown, the
middle of the back the darkest; belly verging to ash-colour; chin
a»d throat rusty orange; breast ferruginous ; tail even at the end ;
legs blue Mack. Some birds have no orange under the throat, and
all beneath olive-yellow.; <edges of the quills and tail of the last
ceHowr.*'
The female is of the same size as the male; general colour yellow
in jdiflferewt shades, paler near the caruncle, and deeper on the back ;
bill horn-^colour.
Inhabits ithe <f«le of Tongo-taboo, or Amsterdam, in the South
Seas, as well as others of the Friendly Isles ; and known by the
name of IFoulehaio. Captain Cook* describes it as a singing bird,
and^e-only one of that appellation found there, compensating for
the want -of the notes of others, by the strength and melody of its
owm; which fills the woods at dawn, in the evening, and at the
breaking up of bad weather.
* Cook's Last Voy. i. 334.
 HONEY-EATER.
171
17.—NEW-HOLLAND HONEY-EATER.
Certhia novse Hollandiae, Ind. Orn. i. 296.
Heoro-taire noir et blanc, Ois. dor. ii. 89. pl. 55.
Australasian Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 226.
New-Holland Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 161.    White's Journ. pl.
in p. 297. female.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 225.
i p, 186. male.
THE male of this species is seven inches long. Bill dusky,
with a pale tip ; nostrils covered with a membrane; tongue ciliated;
plumage in general black, streaked on the neck, back, breast, belly,
and sides, with white; forehead white, passing in a streak over the
eye; on the jaw a patch of the same; quills and tail fringed outwardly
with- yellow, forming a patch on the wings ; tail rounded, the four
outer feathers white within at the tips; legs black.
In some the tail feathers have very little white at the tips, and
such are probably young birds.
The female has the colours less bright, with only a patch of
white on the cheeks; otherwise the head, neck, breast, and back, are
black; belly streaked with white; scapulars brown, ending in a
point half way on the back ; and the yellow on the wings and tail
inclines to olive.
Inhabits New South Wales, chiefly seen in January; known by
the name of Balgonera.
A.—Sylvia canescens, Ind, Orn. i. 553.
Heoro-taire tachete, Ois. dor. ii. p. 91, pl. 67"?
Van-Diemen's Warbler,   Gen. Syn. Sup. 187.
Length six inches and a half.     Bill black; forehead streaked
witfc white; space over the eyes, and cheeks whitish; back brown?,
 172 HONEY-EATER.
mixed with white; wings pale brown; edges of the feathers fulvous,
forming a spot on the wing; tail shorter than the body, rounded at
the end, outer margins of the feathers fulvous from the base to the
middle; the two outer ones marked, within at the tips, with a white
spot; breast and vent striped longitudinally with white ; legs black.
Inhabits Van Diemen's Land.—From the papers of Mr. Anderson.
This is also called Balgonera.
18—WHITE-BROWED HONEY-EATER.
LENGTH eight or nine inches. Bill dusky; forehead to the
middle of the crown dusky black ; irides dusky red ; tongue missile;
plumage above ash-colour; over the eye a black streak, and above
that a white one, both reaching much behind the eye ; under parts
from the chin white ; on each side of the breast a transverse bar of
black, not quite meeting together in the front, and behind that, before the wings, a narrow one of white, passing further behind; quills
and tail black, marked with yellow, as in the New-Holland species;
two of the outer tail feathers wdth dusky white tips; legs reddish
brown.
Inhabits New South Wales, and said to be very numerous there.
19.—MOCKING HONEY-EATER.
Certhia Sannio, Ind. Om. i.  296.    Gm. Lin.i. 471.
Le Negho-barre, Ois. dor. ii. 98. pl. 64.
Mocking Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 735.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 237.
LENGTH seven inches and three quarters.   Bill longish, bent,
slender, dusky; nostrils covered with a membrane; tongue sharp,
 HONEY-EATER. 173
penicilliform at the tip; irides hazel; on the cheeks a narrow white
spot; plumage in general olive-green, more inclining to olive beneath ; quills brown, secondaries edged with olive; tail the same,
somewhat forked; legs dark blue ; claws black, the hind ones the
longest. Some specimens appear to have a red crown, tinged with
violet, which happens from the bird thrusting its head into the
bosom of flowers, the farina of which adheres to the feathers, and
may be rubbed off with the fingers.
Inhabits New Zealand throughout, and is called Negho-barre;
has an agreeable note in general, but at times so varies and modulates the voice, as to imitate the notes of any other bird, particularly
the Poe, and therefore called by the English the Mocking Bird.
20.—WHITE-FRONTED HONEY-EATER.
Certhia melanops, Ind. Om. Sup. xxxvi.
Heoro-taire rhellivore, Om. dor. ii. 124. pl. 86.
Mellivorous Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 245.
Black-eyed Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 165.
THIS bird is seven inches or more in length; bill one inch
long, curved half way from the point, and black; tongue longer
than the bill, and fringed at the end ; plumage on the upper parts
mottled brown; quills and tail dusky, feathers of the latter fringed
outwardly with yellow, and even at the end ; the forehead, lore,
and all the under parts white; just before the eye, between that and
the bill, begins a black band, which growing broader, includes
the eye, after which it becomes narrow again, passes on each side
of the breast, and there ends in a point; legs brown.
•Inhabits New South Wales; said to be fond of honey, but will
also feed on flies.
 174
HONEY-EATER;
In another specimen! the forehead differed in not being white,
but the lore is black, passing under and a little way beyond the eye.
In a third specimen, in the collection of Mr. H. Brogden, the
under wing coverts and crown are pale rufous; over the eyes a
white streak, bordering the black as a narrow crescent; the tail
two inches long, and the wings>ireaeh on it about one third.
A.—Length seven inches; bill one inch, slender, black; tongue
longer than the bill; irides reddish; crown and nape pale brown;
sides of the head and all beneath,»white; just beyond the base of the
bill a black patch, including the eye, and continuing on each side to
near the breast, where it ends in a point; at some distance beyond
the eye the black is divided into two portions, by a narrow streak of
white; back, wings, and tail pale greenish brown, the feathers with
pale margins; tail pretty long, a little hollowed at the end, and the
wings reach a trifle beyond the rump; legs black.
Inhabits New-Holland, said to have a whistling note, and feeds
both on insects and honey.
21— OLIVE HONEY-EATER.
Certhia olivacea, Ind. Orn.i. 285.    Lin.i. 185.    Gm. Lin.i. 474.
Cinnyrisaffini^ Lin. ZVeww.- siii. p. 166 ?
 ——Madagascariensis olivaoea,, Bris. iii. 625.   Id. 8vo. ii. p. 8;
Soui-manga olive a gorge pourpre, Buf. v. 507.    PL enl. 575. 1.   fem.
Heoro-taire vert olive, Male, Ois. dor. ii. 101. pl. 68.   Id. 102. pl. 68. ftm.
Gttfoe-Greeper,• Gen. Syn:ii. 7lSt'
LENGTH four inches, ex-tent, six inches and a<half. Bill more
than half an inch long, black; plumage above dull olive-green,
inclining to brown on the forehead and crown; beneathtguey brown;
 ■■"s
HONEY-EATERr. 175
round fthe «yes whitish; quills and tail brown, with an ^ire-green
tinge; the two outer feathers wfajte at the ends; legs pale brown.
Inhabits Madagascar, and Java. Individuals found in the last
named place, are olive, variegated beneath wsthdnll brownish grey;
outer tail feathers white at the ends. So far the description of both
agree ; but Dr. Horsfield says, that the specimens found in Java are
longer than those »f Madagascar by three inches, «nd ifeey want
the*white orbits. We place it in this Genus on the authority of the
Oiseaux dorees, never having had the opportunity of examining
the tongue.
22.—IGNOBLE HONEY-^ATER.
Certhia ignobilis, Ind. Orn.
Philedon, Tern. Mem. Ed. i
Ignoble Creeper, Gen. Syn
i. 294.    Mus. Carls.i
.. Anal, lxxxvii.
Sup. ii. 160.   Shaw't
SIZE of a Starling ; length eight inches. Bill yellowish ; plumage above sooty brown; wings brown, with black shafts; body
beneath ash-colour, with elliptical white spots j tail and legs black.
The native place is omitted in the Museum Carlsonianum ; but
Dr. Sparrman informed me, that he believed that Count Carlson had
it from New-Holland.    The shape of the tongue is not mentioned.
23.—BLACK-HEADED  HONEY-EATER.
ll 'CertKa'«tricapilla, Ind. Om. Sap. xx»v,h.
Soui-manga k front et joues noires, Ois. dor. ii. 120.
Philedon, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxxvii.
Black-headed Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 167.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 262.
LENGTH six inches.     Bill a trifle bent, and black; tongue
longer than the bill, and feristly at the end; from the base of the
 HONEY-EATER.
upper mandible, the whole crown, and cheeks black, continuing in
a broad, long patch on each side, beyond the ears ; the chin,  throat,
sides, and rump pale cinereous green; wings and tail brown,  the
edges of the feathers paler ; tail even; legs pale brown.
Inhabits New South Wales.
A.—Size of the last; length six inches. Bill black; tongue
long and bristly at the end ; top of the head, even with the eye, and
as far as the nape black; from thence passing forwards on each side
of the neck, about half way; the rest of the parts above greenish-
olive ; wings and tail darker, the latter rounded at the end, all the
parts beneath white ; legs black.
This seems to differ from the Black-hooded one, chiefly in the
eye, not being within the black on the head, and the end of the tail
being somewhat rounded. It is said to frequent the same places,
and to be an active Honey-sucker, and agile Flycatcher.
24—BLACK-EARED HONEY-EATER.
Merops auritus, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxxiv.
Black-eared Bee-Eater, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii.  153.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 181.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill brown ; tongue longer than the
bill, missile, and brushy at the end; plumage on the crown, neck
behind, and upper parts of the body pale rufous brown; under parts
from the chin to the vent, dusky, or bluish white ; lower belly and
thighs more inclined to dusky, and marked with streaks of black;
at the back of the eye begins a black band, which passes down on
each side for about three quarters of an inch ; quills and outer edge
of the wing black; tail even at the end, colour as the back above,
and dusky beneath; the wings reach to about the middle of it;
legs brown.
Inhabits New South Wales, and has the usual manners.
 m^
HONEY-EATER. SgHt
25— MUSTACHOE HONEY-EATER
Muscicapa mystacea, Ind. Orn. Sup. li.    >
Mustachoe Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 221.
LENGTH eight or nine inches. Bill slender, black; tongue
fringed at the tip; general colour of the plumage pale green, but
the under parts from chin to vent greenish yellow, the last most
conspicuous on the chin and breast; from the gape springs a black
band, which, growing broader, passes under the eye to the hindhead, where it is fringed with yellow; legs black.
Inhabits New South Wales; is a pugnacious bird, attacking-
others, especially the smaller Perroquets.
A.—In this the crown is olive-green; the rest of the upper
parts olive-brown; from the nostrils, through the eye, a black streak,
spreading in the middle, and finishing on the ears; chin, and all
beneath the broad part of the black, fine yellow; under parts from
the chin pale brownish yellow; quills and tail dusky, the feathers
edged with olive green.
Inhabits New-Holland.
26.—STREAKED HONEY-EATER.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill three-quarters of an inch long,
black, a little bent, with a few bristles at the base; head, neck, back,
wing coverts, and tail black; over the eye, from the nostril^ la streak
of white,  broader behind,  and appearing fringed ; chin and throat
 HONEY-EATER.
dashed with short streaks of white; all from the breast plain white,
but the thighs mottled with dusky ash; second quills cinereous brown,
prime ones chocolate brown; tail cuneiform, three inches long; legs
stout, dusky.
Inhabits New-Holland.—In the collection of Gen. Davies.
27—PACIFIC HONEY-EATER.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill black; plumage in general dusky,
with a greenish hue; beneath cinereous, mottled and streaked with
dusky white; quills and tail dusky, the latter even at the end, the
feathers fringed with yellow on the outer webs, and the two exterior
have a white spot at the tip of the inner, but the outer web is white
for one-fourth from the tip; quills fringed also with yellow; legs
brown.
Inhabits New South Wales.—M. de Fichtel.
28.—BUFF-WINGED HONEY-EATER,
LENGTH seven inches. Bill moderately bent, and dusky ;
plumage above brownish ash, fore part of the neck pale; chin nearly
white; breast appearing to be marked with a few short black lines,
arising from each feather being pale down the middle, and black on
the sides; under tail coverts barred with black; under wing coverts
pale buff; across the wing, when spread, a bar of the same colour;
tail even, brown, tipped with paler brown; the wings reach to the
end of it; legs stout, black, toes rather long.
Inhabits New-Holland.
 HONEY-EATER.
29.—WHITE-JAWED HONEY-EATER.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill moderately curved,
black; head, neck, and breast dusky black; behind the lower jaw a
patch of white ; crown of the head deep ash-colour, streaked with
dusky; body above, wings, and tail olive-green ; outer edge of the
wing, and shoulder fringed with pale yellow; quills dusky, edged
with greenish; inner margins of most of them pale flesh-colour;
belly pale, dusky, greenish white; tail long, dusky, edged with
green, all but the two middle feathers tipped with white.
Inhabits New South Wales.
30.—BARRED-TAILED HONEY-EATER.
LENGTH seven inches. General colour of the plumage above
brown; beneath white; breast and belly pale buff, with dusky
markings; vent white; tail ash, with a broad black bar near the
end; tip paler ash, but the two middle feathers are plain; four or
five, at least, of the quills marked with a pale spot oh the inner web.
Inhabits New South Wales.—Mr. Lambert.
31—MURINE HONEY-EATER.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill slightly bent, black;
tongue missile, divided into four threads at the ends; the head, to
below the eyes, dusky mouse-colour; middle of the feathers darkest;
behind each eye a white streak, tending to the hindhead; chin, and
 180 HONEY-EATER,
under parts whitish; neck behind, back, wings, and rump greenish
olive; wings mouse-colour; under wing coverts, breast, and belly
reddish white; tail even, dusky, margins of the feathers greenish ;
legs pale.
Inhabits tNew South Wales.—Mr. Lambert.
32—HOARY HONEY-EATER.
Gertlyp canescens, Ind. Om. Sap. xxxvii.; i
Heoro-taire ardoise, Om. dor. ii. 127.
Hoary Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 168.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 261.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill black; tongue bristly at the end;
body slate-colour above, beneath white, inclining to purplish rose-
colour on the breast; on the wing coverts a few white markings;
legs brown.
Inhabits New South Wales.
33—LUNULATED HONEY-EATER.
Turdus lunulatus, Ind. Orn. Sup. xlii.
Philedon, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxxvii.
Lunulated Thrush, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 184.
SIZE of the Missel Thrush, but stouter; length twelve inches.
Bill black, rather bent towards the tip, but with no notch; tongue
bristly at the end, and a trifle longer than the bill; plumage on the
upper parts of the body, wings, and tail brown ; beneath from the
chin to vent, white, every where marked with crescents of black,
both above and beneath ; chin rufous white ; vent white; tail even,
btrt has the appearance of being .divided in the middle,  the feathers
 HONEY-EATER. 181
brown, with darker undulations; all but the two middle feathers
white at the ends, the tip of the outer one inclines to dusky within,
the quills reach to oiieHthird on the tail; legs pale brown, stout like
J&ose of a Thrush.
Inhabits New-Holland.
34—DOUBTFUL HONEY-EATER.
Turdus dubius.
Doubtful Thru
Ind. Orn. Sup. xl.
h,  Gen. Syn. Sup. i
LENGTH nine inches.     Bill one inch long, bluish; tongue
longer than, the bill, and bristly at the end ; plumage above,  and
sides of the head, to below the eye, bluish black ; beneath white;
quills and tail brown ; the latter even, rather long ; legs dusky.
Inhabits New-Holland, and is of a dull, uninteresting appearance.
»fP%
35— YELLOW-BELLIED HONEY-EATER.
Turdus melinus, Ind. Om. Sup. xliv.
Yellow-bellied Thrush, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 187.
SIZE of the Missel Thrush. Bill pale red; tongue bristly; head,
hind part of the neck, and sides of the breast dusky black; back
and wing coverts greenish brown; breast and belly olive-yellow;
chin, fore part.of the neck, and vent white; quills olive-brown, the
lesser ones barred with black; tail olive above, and pale beneath ;
at the back of the neck some transverse black marks; and between
that, and the sides of the breast a few sagittal ones; legs pale red.
Inhabits New South Wales; is migratory, coming in the spring
for the purpose of incubation.
 182
HONEY-EATER.
A.—Length nine inches. Bill nearly one long, dull yellow;
tongue bristly; crown of the head, taking in the eyes and nape,
black, descending in a broad irregular band of the same on each side
of the breast; back, rump, and wing coverts olive-brown; chin and
throat white; breast and belly dull yellow; vent white; thighs
mottled with brown; outer ridge of the bend of the wing blackish,
mottled with white; quills dusky black, the second quills olive brown,
barred with black ; tail greenish brown above, dusky white beneath ;
legs the colour of the bill.
Inhabits New South Wales ; met with there in May. This
probably differs only in sex from the last described.
36.—DIRIGANG HONEY-EATER.
Certhia leucoptera, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxxvi.
Le Dirgand, Ois. Dor. ii. 127.
Dirigang Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 166.    Shaw's Zool. viri. 260.
THIS is much larger than our Common Creeper. Bill three
quarters of an inch long, and dusky; plumage above pale olive, or
greenish brown ; beneath white, inclining to dusky on the belly; on
the forehead and crown a few short, transverse, black lines; under
the eye a patch of yellow, and behind it another of a reddish colour;
at the bend of the wing a few pale spots; legs grey. The female
differs, in being less bright in the colour of the plumage.
Inhabits New South Wales; called there a Woodpecker,* from
its being frequently seen running up the trees in the manner of that
>ird; is most frequently found in the thick forests, chiefly on oak
trees, and is named by the natives, Dirigang.
