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A general history of birds. Vol. III Latham, John, 1740-1837 1822

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THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
WOODWARD HISTORICAL
COLLECTION
 GENERAL,    HISTORY
BIRDS.
BY JOHN LATHAM, M.D.
F.R.S.   A.S.   and   L.S.
Acad. Css. Nat. Curios.   Reg. HotM. et Soc. Nat. Scrut. Berolin. Soc. &c. i
VOL. III.
WINCHESTER:
PRINTED BY JACOB AND JOHNSON, FOR THE AUTHOR :—SOLD IN LONDON BY
G. AND W. B. WHITTAKER, AVE-MARIA-LANE ; JOHN WARREN, BOND-STREET,
W. WOOD,  428,   STRAND ;   AND  J.   MAWMAN,  39,   LUDGATE-STREET.
1822.
.
    1
BIRDS.
GENUS XIV.—WATTLE-BIRD.
J. HE bill in this Genus is incurvated ; the upper mandible exceeding the lower in length.
At the gape on each side a carunculated Wattle, arising from the
uaader mandible.
Nostrils depressed, half covered by a membrane, of a texture
somewhat cartilaginous, and tufted at the end.
Tongue subcartilaginous, divided at the end, or rather deeply
serrated, and ciliated.
Legs made for walking; toes three before and one behind, the
shins carinated at the back part.
CINEREOUS WATTLE-BIRD—Pl. xxxviii.
Callceas cinerea, Ind. Orn. i. 149.
Glaucopis cinerea, Gm. Lin. i. 363.    Daud. ii. 293. pl. 21.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 338. pl.
42.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ii.
Der Aschgraue Lappen vogel, Schmid Vog. p. 65. t, 53.
Cinereous Wattle-Bird, Gen. Syn. i. 364, pl. 14.
SIZE of a Jay; length fifteen inches.    Bill black, strong, and
curves downwards, in length one inch and a quarter; nostrils placed
 2 WATTLE-BIRD.
in a hollow at the base, and half covered with velvety feathers, and
those between the bill and eye of the same texture. The tongue is
singularly shaped, the end being indented into three or four angles,
and furnished with short bristles ;* at the base of the under mandible,
on each side, a round, flat, blue aubstance, not unlike the wattle of a
cock, chaaaging by degrees, from the base, to a fine orange; irides
blue; the plumage on the forehead and between the bill and eye is
black ; the rest dark ash or slate-colour, quills and tail darker. The
tail consists of twelve feathers, about five inches in length, and
cuneiform in shape, the outer feather one inch shorter than the two
middle ones; the wings, when closed, reach only to the base ; legs
long, black, stout; the hind claw much longer than the others.
Inhabits New-Zealand: is often seen walking on the groundj
though sometimes observed to perch on trees, but less frequently : it
feeds on berries of all kinds, and insects; and it is said, on small
birds also.
The flesh is good to eat, and by some eveai accounted savoury ;
has a note not unlike a whistle, and now and then a kind of murmuring, though not an unpleasant one.—I am indebted t© the late
J. R. Foster, for the above account, f Iai one of these I observe the
hind claw to be singularly placed ; not springing as usual froan the
end of the toe, but from a kind of process, a little above it, and
which I have not noticed in aaiy other bird. This came from New-
Holland.
* See the Tongue at the bottom of the Plate.
t Dr. Foster talks of the shrill notes of Thrushes, the gra1
and the enchanting melody of various Creepers, res<
pipe of ttefr WfcfcttewBirds,
en &ll> sidfes.—See Voy. vol. i.
 GENUS XV.—CROW.
1 Raven
A CrossvMled R.
B Northern white R.
C Pied R.
D White R.
2 South-Sea R.
3 White-necked R.
4 Carrion Crow
A Clerical Cr.
5 Rook
6 Enca Cr.
7 Bald Crow
8 Hooded Cr.
9 White-breasted Cr.
10 Jackdaw
A Collared J.
B White J.
C Black J.
11 Jay
12 Russian Crow
A Siberian Jay
13 Nutcracker
14 Alpine Cr.
15 Red-legged Cr.
16 Hermit Cr.
17 Red-billed Cr.
18 African Cr.
19 Caribbean Cr.
20 Rufous Cr.
A Var.
21 Magpie
22 New Caledonian M.
23 Changeable Cr.
24 Velvet-faced Cr.
25 Plush-faced Cr.
26 Indigo Cr.
27 Rufous-breasted Cr.
28 Pacific Cr.
29 Tropic Cr.
30 Australasian Cr.
31 Sydney Cr.
32 Blue Cr.
33 Senegal Cr.
34 Rufous-bellied C.
35 Variable Cr.
36 Kent's Cr.
37 New Caledonian Cr.
38 White-eared Jay
A Var.
39 White-cheeked Cr.
A Var.
40 Wave-breasted Cr.
41 New-Guinea Cr.
A Var.
42 Papuan Cr.
43 Black-faced Cr.
44 Black-breasted Cr.
45 White-naped Cr.
46 White-crowned Cr.
47 Blue and white Cr.
48 Black and white Cr.
4$ Hottentot Cr*
50 Six-shafted Cr,
51 Crishna Cr.
52 Purple-headed Cr.
53 Macao Cr.
54 Plain Cr.
55 Hunting Cr:
A Chinese Roller
56 Brown Cr.
57 Blue Jay
58 Steller's Cr.
59 Chattering Cr.
60 Downy Cr.
61 Fish Cr.
62 Peruvian Jay
63 ParaguanJ.
64 Yellow-bellied J.
65 Lesser Mexican Cr.
67 Cayenne Cr.
68 Surinam Cr.
69 Clark's Cr.
70 Blue-tailed Cr.
71 Short-tailed Cr.
A Var.
B Var.
C Var.
D Var.
E Var.
F Var.
GVar.
In the Crow GemifcJihe bill is strong, the upper mandible a little
convex, the edges cultratei, and in, most of the species a small notch
near the tip.
N^trfis;covei?ed with taristies reflected over them.
Tongue divided at the end.*
* Except in the Black-faced Species, and perhaps one or two others.
B2
 Toes placed three forwards and one backwards, that of the middle
attached to the outer as far as the first joint.*
The different species belonging to this Genus, found in every
climate. They are in general clamorous, promiscuous feeders; build
chiefly in trees, and lay about six eggs.
Several species inhabit England, whose nature is well known, and
may serve to give an idea of the manners of the rest.
1—RAVEN.
rvus Coi
Scop..
Lin.
i. 155. Gm. Lin.i.
.27. Muller. p. 11.
lent. No.38. Ph. Trai
p. 8.     Id. 8vo. i. 15(
54.    Faun. Suec. No. 85.
Kram. El. 333.     Georgi
.lvii. 347. Gerin. ii. 32. t.
Raii. Syn. p. 39. A 1.
x, Ind. Orn. i. 150.
nn: i. No. 45.     Br
164. Faun. arag. p. 72.  Fc
140.    Bor. Nat. ii. 103.   E
Will. p. 82. t. 18.    Frisch. t. 63.   Klein. Av. p. 58.   Schceff. El. t. 30.    Cett. Vc.
Sard. p. 69.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 341.   Amer. Om. ix. 113. pl. 75. f. 3.   Lin. Trans.
xh. p. 530.    Tern. Man. d'Om.p. 66.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 107.
Grand Corbeau, Buf. iii. 13. pl. 2.     Pl. enl. 495,     Kolb. Cap. ii. 146 ?     Levail. Ois.
pl. 51.    Daud. ii. p. 224.    Gunth. Nest. U. Ey. t. 71.   Bartr. Trav. p. 286:
Kolkrabe, Naturf. ix. s. 140. 42.    Schmid Vog. p. 44. t. 29.
Raven, Gen. Syn. i. 367.   Id. Sup. 74.     Id. Sup. ii. 106.    Br. Zool. i. 218. 74.     Id.
fol. p. 75. Id. Ed. 1812. 1. 279.   Arct. Zool. ii. 134.    Russ. Alep. p. 69.   Alb. ii.
pl. 20.      Bewick, i. pl. p. 66.     Lewin. Birds, i. pl. 33.      Id. Eggs. pl. vi. f. 1.
Will. Engl. 121. t. 18.      Walcot Syn. i. pl. 32.     Wood's Zoogr. i. p. 435.     Orn.
Diet. £ Sup.
THIS, the largest of the Genus, weighs from two and a half to
three pounds ; length about two feet, extent of the wings four. Bill
two inches and three quarters long, and covered with bristles for two-
thirds of its length, hiding the nostrils ; colour of the plumage fine,
rich, glossy blue-black ; beneath more dull, inclining to dusky.
The female a little bigger than the male.
This is not uncommon in England, but more rare than any of the
other species; seen only in pairs, and the connection supposed to
1 In one or two doubtful Spe
, the toes are cloven to the bottom.
 continue for life; for the most part anakes the nest hi a tall tree,* and
does not suffer any competitor within a moderate distance.
The nest is composed of large twigs, lined with wool, hair, &c.
placed between the forks of a tree. This bird builds very early in
the spring,f and lays five or six pale bluish eggs,t spotted with
brown; seems more foaad of carrion than other food, which it will
scent at a vast distance, yet is found to destroy many living animals:
rabbits, young ducks and chickens fall a prey, as well as their eggs ;
aaad it will peck out the eyes of lambs, which are weak, whilst the
creature is yet alive; will also pick up shell-fish on the shore : is a
crafty bird when at large, and aiot easily shot; and wheal brought
up tame has been known to pilfer, and hide valuable articles, so as
to cause blame and disgrace on persons suspected of the theft.
It seems an universal species, being found on both Continents from
Iceland§ to the Cape of Good Hope on the one, and from Canada
to Mexico on the other. Known at Hudson's Bay, by the name of
Ka-ka-kew : has been killed also in Greenland, but mentioned as a
solitary instance : with the natives of Hudson's Bay held in detestation ; yet the Magicians, when they visit the sick, invoke the Raveaa,
and imitate its voice : seen every where in Russia and Siberia, except
within the Arctic Circle, and our Circumnavigators found it in
Sandwich Islands, in the village of Kackooe; also at Owhyhee,
where it was ranked among the Eatous.||—The bird which M. Levaillant found at the Cape of Good Hope was bigger, and the bill
more curved; and according to this author, unites into flocks, attacking Antelopes, and killing them.
* We are told that a pair of Ravens has been known to build in one beech tree for above
one hundred years.—Lin. Trans, iii. p. 15. f Sometimes before the end of February.
J The egg weighs scarcely seven drams, and the female Raven about two pounds ten
ounces ; therefore, forty-eight of them will only make up the weight of the bird. The eg^
of the Cuckow is less disproportionate, requiring only thirty-eight to equal the parent in
weight.—Montagu.
§ Hooker's Iceland, p. 31.—but the Crow is not found there. || Cook's Last Voy.
iii. 161.
 6 CROW.
M. Sonfloni* mentions it as a bird of Egypt, a few appearing
with flocks of other sorts of Crows, which frequent the inhabited
places about Rosette, 4a February.
Mr. White Observes, that while at Gibraltar a single pair inhabited
the South point of the Rock, and were masters of the district, suffering no intruders whatever, and that he has received a specimen from
Algiers, no way differing from the common sort.f Mr. Markwkrk'J
mentions the antipathy between the Raven and Rook, and gives two
instances of all the Rooks forsaking a rookery, oaa a Raven building
a nest on the spot, and thfrt in the latter instance§ the flight of the
Rooks was considered by the country people as ominously portending
the death of the possessor, who then" was ill; but he afterwards
recovered.
A.—Corax erucirostra, Daud. ii. 22G.
This variety has the two mandibles crossing each other.
borealis albus, Bri
. App. 33.
2. Lt,   Ia\%ii
The head in this is white, spotted with black; neck and body
above, and breast, glossy black, under parts white; quills white,
with the outer margins dusky; tail varied Wrack and white.
Found in the Island of Ferroe.
* Trav. ii. 239. f Lin. Trans.i. p. 127.
X Rookery at Broomham, near Hastings, at the Bishop of Chichester's.—It was, however, the arrival of the Raven which was considered portentous of death, as Lady Macbeth
" The Raven himself is hoarse
" That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan
" Under my Battlements."
Macb. Act I. Sc. V.
§ It was received by the name of Graab el Sahara ; by.' winch name a bird is mentioned
by Shaw, but this had the bill and legs red; called also the Red-legged Crow, and CrOw of
the Desert;—See Shaw's Trav. in Barbary, p. 25fow.probabiythis- maybe our Red-legged,
or the Hermit Species ?
 C—Corvus varius, Bris. ii. p. 12.    Id. 8vo. i. 157.
Cacabotl, Fern. Hist. N. Hisp. p. 48.
Pied Raven, Gen. Syn. i. 369. A.
Differs from the commmon sort, only in having a mixture of
vhite feathers, and inhabits Mexico.
D—Corvus candidus, Bris.ii. p. 12. B.   Id. 8vo. i. 151.    Schw. Av. Sil. 245.
This is white tjhisoughout, and met with in Norway and Iceland ;
more thaai one instance has also occurred to us, wherein the whole
brood was white, and in one buff-coloured; a mixture of white in the
black plumage is not uncommon; and we are told that Crows in the
Orknies change more or less to white in the winter. Of these Mr.
Bullock had one in his Museum, in the intermediate state of change.
2—SOUTH-SEA RAVEN.
Corvus Australis, Ind. Orn. i. 151.    Gm. Lin. i. 365.    Daud. ii. 226.
South-Sea Raven, Gen. Syn. i. 363.    Cook's Last Voy. i. 109.
LENGTH nineteeen inches. Bill strong, compressed on the
sides, in length two inches and three quarters, and black ; plumage
dusky black; the feathers beneath the chin remarkably loose in
texture ; quills and tail brownish black, the latter eight inches long;
legs and claws black.
Inhabits the Friendly Isles, in the South Seas; found also at
New-Holland; not uncommon in Van Diemen's Land : is probably
a further Variety of the Common Raven.
 3—WHITE-NECKED RAVEN.
■
Corvus albicollis,
Ind. Om. i.
151.
Daui
 Vulturinu
s, Shaw's Z
»0/.Vl
. 343.
■           torquatus
Spalowsk.
Vog.y
i. 1.1
Corbiveau, Levail. Ois. ii. pl
50.
South-Sea Raven,
Gen. Syn. Sup. T
5.   Id
i. 107.   Bruce's Trav. App. p. 152.
LENGTH eighteen or nineteen inches; size smaller than the
common species. Bill ridged, and arched on the top, as in the Ani,
but not sharp-edged; general colour of the plumage glossy black,
except a large patch of white at the nape, and an irregular, broken
stripe of the same on each side, surrounding the neck befoi'e, as a
crescent; the tail is cuneiform, and the wings, when closed, reach
beyond it; the feathers of the head and neck seem elongated, and
dishevelled.
The female is smaller than the male, with less white on the neck;
the plumage less glossy, and inclined to brown.—M. Levaillant adds,
that the feathers of the throat are forked, the webs extending beyond
the shafts, and colour less black than the others. He found it every
where in his African travels, but particularly among the great Nama-
quas, and in Swarteland, but less common than at the Cape itself,
and did not think it to be a bird of passage.
This is a bold species, attacking young lambs and antelopes: it
feeds also on Canion, and may be esteemed a link between the Crow
and Vulture Genus.
I observed a figure of one among the late Mr. Bruce's drawings,
which differed merely in having the shoulders of the wings brownish,
the tip of the bill white, and the back of the neck brownish, with a
large triangular patch of white on the nape,* having no other mark
of white, for the general colour of the plumage was black.
' Mr. Bruce calls this
ind part of the head."
a figure like a cup or chalice of white feathers on the occiput,
 \
CROW. 9
Mr. Levaillant found a nest of one in October, it was of a vast
size, composed of large branches of trees, lined within with soft
materials. The eggs, four in number, of a greenish coloua*, marked
with brown; called at the Cape Ring-hals-kraai, or Ring-necked-
Crow.
In the British Museum is a specimen twenty inches long, in which
all the back part of the neck is white, passing forward, and forming
a crescent before; tail even at the end, consisting of twelve feathers.
4.—CARRION CROW.
Corvus Corone, Ind. Orn. i. 151.    Lin.i. 155.    Gm. Lin. i. 365.    Faun. Suec. No. 86.
Scop: Ann. i. No. 36.    Brun. No. 29.   Muller. No. 87.    Georgi. p. 165.    Faun.
Arag. p. 72.    Frisch. t. 66.    Bor. Nat. ii. 110.    Sepp. Vog. iii. t. 115.    Daud. ii.
226.   Hist. Prov. i. 486.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 345.   Amer. Om. iv. pl. 35. f. 3.    Tern.
u■   f*r     Man. d'Om. p. 67.   Id. Ed. ii. p. 108.
Cornix, Raii. p. 39. A. 2.    Will. p. 83. 1.18.    Bris. ii. p. 12.   Id. 8vo.i. 157.    Klein.
Av. p. 58. 6 ?
Schwarze Krahe, Naturf. ix. s. 41.
La Corneille, Buf. iii. 45. pl. 3.    Pl. enl. 483.
Carrion Crow, Gen. Syn.i. 370.     Id. Sup. 75.    Id. Sup. ii. 108.     Br. Zool. i. No. 75.
pl. 34.    Id. fol. p. 75.     Id. 1812. 1. p. 281. pl. 35.    Arct. Zool. ii. 135.    Alb. iii.
pl. 21.     Hist. Selb. p. 97.      Will. Eng. 122. pl. 18.       Bewick, i. p. 68.     Lewin
Birds, i. pl. 34.    Id. Eggs, pl; vi. f. ii.    Walcot. Syn. i. pl. 33.    Orn. Diet. $ Sup.
THE length of this species is eighteen inches; breadth thirty-six;
weight, twenty ounces. The bill black; irides dusky ; the plumage
violet black, but less glossy than in the Raven; tail nearly even at
the end ; the female has the coloui's less bright. The two sexes are
for the most part seeai together, and the opinion is, that they remain
so during life. The nest is made on tall trees, chiefly in woods, and
the eggs five or six in number, similar to those of the Raven, but
smaller.*  Like that bird,  the Crow is fondest of carrion and animal
* Weight five drams; that of the Raven between six and seven.
VOL. III. C
 10 CROW.
food ; not unfrequently makes great havock of young game of all
kinds, and has also been known to peck out the eyes of young lambs.
This bird, like the Raven, is very tenacious of its own residence, not
suffering any bird to approach within a moderate distance without an
attack, and for the most part defeating the enemy.
This species is found in many parts of the world, though not so
far spread as the Raven : is scarce in Russia, only in the northern
parts; grows more numerous in Siberia, especially beyond the Lena,
where the Hooded Crow is not seen : pretty common about the Lake
Baikal; but most of all plentiful about Astrachan ; where, in company with others of the Genus, they do immense damage to the
vine-yards, and oblige the owners to drive them off with clappers,*
&c.; aiot uncommon at Aleppo,t and may be aioticed in drawings
from China and India; not often seen in Prussia,^: and very rare in
Sweden, § but in France and Germany as common as in England.
We hear of it at Madeira. ||—Dampier met with it at New-Holland,
aaid New-Guinea;** and Dr. Forster at New-Caledoaiia.-ft—On
the New Continent it is frequent about Hudson's Bay, where it is
called Hahaseu ; is more plentiful in-land, being rarely seen on the
coasts \X% not always in Canada in the winter, for according to Kalm,
it is not at Quebec at that season.§§ More of the manners need not
be mentioned, as the species is so generally known, |]||
* However they may join the company of their congeners, as observed above, they certainly do not form themselves into flocks of their own species.
f Russel Alep. p. 69. % Klein. Ord. Av. p. 58.        § Only seen once, Faun. Suec.
|| Forster's Voy. p. 25:      ** Damp. iv. 138.       ft Vo1- "• 4°2-        %% Mr. Hutchins.
§§ Trav. iii. 206.
|| || A singular anecdote of this bird is well attested. In March 1783, a Crow was observed
to build a nest on the vane of the top of the Exchange at Newcastle, and the more remarkable, as the spindle on which it was constructed, being fixed to the vane, moved with it, and
in course turned round to every point of the compass. A small copper-plate was engraved,
with a representation of the circumstance, of the size of a watch-paper, and so pleased were
the inhabitants with it, that so many were sold at sixpence each, as to produce the sum of
ten pounds.
 5—ROOK.
152.    Lin. i. 156:
Faun. Suec. No. 85.    if. Oel. 67.
3. 2.     Bor. Nat. ii
105.     Raii. p. 83.   A. 3.      Will.
ferini, ii. 35. 1.143
145.    Bris. ii. 16.    Id. 8vo. i. 158.
. p. 10. 1.10. f. 3.
a. b.    Id. Ov. t. 8. f. 10.    Daud.
93.    Shaw's Zool.
ni. 347.     Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 69.
11
A—Corvus clericus, hid. Om. i. 152. 4. 0.    Gm. Lin: i. 365.    Muse. Carls, fasc. i. t. 2.
This chiefly differs from the common one, in having the base of
the bill ash-coloured, the chin white, and the black in some parts
more inclined to dusky.
Ray, in his Letters, p. 108, mentions one wholly white.
Corvus Frugilegus,   Ind. On
Gm. Lin. i. 366.     Kram
84. 1.18.    Frisch. t. 64.
Klein. Av. p. 59.    Id. Stem.
ii. 229.    Sepp. Voy. iii.
Id. Ed. ii. p. 110.
Saatkrahe, Naturf. ix. s. 41.
Le Freux, on la Frayonne, Buf. iii. 55.    Pl. enl. 484.
Corneille du Cap, Levail Ois. ii.  p. 11. No. 52.
Rook, Gen. Syn. i. 372.    Id. Sup. 76.    Id. Sup. ii. 109.   Bart. Trav. 286.    Br. Zool.
i. pl. 34.   Id. 1812, 282.    Arct. Zool. ii. p. 250. A.   Alb. ii. pl. 23.    Will. Eng.
123.    Bewick. Birds, pl. p. 71.    Lewin,Ui$\.$b.    Id. Eggs pl. vi. f. 3.    Wale.
Birds i. pl. 34.    Om. Diet. Sf Supp.
THIS and the Crow are not easily distinguished while youaag,
though the former is somewhat bigger, but the Rook, when at mature
age, appears bare about the nostrils, and root of the bill, arising from
the latter being thrust into the earth after worms and other insects,
which the Crow never does, and therefore retains the bristles over the
aaostrils as long as it lives. In the Rook too, the tail feathers are
more rounded at the end. The Rook feeds also on grains of all
sorts, hence is injurious to the husbandman, aaid would be more so,
did it not at the same time destroy vast quantities of the larvae of the
Chafer Beetles,* which in some seasons ruiiir whole crops of corn,
by feeding on the roots.
* Scarabcevs Mehlontha, Sf Solstitialis.—Lin.
C 2
 12 CROW.
This species is common every where in England, and at all times
gregarious, and great numbers often form themselves into societies,
particularly in breeding time, chusing a clump of the largest and
tallest trees whereon to make their nests. These are called Rookeries, and from their perpetual chatter, and litter they occasion, are to
most people a great annoyance. The eggs as in the Crow, but smaller,
and the spots larger; they begin to build early in March; the male
and female sit by turns, and after the breeding season roost elsewhere;
in their going and returning from their haunts, they sometimes are in
such vast flocks as to darken the air. In England they remain
throughout the year, but in France and Silesia are migratory. We
do not see it in Aso's list, as a bird of Spain, though the Crow is
anentioned; and Mr. White has assured me, that he never met with
either Crow or Rook in Gibraltar. Linnaeus ranks it among his
Swedish birds; but neither Brunnich nor Muller mention it as belonging to Denmark; nor is it in Georgi's list of the birds of Lake
Baikal. It is, however, not uncommon in Russia, and the west
part of Siberia, particularly iai the more southern latitudes.
M. Levaillant met with many at the Cape of Good Hope,* but
observes, that they are not bare about the nostrils; and if so, this no
doubt must arise from some different anode of procuring food. I do
not find it mentioaied as an American species.
It is said that there are no Rooks in the Isle of Jersey, although
>ows and Magpies are not unfrequent, nor is it certain that the Jay
nhabits that Island.
* Whether it is this or the Hooded Crow we are not clear, but Linschoten, in his Voyages
p. 84, says, that in India " there are a most wonderful number of black Crows, which do
" much hurt, and are so bold, that oftentimes they come flying in at their windows, and take
" the meat out of the dish, as it standeth on the table before them that are set down to eate;
" and as I myself sate writing above in a chamber, the windowes being open, one flew in at the
"window, picked the cotton out of my inkehorne, and blotted all the paper that lay on my
«' table, do what I could to let him. They sitte commonly uppon the BufHes backes, and
" pecke off their haire." &c. &c. I suspect these not to be the common Crow, as this is not
•known to congregate.
 CROW. 13
Crows are said by M. Landt* to be singularly troublesome in the
Ferroe Islands, deriving great part of their subsistence from plunder;
picking seeds from the field; digging up the newly planted potatoes;
destroying barley before it is ripe; cutting off cabbage roots, and
those of almost every other garden vegetable ; devour the fish which
is hung up to dry, and carry off gosliaags and ducklings ; will often
enter houses where people are sitting, in search of prey; and also
feed on shell-fish, which they let fall on the rocks from a considerable
height. Mr. L. talks of their extraordinary assemblies or Crow-
courts ; from which it may be suspected that the birds he talks of
may be Rooks, and not Crows.f
The Rook, as well as the Crow, varies in plumage, being sometimes found quite white, even the bill. I have also seen others black
and white; and one quite brown, the colour of a Jay.
6—ENCA CROW.
Fregilus Enca, Cuvier, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 164.
LENGTH seventeen inches. Plumage, for the most part, glossy
blue-black, beneath more dull; forehead, cheeks forwards, and chin
black ; the lower and posterior parts of the space surrounding the
eye are naked.
Inhabits Java; known there by the name of Enca. Dr. Horsfield
refers, for the general characters of the Genus Fregilus, to Cuvier,
and gives only the above short description. From the length, it should
appear to equal a rook in size, except the excess is made up of the
length of tail, which is not mentioned.
* Description of the Ferroe Isles.
f A curiosity now presents itself in the Tower of London. It is of a Rook's nest lately
erected, and inhabited in the centre of the Crowns that surmount the weather-cock on the
top of the White Tower—Salisb. Journ. Ap. 3.1815.
 14
7—BALD CROW.
Corvus ealtttfi Ind. Orn. L IfiSi;   Gnu Lin. i, 3®.
Choncas cbauve, Buf. Ui. 80.   PL enl. 52L
Le Chauve, Levail. Am. Sf Ind. i. 147. pl. 49.
Coracine, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ixii.
Bald Crow, Gen. Sy». i. 383.
THIS is thirteen inches in length. Bill strong, rather bent, and
dusky black; the breadth at the base about half of the total length;
plumage, on the upper parts of the bird, ferruginous brown, beneath
paler, inclining to red j upper tail coverts the same; the fore part of
the head, as far as the crown, and beyond the eyes, totally bare of
feathers, and the chin but sparingly covered with them. This baldness is probably the effect of rooting into the ground with the bill, in
the manner of our Rook, and will account for the want of feathers
in the same parts, as in that bird.
Inhabits Cayenne.—Mr. Levaillant says, it is common throughout Guiana, and known there by the negroes, under the name of
Oiseau mon Pere, having, as they think, the robe of the Capucins,
wbja are so called. The male said to be a trifle bigger than the
female, and when young, the head covered with feathers as well as
the nostrils: in some the chin is also destitute of feathers, and like
the Best of the head. Mr. L. ranks this bird among his Cotingas, or
Chatterers.
One of these, in the collection of Mr. M'Leay, brought from
Berbice, was called Kwaa.
 15
8—HOODED CROW.
Corvus Comix, Ind. Om. i. 153.  Lin. Syst. i. 156.    Faun. Suec. No. 88.    Gm. Lin. i.
366.   Scop. Ann.i. No. 37.   Mull- No. 88.    Brun. No. 30.    Georgi. 165.   .front.
6/. 333.    Bor.Nat. ii. 105.    &;/?p. Fog. iii. pl. 106.  Daud. Orn.ii. 231.  Schr.d.
Berl. Nat. iii. 198.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 348.     Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 68.    Id, Ed. ii.
p. 109.
Comix cinerea, Bris. ii. 19.   Id. 8vo. i. 159.    tffeiw. Av. 59.    Id. Srem. 9. t. 11. f, 1.
a. b.    Id. Ov. 21. t. 8. f. 9.    Frisch. t. 65.     Raii. Syn. 39. A. 4.    J?W. 84. t. 18.
& 77.    Gerin. ii. 35. t. 144 ?  146. 147.
Le Mulacchia, Cet. uc. Sard. 71.    Zinn. Uov. t. 10. f. 61.
Nebelkrahe, Naturf. ix. s. 41.
La Corneille mantelee, Buf. iii. 61. pl. 4.    PL enl. 76.
Royston Crow, Alb. ii. t. 23.    Will. Engl. 124. pl. 18. & 77.    Russ. Alep. p. 69.
Hooded Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 374.    Id. Sup. 77.   Id. Sup. ii.' 109.     Br. Zool. i. No. 77.
Id.fol. t. D. 1.   Id. 1812. 286.  Arct. Zool. ii. 251. B.   Flor. Scot. i. t. 2.   Bewick.
i. pl. p. 69.    Lewin. Birds, i. pl. 36.    Id. {Eggs) pl. vi. f. 4.    Donoc. v. pl. 117.
Wale. Syn. i. pl. 35.    Orn. Diet.    Grav. Br. Orn.
SIZE of the Rook ; weight twenty-two ounces ; length twenty-
two inches. Bill two inches long, black ; irides dtisfcy hazel; the
head, fore part of the aieck, wings, and tail fine glossy blue-black ;
the rest of the body pale ash-colour; legs black; toes broad and flat.
This bird, in the northern parts of this kingdom, Scotland, and
the northern Islands,* is a constaRt inhabitant, and breeds there; is
gregarious, building the nest in trees, laying six pale green eggs,
spotted with brown; but separate into pairs is the breeding season,f
after which they unite into bands : it also contiaiues the year through
in several parts of Ireland: in the southern parts of England is only
a winter inhabitant, coming in October, and retiring the end of
March, or beginning of April; during their stay, seen frequently in
flocks of ten or more on our heaths and downs, and not unfrequent
on the shores of the Thames, in Kent and Essex,$ where they pick up
* In the Hebrides it is the only one of the Genus.
f An instance is given of the male of the Hooded Crow, pairing with a female of the
Carrion Species, which attachment lasted for three or four years.—Compend. of Ornith:
%■ Hence, called Essex Crow; by some, Dun-Crow.
 offal and shell-fish; but will be content with insects, seeds, and beiries;
on the Continent they are alike migratory; in Carniola,* and in Sweden, where they breed, as well as in the south parts of Germany ;
in the woods of the Islands of the Danube ;f and is probably the
species mentioned by Fryer,J as inhabiting Ispahan, in Persia, and
has been brought from the Philippine Islands, by M. Sonnerat; is
common throughout Russia and Siberia, but not beyond the Lena.
Migrates to Woronesck, and passes the winter there; grows very
large beyond the Ob, and often varies to intense blackness ;§ found
also at Aleppo, and about the Lake Baikal, probably extending to
other parts of Asia; as I have been informed, that in soaaae parts of
India they are common, and so bold, as to snatch the food from the
dishes, while the servants are carrying them across the Court-yard ;||
not unfrequent on the West Coast of Africa.** It is said, that the
propagation of the cinnamon tree is owing to Crows, but what species
is uncertain; these birds eat the quick-tasted, and red fruit of this
tree, and swallowing the kernels with the fruit, scatter them every
where with their excrements; on this account, none dare shoot a
Crow, under a severe penalty, ft Independent of the Black Variety
near the River Ob, we know of no other, except one mentioned by
M. Schrank, which had the two mandibles curved across each other,
as in the Cross-bill. ££
* Scop. Ann. Hist. i. p. 25.       t Kram. el. 333.
X The Crows here are like our Royston Crows, grey on their backs and wings.—Fryer's
Trav. p. 318.       § Arct. Zool.
|| Mr. Pennant.     This is among Gen. Hardwicke's drawin]
** Life and Adventures of Christian Wolf.    Mem.    This i
the White Nutmeg-Pigeon.
ft Captain Tuckey met with them in his voyage up the River C<
%% See Schrift. der Berl. Nat. iii. s. 119. tab. iv. fig. 10.
s,  but painted of a less siz<
rcumstance is attributed t
  critic fliiwfyJ 6.
 1
  17
9.—WHITE-BREASTED CROW.—Pl. xxxix.
Corvus Dauricus, Ind. Om. i. 154.     Gm. Lin. i. 367. Pall. It. iii. 694.     Georgi. 165.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 349.
Corvus scapulatus, Daud. Orn. ii. 232.
Corneille a scapulaire blanc, Levail. Ois. ii. 14. pl. 53.
Corneille du Senegal, Buf. iii. 67.    PL enl. 327.
Chinese black Raven with a white neck, Osb. Voy. i. 377.
White-breasted Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 367. pl. 15.     Id. Sup. ii. 110.    Kolb. Cap. ii. 146.
Fryer. Trav. p. 21.
SIZE of a small Crow; length at least twelve inches. Bill black;
head and throat black, glossed with blue; neck and breast, and sometimes the belly white; the rest of the body, wings, and tail blue-black;
legs lead-colour; claws black. The wings are long, and reach
three-fourths on the tail.
Inhabits Senegal, and various other parts of Africa, but no where
more plentiful than at the Cape of Good Hope, where it makes the
nest in trees, or bushes, aaot well clothed with leaves, and lays five
or six green eggs, spotted with brown. The Hottentots hold this,
and some others of the Crow Genus, in great estimation; being of
singular use in picking out insects from the backs of oxen, with which
they are sometimes so covered as to be in danger of losing their lives.
Pallas observes, that the Corvus dauricus, or Chinese Jackdaw,
comes early in the spring, in great flights from China, and the South
Monguls Country, into the parts about the Lake Baikal, most frequent about the towns and villages on the River Lena; in which
part the Jackdaws and Royston Crows are seldom seen : * found also
in Persia.
It inhabits likewise the Island of Johanna, where it lives on
insects and fruits ; and Mr. Bruce found it in Abyssinia, as did Lord
Valentia the beginning of January, about Dhalac-t—It is subject to
* Ind. Orn. i. p. 154. 8. /3. f See Trav. ii. 225.
 (M
18 CROW.
variety, independent of the difference of the belly; for Pallas mentions one which was almost wholly black, with the nape of the neck
and throat brown.—Such an one is in Lord Stanley's collection. In
this the neck and breast are fine brown ; belly and vent black ; the
outer quill not half the length of the fifth, which is the longest. I
have observed this variety too, in several drawings of Indian birds.
10.—JACKDAW.
a. i. 156:    Faun. Suec. No. 89.     Gm. Li
No. 32.    Muller. No. 89.    Georgi. 165;
, 160..    Kramer. 334.   Fmehi fc
i. 106.    Gerini. t. 144 ?    Sepp. Voi
350.    Tern. Man. d'Om. p. 70.    J<
Id. 8vo
Borowsk,
o's Zool. vi
67.
Corvus Monedula, hid. Om. i. 154.
367/   Scop. Ann; i. No. 38.    Bn
Trans, lvii. 347.     Bris. ii. p. 24.
Raii. 40.  A. 5.    Will. 85. t. 19.
iii. t. 113.    Daud. ii. 232.   Shu
Ed. ii. p. 112.
Qorni&gamOa, Klein. Av. 59. Id. Stem. 10. t. 11. f. 2. a. b.    Id. Ov. 21. t. 8. f. 4.
Le Choucas, Buf. iii. 69.    Pl. enl. 523.
Dohle, Gunth. Nest. U. Ey. 51. t. 11. fig. inf.    Naturf. xi. s. 42.
Taccole. Celt. Uc. Sard. 72.    Zinnan. Ov. 71. t. 10. f. 62.
Jackdaw*. Gen»Syn.k318.  Id. Sup. 78.   Id. Sup. ii. 110.    Br. Zool. i. No. 81 .• pl. 34.
Id.fol. p. 78.   7<L1812. 296. pl.35.    Arct. Zoolrii. 251. C.    Hist. Selb. 59. 60.
Alb. i. pl. 14.    Will. Engl. 125. pl. 19.    Bewick, i. pl. in p. 73.    Lewin, i. pl. 37.
Id. Eggs. vii. f. 1.    Walcot, i. pl. 36,    Om. Diet.
THE Jackdaw is thirteen ;in.ches long, and weighs^ about nine
o.unces. Bill black ; irides nearly white ; hind headt and back pajrt"
of the neck elegant cinereous grey, passing on each side towardsfthis.
fcffeast; the rest of the plupage glossy blue-black, but the under
parts incline to dusky ; legs black.    Male and female.mijch!Rlifce,
This is a common species in England, remaining the whole year;
builds in trees„mpre commonly in rooks, and ruined edifices, out of ithe
rea.eh of coinanon intruders; and aiow and then in rabbit burrows, as
well as in hollow-trees; the nest composed of sticks; and twigs, shaving
a lining of wool, &c. lays five or six eggs, smaller than those of the
Crow,  paler,   und marked with fewer spots;   sometimes also in
 1
CROW. 19
chimaiies, for want of other convenience.* Independent of our own
Island, this bird is found in France, Austria, and many other parts
of Germany and Spaiaa ; very frequent at Athens : common at Gibraltar, breeding in vast numbers on the loftiest precipices, and staying
throughout the year ; feeds on both vegetable and animal food;
grapes^ figs, corn, pulse, and shell-fish, frogs, young birds, eggs,
young poultry, and carrion ; will also, like the Raven, keep voracious birds at a distance.f In most parts of the Continent, however,
it is more or less migratory ; common all over Russia and the West
of Siberia: but is seen in winter only in the South-west of Russia; a
few beyond Lake Baikal.    It is subject to some variety of plumage.
A.—Collared Jackdaw, Gen. Syn. i. 379. .
Helvetian Daw, Charlt. Ex. p. 75. No. 7.
This differs in having a collar of white round the neck, and is
found in Switzerland.
B.—White Jackdaw, Gen. Syn.i. 379. B.   Ray's Letters, p. 108.
Wholly white, with a yellowish bill.    That recorded by Ray
was met with at Hurworth, near Croft Bridge.
* A person in the Isle of Ely,, having occasion to kindle a fire in a room, which had not
been used for some time, the crnnfaey took fire, owing to the msfteTials collected by the
Jackdaws, which were in such quantity, as to make it the greatest difficulty to prevent
the house itself from being destroyed.
f Rev. Mr. White.
D 2
 20
C—Black Jackdaw, Gen. Syn. i. 379. C.    Frisch. t. (
This is smaller, with spots of white about the eyes, bluish irides?
and wanting the greyish tint about the head; such an one is found
about the Volga ;* others are mentioned being black, with flesh-
coloured bill and legs : one with a mixture of white in the wings,
and the mandibles crossing each other.—In the Museum of the late
Dr. Hunter, was a buff-coloured specimen, with white shoulders.
11.—JAY.
Corous glandarius,   Ind. Orn. i. 157.     Lin.i. 156.     Faun. Suec. No. 90.    Gm. Lin. i.
368.   Scop. i. No. 39.    Brun. No. 33. Muller. No. 90.  Kramer, p. 334.   Georgi,
165.    Faun. Arag. 72.    Frisch. t. 55.    Raii. 41. A 2.   Will. 88. 1.19.   Gerini. ii.
t. 161.     Sepp. Vog. t. p. 1.     Gunth. Nest. U. Ey. t. 38.     Borowsk. ii, 108. 8.
Daud. ii. 247.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 356.    Tern. Man. d'Om. p. 73.    Id. Ed. ii. 114.
Garrulus, Bris. ii. 47.   Id. 8vo. i. 168.    Schosff. el. t. 39.    Robert, ic. pl. 18.
Pica glandaria, Klein. Av. 61.   Id. Stem. 1.12. f. 4. a. b.   Id, Ov. t. 8, f. 2.
Jeay, Buf. iii. 107. t. 8.    Pl. enl. 481.
Ghiandaia, Olin. 35.   Zinnan. Uov. t.10. f. 58.    Cet. Vc. Sard. 76.
Der Holzhaher, Naturf. 9. s. 43.    Schmid Vog. p. 45. t. 31.
Jay, Gen. Syn.i. 384.   Id. Sup. 79.     Br. Zool. i. No. 79.     Id. Fol. x. D.     Id. 1812.
291.     Arct. Zool. ii. 252. E.     Will. Eng. 130. Pl. 19.     Russ. Alep. 69.   Alb. i.
pl. 16.     Hayes Birds, pl. 7.     Bewick, pl. p. 80.     Lewin's Birds, pl. 38.     Jd.
JBgg*, pl. vii. f. 2.      JPa/cof, pl. 37.    Nat. Misc. pl. 549.     Om. Diet.     Graves
Br. Om.    Donov. v. pl. 2.
LENGTH thirteen inches; weight seven ounces. Bill dusky;
irides whitish; the head crested; feathers of the forehead white, dashed
with black; chin white; from the angles of the mouth a broad black
streak passes beneath the eye; the plumage for the most part vina-
ceous buff-colour; lesser wing coverts light bay; the greater most
* Ph. Trans, lvi. 347. 7.—According to M. Levaillant, the black one,"and that with the
grey head and nape, only shew difference of sex—See Ois. ii. 129. but I doubt this, as we
have no such distinction in England, where they are sufficiently common.
 CROW. 21
elegantly barred, rich blue and black alternately, the rest black;
quills part ash-colour, part black ; the base of some, and the edges
of others white; the inner ones chestnut, with black tips; rump
white; tail black, the feathers edged with dusky, the outer ones
wholly dusky; legs brown.
The female differs chiefly in the colour being less brilliant.
The Jay is not uncommon in all the woods of this kingdom ; is a
a'estless and noisy species, alarming by its screams the rest of the
feathered tribe, on the approach of any one; yet at intervals has a sort
of note not unpleasant; it will also imitate the cries of various
animals in the wild state; but when kept tame, may be taught to
mimic many more; and we have witnessed one that mewed so
exactly like a cat as to be mistaken for one.—The Jay feeds on
various things, especially fruit, and grains, also acorns; likewise
birds eggs, and sometimes the parent birds, as well as mice; makes
the nest in woods, of sticks, fibres of roots, &c. and lays five or six
eggs, the size of those of a Pigeon, cinereous-olive, marked with
paler brown.*
This species is by no means so far spread as many of its congeners:
said to be common in France, Italy, and Spain, as far as the woody
parts in the neighbourhood of Gibraltar, but not on the rock itself;
frequents the woods of Russia and Siberia, but not beyond the Lena.
Georgi mentions its being near the Lake Baikal; and Russel at
Aleppo. I have also seen it in drawings done in China,/[ and therefore we may suppose it indigenous to that country. Both in Sweden
and Spain it is brought to market promiscuously with other birds for
the table, but is rarely used for this purpose in England.
I have observed only two Varieties, the one wholly white,J the
other with white quills only, the rest of the bird as in common.§
* In Sepp's Plate they are white.
•fGen. Syn. i. 386.. A.   Said to be frequent there.    Penn. China, p. 193.
% Gen. Syn. i.386. A. Donov. pl.34, § Spalowsk. Vog. i. t.2.
 12.—RUSSIAN CROW.
vus infaustus,  Ind. Orn. i. 159.    Lin. Faun. Sut
c. No. 93;    Brun. p. 10.
Muller,
No. 93.     Mus. Carls. Fasc. iv. t. 76.     Georgi
164 ?     Tern. Man. d'Orn.
p. 176.
Id. ed. ii. p. 116.
ms infimstus, Lin. i. 138.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 3ft&
i orange, Levail. ois. de Parad. i. pl. 47.
vus Russicus, Gmel It. i. 50. 1.11.
LENGTH nine inches or more. Bill black; head dusky brown;
chin and fjtqg,^hi|jsji, ;mixed with ferruginous and as,{|-colour; neck,
shoulders, back, and breast cinereous ; belly and thighs, pale rufous ;
rjutpgip and vent ferruginous; spmje of the WiSg coverts the saane;
ot^ejrs;inejjne anore to rufous ; quills dusky, the outer one shortest;
tejl t&e leaagth of the bj».dy, cuneiform; the twfrR|iddle feathers, dusky
agfe, the others pale fgrrflginpus, with $$ eajdj more or less dusky ;
legs black.
Jiijhabits Sweden; found ajsp.in Lapland j, coaaimoai in the North
of Russjg|/and Siberia, in all the, ^opdy parts ; but not in Kamts-
chatka ; is a ljpk^>bafid^ ; aa^pi^gjiej^ the traveller while enjoying, Ija^
meal in,j$i£ open air, fjiat ijfemay partake of the scraps. The figure
io tfee. Carlsonian JVJiiseaim seemsrjpretty correct.
A.—Corvus Sibiricus, Gm. Lin. i. 373.
Geay de Siberie, Buf. iii. 118.    Pl. enl. 60S.
Siberian Jay, Gen.. jSgfl}..i. 390.
Less than a Jay; length ten inches. Bill dusky; crown brown-
black, and somewhat crested; upper part of the body and wings
cinereous, verging to brpwn on tk^ajjack ; quills cinereous; foiehead
and sides, chin, and neck before, pale, with-ating© of, blue on the
 sides^Of the head, aaida* shade of buff on the breast; the breast itself,
and the under part of the body, and rump, ferruginous orange ; the
two middle tail? feather cinereous, the others orange; legs ash-colour.
Inhabiffe Siberia, and is no doubt a variety of the other.
13.—NUTCRACKER.
Corvus Caryocatactes, Ind. Om. i. 164.  Lin. i. 159.    Faun. Suec. No. 91.   Gm. Lin. i.
370.    Scop. An. i. No. 40.    Raii. p. 42.    Will. 90. t. 20.    Brun. No. 34.   Muller,
No. 91.    Georgi, 165.  Kram. 334.    Sepp. Vog. t. 3.    Gerin. ii. p. 163.   Borowsk.
ii. 108. Spalowsk. ii. t. 12.   Daud. ii. 251. pl. 17. Bechst. Deutsch. ii. 457.   Shaw's
Zool. vii. 353. t. 43.
Nucifraga, Bris. ii. 59. t. 5. f. 1.    Id. 8vo, i. 171:    Klein. Av. 61.    Id. Stem. p. 12. f.
2. a. b.    Frisch. t. 56.    Schcef. el. t. 49.    Tern. Man. p. 74:   Id. Ed. ii. p. 118.
Casse noix, Buf. iii. 122. t. 9.    P/. enl. 50.
Nushraehe, Nusshaeher, 5cAr. Nat. 67.    G'wmr. JVm*. I/. Ey. 38.    Naturf. ix. s. 44.
Nutcracker,   G«i. Syn. i. 400.    Id. Sup. 82.     JFi//. Eng. 132. pl. 20.     Br. Zool. ii.
App. pl. 3.    Id. 1812. 298. pl. 37.   Arct. Zool. 252. D.    £d«>. pl. 240.    Bewick,
i. pl. 79.    Lewin, pl. 40.    JFa/cof, pl. 38.     Orn. Diet. $ Supp.
SIZE of a Magpie; length thirteen inches. Bill two inches
long, black ; irides hazel; nostrils well covered with feathers, edged
with brown; general colour of the plumage rusty brown ; crown and
nape inclining1 to dusky; anostof the feathers marked with triangular
white spots; largest on the under parts ; vent white ; quills and tail
black, the latter tipped with white ; legs black.
This is very rare in respect to England, not having been anet with
more than three times to our knowledge ; is more common on the
Continent, but no where so plentiful as in Germany; sometimes
comes in vast flocks into France, especially Burgundy ; frequents the
mountainous parts of Sweden and Denmark ; met with as high as
Sondmor: common in the Pine Forests of Russia and Siberia, and
all over Kamtschatka; now and then seen in America, but not near
the sea coast.
 ■pi
Ik
24 crow.
It is said to resemble the Jay in manners, laying up store of
acorns and nuts, on the latter of which it most delights to feed, but
will eat insects of various kinds. Makes the nest'in the holes of trees,
and, like the Woodpecker, enlarges them with the bill; the eggs five
or six, pale yellow, marked with small black spots.
According to Klein, there are two Varieties, a smaller and a
larger. Muller also mentions two, the one rufous, the other spotted
black and white; and Mr. Bechstein saw a specimen wholly whiter
M. Temminck forms a distinct Genus of this, of which it is the only
species.
14.—ALPINE CROW.
CorvusPyrrhocorax, Ind. Orn.i
165.    Lin. i. 158.
Gm
. .Lin. i. 376.
Bris
ii.36. t.L
f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 162.    Shan
>'* Zool. vii. 380.
Ter
i. Man, d'On
». p. 7
1.   Id. Ed.
ii. p. 121.
Coracias, Gerin. ii. 1.150,151.
Crave des Alpfes, Daud. ii. 252.
Neu. Schw. Abh.
iii. s
. 104.
Choucas des Alpes, Buf. iii. 76.
t. 6.   PL enl. 531.
Alpine Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 381.
SIZE of the Jackdaw ; length fifteen inches; breadth two feet
seven inches. Bill like that of a Jackdaw, but rather longer, colour
yellow; plumage wholly black ; tail even at the end, and reaching
but little beyond the wing when closed ; legs and claws black. *
Inhabits the Alps; has a sharp, disagreeable voice, lives on grain
and fruits, and does much daanage to the harvest: the flesh accounted
good: makes the nest generally in crags and clefts of rocks, rarely
in trees; and lays four white eggs, marked with dusky yellow spots.
3, that the colour of the legs differs according to the age ;
, and in old birds deep crimson.
 25
15.—RED-LEGGED CROW,
Corvus graculus,  Ind. Orn. i. 165. Lin. i. 158. Gm. Lin. i. 377. Faun. Arag 72. Daud.
ii. 253.    Bechst. Deutsch. ii. 447.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 378,
Pyrrhocorax Coracias, Tern. Man. p. 72.    Id. Ed. ii, p. 12?.
Corvus docilis, Gm. It. iii. 385. t. 39.
Gracula Pyrrhocorax, Scop. i. 46.
Upupa Pyrrhocorax, Hasselq. It. 238.19.    Id. Engl. 197.
.      Coracias, seu Pyrrhocorax, Raii. 40. A. 6.   Will, 86. t. 19.  Bris. ii. p. 3. t. lf f. 1.   Id.
8vo.i. 154.    Shaw's Trav. 251.   Gerini, ii. t. 149.   Klein. Av. p. 60. 11.   BufM,
1. pl. 1.    P/. en/. 255.
Cornish Chough, ^4/6. ii. pl. 24.     Ror/. Cornw. 243. pl. 24.     JFi//. Engl. 126, pl. 19.
Hayes, pl. 6.
Red-legged Crow, ||*; $/s*«i. 401.    Id. Sup. 82.    Jd. Sup. ii. 115.    £r. Zoo/, i. pl. 35.
Id.fol, 83, t. L. *    Jd. 1812. 294. pl. 36.     Bewick, i. pl, p. 77.     Lewin. pl. 41.
Id. Eggs. pl. vii. f, 4.    *Fa/cof, pl. 40.    Ofn. Diet.
SIZE of a Jackdaw; length sixteen inches ; extent of wing two
feet nine inches; weight fourteen ounces. Bill two inches long,
much curved, and sharp at the point; colour that of red sealiaag wax;
irides grey, with an outer circle of red; eyelids red; plumage wholly
purplish black ; legs red;* the wings reach three-fourths on the tail.
The female is smaller, and the bill somewhat shorter.—This is
called by some Cornish Daw, Cornish Kae, Killigrew, and Chauk;
pretty common on some of our English coasts, particularly the western:
in Devonshire and Cornwall, in Wales and Scotland. We have also
received it from Dover Cliffs, where they breed, but said to have
arisen from a pair originally sent from the West; found also to frequent the South Downs about Beachy-Head and East-Bourn, and
there called the Red-billed Jackdaw.f   Makes the nest in the clefts
* Scopoli says, in autumn the feet in some are black—^According to Bechstein, it is in
the spring that this colour in the feet is seen ; and others affirm, that in the first year the
bill and legs are black ; these seeming contradictions can only be reconciled by supposing
the describers to mean two different species, as in this kingdom, the young birds have the
bill and legs red the first year. f £»». Trans, iv, p. 14.
VOL.   III. E
J
 2§ CROW.
of rocks, of sticks, lined with hair, and lays four or five white eggs,
bigger than those of a Jackdaw, spotted with yellow, or pale brown,*
weighing three draans and a half.f
I do not see it mentioned as a bird of France, but is,^^,|mcpm-
mon in the Alps and Carinthia: £ migrates into Lower Egypt,
towards the end of the inundation of the Nile, in September and
October :§ is seen about all high rocks of the south latitude of Siberia,
and Mount Caucasus, the mountains of Persia,|| and the Island of
Candia ;** also common on the Northern Alps and Switzerland ; feeds
on juniper berries; roots coraa out of the ground; feeds, too, on insects,
as locusts, &c. ft does not migrate with us in England, at any season;
is a greedy, restless, and clamorous bird, fearing neither dog nor
wolf: in general imitates the Jackdaw in manners ; is thievish, fond
of glitter, and dangerous to be kept tame, as it has been known to
catch up lighted sticks, whereby houses have been set on fire.
16—HERMIT CROW.
Got. Lin. i. 3. 377.     Bore
470. t. 17.    Shaw's Zool. ^
Corvus Eremita, hid. Orn. i. 166.      Lin. i. 15
107. t. 71. 9. B.    Daud. ii. 254.    Bechst
Coracia cristata, Bris. ii. 6.    Id. 8vo. i. 155.
Corvus sylvaticus, Gesner. pl. in p. 309.     Will. 306.   Gerin. ii. t. 252 ?   Johnst.    Av.
pl. 47. f. 3.
TJpupa montana, Klein. Av. 111.
Coracias hupe, Ba{/iiii. p. 9.
Wood Crow from Switzerland, Alb. iii. pl. 16.    Will. Engl, 396.
Hermit Crow, Gen. Syn.i. 303.   Id. Sup. ii. 115.
SIZE of a Hen. Bill long, pointed, bent and red; head crestedj
dusky yellow, streaked with red; plumage in general black, glossed
with green; tail short; legs dull red.
* Smutty-coloured, Bechstein. f Col. Montagu.
H  At Jerom, the bills and feet (of the crows) are as red
** Belon. Obs. p. 17.
■ff Scopoli says,'they sometimes come down in the lo^
latter hay time, for this purpose.
s vermilion.
I Hasselquist.
meadows by hundreds,
 crow. 27
This bird, first described and figured by Gesner, is said to be
fOund oai all the high mountains of Italy, Stiria, Switzerland, and
Bavaria, and the rocks on the borders of the Danube, but more
common in Switzerland than elsewhere, and there called Waldrapp,
and Steinrapp ; flies very high; is gregarious and migratory ; arrives
at Zurich with the Storks, the beginmiii* of April: the female lays
two or three eggs, and the young fly the beginning of June; is easily
tamed, if taken young, and is accounted good eating. The food is
chiefly small fry of fishes, frogs, and all sorts of insects. Neither the
young, nor very old birds have the crest, whence they have been called
Bald Crows.* According to M. Temminck, this bird has no existence, being made up from the Red-legged, by forming a crest
of additional feathers. This we cannot contradict, as we have only
seen figures of the bird ; but if such a fraud has been practised on
Gesner, it is, we believe, not the only one known among Ornithologists.
lT.—REBH-BIELED JAY.
Corvus erythrorynchos,   Ind. Om. i. 161.      Gm. Lin: i. 372.      Daud. ii. 240. pl. 15.
Shaw's Zool. vii: 361.
Geay de la Chine a bee rouge, Buf. Hi. 115.    Pl. enl. 622.
La Pie bleue, Levail. Ois. ii. 24. pl. 57.
Red-billed Jay, Gen. Syn. i. 390.    Id. Sup. p. 80,    Id. Sup. ii. p. 112,
SIZE of a Jay. Bill red; fore part of the head, neck, and breast
velvety black ; behind light grey, mixing irregularly with the black
on the forepart; body brown above, wMtish beneath, with a violet
tinge, most conspicuous on the wings ; each feather of which is Kght
violet at the base, black in the middle, and white at the end.    Tail
' * Neither All&ffs Figure, nor that of Borowski has ajtaesia whjj& \gives the bird the
appearance of a bald kind of Ibis, and the figure in Gesner is bare above the knee. I have
never seen a specimen, and must therefore rely irpon what former authors have recorded,
e a
 raw
28 crow.
half as long again as the rest of the bird, and fully as cuneiform, as
that of the Magpie, the feathers blue with black ends, and an oval
spot of white at the tip of each.*
Inhabits China, and there called Shannaw : often kept in cages,
and becomes very tame ; and by the Chinese taught many tricks, by
way of entertaining the multitude.
18—AFRICAN CROW.
Corvus Africanus, Ind. Om. i. 163.   Got. Lin. i. 374.  Daud. ii. 240.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 375.
African Crow, Gew. Syn. i. 396.    Nat. Misc. pl. 561.     •
LENGTH twenty-two inches. Bill red; head and neck dark
purple, the first somewhat crested; each feather tipped with grey as
far as the hind head; back brown ; belly dirty ash-colour; quills
blue on the outer edges; tail greatly cuneiform, the two middle
feathers twelve inches long, the outer very short, all of them tipped
with white ; legs red.
Inhabits Africa. These two last seem to resemble each other, so
as make us inclined to think them Varieties only.
19.—CARIBBEAN CROW.
Corvus Caribbeeus, Jwd. Orn. i. 163.    Gm. Li
vii. 375.
Galgulus Antillarum, Bris. ii. 80.   Id. 8vo. i.
Pica candata Indica, Raii. 42.    Will. 90.
Pica Antillarum, Raii. 152.
La Pie des Antilles, Buf. iii. 101, 129.
Persian Pie, Will. Engl. 132. § vi. parag. 2d.
Caribbean Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 395.
. 374.   Daud. ii. 242.     Shaw's Zool.
SIZE of a Magpie.    Bill red; head and neck blue; the latter
surrounded with a white collar; from the base of the bill, passing
f In the PL enlum.
 crow. 29
behind the neck, quite to the back, is a white mark, an inch broad,
and three long, transversely barred with black; back and scapulars
ferruginous; rump and upper tail coverts yellow; under parts of
the body white; lesser wing coverts chestnut; the middle ones green,
with the edges deeper coloured; greater coverts blue, with white
edges and shafts; quills blue green; tail long and cuneiform, the
two middle feathers exceed the outer ones by eight or ten inches;
colour blue, striated with white; legs red.
The female differs in wanting the transverse stripes on the white
mark at the back of the head, and the whig coverts green Instead of
blue.
Said to inhabit the Caribbee Islands, and to be common about
the rivers of Guadaloupe; but according to Ray, is a bird of Persia.
It certainly bears much resemblance to the two last described.
20.—RUFOUS CROW.
Corvus rufus, Ind. Om. i. 161.    Daud ii. 245.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 368.
Coracias vagabundus, Ind. Orn. i. 171.    Daud. ii. 265.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 397.
LaPierousse, Levail. Ois. pl.59.
Grey-tailed Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 112.
Rufous Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 112.
LENGTH sixteen or seventeen inches. Bill strong, black, rather
bent and not notched; tongue bifid; nostrils covei'ed with bristles;
irides red; head and neck black, tinged with brown; body and tail
coverts reddish brown; wings black, with a broad grey stripe, which
includes the greater and smaller wing coverts near the body, and the
outer webs of four or five of the second quills; under wing coverts
dirty white, tinged with brown; tail long, consisting of twelve
feathers, and is greatly cuneiform; the outmost scarcely three inches
long, the two middle ones ten inches in the whole, but stand out
beyond any of the others at least four inches; all the feathers are
 36 CROW.
grey, and have the ends deeply tipped with black; the wings when
closed, reach about one-fifth thereon; legs black.
Inhabits India, found near Calcutta, but not very common; is
called by the Bengalese, Harri Chacha; the women ianagine whenever they hear this bird calling, that it forebodes the approach of
religious mendicants, who, by partaking in the fare prepared for the
family, will clear the pots used in cooking; from wfeftm elrctmlstance
its native name is derived; builds on large trees, and more than one at
a time is seldom observed.
I owe the above to Dr. Buchanan. It may be supposed to vary;
as that described from Lady Impey's drawings had the breast and
belly ash-colour; middle of the wings white; in these drawings the
name given to it is the Vagabond.
Among the drawings of Sir J. Anstruther, I observe three or
four different representations, varying considerably from each other,
in the different shades of brown, though the general division of
colours is the same; in one which appears to be most complete, the
two middle tail feathers are double the length of the others. The
name given to it in the Persian tongue is Makoka ;* is called also
Laut.
In another specimen the feathers Whfid' the <fcttH and chiil are
deeper black thaai the rest; bend of the wing yellow.
One fig-ared in Col. Hardwicke'snane---collection of Drawings of
Indian birds, was sixteen inches long, said to be a male, had a 1 ead-
■eolonwed biW, wfth'ta fel&fck point; tfee two middle tail feathers exceeded the rest by three inches, were pale ash from the base to as
4kr afcifheeMds of the adjoining, then white for near two inches, aaid
fiha$y Mack ftnogfore ^8RPoafeo}i©3iigrth« side feathers white for the
-greater partem the base, then black, with the «ads white/fowtittte
;%lh*»k occwpyJiHEg'Sftjst-spaoe* on the outer feathers.
* The^Atetiguan"Cc|ucfcl ako bears -this name.
 CRftW. 31
Inhabits India, The name Ker«i$bL drawn at Futteyghaiff, iafc
DecempKFf and, as in another drawing, the date of it is in August,
it is probable that these birds are permaneaat in the neighbourhood
the year through.
-     A.—La Pie rousse dela Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 186. pl. 136.
Rufous Crow, Gen, Syn. Sup. p. 84.
Size of a Blackbird. Bill black ; irides rufous yellow; head and
neck brown, the last paler; breast and belly rufous white; back
and rump yellowish, inclining to rufous; lesser wing coverts dirty
rufous; the others pale grey; second quills grey, within brown;
primaries brownish black; tail cuneiform, grey; the two middle
feathers brown at the ends; the others grey as far as the middle, the
rest of the length brown, with white tips; legs black.
Inhabits China.
21.—MAGPIE.
Corvus Pica, Ind. Om. i. 162.     Lin. i. 157:    Faun. Suec: No. 92.     Got. £in. i. 373.
Ph. Trans, lxii. 387.    Scop. Ann: i. No. 41.     Brun. No. 32.    Sepp. Vog. t. p. 3.
Raii p. 41. A. 1.     Will. 87. t. 19.    Georgi, 165.    Kram. 335.    Fauj^ar^g. p. 72.
Frisch. t. 58.    Bris. ii. 35.   Id. 8vo. i. 164,    Gerin. ii. t. 155.    Borowsk. ii. 109.
Schcef. el. t. 56.    Daud. ii. 237.   jKYein. Av: p. 60.     Id. Stem. p. 10. t. 12. f. 1.
a. b. c.     Id. Ov. t. 8. f. 3.      Shaw's Zool. vii. 369.     Amer. Orn. iv. pl. 35. f. 2.
Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 73.   Id. Ed. ii. p. 113.
Aelster, Gnnth. Nest. U. Ey. t. 53.    Bechst. Deutsch. ii. 462.
Gazza con la Coda lunga, Zinnan. Uov. t. 10. f. 57.
Europaisch Elster, Naturf. ix. s. 44.   SchmidiKog. p. 45. t. 30.
La Pie, Buf. iii. 85. 7.    PL enl. 488.
Magpie, Pianet,   Gen. Syn. i. 392. 29.     Id. Sup. p. 80.     Id. Sup. ii.   p. 113.     Br.
Zool. i. No. 78.    Id. Fol. p. 77. t. D. 2.     Id. 1812, p. 289.    Arct. Zool. ii. No.
136.    Alb. i. pl. 15.    Will. Engl. 127. pl. 19.     Hayes.pl. 8.      Bewick, i. pl. p.
75;   JL^*pl. 39.    Id. Eggs. pl. vii, f. 3.     JDoaajoo.w. 95.     Walcot, i. pl. 39.
Graves Br. Orn.    Orn. Diet. § Supp.
LENGTH eighteen inches usxtent of wing twenty-two; weight
eight or nine ounces.     Bill black; irides hazel; sqapaij^rs,  and all
 I
mmm*
32 crow.
the under parts from the breast, white; the rest of the plumage,
wings, and tail black, glossed with green, purple, and blue as opposed
to various lights; the eleven first quills are white in the middle on
the inner web, lessening by degrees as they advance inwards ; the tail
very cuneiform, the two middle feathers near eleven inches long; the
outer only five inches and half; legs black.
The above is the description of a bird in the highest plumage in
the wild state, but when domesticated, and kept in a cage, the colours
lose their brilliancy, and appear to be merely black and white, and
the latter far from pure; in short, in its state of nature, we must
confess, that our kingdom does not possess a more beautiful species.
The Magpie is very comanon in England, and feeds both on animal
and vegetable substances, frequently killing young ducks and
chickens, and sucking the eggs; will sometimes pick out the eyes of
lambs, hares, rabbits, &c. if weak ; also eats insects, fruits, and even
grain, when distressed for food; makes a large oval nest, of sticks
of black-thorn interanixed, haviaag a cover at top, composed of the
latter, with a lining of earth, and fibres at bottom: this is built both
on high trees, and low shrubs ;* the eggs six or seven, of a pale
greenish colour, thickly spotted with black : is a crafty bird : when
brought up young, becomes familiar; will talk many sentences, and
imitate, like the Parrot, every noise it hears, but in a less distinct
manner.
This species is seen more or less throughout Europe : no where
more common than in the temperate and southern latitudes of Russia,
Siberia, and Kamtschatka, as well as in the adjacent Islands.—
Forster met with it at Madeira; Russel at Aleppo ; f and Georgi
about the Lake Baikal. It is also seen in Chinese drawings ; and I
once saw a specimen from thence, the same as ours, but a trifle
smaller.—It certainly is a native of America, and though it very
seldom approaches the settlements, is to be found in the interior parts
* Hence the distinction of Tree and Bush Magpie, supposed two different sorts.
f Hist. Alep. p. 69.
 crow. 33
all seasons. One caught at York Fort, in a martin trap, was thought
a rarity, as the circumstance had not happened for twenty years
before. I find that it is called at Hudson's Bay, by some of the
Indians, Oue-ta-kee-aske, or Heart-Bird ; by others, She-pecum
anemewuck.* We have observed several Varieties; viz. wholly
whitef—black and white in streaksj—white and soot-colour; with
other deviations from nature. §
Camden || observes, that Magpies found in the Isle of Man, did
not inhabit it originally, but were carried there,
22—NEW-CALEDONIAN MAGPIE.
Corvus Caledonicus, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxv.
Magpie of New-Caledonia, D'Entrecasteux's Voy. ii, 226. pl, 35.     Gen. Syn. Sup. ii.
LENGTH twenty inches. Bill black and stout, the end for
one-third yellowish, and slightly notched ; head black, the feathers
of it silky, and the webs loose; round the eye somewhat bare; whole
of the neck white, and a little of the same in the middle of the belly;
but the general colour of the plumage otherwise black; tail very
cuneiform, foamed as in the Magpie, the two middle feathers eleven
inches long, the next on each side nine, diminishing regularly to the
outer ones, which measure aao more than three inches and a half,
legs dusky.
Inhabits the woods of New-Caledonia, described from a specimen
in the collection of Mr. Thompson, of St. Martin's Lane, London.
* Mr. Hutchins. f Mus. Carls, t. 53. X Lev. Mus.
§ Viz. an old bird of a dun-colour, with the wing coverts, breast, and belly white; also
three from one nest wholty^eream-colour, with white bills; and a fourth from the same
nest of the common hue.-—See Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 113.
|| Magpies have been lately introduced, as well as Frogs.—.Gough's Camd. Brit. p.
699. Vol. 3.
 ■msafeNHKSl
34
23—CHANGEABLE CROW.
Corvus varians, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxvi.
Phrenotrix Temia, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 165.     Horsf. Zool. Res. No.   1.—plate of the
Bird.    Id. pl. of bills, N. a. b.
Le Temia, Levail. Ois. ii. p. 22: pl. 56.    Daud. ii. 244.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 372.
Changeable Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 119.
SIZE of the Song Thrush, but longer. Bill black; general
colour of the plumage black, and the texture of the feathers delicate
and soft; those round the base of the bill to the eye and chin stiff
and short, similar to bjack velvet; but on the rest of the bird appear
glossed with green and purple in different lights; the tail greatly
cuneiform, composed of ten feathers, the foui* middle ones of equal
lengths, exceeding the rest of the body, being seven inches long, the
others lessen by degrees to the outer, which are very short and broad,
colour of the four middle/ones black, glossed with green ; the others
black, but with a gloss of green only on the outer webs; legs black.
This was received from Batavia, but where it originally came
from, quite uncertain. The bill in shape is thick, and not unlike
that of the Beef-eater, which may lead to think, that in manners
it may somewhat resemble that bird. In Java, known by the
aiame of Chekitut, or Benteot.
Inhabits Java, where it is aiot uncommon, but is not a familiar-
bird, never approaching the villages and habitations like many others;
for the most part found near solitary hamlets, fekgiuated in tracts recently cleared for cultivation, where its food is supplieddn.abundance,
by the insects contained in the rich mould, and by the wild fruit trees
about the skirts.—In Dr. Horsfield's figure the four middle tail feathers
are not equal in length, but those on each side of the two middle
ones are shorter, as in the Magpie.
In Mr. Bullock's Museum was one greatly similar, in which the
colour of the plumage was glossy black, inclining to brown on the
 1
.©ROW. 3&
back ; beneath very dark brown, the two aniddle tail feathers seven
inches and half long, the exterior oaaly two inches. The wings reach
one-fourth on the tail.    This said to have been brought from Java.
24—VELVET-FACED CROW.
LENGTH twelve inches and half. Bill black, remarkably stout,
and the upper mandible bending as in the Ani; the base of it, and
round the eye, the whole face, and chin covered with black velvetlike feathers ; plumage wholly deep bottle-green. Tail five inches
and a half long, cuneiform, black, having in soane lights, a gloss of
purple; legs rather long, stout, and black, claws long and hooked.
Native place uncertain—supposed New-Holland.—Gen. Davies.
One not unlike the above, in Mr. Francillon's possession, had the
plumage slaty-grey, instead of bottle-green.
A similar one, in Mr. Harrison's collection, was twelve inches long;
in this the plumage was glossy black ; the bill and legs both pale.
This last caane from New-Holland.
These seem greatly allied to the Changeable, or last Species.
25.—PLUSH-FACED CROW.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill black, stout, and rather curved;
the nostrils, and all round incircling the eyes, covered with black
feathers like plush, or velvet; plumage otherwise deep bottle-green ;
scapulars edged with rufous; from thence a rufous band, about half
an inch broad,]jextends across the back; prime quills black, with
pale margins; tail seven inches long, cuneiform, the feathers broadest
at the extremities; colour deep muddy, blackish green, appearing
undulated on the outer webs ; legs black, not very stout.
F 2
P
 36 crow.
Native place uncertain. I observe one in the drawings of Mr.
Woodford, which was without the rufous band. This may be
probably allied to the foregoing, but the one here described differs
greatly in the bill, this being considerably stouter and shorter than in
the Changeable Species; though in the plush-like feathers round it,
and the colour of the plumage not greatly differing.
26.—INDIGO CROW.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill one inch long, stout, pale yellow
horn-colour, under mandible darker beneath; the nostrils, forehead
between the bill and eye, and the chin, covered with short, downy,
plush-like, black feathers ; the rest of the plumage in general like
that of a Crow, the feathers inclining to purple on the margins,
especially oai the back ; but those on the under parts are edged with
the gloss of steel; scapulars, and part of the wing coverts, purplish
black, with deep margins of steel blue ; quills black ; the tail three
inches long, nearly even at the end, the two middle feathers blue-
black, the others much the same, margined with steel-blue; the
wings, when closed, reach three-fourths on the tail; legs stout, scaly,
and brownish yellow.
Inhabits New-Holland.
27—RUFOUS-BREASTED CROW.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill three quarters of an inch, pale,
the base of the upper, and beneath the under mandible, dusky ; the
face quite round the bill covered with velvety tufted feathers, occupying the whole chin, and coaacealing the nostrils; besides which are
several hairs half as long as the bill, which is a little bent at the end,
 crow. 37
and soanewhat indented; the head, neck, upper parts, wings, and
tail pale cinereous grey; breast, belly, thighs, and vent fine rufous;
quills and tail dusky, edged outwardly with grey, the last of a
moderate length, even at the end, and the quills reach just beyond
the base; legs slender, black, claws crooked.
Native place unknown^—Gen. Davies.
28—PACIFIC CROW.
Corvus pacificus, Ind. Orn. i. 157.     Got. Lin. i. 372.     Daud. ii. 236.      Shaw's Zool.
vii. 354.
Pacific Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 383.
LENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill bent at the end, with a
notch near the tip, and black; plumage cinereous, paler beneath,
with a tinge of reddish brown; forehead and throat cinereous white;
among the feathers of the latter some slender hairs ; hind head and
nape dusky black : quills blackish, with dirty white tips; tail black,
all but the two middle feathers tipped with white; legs black*
Inhabits the South Seas.—Place unknown.
29—TROPIC CROW.
Corvus tropicus,   Ind. Orn. i. 157.     Got. Lin. i. 372.     Daud. ii. .237.     Shaio's Zool.
vii. 355.
Tropic Crow,   Gen. Syn. i. 384.    Cook's Last Voy. iii. 119 ?
LENGTH twelve inches and a half. Bill one'inch and a quarter
Jong, rather broad at the base, and the tips of both mandibles notched;
plumage glossy black, more dull beneath ; wings and tail black,
glossed with gi*een, the last rouaided; vent and sides tipped with
dusky white ; legs black.
From Owhyhee—one of the Sandwich Islands in the South Seas.
 38
30—AUSTRALASIAN CROW.
SIZE of a Crow. Bill large, curved the whole of its length to
the point, as in the Cornish Chough ; plumage in general black and
glossy, the feathers of the head short; the wings reach oaae-third on
the tail, which is cuneiform, or greatly rounded in shape at the end ;
legs stout, made like those of a Crow.
Inhabits New-Holland: in the collection of Mr. Brogden, and
in that of the Linnaean Society.
31—SYDNEY CROW.
SIZE of a Jackdaw. Bill as in the Magpie, but not quite equal
iii!§trength, and somewhat bent; tip of the upper mandible browai;
general colour of the plumage black; some of the inner lesser quills
white ; tail much rounded ; legs stout aaid black.
In Mr. Bullock's Museum, from New-Holland.    Shot at Sydney.
32—BLUE CROW.
Corvus cyanus, Ind. Om. i. 159.   G
Shaw's Zool. vii. 362.    Nat. Misc. pl. 829.
Corvus melanocephalus, Daud. ii. 241.
Pie bleue a tete noire, Levail. Ois. ii. pl. 58.
Blue Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 394.    Id. SuoAa&Xih
.373.   Pallas It. iii. 694.    Daud.
SIZE small; length from eight to twelve inches. Bill black;
top of the head to the nape glossy deep black; body ash-colour,
paler beneath; wings and tail most beautiful blue ; the last very long
and cuneiform, in shape like that of a Magpie, the feathers white
 crow. 39
at the end; legs black.—In M. Iievaillant's< plate the head feathers
are elongated, forming a pointed crest;ialid the wboJcftofj'tbe head
below the eyes, as well as the chin black; the body inclining to
blue above, and wings and tail fine blue ; tail of twelve feathers.
This species miga'ates from the Mongolian Deserts and China,
only into that part of the Russian Dominions which lies to the South
of Lake Baikal.    M. Levaillant's specimen came from China.
33—SENEGAL CROW.
Corvus Senegalensis, Ind. Om. i. 163.    Lin. i. 158.      Gm. Lin. i. 374.     Shaui'i&GJ&G
vii. 371.
Corvus Afer, Lin. i. 157.    Gm. Lin. i. 375.
Pica Senegalensis, Bris. ii. 40. t. 3. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 166.
Corvus Piapiac, Daud. ii. 239.    Levail. Ois. ii. pl. 54:
Piedu Senegal, Buf. iii. 97.    Pl. enl. 538.
Senegal Crow, Gen^Sgki. 394.    Id. Sup. ii. 114.
LENGTH fourteen inches, size of a Magpie. Bill black;
plumage in general violet black above, dusky black beneathi; quills
and tail brown, in shape cuneiform ; the two middle feathers- seven
inches long, the outer four, all of them edged with violet black;
legs black.
Inhabits Senegal : found also at the Cape of Good Hope.
The males have the tail much longer than the females ; perches
on high trees, sometimes twenty together; builds on the tops of the
highest; and, like the Magpie, defends the nest with thorns, only
leaving one opening; lays from six to eight white eggs, spotted with
brown, most so at the larger end; seen in the inward parts of the
Cape, but rarely, if ever, at the Cape itself, called Pia piac from its
cry.-—M. Levaillant mentions a singularity in one of the tail feathers
having two shafts arising from one quill, one of these entirely without
webs, but whether a lusus naturtfofy or peculiar to the species, is by
* I have a common goose quill which branches out into two shafts.
 ft
JPHHeawSBWHa
I
40 CROW.
no means certain.    Is found also in India, and blended With other
birds, under the name of Bhejunga.
34—RUFOUS-BELLIED CROW.
Corvus rufigaster, Ind. Om. Sup. xxvi.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 377.
 octopennatus, Daud. ii, 243.
Pie a culotte de Peau, Levail. Ois. ii. 20. pl. 55.
Rufous-bellied Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 118.
SIZE of the Blackbird. Bill and legs black; whole plumage
above glossy black; tail cuneiform, half as long again as the bird,
with a fine blue gloss on all the feathers in some lights; belly, thighs,
and vent flesh-colour, or fine rufous ; the vent inclines to brown.
This is figured by Levaillant from one in the collection of M.
Ray de Breukelerward of Amsterdam. Said to have been brought
from some of the South Sea Isles, and seems to have affinity with the
Senegal Species, from its shape and cuneiform tail; the bill less
strong than in the Magpie, approaching to that of a Thrush. In this
single specimen were only eight feathers in the tail, and no trace of
more could be found; if this be really the case with all of the same
species, as may be learned hereafter, it is, we believe, an unusual
occurrence; for we do not at present know any bird with fewer than
ten feathers in its tail, when complete.
35.—VARIABLE CROW.
Corvus versicolor, Ind. Ornt Sup. xxv. .
Variable Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 117.
THE true size of this bird is uncertain, but as the drawing from
whence this description is taken was nine inches in length, and mentioned as one-fourth of the true size, we must consider it as a large
 CROW. 41
species. The bill is strong, somewhat less than in the Crow, though
clearly characteristic of that Genus, and black; plumage dusky
brown, with blue and reddish glosses in various parts ; the outer tail
feathers shorter than the others, and the whole of them pale at the
tips; legs strong and black.
