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A general history of birds. Vol. I Latham, John, 1740-1837 1821

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  THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA 
WOODWARD HISTORICAL
COLLECTION
   GENERAL    HISTORY
BIRD S.
BY JOHN LATHAM, M.D.
F.R.S.   A.S.   and   L.S;
Acad. Cjes, Nat. Gurios-.   Reg. Holm,   et- Soe. Nat. Scrut. Berolin. Soc.   &c. &eJ
vol. r.
WINCHESTER:
PRINTED   BT   JACOB   AND   JOHNSON,   FOB   THE   AUTHOR: SOLD   IN   LONDON   BY
G.   AND  W.'B. WHITTAKER,   ATE-MARIA-LANE ;  JOHN  WARREN,  BOND-STREET,
W. WOOD, 428,- STRAND ;  AND J. MAWMAN, 39,  LUDGATE-STREET.
1821.
J
  
THE KINGS MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY,
GEORGE THE FOURTH.
SIRE,
THE Work which I now submit to the public,
under Your JMajesty's most gracious Patronage, has been the
labour and amusement of many years.
Having, through the kindness of many friends, had
an opportunity of examining most of the subjects mentioned
therein, I trust that the descriptions will be found faithful.
That Your JYIajesty may long reign over a loyal
people, the Patron and Encourager of Science and Art, in all
their branches, is the sincere wish of
Your Majesty's
Devoted and grateful Subject and Servant,
JOHN LATHAM.
Winchester, Sept. 1S21.
  PREFACE.
IT is now nearly twenty years since the last Volume, or Second
Supplement to the Synopsis of Birds, was published; and it is satisfactory to observe .the daily increase of the admirers of Natural
History in general, particularly in the department of Ornithology.
At the time of publishing the Synopsis, we had no intention
of writing further on the subject; but we have subsequently availed
ourselves of every opportunity of correcting and amending any errors
or misrepresentations which had unavoidably arisen in that work,
and were tempted, at the same time, to commit to paper, descriptions
of every new discovery in that branch; and especially to compare
Birds, nearly similar in plumage, with each other, with the intention of
ascertaining whether they were distinct as to species, or varying only
in sex, or immature in feather. In this we trust we have succeeded
in very many instances, and have to acknowledge the great assistance
afforded by the labours of M. Temminck, of Amsterdam, whose
views have been directed to the same point, as may be seen more
fully in his last J\Ianuel d'Ornithologie.
 From the above sources we have been enabled to give to the
public a great variety of new matter, as well as new subjects, and
although this might possibly have been attained by means of continued Supplements, it would have required at least two of these as
appendages to the former ones, which would have so embarrassed
the whole, as to make it no easy matter to search after the complete
history of any single subject wanted.
On this account we have resolved to begin this work, as it were
anew, and so to blend the old with the new matter, as to give
the observations and additions of many years at one view. Moreover,
had the publishing any further Supplements been resolved on,
we are constrained to say, that many of the possessors of the first
Seven Volumes would have had cause of complaint, from there
having been a confined number of copies printed of the Second
Supplement or Eighth Volume,* insomuch as totally to preclude
very many persons from completing their sets; and it is the more to
be lamented, as this last volume was not a little interesting, from its
containing many valuable additions, besides a considerable number
of Birds, from New-Holland, not before described.
* A little time prior to the publication of the Second Supplement, on finding it very
inconvenient to confer with my Booksellers so often as I had been accustomed to do, from the
great distance I then lived from London, I agreed to put ^^^majmng- copies of the Seven
Volumes, then published, into their hands, at a fair valuation ; and finding it to be their wish
that I should form an Eighth Volume, from the additional matter I had collected since the
publication of my first Supplement, I furnished it to them, to be printed at their own cost;
but not long after, I learned, to my surprise, that instead of 500, the number of copies
printed of the former Volumes, only 250 were struck off. What end this was to answer was
known only to themselves, and I think it right to mention the circumstance here, to exculpate
myself from the blame which has attached to me on that procedure, and which, from that
Volume notJbeing then my own property, it was not in my power to prevent.
m*^?*
 It is very unfortunate for the promotion of Natural History, that
so many and various Systems in Ornithology have of late years been
attempted, and of course each builder of a new one natters himself
that he has done service to science, by bringing the productions of
nature under some restrictions; but the infinite variety and multitude
of which it consists, will not be so fettered; and how far the
elaborately multiplying of Genera will truly answer the end of the
Naturalist, we have yet to learn. In respect to ourselves, having iii
the Synopsis formed a plan, which has been in general understood,
and not disapproved of, it behoves us to continue the same arrangement, as near as may be, in the present publication. We cannot
object to those who come after us acting according to their own
ideas, but hope, that though at present they diner widely one
from the other, each preferring his own method, they may unite in
sentiment, and together form one system, on such a basis as to be
a standard for future generations.
In a work like the present, the reader may expect to find a full
account of the nature of the feathered creation; but this has been
already so sufficiently done to our hands by others, as to render it
unnecessary to enlarge on it in this place. On this head we have to
recommend the perusal of the elaborate and elegant works of the
Count de Buffon. Thfe matter has also been most amply taken up
by M. Daudin, in his Traite d'Ornithologie, and will fully merit the
reader's attention.
The late Mr. Pennant, likewise, has so scientifically treated the
subject in his Genera of Birds, as to render any forth er observation
on this point unnecessary: and I ought not to omit, that the Intro-
 viii PREFACE.
duction of Colonel Montagu to his Ornithological Dictionary, may
be consulted with both profit and satisfaction.
But in respect to system, if we except Belon, Gesner, Aldro-
vandus, and Johnston, all of whom have made, more or less, attempts
at arrangement, there are but few who have taken more than a
desultory view of the matter.
Our Countryman, the great Ray, ^therefore, may be justly considered the first author of system, and it is to him that we are indebted
for the valuable Ornithology of Francis Willughby, Esq. which,
though published as far back as the year 1679, has not lost its
celebrity; but from that time Ornithology has made a rapid progress.
From hence we are naturally led to the name of the ever to be
remembered Linnaeus, who not only has descanted largely on Birds,
but, at one view, drawn together, as it were, all nature and her
productions, into his Systerna Naturw, and his method, as far-as
relates to our subject, has served. as a basis, to the present day.
There is one thing, however, which has appeared unaccountable,
and in which he diners from Ray. The latter separated all birds
into two grand divisions; the one, those which frequent land—the
other, those which frequent water: but Linnaeus divides the land
birds into two parts, placing the water birds between. 5#This has ever
seemed to us unnatural, and has, therefore, not been admitted in the
present work. We prefer Ray's original arrangement, but adhere to
the Linnaean Genera, except in such instances as manifestly required
a deviation; and it will not escape the reader's attention, that we
have, from this necessity, ourselves formed several new ones; for
instance, in the Synopsis—Wattle-bird, Channel-bill, Plant-cutter,
Plantain-eater,   Coly,   Menura,   Tinamou,   Sheath-bill, Cereopsis,
L
BE-S^^^^S^pi
 Courier, Pratincole, and Penguin; and in the present work the
Secretary, Honey-eater, Barbican, Coucal, Malkoha, Emeu, Erody,
and Finfoot. To go further than this, would, perhaps, entangle the
reader, and too much load his memory, to little purpose; for though
it may be objected, that any particular bird may not answer exactly
to the definition of a genus, in every minute point, yet, if it be found
to coincide in most of the characters, it ought to be admitted, rather
than to form a new genus for it; especially, if such bird is one
already known and received; otherwise the reader will have to
search for it under a disguise, and not readily find what he wants.
It will be observed, in many cases, that birds are said to be in
various cabinets, not now in existence—but it must be remembered,
that at the time of first penning the Synopsis, and long after, the
Leverian Museum was in foil preservation. Many subjects also,
referred to in the British Museum, have since fallen into decay ; and
the very numerous and choice articles then in Mr. Bullock's noble
collection are now dispersed. The reader has, therefore, to rely on
the author only for the descriptions.
To a cursory observer it may appear, that a foil description of
any bird, suspected to be simply a variety of a species already known,
was unnecessary; but it has been judged right to detail the plumage,
that in case any person should meet with a specimen similar in colour,
and answering to the description, he may be less at a loss to refer it
to the species it belongs to; and the reader will not, we presume, be
displeased to find the numerous references to the authors who have
mentioned the respective species, more especially those in which there
 are figures, as he may thereby the more easily comprehend the shape
and colours of the object in question, than by mere description.
It is intended to join one coloured copper-plate, at least, to
each genus, of some bird, which, in many instances, has not been
before figured, with the intent of pointing out to the eye of the less
informed naturalist, wherein one genus differs from another.
'''■From the numerous species of the Falcon tribe, the present
volume can only admit the four following genera, viz.—Vulture,
Secretary, Falcon, and Owl, to which an adequate number of plates
are appropriated ; perhaps fewer in proportion than will be found in
the subsequent volumes, but this could not be avoided, without
making the volumes too unequal in respect to each other.
Among the many friends to whom I consider myself under
obligations, during the progress of this work, Sir Joseph Banks,
Bart, stands eminently foremost, having assisted me, from the
beginnh% of our acquaintance, with the examination of all his
Ornithological specimens, collected by him in his Voyage to the
South Seas, as well as by the inspection of his numerous collection
of drawings, to the time of his lamented death, added to the free
loan of every book from his valuable library, that could be useful in
the undertaking.
I am happy to mention my long acquaintance and reciprocal
friendship with the late Thomas Pennant, Esq. whose merit, as a
British Zoologist, stands unrivalled, and I flatter myself I shall
continue to find in his son what I experienced In his father.
To Lietitenant-General Davies, of the Royal Artillery, I am
greatly indebted ; from whose faithful pencil I have been furnished
with very many exact representations of new subjects, taken from
 the different Ornithological collections of his friends, independent of
those in his own well-chosen cabinet of subjects in Natural History.
I am under many obligations to Lord Stanley, not only for the
loan of many fine specimens, at various times,_ but also for his
scientific observations; and it is well known, that his collection of
preserved birds is not only numerous but select.
I have been greatly assisted in my pursuit by the inspection of
a large number of drawings, brought from India, by Sir J. Anstru*
ther, Bart, done under the eye of Dr. Buchanan; and am also under
similar obligations to the last named gentleman, not only for the
use of his own portfolios of Ornithological drawings, but also for his
animadversions on the subjects therein contained.
To the Earl of Mountnorris I am not less obliged, for assisting
me with the view of his numerous drawings of Indian and other
birds, made under his inspection. To Mr. Salt, also, many" thanks
are due, for furnishing me with the specimens of birds, collected by
him during his journey5into Abyssinia, among which were many
entirely new.
I also feel myself most deeply indebted to Lieutenant-General
Hardwicke, of the Bengal Artillery, who, with the utmost liberality,
entrusted me, for a long time, with his very numerous aM select
drawings of the birds of India, where he resided many years, taken
under life direction,  from the subjects themselves.
The world will no doubt give me credit for mentioning two
British Ornithologists, now no more Ji^/«fiean Wffliam Boys, Esq.
of Sandwich, in Kent; and Colonel Montagu, Author of the Ornithological Dictionary ^%» I have from both of them received many
useful remarks and observations on many British species.
 I have likewise to thank Thomas Wilson, and A. B. Lambert,
Esqrs. for the examination of various specimens of birds from New-
Holland, as well as for the inspection of numerous draw ings, from
the same part of the world: and I think it but justice to mention
the obligations I have been under to my worthy friend Mr. Hutchins,
formerly resident at Hudson's Bay, but long since dead, who not
only procured for me numerous specimens from that part, but furnished me with a large Volume of Observations on the birds of that
climate. ^*i&fB
I have also the satisfaction of naming Mr. Abbot, of Savannah,
in Georgia, who, I trust, yet lives to continue to furnish faithful
observations on the birds in his vicinity, as well as specimens; and
the volumes of American Ornithology, by Mr. Wilson, need only to
be known to be appreciated.
Mr. M'Leay will also find his name mentioned with gratitude
in various parts of this work, having submitted to my inspection
many fine specimens of birds, chiefly from Berbice and its neighbourhood.
I am indebted, likewise, to the late Earl of Seaforth, for the
inspection of a large collection of preserved birds from Trinidad, as
well as the gift of several, collected by himself, during his residence
in that part of the world.
I can by no means omit to mention of the kindnesses shewn to
me by Chas. Wilkins, Esq. of the India House, in pointing out
many rare subjects and drawings therein contained.
And the world in general must think itself particularly indebted,
by the numerous specimens in Ornithology, as well as other branches
 PREFACE. Xlll
of Natural History, added thereto by Dr. Horsfield, being the
result of several years residence in the Island of Java, more especially as a great part of them is entirely new.
And lastly, I must apologize for taking up the reader's time
so long on this subject, being induced thereto, from a desire of shewing my remembrance of the assistance afforded to me ; and although
I may have omitted the names of many others in this place, let
them be assured, that I have not forgotten their attentions.
In respect to the names of the authors whom I have consulted
throughout this undertaking, a Catalogue will be found of them at
the end of the work. And I am pleased to observe the propensity
in many of our late Voyagers, among other things, to pay attention
to Natural History in the account of their travels, whether in the
inclement Arctic Regions, or the hottest climes; that they may continue to pursue such proofs of their desire to promote knowledge, is
my sincere wish.
The scientific reader, doubtless, may point out many errors in
this work: I have, as far as in my power, studied fidelity, and hoping
that such mistakes as fall to the lot of every individual may be
regarded with candour and liberality,
I remain, the Public's most devoted Servant,
JOHN LATHAM.
WINCHESTER, September, 1821.
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 BIRDS.
A BIRD may be divided into—1. The HEAD.   2. NECK.   3. BODY:  4. WINGS.
5. TAIL.   6. LEGS.
1. The HEAD (Caput) is for the most part oval in shape, and consists of the following
Parts:—
Tne Bill [Rostrum), of an horny texture, pierced with the nostrils, and containing the
tongue, is joined to the fore part of the head. The shape varying in different subjects, as
straight, bent downwards or upwards, and is either round, compressed, flattened, conic,
pointed, cylindric, angulated, cultrated, or hooked. Divided into two mandibles, which are
generally naked, and smooth on the edges; in some emarginated near the tip, in a few serrated, not unfrequently covered with a naked skin or cere, and in many furnished with bristles
at the gape.
Nostrils [Nares) are in the upper mandible, for the most part placed at, or near, the
base; but in some few (as Toucan, and Hornbill) behind the base. The shape various; as
oval, oblong, linear, arched at the top, tubular, &c.
Cere (Cera), a thick membranous skin, differently coloured, covering the upper mandible
above at the base, chiefly in the Falcon Genus, and in this the nostrils are placed.
Tongue (Lingua), either fleshy, cartilaginous, emarginated, having a small notch near
the tip, lacerated, or jagged, with the edges feathered, as in the Toucan; ciliated or furnished
with bristles, entire and smooth, and often sharp-pointed.
The Face (Capistrum) is a certain space, all round, next the base of the bill, reaching
as far as the eyes.
The upper surface of the Head is divided into the Forehead (From); Crown (Vertex);
Hindhead (Occiput).
The Crest (Crista), for the most part, arises from the feathers being more, or less elongated; and is either frontal, vertical, or occipital, so named from the place of its origin; is
erect, or bending backwards or forwards. In shape compressed, or fasciculated; in structure
tufted, folded, and consisting of two series of alternate feathers:
The Eyes (Oculi), one on each side, have the eyelids moveable, and are frequently ciliated
on the edges; besides which is a semi-transparent skin, or nictitating membrane, capable of
being drawn immediately over the eye, to defend it from too much light; most conspicuous
in the Owl Genus.
 xxn
BIRDS.
Eyebrow (Supercilium), for the most part so called, when a line or streak of a different
colour passes over the eye, but not a distinct projection, as in the human species; sometimes
this linear streak is bare and carunculated, as in the Grous.
Caruncles (Carunculai) are naked, soft, fleshy parts, either smooth, or irregular in
surface, chiefly on the head or neck, as instanced in the forehead of the Jacana and Turkey;
on the crown in the Cock; at the nape in the Grakle; over the eyes in the Grous ; and on the
throat in the Turkey and Cassowary.
Lore (Lorum) a naked skin between the bill and eye.
Orbits (Orbitce) the parts immediately surrounding the eyes.
Cheeks (Gence) space beneath the eyes, between them and the throat;
Temples (Tempora) space between the eyes and ears.
Ears (Aures) holes at the back part of the head on each side, generally uncovered,
except in Owls, which have a conspicuous flap, capable of being elevated at wilL,
Beard (Barba) by this is meant the whisker seen on each side of the lower jaw, and for the
most part distinct and moveable, as in the Momot, and bearded Titmouse—formed of bristles,
as observed at the edges of the base of the mandibles of the Goatsucker, appearing pectinated;
on the breast, as in the Turkey-Cock.
2. NECK (Collum) is elongated, more or less erect, cylindric, and divided into the—-  .
Nape (Nucha) meaning the back part next to the head.
Hind-part of the Neck (Cervix) the rest of the space behind, between the nape and
beginning of the back.
Chin (Gula) the part beneath and adjoining to the under mandible.
Throat (JugMwrn) space between the chin and breast.
3. BODY (Corpus) this is oval in shape, and consists of the following parts :—
Back (Dorsum) the upper part between the neck behind and rump.
Rump (Uropygium) the lower part of the back next to the tail, furnished with a double
gland, secreting an oily fluid for the use of dressing the feathers.
Interscapular (InterscapuHmm) the anterior part of the back, between the-witogs.
Shoulders (Humeri) the parts on each side of the last,  falling over the wings.
Breast (Pectus) the space covering the breast bone.
Axillaries (Axillce) the feathers on the sides of the breast at the base of the wings, most
conspicuous in the Bird of Paradise.
Hypochondres (Hypochondrioe) the posterior parts of the sides of the breast and belly.
Belly (Abdomen) the part between the breast and vent, generally covered with soft and
downy feathers, ,'
Vent (Crissum) between the thighs and tail .beneath, •corresponding with the rump
above. (miff
4. WINGS (Ales) serving for flight, except in the Dodo, Ostrich, Great Awk, and
Penguin: in the two former, howewt,. the speed in running i on the ground is accelerated,
and the two latter find their short finny appendages of much use in swimming*id I
 birds. ^ncm
Wing Coverts (Tectrices) lesser or greater. The first are those which lie on the bones
of the wiugs ; the greater beneath the others, falling over the quills.
Qui lls (Remiges) may be divided into three series ; the .first or principal (primores) ;
the secondaries (secundaria) ; and tertials (tertiales) ; the last, in Water Fowl, are generally
longer than the secondaries, and cuneiform.
Bastard Wing (A hi la spuria) situated outwardly, at the base of the greater quills,
and generally consists of four or five small feathers, in shape like a small wing, whence the
name.
Scapulars (Scapulares) these take rise from the large wing bone, and fall ove* the base
of the wings on each side above, between the body and wing when folded up.
Wing Spot, or Speculum, so called, is a bright part of the wing, sometimes beautifully coloured, and very glossy, appearing generally as a patch on the greater wing coYerts»
when folded up, chiefly conspicuous in the Duck Genus.
5. TAIL (Cauda), this is composed of long feathers, more or less stiff, differing in
number, and taking rise from the rump.
Tail Feathers (Rectrices) are for the most part twelve, and are generally described
thus (1 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 3 21), meaning, that 1 1 are the two outer, and 6 6 the two middle
feathers. Some birds, however, have as far as 18 or 20, as in the Gallinaceous and Duck
Tribe, and several of the Pies no more than ten. The tail varies much in shape and length ;
it may be called short, when shorter than the legs; and long, when it reaches beyond them ;
even, when the feathers are of equal lengths ; cuneiform, when they become shorter as they
are more outward; and forked, when the side feathers grow gradually longer than the two
middle ones.
Tail Coverts (Tectrices Cauda) cover the base of the tail above and beneath, falling
over and concealing the insertion of the tail feathers.
6. LEGS (Crura).   These consist of the thighs, shins, toes, and claws.
Thighs (Femora) are fleshy, covered with feathers for the most part, but in the Waders
and some others, are bare for some part of their length; these are generally situated ia the
middle, to support the equilibrium of the body, and appear outwardly, ■ except in the Awk,
Grebe, Diver, and Penguin, in which the thighs do not appear externally, and the legs, of
course, are detained backwards. Hence the bird may be called fettered, and from this cause
experiences great difficulty in walking, and that only in an upright posture, or nearly so.
Bracelets (Armillce), are coloured circles, at the lower part of the thighs, just above the
joint, as in the Coot; in some double or treble.
Shins (Crura), are slender, narrow, and tendinous ; in some downy, or covered with short
feathers ; in others furnished with a spur at the back part; chiefly in the males.
Toes (Digiti).    These vary in number and disposition.
* Four in Number, but differently placed.
1. Made for Walking (Ambulatorii), having three toes forward, disunited or separated
to the base, and one behind.
 XXIV
BIRDS.
2. Salient (Gressorii). In these sometimes all, but for the most part two, of the fore
toes are joined at the base, the hind one free.
3. Climbing (Scansorii). Here the toes are placed two forwards and two backwards.—
In this may be noticed some few, in which only one is seen backwards ; that is, three in all,
but such are to be accounted as anomalies.
4. Prehensile (Prehensiles). Birds of this kind have four toes, but all placed forwards,
as in one species of the Coly, Swift, &c.
** Tridactyle (Tridactyli). These are Cursory (Cursorii), having only three toes,
all placed forwards, instanced in the Bustard, Cassowary, Rhea, Plover, Courser, Oister-
Catcher, Albatross, Awk, Guillemot.
*** Didactyle (Didactyli) ; of this, having only two toes, we have a single instance
in the Ostrich, and both the toes placed forwards.
The FOOT (Pe*) is said to be
Palm ated (Natatorius) when the toes are connected with amembrane, as in the Duck genus.
Semipalmated (Semipalmatus) when the membrane connecting the toes does not reach
half way from the base.
Lobated (Lobatus). In this the toes are furnished with amembrane, on the side of
each, but divided to the bottom.
Pinnated (Pinnatus) when each joint is separately lobated, and having a distinct lobe
or membrane.
The Claws (Ungues) are generally more or less sharp at the ends, though in some
blunt or rounded, in the manner of human nails. In a few margined and edged, and sometimes serrated. The claws in some species are observed to be wholly wanting, especially the-
hinder one.
Spines or Spurs (Calcaria) for defence, are chiefly found at the back part of the shins,
as in the Peacock, Pheasant, Grous, and Partridge; besides which we see such, both sharp
and blunt, at the bend of the wing ; witnessed in the Ostrich, Screamer, various Plovers,
Jacana, and several species of Ducks.
Horns (Cornua) are seen on the head, single as in the Screamer, or double in the Horned
Turkey.
Wattles (Cartinculee) fleshy membranes,- chiefly hanging from the lower jaw, instanced
in the Cock, Wattle-Bird, some species of Starlings, and others.
Pouch (Saccus jugularis) a dilatable membrane under the throat, as in the Ibis and
Pelican.
 ORDERS OF BIRDS.
CHARACTERS OF THE ORDERS.
DIVISION I.     LAND BIRDS.
ORDER I.   RAPACIOUS.
BILL incurvated, the upper mandible hooked, with an indentation near the tip. Nostrils for the most part open.
Feet made for perching, short, strong.-
Body, Head, and Neck muscular.   Skin thick;   Flesh impure.
Food obtained by rapine, or preying on carrion:
Nest built on trees, or elevated places.—Eggs generally four in number.—Female larger:
Monogamous.
ORDER II.   PIES.
BILL sharp-edged, upper- mandible convex.
Feet made for walking, short^ strong.
Body somewhat tenacious.   Flesh impure.
Food various.
Nest on trees; the male feeds the female while sitting.—Monogamous:
d -%**?& *
 ORDER III.   PASSERINE.
BILL conic-acuminated.
Feet salient, slender, cloven.
Body tender.—In those which are granivorous the flesh is pure—in others, feeding on
insects, impure;
Food obtained from trees, as seeds, or insects.
Nest curiously constructed.—The food put into the mouth of the young by the parents.-
Monogamous.—Many of these are songsters.
ORDER IV.   COLUMBINE.
BILL rather strait, swelling at the base.
Feet formed for walking, short.    Nails simple.
Body plump.   Flesh savoury.
Food grass, fruits, and seeds, swallowed whole.
Nest ill constructed, placed in trees, hollows of rocks, &c.
Eggs two in number.    The mother feeds the young with grain, made soft i
and ejected into their mouths.—Monogamous.
ORDER V.   GALLINACEOUS.
BILL convex, the upper mandible arched over the lower, having a convex cartilaginous
membrane over the nostrils.
Feet made for walking.    Toes rough beneath;
Body plump and muscular.    Flesh savoury.
Food, grain of all kinds, collected from the ground, and macerated in the crop.
Nest made on the bare ground, without art. Eggs numerous. The young, as soon as
hatched, take of themselves the food pointed out to them by the parents.—Polygamous.
ORDER VI.   STRUTHIOUS.
BILL subconic, strait, tip various.
Body shapeless, ponderous, scarcely edible.
Wings small, useless for flight, or none visible.
Feet made for running", strong.    Toes various in number:
Food grain and vegetables.
Nest on the ground.—Monogamous.
 DIVISION II.   WATER BIRDS.
ORDER Vn.   WITH CLOVEN FEET.
BILL sub-cylindric.
Feet cloven.   Thighs half naked.
Body compressed.    Skin very tender.    Tail short.    Flesh savoury.
Food, in marshy places, fish, marine insects, molluscse.
Nest chiefly on land, sometimes on trees;   Mode of pairing various.
ORDER VIII.   WITH PINNATED FEET.
BILL, Body, and Food, as in the former.
Feet made for wading, naked, more or less, above the knees.
Toes cloven, but pinnated, or webbed, the whole of their length.
Nest large, of leaves, grass, or water plants, in moist grounds, and often close to the.
water .—Monogamous.
ORDER IX.   WEB-FOOTED.
* With Long Legs.
BILL various. r/->'^a
Body rather depressed, conic.    The flesh of the young savoury.
Legs very long, made for wading.   Thighs naked the greater part of the length.
Toes furnished half way with a membrane.
Food obtained from the water, as small fish and insects.
Nest placed on the ground.—Monogamous.
** With Short Legs.
BILL smooth, covered with a skin, enlarged at the base.
Feet made for swimming.    Shins short, compressed.    The toes united by a membrane.
Body fat.   Skin tenacious, covered with excellent feathers.    Flesh, for the most part,
savoury.
Food water plants, fish, and reptiles.
Nest chiefly on the ground, seldom on trees.    The mother rarely'broods the young	
For the most part Polygamous.
d2
 GENERA OF BIRDS.
CHARACTERS  OF THE  GENERA.
DIVISION I.     LAND BIRDS.
ORDER I.   ACCIPITRINE.
1. VULTURE - Bill hooked, head bare.
2. Secretary   - - Bill hooked, sides of the head bare, legs very long.
3. Falcon -   - - Bill hooked, base covered with a cere.
4. Owl -   -   - - Bill hooked, feathers of the front reversed.
ORDER II.   PIES.
* With Legs made for Walking.
5. Shrike  -   -   - Bill straitish, emarginated.
11. Beef-eater -   - Bill strait, quadrangular.
13. Plantain-eater - Bill stout, elevated at the base, mandibles dentated.
14. Wattle-Bird   - Bill incurvated, sharp-edged.
15. Crow    -   -   - Bill cultrated, feathers of the front reversed.
16. Roller   -   -   - Bill cultrated, bent at the tip.
17. Oriole   -   -   - Bill strait, conic, sharp-pointed.
18. Grakle -   -   - Bill cultrated, even, mostly bare at the base.
19. Paradise Bird - Bill sub-cultrated, feathers of the front velvety;
30. Nuthatch   -   - Bill strait, cuneated at the tip.
 BIRDS. XX
32. Hoopoe -    -   - Bill long, slender, bending.
34. Honey-eater    - Bill sub-triangular, bent at the tip; tongue ciliated.
35. Creeper -    -    - Bill incurvated, pointed.
36. Humming-Bird Bill incurvated, filiform, tip blunt.
* * With Climbing Feet.
6. Parrot  -   -   - Bill with a cere at the base; tongue fleshy.   "
7. Toucan -   -   - Bill serrated; tongue feathered on the sides.
9. Channel-Bill   - Bill cultrated, nostrils oval, rugose.
12. Ani -   -   -   - Bill rugose, margin angular.
20. Curucui -   -   - Bill serrated, bent at the tip.
21. Barbet  -   -   - Bill smooth, emarginated, hooked.
22. Barbican    -   - Bill bent, with one or more notch at the upper mandible.
23. Coucal -   ~   - Bill strong, nostrils elongate; interior hind claw strait.
24. Malkoha-    -   - Bill strong, nostrils linear, marginal; cheeks bare, granulated.
25. Cuckow -   -   - Bill smooth, nostrils emarginated, or rimmed.
26. Wryneck    -   - Bill smooth, tongue worm-shaped, missile:
27. Woodpecker     - Bill angular, tongue worm-shaped, missile.
28. Jacamar     -   - Bill quadrangular, very sharp-pointed.
8. Motmot -   - -
10. Hombill    - -
29. Kingsfsher- -
31. Tody     -   - -
33. Bee-eater   - -
* * *   Feet made for Leaping.
Bill bent, denticulated; tongue feathery.
Bill serrated, front bony.
Bill triangular, strait.
Bill linear, depressed, strait.
Bill bent, somewhat compressed.
41. Grosbeak    - -
42. Bunting-   - -
44. Finch    -   - -
45. Plant-cutter -
ORDER III.   PASSERINE.
* With Thick Bills.
Bill conic, ovated.
Bill sub-conic, the lower mandible broader, coavctate.
Bill conic, sharp.
Bill conic, strait, serrated.
* * With Curved Bills, the Upper Mandible bent at the Tip.
40. Coly -   -   - -       Bill conic, attenuated, convex above.
50. Manakin     - -       Bill incurvated, subulated.
52. Swallow-   - -       Bill incurvated, depressed.
53. Goatsucker - -       Bill incurvated, depressed, ciliated.
 ** *   With BiUs having the Upper Mandible emarginated near the Tip.
38. Thrush -   -   - Bill emarginated, subulate, compressed at the base.
39. Chatterer   -   - Bill emarginated, subulate, depressed at the base,
43. Tanager-   -   - Bill emarginated, subulate, somewhat conic at the basei
46. Flycatcher -   - Bill emarginated, subulate, hairy at the base;
* * * * Simple-billed.—Bill strait, integral, attenuated.
37. Starling'-   -   - Bill subulated, depressed at the tip, and margined;
47. Lark-   -   -   - Bill subulated; tongue bifid ; hind claw elongated.
48. Wagtail -   -   - Bill subulated; hind claw moderate; tail long.
49. Warbler -   -   - Bill subulated; hind claw moderate; tail shorter.
51. Titmouse    -   - Bill subulated; tongue truncated; feathers of the front reversed.
ORDER IV.   COLUMBINE.
Bill sharpish on the edge, nostrils gibbous, covered with an obsolete membrane.
ORDER V.   GALLINACEOUS.
* With Four Toes.
55. Peacock -   - - Bill naked; feathers of the crown revolute.
56. Turkey -   - - Bill naked; face covered with caruncles.
57; Guan    -   - - Bill bare at the base; head feathered.
58. Pintado -   - - Bill furnished with a double wattle at the base.
59. Curassow   - - Bill with a cere covering the base.
60. Menura -   - - Bill conico-convex, nostrils in the middle.
61. Pheasant    - - Bill smooth; cheeks naked, smooth.
62. Tinamou     - - Bill longish, blunt at the tip, nostrils in the middle.
63. Grous    -   - - Bill conic, bent; a naked space above the eyes.
64. Partridge   - - Bill conic, a little bent; space round the eyes covered;
65. Trumpeter - - Bill sub-fornicated, nostrils oval, pervious.
66. Bustard-
** With Three Toes.
Bill sub-fornicated; tongue emarginated; feet with three toes, all
placed forwards.
 ORDER VI.   STRUTHIOUS.
* With Four Toes.
Bill a little compressed on the sides, bent at the" tip; face somewhat naked. : ;^#^us
68. Emeu    -   '
69. Cassowary «
**   With Three Toes, placed forwards.
Bill strait, sub-conic: a knob instead of a back toe.
Bill strait, sub-conic.
70. Ostrich
* * *   With Two Toes, placed forwards.
Bill strait, depressed, obtuse*
DIVISION II.   WATER BIRDS.
ORDER VII.   WADERS.
* With Four Toes.
71. Spoon-Bill - - Bill depressed, spoon-shaped.
72. Screamer    - - Bill hooked at the tip, sharp:
73. Jabiru   -   - - Bill inclining upwards, the under mandible thieker, and more stout.
74. Boat-Bill   - - Bill gibbous, the upper mandible shaped like a boat, with the keel
upwards,
75. Umbre   -   - - Bill compressed, carinated, obtuse.
76. Heron   -   - - Bill sharp at the end.
77. Erody   -   - - Bill strait, somewhat gaping from- the middle to the point.
78. Ibis -   -   - - Bill bent, with a bare pouch under the throat.
79. Curlew -   - - Bill bent; the face wholly feathered.
80. Snipe     -   - - Bill strait, long, roundish, blunt at the end.
81. Sandpiper - - Bill roundish, obtuse; bind claw scarcely reaching the ground. •
85. Pratincole - - Bill convex, tip somewhat compressed.
86. Rail -   -   - - Bill subcarinated; body compressed.
87. Jacana -   - - Bill more or less carunculated at the base.
88. Gallinule    - - Bill strait, sharp; forehead bare:
 89. Sheath-Bill
90, Cereopsis   -
82   Plover   -    -   -
83. Courser -    -   -
84. Oister-Catcher
Bill strong, conic; nostrils covered with a moveable cere.
Bill convex, declining at the tip; face before the eyes bare.
**   With Three Toes, placed forwards.
Bill roundish,' strait.
Bill roundish, bent at the tip.
Bill somewhat compressed, cuneated at the tip.
ORDER VIII.   WITH PIKNATED FEET.
Ill
91. Phalarope
92. Finfoot -
93. Coot-   -   -
94. Grebe    -
95. Avoset   -    -
96. Courier -   -
97. Flamingo    -
98. Albatross -
99. Auk -   - -
100. Guillemot -
101. Diver    - -
102. Skimmer
103. Tern-   - -
104. Gull -   - -
105. Petrel   - -
106. Goosander -
107. Duck    - -
108. Penguin- -
109. Pelican - -
110. Tropic Bird
111. Darter - -
Bill slender, strait, a trifle bent at the tip.
Bill moderately curved, pointed, and elongated.
Bill conic, somewhat compressed, front bare.
Bill strait, sharp; legs placed far behind, tail wanting.
ORDER IX.   WEB-FOOTED.
* With Long Legs.
Bill slender, depressed, turning, upwards at the end.
Biu snort, straitj'stoooth-e^dge'a.
Bill bent, denticulated, inclining downward.
** With Short Legs.
Bill bent at the~end, lower mandible truncated; back toe wanting.
Bill compressed, transvereeb/-suleated on the sides; back toe wanting.
Bill strait, sharp; back toe wanting;
Bill sinrait, sharp, compressed on the sides; legs placed almost at
the vent. \;#^^»~. j|
Bill greatly compressed, the upper mandible shorter. & s'v \"\
Bill pointed, compressed at the tip.
Bill bending at the point,.near which it 13 gibbous beneath.
Bill hooked at 'the end, with cylmdric tubular- nostrils; a spur
instead of a hind'toe. i '-*  ^^s>,*.r *
Bill witha bent nail at the end, and denticulated, or sawed on the sides.
Bill with a nail at the. end, and lamellated on the sides.
BULstrait,.inblihing downwards; wings imitating fins, and useless
for flight.
Bill naked round  the base; gullet naked,  and capable of great
diitehsion. '.*:&.'■-*
Bill cultrated, compressed, serrated.
Bill subulated, serrated; neck very long.
 BIRDS.
DIVISION   I.      LAND   BIRDS.
ORDER  I.     rapacious.
genus I.    VULTURE.
1
Condur
10 Kolben's
23 Arabian
2
Californian
11 Sociable
24 Abyssinian
3
White-winged
12 Angola
25 Chincou
4
White-rum
ped
13 Maltese
26 Chagoun
5
King
14 Pondicberry
27 New Holland
A Varied
15 Cinereous
28 Cheriway
6
Painted
16 Bengal
29 Bold
7
Carrion
17 Ash-coloured
30 Plaintive
8
Urubu
18 Hare
31 Bearded
A Iota
19 Indian
A Variety
9
Alpine
20 Tawny
B Golden
A Variety
21 Gingi
C Variety
B Variety
fi
22 Chocolate
32 Black
AN the Vulture Genus the bill is strait, hooked chiefly at the end.
Base covered with a naked skin.
Head, cheeks, and often the neck, either naked, or ill clothed
with down, or short hairs.
 VULTURE.
Neck, retractile. Craw, often hanging over tlie breast. Legs
and feet covered with great scales. The outer toe joined to the middle
one by a strong membrane.
Claws large, not much hooked, and blunt.
It may be observed, that the shape of the bill does not sufficiently characterise this genus, as many of the Falcons have it strait
at the base likewise, though, for the most part, the point is more
crooked and sharp than in the Vulture. Perhaps the scarcity of
feathers on the head and neck, and in many a total want of them,
may form a better distinction.
It is by all agreed, that no true Vulture will kill its prey,
coveting only such animals as are already dead, and becoming
putrid. Though it is mentioned, that large flocks of them some^
times alight on a sick or maimed animal, and, attacking it altogether,
finish its existence, but this may be supposed to happen only when
pressed by extreme hunger, as authors inform us, that when left to
themselves they rather prefer flesh already tainted than fresh meat,
and their sense of smelling being exquisite, they are enabled to
scent a dead carcase many miles off, and accordingly fly to it from
all quarters. V-«$#
In this circumstance of their disposition I am clear, in respectf
to the Carrion Vulture of Jamaica—two of which I kept alive for
some time in my garden. They would, indeed, eat raw flesh, but
expressed particular pleasure when any tainted food .was offered
them—fluttering with expanded wings, and falling on with double
appearance of appetite, as well as devouring twice the quantity as
at other times.
It is observed that Vultures, in general, are fewer in number in
proportion to the coldness of the climate, and in the more northern
ifegions, are wholly wanting. A kind disposition of providence this,
lest the putrid effluvia of the dead, should, in the hotter countries,
too much injure the health of the living. Howe*ser, some will be
found, wherein both the Vulture and Falcon are so strongly marked,
 iii the same bird, as to make it doubtful where to place them. In this
case, the manners, may, perhaps, determine.
Vultures are not only greedy and voracious to a proverb, but
by no means timid, for they prey in the midst of cities, undaunted
by mankind. This may, perhaps, happen from their not being
persecuted by any man, and arises from various causes, chiefly from
their not being obnoxious to him, as injurious, or suitable to his
taste as food, on the contrary, they are, for the most part, held
in veneration.*
This tameness of the volatile creation, when not annoyed by man,
is manifest, from the accounts of our circumnavigators, who inform
us, that in the more desart places where they touched, most kinds
of birds were so familiar, as not to fly away at their approach, regarding them more as objects of wonder than fear.
Authors vary greatly in their sentiments concerning the Vulture
tribe, owing to the very different plumage of many of them while
youWg, and growing to maturity, which is equally the case with
many species of other genera. On this head we have endeavoured
to reconcile the opinions of those who have written concerning them,
leaving the reader to form his own judgment.
Vultures are divided by M. Temminck into three genera—viz.
Vautour, or true Vulture, this, in itself, is timid to a degree, when
opposed to any living bird, preying wholly on dead and putrid
carcases. The second, or Catharte, which feeds both on living and
dead carcases—and his third, the Gypaete, which is a formidable
race, and preys, by choice, on every living thing it can obtain
the mastery over, never touching carrion, except from the utmost
necessity. l^ffM
* The Storks in Holland are a proof of this, walking boldly in the middle of the streets,
as if they knew no one would hurt them, and which is truly the case, as that person thinks
himself fortunate, who has a nest of them on his chimney, and if a stranger should kill one
purposely, he would run the risk of being very ill treated, if not of losing his life by the
enraged multitude.
B2
 VULTURE/
l.—CONDUR —Plate I.
Vultur Gryphus, Ind.Orn.u p.l.    Lin. Syst.i. 121.    Gm.Lin.\. 245.    Klein. Av. p.45.
Bris. Orn. i. 473.    Id. 8vo.  137.    Borowsck. Nat, ii. 62.    £wcyc/. Brit, xviii. 695.
pi. 510.   Raii. Syn. p. 11.    Humbold. Voy, pi. 8. 9.
Vultur Magellanicus, Lev. Mus. p. i.  pi. 1. female.
Vultur Condor, Condur, Buf. ois. i. 184.  Fres. Voy. p. 111. Condam. Voy. 175.    Molin,
Chit. 236.    Id. Fr. ed. 247.    Z>attd. 0m. ii. p.
Catharte, Tern. Man. ed. 2. Anal. p. xlviii.
Sarcoramphus, Vultur, Dum.
Condur Vulture, Gen. Syn. i. p. 4.    Id. Sup. p. 1.
Voy. i. p. 75.    Wood's Zoogr, i. p. 371.
Sha,
t Zool. vii. p. 2. pi. 2.3.4.
Id, Sup. ii. p. 1. pi. 1.    Hawkesur.
THE Condur, till within these few years, has remained in
great obscurity, having been confounded with others of the same
genus, but as the Leverian Museum was fortunately in possession of
two specimens in complete plumage, we have been enabled to give
the following description.
The first of these, in appearance a full-grown male, measured,
from the tip of one wing to that of the other, full ten feet. The
bill strong, moderately hooked, black, with a whitish tip; nostrils
near the base, and depressed. The head and neck covered with
cinereous down ; on the crown, a long carunculated membrane, as in
the cock, irregularly indented on the top ; part of the throat bare,
with the appearance of a dilatable pouch, and a kind of pear-shaped
pendulous substance in the breast, as in the King Vulture ; on the
sides of the neck, a series of seven or eight wrinkled protuberances,
not unlike those in the turkey. The lower part of the neck surrounded with a white ruff, composed of long fine feathers, of a
hairy texture. Lesser wing coverts wholly black, the middle ones
the same, with greyish white ends, forming a bar when closed;
the greater, half black and half white, divided obliquely : three
first quills black, the secondaries white, tipped with black.    Tail
   25E '•&&&!*
  even, fourteen inches long, black; thigh feathers long. Legs.stout,
reddish brown ; claws black and blunt.
The other bird had nearly the same extent of wing, was rather
less in size, but, except in wanting the carunculated membrane on
the crown, one description might serve—whether this is a female or
young male bird, cannot precisely be said, but most probably the
former.
The above were brought from the Straits of Magellan, by
Capt. Middleton, but they are also foimd in other parts of South
America, and have been mentioned, though imperfectly, by various
authors..
In the year 1691, one is said to have been met with in lat. 33,
south, not far from the Island Mocha, in the South Seas, whose
extent of wing was sixteen feet. This was black and white, like a
magpie, and had a crest or comb, sharp, like a razor. The seamen
shot it on a cliff by the sea side, and supposing it to be a kind of
turkey, made a meal of it.*
In Spilburgen s Voyage, ch. 7. it is mentioned, that two
fowls were taken in the Island of Loubesf, in beak, wings, and
talons, resembling an eagle, with combs on their heads like cocks,
being two ells in height, and three in breadth, from the tip of one
wing to that of the other, when extended—and, in Hawkesworth's
Voyages,J one is said to have been shot at Port Desire, off Penguin's
Island, of which this description is given :—■" The head resembled
" that of an eagle, except that it had a large comb upon it. Round
" the neck it had a white ruff, exactly resembling a lady's tippet: the
"feathers on the back as black as jet, and as bright as the finest
" polish could render that mineral: the legs were remarkably strong
" and large, and the wings, when extended, measured, from point to
" point, no less than twelve feet." Bl^':
* Phil. Trans. 18. p. 61.—Raii. Syn. Av. p. 11.
t This is not far from Peyta, in South America.
% Vol. 1. p. 15.
 $ VULTURE.