1 No true Woodpecker
i njet with in New-Holland.
 HONEY-EATER.
183
A.—Length about eight inches. Bill black, bent; base of the
under mandible pale; plumage above, even with the eye, greenish
brown; beneath white; below the ear a pale rufous spot; on the
wing coverts some pale, or whitish spots; across the middle of the
wings a pale bar; rump and tail ash-colour; on the outer feathers
of the last a broad band of black; legs dusky; the wings reach to
the rump.
Inhabits New South Wales, with the last, and like that, called
a Woodpecker; native name, Der-gong; from the nearness of name
and manners, as well as plumage, it most probably differs only
in sex.
37—RUFOUS-VENTED HONEY-EATER.
Sylvia rufiventris, Ind. Orn. Sup. lix.
Rufous-vented Warbler, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 248.
THIS somewhat resembles the Blue-throated Warbler, but is
larger by one-third. Bill and legs dusky; tongue bifid at the end,
and feathered on the sides; the plumage above slaty grey, coming
forwards on each side of the neck, forming a bar, or crescent on the
breast, where it inclines to blue; within and above this, the chin and
fore part of the neck are white; breast, belly, thighs, and vent
rufous; tail somewhat hollowed out at the end, the feathers fringed
at the tips, and of a hazel colour.
Inhabits New South Wales, but is not common.
 184
HONEY-EATER.
38—GOLDEN-CROWNED HONEY-EATER.
Golden-crowned Honeystiscfcei^ IiirtM'.s Birds, pl. 16.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill from gape to tip one inch and a
quarter, moderately curved, and ending in a blunt point; colour
buff yellow,;s nostrils in a long oval, near the base ; tongue ciliated
at the end; crown and bind part of the neck, golden yellow, the
feathers short, appearing like velvet, or hair ; the second quills are
of the same gold-colour, as are the edges of the prime ones; under
wing coverts yellow in the middle; all the rest of the bird fine full
black, and the scapulars fall over each other, like silky fringe ; tail
two inches and a half long, rounded at the end ; legs near one inch
and a half long from the joint to the toes, and rather slender; toes
and claws long, and black.
Inhabits New-Holland : met with near the Coal River Settlements,
called there King Honeysucker, from its extracting the honey from
flowers, by means of its tongue ; found also on the banks of Paterson
River, among the thick bushes, but is far from common.
In the Museum of the late General Davies was a fine s^a^ien.:.
One is also in the Linnaean Society's Collection.
39—HOARY-HEADED HONEY-EATER.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill from gape to point, one inehk&Bfe
a quarter, a trifle curved, the nostrils oval; the head, neck, and as
far as the breast black, the feathers of the head and neck margined
with white, giving at a distance, a hoary appearance, most so on the
 HONEY-EATER.
186
region of the ears; the rest of the upper parts, wings, and tail olive-
yellow ; breast, belly, thighs, and wing coverts yellow, with a rufous
tinge on the under tail coverts; quills dusky on the inner webs; tail
greatly cuneiform, the two middle feathers almost four inches long,
the outer one less than two; in colour like the back, but somewhat
darker; legs brown; the quills reach to about one-third on the tail.
A specimen of this is in the collection of Lord Stanley, without
a certainty of the place it came from; but we have seen a similar
one from New-Holland,—It was also in the collection of Mr. Bullock.
40—BLACK-EYED HONEY-EATER.
Turdus melanops, Ind. Om. Sup. p. xl.
Philedon, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxxvii.
Black-eyed Thrush, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 181.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill stout, slightly curved, black;
tongue longer than the bill, bristly at the end ; crown of the head
and sides yellow; under parts of the body the same, but less bright;
forehead mottled with dusky; from the gape a black streak begins,
which increasing in breadth, entirely surrounds the eye, behind which
it becomes more narrow, passing half way down the neck on each
side; at the bottom, just within, a spot of yellow; the nape, hind part
of the neck, back, wings, and tail rusty brown ; the two last margined
with yellow; tail moderately long, nearly even at the end, and the
wings reach not far beyond the base.
A.—These birds vary, in having the whole of the cheeks, and
sides of the neck black, spreading quite to the nape behind; the
black also reaching much lower, but with the same patch of yellow
within at the bottom ; and in these the forehead, crown, and all
beneath from the chin are yellow.
 HONEY-EATERi
41.—WHITE-EARED HONEY-EATER.
Turdus leucotis, Ind. Orn. Sup, p. xliv.
Philedon, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxxvii.
White-eared Thrush, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 373.
LENGTH' six inches and a half. Bill half an inch fong, black;
the head above the eyes, and nape fine blue grey; chin, fore part of
the neck, and breast black; behind the eyes a large, longish white
patch ; hind part of the neck, back, wings, and tail fine greenish
brown; belly, thighs, and vent yellow ; legs black.
Inhabits New South Wales, with the Black-eyed Species : common about Port Jackson, Sydney, and Parametta, in thick woods,
at all seasons : met with also in Norfolk Island in September. Supposed by some to be the female of the last named bird.
42—YELLOW-CROWNED HONEY-EATER.
LENGTH six inches. Bill half an inch long, and black; irides
brown; plumage on the upper parts of the body mottled brown;
hindhead and nape dark olive ; quills edged with yellowish ; crown
of the head yellow; behind the ear a small whitish curved patch ;
chin white, the rest of the under parts pale yellow; legs grey.
The female differs only in having the colours less bright.
Inhabits New-Holland. Found throughout the year in the forests,
more particularly in the neighbourhood of the Banksia trees, from
the flowers of which it is furnished with honey in abundance.
 HONEYr»EA.TERV
187
43.—COACH-WHIP HONEY-EATER.
Muscicapa crepitans, Ind. Orn. Sup. li.
Coach-whip Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 222.
SIZE of a Thrush. Bill stout, black ; irides blue; general colour
of the plumage slaty black; chin and throat crossed with dusky
white lines; the feathers of the crown long, and capable of being
erected as a crest; tail slightly cuneiform, the ends of the outer
feathers pale, nearly white; legs slender, black.
Inhabits New South Wales, called by the natives Djou ; has a
long, single note, not unlike the crack of a coachman's whip, hence
Called the Coach-whip Bird; is a lively species, and menacing in
its manners, and when the crest is erected, appears a formidable
enemy, which it takes the advantage of, in contending with other
birds, especially Parroquets, about the right of extracting honey from
flowers. I am unable to say of what form the tongue is, as I have
only seen the drawings of the bird, but I suspect it from this circumstance to belong to the Honey-Eater Genus,
it
A.—Length eight inches. Plumage in general black; from the
breast all beneath white; over the eye a white streak; across the
throat streaked with white ; tail cuneiform, four inches long; quills
reach to near the middle of it.
Inhabits New-Holland.—In the collection of Mr. H, Brogden.
One, in the Museum of the Linnaean Society, has a white patch in the
direction of the lower mandible ;  and the legs are pale, not black.
 188
HONEY-EATER.
\\   ,. !
44.—MARBLED HONEY-EATER.
Sylvia versicolor, Ind. Om. Sup. lvi.
Variable Warbler, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 250,
LENGTH between six and seven inches. Bill dusky, a little
bent downwards, base of the under mandible pale ; tongue at least
the length of the bill, probably longer, and a little hairy at the end;
irides dusky; plumage above every where greenish brown, marbled
and undulated with greenish, and purple tinges; beneath, from chin
to vent greenish white, with the same tinges, but paler, and more
faint; quills plain rufous brown; tail rounded, the largest interior
feathers of a dark stone-colour, barred vrith white, the outer dull
ferruginous, with the ends white; legs pale ash-colour, stout; the
wings reach halfway on the tail.
Inhabits New South Wales; is a bird of short flight; its food
moths, flies, and other insects; and from the shape of the tongue,
probably honey also.—In the collection of Mr. Francillon.
45—DUSKY HONEY-EATER.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill one inch, rather bent, sharp, and
black; tongue extensile, at the end four bristles; plumage above
fine deep brown, almost black, beneath dusky white ; on the chin
bluish white; and dusky pale yellow On the vent; thighs mottled
white and dusky; some of the quills, and greater coverts fringed
with white; tail even, two inches long, the quills reach to about
one-third of the length ; legs stout, deep brown.
Inhabits New-Holland.—From the drawings of Mr. Lambert,
 HONEY-EATER.
46.—BLACK-CHINNED HONEY-EATER.
Turdus Cochinchinensis, Ind. Orn. i
Meliphaga Javensis, Lin. Trans, xiii.
Le Verdin de la Cochinchine, Buf I
Black-chinned Thrush, Gen. Syn. iii.
357.    Gm. Lin. i. 825.
p. 152.
I 409.    Pl. enl. 643. 3.    Ois. Dor. pl. 77.78.
79.    Nat. Misc. pl. 557.
SIZE of a Sparrow. Bill and legs dusky; irides yellow; general
colour of the plumage green, with an olive tinge on the head ; the
breast and belly pale, and inclining to blue towards the tail; throat
and chin velvety black, bordered with a shade of yellow from the
base of the bill, growing broad on the breast; at the gape a lilac
streak; bend of the wing blue; tongue as long as the bill, ciliated
at the end.    This is a male.
A.—Turdus Malabaricus, Ind. Om. i. 349. Gm. Lin. i.
Le petit Merle de la Cote de Malabar, Son. Voy. Ind. ii.
Yellow-fronted Thrush, Gen. Syn. iii. 60.
Length six inches. Bill eleven lines; this has the general colour
of the plumage green, but no black on the throat, nor the lilac
streak, but instead of these, the chin and throat are pale blue, and
the place where the streak should be, is more blue; forehead, crown,
and borders of the blue pale yellow; shoulders blue, but paler; the
rest of the body less bright than in the former bird, and in both the
tail is very short, the wings nearly reaching to the end of it. This
is a female.
Inhabits Cochin China, Malabar, &c. We have thought right
to place this with the Honey-Eater Genus, as the tongue is said to
be ciliated at the end, but do not learn whether it is extensile. It is
found in Java, where it is called Chuchach-iju.
 190
HONEY-EATER.
47.—MOLUCCA MONEY-EATER.
Merops Moluccensis* Bidi Qr&. h&76«~.'
Le Polochion, Buf. vi. 477.
Philedon, T£m..Mant,mLii. AnaL p. ha
Molucca Bee-Eater, Get* Syn^u.. 684.
SIZE of aCucfe&W; weight five ounces^; length fourteen inches.
Bffl very pointed, two inches long, notched a little near the tip, and
bi&ekish; nctetrife neafir tibe middle, pervious, and covered by a
membrane at the back part; tongue as long as tfoe bill, terminated
by a pencil of hairs; eyes surrounded-'With a naked skin; cheeks
black ; hind part of the neck miS&BGPwith'Wfcite*? the feathers of the
forehead form an angle backwards; tips of some of those on the
throat silky ; general colour of the plumage grey, lighter beneath;
tail five inches and two-thirds long, composed of twelve feathers, all
equal in length, except the outer ones which are a trifle shorter; legs
dusky, the outer toe joined to the middle one at the base; hind claw
larger than the others.
Inhabits Bouro, one of the Molucca Islands, and is called Polochion,* from its note imitating #he sound of that wordi as its common
and perpefffal cry when perched on the branchessot: high trees.
 HONEY-EATEft.
mi
**W>ITH CREEPER-LIKE Bt&mS..
-GREAT HOOK-BILLED HONEY-EATER.
Certhia pacifica, Ind. Orn. i. 281,    Gm. Lin. i. 470.
Le Hoho, Om. dor. ii. 97. pL 63.
Hookoo,  Cook's last Voy. iii. 119.
Hereo-taire, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ixxxvi.
Great hook-billed Creeper,   Gen, Syn. ii. '
Id. Sup. 126.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 227.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill brown, with the base pale, one
inch and three quarters long, stout at the beginning, and very much
hooked; plumage above black, but the lower part of the back,
rump, and upper tail coverts are fine deep yellow; under parts of
the body dusky; shoulders, inner ridge of the wing, and part of the
coverts yellow ; bastard wmg: yellowish white at the end; the under
wing coverts quite white; vent and thighs yellow; quills and tail
black, the last rounded at the end; legs black.
Inhabits the Friendly Islands, in the South Seas; called, at
Owhyhee, Hoohoo.
49.—SICKLE-BILLED HONEY-EATER.
Certhia falcata, Ind. Om. i. 282.    Gm. Lin. i. 470.
Soui-manga k bee en faucille, Ois. dor. ii. p. 67.
Sickle-billed Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 705.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 230.
LENGTH five inches and a half.    The bill one inch and three
quarters, curved like a sickle, and dusky; upper part of the head,
 192 HONEY-EATER.
neck, and body green, with a gloss of violet on the head ; beneath,
as far as the breast, violet; tail the same; greater wing coverts and
quills, belly, and vent, pale brown ; legs brown; claws black.
50—HOOK-BILLED GREEN HONEY-EATER.
Pl. lxxi.—Fig. 1.
Certhia obscura, Ind. Om. i. 281.    Gm. Lin. i: 470.
L'Akaie aroa, Om. Dor. ii. 87. pl. 53.
Heoro-taire, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxxvi.
Hook-billed green Creeper, Gen. Syn.ii. 703. pl.33.    Id. Sup. 126.     Shaw's2
viii. 227.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill one inch and three quarters long,
bent quite in the shape of a semicircle; the under mandible shorter
by a quarter of an inch; nostrils covered by a membrane; colour
brownish black; tongue nearly as long as the bill, and fringed at
the end; between the bill and eye a streak of brownish black,
surrounding the latter; the plumage in general olive green, paler
beneath, and somewhat inclined to yellow; quills and tail dusky,
edged with yellow green; feathers just above the joint, or garter,
white; legs brown; hind toe rather long.
Inhabits the Sandwich Islands, and is one of the kind whose
plumage the natives make use of, in fabricating their feathered garments; these feathers being intermixed with the scarlet ones belonging
to the next Species, and those of the Yellow-tufted, compose some
of the most beautiful coverings of the Islanders.
   P1LXXI.
<--/,//,„ 2%nvu,-t^
  HONEY-EATER.
193
51—HOOK-BILLED RED HONEY-EATER.
Certhia vestiaria, Ind. Om. i. 282.
- coccinea, Gm. Lin. i. 470.
pl.75.
Mellisuga coccinea, Merrem. Ic. Av. 14.
Polytmus, Born. Phys. 76. t. 2. f. 1. 2.
L'Heoro-taire, Om. dor. ii. 85. pl. 52.
Hook-billed red Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii.
Shaw's Zool. viii. 229. pl.33.
Forst. Gott. Mag. 1780. iv. 346.   Nat. Misc
Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. Ixxxvi.
f04.   Id. Sup. 127.    Cook's last Voy. ii. 207.
LENGTH six inches. Bill one inch and a quarter long, very
hooked, and pale coloured; tongue bristly at the end; plumage in
general fine scarlet; wings and tail black; on the coverts, next the
body, a white spot, from two or three of the feathers having the
outer webs of that colour; legs the colour of the bill.
Male and female much alike.
Young birds are variegated in plumage; in some the forehead is
buff-coloured, and about the head buff and dusky black mixed;
others have patches of buff in various parts.
Inhabits the Sandwich Islands; first met with by our people in
that of Atooi; it is gregarious, and caught in snares by the natives,
for the sake of the red feathers, with which they make many of their
feathered dresses, helmets, and the like; these birds were not seen
alive during our stay at those Islands, but brought in by the natives,
fresh killed, to be purchased for a trifle. They are said to feed on ,
the nectar of flowers, into which they thrust their long and ciliated
tongue, whereby, in the manner of the Humming Bird, they are able
to extract the honey readily. The general name is Eee-eve, but they
are called at Atooi, by that of Heoro-taire.
 194
HONEY-EATER.
52-SLENDER-BILLED HONEY-EATER—Pl. lxxi^
Certhia tenuirostris, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxxvi.
Le Cap-noir, Om. dor. ii. 94. pli 60.
Hooded Creeper, Shaiv's Zool. viii. 109.
Slender-billed Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 165. pl. 129.
LENGTH about six inches. Bill one inch and a quarter long, very
slender, and moderately curved; tongue longer than the bill, and fringed
at the end ; crown of the head black, taking in the eyes on each side,
and passing in a broad band quite to the breast; back, wing coverts,
and rump pale slaty grey; quills and tail black, the last somewhat
cuneiform; the chin very pale rufous, and from that to the breast
white; the rufous colour surrounded with a crescent of black, having
the horns pointing upwards; under parts from the breast, rufous;
legs* pale.
Inhabits; New-Holland, and is a beautiful species.
A.^—Heoro-taire a coiffe i
, Ois. dor. ii. 128. fern
SIZE of the former. The chin first rufous, then white to the
breast, but the black on the sides of the neck not half so broad as in
the other; above from the nape to the middle of the back fine brown;
two middle tail feathers brown, the others black one-third from the
base, then white to the end, but those next to the two middle wholly
black.
Inhabits New-Holland : said to be the female.—In the collection
of General Davies. -
     HONEY-EATER'.
195
53.-FLAPPING HONEY-EATER.
LENGTH near eight inches. Bill one inch and a quarter long,
slender, black ; tongue bristly at the end, and very extensile; crown
of the head black; nape pale brown; neck behind dark brown,
coming forwards on each side above the breast; chin and throat
white; across the latter a curved blackish spot; beneath from the
breast pale dusky buff, clouded with darker; tail even, the four
middle feathers dark brown, the others the same, half way from the
base, from thence to the end white; legs black; the wings reach
beyond the base of the tail.
Inhabits New South Wales ; feeds on flies and honey ; makes a
singular noise when flying, as if the tips of the wings were beaten
together, under the belly; hovers over flowers like the Humming
Bird, and extracts the honey with its brushy tongue. This seems
much allied to the last.