This was met with in New-Holland, and the only one of the kind
seen there.—Mr. Lambert.
36.—KENT'S CROW.
SIZE of a Crow; length sixteen inches; breadth thirty-two.
Bill stout, two inches and half long, and black; plumage in general
brown black; the first quill three inches shorter than the second, and
this one inch shorter than the third, all these tipped with white, but
seven or eight of them marked with white within at the base ; several
of the secondaries also fringed with white at the tips; the tail is eight
inches long, all but the two middle feathers tipped with white, which
reaches to double the extent on the inner webs ; the quills, when
closed, reach full three-fourths on the tail; legs black, stout, the
middle claw furnished with a notch or tooth.
Inhabits Kent's Group in New-Holland. One of these was in the
collection of the late Gen. Davies,
37—NEW-CALEDONIAN CROW,
Corvus Caledonicus, Ind. Om. i. 154.   Gm. Lin. i. 367.   Daud. ii, 231:   Shaw's Zool.
vii. 350.
New-Caledonian Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 377.
LENGTH above fifteen inches.    Bill fourteen lines long, stout,
and black,  slightly toothed, and the end yellowish;   irides pale
 42 crow.
yellow; eyelids black ; general colour of the plumage cinereous;
except the tail, which is five inches long, and black ; legs black.
Inhabits ^few-Caledonia.   From the drawings of Sir Joseph Banks,
38—WHITE-EARED JAY.
Corvus auritus, Ind. Om. i. 160   Daud. ii. 250.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 367.
Petit Geay de la Chine, Son. Voy. ii. 188. 1.107.
Little Jay, Penn. China, p. 195.
White-eared Jay, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 83.
SIZE of the blue Jay, length eleven inches. Bill black ; irides
yellowish; the feathers round the base of the bill, the throat, and
fore part of the neck black ; top of the head bluish ash-colour, and
the feathers elongated; between the black and ash-colour on the
forehead, a few white feathers ; on the ears a large patch of white;
the colour of the body, wing coverts, and teil cinereous brown ;
quills blackish, edged with grey; tail four inches long, rounded at
the end, and bends downwards ; legs pale brown.
Inhabits China; common at Canton: seen in flocks in Dean's
Island, Wampoo River, picking up food on the mud of the shore.
A.—Length twelve inches and a half. Bill one inch, stout, and
black ; the base above covered with short velvet-like feathers, tending
to the eye on each side ; behind this, across the forehead, a narrow
white crescent; the rest of the head above, the nape, and hind part of
neck deep lead or ash-colour; beneath the eye on each side a large
patch of white feathers, covering the jaws, and meeting together on
the base of the under mandible ; the rest of the plumage, wings, =and
tail brownish olive, but the outer edges of the great quills grey ; tail
rounded, two inches and three quarters long; legs black.
Jnhabite*Chana, and<is probably a variety of theiWhite-eared Jay.
said to be remarkable for its singing.
 43
39—WHITE-CHEEKED CROW.
Corvus olivaceus, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxvi.
White-cheeked Crow, Gen. Syn.. Sup. ii. 118.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill one inch long, curved and dusky,
base bristly, and the nostrils half covered with feathers; irides straw-
colour; crown black, the feathers elongated; the rest of the head
and neck before to the breast black ; on each jaw a large white patch;
aaid on the chin and middle of the breast some mixture of white ; all
the upper parts of the body, wings, and tail olive-green ; quills rusty
brown; tail cuneiforan, dusky, the two middle feathers six inches
long, the outmost only three and a half; the two outer feathers tipped
with white; the wings reach one-third on the tail; legs brown.
Inhabits New-Holland ; differs from the White-eared Jay, in not
having the forehead whitish, nor does the white patch come so near
the eye as in that bird; besides, the tail being cuneiform, forbids
further comparison.
A.—Size of the former. Bill compressed on the sides; nostrils
imperfectly covered with reflected bristles, colour black; plumage
in general much as in the other; a lai'ge patch of white extendiaag
the whole length of the under jaw; feathers of the throat fringed
with white; breast, and beneath a'eddish brown, marbled on the
former with black and white; tail as in the other.
Inhabits New South Wales.—In the collection of Lord Stanley.
40—WAVE-BREASTED CROW,
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill stout, bent, with a small notch near
the tip, about one inch long, and the nostrils covered with feathers;
 44 crow.
tongue bifid; irides white; plumage on the upper parts brownish
olive, the shaft of each feather marked with a narrow whitish streak ;
under parts of the body dusky white, marked with numerous darker
crescents, appearing like waves; more close on the chin, throat, and
breast; wings and tail brown ; inside of the wing coverts yellowish,
marked with black ; of the quills plain, pale yellow half way from
the base; shafts of the quills and tail feathers yellowish, the latter
five inches long, even at the end; the wings, when closed, reach to
about the middle of it; legs brown, one inch and a half long, the
outer and middle toe united at the base; claws stout.
Inhabits New-Holland.—In the collection of Gen. Davies.
Another specimen was one inch shorter, the under parts yellowish
olive ; each feather margined with darker olive, but on the chin, and
neck before the colours seem indistinctly blended, or clouded.
In a third specimen, in the collection of Mr. Harrison, the chin
is plain yellowish white.
41.—NEW-GUINEA CROW.
Guinea?, Ind. Om. i. 156.  Gm. Lin. i. 371.   Daud. i
PL enl. 629.
vii. 354.
Le Choucas de la nouvelle Guinee, Buf. ii
Echenilleur, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. 1:
New-Guinea Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 381.
SIZE of a Jackdaw ; length twelve inches. Bill strong, blacks
ish: forehead, all round the bill, black, passing in a streak through
the eyes, and a little behind them; head, neck, back, and upper
part of the breast, dark ash-colour; wings dusky, edged with white;
lower part of the breast, the belly, and vent, the lower part of the
back, rump, and upper tail coverts white, transversely barred with
black; tail black; legs short, and dusky.
Inhabits New-Guinea.
 45
A.—hid. Orn. i. 156. 14. /3.    Gen. Syn. Sup. 78. No. 13.
This variety is thirteen inches long: irides reddish$'-'head and
neck bluish ash-colour; upper part of the body and wings the same,
but darker; the eye in a bed of black, lengthening behind as in the
other; breast, belly, and vent pale ferruginous; quills and tail dusky;
the last pretty long, and rounded at the end ; legs red-brown, scaly,
and rough.   •
Native place uncertain. On comparing the above with the following, or Papuan Crow; it seems not improbable that they may be
Varieties of one of the same species.
42—PAPUAN CROW.
Corvus Papuensis, Ind. Om. i. 157.    Daud. ii. 236.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 354.
Choncari de la nouvelle Guinee, Buf. iii. 81.    PL enl. 630.
Echenilleur, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxiii.—female.
Papuan Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 382.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill stout and black, top of the upper
mandible somewhat angular ; at the base a few hairs, covering the
nostrils; from thence to the eye a broad black streak ; upper parts of
plumage fine blue grey, beneath dusky-white, crossed with dusky
narrow streaks on the belly, and vent; tail five inches and half long,
blue grey; quills darker, and reach on the tail more than one-third;
legs dusky blue.
One supposed to differ in sex, is much the same as to colour, but
the trace to the eye less distinct, the under parts from the chin to the
belly crossed with fine dusky streaks; the belly and vent are plain
dusky white.
Inhabits New Guinea. I find both the above well figured among
Sir J. Anstruther's drawings of the birds of India, and the name there
 46 crow,
given is Cuperssooa. Also in the drawings of Col. Hardwicke, which
say, that they are called in Oude, Bessera; and that the male weighs
two ounces and three quarters, the female two and a quarter. Another figure in the last named drawings had the bill more strait;
general colour of the plumage as in the female, barred wholly beneath,
but the bars less numerous; lesser wing coverts blue grey, middle of
the wing white, outer parts and quills black with pale fringes; one
or more of the outer tail feathers white on the outer webs.
Found at Cawnpore.—From the above description we may suppose that these birds are subject to much variety.
n 11
43—BLACK-FACED CROW.
Corvus melanops, Ind. Orn. Snp. xxiv.
Echenilleur,  Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxi.—male
Black-faced Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 116.
LENGTH twelve inches; size of the Jay. Bill black, broad at
the base, and stout, one inch or more in length, sharp-ridged, and
furnished with a few bristles; tongue rounded at the end; whole face
from the nostrils, forehead, chin, and throat black ; plumage in
general bluish ash-colour, paler beneath ; under wing coverts, belly,
and vent white ; quills blackish, with pale edges; tail six inches and
a half long, dusky black, the two middle feathers plain, the othea's
tipped white, with most white oai the outer ones; legs dusky blue
black.
I) InhabitstiNew-Holland, and there called Kai-a-lora. Said to be a
bird of prey. Among the drawings of Mr. Lambert is one with a
bill apparently more stout; the head black for a greater space beyond
the eyes, and the plumage darker in general; tail of one colour.
One, in the collection of Gen. Davies, had the black occupying
half way on the neck before, and all but the two middle feathers
tipped with white; legs black ; toes cloven to their origin. Said to
be the male oft the last.
 47
44— BLACK-BREASTED CROW.
Corvus melanogaster, Ind. Orn. Snp. xxv.
Black-breasted Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 371.
SMALLER than the last; length ten inches. Bill black, with
a minute notch at the tip; upper parts of the plumage from the
crown to the tail coverts, and the wings, fine pale blue grey ; face
beyond the eyes, chin, throat, and breast black; the rest of the under
parts white; outer part of the wing and quills black, edged with
white ; tail and legs black.
Inhabits Port Jacksoai; has much affinity to the last.
One of these, in the collection of Lord Stanley, is one inch
longer, and the nostrils, and sides of the head, taking in the eyes,
black; beneath, to the breast, the feathers fringed on the margins
with whitish, and on the chin much more so, as to appear altogether
grey; breast and sides white, transversely barred with narrow black
lines, two on each feather; under wing coverts, belly, and vent
pure white; tail about half the length of the bird, and somewhat
forked, the outer feather being a trifle the longest; the quills reach
about three-fifths on the tail; legs black, weaker in proportion than
in the Black-faced Crow, yet may probably be a further variety.
45—WHITE-NAPED CROW.
LENGTH thirteen ariches. Bill one inch and a quarter long,
stout, strait, except at the end, where it is a trifle curved; nostrils
elongated, colour pale blue, with a dusky tip; tongue short, pointed;
plumage merely-black and white; baok.part of the neck, lower half
of the back and rump, the belly and»weata#lri*e^<oii^i<e wing
coverts a long,  curved,  broad, whiter .streak;   the tail,  which  is
 >'«l^^@^^sa«»*^p^&ia«K»^si»
rounded at the end, white for three-fourths of the length from the
base; the rest at the end black; the remaining part of the plumage is
also black ; legs ash-colour.
Inhabits New South Wales.—In the collection of Mrs. Sherard.
Known there by the name of Darrung.—General Davies.
46.—WHITE-CROWNED CROW.
s leucolophus, White-crowned Crow, Lin. Trans, vol. xi. 208. pl. 15.
LENGTH eleven inches and three quarters; size of a Jackdaw.
Bill one inch and a quarter long from the gape, and black; on each
side of the upper mandible four or five black hairs; nostrils small,
oval, not covered, but the short feathers of the front turn forwards,
and approach very near them; forehead black, passiaig to the eye,
and just surrounding it above, but beneath proceeding as a streak
behind it for more than half an inch; the rest of the head, neck,
and breast white; feathers of the crown longer than the rest, so as
to form a fine crest, and stand nearly upright; the rest of the body,
wings, and tail, ferruginous brown, and between the white on the
neck and the brown, a band of rufous, surrounding the bird; tail
four inches long, even, the feathers rounded at the end ; the quills reach
very little beyond the base; legs stout, pale ash-colour; claws large,
black, the hind one much larger than the others.
Inhabits India, by the name of Rawil-Khuy, or Rawil-Kuhy.
General Hardwicke. By the English is called the Laughing Crow ;
they assemble in numbers from twenty to fifty, and make a noise
exactly resembling many persons laughing together. This bird is
common in the forests between Hurdwar and Sireenagur; it feeds on
the fruits which it there meets with.
 49
47.-BLUE AND WHITE CROW.
Corvus cyanoleucos, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxv.
Blue and white Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 117.
RATHER smaller than a Magpie. Bill yellow brown, formed
somewhat as in the Thrush, with very few bristles at the base, and less
stout than in the Crow Tribe; the forehead, chin, and throat white;
breast, and all beneath the same; from behind the eye a streak of
white, growing broader as it passes down on each side of the neck,
at the bottom of which it bends forward to join the breast; top of
the head, all the neck behind, to beyond the middle of the back,
deep blue; wings brownish blue, the ends of the quills brown ; the
inner half of the wing coverts white, forming a broad streak ; lower
part of the back, the rump, and tail white, but the ends of the
feathers of the last are deep blackish blue; on the two middle ones
to about one-third, occupying less of the feathers as they are more
outward; tail rather long, even at the end, and the wings reach to
about three-fourths of it; legs brown.
Inhabits New South Wales, there called Karrock, met with in
April.    It is esteemed a rare species.
48—BLACK AND WHITE CROW.
Corvus melanoleucus, Ind. Orn. Sup, xxv.
Black and white Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 117.
SIZE of the last; length twenty inches. Bill and legs dusky
black; irides bluish; chin, throat, middle of the greater quills, rump,
vent; and middle of all but the two centre tail feathers, white; the
rest of the plumage black.
Inhabits New South Wales, chiefly seen in May.
VOL. III. H
 w
m
49—HOTTENTOT CROW.
'   Corvus Hottentottus, Ind. Orn. i. 156.     Lin. i. 155.     Gm. Lin. i. 364.    Bor. Nat. ii.
103.    Daud. ii. 234.    Thunb. Trav. ii. p. 11.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 351.
Monedula Cap. B. Spei, Bris. ii. 33. t. 2, f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 263.    Gerin. ii. 36. 1.148.
Choucas moustache, Buf iii. 79.    PL enl. 226.
-    Hottentot Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 380.
SIZE of a Blackbird ; length eleven inches and a quarter. Bill
black, a little bent, about the nostrils feathers like black velvet;
above them arise some long hairs, above three inches in length, and
! others shorter, and stiff like bristles, at the corners of the mouth ; the
feathers on the head, throat, and neck shiniaig black green; those on
the upper part of the neck narrow, and longer than the rest, falling-
over the back, and waving with every motion thereof; the rest of the
plumage greenish black, appearing in some lights blue ; legs black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.—M. Thuaaberg saw these sitting
on. the backs of cows at Honingklipp, and picking the ticks froan
them; they are also accustomed to take the wheat out of the field,
immediately after it is sown.
50.—SIX-SHAFTED CROW.
Corvus crinitus, Daud. ii. 253.
'■ sexsetaceus, Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 380.
Le Sicrin, Levail. Afr. ii. 127. pl. 82.
THIS, in anake, shape, and size, resembles thexAlpine Crow. Bill
yellow, inclinrntg! to orange about* the nostrilfej which are not:quited
cowerediwith hairs;^fedtheret&fkttoer/head soft,lfesn'd elongatedHinto a
sort of crest; the pluanage in general glossy black,gisaatjrlqgsdn some
lights to green oi\>t$fenwings and tail; over (the eyes fealidgtiiijus,
  ■W^V^ial^^i^^^j^g^i^Jl^sstMm^^s^i^ii^^iaB
 J.        ^
J
 w
mm in   i ...i     >    ijP1 ■liiiii' 'nn
 crow. jSt:
bounding the under part of the crest; from behind the eyesfaneadh
side, spring three long, naked shafts, ending in points, ihe shortest
seven inches in length, the secohd ten inches, and the third so tongas to reach seven inches beyond the tail ; these-^treofelaekipbut the
ends are more or less rufous; legs diisky black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hopefc-fs-M. LevaillantcfaftetiiWith (two
specimens, but could never find the Hotteaatot Crow, from all jiufc
enquiries.
51.—CRISHNA CROW.—Pl. xl.
LENGTH twelve inches and a half. Bill more than oaae inch
long, cultrated, highly bent, and notched near the end; tongue
edged with bristles ; several black ones project over the nostrils and
gape; feathers of the front erect, and from them proceed eight or
nine long black bristles, which hang down on the shoulders; irides
dark brown ; the head and neck feathers narrow, and acuminated ;
general colour of the plumage black, glossed iaa parts with green and
blue ; second and third quills nearly of equal length, the first rather
shorter; tail forked, consisting often feathers, bent towards the sides,
the outmost six inches long, has a very narrow outer web, and
towards the point turned up spirally;  legs black.
This is the Crishna Rai, and Kisheaa Rai of the Bengalese, and
an enemy to the common Crow; is named Crishna after one of the
Hindu Deities, who is represented as of a shining black colour, with
a crest on his head, having been a great warrior. It is common in
the neighbourhood of Calcutta,* and builds among the Bamboos,
living in pairs, and feeding on insects; remains there throughout the
year.—Mr. Cook, Surgeon, of Sylhet, obseives, that it is there called
* And probably in that of the Kristna, a river of Hindustan, if similarity of soandcan
bear any weight.
 Bujunga and Caprage, and that it imitates the voice of other birds,
though the natives do not allow of it. Mr. C. adds, that in the cold
season it visits the high mountains, but returns to the plains of Sylhet
at the commencement of the rains.*
Among the drawings of the late Sir J. Anstruther, I observed
two of these birds, answering to the general description. From the
forehead spring twelve or more bristles near three inches long, falling
backwards on the shoulders; irides red; in one the neck feathers
appear curled, and silky, with a green tinge; but those of the chin
and throat have a gloss of blue; hence we may siappose the two
glosses to arise from different reflections of light, but the general
colour in both black, tinged with green, perhaps arising from sex.
52 -PURPLE-HEADED CROW.
Corvus purpurascens, Ind. Orn. i. 161.    Daud. ii. 251.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 368.
Purple-headed Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 83.
BILL lead-colour; nostrils covered with feathers; plumage on
the upper parts of the body pale rufous, beneath yellow, inclining
to purple on the head; quills and tail black, the last rather long;
legs flesh-colour.
Inhabits China.—From the drawings of the late Dr. Fothergill.
53.—MACAO CROW.
Corvus Sinensis, Ind. Om. i. 161.    Daud. ii. 244.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 369.
Pie de Macao, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 187.
Macao Crow, Gen. Syn Sup. p. 84.
LENGTH  fourteen inches and a half.    Bill one inch  and a
quarter, stout, black, rather bent at the point; irides yellowish ;
* From the papers of Dr. Buchanan.—The Philippine Shrike is also known at Hindustan,
by the name of Bujunga.
 crow. 53
whole face, including the eyes, black ; hind part of the head, nape,
and neck fine ash-colour; chin, throat, sides of the neck and breast,
brown ; back the same, growing pale ash-colour towards the rump ;
belly and thighs paler ash; vent pale red ; wings black, about the
middle an irregular white spot ; tail cuneiform, the two middle
feathers seven inches long, and ash-coloured; the others black,
shortening by degrees, the outer one being only four inches and a
half; legs black.
Iaihabits India : common also about Macao, in China; chatters
like a Magpie ; is apt to vary much in plumage.
54.—PLAIN CROW.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill one inch long, a little compressed,
with a slight notch at the tip, and a few hairs at the base ; nostrils
covered with reflected bristles ; the crown, and below the eye on
each side ash-colour ; body above dusky black brown, towards the
rump ash-colour; back and wings rufous brown; beneath dusky
white; chin and throat streaked with ash-colour ; tail four inches
long, even at the end, and with its coverts ash-colour; quills dusky
with pale edges ; legs black ; the quills reach halfway on the tail.
Place and manners unknown.
55— HUNTING CROW.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill strong, upper mandible crooked
at the tip; colour orange; at the base, above the gape, fine black
bristles; nostrils covered with reflected feathers; tongue cleft; eyelids
orange; irides crimson; general colour of the plumage sky-blue,
with a tinge of verdigrise on the belly and sides ; through each eye
 54 crow.
tei!the nape aJjSfrdad black band; the feathers of the crown elongated,
so as to'jfbrm a crest at will; quills dusky, with an obscure, gilded ~
<gtess,! and a few next the body have white tips ; lesser, wing coverts
blue; the larger like the quills ; tail cuneiform, and disposed in two
rows; the feathers for two^tthirds of the length blue, then marked
ifltfr white on the inner web, after that fcdjack on both webs, with
$hfe<tips white; the two middle feathers rather pointed, have no black,
but the tips are white like the rest; legs orange, the hind toe very
strong, and armed with a much larger claw than the others. This
is the Shirgunge of the Bettgalese and Musulmans ; and inhabits the
hills of Tipperah and Sylhet. It is said to be capable of instruction,
and may be taught to hunt like a Hawk, so as to catch sanall birds ;
besides a kind of chattering like a Jay or Magpie, it has an agreeable note, and will become very tame.
A.—CoracWSinensis, Ind. Orn.i. 171.    Gm. Lin. i. 381.    Daud. ii. 265.
Galgulus Sinensis, Bris. ii. 77. t. 6. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 175.
Corvus speciosus, Shaiv's Zool. vii. 364.
Rolle de la Chine, Buf. iii. 132.    PL enl. 620,
Chinese Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 414.
Size of a Jay; length eleven inches, breadth fifteen. Bill and
irides red ; head and upper part of the body green ; through the eyes
a black stripe; under part of the body, from chin to vent yellowish
white, tinged with green; thighs grey; wing coverts olive brown;
quills the same, with a mixture of chestnut in some, and those nearest
the body tipped with white; tail five inches long, cuneiform, the
two middle feathers the colour of the back, green without, and greenish white within, after that dusky ; and lastly, greenish white at the
tips; legs pale red.—Such is the description giveai by Brisson, supposing the bird to be a Roller; but as the feathers fully cover the
nostrils, and the legs are longer than are usual, added to the great
sianilarity it bears to the Hunting Crow, we cannot but suppose it to
be a Variety of that bird.
 55
56.—BROWN CROW.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill very stout, yellow, with a notch
near the tip of the upper mandible ; nostrils covered with hairs, and
some longer than .the rest; body above pale brown, with dashes of
darker brown or blackish ; breast paler than the parts above, a little
mottled ; belly dusky white ; prime quills dusky, on the outer web
tawny, to within half aaa inch of the ends ; the inner webs the same,
but for a shorter length; the first quill very shaft; the third longest of
all; tail six inches and a half long, cuneiform, the outer feathers
being only three and a half, all of them rounded at the ends; legs
very stout, black.
I found a specimen of the above in the collectioai of Mr. Lead-
beater.
57. -BLUE JAY.
, hid. Om. i, 158.      Lin. i. 157.    Gm. Lin. i. 369.     Borowsk. ii. 102.
p. 9. A. Bartr. Tr. 286.  Daud. ii. 248.  Shaw's Zool. vii. 359. Nat. Misc. pl.313.
Garrulus Canadensis cceruleus, Rm.ii.54. t.4. f. 2.    Id-uSSFcfcii.. 170.
Garrulus  Indicus cceruleus, Robert Ic. pl. 20.
Pica glandaria cristata, Klein. Av. 61.    Rob. Ic. 1676. 1.14.
Le Geay bleu du Canada, Buf. iii. 120.    PL enl. 529.
Blue Jay, Gen. Syn. i. 386.   Arct. Zool. ii. 138.    Catesb. i. t. 15.    Edw. pl. 239. Am.
Om. i. pl. 1.
SMALLER than our Jay. Length eleven inches; breadth
fifteen inches; weight two ounces and a half. Bill black, and above
one inch long; round the base of it black; the hairs covering the
nostrils pale blue; through the eyes a black streak, passing to the
nape; above this the feathers of the head are full, and may be raised
as a crest, wlmm is blue; from thence the black streak passes forwards
to the breast, there forming a crescent; breast blossom-colour; belly
and under tail coverts white; sides of the head and throat bluish
 56 crow.
white; over the eye a spot of the same; neck behind, back, wings,
and tail blue; all the feathers of the last, except the two middle ones,
tipped with white, and nearly as long as the rest of the bird; both
wing and tail feathers elegantly barred with black; greater wing
coverts and second quills tipped with white; legs dusky brown.
The female is less bright, and the white at the end of the tail
smaller in extent.
Inhabits America, common at New York and New England in
April and May; feeding on hazel nuts, chestnuts, &c. breaking the
shells with its bill; not seen farther north than Albany; fond of
maize, and often seen in flocks of forty or fifty, which alighting on a
field of ten or twelve acres, soon lay waste the whole; sometimes
eats snails and other veamin; continues in Georgia the whole year,
but rarely uniting into flocks, as in the more northern States; hence,
although they will attack the tender ears of Indian corn, are much
less destructive thereto than the Red-Headed Woodpecker, for they
will frequently be satisfied with acorns and berries; the nest is built
in the forks of oaks and pines, lined with fibrous roots, thirty feet
from the ground or more, but concealed with so much art as to make
it difficult to find; the eggs are white.* This bird has a variety of
notes, and some musical; will learn to talk; extends to Paraguay;
observed to inhabit an extent of country more than seventy degrees
from east to west, and more than thirty from north to south.
58—STELLERS CROW.
Corvus Stelleri, Ind. Orn.i. 158. Gm. Lin. i. 370. Daud.ii.248.   Shaw's Zool. vii.365.
Pica glandaria coerulea non cristata, Bartr. Trav. 170 ?
Steller's Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 387.   Id. Sup. ii. 111.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 139.
LENGTH fifteen inches.    Bill black, at the gape  five or six
bristles ; head crested, the crest composed of narrow, brown feathers;
* Mr. Abbot—In the Amer. Omith. they are said to be dull olive spotted with brown.
 the rest of the plumage purplish black, inclining to green on the
rump; half the wing coverts brownish black, the others deep blue ;
second quills deep blue, crossed with eight or nine black bars, as in
the last species; greater quills black, edged with blue green, fore
part of the neck and breast dusky; belly and vent pale blue; tail
six inches long, cuneiform, blue, the outer feathers shorter by one
inch than the middle ones, shafts black; legs black.
Inhabits North America, in the woods of Nootka Sound ;* Steller
was the first who noticed this species, being shot there when Bering's
Crew landed upoaa Aanerica. Mr. Bartram anet with a bird in the
journey between the lower trading house and Rock Point, supposed to
be no other thaaa this. He says, it is of an azure blue, no crest on
the head, nor so large as the blue Jay of Virginia, but equally
clamorous in the clumps and coverts.
59—CHATTERING CROW.
Ind. Orn. i. 154;     Gm
. 367.    Daud. ii. 230.   Shaw's Zool,
i. 345.
Cornix Jamaicehsis, Bm. ii. p. 22.    Id. 8vo. i. 160.
Comix nigra garrula, Raii Syn. 181. Sloan. Jam. 298.
Corneille de la Jamaique,    Buf iii. p. 67.
Chattering Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 377.
>j Jam.473. Klein Av.b9,
SIZE of a common Crow. Length eighteen inches. Bill one
inch and a half long, black; plumage in general, also the legs, black.
Inhabits the north side of the mountains of Jamaica; makes a
chattering noise, different from that of the European Crow, and is
thought not to be strictly the same bird ; it feeds on berries, beetles,
&c. and by some esteemed good meat; is probably found in Georgia,
* A Bird, not greatly differing, was met with in New Caledoi
not half so big; the feathers tinged with blue.—Cook's Voy. ii,
ia, described as a kind of Crc
124.
 58 crow.
as Mr. Abbot mentions a Crow seventeen inches long, thirty-one
inches and a half broad; the bill one inch and three-quarters long;
and observes, that the wings reach within one inch of the end of the
tail. He adds, that it makes great havock in the fields, by pulling up
the corn and maize, when they first spring from the ground, sometimes in flocks, destroying the green or roasting ears. It also sucks
birds eggs, and those of the great Land Tortoise, called Gopher, which
are laid in the earth, at the entrance of their dens; is certainly distinct
from the Carrion Crow, as Dampier* talks of that, and the Chattering
Crow,f as two distinct species; both are said to be called, at Brazil,
Mackeraw.
60.—DOWNY CROW.
Corvus leucognaphalus, Daud. ii. 231.    Damp. Voy. p. 81.
SIZE and shape of the Chattering Crow, and the plumage as in
that bird, of a full deep black, aaid furnished with fine white down
at the base of the feathers; tail rounded, and reaching but little
beyond the wings when closed.
Inhabits Porto Rico.    A specimen of one is in the Museum at
Paris; it is probably allied to, if not the same as, the last described.
61—FISH CROW.
Corvus ossifragus, Fish Crow, Amer. Om. v. p. 27. pl. 37. f. 2.
THIS is sixteen inches long, and thirty-three in extent of wing;
the upper mandible notched near the tip, and the edges of both
! Voy.3. p. 73.
t The Ani is also called the Chattering Crc
 crow. 59
turned inwards about the middle, with large and long recumbent
hairs or bristles; irides dark hazel; plumage wholly black, with
reflections of steel-blue and purple; the chin bare of feathers round
the base of the under mandible; first quill feather little more than
half the length; the fourth the longest, which reaches to within two
inches of the end of the tail; this last is rounded, seven inches long.
Bill and legs black.
Inhabits North America, observed first on the sea coast of Georgia,
approaching the shores of the river Savannah by break of day,
retiring to the interior as evening caane on. Its food dead fish or
other garbage, that floated on the surface of the water, and which it
picked up on the wing, by means of the claws ; will also perch on
the backs of cattle like the magpie; is seen sometimes to pick up
small lizards, while they are swimming with their heads above the
water ; this sort never mixes with the common Crows, and is supposed,
by Mr. Wilson, to be a new and undescribed species; both from the
manners and voice, which is more hoarse and guttural than in the
common Crow; seen near Philadelphia, from the middle of March to
the beginning of June; they build in tall trees, near the sea or shore,
and from the circumstance of six or seven being usually seen together
in July, it is probable that they have four or five young at a time.
The male and female are much allied to each other.
62—PERUVIAN  JAY.
, Ind. Orn. i. 161.    Gm. Lin. i. 373.    Daud. ii. 249.    Shaw's Zool.
Geay de Perou, Buf. iii.
i Jay, Gen. Syn._
PL enl. 625.
Nat. Misc. V. 6. pl. 213.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill dusky; forehead, and a patch on
each jaw, fine blue ; back part of the head, from the eye to behind
the neck, whitish; sides of the neck under the eye, the chin, throat,
 and breast black, the feathers appearing like velvet; from thence to
the vent yellow ; back, wings, and two middle tail feathers green,
the others yellow; shape of the tail cuneiform, pretty long; legs
dusky. Inhabits Peru.
63— PARAGUAN JAY.
L'Acahe, Voy. d'Azra, iii. No. 53.
THIS is thirteen inches' and a half long. Bill black, strong,
and strait, nostrils covered with feathers; the top and sides of the
head black, soft, and velvety ; a pale blue patch on the hind head,
reaching an inch on the neck ; another over the eye like an eyebrow,
a third on the lower eyelid, and a fourth at the base of the under
anandible; the top and sides of the head, whole neck, all the upper
parts and tail deep blue, end of the last white ; under parts of the
body yellow in the male, and whitish in the female ; legs black.
M. D'Azara thinks this to be the Peruvian Jay, but M. Sonnini
esteems it distinct, and a new species ; it certainly differs from that
bird in many points, baat possibly may be an incomplete specianen.
It is said to be common in Paraguay; comes near habitations,
and is often domesticated; the nest is not known, but a pair in
confinement produced eggs, which were whitish, inclining to dull
blue at the large end, and every where spotted with brown.
64—YELLOW-BELLIED JAY.
Corvus flavigaster, Ind. Orn. i. 162.    Gm. Lin. i. 373.
Le Garlu, ou Geay a Ventre jaune, Buf. iii. 119:    PL enl. 249.
Yellow-bellied Jay, Gen. Syn. i. 392.
LENGTH nine inches.    Bill stout, dusky black ; plumage on
the upper parts of the body greenish brown, darker on the head and
 CROW. 61
nape; chin white, from thence to vent yellow; down the middle of
the crown a golden yellow streak; over each eye, from the nostrils, a
streak of white; wings and tail reddish brown, margins of the
feathers paler;  legs slender, short, and lead-coloured.
Inhabits Cayenne. We have hitherto only seen figures of this
bird, and it may admit of a doubt, whether it is different from the
Brazilian Shrike; for if we compare Nos. 213 & 249, of the Pl. enlum.
very little difference will appear as to distribution of colours, however
essentially they may be from each other in the bill; we are certain,
from a specimen in our possession of the former, that this part in the
Pl. enlum. is much exaggerated, nor does the bill in 249, convey any
other idea than belonging to the Crow Genus ; hence we can only
recoanmend the two birds in question to future investigation.
65—LESSER MEXICAN CROW.
Corvus Zanoe, Ind. Om. i. 164.    Gm. Lin. i. 375.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 367.
Sturnus Zanoe, Daud. ii. 319.
Pica Mexicana minor, Bris. ii. 44.    Id. 8vo. i. 167.
Tzanahoei, Raii. 162.    Buf. iii. 106.
Lesser Mexican Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 397.
SIZE of a Magpie. Bill black; plumage in general blackish,
but the head and neck incline to fulvous; tail very long; legs black.
Inhabits Mexico, has the manners and cunning of the Magpie,
learning to talk like that bird; said to cry like a Starling, from
which circumstance, we may suppose, M. Daudin thought fit to place
it in that Genus.
 66—CINEREOUS CROW.
. 376.    Daud. ii. 250;
Co
Canadensis, Ind. Or
. 160.
Li;
158.
Gm. Lin
,i. 3'
Sh,
iw's Zool. vii. 365.
Am
■er. Orn. iii.
pl,
, 21. f.
1.
Ga
rruh
is Canadensis fuscus,
Bi
•is. ii.
54. 1
:. 4.
f. 2.
Id. 8vo. 1
L 17(
Geayb)
run de Canada, Buf.
iii.
117.
Pl.
enl.
530.
Cinereous Crow, Gen. Syn.
i. 389.
Id.S
ii. 112.
Arct.
Zool.
Trans, lxii. 386.
LESS than the Jay, length ten inches and half; breadth fifteen ;
weight two ouaices and a half. Bill blackish; irides dark hazel;
forehead and throat dirty yellowish white; hind head and sides
blackish brown; neck whitish ; upper parts of the body, wings, and
tail browaa, the last somewhat cuneiform, and tipped with white;
under parts of the body pale ash, lighter coloured on the breast;
legs blackish.
Male and female much alike. The plumage of this species,
especially about the head, is very soft, and loose-webbed, and so full,
as to prove a very warm covering.
Inhabits Canada, and breeds there early in the spring, chiefly in
the pine trees ; laying three or four blue eggs, and the youaig fly in
May ; is not gregarious; feeds on moss, worms, and flesh ; mostly
seen in pairs throughout the year ; are bold, pilfering birds, stealing
from the traveller even salted aneat; devour the baits from the traps
set for the Martins; said to lay up stores for the winter, when they
approach habitations; do not bear confinement well, nor are the
natives desirous of it, as they detest the bird. The natural note said
to be like that of the Baltimore Oriole; and like our Jay, it will
imitate others, so as to deceive many ; very frequeait about Hudson's
Bay, and known there by the aaame of Whiskijohn, and Whiskijack ;
seen more often on the ground than on trees; is for the most part
solitary, being rare to meet with two or three together.
 63
67.—CAYENNE JAY.
Corvus Cayanus, Ind. Om. i. 160.  Lin. i. 157.   Gm. Lin. i. 370.  Daud. ii.242.  Shaw's
Zool. vii. 360.
Garrulus Cayanensis, Bris. ii. 52. t. 4. f. 1.    Id: 8vo. i. 169.
Geay de Cayenne, Buf iii. 118.    PL enl. 373.
Cayenne Jay, Gen. Syn. i. 388.    Id. Sup. ii. p. 80.
SIZE of our Jay; length thirteen inches. Bill grey, round the
base of it, the forehead, cheeks, throat, and lower part of the neck
black ; on each side of the head three spots of white ; back, wings,
and tail violet, with a tinge of ash-colour ; tail rounded, violet:, with
brown edges, and white tips ; the two middle feathers violet brown ;
legs grey.
Inhabits Cayenne.—In Brisson's figure, the white spots are
blended into one, and form a curved patch of white from the eye to
the chin on each side ; and in a specimen in the Leverian Museum,
the whole space in front is black, except a small perpendicular dash
of white under the eye.
68— SURINAM CROW.
Corvus argyropthalmus, Ind. Orn. i. 164.    Gm. Lin. i. 369.    Jacq. Vog. t. 1.    Shaw's
Zool. vii. 366.
Corvus Surinamensis, Gm. Lin. i. 375.
Surinam Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 397.    Id. Sup. 81.    Brotvn III. t. 10.
SIZE of a Crow. Bill dusky; Head deep brown; at the back
of it rich blue, beneath that pale green; under each ear, and on the
hind part of the neck, a spot of the same; neck, breast, belly, and
wing coverts deep changeable green; prime quills dusky, the ends
rich blue; tail dusky; legs flesh-colour.
 I
64 crow.
According to Jacquin, the general colour of the plumage is
black; irides silvery; above and beneath the eye a blue spot; breast
and outer part of the wing, the colour of Prussian blue; tip of the
tail white; bill and legs black.
The first mentioned was in the collection of the late Mr. Tunstall;
the latter said to inhabit Carthagena, in South America, and there
called Oiseau de Plata; has a monotonous voice, frequents woods,
is easily tamed, and often kept in houses.
69—CLARK'S CROW.
Corvus Columbianus, Clark's Crow, Amer. Orn. iii. pl. 20. f. 2.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill dark brown; the general colour
of the head, neck, and body, light silky drab, darkening almost to a
Dove-colour on the breast and belly, vent white; the wings, two
middle tail feathers, and inner vanes of the next, except at the tip,
black, glossed with steel blue ; the second quills except three next
the body, white for one inch at the extremities, forming a large bed
of white, when the wing is closed; tail rounded, yet the two middle
feathers are shorter than those adjoining, all the rest pure white; legs
black; claws hooked, particularly the middle and hiaader one; the
quills, when closed, reach to the end of the tail.
Said to inhabit the banks of Columbia, and country adjacent,
in great numbers; frequenting the river and sea shore, wheie it probably feeds on fish. It greatly resembles our Jackdaw, but the claws
are formidable, and most likely enable it to strike living animals.
 65
70.—BLUE-TAILED CROW.
Turdus cyanurus, Ind. Om. i. 361.    Gm. Lin. i. 818.
Corvus cyanurus, Shaw's Zool. vii. 384. pl. 47.
L'Azurin, Buf. iii. 410.    Id. iv. 470.
Merle de la Guiane, PL enl. 355.
Pitta, Breve, Tern. Man. Ed. ii.   Anal. p. lvii.
Blue-tailed Thrush, Gen. Syn. iii. 88.    Nat. Misc. pl. 617.
LARGER than a Blackbird. Length eight inches and a half.
Bill one inch, brown; top of the head to the nape black ; from the
nostrils over the eye, an orange band, meeting at the neck behind;
from the gape springs a broad stripe of black, including the eye,
and passing oai each side of the neck to the back; scapulars and
adjoining wing coverts reddish brown ; but those next the outer parts
and quills are black, except the greater whig coverts, which have
white tips, forming an oblique indented band on the wing ; tail only
two inches and a half long, cuneiform, blue ; all the under parts of
the body, from the breast, transversely striped alternate yellow and
blue; legs brown.
Inhabits Guiana.
A.—This variety differs a little from the former; the crown is
black ; over the eye a yellow streak, changing at the back part into
orange; through the eye abroad black band ; beneath this, from the
chin, a broad yellow one passing backwards on the sides of the neck;
upper parts of the body rufous brown ; all beneath from the throat
pale blue, nearly white; on the sides of the breast several curved
orange lines; wings black ; on the outer edge, near the bend, a
patch of white, and a few of the second quills have the ends white;
tail as in the other, blue; legs long, brown.
 w
mm-mmmm&sms&K-
66
B.—In the collection of the late General Da vies we observed a
further variety; length eight inches. Bill brownish yellow; crown
chestnut, paler over each eye, nearly orange; through the eye black;
chin and throat buff-colour;' across the throat, above the breast, a
band of blue black, arising at the nape; plumage above brown ;
five or six of the outer wing coverts black, with an oblique, longish
spot at the tip of each, on the outer web; greater quills dusky ; tail
cuneiform, the two middle feathers brown, the others blue; side
coverts blue; legs one inch and a half in length; thighs three-
quarters of an inch ; colour brown ; outer and middle toe connected
to the first joint.—It has hitherto been a doubt where to fix this
bird, partaking so much of both the Thrush and Crow as to create
a difference of opinion among authors. We have now placed it with,
the Crows, led thereto by the opinion of Dr. Shaw; in addition to
which, M. Temminck prefers making it into a separate Genus, and
taking in the short-tailed under the name of Pitta, or Breve.
C—Myiothera affinis, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 154.
THIS is smaller than the last, being no more than seven inches and
a half in length; the colour of the plumage above is rufous brown;
beneath the body pale fulvous, with numerous violet bands; chin pale;
cheeks black; continued in a broad streak on each side of the neck ;
throat divided from the breast by a band of black, terminated posteriorly
with blue in the male, and with dusky grey in the female; the
upper part of the head in that sex is nearly the colour of the back,
and the lateral stripes testaceous chestnut; on the wings an irregular
band of white, formed as in the first described, from the tips of the
coverts being of that colour.
Inhabits Java, known there by the name of Punglor.
 67
71.—SHORT-TAILED CROW.
Corvus brachyurus, Ind. Orn. i. 166.    Lin. i. 158.    Gm. Lin. i. 375.    Shaw's Zool. vii.
385. t. 48.    Nat. Misc. pl. 553.
Merula viridis Moluccensis, Bris. ii. 316. t. 32. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 246.
Breve de Bengale, Buf. iii. 414.    Pl. enl. 258.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lvii.—Pitta.
Short-tailed Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 398.
SIZE of a Blackbird ; length seven inches. Bill grey brown,
corners of the anouth orange ; irides whitish; head and throat black;
over the eye a fulvous stripe ; hind part of the neck, the back and
scapulars fine green : all beneath fulvous, under the wings black;
lesser wing coverts shining blue green ; quills black, on the six first a
white spot about the middle; tail aaot above one inch long, black,
tipped with green ; legs dirty red.
Inhabits the Molucca Isles.
A.—Merula viridis atricapilla, Bris. ii. 319. pl. 32. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 246.
Breve des Philippines, Buf. iii. 413.    Pl. enl. 89.    Gen. Syn. i. 398. A.
This is rather smaller, has the plumage more or less green in
parts, but differs in having the whole of the head and neck black ;
the under parts not fulvous, but pale gi'een, the lower belly black,
with the tips of the feathers rose-colour.    Bill and legs brown.
Found with the former.
B.—Coturnix Capenis, Klein. Av. 115.
La Breve, Buf. iii. 413.
Madras Jay, Raii Syn. 195. 12. t. 1. f. 10.
Short-tailed Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 399. 37. B.    Edw. pl. 324.   Nat. Misc. pl. 353.
In this variety the head is not black, but marked merely with
three black stripes, one from the forehead, passing over the crown
 TW
and nape to the back, and one on each corner of the mouth
down the sides of the neck ; over the eye an orange brown stripe,
a white line through the eye, and a second under the black line oai
the sides of the neck; plumage on the back and wings green, inclining to blue on the lesser wing and tail coverts ; beneath from chin to
vent buff-colour; towards the vent reddish ; quills and tail black ;
the former white in the middle, with yellowish or white tips, the
latter with green.    Bill flesh-colour; legs reddish yellow.
Inhabits India.—One of these in General Hardwicke's drawings,
met with at Futtehghur, in June, called Norunga; is also found at
Ceylon.
C—Breve de Madagascar, Buf. iii. 414.
Merle des Moluques, PL enl. 2571   Gen. Syn, i. 399. C.
The head in this variety is blackish brown at the top, with a little
yellow at the back and sides, bounded by a crescent of black,
encircling the neck behind; also two bands of the same, passing
beneath the eyes, and terminating at the corners of the mouth ;
breast white and yellow; beneath the body yellow brown; wings
as in Var. A.    Tail tipped with blue green.
D.—Turdus triostegus, Mus. Carls, fasc. iv. 84.
Short-tailed Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 115. G.
In this bird the head and nape are dull green, with stripes of
black, as in Var. B, but that at the angle of the mouth is bifid ;
beneath from the chin buff-colour; towards the vent rose-colour;
shoulders blue, also the ends of the tail feathers; on the quills a
patch of White as in the others.
£f. Thunberg brought ^fliis from «o®e of the East India Islands.
 E.—Breve de Malacca, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 190. 1.110.
Short-tailed Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 81. 37. D.
This varies chiefly in having the head and back part of the neck
black ; over the eye a greenish streak, bounded beneath with blue;
chin white; fore part of the neck and back green; belly rufous,
vent red.
Inhabits Malacca.
F:—Breve de Malabar, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 191.    Gen. Syn. Sup. 82.
This differs principally in having the head and neck black; down
the crown a longitudinal rufous stripe; breast pale rufous; belly,
thighs, and vent red.
Found on the coast of Malabar.
G.—Short-tailed Crc
. Syn. Sup. p 82. F.
The crown in this variety is rusty-brown ; through the eye, and
round the head a streak of black ; under this a collar of white; the
upper parts of the body green, the under white; on the middle of
the belly a red spot; vent crimson ; quills black; tail green, tipped
with black ; legs pale red.
Inhabits China—from the drawings of the late Dr.Fothergill.
Independent of the above, we have observed some other distinctions of less note, and therefore not worth discriminating; serving,
however, to shew the great variety of this species, all of which are
beautiful. Whether they may be more allied to the Thrushes, as
some suspect, than to the Crows, is notteasily to be determined, as
their manners are as yet imperfectly known. In some India
drawings one of  these is   called Gooda.
 (T
70
GENUS XVI.—ROLLER.
1 Garrulous Rollei
2 Bengal R.
A Spotted R.
3 Indian R.
4 Long-tailed R.
5 Senegal R.
6 Abyssinian R.
A Var.
B Var.
7 Pacific R.
8 Oriental R.
9 Specious R.
10 Cape R.
11 Madagascar R.
12 Blue-striped R.
13 Black R.
14 African R.
A Var.
15 Black-headed R.
16 Docile R,
17 Varied R.
18 Striated R.
19 Streaked R.
20 Hairy R.
21 Mexican R.
22 Cayenne R.
23 Piping R.
24 Pied R.
25 Noisy R.
26 Fairy R.
AN this Genus the bill is strait, bending towards the tip,   edge
cultrated.
Nostrils narrow, and naked.
Legs, for the most part, short.
Toes placed three before and one behind, divided to their origin.
1.—GARRULOUS ROLLER.
>9. Faun. Suec. No.94. Gm. Lin.
Muller.No.94. Bor. Nat.ii. 111.
172.     Shaw's Zool. vii.  388.  t. 50.
Coracias Garrula, 7nd. Orn. i. 168.   Lin. Syst. i.
i. 378.    Scop. Ann.i. No.44.    Brun. No. 35.
1.10,     Daud. ii. 257.     Bechst. Deutsch. ii.
Tern. Man. d'Orn: p. 78.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 126.
Coracias ccerulea, Gerin. ii. 1.153.    Id. p. 45. 1.164.
Galgulus, Bris.ii. 64. t.5. f. 2.    Id. Svo.i. 173.    Sch.el. t. 35.
Comix ccerulea Gesneri, Raii Syn. p. 49.    Will. p,85.
Pica marina, Rati Syn. p. 41.    Will. p. 89.
Garrulns Argentoratensis, Raii Syn. p.41. 3.     Will. 89. t. 20.     Klein..
Stem. t.12. f. 3. a. b.   Id. Ov. t. 8. f. 1.    Frisch. t. 57.
Die blaue Rache, oder der gemeine Birkheher, Schmid Vog. p. 46. t. 32.
Nussheer, Mandel Haher, Wirs. Vog. t. 5.    Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. 1.14.
———— Mandelkrahe, Naturf. ix. s. 45.
 ROLLER.
71
Gazza marine, Zinnan. Uov. 68. 1.10. f. 59.
Rollier, Buf. iii. 135. t. 70.    Pl. enl. 486.
Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 406. Id. Sup. p. 85. Br. Zool. App. pl. 2. Id. Ed. 1812. i. p,
300. pl. 38. Edw. pl. 109. Will. Engl. 131. pl. 20. Arct. Zool. ii. 235. G,
Bewick. Birds,i. pl. p. 85. Donov. Br. Birds,ii. pl.33. Lewin. Birds,ii. pl. 42.
Walcot, i. pl. 41.    Orn. Diet.
SIZE of a Jay; length thirteen inches, breadth two feet three
inches. Bill black, one inch and a half long, strait, hooked at the
point, beset with bristles at the base, but not covering the nostrils ;
space about the eyes somewhat bare; irides of two circles, brown
and grey ; the head, neck, breast, and belly are light bluish green ;
back and scapulars reddish browai; coverts, on the ridge of the wing,
rich blue, beneath them pale green; upper part and tips of the
quills dusky, the lower parts fine deep blue; rump the same; tail
forked, light blue; the outer feather tipped with black above, and
beneath with deep blue; the same with such parts of the quill feathers
as are black above; the other tail feathers are dull green; legs short,
and of a dirty yellow. The female has the head, neck, breast, and
belly ash-grey, with little gloss, nor in that sex any where so
brilliant as the male, which does not come to the complete plumage
till the second year,
This bird is sufficiently common in many parts of Europe, in
anost of which it is migratory. To the northward it is found in
Sweden and Denmaa'k; also met with in Russia, but only from the
southern parts to the neighbourhood of the Irtish,* and none farther
to the east; has a screaming voice, like a Magpie, or Jackdaw; said
to build on birch trees, in preference to any others, laying as far as
five eggs, of a clear ga'een, sprinkled with innumerable dark specks;
will also build in the holes of old oaks ;t the chief food is iaisects.
In Germany, Malta, and Sicily, these birds are so common, as to be
sold in the markets and poulterers shops, for they are accounted good
food, the flesh tasting like that of the Turtle; has been called the
 !~>i»»»^\^X~®».
72 ROLLER.
Strasburg Jay, but for what reason it as not easy to say, since it is
very scarce there. Adanson says,* they come to reside for some
months of the summer in the south parts of Europe, going back to
spend the remainder of the year at Senegal, where they are sometimes
seen in flocks, with the Cardinal Sparrows. In its passage from
Barbary to Europe, it frequently rests for some time at Gibraltar,
though not in great numbers; and in respect to England, it is very
rarely seen, not more than two or three ever having been met with.f
On the Continent is often found in tilled grounds, with Rooks, and
other birds, searching for worms, small seeds, and roots, X and will
sometimes make the nest in holes in the ground ; the nest said to be
filthy, from the young evacuatiaig themselves therein, whence it has
by some been said to make the nest of excrements. This, perhaps,
is the Shagarag of Shaw,§ which he met with in Barbary; about
the size of a Jay; body bi*own; head, neck, and belly, light green ;
wings and tail spotted with blue; and is probably the bird which
Russel found at Aleppo. ||
2.—BENGAL ROLLER.
Coracias Bengalensis, Ind. Orn. i: 168.     Lin. Syst. i.   159.     Gm. Lin. i. 380.     Bor.
Nat ii. 112.    Daud. ii. 259.    Nat. Misc. t. 273;    Shaw's Zool. vii. 390.
Galgulus Mindanoensis, Bris. ii. 69. t. 6. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 174.
Rollier de Mindanao, Cuit, Buf. iii. 144.    Pl. enl. 285.
Jay from Bengal, Alb. i. pl, 17
Bengal Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 410.
LENGTH twelve inches and a half.    Bill blackish; top of the
head green, verging to blue near the eyes; hindpart of the neck
* Adans. Voy. f Br. Zool.    Once killed in Sussex.—Lin. Trans, p. 14.
X Also beetles and frogs.—Faun. Suec. § Trav. p. 251.
|| A kind of Jay, beautifully variegated with blue, green, and a sort of brown.—Russel.
Alep. p. 70.
 ROLLER. 73
fulvous, tinged with violet; back and scapulars• the same; with a
gloss of green and olive; lower part of the back and rump blue,
mixed with green; throat rufous white; cheeks and fore part of the neck
violet, dashed with bluish white down the shafts; breast rufous,
inclining to violet: belly, sides, thighs, under wing and tail coverts
blue green ; lesser wing coverts deep blue; the greater outer ones
blue grey; those of the aniddle blue and green mixed; the five first
quills deep blue ; the middle of the outer webs blue green ; tail even,
the two aniddle feathers dull green, tinged with blue down the shafts ;
the rest blue for one-third from the base, then blue green, with blue
tips; legs grey.
Inhabits Bengal, and the Isle of Mindanao, where it is called
Cuit. It anay be suspected, that this is related to the following
species, for the reasons therein given.
One of these met with at Mosambique, by Mr. Salt.
1
A.—Coracias Bengalen sis, Ind. Om. i. p. 168, 2 var^
Rollier tachete, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 258.
Spotted Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 120. var.
Size of the Common Roller; length thirteen inches. Bill black;
head rufous, with a whitish mixture in the face; general colour of
the plumage rufous, tinged with dirty green on the back, aiad
inclining to red beaaeath, marked with a longitudinal white stripe
on each feather; wings dull, pale green ; quills sky-blue; tail rufous
brown, pretty long, and the feathers of equal lengths; legs dusky.
A specimen of this bird is in the Museum at Paris, brought from
Senegal by M„ Geoffroy de Villeneuve. It has been also killed in
Caffraria, by M. Levaillant. It is probably a young bird of the
Bengal Roller.
 3—LONG-TAILED ROLLER.
169.    Lin. Syst.i. 160.    Gm. Lin.i. 380.    Bor. Nat
Coracias caudata, hid. Of
112.    Daud. ii. 260.
Coracias Angolensis, Shaw's Zool. vii. 394. t.51.
Galgulus Angolensis, Bris. ii. 72. -pl. 7. f. 1.    Id.
Rollier d*Angola, Buf. iii. 144.    PL enl. 88.
Long-tailed Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 409.
. 174.
LENGTH fifteen inches and a half. Bill blackish; hindhead
and neck green; back and scapulars fulvous, glossed with green ;
wing coverts, lower part of the back, and rump fine blue; throat,
neck before, and breast violet, the feathers on the two first marked with
a streak of white down the shafts; belly, sides, thighs, under wing,
and tail coverts sea-green; quills the same for half the length, the
remainder deep blue on the outer webs; shafts and inner webs black;
tail feathers even at the end, except the outmost, which is twice the
length of the others; the two middle ones are deep green ; the others
blue-green, and the outer one, as far as it is longei? than the rest,
deep blue; legs grey.
Inhabits Angola, in Africa, and probably differs from the last
only in sex, in being a young male, which does not gain the
elongated outer tail feathers till the second year.
4—INDIAN ROLLER.
Coracias Indica, Ind. Om. i. 170.     Lin. i. 159.     Gm. Lin. i. 378.     Daud. ii. 262.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 390.
Blue Jay from the East Indies, Edw. pl. 326.
Indian Roller, Gen*Syn.i. 412.
LENGTH eleven inches.    Bill black; crown of the head blue
green; throat, neck, breast, and back- reddish brown; sides of the
 ROLLER. 75
head and throat darkest, streaked with white; rump, tail, and under
parts, from the breast, fine blue; tail even, the two aniddle feathers
green, the outer ones blue at the bottom and tips, and sea-green in
the middle; wiaags green and blue.
Iaahabits Ceylon, and various parts of India ; not imfreqnent on
the Coast of Coromandel. Seems to be greatly allied to the Bengal
Roller, if not the same bird.
A.—This measures also eleven inches. Crown of the head
furnished with loose feathers of a fine light verditer green; the rest
of the head and neck deep blue black; those of the chin and sides
narrow, and pale blue; back and second quills deep green; wing
coverts and outer part of the wing deep blue; quills dusky, edged
with blue; under parts of the body blue; rump the same, but
brilliant; tail three inches long, the two middle feathers deep blue
black, the outer ones more or less paler blue; legs stout, short, and
yellow-brown; claws black.
This, in many points, agrees with the last descriptioaa, but appears
to be a stouter bird.
5.—SENEGAL ROLLER.
Coracias Senegala, Ind. Orn. i. 169.    Gm. Lin.i. 379.    Daud. ii. 261.
 albifrons, Shaw's Zool. vii. 392.
Rollier du Senegal, Buf iii. 143.    Pl. enl. 326.
Swallow-tailed Indian Roller, Ediv. pl. 327.
Senegal Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 408.
LESS than a Jay. Bill black; the whole face, as far as the
eyes, white; head, neck, and under parts of the body, upper parts
of the wings and tail bluish sea-green; shoulders and quills deep
blue; the outer feathers exceed the others in length, as in the
last described.
Inhabits Senegal.
 n
11
6—ABYSSINIAN ROLLER.
Coracias Abyssinica, Ind. Om. i. 169.    Gm. Lin.i. 379.    Daud. ii. 260.
Rollier d'Abyssinie, R«/. iii. 143.    P/. enl. 626.
Sheregrig, Bruce's Tray. App. pl. in p. 182.
Abyssinian Roller, Gen. Syn.i. 404.
LENGTH eighteen inches. Head, to beyond the eyes, white;
the rest of the head, neck, and wing coverts, fine green; shoulders,
quills, and rump blue; back, and second quills orange brown; tail
as in the last described, and the general colours of the bird very
brilliant.
Inhabits Abyssinia, and seems to vary but little from the Senegal
Species, and perhaps not sufficiently distinct from the two preceding.
Mr. Bruce calls this Sheregrig, and the Senegal one is named
Shagarag, which appears to be the Barbary name for Rollers in
general, therefore ought not to be appropriated to one species.
A.—Length, to the end of the shorter tail feathers, eight inches, but
to that of the exterior ones three inches and a half more. Bill dusky .
head, neck, and breast pale ferruginous, or testaceous brown, with
paler streaks; back black, or very dark brown ; from the breast, all
the under parts and thighs fine blue; wing coverts the same, but
black down the middle; the middle of the wing pale blue; quills
deep blue, within black, the outer margins more or less pale blue •
tail pale blue, the feathers two inches and a half in length, except
the outmost on each side, which is three inches longer; legs dusky
yellow.    From the drawings of Mr. Woodford.
B.— One, similar to this, in the collection of General Davies, had
the head and neck, to the breast, pale greenish grey, the feathers
 ROLLER. 77
appearing streaked; back deep brown ; wing coverts fine deep blue;
on the middle of the wing a pale blue, irregular patch ; rest of the
quills deep blue, changing to black near the ends; under parts from
the breast deep blue; tail bluish sea-green, with two elongated
outside feathers, as in the last described; bill black, with a band of
black passing through the eyes, and ending in a point behind;
legs stout, black.
7.-PACIFIC ROLLER.
Pacific Rollei
ca, Ind. Orn. Sup;
371.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill and legs red; head and neck
chestnut; down the middle of the chin and throat black, bounded
on each side with a line of white; the lower part of the neck, from
the chestnut, changes to green, and from thence all beneath paler
green ; wings fine blue; base of the quills white, forming a spot
when expanded ; rump, and upper tail coverts, green ; the tail, and
ends of the quills, dusky blue black.
Inhabits Port Jackson, in New South Wales.
8. -ORIENTAL ROLLER.
Coracias Orientalis, Ind. Om. i. 170.     Lin. i. 159.     Gm. Lin. i. 379.     Daud. ii. 261.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 403.
Galgulus Indicus, Bris. ii. 75. t. 7. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 175.
'   Golaris Orientalis, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 162.
Rollier des lndes, Buf. iii. 147.    Pl. enl. 619.
Colaris, Rolle,  Tern. Man. Anal. p. liii.
Oriental Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 411.    Nat. Misc. pl. 509.
SIZE of a Jay; length ten inches and a half, breadth twenty-two.
Bill pale yellow, broad at the base, and more hooked than in any of
 nmwasaK^
78 ROLLER.
the Genus; bead, and neck behind, brown; back, rump, scapulars,
wing and tail coverts, green brown; throat fine blue, down the shaft
of each leather a pale line; rest of the under parts blue green ; quills
mixed blue and black, on the middle a pale blue spot; wings- longer
than usual, reaching almost to the end of the tail, which is short,
and even at the end; the two middle feathers green at the base, the
rest of the length black, the others first blue, then green, with black
ends; legs yellowish; claws black,
Inhabits the East Indies. One of these, said to be a female,
measured twelve inches in length. Bill and legs red; plumage in
general brownish blue ; top of the head nearly brown; middle of the
chin deep blue, shafts of the feathers pale; wings, except the coverts,
blue green ; quills dusky, on the middle of the six outer a patch of
glowing, pale, greenish blue; tail even, four inches and a half long,
the base half dull blue, the rest dusky to the tip.
9.—SPECIOUS ROLLER.
AMONG the drawings of Mr. Woodford is a Roller, which I
cannot exactly liken to any other. The bill black; crown of the
head, and nape, pale dull green, streaked with brown; chin, throat,
and sides under the eyes, streaked yellowish, rufous, and brown;
back and scapulars rufous brown; ruanp hoary blue green; breast
rufous, from thence, to the vent and thighs, pale green; shoulders
of the wings fine blue, the rest of the covei'trmixed pale blue, the
inner green; beyond this again deep blue; quills deep blue, but
several of the outer ones pale on the outer margins in the aniddle; the
tail three inches in length, nearly even, the two middle feathers pale
brown, the others deep blue, crossed about the middle with a broad
bar of pale blute^peen^ legs rufous yellow.
 ROLLER. 79
A second of these answered to the same description, with the
addition of two elongated feathers of double the length of the others,
and these are green. How far the above birds have connexion with
other long-tailed Rollers, I am at a loss to determine, but certainly
they do not exactly coincide with any. In the wings and outer tail
feathers they are most like the Bengal Species.
10—CAPE ROLLER,
Coracias Caffra, Ind. Om. i. 170.     Lin. i. 159.     Gm. Lin. i. 379,     Daud. ii. 262.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 398.
Cape Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 412.
THIS bird is said to be blue, with the outer edges of the quills
luteous.    The female of a bluish black.
This very slight description, given by Linnaeus, informs us in
addition, that the bird inhabits Ethiopia.
11.—MADAGASCAR ROLLER.
Coracias Madagascariensis, Ind. Orn. i. 170.   Gm. Lin. i. 379.    Daud. ii. 263.    Shaw's
Zool. vii. 404.
Rollier de Madagascar, Buf. iii. 148.    Pl. enl. 501.
Colaris, Rolle, Tern. Man. Anal. p. liii.
Madagascar Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 413.
SIZE of the common Roller; length ten inches. Bill stout at
the base, rather short, and yellow; plumage in general rusty, purplish
brown; rump and vent blue green; quills deep blue above, and blue
green beneath, inner webs black; tail blue green, near the end a
purplish band, the tip blue-black; legs reddish brown.
Inhabits Madagascar.
 80
12—BLUE-STRIPED ROLLER—Pl. xli.
Coracias striata, Ind. Orn. i. 171.    Gm.LinA. 381.    Daud. ii. 264.    Shaw's Zool.
vii. 396.
Blue-striped'Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 414. pl. xvi.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill three quarters of an inch long,
bent at the tip, and black; irides red; general colour of theplumage
deep blue-black, dashed with streaks of greenish blue; the tail and
legs black.
The female is cinereous grey; crown of the head darkest; wing
coverts and quills black, edged with cinereous, but not streaked with
blue; tail plain grey ; legs black.
This we believe to be an exceediaigly scarce species. The figures
were supplied to us by Sir Joseph Banks's drawings, taken froan
specimens met with at New Caledonia, in the South Seas, by Dr. J.
R. Forster. We have never seen more than a single, mutilated
specimen of the male.
13— BLACK ROLLER.
Coracias nigra, Ind. Om. i. 172.    Daud. ii. 266.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 396.
Black Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 85.
LENGTH sixteen inches. Bill oaie iaach and a quarter, strong,
cui'ved at the point; nostrils at the fore part of a depression, not far
from the base, and covered with a membrane; colour of the bill
brownish horn; general colour of the plumage glossy black ; the
outer quill half the length of the adjoining ; tail cuneiform, the two
middle feathers six inches long, the outer four and three quarters, the
feathers rounded at the ends; legs deep blackish brown, the feathers
hang over the joint, and are short aaid scaly; the middle toe very
long, and the claw larger than the others.
  n
II I
mxwsmsm
 "1
P1.XLI.
^^J^ tfUor^
I
  One of these was preserved in spirits in the British Museum, but
the place from whence it was brought not mentioned. We have seen
a second, an the possession of Mr. Comyns, of Dawlish, which came
from Ceylon.
14—AFRICAN ROLLER.
Coracias Afra, Ind. Om. i. 172.    Daud. ii. 267.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 405.    Nat. Misc.
pl. 401.
African Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 86.
LENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill stout, yellow, bent at
the tip ; plumage on the upper parts pale cinnamon, beneath paler,
inclining to lilac; vent, and under tail coverts pale blue green;
quills deep blue; the ends of the two middle tail feathers black, the
others blue green, tipped with black; legs brown.
Inhabits Africa. Described from a specimen in the British
Museum; it seems a stout bird in respect to the length.
A.—Length eleven inches and a half. Bill stout, one inch and
three quarters long, black, with a conspicuous hook at the tip, inside
yellow; upper parts of the head, back, and inner wing coverts fine
cinnamon-colour, inclining to brown on the back; feathers of the
crown elongated ; under parts of the body the same as the upper,
but paler, streaked on the chin, throat, and breast, with dusky white;
outer wing coverts, and the rest of the wing deep blue, the colour
paler at the base, and the inner webs of the feathers black ; tail near
six inches in length, marked as the quills, but the two middle feathers
are dusky, with a greenish cast; legs yellow, strong; claws black.
Inhabits Abyssinia.—Mr. Salt.
 WtM
II
15—BLACK-HEADED ROLLER.
Coracias melanocephala, Ind. Om. i. 170.    Daud. ii. 267.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 397.
Black-headed Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 86.
SIZE of a Jay. Bill red; head and neck black; hindhead
greyish; upper parts of the body bluish purple, the under white;
quills brown; the two middle tail feathers blue, the rest purplish, all
of them tipped with white ; legs red.
Supposed to inhabit China.—Described from drawings made
in that country.
16.—DOCILE ROLLER.
Coracias docilis, Ind. Om. i. 172.     S. G. Gmel. It. iii. 378. t. 42.     Daud. ii. 266.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 403.
Docile Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 120.
SIZE of a Jackdaw. Bill yellow, rather bent, feathered on the
sides, and the under part covered with white feathers at the base;
eyes black, round them dull grey, behind and beneath whitish, with
a slight mixture of red; the upper parts of the head, neck, and
breast, much the same; belly and vent chestnut brown; the nine first
quills half white, half black, the rest wholly black; tail black,
with the tip white.
Inhabits Persia; and, according to Gmelin, has obtained its name
from imitating the words and actions of those around, such as crying,
laughing, and the like.
 83
17.—VARIED ROLLER.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill stout, one inch and a quarter
long, greenish yellow; irides red-brown; nostrils visible; plumage
parrot green beneath, sides of the neck paler, inclined to brown,
and each feather marked with a slender white streak down the shaft,
swelling in the middle; vent plain ; second wing coverts and quills
marked with a small white spot at the tips, and the latter with three
or four spots of white down the shafts; greater quills brown, edged
with green; tail four inches and a half long, even at the end, all
but the two middle feathers tipped with a white spot; legs stout,
lead-colour; claws hooked and large. Said to be a male bird.
Inhabits New-Holland.—General Davies.
Another specimen in the collection of Mr. Harrison ; it is also in
the Linnaean Museum.
18— STRIATED ROLLER.
Coracias sagittata, 7nd. Orn. Sup. xxvi.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 400.
Striated Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 122.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill, from the gape, one inch and a
quarter, stout, red brown; head, neck, back, rump, and lesser wing
coverts green, the shafts of the feathers dark, appearing as lines;
on the chin and throat a mixture of ash-colour; breast and under
parts dusky white, marked with black streaks, broader and bifid
beneath, appearing like the barbs of arrows; under wing coverts
and sides tinged with yellow greeai; greater wing coverts and quills
dark within, and ash-coloured on the outer web, each marked at the
tip with white ; tail of twelve feathers, even, four inches and a half
jl
 TW
84 ROLLER.
long, all but the two middle marked at the tips with a large oyal
white spot on the inner, and just tipped with the same on the outer
web, deepest on the outer feathers; the legs stout, short, brown;
claws hooked.
Inhabits New South Wales.  In a drawing of this bird the tongue
appears to be bristly at the end, not unlike that of the Honey-eater.
19— STREAKED ROLLER.
11
LENGTH eleven inches and a half. Bill stout, brown, with a
slight notch on the upper mandible, at the tip; plumage above olive
brown, inclining to green on the rump; all the feathers streaked down
the middle with dusky; from the bill a mottled paler streak, passing
over the eye, and surrounding the hindhead as a wreath, but not
eminently conspicuous; under parts, from the chin, white, with
dusky streaks, most numerous on the breast; vent white; wings
brown, the feathers edged with tawny; under wing coverts mixed
pale tawny; tail four inches and a half long, even, brown, all but
the two middle feathers marked with a large oval white spot on the
inner web at the end, and just tipped with the same on the outer;
legs stout.
Another, supposed to be a female, wanted the tawny edges of the
coverts, and the wreath round the head less conspicuous.
Inhabits New-Holland ; has some things in common with the
Striated Roller, and might pass for a young bird, or differing in sex,
but the feathers of the tail in this have the ends pointed, and more
narrow than in the Striated, which has the tail feathers in general
broader, yet the white ends in both are precisely the same, and
therefore gives a suspicion of their being allied to each other.
From the collection of Lord Stanley.
 1
85
20—HAIRY ROLLER.
losa, 7nd. Om. Sup. 5
rinita, Shaw's Zool. vi
Hairy Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii: 122.
THE bill and legs in this bird are dusky blue; neck, breast, and
belly testaceous brown, streaked with white, the feathers rather loose
and elongated; over the eye a streak of white, and through it a
darker one; back and wing coverts green brown, edged with blue,
and changeable purple; quills deep blue; upper tail coverts pale
blue; tail long, even at the end, and the same colour as the quills,
which, when closed, reach to about one-fourth of the length.
Taken from the drawings of Mr. Woodford.
21 —MEXICAN ROLLER.
Coracias Mexicana, Ind. Orn. i. 171.    Gm. Lin.i. 381.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 399.
Galgulus Mexicanus, Bris. ii. 83.    Id. 8vo. i. 177.
Merula Mexicana, Seba.i. 101. t. 64. 5.    Klein. Av. 62. 5.
Mexican Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 413,
THIS is much larger than the Missel Thrush. Upper parts of
the body dingy rufous grey; the under parts and wings light grey,
mixed with flame-colour.
Inhabits Mexico.
22—CAYENNE ROLLER.
Coracias Cayana, Ind. Orn. i. 172.    Gm. Lin. i. 381.    Daud. ii. 265.    Shaw's Zool.
vii. 400.
Grivert, ou Rolle de Cayenne, Buf iii. 134.    Pl. enl. 616.
Cayenne Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 415.
LENGTH nine inches.    Bill strong, reddish, a little bent at the
point; general colour of the plumage brownish green ; over the eye
»
 II
a white streak; chin white; bounded on each side with black; fore
part of the neck and breast dirty white, or pale ash-colour; tail
cuneiform, the edges of the feathers greenish; legs longer than
usual in the Roller, pale grey.
Inhabits Cayenne; approaches greatly to the Crow Genus.
23— PIPING ROLLER.
Coracias Tibicen, Ind. Om. Sup. xxvii.    Shaw's Zool.vii. 405.
Cassican, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ii.
Piping Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 122.
LENGTH eighteen or nineteen inches. Bill bluish white, two
inches or more in length, strait, except at the end of the upper
anandible, which is bent; tip black, with a very slight notch near
the point; general colour of the plumage deep black, but the nape,
wing coverts, some of the greater quills at the base, rump, vent, and
base of all the tail feathers, for two-thirds of the length, are white ;
the remainder of the tail is black, as is the whole of the outer feather
on the outer web; legs dusky slate-colour. In some specimens those
parts are cinereous grey which are white in others.
Inhabits New South Wales, by the name of Tarra-war-nang.
It has a soft note, not unlike the sound of a well-toned flute; preys
often on small birds.
24—PIED ROLLER.
Coracias varia, Ind. Om. i. 173.    Gm. Lin. i. 381.    Nat. Misc. 781.
Gracula varia, Shaw's Zool. vii. 464.
Cassican de la nouvelle Guinee, Buf. vii. 137. t. 7.    Pl. enl. 628.
Barita, Cassican, Tent. Man. Ed. ii. p.li.
Pied Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 415.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill two inches and a half, bluish,
with a dark tip; head, neck, and upper part of the back, black; the
 ROLLER. 87
rest of the back, rump, and upper tail coverts, breast, and vent,
white, inclining to blue on the breast; wing coverts black and white
mixed; some of the secondaries black, some white; greater quills
black; tail five inches long, even at the end, and black ; all but the
two middle feathers tipped with white; legs lead-colour; claws stout,
sharp, and black.
Supposed to inhabit New Guinea; seems of a doubtful Genus,
between the Oriole, Toucan, and Roller, yet strictly belonging to
neither. We have, however, placed it in that of the last named, till
its character and manners may be better known.
25—NOISY ROLLER.
Coracias strepera, Ind. Orn.i. 173.
Gracula strepera, Shaw's Zool. vii. 462.
Cassican,  Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ii.
Reveilleur de l'lsle de Norfolk, Daud. ii. 267.
Corvus graculinus, White-vented Crow, White's Bot. Bay, t. p. 25,
Noisy Roller, Gen. Syn Sup. ii. 121.
LENGTH nineteen inches; larger than a Jackdaw. Bill two
inches and three quarters long, curved at the point, with a slight
notch at the very tip, colour black; nostrils elongated; irides orange;
general colour of the plumage black, the feathers about the head
short and stiff; the first quill feather is half the length of the fifth,
which is the longest of all; the first six are white at the base,
producing, when closed, a white patch on the wing; vent, and base
of all the tail feathers white; tail eight inches long, even at the end,
the feathers pointed at the tips, and marked on the inner webs with
white, but the two middle ones are wholly black; the wings, when
closed, reach more than half way on the tail; legs strong, feathered
rather below the heel; hiaad toe very large and strong.
M
 88 ROLLER.
Inhabits Norfolk Island; very clamorous, especially in the night;
and called by our sailors a Magpie, perhaps on account of the colour,
added to the similarity of voice. It is a very foolish bird, running
after every person, and suffering itself to be knocked down with a
stick; most frequent in June. M. Temminck unites the three last
described and our Blue-green Paradise Bird into one Genus, by the
aiame of Cassican.
L
26—FAIRY ROLLER.
Coracias Puella, Ind. Om. i.
171.    Daud.i
. 264.    Sha
w's Zool. vii. 998.
Irena Puella, Lin. Trans, xiii
p. 153.    Hor
sf Zool. Res
. No. 1. pl. of mal
Id. Plate of Bills. K. a
b.
Fairy Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup.
p. 87.
SIZE of a Jackdaw. Bill stout, black, rather broad at the base,
and a little curved at the point, at the base a few hairs ; head, sides,
front of the neck, and all beneath black, belly dusky; nape, neck
behind to the beginning of the back, and lesser wing coverts fine
splendid blue; middle of the back, and the rest of the wing black,
with three or four spots of blue at the base of the quills; lower part
of the back, rump, and vent fine blue ; tail dusky blue; legs lead-
colour ; the wings reach just beyond the base of the tail.
Iaihabits India, and there called the Blue Fairy Bird. In various
drawings from that part, I observe that the blue differs considerably
in shade, being in some much paler, and the tail blue-black, the
blue upper coverts reaching to at least half the length of it. At
Chittygong it is known by the name of Nealumpurry, and in some
other places is called Ootrool. In one of the drawings of Lord
Mountnorris's Collection, it is said to have been met with at Malacca;
it also is found in Java, and there called Bressi, but is very rare,
and does not exceed nine inches and a half in length; found also in
Sumatra, under the name of Biang-kapoor; is seen likewise in the
adjacent Islands.
 ROLLER. 89
In Dr. Horsfield's figures the tail of the male is full black; the
plumage of the female chiefly of a dull blue, in some lights having
an obscure reflection of sea-green ; greater quills brown; the lesser
and the greater coverts the saane, edged outwardly with dull blue;
wings and tail both brown beneath. Is said to inhabit woods and
forests, feeding on fruits and wild grains, concealing itself oai solitary
hills, distant from habitations, preferring rather elevated and cool
situations.    It is a most beautiful species.
 eift\<iii^^ss^^«^%»^
90
GENUS XVII—ORIOLE.
Black and yellow
19 Red-winged
41 Fork-tailed
A Black and yellow Daw
20 White-headed
42 Whistler
Red-rumped
A Var.
43 Red-breasted
A Brown Cassique
B Hudsonian
A Guiana
Crested
21 Para
B Bengal
A Var.
22 Black-crowned
44 Rusty-crowned
Red-billed
23 Olive
45 Rufous-winged
New-Holland
24 Blue
46 Yellow-throated
Southern
25 Crimson-billed
47 Sharp-tailed
RufF-necked
26 Icteric
48 Aoonalashkan
Rice
27 Baltimore
49 Red
A Hudsonian Thrush
A Spurious
50 Antiguan yellow
B New-York Thrush
28 Weever
51 Kink
C Labrador Thrush
29 Bonana
52 Golden
Cowpen
30 Hang-nest
A Mango
A Brown-headed Stare
31 Chestnut and black
53 Yellow
B Lesser black
32 Lesser Bonana
54 Black-cheeked
Cayenne Olive
33 Least Bonana
A Var.
Chestnut
34 St. Domingo
B Yellow Thrush
Carthagena
35 Jamacaii
C Var.
Red-headed
36 Yellow-winged
55 Cochinchina
Mexican
37 Gold-headed
56 Indian
A New Spain
38 White-winged
57 Black-headed
Ring-tailed
39 Yellow-headed
58 Mottled
Brazilian
A Var.
59 Nun
Japacani
40 Schomburger
60 Striped-headed
Grey
A Spotted Troupiale
61 Yellow-backed
'jVHE Oriole has a strait, conic, sharp-pointed bill, the edges
cultrated, inclining inwards, both mandibles equal.
Nostrils small, at the base of the bill, partly covered.
Tongue divided at the end.
Toes three before and one behind, the middle one united to the
outer near the base.
 	
These birds are for the most part inhabitants of America ; are a
noisy, gregarious, frugivorous, grataivoi'ous, and voracious race, very
numerous, and often have pensile nests.
