BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

A general history of birds. Vol. II Latham, John, 1740-1837 1822

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcbooks-1.0363413.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcbooks-1.0363413.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0363413-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0363413-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0363413-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0363413-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0363413-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0363413-source.json
Full Text
bcbooks-1.0363413-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcbooks-1.0363413.ris

Full Text

  THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
 
WOODWARD HISTORICAL
COLLECTION
     GENERAL,    HISTORY
BIRDS.
BY JOHN LATHAM, M.D.
F.R.S.   A.S.   and   L.S.
Acad. Cms. Nat. Curios.   Reg. Holm, et Soc. Nat. Scrut. Berolin. Soc.  &c. &c.
VOL II.
WINCHESTER:
NTBD BY JACOB AND JOHNSON, FOR THE AUTHOR :—SOLD IN LONDON BY
G. AND W. B. WHITTAKER, AVE-MARIA-LANE; JOHN WARREN, BOND-STREET,
W.   WOOD,  428,   STRAND ;   AND   J.   MAWMAN,  39,   LUDGATE-ST
1822.
  ORDER II.    PIES.
GENUS V.    SHRIKE.
1 Cinereous Shrike
A Gesner's Greater Sh.
B White Sh.
C Var.
2 Meridional Sh.
3 Grey-backed Sh.
4 Loggerhead Sh.
5 Red-backed Sh;
A Variegated Sh.
6 Bay-backed Sh.
7 Woodchat Sh.
A Rufous Senegal Sh.
8 Lesser Grey Sh.
9 Rufous-tailed Sh.
10 Short-tailed Sh.
11 Barbary Sh.
12 Blanchot Sh.
13 Malimbic Sh.
14 Ring-necked Sh;
15 Black and White Sh.
16 Collared Sh.   .
17 Senegal Sh.
A Tschagra Sh.
18 Dubious Sh.
19 African Sh.
A Ditto var.
20 Red-throated Sh.
21 Olive Sh.
22 Geoffroy's Sh.
23 Keroula Sh.
24 CapeSh.
25 Purplersided Sh.
26 Hottniqua Sh.
27 White-backed Sh.
28 Puff-backed Sh.
29 Abyssinian Sh.
30 Ferruginous-bellied Sh.
31 Indian Sh.
32 Cruel Sh.
33 Dusky Sh.
34 Supercilious Sh.
35 Silent Sh.
36 Ash-crowned Sh.
37 Blue-shouldered Sh.
38 Rufous Sh.
39 Jocose Sh.
A Ditto var.
B Chinese
C Chinese Nuthatch
D Var.
40 Black-crested Sh.
41 Bengal Sh.
B
42 Blue Sh;
43 Green Sh..
44 Madagascar Sh.
45 Boulboul Sh.
46 White-headed Sh.
47 White Sh. .
48 White-billed Sh.
A Dominican Sh.
49 Panayan Sh.
50 Crested Red Sh.
51 Antiguan Sh.
52 Hook-billed Sh.
A Var.
53 White-cheeked Sh.
54 Varied Sh.
A Var.
55 Bentet Sh.
56 Chestnut-backed Sh,
57 Luzonian Sh.
A Var.
58 Corvine Sh.
59 Malabar Sh.
60 Cineraceous Sh.
61 Fork-tailed Crested Sh.
62 Fork-tailed Sh.
63 Drongear Sh.
 64 Philippine Sh.
65 Long-tailed Sh.
66 Bronzed Sh.
67 Rajah Sh.
68 Whiskered Sh;
69 Drongri Sh.
70 Black-eyed Sh.
71 Chinese Sh.
72 Blue-green Sh;
73 Yellow-browed Sh.
74 Black-headed Sh.
75 Buff-rumped Sh.
76 Robust Sh.
77 Great Sh.
78 Bare-eyed Sh.
79 Crowned Sh.
80 Brown-streaked Sh.
81 Clouded Sh.
82 Solitary Sh..
83 New-Holland Sh.
84 Glossy Sh.
85 Pacific Sh.
86 Frontal Sh. .
A Var.
87 Tabuan Sh.
88 Brimstone Sh.
89 WeebongSh.
A Var.
90 Black-faced Sh.
91 Mustachoe Sh.
92 Tufted Sh.
93 White-eared Sh.
94 Black-topped Sh.
95 Black-capped Sh.
96 Spotted Sh.
97 Pied Sh.
98 Lineated Sh.
99 South American Sh
A Var.
100 Grey Sh.
A Var.
101 Louisiane Sh.
102 American Sh.
103 Brazilian Sh.
104 Yellow-bellied Sh.
105 Cayenne Sh.-
A Spotted Sh.
B Ditto var.
106 Rusty Sh;
107 Fulvous Sh.
108 Barred Sh.
109 Crested Sh;
A Rousset Sh.
110 Red Sh.
111 Berbicean Sh.
112 Chestnut-crowned Sh.
113 Grey-headed Sh.
114 White-shouldered Sh.
115 Tyrant Sh.
A St. Domingo Tyr.
B Carolina Tyr.
C Louisiane Tyr.
116 Magpie Sh.
117 Black Sh:
118 Orange Sh.
A Var.
119 Northern Sh.
120 Nootka Sh.
121 Uniform Sh;
122 Superb Sh.
J. HE characters of the Genus Shrike (or Butcher-Bird, as it is by
some called) are the following:—
The bill strait at the base, with the end more or less bent, and
in general a notch near the tip of the upper mandible.*
The base not furnished with a cere.
Tongue jagged at the end.
Tail composed of twelve feathers, t
The outer toe connected to the middle one as far as the first joint.
* In some few described from drawings, the notch does not appear.
f We have not ourselves met with any, when complete, having fewer than 12 feathers,
and must rest on the authority of others, for those said to have only ten.
 Before we fix the plaqeiswhicb these bird^jshould hold in jfl«e
System of Ornithology, it is necessary that the reader should be
acquainted With /the reason of allotting to them the present situation. ,
Mr. Ray ranks the Shrike amongst his Short-winged Hawks,
bat takes in only the three sorts afterwards described in the British
Zoology, with a fourth, which is most likely a variety. Bufibn
places them after the Falcons, on account of their ferocity.* M.
Brisson, on the contrary, puts them at the end of his fifth order,
along with the Thrashes and Chatterers, both of them belonging to
the Passerine Order of most systematists.
As to Linnaeus, he has varied in his opinions. In the Fauna
Suecica of 1746, he ranks the Shrike as a Chatterer, and in his last
edition of this book, brings back the Chatterer to the Shrike, then
first formed into a genus, and places it in the Accipitrine Order,
taking in two species of Titmice, f In both the 10th and 12th editions of the Systema Naturae, the author has added considerably to
this genus; in the former returning the Titmice to their proper place,
and in the latter throwing the Chatterers into a separate genus, and
this with the utmost propriety; but notwithstanding the Lanius Genus
is ranked by him among the Accipitrine Order, it is not without a
particular note, confessing his sentiments to be wavering; and it is
most likely, that had he lived to utter another edition, we should
have seen these birds placed among the Pies.J Kramer is inclined to
have the Shrike Genus ranked with them,|| though in his work it is
put with the Chatterers, in the Passerine Order—but Scopoli§ places
* Yet he says, the Pie-grieches and Pie ought to be ranked together—" Je pense que tous
pourroient n'en faire qu'un. les Pies convenant en beaucoup de choses avec les Pie-grieches."
Hist, des Ois.x. p. 309.
f The Long-tailed Titmouse, and the Bearded Titmouse.
J Lanii acce^ int Accipitribus laniena, Picis moribus, Passerjbus statura, adeoque inter
hos medii.—Syjf. Nat. Ed. 12. 134. Note.
|| Necmeo judicio erraret, qui easdem Corvis annumeraret,—Kram. el, 364.
§ Ann. Hist. Nat. i. p. 23.
B2
 it with the Pies without ceremony, having no doubt about the matter.
Mr. Pennant, in his first edition of the Genera of Birds, suffers it to
stand in the Accipitrine Order, but remarks its affinity with the Pies,*
and in his two last editions of the British Zoology, as well as Genera
of Birds, begins the order of Pies with it. This example we have
already followed, and shall continue to do so, being convinced that
it is the most natural method, the reasons given by authors of a
contrary opinion, not having sufficient weight with us. M. Tem-
minck, however, seems to think otherwise, as he suffers it to make a
part of his third order, viz.—Insectivores, in which the Thrushes,
Chatterers, Manakins, Tody, Flycatcher, and many others, are
included.
* Mr. Edwards mentioned the same in his History of Birds, Vol. ii. pv56,
 SHRIKE. 5
1.--CINEROUS SHRIKE. Lanius excubitor, Ind. O
rn.'i
67.
Lin
Scop
Ann.\. No. 18.
Br
l\To. 21
22
Kran
. p. 364. Ampel
is.
Bo
rowsk.
Na
Tern.
Man. d'Orn. p.
58.
Id
Ed.il
1'
1— CINEREOUS SHRIKE.
35.   Faun. Suec. No. SO.   Gm. Lin. i. 300.
Sepp. Vog. t. p. 121.    Faun. Arag. p. 71.
. ii. p. 83.     Shaw's Zool. vii. 282. pi. 37.
, 142.
Falco congener, Klein. Stem. t. 9. f. 1. a. b. c.    Id. Ov. p. 20. t.5. f.9.
Lanius, seu Collurio cinereus major, Raii, p. 18, A. 3.    Will. Om. p. 53. 1.10.    Bris.
ii. 141.    Id. Svo. 197.     Klein. Av. 53. 1.    Frisch. t. 60.     Gerin. t. 53.    Johnston.
Av.pl.2. f.5.
Ferlotta berettina, Zinnan.Uov. 90. 1.15. f.80.
•Castrica palombina, O/iw. Uc. t. p. 41.
II Falconetti, Cett. Uc. Sard. p. 54.
Der grosse graue Wurger, Bechst. Deutsch.n. p. 376. taf. 13.
Der Wachter, Naturf. 8. s. 60.    Id. xviii. 232.    Id. xxv. 16.
La Pie-Griesche grise, Buf. i. 296. t. 20.    PI. enl. 445.
Greater Butcher-Bird,  Will. Engl. p.87. pi. 10.      Collin 6 SHRIKE.
September;* said to breed in some of our mountains, and to make a
nest of heath and moss, lined with wool and gossamer; the eggs
five or six, the size of those of a thrush, dull olive green, spotted at
the larger end with black; in France more common than in England ;f it feeds on insects and small birds, which it seizes by the
throat, and after strangling, fixes them on a sharp thorn, $ for the
more easily pulling them to pieces with the bill; and if kept in a
cage will imitate this, by sticking the food against the wires of it; in
Spring and Summer mocks the voice of other birds, by way of decoying them within reach; and if a trapfall be baited with a living bird,
the shrike itself may be taken; if kept in a cage, seems content, but
has no note or song whatever; in countries where most plentiful, these
birds are valued, on the supposition of their destroying rats, mice,
and other vermin; and in Russia are often trained for catching small
birds;|| hence M. Salerne calls it a Lanner of the smallest sort;§ is
supposed to live five or six years.^f
This species is not uncommon about Gibraltar, at all seasons, as
well as in France, Italy, and Spain, and in the more northern parts
of the Continent of Europe ;** and not less frequent on the opposite
shore of Algiers, asv well as on all the coast of Morocco; is found,
with very little variation, in other parts of Africa, the Cape of Good
Hope, and in various places on the Coast of Coromandel, in India;
differing principally in the tail, of which the two middle feathers are
black, and the others white. I have observed, too, a more striking
difference, in one having the scapulars next the wing, the lower part
of the rump, the belly, and vent pale rufous white; thighs, and all
* N°t always, as Col. Montagu instanced two males brought to him near the end of
November, 1790; and Dr. Lamb, of Newbury, a female, shot near Aldermaston, Jan. 6. 1795.
He also mentioned two others, one killed in November, the other in the December of the following year, and a third on January 10.
f Is called by some the French-Pief ' '" + Edw. v.233.    Br. Zool.
H Edw. v. 231.       § Salern, Om. p. 28.       «ff OHna. Uc. p. 4.       ** Rev. Mr. White.
 beneath to the belly, white; the two middle tail feathers black, the
rest asb>colour.
It is frequent also at Hudson's Bay, in America, where it breeds;
making the nest half tway up a pine or juniper tree, in April; the
hen sits fifteen days; is there called Wapaw Whisky John, or White
Whiskyr John. Is found also as £ax south as Georgia, and known
by the name of Big-headed Mocking Bird; it there measures 8£ inches
in length, and 13 in breadth, but is not very common. Mr. Abbot,
wheihas observed titaese, seems to think that the male and female
differ less from each other than in Europe, the female being paler of
the two, and the breast very obscurely undulated with dull brownish
line?.—Called Neuntodter (killer of nine), as it is said to kill nine
jMrasshoppers in a day; the blue-grey probably grows paler with age.*
A.— Lanius cinereus major, Bm.ii. 146.   Id. 8vo. 198.    Will. Om. 53.   Frisch. t.59.
Kleiner grauer Neuntoder, Naturf. 8. s. 61. 37?
Gesner's Great Butcher-Bird, Will. Engl. p. 88.    Gen. Syn. i. 161:     J
This differs in being larger, and having the lesser wing coverts
and scapulars inclining to rufous; and is probably the same sort of
variety as above observed in one met with in India.
B.—Lanius albus, Bm.ii. 145. A.   Id. 8vo.i. 198.    Gen. SynA. 163.
In this the whole plumage is white; bill and claws black; legs
Yellowish.
C.—Size of the  first described,  but in   bulk rather  stouter;
general colour of the plumage not far different; at the forehead begins
 8 SHRIKE.
a large bed of black, reaching on each side almost to the chin, and
passing downwards on the sides of the neck for more than an inch
and a half; wings and tail black, on the former a broad oblique
cinereous bar; the ends of the side feathers, and outsides of the
exterior white.
Inhabits India, called Lahtora. This I can consider in no other
light than a variety; and in drawings from India, other variations
occur; in one I observed no white in the wings, and the tail wholly
dusky ash-colour; in another called Lotterah the back was rufous.
There seem to be two varieties of this bird in India, if not two
distinct species; in the first place, they are longer than the European;
the forehead and one-third of the crown are black, continued.in a
broad band on each side, including the eye, and at least an inch
beyond it; the plumage of the body much the same with our Cinereous Shrike, but brighter; the bill, too, is more stout; but besides
differing from the European sort in these particulars, they do so
between themselves; for in one, called Doodeea Latoora chuta, the
tail is cuneiform, four of the middle feathers blue-black, the others
white the whole of the length; in the other called Doodeea teynta,
or Doodeea Latoora vBurra, the tail feathers are of equal length; the
six middle ones black, the others white.
2—MERIDIONAL SHRIKE.
Pie-griesche meridionale—Lanius meridionalis, Tern. Man. Ed.'u. p. 143.
LENGTH nine inches. Head, nape, and back, deep ash-colour;
beneath the eyes a broad band of black, ending on the ears; throat
reddish white; the rest of the under parts inclining to ash, deeper
 SHRIKE. 9
over the thighs; base and end of the quills white; the four middle
tail feathers black; the others as in the Cinereous species. The
female is ash-colour above, but paler, beneath more inclined to ash,
barred with darker^ arising from the ends of each feather being of that
colour, and the band under the eye less distinct.
Inhabits Italy, Dalmatia, the south of France, and the coasts of
the Mediterranean, in Spain; has also been received from Egypt.
M. Temminck considers it as distinct.
3—GREY-BACKED SHRIKE.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill black, with a conspicuous notch at
at the tip; forehead black, passing in a broad streak through the
eye, and below it on each side, for half an inch, and rounded at the
end; this is bounded above with a white line, and beneath with a
white patch; top of the head, neck, and greater part of the wings
fine blue-grey; lesser wing coverts the same, ending in pale rufous;
the rest of the wing black; lower part of the back pale rufous; under
parts white, with a tinge of rufous on the sides; tail cuneiform, the
two middle feathers four inches long, and wholly black; the rest
white; the wings reach only to the base; legs black.
Inhabits India—From the drawings of Gen. Hardwicke. Two of
these were in one drawing, as male and female, but scarcely differed,
except in the colours being rather more defined in one than the other.
The names given to them were Joogeea Latoora, or Kyra-teynta.
As to general appearance, this bird approaches to the Red-backed,
 10 SHRIKE.
but the tail is considerably longer, and in the last resembling morer^
that of the Cinereous Shrike; and although not strictly either, may
fairly be placed as an intermediate link between the two speciesv
In Gen. Hardwicke's drawings is a nest and eggs of one called
Latoora-Pateyl. This is strong, made of fibres, interlaced with twi^s
and leaves, hairs within, with a few loose featlfcers; the eggs the size
of those of the Chaffinch, pale bluish or brownash. whiffy with pale
dusky spots, or blotches, chiefly at the large end.
4—LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE.
s carolinensis, Loggerhead Shrike, Am
sborealis, VieilLAm.i. p..80. pi. 50?
t.iii. pi. 22. f.5.
LENGTH nmeinebes, Jweadfih thirteen. Supposed to be distinct
from the other Cinereous species; it is full one inch shorter,:the,
colours miore dusky, and the frontlet, and streak through the eye
both black, reaching half way down on each side the neck; hides
dark hazel. Independent of the above, the distribution of colou^&Ast
not unlike; tail cuneifonn, the fbur middle feathers black, four
exterior more or less white at the ends, the outer nearly all white;
bill and legs black. In M. Viei$©t's bird the under parts had a
slight rufous tinge*
The female di^rs^s©n*ewhat from the male, bufeiu both are seen
transverse lines of brown on fjhe under parts, most in fee female.
Inhabits the rice plantations of Georgia, and. Carolina; useful in
destroying mace, watching them like a cat; has a rough note, not
unlike the creaking of a rusty hurfg sign-board in the wind.    It is
%
 11
found in the warmer parts of the United States, while the other
species is chiefly confined to the north, and seldom extends to the
south of Virginia ; makes the nest in a detached bush, in the manner
of the Mocking Bird, and is called Loggerhead.
5—RED-BACKED SHRIKE.
Lanius Collurio, Ind. Om. i. 69.    Lin. i. 136.    Gm. Lin. i. 300.    Faun. Suec. No. 81.
Scop. i. No. 19.    Rm.ii. 151.    Id. 8vo.202.    Brun. No. 23.24.   Muller. p. 11,
Kram. p. 363.     Faun. Arag. p. 71.     Sepp. Vog. pi. p. 127.     Guntk. Nest. U. Ey.
t.23.    Borowslc.u. p.83,    Spalowsk.ii, t.5.    Klein. Av. p.53. 2.    Bechst. Deuts.
ii. 392. t. xvi. f. 1. 2.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 1335.    Schcef. El. t. 43.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 315.
Nat. Misc. pi. 377.    Tern. Man. d'Om. p. 63.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 148.
Junius minor ruffus, Raii, 18.    Will. 54.    Gerin. t.55. f. 1. 2.
 seruginosus major, Klein. Av. t.5. f.8.
Meruit congener alia, Raii, p.67. 13 ?    Will. p. 144.3.
Falco congener, Klein. Stem. t.9. f.2. a. b.
Der Finkenbeisser, Naturf, 8. s. 61.
Ferlotta rossa, Ziman. Uov. 21. 1.15. f.81:
Pie-griesche rousse, Darnegas, Hist. Prov. ii. 335.
L'Ecorcheur, &uf,i. 304. pi.21.   Pl.enl.31.2.   Levail. Ois.'n. p.50. pi.64;
Lesser Butcher-Bird, Flusher, Alb.ii. t.14.    Will. Engl. 88. 2. 89.3.
Red-backed Shrike, Gen. Syn.i. 167.    Id. Sup. 52.    Id. Sup. ii. 69.    Br. Zool.i. No.
72.   Id./ol. 74, t. C, 1.   Id. Ed. 1812. p. 275.   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 131.    Bewick, i.
pi. p. 60.   Lewin's Birds, i. t.30.   Id. Egg. t. v f. 2.    Waitt, Syn. i. pi.30.    Om.
Diet. $ Sup.
LENGTH 7|inches, weight eight drams. Bill black; irides
dark.hazel; through the eyes, from the bill, a black streak; head,
and lower part of the back light grey; the upper, and wing coverts
ferruginous;   tail black,   all the feathers,   except the two middle
C2
 ones, more br less white at the base; outer web of the exterior feather
White; breast, belly, and sides blossom-colour; quills brown ; legs
black.
The female is rather larger; has the head dull ferruginous, mixed
with grey; the streak through the eyes brown; breast, belly, and
sides dirty white, crossed with semicircular dusky lines; tail deep
brown, the outer feather white on the outer web.
Inhabits various parts of Europe. In England comes in the
spring, and after breeding with us, departs in autumn ; it makes the
nest in a hedge, or low bush, of moss and dried fibres, mixed with
wool, and lined with hair; lays six white eggs, with a circle of rufous
brown spots towards the larger end; is an enemy to small birds,
which avoid its haunts, for it not only feeds on insects, but the young
of other birds in the nest, first seizing them by the neck, and
strangling them, beginning to eat them at the brain and eyes; is
also fond of grasshoppers, and beetles, which are eaten by morsels,
sticking the remainder on a thorn; and when kept in a cage, does
the same against the wires. In a state of confinement may be fed
with sheep's kidneys, of which it will consume a whole one every day.
This species has no" note more than a chirp, but is said by some to
imitate the notes of others, by way of decoy, like the Cinereous Shrike.
Is found in the temperate and open parts of Russia, but not in
Siberia; sufficiently common in France and Italy, as well as other
parts of the Continent, migrating according to the season; common
in Egypt, and there called Dagnousse ; caught in large numbers in
nets, and sold alive, as well as all those birds which the law forbids
to be strangled, and which must not be used for food till they have
bled; but as these Shrikes are very fierce, and often bite the fingers
severely, the bird-catchers tie together the two ends of the beak
with one of the feathers.* They are also met with in several places
in Africa, and about the Cape of Good Hope.
, p. 319.
 13
A.—Collurio varius, Rm.ii. 154,     Id. 8vo. 201.     Gm. Lin. i. 301. 12. )8.     Raii, 19.
A. 5.    JFitf. t.10.
Lanius Arundinum, Klein. Av. p. 54.
Variegated Shrike, Gen.Syn.i. 168;
This is grey above, rufous white beneath, streaked across with
brown above and below; scapulars whitish, bounded by a black
stripe; tail black, the three outer feathers rufous white at the base
and tips; the exterior one wholly so on the outer edge.
6—BAY-BACKED SHRIKE.
LENGTH nearly 7 in. Bill black guides hazel; forehead to
the crown black, continuing in a broad band, having the eye in the
middle, half way on each side of the neck, and rounded at the
bottom, bounded above with white; the rest of the head, and hind
part of the neck and rump fine blue grey; back and scapulars fine
tawny ferruginous; wings black; base of the prime quills white,
forming a spot; second quills edged with white; under parts, from
the chin, pale blossom-colour; sides of the breast, and beneath the
wings, inclining to tawny; tail cuneiform, three inches long, the
outer feather shorter by three quarters of an inch; the general colour
of it black; all, except the two middle ones, more or less white at
the ends, and the exterior wholly so; legs dusky brown.
. Inhabits India; known by the name of Chuka-teynta; found at
Cawnpore, in January. It seems a species between the Red-backed
Shrike, and Woodchat, but is smaller than either; the back is bay
 instead of black, as in the latter, and the hind part of the neck fine
blue grey, which is bay in the other; the scapulars bay, but not the
wing coverts, nor are the latter fringed with white; wings wholly
black. This bird, though approaching to both the above mentioned,
is probably a distinct species; the description taken from General
Hardwicke's drawings; it is called simply Lahtoora, which seems to
be a common name for the Shrike tribe.
7.—WOODCHAT SHRIKE.
Lanius rutilus, Ind. Orn.i. 70.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 316.
 rufus, Bris. ii. 147.    Id. 8vo. i. 199.    Gm. Lin.i. 301. 12. y.    Tern. Man. d'Om.
p.62.    Id. Ed-.il p. 147.
j Mus. Carls. Fasc. i. 1.1.    Gm. Un. i. 302.
?ens, Raii, 19. A. 6.      Will. 54. §. iv. 1.10. f.2?     Klein, p. 54.
Jftfeeft. 6L M. & F.    Bor. Nat.ii. 84.
v: um tw*?0t rut£h*4 Klein, p.53.   Id. Oo. t.5. f. 7.   Gerin.i. t.56.
Ampelis dorso griseo, &c. Faun. Suec. Ed. i. 180. f. 2. fem.   Kramer, 363.
Dorndreher, Gunth. Nest. U. Ey. t.41 ?
Kleiner rother Neuntodter, Naturf.8. s.69.39.
Buferola, Ferlotta biajksi Ziipii Wov. 89. t.15. f. 59.
Pie-griesche rousse, Buf. i. 301.     PI. Enl. 9. male, 31. female.     LevailAu 46. pi. 63.
Bechst. Deutsch. ii. 387. 1.15.
Another sort of Butcher-Bird, Will. Engl. p.89. § iv.
Woodchat, Gen.Syn. L 169.    Id. Sup.&70.    Br. ZodJ.i^Sfo.73.    Id. Fol. 74. t. C.l.
Id.Ed.lS12: p.277.   Albia.iu pi. 16.   Bewick, \. p. 61.    Lewin's Birds,i. t.32.
 quills black, near the bottom of each a white spot; the two middle
tail feathers black, the others the same, but the outer margins and
tips whitish; legs black.
The female is reddish above, beneath dirty white, every where
transversely striped with brown; tail reddish brown, marked near
the end with dusky; aiid tipped with red.
This species inhabits Europe; but in England, as in France, far
fresh common; in the former, perhaps, not more than three or four
specimens have been met with ; supposed to migrate only accidentally. Buffbn seems to know its manners, when he says, they
are the same with those of the Red-backed, except that the latter
remains in France throughout the year, whereas the Woodchat comes
in spring, and departs in autumn, along with the young brood. The
nest, like that of the Red-backed, made of moss and wool, so
ihtgrlaeed with fine roots, and pliant twigs, that it appears like any
thing woven by art; the female lays five or six whitish eg°\s,
sprinkled with brown, or fulvous spots. We cannot say where it is
found in the greatest plenty, but Mr. White observed multitudes of
them migrating annually from Barbary to Gibraltar, in April and
May; and after resting, proceeded northward to breed; the parents
returning with their young brood to Gibraltar, in autumn, on their
way back. The young at this time are dusky brown, beautifully
speckled with white, of which colour the female is at all seasons.
M. Levaillant met with it at Senegal, and found it to be not uncommon at the Cape of Good Hope, especially the interior parts,
not essentially differing from the European one; that in the Carl-
sonian Museum seems to vary, by having the black band of the
forehead continued on each side of the neck to the shoulder, and the
colour of it darker. In the one figWed in1 the pi. enlum. the specimen
i» the Leverian Museum, and m another which I have seen, the
band was not only paler, but did not proceed above three quarters
of the way on the neck.    The Carlsonian one was from Pomerania,
 but we are not informed whether it is there plentiful, or only met
with by chance.
A.—Pie-griesche rousse du Senegal, PI. enl. 477. 2.    Gen. Syn. i. 170. 17. A.
In tins the upper parts are rufous, the under whitish; wings
wholly brown, with a small spot of white just at the base of the
quills; probably a young female.
I observed among some drawings done in India, a bird very
similar, if not the same, with the male Woodchat, under the name
of Curcutea.* It was seven inches and a half long, and said to be
found about Calcutta, making a harsh noise; it had a black streak
through the eye, bounded above by white; tail long, rounded, the
quills reaching to the base.
8—LESSER GREY SHRIKE.
Zool. vii. 286.    Frisch. t.60.
i. t. 54.     Tern. Man. d'Om. p. 60.   Id. Ed. i
Lanius Italicus, Ind. Om. i. 71.    Sha\
 minor, Gm. Lin. i. 308.     Ger
p. 144.
Pie-griesche d'ltalie, Bu/A. 298.    PI. enl. 31. f.l.
Der kleine graue Wurger, Bechst. Deutsch. ii. 382. taf. 14.
Lesser Grey Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup. 54.    Arct. Zool. ii. p. 241. B,
THE forehead in this is black; across the eyes a line of the
same; head, neck behind, and sides of it, back, and wing coverts
* The Curcutea, so called at Bengal, is a word applied to several animals, and even to
children, that have a strong voice.
mmm
 cinereous, palest on the rump; ridge of the wing white; prime quills
black, with a white spot near the base ; secondaries black, with
white tips; throat white; breast and belly tinged with rose-colour;
tail black, the ends of all but the two middle feathers white. The
female has the rose-colour on the under parts more dull, and the black
on the forehead narrower, and more verging to brown.
Found in Spain and Italy; also met with in Russia and Siberia,
as well as in some of the southern parts of France; rarely seen in
Holland; said to make the nest on shrubs, and to lay six pale green
eggs, with a belt composed of dots, near the middle.
9—RUFOUS-TAILED SHRIKE.
Lanius phcenicurus, Ind. Om.i. 71.    Pall. It. iii. 693.    Gm. Lin.i. 309.    Sha:
vii. 31L
Rufous-tailed Shrike, Gen. Syn. i, 166.
LENGTH 7| inches; weight thirteen drams at least. Bill black;
irides hazel; over the eye a narrow white eyebrow, and through it a
streak of black, broader behind; upper parts of the body pale
rufous-grey, the under rufous-white; sides inclining to rufous;
greater wing coverts and quills dusky, with a little mottling of white
at the base of the greater, but not forming a patch; rump and tail
dull rufous, rounded at the end; legs black; the wings reach to
the upper tail coverts.
The female is seven inches long. Bill three quarters of an inch,
brown; plumage above rufous-grey, beneath rufous-white; over the
eye a pale trace, and through it a broad dusky streak; quills dusky;
 18 SHRIKE.
sides and ramp pale rufous ; tail brownish rufous, crossed with eight
or nine faint obsolete dusky bars; legs brown.
Inhabits India, by the name of Myla-teynta; found at Cawnpore
in January—Gen. Hardwicke. This is no doubt referred to by Pallas,
-having met with it on his travels in the Russian dbtniriions, in
spring, but the place is not mentioned*
10—SHORT-TAILED SHRIKE.
Lanius brachyuru's, Ind. Orn.i. 76.    Gm. Lin A. 309.    Pall. It. iii. 693.   Shaw's Zool.
vii. 310.
Short-tailed Shrike, Gen. Syn.i. 166.
SIZE of the Cinereous Shrike. Top of the head ferruginous
grey; eyebrows whitish; from the bill, through the eye, a streak of
black; plumage above the body cinereous grey, with a tinge of
ferruginous; under parts yellowish white; throat and vent plain
white; wings blackish; coverts margined with grey at the tips; tail
shorter than the body, rounded at the end, colour grey brown ; all
but the two middle feathers white at the ends.
Inhabits Hungary, but is not a common bird.
I
 19
11.—BARBARY SHRIKE.
Lanius barbarus, Ind. OmA. 79.    Lin. i. 137.    Gm. LinA. 304.
 Senegalus ruber, Bris. ii. 185. 1.17. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 209.    Gerin. t. 61. 2. Shaw's
Zool. vii. 297.    Nat. Misc. pi. 246.
Pie-griesche du Senegal, PI. enlum. 56.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lix:
Gonolek, Buf.i. 314.   Levail. Ois. ii. 78. pi.64.
Barbary Shrike, Gen. Syn.i. 173.   Id. Sup.ii. 72.
SOMEWHAT less than the Redwing; length 8f inches. Bill
black, at the base bristly; plumage above black, beneath red;
crown, nape, thighs, and under tail coverts yellow; wings, tail, and
claws black.
The female is rather smaller; only the crown yellow, with a tinge
of green; and the red on the belly less brilliant.
In one presented to the British Museum by Mr. Schotte, the
plumage is black; crown, and thighs yellow; belly red. Another
in the collection of Mr. Brogden, is more than eleven inches long;
general markings as in the others, but the vent is buff-brown, nearly
white; tail four inches and a half long, a trifle rounded at the end.
Inhabits Senegal; met with also at the Cape of Good Hope, in
the country of the great Namaquas, but is not common. Those seen
by M. Levaillant had no particular note, nor could the food be
determined on, except that in the stomach were found the remains
of insects.
 20
12—BLANCHOT SHRIKE.
La Pie-griesche Blanchot, Levail. Afr. vi. 122, pi. 285.
SIZE of the Mavis. Bill with a very conspicuous notch, and
legs lead-colour; top of the head, and neck behind slaty grey; the
forehead white; the rest of the upper parts greyish olive-colour;
wing coverts, for the most part, edged with brimstone yellow; quills
dusky, with brimstone margins; all the under parts of the bird oker
yellow ; the tail long and rounded; the wings reach about a quarter
of an inch from the base.
This was brought from Senegal by M. Blanchot, the Govern or,
and in the cabinet of M. Raye de Breukelerwaert, of Amsterdam.
13—MALIMBIC SHRIKE.
La Pie-griesche Perrin, Levail. Afr. vi. 124. pi. 286.
ABOUT the size of the Ceylon Thrush, to which, in the
distribution of colours, it bears not an ill resemblance. The bill and
legs are black, the former made similar to those of many Thrushes,
but with very small appearance of a notch; the forehead full yellow,
passing a little way over each eye, and ending in a point; the
plumage on the upper parts of the body and wings, sides, and thighs,
deep green;  from the nostrils, through the eye, a black streak,
l@S»
 SHRIKE. 21
which passes down on each side of the neck, and growing broad
forms a deep crescent on the breast; within this, and the middle of
the belly to the vent, deep red; tail of a moderate length, rounded
at the end, green above, dark coloured beneath; much shorter in
proportion than in the Ceylon Thrush, or Barbary Shrike; as also
the legs; and is probably distinct from either, although appearing
to have relation to both.
Inhabits Malimba, in Africa; brought from thence by M. Perrin,
whence the name given to it, and now in the Musemn of Natural
History, at Paris; one is also at Berlin, in the cabinet of M. de
Paylcoul.
14.-RING-NECKED SHRIKE.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill three quarters of an inch, black,
bent at the tip, where there is a notch ; forehead, and chin dirty pale
buff; top of the head pale ash, and the feathers rather elongated;
under parts of the body white, surrounding the neck as a collar;
back dark ash, or lead-colour; wings black; lesser wing coverts
white, passing down in a streak the whole length of the wing, arising
from several of the second quills being of that colour on the outer
webs; besides which, they are all of them tipped with white; greater
quills nine in number, marked with a large spot of white on the
inner webs, nearer the end as the quill is more.inward; first quill
short, the second half an inch shorter than the third, but the fourth
is longest; the tail is three inches and a quarter long, even at the
end, but the outmost feather is rather shorter than the others; the
eight middle black, with the ends white for some length, but the
two middle are only so for a quarter of an inch; the two outmost on
each side wholly white; legs flesh-colour, claws brown.
 22
15.—BLACK AND WHITE SHRIKE.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill stout, one inch long, and black;
plumage above black, beneath white; ends of the middle, and
greater wing coverts white, forming two narrow, undulated, oblique
bars; ridge of the wing white; all beneath, from chin to vent white;
tail much rounded, cuneiform, the two middle feathers plain black,
the three next spotted white on the inner webs, and the two exterior
ones with white on both webs; on the thigh feathers two black bars;
legs deep brown.
A specimen of this is in the collection of Mr. Bullock; native
place uncertain.
16.—COLLARED SHRIKE.
Lanius collaris, Ind. Om. i. 69.   Lin A. 135.    Gm. Lin. i. 299.
 Cap. bonse Spei, Rm.ii. 182. t.15. 1.   Id. 8vo.i. 208.
Pie-griesche du Cap de B. Esperance, PI. enl. 477. 1.
Le Fiscal, Levail. Ois. ii. 35. pi. 61. 62.
Collared Shrike, Gen. Syn.i. 163. Id. Sup.ii. 68.
SIZE of the Cinereous Shrike; length 8f inches. Bill blackish;
head, and upper part of the body blackish; beneath white; base of
the thighs brown before; edge of the wing white; on the middle of
the quills a spot of white ; the four middle tail feathers black, the
next the same, tipped with white; the fourth has both tip and outer
margin white; legs dusky ; in one the ramp was ash-coloured.
 Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and is more probably the
Canary-Biter, or Fiscal Bird, than the ferruginous species before
conjectured: for Thunberg* says, that these two names were given
to a black and white bird, Lanius Collaris, which was common in
the town, and every garden about the Cape ;f and that it is a bird
of prey, though small, and its food insects, as beetles and grasshoppers, catching them with great dexterity, and when it could not
consume them all, would stick the remainder on the pales of the
farm yards, till it had occasion for them; has also been observed to
catch Sparrows and Canary Birds, but devoured only the brains.
Levaillant ascertains these facts, and gives us a figure of the
young, as well as the adult bird; he adds, that it is found in Senegal,
and all the internal parts of Africa, and by no means a variety of
the Cinereous Shrike; differing in the quills, as the latter has fifteen,
marked with white, but in the Collared only seven; the tail feathers,
also, in the cinereous species, are twice as broad as in the Fiscal.
17—SENEGAL SHRIKE.
Lanius Senegalus, Ind. Om. i. 74.    Lin.i. 137.    Gm. Lin. i. 304.    Slum's Zool. vii. 314.
 — Seneg. cinereus, Bris.ii. 167. t.17. 1.    Id. Svo.i. 203.    Gerin.,t. 61. 1.
Pie-griesche grise du Senegal, PI. enl. 297. 1 ?
Senegal Shrike, Gen. Syn.i. 162.   Id. Sup.ii. 72.
LENGTH nine or ten inches.   Bill, crown, and lore black; over
the eye a whitish bar, beginning at the nostrils, and terminating
* Trav.i. p. 293. f We must observe, that more than One or two birds
go by the name of Canary-Biter, at the Cape of Good Hope.
 24 SHRIKE.
among the black feathers of the head, there changing to dusky
orange; back of the head, and back dark olive; all the quills black,
but the outer edge bright red, making the wing, when closed, to
appear entirely red, or orange; upper! wing coverts orange, with a
narrow black streak down the middle ; scapulars^ change, with a
broad black streak; chin dirty white; neck and breast pale ash-
colour; belly paler; under tail coverts red; tail black, cuneiform,
tipped with white; the two middle feathers brown, faintly barred
with numerous black streaks; legs brown.
Inhabits Senegal, and other parts of Africa. Some years since
one was killed at Algiers, which is in the latitude of Gibraltar, and
it has been seen in the fortress itself, but thought as an uncommon
circumstance. ffsa#ri&
A.—Pie-griesche grise a tete noire, PI. enl. 479.1.
Lanius erythropterus, Shaw's Zool. vii. 301.
LeTchagra, Levail. Ois.ii. 81. pi.70.1. 2.
In this the top of the head is black, with a white streak over the
eye, as in the other; upper parts of the body inclining to rufous,
under quite white; tail cuneiform, dark, the end white; both this
and the other differ from that represented in pi. enlum. 297.1. as in
the latter the tail is even at the end, and all of one colour; the black
mark only seen behind the eye, and not passing through it; likewise
the under parts of the bird are not white, but pale bluish ash-colour.
The female is rather smaller; top of the head not black, but in
other marks much like the male, except in the colours being less
brilliant; the young of both sexes cinereous brown, paler than the
adult, and the white inclines to rufous.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, about the River Gamtoos, and
from thence to Caffraria, as well as at Senegal; said to make the
nest among the bushes, and to lay five eggs, spotted with brown.
Mmm^mmmmmmW^mm
 1
18.-DUBI0US SHRIKE.
Lanius dubius, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. xviii.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 329.
Dubious Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup.ii. p.73.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill and legs yellow; plumage in
general dusky ash; tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers three
inches and a half long, the outmost two inches; but the distinguishing character of this species is, that all the feathers of the rump, and
some of the upper tail coverts, have a dash of fine crimson at the
end for one-third of an inch in length, at first sight appearing like
the singular appendages in the wing feathers of the Waxen Chatterer,
but on nearer inspection, are not of a horny texture as in that bird,
for the webs are in the crimson part, as in the rest of the feathers,
perfectly divisible.
I met with a specimen of this bird at Mr. Thompson's, in Little
St. Martin's-Lane, London, but without any history of its manners,
or country annexed.
19. AFRICAN   SHRIKE.
Lanius afer, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. xix.
. signatus, Shaw's Zool. vii. 328.
African Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 76.
LENGTH five inches.   Bill black, crown the same; forehead
white, passing in a line beneath the eye to the hindhead; from this
 to the rump black, more or less spotted, or mixed with white; but
the feathers of the back in general have the ends white, margined
with black; wings black, on the middle of the coverts a large
triangular rufous white patch; some of the middle second quills
outwardly marked with the same, appearing, when the wing is
expanded, as a longitudinal patch; under parts of the body white,
streaked with ferruginous on the sides, breast, and belly; tail black,
the ends of two or more of the outer feathers white, the exterior
white on the middle of the outer margin; legs brown.
Inhabits Africa; communicated by Mr. Walcot.
A.—Length six inches. Bill black; plumage in general dark
ash; beneath paler, inclining to slate-colour; most of the wing
coverts fringed with white at the tips; base of the feathers in the
middle of the back white, for more than half the length from the
base; but the white does not appear, except the feathers are turned
aside; tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers plain, the rest fringed
with white at the tips; legs black.
This seems to be a variety of the former, and inhabits the same
part of the world, but the tail is more cuneiform, in the other it is
only rounded at the end.
20—RED-THROATED SHRIKE.
Lanius gutturali^ NafrMisv..p.637,    Baud. Ann. Mus. Nat.
SIZE of the Red-backed Shrike. Bill stout, black; plumage
in general olive green; through the eye a line of black, over it
yellow; front and siWrtders,fellow; chin, thwoat, and vent red; on
the throat a crescent <rf bteck.p tail and legs black. L
Inhabits the lofty trees of Africa; said to feed on berries.
 21—OLIVE SHRIKE.
L'Ofiva, Levail. Ois. ii. 105. pi. 75. f. 1. 2. & 76. 1.
Lanius olivaceus, Shaw's Zool. vii. 330.
SIZE of the Wbjbdchat; length seven inches. Bili and legs
black ; irides rufous brown; plumage above yellowish olive green;
forehead and under parts yellow ofcer, paler on t&e sides; eye placed
in a bed of black, passing down on each side of the heck in a streak,
edged with pale yellow oker; quills edged with yellow; tail rounded,
or very little cuneiform; the two middle feathers as the back, the
others partly yellow; but this colour occupying less space inwards,
the two outer ones having most yellow; the others dusky within, and
yellowish on the outer margins.
Young birds differ from the adult female, in Ifeiving the head and
neck behind olive grey, and the forehead rufous wiaite; the black band
on the side of the neck edged with white; chin, throat, and breast
rufous, or yellow; belly, thighs, and vent dirty olive white; the
green parts are more dull than in the old bird, and the quills are
edged with white.
The young female is rather smaller, and more dull in colour
above; beneath to the breast pale ferruginous; chin and belly dusky
white ; the streak of black through the eye wanting,
Inhabits the inward parts of the Cape of Good Hope, especially
the forests contiguous to the Bay of Lagoa, and the borders of the
Gamtoos, Sondag, and Swarte Kop, but not near the Cape itself;
makes the'nest on bushes and trees, and lays five eggs; the bill and
legs are at first brown; the black mark behind the eye not visible;
in this state it greatly resembles the female.
 -GEOFFROYS   SHRIKE.
Le Geoffroy, Levail. AfrAi. 124. pi. 80. 81.
Lanius plumatus, Shaw's Zool. vii. 292.
SIZE of a Thrush; length 8| inches. Bill moderately stout,
strait, flat on the sides, and bent at the point, near which is a slight
notch, the colour dusky; eyes surrounded with a rugose, naked,
yellowish skin, indented on the margins ; the head furnished with a
crest, composed of long, soft feathers, pointing backwards; at the
base of which, over the nostrils, they are shorter, more stiff, and
point forward; the colour of this double kind of crest is white; the
back of the head, round the eyes, and over the ears, dusky, or iron
grey, the rest of the neck beneath, from chin to vent white, and a
large portion of the same down the middle of the wing; the back,
remainder of the wing, and quills blue-black, but the tips of five or
six of the quills white; tail long, rounded, the two middle feathers
black, with white tips; the others the same, the white increasing as
they are more outward, and the two outer ones wholly white; the
wings reach about half way on the tail; legs yellow.
Some individuals have the head less crested, and the white less
pure, appearing soiled or dirty; the bare space round the eyes smaller;
and these are probably the females; in others, the crest, as well as
the bird, is less in size, and from these circumstances supposed to be
young ones.
Inhabits Africa. M. Levaillant met with more than twenty
specimens of them, but is silent concerning their manners; he only
says, that he found most of their bills covered with dirt, and from
thence concludes, that this was occasioned by searching for insects in
moist ground.
mSm-m*mmm.>M;lfflti&m4
 SHRIKE. 29
In Gen. Davies's drawing, from a specimen at Mr. Brogden's,
the bird was seven inches and a half long. Crown, behind the crest,
dusky black; the white surrounding the neck, more defined; the
white on the wing not so broad, nor the tail so long as in my
drawing; legs flesh-colour; tail of twelve feathers, white beneath.
23.—KEROULA SHRIKE.
LENGTH five inches and a half; weight ten drams. Bill three
quarters of an inch long, dusky, with a few hairs at the base;
nostrils covered with soft, downy feathers, tending forwards; irides
hazel; general colour of the plumage above fine pale ash-colour,
beneath paler, nearly white on the belly and vent; over the eye a
broad streak of white, passing to the hindhead; through the eye a
broader dusky one, not going so far backwards; the two middle tail
feathers cinereous brown, the next on each side rather longer, and
dusky black; the two outer ones white, with a long dusky spot at
the tips of the outer webs ; legs dusky.
The female is six inches long. Bill dusky pale blue, with the
same hairs at the base, and downy feathers over the nostrils; plumage
in general like that of the male; just round the eye a ring of white;
over the eye a broad streak of buff-colour; through it a deep
cinereous one; upper tail coverts dusky; the two middle feathers of
the tail pale ash, the others black, the two outer white, in shape at
the end a trifle hollowed; the wings reach one-third on the tail.
The egg is dusky white, with numerous minute dusky specks,
and a zone of a darker colour near the larger end.
Inhabits India, and called Keroula; the male shot at Cawnpore,
in February; the female in December.—Gen. Hardwicke.
 24—CAPE SHRIKE.
Lanius Brubru, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. xx.    Shaiv's Zool. vii. 327.
Le Brubru, Levail. Ois.ii. 85. pi.71. f.l. 2.
Cape Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 78.
LENGTH about five inches and a half. Bill black, irides brown;
top of the head, and neck behind black; the rest of the upper parts
the same, with a mixture of white; from the forehead a line of white
passes over the eye, towards the hindhead; under parts of the body
white, but the sides under the wings are ferruginous; on the wings
a patch of white; the four middle tail feathers black, the others
more or less tipped with white; the outmost wholly so on the
outer margin.
The female is not unlike the male, but the white has a tinge of
ferruginous, and the black of a brownish hue.
Inhabits various places of the interior of the Cape of Good Hope,
especially the great river; often found in flocks, except in the season
of incubation, when it is seen only in pairs; makes the nest on the
Mimosa trees, of moss, and fine roots, lined with wool and feathers;
the eggs five in number, whitish, spotted with brown.
-PURPLE-SIDED SHRIKE.
LENGTH near six inches.     Bill pale;   head and chin, neck
behind, -and back dusky blue, or deep ash-colour; feathers of the
 SHRIKE. 31
crown elongated; throat, and the rest of the under parts ash-colour;
under the wings white, on each side a long tuft of purple feathers;
ramp, vent, and under tail coverts white; coverts of the wings as
the back; the rest of the wing deeper brown; tail black, the quills
reach to the middle of it; legs black.
Supposed to inhabit Africa.—From Mr. Dent's drawings.
26.—HOTTNIQUA SHRIKE.
Lanius Cubla, Ind. Om. Sup. p. xx.    Shatv's Zool. vii. 328.
LeCubla, Levail. Ois. ii- 89. pi. 72. f. 1. 2.
Hottniqua Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 79.
THIS is full six inches in length. Bill and legs dusky; hides
yellow; plumage in general black, except the under parts, from the
chin to the vent, the rump, and an oblique bar on the wing coverts,
which are white; tail a trifle rounded in shape, black, all the feathers
tipped with white.
The female is smaller than the male, though much the same as
to colour, but more inclined to brownish or dusky.
Inhabits, in small flocks, the forests of Hottniqua Land, and
from thence along the eastern coast of Africa; the food is insects,
and their pupae, whaich they search for in the crevices of the barks
of trees;, separating into pairs during the tane of incubation; and
making tJieaieit in thorny lbuisb.es, of moss,.and small roots; the
female lays five or^isix 'eg$s•; the note is expressive of the two
syllables Cha Cha.
 27—WHITE-BACKED SHRIKE.
LENGTH six inches. Bill three quarters of an inch long,
black; top of the head, and sides including the eyes, neck behind,
and beginning of the back black; the rest of the back, and all
beneath, from the chin, white; wings, ramp, and tail black, the
last three quarters of an inch long, somewhat rounded at the end;
the wings reach a trifle beyond the ramp.
Inhabits Africa; in the collection of Mr. Brogden. This seems
to bear affinity with the Hottniqua species.
A second of these, supposed to be the female, differed chiefly in
having the middle of the back pale ash-colour, and the feathers of
the wings fringed outwardly with white, giving a streaked appearance; the two middle feathers of the tail plain, the rest fringed
outwardly at the ends with white. This was in the collection of
Mr. Salt; probably from Abyssinia.
28—PUFF-BACKED SHRIKE.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill black; plumage above
black, beneath white; inner wing coverts half black, half white,
the others white on the outer margins; the quills the same ; tail two
inches and half long, even, fringed at the tip with white; at the
middle of the back a very large tuft of downy, white feathers,
standing up like a puff; legs black.
ms-gifcrnimw,.
 In one, supposed to be the other sex, the black inclines to dusky;
it differs only in having the puff-like tuft ash-colour instead of white;
the under parts also are sullied white.
Inhabits Africa; in the collection of Mr. Bullock, and seems to
have much affinity with the White-backed, or last described.
29—ABYSSINIAN SHRIKE.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill black; beneath, from the chin,
white, inclining to buff towards the throat; lower part of the back
ash-colour ; rump buff-coloured white; between the wings and body
a stripe of white; the rest of the body black ; the outmost quill is
about half the length of the adjoining, and the third longest of all;
the first seven or eight marked with a white spot, not far from the
base, forming a patch on the wing; the tail greatly cuneiform, the
two middle feathers five inches long, the outer only two inches and a
half; the four middle wholly black, the others white for some length
at the ends, increasing as they are more outward; the exterior chiefly
white, except the shafts, which are black; under wing coverts white,
with a dusky patch in the middle; legs black.
In the collection of Mr. Salt; brought from Abvssinia.
 34
30—FERRUGINOUS-BELLIED SHRIKE.
Lanius ferrugineus, Ind. Or
Ferruginous-bellied Shrike,
. 306.   Shaw's Zool.vii. 310.
Gen. Syn.i. 163.
SIZE of the Cinereous Shrike; length nine inches. Bill horn-
colour ; plumage above brown black; lower part of the back and
rump brown; throat and breast dirty white ; belly and vent ferruginous ; tail plain black-brown; legs black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope ; one of these, in the collection
of General Davies, was only seven inches in length. Plumage above
full black, with a streak of white parallel to the length of the wing;
under parts, from the chin, white; but the vent, and under tail
coverts pale rufous; tail rounded, black, the feathers edged with
white.
31—INDIAN SHRIKE.
LENGTH nine inches and a half. Bill black, stout; crown full
of feathers; head and sides, taking in the eye, and hind part of the
neck, to the beginning of the back, black; middle of the back
dove-colour; the lower part, and rump ferruginous; under parts,
from the chin, white; lower belly and vent pale ferruginous; wings
wholly dusky, except the shoulders, which are full black; tail long,
and cuneiform, the two middle feathers black, the others dusky,
with the outer margins pale rufous, and white tips; legs black;
the wings reach to the ramp.
 SHRIKE. 35
Inhabits India; in the collection of drawings of Lady Clive. In.
the possession of General Davies was a similar bird, but only eight
inches and a half in length. Bill three quarters of an inch long,
and horn-colour; forehead brown-buff; top of the head, to the eyes,
and all above, to the middle of the back, blue-grey; lower part,
and rump brownish buff; from the chin to vent the; same, but paler;
on the ears, below the eye, a large blackish patch; wings black,
but the outer edge, as far as the coverts, white; the quills reach to
the base of the tail, which is cuneiform, the two middle feathers three
inches long, the outer less than one inch; those of the middle nearly
black, all the others brown; legs dusky brown.
Inhabits India. A similar one is among the birds collected by
Mr. Salt, in his travels, with this difference, that the rump and under
parts are white, with a tinge of buff-colour; met with at Chelicut,
in Abyssinia.
32.—CRUEL SHRIKE.
Lanius pendens, Ind. Om. Sup. p. xix.
Le Pendeur, Levail. Ois.ii. p.58. pi.66. 1.
Cruel Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 77.
SIZE of the Woodchat; length near seven inches. Bill and legs
black; crown, nape, neck behind, back, and ramp fine blue-grey;
sides of the head, including.the eye, throat, and as far as the breast,
black; from the gape an arch of white passes over the eye, bounding
the black as far as the middle of the neck; from the same springs
another, continuing down on each side to meet the first, and including
a black space between them; the wings are black; belly, thighs,
F 2
 36 SHRIKE.
and vent white; the four, middle tail feathers black, and equal in
length, the rest unequal, the outer one being very short; these are
partly white, partly black; the wings reach scarcely beyond the base.
Said to come from India, and to feed on insects, sticking them
occasionally on a thorn, in the manner of our European species;
supposed to be a male bird.
Lanius obscurus, Ind. Oi
t.21.
Dusky Shrike, Gen. Syn.i. 191
33.—DUSKY SHRIKE.