54.—YELLOW-EARED HONEY-EATER.
Certhia chrysotis, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxxviii,
Heoro-taire gris, Ois. dor. ii. 122. pl. 84.
Spot-eared Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 244.
Yellow-eared Creeper, Gen.<Syn. Sup. ii. 169.    Lewin, pl, 14.
LENGTH from five to six inches. Bill black, edged with grey;
tongue divided into four parts at the end, each division ciliated';
head, and upper parts in general, pale dirty greyish brown, beneath
greyish white, with a tinge of yellow; below the ear an oval spot of
fine yellow; above this a smaller one of black, through the eye;
quills and tail edged with yellow ; legs brown.
 196
HONEY-EATER.
The female has the spots below the ears paler, and no black point;
edges of the wings and tail yellowish green ; end of the tail greyish
white; the shape of the latter a trifle forked; the wings reach rather
beyond the rump.
Inhabits New-Holland. Found about Paterson's River," and
Hawksbury, among the thick bushes; fond of the berries of the
white cedar, and often seen on that tree in great numbers; also
catches flies, as well as collects honey from flowers, by means of its
tongue; is a shy bird, said to have a shrill, though sweet kind of
whistling note, and heard at a great distance.
55— BLACK-CHEEKED HONEY-EATER.
Sylvia chrysops, Ind. Orn. Sup. liv.
Black-cheeked Warbler, Gen. Syn. Sup. ':
LARGER than a Sparrow. Bill and legs dusky; tongue bristly
at the end ; plumage on the upper parts reddish brown, the under
dusky white; cheeks black; the eye placed in the middle; through
it an irregular streak of fine yellow, passing beneath the eye, but
not above it; quills margined with yellow; chin blue grey.
Inhabits New South Wales; is a lively species, supposed to live
principally on honey, which is the case with those whose tongues
are jagged, or fringed at the end: this seems to coincide, in many
things, with the last described.
 —
HONEY-EATER.
197
56— TUFTED-EARED HONEY-EATER.
Muscicapa auricomis, Ind. Orn. Sup. xlix.
Heoro-taire k Oreilles jaunes,' Om. dor. ii. 123. pl. 25.
Tufted-eared Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii, 236.
Yellow-tufted Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 215.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 172.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill three quarters of an
inch, black; tongue bristly, and bifid at the tip; plumage above
olive green; crown, and all beneath, yellow; from the gape, through
the eyes, a large patch of black; at the base of which, on the ears,
is a yellow tuft, consisting of feathers longer than the rest, and which
may be erected at will; quills, and tail feathers edged with yellow;
the last rounded, all but the two middle ones tipped with white; the
wings reach about one-third on the tail.
Inhabits New-Holland, called Darwang; is a common species;
named by the English, Yellow-eared Flycatcher; it feeds principally
on honey, which it obtains .from various flowers, by means of its
long bristly tongue; makes a nest on the extreme pendent branches
of trees, and low shrubs, and so escapes the plunder of the smaller
quadrupeds, which are unable to reach the nest in safety. There
seems much agreement in the plumage of this, and some others
before described, of which, on further enquiry, it may probably
prove only a Variety.
l
m
57—YELLOW-WINGED HONEY-EATER.
Certhia pyrrhoptera, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxxviii.   »
Heoro-taire a Ailes jaunes, Ois. dor. ii. 128.
Flycatching Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 262.
Yellow-winged Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 168.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill black; tongue bristly; head, neck,
and back pale slate-colour, inclining to yellow on the rump; beneath
 198 HONEY-EATER.
whitish, with a few narrow lines on the breast; on the ear a yellow
spot, below it a patch of black; quills dusky; the greater, from the
base, to two-thirds of the length, yellow; two middle tail feathers
dusky, the others yellowish.
Another of these had the plumage above pale cinereous grey,
beneath yellowish white; vent spotted with ferruginous; quills as in
the last, but pale ferruginous instead of yellow. This, perhaps, may
differ in sex.
I have a drawing also of a third, which is like the first, but
wants the yellow spot on the ears, and may probably be a young
bird, if not a female.
Inhabits New South Wales, and is continually observed in the
action of catching flies; supposed also to feed on honey. One of
these, in the collection of Mr. Francillon, had the base of the quills
high orange, instead of yellow.
58— CHIRPING HONEY-EATER.
Certhia pipilans, Ind. Orn. Supt xxxvi.
Le Verbrun, Ois. dor. ii. 166.
Chirping Creeper, Gen. Syn. SupM. 166.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 261.
SIZE of the Nightingale. Bill slender, black ; tongue bristly
at the end ; irides blue; general colour of the plumage pale green,
inclining to brown on the back, and to pale yellow beneath ; quills
and tail dusky; thighs dusky, barred with white; legs brown.
Inhabits New-Holland.
 HONEY-EATER.
199
59.—CARDINAL  HONEY-EATER,—Pl. lxxi—Fig. 2.
Certhia Cardinalis, Ind. Orn.i. 299.    Gm. Lin.
 — Australasia;, Zool. Misc. No. 2. pl. 11 ?
  rubra, Gm. Lin. i. 419.
Heoro-taire ecarlate, Ois. dor. ii. 88. pl. 54.
Kuyametra, Ois. dor. ii. 88.. pl. 58.
Cardinal Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 733. pl. 33. f. 2
Philedon, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxxvii.
Scarlet Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 740. Female.
. Male.    Shaw's Zool. \
SIZE of our Creeper ; length three inches and a quarter. Bill
half an inch long, curved, black, with a whitish base; tongue long,
extensile, and ciliated for half the length ; between the bill and eye
a streak of black, encircling the eyelids; irides reddish chestnut;
head, neck, and breast crimson; down the middle of the back, a
stripe of the same to the rump, where it grows wider, and forms the
coverts of the tail; the rest of the body black; wings and tail black;
the last even at the end, and the wings reach to about the middle of
it; legs lead-colour.
In the female, the bill is about half an inch long; general colour
of the plumage scarlet, except the wings and tail, which are black;
lower belly and vent white. In some birds the quills are very pale,
and the belly dusky brown; and in one specimen a streak of black
passed through the eye.
Inhabits the cultivated parts of the Island of Tanna, and there
called Kuyametra; is said to live by sucking the nectar of flowers,
and is not common.
 200
HONEY-EATER.
IP
60.—CRIMSON HONEY-EATER.
Certhia sanguinea, Ind. Orn. i. 290. Gm. Lin.
Heoro-taire cramoisi, Om. dor. ii. 100. pl. 66.
Philedon, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxxvii.
Crimson Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 739.    Shaw's 2
LENGTH five inches. Bill moderately hooked, dusky, three
quarters of an inch long; plumage in general crimson, deeper above;
quills black; secondaries margined with chestnut; belly dusky; the
vent white; tail black, the feathers pointed at the ends, and the
shafts white; legs black.
Inhabits the Sandwich Islands.
A—Certhia virens, Ind. Orn. i. 290.    Gm. Lin. i. 479.
Le vert olive,  Om. dor. ii. pl. 67.
Olive-green Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 740.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 232.
SIZE of the other. Between the bill and eye dusky; plumage
olive green, paler beneath; the quills and tail the same, but more
dusky, feathers of both edged with yellow.
This is found with the former, and has the same manners;
supposed to be the female.
-^-—
   HONEY-EATER.
2©a
61 .—COCHINEAL HONEY-EATER.
ill
Certhia dibapha, Ind. Orn. Sup, xxxvii.
Hooro-taire rouge tachete, Ois. dor. ii. 127.
Small crested Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 253. pl, 35.
Cochineal Creeper, Gen, Syn. Supf ii. 167.
LENGTH about three inches and a half. Bill and legs black;
tongue bristly at the end; plumage in general crimson, but the under
parts, from the breast, are white; on the red of the breast six black
spots; a large spot of black -occupies the beginning of the back, a
second below the first, and some others smaller of the same on the
rump; through and round the eye a black streak, oval in shape, and
pointed; wings and tail black, the last very short.
Inhabits New South Wales; only seen in the spring, and is a
Tare species.
62—SANGUINEOUS HONEY-EATER—Pl. lxxiii.
Certhia sanguinolenta, Ind. Orn, Sup. xxxvii.
Le Heoro-taire sanguin, Ois. dor. ii. 127.
Sanguineous Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 167. -jtl. 130.    Shato
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill and legs black; tongue
extensile, bristly at the end; the upper parts of the bird crimson,
marked here and there with a few irregular large black spots; chin
and throat white-; breast and belly dirty pale brown; shoulders, and
 202
HONEY-EATER.
outer edge of the wing black; the quills and tail are black, edged
with white.
The female brown above; beneath dusky white, or flesh-colour.
Inhabits New South Wales; common in the neighbourhood of
the River Nepean, among bushes and thick woods.
63.—RED-RUMPED HONEY-EATER.
Certhia erythropygia, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxxviii.
Red-rumped Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 169.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 249.
THIS is a small species, being little more than four inches in
length. Bill curved as in the Creeper, black; tongue bristly at the
end; plumage above pale brown, beneath dusky white ; rump crimson ; outer part of the quills, and tail dusky black; some of the
outer feathers of the latter are nearly white at the ends; legs black.
In one specimen I observe three or four crimson spots on the chin.
Inhabits New South Wales, but is very rare.
64—SPOTTED HONEY-EATER.
Heoro-taire mouchete, Ois. dor. ii. 93. pl. 59.
Small crested Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 253.
LENGTH four inches.    Bill three quarters of an inch long, and
black; crown of the head, including the eyes on each side, black;
 7
HONEY-EATER. 203
the feathers rather full, appearing crested ; body above rufous,
growing paler, nearly white on the rump and wings, and marked
with black spots, which are larger on the back and wings ; beneath
dusky white; quills and tail dusky, the edges of the former pale ;
the shape of the latter rounded, or slightly cuneiform ; legs black.
Inhabits New-Holland.
RED-EYED HONEY-EATER.
Le Fuscalbin, Ois. dor. ii. 95. pl. 61.
Lunated Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 224.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill five lines, black; tongue
extensile, ciliated at the end; eyes surrounded with red feathers;
head and neck black; behind the eye a broad streak of white,
reaching to the hindhead; plumage above brown, beneath white ;
quills black.
Inhabits New-Holland.
I
66.—WHITE-COLLARED HONEY-EATER.
Heoro-taire k Collier blanc, Om. dor. ii. 90. pl. 56,
White-collared Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 237.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill and legs dusky; tongue
ending with a brush; plumage above rufous brown, beneath rufous;
on the jaw, beneath the eye, a large patch of white; across the breast
another; the two outer tail feathers white from the middle to the end.
Inhabits New-Holland.
Dd2
 204
HONEY-EATER.
67.—AGILE HONEY-EATER.
Certhia agilis, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxxviii.
Le Veloce, Om. dor. ii. 128.
Agile Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 168.   Shat
s Zool. viii. 263.
LENGTH six inches. -Bill black; tongue bristly; top of the
head, nape, and hind part of the neck black; the rest of the upper
parts of the body, wings, and tail brown; under white; the white
and black join each other on the sides of the neck irregularly ; legs
blue black. Some specimens ane: half an inch shorter, and olive-
green instead of brown.
IohabitSfl^ew South Wales, is an active species ; feeds on honey
and flies, in the manner of others of the Genus.
68.—CCERULEAN HONEY-EATER.
Certhia coerulescens, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxxviii.
Heoro-taire bleu, Om. dor. ii. 121. pl. 83.
Bluish-breasted Creeper, Shaw's ZooL viii. 244.
Coerulean Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 188.
SIZE of the White Throat; length five inches. Bill a trifle
curved, but slender, as in the Warbler Genus, colour dusky; tongue
bifid at ttie end, forming two separate brushes; plumage on the
upper parts pale brown, beneath pale flesh-colour; fore part of the
neck pale bluet jgrey; quills and tail dusky, the last even; the wings,
reach one-third on the tail; legs dusky.
Inhabits New South Wales.
 HONEY-EATER.
205
69.—BROWN HONEY-EATER.
Certhia fusca, Ind. Om. i. 294.    Gm. Lin. i. 472.
Le Heoro-taire brun, Ois. dor. ii. 99. pl. 65.
Brown Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 782.    Shaw's Zool. viii: 238.
LENGTH six inches. Bill one inch, a little bent, and dusky
brown ; in the middle a pale orange spot; plumage above brown ;
sides of the neck the same, edged with white; throat and breast
barred brown and white; belly very pale brown ; quills brown with
pale edges; legs black, claws long and hooked.
Inhabits the South Seas, but the particular Island not known.
70—BARRED-TAILED HONEY-EATER.
LENGTH five inches. Bill three-quarters of an inch, dusky
black; tongue longer than the bill, bifid at the end; plumage above
pale brown; wings and tail rufous brown; under parts in general
dull olive yellow, spotted and barred with dusky; chin and throat
dusky black; bastard wing white, forming a spot; legs black.
Native place uncertain.—In the collection of Mr. Bullock.
 206
CREEPER.
GENUS XXXV.—CREEPER.
* Of the Old Continent.
26 Green-gold
52 Barred-tail
1 Common Creeper
2 Wall
3 Violet-headed
27 Sugar
A Var.
A Mahratta
53 Blue-faced
28 Blue-rumped
54 Blue-headed
4 Famous
A Scarlet
55 Radiated
A Var.
B African _
56 Carmelite
B Ekeberg's
C Splendid
57 Varied
5 Beautiful
29 Rufous-breasted
58 Violet-throated
6 Snuff-coloured
30 Red-backed
59 Red-gilt
7 Philippine
A Var.
60 Macassar '
8 Red-breasted
31 Crimson-backed
61 Strait-billed
A Little brown and white
32 Red and grey
62 Indian
B Violet-throated
33 Red-spotted
63 Band-breasted
' 9 Goulparah
10 Violet
A Var.
64 Aerial
34 Yellow
65 Cinnamon
A Var.
35 Orange-backed
66 Ash-bellied
11 Meropine
36 Red-banded
A Var.
12 Carmine
37 Amboina
B Var.
13 Saccharine
38 Polished
67 Indigo
14 Band-bellied
39 Crimson
68 Yellow-rumped
15 Splendid
40 Collared
69 Undulated
16 Ceylonese
A Var.
70 Orange-breasted
A Var.
41 Violet-breasted
71 New Caledonian
B Var.
A Purple
72 Familiar
17 Comyns's
B Purple Indian
73 Chiglet
18 Yellow-bellied
42 Cape
74 Javan
A Var.
A Var.
75 Pectoral
B Var.
43 Black-tailed
76 Eximious
19 Grey
44 Yellow-winged
77 Mountain
A Jugular
45 Long-billed
** Of the New Continent.
20 Violet-tailed
46 Tufted
78 Green-faced
21 Eastern
47 Red-billed
79 Red
22 Leona
48 Chestnut-crowned
A Var.
23 Brown and white
49 Black-necked
80 South American
24 Loten's
50 Glossy
81 Fulvous
25 Senegal
51 Amethyst-throated
82 Purple
A Var.
A Gold-fronted
1   83 Gular
 84 Wren
85 Cupreous
86 Amethystine
87 Green
88 Blue
A Yellow-cheeked
89 Black and violet
90 Black-headed
A Black-capped
B Blue-headed gree
C All green
CREEPER.
D Black-fronted
| 91 Cayenne
A Var.
B Var.
C Var.
D Var.
E Var.
I 92 Gartered
93 Blue-throated
94 Black and blue
1 95 Peregrine
207
I 96 Black and yellow
A Yellow-bellied
B Bahama
C Bartholomew
97 Variegated
I 98 Bifasciated
I 99 Brazilian
100 Chicli
101 Paraguan
102 Gilded
-OlLL slender, incurvated, and sharp-pointed.    Nostrils small.
Tongue pointed at the end for the most part; in some divided
into two filaments.
Legs moderately stout; toes placed three before and one behind,
the back toe large, claws hooked and long.
Tail consisting of twelve feathers.
This Genus has by many been confounded with the Humming
Bird, but a little consideration will point out the difference, for
Creepers are not confined to any climate, being found in all quarters
of the globe, whilst Humming Birds are met with only in the
warmer parts of America; again, the Genus here treated of has the bill
pointed and sharp at the end, be the shape however different, but
that of the Humming Bird is more or less blunt at the tip ; besides,
birds of the Creeper Genus principally feed on insects, but the food
of the other consists only of the juice extracted from the nectaries of
flowers; some few, indeed, of the Creepers have the tongue divided
at the end, and such no doubt are capable of licking honey from
flowers, though by no means like the Humming Birds, which make it
their only nutriment. Nor should they be confounded with the
Honey-eaters, which, although a few of them agree in some measure
in respect to the tongues, yet the greater part of the latter are of superior size, and almost exclusively inhabit New-Holland.  Neither do
 the bills of these correspond with the Creepers, all of which are more
or less sharp at the point; and none of them, although the tongue be
cloven into two filaments, are at all fringed on the edges, as is the
case with very many of the Honey-eaters.
Much doubt has arisen throughout, concerning the identity of
several species, and must, it is probable, in some measure continue ;
as we are well assured, that many do not gain the complete plumage
till the third year's moult; and if, as they are said to be, capable of
breeding in the intermediate stages, will probably long be described
as distinct.
We have divided the species belonging to this Genus, into two ;
not on account of any disimilarity in themselves, but according to
the places in which they are found, viz. those inhabiting the Old
Continent, and those met with in the New.
n
 ~"
209
* OF THE OLD CONTINENT.
1.—-COMMON   CREEPER.
Certhia familiaris, Ind. Om. i. 280,     Lin. i. 184.     Faun. Suec. No. 106.    Gmel. Lin. i.
469.     Scop. i. No. 59.     Muller No. 104.     Brun. No. 12.     Sepp Vog. t. p. 59,
Gerin. ii. 1.195. f. 1.    Borowsk. ii. 154.    Ph. Trans, xxvi. 124.    Schcef El. t. 25.