Molina, in his History of Chili, observes, that the female is
somewhat smaller than the male, brown in colour, having no ruff
round the neck, but a small crest at the nape. He says, they make
the nest among the most inaccessible rocks, and lay two white eggs-*
that they feed on dead carcases—and there being no wolves in Chili,
these birds supply the place of them, often flying in flocks, and
preying on sheep and goats, and even young calves, if straying too
far from their dams, first plucking out the eyes, and afterwards tearing them to pieces. On this account the country people use various
stratagems to take or destroy such fierce enemies, for, when glutted
with food, and unable to rise freely, they attack them with clubs, and
easily subdue them; they are, however, in general, sufficiently active,
and known to the inhabitants by the name of Manque.
This author adds, that the largest seen by him had an extent of
wing exceeding fourteen feet, and supposes it to be the same as the
Laemmergeyer of Europe; but we believe that, however similar
they may be in manners, these two birds are distinct from each orJhet
as species.
The account given by M. Humboldt greatly coincides with what
is said above, but observes, that he has not met with any specimen
beyond three feet seven inches in length, and eight feet nine inches iii
breadth, though he admits they may sometimes exceed these dimensions ;* and adds, that the colour is not always black, but for
the most part raven grey.
The young bird is covered, for several months, with a deep thick
down, so full as to enlarge the appearance to the size of a full-grown
bird. At first the plumage is tawny brown, not arriving at the
black colour till after two years.
In December, 1809, a bird was exhibited iii Piccadilly, alive,
and called a Condur : it approached in size to that bird, but was
uniformly of a brown and dusky colour, without the least trace of
In another place he talks of the dimensions being eleven feet.
 VULTUJfcEv 7
white on the wings. The head naked, and furnished with an
elevated, indented comb, with the addition of wattles On the sides,
but the naked parts wholly brown. This bird was not very young,
having been in possession of the owner more than twelve months.
It seems to form a link between the Condur, now sufficiently known,
and the Californian Vulture, but whether allied to either, or forming a distinct species, we cannot at present determine.
2.—CALIFORNIAN.
Vultur Califorhianus, Ind. Om.Sup. p. ii.  Nat. Misc. pi. 301.   Shaw's Zool. v. vii. p. 10.
Catharte, Tern. Man. ed. 2. Anal. p. xlviii.
Californian Vulture, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 3.
THIS is a large species, nearly approaching in size to the Condur.
The bill pale ; plumage in general black; but the second quills have
whitish tips, and the wing coverts incline to brown; under wing
coverts mixed with white. The wings, when closed, reach beyond
the tail. The head and neck are bare and dusky; across the breast,
a darker bar, and two others of the same on the hind-head; the lower
parts of the neck surrounded with a ruff of slender black feathers;
under parts of the body covered with loose downy ones. Tail, even
at the end.    Legs, black.
This bird was brought from California, by Mr. Menzies, in his
expedition with Capt. Vancouver, and is now in the British Museum.
Jt seems to have some affinitv with the Condur.
 3—WHITE-WINGED.
LENGTH, three feet; bill, black; irides, brown; head and neck,
bare, and the colour of raw flesh; round the eye, and back part of
the head, red brown, and downy. The plumage, in general, dusky
black; some of the larger wing coverts, or second quills, white, with
black ends, giving the appearance, when the wings are closed,
of a white rump—the second quills otherwise brown, with black
ends; greater quills and tail, black; on the breast, bare and white ;
in the middle of it, a callous brown space, -surrounded with red at
the base—before the thighs, a second, much the same in appearance;
the thigh feathers hang over the joint; legs, dusky red.
Native place, uncertain. It seems to approach both to the
Condur and Californian species, but how far allied to either, must
rest on future observation.
4__WHITE-RUMPED.
SIZE, uncertain; bill, moderately hooked and black; cere, and
the base of the under mandible, dull oker colour; sides of the head,
round the eye, bare and red ; chin and throat the same. Plumage,
wholly deep brown black, except the upper tail coverts, which are in
great part white ; legs, stout and yellow; claws, black and bent;
the tail pretty long ; and the wings, when closed, reach to about
the middle of it.
The above is described from the collection of drawings, in the
possession of John Dent, Esq. but without any account annexed, nor
are we certain it is not allied to the preceding.
   wlweh hangar pei
capable-of bein«
Ifcetfigfct «f "i
pimdiag itself is
  5—KING—Pl. II.
Vultur Papa, Ind. OrnA. 4.     Lin. Syst.'u 122.     Gm. Lin.\. 246.    Daud. ii. 9. pl.ix.
Bris. i. 470. t. 36.     Id. 8vo. i. 138.      Germ. i. t. 12.      Borou-sk. Nat. Ixi. t.T.
Spalowsk. Fog. i. t. 2.    Levail. pL xiii.    Schrif. d. Berl. Gessell. ix. t. 8 (caput).
Shaw. Zool. vii. 39. pi. xiii.
Regina Aurarum,  JFtf/. 302.    /rf. (><*ng7.) 390.
Vultur Monachus, Klein. Av. p. 46.
Cozcacoauhtli, Raii. 161.
L'Iriburubicha, Fby. <fe Azara. in. p. 17.
Tzopilotl, o Rey de les Buytres, Gabin. de Madrid, i. 43. lam. 19.
Roi des Vautours, Buff. I 160.' pi. 6.    PI. Enl. 428.
Catharte,  Tern. Man.. Ed. ii. Anal. p. xlviii. i;
King Vulture, GV». 5yn. i. p. 7.    /</. .Smjj. ii. p. 7.    ZicZtc. pi. ii.
THIS elegant species is about the size of a hen turkey; length,
two feet four inches; bill, black in the middle and red at the end;
cere, orange coloured, continued on the upper part, so as to form a
canmculatedfand dentated skin or flap, which hangs pendulous over
the bill; round the eyes; saffron colour; hides, whitish; crown of
the head and neck bare, and the whole capable of being drawn into
a large ruff of loose ash coloured feathers, placed on the shoulders;
a fillet of blackish down encompasses the head, taking rise from the
hind head; at the corner of the mouth, near the eye, is a purplish
brown spot; plumage, reddish buff colour above, and beneath yellowish white; quills greenish black; tail black; craw pendulous and
orange coloured; legs dirty white; claws black.
Inhabits South America and the West Indian Islands; lives on
earrion, and excrements of all kinds; preys also upon rats, lizards,
and snakes. From the nature of the food, the smell of it is very
disagreeable. The flight of this bird is said to be strong, as it is
often seen suspending itself in the air very readily, against the most
boisterous wind.
 10
VlfL^UBE^
The King Vulture is rarely seen in flocks of more than two or
three together, but more frequently mix, one or more, with the
Carrion Vultures, which aye iUjlarge troops, and probably from this,
has obtained the name of King of the Vultures.
It does not gain the complete plumage till the fourth year/7-in
the first it is wholly of dusky blue, with only the rump and belly
white, putting on different appearances from year to year, till it gains
the entire dress of the adult; said to lay only two eggs.
A.—Le Roi des Vautours varie, Levail. Ois. pi. 13.    Gen. Syn. Sufi. ii. p. 8.
This seems to be a variety from age, having many black feathers
mixed among the white ones, on the neck and upper parts. Hence
M. Levaillant supposes that these birds are black or dusky while
young, and change to the pure white, or cream colour, as they approach the adult state; and, indeed, DainyJorf^inentisbs that some
are altogether white, but their feathers look as if they were sullied,
with bald heads andjiiecks like the rest; and adds, we never see above
one or two of these together,. and seldom ?a*t^neab number of blaek
ones witfiout a white one anion's? them.
 VULTTDRK
11
^—PAINTED.
VUltur Sa^ru, Wn&*tMied( Vulture, Bartr. WltiS, 2^5, 493.    Damp. Voy. ii. pi. 2.
p. 67.
Vautour a Queue Blanche, Vieill. Amer. i. p. 26.
THIS is thought, by Mr. Bartram, to differ specifically from the
King Vulture—said to be about the size of the Carrion species, but
the wings much shorter, and thereforeof less extent, and more difficult flight. The bill long, strait to near the point, where it is bent
and sharp; hides, gold coloured; head and neck, almost as far as
the stomach, bare; the crown red, with lobed lappets, of a reddish
orange, lying on the base of the upper mandible ; the skin of the
neck, loose and wrinkled, bright red, intermixed with coral red, the
hind part nearly covered with short stiff hair, the colour of dun
purple, gradually changing to red, as it approaches forwards; on the
breast before, a pouch or wallet, naked and pear shaped, not Very
conspicuous, unless the stomach is full; round the lower part of the
neck the feathers are long and soft, forming a ruff, into which the
bird can contract, and hide the head and neck at will. The plumage
of the body, white or cream coloured, but the quills, and two or
three rows of the coverts, beautiful dark brown; tail, large and
white, tipped with dark brown or black; legs clear white.
This Mr. Bartram met^th on the Moschito River, about New
Smyrna, in East Florida, and talks of it as a new species, by the
name of Painted Vulture. The Creek Indians, or Muscogulges,
construct the royal standard of the tail feathers of this bird, calling
it by a name which signifies the Eagle's Tail. It is carried by them
when they go to battle, but is then painted with a zone of red
within the brown end. This standard is heM most sacred by them,
and ornamented with great ingenuity.    These birds seldom appear
C2
 •i'i
12 VULTURJS*
but when the desarts are set on fire, which happens almost daily, in
some part or other, for the purpose of rousing game, &c.; and not
unfrequently by lightning,, by which multitudes of serpents, frogs,
and lizards, are scorched to death, and serve as dainty morsels to the
Vultures, which flock to such parj$, to fee/lym them, and often so
glut themselves, as to fall an easy prey to the hunter.        .tu..
7—CARRION—Pl. Ill
Vultur Aura. Ind. Orn. 1. p. 4.    Lin.  Syst. 1. 122.     Gm. Lin. i. 246.     Daud. ii. 19.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 36.    Amer. Orn. ix. 96. pl. 75. 1.
Vultur Brasiliensis, Urubu, Tzopilotl,   Aura,  Rait, p. 10, 180.      Will. 56. Id. AngL
68. Briss. i. 468.   Id, 8vo. 135.    Klein. Av. 44.    Gerin i. 1.13.
Gallinazo, Ulloa. It. 60.    Id. Voy. 56.
L'Acabiray, Voy. d'Azar. iii. p. 23.
Vautourdu Bresil, Buf.i. 175.
Catharte, Tern. Man. Ed. 2. Anal. p. xlviii.
Turkey Buzzard, Cat. Car. i. pl. 6    Phil. Trans, xvii. 991.
Carrion Vulture, Gen. Syn. i. p. 5.    Id. Sup. p. 2.    Sloan. Jam. ii.  p. 254.    Brown Jam.
471.    Damp. Voy. ii. pl. 2. p. 67.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 86.    Wood's Zoogr. i. 375.
THIS bird is nearly the same size as the King Vulture; general
length, about two feet; extent of wing, four feet or more; the bill
white, with a black tip; irides, bluish saffron colour; the head and
part of the neck, bare and rufous red; sides of the head warted, as
in the turkey; whole plumage, brown black with a purplish and
green gloss in different lights; quills and tail somewhat darker than
the rest, the last near seven inches long, and cuneiform ; legs flesh
colour, smooth before; at the usual place of the neck the feathers
are rather fuller and more slender, but scarcely sufBeijglit to constitute, what may be called a ruff, except in very old birds.
  the «£*i$u pf.u
   VULTURE. 13
This inhabits both North and South America, as also the West
India islands, and very common in Paraguay. It feeds on dead
carcasses, snakes, and other reptiles, and, from this circumstance,
becomes very offensive in smell. It is gregarious, resting, in numbers, on trees, during the night, in the manner of rooks in Europe.
Makes the nest on mountains covered with brushwood, in a hollow
tree, or log, laying two and sometimes as far as four white eggs, with
reddish markings, about 2f in. long and 2 in. broad—is seen about
Pensylvania1 in summer, passing to the south as winter approaches.
These are esteemed most useful in .the places where they .resort, and
secures their safety, which is further promoted by a penalty for
killing one, and this law was, not many years since, in force, if not
C$fl£inued to the present time, m Jamaica anc||j^her West India
islands. When taken young, will often become very tame, if not
familiar. Two of them having been brought alive to England,
were giv?en to me, and inhabited my garden, with some degree of
cordiality, during one summer, but an Unexpected cold night killed
one of them; and though additional shelter was afforded to its companion, it did not long survive.* In a wild state, their scent is most
exquisite: if a hog or other animal is killed, they collect in numbers, from considerable distances, a few minutes after;—young lambs
frequently fall a prey to them, as well as pigs, soon after their being
farrowed.
The general measure of those found at Georgia, in America,,
according to the information of Mr. Abbot, is 29 in. from the point
of the bill to the end of the tail; extent of wings, six feet
* M. d'Azara confirms it, and mentions more than one instance, where the bird would
follow his master, for several leagues, when on a journey, by flying oveV his head, and sleeping
at night on the top of the carriage; and that it is not unfrequent to see these birds tame about
a house, like other domestic animals.
 If
Ti
14
8—URUBIT.
Vultur Urubu, Vmll6t Ois. Amer. 23. pl. 2.
Vultur Atratus, Black Vulture, or Carrion Crow, Bartn Wi. £50. 285.
ix. 104.-pl.75. 2.
Vautour du Bresil, pl. enl. 187.
L'lribu, Voy. d'Azar. iii. p. 20.
Catharte, Tern: MahX'Ed. 2. Anal.'p. xmu. Uf
iflllS is smaller than the last—the length ^5 in. breadth 4 ft.
10 in. bill 2iin. long, and legs white'^ irides reddish hazel. The
head and neck are covered with a pale ash coloured down, mixed
with a few hairs, but not carunculated ; the plumage, plain bluish
grey, but in old birds nearly black, with some degree of gloss;
wings yellowish 'ivtiite beneath; the tail shorter than in the last
described, and even at the end; the bill and legs are both rather
longer flfan in the Carrion Vulture.
Inhabits the warmer parts of America, equally with the other,
and though certainly distinct, the two have been generally mistaken
for one and the same species—indeed, the manners do not essentially
diller, but the Uriibu does not fly with the same ease as the Carrion
species; it seems to labour more in flight, flapping the wings considerably, then sails for a little way, but is soon obliged to flap the
wings again, as if recovering itself from falling. This species is
rarely seen north of Carolina, and said to build its nest on the rocks,*
laying two sooty white eggs; is common in Georgia, with the former.
Mr. Abbot observes, that the two will by no means feed on each
other, for though they may be allured by the scent of a dead companion, and meet in numbers on the spot, not one will attempt to eat it.
* Or large trees in low wet swamps, and to go there every evening to roost.   Amer. Orn.
 VULTURE. 15
Vultures in general, while young, are covered with a thick
whitish down; so it is with the present one, giving the appearance,
at a distance, of a white bmL but this down is by degrees thrust
aside, as the true feathers appear.
Independent ojf ojtjt^er food, both the last described concur in
destroying the eggg ;of jfefc alligator, which are deposited, to the
number at least of 100 in each nest, which is in .form of an obtuse
cone, four feet high, and more in diameter, being constructed with
mud, grass, and herbage; in this the eggs are laid, layer upon layer,
till the whole is deposited, and they are hatched by the warmth of
the sun; but the Vultures keep watch, and as soon as the alligator
departs, scrape away the sand, and destroy as many of the eggs
as ithey>,can, as they furnish to them a delicate repast. The natives,
too, thiflk the eggs/ar from despicable.* They are a taane, species;
and walk, without fear, about the town, where the hog butchers
reside, in great n'timbers, like domestic fowls, and quarrel with each
othefiffRithe offal.f
A.—Vultur Iota, Ind. Orn.
i. 247. 5.jS.
5. 8. /S.    Molm. ChU. 235.    Id. ed. gal. 245.    Gm. Lm.
This is said, by Molina, to have a grey bill, with a black point;
the plumage wholly black, except the quills and legs, which are
brown; head covered with a rough rufous skin. When young the
bird is nearly white, changing into black by degrees; first a black
spot appears on the back, which gradually enlarges, till the whole
body becomes of that colour. It is described as an indolenfc species,
making a careless nest of dry leaves and feathers, in the jjioljows of
rocks, and sometimes on the ground, and lays two white eggs.
M. Vieillot, who mentions this bird, thinks that it is not a
variety of the foregoing, but a young one, in imperfect plumage.
* See Bartram's Travels.
f Mr. Abbot.
 9—ALPINE.
Vultur Percnopterus, lnd.*0rn.\. p. 2.    Lin.Syst.i. 123.    Gm.Lin. i. 249.    Gmel. It.
iii. 364. p. 37.    Borowsk. Nat. ii. 65.    Nat. Misc. pl. 141.    Shaw. Zool. vii. p. 33.
Fn. Arag. p. 67.    Sepp. Vog. 5. t. p. 395,
Le Percnoptere, Buf. i. 149.  Pl. Enl. 426 (the female).   Levail. Voy. 8vo. i. 48.   Daud.
Orn. ii. 13.
Grossester Geyer, Naturf. 8. S. 41.
Catharte, Tern. Man. ed. 2. Anal. p. xlviii.
Alpine Vulture, Gen. Syn. 1. 12.    Id. Sup. p. 3.    Sup. ii. p. 4.
THIS measures often more than two feet in length—the bill is
black, with a yellow cere; head and neck covered with a pale
yellowish down, at the lower part the feathers narrow and elongated,
but scarcely in quantity sufficient to be called a ruff. The plumage,
in general, is white, except the quills, which are black with hoary
edges, and the two outer wholly black.
A.—Vultur JSgyptius, Ind. Orn. i. p. 2. No. 3. /3.    Bri
Lin. i. 249.    Belon. Obs. 110. t. p. 111.    Aldr.. Av.
Sacre d'Egypte, Buf. i. 167.
Egyptian Vulture, "Gen. Syn. i. 13.
i. 457.
, 37a t.
Jrf.8vo. 1. 131.
p. 379.
Size of a kite, with the plumage of a rufous ash colour, spotted
with brown; in other respects not unlike the last, and is probably a
young bird. Is common about the Pyramids of Egypt, living ^n
carrion, and is, as well as the Ibis, in great esteem, for destroying
snakes and reptiles; hence it may be observed frequently engraven
in plates—is called, about Grand Cairo, Achbobba.*
Shaw's Trav. ii. pp. 9. 92.
 17
B.—Vultur fulvus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 6.    Bris. i. 462.   Id. 8vo. i. 132.   Germ. Orn. i. 1.10.
Gmel. It. iv. 179.    Pall. n. Nord. Beytr. iv. 58.    Gm. Lin. 1. 249.    Daud. Orn. ii.
17.    Shaw. Zool. vii. p. 27. pl. 11.    Tern. Man. p. 3.    Id. ed. 2. p. 6,
Vultur fulvus boetico congener, Raii p. 10.    Will. p. 36. t. 4. f. 1.
Griffon, Buf. 1. 151. Robert. Ic. pl. x.
Fulvous Vulture, Gen. Syn. i. 17.    Will. Eng. &7.   Alb.nu 1.1.
THE length of this bird is 3ft. 6in. breadth 8ft. bill blue grey,
with a black tip; head, neck, and ruff, white; plumage, above
rufous grey, with some mixture of white on the wing coverts; quills
and tail black; the middle of the breast bare of feathers, being only
covered with down, like- the neck; under parts of the body mixed
with rufous grey; legs downy, and ash coloured; claws black.
The difficulty of ascertaining the different species is in no
instance stronger than in the Vulture Genus, as has been elsewhere
remarked. This is likely to continue, unless the traveller and man
of science could be oftener united in one person.
In respect to the three last described birds, it has been noticed,
by a very intelligent naturalist,* and accurate observer, that they all
form but one species, which he had the opportunity of identifying,
during a long residence at Gibraltar, at which place they are to be
seen in all their various stages, at different seasons; great allowance
being likewise made, not onjjfjlbr the different periods of age or sex,
independent of the bird being in a healthy and plump state, or in
an emaciated condition.
These inhabit the rock of Gibraltar, at various seasons; supposed to come from Barbary, and other parts of Africa, in their way
to Spain, where they are also met with, and, we believe, occasionally
in other wanner parts of Europe.    They generally pass in flocks of
* The late Rev. John White, who had his doubts whether even the Cinereous Vulture was
not a further variety.
VOL. I. D
 18
■
,
forty or fifty, and some fall in or near Gibraltar, from fatigue, being^
exhausted from the length of their flight, and will frequently become
tame. They are, in general, sluggish and timid, being afraid even
of the common poultry. The flesh of dead animals is the food they
most greedily search after, and the more putrid, the more agreeable;
but as to fish, it is generally rejected.
They are fond of rolling themselves in the-dust, like common
poultry: when wetted by rain, expand, and flap their wings, in
order to drjh them, like the corvorant. In a state of confinement,
are observed not only to drink water, but delighted when a quantity
of it is thrown over them.
M. Levaillant says, they are met with frequently at the Cape of
Good Hope; and M. de la Peirouse* observes, that the adult male
is white, the female brown, and whilst growing, and yet young, are
often of a pale colour; spotted yellow and brown above, and
yellow beneath, and differ so materially from the old ones, as to
deceive the inexperienced.
Gmelin found the Fulvous and Golden Vultures together, on
the Alpine Mountains of Persia.
In Gen. Hardwicke's drawings is a Vulture, three feet or more in
length; head and whole neck bare of feathers, but white and rather
downy; round the eyes and chin dusky; bill black, moderately
hooked; irides brown; on the breast a bare pendulous craw or crop,
pear shaped, near five inches long, and dirty flesh colour; upper
'part of the plumage in general tawny brown, the feathers marked
down the shaft with a pale streak; under parts of the body pale
yellowish1; with paler streaks on the thighs; quills and tail black;
legs ash coloured, spotted with black; claws black, and hooked;
seen at/C&wnpore, in January.
* Neu. Abh. der Schw. Ac. der Wiss. S. 19.
 VULTURE.
19
10.—KOLBEN'S.
Vultur Kolbii, Ind. Orn. Sup., p. 1.   Daud. 1. p. 15.   Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 4. Id. ed. 2.
Le Chasse-fiente, Levait. Ois. pl. x.'
Kolben's Vulture,' Gin. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 12.
THIS is not quite so big as the last, but more common. The bill
is pale lead colour; iridesdeep brown; head and neck bare, except a
few scattered hairs, and of a pale dirty yellow; round the lower park
of the neck is a pale coloured ruff of loose feathers; the plumage is
mostly pale tawny yellowish, or Isabella colour; quills and tail black,
the latter very little exceeding.    The male is smaller'than the female.
Inhabits every where in Africa, but the Sociable Vulture chiefly
in the confines of the European plantations—it frequents the rocks or
high mountains, which cover the point of Africa from Cape Town: to
False Bay. Is su voracious and tame species, approaching near to
habitations, and even the streets of the Cape,; feeding on every kind of
offal, devouring also crabs, shell fish, land turtles &c. M. Temminck,
supposes it to belong to the: Fulvous Vulture, and a bird in imperfect
plumage.  4ffpf pt&M     iif.ff$gt-;
M. Levaillant observes, that'it is different from the Alpine
Vulture, as it ha^ hot the heart-shaped spot on the breast. The
colour is greatly different, and the wings longer in proportion—is
probably a young bird, of the following species.
Kolben's Vulture is said to be larger than a wild goose, partly
black, partly light grey; bill sharp and crooked, and the talons very
large and sharp; that they are in bodies of 100 or more; will attack
a sick or tired ox, and devour him, beginning at the belly, and so
tear out the flesh from under the skin, as to leave merely that and the
bones, before they quit the carcase.
D2
 gm
20
11—SOCIABLE.
Vultur auricularis, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. i.    Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 10*
L'Oricou, Levaill. Ois. i. pl. 9.    Shaw's Zool. vji, pl. 10.
Sociable Vulture, Syn. Sup. 2d. p. 11.
THIS is a large'species, and measures ten feetfrorfowingto wing
extended. The bill moderately hooked, pale brown; cere horn colour;
irides chesnut brown; head and neck naked, flesh coloured, beset
with a few straggling .brownish hairs; throat blackish; plumage,
above dark brown, the edges of the feathers paler; at the back of the
neck a pale brown ruff; and some loose feathers of the same, mixed
with white, hang over the breast, continuing to the vent; into this
ruff the bird draws down his head at will. The thighs are covered
below the knees with whitish down; under parts of the body the same;
tail somewhat cuneiform; legs brown and scaly; claws black.
Inhabits the interior of the Cape of Good Hope, but not seen at
the Cape itself; builds among the rocks, and lays two or three white
eggs. Is not the most solitary species, for three or four nests have been
found by the side of each other. The natives call it Ghaip, By the
Dutch colonists it is known by the name of Black Carrion Bird.
 12—ANGOLA.
21
Vultur Angolensis, IridsOrn. i. p. 7.
pp. 21. 27.        3*M
Cathartes Percnopterus, Catharte Alimoche, Tet
L'Ourigourap, Levaill. Ois. 62. pl. 14.
Vautour de Norvege, Pl. enl. 429.*
Rachamah, Bruce Tr. 5. t. p. 163.
Angola Vulture, Gen. Syn. i. 18.    Penn. Wales.
Gm.Lin. i. 252.    Mus. Lev. i. i.    Daud. Orn.
, Man. a" Orn. p. 5.
THIS is about half as big again as the kite—the bill whitish,
long, and but little hooked; cere bluish; orbits flesh coloured and
naked; hides straw coloured; head and neck clothed with feathers;
craw pendulous; plumage in general snow white; greater wing
coverts and primaries black, the last tipped with white; lower part of
the tail black, the end white; legs dirty white and scaly.
Two of these were brought from Angola, and placed in the
collection of Richard Parry Price, Esq. at Brynn y Pys; they were
very restless and querulous, and more active than is usual with this
sluggish race. One of them was preserved after death, and long filled
a place in the museum of the late Sir Ashton Lever. Levaillant found
it at the Cape of Good Hope.
* In this Plate the tail is wholly white.
 22
13.—MALTESE.
Vultur fulcusj Ind. Orn. i. p. 5.   Gm, Lin. 1.248.   Bris. 1. 455.  Id; 8vo. 130.   Daudin.
Orn. ii. p. 18.    Tern. Man. d' Orn. p. 5. 18.    Id. Ed. 2. p. 9.
Vultur Vilain, Zool. des Pyr. (Piest de la Perouae).
Avoltaio, Griffon, Cet. Uc. Sard. p. 1.
Vautour de Malte, Buf.i. 161.    Pl.enl. 427. l£»#VJW|
Maltese Vulture, Gen. Syn. i. 15.
SIZE of a small turkey. Bill black; head covered with brown
down | .neck clothed with narrow feathers; plumage in general brown;
prime quills darker, and white at the tips, spotted with brown; tail
grey brown; legs naked, yellowish.
This is not uncommon at Malta and Sardinia. We have supposed
it to be a further variety of the Ash-coloured Vulture, but, according
to M. TemminCk, it is a young bird of the Angola Vulture, in the
first years plumage.
14.—PONDICHERRY.
Vultur Ponticerianus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 7.   Daud. ii. p. 11.   Shaiv's Zool. vii. p. 25.   Nat.
Misc. pl. 941.
Vautour Royal de Pondichery, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 104.
Pondicherry Vulture, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 6.
SIZE of a goose. Bill black, hooked, short; base naked; head
and neck naked and flesh coloured; hind head and between the bill
and eyes downy, and flesh coloured; neck and breast tufted with fine
feathers; on each side of the neck a fleshy carunculated membrane,
 VULTURE. 2$
reaching from the ears to the lower part of the neck; plumage in
general otherwise black; legs yellow.
Inhabits the neighbourhood of Pondicherry; also found about
Bengal, and other parts of India.
15— CINEREOUS.
Vultur cinereus, Ind. Orw.i. p.l.     Gmel.Lin.\. p. 247.    Rati Syn. p. 9.      Will. Orn.
p. 35.    Klein. Av. p. 44.    Id. Ov. p. 18. t. 5. f. 5.    Faun. Arag. p. 67.    Daudin.
Orn. p. 16.    Bris.Orn.'i. p. 453.    Id. 8vo.l30.    Beckst. Deutsch.ii. s.197. t. viii.
Tern. Man. d> Orn. p. 2.    Id. Ed. 2. p. 4.
Arrian Geyer, N.Schw.Abh. B3. 100.    Allg. Ueb. d. Vog.I. p. 654.
Vantour, Buf.Ois.'i. p. 158. t.5.    Pl. Enlum.425.
Cinereous Vulture, Gen. Syn.'u p. 14.    Will. Orn.Engl.ed. p.66. No. 1.
THE length of this bird is 3ift. breadth 7fft.; the head and
upper part of the neck covered witi* brown down; under the throat is
a kind of beard, composed of feathers like hair. The general colour of
the plumage brown, but the quills and tail incline to ash colour;
Brisson says, the legs are feathered to the toes, which are yellow; the
claws black. In the Pl. Enlum. however, they are bare of feathers;
and M. Temminck assures us that they are so.
Inhabits various parts of Europe; according to Beckstein, the
length is 4ft. the breadth Oft. the tail 14in. long, and the wings, when
closed, reach three^fourths thereon. He says, it frequents mountains,
but in the winter is chiefly seen in the plains, where it attacks sheep,
hares, goats, and even deer. The farmers suffer severely from this bird,
as it will frequently pick out the eyes of sheep, but as it is not a very
shy species, it gives the huntsman some advantage, added to his being
well paid for shooting so destructive an eaevljt'^*'
 24
VULTURE.
' ! I
16—BENGAL—Pl. IV.
Vultur Bengalensis, Ind. Orn.i. p. 3.    Gm. Lin. i. 245.    Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 30.    Tern.
Man. Ed. 2. p. 5.
Vultur Percnopterus, Fem. Hasselq. It. 209.    Id. Eng. 194.
Bengal Vulture, Gen.Syn.i. 19. pl.l.    Id. Sup. p. 3.
THIS is 2!ft. in length; bill dark coloured; irides brown; upper
eye-lid furnished with hairs, like eye-lashes; head and neck covered
with brown down, but quite bare on the fore part from the chin to the
breast; round the lower part of the neck a sort of loose ruff, composed
of longish narrow feathers; the plumage in general dark brown; the
shafts of the feathers pale; quills nearly black, with the same pale
shafts; on the under part of the body the feathers are paler, but do not
greatly differ; the crop hangs over the breast, as in some others of this
genus; legs strong, warted, deep brown; claws black.
This was brought from Bengal. Levaillant says, the size is equal
to that of a turkey, and considering it as a species, thinks it to be the
female, and that the male is pale dirty rufous white; the head, beyond
the eyes, and throat, bare and saffron coloured; the rest of the neck
behind feathered, but on the fore part downy; quills nearly black.
The female is larger than the male, and the plumage less tinged with
red. This author adds, that it frequents the sterile lands of Karow and
Camdeboo, as also the country of Hottinqua, and other parts about
the Cape of Good Hope; chiefly seen in pairs, except attracted by
numbers of dead or putrid animals, when ten or twelve have been seen
in a flock. They build among the rocks, and lay four eggs; feed on
putrid flesh, also lizards, snake& frogs, and even excrements of beasts;
are naturally tame, and not difficult to beisJio^H <$)*• Shaw observes,
that they are in abundance about Cairo, where it is a great breach of
police to kill them, being esteemed sacred.
  nearly biae
itu* niuriia°*e less imarecl wi
i;C stf Hie &ft&V.Oi  KaiOW ^
nqua, and' other parts aho
iwJi&Yc been S€
fen? eggs; feed
-temeats of beas
iK. Shaw obs* r=
   VULTURE. 25
This bird is well represented among the drawings of Sir John
Anstruther, and about 40in. in length. The bill black; head and
neck bare; the ruff round the neck loose; said to be very common at
Hindustan, where it is called Gurra; in other parts of India known
by the name of Kurges. The bird here described is by some supposed
to be the young of the Angola Vulture, but we rather think it to be
the Cinereous species, in its immature feathers.
17—ASH-COLOURED.
Vultur leucocephalus, Ind. Orn.\. p.2.    Bris. 1.466.    Id. Svo.i. 134.
Vultur percnopterus, Hasselq. It. 209.    If. Poseg. 27.    Faun. Arag. 67. 1.
Vultur cinereus, Germ. i. t. 14.   Act. Stockh. 1751. 196. Hasselq.
Vultur Albus, Raii. 10. 6.     Will. 35. 6.    Id. Eng. 67.    Klein. 44. 5.    Id. Ov. 18. t.
5. f.3.
Le Petit Vautour, Buf. i. 164.
Ash-coloured Vulture, Gen. Syn. i. p. 13. Far. A*
THIS is said to be about the size of a large cock; the body
soot coloured, spotted with chesnut; head and neck white, marked
with brown lines; quills half white and half dusky; base of the tail
white. Brisson's bird had the base of the tail white, then brown, with
the end white.    We are doubtful whether this is a distinct species.
18.—HARE.
Vultur'eristatus, Ind. Orn.'i.   p. 6.     Gm. Lin. i. 250.    Briss. i. 460.     Id. 8vo 132.
Daudin ii. p. 22.    Beckst. Deutsch. 2. 202.    Shaw. Zool. vii. 44.
Vultur leporarius, Raii. p. 10.   Will.35. Klein. Av. 44. Id. Ov. t. 5 f. 2. Gerin. 1.1. 9.
Hasengeyer, Naturf. 8. S.42.
Vautour k Aigrettes, Buf. i. 159.
Hare Vulture, Gen. Syn. i. 17.    Will. Eng. p. 67.
SIZE of the golden eagle; extent of wing sometimes more than
six feet; bill black; hides hazel; plumage in general glossy reddish
 26 VULTURE.^
black, inclined to fulvous on the breast; legs bare of feathers, yellow;
daws black; the feathers of the head elongated, and capable of being
erected into. a, crest. pgg |)^
This Vulture is found in the deep and thiek forests of PriissfeM
and other parts of Germany, frequenting"tall trees, and preying on
birds of all kinds, alsq/m.goats, deer, hares, and rabbits; flies very
swift and runs so fast, as often to catch its prey, by chasing them
down. When sitting or standing, it erects the crest, appearing, as it
were, horned, the crest being in two parts; but during flights the
crest is not visible. *s*.$i'
19.—INDIAN.
.jljjfultitr Iiidicus^^^jOrftioT^ .Zfefti. ft; <12.    SkfywiiZool. vii. p. 26.
GrandVautour des lndes, Sen. Voy. Ind. ii.vh 105.
IndianVulture, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 6.
SIZE of a goose; bill, black; irides red; head and neck bare of
feathers, and rufous; the head covered with a loose down, like hair;
neck rather long, and beset with tufts of very fine feathers; those on
the breast short, appearing as if clipped or shaved, and in the lower
part of the neck they are long, narrow, and pointed, and bright
rufous; the wing coverts, backhand rump, theveblour of brdwn
umber; and each featliervtipped with a pale bahdtT quills, %i}, and
legs black. £ A'jppi
Inhabits India, and is very voracious, found, in the daytime, on
the banks of the sea, Waiting%r the dead fish, Which are thrown up;
is fond also of JPfttfid, carcasses., which it oftenfjl^gs out of the ground;
itmes heavily, though the wings arey eryrsfeonff.     , dd tt
  tyt^ia*/ rjduttu
 -   a    : :   ~ ,     ill     th •   ' -
. ^:vyiyL .ov dim  ri^lli colour-;- ?jomTh pemoTiy;
- the bilj, front, and- sides of tlie head b.-m-: ■ vrvij-
with natrow feather,/mich >,lv
>3?e -aml/ends, -|	
black; leas yeftowi
•--   ^H-       .'5
 I
1
mJ,
 27
20.—TAWNY.
Vultur ambustus, Ind. Orn. i. 8.    Daud. ii. 26.    Shaw. Zool. vii. 44.
Falco ambustus, Gm. Lin. i. 252.
Tawny Vulture, Geni Syn.i. 19.    Brown III. p. 2. pl. i.
THE length of this bird is 2ft. 4in.; bill dusky, short, and
thick; cere large, beset with bristles; between the bill and eyes
naked; the rest of the head covered with feathers; on the chin a
tuft of long slender feathers^ like a beard; plumage, in general, pale
tawny; wing coverts mixed with brown; tail dirty white, barred with
brown; legs slender, bluish; claws long, slightly bent.
Inhabits Falkland Islands.
21.—GIXGL—Pl. V.
Vultur Ginginianus, Lid. Orn. i. 7.    Daud. ii. 20.    Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 32.
Vautour de Gingi, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 184.
Gingi Vulture, Gen. Spi. Sup. p. 7.
SIZE of a turkey; bill rather slender, hooked at the end, and
greyish or dirty flesh colour; nostrils pervious; irides red; base of
the bill, front, and sides of the head bare, wrinkled, anci reddj&h.
the crown covered with narrow feathers, much elongated, and capable
of being erected into a crest, and when at its utmost elevation,
several of them curve forwards over the crown; the general colour
of the rest of the plumage is also white; the second quills are black
at the base and ends, and white in the middle; the greater ones
wholly black; legs yellowish grey.
 The female differs in having the long feathers at the back of the
head shorter than in the male, and the skin of the head more smooth.
This bird is not uncommon in various parts of India, on the
coast of Coromandel, where it is called the wild turkey; is probably that mentioned, in Essais philosophiques, to be almost white;
the head and neck covered with fine short bristly feathers; with long
quills, towards the. end blackish grey; this is found to fly quick and
light; to be very voracious and timid; generally found singly on some
hillock in the marshes, where it feeds chiefly on carrion, but prefers
reptiles.
In the last named work* another is mentioned of the same size; the
male marbled brown; female iron grey; head and half the neck
naked; wrinkled, and covered with reddish yellow excrescences, with-
scattered hair between; said to be often met with in flocks of twenty
or thirty, eating the flesh of a dead beast.
Among the drawings, both of Sir J. Anstruther and Lord Va-
lentia, are figures of a white one, corresponding with the above
description, and is named Gid; a second, with the same appellation,
as well as make and shape, with the plumage of reddish brown and
grey in various shades; tail feathers pale at the ends; quills black;
the feathers about the head and neck narrow and elongated, as in the
white one; the bare space on the fore part of the head bluish dusky
white; legs pale brown.
From the names of both the white and the brown being alike, Gid,
we may fairly suppose them to be one species, differing only in sex or
age, except that word may signify a name for Vultures in general.
One answering to the latter description, according to a drawing
made by Mr. Salt, is also found in Abyssinia.
Both these are among the drawings of Gen. Hardwicke; the
brown one has the brown feathers more or less pale down the shaft,
but on the breast and belly they enlarge into spots; on the back and
* Ess. Philos. p. 58.
 VULTURE. 2&
the shoulders, and down the middle of the wings, the colour inclines
to buff; tail plain, pale ash colour; the legs of the white one pink;
of the other pale, nearly white.
22—CHOCOLATE.
THE general colour of the plumage deep chocolate brown;
middle wing coverts deep brownish red, or liver colour, forming a
sweeping bar across the wing; head and throat bare, and dirty red,
but the back of the head and neck covered with feathers; crop or
craw bare, dirty red; the bill nearly strait, or little curved, horn
coidur, with a conspicuous cere; legs stout, scaly, pale yellowish
brown; claws almost strait, and whitish.
Inhabits India, where it is called Gid.
Length four feet; bill more than three inches, black; under
mandible brown; cere and base flesh colour; head covered with
brown down; eye surrounded with a bare flesh coloured space—a
streak of the same from behind to the hind head, and another on
eaeh lower jaw, the rest of the plumage wholly deep brown; the
feathers round the throat formed as a raff*; the wings reach three-
fourths on the tail; legs pale red, feathered halfway on the shins;
claws rather hooked.
Inhabits India, probably allied to the last described—General
Hardwicke.
 30
23—ARABIAN^ %W
Vultur Mouachus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 5.    Lin. Syst. i. 122.    Gm. LinA. 246.-   Daud. ii. 15.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 19. pl. 7. 8. 9.    ZV/». Man. d'Orn, p. 3.
Vultur leporarius, Gerin. 1. t. 9.
Vultur Arabicus, Bris. App. p. 29.   Jrf.8vo,i. 138.
Crested Black Vulture, .BdMj. pl. 290.
Arabian Vulture, Gen. Syn. i, p. 8.
THIS is a large species, having an extent of wing of nine feet;
bill bluish at the base, with a black tip; cere blue ; hides hazel; head
and neck covered with downy ash-coloured feathers; the crown
gibbous, being elevated into a large knobj*< orbits white; on the
shoulders an ash-coloured ruff of loose feathers,; ^rto^Mch the bird
can draw its head during sleep. The plumage on the body is dusky
brown, paler beneath; lesser wing coverts tipped with white; quills
and tail dusky dark brown; thigh feathers long and loose, so as
nearly to cover the legs, which are bluish; claws black.
M. Levaillant adds, that the irides are whitish, and the crop large
and round. In a state of rest, especially after a full meal, it draws*
the head into the ruff, resting the bill on the crop, in which staieat!<
appears a shapeless mass of feathers, especially as the bird is never
observed to fold the wings over the tail, but to droop them down
carelessly on each side.. Wi^cfcJ
M. Levaillant's bird was brought from China. Mr. Edwards
says, that his came from Arabia. La Perouse observes, that it is fohnd
about the Pyrenees, in the same place with the Cinereous Vulture.
Mr. White saw it once or twice at Gibraltar, but it is, we believe, no
where common. Supposed by some to be the same as the Cinereous
Vulture.
 31
24—ABtSSINIAN.
MR. SALT* observes, that vast numbers of Vultures are found
throughout Abyssinia, following the armies in times of war, and
mentions a large one, which he supposes to be new. In this the bill
is bright orange colour,* strongly hooked; the space under the orbit of
the eye, arid the whole of the neck bare, and flesh coloured ; its head
dirty whitepwit&i^hood or crest of a spongy substance, covered with
down on the back of it. It hadt*&' fcirge ruff* of dark feathers round
the tiase of the neck, and me^wlkol^of the upper part of the body of
a cmereous brown colour.
25.—CHINCOU.
Le Chincou, Levaill. Ois. afr. pl. 12.    Daud. 2. p. 12.
EXTENT of wing nine feet. The bill is bluish white, thick at
the base; and horn coloured at the tip; plumage in general brown; on
the top of the head is a loose downy crest; the rest of the head,
cheeks, and mrbat, covered wim a fine black down; eyelids white; on
the neck a ruff of narro^f dendei*'ie£thers; forepart of the neck bluish;
over the crop an appendage hanging fikel'a bladder; quills and tail
dusky; legs whitish ;■ clawsPnorn colour.
Said to inhabit China—in the menagerfy'o^M. Ameshof, near
Amsterdganv'<1 Wile*thisfcwrdi^at resr,4t draws the hehcrinto the rufl*,
with me bill - siipported on the eropj and7the Wm^s drooping1 down.
It isaveiy spitefulbird; a^d*®^^fe¥eo!bn:mwflesh, which it''devours
very greedily.
IE DA6 •   * Voy. Abyssi p. xliii.
 32
26— CHAGOUN.
Vautour Chagoun, Levaill. Ois. pl. IL   Daud. 2. p. 12.
SIZE of a hen turkey; bill dusky horn colour; nostrils elongated,
placed transversely in a black cere; plumage in general black-brown;
shafts of the breast and belly feathers white; on each wing a large
white spot; quills and tail dusky; second quills bordered with rufous;
legs grey; middle toe twice as long as those on each side; claws black;
head and hind part of the neck covered with dirty white hairs; the
lower with down, and a large white ruff"; fore part of the neck bluish,
with some straggling hairs; appendage on the crop covered with fine,
silky, black-brown feathers.
Inhabits Bengal, and called there Chagoun.
27—NEW HOLLAND.—Pl. VI.
THE precise length and breadth of this fine Vulture I have not
been able to ascertain, but it is of a large size, for when standing erect
the head is 33 in. from the ground. The bill is moderately hooked
and black; the whole head and neck flesh coloured, inclining to
orange; round the eyes and on the cheeks quite bare, but the rest
thick set with*short black bristles; the back and wings dirty brown,
with a silky gloss in some lights, appearing black; the lower part of
the back and rump brown black; the under part, from the breast,
brown; the feathers narrowly edged with pale colour, but those of the
breast are nearly black, and the pale margins broader, almost white;
middle of the belly and thighs slightly varied with the pale colour ;
vent and under tail coverts loose, silky, and long, and in colour nearly
  1m iiiifili iiimL ftVilli (hi -fore
- -•" • i
rilh but.those of
ittargnih Iwoader, > almost wk
[iy ;-vaieti with the pale--cold
and long, and in colour nes
   VfJLTURE, 33
black.   Quills and tail rather darker than the back, the latter longish,
rounded at the end, and .the quills reach to about half its length.