81.    Gm. Lin. i. 308.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 325.    Zool. Misc.
SIZE of the Hedge-Sparrow. Bill horn-colour; body above
dusky black; beneath white; over the eye a white streak; quills and
tail darker than the rest; legs brown.
Description taken from a specimen in the British Museum.
34.—SUPERCILIOUS SHRIKE.
Lanius supereiliosus, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. xx.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 326.
Le Rousseau, Levail. Ois. ii. p. 60. pi. 66. f. 2.
Supercilious Shrike, Gen; Syn. S<up. ii. p. 77.
NEARLY the size of the Woodchat, and at first sight might be
taken for the female of that species.    Bill and legs dusky ; top of
 SHRIKE. 37
the head and neck, back, rump, and wing coverts rufous; from the
forehead, over the eye, a white band; and through the eye, from the
corners of the mouth, a black one; under parts rufous white; quills
black, edged outwardly with rufous; tail cuneiform, rather more so
than in the Woodchat; the two middle feathers rufous, the others the
same, only on the outer webs.
Inhabits Java, in the neighbourhood of Batavia, and is in the
collection of M. Levaillant.
A.—Size of the former. Bill rufous, tip black; plumage above
rufous brown, beneath dull rufous white, crossed with numerous
fine dusky lines; wing and tail feathers edged with rufous; quills
dusky; through the eye a broad black streak; tail long, rufous,
brown; legs black, long, and slender.
Inhabits India, called Latora Koodeia; represented with others
among the drawings of Sir J. Anstruther, Bart.; and also one rather
larger, the bill more stout, and dusky, with a few hairs at the base;
plumage deep brown above, and rufous-white beneath, crossed with
fine lines as in the former; tail two inches and three quarters long,^
even at the end; through the eye a broad black 'batfdj jagged
behind; legs rather stout.
This is called Latora-Jogy-whooro; these* tmk last seem to be
females of the Supercilious; Shrike.      htid
 38
35—SILENT SHRIKE.
La Pie-griesche silentieuse, Levail. Ois.
Lanius silens, Shaw's Zool. vii. 330. . j
103. pi. 74. 1. 2.
ill
■ii
SIZE of the Red-backed Shrike. Bill horn-coloured; irides
brown ; top of the head, neck behind, back, wing coverts, and rump
black; under parts of the body, from chin to vent, white, with a
longitudinal streak of the same on the wings, in the middle of the
quills; tail cuneiform, coloured as the back, but the side feathers
are white on the outer margins ; legs black.
The female is smaller, the black tinged with brown, and the
white on the breast inclining to grey, otherwise one description may
serve. In some of these birds may be observed, in both sexes, a
tinge of rufous, or reddish at the angles of the mouth.
Inhabits the forests of Hottniqua, along the Coast of Natal, and
all the interior parts of the Cape of Good Hope, but principally
those clothed with wood; is called Silent, as it has not been heard
to utter any note. These birds begin to make a nest in November,
of a curious construction, placed on the slender branches of trees,
composed of a soft kind of cotton, taken from various plants, and
among others that kind of Mesembryanthemum, called by the
Hottentots Kana Bossies; lays three or four pale green eggs, clouded
with pale rufous; young birds of both sexes are at first like the
females.
 39
36— ASH-CROWNED SHRIKE.
Lanius poliocephalus, Ash-crowned Shrike, Salt. Trav. App. p. 1.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill three quarters of an
inch, blackish, a trifle curved'at the end, with a very small notch,
and much covered with the feathers of the front; crown hoary, livid,
lightest about the eyes; on the ears a blackish spot; round the neck
a collar of white, extending to all beneath ; belly tinged with dirty
white; parts above brownish black ; on the wings a white line, from
the point of the shoulder, passing across the coverts, and down the
exterior web; the remainder tipped with white ; the rest of the quills
have, on each, a large round spot on the inner web ; tail square, the
two outer feathers wholly white, but the others are only so at the
tips; legs lightish oker; claws brown.
Two specimens were shot in Abyssinia, and are now in the
collection of Lord Stanley.
37.—BLUE-SHOULDERED SHRIKE.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill three quarters of an inch,
pale brown; crown pale chestnut, or rufous, marked within with a
curved black crescent; from the base of the bill, a broad black streak
through the eye, after which it increases in breadth, and finishes on
 40 SHRIKE.
the nape; chin and throat pale rufous; back green; rump, wing
coverts, and inner parts of the wing fine blue; outer part of the
wing, and quills black; the greater for the most part white outwardly ; second quills green; tail black, the ends of the feathers
blue-black; legs black.
Native place uncertain; the description taken from a collection
of drawings.
38—RUFOUS SHRIKE.
Lanius rufus, Ind. Orn. i. 77;    Lb,
Id.8vo.i. 207.    Gerin.i. t.59.
Pie-griesche rousse de Madagascar,
Rufous Shrike, Gen. Syn.i. 180,
, i. 137.    Gm. Lin. i. 303.   Bris. ii. 178.
1.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 287.
Schet Be, Buf. i. 313.    PI. enl. 298. 2.
LENGTH seven inches and three quarters. Bill lead-colour,
base bristly; head, throat, and neck greenish black; body above
rufous, beneath cinereous white; thighs cinereous; quills brown,
edged with rufous and brown; tail rufous, the margins of the feathers
brown on both sides near the ends; legs horn-colour.
The female is less vivid in appearance; throat, and neck before
grey; the outer edge of the quills pale rufous; otherwise like the
male.
Inhabits Madagascar, where the male is called Schet be, and the
female Tcha^hssrt-dae. This bird isJaJso found in various parts
of India, from whence I have met I wrfth specimens,; asr<well as
drawings. In one, supposed to be a male, the colours were bright
rufous above, and pale rufous beneath, approaching to<#hite near
 SHRIKE. 41
the vent; head, neck, and scapulars black; quills and tail browa,
rounded at the end, and three inches in length; the wings, when
closed, scarcely reach to the ramp, In another the head was black,
only as far as the jaws, chin and under parts white, sides and thighs
tinged with rufous j neck behind, and back brown; scapulars, and
part of the lesser wing coverts rufous, the rest of the wing deep
brown; ramp ferruginous; tail very little rounded, deep brown; this
was probably a female, or young bird.
Among the numerous drawings of Gen. Davies, I observe one of
these, in which several of the greater coverts, and second quills, have
the outer webs white.    This came from the Cape of Good Hope.
39.—JOCOSE SHRIKE.
Lanius jocosus, Lid. Orn. i. 73.     Lin. i. 138.    Amcen. Ac.iv. 258.     Gm*
Nat. Misc. pi. 645.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 306.
Merula sinensis cristata minor, Bris. ii. 252. t. 21. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 229.
Petit Merle huppe des Indes, Son. Voy. hid. ii. 189. 1.109:
 de la Chine, Buf. iii. 318.    PL enl. 508.
Fighting Shrike, or Bulbul, Penn. Hind. ii. 261.     Orient. Collect, for Jan.~
1797.    PL in ditto.
Bolbol, Le Brun. Trav. Engl. Ed. pi. 95. f. 1.
Jocose Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. 175;    Id. Sup. p. 53.
Id. Sup. ii. 71:    Dixon. Voy. t. p. 360.
SIZE of the Lark; lengtfo seven inches and a half. Bill blackish,
rather more strait than in most of the genus, with a very fine notch
near the tip ; crown of the head black, at the back part the feathers
elongated as a crest, and brown; sides of the head, throat, and fore
part of the neck white; from the comers of the mouth a black line,
 i ■II
42 SHRIKE.
tending to the hindhead; beneath each eye a lively red sp&$%
plumage on the upper parts of the body brown, on the under dirty
white; vent rose-colour ; on the lower part of the neck and breast a
brownish band; quills brown; tail greatly cuneiform, the four outer
feathers tipped with white; legs black.
Inhabits China, and various parts of India; said to have a most
harsh, note,* though Le Bran compares it to that of a Nightingale ;
be this as it may, it has gained the name of Bulbul, which signifies
that name. Is called the lighting Nightingale, being often trained
to combat, for the amusement of the natives, f
Captain Dixon had two of them, male and female, bought at
Canton, but was not able to bring them farther than the neighbourhood of the Cape of Good Hope, where they perished from neglect
in hard weather; their food was rice, but they were most fond of
cock-roaches, on which they were principally fed.
Among the drawings of the late Dr. Fothergill, one of these
birds had the throat black, and the breast and belly pale brown.
Sonnerat's bird is rather small, the crest much elongated, and
pointed at the top, and the black streak at the corners of the mouth
not distinguishable. He observes, that it frequents the Coasts of
Malabar, Bengal, and Coromandel, at the last called Boulboul; is
the Canera Boolbool of Hindustan, and Cauda Boulbool of Sylhet;
by some called Kaundurau. The nest appears to be composed of
fibres, attached to two parts of a forked twig, in the shape of a long
purse, with a large hole on one side. Both sexes seem much alike. X
By the Chinese it is called Kowki-koon, or Cow-kee-Quan, which
means High-Hair-Hat, the people comparing the crested part to a
Chinese woman's head dress, or hat, which in that country is
composed of horse-hair, added to their own. The crest is not always
carried erect, but is only so at the will of the bird.
! Mr. Pennant. f Said to be
% Sir J. Anstruther's d
id of the rose.—See Gent. Mag. 1799. p. 946.
the crest of the female smaller.
 A.—Jocose Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 71.
This is nine inches long. Bill brown, at the base four or five
bristles; plumage above brown, beneath very pale; on the head a
long pointed crest; ramp white; vent and under tail coverts crimson;
tail long, all the feathers tipped with white.
This specimen was from Guzurat, in India, and in the British
Museum ; the same is also said to be found about Calcutta.
B.—Length seven inches. Bill smaller than in the last, with a
slight notch near the tip; head black at the top, and crested;
plumage above dark brown, beneath white; under the eye, the vent,
and under tail coverts crimson; ramp as the back; tail shorter than
in the last, and the feathers not tipped with white.
C—Sittachinensis, Osb. It. ii. p. 12.    Gm; Lin.i. 442.
Chinese Nuthatch, Gen. Syn.ii. p.655.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 118.
A little larger than a Goldfinch. Bill and head black, the last
crested; from thence above to tail dark ferruginous, with a bluish
tinge; breast and belly white; under the eye an oblong, scarlet
spot, and close to it a larger white one; from the temples to the
throat a black line; chin and throat white, encompassed with black,
except a white line in the middle of the breast, joining the white on
the throat; rump yellow; coverts over the quills dark ferruginous;
tail blackish, tipped with white.
G2
 44 SHRIKE.
Inhabits China; is known hy the same name as the first, and
kept more for its beauty than song, which is trifling; the food boiled
rice; frequently seen in Chinese paintings.
D.—Length six inches. Bill dusky ; plumage in general rufous
brown; on the head a pointed crest; chin black; through the eye a
broad black streak, beneath it one of pale carmine; prime quills,
and first of the secondaries tipped with dull crimson; tail rounded ;
legs greenish.
The female like the male. I observe among the drawings of
Lord Seaforth, a similar bird, without the red spot beneath the eye;
the head much crested; plumage above brown, beneath white; the
rest as the first described. This last is probably a female or young
bird.
40.- BLACK-CRESTED SHRIKE.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill rather bent, black;
tongue red, pointed; top of the head greatly crested; some of the
feathers one inch and three quarters long, and black; general colour
of the plumage fine, pale, tawny-brown above, nearly white beneath;
the same on each side under the eye; close beneath the eye a small
curved mark of yellow; tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers three
inches long, the others much shorter; legs stout, dusky.  -
Inhabits India; called in the Province of Oude, Cawnnorah. In
this the tail feathers appear pointed, as if worn, especially the two
 middle ones; hence it should seem, that the drawing from which
the above description was taken, might be from a caged bird. This
is probably only a variety of the Jocose Shrike, as we are told that
the Bengal variety has the crest black.*
41—BENGAL SHRIKE.
Lanius Emeria, Ind. Orn. i. 74.    Lin. i. 137.    Gm. Lin. i. 305
Muscicapa Emeria, Lin. i. 326.
Lanius bengalensis fuscus, Br is. ii. 175.    Id. 8vo. i. 206.
Rouge-queue, Buf.i. 309.
Indian Redstart, Edw. t.190.   Alhin.iii. t.56.
Bengal Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. 175.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill cinereous brown, base
bristly; irides whitish; crown of the head and nape black, the last
somewhat crested; behind the eye a scarlet spot, edged beneath
with white; belly, vent, ramp, and upper tail coverts red; on each
side of the neck four black, curved spots; tail pale brown; legs
black.
Inhabits Bengal.
 42—BLUE SHRIKE.
Lanius bicolor, Ind. Orn. i. 75.    J
vii. 522.   Nat. Misc. pi. 521
Loxia madagascarina, Lin. i. 306.
Lanius madag. ccerul. Bris. ii. 197. 1
Pie-griesche bleue de Madag. PI. enl,
female, f. 3. young bird.
Blue Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. 178.   I
i. Mant. 1771; 524:    Gm. Lin. i. 305.   Shaw's Zool.
)8. 1.   Levail. Ois
Gerin. t. 60.1.
91. pi. 73. 1.2. male and
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill blue, at the base bristly;
feathers round the bill black; head, and all above fine blue; beneath
snow white; quills black, edged with blue; the two middle feathers
of the tail blue, with black tips and shafts, the four next on each
side blue on the outer margins, within and tips black; the outmost
feather black, except just at the base, where it is blue on the outer
edge; legs black..
The female scarcely differs in colour, but is less bright, and the
under parts dirty white.
The young bird is dull green above, and white beneath, but
not pure, being inclined to grey.
Inhabits Madagascar, as well as the Cape of Good Hope ; lives
chiefly, if not wholly, on insects, and is a most wild species,
especially the male, which is seen frequently on the tops of bushes,
flitting from one to another, when disturbed; the nest and eggs
are unknown.
 47
43.—GREEN SHRIKE.
Lanius viridis, Ind. Om. i. 75.
Pie-griesche de Madag. Tcha cl
Langrayen, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. A
Green Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. 179.
Gm. tin. i. 306.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 321.
ridis, Bris. ii. 195. 1.15. 2.   Id. 8vo. i. 212.
;rt, Buf. i. 310.    PL enl. 32. 2.
LENGTH about six inches. Head, and all above dull igreen,
most so on the head; beneath white; outside of the thighs as the
back; inside black and white; quills blackish; the outer edges and
tips dull green ; legs black.
Inhabits Madagascar, and there called Tcha chert; the wings in
this species are longer in proportion than in others, reaching nearly
to the end of the tail.
44—MADAGASCAR SHRIKE.
Lanius madagascariensis, Ind. Orn. i. 79.
vii. 332. Bris. ii. 164. 1.16. f. 1. 2.
Le Cali-calic, and Le Bruia, Buf. i. 315.
Madagascar Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. 174.
Lin.i. 137.
Id. 8vo. i. S
Gm. Lin. i. 305.    Shax
SIZE of a Hedge-Sparrow; length under five inches. Bill
black, base bristly; plumage above cinereous; rump and tail rufous;
between the bill and eye a black spot; over the eye a white line;
cheeks white; throat, and neck before black; beneath the body
rufous white; lesser wing coverts rufous, greater grey brown ; quills
brown, with grey brown margins; the two middle tail feathers
rufous at the base, the rest grey brown, the four next rufous, tipped
 with grey brown; the outer one rufous within, and grey brown
without, and at the tip; legs lead-colour.
The female wants the black on the chin, and throat; both which,
as well as the sides of the head, and all beneath, are white, mixed
with rufous, and the colour in general more dull.
Inhabits Madagascar.
45.—BOULBOUL SHRIKE.
Lanin
Boulb
Boulboul, Ind.-Om. Sup. 80.
ul Shrike, Gen, Syn, Sup. 57.
SIZE of a Fieldfare. Bill yellow, and a little crooked at the
end; head, neck, back, primaries, and tail black; breast and belly
changing to ash-colour; lesser wing coverts dusky, the greater and
second quills brown, crossed with two whitish bars; legs yellow.
Inhabits India, and called the Greater Boulboul.
hn.i. 77.    Gm. Lin.i. 307.    Sha
w's Zool.
Bris. ii. 193. 1.19. f. 2.    Id. Svo. i
211;
de Madag. PL enl, 374.
46—WHITE-HEADED SHRIKE.
Lanius leucocephalus, Ind. Orr
—— madag. major viridii
Grande Pie-griesche verdat:
Tcha-chert-be, Buf. i. 314.
White-headed Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. 180.
SIZE of a Blackbird; length eight inches. Bill lead-colour;
head, neck, and beneath white; back, and %e rest of the upper
parts greenisji black ; quills;/black, with green edges; tail greenish
.blatsk* beneath black ; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits Madagascar.
 47—WHITE SHRIKE.
Lanius albus, Ind.Om. i. 77:    Gm. Lin.i. 307.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 309.
Pie-griesche de L'Isle de Panay, Son. Voy. 115. pi. 72.
White Shrike, Gen. Syn.i. 189.
THIS is double the size of the Woodchat. Bill black; head,
neck, Jback, belly, and shoulders white; the rest of the wing and
tail black ; across the greater quills a white band ; legs black.
Inhabits the Isle of Panay.
48—WHITE-BILLED SHRIKE.
Lanius leucorynchos, Ind. Orn,
Zool. vii. 323.
Leptopteryx leucorynchos, Lin. Trans, x
Lanius manillensis, Bris. ii. 180. 1.18.2.
Pie-griesche de Manille, PI. enl. 9. f. 1.
Langrayen, Tern. Man: Ed. 2. p. lx.
White-billed Shrike, Gen. Syn.i. 181.
Lin.Mant. 1771. 524.    Gm. Lin. 5. 305.    Shaw's
Id. Svo.i. 207.
Buf i. 310.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill hoary, base beset with bristles;
head, throat, neck, back, and scapulars blackish; rump, breast,
and under parts whitish; upper wing coverts, quills, and tail blackish ; wings and tail equal in length; legs blackish.
Inhabits the Island of Manilla.
A.—Lanius dominicanus, Gm. Lin.i. 302.
La Pie-griesche dominicaine, Sonn. Voy. 55. t. 26.
Dominican Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. 181. A.
Size of the last.    Bill conic, greyish, and strong, base bristly;
head, neck, breast, back, wings, and tail black; rump and belly
 Ii! 181
Hi
50 SHRIKE.
white; thighs black; the wings reach nearly one inch beyond the
middle of the tail, which is of a moderate length, and consists of
twelve feathers.
Inhabits the Philippine Islands, and is a bold, courageous bird;
flies very quick, frequently hovering in the air like the Swallow; is
a great enemy to the Raven, bidding defiance, though so mueh
inferior, and even provoking to combat; the battle often lasts half
an hour, and ends with the defeat of the Raven; probably rather
from being tired out, than having received any injury.
49—PANAYAN SHRIKE.
iensis, Ind. Ort
Gm. Lin. i. 307.
Voy*'p. 114. t.70.
SIZE of the Red-backed Shrike. Bill black; irides fire-colour;
head, neck before, and belly red; behind the neck, wings, and tail
brown; legs black.
Inhabits the Isle of Panay.
50—CRESTED RED SHRIKE.
Lanius cristatus, Ind. Orn,
Zool. vii. 333.
Crested Red Butcher-Bird, Edw. pi. 54,
 Shrike, Gen. Syn.i. 170.
72.   Lin.i. 134.    Gm. Lin
173.   7d.8vo.205.   Klein.
i. 298.
.54.   Gmn.t.57.!
SIZE of the Red-backed Shrike; length six inches and a half.
Head somewhat crested ;* bill horn-colour, tip blackish; upper parts
* Brisson mentions specimens with the heads quite smooth, and probably such are females.
 SHRIKE. 51
of the body rufous, under dirty orange, marked with transverse lines
of black; behind each eye a black mark, like a crescent; quills
brown, edged with paler brown; tail rufous, beneath grey; legs
and claws black.
Inhabits Bengal, where it is called Charah.
51—ANTIGUAN SHRIKE.
Lanins Antiguanus, Ind. Om. i. 72. Gm. Lin. i
Pie-griesche d'Antigue, Sonn. Voy. p. 114. t. 70.
Antiguan Shrike, Gen. Syn.i. 171.
301.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 333.
Tern. Man. Ed. 2. Anal. p. lix
SIZE of the Red-backed Shrike. Bill large, black; the upper
mandible very long, and the curvature so great, as to appear quite
unnatural; irides dusky; head black; back yellowish rufous; throat
and breast white ; quills and part of the wing coverts black; wings
short, reaching only to the beginning of the tail, which is long and
cuneiform; the two middle feathers black, the others black above,
reddish beneath, tipped with a rufous spot; legs dusky black.
Inhabits Panay, one of the Philippine Isles, but principally about
Antigue, one of the provinces thereof. In compliance with the
sentiment of M. Sonnerat, I place this as a species, but from the
singular curvature, not to say monstrosity, of the bill, it might be
taken for a Lusus Naturae, as far as relates to that part, and I am
led to suppose this, from observing among the drawings of Sir J.
Anstruther, a bird similar in plumage, but with the bill of a
moderate size.
 1
52
52—HOOKED-BILLED SHRIKE.
Lanius curvirostris, Ind. Orn. i
Zool. vii. 299.
Collurio madagascariensis, Brt
Vanga, ou Becarde 4 Ventre b
Ecorcheur de Madagascar, PI.
Hook-billed Shrike, Gen. Syn.
72.   Lin. i. 135.   Gm. Lin.i. 299.   Germ. t.6<
s.ii. 191. t.19. f. 1. Id. 8vo.i. 211.
ane, Buf. i. 312.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p.
enl. 228.
i. 171.
SIZE of a Blackbird; length ten inches. Bill black, the tips of
both mandibles more crooked than usually seen in other species;
hindhead greenish black; the rest of the head, and all the under
parts white; upper parts of the body black, the feathers margined
with greenish black; greater wing coverts obliquely tipped with
white, forming a band on the wing; quills black, on the first five
a white spot, the inner margins are also white ; tail ash-colour half
way from the base, afterwards black, the very tip white, the two
middle feathers longest; legs lead-colour.
A.—Hook-billed Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup.ii. p.70. var. A.
III
III[II
This is eleven inches long, and seventeen broad. Bill one inch
and three-eighths, colour blue, tip dusky; about the nostrils several
black bristles, and the ends of the mandibles curving as in the other;
head, wings, and tail black; back dark blue-ash; rump white;
second wing coverts streaked black and white, some of the outer
second quills the same; beneath, from chin to vent, white, curving
on each side to the hind part of the neck, but not meeting there;
between the bill and eye a white patch ; base of the tail white, then
black, the two middle feathers black, the outer white within for half
an inch at the tip, the rest white just at the tip; the wings reach
to the middle of the tail; legs black; the outer toe united to the
 SHRIKE. 53
middle as far as the first joint; the inner edge of the claw of the
middle one furnished with a small angle, or tooth, near the tip, above
which the edge is compressed inwards, and undulated.
The first described inhabits Madagascar, the latter found in
New-Holland, in the collection of Mr. Harrison, of Parliaments
Street; I have also seen other specimens. In a drawing in the
collection of Mr. Francillon, it is called Karro-bee-rang.
53—WHITE-CHEEKED SHRIKE.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill and legs black; top of the head,
and all the upper parts of the plumage fine rufous; forehead/and
sides of the head white; all beneath the body rufous white; through
the eye, from the nostrils, a broad streak of black, inclosing the eye,
and curving to a point at the hindhead; wings black; tail cuneiform,
two inches and a quarter long, brown ; legs black.
Inhabits India.
54—VARIED SHRIKE.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill one inch long, stout, black, with
a notch near the tip, where it is much curved; at the base of the
upper mandible a few hairs; top of the head, and neck behind pale
ash-colour, inclining to white on the crown; forehead black, passing
in a streak through the eye, lengthening for three quarters of an inch
below on each side, and growing broader; above this, a small, short
white streak; upper parts of the body, wings, and tail fine olive
green; some of the wing coverts with a yellowish white spot at the
tips, and all the second quills the same at the ends; the greater are
 54 SHRIKE.
dusky within, and olive green on the outer webs, but the inner
margined half way from the base; the tail five inches long, rounded,
marked, as the second quills, with orange yellow at the tip; beneath,
from the chin, fine orange; belly and thighess inclining to green,
growing again yellow at the vent; legs brown ;;the wings reach not
much beyond the base of the tail.
One, supposed to differ in sex, was the same in size. Bill the
same; top of the head, neck behind, and sides pale blue grey; from
nostrils to the eye a broad streak of white; back, wings, and tail
pale olive yellow; most of the wing coverts ending in a pale yellow
spot, forming two or three series; quills marked as in the other; also
the tail; the whole of the under parts, from chin to vent, fine deep
yellow, without variation of shade; legs brown.
Inhabits Africa; the male in the collection of Mr. H. Brogden,
the female in the possession of Lord Stanley; we have seen also some
others, brought from Senegal, among which, one which was under
nine inches in length : and the tippings of the feathers whitish
instead of yellow.
55.-
-BENTET  SHRIKE.
Lanius Bentet, Lin. Trar.
LENGTH nine inches and a half. The forehead, sides of the
neck, the wings, and tail are black; top of the head, and the back
grey; under parts of the body, and rump, rufous bay ; tips of the
tail feathers white, and the exterior one white on the outer edge;
the chin, breast, and middle of the belly paler than the rest of the
outer parts.
Inhabits Java, called Bentet.—Dr. Horsfield.
 56—CHESTNUT-BACKED SHRIKE.
Lar
Chestnut-bi
Ind. Orn. i. 67.    <
ked'Shrike, Gen. SynA
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill black ; forehead black brown;
through the eye, and over the eyebrow the same; crown, nape, and
neck behind, quite to the back, ash-colour; beginning of the back
pale chestnut; wings chiefly black; the second quills margined with
ferruginous; throat dusky white; the rest of the under parts quite
white; tail black, very cuneiform, the two outer feathers being
shorter by two inches than the middle ones, and these last have the
tips ferruginous; the others more so as they proceed outwardly, the
exterior on each side being almost wholly of that colour; legs black.
In the collection of the late Dr. Hunter; from whence unknown.
57—LUZONIAN SHRIKE.
\,I*d. Orn.i
Lin.i. 299. Shaw's
Shrike, Gen. Syn.i.
169. pi. 18. 1.    Id. 8vo. 204.
Zool. vii. 334.
SIZE of the Red-backed species; length seven inches and a
half. Bill greyish brown; body above the same, beneath rufous
white; behind, and beneath the eye, a longish spot of brown; lower
part, and sides of the neck, the breast, sides of the body, and
thighs rufous white, crossed with fine brown lines; quills greyish
brown, with rufous margins; tail rufous grey, cuneiform, all except
the two middle feathers tipped rufous white; legs rufous brown.
Inhabits the Isle of Luconia, and called there Cabecote.
 56
Shrike, Gen. Syn, Sup. p. 52.
Length eight inches. Bill black; through the eye a black
streak; crown of the head, and all the upper parts ash-colour,
inclining to tawny on the back; breast and belly dirty white; wings
black, crossed with tawny; on the prime quills a white spot; tail
black, tipped with chestnut; legs blackish.
Inhabits India; seems allied both to the Chestnut-backed and
Luzonian, but from its size is most probably a variety of the latter;
I met with this among the drawings of Lady Impey.
B.—In this the base of the bill has some hairs nearly as long as
the bill itself; it differs from the others, in having the upper parts
rufous yellow, clouded across with dusky waves ; beneath white, a
little clouded; from the nostrils a broad black mark, passing under
the eye, and growing broader behind; lesser wing coverts clouded
with ash-colour, edged with yellowish ; the rest of the wing black,
the feathers more or less yellow at the ends; base of the greater wing
coverts white, forming a spot; tail black, a little cuneiform, the end
very pale rufous; legs pale lead-colour.
Inhabits India.
58—CORVINE SHRIKE.
Lanius corvinus, Shaw's Zool. vii. 33
La grande Pie-griesche, Levail. Afr.
118. pi. 78.
SIZE of a Blackbird; length twelve inches. Bill pale yellow ;
general colour of the plumage pale greyish ash, inclining to brown ;
about the head, especially over the eye, pale rufous; the outer webs
  il
[ •'111'
xvp.
w   ^&&~^
r
-' ---' '^ , ■ ^1
rM/rtArrrWry/r.
S^Jv^B;
 SHRIKE. 57
of the quills the same; tail greyish ash-colour, six inches long, and
greatly cuneiform, the outer feathers being only three inches; all
the under parts, from chin to vent, dusky white, inclining to brown
on the chin and breast; the wings reach a quarter of an inch on the
tail; legs dusky brown.
The above was bought of a dealer at Paris, who could give no
account of the country from whence it came.
In the collection of Mr. Comyns, of Dawlish, is a fine specimen.
In this, all the feathers of the upper parts have a darker streak down
the middle; greater quills fine rufous for three-fourths of their length,
then brown to the end; the rufous occupying most space on the
outer webs; tail seven inches long, brown, the outer feather only
two; all of them pale at the tips, the pale part bounded by a darker
line; chin plain dusky white; the throat, breast, and belly the
same, crossed with waved, dusky bars on each feather; vent white;
legs brown.
This was brought from Senegal.
59—MALABAR SHRIKE—Plate XVIII.
Cuculus Siamensis cristatus viridis, BrisAv. 151. t.14. A. f.l.   Jrf.8vo.ii. {
t.75.
Lanius malabaricus, Ind. Orn. i. 66.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 293.
Edolius malabaricus, Lin. Trans, xiii. 145.
Drongo de Malabar, Buf.iv. 587.    Son. Voy. Ind. ii. t. 111.
Cuculus paradiseus, Ind. Orn.i. 216.    Gm. Lin.i. 422.
Coucou k longs brins, Buf. vi. 387.
Drongo k Raquette, Levail. Afr. iv. 73. pi. 175:    Tern. Man
Paradise Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 528.
Malabar Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup.56, pi. 108.
i. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxi
SIZE of the Missel Thrash; length seventeen inches and a half.
The bill one inch long, stout, hooked at the tip, and black; at the
 1
58 SHRIKE.
base sev#fal,fettles, pointing forwards; irides red; general colour
of the plumage black, glossed in some parts with J?lue; the head
and neck feathers longer than the rest, and sharp at the ends; tail
of a moderate length, but the exterior feather is three times that of
the others, measuring between seven and eig^ inches, the shafts of
which are naked for six inches, the remainder webbed only on the
outer side ; legs strong, black.
Inhabits the Coast of Malabar, and other parts of India; flies
heavily, and is only seen in the evening. Among the drawings of
Lady Impey I find a similar bird, but nearly as large as a Jackdaw.
JpJumage black, glossed with blue ; on the fore part of the head a
vast crest, rising high, and bending forwards; before it some loose
feathers, those behind are also long and loose. It is called by the
English the Crested Blackbird, but the Indian name is Bumrage,
and is no where more common than on the hills in the Kingdom of
Aracan.
In the figure given of the bird by Levaillant, the head is not
crested, otherwise similar to our engraving of it: and it is said to
have been brought from Batavia. I find this to be well figured among
the drawings of Sir J. Anstruther, where it is called Bungradja.
It appears there, that this "bird, and the Fork-tailed Shrike, are
considered as one species; that without the greatly elongated exterior
tail feathers being the female; those with the head smooth called
Bujunga. It is also conjectured, that the Paradise Cuckow of
Linnaeus is no other than this bird. M. Brisson, from whom authors
have had their descriptions, copied his figure from a drawing sent to
him from M. Poivre, but the toes we may suppose are wrong, being
placed two and two.
 59
60. CINERACEOUS SHRIKE.
Edolius cineraceus, Lin. TVan*.xiii. p. 145.
THIS is eleven inches long, and very similar to the Fork-tailed
Crested Species, but the bill is more robust, and the exterior rectrices
form a greater curve than in the last named. The colour of the
plumage is universally cineraceous, but the quills at the tips, and
the outer margins of the lateral feathers are black.
Inhabits Java.—Dr. Horsfield.    Called Chenta*
61— FORK-TAILED CRESTED SHRIKE.
Lanius forficatus, Ind. Om.i. 66.    Lin.i. 134.    Gm. Lin. i. 297
Lanius Drongo, Shaw's Zool. vii. 289.
Muscic. madag: nigr. major cristata, Bris. ii. 388. t.37. 4.   Id. 8vo.i. 266.
Edolius forficatus, Lin. Trans, xiii. 144.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxi.
Drongo, Bufu 586.   PL enl. 189.    Levail. Afr. iv. 56. pi. 166.
Fork-tailed Crested Shrike, Gen. Syn.i. 158.
SIZE of a Blackbird; length ten inches. Bill black; at the
arigles of the mouth a few slender bristles; plumage greeiifen black;
on the forehead an upright crest, near one inch and three quarters
long; tail black, long, greatly forked, edged with greenish black;
legs and claws black. M. Levaillant says, the tail consists of only
ten feathers, and that the wings reach to about one-third on it. Some
of these are destitute of a crest, and have been supposed females,
but this author adds, that the female differs in being smaller, and the
crest not half so large; otherwise like the male. We may therefore
suppose, that the individuals without the crest are most probably
young birds, not come to adult plumage.
I 2
 60 shrike.
Inhabits Madagascar, China, and the Cape of Good Hope; the
nest said to be built on trees, and the bird to feed chiefly on bees, of
which it only eats the bodies; found in vast troops at certain seasons;
the male has a short song morning and evening. The natives call
this bird the Devil, probably from its colour; Dr. Horsfield met with
it in Java, named Sri-Gunting.
62—FORK-TAILED SHRIKE.
Lanius caerulescens, Ind. Om. i. 67.   Lin. i. 134.   Gm. Lin. i. 297. Shaw's Zool. vii. 291.
 bengal, cauda bifurca, BrisAi. 189.    Id. 8vo.i. 210.     Klein. Av. 54.     Gerin.
t. 57. 1.
Fingah, Buf. i. 108.   Levail. Afr Av. 68. pi. 170.
Drongo, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxi.
Fork-tailed Indian Butcher-Bird, Edw. pi. 56.
 Shrike, Gen. Syn.i. 158.
SIZE of the' Cinereous Shrike; length seven inches and a half.
Bill bent, blackish brown; at the base of the upper mandible several
black hairs, turning forwards; plumage above glossy black, with a
tinge of blue in some lights, varying to green; under parts of the
body white; breast dark ash-colour, inclining to black; greater quills
and tail ferruginous black, the latter considerably forked, the outer
feathers largely marked with white at the ends; in some specimens
the outer tail feathers are only spotted with dirty white at the ends ;
legs blackish,   j
Inhabits Bengal, where it is called Fingah ; it has also obtained
the name of the King of the Crows, from its*pursuing the latter from
place to place with great energy and noise, and pecking them on
the back till they fly off; the egg is one inch long, reddish white,;
with small red spots, chiefly at thelarger end.
 61
63. DRONGEAR   SHRIKE.
Drongear, Levail. Afr. iv. 61. pi. 167. 168.
THIS is smaller than the Drongo. Bill and legs black; the
head is not crested; plumage in general dull black, with a slight
gloss of blue, changing to brown at the ends of the quills; tail
longish, and not greatly forked. The female rather smaller than the
male ; young birds have the lower belly striped with white; the ends
of the under tail coverts spotted with the same, and the plumage
tinged grey brown.
This species is common on the east coast of Africa, and in the
Mimosa Woods of the Gamtoos of Swarte Cop, and Sondag; the
nest is singular, made in a fork at the ends of branches of the trees,
composed of flexible twigs, and is so transparent and thin, as to
admit of the eggs being seen through the body of it, for there k no
lining; they are four in number, white, and marked with spots of
black, in shape nearly square; the male and female sit in turns.
64—PHILIPPINE SHRIKE.
Corvus Balicassius, Ind. Orn. I. 156.   LinA. 156.    Gm. Lin.i. 371.    Shaw's Zool, vii.
352.
Monedula philippensis, Bris.ii. 31. t.2. f.l.    Id.8vo.i. 163.    Gerin.ii. 1.154.
Choucas de Philippines, Buf. iii. 83.    PL enl. 603.
Le Drongup, Levail. Afr. iv. 73. pi. 173.
Drongo, Tern. Man. Ed.ii. Anal, p.lxi.
Philippine Crow, Gen. Syn.i. p. 381.   Id. Sup. p.78.
LENGTH almost twelve inches. Bill black, cultrated, hooked
at the tip; base of both mandibles beset with bristles, which are
more strong on the upper; tongue lacerated; irides very deep red;
the whole plumage bright, glossy black, changing into green or
 02 shrike.
blue, except the quills, and under side of the tail, which are without
gloss; the first quill is short, the fourth the longest; tail six inches
and a half long, and much forked, the two outer feathers one inch
and a half longer than the next, and two inches and a half longer
than the central ones, with the outer webs very narrow; they tend
outwards, and are curved obliquely at the tips; number of tail
feathers ten ;# legs black. Some individuals have the vent feathers
margined with dirty white,! perhaps owing to difference of sex.
Inhabits India; lives in the groves near Calcutta all the year; is
a great enemy to the common Crow; feeds on insects; it is a wild
species, and cannot be tamed; the usual song is by no means
disagreeable, but the bird is sometimes very clamorous, and screams
violently; is often met with among cattle, and assists the Caag and
Salic! in freeing them from insects.
This, Dr. Buchanan thinks to be the Bujunga of Hindustan
Proper, and the Finga of the Bengalese, and not the Fork-tailed
Shrike, as is usually supposed; yet among some drawings brought
from India ,by Major Roberts, and others, in the possession of Sir
J. Anstrather, the latter bird is named Bujunga: hence we may
conclude that more than one may go by that name, or, that such
birds are more nearly allied than has been hitherto imagined. §
IHN
65. LONG-TAILED   SHRIKE.
Drongolong, Levail. Afr. iv. 72. pi. 174.
THIS is more slender than the last,.particularly the tail, which
is as long as the body, and greatly forked, the two middle feathers
* Dr. Buchanan.—Levaillant «ays it has twelve, and that it has a fsstaalit curled crest over
the nostrils, independent of the bristles.
*       f I have seen two other varieties: in one the breast, and inside of the ridge of the wing,
near the shoulder, was clouded with white; the second had the belly of a slate-colour.
J Grakles. § It is called, in the Philippine Islands, Bali-cassio.
 shrike. 63
being two inches and a quarter shorter than the outer, producing a
more considerable fork—4he number in all twelve; the bill and legs
are lead-colour; plumage in general black, with a bright blue gloss.
Inhabits India.
66—BRONZED SHRIKE.
Drongo bronz6, Ltvail. Afr. iv. 75. pi. 176.
SIZE of the second species. Bill and legs black; general colour
of the plumage above black, with a most brilliant changeable blue
gloss, like bronze, in some lights appearing green; belly, sides, and
under tail coverts dull black grey; under parts of the wings and tail
black; the last forked; the hairs about the nostrils point forwards,
and there is a large oval patch of black under the eye.
Inhabits Bengal. I observe some of these among some drawings
from India, said to be found in Hindustan, and named Bujunga.
67—RAJAH SHRIKE.
LENGTH eleven or twelve inches. General colour of the
plumage brownish black, inclining most to red-brown on the wings;
the body is very stout for the size; bill black, crooked at the tip,
and furnished with several stout bristles from the base of the upper
mandible, arising among the feathers; nostrils conspicuous; tail four
inches and a half long, but the feathers seem unequal in length;
those which lie uppermost the shortest: hence we may suppose1 the
shape to; he forked; the wings reach ve*y little beyond the base; legs
dusky black, stout.
From the drawings of Lord Mountnorris; called Banga rajah.
 64 shrike.
68—WHISKERED SHRIKE.
Le Drongo moustache, Levail. Afr. iv: 63. pi. 169.
SIZE of the common Thrash. At the base of the bill, above
and beneath, long bristles, some standing erect, others pointing
downwards, and are double at the ends; bill and legs black; eyes
bright chestnut; plumage black, with a greenish gloss; wing coverts,
quills, and tail umber-colour, with a tinge of black; tail forked, but
not greatly so. One, in Mr. Bullock's collection, had the outer ridge
of the wing coverts, and some of the coverts themselves, edged or
tipped with white.
The female is one-fourth smaller, but the plumage the same;
lower belly and vent spotted with white.
Inhabits Africa, found in Caffre-Land; has a cry like Ghi-
err-gret. On dissection nothing but bees and smooth caterpillars
were found in the stomach.
69. DRONGRI  SHRIKE.
LeDrongri, Levail. Afr. iv. 65. pi. 170.
THIS is about the size of the last. Bill and legs lead-colour;
plumage wholly of a silvery grey; tail much forked, and consists of
twelve feathers, the inner webs darker than the outer.
Inhabits Ceylon; feeds on bees and insects:
A.—Drongri a ventre blanc, Levail. Afr.iv. 66. pi. 171.
This seems a variety of the last, and differs in having all the
under parts, from chin to vent, white; tail much forked, as in the
other.
Inhabits Batavia, with the above.
 SHRIKE.
65
With the above is another, which is probably the female; size the
same. Forehead pale greyish white, with a little mixture of dusky
rufous; upper parts of the bird pale rufous brown, beneath sandy
grey; belly paler; rump and vent as the back, but lighter coloured;
all the under parts crossed with fine triangular lines of black; wings
wholly dusky; the feathers edged with rufous; tail cuneiform, but
less so than in the other bird; the two middle feathers dark brown,
the others dark, with rufous edges; legs brown.
Inhabits India; from the collection of Lady Clive; communicated
to me by General Davies.
70—BLACK-EYED SHRIKE.
LENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill dusky black, bent at
the tip, and bristly; crown of the head, and all above fine rufous
inclining to orange; cheeks, and all the under parts white; from
the forehead springs a broad streak of black, which passes through
the eye, and reaches to the hindhead; wings black brown, the edges
of the feathers paler; tail two inches and a half long, cuneiform,
pale rufous brown, edged with a paler colour; on the edge of the
wing, near the bend, a small patch of white; legs black.
Inhabits Malacca.
71—CHINESE SHRIKE.
Lanius Schach, Ind. Orn. i. 75.    Osb. Voy. 227.    Gm. Lir,
Chinese Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. 173.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 324.
SIZE of the Tyrant Shrike.    Forehead yellowish ; head, and
neck behind grey; neck before testaceous white; back and bellv
VOL. II. xr J
 66 SHRIKE.
pale testaceous; quills black, the prime ones white at the base, the
secondaries white at the tips.
Inhabits China, where it is called Schach.
72—BLUE-GREEN SHRIKE.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill;stout, curved, black, with a double
notch in the upper mandible;. plumage wholly blue, glossed with
green, but not brilliant; tail two inches long, even at the end; the
wings reach about half way from the base; legs black.
Taken from the drawings of Mr. Dent; probably from India,
but this by no means certain.
73—YELLOW-BROWED^ SHRIKE
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill dusky black; crown of
the head, and sides greenish; ash-colour; from the nostrils a fine
yellow streak passes over the eye, and finishes in a point on each
side of the nape; under the eye a small yellow spot, and behind this,
in the direction of the jaw, a larger one of dirty white; upper parts
of the body, wings, and tail olive green; beneath yellow, more deep
on the chin and throat; quills dusky; legs brown.
Inhabits Africa?—In the collection of Mr. Bullock.
74—BLACK-HEADED SHRIKE—Pl. XIX.
309.    Shaw's Zool. vii
Lanius melanocephalus, Ind. Or
Black-headed Shrike, Gen. Syn,
i. 76.    Gm. Lin
165. pl.6.'
LENGTH six inches.    Bill black; crown of the head, sides,
and throat, shining black;   upper part of the body olive, paler
  If
 : //,v/
  SHRIKE, 67
beneath; rump dusky; quills and secondaries the same, the edges
of the latter olive; tail rounded, olive-coloured at the base, afterwards
black, the ends of all the feathers yellow, the outer one most so,
Bessening by degrees to those of the middle, which are yellow only
at the tips; legs dusky.
InhabitsRthe Sandwich Isles, in the South Seas.
75—BUFF-RUMPED SHRIKE.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill horn-colour; crown,
nape, and beginning of the back pale, ferruginous-chestnut; back
and wings biown; ramp buff-colour; wing coverts, and lesser quills
margined with pale tawny; £*reater quillsTnrown, about the middle
marked with tawny white on the outer web, forming a spot when the
wing is closed; the four middle tail feathers deep brown, with a pale
fringe at the tips; the rest of the feathers more or less sullied white
on the outer margins and tips; under parts of the body^from the
chin, sullied white; legs black.
Inhabits Africa; in the collection of Mr. Bullock. In one
specimen there was an obscure, brown spot behind the under jaw*
and the tail feathers darker coloured.
76—ROBUST SHRIKE.
Lanius robustus, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. xviii.
Robust Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup.fi. p.74.
THIS is a large species, being full twenty-one inches long.    Bill
strong, and black; plumage in general that of the Cinereous Shrike;
K2
 68 SHRIKE.
but the head, and the whole of the neck, as far as the breast, are
black; under parts much the same as those of the above, but very
pale, approaching to white; quills black; tail the colour of the
body, crossed near the end with a broad black bar, but the very end
of it is nearly white ; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits New-Holland; from its size seems to approach greatly
to the Falcon Genus.
Iff
77—ERECT SHRIKE.
Lanius erectus, Ind. Orn. Sup. p.
Erect Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup.
Shot
p. 74.
SIZE uncertain. Bill dusky; both mandibles curved towards
each other, of a moderate size, without any perceivable notch, the
head, hind part, and sides of the neck black; the crown very full
of feathers, which, when erected, gives the appearance of a crest of
conspicuous height; plumage in general pale green above, beneath
for the most part, inclining to yellow on the breast and belly; the
tail rather long; and dusky, some of the outer feathers very pale;
quills dusky.
Inhabits New-Holland; native name Bennong.
78—BARE-EYED SHRIKE.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill stout, curved as in other
Shrikes, but no notch at the tip; the base half enlarged and swelling,
colour pale rufous, the end black; eye surrounded with a bare space
of the same colour, continued from the gape, and ending in a point
beyond the eye; the head, even with the jaw, black, passing down
 on each side of the neck, and ending in a point; neck behind, back,
and scapulars pale blue-grey; all beneath, from the chin, white;
wings and tail black, the last even; the quills reaching to about the
middle; legs brown.
Native place uncertain; only met with among the drawings of
Mr. Dent, but supposed to have been from India.
79—CROWNED SHRIKE.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill dusky black; head, and
sides of the neck, to the back, black; from the middle of the crown
a yellowish streak passes, above the eye, to the hindhead, encircling
the whole as a crown ; all the under parts of the body dusky
white; chin plain, the rest streaked here and there with black; wings
dusky, marked on the coverts with yellow, and the rest of the wing
feathers edged with yellow; rump yellow; tail black, rounded, or
nearly even; legs dusky.
Native place uncertain.
80—BROWN-STREAKED SHRIKE.
SIZE of the Missel Thrush; length twelve inches. Bill stout,
yellow horn-colour, on each side of the nostrils some weak bristles^
general plumage above reddish brown, the feathers marked with
dusky down the shafts; sides of the head and chin very pale buff-
brown; behind the eye a longish brown patch; breast and belly
dusky white, crossed with some dusky brown, short marks; lower
belly, and vent plain; wings plain, the ten outer quills largely
dashed with rufous in the middle; fail cuneiform, the two middle
 70 SHRIKE.
feathers iseveh inches and a half long, and the exterior three inches;
all but the two middle ones paler at the ends, and a slender, narrow,
curved brown spot, corresponding with the tip; legs stout, dusky.
Inhabits New-Holland ?
81—CLOUDED SHRIKE.
Lanius torquatus, Ind. Om. Sup. p. xviii.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 329.
Clouded Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 73.
SIZE uncertain. Bill large and bluish; lore ferruginous; head,
neck behind, and sides beneath the eye, brown; back and wings the
same; under parts of the body much like the upper, but clouded
with white; tail longish; legs dusky.
Inhabits New-Holland.
82—SOLITARY SHRIKE.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill one inch and a half, pale lead-
colour, stout, much curved at the point; irides brown ; between the
bill and eye a ferruginous patch; all the upper parts of the body,
wings, and tail, deep brown; beneath dusky white, curving round
the neck, as a collar, but not meeting behind; beneath, close to the
eye, a dusky bluish crescent, half surrounding it; legs deep brown,
or black.
Inhabits New-Holland; is a rare and solitary bird, and its haunts
and manners but little known; except that it feeds on worais and
insects; of the latter is often, observed to seize and destroy strong
and crustaceous ones, for which purpose, the bill appears to be well
adapted. It seems to bear some affinity to the Clouded Shrike.-—
From the drawings of Mr. Francillon.
 71
83—NEW-HOLLAND SHRIKE.
BILL short, bent at the end; plumage above brown; beneath
pale yellow ash-colour, almost surrounding the neck as a collar;
before the eye and about the nostrils very pale; tail four inches long,
even at the end; the three outer feathers marked within at the tips
with pale buff; the first quill is half the length, the next reaches to
within three-fourths of the third, the rest as usual; legs brown, the
outer toe united to the middle one at the base ; the wings reach to
about one-third on the tail.
Inhabits New-Holland.
84—GLOSSY SHRIKE.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill moderately stout, hooked at the
end, black; nostrils round; plumage in general glossy black; tail
nearly even at the end; legs black.
Inhabits New-Holland.
85—PACIFIC SHRIKE.
Lanius pacificus, Ind. Orn. i. 75.
Pacific Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. 164.
. 306.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 331.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill three quarters of an inch long,
slightly curved, emarginated, and dusky; plumage in general black;
head and neck glossed with green; the feathers of both narrow;
belly, quills, and tail dusky; the last even at the end, and three
 lii
SHRIKE.
inches in length ; legs black, on the shins three oblique segments;
toes divided to the bottom, the middle and hind ones very long.
Inhabits one, or more of the Islands of the South Sea.    Place
uncertain.
86—FRONTAL SHRIKE—Pl. XX.
Lanius frontatus, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. xviii.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 312.
Pie-griesche, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal, p.lix.
Frontal Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup.ii. p.lh. pl.122.
THE bill in this bird is very large, and strong, with a sharp
process in the middle of both mandibles, colour nearly black; the
head and neck are black, the first crested; from the eye to the back
of the head a white streak; and from the nostrils, continuing on
the sides of the jaw, another, ending on the side of the neck ; body
fine olive-green above, beneath fine yellow; quills brown; tail the
same, the feathers more or less tipped with white; legs brown.
Inhabits New-Holland.
A.—In this variety the upper white streak goes on to the nostrils,
but the under only to the lower jaw; the yellow beneath the body
very pale; the whole outer web, and end of the exterior tail feather
white, the second tipped with white, the third the same, but only
just at the tip, the next blackish; the two middle ones, and outer
webs of the others ash-colour; quills the same, reaching to the
middle of the tail; bill and legs dusky horn-colour.
Inhabits New South Wales, seen chiefly at Port Jackson, but
generally in the winter, or the cold months; frequents watery places,
and has been observed to feed on the seeds of reeds, in the marshy
or wet grounds.—A fine specimen in the collection of Mr. H.
Brogden.
   73
87—TABUAN SHRIKE.
Lanius tabuensis, Ind. Orn.
Tabuan Shrike, Gen. Syn. i.
. 306.    Shaw's Zool, vii. 321.
LENGTH eight inches and three quarters. Bill one inch long,
brown, not much curved, with a small notch; top of the head
greenish brown; body above olive-brown; sides of the head much
darker; throat and breast ash-colour; paler down the shafts of the
feathers; belly pale yellowish brown, vent dusky; outer edge of the
wings, and greater quills black; the second quills black-brown,
margined with dusky white; tail brown; legs the same.
Inhabits the Friendly Isles, in the South Seas. The specimen,
from which the above description was taken, brought from Ton-
gotaboo.
88—BRIMSTONE SHRIKE.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill one inch and three quarters long,
stout, rather strait, except at the tip, which is hooked, colour dusky;
top of the head dusky black; the rest of the upper parts olive-brown;
all beneath brimstone-colour, but dull; vent nearly white; tail four
inches long, even at the end, all but the two middle feathers margined
within the tip with white; the first quill very little more than half
the length of the adjoining; legs brown.
Inhabits New-Holland.
VOL.  II. L
 74
89—WEEBONG SHRIKE.
vigaster, Ind'. Orn. Sup. p. xi:
Hied Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup. i
Shaw
p. 75.
SIZE of the Cinereous Shrike. Bill rather strong, and black;
head crested, and the whole of it below the eyes very full of feathers,
and black; upper parte: of the body and tail rusty brown, with some
reflections of green on the latter;! chin white; breast and belly
yellow; qwHs>dusky■■; tail somewhat Cuneiform^ Iegsiblack..
In the female the- head! is ash-colour;, streaked with dusky ^ and
the belly very pale rufous; crest asfcwjolour; chin white, with a black
crescent beneath it.
Inhabits New-Holland, whene* it is called Weefawig, but not
common; is a bold and fierce species? driving? all' the smaller b^irds
from its haunts.
A.—In a smaller variety, only seven inches long, the bill and legs
are black; the yellow surrounds the neck under the black at the
nape, with a har of black on the throat, above the breast; the upper
parts are olive-green, the under golden yellow; quills dusky, the first
only half the length of the next; tail even at the end, dusky, the
end pale ash-colour; the wings reach to about half the length of it;
this and the Brimstone species seem to bear great affinity to each other.
90,—B&ACK-FACED SHRIKE4.
LENGTH six inches: and a half; B£llr stout, bluish: hom-cojmfiji
plumage*above ash-colour, beneath, to the breast, the same; belly,
sides, and vent ferruginous j face, as far as;the eyes,. blaeJi fc tail even
at the end, and the wings reach to about three^fourthsjoft its length]?
legs slender, black.
Inhabits New South Wales.
 98
91—MUSTACHOE SHRIKE.
Lanius mystaceus, Ind. Om. Sup. p. xix:   Shaw's Zool. vii. 298.    Nat. Misc. ii. 869.
Pie-griesche rouge k Plastron blanc, Levail. Ois. ii. p. 55. pi. 65.
Mustachoe Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 76.