Vieill. Am. ii. p. 70.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. 252.   Id. Ed. ii, p. 410.
Certhius minor, Frisch. t. 39.
| Falcinellus arboreus nostras, Klein Av. 106.
Ispida cauda rigida, Kram. 337.
Certhia, Raii 47. A. 5.    Will. 100. t. 23.    Bris. iii. 603.    Id. 8vo. ii. p. 2.
Grimpereau, Buf v. 481. pl. 21. 1.     PL enl. 681.     Hist. Prov. i. 484.     Om. dor. ii.
107. pl. 72.
Baumklette, Naturf ix. s. 59.
Picchio, Piccolo, Zinnan. Uov. Ixxv. t. 11. f. 66.
Der gemeine Baumlaufer, Bechst. Deutsch. ii. s. 550.    Schmid Vo^
Ox-eye Creeper, Collins's Birds, pl, iv, f. 7. male.
Common Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 701.   Id. Sup. 126.
fol. 82. t. K.     Id. 1812. p. 345. pl. 43.   Arct.
37.    Albin iii. pl. 25.   Bewick i. pl. p. 125.
f. 3.    IFd/cofi. t. 54.    Pult. Dorset: p. 5.    -SAa
Br. Orn.   Id. Ov. Brit. Pt. i. pl. 5.   ^mer. 0>
p. 59. t. 46.
pl. 9. f. 7. female.
Br. Zool. i. No. 92. pl. 39. Id.
Zool. ii, 174. Catesb. Car. App.
Lewinii, pl. 55. id. .Eggs pl.9.
v's Zool. viii. 186. pl. 24. Graves
n, i. pl. 1. f. 1.    Orn. Diet.
THIS is one of the smallest of our English birds; weight five
drams; it is five inches long, and six and a half broad. Bill hooked
like a sickle, the upper mandible brown, the lower whitish; irides
hazel; general colour of the plumage above brown, streaked with
black ; rump tawny; wing coverts varied brown and black ; quills
dusky, tipped with white; and edged and barred with tawny; breast
and belly silvery white; sides over the thighs, and vent with a rufous
tinge; tail long, cuneiform, of twelve stiff, and tawny feathers, the
 210 CREEPER.
interior ends of which slope off to a point; the outer one two inches
long, the two middle two inches and a half; the legs and claws grey.
The female is less bright in all its markings, only the chin silvery
white, the rest of the under parts have a dusky tinge, and the vent
still deeper.
The Creeper is found in most parts of Europe, and we think no
where more common than in England, remaining at all seasons,
though rarely seen by the less attentive observer; for when on the
branch, or body of a tree, on seeing any person, the bird continually
shifts to the opposite side, so as to be out of sight of any one walking
round it. The facility of running on the bark in all directions is
wonderful, appearing to do this with as much ease as a fly on a glass
window. The food is chiefly insects, which it. finds in the chinks,
and among the moss : it makes the nest either in a hole, or behind
the bark of some decayed tree, composed of dry grass, and the inner
bark of wood, loosely put together, and lined with feathers; the eggs
generally eight in number, weighing about eighteen grains; colour
white, minutely dotted with bright ferruginous, and the shell rather
hard. The bird has no song, but a kind of weak, monotonous note,
several times repeated in a deliberate manner. Bechstein compares
it to the words zich, zich, zich; and observes, that it is nearly silent
except in spring and summer; is very common in Germany, especially in Thuringia; found, though rarely, in the forests of Russia
and Siberia; but constant in Sweden, and extends as far as Sondmor.
We have observed it in drawings from India, and is found also in
America,* having been sent from thence by Mr, Abbot, of Savanna
in Georgia.    General Davies also met with it in Canada.
* Certhia rufa, little brown and varied Creeper, Bartr, Trav. 287 ?
 211
A.—Certhia major, Bris. iii. 607.
Grand Grimpereau, Buf. v. 486.
Id. Svo. ii. p. 3.    Frisch t. 39.     Gerin. t. 196.
Gen. Syn. ii. 702. A.
This merely differs in being larger, and in manners ; for Klein*
assures us, that it is so tame, as to be caught with the hand.
A Variety is frequent in the woods of Georgia, in America,
weighing nearly an ounce; is six inches and a half long, and ten and
a half broad; said to have all the manners of the European one, but
cannot from the size be strictly the same.—In a drawing of this,
communicated by Mr. Abbot, the rump seems much elongated, as
well as the tail; yet the colours of the plumage appear quite the
same, as in our European Species.
2.—WALL CREEPER.
Certhia muraria, Ind. Orn.i. 294.     Lin.i. 184.     Gm. Lin.i. 473.     Scop. i. No. 58.
S.G. Gmel. It. iii. t. 19. 2.   Fn. Arag. p. 74.   Borowsk. ii. 153, t. 23.    Spalowsck.
iii. t. 20.
Certhia muralis, Bris. iii. 607. t. 30. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. ii. p. 3.    Gerin. ii. t. 197.
Tichodroma phoenicoptera, Tern. Man. d'Orn. 254.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 413.
Picus murarius, Raii p. 461.    Will. 99. t. 23.    Kram. 336. 6.    Johnst. Av. 113. t. 41.
Mauerspecht, Naturf. ix. s1. 60.    Id. xvii. s. 40.    Bechst. Deutsch. ii. 555. t. 20.
Pic de Muraille, Robert Ic. pl. 3. 4.
Grimpereau de Muraille, Buf v. 487. t. 22.     PL enl. 372.    Hist. Prov. i. 485.    Ois.
dor. ii. 109. pl. 73.    Levail. Ois. Parad. iii. pl. 20. 21.
Wall Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 730. 32.    Id. Sup. 129.    Edw. pl. 361.    Will. Engl. 143.
pl. 23.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 189. pl. 25.   Nat. Misc. pl. 289.
SIZE of a Sparrow ; length six inches, eight lines ; breadth ten
inches and a half.     Bill more than one inch and a half long, mucft'
11
 212 CREEPER.
arched at the end, not unlike that of the Hoopoe, and black ; head
brownish ash-colour at top; neck behind, back, and rump fine
bluish ash ; breast, belly, thighs, and under tail coverts the same,
but darker; throat black, extending some way down the neck; lesser
wing coverts rose-colour, the greater the same without, but black
within; greater quills blackish, with whitish tips, the outer edges of
most, except the outer ones, rose-colour; the second, third, fourth,
and fifth have two spots of white on the inner web,* on the sixth one
white and one fulvous spot; the rest mostly with a fulvous one; tail
scarcely rounded at the end, consisting of twelve blackish feathers,
two inches and a half long; the eight middle ones plain, the two outer
with white ends; legs black, claws very long and hooked, especially
the backward one.
The female differs only in having the throat and fore part of the
neck white, and wanting the black mark on the former.
Inhabits various parts of the Continent of Europe, but does not
appear to be common any where; said to be found in many parts of
Italy. Buffon does not rank it with the birds of France; yet it
is said to be found especially at Auvergne, also at Lyons, though
very rarely, and never seen more than two together.
I cannot learn that it was ever met with in this kingdom.—
Is known in Spain, by the name of Paxaco aranero, particularly
about Jacca in the province of Arragon. It probably does not inhabit
Sweden, yet is sufficiently known in some parts of Germany, and I
have received a specimen, killed not far from Vienna. Scopoli mentions it as a bird of Carniola ; has been observed about the Caucasian
Rocks in Asia, but not elsewhere in that neighbourhood; in short,
it seems to be every where a scarce bird.
In manners it seems to be much like the Common Creeper, feeding
on insects, particularly spiders, is probably not stationary any where;
Scopoli says, that it migrates singly from Carniola at the end of
* A feather marked in this manner is figured in Edwards's Plate.
 CREEPER. 213
autumn; in flight, it is vague, and uncertain, and climbs by leaps;
frequents ruined edifices, old walls, or clefts of rocks, and making
the nest in holes therein, or in the hollow of some decayed tree,
Kramer, and others observe, that it has been known to form the
nest in human skulls in church yards, but probably this, happened
rather by accident than choice.
M. Temminck forms a Genus out of this single Species, by the
name of Tichodrome.
3—VIOLET-HEADED CREEPER.
Certhia violacea, Ind. Orn.i. 287.   Lin.i. 188. Id. Mant. 1771. p.525.   Gm.
Certhia longicauda minor Cap. B. Spei,   Brii. iii. 649-1. 33. 6.   Id. 8vo. i
Certhia chalybeata, Spalowsck. Vog. i. t. 10.
Soui-manga a longue Queue, et Capuchon violet, Buf. v. 517.    Om. dor. ii,
Petit Grimpereau k longue Queue, du Cap,   Pl. enl. 670. 2.
Le Sucrier orange, Levail. Af. 6. 152. pl. 292. f. 1. 2.
Saffron Creeper, Nat. Misc. pl. 210.
Violet-headed Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 718.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 211. pl, 30,
SIZE a little bigger than the Common Creeper; length six
inches. Bill near one inch, and black; head, neck, upper part of
the back, scapulars, and lesser wing coverts bright violet, appearing
green in some lights, but on the fore part of the neck inclining to
blue; lower part of the back, rump, and upper tail coverts olive-
brown ; breast, belly, and under tail coverts bright orange, paler
near the vent; sides of the body orange, with a mixture of olive;
greater coverts brown, edged with olive; at the setting on of the
wing two yellow tufts; quills nearly the same as the greater coverts;
tail blackish brown, margined with olive; shape cuneiform, the two
middle feathers longer than the rest by one inch, being three inches
in length; the outer only one inch and a half; legs blackish.
 214 CREEPER.
In one of these the lower belly, thighs, and vent nearly approached
to green.—The female is smaller; plumage in general dirty olive-
green, inclined to yellow beneath ; tail without the two long middle
feathers ; bill, legs, and eyes brown. In the rainy season the male
loses the elongated tail feathers, and appears in plumage much
like the female; while young, both sexes have the dress of the female.
This is very common at the Cape of Good Hope, about Cape
Town, and on the East Coast; most frequent on the mountains, but
will come into the gardens where the plants are in flower, and especially the orange trees. The male has a weak warble, short, but
agreeable: the nest is made among the shady shrubs, composed of
the down of plants within, outwardly of fine moss, and lichen ; the
egss five in number, bluish white, marked with fine dots of brown.
These birds, remain in therneighbouring parts throughout the year,
but seen in different districts, according to the various times of
flowering in each place.
4—FAMOUS  CREEPER.
Certhia famosa* Ind. Om. i. 288.    Lin.i. 187.    Gm. Lin. i. 481.
■  longicauda Cap. B. Spei,   Bris. iii. 647. t. 34. 1.     Id. 8vo. i
t. 201. 1,    Spalowsck. Vog.i: t. 14|
Grand Soufctoffga a longue Queue, Buf v. 521. Ois. dor. ii. pl. 37.
Grimpereau a longue Queue du Cap de B. Esp. PL enl. 83. 1.
Le Sucrier malachite, Levail. Afr. vi. 143. pl. 289. 290.
Shining Creeper, Nat. Misc. pl. 19.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 212. pl. 31.
Fsjmotia Creeper, Gen. Syii.mi2Q.    Id. Sup. 128.
SIZE, of a Linnet in the body; total length nine inches. Bill
one inch and/three quarters, black; tongue the lengthlof <the bill;
irides deep brown ; the whole>pIu*mage green gold, glossed with
copper; between the bill and eye a black stripe, like velvet; oneabfe
side, under the shoulders, a fine yellow spot, appearing when the
 wing is lifted up; greater wing coverts and quills blackish, edged with
green ; tail bright black, edged outwardly with green-gold^ but the
two middle feathers are two inches and a half longer than the others,
and green-gold on both edges ; legs black.
The female said to have the head and upper parts greenish brown,
mixed with fine green ; rump green ; quills and tail black brown ;
beneath the body yellow, with a mixture of green on the breast;
the tail is also said to be long as in the male, but the feathers exceed
little more than two inches, and are very narrow. I suspect this to
be a young male.
Among the birds brought from Abyssinia, by Mr. Salt, is one of
these, met with at Mosambique; about seven inches in length, and
answering in general markings; but the colour a most brilliant grass
green, in some parts inclining to blue; all the under parts, quite to
the vent, the same, equally brilliant, and not unaptly, as Levaillant
mentions, imitating the hue of the Malachite ; it has also the elongated tail feathers, and the patch of yellow under the bend of the
wings.
The female has the same plumage throughout the year, but never
gains the elongated middle feathers ; and in the winter, the male is
also destitute of them.
This species is found at all seasons about the Cape of Good
Hope, particularly on the east coast, and in many of the cantons of
the interior, every where so abundant, that one person may kill fifty
or more in a day, for the birds are not shy; very common about Cape
Town ; frequents kitchen gardens, for the sake of sucking the nectar
from various flowers of theProteas, great flowering Nettle, and others;
they make a hemispherical nest, composed of dry fibres mixed with
moss and down within, and lay four or five greenish eggs which
are hatched in eighteen days, and both sexes sit by turns. The male
has an agreeable warble or whistle, to be heard at some distance;
called at the Cape, Groene Suyker Voogel, or Green Sugar Bird.
1
 216
A.—Certhia cinerea, Ind. Orn. i. 289.
Cinereous Creeper,   Gen. Syn. ii. 721.
Ois. dor. ii. p. 60. pl. 38.
Id. Sup. ii. 160.
Size of the other. Bill and tongue the same ; head, neck, upper
part of the back, and breast brownish ash-colour; on each side of
the jaw a yellowish streak; lower part of the back, wing coverts,
and rump glossy green ; quills brown; belly pale yellow; down the
middle of the breast and belly a mixture of glossy green; vent
white ; tail black, the two middle feathers two inches and a quarter
longer than the rest, the others a little cuneiform; legs black.
This is the plumage of the young male, towards the end of the
rainy season, when it has gained the long tailed feathers, though not
so much extended beyond the others as in the adult. I have seen
young birds a little differing from this, though not so materially as
to merit a particular description.
B.—Trochilus Capensis, Ind. Om. i. 303. 6. Lin.
Great Humming-Bird, Shaw's Zool. viii. 282. 283.
Ekeberg's Humming-Bird, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 170.
Mantis. 1771. 525.
Size of a Swallow. General colour green-gold; quills black;
wing coverts, nearest to them, margined with glossy blue ; tail even
at the end, except the two middle feathers, which are three times
the length of the others, colour of all of them black, margined at
the base with glossy green; vent black, marked with shining blue
spots.
This is said to inhabit the Cape of Good Hope, for which we have
the authority of M. Ekeberg. It has, however, never fallen to our
lot to meet with any of the Humming-Bird Genus, which came from
that place ; and as it seems from the description to correspond with
the Famous Creeper, we have ventured to place it as belonging to
that bird.
 217
5—BEAUTIFUL CREEPER.
in. i. 187.    Gm Lin. i. 4
i. 645. t. 34. 3.  Id. 8vo. i
Certhia pulchella, Ind. Orn. i. 288.    L
" longicauda Senegalensis, Buf. iii
Sylvia versicolor, Klein Av. p. 80.19.
Avis Amboinensis discolor, Seba ii. t. 7,
So'ui-manga vert dore changeant k longi
dor. ii. 62. pl. 41.
Le Sucrier cossu, Levail. Afr. vi. 154. pl. 293. f. 1,
Beautiful Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 719.    Shaw's Zool. v
14.   Gerin. ii. t. 201.
Buf v. 519.   Pl. enl. 670. 1.    Ois.
LENGTH seven inches and a quarter. Bill eight lines and a
half, blackish; general colour of the plumage green gold, with a
gloss of copper; breast fine red; on the lower part of the belly a
mixture of white ; greater wing coverts and quills brown ; tail
blackish, edged outwardly with green gold, the feathers in general
very little rounded ; but the two middle ones exceed the others by
two inches and a half; legs black. This, M. Levaillant observes, is
equally brilliant beneath as above, particularly the red on the breast,
the sides of which appear gilded; and, if exposed to the sun, seem
like sparks of fire.
The female is smaller ; head, neck, and upper parts olive grey
brown; breast olive-brown, growing white as it approaches the vent,
so that the lower belly, and under the tail are white; wings brownish
black, bordered with olive-grey.
The male, at some seasons, cannot be easily distinguished from
the female, more especially when young, but the belly is more
yellow.
Buffon's bird, described as a female, is a young one in the second
moult, and ready to take on the summer plumage; and his male not
having quite finished its moult, with the lower part of the white belly
and brown tail of youth remaining.
VOL.   IV. F F
 218 CREEPER.
Inhabits Senegal, very common at Malemba, and sucks the honey
from flowers, in the manner of the Humming-Bird; common also
in the South of Africa; but not beyond the Great River, in the Caffre
Country; said not to breed in the latter. M. Levaillant could not
find the nest. In one of these birds I observed the throat and fore
neck to look black in some lights, but found, on close inspection, that
it arose from the feathers being rumpled, for in this, and many other
most brilliant birds, the gilded tinge is only at the very tips of the
feathers, being dusky or black the rest of the length.
6.—SNUFF-COLOURED CREEPER.
Certhia tabacina, Ind. Orn. i. 289,
Soui-manga Couleur de Tabac, Ois. dor. ii. 67,
Snuff-coloured Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. 129,    Shaw's Zool. viii. 21
LENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill one inch and a quarter,
not much bent, black-brown; head, neck, and back deep cinnamon
or snuff-colour; beneath the body green; under wing coverts yellow;
tail in general of a moderate length, and even at the end, except the
two middle feathers, which exceed the others by two inches and a
half; legs black.
A fine specimen was in the collection of the late Mr. Boddam,
but without any history annexed.
In my possession is a drawing of a bird between four or five inches
in length, above wholly deep cinnamon-colour, quills darkest; from
the breast all beneath pale green; with this is also a nest, of a cylindrical shape, deeper than broad, composed of downy materials; this,
I have scarce a doubt, is the female and nest of the above described.