Several are coanprised in this Genus as Orioles, although inha'bit-
ing the Old Continent, from the similarity of bill, &c. and some from
New-Holland, which, in our opinion, could not well be brought
under aaiy other Genus.
The Golden Oriole, with all its branchings, is well known to
inhabit only the Old Continent, and although called by some authors
a Thrush, by others a Grakle, and again supposed to approach to
the Chatterer as well as the Oriole, it might seem doubtful where
to place it. In this case, the manners will assist in forming a situation ; and its making a pensile nest like other Orioles, determined our
predecessor, Linnaeus, to add it to that? Genus, and we of course
cannot do better than to follow the opinon of so distinguished a
naturalist.
1—BLACK AND YELLOW ORIOLE.
Oriolus Persicus, Ind. Orn. i. 173.    Lin.i. 161.     Gm. Lin. i. 388.   Borowsck. ii. 117.
Daud. ii. 327. pl. 24.
Oriolus Cassicus, Shaw's Zool. vii. 413.
Tanagra albirostris, Ind. Orn. i. 430.    Lin. i, 315, 12 & 18,    Mus. Adolp. ii. 31.   Gm.
Lin. i. 894.
Cassicus luteus, Bris. ii, 100 t. 9, f. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 183.
Pica Persica Aldr, Raii 424.    Will. p. 90.
Jupujuba, Raii 46.    Will. 98. t. 23.    Id. Engl. 142.    Spalowsck. Vog. ii. t. 18.
L'Yapu noir et jaune, Voy. d'Azara. iii. No. 59.
Le Cassique jaune, Buf. iii. 235.   PL enl. 184.
White-billed Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 241.
Black and yellow Oriole, Gen. Syn. iii. 418..    Id. A. 419.
LARGER than a Blackbird; length eleven or twelve inches ;
extent of wings seventeen inches.     !J&jjjl  sixteen  lines long, pale
N 2
I
 ■wg»F
92 ORIOLE.
yellow; irides blue; the plumage consists of two colours only, the
greater part full black, but on the middle of the wing is a large
patch of golden yellow; the lower part of the back, rump, belly,
and vent also yellow ; and the tail, for three-fourths of the length, of
the same fine yellow, the rest black ; thighs yellow, in some black ;
legs black.
Inhabits Brazil and Cayenne, and other warm parts of America^
as far as Paraguay, and makes a most curious nest, in the shape of
an Alembic, about one foot and half in length, composed of dried
giass, and a substance like hair,* or what appears to be so: the
bottom for one foot upwards is hollow like a purse, the remainder
or upper part, for half a foot being solid ; and it hangs by the top,
oaa the extremity of a branch of a tree; often built near houses ;
and one tree has beeaa known to contain above 400 nests; the bird
said not unfrequently to bring up three broods in a year.
A.—Black and yellow Daw of Brazil,  Edw. pl. 319.    Gen. Syn. i. 419. B.
This seems a trifle bigger; has a purplish lustre in the black of
the plumage, and some of the yellow feathers, which compose the
spot on the wings, tipped with black.
One of these hi the collection of Mr. Mc. Leay, was named
Assewaka; the feathers had a musky, castor-like, smell.
* Probably the Tillandsia usneoides, which may easily be mistaken for horse-hair. The
bird may perhaps be the Petite Pe of Fermini, but his description merely is, that the
colours are prettily diversified, and yellow from the middle of the back to the rump. He
adds, that it easily learns to talk a number of words; makes the nest on the tops of high
trees ; lays six or eight eggs, spotted with black, living on insects, and small birds, also
their eggs; advances by hopping, and always flirts up the tail; is bold enough to attack
birds of prey, as well as leverets, and other such game.—Descrip. de Sarin, ii. p. 167.
L
 93
2—RED-RUMPED ORIOLE.
Oriolus hsemorrhous, Ind. Om. i. 174.     Lin. i. 161.    Lin. Gm.
vii. 417.    Nat. Misc. pl. 365.
Cassicus ruber, Bris. ii. 98. t. 8. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. ia3.    Daud
Cassique rouge, Buf. iii. 238.    PL enl. 482.
Red-rumped Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 420.
. 387.     Shaw's Zool.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill sulphur-coloured, thick at the
base, and passing far back into the forehead, where it is rounded,
and bare of feathers ; plumage chiefly black, with a greenish gloss;
the lower part of the back, rump, upper and under tail coverts* fine
glowing crimson ; wings and tail dusky black ; and the quills, when
the wing is closed, reach almost to the end of the latter; legs black.
Inhabits Brazil and Cayenne, and called Cassique ; said to have
the same ananners as the former, making the same kind of nest, and
building it promiscuously with that bird ; hence, has been by some
esteemed only as a Variety, but of this we are not competent to judge.
At Berbice it is known by the name of Jabbani; about Brazil
it is called Guasch.
A—Cassique bruu, Orn. de Salerne 112.    Gen. Syn. ii. 420. A.
In this the whole body is black brown ; rump and upper part of
the tail the colour of wine lees ; under tail coverts light yellow.
This is found at Guiana, and known by the name of Quiacagou.
Said to frequent shady places, near water, and to scream like a Jay.
* One in the collection of Mr. Francillon, had the under tail coverts black, not red.
 1
94
3— CRESTED ORIOLE.
! II
i
Oriolus cristatus, Ind. Om.i. 174.    Gm. Lin. i. 387.    Daud. ii. 326.    Shaw's Zool.
vii. 414.
Xanthornus maximus, Pall. Spic.vi. 3. t. 1.
L'Yapu proprement dit, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 57,
Troupiale, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. liv.
Cassique huppe de Cayenne, Buf. iii. 241.    Pl. enl. 344.
Crested Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 421.
SIZE of a Magpie; length eighteeaa inches and a half. Bill
strong, two inches long, dirty yellow, bai"e, somewhat gibbous, and
rounded at the base; nostrils in a furrow; tongue jagged; irides
blue; head crested; head, neck, and body, to the middle, black;
beyond this, the rump, and vent, deep chestnut; wings black; tail
eight inches long, the two middle feathers brownish black, and
seven-eighths of an inch shorter than the next on each side, but the
shape is cuneiform, for the outer one is only five inches and a half
long ; all but the two middle feathers are yellow ; legs black.
Inhabits Cayenne, and other warmer parts of America. One, in
the collection of Mr. M'Leay, received from Berbice, was called
Boeke roe roe. The female is crested as well as the male; it lives
equally on fruits and insects, but particularly on a sort of Grenadilla;*
also another plant, called by the Creoles, Grains cols jaunes ; when
the bird eats the latter, the excrement becomes yellow ; fouaid for the
most part in pairs or single, though sometimes in flocks of 100, perching on the tops of trees ; the nest in the shape of a purse, three feet
in length, and ten inches broad at the lower end, which is hemispherical, the en trance at top, the bottom furnished within with a thick bed of
dry leaves, and hung from the ends of branches, sometimes six hanging
on the same tree; it is constructed of fine strips of the Caraguata,t
. t Tillandsia, as before mentioned'under the first Species.
 ORIOLE. 96
interwoven by the birds, both sexes of which contribute their labour,
and the threads so fine as to be easily mistaken for horse hair; the
eggs are not jdescribed, but the young said to be fed with worms, and
the adults to be fond of oranges and ananas, M. d'Azara mentions
one which bad five white and yellow spots, irregularly placed, at the
beginning of the back, and upper tail coverts. Found at Paauguay,
but not common, nor seen beyond the 26th degree of latitude; has a
loud cry, but aaot:iilisagyeeable; the common name Yapu,* also
Yapmi and Acahe^saiyUjor Yellow Acahe.
A.—Gen. Syn. ii. p. 421.
This is full twenty inches in length. The bill two inches and a
quarter, yellow, with an orange tip; the feathers of the head
elongated into a crest, as in the former, besides which, there are two
slender feathers, two inches and a quarter long, springing from the
hindhead, and hanging down behind ; the plumage in general olive
with a hue of orange ; lower half of the back, the rump, belly, and
vent chestnut; tail rounded, the two middle feathers chestnut, the
others yellow, but the outer one dusky on the exterior web; legs black.
4—RED-BILLED ORIOLE.
.     Oriolus cristatus, Ind. Orn. i. 175. y.    Gen. Syn. ii. 422. B.
 rufirostris, Shaw's Zool. vii. 416,
Xanthornus virens, Naturf. 18. s. 1. tab. 1.
Cassique vert de Cayenne, Buf. iii. 240.    PL enl. 328.
LENGTH fourteen inches, breadth twenty.    Bill red; general
colour of the pluanage dull green, but the hind part of the body,
* Yapu signifies Error.
 vfww^
^■$M$88*Ss£si<*m£am&xi
96 ORIOLE.
rump, vent, and thighs are chestnut; quills black; tafl as in the
others, the two middle feathers black, the others yellow. In the
Pl. enlum. the two middle feathers are dusky black, but the exterior
of the yellow ones dusky black on the outer web, for three quarters
of an inch from the tip; the two middle in the plate of JVaturforscher
are dull green, and shorter than the adjoining, which is also seen in
the first described.
Inhabits Cayenne, Brazil, and Guiana, and though greatly
similar, is probably distinct; for, according to Sonnini, it does not
associate, or frequent the same haunts. It generally builds on high
trees like the others, and the flesh is said to be well flavoured, not
having the rank scent of castor, so observable in the first Species.
5—NEW-HOLLAND ORIOLE.
THIS is a large Species; length twenty-two inches. Bill stout,
as in the Crow, but pointed at the end, in length two inches and
a half, blackish, with a horn-coloured tip, the base for one inch,
passing backwards, on the forehead, and rounded as in the Red-
rumped Species ; nostrils a narrow slip, covered with a kind of flap;
plumage cinereous grey, or pale soot-colour, beneath the same, but
paler; belly and vent nearly white; the second quills very short,
and the eight first are white for three-fourths of the length from the
base within. Tail nine inches long, consisting of twelve feathers, in
shape rounded at the end, the two middle ones more pointed than
the others, and of one colour, the rest white for one inch on the
inner webs, but the outer web is white quite to the end ; the quills
reach to about the middle of the tail; legs two inches and a half
long, stout, the two middle and outer toes united at the base.
Inhabits New-Holland.—Mr. Thompson.
 ORIOLE. 97
I observed another in the collection of Mr. Brogden, in which
was a very minute notch near the tip of the bill; the feathers of the
neck and breast of a downy or loose texture; second quills white at the
ends, the outer edges of the prime ones whitish; tail feathers, the
two middle ones excepted, white at the ends for full one inch.
Whether these slight differences refer to sex, or are Varieties, is quite
uncertain.
6.—SOUTHERN ORIOLE.
LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill stout, slightly curved, with a
minute notch at the tip, nostrils linear; tongue bifid at the end, full
as long as the bill; irides yellow orange; head and throat dusky
green; upper part of the neck, body, and wings olive-green, the
middle of each feather marked with a narrow dusky streak ; throat,
breast, and belly, dusky white, marked with longish dusky streaks ;
vent plain; wings as the back, the margins of the feathers whitish ;
greater quills black; tail longish, rounded at the end, olive; the
wings reach to one-fourth beyond the base; legs stout, dusky blue.
Inhabits New South Wales : manners unknown. One of these in
a drawing had four of the outer feathers of the tail tipped on the inner
webs with a spot of white; legs black.
7—RUFF-NECKED ORIOLE.
LENGTH fifteen inches or more. Bill one inch and a half, stout,
and pointed at the tip, the base above passing far back into the
forehead, and rounded behind; general colour of the plumage fine
glossy black, with a tinge of violet, green, and copper, in different
 rw?
i
lights; the feathers round the eye and cfcan short, like velvet; those
of the neck much elongated, and capable of being erected^ in the
manner of the Ruffed Grous; the feathered part of the thigtosareaches
below the joint; quills and tail deeper black, and have much less
gloss than the other parts; the tail, somewhat rouaaded at the end;
consists of twelve feathers, and is fiveinches and a half in length <;
when the wing is closed, the quills reach to about the middle of it;
legs black; outer and middle toes united at the base.
Inhabits South America; brought from Trinidad by Lord Seaforth.
Is said to erect the feathers of the neck in a beautiful and singular
manner.
8—RICE ORIOLE.
vii. 445.
Ind. Orn.i. 185
Gm. Lin.
i. 393.
Sha
arus, Ind. Om. i
. 176.    Gm
Lin. i
386.
neus, Ind. Orn.
i. 176.    Gn
i. Lin. i
. 393.
Daud. ii. 351.    Shaw's Zool.
. 439.
Cassicus niger, Daud. ii. 329.    Shatfa, Zool. n
Icterus niger, Bris. ii. 103. 1.10. f. 1.   Id. 8vo.i. 184
Comix parva profunde nigra, Klein. Av. p, 59.
Gracula ferruginea, Rusty 43rakle, Amer. Om. iii. pl. 21. f. 3.
Troupiale noir, Buf. iii. 320.    Pl. enl. 534.
Yapu noir, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 58 and 60.
Black Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 445.   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 144.
Rice Oriole, Gen. Syn.ii. 423.
LENGTH nine inches; extent of the wings fourteen. Bill one
inch and a half long, black, stout, sharp, and somewhat bent at the
tip, the base passing backwards on the forehead, as in some of the
former-Speeies-;-irides silvery; plumage in general black, glossed
with purpie4wa the head, neck, and breast; tail five inches long, even
at the end, and the w*»gs5 when closed, reach a little beyond the
base ; legs black ; hind claws-large.
 ORIOLE. 99
The female is one inch shorter. Head, neck, and breast wholly
brown; over the eye a pale-coloured line; lore black; belly and
rump ash-colour; upper and under tail coverts skirted with brown;
wings black, edged with ferruginous : tail black, glossed with green.
Young birds, of both sexes, have the feathers of the head, neck,
breast, and back, margined with ferruginous, the rest of the plumage
black, but less clear than in the adult.
Inhabits various parts of America; coaaaes into Pennsylvania, from
the north, early in October, and associates with the Redwings, and
Cowpens, chiefly in the corn fields, and where grasshoppers are
plentiful, but is most fond of Indian corn; retires the aniddle of
November. In Georgia frequents plantatioais, and there called
Cowpen Blackbird.
As this bird does not gain the full plumage the first year, it is
often seen mixed with the young ones, which have variegated
plumage, and will easily account for such being esteemed different
Species. Said to build in trees, at about eight feet from the ground,
making a nest of moss and grass, laying five dark-coloured eggs,
spotted with black; is easily domesticated, but not frequently, as it
is not valued for having any song.
The Yapu noir of Azara seems to be this. He mentions the
having a nest brought to him, found hanging at the ends of
branches, and saw another, made of rushes and other flexible
materials; it was the size of that of the Crested Species, but narrower;
in this was an egg almost round, white, marbled with deep brown :
the cry of this bird is Gaaa, at other times like the word Pupui; is a
solitary and rare Species, only found in the deep thickets. The
three following appear to be the same, in different stages of plumage.
A.—Turdus Hudsonicus, Ind. Orn. i. 362.    Gm.Lin.i. 818.    Vieill. Amer.ii. p;16.
Hudsonian Thrush, Gen. Syn. Sup. 143.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 204.
Length seven inches and a half.    Plumage black, every feather
more or less edged with chestnut: probably a young female,
o 2
J»
 RfP*
100
B Turdus Noveboracensis, Ind. Om.i. 362.    Gm.LinA. 818.
New-York Thrush, Gen. Syn. Sup. 144.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 205.
In this, the head, neck, and breast, are mottled light rust-colour
and black; back very glossy, edges of the feathers ferruginous; from
the bill, above and beneath the eye, a band of black to the hindhead;
belly dusky; wings and tail greenish glossy black.
rdus Labradorus, Ind. Orn. i. 342.    Gm. Lin. i. 832.
Jamaicensis, Daud. ii. 317.
r Thrush, Gen. Syn. iii. 46.   Phil. Trans, lxii. 400.    A.
varied v
t. Zool.ii. No.206.
th blue and greeaa
General colour glossy shining black
in different lights.
The female dusky black, breast dark grey. Said to come iai
flocks to Severn River, in June, and to return South in Autumn;
suppposed to feed chiefly on worms and maggots; called at Hudson's
Bay, the Blackbird; lives among the willows, and builds in all sorts
of trees. The three last, though hitherto ranked with the Thrushes,
are no other than the Black Orioles, in various stages of life.
9.—COWPEN ORIOLE.
Fringilla Pecoris, Ind. Om.i. 443.    Gm. Lin. i. 910.
Emberiza Pecoris, Cow Bunting, Am. Orn. ii. pl. 18. f. 1, 2, 3.
Sturnus stercorarius, Bartr. Trav. 289.
Fringilla Virginiana, Bris. iii. 165,    Id. 8vo.i. 352.
Le Troupiale commun, Voy. d'Azara,iii. No. 61.—male.
Le Chapi, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 62.—female.
LeBrunet, Buf. iv. 138. Id. Tolcana, Buf. iii. 193.
Troupiale de la Caroline, Pl. enl. 606. 1.
Troupiale, Tern. Man. Ed. ii.Anal. p. liv.
Cowpen Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 269.     Id. Sup. 165.    Cates. Car. i. pl. 34.     Arct. Zool.
ii. No. 241.    Gen. Zool. ix. 501.
THIS is from seven to eight inches long, and eleven broad. Bill
blackish ; head and neck fine brown, the rest of the body glossy
black; tail somewhat forked, or hollowed out in the middle.
 ORIOLE. 101
The female is less, all over brown; pale ash beneath, chin nearly
white.
Young birds have pale bills and legs, the plumage brown, and
the margins of the feathers paler reddish brown ; chin, and middle
of the belly white; under the eye aaa obscure dusky narrow streak,
which bounds the white on the chin; just within the bend of the wing
an oval dusky patch.
Iaahabits America.—I am obliged for the above account to Mr.
Abbot, of Georgia, who gives reason to suppose, that they vary
greatly in different periods of age. They frequent places where rice
grows, fly in flocks, both sexes generally together,* but are less
common about Savannah, his place of residence, than in many
others.
I find from the Amer. Orn. that the length sometimes reaches to
nine inches ; that the young birds are altogether brown for a month
or more ; bare of feathers a'ound the eye and mouth ; breast spotted
as in the Thrush, with light drab, and darker streaks: in two months
after leaving the nest, the black begins at the shoulders, and gradually
increases along each side, till the bird appears mottled on the back
and breast, with deep black and light drab : at three months the
colours are complete, and, except in moulting time, does not change
colour : appears in Pennsylvania the end of March, or beginning of
April, and departs in October; called Cow Blackbird, Cowpen Bird,
and Black Rice Bird. The female has the habit of laying her eggs
in the nests of other birds, in the manner of the Cuckow, particularly in those of the Red-eyed Fly-catcher, Maryland Yellow-throat,
Blue Bird, Chipping Sparrow, Golden-crowned Thrush, Yellow Bird,
White-eyed and Small Grey Fly-catcher, and others; but the two
first mentioned seem to be the favourite places of deposit. The bird
lays but one egg in each nest; it is larger than that of the Blue
Bird, dirty white, thickly sprinkled or granulated with pale brown;
* Mr. Wilson observes, that nothing like pairing, as in other birds, is discovered.
 1
ill
102 ORIOLE.
generally appears in March, and departs about the end of October;
passes the winter regularly in the lower parts of North and South
Carolmaand Georgia; and is very common as far South as Paraguay;
and also at Buenos Ayres. In January, strings of them are seen for
sale in theimarkets of Charles Town, for the use of the table : frequently accompanying the Red-winged Orioles, but oftener seen
among cattle, feeding on seeds, worms, and such like, picked out
of the excrements, hence called Cowpen Blackbirds.—M. d'Azara
says, they build in the holes of trees, walls, rocks, and under the
eaves of houses: the nest made with Sticks and straw, lined with
feathers, and other soft materials.
A Sturnus Junceti, Ind. Om. i. 326.    Rai
 obscurus, Gm. Lin. i. 804.
 nova; Hispaniae, Bris. ii. 448.
Icterus Emberizoides, Daud. ii, 350.
Oriolus fuscus, Gm. Lin. i. 393.
Brown-headed Stare, Gen. Syn. Hi. p. 11.
 Oriole, Arct. Zool. ii. p.-288.
168.—(Tolocatzanatl).
This has the head rusty brown ; body and wings black, glossed
with green ; tail dusky.—Ray's description is, less than a Starling,
but like it in shape, wholly black, except the head, which is brown.
Inhabits New York, and other parts of North America.
B.—Oriolus minor,
Ind. Om. i.
185.
Gm.
Li
».i.
394.
Sh
Sturnus Mexicaoug,
Ind. Om.
i. 326,
Gm
i.L
, 804
Icterus niger, Daud
'.. ii. 351.
Cotinga Mexicana,
Bris. ii. 247.   Id.
8vo.
i.
254.
Caxaxtototl, Raii 167.    Buf. i
ii. 195.
Petit Troupiale noii
; Buf.Hi. !
221.
Mexican Stare, Gen
. Syn. iii. p
.12.
Lesser black Oriole,
Gen. Syn.
ii. 446.
Arct.
Zool. ii.
144.
Length from six to seven inches.    Bill black; irides reddish;
the whole plumage fine glossy black, tinged with blue about the
 ORIOLE. 103
head.—Ray's descripttoay from Fernandez, says, the bird; is wholly
deep blue or blackish, the size of a Starling; yellow irides, and a
longish, sharp-pointed black bill. There is scarcely a doubt of this,
as well as the last, being allied to the Cowpen.
' In the collection of Lord Stanley is a bird supposed to be the
same in early plumage ; length seven inches ; general colour dusky
olive black; chin, neck, and breast, waved with grey, but not very
conspicuous.
10—CAYENNE OLIVE ORIOLE.
Oriolus olivaceus, Ind. Or
n.i. 186.
Gm. Lin. i. 394.
Icterus olivaceus, Daud. i
. 352.
Troupiale olive de Cayenne
, Bufix
i. 225.    PL enl. 606.
Cayenne Olive Oriole, Gen
.Syn.ii.
447.
BILL black; head, throat, and fore part of the neck glossy
brown, deeper on the throat, and inclining to orange on the breast;
quills dusky black, mixed with brown ; legs black.
Inhabits Cavenne.
11.—CHESTNUT ORIOLE.
Icterus castaneus, Daud. ii. 353.
Olive Oriole, Var. Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 125.
SIZE of the Olive Oriole. Bill black ; head, neck, and general
colour of the plumage fine velvet black ; throat, breast, belly, back,
rump, and vent fine glossy chestnut; belly and thighs dusky; wings
and tail Mack; greater wing coverts tipped with white, fbuming a
transverse band of that colour; legs black.
The female is less deep in colour, inclining to brown-above, and.
teiaaifous beneath; vent grey.
]»
 ■pp*
I
iiliii
104 ORIOLE.
M. Daudin received the above from Cayenne, with the Olive
Oriole, to which he seems to think it allied, if not the same in
any change of plumage. It is said to make a plain, round, hemispherical nest, of dried roots and fibres, and that many nests are
commonly found on the same tree.
12.—CARTHAGENA ORIOLE.
Oriolus Carthagenensis, Ind. Om. Sup. xxviii.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 445.
Coracias Cartagenensis, Scop. Ann. i. 40.
Carthagena Oriole,  Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 126.
SIZE of a common Oriole. Bill and head black ; throat white;
back varied rufous and brown; breast, belly, and rump yellow ;
wings and tail rufous, spotted with black ; from the base of the
upper mandible to the nape, on each side, a white streak.
This was brought from Carthagena, in South America, by CI.
Jacquin, and placed in the Menagerie of the Emperor of Germany,
at Vienna; it was an unquiet, and clamorous bird.
Le Troupia
13—RED-HEADED ORIOLE.
, Voy. d'Azi
LENGTH eight inches and a quarter, extent twelve. Bill one
inch, strong, strait, flattened at the base, but having the point as in
other Orioles; tongue short, forked; head, and almost the whole
neck before, a flaming red, so bright and glowing, that one might
suppose those parts composed of glass instead of feathers; yet they
are rough to the touch ; thighs bright orange ; the rest of the bird
black, of which colour are also the bill,  mouth, legs, irides, and
 ORIOLE. 103
edges of the eyelids; tail cuneiform, the outer feather half an iaich
shorter than the others; legs covered with scales.
Inhabits Paraguay, and from thence extends to the River Plata.
14.—MEXICAN ORIOLE.
Oriolus Novae Hispaniae, Ind. Orn. i. 176.     Gm. Lin. i. 385.     Daud. ii. 341.    Shaw's
Zool. vii. 419.
Icterus Mexicanus, Bris. ii. 88.    Id. 8vo. i. 179.
Acholchichi, Sebai. 90. t. 55. f.4,    Buf.iii. 206.
Mexican Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 425.
SIZE of a Blackbird. Bill yellowish; head, neck, throat, quills,
and tail black; neck, back, rump, breast, belly, sides, thighs, upper
and under tail coverts, fine yellow; lesser wing coverts black, the
greater tipped with yellow.
Inhabits Mexico.
A.—Oriolus Costototl, Ind. Orn.i. 177.     Gm. Lin.i. 385.     Daud. ii. 341.     Shaw's
Zool. vii. 440.    Zool. Misc. tab. 2?
Xochitototl, Raii, 167.    Costototl, Id. 90. young bird.
Icterus Novae Hispaniae, Bris. ii. 95.    Id. 8vo. i. 182.
Xochitol et Costotol, Bvf iii. 210.
New Spain Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 407.
Size of a Starling. Head, throat, neck, back, rump, and upper
tail coverts black; breast, belly, sides, and under tail coverts saffron-
colour, mixed with black; thighs black; wings cinereous, beneath
mixed with black and white ; tail saffron-colour, varied with black.
Inhabits Mexico. The young birds are said to be yellow, except
the tips of the wings, which are black. It is probable that the two
last described form but one Species, of which the latter is the female,
if not an imperfect male.
YOL. III. P
 1
BBM^^^ ^aK^^aasssms^H
I
111
1Pi
1M
15.—RING-TAIL ORIOLE.
Oriolus annulatus, hid. Om. i. 177.    Gm. Lin. i. 385.    Daud. ii. 342.     Shaw's Zool.
vii. 418.
Icterus cauda annulata, Bris. ii. 89.   Id. 8vo. i. 179.
Comix flava, Klein. Av. 59.
Avis Ocotzinitzcan, Seb. Mus. i. 97. t. 61. f. 3.
Arc en queue, Buf. iii. 207.
Ring-tailed Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 425.
SIZE of a Pigeon. Bill yellow, a trifle bent at the point; head
throat, and neck, black; the rest of the body yellow, shaded with
a deeper colour on the upper and lower tail, and lesser wing coverts;
the greater and quills blackish, edged with pale yellow; tail yellow,
each feather marked with a broad, transverse, blackish band, appearing, when the tail is spread, as a crescent, with the concave part
towards the body; legs grey.
Inhabits America, where, according to Seba, it is accounted a bird
of prey; how far it is an Oriole or not, must solely depend on his
authority.
16— BRASILIAN ORIOLE.
, hid. Om. i. 177.    Gm. Lin. i. 385.    Daud. ii. 343.    Shaw's Zool.
Oriolus Brasili
vii. 448.
Icterus Brasiliensis, Bris.ii. 93.    Id. 8vo. i. 181.
Muscicapa e fusco et luteo varia, Sloan. 309.    Raii Syii, 186. 35.
Brasilian Oriole, Gen. Syn. i. 426.
LENGTH four inches, breadth seven. Bill half an inch long,
and black ; head and back light brown, spotted with black ; tail one
inch and a half long, brown ; wings the same, with the ends whitish;
about the eyes, the throat, sides of the neck, and tail coverts yellow;
breast the same, spotted with brown ; belly white ; legs ba*own, toes
yellow.
 ORIOLE. 107
Inhabits Jamaica : common about the town of St. Jago, jam'ong
bushes.—In Brisson, the size is said to be equal to a Starling, and if
so, it must measure more than four inches. This ispeaies, therefore,
wants further elucidation.
17—JAPACANI ORIOLE.
Oriolus Japacani,   Ind. Orn. i. 177.     Gm. Lin. i. 385.     Daud. ii. 343.     Shaw's Zool.
vii. 440.
Japacani, Raii Syn. p. 84. 12.    Will. 173.    Id. Engl. 240,    Buf. iii. 208.
Japacani Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 426.
SIZE of a Starling ; length eight inches. Bill long, pointed, a
little curved, and black; irides gold-colour; head blackish; hind
part of the neck, back, wings, and rump varied with black and
brown; tail blackish above, spotted with white beneath; bi'east,
belly, and thighs mixed white and yellow, with transverse black
lines ; legs dusky.
These two species are made but one by Brisson, but they surely
cannot be the same, the latter being twice the size of the other.—
The description of the Japacani is from Margrave, as well as the
size, not attending to the dimensions of Sloane's bird ; though they
are some what alike in colour to each other.
18.—GREY ORIOLE.
Oriolus cinereus, Ind. Om. i. 178.     Gm. Lin. i. 386,     Daud. ii. 344.     Shaw's Zool.
vii. 439.
Icterus cinereus, Bris. ii. 96.   Id. 8vo. i. 181.
Ococolin, Tococolin, Raii Syn. 163.    Buf. iii. 213.
Grey Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 427.
SIZE of a Starling; the body variegated with black and yellow.
but the back, thighs, and belly, are ash-coloured.
P 2
v
 Ill
1
108 ORIOLE.
Inhabits New-Spain, in the forests, where it makes the nest, and
brings up its young : is said not to sing : the flesh is savoury. The
three last seem to merit further enquiry.
19—RED-WINGED ORIOLE.
Oriolus phceniceus, Ind. Om.i. 178.     Lin. Syst.i. 161.     Gm. Lin. i. 386.   Daud. ii.
344.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 421.   Nat. Misc. pl. 341.
Icterus pterophceniceus, Bris. ii. 97.    Id. 8vo. i. 182.    Will. 302.
Sturnus niger alis rubentibus, Klein. Av. 64.
Sturnus praedatorius, Red-winged Starling, Amer. Ornith. pl. 30. f. 12.
Le Commandeur, Troupiale a ailes rouges, Buf. iii. 214.    PL enl. 402.
Acolchichi, Raii Syn. 166.    Will. Engl. 291.
Red-winged Starling,   Catesb. i. t. 13.     Gent. Mag.   V. 22.  t. p. 316.     Alb. i. t. 38.
Du Pratz. ii. 91.    Kalm. Trav. t. p. 291.    Bartr. Trav. p. 289.
Red-winged Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 428.   Arct. Zool. ii. 140.
SIZE of a Starling; length nine inches. Bill black; irides
white; the whole bird deep black and somewhat glossy, except the
shoulders of the wings, which are of a fine dull red ; the legs are
black.
The female is seven inches and three-quarters long, and twelve
inches and three-quarters broad; the general colour brown, with
every feather having a very pale anargin ; beneath lighter, marked
with irregular, dusky spots of brown; the sides of the head brownish,
margined all round with very pale rufous, or nearly white, especially
over the eye, where it appears as a white streak ; chin pale rufous
orange.
The young bird of the first summer is like the female, but more
buff-coloured about the throat and breast; and the margins of the
wing feathers broader, and brighter coloured than in the female ; the
shoulders of the wings obscurely marked with tawny red.
Inhabits various parts of America, from Mexico to New. York :
frequents watery places, and builds in low bushes, in  the islands
 ORIOLE. 109"
within the ponds, the beginning of May; makes a strong and deep nest,
formed outwardly with sticks, and dried stalks, lined with hay; lays
five pale black eggs, spotted with dark brown.* Catesby says, they
attach the nest to the reeds ; but if so, they must have two modes of
building; on all hands it is allowed to be a very destructive species,
for they come often in such vast flocks, that at one draw of the net
300 or more have been taken. These nets are spread in a bare path,
at the side of a wood, and the place being strewed with rice, &c. it
often happens that so many are taken, as to be obliged to kill most of
them, in order to secure so vast a number. They are called by many
Maize-thieves, froan destroying that grain ; and first attack it while
green, pecking a hole in the side, by which the rain gets in, and spoils
the ear; but some suppose the bird to do this in search of insects,
which would ultimately destroy such ears.
These birds are sometimes kept in cages, and have a pretty kind
of note ; it is said also that they will imitate the human voice, but I
suspect this to be a rare instance; nor does it appear that the flesh is
well relished.f
The Red-winged Orioles enter Pennsylvania about the 20th of
March, and separate into pairs in three weeks after; the nest is
found the last week in April, commonly made of rushes and tough
grass, lined with bents, and secured to the adjoining twigs, though
sometimes placed on the ground, or very near it; the young fly the
middle of August, and often in flocks, at which time they resemble
females. The brown continues to skirt the black feathers for a year
or two, so that it is rare to find an old male entirely black, but the
red is generally complete the following spring. $
One of these birds, completely white, was shot in the winter, in
a plantation belonging to Mr. Read, about ten miles from Savannah.
* Am. Ornith. says, faint tinges of light purple and long straggling lines and dashes of black.
f Mr. Abbot. t Amer. Omith.—Mr. Abbot sent to England a bird, having all
theblack feathers margined with fine rufous, which had the appearance of a young male—
but it was larger than any full-grown bird, and he esteemed it a distinct Species, by the
name of Streaked Oriole.
V
 I
20.—WHITE-HEADED ORIOLE.
OiiakiSTlencocepnalus^iimd.Om.i. 175.    Shaw's ZooL vii. 44.
 Xudswianus, -Gm. Lin. i. 387.
Cassicus leucocephalus, Daud. ii. 328.
Cassique de la Louisiane, Buf. iii. 242.   PL enl. 646.
fftWhttfc&eaded. Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 422.    Arct. ZooL ii. 147.
LENGTH tenuiiches. Bill black, one inch long; head, neck,
belly, and rump, white; quills and tail changeable violet, bordered
with white; the rest of the plumage white and black mixed ; tail
somewhat cuneiform/i and the wings, when closed, reach to about
the middle of it; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits Louisiana, and other parts of North America.
A.—White-headed Oriole, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 88.
Length nine inches and a half; breadth thirteen and a half;
weight one ounce and three quarters. The head white, except a
black spot on the crown; neck and breast glossy black, spotted with
white; lesser wing coverts the same, but more faint; bastard wing
white and black; outer quills white ; the rest of the bird brownish
black ; legs pale flesh-colour.
This was brought to Mr. Hutchiaas, while at Hudson's Bay, by
the name of Wawpawchou Chuckithou, in July 1781. Said to
associate with other Blackbirds, but not common.
B.—Oriolus Hudsonicus, Gm. Lin. i
Hudsonian White-headed Oriole, Ar
no's Zool. I
No. 148.
Gen. Syn. Sup. 88.  I
This is about one inch and a half shorter.    Head and throat
white; ridge-of-thawing, first primary, and thighs the same, and a
 ORIOLE. Ill
few oblong streaks of white on the breast; the rest of the bird dusky,
glossed in parts with^gBeen.-.
Found at Hudson's Bay, with the former, and there can be little
doubt of"ftoth''being Varieties of the White-headed Oriole.
21.—PARA ORIOLE.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill near one inch and a quarter, sharps
and black; from the nostrils a large, bare, dark-coloured space
surrounds the eye, and continues behind, for some distance; another
of the same on each side of the throat, on the sides of the under jaw;
head, neck, and beneath fine golden yellow; lesser wing coverts,
aaad under the wing the same; the rest of the wing, back, and tail,
fine glossy deep black ; tail rounded in shape, five inches and a half
long, the wings, when closed, reach to about the middle of it; the
thigh feathers cover the joint before; legs black; claws hooked.
A second was one inch shorter. Bill one inch ; round the eye,
and on the jaw bare, but the under part of the bill, and the bare
parts are pale; the head, neck, wing coverts, and all beneath as in
the other, but the colours less deep; it differs, too, in having the
back of the head, from the middle of the crown to the nape, black ;
the plumage, which is black in the other, inclines to brown- and
the margins of the feathers dull yellow brown ; legs pale.
These birds are in the collection of Lord Stanley, and came from
Para, in South America; they seean much allied to the Black-
crowned or following Species, if not the same; but the bare cheeks
are not mentioned in the description of that bird, nor is any such
character observable in the Pl. enluminees.
 22—BLACK-CROWNED ORIOLE.
Oriolus
vii. 419.
Icterus Mexicanus;
Icterus fuscus Nov
Troupiale jaune a <
Black-crowned Ori
Ind. On
. 179.
. Lin. i. 388.     Shai
Daud. ii. 347.
e Hispanise, Bris. ii. 105.    Id. Svo. i. 183.—female,
alotte noire, Buf. iii. 222.    PL enl. 5331—male.
Je, Gen. Syn. ii. 431.
LENGTH eight inches and three-quarters. Bill yellowish ;
head, throat, neck, breast, belly, sides, under tail coverts, lesser wing
coverts, and beneath them yellow; crown, back, rump, and upper
tail coverts black brown ; greater wing coverts the same, edged with
yellowish grey ; quills and tail black ; legs yellowish.
The female has the bill and legs pale : crown and under parts of
the body dusky brown ; quills and tail dusky.
Inhabits Mexico and Guiana.
23.—OLIVE ORIOLE.
Oriolus Capensis, Ind. OmA. 184.    Gm. Lin. i. 392.    Shaw's ZooL vii. 447.
Icterus flavus, Daud. ii. 338.
Xanthornus Cap. B. Spei, Bris. ii. 128.   Id. 8vo. i. 191.
Carouge du Cap de B. Esperance, Pl. enl. 607.2.
 olive de Cayenne, Buf. iii. 251.
Olive Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 444.    Arct. ZooL ii. No. 149.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill brown ; plumage in general olive
brown above, and yellow beneath; crown greyish ; throat, and neck
before, inclining to orange; edge of the wing yellow; coverts; brown,
margined and tipped with olive green ; quills and tail brown, edged
with olive; legs brown.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope ; varies in having the forehead,
cheeks, and under parts yellow; the upper brown; wings and tail
darker, edged with yellow.
Ul
 ORIOLE, 113
Buffon received one from Louisiana, which differed only in having
the throat black, instead of orange, and the general colour inclining
to olive, but he is doubtful if the same, being of opinion that no
true Oriole is to be found on the Old Continent.
24—BLUE ORIOLE.
Oriolus cceruleus, Ind. Om. i. 185.    Gm. Lin. i. 393.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 447.
Icterus cceruleus, Daud. ii. 339.
Xanthornus cceruleus, Bris. ii. 125.    Id. 8vo. i. 190.    Pall. Spic. vi. p. 3. a.
Pica Maderaspatana minima, Raii 195. t.l. f. 11.
Blue Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 444.
BILL rufous; plumage in general black or ash-coloured, except
the head, wings, and tail, which are blue.
Inhabits Madras; called by the Gentoos, Peach-Caye. Dr.
Pallas is of opinion, that it is certainly an Oriole, though the
smallest of its race.*
M. Fermint mentions one not unlike, at Surinam. Bill black;
head and upper parts blue, as far as the back; wings and tail black,
on the former a long white spot; X rest of the body sky blue. He
adds, that it suspends the nest from the branches of trees.
25 —CRIMSON-BILLED ORIOLE.
LENGTH six inches. Bill three-quarters of an inch, stout at
the base, sharp at the point, and crimson; plumage fine blue, but
the front, chin, and bend of the wing approach to white ; through
the eye, from the nostrils, a broad black streak, inclosing the eye,
and ending at the nape in a point; quills brown; tail pale ash-
colour, a trifle rounded at the end ; legs red.
* Contra Xanthornus verus est, quamvis in suo Genere minutissimus, et solo cyaneus,
vigesimus octavus Brissonii:
t Descr. Surin. ii. 171. J Can this Author mean the White-winged Oriole ?
vol. iii. Q
 ^jH^
&Mt&««SS«0»^
114 ORIOLE.
A drawing of this is in fthe collection of Sir John Anstruther, said
to inhabit the Eastern Islands in India; probably it may not very
widely differ from the blue, or last described.
26.—ICTERIC ORIOLE.
11}
Or
ioIus Icterus
In
d.Om.
i. 176.
Lin
1 i. 161.
Gm. J
Id. 8vo. i.
78.
Shaw
* Zool.
420.
Icterus vulgaris
Daud. ii.
340.
Me
rula ex nigrc
-vir
ulcscente, &c.
Ger
n. 3. t.
306.
Co
racias Xanth
s, Scop
. Ann. i
Nc
.42.
Pica luteo-nigra
in, Sloe
n.Jam
301
. t. 259.
Raii
81. 1
Tu
rdus oculis c
ceru
leis, Klein. 69.
20.
Id. 70
33.
Gi
ira-tangeima
Rait 45.
Will. 97. t
43.    Id. Eng
.141
Tr
pupiale, Buf
iii.
203. t.
16.    PL en
I. 532.
Yellow and blac
kl
ye, Ca
es. Car
. App. t. 5.
Bo
nana Bird, Alb.
i. pl. 40.    Brt
wn.
Jam. p.
447.
Icteric Oriole, Gen
Syn.ii
424.
i. 86. t. 8. f. 1.
10.    Klein. Av. 63. 10.
SIZE of a Blackbird ; length nine inches and half. Bill hoary,
or black, with a brown base ; skin round the eye naked, and bluish ;
irides yellow; head, and neck before to the breast, middle of the
back, great part of the wings, and the tail black; shoulders, and the
rest of the bird golden yellow ; on the wing coverts an oblique bar
of white, and a patch of the same on the quills; legs as the bill.
In some birds the yellow is much deeper than in others, so as to
be completely orange-colour.
Inhabits Carolina, also Brazil, and all the Caribbee Islands: feeds
on insects; hops like a Magpie, but in its actions very like the
Starling; is ferocious, and will attack birds much larger than itself,
for which purpose four or five will unite. In some places kept in
houses tame, as it kills insects of all kinds, making them its food;
will often tear up the cases of moths, which are spun up, for the sake
of the pupa?. The nest is curious, as in many of this Genus, made
in the form of a cylinder, and suspended from the end of the outmost
 ORIOLE. 115
branch of a tree, not unfrequently near habitations, and by this
precaution it is safe froan the plunder of other animals. One kept
tame at Lady Emily Macleod's, fed on any vegetable diet; was fond
of the kernels of apples, and opened nuts given to it, without difficulty,
for the sake of the contents.
27.—BALTIMORE ORIOLE.
Oriolus Baltimore,   Ind. Om. i. 180.     Lin. i. 162,     Gm: Lin. i. 389.     Borowsck. ii.
115. t. 11.    Spalowsk. Vog. t. 4.    Skaw's ZooL vii. 425.
Icterus Baltimore, Daud. ii. 348.
 minor, Bris. ii. 109. 1.12. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 186.   Klein. Av. p. 68.
Le Baltimore, Buf. iii. 231.    PL enl. 506. 1.
Baltimore Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 432.    Arct. Zool. ii. 142. pl. 12.     Car. Car. i: pl. 48.
Rarfr. Tr. p. 288.     Gent. Mag. xxiii. pl. p. 180;     Amer. Om. i. pl. 1. f. 3.—male.
Id. pl. 53. f. 4.—female.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill lead-colour; head, neck, and upper
parts of the body black ; the rest of the body orange; also the bend
of the wing and the lesser coverts; rest of the wing dirty brown ;
greater coverts and quills black, the first tipped with white, making
a bar on the wing; the last margined with white; the two middle
tail feathers black, in shape somewhat forked, yet the outer feather
is a quarter of an inch shorter than the others, so as to appear doubly
rounded ; the four outer feathers are orange from the middle to the
tips, the next just tipped with the same; legs black.
The female has the head and back olive, edged with pale brown;
wing covea*ts the same, with a bar of white; under parts, and tail
coverts yellow; tail dusky, edged with yellow.
Inhabits various parts of North America, often in flocks;
migrating as far as Montreal to the North, and to Brazil on the
South; most common in Virginia,    The nest loosely constructed, of
Q 2
W
 TW*
li!
116 ORIOLE.
some downy matter in threads, formed not unlike a purse, fastened
to the extreme forks of the tulip, plane, or hiccory tree; there are
four white eggs, marked with rufous spots; called by the common
people Fire Birds, and justly, as they appear in their quick movements
from tree to tree, like a flash of fire. It is generally three years
before the plumage is complete; sometimes the whole tail of the
male, in the spring, is yellow; at others the two middle feathers are
black, and frequently the back skirted with orange, and the tail
tipped with the same; feeds chiefly on caterpillars, beetles, &c.; has
a clear mellow whistle, but it can scarcely be termed a song.
-Oriolus spurius,-Ind. Om.i. 180.     L
Trav. 288.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 426.
Icterus minor spurius, Bris. ii. 111. t. 10. f.3.    Id. 8vc
Turdus minor gutture nigro, Klein. Av. 68. 14.
Le Baltimore bastard, Buf. iii. 233.    Pl. enl. 506. 2.
Bastard Baltimore, Gen. Syn. ii. 433.   Arct. Zool. ii.
Syst. i. 162.     Gm.Lin. i. 389.     Bart
143.    Gates. Car. i. pl. 49.
This is a trifle less than the other. Forehead and cheeks black,
mixed with yellow; hindhead and nape olive grey, with a few spots
of black; upper part of the back the same, but more dull; lower
part of the back, rump, fore part of the neck, to the vent, and
under the wings, orange; wing coverts and quills deep brown, the
greater tipped with dirty yellowish white; the two middle tail feathers
are olive, then blackish, with a longitudinal yellowish spot at the
end ; the next on each side olive and black, irregularly mixed; the
four outer ones yellowish olive; legs bluish.
This is, we believe, on all hands now acknowledged, as the
female Baltimore, or, at least, the male, in imperfect plumage, in
which state they differ greatly. We have seen several Varieties; in
one, the parts above were olive brown; on the wings two bars of
white, from the tips of the coverts; quills with pale edges; and the
tail dusky; the under parts of the body olive yellow.    Another was
 ORIOLE. 117
not unlike this, but the chin brown, and not black ; not far different
from the Olive Oriole. Mr. Abbot thinks it distinct, under the name
of Black-Throat. He says, the female differs in being paler, but is
not a common bird in Georgia.
28— WEEVER ORIOLE.
Oriolus Textor, Ind. Om. i. p. 180.    Gm. Lin. i. 392.    Shaw's ZooL vii. 429.
Icterus Textor, Daud. ii. 349.
Cap More, Buf iii. 226.
Troupiale du Senegal, PL enl. 375. male. 376. female ?
Tisserin, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxx:
Weever Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 435.
SIZE of the Golden Oriole, but the wings shorter in proportion;
length seven inches and a half. Bill horn-colour; irides orange;
head browaa, appearing gilded in the sun; the rest of the body orange
yellow; quills and tail dusky, edged with orange; legs flesh-colour.
One, supposed to be the female, had the head, chin, sides, and
fore part, to the breast, yellow; belly and thighs nearly white; hind
part of the neck, and back brown; wings, tail, and legs as in
the former.
These were brought from Senegal, and supposed to be of opposite
sexes, but after being kept for two years, the one thought to be a
female gained the brown head; and in both birds the head lost its
dark colour, and became yellow every autumn, regaining it in the
spring; one of them, kept in a cage, had a sharp but lively note,
and, having by chance got a bit of sewing silk, wove it among the
wires, which being observed, more was put into the cage, when the
bird interlaced the whole, but very confusedly, so as to hinder the
greater part of one side of the cage from being seen through; it was
found to prefer green and yellow to any other colour. M. Buffon
observed a similar occurrence in some in his possession, for having
 F H^fpr^r
W^-^^^^^^^^^^^^mmmOkvmsmmsm
118 ORIOLE.
first entwined some stalks of pimpernel iai the wires, some rush
stalks were put into the cage, when they soon formed a nest large
enough to hide one of them, but was often deranged from day to
day, as if the fabrication of the nest in a state of nature was the
work of both sexes, and if so, in all probability finished by the
female.
29—BONANA ORIOLE.
Oriolus Bonana, Ind. Om. i. 181.     Lin. Syst: i. 162.    Gm. Lin. i. 390.    Bor. Nat. ii.
117.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 431.
Icterus Bonana, Daud. ii. 332.    Gabin. de Madrid, p. 17. lam. 8.
Xanthornus, Bris. ii. 115. 1.12. f.2.   Id. 8vo. i. 187.
Icterus minor nidum suspendens, Shane's Jam. 299. t. 257. 1.     Id. 300. 17. t. 258. 3.
Raii Syn. 184. 27.   Id. 167. 12. Xochitototl.
Turdus minor varius, Klein. Av. 68. 13.
Le Carouge, Buf. iii. 243.    Pl. enl. 535. 1.
Bonana Bird, Gen. Syn. ii. 436.    Brown. Jam. 477.
LENGTH seven inches, breadth eleven. Bill black, base of
the under jaw grey; head, neck, and breast chestnut; upper parts
of the back velvet black; the lower, lesser wing coverts, rump,
belly, thighs, and under the wings deep orange red; greater wing
coverts, quills, and tail black; legs grey. The female differs in
being less bright.
Inhabits Martinico, Jamaica, and other West India Islands. It
makes a nest of a curious construction, from fibres and leaves, in
shape of the fourth part of a globe, sewed, with great art, to the
under part of a Bonana leaf, so that the leaf makes one dde of
the nest.
 119
30.—HANG-NEST ORIOLE.
Oriolus nidipendulus, Ind. Orn. i. 181.     Gm. Lin. i. 390. Daud. ii. 233.     Shaw's
ZooL vii. 430.
Icterus minor, &c. &c- Sloan. Jam. 300. pl. 258. 3.    Raii Syn. 184.
Hang-nest Oriole, Gen- Syn. ii. 437.
THE bill, according to Sloane, is white, surrounded by a black
line; crown of the head, neck, back, and tail, reddish brown; the
wings deeper, intermixed with white, and a black line on the middle
of the neck; the sides of the breast, neck, and belly are of a feuillemot
colour.
He aneaations a variety with the back more yellow; breast and
belly light yellow, and the bill black. And adds, that this bird is
common in the woods, and sings not unpleasantly; anakes its nest of
stalks, or inward hairs of Oldman's Beard, which is like horse hair, on
high trees; such nests are often seen on the extreme twigs of the
tallest, when the Reaves are falleai off which Jaide them; known by
the names of Watchy-Picket, Spanish Nightingale, and American
Hang-nest. It seems to bear some affinity to the Bonana, in respect
to the nidification, but differing in the mateaials with which the nest
is composed.
31.—CHESTNUT AND BLACK ORIOLE.
Oriolus castaneus, Ind. Orn. i. 181.    Gm. Lin. i. 390.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 427.
Icterus varius, Daud. ii. 334;
Le Carouge de Cayenne, PL enl. 607. 1.
Oriolus mutatus, Orchard Oriole, Amer. Om. i. pl. iv.
Bastard Baltimore, Cates. Car. pl. 49. lower figure.
Chestnut and black Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 437.   Id. Sup. ii. 124.
LENGTH six inches.    Bill blue black; head, neck, breast, and
to the middle of the back black; the lower part of the back, the
Jf
 f^pp
II
120 ORIOLE.
rump, and all beneath from the breast, dull ferruginous; the lesser
wing coverts the same, but the greater, the quills, and tail are black;
the second quills fringed on the outer edges with dusky white; tail
much rounded, the two middle feathers two inches and three quarters,
and the outer two inches and a quarter in length; two or three of the
outer fringed at the tip with a very pale-colour; t|ie wings reach ,
one-third on the tail; legs as the bill.
The female is pale greenish brown above, and full yellow
beneath; crown dusky yellow; wing feathers with very pale, nearly
white, margins.
A young cock, of the second summer, is like the female, but the
yellow more dusky; the chin, fore part of the neck, and throat
black, which is seen at the base of the upper mandible, between
that and the eye.
A cock of the third summer is olive yellow, tending to brown
above, yellow beneath; some black markings at the beginning of
the back, above each shoulder; wings dusky black, the feathers
having pale edges; all beneath yellow; chin, throat, and neck black,
as far as the ears, and even with the eye on the forehead : base of the
tail mixed with black; on the breast a few markings of ferruginous
orange; the upper part of the tail plain olive.
We are indebted for these observations to Mr. Abbot, who further
informs us, that these birds frequent the sides of ponds in the spring,
and first part of summer, sitting on the top sprigs of the saplings, or
branches of the large pines, to warble out their notes ; as soon as the
young are able to follow the parents, they all leave Georgia. The
female begins to build the beginning of May, making the nest in the
fork of a sweet gum tree,* curiously woven with the small stalks of
a plant, like green hay, lined with wool, and lays five eggs, of a
pale or whitish blue, marked or streaked round the larger end with
dark brown. Young cocks have the manners of the old ones, singing
* Amyris balsamifcri
 ORIOLE. 121
as strong, and are in general more shy; the colours in different birds
also vary much, having more or less chestnut and black spots, and
in the distribution of colours.
One sent by Mr. Abbot, had the upper parts like a female, but
more inclined to green ; beneath like that sex, but the yellow rather
deeper; chin and throat black ; and from the nostrils to the eyes, the
black margined beneath with a ferruginous tinge. This was probably
a cock of the first summer, as, according to Mr. Abbot, they do not
acquire the full plumage for three or four years.
We Taave much the same account in the Amer, Ornithology, in
which Mr. Wilson observes, that they generally make the nest of a
hemispherical shape, and suspend it from the twigs of an apple tree,
usually in orchards; and that it is composed of a loose, tough,
flexible grass, well knit and sewed together, lined with wool, and
light down of the seeds of the Button-wood ; * and that the hen sits
fourteen days. We learn, too, that the chief food is insects; and
the young birds are easily raised from the nest, being now and then
kept for the sake of the song.
32— LESSER BONANA ORIOLE.
Oriolus Xanthomas, Ind. Om. i. 181. Lin. Syst. i. 162,    Gm. Lin.i. 391.  Nat. Misc.
pl. 243;   Shaw's ZooL vii. 432.
Xanthornus Mexicanus, Bris. ii. 118. 1.11. 2.   Id. 8vo. i. 183.
Icterus Xanthornus, Daud. ii. 334.
Ayoquantototl, Raii Syn. 171.   Seb. ii. 102. t. 96. 4.   Klein. Av. 54. 7.
Petit Cul jaune de Cayenne, Buf. iii., 247.    PL enl. 5. f. 1.
Lesser Bonana Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 438.   Id; Sup. ii. 125.    Edw. pl. 243.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill blackish; face, throat,
quills, and tail black; the rest of the bird bright yellow ; wing
coverts black, chiefly edged with white, as are the quills within,
towards the base; legs black.
* Platanus occidentalis, Lin.
 111 m
122 ORIOLE.
Inhabits Jamaica, Mexico, &c. in some from the former place,
the greater wing coverts were wholly white, and the yellow parts
inclining to olive.
Edwards's bird is bigger than that of Brisson : in the latter the
lore and chin only are black; but in the former the chin and throat
also, and the coverts have a large portion of white; the yellow parts
in Brisson's are full and bright, but in that of Edwards of a greenish
yellow.
33— LEAST BONANA ORIOLE.
LENGTH five inches and three quarters. Bill black ; through
the eyes black; chin and throat the same; head, breast, and under
parts fine yellow; deeper and more inclined to orange on the two
former; back, wings, and tail fine olive or yellow green; quills dusky,
edged with the same ; tail rounded, plain ; legs brown.
A second of these had the wing coverts deeply margined with
yellow; the rump fine yellow, as well as the under parts of the body;
legs brownish flesh-colour.—The chin in this bird is black, and cheeks
aander the eye, but not the throat; and being rather smaller, seems
to prove it to differ in sex, or to be a young bird.
Ori
sDoi
-SAINT DOMINGO ORIOLE.
, Ind. Om. i. 182.     Lin. Syst. i. 16a    Gm. Lin. 391.
ZooL vii. 448.
Icterus Dominicensis, Daud. ii. 3»
Xanthornus Dominicensis,, Bris. i
Le Guirahuro, Voy. d'Azara, iii. I
Carouge de St. Domingue, Bris. i
Saint Domingo Oriole, Gen. Syn. i
. 12. f. 3.   Id. 8vc
LENGTH eight inches, breadth twelve inches and a half. Bill
and legs black; general colour of the plumage black, except some
of the lesser wing coverts, and lower part of the belly and vent, which
are yellow.
 ORIOLE. 123
Inhabits Mexico, Jamaica, and St. Domingo, where it is called
Demoiselle ; and at Jamaica, Lesser Bonana Bird; but whether any
way allied to the last but one described,- is uncertain, for it is known
by the same name.* The note is said to be like that of a Golden
Oriole, with the sharpness of that of.a Magpie ; and that these birds
suspend their nests, which are in the form of purses, at the extreme
twigs of large trees, especially when hanging over the river; it is also
asserted, that in the nest are small partitions, in each of which is a
separate nest; these are very artful birds, aaid difficult to be taken.
Le Guirahuro, of Azara, does not quite answer to our bird. He
says, the bill is black, irides chestnut; head, and fore part of the
neck dusky; behind, and upper part of the back, quills, and upper
wing coverts deep brown, lightly tinged with yellow, the same in
respect to the upper tail coverts, which have, besides, a yellow margin;
the rest of the plumage yellow.—If this be really the St. Domingo
Species, it may not be in full plumage. It is very common in
Paraguay, in the neighbourhood of water, especially on the River
Plata, but not further South ; in small troops, but very shy ; male
aaid female much alike. Said to form a suspended nest, hanging it
between the thick reeds, more than a foot from the ground; in one
were three white eggs, spotted with rufous.
35.—JAMACAII ORIOLE.
Oriolus Jamacaii, Ind. Orn. i. 182.    Gm. Lin. i. 391.  Raii Syn. 75. 4.   Will. 173. t. 42.
Id. Engl. 237. pl. 42.   Salem. Om. 221. 1.10. 5.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 438.
Xanthornus Bxasiliensis, Bris. ii. 120.    Id: 8vo. i. 89;
Jamachai, ou Pic du Bresil. Robert. Ic. pl. 4. f
Carouge du Bresil, Buf. iii. 249.
Brasilian Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 439.
LENGTH nine inches and three quarters.    Bill black, base blue;
head, and fore part of the neck black, the rest of the body yellow;
* Supposed by Buffon to be male
ird has a black collar round the neck.
md female—Hist. Ois
 rsjHP
124 ORIOLE.
between the wings a black mark ; wing coverts black, with a white
spot in the middle; quills and tail black.
Inhabits Brazil; makes a nest of rushes, lined with hair, and
fastens it to a great leaf of a Bonaaia, by means of long threads,
passing through the leaf, from the ribs to the edges alternately, and
resembling a pouch.
36.—YELLOW-WINGED ORIOLE.
Oriolus Cayanensis, Ind. Om. i. 182.   Lin. i. 168.    Gm. Lin. i. 391.
vii. 433.
Icterus Cayanensis, Daud. ii. 336.
Xanthornus Cayanensis, Bris. ii. 123. t. 9. f. 2.    Id. Svo.i. 190.
Troupiale noir a couvertures des ailes jaunes, Voy. d'Azara, iii; No. 61
Carouge de St. Thomas, Buf. iii. 248.    Pl. enl. 535. f. 2.
Yellow-winged Pye, Edw. 222.
 Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 440.
SIZE of a Lark; length eight inches and a quarter, breadth
thirteen. The bill, legs, and the whole of the plumage black,
except a spot of fine yellow on the wing coverts; tail rounded at
the end.
This is in plenty about Paraguay, towards the 28th degree of
latitude; less frequent at Buenos Ayres; inhabits the Island of St.
Thomas; found at Cayenne, St Domingo, and Porto Rico.
Male and female much alike when adult, but do not gain the
full plumage till the third year.
 J
 i ''"pSjf^T'^
i, fflnill.:
W^-^rt^ 0/uJv.
 125
37.—GOLD-HEADED ORIOLE.
Oriolus chrysocephalus, Ind. Orn. i. 183.    Lin. i. 164.     Gm. Lin. i. 395.    Shaw's
Zool. vii. 434.
Icterus chrysocephalus, Daud. ii. 336.
Xanthornus icteroceph. Amer. Bris. App.38. t. 2. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i; 192.
Gracula chrysoptera, Merrem Ic. Av. Fasc. i. p. 10. t. 3.
Gold-headed Oriole, Gen. Syn: ii. 442.
[ LENGTH eight inches. Bill black, a trifle bent; top of the
head, and nape yellow; forehead, sides of the head, neck, back,
rump, scapulars, breast, belly, upper part of the thighs, and sides
staining black; lower part of the thighs yellow; upper and under
tail coverts the same, but paler; lesser wing coverts beneath pale
yellow, greater ones cinereous, mixed with yellow and black; above
the lesser are fine yellow, the greater blackish; quills black, with
pale edges; tail blackish, rounded; legs lead-colour.
In the Collection of Lord Seaforth was one, in which the tail was
cuneiform, the two middle feathers four inches long, the outer two
and a half; in other things conformable to the above description.
Brought from the Island of Trinidad.
38.—WHITE-WINGED ORIOLE.—Pl. xlii.
Oriolus leucopterus, Ind. Orn. i. 183.    Gm. Lin. i. 392.    Shaw's ZooL vii.  433.
Oriolus melaleucus, Mus. Carls. Fasc. ii. t. 31.
Tangara noir, Buf. iv. 257.    PL enl. 179. 2.
Troupiale des Bois noir a tache blanche, Voy. d'Azara iii. No. 76.
Guiana Tanager, Gen. Syn. Hi. 225. the Male.
White-backed Maize-thief, Arct. Zool. ii. 141.    Kalm. It. ii. 274.
White-winged Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 440. pl. in title page.
SIZE of a Lark; length seven inches and three quarters.    Bill
and legs black ; general colour of the plumage glossy black, except
 HangHna^nss^a
126 oriole.
the inner wing coverts, on which is a patch of white; under wing
coverts white; tail three inches and a half long, even; the wings
reach rather beyond the base.
Inhabits Cayenne, and is the male of the following.
tra noir, Buf. ii. 257.
a Tanager, Gen. Syn.
Pl. enl. 711.
. 225. the female.
This is wholly rufous, inclining to ash-colour beneath; the bill
is dusky; legs yellowish.
Inhabits Guiana, as well as Cayenne, in the more open spots,
and lives on small fruits and insects; has a shrill voice, but not
what may be called a song; generally seen in pairs, and never in
flocks.
II
. Sit
39—YELLOW-HEADED ORIOLE.
Oriolus icterocephalus, Ind. Om. i. 183.    Lin. i. 163.    Gm. Liu. i. 392.    Shaw's ZooL
vii. 434.
Icterus icterocephalus, Daud. ii. 337.
Xanthornus icteroceph. Bris.ii; 124. t.12. f. 4.    Id. 8vo. i. 190.    Spalowsk. ii. t. 17.
Comix atra, capite, collo, pectoreque flavis, N. C. Petr. xi. 435. 1.15.
Coiffes jaunes, Buf. iii. 217. 10.    Pl. enl. 343.
Yellow-headed Starling, Edw. t. 323.
Yellow-headed Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 441.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill blackish; base covered with short,
black feathers; head, throat, and neck before fine yellow; the rest of
the plumage black, not glossy; the lore black; legs brown.
Inhabits Cayenne.
A.—Length ten inches. Bill glossy black; head and neck before
to the breast, fine deep yellow; lore and round the eye black; the
rest of the  plumage black,   slightly glossed; some of the   wing
 ORIOLE. 127
coverts are white, as also the bastard wing, forming an interrupted
streak; under tail coverts mixed with yellow; tail even, four inches
long; legs stout, black.
A specimen of this was in the collection of Mr. Bullock; it
measured more in length than the other, yet agreed in too many
points to form a distinct Species.
40.—SCHOMBURGER ORIOLE.
Lin. i. 392.   Shaw's ZooL
us, Ind. Orn. i. 184.   Lin. i. 163.
. 191.
Oriolus melanchol
vii. 435.
Icterus melancholicus, Daud. ii. 337.
Xanthornus naavius, Bris. ii. 126.    Id.
Fringilla ex fusco et nigro varia, Klein. Av. 98.
Schomburger Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 441.    Edw. pl. 85.
SIZE of a Lark ; length six inches. Bill flesh-colour; irides
hazel; general colour of the plumage rufous brown, beneath the
same, but paler, each feather marked with a blackish spot in the
middle, except on the crown, where it is plain; lower part of the
belly, thighs, and both tail coverts light brown; scapulars the same,
with a tinge of yellow; cheeks and throat black, narrowing on each
side of the neck, and ending in a point on the lower part of it,
just above the shoulders; quills and tail blackish, the feathers edged
with rufous; legs flesh-colour.
The female is for the most part of a dingy yellow, blended with
dirty white, giving an unpleasing uniformity.
A.—Troupiale tachete de Cayenne, Buf. iii. 123.   Pl. enl. 448.    Gen. Sgn. & 442. A.
7 ^4In this the male has the throat white; a streak of the same
through the eye, between two other black ones, parallel to it; irides
 128 ORIOLE.
reddish orange; each feather black-browai in the middle,  bordered
with orange on the wings, tail, and lower part of the body; and
with yellowish on the upper parts.
Inhabits Cayenne.
41.—FORK-TAILED ORIOLE.
Daud. ii. 354.   Shat
113. t.10. f.2.   Id.8vo,i. 187.
Oriolus furcatus, Ind. Ot
vii. 432.
Icterus cauda bifida, Bri
Sturnus cauda divisa, Klein. At
Turdus niger Mexicanus, Seba
Fork-tailed Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii
SIZE of a Blackbird. Bill yellow; plumage in general black,
inclining to blue on the back, rump, quills, and tail; lower tail
coverts white; tail long, and forked; legs black.
Inhabits Mexico.
42—WHISTLER ORIOLE.
Oriolus viridis, Ind. Om. i. 184.     Gm. Lin. i. 395.   Daud. ii. 352.   Shaw's ZooL
ii. 446.
Icterus minor viridis, Bris.ii. 113. t. 10. f.2.   Id. 8vo.i. 187.
Troupiale de St. Domingue, Siffleur, Buf. iii. 230.    Pl. enl. 236. 1.
Troupiale, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. liv.
Whistler Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 443.
LENGTH almost seven inches. Bill horn-colour; head, neck,
and upper parts of the back olive-brown ; breast the same, thaged
with rufous, forehead paler; lower part of the back, rump, belly,
sides, upper and lower tail coverts, and lesser wing coverts olive
green; thighs, olive yellow; under wing coverts, and edge of the
 ORIOLE. 129
wing yellow; greater upper wing coverts brown, edged with yellow;
tail rounded, above dull olive, edged with olive green ; beneath olive
green; legs grey.
Inhabits St. Domingo, where it is called Siffleur; its note being
a sort of whistle, and very agreeable.—Seems allied to the following.
43— RED-BREASTED ORIOLE.
Ind. On
, 178.
. Lin. i. 386.     Daud.
Oriolus Americ
Zool. vii. 428.
Merula Indica pectore cinnabarino, Raii 67.    Will. 143.    Klein. Av. 69.
Tanagramilitaris, Ind. Orn. i. 431.    Lin. i. 316.   Mus. Adolp.ii.39.    Gm. Lin. i. 895.
Borowsk. iii. 174,
Emberiza militaris, Amcen. ac. iv. 241,
Cardinalis fuscus, Bris. iii. 51.   Id. 8vo. i. 317.    Buf. iv. 303. § 7.    Klein. 96. 16.
Troupiale a Gorge ensanglantee, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 70.
Troupiale de Cayenne, Buf. iii. 218.    PL enl. 236. 2.
Troupiale, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. liv.
Greater Bulfinch, or Shirley, Edw. pl. 82 & 342.   Bancr. Guian. 180.   Osb. Voy A. 329.
Red-breasted Indian Blackbird,  Will. Engl. 194. § 7 ?
Mocking-bird of Guiana, Bancr. Guian. 177.
Military Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 242.
Red-breasted Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 430.
LENGTH from six to seven inches. Bill dusky black; general
colour of the plumage dusky brown or black; but the chin, fore part
of the neck, and breast, are deep red; also the upper ridges of the
wings; legs brown.    This is the male.
A—Oriolus Guianensis, Ind. Orn. i. 179.     Lin. i. 162.    Gm. Lin. i. 388.    Shaw's
Zool. vii. 438.
Icterus Guianensis, Bris. ii. 107. 1.11. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 185.
Troupiale de la Guiane, Buf. iii. 218.    Pl. enl. 536.
Guiana Oriole, Gen.Syn.ii. 430.
This is about seven inches long; the plumage black, each feather
margined with grey; beneath from the chin- to middle of the belly
VOL. HI. S
 w» m;\**!$*£*^
130 ORIOLE.
red ; the inner ridge of the wing is also red; tail somewhat striated
with grey; legs brown.
This is found with the former, and is probably the female, if not
the young bird, which is subject to some variety, arising from
different periods of age ; some have the breast almost white, and are
smaller, and in such the tail feathers are barred beneath with deeper
and paler brown, and dashed with brown on the belly; in others the
breast alone is red ; and in one specimen only a few red dashes on
the chin, and the breast not red; but in all the shoulders were more
or less of the last-named colours.
Dr. Bancroft's bird is described with a flesh-coloured bill; general
colour of the plumage black; the chin, throat, breast, and margins
of the wings, also the crown of the head, red.
These birds inhabit Cayenne, Guiana, and other warm parts of
America, and are said to make nests of a curious structure, cylindrical, from twelve to fifteen inches in ch'cumference ; these are fixed
in a dependent manner, on the high branches of the tallest trees, and
wafted in every direction by the wind, on which account their great
length is necessary, to prevent the inhabitant being thrown out by
every gust. The voice is sweet and harmonious, and sometimes
imitates the notes of dther birds.
B— Size of the other. Bill and legs pale; head, chin,, and upper
parts of the body, wings, and tail rufous brown ; throat, breast, and
outer bend of the wing fine vermilion-colour; thighs and vent rufous
yellow.
Inhabits Bengal, called there Rhoocorah, or Dirt-eater; but why
it has obtained that name is not said. I have also seen a bird greatly
similar, in drawings from China.—It is with great uncertainty that
we join this with the others which are natives of America; to be
justified only by external appearance.
 44.—RUSTY-CROWNED ORIOLE.
Troupiale a Calotte rousse, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 72.
LENGTH seven inches, breadth ten. Bill stout, three quarters
of an inch long, conical froan the base, and pointed at the tip, colour
pale lead ; the crown and whole top of the head fine ferruginous, inclining to the colour of Spanish snuff; chin and throat the same ; sides
of the head, and all the rest of the plumage fine glossy black ; tail
more than two inches long, even at the end, and the quills, when
closed, reach to about one-fourth of the length; legs rather stout,
and black.
Inhabits America.—M. Azara observed six of these together in
Paraguay, said to have been met with in the marshes; one of them
taken alive, and kept in a cage, lived for some time, and was fed
with braaised maize.—In the collection of Lord Stanley.
45.—RUFOUS-WINGED ORIOLE.
Le Troupiale noir, a couvertures des ailes rousses, Voy. d'Azara iv. No. 74.
LENGTH eight inches, extent ten. Bill stout, sharp-pointed,
and black ; plumage wholly black, except a snuff-coloured spot, of
half an inch in breadth, on the middle of the wing coverts; tail
cuneiform ; the outer feather eleven lines shorter than the two middle
ones; legs black.
Inhabits South America.—In Paraguay the Guaranis call it
Guirahumi, (or Small Blackbird); makes a suspended nest, but
neither long nor deep, attached to the end of the branches of the
Palm-tree, but so shallow, that the sides scarcely rise above the
thick bed of leaves, which serves for the lining; the eggs are three in
number.
J
 MWN^iS&i^gasQglifi^^
132
46—YELLOW-THROATED ORIOLE.
Oriolus virescens, Ind. Orn. 185.   Gm. Lin
Icterus virescens, Daud. ii. 185.
Yellow-throated Oriole, Gen. Syn. Sup. 89.
. 393.   Shaw's Zool. \
LENGTH nine inches, breadth fifteen and a half. Bill dusky;
over the eye a bright yellow streak; cheeks and throat the same ; the
rest of the plumage tinged with green; some of the wing coverts
tipped with white ; legs dusky.
Inhabits Hudson's Bay.
47.—SHARP-TAILED ORIOLE—Pl. xliii.
Oriolus caudacutus, Ind. Om. i. 186.    Gm.
Icterus caudacutus, Daud. ii. 354.
Fringilla caudacuta, Sharp-tailed Finch, An
Sharp-tailed Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 438. pl. 1"!
ii».i. 394.    Sha
r. Om. iv. pl. 34. f. 3.
Arct. Zool. ii. 152.
SIZE of a Lark; length five inches and a quarter, extent of the
wings seven and a quarter. Bill dusky; irides hazel; crown and
cheeks brown ; above and below the latter, dusky yellow or orange ;
from the forehead a broad stripe of ash-colour passes down the
middle of the crown to the hind head, bounded on each side with a
darker one; under parts from the breast dull, pale yellow, with dark
brown streaks; the throat and middle of the belly, white ; the back
varied with ash-colour and black, and a few curved marks of white;
beneath the wings buff, spotted with black ; wing coverts aaid quills
dusky, edged with light reddish buff; tail a trifle cuneiform, the
feathers sharp-pointed, the colour much as in the quills, aaad seems
obscurely barred with a darker colour; legs pale brown, or clay-
colour.
 1
p
  \^^Z4^P/reS&i
 ii
 Wl
oriole, 133
Inhabits America; not unfrequently found about New York. A
specimen brought from thence in Miss Blackburn's collection, from
which Mr. Pennant obtained his description.—Mr. Wilson observes,
that it has the same manners, and associates with the Sea-side Finch,
but is by far a less numerous species.
48—AOONALASCHKAN ORIOLE.
Oriolus Aoonalaschkensis, Ind. Om. i. 186.     Gm. Lin. i. 394.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 444.
Daud. ii. 354. (Icterus).
Aoonalashkan Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 447.   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 151.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill brown; plumage brown above,
the middle of the feathers darker; between the bill and eye a white
mark; wing coverts and second quills edged with ferruginous; prime
quills brown; tail the same, with ferruginous edges; chin dirty
white; on each side, under the throat, a diverging mark of brown;
neck before, and breast rusty brown; middle of the belly plain;
sides dusky; legs brown.
Inhabits Aoonalashka.
49.—RED ORIOLE.
Oriolus ruber, Ind. Orn. i. 179.    Gm. Lin. i. 388.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 429.
Icterus ruber, Daud. ii. 346.
Troupiale rouge d'Antigue, Son. Voy. 113. t. 68.
Red Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 431:
SIZE of a Blackbird. Bill blackish; irides fire-coloured; head,
neck, back, and thighs vermilion red; quills, belly, and tail velvet
black; legs blackish.
Inhabits the Isle of Panay.
 "-r^T*^
II  I
II
134
50.—ANTIGUAN YELLOW ORIOLE.
Oriolus flavus, Ind. Om. i. 179.   Gm. Lin. i. 389.    Dowd-ii. 347.    Shaw's ZooL vii. &&.;
Troupiale jaune d'Antigue, Son. Voy. 13. t. 69.
Troupiale a tete jaune, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 66.
Antiguan Yellow Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 432.
SIZE of the last. Bill blackish; head, neck before, breast, and
belly, the colour of yellow orpiment; neck behind, wings, and tail
black, and like velvet; legs blackish.
Found with the last—Said to inhabit also the New Continent,
about the River Plate, in South America; called there Ventre-con-
color6. This M. Azara confirms, and that it is seven inches and a
half long, and twelve broad; very common in Paraguay, quite to
Buenos Ayres, sometimes in flocks with other species, often approaching houses.    Male and female alike.
51—KINK ORIOLE.
Oriolus Sinensis, Ind. Om. i. 186.    Gm
Oriolus Buffonianus, Shaw's Zool. vii. 4
Le Kink, Buf. iii. 253.    Pl. enl. 617.
Kink Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 448.
SIZE of a Thrush. Bill reddish brown ; head, neck, and upper
part of the back greyish ash-colour; the rest of the plumage white ;
quills the colour of polished steel, with a violet green gloss; tail
short, rounded; the two middle feathers as the quills, with white
tips; the two next^he same, but the white increasing to the outer
ones, which are mostly white, the base only beiaig steel-coloured;
legs flesh-colour.
Inhabits China—seems a species between an Oriole and Thrush,
partaking of both.
 ■■*
135
52.—GOLDEN ORIOLE.
Oriolus Galbula, Ind. Orn. i. 186.    Lin. i. 160.    Gm. Lin. i. 382.   Act. Stockh. 1750.
t. 3. f. 5.    Georgi. 165. Sepp. Vog. t. 11.     Kram. 360.    Bor. Nat. ii. 116. Faun.
Arag. 72.      Bechst. Deut. ii. 478.     Id. Ed. ii. p. 1292.     Gerin. iii. t. 307, 8, 9.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 408. pl. 53.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 79.    Id. Ed. 2. p. 128.
Coracias Oriolus, Faun. Suec. No. 95.    Scop. Ann. i. 45.    Faun. Arab. 7.
Turdus aureus, Klein. Av. 66.   Id. Ov. t. 9. f. 2.    Id. Stem. t. 14. f. 8. a.
Der gelbe Pirol, Goldamsel, Kirschfink, Schmid Vog. p. 50. t. 38.
Galbula, Raii 68.    Will. 147. t. 36. 38.    Id. Engl. 198. (Witwall)
Oriolus, Bris. ii. 320.    Id. 8vo. 217.    Hist. Prov. i. 491.
Widewal, Pyrold, Frisch pl. 31. M & F.
Die Golddrossel, Naturf. ix. s. 46.
Kirschvogel, Gunth. Nest. U. Ey. t. 47.
Oropendola, Gabin.d. H. Nat. de Madrid, i. lam. 4. p. 9.
II Rigogolo,  Cet. Uc. Sard. 79.
Loriot, Buf. iii. 254. pl. 17.    Pl. enl. 26.    Voy. en Barb. i. 271.
Yellow-bird from Bengal, Albin, Hi. pl. 19?
Golden Oriole, Golden Thrush, Gen. Syn. ii. 449.     Id. Sup.  89.    Id. Sup: ii. 126.
Rr. Zoo/. App; iv. pl. 4.    Id. 1812. 303. pl. 39.    iewiw'* Birds, ii. pl. 43.    iVaf.
Misc. pl. 285.    Orn. Dicf. &. Sup.
SIZE of a Blackbird; length nine inches and a half. Bill
brownish red; irides red; plumage chiefly fine golden yellow;
between the bill and eye a streak of black; wings black, marked
here and there with yellow; on the middle of the wing a patch of
yellow; the two middle tail feathers black, the base of them olive,
aaid the tips yellow ; the others black from the base to the middle,
from theaace to the tip yellow ; legs lead-colour.
The female is dull greenish where the male is black; wings dusky;
tail dirty green, all but the two middle feathers yellowish white.
The young birds resemble the females; at first are more spotted,
but towards the end of August, the yellow begins to appear; they
have a different note from the old ones, which is like the words Yo,
Yo, Yo, sometimes followed by a mewing like a cat.