NEARLY the size of a Blackbird; length t<*n inches and a half
or eleven inches, of which the tail occupies full half. Bill and legs
dusky; head, hind part of the neck, back, scapulars, and wings in
^general, brown black; throat, and under parts of the body, fine red,
growing paler, inclining to yellow at the vent, not unlike in colour
to those parts in the Barbary Shrike, to which bird it also approaches
in size and shape of the bill; across the breast is a broad bar of
white, and a whisker of white on each side of the under jaw, arising
at the gape; the tail greatly cuneiform in shape, the two middle
feathers being five inches long, the outer only one inch and three
quarters, ithe Matermediaie ones lessening in equal proportions; the
feathers of the tail ten in numiber, of a lively plain red, paler beneath;
two of the middle quills have the outer webs red, forming a streak;
and the wangs, when closed, reach a very-little way, beyond the base
of the tail.
Inhabits one of the Isles of the Soulh Seas. In some specimens
the streak on the wm;g is white instead of red, probably owing to
difference of sex.
92—TUFTED SHRIKE.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill black, one inch long, stout, with
a deep notch near the tip; general colour of the plumage glossy
Maek, the feathers o£ tfae crown long, tufted, and capable of being
 76 SHRIKE.
erected as a crest; on the outer edge of the wing a few mottlings of
white, and the edges of some of the feathers are white also; tail
cuneiform, the two middle feathers five inches and a half in length,
the outer only three inches and a half; the wings reach to about
one-third; legs stout, brown; claws black.
Inhabits New-Holland.—In the collection of Mr. Lambert.
93—WHITE-EARED SHRIKE.
LENGTH seven or eight inches. Bill dusky black, without any
notch, and bent at the tip; irides reddish; head, and part of the
neCk black; the feathers of the crown very long, and forming a sort
of tuft or crest; on the sides, behind the eye, a large kidney-shaped
patch of white; from the gape a second, of a pale ash-colour, in
the direction of the lower jaw; lower part of the neck behind, and
back pale greenish olive; all beneath the body yellow, or brimstone,
passing on each side of the neck beneath the black; wings and tail
pale ash-colour; legs black.
One, supposed to differ in sex, had the white behind the eye less
in size, and the cinereous patch on the lower jaw wholly wanting;
the colours of the plumage also are less bright.
Inhabits New-Holland, and there called Tattanan.
94—BLACK-TOPPED SHRIKE.
Lanius atricapillus, Ind. Orn.i. 73:   Gm. Lin.i. 303.   Merrem. Ic. Fasc.ii. t.x.    Shaw's-
Zool. vii. 336.
Tyrannus atricapillus, Vieill. Am.i. p.78. pi.48?
Batara, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal, p.lviii.
SIZE of a Goldfinch; length about five inches.    Crown, nape
of the neck, shoulders, and wings black; wing coverts, and second
TSfr ■  "nt*<4MitWB&
 SHRIKE. 77
quills margined with white; the upper parts of the body mouse-
colour; beneath bluish ash-colour; tail cuneiform, all except the
two middle leathers tipped with white.
Inhabits Surinam, and is probably the same bird mentioned by
Vieillot, as above referred to.
95—BLACK-CAPPED SHRIKE.
Lanius pileatus, Ind. Orn.i. 76.    Shaw's Zool.vii. 335.
Black-capped Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 54.
LENGTH six inches. Bill one inch, hooked at the tip, dusky;
the head much crested, some of the feathers three quarters of an inch
long; head, and fore part of the neck, to the middle of the belly,
black; the upper parts of the body greyish ash-colour; between the
wings mottled with brown; wing coverts tipped with white, giving
the appearance of being barred; outer edge of the second quills
white; upper tail coverts and tail tipped with white; on the outer
feathers two white spots; legs black.
One with the above, supposed to be the female, had the crown
smooth, and blackish; chin and throat ash-colour; the upper part
of the body much like the other; between the shoulders mottled
with white; tail as in the male, but the outer margins white.
Both these were brought from Cayenne.
96—SPOTTED SHRIKE.
Lanius nsevius, Lid. Om. i. 81.    Gm. Lin. i. 308,    Shaw's Zool. vii. 325.
——- punctatus, Shaw's Zool. vii. 327.    Zool. Misc. t. xvii.
LeTachet, Levail. Afr. ii. 113. pi. 77. f. 1.
Batara, Tern. Man. Ed.ii. Anal, p.lviii.
Spotted Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. 190.
LENGTH about six inches. Bill black; upper parts of the body
wholly black, except a few of the feathers at the beginning of the
 back, and rapper wing coverts, which are tipped with white; on
each of the wing coverts an oblong white spot at the end, foirming
a regular series on the wing; under wing coverts white; quills and
secondaries edged with whites tfbe tail greatly rounded at (the end,
black, all the feathers tipped with white; on the exterior a white
spot on the outer web, about the middle; the under parts of the
body ash-colour; legs black.
Inhabits Cayenne. M. Levaillant observes, that the white ends
of the tail feathers occupy more space as they are more outward.
One of these, in the collection of Lord Stanley, had only the three
outer tail feathers tipped with white; a similar one, in Mr. Bullock's
Museum, had no part of ffce back marked with white, and the two
middle tail feathers of one plain black.
97—PIED SHRIKE.
Lanius doliatus, Bid.OrnA. 80.    Lin.i. 186.   Om.LinA. 309.   Mus. Ad, Fr.ii. p. 12.
Sterw's Zool. vii. 325.    Zool. Misc. t.xvi.
Lanius cayanensis striatus, Bris.ii. 187. t.293.   Id. 8vo.i. 210.
Batara, Tern. Man. Ed.ii. Anal, p.lviii.
Pie-griesche de Cayenne, PI. enl. 297. 2.
Black and White Butcher-Bird, Edw. pi. 226.    Hut. Quia*. 154.
Pied Shrike, Gen. Syn.i; 190.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill dusky, with bristles at the
base; head somewhat crested, the feathers being longer, white with
black ends, appearing at a distance striped white and black; plumage
in general barred across black and white, each feather having two
bars of each; under parts paler; quills black, with five or six white
spots on each margin; tail black, transversely spotted with white;
legs brown.
Inhabits Cayewne and Berbice, at the latter called Kwakwarra.
 79*'
98—LINEATED SHRIKE.
Lanius lineatus, Lineated Shrike, Zool. Misc. t. 6 ?
LENGTH seven inches; Bill one inek longs black, remarkably
stout; as.in the Pied Barbet, and crarvedatithe tip; the whole plumage
black, crossed with numerous fine lines of white throughout, but
mostly narrow; and closer on the crown? the quills- have only the
outer'webs spotted with white, and eight!or ten of the greater coverts-
marked in the same manner"; under/ parts of the body transversely
marked black, and- white, as theupper, but the black lines being
more narrow, give the partea whitish appearance, barred with black?
tail cuneiform, blackish, Grossed with' twelve or more curved, fine
white lines on each, side of the shaft; the wings, when closed, reach
oneMfburth on: the tail; legs stout,, one inch long,, and dusky.
Inhabits Berbice, and other parts in the neighbourhood of
Surinam; called there Kwakwarra; said to be a male.—In the
collection of Mr. MrfLea^ wirere I observed* theithree last described?
all of them are marked with the same name, as if varieties of one
another, but onj attending to them accurately, I am of opinion that
they are all distinct species.
99—SOUTH AMERICAN SHRIKE.
LENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill stout, dusky, under
mandible yellowish; plumage above rufous^ mixed with black;
crown darker, and plain; beneath barred cinereous and black; quills
margined with black, and fringed outwardly with rufous ; tail three
in/ches and a quarter Long, rounded' at. the end, crossed* with, about
twel«e.6bsolete bars of deeper ash; the outer feather half an inch
 80' SHRIKE.
shorter than the middle ones; the wings reach to the base; legs
dusky.
Inhabits Cayenne; said to be a female.
A.—A Shrike, very much like the last, is in the possession of
Lord Stanley, eight inches or more long. Bill one inch and three
quarters from the gape, stout, dusky black, with a notch at the
tip; head and neck, for the most part, black ; chin, and sides of the
neck marked with waved, dusky white, transverse lines; feathers of
the nape elongated, and form a short kind of crest of fine rufous,
or chestnut brown; the hind part of the neck also ferruginous
chestnut; back and rump ferruginous brown, with obsolete, dark
waved lines ; wing coverts marked'with concentric rufous-brown and
black curves, the last at the ends of the feathers; quills fine
ferruginous brown without, and on the inner webs dusky; all beneath,
from the breast, barred dusky white, and dusky, three or four bars
on each feather; tail rounded, three inches long, cinereous grey, with
eight or ten dusky black bars on each feather; upper tail coverts
barred also with the same; legs dusky.
Inhabits South America; is probably a variety, or differs in sex
from the last described.
100—GREY SHRIKE.
Lanius Nengeta, Ind. Om. i. 68.   Lin.i. 135.    Gm.Lin.i. 298.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 287.
Cotinga cinerea, Bris. ii. 353.    Id. 8vo.i. 256.
Guirarou Nheengeta, Raii, 166.    Will. 170.    Id. Orn. 235.    Bufiv. 459.
Grey Pye of Brazil, Edw. 318.
Grey Shrike, Gen. Syn.i. 183.    Id. Sup. p.53.    Arct. Zool.ii. 240. A.
SIZE of the Thrush; length nine or ten inches.    Bill dusky,
beset with bristles at the base; irides sapphire-coloured; from the
MS*mWE£*~mmmmWFWmttmm.
 SHRIKE. 81
gape, through the eye, a black streak ; plumage on the upper parts
dark brownish ash-colour, beneath cinereous white; in the middle
of the wing a few white feathers; quills and tail nearly black, all
the feathers of the latter, except the two middle, obliquely tipped
with white; legs dark ash-colour.
Inhabits Surinam, and Brazil; by some thought allied to the
Great Shrike, * by others ranked with the Chatterers ;t said to be
common at Guiana, and to frequent watery places in great numbers,
which at intervals set up a great cry altogether, by this circumstance
pointing out to the traveller, in the immense forests of that country,
a certain direction where to find water to allay his thirst; and this
part of its manners seems to belong to the Chatterer genus, yet the
figure in Edwards accords most with the Skrike. I do not therefore
think it improbable, that the synonyms here drawn together into
one, may properly belong to two species.
Mr. Pennant observes, that it inhabits Russia, but is more
frequent in Siberia, where it'lives in the forests the whole winter; is
taken and tamed by the fowlers, and kept by the Russians for the
diversion it affords in the manner of killing its prey, being the same
as before mentioned under the great Cinereous species, from which,
however, it should seem to differ specifically, and to be a larger, and
stouter bird.
A.—Lanius ardosiacus, Vieill. Am.i. p. 81. pi. 51.
This is grey above and white beneath, with a broad band on each
side of the head; wings marked with white; tail cuneiform, the two
middle feathers black, the outer ones white.
Inhabits America, especially in Georgia, Florida, and Louisiana;
makes a nest of dry bents and small roots, lined with wool and moss.
* Liimeeue—Edwards.
f Brisson—Buffon.
 101—LOUISIANE SHRIKE.
Lanius Ludovicianus, Ind. Orn.i. 69.   Lin.i. IS
2.   2tf.8vo.i. 202.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 294.
Lanius Aniericanus, Gm. Lin. i. 308.
Black-crowned Shrike, Arct. Zool. ii. No. 128.
Louisiane Shrike, Gen. Syn.i. 162.
SMALLER than the Cinereous Shrike. Bill, legs, crown, and
sides of the head, back, and wing coverts black, marked with a
small spot of white, and a larger one of the same on the ridge of the
wing; throat, cheeks, and vent white; breast and belly tinged with
ash-colour; tail long, the two middle feathers black, the others
marked with white at the ends, increasing to the exterior ones, in
which the black almost vanishes.
Inhabits North America; found in Louisiana. We suspect that
these last may be varieties of each other, if not belonging to the
Cinereous species.
102—AMERICAN SHRIKE.
, Ind. Orn.i. 69.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 301.
Pie-griesche de la Louisiane, PL enl. 397.
LENGTH seven inches and three quarters. Bill and legs pale
lead-colour; plumage in general rufous-brown above, and pale yellow
beneath ; crown of the head pale grey; chin white; behind the eye
a whitish streak; quills and tail black, the feathers of the latter
tipped with white.
Inhabits Louisiana.
Kmsz4mm&-r ,"mi,'r.-'M,ht?»«?«
 103—BRAZILIAN SHRIKE.
Lanius Pitangua, Ind. Om.i. 78.    Lin.i. 136:    Gm. Lin.i. 303.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 300.
Pitangua-guacu, Raii, 165.    Will. 146. t. 38.    Id. Orn. p. 198.
Tyrannus Braziliensis, Bris.ii. 401. t.36.    Id. 8vo, i. 269.
Platyrhinque, Tern. Man. Ed.ii. Anal, p.lxvi.
Bentaveo, Cuiriri, Tyran du Brazil, Buf A. 579. t.27.    PL enl. 212.
Bientave on Puitaga, Voy. d'Azara.iii. No. 200.
Brazilian Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. 187.
SIZE of a Blackbird; length nine inches. Bill very thick, more
than one inch and a half long, and pale brown, with bristles at the
base; plumage above brown, the feathers margined with yellow;
beneath the body fine yellow; base of the feathers of the crown fine
orange; on each side of the head, from the nostrils, a white stripe
passes over the eye to the hindhead; beneath, and behind each eye a
deep brown spot; throat white; on the upper tail coverts a few spots
of brown; quills brown, the inner edges rufous; tail brown, the
feathers margined outwardly with rufous; under parts of the body
olive grey ; legs blackish.
Inhabits Brazil; called Pitangua, from its note, which sounds
like the word Pouitenge; said to make the nest on trees, in the shape
of an oven, and closed at top, and to lay two eggs; both sexes
nearly alike.*
M. Temminck forms a genus of this by the name of Platyrhinque,
and joins with it our Great-billed, and Broad-billed Tody.
 84
104—YELLOW-BELLIED SHRIKE.
Lanius sulphuratus, Ind. Orn.i. 79,     Lin.i. 137.     Gm; Lin.i. 304.    Shaw's Zool.vi
309.    Vieill.Am.i. p.77. pi.47.
Lanius Cayanensis luteus, Rm.ii. 176. t.16. 4.    Id. 8vo.i. 206.    Gerin. t.58. 1.
Le Neinei, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 199.
Becarde a ventre jaune, Buf. i. 312.    PL enl. 296.
Gobe-mouche, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal, p.lxvii.
Yellow-bellied Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. 188.
SIZE of the Redwing; length eight inches and a quarter. Bill
blackish, an inch and a quarter long, bristly at the base; top of the head
black ; forehead white, passing through the eye on each side; under
this a black streak, beiginning at the under mandible, and continuing
beneath the eye, almost to the hindhead; plumage brown above,
and sulphur-coloured beneath; the base of the feathers of the crown
of this last colour, but seen only when the feathers are lifted up;
throat, and fore part of the neck white; wing coverts brown, edged
with rufous; quills and tail much the same, but the feathers of the
last are margined with rufous on both sides; legs grey.
Inhabits Cayenne. There seems much affinity between this and
the last bird, but the very great disparity of the bills must prevent
their being united into one species, although they may coincide in
some of the markings of plumage; they likewise differ in the make
of the body, the former being by much the more robust, and the tail
longer in proportion.
One of the above is in Mr. M'Leay's collection, brought from
Berbice, and named Itiki; M. Vieillot is of opinion, that this bird
and the Yellow-bellied Jay form but one species ; we have formerly
bad similar doubts in respect to this last, and the Brazilian Shrike,
as mentioned under the article Yellow-bellied Jay. Our Shrike is
called at Cayenne, Tictivie,  from its cry;  chiefly found in the
 85
Savannas, never in great woods, but often in high trees thin in
foliage, from which it darts on insects; feeds also on caterpillars;
common every where in the warmer parts of South America, but not
seen farther north than St. Domingo, and Porto Rico. M. Temminck
ranks this with the Flycatchers.
105—CAYENNE SHRIKE.
Lanius Cayanus, Ind. Orn. i. 80.    Lin. i. 137.    Gm. Lin. i. 304.    Bris.ii. 158. 1.14. 1.
Jd.8vo.i. 201.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 297.
Becarde, Tern. Man. Ed.ii. Anal, p.lix.
Pie-griesche de Cayenne, Becarde. PL enl. 304.    Buf. i. 311.
Le Distingue a tete noire, Voy. d'Azara,iii. 207.
Cayenne Shrike, Gen. Syn.i. 189.
SIZE of a Blackbird; length eight inches and a half. Bill red,
beset with bristles at the base, the tip black; the whole plumage
fine light grey, except the head, quills, and tail, which are black;
legs ash-colour; both sexes nearly alike.
Inhabits Cayenne; comes into Paraguay in September, and
departs in December or January; flies high, swift, and to long
distances; keeps for the most part in deep woods, and perches on
high trees.
A.—Lanius Cayanensis naevius, Bris.ii. 160.    Id. 8vo.i. 202.
Pie-griesche tachetee de Cayenne, PL enl. 377.
Spotted Cayenne Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. 189.
This differs in having a longitudinal black streak down the middle
of each grey feather, otherwise like the former.
B.—Spotted Cayenne Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup. p.54.
In this the forehead is pale buff-colour; on the ears a rufous
spot; body pale grey.—In the collection of Gen. Davies.
 80
106—RUSTY SHRIKE.
Lanius rubiginosus, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. xviii.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 313.
ferrugineus, Act, d'Hist, Nat.de Paris, v. i. pi. 1. p.911.
Rusty Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup.ii. p.75.
IN this bird the upper parts of the body are full rust-colour, the
under pale yellowish red; quills blackish within; forehead a trifle
crested, and rust-colour; hindhead and cheeks spotted.
Inhabits Cayenne. A bird five inches and a half long, in Mr.
Bullock's collection, was deep rust-brown above, fine ferruginous
beneath; sides of the head and chin obsoletely streaked rufous and
brown; wings and tail like the rest of the upper parts; legs pale
brown.
107—FULVOUS SHRIKE.
LENGTH nearly eight inches. Bill one inch and a quarter,
stout, depressed' at the base, and almost strait, except at the tip,
where it curves downwards, colour pale brown; nostrils almost covered
with hairy feathers; head large; that and the neck cinereous, with
pale streaks on the forehead and crown, and still paler on the chin
and throat; on the hind part of the neck a tinge of olive green;
the rest of the plumage ferruginous, or dull fulvous; but the tail and
under parts of the body, as also the under wing coverts, are paler
than above, though bright; quills brown, with the outer margins
fulvous; legs brown; claws hooked; the wings reach about one-
third on the tail, which is three inches in length.
Inhabits Brazil; in the collection of Lord Stanley. I have
observed a bird very similar to this, if not the same, differing only
in the size of the head and bill, both of which are smaller in
proportion; perhaps this may be a young bird, or differing in sex.
 87
108—BARRED SHRIKE.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill stout, black; head and
neck black, the crown plain, the rest marked with dull white streaks;
from thence to the vent finely barred with black and white; back,
wings, and tail fine ferruginous, a little mottled on the rump with
dusky; tail cuneiform ; legs brown.
The female has the crown of the head ferruginous instead of
black, in other respects like the male, but the barred parts are less
distinct.
Inhabits South America.—In the collection of Mr. Bullock.
109—CRESTED SHRIKE.
Lanius Canadensis, Ind. Orn. i. 72.   Lin. i. 134.    Gm. Lin. i.
f.3.    Id. 8vo.i. 205.    Gerin. t. 62. f. 2.    Shaw's Zool. vii
Pie-griesche huppee de Canada, Buf. i. 316.    PL enl. 479. 2.
298.    Bris.ii. 171. t.18.
314.
Crested Shrike, Gen. Syn.
182.
Arct. Zool. ii. 129.
SIZE of the Red-backed Shrike; length 6 in. Bill deep brown;
at the nostrils and gape some black bristles; top of the head rufous,
and the feathers long enough to form a crest; sides blackish, marked
with dirty white spots; hind part of the head and back rufous brown;
throat, fore part of the neck, and breast pale rufous, with longitudinal brown spots; belly, sides, thighs, and beneath the tail, pale
ash-colour; wing coverts blackish, margined with white; quills and
tail the same; legs blackish.
Inhabits Canada.
 A.—Le Rousset, Levail. Afr. ii. 115. pi. 77. f.2.
Tyran a huppe rousse, Vieill Am A. p. 79. pi. 49.
This is a trifle smaller. Bill and legs dirty horn-colour; top of
the head bright glowing rufous; cheeks and throat light black, varied
with rufous white, or rather spotted on the jaws, passing to the
hindhead, almost like a collar; lore whitish; upper parts of the
body, wings, and tail rufous, but not so bright as the crown, and
paler; quills dusky, mar;gined with rufous; tail bright rufous,
somewhat cuneiform, and the wings reach to the middle of it.
Inhabits Cayenne. Mr. Levaillant supposes it to be a young bird.
The under parts are indeed rufous, but very pale, especially on the
throat, fore part of the neck, and breast, the varied parts of which
are dusky white. It is said to be most common about bushes and
shrubs, feeding near the bottom, and rarely seen in other situations;
one answering to this description in the collection of Mr. Bullock.
B.—In the collection of Lord Stanley is one, which appears to
be a further variety. It agrees in many points with the general
description, but the wing coverts are obliquely tipped with white,
forming streaks on the wing; the tail two inches long, cuneiform, and
black; the outer feather shortest by half an inch; all of them marked
with a white spot at the end, deepest at the outer ones, the exterior
web of which last has a long white space about the middle of it; the
wings reach to about half way on the tail; the under parts of the
body pale rufous ash-colour.
 89
Lanius ruber, Ind, Orn
326.
Red Shrike, Gen. Syn.
110—RED SHRIKE.
i. 78.    Gm. Lin. i. 308.    Bancr. Guian. 154.    Shaw's Zool. >
SIZE uncertain. Bill straitish, with a tooth on each side, near
the point; nose naked; tongue appearing lacerated; the body of a
bright red colour, ornamented with spots like eyes on the wings and
tail, the ends of which are black.
Inhabits Surinam.—From the description of Dr. Bancroft.
Ill—BERBICEAN SHRIKE.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill as in the Pied Shrike,
and black; plumage in general fine rufous, paler beneath; sides of
the head brown and dusky white, in perpendicular streaks; tail
rounded, the wings reach to about half the length of it; the outer
quill is the shortest, and the third longest of all; legs black.
Inhabits Berbice; in the collection of Mr. M'Leay, and called
Kwakwarra,* a female. I have not ventured to join this with the
Red Shrike, however similar it may be in . colour, for there is no
appearance of eye spots on the wings or tail.
112—CHESTNUT-CROWNED SHRIKE.
LENGTH five inches.    Bill dusky,   bent at the end;   crown,
chestnut;  plumage in general olive green,  paler beneath;  wings
* The Pied and Lineated species are so called, which probably is s
several kinds.
voi.. n. N
 1
90 SHRIKE.
black, the feathers more or less margined with pale rufous; tail
rounded at the end, only three quarters of an inch in length, colour
pale rufous; the quills reach rather beyond the base; legs dusky.
Inhabits Cayenne.—In the collection of H. Brogden, Esq.
113—GREY-HEADED SHRIKE.
Tanagra Guianensis, Ind.Om.i. 427.    Gm. Lin.i. 893.
LeVerderoux, Buf. iv. 272.
Batara,  Tern. Man. Ed.ii. Anal, p.lviii.
LeSourcirou, Levail. Ois. ii. 111. pi. 76. f.2.
Le Lindo vert, a front roux, Voy.d'Azara, iii. No. 97.
Grey-headed Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 231.
SIZE of a Sparrow, but shorter; length under six inches. Bill
brown or black, made like that of a Shrike, having a notch near the
point; forehead deep rufous, with a streak of the same over the eye
to the nape; head and cheeks slate-colour; plumage in general above
the body olive green; beneath, as far as the breast, the same, but
paler, afterwards dusky white to the vent; tail even at the end, and
the wings reach va little beyond the rump; edges of both quills and
tail feathers greenish yellow; legs brown.
Inhabits Guiana, but not common; from the appearance of the
figure of the bird in M. Levafllant's plate, added to his opinion', it is
here placed as a Shrike.
114—WHITE-SHOULDERED SHRIKE.
Lanius varius, Ind. 0fc».i. 78.    Gm. Lin. i. 307.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 334.
White-shouldered Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. 190.
BILL black, upper parts of the body cinereous brown; forehead
and cheeks somewhat mottled with a paler colour; throat and breast
H
 buff-colour; bieHy, thighs, and Vent dirty brownish 'white; axillary
feathers, and scapulars white, forming a large spot on the shousider;
quills and tail brown; legs black.
Inhabits Brazil.
115—TYRANT SHRIKE.
Lanius Tyrannus, Ind. Om. i. 81.     Lin.i.
pi. 46.    Borowsk. Nat.n. t.4.    Bartr.1
Musoicapa Tyrannus, Bris. ii. 391.    Id. 8vo.
Le Titiri, ou Pipiri, Tyran, Buf iv. 572.
Le Suiriri, proprement dit, Voy. d'Azn™.™
Pica
Tun
iw. 287.   Shai
267.
L enl. 537.
Jo. 197.
. 302.    Vieill. Am. i. 76.
*Tyft
it Shri
i rubra, Klein. ]
ius, Tyrant Fly
, Gen. Syn.i. II
69. i
Id. Sup. ii. 73.
. pi. 13. f. 1.
SIZE of a Thrush ; length eigblfc inches, breadth fourteen, Bill
blackish brown, with bristtesat the base; irides brown; upper part
of the plumage grey brown, the under white; breast inclining to
ash-colour; top of the head nearly black; the base of the feathers
m the mrddle orange, but seldom visible, except the bird erects them
when the orange streak appears; tail brown, margined with rufous •
legs black brown.
The female differs principally in the head, the base of the
feathers being there yellow instead of orange; the colours, too in
general not quite so deep, and the bird a trifle less imsize.
Inhabits Virginia.
A—Tyran
St. Domin
>minicensis, Bris. ii. t. 382.
ant, Gen. Syn. i. 185. A.
This seems to differ chiefly in the tail, the feathers of it having
tbeouter edges and tips brownish white,; indeed M. Brisson does not
N 2
 92 SHRIKE.
mention the yellow on the head, but in specimens received, both front
Jamaica and Cayenne, I observe that circumstance, and therefore
suppose it to be the same species.
B.—Lanius Carolinensis, Gm. Lin. i: 302.    Vieill. Am. i. p. 73. pi. 44.
Le Tyran de la Caroline, Buf. iv. 577.
Gobe-mouche de la Caroline, PL enl. 676.
Tyrant of Carolina, Gen. Syn. i. 186. 37. B.    Catesb. Car. i. p. 55.    Arct. Zool. ii. No.
263.
This seems to have the colours both above and beneath more
defined, and differs chiefly from the tail feathers being tipped with
white; the bill, too, seems less in proportion.
In the female, the crimson streak on the crown is less conspicuous. In the Carolina Tyrant Shrike, from Mr. Abbot, all the
tail feathers have white ends, and the outer web of the exterior white.
Male and female, according to Mr, Abbot, are much alike.
C—Tyran de la Louisiane, Buf. iv. 579.
Louisiane Tyrant, Gen. Syn. i. 186. 37. C.
In this the upper parts of the body are lead-colour; greater
coverts and quills margined with 'white; tail the same, the outer web
of the outer feather white, the others tipped with the same; all the
under parts white; legs lead-colour; on the crown a crimson spot.
I have little doubt of the four last being varieties of each other,
or in different periods of growth; they inhabit various parts of
America, as far north as Lake George, and Champlain, to the
extreme southern places on the Continent, and likewise several of the
West India Islands ;<>< those of Carolina, according to Catesby,
frequent the red cedars, rarely in woods, but often in hedge rows
and fences of fields, and, for the most part, within two hundred yards
 SHRIKE. 93
of each other; they agree well enough together, but as soon as a
Crow, or even an Eagle, appears, all within reach are said to join
together, and attack the enemy at once, never desisting till he retires
to some distance.
Mr. Abbot, however, gives an account somewhat different; for
one of these having built its nest on the outside of a lofty pine in
Georgia, whilst he was considering how to obtain the eggs, a Crow
settled on the branch, and began to break and suck them, and
displace the nest, appearing all the while unconcerned, notwithstanding both the cock and hen continued flying at, and striking with
their bills; but as soon as the Crow had completed the robbery it
departed. This bird is known in Georgia by the name of Bee-
Martin ; arrives the 8th of April, and is soon scattered in pairs all
over the country; in the summer two or three pairs inhabit the side
of a pond ; the nest composed of wool, and dried stalks of flowers,
lined with fine fibres of roots and horse hair; the eggs reddish white,
or blush-colour, generally five, marked from the larger end to the
middle with irregular ferruginous purple spots, and others of light
brown, several of them confluent.
In St. Domingo these birds are called Titiri, or Quicquiri, from
the cry, which resembles these words; the first called Black-headed,
or Great-billed Pipiri, the second Yellow-headed Pipiri, or Pipiri of
Passage. They are said to differ in manners; the first, though in
plenty, seldom seen but in pairs; the second in great troops, about
the month of August, when they are very fat, and killed in great
numbers for the table, as their flesh is thought good.
From their ferocious manner, especially whilst the hen is sitting,
they have been called by some King Birds. They have no song;
build twice in a season; feed on bees in quantity, and numerous other
insects, also on berries. Young birds have not the orange head the
first season.*
* Amef. Orr,
 94
116—MAGPIE SHRIKE.
Lanius picatus, Ind. Orn. i. 73,    Gm. Lin.i. 302.
 Leverianus, Gm. Lin, i. 302.    Mus. Lev. t. p. 241.    Shaw't Zool. vii. 288. t.38.
La Pie Pie-griesche, Levail, ii. 33. pi. 60.    Daud. ii. 246.
Tangara, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxx.
Magpie Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. 192.   Id. Sup. 54.   Id. Sup. ii. 70.
SIZE of a Song Thrush ; length ten inches. Bill strong, black,
with a very slight notch near the tip; head, neck, and middle of
the breast glossy black; back, shoulders, and lesser wing coverts,
belly, sides, thighs, and vent white; greater wing coverts, and
second quills black, margined with white; greater quills wholly
black; tail long, and cuneiform, the two middle feathers four inches
and a half in length, the outer only two; all of them tipped with
white, which occupies most space on the outer feathers; legs stout,
and black.
Inhabits South America. On a label tied to the leg of one
brought from Cayenne, was written, Vale Savane, which probably
meant the name of the bird; from the mixture of black and white
in the plumage, it gives the idea of a small Magpie.
117—BLACK SHRIKE.
Lanius niger, Ind. Om. i. 73.    Gm. Lin. i. 301.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 319.
Black Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. 187.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill black, like that of the Tyrant, but
stouter in proportion, less compressed, and hooked at the tip, base
beset with bristles; general colour of the plumage glossy black; tail
somewhat cuneiform ; legs black.
 Inhabits, the internal parts of Jamaica, whence I received two
specimens, by the name of Black LoggeslaeM; one of them had
the outer edge of the second quills brown; probably differing in sex.
118—ORANGE SHRIKE.
Lanius aurantius, Ind. Om. i. 79.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 336.   -
Orange Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 57.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill one inch, black; top of the head
and sides, parallel with the under jaw, and the nape black; upper
part of the neck and body yellow; beneath the same, but less bright;
chin and breast inclining to rufous; wing coverts brown; quills and
tail the same, but darker; legs horn-colour.
Inhabits Cayenne.
A.—In one of these, which I esteem as a variety, the head and
eftrini are black; bill stout, black; the rest of the body golden yellow,
but the breast and rump deeper, and incline to orange; at the inner
joint of the wing a spot of white;.'wings and tail black brown, the
latter three inches in length ; legs slender, brown.
Inhabits Cayenne.—Taken from the drawings of General Davies,
and probably differs from the other in sex.
119—NORTHERN SHRIKE.
Lanius septentrionalis, Ind. Om. i. 76.    Gm. Lin. i. 306.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 331.    Vieill.
Am.i. 82.
Northern Shrike, Gen. Syn.i. 165.
LENGTH near eight inches.     Bill black,   not much  bent;
nostrils round and small; at the base of the upper mandible five or
 96 SHRIKE.
six bristles; plumage brown above; chin and breast cinereous; belly
and vent inclining to brown; tail two inches long, the four middle
feathers plain brown, the webs of the rest white at the tips; legs
short, lead-colour.
A specimen was brought from the northern parts of America.
120—NOOTKA SHRIKE.
Lanius Nootka, Ind. Orn.i. 80.    Gm. Lin.i. 309.    Shaw's ZooLvii. 335.     Vieill. Am.
i. 82.
Nootka Shrike, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 55.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill black; crown, lower
part of the neck behind, and back black; over the eye a white line,
quite to the nape; beneath that one of black; from this to the chin
wholly white; a narrow circle of white encircles the neck; lesser
wing coverts black, the greater white, more or less dashed with black
down the shafts; prime quills dusky, edged with yellowish brown;
secondaries black, edged and tipped with white; tail black, a little
rounded, the four outer feathers on each side tipped with white;
rump cinereous, the feathers edged with grey; legs black.
Inhabits Nootka Sound, in North America.
121— UNIFORM SHRIKE.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill brownish horn-colour;
plumage above olive brown, beneath pale olive green; wings and
tail as the upper parts; legs brown.
In the collection of Mr. Bullock; I.eainnot refer it to any species
before described. We have inspected two dried specimens, in both
of which a space round the eye seemed bare; but whether owing to
accident, or naturally so, cannot be determined.
 97
122—SUPERB SHRIKE.
Lanius superbus, Shaw's Zool. vii. 293. pi. 39.
Le Bee de Fer, Levail. Afr. ii. 121. pi. 79.
£|j^irj|jG.Sparactes, (Uliger), Tern. Man. i. p. lix.
THIS is somewhat stouter than a Blackbird, and above nine inches
long. Bill one inch, prodigiously strong, the inner edge of the upper
mandible a little undulated, inclining downwards at the end, colour
iron grey; nostrils at the base, covered with a few bristles ; tongue_
small, triangular, fixed to the bottom of the throat; plumage in
general black; on the forehead an erect crest of several unequal
feathers, inclining forwards over the bill, the longest one inch and a
half, hollowed out in a channel, several of the others very short;
the chin and throat are deep red, with a mixture of yellow, and the
feathers rather stiff; across the middle of the belly a broad band of
fine yellow, interspersed with a few streaks of red, and on the sides
a few black dots; rump and upper tail coverts greenish yellow;
second quills outwardly fringed with white, and on the exterior edge
of the quills a mixture of white; tail three inches long, and the
wings, when closed, reach to about the middle of it; legs bluish;
claws black.
We are indebted to M. Levaillant for an account of this singular
bird, which he thinks approaching to the Barbet Genus, but more
properly placed in that of the Shrike, from the toes being situated
three before and two behind. M. Levaillant has only seen two
specimens, one in his own possession, and was informed that they
were inhabitants of some of the South Sea Isles.
M. Temminck joins M. Illiger in separating this bird from the
Shrikes, and forming a new Genus, under the name of Sparactes.
 98
GENUS* V£—PARRO&
* With uneven Tails.
1 Red and Blue Maccaw
A Var.
2 Red, Yellow, & Blue M.
3 Patagouiain.M*, ■,, |
4 Military M.
5 Red and Yellow M.
6 Blue and' Yellow■ M.
A BlueM.
7 Hyacinthine E.
8 Parrot M.
9- B3ack M.
U) ^ftspure Parrot
11 Noble Parrot
12 Brasilian Green M.
13 Blue-crowned M..
14 Gingi P.
A Van
15 Japonese P..
16 Banded P.
W.itebueauK-
l^iScaBdet and Green.P.
A Var.
B Var.
19 Amboina Red P.
2Q> Bluo-headed P.
A Var.
21 Bauer's P.
22- Azurcheaded P.
23 Barnard's P.
24 Scarlet-breasted P.
25 Javan P.
26 Red-breasted P.
A Orange-breasted P.
B Blue-bellied P.
C Ditto Var.
27 Black-crowned P.
28 Papuan Lory
A Var.
B Var.
C Var.
D Var.
29. Long-tailed Scarlet L.
30 Indian L.
A Var.
31 Molucca L.
32,JayMsingedL.
33 Van-Diemen's P.
A Var.
34 Penuantian Pi
A Var;
B Var.
35 Sulphur-headed P.
36' Gueby L.
A Blue-head&d h.
B Violet L.
37 Red-hooded P.
38 Blue-necked. L.
39 Variegated L.
40 Ground P.
41 Nonoareil P.
42 Brown's P.
43 Black L.
44 Lory P.
45 Crested Red P.
46 Yellow-headed P.
47 Angola-T«eMbw P.
IP.
49 Crimson and Yellow
50 Cblorotic P.
511 Yellow Miecaw--F.
52£€Wden.P.
53 Pale P.
54 Brasilian Yellow P.
A Cayenne Yellow P
B Mexican Yellow F
'Sf>€afolina P.
A Orange-headed P.
>59«Hlmois P.
57 Crimson-vented P.
58 Emerald P.
59 Red and Blue-headed P.
A Buff-fronted P.
60' BVown-throated P.
A Browr*-fronted P.
61 Long-tailed Green P.
A Guiana Green P.
62 Jfcguilma P.
63: Pas-ouane P.
A Var.
64 Varied-winged P.
65 Lace-winged P.
66 Great-billed P.
67 Dubious P.
68 Black-necked P.
69 Alfexandrine F.
A FuttelTglturB.
70 Rose-ringed P.
A Bracelet P.
B Double-ringed P.
71 Blue-collaneduBi;
72 Mustachoe P.
A Bearded P.
B Var.
78i WhisfeerediK
74-Blossom-headed, P.
A Rose-headed Ring P.
B Bornean P^
C Malaem=R!'dlH-^^3!,
D Varr
75 Yellow-collared P.
76 Racket-tailed P.
77 Yellow-winged P.
78 Wavewbreasted P.
 79 Wave-headed'Pl
80 Scaly-breasted P.
81 Wilson's P.
82 Long-billed P.
83 Red-winged P.
84 Grey-breasted P;
85 Homed P;
86 New Caledonian P.
87 Red-rumped P.
88 Crested P.
89 Society P.
90 Red-shouldered P.
91 Sanguine P.
92 White-collared P.
93 Golden-crowned P.
94 Lineated P.
95 Undulated P.
96 Pacific P.
A Var.
B Var.
C Var.
D Var.
97 Crimson-fronted P.
A Var.
BVar.
C Var.
98 Varied P.
99 Red-topped P.
100 Yellow-cheeked P.
101 Red-faced P.
102 Crimson-crowned P.
103 Buenos Ayres P.,
104 Turcosine-P.
105 Orange-bellied P.
106 Rose-fronted P.
107 Prasine P.
108 Abyssinian P.
IG^Bluevbanded P.
A Var.
110 OtahefteP.
A Sparmann's P.
111 Blue-crested P.
1,12-Solitary P.
113 Chiripepe P.
114 Widow P.
PARROT.
115- Orange-winged P.
116 Peregrine P.
117 Palm P.
118 Small P.
119 Pygmy P.
120 Agile P.
A Red-bar P.
121 Buff-crowned P.
122 Modest P.
123 Spotted P.
124 Azure-bellied P.
**  With even Tails;
125 Crowned Cockatoo
126 Black C.
127 Grey C.
128 Banksian C.
A Var.
B Var.
C Var.
129 Solander's C.
130 Cook's C.
131 Funereal C.
A Var.
B. Var;
132 Great White C.
133 Greater Red-crested C.
134 Red-vented C.
135 Long-nosed C.
13$ ©rested C.
137 Lesser Crested C.
138 Red atKbwhite P.
139 Rose-coloured C.
140 Ash-coloured P.
A Red-winged'dftto-
B Red & Ash-colicBttoi
CVar.
141 Cinereous P.
142 Southern brown P.
143 Levaillant's P.
14A Black P.
145 VasaP.
146 Mascarine P.
A'Var.
• 147 Ash-HrownrPrh
148 Hawk-headed P.
A Mailed P.
BVar.
149 Thecau P.
150 Crimson and blue-c<
lared P.
151 Ruff-necked P.
152 Red-crowned P.
153 Robust P.
154 Varied P.
155 Sparrow P.
156 Chili P.
157 Blue-headed Pi
158 Little Dusky P;
A Var.
159 Dusky.
A Var.
160 Ceram Lory.
A Noira L.
B. Scarlet L.
C. Var.
161 Purple-capped'L.
A Blue-capped'L.
162 Rajah L.
163 Unicolor LL
164 Blue-tailed L.
165 Blue-fringed L.
166 Black-capped L.
167 Crimson L.
l684Red Iffii
109 Grand L.
A Var.
170 Cochin-China L.
•Mlf,Yfell^Be&teai KV-
172 Paiaguao.B.
173 Red & Blue P.
A Var.
!«?< Gfretent& Rfed Chines
175 GrisledP.
176 Amboina P.
177 White-fronted P.
• A W*mte-headed P.
 100
B Ash-crowned P.
178 Gerini's P.
179 White-crowned P.
180 Yellow-headed Amaz. P.
A Yellow-crowned P.
B Party-billed P.
181 Ash-fronted P.
182 Manilla Green P.
183 Com. Amazon's P.
A Jamaica P.
IVMain P.
C Blue-topped L.
D West Indian Green L
E Brazil. Yellow-fr. P.
FVar.
G Var.
H Counterfeit P.
184 Yellow-shouldered P.
185 Yellow-winged P.
A Var.
B Var.
186 Yellow-cheeked P.
187 Meally-green P.
188 Blue-fronted P.
189 Autumnal P.
A Blue-faced'P.
B Red & White-faced P.
C Brazilian Green L.
190 Pileated P.
PARROT.
191 Red-headed Amazon's P.
192 New-Guinea Green P.
193 Eastern P.
194 Dufresne'sP.
195 Blue-cheeked P.
196 Amber P.
197 Festive P.
198 Crimson-winged P.
199 Red-banded P.
200 Crimson-banded P.
201 Paradise P.
202 Aurora P.
203 White-breasted P.
A Var.
204 Hooded P.
A Nenday P.
205 Senegal P.        "L^"j
206 Cowled P.
207 Red-throated P.
208 Red-fronted P.
209 Golden-winged P.
210 Red-headed Guinea P.
211 Mitred P.
212 Coffee-backed P.
213 Leona P.
214 Blue-rumped P.
A Var.
215 Red-naped P.
216 Red and Green Indian P.
217 Vernal P.
218 Red-rumped P.
219 Sapphire-crowned P.
A Philippine P.
220 Chestnut-crowned P.
A Var.
221 Purpled-tailed P.
222 Grey-headed P.
A Var.
223 Black-winged P.
224 Collared P.
225 Luzonian P.
226 Blue-faced P.
227 Blue-backed P.
228 Passerine P.
229 Blue-winged P.
A Var.
B Var.
230 Virescent P.
231 Short-tailed P..
232 Yellow-throated P.
233 Green P.
234 Cayenne P.
235 Gold-headed P.
236 Crested red and green P.
237 Crested Mexican P.
238 Blue-green P.
239 Nooffy P.
X HE bill in this Genus is hooked from the base ; the upper
mandible moveable.
.Nostrils round, placed in the base of the bill, which in some
species is furnished with a cere.
Tongue broad, blunt at the end, except in a few, in which the
tip of the tongue is bristly. - .IjEr
Head large, crown flat.
Legs short; toes placed two before and two behind.
Parrots are so well known, as to make a further general description unnecessary. These birds are found every where within the
Tropics, a few instances only excepted.    In a state of nature, they
 101
live on fruits and seeds, but will eat flesh, and even fish* when kept
tame. For the most part they make no nest; breeding like Owls in
hollow trees.t At certain seasons fly in prodigious troops, but are
observed to keep in pairs together, notwithstanding. $ This Genus
consists of an amazing variety; perhaps not so much owing to the
mixture of species as may be supposed, if the remark of M. Sonneiat
be true; that, although the same species may be found at great
distances on the Coutinent, owing to their shifting their quarters
occasionally for food ; yet in the Islands, each maintains certain
species, which are peculiar to that alone, and not to others of the same
group, though the distance from one to the other be very short; and
their plumage seems to partake so much of each other as to induce us
to suppose many of them related, though received from different parts
of the world. In this, however, we maybe deceived, as they are
perpetually carried from one Continent to the other for the sake of
sale. This uncertainty of native place might prevent our following
the otherwise judicious plan of Buffon, in arranging them according
to the places they are supposed to inhabit, and we shall therefore
merely divide them into those with uneven, and those with even
tails, much after the manner of Linnaeus, giving the best account
possible of each.
* Dr. Forster speaking of the effect of a poisonous fish, observes, that a little favourite
Parrakeet died in consequence of eating a bit of it.—See Obs. p. 209. 7.—Voy. vol. ii. 238,
as to flesh, most tame ones will eat it when dressed; but Sloane says, a great Maccaw fed on
raw flesh chiefly, but would eat other things likewise.—Hist, Jam. ix. p. 296.
f Fermin mentions, that some of the larger sorts make nests, by gathering a quantity of
rushes and small twigs, which they weave together, and fasten to the extreme branches of
the highest trees.—Descrip. de Surinam, ii. 177.
% M. Fermin observes, that at Surinam, about the time of coffee guthering, they are
sean by thousands; of which above 100 have been killed in an hour, and the tongues of
them cooked up into a dish, which was thought savoury.-—Descrip, de Surinam, ii. p. 177:
 102
1— RED AND BLUE MACCAW.
Lin.i; 139.    Gm. Lin.i. 312.    Scop.AnnA. No.21.
I    Gerin.i. 93. 1.102.    Buf.vi.
Psittacus Macao, Ind. Or
Borowsk. Nat. ii. 89.
Ara Braziliensis, Bm.iv. 184. t.19. 1.     Id. 8vo. ii. 94
179.    PL enl. 12.    Descr. Surin. ii. 173.    Naturf. xix. 80.
Psittacus maximus alter, Raii. p. 29.    Will. p. 73.    Klein, p. 24.
Ara Macao, Levail. Perroq.i. p. 3. pi. 1.2. 3.
Le Guacamayo rouge, Voy. d'Azara,iv. No.271.
The other Maccaw of Aldrovand,  Will. Engl. p. 111.
Scarlet Maccaw, Shaw's Zool. viii. 386. pi. 53.
Red and Blue Maccaw, Gen.Syn.i. 199.    Edw. pi. 158.    Alb.i.
136.    Johnst.Av: pi. 15. f.2.
.11.    Bancr. Guio
SIZE of a Fowl; length from two to three feet. The bill very
strong,* the upper mandible white, the tip, and sides at the base
black; the under wholly black; irides pale hazel; cheeks bare of
feathers, covered with a wrinkled whitish skin ; head,, neck, breast,
belly, thighs, and the upper part of the back fine bright red; rump
pale blue, scapulars blue and green mixed ; tail very long, and
greatly cuneiform, the exterior feathers being shorter by at least
twelve inchesx than the middle ones, which are red, with pale blue
tips; the next on each side half blue, half red, and the four outer ones
violet blue above, and dull red beneath ; legs dusky ; claws black.
Inhabits Brazil, Guiana, and other parts of SouthAinerica, and
we believe some of the Islands also; but becomes scarce, or wholly
eradicated in proportion to the increase of inhabitants.
These birds frequent the moist woods, especially those planted with
the Maccaw plant,t on which it feeds, and of which there are large
forests in the marshy, wet savannas; are chiefly seen in pairs, though
sometimes met with in vast flights; i are esteemed by the natives for
s to be able to crack a peach stone with ease. f Borassus flabeliifer.
>n, mentioning a water-fall in the Island of Quibo, says, " while we were viewing
ame in sight a prodigious flight of Maccaws, which hovering over this spot, and
 PARROT.
103
food, though not always with impunity, for they are said sometimes
to feed on the Manchineel apple in defect of other fruits, which renders their flesh very injurious, if not poisonous. Maccaws make their
nests in decayed trees, enlarging the holes with their bills if not sufficiently capacious, lining the inside with feathers. The female lays
two eggs, the size of those of the Pigeon, and spotted as in the
Partridge;* breeds twice in the year. The male and female sit by
turns on the nest, as well as nurse and feed the young birds; observed
to build from year to year on the same tree; when brought up young,
they are easily tamed, but the old birds are quite indocile. In the
wild state their voice is rough and disagreeable, but may be taught
many words, if attended to when young, and even then at intervals
squall very much. This species is subject to fits when in confinement, yet on the whole is a long-lived bird; is known in America by
the name of Gonzalo. This, and the blue and yellow species, are
said to frequent the Sopucaya tree,t for the sake of its eatable kernels.
I observe a slight variety, in which the pale part of the bill is
yellow, not white; all the wing coverts, except a small part of the
lesser ones next the bend of the wing yellow, with three or four spots
of green; the rest of the wing blue; in another, the lesser wing
coverts are crimson, below them a streak of green; the rest of the
wing and outer tail feathers bluej the bare space round the eye very
pale blue.
« often wheelmg, and playing on the wing about it, afforded a most brilliant appearance by
" the ghttermg of the sun on their variegated plumage : so that some of the spectators can-
« not refrain from a kind of transport, when they recount the complicated beauties which
" occurred in this extraordinary water-fall.."    Anson's Voy; p. 218.
* We are informed by a gentleman who kept a tame female Maccaw for many years
that it laid several eggs, entirely white, rather larger than those of a Pigeon, longer, and
more tapering to'the small end.       f Lecythis ollaria. Lin.
 104
A.—This is about two feet in length. Bill stout, black, but less
strong than in the Red and Blue species ; space on the sides of the
head flesh-colour, marked with fine curved lines of slender red
feathers; irides pale blue-grey; head and body in general red; the
nape, and back of the neck yellow; nostrils, just within the skin, a
triangular dusky space; feathers of the back dark in the middle, and
yellowish on the edges; those of the wing coverts darker red on the
margins, very dark in the middle, with white shafts; the rest of the
wing blue; the lower part of the back, rump, and upper tail coverts
blue; tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers fourteen inches long,
the outer ones very short, the colour of them fine red, with the ends
more or less blue, and pointed; legs dusky.
Described from a living bird at Exeter Change, London, and is
probably a variety of the Red and Blue Species,
2—RED, YELLOW, AND BLUE MACCAW.
Psittacus Aracanga, Ind. Orn. i. 83.      Gm. Lin. i. 313.     Raii, p. 29;    Will. p. 73.    Id.
Engl. 111.    Levail. Perrog.'x. p. 7. pi. 2.
Ara Jamaicensis, Bris.iv. 188.    Id, 8vo. ii. p.95.
Psittacus capite caeruleo, Klein, p. 24.
Petit Ara rouge, Buf.vi. 180.    PL enl. 641.
Scarlet Maccaw, Shaw's Zool. viii. 386. pi. 53.
Red and Yellow Maccaw, Gen. Syn. i. 201.  Alb. ii. pi. 17.   Brown. Jam. p. 472.   Barter.
Guian. 156.
A TRIFLE smaller than the former; length two feet nine inches.
Bill and irides the same; nostrils placed in a naked white skin ;
cheeks naked, and white; plumage in general scarlet; rump pale
blue; scapulars luteous, tipped with green; the eighteen first quills
are violet-blue, the inner edge blackish ; the others green, variegated
with blue and purplish chestnut; all the quills have black shafts,
 PARROT. 105
and are dull red beneath; tail cuneiform, as in the other; the two
middle feathers pale blue, the next half red, half blue, the four outer
ones blue, with a tinge of violet next the shaft, the whole dull red
beneath; legs brown.
Mr. Bancroft .says, it is peculiar to Guiana, and adds, that the
bill is black; Brisson makes it a native of Brazil and Jamaica, and
both suppose it to be distinct. The PL enlum. give figures of both.
In that of the first described, the bare space not only surrounds the
eye, but extends to the base of the under jaw, but in the latter the
eye alone is surrounded with it; in both the bill is black. Albin's
figure has a white space round the eye, but not seemingly bare of
feathers; probably the two only differ in age.
3—PATAGONIAN MACCAW.
Le Patagon, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 277.
LENGTH seventeen inches and a half. Bill dusky; round the
eye bare, and whitish; general colour of the plumage greenish
yellow; on the middle of the belly a large patch of red, and a
lighter tint of the same on the thigh feathers ; quills deep blue, and
the outer part of the wing coverts; the others, and under coverts
greenish yellow; quills dusky, but bright; tail eight inches and
three quarters long, deep green, towards the point blue; forehead
dull violet; top and sides of the head greenish brown ; fore part of
the neck, and upper part of the breast brown; legs pale olive.
Some of these birds are smaller than others, and are supposed
to be females.
Inhabits Buenos Ayres, from the 32d degree of latitude to the
Patagonian Coast; feeds on the seeds of thistles, maize, &c.; lives
in companies, roosts at night in holes of any kind; supposed to
be a new species.
 I
106
4—MILITARY MACCAW.
Psittacus military, Ind.OmA. 83.    Lin.i. 139.
Gm. Lin. i. 313.
Ara militaire, Levail. Perroq.i. p.9. pi.4.
LeMaracanafarde, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 274.
Largest Guiana Parrot, Bancr. Guian. p. 158.
Le grand Ara militaire, Levail. Perroq. pi. 6.
Great Green Maccaw, Edw. pi. 313.
Military Maccaw, Gen. Syn. i. 202.    Id. Sup. 58.
Gent. Mag. xliii. pi.
Zool. viii. 395.
SIZE of the former. Bill large, dusky; irides yellow; sides of
the head bare, and flesh-coloured, traced over with several slender
lines of black feathers; forehead red; the crown, neck, breast, and
wings full green; middle of the back, rump, and upper tail coverts
blue; quills, and part of the row of feathers next above them,
fine sky blue; insides of the wings, and under the tail dirty orange-
colour; tail cuneiform, as in the others, of a fine chestnut red,
tipped with blue; legs dusky flesh-colour.
I suspect this to be the bird mentioned above by Bancroft, as
big as a Maccaw. The bill long, slender, and flesh-coloured;
plumage beautiful pea-green; the feathers at the top of the head,
and upper edge of the wing red; tail long, composed of green, red,
and purple feathers. Said to be frequent at Demerary, and often
to speak distinctly; the name among the natives is Acushi.
Mr. Edwards took his description from a living specimen. We
have since seen a similar one, preserved on paper, at the late Taylor
White's, Esq. done by his daughter, in the manner described by Mr.