Supposed to inhabit Africa.  .,
 -^
219
I
7.—PHILIPPINE CREEPER.
Certhia Philippina, Ind. Orn. i. 213.     Lin. i, 187,     Gm. Lin. i. 482.    RrM. iii. 613.
t. 30. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. ii. p. 4.
Grimpereau second de Lucon, Son. Voy. pl. 30, B.
 des Philippines, Pl. enl. 576. f. 1.
Philippine Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 711.
LARGER than our Creeper; length four inches and three quarters. Bill black; tongue tubular, and forked ; plumage above
greenish grey brown, beneath yellowish white; quills brown, with
paler edges; the two middle feathers of the tail black, with a gilded
green gloss, the others blackish, more or less tipped with white, as
they are more outward; legs black.
According to Linnaeus, it has two very long feathers in the tail,
but the figure referred to by him in Brisson is without them.
Inhabits the Philippine Islands.—Sonnerat says, particularly
Luponia. The above may be supposed to be a female, and it seems
not unlike that of the Red-breasted, or following species.
8.—RED-BREASTED CREEPER.
Certhia Sperata, Ind. Om. i. 283.    Lin. i. 186.    Gm. Lin. i. 477.
  Philippensis purpurea, RrM. iii. 655. t. 31. f. 2. 3.    Id. 8vo. ii. 16,    Gerin. ii.
t. 100. m. & fern.
Soui-manga marron pourpr6 k poitrine rouge, Buf. v. 497.
Grimpereau des Philippines, PL enl. 246.
Soui-manga a Ceinture marron, Ois. dor. ii. 37. pl. 16.    Id. fern. p. 38. pl. 17.
Avis Nochtototl, Seba i. 65. t. 42. 5 ?
Red-breasted Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 70. 6.
LENGTH four inches. Bill eight lines long and black, the base
whitish; tongue longer than the bill, and forked at the end; head,
throat, and neck before glossy violet; behind the neck, back, and
 220 CREEPER.
scapulars purplish chestnut; lower part of the back, rump, and upper
tail coverts violet, with a changeable green and gold gloss; breast,
and upper parts of belly bright red; lower belly, and other parts
yellowish olive ; lesser wing coverts violet and green gold ; the middle
ones brown, tipped with purplish chestnut; the greater, and quills
brown, edged with rufous; tail black, with a polished steel gloss,
the outer edges of the feathers violet, glossed with green-gold; legs
brown.
The female has the upper parts olive-green, beneath olive-yellow;
lesser wing coverts as the back, and four of the outer tail feathers
tipped with grey, occupying most of the feather as it is more outward.
Inhabits the Philippine Islands. In a female, among the drawings of Sir John Anstruther, none of the tail feathers have grey tips;
the bird is green above, pale yellow beneath, round the eye paler,
but the eyelids are yellow.
Seba's bird has a yellow bill and legs; head and neck deep gilded
purple; breast, and belly pale red; back, wings, and tail greyish
cinereous brown, with a reddish tinge, and fringed at the edges. He
does not say from whence it came, but from the name being Mexican,
we may suppose it to be a native of South America.
A.—Certhia pusilla, Lin. i. 185.    Gm. Li
  Indica, Bris. iii. 621.   Id. 8i
Falcinellus colore Passeris, Klein 107.    Id. 108: 14,
Soui-manga brun et blanc, Buf. v. 498.
Little Brown and White Creeper,   Gen. Syn. ii. 707.
Zool. viii. 207.
. 473.    Ind. Orn. i. 283. 8. /3.
ii. p. 7.    Gerin. ii. t. 195.
Seba i. t. 42.
Edw. pl. 26.*
This is half an inch shorter than the last.    Bill dull brown ;
plumage above brown, glossed with copper; from bill to eye a stripe
* A Label tied to Edwards's bird, gave it the name of Honey Thief; and that they are
fond of honey is clear ; for those who keep birds at the Cape of Good Hope, have many
sorts in large cages, and supply them with honey and water ; besides which, they catch flies,
which come within reach of their confinement, and in their wild state, probably subsist on
both; for on attempting to transport them, the want of flies on board a ship prevented their
living more than three weeks, so necessary are insects to their existence.
  yutia/u i^/iceAe,
 . '/' ,--■'_,i-. --. v ;/;   [■;- -:. ,-,,_-
§&it*r mh-r.    This -
qjiarfp^, &f
v   -    --   U    -•■■•■
habits India.
  H
CREEPER.
221
of brown; over the eye a kind of white eyebrow; beneath the body
white; quills brown, edged with glossy copper; tail blackish, the
outer feather tipped with white; legs brown. Supposed to be the
young imperfect bird of the red breasted.
B.—-Certhia Sperata, Gm. Lin. i. 13. /S.    Ind. Om. i. 283. 8. y.
Soui-manga a gorge violette et poitrine rouge, Buf. v. 499.     Om. dor. ii. p. 54. pl. 32.
I        Grimpereau 3me. de Lucon, Son. Voy. p. 63. t. 30. D.    Gen. Syn. ii. 708. B.
Violet-throated Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 208.
According to Sonnerat, the head is pale green; throat glossy
violet; breast vermilion-red, approaching to carmine; back and
wings reddish chestnut; quills black; rump and tail like polished
steel, glossed with green ; under tail coverts dull green.
The young bird figured in the Oiseaux dories, is brown above;
throat and breast white; belly light yellow; back and tail brown,
the latter paler.    This last seems to coincide with Var. A.
9.—GOULPOURAH CREEPER—Pl. lxxiv.
TOTAL length five inches and a half. Bill near one inch, dusky,
slightly bent the whole length; crown, even with the eyes, green,
and the feathers rather full; hind part of the neck and back light
chestnut; chin, throat, and breast fine crimson; from each side of
chin a line of blue, three quarters of an inch long, curving on the
sides of the neck within the crimson; belly, thighs, and vent green,
but less deep than on the crown; wings and tail deep green, the last
full two inches long, and the middle feathers run to a point, the
others gradually shorter; greater quills dull chestnut; legs dusky.
Inhabits India, shot at Goulpourah in 1796.—Sir J. Anstruther.
 222 CREEPER.
This said to be a male, and the following the female. These
seem to be much allied to, if not a Variety of the Red-breasted
Creeper.
Length four inches and a half. Bill half an inch, scarcely bent;
crown, nape, back, and wing coverts dark green; all beneath fine
yellow; from the gape a purplish, irregular streak, three quarters of
an inch long, passing down on each side of the neck; greater wing
coverts and quills chocolate-brown; tail the same, but short, scarcely
three quarters of an inch, and even at the end.
Inhabits India.
In one of these, from Sumatra, the bill was brown, the under
mandible paler; crown of the head silky, purplish brown ; chin and
throat fine scarlet; lower part of the neck behind scarlet also, but
much darker; beneath each eye a fine blue streak; belly dusky
brown ; wings and tail much the same; legs dusky.
In another specimen the crown was deep blue black; nape brown;
head, neck, back, and breast scarlet; beneath from the breast pale
yellowish; wings pale brown; tail brown, the two middle feathers
half as long again as the others; bill and legs dusky.
Inhabits India: named Phulchuyia.
10—VIOLET CREEPER.
Certhia Madagascariensis, Ind. Orn.i. 282.
  Soui-manga, Gm. Lin. i. 471.     Buf v. 494.     Om. dor. ii. 39. pl. 18.    Id. a
jeune Age, 41. pl. 19.
Certhia Madagascariensis violacea, Bris. iii. 638. t. 32. f. 2. 3.    Id. 8vo. ii. p. 11.
Violet Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 705.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 208.
SIZE of a Wren ; length four inches or more. Bill three quarters
of an inch, black; tongue somewhat longer than the bill, and bifid
at the end ; in the male the head and neck, upper part of the back,
 -^
11;
CREEPER. 223
scapulars, and wing coverts are shining green, glossed with olive ;
lower part of back, rump, and upper tail coverts pale yellow; on
the shoulders a deep yellow spot; greater wing coverts brown, edged
with olive, within whitish; tail black, edged with green, but the
outer feather grey brown from the middle to the end; the next grey
brown at the end only; legs black.
.  The female is smaller, has the upper parts olive-brown, beneath
olive-yellow; wings and tail as in the male.
Inhabits Madagascar.
A.—Certhia Manillensis, Gm. Lin.i. 471.
Soui-manga de Luqoo, Buf. v. 496.    Gen. Syn. ii. 706. A.
This is rather smaller, and differs in the throat and neck, the
feathers having reflections of green, blue, violet, &c. in various
lights ; besides which, a gradation of violet-black, chestnut; brown,
and yellow in bands; the rest of the under parts olive-grey; the
upper part of the body deep green, with a blue and violet gloss;
beneath the shoulders two yellow spots; upper wing coverts, and
quills brown, with a greenish hue.
This came from Manilla.
11.—MEROPINE CREEPER.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill one inch and a half, black, curved
and pointed at the end, as in the Bee-eater; tongue as long as the
bill, pointed; general colour of the plumage black; crown green
gold; chin and throat fine glossy blue and purple, varying in different
lights; shoulders and rump glossy blue and green, varying into each
other; tail even, the wings reach to about half the length ; legs
black.
 224 CREEPER.
The female pale cinereous brown above, beneath mixed pale ash,
yellowish, and dusky, in curved marks like waves ; vent white ; bill
and legs as in the other sex.
Native place uncertain.—Mr. Woodford's drawings.
12.—CARMINE CREEPER.
Le Sucrier Cardinalin, Levail. Afr. vi. 149. pl. 291.
Certhia Cardinalis, Cardinal Creeper, Nat. Misc. pl. 102.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill and legs black; eyes
brown, head and all the upper parts fine glossy green gold; from
the breast all the under parts full carmine-red ; the two middle tail
feathers elongated, exceeding the others in length by two inches.
The female a trifle smaller, and without the elongated tail feathers ;
the under parts yellow instead of red.
In the rainy season, or winter, the male has the tail even, as in
the female, and the red belly changes more or less to yellow, so
as to give the appearance of the female, excepting being larger.
At first both sexes are olive-brown, where afterwards they become
green gold, and both yellow beneath; and it is only during incubation that the male is red beneath, or has the long tail feathers.
Inhabits the high mountains of the Great Namaqua Country,
nest and eggs not known ; lives chiefly on the Aloe dichotoma, or
on a species of red lilly, growing in plenty there. Is said not to
remain the whole winter; but perhaps its disappearance, at that
season, may be owing to the food necessary for it being more plentiful in the neighbouring parts; and that this, as well as other birds,
merely change place, from this circumstance, but do not completely
migrate.
 225
13—SACCHARINE  CREEPER.
Le Sucrier-figuier, Male, Levail. Afr. vi. 157. pl. 293. f. 2.
THE total length of this bird is six inches. The bill short, and
brown, very little bent; tongue bifid at the end, and capable of elongation ; irides chestnut; the head, neck, back, and wing coverts, fine
glossy changeable green gold, with a coppery tinge on the scapulars;
rump and upper tail coverts glossy violet, changeable to purple,
with a gloss of polished steel in different lights; quills and tail
brownish black, the two middle feathers exceed the others in length
by more than two inches, and this part of a reddish gold colour; all
beneath, from the breast, jonquil yellow; legs brown.
The female is a trifle smaller, and has the belly yellow like the
male; head, back, and rump rufous grey, with an olive and gilded
tinge; quills and tail grey brown, inclining to olive, but the latter
wants the long feathers.
The male, in the rainy or winter season, loses the elongated tail
feathers, and becomes like the female.
Inhabits the countries far within the Cape of Good Hope, being
only found in the forests of the Great Namaquas; said to support itself
on the juice of a Jasmine without scent, which grows in great abundance under the Mimosa trees, twining among the branches; the
nest never met with.    Supposed to be a distinct species.
14—BAND-BELLIED CREEPER.
LENGTH five inches and a half.    Bill seven-eighths of an inch,
black ;   plumage above olive-brown, beneath olive-yellow,   with
vol. iv. Go
 226 CREEPER.
numerous dusky bands ; chin and throat dusky black ; quills and
tail brown; legs brown.
Inhabits Africa.—Mr. Bullock.—This seems either to be in
imperfect feather, or is the female of some species already described.
15.—SPLENDID CREEPER.
Certhia Tacazza, Splendid Creeper, Salt Abys. App. p. Iviii.
SIZE of the Violet-headed Creeper. Bill black, curved, and
one inch and half long to the gape; from the forehead to the end of
the tail six inches; added to which, in the male, are two elongated
middle feathers, extending beyond the rest two inches; the head,
neck, and breast, wing coverts, back, rump, and upper tail coverts,
most brilliantly glossy, like polished metal; the head and neck have
a green gold gloss, the rest with a most resplendent coppery tinge;
the greater coverts, and the rest of the wing, belly, and vent, deep
blue black, somewhat glossy; tail feathers much the same, but with
more gloss, and rounded at the end; the two elongated ones broad
at the base, and tending to a bluntish point at the end ; legs black.
Two specimens were among the birds of Mr. Salt, who brought
them from Abyssinia; found in the low, hot country, near the
Tacasse.
 1:
CREEPER.
227
ll
16.—CEYLONESE CREEPER.
IE
Certhia Zey
onica, Ind. Orn.i. 285.    Lin.i. 188.    Gm. Lin.i. 482.
  Phil
ppensis olivacea,   Bris. iii. 623. t. 34. 4.    Id. 8vo. ii. p. 7.
Soui-manga
a gorge pourpre, Rw/..v. 506.
Grimpereau
premier de Lugon, Son. Voy. t. 30. A ?
ii'
olive des Philippines, PL enl. 576. 4.
k gorge bleue, Om. dor. ii. 51. pl. 29.
Soui-manga
Ceylonese C
reeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 712.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 203.
re    I
SIZE of a
Wren ; length four inches.    Bill three quarters of an
if     ■
inch, black, slender,;incurvated, and sharp pointed; nostrils
covered
!p|l'|
vith a membrane; tongue tubular, as in the Humming-Bird; irides
dark red; plumage on the crown dark glossy green; lore and cheeks
blackish brown; chin and throat purple; neck and back black, with
-light reddish brown edges, giving the appearance of the last colour;
rump, and upper tail coverts light purple; breast and beneath
yellow; sides dirty white; wing coverts partly purple, partly brown ;
greater ones dusky; quills dusky, edged ferruginous; tail brown
black, consisting of twelve feathers, the outer one pale towards the
end; legs strong, black, the middle and outer toes connected at the
base, hind toe the longest.
The female is rather longer, and thebill shorter; head, neck, and
back dusky olive; chin and throat yellowish green; rump olive;
upper tail coverts black; upper wing coverts dusky, mixed with
olive.
A young specimen, said to be a male, had the head, upper parts
of the neck, and back olive; lore black ; chin and beneath yellow.
This is the Sukkur Khora of Hindustan, and the Mauchungee
of the Bengalese; is found in all the gardens near Calcutta, and
Bwes by sucking the honey OJfft of flowers; will readily sip sugar and
water, from whence it derives its Hindustan name, which signifies
Sugar-eater.    The Bengalese name signifies any pointed thing for
Go 2
i
 228 CREEPER.
extracting honey.—The above account was given to me by Dr.
Buchanan, and the description probably is that of the complete bird,
branching out into numerous varieties, arising from sex or age. The
male differs from that of Brisson, as well as the one in Gen. Syn.
p. 712, in not having the breast violet, and the back not being olive;
but I have been informed that they vary exceedingly.
Var. 1, a male, in the collection of Sir J. Anstruther, has the
crown green; sides of the head, and neck deep purple ; over the eye
a reddish trace ; chin and throat mixed with red, and glossy; the
uppermost part of the back reddish chestnut, the middle and wings
brown, lower part and rump pale reddish purple, lesser wing coverts
green; all beneath from the breast yellow; tail blackish brown.
Var. 2, in the same collection, was purplish brown above,
head and neck mixed with glossy green ; shoulders of the wings
green ; all beneath from the breast yellow; in this last drawing were
the two sexes, which seemed chiefly to differ only in point of brightness of plumage.
The nest suspended from the extreme branch of a tree, is almost of
a globular shape, with a neck above, somewhat like an alembic, and
composed of fine fibres, with a round hole of entrance on one side,
nearer the bottom than the middle.
A bird, sent as a female, was pale brown above, and pale yellow
beneath, growing almost white at the vent; wings and tail black ;
shoulders blue ; down the middle, from chin to breast, an irregular
dusky streak. This, if not the other sex, is probably a young and
immature bird.
I have likewise observed one called Sukker Khorah, in which
the plumage was red brown; wings and tail deep brown ; shoulders
of the wings red brown; crown of the head, sides, and throat dull
green, beneath from the breast yellow. This is in the same drawing
with another, and called the female; the male wholly purple, glossed
with green, and brilliant, with two large tufts of yellow on each side
of the breast, beneath the wings.
 CREEPER.
229
17—COMYNSS CREEPER.
LENGTH, from the tip of the bill to the end of the tail, four
inches. Bill black; head, neck, back, and wing coverts fine
polished variable green ; rump and upper tail coverts the same, with
a polished gloss; breast, belly, and vent fine deep yellow; quills
and tail dusky; the two middle feathers of the last elongated, at
least two inches beyond the others; legs dusky black.
Inhabits Sierra Leona. In the collection of Mr. Comyns,—We
are well aware of the great difference of plumage in the Varieties,
supposed to be of the Ceylonese Species; but none of those
we have yet seen exactly answer to this, nor have any of them
the elongated tail feathers. It seems, however, to be a bird hanging
between the Ceylonese and Yellow-bellied Species.
18—YELLOW-BELLIED  CREEPER.
Certhia lepida, Ind. Orn. i. 298.    Mus. Carls, ii. t. 35.
Grimpereau de Malacca, Ois. dor. ii. 209. pl. 116, 1.
Soui-manga de Malacca, Om. dor. ii. 62.