 136 ORIOLE.
This beautiful species is common in many parts of Europe, said
to be plentiful in France in summer, and to breed there; migrates
into England and Sweden, but at rare and uncertain periods; is
mentioned as a Russian species ; comes twice a year into Switzerland;
found also in Carniola; is seen at Malta in September, on its passage
southward, returning as spring advances to the north by the same
track ; comes into Constantinople in the spring, and leaves it in September ; but remains in Alexandria until November, when it departs;
appears at Gibraltar the end of April, but only a few stragglers on
their passage, their residence being in the more cultivated inland
parts, where they meet with greater abundance of fruits, but some
few never fail to stop in places where almonds, figs, cherries, oranges,
pomegranates, pears, locust, and other fruits grow, taking up their
residence among them for the summer , and in defect of other food,
wall be content with insects and their pupse.
The nest is of a curious construction, not unlike some othea's of the
Oriole tribe, in shape of a paarse, fastened to the extreme forks of tall
trees, and composed of fibres of hemp or straw, mixed with fine dry
stalks of grass, lined with moss and lichen; eggs four or five, of a
dirty white, spotted with dark brown, most so at the larger end; the
female is so careful of her young, as sometimes to suffer herself to be
taken with the nest and eggs; aaid has been known to sit upon them
in a cage, till she died. The bird has a loud cry, to be heard far off,
and it is said to whistle before rain.* The flesh is well relished, for
Willughby mentions, having seen them exposed for sale in the
poulterers shops at Naples; in short, they seem to be anore or less
frequeait in the greater part of the old Continent. Russel found them
at Aleppo, where they serve for food; the same in Egypt, where
they aa*e fifteen days in passing, -j- There is no doubt of their being
found in the province of Oude, in India, from whence drawings of
both sexes have been sent to Lord Mount Norris, by the name of
Pilluck.
* Gesner. f Hist. Alep.
 •I
ORIOLE. 137
A.—The Mango Bird found by Mr. Macneil in plenty in the
Isle of Salset,* seems to be a Variety only of the above; general
colours the same, but marked on the chin, throat, breast, and beginning of the belly with slender, dusky streaks; the two middle
tail feathers olive-yellow, with bright yellow tips ; the others, olive-
yellow for half the length, then black, and lastly tipped with fine
yellow; Mr. M. observes, that the notes are plaintive and melodious,
though simple.
Mr. Bartolomeot likewise mentions anothei', found in India, and
known at Malabar by the name of Magnakli. This is said to be
entirely yellow, except the wings, which are black.
The Variety of Golden Oriole, among Mr. Salt's birds, differed
in having a considerable portion of fine yellow on the margins of the
wing coverts, so as to make them appear wholly yellow; the margins
also of all the quills are more or less yellow; and except the three
outer ones, all are anarked at the ends with the same; most of the
second quills bifid at the tips, and broad; the two middle tail
feathers are black, the very tips yellow, the next on each side black,
with part of the outer edge and end yellow; the other four wholly
yellow ; the inner one of these has the shaft black for one-tha>d of
the length.    Bill and legs as in the Europeaaa Species.
53—YELLOW ORIOLE.
Ampelis lutea, Ind. Om. i. 368.
Ampelis luteus, Mus. Carls; iii. t. 70;
Yellow Chatterer, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 190.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill black; at the gape a spot
of white; body above olive brown, beneath yellow, growing white
towards the vent; rump yellow; the two middle tail feathers black,
tipped with yellow ; the others dusky yellow; legs black.
* Archceohg. viii. 252. f Voy. to India, 224,
 138 ORIOLE.
From whence the above came seems not to be known. The bill
in Dr. Sparrman's figure is a trifle bent, but very sharp at the point,
more like that of an Oriole than of a Chatterer, as M. Sparrman
calls it. It is probably a Variety of the female of the Golden Oriole ;
or a young bird in imperfect plumage.
54.—BLACK-CHEEKED ORIOLE.
Loriodor, Levail. Afr. vi. 49. No. 260.
RATHER larger than the Common Oriole, but much like it.
Bill and eyes deep brownish red, at the base a few hairs; general
colour of the plumage yellow ; through the eye to the nape a black
streak, broader in the middle, aaad pointed before and behind ; wing
coverts yellow, but some of them fringed with black ; quills black,
more or less edged with yellow, having more yellow as they are
nearer the back ; tail two inches and three quarters long, cuneiform ;
the two middle feathers black, with a spot of yellow, and pointed ;
the others black, spotted with white, and the ends yellow, occupying
a greater space as they are more outward, so that the exterior one is
almost wholly yellow ; legs as the bill.
The female is smaller, the yellow inclines to olive, aaid the black
less pure. The young are olive-green, brownish on the wings and
tail, and pale yellow on the belly and vent.
Inhabits the South of Africa, and is there a Bird of Passage,
being only met with during the time of incubation; after the fruit
season departing elsewhere : the nest not met with : the song of the
male is much varied.
A.—Length nine inches.    Bill one inch and a quarter, brownish
red; plumage fine yellow; through the eye a black streak to the
 •%
ORIOLE. 139
nape; lesser wing coverts yellow ; greater black edged yellow; quills,
chiefly the inner, fringed with white; tail black, the end for one-third
yellow, but the two middle feathers only yellow for a quarter of aai
inch ; quills reach three-fourths on the tail; legs black.
In the collection of Mr. Bullock.
B.—Turdus flavus, Ind. Om. i. 350.    Gm. Lin. i. 836.
Merle jaune de la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 193.
Yellow Thrush, Gen. Syn. iii. 63.
• Size of a Blackbird. Bill red ; irides grey ; plumage in general
deep yellow, paler beneath ; shafts of the feathers white; eye surrounded with white feathers; from the upper mandible a band of
black, finishing in a point beyond the eye ; legs red.
Inhabits China. I find in Indian drawings one called Mutch-
runga-Parowari: in this the upper parts have a tinge of green, the
same streak through the eye ; tail cuneiform; the two middle feathers
yellow, the others black, spotted with white : probably this differs
from the last described only in sex.
55.—COCHIN-CHINA ORIOLE.
Oriolus Chinensis, Ind. Om. i. p. 188. S.     Lin. i. 160.     Gm. Lin. i. 383.     Gerin. iii.
320.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 412.   Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 152.
Oriolus Cochinsinensis, Bris. ii. 326. t. 33. 1.   Id. 8vo. i. 248.
Oropendula atris et aureis varieg. plumis, Ph. Trans, xxiii. 1397.
Loriot, Tern. Man. Anal. ii. p. liv.
Le Couliavan, Buf.iii. 262, I.    PL enl. 570.    Gen. Syn. iii. 452. C.
Yellow Indian Starling, Edw. pl. 186.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill yellowish; general colour of the
plumage yellow and black, laot unlike the others, but distinguished
by having a black mark like a horse-shoe, across the crown, from
 tt -WMBiB^ssEatflte-*
IS
140 ORIOLE.
eye to eye; wing coverts yellow instead of black; quills black, more
or less, from the base, the rest of the length yellow, the latter
occupying more space as the feathers are outward, the exterior
being nearly all yellow ; legs black.
The female differs in having the colours less bright.
Inhabits Cochin China, and there called Gouliavan; found also
at Java, and called by the natives Kepodang.
Ill'
Oriolus Indicus, Bri
56.—INDIAN ORIOLE.
.328.     Id. 8vo.i. 248.    Shat
Chlorio Indicus, Aldr.Av. i. t. 862.   Johnst. p. 80. t. 41.
Loriot des Indes, Buf. iii. 264. III.    Gen. Syn. ii. 452. D.
THE bill and legs in this bird are red, but in plumage it does
not vary considerably from the last described; and like that, has the
horse-shoe mark from the aaagles of the mouth, passing over the
crown ; the wings are marked with bluish longitudinal spots, and a
band of blue across the middle of the tail.
Inhabits the East Indies : varies but very little from the last.
57—BLACK-HEADED ORIOLE.
Oriolus melanocephalus,  Lit
Orn. i. 187. (3.
Oriolus Bengalensis, Bris. ii.
Pica Americ. luteo-nigra var
Loriot, Tern. Man. Anal, pl
Loriot de la Chine, Buf. iii.
Loriot Rieur, Levail. Afr. v
Yellow Starling from Bengal, Alb. ii. pl. 41.
Black-headed Icterus, Edw. pl. 77.    Gen. Syn.:
329.   Id. 8vo.i
a, Gerini. ii. t.
54.
262. II.    Pl.en
. p. 55. pl. 263.
. 383.     Shaw's Zool. *
451. A.   Nat. Misc. 473.
LENGTH nearly nine inches.    Bill red ; irides hazel; head aaid
throat deep black; quills black, marked longitudinally with yellow;
 *m
ORIOLE. 141
the rest of the body, and beneath, fine yellow; the two middle tail
feathers yellow from the base to the middle, then black, with a
yellow tip ; the next yellow, with a large spot of black on the inner
web, near the end, the others wholly yellow, shafts of all whitish;
legs dusky.
That figured by Albin had the throat and neck before marked
with minute brown streaks ; a variation arising from age or sex.
One of these, in Geaieral Hardwicke's collection of drawings,
said to be a female, had the head partially black, being dark
green, with black streaks; general plumage pale yellow; greater
wing coverts here and there streaked with dusky; quills dusky,
margined with yellow; middle of the tail feathers marked irregularly
with dusky; the forehead yellow; chin and throat white, the latter
anarked with a few narrow dusky streaks; bill black.
Found at Calcutta; also at Madras, and other parts of India;
called, on the Coast of Coromandel, Peei'col and Peerool, * at
Calcutta, Peeluck. M. Levaillant found it within the Cape of Good
Hope, in the woods near Groote Vis Riviere, and the Gamtoos.
Nest and eggs uaaknown.
58—MOTTLED ORIOLE.
Icterus Maderaspatanus nsevius, Bris. ii. 91.    Id. 8vo. p. 180.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 411.
Ind. Orn. i. 187. y.
Pica maderaspatana, Mottled Jay, Raii 195. 1.1. f. 7.    Gen. Syn. ii. 451. B.
LENGTH near eight inches. Bill reddish brown; forehead, to
the eyes, bright yellow; the rest of the head, throat, and neck
black; the plumage otherwise fine yellow, dotted with black; upper
wing coverts, quills, and tail black.
Inhabits Madras: Is called, by the Gentoos, Cundoe Vanga
Pandooe.
* The Golden Thrush is called in Silesia, Pirohle.—See Kramer.
 ■■■■
142
59.-NUN ORIOLE.
Turdus Monacha, Ind. Om. i. 357.    Gm. Lin; i. 824.
Le Moloxita, ou la Religieuse d'Abissinie, Buf. iii. 406.
Loriot Coudougnan, Levail. Afr. vi. 52. pl. 261.262.
Nun Thrush, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 77.
SIZE of a Blackbird. Bill reddish; head black, descending on
the throat, and ending in a point on the breast; upper parts of the
body yellow, more or less tinged with brown; the under pale yellow;
wing coverts and tail feathers brown, bordered with yellow, the end
rounded; quills blackish, edged with light grey; legs cinereous.
Inhabits the woods of Abyssinia, and feeds on berries and fruits;
found frequently on trees, growing on the edges of precipices, which
renders it difficult to shoot, or to obtain afterwards. M. Levaillant
says, the female is smaller, the colours more dull, and the young
even more so; found very abundant in all the forests East of Africa,
from Brak Rivier to the Caffres; the nest of twigs, fine roots, and
moss,lined with feathers; eggs dirty white, with brown spots, encircling
the larger end; the notes very agreeable, and it imitates those of
other birds, its own supposed to resemble the word Coudougnan,
Mr. Salt met with this at Mozambique, on a mango tree.
60—STRIPED-HEADED ORIOLE.
Oriolus radiatus, Ind. Om. i. 188.    Gm. Lin. i. 384.   Shaw's Zool. vii; 443.
  capite striato, Bris. ii. 332.    Id. 8vo. i. 249.
Merula bicolor, Aldrov. ii. 624.    Raii 67.    Will. 144.
Loriot a tete rayee, Buf. iii. 265.
Striped-headed Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 453.
LESS than a Blackbird.    Bill reddish yellow; head, and neck
before black, the feathers tipped with white ; hind part of the neck,
 ORIOLE. 143
back, rump, and upper tail coverts reddish yellow; beneath the
body the same, but paler; wing coverts and quills black, edged with
white; tail reddish yellow; legs yellow, claws reddish.
Country uncertain; probably belongs to the last described.—
Among the birds brought from Abyssinia, by Mr. Salt, is one
apparently between the two : in this last the tail is greatly rounded,
the two middle feathers greenish olive, ends fringed with yellow; the
next the same, with a dusky tip ; the others black, with yellow ends;
the yellow having most space on the outer feathers.
61—YELLOW-BACKED ORIOLE.
Oriolus Xanthonotus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 152.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill red; plumage chiefly
black; the belly whitish, streaked with black; scapulars, axillaries,
rump, vent, and inner part of the tail feathers yellow; legs black.
Inhabits Java.
 T*l
*m-*asmi&i
144
GENUS XVIII.—GRAKLE.
* With the Head more
less naked.
1 Minor Grakle.
A Greater Gr.
2 Bald Gr.
3 Paradise Gr.
A Black-winged Gr.
B White-tailed Gr.
4 White-headed Gr.
5 Pagoda Gr.
6 Malabar Gr.
7 Grey Gr.
8 Gingi Gr.
9 Gosalic Gr.
A Var.
10 Javan Gr.
11 New-Holland Gr.
12 Surinagur Gr.
13 Indian Gr.
14 Cockscomb Gr.
15 Yellow-faced Gr.
16 Bare-necked Gr.
17 Fetid Gr.
18 Tufted Gr.
19 Long-billed Gr.
* * The Head covered with
feathers:
20 Crested Gr.
21 Dial Gr.
A Var.
22 Egyptian Gr.
23 Abyssinian Gr.
24 Green Gr.
25 Black-headed Gr.
26 Pied Gr.
27 Cinereous Gr.
28 Brown Gr.
29 White-vented Gr.
30 Sattin Gr.
31 Glossy Gr.
32 Shining Gr.
33 Boat-tailed Gr.
■34 Georgian Gr.
35 Purple Gr.
36 Chili Gr.
37 Noble Gr.
38 Climbing Gr.
39 Picoid Gr.
OILL convex, a little compressed on the sides, and cultrated.
Nostrils small, often near the edge.
Tongue various.
Toes three before and one behind, the middle one connected at the
base with the outer.    Claws hooked and sharp.
f WITH THE HEAD MORE OR LESS NAKED.
1—MINOR GRAKLE.
Gracula religiosa, Ind. Oi
118. 1.12.    Daud. ii.
p. Iii.
Sturnus Indicus Bontii, Raii Syn.
318. t.74.
Corvus Javanensis, 0*6. It; 102.   Id. Engl. i. 157.
Eulabes religiosa, Lin. Tran. xiii. p. 162.
189.    Lin.Syn.i. 164.     Gm. Lin.i. 395.    Bor. Nat. ii.
Shaw's ZooL vii. 451. t: 54.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal.
Will. 145. t.38.   Klein. Av. 60. . Gerin. i
 GRAKLE.
Le Mainate, Buf. iii. 416. pl. 25.   PL enl. 268.   Bris. ii
Der Plauderer, oder Minor, Schmid Vog. p. 46. t. 33.
Bontius's Indian Starling, Will. Engl. 196. pl. 38.
Minor Grakle, Gen. Syn. ii. 455.     Id. Sup. 90.     Ah
Edw. pl. 17.
145
305, t. 28. f. 2.   Id. 8vo. i. 242.
pl. 38.    Hist. Sumatr. S
SIZE of a blackbird; length ten inches and a half; expanse of
wing nineteen inches. Bill orange-colour, paler at the tip; nostrils
oblong, in the middle of the bill; irides hazel; feathers on the top of
the head short, like velvet, but down the middle as on the rest of the
body; on each side of the head is a naked membrane, from beneath
each eye to the hind head, but does not unite there; it is irregular as
to breadth, loose on the edges, and yellowish, varying in different
seasons of the year, or when the bird is angry, or pleased : the
general colour of the plumage is black, glossed with purple, violet,
and green, in different lights; sometimes with a slight tuft at the
back of the neck, below the nape; on the quills a bar of white;
tail even at the end, consisting of twelve feathers, and is three inches
in length ; legs orange; claws pale brown.
This species inhabits various parts of the East Indies, in the Isle
of Hainan, and almost every Isle beyond the Ganges; remarkable
for whistling, singing, and talking, anore so than any Parrot, and
very distinctly, imitating the human speech in greater perfection than
any other of the feathered tribe; its food is said to consist of
vegetables of all kinds, and fruits; is particularly fond of cherries
and grapes, at least is greedy of them in a tame state; it is easily
domesticated, and becomes very familiar.* Notwithstanding so many
Authors have mentioned the bird, I do aiot find its manners at large,
nidification, &c. treated of by any one.
It is common at Java, and there called Maynoa, also Beo or
Mencho; and at Sumatra, Teeong; in India, Moina, and Pahania
* In Sir W, Jones's Life, mention is made of the domestic and engaging Mayana, which
bids us good morrow at our windows.
VOL. III. U
 yPB^fflTr
Mina, or Hill Moina. It probably is a native of China, as we
frequently see it in Chinese Paintings, and is there called Lefkoa,
yet we cannot be certain of this, as we were informed by a Friend,
that those kept in cages, at Canton, were said to have been purchased
at Java, and that they are there sold for five shillings each.
M. Temminck forms a Genus of this under the name of Gracula,
or Mainate, and of which the Minor Grakle is the only Species.
A.—Mainatus major, Bris. ii. 308.    Id. 8vo.i. 243.
Cornicula, seu Monedula Indica orientalis, Klein. Av. 60. 12.
Le grand Mainate, Buf. iii. 419.    Gerin. iii. t. 319.
Greater Minor, Gen. Syn. ii. 457. A.    iJdio.'pl. 17. lower fig.
This differs from the other only in size, being much bigger, and
equal to that of a Jackdaw.
Inhabits the Isle of Hainan, in Asia, and probably varies from
the other only in sex or age.
2.—BALD GRAKLE.
Gracula calva, hid. Om. i, 189.   Lin.i. 164.    Gm. Lin.
Misc. pl. 689.    Shaw's ZooL vii. 461. t. 56.
Merula calva Philippensis, Bris. ii. 280. t. 26. f. 2.
Pastor Martin, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Iv.
Merle chauve des Philippines, Goulin, Buf. iii. 420.
Iting, Tabaduru, Gulin, Palalacse Species, Phil. Ti
Bald Grakle, Gen. Syn. ii. 457.
396.   Daud. ii. 284.   Nat.
Id. 8vc
PL,
tL 200.
iii. 1397. 43.
SIZE of a Blackbird; length ten inches, breadth fourteen and
a quarter. Bill brown; head and cheeks bare, and flesh-coloured,
but down the middle, from the base of the bill to the hindhead, is a
narrow list of short baown feathers; general colour of the plumage,
on the upper parts of the body, is silvery ash, beneath grey brown ;
 GRAKLE. 147
wing coverts, quills, and tail black brown, tbeelast three inches and
a half in length; legs brown.
Inhabits the Philippine Islands, and said to build the nest in
hollow trees, especially the cocoa aaut; lives on fruits, is very
voracious, soon digesting what it eats, insomuch that a vulgar error
has arisen, of there being no circumvolution of intestines, but only
one strait passage from the mouth to the vent; it is reported to be a
noisy, chattering bird, and when irritated, the bare part about the
head changes to a deep red.
It varies in having the under parts brown, spotted with white ;
and in some the under parts are yellow brown.
Sonnerat mentions one, which was two inches longer: the feathers
surrounding the naked part of the head, and down the middle of it,
black; under parts of the body the same; wings, tail, and upper
parts grey, lightest on the rump and neck.
One, similar to the above, twelve inches long, the tail four inches
aaid a half, inhabits India, and called Gogoye; but this seems not
peculiar, as others of a different Geaaus, such as the Crying and
Chinese Thrushes, are called by the same name.
3— PARADISE GRAKLE.
Gracula tristis, hid. Orn. i. 190
Shaw's Zool. vii. 455.
Gracula grillivora, Daud. ii. 285.
Merula Philippensis, Bris. ii, 278. t.26. f. 1.
Martin,  Buf. iii. 423.    Ess. Phihsoph. p. 44.
Merle des Philippines, PL enl. 219.
Paradise Grakle, Gen. Syn. ii. 458.    Id. Sup.
Syst.i. 167:    Gm. Lin.i. 401. (Paradises
. 127.
LENGTH nine inches and a half.    Bill yellow; irides dove-
colour;  the upper part   of the head covered with narrow black
feathers, similar to those of the Bird of Paradise; behind the eyes a
U 2
 vlMKBtaiNtesa!*".
triangular bare red space, taking rise from the nostrils, as a line;
throat, neck, and upper parts of the breast blackish, tinged with
grey; lower part of the latter, back, rump, scapulars, upper and
under wing, and upper tail coverts and thighs, chestnut brown ;
belly, sides, edge of the wing, under wing and tail coverts, whitish;
prime quills half white, half dusky, secondaries brown; tail deeper
brown, the side feathers tipped with white; legs yellow.* The
feanale like the male in plumage.
Inhabits the Philippine Islands, and Bombay; also Ceylon; is
a various feeder, aud very gluttonous in its appetite; is useful in its
wild state, in freeing the backs of oxen from vermin, and has been
known, when kept in confinement, to swallow a young rat, more
than two inches long, whole, after bruising it against the wires of
its cage; is also very fond of locusts and grasshoppers. They build
twice in a year, chiefly in the forks of palm trees, though not
unfrequently in outhouses, making a coarse sort of nest, and generally
lay four blue eggs. The young birds are easily tamed, and soon learn
to speak, imitating the cries of the common domestic poultry, &c.
This was ranked formerly by Linnaeus with his Paradise Bird, on
account of the velvet-like feathers about the bill; but why he should
have named it tristis is not so clear, as, according to Dr. Buchanan,
it is the most cheerful bird in India: it has a great variety of musical
powers, is often very noisy, but sometimes, especially at dawn, has
a pleasant chirping song. When these birds meet with a snake, they
assemble round it, and scream violently, and by this means discover
it to others; when tame, it will imitate the human voice; eats grain,
milk, and iaasects; builds in trees, lays the eggs in June, in the
hollows, on a little straw; a nest of one met with, of twenty inches
in diameter, was made of bents; in it were two greenish blue eggs,
one end much narrower thaai the other.    Dr. B. says it abounds in
* I observe a drawing of one from India,
called Gursall Mainah.    Another of these
nth the bill, caruncle, and legs orange.    This
not widely differing, was named Saulak.
 GRAKLE. 149
India,* and calls it a Thrush, as it has a notch at the tip of the upper
mandible; but this, though a general circumstance, is not an
exclusive one, as some birds, by no means of that Genus, have it,
and others, reputedly Thrushes, have no trace of such character.
In the Hindustan Language it is called Desy Meina; at Ceylon,
Kawadiya, or Eoms-kowy-deah.
A.—Gracula melanoptera, Daud. ii. 286.
Size of the former, and differs greatly in plumage, being wholly
white, excepting the quills, which are black.
One of these is in the Museum at Paris, and appears to be a
mere Variety.
B.—Length seven inches and a half. Bill one inch, deep yellow;
at the base arises a bare yellow space, continuing beneath the eye,
and behind it, for near a quarter of an inch, ending in a point;
plumage in general fine pale ash-colour, paler on the lower belly
and vent; sides of the head inclining to dusky; lesser wing coverts
as the back; the greater, and second quills dusky black, the base
of the latter white for some length, forming a bar; greater quills
white, but dusky in the middle; tail two inches long, rounded,
wholly white, the quills reach to three-fourths of the length, when
closed; legs pale yellow.
Inhabits India;  found at Cawnpore, in September.—General
Hardwicke.
* I have before mentioned, that the inhabitants of the Isle of Bourbon having imported
some of these birds, for the purpose of destroying the grasshoppers, they increased so fast,
that after having cleared away the insects, they attacked not only the fruits, but the young
pigeons, and became a greater scourge than the grasshoppers had been before. We learn,
however, that this assertion is not precisely the fact, and most likely M. Buffon had been
misinformed; for M. Duplessin, who gave it as his opinion, that these birds might usefully
be introduced into that part of Spain, situated towards Africa, by way of destroying the
locusts, had been many years resident in the Isle of Bourbon, where he had seen them introduced ; that, indeed, they have much multiplied there, but so far from their bemg considered
as a nuisance, the laws for their preservation are still in force.
 I! Ill
150
4.—WHITE-HEADED GRAKLE.
LENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill one inch and a quarter,
black; head dull white; from the nostrils to the eye, all round it,
and for some space behind, bare, and pale yellow; round the neck a
collar of black, broader on the fore part; back and shoulders, wings
and tail brownish black; the quills deeper; some of the second
tipped with white; the outer edge of the wing, from the bend, half
way white; from the breast to the vent, white; bend of the legs
dusky; shins pale brown, or horn-colour.
Inhabits Cochin China.—General Davies.
5.—PAGODA GRAKLE.
Turdus Pagodarum, Ind. Om. i. 332.    GmlLin. i. 816.
Gracula Pagodarum, Shaw's Zool. vii. 471.
Sturnus subroseus, Nat. Mis. No. 805.
Martin, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Iv.
Le Martin Brame, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 189.    Daud. ii. 287.   Levial. Ois. pl. 95. 1.
Pagoda Thrush, Gen. Syn. iii. 30.    Id. Sup. 140.   Penn. Hindoost. ii. 267.
LENGTH seven or eight inches. Bill black, the end half yellow;
irides blue; feathers of the head black, long, narrow, aaid form a crest;
those of the throat, neck, breast, and belly the same in shape, colour
dull rufous; on the neck they are streaked down the middle with
white, and appear distinct, like the hackles of a Cock. Back, rump,
and wings blue-grey; quills and tail black ; aander wing and tail
coverts white; legs yellow. In some specimens the feather's of the
neck are not streaked with white; round the eye somewhat bare; the
outer tail feathers tipped with white.—Levaillant's bird, the size
of a Starling, did not differ much in colour, but the plumage rufous
 "%
GRAKLE. 151
greyr; taiLrounded, the outer feather white, except at the base* the
nestj white, lessening as they are more inward, and the two middle
ones are wholly black. One of these was in the collection of General
Davies.
Inhabits the Coast of Malabar, and Coromandel,,in India, and
there called Martin Brame, as it is chiefly seen about the tops of
pagodas; but the name it is most known by is Powee or Powe-ner.
Mr. L. met with great flocks at the Cape of Good Hope, passing
from west to east, uaider 27 degrees of latitude South, where he first
fell in with the Cameleopard, but they rarely flew within gun-shot;
he killed two males, but the natives did not seem to know the birds :
in India they are kept in cages for the sake of their song.
One of these was seen alive at Mr. Kendrick's, in Piccadilly.
6 —MALABAR GRAKLE.
Turdus Malabaricus, Ind. Orn. i. 333.    Gm. Lin. i. 816.
. Gracula Malabarica, Shaw's ZooL vii. 471.
Martin Vieillard, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 195.    Daud. ii. 289.
Malabar Thrush, Gen. Syn. iii. 30.    Id. Sup. 140.
THIS is ratfoeiL smaller than the last, and greatly similar in
markings. Length seven inches; it differs in the head, being of the
same colour with the body, and not furnished with a crest. The
bill is black, the tip yellowish ; head, and. neck feathers Jong and
narrow, cinereous grey, with a streak of white down the shafts;
back, rump, wings, and tail cinereous grey ; breast, belly, and under
tail coverts rufous ba-owai; legs yellow.
Inhabits the Coast of Malabar, where it is kept in cages, and
called Powee, as the last; in the Bengalese. tongue Dessee Powee,
or Native Powee, so called by the people of Calcutta, from being
ioiithat neighbourhood ; it huddsLins^iidkbushesg. goes jua flocks,
 ill
and lives on seeds and fruit. Dr. Buchanan observes, that it is not
a Variety of the Pagoda Species, yet the two have great affinity in
size and shape, but differ in colour.
A bird, seemingly a Variety, was seven inches and half in length.
Bill one inch, stout, yellow; head aaid throat furnished with short,
stiff, grey feathers; through the eye rufous brown ; the rest of the
plumage fine rufous brown, inclining to the latter on the belly and
vent; quills and tail dusky; legs rough and scaly, pale oker yellow;
wings and tail nearly even. Found at Sierra Leone. In another
drawing a black streak begins at the gape, passes round the eye, and
ends in a point just behind.    Probably this may differ in sex.
Gracula
Martin g
-GREY GRAKLE.
:a, Daud. ii. 286.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 469.
efer, Levail. Ois.ii. 187. pl. 95. f.2.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill one inch long, orange; head black,
the feathers narrow and stiff; irides red-brown ; behind the eyes a
triangular, narrow, bare, orange-coloured space; beneath from the
chin and upper parts of the body iron-grey, teaiding to fulvous on the
neck and breast, and to brown on the nape ; from breast to belly a
band the colour of polished beech wood; under tail coverts the same;
quills black, the ten first white at the base; on the wing a triangular rufous spot; lesser quills glossed with green or purple on the
margins; tail short, rounded, glossy black, the four outer feathers
marked with clay-colour at the ends; wings reach three-fourths on
the tail; legs citron-colour. In one specimen I observed, that all but
the two middle tail feathers were orange at the end.
The female is smaller, and the colours less bright.
Inhabits Africa.—M. Levaillant met with three females and two
males at the foot of Bruntjes Hoogte, on the borders of the Bird
 River, in their passage from the east to the north-west. The end of
the tail was worn, seemingly a proof of the bird building in holes
of some sort, or trailing much on the ground.
Among Lord Mountnorris's birds, one had the whole head black;
the space behind the eye carunculated, aiarrow, and pointed; plumage
more or less brown above, aud all beneath from the chin white ; near
the outer edge of the coverts a triangular patch of white; the tail
feathers with the ends white, and some of them white at the base.
Bill and legs pale yellow. This seems a Variety, and was called in
oaie drawing, Ablak Mainah—in a second, Sirwell Myna.
8.—GINGI GRAKLE.
Turdus Ginginianus, hid. Om.i. 362.    Daud.ii. 288. (Gracula).
Le petit Martin de Gingi, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 194.
Gingi Thrush, Gen. Syn. Sup. 144.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill orange, strait, a trifle bent at the
point, with a slight notch; above carinated; nostrils oblong, covered
with feathers; tongue lacerated; irides dark red; the lids scaly,
covered with dark feathers; a bare, yellow, wrinkled skin, from the
gape, reaching behind the eye, and round it; feathers of the head
sharp-pointed, those iai front longer, and may be erected as a crest,
colour greenish glossy black; neck, back, rump, sides, and thighs,
grey; vent, and under wing coverts pale rufous; upper wing
coverts black, glossed with green; a few next the primaries pale
rufous ; quills black, the prime ones rufous at the base; tail rounded,
black, the end, rufous, deeper on the outer feathers; the two middle
ones glossed with green; legs yellow; hind toe strong, as long as
the middle one, which is united to outer at the base.
The female has the feathers in front shorter, so as not to admit of
forming a crest, the wing more white in it, and the quills ash-colour.
 P3Rte*»m«s*«§s»*»
154 GRAKLE.
I observed some males, in which the wings had a patch of white,
instead of rufous, and the ends of the tail feathers white, which in
others are rufous; legs orange.
Inhabits the Coast of Coromandel; brought to Calcutta from the
hilly countries near Monghy; lives upon trees; is the Ram Salic of
the Bengalese, as Dr. Buchanan informs me; also, tiiat the Paradise
and Crested Grakles are called, by the Hindoos, Salic or Sara, by
others Sei'ghet; and at Futtehghur, Chehey.
9—GOSALIC GRAKLE.
290.    Gm. Lin. i. 802.   Bris. ii. 446. t. 41 :
n. i. 290.   Gm. Lin. i. 803.
Sturnus Capensis, Ind. Om. i. 322.
3.    Id. 8vo. i. 282.
Sturnus Contra, Ind. Om. i. 322. 2,
Pastor Jalla, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 155.
Icterus Bengalensis, Bra.ii. 94.   Id. Sup. 94,   Id. 8vo. i. 181.
Etourneau pie, Buf. iii. 191.-  PL enl. 280.    Daud. ii. 303-
Black and white Indian Starling, Edw. pl. 187.
Cape Stare, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 5.
Contra Stare, Gen, Syn. ii. p. 5. A.   Albin. iii. pl. 21.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill one inch and four-tenths, flattened
towards the point, and with a slight notch ; nostrils about the middle
of the bill, the base half of which is orange-coloured, the rest white;
tongue cleft, black, and about half the length of the bill; orbits,
and a small space round the eye, bare, and orange-eoloured, pointed'
before and behind; irides black, surrounded with a pale ring; the
feathers of the head lance-shaped; from the nostrils a Large patch of
white, broad behind the eye, and narrowing in a point to the nape; >
the rump, margin of the wing, to the shoulders, and all beneath the
breast white, inclining on the latter to pale ash-colour; (tthe rest of
the bird black; the two exterior tail feathers are shorter than the
others, and have the outer edges white; legs brownish; hind toe veiy
strong; elaws black-brown, hooked, and sharp.
The female scarcely differs from the male.
 GRAKLE* 159
Inhabits India, and common about Calcutta, throughout the
year; is the Gosalic of the Bengalese, and known at Hindustan by
the name of Abluka; also called by soane Abluka-ahina;* generally
seen in pairs; lives chiefly on insects; usually found in pastures
frequented by cows, on which account, in order to distinguish it from
the Salic,f it has Go (that is, Cow) prefixed to its name. The Contra,
or Condra of Bengal, is not this, but a different bird, being applied
by the natives to the Jocose Shrike.
I am indebted, for the above account, to Dr. Buchanan. This
bird has been mentioned by some, as a native of the Cape of Good
Hope, but, according to M. Levaillant, it belongs only to Bengal^
as he never met with it at the Cape.
A.—Among the Drawings of Sir J. Anstruther is a fine Variety,
chiefly white; top of the head black and white, in streaks; chin and
throat dotted with white; quills black; greater part of the tail
feathers black, the rest white; on the sides of the vent some black
crescents; bill and legs yellow. In another sianilar Variety, nearly
the whole of the plumage was white.
The Gosalic Grakle is mentioned as a bird of Java, where it is
called Jallak, and Jallak-rdringi
10>—JAVAN GRAKLE.
Pastor tricolor, Lin. Tfuhs. xiK. p. 155.   Horsfield.
LENGTH eight inches and a half. Mil and legs yellow; the
plumage chiefly white; the quills and tail feathers black, the last
white at the tips; on the back a blackish grey band.
Inhabits Java; known by the name of Jallak-awu.
* In one of General if aridwlcke's Drawings called Abulka or Afcikaj iti ianother naated
Sergut. f The Paradise,' Crested, and Gingi Graktes, go by this name,
X 2
 156
11.—NEW-HOLLAND GRAKLE.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill orange; from the gape a bare
yellowish skin, passing through the eye and behind, where it is
sprinkled with minute black feathers; head and chin black; neck
and body slate-colour; wings glossy black; base of the greater quills
rufous above, and white beneath; under wing coverts rufous; belly
paler than the upper parts; towards the vent rufous; legs stout, and
orange-coloured.
Inhabits New-Holland; there called Gattua Maino.—Probably
a Variety of the Gingi, or Gosalic Grakle.
12.-SURINAGUR GRAKLE.
BILL yellow, pretty long; on the forehead a rounded tuft of
black soft feathers, standing upright, as in the Crested Grakle ; those
of the ca'own black, and much elongated, so as to form a sort of ci-est,
hanging over the rtape behind; general colour of the plumage pale
greenish grey; between the bill and eye downy, and behind the
latter a naked, bare, blue space; wing coverts and tail blue; the
rest of the* wing blue-black; legs long, pale greenish yellow ; claws
black, long, and hooked; the quills, when closed, reach to the
middle of the tail.
Inhabits the internal parts of India, being found in the snowy
mountains of Surinagur: called, in Persia, Gulgully. In the
drawings Of the late Sir J. Anstruther, it is said to be three-eighths
of the weight of a Sare, which, supposing that to be equal to two
pounds of our weight, makes the bird to be twelve ounces; and the
drawing being nine inches long, and called half the real length,
we may conclude that of the bird to be eighteen inches.
 157
13.—INDIAN GRAKLE.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill stout, bent, yellow; nostrils oval,
placed in the middle; from gape to point one inch and a half, at the
base a few bristles; irides brown; beneath the eyes a narrow bare
yellowish rim; general colour of the plumage black; the ends of all
the feathers inclining to paarple, giving an appearaaice of being
spotted with dull purple; wings and tail dull blue, the shoulders
brightest; tail even, five inches long; that and the quills dark blue-
black ; the wings, when closed, reach one-third on the tail; legs
black, toes long, claws crooked, the shins near two inches in length.
Inhabits India; among the drawings of General Hardwicke, but
with no name annexed, or history; from various circumstances it
may possibly be allied to the Surinagur Grakle; and if so, it probably
differs in sex, as it has no elongation of feathers, either at the nape,
or on the forehead.
14—COCKSCOMB GRAKLE.
Sturnus gallinaceus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 324.
Gracula gallinacea, Daud. Oru. ii. p. 291.
Gracula carunculata, Gm. Lin. i. 399.
Gracula larvata, Shaw's Zool. vii. 468.
Tringa carunculata capensis, Naturf. xi. p. 9. t. 2.
Martin, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Iv.
Porte-lambeaux, Levail. Af. ii. p. 178. pl. 93, 94.
Cockscomb Starling, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 9. No. 7.
THIS species is a trifle larger than the Starling; length six
inches and a half. The bill not unlike, and yellow; eyes brown;
general colour of the plumage rufous-grey,   or ash-colour, paler
 158 GRAKLE.
beneath; wings and tail glossy black, with a tinge of green and
purple in various lights ; tail even at the end, and the wings reach
to about the middle of it; legs long, pale yellow-brown. M.
Boddart, who described this bird more than twenty years before it
came under M. Levaillant's inspection, only had seen the dead specimen, which was sent from the Cape of Good Hope to Holland, in
spirits, and as it had wattled appendages on the jaw, as well as a
crest of the same bare substance on the top of the head, although
they appeared in the day state of no particular colour, supposed them
to have been, when the bird was living, the same as those of the
common Cock, and described them, accordingly, of a red, or orange-
colour. M. Levaillant, however, assures us, that he has anet with
great numbers of these birds, and that the plumage is not different
from what is mentioned in the Naturforscher, the anale having a
double kind of wattle, springing from the base of the bill on each
side, and hanging down for an inch or more, ending in a point; on
the forehead a kind of crest, of an irregular form, placed perpendicularly, and these bare parts in the living bird are black ; besides
which, the whole face is also bare, but of a rufous yellow ; eyes and
legs brown.
The female is smaller, and the face bare and yellow as in the
male ; the appendage, or wattle, very small, scarcely projecting,
and the crest on the crown very little apparent; the quills, and tail
also have hardly any gloss.
Young birds may be easily mistaken for a different species, not
having in that state any bare appendage, though the head is
destitute of feathers; the bill hi this case yellowish brown ; the legs
brown ; aaid the colours of the pluhaage less defined. These birds
are sometimes found in the neighbourhood of the Cape in large flocks,
but do not breed there, as they go away in the rainy season ; among
them are often observed several entirely white, which M. Levaillant
having carefully paid attention to, pronounced to be yofing bira'fy lifct
liavang gained the adult plumage, and is furaier of opinion* that
 many white Varieties, of other Species, which have hitherto been
esteemed as old birds, are probably no other than young ones, not
yet arrived at maturity.
These are met with sometimes in vast flocks from the borders of
the Gamtoos to Caffre-land, and attend Buffaloes, and other animals,
for the sake of what they can pick out of their excrements; they will
also feed on berries, fruits, and every thing to be collected from the
moist grounds, which .they frequent in preference.
Among the drawings of Gen, Da vies, copied from those belonging
to Col. Gordon, Commandant of the Cape of Good Hope, tbisfeNl
is figured in apparently three different stages of life; in the first,
which measures nine inches in length, the crown is surmounted with
a large crest in shape of crescent, of a black colour, and passing on
each side round the eyes, finishes in a double elongated wattle,
tending to a point; the rest of the head bare, brownish buff-colour,
a little carunculated ; the general colour of the plumage above, pale
brownish buff, beneath white, the lesser wing coverts like the back ;
then follows an irregular, broad white band, the rest of the wing
black ; the tail long, and black.
In a second, the head seems bare, and with a double wattle
beneath, but much shorter, and instead of a continued lunated crest,
are two distinct ones above each eye, and bifid on the top. This is
perhaps a young anale.
In a third, which is probably the female, there is a askigle, small
crest, indented at top, just rising above iAie forehead, and a double,
narrow, elongated wattle, taking rise between the bill and eye; the
top of the head covered with short down, scarcely bare.
The above are known at the Cape of Good Hope, by the name
of Washerwomen, probably from being seen near water. I observe,
too, that the crest and wattles, in all of them, are of a fail black,
by no means inclining to red.
 15—YELLOW-FACED GRAKLE.
Gracula icterops, Ind. Om. i. 193.    Daud. i
Yellow-faced Grakle, Gen. Syn. Sup. 91.
. 290.   Shaw's Zool. i
BILL compressed; nostrils oval; round the eye bare of feathers,
covered only with a fine yellow, wrinkled skin; head, neck, back,
wiaags, and tail black; wing coverts crossed with a white line; neck
black ; breast, belly, and vent white; legs yellow, and very scaly.
Inhabits New-Holland.
16—BARE-NECKED GRAKLE.
Gracula nuda, Ind. Orn. i. 190.    Gm. Lin. i.
 nudicollis, Shaw's Zool. vii. 463.
Colnud de Cayenne, Buf. iii. 82,
male. 46. female.
Coracina, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ixii.
Bare-necked Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 382.    Id. Sup. p. 79.
d. 609.    Levail. Am. et Ind. i. 138. pl. 45.
SIZE of a Jackdaw. Bill dusky blue, very broad at the base .
the head covered with short, velvet-like feathers, and black ; these are
very sparingly furnished on the fore part of the neck, and at the
back, but the sides are almost bare, only here and there feathery;
beneath the eye a square, naked, yellow space;-the rest of the
plumage as in other birds, and black ; the second wiaag coverts and
quills blue-grey on the outer webs; the wings reach nearly to the
middle of the tail ; outer and middle toes united at the base.
The feanale is smaller, and has the yellow skin under the eye, and
bare sides of the neck, of smaller dimensions; general colour of the
plumage dusky brown, or deep lead-colour, instead of black.—
 ■^
GRAKLE. 161
Young males resemble the old females, except that, at this time of
life, the sides of the neck are clothed like the rest with feathers.*
Inhabits Cayenne, Surinam, and throughout Guiana; frequents
great woods, and approaches plantations, with the Chatterers, as the
fruit ripens, on which alone it feeds, making the nest in high trees,
on the borders of the great rivers. M. Levaillant thinks that this bird
ought to be placed among the Chatterers, having the same manners.
In a specimen, which I observed in the Museum of the late Dr.
Hunter, the bill was yellowish, with a black tip; the outer quill
black; the rest the same, but outwardly grey, to near the tips; wing
coverts and second quills pale gi'ey; tail six inches long, eveaa ; the
legs dusky yellow.
In the collection of Lord Seaforth are both sexes of this bird.
The male eighteen inches in length, of which the bill makes one, the
colour of it pale, towards the end black, and a little bent downwards;
the feathers come very forward at the base above, aaid are very short,
like velvet; the rest of the head, the nape, and neck behind covered
with feathers of the same structure, as is likewise the chin ; the under
part of the eye is bare, and a large portion of each side of the neck,
but the latter is covered in streaks of velvety down ; the rest of the
general plumage slaty black; but all the wing coverts, aaad outer
part of the quills fine blue grey; legs yellow and stout.
The female is sixteen iaaches long, and in most things the same ;
but only the forehead, crown, chin, and throat are velvety, aaad this
sort of texture of feather less conspicuous; the same bare space is
seen on the sides of the neck as in the other, but without the velvet
markings; and the wing coverts, though paler than the a*est, are of
a darker, and less conspicuous colour than in the other sex; belly
paler; the ends of the feathers pale grey.
These were brought from the Isle of Trinidad.
* This is the case with the young Rook, and no doubt
bareness of the face is easily accounted for; but by what mes
sides of the neck is produced in this bird, is not easy to gues
dth the Bald Crow, and the
is the want of feathers on the
Jul
 II
17.—FETID GRAKLE.
ila fcetida, Ind. Orn. i. 190.    Lin. i. 164.    Gm. Lim i. 3!
Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxii.
Foetid Grakle, Gen. Syn. iii. 460.
SIZE of a Magpie. Bill shaped like that of a Cuckow ; tongue
plain, fleshy, pointed; aiostrils oval, naked; head black, covered
with short, velvet-like feathers ; on the neck a large bare space ; the
outer edge of the quills bluish, but no spot on any of them; tail even
at the end.
Inhabits America, and is no further described by Linnaeus. It is
probably related to, if not a feanale of the bare-neGked Species.
18— TUFTED GRAKLE.
LENGTH uncertain. Bill stout, strait, the upper mandible,
sharp at the tip and a trifle bent; nostrils in the fore part of an oblong
cavity ; the top of the head to the nape bare, and pale clay-colour;
round the eye a bare skin somewhat darker in colour, reaching over
the ears, and much below them, finishing in a narrow end; just
above this a large, heart-shaped, black, bare patch, bounded by a
fine thi'ead-like rim ; the chin and rest of the neck, and all the under
parts white ; wings and tail reddish brown, the latter darker, pretty
long, and cuneiform; between the shoulders a large tuft of long,
silky j black feathers, rising considerably above the rest, and covering
the lower part of the neck, and beginning of the back; on lifting this
up, a bare space appears beneath; the lower part of the back and rump
pale greenish ash-colour, and under this the parts are somewhat
bare, which may be seen on lifting up the wings; the quills reach
but little beyond the base of the tail; legs stout, and scaly, claws pale
yellow-ochre, large, and hooked.
Native place uncertain : probably Africa.
 1
163
19.—LONG-BILLED GRAKLE.
. 398.      Pall. Spic. 6. t.'.
Gracula longirostra, Ind. Orn. i. 193.      G
Borowsck, ii. 119.    Daud. ii. 290.    SI
Long-billed-Grakle, Gen. Syn. ii. 466.
LESS than the Bee-Eater; length nearly nine inches. Bill
thirteen lines long, and a little bent; irides dusky ; aiostrils distant
from the base, and covered with a membrane ; above the angles of
the mouth two or three bristles; tongue plain, deeply bifid at the
eaad, and lacerated on the edges ; head and neck black ; back brown,
towards the rump ferrugiaaous ; under parts of the bird dirty yellow;
the sides under the wings undulated with black lines; on each side
of the neck a naked wrinkled band, beginning at the ears, passing
lengthwise on the neck, aaad almost covered by the adjacent feathers ; wings soot-colour, inclining more to brown towards the
shoulders; prime quills and part of the shafts white at the base,
formiiag an oblique bar; on the second quills no white ; tail cuneiform, black, tipped obliquely with white at the end, most white on
the outer feather, which is black only one third from the base ; legs
long, robust, and black.
Inhabits South America and Surinam. We owe the above account to Dr. Pallas, who seems to be the only one who has seen
the bird.
 164
THE HEAD COVERED WITH FEATHERS.
20—CRESTED GRAKLE.
:ula cristatella,   Ind. Om. i. 192.
vii. 453.
, 165.     Gm. Lin. i. 397.     SAaw'* Zool.
Sturnus cristatella, Daud. ii. 320.
Merula Sinensis cristata, Bris. ii. 252.     Id. Svo. i. 228.
Pastor, Martin,  Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Iv.
Sturnus crinibus cinereis, &c. Klein. Av. 64.
Pastor griseus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 154.
Merle huppe de la Chine, Buf. iii. 367. PI. enl. 507.
Chinese Starling, Edw. pl. 19.    Hist. Sumat. 90.
Crested Giakle, Gen. Syn. ii. 264. Id. Sup. p. 90.    Id. Sup. ii. 128.
SIZE of a Blackbird ; length eight inches and an half. Bill
yellow; irides orange; plumage in general blackish, with a blue
gloss; on the forehead, just over the bill, the feathers are longer,
forming a kind of crest, to be erected at will; greater quills white
half way from the base, the rest of the length blue black ; tail three
inches loaig, all but the middle feathers tipped with white; legs
dull yellow.
This species is very common in China. Known there, in common with the Minor, by the name of Lef koa, or Leuquoy; kept in
cages, and the figures of them often seen in Chinese paintings; feed
on rice, insects, worms, 8cc. In its tame state will repeat soane
words, but by aao means with the facility of the Miaaor, yet will
learn to whistle. Is plentiful in the neighbourhood of the Ganges,
as we have observed it among Indian drawings, under the name of
the Surroo of the Ganges.
In the British Museum is a specimen which is brown ; the head
and neck only black, and the latter dusky ; under tail coverts white;
the tail, when expanded, is a little hollowed out in the middle ; all
the ends of the feathers white, but the middle ones only white at
the tips.
 This last came from the Mahratta Country, in India,
also in Java, called there Jallak Sungu.
165
Found
21.—DIAL GRAKLE.
Gracula Saularis,   Ind. Orn.   i. 192.
vii. 474.
Sturnus Saularis, Daud. ii. 321,
Lanius Bengalensis niger,
ii. 1.157.
Fringilla nigra, Klein. Av. p. 98.
La Pie-griesche noire de Bengale, Buf. i. 297.
Le Cadran, Levail. Afr. iii. 50. pl. 109. f. 1, S
Saulary, Raii, 197. 19. mas. Id. 197, 20, fern.
Indian Pye, or Dial Bird, Alb. iii. pl. 17, 181
Dial Grakle, Gen. Syn. ii. 265.    Id. Supp. 91.
165.     Gm. Lin. i. 397.     Shaw's Zool.
184.    Id. Supp. p. 41.    Id. 8vo. i, 209.     Gerin.
Edw. pl. 181.
Hist. Sumatr. 98, 238.
SIZE of the Missel Thrush ; length seven inches or more.
Bill black ; irides yellow; corners of the mouth the same; plumage
in general black; belly, sides, and under tail coverts white; upper
wing coverts next the body, and second quills white, forming a
streak dowai the middle of the wing; the tail rounded, the four
middle feathers black, the others white ;* legs brown or dusky.
The female is smaller, inclines to ash-coloUr, and differs in
having the fore parts of the neck and breast dark brown, the
black parts not so deep as in the male, and the white appears sullied.
This inhabits both Africa and India ; common at Sumatra, and
there called Moori. Is a restless bird, flying perpetually from
branch to branch, often in large flocks. The Achenese use it for
the purpose of fighting, as the cock, aaid the two combatants frequently attack each other on the wing, and drop to the ground in
the struggle.    Has a pretty note, which commences with the dawn.
* Brisson counted twelve feathers in the tail, but M. Levaillant allows of but ten;
for, he says, the two middle feathers are black, the four others on each side white. In
those I have seen the tail consisted of twelve.
 mmamm*a*mm****m**
mmmsmsiamm
166 GRAKLE.
Is common near Calcutta, but aiever made use of there for combat.
It is one of those birds, which are used when invoking the name of
God, a custom which those of India have borrowed from the
Hindoos.
M. Levaillant found it only in the Grand Namaqua, within the
Cape of Good Hope.
Dr. Buchanaaa adds, that it is commonly called at Calcutta,
Doil, by the Bengalese ; in Persia, Dahool or Dahale, and there
kept only for its song. It makes an artless nest of sticks and hair
on the branches of trees; the eggs pale greenish blue, with brown
spots, most numerous at the large end.
A.—Length seven inches. Bill stout, black, with a few short
hairs at the base; head and neck black, descending before on the
breast; the rest of the under parts, back, wing coverts, upper tail
coverts, and two middle tail feathers, fine light greyish blue ; quills
and tail black; the two outer feathers of the latter white at the ends;
deepest on the exterior one; wings reaching;half way on the tail;
legs black.    Said to be a male.
Found at Cawnpore in India, in June.    Gen. Hardwicke.
One of these was scarcely seven inches long; bill seven-eighths
of an inch, made like that of the Thrush, with a slight notch at the
tip; head, neck, and back black; chin, aaeck before, and breast
li«hisky black, or deep ash-cplbur; wings wholly deep rusty brown,
"with a streak of white down the aniddle, more than 'half an inch
broad ; belly and vent white ; tail rounded, the four middle feathers
black, the others'Wholly' white4: degs<ftede browai.
In the collection of Lord Stanley, and appears to be a young
bird.
We think right to retain it here, on the authority of Linnaeus,
but from the bill it certainly has every appearance of the Thrush.
 ***
22.—EGYPTIAN GRAKLE.
GraculaAtthis, Ind. Om.i. 192.    Lin.i. 165.     Gm. Lin.i. 398.    Ph. Trans, lvii. p.
347, 10.    Shaw's ZooL vii. 475.
Corvus ^gyptius, Hasselq. It. 140. 20.    Id. Engl. 197.
Sturnus Atthis, Daud. ii. 321.
Egyptian Grakle, Gen. Syn. ii. 466.    Id. Supp. ii. 128.
SIZE of a Lark. Bill dull black, base reddish; eye bluish ;
head flattish at the top; upper part of the body deep green, spotted
with blue green on the crown, nape, and shoulders; sides of neck
and back the same, but not spotted; on each side of the neck a
longitudinal broad line, which is ferruginous on the fore part, the
rest whitish lucid blue; throat whitish; belly ferruginous; prime
quills deep green without, and dusky within ; tips the same; tail
nearly even, deep blue; legs blood red; claws blackish.
Inhabits Egypt, supposed to live on insects, centipees, and
scorpions, the remains of them being found iaa the stoanach. In a
representation of this, among the drawings of the late Mr. Bruce,
the colour is green, but the ears, axillae, and under parts glossed
with a purplish blue; tail blue green ; bill and legs black.
This was found in Abyssinia, and known by the name of Warda,*
Dr. Forster describes it as being the size of a jackdaw, with a green
body, blue back, ferruginous belly, and red legs ; he adds, that he
met with it about the river Yerooslan, beyond the Volga.
As I cannot reconcile the great difference of size between Dr.
F.*s bird and that of Hasselquist, this matter must be left for future
consideration. The size of Mr. Bruce's is not mentioned. We have
neVer met with the bird.t
* Sonnini calls it Egyptian Raven.    See Trav. (Engl. ed.J ii. 239.    Note *.
f M. Temmmck gives it as one of the Synonyms of the common Kingfisher.   See
Man. d'Omith. ed.ii, p. 422.
 168
23.—ABYSSINIAN GRAKLE.
Gracula Abyssinica, Ind. Om. Sup. x
Abyssinian Grakle, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii.
Shaw's Zool. v
SIZE uncertain. Bill black; irides straw-colour; plumage
mostly green, ending in a point on the breast; head deep ash-
colour; under parts of the body ferruginous orange; legs black. •
Inhabits Abyssinia with the Egyptian species, to which it seems
nearly allied.    From the drawings of Mr. Bruce.
24.—GREEN GRAKLE.
Sup.
ula viridis, Ind. Ot
it, Tern. Man. Ant
a Grakle, Gen. Syn. Sup
. Shaw's Zool. vii. 473.
SCARCELY twelve inches in length. Bill a trifle bent, reddish
brown, tongue half the length of it, and pointed; general colour of
the plumage dull green ; chin mottled, dusky and brown; under
parts from the breast whitish, streaked with dusky; vent white;
wings and tail dusky; the latter two inches and a half long, a trifle
rounded at the end, all but the two middle feathers marked with aaa
oval white spot within at the tip; quills edged with white, and reach
to the middle of the tail ; legs black.
Inhabits New-Holland, and there said to be a rare bird.—In tfeer
collection of Mr. H. Brogden.
25-
BLACK-HEADED GRAKLE.
Zool. vii.
Gracula melanocephala, Ind. Om. Sup. xxviii.   Sh
Black-headed Grakle, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 129.
LENGTH nine inches.    Bill yellow,  a little bent, and stout at
the base; forehead white, the rest of the head black; the throat,
 ■n
GRAKLE. 169
whole of the neck, and all beneath white, iaa some parts inclining to
blue ; back and wing coverts fine pale blue; across the latter a trace
of white; quills dusky, edged with pale rust-colour; tail three
inches long, bluish ash-colour, some of the outer feathers inclining
to pale grey near the ends; legs longish, scaly, pale yellow; claws
dusky and stout.
Inhabits New South Wales.—General Davies.
26.—PIED GRAKLE.
Gracula picata, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxix.
Pied Grakle, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 130.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill yellow, stout at the base, a
trifle bending; forehead, chin, and throat white, with a trace of the
same from the nape, on each side of the neck, to the bottom; the
rest of the head and neck black, coming forwards in a bar on the
breast; back, second quills, outer edge of the wing, and prime
quills black, tinged with blue, in some lights; the rest of the feathers on
the wing white, appearing as two white bars, connected in the middle;
beneath, from the breast, white; tail white, even at the end, near
which is a bar of black; legs dull slate-colour.
Inhabits New South Wales; called there Murregan.
27—CINEREOUS GRAKLE.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill stout, bent towards the tip, with
a minute notch, colour dusky; irides brown : plumage above pale
brown; crown of the head darkest, each feather marked with a dark
line down the shaft; under parts, from the chin, white, with a dusky
 170 GRAKLE.
tinge om the breast, where also the feathers have a brown line down
the shaft; wings as the back; the lesser coverts dusky down the
middle ; second coverts plain; quills and tail darker brown, the last
even at the end, and the wings reach just beyond the rump; legs
deep blue, stout; claws crooked, sharp.
Inhabits Port Jackson, in New South Wales; has the note of a
Thrush.
28—BROWN GRAKLE.
LENGTH sixteen or seventeen inches. Bill stout, one inch and
a half long, the upper mandible lead-colour, a little bent, and rather
overhangs the under; aiostrils near the base; irides dark; head and
neck pale brownish grey, darker under the chin ; back, wings, aaid
tail rufous brown ; breast and belly dusky; lower belly, thighs, and
vent pale, or brownish white; legs yellow brown ; claws hooked.
Inhabits New South Wales; it seems to bear affinity with the
Crow Genus, but having no reflected bristles on the bill, it may be
more properly placed as a Grakle.
29—WHITE-VENTED GRAKLE.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill, from point to gape, one inch and
a quarter, nostrils oval, near the base of the bill, contiguous to the
gape; above are a few stiff hairs; the base half of the under mandible
yellow, and the gape surrounded with a membranous skin of the
same; plumage in general brown, the feathers of the neck, wing
coverts, and tail having a gloss of green ; the tail is rounded, seven
inches long,   glossed with green on the outer webs;   quills pale
 GRAKLE. 171
brown; between the legs, vent, and under tail coverts yellowish
white; legs black.
The young bird measures about seven inches. Plumage dusky
black, with very little gloss, and the membranous yellow, bounding
the gape, more conspicuous; vent and under tail coverts buff-colour.
The above were both in the collection of Lord Stanley. Native
place uncertain.
30.—SATIN GRAKLE.
SIZE of the last. Bill pale; plumage wholly glossy black;
legs pale. The female and young bird are brown, more or less mixed
and varied with greenish crescents, oaa a pale ground.
Inhabits New-Holland. Specimens of these are in the Museum
of the Linnaean Society, where it is called Satin-Bird.
31—GLOSSY GRAKLE.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill one inch and a quarter, black, stout,
somewhat bending at the end; head and neck covered with short
velvety feathers* having a fine blue and purple gloss; the rest of the
bird green; beneath fine deep blue; breast and belly purple; wings
partly green, varied down the middle with brown; quills dusky
black, edged outwardly with green, and reach half way on the tail,
which consists of twelve feathers, rounded, one inch and three quarters in length, dusky, with a tinge of rufous; under side black;
thighs stout, brown; the whole bird extremely glossy ; legs stout,
brown.
Inhabits Senegal; has much similarity to the Blue-Green Paradise Bird.
z 2
 nfmykfmif^
I
I
111
172
32—SHINING GRAKLE.
LENGTH seven inches and an half. Bill black; plumage wholly
shining, violet purple black, except the wings and tail, which are
equally glossy, but with a hue of green; legs stout, feathered a
trifle below the joint, and brown; the tail is somewhat hollowed
out at the end.
Inhabits Africa ?—Mr. Bullock. This is so very like the Glossy
Species, as to agree, except in being so much smaller, but the bill
was imperfect; what remained of it seemed to be somewhat like that
of the Oriole.
33.—BOAT-TAILED GRAKLE—Pl. xliv.
191.
Gm.LinA. 396.    Borowsk.i
Gracula Barita, Ind. On
Shaw's Zool. vii. 460.
Sturnus Barita, Daud. ii. 320.
Troupiale, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. liv.
Monedula tota nigra, Raii 185.    Sloan. Jam. 299. t. 257. 2.
Boat-tailed Grakle, Gen. Syn. ii. 460. pl. 18,    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 154.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill sharp, black, one inch and a
half in length, naked at the base, the upper mandible bent; irides
whitish; plumage black, glossed with purple, the edges of the quills
and tail tinged with the same; the wings reach to the middle of the
latter, which, when fully expanded, appears cuneiform, and is five
inches and a half long, but when folded up is found to be singularly
constructed; for, instead of forming a plain surface at top, it sinks
into a hollow, or deep gutter; a good idea of which may be formed,
by comparing it with a Hen's tail, the under side uppermost; legs and
claws black, the latter strong.
 Hfc
  Mfc
GRAKLE. 173
Inhabits Jamaica, and other Islands in the West Indies; has a
note not unlike that of a Jackdaw; feeds on maize, beetles, and other
insects, fond also of Bananas; often seen on the ground, at which
time it carries the tail spread; folding it up in that singular manner
above mentioned, only when perching or flying: is common in North
America, and joiaas the flocks of Purple Grakles and Red-winged
Orioles; breeds in the swamps, and migrates in September: seen in
Georgia, but is there rare. This and the Icterus Niger are confounded
by Linnaeus, but the latter (our Black Oriole) is a different Species,
with a plain tail; yet he must have seen specimens of our Boat-tailed
one, since he has taken his trivial name from that circumstance.*
34.—GEORGIAN GRAKLE.
LENGTH thirteen inches and half. Bill one inch and a half,
somewhat bare at the base, and black, very slightly curved, and
ending in a sharp point, but without any notch ; nostrils open, with
a rim or flap hanging over them above; the feathers begin at the
back part of the nostrils ; irides whitish yellow; plumage fine deep
glossy black ; from the breast to vent dull black; the head, before
the eyes, and the chin appear short and velvety, but on the top somewhat elongated ; on the head and neck appears a gloss of purple in
some lights, and oai the wings green ; quills dusky black ; the first
shorter by half an inch than the second; the third and fourth the
longest; the tail is cuneiform, the two middle feathers six inches and
a half long, the outmost four only, the colour black, and in some
lights appears undulated across, seventeen or eighteen times; the legs
are two inches long, with five or six segments ; middle toe the same;
hind toe one inch a half, the claw large; the wing, when closed,
reaches two-fifths on the tail; but the upper coverts of the latter
advance still farther.
; Barita, from
p or barge.
 ill
174 GRAKLE.
The above was received from Mr. Abbot, of Georgia, by the
name of Boat-tailed Grakle; but although it corresponds in general
appearance, the feathers of the tail lie flat as in of her birds, by no
means folding like a Gutter, as in that bird; nor is it the purple
species, though greatly resembling it, as may be seen by comparing
the two together. Said to frequent the fields about Savannah in large
flocks*.
In one sent to Mr. Francillon, I observe that the three outer
quills are of equal lengths. The outer tail feather five inches; the
two middle seveRinches.
Another twelve inches long, said to be a female, was not of so full a
black above, and less glossy; head and neck glossy greenish brown;
beneath brownish pale ash-colour; chin pale; lower belly, thighs,
and vent, dark brown.
11
i. 397.   Bor. Nat. ii
35— PURPLE GRAKLE.
Gracula Quiscula, Ind. Om. i. 191.    Lin. i. 165.    Gm. Lin. i
Shaw's Zoo/, vii. 458.   Amer OrnAii. pl. 21. f. 4.
Sturnus Quiscula, Daud. ii. 316.
Pica Jamaicensis, Brit.ii- 41.   Id. 8vo. i. 166.    Buf. iii. 97.
Corvtis Mexicanus, Bris. ii. 43.   Id. 8vo. i. 167.    Shaw's ZooL vii,366.
Comix purpurea, Klein Av. 60.
Merops niger iride subargentea, Brown Jam. 476.
Fur Zese, Kalm It. 33.
Izanatl, Raii 168.    Hoitzanatl,    Id. 162?
Hocisana, Buf. iii. 103?
La Pie bleue, Voy. d'Azara iii. No. 54, 55.
Criard, Pernet. Voy. i. 185.
Troupiale, Tern. Man. Ed. ii, p, liv.
Blackbird, or Maize Thief, Kalm Trav. i pl. p. 291.
Mexican Crow, Gen. Syn. ii. 396.
Purple Grakle, Gen. Syn. ii. 462.   Id. Sup. p. 90.    Arct. ZooL ii. 153.
SIZE of a Blackbird; length twelve inches; breadth seventeen
inches and a half.    Bill black; irides white, or pearly grey; plumage
drawing of this bird Mr. A. calls
uch in joining him in opinion.
the female of the Boat-tailed s
 wholly black) richly glossed with purple, especially on the head and
neck; tail cuneiform; legs black.
The female is shorter by one inch than the male, and less glossy,
otherwise not unlike,
The young bird does not get the full plumage till the second
year, before that time partaking more or less of brown, and as it
proceeds in age is patched with black, or glossed with black or blue.
This species inhabits various parts of America, Carolina,-Mexico,
and Jamaica; for the most part feeds on maize, hence the name of
Maize-Thief has been given to it. These birds will also eat various
kinds of insects; are destructive to the maize soon after it is sown, by
scratching it up again, and no sooner is the leaf come out, than they
dig it up with the bill; when ripe they do still more damage, for then
they come by thousands, and are so bold, that if disturbed in one part
of a field, they only go to another; after the maize harvest they
are content to feed on other things, as the aquatic tare grass; and if
obliged, by hunger, buck-wheat, oats, and other grain; they are
said to destroy that pernicious insect the Bruchus Pisi. In New
Jersey and Pennsylvania, three-pence per dozen were given for the
dead birds, by which they were so nearly extirpated in 1750, as to
be but few left; but it was then observed, that the worms in the
meadows so increased, the persecution of the birds abated, as it
was found that they fed on these worms till the maize was ripe. At
the first appearance in spring, all are more or less purple; though at
the time of their uniting in such vast flocks, in summer, to visit the
plantations of maize, a large proportion of brown birds are among
them, having a small mixture of purple. They build the beginning
of May, in societies of ten or fifteen together, in one tall tree, rarely
in bushes, and chiefly about ponds. The nest composed of sticks,
dried stalks, and hay, laying five bluish olive eggs, marked with
large spots, and irregular streaks of black and dark brown, and
have only one brood in a season, but the spots vary in colour, and
some have a mixture of others of a paler tinge.     Are said to pass
m
 176 GRAKLE.
the winter in swamps, and will now and then form one troop with
the Red-Winged Orioles and Blue Jays. The note is thought by
some to be agreeable, but the flesh is black and unsavoury. They
are called in some parts Crow Blackbirds, and will learn to articulate, but not distinctly.
In the Museum of the late Sir A. Lever was a beautiful Variety.
The bill pale, with a dusky tip; head white; back, shoulders, and
breast white, mottled with black; quills and tail black ; some of the
outer feathers of the latter white just at the tips. Another, represented
in a drawing, sent by Mr. Abbot, of Georgia, had the eight middle
tail feathers quite white; the two outer black. Much attachment
has been observed between this bird and the Fishing Hawk; the nest
of the latter is composed of large sticks, and is three or four feet in
diameter, among the interstices of which the Purple Grakles will
construct theirs, whilst the Hawk is sitting above, and each hatch
their young, in perfect harmony.
• I must here observe, that M. Daudin separates the Pica Jamai-
censis, and Aferops niger iride subargentea, into different Species,
and adds thereto the Corvus JMexicanus, which we believe is no other
than our Purple Grakle; now all these are said to be as large, or
larger than a Jackdaw, and, according to our conceptions, full eleven
inches, or more, in length : yet, in his description of a Species thus
divided, he gives the length but eight inches and a half—too great a
difference to be the same bird. He adds as a synonym too, our
Labrador Thrush; but this is in our opinion more probably a young
Rice Oriole, as we have arranged it, from several specimens having
passed under our eye. Nor is this species found greatly to the southward. We suspect that M. Daudin has been deceived by the Boat-
Tailed Grakle, from having seen it at different periods of age, for
he says, that in both his birds the tails are hollowed on the upper
surface like a gutter ;* which is true in the Boat-Tailed Grakle, and
* Queue a pennes etagees, et formant unegouttiere, par l'abaissement des intermediares.
 mm
GRAKLE. 177
in no other. How far this may be the Criard of Pernetty, is not easy
to be determined ; this is said to be light blue, but, indeed, the
plumage appears in some lights to be both blue and purple.
36.—CHILI GRAKLE.
Turdus curaeus, Ind. Om. i. 348.   Molin. Chil. 229.    Id. Fr. ed. 232;    Gm. Lin. i. 81 »
Sturnus curaeus, Daud. ii. 318.
Le Troupiale noir et varie, Voy. d'Azara iii. No. 71.
Chili Thrush, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 178.
SIZE of a Blackbird. Bill somewhat angular, recurved at the
tip, and black; eyes black; the whole plumage glossy black; tail
cuneiform, five inches long; legs black.
Inhabits Chili, and is there coanmon; said to sing remarkably
well; is a restless species, chattering, and imitating the notes of
others; will catch small birds, and pick out their brains; found often
among flocks of Starlings, and lives both on grain and insects; its
flesh is unsavoury, and black, as are also the bones; it makes the
nest of twigs, and rushes, mixed with mud, and lays three bluish
white eggs; frequently kept in cages. Is observed in Paraguay as
far as 27 degrees.
Froan the above description, we are inclined to believe, that this
is no other than the Purple Species.
7.-NOBLE GRAKLE.
Oriolus nobilis, Edle Atzel, Merrem Beytr. i. p. 8. t. 2.
LENGTH eight inches. General colour of the plumage black,
some of the feathers on the shoulders, and the under tail coverts
yellow; base of the outer tail feathers yellow.
Inhabits the Sandwich Islands.
 ra
il!
178
38.—CLIMBING GRAKLE.
Gracula scandens, Ind. Om. i. 193.    Shaw's ZooL vii. 476.
■■        Cayanensis, Gm. Lin. i. 399.
Le grand Pic-grimpereau, Voy. d'Azara iv. No. 241.
Picucule de Cayenne, Buf. vii. 82.    PL enl. 621.    Ois. dor.ii. 113. pl. 76.    Tern.
Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxxi.
Climbing Grakle, Gen. Syn. i. 467.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill stout, black, slightly bent the whole
length, and curved at the point, length oaae inch and three quarters;
nostrils small, close to the base; head and throat mottled rufoaas and
white; the upper parts of the body rufous, the under rufous yellow,
every where marked with narrow, transverse, dusky streaks; wings
and tail rufous, the latter four inches long, cuneiform, the outer
feather a quarter of an inch shorter than the middle ones; all of them
have the shafts projecting in a point beyond the ends of the feathers;
legs one inch and a quarter, dusky black.
Inhabits the inteaior of Guiaaaa, and climbs the trees like the
Woodpecker, with which it is blended by the inhabitants, but, in
fact, it does not belong to that Genus, nor to the Creepers, between
which two it seems to have been placed, but whether we may have
acted more properly in respect to the preseaat arrangemeait, must
remain for future investigation.
One, in the collection of Lord Seaforth, was full thirteen inches
ill length, with the head and neck plain brown; wings and tail
dull a-ufous.
39—PICOID GRAKLE.
Oriolus
, Ind. Om.i. 188.    Gm. Lin.i. 384.
Oriolus Picoides, Shaw's Zool. vii. 476.
Le Talapiot, Buf. vii. 82.    PL enl. 605.
Climbing Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 453.
LENGTH nine inches and a half.     Bill one inch and a half,
dusky horn-colour, under mandible paler, tip of the upper slightly
 GRAKLE. 179
hooked; nostrils close to the base; crown, nape, and neck behind
brown ; the aniddle of the feathers clay-colour; in some birds white,
giving the appearance of spots, but at the nape appearing as streaks;
throat and breast much the same, but the clay spots are larger, and
longer; chin plain buff clay-colour, or whitish; from the breast to the
vent dusky brownish yellow ; the rest of the plumage deep anafous;
the tail consists of twelve feathers, cuneiform in shape, the two middle
ones three inches and three-quarters long, the outmost two inches and
three-quarters, the shafts pale, and remarkably stiff* as in the Woodpecker, especially the middle ones, the shafts continuing beyond the
ends in a sharp point; all but the two middle have a disposition to
turn oiatwards, and probably support the bird in climbing, or on a tree,
as in the Woodpecker ; the outer quill is one inch shorter than the"
third, which is longest of all, and the wings reach three-fourths on
the tail; legs rather weak, claws stout, hooked, dusky lead-colour ;
toes united to the first joint.
The above described from a specimen in the possession of Mr. Mc.
Leay, received from Berbice ; is also found as far South as Paraguay;
it is larger than that figured in the Pl. enlum. which is only seven
inches long. Said to be frequent in Guiana, in the inland parts,
having the manners of a Creeper or Woodpecker ; but the straitness
of the bill prevents it being ranked: with the former, and the toes being
placed three before and one behind, forbid it to have place in the
latter Genus, independent of the tongue not being elongated; observed to feed chiefly on insects, which lurk beneath the bark of trees,
which it displaces for that purpose with its bill. Both this and the
Climbing;Grakle are called Woodpeckers at Guiana; and both are
included by M. Temminck in his Genus Picucule.
 I
180
PARADISE  BIRD.
GENUS XIX.—PARADISE BIRD.
1 Greater Paradise Bird
9 Furcated
16 Frosted
2 Smaller
10 Hackled
17 Crisped
3 Doubtful
11 Emerald-breasted
18 Twelve-wired
4 Red
12 Gold-breasted
A Wayghihu
5 King
13 Blue-green
19 White
6 Magnificent
A Var.
20 Golden
7 Crested
14 Gorget
A Var.
8 Superb
15 White-winged
J. HE bill in this Genus is slightly bent, the base covered with
velvet-like feathers.
Nostrils small, concealed in the feathers.
Tail of ten or m re feathers; in some the two middle ones, in
others more, very long, and webbed only at the base, and tips.
Legs and feet large and strong ; toes placed three before and one
behind.
The whole of this Genus have, till lately, been very imperfectly
known, few cabinets possessing more than the greater, or common
one, with, perhaps, the King Species ; nor has any set of birds given
rise to more fables, to be found in most of the early authors : such as
their never touching the ground ; living wholly on dew; being
produced without legs; aaad many such like stories, too ridiculous
to mention ; and the last error is not at this time wholly disbelieved.
The circumstance which seems to have occasioned it, did not at
first, perhaps, proceed from an intention to deceive, but was merely
accidental.
In those parts of the world which produce these birds, the natives
made las o th m as Aigrettes, and other ornaments of dress, aaid in
coaarse threw away the less brilliant j arts. The only trouble taken
was merely to skin them, and after pulling off the legs, and coarser
parts of the wings, &c. to thrust a stick down the throat into the body,
 PARADISE  BIRD. 181
suffering an inch or two to hang out of the mouth, beyond the bill,
and when dry, the skin collapsed about the stick, which became fixed,
and supported the whole ; and the end of it being put into a socket
fitted to receive it, was fastened in some manner to a turban, or elsewhere. By degrees these were ianported into other isles for the same
uses, and afterwards coveted by the Japanese, Chinese, and Persians,
in whose nations they are frequently seen, as well as in many parts of
India. The Grandees of the last parts not only ornamenting themselves, but adorning their horses with these beautiful plumes.
The whole of this race is supposed to inhabit New Guinea,
migrating into the neighbouring isles for a time, but returning to
the former in the breeding season, and never at all found but within
a few degrees of the Equator. The Dutch get them chiefly from
Banda, and it is there that the story of their being without legs is
propagated, in order to enhance their value. The natives of Aroo
bring them to that place by way of traffic, prepared as above, and
put into the hollow of a Bamboo for further preservation.
We here enumerate twenty Species and Varieties, and lament that
the descriptions of some are necessarily imperfect, from the little
knowledge to be obtained concerning them; but have remarked all
that is generally known, with a hope that some future Naturalist will
be found, who having undertaken a journey into New Guinea, may
be capable of discriminating the subjects he shall find there, and by
this means supply our present desiderata
 182
PARADISE  BIRD.
11
1.— GREATER PARADISE BIRD.
Paradisea apoda, Ind.Om,i. 194.    Lin.i. 166.    It.Wgoth. 139.    Mus, AdJPred. I 1&(I
Gm. Lin. i. 399.    Borowsk. ii. 121. Shaw's Zool. vii. 480. t. 58.
Manucodiata, Paradisea Avis, Bris. ii.  130. t. 13. 1.     Id. 8vo. i. 193.     Raii p. 20. 1.
Id. 21. 3. 5. 6. 7.     Itf. 22. 8. 9.     Will. 56.   1.11.  p. 57. 5. 6. p. 58. 7. 8. p. 59. 9.
Klein Av. 63. 1.3.5. 6.     Se5a Mm*, i. 99. t. 63. f. 1. 2.    Gerin. t. 63.     ZooL Indie. :
p. 31. 1.    Id. 4to. p. 18. pl. in title page.    Mus. Lev. t. 8.
Abe del Paraiso, Gabin. de Madrid, i. p. 67, lam. 29.
Der grosse Paradiesvogel, Schmid Vog. p. 54. t. 41. *
Oiseau de Paradis, Buf iii. 151. 1.12.    PL enl. 254;    Robert Ic. pl. 19.
L'Emerawde, Ois. de Paradis p. 9. pl. 1.
Birds of Paradise,  Will. Orn. p. 91. 1. 92. 3.5.6.7. 93. 8. 9. pl. 11.
Great Paradise Bird, Gen. Syn. ii. 471.     Edw. t.110.     Alb. iii. pl. 9.     Forrest  Voy.