Edwards, in his History of Birds, and on Mr. White's death,
became part of the Leverian Collection.
* Buffon will have it to be a Variety of his Ara-vert.—Hist. Ois.ii. p.201.
   1
pM
  ■n
107
5—RED AND YELLOW MACCAW.   Pl. XXI.
LENGTH three feet at least. Bill two inches and a half, in a
strait line from point to base, but taken circularly above three inches;
depth of both mandibles at the base two inches and a half; colour
pale yellow oker; sides of the head, including the eye, bare and pale,
reaching quite to the under mandible; head, neck, back, wing
coverts, and all beneath to the vent scarlet ; second quills, and some
of the coverts above them fine deep yellow ; prime quills dusky rose
colour, paler towards the ends ; shafts of all the quills white ; lower
part of the back, rump, upper and under tail coverts rose-coloured
white; the tail greatly cuneiform, the two middle feathers twenty
inches long, the shortest or outer one six inches, the next eight, the
third ten inches ; the six middle ones scarlet, the others pale buff red,
growing pale yellowish white towards the ends, but the shafts of all
are white; the quills when closed reach about six inches on the tail;
legs stout, pale brown.
Inhabits Trinidad : brought from that Island by Lord Seaforth,
and added to my Collection, but is said to be by no means common.
I have never met with a second specimen.
6—BLUE AND YELLOW MACCAW.
Psittacus Ararauna, Ind. Orn. i. 83.    Lin. i. 139.    Gm. Lin. i. 313.    Scop. Ann. i. No.
22.   Borowsk Nat. ii. 83. t. 5. A.   Levaill. Perroq. i. p. 9. pl. 3.
Psitt. maxim, cyano-croceus, Raii, p. 28.    Id. 181. Sloan. Jam. ii. 296.  Will, 72.  Bris.
ir. 193. pl. 20.   Id. 8vo. ii. 96.   Klein, p. 24.   Gerin. pl. 103.   Johiist. Av. pl. 15.
f. 1:
L'Ara bleu, Buf. vi. 191. pl. enl. 36.   Levaill. Perr, pl. 3.   Descr. Sarin, ii 174.
Le Caninde,   Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 262.
Blue and yellow Maccaw, Ararauna, Gen. Syn. i. 294. Will. Eng. 110.    Id. 111. 4. pl.
15.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 391 pl. 54.    Edw. p. 159.   Alb. ii. pl. 17.
SIZE of the others; length various, according to the good or bad
condition of the tail feathers.    Bill black; irides sea green ; forehead
jjlfi
 r
108 PARROT.
to the crown, and sides of the head dull green; the rest of the
upper parts to the tail coverts fine blue ; cheeks and throat covered
with a bare white skin, and marked with black lines, composed of
very short feathers, which arise at the angles ot* the mouth, and pass
beneath the eyes, towards the hindhead ; eyelids edged with black;
from the lower part of the neck to the vent the plumage is of a saffron-
colour ; and in some birds there is also a mixture of the same on the
wing coverts; the tail greatly cuneiform as in the other, blue above,
the two middle feathers plain, the rest have the inner margins inclining to violet; and near the base margined with blackish ; legs
cinereous.
Inhabits Jamaica, Guiana, Brazil, and Surinam.
A.—Ara jamaicensis cyaneo-crocea, Bris. iv
Psittacus caeruleo-luteus, Klein. Av. 24. 2.
Blue Maccaw.    Gen. Syn. i. p. 205. 4. A.
191. idSvo.ii. 96.    Brc
This is about two feet and a half in length, and like the last >
the cheeks and chin covered with a white skin, but without the black
feathery lines ; it differs from the former also, in having the top of
the head blue, instead of dull green, in other respects one description
might serve.
Is said to inhabit the same places, but is less plentiful than the
first, and never unites with it in society, the one distinguished from
the other from the cry, being totally different,—this appears to be
opposite in sex, if not a young bird of the former.
 109
-HYACJNTHINE MACCAW.
Psittacus Hyacinthinus, Ind. Om. i. p. S4
 Augustus, Mus. Lev. No. 2. t. ii.
Le Guacamayo bleu, Voy. d'Azara. ir. No. 273.
Hyacinthine Maccaw, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 80.   Nat. Misc. pl. 609.   Shaw's Zool. vii
393.
THIS rare species is the size of the blue Maccaw; length two
feet four inches. Bill very large and black ; cere at the base straw-
colour ; the body very deep blue, inclining to violet; quills and tail
violet-blue, with a tinge of green on the margins; orbits and chin
covered with a naked, yellowish, skin ; tail as in the blue Maccaw,
but not more than half the length ; legs dusky ash-colour.
Inhabits South America. Lord Orford was in possession of a
living one of this species, and the only one known to exist; which,
after death, was introduced into the Leverian Museum; but at that
time not known from whence it came.
Mr. Pennant gives an account of a similar one, in these words—
" The late Lord Orford had a Parrot, a true Maccaw, which he was
certain came from the East Indies; it was as large as the Brazilian :
the upper part blue; the breast below deep yellow." This account
was transmitted to Lord Barrington, in a letter from Lord Orford,-
August 28, 1788.—M. dAzara found several pairs of the Hyacinthine Maccaw between the 27 and 29 deg. of lat. of South America ;
but never more to the northward ; though he is assured, that they
are also to be met with in lat. 33|; and that they not only build in
the holes of the trees, but likewise in holes made in the perpendicular
banks of the rivers Parana and Uruguay. The female differs only in
being smaller: one of these, supposed a male, in Mr. Bullock's Museum, has the tail as long as the rest of the bird.
 \
uo
8—PARROT MACCAW.
Psittacus Makavouanna, Ind. Orn. i. 84.   Gm. Lin. i. 314.    Levail. Perr. i. p. 17. pl. 7.
Perriche Ara, Buf. vi. 277. pl. enl. 864   Barrer. Fr. Eq. 145.
Parrot Maccaw, Gen. Syn. i. 205.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 398.
ACCORDING to M. Barrere, the length is eighteen inches.
Bill black ; sides of the head, and round the eye to the chin bare and
white ; top and sides of the head green, with a mixture of blue; the
latter most predominant in a certain light; upper parts of the body,
wings, and tail dark green ; throat, fore part of the neck, and upper
part of the breast tinged with rufous; the rest of the under parts
green, but paler than the back; lower parts of the belly and vent
red brown ; quills blue, bordered with green, and tipped with brown
on the outer side; tail greatly cuneiform, the under parts of that and
the wings dark green; legs dusky.
Inhabits Cayenne and Guiana: called by the natives Makavouanna : said to he a bird of passage, and to frequent the moist Savannas, as the other Maccaws, and like them, feeding on the fruits of the
palm : it pronounces the word " Ara," pretty distinctly.
9—BLACK MACCAW.
Psittacus ater, Ind. Om. i. 84.    Gm. Lin. i. 314.
Ara noir, Buf. vi. 202.
Ararauna, ou Machao, De Laet Descr. des Ind. Or. 490.
Black Maccaw, Gen. Syn. i. 206.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 399.
SIZE uncertain. Bill and eyes reddish; the plumage in general
black, but so blended with green, that in the sun it has a most
splendid appearance; legs yellow; although neither the size, nor
 shape of the tail are mentioned, yet from the name of Maccaw being
given to it, the latter is probably cuneiform.
Said by De Laet, to inhabit Guiana, but never approaching near
habitations, keeping on the tops of dry and barren mountains, and
rocks in the inland parts.
Psittacus obscurus, Ind. Orn A. 84.    iti
Id. Engl. 196.
Obscure Parrot, Gen. Syn.i. 206.    Shai
10—OBSCURE PARROT.
140.     Gm. Lin.i. 314.     Hasselq; It. 236.
Zool. viii. 400.
SIZE of a Jay. Bill black, the feathers round the base of it
black, rough, and beset with hairs; space round the eye white;
irides yellow; crown variegated cinereous and black; upper parts of
the neck and wings black ; belly and thighs cinereous, marked with
transverse hoary lines; tail wholly ash-coloured, cuneiform; legs
tuberculated, black; toes the same; claws crooked, and black.
Inhabits Africa. The only one who has described this is
Hasselquist, from whom Linnaeus had his account; as to that which
the latter refers to in Brisson, it is quite a different species, and he
mentions it as such in his last Mantissa.*
Psittacus nobilis, Ind. Oi
p. 13.
Noble Parrot, Gen. Syn: i. 207.   Shaw's Zool.
11—NOBLE PARROT.
85.    Lin.i. 140.    Gm.Lin.i. 314.   Mus. Adolp. Fr. ii.
401.
SIZE of a Turtle.    Face naked, white; the body wholly green;
bend of the wing scarlet; quills and tail green; the latter wedge-
■H
* Psit. mascarinus, Mantiss. 1771. p. 524.
 112 PARROT.
Besides the above synonyms, Linnaeus refers to several other
authors, all of them corresponding with the Parrot of Amazons, and
its varieties; the description above is from the Museum Adolphi.
Said to inhabit Surinam, but according to Linnaeus, Asia.
12—BRAZILIAN GREEN MACCAW.
t. Lin. i. 315.    Scop. Am
, No. 23.
Psittacus severus, Ind. Om.i. 85.    Lin.i, 1
Borowsk. Nat. ii. p. 89.
AraBraziliensisviridis, Rm.vi. 198.    Id. 8vo.ii. 98.
Ara Braziliensis erythrochlora, Bris.ir. 202.    Id.8ro.ii. 99.    Gerin.i. 92. t.101.
L'Ara vert, Buf. vi. 194. pl. S.    Pl. enl. 383.
Ara Maracana, Levail. Perroq. i. p. 19. pl. 8. 9.
Maracana, Raii, p. 29.    Will. p. 74.    Id. Engl, 112. 5. 6.
Brazilian Green Maccaw, Gen. Syn. i. 208.    Id. Sup. 58.    Edw. pl. 229.     Sloan. Jam:
ii. 297.    Shaio's Zool. viii. 397.
SIZE of a Crow ; length seventeen inches. Bill black ; on the
cheeks a bare white skin, marked with some lines of black; irides
golden yellow; the general colour of the plumage green; forehead
chestnut purple; on the lower jaw a stripe of the same; crown blue;
blending itself by degrees with the green backwards; lower part of
the thigh red; edge of the wing, and under wing coverts crimson, the
last paler ; some of the wing coverts and quills blue, and the outer
edges of the last beneath dull red; legs brown.
The female is said to be wholly green, with no markings of red
about her, otherwise does not differ.
Inhabits Guiana, Brazil, and Jamaica. I have ventured to join
both quotations from Brisson, as they differ merely in having the
forehead brown ; the crown blue green, and the green colour darker
than in the other. Sloane says, they are common in the woods, and
eaten as Pigeons, and when young may be tamed and kept as Parrots;
large flocks met with in Brazil in the maize-fields, where they do
 PARROT. 113
much damage.    It has a piercing cry, and heard a long way off.
Called in Brazil Aracan.
In a collection from Cayenne was one, which appeared to be the
female; this was grey, with the crown bluish; towards the rump
yellowish; neck before dusky ash-colour; breast and belly yellow
green; between the legs crimson, approaching to chestnut; quills
blue, fringed outwardly with green; tail greatly cuneiform, the two
middle feathers eight inches long; all the feathers yellow green,
with chestnut shafts; legs black.
13. BLUE-CROWNED MACCAW.
Le Maracana a t<ete bleue, Voy. d'Azara,iv. No.278.
LENGTH thirteen inches, Bill pale, with a dusky point; tongue
black; irides red, round the eye nearly white; plumage in general
green, paler beneath; top of the head pale blue; the two middle
tail feathers pale blue, and all, except these, margined within, and
at the tips, with flesh-colour; legs dusky.
One of these was found under the 24th degree of latitude, and
appears to be new, if not allied to the Brazilian green Maccaw.
14—GINGI PARROT.
Psittacus Eupatria, Ind. Orn. i. 85.    Lin. i. 140.    Gm. Lin. i. 315.
Psittaca Ginginiana, Bris. iv. 343. t. 29. f. 1.   Id. 8vo. ii. 136.
La grande Perruche a aisles rougeatres, Buf. vi. 156. pl. enl, 239.
Perruche a Epaulettes rouges, Levail. pl. 73.
Gingi Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 209.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 438.
LENGTH twenty-one inches.     Bill crimson; round the eyes a
naked, reddish, skin; plumage above deep olive green;  beneath
VOL. II. Q
jpsr
 114 PARROT.
pale green, with a mixture of yellow; throat, and neck before,
inclining to ash-colour; wing coverts nearest the body dull red, the
others green; quills green, edged with black; tail thirteen inches
long, cuneiform; the two middle feathers nine inches and ffcree
quarters longer than the two outer ones; colour green, with brown
shafts; the wings reach one-third on the tail; legs reddish.
Inhabits Gingiy in the East Indies, but is not common.
A.—Length eighteen inches. Bill blood red, tip yellow; between
the nostrils and the eye bare, narrow, and ash-coloured; plumage
pale green, inclining to yellow beneath ; on the wing coverts a long
oval streak of crimson; at the hind part of which an obscure, narrow
pale ring; tail very cuneiform; the two middle feathers eight inches
long, the outer only two; colour green ; the two middle ones plain,
the others with the inner webs greenish yellow; legs yellow.
Inhabits India.—From the drawings of Sir J. Ansfruther, Bart.
1
15—JAPONESE PARROT.
Psittacus Japonicus, Ind. Om. i. 86.   .Lin. i. 141.   Gm. Lin. i. 315.   Bris. ir. 362.   Id.
8vo. ii. 171.
Psitt. erythrochlor. macr. Raii, 34.    Will. 77.   Id. Engl. 116. §. 2.
La Perruche verte et rouge, Buf. vi. 159.
Japonese Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 209.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 417.
SIZE of the Alexandrine species. BiH and irides red ; plumage
green; on each side of the head two blue spots, one before and the
other behind the eye; throat ferruginous red; from this part the
feathers are red at the tips, marked with longitudinal black lines;
scapulars blue ; wing coverts with black shafts ; the two first prime
quills green, and the others deep blue, the shafts of all of them white;
the two middle tail feathers green, with white shafts; the others red,
with the shafts black.
 s
JP'
  ■fe
PARROT. 115
Said to inhabit Japan.—Mr. Willughby suspects the reality of this
species, as the description was merely taken from a painting sent from
Japan; and no one pretends to have seen the bird.
16—BANDED PARROT.
La Perruche Ara k bandeau rouge, Levaill, pl. 17.
Banded Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 404.
LENGTH eleven or twelve inches. Bill pale; plumage in
general green ; throat olive, the feathers edged with pale yellow;
from thence to the vent paler olive, with similar edgings to the
feathers; thighs and under tail coverts rufous; across the forehead,
at the base of the upper mandible, a narrowish purple-brown bar,
slightly speckled with red; legs pale.
Inhabits Brazil: considered by Levaillant as a new species.
17—TABUAN PARROT—Pl. XXII.
Psittacus Tabuensis, Ind.OmA. 88.    Gm.Lin.i. 317.
———— atropurpureus, Pompadour Parrot, Lev. Mus. pl. in p. 142.
Pompadour Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 409.
Tabuan Parrot, Gen. Syn.i. 214. pl.7.    Cook's last Voy. i. 335.
LENGTH nineteen inches.   Bill black; irides orange; forehead
very dark purplish black;  chin and throat dusky purple; at the
base of the under mandible the feathers project a little over it, and
are green; the rest of the head, neck, breast, and belly, very deep
purplish crimson;  back, rump, and wing coverts, fine rich deep
green; on the lower part of the neck behind, between that and the
back, a crescent of blue; the bastard wing and prime quills fine
Q 2
 116 PARROT.
deep blue; secondaries green, fringed with blue; tail cuneiform, the
two middle feathers eight inches long, full blue, deeply margined
with green, the ^nds blue; the outer ones six inches long, the
intermediate in proportion, all of them deep blue; shafts of all
black; legs yellow.
This beautiful species is found at Ton go TabbOo, and other
Friendly Isles in the South Seas, but far from common.
The female said to be mostly, green; head, neck, and under parts
olive brown; belly red, rump blue; tail above green, beneath dusky;
but this sex has not always the blue on the rump, for in a living
specimen, in the possession of Mrs. King, December 1809, the rump
was green, the same as the back, and that this was a female is
certain, from the bird having laid three eggs since she had it: but
in her bird the head, neck, and under parts are purplish crimson.
This was brought from Fejee, or Bligh's Islands, and was only sixteen
inches in length.
In another specimen the green was less brilliant, with some
mixture of reddish; on the lower belly, thighs, and vent some
reddish purple; this may probably be a young bird.
In Cook's last voyage these birds are said to be of an indifferent
green on the back and wings, but surely this description must have
been taken from specimens not in good condition, as the green is
particularly vivid, and the purple, though deep, by no means sooty.
18—SCARLET AND GREEN PARROT.
Psittacus Tabuensis, Ind.Orn.i. p. 88.19./3.
. Zonarius, Zoned Parrot, Nat. Miscel. pl. 657.
Grande Perruche a Collier, et Croupion bleues, Levail. Perr.i. 113. pl. 55. 56.
Tabuan Parrot, Phill. Voy. pl. p. 153.    Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 81.    White's Voy. to Bot.
Bay, pl. in p. 168.169.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 407. pl. 55.
LENGTH twenty-four inches.     Bill brown,   upper mandible
tinged with red; head, neck, and all beneath bright scarlet; back
 PARROT. 117
and wings fine green; on the lower part of the neck behind, a
crescent of blue; across the wing coverts an oblique narrow bar of
Saxon green; tail long, and cuneiform, most of the feathers deep
blue; legs ash-colour.
The female generally green on the fore part of the neck and
breast, with an olive broWn tinge, and here and there a "patch of
crimson; belly and vent wholly crimson, but darker than in the male;
rump bluish; tail green above, and dusky beneath.
This species inhabits New-Holland, and called Wellat; its
coincidence in the division of colours, although of different hues,
has occasioned it to be thought by some as a variety only of the
Tabuan; and we have indeed hesitated in this particular, although at
the present moment are inclined to think the two birds distinct. We
leave to others the propriety of joining them, or not, as may best
suit their ideas.
A.—Tabuan Parrot, White's Joum. pl. 168. 169?
In New-Holland is observed a Parrot similar to the last described,
which may be ranked as a variety, as all the drawings which I have
seen convey the idea of a tail even at the end; in several the pale
vivid green streak on the wing is not conspicuous; the rump is blue,
but the blue at the base of the neck behind is wanting.
One of these, said to be a female, is green, with a pale blue
rump; beneath, from the breast crimson; no crescent at the back of
the neck; wirtgs and tail Wholly green. The native name, as in the
other, Wellat.
B.—In addition to the above is another of the usual size; length
fifteen inches. Bill dusky; general colour deep green ; between the
bill and eye a clay-colour spot, reaching rather beyond the eye;
 118 PARROT.
forepart of the neck marked with dull red crescents, from the margins
of the feathers being of that colour; the rest of the under parts fine
crimson ; lower part of the back purplish blue; tail cuneiform; the
two middle feathers deep green, the rest black ; legs black.
This also inhabits New-Holland, and is probably a female, or
young bird, in its progress towards perfection.—In the Collection of
Gen. Davies.
19—AMBOINA RED PARROT.
Psittacus Amboinensis, Ind. Orn.
t.28. 2.    7d.8vo.ii. 146.
Le Lori Perruche tricolor, Buf. vi. 138.
Loro de Banda azul, Gabin. de Madrid, ii. p: 9/ lam. 40.
Perruche rouge d'Amboine, Pl. enl. 240.
Amboine red Parrot, Gen. Syn.i. 210:   Shaw's Zool. r\
Lin.i. 141.    Gm. Lin.i. 316.    Bris, it. 378.
A LITTLE bigger than a Turtle; length fifteen inches and a
half. Bill red, with a black tip; head, neck, and all beneath fine
scarlet; back, rump, upper tail, lesser under wing coverts, and edge
of the wing fine blue; under fail coverts violet in the middle,
surrounded with red; greater quills deep green on the outer edges
and tips; all of them blackish beneath, and within; 4he two middle
tail feathers nine inches and a half long, violet brown; the rest
shorten by degrees, are thejsame on the outer edges, the inner blackish;
the two exterior edged with red on the inner margins, and are shorter
by four inches than the middle ones; legs and claws red,
Inhabits Amboina, and seems much allied to the'last.
A variety of this, in a drawing, had the back and wings fine
green; adjoining the band of the wing a few crescents of fine blue;
rump blue; probably a young bird.
 ■*«
20—BLUE-HEADED PARROT.
Piittacus cyanocephalus, Ind. Om. i. 86.    Lin.i. 141.    Gm. Lin. i. 316.    Bris Ar. 359,
t.19. f. 2. Id. 8vo. i. 140. Gerin. ii. 1.129.
Perrache a tete bleue, Buf. vi. 145. P/. enl. 192.
Blue-headed Parrot, Gen. Syn.i. 211.    SAaw'* Zoo/, viii. 427?
LENGTH eleven inches and a half. Upper mandible yellow,
with a pale cinereous tip; the lower plain ash-colour; eyes in a
naked, yellowish skin; plumage above green; beneath yellow green;
forehead inclining to red; the head blue; throat violet, tending to
ash-colour; sides of the neck luteous ; neck behind, back, and
scapulars green; lower part of the back, rump, and upper tail coverts
shining green; neck before yellow green, changing to yellow at the
sides; beneath from the breast greenish yellow; wing coverts green ;
quills green, inner webs and tips deep ash, beneath paler ash-colour •
the shafts black, but that of the first feather whitish ; tail cuneiform;
the two middle feathers green, with bluish ends; the next the same,'
but yellow within; the four outer green without, and luteous within; all
but the two middle ones tipped with yellow; and the whole beneath
yellowish ash-colour, with the shafts black above, and white beneath ;
the outer feathers shorter than the two middle by four inches; legs
bluish; claws grey.
Inhabits the East Indies.
A.—A variety of this had no r<?d on the forehead; a longish
dull, crimson spot on the wing coverts: this was called Twiah Totah*
in India drawings.
* Totah or Toto is general-name for the Parrot tribe in India.
 120
21—BAUER'S PARROT.
Psittacus Baueri, Lin. Trans.:
1
LENGTH fifteen inches. Bill pale ; head and part of the neck
black; cheeks, throat, and feathers which fall over the lower mandible, more or less ultramarine blue; neck behind dun yellow, nearly
in shape of a crescent; general colour of the rest of the plumage
above, fore part of the breast, and the two middle tail feathers green,
deepest on the breast; from the last to the thighs yellow; thighs and
vent pale green; the second quills ultramarine blue; primaries black,
edged with grey; under wing coverts verditer blue; the tail cuneiform,
eight inches long ; the two middle feathers green with blue ends;
the others the colour of verditer, or paler blue; legs dusky.
Inhabits New-Holland.—The description taken from a specimen
at Mr. Thompson's, Little St. Martin's Lane, London: one of these
is also in the Linnaean Museum; is said to have been brought from
Memory Cove^ on the South side of New-Holland.
21— AZURE-HEADED PARROT.
Psittacus Indicus, Ind. Om. i. 86.   Bris. app. 129.   Id. 8vo. ii. 155.
 Alexandri, Lin. i. 142.    Gm. Lin. i. 321. 14. s.
Perruche k Epaulettes jaunes, Levaill. Per. i. 122. pl. 61.
 a tete d'Azur, Buf. vi. 148.
..   Blue-headed Parrot, Gen. SynA. 327. 37. D.   Edw. pl. 292.  Shaw's Zool. viii. 427.
SIZE of a Pigeon. Bill red; eyes in a naked flesh-coloured
skin; irides orange ; head and throat fine blue ; rest of the plumage
green, paler beneath; quills cinerous, edged with blue ; on the wing
 ■fc
PARROT. 121
' coverts a spot of yellow j tail greatly cuneiform; the two middle
feathers thirteen inches long, above blue, beneath dull yellow; legs
and claws ash-colour.
Inhabits India.
23—BARNARD'S PARROT.
SIZE of the Pennantian species. Bill moderate in size, and
pale horn-colour; forehead deep crimson ; the rest of the head pale
green ; across the hind part and nape a broad space of brown; back
and wing coverts deep blue; rump and upper tail coverts pale green;
across the wings a broad stripe of pale green; tail greatly cuneiform,
and elongated; the two middle feathers green, the others blue from
the base to the middle, the end half pale blue, fading almost to
white towards the ends; legs black.
Inhabits New-Holland; met with in the interior, but said to be
very scarce,—In the Museum of the Linnaean Society is a fine
specimen, presented by   Barnard, Esq.
24—SCARLET-BREASTED PARROT.
LENGTH fifteen inches. Bill red; forehead, to the middle of
the crown, yellow; behind the yellow, on the crown, a shade of
blue; chin and throat yellow, the latter bounded on the breast by a
broad scarlet band; general colour of the rest of the plumage green;
thighs mixed deep red and green; tail cuneiform, the two middle
feathers nine inches long, the outer ones only four; quills deep green,
with bluish edges; shafts of the quills and tail nearly black, under
part of the latter wholly dusky black; the wings reach to above
half way on the tail; legs black.
Inhabits New-Holland.—In the Linnaean Museum, with the
last named.
VOL. II. R
 m
-JAVAN PARROT:
Psittacus Osbeckii, Ind. Om. i. 87.
 Javanicus, Osb. It. i. 101.
Javan Parrakeet, Gen. Syn, i. 237. 3
Id. Engl. 156.    Gm. Lin. i. 321.
f.,E .Shaw's Zool. viii. 426.
A TRIFLE less than the last; upper mandible red; lower pale
yellow; cere black ; head every where covered with short pale blue
feathers and pale yellow; temples black ; all the other parts grass
green, except the throat and breast, which are pale red ; five of the
wing coverts are yellow, but the wings are light grey beneath ; tail
yellowish; legs greenish grey.
Inhabits Java, where it is universally exposed to sale.—Mr.
Osbeck thinks it to be a variety of the Alexandrine Parrot. It seenis
to have most affinity with the Azure-headed species.
26—RED-BREASTED PARROT.
Psittacu
haematodus, Ind. Om
i. 87.    Lin. Mant. b2A.    Gm. Lin.
, '^aihwick. Vog. ii. f. 10.
. \%f&bk   Id. 8vo. ii. 141.
i. 316.
Psittaca
ambdinensis varia, Brh
Perruche
a face bleu d'Amboine
, Buf. vi. 150.    Pl. enl. 61.    Levail
. Perr.
i. 96. pl. 4'
Red-brea
sted Parrot, Gen. Syn.
i. 212.   Edw. pl. 232.    Shaw's Zo
ol. viii.
415.    Nat.
Mist
. 21. pl. 917.
LENGTH el even* inches. Bill yellowish white; tongue,-ciliated
at the end; cere yellowish ; feathers round the bill, half the crown
above, and the chin beneath deep blue ; rest of the head, neck, and
upper parts of the body green ; behind the neck a yellow ring ; fore
part of the neck and breast fine orange-red, edged with deep blue;
upper part of the belly deep green, the lower yellow-green, marked
 PARROT. 123
with deeper; edge of the wing yellow; under wing coverts red; tail
four inches and three quarters in length, greatly cuneiform; green
above, beneath dirty green ; legs blaekisfh;
Inhabits Amboina.—M. Levaillant informs us, that a pair of these
imported from Amboina, bred in the Menagerie of M. Van Blettem-
berg, Governor of the Cape of Good Hope. The female made the
nest, lining it with feathers from her breast, and laid two white eggs;
the young were hatched in nineteen days ; they were at first covered
with greyish down, and by degrees gained the green feathers, and the
blue on the head, and the parents continued to feed them for six
months.
A.—Psittacus moluccanus, Gm. Lin.i, 316.   50. /5.
Perruche des Moluques, Buf. vi. 150,    PL enl. 753.
————— k tete bleue, Levail Perr. i. 51. pl. 24, 25, 26, 27.
Blue-bellied Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 413.
Orange-breasted Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 212. 14. A.
Length ten inches. Bill reddish white; head wholly blue; on
the belly a spot of the same ; breast red, mixed with yellow, but
not edged with blue ; the tails of this and the last, when peffect, are
as long as the bodies.
Inhabits the Molucca Islands.
B—Psittacus Nova- Hollandise, Gm. Lin. i. 316. 50. y.
Blue-bellied Parrot,    Gen, Syn. i. 14. B.    Brown III. pl. 7.    Phill. Bot. Bay,   pl. in
p. 152.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 413. pl. 59.
Length fifteen inches. Bill reddish ; orbits black ; head and throat
dark blue, with a mixture of lighter blue; hind head green ; towards
the throat yellow green; back and wings green ; under wing coverts
crimson ; quills dusky, barred with yellow; breast red, mixed with
R 2
 124 PARROT.
yellow ; belly fine blue ; thighs green and yellow; tail cuneiform/
long; the two middle feathers green, the others the same, but bright
yellow on the outer edges; legs dusky; in some the thighs are dusky.
Inhabits New-Holland—very numerous in Botany Bay—native
name Goo-reel.
Sir Tho. G. Cullum, Bart, informs me that one of these birds, brought
from New-Holland in 1794, is now alive at his sister's, and that its
food, during that space of time, has been bread and water only—boiling,
water is poured on some crumbs of bread, and after standing a little
while, put into a piece of cloth and squeezed dry—now and then an
almond* was given, but never any water.
C—Blue-tellied Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. 59: C.    Whitens Joum. p. 140:
This differs in having five or six spots of red, tipped with yellow
on the scapulars, and the inner bend of the wing; and the blue at the
nape bounded with reddish.
This is also found in New-Holland, and both of them very numerous in the neighbourhood of Botany Bay, as well as elsewhere.
Other deviations from the above varieties have also been noticed.
* It may not be amiss to remark, that a Parrot from New-Holland, being ver
was permitted to be at large now and then in a sitting room, and in this state findir
bitter almonds within its reach, ate one or two, which caused its death.
 ■Ri
125
27—BLACK CROWNED PARROT.
Psittacus atricapillus, Ind. Orn.i. 88.    Gm. Lin.i. 317.
Ara moluccensis varia, Bris. iv. 197.    Id. 8vo. ii. 97.
Psittacus Loeri dictus, Seba i. t. 38. f. 4.    Klein, p. 25. 16.
La grande Perruche a bandeau noir, Bvf. vi. 158.
Seban Lory, Shaw's Zool. viii. 459.
Black-crowned Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 213.
LENGTH fourteen inches. Upper part of the head black; neck
surrounded with a collar of green and red ; back, rump, scapulars,
wing and tail coverts, deep blue; throat, fore neck, and breast light
red ; the rest beneath deep green, varied with red ; quills deep blue;
tail greatly cuneiform, six inches and three quarters long, green;
beneath red, and bordered with black.
Inhabits the Molucca Islands.—Seba says, from Papua.
28—PAPUAN LORY
Psittacus Papuensis, Ind. Om. i. 88. Gm. Lin, i. 317,
Petit Lori Papou, Sen. Voy. lib t. 111. Levail. pl. 77.
Papuan Lory, Gen. Syn. i. 215.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 440. plr 64.
SIZE of the Lory Parrakeet; length sixteen inches. Bill hooked,
sharp, and red ; head, neck, and breast, bright carmine red ; on the
back of the head a blue spot; beneath two crescents of black ;
wings green, short, the green colour extending across the middle of
the back, forming there a large spot; the rest of the back to the
tail bright red, with a streak of blue down the middle; on each side
of the wing, just at the base, an oblong yellow spot; and just above
each thigh a large one of the same colour; belly,  and under tail
 1
I'm PARROT.
coverts red; tail cuneiform, and longer than the rest of the bird ;
the two middle feathers green for two-thirds of the length, the rest
halfway from the base, green without, red within, and yellow to the
end ; legs bright red.
Inhabits Papua and New Guinea.
A.—Ind. Om. i. 88. 20. 0    Gen. Syn. i. p. 215. 17. A.
This varies in having the breast inclined to purple; across the
belly a band of black;- edged.with green  on the upper parts; the
middle tail feather eleven inches long, the outer only three inches.
In the Collection of Sir Joseph Banks.
B.—Ind. Om. i. p. 89. 21. y    Gen. Syn. i. p. 215. 17. B.
Iii this the hind part of the neck is blue-black; generalictilour of
the plumage scarlet; on the middle of the back, between the wings,
a small yellow spot; between that and the rump blue, with a mixture
of green ; sides of the body and thighs yellow ; wings green ; quills
dusky.
C—Ind. Orn. i. p. 89. 20. $.    Gen. Syn. i. p. 216, 17. C.
This wants the blue-black on the hind head ; middle of the belly
green ; the yellow on the sides almost forms a crescent on the breast;
wings and tail in the others. The two last varieties are in the
British Museum. In var. C. the colour of the back-is uncertain, as
that part was covered by the wingfsfm the preserved ^^ecimen.
D.—Length nine inches.    Bill red ; top of the head blue ; body
m general crimson ; middle of the back inclining to yeMowt belly
 before the thighs yellow; rump and vent blue; upper and under tail
coverts crimson; tail cuneiform, green ; the feathers sharp pointed,
the ends, for two inches, yellowish ; legs lead colour.
29—LONG-TAILED SCARLET LORY.
Psittacus borneus, Ind. Om. i. 89.    Lin. i. 141:    Gm. Lin. i. 318.
Psitt. coccin. bon. fortun. Insulse, Bris. iv. 373.    Id. 8vo. ii. 144.
Le Lori Perruche rouge, Buf. vi. 137.
Perruche ecarlate, Levail. Perr. i. 89. pl. 44.
, Bornean Lory, Shaw's Zool. viii. 460. pl. 67.
Long-tailed scarlet Lory, Gen. Syn. i. 216.    Edw. pl. 173.
LENGTH eight inches and a.half; breadth thirteen inches and
three quarters. Bill orange-coloured ; eye in a. bare skin ; plumage
in general fine scarlet; except the inner bend of the wing, which is
green; the greater coverts tipped with green, forming a bar on the
wing; some of the wing feathers tipped with blue, the others with
green ; the tips of all the tail feathers green, and the two outer ones
wholly of that colour above, beneath dull red; in shape it is cuneiform;
the two middle feathers longer by one in£h and a half than the outer
ones ; the under tail coverts are dull red, fringed with blue. In some
Specimens the neck and breast have a slight mixture of yellow; legs
yellow; but in some individuals black.
Inhabits the East Indies, particularly Borneo.—In one lately met
with, the tail was considerable elongated, so as to make the length of
the bird at least eleven inches.
 128
30—INDIAN LORY.
Psittacus coccineus, Ind. Orn. i. 89.    Nat. Misc. pl. 737.
Psittaca indica coccinea, Bris. iv. 376. f. 25.    Id. 8vo. ii. 145.    Gm. Lin. i. 318.
Lori Perruche violet and rouge, Buf. vi. 138. No. 2™ Levail. Perr. pl. 55.
Perruche des Indes orientales, PL enl. 143.
Indian Lory, Gen. Syn. i. 217.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 461.   pl. 68.
LENGTH ten inches and three quarters. Bill reddish; forehead,
hind part of it and sides, the chin and throat scarlet; top of the head
and hind part of the neck and breast violet blue; on each side of the
neck a stripe of the same, joining the crown and neck behind; fore
part of the neck pale red, varied with brown and violet; upper part
of the back and scapulars brown, varied with red; lower part of the
back, rump, and upper tail coverts foil red; belly, sides, and thighs
red, brown, and blue mixed; -wing coverts varied with red and brown,
the first quills yellowish brown; within red; the others red on both
sides, the ends of all pale brown ; tail cuneiform; the two middle
feathers violet brown ; side ones the same, but crimson within; legs
brown.
This is Brisson's description; who says, it inhabits Ainboina.—
The account of Buffon is short, saying the length is ten inches;
general colour red, mixed with violet blue ; sides, stomach, top of
the head,, the back, and tail violet blue; greater quills yellow; the
rest of the plumage fine red; wing feathers margined with black.
This description nearly coincides with the' figure in the planches
enluminees, in which the thighs also are red.
A.—Length from ten to eleven inches. Bill pale, round the base
blackish; the predominant colour of the head, neck, breast, and
upper parts of the body scarlet; across the crown to the eyes blue,
at which place is a deep band of that colour ; the lower part of the
 Hi
129
breast, belly, thighs, vent, and tail blue ; with a patch or two of red
on the sides under the wings, and a few markings of blue on the sides
of the neck and breast; the whole of the wings Parrot-green, except
the quills, which are black on the inner webs, and green without;
the inner webs of the prime ones have a long yellow spot one inch
and a half from the ends; legs dusky.
The above was in the collection of General Davies, and coincides
with the others in most things, but differs in the wings, and may
probably be of another sex. The last described was brought alive
from India,
31—MOLUCCA LORY.
Psittacus ruber, Ind. Om. i. 115.    Gm. Lin. i. 335.
Lori rouge dela Chine, Buf. vi, 134.    PL enl. 519.
Le Lori ecaille, Levail. Perr. pl. 51.
Lori de Gilolo, Son Voy. 177. pl. 112.*
Scaly Lory, Shaw's Zool. viii. 463.
Molucca Lory, Gen. Syn.i. 274.
LENGTH ten inches. Plumage for the most part red; bill and
hides' the colour of orpiment; the eye placed in an oval of black,
pointed before and behind; on the middle of the wing an ultramarine blue spot; and under wing coverts are also blue; quills black;
end of the tail chestnut; the shape somewhat cuneiform.
Inhabits the Molucca Isles, and New Guinea. One of these, said
to come from the Eastern Islands, had the legs ash-coloured; claws'
white.*
* Sonnerat observes that all the Lories come from these parts "C'est improprement que
' les ornithologistes" ont designe les Loris par les noms de Loris des Philippines, des Indes
' onentales, de la Chine, &c. les Oiseaux de cette espece ne se trouvent qu'aux Moluques
' & a lanouvelle Guinee, ceux qu?on voit ailleurs, en ont tous ete transportes."— Sonn.
Voy. d la nouvelle Guinee, p, 177.
VOL. II. S
jjjJLr
 1
130
32—JAY-WINGED LORY.
SIZE of the Blue-capped Lory. Bill yellow, inclining to red
in the middle; top of the head, as far as the middle of the crown,
black, the rest of it fine purple red ; general colour of the plumage
crimson red; at the bend of the wing mixed blue and black, as in
the Jay; on the breast an obscure yellow crescent; quills dusky,
some of them yellow on the middle of the inner webs; tail much
rounded, or rather cuneiform, colour deep crimson, with the end
brown, as in the Gueby Lory; legs dusky.
Inhabits Van Diemen's Land, at the southern extremity of New-
Holland.   In the collection of Mr. Harrison..;
33—VAN-DIEMEN'S PARROT.
Psittacus flavigaster, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 116. ?.
LENGTH sixteen inches. Bffl three quarters of an inch, pale
or nearly white; forehead as far as the eye scarlet'; the crown for
nearly one inch and a half yellow, brighter before than behind,
where it changes into greenish yellow ; below the eye an orange red
streak ; cheeks and chin deep blue; the rest of the plumage, for the
most part green, the feathers edged with deeper green ; rump and
upper tail coverts edged deeply with yellow green; hind part and
sides of the neck, breast, belly, and vent greenish yellow ; shoulders
near the body almost black, from them a pale lilac band, one inch
broad, and near four long; pinion and front of the wing half way
fine blue; quills black-blue, edged with grey ; under wing coverts
blue; tail cuneiform; the two middle feathers brownish green, and
pointed ; the others pale blue, with white tips, and each shorter than
the other by about an inch ; legs black.
 PARROT. 131
Inhabits New-Holland, said to have been brought from Van-
Diemen's Land. In the collection of General Davies.—In the
female, the head and beneath are yellow, mixed with brown; forehead and crown mixed with red; the cheeks are blue, as in the male.
A.—Length fifteen inches. Plumage in general olive-green;
forehead, just over the bill, crimson ; round the base the chin and
cheeks mixed with dull blue ; outer part of the wing blue ; ends of
the quills dusky; on the inner webs of all but the three first a pale
spot; tail cuneiform ; the four middle feathers dull dark olive; the
others the same, ending in dull blue, and fringed at the tips with
white; the first quill three quarters of an inch shorter than the second;
the next four nearly equal; under coverts fringed at the ends with
red.
This last was met with in the collection of Mr. Thompson, and
appears an immature female bird.—I have observed a similar one also
in the possession of Mr. de Fichtel. It appears to answer, in most
respects, to the Psitf&eus flavigaster of M. Temminck, in the Lin.
Trans.* but in the latter no mention is made of any blue on the"
the cheeks and chin.
34—PENNANTIAN PARROT.
Psittacus Pennantii, Ind. Orn. i. 90.
 gloriosus, splendid Parrot, Nat. Misc. pl. 53.
— splendidus, Lev. Mus. pl. p. 27.
Perruche a large Queue, Levail. Pen: ii. pl. 78. 79 young bird.
Pennantian Parrot, Gen; Syn. Sup. p. 61,    Id. Sup. ii. 83.    Phill. Voy. pl. in p. 154.
White Joum. pi. in p. 174, 175.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 410. pl. 56.
LENGTH fifteen inches. Bill yellowish horn-colour; head,
lower part of the back, and all the under parts of the body scarlet;
chin rich blue; upper part of the back and scapulars deep brown,
JP*
 132 PARROT.
or black edged with scarlet; lesser wing coverts pale bluish green ;
ends and interior sides of the quills dusky, marked on the inner webs
with a white spot; sides deep blue; tail very long; the middle
feathers dusky ; the exterior and upper part of the interior sides blue,
the others fine green; tips of all but the two middle ones white; legs
dusky.
The female has the upper part of the neck and body greenish ;
top of the head red, and a patch of the same under the eye; chin and
throat blue; lower part of the neck and breast red, as also the rump
and'neck; middle of the belly dusky green ; tail dark, blue fringed
with chestnut; shoulders blue; the rest of the wing the same, but
darker.
A.—Pennantian Parrot, Phill. Bot. Bay. pl. p. 154.
Length sixteen inches. Bill horn-colour; head, neck, under
parts, and rump crimson; back black, the feathers margined with
red; inner wing coverts black, the outer pale blue, making an oblique
band on the wing; quills and tail dusky, edged with blue; the three
outer tail feathers, from the middle to the tip, hoary blue ; legs grey.
Native name—Wellaat.
B.—Psittacus
Beautiful Lor
egans, Ind. Om. i. 89.
Gen. Syn. i. 217.
Length fifteen inches. Bill yellowish brown; round the base
below blue; head, neck, rump, and under parts crimson; back brown;
the feathers margined with dull red; and between the two colours a
line of green ; beyond this the margins grow narrower; and on the
rump wholly red; shoulders pale blue, with a little mixture of red;
wing coverts brown; many of the outer ones, and the bend of the
 PARROT. 133
wing pale blue ; quills dusky, deeply edged with blue; secondaries
the same, margined as the back ; tail cuneiform, seven inches long,
greenish brown, the two middle feathers green down the shafts, and
blue on the outer margins, and, except the two middle ones, have the
ends whitish; legs dusky.
Another of these was only twelve inches long ; bill lead-colour,
with a yellow point; head, neck, and breast dull crimson; upper
parts of the body, wings, and tail, green; quills dusky, edged with
blue ; tail cuneiform, only four inches long; legs black.
In one greatly similar the bill was pale; forehead pale red; cheeks
pale blue ; nape, and neck to the breast buff colour; part of the neck
and all the back waved with dusky, but the ground of the back
greenish ; wings blue; shoulders next the back black; quills dusky;
from the breast to vent pale greenish ash-colour, with a few transverse crimson markings on the former, and a few red ones on the
vent; tail as the other, but shorter; legs pale ash-colour. This last
is probably a young bird.
35—SULPHUR-HEADED PARROT.
SIZE of the Pennantian Parrot. Head, and beneath, pale sulphur yellow; forehead crimson; cheeks blue as in the last mentioned;
body above pale green; the middle of the feathers brown ; shoulders
blue; quills the same; tail cuneiform, blue, not differing from the Pennantian Parrot; the two middle feathers green; bill black, end pale.
The female has the head and breast yellow, mixed with brown;
forehead and crown mixed with red; blue on the cheeks, as in the
male.
Inhabits New South Wales. In the Museum of the Linnaean
Society.
 134
36—GUEBY LORY.
Psittacus Guebierisis, Ind. Om. i. 90.    Gm. Lin. i. 318.
Lori rouge and violet, Buf. vi. 135.    Levail. Perr. i: 109. pl. 53.
Petit Lori de Gueby, Son. Voy. 174. t. 109.    PL enl. 684.
Gueby Lory, Gen. Syn. i. p. 219.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 162.
HALF the size of the Amazon's Parrot. Bill and irides fire-
colour ; head, throat, back, belly, and Ming coverts carmine red ;
quills black, with a transverse band across the whole breadth; tail
red brown.
Inhabits Gueby, not far from New Guinea.
A.—Perruche k chaperon bleu, Levail. Perr. pl. 54.
Blue-headed Lory, Shaw's Zool. viii. 461.
Size of.the Lory Parrakeet. Length nine inches and a half.
Bill dusky yellow ; irides yellow ; plumage; in general, fine glowing
red, or carmine ; lower part of the neck and breast surrounded with
a broad violet belt; on the belly a large patch of the same, but darker,
with a little mixture of the same under the wings; wing coverts
carmine red; but the lower series and second quills red, with violet
brown ends; hence, when the wing is expanded, appear two brown
bands, with a red one between; greater quills fine brown; the base
half way on the inner webs red; the wings, when closed, reach three-
fourths on the tail, which is moderately euneifbeop; 4he colour fine
reddish, or chestnut brown; the feathers rather pointed at the end ;
legs pale brown.
This last, which is in my own collection, is probably an adult, in
full plumage : it had been in the possession of the late Right Hon.
Lady Mary Scott, for some years, after which it died, and was presented to me. I could not learn what changes it had undergone
whilst with her: it did not articulate any words, but was the ttWSd
docile and tame species I ever beheld.
 PARROT. 135
That figured by M. Sonnerat, and the one in the pl. enlum. are
probably young birds, or females : they are little more than eight
inches in length ; and I rather suspect this, from most of the feathers
of the body in this bird having the margins violet brown; and the
purple band on the fore part of the neck and middle of the belly both
wanting; and we know that many Parrots do not gain their full
plumage under three or four years.
B.—Psittacus janthinus, Gm. Lin. i. 319.
Perroquet violet, Fermin. Surin. ii. 175.
Violet Lory, Gen. Syn. i. 220, 21. A.
Bill strong, black; irides gold colour ; head, and all above, fine
crimson; breast arid belly violet; the head appears as if divided from
the body by a line of violet, which passes on each side to the violet
©ri the breast, giving the appearance of the string of an apron; *
scapulars fine blue; wings and tail green and red; whether the latter
is long or short not mentioned.
This is said to inhabit the coasts of the Amazon's Country, but
it may be doubted, as some are of opinion that no species of Parrot is
native of both the Old and New Continent; and that, even where
Islands are at any distance from each other, they are not inhabited by
the same sort of birds, f
* Semble former le Collier d'un Tablier de Cordonnier.—Fermin.
f M. Sonnerat observes, that notwithstanding Parrots of the same species are found at
great distances from each other, on the Continent, yet in the Islands each maintains a species peculiar to that alone, and not to others of the same group, however short the distance
from one to the other.—Sonn. Voy, p. 74.
 I
136
37—RED-HOODED PARROT>
Lori Perruche de la Mer Sud, Sonnini Buf.
Red-hooded Parrakeet, Shaw's Zool. viii. 466.
LENGTH from seven to eight inches.     Bill grey;   plumage
yellow olive ; head and breast red ; quills and tail blue ; legs grey.
Inhabits the the Islands of the South-Seas.
38—BLUE-NECKED LORY.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill red, round the base a ring of
black; plumage in general: crimson ; the eye placed in a bluish skin ;
from the eye, on each side, a broad band of dusky blue, dividing the
neck, passing to the wing, and finishing as a band on the back, between
the wings; the feathers which compose this band are narrow, and
wholly blue on the sides of the neck, but appearing chiefly as streaks
on the back, the feathers being crimson, with a dash of blue at the
ends; the rest of the back crimson; under parts of the body the same,
mixed with marldngs of a deeper colour, the ends of the feathers
inclining to chestnut ; wing coverts dusky black, and scarlet mixed ;
scapulars dusky black, with crimson ends; the four first greater
quills greenish, inclining to yellow; the shafts dusky white ; the
others the same at the ends; the inner webs more or less crimson
from the base, on one or both margins, the more inward ones are
nearly so, except at the ends, giving the whole of the wings a mixed
appearance; under wing coverts crimson ; tail cuneiform, the.two
middle feathers nearly five inches and a half long, dusky greenish
black; the rest crimson on the inner webs and ends, and dusky
greenish black on the outer ; the exterior one three inches and a half
in length, and wholly crimson at the tip; upper and under tail
coverts crimson; legs brown.
In the collection of Lord Stanlev.
 ■ft
137
39—VARIEGATED LORY.
Psittacus variegatus, Ind. Orn. i. 90.    Gm. Lin. i. 319.
Variegated Lory, Gen. Syn. i. 220.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 464.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill dusky; plumage in general deep
scarlet; lower part of the neck, the beginning of the back, and round
the breast, also the belly and vent, fine purplish blue, inclining to
black on the lower part of the belly; the upper part of the wings
wholly red ; quills dusky at the ends, but yellow on the inner webs;
the wing when lifted up, appears beneath to have one-third from the
shoulder red and yellow mixed; the middle yellow, and the ends
dusky; the tail slightly cuneiform; the feathers green; inside near
the base reddish ; the outer edge near the ends blue.
Inhabits the East Indies; the three last have affinity with three
mentioned by Pernetty.*
40—GROUND PARROT.
. Psittacus formosus, Ind. Orn. i. 103.
 terrestris, or Ground Parrot, Mus. Lev. 249. t. 53.     Nat. Misc vii. pl 228
Zool. of New-Holland, ix. pl. iii.
Perruche ingambe, Levail. Perr. i. 66. pl. 32.
Black-spotted Parrakeet of Van-Diemen's Land, D'Entrecast. Voy. ii. 47. pl. x.
Ground Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 26.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 454. pl. 66.
RATHER smaller than the Pennantian Parrot. Bill black;
plumage in general green above, each feather banded with black and
yellow; crown and nape marked with numerous, longitudinal, black
streaks; the forehead orange-colour, approaching to scarlet; under
* Voy. aux Malouines. Vol. i. p. 177.
voi. ii. T
1
 138 PARROT.
part of the body yellow, crossed with numerous, waved, blackish bands;
under wing coverts cinereous grey, with a pale, broad, yellow stripe;
tail cuneiform ; the two middle feathers green, with several oblique
bars of black; the others yellow, barred in the same manner ; all
the feathers paler towards the ends, where they are without bars.
This most elegant and beautiful species inhabits New-Holland ;
found about New South Wales ; also at Van-Diemen's Land, and
other parts ; known by the name of Goolingnang; it is sufficiently
common, but rarely, if ever, seen, except on the ground, and particularly in moist places; the legs and toes are more slender than -usual
in the Genus, the claws less curved : is not known to perch in trees
like other Parrots, but constantly seen to rise from among the grass,
and to alight therein again, almost immediately.
41— NONPAREIL PARROT.
Psittacus eximius, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. xxi.   Nat. Misc. pl. 93.     N. HolL Birds, pl. 2.
Perruche omnicolore, Levail. Perr. i. 59. pl. 28, 29.
Nonpareil Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup, ii. 85.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 411. pl. 57, 58.
LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill dusky horn-colour; head,, sides,
fore part of the neck and breast, vent, and under tail coverts crimson;
lower part of the breast crimson and yellow mixed ; belly yellow ;
towards the vent inclining to green ; chin and feathers surrounding
the lower mandible white; the middle of the nape black and dull
green, with a few black spots; hind parts.of the neck and back as far
as the middle, green, each-feather marked with a large black spot, or
rather, the feattiers are black, with green margins; lower part of the
back and rump pale green; shoukfeiSJfelack; lesser wing coverts
pale blue, beneath deep blue; great quills dusky, with the outer
margins deep blue ; the secondaries edged pale green as the back;
all the greater quills except the outer one, and six or seven of the
 139
inner secondaries, marked with a transverse, pale yellow spot about
the middle, on the inner web; tail blue, cuneiform ; the ends of all
but the two middle feathers, nearly white ; legs dusky.
Inhabits New-Holland, and is a common species; called by some
the Rose-Hill Parrot, being met with in that part.
42—BROWN'S PARROT.
Psittacus Brownii, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 119.
THIS is smaller than the nonpareil species, being only eleven
inches in length. Bill dusky grey ; crown of the head frill black, as
far as the eyes ; on the cheeks a large patch of white, as in the nonpareil species ; on the upper parts of the body the feathers are black
in the middle, with a margin of yellow; rump, fore part of the neck,
breast, and belly yellowish white, fringed with dusky or black;
shoulders and wing coverts blue; under wing coverts also blue; quills
dusky, edged with blue; tail greatly cuneiform, blue; the two
middle feathers deeper in colour, the others growing paler towards
the ends, which are nearly white; legs black.
Inhabits New-Holland, met with there by Mr. Brown, and presented by him to the Museum of the Linneean Society.
43—BLACK LORY.
Psittacus novse Guineas, Ind. Om. i. 91.    Gm. Lin. i. 319.
Lori de la nouvelle Guinee, Son. Voy. 175.    Forr. Voy. 133.
Lori noir, Levail. Perr, i. 107. pl. 52.
Black Lory, Gen. Syn. i. 221.    Skaw's Zool. viii. 451.
SIZE of common Parrakeet.    Bill blackish; eye in a brown
bare skin ; irides blue, with an inner circle of red brown; plumage
s s
JP
 140 PARROT.
black with a blue tinge, having at once the softness of velvet, with a
metalline gloss; tail long, cuneiform, but not in a great degree; it is
black above, and dull red beneath ; legs blackish.
Inhabits New Guinea.
44—LORY PARRAKEET.
Psitt. ornatus, Ind. Om.i. 91.   Lin. i. 143.    Gm. Lin. i. 324.    Bor. Nat. ii. 94.