Yellow-bellied Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. 131.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 213.
LENGTH between four and five inches. Bill black ; irides red;
forehead deep changeable green; behind the eye a dirty greenish
band, passing half way down the sides of the neck, where it is
rounded at the end; parallel to, and beneath this, a second of glossy
violet, which arises at the gape, and continues to the wing; throat
red brown ; lesser wing coverts violet, with a metalline gloss; the
others the same, inclining to red ; quijls dirty brown ; back, rump,
 230 CREEPER.
and tail changeable violet; breast, belly, and thighs yellow; legs
brown.
Inhabits Malacca, known also in Java, by the name of Sui-
ganti.
A.—Length four inches. Head, neck, and all above violet
purple; cheeks greenish brown; chin and throat reddish; wing
coverts, scapulars, and rump glossy violet purple ; quills brown,
edged with dusky olive; tail black, with glossy purple edges; beneath from the breast yellow.—In tke collection of Gen. Dawes,    a
B.—In the same collection was one five inches long. Bill five-
eighths of an inch, moderately bent, black; plumage above purple,
in some lights violet; beginning of the back and the crown brighter;
on the rump purplish ; cheeks brownish, beneath this glossy purple;
chin reddish purple, from thence all beneath yellow; wing coverts
purple, the rest of the wing red brown; quills brown; tail dusky
black, edged with green ; legs pale brown.
C.—Also a further Variety, with the plumage above pale brown;
throat as far as Hie breast, pale cinereous grey brown ; from thence
all beneath pale yellow, nearly white at the vent; quills and tail
dusky black; legs black.
This was given to General Davies, as the female of fine Yellow-
bellied Creeper.
 231
19— GREY CREEPER.
Certhia currucaria, Ind.Om.i. 285.   Lin.i. 185.    Gm.Lin. 474.   Borowsk. i
Certhia Philippensis grisea, Bris. iii. 615. t. 30. 1.    Id. 8vo. ii. p. 5.
Grimpereau gris des Philippines, Buf. v. 508.    Pl. enl. 576. 2.
Soui-manga a cravate violette, Om. dor. ii. 35. pl. 15.
Grey Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 714.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 221.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Bill three quarters of
an inch long, black ; tongue forked; upper parts of the body grey
brown; the under yellowish white, deeper on the breast; down the
middle of the neck to the breast a deep violet stripe, beginning at
the chin; upper wing coverts violet, with a steely gloss; quills
brown; tail one inch and a quarter long, and black, edged steely
blue, and whitish at the tip ; legs black.
II
A.—Certhia jugularis, Ind. Orn. i. 286.     Lin. u 185.     Gm. Lin. i. 474.
t. 199. 1.
Certhia Philippensis minor, Bris. iii. 616. t. 33, 5.    Id. 8vo. ii. p. 5.
Petit Grimpereau des Philippines, Buf. v. 509.    Pl. enl. 576. 3.
Soui-manga k cravate bleue, Ois. dor. ii. 53. pl, 31.
Length three inches and a half. Bill nine lines, blackish; plumage above grey-brown, beneath yellow; on the throat a large
deep violet spot; quills grey brown; tail deep brown, the two outer
feathers obliquely tipped with yellowish white; legs blackish.
li Inhabits the Philippine Islands.—M. Audibert says, the bill is
toothed, and the tongue dusky, divided into two filaments at the
end; top of the head, and rump bltie, and the glossy blue longitudinal band reaches as far as the breast.
 232 CREEPER.
Whether this is the female or young of the Grey Creeper is not
certain ; but from the general colours being much the same, though
perhaps not so well defined, and the outer tail feathers being tipped
with white, it may prove to be the female.
20—VIOLET-TAILED CREEPER.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill three quarters of an
inch, curved, black; head, neck, back, and lesser wing coverts
glossy green ; above the breast a purple bar, very glossy ; the rest
of the under parts pale yellow buff; vent dusky white; on each
side of the breast, at the bend of the wing, a pale yellow tuft;
greater wing coverts and quills dusky brown ; the rump, and upper
tail coverts, fine glossy, steely purple; tail blue, margin of the
feathersglossy; the wing coverts are first dusky, then blue, with
the ends glossy green ; feathers of the rump black, the ends steely
purple; legs long, dusky.
Supposed to inhabit Abyssinia.—In the collection of Mr. Salt.
21— EASTERN CREEPER.
LENGTH nearly four inches and a half. Bill three quarters
of an inch, bent, black; plumage in general black, with different
reflections of purple and green; quills, beneath the wing, and tail
dusky ; under each wing a large tuft of gold yellow feathers.
The female olive-green above, yellow beneath ; lower belly,
thighs, and vent white; wings and tail dusky.
 CREEPER. 233
Inhabits India; the nest composed of fine downy materials, mixed
with a few dead leaves, in shape nearly globular, about three inches
in diameter, and at bottom runs to a point, at least four inches beyond
it; the entrance at the top ; and on one side, next to the branch to
which it is attached, has a kind of hood or cover over the entrance ;
the eggs generally four, dirty pale ash-colour, five-eighths of an inch
in length, marked with numerous, minute specks of a darker colour.
This is also called Suker-kora, but whether distinct, or a Variety of
the Ceylon Species, is not easily determined; as to the name, we
suspect that it is generally applied to several of this kind, which
extract the honey out of flowers with the tongue.—Gen. Hardwicke.
One of these, in the collection of Sir J. Anstruther, differed from
the last, in having the shoulder of the wing green ; vent nearly white;
head and neck variable purplish green.
In the female the green does not come so low on the throat as in
the male, and the under parts are paler; bend of the wing green,
but less bright.
The nest is precisely of the same construction as in the last
described, and by the name Sukar-corah being given to it, is no
doubt the same bird, though not precisely in the same state of
plumage.
In the same drawings is also another, having the forehead and
crown green; over the eye a crimson streak.; the rest of the neck,
back, and rump, dull purple, more red on the back ; breast and under
parts fine yellow; bend of the wing green; wings and tail brown.
This also bears the name of Sukar-corah, or Sugar-eater : to these,
several other slight varieties may be added ; but the above we trust
is sufficient to shew, that great differences do occur, either owing to
mere variety, or different stages towards perfection.
11;
 234
22.—LEONA CREEPER.
Leona Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 164.   Nat. Misc. pl. 369.
LENGTH four inches. Bill three-eighths of an inch long,
hooked, black; head, neck, back, and wing coverts fine gilded green;
chin and throat black; across the breast a gilded purple band; from
thence yellowish white, or pale yellow; vent inclining to blue; under
the wings, on the sides of the breast, a tuft of yellow feathers; quills
and tail dusky, the feathers of the latter edged with gilded blue
green; legs black.
The female is dusky brown above, beneath brownish white, or
very pale brown; bill and legs as in the other.
Inhabits Sierra Leona. The male in my collection, the female
in that of Mr. H. Brogden.
23.—BROWN AND WHITE CREEPER.
Soui-manga brun et Wane, Om. dor. ii. 118. pl. 81.
Certhia Zeylonica, Gm. Lin. i. 482. 23. |3.
Brown and white Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii, 204.
Ceylonese Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 713. A.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill more than half an inch,
bent, base white, tip black; top of the head and sides, taking in the
eyes, green; chin, neck, breast, back, and wings brown; lesser wing
coverts green; rump reddish purple; lower part of the breast, and
belly white; tail black ; legs brown.
 —
CREEPER.
235
In the British Museum. It is probably a further Variety of the
Ceylonese Creeper, though M. Audibert is of opinion, that it is a
distinct species.
24.—LOTEN'S CREEPER.
Certhia Lotenia, Ind. Orn. i. 286.    Lin. 188.
■ Madagascariensis viridis, Bris. iii. 641,
p. 12.
L'angala-dian, Buf. v. 510.    Om. dor.
Grimpereau verd de Madagascar, PL .
Angaladian Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii.
Loten's Creeper, Gen, Syn. ii. 715.
Gm. Lin. i. 483.
pl. 33. 4. Male.   Id. 5. Fem.   Id. 8v. ii
ii. 19, pl. 3, d jeune Age.,
il. 575. 2. 3.
194, pl. 27?
pl. 4.
LENGTH five inches and a quarter. Bill fourteen lines, black;
tongue long, compressed at the end; head, neck, and all the upper
parts green gold; between the bill and eye a narrow line of velvet
black ; beneath from the breast black, separated from the green on
the neck, by a transverse bright, violet band, one line and a half
broad; the lesser wing coverts of this colour, the middle ones
green gold; greater coverts very fine black, outwardly edged with
green gold ; quills and tail the same ; legs black.
The female said to have the breast, belly, sides, and thighs, under
Wing and tail coverts dirty white, spotted with black; wings and
tail black, but less bright; but this is probably a young bird ; for
M. Adanson says, both sexes are alike.
In the collection of General Davies were two birds, very
similar; that said to be the male, had the head, neck, back, rump,
and wing coverts green gold, with a copper or purplish gloss, especially on the back; across the breast a bright crimson band; beyond
this, also the wings and tail, black.
Hh2
 236 CREEPER.
The supposed female wholly dingy black above, including the
eyes, beneath dusky white, with some obscure dusky markings on
the sides of the neck and breast; bill and legs black.
The two former birds said to have come from Ceylon and Madagascar, and called Angala-dian ; the two latter from Manilla; are
reported to make a curious nest, like that of a Chaffinch, laying five
or six eggs; this bird is sometimes chaced by a spider as large as
itself, and very voracious, which seizes the whole brood, and sucks
the blood of the young birds.*
25 —SENEGAL CREEPER.
Certhia Senegalensis, Ind. Om. i. 284.    Lin. i. 186.     Gm. Lin. i. 477.      RrM. iii. 660.
t. 34. 2. Id. 8vo. ii. p. 18. Gerin.ii. t. 199. f. 2. Mus. Lev. t. 6.
Soui-manga violet a poitrine rouge, Buf v. 500. Ois. dor. ii. 25. pl. 8.
Senegal Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 709.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 205. pl. 29. M. & F.
LENGTH five inches. Bill ten lines long, and black; top of
the head and throat green-gold, glossed with copper; the rest of
the body, above and beneath, violet black ; fore part of the neck
and breast bright red; but only appearing so, when the plumage
lies smooth ; for each feather is black at the bottom, then green gold,
with the end red; thighs violet brown ; greater wing coverts, quills,
and tail, brown ;f legs blackish.
Inhabits Senegal. In the Ois. dorees the plumage seems to be
deep brown ; crown and throat green ; breast varied with green and
blue, violet and red.
* Merian mentions this of the young of the Humming Birds in general.   See Merian
Surin. pl. 18.
t In a Specimen at Mr. Francillon's the Tail is very pale brown.
 "
CREEPER. 237
A.—Length scarcely four inches. Bill strait, except near the tip,
where the curvature begins ; colour dusky ; crown of the head fine
gilded green; through the eye from the bill black, uniting with
the hind part of the neck, which is also black; back deep glossy
green, changing to blue on the rump; the rest of the wings and tail,
lower belly, thighs, and vent dusky black; from the chin to the
middle of the belly scarlet crimson, but the throat is gilded ; legs
dusky.
Inhabits Malacca.—From the drawings of Sir J. Anstruther;
not uncommon at Mosambique.
26—GREEN-GOLD CREEPER.
Seb. Mus. i
Certhia omnicolor, Ind. Orn. i. 286.    Gm. Lin. i. 483
Ord. 107. 8.    Buf v. 513.
Soui-manga a toutes couleurs, Ois. dor. ii. 67.
Green-gold Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 716.    Shaw's Zool.
iii. 200.
ACCORDING to Seba, this is eight inches in length. Bill one
inch and a half, tail two inches and a quarter; the whole plumage
green, with a shade of all colours, in which the gold bears the
greatest share. Seba adds, that the young falls a prey to the great
spider,* but this is not peculiar to the brood of this species, for it is
the case with respect to every other, whenever this insect can gain
the superiority.t—M. Brisson quotes Seba for the bird, named by
Linnaeus as the Lotenia, yet describes one only five inches and a half
lpng; and Linnaeus quotes both Brisson and Seba, but these two
cannot be the same, from the great difference in size: both this and
Loten's are found at Ceylon. The nest in Seba's work is roundish,
or oval at top, and placed between the forks of branches made of
downy matter, and contains two young.
* Aranea avicularia. f See Seba i. t. 69. and Merian Surin. pl. 18,
 238
27—SUGAR CREEPER.
Certhia Asiatica, Ind. Orn. i. '288.
Soui-manga azure, Ois. dor. ii. 210.
Sugar Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 159.    Shaw's Zool. \
LENGTH about four inches. Bill and legs black; general
colour of the plumage deep blue; wings deep brown.
Inhabits India.—Major Roberts. I see it also in the drawings
of Lord Mountnorris, and on the same paper another, a supposed
female ; but this differs in being wholly olive-green; wings and
tail much darker than the rest.
A.—Certhia Mahrattensis, Ind. Om. Sup. xxxvi.
Mahratta Creeper, Ind. Om. Sup. ii. 164.
Length four inches. Bill and legs black; general colour of the
body violet purple; wings dusky brown; tail dusky black; the two
middle feathers entirely, and the outer edges of all the others violet;
on each side of the breast a yellow tuft.
Inhabits the Mahratta country, in India. A specimen in the
British Museum.
 28—BLUE-RUMPED CREEPER.
Certhia Afra, Ind. Om. i. 286.   Lin. I. 186.    Gm. Lin. i. 476.
  viridis, Ind. Orn. i. 298.
Grimpereau verd du Cap de bonne Esperance, Son. Voy. Ind. ii.
Soui-manga vert a Gorge rouge, Buf. v. 514.
Blue-rumped Creeper,    Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 131.
Red-breasted Green Creeper, Edw. t. 347.
African Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 717.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 192.
. pl. 116. 2.
LENGTH between four and five inches. Bill one inch, dusky;
head, neck, back, and wing coverts shining green, glossed with
green and copper in different lights; across the breast a bar of fine
red; upper tail coverts fine blue; quills and tail dark brown, paler
on the margins; inside of the.wings, and beneath the tail lighter
than above; belly, thighs, and under tail coverts white; legs black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, said to sing as well as any
Nightingale, with a sweeter voice; met with by Mr. Salt, at Mosam-
bique.
A.—Certhia scarlatina, Mus. Carls.
Gen. Syn. ii. 717.
t. 58.    Bom. Phys. 76. t. 2.   Ind. Orn. i. 297. B:
This Variety does not materially differ, but the belly is ash-
coloured, and not white; rump glossy violet; tongue bifid, and a
tuft of fine yellow feathers under each wing.
I found two specimens of this among the birds of Mr. Salt. I
nave also a third in my own collection.
 240
B.—African Creeper, Ind. Orn.i. 287. y.    Gen. Syn.ii. 718.
This varies in having the fore parts of the neck, from chin to
breast, glossy purplish blue; and the bar on the breast deep red,
inclining to purple.    This was in the collection of Miss Blomefield.
C.—Soui-manga a plumes soyeuses, Ois. dor. ii. 119. pl. 82.
Splendid Creeper, Shaw's Zorf. viii. 191. pl. 26.
Length five inches and a half. Bill one inch and a quarter,
black; head, throat, and breast green, bronzed with copper, appearing pnrple in some lights ; lesser wing coverts, and back fine gilded1
green ; tail coverts the same, very long, reaching almost lo the end
of the tail; across the breast a narrow band of vermilion, not glossy;
belly, and vent dusky black ; greater wing coverts, and quills brown,
tinged with green ; tail the same, edged with green ; legs black.
Inhabits Africa.
29—RUFOUS-BREASTED CREEPER.
LENGTH about four inches. Bill dark; crown of the head,
neck behind, back, and wing coverts fine polished green; sides of
the head, behind the eyes, and on the jaw, fine splendid copper;
chin, neck before, and breast reddish cinnamon-colour, inclining to
rufous; from thence to the vent, pale dull yellow; quills dusky;
under wing coverts yellowish white; tail wanting.
Inhabits Sierra Leona.— Mr. Comyns.
 241
30— RED-BACKED CREEPER.
Certhia erythronotos, Ind. Orn. i. 290.
Grimpereau a Dos rouge de la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 209, pl. 117. 1.
Soui-manga a Dos rouge, Ois. dor.ii 57. pl. 35.
Red-backed Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. 132.
THIS is only three inches in length. Bill a trifle bent, and
black ; irides red ; top of the head, neck behind, back, and rump
crimson ; from the nostrils a broad black band, through the eye to
the wing; throat, breast, and belly rufous white; wing coverts dark
green, almost black; quills and tail dusky.
A specimen of this was brought from China, and in the possession
of Sir Jos. Banks, Bart. It also inhabits India; seen in the drawings
in the collection of Lady Impey, as well as in those of Sir J. Anstruther ; in the latter it is named Doorgatoon loony.
A.—A Variety was four inches long; all above crimson, marked
on the back with black spots in streaks; sides of the head, neck,
and chin, black ; throat, and all beneath white; wings and tail
black; the last one inch long, and even at the end.
31—CRIMSON-BACKED CREEPER.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Head, and beneath black:
wings and tail the same; the latter two inches long, rounded ; back
pale crimson; quills brown; bill and legs black.
Inhabits New-Holland.
 242
32—RED AND GREY CREEPER.
Soui-manga rouge et gris, Ois. dor. ii. 58. pl. 36.
Le Figuier rouge k aisles et Queue noire, et ventre gris, Levail. Afr. iii. 151. pl. 136.
f. 1. 2 ?
ill
BILL and legs dusky. Head, neck, back, and breast, fine red;
from belly to vent light grey; wings and tail black. This, if the
same with Levaillant's bird, said to be red in the male, where it is
brown in the female, and to inhabit Amboina.—One of these brought
from Java, was named Sopa.