The legs and toes are moderately stout, dirty yellow, and scaly; claws
of the same colour,; somewhat strait, and blunt at the ends.
Inhabits New South Wales—Gen. Davies,
28— CHERIWAY.
Vultur Cheriway, Ind. Orn. i. p. 8.    Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 43.
Falco Cheriway, Gm. Lin.'x. 254.    Jacq. Vog. p. 17. t. 4.    Daudin. ii. p. 42.
Cheriway Vulture, GeW. Syn. Sup. p. 5.
.-it THIS is frill 2£feet in length. Bill pale blue; head and neck
very pale yellow; hind-head crested; cere, and round the eyes rose
colour; plumage in general ferruginous, paler beneath; vent white;
quills and tail dusky black, tiie middle feathers of the latter barred
with dusky; legs pale yellow.
Inhabits the Island of Aruba, on the coast of Venetznela, in
South America,
29—BOLD.
Vultur audax, 2nd. Orn. Sup. p.i
Bold Vulture, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii.
i.    Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 45.
p. 10.
SIZE uncertain. Bill pale yellow, with a black tip; plumage
deep brown; sides of the head bare as far as the eyes, and somewhat
beneath them, and the colour of these parts very pale; quills and
 34 VULTURE.
tail darker than the rest of the body, nearly black; shins feathered
to the toes, flesh colour, dotted with black.
Inhabits New Holland, is a fierce species, and called Boorra
Morang. The natives say, it kills the Pottegorang, and sometimes
attacks the natives themselves.
30.-PLAINTIVE.
Vultur plancus, Ind. Orn. i. 8.    Share's Zool. vii. 41.
Falco plancus, Gm. Lfti. i. 257.    Mill. ill. pl. 17.    Cook's Voy. ii. 184. pl. 32.    Daud.
ii. 42.
Plaintive Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. p. 32.    Id. Sup. p. 4. Vulture.
THE length of this bird is 28in.; bill 2in. long, not much
hooked, black; at about a quarter from the end begins a! yellow cere,
extending backwards round the eyes, almost to the top of the head.
fSamnostrils placed just within the cere. The colour of the whole of
the bare parts yellow; the fore part of the neck is nearly destitute of
feathers; top of the neck and head behind brown; the upper part of
the body barred brown and white; wings brown; tail white, crossed
with blackish bars, and the end, for an inch, of the same colour; the
base of the four first quills marked as the tail; legs yellow; claws black*
moderately hooked, and blunt at the end.
Inhabits Terra del Fuego.
 35
31— BEARDED.
p. 200. 1.12. 126. the headland
p. 280.
Vultur barbatus, Ind, Orn. i. p. 3.    Lin. Syst. i. 123.    Gm.Lin.i. 252. Falco.    Gerin.
Orn. i. p. 49. 1.11.    Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 12. pl. 5. 6.
Vultur alpinus, Bris. i. 464.  2d. App. p.26.   Id. 8vo. i. 133.   Daud. Orn. ii. p. 25. pl. x.
Percnopterus, s. Gypaetos, Raii. Syn. p. 8.    Will. p. 33.    Id. Engl. p. 65. t. 4.    Storr.
Alpenr. i. p. 69.
Gypaetus barbatus, Gypaete barbu, Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 6.    2d. Ed. 2. p. 11.
Laemmergeyer, Buf. i. 193.    Andr. Br. aus der Schw
foot.    Dec. Russ. ii. pl. 8.    Cox's Switz. ii. pl. in.
Der Bartgeyer, Beckst. Deutsch.ii. s. 199.    2d. Ed. 2. v, 2. p. 502.
Avoltoio barbato, Cet. Uc. Sard. p. 16.
Vulturine Eagle, Albin. ii. t. 3.
THE length of this bird is about four feet, breadth nine; weight
twenty-two pounds; bill four inches long, of a dull flesh colour; the
cere, and naked part about 'the eyes the same; eyelids red; hides
yeHow hazel; the forehead black, passing round the eyes, and
behind them; on each jaw a streak of black, and under the lower
mandible is a large tuft of black feathers, hanging down like a
beard, and divided into two at the point; inside of the mouth blue;
the head covered with white down; the neck with narrow, long,
pointed, whitish feathers; plumage on the body blackish brown
above, the feathers with paler edges; under parts brownish white,
with a kind of gloss; quills and tail brownish ash colour; thighs
very stout, 6 in. long, and the legs only 4 in. the latter covered with
downy feathers; toes lead colour; claws brown.
A.—Vultur barbarus, 2nd. Orn. i. p. 3.    Gmel. Lin. i. p. 250.
Vultur barbatus, Bris. Orn. App. p. 26.    Id. 8vo. i. p. 137.
Bearded Vulture, Gen. Syn. i. p. 11.    Id. Sup. ii. p. 6.    Edw. t. 106.    Share's Zool. vii.
p. 12. pl.5.    Robert. Ic. pl. 2.
This, which is the one figured by Edwards, is one-fourth
smaller.    The bill purplish flesh colora**; inside of the mouth blue;
F2
 MHHH
36 VULTURE.
eyelids red; irides yellow; head downy; forehead, cheeks, and round
the eyes black, narrowing into a fillet behind each eye, meeting
at the nape, and encircling the head; the neck covered with long,
narrow, whitish feathers, and a tuft of black ones under the lower
mandible; upper part of the back, &c. dark brown, under parts
brownish white; legs downy; toes lead colour—the outer and middle
one joined by a strong skin.
This was brought from Santa Cruz, in Barbary.
B.—Vultur aureus, Bris. i. 458. Id. 8vo. 132. Raii. Syn. p. 10. Nos. 3 and 5. Witt*
Orn. p. 35. Id. Engl. p. 67. Pall. n. nord. Beytr. iv. 84. S. G. Gmel. It. iv. 185..
Gesn. Av. t. in. p. 708.
Vultur boetlcus, Raii. p. 10. No. 3.    Will. p. 35. No. 3.
Chesnut Vulture,  Will. Engl. p. 6. No. 3.
Golden Vulture, Will. Engl, p. 67. 5. t. 4.    Gen. Syn. i, p. 18.
This Vulture is more than 4£ ft. in length; head and hind part of
the neck rufous white; body black above, and rufous beneath; quills
and tail brown; shafts of the feathers on the upper parts white; legs
covered with rufous down, as far as the toes, which are brown; claws
horn colour,
C.—Falco magnus,  S. G. Gmelin It. iii. 365. t.
i. p. 4. No. 6, y.
Gm. Lin. i. 252. 38. j.   Ind^Orn*
This is said by Gmelin to have a blue cere; the plumage
brown, and under part of the body chesnut with a mixture of white;
the tail ash colour.
The two former of the birds recorded under this head as varieties
of each other, or rather the same bird, seem to admit of no doubt; the
two latter for want of a fuller description appear to be less certain,
though Gmelin affirm it. The probability is, that they may prove to
be the Vulture called Laemmergeyer* by the Germans, which is the
Bearded Vulture. This bird is a very ferocious species, and consequently much dreaded.    The places in which it is found are widely
* Lamb Vulture—but several of the Eagles equally destroy lambs.
 . VULTURE.
37
extended; is not unfrequenfJy about Ghilan in Persia, where it preys
not only on sheep, but calves; very common in Tyrol and the Switzerland Alps, and the terror of the inhabitants. As it is the largest of
European birds, great rewards are given for the killing one, more
especially as they have been known to destroy young children. On
this account, it is said, to be customary for parents, when obliged to be
absent, to fasten their infants to trees, in order to prevent their being
carried off*. Supposed to breed chiefly in Egypt, as it is seen there in
great flocks, among other birds of prey, which unite on the banks of
the Nile, to feed on the putrid carcasses left there by the overflowing
of that river. Is also an occasional inhabitant of Gibraltar, migrating
there annually in the spring; they hover over the rock in pairs; are
vulgarly called Rock Eagles, and seem disposed to reside and breed
there, but are constantly assaulted and disturbed, not only by the jack
daws, but by a pair of ravens, who claim an exclusive right to the
district, and will not suffer any large bird of the Genus, or order, to
breed there.
Pallas observes, that this bird makes the nest and brings up its
young on the high rocks of the great Altaic Chain, and beyondf the
Lake Baikal.
32—BLACK.
Vultur niger, Ind. Orn. i. p. 6/   Gnu Lin. i. 248.    Briss. i. 457.   Id. 8vo. i. 131.    Raii.
p. 9.    WiU. 35.   Daud* ii. 17.    Shaw Zool* vii. 31.
Swarthy Vulture, Charl. Ex. p. 71.
Black Vulture, Gen. Syn. i. 16.    WiH. Eng. p. 66.
THIS is said to exceed the Golden Vulture in size; the plumage
black, except the wings and tail, which are brown; legs feathered to
the toes.
This is frequently met with in Egypt. Mr. Temminck thinks
it to be a young bird of the Bearded specks.
 38
SECRETARY,
GENUS II.   SECRETARY.
JtSlLL shorter than the head, hooked, base covered with a cere.
Nostrils in the cere, near the base, open.
Round the eyes bare of feathers.
At the bend of the wing two or more horny knobs, or blunt
spurs.
Legs very long—toes moderate, united at the base, and very
rough beneath.
SECRETARY—Plate VII.
Tultur Serpentarius, Ind. Orn. i. p. 8.    Cimelphysic, t. 28.    Nat. Misc. No. 857.
Falco Serpentarius, Gm. Lin. i. p. 250.    Miller, III. p. 28. A. B.
Serpentarius, Snake-eater, Shaw's Zool. vii. pt. i. 46. pl. 14.
Grus capensis cauda cristata, Petiv. Gaz. t. 12. f. 12.
SagittaVius, Phil Trans, lxi. p. 55. pl. 2. Vosm. monog. t. 8.
Secretarius reptilivorus, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 30. pl. ii.
Messager, Tern. Man. ed. ii. p. xlviii.
Slaangen vraater, Sparm. Voy. i. p. 194.
Mangeur des Serpens, Levaill. Ois. pl. 25.
Secretaire, Messager, Buf. vii. p. 328. pl. 17. pl. enl.721.    Son. Voy. p. 87. pl. 50.
Ibis, Gent. Mag. v.. xxxix pl. in. p. 568.
Secretary Vulture, Gen. Syn. i. p. 29. pl. 2.    2d. Sup. .p. 4.
THIS is a most curious species, remarkable for the great length
of its legs, which at first sight might induce one to think it belonged
to the Waders, but the characters of the Vulture are so strongly
marked, as to create much doubt in what class it ought to be placed.
When standing erect the head is full three feet from the ground,
il
  is,, C>rrtA, Mag- ▼
,->.-,?;-...-.<■ ._■ :     -• ■■ .,: f^$i hit toe firP'eat leoflrtxi
.tint ^ ^ mm jritiijiiitf it tirTnite:iiif
 f
  SECRETARY.
39
The bill is black, sharp, and crooked, as in the eagle, somewhat
compressed towards the point; the gape very wide; cere white;
round the eyes bare and orange coloured; irides pale grey; the
upper eyelids beset with strong bristles, like eyelashes; head, neck,
breast, and upper parts of the body bluish ash colour; bastard wing,
quills, vent, and thighs black, the last speckled with white, in some
plain—at the bend of the wing one or more roundish knobs; the five
first quills longer than the rest; tail cuneiform, but the two middle
feathers are double the length of the others, in colour much like that
of the body, but darker; the ends of all the feathers, for above an
inch, black, but the very tips are white; under parts of the body
dusky white, but on the belly the white has a mixture of dusky %
legs very long, stouter than those of the heron, yellowish brown, and
feathered below the joint.* From the hind-head springs a kind of
elongated tuft* Composed of ten feathers, growing broader towards
the ends, arising in pairs of different lengths, and of a dusky bluish
colour. These are in general pendent on the hind part of the neck,
but can be erected so as to form a beautiful crest, at the will of the
bird.
The female is paler in colour, and the feathers of the crest, as
well as the two middle tail feathers, shorter than in the male, and in
young birds the two middle feathers are little, if at all elongated.
This most singular and elegant bird inhabits the internal parts of
the Cape of Good Hope, as well as other parts of Africa, and is also
met with in the Philip jritfg Islands; is called at the Cape Slangeater,
Snake-eater, from its address in destroying those reptiles. Dr. Sparr-
man mentions that at first it opposes one wing, and then the other, to
avoid the bite of the snake, as well as to bruise it; and soon after spurning and treading upon it, frequently" tossing it with its pinions into
the air; after which the adversary being wearied out, the bird is enabled to kill and eat it without damage.     It feeds also on rats and
* M. Sonnerat says this bird is naked above the knee joint, which is uot the case.
 40
SECRETARY,
lizards; sometimes small turtles, and even large beetles. Dr. Solan-
der mentioned to me, that he has seen one of these take up a snake or
tortoise in its claws, and dash it from thence against the ground, with
sach violence as sometimes at one attempt to kill it. And^another
peculiarity is, that the Secretary strikes or kicks forward with the
leg, never backwards. It is not a shy bird, and on being roused,
first tries to escape by hopping and running, which it does very swiftly,
taking wing only when it is not otherwise able to get off*.
The male and female are for the most part seen together. They
make a large nest on the tops of tall trees, and line it with wool and
feathers, though sometimes on shrubs, find trees of lower growth, laying
two white eggs, marked with rufous spots, about the size of those of a
goose; but longer. If taken young it is easily tamed, and will mix
with the common poultry, feeding on rats, lizards, and even locusts,
and other insects, rarely attacking chickens, exbapt driven thereto
from the utmost necessity. It will feed on flesh, whether raw or
cooked, also fish and many other things, but by no means on any of
the vegetable tribe. It certainly is a most useful bird, serving as the
Ibis in Egypt to destroy great numbers of noxious creatures; is said to
have been first introduced into England by Captain Purvis in one of
the East India Company's ships in the year 1769*.
From the different synonyms recorded above, it appears that
authors have been much at a loss where to place this birdi aftd although
we have before ranked it with the Vulture, it seems rattier to hold a
a place between that and the Ealcon genus, Dr. Shaw, as also Mr.
Illiger, and Temmmck, are of opinion that it should form a separate
genus of itself, and the two latter have given it the Latin name of
Gypogeranusf to this we can have no objection, well aware that it
does not coincide exactly with either of the genera above-mentioned,
* »Edw> Glean, v. p. 24.
| See Tern. Man. d'Orn. Ed. p. xlviii.
 * European.
1 Bald Eagle
A Cinereous E
B Lesser white-tailed E
C Var.
2 SeaE
3 Bearded E
4 Imperial E
5 Russian E
6 Genoese E
7 Ring-tailed E
A White-tailed E
B Black E
8 Golden E
A White E
9 Tiger E
10 Osprey E
A Arundinaceous O
B Carolina O
C Cayenne O
D Leverian O
11 White-crowned E
12 Courland E
13 Jean le blanc E
14 Rough-footed E
15 Spotted E
16 Dransberg E
17 Rough-legged Falcon
IS Booted F
A Var.
19 Sclavonian F
20 Jerfalcon
A Iceland J
21 Collared F
22 Brown F
23 Spotted F
VOL. I.
/FALCON.
41
GENUS III.   FALCON.
24 Honey Buzzard
41 Goshawk
A Dubious F
42 Greater Buzzard
25 Long-tailed F
43 GentilF
E
26 Margined F
44 Common F
27 Common Buzzard
A Yearling F
A Ash-coloured B
B Haggard F
B Feather-legged B
C White-headed F
C White B
D White F
28 Peregrine F
E RedF
A Tartarian F
F Red Indian F
B Barbary F
G Italian F
29 Lanner
45 Sacre F
A White L
A American S
B Abyssinian L
46 Mountain F
30 Starry F
A Ash-colouredMF
31 Moor B
47 Hobby
A Rusty F
A Dourelah H
B Var.
48 Greater H
32 Harpy F
49 Ingrian F
33 Grey F
50 Permian F
34 Northern F
51 Orange-legged H
A Winter F
52 Kestril
35 Ash-coloured F
A Lark Hawk
36 Hen-Harrier F
B GreyK
A Var.
C Var.
B White
53 Lesser Kestril
C Hudson's Bay
54 Severe
D Cayenne
55 Bohemian F
37 Kite   .
56 Sparrow-Hawk
A Chestnut-headed K
A Spotted Sp. H
B Russian K
B White Sp. H
C Violaceous K
57 Merlin
38 Black K
A Caribbee M
A Austrian K
B Falconer's M
39 Parasite F
C Intermixed M
40 Arabian K
58 Stone F
G
>      (
 It
42
59 Siberian F
* * African Sf Asiatic.
60 Crowned Eagle
61 Occipital E
62 Vulturine E
63 Martial E .
64 Noisy E
65 Noble E
66 Cheela E
67 Maritime E
68 Fierce E
69 Pondicherry E
70 Bido E
71 Brown-backed E
A Frooss E
72 Kumpa-Maur E
73 Koorul E
74 Jerwied E
75 Cawnpore E
. 76 Chinese E
77 Bauj E
78 Asiatic E
79 Fishing E
80 Bengal Osprey
81 Piscivorous E
82 Blagre E
83 Marine E
84 New-Zealand E
85 Madagascar F
86 Oriental F
87 Javan F
88 Testaceous F
A Javan F
89 Lake F
90 Cohy F
91 Crested Indian F
A Var.
92 Ceylonese Crested F
93 ChicqueraF
94 Nasal F
95 Japonese F
96 Short-tailed F
97 Bacha F
FALCON.
98 Long-legged F
99 Black-thighed F
100 Behree F
101 Rhomboidal F
102 Chanting F
103 Rufous-eared F
104 Jackal F
105 Ranivorous F
106 Desert F
107 Tachard F
108 Black & Wh. Indian F
A Pied F
109 Cotta F
110 Sonnini's F
111 Black-eyed K
112 CheelF
113 Criard F
A Black-winged F
114 Fasciated F
115 Zuggun F
116 Jugger F
117 Konta F
118 Muskooroo F
119 Sharp-tailed F
120 Sagittal F
121 Justin F
122 Brown and White F
123 Indian F
124 Johanna F
125 Long-billed F    .
126 Buff-headed F
127 Senegal F
128 Tawny-headed F
129 Libyan F
130 Red-nosed F
131 Grey-winged Kestril
132 Rufous-backed K
133 Sharp-tailed K
134 Calcutta Sparrow-Hawk
135 Bassun Fi
136 Bengal F
137 Soolo F
138 Chipuck F
139 Brown's H
140 Speckled Sparrow-Hawk
141 Red-legged F
142 Dwarf F
143 Minute F
*** New-Holland, Sfc.
144 Mountain E
145 Lacteous E
146 New-Holland White E
147 Black-eyed E
148 White-headed Rufous E.
149 New-Holland F
150 Ash-headed F
151 Port Jackson F
A Var.
152 Winking F
153 Radiated F
154 New-Holland Spar./H
155 Dark Sparrow-Hawk
156 Leaden-backed H
157 Axillary F
158 Parametta F
A Var.
159 Pale F
160 Pacific F
161 Lunated F
162 Yellow-chinned F
163 Bird H
164 Ash-tailed F
165 Cream-bellied F
166 Black-shouldered F
167 Ash-brown F
168 Dark F
**** American.,
169 Crested E
170 Crowned E
171 Royal E
172 Tyrant E
173 Destructive E
174 Brazilian E
175 Equinoctial E
176 Black-cheeked E
177 Black-backed E
 FALCON.
178 Janeiro E
198 Black H
223 Pigeon H
179 Louisiana White E
A Var.
224 Sharp-shinned H
180 Statenland E
199 Sooty F
225 Slate-coloured F
181 White-breasted E
200 Chocolate F
226 Brown-backed F
182 White-bellied E
201 Red-thioated F
227 Barred-tail F
A Var.
202 Jamaica B
228 Blue-backed F
183 Tharu.E
203 Mingled B
229 Great-billed F
184 White-rumped E
204 Speckled B
230 American Brown H
185 Mansfeny E
205 Broad-winged F.
231 Rufous-bellied F
186 Maculated E
206 Brown & Tawny F
232 Surinam F
187 Plumbeous F
207 Yellow-toed F
233 Laughing F
A Var.
208 American B
234 White-fronted F
188 Columbine E
209 Buzzaret
235 Spotted-tailed H
189 Streaked F
210 White-breasted F
236 Hobby B
190 Caracca E
211 Barred-breasted B.
237 Orange-breasted H.
191 White-necked E
212 Cayenne F
238 Little F
A Var.
213 Long-shanked F
239 Abbotian F
192 Azara'sE
214 Marsh Hawk
240BerbiceF
193 Black-necked F
215 American F
241 Cayenne Sp. H
194 Notched F
216 Rusty and Grey F
242 Greater Cayenne Sp. H
195 Rufous-headed F
217 Swallow-tailed- F
243 Guiana F
196 Plain F
218 Brazilian K
244 Pied Sp. Hv
197 Crested Goshawk
219 Mississippi K
245 Accipitrine F
A Mauduit'sG
220 Salvador F
246 Tiny
B Guiana G
221 St. John's F
I1 222 Newfoundland^
247 Pygmy F-
43
1 HE bill in this Genus is hooked, and furnished with a waxy skin
at the base, called the cere, in which, the nostrils are placed.
Tongue bifid at the end.
Head and neck furnished with feathers.
Legs and feet scaly for the most part, middle toe connected to
the outmost, as far as the first joint, by a strong membrane.
Claws large, much hooked, and very sharp, that of the outer
toe the least.
The female larger and stronger than the male.
G2
 44 FALCON.
This genus of birds is so well known, that scarcely any person
in possession of one can be at a loss where to place it. The only
mistake likely to happen, is the confounding it with the first genus,
for the reasons therein mentioned. The chief characteristics of the
Falcon, independent of a certain degree of nakedness about the head
and neck, seen in the Vulture, are the bill and claws, both of them
being very hooked and sharp. The luxury of the Falcon, for the
most part, is to kill its own prey, and to eat it while fresh ; and both
this and the Vulture often take in as much food as will last for many
days. The food of birds of this genus is not always flesh; many of the
Falcons will eat fish, and some'are content with snakes and reptiles,
as will be noticed hereafter. The circumstance of birds of the Falcon
Genus, casting up at intervals, the indigestible part of their food,
such as bones, feathers, hair, wool, &c. has been mentioned by all
writers on falconry; and falconers are so convinced of this discharge
being salutary and necessary, that when they feed their Hawks with
flesh, they intermix pellets of wool, or cotton. Few birds vary more
in the plumage according to age, which has been the occasion of
more species being enumerated than really exist. It is observed, that
every climate is furnished with them, not^being confined, like the
Vulture, to the wanner regions. It is not known that the Falcon
tribe ever unites into companies, and, except in the breeding season,
seldom two are seen together, at least there are not many instances
tfo the contrary.
We have thought right to separate the species of this genus
into divisions, according to the different countries they inhabit, at
least as far as our knowledge of them has enabled us. We have
'likewise, for the most part, followed \%e names given by former
describers, such as Eagle, Falcon, Hawk, Kite, Buzzard, &c. by
this means d1s%urbfi*g, as diffle as possible, the arrangement of
older authors.
 46
* EUROPEAN.
1.—BALD EAGLE.
Falco leucocephalus, Ind. Orn. i. ] 1, Lin. i. 124. Gm. Lin. i. 255.
8vo.i.'i2SL Gerin. 1. t. 8. Shaw's Zool. vii. 78. Amer. Orn.\
129.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 11   Id. Ed. 2. p. 52.
Falco pygargus, Daud. ii. 62.
Fischadler, Beckst. Deuts. ii. 222. taf. ix.    Naturf. 8. s. 46.
Le Pygargue, B«/.i. 99.    Pl. enl. 411.
White headed Eagle, .4r<*. Zoo/, ii. No. 89.
Bald Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. 29.    2d. Sup. p. 9.    Bartr. Trav. 286.
Briss. i. 422.
Sj pl. 36.    Id. i
Jrf.
. p.
THE length of this bird is more than three feet; breadth in
proportion; weight 9 pounds; bill and cere yellow; irides white; head,
neck, and tail, white; the rest of the body dark brown; the upper
half of the shins covered with feathers; the rest and the toes bare and
yellow; claws black.    Both sexes much alike.
Inhabits North America, preying both on flesh and fish, but
does not procure the latter for itself; for sitting in a convenient spot,
it watches the diving of the Osprey into the water, and as soon the
latter has secured a fish, the Bald Eagle follows close after, and the
Osprey, through fear, drops his prey, which the Eagle will frequently
seize before it reaches the ground; but in Georgia it sometimes
frequents ponds, catching both ducks and geese, and fish, destroying
also young lambs and pigs. The young are brown instead of
white-headed, and, in this state, called the Grey Eagle.
I learn from Mr. Hutchins, that it is called, at Hudson's Bay,
Wapaw-Estequan-Mickesue, that it comes in May, and builds on
the highest trees, forming a nest of sticks and grass, tufts of grass^
and other rubbish, of a large size; and has generally two young; often
made in a very tall tree, such as a pine or cypress, continuing the
same, season after season, for a long time; but we believe that many, if
■
il
 46 FALCON.
not the greater part of them, remain in Georgia throughout the year,
building a large compact and flat nest in the cypress trees, sometimes on the rocks; not uncommon on the deserted lakes of North
America, especially about the falls of the Niagara and St. Antoine,
and the young come to their colour by slow degrees; is a long lived
species, and has been known to attain to 100 years.
A.—Falco albicilla, Ind. Orn. i. 9.     Lin. I. 123. Vultur.     Gm. Lin. i. 253.    Fn. suec.
No. 55.    Brun. No. 12.    Muller. p 58.    Faun, groenl. p. 53.    Kram. 326.  Scop.
ann. i. No. 2.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 79.
Aquila albicilla, seu Pygargus, Bris. i. 427.    Id. 8vo. i.l23.    Klein. Av. p. 40*  Will.
p. 31.   Id. Engl. 61.    Raii. p. 7.
Aigle Pygargue, Daud. ii. 62.    Vieil. Amer. i. p. 27. pl. 3.
Der Fischadler,  Beckst. Deut. ii. s. 222.
Der Fischgeyer, Naturforsch. 2. s. 43,
Cinereous Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. 33. Id. Sup. p. 11. Br. Zool. i. No. 45 pl. 18. Id. ed. l8l2.
i. 209. pl. 18.   Arct. Zool. ii. 2l4. B.    Lewiu's Birds i. pl. 4.    Walcot i. pl. 1.
Orn. Diet. Sf Supp.
This bird is 2ft. 9in. or 3 feet in length.; and 7 in extent from
wing to wing; bill pale yellow; the head and! neck dusky white,
inclining to ash colour; body and wings a full ash-colour, mixed with
brown; tail white; forehead, between the eyes and the nostrils*
sparingly covered, having very narrow feathers like hairs.
Inhabits Scotland and the Orknies, for the most part; rarely met
with in England; but is not uncommon in various jkirfeof Europe,
the Southern parts of Russia, particularly about the Wolga, in
Sweden and Denmark, also in Iceland. In Greenland is found the
whole year, among the Islands and rocks, from which lit xlarts on>the
several diving birds, as soon as they rise to the surface of the water,
the place of which it is enabled to ascertain by the. bubbles; now and
then attempts to prey on a live seal, when having fixed the. talons too
fast to be disentangled, the seal draws the Eagle under thewater${t0
its destination';; feeds on the lump-fish, and ad sort of trout. In a nest
oTjohe of these birds near Keswick/'in Cumberland, was>fouaa<& a grey^
M,<Kttlse!-water trout, above 12 pounds' m'iweigtetf*sDr. Heysham, who
 FALCON. 47
informed me of the circumstance, added, that he obtained the bird
alive, and had kept it above ten years, and that it was either six or
seven before the tail became white. Colonel Montagu had one of
these for nine years, when it died; but observes, that the tail feathers
gradually became white, though the base remained dusky black for
above one third of the length. This was a male, and weighed
seven pounds Six ounces.
B.—Falco Hinnularius, Ind. Orn. i. 15.    Char I. Onom. 63. 4.    Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 80.
Falco albicaudus, Gm. Lin. i. 258.
Aquila albicilla minor, Bris. i. 429.    Id. 8vo. i. 124.
Aquila Pygargus Aldr. Will. 31.    Id. Eng. 62.    Raii. Syn. p. 7.    Borowsk. ii. p. 71.
Petit Pygargue, Buf. i. p. 99?
Erne. Gesner. Av. p. 205.
Lesser White-tailed Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. 39.
Length 2ft. 2in.; bill, cere, and irides, yellow; plumage dull
rust colour above, beneath chestnut, mixed with blackish; head and
neck ash-colour, with a chestnut tinge; tips of the feathers blackish;
tail white; legs yellow; claws black.
This is supposed to be the bird in its first feathers. In the next
stage of growth, it measures in length nearly three feet, and becomes
the Cinereous Eagle; it is by some authors called the Erne, but the
inhabitants of the Orknies call the Golden and Black Eagles, and the
Osprey, as well as this, by >that name. -■■-.:
C—Falco albicilla var. Ind, Orn. Sup. p. 3.
Cinereous Eagle, var. Gen. Syn. i. 33.    Id. Sup. ii. p, 18.
This is of a large*-size; the bill large and black; general colour
o*f ,£ne5^iumage deep brown, paler beneath^ •ffie*#&|^toftueh darker;
rump aud tsfit very pale ash-colour, nearly white; legs black.
Inhabits New Holland, and, from its make and shape, is probably
a farther variety of the Cinereous Eagle.
I
 2 —SEA EAGLE.
Falco ossifragus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 12.    Lin. Syst. i. 224.    Gm. Lin. i. 255.    Brun. No. 13.
Muller. No. 60.   Raii. Syn. p. 7.   Will. p. 29. t. 1. It. Posseg. p. 27.   Voy. en Barb.
p. 263.  Borowsk. ii. p. 69.  Bris. i. 437. Id. 8vo. 125-  Klein* p. 4l. Dawrf. ii. p. 64.
Die See Adler, Beckst. Deuts. ii. s. 219.    Share's Zool. vii. pl. 18.
Orfraie, Buf. i. 42. t. 3..    Pl, Enl. 112. 4l5.    Cet. Uc. Sard. p. 2$.    Kolb. Cap. ii. 137?
Voy. en Barb. i. 265.    Tern. Man. ed. 2. p. 49.
Der Beinbrecher, Natnrf. 8. 43.
Sea Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. p. 30.    2d. Sup. p. 9.    Br. Zool. i. No. 44. pl. 17.    Id. fol. 63.
Id. Ed. 1812. i. p. 205. pl. 17.     Pitf. Mem. t. p. 182.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 86. A.
Bewick.x. pl. p. 11.     Lewin's Birds i. pl. 1.     Walcot. i. pl. 2.    Pult. Dors. p. 2.
Donov. pl. 105.    Orn. Diet. Sf Sup.   Amer. Orn. vii. p. 16. pl. 55. f. 2.
THIS is 3ft. in length at least, and expands more than 7ft.
The bill bluish horn colour; cere and orbits yellow; irides hazel;
beneath the chin hairs like bristles; plumage above feiruginous
brown; the margins of the feathers darker; belly paler, in some
whitish with ferruginous spots; quills chocolate towards the base,
white in the middle; tail deep brown, the outsides of some of the
feathers ferruginous, of others blotched with white; legs feathered
below the knees, and yellow, very strong, two inches in circumference; claws long, black, and very hooked. The female dull
ferruginous.
Inhabits Europe; has been met with in various parts of
England, among others Newcastle, Yarmouth in Shropshise, Ep-
ping, and New Forest j also Warkworth in Northumberland ;* but
not known to breed more southward than Newcastle ;t not uncommon in Scotland % and Ireland, where they keep for the most part
* Bewick.
f Willoghby. r-&fjj|
X They quit Scotland in winter,   Tour in Scotl. ii. p. 24.     Mr. Pennant says, they were
eo numerous a few years since in Rannock, that 5*. were given for every one destroyed, and
 FALCON. 49
near the lakes, for the convenience of catching fish, their principal
food, darting upon them in the water, in the manner of the Osprey;
said also to pursue that bird, after it has obtained a fish, and
to oblige him to quit his prey, as is done by the Bald Eagle. The
Sea-Eagle probably feeds sometimes on other birds, as the remains
have been found in the nest.
The place of breeding is in the more northern parts; in the
coWer months approaetiing southward, at which time only we have
heard of their being in the warmer counties. In the year 1795, one
Was shot in Berkshire, and another in March, 1810, in Lincolnshire,
on the estate of Sir Jos. Banks; in the collection of Mr. Bullock. It
is common in many parts of Germany, where the flesh of the young
bird is thought not unsavoury; well known also in Russia and
Siberia; frequent in Kamtschatka; found in summer, even on the
Arctic coast, and no less common about the Caspian Sea, and is the
same as that mentioned by Kolben; extends also to the Cape of Good
Hope. He says this bird feeds on tortoises, carrying them up into the
air, and letting them fall on a rock to break their shells; hence it
has obtained the name of Bone-breaker.
In North America the size is superior, very common even as high
as Newfoundland, where it preys on land and sea fowls, also young
seals, Which it seizes floating on the water.
It is the opinion of some who have written on the subject, that this
bird is no other than the Bald Eagle, in imperfect plumage, and it has
been observed, that it is six or seven years before it is in complete
feather; to this the author of the American Zoology assents, and brings
more than one proof of the circumstance.
such numbers were brought in, that the price was reduced to 3*. 6d.    In the Orkney Islands
wa6 a custom, if not now prevalent, that whoever shoots an eagle may lay claim to a hen out
of every house in the parish where the bird was killed.
TOL. i. H
 m
3—BEAKDED EAGLE.*°
African bearded Eagle, Salt's Trav. p. xli.
Nisser werk, Bruce's Trav. app. t.p. 155.
THIS is a large species, having an extent^fqwhig; more than
8ft. The bill dirty brown, with tufts of black hair covering the
nostrils, and others of the same on each side of tjhfe,lower mandible;
and a still larger one, forming a beard underneath•;, hides sandy
yellow; the outer film, or nictitating membrane* deep bright sca^le^
tongue hard, bifid, and fitting exactly m the under mandible. The
space round the eye, and in front of it, as well as an angle behind,
deep black, giving a bright lustre to the eye. The head covered
entirely with small dirty white feathers, which, as, well as those of the
neck, breast, and belly, are tinged with rusty brown. Feather&#|i
the back, tail, aiwjl wings, fine deep glossy brown, with white ribs;
those on the back of the neck standing erect, somewhat like a ruff;
tail wedged-shaped, consisting of ten feathers, those of the 1 wing
twenty-six.    The whole of the body covered with yellow down.
Found in Abyssinia, and supposed by Mr. Salt^ to be the same
Wiethe one mentioned by Mr. Bruce, by^e^ap^jof*$pfsseij]werk,
mgtjwith by him not far from Gondar. Mr. S. gives it as his opinion,
that, notwithstanding the straitness of the bill, usual iifrtihe Vultu^j^e
$%%>^ the appearance, in the natural state, togetl^tfwiftk *tjif (^o^r
and animation which it displays, bringsii^n^a^^^ithgtei^pjs^ai^
therefore gives it the name above-mentioned. He observes, that the
head of one which he shot differed somewhat, frpm^fhe drawBjgj^yeja
by Mr* Bruce. This last gentleman represents it as a bold species^
as it took away the provisions, wliicli he and his fr1e1Mstwere're^I&r^
themselves with, before his face, and adds, that a dust, corresponding
* Mr. Bruce's bird was 4ft. 7 in. long, and weighed twenty-two pounds.
 FALCON. 51
with the colour of the feathers, above and beneath, flew out, on handling, in large quantities; but it is not peculiar to this species, as we
have observed the same in theiKw^jVulture, and some others, as also
in the white Cockatoo.
Another, rather smaller, was shot at the same time. Head and
neck bitfcker; the under part of the body dusky; small feathers of the
wings lighter; and the talons somewhat longer. This was supposed
to be the male. Mr. S. observes, that the drawing of the Bearded
Vulture, as given by Mr. Edwards, conveys no idea of this bird. Mr.
Temminck enters it as one of his synonyms of the Bearded Vulture.
4.—IMPERIAL EAGLE.
Falco imperialis, Aigle imperial, Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 9.    Id. Ed. 2. p. 37.
Aquila chrysaetos, Leisler, Annal. der Wetteraa. V. ii. t. p. 170.
Aquila heliaca, Savign. Syst. des Ois. d'Egypte, Liv.i. p. 22. pl. 12.
i)LENGTH three feet; cere^yefJcHv; gape very wide, opening
beyond the back part of the eyes; nostrils oblique^ fin. long, by ^in.
in breadth; irides pale yellow; the head and nape are bright rufous;
upper part of the body in general deep glossy brown, but the ends of
the feathers incline to rufous; beneath the body deep brown, but the
belly is yellowish rufous; tail cinereous grey, crossed near the end
with a bar of black, the tips of the feathers yellowish grey; it is nearly
even at the end, and the wings equal it in length. The legs are
covered with down quite to the toes, which are yellow.
Inhabits Egypt and Abyssinia, where it probably breeds, but is
now and then met with in the mountains of Tyrol and Silesia.
H2
 m
\
52
5—RUSSIAN EAGLE.
Falco Mogilnick, Ind. Orn. i. p. 17.    Gm. LifiZ'x. 259.    Daud. ii. 56.    Shaw's Zool. vii.
p. 87.    Tern. Man. p. 14.    Id. Ed. 2. p. 37.'
Aquila Mogilnick, N. CJP&r. xv. p. 445. t. 11. b.
Russian Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. p. 43. ||';;.^p|
LENGTH 2 ft. 3 in.; bill black; cere yellow; eyelids blue; irides
livid; head, neck, and back dull ferruginous brown, here and there
mixed with a little white, beneath much the same, but plain; some of
the quills have the ends black, others rufous; within spotted with
grey, greater coverts brown, with ferruginous tips; lesser coverts half
brown, half rufous; tail feathers black, bounded with grey, and tipped
with rufous; the wings, when closed, reach nearly to the end of the
tail; legs feathered to the claws, as in owls, colour luteous, claws
black.
Inhabits Russia, seen often in company with the Russian kite,
near the city of Tschercask; feeds on mice and other small quadrupeds;
builds on high trees, and lays two eggs, marked with reddish
blotches. This is probably allied to, if not the same with; the Imperial Eagle.
 53
6 —GENOESE EAGLE.
LENGTH 2ft; 6in.; bill stout, horn colour, cere yellow,
almost covered with hairs; plumage above, from the forehead to the
tail, uniform brown; greater quills very dark, almost black, with pale
shafts, and white on part of the inner webs; under parts of the body
generally white, with broad streaks of pale brown from the chin to
the breast, but from thence to the vent crossed with transverse bars
of the same on each feather; thighs the same; vent plain white;
under wing coverts mixed brown and white; tail lOJin. even at the
end, above brown, crossed with about four bars of more obscure brown;
the inner webs approaching to white; the thigh feathers reach below
the joint; legs very stout, yellow brown,, claws black; the quills,
when the wings are closed, reach to within If in. of the end of the tail.
Inhabits Genoa and parts adjacent. In the collection of Mr,
Bullock.
7.—RING-TAILED EAGLE.
Falco fulvus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 10.     Lin. i. 125.     Gm. LinA. 256.     Georg. Reise. 164.
Decouv. russ. i. 89.—ii. 142.—iii. 303.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 71.
Aquila, Bris. i. 419. Id. 8vo. 121.    Klein. Av.41.
Chrysaetos Cauda ahnulo albo cincta, Raii. 6.     Will. 28.    Id. Eng. 59.    Germ. i. 1.1.
Falco regalis, Aigle royal, Tan. Man. d'Orn. p. 10.    2d. Ed. 2. p. 39.
Aigie commun, Buf. i. 86. Pl. Enl. 409. youug bird. Voy. en Barb. i. 264. Daud.n. 47.
Die gemeine Adler, Beckst. Deutsch. ii. 212.
Black Eagle, Br. Zool. i. No. 43.    2d. Ed. 1812. i. p. 202.   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 87.
Ring-tailed Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. 32.   Id, Sup. 10.   Br. Zool.fol.p. ifflL'   Lewin. Br. Birds,
i. pl. 3.     Walcot. Syn. i. pl. 4.     Bewick, i. pl. p. 7.    Pult. Cat. Dors. p. 2.     Orn.
Diet. Si Sup.   Amer. Orn. vii. p. 13. pl. 55. f. 1.
THE length of this bird is 2i feet, sometimes more, breadth
six feet at least.    The  bill is dusky; cere yellow; irides hazel;
 54 FALCON.
plumage in general brown; head and neck pale fulvous; tail white
for two thirds of the length, the rest dusky black; legs feathered to
the toes, which are yellow; claws black.
: Gm. Lh,
A.—Falco canadensis, Lin. Syst. Ed. 10. p. !
Falco fulvus, Lin. Ed. 12. 125. 6. jS.
Aquila Cauda alba Americana, Gerin. i. 40. t. 7.
'white-tailed Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. 32. 6. A.    Edw. pl. i.*
Betoick, i. pl. p. 9.
''^rs^diner^in^aTihg the t^i white, except the end, which is
black brown; the breast marked with triangular spots; forehead
between the eyes naked.
■
^B,--Ealco melanmetu*, Ind. OfpiAfil0.   Lin. i. 124.    Gm,Lin.t i..254.    Raii. 7.    Will.
■ brn. p. 3. t.% ^Kleijil Av. 41.    Id. Ov. t. 5. f. 1.     Bris.ii 434.     Id. 8vo. i. 125.
Phil. Trans, lvii. 346.    Gm'n.i. t. 3.    Borowsk. ii. 68.    Shaw's Mdh vii. 74.
Aiglenoir, Buf. i. 86.
Schwartz-braune Adler, Frisch. t. 69.    Naturf. 8. s. 43.
Black Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. 28.   Id. Sup. 8.    Will. Eng. 62. pl. 2.    Albin. ii. pl. 2.    Arct.
Zool. ii. 87. ,Ji9ml
The Black Eagle is 2ft. 10in. long; cere reddish; plumage in
general much darker than in others, nearly black; head and neck
mixed with rufous; base half of the tail white, spotted :With black;
the end half blackish; legs feathery, dirty white.
; This bird, aajd^its varieties,inhabits more^^^ss the three
quarters of the globe, being found«hi>many parts of Europe, America,
and the^North part of ASia. In Germawitik too common, and very
destructive. Beckstein says, that in an ayry of onejgf them w§re found
the'skeletons of thtee hundred ducks,! and forty hares, and that the
rapine ftiey commit in the uncultivated parts can never be computed;
one of these birds has been known to attack two children of a year
'  * ThoughtHty !?r.Wi4it*ot to be a yoi|«^ltoti of the Bald JJa|le.-^Bee Am. i. $i£Sft.  y
 FALCON. 55
old, belonging to a peasant. -They are mostly very shy, hence the
great rewards offered for the destruction of them, in a great measure
tailof the desired effect. Is very rare in the south of Great Britain,
but has been metiiwith in Derbyshire. The nest is described as being
made with large sticks, lined with two*layers, of rushes^with= heath
between, and that the young one found* therein was black, but had
the white ring on the tail conspicuous, even at that period of age.
The egg is rust coloured, with irregular marks of a deeper colour; said
to build on the highest part of Cheviot Hills, in Northumberland, and
in 1735, one was shot at Warkworth, measuring in extent of wing,
eleven feet and a quarter.
8—GOLDEN EAGLE.
Falco Chrysaetos, Ind. Orn. i. p. 12.    Lin. i. 125.    Fn. Suec. No. 54.    Gm. Lin.i. 256.
Bris.'i. 431.    Id. 8vo. 124.    Klein. Av. 40.    Raii.Syp.p.6.    Will. 27. 1.1.    Scop.
Ann. i. No. 1.     Muller. No. 59.     Kram. el. 325.     Faun. arag. 67.    Borowsk. Nat.
ii. 6. t. 2.    Germ. Orn.\: t.2.    Daud. Orn. ii. p. 46.    Shaw's Zool. vii. p.75. pl. 17.
Id. Zool. Lect.t. 52.
Le grand Aigle, Buf. i. p. 76.    PL enl. 4l0..; hflHS  «
Gold Adler,  Wirs. Vog. t.45.    Beckst. Deutsch. ii. s:205.    Naiurfff\\u s.44.
Golden Eagle, Gen. Syn.i. 31.    Id. Sup. 10.     Br. Zool. i. No. 42. pl. 16.   M.fol.rA.L
Id. ed. 1812.- i. p. 97. frontisp.  Pitf. Mem. t. p. 182.   Arct. Zoo/, if. 214. A.   Albin.
ii. pl. 1.    Cheseld. Anat. scelet.    Bewick, i. p.5.    Lewin.i. pl.2.    Walcot.i. pl.3.