135.    Bradl. Nat. 1.12. f. 1. 2.
THIS bird appears, from the plumage, to be as big as a Pigeon,
but the body scarcely exceeds that of a Thrush. Bill one inch and
a half long, stout, brown, and a little curved at the tip, from thence
to the end of the tail twelve inches and a half; the head rounded,
of a full proportion to the size of the bird, and, as well as the throat
and neck, covered with very short, dense, stiff feathers; those of the
head, and hind part of the neck, of a pale gold-colour, but the base
of the bill is surrounded with black velvet-like ones, changing in
different lights to green; the fore part of the aaeck is green gold,
lower part of it behind, back, wings, and taal chestnut; breast deeper
chestnut, inclining to purple; beneath the wings spring a great
quantity of feathers, the webs of which are so loose as to appear like
herring-bone,* some of them nearly eighteen inches in length : these
aa*e of different colours, some chestnut and purplish, others yellowish,
and a few almost white; from the rump arise two feathers without
webs, except for four inches next the base, and the same at the tips;
these appear to be the two middle tail feathers, and are two feet
* Appearing not unlike tufts of the Downy Feather-Grass—Stipa pennata, Lin.
 PARADISE   BIRD.
183
nine inches in length, but the rest are little more than six inches, and
are even at the end; legs stout, and brown.
The female is like the male, but the two wire-like feathers of the
tail have shorter webs; these birds are said to moult, and to be
without these long feathers for four months in the year.
Inhabits the Molucca Islands, and those surrounding New
Guinea, particularly in the Isle of Aroo; the people of Amboyna
call them Manu-key-aroo; the natives of Tern ate, Burong papua,
or Papua Bird; also Manuco-dewata, and Soffu, or Sioffu ; at Aroo
they are called Fanaan : supposed to breed ita New Guinea, coming
from thence into Aroo, at the westerly, or dry Monsoon, and found
there during the contiaiuance of it, returning to New Guinea when
the east or wet Monsoon sets in; they are seen going and returning^
in flights of twenty or thirty, led by a king, which is observed
constantly to fly higher thaaa the rest; during this flight they cry
like Starlings, and fly against the wind, if moderate, but when in
distress, from its shifting, or blowing too strong, they croak like
Ravens, and in this case their long scapular feathers become
dishevelled, which qaaite hinders their flight, and they are lost in
the water, or fall on the ground, in which latter case they are unable
to rise again, without gaining aaa eminence; in this state they are
watched by the natives, who secure many, and kill them on the
spot, as it is said they cannot be kept alive by art,* and the traffic
in these birds is one part of their trade; they are also taken with
birdlime, f when they settle in trees, or shot wfrfh blunt arrows.
They are sold at Banda, and ate Ticinity, for half a rix dollar, but
the people of Aroo are contest with a spike nail for each.
The food of these birds is not known for certain, since the accounts
gwen  by  Aaafchors differ widely; some affirm, that they feed on
* The late Mr. Pennant furnished us with an instance to the contrary, from Sir Joseph
anks ; one of them having been brought alive to England.—Ind. Zool. 4to. 13. note x,
t Said to be prepared from the juice of Sukkom, or Bread-fruit (Artocasspus).
 I
184
PARADISE BIRD.
berries of the Waringa tree,* others that they are fond of nutmegs, |
others say their food is large butterflies, J and again, that they chace
small birds; § and the last circumstance does not appear improbable,
as their bills and legs are sufficiently stout, and they are known to
defend themselves courageously whenever they are taken alive.
The Paradise Birds were formerly brought iaato Europe without
legs, and not a few persons were persuaded that they never had any;
but the truth is, that the legs being useless for the purposes designed,
they are torn off on the spot, and thrown aside. It is for ornament
only that they are coveted, by such of the inhabitants of the east as
are able to purchase them, as the chiefs of the country wear them
constantly in their turbans, and the grandees of Persia, Surat, and
other parts of the East Indies, use them as Aigrettes, and even adorn
their horses with them.
2.—SMALLER PARADISE BIRD.
Paradisea minor Papuana, ZooL Ind. p.33. 2.    Shaw's ZooL vii. 486.
Petit eineraude, Ois. de Paradis p. 12. pl. 2.
Smaller Paradise Bird, Gen. Syn. ii. 474. A.    Forr. Voy. 137.    Ind. Zool. Ato. p. 20. II.
THIS is smaller, as the length, the scapular feathers included, is
no more than twenty-one inches. Bill lead-colour, with a yellowish
point, and two inches aaid a half long; the eye suriounded with
black; forehead and chin covered with velvety black feathers, glossed
with green; throat and neck before wholly green ; top of the head,
nape, and half the neck behind, ferruginous yellow, the lower half
quite yellow; the back is also yellow, with a tinge of dirty grey;
breast, belly, and wings chestnut; from the upper part of the tail
* Ficus benjamina,"sei
§ Bontius,  "unguibi
similes venentur, easque i
Forrest, p. 136. f Tavemier, ii. 311. J Linnceus
s  incurvis et peracutis parvas aviculas Chlorides, Fringillas
iox, sicut reliquse aves devorent." Lib. v. cap. 12.
 wmmmmmm
PARADISE   BIRD.
185
spring two wire-like shafts, as in the former bird, as well as a tuft of
long, loose-webbed feathers from beneath each wing ; these are of a
delicate white, or light yellow, the last chiefly on the sides, where
many of the shorter ones have purple tips; but in some specimens
the base half is fine yellow, and the rest of the length satiny white,
without the purple tips.
This bird is only to be found in the Papuan Islands, where it is
called Shag or Shague, by the people of Ternate, Toffu, or
Boorong-papuwa. It is said, that the Papuans intoxicate them with
Cocculus indicus,^ so as to catch them with the hand; they then draw
out the bowels, sear the inside with a red hot iron, and afterwards
put each into the hollow of a bamboo, for preservation. I have,
however, reason to suppose, that they do more than simply exenterate
them, as I have ever found, that the skins alone were preserved, and
in general, most, if not the whole, of the skull was taken away,
whence the head appears unnaturally small.f
We are informed, that they build in tall trees, and do not migrate
like the first described ; yet are said, like them, to fly in flocks,
preceded by a king, who is black, with a purplish cast, and more
finely coloured than the rest, and that the male has a longer bill and
aaeck than the female.
It is probable, that this and the former are mere Varieties, if not
in different stages of growth.
3.—DOUBTFUL PARADISE BIRD.
AMONG the excellent drawings of Sir J. Anstruther, is one of
the fragments of a Paradise Bird, which I can scarcely reconcile to
* Menispermum Cocculus, Lin.
f I have met with one having the skul
of that of the Magpie.
complete, which was round, and nearly the si
 186 PARADISE  BIRD.
any known Species, though perhaps it may come nearest to the lesser
sort; the length to the end of the tail thirteen inches. Bill one inch
long, at the base half an inch broad, colour brown; forehead not
covered with black velvety feathers; the whole plumage on the upper
parts (which alone appear in the drawing) of a fine glowing orange
yellow; some of the greater quills remain attached, and are fine
light brown ; second quills the same, fringed at the tips with yellow;
in others nearly the whole of the inner webs are of the last colour,
except at the tips; tail three inches and a half long, even at the end,
colour light brown ; the quills reach to the base of the tail; the rest
of the bird is wanting.
It differs from the Smaller Paradise Bird, as the bill is one-third
shorter, and considerably broader at the base; the quills tipped with
yellow; also, the plumage on the upper parts is fine orange yellow;
perhaps the chin and throat may be velvety, as some edges of dark
coloured feathers appear on each side of the jaw, in the drawing,
for about an inch and a half from the bill.
In the same drawing is a single feather, four inches long, probably
one of the side feathers of the tail; the inner web, from the base,
half way, yellow ; this colour then diverges from the shaft to the end,
so that the inner web appears brown and yellow, obliquely divided;
the outer wholly brown, except just at the base, where the feather is
entirely yellow.
4— RED PARADISE BIRD.
Paradis rouge, Ois. de Paradis p. 14. pl. 3.
Paradisea sanguinea, Shaw's Zool. vii. 487. t. 59.
LENGTH nine inches, but to the end of the axillary feathers
twelve or thirteen. Bill horn-colour; forehead and chin velvety
black; the feathers on the forehead longer than the rest, forming a
 Mfc
PARADISE  BIRD. 187
crest, divided into two parts, and these, as well as those of the neck
above, and throat, are of the same texture; neck behind, back,
rump, sides, and great part of the breast yellow ; lower part of the
belly, wings, and tail brown, deeper on the breast; subaxillary
feathers situated as in the others, and of a fine red, but instead of the
two elongated, slender shafts, usually seen in other Species, this bird
has two appendages of the same kind, twenty-two inches loaag, as
thick as a goose qiaill, convex on one side, and concave on the other;
at the base of these are some very short barbs; the rest of the length
perfectly naked, and ending in a point.
The specimen, from which the above account is taken, had neither
wings nor legs, nor was it said from whence it came.
Among the drawings of Sir J. Anstruther, is one of these, the
total length two feet. Head, chin, and throat velvety, and fine
emerald green, changing to blue; feathers of the crown rather long,
aaad may be erected over the forehead; hind part of the neck, and
beginning of the back tawny yellow; the rest rufous brown; the
quills wanting, but the tufts springing from beneath them are fine
sanguineous red, and ending in herring-bone points; the two
elongated quill-like appendages little more than fifteen inches, but
the same in size and form as in the other; colour of them black.
This is said to have been brought from some of the Eastern
Islands^ the place not certain, thought to be Amboyna. A dried
specimen, much mutilated, was given to Lord Wellesley, by Mr.
Farquhar, Governor of Prince of Wales's Island, and was the only
one then known. Where M. Levaillant obtained the specimen from
which his figure, apparently pea'fect, was taken, we are not informed.
We have lately seen, in Mr. Bullock's Museum, a fine specimen.
 188
PARADISE  BIRD.
5— KING PARADISE BIRD.
'SI!
L
.166.    Got. Lin. i. 400.   Mus. Ad. Fr. i. p.
•'s ZooL vii. 497. pl. 67.    Spalowsck. Vog. ii
Paradisea regia, Ind. Om. i. 194.
Borowsk.Nat.n. 120. 1.13.
19 and 20.
Manucodiata minor, Bris. ii. 136. t. 13. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 195.
Rex Avium Paradisearum, Raii p. 22. 10.    Will. p.61.    Klein, p. 64. 7.  Seba. i. 63. t.
38. 5.    P<tfi». Gaz. t. 53. 2.    Gerin. i. t. 66.    ZooL Ind. p. 36.     Roterf Ic. pl. 19.
Johnst. Av. pl.55. f. 6.
LeManucode, Buf. iii. 163.    Pl. enl. 496.    Ois. de Paradis p. 16. pl. v.
Roi des Oiseaux de Paradis, Son. Voy. 156. t. 95.
Der Konigs Paradies vogel, Schmid Vog. p. 54. t. 42.
King of the Greater Birds of Paradise,  Will. Engl. 96. pl. 77.     Edw. pl. 111.    Forr.
Voy. 141.    Bor.ii. t. 75.
King Paradise Bird, Gen. Syn. ii. 475.    hid. Zool. 4to. p. 24.    Will. Engl. 92. §. vi.
SIZE of a Lark; length seven inches. Bill one inch long,
yellowish, and very little bent; the upper mandible covered half way
with orange-coloured feathers; the eyes surrounded with black ones;
at the iaaternal angle of the eye a spot of black; irides yellow ; head,
neck, back, tail, and wings purplish chestnut; the crown brighter,
with a yellowish tinge, and the breast approaching to blood red ; all
have a rich satin-like gloss; most part of the head is covered with
soft short feathers, like velvet, but the other parts are like common
feathers; on the breast is a broad bar of green, having a polished
lustre;* belly white; from each side, beneath the wings, spring
several greyish-white feathers, tipped with lucid green; the tail is
little more than an inch long, and the wings, when closed, reach
beyond it; from the base of the middle tail feathers arise two other
long ones, which are webbed at their origin ; the rest of the length
for about six inches, quite naked to the ends, where they are again
webbed on one side, and coil in a spiral manner; the webs of a green
colour, and very glossy; the legs are stout, and of a dusky colour.
specimens there is
v bar of yellow above the £
a one, and the belly
 •%
 Ill
1
j^i^^J&^^Mw
   PARADISE  BIRD.
189
Inhabits New Guinea, where it is supposed to breed, but is
principally found at Aroo, where it is called Wowi Wowi; in the
Papuan Islands, S6pclo-o, being brought chiefly from Aroo Sop-
clo-o; and especially from Wadjir, a well known village there.
The Dutch call it King Bird, and get it from Banda, to which
place it is brought by the natives of the Islands before named. It
is said not to associate with the other Birds of Paradise, but flits
solitary from bush to bush, feeding on red berries, without getting
on tall trees.
This Species is more rarely found in Cabinets than the two first
described.
6.—MAGNIFICENT PARADISE BIRD—Pl. xlv.
Paradisea magnifica, Ind. Om. i. 195.
Le Magnifique de la nouvelle Guinee,
Parad. p. 15. pl. iv.
Manucode k Bouquets, Buf. vii. p. 166.
Magnificent Paradise Bird, Gen. Syn. ii.
Misc. pl. 625.
Got. Lin. i. 401.     Shaw's Zool. vii. 492. t. 62.
Son. Voy. 163. t. 98.     PL enl. 631.      Ois. de
Zool. Ind. 38. 3.
177. pl. xix.   Ind. Zool. 4to. p. 26. III.
SIZE of a Blackbird ; length laine inches. Bill one inch long,
bending a trifle downwards; it is pale in colour, with the tip and base
dusky black; the general texture of the feathers about the head short,
like cut velvet, those round the forehead and chin are thick set, stand
out a trifle beyond the rest, and black; between the gape and eye
a lucid green spot; the crown and nape are yellowish chestnut,
deepest on the crown ; from the back of the neck a tuft of yellow
feathers, each of them a trifle broader at the end, and there marked
with a black spot; beneath this a second longer tuft, or packet of
feathers, of a straw, or brimstone-colour, lying loosely over the back,
Isdiich is red-brown ; from the chin to the thighs the feathers are
greenish black, appearing in some lights green ; and in a quiescent
 190 PARADISE BIRD.
state of the bird, fall over, and conceal part of the wing coverts ;
but down the middle of the throat, neck, and breast appearing gilded
blue green, and the feathers short and downy; the two middle quills
are yellow brown, but the prime ones and the tail are deep brown,
and the ends of the quills are nearly as long as the tail; from the
place of insertion of the two middle feathers of the last, spring two
long, wire-like, shafts, furnished with very short, green webs on
one side, and end in a point; legs dusky yellow.
Said to inhabit New Guinea, but is a rare species. The above
described from a specimen, formerly in the possession of Miss Blome-
field : another was in that of Sir Joseph Banks : we have also seen
it in two or three other places, and not greatly differing from the
above description.
:.fi
7.—CRESTED PARADISE BIRD.
Paradisea cirrhata, Ind. Om. i. 195.     Aldr. Av. i. 811. t. p. 814.     Raii p. 21.      Will.
p. 57.   Klein, p. 63.    Bris. ii. 135.   Id. 8vo. i. 195.
Oiseau de Paradis huppe, Ois. de Paradis p. 28.
Crested Bird of Paradise, Will. Engl. p. 92.    Forr. Voy. 140. 6 ?    Ind. ZooL 4to. p. 7L
Shaw's ZooL vii. 491.
THIS is the fourth Bird of Paradise described by Aldrovandus^
who makes it eighteen.inches long. The bill very long in proportion,
black, and somewhat hooked; the feathers of the head, neck, and
wings black, yet at the joining of the bill yellow; a crest or cope
near the neck, almost three inches high, rigid, and of a yellow
colour, and which seemed to consist of bristles rather than feathers,
and in that chiefly differing from the Greater, or first Species,
 PARADISE  BIRD.
191
8.—SUPERB PARADISE BIRD,
Paradisea superba, Ind. Om. i. 196.     Got. Lin. i. 402.     Shaw's Zool. vii.
64.65.    Nat. Misc. pl. 1021.
Le Manucode dit le superbe, Son. Voy. 157. t. 96.    Buf. iii. Ii
Indie, p. 38.    Seba. i. t. 68.    Ois. de Paradis p. 20. pl. 7.
Superb Paradise Bird, Gen. Syn. ii. 479.    Ind. Zool. 4to. p. 26.
PL enl. 632.   ZooL
THIS is somewhat larger than the King Paradise Bird. Bill
black; at the base of the upper mandible a black crest, composed
of fine, strait, and not very long feathers; head, neck behind, and
back covered with green-gold ones; these are broad, and well
furnished with webs, having to the eye and touch every appearance
of velvet, and lie so over one another, as to appear like the scales of
a fish; wings dull deep black; tail black, with a blue gloss, of a
moderate length, and even at the end ; throat changeable violet, with
a velvet-like appearance; belly bright gilded green; on each side,
from under the wings, a tuft of black velvety feathers, of unequal
lengths, which rise some height above the back, giving the appearance of second wings, the ends turning downwards towards the tail,
and many of them as long as the wing itself; the legs are brown,
Inhabits New Guinea.
* Mr. Pennant supposes this may be the Paradisea nigra major of Valentyn No. 3. but
this has long setaceous feathers in the tail. That figured in the Pl. enlum. is without them;
and if the mutilated figure referred to in Seba be the same bird, they are not there represented ; added to which, the tail is spread in such a manner as to appear forked. In Sonnerat's
figure a small bird is seen in the claws, from which we may infer, that it is a rapacious
species.
 PARADISE  BIRD.
9— FURCATED PARADISE BIRD.
Paradisea furcata, Ind. Om. i. 196.
Superb Paradise Bird, Gen. Syn. ii. 480. sect. 2.
IN the Museum of the late Sir Ash ton Lever was an imperfect
bird, from which only the few following particulars could be
collected: it was the size of the last mentioned. Bill black; general
colour of the plumage the same; from the place of the wings arise
two tufts, somewhat as in the last described, but the wings were
wanting; on the upper part of the belly a set of most brilliant
black-green, glossy feathers, in shape forked, not unlike the tail of
the Swallow, longer than those sua'rounding them, and standing out a
little from the rest; legs sta'ong, and black.
From this slight sketch, it can scarcely be determined, whether it
may be a Variety, or sexual different of the last; the Furcated,
however, differs in having the whole of the head and neck black.
In the Pl. enlum. it may be observed, that the brilliant gold-green
feathers, which there appear to lie flat, with one point towards each
thigh, if elevated in preparing the skin for preservation, would
appear like that figured by Levaillant; but how far these are erected
in the living state, and what purpose they may answer, is not easily
determined. The two tufts abovementioned in the last-named author's
figure of the bird, appear as two immense wings, of double the size
of the true wings, and elevated to a considerable extent above the
head, spreading out on each side; but whether the bird has the
faculty of doing this, or for what purpose, is not for us to determine.
This and the Superb are probably only one Species; but it does not
appear, from what we are able to collect, that the feathers of the belly
in the former, although of a most splendid bright green, are
divisible into the elevated wing-like appearance abovementioned.
 ■%
 fUSJH^
1
If 1 111
L
 	
1
 Wt\
1  i
^
 PARADISE   BIRD.
«%
10.—HACKLED PARADISE BIRD.—Pl. xlvi.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill one inch and a quarter long, a
trifle bent, and dusky, the base surrounded with velvet-like black
feathers, covering the nostrils; top of the head, even with the eye,
and to the beginning of the back, deep green, varying to bright
green in some lights; the feathers of a plush-like texture; those on
the hind part of the neck are long, pointed, and like hackles, but on
the chin and throat they are similar to those on the crown, and both
appear, in some lights, to be scaly, either indigo or green, and glossy,
like metal; on each side of the aaeck is a stripe of blue, dividing the
green above and below, and coming forwards to the breast, where
it occupies a broad space; on the middle of the crown arise four
bristles, near two inches long, tending backwards; upper part of
the back, and wings, greenish black, in some lights appearing quite
black; from the breast to the vent deep, dull ash-colour; tail even
at the end, and three inches in length, the two middle feathers dull
green, pointed at the tips; the others dusky within, and green oai
the outer webs, and all of them curve a little outwards; legs scaly;
claws black, and hooked, though not very stout.
Native place uncertain; in the collection of General Davies.
11—EMERALD-BREASTED PARADISE BIRD.
LENGTH seven inches, from the tip of the bill to the end of the
tail. Bill one inch and a half long; rather stout; plumage an
general, on the upper parts, purplish black; throat and breast blue
green, with a polished metallic splendour, as hi the emerald, but
not varying in different positions of light; at the bottom of this
brilliant part is a bar of black, from thence to the vent deep brown
VOL.  lit. C   C
 194
PARADISE  BIRD.
chestnut; from beneath the wings, on each side, arises a tuft of long,
loose, axillary feathers, reaching an inch and a half beyond the tail,
which is glossy blue-green above, and black beneath.
A specimen of this was in the collection of Mr. Leadbeater; the
wings and legs were wanting. It is the only one which has come
under our observation.
12—GOLD-BREASTED PARADISE BIRD.
radisea
»; Ind. Om. i. 196.   Sha
?m. Lin. i. 402.
. 496. pl. 66.
Manucode a six filets, Buf. iii. 171.   Pl. enl. 633.   Zool. Indie, p. 38. 5.
Le Sifilet, Ois. de Paradis p, 18. pl.6.
Oiseau Paradis u gorge doree, Son. Voy. 158, t. 97.
Gold-breasted Paradise Bird, Gen. Syn. ii. 481.    Ind. Zool. 4to. p. 26. V.
SIZE of the Turtle. Bill blackish; hides yellow; on the forehead,
at the root of the bill, a crest, which the bird carries nearly erect;
this, when flat, extends somewhat beyond the eyes, and is composed
of fine, stiff feathers, not well furnished with webs; at first it is
black, but some of the feathers are half black, half white; top of
the head, cheeks, and throat changeable violet black; fore part of
the neck and breast gilded, changeable, green, very brilliant; on
the neck behind a large green-gold spot; back deep black, with a
violet gloss: wings aaad tail black; beneath each wing arise long
black feathers, which cover over the wings while at rest; the webs of
these are loose, like those of the Ostrich ; on each side of the head,
near the ears, three long feathers, without webs, except at the end,
where they are spread out into an oval, which part is webbed; they
are so long, that when ranged on each side of the body, they reach
to one-fourth of the tail, which is somewhat cuneiform; the legs are
blackish.
i
 PARADISE BIRD.
196
Inhabits New Guinea. In one specimen, the long webless ear
feathers were wanting, but the rudiments of them could be traced;
it was also without the Ostrich-like feathers under the wing. Buffon
mentions a like circumstance in a bird published by M. Marvi, adding,
that in this bird the crest was not complete. It is, therefore, probable,
that the latter ones may be sexual differences of M. Sonnerat's bird.
13.—BLUE-GREEN PARADISE BIRD.
Paradisea chalybea, Ind. Om. i. 197.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 504. t. 71.
  viridis, Got. Lin. i. 402.
Cassican, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ii.
Calybe de la nouvelle Gainee, Buf. iii. 173.   PL enl. 634.    Zool. Indie, p.38. 6.    Ois.
de Paradis p. 24. pl. 10.
Blue-green Paradise Bird, Gen. Syn. ii. 482,    Ind. ZooL 4to. 26. VI.
LENGTH sixteen inches. Bill stout, thick, black, somewhat
bent at the end; feathers of the head of a velvet-like texture, and
come very forward oia the upper mandible ; the rest of the plumage,
in general, fine blue, changing to green in some lights, or sea-green;
back, belly, rump, and tail steel blue, and very glossy, the last
rounded at the end, and the under part of it black; legs black.
Such is the description of Buflbn, aided by the figure iai the
Pl. enlum. The tail said to consist of only six feathers, but we can
not consider this circumstance otherwise, than the remainder having
been lost by accident. M. Temminck joins this with others of our
Roller tribe, forming a Genus named Barita.—See Alan. p. Ii.
A.—L'Oiseau de Paradis verd, Son. Voy. 164. t. 99.
M. Sonnerat describes this as being a trifle larger and longer than
the King Paradise Bird.    Bill black; irides red; plumage wholly
 196
PARADISE  BIRD.
fine green, with a gloss of polished steel; feathers of the head, neck,
and body small, and ranged over one another like the scales of a
fish, appearing, in different lights, to be blue and gi'een alternate;
the legs black.
Inhabits New Guinea.
14.—GORGET PARADISE BIRD.—Pl. xlvii.
Paradisea gularis,  Ind. Om. i. 196.     Got. Lin. i. 401.     Shaw's Zool. vii. 501. t. 69,
70.   Nat. Misc. pl. 993.
L'Incomparable, Sonnin. Ois. Parad.
Le Hausse-col dore, Ois. de Paradis p. 22. pl. 8, 9.
Stourne, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Iv.
Gorget Paradise Bird, Gen. Syn. ii. 478. pl. 20.
THIS is about the size of a Blackbird, and measures, from the
tip of the bill to the insertion of the tail, about six inches, but the
tail is more than three times the length of the rest. Bill one inch
long, rather stout, moderately bent, and black ; the forehead furnished with tufted thick feathers, which occupy also the sides of the
head, and beneath the eye ; round the throat they are so full, as to
enlarge those paats considerably in bulk, and in texture like black
plush, or velvet; but on the chin, at the root of the under mandible,
are a few feathers with webs of the common structure; on the head
behind, the nape, hind part and sides of the neek, to the beginning
of the back, the feathers are gilded green, of the usual texture, and
sitting closer to the skin, give those parts a flat appearance; at the
angles of the mouth begins a line of the most brilliant gilded copper,
which passes beneath the eye, growing wider by degrees, and finishes
in a kind of a crescent, or gorget, one third of an inch in width,
on the fore part of the neck; from this to the vent dull green, except
the middle of the belly, on which is a transverse bright green band ;
the back is black, with a copper and purplish gloss, in different
  , neck,
»KX P,
 b/orye£ O^rduof^C^a^tidc}
 m
 PARADISE  BIRD.
197
lights; wings deep black ; beneath them the feathers are downy, but
do not at all exceed in length, as in other Paradise birds. The tail
is of an enormous length, and consists of twelve unequal feathers,
the two middle ones being nearly twenty-two inches long, and the
outer five; colour glossy purplish black; and in some lights appearing
undulated across; legs black.
The above description taken from a complete specimen iaa possession of Sir Joseph Banks : it seems to bear some affinity with the
black Bird of Paradise, mentioned by Forrest,* which he says, is
four spans long, of a black colour, without any remarkable gloss;
but as this is all he mentions, the matter caaanotbe well determined.
He adds, that the Alfoories, or Inhabitants of the Mountains in
Messowal, shoot these birds, and sell them to the people of Tidore.
I observe in the figure given in the Ois. de Paradis, that the whole
throat has the gilded coppery lustre, and not merely a crescent or
gorget, as in our figure, and the one given by Levaillant has the
feathers of the crown so long as to be turned forwards, quite over the
bill; hence we may suppose that this species differs essentially in
plumage, either owing to age or sex.
15—WHITE-WINGED PARADISE BIRD.
Paradisea leucoptera, Ind. Orn. i. 196.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 500.
Oiseau de Paradis a ailes blanches, Ois. de Parad. p. 28.
White-winged Paradise Bird, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 92.
LENGTH twenty-five inches. Bill one inch long, almost strait,
black; the feathers on the chin nearly reaching to the end of it;
plumage in general black; back part of the neck glossed with
copper; quills white, with the outer edges black; the tail consists of
ten feathers, the two middle ones nineteen or twenty inches long, the
* Forr. Voy; p. 140. No. 4.
 198
PARADISE  BIRD.
second, sixteen ; the third, twelve ; the fourth, nine; the outer, only
seven : the wings, when closed, reach to about one-third on the tail.
A specimen of the above was in the Museum of the late Mr.
Boddam, of Bull's Cross ; but whether the plumage had any variable
luster was uncertain, as the bird was fixed in a too obscure corner of
the room to ascertain it.
f,i&*-FROSTED PARADISE BIRD.
SIZE of the last. Bill one inch and a quarter long, the under
mandible shorter; tongue even at the end, and bristly; general
colour of the plumage black, inclined to purple on the body, but the
head and neck have a reflection of green, and the whole plumage of
the head and body appears frosted, or frizzled, every feather being
absolutely curled at the edges; tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers
seven iaaches long, the outer three and three quarters; the wings
were wanting.
This was in the collection of Sir Joseph Banks, who had it from
New Guinea. We have seen one also in the Museum of Mr. Bullock,
perfect, except in the greater quills; bill one inch and a half long.
17—CRISPED PARADISE BIRD.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill stout, curved, with a notch near
the tip of the upper mandible; nostrils in a depression; the feathers
coane forward close to, but do not cover them; the head, neck, and
breast have short and crisped feathers, but before the eyes most like
velvet; the plumage so far appears glossy steel green, but the feathers
  cJL^-^^^U^mw?
 •thelp-*
  PARADISE   BIRD. 199
are only of that colour at the tips, the rest of the length being dusky
black; back and wings steel black, with a glossy blue tinge; tail
seven inches long, appearing, when spread out, rounded, but the
feathers, when folded up, have somewhat the shape of a Hen's tail,
being ridged at top, and hollowed beneath ; legs black.
The specimen, from which this description is taken, was in Mr.
Bullock's Museum, and seems so much like the Frosted Species, that
it may be suspected to belong to that bird.
18.— TWELVE-WIRED PARADISE BIRD.—Pl. xlviii.
Paradisea nigricans, Black-bodied Paradise Bird, Shaw's Zool. vii, p. 489. pl.60.61.
Paradisese nova Species, Zool. Ind. p. 36. vi.    Gerin. t. 65. f. 1 ?
Manucode a douze filets, Ois. de Paradis p.29. pl. 13.
New Species of Paradise Bird, Ind. ZooL 4to. p, 24. VI.
THE length of this singtilar bird, from the point of the bill to
the end of the white tufts, is about twelve inches, but if the
appendages are reckoned, seven or eight more, in all nineteen or
twenty inches. The bill is two inches long, a trifle bent, and black;
tongue as long as the bill; head, neck, and breast covered with short
feathers, like black velvet; across the lower part of the breast a most
splendid green band; wings black; quills aaearly white; sides of the
body, and under the wings, covered with a tuft of cream-coloured
feathers, very thickly set, and as soft as silk ; from the ends of six
of these, on each side, the naked shafts continue, appearing as why
appendages, seven or eight inches long; the length of the tufts alone
about five inches; at first sight, these tufts, from collapsing together,
might be mistaken for the tail, which is entirely covered by them;
the back of the bird is black, glossed with fine purple, and the true
tail is only three inches long, consisting of twelve feathers, of equal
lengths, the ends rather pointed, in colour like the back, but with
more lustre; the under tail coverts yellowish white, and equal in
 200 PARADISE BIRD.
length with the tail, which, however, is never visible, unless the bird
expands the wings, and the tufts are erected ; the legs are stout, and
horn-coloured.
According to Dr. Forster, this bird is said to have been brought
into Amboina, from Missowal, in 1689 ; and much the same account
is given by M. Audibert, in his Ois. de Paradis. We learn, however,
that the same species inhabits the Molucca Islands, and Amboina,
being there called the Leader of the Birds of Paradise.
We have, many years since, taken a description from one in the
collection of the late Lady Wilson ; and again from one in the
possessioai of Sir J. Anstruther, Bart, and fine specimens were also
in the collection of Mr. Bullock. In one the black, wire-like appendages are perfect, in another none are visible, except a single
short one, as fine as a hair. This may probably differ from sex. I
observe, too, that in the one having the wiry shafts complete, the tail
is absolutely black ; but in that without these additions, it is fine,
glossy gilded purple.
-Wayghihu, Ind. Orn. i. 197. 0.    Ind. Zool. 23. V. /3.    Get
In this bird the fore parts are black, the hinder white, with twelve
slender, crooked, almost naked feathers; this is the whole description.
It is said to inhabit Wayghihu, one of the Papuan Islands, little
frequented, to be the rarest of all the species, and procured through
the people of Tidore. Dr. Forster makes it a Variety of the White,
or following, but from its having twelve shafts, we rather think it
more proper to be placed here.
 PARADISE BIRD.
19—WHITE PARADISE BIRD.
Paradisea alba, Ind. Orn. i. 197. Zool. Ind. p. 35. V.    Gmel. Lin. i. 402.
Zool. vii. 501.
Paradis blanc, Ois. de Parad. p. 27.
Promerops, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxxvi.
- White Paradise Bird, Ind. ZooL 4to. p. 23. V.
THIS is said to be entirely white, resembling the Papuan sort,
our smaller species, as to general habit; that it is extremely rare,
and found in New Guinea. This very short account copied by Dr.
Forster from Fr. Valentyn,* is the only one we find concerning this
bird; of which, we believe, there is no figure extant. M. Temminck,
perhaps, has been more fortunate in having seen a specimen, as he
mentions it as Promerops.
20—GOLDEN PARADISE BIRD
iurea, Ind. Om. i. 197.    Bor. Nat. 9. 122.
. flavo fulva, Mus. Ad. Fr. i. 15.
- aurantia, Shaw's ZooL vii. 499.
s aureus, Lin. i. 163.   Got. Lin. i. 394.
Oriolus
Loriot, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. liv:
Icterus Indicus, Bris. App. 37   Id.8vo. i. 191.
Rollier de Paradis, Buf. iii. 149.
Le Paradise orange, Ois.de Parad. p. 26, pl. 11, 12.
Golden Paradise Bird, Gen. Syn. ii. 483.    Edw. pl. 112.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill one inch, rather bent and brown,
darker at the tip ; the throat and fore part of the neck for an inch
and a quarter covered with black velvety feathers; the head, neck,
and body fine orange colour;   beneath yellow;   shoulders of the
1 Franc. Valentyn. Beschryving van Oude end n
e Oost-Indien. vol. iii. p. 316, 317,
 202
PARADISE  BIRD.
wings mixed with black ; quills and tail black, with yellow shafts ;
and the latter fringed with yellow at the tip ; legs black. In young
birds the beak is mottled with ash-colour.
This is said to inhabit some part of the East Indies, but the
place aiot determined.
Authors have differed as to the situation it ought to hold in the
system. Linnaeus at first ranked it with the Paradise Birds, but
afterwards joined with Brisson in making it an Oriole. Buffon
thought it allied both to the Roller and Paradise Birds. But although
we must own that it fails in some particulars, it comes nearest to the
last named, under which head we have still continued it.
-. Ois. de Parad. p. 27. pl. 12.
This differs from the other, merely in having the wings and tail
greenish brown: such an one in the Museum of Mr. Bullock, of Piccadilly, has the edges of all the brown feathers very pale, approaching in some to white; those of the tail appear to have many obsolete
undulations across them. I observe in the complete bird, the feathers
of the neck and breast, as well as of the back, are very long, and
capable of being erected like a kind of ruff.
 203
GENUS XX— CURUCUI.
1%
1 Red-bellied Curucui
4 Violet-headed C.
B Var.
A Var.
A Leverian
7 Ceylonese C
2 Red-vented C.
5 Cinereous C.
8 Indian C.
3 Yellow-bellied C.
6 Rufous C.
9 Narina C.
A Var.
A   Var.
10 Fasciated C.
B Var.
-I HE bill is short, thick, and convex, and for the most part dentated on the edges.
Nostrils covered with stiff bristles.
Legs short, weak, and covered with feathers or down.
Toes placed two before and two behind.
Tail consisting of twelve feathers.
As far as I can learn, the manners of these birds are much alike,
and in which they, for the most part, agree with the first Species. The
greater part of them are inhabitants of South America, except the
four last species, which are found at Ceylon, India, or the Cape of
Good Hope.—They are said to differ much in the various stages of
life, which has given rise to confusion of species, and may render
the following account of them less perfect than could be wished : are
called at Guiana, Curucuis, or rather Couroucouis, from their note
not ill resembling that word.    They are said to feed on fruits.
1.—RED-BELLIED CURUCUI.
Trogon Curucui, Ind. Orn. i. 192.    Lin. i. 167.    Got. Lin. i. 403:    Raii p. 45.    Will.
96. pl. 22.   Klein. Av. 28.   Merrem Ic. t. 9.    Bor. Nat. ii. 123. t. 14.
Tzinitzian, Raii p. 163.    Will. Engl. 392.
Trogon Brasiliensis viridis, Bris. iv. 173.   Id. 8vo. ii. p. 90.    Gerin. t. 187.
Der Curucui, Schm. Vog. p. 36. t. 22.
Couroucou a Ventre rouge, Buf. iii. 287. pl. 14.    PL enl. 452.
Le Surucua, Voy. d'Azara iv. No. 270.
Red-bellied Curucui, Gen. Syn. ii. 485.    Gen. Zool. ix. pl. 4.*
THIS is between ten and eleven inches long.     The bill pale
Dd2
 204 curucui.
yellow; irides gold-colour ; the under mandible furnished with stiff
black bristles, as well as the eye lids ;* the head, neck, and upper
part of the breast, back, rump, and upper tail coverts shining green,
with a gloss of blue in some lights; the throat black; wing coverts
bluish grey, with numerous transverse, zigzag lines of black; quills
black, with part of the shafts white; the breast, belly, sides, and
under tail coverts fine red; thighs blackish; the tail is cuneiform,
and green, like the back, but the three outer feathers are blackish,
crossed with slender lines of grey; legs brown.
The female is said to have those parts, which are of a fiaae brilliant
green in the male, black grey, and totally without gloss; the zigzag
lines on the wings also are less conspicuous; and the three outer
tail feathers have the webs marked with black and white; the upper
mandible not yellow, but brown, and the red colour does not extend
so high as the breast.
Inhabits Mexico, Brazil, Peru, and other parts of South
America. It is the nature of the Curucui to lead a solitary life in
the thickest forests, especially in pairing time, when only two are
found together. At this season the male has a kind of melancholy
note, by which its haunts are discovered, at other times he is perfectly mute. They pair in April, and lay three or four white eggs,
in the hole of a rotten tree, on the bare dust: iaa defect of this
rotten matter, are said to bruise even sound wood into powder, with
the bill, which being strong and toothed, may readily be supposed
fully able to effect this. During incubation the male takes care to
provide food for the female; and, by his trivial song, pleasant no
doubt to her, to beguile the time. The youaig, when first hatched,
are quite bare of feathers; the head out of all proportion large, and
the legs, though short hi the adult, seem too long. The parents
feed these with small worms, caterpillars, and insects, and when
able to shift for themselves, forsake them, to return to their solitary
• Bri
mentions a bare spot of white beneath the eye, but I have not observed it i
any specimen, which has come under observation
 curucui. 206
haunts, till nature prompts them to produce a second brood in August
or September.
It has been tried to bring up these birds tame, but without effect,
for they refuse to eat, and die in consequence. M. Deshayes, who
relates the above, observes, that they are called at St. Domingo
Calepon rouge, and in other islands, Demoiselle, or Daane Angloise.
A.—Avis anonyma tertia, Marc. Hist. Bras. 216.    Bris. iv. 175.
Red-bellied Curucui, Gen. Syn. ii. 486. 1. A.
MARCGRAVE describes this, which differs in having the wing
coverts plain brown; the bill ash-coloured, aaad the irides saffron
colour ; it wants also the spot beneath the eye, which Baissoaa mentions in his description.
This bird is probably a female of the former.
2— RED-VENTED CURUCUI.
Couroucou gris a
Red-bellied Cun
gue queue, Buf. vi. 288.    PL enl. 737.
, Var. B. Gen. Syn. ii. p. 486.
THIS is eleven inches in length. Bill, as in the former, dusky;
general colour of the plumage cinereous grey, but on near inspection,
some traces of green-gold are very apparent, especially on the back,
and middle tail feathers; lower belly and vent red; the tail almost
as long as the rest of the bird, a trifle rounded in shape, or nearly
even ; the outer webs and tips of the three outer feathers white; the
three outer quills also marked with black and white on the outer edge.
Inhabits Cayenne. According to Buffon this is a Variety of the
former, but the exti'eme length of the tail, in proportion to that of
the others, contradicts the supposition.
 206
3.—YELLOW-BELLIED CURUCUI.
•n viridis,   Ind. Orn. i. 199.    Lin. i. 167.     Got.
iris. iv. 168. t. 17. 1. Id. 8vo. ix. p. 88.   Gerin. t
ucou a ventre jaune, Buf vi. 291.    Pl. enl. 195.
Jucou, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxii.
v-bellied Curucui, Gen. Syn. ii. 488.    Shaw's Zo
Lin. i. 404.    Bor. Nat. j
189. Spalowsck. Vog. ii
. pl.4.
LENGTH eleven inches and a half. Bill pale ash-colour, scarcely
an inch long; the upper part of the head violet, with a mixture of
green gold; sides of the head and throat black; the upper part of
the body green gold, passing forwards to form a band of the same
colour on the breast; all beneath this is yellow orange; thighs nearly
black, as are the under wing coverts ; the last margined with white;
upper side coverts and scapulars black; quills black brown, the
outer edges, from the base to the middle, white; from this to the
end spotted with white; tail cuneiform, the two aniddle feathers
exceeding the outer ones by two inches; these are blackish, with a
green gold gloss; the second and third the same, but the edges only
are green gold ; and the third has only a black tip; the fourth blackish, indented with white on the outer edge at the tip; and the two
outer ones, half way from the base, blackish; the rest white, indented as the fourth; legs feathered to the toes, which are brownish
ash-colour.
Some specimens have the outer tail feathers barred black and
white; and others have the three outer ones obliquely white at the
ends, the colours being so separated, but not indented.
cus flammeu
s viridis et cinereus, &c. Feuil. Obs
. Phys. p. 20.
r-bellied gre
mCuckow, Edw. pl.331.    Seligm
Vog. 9. t.21.
Size of the last.    Bill yellow, surrounded with black feathers,
extending round the eyes, and for an inch down the throat; irides
 ■■%
curucui. 207
yellow; top of the head, neck all round, the back, rump, and lesser
outer wing coverts, splendid green, reflecting a gloss of blue and
gold; fore part of the neck blue green; breast, belly, and under tail
coverts full orange, or gold-colour; wings dusky white, crossed with
minute, irregular dusky lines ; tail cuneiform, the six middle feathers
green, with black tips, the others white, with transverse lines of
black; legs brownish.
Inhabits Cayenne, and other parts of South America.
In some parts of Brazil very common; has not an unpleasant song,
or rather whistle, frequently repeated; sometimes soft, at others loud
and shrill; this the natives imitate to decoy them within reach, for in
general these birds frequent the tops of the trees, and being concealed
under much cover, are not easily shot.
B.—Trogon viridis, Ind. OmA. 199. 2. 0.    Lin.i. 167. 3. /3.
 ventre candido, Bris. iv. 170.    Id. 8vo. ii. 89.
Couroucou verd a ventre blanc, Buf. vi. 293.
White-bellied Curucui, Gen. Syn. ii. 489. 2. A.
This bird is a trifle sriaaller, and differs in having the belly white;
the end half of the tail feathers white, separated obliquely, but
indented as the other. I have seen one, in which the white belly
had a tinge of yellow, and is probably a Variety.
4—VIOLET-HEADED CURUCUI
Gi
Trogon violaceus, Ind. Orn. i. 199.
Lanius capite, collo, pectoreque violaci
Le Couroucou a chaperon violet, Buf.
Violet-headed Curucui, Gew. Syn. ii. 4
Lin. i. 404.
igric. &c. JV. C. Petr.xi. 436.
294.
Gen. Zool. is
ix. p. 8.
LENGTH nine   inches and a half.     Bill  lead-colour with a
whitish point; on the forehead, round the eyes, and ears blackish;
/^P
 Iii
208 curucui.
the rest of the head, the throat, neck, and breast, very deep violet;
eyelids yellow; back and rump deep gilded green; upper tail coverts
bluish green, with a gold gloss; the wings brown; coverts and lesser
quills dotted with white; the two middle tail feathers bluish-green
tipped with black, the two next partly blue-green, partly black;
and the three outer ones black, barred, and tipped with white.
Inhabits the same places as the former ones, and seems to be
greatly allied to them.    M. Temminck thinks them to be the same.
.everiamiB, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxix.
icui, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 131.
Lev. Mus. p. 175. pl. p. 177.
Size of the last. Bill lead-colour, with a paler tip; head, neck,
and breast fine deep violet blue; wings black ; quills edged with
white; back bluish-green, with a tinge of gold colour; upper tail
coverts silky, deep lucid blue green ; tail black, inclining to green,
the six middle feathers square at the ends, and slightly tipped with
black; the three outer shorten by degrees, are black, obliquely
edged with white, and the ends for one-third of the length white,
as is also the belly, but tinged with reddish buff; legs black.
Inhabits South America. In the collection of Mr. Bullock is a
singular feather, full three feet in length, wholly most brilliant and
glossy green, similar to the back of the Red-bellied Curucui, the
webs loose, as in the feathers of a Peacock's train. Supposed to
belong to the tail of some species of Curucui from South America,
yet unknown.
II
  F1.XLIX.
u,   &r*
  Ill 111   '-'
lift
ill '
F lilnlilrl]^
If
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1
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 209
5—CINEREOUS CURUCUI.
Trogon strigilatus, Ind. Om.i. 200.    Lin.i. 167.    Got. lin.i. 402.
Trogon Cayanensis cinereus, Bris.iv. 165. t. 16. 1.    Id. 8vo ii. 88.    Gerin. t. 188.
Couroucou de la Guiane, Bris. vi. 293.   Pl. enl. 765.
Cinereous Curucui, Gen. Syn. ii. 489.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 10.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill one inch, deep ash-colour ;
general colour of the body very deep ash, darker on the thighs and
legs; belly, and under tail coverts orange yellow ; scapulars, upper
wing coverts, and the greater aaext the body blackish, transversely
striated with narrow whitish lines; those farthest from the body plain;
under wing coverts deep ash, edged with white ; greater quills
blackish ; the first five have white edges for two-thirds of the length,
the secondaries the same, and white also at the base ; tail blackish,
cuneiform, the six middle feathers six inches and a quarter long,
and eqiaal, the three outer on each side shorten by degrees, the
exterior measuring less by two inches than the middle ones ; these
are striated across, black and white; legs deep ash-colour.
Inhabits South America. I observe some to have a pale yellow
bill; the outer quills iaadented with white on the edges; and the
three outer tail feathers white, crossed with more numerous black
bars on both webs, and the ends of these white for near three-fourths
of an inch : supposed to be young birds of the Yellow-bellied, and
Violet-headed.
6— RUFOUS CURUCUI—Pl. xlix.
Trogon rufus, Ind. Om. i, 200.    Got. Lin. i. 404.
Couroucou a queue rousse, Buf. vi. 293.    Pl. enl. 736.
Couroucou, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. pl. lxxvii.
Rufous Curucui, Gen. Syn. ii. 490. pl. 21. Gen. Zool. ix. pl. 2 & 3.
LENGTH nine inches-    Bill dusky; plumage in general rufous;
belly, thighs, and vent yellow; wing coverts striated black and grey^
 2$Q curucui,
quills black with dusky edges; tail cuneiform, six of the middle
feathers equal in length and rufous, and the three outer ones on each
side transversely baared black and white, and tipped with the latter;
legs dusky. The female in Mr. Bullock's Museum is olive-brown,
where the male is rufous; the striae on the wing coverts not clear
white ; and the belly very pale yellow.
Inhabits Cayenne.
7.—CEYLONESE CURUCUI.
SIZE of the other. Head and neck brownish ash-colour; back
cinereous; whig coverts deep lead, with numerous, transverse white
lines; quills black, with white shafts; tail cuneiform, as in most
other Curucuis ; the four middle feathers deeply anargined with black,
the tip also black; the others half white, half cinnamon-colour,
edged with black, as in the others.
One, said to be a female, has the head ash-colour ; wing coveats
rufous grey, with black lines; all beneath pale cinnamon, or butt-
colour ; the rest as in the male, but wholly paler.
From Ceylon, in the collection of General Davies, and is most
probably a Variety of the Fasciated Species.
8.—INDIAN CURUCUI.
Trogon Indicus, Ind. Om. i. 201.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 13.
Indian Curucui, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 94.
BILL bluish, very hooked; head and neck black, striped with
vhite; from the comers of the mouth, just beneath the cheeks, a
vhitish stripe;  back and wings dusky, marked with round rusty
 CURUCUI. 211
spots; breast and belly yellowish white, barred with dusky; tail very
long, cuneiform, crossed with narrow dusky bars; legs ash-colour.
Inhabits India, and called Bungummi.—From the drawings of
Lady Impey.
9—NARINA CURUCUI.
Trogon Narina, Gen. Zool. ix. p. 14.
Le Couroucou Narina, Levail. Afr. v. 104. pl. 228. 229.
THIS is a trifle smaller than the American Red-bellied Curucui,
but the tail longer in proportion. The bill short, and thick, colour
yellowish, towards the edges and point dusky; irides reddish; head,
neck, shoulders, lesser wiaag coverts, back, and rump, fine glossy
green; chin and throat, to the breast, the same; from thence, all
beneath is deep rose-colour; greater wing coverts marked with fine
transverse black and white lines, on a grey ground; quills black,
edged oaatwardly with white; the four middle tail feathers equal in
length, and fine green; the three others on each side wedge-shaped,
the outer being only half the length of the middle ones; they are
white on the outer webs, and dusky within ; legs yellow.
The female is somewhat smaller; irides brown ; the green inclines a little to brown on the head, and behind the neck, and that
colour is no where so vivid as in the other sex; likewise, the fine
rose-colour on the under parts of the male is, in the female, very
pale; the forehead, throat, and. neck before are chiefly greyish rufous
brown ; the wing coverts are less beautifully lined across.
When young, both sexes incline much to rufous, but may be
distinguished by an accurate observer.
These are found in the deep woods of the Hottniqua Country,
in those of the River of Gamtoos, and the Caffre Country ; lay four
round eggs, in the hole of a tree, of a fine rose-coloured white, the
 ) §11
212
CURUCUI.
shell being very thin; sit twenty days; is a silent bird, except iai
time of incubation, when it has a sort of melancholy note; the young
follow the parents for a time; knowai to the Hotteaitots by the name
of Narina.
10.-FASCIATED CURUCUI—Pl. l.
Trogon fasciatus, Ind. Orn. i. 200.     Gm. Lin.i. 405.     Zool. Ind. p. 15. t. 5.    Naturf.
xvii. s. 17.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 6.
Trogon Ceylonensis, Bris. Orn. 8vo. ii. p. 91.
Fasciated Curucui, Gen. Syn. ii. 492.    Ind. Zool. p. 35. pl. 4.
LENGTH twelve inches and a half; weight an ounce and a half.
Bill blackish blue, cultrated, near the end of both mandibles a
notch, and the under one shuts beneath the upper; nostrils oval,
covered with short reflected bristles, surrounding the base of the bill;
tongue plain, even, sharp-pointed; eyes large, surrounded by a
beautiful, purple, naked orbit; irides dark orange; head, neck,
breast, and belly scarlet; across the breast a narrow white band;
back, rump, upper tail coverts, and thighs chestnut; wing coverts
black, variegated with irregular white bars; quills white at the base;
otherwise black ; the prime ones white on the outer edge, the fourth
the longest; the second quills have the outer webs beautifully
variegated with white bars; the two middle tail feathers brown, with
black tips; the two next have great part of the inner web black ; in
the two next only part of the outer web is brown, the remainder
black; the fourth and fifth black, with a considerable space of white
at the ends; the outermost the same, but the white occupies more
space; the three outer ones much shorter than the six middle, and
graduated; the outmost very short; legs dirty a-ed.
The female is one inch and a half shorter. The head, and aieck,
to the breast, dull chestnut; wing coverts reddish white, with slender
     CURUCUI. 21$
transverse lines, as in the male, and a aaarrow white band on the
breast, as in that sex; and besides the first, two others less defined:
Communicated by Dr. Buchanan, to whom the above were sent
alive from Sylhet, as of different sexes; the male called by the
Bengalese, Suda Sohaghin; in Hindustan, Hummesha Picara, which
signifies, always admirable. The female is the Cuckeuchea of the
Bengalese.
Among the drawings of the Birds of Ceylon, by the late Mr. S.
Daniels, is one, apparently of the male of this species, but wanting
Ihe white bar on the breast; in this, the crown of the head is black;
from the chin to the breast ash-colour; tail cuneiform, ends white.
Native name Holcmunnah.
A.—Length fourteen inches. Bill hooked, blue, with many hairs
at the base; space round the eyes bare and blue; irides red; head,
neck, and back pale brownish clay-colour; wing coverts finely barred
black and brown; quills reddish, chocolate brown, some of the outer
edges white, of others black, with half of the outer webs white;
across the breast a bar of white; from thence to the vent red ; legs
short, pale red.
Inhabits India; described from the drawings of Mr. Middleton.
This is likewise figured among those of Lady Impey, but in the
latter, the band oai the breast is very narrow. Is found also at Ceylon,
there called Rantvan-kondea, by some Pittichora. Brisson's bird
wants the white band on the breast.
B.—Length ten inches and a half. Head, neck, and breast
mouse-coloured brown; back tawny brown, inclining to ferruginous
on the rump; beneath, from the breast, very light tawny; wing
coverts tawny, crossed with numerous blackish lines; quills dusky,
rather curved, the outer webs white three-fourths from the base; the
 214
outer one shortest; the tail consists of twelve feathers; the eight
middle ones equal in length, being five inches; the outmost but one
four inches; the exterior two inches and three quarters; tfce two
middle feWaginous at the ends, with one-sixth of the end blaGk ; the
three next on each side dusky, with the outer edge tawny; the fourth,
fifth, and exterior obliquely white, for one inch or more, at the tips,
and freckled with dusky ; from the base to the middle wholly dusky;
the quills reach one-fourth beyond the base; legs brown. Supposed
a female.
Another, thought to be a male, answered as to general descrtptierij
except, that all the parts beneath were pale crimson, and the tail,
though marked in the same manner, had the colours more pure and
distinct, but without the white band on the breast.
The two last in the collection of General Davies. These seem, in
many points, to coincide with the Fasciated Species, and most
probably the difference of plumage arises merely from the circumstance of age or sex.
 BARBET.
GENUS XXI—BARBET.
1 Spotted-bellied Barbet
11 Blue-cheeked B.
19 Sumatran B.
a Cayenne B.
12 Red-crowned B.
20 Buff-faced B.
3 Black-spotted B.
A Var.
21 Yellow-cheeked
4 Collared B.
13 Indian B.
22 Ceylonese B.
5 White-breasted B.
A Var.
23 Austral B.
6 Beautiful B.
14 Daumah B.
24 Grand B.
7 Greater pied B.
15 Fichtel's B.
A Var.
8: Lesser pied B.
A Var.
25 Javan B.
A Var.
B Var.
26 Indian B.
9 Gerini's B.
16 Little B.
27 Batavian B:
10 Yellow-throated B.
17 Green B.
28 Wax-billed B.
A Var.
18 Spotted B.
29 White-faced B:
215
X HE bill in this Genus is strong, strait, bending a little towards
the point, the base covered with strong bristles; which, in some
species, exceed the length of the bill.    Nostrils hid.
Toes placed two before and two behind.
Tail consisting of ten or twelve weak feathers.
Birds of this Genus are found in the Southern parts of America,
as well as Asia and Africa; are in general a dull, stupid race, much
alike in manners, and chiefly such as are mentioned in the first
species.
SPOTTED-BELLIED BARBET.
201.      Got. lin.i. 405.     Raii.65,*0j?   Will. 140.     Id.
ml. 746. 1.    Buf. vii. p. 94.
r. No. 261. ■
p. 37.
LENGTH six inches and a half.    Bill black, fifteen lines long,
the upper mandible bent at the end, and as it were divided into
1.-
Bucco Tamatia, Ind. Om. i.
Engl. 190. pl. 59. *
Barbu a ventre tachete, Pl.
Le Chacuru, Voy. d'Azara iv. No. 261. .
Spotted-bellied Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii. 494.    Id. Supp. p. 95.    Gen. ZooL
' It is more probable that the Tamatiajgf Marcgrave, from whom^Willughby copied his
re, is this bird, rather than a Thrush,;iW^p4hJ8risjpn,(ii. 212.) supposes it;  the bristles
 216 BARBET.
two at the point, and half covered with bristles, pointing forwards,
springing from the base ; the head large in proportion ; the crown
and fore part incline to rufous ; on the neck a collar, extending half
round, rufous aaad black mixed ; on each side of the head, behind the
eyes, a large black spot; throat orange; the rest of the parts beneath
rufous white, spotted with black; upper parts of the body rufous
brown; legs black.
Inhabits Cayenne and Brazil, where it is called by some Agabue
de Terre : met with also in Paraguay, but is there a rare species : its
manners correspond with the shape, being a clumsy, ill-made bird ;
is in general solitary, pensive, aaad silent, affecting only such places
as are distant from habitations: chiefly in woods, where it chuses
some low branch, well covered with twigs and foliage, on this it
perches with its large head resting between the shoulders, for a long
time together; and as its disposition to action is very little, may be
easily killed, as it will suffer itself to be shot at several times before
it makes an attempt to escape. The common food is insects, particularly large beetles : the flesh not good for eating. I have observed
in some specimens, that the end of the tail was much worn, as if by
friction, probably in supporting themselves by that part, in running
up the trees like the Woodpecker.
ceo Cayanens
8vo.ii. 68.
CAYENNE BARBET.
Lin. i. 405.     Buf. r
s. Ind. Orn. i. 202. Got. Lin
Gerin. t. 183. Gen. Zool. ix.
t gorge rouges, Buf. vii. p. 96.
de Cayenne, PL enl. 206. 1.
de St. Domingue, PL enl. 206. f. 2
ne Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii. 495.
LENGTH seven inches.    Bill one inch, dark ash-colour, and a
little bent at the tip, at the base a few bristles ; forehead and throat
at the base of the bill, the large head, the flatness and breadth of the bill, will justify the
fixing it in this place rather than in the other : as to the position of the toes in Marcgrave's
plate, we must not depend on that, as errors of the like kind are frequent in old authors.
 BARBET. 217
red; top of the head black and grey, with a gilded gloss; each
feather black in the middle; over the eye, on each side, a band of
white, passing almost to the hind head ; the upper parts of the body
are black, the edges of the feathers grey-gold ; neck before, breast,
and belly yellowish white; the sides dashed with cinereous olive, and
some of the feathers black near the tips; thighs olive; lesser wing
coverts black; the greater ones and scapulars blackish, margined
without with olive, and whitish within ; tail caaneiform, olive-brown,
the under part cinereous; legs cinereous.
Inhabits Cayenne.
The lower figure in the Pl. enlum. above quoted, probably represents the other sex. In markings it does not materially differ,
but it wants the white band on the sides of the head, over the eye ;
the brown part of the plumage is darker, and the under parts from
the breast paler.:
3—BLACK-SPOTTED BARBET.
Bucco Cayanensis nsevius,  Buf. iv. p. 97. t. 7. 4.   Id. 8vo. ii. p. 68.    Gerin. t. 183. 2?
Yellow Woodpecker with black Spots, Edw. pl. 333.
Black-spotted Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii, 496. 2. A.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 34. pl. 6.
LENGTH six inches and three-quarters. Bill as the last; forehead and throat red ; top of the head black, the feathers with grey
gold edges; on the sides of the head, and neck behind black, with
whitish edges, and those of the rump black, edged with grey ; under
part of the body pale yellow; the breast and sides marked with large
black spots; thighs olive; wing coverts, quills, and tail as in the
Cayenne Species, but the two first not spotted with white; legs
cinereous.
Found at Cayenne with the former, also at St. Domingo, Guiana,
and other parts of America.
 218
4.~ COLLARED BARBET.
Bucco collaris, hid. Orn. i. 202.
 Capensis, Lin. i. 168.    Got. Lin. i. 406.    Bor. Nat. ii. 124.   Bris. iv. 92. t. 6.
f. 2.    Id. 8vo. ii. 67.    Gerin. t. 182.
Tamatia a collier, Buf. vii. 97. pl. 4.
Barbu a collier, PL enl. 395.
Collared Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii. 497.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 39. pl. 7.
SIZE of the Red-backed Shrike; length seven inches and a
quarter. Bill nearly one inch and a half, horn-coloured, and bent
at the tip; the gape reaching beneath the eyes; upper part of the
head, nape, and hind part of the neck rufous, striated with fine lines
of black ; sides of the head plain rufous; between the lower part of
the neck and back a narrow fulvous band, extending forwards towards
the neck on each side; this is accompanied by a narrow one of black,
which unites with a broken one on the breast; beyond this the back,
wings, and rump are rufous, striated with black; throat, and fore
part of the neck dirty white; on the breast a broad band of black;
belly and vent rufous white ; tail rufous, two inches and a quarter
long, crossed with narrow bars of black ; the six middle feathers are
equal in length, the three outer ones shorten by degrees, to the
exterior, which is the shortest; legs ash-colour.
Inhabits Guiana, but is not common.—There can be mo doubt of
this being.the bird meant by Linnaeus, as he refers to that in Brisson,
above quoted; yet he makes his bird an inhabitant of Africa; and adds,
that the number of tail feathers is ten ; whereas, Brisson expressly
affirms, that he received his from South America, and that it has
twelve feathers in the tail. I suspect, therefore, that the first named
author has been deceived in the native place, although he might be
i&ight in the identity of the bird.
 219
5—WHITE-BREASTED BARBET.
Bucco fuscus, Ind. Om. i. 206.    Got. Lin. i. 408.
White-breasted Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii. 505.
SIZE of a Lark; length seven inches. Bill one inch, compressed
on the sides, aaad curved at the point, colour brownish black, but the
base is yellow, passing obliquely forward, from the nostrils, to near
the end of the under mandible; nostrils covered with bristles, pointing
forwards, to about one-third of the length of the bill; head large,
and very full of feathers; plumage in general brown, down the shaft
of each feather pale cream-colour; on the breast a triangular whitish
spot; quills and tail brown, the last cuneiform; legs brown.
Inhabits Cayenne.
6—BEAUTIFUL BARBET.
Bucco Mayanensis, Ind. Orn. i. 203.    Bris. iv. t. 7. f. 3.    Id. 8)
ix. p. 20.
Bucco elegans, Gm. Lin. i. 406.
Le beau Tamatia, Buf. vii. 98.    PL enl. 330.
Beautiful Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii. 498.    Nat. Misc. pl. 461.
SIZE of a Sparrow; length five inches antl three quarters. Bill
ash-colour, with the edges and tip yellowish white; top of the head,
sides, and throat red, edged roaand with light blue; at the corners of
the mouth begins a streak of the last, dividing the red on each side;
upper parts of the body and tail green, the last cuneiform, and
composed of ten feathers; quills brown, with the outer edges green;
fore part of the neck, and bi'east deep yellow; on the lower part of
the breast a large red spot; the rest of the under parts yellowish
white, spotted longitudinally with green; legs ash-colour.
 220 BARBET.
Inhabits the Country of Maynas, on the borders of the River
Amazons, in South America, and probably other parts.
7.—GREATER PIED BARBET.
Bucco macrorynchos, Ind. Om. i. 203.    Gm. Lin. i. 406.
Tamatia noir et blanc, Buf. vii. 99.
Le plus grand Barbu a gros bee, Pl. enl. 689.
Tamatia, Tern. Man. Ed.ii. Anal, p.lxxvii.
Greater Pied Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii. 498.    Gen. Zool.ix. p. 35.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill black, larger in proportion than in
any of the former ones; it is hooked, and divided into two parts at
the tip, like the first Species; the forehead is white; crown and nape
black; on the fore part this colour is prolonged downwards, and
half surrounds the eye; the forehead, sides under the eye, throat,
and neck before white, extending in a narrow collar round the nape
behind; the lower part of the neck, back, and wing coverts are black,
margined with dusky white; across the breast a black band; quills
and tail black, the feathers of the last tipped with white ; belly and
vent white; sides and thighs black and white mixed; legs dusky.
Inhabits Cayenne.
8— LESSER PIED BARBET.
Bucco melanoleucos, Ind. Om. i. 203.    Got. Lin. i. 406.
Tamatia noir et blanc, Buf. vii. 99.
Barbu a poitrine noire de Cayenne, PL enl. 688.2.
Lesser Pied Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii. 499.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 36.
LENGTH five inches. Bill large in proportion, and bifid at the
tip, as in the last; like which also, the plumage is only black and
white; the upper parts of the body are black, but there is a little
 BARBET. 221
mixture of white on the forehead, and a white spot on the scapulars;
behind the eye a white streak; the throat, and sides of the neck, are
white; on the breast a broad band of black, which extends upwards
a little way into the white, on the sides of the neck, like a crescent;
from this, to the tail, the under parts are white, except on the sides
under the wings, which have a mixture of black; the tail is black,
tipped with white; legs dusky.
Inhabits Cayenne.
A.—In the collection of General Davies is one, having the same
plumage, with the exception of the belly, beyond the black, being
rufous, mottled over the thighs with transverse, pale, white and
brown markings.    This probably may differ in sex from the other.
B.—Differs in having a spot of white on the forehead, instead of
a mixture only; the white streak, beneath the eye, extends downwards
on each side of the neck, and some of the outer tail feathers white
at the base.
9— GERINI'S BARBET.
Bucco Gerini, Ind. Orn. i. 207.
Picus Indicus magna ex Parte cceruleus, Gerin. ii. t. 181.
Gerini's Barbet, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 132.
SIZE of a Thrush; length nine inches. Bill black, stout;
crown of the head blue, spotted with black in the middle; beneath
the eyes, the cheeks, and neck before, half way, black; quills black;
hind part of the neck, to the beginning of the back, most part of the
belly, and vent red.
JPP
 222 BARBET.
Native place uncertain, only met with among the engravings of
M. GerM's birds, and there called a Woodpecker, but the bill is
large, and in shape, too like that of a Barbet, to be placed in any
other Genus.
10— YELLOW-THROATED BARBET.
Bucco Philippensis, Ind. Om. i. 203.    Got. j
Id. 8vo. ii. p. 69.   Gen. zW.ix. p. 21.
Barbu a Gorge jaune, Buf. vii. 102. t. 5.    J
Yellow-throated Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii. 500.
enl. 331.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill brown, pretty thick, and
near one inch long; the top of the head, as far as the crown, red;
the rest of the head, and upper parts of the body, wings, and tail
dull green; on each side of the head a large yellow spot, in the
middle of which the eye is placed; throat, and fore part of the neck
yellow; on the upper part of the breast a transverse broad red band;
the rest of the under parts dirty yellow, longitudinally streaked with
dull green; legs yellowish; claws brown.
One of these, said to be a female, was in general olive green;
round the eye pale yellow; on the forehead a mixtui'e of red; chin
pale, mixed yellow; below this, on the throat, a mixture of pale
red, as in the forehead; on each jaw a brown patch; from the breast
to the vent pale dull greenish white; bill as in the other; legs red.
From Lord Mountnorris.
I ,{A...ii—Length six inches. Bill black, with long hairs, from the
"nostrils, covering the ^greater part of the forehead; from thence, to
the middle of the crown, and just rouaad the eye, red; irides dark,
with a pale ring; the rest of the head, as far as the under jaw, and
 ji
 ^Ar^-cAJ^ &aJc&
   to the nape, dusky black; close to the eye two oval spots of yellow,
one above, at the back part, the other larger, below, and these two
spots are distinct from each other; chin and throat yellow, curving a
little backwards, below the yellow a patch of red; the rest as in
the iarst described.
Inhabits various parts of the Coast of Coromandel. The nest
is a kind of pouch, about four inches deep, swelling a little at the
bottom, and open at top; composed of thick, downy materials, and
fastened, in several parts, between the forked branches of the
extremities of trees. It is, no doubt, a Variety of the Yellow-throated
Species, and known by different names; Bussunt buri, and Huria, at
Bengal; and Bosenta, at Hindustan : found all the year in gardens
near Calcutta, and lives chiefly on plantains. From various drawings
in the collection of Sir J. Anstruther, it appears to vary much,
according to age or sex, both in plumage, and the colour of the legs.
Found also in Java, called Engku.
11—BLUE-CHEEKED BARBET.—Pl. li.
ie-cheeked Cm
i. 201.    Gen. Zool.'x
. Syu. Sup. p. 93.
LENGTH seven inches and three quarters. Bill black, strong,
compressed at the point, nearly oaie inch long, greenish at the base,
where it is depressed, and beset with long, black bristles, turning
forwards; nostrils oblong; tongue lacerated at the end; orbits naked,
brown ; margins of the eyelids crenated, and orange-coloured; irides
brown; frontlet and crown scarlet, divided between the eyes by a
black band, which bends at right angles, and becoming narrower,
bounds each side of the crown; between the frontlet and this black
bar, is a whitish line; cheeks, chin, and throat azure blue; below
each side of the latter a scarlet spot; except the above, the general
 224 BARBET.
colour of the plumage is green; wings and tail darkest; quills black
outwardly, and dusky within; but except the three first, the outer
webs are green, and the under margined with pale yellow; the tail
rounded, of ten feathers, green above, and azure beneath; and the
wings, when closed, just reach beyond the base; legs dirty olive
gi'een.
Inhabits Calcutta, and its neighbourhood, the whole year, and
excavates holes in the trees for its nest; lives chiefly on wild figs,
plantaiaas, and other fruits, and is extremely noisy.
It is the Corul of the Mussulmans; Bassunt buri of the Bengalese
of Calcutta; and Bassunt Gorul of Sylhet. Bassunt buri means the
Old Woman of the Spring ; Buri being an old woman, and Bassunt
one of the divisions of the year, which includes February and March.
Most of the Hindus proaaounce this word Vassunta, but the Bengalese do not use the V, and cut off the final vowel.
I am indebted for the above to Dr. Buchanan, oai whose authority
I place it as a Barbet.—I learn, that some at Calcutta call this bird
Kutkhodau.*
12—RED-CROWNED BARBET.
Bucco rubricapillus, hid. Orn. i. 205.    Got. Lin. i. 408.
Red-crowned Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii. 505.    Brown III. pl. 14.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 23.
SIZE of a Goldfinch ; length five inches and a half. Bill dusky;
crown and throat scarlet; above each eye a black line; on the cheeks,
and above each shoulder, a great whitish spot; back and wing coverts
fine green; prime quills dusky ; breast yellow ; in the middle a short,
transverse bar of black, and another of red ; belly white; tail green,
the exterior feathers dusky ; legs pale red.
Inhabits Ceylon.
* One species of Woodpecker is also called by this name.
 225
A.—Length six inches. Bill bluish, and bristly at the base; on
each side of the forehead a yellow spot, bounded with black; fore
part of the head reddish orange, with a small yellow spot on the
upper side, bordered by a black line, which passes from the bill over
the eye ; on the cheeks and wing coverts a greenish white spot; breast
straw-colour, crossed with a crimson band, bounded by a stripe of
black on both sides; belly pale ash-colour, fringed with green ; hind
part of the head, neck, back, wings, and tail deep green, edged with
paler; quills part dusky, part green ; legs red.
Inhabits Ceylon and Batavia, communicated by the late Mr.
Pennant.—I suspect that it has in part the manners of the Yellow-
cheeked Species, as it is, like that, called Kottorea.
33.—INDIAN BARBET.
Bucco Indicus, Ind. Om. i. 205.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 27.
Indian Barbet, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 97.
SIZE of a Bulfinch; length six inches. Bill blue, hooked, beset
with long hairs at the base, exceeding the length of the bill; irides
white; plumage in general green; forehead red ; round the eye and
chin yellow; the rest of the head black; under part of the body
white, streaked with green, passing oaa each side of the neck in a
crescent, and bounding the yellow chin; beneath this it is red, and
below that a spot of yellow; excepting which, the rest of the
under parts are white; quills dark hazel; legs red.
Inhabits India, and is there called Bussenbuddo.—From the
drawings of the late Mr. Middleton. It is a beautiful bird, and
seems much allied to the Red-crowned Species.
 226
A.—In this Variety the bill is dusky; the forehead \ to the crown,
red ; beyond this black, passing round the sides of the head to the
throat; within this the chin is white, the black below bounded with
crimson; over and under the eye a patch of white; the general colpuar
of the plumage otherwise green; tail the/same, cuneiform; legs pale
red, or flesh-colour.
Inhabits India, named Setwuhunt.—Sir J. Anstruther.
14—DAUMAH BARBET.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill large, pale red, not furnished
with hairs at the base; head and neck pale brown; eye in a large
bare yellow skin, pointed before and behind; between that and the
bill white; over the ear a small brown patch; the rest of the bird
pale greeai; beneath, from the breast, plain greenish white; the legs
pale yellow.
Inhabits India, named Daumah.
15.—FICHTEL'S BARBET.
LENGTH more than nine, inches. Bill very stout at the base,
one inch aaid: a half long, and yellow horn-colour; on each side of
the nostrils ten or eleven bristles, almost as long as the bill; feathers
of the crown and neck behind loose, narrow, and pointed, pale
ash-coloiar, i margined with brown; from the lower part of the neck
the colour becomes green, continuing on the whole of the back,
wings, rump, and tail, which is rounded in shape; the quills brown
without, and dusky within; chin, fore part, and sides of the neck
 BARBET. 227
pale brownish ash; breast greenish, the feathers margined with
brown, and somewhat long; lower belly, thighs, and vent green;
legs brownish yellow.
Inhabits India; brought from thence by the late M. de Fichtel;
it is also not uncommon at Ceylon.
A.—Length seven inches. Bill large, convex above, pale red;
from the aiostrils ten or twelve long hairs, nearly reaching to the end
of the bill; round the eye bare and yellow; head and neck pale
brown, streaked with white down the shafts; all beneath dusky
white; towards the vent greenish white; wings, back, and tail green;
the legs pale.
Inhabits India; called Bussunta Burrah.—Sir J. Anstruther.
B.—A second Variety had the space round the eye red, like that
part in the Pheasant; few or no hairs at the nostrils; close round the
chin and back of the neck the feathers are short, naarew, and white;
also a mixture of white about the neck; legs almost black.
16.—LITTLE BARBET.
Bucco parvus, Ind. Orn A. 204.
Petit Barbu du Senegal, Buf. vii
Little Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii. 503.
Gm. Lin.i. 407.
105.    Pl. enl. 746. 2.
Gen. Zool. ix. p. 29.
THIS is only four inches in length. Bill brown; plumage above
blackish brown, tinged with fulvous, but on the quills inclines to
green; the feathers of the first edged with white; beneath the body
white, dashed perpendicularly with brown; throat yellow; at the
angles of the mouth a short white streak, passing beneath the eye;
legs pale red, or flesh-colour.
Inhabits Senegal.
 II
I
17.—GREEN BARBET.
Bucco viridis, Ind. Orn. i. 205. Got. Lin. i. 408.
Barbu vert de Mahe, Buf. vii. 107. Pl. enl. 870.
Green Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii. 504.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 22.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill whitish, more than one
inch long, and seven lines thick at the base, where the upper
mandible is furnished with black bristles; head and neck greyish
brown, the feathers of the latter edged with whitish; above the eye
a white spot, and a second beneath it; the rest of the bird fine green,
paler beneath, except the greater quills, which are brown; the legs
are dusky.
Inhabits India; brought from Mahe, on the Western Coast.
18,—SPOTTED BARBET.
Trogon maculatus, Ind. Om. i. 201.
Barbu, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxj
Spotted Curucui, Gen. Syn. ii. 491.
t III. pl. 13.    Gen. Zool. ix. p; 5.
SIZE of the Nuthatch. Bill brown; crown deep green; aieck,
breast, and belly pale brown, barred with dusky ; edges of the wing
white; coverts and secondaries green, tipped with white; tail dusky,
barred with white.
Inhabits Ceylon.
19—SUMATRAN BARBET.
SIZE small. General colour of the plumage green; chin pale
blue; on each side of the head three crimson spots; throat dark, or
dusky.
Inhabits Sumatra and Java.
  iii
PL HI.
Jl^4^jfw^
   —
 20.—BUFF-FACED BARBET—Pl. lh.
Bucco Lathami, Ind. Om. i. 2
Buff-faced Barbet, Gen. Syn. i
5.    Gm.Lin
504.
LENGTH six inches.. Bill pale, beset with bristles at the base,
which are longer than the bill; forehead, chin, sides of the head,
rouaid the eyes, dull buff-colour; upper parts of the body daik olive-
green, the under paler; wings dark olive; quills dusky, with greenish
edges; tail dusky, short ; legs yellow.
A specimen of the above ha the British Museum. Native place
unknown.
21.—YELLOW-CHEEKED BARBET.
Bucco Zeylonicus, Ind. Om.i. 205.
Yellow-cheeked Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii
Zool. ix. p. 24.
Got. Lin. i. 408.
506    Id. Sup. 95.
m. III. t. 15.     Gen.
LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill red ; head and neck pale
brown, clouded ; sides round the eyes naked and yellow ; back pale
green; wing coverts the same, spotted with white; prime quills
green, within dusky; belly pea-green; tail green ; legs pale yellow.
Inhabits Ceylon and Batavia, called at the former Kottorea;
perches on high trees, and cooes like a Turtle, but louder, and it is
from this noise that the natives have formed the name.
22—CEYLONESE BARBET.
LENGTH five inches and a quarter.     Bill stout,  strait, three-
quarters of an inch long, colour deep brown, at the nostrils several
 230 BARBET.
stout hairs; forehead to middle of the crown and sides before the eye
crimson; chin pale reddish orange, the rest of the plumage dark
dusky green ; wings and tail the same; legs brown ; on the throat,
just above the breast, a few red feathers, but as the specimen was in
bad condition, a further accoaant could not be obtained.
Iaahabits Ceylon, named Mai Kottorea.—In the collection of
Mr. Comyns. I suspect this to be the male of the Yellow-cheeked
Species.
23—AUSTRAL BARBET.
Bucco Australis, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 181.—Horsfield.
LENGTH five inches and a half. General coloaar of the plumage
olive-green; forehead, chin, under the tail and the scapular feathea's
verditer green; cheeks, throat, and breast saffron-colour; between
them a transverse black band; quills and tail blackish brown, the
feathers of the latter have externally a dusky-yellowish border.
Inhabits Java; called Truntung.
24.—GRAND BARBET.
Bucco grandis, Ind. Orn. i. 204,   Gmel. Lin. i. 408.   Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. ]
Grand Barbu, Buf. vii. 106.    PL enl. 871.
Grand Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii. 503.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 40.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill one inch and three-quarters long,
and one thick at the base, wheae it is beset with black'bristles;»colour
whitish, with a black tip ; plumage chiefly fine green, but differs in
various parts; for the head, and fore part of the neck incline to blue
in different lights, but the hind part of the neck, and part of the back
 BARBET. 231
are tinged with chestnut brown; the greater quills mixed with black;
under tail coverts fine red; legs dusky yellow.
Inhabits China.
A.—Length ten inches. Bill reddish brown, stout, with six or
eight bristles at the base and nostrils; round the eye bare, and reddish ; plumage. in general dull green; breast and belly pale, or
whitish green ; quills black; tail short, green ; legs pale yellow.
Inhabits India; by the English there, called Honest Face; it is
probably the female.    From the drawings of Lady Impey.
25—JAVAN BARBET.
Bucco Javensis, Lin
xiii. p. 181.