Psittaca indica, Bris. ir. 366.    Id. 8ro. ii. 142.
Avis paradis. orientalis, Seba i. pl. 60. f. 2, 3.   Klein, p. 64.
La Perruche Lori des Indes, Buf. vi. 145.   Pl. enl. 552.
Petit Lori, Levail. Perr. i. 107. pl. 52.
Variegated Parrakeet, Shaw's Zool. viii. 416. pl. 60.
Lory Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 221.   Edw. pl. 144.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill pale orange; cere brownish; eyes
in a bare ash-coloured skin; irides orange red; upper part of the
head fine black blue, behind a crimson crescent, the points towards
the eyes; on each side the head, behind, and above the eyes, a fine
blue spot; and beyond this another larger, of a yellowish colour;
on the sides of the head, under the eyes, the throat, fore part of the
neck, and breast scarlet, edged with blackish green; hind part of
the neck, back, rump, scapulars, upper wing and tail coverts, belly,
thighs, and sides green; on each side of the neck a longitudinal
yellow stripe; the feathers on the middle of the back and sides of
the belly tipped with yellow; quills green on the outer, and dark
brown on the inner webs ; tail three inches and a half long, cuneiform, the two middle feathers green, the others the same, the ends
yellow, beneath reddish ; legs cinereous.
Inhabits the East Indies.—Mr. Bancroft* mentions the Lory
Parrakeet of Edwards, being in Guiana, and describes it as yellow
* Hist. Guian. p. 162.
 PARROT. !M
green, with a long tail; hind part of the head and throat red, but the
top and sides of the head blue. If we allow this bird to be the same,
it must have been imported into Guiana; for, according to what has
been before hinted, we cannot readily allow of two climates for the
same Parrot.—In a set of drawings from China was one of these
birds, under the name of Ue-Shek-uang.
45—CRESTED RED PARRAKEET.
Psittacus Bontii, Ind. Om. i. 92.    Raii. p. 34.    Will. p. 81.
Psitt. Javanicus,    Gm. Lin. i. 319.
Psitt. Javensis cristata coccihea, Bris. iv. 381.    Id. Sro. ii. 14<
La Perruche huppee, Buf. vi. 160.
Bontius's small Parrakeet, Will. Engl. 120.    Shaw's Zool. viii
Crested red Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 223.
SIZE of a Lark. Bill grey, cere whitish ; eyes black, placed in
bare, silvery white skin; head crested; general colour of the plumage
scarlet; throat grey; fore part of the neck and breast rose-colour;
scapulars and wing coverts red and green mixed; quills the same;
the tail is long, and reaches ten inches beyond the wings when closed,
the two middle feathers scarlet; the others rose-colour, tipped with
blue, and have a mixture of green; it is also said, that when exposed
to the sun, it represents a thousand varieties of shining colours,
hardly to be expressed by a painter.
Inhabits Java, found chiefly in the midland countries, roosting
and building on the highest trees; is garrulous, and learns to pronounce some words if kept tame.—These birds fly in companies;
and, like other Parrots, make a great noise.
JjipF
 r
i
m
46—YELLOW-HEADED PARROT.
Psittac. Jendaya, Ind. Om. i. 98.    Gm. Lin. i. 319.
Psitt. braziliensis lutea, Bris. iv. 392.   Id. 8vo. ii. 152.
Jendaya, Raii. 34.    Will. 78.    Id. Engl. 116.    Buf. vi. 262.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 451.
Yellow-headed Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 224.
SIZE of a Blackbird. Bill black; orbits naked, white; irides
gold colour; plumage green above, yellow beneath ; head and neck
yellow ; bottom of the belly green ; legs black.
Inhabits Brazil, and called Jendaya.—Brisson has ranked this
among his short-tailed Parrots; and Buffon with those having long
ones ; it is, therefore, uncertain; as Marcgrave, from whom the
description is copied, does not mention the circumstance.
47—ANGOLA YELLOW PARROT.
Psittac. solstitialis, Ind. Om. i. 92.   Lin. i. 141.    Gm. Lin. i. 320.    Shaw's Zool. viii.
448. pl. 65.
Psittacus aurantius, T. F. Miller, ill. t. 5.
 croceus, Klein, av. p. 25.
 luteus cauda longa, Frisch. t. 53.
Psittaca angolensis lutea, Bris.ir. 371.    Id. 8vo. ii. 144.
Perruche jaune, Buf. vi. 147.
Angola Yellow Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 22U   Alb. iii. pi. K.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill greenish ash-colour; eyes and
base of the bill surrounded with a pale skin; irides dull yellow;
general plumage orange yellow; back and wing coverts marked
Wife yellow green spots; rump and upper tail coverts yellow green;
sides and thighs red; wing coverts nearest the body yellowish
green, with orange yellow edges; those farthest-from the body blue j
greater quills blue without, and ydtowish green within ; the lesser
 JPr
 f ww
W&A/ I
 ;L With
  PARROT. 143
ones green ; tail cuneiform ; the six middle feathers yellowish green,
the three outside ones the same, the outer margins blue; legs reddish'.
Inhabits Angola, and probably tihe East Indies.—Albin observes,
that it learns to talk.—In Frisch, the skin round the eye is red.
48.—JONQUIL PARRAKEET—Pl. XXIII.
Psittacus Narcissus, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. xxi.    Shaw's ZooL viii. 427.
Jonquil Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 83. pl. 123.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill flesh?Gol©ur; general plumage fine
jonquil yellow, paler beneath; crown of the head and cheeks crimson;
and a large spot of the same at the bend of the wing, next the
shoulder; round the neck, beneath the crimson, a collar of white, or
very pale, changing to greenish at the hind head; tail cuneiform,
and half as long again as the bird; the two middle feathers pale
buff-colour j the others more or less yellow, most jso nearest the base ;
quills.pate yellow, paler within ; legs flesh-colour.
Inhabits India,—a living specimen was in possesion of Miss
-Hunter, of Greenwich : brought from the Ramghur Hills, in the
'I&o*tfn«e of Bahar, in Bengal: known only by the common name
of Toto.—General Davies.
49—CRIMSON AND YELLOW PARROT.
SIZE of the Tabuan species. Bill deep orange, margined with
black; under mandible black ; head, neck, and under parts fine
crimson; quills white; vent -buff yellow, the feathers margined with
crimson; tail cuneiform, pale yellow.
 144 PARROT.
One supposed to be the female, had the head, neck, and under
parts yellow ; the rest as in the male.
Inhabits New-Holland. One of the latter was alive, and in the
possession of Mrs. Bligh.
50—CHLOROTIC PARROT.
SIZE of the last; length fourteen inches or more. Bill pale;
irides hazel; plumage on the head, upper parts of the body, wings,
and tail, pale greenish yellow, shafts of the feathers white ; throat
and breast pale red, growing deeper on the belly and vent, so as to
appear quite red, but the feathers of the last margined with dull
yellow at the ends, appearing like crescents ; rump tinged with red ;
tail cuneiform, greenish yellow, with a light tinge of scarlet at
the end; legs black.
Inhabits New South Wales, met with far to the southward : one
was brought to England alive, and in the possession of Mrs. King.
It was fed with wheat, of which it seemed very fond.—I suspect the
two last described to be allied to each other, as is perhaps the sulphur
Parrakeet of Shaw's Zoology: * said to be fifteen inches long;
colour uniformly pale, or sulphur yellow, deeper on the back ; and
to be described and figured by Levaillant from a specimen in the
collection of Leyden.
51—YELLOW MACCAW PARROT.
LENGTH fourteen inches.    Bill and legs pale brown; the upper
mandible large, and under very stout, as in the various Maccaws;
* Zool. Vol. viii. 428.—Dr. Shaw does not say the plate or vol. in Levaillant; but adds»
that this author considers it to be a variety of the Rose-ringed Parrot.
 Hi
PARROT. 145
round the eye bare for some space; the whole of the plumage, quills,
and tail fine yellow; the last long and cuneiform.
In another specimen there is a mixture of green in the feathers,
and from this supposed to be a young bird.
The above two specimens were brought from Cayenne, and in fine
condition in Mr. Bullock's Museum.
52. GOLDEN PARROT.
Perroquet d'or, Levail. Per. pl. 138.
Golden Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 543.
LENGTH about eight inches. Bill pale; plumage entirely
golden yellow ; edges of the shoulders tinged with rose-colour; legs
pale.
Supposed to inhabit Brazil.
53—PALE PARRAKEET.
Psittacus pallidus, Ind, Orn. Sup. p. xxi.    Nat. Misc. pl.258.
if^tfrhte; Pale Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 84.    Shatv's Zool. viii. 471.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill and legs pale ; general colour of
the plumage pale yellow; the quills, more or less, dirty rose-coloured
white, in some lights appearing to be tinged with green; the tail
cuneiform, but in a moderate degree.
Inhabits New-Holland.
 146
54—BRAZILIAN YELLOW PARROT.
Psittacus luteus, Ind. Orn. i. 92.    Bris. iv. 369.    Id. 8vo. ii. 143.
 Guarouba, Gm. Lin.i. 320.    B»/.vi. 272.
 flavus, Alis et cauda viridescentibus, Gerin. ii. pl. 122;
Perruche Ara, Guaroba, Levail. Perr A. p. 42. pl.18. 19. 20.
Quijubatui, Raii, 3b.    Will. 78.   Id. Engl. 117. §.4.
Brazilian Yellow Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 225.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 449.
THIS is about eleven inches in length. Bill grey; eyes black;
plumage in general fine yellow, except the greater quills, which are
green; tail cuneiform, pretty long, and yellow.
A.—Perruche jaune de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 525.
This varies, in having a mixture of green on the back, wing
coverts, and rump; tail feathers green, with yellow margins, the
ends blue; the rest of the plumage fine yellow, or orange-colour.
B.—Psittaca mexicana lutea, Bris. ivr 370.    Id. 8vo.ii. 143.
Avis Cocho, Psitt. Mexic. Species, Seba. i. t. 64. f. 2.
Psittacus flavus maculatus fronte albida, Gerin. i. 95; t. Ill ?
Mexican Yellow Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 226. 28. A.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 450.
Length eleven inches. Bill reddish; head pale red; neck orange
red; back, rump, breast, belly, sides, thighs, upper and under tail
. coverts, light yellow; upper wing coverts varied with green, red,
and orange; quills green; tail cuneiform, pale yellow.
Inhabits Mexico; probably a variety of the Brazilian Species,
which is found in Brazil, and the Amazon's Country, but not at
Cayenne. It is called Guiaruba, or Yellow Bird; is a solitary
species ; does not learn to talk, but is not difficult to tame, and not
common.    Those with green feathers mixed with the yellow, are
 147
most likely young Mf$s, if not differing in sex. J&,one of these
with a mixed plumage the tail was wholly yellow; I have observed
one, in which the face inclined to red or orange; as to Var. B. it must
rest on conjecture only, not having seen such a bird.
55—CAROLINA PARROT.
Psittacus Carolinensis, Ind. Orn. i. 93.    Lin A. 141.     Gm. Lin. i. 320.    Scop. Ann. i.
No. 25.    Bris. iv. 350,    Id. 8vo, i. 138.    Klein, p. 25.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 445.
Perriche a tete jaune, Buf vi. 274.
Perroquet, No. 7, Fermin. Surin. ii. 176.
Carolina Parrot, Gen. Syn.i. 227.    Id. Sup. 59.    Id. Sup. ii. 84.     Gates. Car A. pl.2.
Arct. Zool. ii. No. 132.    Bartr. Trav. 286.    Amer. Orn. iii. pl.26. 1.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill yellowish white, and with the
eyes surrounded by a naked, pale, ash-coloured skin; irides yellow;
&m part of the head orange, back part, nape, and throat yellow;
lower part of the neck behind, and all the upper and under parts of
the body green; edge of the wing, at the bend, orange; wing coverts
green, the lesser green beneath, the greater brown; quills brown
within, yellow on the outside at the base, then green, with the tips
inclining to blue; the secondaries green above, and all of them brown
beneath; tail greatly cuneiform, green; legs hoary.
Inhabits Guiana, migrating into Carolina and Virginia in
autumn ; is said to feed on corn, and kernels of fruits, particularly
those of cypress and apples; comes into Carolina and Georgia in vast
flights, doing great damage in orchards, by tearing in pieces the
fruits for the sake of the seeds, the only part agreeable to their palate.
Have been known to build the nest in Carolina, but the greater part
retires south in breeding time, returning when the fruits are ripe.
They are called in Georgia the Parrakeet.*   Bartram observes, that
* Mr, Abbot.
U 2
 148 PARROT.
they never reach so far north as Pensylvania, which is singular, being
a bird of very rapid flight, and could easily perform the journey in
10 or 12 hours from North Carolina, which abounds in all sorts of
the fruits they delight in.* Is easily made tame, if taken by means of
the wing being broken, or any other accident, which does not
affect its life.
vicianus, Gm. Lin.i. 347.
s capite luteo, fronte rubra
Klein, p. 25. 14.
Papegai a tete aurore, Buf. vi. 247.    Du Pratz. Voy. ii. 128.
Perruche de la Caroline, PL enl. 499.
Orange-headed Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 304.
The plumage in this is said to be sea-green, but the head covered
with yellow, which grows red towards the bill, and mixes, by
degrees, with the green on the sides of the body. This is all the
description given by Du Pratz, who relates much the same manners
as have been mentioned in respect to the foregoing, and of which we
suspect it to be a mere variety.
56—ILLINOIS PARROT.
Psittacus pertinax, Ind. Orn. i. 94.    Lin. i. 149.    Mus. Ad. Fred.i. p. 14.    Gm. Lin. i.
322.    Bor. Nat. ii. 94.    Spalowsck. Vog.ii. t.9.
Psittacus viridis malis croceis, Klein. Av. 25.    Frisch. t. 54.
.     Psittica Illiniaca, Bris.iv. 353.    Id. 8vo.ii. 138.
Tui Aputejuba, Raii, 34.     Id. 181.      Will. 78.     Id. Engl. 116. §. iv.     Buf. vi. 369.
pl. 13.    Pl. enl. 528.
Perruche a front jaune, Levail. Perr. i. 70. pl.34.35.36.37.
Yellow-faced Parrot, Edw. pl. 234.
Illinois Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 228.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 133.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 445.
Length nine inches and a half.    Bill pale ash-colour; eyes and
upper mandible placed in a naked, ash-coloured skin; irides deep
* Bartr. Trav.
 orange; plumage in general green, inclining to yellow beneath;
forehead, cheeks, and throat fine orange; crown of the head deep
green, mixed with yellow towards the hindhead; fore part of the
neck cinereous green; on the belly a few orange spots; quills blue-
green wittiin, and the shafts blackish, the five next the body full
green; tail much cuneated, green, some of the outer feathers with
cinereous margins, and others with yellowish ones ; the exterior
shorter by one inch and three quarters; legs deep ash.
Inhabits Brazil, Guiana, Cayenne, &c. where it is called Wood-
Louse* Parrot, from its feeding on, and making the nest in the
habitations of those insects, remaining the whole year at Guiana, but
migrates from other parts, far northward, being very common on the
banks of the Ohio, and the south shore of Lake Erie. Sometimes in
the number of 500 in a flock, and living, among other things, on
chestnuts, acorns, and wild peas; are very clamorous, and on the
approach of any person, set up a horrible outcry all together. The
flesh is accounted savoury by the French and Indians, who make it
into soup.
That figured in pl. enlum. is green above, and yellow beneath;
forehead and cheeks yellow, inclining to orange; no doubt either
taken from a bird in higher plumage, or differing in sex.
The Carolina and Illinois Parrot are by many supposed to be one
and the same species, but differing merely from age or progress to
maturity^ the female varies but little from the male, the yellow on the
neck not descending so far down, and in her the vanes of the prime
quills are brownish, instead of black, and the orange red on the
head, and edges of the wing much narrower.
* This insect belongs to the Genus Termes of Lii
West Indies, White,, or Wood Ant: and in Africa, 1
tion of which is too well known in the parts which the
8vo. 153,179.—Bosman's Guinea, 276, 493.—Shane's
memoir on the subject by Mr. Smeathman—Phil. Tra
ed by the English in. the
>r Bugabug—the devasta-
See Adans. Voy. to Seneg.
. 221. &c—Also a curious
p. 139.
1_
 150 PARROT.
Mr. Wilson* observes, that young birds of the preceding year are
generally destitute of yellow on the head and neck, till the middle of
March, being then wholly green, except from the cheeks, which are
orange red in them as in full grown birds ; about themiddle of March
the yellow begins to appear in detached feathers among the green,
varying in different individuals ; build in companies in hollow trees ;
the favourite food said to be cockle burs—fond of large sycamores,
roosting thirty or forty together in the hollow of one—are killed for
food by the inhabitants, but their flesh is not well flavoured.
As a proof of these birds being in very great numbers M, Levaillant says, he has seen above 6000 skins of the Carolina species sent
for sale to a dealer in feathers at Paris, for the purpose of ornamenting dresses.
57—CRIMSON-VENTED PARROT.
Psittacus erythropygius,  Ind. Orn. i. 94.
Crimson-vented Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 229.
SIZE large. Bill dusky ; head and neck yellow, the rest of the
body palish green ; tail cuneiform ; vent crimson; quills, and end
of the tail feathers blue.
Supposed to come from the East Indies, or China. A speciinarf
was in the Leverian Museum, but without any history; we have,
however, seen a drawing of this bird from China, and may fairly
conclude it to be a native of Asia.
 II
PARROT. 151
58—EMERALD PARROT.
Psitt: smaragdinus, Ind. Om. i. 94.    Gm. Lin. i. 322.
Perruche emeraude, Buf. vi. 262.    Levail. Perr. i. 47. pl. 21.
■ des terres magellaniques, Pl. enl. 85.
Emerald Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 239.   Id. Sup. p. 60.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 406.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill dusky ; plumage dusky green,
except the lower part of the belly, vent, and tail, which are ferruginous chesnut; tail pretty long, with a green tip ; legs dusky.
Inhabits the neighbourhood of the Straits of Magellan ; this,
however, Buffon has doubt of; for, according to him,* no Parrot is
met with in so high a latitude: perhaps in this he is guided by the
supposition■■■of their living on fruits and succulent food only; but as it
is well known that several of the Genus feed also on seeds and berries,
the objection on this head must cease; besides, so many authors of
veracity assert to the contrary, that the fact cannot be doubted : we
are told, that two sorts were seen .abou£Trinity Harbour in the South
Seas, latitude 41. 7. Dr. Forster met with two kinds at Dusky Bay,
New Zealand, latitude 46. south, and large flocks as low as Port
Famine, in the Straits of the Magellan*]- latitude 53. 44. south, where
their food must have been buds and berries, the forests being frequently bounded by mountains, covered with eternal snow.
59— RED AND BLUE-HEADED PARRAKEET.
Psitt. canicularis, Ind. Om. i. 94.    Lin. i. 142.    Id. iii. app. 228.    Gm. Lin. i. 323.
Psitt. Brasiliensis fronte rubra, Bris. iv. 339.   Id. 8vo. ii. 134.
La Perriche k front rouge, Buf. vi. 268.    Pl. enl. 767.    Levail. Perr. i. 79. pl. 40.
Red and blue-headed Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 242.    Edxv. pl. 176.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 455.
SIZE of a Thrush ; length ten inches.    Bill and cere pale ash-
colour ; eyes in a naked ash-coloured skin ; irides yellow orange;
* He confines them to 25 degrees on each side the equator, Hist, des Ois. ii. p. 82; r
t Barrington.Misc.4B9. 491.    Voy. V. i. p. 158.        XSpilsb.Voy.    Woods, in Damp.
Voy. iv. 112.   Hawksw. Coll. i. 38. besides other accounts more recent—Arct. Zool. ii. 244.
 152 PARROT.
forehead scarlet; crown of the head fine blue, paler behind; upper
parts of the body deep green, beneath paler; prime quills blue on the
outer webs; tail greatly cuneifonn, the two middle feathers longer
than the outer by more than three inches and a half; legs greenish
flesh-colour.
Inhabits the hotter parts of America.
A.—Psittac. vertice cceruleo, fronte lutea, Gerin. ii. t. 127 ?
Perruche k front jaune,  PL enl. 838.
Buff-fronted Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 61.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 455.
Length ten inches. Bill dusky; forehead buff-colour; in some
deeper, or yellow ; round the eye a patch of deep yellow, pointed
behind ; crown blue, changing into greenish at the back part; sides
of the head and throat, pale greenish ash ; general colour of the
plumage as the upper parts; wings, and tail green ; breast inclining
to yellow; second quills deep blue, forming a bar; prime quills
blue, with green edges; tail cuneiform, the middle feathers five
inches long, the outer two inches and three quarters, the ends of all
bluish; legs dusky red.
In Linnaeus's bird the crown was green, probably differing in sex.
60—BROWN-THROATED PARRAKEET.
Psittacus asruginosus, Ind.Om.i. 95.    Lin.i. 112.    Gm. Lin.i. 323.
Psittaca martinicana, Bris. iv. 356.    Id. 8vo.ii. 139.
Perriche a Gorge brune, Buf.vi. 257.
Brown-throated Parrakeet, Gen. Syn.i. 243.    Edw. pl. 177.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 455.
LENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill, cere, and orbits ash-
coloured; irides hazel; plumage green above, yellow green beneath;
crown of the head, from eye to eye, greenish blue; the feathers at
the base of the bill, the cheeks, throat, and fore part of the neck
 mm
PARROT. ]53
grey brown, with a tinge of yellow; tail green, shorter than the
body, and yellowrsh beneath, in shape cuneiform ; legs ash-colour.
Inhabits Martinico, and different parts of North America; if the
same with Bancroft's bird, is found in Guiana, but in his, part of
the quills was blue. I received one from Jamaica, in which the head
is of the same green as the rest of the body, the secondaries next the
body, and the inner sides of the prime quills blue.
A.—Psittacus plumbeus, Gm. Lin. i. 326.
Brown-fronted Parrakeet, Gen. Syn.i. 243. 41. A.
Length eleven inches and a half. Bill lead-colour; eye in a skin
of the same; irides hazel; forehead brown; crown bluish; cheeks
and chin brownish buff; throat deeper; rest of the body green, paler
beneath ; tail cuneiform, more than half the length of the bird, side
feathers short, colour as the body, with blue edges and tips; edges
of the quills blue; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits the Spanish Main, from whence it was brought alive.
61—LONG-TAILED GREEN PARRAKEET.
Psittacus rufirostris, Ind. Orn. i. 95.     Lin.i. 142.     Gm. Lin.i. 323.    Mus. Ad. Fred.
n. p. 13.    Gerin. ii. 1.125.
Psittaca, Rm. iv. 319.    Jd.8vo.ii. 129.
Psittacus minor macrour. Raii, p. 33. t. 81.     Will. 77.    Shane's Jam. 297.     Brown's
Sincialo,R„/.vi.265.    PL enl. 550.    Levail. Perr.i. 83. pl. 42.    Shaw's Zool- viii. 441.
Tii, Raii, 34. 1.    Will.78.    Id.Engl.116.
Long-tailed Green Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 230.    Edw. pl. 175.
SIZE of a Blackbird; length twelve inches and a half. Upper
mandible blood red, with a black tip, the under black : cere and
bare skm round the eye, flesh-coloured;  irides orange; plumage
I
jp
 I
154 PARROT.
yellow green; edges of the quills yellowish; the two middle tail
feathers Idnger than the outer by five inches, and plaifo green; legs
flesh-colour.
Inhabits various parts of America.
A.—Psittacus Guianensis, Gm. Lie. i., 323.-   I
Psitt. Aquar. Lupiar. Insula;, Bm.iv. 330.   Id. 8vo.ii. 132.   Shaw's Zool.viii. 442. var;
Ajuru-cotinga, Ran, p. 33.    Will. 76.    Id. Engl. 115. 116. II.
Green Parrot of Guiana, Gen.Syn.i. 231.    Bancr. Gvian. 161.
Bill flesh-coloured; irides reddish ; near the pupil ash-coloured;
the eye in an ash-coloured skin, a line in breadth; whole plumage
green, in a variety of shades ; tail cuneiform; legs whitish.
Inhabits Brazil and Guadaloupe. Bancroft observes, that it is
the most numerous of all the Parrakeets in Guiana; also found in
Terra Firma, and some of the Caribbee Islands; that the tail feathers
are blue at the points. It is called Sincialo at St. Domingo, and
noisy in its natural state, but readily learns to talk, whistle, and
imitate the voices of animals > fly in troops, but when settled on a
tree, fully clothed with leaves, are not easily distinguished; are lively
birds, and easily tamed; in their native haunts are accounted good
food, being at times very fat, and not unsavoury.
62—JAGUILMA PARRAKEET.
Psittacus Jaguilma, Ind. Om.i. 96.     Gm. Lin.i. 324.   Molin. Chil. 228.   Id. Fr. Ed.
237.
Jaguilma Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 85.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 442.
SIZE of a Turtle.    Plumage wholly green, but therrtips of the
quills are brown; orbits fulvous; tail cuneiform, very long.
 PARROT. 155
Inhabits Chili, in South America; most frequent in the plains
between 34; and 35 degrees of latitude; is very clamorous, .and often
flies in such large flocks as to obscure the light of the sun ; making
great havock in the cultivated lands, feeding on the buds of trees and
herbs; happily, their arrival is rarely till after harvest, for they will
often tear up the plants with the bill quite to the roots. Multitudes
are destroyed every year by the peasants on horseback, having a
pole in their hands, when riding among a flock, settled on the ground,
they knock down great numbers of the birds before they are able to
escape ; the flesh is delicate, and preferred to every other.
63— PAVOUANE PARROT.
Psittacus Guianensis, Ind. Orn. i. 96.     Gm. Lin. i. 324.     I
8vo.ii. 133.
La Perriche Pavouane, Buf. vi. 255.    Pl. enl. 407. young. 1<
Perruche Ara, Pavouane, Levail. Perr. i. 35. pl. 14.15.
Le Maracana vert, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No, 275. 276.
Pavouane Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 232.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 402.
iv. 331. t. 28. 1.   Id.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill whitish; round the eye bare,
white; irides fiery red; plumage deep green, paler beneath; cheeks
spotted with red; edge of the wing, and under lesser coverts scarlet,
the adjoining fine yellow; quills like the back, beneath dull yellow,
margins near the tips blackish; shafts of all of them, except the
three next the body, black; tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers
M&i,pflb,es and a quarter long,. the outer only three and a quarter;
Jegsigrey.
Inhabits Guiana, as far as 25 degrees of latitude, but more
plentiful towards the north ; often seen in great flocks, making a
stunning noise.    The young bird differs, in not having the sides ef
X2
 156 PARROT.
the head and neck spotted with red, nor do these spots appear till
the second or third year, but the under wing coverts are red in every
stage, though paler. Very common at Cayenne; found also in the
Caribbee Islands; will learn to talk plain, but though confined for
a long time, rarely becomes familiar. Called at Guiana, Pavouane ;
flies in numbers, and frequents savannas and woods; fond of the
fruit of the coral, or red bean tree.* Is probably that mentioned by
Bancroft, differing from the green one, having the feathers of the
head diversified with crimson spots, f
A.—In the Leverian Museum I observed a slight variety, with
the head dusky blue, as far as the middle of the crown ; the under
parts of the body inclining to olive; bill and legs lead-colour; the
under wing coverts crimson, but no yellow adjoining.
This came from Cayenne, and was full 13 in. in length.
64—VARIED-WINGED PARROT.
Psittacus marginatus, Ind. Om. i. 96.    Gm. Lin: i. 324.
Perruche de l'Isle de Lucon, Son. Voy. 80. pl.43.
Varied-winged Parrot, Gen. Syn.i. 233.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 420.
SIZE large. Bill large and flesh-coloured, round the base the
feathers are bright green ; irides white; top of the head blue; body
above grass-green, beneath yellowish green; lesser wing coverts black,
margined with yellowish brown; greater coverts black, margined
with blue, forming together a large spot of beautiful appearance;
quills and tail green, the latter cuneiform ; legs blackish.
Inhabits the Island of Luzonia.
* Erythrina Corallodendron, Lin. f Hist. Guiana, p. 162.
 ■EC
157
65—LACE-WINGED PARRAKEET.
Psittacus olivaceus, Ind. Orn. i. 97.
•— minor, Psittacula.Luciom
Perruche k Ailes chamarees, Buf. vi
Lace-winged Parrakeet, Gen. Syn.i.
Gm, Lin.i. 326.
sis. Gerin. ii. 1.130.
151.    Pl. enl. ,287.    Let
a«7. Perr
.i. 120. pl.60.
244.    Shaw's Zool. viii.
121. var.
LENGTH near twelve inches. Bill red; plumage in general
olive brown; on the hindhead a blue spot; wings blue, green, and
orange, the blue occupies the middle, the others the edges'; tail
cuneiform, one-third the length of the bird, and the wings reach to
the middle of it, which is not common, being usually very short;
legs dusky.
Inhabits Luzonia, with the last, to which it is probably related ;
but this is uncertain, for want of more particular description.
66—GREAT-BILLED PARROT.
Psittacus macrorynchos, Ind. Orn. i. 117.    Gm. Lin. i. 338.
Perroquet k Bee couleur de Sang, Buf. vi. 122.
 de la nouvelle Guinee, Pl. enl. 713.    Levail. Perr. pl. 83.
Great-billed Parrot, Gen. Syn.i. 278.     Slum's Zool. viii. 530. pl. 79.     Nat. Misc. xxi.
LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill blood-colour, very thick and
broad, more so than in any other Parrot; head and neck fine green,
with a gilded gloss ; beneath yellow, shaded with green; back blue
green ; wing coverts black, margined and variegated with gilded
yellow; quills dull blue ; tail green, beneath and at the end yellow;
shape moderately cuneiform ; legs dusky.
Inhabits New-Guinea.
J
 158
67—DUBIOUS PARROT.
Psittacus dubius, Ind. Orn. i. 97.    Shaw's Zool. r
Dubious Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 62.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill and legs pale horn-colour; lore and
space round the eye bare, and of the same colour; head and chin
green; the whole neck pale rufous; upper parts of the body and
wings green, beneath paler; outer edge of the bastard wing, and
quills blue; tail cuneiform, but short, yellawash green, the four
middle feathers pointed at the ends, where they are blue; the four
outer ones tipped with brown, ^£&
A specimen of this is in the British Museum, but from whence
uncertain.
68—BLACK-NECKED PARROT.
Psittacus nigricollis, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxii.    Shaw's Zool. i
Black-necked Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. ?;%&*>£
SIZE of the Alexandrine Parrakeet, but with a shorter tail.
Bill black; plumage .in general green ; forehead and orbits lemon-
colour; chin, .throat, and breast black; lore white, continuing in a
white line on each side of the neck, between the green and the black;
belly dusky green ; quills and tail black; lesser quills wholly, and
the edges of some others, blue; tail cuneiform, the outer margins of
the feathers fringed with olive green ; tail black.
Inhabits Brazil.—In the collection of Gen. Davies.
 159
69—ALEXANDRINE PARRAKEET.
fl ; P&i*M.lexandri, Ind. Om.i. 97,    Lin. i. 141.    Gm. Lin. i. 321.    Scop. Ann. No. 26.
Bor. Nat. ii. 94.    Spalowsck. Voy. iii. t. 8.*
Psitt. cubicularis,if<mefy. It. ii. 35.   Id Engl. 196.
—mm-, torquatus macrourus, Bait. 33.    Will. 77. 1.16.    Id. Engl. p. 115.
Grande Perruche a Collier rouge vif,  Buf. vi. 141.    PL enl. 642.    Levail. Perr. i. 62.
pl. 30.
Perrocello, Olin. Uc. t. p. 24.
Ring-Parrakeet, Edw. pl. 292.
Alexandrine Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 234.   Id. Sup. ii. p. 86.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 423.
LENGTH fifteen inches. Bill red; plumage in general green,
paler beneath; throat black, passing behind to meet a crescent of
red at the back of the neck; at the bend of the wing a purplish spot;
tail longer than the body, green fringed with blue, and pale yellow
beneath, in shape greatly cuneiform ; legs dusky.
Inhabits the Southern parts of Asia, also the Island of Ceylon.
Hasselquist says, that it lives in Ethiopia, and brought to Cairo for
sale; has a shrill and piercing note, and will learn to articulate
some words : its chief food said to be the seeds of the safflower.t—
Sonnini affirms, that this species is brought in numbers from Nubia
to Cairo; and that the Arabian name is Dourra.
A.—Among the drawings of Gen. Hardwicke, done in India, is
a variety, measuring in length twenty-one inches and a half; the
tail being longer in proportion; $ in this the lower mandible is
dusky; eyelids broad, rough, crimson; at the base of the neck a
crimson ring, met on each side by a crescent of black, taking rise at
* Tn Spalowski's figure, the ring round the throat is very broad, with no red on the
throat or breast.
■f Carthamus tinctorius Lin,       * In one drawing the tail was of such a length as to
in all two feet,  .
I
 1
160 PARROT.
the under jaw ; bend of the wing, and the coverts blue ; on the latter
a long patch of crimson ; quills blue; tail very long and cuneiform ;•
legs flesh-colour.
The female has neither the ring on the neck, nor any black on
the chin, and the bare space round the eye narrower:
Inhabits India, met with- at Futtehghur in February, known
there by the name of Lehberry. These birds are sometimes in great
numbers, and particularly fond of ripe fruits; and although beautiful,jare for the most part accounted unwelcome guests.
70—ROSE-RINGED PARRAKEET.
Psittaca torquata, Bris. iv. 323.    Id. 8vo. ii. 130.    Gerin. ii. t. 123.
La Perruche k Collier couleur de Rose, Buf. vi. 152.    PL enl. 551.    Leva
il. Perroq
497. pl. 22, 23.
Rose-ringed Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 235. 37. A.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 425.
IN this species the upper mandible is red, the under black; irides
yellow ; eyes placed in a flesh-coloured skin ; plumage pale green ;
throat blacky round the neck a light rose-coloured collar, inclining
to violet at the hind head; tail nine inches long, much cuneated, the
two middle feathers exceeding the outer ones by seven inches; legs
ash-colour.
Inhabits Africa. These birds do not get the ring round the neck
the first year at least, as we have observed several to be quite plain in
that part when first imported, and gained a narrow ring at the next
year's moult, growing wider and more conspicuous according to the
age of the bird.
This, or as some think the last, is supposed to be the Parrot mentioned by Aldrovandus,* and well known to the Greeks and Romans;
and if so, cannot be a native of any part of America, as Brisson
* Psitt. torquatus macrourus Antiquorum, Aldr, Av. i. p. 678. tab. in 679i
 PARROT. 16X
supposes, more especially as Parrots are not known to traverse far
across the ocean, neither was America at all known at that period.
A.—Psitt. Alexandri, Mus. Ad. Fr. ii. p. 14; ' Amcen. Ac. iv. 236.
_g_*   .-   Psittaca indica torquata, Bris. iv. 326.    Jd.8vo.ii. 131.    Gerin. ii. t. 124.
Bracelet Parrakeet, Alb. ii. p. 18.
Purple-ringed Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 236—37. B.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 426.
LENGTH seventeen inches. Bill and irides as in the others;
ti differs in having the skin round the eyes brown ; the crown of the'
head bluish green; the ring purple; and the fore part of the neck
and breast pale rose-colour.
Inhabits the East Indies.
B.—Psittaca borbonica torquata, Bris. iv. 328. t. 27. 1.
Perruche a double Collier, Buf. vi. 143. PL enl. 215 ?
Double-ringed Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 236—37. C.    Si
Jd.8vo.ii. 132.
Levail. Perr. i. 77. pl. 39.
aw's Zool. viii. 425.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill as in the others; plumage above
green, beneath yellow green; the ring round the neck rose-colour,
broadest before; above this a little mixture of blue green ; under the
throat a yellow stripe, which meets the rose-coloured ring; on the
sides of the neck above the ring, a narrow black stripe, passing to
the lower mandible; tail green above, yellowish ash-colour beneath;
the two middle feathers longer than the outer ones by four inches.
Inhabits the Isle of Bourbon, and other parts of the same latitude
both in Africa and Asia.
71—BLUE-COLLARED PARRAKEET.
Psittac. Sonneratii, Ind. Om. i. 98.    Gm. Lin. i. 324.
Perruche k Collier de Lucon, Son. Voy. 80. pl.43.
Blue-collared Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 234.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 426.
SIZE of the Alexandrine species.    Bill and irides red; head,
neck, and belly greyish green; on the neck a light blue band, forming
 18$ PARROT.
a collar ; wings.and back-grass green ; at the beginning of .each
wing a large round crimson patch; tail cuneiform,; rthe two middle
feathers grass green, much longer than the others, which are greyish
green; legs dusky grey.
Inhabits the Philippine Islands.    It seems doubtful whether it is
distinct in species, or only a variety-Of the former ones.
72—MUSTACHOE PARRAKEET.
Psitt. Pondicerianus, Ind. Om. i. 99.    Gm. Lin. i. 325.
Perruche k Moustaches, Buf. vi. 149.    Pl. enl. 517.
———— a pointrine rose, Levail. Perr. i. 64. pl. 31.
Mustachoe Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 238.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 436. pl. 63.
THE general length of this bird is eleven or twelve inches; but
on account of the tail, some specimens measure as far as thirteen.
The bill is red, towards the end yellow ; under mandible nearly
black; the whole head, including the jaws, lilac grey; across the
forehead, from eye to eye, a narrow black streak ; on each side a
broad black stripe in the direction of the jaw, like a whisker,*
rounded behind; throat and breast lilac, below it yellowish -, upper
parts of the body green, inclining to yellow next the bend of the
wing, and middle of the coverts; belly, thighs, and vent pale green ;
quills and tail deep green, the two middle feathers of the latter longer
than the outer ones by three inches and a quarter, beneath straw
colour; legs bluish.
Inhabits Indian—found about Futtehghur. One figured among
General Hardwicke's drawings, called Munnun-gowry; in Bengal,
Madana, or Madaria.
' From this circumstance is called by some the Jew Parrakeet.
 A.—Psitt. barbatus, Gm, Lin. i. 325. 73. |=
Bearded Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 238. 38. jt§F
Length from bill to rump seven inches. Bill red; crown of the
head green; between the base of the bill and eyes chestnut; from
the nostrils to the eye a line of brown ; from under the chin springs
a black streak on each side, appearing like a beard or whisker, half
an inch broad; nape of the neck blossom-colour; the rest of the
plumage green, paler beneath; quills dusky, edged with blue; legs
dusky.    The tail was wanting.
In the Museum of the late Dr. Hunter, from whence unknown.
B—Size of the others. Bill black; head, neck, breast, and
upper part of the belly fine red lilac, deeper on the crown and breast;
on each jaw a large patch of pale green, fringed on the upper part
next the eye with black; and beneath, on the throat, bounded deeply
with black; the back, wings, tail, thighs, and vent green; legs ash-
colour.—In the collection of General Davies.
73—WHISKERED PARRAKEET.
Psitt. bimaculatus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 99.
Bimaculated Parrakeet, Shaw's Zool. *
Mus. Carls, i
ii. 457.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill red; forehead, chin, throat, sides
of the head and neck pale orange; from each side of the lower
mandible a long oval streak, composed of black mottled feathers, in
the manner of a whisker; general colour of the plumage green, paler
beneath; across the wing coverts a streak of yellow orange; tail
cuneiform, green ; legs dusky.—Native place not mentioned.
pur
 r
164
74—BLOSSOM-HEADED PARRAKEET.
Psitt. Ginginianus, Ind. Orn. i. 99.   Bris. iv. 346. t.29. f.2.   Id. 8vo.ii. 136>   Gerin.
ii. t. 132.
Psitt. erythrocephalus,    Gm. Lin. i. 325.
Perruche a tete rouge, Buf. vi. 144.    Pl. enl. 264.
Blossom-head Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 239.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 434. pl. 62.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill reddish ; head red, with a shade
of light blue, chiefly at the hind head; chin black, narrowing into a
slender line from the corners of the mouth to the hind head ; beneath
the black another line of pale green, both making a kind of collar;
the rest of the plumage green, inclining beneath to yellow; on the
wing coverts a dull red spot; tail six inches and quarter long, green
above, margined within with yellow, the outer feathers shorter than
the middle by four inches; legs grey.
Inhabits Gingi, in the East Indies.
A.—Psitt. Bengalensis, Ind. Om.i. 100. 50. (S;    Bris. ir. 348.    Id. 8vo, ii. 137.    Gm.
Lin. i. 325.
Psitt. rodocephalus/Rose->headed Parrakeet,   Lev. Mus. No. 4. pl. 9.     Nat. Misc. V.
21. No. 877.
Petite Perruche k tete rouge de Lucon, Son. Voy. 79. t. 42.
—————— couleur de rose a longs brins, Buf. ir. 154.
Perruche de Malabar, Pl. enl. 888.
■ a Collier noir, Levail. Perr. i. 92. pl. 45.
La Perruche Fridytutah, Levail. Perr. pl. 74 ?
Parrakeet from Bengal, Alb. iii. pl. 14;   Klein, p. 25.
Rose-headed ring Parrakeet, Gen. Syn.i. 239. 39. A.    Edw. pl. 233;
LENGTH from twelve to fourteen inches. Bill yellowish; under
mandible black; irides yellow; cere brownish ; crown and cheeks
rose-colour; hind head blue; throat and ring round the neck as in
the last, also the blood-red spot on the wing ; tail blue above, and
dull yellow beneath; the two middle feathers eight inches longer
 PARROT. Ijg5
than the outer ones, which measure only two inches and a half;
colour olive green, fringed with blue; and all of them white for some
length at the ends.
The female has the whole head pale lilac blue, below this the
neck is surrounded with a yellow collar; the rest of the bird green,
but more dull than in the male, and the spot at the bend of the wing
pale reddish brown ; bill and tail as in the male-
Inhabits India—common at Futtehghur—breeds in the forests of
Rohilcund—in various parts of Bengal.—M. Sonnerat says,  it is
found in the Philippine Islands, in which the birds have the spot on
the wings bright red.
-Psitt. Borneus,. Gm. Lin. i. 325. 74. y-.
mean Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 240. 39. B.
LENGTH fifteen inches. The whole head the colour of peach-
blossom, front greenish; from eye to eye, passing over the cere, a
narrow black line ; from the lower mandible a streak of black, placed
obliquely on each side of the neck, growing wider backwards; from
the nape wholly light green, except the middle of the wing coverts,
which incline to yellow ; from the chin to the middle of the belly
reddish blossom-colour, inclining to chestnut; middle of the belly,
thighs, and vent green; tail greatly cuneiform, green, but the two
middle feathers incline to blue.
Inhabits the Isle of Borneo.
C.—Psitt. Malaccensis, Gm. Lin. i. 325. 74. f.
Perruche a nuque et Joues rouges.. Levail. Perr. pr*#2T M
Grande Perruche a longs brins de Malac, Buf. vi. 155.    Pl, enl. 887.
Blossom-cheeked Parrakeet, Shaw's Zool. viii. 437.
Malacca Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 241. 39. C.    Id. Sup. p, 60.
This is sixteen inches in length, and differs from var. A.  in the
green having a tinge of yellow; the whole head is not rose-coloured
 1
166 PARROT.
lnittonly theuregi^wiof the eyes, and the hind head; the crown beingy
green, and the-rring on the:neck wholly wanting ; tail as in the two
last described, the middle feathers shooting out into twice the length
of any of the others.
Inhabits Malacca. One in the Leverian Museum, had the crown
green ; sides of the head blossom-colour; a broad, long, black patch
on each side of the lower jaw, like a whislcer; quills and tail blue on
the margins, the two middle feathers of the latter six inches longer ;
none of the others more than three, the short ones cuneiform ; legs
black. One of these among some Chinese drawings was called
Sing-sie.
B.—In another set of drawings from China, the crown was blue;
through the eyes a streak of black; beneath this blossom-colour;
chin black ; in other things as-the last described.
The five last birds, with their reputed varieties, seem to run inta
one another, so as to render it no easy matter to discriminate them
satisfactorily. We have, therefore, left them to be accounted for on
the faith of their describers, and to futurity, to identify the originality
of each, and how far they may be connected with each other.
75—YELLOW-COLLARED PARRAKEET.
Perruche a Collier jaune, Levail. Perr. pl. 75. 76.
Yellow-collared Parrakeet, Shaw's Zool. viii. 439.
NEARLY the size of the Rose-headed. Bill yellowish; head
violet blue, tinged in front with brown; neck surrounded with a
jonquil yellow collar; rest of the plumage green, paler beneath;
lowest wing coverts tinged with blue; edges of the larger quill
feathers with pale yellow ; tail long, green, the two middle feathers
sky blue, deeply tipped with yellowish white; legs dusky.
 II
 mmtUJ^t
   «
The female like the male, but with a pale violet head, without
the brown in front, and the yellow collar less conspicuous.
Inhabits India, and to be considered as a new species.
76—RACKET-TAILED PARROT—Pl. XXIV.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill lead-colour, under mandible and
tip black; plumage in general green, paler beneath; at the nape a
deep crimson mark; beneath this, the rest of the neck behind
purplish blossom-colour; across the back, between the wings, a
ferruginous clay-coloured crescent; lesser wing coverts inclining to
blossom-colour; lesser quills purplish lilac without, and green within;
tail green, the two middle feathers exceed the others by two inches
and a half, and as far as this excess takes place, are not webbed, but
expand again at the ends, into an oval of about half an inch; all
the other feathers green, one-third from the end dark ultramarine blue,
but the ends, for seven-eighths of an inch beneath, verditer blue;
legs black.
Native place uncertain.—Description and figure taken from a
specimen, in the possession of Mr. Latham, of Compton Street,
London.
77—YELLOW-WINGED PARRAKEET.
Psittacus virescens, Ind. Om. i. 100.    Gm. Lin. i. 326.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 458;
 cayanensis, Bris.iv. 334. t.27. 2.    Id. 8vo.ii. 133.
Perriche a ailes variees, Buf.vi. 259.    Levail. Perr.i. lib. pl.57.
.i— a tache souci, Levail. Perr.i. 117. pl.58. 59.
Petite Perruche verte de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 359.
Le Maracana aux ailes jaunes, Voy. d'Azara, ii. No. 282.
Yellow-winged Parrakeet, Gen.Syn.i. 244.
LESS than a Blackbird; length eight inches and a quarter.
Bill and cere whitish;  plumage greenish, paler beneath; greater
 168
i
wing coverts next the body, with the base, and inner webs white;
the outer, and tips yellow; those farthest from the body greenish blue
beneath ; the nearest pale brimstone, the outer bluish green; the first
five quills green on the outer edges and tips, but black within, with
white margins; the nearest seven white, the outer webs and tips
yellow; most of the others have the outer webs and tips yellow, the
inner yellowish white; the four next the body green, and when the
wing is closed, appears a broad yellowish stripe, dividing it in the
middle; tail cuneiform, four inches long, green, with the inner
margins yellowish ; legs grey.
The female differs in having the colours less vivid.
Common at Cayenne, and fly in numbers together, are not shy,
but frequently settle in the midst of inhabited places; are fond of the
buds of the immortal, or coral tree,* and settle on it when in flower,
and as this tree is planted near habitations, opportunities occur of
shooting them readily, but those which are not wounded soon return,
and continue their depredations; they learn to speak readily, if kept
tame.   Found also at Paraguay, but is there rare.
78—WAVE-BREASTED PARRAKEET.
Psittacus versicolor, Ind. Om. i. 101.    Gm. Lm.i. 327.
Perruche k Gorge tachetee, PL enl. 144.    Buf. vi. 258.    Levail. Perr. i
Salem.Om.t.8.2.    Ferm. Surin. ii. 177. No. 2.
Wave-breasted Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 245.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 405,
. p. 38. pl.16.
SIZE of the last. Bill black; irides yellow; plumage in general
beautiful shining green; above the bill slaty blue, beneath it sky
blue; throat brown, each feather margined with aurora yellow,
giving the appearance of waves; fold of the wing fire-colour; the
rest of the wing blue; middle of the belly lilac, veined with brown;
* Erythri
i Corallodendron, Lin
 PARROT. 16,0
tail cuneiform^   but shorter than in many Parrakeets; the upper
surface green, the under red brown ; legs black.
Inhabits Cayenne, and according to Fermin, likewise at Surinam,
but not common. One in my own collection, came from Cayenne.
In the collection of Mr. Woodford was one, seemingly a young bird;
crown blue; the rest of the head, neck, breast, and under parts
brownish ash-colour; fore part of the neck and breast margined with
whitish; back, wing coverts, and thighs green ; rump tawny brown ;
tail green, changing to chestnut at the ends; bill and legs dusky.
79—WAVE-HEADED PARRAKEET.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill and legs brown; forehead brown ;
the rest of the head, neck, and breast pale brown, waved with buff-
colour ; round the eye somewhat bare; on each jaw a blue green
patch, and a trifle of mixture of the same round the neck ; body
above and wing coverts green ; quills blue on the outer web ; belly
green, with a mixture of blue on the sides and vent; under wing
coverts scarlet; tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers four inches
and a half long, the exterior two and three quarters, above chestnut
red, beneath dusky; quills dusky, the outer webs fine blue.
Said to inhabit Africa—in Mr. Bullock's Museum—has somewhat
the appearance of the scaly-breasted, but is certainly a distinct species.
80—SCALY-BREASTED PARRAKEET.
Psittacus squammosus, Ind. Om. i. 101.
Scaly-breasted Parrakeet,   Gen. Syn. i. 246.     Shaw
pl. 1061.
Zool. viii. 405. Var.    Nat. Misc
LENGTH ten inches and a half.    Bill and legs brown; forehead
blue green ; top of the head and nape fine deep purplish brown;
 170 PARROT.
round the eye, and the base of the lower mandible chocolate, with
a mixture of green ; on the ears a pale dull patch of buff; beneath
from the chin brown, the feathers margined all round with whitish,
but on the breast with pale yellowish buff; upper part of the back
and wings green, lower part and rump sanguineous; belly and vent
paler green than above; on the middle of the belly a large patch*of>
blood-colour; bend of the wing crimson ; under wing coverts pale
green ; tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers five inches long, the
outmost scarcely three, all of them fine reddish chestnut, margined
outwardly with green, the shafts dusky, or black.
Inhabits South America. A fine specimen from Berbice, in the
collection of Mr. Mac Leay, from which the above description is taken,
and is known there by the name of Boeretingting. It was also in the
collection of General Davies, fr»vm Cayenne. On comparing the
description of the two last birds so many things appear similar, as to
lead us to think that they are varieties of each other; but the wave-
breasted is a smaller bird; however, in my specimen the lower half
of the back and rump are of a brownish red, which does not appear
in the pl. enlum. or in Buffon's account of the bird.
81—WILSON'S PARRAKEET.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill very long and hooked, and.
the upper mandible measuring almost two inches, the under three
quarters, colour dusky ; plumage in general greenish ash, inclining
to brown, and clouded here and there with orange, as in the crossbill, but the edges of the feathers of the back dun colour ; all the
under parts of the body mixed yellow and dull orange ; rump dull
red; under wing coverts dull yellow ; thighs brown ; the quills reach
almost to the end of the tail, which is somewhat, but not greatly,
cuneiform; both quills and tail are brown, the former marked on the
inner webs with five or six whitish bars; legs dusky ; toes very long.
 Inhabits New South Wales.    I met with a fine specimen of it in
the collection of Thomas Wilson, Esq.
82—LONG-BILLED PARRAKEET.
LENGTH above twelve inches. Bill very long and curved,
thick half way from the base, but tapering quite to a point at the
tip, and under mandible truncated at the end, colour of both dusky;
head and neck dull green ; sides under the eyes, chin and throat pale
crimson; upper parts of the body, wings, and tail dusky; breast
yellowish ; belly, thighs, and vent more or less crimson ; tail cuneiform ; legs brown.
One of these was in possession of Governor Hunter, who brought
it from Norfolk Island ; from the bill it seems related to the other,
but the tail is cuneiform in a much greater degree, without any bars
across it.
83—RED-WINGED PARRAKEET.
Psittacus incarnatus, Ind. Orn. i. 101. G
Psittaca Indica, Bris.vi, 341. Id. 8vo.ii.
Perruche a gorge rouge, Buf. vi. 157. L
Red-winged Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 246.
vail. Per
Edw. pl
\i. 94. pl. 46.
236.    Shaw's Zool. \
LENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill flesh-colour; cere and
space round the eye whitish ; irides deep hazel; plumage in general
green, paler beneath; chhSplfihe scarlet; whig coverts fine reddish-
colour; tail four niches and a half long, much cuneated; legs pale
Afebi-eolour.
InhabhVthe East Indiesf?wo
z 2
 I
84—GREY-BREASTED PARRAKEET.
Psittacus murinus, Ind. Om.i. 101.    Gm. Lin.i. 327.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 456.
Perruche k Joues grises, Levail. Perr.i. 229. pl. 67.
 souris, Bufri. 148.     Fernet. Voy. i. 3U.     Levail. Perr, i. 75. pl. 38.    P/.
«i/. 768.
Grey-breasted Parrakeet, Gen. Syn, i, 247.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill light grey; face, throat, and breast
rat-grey; rest of the body olive green, except the quills, which are
deep green; tail cuneiform, five inches long; legs grey; in some the
outer coverts are blue.
Pernetty, in his Voyage to Falkland Islands, met with it at
Monte Video, in Buenos Ayres, South America, where the sailors
bought them in cages, but whether natives of the spot was uncertain.
They were tame and gentle, easily learned to speak, and articulate
well. It was the common opinion that this bird lived but one year
in a cage. Those which Pernetty mentions, were the size of a Thrush.
Bill flesh-colour; plumage green, except the neck, breast, and small
part of the belly, which were silvery grey; tail very long.
85—HORNED PARROT—Pl. XXV.
Psittacus bisetis, Ind. Om. i. 102.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 452.
 cornutus, Gm. Lin.i. 327.