Orn Diet, b Sup.    Wood's Zoogr.i. p.380. pL'lfc/i
THE length of this bird is more than 3ft.; breadth 8ft. ,4i^eSfit 12
pounds; the bill deep blue, cere yellow: hides hazel; head and neck
deep brown; the feathers bordered with tawny; hind-head bright
rust colour; body dark brown; quills chocolate, with white shafts;
tail deep brown, blotched with obscure ash; the wings when closed
 53 FALCON.
reach   three-fourths   thereon,   legs yellow,   feathered  to   the toes,
which are scaly; claws very large.
This is rarely seen in England*, but in Scotland and Ireland not
uncommon, where it breeds in the cliffs, and lays three or four white
eggs, but rarely hatches more than two; now and then breeds on
Bnowdon Hills, in Wales; it appears in the middle of Germany, in
winter, on the highest South and North Alps, and is taken without
difficulty, by baiting a trap with raw flesh—it not only preys on hares,
wood-hens, and partridges, but will also attack fallow deer, sheep,
geese, and other poultry.f Not uncommon in Russia; it abounds at
Orenburg, and is there exposed to sale, being used for falconry, to
take wolves, foxes, and antelopes, and good birds sell dear; used by
the Kergisians, and often a horse given for one, when a sheep will
purchase another species ;$ extends to India.§ Thought by M.
Temminck to be the same as the Ring-tail Eagle, differing in
age or sex.
A.—Falco cygneus, Ind. Orn.'i. 14.     Daud. ii. 47. A,     SAaw.vii. p.76.     Gm. Lin. i.
257. 47.    Bris. i. 424.    Id* 8vo. 122.    Klein. Av. 42.    Spalowsk. Vog. i. 1.1.
White Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. 36.    Charl. Onom. 63. 9.
This is wholly white, and inhabits the banks of the Rhine, and
the Alps, in Germany—is probably only a white variety of the
Golden Eagle.
* One shot at Yarmouth, Feb. 1783, measured from tip of one wing to the other, 12 feet;
another killed at Bexhill, in Sussex, fifteen or sixteen years since.    Lin, Trans, iv. p. 1.
f Beckst, Muster, p. 57.
% Decouv. russ. 3. 127.
§ Sir J. Anstruther's Drawings.
 9.—TIGER EAGLE.
57
Falco tigrinus, Ind. Orn. Sup. ii. p. 19.     Besek. Vog,
Vog. 1. s. 676.    Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 100.
Tiger Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii, p. 19.
.10, 11. 1. taf. 2.    AUg.u.de
SIZE of the Golden Eagle, if not bigger; cere blue; hides and
legs yellow; head, neck, and breast pale brown, but the upper parts
of both are black—the crown appearing in fine streaks, the rest of
the upper parts dull brown; quills black; greater wing coverts black-
brown, paler; tail dull brown, crossed with three narrow, distinct
bands; beneath from the breast white, marked with some light brown
spots on the thighs, and under parts of the wings, in the manner of
a tiger. This was a male, and not unlike one figured by Frisch, t. 76.
Inhabits Courland, about which it breeds, and is a species equally
fierce, agile, and beautiful. It approaches farm-houses, and is a
dreadful enemy to the grouse tribe and hares, on which it feeds,
 H
10.—OSPREY,
Falco Haliseetus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 17.    Lin. Syst. i. 129.    Faun. suec. No. 63.    Gm. Lin.
i. 263.   Bris.'i. 440. t.34.   Id. 8vo. 126.    Bnwt.p.5.   Mull. No. 66.   Kolb.Cap.
ii. p. 137.     Georgi. p. 164.     Borowsk. Nat. ii. p.71. 6.     Beckst. Deut. ii. s. 250.
jDawrf. ii. p. 67.     Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 82.     Gesner. A v. p. 196. 804.     Tern. Man.
d'Orn. p.16.   ld.ed.u. p. 48.
Morphnos, seu Clanga, jRait. Syn. p. 7.    fFi//. p. 32.    Id. Engl. 63.
Balbusardus, Raii. Syn. p. 16.     JFzV/. p. 37.    Id. Engl. 69. t. 6.     Gerin. Orn. i. t. 40.
Buf. i. p. 103. t. 2.    PZ. JEn/. 414.
Falco cyanops, Klein. Stem. p. 8. t. 8. f. i. a. b. c.
Aigle de Mer, Voy, en Barb. i. 265.
1 Fischaar,  Wirsing. Vog. t. 47.    Naturf. viii. s. 53.    Beckst. Gem. Naturg. p. 230.
Osprey, Gen. Syn. i. p. 45.    Id. Sup. p. 13.    Br. Zool. i. No. 46.    Jd./o/. t., A. 1.    Jrf.
erf. 1812. i. p. 204.    jFawn. ,SW. i. p. 17. pl. 1.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 91.    Bewidk.i.
pl. p. 13.    Lewin. Br. Birds, i. t. 5.    /</. 1.1. f. 2. egg.    Wale. Syn. i. pl. 5.    Pult.
Cat. Dorset, p. 2.   White Selb. p. 97.   Don. Br. Birds, iii. t. 70. Orn. Diet. $ Sup.
THE Osprey is nearly 2ft. in length; and the weight between
four and five pounds; bill black; cere blue; irides yellow; head
feathers chiefly brown, with white margins; hindhead, throat, and
neck, white, with a little mixture of brown on each side of the latter;
under the eye begins a band of brown, reaching almost to the
shoulders; the body brown above, white beneath; tail feathers barred
with white on the inner webs, except the two middle ones, which are
plain brown; legs naked, short, and strong, of a bluish ash colour;
claws remarkably long, hooked, and black. Kolben mentions that
the left foot is subpalmated.*     This assertion  has  certainly no
* It does not appear that there is either bird or quadruped, in which each side of the
body does not correspond in a natural state, though the contrary is sometimes seen in insects.
In the common lobster and several of the crab genus, the claws differ much j in none more so
than in the Carolina Sand crab (Cancer vocans Lin.), one of the claws of which is so monstrously large, as to oblige the animal to support it on the back when in motion, while the other
is very small, scarcely larger than one of the legs.    In respect to winged insects, even the
 59
foundation; but Col, Montagu observes, the outer toe in both feet turns
easily backwards, and the claw belonging to it is larger than that of
the inner toe.
This is an European species, and though met with in England,
is not very common—known to some by the name of Fishing Hawk
or Eagle, and Bald Buzzard. It mostly frequents lakes, and large
pieces of fresh water, for the sake of the fish, on which it feeds;
plunging into the water after them with rapidity, on their approaching the surface, and rarely fails to bring up its prey in the talons. It
will also attack ducks—is said to make its nest on the ground,*
sheltered among the reeds and rushes, and to lay three or four white
eggs, elliptical, smaller than those of an hen. I cannot learn that it
breeds in the south of England; some have said that it does so in
Northumberland, but Dr. Heysham, who resides at Carlisle, has
never heard of its being in that part of the country. We are however
certain, that it breeds both in Scotland and Ireland. I have known
it shot near Dartford, in Kent, and Dr. Lamb informs me of one being
killed near Newbury, in Berkshire. Whether it was ever tamed, so
as to be used for taking fish, is not directly said, but some species of
hawk certainly was trained for that purpose—as we find an act in the
marks of the wings exactly correspond on each side. Indeed, a singular circumstance occurs
in one of the Cock Roach genus,* which is, we believe, the only one known. In this species
one of the wing cases is marked with four white spots, and the other with three only, and which
is constant in every specimen yet observed.
As to Lusus Naturae, they are far from uncommon; such as a duck without webs to
the toes : a common snail with the spiral turns of the shell reversed, one of which was found
in my garden at Dartford, in Kent, several years since'; also a flounder having the eyes and
lateral line on the left instead of the right side.f These, and many others which might be
mentioned, must be reckoned as singularities, happening now and then, but by no means to
be esteemed as permanent distinctions of species.
• Btatta heteroclita, Pall, Spic. No. 9. t.\. f. 3.   Petiv. Mus.pl. 71. /. 1.
f Br. Zool. iii. 229.   Jd. Ed. 1812, iii. p. 306.
* Colonel Montagu saw the nest of one on the top of a chimney of a ruin, in ah island on
Loch Lomond.—Orn. Diet.
I 2 4 it*&
 f?p
6*0 FALCON.
reign of William and Mary, prohibiting, for a certain period of the
year, from taking any salmon peal, or salmon kind, by hawk,
racks, gins, &c.
A.—Falco arundinaceus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 18. |3.    Gmel. Lin. i. 263. S. G. Gmel. It. ii. 163.
' Daud. Orn. ii. p. 69.
This variety is said to have an ash-coloured cere; the body grey
above, and whitish beneath ; an even tail, and pale legs.
Inhabits Siberia, and makes the nest among the reeds. The
Osprey is found in regions far distant from each other, being frequent
in Kamtschatka, and parts still more northward; migrates in winter
towards the south*; is met with also at the Cap$ of Good Hopef;
said to frequent the rock of Gibraltar £ at all times, and to breed
there, continually flying round the rock, where there is deep water,
rarely coming to land, except in the breeding season.
B.—Falco carolinensis, Ind. Orn. i. p 18. y. Gm. Lin. i. p. 263. Daud. Orn. ii. p. 69. B.
Falco piscator,   Bris. i. 361, 362.    Id. 8vo. 105.    Raii Syn. p. 19.    Klein. Av. p. 52.
Buf. i. 142.
L'Aigle pecheur, Vieillot amer. i. p. 29. pl. 4.
Fishing Hawk, Cates. Car. i. pl. 2,    Amer. Orn. v. p. 13. pl. 37. f. 1.
Carolina Osprey, Gen. Syn. i. 46. A.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 91.    Bart. Trav. 286.
This bird is somewhat smaller than the European species, being
only 22in. in length ; the extent of wings, 5ft. Sin. ; the bill black;
cere blue; irides yellow; plumage above brown, forehead and
crown, sides round the eye, and all beneath white, with a yellowish
tinge; forehead marked with a few streaks of black ; through the
eye in some specimens, and in others beginning behind it, a brown
* Found about Baikal—common at Astrachan.— Dec. russ. 2. 142.
f Kolben.
% Rev. J. White's MS. Notes.
 FALCON. 61
streak, at first narrow, growing broader by degrees, and passing
behind the neck to the back; tail rather paler than the upper part,
crossed with eight darker brown bars ; inner webs of the feathers
more or less white, but marked in the same, manner with brown;
legs veiy stout, rough, light blue, and feathered rather below the
joint; claws very long, stout, and hooked.
The female differs in being larger, with a greater mixture of
brown on the forehead, and a few dashes of brown on the breast.
In both the feathers of the hindhead are elongated, and may be
erected into a sort of crest.
This is common in various parts of North America, and is the
unwilling provider of fish for the Bald Eaglet which is ever on the
watch to serve its ends, for as soon as the Osprey obtains a fish by
diving, the Bald Eagle flies after, and robs it of its prey*. It may
be called a bird of passage, as it is found in the northern parts
in the summer only, and the first appearance of it is welcomed,
being the signal of the approach of various kind of fish to the
coasts, on which its food depends. The nest is made generally
on single trees, chiefly such as are dead, or in a decaying state,
though sometimes on high rocks. It is composed of large sticks,
not unfrequently four or five feet in depth and two or three broad,
mixed with dry stalks, sea weed, green grass, and similar materials,
and lined with dry sea grass. The eggs are three or four in
number, whitish, generally marked with dull brown. The young
appear about the end of June, and are said to remain a long
time in the nest before they attempt to fly. It is very numerous
in America, from Canada to Georgia. Mr. Wilson says, he has
counted more than twenty nests within half a mile, and that on
one small island there were at least " 300 nests of Fishing Hawks
that have young,  and which, on an average consume, probably,
*   This  is also mentioned  in  respect  to the Black Eagle.     See Phil. Trans, v. 17.
p. 989.— (Clayton.)
 not less than 600 fish daily." It generally fishes on the wing,
darting after its prey into the water; but Mr. Abbot has observed
one sitting for a long time on the top of a dead tree, close to the
water, from which it darted on the fish,
C—Falco cayanensis, Ind. Orn. i. 18,    Gm. Lin. i
Cayenne Osprey, Gen, Syn, \. 47, B,
263,   Daud. ii. 69. C.
This variety differs chiefly in having the plumage inclining to
ferruginous, and a white streak on each side of the upper mandible,
leading through the eye to the hindhead, The length of this bird
is 26 inches, breadth 5ft. 2in.; legs yellowish,
Inhabits Cayenne; in the collection of Miss Blomefield,
II
D—Falco Levenanus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 18.     Gm. Lin. i. 266,     Daud.  ii, 126,     Shaw's
Zool. vii, p. 151.
Leverian Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup, p, 31,   Arct Zool. ii, 101,
This is rather smaller than the common Osprey, Bill dusky
blue, stout, and hooked ; head, neck, and under parts white; crown
of the head mixed brown and white; body above brown; the feathers
margined and tipped with white; on each side of the head a dusky
mark, as in the Osprey; tail barred brown and white, except the
two middle feathers, which are brown and black, the shafts white;
legs yellow.
This is said to inhabit Carolina, was met with in the Leverian
Collection, and is probably a further variety. The Osprey is also
said to be not uncommon in Brazil.
 11.—WHITE-CROWNED EAGLE.
Falco leucoryphos, Ind. Om. i. p. 17;   Gm. Lin. i. 259.   Pallas reise, i. 454.   Daud, u.
p. 71:    Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 90.
White crowned Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. 42.   Id. Sup. p. 13.
THIS is in habit and size like the Osprey, but the limbs are
longer; the expanse of wings 6ft.; weight nearly six pounds; bill
strait at the base ; cere livid ash colour; hides grey brown ; head
grey brown, with a triangular spot of white on the crown; throat
white; sides of the head darker than the rest, as in the Osprey;
plumage above the body clouded brown; beneath the same, but
paler; quills very dark; tail longish, even at the end, where it is
black; beneath it white, and some of the side feathers dotted within
with white ; legs pale, one third of the shins feathered; claws large,
black.
Inhabits the more southern parts of the Jaick; has*been observed only towards the Caspian; where it keeps near the rivers, and
breeds upon high trees. It is probably a further variety of the
Osprey.
12.—COURLAND EAGLE.
Falco germanicus, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. iii.    Shaic's Zool. vii. 10.
Der Rothlichwjeisse Falke,  All. U. d. Voy. i. Zusass. s. 676, 120.     Besek. Vog. Kurl.
s. 10. 12. a. £ 13. b.
Courland Falcon, Getu Syn. Sup. ii. 19.
THIS is somewhat smaller than the Tiger Eagle; cere, hides,
and legs yellow; general colour of the plumage reddishy smutty
 @4 FALCON.
white, but the back, wings, and tail, are dull brown, and the
ends of the wings paler; the head, neck, and breast marked with
longish, dull brown spots; the feathers, which hang over the
thighs, appear to be rusty brown, for the ends of each having
an oval spot of that colour, and being confusedly mixed together,
give that appearance ; the tail crossed with four paler bands. This
is the female. The male agrees nearly in colouring, but is one-
fourth smaller in size.
Inhabits Courland,
13—JEAN LE BLANC EAGLE.
Falco gallicus. Ind. Orn. i. p. 15.    Gm. Lin. i. 259.    Daud. ii. 158.    Shaw's Zool. vii.
89. pl. 19.
Falco hypoleucos, De'couv. russ. iii. 303.
Falco brachydactylus, Tern, Man. d'Grn. p. 15.    Id. ed. 2. p. 46.
Aquila Pygargus, Bris. i. 443.    1 d. 8vo. i. 127.     Johnst. Av. t. 2.     Belon. t. p. 104
Borowsk. ii. 71.
Falco leucopsis, Beckst. Deutsch. ed.2. v.2. p.572.
La Buse des champs a Ailes longues, Voy. d'Azara. iii. No. 31 ?
Albanella, Cett. Uc. Sard. 31.
Jean le blanc, Gen. Syn. i. p. 39.   Id. Sup. p. 12.   Buf. i. pl. 4.   Pl. enl. 413.
NEARLY the size of the Black Eagle; length 25in.; bill
cinereous; hides yellow; plumage grey brown above, white beneath, spotted with rufous brown; outsides and tips of the tail
feathers brown, inner webs white, barred with brown; legs yellowish ;
claws cinerous.
This species seems to be more common in France than elsewhere ;
said to live chiefly on mice, rats, frogs, &c.
 FALCON. 05
The female is almost wholly grey, having no white, except on
the rump, and that of a dirty colour.
It makes the nest, for the most part, on the ground, among
heath, furze, &c. but now and then upon pine and other high
trees, and generally lays three slauMjoloured eggs.
Said to be frequent in the southern parts of Russia,■'• especially
about the rivers Don and Wolga, though not in Siberia.
This species is used in falconry by the Calmucs,*
14—ROUGH FOOTED EAGLE.
Falco nsevius, Ind. Orn. i. .14.    Gm. Lin. i. 258.    Bris. i. 425.   Id. 8vo. 122.    Daud.
ii. 52.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 84.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 14.    Id. Ed. 2, p. 42.
Stein adler, Frisch. t. 71.    Beckst. Deuts. ii. s. 226.    Natnrf. viii. s. 44.6.
Le petit Aigle, Buf i. 91.
Rough-footed Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. 37.    Chart, onom. p. 63.
SIZE of a large cock; length 2ft. TJin.; cere and hides yellow;
general colour of the plumage dull ferruginous; beneath the wings
and the thighs spotted with white; under tail coverts white; legs
covered to the toes with dull ferruginous feathers, spotted with white;
claws yellow.
Inhabits Europe; said to live chiefly on rats—supposed to build
in Hungary—but the nest and eggs are not mentioned.
* Decouv. russ. 3. 307. M. d'Azara compares the one referred to above, as found in Paraguay ; but M. Sonnini, in a note below, thinks it different, as the wings are much longer in
proportion.
VOL. I. K
 15—SPOTTED EAGLE.
Falco maculatus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 15.    Gm. Lin. i. 250.    Daud. ii. 52.    Shaw*4 Zool. vii.
p. 70.    Tern. Man. ed. 2. p. 43.
Morphno congener, Raii Syn. p. 7.    Will. p. 32.   Id. Engl. 63.    Gerin. Orn. i. t. iv.
Kleiner Fisch Adler, Naturf. viii. s. 54.
Aquila Clanga, Klein. Av. p. 41.
Spotted Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. p. 38.    Arct. Zool. ii. p. 215. C.
THIS is two feet long—bill black; cere yellow; plumage above
deep rusty brown; head and neck feathers narrow, as in the kite,
part of the shafts, and the ends pale; wings marked with oval, white
spots, which are larger as they are placed more downwards, and on
the greater coverts they occupy almost the whole of the end; the back
spotted with pale buff colour; quills deep brown—secondaries the
same, tipped with dirty white: those nearest the body have the ends
white for near an inch; upper tail coverts white; tail deep brown,
tipped with dirty white; belly, vent, and thighs brown, streaked
with white; legs feathered to the toes, and yellow.
This is found every where in Russia and Siberia, and even in
Kamtschatka, and is the most unwarlike of any of the kind; has a
plaintive cry, hence called Planga and Clanga. Preys chiefly on
ducks, and lesser animals—is fearful to a degree of its lesser con-
genera, as, according to Chardin, everi the comparatively minute
sparrow-hawk will put it to flight. k^?1
This is by some supposed to differ in sex from the Rough-footed
Eagle. Temminck observes, that it is common in Africa, and
particularly in Egypt.
 16—DRANSBERG EAGLE,
Falco glaucopis, Ind. Orn. i. 16.   Gm. Lin. i. 255.   Merrem. IelmW.^r. 25. t. 7.     Daud.
ii. 59.
Dransberg Eagle, Shaw's Zool. vii. 102.
LENGJpI 211 in.; bill glaucous; cere yellow; hides yellowish;
head and neck white, streaked with brown; on the forehead some
brown crescents; breast and back brown; quills black; tail rufous
brown above, dirty white beneath; on each feather six black bands;
thighs short; legs woolly before; toes yellow; claws black.
Inhabits the mountain Dransberg, near Gottingen.
17 —ROUGH-LEGGED FALCON.
Falco lagopus, Ind. Orn. i. 19.     Gm.Lm.u 260.
Beckst. Deuts.'n. 228.   Frisch. t. 75.   Daud. ii
Orn. iv. pl. 34. f. I.
^GiSa^iik, Act. nidr. iv. p. 417. 1.13.
Rough-legged Falcon, Gen, Syn.i. 75.    Id. Sup. p. 18.
1812. i. p. 228. pl. 26.    Arct. Zool. ii. 200.    Lew
Brun.p.4.
107.   Shaie's
Leans. Lap. p. 236?
Zool. vii. 105.  Amer.
Br. Zool. App. pl. 1.
fit Birds, i. pl. 14.
LENGTH 2ft. 2in.; breadth more than four feet; bill small,
dusky; cere yellow; irides bright amber; head, neck, and breast
yellowish white, here and there streaked with Drown; belly deep
brown; thighs pale yellow, marked with brown; scapulars blotched
brown and yellowish white; wing coverts brown, edged with rust;
K2
 I?
68 FALCON.
ends of the quills deep brown, base white; lower half of the tail
white, the rest brown; tip dirty white;* legs feathered as low as the
feet, which are yellow.
Inhabits Denmark, but has now and then been met with in
this kingdom, four instances of which have occurred in my memory—
one shot near London, twice in Suffolk, and again in Kent, picked
up dead on the coast in 1792; said to lay four eggs, marked with
reddish spots; It is now and then seen in Russia, and more frequently
in the east part of Siberia, where it spreads very far to the north,
and comes southward in winter; is also found in North America,
in low swamps and meadows, feeding on mice, frogs, and ducks—
common in winter in the lower part of Maryland, New Jersey, and
along Connecticut River. ^'"w-f-JW
A.—Falco fuscus, Fn. groenl. p. 56. 34. b.    Daud. ii. 107.
Grey Falcon, Crantz. i. 78.    Egede. 62.
Greenland Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 36.    Arct. Zool. ii. 220. E.
This variety is smaller, being no more than 22 in. in length—
and differs chiefly in the tail, the ground of which is cream-coloured
white; near the tip a bar of brown, above an inch in breadth; above
that a second, but half an inch broad; and above these each feather
has a spot upon it in the middle, mimicking when spread, a third
bar; besides which, the two outer feathers on each side have a few
irregular.spots of brown, almost the whole of their length, on the
outer webs.
The bird described by Fabricius is said to be not uncommon in
Greenland, and preys on the Little Awk, Ptarmigan, Snowflake, and
other birds—is seen in combat with the Raven, but rarely proves
victorious, for the latter bird, turning on its back and screaming
* T'ail coverts spotted with chocolate in the female.
 FALCOSR 6SP
violently7, brings others to ite aid, by whose assistance the Falcon is
driven off*. It builds not unlike the Cinereous Eagle, and lays from
three to five spotted eggs. The flesh is sometimes eaten, and the
skin used by the Greenlanders for cloathing. The wings serve for
brushes, and the legs are used as amulets.
In some drawings done in India, I observe a pale Falcon,
which is probably a further variety. The ground colour of the
head nearly white, the feathers blotched with brown down the
shaft; general colour of the plumage above the body pale brown,
marke&^tsHth deeper brown down the shafts; quills darker, second
quills barred with dusky; tail rounded at the end, pale dusky
cream colour, with two narrow, curved, rufous-chocolate bars near
the ends, cr^ssmg all the feathers; vent white; quills and tail equal
in length.
Inhabits the country about Bengal, in India, and called
Mucharin.
18— BOOTED FALCON.
Falco pennatus, Ind. Om. i.
t. 1. Id. 8vo. i. p. 120.
Booted Falcon, Gen. Syn. i.
19. Gm. Lnui. 172.
Shaw's Zool.vu. 146.
75.    Id. Sup. ii. p. 24.
Daud. ii. 106.    Brit. App. p. 22.
SIZE of the Jerfalcon; length ]9g-in.; bill blackish; cere
and eyelids luteous; plumage above blackish brown, with a tinge
of violet, and variegated with dirty grey; beneath yellow brown,
with longitudinal blackish lines; head and neck behind fulvous
grey, with lines of the same; over the eyes a black stripe; tail
brown, towards the end blackish; tip grey, with whitish grey
spots on Hie sides ; legs feathered to the toes, which are luteous.
 70 FALCON.
Brisson, who first mentions it,; took the above description
from a specimen in the museum of Madame de Bandeville. M.
Daudi»i supposes it to be a young male of the rough-footed
species. fife
A.—La Buse gante, Levaill. Ois. i. p. 79. pl. 18.    Daud, ii, 163.
Booted Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 24.
This seems to vary lm$u little from the former; the chieftf^gfn
tinction is, in having a less mixture of white in the plumage: This
variety is met with about the Cape of Good Hope, particularly in
the forest of Hottniqua, and frequents the woody parts distajpft
from habitations, living for the most part singly. Is said to be a
Jt>old bird, more so than some others; quick in flight, and often
seizes partridges. ^'^ifi"
19—SCLAVONIAN EAGLE.
Falco sclavonicus, Ind, Orn, i. p. 26.    Kram. el. 329.    It. -Poteg. p. 29.   Daud. ii. 106'.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 171.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 22. l|y^^|
Sclavonian Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii, p.- 24. L   <j$? ,t <*
SIZE of a fowl; bill dusky blue1; cere yeilOw^ ."rides dusky;
head, neck, and breast, buff colour, streaked "wiih bla'c&i';3 %e\\Hr'
black, in some spotted; quills dusky; secondaries brown,' fended
with black; wing coverts spotted rufous, testaceous, and black;
tail white from the base'to beyond the middle ; broWn towards ^fi&
end, the margiris^of the feathers testaceous; in'^omfe^Wossed*1^^
 FALCON. 21
five dusky bands; rump and vent white, with a few dusky spots;
shins feathered, testaceous in colour, with black markings; legs
yellow,
Inhabits Possega, in Sclavonia; is most probably not far differing from the rough-legged Eagle, as that bird varies much from
age or sex.
20—JERFALCON.
Falco gyrfalco,  Ind. Orn. i. 32.     LituSyst. i. 130.     Fn. Succ. No. 64.     Gm. Lin. \.
275.    Klein. Av. p.48.     Daud. Oriu ii. 99.     Beckst. Deutsch, ii. 308.    Shaw's
Zool. vii. p. 120.
Gyrfalco islandus, Bris. i. 373. A. t. 31.   Id. 8vo. 108.     Brun. 9.    Muller., No. 73.
Tern. Man. ii. p. 19.
Gerfault, Buf. i. 239. pl. 13.   pl. enl. 210.
Brown Jerfalcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 82.
Iceland Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 71. B. parag. 2d.
Arctic Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 70.   49. var. L.
MUCH confusion" has arisen hd respect to this species, from
its great variation in plumage. The most natural state appears
to be nearly this: length 22^in. bill bluish ash-colour; cere the
same; hides yellow; head brown, the feathers edged with rufous
white; the, rest of»the feathers, on the upper part of the body,
brown, each edged on the sides .with whitish spots; rump and tail
coverts striped across with gray£ throat dirty rufous white ; fore part
of the neck the same, dashed down the shafts with brown ; breast,
belly, and under wing cov^irtsjwhite, marked with dusky spots;
sides, thighs, and lander tail coverts barred dusky and white ; quills
 *%% FALCON.
brown, banded white and brown on the inner web; tail banded
brown and whitish, the latter marked with numerous brown specks;
tip of the tail white; legs yellow; claws black.
A.—Falco islandicus, Ind. Orn. i. 32-     Gm. Lin. i. 275. 101. B.     Bris. i. 370. t. 30.
Id. 8vo. 108.    Brun, No. 8.    Muller, 73.    Will. p. 44. t. 8.    Fr. Groenl. No. 35.
Borowsk. Nat. ii. p. 72. 6.    Lin. Trans, xii. p. 528.
Falco candicans, Gm. Lin. i. 275.
Accipiter muscoviticu3 ex nigro Yarius, Gerin. Orn i. t. 30.
Gerfault, Buf. i. 241.    Pl. enl. 446.
Weisser Falke, Naturf. viii. s. 50.
Iceland Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. 71. Var. A. B.    Id. Sup. ii, p, 27.
White Jerfalcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 83. 84.    Id. Sup. p. 21.    Br. Zool. i. No. 47. 1.19.     Id.
Ed. 1812. i. p. 217. pl. 19.   Arct. Zool. ii. p. 221. F.  Lewin's Birds, 1.16.    Bewick.
i. p. 29.
This bird varies so exceedingly from the original colours, as to
have given sanction for authors to rank individuals as specific
differences, aiid those who are most in the neighbourhood of its haunts
find that, independent of the variations incident to all of the genus,
it loses its brown colour, more or less, in proportion to its age, or
coldness of climate, and, in some old birds, nearly approaches to
white.
The Jerfalcon of Hudson's Bay is there called Pau-pune-nay-sue,
and is larger than the European species; is said to weigh 45 oz. troy;
is 23 inches long, and 50 inches broad; bill and cere livid; eyes
dark blue; crown, and hind part of the neck white, streaked with
black—the rest of the upper parts the same, with triangular spots of
black; the feathers tipped and margined with white; greater wing
coverts, secondaries, and quills, barred with black—the ends of the
latter black; tail white, barred with black, but except the two
middle feathers, only on the outer webs; breast white, with longitudinal oval white spots, the size of a pea; thighs and vent white ;
legs short, of a livid flesh colour, covered half way with feathers. I
received this account Item my friend the late Mr. Hutchins, who was
 FALCON. 73
stationed there many years,   and was peculiarly  accurate in his
observations.
This species, with its varieties, has ever been in much estimation
for its use in falconry, and Iceland has the reputation of furnishing
the most generous breed.* The King of Denmark is said to send
there annually to buy up all that can be procured, the established
place being Bessested, to which the Icelanders bring them as soon as
taken, the white ones being in most esteem, and they must be very
docile, for they catch them in nets, of any size or age.f Bell, in his
Travels, £ says, that about Zabach-yeer and Casan are caught the
best and largest Falcons in the world, which are purchased by the
Turks and Persians—the Russians prefer the old ones, which are
taken in nete, with a live bird as a decoy. These will fly at swam
goose, heron, or crane, and will take a duck out of the water when
only the bill appears. The Tartars also fly them at antelopes and
hares.    Some of the Falcons are as white as a dove,
21— COLLARED FALCON.
Falco rusticolus, Ind. Orn. i. 28.   Lin.$&i   Faun. suec. No. 56.    Gm. Lin. i. 268.    Fn.
groenl. No. 34.    Beckst. Deut. ii. app. s. 839.    Daud. ii. 103.
Collared Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. 56.    Id. Sup. 15.    Arct. Zool.ii. p. 226. G.
SIZE of a hen; bill lead colour; cere and eyelids luteous;
plumage above ash-coloured, undulated with white; beneath white,
* Capt. Sabine mentions a single instance of its being found in Greenland.—Lin. Trans.
12, p. 528.
f Also at Vienna, as the following letter will testify.—Copenhagen, Dec. 17, 1791.—
•* The vessel on board of which were the Falcons from Iceland, annually sent to the Court of
Vienna, w:is shipwrecked near Castrop."—St. James's Chron. Jan. 10, 1792.
J Bell's Trav. 1, p. 18.
VOL. I. L
 with cordated small brown spots; round the neck a white collar; tail
crossed with twelve or thirteen alternate white and brown bands; legs
luteous; claws black.
Inhabits Sweden, also Greenland, but is there seldom met with;
is called by the natives Millekulartok, signifying spotted—also seen
in the desart and open places between the Don and Wolga, in the
Russian dominions, but we believe is not vcjw common any where—
is probably allied to the Jerfalcon,
22—BROWN FALCON.
Falco fuscus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 21.    Bris. i
Vultur Pygargus, Frisch. t, 76.
Brown Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. 68.
331.    Id. 8v<
, 95.    Gm. Lin. i. 171.
SIZE of the Jerfalcon; bill ash-coloured; cere yellowish; head
brownish, marked with longitudinal rusty brown spots; upper part
of the body brown, spotted with deeper brown—beneath white,
spotted with brown, the spots on the breast lance-shaped; tail barred
rufous white, and rusty brown; legs yellow; claws black.
Inhabits Europe, and is most likely also related to the Jerfalcon.
 75
23—SPOTTED FALCON.
Falco versicolor, Ind. Orn. i. 33.    Gm. Lin.l 272.    Daud, 4, 105.    Tern. Man. dOrn.
p. 21.
Spotted Falcon, Gen. Syjiil p. 74.    Br. Zool. i. pl. 26.    Id. Ed. 1812, pl.25.    Lewin.
i. pl. 13.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 127.    Orn. Diet. $ Sup.
SIZE of a buzzard ; bill black; cere and hides yellow ; crown
and hind part of the neck white, spotted with light reddish brown ;
back and scapulars the same, edged with white ; quills dusky, barred
with ash colour; beneath the body white, with a few rusty spots on
the neck and breast; rump white; tad barred with lighter and
darker brown; legs strong.
This has twice been shot in Shropshire—but is not uncommon
in America, as Mr. Abbot ranks it among the birds frequenting
Georgia. He says, it equals in size the barred-breasted Buzzard, and
observes, that the lesser wing coverts are marked with white, most so
on the inner webs, the ends brown, and when the feathers lie smooth
no white appears ; the young male has a great proportion of white.
The female does not greatly differ—the rump white; tail light
brown, with nine darker bars, and a white tip; under part of the
tail white, but only four or five pale dusky bars visible.
The food is the same as that of the barred-breasted, also locusts
and grasshoppers. Mr. Abbot adds, that the Hawks retire into the
thick woods and swamps to breed, but after they bring out their
young, are destructive to fowls and chickens—are most frequent the
first of winter, sunning themselves on the tops of dead trees in frosty
mornings. Daudin supposes this to be a variety of the Common
Falcon, but Col. Montagu, with greater probability, thinks it
allied to the Jerfalcon.
L2
 24.—HONEY BUZZARD.
Falco apivorus, Ind. Orn. i. 25.    Lewin. i. 130.    Faun. suec. No. 65.    Gm. Lin. i. 267.
Bris. i. 410.     Id. Svo. 117.   Raii p. 16.    Will. p. 39. t. 3.    Brun. p. 5.    Mull. No.
68.    JKraro. 331.     Beckst. Deutsch. ii. 203.     JD.$ydjii. 159.     Shaw's Zool. vh. p.
114.    Tern. Man. d' Orn. p. 23.
Die Bienfresser, Naturf 8. s. 54.
La Bondree, Buf. 208.    Pl. Enl. 420. 423.    Zinnan. 1.13. f. 75.
Honey Buzzard, Gen, Syn. i. p. 52.    Id. Sup. p. 14.    Br. Zool.
and A*. 4.    Id. ed. 1812. p. 235.     Arct. Zool. ii. p. 224. I.
Engl. 78. pl. 3.    Bewick, i. pl. p. 17.    Lewin. i. 1.1.
50.    Id.fol. pl.A.4.
^/6m.i. pl.2.    WTiW.
Jd. t. i. f. 4. egg.    White's
Selborne, p. 109.    Pufr. Dor*, p. 3.    fFa/c. i. pl. 7.    Orn. Dicf. # Sup.
LENGTH 23 in. weight 26 ounces, or more ; breadth four feet;
bill and cere dusky; hides golden yellow; head ash-colour; the rest
of the plumage above deep brown; chin yellowish white, marked
with narrow brown lines ; fore part of the neck rufous brown; breast
and belly transversely barred rufous and white, each feather being
white, with two bars of brown; tail dull brown, crossed with a
darker bar near the end, and another in the middle; legs short, stout,
yellow; claws black.
That described in the British Zoology had the breast and belly
white, both marked with dusky spots, pointing downwards, and
three bars in the tail. Linnseus's bird had only one band on the tail,
the tip of which was white. Brisson observes, that the side tail
feathers are banded with white on the inner web, and spotted with
brown, but Albin's specimen had no bars on the tail. Hence we
may infer, that the bird is subject to much variety; insomuch as to
make it difficult to say what is the simple, or true state of the plumage.
That first described is taken from one in my own collection.
This species is the least common in England of all the Buzzards,
and may be called rare. Willoghby supposes it to feed on the larvae
of wasps and bees; also caterpillars, both hairy and smooth, have
 been found in the stomach—said to build on trees, making a nest
with small twigs, and lined with wool, laying two eggs, dirty white,
blotched with ferruginous; but according to Mr. White, dotted at
each end with a smooth red spot, and a broad bloody band in the
middle. I believe the eggs vary much in respect to colour, as I
observed in the Museum of the late Dutchess Dowager of Portland,
some of a deep red brown, blotched with ferruginous.
It is found, more or less, on the European continent, in Russia,
as well as Siberia, especially where woods are near, and lizards
plentiful, of which it is fond, but will also eat mice, and the large
sort of dragon flies; however, we believe it to be no where a
common bird.
A.—Falco incertus, Ind. Orn. i. 32.    Daud. ii. 103.
Falco dubius, Mus Carls, fuse. ii. t. 26.    Gen. Syn, Sup. ii. p. 27.
Bill black; hides yellow; head, hind pail of the neck, and
wing coverts cinereous brown, margined outwardly with ferruginous;
chin, throat, and breast rust colour; the shafts of the feathers black ;
tail cinereous, tipped with black, crossed with' three brown bands
towards the base; legs saffron colour. VjSIS
Inhabits Sweden, but is not a common species.
25.—LONG-TAILED FALCON.
Falco macrourus, Ind. Orn.'w p.29.    Gm. Lin. i. 269.     N. C. Petr. xv. p.439. t. 8.9.
Gmel. It.i. p.48.    Lepech.lt. i. p. 59, 41.    Daud.ii. p.90.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 160.
Long-tailed Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 59.
LENGTH 19in.; breadth nearly 2ft.; bill black, at the base
green; cere yellow; eyelids and hides saffron colour; upper parts of
I
 78 FALCON.
the body cinereous, on the back inclining to red; beneath white,
tinged with ash-colour on the upper part of the neck; tail 3f in,, long,
rounded, whitish, banded alternately with deeper and paler brown,
the two middle feathers plain ; legs yellow; claws black.
The female is brown above, and the feathers edged with chestnut, most so on the head; beneath inclining to yellow; quills deep
brown, with whitish tips; tail brown, the four middle feathers transversely marked with deeper brown, and others with broad interrupted
bands, all of them with ferruginous tips, but that of the outer one,
spotted with black.
Inhabits Russia; known by the name of Lun.
26— MARGINED FALCON.
Falco jaaarginatus, <Ind. Orn. i. p. 26.   It. per Poseg. p. 28.    Daud. ii. 167.
Margined Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 24.
SIZE of a fowl; head and back feathers brown, with ferruginous
margins—beneath the body ferruginous, with longish oval spots.
Quills brown, with several obscure bands, and ferruginous white
tips; tail brown, with four broad, dusky brown bands, margined on
both sides with white, and a white tip, beneath whitish with transparent bands.
Inhabits Sclavonia.
 27—BUZZARD.
Falco Buteo, Ind. Orn. i. p. 23.    Lin. Syst. i. 127.    Fn. Suec. No. 60.    Gm. Lin. i. 265.
Raii Syn.p.lG.    Will.p.3S, t.6.     Scop. Ann.u No.4.    Brun. p.5.    Jtfte//.No.64.
Geor#» p. 164.    Bm. i. 406.    Jd. 8vo. 206.    j£7<?in. A v. p. 50.    Jtf. Stem, p. 8. t. 8.
f. 2. a.l>.-    Id. Ov. p. 19. t. 6. f. 2.    Faun. Arag. p. 68.    JSTram. el. 329.    Bedb*.
JEfettfedLii. s. 238. t. x.    X>aMd. ii. 154.     ifisf. de Lyons, i. 198. Goir        "
Zool. vii. p. 109.    Tan. Man. d'Orn. p. 20.    Id. Ed. 2. p. 63.
Busthart, Naturf. -viii. s. 52.
La Buse, B^. i. 206. t. 8.    Pl. Enl. 419.    Voy. en Barb. i. 266.
Maasse Geyer, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 50 ?
Pojana secunda, Zinnan. 85. 1.14. f. 56.
Buzzard, Gen.. S'jw. i. p. 4S.     Id. Sup. p. 14.     Br. Zool. i. No. 54. pl. 25.     Id. fol. t.
A.3.    Id.ed. 1812. i. p.232. pl.27.     Will, Engl. p.79.   Alb.'u t.1.     Bratc* i.
pl. p. 15.    £ejo£» Br. Birds, i. pl. 6.    WalcotBr. Birds.
« Graves Br. Ornith.    Orn. Diet.
pl.6.     Pa/*. Caf. p. 3.
THIS is bigger in the body than a kite ; length 1 ft. 8in.; bill
lead colour; cere luteous; hides dark; the body is ferruginous brown
above; beneath pale, varied with brown; tail brown above, barred
with darker brown; beneath greyish, tipped with rufous white; legs
yellow, claws black. Is the common Buzzard of all authors, by
some called Puttock, and well known; its food is various; birds, small
quadrupeds, reptiles and insects; varies extremely, scarcely two
being found alike. It breeds in large woods, usually in an old crow's
nest; lays two or three eggs at most, which are bluish white, with
rusty spots, chiefly at the larger end. In some parts of France is
thought good food, and is generally fat in winter. Is not very
frequent in Russia, and in Siberia extremely scarce; is sufficiently
common in various parts of Germany, but certainly less so about
Berlin, for I well recollect, that once desiring Dr. Bloch, of Berlin,
to procure for me a Bustard's egg, which is there not uncommon, he
mistaking my meaning for that of a Buzzard's egg, observed, that he
 80 FALCON.
could not obtain one, but very obligingly sent me a drawing of the
subject in question instead; common in some parts of Spain, and
now and then taken at Gibraltar on its passage to and from Barbary.
A.—Falco Freti Hudsonis, Bris. i. .356.    Id. 8vo. 103.     Daud, ii. 156. D.
i. 267.    Shaw's Zool, vii. p. 110.
Faucon de la Baie d'Hudson, Buf.'i. 223.
La Biise cendree, Vieill. Am. i. p. 33.
Ash-coloured Buzzard, Gen. Syn,\. p.55.    Edw, pl.53.    Arct, Zool. ii. No,
THE American bird is somewhat larger than the European;
the bill and cere bluish; irides yellow; over the eye a white line
spotted with brown, under it a dusky one; plumage above cinereous
brown; beneath mixed with white; quills dark brown, the first
spotted outwardly with white; tail above cinereous brown, banded
with grey; beneath cinereous, banded with white; legs bluish ash-
colour, feathered for half the length ; claws black.
Inhabits Hudson's Bay, Newfoundland, and other places in
America: called, at New York, the great hen Hawk.
B.—Buteo pennatus, Daud. ii. 156.
Buse Gantee, Levail. Ois. pl. 28.
This seems to be a variety of the common Buzzard, having the
> and toes feathered.    Levaillant met with this bird in Africa.
C—Buteo Albus, Daud.
This variety is white, marked with brownish spots; most sparing
on the head, throat, and breast ; wings white.
Two of these are in the Museum at Paris.
 27.—PEREGRINE FALCON.
Falco peregrinus, Ind. Orn. i. 33.    Gm. Lin. i. 272.    Raii Syn. p. 13.     Will. p. 43.
Geriii. Orn. i!%23. 24.     Daud. Orn. ii. p. 97.     Bris. Orn. i. 341.     Id. Svo. 98.
Beckst. Deutsch.W. s. 300. iiJms  Besek. Vog. iuir?p.:7. t. 1.    Shaw's Zool. vii. p.
128.   Amer. Orn. ix. 120. pl. 75. f. 3.    Tern. Man* Ed. 2. p. 22.
Faucon Pelerin, Buf. i. 249^ 1.16.    P/. £«/. 430. an old bird:
Peregrine Falcon, Gar. Syn. i. 73.     $fc$iup. IS.     Br. Zool, i. No. 48. t. 20.     Id.fot.
t;A*Si    hfeJfc&8l2. i. p. 218. pl.20.    ^rcf. Zoo/, ii; No. 97.     Lewin's Birds, i.
pl. 12.    /Fi//. £»#/. 76. pl. 8.    Walcot. i. 1.12.    Orn. Diet. $ Sup.    Lin. Trans.
xii. p. 529.