THIS is rather larger than the Missel Thrush; length scarcely
aiine inches. Bill very stout, black, with long hairs, coming forwards
from the base oaa each side; plumage in general green; crown yellowish ; over the eye a black streak, and a second over the jaw; chiaa
crimson, beneath it black, and below this a crimson spot; on each
side of the gape a spot of yellow; legs dusky.
Inhabits Java. A fine specimen of this is in the Museum of the
Iaidia House, called by the Javanese, Chodock.—That described in
Lin. Trans, measured eleven inches; the crown orange, as is also
the spot on each side of the gape; in other thingSL the two descriptions
coincide.
26—INDIAN BARBET.
LENGTH nine inches.    Bill very stout,  fuomshed with long
hairs at the base ; crown crimson ; through the eye ddusky; towaaids
 the base of the under mandible a yellow spot, beneath this one of
crimson; chin fine glossy yellow; lower part of the neck and sides
under the eye dusky; independent of the above the general colour of
the plumage is green.
Inhabits India, and probably Java.      This seems much allied to
the Javan Barbet.
27.—BATAVIAN BARBET.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill black; plumage green
above, yellow green beneath, with paler green streaks on the crown;
under the eye and the throat crimson, bordered all round with black;
tail plain green ; legs pale.
Inhabits the Islaaad of Java, called there Prinya.—Dr. Wilkins.
28—WAX-BILLED BARBET.
Bucco calcaratus, Ind. Orn. i. 206.
 cinereus, Got. Lin.i. 409.
Corvus Australis, Got. Lin. i. 377.
. tranquillus, Got. Lin. i. 417.
 affinis, Shaw's Zool. vii. 381.
Coucou noir de Cayenne, Bufvi. 416.    PL enl. 512.
Tamatia, -Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxvii.
Wax-billed Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii. 507. 17.   Id. Sup. p. 96.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 41.
IE
SIZE of a small Blackbird; length eleven inches and a half.
Bill one inch and a half, somewhat compressed on the sides, and
curved nearly the whole of its length, but more so near the end, the
colour imitating fine red sealing wax; nostrils covered with reflected
bristles, and a few others reaching more forward on the bill; irides
 red; head, neck, and upper part of the body dusky greenish black;
lesser wing coverts, nearest the body;, mixed with white; under wing
coverts mixed grey and white; at the bend of the wing, a little within,
a whitish horn-coloured spine, an eighth of an inch long, and blunt
at the tip; the first quill is two inches long, the second three inches,
and the third three inches and a half, but the fourth is a trifle the
longest of all; the second quills nearly all of one length; breast and
belly cinereous; quills and tail full black, the latter composed of
twelve feathers, rounded at the end, and the wings, when closed,
reach on it about an inch; legs black, with a membrane between the
toes at the bottom.
Inhabits Cayenne; is a solitary, silent bird; for the most part
found perched on a tree, which grows near the water. We have
formerly, owing to imperfect specimens, been under much uncertainty
in respect to its Genus.; and it has but lately been asceaiained to
have twelve feathers in the tail, being so in a fine specimen iaa my
possession, presented to me by Lord Seaforth.
29—WHITE-FACED BARBET.
THIS is, in make and shape, not unlike the Wax-billed Species,
but is larger. The bill is more stout than in that bird, though not
greatly differing in shape, the colour red; the face round the base
of the bill white; body and wings deep lead-colour; the tail black ;
legs brown.
A specimen of this in Mr. Bullock's Museum; said to have been
brought from the interior of Cayenne. How far this differs from
the Wax-billed Barbet, can scarcely be determined, whether sexual
only, or a mere Variety, for it has the same small spur at the bend
of the wing.
 1
III
ilia
234
BARBICAN.
GENUS XXII—BARBICAN.
1 Groove-bellied Barbican
4 Black-throated
5 Va
2 Smooth-billed
A Red-fronted
6 Ab
3 Vieillot's
JL HE bill in this Genus is very stout and bent. At the edges of the
upper mandible, a double conspicuous notch, more or less channelled
on the sides; under mandible less deep.
Nostrils at the base, covered with hairs.
Shins equal in length to the outer toe.
Toes placed two before, and two behind, united as far as the
second joint.
1.—GROOVE-BILLED BARBICAN.
Bucco dubius, Ind. Orn. i. 206.    Got. Lin. i. 409.
Bucco bidentatus, Toothed-billed Barbet, Nat. Misc. pl. 393.
Pogonius sulcirostris, Groove-billed Pogonias, Zool. Misc. pl. 76.    Gen. Zool. ix. pl. 1.
Der Barbican, Schmid Vog. p. 73. t. 23.
Barbican, Buf. vii. p. 132.   Pl. enl. 602.
Doubtful Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 506.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill one inch long, and ten lines thick
at the base, where maaiy long black bristles take their origin, and
a-each beyond the nostrils; the upper mandible bends downwards,
and has two notches on the edge, at some distance from the tip, and
on each side a longitudinal sulcus, finishing at the notch nearest the
tip; the under mandible with four or five transverse furrows; tongue
fleshy ; plumage on the upper parts, wings, and tail black, the last
three inches and a half loaig ; the under parts red, except a band on
the upper part of the breast, which is black; middle of the back
white; the thighs and vent black ; legs short, reddish brown.
 &w
235
Inhabits the Coast of Bai'bary.-
the Museum of Mr. Bullock.
-A fine and perfect specimen
2—SMOOTH-BILLED BARBICAN.
Bucco dubius /3. Ind. Orn. i. 206. 16.
Pogonius laevirostris, Smooth-billed Pogonias,   Gen. ZooL ix. pl. 2.     Zool. Misc. ii.
t. 77.
Doubtful Barbet. Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 96.
THIS bird is greatly similar to the last described, but the bill is
not channelled, or furrowed, being wholly smooth, and pale yellow,
and the indentations On the edge less conspicuous; on the crown a
mixture of crimson feathers, which passes behind each eye, and
afterwards extending forwards to blend with the crimson on the foie
parts; the greater wing coverts tipped with crimson, forming an
oblique bar across the wing ; on the middle of the back a patch of
white, with a thick tuft of silky white feathers, square at the ends;
all the under parts are red; but the chin, close under the bill is black,
and a spot of the same just at the base of the under mandible ; the
general colour of the plumage otherwise black ; quills brown.
Inhabits Africa. We have penned these as distinct species ; but
from the great coincidence in colour of the plumage, are by no means
positive of their being so; possibly the difference may be only owing
to sex.—M. Temminck receives the last described as young bird.
3,—VIEILLOT'S BARBICAN.
Pogonius Vieilloti, Vieillot's Pogonias, Gen. Zool. ix. p. 3.—(Frontispiece.)    Zool:
Misc. ii, p, 104, t. 97.
IN this the beak is smooth, not grooved; plumage in general
brown; head, neck, throat, and spots on the breast scarlet; interior
wing quills externally with pale margins.
 236
BARBICAN.
A specimen of this is in the British Museum, and appears to be a
young bird in the state of changing its plumage.
4—BLACK-THROATED BARBICAN.
Got. lin.i. 407. Gen. ZoolAx. p. 30.
Barbu a gorge noire de Lucon, Son. Voy. 68. t. 34. Buf. vii. p. 103.
Black-throated Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii. 501.
niger, Ind. Om.i. 204.
k gorge noire de Lu<;<
SOMEWHAT larger and longer than the Common Grosbeak.
Bill blackish, furnished with a sort of process or tooth, about two-
fifths from the tip ; forehead fine red; the crown, hind part, throat,
and neck black; above each eye a curved stripe of yellow, which,
as it proceeds downwards, becomes white, and descends in a strait
line to the lower part of the neck; beneath this a black stripe, and
between it and the throat a white band, which goes on to, and blends
with, the breast; and this, as well as the rest of the under parts, is
white ; middle of the back black, but the side feathers, between the
aaeck and back, have a yellow spot on each; wing coverts black,
four of them fringed with white, and one with yellow, forming a
stripe across the wing; beneath this, some of the feathers aae spotted
with yellow at the ends ; and under these, others, which have yellow
margins; quills black, bordered with yellow; legs black.
Inhabits the Philippine Islands; also the Cape of Good Hope.
A specimen, from the latter, in the British Museum, was seven inches
long, and differed only in having the rump of a beautiful yellow.
A.—Bucco niger, Ind.Om.i. 204; 8.0.
Le Barbu a Plastron noir, Buf. vii; 104.
Bucco rufifrons, Red-fronted Barbet, Gen. Zool. i:
Barbu du Cap de B. Esperance, PL enl. 688. 1,
p. 31.
Length six inches and a half.    Bill black; forehead crimson;
from this passes a stripe of black over the head, and down the back
 BARBICAN. 237
of the neck, to the back; sides of the head, and neck white, uniting
on the breast; from which the under parts are white to the vent; the
white on the sides of the head diversified, first by a streak of black,
beginaaing at the base of the upper mandible, and dividing the white
info two parts, ends on the shoulders; the chin and fore part of the
neck are also black, beginniaag at the base of the upper mandible,
and, dividing the white into two parts, finishes on the shoulders; chin,
and neck before black ; upper parts of the body and wings mixed
brown and yellow, the edges of the feathers being, for the most part,
fringed with yellow; the rump almost wholly pale but bright
yellow; tail brown, the feathers margined with yellow; the legs are
lead-colour.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope; probably the female, if not a
young bird, of the last; for the bill is less strong, and the process on
the edges not so projecting; in the plumage, the body is more
variegated, and the markings less distinct, as is often in young birds.
5—VARIED BARBICAN.
SIZE of the Black-throated Species; length six inches and a half.
Bill stout, black, full one inch in length from the gape; at about
one-third from the end furnished with a double notch, or process, as
in the last mentioned; over the nostrils several black hairs; the whole
head, chin, and throat to the breast with a mixture of crimson ; on the
crown much varied with dusky black; cheeks nearly plain, but the
chin and throat are dusky white, the feathers being only tipped with
red; hind part of the neck, and beginning of the back olive-brown,
mixed with whitish, but beyond to the rump with pale yellow; belly
and vent pale yellow; wings and tail brown; some of the quills
fringed with yellow; legs black.
 238 BARBICAN.
We have seen several specimens of this bird, which differed but
little from each other; in oaae the mixture of crimson and white passed
down from the chin only as a broad streak : there is every reason to
suppose that this is not a mature bird, and that it possibly may be
allied to the Black-throated Species, from the exact similarity of the
bill, as to size and shape ; also, on inspecting the under wing coverts,
they were manifestly imperfect in respect to feathers, as usual in young
birds; but, as we cannot determine this, it must remain for the present
as a mature species.
6.—ABYSSINIAN BARBICAN.—Pl. liii.
Bucco Saltii, Abyss
i Barbet, Salt Tr. App. p. xlvi. liv
LENGTH seven inches. Bill horn-colour, very dark, stout, and
large, from point to gape one inch; the upper mandible has a double
aaotch, or process, on the edge, and bends much at the point; in
form, the bill is somewhat similar to the Black-throated, but stronger,
and the process, or rather double indentation, nearer the base; the
general colour of the bird fine glossy black; forehead, as far as the
crown, sides, including the eyes, the chin, and throat fine crimson;
from the nostrils, as well as the base of the sides of the under jaw,
and chin, are fine hairs, pointing forwards; upper wing coverts
black, edged on the sides with white, producing a streaked appearance; quills dusky, the outer margin, for the most part, fringed
with yellow; the second quills nearly as long as the prime ones-;
under wing coverts pure white ; tail of ten feathers, two inches and a
quarter long, nearly even at the end ; legs dusky; toes placed two
and two, but the inner ones, both before and behind, very short,
especially the latter, which is- not half the length of the adjoining, so
as to give the appearance of there being but one hind toe; claws
short, but stout.
Brought from Abyssinia, by Mr. Salt; two of these, nearly
similar, were shot together, and supposed to be the two sexes;
observed to cling to the branches of trees, like the Woodpecker.
  1K1
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/nca^iy ^(7cfr&friaz<rL
  239
GENUS XXIIL—COUCAL.
1 Giant Coucal
A Var.
12 Lark-heeled
2 Pheasant
7 Chestnut
13 Lathamian
3 Kindred
8 Dusky
14 Rufous
4 Bubut
9 Long-heeled
15 Variegated
5 Lepid
10 Strait-heeled
16 New-Holland
€ Egyptian
11 Antiguan
17 Negro
A HE beak in this Genus is strong, and slightly curved.
Nostrils strait, eloaagated.
Feet with two toes placed forwards, the exterior the longest; and
two behind, the interior furnished with a very long claw.
In the greater part of the species the feathers of the head and
neck are narrow, and remarkably stiff in their texture.—M. Levaillant
has discriminated this Genus, having characters differing from the
true Cuckows, in which I readily agree with him. In this we are
joined by Mr. Stephens, in his General Zoology. There are, however, several species which do not entirely correspond with this Genus,
or that of the Cuckoo, about which each describer will have his
sentiments.
1—GIANT COUCAL.
Polophilus Gigas, Gigantic Coucal, Gen. Zool. ix. p. 45.
Centropus Gigas, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxiv.
Le Coucou Geant, Levail. Afr. v. p. 86. pl. 223.
THIS is probably the largest species known, being thirty inches
in length. The bill brown, thick at the base, and curved towards
the point; top of the head, neck behind, back, and wing coverts
rufous brown, tinged with olive ; and a trace of rufous white down
the middle of each feather; on each side marked with dusky black
ill
 240 COUCAL,
bands; the feathers of the head, neck, and breast thick, stiff, and
yglossy on the sides; quills banded alternately with rufous brown, and
rufous yellow; tail cuneiform, ten inches long, black brown, the ends
of the feathers dirty white, and crossed with from sixteen to twenty
rufous grey bars ; the greatest number on the two middle feathers ;
under parts of the body, from the breast, upper and under tail
coverts, light fulvous brown, barred with dusky; wings short, reaching
only to the upper tail coverts; legs stout, scaly; the hind claw two
inches long, rather stout, and somewhat hooked.
Inhabits New-Holland.—In the collection of M. Temminck.
2—PHEASANT COUCAL.
Cuculus Phasianus, Iwd. Om. Sup. i
Centropus Phasianns, Tern. Anal. p.
Polophilus Phasianus, Pheasant Couc
Pheasant Cuckow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii.
\, Gen.Zool.ix. p.48. pl. 11.  ZooL Misc
p. 137.
LENGTH seventeen or eighteen inches. Bill, head, and all
beneath fine black, the first stout at the base, and curved; back and
wings varied with rufous, yellow, brown, and black, mixed in the
manner of the blending of the Woodcock; tail long, and barred
elegantly with the same colours; legs dusky black ; toes placed as
in the Cuckow Genus, but the hind claws are pretty long, and less
hooked than the forward ones, resembling, in this, the Egyptian
Coucal, which, however, differs materially in colour, as ha that bird
the back and wings are plain rufous, and the tail, though long and
cuneiform, is wholly black.
Inhabits New South Wales; called, by the English there, the
Pheasant.
 COUCAL.
3.—KINDRED COUCAL.
Centropus affinis, Lin. Trans, xiii p. 180.—Horsfield.
LENGTH fourteen inches and a half. Plumage black, wings
ferruginous, hind claw bent; the scapular feathers are soot-coloured,
with white shafts; the outer tail feathers with a white band at the
ends.
Inhabits Java, called there, Bubut-allang-allang.
4—BUBUT COUCAL.
Centropus Bubutus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 180.—Horsfield.
LENGTH eighteen inches and a half.    This has a glossy blue
black plumage, with bay-coloured wings.
Inhabits Java, generally called by the name of Bubut.
5—LEPID COUCAL.
Centropus lepidus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 180.—Horsfield.
LENGTH twelve inches. The crown, neck, scapulars, and
second quills fuliginous, the shafts margined longitudinally on each
side with white; wing coverts bay or brown, with white shafts; greater
quills bay, with brownish tips; chin, throat, breast, and belly white;
rump, tail coverts, and tail fasciated black and ferruginous; at the end
of the last a whitish band.
Inhabits Java.
 6.-EGYPTIAN'CCfUCAL.
Cuculus .Egyptius, Ind. Om. i. 212.    Got, Lin. i. 420.
Polophilus .Egyptius, Egyptian Coucal, Gen. Zool. ix. p. 54.
Houhou d'Egypte, Buf.vi. 367.    Levail. Afr. v. 72. pl.219.
Egyptian Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 522.
LENGTH between fourteen and sixteen inches. Bill aiear one-
inch and a half long, and black; irides bright red; head and neck
behind dull green, glossed with polished steel; the feathers all round,
stiff in their texture; upper wing coverts brownish rufous, inclining
to green; quills rufous, terminated with shining green, except the
three last, which are wholly green, and the two or three preceding
them, mixed in colour; back greenish brown; rump and upper tail
coverts brown; tail cuneiform, three inches in length, shining green,
with a steely gloss; throat, and under parts of the body white, paler
on the belly; lower belly, thighs, and under tail coverts pale blackish
green, with fine dusky stripes; legs blackish; fhe inner hind toe
long, with a strong, straitish claw. The male and female do not
essentially differ, but the latter is smaller, and the colours less bright.
It is seen hi Egypt, frequently in the Delta, and called by the
Arabs, Houhou, from its repeating that word several times together;
-the male and female rarely seen asunder, nor are more than two often
together; the principal food is locusts; chiefly breed on low bushes
near running water, seldom on high trees, nor often on the ground.
Authors assert, that it makes the nest in the hole of a decayed tree,
at the bottom of which the eggs are laid, aaad that they are four in
number, placed on the decayed pieces at the bottom of the hole;
both sexes sit in turn.
M. Levaillant met with iti first in the forests; adjoining the
Gamtoos, as far as Caffre Land ; also in Camdeboo, but not towardsr?
the Cape itself; he mentions one particular habit of this bird, which
  ^UnU  '&«U
 IP*
.■'.-.•
' the
nch
piper
rim,
igm&^mr'
  is, the perching lengthwise on a branch, and not transversely.* The
note not unaptly expresses Couroat-Courou cou, &c. &c.; at day break
begins its song, continuing it the greater part of the morn in g, and
commences again an hour or two before sunset.
This bird, M. Levaillant supposes, may be the Courou coucou of
Buffon, our Red-crested Cuckow ;f to this we may fairly object, for
many reasons. Seba, indeed, calls it a Brazilian Cuckow—but it
does not appear to be a Cuckow at all, the bill being more like some
of the Parrot kind, or, at least, one of the tibick-billed Grosbeaks. %
The toes likewise are placed three before and one behind; and as to
the colours of the plumage, it seems more to correspond with the
Cardinal Grosbeak; although it measures, in the figure, two inches
longer.
A.—Coucou des Philippines, Ind. Om. i. 213.   Buf. vi, 369,.  Pl. enl. 824.
Egyptian Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 523. 16. A.
This is so like the last, that one description might serve, and is,
by Buflbn, supposed to be a male bird.
7—CHESTNUT COUCAL.—Pl. liv.
LENGTH sixteen or seveaateen inches, of which the tail occupies
one half, and the wings, when closed, reach one-third thereon; the
shape of the tail rounded, or moderately cuneiform. Bill one inch
and three quarters long, compressed, strong, and black, the upper
mandible   bent   downwards;   nostrils   covered   with   a  flat  rim,
* The Eui
^ifCqonias
X Seba me
tsucker does the sari
Brasiliensis, Ind. On
t\y says, " Rostrum
psted Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 545.
st, quale Pseudo Psittacorum.
 244 COUCAL.
proceeding from their upper margins; tongue lacerated at the end ;
irides scarlet; general colour of the plumage shining black, but all
the wing coverts, scapulars, and quills, bright chestnut; legs black ;
the inner hind claw strait, and of twice the length of the others.
Dr. Buchanan informs me, that this bird is the Alahua of the
Mussulmans; Cuco of the Bengalese; and Boua-bove of the Burmas.
It is scarce near Calcutta, but common in many parts of India; and
called by the Europeans, Pheasant Crow; makes a noise, which the
Burmas think resembles Boue-boue; very common every where on
the banks of the Arawady; is somewhat larger than a Magpie, and,
except in feet and colour, has a strong resemblance to it; said to be
a solitary bird, and generally seen hopping about, aaear some thickset hedge, or among underwood, by the sides of rivers, into either of
which, if disturbed, it flies for refuge, and if driven thence, flies no
farther than to the nearest trees, reluctantly shifting its place. In
the stomach of one was found the bones of a Lizard, and the remains
of insects.
One of these in the collection of drawings of General Hardwicke,
was eighteeai inches in length; the head, neck, and under parts
ash-coloaared, streaked with white as far as the breast; over the eye
a whitish stripe; belly and thighs marked with transverse lines of
white; tail plain black, not greatly cuneiform, though much rounded;
wings as in the other.
This was met with at Cawnpore in April, and said to be a bird
of the first year.
8—DUSKY COUCAL.
Le Coucal noirou, Levail. Af. v. 78. pl. 220.
SIZE of the Crow.    Bill very stout, curved at the point, dusky
glossy black; irides dusky brown; general colour of the plumage
 coucal. 245
black; wing coverts part rufous, part black; quills wholly deep
rufous, with the ends dusky black; feathers of the head and neck
remarkably stiff, and glossy on their edges, so as to resemble pins;
the tail about the length of the body, cuneiform, or much rounded at
the end, and the wings reach just beyond the coverts; legs stout,
glossy black, the inner hind claw strait, and, in old birds, is sometimes two inches in length.
The female a fourth part less than the male. The black inclines
to brown on all the fore parts; and the spur at the inner heel half an
inch shorter.
M. Levaillant killed a pair of these about Swart Rivier, at some
distance from the Cape of Good Hope, in the act of feeding oaa carrion, with other birds of prey. He also found, oaa dissection, the
remains of insects in the stomach; not that he is certain of their
feeding on the carrion itself, but probably on the insects, or larvae,
of such as are nourished by it.
9—LONG-HEELED COUCAL.
Cuculus Tolu, Ind. Om. i. 213,    Got. Lin. i. 422.
 Madagascariensis, Bris. iv. 138. t. 13. 2.    Id. 8vo. ii. 80.
Polophilus Tolu, Tolu Coucal, Gen. ZooL ix. p. 52.
Coucou de Madagascar, Buf. vi. 369. t. 17.    PL enl. 295. 1.
Long-heeled Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 524.
LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill brown, one inch long; head,
throat, neck behind, and upper part of the back covered with longish,
narrow, stiff feathers, blackish, with a rufous white stripe down each
shaft; those on the throat, the fore part of the neck, and breast the
same, but only a longish stripe on each side; lower part of the back,
rump, belly, sides, thighs, upper and under tail coverts greenish black;
scapulars, upper and under wing coverts, fine chestnut,   the shafts
I
 246 coucal.
purplish; quills chestnut, tipped with brown ; tail more than eight
inches long, blackish green above, and black beneath, in shape
cuneiform ; legs black, the claw of the inner toe three quarters of an
inch long, strait as in the Lark.
Inhabits Madagascar, and there called Tolu; from the similarity
of the name to Houhou, it may possibly be the young of that bird,
if not of the chestnut species.
10— STRAIT-HEELED COUCAL.
Cuculus Senegalensis, Ind. Orn. i. 213.    Lin. i. 169.    Got. Lin. i. 412.    Bris. iv. 120.
t. 8. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. ii. 75.    Borowsk ii. 129. 4.
Polophilus. Senegalensis, Senegal Coucal, Gen. ZooL ix. p. 53.
Coucou du Senegal, Rufalbin, Pl. enl. 332. Buf. vi. 370.
Strait-heeled Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 525.
LENGTH fifteen inches and a quarter. Bill black, fifteen lines
long. Plumage in general brownish, inclined to rufous above, and
to dirty white beneath ; head and neck above blackish, the middle
and shafts of the feathers deeper; cheeks, throat, fore part and
sides of the neck dirty white, with bright coloured shafts; rump,
and upper tail coverts brown, striated across with deep brown ; under
parts from the breast dirty white, with very obscure, transverse striae;
under tail coverts the same, but more obscure; quills rufous, with
brown tips; tail eight inches long, cuneiforan, black; legs greyish
brown, formed as in the last.
Inhabits Senegal.
In one, apparently the same, in the collection of Lord Stanley,
I observed the shafts of the feathers of the head and neck, to be
remarkably stiff; belly and thighs white; vent pale dirty rufous;
back and wings fine deep rufous; tail coverts brown, vundUlated with
darker brown; tail dusky black, rounded at the end; legs black,
inner hind claw three quarters of an inch long, and but little bent.
 coucal. * 247
This came from Senegal; is also not uncommon in Abyssittfa> ifti
the mountainous districts, among the thick Caper, and otner thorny
bushes.
11—ANTIGUAN COUCAL.
Polophilus viridis, Green Coucal, Gen. Zool. ix. p. 55.
Coucou vert d'Antigue, Son. Voy. 181. pl. 80.    Ind. Om. i. 213. y.
Egyptian Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 523. 16. B.   Id. Sup. p. 100.
LENGTH nineteen inches and a half. Bill stout, curved, and
black; nostrils almost covered with short feathers; the upper eyelid
furbished Math eight or nine bristles; head and neck dusky brown,*
and the feathers narrow; the fore part, as far as the breast, marked
down the shafts with indistinct pale spots and bars, the hind part
plain; wing coverts deep rufous, obscurely barred with dusky; on
the iaaside of the wing a short, blunt spur; quills barred rufous and
blackish alternate, about twenty of each; tail long, cuneiform, the
outer feathers measuring only five inches; colour black, crossed with
numerous, oblique, dusky white lines, not corresponding on each
side of the shaft; belly, thighs, upper and under tail coverts dusky,
crossed with numerous white lines; legs short, stout, rough; claw of
the inner toe strait, and one inch in length.
Inhabits China; described from one in possession of Sir Joseph
Banks. I observed, too, among India drawings, one full eighteen
inches long: general colour black; the wings deep rufous; tail black,
cuneiform, with eight or ten whitish bars on each side of the shafts;
this was called Mahoca. Among the drawings of Lady Impey, there
was one greatly similar, from the Coromandel Coast; this is said to
* According to Sonnerat very dull green.
 248 • coucal.
have the general plumage black, except the wings, which are bright
ferruginous flame-colour; the prime quills barred with black. This
is known in India, by the name of Crow Pheasant,* and we may
suppose it to be a voracious bird, as it goes by an Iaadian name,
signifying Devourer with the Mouth.
12 —LARK-HEELED COUCAL.
Cuculus Bengalensis, Ind. Om. i. 214.    Got. Lin. i. 412.
Polophilus Bengalensis, Bengal Coucal, Gen. Zool. ix. p. 50.
Lark-heeled Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 525.    Brown Illust. p. 26. 1.13.
THIS is a trifle larger than a Lark. Bill dusky; head, neck,
back, and wing coverts ferruginous, marked with short white lines,
bounded by black, pointing downwards; belly yellowish brown;
quills reddish brown, the first and second of the prime ones plain,
the rest barred with black; tail very long, and cuneiform ; the outer
feathers dusky, with brown tips; the others marked with bars of
black, and narrow ones of browai; legs black; the inner hind claw
strait, as in the Lark.
Inhabits Bengal. How many, or whether the whole of those
having the Lark-heeled, inner hind claw, are related to each other,
must be left to future enquiry.
13—LATHAMIAN COUCAL.
Polophilus Lathami, Lathamian Coucal, Zool. Misc. pl. 56.    Gen. Zool. i
. pl.9.
BILL short, curved, black; head, neck, throat, breast, belly,
and thighs black, with whitish sprinklings ; back and wings reddish;
wing coverts obscurely banded ; quills distinctly spotted, black ; tail
' The Chestnut C. is called Pheasant Crc
 black, with narrow, transverse, somewhat interrupted, whitish bands;
shape cuneiform in respect to the outer feathers, but the four middle
are longer than the side ones, and equal in length in regard to each
other; legs black; inner hind claws long, bent.
A specimen of this in the British Museum; but from whence is
unknown.
14—RUFOUS COUCAL.
Le Coucal rufin, Levail. Afr. v. 82. pl. 221.
Polophilus Coucal, Gen. Zool. ix. p. 44. pl. 8.
LENGTH eleven inches. The bill seven-eighths of an inch,
somewhat stout, yellowish brown; irides light rufous; general colour
of the plumage rufous, in different shades; the head, neck, back,
and wing coverts browaiish rufous; down the shaft of each feather a
pale, or rufous white streak, in the manner of the Quail; the colour
of the wings more bright, and barred on the sides with dusky brown;
under parts of the body paler; tail pale rufous, half the length of
the bird, aounded; the two middle feathers crossed with browaiish
lines, and the rest of the feathers the same on the outer webs; legs
yellowish brown; inner hind claw strait, one inch long; the wings
rounded, and reach just beyond the rump. The female is a trifle
smaller, and has the hind claw shorter.
Inhabits the inward parts of the Cape of Good Hope. M.
Levaillant found it on the borders of the Great Fish River, and not
elsewhere; is not observed to have any note; though Mr. L. could aaot
find the nest, has not a doubt of its rearing its own young*, and
that in the holes of trees; and supposes this from the peculiar smell,
which all birds that breed in hollow trees have. He further observes,
that in consequence of this bird having the bill less in proportion
VOL    III. K K
 250 COUCAL.
than in the other Coucals, and more slender in shape, as Well as
being smaller, it would appear proper that it should stand intermediate
between the Coucals and true Cuckows.
15—VARIEGATED COUCAL.
Polophilus varie
Gen. Zool.
;atus, Variegated Co
c. p. 47. pl. 10.
teal,  ZooL Misc. i. 116, 117
THIS is above eighteen inches in length. General colour of the
plumage variegated with rufous, yellow, and black ; hinder part of
the back black; tail black above, with transverse, variegated bands;
the hind inner claw long, and bent.
A specimen of this is in the British Museum. Native place unknown.
16—NEW-HOLLAND COUCAL.
Polophilus leucogaster, White-bellied Coucal,   Gen. Zool. ix. p. 49. pl. 12.
Zool. Misc. i. p. 117. 52;
THIS is about the same size as the last described, and resembles
it much in appearance ; the head, neck, throat, and breast are black,
the shafts spotted with whitish; the feathers alternately banded with
black and rufous ; belly whitish ; back1 yellow, alternately banded
with black and white; thighs luteous; tail black, with transverse
white lines.
Inhabits New-Holland. The inner hind claw very long, and
moderately eun?edi>
 17—NEGRO COUCAL.
Polophilus Mai
, Levail. Afr.
is, Black Cox
. 84. pl.222.
al, Gen. Zool. i
SIZE of a Missel Thrush ; length eleven inches. Bill black, one
inch long; irides chestnut; the plumage wholly black, without gloss;
tail slightly cuneiform, half the length of the bird; end of the quills
rounded in shape, and reach only to the ruanp; legs black, stout,
one inch long; the inner hind claw one inch aaid a quarter long, not
strait, but undulated in shape.
The female is smaller, and inclines to brown on the belly.
Inhabits the great forests hi Caffre Land; chiefly seen on the
lower branches of trees; the male has a note like C6oo-ror repeated
ten times together, aaid is always accompaaaied by the female, but the
latter has no note beyond that of cri-cri-cri-cri, somewhat like that
of the Kestril, while hovea'ing in the air; they make the nest in the
hollows of trees, and the female lays four white eggs ; both sexes sit
iaa turn. M. Levaillant killed oaily five of thean, and found the
remains of insects in the stomach.
 252
GENUS XXIV— MALKOHA.
1 Red-headed Malkoha
2 Tri-coloured
A Var.
3 White-l
4 Sintok
5 Javan
IN this Genus the bill is stout, longer than the head, curved froan
the base, and smooth edged.
Nostrils linear, near the margin.
Side of the head, round the eye, bare and granulated.
Wings short.
Toes placed two before and two behind; claws short, and bent.
1— RED-HEADED MALKOHA—Pl. lv.
Cuculus pyrrhoc(
Phoenicophaus pj
Le Malkoha, Lex
Red-headed Cuckoi
I. Afr
Ind. Om.i. 222.    Got. Lin.i.
ialus, Gen. Zool. ix. p. 39,
v. p. 90. pl.224.
i. Syn. ii. 544.    Ind. Zool. pl.
417.   ZooL Ind. t. 6.
THE length of this bird is sixteen inches; weight four ounces.
Bill strong, very thick at the base, and bends downwards, colour
greenish yellow; top and hind part of the head and neck, under
the jaws, greenish black, with a slender white streak down the shafts
of the feathers, and from the narrowness of those about the head,
appear as numerous specks; sides of the head, aaad round the eyes,
wholly bare of feathers, appearing rough or granulated, and reddish
orange-colour, bounded beneath with white ; but down the middle
of the crown covered with feathers ; fore part of the neck, back, and
wings greenish black, with a gloss of green on the last; tail very
long, cuneiform, greenish black, appearing glossy in some lights,
the feathers white for nearly one-third from the end; breast and belly
white; the legs brown, with yellowish scales; claws crooked; the
wings reach a little beyond the middle of the tail.
L
  vWwwTrw~'
11
(
1
1
1|:;:
**^k
L
1
   MALK0HA.
253
Inhabits Ceylon, where it is called Malkoha; lives in the woods,
and feeds on fruits. A specimen, in Mr. Daniell's drawings, was
full eighteen inches long, and named Maal-kenda-Ettah.
2.—TRI-COLOURED MALKOHA.
Cuculus curvirostris, Curve-billed Cuckow, Nat. Misc. pl. 905.
Phcenicophaus tricolor, Tricoloured Malkoha, Gen. Zool. ix. 61. pl. 14.
Le Malkoha Rouverdin, Levail. Afr. v. 92. pl. 225.
THIS is more than sixteen inches long. The bill stout, formed
as in the Red-headed, but pale in colour; the bare part on the sides
of the head occupying less space; the head full of feathers, bluish
grey; neck behind, upper parts of the body, and wings, dull green,
in some lights appearing more or less glossy; throat, neck before,
breast and belly, thighs and vent, brownish chestnut; tail greatly
cuneiform, the two middle feathers near seven inches long, the
exterior three; colour dull green, in some lights glossy, with the ends,
for some length, brownish chestnut; legs dusky blue; claws crooked;
the wings aeach but little beyond the base of the tail.
Supposed to inhabit India.—In the Cabinet of M. Temminck,
of Amsterdam.
A.—Length eighteen niches. Bill stout, much curved, and pale
horn-colour; under mandible dusky, with a few hairs at the base ^
plumage above fine deep ga'een, very glossy^ about the head more
dull; all the under parts ferruginous; tail cuneiform, the two middle
feathers ten inches long, the outer only six; colour as the back, with
the end half of all the feathers deep ferruginous; the wings reach
just to the base ; legs brown.
In the Museum of Mr. Bullock, and appears to be a mere
Variety of the formei-, if both do not differ in sex only from the
Red-headed Species.
 254
3—WHITE-BELLIED MALKOHA.
Phcenicophaus leucogaster, White-bellied Malkoha, Gen. Zool. ix. p. 60.
Le Malkoha, Levail. Afr: v. p. 90. pl. 224 ?
LENGTH niaie iaaches ; bare space round the eyes orange ; plumage above greenish black, inclining to green on the wing coverts,
back and tail; quills black, bordered with black-green, and in some
birds whitish on the interior edges; neck and throat dull green;
feathers of thefeejly a#d beneath the tail margined with white; those
of the shins dirty white.
,§>peeiraens of this bird are to be seen in the collections of Paa*is
and Amsterdam. —The length is said to be only nine inches; but we
suspect this to mean independent of the tail, for, if it is the bird quoted
from Levaillant, tha^aincjjajding the tail, is sixteen inches; and I
further suspect, that the three before described, and this, anay hereafter
be found to belong only to one Species, in different stages of growth
or sex.
4.—SINTOK MALKOHA.
Phcenicophaus melanognathus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 178.--Horsneld.
LENGTH of the body seveninefees, of the tail-efeve»i Nostrils
elongate, situated at the base Of-fft>groove, which extends ineariy vta--
the middle of the beak; colour of the plumage above glossy green
gold; beneath, and a broad space of the tail chestnut; jaws yellowish;'
mandible deep black.
Inhabits Java : called>there Kadallan, or Sintok.
 ■^sami
MALKOHA.
5—JAVAN MALKOHA.
Phcenicophaus Javanicus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 178.—Horsfield.
LENGTH sixteen inches and a half. Plumage in general hoary,
greenish black; cheeks, chin, and neck before, vent, and thighs
ferruginous bay; tail feathers white at the end.
Inhabits Java; known there by the name of Bubut-kembang.
 GENUS XXV. -CUCKOW.
* With Four Toes.
28 Indian Black
1 Common Cuckow
29 Asiatic Black
A Rufous
30 Swift
B Undulated
31 Chestnut
2 Dunmun
32 Mournful
A Var.
33 Basal
3 Sokagu
34 Yellow-billed
4 Bhrou
35 Crested Black
5 Bychan
36 Coromandel Crested
6 Sirkeer
A Var.
7 Ferruginous-necked
37 Black and white Crested
8 Panayan
38 Ceylon
9 Grey-headed
39 Brown
10 Solitary
40 Collared
11 Madagascar Crested
41 Black-breasted
12 African
42 Great-billed
13 Chinese
43 Bronzed
14 Blue
44 Gilded
15 Metallic
45 Klaas's
16 Sacred
46 Gorgeous
17 Madagascar
47 Cupreous
A Var.
48 African Green
18 Pisan
49 Shining
19 Great Spotted
50 Splendid
A Var.
51 Glossy
20 Indian Spotted
52 Metalline
21 Hepatic
53 Noisy
22 Chinese Spotted
54 Cape
A Var.
55 Yellow-bellied
23 Sonnerat's
56 Paradise
24 Rufous-spotted
57 Chalybeate
25 Panayan Spotted
A Var.
26 Eastern Black
58 Fan-tailed
A Coukeel
59 Society
27 Mindanao
60 Spotted-tailed
61 Tippet
62 Spotted-breasted
63 Flinder's
64 Port Jackson
65 Barred-tail
66 Blue-headed
67 Pacific
68 Horned
69 Sharp-crested
70 Long-billed Rain
71 Rain
72 Mangrove
73 Laughing
74 Carolina
75 Black-billed
76 Red-crested
77 Brazilian Crested
78 Spotted
A Var.
79 Punctated
80 St. Domingo
81 Cayenne
A Var.
B Var.
82 White-n
tnped
A Vai
B Var.
83 Honey
84 Great Honey
85 Lesser Honey
** With Thre
86 Abyssinian
87 Asiatic
88 Tridactyle
 v^UCKOWS   have the bill  in general  weak,
bending.
Nostrils, with a few exceptions, bounded by a small aim.
Toaigue short, pointed.
Tail, for the most part, cuneiform, consisting of ten feathers.
Toes placed two forwards, and two backwards.
Such are the general characters, admitting of some deviation in
particular instances; in a few the nostrils are not pa'ecisely formed as
above mentioned. Two or three are said to have twelve feathers in
the tail, nor is this part in all cuneiform; oaae or other, however, of
the reigning characters will be found among those which deviate,
sufficient to justify placing them in this Genus :• but, indeed, should
a division be thought requisite, Cuckows might be separated into two
families, the one, like the true Cuckow, to consist of such as make
use of other birds for rearing their young; the other, those which
make nests for that purpose, and hatch their own eggs. Of the
former, we do aaot positively know more than five or six; and of the
latter scarcely twice as many; the manners of the rest being quite
uaaknowai, and therefore must continue to be blended with each other,
tilj we have more authority for such separation.
1.—COMMON CUCKOW
Cuculus
409.
inorus, hid. Om. i. 207.     Lin. i. 168.     F
Scop. i. No. 48.     Raii 23.      Will. 6. t. 7.
p. 70.    Klein, p. 30.    Id. Stem. 5. t. 4. f. 5. a. c.
Brun. No. 36.    Muller. No. 95.    Georgi p. 165.
t. p. 117.     Schaf. El. t. 31.     Block. Berl. Nat.
Gerin. i. 80 t. 67. 69. Borowsk. ii. 12E
Vog. Kurl. s, 34. Berl. Neu. Schrift. '
Zool. ix. 68. pl. 16.    Tern. Man. d'Orn.
III. L   L
un. Suec. No. 96. Got. Lin. i.
!7. Bris. iv. 105. Id. 8vo ii.
Frisch. t. 40, 41. Kram. 337.
Faun. Arag. p. 13. Sepp. Vog.
iv. s. 582. t. 18. f. 1.   (the egg.)
Bechst. N. Deutsch. ii. 484.
166.     Shaw. Zool. Lect. i,
\ 235.   Id. Ed. ii. p. 382.
Gen,
 258 cuckow.
II Cuculo, Olin. t. p. 38. Cett. uc. Sard. p. 86.
Der Aschgrave Kukuk, Schmid Vog. p. 38. t. 24.
Le Coucou vulgaire d'Europe, Levail. Afr. v. p. 26. pl. 202, 203.    Buf. vi. 305.    Pl.
enl. 811. Robert Ic. pl. 2.
Kuckuk, Wirs. Vog. t. 38, 39, 40.    Naturf. ix. s. 48.
Common Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 509;    Id. Sup. ii. 133.    Arct. Zool. ii. 266. A.    Flor.
Scot. i. No. 68.    Alb. i. pl. 8.    Hayes pl. 17, 18.    Bewick, i. p. 104.    Br. Zool.
i. p. 232. pl. 36.    Id. 1812. i.   p. 305. pl. 40.    LewMAi. t. 44.    Id. Eggs t. viii.
f. 5.    Wahbt. i. pl. 43.   Donov. ii. pl. 41.     Wood's Zoogr. i. 440.     Graves Br.
Om. i. pl. 13.   Id. Eggs vol. i.   part i.    Orn. Diet. $ Supp.
SIZE of a Turtle ; length fourteen inches, breadth twentpfive;
weight four ounces and a half. Bill black, two-thirds of an inch
long, a little bent; irides yellow; head, hind part of the neck, wing
coverts, and rump dove-colour, darker on the head, and paler oia the
rump; throat and neck before pale grey; breast and belly white,
elegantly crossed with black, undulated lines ; vent buff, with a few
dusky spots; wings long, reaching to within one iaach and half of the
end of the tail; the first quill is three inches shorter than the others,
all of them dusky, with oval white spots within; tail cuneiform, the
two middle feathers black, tipped with white, the others marked with
wifite^spMdts on each side of the shafts; legs short and yellow.
The female is less, and rarely more than thirteen inches loaigVti^
the neck and breast inclined to tawny, and a little batted with dus&yj
with a few indistinct, pale, rusty spots on the wing coverM/;and the
white spots on the quills and tail dusky on their edges.
Young birds are brown, mixed with ferruginous and black, and
in that state have been described by some as old ones : the name of
the Cuckow in all languages, seems to have arisen from its note: in
some parts of England it is called Gowk.
It is well known that a Cuckow does not hatch its own eggs, but
the reason is not so manifest; some have thought it owing to the
great size, and length of the stomach, which protrudes far beyond the
sternum, and the latter being so very short, as to be insufficient to
take off the pressure in incubation, during wbieh, .digestion would be
impeded ; but this anay be doubted, as it is known that several birds
do hatch their own eggs, whose anatomical situation of the stomach
 cuckow. 259
is precisely the same as in the Cuckow.* Conjectures of various
kinds have been receiVed as facts, but must give way to the experi-
aaaental observations of Dr. Jenner, laid before the Royal Society, in
1788,t from which we learn, that these birds do not pair, but the
female is often attended by two or three males,£ who seem to be
earnestly contendiaag for her favours ; the egg is rarely found in any
nest till the middle of May ; for the most part in that of the Hedge
Sparrow, Wagtail, Titlark, Yellaw+hammer, Greenfinch, Whinchat,
and some others, but chiefly in the three former, and has the greatest
preference to that of the Hedge Sparrow. §
The size of the egg rarely exceeds that of the House Sparrow,
aaad is not greatly different in its markings; which is singular, as the
parent birds differ, in one being five times as large as the other;
besides the common similarity of the two in colouring, that of the
Cuckow has sometimes some bran-coloured spots, as well as black
lines, laot unlike those seen)in the egg of the Yellow-hammer: the
weight of a Cuckow's egg is from 43 to 45 grains, || and the bird
supposed to lay a great number,^[ which may be ascertained from the
* The stomach of an Owl is proportionably capacious, and almost as thinly covered with
xternal integuments.    Dr. Bloch mentions others, in which the structure is-(sjimilar, viz:—
Roller, Goatsucker, Coot, and Kestril.    Se
we may add the Bee-eater ; and, according t
f Ph. Trans, v. 78. p. 219.
X Mr. Pennant observed, that five males
§ The occupiers of a nest have
Besch. der Berl. Gesell. iv; s. 188; to which,
Blumenbach, the Toucan, and Nutcracker.
ught ii
iown to dispute the entrance of the Cuckow ; for
on the sight of one, a Redbreast and its mate jointly attacked it, and drove it away. Hist.
Ois. vi. 325. 309. Buffon here mentions at least twenty sorts of birds, in whose nests the
Cuckow deposits her eggs. The Cowpen Oriole is said to lay her eggs in the nests of other
birds, to be hatched by them, in a similar manner with the Cuckow.
|| To 55 grains.—Jenner. As the bird weighs barely four ounces, 38 of such eggs will
about equal that of the parent; but the Raven weighs two pounds ten ounces, and the egg
not seven drachms, so that 48 are required for the weight of that bird. M. Prof. Sanders
makes the Cuckow's egg to be half a Loth—equal to a quarter of an ounce, but by his
description, he means that of the Goatsucker.—Naturfxiv. 49.
<[f On comparing the Ovary with that of a Pullet, the cluster of eggs appeared full as
, and in every stage of growth.
Li2
 260 cuckow.
number observed in the ovary. The Cuckow first makes its appearance
here the middle of April, and, for the most part, leaves us the firdt week
in July ;* that is, the old birds, the male coming and going first; for
those hatched here the same season stay long after, going away in
succession, according as each may be able to take its journey.
It is not to be wondered that young Cuckows have been mistaken
for Hawks, being, for the first season, not unlike the female Kestril, j*
but do not gain the note of the adult till the following year. To
account for the young Cuckow being alone fouaid in the nest, it was
believed that the old one destroyed the eggs laid therein by its owner,
before she deposited one of her own ; but the fact is, that the egg of
the small bird, and that of the Cuckow, are hatched together, and
from the moment the young of the latter is excluded, a propensity to
free itself from its companions is manifest, and by means of its wings
and tail, when grown strong enough, lifts every thing over the edge
of the nest, to fall to the ground, and perish ; and this it is soon able
to effect, as the growth is uncommonly rapid. It is no uncommon
thing for two eggs of a Cuckow to be laid in the same nest; in this
case, the young cuckows become competitors for possession, and.
never cease to make efforts, till finally one is victorious.
The food of the Cuckow consists of beetles, flies, dragon flies,
and other insects; also caterpillars, both smooth and hairy, | besides
vegetable matter, § small stones, and snails, with their shells.—
Instances have occurred, in which the stomachs of these birds have
been lined, or coated, with hairs, || which we suspect to have arisen
from those of the Hairy Larvae attaching themselves to it.
* Mr. Barrington wishes to set aside this fact, and endeavours to prove, that they remain
here at all seasons.—Phil. Trans. 62. 299. 304.
f In the first year scarcely two are seen alike, the bars in some being doubly numerous
than in others; and in one sent to me by Mr. Boys, the ground colour was brownish blue ;
and not unfrequently a bird is met with at the first coming in spring, in which the ferruginous ground-colour of the .first plumage is manifest on the upper parts.
X The larvee of the Fox Moth (Pbal. Rubi) has been found among others.
§ Small seeds.—Dr. Lamb. || See Berl. Neu. Sckrift. i. s. 166.    The same as is
observed in the Carolina and Black-billed Species.
 The notes of both sexes are said by some to be alike, but by
others that the feanale is a mute bird. Dr. Jenner says, the note, or
cry, may be not unaptly compared with that of the Dobchick; Col.
Montagu calls it a chattering noise. It has been remarked, that the
note begins early in the season with the interval of a minor third;
the bird then proceeds to a major third, next to a foaarth, then a
fifth, after which his voice breaks, without ever attaining a minor
sixth.*
The egg figured by Sepp is certainly aaot that of a Cuckow,
being shaped like that of a Hawk, and the size of a Jackdaw's, of
a greeaaish white, speckled with browai; and not far different is that
figured by Dr. Bloch, in the Berlin Transactions,^ both of which
appear to me more like the eggs of the Goatsucker; whereas, the
true Cuckow's egg, as before observed, is scarcely larger than that
of the House Sparrow, and very like it in the markings; and the
number laid in one season uncertain. In one of these birds,
dissected by Dr. Lamb, there were not only two eggs in the ovary,
oaie of thean, just oia the point of exclusion, and another increased
to about half the size; but besides, a vast number of small ones;
aaid in respect to food, the stomach contained both small caterpillars
and small seeds. Similar observations, as well as many others of
much importance, may be found in Dr. Jenner's excellent essay on
the subject, in the Philosophical Transactions, as above stated.
I have three or four times heard the Cuckow call in the night,
especially on the 10th of May, 1783, at midnight; but it may not
be amiss to observe, that at the several times the moon shone very
brightly.
Young birds are now and then brought up tame from the nest,
and in this state become familiar, eating bread and milk, fruit, eggs,
* See Lin. Trans, vii. p. 310.
f Besc. d. Berl. Gesch.iv. i. 18. f. 1. M. Prof. Sanders must certainly have mistak.
e egg, both from his calling the weight half a loth, as well as when he says, the bird lay
io eggs on the ground, between the roots of old trees.—See Naturf. xiv. s. 49.
 262 cuckow.
insects, and flesh, either dressed or raw; and I remember one that
' remarried in a cage the whole year, butfeow much longer I did not
learn. It is said, that this bird, when fat, affords as delicious food
as the Land-Rail. Where the Cuckows go, on their departure
hence, is not well ascertained; but it is clear, that the greater part
visit Africa, being observed at Malta twice in a year, in their passage
backwards and foawards; the saane in respect to Gibraltar, where,
however, they are not common; in Italy is a scarce bird; is well
known at Aleppo, and extends even to India,* as I have, more
than once, seen them in drawings from thence. To the north, it is
common iia Sweden, baat does not appear so early by a moaith as
with us; Russia is not destitute of this bird; and we have also seeai
a specimen, said to have been brought from Kamtsehatka.
A.—Cuculus ru
Bechst. Nat
Rufous Cuckow
Bris. iv. 110. 1. A.    Id.8vo.ii.
itsch. ii. 495. taf. xviii.
i.Syn.ii. 512. LA.
Frisch. t. 42.    Geri
This is a mere variety of a young bird, having the upper parts
varied with rufous, where the other is white.
B.—Guckguck eine andere Art, Besek. Vog. Kurl. s. 34. No. 53.54.    Schr. d. Berl.
Gesell. vii. s.452. 19.
Cuculus griseo-undulatus, &c. Got. Lin. i. 409. y.    Ind. Orn. i. 208. y.
This is said to be smaller than the Commoaa Cuckow. Bill ash
grey, the base and edges brimstone; head and neck bluish ash grey;
throat paler; neck and shoulders waved with yellow and dark ash
grey; breast and belly white, marked with smutty grey waves;
* The Englishduckow reaches Bengal. It is observable, that out of the multitude of
Cuckows, none have the note of our European.—View.Hindoost. ii. p. 264.
 hhkj
back and wings dirty grey brown ; quills paler ; middle tail feathers
marked with a double row of white spots; legs yellow.
Iaihabits Courland. Several other Varieties might be mentioned,
but we trust that the above will suffice, especially when it is
coaasidea'ed how different the plumage of the young and adult is
from each other, and how various is their appearance in the progress
towards perfectioaa.
Among some specimens from New-Holland, I observed one,
havhag the general appearance of the Common Sort; above greenish
brown, beaaeath as in that bird; quills and tail the same, but more
obscure; bill and legs as in the Common one.
Buffon talks of a Cuckow, similar to ours, but larger, mentioned
by travellea's, as common at Loaaago, in Africa, which repeats the
word Cuckow, like that bird, but in different inflexions of voice,
and that the male and female together go through the whole eight
notes of the gamut, the male first sounding the three first, after
which he is accompanied by a female through the rest of the octave.*
Dr. Horsfield anet with one at Java, very like our European Species,
the difference between the two being very slight; but says it is very
rare there.f
2.—DUNMUN CUCKOW.
id'Afriqu
en. ZooL i
, Levail. Afr.
. p. 83. pl. 17.
LENGTH about eleven inches. Bill one inch, bent at the tip,
pale, with the end dusky; throat whitish ; head, neck, breast, back,
ruanp, and upper tail coverts fiaie blue grey; wing coverts "the same,
the rest of the wing pale brown; between the two a broad bar of
' Bvf.vi. p. 354. II.
t Lin. Trans. J
. p. 179.
 7*
white; belly  aaad thighs barred pale blue grey and white ;   tail
black, rounded, with three oval spots of white on the middle of each
feather, oaie at the tip; but the two middle feathers are not marked
' with white at the ends ; legs yellow, claws black.
Inhabits India; called at Calcutta,  Dunmun.     In some India
drawings one very similar is called Bhoungra.
A.—This differs in having the quills dusky instead of brown ;
aaad the tail feathers with three roundish spots on the shafts; and all
of them fringed with white at the tips.
Inhabits India : at first sight carries the appearance of the common Cuckow, but disagrees in some particulars; the first quill as
in that, is shorter than the rest, but the tail is essentially different,
being spotted only in the middle of the feathers, whereas in the
European Species there are several spots of white on the webs on
each side of the shafts.
M. Levaillant gives the figure of the young bird, which is rufous
and barred, differing from the adult, in the manner of the common
one. It may be observed, that the spots down the shafts of the tail
feathers are six or seven in number; and the tail quite cuaieiform;
the longest feather four inches and half; the shorter less than two.
3—SOKAGU CUCKOW.
LENGTH twelve or thirteen inches. Bill yellow; general
colour of the plumage above bluish slate or dove-colour; the feathers
of the back margined with rufous; greater wing coverts, and second
quills, marked on both webs with triangular rufous spots; greater
quills plain; under parts of the body to the thighs pale slate-colour,
margined deeply with white, beneath the eye, from the gape, a large
 oval bed of white; from the bottom of this, across the throat, a
narrow, curved, rufous baaid; vent white; tail slightly cuneiform,
bluish ash-colour, crossed with five bands of black, curving downwards on each side of the shafts, and bounded below with rufous;
legs yellow.
Inhabits India ; called Sokagu.—Among the drawings of Sir J.
Anstruther, are others, which probably differ in age or sex; but the
tails exactly the same. In one the ground-colour is pale rufous-
brown, the feathers margined and spotted as in the former, but with
yellow-brown ; patch under the eye grey, extending to the throat;
on the nape a little mixture of white; body beneath pale ash-
colour, marked with rouiadish black spots on the sides of the neck
and body; on the thighs and vent small dusky crescents; inside of
the quills black and white indented ; this also is called Sokagu. In
another specimen the colours as in the last, but all the under parts
dusky white, marked with longitudinal streaks of pale brown: in
all these the eye is surrounded with a circle of white dots, which
appear to be bare.
4—BHROU CUCKOW.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill one inch and a half, pale lead-
colour ; top of the head, taking in the eyes, pale-ash; chin dusky
white, surrounding the lower part of the head and nape; upper parts
of the back and wings dark dove-colour; bend of the wing white,
with five large spots of the same outwardly, about the middle;
beneath to the belly rufous white; crossed with numerous, pale,
irregular, rufous lines; vent nearly white; tail cuneifonn, four inches
and three quarters long, crossed with five blackish bars, bounded
on the lower part with dusky white, tip rufous white ; legs yellow ;
the wings reach one-third on the tail.
TOI..   III. M  H
 266 cuckow.
Inhabits India; named Behouraii. I observe in the drawings of
Sir J. Anstrufiher, one, in which .the head is pale ash-colour ; chin
white; the rest of the uaader parts rufous white, crossed with numerous
lines, the colour of yellow-oker; back and wings dove-colour; bend
of the wing white; on the outer part of the quills five round spots of
white; tail crossed with five bars, black above and white beneath ;
but the latter Occupying most space.
In another the bill is black; head, neck, and parts above much
like our adult Cuckow, but rather darker; beneath dusky white,
crossed with irregular, pale, ash-coloured bars; tail as in the others;
legs yellow.
This is probably the same as that known at Bengal by the name
of Bhrou, which is described by Dr. Buchanan, as having the bill
black above, and pale beneath ; tongue bifid; eyelids crenated, and
yellow; irides yellow; plumage in general the same as above; four
black bands oaa the tail, each bordered below with reddish, or pale
rufous, the same at the tip, making fivein all; the tail near half
the length of the bird; the plumage said to vary much in colour,
probably at different periods of age. Found in the neighbourhood
of Calcutta, but not common; builds in trees, and has a loud
plaintive cry.
5.—BYCHAN CUCKOW.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill pale, darker at the tip; round
the eyes bare; irides hazel; head to below the eyes, neck, back, and
wings dove-colour, not unlike our Common Cuckow; wings darkest;
head and rump palest; quills black, barred within, and spotted
with black; tail even, pale ash-colour, crossed with five bars of
black; that nearest the base very narrow, and the end one very
broad; the rest equal, but all of them bounded below with white,
 cuckow. 267
the very tip pale rufous white ; chin white ; breast and belly pale
brownish red; thighs crossed with several pale rufous bars; the
legs yellow.
Inhabits India.—General Hardwiekeu ■■■>
In another of the same size, the general colour above is rufous
brown; margins of the feathers pale; the forehead, and a patch
over the eye, pale ash; under parts rufous>'<white, marked with
dusky streaks on the neck and breast; and barred with the same on
the thighs; quills dusky, with six or seven dull rufous bars; tail
brown buff, at the end a broad bar of black; above this three
or four others, curving downwards on each side of the shaft, and
bounded below with buff, tips brown buff; the bill is pale, with
the end dusky; the irides are hazel, and the lids surrounded wife
a yellow rim.
This was also among the drawings of General Hardwicke, and
called Papeeah Assil, and Bychan; probably a female.
6.-SIRKEER CUCKOW.
LENGTH nineteen inches at least. Bill stout, hooked, red,
with a yellow tip ; round the eye dark; plumage on the upper parts
dusky, with a tinge of purple; beneath paler, inclining to rufous;
tail cuneiform, bending downwards a little; the two middle feathers,
as well as the quills, are like the back, but deeper coloured ; the
rest of the tail feathers black, with the ends, for three quarters of an
inch, white, and all of them rounded at the tips; legs black.
Inhabits India.—Sir J. Anstrather.—In a drawing, apparently
of the same bird, the upper parts were paler, beneath pale rufoasi
chin and throat dashed down the shafts with black lines; tail as in
the other, the ends of the side feathers white for more than an inch ;
legs pale blue.
 :    jillK
268 cuckow.
The name given to this last was Sirkeer.—In a drawing of
another, from Oude, it was called Mukooke.
Among the collection of drawings of Gen. Hardwicke is a bird
of this kind. Bill the same ; upper parts of the plumage mostly
pale brown, beneath pale rufous, with a dusky line down the shafts
of the feathers; tail greatly cuneiform, the two middle feathers eight
inches in length, and brown, the outmost five; all of them white at
the ends, the exterior for more than one inch and a half; legs blue.
Inhabits India, called Surkool, and weighed three ounces six
drachms and a half. A male, called Sircea, at Cawnpore, in July,
weighed four ounces eight drams. The last five have been described
from the accurate drawings of Gen. Hardwicke, under whose inspection they were copied from real specimens; of this fact we are certain,
but have not been able to obtain any account of the manners, which
would have been highly desirable.
8—FERRUGINOUS-NECKED CUCKOW.
LENGTH thirteen or fourteen inches. Bill stout, bent at the
end, yellow, with a bar of black near the tip; under mandible
orange red; crown of the head, including the eyes, ash-colour ; the
rest of the head, neck, beginning of the back, and wing coverts fine
deep ferruginous, the feathers loose and downy; the rest of the bird
black, glossed with purple ; tail near seven inches long, and cuneiform, glossed in the same manner; the wings short, scarcely reaching
beyond the base ; legs stout, black, claws curved.
The description taken from a fine drawing in possession of Mr.
Dent, but without name, or mention of the place whence it came.
 269
8—PANAYAN CUCKOW.
Cuculus radiatus, Ind. Om. i.
Coucou brun et jaune a ventre
Panayan Cuckow, Gen. Syn.i
Gm. Lin. i. 420.    Gen. ZooL ix. p. 91.
, Buf. vi. 379.    Son. Voy. 120. t. 79.
SIZE of the Commoaa Cuckow. Bill black ; irides orange; the
throat and sides of the head the colour of red wine lees; upper part
of the head blackish grey; back and wings dull brown black; under
part of the quills, nearest the body, spotted with white; tail black,
even at the end, barred and tipped with white; breast dull yellow;
belly light yellow; breast and belly barred with black; the legs
are reddish.
Inhabits Panay, one of the Philippine Islands.
9.—GREY-HEADED CUCKOW.
Grey-h
3  poliocephalus, hid. O
:aded Cuckow, G
214.
Syn. Sup. p. 102.
LENGTH ten baches. Head and neck pale grey; breast and
belly white, crossed with pale grey bars; wings deep ash-colour,
some of the feathers with ferruginous edges; tail nearly even at the
end, white, crossed with equidistant dusky bars; legs pale brown.
Inhabits India; from the drawings of Lady Impey; probably a
Variety of the Panayaai Species,
Oaie, in the collection of Sir John Anstruther, was two inches
longer. Bill pale blue, base and gape yellow; head and neck light
gjrey; back and wings deep blue black; belly dusky white, crossed
with narrow, blackish stripes; upper and under tail coverts, and
vent white; tail a trifle rounded at the end, two inches and a half
long, colour white, crossed with six or seven black bars; the legs
yellow.
i
 270
10.—SOLITARY CUCKOW.
oe, Levail. Afr.
, Solitary Cuck
p. 35. pL206.
v, Gen. ZooL ix.
LENGTH near nine inches. Bill brown, yellowish beneath at
*the base; irides brown; plumage dusky brown, inclining to grey
on the head and nape; back, wings, and tail brown; quills and
tail darker, the last slightly cuneiform, the feathers with four or five
white spots on the outer web, except the two middle ones, but all
are white at the tip;; chin grey; throat pale rufous, crossed with
some dusky bars; breast, belly, and thighs pale rufous white, barred
with dusky; vent and under tail coverts plain rufous white.
In the female, the under parts are rufous, barred with brown,
and the marks on the tail smaller.
Young birds are rufous brown above, and pale rufous beneath,
with bars of a deeper eel our.
M. Levaillant thinks this may be a young bh*d of the Cape
Cuckow, and says, that the note of the male is rather plaintive,
like the syllables Cou-a-ach, and that the female has no song; the
male perches on the lower branches of trees, and utters his note
repeatedly; it is a solitary species, as Mr. L. only met with one male
and female, in a large district.
11—MADAGASCAR CUCKOW.
Cuculus cristatus, Ind. Om. i. 212.   Lin. i. 171.   Gm. Lin. i. 420:   Gen. Zool. ix. p. 118.
Cuculus cristatus Madag. Bris. iv. 149. t. 12. 2.    Id. 8vo. ii. 83.    Gerin. t. 77.
Coucou huppe de Madagascar, Coua, Buf. vi. 365. t. 16.    PL enl. 589.
LeCoua, male, Levail. Afr./*.j67. pl. 217.
Madagascar crested Cuckow, Gen. Syn*Vr %2Q, .
SJZE of a Jay ; length fourteen inches; breadth ^seventeen.    Bill
one inch long, black; tongue pointed, cartilaginous; nostrils placed
 cuckow. 271
obliquely; irides orange; space round the eyes, and a little way
behind thean bare, wrinkled, and blue; head, and upper parts of the
body, elegant ash-colour, iaiclining to green ; feathers of the head
long, forming a crest; throat and neck befoa*e cinereous; lower part
of the latter, and breast vinaceous; belly, sides, and under tail
coverts rufous white; thighs white, bareed with light ash ; quills pale
green, glossed with blue and violet, beneath cinereous; tail as the
quills, the two middle feathers the longest, the side ones tipped with
white; legs black.
The female is rather smaller, and the colours less bright.
Inhabits Madagascar, and called Coua. Buffon says, that the
neck is short; it carries the tail erect; aaad the flesh good to eat;
frequents.the woods about Fort Dauphin. M. Levaillant adds, that
it is also found in some parts of India, and at Senegal, in Africa ;
that the voice is loud, by no means plaintive, and hatches its own
young in the holes of trees. I find a similar one among the drawings:
of Mr. Daniell, found at Ceylon, and there called Haudee-Kootah.
12—AFRICAN CUCKOW
Cuculus Afer, Ind. Om.i. 217.    Gm, Lin. i. 418.    Zbbl.; Misc. pl. 31.
 Madagascariensis major, Bris. iv. 160. t. 15. f. 1.    Id. 8vo.ii,
Bucco Africanus, African Barbet, Gen. Zool. ix. p. 25.
Le Vouroug-driou, Levail. Afr. v. 94- pl. 226.    Buf. vi. 395.
Grand Coucou Male de Madagascar, Pl. enl. 587.
Courol, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxiv.
Afri<
ti Cucl
, Gen
THIS is a stout bird, the size of a large Pigeon; length fifteen
inches; bill two inches long, blackish, and more strait than usual
in this genus ; the head, which is large, the throat, and neck,
cinereous ; crown blackish, glossed with greeaa and copper; from
 272 cuckow.
the bill to the eye, on each side, a slender black line; irides orange;
back, rump, scapulars, upper wing and tail coverts, bright grey;
greater quills blackish; the lesser dull green, with a fine green
and copper gloss ; tail even, composed of twelve feathers, above
copper and. green gold, beneath black ; legs yellowish red.
cuius Madagascariensis major, Bris. iv. 162. 1.15. f. 1
nelle du grand Coucou de Madag. Pl. enl. 588.    Buf
30. A.
Id. 8vo. ii. 86. female,
i. 396.    Gen. Syn. ii. 532.
This is bigger than the male. Length seventeen inches and a
half; bill two inches and three-quarters long, brown; irides orange;
head, throat, and neck behind, transversely striped brown and
rufous ; back and rump brown; upper tail coverts, fore part of the
neck, breast, belly, sides, and under tail coverts, pale rufous, with
a blackish spot near the end of each feather ; thighs and under wing
coverts plain; lesser wing coverts brown, tipped with rufous ; quills
as in the male, but duller ; tail fine brown, somewhat rufous at the
tip ; legs reddish brown.
This species inhabits Madagascar, where the male is called Vou-
roug-driou, and the female Cromb; they differ so much as to be
taken by the natives for distinct species. The Vouroug-driou in
manners approaches to the Jay and Roller, baat in feet to the Cuckow;
and these being long and strong, more so than in the true Cuckow, it
comes nearer to the Coucal, Coua, and Touraco.
M. Levaillant would have this kind called Courol, by way of
distinction, a convenient one, in case others could be found of similar
make, to join it as a new Genus. * In the General Zoology it is
ranked with the Barbets, but it wants one leading character, as it is
destitute of hairs at the base of the bill.
ick has formed a Gei
e Sped
KIIkIL
 The young male most resembles the female, but has, in some of
the under parts, a glossy reddish tinge.
Young females are like the adult, but the colours less defined,
and paler. They are supposed to have but two young, as only that
number was seen with the old ones. Is chiefly found in deep woods,
and feeds on fruits and insects; flies like a Jay, and with a cry not
unlike it; met with in the forests of the great Caffre Country, and
is also seen at Madagascar.
13.—CHINESE CUCKOW.
Cuculus Sinensis, Ind. Om. i. 217.
1.14. A. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. ii. 85.    Gerin. t. 80.
Sanhia de la Chine, Buf.vi. 389.
Chinese Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 530.    Nat. Misc. pl. 277.
171.    Got. Lin. i. 418.    Bris. iv. 15'
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill near one inch, red, the upper
maaadible beset with bristles, turned forwards; irides red; top of the
head white, marked with small blue spots; the rest of the head and
throat blackish; on each side of the head, behind the eye, a round
white spot; neck behind, back, scapulars, and upper tail coverts
fine blue; on the latter a white spot, near the end of each feather;
greater wing coverts, farthest from the body, white; rump very pale
blue; under parts of the body pure white; quills half pale, and
half darker blue; tail deep blue, with a roundish white spot near
the end of each feather; the two middle ones exceed the next by
three inches and a quarter, and the outer is only one inch and three
quarters long; legs red.
Inhabits China. In a drawing of this bird, in the collection of
the late Mr. Pigou, it is called San a.
 274
14.—BLUE CUCKOW.
Cuculus cceruleus, Ind. Om. i. 217.
 Madagascariensis cceruleus,  J
Gerin. t. 78.
Polophilus cceruleus, Blue Cuckow, Gem Zool. ix. p. 56.
Taitsou, Coucou bleu de Madagascar, Buf. vi. 391. t. 18
LeCoua, Taitsoue, Male, Levail. Afr. v. 69. pl.218.
Blue Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 531.
171.    Got. Lin. i. 418.
156. t. 13. f. 1.     Id. 8w
SIZE of our Cuckow, but of a more elegant make; length
seventeen inches, Bill one inch and a quarter, black; round the
eyes naked ; irides fine red; plumage wholly fine blue, but the quills
are glossed with green and violet, in different lights; tail the length
of the body, blue, with a violet gloss; the two middle feathers exceed
the others but very little; legs black.
The female differs in being rather smaller, and the colours less
vivid.—The young, before the first moult, are blue green, without
any gloss of violet.
Inhabits Madagascar; found also in the great forests of the
Caffre Country, in the interior of the Cape of Good Hope; chiefly
seen on the tops of lai-ge trees; the male has a kind of cooing note,
aaot unlike Couwr, repeated, by which it is often discovered; feeds
on fruits. Although M. Levaillant has not positively seen them in
the act of hatching their eggs, yet he is certain they do, from that
part of $ie belly, usually bare in sitting birds, being so in this
Species.
15.—METALLIC  CUCKOW.
LENGTH eleven inches.    Bill and irides orange;  top of the
head, back, wings, and tail deep purplish black, with a metallic
 ^^H»>
gloss; neck, and under parts daik ash-colour; tail five inches and
a half long, cuneiform, with a gloss of blue in some lights; quills
dusky, reaching almost one-fourth on the tail; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits Sierra Leona.—From Mr. Woodford's drawings.
16.—SACRED CUCKOW.
. 413.    Gen. Zool.
Cuculus honoratus, Ind. Om. i. 214,    Lin. i. 169.    Gm. Lin
p. 104. pl. 21.
Cuculus Malabaricus nffivius, Bris. iv. 136. pl. xi. A. fig. 2.   Id. 8vc
Cuil, Buf. vi. 375.    Ess. Philos. p. 68.
Coucou tachete de Malabar, PL enl. 294.
Sacred Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 526.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill stout, laot much curved, and
black; plumage above blackish ash, each feather marked with a
spot of white; beneath white, transversely spotted with ash-colour;
quills ash, spotted in the same manner with white ; tail much
cuaieated, five inches and a half long, the outer feather only three
inches, dusky, bounded with white; legs short, pale ash-colour.
Inhabits Malabar, and is there said to be held in veneration by
the natives; feeds on reptiles, which probably are such as are most
laoxious; and if so, this seeaning supei'stition will have a more
reasonable foundation than may be at first imagined.
It should appear, from M. Levaillant quoting No. 294 of the
Pl. enl. as a synonym to his Coucou tachirou, that he esteems one
aaad the other to be the same; and if so, the two birds may probably
differ merely froan age; and more so, as the whole we know of the
one last described is from a drawing of M. Le Poivre, from which
alone Brisson appears to have taken his description.
M. Levaillant mentions a bird, which he supposed to be a Cuckow,
iaa his journey across the Candeboo, which was almost entirely of a
 276 cuckow.
dazzling white colour throughout, with a crest at the back of the
head; size a trifle smaller than the Tachirou, but it being really a
Cuckow could not be ascertained, otherwise than by its manners in
flight, &c. for he was not able to obtain a shot at it, as it was
particularly wild.
17— MADAGASCAR CUCKOW.
Cuculus Madagasckriensis, Ind. Orn. i. 212.    Got. Lin. i. 416.    Ge
Coucou verdatre de Madagascar; Buf. vi. 364.    Pl. enl. 815.
Great Madagascar Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 521.
LENGTH twenty-one inches and a half. Bill one inch and three
quarters, black; irides orange; upper parts of the body deep olive,
obscurely waved with deep brown; throat light olive, tinged with
yellow; breast and upper parts of the belly fulvous; lower belly, and
under tail coverts, brown; thighs greyish ash-colour; tail ten inches
long, some of the side feathers tipped with white; the wings reach
two inches beyond the base of the tail; legs yellowish brown.
Inhabits Madagascar.
A.—Great Madag;
r Cuckow, Var. A. Gen.Syn.i
This differs hi being a trifle larger; on the head a naked bluish
space, furrowed, and encircled with black feathers; those of the head
and neck soft and silky; base of the bill bristly; inside of the mouth
black ; tongue forked; irides reddish ; inside of the wings blackish ;
legs black.
This was found at Madagascar, in company with the other, and
supposed to be the male. It was observed to have the property of
turning the outer toe either forward, or behind at will.
 277
18—PISAN CUCKOW.
Cuculus Pisanus, Ind. Orn.
i. 211.
Gm. Lin.
.416.
Gerh
1.1.71.
Gen. Zool.
Coucou huppe noir et blan
, Bris
vi. 362.
Pisan Cuckow, Gen. Syn. i
. 520.
A LITTLE larger than our Cuckow. Bill greenish brown; head
black, with a crest, falling behind; plumage on the body above black
and white ; throat, breast, and under tail coverts rufous; the rest of
the under parts white; quills rufous, tipped with white; tail black,
longer in proportion than in the Common Cuckow, and cuneiform;
more so than in the Great Spotted Species, to which in other things
it bears some affinity; legs green.
A male aaid female of this bird were found at Pisa, in Italy,where
they made a nest, laying four eggs, which they sat on, and hatched.
These had never appeared there before, nor did any one know from
whence they came.
19.—GREAT SPOTTED CUCKOW.
Cuculus glandarius, Ind. Om. i. 208.     Lin. i.
125. t. 77.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 116. pl. 25.
Cuculus Andalusia?, Bris. iv. 126.   Id. 8vo. i
Grand Coucou tachete, Buf. v
76.   Klein. 30. 5.    Gerin. t. 70.
Great Spotted Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 513.    Edw. pl. 57.
SIZE of a Magpie; length thirteen inches and a half. Bill black,
more than one inch, and a little bent; head slightly crested, with
erect, ash-coloured feathers; crown black brown, and a band of the
saane from the base of the upper mandible, through the eye, almost
to the hind head, broadest in the middle ; upper parts of the neck,
and body brown; feathers of the wings tipped with white, or pale
ash-colour; upper tail coverts also spotted; quills brown, the outer
edges rufous, except at the tips; beneath from chin to breast rufous
II
 IF
278 cuckow.
white; from thence to vent white ; tail cuneiform, brown, the two
middle feathers seven inches long, the rest shorten by degrees, and are
tipped with white; legs black.
Inhabits Andalusia, and the opposite Coast of Barbary; has been
shot on the Rock of Gibraltar, but only seen there at certain seasons.
Mr. White met with one fifteen inches in length.
I
A.—Length fourteen inches. Bill black ; head and sides of the
aieck, below the nape, black-brown, inclining to ash-colour, from
the forehead to middle of the crown; from the gape, a pale whitish
stripe over the eye, to near the nape ; round the back of the neck a
pale grey band; back, wing coverts, and bastard wing brown, marked
with white at the ends; quills black, some of them edged with rufous,
and tipped with white ; chiaa and throat pale rufous ; from thence all
all beneath white ; tail black, cuneiforan; all but the two middle
feathers marked with a pear-shaped spot of white; the wings reach
one-fourth on the tail; legs dusky.
Inhabits Senegal ;* in the collection of Mr. H. Brogden.—The
food of these birds is by no means mentioned, aaor any hint given why
Linnaeus should call it Glandarius, unless he supposed it to feed on
acorns.
20.—INDIAN SPOTTED CUCKOW.
Cuculus  scolopaceus, Ind. Orn. i. 209.    Lin. i. 170.     Got. Lin. 415.    Gen. Zool. ix.
p. 95.
Cuculus Bengalensis nsevius, Bris. iv. 132.    Id. 8vo. i
Coucou tachete de Bengale, Boutsallik, Buf. vi. 372.
Brown and Spotted Indian Cuckow, Edw. pl. 59.
Indian Spotted Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 516.
78.    Klein. 31. 7
PL enl. 586.
NO laager than a Thrush ; but fourteen inches in length.     Bill
dirty yellow green, and one inch long; body above brown, clouded,
* Der Africanische Cuckguck, Borowsk. ii. 125.
 beneath white, edged with brown; lower belly and under tail coverts
tinged with rufous ; wing coverts white, edged with brown; quills
and scapulars transversely striated with brown and rufous; tail cuneiform, seven inches aaad a half long, pale rufous, crossed with oblique
bands of brown ; legs dirty greenish yellow.
Inhabits Bengal; there called Boutsallik. One similar to this in
the drawings of Major Roberts, was named Cuil, which is probably
a common name, as I have seen it put to other drawings of Cuckows
from India.    I observed too, one of these called Manmudoo Couwele.
One thought to be a female of this, and shot at Bengal, was
fifteen inches long, and weighed five ounces and a half. The tail
greatly cuneiform, and brown; all the feathers crossed with sixteen
or eighteen yellowish bars : this was called Burra Koel: said to fly
by night.
iculus hepaticus, Ind. Om
p. 235.   Id. Ed. ii. 384
21—HEPATIC CUCKOW.
15.   Mus. Carls. Fasc. iii. t. 55.    Tern. Man. d'Ot
LENGTH thirteen inches and a half. Bill black; plumage
above ferruginous, marked with undulated bars of black; beneath
to the breast the same, but much paler; belly and vent white, the
former spotted, the latter barred with black; quills black and ferruginous, barred alternate, ends black; rump ferruginous, the feathers
reaching halfway on the tail, which is cuneiform; colour ferruginous,
barred with black; the end for half an inch black, but the very tips
white; legs yellow.
Native place uncertain. It may be remarked that this bird in
the general markings of the body, greatly resembles the young of
the Common Cuckow; but in the tail it does not correspond.
 n
280
I
I
22—CHINESE SPOTTED CUCKOW.
Cuculus maculatus, Ind. Om.i. 209.    Got. Lin.i. 415.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 102.
Coucou tachete de la Chine,   Buf. vi. 378.    PL enl. 764.
Chinese Spotted Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 516.
LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill nearly one inch a half, blackish
above, yellow beneath; upper parts of the head, and neck blackish,
spotted with white about the eyes; rest of the body above deep
greenish grey, marked with white, and glossed with gilded brown ;
throat and breast regularly variegated brown and white; the rest of
the under parts barred with the same; tail even at the end, six inches
long, and barred with the same colours; legs yellowish.
Inhabits China.
A.—Among General Hardwicke's drawings is a Variety, near
sixteen inches long. Bill pale, stout; irides red ; plumage in general
deep brown, marked with numerous spots of white; the quills
transversely barred with white, the ends deep brown; the belly and
thighs whitish, marked with curved dark spots, pointing downwards;
tail dark, crossed with eleven or twelve narrow white bars, on each
side of the shaft, curving downwards, the ends even; the quills reach
one-fourth from the base; legs pale blue.
Inhabits India; found at Futtehghur, in June.
23—SONNERATS CUCKOW.
Cuculus Sonneratii, Ind. Orn. i. 215. Get
Petit Coucou des Indes, Son. Voy.Ind.ii.
Sonnerat's Cuckow. Gen. Syn. Sup. 102.
. Zool.:
SIZE of a Blackbird.    Bill and irides yellow; head, and neck
behind, back, and wings red brown, crossed with streaks of black;
 cuckow. 281
ueck before, breast, and belly white, barred with black ; tail brown,
the feathers spotted on each side of the shafts irregularly with black ;
legs yellow.
Inhabits India.
24—RUFOUS-SPOTTED CUCKOW.
Cuculus punctatus, Ind. Om. i. 210.    Lin. i. 170.    Got. Lin. i. 413.     Gen. ZooL ix.
p. 105.
Cuculus Indicus naevius, Bris. iv. 134. 1.10. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. ii. 79.
Coucou brun picquete de roux, Buf. vi. 377.    Pl. enl. 771.
Rufous-spotted Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 517.
LENGTH sixteen inches and a half. Bill horn-colour, hooked
at the end, with a kind of notch near the tip; from the base, a
rufous band passes under the eyes, to the ears; plumage on the
upper parts of the body brown, spotted with rufous; beneath rufous,
transversely striated with blackish brown, least in number on the
belly; tail cuneiform, eight inches and a quarter long, barred with
rufous arched bands on each side the shafts, all the feathers having
rufous ends; legs grey brown.
The female differs, in having the rufous spots above less
aiumerous, and beneath much paler thaai the male.
Inhabits the East Indies, and Philippine Islands.
25— PANAYAN SPOTTED CUCKOW.
Cuculus Panay us, Ind. Om. i. 210.    Got. Lin. i. 413.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 106.
Coucou tacbete de Panay, Son. Voy. 220. t. 78.
Panayan Spotted Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 517.
THIS is two-thirds larger than our Cuckow.    Bill black : irides
yellow; body above very deep brown; spotted with rufous yellow;
 282 cuckow.
these; ^spots are oblong on the head, round the neck, and wmg
coverts; but on the quills transverse, and yellowish, intermixed with
black dots; throat black, spotted as the back; breast and;beHy p.ale
rufous, transversely striped with black; tail long, even at the end,
rufous yellow, barred with black; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits the Isle of Panay. It may be observed, that although
similar to the last, it differs in wanting the rufous mark under the
eyes, and the tail not being cuneiform; otherwise not unlike, both iai
figure and description.
J   If 11
26—EASTERN BLACK CUCKOW.
Cuculus Orientalis, Ind. Om. i. 210.    Lin. i. 168.    Got. Lin. i. 410.    Gen. Zool. ix.
p. 87.    Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 178. male.
Cuculus Indicus niger, Bris. iv. 142. t. 10. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. ii. 81.
Coucoujioirjdes Indes, Coukeel, Buf. vi. 383. 1.    Pl. enl. 274. 1.
Eastern Black Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 518.
SIZE of a Pigeon; length sixteen inches. Bill grey brown;
plumage black, glossed with green, and in some parts with violet,
especially under the tail, which is eight inches in length, and much
rounded, if not cuiaeiform; quills brown within ; legs grey brown.
One, in Mr. Bullock's collection, had a tail at least teai inches
in length.
Inhabits the East Indies.
; 'A-rzLe Coukeel, Bufvi. 383. 2.    Gen. Syn. ii. 518. 10. A.
Length fourteen inches and a half. Bill black, with a yellow
tip; tongue intire; irides bright red ; the whole plumage blackish,
glossed with blue ; the first quill feather is half as short again as the
third, which is the longest of all.
 lb
gxhokow. 283
The female is not'unlike the Rufoa*s?spotted Cuckow, but differs
in some things. The upper parts of the head and neck are dark
brown, marked with rufous spots; back and wings black-brown,
with oval transparent spots; chin and throat dark, with round spots
of white; breast and belly white, crossed with bent dusky anarks ;
bill and legs greenish.*
Inhabits Mindanao; also various parts of India: is the Kokeel,
of Bengal; Peeko, in the Sanscrit; the Coel, of Hindustan : found
all the year near Calcutta; feeds on insects, and fruit of wild figs;
"£een from about the middle of January, till the commencement of
the rains; calls eaaly in the morning, or at night, if the moon shines; f
the note like Coel or Cookil, sounding cheerful and pleasant: for
the most part lays the eggs in the nest of the Coag or Crow,J but is
thought sometimes to form one of its own, though the materials are
not mentioned: is sometimes kept tame, and, as I am informed by
Dr. Buchanan, said to carry the tail spread.
27—MINDANAO CUCKOW.
Cuculus Mindanensis, Ind. Om. i. 209,   Lin.i. 169.
1.12. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. ii. p; 77.    Gerin. t. 76.     Gen.
Trans, xiii. p. 178. female.
Coucou varie de Mindanao, Buf. vi. 373.    PL enl. 277.
Le Coucou tachirou, Levail. Afr. v. 62. pl. 216.
Mindanao Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 515.
Got. Lin. i. 412.    Bris. iv 130.
. Zool.ix. p. 103. pl. 20.     Lin.
THIS is larger than our Cuckow, some being fourteen inches and
a half in length. The bill near one inch long, curved at the tip,
dusky above, and brown beneath; irides bright chestnut; crown of
the head rufous chestnut, the feathers dusky on the margins; neck
* In one specimen, I observe an obscure white mark below each eye.
f The same observed in respect to the Common Cuckow.
X This is contrary to the common usuage of Cuckows, as they generally make
the nests of smaller birds, to deposit their eggs in.
O o 2
 284 cuckow.
behind, back, scapulars, rump, and upper wing and tail coverts,
greenish black, spotted and marked with white, appearing gilded
brown in some lights; the under parts, from the chin, marbled with
dusky, on a white ground, most conspicuous on the chin and throat;
the tail half the length of the bird, and cuneiform; the two middle
feathers, and outer webs of the others, marked with ten or twelve
pale, rufous, curved bands; legs yellow brown.
The young bird is a trifle smaller, and though much the same as
to general colour, wants the rufous tinge on the crown of the head;
many young birds are light rufous, where the adult is marked with
white, and the ground colour dull greenish brown.
M. Levaillant met with this bird near Swartedooren, and Kausssi,
which are rapid rivers in the little Namaqua's Country; but it being
at a season after they had bred, he can give no account of the eggs,
or of the note; it is, however, certain, that in the five specimeais
which were obtained, no signs whatever appeared of their having sit
on the eggs in a nest; said to feed on insects, especially grasshoppers,
caterpillars, and pupae of butterflies.
According to M. Brisson, it is found at Mindanao, one of the
Philippine Islands; at first sight might be taken for a young
European Cuckow.
The Eastern Black Cuckow, and the Mindanao Species, are found
to be the two sexes of one and the same bird, of which the former is
the male: these are not uncommon in Java, where the male is called
Tuhu, and the female Chule; are also found in New-Holland, as a
pair of them from thence are in the Museum of the Linnaean Society.
 285
28—INDIAN BLACK CUCKOW.
Cuculus niger, Lin.i. 170.    Gm.Lin.i. 415;    Klein. Av. p.31.    Ind. Om. 211. 10. y.
Cuculus Bengalensis niger, Bris. iv. 141.    Id. 8vo. ii. 80.    Gerin. t. 72.
Coukeel, Buf. vi. 384. 3.    Ess. Phihs. p. 68.
Indian black Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 519. B.    Edw. pl, 58,
SIZE of a Blackbird; length nine inches, Bill short, stout, and
a trifle bent, colour orange; irides red; the whole bird black, glossed
with green and violet; tail cuneiform, four inches and a half long;
legs brownish.
The female has a pale bill; is brown above, spotted with white ?
head striped white and brown; over the eye a white streak; under
parts white, with irregular brown spots; thigh feathers long, barred
with brown; tail cuneiform, brown, crossed with fourteen or fifteen
whitish bars, the tip fringed with white; the wings, when closed,
reach to about the middle of it; legs pale blue.
Inhabits India, and simply called Coel.
29.—ASIATIC BLACK CUCKOW.
Cuculus Indicus, Ind. Orn. i. 211.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 88.
Eastern Black Cuckow, Gen. Syn. Sup..99.
LENGTH sixteen inches. Bill strong, whitish; plumage black;
across the wings three narrow white bars; near the end of the tail
the same; legs pale blue.
Inhabits India, by the name of Coweel; it appears that two Or
three go there by the name of Cuil or Coweel; one as large as a Jay,
and all frequent the woods; for the most part fly in small flocks,
and feed on insects; are held in veneration by the Mahometans, but
by others valued for the flesh, which is accounted delicate, a single
bird being sold to the lovers of good eating for 24 livres; said to sing
as well as a Nightingale.
I
 1
286
30—SWIFT CUCKOW.
Cuculus fugax, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 178.—Horsfield.
LENGTH eleven inches and a half. Plumage above cinereous
grey, beneath white ; breast, belly, and hypochondres in the middle,
bay, at the back part marked with black lines; tail fasciated with
dusky black, the^tap ferruginous brown.
Inhabits Java.
31—CHESTNUT CUCKOW.
Cuculus Pravata, Lin. Trans, viii. p. 179.
LENGTH eight inches and a half. Plumage above chestnut,
beneath undulated with whitish, and deep brown; tail feathers black,
externally chestnut, and tipped with white.
Inhabits Java; there called Tracha.
32—MOURNFUL CUCKOW.
Cuculus lugubris, Lin. Trans, xiii. 179.
LENGTH ten iifches and a quarter. Plumage in general black,
glossed with green, outer quills spotted with white within; the two
outer tail feathers, and vent fasciated With white; shins at the back
part white.
Inhabits Java ; the name Awon-awon.
 287
33.—BASAL CUCKOW.
s basalis, Lin. Tram
. p. 179.
LENGTH six inches. General colour brownish, glossed with
green-gold; chin, throat, and breast variegated with whitish and
pale brown; belly fasciated with white and brownish; the first quill
short, the two next longer, and equal; the fourth shorter than the
two last; the fifth again shorter; the rest gradually decreasing;
colour brownish^ ithe-^xteifcrJail feather brownish green; beneath
dusky, spotted with white; the rest, except the two middle ones,
chestnut at the base, and fasciated with white at the tips; vent
whitish, marked with glossy brown spots, which are pointed behind.
Inhabits Java.—Dr. Horsfield.
34.—YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOW.
Cuculus xanthorhynchus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 179.
LENGTH six inches.    General colour violet; axillaries, belly,
and outer tail feathers fasciated with white.    Bill yelkwu
Inhabits Java.
35.-CRESTED BLACK CUCKOW.
Cuculus serratus, Ind. Om. i. 211.   Mus. Carls, i. t. 3.    Gen. ZooL i
Cuculus ater, Got. Lin. i. 415.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal, lxxiii:
Edolio, Kolben's Hist. Cap. ii. p. 150.    Gen.Zool. ix. pl. 22.
Crested black Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 519.    Id. Sup. p. 100.
LENGTH twelve inches and a half.    Bill one inch and a quarter
long, curved, and black; the feathers of the crown an inch longj
 288 cuckow.
forming a crest; plumage in general black, except the base of the
first four or five quills, which are white, and form a serrated spot on
the outer edge of the wing ; tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers
seven inches long, the outmost only four and a half; thigh feathers
long, hanging a good way over the legs, which are black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope; in some the tail is shorter than
iaa others, pehaps owing to sex or age.
36—COROMANDEL CRESTED CUCKOW.
Cuculus melanoleucos, Ind. Om. i. 211.    Got. Lin. i. 416.     Gen. Zool. ix. pl. 23.
Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxiii.
Jacobin huppe de Coromandel, Buf. vi. 380.    Pl. enl. 872.
Le Coucou Edolio, Levail. Afr. v. p: 39. pl. 207, 208.
Coromandel crested Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 520.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill black; head crested; upper
parts of the body black, the under white ; on the edge of the wing
a spot of white; tail cuneiform, tipped with white; wings reach half
way thereon ; legs brown.
Inhabits the coast of Coromandel; and known, with others,
under the name of Coukeel; I observe that the head is crested at the
back part only, and in one bird both upper and under tail coverts
are white; the quills in some are brown, in others black ; called on
the coast, Papia or Pewa; at Hindustan, Papuea or Popheya : said
to lay the eggs in the nest of the Chottoreah Thrush,* they are plain
greenish in colour ; and the Cuckow said generally to destroy those
of the Thrush, when it deposits its own : comes in May, and remains
till the rainy season is over : lives on Grasshoppers, white Ants, &c.
I observe one in which the white passes on each side of the neck
almost to the back part.
* Turdus Canorus,
j Thrush.
 According to M. Levaillant, these two last described are male and
female ; and he adds, that the young birds of both sexes have the
throat, and fore part of the neck dirty white, the rest of the under
parts greyish; ends of the tail feathers dirty rufous, and those parts
which in the adult are black, in young birds are brown; but the spot
of the wing is seeaa at all ages.
Mr. L. states, that although the general appearances are as above,
he once found the external plumage of a male ; but on dissection, was
surprised to find an egg ready to be excluded ; and hence seems to
think, that an old female, as in some other birds, may take on the
dress of a male.
The eggs are pure white, six lines long, by four broad, and
narrow at one end; these have been found in various nests, and among
others those of our Rufous-crowned and Citrin Warblers.
The bird is met with about Roude Bosch, Niuwe land, Constance,
and in the valley which separates False from Table Bay, as well as
in other parts; is migratory, coming in August, and departing in
February and March. M. Levaillant found an egg, supposed to
be of this bird, in several of the nests of the Great-tailed Warbler,
which are made of down, oval in shape, with an entrance two-thirds
from the bottom; and wonders how it could get there; in respect to
those found in the nest of the Rufous-crowned Warbler, he observes,
that the egg is of twice the size of that of the bird in whose nest it is
deposited.—M. Temminck joins this to the last described, as one and
the same species.    fjfJS^
The late Mr. S. Daniells met with this species in Ceylon.
 290
37—BLACK AND WHITE CRESTED CUCKOW.
Variete du Coucou Edolio, Levail. Afr. v. p. 44. pl. 209.
Cuculus Ater, African Cuckow, Gen. Zool.ix. p. 115. pl. 24.    Zool. Misc.i. 72. 31.
LENGTH fifteen inches. Bill one inch and a quarter long,
stout, bent, black; top of the head furnished with a full crest,
hanging backwards ; general colour of the plumage fine black, with
a greenish gloss, as in the Magpie; uaader parts yellowish white,
marked, as far as the breast, with sagittal black spots, the points
downwards; base of the prime quills white for some length, forming
a dentated patch ; wings white beneath half way, the ends greyish
black; tail of ten feathers, greatly cuneiform, and the feathers white
at the ends, for near an inch; the outer scarcely half the length
of the two middle ones; legs stout, scaly, black; the ends of the
quills reach just beyond the rump.
The above described froan one in the collection of M. Temminck,
of Amsterdam; brought from Africa, near the Equinoctial Line,
it may, probably, be a Variety of the Edolio, but is a larger bird.
One of these, in the collection of Mr. H. Brogden, was brought from
Sierra Leona: aaiother, very similar, in that of Lord Stanley, was
met with by Mr. Salt, in Abyssiaaia,
Another bird, which I suspect also to be a Variety, was fourteen
inches long. Bill stout, one inch and three quarters from the gape,
and flesh-colour; irides golden; plumage in general glossy black
above, and dull beneath; wing coverts margined at the tips with
white, forming slender crescents in appearance; feathers of the rump
margined in the same manner, with white; and the ends of the quills
are white also; tail seven inches long, plain black; legs stout, blue.
Inhabits India.—A figure of this is among the drawings of Gen.
Hardwicke, but it could not be ascertained whether the tail was
cuneiform.
 cuckow. 291
One of these, in the collection of drawings of Lord Mountnorris,
was twelve inches in length. The head greatly crested; general
colour, as usual, black; at the edge of the wing a white spot; the
middle tail feathers five inches and a half long, the exterior three
inches and a half, the ends of all but the two middle ones white; the
wings reach very little beyond the base of the tail; legs lead-colour.
Another, in the collection of Mr. Leadbeater, fifteen inches long.
Bill stout, bent, black; head anuch crested, some of the feathers
being one inch and a half long; geaaeial colour of the pluanage
above black, with a greenish gloss; beneath, from the breast, and
the thighs buff-colour; chin buff, streaked with blackish; the nine
first quills crossed within with a white bar, aaear one inch long, not
reaching the outer web, aior the inner web of the ninth feather; tail
. cuaaeiform, the two middle feathers eight inches and a half in length,
all of them tipped with white; legs black, feathered half way on
the fore part.
38.—CEYLON CUCKOW.
LENGTH seventeen inches. Bill curved, black; general colour
of the bird above, and the tail fine blue black ; the head much
crested; sides of the head well clothed ; chin and throat dull yellow
oker; from this the rest of the under parts white ; thighs pale ash-
colour; tail cuneiform, blue-black; the two middle feathers nine
inches long, the others gradually much shorter; legs blue, the hind
claws curved, neither of them strait nor subulated.
Inhabits Ceyloaa.—Mr. S. Daniell.
39—BROWN CUCKOW.
LENGTH  thirteen inches.     Bill bent; general colour of the
back and wings brown, mottled with white; head, neck, and under
p p 2
iff
 292 cuckow.
parts white, with dusky markings;  tail long, cuneiform, whitish,
barred irregularly with dusky ; legs bluish; toes before and behind
moderately hooked.
Inhabits Ceylon.
40.-COLLARED CUCKOW.
Cuculus Coromandus, Ind. Orn. i. 216.    Lin. i. 171.    Got. Lin. i. 121.   Gen. Zool. ix.
p. 119.
Cuculus Coromandus cristatus, Bris. iv. 147. 1.11. A. f. 1.     Id. 8vo. ii. 82.    Girin,
Om. t. 74.
Coucou huppe a Collier, Buf. vi. 388.    PL enl. 274. 2.
Le Coucou a Collier blanc, Levail. Afr. v. 56. pl. 213.
Collared Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 529.
THE size of this bird is said to be about that of the Missel
Thrush, and the length twelve or thirteen inches. The bill bluish
black, about one inch long, and curved at the tip ; irides hazel; the
plumage on the upper parts, and the tail mostly black, with a bluish
cast, and in some lights appearing brown, the feathers of the hind
head are narrow, and much elongated, so as to form a crest pointing
backwards; chiaa and throat yellowish rufous; wings deep rufous;
breast, and under parts of the body, dusky white, surrounding the
lower part of the neck as a white collar; the tail greatly cuneiform,
as in our Magpie; the two middle feathers six inches in length, the
outer about three; under parts of the quills and tail rufous grey ;
legs bluish black.
The female differs in being a trifle smaller; the chin and throat
white, like the rest of the under parts; the wings, although rufous,
yet not of so deep a tinge ; hence the one described by Buffon, may
probably be the female.
The above is foaand not only on the coast of Coromandel, but also
on the South Coast of Africa, where M. Levaillant met with it, near
 ■££■
cuckow. 293
the River Swarte-kop and Sondag. Many also have been brought
from Senegal. He has never found the egg of this bird, nor does he
know, in the nest of what other it is deposited.
41.—BLACK-BREASTED CUCKOW.
LENGTH fifteen inches. Bill stout, curved at the end, nostrils
in a membrane; colour greenish brown; crown of the head crested
at the back part; head and neck brown ; the feathers with whitish
margins; back and wings brown; across the breast a narrow bar of
black; beyond this the belly and vent are dusky white; sides over the
thighs rufous; tail seven inches long, rounded at the end, and brown;
the wings, when closed, reach to the base of it; legs stout, rather
long.
A specimen of the above in the collection of Mr. Bullock.
42—GREAT-BILLED CUCKOW.
Le Coucou a gros bee, male, Levail. Afr. v. 59. pl. 214.
Cuculus crassirostris, Grosbeak Cuckow, Gen. Zool. ix. p. 86.
THIS is about the size of the Common Cuckow, but the bill is
larger, stronger than usual in the Genus, and greenish yellow; irides
deep chestnut; general colour of the plumage black, with a rich
tint of blue on the back, wings, and tail; the last is moderately
cuneiform, the length of the body, and the wings reach to about
one-fourth from the base; legs strong, short, and scaly, the colour
yellowish brown; claws black.
The female differs, in having a brownish tinge on the fore part
of the neck, breast, and under parts of the body, and the tinge of
blue on the upper parts less brilliant.
 1
Pit
fir if
294 cuckow.
M. Levaillant killed these on the borders of the Riviere des
Poissons, beyond the country of the great Namaqua, and supposes
the Species to be new. A similar one, brought from Bengal, is in
the collection of M. Raye de Breukelerwaerd, of Amsterdam.
43—BRONZED CUCKOW.
Le Coucou gris bronze, Levail. Afr: v. 60. pl. 215.
SIZE of our Europeaaa Cuckow, but of a more slender make.
The bill broad at the base, the upper mandible curves downwards
at the point, and the iaaaaer shuts in beneath it, colour yellow; the
plumage in general deep greeaa bronze, very bright, and changing
iaato both blue and grey, in differeaat lights ; but on the wings and
tail the blue predominates; on the contrary, on the under parts,
from the chin, it is grey, lightly tinged with green; the tail is half
the length of the bird, cuneiform, the two middle feathers four
inches and a half long, the outer about three iaaches; legs black.
Said to inhabit Malimba, in Africa. M. Levaillant has only
seen a stuffed specimen, in the collectioaa of M. Temminck, of
Amsterdam.
44.—GILDED CUCKOW.
Cuculus anratus, Ind. Orn. i. 215.    Got. Lin. i. 421    Nat. Misc. 1029.
.127.
, Buf.v
Coucou vert dore et blanc du Cap de
Le Didric, Levail. Voy. (Fr. Id. 8vo.) i. 234.
Le Coucou Didric, male et fem, Levail. Afr. v. 46. pl,
Gilded Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 527.   Id. Sup. ii. 135.
385.    Pl. enl. 657.
L
LENGTH seven iaaches and a half.    Bill seven or eight lines,
greenish brown; irides orange; plumage above, from head to tail,
 cuckow. 295
rich gilded glossy green ; on the head five white stripes; one on the
middle of the forehead, and two others above the eyes, like eyebrows,
passing behind, and two more, narrower and shorter, beneath the
eyes; most of the wing coverts, and second quills tipped with
white, the outer one spotted white on the outer edge; tlaroat, and
under parts of the body, white; the sides, and feathers which fall
over the joint, marked with a few greenish bars; tail cuneiform, three
inches long, the two outer feathers marked with small white spots on
the outer edge, and all of them white just at the tips; in its natural
state the tail is generally spread out like a fan, and reaches about one
inch and quarter beyond the wings when closed; legs yellow.
The female is much the saane in size, but differs in having the
white on the throat and breast tinged with rufous, as also on the wings
and tail; and in every part where the male is green-gold, the other
sex is reddish gold-colour, and the stripes on the head not so well
defined.
In young birds the stripes are scarcely perceivable; the upper
parts of the body gilded brown, beneath greyish rufous white; and
all the spots of the wings and tail rufous chestnut. Bill and legs
yellow brown ; eyelids yellow; irides grey brown.
Inhabits the parts far inland from the Cape of Good Hope: first met
with on the borders of Klyne Vis Rivier, from thence to Caffre Land,
and in Camdeboo; again from the River of Elephants to the country
of Petits Namaquas, and every where in such numbers as to be killed
by thousands. The male has a note similar to the word Di-di-didric,
and in fluttering, sometimes like diwic-diwic. The female only wic-
wic. The great number of them is instanced by observing, that M.
Levaillant, and his man, killed 200 males and 130 females in their
three journies ; and remarks, on another occasion, that he was at a
loss to find out how this Cuckow could place an egg into the nest of
the Great-tailed Warbler, and some others,* into which was only a
* Pine Pine Titmouse.
I)
 w
ii
■;
296 cuckow.
small hole of entrance; but, he seems clear, that the bird anust carry
the egg in the mouth, and by this means introduce it into the hole:
the egg is glossy white, and always deposited in the nest of some
small insectivorous bird, never into that of a granivorous one, although
the latter is more numerous than the former, and easier to be seen ;
for in Africa the granivorous ones are generally in large flocks, and
frequently live in society, with the nests united in the same place.
I observe one of these in the collection of Mr. H. Brogden, in
which the whole head, below the eyes, and the neck behind, are
plain glossy green, the rest more dull green ; a small streak from bill
to the eye, and a large curved mark of white on the region of the
ears;' beneath from the chin pure white, with a greenish line, continued a little way from the gape; lower belly, and over the thighs,
barred with glossy green, otherwise like the former description.
This was received from Senegal, and seems much allied to the
following.
45.—KLAAS'S CUCKOW.
LeCou
Cuculus
1 de Claas, Levail. Afr. v. 53. pl, 212.
Llaas,  Gen. Zool Ax. p. 128.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ixxiii.
SIZE of the Gilded Species, but the bill less curved, and smaller,
colour brown black; irides yellow; general colour of the pluanage
above bright green, with the tinge of copper; over the eye, and
behind, an irregular longish streak of white, and a patch of the
same at the junction of the wing with the body; all the under parts,
from chin to vent, white, except a few marks of green on the sides,
over the thighs, and some others of the same on the thigh feathers;
greater quills dusky, spotted beneath with white, and bordered
outwardly with gilded green; the tail is much rounded at the end,
and occupies less breadth than in the Gilded Species, from the webs
 of the feathers being narrower; the four middle ones are green,
with a reddish or coppery tinge; the three outer white, with an
oblong copper gold spot on the outer web, near the end, and on the
iaaner webs some transverse distant lines; the wings are shorter in
proportion than in the Gilded Cuckow; legs brown black.
The above bird was a male, and killed by Klaas, the attendant
on M. Levaillant, near the River Platte, but not more than one met
with; it had a different kind of note from the Gilded Species. M.
Levaillant observed a second specimen in the Jardin des Pl antes, in
Paris, which came from Senegal.
46—GORGEOUS CUCKOW.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill three quarters of an
inch, brown, bent, with the point sharp; plumage above fine rich
gilded green, with a gloss of copper; forehead, and before the eye,
white, with a streak or two of black; behind the eye one of white,
ending in a point; all beneath, from chin to vent, white, with here
and there a dusky marking on the neck and sides of the body; under
the wings some transverse, rufous-brown ones; down the middle of
the wing a long white streak, crossed with rufous brown lines; the
quills blue or green, in differeaat lights, the outer one spotted white
on the outer edge, one-third from the base; tail cuneiform, blue
green, the outer feathers spotted with white, on the outer margins;
legs brown.
Described from the drawings of Mr. Woodford.
 y&Wr?' -
47—CUPREOUS CUCKOW.
Lev. Mus. pl. p. 159.    Gen. ZooL ix. p. 129.
Cuculus cupreus, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxi>
Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxiii.
Cupreous Cuckow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 134.
THftS is nearly the size of a Lark, but longer, and more delicate.
Bill black; head, neck, and upper parts of the body bright copper-
colour, with a metallic splundour, being glossed with gold, and a
red tinge of copper; the feathers of a rounded shape, and so
disposed, as to resemble scales; belly and thighs of a beautiful
jonquil yellow; tail slightly cuneiform, one or two of the exterior
feathers marked at the tip with a triangular spot of white; the legs
are black.
The above was in the Leverian Museum, supposed to come from
Africa. One of these, in Mr. Dent's da'awings, was seven inches and
a half in length; tail nearly even.
48—AFRICAN GREEN CUCKOW.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill three quarters of an inch, curved,
and blackish; general colour of the head, neck, wings, the rest
of the upper parts, aaid tail, fine gilded green; the breast, and all
beneath fine jonquil yellow, growing paler towards the vent; tail
greatly cuneiform, the two middle feathers wholly gilded green, and
ending in a point; the next one inch and a half shorter, with the tip
white, and rounded; the exterior two inches and a half, barred
alternate green and white, four bars in all, with the ends white ; the
others intermediate, with much the same markings; the legs pale
ash-colour.
Inhabits Senegal.—In the collection of Mr. H. Brogden.
_J
 h
 7*=-
JL^GJ**
 1
  49.—SHINING CUCKOW.—Pl. lvi.
Cuculus lucidus
, Ind. Om. i
215.    Gen. Zool. ix.
Shining Cuckow
, Gen. Syn.
ii. 528. pl. 28iv-. €<tfk*l
299
t Voy. i. 150.
SIZE of a small thrush; length seven inches. Bill bluish;
irides hazel; upper part of the body rich gilded green, the under
wliite, transversely waved with green gold; under tail coverts almost
white; quills and tail dusky brown ; the last short, scarcely exceeding
the wings in length ; legs bluish.
Inhabits New Zealand, there called Poopo-arowro; and is a very
scarce species.
50.—SPLENDID CUCKOW.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill black, a little ourved;
plumage above glossy olive-brown; beneath to the breast brown and
dusky-white in waves, mixed with streaks on the chin and throat;
belly and vent white, barred with glossy pale brown; greater quills
brown, fringed with dusky white; tail rounded, the two middle
feathers glossy olive-brown, the others pale ferruginous oaa the outer
webs, for more than half the length, the rest as the middle ones, with
two spots of white at the tips; the outmost but one has an additional
white spot on the inner web, higher up ; but the exterior has also the
outer web indented brown and white; and on the inner web foar or
fi^etcurved white marks the whole of its length, reaching to the shaft;
the Wings -extend two-thirds on the tail; legs black.
'Inhabits New-Holland.—A fine perfect specimen in the collection
of Mr. Harrison, as well as in that of Mr. H. Brogden.
Q«2
i
!
 300
51—GLOSSY CUCKOW.
Cuculus plagosus, Ind. Om. Sup. xxxi.
Glossy Cuckow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 138.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill rather broad at the base, three
quarters of an inch long, curved, black; nostrils round; irides white;
! plumage in general above glossy gilded green, inclining on the crown
to coppery brown; all beneath white, barred with dusky gilded brown;
each feather having a bar half an inch broad aaear the end, appearing
most numerous on the chin aaad throat, though less distinct; quills
dusky, the first two-thirds as long as the second, the third longest of
all; tail rounded, brown, near the end a broad dusky bar; at the tips
of the feathers a round white spot; besides which the exterior one
is spotted white on the outer margin, with some rufous markings on
the iianer, and the white spot at the tip much larger; and in addition,
there are two spots of white on the inner web about the middle, which
is black halfway from the base ; legs of a moderate size, brown ; the
wings reach three-fourths on the tail.
Inhabits New-Holland, described from a fine specimen in the
collection of the late M. de Fichtel; also in that of Mr. H. Brogden.
In another specimen, all the feathers above had a marginal fringe
of pale rufous, and the green less vivid; under tail coverts white,
with three or four lucid brown spots; the outer tail feathers black
within, with four white spots, and a white tip ; the next rufous half
way from the base, the rest of the length dusky, with two spots of
white on the inner webs, near the end; the third rufous half way on
the outer web; from thence to the end dusky, and only one white spot,
smaller; the four middle ones plain dusky, but all of them have a
greenish gloss, and excepting the exterior, have a dusky spot of black
near the end.
One greatly similar to the last in the collection of Lord Stanley.
 %
301
52.—METALLINE CUCKOW.
THE length of this beautiful little Cuckow is only five inches
and a half. Bill flesh-colour; plumage above fine gilded, bronzed
brown, obscurely mixed and barred with gilded green; over the eye,
from the nostrils, a white streak, and in the direction of the under
jaw, another; on the middle of the wing a patch of white, from
some of the feathers being white on the outer webs; quills brown,
barred within with rufous; tail short, glossy, greenish brown, the
outer feather with two or three white spots on both webs, and the
next the same on the inner web and tip, the third on the inner only;
the wings reach nearly to the end of the tail; chin dusky white,
dashed with gilded brown; belly and under wing coverts whitish,
spotted, and barred with the same; legs brown.
Inhabits Africa.—Iai the collection of Mr. Bullock.
53—NOISY CUCKOW.
Cuculus clamosus, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. xxx.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 108.
 Criard, Son. Voy. Ed. 8vo. ii. p. 6,
Le Coucou Criard, Levail. Afr. v. p. 28, pl. 204.205.   Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxiif.
Noisy Cuckow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 136.
THIS is said to be wholly of a brown colour, but M. Levaillant
describes it fully. Length nine inches and a half. Bill dusky black,
pale at the base, with a slight notch at the tip; irides chestnut;
general colour of the plumage fine blue black; greater quills deep
brown; tail cuneiform, black, the feathers tipped with white; the
quills reach about halfway on the tail; the thigh feathers hang over
the bend of the joint; legs pale brown.
u
 n
302 cuckow.
The female, and young male are glossy blue-black above, but
barred beneath dusky and dull buff-colour; quills and tail as in the
male.
This species is found in great abundance in the country of the
Caffres, and in the interior towards Sondag, Swarte-kop, and all
Camdeboo, but not in the neighbourhood of the Cape, nor in TOe"
country of Hottniqua, where indeed no species of Cuckow has been
found. It is said, that this kind lays the eggs in the nests of the
Pine pine Titmouse, and Great-tailed Warbler ; and it seems difficult
on this occasion, to conceive how they could be introduced, except
it were possible for the bird to take the egg first in its mouth,
and then put it into the hole left on the side of the nest, the only
entrance. It is known to the Europeans by the name of Criard, being
a very noisy species, and to be heard at a great distance. The note
consists of various sounds, very distinct, and it passes whole hours
ha singing without interruption, leading the sportsman to the place
where it is sitting.—M. Levaillant observed an egg of one of these in
the nest of the Grivetin,* but found it cast out again, and it is therefore plain, that eggs laid by Cuckows in other bird's nests, are not
always taken care of.
Cuculus Capensis, Ind. Oi
Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxiii.
Coucou du Cap de B. Esperance
Cape Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 513.
54— CAPE CUCKOW.
i. 208.    Got. Lin. i. 410.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 85.    Tern.
nee, Buf. vi. 353.    Pl. enl. 390.
THIS is rather smaller than the European Cuckow; leaagth not
quite eleven inches. Bill deep brown ; irides yellow; plumage above
-greenish brown; throat, cheeks, neck before, and upper wing coverts
* Levail. Afr.
. pl. 118.—Our Piping Warbler.
 cuckow. 303
deep rufous; tail the same, but paler, tipped with white, cuneiform;
breast, and all beneath white, crossed with lines of black; legs
reddish brown.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, with the former, of which it
is probably a Variety, if not a young bird, or a feanale.
55.—YELLOW-BELLIED CUCKOW.
Cuculus flavus, Ind. Om. i. 215.     Gm. Lin. i. 421.     Gen. Zool. ix. p. 107,    Lin.
Trans, xiii. p. 179.
Le petit Coucou k t£te grise, et ventre jaune, Buf. vi. 382.
Coucou petit de Panay, Son. Voy. 122. t. 81.    PL enl. 814.
Yellow-bellied Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 527.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill pale yellow, point black ; upper
part of the head, and throat light grey; irides yellow; neck behind,
back and wings, umber-colour, or light brown; belly, thighs, and
under tail coverts pale yellow, with a rufous tinge; tail cuneiform,
more than half the length of the bird, black, barred with white; legs
pale yellow-
Inhabits the Isle of Panay; also Java; known there by the name
of Gedasse.
56— PARADISE CUCKOW.
.Cuculus Paradiseus, Ind. Orn. i. 216.    Got. Lin. i. 422.
 Siamensis cristatus viridis, Bris. iv. 151. 1.14. A. f. 1.   Id. 8vo. ii.
.     Gerin. t. 75.
Coucou a longs brins, Bris. vi. 387.
Drongo, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxi
Paradise Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 528.
SIZE of a Jay; length seventeen inches.  Bill blackish; irides fine
blue; colour of the plumage in general dull green ; head furnished
 304 cuckow.
with a small crest; the outmost tail feathers on each side longer than
the others by five inches and three quarters, and webbed only for
about three inches at the end ; legs grey.
Inhabits Siam.—M. Temminck enters this as one of the species
of his Drongo Genus; all of which have the toes placed three before
and one behind; but the Paradise Cuckow has the toes two and two*
as in others of the Cuckow Genus; it should therefore appear that
the circumstance of the outer tail feathers being elongated in a similar
manaier to those of the Malabar Shrike, might lead to this determination.
57—CHALYBEATE CUCKOW.
LENGTH seventeen inches. Bill stout, bending at the point,
one inch long, pale horn-colour; plumage above ash-colour, with a
steely gloss; tail darker, with a gloss of the same, more apparent;
this is very cuneiform, the two middle feathers ten inches long, the
outer five, the ends of all white; between the bill and eye, the chin,
and throat, as far as the breast, pale rufous buff; thighs and vent the
same, but darker; the breast and belly pale ash-colour; legs brown.
Supposed to be a native of Java.—In the collection of Mr.
Bullock.
A.—Length sixteen inches. Bill long, rather bent, and black;
plumage above brown; spurious wing white; beneath, with the
under wiaig coverts, from the breast to the vent, pale rufous ; quills
and inner webs white, from the base to the middle; tail cuneiform,
the two middle feathers four inches long, the outer one two inches
and a half, all of them tipped with white, and the inner webs barred
with the same.
* See Brisson's Figure, and that of Gerini.
 %
 &k-/m£ut dZ&HV.
L
   InhalyjteiiNew-Holland, and seems to vary from the other in the
length  of the tail, and want of gloss in the plumage; perhaps
^differing in sex or age, unless on future investigation, it may prove a
distinct species.
58—FAN-TAILED CUCKOW.—Pl. lvi
Cuculus flabelliformis, Ind. Om. Sup. xxx.    Gen. ZooL ix. p. 96.
Fan-tailed Cuckow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 138. pl. 126.
SIZE of a Song Thrush ; length ten inches, the tail occupying
at least one-third. The bill black, somewhat bent at the tip; the
upper parts of the body dusky black, coming forwards on the breast,
and encircling it as a crescent; cheeks and throat ferruginous buff;
sides of the breast the same, but the middle of it, and the belly pale
oker yellow ; tail greatly cuneiform, the two middle feathers black,
the others the same on the outer webs, barred on the inner with
alternate black and white; the wings, when closed, reach to aboaat
the middle; legs yellow.
Inhabits New-Holland.
59.—SOCIETY CUCKOW
150. 220. 333
Cuculus Taitensis, Ind. Om. i. 209.    Mus. Carls. Fc
Gen. Zool.ix. p. 92.
Ara Weraroa, Cook. Voy.iv. 272.    Id. last
Coucou brun rari6 de noir, Buf. vi. 376.
Society Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 514.
SOMEWHAT smaller than a Magpie; length nineteen inches.
Bill one inch and a quarter long, stout, and a trifle curved at the
point, colour blackish, paler beneath; irides pale yellow; plumage
VOL. Ill, R»
 306
HI
ora'the dipper parts^ of the body brown; the head dashed with
ferruginous, perpendicular stripes; the rest barred, and blotched
with«the same; the middle of the feathers of the neck darkest; over
the eye a white streak, and a dash of the same along the uaider jaw,
arising at the nostrils; quills marked with ferrugiaious spots; chin,
and middle of the throat white; sides of the neck, the breast, belly,
and thighs white, streaked with brown ; the streaks broadest on the
breast and belly; vent plain white; under tail coverts pale buff; the
upper as the back, reaching one-third on the tail, which is nine
inches long, and greatly cuneiform; all the feathers of it crossed
wKlr.iiumerous, ferruginous brown bars, and tipped with white; the
wings, when closed, reach on it one-third; legs greenish.
^fhha^bits'^Maheite, where it is called Areva-reva; also found at
Harvey Isle^* »and3l,ongo taboo, where it is called Tayarabbo; it is
Bkewise-seen at New-Zealand .f In one of these we observed the tail
feathers to be remarkably worn bare, so as to leave the shafts at the
etids almost destitute; the streak over the eye, and that along the
under jaw less-visible: probably this may differ in sex.
60—SPOTTED-TAILED CUCKOW.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill black, one inch long, bent;
nostrils iaa the middle, to which the feathers reach; the plumage
brownish black, mottled on the outer webs with greyish and light
rufous, in narrow patches: crown and nape black brown, mottled
with greyish white, or pale rufous; behind the eye a greyish white
band, one inch long, and a quarter of an inch broad; general colour
of the under parts, from the chin, pale rufous; under the eye, and
sides of the neck,  to the wing,   grey,  rufous,  and brown-black
: Cook's last rfy.'W&Ql'ifSH
f Id. 150.
 cuckow. 307
mottled; under wing< covearife dun-colour; thighs pale rufous; ithe
feathers very long, nearly hiding the legs; prime quills notched dirty
wfeite, in narrow spotsr;; pinion white; tail coverts reaching half way
on the tail, grey, waved with black; tail cuneiform, seven inches
long, blackish, marked with crescents, in shape of dull white spots
on the inner webs, but the outer feather, which is about four inches
long, has nearly round white spots on the outer web; the tips of all
approaching to white.
Inhabits Van Dieanen's Land.T-*IiaL>the collection of Gen. Davies.
61—TIPPET CUCKOW.
Cuculus palliolatus, Ind. Om. Sup. xxx.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 112.
Tippet Cuckow, Gen. Syn. Sap. ,&-?188D US
LENGTH near twelve inches. Bill brown, rather stout, and a
trifle cua^ved at the point; irides orange; upper parts of the body
dull green, the under white; crown full of feathers, and as far as the
eye, on each side, black; on the sides of the neck the black comes
forwards, and almost meetslin the middfe, giving; the appearance of
a cloak or tippet; sides, under the wings, yellowish ; thighs marked
with a few rusty spots; quills black; tail very short, the outer
margins of the feattiei^traarked with white spots; legs dusky; bluish
white, dotted, with black.
Inhabits New-HoWaiid*. where it is a rare bird.
62—SPOTTED-BREASTED CUCKOW.
{;.; JL^ENGTH seven inches.    Bill somewhat stout) pale brown : the
plumage in general pale town, or ashr-eolour on the upper pants,
 n
cji
308 cuckow.
and pale, approaching to white, beneath; on the crown of the head
the feathers are margined with white, appearing as a mixture of
brown and white; chin, throat, and breast marked with triangular
blackish, or dusky dashes down the middle of each feather, growing
larger as they approach the breast; the belly, thighs, and vent
dusky; tail the same, the outer feathers white; the legs are short,
pale brown.
Another, of the same size, appears to be the female ; in this the
ground colours, above and beneath, are nearly the same, but the
crown has aao mixture of white, and the under parts are plain dusky
white, except an irregular set of spots, nearly black, on the chin
and throat; the tail has the two middle feathers brown, the others
white, or at least so on the outer web, growing dusky at the end.
These were among the drawings of Mr. Woodford, and as the
toes in both are placed two and two, they ought to be ranked among
the Cuckows, otherwise they have much the air and appearance of
Thrushes.
63.—FLINDERS CUCKOW.
LENGTH about fifteen inches. Bill stout, and horn-coloured;
crown of the head dusky black; over the eye a broad streak of buff-
colour ; behind the eye a streak of black, reaching to the wing;
under parts of the body pale buff, marked with narrow, irregular
bands, or liaaes of black; at the beginning of the back a patch of
black, somewhat mixed; wings mixed with blackish and buff-colour;
tail long, cuneiform, brown, marked with curved buff, or tawny
crescents on each side of the shafts; legs horn-colour.
A second of these, supposed to be a female, or young bird, had
neither the crown, nor beginning of the back black, but of a brownish
colour; and the tail shorter than the other.
 Inhabits the North Coast of New-Holland ; met with there by
Capt. Flinders, during his voyage on discovery.—In Mr. Bullock's
Museum.
At Mr. Leadbeater's is one allied to the above, if not the same;
length one foot. In this the bill is stout, bent at the tip ; top of the
head yellow-buff; middle of the nape brown; behind the eye a broad,
brown streak, reaching to the shoulder; plumage in general above
brown and buff, irregularly barred; quills the same, furnished with
spots of white on the exterior margins, about fifteen in all; neck
pale buff, with some aaarrow, pale bars of brown; belly pale buff,
plain. The tail consists of ten feathers, cuneiform, the outer two
inches shorter than the two middle ones, pale buff, marked with
some narrow pale bars of brown ; legs brown, stout.
Inhabits New South Wales; called the Spotted Cuckow.
64.—PORT JACKSON CUCKOW.
LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill one inch and a quarter long,
moderately curved, brown; plumage above brown, beneath very
pale ash; through the eye a pale brown streak; quills dusky, the
first half the length of the second, but the third the longest; within
all barred with white, except about one inch and a half from the
tip; tail cuneiform, nine inches long, the outer feather only four
inches and a half, all of them marked on each web with triangular
white dots, and the tips white; on the outer edge of the wing coverts
a spot of white; legs brown.
Inhabits New-Holland; said to have been met about Port
Jackson.
 m
310
65.—BARRED-TAILED CUCKOW.
LENGTH teaa inches and a half. Bill pale, moderately bent,
but more so at the tip; plumage above dark ash-colour; beneath,
aaad under wing coverts pale rufous; quills dusky, formed as in the
last described, the first being very short, base of them withiai white;
tail cuneiform, the two middle feathers five inches and a half long,
the exterior only three and a half, colour black; the feathers, oai
both sides of the webs,- indented with white, appearing as bars.
Inhabits New-Holland.—The two last in the possession of M. de
IFichtel.
It appears that they vary in size, as well as feathers. One,
scarcely more thaaa aaine inches, had a black bill; above ash-colour,
the feathers with brown ends; beneath, and under wing coverts
cinereous, and reddish buff, in obsolete waves; vent plain; quills
dusky, some way from the base white; the first from its iaisertion
two inches long; the second shorter by three quarters of an inch;
the third near four inches long; the rest as usual; tail pale rufous
white, crossed with ten or twelve oblique dusky bars, at the end a
broadeu one; the two mididle feathers plain dusky, serratdda on the
edges; the quills refeeh three-fourths on the tail ; legs weak, the
feathers hanging a good w«iy on the shins before.
Inhabits New-fHolland, and is probably a youngrbird of the
Barredrteiled.
66—BLUE-HEADED CUCKOW.
Cuculus cyanocephalus, Ind. Om. Sup. p.xxx.    Gen. ZooL ix. p. 110.
13lue-headed Cuckow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 137.
SIZE uncertain; length nine inches.    Bill somewhat bent, and
pale blue ; the upper part of the head, taking in the eyes, the sides,
 %
CUCKOW. MU
and back part of the neck, deep blue, inclining to blackish; the
rest of the upper parts pale brown, dotted on the back with white,
and crossed with narrow bars of the same on the wings and tail,
which last is long, and a little rounded at the end; the under .parts
of the body are white, transversely marked with narrow dusky lines;
the throat and fore part of the neck incline to orange; legs bluish,
stout, and scaly.
Inhabits New South Wales, but is probably scarce, as Mr. White
metfWith only one of this description ; but at the same time aaaother,
of a similar form and size, and of glossy black colour, was taken,
and it was supposed that the two differed only in seisv■<
67.—PACIFIC CUCKOW.
LENGTH eleven iaifcfites. Bill one inch long from the gape, the
colour pale brown; nostrils five-eighths from the tip ; general colour
of the pltemage brown above, mottled with pale ferruginous, from
each feather being margined ■ irregularly, on both webs, with that
colour; quills brown, dotted on the outer webs with pale ferruginous,
and barred on tfee^fliier With white: lower part of the back pale,
streaked with brown ; breast and ^feelly white, the first streaked^ifi
dusky brown; tail cuneiform, si*;iri8hes4ong, theater feather only
f&ib; colour brown, margins dotted with^wMtei'tipfe avhite; the legs
pale brown.
Inhabits^^Pew-Holland, and described from a specimen in the
collection of M. de Fichtel.   ^
 \m~-
312
68.—HORNED CUCKOW.
Cuculus comutus, Ind. Om. i. 216.     Lin. i. 171.
Id. 8vo.ii. 82.    Gen.Zool.ix. p. 121.
Atinga guacu mucu, JRaii 165. 2.     Will. 146. t. 38.
Horned Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 530.
Got. Lin. i. 422.    Bris. iv 145.
Id. Engl. 198.    Buf. vi. 409.
SIZE of a Thrush; length twelve inches. Bill a little bent at
the end, and greenish yellow; irides sanguineous; head, and all
above soot-coloured; on the head the feathers are long, forming a
double crest, resembling horns, which the bird can erect at will;
throat, neck before, breast, belly, and under tail coverts cinereous ;
quills and tail soot-colour, the latter darker, composed of ten feathers,
nine inches in length, and tipped with white; the outer ones very
short; legs ash-coloured, covered before halfway with feathers.
Inhabits Brazil.
69.—SHARP-CRESTED CUCKOW.
LEjNGTH twelve inches. Bill three quarters of an inch, much
bent; head, level with the gape, deep green, the feathers rising above
the crown into a crest an inch long, lessening by degrees behind, and
ending in white; under parts of the body, from the chin white, passing
round the neck as a collar, but the belly, thighs, and vent incline
to ash-colour; sides of the neck yellow; back, scapulars, and tail
greenish black; wings tawny; quills blue black within, with a mixture of white, forming a streak near the scapulars; tail cuneiform,
six inches in length, the outer feathers four inches, colour greenish
black; all the feathers tipped with white; the wings reach about
one-fourth on the tail; legs ash-colour.
From the drawings of Mr. Woodford, it seems to approach much
to the Horned Cuckow, or between that and the Collared Species.
 cuckow. 313
70.—LONG-BILLED RAIN CUCKOW.
Cuculus Vetula, Ind. Om. i. 218.    Lin. i. 169.    Got. Lin. i. 410.    Borowsk. ii. 129.
Gen. Zool. ix. p. 122.
Cuculus Jamaic. longiroster, Bris. iv. 116. t. 17. f. 1.     Id. Svo.ii. 74.     Klein. Av.
31. 8.    Gerin. t. 79.
Coucou a long bee, Tacco,  Buf. vi. 402.    Pl. enl. 772.
Coua, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxiii.
Picus, seu Pluvise avis canescens, Raii 182.    Sloan. Jam. 313. t. 258. f. 2.
Long-billed Rain Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 535.   Id. Sup. ii. 135.
LENGTH fifteen inches or more. Bill one inch and a half,
moderately strait, but bent at the tip; upper mandible black, the
lower whitish ; crown of the head brown, the feathers soft and silky;
upper parts of the body and the quills cinereous olive; throat and
laeck before whitish; the rest of the under parts rufous; tail much
cuneated ; the two middle feathers cinereous olive, the others dusky
black, tipped with white, the outer feather very short; legs blue-
black.
Inhabits Jamaica, found in the woods, and hedges throughout
the year ; feeds on seeds, small worms, and caterpillars, and is very
familiar. Sloane mentions, that he found, on dissection, the stomach
of a great size in respect to that of the bird, which circumstance is
also observed in the European Cuckow. It has gained the name of
Tacco, from its cry, the syllable pronounced hardly; the other a
full octave lower. It has also another cry like qua qua qua, when
alarmed. It will eat Lizards, small snakes, frogs, young rats, and
sometimes small birds, as well as insects; the snakes it swallows
head foremost, letting the tail hang out of the mouth, till the fore
parts are digested; is easily taaned, and so gentle as to suffer the
Negro children to catch it with their hands ; the gait is leaping, like
Magpie, frequently being seen on the ground, and its flight but
short, chiefly from bush to bush ; at the time when other birds breed,
they retire also into the woods, for the same purpose; I learn from
 314 cuckow.
Mr. Abbot, who has been long resident at Savannah, in Georgia,
that it is not unfrequent about Burke Country, and sits on,
and hatches its own eggs: the nest is not uncommon, first to
be obsewed about the latter end of April, built in the fork, of a
small oak, made of sticks, lined with moss, and over that dead
hiccory blossoms; the eggs five in number, of a rough blue colour,
not deep: the length of one in my collection is one inch and a
quarter by one inch, very little smaller at one end than the other
71.—RAIN CUCKOW.
Cuculus pluvialis, Ind. Om. i. 218.    Got, Lin. i.
 Jamaicensis, Bris. iv. 114.    Id. 8vo. ii.
Bknu* major leucophaeus, Raii 182.
Cue. Jamaic major, Sloan. Jam. 312. t.258. 1.
Le Coucou dit Vieillard, Buf. vi. 398.
. Rain Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 536.
Brown. Jam. 476.    Klein. Av. 31.1.
LESS than a Blackbird; length from fifteen to seventeen inches.
Bill one inch long, black above, and white beneatbijiitne top of the
head' covered with soft, downy, deep brown feathers; the rest of the
upper-parts; the wings, and two middle*fail feathers cinereous olive;
throat and fore part of the neck white, appearing, especiaUby on the
throat, like a downy beard ;* the breast, and rest of the under parts
rufous; tail ouneiform, the outer feathers more than three inches
shorter than thetniddle ones^ which are eight inches and three quarters
long; all, excepting the two middle, are black, with white ends,
and the outer one margined with white; legs bluish black.
Inhabits Jamaica, with the last, and both known by the name
of Old Man, and Rain Bird.
* Whence, perhaps,.the name of Old Man.
 72-MANGROVE CUCKOW.
Cuculus Seniculus, Ind. Om. i. 219.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 125.
 minor, Got. Lin. i. 411.
Petit Vieillard, Coucou des Paletuviers, Buf. vi. 401.    Pl. enl. 813.
Le Coucou proprement dit, Voy. d'Azara iv. No. 267.
Mangrove Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 537.
BILL black: irides brown. This, and the Rain Bird of Jaanaica,
are said to be so like each other, especially the female of the latter,
that one description might serve: it is about twelve inches in length;
plumage on the upper parts, and tail, as in the last; chin white;
the rest of the under parts pale rufous; the legs longer than in that
bird, and lead-colour.
Inhabits Cayenne, and lives on insects, especially those large
caterpillars, which feed on the leaves of the mangrove, and in courie
found principally where those trees grow ; inhabits also Paraguay^ in
summer; makes a nest like that of a Pigeon, and lays three greenish
white eggs; observed, often to lift up its tail.
73— LAUGHING GUCKOW.
Cuculus ridibundus, Ind. Om. i. 220.    Gm. Lin. i. 414.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 109.
Avis ridibunda, Quapachtototl, Will. 298.    Id. Engl. 387,    Raii 174.
3"tetM&kti Mfecre'drfusr&r£t. iv. 119.   IS. 8vi*. Wt'^Anr,
Laughing Cuckow, Gent Syn. ii. 539.
LENG'KH{»SateeH inches. Bill bluish black; irides white; the
head and upper parts of the plumage fulvous; throat, fore part of
SJf.the neck, and breast cinereous; belly, sides, thighs, and under
tail coverts black; tail blackish fulvous, and half the length of the
bird.
 7*5
316 cuckow.
Inhabits Mexico; the cry said to be like human laughter, on
which account the bird is dreaded by the Indians, as inauspicious,
and foreboding some evil or mischief.
74—CAROLINA CUCKOW.
Cuculus Americanus, Ind. Om.i. 219.    lin.i. 170.    Gm. Lin.i. 414.
 Carolinensis, Bris. iv. 112.    Id. 8vo.ii. 73.    Klein. 30. 2.    Gen. Zool. g
p. 93. pl. 19.
Vieillard a Ailes rousses, Buf. vi. 400.    Pl. enl. 816.
Yellow-bellied Cuckow, Amer. Orn. iv. pl. 28. f. 1.
Carolina Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 537.   Id. Sup. ii. 135. 5.    Cates. Car. i. pl. 9.    j
ZooL ii. No. 155.    Bartr. Trav. 179. 287.
LENGTH thirteen inches, breadth sixteen. Bill fourteen lines,
the upper mandible black, base of it, and the whole of the under,
yellow; plumage, on the upper parts of the body, cinereous olive,
the under white; quills pale rufous on the inner webs, for the greater
part of their length ; tail cuneiform, six inches long, the two middle
feathers like the back, the others black, tipped with white; the
outer one three inches and a quarter long, and has the outer web
white the whole of its length; legs grey brown.
Inhabits Carolina, in the summer time. Mr. Abbot informs me,
that they are also common about Burke Country, in Georgia, and are
often twelve inches long, and seventeen broad; they make a nest the
latter end of April, of small twigs, and of a loose texture, intermixed
with weeds and maple blossoms, and sometimes lined with moss and
dead hiccory blossoms, on the fork of a small oak, sometimes on the
crab or cedar; the eggs five hi number, blue green, but not very
deep; it feeds the young with caterpillars, as many other birds do;
besides which, it is accused of sucking the eggs of small birds; will
occasionally eat seeds.
 cuckow. 317
Is called, in Georgia, the Rain Cuckow, or Crow, from its note
being supposed to forebode rain ; but as some others are also called
by this name, we cannot be positive how far such may be related.
I have received a specimen of this bird from Jamaica; it has a note
somewhat like the word Cowe, often repeated, hence by some is
called the Cow Bird.
75—BLACK-BILLED CUCKOW.
Cuculus erythropthalmus, Black-billed Cuckow, Amer. Om. iv. pl. 28. f. 2.
THIS is smaller than the Carolina Cuckow, and one inch shorter
in length. The bill wholly black, and smaller; a bare, wrinkled,
deep red, skin surrounds the eye; in colour, the bird is greatly
similar to the Carolina Species, but wants the bright cinnamon-colour
on the wings; the tail of an uniform, dark, silky, drab-colour, but at
the tip of each feather is a white spot, bordered above with a slight
touch of dull black. The female not unlike the male.
t.? Inhabits the same places as the Carolina Cuckow, and has been
in general confounded with it, but is probably distinct; it is nearly
as numerous, and feeds on small shell fish, snails, &c. as broken
pieces of oyster, and other shells, have been found in the gizzard,
which, as well as in the Carolina one, is covered with hair on the
inside; it makes the nest commonly on a cedar, of the same form as
the other; the eggs are smaller, four or five in number, and of a
. deeper greenish blue: found also in Georgia, and Mr. Abbot seems
assured that it is a distinct species.
 ill
318
Cuculus Brasil
ix. p. 120.
76—RED-CRESTED CUCKOW.
ensis, Ind. Orn. i. 222.    Lin. i. 171.    Ghn. Lin. i. A
• cristatus
aus pictus, Seba i. 102. t. 66. f. 2.
uber, Bris. iv. 154.    Id. 8vo. ii. p. 84.
Le Couroucoucou, Buf.vi. p. 298.
Red-crested Cuckow, Gen.Syn.ii. 545.
OF this very doubtful bird we can only give Seba's description:
length in his figure about ten inches. Bill stout, not unlike that of
some Parrots, and red; head pale red, with a crest of deeper red,
variegated with black ; parts above deep red ; beneath paler, tinged
with yellow on the belly ; upper wing coverts pale red, mixed with
yellow; quills and tail yellow, with a shade of black.
Said to inhabit Brazil, but it surely cannot be a Cuckow, from
the false disposition of the toes iai Seba's figure, being placed three
before and one behind; and in regard to the bill, added to the cre§|>
these rather incline us to believe it related to the Cardinal Grosbeak.
Buffon places it at the end of his Curaeiiis;
77 — BRAZILIAN CRESTED CUCKOW.
Cu
cuius Guira, hid. Orn. i. 219.    Got. Lin. 1
. 414.    Gen. Zool. ix. {
 Brasiliensis cristatus, Bris. iv.  144.
Id. 8vo.ii. 81.
Gu
ira acangatara, Raii 45.     Will. 96. t. 22.
Id. Engl. 140. pl. 22.
Le
Peririgua,  Voy. d'Azara iv. Met 248.
Gu
ira cautara, Buf. vi. 407.
Co
ua,  Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxiii.
Bn
silian crested Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 538.
SIZE of a Magpie; length fourteen inches and a half.    Bill dull
yellow, compressed on the sides, an inch long, and deeper than the
 cuckow. 319
breadth ; irides brown, round the eye bluish yellow; the feathers of
the chin and head are brown in the middle, and yellowish on the
sides, fifteen lines in length, forming a crest, which is generally
carried erect; feathers of the throat and neck yellowish in the middle,
and brown on the sides; back, rump, breast, belly, sides, thighs, and
upper and under tail coverts, as well as beneath the wings, pale yel-
lowish white; quills and tail brown, consisting of ten feathers, tipped
with white; legs sea-green, and scaly. M. dAzara adds, that the
tail is white from the base for three inches, the two middle feathers
brown, the others black, with a white spot of about one inch at
the end.
Inhabits Brazil, and extends to Paraguay, where it is called
Piririgua and Piririta; for it pronounces Piririri in a laughing tone,
and sometimes Guaogua : at Buenos Ayres named Cocholote ; also
at Tucuman : the Portuguese at Brazil, call it Feitizeira ; by some,
Annu branco. It is a sedentary bird, and easily becomes domestic:
one has been kept in a cage, aaad fed with raw meat. We are told,
that it makes a aaest, and reaa*s its own young ; but beyond this we
have no description of that part of its ceconomy.
78 —SPOTTED CUCKOW.
Cuculus meviusi Ind. Om.i. 220.    Lin. i
f. L   Id. 8vo. ii. 77.    Gen. Zool. ix.
Coucou brun varie de roux, Buf. vi. 411.
 tachete de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 812.
Le Choche, Voy. d'Azara iv. No. 266;
Coua, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal, lxxiii.
Spotted Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 539.
170.
. Lin. i. 413.   Bri
LENGTH ten inches and three quarters. Bill three quarters of
an inch long, black, with the sides rufous; the under mandible
wholly rufous; plumage in general rufous in two shades; the under
parts rufous white; feathers of the crown deep brown, pretty long,
 320 cuckow.
with rufous tips, some of them margined with rufous ; neck behm
rufous grey, down the shafts deep brown ; back and rump the same,
each feather tipped with a rufous spot; those of the throat and neck
have a transverse, brownish line near the end; under tail coverts
rufous ; quills grey-brown, edged with rufous, and a spot of the
same at the tips; tail greatly cuneiform, the two middle feathers' six
inches long, the outer only three, colour as the quills ; some of the
upper coverts nearly two-thirds of the length ; legs ash-colour.
Inhabits Cayenne; is common also about Paraguay, known there
by the name of Chochi, from its cry, which it is, day and night,
continually repeating, and may be heard a mile off, during the time
of incubation, but at other times it is silent. It is a solitary species,
and shifts its quarters, but to a little distance.
A.—Oiseau des Barrieres, Buf. vi. 412.    Ind. Orn. i. 220. 44. /3.
Spotted Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 540. Variety.
This is of the same size, but inclining to grey instead of rufous;
throat pale grey; beaaeath the body white; the tail longer in
proportion, and the side feathers tipped with white.
This is common at Cayenne, and Guiana, by the name of Rail
Bird, from being often seen perched upon gates and rails, at which
time it continually moves the tail; numbers are ofteaa fouaad in the
same district, but do not form themselves into troops, nor are the
met with in woods.
79—PUNCTATED CUCKOW.
Cuculus punctulatus, Ind. Orn.i. 220.    Got. Lin.i. 414.    Gen. Zool.ix. p. 98.
LeChiriri, Voy. d'Azara iv.  No. 269.
Punctated Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 541.
LENGTH nine inches.    Bill  near one  inch  long,  bent, and
black; irides pale green; the neck, and upper parts of the body
 cuckow. 321
are brown, somewhat glossy; every feather marked with a pale
rufous spot at the tip; wings and tail darker brown, and the feathers
spotted at the tips as the others; the upper tail coverts reach a great
way on the tail, which is cuneiform; belly and vent dirty white;
legs pretty long, and brown ; both sexes nearly alike.
Inhabits Cayenne, and generally received from thence by
collectors; observed in Paraguay, in summer ; said to lay four eggs,
and to hatch them like other birds. One, kept tame, was fed with
dressed meat, but did not relish bread, or vegetables.
80.-SAINT DOMINGO CUCKOW.
Cuculus
Dominici
s, Ind
Om.i
221.   Lint
t.9
f.2.    Id
8vo. ii
72.
Gen. Zool. ix.
Le Cendrillard, B
uf.vi:
413.
Le Coucou cendre
, Voy.
d'Azar
aiv. No. 268
St. Dom
ingo Cuckow, G
en. Syn
ii. 541.
LENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill one inch and a quarter,
grey brown; plumage above the same, beneath pale ash-colour; the
quills rufous, tipped and margined with grey brown; tail cuneiform,,
five inches and a quarter long, the two middle feathers as the back,
the others black, with white tips, and the outer one white on the
outer web; legs grey brown.
Inhabits Guiana, St. Domingo, and Louisiana. Buffon mentions
a slight Variety, rather larger, with a shorter bill, and the under
parts wholly white,    A small Variety is found also in Paraguay.
 323
81.—CAYENNE CUCKOW.
Ctfsulii« Cayanus, hid. Om. i. 221.    Lin. i
t. 8. f. 2. . h& &vo. ii. 75.    Gen. Zool. i
Coucou Piaye ds Cayenne, Buf. vL 414.
LeTingazu, Voy. d'Azara iv. No. 265.
Tamatia,  Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxvii
iGajeane Cjnffkq^, Glen. Syn.L 5080.
170.     Got
. p. 90.
'I. enl. 211.
Lin.i. 417.    Bris. i
LENGTH fifteen inches and three quarters. Bill above one inch,
a little bent at the tip, and grey brown; eyelids and irides coral red;
plumage above purplish chestnut, beneath the same, but paler; the
quills like the upper parts, tipped with brown; tail the same, greatly
cuneiform, ten inches iaa length; the outer feather little more than
three; the two middle ones brown, like the back ; the others black ;
the ends of all of them white; legs grey brown. Male and female
much alike.
Inhabits Cayenne, by the name of Piaye, or Devil; as the natives
esteem it a bird of ill omen, they Wall not touch the flesh, aaad with
some reason, as it is very bad and lean. This idea takes place, too,
ill. Paraguay, where, it is called GuaYa Paye, or Sorcerer's Bird; it is
a very tame Species, suffering itself to be almost touched by the
hand before, it attempts to escape; its flight somewhat like that of
the Kiaigsfisher; frequents the borders of rivers, ora the-low branches
off trees ; feeds on iaaggjets, and often wags the tail on changing place;
is not common in Paraguay; seen only in pairs; lays two eggs, and
rita^ifeoflSftyeung. Theiniatives say the flesh is purgative, which
thgjf attribute to the effects of magic. IPpftfi
A.—Cuculus Cayanus, Ind. Om. i. 45. y.    Gen. Syn. ii. 543. 41. B.
Length sixteen inches. Bill hooked, one inch and a half long,
red; crown of the head, including the eye, fine ash-colour; the rest
 cuckow. 323
of the head, and upper parts, fine rufous; chin, and neck before
paler, inclining to cinereous on the breast; belly, thighs, and vent
black; tail greatly cuneiform, the two middle feathers nine inches
long, the oute* one five, colour fine rufous* towards the ends black,
the tips obliquely marked with white; legs dusky.
Inhabits Berbice, called there Hikaroena.
Another, supposed to differ in sex, was seventeen inches and a
half in length. Bill as in the other, but yellow; plumage in general
rufous; head the same, not ash-cofour; throat pale rufous ; breast,
belly, and vent fine pale ash-colour; tail as in the other, but longer,
the colour much the same, all but the two middle feathers tipped
with white; legs yellow.
Met with at Berbice, with the other, called Hikurnana. I am
obliged to Mr. M'Leay for the above description, taken from two fine
sipeeiiiiens in his possession.
B.—Cuculus Cayanensis minor, Bris. i
14. /3.    Gen. Syn.ii. 542. 41. A.
Size of the MSssel ThrUsfc $ tength ten mches and a half. Bitt
yellowish grey brown: head, and upper parts purplish chestnut 'f the
throat, to the breast, the same, but paler; belly, sides, and thighs
brown ash i under tail coverts deep chestnut brown ; quills and tail
as the upper parts, the last much cuneated, four of the middle,
feathers plain, the others the same, with the tips white; the quills
reach to about Ofie^fifth on the tail.
Inhabits Cayenne. I am obliged to Lord Seaforth for & fine
specimen, which came from Trinadad.
 7*8
82.—WHITE-RTJMPED CUCKOW.
Cuculus tenebrosus, Ind. Orn. i
1.1. f. 1.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 89.
Petit Coucou noir de Cayenne, Buf vi. 417.    P
Tamatia, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxvii.
White-rumped black Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 544.
Got. Lin. i: 417.    Pall. n. nord 1
LENGTH eight inches and a quarter. Bill one inch, a little
curved, and pointed, black; the plumage wholly black, except the
lower part of the back, and rump, belly, thighs, and vent, all of which
are white; on the belly the white is separated from the black, by a
rufous orange band; tail under tha*ee inches, much rounded, and but
little exceeds the wings in length ; legs yellow.
Inhabits Cayenne and Brazil; makes the nest in the hole of a
tree, sometimes in the ground, if it finds a hole ready made; passes
the day perched on a solitary branch of a tree, in an open spot,
motioaaless, except when collecting insects, on which it feeds.
A.—Length five inches and three quarters. Bill three-eighths of
an inch long, and pointed at the end; nostrils small and round, but
in some measure covered by a few bristles coaning forwards over
them; plumage in general glossy black; lower half of the back,
rump, and upper tail coverts white; lower half of the belly fine
rufous, to beyond the thighs; vent, aiad under tail coverts dusky
white; under wing coverts white; tail two inches long, even, or
scarcely rounded; the wings reach at least to the end of it, if not
beyond.
B.—Another was six inches in length.    The bill flattened on
the sides, and sharp-ridged at top; the head, neck, and all above
 cuckow. 325
glossy steel black; breast ash-colour; the belly deep rufous; under
wing coverts, lower part of the back, upper and under tail coverts,
and vent white; the upper coverts reach to half the length of the
tail, which is two inches long, even at the end, and the wings exceed
it in length by full three quarters of an inch; legs weak, as in the
Swallow.
Inhabits Berbice, there called Saebe saebe. I have seen two
specimens: in one of them the under wing coverts and vent were
dusky white. A specimen of this last is in the collection of Lord
Staaaley.
This and the last are not allowed by M. Temminck to remain
among the Cuckow Tribe, but rather as being more allied to the
Tamatia, next akin to the Barbet Genus; it may be so, but as
they have hitherto been received by authors as pertaining to the
Cuckows, we are not inclined to remove them from that situation.
83.—HONEY CUCKOW.
, 418.   Mill. III. t. 24. f. A.    Bor. ii.
Cuculus Indicator, Ind. Om. i. 218.    Got
130.    Gen. Zool Ax. p. 138.
Coucou Indicateur, Buf. vi. 392.
Honey Guide, Phil. Trans, lxvii. p. 38. pl. 1.    Sparm. Voy. ii. 191.    Gent. Mi
t. p. 468.
Indicateur, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxxiii.
Honey Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. 533.    Id. Sup. 101.    Id. Sup.ii. 135.
.xlri
LENGTH seven inches. Bill one inch and a half, rather thick,
brown towards the base, and yellowish at the tip, at the bottom a
few bristles; eyelids naked, black; irides ferruginous grey; top of
the head grey, the feathers somewhat broad, and short; chin, throat,
and breast dirty white, on the latter a tinge of green; back and
 ill
326 cuckow.
rump ferruginsoqs grey; belly and vent white; thighs white* with a
longitudinal black streak on each feather; upper wing coverts grey
brown, some of them tipped with yellow, forming a spot on the
shoulders, which is, for the most part, covered by the scapulars;
quills brown; beneath them, and the bastard wing, grey brown;
tail cuneiform, of twelve feathers, the two middle narrowest, colour
rusty brown; the two next fuliginous, the inner margins whitish j
tiie next on each side white,, with brown tips, and a black spot on
the inner webs at the base; the outmost shorter than the rest, marked
as the last, but the black spot less conspicuous.
The male saM to have the base of the bill; surrounded with
blackish. The feanale is rather siaaller; the greenish.'ibrown on the
upper parts inclines more to yellow, and the base of the bill yellowish
wjrite; throat, neck before, breast,, and flanks yellowish, variegated
with blackish brown; otherwise like the male.
Young birds are very like the females.
Inhabits the interior of Africa, at a good distance from the Cape
of Good Hope, chiefly on the eastern side, from the forest of
Hottniqua, to the Caffres. The male and female very seldom seen
separate; they are said to lay three or four dftrty white eggs, in the
hole of a tree, and both sexes sit by turns; but Dr. Sparrman was
shewn a nest, said to be of this bird, composed of slender filaments
of bark, in the form of a bottle, with the neck and opening
downwards, and5 a string in an arffihed shape suspended across the
opening.
The manners of this bird are worth notice, as it is said to feed
chiefly on honey, and of much use, by its wonderful instinct, for
finding out the placed where the wild bees hoard it up, and discovered
to the Hottentote and Dutch in the following manner.- The morning
and evening are the times of feeding ; the note is shrill, which the
hunters attend to, and answer from time to time, till the bird is in
sight, on which it flies to; the spot where the bees have placed their
 cuckow. 327
store, which the hunters take, and leave their guide a portion for
its pains. Dr. Sparrman assured me, that he has several times been
ut the taking the wild bees in this manner, but could only obtain
two female birds, from which the description was taken; he added,
that this bird is held in great veneration by the Hottentots, and that
the killing one was much resented by these people. We are likewise
told, tha/t #ie Jiatel* (a species of weasej) profits equallyby the Honey
Cuckow, watching its motioaas on all occasions; when, if the bird
directs feiiji to that which is collected under ground, it is enabled$&
gfegi it sufficiently easy; oai the contrary, if the bees nest is in a tree,
the disappointed animal, uaaable to get up to it, begins to gnaw the
tree at bottom, whereby the Hotteaitots have a second method of
discovering suejii as contain honey; for they have yet to learn the
mode of collecting it by means of artificial hives; but that it may be
done, was instanced ha a colonist, who used to set out empty chtests,
and boxes, into which the wild swarms would frequently enter; and
there can be no doubt, that hives might be used there with the same
advantage as in other countries. m M. Levaillant observes, that in
opening the stomach of one, nothing-was found but wax and honey,
not a vestige of any hasect; that the skin was so thick, as when fresh,
it was scarcely to be pierced with a p&» J a wise provision against the
stings of the insects he is destined to encounter.
This bird is probably the Gnat Snapper of Kolben,t of which
he says, the note is not so fine as that of a Titmouse, but that it is a
guide to the Hottentots, by directing them to the honey, which the
bees lay up in the clefts of rocks.
* Viverra Ratel, Spanmu Vo^n, ph4
f Hist. Cape, 8vo. ii. 154. pl. 7. f. 1.
Hist. Quadr. ii. p. 66.
 328
84—GREAT HONEY CUCKOW.
Le grand Indicateur, Levail. Afr. v. 1. 2.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. 1
Indicator major, Great Honey Guide, Gen. Zool. ix. p. 139. pl. 27.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill brown; irides the same; plumage
above brownish olive green, yellowish in a certain light; the rump
white; upper tail coverts white, varied with olive; quills dirty olive
brown, externally olive green; the three outer tail feathers white,
with a brown spot at the tip; the rest olive brown, with the outer
webs white; fore part of the neck and breast pale yellow; the middle
of the neck varied with black spots, which ascend to the throat; the
rest of the under parts yellow; legs brown.
The female is rather smaller, and the green colour more inclined
to yellow; the forehead spotted with yellowish white; throat, fore
part of the neck, breast, and sides varied brownish black, and
yellowish white; in other things not unlike the male.
Inhabits the parts within the Cape of Good Hope, especially the
Hottniquas and Caflraria; the female lays four dirty white eggs3
which both sexes sit on alternately, during the time of incubation.
85.—LESSER HONEY CUKCOW.
Le petit Indicateur, Levail. Afr. v. 137. pl. 242.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 140.
THIS is about the size of the House Sparrow: length six inches.
Bill and irides yellowish; top of the head olive grey, passing on the
back of the aaeck, where it is yellowish olive; the same on the upper
parts of the plumage in general; quills dusky, edged with yellowish
green; beneath the eye a dusky streak, giving the appearance of a
 cuckow. 329
mustachoe; all the under parts of the body, from the chin, olive
grey, with a greenish tinge; belly dirty white; tail the same as in
the Greater Species; legs yellow brown.
The female differs, in having the upper parts more inclining
to brown.
Inhabits the Mimosa Forests of Swarte Kop, Sondag, and to
Camdeboo; also from the River of Elephants, to the borders of the
Great River; it lays four white eggs, in the hole of a tree; the
colonists of the Cape call it Heuning Voogel, or Heuning Wyser,
Honey Bird, or Honey Shewer; its note like the words Ket-ket-ket-
ket-ket-kye-ket-kye-kye-ket.
M. Levaillant mentions also another of the kind, which was
brought to him in a state of decay; size between the Greater and
Sanaller Species; top of the head and the back, also the wings and
rump, brown; throat light rufous; under parts of the body rufous
white ; bill and legs brown.
WITH THREE TOES.
86—ABYSSINIAN CUCKOW.
Cuculus Abyssinicus, hid. Orn. Sup. xxxi.
Bee Cuckow, Moroc, Bruce's Trav. App. t.  p. 178.
Abyssinian Cuckow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 139.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill pointed, a little bent, and black;
tongue sharp, and capable of being drawn to almost half its length
out of the mouth; inside of the mouth, and throat yellow; irides
dusky red; at the base of the beak, a number of very small hairs;
the head and neck are brown; general colour of the plumage the
 same above, eyebrows black; the fore part of the neck light yellow,
darker on the sides, reaching nearly to the shoulders; breast and
belly dirty white; feathers of the thighs long and white; the wing
feathers are mostly tipped with white; tail long, and whitish at the
end, the three middle feathers the longest; legs black. It has only
three toes, two before and one behind.
Inhabits Abyssinia, especially such parts where honey is chiefly
produced as revenue, as Agou, Goutto, and Belessen. It feeds on
bees, but kills anore than it eats, as numbers are found scattered on
the ground. It makes a sort of snapping* noise, when catching the
bees, otherwise has no note.—M. Lobos, in his voyage to Abyssinia,
speaks also of a bird, called Moroc, which has the instinct of discovering honey; but.from his account, it is that which is collected
by the ground bees; as. he says, they keep their holes in the ground
extremely «clean, and though common in the highways, they are
seldom found except by the Moroc's assistance.