Among the drawings of Mr. Dent are two birds, four inches
long, probably these; one with the head, neck, breast, and back
crimson; lore black; some of the feathers on the sides, and back of
the neck fringed with black, appearing like curved bars; on the
back some black spots; breast alternate red and white; belly and
vent pale ash-colour; wings and tail, bill and legs black.
Another, supposed to be the female, had the upper parts of the
head, neck, back, and wings, pale brown; forehead and ehin mottled
fei%wn and white, from thence the under parts are very pale yellow;
rump and base of the tail buff-colour.
In some of the males the crimson extends quite to the belly.
 243
33—RED-SPOTTED CREEPER.
Gm. Lin. i. 478.
Klein, 108. 19.   Gerin, ii. t. 1
Certhia cruentata, Ind. Orn. i. 296.    Lin. i. 187.
—— Bengalensis, Bris. ii!. 663.   Id. 8vo. ii. 18.
Dicaeum cruentatum, Lin. Trans, xiii. p; 168.
Soui-manga rouge, noir et blanc, Buf v. 514.
Black, white, and red Indian Creeper, Edw. t. 81.
Red-backed Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 250, pl. 3S
Red-spotted Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 736.
LENGTH three inches and a quarter. Bill scarcely half an
inch, black; plumage above blue black; along this space three
bright red spots, the first on the crown, reaching from one eye to the
other, the second behind the neck, and the third on the middle of
the back; upper tail coverts the same; all beneath white ; quills and
tail blue black ; legs black.
Inhabits Bengal.
A.—Red-spotted Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii.  161
Among the drawings in the collection  of   Mr. Lambert,   I
observe one similar, but instead of being white beneath, it is pale
blue; another drawing represents one, in which the under parts are
white, but the eye placed in a patch of black.
Both these last inhabit New-Holland.
 HP
244
34.—YELLOW CREEPER.
Dicoeum flavum,-Zin. Trans, xiii. p. 170.—Horsfield.
LENGTH four inches.    Plumage above yellow olive; beneath
yellow; quills and tail feathers, except the outer margins, brown.
Inhabits Java.
35— ORANGE-BACKED CREEPER.
Certhia cantillans, Ind. Om. i. 299.
Grimpereau siffleur de la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 210. pl. 117. 2.
Soui-manga de la Chine, Om. dor. ii. p. 63.
Orange-backed Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. 132.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 254.
SOMEWHAT more than three inches long. Bill black; irides
red; plumage on the upper parts blue grey ; throat and neck before
the same, but paler; on the upper part of the back a spot of orange
yellow; breast and belly orange yellow; vent pale yellow; legs
black.
Inhabits China,
36.-RED-BANDED CREEPER.
Soui-manga a ceinture orangee, Om. dor. ii. 56. pl. 34.
SIZE uncertain.    Bill eight lines long, and black; plumage in
general gilded green,  glossed here and there with blue; across the
 breast an orange band; top of the breast changing to blue; beyond
this the under parts are greenish black; on the sides of the breast
two yellow tufts;  quills and tail deep brown; legs black.
37.—AMBOINA CREEPER.
Certhia Amboinensis, Ind. Orn. i. 301,    Gm. Lin. i. 480;
Polytmus Amboinensis, RrM. iii. 685.    Id. 8vo. ii. p. 26.
Tsioei, vel Kakopit, Seba, ii. 62. t. 62. f. 2.   Klein, 107. 7.
Soui-manga d'Amboine, Ois. dor. ii. p. 67.
Amboina Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 741.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 269.
LENGTH two inches and three-quarters. Bill half an inch ;
plumage cinereous grey, beneath green; head and neck yellow, the
feathers edged with green; breast fine red; wings black, edged with
yellow; quills yellow, edged with light green; the whole bird
brilliant and glossy.
Inhabits Amboina, has a tubular tongue, whereby it extracts
honey out of flowers; but it is not expressed either in the engraving
or description.
38 —POLISHED CREEPER.
Certhia polita, Ind. Orn. i. 287.    Mus. Carls, t. 59.
Soui-manga, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxxiv.
Polished Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 159.
LENGTH   five  inches.    Bill black ;  crown,   shoulders,   and
lesser wing coverts purple,   glossed with gold; throat and neck
 246 CREEPER.
before black; beneath these violet purple; beyond this a deep purple
band, separating the parts above from the belly, which is dusky
brown; at the bend of the wing a tuft of yellow feathers; tail black,
the feathers margined and tipped with ferruginous ; legs black.
37—CRIMSON-BELLIED CREEPER.
Certhia coccinigast
Crimson-bellied Ci
a, Ind. Om. Sup. xxs
:eper, Gen. Syn. Sup.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill black ; head, neck, and
breast, most briWiant amethystine purple, mixed on the breast with
vermilion red, forming a kind of band ; belly black ; vent and under
tail coverts glossy purplish blue black; upper parts of the neck,
lesser wing coverts, back, rump, upper and under tail coverts green
gold, very bright and glossy; fee rest of the wing, and tail greenish
black; two or three of the outer feathers fringed outwardly with
green gold; on each side of the neck, under the wing, a tuft of fine
yellow; wings black.
Inhabits Africa; a fine specimen is in my own collection, in
which the upper tail coverts, reach near three-fourths on the tail;
but in one in the possession of Lord Stanley, they extend quite to the
end, so as to wholly hide it; the quills reach three-fourths on the tail.
 247
40—COLLARED  CREEPER.
Lin. i. 186.
:. Lin. i. 475.   RrM. iii. 643.
Certhia chalybea,   Ind. Orn. i. 284.
t. 32. f. 1.   Id. 8vo. ii. p. 13.
Soui-manga a Collier, Om. dor. ii. 59, pl, 13.    Buf v. 502.    PL enl. 246. fi 3.
Soui-manga,   Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxxiv.
Collared Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 709.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 196- pl. 28.    Mtt. Misc. pl. 381.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill ten lines long, and
blackish; head, neck, throat, and upper parts of the body, green
gold, bronzed with copper; tail coverts green gold; breast beautiful red ; this colour separated from the green by a steel blue band,
in some lights appearing green, and making a kind of collar ; the
rest of the under parts grey, with a little yellowish mixture on the
lower part of the breast and sides; quills grey brown; tail glossy
blaek ; the ten middle feathers margined with green gold, the outer
with grey, and all of them grey at the tips; legs black.
In the bird figured by M. Audibert are two yellow tufts under
the wings.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, found in great numbers, with
others of the Genus, about the Paarl mountain : has a clear, melodious note, and sings delightfully in a cage, though it is kept in
confinement with difficulty, existing entirely on sugar and water,*
but its principal food is collected from the various kinds of Protea. t
A.—Soui-manga a ceinture bleue, Om. dor. ii. 28. pl. 10.
Certhia e*ytlirogastra, Nat. Misc. pl, 837.
Length rather fnore than five inches.    Bill one inch and half.
head, neck, breast, and back, green gold; rump bright blue; across
* Barrow Trav. 62. t Chiefly the Protea mellifera.
 248 CREEPER.
the breast a blue band ; breast and belly crimson; lower belly, and
thighs yellowish green ; on each side of the breast a yellow tuft.
Inhabits various parts of Africa, from Senegal to Malemba, and
perhaps farther south ; it seems a Variety of the Collared Species.
41.—VIOLET-BREASTED CREEPER.
Soui-manga vert et brun, Ois. dor. ii. 46. pl. 14.
Bifasciated Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 198.
THIS is said to be green; the breast violet blue, with a shade
of dull red; belly, wings, and tail, brown.
This, too, is very common at Malemba, and supposed to be
related to the Collared Species, but is without the two yellow tufts
on the breast.
Audibert mentions two birds which are probably Varieties, viz.
A.—Soui-manga poupr6, Ois. dor. ii. p. 29. pl. 11.
Purple Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 201. pl. 28.
The colour of this in general is green, changing to violet.   Forehead black ; two bands on the breast.
B—Purple Indian Creeper, Edw. 265. lower fig.    Om. dor. ii. p. 31. pl. xii.
This has the bill one-third shorter, and less arched in shape.
M. Audibert does not think it to be the female of the other, but
rather a young bird. He calls it, Soui-manga violet a ailes noiratres,
petit bande marron sur le haut de la poitrine ; and says it is found
in India, on the coast of Malabar.
 249
42—CAPE CREEPER.
Certhia Capensis, Ind, Orn.i. 284.    Lin. i. 185.    Gm. Lin. i. 473.
  Capitis bonae Spei, RrM. iii. 618. t. 31. 1.    Id. 8vo. ii. p. 6.
Soui-manga a Collier a jeune Age, Ois. dor. ii. 34. pl. 14.
Cape Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 711.
SIZE of a Wren; length four inches, two lines. Bill three
quarters of an inch, blackish ; head, neck, and body grey-brown,
paler beneath ; greater wing coverts grey-brown; tail blackish, the
feathers edged with grey-brown, but the outer one with whitish;
legs black.
i Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and thottght to be the female
of the Collared Species. This sex is said, by some, to differ from the
male, merely in having yellow spots on the sides: others give the
female a red band like the male, but placed lower on the breast, and
the colours in general less lively.
I
A.—Le Figuier crombec, Levail. Afr. iii. 145. pl. 135. f. 1. 2.
This seems a Variety. Bill brown, irides hazel; upper parts of
the head, neck behind, wings, and tail grey-brown; under parts pale
dusky rufous, deeper on the belly, and beneath the tail; legs pale
rufous: some individuals have the wings and tail almost white.
M. Levaillant, supposing this a distinct species, says that both
sexes are alike, except that the bill in this is rather shorter. The
nest never met with. Thebii*d is common on the river of Elephants,
also on the borders of the green and great rivers, on the Mimosa trees.
Its only note is Tic tic, frequently repeated. The male and female
keep together for the most part.     It is said that the tongue is short
 250
and cartilaginous, being neither fringed nor tubular at the end; -and
that it flies from branch to branch in search of insects, on whieh
alone it feeds. He thinks it similar to the black and yellow, and
yellow-rumped Creeper, and that neither of the three ought, in
strictness, to rank with the Creepers. The young said to be rufous
grey, under tail coverts white.*—M. Temminck is of opinion, that
it differs in sex only from the Collared Creeper.
43—BLACK-TAILED CREEPER.
Certhia melanura, Ind. Om. i. 300.    Mus. Carls, f. 5.
  Capensis, Var. jS.    Gm. Lin.i. 473.
Soui-manga a Queue fourchue, Om. dor. ii. p. 64.
Black-tailed Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. 134.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 215.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill black; head and back violet;
breast and belly inclining to green ; wing coverts brown, margined
with olive; some of the quills with greenish margins; tail pretty
long, a little forked, and black; legs black ; claws yellow.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
44.—YELLOW-WINGED CREEPER.
Certhia chrysoptera, Ind. Om. i. 299.
Soui-manga aux ailes jaunes, Om. dor. ii. p. 64.
Yellow-winged Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. 133.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 270.
SIZE small. Bill black; head and neck varied with dusky and
gold; tongue missile; wing coverts fine yellow; quills, tail, and
legs black.   '
i a jeune Agi
, p. 34. t. 14.
 Inhabits Bengal.—From the drawings of Lady Impey, and those
of Sir J. Anstruther; said to extract honey from flowers with its long
tongue.
45— LONG-BILLED CREEPER.
Certhia longirqstra, Ind. Om. i. 299.
Cinnyris longirostra, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 167.
Soui-manga a long bee, Ois. dor. ii. p. 65.
Long-billed Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. 133.    Pe
viii. 270.
LENGTH five inches. Bill one inch and a half; tongue long and
missile, as in the last; crown, and neck behind light green; back,
wings, and tail dusky, edged with olive-green; neck before, and
breast white; belly and vent pale yellow; legs bluish.
Found with the last at Bengal, where it perches on the rich
flowers of various Indian plants, and darting its tongue into the
calyx, extracts the sweets. Inhabits also Java, where it is called
Prist andun. The Javan Species is larger, and more brightly
coloured.
46.—TUFTED CREEPER.
Certhia cirrhata, Ind. Om. i. 299.
Soui-manga a toufles jaunes, Om. dor. ii. p. 65.
Tufted Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. 132.    Shaw's Zool. \
LENGTH four inches.     Bill black,  incurvated;   head, neck,
and back deep olive, the feathers edged with dusky; greater quills
11
 252 CREEPER.
brown; belly and tail black; on each side of the breast a tuft of
yellow feathers.
Inhabits Bengal.
■I
47.—RED-BILLED CREEPER.
Certhia erythrorynchos, Ind. Om. i. 299.
Soui-manga a bee rouge, Om. dor. ii. p. 64.
Red-billed Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. 133.    Shai
SIZE very small, scarcely more than three inches. Bill red,
tipped with black; crown of the head, part of the neck, and the
back olive; breast and belly white ; wings, tail, and legs dusky.
In habits ;India.
48.—CHESTNUT-CROWNED CREEPER.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill five-eighths of an inch,
pale horn-colour ; crown of the head pale chestnut; nape, and hind
part of the neck, cinereous grey; back pale green ; wings and tail
the same, but darker; quills dusky, and when closed, reach rather
beyond the base of the tail, which is one inch and three quarters
long, and cuneiform ; the outer feather measuring no more than one
inch ; sides of the head, including the eyes, and all the under parts
from chin to vent, dusky white.
Inhabits India.—General Davies. Also in the collection of
Lady Clive.
 253
49—BLACK-NECKED CREEPER.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill more than half an inch,
moderately curved, and brown; crown, above the eyes, and nape
chestnut; back, wing coverts, and rump dull pale green, the rest of
the wing and tail brown, the latter cuneiform ; all beneath from the
chin white; from the nostrils a broad stripe of black, passing through
the eye, growing narrower as it approaches the wing, and continues
on each side beneath it; thighs black; legs pale brown.
Inhabits India.
50—GLOSSY CREEPER.
ui-manga l'Eclatant, Ois, dor. ii. pl. 4.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Head, throat, and upper parts
violet, with a gilded gloss; breast bright red, mixed towards the
lower part with violet; beginning of the belly blue ; sides greenish,
with two pale yellow tufts; lower belly black; upper and under tail
coverts green.
Supposed to inhabit Africa, and to be a new Species.
 254
51—AMETHYST-THROATED CREEPER.
Soui-manga a front dore, Om. dor. ii. 22. pl. 5.
Amethyst-throated Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 195.
LENGTH between five and six inches. Crown green gold;
general colour of the plumage black; throat and rump gilded violet;
on the lesser wing coverts, near the bend, a steel blue spot.
Inhabits various parts of Africa to the Cape of Good Hope.
A.—Soui-manga a front dore, Om. dor. ii. 22. pl 6.
General colour brown ; front to the middle of the crown green
gold; throat as in the other, but less brilliant; no steel blue spot at
the bend of the wing; and the breast appears mottled of two colours.
Found with the former, and supposed to be a mere Variety.
52.—BARRED-TAIL CREEPER.
Certhia grisea, Ind. Orn. i. 300.
Grimpereau gris de la Chine, Son. Voy: Ind. ii. 210* t. 117. 3.
Soui-manga gris de la Chine, Ois. dor. ii. p. 64.
Barred-tail Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. 133.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 216.
SIZE of a Titmouse.    Bill yellow; top of the head, neck, back,
and wings cinereous grey; throat, breast, and belly very pale rufous;
 r
CREEPER. 255
quills dirty brown ; tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers brown,
with a black band at the end, and others grey, with a curved bar of
black near the tips; legs yellow.
Inhabits China.—In the collection of drawings of Sir J. Anstruther is one similar; the head, including the eyes, and the back
dark blue ; the rest as in the above description.
A.—Length four inches and a half. Bill half an inch, slender,
black; head, taking in the eyes, neck behind, and back deep blue;
all beneath from the throat white, inclining to ferruginous on the
sides; tail cuneiform, one inch and a half long, pale brown, the ends
of the feathers dusky black, tips white; legs pale.
Inhabits India.—Sir J. Anstruther.
53—BLUE-FACED CREEPER.
Certhia frontalis, Ind. Om. Sup. xxx
Blue-faced Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. i
372.    Shaw's Zool. v
LENGTH five inches. Bill three quarters of an inch, black ;
plumage in general dusky, nearly black beneath; but the crown of
the head, including the eye, chestnut; back brown ; quills and tail
dusky black; the face all round, the bill, chin, and rump fine blue;
legs dusky black.
Inhabits Africa.—Described from a preserved specimen at Mr.
Bailey's, in the Haymarket, London.
 256
54—BLUE-HEADED CREEPER.
Soui-manga a tete bleue, Ois. dor. i
Blue-headed Creeper, Shaw's Zool.
23. pl.'
ii. 203.
LENGTH four inches and a half; extent of wing five inches
and a quarter. Bill ten lines ; head, neck, and throat violet blue,
with a metallic lustre; breast and belly deep grey, paler beneath ;
upper parts of the body, wings, and tail olive green; the last rounded
at the end, seventeen lines long; on the sides of the breast two
yellow tufts of straw-coloured feathers.
Inhabits Malemba, in Africa.
55— RADIATED CREEPER.
Soui-manga raye, Ois. dor. ii. 27. pl. 9.
BILL and legs dusky; body above, wings and tail light brown 1
the same beneath, but the breast and belly have a mixture of yellowish white, arising from the tips of each feather being of that
colour.
Inhabits Africa.
56.—CARMELITE CREEPER.
ai-manga Carmelite, Om. dor. ii. 42, pl. 20.
rmelite Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 222.
LENGTH four inches and a half; breadth.five inches and a
quarter.    Bill ten lines ; general colour of the plumage like soot, or
 CREEPER. 257
Carmelite colour, and appearing like velvet; hind part of the neck,
and beginning of the back palest; wings violet brown, changeable
in different lights ; beneath black ; between the bill and eye a small
spot; forehead, throat, and wing coverts glossy violet.
The female wants the violet on the front.
Inhabits Malemba, in Africa.
57.—VARIED CREEPER.
Soui-manga varie, Om. dor. ii. 43. pl. 21.