Falco niger, Bris. i. 327. E.    Id. 8vo. 94.    Gm. Lin. i. 270.
Falco fuscus, Frisch. t. 83.    Raii Syn. p. 161. 5.
•Faucon passager, Buf. i. 263.    P/. £m/. 469.
Black Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. 67.    Edw. pl. 4.
IT appears from a variety of observations, that the two, quoted
as different birds by authors, are in reality only the Peregrine,
which even in the adult state varies not a little. The general
description of the old hied is as follows:—length 18 in.; breadth 36;
bill bluish; cere and hides luteous, in some dusky; the plumage
above cinereous, with transverse brown bands, darkest about the
head; beneath rufous white, crossed with blackish bands; tail
banded, cinereous and blackish, with a white tip; legs short,
yellow; toes long, claws black.
The Black, so called by authors, differs m ?having the feathers
of the upper part of the neck, wing coverts, and rump, edged
with white; on each side of the head a large, curved, black mark
from the mouth, like a .mustaeho, in a bed of 3#hite; under parts
brownis^ each feather tipped with black] wingcov^tts^black, with
white spots; edges of the wangjwlttte; legs lead colour.
 82
Falco maculatus, Bris. i. 329. F.   Id. 8vo. 95.    Daud. ii. p. 95. D. & 98. B.
Falco nsevius, Gm. Lin. i 271.
Spotted-winged Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. 68.    Edw. pl. 3.
This, if not the female, is the young bird of the Peregrine.
Size of the last; bill and cere the same; irides obscure; plumage
above brown; on each side of the head a large black mark under
the eye, passing to the beginning of the neck; beneath the
plumage is white, spotted with brown; the spots largest on the
breast and belly; wing coverts brownish, marked with round
white spots; legs as in the other.
A.—Falco tataricus, Bris. i. 341.   Id. 8vo. i
Tartarian Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. 73.
Gm. Lin. i. 272.   Belon. Ois, p. lie.
This differs in being a trifle larger,   and having the wings
rufous above, and the toes longer in proportion.
B.
—Falco barbarus,   Ind. Orn. i. 33.     Lin. Syst. i. 125.      Gm. Lin. i. 272.
Br
343.   A.     Id. Svo.  99.     Ger,. Orn. i. t. 25, 26, 27 ?    Daud. ii. 98.   C.
Sh
Zool. vi. 129.
Fa
co tunetanus, Raii Syn. p. 14.    Will. p. 47.    Klein, p. 48.
Ba
rbary Falcon, Gen. SynAlW.  {WW. Eng. 81.    Albin.3. pl. 2.
In size and colour this most resembles the Lanner; length
17in.; bill black; cere and irides yellow; plumage bluish ash-
colour, spotted with black;5few or no spots on the wings; breast
yellowish white, with a blue tinge ; on the lower part of the belly
largish black spots; quills'black, with the outer edges white ; wings
nearly as long as the tail, which is crossed with seven brown bands.
Inhabits Barbary. The Peregrine Falcon seems to be a
general inhabitant; but we belief it to be less frequent in England
 WWLC0N. 83
than imsome other parts, and wtasi formerly better known, from its
being made-use of n*>*rak5&nry. It chiefly frequents our rocky
coasts; and preysi much on the* ^guillemot and razor-bill, during
their breeding season. Col. Montagu informs us, that these birds
breed about Tenby, and are in plenty along the coast of Carmarthenshire. Mr. Pennant obsei*ves, that they breed in the rocks in the
Highlands.* The eggs are "three or four in number, of a yellowish
red colour, marked with brown spots, and the female sits 18 or 20
days.f
It is met with in various other parts of Europe; in the northern
parts of Asia; is frequent in Kamschatka; wanders in summer to
the very arctic circle, returning south in winter; is also in America,
where it is observed to be of a very large size; at Hudson's Bay
known by the name of Papana-sew-kaycake; has been killed
in lat. 66. n. and long. 58, w. and therefore most probably from
America 4
It was observed to me, by Dr. Heysham, that a female, killed
May, 1781, in the mountains about Keswick, in Cumberland,
weighed 36*5oz.; was 19in. in length, and 42 in breadth; that it
is very destructive to game; for near the nest were found the remains
of moor-game, partridges, plovers, &c.; § is a very noisy and cla-
* Tour in Scotl. 1769. p. 130.
f Beckstein.
+ Lin. Trans. 12. p. 529.
§ It has been mentioned to me, that one of these, in the vicinity of Hamstead Park,
Berks, a male bird, had been the tyrant of the place for several years, and was so shy, as
to elude every attempt to shoot him. This bird found no difficulty in attacking hares, as
well as other game, and destroyed numbers of them. At last, the keeper, being concealed
for the purpose of shooting a buck, and the bird coming within 100 yards of him, the man
fired, and with a single ball in his gun, was lucky enough to dispatch him.—Dr. Lamb.
M2
 84 FALCON.
morous bird; the young in the nest were three in number, and the
male fed them for a week or ten days after the female was killed.
The Peregrine Falcon is found in ^Georgia, in America, where
it is called Spotted Cinereous Hawk. Mr; Abbot observes, thatiitds
brown the first year, and sometimes brown mixed, but does not
gain the dark plumage till the following season ; hMiee it seems
to be an inhabitant of America throughout; but dt> is observed there,
to exceed that of Europe in size.
Said not to be unfrequent in India, about Bengal.
29.— LANNER F^J^OjN^
Falco lanarius, Ind. Orn. i, 38.    Lin. i. 129.     Faun. Suec. No. 62.      Gm.Llh.i.  276.
Raii p. 15.      Will. p. 48.     Bris. i.363.     Id. 8v.o. i. ■ ifeyj JBS&*, 48.       Brun.
Nb,.L 2?    Muller,- $fc67   Bechst. Deutsch, \\., ^$96.    Gerifo i. t.|2j^?j- Daud.
.  ii, 101.    Share's Zool. vii. 130.
Le Lanier,' *%$. i. 243.
Lanner, Gen. Syn.'i. 86.   Id; Ship.'21.     Br. Zool. i. t. 23. Id. ed. 1812, pl-223, pl. 23.
Arct. Zool. ii. 225.    Will. Engl, 82.    Albin.W, pl. 7.    Bewick, i. p. 32.    Walcot,
i. pl. 16.    Orn. Diet. * Sup.
LESS than a Buzzard; bill and cere blue; irides yellow;
plumage above brown,, the feathers edged with paler brown;
crown of the head brown and clay colour; over each eye to the
hindhead a broad white^ line; beneath it a black mark, pointing
downwards; throat wMiejf'^relist. tinged with dull jetjow, marked
with brown spots, passing., j^wnwards ; thighs and vent the same ;
quills dusky, with oval ferruginous spots on the inner webs; legs
short, strong, and bluish.
This is now and then met with in England, but said to breed
in Ireland, not uncommon in the northern parts of Europe; inhabits
 •Falcon. 8?>
Iceland and the* Ferroe Islands, Denmark, and Sweden, frequent
in the Tartarian desarts, and the Baraba, though not in the northern
or eastern parts of Siberia ;* well known about Astrachan, building
among the shrubs and low trees. Used by the Calmucs in falconry;f
is for the most part migratory, but is said to stay in France the
Whole year.J
A.—Lanarius albicans, Ind. Orn. i. 38.    Bris. i. 367.
t. p. 181, 183.§    Gm. Lin. i. 276.    Daud. ii. 174.
White Lanner, Gen. Syn. i. p. 87
Id. 8vo. 107.   Aldrov. i.  380.
Two varieties of this are mentioned by Aldrovandus, the first
19|in. long; bill blaSf^ cere, irides, and legs, yellow; general
colour of the plumage brownish.; quills and tail nearly black; under
the tail, pale g?ey.       .     .<m m v*s :
The second more than 2 ft. in length; head and back brown,
mixed with grey; rump whitish; wing coverts and breast grey;
under parts grey, marked with longitudinal ferruginous spots; the
two outer tail feathers white, spotted with pale ferruginous; the
fourth on each side spotted with black, the two middle ones grey.
The Lanner is thought by some to be a variety, or young bird,
of the Peregrine Falcon. •
B.—Abyssinian Whi^Jbreasted Lanner, Salt. Abyss. pl. xiii.
Size of common falcon; beak and feet bluish; general colour
deep brown, approaching to black; the whole of the breast clear
white.
Inhabits Abyssinia; called by the natives Goodie-goodie.   They
* Mr. Pennant.
f Decouv. Buss, iii. 303.
X Hist, de Lyons, i. p. 200.-
§ These figures do not seem accurate.
 86 FALCON.
have so much veneration for it, as not to suffer it to be killed ; and,
on setting out on a journey, if one is met with, and sits still, with the
breast towards them, it is considered as a peculiarly good sign; but if
the back be turned, unpropitious. If the bird fly away hastily on
approach, the most superstitious will return home, and wait for a
more favourable opportunity.
30— STARRY FALCON.
Falco stellaris, Ind. Orn. i. 35.   Gm. Lin. i. 274.    Bris. i. 359.    Id. 8vo. i. 103.    Daud.
ii. 109      Klein. Av. p. 52.     Id. Ov. 19.  t. 6./. 5. .    Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 34.
Id. Ed. 2. p. 23.
Blue-footed Falcon, Will. Orn. p. 82.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 154.
Starry Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 79.
THIS in shape and size is said to be like the Peregrine Falcon,
but has shorter wings, and a longer tail; plumage in general
blackish, marked with spots like stars; breast black and white
mixed; quills blackish ; legs blue; irides gold colour.
Inhabits the mountainous parts of Europe, laying red coloured
eggs, spotted with a paler colour; it seems a doubtful species, supposed to be a young Lanner.
 87
31—MOOR BUZZARD.
Falco aeruginosus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 25.     Lin. i.  130.     Faun. Succ. No. 66.      Gm. Lin.
i. 267.   Raii Syn. p. 17.    Will. p. 42. t. 7.    Brun, p. 5.    Muller, No. 69.    Faun.
Arag. p. 69.     Sepp. Vog. t. p. 15.     Nozem. Ned, Vog. t. 8. 9.     Klein Av. p. 51.
Id. Stem. p. 8. t. 7. f. 1. a. b.    Id. Ov. p. 19. t. 6. f. 3.    Kramer, 328.   Phil. Trans.
liv. p. 346.    Frisch. t. 77.   It. Poseg. p. 28.    Beckst. Deutsch. ii. s. 249.    Daud.
Orn. ii, p. 165.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 116.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 25.
Falco bceticus, Gerin. Orn. t. 32, 33. 34.
Circus palustris, Bris. i. 401.    Id, 8vo. 115.
Busard, Buf. i. 218. 1.10.   pl. enl. 424.    Cet. uc. Sard. p. 45.
Faux Perdrieux, Belon. 114.   i?isf. de Lyons, i. 203.
II Nibbio, Zimum. Uov. p. 83. t. 13. f. 74.
Huhnerweyhe, Naturf. viii. s. 55. 23.
Moor Buzzard, Gau Syn. i. p, 53.     Id. Sup. p. 15.     Br. Zool. i. no. 57. pl. 27.     Id.
fol. 67. t. A. 5.     Id.ed. 1812. i. p. 237. pl. 28.   Arct. Zool, ii. p. 225. L.    Will.
Engl. p. 75, pl. 7.     Alb. i. pl.3.     Bewick, i. pl. p. 19.     L^/ciw'* Bird*, i. pl. 8.
Id. Eggs, t. ii. f. 1.    Walcot, i. pl. 8.    Pu/f. Dorset, p. 3.    X/n. TVaH*. iv. p. 13.
THE length of this species is 21 in.; weight 20 oz.; bill
black; cere and irides yellow; general colour of the plumage chocolate brown, with a ferruginous tinge; legs yellow, long, and
slender. The female is larger, weighing 27 or 28 ounces; is 22 in.
long, and 4 ft. 4 in. in extent of wing.
It is subject to much variety ; some specimens are plain, as
above described; but in others the crown of the head, throat, and
shoulders, are yellow, or clay colour; sometimes the crown of the
head is yellowish white, in others the whole head of that colour.
In two young birds, which I saw in full feather, one had the first
and second outer quills of the right wing, and a large triangular
spot on the chin white, and the bottom of the thighs the same ; the
other had the crown yellow, and a large spot of yellow on the
chin:   otherwise the colour of both these birds was ferruginous
 88-- FALCON.
brown. We believe, however, that the greater part of this species
has the top of the head more or less inclined to yellow.
This is frequent in England, especially in the moors, marshy
places, and wet heaths; makes the nest in a tuft of grass, fern, or
rushes; composed of twigs and coarse grass; sometimes in the fork
of a large tree; and lays four, rarely five, eggs of a plain white.
It feeds principally on young rabbits and wild ducks, and occasionally on fish; is seen skimming over the ground like the Ringtail, suddenly dropping on frogs, lizards, &c. Colonel Montagu
once saw uine of these birds feeding together on the carcase of a
dead sheep. Is not uncommon in France, and there found to build
on the tops of trees; frequent in the south of Russia, but not met
with in Siberia ; continues the whole year in Sweden.
I have seen a plain coloured specimen, among some drawings
from India, in which the crown of the head alone was yellow;
another, with the chin and whole top of the head white; in one the
whole crown, nape, chin, throat, and tip of the shoulder of the
wing, were yellow clay colour; in another the top of the head and
chin white; plumage deep ferruginous; met with at Cawnpore.
A.—Falco rubiginosus,   Ind. Orn.  i. p. 27.
Zool. ii. 170.
Rusty Falcon, GthtfSyn. Sup, ii. 36.
It. Poseg. 29,    Daud. ii. 167.    Shaw's
» .•?Ilteibill is black; head wholly whitish yellow; cheeks rusty;
plumage on the upper part of the body brown; beneath yellowish
white, with an irregular, rusty coloured spot on the breast; quills
brown,- with the outer edges hoary, the inner brown, crossed with
several- white bands; tall brown, marked with four testaceous bands;
legs yellow. -
-Inhabits Selavonia, and probably is no other than a variety
of $iefMoor Buzzard.1 I'
 B.—A further variety, or what appears to be such, has come
under my inspection—in this the bill is blackish; cere and legs pale
yellow; general colour of the plumage chocolate brown. Head and
neck cream-colour, the feathers dashed down the shafts with black
lines, and below this dusky in the middle; sides of the head, below
the eye, pale tawny; on the bend of the wing a dash of white; the
under parts of the body, thighs, rump, and vent, ferruginous; tail
dusky brownish green, rounded at the end, plain; the wings, when
closed, reach almost to the end of it; claws black.
32.—HARPY FALCON.
Falco rufus, Ind. Orn. i. 25.    Gm. Lin. i. 266.    Bris. i. 404.
ii. 269.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 113.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 26.
Fishgeyer, Brandgeyer, Frisck. t. 78.    Beckst. Dents, ii. 61.
Harpaye, Buf. i. 217.    Pl. enl. 460.
Harpy Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 5L
Id. 8vo. i. 115.   Daud.
Id.Ed.ii. p. 70.
LENGTH 20in.; bill black; irides saffron-colour; plumage in
general rufous, but the back, scapulars, greater coverts and rump
incline to brown, and in the rufous parts each feather has a stripe of
brown down the middle; thighs rufous; tail ash-colour; greater
quills black, the lesser ash-colour, the three next the body brown;
legs yellow.
VOL. I. N
 90 FALCON.
Inhabits both France and Germany, near the banks of rivers
and ponds, feeding on frogs and small reptiles, and not unfrequently
on fish^uwhiOhrit isfsaid to take alive out of the watery in ffce-njanner
of; the}#^prey. . >Tbis;,!isprobably related to the Moor-B»zzard,
and, if^t the.'same, far advanced in age. t-o ra<
5
33.—GREY FALCON.
Falco griseus, Ind. Orn.i. 37.    Gm. Lin.\. 275.    .Dawd.ii. 114.
Grey Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. 82.    Br. Zool. i. No. 49.    Id.fol. pl. 65.    Id. ed. 1812. i. p.
221.   Lewin's Birds i. pl. 15.    Orn. Diet, f'^^%
SIZE of a raven.—Bill short, strong, hooked, and bluish ; cere
and edges of eyelids yifl^ow^/hjide^fre^^ fhead small, and flat, deep
brown before, and white behind; sides of the head and throat
cream-coloured; belly white, with oblong black spots; hind part of
the neck and bacl^ deep grey; tail long, wedge-shaped, and spotted,
the two middle feathers plain; the Wings.reachv beyond the middle of
it; legs long, naked, yellow.
A bird, as above described, was shot near Halifax, in Yorkshire,
in the year 1762, and an account of it sent to Mr. Pennant by the
late Mr*.Bolton^;of-iWcfrley dough! We suspect.it to be an immature! individual of one of our (Bngjilhfi species, for I do not- fm&
th at a second has ever been met with. 'B^J^S^L
 91
34—NORTHERN FALCON.
Falco hyemalis, Ind. Orn. i. p. 35.     Gm. Lin. i. 274,     Daud. iUUO.     Amer. OriiMS$
pi. 35. f. l. 'rtmM
La Buse d'Hiver, Vieill. Am. p. 35. pl. 7.
Winter Falcon, Arct. Zool. ii. No. 107.    Shaw's Zool. vii, 153.
Northern Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 79.    Id. SiSp.^n, p. 39.
LENGTH 18 in. to 20in. breadth 41 in.; bill dark horn-colour;
irides reddish; plumage above deep lead-colour, edges of the feathers
very dark: crown most so; on the hindhead a slight mixture of
white; beneath ferruginous brown, with the appearance of interrupted bars of white, produced from the feathers being ferruginous,
with two or three white spots on each side of the shaft, which is
brown; tail deep lead or ash, crossed with four bars of a deeper
colour, the outer one more brown than the rest; tips of all white;
between Hie dark bars beneath nearly white, the outer feather plain
on the outer web; under tail coverts white; legs pretty long, and
.yellowish; the wings 'reach beyond the middle of the tail.
Inhabits some parts of North America; one of these presented
to me, was brought from Hudson's Bay; destroys many frogs, and
•frequently seen in moist meadows; comes in November, and departs
Sate in March.
A.—Falco hyemalis, Ind. Orn. i. p, 35. 78. var.
Faucon a croupion blanc, Daud. ii. p. 110. 78.    Vieill. Am. i. p. 36. pi. 8.
L'Epervier brun a sourcils blancs, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 25 ?
^Northern-Falcon, Gen, Syn. i. p. 79. var.
This is 16in. long; bill brown; cere greenish; irides yellow;
head ash-cdlGur, each feather brownish in the middle, ,ana; ferruginous
N2
 JHJ FALCON.
on the sides, inclining most to the last at the hindhead; cheeks pale
ash-colour; orbits and chin whitish; neck ash-colour, inclining to
brown behind, and before to ferruginous; back cinereous brown;
rump white; breast ferruginous, more or less mixed with white;
belly and thighs white, marked with ferruginous, each feather
having two or three heart-shaped spots ; tail brown above, and pale
beneath, with dusky bars ; legs yellow.
One of these was killed in Carolina, by M. C. Bosc.
35—ASH-COLOURED FALCON.
Ash-coloured Falcon, Orn. Diet. $f Sup.
p. 243.    Tern. Man. ed. ii. p. 76.
Lin. Trans, ix. ;
Br. Zool. ed. 1812. i.
WEIGHT 9| ounces; length 18in. breadth 3ft. 8iin. tail 9|in.
bill black; cere greenish ; eyelids and irides bright yellow; crown,
cheeks, throat, under part of the neck, and upper part of the breast
dark ash-colour; neck above, back, and scapulars cinereous brown;
lesser wing coverts much the same, greater dusky black; quills
nearly black, the first shortest, the third longest; second quills
cinereous brown, with three dusky bars across them, half an inch
broad, two of which are hid by the coverts; body beneath white,
with a broad bright bay streak down the shaft of each feather; tail
somewhat cuneiform, the two middle feathers dark brown, the others
dark ash-colour, palest on the two or three outer feathers, the inner
webs approaching to white, and all, except the two middle ones,
with four equidistant bars on the inner webs, in the two outer bay,
in the rest more or less dusky; legs orange-colour, long and slender;
claws small, black.
 FALCON. 93
The above description is sketched from that in the Zdn. Trans.
in which it is said to be a male; it had the feathers behind the ears
short, but no ruff, as in the Hen Harrier—said to be killed in
November.
Since the above, Col. Montagu informed me, that he had met
with the female, young, and egg. The female is not very unlike that
sex of the Hen-Harrier, but the ferruginous parts are much brighter,
and instead of the under being streaked with dusky, they are purely
bright ferruginous—he had also a young male in this plumage, which
he bred up; the old female was shot at the nest. The Colonel
suspected this to be rather a distinct bird, than the hyemalis, and
possibly an undescribed species.—He conjectures, likewise, that the
last described may be the one mentioned in the British Zoology,
p. 295, as a variety of his Ringtail,* and not unlikely the Falco
spadiceus, my Chocolate Falcon, may be this female—also, that
the male, having been confounded with the Hen-Harrier, has never
been described.
The above are the outlines of the history of the bird in question,
but the reader would do well to peruse what is further advanced
concerning it, in the IAn. Trans..mid.Supplement to the Ornithological Dictionary.
* This is described in the Edition of 1812, under the title of Ash-coloured Falcon, witb
due reference to the source—yet the Falco hyemalis is. made synonymous..
 94
36—HEN-HARRIER,
MALE.
Falco cyaneus, Ind. Orn, i. p. 39.    Lin. Syst. i. p. 126.    Gm. Lin, i. p. 226.    Kram> 329.
Mull. 74.    It. Poseg. p. 27.    Daudin ii. 174.    Beckst. Deuts. ii. 256.    Shaw's Zooh
vii. 163.    Tern, Man. d'Orn. p. 27.    Id. ed.iu p. 72.
Falco torquatus, mas, Brisfij1345.    Id, 8vo. 100.    Brun. No. 14.
Pygargus, mas, R/iiii |S#$ p. 17. A. 5.    Will. p. 40. t. 7.
Falco albanella, Ger. Orn. i. 61. t. 35 ?    It. Poseg. p. 27 ?
Lanarms cinereus, Frisch. t. 79. 80.    Bris. i. 365.    Id. 8vo. 106.
Falco plumbeus cauda. tessellata, Klein. Av. 52. 22.
PerBlejf$^J¥fituv£fep.<460. '**&&
Oiseau St. Martin, Buf. i. 212.    Pl. enl. 459. i&i&
Hen-Harrier, Gen. Syn. \. p. 88.     Id. Sup. p. 22.     Br. Zoo/, i. pl. 28.     Id./o/. t. A. 6.
Id. edl^$%$pM9. pl. 29.     J?d«>. pl. 225.      JPi//. £ng7. p. 72.'"   Atb.&. pl. 5.
Hayes'siB:?-. Birds, pl. 1.     Bewick, i). pl. p. 33.     Lewin's Birds, 1.18.     Walcot's
. Parcfe, i. pl. 17.     Pw/f. Dors. p. 3.    Don, Birds, iii. pl. 59.     Montag, Orn. Diet.
Lin. Trans, iv. p. 12.   Id. Vol. ix. p. 182.
FEMALE.
Falco Pygargus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 39.    Lin. Syst. i. 126.    Gm. Lin. i. 277.     Scop. Ann. i.
p. 14.    ;.R<m -Syn. p. 17. fem.     Will. p. 40.     Brun!No/14.    Mm//. No. 7C   ' lawn.
^frag-. p. 68.    .gram. e/. 330.    Beckst, DeutsAl 352.    D<rad. ii. p. 171.
Falco torquatus, fem. Bris. i. 345.   Id. 8wo. 100.   Gerin. Orn. p. 61. t. 31. 37.   Id. t. 97 ?
La Soubuse, Bm/. i. 215. t.9.    Pl. enl. 443. 480.
La Buse des champs cendree, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 32 ?
Ringtail, Gen. Syn. \. p. 88.     Id. Sup. p.22.     Br. Zoo>.$59.     Id.fol. t. A. 7.    ^f/i.
iii. pl.3.     Hayes's Br. Birds, pl.2.     Bewick, i. pl. p. 35.    Lewin's Br. Birds, t.
18. F.     Id. JSg-g*, pl.2. f.4.     Will. Engl. p.72.     Wale. Birds, i. pl. 18.     Orn.
D?cf. # iS«p.
THE male is about 17in. in length; width 3ft. 3in.; and"
weighs 12 or 13 ounces.—The bill flat; cere, irides, and edges of the
eyelids, yellow; general colour of the plumage blue-grey; back of
the head white, spotted with pale brown ; breast, belly, and thighs
white, on the first a few small dusky streaks; tail feathers grey, all
but the two middle ones have the inner webs white, with dusky bars ;
legs yellow, long, and slender; claws black.
 falcon? 95
The female is 20in. in length, tand weighs 18 ounces.—Bill,
irides, and legs as in the male—plumage above, dusky; beneath,
palish, marked with oblong rufous, or dusky spots; from the hind-
head on each side, to the chin, passes a circular wreath made up of
feathers stiffer than the-rest, and paler in colour.—The rump is white,
breast and belly yellowish brown, in some marked with oblong dusky
spots.
I need not detail here the various conjectures of authors concerning these birds, as they will be found in page 22 of my first
Supplement. In addition, however, to our opinion of the two
making but one species, Mr. Beckstein observes, * that they do not
come to their complete plumage till the fourth year, and after that,
they grow more white in proportion as they attain a greater age.f
These birds are not uncommon in England, but seem to shift
their quarters occasionally, no doubt in quest of food, which is
various—young rabbits, and. small'quadrupeds, also lizards; are
said also to suck eggs^ jand to destioyfiieinests of thfe smaller birds for
that purpose. It makes as large nest ofi twigs, frequently on the
ground, or in- a thick bushy rfree, andSlays three or four I eggs of a
dirty white, about? the size of those of a pheasant.
To comprise the historytof'the two birds in question in as few
words as possible, it appears to us, that in the first year both sexes
are nearly alike, and similar to the female. The male, as it proceeds
in age, by degrees obtains the blue-rgi^ey'oolour, but the (female never
wholly so, although ini the progress of years it approaches thereto;-
in the mean* time is capable ofr breeding, and in course does so, long
before the plumage is eomplete^hence the assertion of authors will
be reconciled £ some saying! ftUBith the two sexes-> diffeiy the male
being as before described, the female more or less rufous above, with
a white Tump, &c.    Others aver, that;both sexes differ but little in
* Allg. U.d. Trog. Zusass. p. 668.
+ Mr: White shot one such at Gibraltar which was perfectly white—Consult' Colonel
Montagu's remarks on this bird in the Lin'. Trans, v. ix. p. 182.
 96 falcon.
plumage, excepting the female being less bright in colour—and the
fact appears to be so in old birds. I think it not amiss to repeat here,
the opinion of that accurate Russian naturalist, Professor Pallas,
conveyed to me many years since :—" The Ringtail is extremely common in Russia, as well as Siberia; in more temperate and open
countries is certainly not to be distinguished from the Hen-Harrier ;
both are found as far the lake Baikal; and I have observed, more
than once, birds that were changing colours, and getting the white
feather. The truth is, that the first year all are dark coloured, very
differently variegated; but at the second change of feathers, chiefly
the males grow whitish; and such are the augural birds of the
Moguls and Calmucs."
A.—Among the drawings of Sir J. Anstruther, as well as those
of Gen. Hardwicke, I find a Hen-Harrier of a very pale colour; head
and under parts white, the rest pale ash-colour—said to inhabit
Bengal, and there called Pustey—in the same set of drawings is
one called a variety, probably a female : this is brown above, and
cream-coloured beneath ; a pale wreath surrounds the head, and a
curved streak beneath the eye ; inner wing coverts pale ; tail crossed
with six blackish bars, the outer feather paler than the middle ones;
bill black; legs long and yellow.
The figure above referred to is 18in. long—head and upper
parts chocolate brown, round the lower part of the head a wreath,
as in the British species; on the wing coverts a large mixture of
rufous White:; throat, breast, and belly of the last named colour;
thighs paler; tail brown, the two middle feathers twice barred with
darker, and one of the same at the base, the others pale, with the
three bars very little differing from the two middle ones; legs yellow;
bill and claws black. This seems to differ from the other, chiefly in
having three bars on the tail instead of six.
 97
B.—Falco albus, White's Journ. to Bot. Bay, t. p. 250.
This is nearly the shape of the Hen-Harrier, but entirely white
throughout.    Bill black; cere and legs yellow.
C—Falco hudsonius, Ind. Orn. i. 40. jS.   Lin. i. 128.   Gm. Lin. i. 277.   Bris. vi.   Sup.
p. 18.    Id. 8oo.ll9.    JDa«d.ii. 173.    Ger. Orn. i. t. 44.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 165.
Busard roux, Vieill. Amer. i. p. 36. pl.9.
White-rumped Bay Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 54. 34. B.
Hudson's Bay Ringtail, Gat. Syn. i, p. 91.    Edw. 1.107.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 106.
Bill, cere, and legs as in the last described; plumage in general
ferruginous, with a tinge of brown; cheeks, and round the eyes
darker; rump white; the two middle tail feathers ash-colour, the
others ferruginous; all of them crossed with four bars of very dark
brown; tips dusky.
Mr. Pennant describes this bird as having a dusky bill, and
yellow cere; a white line over each eye; plumage above dusky
brown—beneath whitish, with ferruginous spots; vent and rump
white; middle tail feathers dusky, the next bluish ash-colour, the
outermost white, all marked with orange bars.
In size it rather exceeds our British species, and has the same
manners in every respect; weighs 17iounces; length 21 in.; breadth
three feet seven inches.
Inhabits Hudson's Bay; is frequentiy seen in the open and
temperate parts of Russia; extends as far as Lake Baikal, but not
common in the north of Europe.
 98
D.—Falco Buffoni. Ind. Orn. i. p.40. y.    Gm.Lin. i. 277.   Daud.
Cayenne Ringtail, Gen. Syn. i. p. 91. A.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 166.
Length two feet; breadth four; bill black; cere blue; parts
above chocolate brown ; fore part of the neck the same, but paler;
on the hindhead a little mixture of white; round the ears, on each
side, a kind of wreath, conspicuous in all the former described; over
the eyes a pale yellow line, from the bill, meeting the wreath behind;
chin whitish; from this to the breast buff-colour; beneath the body
reddish buff, streaked with brown; rump white; all the tail feathers
barred pale and dark brown; most of the inner webs whitish, and
the tip very pale; legs yellow, claws black; the wings, when closed,
reach to the middle of the tail.
Inhabits Cayenne—a specimen, in the collection of Miss
Blomefield, was entitled Due de Ruffon.
A bird, similar to this, if not the same, is known in Georgia,
by the name of Tawny Hawk; it answers very nearly to the last
description, but all the under parts are pale rufous, marked on the
throat and breast with brown streaks, the belly and thighs with deeper
rufous ones; two middle tail feathers brown ash, with four brown
bars, the one nearest the end twice as broad as the others; end
whitish. This is 18in. in length; 3ft. 4in. broad, and said to be
rarely met with.
M. dAzara mentions a bird, common about Paraguay, which
answers, in many respects, to the Ringtail, and supposes it to be the
same, but his annotator does not allow of it.
 37—KITE.
Falco Milvns, Ind. Orn. i. p 20:   Lin. Syst. i. 126:   Faun. Suec. No. 57.    Gm.Lin. u
261.   Raii Syn. p. 17. A. 6.    Will. 41. t. 6.    Brttn.No.3.   Mull. No. 61.    Georgi.
164.   Kram. el. 326.    Ger. Om. i. t, 39.    Borowsk.Nat. ii. p. 72,   J>oud. Orn. ii.
147.   Beckst. Deuts. ii. s. 243.    Bris. i. 414. t. 33.    Id. 8vo. 118.    SAow'* Zool.
vii. p. 103.    Tern. Man, d'Orn. p. 18.   Id. ed. ii. p. 59.
Falco cauda forcipata,    Klein. Av. 51. 13.    Id. Ov. 19. t. 6. f. 1.
Milan royal, Buf. i. 197. t. 7.   PL enl. 422.    Foy. «i Barb. i. 266.
II Nibbio, Cet. *c. Sard. 57.    Zinnan. Ov. 82, 1.13. f. 73.
Der Weybe, Naturf. 8. s. 47.
Hunergeyer, Licht. Mag. iv. 2. 6.
Weisser Milan, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 63 ?    *Pir$. Fbgr. t. 48.
Kite, Gen. Syn. i. p. 61.   Id. Sup. p. 17.   Id. Sup. ii. p. 30.    Br. Zool. i. No. 53.
fol. t. A. 2.   Id. ed. 1812. i. p. 229.   Arct. Zool. ii. 223. H.    Will. Engl. p. 74. pl.
6.    Alb. i. pl.4.    Hayes's Br. Birds, pl. 5.     Bewick, i. pl. p. 21.    Lewin's Birds,
i. pl. 10.    Id. jBgg*, pi. 2. f. 3.   JFa/c. Bird*, i. pl. 10.    Pk/*. Itor*. p. 3.    Donou.
Br. Birds, ii. pl. 47.    Graves'* Br. Birds.    Orn. Diet. Sf Sup.
THIS species weighs 2 lbs. 6 oz.; length two feet; the female
is larger, and weighs four ounces more; in length 2 ft. 4in.; breadth
6j feet. The bill is brownish; cere yellow; irides straw-colour;
feathers of the head and neck hoary white, long and narrow, with a
dash of brown down the shaft of each; body ferruginous, marked
down the shafts with a darker colour; quills blackish; tail twelve
inches long, and much forked; legs yellow; claws Mack. In the
the female the colours are less ferruginous, and incline more to brown*
It is veiy common in England, and in the warmer parts of the"
kingdom may be seen at all times; makes the nest generally between
the forks of a tree, of sticks, lined with wool, hair, feathers, and
not unfrequently bits of rags, or any soft material it meets with.
The eggs are three, or at most four in number, of a bluish white,
cinereous red at one end, blending itself with the white by small
 WO FALCON.
markings; sometimes plain/ without markings. Colonel Montagu
observes, that each weighs nearly two ounces.
On the continent, it inhabits the northern part of Europe, as
high as Jarlsberg, in the very south of Norway, but does not extend
farther. It can scarcely be said to migrate, yet certainly does shift
its quarters occasionally; it is no where more common than in Egypt,
as well as other parts of Africa—and I learn from Mr. White, that
it is not uncommon at Gibraltar, resting there in its passage to
and from Spain and.Barbary—hence has there obtained the name of
the Barbary Kite. The times of appearance are in March and April,
and again in Autumn, though in fewer numbers; these are accompanied by hawks of some other kinds. Said to be most frequent in
the temperate and well inhabited parts of Russia.; scarcer in Siberia,
but not far to the north : not uncommon about the Lake Baikal, but
none beyond the Lena. Frequents sheep downs in the breeding
season, when skirted with wood, but in winter near towns, watered
by rivers, where it has been observed to sweep off, dexterously, offal
floating on the surface; will lay as far as four eggs, some of a pure
white, others much speckled; drives away the young, as soon as they
are able to shift for themselves.
It has been observed, that a female Kite will weigh 2 lbs. 10 oz.
the egg 2% ounces, so that 17 eggs would but just exceed the weight
of the bird; but the raven is so disproportionate, as to require 48 to
answer the same purpose.
The. Kite is also found in great numbers in India, living there
all the year, and with the Hooded Crow, feeding in the very streets;
but in Bengal the Kites retire to the mountains, and return in the
dry season.* ^sglji
Kites have been observed to destroy great numbers of moles,
which frequently come to the surface of pasture lands, in search after
caterpillars, and insects of all kinds, and an instance is on record,
* View of Hindoostan, 2. p. 90.
 FALCON. 101
of 22 moles having been found in one Kite's nest, as well as many
frogs, and unfledged birds.*
A.—Milvus vertice & gnla castaneis, S. G.Gmel. It. i. p. 147.
Milvus castaneus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 21.    Daud. Orn. ii. 148. A.
This variety of the common Kite chiefly differs, in having the
crown of the head and the throat chestnut-coloured.
B.—Accipiter Korschun, N. C Petr, xv. 444.  t. ii. a.  S. G. Gmelin.    Ind. Orn. i. p.
21. 37 y.    Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 105.
s    Milvus russicus, Daud. Orn. ii. 146. B.
Russian Kite, Gen. Syn. i. p. 63, 46.
This has the bill lead colour; cere green ; nostrils covered with
bristles: head, upper part of the neck, and throat, chestnut;
region of the eyes white; sides of the head, and the rest of the body
pale brown ; quills and tail vinaceous at the tips; legs wrinkled;
claws black.
This variety inhabits Russia, where it is solitary, and feeds on
small birds and mice , chiefly about Tanain, near the city of
Tschercask.
C—Milvus jaicensis, Lepech, It. ii. p. 180, t.2.    Ind, Orn. i. p. 21, 37. $.    Daud. Orn.
ii. 148. c.
This chiefly differs from the common Kite, in having the feathers
which cover the back of a violet colour, each having a mark of
white at the tip.
* Trans. Soc. Arts and Manuf. 19. p. 179.
 102
38—BLACK KITE.
Falco ater, Ind. Orn. i. p. 21. Gm. Lin. i. p. 262, Bris. Orn. i. p. 413. Id. 8vo. 117,
It. Poseg. p. 28. Daud. Orn. ii. 149. D. Beckst. Deuts. ii. 259. Shaw's
Zool. vii. p. 105.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 19.    Id. Ed. 2. p. 61.
Brauner wald-geyer, Kram, el. 326. 5.    Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 55.
Koenigs-weyhe, Naturf. viii. s. 47.
Milan noir, Buf. Ois. i. 203.   pl. enl. 472.
Black Kite, Gen. Syn. i. p. 62.    Sibb. Scot. ill. ii. 1. 3. p. 15.
THIS is smaller than the common Kite, and differs from
that bird, in having the upper part of the body of a very dark
brown; head, breast, and under parts whitish; the bill, cere, and
legs the colour of those in the common Kite, but the last are more
slender; and, according to Kramer, the tail is very little forked at
the end ; yet, in attending to this Author's full description, it seems
to possess so many markings in common with the Kite, as to
cause some hesitation, whether or not it may belong to that species,
I find, however, in the MSS. notes of the late Rev. J. White,
who resided several years at Gibraltar, that it is regarded by him,
and others, as differing from the common species. His specification
of it is " F. cera flava, cauda forcipata, corpore fusco-castaneo,
capite albidiore." He adds, that both this and the common Kite
are frequent at Gibraltar, resting there in their migration from
Africa into Spain, in greatest numbers in March and April, mostly
during a brisk westerly wind, directing their flight against it; they
return again in autumn, but in smaller parties. Mr. White seems
positive of its being a different species from the common kite, although in many birds the tail is equally forked; but the irides are
 dark hazel, and not yellow; and thinks it more probable, that this
and Austrian Kite, or following, are varieties of each other.
A— Falco austriacus, Ind. Orn. i. 21.     Gm, Lin. i. 262,   Daud, ii.   149. E,    Beckst.
Deuts, ii. 261.    Shaw's Zool. yii. 106.
Brauner Geyer, Brauner Milon, Kram. 327, 6.
Austrian Kite, Gen. Syn, i. 62.
Size of our kite; bill yellow, tip black; cere and angles of
the mouth yellow; irides black; palate blue; forehead and throat
whitish, spotted with brown; head, neck, back, breast, and wings,
chestnut; shafts of the feathers black; belly and rump testaceous
brown, obscurely spotted with brown; prime quills blackish; secondaries tipped with white; tad very little forked, crossed with
several blackish bands; tips of the feathers white; legs yellow* feathered to the middle; claws black.
Inhabits Austria; lives chiefly in woods, and feeds on birds,
mice, and other small quadrupeds. Is probably a variety:of the
black species, if not of the common kite; said to lay three or four
yellowish-white eggs, thickly spotted with brown.
 104
39—PARASITE FALCON.
Falco parasiticus, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. v.    Daud. ii. 150.
Le Parasite, Levaill. Ois. i. p. 88, pl. 22.
Parasite Falcon, Gen. Syn. Supp. 2d. p. 30.
Tern. Man. dOrn. 21,
IN this the bill is yellow, instead of black, as in the common
kite; cere bluish; irides brownish hazel; general colour of the
plumage like that of tanned leather; the middle of each feather
darker; under parts inclined to cinnamon colour; cheeks and throat
whitish ; most of the feathers with a blackish line down the shaft;
tail less forked than in the common kite; colour brown, banded
with deeper brown ; legs yellow.
This is common throughout Africa, especially in Caffraria,
and the Grand Namaquas; called at the Cape, Kuyken-dief,
which is also the name given by the Dutch to the common kite ;
makes the nest both in trees and rocks; lays four eggs, spotted'
with rufous. The young have the end of the tail nearly even/
which is also the case with the European species ; and M. Leyail-
lant supposes it to be the same with that bird.
 10-5
40—ARABIAN KITE.
Falco Forskalii, Ind. Orn. i. p. 20.     Faun. Arab. p.
150.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 178.    Temm, Man. d'Orn.
Falco Egyptius, Gm. Lin. i. 261.
Arabian Kite, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 34.
i. 1.    Gm. Lin. i. 263.
p. 19.
SMALLER than the common Kite; length 18in.; bill and cere
yellow; feathers of the head narrow, rufous-brown, dashed with
black down the shafts; back and wing coverts cinereous, with brown
shafts; quills brown, within grey, banded with brown, the ends black;
tail the length of the body, and forked; the wings, when closed, not
reaching to the end of it. The feathers cinereous, banded with
brown; legs yellow; shins half covered with feathers.
Said to be common in Egypt, and other parts of Africa, where it
sometimes "migrates into Germany, but rarely breeds there; has also
been met with in France and Switzerland, and may be considered as
no other than a variety of the Black Kite. M. Temminck places it
as a young bird of that species.
1
 106
41.—GOSHAWK.
Falco palumbarius, Ind. Orn. i. p. 29.   Lin. 1.130.    Gm. Lin. i. 269.    Fn. Suec. No. 67.
Raii Syn. p. 18. i.     Will. p. 51. t. 3. & 5.    Klehhldv.. JP^ 5Q. ii.     Frisck. t. 81. 82.
Georgi. 164.    Germ. Orn. i. t. 21. 22.    Daud. p.71.   Id. vol. ivp"w! pl.2. Sceleton.
Beckst. Deuts. ii. 268.   Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 118. pl. 20.v ffim.fflakf. d'Orn. p. 30.
Id. ed. 2. p. 53.
Astur, Bris. i. 317.   Id. 8vo. 91.   Cet. uc. Sard. 48.   Zinn. Uov. 1.14. f. 77.   Buf. i. 230.
pl.12   Pl. enl. 418. 461.    Fby. en. Barb. i. 266. aSE
Epervief *aye, Foy. d'Azara iii. No. 29. var. ?
Grosser gepfeilter Falck, Frisch. i. 82.    Falck. It. iii. t. 21.    '%
Taubenhabicht, Naturf. viii. s. 54.
Goshawk, Gen. Syn. i. p. 58.    Id. Sup. p. 16.    Br. Zool. No. 52. pl. 24.    Id. ed.^1%
i. p. 225. pl. 24   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 99.     Bewick, pl. p. 23:    Lewin'sffirds i. pl.
9.    Idi Eggs. pl. ii. f. 2.    ^/6. ii. pl. 8.     Walcot $y«*\\ pl. 9.      WoogsiZoogr. i. p.
395. pl. 17.  Orn. Diet. $ Sup.   Amer. Orn. vi. pl. 52. fig. 3.    Ash-coloured, or blaclt-
capped hawk.
LARGER than the common buzzard, but of a more slender
make; length 22in.; weight;3^ pounds; bill blue, tip black; cere
greenish; irides yellow; over the eye a white line; on the side of the
neck a bed of broken white; head and upper part of the body deep
brown; breast and under parts crossed with numerous black and
white bars; tail cinereous, long, with four or five dusky bars; the
wings reach three parts of the way on the tail; legs yellow ; claws
black.
In some specimens, the thighs have reddish feathers, marked
with a black line down the shafts, and in those of the breast a black
circular line near the tip, parallel to the edge, and in others the shafts
and middle of the feathers are black.
The female is larger than the male, and paler in colour, marked
beneath with oval, dusky black spots.
 FALCON. 107
Young birds incline to grey*, and have the markings less clearly
defined than in the adult.
This species is not very common in England, nor does it breed
here, but is more plentiful in Scotland, where it builds in trees,
making the nest of sticks, lined with hay and feathers, and lays four
white eggs in June; is a destructive species, being a great enemy to
partridges and other birds. Is common in Denmark, throughout
Russia and Siberia, about the lake Baikal, and is used by the Cal-
mucs in falconry, as it was once here in England.