Horned Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 248. pl. 8.    Cook's Voy. ii. pl. in p. 110.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill bluish at the base, and black at
the tip; irides golden yellow; round the eye ash-colour; forehead,
crown, nape, and region of the ears deep scarlet, mixed with black;
sides of the head yellowish orange; lower mandible surrounded with
deep black shining feathers,  pointing forwards;  from the crown
 J
 -•-■"'ives of the spo
, ^ifay^rned tospeak
w<^i    It was ffejtiiflgpi^ - "bird lie
in •: cage. Those which JPer*»8(|fe ^^^em
Bill siesh-colaur; plumage gf$en, eqeeept tl>e neck, In
part*bf Hy, whis& iftite «Slv«rjr grey; tail vei4
L^5    '    .        --      ^L.~-P't.    XX^
M)?:i the eye I
 PUXV-
cTtornr,/ '/arret.
  Ri
spring two slender dusky feathers, one inch and a half long, and
tipped with crimson; hind part of the neck, and rump yellowish;
the rest of the body green ; wing coverts green outwardly, but the
seven inner webs and tips are dusky; quills black, margined with
blue; tail cuneiform, six inches long, of the same blue colour as the
quills, but green without next the base ; near the ends and tips of
the feathers almost white; the under part of the quills and tail sooty
black; legs dusky black.
Inhabits New Caledonia, and called there Kere or Keghe. It
is probably a very scarce species, as we have only known two to have
reached England,—one brought home by Sir Jos. Banks, the other
drawn from a second specimen by General Davies; in the latter the
yellow passed quite round the nape.
86. NEW-CALEDONIAN PARROT,
Psittacus Caledonicus, Ind. Orn. i. 102.    Gm. Lin. i. 328.
Caledonian Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 248.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill bluish, tip pale; feathers round the
upper mandible crimson, round the lower and chin blue; crown
greenish yellow; upper parts of the body olive green, beneath olive
yellow; quills outwardly pale blue; tail cuneiform, the two middle
feathers six inches long, the outer only three, colour olive green; the
outer edges of the four exterior ones pale blue, ends of all whitish ;
legs dusky blue.
Inhabits New Caledonia; thought to differ from the former in
sex, and, if so, it is probably the female.
 I
87—RED-RUMPED PARROT.
Psittacus Zealandicus, Ind. Orn. i. 102.    Gm. Lin. i. 328.
Red-rujppsi Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 249.    Skawfs Zool. viii. 422:
LENGTH fifteen inches. Bill stout, moderately hooked, the
upper mandible not angulated ; base of both blue, tip of the upper
black; forehead very dark purple; crown greenish chestnut; sides
of the head pale green; from the base of the bill a crimson streak,
passing through the eye, and a little beyond ; hind part of the head
and neck, upper parts of the body, and wing coverts, dark green;
at the hind part of the neck a few pale yellow feathers, and on the
middle of the back a mixture of pale ferruginous brown ; rump
crimson, with a chestnut tinge; under parts of the body cinereou^
green: greater quills brown, the edges bluish; secondaries, and
bastard wing dusky, edged with green, and pale rusty brown tips;
tail cuneiform, seven inches long, the outer feathers three inches and
a quarter, colour bluish, but the two middle ones have green margins;
shafts deep chestnut; legs black.
Inhabits'"New Zealand.—From a specimen at Sir Jos. Banks's.
88—CRESTED PARRAKEET.
Psitta.
Creste
=s Hollandise. Ind. Orr
THIS is twelve inches long. Bill gale, stout, and much curved;
crown, sides, and throat yellow; behind the eye, just within the
yellow, a crimson spot, and behind this the yellow is paler; from
the crown of the head spring six slender feathers, forming a cre^fe^
two of them are near three inches long, the four others shorter;
In some drawings 10 o
j we may suppose them to differ in this circumstance.
 1
PARROT. I75T
plumage on the upper parts of the body olive brown, beneath paler;
on the wing a large square patch of white, placed obliquely; tail
cuneiform, plain dusky buff, the two middle featKersLseven inches
long, the next four, the outer three and a quarter; legs dusky.
The female, in size, is the same. Head and body as in the
former, but inclined to chestnut; a trifle paler on the sides, and
crested in the same manner; on the rump some slender transverse
grey lines; tail crossed with numerous bars of the same, in some as
far as 20 or 30, the outer feather white the whole length on the
exterior web; on the wing the same oblique bar of white as in the
male.
Inhabits New South Wales ; first seen at Sir Jos. Banks's. We
have heard of others, but it appears to be a scarce species.
89—SOCIETY PARROT.
Psittacus Ulietanus, IndrOrn.i. 103,    Gm. Lin.i. 328.
Society Parrot, Gen. Syn.i.- 250.    Shaw's ZooLriii. 457.
LENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill deep blue, end black;
head black brown, taking in the eye, and the nape,, and bending
forwards over the base of the under mandible; upper parts of the
body deep olive brown, the feathers margined with dusky, producing
a waved appearance; rump deep, dull crimson, margined with dusky;
upper tail coverts as the back; chin dusky; the rest of the under
parts olive yellow, the feathers margined with dusky, as in the upper,
but paler; quills and tail dusky, the latter cuneiform in shape,
inclining to cinereous brown, the two middle feathers seven inches
long, the outer three and a half; legs black.
;    Inhabits Ulietea, one of the Society Isles, in the South Seas.
 176
90—RED-SHOULDERED PARRAKEET.
Psittacus discolor, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. xxi.
La Perruche Latham, Levail. pl. 62. and Perr. Banks,   Id. pl. 50 ?
Red-shouldered Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 90.   Phill. Voy. p. 269.   White's Journal.
pl. p. 263.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 466.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill half an inch long, brownish horn-
colour ; on the forehead a bright scarlet list half an inch broad ; at
the base of the bill, below the scarlet, bright yellow to the eye; on the
crown a purplish blue spot, about the size of a sixpence ; cheeks
bluish verditer-colour ; round the lower mandible a narrow scarlet
list, and under the chin for one inch edged with a narrow tinge of
yellow, especially beneath the chin and throat; spreading on each
side of the neck as it descends towards the shoulders, at least three-
fourths towards the neck behind ; this yellow belt is variegated with
bright scarlet; the general colour of the bird is deep Parrot green ;
the prime quills black brown, edged with bright yellow ; scapulars
next the bacjk, half pink half green ; bastard wing blue-black ; front
of the upper wing coverts bright mazarine blue ; bend of the wing
blood-red ; under parts from the throat bright yellow; tail greatly
cuneiform, chestnut-red at the base, and dull blue at the end ; the
two middle feathers are five inches long, the outmost scarcely two;
legs brown, or horn-colour.
Inhabits New South Wales.
A variety of this has the forehead and chin deep scarlet, but this
colour does not quite reach to the eye ; tail ferruginous at the base,
and blue towards the end, as in the former.
In a pair of these at Mr. Harrison's, one sex has the sanguine
mark at the bend "of the wing, mottled with blue-black; front,
throaty and down the middle of the neck to the breast crimson ; on
the breast a mixture of crimson; bastard wing and outer coverts blue;
——
 PARROT. 177
the two middle tail feathers chestnut, the others the same for half
the length, the remainder brown.
In the other bird only the front and chin are crimson, and the
ends of side feathers of the tail blue; crown bluish, under tail coverts
in both crimson.
91—SANGUINE PARRAKEET.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill brown, general colour of the
body and wings green ; crown dusky brown, a little streaked at the
nape with fillemot, and ending on each side with a patch of the same;
under the eyes, from the bill, fine chestnut, growing broader on the
ears ; jaws green ; round the lower part of the neck a mixture of blue
as a collar; on the lower part of the back a patch of blood-red, and a
larger one of the same on the belly; quills dusky, outer webs chiefly
blue ; tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers five inches long, the
outer three; colour above olive yellow, beneath chestnut-red ; legs
brown.
Inhabits South America. In the collection of Mr. Bullock, and
marked as a female.   ;
92—WHITE-COLLARED PARROT.
Psittacus semicollaris, Ind. Om. i. 103.
Psitt. multicolor, Gm. Lin. i. 328.
White-collared Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 251.    Gen. of Birds, p. 59. pl. i
SIZE not mentioned. Bill red ; head, cheeks, and chin blue;
neck, back, and wings green; the neck half surrounded with a
white collar, passing over the upper part towards the throat;. upper
 J 78 PARROT.
part of the breast fine red, the lower yellow ; belly blue; thighs
yellow and blue; tail cuneiform, yellow beneath.
Inhabits the Isles of the East Indies.
93—GOLDEN-CROWNED PARRAKEET.
Psitt. Brasiliensis, Ind. Om. i. 103.   Bris. iv. 337.    Id. 8vo. ii. 134.
Psitt. aureus, Gm. Lin. i. 329.    Gerin. ii. 1.126.
La Perriche couronnee d'or, Buf. vi. 271.   Levail. Perr. i. 81. pl. 41:
Le J^TaracaHa a front orange, Voy. d'Azara iv. 280.
Golden-crowned Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 251.   Edw. pl. 235.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 453.
SIZE of the Ring Parrakeet. Bill black; round the eye a
bluish flesh-coloured skin; cere the same ; irides bright orange;
general colour of the plumage green, inclining to yellow beneath ;
crown of the head orange; throat yellowish green}.[twith a mixture
of dull red; some of the quills with blue edges ; on the wing coverts
a bar of blue ; tail cuneiform, the outer feathers short; legs reddish.
Inhabits Brazil. Edwards, who first noticed this species, says,
it was a female, and lived in England for fourteen years, during
which it laid five or six eggs : said to be common in Paraguay, and
extends to 28 degrees of latitude. It lives in troops, and sometimes
seen in great numbers in plantations, where it is destructive to the
fruits.
94—LINEATED PARROT.
Psittacus lineatus, Ind. Om i. 104.    Lin. Syst. Nat. iii. app. 233.   Gm. Lin, i. 329.
Lineated Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 252.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 459.
SIZE of a Dove. General colour green, paler beneath ; quills
brown, the inner margins very pale, appearing as if striped with
narrow lines ; tail cuneiform, a little longer than the body.
Native place uncertain.
  1/ruUaU^lr^.
 ot td em green, witb ——
an inch broad; legs black,
nd.. In the collection of Gen. Dlh
at of Mr. Harrison. Sapposed t
bk was once seen in a vineyard,
isettffi of the Linnaean Society.
i
is*
^LrrLiR five inches and
 /
 179
95—UNDULATED PARROT—Pl. XXVI.
Psittacus undulatus, Undulated Parrot, Nat. Misc. pl. 673.    Shaw's Zool. viii
LENGTH seven inches. Bill short, stout, brown, with a pale
point; head and neck buff-colour, crossed with numerous transverse
lines of brown ; on the lower jaw a patch of blue, the size of a pea;
back and wing coverts pale chocolate brown, with darker markings,
but some of the second quills have a tinge of green; the lower row of
coverts are green, with pale edges; greater quills brown within,
margined with green ; breast, belly, thighs, and rump pale green ;
tail greatly cuneiform, the two middle feathers three inches long,
pointed, the colour verditer-blue, the next one inch and three quarters,
the outer one very short, all of them green, with a band of yellowish
buff near the tip, half an inch broad ; legs black.
Inhabits New-Holland. In the collection of Gen. Davies.—A fine
specimen is also in that of Mr. Harrison. Supposed to be fond of
grapes, as a large flock was once seen in a vineyard, and one of
them shot.—In the Museum of the Linnsean Society.
Ill
96—PACIFIC PARROT.
Psittacus pacificus, Ind. Orn. i. 104.    Gm. Lin. i. 329.
Pacific Parrot, Gen. Syn.i. 252.   Id. Sup, ii. 87.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill silvery blue, end black; in some
the forehead and half the crown, in others the forehead only, deep
crimson ; behind the eye a spot of the same, as also a patch on each
side of the vent; plumage otherwise dark.green, paler beneath; tail
cuneiform, the two middle feathers five inches and a half long, the
 180 PARROT.
outer two and a half, these are above green, beneath ash-colour;
outer edge of the wing, to the middle of the quills, deep blue, ends
of them dusky; legs brown.
Inhabits Otaheite, but not peculiar to that Island.
A.—One found at Dusky Bay, New Zealand, wants the red on
each side of the vent, and the tail shorter in proportion, Called
there Kugha-arecku.
B.—Another variety with the rump red, otherwise like the first.
C.—This variety had the forehead only red; crown of the head
yellow; in other particulars like the first mentioned.
Inhabits New Caledonia. All of them are valued for the few red
feathers * they possess, and hence the estimation set on feathers of
this colour brought from other Islands, as mentioned by various
voyagers.
D.—Psitt. novae Zealandiae, Mus. Carls, fac. ii. t.28.
Pacific Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 87. Var. D.
Size of the others. Bill black; general colour of the plumage
green, paler beneath; forehead and crown, and a spot under the eye,
crimson ; sides of the vent crimson; legs black.
Inhabits New Zealand.
ing the Bananas, and often k  it tame.—Voy. i. 272.
 181
97—CRIMSON-FRONTED PARRAKEET.
Psittacus australis, Ind. Om. i. 104.
•——— concinnus, Nat. Misc. iii. t. 87.
Perruche a bandeau rouge, Levail. Perr. i. 99. pl. 4:
La Maracana a tete rouge, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 284 ?
Pacific Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii.  p. 87.    Shaw's 1
p. lib.
Crimson-fronted Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 87.    Nat. Misc. i
, 419..   Phill. Bot. Bay. pl.
SIZE of the Pacific Parrot; length nine inches. Bill brown,
tip red; plumage deep brown; forehead to the crown, and base of
the bill all round, fine crimson; from the eye on each.side descends
a patch of the same; hind part of the crown, and back of the neck
half way fine blue, with: here and jthere a yellow streak; shoulders
of the wings yellow; legs dusky. In the Naturalist's Miscellany
the forehead only is crimson, and a streak of the same below the eye;
the shoulders are not yellow..
A.—This varies, in having the crimson patch below the eye much
larger, and a ring of yellow round the neck,, at the bottom of the
blue nape.
B.—In this the lower part of the neck behind is reddish, instead
of yellow; shoulders, across the wings* tinged and mixed with red;
sides of the breast reddish; the whole nape olive brown; tail red at
the base within.—In the possession of General Davies.
C.—Length nine or ten inches.. Bill black, tip red;; irides light
orange; ears crimson; neck behind olive buff; body, wings, and
tail green, paler beneath; under wing coverts green ; tail cuneiform,
all but the two middle feathers reddish within at the. base, for
two-thirds of the length; legs dusky.
 182
98—VARIED PARROT.
Psittacus multicolor, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 119.
THIS is about ten inches and a half long. Bill black; plumage
in general emerald green ; on the forehead yellow; across the crown
chestnut; on the rump three shades of colour, first pale green, then
deeper, and lastly reddish or chestnut; belly, thighs, and vent
yellow or orange; on the edge of the wing bright orange; quills
edged with deep blue; under wing coverts blue ; tail very cuneiform, the two middle feathers five inches long, the shortest two;
colour green, with bluish ends; on the two outmost a bar of black
about the middle, on the third a patch of white, and the end of that
next to the middle one white.
A specimen of this is in the Museum of the Linnaean Society,
Met with at Spencer's Gulf, on the south side of New-Holland,
99—RED-TOPPED PARROT.
Psittacus verticalis, Ind. Om. Sup. xxii.
Red-topped Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 369.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 418.
LENGTH eighteen inches. Bill large, blue, the point black;
plumage in general dark green, beneath paler; forehead and middle
of the crown crimson; quills deep blue; tail long, greenish brown
above, brown beneath; legs brown.
Inhabits New-Holland; found at Port Jackson. It appears to
coincide with Variety A. of the Pacific Parrot, but is of nearly twice
the size.
 183
100—YELLOW-CHEEKED PARROT.
Psittacus icterotis, Lin. Trans, xiii. 120.
LENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill small, cinereous; top of
the head, nape, neck, and all the under parts of the body pale red,
shaded on the sides with greenish yellow; cheeks bright yellow;
plumage in general brown, edged with green; outer edge of the
wing, and base of the quills light blue; tail cuneiform, the four
middle feathers, and base of the others, light green, but these latter
are sky blue the rest of their length, with the ends white; legs long.
Inhabits New-Holland, chiefly about Port Jackson, on the eastern
coast.—In the cabinet of M. Temminck.
101— RED-FACED PARROT.
Le Perroquet Geoffroy, Levail. Perr. pl. 112.
Red-masked Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 544.
LENGTH ten inches. Upper mandible orange red, point black,
the under horn-colour; forehead to the eye, cheeks, and chin scarlet,
the feathers rather roughly placed; crown of the head to the eye,
and nape for one inch and a quarter, fine purplish bloom-colour, as
in the Orleans plumb; on the upper part of the wing, near the bend,
a transverse patch of bright verditer blue, three quarters of an inch
long; under wing coverts blue; the rest of the bird, and the tail,
which is cuneiform, deep Parrot green, rather paler on the throat
and belly; legs brown.
The female, or one supposed to be so, was of the same length.
Bill brownish horn-colour; from the forehead to the eye, the cheeks,
and chin umber brown; crown of the head, to the eye, and nape
 184 PARROT.
for one inch and a quarter, bright chestnut; the rest of the bird deep
Parrot green; tail inclining to yellow; on the shoulder a narrow,
long, rufous patch ; legs brown.
Inhabits New-Holland.—In the possession of Mr. Latham, of
Compton Street, London.
102—CRIMSON-CROWNED PARRAKEET.
Crimson-crowned Parrakeet, Shaw's Zool. viii. 419. var.?
LENGTH seven inches. Bill pale; top of the head crimson,
taking in the eye, and ending beneath in a point; general colour of
the plumage green; outer edge of the wing, the whole way, and the
quills blue ; inside of the quills pale yellow; tail cuneiform, green,
outwardly blue; legs ash-colour.
From the drawings of Mr. Dent, but without mention made of
the place it was brought from.
103—BUENOS AYRES PARROT.
LENGTH six or seven inches. Bill pale yellow; top of the
head light cinereous grey, or dull blossom-colour; the rest of the
upper parts green; tail the same, but darker; beneath the chin,
throat, breast, and belly, pale rufous white; vent and under tail
coverts pale green; quills deep blue; legs ash-colour.
Inhabits Buenos Ayres.—Lord Seaforth. We have placed this
bird among the longer tailed Parrots, as some of the feathers of that
part, especially the two middle ones, appear to-have been mutilated
at the ends.
 185
104—TURCOSINE PARRAKEET.
Psittacus pulchellus, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. x
La Perruche Edwards, Levail. p. 68.
Turcosine Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii.
Nat. Misc. pl. 96.   Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 122.
SIZE of the Crested Parrakeet. Bill black; the upper part of
the plumage green ; head pale blue, but vivid; hindhead brownish,
inclining to chestnut at the back part; the whole of the wing fine
blue, but the coverts are paler, and brighter than the rest; greater
quills deep blue, with the ends black; at the inner bend of the wing
a long crimson patch, and the whole bird to a degree brilliant; the
tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers green, the two next green,
with a little yellow at the tips, this last colour increases in all the
others to the two outermost, which are wholly yellow; legs pale
brown.
Inhabits New South Wales, but is a rare bird; observed not to
fly far at a time, and never seen but in pairs, and more often on the
ground than on trees*—hence is called the Ground Parrot.
In the collection of Lord Stanley is one, which probably may be
the female ; the length seven inches and three quarters. Bill dusky;
head, neck, and back olive green; belly and vent pale dusky yellow;
wings blue, as in the other sex; under wing coverts dusky, with a
bluish gloss; tail as in the male, the two middle feathers dusky
greenish blue, the others marked with pale yellow; the wings reach
half way on the tail.
This last also was from New-Holland.
* This is the case also with the Ground Parrot.
 r
6
186
10$—ORANGE-BELLIED PARROT.
P«ii<afc\K8 aihrysogaster, Ind; Orn. i. 97.
Orange-bellied Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. 62.   Shaw's Zool. v
LENGTH seven inches and a half; breadth twelve. Bill
yellowish green; head, breast, upper parts of the body, and lesser-
wing coverts dull green; the greater rich, blue on the exterior sides;
the' interior dusky, marked with a white spot; lower belly orange;
tail green, the ends of the four outer feathers yellow; legs greenish.
Supposed to inhabit New-Holland.—Communicated by Mr.
Pennant. It seems to bear affinity with the foregoing; probably a
young bird.
106—ROSE-FRONTED PARROT.
LENGTH eight imebes and a half. Bill dusky, pale flesh-colour;
'forehead, and round' the bill above, obscure rosy buff; cheeks and
adhlfttdusky pale green; plumage above full green, beneath yellow
greeU; rump and under wing coverts blue green; quills dusky,
edged outwardly with green 5 tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers
nearly five inches long, and project one irtch and three quarters
beyond the adjoining ones, which are two inches and three quarters
long, the rest graduate in proportion to the ouftnost, which is only
one inch and a half; the two middle arechiefly blue, with pale tips,
the others green, the inner webs more or less yellow; quills long,
and reach to where the two middle feathers extend beyond the others;
legs brown, claws pale.
In the collection of Lord Stanley.
 187
107—PRASINE PARROT.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill brownish flesh-colour;
plumage above green, beneath grass green; quills deep blue, with
green edges; bastard wing wholly blue; irides dark; orlute dull
white; legs pale.
In the same collection with the last.—The tail is deep green,
cuneiform, two inches and a half long, but much mutilated, from
having been kept in a cage.
108—ABYSSINIAN PARRAKEET.
. Psittacus Taranta, Abyssinian Parrrakeet, Salt's Trav. App. xlvi. and p. lv.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill deep crimson; forehead
fine scarlet, passing in a fine streak, surrounding the eyelids; general
colour of the plumage green, paler beneath; lesser wing coverts,
and outer ridge of the wing, as far as the back, the greater, and
second quills black, with a bluish gloss in some lights, forming a
broad space down the middle of the wing ; under wing coverts the
same; greater quills blackish or dusky, lightly fringed outwardly
with green; tail slightly cuneiform, pale green, the two middle
feathers ending, for three quarters of an -inch, in black; but in the
others forming a bar near the end, farthest off on the outer feathers,
the ends of all pointed^ the upper tail coverts mach near three-foUirt&s
on the tail; legs dusky.
A specimen among Mr. Salt's birds; said to be the only sort seen
in Abyssinia; most numerous about the Pass of Taranta, in March
and October.
 188
109—BLUE-BANDED PARRAKEET.
Psittacus venustus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 121.
LENGTH nine inches and a half. Bill short and bent, the
upper mandible black, the under horn-colour; on the forehead to
the eye a deep blue band, one-eighth of an inch broad, with a very
narrow border of green above and below, as well as to the nostrils ;
cheeks dull bluish green above and below; upper wing coverts from
the top of the wing, bend of the same, and for one inch and a quarter
in breadth, and two in length, rich mazarine blue; quills black; head,
neck, back, scapulars, and upper tail coverts dull yellowish olive
green; throat, breast, and belly dullish pea green, growing yellow
towards the thighs ; tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers dull
greenish grey, tipped with yellow; the two next dull blue on the
outer, and blackish on the inner webs, the tips yellow; the two
adjoining dull blue on the outer, and blackish on the inner webs,
the tips yellow ; the following blackish for half the length, the rest
yellow; the buter one yellow for nearly the whole of the length;
under tail coverts, vent, and sides below the thighs yellow.
Inhabits New South Wales.    In the collection of Gen. Davies.
The blue-banded Parrot, said also to come from Van Diemen's
Land ; the male answering to my description; the female more dusky
than the other, the front only pale blue ; wings as the male: no
chestnut on the axillae ; beneath from the breast yellow ; tail as the
male. One of these in the Linnaean Museum, brought from King
George's Sound, on the South East Coast.
A.—Length seven inches. Bill black; crown of the head yellowish brown; across the forehead, from eye to eye, a narrow band of
deep blue, paler behind; the rest of the upper parts olive green,
 m
PARROT. 189
inclining to yellow on the crown, beneath paler, more approaching
to greenish; belly and vent incline to orange; wing coverts fine
blue, with light chestnut, the rest of the wing black ; tail cuneiform,
the two middle feathers blue green, and others blue at the base, the
rest of the length pale yellow; legs dusky blue.
In the collection of M. de Fichtel.
.110.—OTAHEITE PARRAKEET.
Psittacus Taitianus, Ind. Om. i. 105.
 Porphyrio, Nat. Misc. t. 7.
Petite Perruche de Taiti, Arimanon,   Pl, e
Otaheitan blue Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i, 255
Gm. Lin. i. 329.
d. 455. 2.
Shaw's Z
?«/. vi. 175.    Levail, pl. 65.
}/. viii. 473.
THIS is only six inches in length. Bill red ; tongue longish,
at the tip a pencil of short white bristles ; the feathers of the head
elongated, and forming a short crest; the whole plumage fine blue,
except the throat and fore part of the neck, which are white; tail
cuneiform; legs red.
Some of these have the throat and fore neck dusky white ; such
may be young birds, if not differing in sex.
Inhabits the Isle of Otaheite in the South Seas, where it is very
common, perpetually fluttering about, making a screaming noise;
often seen in great numbers together, feeding on bananas. As these
birds live only on fruits, they do not bear confinement in a cage, for
they refuse solid food. It is called Arimanon, or Cocoa Bird, as it
frequents those trees.
A.—Psittacus cyaneus, Mus. Carls, fuse. ii. t. 27.
Perruche Sparrman, Levail. Perroq.L p. 128. pl. 66.
Size of the former. Bill pale, with a brown tip; plumage
throughout deep glossy blue; legs black.
Inhabits Otaheite with the other, of which it may be esteemed a
mere variety.
 1
190
111—BLUE-CRESTED PARRAKEET.
Psittaetfe pigilans, Ind. Om. i. 105.    Gm. Lin. i. 329.
ii ..       i porphyroeephalus, Nat. Misc. i. pl. 1.
Perruche fringillaire, Levail. Perr. i. 134. pl. 71.
Blue-crested Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 254    Shaw's Zool. viii. 472. pl. 69.
SIZE of the Guinea Parrakeet; length six inches and a half. Bill
orange; forehead pale green; crown pale, but bright and glossy
blue; the feathers narrow, pointed, and sufficiently long to form a
crest when erected; sides of the head, above the eye, green; beneath
the eye, the chin, and throat crimson; upper parts of the body,
wings, and tail bright green; quills dusky, with green edges; middle
of the belly crimson; sides of it, and thighs deep purple; the tail
cuneiform, the two middle feathers two inches and a half long, the
outer three quarters of an irteh shorter; the two middle green, with
yellow ends, the others yellowish, with the margins and ends green,
and pointed ; legs dusky.
In some specimens the red on the throat grows narrower, and
forms a stripe, on the breast, which in such birds is brown ; and the
thighs, in a few, green instead of purple. It is probable that the
above distinctions are those of sex.
Inhabits the Sandwich Isles, in the South Seas, and is a most
beautiful impedes.
112. SOLITARY  PARROT.
Psittacus solrtafius, Ind. Orn. Sup: p. xxiii.
La Perruche Phigi, Levail. Perr. pl. 64.
Phigy Parrakeet, Shaw's Zool. viii. 472 ?
Solitary Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup, p. 65.
SIZE of a Starling; length seven inches. Bill yellow, changing
to reddish at the point, where it is bent and sharp; irides fulvous;
 PARROT. 191
top of the head, as far as the eye on each side, deep purplish blue,
^most black, endingnn the nape in a point; back part of the neck
green; beginning of the back, under wing coverts, and all beneath,
from the chin to the thighs, crimson, deeper on the parts before;
thighs and vent deep blue, or purplish black, much like the crown;
wings deep green ; lower part of the back, rump, and tail paler-
green, the last slightly cuneiform-: foylt the singularity of this bird
is, in having all the feathers of the head, hind neck, and beginning
of the back elongated, distant, and pointed, like the hackles of a
cock; legs yellow.
Inhabits the Island of Fejee, in the Pacific Ocean, whence it is
brought into Tongo-taboo, and Otaheite, for the sake of the red
feathers in the plumage. Now and then seen alive in the latter Island.*
The manners are solitary.f This bird much resembles the blue-
crested species, but is superior in size.
One in Lord Stanley's collection had the under tail coverts fine
green; tail rounded; a large oval space of pale red on Hie inner web
of each feather, farther from the base as they are more inwards,
approaching to near a quarter of an inch of the tip on the two
middle feathers.
113—CHIRIPEPE PARRAKEET.
Le Chiripepe Voy, d'Azara, iv. No. 281.
LENGTH nine inches and three quarters; breadth fourteen inches.
Bill dusky; eye surrounded with a naked whitish skin; irides
rufous; general colour of the plumage deep green; fore part of the
neck carmelite grey; at the lower part of the breast, and on the belly,
* At Otaheite, and the
Parrakeets, Hainga.—Cook',
Friendly Isles, Pwn
last Voyage, App.
general wse called Kakao, ajtei ihej
t Mr. Anderson's MS.
it
J
 192 PARROT.
two red spots; on the front a narrow chocolate-coloured band ; tail
red, mixed with yellow, almost wholly red beneath; outer edge of
the wing sky blue ; legs dusky.
Inhabits Paraguay: some call it the Chiripep6, others Aribaya;
the first on account of its cry; male and female alike; generally
seen in flocks, though not to be found beyond 27 degrees of latitude;
fly quick; makes the nest in holes of trees, lays three eggs.
114. WIDOW PARRAKEET.
La jeune Veuve, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 282.
LENGTH ten inches, extent sixteen. Bill dusky; forehead and
neck before pearly grey, with a paler border; breast the same, mixed
with grey; top of the head, hind part of the neck, back, and upper
wing coverts green, having a tinge of brown on the back; quills and
upper coverts blue, tinged with violet; beneath yellowish green;
under side and end of the tail feathers yellow, and the four middle
ones bluish green above; legs dusky olive.
Inhabits Buenos Ayres, where it is called Cotorra, but at Paraguay, Young Widow; learns to talk, and articulates distinctly; seen
in flocks at both the above places ; does not lay the eggs in hollow
trees, but makes a nest on the branches, with thorny twigs, three feet
in diameter, within soft grass, with an entrance on one side ; lays
three or four eggs. The family remains long together, and many of
them make their nests so near each other, as to touch ; others say,
that one nest serves several females : male and female resemble each
other, and the young do not greatly differ.
 115—ORANGE-WINGED PARRAKEET
Psittacus pyrrhopterus, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxii.
Orange-winged Parrakeet, Gen: Syn. Sup. 90.    Shaw's Zool. viii.
LENGTH seven or eight inches. Bill pale; plumage above
dark grey ; the crown inclining to blue ; cheeks, beneath the eye,
pale ash-colour; quills very dark; shoulders of the wings, and all
beneath-orange; legs red.
Supposed to inhabit Brazil, being brought into England by a
ship trading to the South Sea whale fishery.—Gen. Davies.
116—PEREGRINE PARRAKEET.
Psitt. peregrinus, Ind. Om. i. 105.
Peregrine Parrot, Gen. Syn. Suj>. p. 62.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 469.
LARGER than the Guinea Parrakeet; length eight inches.
Bill red; general colour of the plumage green, inclining beneath to
yellow; middle of the wing coverts pale brown, forming a broad
band down the wing ; tail cuneiform, short; legs pale red.
Said to inhabit the South Seas. Met with at the late Mr.
Boddam's.
117—PALM PARROT.
Pwttac. Palmarum, Ind. Om. i. 105.    Gm. Lin. i. 329.
Palm Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 253.    Shaw's Zool, viii. 468.
LENGTH eight inches.    Bill red; plumage in general green,
, paler beneath; thighs and vent inclined to yellow; tail cuneiform,
 194 PARROT.
towards the end yellowish; quills edged and tipped with dusky
black ; legs red.
Inhabits the Isle of Tanna, in the "South Seas, frequenting the
palm trees. $
118-SMALL PARROT.
Psittacus pusillus, Ind. Orn. i. 106.    Shaio's Zool. viii. 471.
Perruche a face rouge, Levail. Perroq. i. 124. pl. 62.
Small Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 88.    White's Journal, pl. p. 262.
SIZE of the Guinea Parrakeet. Bill dusky, base surrounded
with crimson; body olive green, paler beneath; tail the same, shape
cuneiform, the inner webs of the feathers crimson at the base; legs blue.
Inhabits New South Wales; in some the base of the tail is yellowish instead of red; found in great numbers about Sydney Cove ;
has the brush-like tongue, well adapted to extract honey from the
flowers of the trees, with which almost every part of the country
abounds.    This species is pretty common.
A.—M. Bechstein mentions a variety having the whole face
crimson ; upper part of the body green, paler beneath ; each feather
of the tail-oriltfson wMiin; the end yellowish, at the bend of the wing
a red spot: this probably differs in sex. We have also seen a variety
with the lower part of the neck behind brown.
119—PYGMY PARRAKEET.
Psittacus pygmseus, Ind. Om. i. 106.    Gm. Lin. i. 320.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 473.
Pygmy Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 256,
LENGTH six inches.     Bill whitish;   cere dusky;   plumage
wholly bright green; insides of the quills dusky; tail cuneiform,
 JRARROTt 19#
the tilps of the feathers greenish yellow ;. legs lead-colour.
Inhabits several of the Islands of the South Seas.    The specimen:
above described said to have come from Otaheite.
120—AGILE PA&ROT.
Psittacus agilis, Ind. Om. ii 106.    Lin. i. 143.    Gm. Lin. i. 330.    Borowsk. ii. 92.
Psittacus Cayanensis, M, vi. 237.    Id. 8vo. ii. 109.
Little Green Parrot, Edw. pl. 168.
Aurora Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 508—the young bird.
Agile Parrot, Gen. Syn, i. 297.
LENGTH ten inches and a half.* Bill ash-colour; irides dark
hazel; round the eye bare, and ash-coloured; the plumage in general
dark green, lighter beneath; quills blue, the inner webs and tips
black; one of the greater wifitg coverts red, falling over the qujlls;
tail sKghtly'cuneiform, the two middle feathers green, the three next
on each side red for tharee-fo«i?ths of the lengjthj th$ ends green; the
two outer one& marked the same with red, but only on the inner
webs, the outer bluish, all beneath green; legs ash-colour.
Inhabits Cayenne and other parts of South America, and is one of
those known by the name of Criq.
Af-t&e Petit Perroquet, Levail, pkV$.
Red-bar Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 510.
Size of the Agile Parrot. Bill dull gVQ.$$i plumage above fine
green, beneath yellowish green, with a bluish tinge on the back and
shoulders;: lowest order olr Wing coverts scarlet; the larger quills
dusky, edged outwaaidly wi$& blue; tail green, alj but the two middle
* Edwards's figure is eight inches and a half. Brisson's two.iaehessajoge. Ljnrisssft caJIp.
it the size of a Hawfinch. .
C c2
 196 PARROT.
feathers red on the inner webs, from the base to two-thirds of the
length; legs as the bill.
Inhabits Brazil.
According to M. Levaillant, the Agile Parrot is no other than a
young bird, probably that of the Aouro-couraou, or Brazilian yellow-
fronted Species, a variety of the Amazon's Parrot; but in opposition
to this sentiment, the Agile Parrot has the tail cuneiform, though in
a slight degree; besides which, Mr. Edwards kept one alive for some
years, without change of plumage.
121—BUFF-CROWNED PARROT.
SIZE small. Bill blue, with a black point; crown buff-colour,
front crimson; general colour otherwise chiefly green ; quills brown;
toward the base blue; tail cuneiform; legs brown.
Inhabits one of the Islands of the South Seas.—Mr. Bullock.
122—MODEST PARROT.
LENGTH six inches. Bill lead-colour, round the eye bare,
and whitish; plumage in general deep green, paler beneath; outer
edge of the wing blackish; place of the bastard wing crimson ;
greater quills dusky, margined outwardly with deep blue ; tail
slightly cuneiform, the inner webs of the feathers next the base
crimson; legs dusky.
Native place uncertain.—From the drawings of Mr. Dent.
 197
123—SPOTTED PARROT.
BILL red; irides pearl-colour; general colour of the plumage
green; breast and belly waved with yellow; under wing coverts red;
tail cuneiform.
The female green; lower part of the neck behind waved with
yellow; beneath as in the male, but the colours less defined.
Inhabits New-Holland.—A specimen in the Museum of the
Linnaean Society.
124. AZURE-BELLIED PARROT.
Psittacus cyanogaster, Sabiosicca, Maxim. Trav, i. 228.
PLUMAGE beautiful dark green; on the belly an azure blue
spot; tail rather long.
Inhabits Brazil; has a remarkably varying note, and is frequently
kept in houses, on account of its voice.
 198
i
WITH EVEN TA1LSL
125—CROWNED COCKATOO.
Psittacus coronatus, Ind. Om. i. 106. Lin.
Cockatoo of Guiana, Bancr. Guian. p. 160.
Crowned Cockatoo, Gen.Syn.i. 269. . Shm
, 143.   Gm.LinA. 330.
s Zool. viii. 481.
SIZE of the White Cockatoo. Forehead yellow; from the top
of the head a crest arises, in the manner of other Cockatoos; of a
scarlet colour, tipped with light blue, and may be erected or depressed"
at will; body and tail green, the outer feathers of the latter blue on
the exterior margins; vent feathers red, tipped with blue.
Bancroft says, it is less than a common Parrot. Bill short, and
chestnut-coloured; head, cheeks, and neck, covered with long, loose,
dull red feathers, variejgated with whitish bars; those on the top of
the head; onev inch anct a half Jong, which, as well as those on the
cheeks and neck, may be erected at pleasure; body and wings green;
tail short, some of the feathers green, others dull red.
These appear to be the same bii*t, though- #ie description varies
a little.
126—BLACK COCKATOO.
Psittacus Gigas, Ind. Om.i. 107.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 474. pl.71.
aterrimus, Gm. Lin.i. 330.
Ara noir, Levail. Perr. i. p. 33. pl. 12.13.
Black Cockatoo, Gen. Syn.i. 260.   Edw. pl.316.
SIZE uncertain, but large; general colour of the plumage black,
with a large crest on the head, rather paler than the rest; bill dusky
  c^aMttMtzfoLs&eMrifiee-?
 i
  PARROT. 199
brown; eye dark; sides of the head, from the eye to the under
mandible, bare, wrinkled, and red ; legs brown black.  ^
Inhabits Ceylon ; if we may judge from the size of the head in
Edwards's plate, this bird should be as large as the Red and blue
Maccaw.
127—GREY COCKATOO.
L'Ara gris a trompe, Levail. Perr. i. p. 30. pl. 11.
SIZE very large. Bill in proportion, and black; the tongue
hollowed out at the tip; general colour of the plumage grey, not
very dark; before the eyes bare; tail long, rounded at the end, by
no means cuneiform; legs black.
According to M. Levaillant, it inhabits the Old Continent, but,
the precise place not mentioned; it is observed, that the shape of the
tongue enables it to penetrate into the substance of the fruits, when
taking them for food. This may be related to the Black Cockatoo,
but the fact of its being so, not ascertained.
128—BANKSIAN COCKATOO—Pl. XXVII.
Psittacus Banfesii, Ind. Om.i. 197.
■ magnificus, Nat. Misc. pl. 50.
Banksian Cockatoo, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 63. pl. 109.
ii. p. 18.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 476.
Parkins. Voy. p. 144.    Cook's Voy;
SIZE of the Red and blue Maccaw; length twenty-two inches.
Bill very large, and horn-coloured, with a black tip; plumage in
general black, the feathers of the head long, so as to admit of being
erected as a crest, but in a quiescent state lie flat on the crown; near
 h
200 PARROT.
the tip of each a pale buff-coloured spot; the wing coverts are also
marked near the tips in the same manner; the feathers of the upper
part of the breast and vent are margined with buff-colour, and the
lower part of the breast and belly barred with the same; tail long,
somewhat rounded at the end, the two middle feathers black, the
others the same at the base and ends, but the middle, for more than
one-third, fine crimson, inclining to orange outwardly, and crossed
with five or six black bars, about one-third of an inch in breadth,
somewhat irregular, especially the outer ones, in which the bars are
broken and mottled; legs black.
Inhabits New-Holland.    Sir Jos. Banks first brought this with
him into England, on his return from his Voyage round the World.
A.—Banksian Cockatoo, Ind. OmA. 107. |3.    Gen. Syn. Sup. i
Journ, pl. p. 139.
p. 91. A.    White's
This is a trifle smaller; length twenty inches. Bill lead-colour;
head moderately crested, black, the feathers varied with yellow;
throat and neck yellow; sides of the head mixed white and black ;
body and wings black; two middle tail feathers black, the others
with the base and ends black, the middle crimson, banded with
black, as in the former, and is found in the same places.
B.—In this, neither the throat nor the neck are marked with
yellow, but the black plumage in general is sprinkled with dots of
yellow; the tail as in the others, crimson, barred with black.
C.—This seems a compound between the two former, being both
spotted on the wing, and waved with buff on the under parts; the
tail above with the same bars of black, on a crimson ground, but
beneath buff-colour, instead of crimson.
 201
129—SOLANDER'S COCKATOO.
Psitt. Solandri, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 113.
LENGTH twenty inches. The bill lead-colour, enlarged, and
swelling, or rounded at the sides; head, neck, and under parts brown,
tinged with yellow, chiefly about the ears; wings and tail greenish
black, the latter more inclined to black, with a large space of
crimson in the middle of all but the two internal feathers, crossed
with five narrow black bands.
Inhabits New-Holland, and at first appearance might be taken
for a further Variety, on account of the markings on the lateral tail
feathers, were it not for the shape of the bill, in which it most
resembles the following.
130—COOK'S COCKATOO.
Psittacus Banksii, Ind. Orn. i. 107. y. —.A
 Cookii, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 118.
Banksian Cockatoo, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 91. B. Phil. Voy. pl. in p. 267. var.
Crimson-tailed CocKatob, Shaw's Zool. viii. 477.
THIS is twenty-three inches in length. Bill lead-colour, enlarged
and swelling at the sides; head feathers long, so as to be capable of
erection at the will of the bird, and on the fore part covering the base
of the bill; head, neck, and under parts dull brown, margined on
the crown and nape with olive; body above, wings, and tail glossy
black; all but the two middle feathers of the last deep crimson in the
middle, but not banded With black as in the Banksian Species
Inhabits New South Wales, chiefly on the eastern coast, in the
neighbourhood of Port Jackson; said to feed on fruits, also the roots
 202 PARROT.
of bulbous-rooted plants. In general, the crimson portion of the
tail occupies about one-third, but in some specimens, the red part
reaches to very^rear the base, as well as extending much more to the
ends of the feathers.
131—FUNEREAL COCKATOO.
Psittacus funereus, Ind. Orn. i. Sup. p. xxii.    Nat. Misc. vi. p. 186;
Banksian Cockatoo, Gen. Syn. i. Sup. ii. 91: C.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 477.
LENGTH twenty-three inches. Bill lead-colour; head feathers
elongated, but in a less degree than in either of the former ones;
head, neck, and under parts black, inclining to brown ; back, wings,
and tail black; all but the two middle feathers of the last are buff-
coloured in the middle instead of crimson, marked with numerous
black spots, instead of bands ; legs black.
Inhabits New South Wales, and is there called Karratt.
A.—This differs in having a large yellow patch under each eye ;
Bill and legs pale; the middle of all but the two interior feathers of
the tail buff-colour as in the last, dotted with black, and reaching
nearly to the base.
Inhabits New South Wales, and said not to be common.
B.—In this the yellow patch beneath the eye is composed of pale
streaked feathers; the side tail feathers deep buff-yellow in the
middle, mottled with brown; fore part of the neck and breast, marked
with pale yellow buff crescents.
We have, as far as our own observations have led us^ advanced
what is here penned, concerning the bird usually known by the name
 PARROT. 203
of Banksian Cockatoo, and with due attention to what M. Tem-
minck has said on the subject, we do not hesitate still to confess our
uncertainty in respect to them. It should appear, from the different
make and shape, as well as colour of the bill in the Banksian and
Cook's Cockatoos, that these two are most probably distinct, but how
far the others mentioned as varieties, of one or the other, are really
so, or young ones in imperfect plumage, yet remains in uncertainty;
nor have we sufficient grounds for ascertaining that the Funereal one
does not belong to one of the former, although we have here set it
down for a distinct species. It must be remarked, that individuals of
all of them vary much in size.
132—GREAT WHITE COCKATOO.
Psittacus cristatus, Ind. OmA. 103.     Lin. i. 143.    Gm. Lin. i. 331.     Bor. Nat. ii. 90.
t. 5. B.    Raii, p. 30.      Will. 75. t. 15.    Id. Engl. 112. § 1. pl. 15.      Klein, 24. 6.
Gabin de Madrid, ii. p. 5. Lam. 38.   Johnst. av. pl. 15. f. 4.
Cacatua, Bris. iv. 204. t. 81.    Id. 8vo. ii. 99.
Kakatoes a huppe blanche, Buf. vi. 92.    PL enl. 263.
Broad-crested Cockatoo, Shaw's Zool. viii. 478. pl. 72.
Great white Cockatoo, Gen. Syn. i. 256.
SIZE of a Fowl; length eighteen inches. Bill blackish ; cere
black; irides very dark ; space round the eyes naked, white; general
colour of plumage quite white, except the greater quills uahd side
feathers of the tail, which are brimstone-coloured for half way within,
next the base; on the head a large folded crest five inches in length,
but the crown itself is quite bare; the feathers of the neck, too, are
loose and flowing, so that when the bird erects the crest, the head
appears of a large size; legs black.
Inhabits the Molucca Islands, and perhaps Sumatra, there called
Kaykay.
 n
204
133—GREATER RED-CRESTED COCKATOO.
Psittacus rosaceus, Ind. Orn. i.
 Moluccensis, Gm. Lir
Cacatua rubro-cristata, Bri
i. 331.
209.    Id. 8vo.
. 101.    Gerin. t. 118.
Kakatoes a huppe-rouge, Buf. vi. 95.    Pl. enl. 498.
Greater red-crested Cockatoo, Gen. Syn. i. 257.     Edw. t. 160.     Bor. Nat. ii. t. 5. B.
Wood's Zoogr. i. p. 421. pl. 19.
LENGTH seventeen inches, and larger than the last. Bill blue
black; cere black; bare skin round the eye greyish ; irides dull red;
general colour of the plumage white, with a light rose-coloured tinge;
the crest is very large, some of the feathers being six inches and a
half long; the under part of the crest is red; side tail feathers,
from the base to the middle, of a brimstone colour on the inner webs ;
legs lead-colour.
Inhabits the Molucca Isles. It seems much allied to the last
described.
134—RED-VENTED COCKATOO.
Psittacus Philippinarum, Ind. Orn. i. 103.    Gm. Lin. i. 131.
Cacatua minor, Bris. iv. 212. t. 22. f. 1,    Id. 8vo. ii. 102.    Gerin. t. 119.
Petit Kakatoes a bee couleur de Chair, Buf. vi. 9G.    PL enl. 121.
Red-vented Cockatoo, Gen. Syn. i. 258.   Brown. III. p.10. pl. 5.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 481.
SIZE of the grey Parrot; length thirteen inches. Bill white,
base cinereous; cere greenish; orbits yellowish red; plumage chiefly
white ; the head crested, the longest feather measuring one inch and
a half; these are sulphur-coloured at the base, and white at the
ends ; some of the under ones pale red, but do not appear unless the
crest is erected; the two middle tail feathers white, side ones the same,
but the inner webs from the base to the middle are sulphur-coloured ;
under tail coverts red, tipped with white; legs hoary lead-colour.
Inhabits the Philippine Isles.
 135—LONG-NOSED COCKATOO.
Psittacus nasicus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 115.
LENGTH fifteen inches and a quarter. Bill ash-colour; upper
mandible of a great length, but not much curved, the under short and
rounded; on the forehead the feathers are elongated as in the last
bird, but smaller; the general colour of the plumage is pure white,
but the whole face or front of the head is rose-colour, as far as the
eyes; the vent and under tail coverts are reddish yellow, as are also
the feathers of the tail at the base ; the legs ash-colour.
Inhabits New South Wales.—Mr. Brown brought a specimen of
this from Port Phillip, on the South Coast of New-Holland.
136—CRESTED  COCKATOO.
ll!
Psittacus galeritus, hid. Orn. i. 109.
Great Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, Shaw's Zool. viii. 479.
Crested Cockatoo, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 92.    White's Journ
<l.p\.p.b37.
SIZE of a dunghill Cock ; length two feet three inches. Bill
black; plumage in general white; orbits covered with feathers; those
of the forehead elongated into a crest, are ten or twelve in number,
brimstone-coloured, seven inches in length, and pointed at the ends;
behind this the crown is bare; tail even at the end, eight inches long,
sulphur-coloured at the base ; legs dusky.
Inhabits New South Wales. Some conjecture this to be a variety
of the following, but it differs in having the space round the eyes
well covered with feathers, and the whole bird of twice the size. It
is often met with in vast flocks, making a horrible noise.
 209
137—LESSER CRESTED COCKATOO.
Psittacus sulphureus, Ind. Orn. i. 109.   Gm. Lin. i. 330.    Shaw's Zool,
■ albus galeritus, Frisch. t. 50.
Cacatua luteo-cristata, Bris. iv. 206.    Id. 8vo. ii. 100.    Gerin. t. 117.
Kakatoeha orientalis, Seba. i. t. 59. 1.    Klein, p. 25. 5.
Kakatoes a huppe jaune, Buf. vi. 93.    Pl. enl. 14.
Crested Parrot, or Cockatoo, Albin. iii. pl. 12.
Lesser white Cockatoo, Gen. Syn. i. 258.    Edw. pL 317.
. 480. pl. 73.
LENGTH fourteen inches and a half. Bill and cere blackish;
eye in a naked white skin; irides reddish; general colour of the
plumage white, inclined to brimstone beneath; on the head a pointed
crest of a sulphur-colour; beneath the eye a sulphur-coloured spot,
and the lower half of the side tail feathers of the last named colour,
on the inner webs ; the quills the same, for two-thirds of their length
from the base; legs black.
Inhabits the Molucca Isles. Buffon observes, that there are two
sorts of this bird, the one much larger than the other, but whether
he could mean the preceding may be doubted, as it is scarcely
probable that it ever came under his inspection. This lesser species
is very docile, more so, we believe, than any other; all of them are
long-lived, but whether to the extent mentioned by Gerini,* has
not been ascertained by any other author. The small specimen is
very common in China, but if indigenous thereto, is not certain : it
is called there Ying-Mu, and Ying-Vos, which signifies the bird that
talks other men's words.
■ In Gerini's Work it is averred that it lives at least 33 years.—See Orn, i, p. 96.
 207
138—RED AND WHITE PARROT.
Gm. Lin. i. 332.    Raii, p. 31.
Shaw's Zool. viii. 484.
Psittacus erythroleucos, Ind. Om. i. 109.    Lin. i. 144.
Will. 76.   Id. Engl. 114. 8.    Bor. Nat. ii. p. 90. 5.
Cacatua alis et cauda rubris, Bris. iv. 214.    Id. 8vo. ii.
Kakatoes a ailes et Queue rouges, Buf. vi. 96.
Red and White Parrot, Gen. Syn.i. 260.
SIZE of a large Fowl; length seventeen inches. Bill black;
head, throat, neck, back, sides, thighs, scapulars, upper and lower
wing coverts, dirty white, or pale ash-colour; lower part of the back,
rurnp, and lower tail coverts, quills, and tail, vermilion red; legs
blackish.
Aldrovandus is the first who mentions this species, but not the
place it inhabits: he adds, that it is only inferior in size to the
Maccaw, and that it has a shortish tail. We learn from the late Dr.
Hill, that Lord Petre was in possession of a similar bird, that the
general plumage was pale silvery grey, almost white, not having any
tinge of dusky lead-colour, or bluish ; lower part of the back, rump,
and larger wing feathers beautiful scarlet; tail short, the colour of
the body, and hardly reaching beyond the tips of the wings. We
have never seen this bird, nor the figure of it on paper.
11'
139—ROSE-COLOURED COCKATOO.
THIS is about the size of the Ash-coloured Parrot. The bill
moderate in size, and yellowish ; head, neck, and beneath the body
fine deep rose-colour; the feathers of the head elongated, full, forming
a spacious crest, and those which compose it are paler than those on
the rest of the body; the remaining part of the plumage light grey;
 208 PARROT.
the tail of a moderate length, even at the end, and somewhat paler;
legs black.
Inhabits New-Holland, where it is rare. In the Museum of the
Linnaean Society is a fine and perfect specimen, and the only one
which has come under our observation. Another is also said to be in
the Museum at Paris, from which the figure in a periodical work,
now in progress at that place, is taken,    It is a beautiful species.
140—ASH-COLOURED PARROT.
Psittacus erithacus, Ind. Om. i. 109.    Lin. i. 141.    Mus. Ad. Fred. i. 14:    Gm. Lin. i.
332.    Scop. Ann. i. No. 30.    Kram. p. 332.
Psitt. cinereus, seu subcceruleus, Raii, p. 31.    Will. 76.    Id. Engl. 114.    Sloan. Jam.
297.     Brown's Jam. 474.     Frisch. t. 51.   Klein. 25. 13.     Gerin. 1.112.    Johnst.
av. pl. 15. f. 7.
Psitt. guineensis cinereus, Bris. iv. 310.    Id. 8vo. ii. 126.
Perroquet cendre, ou Jaco, Buf. vi. 100.    PL enl. 311.    Levail. pl. 99.—103.    Daud.
i. p. 92. pL-4. Sceleton.
Uschgraver Papagey,  Wirs. Voy. t. 43.
Ash-coloured Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 261.    Alb. i. pl. 12.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 486.
SIZE of a small Pigeon; length twenty inches. Bill black ; cere
and skin round the eye, meally and white; irides yellowish white;
plumage cinereous, the feathers on the head, neck, and under parts
with hoary edges; those of the rump and lower belly hoary, with
cinereous edges; tail bright red, shafts of the feathers blackish ; legs
ash-colour.
Inhabits various parts of Africa; talks quite as well as the Green
Parrot, and much less noisy; chiefly imported into England from
Guinea, and is a well-known species: said to sometimes live to
one hundred years.
 A.—Psitt. guineennsis alis rubris, Bris. iv. 312. A.   Ind. Om. i. 110. (.
Red-winged ash-coloured Parrot, Gen. Syn.i. 262' A.
This differs in having the wings marked with red.