Spotted-breasted Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 223.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Plumage above brown,
beneath yellow brown; chin and throat gilded purple.
Inhabits the great forests of Africa, often approaches habitations;
fond of the flower of the Congo or Angola Peas,* which are cultivated by the natives for the sake of the grain. It probably is a
Variety of the Blue-headed Species.
58—VIOLET-THROATED CREEPER.
Le Sougnimbindou, Ois. dor. ii. 44. pl. 22.
Superb Creeper,. Shaw's Zool. i
Nat. Misc. pl. !
LENGTH six inches. Bill thirteen lines, dusky; head below
the eyes, neck behind, and back, golden green; throat fine gilded
violet and purple; belly and sides deep red; across the breast a fine
gilded band; quills, tail, and legs dusky.
* Cytisus cajan, Lin.
■ated by the Inhabitants,
Called also Pig
s a desirable culii
Peas in the West India Islands,
vegetable.
 258 CREEPER.
Inhabits Africa; said to be from Malemba :  probably new, and
the largest- of. ;alldthe vi&frican Species.
59.—RED-GILT CREEPER.
Soui-manga rouge dore, Om. dor. ii
Red-brown Creeper, Shaw's Zool. v
LENGTH three inches and a half.     Bill eight lines long, and
black; plumage in general gilded red; lesser wing coverts glossy
violet; quills and tail brown; legs black.
.riw$ft$*ve place,ug]$nown.
60.—MACASSAR CREEPER.
Certhia Macassarie
nsis, Ind. Orn.
l. 300.    Gm. Lin.
i. 480.
Polytmus Indicus,
Bris. iii. 675.
Id. 8vo. ii. 23.
Avis Tsioei Indica
orientalis, Seba
, i. 100. t. 63: 3.
Klein, 107
Soui-manga de Ma
cassar, Ois. dor
. ii. p. 66.
r Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 741.    Sha,
SIZE of a Wren; length four inches and a half. Bill eleven
lines, whitish; .plumage on the upper parts green gold, glossed with
copper; beneath blackish brown; tail green gold; legs black.
Inhabits the Islands of Bally and Macassar.
 259
61.—STRAIT-BI&klI*!eREEPER.
Soui-manga a bee droit, Ois. dor. ii. 112. pl. 75.
Strait-billed Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 246.
LENGTH three inches and a half. Bill half an inch long,
rather strait, dusky black; plumage above glossy green; throat
olive-yellow ; across the breast dusky; chin, and under parts of the
body whitish; beneath the wings a yellow tuft; quills and tail deep
brown.
Native place unknown.
62.—INDIAN CREEPER.
Certhia Indica, Ind. Orn. i. 301.    Gm. Lin. i. 480.
Polytmus cseruleus Indicus, RrM. iii. 682,    Id. 8vo. ii. p. 25.
Falcinellus Colubri, orientalis, Seba, ii. 20. t. 19. 2.    Klein, 108. 12.
Soui-manga des Indes, Ois. dor. ii. p. 66.
Indian Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 741.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 268.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill fifteen lines, black ;
plumage wholly fine glossy blue, except the throat and fore part of
the neck, which are whitish; wings and tail as the rest of the body;
legs black.
Inhabits the East Indies.
 260
CREEPER.
63.—BAND-BREASTED CREEPER.
Soui-manga de Sierra Leon, Quinticolor, Ois. dor. ii, 116. pl. 79.
.    Band-breasted Creeper, Nat. Misc. v. 10. Id. Zool. viii. 247.
LENGTH three inches and three quarters. Bill eight lines,
dusky; forehead, chin, and breast, violet; throat, and rump, blue;
the rest of the head, upper part of the neck, back, and tail, green ;
wings brown ; belly rufous.
Inhabits Sierra Leona.
In the Oiseaux dores ii. p. 28. pl. 26, 27, are two young birds
of the Creeper Genus. The first four inches long. Bill seven lines;
head, neck, and back, light brown ; rump, and lesser wing coverts,
green-gold ; throat and breast grey, but not pure, being here and
there mixed with brownish, and also with a mixture of blue on the
breast and rump ; side tail feathers edged with greyish white.
The other is four inches and three quarters long, and the bill
longer; plumage in general brown, beneath buff; wing coverts
greenish, mixed; lower part of the back and rump green, with some
mixture of green on the breast.
These are supposed to be young, immature birds, but it is by no
means certain to what species they belong.
64.—AERIAL CREEPER.
SIZE small; length three inches and three quarters. Bill half
an inch long ; tongue the same, and bifid at the end; head, neck,
and cheeks, olive-grey, inclining most to olive on the wing coverts ;
 CREEPER. 261
wings duky; under parts of the body pale yellow; under tail coverts
pale fulvous; tail even, of twelve feathers, one inch long, and the
quills reach to the middle of it; legs slender, blackish. Male and
female much alike.
Inhabits India; found all the year at Calcutta ; known by the
name of Tula Phurky, at Bengal, which signifies the small masses
of cotton wool raised by the wind, when the cleansers begin their
work, for the bird is so light as to resemble these.—Dr. Buchanan.
65—CINNAMON CREEPER.
Certhia cinnamomea, Ind. Om. i. 298.    Gm. Lin. i. 480.
Le Cinnamon, Om. dor. ii. 96. pl. 62.
Cinnamon Creeper, Gen. Syn.ii. 740.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 224.
LENGTH five inches. Bill very little bent, near three quarters
of an inch in length ; plumage above, "wings, and tail, cinnamon-
colour, the under white; tail made like that of the European
Creeper; legs dusky.
In the British Museum.—In one specimen the space between the
bill and eye is black.
66—ASH-BELLIED CREEPER.
Certhia verticalis, Ind. Orn. i. 298.
Ash-bellied Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. 130.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 214.
LENGTH five inches and a half.     Bill almost one inch, and
black; tongue bifid; top of the head green, the rest of the upper
 262 CREEPER.
parts pale olive-green, the under very pale ash-colour;
tail brown, edged with green; legs black.
Inhabits Africa.
quills and
A.—Length five inches and a half. Bill one inch, black ; head,
neck, and breast, glossy green gold, with a slight purple hue in some
lights; back, wings, and tail, olive-green ; belly and vent pale ash-
colour ; legs black.
Inhabits Africa.—Mr. Bullock. It probably differs in sex from
the Ash-bellied Species.
B.—Soui-manga vert et grii
ii. 47. pl. 25,
Length four inches. Bill ten lines, black ; plumage above pale
green to beneath the eye, but on the back inclining to brown ; undei
parts greyish white ; on the head a tinge of gilded blue.
Inhabits Africa, and is probably a Variety, or young bird.
67.—INDIGO  CREEPER.
Certhia Parietum, Ind. Orn. i. 298.
Rossignol de Muraille des Indes, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 208.
Indigo Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. 130.
SIZE of the Fig-eater. Bill black ; irides rufous yellow; top
of the head, neck behind, back, wings, and tail, pale indigo blue ;
over the eye a white streak, and a second of black, passing under
the eye to the hindhead; throat white; breast, belly, and vent rufous;
legs rufous yellow.
Inhabits India.
 263
68.—YELLOW-RUMPED CREEPER.
Certhia Borbonica, Ind. Orn.i. 296.    Gm. Lin.i. 471.
Soui-manga de Bourbon, Buf. v. 516.    PL enl. 681. 2.    (Grimpereau.)
 gris, Ois. dor. ii. pl. 28 ?
Bourbon Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 259.
Yellow-rumped Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 736.
LENGTH five inches. Bill black; plumage above greenish
brown; rump yellow, inclining to olive; under parts mixed grey,
tinged with yellow near the tail; sides rufous; quills blackish, with
pale edges; tail the same ; legs black.
Inhabits the Isle of Bourbon.
One in the Ois. dor. is under four inches. Bill brown; plumage
grey, varying in parts to greenish slate-colour; nearly white on the
throat, and inclining to rufous on the breast; back olive-yellow;
lesser wing coverts and rump yellowish ; tail rather forked.
Inhabits India, brought into France by the navigators sent in
search after La Perouse.
69—UNDULATED CREEPER.
Mus. Carls, ii. t. 34.
ii. p. 160.    Shaw's Zool. \
Certhia undulata, Ind. Om. i. 295.
Undulated Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill brown; plumage above sooty
ash-colour, beneath undulated, blackish and white; quills soot-
colour, margined with cinereous olive; tail beneath cinereous ; legs
black.
Native place unknown.
 264
70—ORANGE-BREASTED CREEPER.
Certhia aurantia, Ind. Om. i, 295.    Gm. Lin. i. 472.
Orange-breasted Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 724.
LENGTH four inches. Bill more than three quarters of an inch,
curved, black ; head, throat, neck behind, back, and wing coverts
green; quills and tail dusky black; neck before, and upper part
of the breast, high orange-red ; the lower and belly pale yellow;
legs dusky.
Inhabits Africa.—Mr. Smeathman,
71—NEW-CALEDONIAN CREEPER.
Certhia incana, Ind. Om. i. 296.
Greyish Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 260.
New-Caledonian Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup., ii. 161.
SIZE very small. Colour of the plumage brownish; the neck
and quills incline to hoary.
Inhabits New-Caledonia.—From the M.S. of the late Mr. Anderson.
L
72.—FAMILIAR CREEPER.
Prinia familiaris, Lin. Trans, xiii. 165.
LENGTH five inches.    Bill rather stout, broad at the base,
gradually tapering to the point, nostrils at the base, large, in a
 —
CREEPER. 265
hollow, covered by a membrane ; plumage in general olive-brown;
belly yellow; chin, breast, and two bands across the wings, white ;
wings rounded; tail long, cuneiform, with a band of brown at the
end, but the tips of the feathers are white; outer and middle toe
united at the base, hind claw very stout.
Inhabits Java, called there Prinya; from the name given to it,
we may suppose it to be a common species.
73.—CHIGLET CREEPER.
Orthotomus Sepium, Lin. Trans, xiii. 166.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill moderately strait, slender,
somewhat depressed and triangular at the base; nostrils furnished
with a membrane; plumage brownish olive; head ferruginous;
chin and breast dusky; belly yellowish; quills brown ; legs longish,
middle and outer toes united to the middle; hind claw double the
size of those before.
Inhabits Java; known there by the name of Chiglet.
74.—JAVAN CREEPER.
Nectarinia Javanica, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 167.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Plumage in colour various;
the crown, nape, and back, deep olive-grey ; scapulars and rump
glossed with violet; cheeks and wings olive-brown ; chin and throat
ferruginous, below the cheeks, from the bill to the breast, a violet
streak; breast and belly saffron-colour; tail black, glossed with
green; beneath paler, and fuliginous; the colours of the male are
very bright.
 The female is dark olive-green, with a brownish tint above, and
nearly uniformly yellow beneath; on the head a slight resemblance
to the colours of the male is observable; this bird has some affinity
to the Certhia lepida, of the Carlsonian Museum, t. 35.
75.—PECTORAL CREEPER.
Nectarinia pectoralis, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 167.
LENGTH three inches and a half. Plumage above olive-
green; forehead, chin, throat, and breast, glossy blue black; belly
yellow ; quills brown, with yellowish margins; tail black, the
end white, the interior feathers terminated with a narrow band of
white, which on the exterior ones successively becomes wider.
The female differs from the male, in entirely wanting the dark
blackish blue colour on the throat and breast.
Inhabits Java.    The name Sri-ganti.
76—EXIMIOUS CREEPER.
Nectarinia eximia, Lin. Tran. xiii. 168.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Plumage above olive-green ;
top of the head and the tail very deep, glossy, emerald green, the two
middle feathers of the latter elongated; rump yellow; throat and
breast scarlet; on the throat a band of purple ; belly olive-brown,
the sides and axillaries pure white; quills and tail brown within.
The female is almost uniformly dark olive-green.
Inhabits Java, and there called Plichi-kembang : it is one of the
most beautiful birds of Java.
 267
7—MOUNTAIN CREEPER.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill longish, strait, moderately curved beyond the nostrils, which are covered with a convex
membrane, opening behind; plumage chiefly chestnut; head cinereous black; behind the eyes a white streak ; chin and breast white;
wings rounded ; tail elongated, rounded in shape; feet longish,
middle toe slightly united to the exterior one, claws compressed,
hind one large and strong.
Inhabits Java; known there by the name of Bok-krek.
The last six, taken from the Linnaean Transactions, may not
perhaps agree minutely with our Creeper Genus in every particular;
but as we wish, as much as possible, not to increase our own Genera,
we have-placed them in that to which, in our opinion, they are most
allied, though by no means wishing to dictate to future Ornithologists, a classification, which may not agree with their ideas.
j OF THE NEW CONTINENT, AND ISLANDS ADJACENT.
78.-GREEN-FACED CREEPER.
Certhia gutturalis, fnd. Om. i. 291.   Lin. i. 186,   Gm. Lin_ i. 478.   Nat. Misc. p. 797.
Certhia Brasiliensis nigricans, Bris. iii. 658. pl. 33. f, 3.    Id. 8vo. ii. p. 17.    Gerin. ii.
t. 202. 1.
Oiseau brun a bee de Grim'pefreau, Buf v. 525.    PL enl. 578. 3.
Soui-manga noiratre, Ois. dor. ii. 65,
Green-faced Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 723.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 255. pl. 36.
ALMOST the size of a Linnet; length five inches, four lines.
Bill one inch, black ; forehead and throat of an elegant gold-green
 268 CREEPER.
colour; head, neck on the hind part, anct the rest of the body,
blackish brown ; fore part of the neck bright red, but the feathers
are black brown at the base, then a changeable violet-green, and
red only at the tips ; lesser wing coverts fine violet, the middle ones
like the back, the greater and quills rufous brown; tail the same in
colour; legs black.
Inhabits Brasil; in external appearance, corresponds very much
with the Senegal Species; but from the figures given in the respective
plates of Brisson, the bills do not agree in shape; in the Green-
faced, too, the throat only is red ; but in the Senegal one, the breast
and throat are both of that colour.
79— RED CREEPER.
Certhia coccinea, Ind. Om. i. 289.    Nat. Misc. pl. 75.
Trochilus coccineus, Lin. Syn. Nat. Ed. vi. p. 29.
Certhia Mexicana rubra, RrM. iii. 651.    Id. 8vo. ii. p. 15.    Gm. Lin. i. 480.
Avicula Mexicana HoitziUin, Seha, i. t. 42. 6,    Klein, p. 107. iii. 1.
Guit-gu.it rouge, Om. dor. ii. p. 83.    Buf. v. 522.
Seban Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 266.
Red Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 721.
LARGER than the Common Creeper; length four inches and
half. Bill ten lines long, light yellow; the upper part of the head
light, but bright, shining red; throat, and fore part of the neck
green ; body above, and under tail coverts, deep red ; quills the
same, with bluish tips; thighs light yellow; tail deep red; legs
light yellow.
Said to inhabit Mexico, and to have an agreeable voice.
 A.—Colius, Moeh. Gen. Av. xvi. 36.
Certhia Mexicana rubra atricapilla, Bris. ii
Grimpereau rouge a t6te noire du Mexique,
Guit-guit k tete noire, Om. dor. ii. p. 83.
Avic. de Tatac ex N. Hispania,   Seb. ii. 74
Buf v. 524.
Shape and size of the former. The bill seven lines long; head
fine black; upper wing coverts golden yellow ; the rest of the bird
light red, except the quills and tail, which are of a deeper colour.
Said also to inhabit Mexico, and is probably related to the last,
as a Variety; the chief objection seems to be, the difference in the
length of the bill.
80—SOUTH-AMERICAN CREEPER.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill ten lines, dusky, the
end hooked; plumage in general fine glossy pale green; cheeks and
throat very splendid ; chin and throat pale crimson, the same at the
bend of the wings within, and a large triangular spot outwardly at
the base of the quills, which are dusky; on each side of the belly
an irregular white spot or two ; tail rounded, scarcely cuneiform;
the four middle feathers green, the rest dull pale rufous; legs pale.
Inhabits Cayenne.—In the collection of Gen. Davies.
i fulv
81—FULVOUS CREEPER.
, Ind. Om. i. 287.
Trochilus fulvus, Gm. Lin.i. 492.   Maert. Phys. Arb. i. p. 76.
Guit-guit fauve, Om. dor. ii. p. 84.
Fulvous Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 159.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 269.
THIS rather exceeds five inches in length.    Bill and legs horn-
colour; plumage chiefly fulvous ; quills and tail black above, and
 270 CREEPER.
brownish beneath ; tail about two inches long, and consists of twelve
feathers.
Inhabits South America.
82.—PURPLE CREEPER.
Certhia purpurea, Ind. Orn. i. 291.     Gm. Lin. i. 470.    RrM. iii. 654.    Id. 8vo. ii. 16.
Gerin.ii. 202. 2.
Avis Virginiana phcenicea, Atototl, Seba, i. t. 72. 7.    Klein, Av. 108. 9.
Oiseau pourpre, k bee de Grimpereau, Buf. v. 526.
Guit-guit pourpre, Om. dor. ii. p. 84.
Porphyrian Creeper, Shaw's Zool. viii. 267.
Purple Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. 723.
LENGTH four inches and three quarters. Bill one inch and a
half, black ; general colour of the plumage, not excepting the wings
and tail, fine purplish blue; legs brown.
Inhabits Virginia. Said to sing well. I once received a fine
drawing from Mr. Abbot, of Savannah in Georgia, when he informed me, that it is very rare, having only met with the single
specimen, from which he made his figure. It had the manners of
the Common Creeper.
83. - GULAR CREEPER.
Certhia gularis, Ind. Orn. i. 300.    Mus. Carls, iv. t. 79.
Guit-guit a gorge bleue, Om. dor. ii. p. 84.
Blue-throated Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 163.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 265.
BILL black ; throat, neck before, and breast glossy blue ; lower
part of the breast, belly, vent, sides and thighs yellow