It is by no means uncommon in America, but is larger than the
European species, and the black markings on the under parts more
numerous and elegant; known at Hudson's Bay by the name of
Komishark Papanasew, not unfrequent also in China and India,
where the male is called Bauge or Baiz ;* the young male Mudge
Jurra. The female named Jurra. It is used in India among others
for falconry.
A large white variety, motded with brown and yellow, is sometimes found about the Uralian mountains; most frequent in the east
part of Siberia; and in Kamtschatka every individual is white, with
scarcely any spots, and such birds are reputedly the finest hunters;!
indeed, a variety is sometimes found perfectly white, but this is very
rare4
. In General Hardwicke's drawings is a bird, which appears a
large variety of the Goshawk; length 22in. and stout in make; bill
lead-colour; upper parts brown; head and neck behind darkish; over
the eye a pale broad streak; through file eye a broad brown one;
all beneath dusky white, crossed with numerous dusky lines; quills
barred with dusky; tail ash-colour with four dusky bands; tip fringed
'Wifii wliite; vent plain white; legs stout, yellow; daws black.
Inhabits India; taken January, 1799.
* One, by the name of Bauz, used for the'purpose of hovering over ducks, &c. which will
not rise on such occasions.—Oriental Field Sports. V. ii. p. 67.
f Arct. Zool. X Decouv. russ. iii. 303.
P 2
 108
s
The great love our ancestors* had for falconry is testified by
very many writers of former days, although now nearly left. off, or
at least followed only by a very few, more as a matter of curiosity
than otherwise. Not so in 1472, when a Goshawk was thought a
sufficient remuneration for most essential services, as may be seen in
the Pastori Lettei'S,-\ where we find, that this bird was not always
to be procured in this country, but more likely to be had at Calais,
in France—yet it probably breeds in England, as it is known to
do now in Scotland.
The history, laws, rules, and observations on falconry and
falconers, may be learned from Turbeville, Carcanus, Latham, and
others, who have written on this subject, as also may be seen in
Willughby's Ornithology, and other English authors.
**||j To ascertain the owner of a hawk, a ring was put over the
closed claws, while young, with an inscription, and one of these is
represented in the Archaeologia. $ It is there observed, that although
hawking is no longer considered as one of our field sports, yet, in
most of the modern leases, a clause is generally still found, reserving
to the landlord the free liberty of hunting, hawking, fowling, &c.
During the time when falconry was the recreation of those who
could bear the expense of the sport, the birds used on the occasion
were much valued;§ and I have now before me a London Gazette,
Thursday, April 21 to 25, 1581, in which is the following advertisement : " Lost on the 5th instant of his Majesties, a Tarsell
Gentle, with the King's Varvels on, the hind pounce of the field
foot lost.    Lost between Hounslow Heath and Eaidenhead—who-
* Hawking, used by the Anglo-Saxons.—See an old print to this purport in Strutt's View
of the Customs and Manners of the Inhabitants of England, vol. i. p. 12—from Tib. B^y^a
Saxon Calendar.
f Vol. ii. p. 109. X Vol. xii. p. 414. pl. 51. f. 7.
§ In the Mem. d'Agriculture, Sfc. it is mentioned, that a Falcon of the King of France was
let loose at a woodcock, in Paris. They flew to Malta, and were both found dead there within
twenty-four hours.
 ever can give notice of this Hawk to Mr. Chiffinch at the Privy stairs,
Whitehall, shall have a good reward."
Hawks so called, and Girfaleon or Girfal, were formerly in great
request; of these the white ones were in most esteem, and part of the
revenue in the time of King Henry I. and afterwards, was paid
by way of fine; for instance, Outi, of Lincoln, fined in one hundred
Norway Hawks and 100 Girfals; four of the Hawks and six of the
Girfals to be white ones. If he could not get four white hawks, he
was to give four white Girfals instead of them; again, Ralf, son of
Drogo, in five Hawks and five Girfalcons for himself, and in two
Hawks for Nicolas de Sigillo, &c. &c* The privilege, however, of
Hawking seems to be confined to the higher ranks, f and each had
his apppropriate species allowed to him.
It may not be amiss here to mention the gradations of rank to
which particular hawks were appropriated, about the 14th century,
viz.-—
" Three Hawkys longyn to an Emperour, that is to say, an
Egkyl, a Watour, a Millon, neither lured nor redaymyd for hem.
" Ther ben hawkes of Tower, that is to say, a Gerefaucone,
and a Tarsenlet of the same for a Kynge.
" A Faucon reytyll4 a Tarselett thereof for a Prince.
" A Faucone of the Rock, a Tarselett thereof for a Duke.
" A Faucon Peregryne, a Tarselett thereof for a Lorde.§
" There is a Bastarde, and that Hawke is for a Baron.
" A Sakyr, and a Sakyret, for a Knygth.
* Madox's History of the Exchequer, Vol. i. p. 273-
f Among the figures of the very antient font, in Winchester Cathedral, is a personage,
with a hawk on his fist, well figured in Vefust. Monum. V. ii. pl. 39.40. of whom it is merely
said, that one of the attendants, with a hawk on his fist, is expressive of his office, and may
be one of the officers of the court. But Milner rather thinks, that the hawk, held in this
manner, proves the personage to be of noble birth.—See Survey of Winchester, vol. ii. p. 79.
X In an old printed Edition of the Work it is Gentyll.
8 For an Earl the same.
 110
" A Layner, and a Laynerett, for a Sqwyer.
" A Lese of Marlyans, for a Lady.
" A Hoby, or a Caselett of the same, for Gentilman of the first
Hede.
" A Gose Hawke, for a Yoman.
" A Terfell, for a Pore Man.
" A Sparow Hawke, for a Prest.
" A Muskett, for a holy water Clarke.
" A Resterell, for a Knave.
" An Abjj Hawke is canvas mayle; a loryng Hawke, an harde,
that may indure myche Sorowe, & commynly they be the hardyest."
In the Forest Laws made by Henry III. it was enacted, " That
every Freman should have within his own Woddes Ayres of Hawkes,
Sparrow-hawkes, Fawcons, Eglys, and Herons"—and in the 34th
year of Edward III. " Every Person which fyndeth Faucon, Tercelet,
Laner or other Fawcon that is loste of their Lord, bring him
mayntenant to the Sherif of the County, who must proclaim him in
all godd Townes in the Country, and it claims to be returned on
paying Costs—if not claimed within four Months comes to the Sherif:
but if concealed shall be imprisoned for two years, besides the Value
of the Hawk; which last, if He hath not, shall still longer be
imprisoned." In the 37th of the same reign it is added, " That if
any stele any Hawke, and the same cary away, not doing the
Ordenance aforesaid, it shall be done of Hym as of a Thefe that
steleth a Horse, or any other Thynge."
In the 9th of Henry VII. " Taking the Egges of any Fawcons,
Goshawkes, Laners or Swannes out of the neste—to be imprisoned
for a year and a day, and a fine at the King's will;" and again,
" That no Man from the Feast of Pasche next ensuinge, shoulde
beare any Hawke of the breede of England, called a Nyesse,
Goshake, Tasselle, Laner, Laneret, or Fawcon upon peyne of for-
feyture of such his Hawke to the Kynge, but to have Hawke from
 abroad." Much more might be collected on this head, but as every
law of the kind is now useless and obsolete, we trust the above will
be thought sufficient.
42—GREATER BUZZARD.
Falco Buteo, Ind. Orn. i. p. 24. 47. y.
Circus major, Bris. i: p. 399.    Id. 8vo. p. 114.
Buteo gallinarius,   Daud. ii. p. 155. var. A.     Bechst. Deuts. ii. p. 262.     Temm. Man:
Ed. ii. p. 56.
Milvus, sive Astur, Frisch. t. 72.
Huhner-habicht, Bechst. Must. p. 70.17.
Greater Buzzard, Gen. Syn. i. p. 49.
THIS is 1ft. 11 in. in length. Bill black; cere yellow; irides
saffron-colour; the plumage above brown, with rufous edges; beneath rufous, with oval brown spots, in some unspotted; under tail
coverts rufous; tail brown, crossed with broad bars of deeper brown;
legs yellow, claws black.
It is found in various parts of Europe, and according to M.
Bechstein, is no other than a two year's old bird of the Goshawk.
43 —GENTIL FALCON.
Falco gentilis, Ind. Orn. i. 29. Iki. 126. Faun. Suec. No. 58. Gm. Lin. i. 270. Raii
p. 13. Bm.i. 339. Id, 8vo.i. 98. Will. p. 46. Klein, p. 48. Scop. i. 93. Kram.
328. i»f»//.No.6. Brun.No.6. Gerin.l t.29. Borowsk.ii. 73. Bechst. Deuts.
ii. 273. Daud. ii. 102. Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 122. Tern. Man. d'Orn. p.50. Id.
.Ed. ii. p. 56.
Edler Falke, Naturf. 8. s.50.
Falco montanus, Raii, p. 13.    Will. 45. t. 5.
Gentil Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. 64. Id. Sup; p. 17. Br. Zool. i. t. 21. 22. Id. Ed. 1812.
222. pl.21. 22. Arct. Zool.ii. No.98. Alb.n. pl. 6. Will. Engl.76. Bewick,
i. p.30.    LewinA.pl.il.    Walcot, i. 1.11.    Pult. Dors. p.2.    Orn. Diet. $ Sup.
THIS is somewhat larger than the Goshawk.   Bill lead-colour;
cere and irides yellow; head rust-colour, marked with oblong black
 112 FALCON.
spots; upper parts of the J&ody and wings brown, each feather
of the latter tipped wish rust; under side white; the point of each
feather marked with heart-shaped dusky spots; quills dusky, barred
on the outer webs with black, and the lower part of the inner with
white; the wings reach to.fye middle of the tail, which has four
alternate bands of black and cinereous; tip white; legs yellow
claws black.
In some birds, supposed to be young, the marks on the breast
are transverse, instead of cordated spots as may be observed in the
two plates referred to in the British Zoology.
This is said to inhabit the north of Scotland, and to build in
rocks near Invercauld and Glenmore; is met with in the north of
Europe, as far as Finmark,* but we do not hear of it farther south
than Astrachan;f was formerly used in England for falconry, as it is
on the continent at thi&*lay.
Inhabits also America, but said to be of a larger size; one, shot
in the province of New York, measured two feet seven inches.
Buffbn^: supposes this bird to be the same with the common
Falcon, and called Gentil, when in full feather, whilst others
mention it as a different species.
Dr. Pallas is of opinion, that the Falcon Gentle is the Goshawk
in its first feathers, in which state it is very different from the adult
bird.§
f Decouv. Russ.il 142.
§ Russ. List. MS.
X Hist,Ois.\. 250.
 113
44—COMMON FALCON,
Falco communis,   Ind. Orn. i.  p. 30.     Gm. Lin. i. 270.     Bris. i. 32l.     Id. 8vo. 92.
Shaw's Zool vii. p. 124.    Fn. Arag. p. 68.    Daud. ii. p. 92.    Frisch, t. 74.    Nat.
Misc. pl. 741.
Der-gemeioe Falke, Naturf. 8. s. 49..
Faucon, Buf. i. 249.     Voy. at Barb. i. 266.     Cet. uc. Sard. p. 36.     Voy. d'Azara,
iii. No. 35.
Common Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 65.
LENGTH about 18 in. general colour of the plumage brown;
the edges of the feathers rufous; tail brown, bordered with deeper
brown; on each jaw a large brown mark; forepart of the neck and
underpart of the body white, irregularly marked with brown; legs
green or yellow, claws black.
The above are the general markings of the male, or Tiercelet of
three years old.
A.—Falco hornotinus, Bris. i. 324. A.   Id.8vo. p.93.   Gm. Lin. i. 270.    Buf. i.t.15.
pl. enl. 470.
- Yearling Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 65. A.
In the first year, the plumage is brown, or ash-coloured
above, dirty white beneath, and much spotted; the mark on the
jaw visible, but less distinct.
In the second year the colours become deeper, and better
defined, the under parts whiter, and the markings more distinct, till
arrived at the third year's moult, after which it remains the same
till old affe.
 114
FALCON*
B.—Falco gibbosus, Ind, Orn. i. p. 30.     Gm. Lin. i. 270.
Raii Syn. p. 14, 6.    Will. p. 46.
Faucon hagard, Buf i. 254. pl. 16.   pl. enl. 421.
Haggard Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. 66.    Will. Engl. p. 80.
. 324.    Id. 8vo. 93.
This receives the above name when it is grown old, and draws
the head into its shoulders, appearing hump-backed.       ^,.t».
So much has been said by authors on the amusement of falconry, which was greatly encouraged by our ancestors of every
rank,* that it is not necessary to mention here more than has been
noticed above; and, although it is nearly left off by the English,
yet we are assured, that in Denmark and other parts of the Continent,
it is still held in great esteem; and by none more than the Turks and
Persians, as well as Russians and Tartars: the Chinese were also very
fond of this sport.
It is supposed that every species of this Genus might be trained
for falconry; but it appears, that the usual sorts were the Iceland
and Greenland Falcons, Gyrfalcon and Goshawk; independent of
the Black Eagle, Jean le Blanc, Lanner, and others; and of these
the white variety seem to be in most esteem f
C—Falcoleucocephalus, Ind. Orn. i. 30.    Mi. 325.    Id. 8vo. 93.    Gm. Lin. i. 270.
Frisch, t.75.
White-headed Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. 66.
This has the head white, marked with small brown spots; bill
ash-coloured; cere and irides pale yellow; back and wing coverts
spotted with brown, rufous, grey and whitish; beneath grey with
* In the time of King Edward III. fee and wages were given to W. de Whitten, for
searching and examining all nests of falcons and hawks, every where in Wales,
f See article, Goshawk.
 m
brown spots, each spot encircled with rufous; feet feathered to the
toes; legs yellow, claws black; from the legs being feathered so low
down, it seems to have some affinity with the Rough-legged Falcon.
D.—Falco albus,  Ind. Orn. i. 31.      Bris. i. 326.
Frisch,   t.80.     Raii Syn. p. 14. 7.      Will. p.
t.5. f.3.
White Falcon, Gen. Syn A. p. 66.    Will. Eng. p. 80.
Id. 8vo. 94.      Gmel. Lin. i. 270.
46.     Klein. Av. p. 49.     Id. Ov.
This appears white at first inspection, but on close examination
is found to be covered with minute yellow spots, except the two
middle tail feathers, which are pure white.
In Mr. Aubrey's collection was a specimen entirely white, except a few brown spots on the back and wings; tail barred with
brown.
In my collection is a drawing of a white Falcon from China;
light cream-coloured above, and white beneath; every where marked
with slender, longitudinal brown streaks; paler on the thighs, and a
little curyed in shape; the under part of the tail plain, the upper not
visible in the figure.
I was favoured with the last by Capt. Broadley,
E.—Falco rubeus, Ind. Orn. i. 3
Syn. p. 14.    Will. p. 47.
Bed Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 69.
I 332.    Bris. i. 271.   Id. 8vo. 96.    Raii
This appears to differ from the common Falcon, in having black
and red spots instead of white; it is less than the Peregrine Falcon,
and supposed to be the female in its first year's feathers.
Q2
i
 116
F—Falco ruber indicus, Ind. Orn. i. 31.    Gm. Lin. i; 271.    Bris. i. 333.   Id. 8vo. 96.
Raii Syn. p. 14.    Will. p. 47.
Red Indian Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. 69.    Will. Eng. p. 81, t. 9.
The female has a cinereous bill; cere and eyelids luteous; irides
obscure; at the outer angle of the eye an oblong fulvous spot; head
and upper parts brownish ash; breast and under parts, rump, upper
tail, and wing coverts, of a reddish fulvous colour, with a few spots
of the same on the breast; tail crossed with black and ash-coloured,
curved, bands; legs yellow; claws black.
The male is brighter in colour, the brownish ash-coloured parts
being nearly black.    This sex is also smaller than the female.
Inhabits the East Indies. It is on Brisson's authority that we
place it here as a variety of the falcon. Originally described by
Aldrovandus.
G.—Falco Italicus,  Ind. Orn. i. 32.     Gm. Lin. i. 271.     Bris. u 336,     Johnst.Avp
p. 19 ? y§p.
Italian Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 70.
The bill in this is blue; head and neck reddish yellow, marked
with very narrow ferruginous lines; breast yellow spotted with
ferruginous; ends of the wings marked with round spots of white ;
legs yellow. We learn from the above authors that this bird is found
on the mountains of Vicenza, and the Alps which divide Germany
from Italy.    It is probably a variety of the common falcon.*
* In M. d'Azara's Voy. is mentioned a brown and spotted falcon, found at Paraguay,
which is a variety also of the common falcon.
 117
45—SACRE FALCON.
Falco sacer, Ind. Orn. i. 34..   Gm. Lin. i.273.    Bris. i. 337.   Id. 8vo. 98.    Rati, p. 13.
Will. p. 44.   Klein. Av. 7. p. 48. Gerin. i. t. 28.   Bechst. Deuts. ii. s. 298.   Daud.
Orn. vi. p. 96.
Sacre, Gen. Syn. i. p. 77.    Id. Sup. p. 20.   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 96.    Buf. i. 246. p/. 14.
Will. Engl. p. 77.
THIS the size of the Jerfalcon; bill and legs blue; eyes black;
the back, upper wing coverts, and breast spotted with brown; thighs
white within; tail rather long, marked with kidney-shaped spots, and
the wings when closed reach to the end of it; the legs feathered
almost to the toes. It is remarked in Wfllughby, that these birds
have a " great round head, a shorter beak, a slenderer and longer body
in proportion ; longer wings, and also a longer train; abreast less
fleshy and full in respect of their body than Jerfalcons, and also
shorter toes." It is thought by some to be merely a variety of the
common Falcon, though by others a distinct species.
Inhabits various parts of Europe, also Tartary; in the latter used
for Falconry, and we believe formerly in England; yet is not found
there at large. M. Beckstein says, that one of the names in Germany
is the British Falcon.
A.—Falco sacer, Ph. Trans, lxii. 383. 423;
American Sacre,   Speckled Partridge Hawk,   Gen. Syn:
Zool. ii. No. 96.
Id. Sup. 20.   Arct.
Dr. Forster says, the length is 22 in.; breadth 3ft.; weight 2£
pounds; the irides are yellow; head whitish, with largish streaks of
brown; throat white spotted with brown; general plumage above
brown, the feathers spotted* and edged ferruginous; the spots not
touching the shafts; the under parts white, with longish, dark brown
I
 !
118 FALCON.
spots; quills black brown; margins and ends of the prime quills
white, transversely spotted within with pale ferruginous; lesser
quills marked with round spots on the outsides.
Inhabits North America, about Hudson's Bay; called Speckled
Partridge Hawk; migrates; preys on the white grouse; breeds in
April and May in desart places ; the females lay two eggs; the young
fly the middle of June.
46.—MOUNTAIN FALCON.
Falco montanus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 48.     Gm. Lin. i. 278.     Bris. i.  352.   Id. 8vo. 101.
Raii, p. 13.   Will. p. 45.   Klein. Av. p. 52.    Daud. ii. 128.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 183.
Mountain Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p, 93.    Will. Engl. p. 78.
LESS than the Peregrine Falcon, with a shorter tail; bill
black ; plumage above brown, or ash-colour; throat and forepart of
the neck whitish, spotted with either ferruginous or black; tail ash-
coloured, end black, very tip white; legs j^ellow, claws black;
described in brief from M. Brisson, who observes, that when the
bird is come to its full colour, the head is black; and the oftener is
has moulted, the more white is seen in the breast; with the back and
sides of a deeper ash colour.
A.—Falco montanus cinereus, -Ind. Orn. i. p. 48. 116. /3.    Bris. \. 355. Id. 8vo. 102.
Falco montanus secundus Aldr. Will: t. -9.
Ash-coloured Mountain Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p.'94.
Length 1ft. 9in.; bill black; irides yellow; general colour of
the plumage cinereous, paler on the wing coverts; beneath white at
snow; legs luteous.
 47—HOBBY FALCON.
119
Falco subbuteo,Ind. Orn. i. p. 47.    Lin. i. 127.    Fn. Suec. No. 59.    Gm. Lin. i. 283.
Ifaii, p, 15.     B7*//. p. 49. t.7.     Brw». No. 10, 11.    Mull. No. 63.    It. Poseg.
p. 29.    Sepp. Voy. 3. 1.118.     Daud. ii, 129.    TVmi. jlfaw. d'Om. p. 27.    Id. Ed.
2. 10. 25.
Falco Barletta, Daud. ii. 129.    Ger. Orn. i. t. 45, 46, 47, 48, var.
Dendro-faleo, Bris. i. p. 375.     Id. 8vo,  109.     Raii, p. 14. 8.    JFi//. p. 47.   Frisch,
t. 87.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 193, pl. 25.
Hobreau, Buf. i. 277, 1.17.   pl, enl. 432.
Baum Falk, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 73.    Bechst. Deuts. ii. 317.    Naturf. 8. s. 51.
Hobby, Gen. Syn. i. 103. Id. Sup. p, 28.    Br. Zool. i. No. 61.    Id. fol. t. A. 9.   Id.
Ed. 1812. p. 247.   Arct. Zool. ii. p. 227.C    Alb. i. p/. 6.    JFi//. Eng. p. 83.    Be-
tcic*, i.pl. p. 39.     LeioinV Bird*, i. p/.21.    Id. Eggs, p/..iiL f.3.   P«/f. Cat.
Dors. p. 3.    B^a/c. Syn. t. 21.    Don. Birds, iv. p. 9L   Or*. Dicf. et Supp.
I
THIS Bird is about 12in. in length; breadth 2ft.3in.; and
Weighs about seven ounces. The bill is blue; cere and orbits yellow;
irides dusky or hazel; the plumage on the upper parts is brown,
dashed with ash-colour; nape of the neck inclining to yellow; over
the eye a narrow white streak; on each cheek a black mark like a
crescent, pointing downwards; chin, throat, and belly, ferruginous,
marked with black down the shafts; vent and thighs fine rufous,
streaked with dusky; the feathers reachhig halfway down the legs;
under the wings pale cream-colour, undulated, or spotted, with
brownish black; quills dusky, spotted on the inner webs with white;
tail like the back, the two middle feathers plain, the others barred
on the inner webs with dusky rust colour; legs yellow, claws
black. 'Viahi
In one which came under my inspection, the back was lead-
coloured brown; the thighs dusky white; longitudinally marked
with brown; the vent plain white; and the nape of the neck spotted
with white; also the chin, throat, and belly were white, marked with
 120 FALCON.
black down the shafts. It is posssible that the last may be the
female, as it weighed two ounces more than the male, was not so
dark above, and the lighter parts beneath not so ferruginous.*
The Hobby is only a summer resident in England, coming in
Spring, and migrating in October; and is far from common. It
breeds with us, sometimes making the nest on a low tree, even a
moderate sized hawthorn ; though it has been known to make use of
an old crow's nest, and two young taken out of it. f
It inhabits various parts of the Continent of Europe, where it
changes its residence acccording to the seasons; is not met with in
Sweden, except in the more southern Provinces; migrating south in
Autumn; in winter about Woronesch and Astrachan;% is most common in the open country, particularly in the desarts of Tartary and
Siberia, whenever small trees are at hand, in which it may breed. §
Several have been shot on Gibraltar rock at the time of their vernal
and autumnal migrations; and now and then they stay and breed
there, about the south-east cliffs. ^[ We believe this to be the most
rapid in its flight of all the hawks; larks will not trust to their wings
while the Hobby is in sight; and we remember to have seen a
swallow pursued, and overtaken while on the wing, by this bird.
This species was formerly used in Falconry, but not known to
attempt a larger bird than a partridge ; || is a great enemy to larks,
and is frequently taken in pursuit of them, by the bird-catchers, in
their nets; hence successfully used in daring of larks, for which
purpose the hawk was cast off; on seeing of which, the larks
adhered to the ground through fear, and the fowler drew his net
over them. I^P?
* Orn. Diet:
f Col. Montagu j said to lay three or four white eggs.
X Dec, russi ii. 142.
§ Mr. Pennant.
1[ Mr. White, MS.
|j M. Brannich observes, that the  Gentil, Iceland-Falcon, and Hobby, are all used
in falconry about Copenhagen,'  Orn. Bor. p. 3.
 FALCON. 121
A.—Length 11 inches; bill and cere very deep orange-yellow ;
space round the eyes yellow ; irides brown; general colour of the
plumage deep chocolate broWn, with deeper coloured spots; forehead, cheeks, and throat nearly white; very irregular on the
cheeks ; all the under parts dusky white; neck, breast, and belly
marked with large longish spots of brown ; tail 3i in. long, crossed
with eight or nine bars of darker brown, but rather paler than the
back; quills plain, darker than the rest, and reach, when closed,
to the end of the tail; shafts white; legs very deep orange-yellow ;
claws white.
Inhabits India, called Dourelah; Sir J. Anstruther. It appears
to be a variety of our Hobby.
48—GREATER HOBBY.
Falco subbuteo major, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. x.
Der grosse Baumfalke, Allg. ueb. d. Vog. i. Zussas. p. 660, 29. Taf. i.    Bechst. Deuts.
ii. s.315. 19   Shaw's Zool. vii. 195.
Greater Hobby, Gat. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 47.
THIS bird somewhat resembles the Hobby, but is as large as
a raven; in length nearly 18 in.; breadth 3ft.; the bill l|inch
long, horn-colour; cere and legs yellow; irides pale yellow; head
and neck black brown; cheeks black; back and wing coverts
blackish blue, crossed with obsolete dull brown, ash-grey, and
reddish-grey bands; chin, fore part of the neck, and upper part of
 122 FALCON.
the breast dusky reddish white, banded with dull brown, appearing
on the breast as oval marks; quills blackish, marked on the inner
webs with eight, or more, pale grey, oval spots; on the tail twelve
alternate dull brown and ash-grey bands.
The female is almost one third bigger than the male; the
colours not so well defined, and wants the black on the cheeks; also
the breast and neck are plain smutty white.
This species inhabits the pine forests of Germany, preying on
grous, hares, and small birds. It may by some be mistaken for a
variety, but M. Bechstein assures us, that it is a distinct species.
49—INGRIAN FALCON.
Falco vespertinus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 46;    Lin. i. 129.    Gm. Lin. i. 282.    Gm. If. i. p. 67.
1.13.    Id. ii. p. 163.    Lepech. It. i. 230.    Georgi, p. 164.    Daud. ii. 124.    Shaw's
Zool. vii. 190.
Kober, Dec. Russ. ii. 142.
Ingrian Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. 102.    Id. Sup. 27.
SIZE of a pigeon; bill yellow, with a brown tip ; cere and
eyelids yellow; head brown; body bluish hrown; belly bluish
white; the primaries, from the first to the seventh, blackish at the
tips; legs naked, yellow.
Said to inhabit Ingria; chiefly flying on the morning and
fevStiing ; is common about the lake Baikal, as well as Astrachan ;
 FALCOM, 128
known by the name of Kober and Derbnitschock ; has much the
manners of the Kestril, but extends farther east than that bird, or
the Hobby, though less common than either.
M, Pallas in his MS. list calls it Dusky Windhover.
50—PERMIAN FALCON.
Falco vespertinoides,   Ind. Orn. i. p. 46.      Gm. Lin.  i.   282.      Falck. It.  iii. 329.-
Daud. ii. 124.
THE short description which we can collect of this bird from
Falck, informs us, that it is half the size of the last; and weighs
no more than two ounces and one dram; cere and eyelids yellow;
neck, breast, and belly brownish, spotted with white; thighs black.
Inhabits Russia, especially in the province of Permia—found
also in Siberia, about Iset and Baschiria. M. Daud in places it as a
variety of the Ingrian, or last species.
R2
 124
51.—ORANGE-LEGGED HOBBY.
Falco rufipes, Allg. Ueb. d. Vog. ii. Zusass. s. 677.122.    Besek. Vog. Kurl. s. 19. taf.
3.&4.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 42.   Id. Ed. 2. p. 34.
Variete singuliere du Hobreau, pl. enl. 431 ?
Orange-legged Hobby, Gen. Syn. Sup. 2d. p. 46.
SIZE of a Kestril—one, supposed the male, is wholly black;
but the great wing feathers, and under parts of the body blackish
lead-colour; thighs, vent, and under tail coverts fine red brown;
eyelids and space round the eyes, the cere, and legs, brick-coloured
red ; bill half yellow and half bluish.
The female larger, but has many things in common with the
other. Head and neck whitish yellow, or fox-colour; eyes in a patch
of brown ; throat, as far as the breast, whitish yellow; also the thigh
coverts, vent, and under tail coverts; shoulders duller fox-colour
yellow, waved with black; upper parts of the body pale brown,
with ash-coloured and black waves; tail crossed with nine small
black bands.
The first of these seems to approach very nearly to the Hobby,
figured in the pl. enlum. if not the same bird ; and most probably
not far differing from the two last described.
 52— KESTRIL FALCON.
125
No. GI.    Gm. Lin.
Ann. i. p. 16. No,
Brun, No. 4. 5.    Muller, No. 65.
t. 49—52.     Borowsk. Nat. ii. p. 74.
ii. t. 3.   Sepp. Vog. iii. 1.117. Nisus.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 179.     Tern. Man.
.49.
, 53.    Id. Ov. t.6. f.4.
Falco Tinnunculus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 41.     Lin. i. 127.     Faun.Suec.
i. 278.    Raii, p. 16.    Id. p. 180.    Will. Orn. p. 50. t. 5.    Scop
5.    Id. Ann. v.  p. 10. 7.     FmcA. t. 84. 8!
Faun.  Arag. 68.       ITram. p. 331.      Ger,
Bris. i. 393.    Id. 8vo. 113.    Spalowsk. Voi
Daud.iu  132.     Becfof. De«te. ii.   s.3ll.
d'Orn. p. 39.
Falco aureus, Cehchris, Klein. A\
Thurmfalke, Naturf. viii. s. 52.
Rothelgeyer, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey.
II Gheppio, Cet. uc. Sard. p. 47.
La Cresserelle, Buf. i. 280. t. 48.
.Kestril, Stannel, Windhover,   Gen, Syn. i. p. 94.     Id. Sup. p. 25.     Id. Sup. ii. 43.
Br. Zool. i. No. 60.    Id./o/. t. A.   Id. ed. 1812. i. p. 244.    Arct. Zool. ii. 226. N
Will. Eng. p. 85. pl. 5.    Sloan. Jam. 294.   Alb. iii.pl. 5 & 7.    Hayes's Br. Birds,.
i. pl. 4.    Bewick, i. pl. p. 36. 37.     litem's Birds, i. p. 19. 19. F.    Id. t. iii. f. i
the Egg.     Walcot, Syn. i. pl. 19.     Donov. Birds, iii. pl. 51. 63.    Pult. Dorset,
p. 3.     Orn. Diet. $ Sup.
t.48.
Zinnan. Uov. t. 15. f.
Pl. enl. 401. 471.
'8.
THE male of this species weighs as far as seven ounces. Bill
black ; cere yellow ; irides dark ; crown of the head and the tail fine
light grey; the last marked with a broad black bar near the end,
the very tip white; back and wing coverts rufous, or red brown,
spotted and barred with black; beneath the body pale ferruginous,
spotted with black ; thighs and vent plain; legs yellow.
The female is larger, and weighs sometimes from 10 to 11 oz.
Colour of the back and wings pale, and more dusky than in the male,
crossed with numerous lines of black; head pale red brown, streaked
with black; tail red brown, crossed with several black bars; near
the end marked with the same black bar as in the other sex.
J
 126
A.—Accipiter alaudarius,  Bris. i. 379.     Id. 8vo. 110.
p. 49.    Id. Ov. t. 6. f. 6
Lark Hawk, Gen, Syn. i. A.    Id. Sup. ii. p. 44. C.
Gm. Lin. i. 279.    Klein. Av.
A bird, which I conjecture to be the same as that of the authors
last quoted, was shot in Surrey—it was 14in. long. Bill pale, tip black;
cere and legs yellow; head grey, streaked with black; beneath the
eye a sort of black whisker; chin and vent white; back rufous brick
colour, each feather marked with black at the tip ; rump pale ash ;
beneath the body rufous white, streaked with black; wing coverts
crossed with black bars; quills dusky, barred within with reddish
white; tad pale rufous ash, barred on each side the shafts with black,
and crossed near the end with a bar of black, an inch in breadth.
I consider this as a young male in incomplete. plumage, and
very nearly approaches to the description in Brisson alluded to above.
B.—Tinnunculus pennis griseis, S. G. Gmel. It. i. p. 49. 1.10.
Grey Kestril, Gen. Syn. i. p. 95.
This is mentioned as being of a grey colour, with the shafts of
the feathers black : it is also said to have black legs, and the under
part of the tail barred with black. M. Daudin observes, that this
variety is sometimes met with in France, and that it has been killed
many times near Beauvais. He also mentions a Kestril with dusky
cheeks, found in the same places, but supposes it a mere variety from
age. $&j$
 127
C—Falco brunneus, Allg.U. d. Vog, i. Zusass: s. 679. taf. 2, f. 1. 2.
Kestril, var. D. Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 44.
This is described as 14 in. long and 24 in. broad—Bill blue;
cere yellow; the ground colour of the plumage rusty yellow, barred
with brown, as in the Kestril; beneath paler with dusky streaks;
tail crossed with lines of black, and deeply tipped with black at
the end.
The young bird is said not greatly to differ, but the cross streaks
of blackish are edged with white on the upper parts; beneath not
unlike the other; but the end of the tail tipped with black in a less
degree.
These inhabit Thuringia in the breeding season, but are not
found there in the winter—make the nest as late as May, whereas the
rest of the birds of prey build theirs in March and April.
I much suspect that these last birds are no other than Kestrils,
which are known to wear the female plumage for some length of
time, * and to say the truth, very many of the Falcon tribe have so
mixed an appearance of feather at different stages of growth, as to
frequently pass for distinct species.
The Kestril, with its varieties, is sufficiently common every
where in England, and may be seen frequently hovering in the
air, as it were stationary; on a sudden darting to the earth to
secure its prey, which for the most part consists of mice, and small
reptiles; I have known also the remains of beetles and scolopendrae,
in the stomach of one. It is supposed to feed likewise on small
birds, but feathers are rarely, if ever, found in the stomach; be
this as it may, it has been now and then taken by bird-catchers in
the act of pouncing their call birds.
* Till after the winter of the first year.—Orn. Diet.
1
 128 FALCON.
It varies in the places for building the nest, sometimes in
rocky situations, which it most fancies; at other times in trees, or
even in an old crow, or magpie's nest. The female lays four or
five eggs, of a pale ferruginous colour, or dusky white, marked
with irregular spots of a deeper hue.
This species is not uncommon in many parts of the Continent
of Europe. M. Bechstein observes, that it now and then will
truss doves, and partridges, and seize on small birds hanging in
cages, drawing them out between the bars. It is found on the
Rock of Gibraltar the whole year through, and breeds there,
feeding chiefly on locusts and lizards; and is the most common
of any of the Hawk tribe.
I suspect this bird to be what in India is called Chouee ; found
in Java, called there Allap-allap-s«jp£ ;* I have also seen it in
some Chinese drawings, where it was named Maw-iing, which
signifies speckled bird, or ravenous ; the word Maw means bracket
or broken, as the face after the small-pox. In the same collection
of drawings I observed another, called also Maw-ing, but this had
the breast crossed with numerous bars, as in the Sparrow-hawk.
I find this also among some fine drawings done in India, in possession of Sir J. Anstruther, Bart, where it is named Caronjia ; said
to inhabit Bengal; a female in the same drawings called Kommooly,
said to be 13in. long.
According to Sloane, this inhabits Jamaica, but as no other
author mentions it, and as I have never seen it from that quarter,
the circumstance may be suspected.f 3j8j£j
* Lin. Trans, xviii.  p. 135.
f Probably mistaken for some other bird. Ray, in his Syn, p. 180, quoting from
Sloane says, " Tinnunculus sive Cenchris, eive Yalde similis accipiter."
 FALCON.
129
53—LESSER KESTRIL.
Falco Tinnunculoides,  Tern. Man.  Ed. 2. p. 31.
LENGTH 11 in. Bill bluish; cere, and round the eyelids
yellow ; crown, sides of the neck, and nape pale ash-colour ; back,
scapulars, and greater part of the wing coverts deep rufous, inclining
to red ; some of the larger, the second quills, rump, and nearly the
whole of the tail bluish ash, near the end of the last a broad black
band, and the end white; throat pale; the rest of the under parts
pale reddish rufous, marked with longitudinal black streaks; legs
yellow; claws pure white.
The adult female is rather larger, and is so like that sex of the
Kestril, in colour, as not to be distinguished, except in the size being
smaller, and both of them differ from the common sort in being
less, the quills reaching to the end of the tail, and the claws quite
white.
Inhabits various parts of Europe; seen at times in Hungary and
Austria; very common about the kingdom of Naples, also in Sicily,
Sardinia, and the south of Spain, especially among the mountainous
and rocky parts; probably known at Gibraltar, as Mr. White
mentions a Kestril, much smaller than the common one, being now
and then seen there. Said to feed on beetles, and large insects,
rarely on small birds; it builds in the clefts of rocks, particularly in
Sicily, and near Gibraltar.
 130
53—SEVERE FALCON.
Falco severus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 135. Horsfield.
LENGTH 10|inches; plumage above blackish brown, quills
black; beneath chestnut, chin paler; wing coverts, and tail feathers^
tipped with chestnut.
Inhabits Java; named Allap-Allap-Gwyeng.
55—BOHEMIAN FALCON.
Falco Bohemicus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 43.    Gm. Lin. i. 279.    Daud. ii. 136.
Maeuse-habicht, Missilauce, Jos. Mayer. Boehm. Abh. 6. p. 313: ' VSftf
Bohemian Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 43.
RATHER more than a foot in length; gape of the mouth,
irides, and legs yellow; orbits white ; plumage on the upper parts of
the body ash-colour, beneath white; the five first prime quills black
on the outer margins; tail long, pointed; legs rather short, and
featherea°T>elow the knees.
Inhabits the mountainous parts of Bohemia, feeding on mice;
observed mostly in the evening. The above description seems too
concise to determine whether to refer this bird to the Kestril, or
Hen-Harrier, concerning which authors have held different opinions.*
* M. Temminck says it ir an old male of the latter.
I
 56.—SPARROW-HAWK.
131
Falco NIshs,Afntt'Orn. i.  p. 44.     Lin. i.   130.     Fn. Suec. No. 69.      Gm. Lin. i.  280.
Scop. 4^tm_vi6fe>. Ot    Bran. p. 5.    il/«//er, No. 71.     Fn. ,4ragvp. 69.    JSTram. 332.
I*. Poseg-. p. 28.    Borowsk. ii, p. 75.    Daud. ii. 79.    Bechst.
vo's Zool. viL 187.    TVw. Mom. d'Or/i. p. 31.    Id. ed, ii. p. 57.
f Syn. p. 18,   JFt"//. p. 51. t.5,   Klein. Av. p. 53.   Gerirt.Om.
Voy. en Barb. i. 266.    Ce/f. mc Sard.
Frisch.U 90.91.92.
I>eufcdi.ii. 320.   Sha
Accipiter-lrrng^rarius, J?ai
i. t.17,   Bris A. 310.    Id.8vo.89.
Epervier, Buf. i. 225. pl. IL    Pl. enl. 412.467.
p. 51.    Voy.d'Azara, iii. No. 27.
Sperber, Gunth. Nest. u. Eyer. t, 6.   Nttturf. 8. fi 55. 24.
Sparroie-Ifewk* Gat. Syn. i. p. 99.   Id. Sup. p. 26.    Br. Zool: i. No. 62.   Idfol. t. A.
10.11.   Id. ed. 1812. i. p. 249.    Arct. ZooL ii. p. 226. N.     Hayes Br. Birds, pl. 3.
Alb.u pl.5. //a.iii. pl.4.    JPi//. £;ig/. p. 86.    Beicie£,L pl.p.27.    Lewin'sBirds,
i. pl.20.   Id. %«•*. pl.iii. f.2.    Walcot's Birds, i. pl.20.   Om. Diet. $ Sup.
THE male and female of this species differ greatly in size—the
first weighs five ounces ; is 12 inches in length, and 23 in breadth;
bill blue; Cere iand irides yellow; plumage on the upper parts deep
bluish grey* or deep brown, edged with rufous; on the hindhead a
broken bed of white J the under parts are in some white, in others
pale rufous yellow j crossed with numerous, undulated lines of dusky,
or rufous brown, each leather being margined with that colour, and
a line of the same down the shaft; chin and throat marked with
similar lines, but rarely barred; quills dusky, barred with black on
the outer, and spotted with white on the inner webs; toil the colour
of the back, crossed with- five broad dusky black bars, end whitish;
legs long, slender, yellow; claws black.
The female weighs nine ounces; is 15m. in length, and 26in.
broad. It differs from the male in having the colours in general
paler, and less defined, and the ground of the under parts rarely
otherwise than white; but, indeed, individuals of both sexes vary
greatly from each other.
I
 132 FALCON.
It is a very common, and most pernicious species, and the dread
of the inhabitants of the farm-yard, making great havock among
the poultry of all kinds, as well as pigeons and partridges, especially the female, which being large, strong, and more daring, will
often pounce a chicken in the presence of any person, and this so
instantaneously, as to make it impossible to save the helpless
victim,
It builds indiscriminately in hollow trees, large ruins, and high
rocks, very frequently in old crows nests; and lays four or five
eggs, of a dusky or bluish white, blotched round the larger end
with rust-colour.* Has in former times been used in falconry; but
I should conceive more for amusement than profit. It is a species,
we believe, very far spread; found as high as Sondmor, and in the
Ferroe Islands; in the south of Russia, but not in Siberia; and
throughout the old continent, from the above places to the Cape
of Good Hope ; it migrates annually, in respect to Gibraltar, f like
many other species, from Africa into Spain, where many stay
throughout the year. It probably is no stranger to China, as we
have observed a bird among some Chinese drawings so exactly like
it, as to appear a mere variety, not differing more than they do from
each other in this climate ; it is called there Mawing, as is the
Kestril.    It is also mentioned by Azara as a bird of Paraguay.
A —Accipiter maculatus, Bris. i. 314.    Id. 8vo. 90.
Falco manibus aureis, rostro nigricante, Klein. Av. p. 52.
Spotted Sparrow-Hawk, Gen. Syn. i. p. 100.
This is brown above, with a few spots of white; beneath much
the same, appearing as it were scaly; beneath the wings and tail
broad bands of white, and narrow ones of brown, alternate; the
tail, bill, cere, and irides, as in common.
* Arct. Zool. f White's MS.
 133
B.—Falco lacteus, Gm. L«i„* fc281.     Daud. ii. 81. ?**?3§*.
White Sparrow-Hawk, Gen. Syn. i. p. 100.
The plumage of this beautiful variety is wholly of a milk
white colour, without the least appearance of any bands or mark-
ings. It was shot in Dorsetshire, and in the collection of Gen.
Davies, who informed me, that others have been seen there of the
same plumage.
57— MERLIN.
Falco .Esalon,   Ind. Orn. i.   p. 49.      Gm. Lin. i. 284.     Bris. i. 382.      Id. 8vo. 111.
Raii, p. 15.     Will. p. 50, t. 3.     Klein. Av. p. 50,     Frisch. t. 89.      Ger. Orn. i.
1.16. 18. 19?     Spalowsk. Voy.t.3.     Daud.'u. 137.     Bechst. Deuts. ii. p. 328.
Shaw's Zool. vii. .196.    Tern. Man. d' Orn. p. 38.    Id. ed. 2. p. 27r
Zwergfalk, Naturf. 8. s. 55, 257.
Merlin, Gen. Syn. i. p. 106.     Id. Sup. p. 29.      Br. Zool. r. No. 63.    Id.fbl. t. A. 12.
Id. ed. 1812. i. p. 251.    Will. Eng. p* 85.   Bewick, ii, pl. p. 41.    Lewin, i. pl. 22.
Id. Eggs, pl. iii. f. 4.    Pult. Dors, p, 3.    Wale. Birds, i. pl. 22.   Don. Br. Birds,
iv. pl. 94.    Graves's Br. Ornith.