B.—Psitt. guineensis rubro varius, BrisAr. 313. B.   Ind. Om.i. 110. y.   Gerin. t. 113.
Red and ash-coloured Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 262. B.    Edw. pl. 163.
This has many red feathers mixed throughout with the grey.
C—Psitt. ruber, i
, p. 32.    Ind. Orn. i. 110.    Gen, Syn. i
In this the head is ash-coloured; cheeks naked; on the breast
two brown feathers; prime quills cinereous brown ; the colour of the
rest of the plumage not mentioned,* only that the tail was red.
Added to these, a friend of mine had a bird of the first description,
in which two feathers on the middle of the breast were crimson, and
which had not varied for several years.
It is not unusual for female Parrots to lay eggs in this country,
but not being impregnated, no account is taken of them ; and the
circumstance of their breeding here is of course very rare;f but we
are told, that at Marmande, in France, a male and female produced
young ones for five or six years together. The eggs were generally
four, of which never more than three were good. The nest was
made in a cask, which had one end knocked out, and filled with
saw-dust; proper accommodation being made for entrance, so that
fire male might sit by his mate: if any one entered the chamber
* Probably red, from its being called Psittacus ruber. f A wonderfully fine talking
Parrot of this sort, long in possession of King Henry the 8th, is mentioned by authors ; and
another belong to Cardinal Ascanius, at Rome, which could recite the Apostle'-s creed.
 21)6 PARROT.
wherein they were, not having boots on, he was sure to have his legs
severely bitten by the male, who was particularly jealous if any one
approached the female. P. Labat also mentions a pair which hatched
young ones at Paris.
141—CINEREOUS PARROT.
Psittacus cinereus, Ind. Om. i. 110.    Gm. Lin. i. 333.    Bris. iv. 313,    Id. 8ro. ii. 127.
Maracana, .Rait, p. 29.    Will. p. 73.    Id. Engl. 112. 5.
Cinereous Parrot. Gen. Syn. i. 263.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 486. ,    ,
MARCGRAVE, whose short des3eri|Mion_^we are constrained to
follow, «ays, it is altogether like a Parrot, but bigger; all its
feathers bluish-grey; that it cries like a Parrot, and loves fruit,
especially that called Murucuja.* •
Said to inhabit Brazil, but this may be doubted, as we know not
any of this colour in America; it is more probable, that it was
originally imported from Guinea, along with the Negro slaves. Dr.
Bancroft remarks, that although Parrots are very numerous, and of
different species ki Guiana, none of them are destitute of green
feathers.f
Whether fhis may be a variety of the Ash-coloured Parrot, I am
unable to determine, having never met with such a bird, nor can I
reconcile its feeding on the Murucuja, which, I believe, is only found
in South America, and the West Indies.
* Passiflora Murucuja Lin.
 ■"SB!
142—SOUTHERN BROWN PARROT.
Psittacus Nestor, Ind. Orn. i. 110.
MeridionatrsV Gm. Lin. i. 333.
——— Australis, Mus. Lev. pl. in p. 87.
Southern brown Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 264.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 522.
LENGTH sixteen inches. Bill very large, and hooked, blue-
black ; round the eyes a bare flesh-coloured skin; top of the head
pale ash-colour; round the lower mandible, throat, fore part and
sides of the neck, chestnut red, the middle of the feathers paler;
over the eyes rusty yellow; hindhead, and back of the neck deep
ash-colour and pale mixed; back, wings, and tail greenish ash-
colour, somewhat glossed with copper; the margins of the feathers
darker; from the breast to the vent chestnut red, deeper on the
margins; the tail is of the same colour beneath, and pretty even at
the end, at which part all the feathers are brown, and the tips of the
shafts stand out in a point; inner webs of the quills barred beneath ;
legs black.
Inhabits New Zealand.
143—LEVA1LLANTS PARROT.
Psittacus Levaillanti, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. xxiii.
Le Perroquet a franges souci, Levail. pl. 130. 131.
Damask Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 523.
Levaillant's Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup.ii. 95.   Nat. Misc. xxi. pl. 909.
THIS i> nearly the size of the Ash-coloured Parrot; length
twelve indies. Bill large, whitisfe; back part of the orbit of the
eye bare and dusky; head, neck, and breast olivaeeous grey brown,
or rather olive yellow, and grey brown mixed; belly^BUiap, upper tail
 212 PARROT.
coverts, and vent bright glossy sea green; beginning of the back,
and wings greenish brown, the ends of the feathers glossed with deep
green; under wing coverts the same; greater quills and tail brown ;
edges of the shoulders, bastard wing, and thighs orange, or marigold
colour; the upper tail coverts reach half-way on the tail, and the
orange of the thighs half way on the shins; the quills, when closed,
nearly reach to the end of the tail; legs dusky.
The female differs in the colours being less bright.
Inhabits the eastern parts of Africa, in the deep forests, rarely
advancing so far south as the Cape of Good Hope; feeds on fruits,
very fond of the wild cherry; breeds in the hollows of trees, or in
that of a rock; the female lays four eggs, on a kind of nest made of
dry leaves, moss, or decayed wood ; the young covered at first with
greyish white down ; gain the complete plumage in about six weeks,
and at the end of two months begin to feed and shift for themselves.
In the rainy season these birds change their quarters, passing into
higher latitudes; they are to be met with frequently at Koks Kraal
River, at which place numbers of them come to drink.
\ A fine specimen in the collection of Lord Stanley.
144—BLACK PARROT.
Psittacus niger,   Ind. Om. i. 111.     Gm. Lin. i
336.   Klein, p.
Bris. iv. 317.   Id. 8vo. ii. 129.
Le Vasa, ou Perroquet noir, Buf. vii.   119. pl.
v.   Pl. enl. 500.
Petit Vasa, Levail. Perr. pl. 82.    Shaw's Zool.
viii. 529.
Black Parrot of Madagascar, Gen. Syn. i. 264.
Edw. pl. 5.
LENGTH thirteen inches and a half. Bill and cere light flesh-
colour ; eyes in a bare white skin ; irides dark brown; the whole
head and body dusky bluish black, except the upper part of the
wings, which is dark ash-colour; tail five inches and a half long;
legs dull flesh-colour; claws black.
 PARROT. 213
Inhabits Madagascar. That described by Edwards, had three
or four white feathers in each wing. It may be observed, that in this
bird the bill is much, smaller, and the tail longer than is usual in any
of the genus..
145. VASA PARROT.
Le grand Vasa, Levail. Perr. pl. 81.
Vasa Parrot, Shaiv's Zool. viii. 528.
LENGTH twenty-one inches. Bill large, whitish; plumage
wholly black, with a cast of grey or brown, in different lights ; tail
somewhat long; orbits naked, nearly white; legs black.
Said to inhabit the southern parts of Africa. Described from a
specimen in the cabinet of M. de Breukelvaart, of Amsterdam.
146—MASCARINE PARROT.
Psittacus mascarinus,   Ind. Orn. i. 111.     X
Bris.iv. 315.   Id.8vo. ii. 128.
Mascarin, Buf. vi. 120. pl. 5.    Pl. enl. 35.
Mascarine Parrot, Gen; Syn, i.-265.    Shaw's
Levail. Perr. pl. 139.
Zool. viii. 528-.
LARGER than the ash-coloured species; length thirteen inches
and a half. Bill and cere reddish ; base of the bill surrounded with
black, for half an inch in breadth; orbits bare, light red; irides red;
top of the head, and hind part of the neck, pale ash ; back, rump,
forepart of the neck, breast, belly, sides, scapulars, upper and
under wing and tail coverts, and greater quills, deep ash ; tail the
same, in shape rounded; legs pale flesh-colour.
 214 PARROT.
Linnaeus says, it inhabits Masearin. Buffon derives his name
from the bird having a sort of mask round the biH j and Brisson
described it from a caged bird, but knew not from whence it came.
A.—In the Leverian Museum, was one, which appeared to be a
variety. It had the mask in front; ground colour of the plumage
the same as in the other, but irregularly sprinkled throughout with
white feathers; the tail part white, part brown, but not regular;
some of the quill and tail feathers wholly white, but the opposites,
which should have answered them, were white and brown. It appeared as a particular, and beautiful variety.
147—ASH-BROWN PARROT.
Psittacus fuscus, Ind. Orn. i. 111.
Brown Parrot, Gen. Syn.i, 266.
LENGTH thirteen inches. The whole of the plumage plain
brownish ash-colour.
Brisson saw this bird alive at Paris, but knew net whence it
came. Buffon mentions one, the size of the last, but it had neither
the black mask, nor was the base of the tail white, and. which we
apprehend may be this very bird, but whether distinct in species, or
a variety, we will not venture to affirm.
 215
148—HAWK-HEADED PARROT.
!, Ind. OmA. 111.   Lin. i. 148.   Gm. Lin. i. 345.   Gerin. pl. 120.
Psittacus accipitrii
Borowsk. Nat
Psittacus varius Indicus, Bris. i-
• elegans Clusii, Raii, p,
Perroquet varie, Buf. vi. 117.
Hawk-headed Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 266.    Edw. pl. 165.
300.   Id. 8vo.
J3. 11.    Shaw's
i. 482.
SIZE of a small Pigeon. Length twelve inches; bill and cere
blackish; round the eyes the same, and bare; irides deep yellow,
or hazel; head, cheeks, and throat brown, each feather marked
with a paler streak down the middle; neck, breast, and belly,
purple, the feathers edged with blue; back, rump, scapulars, upper
wing and tail coverts fine green; sides and under lesser wing coverts
yellow green ; the greater blue black ; prime quills black, the outer
edges and tips blue ; secondaries green ; tail somewhat rounded, five
inches and a quarter long, and green; all except the two middle
feathers blue at the tips ; legs dark lead-colour.
Inhabits the East Indies.—When this bird is provoked, it sets up
the feathers round the neck like a ruff.
1
A.—Papegai maille, Buff, vi. 2
Mailed Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. p. i
). pl. 12.    PL enl. 526.
7. A.
In this the top of the head and round the face covered with narrow
long white feathers, striped with blackish ; hind head and sides of the
neck fine red brown, edged with blue; breast and stomach shaded
with the same, and glossed with green; upper parts of the body, and
tail glossy green; quills and under the tail brown; the feathers of
the last edged with violet-blue.
 216 PARROT,
This is found in Guiana, where, according to Buffon, it was
naturalized from the East Indies, and is observed to have a sharp and
shrill cry, different from all other Parrots of the American Continent;
and when irritated, is said to set up the feathers round the head like
a ruff.
B.—Perroquet varie, Fermin. Surin. it. 176.
This is probably the same bird, or a slight variety. M. Fermin
briefly describes it with the feathers of the neck variegated; a deep
reddish colour, tipped with elegant blue; belly the same, but sprinkled
with brown; back green ; quills bluish ; tail wholly green.
Inhabits Surinam, and has the same faculty of (Setting up the
feathers round the head as a ruff or crest, especially when angry.
149.—THECAU PARROT.
Psittacus cyanolyseos, Ind. Om. i. 127.   Molin. Chil. (Fr. ed.) 235.
Thecau Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 94.
SIZE of a common Pigeon. Round the neck a fine blue collar;
head, wings, and tail green, spotted with yellow; back, throat, and
belly yellow ; tail of a moderate length, and even at the end.
Inhabits Chili, where it is called Thecau; is a numerous species,
and flies in vast troops, doing much injury to the corn; said to have
a centinel on the watch, so as to make it difficult to shoot; breeds in
the holes of rocks, and lays two white eggs, chusing the most
inaccessible places. The natives let themselves down from the top of
these rocks by ropes, to take the eggs and young birds, which are
thought excellent as a dish for the table; and the birds, though
robbed of the contents of. the nest, will;-lay again, as far as four
times.   This bird is easily tamed, and speaks well.
 217
150—CRIMSON AND BLUE-COLLARED PARROT.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill stout, brown; head brown, mixed
with greyish white; the crown white; upper parts of the neck, body,
wings, and tail fine green; at the lower part of the neck behind, a
crescent of deep crimson, each feather margined with glossy blue ;
' this band passes forwards on each side to the breast, which, as well
as all the under parts, is of the same colour as the band, but paler,
and without gloss; and indeed, the belly may rather be called blue
and rufous, than crimson; quills black ; tail rounded, dusky; the
three outer feathers margined with blue ; legs brown.
Inhabits Cayenne, from which place we have seen three specimens,
one in the Leverian collection, a second at Gen. Davies's, and a third
in my own possession.
There seems great affinity between several of the last numbers,
but I will not be positive of their being varieties—perhaps at different,
periods of age.
151—RUFF-NECKED PARROT.
Psittacus violaceus, Ind. Orn.i. 112.    Gm. Lin.i. 337.
Psitt. Aquar. Lupiarum insulae, Bris. iv. 302.    Id. 8vo.
Perroquet de la Guadaloupe, Du Tertr. Antil. ii. 250. t
Criq a tete violette, Buf. vi. 233.
Ruff-necked Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 268.
i. 124.
p. 246.
SIZE of a Fowl. Bill and eyes bordered with flesh-colour;
head, neck, and belly violet, with a slight mixture of green and blue,
and changeable like the breast of a Pigeon ; back brownish green;
greater quills black, the others yellow-green and red ; on the wing
coverts two spots, in shape and colour of roses.
 218 PARROT.
The above described from Du Tertre, who met with it at
Guadaloupe; and he adds, that it erects the feathers as a ruff round
the head, in which it seems to admire itself, as a Peacock when it
spreads the tail: it must have been very plentiful, as this author
mentions their being fat at certain seasons, and much coveted for
food; and also, that they are remarkably tame, for a pair having made
a nest in a large tree, not far from his habitation, the male and female
alternately came there for food, and afterwards brought their young,
as soon as able to fly. How far this may also belong to the three
last described, we must leave others to determine.
152—RED-CROWNED PARROT—Pl. XXVIII.
Psittacus galeatus, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxiii.
Red-crowned Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 369. pl. 140.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 523.
SIZE of the Grey Parrot. Length thirteen inches ; the bill yellowish ; plumage dusky, slightly glossed with green, margins of the
feathers very pale; on the head veiy full, so as to enable the bird to
erect them as a crest at will; the whole of these are deep scarlet,
except the chin, which is dusky; under parts of the body paler than
above, undulated with a mixture of reddish and green, arising from
the margins of the feathers being of those colours ; but not very conspicuous, except towards the bottom of the belly, where the red
predominates; quills and tail plain dusky; the latter nearly even in
length, and appearing somewhat undulated with darker in a strong
light; legs dusky.
The female is above much like the other, but the feathers more
conspicuously barred with paler colour, especially tire quills and tail,
in which the bars are six or seven in number; the head tufted &khf
loose feathers as in the former, but of the same colour as the back;
chin dusky green; breast and belly barred across beautifully with,
red, yellow, and brown, growing more dull towardjs the vent.     (¥1*9*
 W&/if,v^.
 1
 Besides the above was one at Mr. Thompson's, St. Martin's-lane,
in which only part of the head had the red crest, seemingly in an
intermediate state between the two former, and may fairly be supposed
a young bird, not yet in adult plumage.
Inhabits New South Wales. In Mr. Bullock's elegant Museum
were the two sexes above described, in fine condition, they are also in
that of the Linnaean Society.
153—ROBUST PARROT.
Psittacus robustus, Ind. Om. i. 112.    Gm. Lin. i. 344.
Robust Parrot, Gen. Syn.i. 296.
THIS is of a stout, robust make, as large as a middle-sized
Pigeon. Length twelve inches ; bill strong and white; round the
upper mandible the feathers are blackish ; the whole head greenish
grey; the crown streaked with dusky down the middle of each feather;
neck and body green, paler beneath ; rump and upper tail coverts
very pale green; wing coverts dusky black, the feathers tinged with
green on the margins; quills brown; on the bend of the wing a spot
of crimson, and on the outer edge, about the middle, it is crimson
also; tail even at the end, and brown like the quills; legs dusky.
154—VARIED, PARROT.
Varied Parrot
3, Ind. Orn. i. 112.
Gen. Syn. Sup. ii.
t. Lin. i. 337.   Maert. Phys. Arb. i. 2. p. 48.
THIS is a little more than five inches long. Bill and legs yellowish ; general colour of the plumage varied brown and blue;
cheeks, chin, and throat whitish; quills and tail dull brown, with
the outer margins blue.
Inhabits South America.
i 1
 220
155—SPARROW PARROT.
Psittacus fringillarius, Ind. Om. i. 112.    Gm. Lin
Fringillaceous Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 555.
Sparrow Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 93.
. 337.    Maert.i. 2. p.47.
SIZE of a Sparrow; length six inches. Bill and legs pale
yellow; general colour of the plumage pale green ; head Wue;
cheeks, chin, throat, and a spot on the belly, pale ferruginous; the
belly itself violet; tail feathers marked on the insides and tips with
yellow.
Inhabits South America.
156—CHILI PARROT.
Psittacus choraeus, Ind. Orn. i. 112.    Molin. Chil. 238.    Id. Fr. ed. 237.
Chili Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 93.
MOLINA igives but a short description of this bird : he says,
that it is fine green above, and cinereous grey on the belly, that the
orbits are flesh-coloured, and the tail of a moderate length.
Inhabits Chili, has much the same manners as the Jaguilma
Parrot, flying in troops, and making great havoc on the buds of
trees and herbs.
 221
157—BLUE-HEADED PARROT.
i. 113.     Lin. i. 148.     Gm. Lin. i. 345.     Scop. Am
i. 112.
Psittacus menstruus,  Ind. On
No. 33.
Psitt. guian. cyanoceph. Bris.
Perroquet a camail bleu, Lt
Papegai a tete et Gorge blei
Le Siy, Voy. d'Azara. iv. No. 287.
Blue-headed Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 301.    Edw. pl. 314.    Shaio's Zool. viii. 540.
iv. 247.    Id. 8'
ail. pl. 115.
-., Buf. vi. 243.
SIZE of the Ash-coloured species. Bill dusky, with a red spot
on each side of the upper mandible; eyes in a dark flesh-coloured
skin; head, neck, and part of the breast ultramarine blue, mixed
with a little purple on the last; on each side of the head a black or
dusky spot; back, belly, thighs, and wings fine green ; wing coverts
yellow green, inclining to gold-colour; inner coverts greenish; under
tail coverts fine scarlet; the two middle tail feathers green, those on
the sides the same, but gradually become more blue as they advance
outwards; legs grey.
Male and female much alike.
Inhabits Guiana, but not common, nor much sought after, as it
does not learn to speak; common at Paraguay, in numerous flocks;
is not fond of oranges, but makes great destruction among the maize
fields; the note similar to the word Siy; common in Brazil, where
it is called Maitacca.
In one of these which came under my inspection, the length was
eleven inches, It had no dusky spot ou the sides of the head;
above the breast a mixture of red; the side tail feathers, for three-
fourths from the base of the inner web, crimson; the rest of the
length and outer web blue, but the four middle feathers green, with
blue ends.
This is found at Berbice, and there called Barizi. The flesh is
much esteemed for food.
 222
158—LITTLE IjIJSKY PARROT.
Psittacus purpureus, Ind. Orn. i. 129.    Gm. Lin.i. 346.
 infuscatus, Nat. Misc. No. 789.
Perroquet violet, Barrer. Fr. eq. 144.
Papegai violet, Buf. ri. 244.    Pl. enl. 408.
Femelle du Perroquet a Camail bleu, Levail. pl. 115.
Little dusky Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 392.    Edw. pl. 315.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 564.
IN this the bill is dusky, with an orange-coloured spot on the
sides; top and sides of the head, below^hje eyes, black, glossed with
blue on the crown; eyes dark, in a light blue skin; round the
throat, and hind part of the head, a ring, marked with dusky spots
on a fillernot ground; hind part of the neck, back, rump, and
wing coyerts dark brown black; quills fine blue; tail dark blue when
closed, but the inner webs of the side feathers are reddish, except
the tips', which, are blue; breast, belly, and thighs purplish; legs
dusky.
Inhabits Surinam, also Guiana; but is not much sought after,
from not having the faculty of learning words; is called by the
French Perroquet violet. M. Levaillant supposes this to be the
female of the Blue-headed Species.
iud 'jtsy       i io bant ion ?i '
[ sdi-oi ijftfefftia. aton tacito ■ zbWn '-*
A.—In the Leverian Museum was seen a variety, if not a female.
The colour of the plumage an irregular mixture of black, blue, and
brown; about the head the Violet predominated!; on the breast, and
under parts the brown, which inclined to chestnut; not the least
trace of the dusky and fillernotrahig conspicuous, otherwise much
like that figured by Edwards.
 223
159—DUSKY PARROT.
Psittacus sordidus, Ind. Orik\. 127.    Lin. i. 148.    Gm. Lin.i. 343.
 novae Hispaniae, Bris. iv, 303.    Id. 8vo. ii. 124.
Le Papegai bran/fily. vi. 246.
Dusky Parrot, Gen. Syn.i. 304.    Edw.pl. 167.
SIZE of a small Pigeon ; length ten inches. Bill yellowish at
the base, and black in the middle of the upper mandible, the rest of
it red ; cere blackish ; orbits naked, pale cinereous ; irides dark hazel;
top of the head dusky ; sides and behind greenish ; throat blue;
back dusky; rump and tail greenish ; under tail coverts fine red;
beneath from throat to vent cinereous brown; wing coverts and lesser-
quills green, but some of the letter with yellowish borders; greater
quills green; tail a little rounded, the outer edge blue; legs lead-
colour; claws black.
Inhabits New Spain, but not common.
A.—Length ten inches. Bill wholly dusky red; crown and sides
blue, with a mixture of green; the rest of the neck green, mixed
with blue on the throat and breast; back bright olive green; breast
and beneath the same, but paler; many of the feathers of it obsoletely
barred, near the end, with a pale reddishr tinge; quills green ; tail
even, green, the outer margins of the three outer feathers fine blue,
and dull red for more than halfway from the base; under tail coverts
fine red ; legs dusky.
A specimen of this is in the collection of Lord Stanley.
 224
160—CERAM LORY.
Psittacus garrulus, Ind. Orn. i. 112.    Lin. i. 144.    Gm. Lin. i. 333.    Mas. Ad, Fred.
ii. p. 14.    Bor. Nat, ii. p. 91.
Psitt. ruber, remig. rectr. intus purpnreis, It. Wgoth. 137.
Lorius Ceramensis, Bris. iv. 215.    Id. 8vo. ii. 103.
Psitt. rufus, femor. alisq. viridibus, Frisch. t. 45.    Klein, p. 25. 8.
Lory de Ceram, Buf. vi. 129. Var. 2.    Raii, p. 151.
Perroquet Lori-Nouara, Levail. Perr. pl. 96.
Purple Parrot, Chart, ex. p. 75.    Id. Onom. p. 67.
Ceram Lory, Gen. Syn. i. 269.    Shaw's ZooKVili. 536.   Nat. Misc. 925.
LENGTH from ten to eleven inches. Bill orange ; cere and
bare space round the eye ash-coloured ; irides deep yellow; plumage
in general scarlet, except the lesser and under wing coverts, which
are mixed with green and yellow; the wings are first yellow, then
green, the bastard wings violet; greater quills dark green, beneath
hoary, inside scarlet, with cinereous tips; the two middle tail feathers
are first green, then dull red, and tipped with green; the next on
each side red for three-fourths of the length, afterwards green; the
four outer ones first scarlet, then violet, with deep green tips; the
lower part of the thigh feathers, or garter, green ; legs brown.
Inhabits the Isle of Ceram, and the rest of the Moluccas.
ill
—Psittacus garrulus Lin, i. 144. 25. (3
 Aurorae, Lin. Ed. x. No.
is, Will.78.   Raii. p. 31.  Kleh
-.. p. 17. t. 4. A.
Variete de Noira, Buf. vi. 129.
Pappagello, Zinnan. Uov. 92. t. 15. i
Noira Lory. Gen. Syn. i. 270. 76. A.
Size of a Blackbird.    Bill and irides yellow; body scarlet; ridge
of the wing yellow ; wing coverts green; quills black, with the outer
 PARROT. 225
webs green, beneath dusky; lower half of the tail yellow, from
thence to the end green; round the knees a garter of green; legs
black.
B.—Lorius Moluccensis, Ind. Om. i. 114. 96. y.  Gm. Lin. i. 334.   Bris. iv. 219. t. 23.1.
Id. 8vo. ii. 103.    Gerin. 1.106.    Bor. Nat. ii. 91.
Loira Noira des Moluques, Buf. vi. 127.    Pl. enl. 216.
Scarlet Lory, Gen. Syn. i. 270. 76. B.    Edw. pl. 172.
Size of the others. Bill orange; cere and orbits ash-coloured ;
body fine scarlet, except a few yellow spots on the back between the
wings; shoulders yellow, then green, afterwards green with yellow
tips ; greater quills dark green, inclining to blue; the.two middle
tail feathers deep green, but near the shafts a dull red tinge, halfway
down; side feathers half red, half green, and the two outmost with
a violet tinge on the outer edge; beneath all are reddish yellow;
round the knee a blue garter; legs brown.
C.—This variety has many of the wing coverts tipped with blue;
and no garter round the knee, otherwise like the others.
I observed this in the collection of the late Dr. Hunter—called in
China, Ty-pawn.
161—PURPLE-CAPPED LORY.
Psittacus Domicella, Ind. Orn. i. 114.    Lin. i. 145.    Gm. Lin. i. 334.    Borowsck. Nat.
ii. p. 92.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 538. pl. 81.
Psitt. rufus, vertice nigric. alis virid. Gerin. t. 104   Frisch. t. 44.   Klein, p. 24.
Lorius orient, indicus, Bris. iv. 222 .t. 24. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. ii. 104.
.Perroquet Lori a Collier jaune, Levail. p. 25.
Lori des Indes k Collier, Buf. vi. 130.   Pl. enl. 84.
Second black-capped Lory, Edw. pl. 171.
Purple-capped Lory,' Gen. Syn. i. 271.
LENGTH near eleven inches.    Bill red; cere and round the
eyes ash-colour;  irides orange; top of the head purplish black;
 1
226 PARROT.
if§dk> body and tail scarlet, the ls^iVtipped with green ; on the breast
an obscure yellow crescent; upper wing coverts green, the uildbr
blue; edge of the wing blue and green mixed ; garter blue; legs
blackish.
Inhabits th& East Indies.
A.—Lorius torquatus, Bris. iv. 230.    Id. 8vo. ii. 106.    Gm. Lin. i. 334.
Psittacus capite cyaneo, collari luteo, Klein, p. 25. 17.
Lory a Collier des Ind. or. Buf. vi 131.    Pl. enl. 119.—Male.
Laurey from the Brazils, Alb. i. pl. 13.
Blue^capped Lory, Gen. Syn. i. 271. 77. A.Bill yellowish ; round the eyes black; irides yellow; upper part
of the head shining blue ; neck, throat, back, scapulars, breast, and
upper part of the belly scarlet; the neck encircled with a yellow ring;
lower part of the back, rump, and lower part of the belly white and
rose-coloured mixed ; wing coverts green, mixed with yellow ; quills
fine blue; lesser quills yellowish green; tail purple, with a tinge of
red brown ; legs cinereous.
This inhabits the East Indies with the other, from which it
probably differs in sex ; both of them speak distinctly, and learn
quickly any thing they are taught, but are tender birds, and consequently sell for a good price, owing to the difficulty of bringing them
to this kingdom.
One of these in some India drawings, was called Tootau Gustoory.
162— RAJAH LORY.
Lory Rhadia, Levail. Perr. pl. 94.
Raja Lory, Shaw's Zool. viii. 537. pl. 82.
SIZE of the Purple-capped Lory.    Bill pale yellowish white;
[general colour of the plumage vivid scarlet; wings wholly golden
 Mi
yellow; on the top of the head a spot of the same colour, audjacrqsg
the breast a broad bar; thighs also yellow; legs blackish.
Inhabits the Moluccas, and there called Rhadia, and is a rare
species.
163—UNICOLOR LORY.
Le Perroquet Lori i
Unicolor Lory, Sha\
vail. pl. 125.
. 538.
SIZE and habit of the Ceram Lory. Bill red; plumage entirely
scarlet, more inclined to crimson on the back and wing coverts, the
tips alone inclining to purple;  legs and feet dusky, or brownish
purple. rdtlij^
Inhabits the Molucca Islands.
164.-
-BLUE-TAILED  LORY.
Perroquet Lori a Que\
Blue-tailed Lory, Sha
iblei
SIZE and habit of the Collared Lory. Bill red; colour of the
plumage deep scarlet; scapulars, and some of the larger wing coverts
fine blue, the rest edged wifli blue; larger quill feathers black,
slightly edged with blue; tail blue above and beneath, short.
Inhabits Borneo, and there not uncommon.'
1^5—BLUE-RINGED LORY.
Lori a franges bleues, Levail. pl. 93.
Blue-fringed Lory, Shaw's Zool. viii.
Nat. Misc. 22. pl. 937.
SIZE nearly that of the Black-capped Lory.     Bill yellow;
plumage deep scarlet; the larger quills edged, and the smaller deeply
 228 PARROT.
tipped with black; bastard wing the same; middle wing coverts fine
blue, forming an oblique bar on the wing; insides of the thighs
slightly marked with blue; tail longish, rounded at the end, purplish
brown; legs dusky.
Inhabits the Molucca Islands; not uncommon in the Cabinets of
Holland, but has not yet appeared in this kingdom, to our knowledge.
166—BLACK-CAPPED LORY.
Psittacus Lory, Ind. Orn.i. 115.    Gm. Lin. i. 335.    Bor. Nat. ii. 92.
Lorius Philippensis. Bris. iv. 225.    Id. 8vo. ii. 105.
Psitt. coccin. coerul. ac virid. vertice nigro, Gerin. i. 1.105.
Lori tricolor des Philippines, Buf. vi. 131.    PL enl. 168.
Perroquet Lori a Scapulaire bleue, Levail. pl. 123. 124.
First Black-capped Lory, Gen.Syn.i. 273.    Edw. pl. 170.   Nat.Misc. pi.633.   Shai
Zool. viii. 534.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill orange; cere and orbits ash-
coloured ; irides fine orange; crown black, with a blue tinge; neck,
greater part of the body, rump, and upper tail coverts scarlet;
between the neck and back a patch of blue, and another on the
lower part of the breast, mixing among the red feathers; wing
coverts green; quills green, some of them edged with yellow;
garter, vent, and under tail coverts blue; the two middle tail feathers
half red, half green, the others much the same, with the outer
margins violet; legs blackish.
Said to inhabit the Philippine Islands. M. Sonnerat found it in
the Isle of Yolo, which most probably is its natural abode. It is a
familiar species, but seldom makes amends for the trouble of bringing
it to Europe, as it rarely survives long in the colder regions. I have
observed a slight variety; in which the blue on the breast is a
continued large space; from beneath the nape to the back, deep
. violet indigo, joining below with the belly, thighs, and vent, which
 PARROT. 229
are of the same colour; under wing coverts scarlet; on the rump
several violet blue spots; in other things it resembles the first
described. 4#ji
167—CRIMSON LORY.
Psittacus puniceus, Ind. Om. i. 115.    Gm. Lin. i. 335.
Lorius Amboinensis, Bris. iv. 231,   Id. 8vo. ii. 107.
Lori cramoisi d'Amboine, Buf. vi. 133.    Pl. enl. 518.
Blue-breasted Parrot, Brown. III. pl. 6.
Crimson Lory, Gen. Syn. i. 273.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 464.
LENGTH eleven inches; somewhat bigger than the other Lories.
Bill dull red; cere and orbits blackish; irides orange;- plumage in
general dull crimson; breast, belly, sides, thighs, under tail, and
lesser under wing coverts deep violet; greater under wing coverts
blackish brown ; prime quills dull red within, and beneath blackish
brown ; tail even at the end, deep scarlet, tipped with pale dirty red;
legs brown.
Inhabits Amboina, and other Molucca Islands; it sometimes
varies in having the bill black, and the end of the tail orange yellow.
168—RED LORY!
Psittacus Moluccensis, Ind. Of
Molucca Lory, Gen. Syn. i. 274. 80. A,
16.   Gm.Lin.i. 33b. 101.fr
LENGTH nine inches. Bill red; cere and orbits bluish; plumage
in general deep red; scapulars, lower belly, and vent, glossy light
blue, as are also two or three of the feathers of the thighs; greater
wing coverts blue at the ends; quills red, but the secondaries have
 the ends dark blue, and the primaries greenish black; bastard wing
dusky black ; tail dull red, with dusky margins.
This was brought from the East Indies.
169—GRAND LORY.
Psittacus  grandis, Ind. Orn.
Le grand Lori de la Nouv. C
128.
Purper rood Loeri, Vosm. Monog. 1769. p. 20. t. 7.
Grand Lory, Gen. Syn. i. 275.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 533.
Gm. Lin.i. 335.
Buf. vi. 135.     Pl. enl. 683.     Levail. p. 126. 127.
THIS is the largest of the Lories, beifcg>$iirteen inches in length.
Bill black; head and neck fine red; the lower part of the neck,
next the back, violet blue; breast ricMy clouded with red, blue,
violet, and green, the mixture <©£ green and red going on to the
belly; quills, and edge of the wing, from the isliOuider, sky blue;
the rest of the plumage deep red; base half of the tail red, the rest
yellow; legs ash-colour.
This was brought from Ceylon, according to M. Vosmaer.*
A.—Differs, in having the upper parts of the body brown and
green, here and there mixed with a little clouded blue ; between the
wings blue and green mixed; part of the breast and belly blue ; vent
the same, with a mixture of greenish ; thighs deep chestnut, the
feathers margined with paler chestnut; tail the same, with pale tips ;
legs dusky.
In the Museum of the late Dr. Hunter.
f'Me sayB it is biggertnan tthe'-lfesli-eolouittSl Parrot, and less than the Am
 231
170—COCHIN-CHINA LORY.
. Psittacus Cochinsinensis, Ind. Orn. i. 116.
Cochin-China Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 65.   Sha;
BILL yellow; crown of the head, part of the neck, breast, back,
thighs, and vent, fine mazarine blue; nape scarlet, bounded below
with blue; forehead, chin, throat, breast, middle of the belly, and
wing coverts scarlet; across the last a bar of black; the rest of the
wing and tail black; legs black.
Inhabits Cochin-China.—Lady Impey.
171—YELLOW-BREASTED LORY.
Psittacus Guineensis, -Ind. Orn. i.
Yellow-breasted Lory, Gen. Syn. i
.16;    Gm. Lin
276.    Shaw's
■MHIer. III. t. 29.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill black; cere white; throat, and round
the eye the same; above the eye a patch of yellow; the rest of
the head and neck erimson ; breast yellow ; under the wings, belly,
thighs, vent, and under the tail white; tip of the last red; legs
dusJjy./
Inhabits Guinea. The back and upper part of the tail could not
be seen in the jprint from which the above was taken, being the only
voucher for our description of the bird.
 n
232
172—PARAGUAN LORY.
Psittacus Paraguanus, Ind, Orn. i
Lorius Brasiliensis, Bris. iv. 229.
Paragua,  Raii. p. 33.    Will. 76,
p. 207.
Paraguan Lory, Gen. Syn. i. 277
, 117.    Gm. Lin. i. 336.
Id, 8vo. ii. 106.
Id. Engl. 115.    Buf vi. 248.   Marcg. Hist. Brazil.
Shaw's Zool, viii. 532.
SIZE of the Amazon's Parrot. Bill cinereous ; irides red;
head, hind part of the neck, lower belly, thighs and under tail coverts
black; back, rump, and upper tail coverts, throat, fore part of the
neck, breast, upper part of the belly and sides scarlet; scapulars,
upper and under wing coverts, quills, and tail black.
This, according to Marcgrave, is found in Brazil, but probably
may have an African origin, as hinted in respect to the cinereous
Parrot.
173—RED AND BLUE PARROT.
Psittacus coeruleocephalus, Ind. Orn,
i guianensis caeruleus, Bris.
. — versicolor, Raii, p. 316.
Criq rouge and bleu, Buf. vi. 226.
Red and blue Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 277.
117:    Lin. i. 145.    Gm. Lin
304.   Id 8to. ii. 124.
Will. p. 75.    Id Engl. 114. 6.
SIZE of the Dusky Parrot; length nine inches. Bill blackish ;
orbits bare and whitish; irides yellow; head, throat, neck, and breast
blue; on the crown a yellow spot; upper part of the back pale blue ?
the lower, sides, and rump yellow; belly green; thighs greenish
white; wings and tail rose-colour, the coverts of the first mixed green,
yellow, and rose-colour, of the tail green ;  legs reddish grey.
 PARROT. 233
Aldrovandus, from whom others have taken their descriptions,
does not say where it is found; but Brisson, mistaking it for the
Perroquet violet of Barrere, which inhabits Guiana, makes it of
course a native of that country.
A.—In SpalowscMs Vog. 3. t. 7,—the orbits and base of the
bill are white; head, neck, and breast blue; the rest of the plumage
green, except the vent, and two-thirds of the tail next the base,
which are crimson.
174—GREEN AND RED CHINESE PARROT.
Psittacus Sinensis, Ind. Om. i. 117,    Gm. Lin. i
Grand Perroquet vert de la nouv. Guinee, Son. ]
Perroquet vert de la Chine, Buf. vi. 116.    Pi?. «
Red-sided Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 490.
Green and red Chinese Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 278.
SIZE large, Bill red above, with a yellowish tip, the under
mandible black; orbits, and place of the cere, covered with feathers;
irides orange; plumage wholly green, except the sides to the thighs,
and under the wing coverts, which are fine deep crimson; edge of
the wing, and some of the greater coverts and quills blue; tail dark
green, mixed with blue above, and brown beneath; legs black.
Inhabits the southern provinces of China, and Amboina, but is
not common; Buffon received it from the Moluccas, and New
Guinea; and Sonnerat fixes it as a native of the last named place.
 234
175—GRISLED PARROT.
Psittacus nasutus, Ind. Orn. i. 118.
Grande Perruche de la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 212.
Grisled Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 64.
THE billiin this is as large as the head> and red ; irides bluish ;
head and breast pale greenish grey ; hind part of the neck, back,
wings, and tail grass green; lesser wing coverts yellow; legs grey.
Inhabits China. From the size of the head and bill it might be
suspected to belong to the great-billed species before mentioned ; but
the latter has the tail cuneiform; whereas, in the grisled one it is
even at the end; therefore, unless Sonnerat should have made some
mistake in this particular, I cannot agree with him in opinion.
176—AMBOINA PARROT,
ifflp '-'-■ ■■'■ ' '•
Psittacus gramineus, Ind. Om. i, 118.    Gm. Lin. i. 338.
Perroquet a Calotte bleue, Levail. Perr. p. 121.
Grand Perroquet vert k tete bleue, Buf. vi. 221.   PL enl. S62.
Blue-capped Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 520.
Amboina Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 579.
LENGTH sixteen inches. Bill pale red; forehead and crown
blue; from the nostrils to the eye a narrow black streak ; the rest of
the plumage ^ass green, with a great mixture of blue on the quills ;
under parts of the body olive green; tail short, green above, and dull
yellow beneath ; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits Amboina.
 235
17?
-WHITE-FRONTED PARROT.
Psittacus leuqocephalus,   Ind. Orn. i. 118.     Lin. 147.     Gm. Lin. i
Nat. ii. p. 93.
Psittacus Martinicanus,  Bris. iv. 242.    Id. 8vo. ii. 110.
Amazone a t6te blanche, Buf. vi. 212. pl. 9.
Perroquet a face rouge, Levail, Perr. i. 107, 108, 109.
 a front blanc, Pl. enl. 335.
White-headed Parrot,   Edw. pl. 166.
White-fronted Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 279.
LENGTH eleven or twelve inches. Bill flesh-colour ; cere and
orbits white; irides dark hazel; plumage in general green; the
feathers fringed with brown, more conspicuous on the fore parts;
forehead white; crown of the head blue, with a few red spots; cheeks
throat, and neck before scarlet; belly green, with a mixture of red,
in some ferruginous; greater quills blue, beneath blackish; tail green,
the two middle feathers wholly so ; the three others on each side red,
for three-fourths from the base ; the others the same, but outwardly,
bluish; legs deep brown.
Inhabits Martinico, and other parts in the same latitude.
;&**%&>
:uslei
— Martin
:epba
, Ind. OmA. 118. 111. (3.
utture
Bri
. 244.
Raii, 31, & 181,    B[«7/.:7§.'.
Id. 8vo. ii. 111.     Gm, Lin
338. 30. /3.    Spalowsck. Vog. iii. t. 6.
Psitt. viridis fronte alba, Frisch. t. 46.    Klein, p. 25. 9.
L'Amazone a tete blanche, Buf. vi. 212. var.    Pl. enl. 549.
White-headed Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 280. A.    Will. Engl. 113. 5.
This differs from the last in being a trifle bigger; it wants the
blue behind the white on the crown; the belly inclines to purple
instead of red, and those feathers which in the other have red in them,
in this, have a portion of yelloW likewise. In mother things one
description might serve.
 B.—Psitt. Martinic. <
Papegai k ventre pourpre, Buff.
Ash-crqwned Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 281. 88. C.
nyanoceph.   Bris. iv.
vi. 242.
Length eleven inches. Bill, cere, and orbits white; plumage in
general green, most of the feathers with blackish margins; forehead
white; top of the head cinereous blue; under the eyes the same;
bend of the wing white ; bastard wing and feathers adjacent blue ;
quills black, some of them margined with blue, and others with
green; the two middle tail feathers green, the next yellow on the
inside half-way down from the base, near the shaft reddish, the end
green; the next three red like the last, but on both sides; the outer
orre red, with the end yellowish green, and the exterior margin blue;
legs grey.
Inhabits Martinico.
178—GERINI'S PARROT.
Psittacus Gerini, Ind. Om. i. 119.    Gerin. Om. i. pl. 109.
White-faced Amazon's Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 500 ?
Gerini's Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 93.
SIZE of the last. Bill and legs pale; head for the most part
white; body green ; lesser wing coverts, some of the middle quills,
and tail feathers red.
Inhabits Brazil.
179.—WHITE-CROWNED PARROT.
Psittacus albifrons, Ind. Orn. i. 119.    Mus. Carls, fasc. iii. t. 52.
White-crowned Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 281.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 519.
LENGTH ten inches and a half.    Bill pale yellow; cere and
orbits cinereous; forehead to the middle of the crown white, the rest
 PARROT. 237
of the head above pale blue; on each side of the head, between the
bill and eye, a red spot, surrounding the eye; plumage in general
full green, with blackish margins, paler beneath; bastard wing and
part of the quills adjoining red ; greater quills blue; tail rounded,
green ; base crimson, shafts of the feathers chestnut; legs ash-colour.
Where it inhabits is not said. Some suppose it the male of the
white-fronted.
180—YELLOW-HEADED AMAZON'S PARROT.
! Ind. Orr,
. 270. t. 26.    Id. 8vo. i
Psittacus
Psitt. ochrocephalus. Gm-. Lin.i. 339.
—— poikilorynchos Aldrov, Shaw's Zool. viii. 491.
L'Amazoneatetejaune, Buf. vi. 208.
Le Perroquet k tete jaune, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 285.
Yellow-headed Amazon's Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 282.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill ash-coloured, with a red base ;
irides yellow; top of the head lively bright yellow ; throat, neck, and
wing coverts green ; breast and belly yellowish green ; ridge of the
wing bright red ; quills varied with green, black, violet blue, and
red; tail yellow green, the two outer feathers red on the inner webs
at the base ; legs grey.
Inhabits Brazil, where it is common among the Mangrove trees,
on the banks of the rivers, and there it builds its nest: known by
the name of Curica.
A.—L'Amazone itete-jaune, Var. 1. Buff,vi. 209.
Perroquet vert et rouge, PL enl. 312.
Yellow-crowned Parrot, Gen. Syn.i. 282. 89. A.-
Length about fifteen inches.  It chiefly differs from the preceding
in having only a small portion of yellow on the forehead, instead of
T
111 I
 238
1
the whole crown; the green eoiom? less ^bright, and inclining to
yellow; on the wing a little red, as in the other', and a shade of
yellow under the tail.
M. Buffon observes, that this is known at Guiana by the name of
Bastard, or Half Amazon, supposing it to spring from a cross breed
with another Parrot; one in the Leverian Museum had the forehead
and sides, as far as the ears, yellow, otherwise did not differ, I
observed likewise another, in which the yellow on the forehead was
mixed with green; the ridge of the wing also of a mixed red colour,
and a line of black just round the base of the bill.
Id. 8vo. ii. 11G.      Raii. Syn; p. 30.
ie,Var.2. Buf. vi. 210.
ien. Syn. i. 283. B.    .WULl Engl. p. 1J3,
Length eighteen inches.* This seems to vary from the others
chiefly in the bill, the upper mandible of which is bluish green, and
yellow oker on the sides; tip crossed with a white spot; the under
lead-colour round about, and yellow in the middle.f
181—ASH-FRONTED PARROT.
Psittacus Barbadensis, BrisAv. 236.   Id. 8vo. ii. 108.    Gm. .
Psitt. virid. et luteus capite cinereo, Klein, p. 25.
Green and yellow Parrot fro
Ash-fronted Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 284.
SIZE of a large Pigeon. Bill horn-colour; cere and orbits
cinereous; forehead pale ash-colour; top of the head, cheeks, throat,
and fore part of the neck yellow; lesser wing coverts and thighs the
*  milughby. f Idem,    ■
 PARROT. 239
same£ gireater wing coverts, farthest froAt the body, fine blue; outer
edge of the prime quills violet,, and of some of the others red from
tjjfe base to the middle, the rest of the length blue; secondaries
green ; tail the same, the two middle feathers a trifle the longest;
legs cinereous.
Inhabits Barbadoes.
182—MANILLA GREEN PARROT.
Psittacus Lucionensis, Ind. OmA. r20. Bris. iv. 295. t.22. 2.   Id. 8vo. ii. 121.    Gm
Lin. i. 339. -      ;
Manilla green Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 296.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill scarlet, with a white tip; cere
reddish ; general colour of the plumage green, inclining to yellow;
hindhead, lower part of the back, and rump blue green; on the
scapulars a little mixture of blue and rufous; quills brown on the
inner, and yellow on the. outer edge; the third and fourth the
longest; tail near five inches long, green, beneath yellowish, the
two middle feathers exceed the others by one inch; legs ash-colour.
Inhabits the Island of Luzonia.
183—COMMON AMAZON'S PARROT.
Psittacus aestivus, Ind. Orn. i, 121.    Lin. i. 146.    Gm. Lin. i. 340.
 amazonicus, Bris. iv. 256.   Id. 8vo. ii. 114.   Spalowsck. Vog. ii. t. 13.   Gerin.
t. 107 ?
Psitt. virid. capite croceo, fronte cyanea, Klein, p. 25.    Frisch. t. 47.
Ajurucurau,-Raii, p. 32.    Will. p. 76.    Id. Engl. p. lib.
Perroquet Amazone,   Aourou-couraou,   Buf. vi. 215.    PL enl. 547.    Levail. Perr. pl.
84—89.
i Amazon's Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 284.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 493. pl. 74.
LENGTH telfiinehes.    Bill blackish ; irides gold-colour; forehead and between the eyes bluish; the rest of the head yellow;
 240 PARROT.
throat yellow, the feathers edged with bluish green ; the rest of the
body light green, inclining to yellow on the back and belly; ridge
of the wing red ; upper wing coverts green; quills varied with green,
black, violet-blue, and red ; tail green, the feathers fringed with
black, red, and blue; legs ash-colour.
Inhabits Guiana and Brazil.—We have seen one of these, having
the crown of the head white instead of yellow, but with the same
plumage.
iitt. Jamaic. icteroceph. Bris. iv. 233.
— viridis melanorynchos, Raii, 30.4
a Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 285. 91. A.    Brox
Id. 8vo.ii. 107.    Gm. Lin. i. 340. £
JFi//.p.76.   Id. Engl.113.  § IV.
Length thirteen inches. Bill black; irides deep saffron-colour;
forehead and throat blue green; the rest of the head and breast
yellow; body above green, beneath yellow; edge of the wing, and
under tail coverts red; greater quills green, within black, beneath
red near the ends; tail yellow-green.
Inhabits Jamaica.
B.—Psitt. amazon. Jamaic. Bris. iv. 276.    Id. Svo. ii. 117.    Gm. Lin. i.  340. 32. y.
Gerin. t. 108.    Bor. Nat. ii. p. 93.
Psitt. viridis alar, costa super, rubente, Raii. p. 30. 2.   Id. 181, 6.    Will. 74. t. 16.  Id.
Engl: 112. § IL    Sloan. Jam. 297.
Main Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 285. 91. B.
Length twelve inches. Upper mandible red, black in the middle,
and at the tip, with a bluish base; the under white; cere ash-colour;
orbits white ; irides reddish ; plumage above green, tipped with
black; beneath yellow green; forehead sky blue; crown yellow ;
cheeks and throat the same, but deeper ; edge of the wing yellow
and red mixed ;   lesser wing coverts fine red ;   all the others green;
 PARROT. 241
greater quills black, edged with green; the lower part of the five
middle ones red, the rest green, edged with yellow; tail green, near
the tip yellowish, the inner base of the four outside feathers red ; all
the shafts black; the two middle ones rather longer than the others;
legs hoary.
Inhabits Guiana, the Amazon's Country, Brazil, and Mexico;
at the last place called by the Spaniards, Catharina; according to
Blown it is also found in Jamaica.
C.—Psitt. Brazil, cyanoceph, Bris. i\
Ajuru-curuca, Raii, 33. 3. Will. 76.
Aourou-couraou, Var. 3. Buf. vi. 219.
Blue-topped Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 286. 9
234    Id. 8vo. ii. 108.
Id. Engl. 115. §. ix.
Size of the Ash-coloured Parrot. Bill cinereous, with a black
tip ; plumage in general green ; upper part of the head blue, mixed
with black, in the middle of which is a yellow spot; beneath each
■eijse a spot of the same; throat blue; greater quills marked with red,
yellow, and violet at the end; legs bluish ash.
Inhabits Brazil.
D.—Psitt.-Amazon, varius, Bris. iv. 287. t. 26. 2.    Id. 8vo.ii. 128.
Gerin. t. 115.    Ind. Orn. i. 122. e.
Ajurucurau, No. 2. Raii,33.    Will. 76. Id. Engl. 115. §. ix.
Aourou-couraou, Var. 4. Buf. vi. 219.
Psitt. major virid. mac. luteis et rubris, Frisch. t. 19.    Klein. 25.
West India green Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 287. 91. D.    Edw. pl. 162.
Size of the last. Bill and cere cinereous; orbits flesh-colour;
iride^ orange; forehead blue; crown pale yellow, mixed with a little
blue; cheeks and throat yellow; rest of the plumage green ; behind
the neck a little mixed with yellow, and on the back with red
likewise; shoulders red, mixed with yellow; quills black, with green
 24& PARROT.
or blue edges; the four middle tail feathers green, with yellowish
ends, the three next on each tslde red at the base within, edged yellow,
with a deep green spot; the outer one the same, with the outer edge
blue; legs grey.
Inhabits the Amazon's Country, and Brazil.
E. Psitt. Amazon, fronte lutea,  Bris. iv. 261.    Id. 8vo. ii. 114.     Gnt. LHriA. 341.
Ind. Orn. i. 122. £.
Aourou-couraou, Var. 5. Buf. vi. 221.
Aourou Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 508. pl. 76.
Braaffian yellow-fronted Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 287. 91. E.
This is in most things like the others. Plumage in general green;
forehead pale yellow; crown and cheeks the same, but darker; from
the base of the bill, above the eyes, a blue stripe; throat feathers
yellow, with blue tips; hind part of the head and neck green, edged
with black, and a mixture of blue; ridge of the wing orange; quills
and tail much like the others; under tail coverts yellowish; the
legs hoary.
Inhabits the Amazon's Country, and Brazil. One of these, in
the Leverian Collection, had the tail chiefly green, with yellowish
ends, all but the two middle feathers with the base red, then green,
and all these with a red spot between the green and yellow, about the
middle of each feather; the outer one with the exterior edge orange
the whole length.
Length fourteen inches. Bill, cere, and orbits as in the first;
also the head, neck, and body; but the feathers of the last are duller
^eeti, edged with brbwn ; middle of the belly and thighs pale
yellow brown; garter yellOw5; on six of the middle quills a large.
 patch of crimson on the outer webs, occupying most space on the
exterior feathers ; ends of all the quills blue; tail green, with the
end yellow orange; the five outer feathers yellow at the base within,
then crimson for half the length; the outer margins green, but the
outmost of all margined with blue; legs brown.
A similar one to this had all the inner bend of the wing red,
otherwise not differing, This came from Berbice, by the name of
Koellou.
G.—Psitt. viridis collo flavo, Gerin. t.110.    Ind.Orn.i. 123. 117. &.    Spalowsck. Vog.
ii. t.12.
This appears to be a further variety; size of the others. Plumage
green; head and neck yellow; shoulders, a patch on the quills, and
base of the tail feathers red.
H.—Perroquet Amazone varie, PL enl. 120.
Psittac. varii coloris, Will, p.72 ?    Ind. Orn. i.< 123. 117. ft
Counterfeit Parrot, Will. Engl. p. 110.    Gen, Syn. i. 295.
Authors talk of a Parrot, which seems referable to this Species:
it is variegated with several colours, and made up by art. M.
Pernetty says,* that such are frequently met with on the Isle of St.
Catharine, and coasts of Brazil. The whole plumage, especially
>tirddhead and neck, back, and belly, varied with jonquil, citron,
>fca*mine, crimson, &c. intermixed witn igreen, and a lively blue,
chieflyi&bout the ears; and that the natives caused this change, from
plucking out the feathers while young, and putting in something
poisonous, which made them thus to change colour,-f but how far
this account may be founded in truth requires further observation.
* Voy. c
tj&aibtiihes.i. 177.
f See Will. Orn. Engl. 110.
 244
184—YELLOW-SHOULDERED PARROT.
Psittacus luteolus, Ind. Orn. i. 123.
 luteus, Gm. Lin.i.   341.