THIS is a small species; common weight of the male 5 oz.;
length 10 inches; bill bluish lead-colour; cere pale yellow; irides
dark; head ferruginous; the feathers streaked with bluish-black
down the shaft; back, and wings bluish ash-colour, streaked and
spotted with ferruginous; edges the same; quills nearly black, with
reddish oval spots; under wing coverts brown, with round white
spots; tail 5 in. long, crossed with from thirteen to fifteen alternate
 134 FALCON.
bars of dusky and reddish clay colour,* the end for about an inch
black, the very tip white; throat white; breast, belly, legs, and
thighs ferruginous, streaked with dusky ; vent pale ferruginous; the
wings reach to within 1£ in. of the end of the tail; legs yellow,
claws black.
The female Weighs 9oz. isflSfin. long, and 26^in. broad; the
whole plumage above brown, tinged with ferruginous; beneath
yellowish white, with broad dusky brown streaks; tail crossed with
#ve ot six narrow bars of yellowish white, tipped with the same.
The Merlin is only a winter resident with us, at least in the
warmer parts of England, where it arrives in October, and departs
in Spring, at which time the Hobby appears. Yet we are assured
by Dr. Heysham, that it breeds in Cumberland, and that he has
met with two nests, in each of which were four young, placed on
the ground, like that of the Ring-tail; the egg is of a plain chocolate brown, and li inch in length. The Doctor observed, that
these birds vary much in colour. The manner of building also
differs, a pair of them having once made use of an old crow's nest
near Cowbit, in Lancashire, f
Several Merlins said to be shot in lat. 65. J
This bird is met with on the continent of Europe, but, we
believe, no where very common, and shifts its quarters in a greater
or less degree every where. M. Bechstein observes, that it is
rarely seen in Thuringia in the summer, but is sufficiently plentiful
in the mountainous parts and forests in autumn and winter; that
it buildsJm high trees, laying five or sixliSvhitish eggs, marked
with brown spots; is observed now and then in the Caspian desart
* The number seems to be quite uncertain; for Mr. Pennant mentions a specimen
^M^nidrroeVe were only eight; an*f)€&l;Montagu's MerMrxy^M^oirfy from five to seven!
See Orn. Diet.
f Gent. Mag.- 17gS, R^f^jrf Jf • jfliagfc
X Ross's Voy. p. xlviii.
 FALCON.
135
and Baraba.* M. Daudin says, they frequent that part of France
contiguous to Switzerland, being met with about Dole and Mont-
Jura ; and adds, that the male and female are both equal in size.
Both this and the Sparrow-hawk have been trained for
hawking; and this species, Mr. Pennant observes, was inferior to
none in spirit; was used for taking partridges, which it would
kill by a single stoke on the neck.
A.—JSsalon Antillarum,   Bris. i. 385.    Id. 8vo. iii.    Gm. Lin. i. 284.    Shaw's Zool.
vii. 98.
Caribbee Merlin, Gen. Syn. i. 108:
This is very little bigger than a thrush; above rufous spotted
with black; beneath white with longish spots of black,
Inhabits the Caribbee Islands, called there Grygry, from its
cry—said to prey chiefly on lizards and grasshoppers, now and
then on very young chickens.
B.—Falco Aucupum, Ind. Orn. i. p. 49. y. Gm. Lin. i. 284.
Esmerillon des Fauconniers, Buf. i. 288. pl. 9. Pl. enl. 468.
Falconer's Merlin, Gen. Syn. i. 109. 93. C.
This is said by Buffon to be like the Hobby, but with shorter
wings, and more resembling the Stone Falcon, both as to size, length,
colour, &c. so as to make it doubtful whether these two may not be
varieties; also that both sexes are alike in size. He adds, that it is a
very courageous bird, attacking not only larks, but quails and
partridges—yet this author quotes Br. Zool. fol. A. 12. for a figure,
proving this and »Mr. Pennant's Merlin to be the same. In short, to
any one who readftjthe account in the Hist, des Ois. the whole seems
to be oonfosed, arising probably from individuals varying in plumage,
and not being a common bird. it -"snail
 136
C.—Falco intermixtus, Daiid. Orn. ii. 4.
Length ten inches; breadth twenty^ cere and irides yellow;
crown brown; cheeks whitish, streaked with brown; over the eye a
white line to the hindhead; chin white; neck streaked with brown
above, and white beneath; ground colour of the body above brown;.
feathers of the rump marked with white, and tipped with grey;
breast and belly yellowish white, with longitudinal narrow streaks of
brown; beneath the wings and flank, the feathers marked on each
side of the shaft with two or three large round white spots; quills
brown, banded beneath with whitish; tail brown, with three or four
bars of white, and the tip white ; legs yellow; claws b|aete»j
This was described from one brought from Carolina, by M.
Bosc, and seems not very materially to differ from our Merlin.
58—STONE FALCON.
Falco Lithofalco,   Ind. Orn. i. 47.     Gm. Lin. L 278.      Bris. i. 349.     Id. 8vo. 101.
Raii, 14.    Will. 47.    Frisch.i.86.     Shaw's Zool. vii. 182. pl. 24.     Tern. Man.
Ed. ii. p. 27.
Le Rochier, Buf. i. 285.   Pl. enl. 447.
Stone Falcon, Gen, Syn. i. 97.   Will. Engl. p. 80.
LENGTH about 12 inches; bill blue, with a dusky tip; cere
and irides yellow ; top of the head ash-colour; the middle of each
feather dusky down the shaft; the rest of the head, neck, and
under parts rufous; the feathers margined with yellowish white,
 137
and a dash of brown down the middle; chin nearly white; thigh
feathers long and full, reaching much over the joint: these are pale
rufous, with a few dark dashes down the shafts of many of them;
wings, back, and tail dove-colour, the feathers streaked with black;
prhue quails rather dar^ri the outer One shorter than the second, and
marked on both webs with white spots, the others only on the inner
webs, the ends pale; the tail 5| in. long, the colour of the quills,
crossed with four blackish bands, one at the base, two at equal
distances about the middle, and lastly a broad one at the end, but the
very tip inclines to white; the wings, when closed, reach three-fourths
on the tail; legs slender, toes very long, both yellow; claws hooked,
black.
The above description is probably that of the female, for I
observe in another specimen, which did not differ materially in
plumage, that Hie tail had only a single bar near the end, in this
differing from each other, in the manner of the two sexes of the
Kestril.
Both the above birds were in the collection of the late F. F.
Foljambe, Esq. of Grosvenor Place, who obliged me with an accurate
drawing by the late, much to be lamented, Mr. S. Edwards.
Mr. F. informed me, that one of them was shot in January, at
Osberton, in Nottinghamshire, but was uncertain about the other.
These birds having yellow irides, make them to differ from the Merlin;
but it must be confessed, that in respect to plumage, they have much
resemblance to that bird.
 138
59.—SIBERIAN FALCON.
Falco regulus, Ind. Orn A. 50.     Gm. Lin A. 285.    Pallas. It A\. 207.    Daud. ii. 146.
Shaw's Zool. vii; 207.
Siberian Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. 113.
THIS is a very small species, but has the bill and air of the
Kestril. Cere greenish; irides brown; crown hoary brown, with
blackish lines; round the neck a ferruginous collar; back hoary
lead-colour, the shafts of the feathers brown; throat, and under parts
whitish, marked with numerous, ferruginous brown spots; margin of
the wings white, variegated beneath; tail even at the end, hoary
lead-colour, with clouded bands below; all the feathers edged with
black, and tipped with white; legs deep yelJow> >«
Inhabits Siberia; feeds chiefly on larks, and is not common.
This, Dr. Pallas observes, is the least of all the Falcons yet known.
**  AFRICAN AND ASIAlfJ1$tlf
60.—CROWNED EAGLE.
Falco coronatus, Fnd. Orn. i. p. 4.    Lin. SystA.  124.    Gm. Lin. i: 253.    Daud. ii.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 16. t.16.
Aquila Africana cristata, Bris. i. 448.    Id. 8vo. 128.
Crowned Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. 27.    Edw. pl. 224.
THIS is one-third less than a large Eagle; not more than two
feet in length; bill and cere ferruginous; irides orange red; fore part
 FALCOX. 139
of the head/^attd round^^ eyes whitish ; plumage above brown, the
feathers edged with pale brown; beneath white, spotted with black ;
breast rufou^teesides fasciated with black; tail deep grey, crossed
with ttffee or four bars of black; legs feathered to the toes, which
are bright orange; claws black.
Inhabits Africa; not uncommon on the coast of Guinea, from
whence one was brought alive to London, where it survived for some
time. Barbbtj in his History of Guinea, gives a figure of this bird,$
and a smilar one may be seen among the drawings of Mr. Dent.
This is twenty-two inches long. In it the head and *eck are yellowish
white, inclining to brown behind, with here and there a marking of
black on the side of the neck.
61.—OCCIPITAL EAGLE.
Falco occipitalis, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. iii.    Daud. ii. p. 40.    Shaw's Zool, vii. p.59.
Le Huppard, Levaill, Ois. i. pl. 2.
Nisser Tookoor, Black Eagle, Bruce's Trav. Ap. t. p. 159?
Occipital .Eagle, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 17.
THIS is more thanPtbree feet in length;hill pale blue; plumage
in general dusky reddish brown, paler beneath; the middle of the
outer webs of the greater quills white, forming a patch on the wing;
base of the tail mixed brown and white, the ends dark brown, and the
shape rounded; quills black, nearly as long as the tail; on the
hindhead a crest of feathers, six or seven inches long, hanging
gracefully behind; legs covered with short, pale, yellow down,
quite to the toes. The female is larger, and the crest smaller, with
some markings of white about the eyes and top of the head.
* Churchill's Voyages.
T2
 140 FALCON.
This is*found at Guiana/'ahd other par&sjof South Amerjpa, and
is content to feeds*in hares, partridges, and smaller game; has a rapid
flight, and generally seen in pairs, the two sexes together^ It makes
the nest on trees, lined with wooV^nd feathers, and lays two ^pale
eggs, spotted with red brown; has a plaintive^^f^ uttered at
intervals.
We have had doubts whether to place the Black Eagle of Bruce
with this, or the Vulturine Species, ■.or-\ whether to set it down as
distinct; it resembles the last named in colour* but is smaller than
either, being only 2 ft. 4 in. long, and 4£ feet in breadth, weighing
scarcely five pounds. The feathers of the head elongated iin>p a crest
of considerable length, which is said to be carried^erect. In this bird,
too, the cere is yellow, and reaches from the bill to the eyes,
approaching to the Vulture, and forming a link between that and
the Eagle. It was met with in 1770, at Dinglebar, among a cloud
of Vultures and other birds of prey, following the army in Abyssinia,
and was struck down by one of these, by which it fell under Mr.
Bruce's inspection. It seems, however, rather to coincide with the
Occipital species, having, like that, some white on the inner quills.
Mr. Bruce's bird was likewise met with at Tsai, in Abyssinia, by
Mr. Salt, who observes, that the drawing ls^correcj, but that in its
habits it more resembles an Hawk than an Eagle, for it perches on
the tops of trees, and on being driven from one flies to another**
Valentia's Travels, iii. p. 72.
 FALCON.
141
62—VULTURH^ EAGLE.
Falco vulturinus, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. ii. . Daudin, h. p,53.    Shaw's Zool. vii. p.58.
Le Caffre, Levaill. OisA. p.28. pl.6.    Id, Vog. Fr. ed. 8vo. p. 255,
Gypaete, Tern. Man. ed. 2d. Anal. p. xlviii.
Vulturine Eagle, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 15.
THIS equals the Golden Eagle in size, with a strong bill, the
base dusky; irides chestnut brown; plumage in general black; the
wings, when closed, reach eight inches beyond the tail, the end of
yvhich is rounded, the outer feather being shorter than the rest, but
■is usually damaged from rubbing against the rocks, on which it
perches; legs covered for three parts of the length, with dirty
yellow feathers. It has affinity in its manners with some of the
Vulture genus, but the head is wholly covered with feathers.
Inhabits Caffraria, but is rare; feeds on dead carcases, and of
course ^greatly offensive; it will also attack sheep, and devour them
on the spot, except such a portion as may be necessary for its young,
which it brings to them in its claws; in which it differs from the true
vVultore, which is said to disgorge the nutriment it supplies to its
young. From the peculiar length of wing it rises with difficulty from
the ground, r;
The natives [mil it Stront-Vogel, orAas-Vogel, dung, or carrion
bird.
 142
63--MARTIAL EAGLE.
Falco bellicosus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 9.    Daud. ii. p. 38.
"   ■   ■ armiger, Shaw Zool. vii. 57;
Le Griffard, Levail. Ois. i. pl. i.
Martial Eagle, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 16.
SIZE of an eagle—weight from 25 to 80 pounds; breadth 7ift.
Sal moderately curved and pale; irides bright hazel; plumage
brown, *he edges of fkee feathers paler, with a mixture at the nape
of the neck; *ander parts nearly white; quills Mack, reaching three-
foaWhs on the tail, which is even at the end; legs pale, and feathered
to the toes.
The female is 124a. longer than the male.
Inhabits Africa, fesquentmg the great Namaqwa, lat. 28, chiefly
inhabited by whites; preys «n antelopes, hares, &c. and in its turn
is attacked by crows and vultures to deprive it of tfhe^preys is mostly
seen in pairs, and makes a flat nest, of large sticks, on the tops of
high trees, and of such compact structure, as to bear the weight of a
man to stand firmly upondt$ the part lined with dried-leaves, moss,
and other soft materials, and may serve for many years. This bird
will sometimes build the nest upon a rock ; has a sharp cry, to be
heard f&r Off. It&^fri^ -flyer* 'sometimes mounting upwards so as
to be nearly out of sight.
 143
64.—NOISY EAGLE.
Falco albescens, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. ii
Aigle blanchard, Levail. Ois. i. pl. i
Noisy Eagle, Gen, Syn. Sup. ii. p. 1
Daud. ii. 45.    Shaw Zool. vii. 93.
THIS is about one-third as large as the Martial Eagle—is more
elongated, and smaller than most Eagles. The bill pale; irides and
legs yellow; plumage in general white, soft, and spotted with black
brown; the tail barred with black, but the female more mixed with
brownish yellow, especially on the wing coverts. The male has
the feathers of the hind-head elongated into a crest; the female is
also crested, but the feathers shorter, though in bulk that sex exceeds
the male by one-third; the tail is rather long, and the wings, when
closed, reach to about the middle of it.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, frequents forests, prefers the
largest trees, and has hitherto been only found in the country of the
Hottniquas—preys chiefly on the wood pigeon,* from which it first
tears the feathers; sometimes on a small species of antelope, called by
the Hottentots Nometjes. The cry consists of several sharp sounds,
quickly repeated, somewhat similar to cri-qui-qui-qui-qui, and when
perched on a tree, spending whole hours in repeating this, though in
a tone of voice seemingly weak in proportion to the size of the bird.
The nest is for the most part on high trees, and the eggs the size of
those of a turkey, two in number, and white—both sexes sit in rum.
* Le Ramier Rameron—Levail. Afr. 6. 67. pl. 264—or spotted ring pigeon.
i
 144
65.—NOBLE EAGLE.
THIS bird is 3 ft. in length.—Bill large, from the nape to the
tip 2 in. colour yellow brown, with a very trifling notch in the usual
place; cere broad, extending to the eyes, and just encircling them ;
irides yellow hazel; head rather full of feathers, dark brown, fringed
with pale at the ends, the rest of the upper parts much the same;
besides which, the coverts have a pale streak down the shafts; all the
under parts from the throat tawny buff-colour, mottled on the throat
and breast; belly, thighs, and vent marked with numerous, roundish,
ash-coloured spots, smaller below; the feathers of the thighs cover
half the legs, which are yellow ; tail black, of twelve feathers, crossed
about an inch and a half from the end, with a bar of white of the
same breadth—the end also is white, and all the feathers pointed at
the tips.
Inhabits India; drawn from the life and size from a bird in the
possession of Mr. Place; the description taken from the drawings of
Gen. Hardwicke, made at Cawnpore.
It would seem that this bird was used in Falconry, as it had
leathers on the legs with a cord attached, and sitting on a perch—
though it was probably so drawn, from being confined thus, and
kept tame.
We have observed a specimen of this bird, in which there were
spots, instead of a pale streak down the shafts of the wing coverts.
 143
66.—CHEEEA EAGLE.
^Falco£heela, Ind. Orn. i. p. 14.    Daud, ii. p. 44;    Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 69.
Cheela Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 33.
LENGTH two feet or more, and stout in bulk; bill blue at the
base, with a black tip; irides pale yellow; plumage deep brown;
before the eyes marked with white; head feathers somewhat
elongated; wing coverts spotted with white; quills dark; tail the
same, crossed with a bar of white, l^in. in breadth; thighs and belly
paler than the upper parts, the first spotted with white; legs pale
yellow, scaly; claws black.
This is not uncommon in India, and called Cheela. In a
drawing of one of these, I observe the wing coverts without spots;
cere and irides yellow; plumage deep brown, paler beneath; the
feathers of the hindhead and neck lengthened into a sort of tuft,
fringed at the end with white; breast, belly, thighs, and vent, marked
with roundish spots, each surrounded, or slightly margined with
black; tail short, crossed in the middle with a broad cream-coloured
bar, and with paler coloured spots on the margin. These are probably allied to the Noble Eagle.
 146
67.—MARITIME EAGLE.
Falco maritimus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 20.     Gm. Lin. i. 260.    Daud. ii. 60.    Lichtenb. Magi
iv. 2. p. 6.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 157.
Maritime Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. 2. p. 23.
LENGTH uncertain; height, standing, 1ft. 5in. Bill and
cere yellow ; the body and end of the tail white; thighs whitish and
pale red mixed; the colours of the rest of the plumage not mentioned.
Inhabits the borders of the sea in the Island of Java, and feeds
on fish and carrion.
68.—FIERCE EAGLE.
Falco ferox, Ind. Orn. i. p. 13.    Gm. Lin. 1. 260.    Daud. ii. p« 50.
Falco astracanus, Shaw's Zool. vii. 85.
Accipiter ferox, N. C. Petr. xv. 422. t. 10. Gmelin.
Fierce Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. p. 33.
THIS is nearly the size of the Golden Eagle. Bill lead-colour,
cere green; irides yellow; eyelids and pupils blue; over the eyes
hairs like eyebrows: plumage above ferruginous brown, with a
mixture of white on the crown and hindhead; fore part of the neck
ferruginous, varied in the same manner with white ; breast and belly
white, spotted with chestnut; quills black, within brown and white,
beneath white, towards the ends grey; wing coverts paler than the
 FALCON. 147
body, spotted with ferruginous forwards, and white behind; tail
brown; the feathers on the posterior side white, faseiated with four
deep brown bands; rump whitish ; legs white, thick, and rough ;
claws crooked.
Inhabits the neighbourhood of Astraehan, is remarkably fierce
and voracious, and will sometiines prey on dead animals as well as
living ones.
£.—PONDICHERRY EAGLE.
Falco ponticerianus, Ind. Grn. i. p. 23.    Gm. Lin, i
129.    Daud. ii. p. 55.    Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 91.
Aigle de Pondicherry, Buf. i. 136.    Pl. enl. 416.
Aigle Malabarre, Ess. Philos. p. 55.
Pondicherry   Eagle, Gen. Syn, i. p. 41.      Id, Sup.
Misc. 389.
265.   Bris. i. 450, t. 35.   Id. 8vo.
p. 12:      Id. Sup. 2. p. 32.      Nat.
LENGTH 19 in.—breadth 3| ft.—size of the Jerfalcon. Bill
pale green, with a tinge of blue, tip yellow ; cere bluish ; irides pale
brown; colour of the body chestnut, shafts of the feathers blackish ;
head, neck, and breast white, with a line of brown down the middle
of each feather*—the end half of the first six quills black; tail 7^-in.
long, the six middle feathers pale fulvous at the tips, the three others,
on each side, with narrow blackish bands on the inner webs; legs
yellow, claws black.
Some specimens have darker tail feathers, plain, without any
perceptible bands, being merely dusky on the outer margins.
* That figured in the Nat. Misc. has no brown lines down the shafts.
U 2
 148 FALCON.
Inhabits the East Indies, chiefly about Pondicherry. It is
esteemed a sacred bird on the coasts of Malabar and Coromandel, and
called by some the Malabar Eagle, and having the manners of ithe
kite, has obtained the names of Bramany-Kite, in compliance with
the respect paid to it by the Bramins of India. The natives of Hindustan call it Tchil—and at Bengal, Sunk-Tchil, also Kueronden—
besides which, I find other names given to it in India, viz. Khem-
Calyani and Cshamancari*—said to remain at Bengal the whole year,
living on fish, frogs, snakes, &c. It is less wild than many of the
genus, but never so bold as to pick up filth in the streets. Builds
both in the villages and forests, and lays two or three eggs in March
or April—the young fly in June. We learn, that it is no where
more frequent in India than at a noted grove, called Pop-Tope, a
few miles distant from St. Thomas, f
In the temples of the God Visknow, in front of his image, and
sometimes sitting on a serpent with several heads, is a figure of the
bird called Garroora. This is a large brown kite, with a white head,
and probably meant to represent this Eagle. It is said that the
Bramins, at some of the temples of this God, accustom birds of this
kind to come at stated times to be fed, calling them to their meals
by striking a brass plate. X
One of these, among the drawings of Gen. Hardwicke, had the
names of Keu-Keraan, (bird catchers name) Cheym-Kullee, also
Rutey-Cheel. The word Cheel seems to have a common meaning,
perhaps that of Hawk ?
Dr. Horsfield met with this bird in Java, where it is called
Ulung. §
* Sir J. Anstruther's drawings—one in Lord Valentia's drawings called Cullcarii.
f Ten miles distant from Madras, Penn. View of Hindoost. ii. p. 90.
X Sketches of the Hindoos, 8vo. 1790. p. 155.
§ JLi'n. Trans, v, xiii. p. 136.
 149
70.-BIDO EAGLE.
Falco Bido, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 137.   Horsfield.
LENGTH from 24 to 26 in.—Bill strait at the base, otherwise
greatly bent; cere broad; nostrils oblong, placed obliquely.—
Plumage in*general brown; crown of the head black, at the back
part the feathers white at the base; quills black, the first very short,
the third and fifth equal in length, but the fourth the longest—all of
them banded with white on the inner webs; tail longish, rounded,
black, crossed with a broad white band;. under wing coverts, belly,
vent, and thighs, spotted with white; legs longish; thighs squam-
mose, at the hase downy ; claws rather long; middle and hind toe
stout, equal in length, the outer one very short; the wings shorter
than the tail.
Inhabits Java, and called Bido.-
71..—BROWN-BACKED EAGLE.
SIZE of an Eagle.—Bill short and blue; cere livid ; between
that and the eye covered with cinereous hairy feathers; head and
neck ferruginous, or reddish clay-colour; forehead and chin chocolate
brown; the rest of the plumage, from chin to-vent, back, and wing
coverts, fine chocolate brown; on the scapulars a mixture of white in
patches; quills much darker than the rest; thighs and legs covered
I
 150 FALCON.
to the toes with feathers; vent rufous white; tail very little longer
than the wings, pale grey, crossed with five or six narrow dusky bars,
chiefly on the outer webs, but in the two middle feathers on both webs,
the end for one inch black.
Inhabits India—Sir J. Anstruther.
A.—In this the bill is blue, with a blackish tip; crown and
hindhead bay; forehead, chin, back, wings, belly and legs chocolate brown; on the scapulars a mixture of white; tail greyish,
crossed with blackish bands, that near the end broadest; tips of the
feathers pale; legs feathered to the toes, which are yellow; claws
black.
Inhabits the neighbourhood of Calcutta, and there called Frooss,
but is not common—Dr. Buchanan.
One among the drawings of Gen. Hardwicke (probably this) was
2ft. 8 or 9in. Bill pale blue, tip black; cere large and pale; top
of the head, neck behind, and sides, dusky brownish white; chin,
throat, and all the under parts, also the back and wings, deep
chocolate brown, a little mottled; on the beginning of the back, a
patch of white; vent cinereous:; tail dirty ash-colour, with five or
more irregular dusky bars, and the ends of the feathers, for 1^ in. or
more, dark or dusky; thighs covered with feathers reaching below
the knees, the rest downy to the toes, which are strong and yellow;
claws black.    The wings reach to three-fourths of the tail.
InhabitsIndia.—Described from one-taken at Futtehguhr, Jan.
1796.    The name given to the male, Raaj^the female, Oakaab.
Another of these, called ithe male Oakaab, m of the same size-
Head, neck, breast, and under parts, brown, with long streaks of
dusky, pale yelJow, those *on the head and throat, much smaller,
more nutnevouSj and narrower; back brown, most of the feathers
 FALCON. 151
with pale ends, appearing as spots, forming a regular series at the
ends of the greater coverts, and second quills ; the greater and outer
edge of the wing black ; thighs and vent plain buff-colour, the
feathers reaching beyond the joint—the rest of the legs downy ; legs
yellow; under parts of the tail pale brownish.
The nest is large, made of sticks, and lined with soft grass;
the young* two in number. Those found in a nest at Futtehguhr,
were covered only with white down, and quite to the toes—Bill black;
cere pale; lore pale blue ; toes flesh-colour.
In the same drawings is one nearly similar,—2 ft. 8 or 9 in.—
general colour brown, the feathers with paler margins; place of the
bastard wing white; greater coverts and second quills dusky, with
pale flesh-coloured ends; great quills black; vent and tail coverts
white; tad black ; tip pale or white ; the wings reach three-fourths
on the tail; legs feathered to the toes, with brown feathers; bill deep
blue black; cere, nape, and legs, yellow.
72.—KUMPA-MAUR EAGLE.
LENGTH 22 in.; breadth 2 ft. 5in. Bill black and stout, but
with scarcely any appearance of a notch or process in the upper
mandible; cere cinereous; head dirty white, the feathers pointed,
stiff, with black shafts; upper parts of the body, and wings, dark
brown ; breast ferruginous; tail white, rather short, the tips and
edges of the feathers inclining to ash-colour ; quills dusky, and the
wings, when closed, reach to the end of the tail; legs stout, pale
yellow, and the feathers of the thighs long, extending a considerable
way on the shuts; claws black.
Inhabits India, called Kumpa-Maur.—Dr. Buchanan.
 152
73—KOORUL EAGLE.
THIS bird is 2 ft. 10 in. long—from the head to the sole of the
foot, 1 ft. 7in. and to the end of the bill 3in. Bill blue; cere pale;
lore the same; plumage in general brown, the feathers margined
with rufous; the wing coverts darker; from the nape a broad patch
of black, passing beneath the eye almost to the hindhead ; chin
rufous white; quills and tail black, the last short; some of the larger
coverts and second quills mixed with white; legs rough, deep yellow;
feathered below the knee ; claws black.
In a second of these the feathers were wholly brown, without
rufous margins; the patch on the sides of the head dusky, not quite
black; chin pale, but not white; belly and vent brownish white;
quills and tail dark brown.
Inhabits India by the name of Koorul—A fine drawing of the
above was, among others, in Sir J. Anstruther's possession, and is
probably not yet described—has much the appearance of the Black-
Cheeked Eagle.
74 —JERWIED EAGLE.
THIS is a large species. Bill and claws black; cere and toes
yellow; general colour of the plumage dusky black; beneath
darker; some of the wing coverts marked with white at the tips;
quills and tail dark, and all but the two middle feathers marked with
nine or ten paler coloured spots on the outer margins; thighs and
legs feathered to the toes, the margins of all the feathers paler.
Inhabits India, and there called Jerwied.
 153
75—CAWNPORE EAGLE.
LENGTH 27 or 28 inches; bill large, strong, black, at the
base pale blue; cere yellow; irides brown; general colour of the
plumage wholly deep chocolate brown; quills and tail darker, both
plain without any markings; the wing coverts each marked with
a pale spot at the tips; the ends of the greater coverts pale, and a
few solitary pale spots on the thighs; legs covered with down to
the toes, which are pale yellow; claws black.
Inhabits India; frequents Cawnpore, met with there in January. One similar, the same in size, had the bill, cere, and
irides as in the other; the general colour of the plumage paler
brown, but the under parts, from the breast, incline to ash-colour;
the nape, and neck behind, as also on the sides of the neck and
breast, marked with spots of white; the second wing coverts darker
than the lesser, margined with pale brown; quills and tail dark, or
dusky black, the last without any markings; the quills reach to
within an inch and a half of the end of the tail; legs yellow.—Met
with at Cawnpore, in November.
In a third, the size, bill, irides, and legs correspond with the
two former—general plumage fine pale tawny ash; feathers of the
head and neck somewhat narrow and pointed; on each of the wing
coverts a black line down the shaft; greater wing coverts dusky, with
tawny ends: quills and tail very dark, or dusky black; the upper
tail coverts, vent, and under parts somewhat paler than above.
Found at Cawnpore in May; from a comparison of the above
three birds with each other, they seem to be allied; and, it is probable, that the first described is the adult.
Y
l
 154
FALCON.
76.—CHINESE EAGLE -^Bl,M.
Falco sinensis, Ind. Orn. i.
Chinese Eagle, Gen. Syn.
13.    Gm. Lir,
. 35. pl. 3.
264.    Daud. ii. 51.   Shaw's Zoof. vii, 88:
THIS is of a large size; bill hooked, black; cere yellow;
irides brown ; plumage in general reddish brown; top of the head
dusky, the feathers darker on the edges ; across the middle of the
wing a dark brown broad bar; quills of the same colour; base,
middle, and end of the tail dark brown ; all the under parts of the
body yellowish buff-colour, from chin to vent; legs stout, yellow;
claws black.
Inhabits China. I owe the description and drawing of this
bird to my late friend, Thomas Pennant, Esq. who originally had
it from Taylor White, Esq.
I have/also observed a bird, which probably varies only in age
or sex, in a collection of drawings exhibited for sale, many years
since, in King-street, Covent-Gsasden. This was crested; the
crest composed of ash-coloured and black feathers intermixed; bill
black; irides pale yellow; sides of the head, round the eye, ash-
colour ; back and wings deep chocolate brown, the feathers edged
with yellow; wings and tail as in the other bird; as also the
under parts, but the breast and belly somewhat blotched with
dusky, or dark brown; edge of the wing ferruginous and Hack
mixed.
The last was drawn of the natural size, which was that of an
eagle, but whence the original came, not mentioned.
  M*
mm
ii
   155
-BAUJ EAGLE.
SIZE uncertain; bill black; cere dusky; irides dark; head,
neck, and under parts white, streaked with fine lines of brown on
the top of the head, and sides of the wings; upper parts of the
plumage brown, the feathers margined with paler brown; quills
dusky black, and reach half way on the tail, which is crossed with
seven narrow dusky bars, one of them near the end; legs covered
with white down as far as the toes, which are yellow; claws black,
but not very hooked.
Inhabits India, and called Bauj or Bauze,* at Bengal; but at
Hindustan known by the name of Sundul.—Dr. Buchanan.
78—ASIATIC EAGLE.
Falco asiaticus, Ind. Orn. i. 14.    Shau
Asiatic Eagle, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 31.
LENGTH 21 inches; and, at fast appearance, not unlike the
Buzzard; bill bluish £ breast cream^ofeur , dashed down the shafts
of the feathers with dusky black; belly,, thigfes,,a*#ijvent white;
quills geey, banse*|> dusky and black on the secondaries; bastard
* The Goshawk is also known.by this name.
X 2
 156
wing and greater coverts the same ; tail 9^ in. long, rounded at the
end, colour pale silvery grey; on the outer feathers five or six irregular dusky bars, or blotches, down the shafts, but indistinct, the
others plain; upper coverts white; legs yellow, feathered before
below the joint.
Inhabits China.-r>lir Joseph Banks.
5
72—FISHING FALCON.
Falco Piscator, Ind. Orn. i. 43. Gm. Lin. i. 279. Shaw's Zool. i
Le Tanas, Faucon-pecheur, Buf. i. 275. Pl. enl. 478. Damp. Vo
Fishing Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. 95.
158.
iii. 318.
LENGTH 20 inches; bill 1^ in. stout, yellow, swelling at the
base, but without a cere; in shape like that of other Falcons, but
less curved, except at the point; and scarcely notched, except just at
the end; nostrils a slit near the base; at the back of the head
a conspicuous full crest, composed of feathers, some 2 in. in length;
colour of the head, crest, neck, and breast ferruginous brown; crest
feathers narrow, with pale edges; wing coverts brownish dove-colour,
with dark shafts, giving the appearance of streaks; quills bluish
brown, the first not half the length of the others, the fourth longest;
all of them marked within, mostly from the base, largely with white;
back paler brown, with dark streaks down the shafts; beneath from
the breast dirty white, streaked with brown ; thighs and under wing
coverts the same; tail long, of ten feathers, rather rounded, 9^ in.
in length ; two middle ones brown with dark ends, the others dusky
black ; the thigh feathers hang a little below the joint before—legs
deep brown,  moderately stout; claws hooked.
 FALCON. 157
One of these in the collection of Lord Stanley furnished the
above description, and seems to be the same bird with that formerly
described as the African Pheasant*—the want of cere, it is true, gives
less alliance to the Falcon Genus, but the shape of the bill is that of
the Falcon; nor has it any bareness about the sides of the head to
rank it with the pheasant, added to having only ten tail feathers;
whereas, the tail in the last genus is composed of a much greater
number.—As to the figure in pl. enl. the colours are just, but the
tail is not half of the proper length, nor is the crest at all expressed,
and may mean to represent a different bird.
Inhabits Senegal—and is probably that known by the name of
Tanas; it differs somewhat from most of the Falcon tribe, as it feeds
more often on fish than other prey, taking them out of the water in
the manner of the Osprey. It is said not to swallow the fish whole,
but retiring to a convenient place, to eat it peice-meal.
80.—BENGAL OSPREY.
SIZE of the common Osprey. Bill black; cere blue; irides
yellow, head full of feathers, which may be erected at will; these
are whitish, streaked with brown; through the eye, to below the
the nape, a broad, brown fillet; neck behind, back, wings, and
tail, deep brown, the last marked on the outer webs of the feathers
with obscure paler spots; all beneath from chin to vent white, with a
bar of brown spots on the breast; quills black, and when closed reach
Gen. Syn. Sup. p: 120.
 358
FALCON.
somewhat beyond the tail;
legs pale blue
; claws black,
large, and
hooked.
Inhabits India
called at Hindustan,
Mutch-Moonggur, by the
Bengalese, Bullah-
-found
also in the province of Oude,
and thetir
called Mudrooh.
81—PISCIVOROUS EAGLE.
Falco vocifer, Ind. Orn. Sup. p.
Zool. vii. p. 94.
Aigle nonette, Gaby Voy. en Nigritie.
Piscivorous Eagle, Gen. Syn. Sup. 2. p. 33.
mmevaif.Ois. i. pl. 4.     Daud. ii. p. 64.     Shaw's
SIZE and make of the Osprey; extent of wings 8 ft.; bill lead-
colour ; below that and the eye naked and yellow, except a few
hairs; irides red brown; head, neck, breast, and scapulars, white,
edged with brown; on the breast a few black brown spots; tail white;
the rest of the plumage rusty brown, streaked with dingy black,
inclining to ferruginous on the coverts; quills black, with lines of
rufous and black crossing the outer webs ; lower parts of the back
and rump mixed black and dirty white; lower belly and thighs deep
rufous; legs»%iaked and yellow; the wings when closed, reach to the
end of the tail.    The female is more dull in colour.
Inhabits the more inward parts%f the Cape of Good Hope;
most common about Lagoa Bay; called at ther^Oape, Groote Vis-
van^er or Wi$te Vis-vanger, as it feeds o& -fisli|*3clescending upon them
in the manner of the Osprey; said also to feed on young antelopes,
as well as the great lizards; common i»4he African rivers; the male
 FALCON. 159
and female are rarely seen apart; they build on the top of trees, or
on rocks, and lay two or three white eggs. By some called the Crying Eagle, as it flies high and cries loudly, to be heard far off; is
very difficult to be shot, as it is a shy bird. It seems allied both
to the Pondicherry Eagle, and the Osprey.
82—BLAGRE EAGLE.
Falco Blagrus, Ind. Om. Sup. p. vii.   Daud. i
Le Blagre, Levail/. Ois. i. pl. 5.
Blagre Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. 2. p, 34.
Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 96.
SIZE and habit of the Osprey; bill brownish; irides deep
brown; head, neck, and parts beneath, glossy white; but the top of
the head, and hind part of the neck incline to brown; lesser wing
coverts and tail pale grey brown, and the end of the last white;
greater quills dusky black; second quills like the rest of the wing;
the feathers for the most part very rigid; legs yellow.
This bird inhabits the internal parts of the Cape of Good Hope.
bi*£j*\i®$y seen on the' borders of rivers, which it frequents for the
sake of fish, taking them in the manner of the Osprey, by plunging
into the water ; its sig&t; seems to be very piercing, at it will very
frequently descend at once from a height in the air, where it is
scarcely visible^ into the watej& aftes its prey.
 160
83—MARINE EAGLE;
Falco Ichthysetus, Lin. Trans, xiii, p. 136, Hdrsfield.
LENGTH 2 ft. 4 in.; bill long, hooked, in shape not unlike
that of the Osprey; nostrils large; cere with a few hairs on the
sides; plumage in general brownish; quills deep brown ; head
grey; chin whitish; neck brownish grey; breast and belly pale
ferruginous brown; lower part of the latter, the vent, and thighs
white; tail dusky at the tip.
Inhabits Java, called Jokowuru.
84—NEW ZEALAND EAGLE—Pl. IX.
Falco Novse Zealandise,   Ind, Orn. i. 28.     Gm. Lin. i. 268.    Daud. ii. 104.     Shaw's
Zool. vii.   159.
New Zealand Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 57. pl. 4. Female ?
LENGTH 17 or 18 inches; bill one in. much emarginated,
dark blue or black; cere yellow; irides blue; in each nostril a lobe
or division; crown and cheeks brown; the upper parts of the body
the same, with whitish bands towards the rump, mixed with ferruginous ; quills dusky black, spotted on the inner web of the outer,
and on both webs of the inner ones with white; under parts of the
body dirty reddish white, dashed down the middle of each feather
with dusky black;  belly and vent ferruginous; the shafts of the
 c^^J^W&/ <^a/cc
  feathers black; tail rufous brown, marked on each side of the shafts
with oblique bars of white, five or six at least, but none of them
touching the shaft; the end, for near an inch, plain rnfous brown;
legs yellow.
The female is 23 in- in length; bill, cere, and irides the same;
the plumage on the upper parts deep brown, with a few transverse
pale markings; beneath dusky white, with broad dashes of brown;
sides of the belly, and thighs inclining to ferruginous, dashed with
brown; vent pale yellow, with the same brown markings; tail
fasciated transversely with white, but the markings less conspicuous.
The young bird differs, having a few longitudinal pale streaks
on the neck; the body plain brown, or very little marked; and tlie
tail without bars, though the end is very pale, approaching to white.
Inhabits New Zealand; found in Queen Charlotte's Bay; has
the appearance of a Vulture about the head and neck, and the
feathers of the latter loose and waving, nor is the bird, when adult,
so well clothed about the eyes, as the Falcons in general. However, Dr. Forster assured me, that the manners are entirely those of
the Falcon, and was of opinion, that the one figured in the Synopsis
was a young, and incomplete bird. Two of the above were brought
from New Zealand, by Captain Clark, in 1775.
85—MADAGASCAR FALCON.
Falco Madagascariensis, Daud.ii. 75.    Shaw's.Zool. vii. 169.
Autour a ventre raye de Madagascar, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. pl. 103.
Madagascar Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 32.
SIZE of a Pheasant.    Bill black, curved from the base; orbits
naked, yellow, with a bare skin reaching from thence to the hind-
 162 FALCON.
head; irides yellow ; crown, neck, back, and wing coverts, pale
cinereous grey ; larger coverts marked near the tips with black;
quills white, barred within halfway from the base with dusky black,
the end half black; beneath the wings striated white and black ;
breast, belly and rump, white, marked with curved white bands;
tail black, crossed about the middle with a white band, dotted with
black; legs yellow.
Inhabits Madagascar, called, by the French, Aigle-raye—from
the bareness about the head, and the claws not being greatly hooked,
it might incline one to think it belonged to the Vultures.
86.-ORIENTAL FALCON.
Falco orientalis, Ind. Orn. i. 22.    Gm. Lin.
Oriental Hawk, Gen. Syn. i p. 34. *c.
, 264.    Daud. ii. 76.
LENGTH 17in. Bill large, hooked, black; base beneath
yellow ; plumage above dark brown, most so on the head; over the
eye a streak of ferruginous; thighs and vent banded with brown ;
quills dark brown; on the inner webs oval spots of white, placed
transversely, and an obscure dusky one of white on all but the three
first; tail 8in. long, the feathers marked with obscure dirty white
spots, from the base to within half an inch of the end, which is
dusky ; legs pale lead-colour.
The above flew on board a ship near the coast of Japan.
 163
87,—JAVAN HAWK.
Falco Javanicus, Ind. Orn. i 23.    Gm. Lin. i. 264,    Daud. ii. 76.
Javan Hawk, Gen. Syn. i. 34. *d.
LENGTH 17in. Bill yellow, with a black tip; cere yellow;
irides pale; forehead white; body above reddish brown; wing
coverts incline to red, with darker shafts; under wing coverts dirty
reddish white, undulated with ferruginous; quills dark brown,
within deep ferruginous, transversely barred with black, end nearly
black; nape blotched with white, as in the Sparrow-hawk; tail coverts
tipped with white; throat and breast like the upper parts, but paler;
belly ferruginous brown, barred with white; thighs the same, but
paler; vent white; tail brown, even, with five bands of black; the
wings reach to near the end; legs yellow, stout; inner claw largest.
Inhabits various parts of India, and probably in Java, one
having flown on a ship off that Island.
88.—TESTACEOUS FALCON.
Falco testaceus, Ind. Orn. Sup; p. vii.    Daud. ii. 125.
Testaceous Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. 2. p. 56.
SIZE of a Goshawk; length 21 in. Bill bluish; cere, irides,
and legs, yellow; head, and all above, testaceous brown; shafts of
the feathers black;   throat and under  parts white,  tinged with
Y2
 164 FALCON".
testaceous on the breast, and from thence to the vent with reddish
brown ; vent white; quills dusky, spotted white within ; tail crossed
with five indistinct dusky bands ; beneath pale.
Inhabits the Isle of Java, first seen perched on a rock, seizing
small birds, which passed within reach, and was by chance killed
with a stone.
A.--Falco Javanicus, Ind. Orn. i. 27.     Gm. Lin. i. 267.
iv. 2. 8.    Daud. ii. 171.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 172.
Javan Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. 2. p. 36.
Wurmb. apud Licht. Mag.
The cere of this bird is black, marked with yellow in the
middle; head, neck, and breast, chestnut; back brown; legs yellow.
Inhabits Java, said to feed on fish—probably a variety, if not
the same as the last described.    The three last seem to be allied.
89.—LAKE FALCON.
Falco limna?etus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 138. Horsfield.
SIZE uncertain; bill strongly curved, compressed; edges of the
mandibles incurvated, the end of the lower obliquely truncated; cere
small, nostrils oval, transverse; plumage in general brown; tad
beneath whitish ash; the first quill short, second and third gradually
longer, fourth and fifth equal in length, the rest shortening by
degrees; legs rather long, shins Wholly covered with feathers; claws
small, all of them nearly equal in size.
  CirAvis tL^a/c&ri/.
 i
i
  Inhabits Java; called Wuru-rawa; supposed to be very rare, as
it has been found but once at the extensive lakes, formed during the
rainy season, in the southern parts of the Island, where it feeds on
fishes—never met with along the extensive northern sea coast.
90— COHY FALCON—Pl. X,
LENGTH 13iin.; bill and cere livid; near the end of the
upper mandible two tooth-like processes; head, neck, and inter-
scapulary region black; at the nape a fine crest of linear feathers,
about two inches long, growing broader at the ends, which stand
up, and the points incline forward ; the scapulars are white at the
base, afterwards fine chestnut brown, and terminated with black;
the fore part of the breast, and hind part of the back are white, that
of the belly the same, with a broad rufous, or chestnut brown band;
sides and fore part of the belly barred with the same; thighs, rump,
and upper tail coverts black; wing coverts black, with a greenish
tinge, but a few next the scapulars resemble them in colour; prime
quills black, on the inner webs greenish; second quills the same, but
on the upper side of the outer vane chestnut brown; the tertials black
above, dusky below, brown on the upper side of the outer vane, near
the base, and white towards the point; tail rounded, five inches long,
greenish black, and the wings, when closed, reach to within half an
inch of the end of it; legs scaly, of an obscure greenish-colour;
claws black.