Yellow-shouldered Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 288.    Shaw's Zool. viii.  499.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill dusky, tip black; crown of the
head, including the eye, light blue; from the bill to the eye, and
the chin yellow; body in general, and wings green; the feathers on
the upper parts edged with brown ; shoulders tinged with yellow; on
the greater wing coverts a patch of orange ; greater quills dusky ;
belly and vent very pale green; tail green, but some of the feathers
are red within at the base ; legs dusky.
From South America.
185—YELLOW-WINGED PARROT.
Psittacus ochropterus, Ind. Orn. i. 123.    Gm. Lin. i. 341.
 Amazon, gutture luteo, Bris. iv. 287.    Id. 8vo. ii. 119.
 viridis alius, capite luteo, Frisch. t. 48.    Klein, p. 25.
Le Crik a tete et gorge jaune, Buf. vi. 222.
Yellow-headed Creature,* Bancr. Guian. 159.
.l^ts^       Yellow-winged Parrot,  Gen. Syn.i. 289.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill and orbits-whitish ; cere hdarj>;
irides yellow; plumage in general green, margined with black
on the neck behind, and back; crown, cheeks, throat, and neck
before yellow; hindhead yellow green; thighs and ridge of the wing
* It may be wondered why the name Creature should be arjolied to a Parrot, but Dr.
Bancroft explains this. He says, that they are distinguished by two names, viz.—Parrots,
properly so called, and Creatures; the first are docile, and will learn to talk, the others less
docile, and have an habit of nodding, when any attempt is made to handle them : a custom of
which they can never be divested, though they are often taught to speak distinctly.
 PARROT. 245
yellow ; lesser wing coverts next the body red, with yellow edges,
the others yellow; rest of the coverts green; greater quills black,
some having blue and green edges; four of the middle ones red at
the base within for three-fourths of their length ; the four middle tail
feathers are green with yellowish ends; the three next on each side
red half-way from the base; the rest yellowish green, with a deep
green spot between the two colours; all of them margined with green
outwardly; the outmost the same, the exterior edges blue; legs
hoary.
Inhabits Guiana with the last. Buffon expatiates on the sensibility of this species, from the notes of a friend, who kept one alive ;
it was of a very uncertain temper; for if chastised for biting rather
hard, &c. it persisted in the offence, and never was to be reclaimed,
but from the most gentle usage ; was impatient in a cage, biting to
pieces every thing within reach, and always silent and dull, except
when at liberty. It chattered then continually, and had much to say,
as it remembered every thing ; yet with all this caprice, the bird was
very fond of children. In the time of mousing, which lasted for
nearly three months, it appeared dejected and uneasy; it was chiefly
fed on hemp-seed, nuts, and fruits of all kinds, but preferred meat,
when allowed to have it, though from too frequent use of the last, it
became dull and heavy, and lost its feathers.* We believe the above
account will include the manners of most Parrots in confinement,
and the circumstance of the loss of plumage from the use of animal
food, we have been frequently witnesses to, and this appeared to
arise from the irritation produced in the skin, which induced the birds
to be continually picking and fretting the parts, to allay the uneasy
sensation. It has been remarked, that Parrots have the habit of
retaining the food in the pouch or cheek for some time, whence they
have been thought to chew the cud.f
* Birds in hot clin
I off by degrees^
jlder regions, but the feathers
e Pitfield's Memoirs, p. 201.
 243
A.-^Size of the others, and much the same in>plumage, but besides
the yellowcpaVtsv at has an irregular mix/feureof iyellow feathers among
the green on the wing [id© verts, breast, and befli^; no yellow on the
ridge of tire wing, nor are the lesser wing coverts, next the body,
red.
B.—In another, the plumage in general is green ; forehead pale
blue; middle of the crown green ; just ro&nd the eye red; hindhead,
round the back part of the eye, the chin, and a crescent on each side
of the lower part of the throat yellow; ridge of the wing, and base
of the quills reel; ends of all the quills blue.
186—YELLOW-CHEEKED PARROT.
Le Perroquet Criq de Cayenne, Buf. vi. 228.    Pl. enl. 839.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill pale lead-colour ; round the eye
bare and whitish; irides red; plumage fine green; paler beneath*;
above the eyes tinged With blue ; below them, on the jaw, a large
yellow patch, beginning at the base of the bill ; on the outer edj&e
of the wing a trace of red, from the base of two or three of the quills
being of that colour; the remainder blue to the ends, but they are
for the most part black with blue ends ; tail even, three inches long,
the two middle feathers green, plain ; the rest marked on thei!fif$ir
webs with an oblong spot of red, taking up most space, as the feathers
are more outward.
Inhabits Cayenne, and is one of those known by the name of
Criq.    The Agile species passes also under this name.
 247
187—MEALY GREEN PARROT.
Psittacus pulverulentus, Ind. Orn. i. 123.    Gm. Lin. i. 341.
 -■ major albicans, capite luteo, Barrer. Fr. Eq. 144 }    ,    '
Munier, ou Crik poudre, Buf. vi. 225.    Pl. enl. 861.    Levail. Perr. pl; 92.
Mealy green Parrot, Gen, Syn. i. 291.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 511.
THIS is said almost to equal the Maccaw in size, and the biggest
of the Parrot kind in America. Bill whitish horn-colour : plumage
green, but appearing as if powdered all over with meal; on the head
is a yellow spot; the feathers on the hind part of the neck slightly
edged with brown ; under parts of the body paler than above, and
without the mealy appearance; on the wings a large red spot; quills
outwardly black ; end of the tail yellowish green.
Inhabits Cayenne and Brazil, where it is called Juru, and much
admired for its size, singularity of colour, and gentleness of disposition, added to its talking well.
188—BLUE-FRONTED PARROT.
Psittacus Havanensis, fnd. Orn. i.  124.    Gm. Lin. i. 342.
 Amazon, gutture cceruleo, Bris.iv. 266. t. 25.1.  Id. Svo.ii.
Crik k face bleue, Buf. vi. 227.    Pl. enl. 360.    Levail. pl. 222.
Havanna Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 531.
Blue-fronted Parrot, Gen, Syn, i. 291.
LENGTH twejhye inches. Bii$;;whitish, tip black; cere and
orbits ash-colour; plumage mostly green, the feathers tipped with
black on the upper parts, and with bluish beneath ; forepart of the
head, throat, and neck, cinereous blue, inclining to violet, and
edged with shining green; the rest of the head, hind part of the
neck,  back, and rump, green, the feathers tipped with black; on
 248' PARROT.
the breast a large red spot; * the under tail coverts yellowish green ;
quills black ; the outer edge of some green, the others blue, and
some of the middle ones red within, next the base, forming a red
spot; tail green, with the end yellowish; the two middle feathers
plain, and two next on each side blackish at the base, the fourth and
fifth red within at the bottom, the outmost the same mixed with blue;
legs grey.
Inhabits Havannah, and probably common to Mexico, but
Buffon says, it is not found in Guiana. He adds, that the red on
the belly is the colour of lilac, waved with green, and a yellow spot
on the lower part of it. Authors differ in respect to the size; M.
Brisson s said to be as large as a Crow, and fifteen inches long, but
that of Buffon measured only twelve inches.
189—AUTUMNAL PARROT.
Psittacus autumnalis, Ind. Om. i. 124.    Lin. i.
Psitt. Americanus, Bris. iv. 293.    Id. 8vo. ii. 1
Crik a tete bleue, Buf. vi 232. Var. 2.
Le Perroquet a Joues oranges, Levail. p. 111.
Lesser green Parrot, Edw pl. 164.    Bancr. Gui
Autumnal Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 293. B.    Shaw'i
SIZE of a middling Pigeon. Bill whitish, with*dusky edges;
round the eye a bare white space; irides gold-colour; forehead
scarlet; crown blue; on each cheek, under the eye, an orange spot;
rest of the plumage green, paler beneath; upper ridge of the wing
yellow; side tail feathers red outwardly at the base.
Inhabits Guiana.
* See PL enl. 360.
 A.—Crik a tete bleue, Buf. vi. 230.    Gm. Lin. i. 345. 37.
Le Perroquet bouquet, Levail. Perr. pl. 135.
Blue-headed Creature, Bancr. Guian. 158.
Blue-faced Parrot. Gen. Syn. i. 293.    Edw. pl. 230.    Shaw
Size of a Pullet. Bill horn-colour, with an orange spot on each
side of the upper mandible; irides orange; fore part of the head,
quite behind the eye, and throat blue; below the throat, to the
breast, red ; the rest of the body green, but the prime quills are blue,
and some red, with blue tips; tail green half way, beneath yellow
green; side feathers red on the outer webs; legs flesh-colour.
Inhabits Guiana.
B.—Crik k tete bleue, Buf. vi. 231
Cocho, Ferm. Hist. N. Hisp. p. 38.
Red and white-faced Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 293. 96. A.
This differs in having the head varied with red and whitish
instead of red and blue, otherwise absolutely the same; the Spaniard;
call both this, and the Var. B. of the Amazon's Parrot—Catharina.
C—Psittacus Braziliensis, Lin. i. 147.    Gm. Lin. i. 344.   Ind. Om.i. 125. S.
Psitt. Brazil, fronte rubra, Bris. iv. 254.    Id. 8vo. ii. 113.
—— variegat. Braziliensis, Gerin. 1.116.
Crik a tete bleue, Bufvi. 232. Var. 3.
Perroquet a Joues bleues, Levail. pl. 106.
Brazilian green Parrot. Gen. Syn. i. 294. 96. C.    Edw. pl.161.    Bancr. G
Shaw's Zool. viii. 514. pl. 77.
Size of a tame Pigeon. Bill flesh-colour; forehead and throat
red ; under and behind each eye blue; crown of the head yellowish
green; most of the body green; lower edge of the wing red; part
 1
2w PARROT.
of the quills blue; middle tail feathers green, outmost but one red,
the outer blue, the whole tipped with fine yellow; legs brownish
ash-colour.
Inhabits Brazil and Guiana. We observed one, in which all
the tail feathers were crimson, except the exterior, which was blue,
but the whole of them with the ends yellow.
190—PILEATED PARROT.
Psittacus pileatus, Ind. Orn, i. 125.    Scop, Ann. i. No. 32.
Pileated Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup, ii. p. 94.
SIZE of a Missel Thrush. Bill horn-colour, with a brown base;
forehead and crown red; cheeks naked; general colour of the plumage
green; quills and tail blue on the outer edges, the last yellow at the
end; rump yellow-green.
M. Scopoli suspects it to be a Variety of the Golden-crowned
Parrakeet, but does not mention the shape of the tail.
191—RED-HEADED AMAZON'S PARROT.
Psittacus Tarabe, Ind. Om. i. 125.    Gm. Lin. i. 344.    Raii. p. 33. 5.
 j Braziliens. erythroceph. Bris.iv. 240.    Id. 8vo. ii. l(fe':,;[
Le Maracana a tete rouge, Voy. d'Azara. iv. No. 284.    Buf. vi. 211.
Red-headed Amazon's Parrot, Gen. Syn.i. 295.
BIGGER than the Ceram Lory. BiJl .jeanereaus; ..plumage in
general green; head, throat, neck before, breast, and lesser wing
coverts red; legs cinereous.
Inhabits Brazil, but not Guiana. M. d'Azara has seenseveral,
both wild and tame, btt&t&ey appeared to be a stupid race.
 t
251
192—NEW-GUINEA GREEN PARROT.
Psittacus viridis, Ind.Orn; i. 125.    Gm. Lin. i. 344.
Grand Perroquet de la nouv. Guinee, Son. Voy. 74. t, 108.
New-Guinea green Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 296.
SIZE of the common Amazon's Parrot. Upper mandible the
colour of orpiment; the under black; irides fire colour; plumage in
general light grass green; greater quills indigo blue; the lesser
Carmine red beneath.
Inhabits New Guinea.
193—EASTERN PARROT.
Psittacusorientalis, Ind. Om.i. 125.
Eastern Parrot,   Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 64.
SIZE of the Amazon's Parrot. Bill red, with a yellow tip;
plumage in general green; ridge of the wing and prime quills pale
blue; towards the end of the tail black and blue, the end yellow;
legs yellow.
Inhabits India—Lady Impey.
194—DUFRESNE'S PARROT.
Perroquet Dufresne, Lev
Dufresne's Parrot, Shaw'
til. Perr.  pl. 91.
Zool. viii.  513.
SIZE of the Mealy green Parrot. Phanage in general foil
green; just above the base of the upper mandible, from eye to eye,
an orange-yellow bar; cheeks and sides of the neck tinged with blue;
ridge of the wings, the outer edges, and tips of the larger quills
deep blue ; the inner marked in the middle with a broad orange bar;
bill pale brown; legs ash-colour.
Inhabits ^ayfinne;
S ,1
J
 252
195—BLUE-CHEEKED PARROT.
Psittacus adscitus, Ind. Om.i. 126.
Blue-cheeked Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 64.
LENGTH eleven inches and a half. Bill, and crown of the head
straw-colour ; cheeks fine light blue ; upper part of the back black,
streaked With yellow; the lower pale yellow; scapulars black; wing
coverts and quills rich deep blue, tinged with green ; breast and
belly green; vent red; exterior feathers of the tail blue, tinged and
marked near the shafts with rows of small dark spots; the middle
ones duller green; legs dusky.
Native place uncertain.—Communicated by the late Mr. Pennant.
196. AMBER PARROT.
Psittacus Batavensis, Ind. Om. i. 126
Amber Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 65.
BILL dusky ; fore part of the head crimson ; the back of it and
nape dusky; the rest of the neck crimson, marked with yellow
streaks; belly the same, but paler; wings and tail green ; thighs red;
legs ash-colour.
Inhabits Batavia.—Lady Impey.
197—FESTIVE PARROT.
Psittacus festivus, Ind. Orn. i. 126.
Tavoua, ou Tahua, Buf. vi. 240.
Festive Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 298.   i
Lin
i. 147.    Gm. Lin. i. 344.
/. 840.    Levail. Perr. pl. 129.
LENGTH eleven inches.    Bill lead-colour, with a black tip;
cere greyish black; irides saffron-colour; from eye to eye just over
 PARROT. 253
the forehead, the feathers are purplish chestnut; from the base of the
upper mandible springs a stripe of pale blue, passing through the
eye to the hind head, but vanishes before it reaches the back part;
crown of the head green, with a very little mixture of blue ; on the
throat a blue spot; the rest of the plumage plain green, paler beneath,
except from the middle of the back to the rump, which is very bright,
though deep crimson ; tail coverts and tail green ; the exterior edge
of the outer feather of the latter blue; bastard wing deep blue; greater
quills almost black, with the outer edges fringed with blue; the rest
of the wings green; legs light ash-colour. In a quiescent state the
crimson of the rump being covered by the wings, is not visible.
Inhabits Guiana, where it is rare, but sometimes is seen near
inhabited places.: the natives call it Tavoua; is in great esteem from
its talking better than either the Guinea or Ash-coloured, but is said
to be an ungrateful and mischievous bird, as it bites every one who
attempts to stroke it, like the Yellow-winged Parrot. Its looks are
lively, but shy, and it is more agile and playful than any other
species. This account is given by Buffon, but I am clear it will not
suit every individual, and that the same disposition does not pervade
the whole of its kind, as I had one in my collection, which, during
the many years it lived in England, was perfectly tame and familiar.
198—CRIMSON-WINGED PARROT.
Psittacus erythropterus, Ind. Orn.i. 126.    Gm. Lin. i. 343.
Black-shouldered Parrot, Nat. Misc. pl. 653.
Crimson-winged Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 299.   Id. Sup. 60.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill brownish red, and rather elongated;
crown, cheeks, and ridge of the wings fine green ; upper part of the
back black, the lower rich blue; tail coverts pale green ; beneath
1
 254 PARROT.
from cMrt'to tail yellow-green ; wing coverts deep rich scarlet, surrounded with black; quills black, edged with dull green; tail rounded
in shape, yet scarcely to be called cuneiform; the middle feathers
dull green, with yellowish ends, the outmost like those of thewings,
and others more or less marked with red ; legs dusky.
The female differs in having a green back, and the wing coverts
green, except a few of the greater, which are scarlet; some of the
outer tail feathers red on the inner webs.
Inhabits New South Wales. Fine specimens of both sexes in the
Museum of the Linnaean Society.
199—RED-BANDED PARROT.
Psittacus Dominicensis, Ind. Orn. i. 126.    Gm. Lin. i. 343.
Papegai a bandeau rouge, Buf. vi. 241    Pl. enl. 792.
Red-banded Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 300.
LENGTH nine inches and a half. Bill pale flesh-colour; on
the forehead from one eye to the other a band of red ; plumage in
general green, rather dark, marked as it were with scales of black
on the neck and back; stomach reddish ; quills blue; legs ash-
colour.
Inhabits Guiana, as also Paraguay. One of these, in my possession, when alive, had the eye surrounded with a naked white skin;
the irides hazel; the band does not cover the whole forehead, but
only just over the bill.
200—CRIMSON-BANDED PARROT.
LENGTH eight injbhes. Bill pale red ; plumage chiefly ©live,
or yellow green; forehead crimson, passing on each side and surrounding the eye; below on the ears a crimson spot; edge of the
 ■MMS
PARROT. 255
wing within crimson; the outer as far as the middle the same, but
broader, occupying one-third of the breadth of the wing; greater
quills deep violet-purple, margined outwardly Svith green ; tail
rounded, olive-green; above the knees a mitftsttre of crimson, as a
garter; legs brownish flesh-colour.
From the drawings of Mr. Woodford.
201— PARADISE PARROT.
Psittacus Paradisi, Ind. Orn. i. 127.   Lin.i. 147.   Gm. Lin.i. 342.   Klein, p; 25. Nat.
Misc. pl. 1001:
Psitt. luteus Ins. Cubae, Bris. iv. 308.    Id. 8vo. ii. 125.
Papegai de Paradis de Cuba, Buf. vi. 237.   PL enl. 336,
Perroquet jaune ecaille de rouge, Levail. Perr. pl. 137.
Cuba Parrot, Brown Jam. 473.    Cates. Car. i. 1.10.
Paradise Parrot, Gen. Syn.i. 300.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 501. pl. 75.
LENGTH twelve inches and a half. Bill white; irides red ;
round the eyes bare and white; plumage yellqw* with the margins of
the feathers orange-red; throat, fore part of the neck, and belly bright
red ; greater quills white ; the two middle tail feathers yellow; the
others red for two-thirds of the length, the remaining part yellow;
legs white.
Inhabits the Island of Cuba.
202—AURORA  PARROT.
Psittacus Aurora, Ind. Orn. i. 127    Lin. Mant. (1771) 524.    Gm. Lin. i. 324.
Psitt. luteus, Bris. iv. 306.    Id. 8vo. ii. 125.
Perroquet jaune, Pl. enl. 13.  jQm. jfe SaltiM. 89. t. 7. f. 2.
L'Amazofjyaune, Buf. vi. 214 pl. 10.    Levail. pl. 90.
Aurora Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 301.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 502.
'^jfiSENGTH twelve inches.    Bill and cere white; eyelids and irides
red; the whole plumage fine yellow, except the edge of the wing
 256 PARROT.
which is fine red ; under the wings the yellow is very pale ; all the
prime quills, except two or three of the first, are red on the outer
edge, in the middle; tail rounded, the four outer feathers red from
the base to the middle on the inner webs; legs white.
Inhabits  Mexico, or probably Brazil,   as M. Salerne mentions
one that spoke the Portuguese tongue distinctly, and was very tame.
203.-
-WHITE-BREASTED PARROT
, Ind. Orn. i. 128.   Lin. i. 1
Psittacus melanocephali
Fr. ii. p. 45.
 Mexicanus, pectore albo, Bris. iv. 297.    Id. 8vo. ii. 122.
 atricapillus, Mill. Illust. t. 4.  A.
Le Maipouri, Buf. vi. 250.    PL enl. 527.    Levail. pl. 119, 120.
White-breasted Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 305.    Edw. pl. 169.    Shaw's Zool.
I Lin. i. 346.   Mus. Adolp.
SIZE of a Turtle; length nine inches. Bill, cere, and orbits
dusky flesh-colour; top of the head black ; under the eye from the
gape a green mark; cheeks, throat, and forepart of the neck yellow,
behind orange; back, rump, scapulars, and upper tail coverts green;
breast and upper part of the belly white ; the lower, sides, thighs,
and under tail coverts orange; quills blue outwardly, within and
beneath black; the first of the lesser quills green, edged with yellow;
the others green ; tail short, rounded, green ; legs cinereous brown.
A.—The bill in this variety is blackish ; the black crown, and
the green mark between the bill and eye the same ; sides of the
head and throat olive-yellow ; about the ears dusky; back part of
the neck rose-colour, inclining to brown; breast and belly pale
ash-colour ; sides of the body, thighs, and vent yellowish orange-
brown; quills blue, edges fringed with green. A specimen of this
last was in the Leverian Museum.
 PARROT. *&57
This species inhabits Mexico, Guiana, and the Caraccas, in South
America; commonly found in woods, and does not often approach
inhabited places ; has no note beyond a shrill whistle, which is often
repeated in flight. Observed in small numbers together, but are
restless and quarrelsome, and if any one is taken, it for the most part
refuses food, and at last is starved to death. In general, Parrots, even
the most stubborn in nature, are to be subdued by means of smoke of
tobacco, but this is only put into bad humour by the attempt; whoever, therefore, would have these birds, must train them up young ;
and this is scarcely worth labour, if not for the sake of variety; for
they do not learn to talk.
204—HOODED PARROT.
Psittacus Caica, Ind. Orn. i. 128.    Gm. Lin. i. 347.    Buf. vi. 253.
Le Caica Barraband, Levail. Perr. pl. 134. Var.
Perruche a tete noire, Caica, Buf. vi. 253.    PL enl. 744.    Levail. p
Hooded Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 306.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 542.
LENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill red; plumage of the
head black, giving the appearance of a hood, out of which the eye
appears, within an angulated white skin ; round the back of the neck
fulvous, but the chin and forepart yellowish ; the rest of the body for
the most part green ; but when the wing is closed, seems to be divided
longitudinally, as the outer edge of the wing is all the way blue;
tail longer than in the last, the feathers pointed at the ends, the
shape rather hollowed out in the middle ; the general colour green,
with the end blue ; legs red.
Inhabits Cayenne: comes there every year in small flocks in
September and October, making but short stay: is called there Caica.
It may be observed that this and the last differ much from other
Parrots, both in make of body, being thick, short necked, and more
 258 PARROT.
robust; and are likewise of a heavy, dull nature. Buffon adds, that
the feathers seem closer set, appearing as if artificially fastened to the
body, especially on the breast and under parts.
A.—Le Nenday, Voy. d'Azara. iv. No. 279.
In this the head is black, having on the middle of the crown
a tinge of red; neck before pale blue; thighs scarlet; tail above
half yellowish, half blue, beneath dusky; quills dusky at the tips;
greater coverts green, changing into blue at the ends; lesser and
middle ones, and rest of the body yellowish green ; bill and space
round the eye black; legs olive.
Two of these were taken at Yaguarou, in Paraguay, and sent
into Spain : they had the action and cry of the Hooded Parrot, but
the irides were red.     Supposed to be a variety of that bird.
205—SENEGAL PARROT.
Psittacus Senegalus, Ind. 0,
t. 24. 2.    Id. 8vo. ii. 153.
Perroquet a tete grise, Buf. vi. 123.   Pl. enl. 2S
Senegal Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 307.    Shaw's Zool.
128.    Lin, i. 149.     Gm, Lin
'[JLaotin pl. 116, 117.
i. 544.
SIZE of a Blackbird; length eig^.fn/ib^. Bill ash-coloured;
cere and orbits blackish ;,ir^es fine yellow ; .pjumage above green,
passing forwards to the breast; head elegant ash-colour ;* quills and
bastard wing the same, with the outer edges green; under parts of
the body orange, deeper on the sides; tail deep ash-colour, margins
greenish; legs reddish ash-colour.
* In the head of one I observed a slight reddish fringe on the edges of the fjeathersi4
scarcely perceivable on first inspection.
 Inhabits Senegal, where they are seen to fly five or six together,
and perch on the tops of trees, which are here and there scattered in
the burning sandy plains : the cry is sharp and disagreeable : they
keep close together in pairs, so that two are often shot at once, and
sometimes the whole,little flock: they are said to talk very well.
In the Leverian Museum was one of these, differing from the former,
having here and there a yellow feather on the back ; and the head
cinereous brown : probably tms' Was a young bird.
Le Maire* says, there is a larger sort, with yellow on the Dack,
which does not talk.
206—COWLED PARROT.
LENGTH about seven inches. Mil pale dirty brown; round
the eye bare; head and neck black, continuing lower on the throat
before ; round the lower part of the neck a broad, pale, orange brown
ring; the feathers margined with a darker colour, appearing waved;
back, wings, tail, belly, and thighs pale green ; quills dusky black;
lower belly and vent yellowish white; legs black.
Inhabits South America ; brought from the Island of Trinadad.
It seems to approach greatly to the Hooded Species, and is of a stout
make, but on comparison, differ&idi^etf&^tticulars : it i#fftilMi8r,
the bill not red; chin and throat wholly black all round, and the tail
feathers, although pointed, are equal in length; 4egsMtk£^*n0t red.
* Voy. de la Moire, 1605. p. 107.
L i2
 -if"
260
207—RED-THROATED PARROT.
Psittacus collariu
s, Ind.
Or
n. i, 128.    Lt
n. i. 149
.    Gm.Lin
Psitt. Jamaicensi
i guttu
rei
ubro, Bris.h
. 241.
Id. 8vo. ii.
  minor colic
miniac
An Xaxabes
Oviedi ?
J?aii, p.
Sassabe, Buff, vi
. 245.
Common Parrot
of Jam
t. Sloan. Jam
297.
Red-throated Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 303.
SIZE of a Pigeon. Head, neck behind, back, rump, scapulars,
upper and under wing coverts, breast, belly, sides, upper and under
tail coverts green; throat and forepart of the neck fine red; quills
black, edged with green; tail green.
Inhabits Jamaica.
208—RED-FRONTED PARROT.
Psittacus Tuipara, Ind. Orn.i. 129.    Gm. Lin. i. 348.
Psittac. Brazil, erythroceph. Bris. iv. 383.    Id. 8vo. ii. 147.
Tuipara, Raii. Syn. 35.    Will. p. 78.    Id. Engl: 117.    Shot
Red-fronted Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 308.
SIZE of a Lark. Bill flesh-colour; plumage pale greed; on
the forehead a red spot, in shape of a crescent; on the middle of
each wing a spot of yellow; tail very short; legs grey.
Inhabits Brazil; said to build in ant-heaps, left by the ants,
which are found in trees.*
 261
209—GOLDEN-WINGED PARRAKEET.
Psittacus chrysopterus, Ind. Orn. i. 129.    Lin. i. 149.    Gm. Lin.i. 348.
Psittac. alis deauratis, Bris. App. p. 130.    Id. 8vo. ii. 155.
Perruche a ailes d'or, Buf. vi. 170.
Golden-winged Parrakeet, Gen. Syn.i. 309.    Edw. pl.293. 2.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 545.
A TRIFLE bigger than the last. Bill* and orbits whitish;
plumage green, paler beneath; the four first quills blue on the outer,
and brown on the inner edge; the four next orange above, and
luteous beneath, as are some of the greater coverts adjoining,
making.an orange spot; legs pale flesh-colour.
Inhabits the East Indies.
210—RED-HEADED GUINEA PARRAKEET.
; 129.   LinA. 149.   Mus. Ad. Fred.ii. p. lb,
34.     Bor. Nat. ii. 95.     Spalowsck. Vog. i. t.
. 148.    Ger
, 133.  Phil. Trans.xviii. 153.
Psittacus pullarius, Ind. Orr,
348.     Scop. Ann. i. No
Misc. pl. 35.
Psitt. Guineensis, Bris. iv. 387.    Id. I
pl. in p. 149.
Psitt. pusillus viridis, .Raii, p. 31:   Klein, p. 2b.    Frisch. t.54.
——minor Amer.'versicolor, Seb. Thes.ii. t.40. f. 1.
Perruche a tete rouge de Guinee, Buff. vi. 167. pl. 7.    Pl. enl. 60.
Indianische Spatz,  Wirs. Vog. 1.12.
Red-headed Guinea Parrakeet,' Gen. Syn. i. 309.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 549. pl. 84.   Alb.
iii. pl. 15.    Edw. pl. 237.
SIZE of a Lark; length five inches and a half. Bill red, with
a pale tip; cere and orbits ash-colour; irides bluish; plumage green,
paler beneath; fore part of the head and throat red; ridge of the
wing and rump blue, but the upper tail coverts are green; base of
* In the Leverian Museum j
but as we have not seen a similar specimen, cannot say
»f these, with the bill r<
whether o
tnarkably long and hooked,
■ not it was a peculiarity.
 i£o*2 PARROT.
the side tail feathers red, then a bar of black, and the end green, the
two middle ones wholly green; legs grey. The female is marked
much the same, but the colours less vivid, and the red on the face
much paler; ridge of the wing yellow.
Inhabits Guinea, and there very common; found also in ^Ethiopia,
the East^Indies, and the Isle of Java; •are>!aflfeetionate to each other,
and usually kept in pairs in one cage; the male is ever obliging to
his mate; wttt Still the seeds fot her* Wft&h1§#$il, and present them
ISfVfcer in this state, and each $86m8Unhappy at a mOtn^St's separation;
if one is sick, the other is melancholy, and if death ensues, the
sorrowful relict rarely long survives;* These are exported fittm
Africa in great numbers, but few irt proportion*dflffiifte the passage,
yet they will often live many years afl^1. They are kept for their
beauty, for they have no song, only a noise, which is far from
agreeable.
211—MITRED PARROT.
Psittacus mitratus, Maxim. Trav. i. 229. 245.
LENGTH seven inches, eight lines. Head, neck, and eyes
scarlet; body bright green, with dark blue quill feathers; tail short.
Inhabits Brazil, there called Camutanga, and in some parts
Scbaiia, from its note; they fly in pairs with loud cries, over the
highest trees, and often in great numbers.
212—COFFEE-BACKED PARROT.
New Species of Parrot, Maxim. Trav. i. 240.
LENGTH five inches and three quarters.    Round the eye a
naked vermilion kind of skin ; tail short, green; breast, belly, and
* We have, however, known that single birds will'onen uve in a cage for many years.
 sides inclining to blue; back dark coffee^olour; rump almost
entirely black; two middle tail feathers green, the lower half red,
the others beautiful, with broad black tips.
Inhabits Brazil; classed in the Berlin Museum as Psittacus
melanonotus. The chief character of this species, only to be distinguished in a fresh state, is a naked, vermilion-coloured skin round
the eye.
213—LEONA PARRAKEET.
LENGTH five inches. The upper mandible from the base half
way black, the rest pale, the under wholly pale; body in general
and wings green ; crown and nape pale greenish blue; sides of the
head, including the eye, the chin and throat fine pale grey; round
the neck, above the breast, a pale orange yellow collar, bounded on
the upper part behind, with an irregular bar of black ; the lower
part of the back pale blue ; rump and upper tail coverts deep blue;
tail rounded, the two middle feathers wholly green, the rest crimson
for two-thirds from the base, then a bar of black, and finally green;
legs dusky.
Inhabits Africa, Sierra Leone. In the collection of Mr. H.
Brogden.
214—BLUE-RUMPEP PARRAKEET.
Psittacus Malaccensis, Ind. Om. i. 130.    Son. Voy. hid. ii. 212,
Blue^runiqsed.Paniakeet,   Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 66.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 554.
SIZE of the last.    Bill violet grey; irides red; forehead blue;
head, neck, and upper part of the breast grass green; rump blue ;
 264 PARROT.
wing coverts pale green ; second quills deep greert; the prime ones
blue on the outer webs to the middle, the rest deep green; under
wing coverts crimson; tail deep green, yellowish beneath; legs
brown.
Inhabits Malacca.
A.—Length nine inches. Bill reddish ; plumage mostly green;
outer edge of the wing crimson ; rump pale blue ; legs brown ; tail
uncertain as to length or shape, being much worn at the end.
A specimen of this in Mr. Bullock's Museum, was supposed to
be a female of the blue-rumped. It is to be suspected, that not only
the outer edge of the wings, but the under wing coverts also may be
crimson ; but the bird being fixed in a case, prevented our ascertaining this circumstance.
215—RED-NAPED PARROT.
Psittacus cervicalis, Ind. Orn. i. 130.    Nat. Misc. pl. 913. t   •*""*.■
Le Perroquet Langlois, Levail. pl. 136.
Red-naped Parrot, Gen; Syn. Sup. i. p. 66.    Shaw's Zool. viiii 50i)bil
SIZE of a small Pigeon. Bill red; general colour of the plumage
green; on the forehead, over the eye, crimson; at the back of the
head a crescent of the same; throat, forepart of the neck, and breast
also crimson ; tail plain green ; legs browu.
In the collection of General Davies.    Native place uncertain.
216— RED AND GREEN INDIAN PARROT.
Psittacus Asiaticus, Ind. Orn. i. 130..
 Indicus, Gm. Lin. i. 349.   Bri
Asiatic Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 553.
Red and Green Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 311.    Edw. t. 6.
iv. 390.   Id. 8ro. ii. 149.    Gerin. t. 134.
SIZE of the Guinea Parrakeet.    Bill bright orange; orbits pale
flesh-colour; top of the head red, or deep orange; the rest of the
ifSfuTPiffflfif^'^"'"^^^'"
 PARROT. 265
plumage green, paler beneath ; the lower half of the rump and upper-
tail coverts red like the head ; inside of the quills and under the tail
bluish green ; legs flesh-colour.
Inhabits the East Indies.
217—VERNAL PARROT.
Psittaeu^verttalis, Ind. Om. i. 130.    Mus. Carls, fasc. ii. t. 29.
Vernal Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 95.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill reddish; plumage in-
general pale green; wing coverts deeper; quills grass green; rump
sanguineous; tail the same above, beneath blue; legs pale.
Native place uncertain.
218—RED-RUMPED PARRAKEET.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill red; plumage in general
green ; head and neck incHning to brownish yellow; crown of the
head pale reddish chestnut, deeper on the forehead, with a tinge of
©range at the nape ; breast, belly, and vent pale' gpem; lower part
of the back, a*$ upper tail coverts, deep red or sanguineous; quills
fcjMck, the outer* webs green; beneath on the inner webs fine paJe
greenfefc'<Mue ; under part of ihe tail feathers of this fast colour;
quills and'Mt even in length*;{ leg<£ j&ate ibroWraf.
Inhabits tire Island of Ceytow. In the collection of Mr. Comyns.
Profcafelj related' to the Veriial, or las* described; and not a Mfe
inclining to- the following, to both* of whichit seems somewhat allied.
 266
219- SAPPHIRE-CROWNED PARRAKEET.
Mus. Ad. Fr.
: Nat. i
, 148.
. p. 16.     Amce,
Spalowsck. Vog.
Psittacus Galgulus,   Ind. Om. i. Lin. i. 150.
236.    Gm. Lin. i. 349.    0*6. 7f. 101.    J
Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 182.
Psittacula Malaccensis, Bris. iv. 386.   Id. 8i
Petite Perruche de Lucon, Son. Voy. 76. pl. 33—lower fig.
Perruche a tete bleue de Perou, Buf. vi. 162.    PL enl. 190. 2.
Sapphire-crowned Parrakeet,   Gen. Syn. i. 312.   Edw. pl. 293. 1.   Shaw's Zool. viii. 550.
RATHER less than the Guinea Parrakeet; length under five
inches. Bill grey; plumage green, paler beneath ; top of the head
blue; above the breast an oval red spot; on the neck behind, near
the back, a transverse stripe of yellow ; upper tail coverts red; legs
grey.
Inhabits Sumatra, Java, and Lucnnia ; as to its being a native of
Peru, as the Pl. enl. says, it may be justly doubted; the circumstance
which gave rise to the assertion, might be from its having been
brought from thence as a caged bird.—In Edwards's figure is a yellow
spot in the middle of the back.
Philippen
sis, Rri*.iv
. 392. t. 30. 1.    Id. 8vo. i
. 150.
s PhilipF
iues, Couls
cissi, Buf. vi. 1G9.    Pl. e
nl. 520
, Gen. Syn.
i. 311.    Shaio's Zool. viii.
550.
Length five inches. Bill red; plumage green, brighter beneath;
forehead, throat, and fore part of the neck red ; head yellow green ;
beneath the hind head a transverse orange band; rump and tail
coverts red; greater quills blackish," with deep green edges; tail
rounded, and nearly hid by the red upper coverts; legs red.
The female differs, in having no red on the throat, and fore part
of the neck, nor. the orange mark beneath the hind head; but instead
of these, a blue-green spot on each side between the eye and bill.
 PARROT. 267
Inhabits the Philippine Islands, particularly Luconia, in the
neighbourhood of Manilla, there called Coulacissi: it often sleeps
suspended by one foot; and is fond of the fresh juice of the cocoa-
tree called Callou.*
In the collection of the late Sir A. Lever, were two birds, probably
male and female ; one answers to the description above, but the
yellow on the back is scarcely visible : tail green ; the upper coverts
crimson, and as long as the tail itself: the other bird mostbygreen ;
on the throat a yellow spot; the tail and its coverts as in the former;
bill and legs pale. Osbeckf met with this species at Java, where
it is called Parkiki. When in a cage it whistles very seldom, and
commonly grows quite sullen ; will feed on boiled rice, one having
been fed with it in the passage from Java to Gottenburgh. Toreen
saw some at Queda, J with a blue spot on the head ; but the general
colour was green, and the throat and upper side of the tail appeared
red; bill black. He adds, we observed, that " their nests were
" remarkable for their exceeding fine texture, but did not see the
" birds; if they had a different construction, the monkies would be
" very mischievous to them, but now before they can get to the
" opening, the lowest part breaks in pieces, and the visitor falls to
" ground without any danger to the young birds."|| The one found
in Java, said to be only four inches and a half long; the wing
beneath blue, excepting an exterior margin of black, the outer
larger half of the quills being black, the interior blue ; hence, the
extremity of the wings' is also black. § It is called in Java Silindit
and Silinditun.
! This
>r that flows from the ends of the branches whe
i a hollow cane to that part of the branch, tha
reeable before it runs into fermentation, tastin
s fresh
collect
! cider.
cut off.    The Indians fas'
Hist, des Ois.
t Voy. vol. i. 155.        X In the Straits ofMjdacca.        || I suspect that these nests we
not those of the Parrot Genus, but rather of one of the Gros-beak kind.        § Lin. Tran
 268
220—CHESTNUT-CROWNED PARRAKEET.
Psittacus Anaca, Ind. Orn.i. 131.    Gm. Lin. i. 349.
——— Brasiliensisfuscus, Bris. iv. 403.    Id. 8vo. ii. 153.
Anaca, Raii, 358.    Will. 78.    7d. Engl. 107. ch. 4. No. 8.
Chestnut-crowned Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 314.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 554.
SIZE of a Lark. Bill and orbits brown ; crown of the head
chestnut; throat cinereous; neck behind, back, rump, sides, thighs,
scapulars, upper wing and tail coverts green ; on the last a pale
brown spot; foreparts of the neck, breast, belly, and under tail
coverts rufous brown ; edge of the wing red; quills green, with sea-
green ends; secondaries green ; tail light brown ; legs blackish.
Inhabits Brazil and Guiana, at the last rather common.
A.—In the British Museum is a specimen, with a deep chestnut
spot on the back ; no red on the edge of the wing ; tail itself green,
the tipper coverts only being brown, and the under pale brown.
221—PURPLE-TAILED PARRAKEET.
Psittacus purpui>atus, Ind. OrnA
 porphyurus, Nat. Mist
,32.    G«.Li«.i. :
. pl. 16.
Purple-tailed Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 315.   Id.Sup. i
LENGTH eight inches. Bill pale yellow ; crown ash-colour ;
behind the neck the same, but paler; middle of the back and wings
green ; beneath the body paler; lower part of the back and rump
deep blue; edge of the wing, and tip of the bastard wing1 blue;
scapulars brown ; sides over the thighs yellowish ; the two middle
tail feathers green tipped with black ; the others deep purplish crirn-
 son fringed with black ; the ends of all of them nearly square ; the
coverts very long, so as to hide the purple tail feathers, when much
closed; legs ash-colour.
Inhabits Cayenne—several brought from thence differed in size ;
some had the purple tail feathers green for one-fourth from the tip,
and the two middle ones dashed with purple down the shafts.
222—GREY-HEADED PARROT.
Psittacus canus, Ind. Orn A
- Madagasi
30. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. ii. m.
1.    PL enl. 791. 2.
w's Zool. viii. 550.    Nat. Misc
pl. 425.
Perruche a tete grise de Madag. Buf. v
Grey-headed Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. 315.
SIZE of a House-Harrow. Length five inches three-quarters ;
bill grey; plumage green, beneath yellow-green; head, throat, and
forepart of the neck grey, inclining to green ; tail.rounded, With a
bar of black near the end; legs hoaay. The female has a plain green
head, otherwise like the male.
Inhabits Madagascar, attd probably the Idle of Mauritius.*
A.—Length four inches and a half. Bill small, the upper mandible crimson, the lower black; plumage dusky green, brighter on
the wing coverts, beneath paler; quills darker, approaching to olive;
tail much rounded, and er»oSse<l Wilh a d«sky"'olack bar near the end;
or what appears as such, from each feather having a black crescent,
forming a bar when the tail is spread ; from the base to the black bar
the feathers-incline to yellow ; legs pale ash-colour.
A drawing of this is among others in the collection of Mr. Dent,
probably taken from a small' specimen of the female. In the collection of Mr. Bullock is a fine and perfect specimen.
* If the sanlfe"With that mentioned by BH-Sty Pie
a grey head, as large as a Sparrow, and not to be
English Edition, 1775.
a Green ParrSfceet
Voyag'e to the Man
 270
223-BLACK-WINGED PARRAKEET.
Psittacus melanopterus, Ind. OmA. 13!
Peruche k ailes variees de Batavie, Buf. vi. 172.
Petite Perruche de Lucon, Son. Voy. 78. t. 41.
Perruche Javane, Levail. i. p. 131. pl. 69.
Black-winged Parrakeet, Gen. Syn.i. 316.     Brc
pl. 83.
Lin. i. 350.    Nat. Misc. pl. 132.
Pl, enl. 791.
LENGTH six inches. Bill brown ; front and hindpart of the
head, yellowish .green ; crown, cheeks, breast, belly and thighs,
pale bluish green ; back, wing coverts, and quills black ; second
quills pale yellow, tipped with blue; tail coverts dark green ; upper
part of the tail fine lilac, the two middle feathers plain, the others
marked with a bar of black near the end ; the tips of all the feathers
like wedges, or lozenge-shaped; under tail coverts as long as the
tail; legs dusky.
M. Sonnerat says, that the irides are reddish yellowy &s well as the
bill; but in his engraving of the bird, he makes all the tail feathers
erased with a black bar, which is not the fact.
Inhabits Batavia and Luzonia.
224—COLLARED PARRAKEET.     -
Psittacus torquatus, Ind. Orn. i. 133.    Gm. Lin.i. 351.
Petite Perruche a Collier, Son. Voy. 77. t. 39.    Buf. vi. 173.
Collared Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 317.    Shaw's Zoofnyra. 551.
SIZE of the Guinea Parrakeet. Bill and irides blackish grey;
plumage green, paler beneath, and tinged with yellow ; at the back
of the head a broad band of light yellow, striped transversely with
black; tail short, ending in a point; that and the wings equal in
length ; legs dark grey.
 1
Psitt. minor, Ind. Orn. i
133.    Gm. Li
Petite Perruche de Luzo
n k Ailes noires
Luzonian Parrakeet, Ge
t. Syn. i. 318.
PARROT. 271
The female differs in having the hindhead sky-blue, instead.
yellow, but transversely marked with black, as in the male.
Inhabits the Philippine Islands, particularly Luzonia.
M. Sonnerat* remarks, that it is only kept for its plumage, as it
never learns to talk.
225—LUZONIAN PARRAKEET.
, Buf. vi. 174.    Son. Voy, 77. t. 40.
Shaw's Zool. viii. 553.
SMALLER than the last. Bill and irides yellow; general
colour of the plumage green ; belly light yellowish green; top of
the head bright red ; breast blue ; greater quills black ; upper tail
coverts red; legs yellow.
In the female the feathers surrounding the upper part of the bill
are red, and a spot of yellow on the upper part of the neck ; breast
red, otherwise like the male.
Inhabits the Isle of Luzonia—like the Sapphire-crowned, said
to be fond of the juice which oozes from the branches of the cocoa-
tree, when fresh cut; it likewise sleeps on the perch, suspended by
one foot, with the head downwards; but whether there may be any
relation between the two species is not certain.
226—BLUE-FACED PARRAKEET.
LENGTH five inches. Bill and legs pale red; plumage green ;
face, including the eyes and chin, pale blue; beneath this the throat
is crimson red; greater quills pale blue; secondaries the same, but
* Voy. a la Nouvelle Guinee, p. 77.
 2f72t; PARROT.
crimson more than halfway from the base, forming a spot on the
wing; tail green, a little rounded, the end for more than one-third
yellow.
A second of these had the whole face, chin, and throat blue;
under the eye, on each jaw, a pale blue patch ; wings and tail as in
the other, but the yellow at the end of the latter occupies less space,
and the interior webs of some of the inner feathers are pale blue.
In a third, the whole front is crimson ; nape and neck behind
pale blue ; the patch on the jaws red; tail wjholb/green, the end
not yellow.
Frou» the drawings of Mr. Woodford.
227—MLUE-BACKED PARROT.
LENGTH five inches. Bill pale; plumage green; the greater
wing coverts deep blue, forming an oblique large spot on the wing ;
the lower half of the back, for an inch or more, deep'blue ; jseveral of
the middle^ feathers margined with orange; feathers of the rump
dusky, with green margins 5 upper tail coverts, orange; legs dusky.
Inhabits Brazil-; brought from thence by Governor King, and
communicated by General Davies* It seems to approach in general
markings to the Passerine, or following species, but differs in being
larger, and having the space round the eye wholly covered with
feathers; independent of the situation of the blue, which, instead of
being on the rump, is only a large patch on the back below the
middle.
 273
228—PASSERINE PARROT.
Psittacus passerinus,   7nd. Om. i. 133.     Lin.i. 150.     Mus. Ad. Fr. i. p". 14.     Id. ii.
p. 16..    Got. Lin. i. 342   Bor. Nat: ii. 95.
Psitt. Brazil. Uropygiocyaneo, Bris.iv. 384.   7d.8vo.ii. 147.
Tuiete, Raii. p. 34.    Will. p. 78.   7d. Engl. 116.  § IV. No. 6.
Le Perroquet nain, Voy. d'Azara. iv. No. 188.
Short-tailed yellowish green Parrakeet, Boner. Guian; 162.
Passerine Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 556.
Little blue and green Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i, 319.    Edw. pl. 235.
SIZE of a House-Sparrow; length four inches. Bill, cere, and
orbits orange ; plumage green ; rump and upper tail coverts blue ;
lesser wing coverts green, the greater blue; greater quills green;
beneath the wing chiefly greenish ash-colour; tail much rounded'
the feathers sharp at the ends; legs orange.
Inhabits Brazil aud Guiana. Buffon's bird had the quills edged
with blue. According to Linnaeus, the quills are blue beneath.
It is found in Paraguay in troops of ten or twenty; is easily tamed ;
sometimes makes use of a deserted nest of the Fournier,* to rear
the young.
229—BLUE-WINGED PARRAKEET.
Psittacus Capensis, 7nd. Orn.i. 132.    Gm. Lin.i. 350.
('■''.' Perruche k ailes bleues, Buf. vi. 173.
Petite Perruche du Cap. de B. Esp. PL enl. Abb, 1.
Cape Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 556.    Nat. Misc. xxi. No. 893.
Blue-winged Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 317.
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill reddish; plumage green,
except some of the wing feathers, which are blue ; tail even at the
end ; legs reddish. - ■ ^jljl
' Rufous Bee-eater, Gen. Syn, ii. p. (
Nn
 274 PARROTS
A specimen of this was sent to M. Buffon from the Cape of Good
Hope, but without a certainty of. its being a native there, or any of
its manners.
A.—In one of these which came under my inspection, the whole
of the under wing coverts was deep blue, but whether it was the case
with M. Buffon's bird is not mentioned.
This was brought likewise from the Cape of Good Hope.
B.—A similar one, among the drawings of Lady Impey, had a
blue spot on the lower part of the neck, in addition to the other markings ; legs yellow.
Inhabits India.
230—VIRESCENT PARAKEET.
SIZE small. Bill pale ash-colour, the tip white ; general colour
of the plumage green ; cheeks brilliant pea-green ; breast and belly
pale green, curving from the breast, just above the wings, as a crescent; wings deep green, down the middle deep blue; prime quills
and tail bright green.
Native place uncertain^described from a specimen in the possession of Mr. Latham, of Compton-street. It seems, in some things, to
coincide with the Passerine; in others, with the Blue-winged
Parrakeet.
231—SHORT-TAILED PARRAKEKJV
LENGTH-to the rump four inches; bill three-quarters of an inch;
the colour of dirty box; the upper mandible more strait than usual in
 the genus, elongated at the point, but very little bent, the under
reaching to about half the length; plumage in general fine light
grass green, inclining to brown on the wing coverts; rump dusky
crimson ; tail scarcely half an inch long; from the base to the middle
blue, the rest white; legs pale brown.
We found the above among the drawings of Mr. Woodford, but
without any history annexed; it becomes, therefore, an uncertainty,
whether the tail is only of this length, or the rudiment of a new one,
the former having been lost by accident.
232—YELLOW-THROATED PARRAKEET.
Psitt: Toui, Ind. Orn. i. 134.    Gm. Lin
 gutture luteo, Bris. iv. 396. t. 30
Petite Perr. a Gorge jaune, Toui, Buf.
Yellow-throated Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 319.
280.    Pl. enl. 190. 1.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill light grey ; general colour of the
plumage green, paler beneath; hind part of the neck inclining to
yellow; under the throat a small* round, pale orange spot; on the
middle of the wing coverts one of chestnut, glossed with gold
and green, making a broad band on the wing; greater coverts and
quills grass-green ; lesser coverts and secondaries yellow-green;
shafts of all the quills black; inner edges of the tail feathers yellow
green; legs grey.
^ative place uncertain.    One, similar to the above, was bare, and
pale round the eye; at the base of the mandible a few orange feathers;
wing coverts mostly brown, forming n, large patch on the wing ; most
of the back feathers fringed with brown ;  the lower order of wing
edverts black at the ends; the outer webs of the greater quills
bluish. f?-~i?*
N v 2
 276/
233— GREEN PARRAKEET.
Psitt. Tirica, Ind. Orn. i. 134.     Gm. Lin. i. 351.    Raii. 34. 3.    Will.',
] 16.    Buf. vi. 281.
Psitt. Braziliensis, Bris. iv. 382.    Id. 8vo. ii. 147.
La petite Jaseuse, PL enl. 837.
Tirica Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 552.
Green Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 320.    Brown Jam. 473.
BIGGER than the Guinea Parrakeet. Bill flesh-colour; eyes
black ; plumage wholly green; paler beneath ; legs bluish.
It is probable that both these last inhabit the Philippine Isles,
and are related to each other; perhaps differing in sex. In both the
bills are red, and in both there is a spot on the chin, though not
equally large. The Toui is said to have a glossy chestnut spot on the
wing, but this is not represented in the plate referred to by Buffon ;
on the contrary, the Tirica, which is said to be wholly green, such a
kind of mark is sufficiently conspicuous.
Sonnerat mef with one in the Philippine Isles, which he compares to the Tui-tirica of Marcgrave. In the Pl. enlum. one of these
birds has the tail feathers rounded at the ends, in the other they are
rather sharp.
Sosov
Cayei
234—CAYENNE PARRAKEET.
ens Sosove, Ind. Orn.i. 134.    Gm. Lin. i. 352.
s Perruche de Cayenne, Sosove. Buf. vi. 280.    PL enl. 456. 2.
! Parrot, Shaw's Zool. viii. 552.
ne Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 520.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill grey; plumage wholly
green, except a light yellow spot on the wings, and another on the
tail coverts; legs grey.
 PARROT. 277
Inhabits Guiana, where it is common, especially towards Oyapoc,
and the Amazon's River; often kept tame, and speaks pretty well;
the natural voice is like the squeaking of Punch at a puppet-show;
but when taught to articulate, it is always chattering.—The vernacular name is Sosove.
235—GOLD-HEADED PARRAKEET.
An. i. 352.    Levail. pl. 70.
'. 398.    Id. 8vo. ii. 152.
i.   Id. Engl. 116.    Levail. Per
Psitt. Tui, Ind. Orn. i. 134.     Gm
Psitt. Brazil, icterocephalus, Bris
Tui Spec. 4ta. Raii, p. 34.    Will.
Toui a tete d'or, Buf. vi. 284.
Petite Perruche de St. Thomas, Pl. enl. 456. 1.
Tui Parrakeet, Shaw's Zool. viii. 547.
Gold-headed Parrakeet, Gen. Syn.i. 321.
SIZE of a Starling. Bill black; eyes large and blackish ; orbits
yellow ; forehead orange; the rest of the bird green, paler beneath.
Inhabits Brazil.—That figured in the Pl. enlum. came from the
Island of St. Thomas, but the bill there is red, and the orange-colour
on the head paler yellow; said to be cpnimon at Cayenne.
236—CRESTED RED AND GREEN PARRAKEET.
Psitt. erythrochloros, Ind. Om. i. 134.    Got. Lin. i. 352.
Psittaca cristata, Bris. iv. 404.    7d. 8vo. ii. 154.     Teaii. 34. 4.     Will. 78.
Id. Engl.
116. § III.
Crested red and green Parrakeet, Gen. Syn. i. 325.    Shaio's Zool. viii. 551.
SIZE of a Blackbird. Irides red ; on the top of the head a red
crest of six feathers, three greater and three smaller; the body green ;
wings and tail red; the last rather short. This bird has the faculty
of raising or depressing the crest at will.
Native place uncertain.
I
 278
237—CRESTED MEXICAN PARRAKEET
Psitt. Mexicanus, 7nd. Or
tt. collo rubro, plumi
is de Cocho, Psittaci
>u\. 135.    Got