Inhabits  India.     A specimen of the above was caught at
Barrackpore,   and by most persons thought to  be new,  but the
 166
FALCON.
Keepers of the Aviary say, that three or four were received from a
Hill Chief, a few years since, and that they were called Jucca-
Siccara. The servants of the Nepal Vakeel thought that it is found
in their country, and called Roylow ; but a Nepalese servant of Dr.
Buchanan observed, that it is less than the Roylow, and that both
the Parbutties and Nawars call it Cohy, It is a most beautiful
species, and the Ornithologist will feel himself indebted to the
Doctor, not only for this, but many new Indian species, in other
genera, hereafter to be mentioned.
91.—CRESTED INDIAN FALCON.
Falco cirrhatus, Ind. Orn A. 36.     Bris. i.
48.    Gm. Lin. i. 274.    Daud. ii. 113.
Faucon huppe des Indes, Buf. i. 271.
Crested Indian Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 80.
360.    Id. 8vo. 104.    Raii, p. 14.    Will. p.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 147.
Id. Sup. p. 20.    Will. Engl. p. 82.
ALMOST the size of a Goshawk; bill blue; cere luteous; irides
yellow; plumage above black; top of the head flat, with a forked
crest, hanging downwards; under part of the body striated black
and white; neck fulvous; tail banded black and ash-colour; legs
feathered to the toes, luteous; claws black.
Inhabits the East Indies ; it varies in having a black bar across
the breast, and another on the wing coverts.
 167
A.—Le Faucon huppe, Levaill. Ois. pl. 28. Daud. ii. p. 118.    Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 149.
pl. 21.
Crested Indian Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 25.
The male is said not much to exceed a common pigeon in size,
and the female one-fourth larger. The bill pale, end dusky; the
under mandible singularly notched, and cut off square at the end;
plumage slate-colour; the elongated nape feathers brown; hind part
of the neck the same, with a long patch of brown over each jaw, in
the manner of the Peregrine Falcon; the under part of the body
dirty white, transversely marked with black streaks on the belly and
thighs; quills brown, reaching beyond the middle of the tail, which
is crossed with seven or eight brown bars.
Inhabits the lakes and borders of the sea in India, and the
rivers abounding in fish, feeding on them, as well as crabs and
shell fish, which it easily breaks with the bill; will attack gulls,
terns, and even the Albatross, all of which give way to this bird.
It makes the nest among the rocks, near the sea, for the most part,
though sometimes on trees, near the rivers, and lays four rufous white
eggs—male and female sit in turn; the young brood often remains
with the parents, till nature prompts them to pair, and thus continue
their race.
 108
92—CEYLONESE CRESTED FALCON.
Falco Ceylanensis, Ind. Orn. i. 36.      Gm. Lin. i. 275.     Daud. ii.  113.     Shaw's Zool.
vii. 149. pl. 21.
Ceylonese Crested Falcon, Gen. Syn, i. p. 82.
SIZE uncertain; bill dusky; cere yellow; plumage wholly as
white as milk; on the head two feathers hanging behind, like a
pendent crest.
Inhabits Ceylon—Mr. Pennant; probably a variety of the last
described. Wolf mentions a White Hawk, which is, according to
the people of Malabar, a bird of augury, for if one is seen flying
over their heads in a morning, they will not undertake a journey, or
any business of moment on that day.*
93—CHICQUERA FALCON.
Falco cirrhatus, Ind. Orn. i. 36. var. ?    Shaw's Zool. vii. 176
Le Chicquera, Levail. Ois. i. p. 30.
Chicquera Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. 2. p. 27.
THE bill of this bird is not unlike that of the crested Falcon ;
the upper mandible has a double notch, and the under truncated;
* A circumstance, similar to this, is mentioned under the head of the Lanner of Abyssinia.—Penn. Hindoost. i. 204.
 FALCON.
169
irides yellow; top of the head, and bind part of the neck rufous,
with a tinge of the same about the base of the bill, and bend of the
wing; but the upper parts of the body and wings, in general are
blue grey, mottled with darker spots; tail crossed near the end with
a broad dusky black band; the tips of all the feathers pale, nearly
white—under parts of the body white, crossed on the breast, belly,
thighs, and vent with small dusky streaks; the wings reach two-
thirds on the tail,  which is rounded at the end ; legs yellow.
Inhabits Bengal, and called Chiqueia-^It is probably a variety
of the crested Indian species,
94—NASAL FALCON.
BILL dusky blue, pale at the base, where it is rather gibbous;
head, neck, and beneath, ferruginous, streaked on the two first with
black ; sides under the eyes brownish clay-colour; back and wing
coverts deep brown ; outer part of the wings and quills black, the
last pale beneath, the shafts white; tail rounded, reddish brown;
belly, thighs, and vent, pale ferruginous; quills and tail even in
length ; legs stout and yellow; claws black.
Inhabits India—Sir J. Anstruther. It has much the appearance
of an Eagle, but the size of the bird is not mentioned.
 170
95—JAPONESE FALCON.
Falco Japonicus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 13;    Gm. Lin. i. 257.    Daud. ii. p. 50.
Japonese Hawk, Gen. Syn. i, p. 33.*   7. b.
LENGTH 23 in. Bill small, blue, with a black tip; beneath
the lower mandible yellowish ; cere dusky; forehead buff-colour ;
head and body above brown, each feather tipped wMi1 ferruginous ;
across the hindhead a mixture of pale cream colour, and beneath this
much blotched with the same; cheeks palish, streaked with brown;
from the chin springs a crescent of black, placed much like that in the
Hobby; chin white, with fine lines of black ; fore part of the neck
and breast brown, each feather margined with yellowish white;
belly the same, but darker; quills dark, marked within with
transverse oval ferruginous spots ; all, but the four or t\\e outer ones,
tipped with the same; the wings, when closed, reach rather beyond
the middle of the tad, which isei>gbt inches long, deep brown, all
the feathers spotted on both webs with ferruginous, except the exterior Ones, which are plain on the outer webs; legs yellow, claws
large, hooked, and black.
A specimen of this bird flew on board a ship, off the coast of
Japan.
 171
96.—S&0RT-TAILED FALCON.
Falco ecaudatus, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. iv.    Daud: ii. p. 54.
Le Batteleur, Levail. Ois. i. p. 31. pl. 7. 8.
Short-tailed Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 21.
utififijZjE between the Eagle and Osprey; bd} and legs dusky;
base of the first yellowish; cere large; irides deep brown; head,
neck, and all beneath, deep black; back and tail deep rufous ;
scapulars dusky, varying to blue grey; lesser coverts Isabella colour ;
quills silvery ^ejfc within dusky; the tail characteristically short,
and half hidden by its coverts; the made is not complete in plumage
till the thwd yearss moult. In young birds the general colour is
brown, palest on the head and neck; the edges of the feathers
light coloured, and are in this state so unlike the old ones, that
were it not for the sb*>i$»]tai], they might be mistaken for different
species.
The female is one-fourth bigger than the male, but does not
otherwise greatly differ—the young birds, while incomplete in
plumage, most resemble the females.
Inhabitjthe Cape of Good Hope; most common about Queer
Boom, near Lagoa Bay, and very common in all the country of
Hottniqua and Natal, quite to Caffraria—the male and female always
seen as company, rarely in troops, except many pairs are invited to
the same repast, for they feed on all sorts of carrion, and will attack
young antelopes; they also lurk about inhabited places, for the sake
of preying on any sick sheep. The name gh*en it by M. Levaillant
arose from its flapping the wings in a singular manner, whilst in
the air, so as to be heard at a great distance. It is known also to
the inhabitants by the name of Berg-Hhaan (Mountain Cock).
1
 w£
97—BACHA EAGLE.
Falco Bacha, Ind. Orn. Sup. p.'v
Le Bacha, Levail. Ois. i. pl. 15.
Bacha Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 22.
Daud. ii. p. 43.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 157. pl. 22.
SIZE of the common Buzzard, but longer; bill lead-colour;
cere yellow; plumage in general dirty brown ; wings and tail
darker; crown of the head black, the back of it crested with feathers, half black, half white, the ends being black, and, at times
the bird spreads them horizontally like a tail; at the bend of the
wing and beneath, the feathers are marked with roundish white
spots; tail dusky, crossed in the middle with a rufous white band,
the tip white; legs the. colour of yellow oker.
The female larger than the male.
It is a solitary species, except in the breeding season, and
frequents only the barren and sultry parts of the Cape of Good Hope.
In December, after rearing two or three young, returns to a solitary
life; builds among the rocks, making the nest of moss and leaves
ill put together, and is a shy and fierce species. Found in the
country of the Grand Namaqua, and from thence to the Tropic of
Capricorn. Preys chiefly on the Klipdas, or Cape Cavy,* but
obliged sometimes to be content with lizards, &c.; is observed to
watch the Cavy for three hours together, with the head between the
shoulders, immoveable, and springing suddenly on the unsuspecting
victim, devours it with great apparent ferocity: when it misses its
prey, utters a kind of lamentation, like the words Houi-hi-hi
repeated, and directly changes place to watch as before, but by this
fruitless attempt, added to its plaintive cry, the Cavies take alarm,
and hide themselves, not to appear again forborne hours.
* Hyrax capensis, Gm. Lin. i. 166.
 FALCON. 173
Among the drawings of Mr. Dent I observe a slight variety; in
this, the feathers of the crown are full, loose, and black; under
parts of the body dull ferruginous, with roundish white spots; quills
barred two or three times with white within; the band across the tail,
and the tip pure white.
98—LONG-LEGGED FALCON.
Falco Acoli, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. ix.    Daud. ii. 176.    Levail. Ois. i. 126. pl. 33.    Shaw's
Zool. vii. 172.
Long-legged Hen-Harrier, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 42.
THIS in size and colour resembles the Hen-rHarrier, but stands
higher on its legs; the bill is bluish ; cere red; irides yellow ; the
mider parts, from the breast, crossed with fine, dusky, linear stripes,
in the manner of the Chanting Falcon, though neither so numerous
nor delicate; indeed, it might at first sight be taken for that bird on
a larger scale, did not the great disproportion of legs at once shew
the difference. The tail is pale grey, and pretty long, even at the
end, and not graduated as in the Chanting species; the quills
dusky black, and reach two-thirds on the tail; legs yellow.
Inhabits the cultivated parts of the Cape of Good Hope; and
found not unfrequently in the sandy desarts. In the interior parts
only observed about the rivers Swarte-kop and Sondag. Called
Witte-Valk (White Falcon) and Leeuwerk-vanger (Lark catcher).
The male and female seen usually together—makes the nest in the
bushes, and lays four dirty white eggs, oval in shape; on the contrary, the eggs of the Ghanting Falcon are nearly round.
 174
99—BLACK-THIGHED FALCON!ml
Falco tibialis. Ind. Orn. Sup. p. x.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 174.
Le Faucon a Culotte noire, Levail. Ois. i. p. 126. pl. 29.    Daud. ii. p. 120.
Black-thighed Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup, ii. p. 49.
THIS is rather bigger than a pigeon. The bill formed somewhat like that of the Crested Indian species, the under mandible
being truncated; it is lead colour, with a yellowish cere; irides hazel
brown; plumage of the upper part of the body and wings grey
brown, with a darker streak down the middle of each feather; throat
white; the rest of the under parts very pale rufous, with dashes of
of dark brown, principally down the shafts; thighs black; quills
and tad dark coloured; the latter rather rounded at the end, and the
wings reach to about two-thirds of the length ; legs yellow.
This species inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and frequents the
grand Namaquas; one killed there in the action of feeding on a
leveret, at the same time roused another somewhat larger, supposed
to be the female, M. Levaillant was informed, that this bird is
not uncommon on Sneeuw-bergen (snow mountain) where it is
called Klyne-berg-haan (Little Mountain Cock) but by this name
they call all the middle-sized birds of prey, and the smaller ones by
the name of Valk or Falcon.
 175
100.—BEHREE FALCON.
Falco calidus, Ind. On
Behree Falcon, Gen. S
i. p. 41.
. Sup. p.
Daud. 2. 122. | .Shaw's Zool. vii. 176.
LENGTH 19in. Bill pale blue; plumage blackish brown
above, white beneath ; the black curving forwards to the throat, and
the white in like manner passes backwards above, nearly as in the
Black Falcon; breast, belly, and thighs marked with cordated,
black spots, flatted at top; tail indistinctly banded with paler colour;
legs yellow; claws black.
The immature bird has the upper parts pale reddish brown;
throat, and a patch behind the eye, white; fore part of the neck and
breast marbled, pale brown and white.,
Inhabits India; and is called Behree. Having been favoured,
by Dr. Buchanan, with the inspection of drawings made in India,
as well as in others of Gen. Hardwicke, I find among them one of
these, said to be a young female, in which the bill is much arched
from the root; irides dark brown ; feathers of the crown sharp
pointed, and the crown sufTounded with a pale ring; ground colour
of the body beneath reddish white; the feathers of the thighs reach
half way on the legs; and the wings, when closed, extend nearly
to the end of the tail, which appears banded, each feather having
two roundish clay-coloured spots on each side of the shaft, and
iH sis or seven rows, giving the idea of as many bands i in other
things the first description will serve. In some drawings these clay-
coloured spots are quite white.
Dr. Buchanan informs me, that it is known in Hindustan proper,
by the name of Baihri,* and is the Boihri of the Bengalese.   It is
* This name said to be derived from the Persian.
 176 FALCON,
found every where in Bengal, frequenting very large trees in solitary
places, but not very common ; preys on birds, chiefly pigeons—the
place of its building is not known. Is commonly used in hawking,
and employed to catch small herons, quails, pigeons, doves, and
other middle-sized game,* though the Hindoos, at least about
Calcutta, do not follow this sport.
In Gen. Hardwicke's drawings is a bird called Kooe-ab-Kaus, or
Kooe—this is marked about the head as the Behree, and is perhaps
a young bird or female—it differs in having the sides of the throat
spotted with black; beneath the body white, with largish dusky
marks; body above plain brown ; quills barred in an indented manner, with pale rufous-white, and brown; tail marked with six or
seven bars on each side of the shaft, but not touching it on the
margin.
Another, smaller, named Bhyree Butcher, said to be a male of
the first season, brown above; beneath dusky white, blotched with
brown; sides of the throat and nape paler; tail brown, with three or
Wr obsolete pale marks, the end pale ; found at Cawnpore in
January. One, said to be a female of the first season, is brown
above, the margins of the feathers paler; beneath dusky white*
blotched with pale brown ; on each side of the jaw a brown whisker,
and behind the eye to the nape brOwn, but the crown and cheeks
are mixed dusky and white; second quills marked with three claV**
coloured round spots on each; upper tail coverts much the same;
tail feathers with five or six clay-coloured spots on each side of the
shaft; the end pale.
Among the same drawings is a bird named Cherrug—said td fee
of the first season.—It is like the last in most respects, but above the
orown is more uniform, and the head and neck are^ Wholly pale dusky
* It is said to be extremely strong and bold, killing hares with ease, and is frequently
sent in chase of the larger kinds of water fowl—will even attack the Cyrus (or the Indian
Crane), also the Manickjoor (Violet Heron), Currakeel, and other large aquatic birds.—
Or. F. Sports, ii. 68.
 -FALCON. 177
white, with some streaks, but no whisker of brown, or brown
behind the eye; but the tail is marked with the same clay-coloured
.spots as in the other.—Shot at Cawnpore in January.
There is also one, said to be a complete male. This is dusky
blue aboye, marked and banded with dusky; beneath rufous white,
with roundish spots of the size of peas, on the breast and throat;
from thence the marks are transverse and curved; under wing
coverts white, spotted with black; tail, as in the others, crossed
with five or six blue bands.
From there being much simflarity between the above birds,
added to the markings of the quills and tail being so nearly alike in
all, we may venture to conclude the whole to belong to the Behree
Falcon.
101—RHOMBOIDAL FALCON.
Falco rhorabeus, Ind. Orn. i. 35.—Daud. ii. 11L
Rhomboidal Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 35.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 169.
LENGTH 19 in. Bill dusky blue ; head and hind part of the
neck black; fore part very light brown; back and wings grey,
barred with black; belly pale reddish brown, marked with rhomboidal spots; tail grey, crossed with eleven or twelve bars of black ;
legs pale yellowish green.
Inhabits the river Granges, and other parts of India.
 178
102—CHANTING FALCON.
Falco musicus. Ind. Orn.Sup. p. ix.   Daud. ii. 116.   Shaw's Zool, vii. 143.
Faucon chanteur, Levail. Ois. i. 117. pl. vi.
Chanting Falcon, Gen. Syn, Sup. ii. p. 40.
SIZE of a common Falcon ; plumage in general pale lead, or
dove-colour; but the top of the head and scapulars are much darker,
and incline to brown; the under parts from the breast pearly grey,
crossed with numerous bluish grey markings; quills black; tail
greatly cuneiform, the outer feathers being shorter than the middle
ones by a third, the colour dusky, but the extreme tips of the
feathers are white, and all but the two middle ones crossed with
bands of white. The bill and claws are black; legs and cere orange;
and the irides brown.
The female is bigger by one-third, but does not differ from the
male materially, except in being paler.
This species is not unlike the Hen-Harrier in colour, but independent of other points, in which it differs, there is no appearance
of the ruff-like collar round the lower part of the head. It is found
in Caffraria and the neighbouring country, as Karrow and Camde-
boo. In breeding time the male is remarkable for its song, which,
like the Nightingale, it makes every morning and evening, and
commonly even the night through. It sings in a loud tone for more
than a minute, and after a time begins anew; during its song it is so
regardless of itself, that any one may approach, but in the intervals
of quiet so wary, as to take flight on the least suspicion. Should
the marksman kill the male, the female will also soon fall under his
gun, as in her attachment to him, and calling every where with the
most plaintive voice, she so continually passes within gun-shot, as to
make it no difficult matter to shoot her; but in  case the female
 should be killed first, the male does not testify so much attachment,
for retiring to the top of some distant tree, not easily approached, he
does not cease to sing, but becomes so wary, as to fly away from
that neighbourhood on the least alarm. The female is said to make
her nest between the forks of trees, or in bushy groves, and lays four
round white eggs. This bird preys on partridges, hares, quails,
rats, &e, and for its size is a very destructive species,
103.—RUFOUS-EARED FALCON.
SIZE uncertain; bill black; irides, cere, and legs yellow;
head, and part of the neck, buff-white, the feathers streaked down
the shafts with dusky; eye in a deep brown patch, on the ears a
larger one of pale rufous; general colour of the plumage deep
brown, quills deeper; on the inner wing coverts a whitish patch;
belly, thighs, and vent, deep rufous; tail plain greenish ash,
rounded; the wings reach nearly to the end of it.
Inhabits Bengal; figured among the drawings of Sir John
Anstrutber, Bart.
 180
104—JACKAL FALCON.
Falco Jackal, Ind. Orn: Sup. p. xi.    Daud. ii; 161.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 173^
Le Rounoir, Levaill. Ois. i. p. 73.-
Jackal Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 49.
THIS is the size of our Buzzard, buf more bulky, and the
tail shorter in proportion ; the bill is dusky ; cere and legs yellow;
iris deep brown ; plumage mostly dusky brown; from the chin is a
mixture of white, which changes on the breast to rufous; the quills
are dusky, banded with paler at the base, and the secondaries
mixed outwardly with white; tail deep rufous, with a spot of
black near the end of each feather, the two outer ones only banded
with dusky ; beneath all is rufous-grey. The female is larger, and
the red on the breast not so high-coloured.
This species is mostly seen about the habitations of the colonists
of the Cape of Good Hope, where it is known by the name of
Jakals-vogel (Jackal Bird), on account of the cry hhitating the
voice of that quadruped. Called also Rotter-vanger (Rat-catcher).
It is not shy, being seen every where following the lesser kinds of
vermin, as rats, moles, &c. and, like the Buzzard in Europe, is
esteemed an useful species; it is cowardly, insomuch that even the
Fiscal Shrike will occasionally put it to flight.
It inhabits chiefly the thick groves which surround the houses,
and in the deepest part of them makes a nest of twigs and moss,
lined with feathers; lays three or four eggs, sometimes only two,
which generally come to perfection, as the nest is rarely
destroyed, from the idea the natives entertain of the utility of this
species.
 181
105—RANIVOROUS FALCON.
Falco ranivorus, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. vii.    Daud. ii. 170.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 171.
Le Grenouillard, Levail. Ois. i. 95. pl. 23.
Ranivorous Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 35.
i SIZE and stature of the Moor-Buzzard; irides grey brown;
upper parts of the body pale umber-colour; cheeks and throat
covered with whitish tender feathers, each marked longitudinally
with brown: under parts of the body light brown, slightly mixed
with white on the breast, and lower belly; on the upper part of the
breast, and lesser wing coverts, a few white spots; thighs, and under
tail coverts, rust colour; wings brown; tail the same, even at the end,
crossed with deeper brown bars; the wings reach to within two-thirds
of the length; legs yellow, slender.
Inhabits the marshy parts of the Cape of Good Hope, preying
on frogs, and young waterfowl; makes the nest among the reeds,
with the leaves of aquatic plants, and lays three or four white eggs.
Another was met with in the same place, appearing still more
like the Moor-Buzzard, and a third quite black, with the rump
, white. j&pit*
106.—DESERT FALCON.
Falco desertorum, Ind. Orn. Sup. p.xi.    Daud, ii. 162.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 174.
Le Rougri, Levail. Ois. i. p. 77. pl. 17.
Desert Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 50.
THIS is smaller than the Jackal Falcon, and less robust in
proportion, but has a longer tail.   The bill, cere, and legs are yellow;
 182 FALCON.
irides reddish ; the reigning colour of the plumage is ferruginous or
rufous, paler beneath; the chin as far as the breast, and the vent pale
grey, nearly white ; the quills are black; the rest of the under parts
rufous as above, but paler, and streaked sparingly with dusky; the
tail is like the back above, but greyish beneath, marked with some
transverse obsolete bands.
The female is a trifle bigger than the male, and is not so distinct
in the colours.
This species is less frequent about the inhabited parts than the
Jackal Falcon, being only seen in the dry and uncultivated spots—I
it lives, however, on the same kind of food. The cry not unlike that
of the European Buzzard. The male and female are mostly seen
together, and they make the nest in the same kind of places, and of
nearly the same materials.
107.—TACHARD FALCON.
Falco Tachardus. Ind. Orn. Sup. p. v.    Daud. ii.
Le Tachard, Levail. Ois. i. 82. pl. 19.
Tachard Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 25.
164.   Shaw's Zool, vii. 201.
THIS is the least of the Buzzard kind, as far as relates to bulk
of body, but has a longer tail in proportion. Bill dusky; cere
brown; irides deep reddish brown ; the head is greyish brown, with
here and there some irregular whitish streaks; the under parts are
greyish yellow, with a mixture of brown blotches ; the upper parts
of the plumage deep brown, with the edge of each feather paler;
the tail deep-brown* banded with black, beneath greyish white, wife
 obscure bands, the feathers of it equal in length; those of the
thighs reach below the knees, but not to the toes, as in the Booted
Falcon; the legs are mottled brown; toes dull ferruginous.
This was shot on the banks of the river of lions, in the
Giraffe country in Africa, among the Kaminiquas, who did not
know the bird; and as M. Levaillant never saw another, he supposes
it to be a rare species.
108—BLACK AND WHITE INDIAN FALCON.
Falco melanoleucos, Ind. Orn. i. p. 36.   Gm. Lin. i. p. 274.    Daud. O
Ind. p. 12. t.2.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 154.
Le Faucon a collier des Indes, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 182.
Black and White Indian Falcon,    Gen. Syn. i. p. 81.   Id. Sup. p. 20.
p.33. pl.2.
LENGTH 16 inches; bill black; irides rufous yellow; head,
throat, hind part of the neck, and back black; breast, belly, thighs,
and rump white; lesser wing coverts white, the middle ones black;
the greater and secondary quills silvery ash-colour; prime quills
black; tail pale silvery grey; legs rufous.
The female is somewhat bigger; general colour silvery grey;
on the wing coverts three round black spots, and three others on the
outer webs of the second quills; primaries black; sides of the belly,
thighs, and vent white, tranversely striated with rufous red.
Inhabits India, where it is called Chouama, or Rat-killer; it
seems the same bird as my Black and White Falcon, which inhabits
Ceylon, and called there Kaloe-koeso-elgoya; uncertain whether
made use of for falconry, though that amusement is there not
uncommon.
Ind. Zool. iv
 184
A.—LeTchoug, Levail. i. pl.32.
Epervier pie, Daud. ii. p."88.
Black and White Indian Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 40.
This seems greatly allied to the Hen-Harrier, as it corresponds
in size and shape; bill black; head, neck, back, and wings mostly
deep brown, but the back part of the head inclines to black, with a
mixture of white at the back part of the neck, and wing coverts;
the greater quills dusky, secondaries partly dusky white; all the
under parts from the breast, with the rump and tail, are white, but the
last, which is nearly even at the end, inclines to rufous grey, and the
two middle feathers of it have a sort of brown crescent on the tips.
legs long and yellow.
The above was met with at Bengal, where it is known by the
name of Tchoug, and appears to be a bird not come to adult plumage,
on account of the mixture of white among the feathers. Mr. L.
thinks it may also be a native of the Cape of Good Hope, as he saw
a bird of this kind pass over his head, in which the head and neck
were black, and the rump and under parts white, and this was
probably our Black and White Falcon, in perfect feather; and if we
allow it to be the same with Parkinson's Pied Hawk,* is also found
in New-Holland.
* Voy. p. 144.—In Lord Valentia's Trav. iii. p. 204. I find a Hawk mentioned, shot near
the Village of Mumsai, not far from Axum, in Abyssinia, October 22; it is said to be black
and white, with a red dusky tail; the eye large and dark brown—the size not mentioned, only
that it is remarkable for the height to which it soars.
 185
109— COTTA FALCON.
SIZE uncertain. Bill black; cere and legs yellow; irides red;
top of the head, the sides, and all beneath, white; over the eye a
streak of black; nape and upper parts of the body, slaty blue;
greater wing coverts the same, but paler; the lesser black; bend of
the wing white—the rest of the wing dusky grey; tail short, the
two middle feathers of the last colour, the rest white, in shape even,
or nearly so.   The wings, when closed, reach fully to the end of it.
Inhabits India; found about Bengal; named Cotta.
110— SONNINI'S FALCON.
Falco Sonninensis, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. xii.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 185.
New species of Hawk, Sonnin. Trav. Eng. ed. ii. p. 92.
Sonnini's Falcon, Gen Syn. Sup. ii. p. 52.
LENGTH ll|in. Bill very hooked, full an inch long; cere
and legs yellow; irides orange ; the tad nearly even, but the outer
feathers rather longest, though not appearing forked unless expanded ; the length of it four inches eight lines; and the wings, when
closed, reach eight lines beyond it; the first quill feather serrated
outwardly; legs covered with feathers on the fore part, almost to
the toes; the forehead and under parts are white; above the eye,
 186
FALCON.
and anterior angle of it, covered with slender black feathers; body,
head, and upper wing coverts ash-coloured, tipped with grey, with
black shafts ; the middle tail feathers wh^te* mingled with ash-
colour ; the rest white within, and light grey without.
Inhabits Egypt, where it is commonly seen suspended in the air
over the rice fields, in the manner of the Kestrilijeand is sometimes
observed to perch on date trees, but never on the ground.
111.—BLACK-EYED KITE.
SIZE uncertain; general colour of the plumage deep brown
above, paler beneath; belly and thighs brownish cream-colour;
shafts of the feathers, in general, above and beneath, black; wing
coverts somewhat paler than the back; greater coverts and quills
very deep brown, the former fringed with rufous white—greater quills
darkest; tail pretty long, hollowed out in the middle, or slightly
forked; colour deep brown, crossed with seven or eight dusky black
bars; the wings, when closed, reach full three^urths on the tail;
vent and under tail coverts nearly white; the bill black; cere yellow;
irides dark; ieye placed in a large oval patch of blacjft; legs pale
yellow.
^^nhabi|l»*fei#a, found at Bengal, and ther%jCalled Chilk. It
varies^having thfc oval blackish patch much less distinct, and the
cere and legs of a less ferjght yellow, probably owing to the difference of sex.   The name of this latter bird is Guliwauz.
 187
112— CHEEL FALCON. *fV's
LENGTH 1ft. 11 in. Bill moderately large, black ; cere blue;
irides brown ; plumage in general fine tawny brown ; paler on the
throat, lower belly, thighs and vent; the feathers of the head, neck,
breast, and thighs, marked with a long pale streak down the shafts
of each, and rounded at the bottom, appearing as long drops,
the breast darkest; chin, throat, and vent plain ; the wing coverts
have pale ends with darker shafts, the rest of the wing and back
feathers with pale margins; quills and tail dark brown, the latter
hollowed out in the middle, and the quills reach to near the end of
it; legs moderate sized, pale blue ; claws black.
Inhabits India by the name of Cheel,* said to be a young bird,
but whether belonging to the last or any other species is not determined.—Col. Hardwicke.'
113.—CRIARD FALCON.
Falco vociferus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 46.    Daud. ii. 160.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 200.
Petite Buse criarde, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 184.
C riard Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 38.
SIZE^or a large wood-pigeon; length 16 inches; bill short/
black; over each eye a projeeting^lid, with a few hairs like eyelashes;
crown, neck behind, back, rump, and tail cinereous grey;  lesser
It seems that Cheel, Cheela, Chi Ik, may be names given in common to more than one
 188 FALCON.
wing coverts black, middle ones cinereous grey, greater greyish
black; throat, and under parts white; legs yellow; claws black,
the middle one large.
Inhabits the Coast of Coromandel, and frequents rice fields, for
the sake of young frogs, on which it is supposed to feed; is a shy
bird, and as it makes a loud cry on the approach of any one, has
obtained the name of Criard; has the air and much of the plumage
of an Hen-Harrier, but the legs are shorter, and more robust.
We have seen a specimen of this, with the head, neck, under
parts, and tail white, the two first inclining to ash-colour; all the
ridge of the wing and coverts fine black; the rest of the wing fine
dove-colour; quills dusky; under wing coverts white; two middle
tail feathers cinereous, the others white, the shafts of all brown;
legs stout, feathered half way before, and yellow.
One similar, met with some time since, from India, had the
name Dagah-Telin-Janas attached to its leg, but as it wanted the
black on the shoulders, it seemed more nearly to approach to the
Hen-Harrier.
A.—Falco meranopterus, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. vi.    Daud. Orn. ii. 152.
Elanus ccesius, Savign. Ois. d'Egypte, 98. pl. ii. f. 2.    Lin, Trans, xiii.
Elanus melanopterus, Leach Zool. Misc. iii. t. 122.
Le Blac, Levail. Ois. i. pl. 36, 37.
Black-winged Falcon, Gat. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 28.
p. 137.
This, if we mistake not, is a mere variety of the last, a fine
specimen of that bird having lately passed under our observation.—
This was 16 in. long; round the eyes dusky red; over each eye a sort
of projecting lid; head and neck dusky white, all beneath white;
all the wing coverts and ridge black, rest of the wing fine dove-
colour ; quills dusky; tail feathers white, except the two middle
ones, which incline to grey, shafts of all brown; legs feathered
<ilJ&l—«
 FALCON. 189
before half way ; has the air and plumage of the Hen-Harrier, but
the legs not so long, nor so slender.
M. Levaillant,s bird is said to have orange irides, and the eye
placed in a bed of blackish, otherwise does not seem to differ.
This gentlemen observes, that the female differs in being bigger^
and the colour of the plumage less distinct, and that young birds
have such parts, as are white in the adult, inclined to rufous, especially
the back feathers; with a large portion of rufous in the middle of the
breast, and top of the head. It is said to build between the forks of
trees, lining the nest with moss and feathers, and to lay four or five
white eggs; that it is found not only throughout the African coast,
but in India also, and has been killed in Barbary; is always perched
on high bushes, and its cry piercing, especially in flying; seems
principally to feed on insects, and grasshoppers and Mantes, also
small birds, and will attack crows, kites, and shrikes, and drive
them away; is difficult to be shot, being shy; observed to smell of
musk, the skin retaining it, even after being prepared for the cabinet.
Dr. Horsfield met with this in Java, under the name of Angkal-
Angkal; is likewise found in New-Holland, two specimens having
been brought from thence, and in the museum of the Linnaean Society.
114—FASCIATED FALCON.
LENGTH 14^ inches; bill livid at the point, and yellowish at
the base; cere and orbits bare, yellow; irides dark; frontlet,
crown, space under the eyes, and upper part of the neck chestnut
brown; beneath the eye a triangular dusky mark; forehead over the
bill, neck before, and ears white; from breast to vent rusty white,
 190 FALCON.
marked on the breast with narrow dashes of black, and on the sides
with sagittal ones; shoulders, back, wing coverts, rump, and tail
coverts blue-grey, transverely marked with narrow black lines, three
or four on each feather; quills dusky, barred with white on the inner
webs, and margined with white at the tips, the second the longest;
tail six inches long, rounded, bluish-grey, crossed with six or seven
narrow black lines, in bars; near the end a very broad one of black,
and finally all ending in white; the wings, when closed, reach to
within an inch and half of the end of the tail; thigh feathers long;
legs yellow, toes long, claws black.
Inhabits India; found at Calcutta, but rarely, supposed a male.
The female is larger, but not greatly differing in colour. It is one of
the sorts called Tormuti or Toormooti. At first sight it appears to
have the air and colour of the Peregrine, but differs somewhat in the
bars on the tail; the length too of the middle toes seems to correspond
with that bird, and the mark beneath the eye may add to the idea,
but it is less, and not improbably a distinct species. I owe the
above4description to Dr. Buchanan.
In the drawmgsf4f Sir J. Anstruther is one like this, but only
eleven inches in length, is there called Toolmorley, or Small Peregrine. This may probably be a small male. In a drawing, said to
be of a female, the name in the Hindoo Tongue, is Lerjana.
115—ZUGGUN FALCON.
9#itSIa2Euncertain; general make;^mitamditlrick,i^tha(B|iS5zard;
.hin^o^jyellowish, ^with a dusky tip f cere yellow; irides whitish;
 191
m
forehead dusky white; chin and throat dusky black, divided on each
side with a white mark, forming a crescent in the middle of the
black; behind the eye pale ash, the rest of the plumage, for the
most part brown, clouded and mixed with pale1 and rufous brown;
wing coverts, and under parts of the body paler than above, and
tnixed with grey; bastard wing and iquills black; tailj{fc|rown,
-marked witfoHseven or eight oblique bars of a darker colour; vent
nearly white ; legs yellow, stout; claws black.
I ii habits'India; called Zuggun. In the Earl of Mouatnorris's
drawings is a bird answering to the above description. It is 16 or 17
inches in length, and chiefly differs in having some white on the
nape; the^wings reach half-way on the tail; the name Tissah.
In a second of these the tail-as pale rufous brown, with a narrow
blackish bar near the tip, and half an inch from this, upwards, a
transverse mark across the middle of each feather, but not reaching
the outer margin, and on the middle feathers a second, smaller; the
in sides of the quiRs are also *narked with white in the middle.
This latter was found in the;pi»vJBOB ofljOude, where it goes by
the name of Chooah Maur. In Gen. Hardwick^s. drawings I find
another bird**named Teesa or Chooa Maar; in length 13 or 14 in.;
weight-father more than »one pounds head, neck, and breast pale
ferruginous, streaked with brown; back and wings brown, with a
paler mixture on the wing coverts; outer ridge and quills black;
belly, thighs, and vent pale ferruginous; tail pounded, pale rufous
ash-colofey^lffjfs stoutp yellow,
 192
116.—JUGGER FALCON.
LENGTH nearly 18 inches. Bill blue with a black tip; cere
yellow ; irides red brown ; round the eye bare and yellow ; the forehead, sides under the eye, and from chin to vent beneath white;
on the under jaw a black streak; behind the eye another of the
same, passing to the nape, which, as well as on all the back of the
heck, is black; top of the head brown and clay-colour mixed; back
and wings brown, the edges of the feathers paler; quills dark; thighs
deep tawny brown, and the feathers long, hanging half-way on the
shins ; tail, six inches long at least, rounded, the feathers dirty
cinereous white, the very tip white ; the wings reach within an inch
of the end ; legs yellow ; claws black.
Inhabits India; in the drawings of Gen. Hardwicke, called
Jugger—the female called Lugger; met with at Futteghur.
The young female weighs lib. loz. 6dr.; is much the same in
colour; crown whitish, with dusky streaks; sides under the eye
white, streaked with dusky; the whisker on the jaw the same, and
the black streak behind the eye, and the back of the eye brown, not
black; chin to breast white, the latter dashed with brown; sides
under the wings, belly, and thighs, brown; vent white; legs pale,
nearly white; tail pale cinereous white, the end flesh-colour. This
is called Lugger, and said to be a young bird. Found at Cawnpore.
A full grown female, said to weigh lib. 7oz. is larger than the
male; the colours rather more pale ; otherwise not unlike that sex ;
but both in this and the female adult, the thigh feathers are pale
brown, not tawny.—These seem to have some things in common
with the last.
 193
117—KONTA FALCON.
LENGTH 1ft. 10in.; size of the Buzzard; bill black; cere
pale; irides yellow; head, neck, shoulders of the wings, and all
beneath fine pale ferruginous, with long, narrow, dusky streaks;
thighs and vent plain ; back and wing coverts chocolate brown, the
feathers margined with tawny; outer part of the wing and second
quills light ash-colour; greater quills black ; tail dirty pale ash-
colour ; legs yellow; claws black; quills and tail nearly equal
in length.
Inhabits India; met with at Cawnpore—Gen. Hardwicke.—
Weight of the male, lib. loz. 7dr.—female, lib. 8oz. 14dr..
The name given to this bird is Konfa.
118—MUSKOOROO FALCON.
LENGTH two feet. Bill black, enlarged and sloping towards
the base, but no perceptible notch; cere yellow; irides brown;
head, neck, and beneath fine pale tawny rufous; the feathers at the
nape a trifle elongated; ehin, throat, and vent, nearly white, the
rest more or less marked with streaks of various sizes, and veiy
narrow on the head and neck; thigh feathers long, reaching to the
middle of the shins, and these marked with cordated darker spots ;
back and wings brown, the feathers with tawny margins; quills
 194 FALCON.
dusky; tail pale dull rufous or tawny, plain, except near the tip,
where each feather is marked with an oval dusky spot; legs stout,
yellow; claws black.
This is called Muskooroo,  and said to be a male.— General
Hardwicke.
119—SHARP-TAILED FALCON.
LENGTH 20 inches; bill dark; cere yellowish; general colour
of the plumage brown above; feathers of the crown and neck
behind, whitish or buff on the margins; coverts mostly brown,
barred within with white, but the lesser coverts are deeper brown,
with fine tawny, or ferruginous margins; quills dusky for three
inches or more from the end, then pale tawny, with five or six narrow,
curved, brown bars, but towards the base pale ; outer quill two
inches shorter than the next; at first sight the lesser wing coverts
appear ferruginous and brown mixed, the rest of wing brown, a
little mixed with white, the remaining part brown; tail even, seven
inches long, brown and cinereous in bars, eight or nine of each, but
in the half next the base, the bars are rust and brown, instead of
cinereous; ends of all the feathers rather pointed, and the tips
fringed with white; under parts of the body in general buff-white,
with cordated spots, mostly two on each feather, one above the other;
thighs buff-white, crossed with narrow, pale, dusky rufous bars;
legs long, yellow; claws black, hooked; vent white.
Native place uncertain.—In the collection of Lord Stanley.
 195
120—SAGITTAL FALCON.
LENGTH 20 inches; bill black, in the middle a projection;
cere dusky; head, and neck above streaked dusky, and pale tawny
on the crown, the rest brown and buff; back, and wings brown, the
feathers margined or fringed pale ferruginous; scapulars, and some
of the inner second quills brown, marked with oval spots of white
on the inner web, and others down the middle of the feathers; greater
quills brown, marked with narrow bars of darker brown, most of
them streaked white on the inner webs; under wing coverts whitish,
with long sagittal brown streaks; breast, belly, and thighs the same,
but the streaks of different sizes; smaller and more numerous on the
thighs, the feathers of which hang a good way over the joint; legs
strong, dusky blue; claws black, strong, the hind one particularly
so; under tail coverts white; tail rounded, brownish ash-colour,
crossed with four or five broad bars of dark brown, one near the end,
but the very tips of the feathers are white.
Native place unknown.
121;—JUSTIN  FALCON.
SIZE uncertain. Bill dusky blue; plumage above, dark chocolate brown; beneath, from the chin, and sides ofrtheneck, rufous
white, passing in a patch under the eye; tail nearly one-fourth of the
 196 FALCON.
length of the bird, deep chocolate brown, crossed with five or six
pale tawny red bars, some of the outer feathers paler than the others;
legs pale blue ; claws blackish.
Inhabits India, where it is called Justin. I saw a fine drawing
of it, among others, in the collection of Lord Mountnorris. It is
probably used for the purpose of catching small birds, being represented as fastened by the leg with a ribband, attached to a perch on
which it stands.
In the same collection is figured another, 17 in. long, said to
inhabit the province of Oude, and called Koohie-sahien. This also
is drawn with braces on the leg, in the manner of those used in
falconry; and it is not improbable that both these may only be
varieties of the common Falcon.
122—BROWN AND WHITE FALCON.
LENGTH 22in. Bill dusky;. cere and irides pale yellow ;
plumage above deep brown ; beneath dusky white; chin plain, the
rest of the feathers marked deeply with brown at the ends, and
fringed with white ; vent white ; tail six inches long, crossed with
four bars of darker brown, one at the end,; the quills reach about
one-third on the tail; legs stout, deep yellow; claws strong, hooked,
black.
Inhabits India, and named Choucarii; has much the air and
stout make of our Buzzard, though the brown markings are not in
blotches, but regularly placed at the ends of the feathers throughout
on the under parts.
 197
123—INDIAN FALCON.
SIZE uncertain. Bill moderately stout, black; cere yellow;
irides dull yellow; plumage in general bluish ash, inclining to lead-
colour on the back and wings; crown of the head and nape spotted
with dusky blue; forehead, round the eye, on the ears,[ and chin,
nearly white ; breast and belly dusky white, with a tinge of rufous
on the breast; the ends of the feathers on the back, and the greater
part of the wings, tipped with white, but the wing itself otherwise
dusky black; bend of the wing white; the tail pale plain grey, and
is somewhat exceeded by the wings when closed ; legs deep yellow ;
claws black.
Inhabits India, and called Capasuah.
124—JOHANNA FALCON.
Falco Johannensis, Ind. Orn. i. p. 47.    Daud.
Johanna Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 32.
i. 127.   Shaw's Zool vii. 168.
SIZE uncertain. Bill black; base of the under mandible
yellow; head, neck, and under parts of the body ferruginous,
marked with linear black spots; quills and tail black brown; the
last cuneiform, its coverts whitish; legs yellow.
Inhabits India, in the island of Johanna. This description
taken from a drawing in the possession of the late Dr. Fothergill.
 198
m
IP
125—LONG-BILLED FALCON.
LENGTH 16 inches; make robust; bill black, the upper
mandible curving excessively downwards over the under, which is
not more elongated than in many species, the base covered deeply
with a yellow cere, and the excess of length not flat beneath, but
round, the base of the under mandible half way yellow; round the
eye not well covered with feathers; general colour of the plumage
deep rusty black, the head and neck darker than the rest; under
parts of the body somewhat paler than the upper; vent, and under
tail coverts white; quills very dark, marbled with white on the inner
webs, and reach to the end of the tail, one-third of which, from the
base, is white, the rest black, with the end, for half an inch, dusky
white; shape even at the end, or nearly so.; legs stout, scaly,
yellow; claws excessively long and hooked, black; the legs bare
behind, but feathered to nearly half way before
Inhabits Senegal.—Mr. H. Brogden.
126.—BUFF-HEADED FALCON.
LENGTH 17inches; bill stout, pale lead, with the ridge and
end |>ale horn-colour; head and neck pale buff, with darker streaks;
behind the eyes a narrow black streak, for about one inch beyond it;
plumage above plain, deep brown, beneath and under wing coverts
 buff-colour; chin nearly white; of the quills the third is the
longest, the first two inches and a half shorter; the first six quills
white half way from the base, and the ends reach to two-thirds of