Mr. Bruce supposes this to be the same with his bird, and ridicules
Dr. Sparrman for giving an account of a species, to which he attributes the same faculty, but as these two are very clearly different
birds, his criticisms must of course fall to the ground.
ASIATIC CUCKOW.
LENGTH eight inches or more. Bill nearly one inch, brown-
black ; nostrils scarcely conspicuous, being in great part covered by
a membrane; general colour of the plumage dirty brown-black,
inclining to lead-colour on the rump; sides of the chin, and throat
grey, mottled with black in short dashes;  belly lead-colour; tail
* Kolben mentions-a Bird by the n
Hottentots to the honey collected by the
our opinion, the Gnat Snapper, so called ;
the Bee-Eater, which is very destructive
ime of Gnat Snapper, which he says, directs th
bees in the rocks.—See Honey-Cuckow; but ii
t the Cape of Good Hope, is more likely to prov
:o bees.
 C^rM«#J!
coverts nearly black; tail the same, with a blue grey tinge, the outer
feather black on the inner web; on the outer white, with a black
serrated streak, indenting the white like a saw, somewhat in the
manner of the Fantailed Cuckow, though opposite in every direction;
for in that the black curvatures tend upwards, in this downwards.
in the former, the outer web is black, in the latter white; shape of
the tail cuneiform. It has only three toes, two placed forwards and
one backwards ; legs brown.
Supposed to inhabit India, and is in the collection of Lady Clive.
I find it also among the drawiaigs of Gen. Davies, taken from one in
the collection of Mr. Thompson.
88— TRIDACTYLE CUCKOW.
LENGTH twenty inches. Bill horn-coloured, bent downwards;
head and neck pale, dirty, yellow-oker; irides brown ; hind neck,
back, and wing coverts deep chocolate brown or lead-colour ; back,
and wing coverts with rufous ends, bordered above with black; quills
ending black, the very tips white; tail eight or nine inches long;
deep lead-colour, or chocolate-brown; the feathers marked on the
sides, and at the ends with white, with a broad bar of black, near
the end; all the under parts from the chin, dusky white, crossed on
the breast and belly with pale dusky ash markings ; legs stout, short,
blue, claws black. The quills reach to the middle of the tail, which
is a little rounded at the end. Described from a drawing, in which
was the appearance of only three toes, two before and one behind.
Inhabits New-Holland.—Mr. Lambert.
 1
332
GENUS XXVI.—WRYNECK.
m. HE bill in this Genus is roundish, slightly incurvated, and of
a weak texture.
Nostrils bare of feathers, and somewhat concave.
The tongue long, slender, and armed at the point.
Teia flexible feathers in the tail.
Feet made for clianbing.    Toes two before and two behind.
This Genus consists of only a single species, and has, by most
authors, been held as distinct, for though it seems allied to some
other genera, it perfectly coincides with noaie. It has the tongue of
the Woodpecker, as well as the situation of the toes, but the weakness of the bill, unable to bear the rude exertion of those birds, forbids
it to be placed among them. It seems also much allied to the Cuckow,
did not the length of tongue prove the contrary. As it is, however
a bird universally known, a further general description seems to be
unnecessary.
WRYNECK.—Pl. lviii
, i. 223.
. 172.
.Lin.i. 423. Scop.i.
,ii. 132. t.16. Raii
Sepp Vog. t. p. 343.
' Mullet: p. 96. Fat
Id. Ov. p. 17. t. 4.
Yunx Torquilla, Ind. Orn,
Lapp. 66. t.66.    Got.
p. 165.    Borowsk. Nat
f. 1.    Id. 8vo. ii. 43.
t. 66.    Brun. No. 37.
Stem. t. 4. f.4. a. c. <
Man. 248,    Id. Ed. ii. 404.
Avis Tuite Americana variegata, Seba. i. 175. 1.110. f. 7.
Der bunte Wendehals, Schmid Vog. p, 41. t. 27.
LeTorcol, Buf. vii. 84. pl.3,    PL enl. 698.    Hist. Prov.i.
Drehehals, Naturf.ix. s.-53.
Torcocollo, Zinnan. TJov. 72. 1.11. f. 63.    Cett. Uc. Sard. 84,
Long-Tongue, Kolb. Cap. Engl. ii. 155 ?
suec. No. 97. 1.1. f. 78.    Rudb.
Geri
. 186.
p. 44. Will. 95. 1.12. Bris. vi. t. I.
Frisch. t. 38. Kram. 336. Schcef. el.
n. Arag. p. 73. Klein, p. 28. 14. Id.
?.5.    Gen. Zool. ix. 143, pl. 28.    Tern.
L
 ill
1
$   f/^^i
'
_ii
 L
  I
 %
Wryneck. 333
Wryneck, Gen. Syn. ii. 548. pl. 24. Id. Sup. 103. Br. ZooL i. No. 83. Id. fol. 80.
t. F. G. Id. Ed. 1812. 312. pl. 22. Arct. Zool. ii. 267. B. Flor. Scot. i. No. 69^
Will. Engl. 138. pl. 22. Collins Birds, pl. 6. f. 5. 6. Graves Orn. i. pl. 13. Id.
Eggs,vo\.i. Bewick, i. pl. p.111. Alb.i. pl.ll. Lewin, ii. t. 45. Id. Eggs, t. viii.
f. 2.    Nat. Misc. pl. 156.    JFa/cof, i. pl. 44.    Donov. iv. pl. 83.    Orn. Diet.
THOUGH the colours of the Wryneck are but few, and not at
all gaudy, yet their being blended together in a most beautiful
manner, gives it an elegant appearance; size nearly that of a Lark;
length seven inches; weight ten drachms. Bill three quarters of an
inch long, and of a pale lead-colour: irides hazel; the tongue, when
extended, aneasures two inches aaid a quarter in length, but is
retractile within the bill at pleasure; * as to the plumage, a list of
black aaad ferruginous streaks divides the top of the head and back;
the sides of the head and neck are ash-colour, beautifully traversed
with fine lines of black aaad reddish brown; the quills are dusky,
but each web marked with rust-coloured spots; the chin and breast
light yellowish brown, adorned with sharp-pointed bars of black;
the tail feathers broad at the ends, weak, of a pale ash-colour,
powdered with black and red, and marked with four, equidistant,
black bars ; legs browra.
The female is paler in colour, otherwise like the anale.
It laaakes use of hollow trees wherein to deposit the eggs, for it
forms no nest, but places the eggs on the rotten wood; the number
generally from eight to ten; they are perfectly white as ivory, and
the shell so transparent, that the yolk anay be distinguished within ;f
although the feet are seemingly made for clianbing, it is very rarely
observed to run up the trees like the Woodpecker; its gait is both
that of walking and hopping; it is curious to observe them on a grass
plat, thrusting their tongue into the turf in quest of ants and their
* On drawing out the tongue and returning it, in fresh-killed birds, the crest will be
erected and depressed, in the same manner as in the Woodpecker, from the root of it being
connected.—See Will. t. 21.    Phil. Trans, v. xxix. p. 509. tab. 1,
f Weight 37 grains.—Montagu,
 334
pupae, which appear to be their principal, if not their oaaly food,
and with which they may be fed in a cage, and so kept for some
length of time.
They are called in Sweden Gjoek-Tyta, and Saed Gjoek; in Norway, Saa-Gouk; in Denmark, Giogtyte ; in Welsh, Gwasy gog : all
these alluding to the Cuckow. So in England it goes by similar
names. In Kent, it is known by that of Cuckow's Man, aaad
Cuckow's Mate; and in the Midland counties Cuckow's Maiden ; in
other places called Emmet Hunter, and Long Tongue, Snake-Bird,
&c. and from the faculty of turning the head in a particular manner,
it has obtained the name of Twisted Neck, and Wryneck in various
languages. Its time of coming into this kingdom is about eight or
ten days before the Cuckow, * not often before the second week in
April, and is detected by its singular note, a kind of squeak, several
times repeated; is a common bird in the Southern and Eastern Parts
of England; to the West much more scarce, and rarely ever met with
in Cornwall. The young birds, while in the nest, will hiss like
snakes, .insomuch, that many have been prevented plundering the
nest, fearing to advance their hands on this loathsome JFeptile.
Authors mention this bird as an inhabitant throughout Europe.
Mr. White observed them at Gibraltar, in the spring, but they do not
make any stay, and are rarely, if ever, seen there after September or
October; and he mentions, as a rare instance, one being met.with in
December. It is found in various places between Bengal t and
Kamtschatka, and probable is the same which Kolben calls the
Long Tongue, at the Cape of Good Hope. It should also, according
to Seba, be found in America, if he was not mistaken in the bird ;
he calls it Tuite, as above inferred to, though we have no second
authority to support his assertion.
I
* Dr. Heysham says, it frequently appears i
the Cuckow.
t It is called there, and at other places or
Bontua.   In the Province of Oude, Dewanie.—
Cumberland upwards of a month before
the  Coromandel  Coast, by the name of
Ld. Mount. Draw.
 335
A.—Torquilla striata,
Jyngi congener, Aldr.
. p. 7.    Id. Svo. i
59.    Will. pl. 22.
This is said to vary from the other, in having the head and upper
part of the body ferruginous, beautifully varied with transverse
yellow spots; the under parts white, with longitudinal lines of yellow;
wings and tail the same colour as the back; legs black.
I find the Wryneck figured in General Hardwicke's India
drawings, under the name of Dewanee, so called at Hindustan;
drawn at Puttah, November 1794, and again April 11, 1795; the
weight one ounce, one drachm.
 TS&sr
WOODPECKER.
GENUS XXVII—WOODPECKER.
* With four Toes.
1 Great black
25 Cinnamon
26 Gorget
A Var.
B Louisiana
2 Greater spotted
27 Rufous Indian
C Varied Indian
A Middle spotted
3 Lessc- spotted
A Antiguan
B Var.
28 Crimson-rumped
29 Yellow-necked
30 Grey-headed
31 Persian
61 Hairy
62 Albany
63 Little
64 Waved
C Var.
32 Orange
65 Black and white
4 Green
33 Gold-backed
66 Paraguan
A Surinam
34 White-billed
67 Red-headed
B Straw-coloured
35 Bank
68 White-rumped
5 Bengal
36 Pileated
69 Red-breasted
A Ceylon
A Var.
70 Red-throated
B Javan green
6 Goa
37 Lineated
38 Buff-crested
71 Rayed
7 Philippine
A Palalaca
39 Chili
40 Red-necked
72 Passerine
73 Trinidad
8 Manilla
9 Strict
41 Berbice
42 Lewis's
74 Black-winged
75 Cayenne
10 Streaked-crowned
43 Nootka
76 Yellow
11 Javan
44 Gold-crested
77 Ferruginous
12 Cape
A Var.
45 Crimson-crested
46 Yellow-crested
78 Black-breasted
79 Red-cheeked
13 Half-billed
47 Lesser black
80 Rufous
14 Double-bearded      "'
A Var.
A Var.
15 Mahratta
48 Red-crowned
81 Yellow-bellied
A Var.
A Var.
82 Minute
B Var.
49 Porto Rico
83 Gold-winged
16 Nubian
50 Crimson-crowned
84 Yellow-shafted
17 Cardinal
18 Brown
51 Striped-bellied
52 Sklit
85 Abyssinian
86 Gold-shafted
A Little brown
53 Encenada
87 Crimson-breasted
19 Cawnpore
54 Yellow-headed
88 Batavian''
20 Guinea
55 Gold-breasted
* *  With three Toes
21 Long-billed
56 Brasilian
89 Northern three-toed
22 Red
57 Varied
A Var.
A Var.
23 Malacca..
24 Crimson-winged
58 Canada spotted
59 Northern
60 Carolina
90 Southern three-toed
91 Tiga
 WOODPECKER.
1 HE bill of the Woodpecker is for the aaaost part strait, strong,
angular,* and cuneated at the end.
Nostrils covered with reflected bristles.
Tongue very long, slender, cylindric, bony, hard, and jagged at
the end, missile.
Toes placed two forwards and two backwards, two or three
species excepted.
Tail consisting of ten stiff, sharp-pointed feathers.
The grand characteristic of this Genus is the tongue, which in no
bird is similar, the Wryneck excepted; whose other characters, however, differ too widely to give it place in this class. The muscles
necessary to the motion of it are singular and worthy of notice,
affording the annual means of darting it forwards the whole of the
length, and drawing it again within the mouth at will.f
The chief food of birds of this kind is, we believe, insects,
though authors inform us, that some of the species will occasionally
eat fruits and vegetables: in general they make use of a hole in a tree
wherein to deposit the eggs; and it is affirmed, that they can, and do
make holes in sound wood for that purpose; yet others doubt the
circumstance, and have told us, that it is only in trees beginning to
decay; and which they perforate for the twofold purpose of procuring
the larvas of beetles, or other insects, and of forming an occasional habitation.
None of the Woodpecker tribe has yet been found in New-Holland.
In a very ingenious paper by the Rev. R. Sheppard, in the Linn&an
Transactions, vol.12, p. 517. the received opinion, that the use of
the Woodpecker Tribe having two toes placed before and two behind,
* The Gold-winged Species, and three 01
bent, and angular only on the top.
Phys. Tkeol. 342. Note a.    Will. Om. 156.
bur similar ones excepted; in these the bill is
t See Ray on the Creation, 143.    Derham's
 338
WOODPECKER.
was to enable the birds the more easily to climb up the trees, seems
to be doubted; as Mr. S. rather thinks that nature designed such a
formation, that they might the better support themselves while in
the act of boring trees with the bill, aided by the stiff feathers
of the tail; more especially as the other Genera, with toes placed in
the same manaaer, have not the same habits; and particularly our
Cuckow, which does not climb the trees at all; and we might also
add the Wryneck; whereas the Nuthatch, and Creeper run up the
trees in all directions, the construction of whose feet is having three
toes before, and only one behind: but for the rest of the aagument
bfOtight forward-by Mr. Sheppard, the reader should peruse what he
says at large on the sublet.
'WITH FOUR TOES.
1.-GREAT BLACK WOODPECKER.
cusmartius, Ind. Orn. i. 224.     Lin. i. 173.     Faun. Suec. No. 98.    Gm. Lin. i. 424.
Scop. Ann. i. No. 51,    Brun. No. 38.    Muller, No. 97.    Molin. Chil. 209.    Id. Fr.
Ed. p.215.     Boroivsk. Nat. ii. 134.    Phil. Trans, xxix. No. 350.   p. 509. 1.1. the
head.    Gen. ZooL ix. p. 148. pl. 29.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. 237.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 391.
^us niger, Bris. vi. 21.   Id. 8vo. ii. 47.    Frisch. t. 34.    Raii p. 42.1.    Will. 92. t. 21.
Klein. 26. 1.    Gerin. 1.172.   Johnst. Av. pl. 41. f. 1.    Gesner. Av. t. p. 640.
Swarte Specht, Sepp Vog. iv. t. p. 385.    Schm
Le Pic noir, Buf. vii. 41. t. 2.    PL enl. 596.
176. Dec.russ.iv. p. 9. 17.
Der Fouselier, Naturf. ix. s. 54.
Great Black Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 552.
Albin, ii. pl. 27.    Will. Engl. 135. pl. 21.
t. 46.    Donov. Birds,i. 1.13.    Wale. Syn.
Diet. Sf Supp.
id Vog. p. 39. t. 25.
Salem. Om. t. 10. f. 2
Id. Sup. 104.
Arct. ZooL ii
Br. ZooL Ed. 1812. 325.
J76.A.    Lewin Birds, vi.
pl.45.    Pult. Cat. Dorset, p. 6.    Orr,
SIZE of a Jackdaw; length seventeen inches.    Bill near two
inches and a half, of a dark ash-colour, and whitish on the sides;
 WOODPECKER. 339
irides pale yellow; the whole bird is black, except tlae crown of the
head, which is the colour of vermilion; the first quill feather is the
shortest; the two middle tail feathers are longer than the others,
making; it "a little rounded; legs lead-colour, covered with feathers
on the fore part, for half their length.
The female differs, in having the hindhead only aed, and the
general colour of the plumage tinged with brown : in some, the red
of the hindhead has been wholly wanting; and, iaadeed, both sexes *
are apt to vary, some having a much greater proportioai of red on
tlae head than others.
This bird is found on the Continent of Europe; not kaaown in
Italy, and rare in France, but more plentiful in Germany. Frisch
mentions it as a bird common to his parts, and it is also found in
Sweden, Denmark, and Switzerland, but not in winter; is very
common in Russia, frequenting the woods, from St. Petersburgh to
Ochotsk, on the Eastern ocean, aaad to Lapmark, on the West;
is not an inhabitant of Kamtschatka, but not uncommon in the
neighbourhood of the Caspian Sea. It is so very destructive to bees,
that the Baschirians, in the vicinity of the River Ufa, as well as the
inhabitants of other parts, who foran holes in the trees, 25 or 30 feet
from the ground, whereiaa the bees may deposit their store, take every
precaution to hinder the access of this bird, and in particular to
guard the mouth of the hive with sharp thorns; notwithstanding
which, the Woodpecker finds meaaas to prove a most formidable
enemy, and it is observed to be in most plenty where the bees are in
the greatest numbers.*
They are said to build in old ash and poplar trees, making large
and deep nests, and often so exeavate a tree, that is is shortly after
blown down with the wind; and that under the hole of this bird
* At Dschiggertau, on the Ural Mountains, there is a bee hive almost on every one of
the tallest pine trees, and in these parts the Black Woodpecker abounds exceedingly, being
attracted, no doubt, by the inhabitants of the hives.—Dec russ. iv. p. 9.
+ GmeLReise.iv. p. 141.
X x 2
ill
 340
WOODPECKER.
may often be found a bushel of dust, and bits of wood. The female
lays two or three white eggs; which colour, as Willughby observes,
is peculiar to the whole of the Genus.
I have sufficient aaathority to say, that it has three or four times
been met with in England at least; our late Friend, Mr. Tunstall,
informed me, it had been sometimes seen in Devonshire; and Dr.
Pulteney mentions its being shot in the nursery gardens at Blandford,
also at Whitechurch, and other places in Dorsetshire; one was killed
in Lancashire, by Lord Stanley; and Colonel Montagu was told of
another, shot on an old willow tree, in Battersea Fields, a few miles
from London.
II
2.— GREATER SPOTTED WOODPECKER.
Picus major, Ind. Om.i. 228.     Lin.i. 176.     Gm. Lin. i. 436.    Faun. Suec. No. 100.
Scop. Ann. i. No. 53.    Brun. No. 40.    Muller, No. 99.    Kram. 335.    Georgi. 165.
Sepp Vog. t. p. 41-    Bor. Nat. ii. 137.    Decouv. russ. ii. 143.    Hist. Prov. i, 184.
Hasselq. It. 342. No. 21 ?    Tern. Man. d'Om. 241.    Id. Ed. ii.p. 396.     Nat .Misc.
pl. 180.
Picus varius major, Raii, p. 43. A. 4.    Will. p. 9. t. 21.    Bris. iv. 34.    Id. 8vo. ii. 51.
Gerin. 1.167.168.    Gen. ZooL ix. 163. pl. 33.
Picus discolor, Frisch. t. 36.   Klein. 27. 6.    Id. Stem. p,5. t. 4. f. 3. a. c. d. e.   Id. Ov.
p. 17. t. 4. f. 3.
L'Epeiche, ou Pic varie, Buf. vii. p. 57.    Pl. enl. 196. 595.
Grosse Rothspecht, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 61.    Wirsing Vog. t. 58.    .
Piccio, Zinnan. Uov. 73. 1.11. f. 64.
Bunter Specht, Naturf. ix. s. 55.
Greater Spotted Woodpecker, Gen. Syn.ii. 564.    Id. Sup. p. 107.    Br. Zool. i. No. 85.
Id.fol. 79. t. E.    Id. 1812. i. 319. pl. 41.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 162.  Albin, i. 1.19.
Will. Engl. 137. pl.21.    Collins Birds, pl.3. f. 7. & pl. 5. f. 10.   Hayes Br. Birds,
t. 9.    Bewick, i. pl. p. 118.  Lewin Birds, t.47.    Id. Eggs, t. viii. f. 3.    Donov. ii.
pl. 37.  Walcot i. t.48. Pult. Dorset, p. 6. Nat. Misc. pl. 180. Omith. Diet. Sf Supp.'
SIZE of a Blackbird; length nine inches; weight two ounces
and three quarters.    Bill thirteen lines long, blackish, with a horn-
 WOODPECKER.
341
coloured base; irides reddish; general colour of the plumage black
above, the forehead dirty buff; on the hindhead a bar of crimson;
cheeks white; on each side of the neck, behhad, a spot of white;
scapulars, and wing coverts nearest to them, white: quills spotted
with white; throat and breast yellowish grey; lower part of the
belly and vent crimson; tail black, the four middle feathers plain, the
others more or less marked with white; the outmost has two black
spots on each side the web; the next two on the inner, and only one
on the outer web; legs lead-colour.
The female wants the red on the hindhead.
This bird is sufficieaitly common iaa England, France, Germany,
and other parts of Europe, frequenting the woods like others of the
Genus; found in Russia, and as high as Lapmark; extends also to
the most eastern parts of Siberia; inhabits Astrachan; found likewise
in America, having been sent from New York. It is a very crafty
bird, for when a person has seen one iaa a tree, he is almost sure to
lose sight of it, if the tree is large, and the observer not very
attentive; as soon as it spies any man, it will creep behind a branch,
and lie secure till the danger is over: it ascends trees with very
great facility, but whether it can descend with equal ease may be
doubted; rears the young in the hole of a decayed tree, and lays about
five eggs, perfectly white,* and glossy, each weighing one drachm,
or more;t is very noisy, anaking a loud kind of rapping with the
bill, on the branches of the trees, to be heard at a great distance,
probably in search after insects; and, according to Hasselquist, if
the bird mentioned by him, it frequents the higher parts of Asia.
*  In Sepp the egg is greyish white,
t   Colonel Montagu.
lottled with minute dusky specks.
 w
WOODPECKER.
Lin. i. 176. Faun. Suec. No. 101. Gm. Lin. i.
. No. 41. Muller, No. 100. Georgi. p. 165. Dec.
244.    Id. Ed. ii.  p. 399,    Sepp Vog. t. p. 41. the
A.—Picus medius, Ind. Om. i. 22£
436.    Scop. AnnA. No. 34.   Br
russ. ii. 143.     Tern. Man. d'O,
young in the nest.
Picus varius minor, Raii Syn. p. 43. 5.
 , Bris. iv 38. t. 2. f. 1.    Id. 8vo.
Der mittlere Buntspecht,  Wipsing Vog. t. 37.
Pic varie a tete rouge, Pl. enl. 611.
Middle Spotted Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 565.
t.37.    Id. 1812. p. 321. pl. 41.   Arct. Zool. ii. p. 278. D.    Bewick, i. 119.    Le,
Birds, t. 48.    Walcot Syn. i. t. 49.    Pult. Cat. Dors. p. 6.    Orn. Diet.
Gerin. t.166. 169 ?
s. 55. No; 57.
Naturf i:
Id. Sup. p. 107.    Br. Zool. i. No. 86.
This is a trifle smaller than the last; it differs from it in having
the colours less elear^tstod defined, otherwise one description might
serve, except that the whole crown of the head is crimson, instead of
only the back part of it. Most authors have described it as distinct,
but later observations seem to prove that it is only a young bird in its
first feathers, and we rather suspect that both sexes may have the whole
of the crown crimson, till the first moult,* when the anales retain
only the hinder part, and the females lose that colour entirely; certain
it is, that birds, with the crimson crowns, are only met with at the
latter end of the year, or froan July to November, and then with
evident signs of youth about them; and if late iaa the year, the
crimson on the top of the head has a mixture of blackish feathers!,
though the back part is of a full crimson.
One similar to this, seen in a drawing from Iaadia, had the whole
crown dusky yellow, or buff-colour; all beneath, rump, and vent,
pale cinereous grey; middle of the belly dull crimson.
Among others, in the collection of drawings of Indian Birds,
communicated by Dr. Buchanan, is one answering to the Middle
* Orn. Diet.    In Sepp's plate of the Great Spotted Woodpecker, all the young in the
nest have the crowns red.    M. Temminck is of opinion, that it is a distinct Species.
 WOODPECKER. 343
Spotted Woodpecker, as to the plumage in common, and with the
whole of the top of the head aed; it is eight inches in length, and
said to be met with in the neighbourhood of Calcutta throughout the
year, iai holes of trees made by itself; no hint is given of its being
otherwise than distinct as to Species. The name, in the Bengalese
Tongue, is Kaut Tokra.
3.—LESSER SPOTTED WOODPECKER.
Picus minor, Ind. Om. i. 229.     Lin. i. 176.     Faun. Suec. No. 102.     Gm. Lin. i. 437.
Scop. Ann.i. No. 55.    Muller No. 101.    Kram. p. 336.     Bor. Nat. ii. 138.    Dec.
russ.ii. 53.    Gen. Zool.ix. 166. pl.34.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. 245.   Id. Ed. ii. p.400.
Picus varius minor, Bris. iv. 41.   Id. 8vo. ii. 53.    Gerin. 1.170. 1.    Id. Var. f. 2.
Kleinste bonte Specht, Sepp Vog. t. p. 357..
Picus varius tertius, Raii 48. 6.    Will. 94. t. 21.
 discolor minor, Frisch. t. 37.    Klein. 27. 7.    Id. Ov. 17. t. 4. f. 4.
 graminis, Klein. Stem. v. t. 4. f. 2. a. b.
Gras Specht, Naturf ix. s. 55.
La petite Epeiche, Buf. vii. 62.    Pl. enl. 598.    Hist. Prov. i. 484,
Lesser Spotted Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 566. 14.     Id. Sup. 107.     Id. Sup. ii. 140.
Br. Zool. i. No. 87. t. 37.    Id.fol. 76. t. E.    Id. 1812. i. p. 322. t. 41.   Arct. ZooL
ii. p. 278. E.     Collins Birds, pl. 8. f. 7. 8.     Albin, i. pl. 20.    Bewick, i. p. 120.
Lewin Birds, t. 49.    Wale. Syn. i. t. 50.    Donov. Birds, ii. t. 36.   Pult. Dors. p. 6.
Orn. Diet. Sf Supp.    Nat. Misc. pl. 225.
THIS is the least of the European Species; length five inches
and a half; weight scarcely an ounce. Bill lead-colour; irides a-ed ;
upper parts of the body black, striated across the back with whiter
scapulars and quills spotted black and white; forehead dirty buff;
crown of the head crimson; cheeks, and sides of the neck white;
under parts of the body dirty white; the four middle tail feathers
black; the others black and white; legs lead-colour.
The female has the top of the head white, which is red in the
male; but neither have the vent red, as in the Greater Species.
i
D
 344 WOODPECKER.
It is probable, that the young birds of both sexes have the red
crown till the first moult, at least they all are so before they leave
the nest.
This is far from plentiful in any part of this kingdom, but
perhaps it appears more scarce, from its frequenting deep woods
during the summer; it approaches near habitations in winter, chiefly
in orchards adjoining, which no doubt it does for the sake of food,
finding about the trunks of trees both caterpillars, and other larvae of
insects; it lays five white eggs in the hole of a tree, which are so like
those of the Wryneck, as to be mistaken for them, but differ, in
weighing less by about four grains. It is called by some by the name"
of Hickwall, Crank Bird, and Piannet; known in many places on
the Continent of Europe, but no where in great plenty; however,
full as far north as the larger sort, extending to tlae most eastern part
of Siberia; one of them has been killed in the woods near Almoraima,
a short distance from Gibraltar, but it was accounted as a singular
occurrence : * it has likewise been noticed on the other side of the
Equator, as Mr. Pennant received a drawing of one from the Island
of Ceylon, in the East Indies.
A.—Petit Pic d'Antigue, Son. Voy. 118.
Gen. Syn. ii. 567.
Size of the other. Bill and legs blackish; top of the head, and
hind part of the neck, greyish black; on each side of the neck,
two-thirds downwards, a stripe of white, which begins just above
the eye, and under this another of black, from the eye to the
shoulder; upper parts of the body black and white; the under parts
pale yellow, spotted with black; tail black, beneath barred wiTh
dirty white and yellowish ; the head not red in any part.
 WOODPECKER. 345
B.—Lesser Spotted Woodpecker, Ind. Om. i. 230. y.    Gen. Syn. Sup. 108. 14. A.
Lin. Trans.xiii. p, 173.
Rather smaller than the others. Bill bluish; forehead and cheeks
white; on the beginning of the crown a rich crimson spot; the hind
part black, and slightly crested; from the under mandible a black
line, surrounding the lower part of the cheeks, and joining the hind
part of the neck, which is also black; back and scapulars black,
marked with lunated white spots; wing coverts striped downwards,
and spotted with white, oai a black ground; primaries and tail barred
regularly black and white; under part of the body white.
Collected by Mr. Loten, and communicated by Mr. Pennant;
called, in Java, Platuk-lallar.
C.—One, somewhat similar, differed from the last merely in
having the belly dusky white, with obscure streaks of brown : found
in Java, where it is called Platoo bullar.—Dr. Wilkins.
4— GREEN WOODPECKER.
Picus viridis, Ind. Om. i. 175.    Faun. Suec. No. 99.     Gm. Lin. i. 433.    Scop. Ann. i.
No.52.    Raii, 42. A.2.    Will.93. t.21.    Hasselq.lt.291.   Bmn, No.39.   Muller,
No. 38.    Sepp, Vog. t. p. 43.   Klein 27. 5.    Id. Stem. 5. t. 4. f.l. a.b.    Id. Ov. 17.
t. 4. f. 1.    Schaf. el. t. 56.   Kram. 334.    Faun. Arag. 73.    Bris. iv. 9.   Id. 8vo. ii.
44.    Gen. Zool. ix. 183. pl. 35.    Tern. Man. d'Om. 238.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 392.
Grunspecht, Frisch, t. 39.    Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. 37. t. 5. lower fig.     Wirs. Vog. t. 57.
Gerin. ii. 1.165.    Bor. Nat. ii. 136.    Naturf. ix. s. 55.    Schmid Vog. p. 40. t. 26.
Pic verd, Buf. vii. p. 7. pl. 1.    PL enl. 371. 879.    Hist. Prov. i. 484.
Piccio, Cet. Uc. Sard. p. 81.
Green Woodpecker. Gen. Syn. ii. 577.    Id. Sup. 110.    Br. ZooL i. No. 84.    Id.fol.78.
t. E.    Id. Ed. 1812. p. 315.   Arct. ZooL ii. 277. B.    Alb. i. pl. 18.    Will. Engl. p.
35. pl. 21.    Collins Birds, pl. 7. f. 1. & pl. 9. f. 6.    Phil. Trans, xxix. No. 350. 1.1.
Hayes Birds, pl. 10.    Bewick, i. pl. p. 116.    Lewin Birds, ii. t. 51.    Id. Eggs. t.
viii. f. 4.    Walcot Birds, i. t. 46.    Pult. Cat. Dorset, p. 6.    Donov; Birds, pl. 37.
Orn. Diet.    Graves Br. Omith.
r*L. in. Y Y
1
 346
WOODPECKER.
THIS is a large Species; length thirteen inches, or more; breadth
eighteen; weight near seven ounces. The bill two inches long,
triangular, and dusky; the irides of two colours, the inner circle
reddish, the outer white; crown of the head crimson, spotted with
buown black; sides of the head blackish; on the lower jaw a spot
of led; upper parts of the body olive green.; towards the rump
inclining to yellow; quills dusky, spotted with whitish; the under
parts greenish white* or very pale green; tail barred dusky and
guse&ish; all, except the outer feathers, black at the ends; the legs
greenish ash.
The female wants the red mark on the lower jaw, otherwise like
the male; these birds lay four or five beautifully transparent white
eggs,* weighing about two drachms, in a hollow asp, or other tree,
sometimes 15 or 20 feet from the ground; in defect of a hole suited
to their purpose, they perforate some convenient tree of a soft texture,
or tending to decay, with their bills, till they come to a hollow part,
which they widen if not large enough, and deposit their eggs upon
the bare rotten part, without further covering ;t the hole is as perfectly
round, as if made with the assistance of a pair of compasses;
Nuthatches, Starlings, and Bats frequently make nests in these holes
when deserted. Frisch and Klein mistake in saying, that the females
have not the red crown, for even the young in the nest have the
appearance of it; and I have had the whole brood brought to me,
when they could scarcely fly, at which time the red had a mixture
of blown, but they do not gain the full red till after the first moult.
The food is chiefly the larvae of insects, and among others, that
of the goat moth; also ants, and their pupa?, which they draw in
* Sometimes "as-tar as
tions may be found.
f This hole is sometim
have been told by a persoi
shoulder, down the hollow
-Will.   Pennant, Br. Zoo/.—where some pertinent obse
s so deep, that they i
that he was obliged
of a tree, before he coi
rust feed th<
;o tbrust th<
Id reach the
■ young in the dark, for I
whole of his arm, to the
 WOODPECKER, 347
by means of the tongue, in the manner of the Wryneck; they are
accused also of preying oai bees.
It is not an uncommon bird throughout the Continent of Europe,
and is found as high North as Lapmark, where it is called Zhiaine;
also the West of Russia, but disappears towards Siberia ;* said to be
common in Egypt.f
The Green Woodpecker is known in the various Counties of
England by very different names; such are the Rain Bird, Woodspite
and Woodwal, Yaffer or Yaffingale, High-hole and Hew-hole; also
the Awl Birct from its boring the trees; and from its likeness in
colour to a Parrot, the Poppinjay: the note, at a distance, is not
unlike that of a person laughing. There is a peculiar kind of scent
in the plumage of this bird.
A.—Picus, viridis Mexicanus, Bris.iv. 16.   Id. 8vo. ii. 46,
Ardea Mexicana altera, Seba i. 100. t. 64. 3.
Jaculator mitella rubra, Klein Av. 127. 3.
Pic verd, Ferm. Sarin, ii. 169.    Gen. Syn. ii. p. 579: 25. A,
This is a trifle larger than our Species; length thirteen inches and
a half. Crown red ; beaaeath the ears a spot of the same; rest of the
head, neck, and under parts varied1 with pale green and yellow; the
back and wings darker green ; rump yellowish ; the quills chestffiUfl,
anarked with white spots; tail green, spotted with black ; bill and
legs dusky.
Inhabits Mexico. Although Seba calls this an Ardea in his plate,
and the toes are placed three before and one behind, yet I cannot
form any other idea of the bird than its being a Woodpecker, and
varying not greatly from the European Species.
s may be
ct. Zool.
f Sonnini Trav. iii. 319.    Several observati
Ray on the Creation,
md Derham's Phys. Theol. p, 123, 339, 342.
Y y 2
 348
WOODPECKER.
B.—In the Leverian Museum was a beautiful Variety of this
bird, of a straw-colour, or pale yellow, every where, except on the
crown, which was faintly marked with red. This was shot at
Belvoir Claace, the seat of the Duke of Rutland.
5—BENGAL WOODPECKER.
Picus Bengalensis, Ind. Om.i. 235.    Lin.i. 175.
Gm. Lin
8vo.ii. 45.   Klein, 28. 13. > Gerin. 1.179.    Ge
xiii. p. 176.
Pic verd de Bengale, Buf. vii. 23.    Pl. enl. 695.
n. ZooL is
Spotted Indian Woodpecker, Edw. pl. 182.
Bengal Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 580.    Alb. iii. ]
>1.22.
i. 433.    Bris. iv. 14.    Id.
. 185. pl.35.*  Lin. Trans.
LESS than the Green Woodpecker; length eight inches and a
half. Bill blackish; top of the head black, spotted with white;
hindhead furnished with a crimson crest; neck behind black; throat,
and neck before, black and white irregularly mixed; in some black,
with white dots; breast, upper part of the belly, and sides white,
the feathers margined with brown; lower belly, thighs, and vent
white; sides of the head under the eye white; from this a white line
passes dowaa the neck; the upper part of the back yellow, the lower
dull green; under wing coverts, and upper lesser wing coverts, deep
brown, spotted with white; the rest of the wing green, spotted with
lighter green ; quills black, barred with white; tail greenish black ;
legs blackish.
The other sex has the crown black, but spotted with red instead
of white; hindhead crested, red; behind the eye a black streak
dotted with dusky white, and passing to the hindhead; the rest as
in the former description.
Individuals vary in size, some being ten or eleven inches in
length; and in several drawings from India, I can only observe two
 ■■%
WOODPECKER. 349
toes before, and one behind; but in one drawing I found a second
toe backwards, though very small, and placed higher up than could
at all be of use in grasping a branch, or climbing; hence we may
suspect this bird sometimes to be complete with four toes, and other
specimens to have only one behind; in the same manner as the Grey
Sandpiper and Golden Plover, sometimes deviate from the common
rule, the former having a mere claw only, instead of the hind toe
complete; the latter with the addition of a hind claw, contrary to
the rest of the Genus; but in the Pl. enlum. I observe this Woodpecker to have four complete toes; and in some drawings in Lord
Mountnorris's possession, made in the Province of Oude, is one of
these birds with two hind toes, though the inner one very short. This
last was named Cawtkhoraw, and in another drawing, Cut-currolloh.
This Species inhabits Bengal, and several other parts of India,
and is a very beautiful bird; called in some places, Turca-pikilia-pitta;
found at Calcutta the whole year; the nest in the holes of trees, lays
three or four eggs in Jyt; the young hatched in Assam.
A.—Specht de Ceylon, Naturf. xiii. 14. t. iv.    Id. xvii. 16.    hid. Orn. i. 235. 29. B.
Gen. Syn. ii. 580. 26.
Length eleven inches and a half. Bill one inch and a half, lead-
colour, with a pale base; on the top of the head some white spots;
the upper part of the back black, which is yellowish in the former;
the middle of the back, and that part of the wings, which in the
other is brown, in this is of as fine a red as the crest; throat and
breast brown, irregularly spotted with white; greater quills brown,
dotted with white; tail brown, the middle feathers four inches long;
the outer three ; quills reach to near the middle of the tail.
This came from Ceylon,* and is there called Kerella; makes the
the nest in old trees, as others, and feeds on insects.
* Probably too from China, as it was among some drawings done there, but the toes were
erroneously placed, three before and one behind. In the plate referred to in Naturf or scher,
the bird had two toes before, and two behind.
 350 WOODPEG&EJl*
B.—One of these, in the Museum of the India House, London,
sai&to have come from Java, had the head and all. beneath streaked,
or mixed black and white ; the back fulvous, the lower part of it,
and the rump crimsoaa; quills and, tail black. This had two toes
before, and only one behind.
The Bengal Species is found in Java; at least one very similar,
ajadi inclines equally to the Goa oaae, though somewhat differing
from both; and Dr. Horsfield is of opinion, that these two may
probably form but one Species; and he also observes, that there is
coaisider^tde variety between the individuals found in Java, where it
is called Platuk bawang.
6-GOA WOODPECKER.
Picus Goensis, Ind. OmA. 335.    Gm. Lin.i. 434.    Gen. Zool. ix. 187. pl.35.
Pic vert de Goa, Buf. vii. 22.    Pl. enl. 696.
Goa Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 582.
LESS than the Common Green Woodpecker. Bill black; crown
and hiaadhead crimson, the latter craited, and bordered on the
temples with a white stripe, widenang as it passes behind to the
neek ; from the ieye springs a black band, continuing on each side in
a'zigssagmafunep,'falling over the wing, the lesser coveats of which are
also black; the rest of the wing golden yellow, which ends in
greenish yellow oaa the lesser quills; the greater variegated black* and
wHite; tail black; beneath the body whitish, the feathers edged
with black; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits Goa.
 WOODPECKER. 351
7.—PHILIPPINE WOODPECKER.
Picus Philippinarum, Ind. Om. i. 236.    Gen. ZooL ix. 190.
Pic grivele, grand Pic de Lucon, Son. Voy. 73. t. 73.
Palalaca, Phil. Trans, xxiii. p. 1397. No. 42.
Pic verd tachete des Philippines, Buf. vii. 21.    PL enl. 691.    Gen. Syn. ii. 581. B.
SIZE of the Green Woodpecker. Bill black; irides red; top,
sides, and hind part of the head and neck, back and wings, shining
brown, with a mixture of green ; the feathers on the top of the head
longer than the rest, forming a crest; throat and under parts white,
the feathers margined with black, appearing spotted white and black;
tail black-brown, on each web a white spot, forming, when the tail
is spread, a white band; the upper tail coverts red; like carmine;
legs black.
Inhabits the Island of Luponia; there called Palalaca.
A.—Palalaca, ou grand Pic vert des Philippines, Buf. vii. 20.
This is said to be as large as a Fowl, with a crested head, and
green body. It is also called Palalaca by the natives; the Spaniards
call it Herrero, or Blacksmith, on account of the great noise it makes
with the bill in striking the trees, to be heard at 300 paces distance.
8.—MANILLA WOODPECKER.
Picus Manillensis, Ind. Orn. i. 236.    Gm. Lin. i. 434.    Gen. ZooL ix. 189.
Pic verd de l'Isle de Lucon, Son. Voy. 23. t. 36.
I    Manilla Green Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 583.
LESS than the Green Woodpecker.    Bill blackish: colour of
the^body dirty green; top of the head a little spotted with grey;
11
 WOODPECKER.
quills and tail blackish ; the upper tail coverts bright carmine red,
forming a large spot on that part; legs blackish.
Inhabits Luconia.
9— STRICT WOODPECKER.
Picus strictus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 176.—Horsfield.
LENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill narrow, slender, tending
gradually to a point; superior angles parallel, with transverse,
curved slender lines; ridge narrow; the lower mandible yellowish ;
the crown crested, crimson in the male, in the female orange; the
plumage above orange green, beneath variegated white and black;
tail black.
Inhabits Java; called by the common name of Platuk.
10—STREAKED-CROWNED WOODPECKER.
Picus tristis, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 177.—Horsfield.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill conic, a trifle bent; the plumage
above banded irregularly with black and white; rump white; under
parts of the body black; the crown and nape are tenderly streaked
black and white; tail, quills, and thigh feathers fasciated black
and white.
Inhabits Java; known by the name of Platuk-watu.
 WOODPECKER. 353
11—JAVAN WOODPECKER.
Picus Javensis, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 175.
LENGTH fifteen inches. General colour of the plumage black ;
feathers of the head elongated into a crest, which is crimson; at the
sides of the neck a crimsoia stripe; belly testaceous, but not bright,
The female is about one inch longer than the male, and paler in
colour, the head variegated above with blackish green and white;
under the eyes a scarlet mark ; the colour of the belly uaaiform with
the rest of the body, and the throat and lower part of the neck are
- Isabella yellow.
Inhabits Java, called there Platuk-ayam.
12.—CAPE WOODPECKER
Picus Capensis, Ind. Orn. i. 237.    Gm. Lin. i. 430.
Pic a tete grise du Cap de B. Esp. Buf. vii. 26.    PL enl. 786 female
Le Pic olive, Levail. Afr. vi. p. 16. pl. 248, 249. Male & female.
Red-rumped Woodpecker, Gen. Zool. ix. 194.
Cape Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 586.
LENGTH seven iaiches and a half. Bill black; head olive grey;
from the middle of the crown, and all behind the nape crimson;
back, neck, aaad breast, olive brown; rump and upper tail coverts
red; quills dusky within; tail black; legs lead-colour. Levaillant
observes, that the under parts aa*e olive, inclining to yellow. The
female smaller, the colours less brilliant, and the red less lively; but
has the hindhead and rump red as the aaaale; in the first year, only
the middle of the hindhead is red, and in very old birds the breast
has a tinge of red; the females have no red on the head the first
year, this colour being only seen on the rump.
VOL. III. z z
 354 WOODPECKER;
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and other parts of Africa, and
Senegal; found on the eastern coast of Africa, from the River Duywen
Hock, quite to Caffre Land, also in the inner parts; lays four white
eggs, and both sexes contribute to hatch the young in turns.
One of these, in Mr. Bullock's Museum, is spotted on the outer
webs of the lesser quills with dusky white, and the same on the
miter, but larger; greater quills and tail feathers brown, the two
outer ones of the latter marked, as the quills, with dusky white, and
the belly obscurely barred with brown.
A.—Cape Wo
,Syn.ii
Head, neck, and all beneath pale grey; back and wings olive
brown; crown, rump, and, belly, crimson; wings and tail dusky;
bill and legs black.
Inhabits Abyssinia. I observed this among the late Mr. Bruce's
drawings of birds, where it is named Wye-wa, and suspect it to
represent a very old male. M. Button's figure of it in the Pl. enlum.
is taken from a young female.
13— HALF-BILLED WOODPECKER.
175.   Gm. Lm.i. 435.  Mus. Ad. Fr. i. 16.
Picus setnardstriB, Ind. Om. i. 238.  Li
Half-billed Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii.
LINNiETJS describes this as of the size of a Black Woodpecker.
Bill pale; the upper mandible much shorter than the under, very
pointed, and sharp at the tip; * head brown,   each feather tipped
* Pallas has given his opinion concerning this bird, which, as far as relates to the bill,
he thinks must be a Lusus Natures, and unnatural; he mentions a specimen of the Common
Green Woodpecker, in Germany, wherein the upper mandible was scarcely half as long as
 dm.
ill!
WOODPECKER. 355
with yellowish, making the head appear spotted; body above brown,
inclining to ash; beneath white; wings brown; the outer edges of
the quills spotted with white; tail brown.
Inhabits India.
14—DOUBLE-BEARDED WOODPECKER.
Le Pic a double Moustache, Levail. Afr. p. 22. pl." 251, 252.
THE bi"li in this bird is black. Irides deep red; plumage
above olive, varying m different lights to brown, yellow, and grey,
especially towards the neck and rump, where the grey is most predominant, and appears on the margins of the feathers at the ends;
back part of the head crimson; sides, under the eyes, white, with
two black streaks in the direction of the jaw; middle of the threat
white, as far as the lower part of the neck; beneath the body olive
brown, waved with dirty white1; the quills olive brown, inclining
dirfwar^fy to yellow, and marked With yellow spots; tail as the quills.
The female is smaller, and the waves less distinct, more inclined
to brown; top of the head Msttfk, instead of red.
The young male has but little red on the head, and coloured like
the old female; but very old1 females have a small red patch on the
head like the males.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and found in abundance
throughout the Caffre Coutatoy, 011 the bodies of Mimosa trees';
and the strokes with the bill may be heard far off; lays four dull
white eggs, and botk sexes assist in incubation.
the under, and gives two instances of the same in the Kingsfisher Genus, and one in the
Oyster CatWHer.—See Spicing', vi; p. 12.
To which I may add, the same circumstance in a White Crow, in the Leverian Museum;
in this, the upper mandible was just formed the same. However, we are still indebted to
Linnaeus for a Species not before described nor figured by any author, as far as we can
(ind at present'.
r Z z 2
i
 356 WOODPECKER.
15—MAHRATTA WOODPECKER.
Picus Mahrattensis, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. xxxi.    Gen. Zool. ix. 177.
Mahratta Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 142.
THIS is rather larger than the Lesser Spotted. Head yellow
brown; on each side of the nape white; upper parts of the body
black, with large spots of white; the rump white; chin, aaad under
parts pale brown, with darker streaks down the middle of each
feather; middle of the belly i*ed; quills and tail black, spotted with
white, having three spots on each tail feather, on the outer margin.
From the Mahratta Country, in India.—A specimen of this is in
the British Museum.
A.—Length seven inches. Bill brownish; crown and nape
brownish yellow, darker at the nape ; cheeks under the eye brownish
dun, or cream-colour; beneath this, on each side of the neck, whitish,
spotted with brown; under parts, from the chin, more or less white;
on each side of the throat, bounding both the cream-colour, and the
dotted whitish patch, runs an irregular streak of brown; within this,
the chin and breast are dirty white; lower part of the breast, belly,
and sides streaked with pale brown; middle of the belly scarlet; the
vent white; back, wings, and tail black, marked with white spots;
greater quills black; legs black.
Inhabits India; brought from thence by M. de Fichtel.
B.—Length seven inches. Bill dusky lead-colour; plumage on
the forehead, sides of the neck, and back, deep brown, waved more
or less with white; at the back of the head the feathers are elongated
into a pointed crest of a sulphur-colour, paler at the ends, with- a
 WOODPECKER. 357
mixture of yellowish on the forehead, round the eyes, and chin; the
greater wing coverts and quills marked with large spots of white, on
the sides; tail feathers the same, with three patches of white on the
margin of each, and are blunt at the ends; chin and throat brown,
and dusky white in waves, with a reddish tinge; breast and belly
dusky white, with a deep tinge of reddish on the breast; the legs
lead-colour.
Inhabits India, and called in Oude,   Caaatkhorau.—From the
drawiaags of Lord Mountnorris.
16—NUBIAN WOODPECKER.
Picus Nubicus, hid. Orn. i. 233.    Gm. Li
Pic tigre, Levail. Afr. vi. p. 19. pl. 250.
Epeiche de Nubie onde et tachete, Buf. vi
Nubian Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 576.
. 438.    Gen. Zool. ix. 180.
66.    Pl. enl. 667.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. The bill black; irides pale
brown; crown black, dotted with white; forehead brownish; from
that to the eye whitish ; chin the same; the hindhead crimson, and
somewhat crested; the rest of the neck and breast whitish, marked
with black spots, shaped like tears; upper part of the body agreeably
and irregularly mixed with white, rufous, and brown; tail barred
rufous and brown; thighs and vent whitish ; legs blue.
Inhabits the Desarts of Nubia.
One, supposed to be the male, had a reddish streak from the
corners of the mouth, spotted with black, in the direction of the
jaw; top of the head wholly crimson, with greenish waves; hindhead
crimson, the feathers soft, and elongated, so as to form a crest.
The female marked as the male, but without any red at the top
of the head; and the mustachoe of the male does not appear under
a year.
i
12
 358 WOODPECKER*
Found in the forests of Hottniqua, and about tlae River Gamtoos,
bat less coanmon ; lays four bluish white eggs, spotted with brown.;
M^ Levaillant says, the male is eight inches long, aaid the female
less; and that probably the one figured in the Pl. enl. is a female.
17.—CARDINAL WOODPECKER.
Picus Cardinalis,Ind. Om.i. 233.    Gm. Lin. i. 438.    Gen. Zool.ix. 176.
Pic Cardinal de Lucon, Son. Voy.72. t. 25.
Grand Pic varie de Lucon, Buf. vii. 67.
Cardinal Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 576.
SIZE of the Green Woodpecker. Bill blackish, feathers round
the base greenish grey; crown and hindhead bright red; on each
side from the eye behind, and down the neck, almost to the wing, a
stripe of white; back and wing coverts black, but the feathers of the
upper part of the back and neck adjoiaaing, are margined with white;
wings spotted with the same; quails and tail black, with yellow
shafts; the greater quills spotted with yellow oaa the edges, and the
lesser barred with white; tail black, spotted with white? throat,
breast, and belly, white, with longitudinal black spots; legs blackish);
Inhabits the Isle of Lucoaaaaj.
18.—BROWN WOODPECKER.
doluccensis, Ind. Om. i. 233.    Gm. Lin.
, 439.
Gen. Zool. ix. 178. |
peiche bran des Moluques, Buf. vii. 68.
Pl.en
/. 74S. ii.
Woodpecker, (Stem $h/n>. ii. 577-
SIZE of the little Woodpecker.     Bill  dasky;   body above
brownish black, waved with white; beneath whitish, perpendicularly
 WOODPECKER. 359
dashed with brown j sides of the head white; beneath the ear a dash
of-brown; vent white; tail brown; the feathers spotted on each web
swk&, three white dots, quills also spotted with white; legs dusky.
Inhabits the Molucca Islands.
A.—Little Brown Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. Sup. 109.    Ind. Om. i. 234. 25. B.
Length five inches. Bill pale; head white, except the crown,
and a large patch under the eye, both of which are brown; body
above brown black, spariaigly spotted with white; beneath wholly
white; legs blue.
Inhabits India. We met with a fine drawing of this bird, among
others, in the collection of the late Mr. Middleton; one of the same
was also in that of General Davies; probably a female.
19— CAWNPORE WOODPECKER.
LENGTH four inches and a.half. Bill bluish; head, sides, and
back of the neck, pale ash-colour; round the eye a pale, reddish,
carunculated rim; behind the eye a broad white streak, passing on
each side, and meeting at the beginning of the back ; feathers of the
crown somewhat elongated, and falling behind; above the eye, on
each side the nape, a crimson streak, half an inch long; back and
wings brown, the first crossed with whitish bands, formed of spots,
the latter also marked with largish white spots ; tail dusky black,
the feathers marked with six white spots, three on each margin; all
the under parts of the body dusky white, with a few darker streaks
on the breast; the tail is rather short, and the feathers more than
usually rounded at the tips; the wings reach to very near the end
of it; legs pale lead-colour.
I
 360 WOODPECKER.
Iii the female the red mark on the sides of the nape is much
smaller; the back more sparingly spotted with white; wings and
tail much the same, but the feathers of the latter have more white
spots.
Inhabits India; the former found at Meeah Gunge, in February,
the latter at Cawnpore, in May; these seem to be much allied to the
Brown Species.
20—GUINEA WOODPECKER.
Picus antivolans, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxxi.    Gerin. 1.173.
Guinea Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 141.
THIS is a doubtful species, aaad, from the figure, it is uncertain,
whether it is not a Jacamar. The bill is longer than usual in Woodpeckers, and black; crown and chin bluish green; body dull red,
inclining to brown on the back; sides of the neck mixed with yellow;
wings and tail dull blue; quills brown ; legs pale.
Said to inhabit Guinea, only seen in the engraving above referred to.
21.-LONG-BILLED WOODPECKER.
LENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill one inch and three
quarters long, slender, and brown ; the under mandible shorter than
the upper by a qaaarter of an inch ; the nostrils covered with a small
whitish tuft; crown brown, with small pale spots, and a few crimson
feathers intermixed ; neck behind, and back, .black and olive, in
irregular bars; rump and tail coverts black aaid white ; wings black,
several of the coverts with the oaater webs white, forming two patches;
quills spotted with white on both webs; tail cuneiform, black; the
 WOODPECKER. 361
two middle feathers marked with four lunated white spots on the
inner web, and near the tip a dash of yellow; the two outer ones
margined on the outer edge and tip with white; chin white; throat
and breast mixed dirty white and blown, in waves; sides the same;
belly pale yellow; legs slender, black.
Inhabits the Isle of Martinique.    A fine specimen was in the
collection of Mr. Bullock.
22.—RED WOODPECKER.
Picus miniatus, Ind. Orn. i. 2
Zool.ix. 210. pl.35.    Li,
Red Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. i
}m. Lin. i. 432.     Zool. Ind. p. 14. t, 4.     Gen.
s.xnu p. 176.
Ind. Zool. 4to. pl. vi.   Nat. Misc. pl. 413.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill dusky blue; head deep, dull red,
and crested, on the chin a spot of yellow; hind part of the neck,
and back, and fore part of the neck, rose-colour ; belly white; tail
coverts green; tail deep blue; legs dusky.
Inhabits Java, shot on the heights of that place; called by the
Malayans, Tockar, or Carpenter; known also there by the name
of Platuk.
A.—Length seven inches. Bill bluish; irides red; top of the
head dusky red, from the middle crimson, but the feathers very little
elongated. The aest of the head, neck, and all beneath, dusky
white, marked on the neck and breast with largish dusky spots;
down the middle of the breast and belly crimson; vent white, waved
with obscure pale ash; back, wings, and tail, plain dark chocolate
brown ; rump white, legs pale blue.
Inhabits India. I observed at the late Sir George Staunton's, a
bird which appeared to be the other sex.    In this the head was red
S
 WOODPECKER.
at the top, nape yellow ; bellysiferiated; wings red ; rump greenish;
tail brown.—The two last seem to belong to the Red Species, pro>-
bably Varieties.
23—MALACCA WOODPECKER.
Picus Malaccensis, Ind. Om.i. 241.    Gen. Zool. ix. 192.
Le Pic de Malacca, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 211.
Malacca Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 111.
LESS than the Green Woodpecker. Bill black ; irides red ;
top of the head dull crimson; the feathers long, forming a slight
crest; tha-oat aaid fore part of the neck, rufous yellow; lesser wing
coverts crimson; quills dusky red on the outer, and brown, marked
with roundish white spots, on the inner webs; breast, belly, and
vent rufous white, crossed with black bands; back reddish grey;
rump pale greenish yellow, banded with black; tail black, the
feathers remarkably stiff, and the shafts prominent; legs black.
Inhabits Malacca.
24.—CRIMSON-WINGED WOODPECKER.
Picus puniceus, Lin. Trans, xiii. 176.
LENGTH nine inches and a half. Bill one inch, deep blackish
horn-colour, beneath white ; the plumage in general above green ;
crown of the head mixed dusky and crimson; sides of the nape at
the bottom yellow; wings of a fiaae high crimson, with a chestnut
tinge, passing down the middle of the wing; inner scapulars dull
green; quills browai; the chin, and before to the breast, dirty buff;
belly olive^greeaa, waved across with white spots; under wing coverts
the same; tail black; legs brown.
 Rfe
WOODPECKER. 363
A fine specimen in Mr. Bullock's Museum; it is also among
others in the India House collection.
Inhabits Java.—It seems to coincide with the Malacca Species,
possibly differing only in sex.
25—CINNAMON WOODPECKER,
LENGTH six inches. Bill strong, and black; plumage on the
upper parts plain cinnamon-colour, beneath, even with the eyes, white,
with: a tinge of cinnamon; legs black; the wings short, reaching
scarcely to the base of the taiL
Inhabits India; called by the Bengalese Kant tookra: described
from a specimen in the British Museum.
26.—GORGET WOODPECKER.
Picus pectoralis, Ind. Om. Sup, xxxii,    Gen. Zool. ix. 208.
Gorget Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. Addit. p. 372.
LENGTH above nine inches. Bill pale horn-colour; head,
neck, and upper parts deep crimson or chestnut, growing very pale
on the rump; back and wings marked with numerous, curved,
transverse black crescents; across the breast a large crescent of black;
from thence to tfete veait pale dusky/, rufous, spotted with black; rump
and vent marked with black ; tail black.
Iaaihabits Queen Charlotte's Sound; comes nearest in colour to
the Rufous Species, but is a larger bird, and probably a distinct
species.
$
i
 364
WOODPECKER.
27.—RUFOUS INDIAN WOODPECKER.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill one inch, stout, black; plumage
in geaieral dull rufous; feathers of the hind head elongated into a
crest, standing out behind; the head, and breast are plain ; all the
rest of the bird crossed with streaks of black, which are broadest on
the wings ; the tail marked with five or six curved bars of the same
on each side of the shaft, but not touching it, the ends of the feathers
much pointed, and black; legs ash-colour, claws black.
The female has the head smooth, without any crest, otherwise
not unlike the male, but is rather smaller, and the black streaks
more narrow, and not so well defined; irides in both brown ; round
the eyelids dusky brown.
Inhabits India; common also in Ceylon. This, as well as the
last, is like the Rufous Woodpecker in general markings, but is
probably a different species.    Name in Ceylon Mal-kerala.
28.—CRIMSON-RUMPED WOODPECKER.
Picus Goertan, Ind. Om. i. 236.    Gm. Lin. i. 434.    Gen. Zool. ix. 179.
Pic Goertan du Senegal, Buf. vii. 25.    Pl. enl. 320.
Crimson-rumped Woodpecker Gen. Syn. ii. 583,
MUCH less than the Common Green Woodpecker. Bill lead-
colour; crown crimson ; upper parts of the body grey-brown, tinged
with grey, and spotted with dusky white on the wings; beneath
yellowish grey; rump of a fine red ; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits Senegal, where it is called Goertan.
 WOODPECKER.
365
29.—YELLOW-NECKED WOODPECKER.
LENGTH eight and a half or nine inches. Bill one inch aaad
a quarter, white, tipped with black ; general colour of the plumage
olive-green; on the nape a large greenish yellow crescent; lore
crimson, chin and throat dirty white, spotted with brown and white,
margined all round with crimson; fore part of the neck, and upper
part of the breast green, like the back, but the breast is much deeper
than the neck; from thence all beneath white, with dusky spots like
crescents, quite to the vent; thighs plain white; the lower part of
the back, the quills, and tail are dusky brown, or blackish ; but the
bases of the prime quills iaacline to ferruginous, and several of the
inner ones have the outer webs, near the ends, yellowish; secoaad
quills in general green, with the inner webs dusky; insides of the
wings black, spotted with white ; legs black.
Inhabits India.—Brought into England by M. de Fichtel.
30—GREY-HEADED WOODPECKER.
Picus Norvegicus, Ind. Om. i. 236.    Bris. iv. 18.    Id. 8vo. ii. 46.    Klein. 28.    Gerin.
t. 177.    Gen. Zool. ix. 188.
Picus canus, Gm. Lin. i. 434.    Tern. Man. d'Om. 239. Id. Ed. ii. p. 394.
Grey-headed Green Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 583.    Edw. pl. 65.    Arct. Zool. ii. 277.
SIZE of the Green Woodpecker. Bill dull ash-colour, yellowish
at the base; head, and hind part of the neck, fine ash-colour; the
forehead obscurely marked with four or five small red spots; nostrils
covered with black bristles, turning forwards; from the corner of the
mouth is a streak of black, passing backwards, like a whisker; back
and scapulars blue-green; rump yellow;  wing coverts yellowish
 366
WOODPECKER.
green ; quills dark brown, spotted with light yellow; upper and
under tail coverts dull green ; tail brown, crossed with dusky lines;
under the throat whitish ; and from that to the yen^ cinereous, with
a mixture of green ; legs black.
Inhabits Norway. Found also among the Alps of Switzerland:
coaaaaaioaa in the North of Russia, but more so in Siberia A anakes the
nest in the holes of trees like other species^, and lays fi^e or six white
eggs. The Tungusi, of Nijmaia Tungouska, roast this species,
bruise the flesh, and mix it with any grease, except that of the bear,
which dissolves too readily, with this they anoint their arrows, aaid
pretend that the animals, which are struck with them, instantly fall.*
31.—PERSIAN WOODPECKER.
236.    Gm. Lin. i. 435.
iv. 20.   Id. 8vo. ii. 47.   Aldrox
. t. p. 851.    Ran, 44,!
Picus Persicus, Ind. Orn,
  luteus Persicus, Bt
WM\ 9(7..
Pic jaune de Perse, Buf. vii. 18.
Picchio giallo, Zinn. Uov. 73. t. 11. f.',
Persian Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 584.
SIZE of the Green Woodpecker, but said to hay^e a thicker
neck, and a longer bill; the feathers, from the middle of the crown
to the end of the tail, iaaclhae to ferruginous. The bill ferruginoias ;
feet pale blue, claws black ; the rest of the body yellow ; but all the
ea>ds of the wing feathers, or tips, incline somewhat to ferruginous ;
and a spot of the same colour encompasses the eyes.
Said to breed-ii* Per^ai, and <tejsanibed first by Aldrovaaidfus.—
Buffon thinks it; a* Varietyof fihe Green Woodpecker* as well as the
last, but we are certain, that the one is4*sti«bipti.and iaa respect to the
other it appears very doubfcftuL
i Gmel. Voyr..%$vii* Xlfrr-Arct. ZooL
^
 WOODPECKER. 367
32— ORANGE WOODPECKER.
Picus aurantius, Ind. Orn. i. 237.    Lin. i. 174.    Gm. Lin. i. 430.
 Capitis bona; Spei, Bris. iv. 78. t. 6. 1.   Id. 8vo. ii. 50.    Gerin. t.175.
Pic du Cap de bonne Esperance, Buf. vii. 24.
Orange Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 585.    Gen. Zool. ix. 195.
LENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill deep lead-colour; crown
and hind head red ; tlae feathers of both long and narrow; on each
side, from behind the eye to the hiaad head, a white stripe; another
from the nostrils passes under the eyes, down the sides of the neck;
the bind part, and sides of which are blackish; cheeks, throat, and
fore part of the neck, dirty grey, the feathers margined with blackish;
upper part of the back fiaae golden orange-colour ; scapulars golden
olive, tinged with orange; lower part of the back, rump, and upper
tail coverts blackish; breast, belly, sides, and thighs dirty white,
the feathers mai'gined with brown; under tail coverts the same,
margined with black, and a transverse stripe of the same; wing
coverts bluish brown ; on the tips of some of them a dirty grey spot;
the greater ones, next the body, gilded olive, aaid some of them
spotted in the same manner; those farthest from the body are plain
black-brown; quills dark brown, some of them spotted with dirty
white; tail black; legs pale lead-colour.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
33.—GOLD-BACKED WOODPECKER.
Picus Senegalensis, Ind. Om. i. 237.    Gm. Lin. i. 430.    Gen. Zool. ix. 198.
Petit Pic raye du Senegal, Buf. vii. 25.    PL enl. 345. 2.
Gold-backed Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 586.
NOT much bigger than a Sparrow.     Bill dtisky; crown red ;
forehead and sides brown ; the back golden fulvous yellow; quills
 368 WOODPECKER.
the same; coverts, and rump greenish; under part of the body
transversely undulated with grey brown, aaad dull white; the two
middle tail feathers black, the other the same, spotted with yellow;
legs dusky.
Inhabits Senegal.
34—WHITE-BILLED WOODPECKER.
Picus principalis, Ind. Om.i. 225.    Lin.i. 173.    Gm. Lin. i. 425.    Borowsk.ii. 135.
Viei/l. Am.ii. 56. pl. 109.    Gen. Zool. ix. p. 150. pl.36.    Tem.Man.Ed.il Anal.
p.lxxix.
Picus niger Carolinensis, Bris.iv. 26.    Id. 8vo.ii. 49.
 imbrifcetus, Raii 162.    Will. 301.
Quatotomomi, Raii 162.    Will. 94. t. 22.    Id. Engl. 390. t. 22.
Pic noir huppe de la Caroline, Pl. enl. 690.    Buf. vii. p. 46.
King of the Woodpecker
s, Kalm. Trav. ii. p. 85 ?
Ivory-billed Woodpecker
Amer. Om. pl. 29. male.
White-billed Woodpecke
r, Gen. SynAi. 553. male.
Id. Sup. 105. female.
Cate
s. Car.
i. 1.16.    Arct. Zool.
ii. No. 156.    Klein. 26. 2.
Bartr. Trav. p. 287.
Na
. Misc.
pl. 497.
THIS is from sixteeaa to twenty inches in length, thirty-one in
breadth, and nearly as stout as a Crow, weighing more than twenty
ounces. The bill white as ivory, three inches long, and channelled;
irides yellow; on tlae hindhead an erect, pointed crest, of a fine red
colour, some of the feathers two inches long ; general colour of the
plumage deep black, but the lower parts of the back, rump, and
upper tail coverts are white; from behind the eye arises a white stripe,
which passes down on each side of the neck, and back, beyoaad the
middle, and ends in a point; the four first prime quills are black;
the fifth has a white tip, and two spots of white on the inner web:
the sixth and seventh with the ends, and inner webs, white; all the
other quills wholly white, as are the under wing coverts ; tail very
stiff, the feathers greatly curviaag inwards, and wholly black; the
legs black.
 WOODPECKER. 369
The female is much the same in size and colour, and the head
also is crested, but of the same colour with the body ; in both sexes
the forehead and sides of the bill at the base are white.
Inhabits Carolina, Virginia, Brazil, and Mexico ; called by the
Spaniards, Carpenter; and not without reason, for like most others
of the Genus, it makes a great noise with the bill against the trees in
the woods, to be heard at a great distance, as if carpenters were at
work; producing, according to Catesby, in an hour or two, a bushel
of chips; it is thought by some to perforate sound trees, but we are
assured, that it is only those hastening to decay, that suit its purpose, the intent of which is to form a cavity, wherein to deposit their
eggs. We are told, that this is generally winding, and from two to
five feet deep; the eggs are four or five iaa number, white, and as
large as those of a Pullet, of equal size at both ends. They also
attack the trees for the sake of the insects contained within, as well as
in the clefts of the bark ; and are very dexterous at separating it from
the dead pines, to get at the worms of the goat beetles, the chief food
beiaag insects, and their larvae ; are not thought to eat Indian corn.
The common note resembles the tone of a trumpet, or high note of
a clarionet, uttered every two or three seconds, and may be heard
more thaai half a mile; are fouaad iaa Georgia, according to Mr.
Abbot, and there called Lobcock by some, by others Woodcock;
chiefly seen in the swamps, but far from common. The note is
reckoned a sigai of rain. It is said, that the Canadian Indians make
use of the bills of these birds for coronets, setting them round in a
wreath, with the points upwards, and that the Northern Indians
purchase them of the Southern, at the rate of two or three buckskins
per bill.—Kalm says, they are found at New Jersey, though seldom,
and only at certain seasons.—Mr. Abbot never found this species in
Virginia,
 370
WOODPECKER/.
35—BANK WOODPECKER.
Picus pitius, Ind. Orn. i. 234.    Gm. Lin
Le Pitico, Molin. Chil. (Fr. ed.) 216,
Bank Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 14
. 432.    Gen. ZooL is
THIS is said to be the size of a Pigeon; the plumage brown,
spotted with white; tail short.
Inhabits Chili; said not to make a nest, as others, in the hollows
of trees, but in the holes of the elevated banks of rivers, laying four
eggs.    The flesh is esteemed by the natives.
36.—PILEATED WOODPECKER.
Picus pileatus, Ind. Orn.
pl. 110.    Gen. Zool.
Picus Virginianus pileatu
J?iouB niger toto capite rv
i. 225.    LinA. 173.
ix. 158. pl. 32.
s, Bris.iv. 29.    Id. S
bm, Klein Av. 26. 3.
. p. 50.
Pic noir huppe de la Louisiane, Buf. vii. 48.    Pl. enl. 718.
Le Charpentier a dos blanc, Voy. d'Azara iv. No. 249.
Larger crested Woodpecker, Cates. Car. i. pl; 17.
Pileated Woodpecker,   Gen. Syn. ii. 554.    Id. Sup. 105.     Arct. Zool. ii. No. 157.
Bartr. Trav. 287.    Nat. Misc. pl. 493.
THIS is smaller than the White-billed; length sixteen or seventeen inches, breadth twenty-eight. Bill two inches long, lead
coloured; eyelids the same; irides gold-colour; on the top of the
head a crest of long red feathers; beneath this, over the eye, a narrow white streak, and under this a broad one of black, in which the
eyes are placed, all of which tend to the hind head; on each side,
from the nostrils, a streak of yellowish white passes back to the nape,
and from thence, on the sides of the neck, to the shoaalders; on each
jaw a streak of crimson, and within this the chin and throat are white;
 WOODPECKER. 37l
the rest of the neck, both at the back, and before to the vent black •
belly, sides, thighs, and under tail coverts blackish ; the hind part of
the neck, back, wings, and tail in general are black ; on the wing
coverts a spot of white on the outer edge, and another or two of the
same, in other parts, from the base of the quills; tail unequal, the two
middle feathers the longest; legs black; in some specimens the streak
on the sides of the neck, and the chin and throat are pure white.
The female is not greatly different, but wants, the red on the
lower jaw; instead of which, that part is dusky; forepart of the
head dusky, the rest crimson as in the male, and the feathers equally
elongated.
Inhabits Louisana, Carolina, and Virginia, also the forests in
Pennsylvania, where it stays the winter;* is very hurtful to the maize,
as it settles on the ripe ears, and destroys them with its bill;f not that
it is certain they eat the graiaa, but probably search after some kind
of insects, harbouring in the plant, as birds of this Genus are not
often granivorous. It is found to extend as high as lat. 50. 31,
north, being met with near the baaiks of Albany River, near 400
niiles from its discharge into Hudsoaa's Bay. It lays six white eggs,
in the hole of a tree, and hatches the young in June: met with
frequently in the pine forests, and known to some by the name of
Woodcock; as is the White-billed, but is more coanmon.
A.—Picus pileatus, Ind. Orn. i. 226. 4. B.    Gen. Syn. Sup. 105.
Length seventeen inches and a half; breadth twenty-eight, weight
nine ounces and a half.    Bill lead-colour; forehead greenish yellow;
* Kalm. Trav. i. 148. f Id.    This author adds, that all the Woodpeckers are
destructive to maize, when it begins to ripen, by pecking holes round the ears, which lets
in the wet, and occasions the corn to rot, Mr. Abbot observes, that although the chief
food is insects, yet it will sometimes open and eat the tender ears of Indian corn, but is most
frequently found chipping to pieces the stumps of trees, cut down, for the larvae of beetles
and other insects,
B b b2
i
 372
WOODPECKER.
crown crimson ; lore straw-colour, passing over the eyes, and down
the sides of the neck; from the lower mandible a black streak, communicating with the fore part of the neck, which is black; back,
wings, scapulars, lower belly, and tail black; upper half of the
quills, and secondaries white, the rest black; belly and thighs the
same, marked with faint, transverse bars of white ; legs black.
This was found at Gloucester House, in lat. 50. 31. north, and
96. 3. west long. 387 miles up Albany River, in January, called by
the natives, May-May.
37—LINEATED WOODPECKER
Picus lineatus, Ind. Om.i. 226.    Lin.i. 174.    Gm. Lin.
. 425.
Gen. ZooL
 niger Cayanensis, Bris. iv. 31. 1.1. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i
i. 51.
Tlauhquechultototl, Raii Syn. 164 ?
Pic noir huppe de Cayenne, Buf. vii. 50.    PL enl. 717.
Autre Pic varie, Ferm. Surin.ii. 170?
Le Charpentier noir, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 248.
Lineated Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 556.
SIZE of the Green Woodpecker; length near fourteen inches.
Bill horn-colour; head and nape of a beautiful red, the feathers
elongated into a crest; along the jaw a stripe of the same; upper
parts of the body black; cheeks the same, inclining to ash-colour;
from the corners of the mouth a line of white, growing broader, and
passing down on each side, meets in the middle of the back; throat
rufous white, dashed down the shaft of each feather with black;
fore part of the neck and breast black, the feathers margined with
rufous white at the tips; belly, vent, and thighs, rufous white, striated
transversely with black ; the edges of the wings, and beneath thean
white; quills black, the inner webs, for one-third of the length from
the base, white; tail cuneiform, black; legs grey.
 %
i
i
E
 M^fcrr^/'lfrr^rr/rr
 s
  %
WOODPECKER.
Inhabits Cayenne, and from thence extends to Paraguay; sometimes met with in the woods in numbers together. The natives call
it Ipecu; about Guinea named Ouantou; and by the Portuguese
Corta pao.
38—BUFF-CRESTED WOODPECKER.—Pl. lix.
Picus melanoleucus, Ind. Orn. i. 226.    Gm. Lin. i. 426.    Gen. Zool. ix. 155. pl. 31.
Charpentier, a huppe couleur de Paille, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 251.
Buff-crested Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 558. pl. 25.
LENGTH twelve inches and half. Bill two inches, brownish
horn-colour; head crested; the crown as far as the middle black,
the feathers of the rest elongated, and buff-colour; the whole
bounded on the sides and behind with black; the rest of the head,
neck, back, and wings, in general blackish brown; outer edge of the
wing, about the middle white; from the gape begins a stripe of white
passing under the eye, and continuing on each side of the neck,
growing considerably broader as it proceeds downwards, and finally
meeting at the beginning of the back, and there forming a large
space ; middle of the chin dusky white, the lower part of the back
is also mottled with white; breast, belly, and vent dirty white,
marked across with dusky black narrow bars; quills, tail, and legs,
black.
Inhabits Surinam. Described from a specimen in the Leverian
Museum. It has many things in common with the lineated species,
but differs in the colour of the crest; and the neck before, the middle
of the chin excepted, is wholly black. I find, that in some specimens the lower part of the back has no mottling of white.
 lilt
374
WOODPECKER;
39.—CHILI WOODPECKER.
Picus lignarius, Ind. Om.i. 224.    G
Chili Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii
140.
i. 424.   Molin.Chil.209;
Gen. Zool. ix. 157.
Id. Fr. Ed. 215.
NEARLY as large as a Blackbird. Crown crested, red; body
banded blue and white; the bill so strong, as not only to enable the
bird to make holes in decayed trees, but even in living and sound
ones, in which it makes the nest; and is said by this means to destroy
fruitrbeardng trees.
Inhabits Chili.
40.—RED-NECKED WOODPECKER.
Picus rubricoffis,, Ind. Om. i. 226.    Gm. Lin. i. 426.
Gen. ZooL
Le Pic a Cou rouge, Buf. vii. 53.
Grand Pic huppe a tete rouge, PL enl. 612.
Le Charpentier a huppe et Cou rouges, Voy. d'Azara,
iv. No.25(
Red-necked Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 558.
LENGTH sixteen inches. Bill pale; irides yellow; head and
neck, as far as the breast, crimson ; hind part of the head crested;
back, wings, and tail deep brown, with a little mixture of cream-
colour on the wings; beneath the last pale rufous, a little banded;
under parts of the body deep cream-colour, in some specimens
transversely banded with black; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits Brazil, Cayenne, Guiana, and Paraguay. Buffon ealls
the under parts fulvous, which may probably arise from difference of
sex. Tke above description was taken from one m the Leverian
Museum.
 WOODPECKER. 375
41.—BERBICE WOODPECKER.
LENGTH thirteen inches and a half. Bill two inches, horn*
coloured ; the head, including the sides and the jaws, crimson, the
feathers somewhat elongated at the nape, and pointed ; the base of
the bill and sides brownish white; on the under jaw below, and
behind the eye, an oval angular spot, about half an inch in diameter,
the upper half black, the under white; chin, throat, the fore part of
the neck, and back of it beneath the crest, black; all the upper parts,
wings, and tail brown black; at each side of the under jaw begins
a line of white, growing broader, aaad passing on each side to the
back; the breast, belly, and thighs dirty buff-colour, crossed with
numerous dusky black bars; vent plain black; tail cuneiform, the
two middle feathers five inches long, the outer three only; the under
wing coverts are white, the inner webs of the quills the same half
way from the base; the wings long, reaching to within an inch of
the end of the tail; legs brown.
In another specimen the top of the head, and down the middle of
the crimson of the crown, black; but the crimson does not occupy
the sides of the head much below the eyes; the space round the eye
is black; and a broad buff-coloured streak, beginning at the nostrils,
passes in the direction of the jaw, growing wider, and uniting behind
as in the other bird; the breast and under parts are also the same,
but more bright.
This is a beautiful species, and seems to differ from any yet
described, unless it may probably prove the Ipecu of Marcgrave, of
which the following is a description :—gg This bird is about the big-
1 ness of a Dove. The length of the neck two inches, of the body
" four, of the tail also four; of the legs almost one inch and a half.
" It hath four toes in its feet, two standing forwards and two back-
" wards, as in Parrots;   the head is covered with feathers of a
 376 WOODPECKER.
" vermilion colour, on which also it hath a crest like a Dove; the
" neck underneath is black to the very bill, as also above; but in
" both sides there is a broad white line produced towards the back ;
" the wings are outwardly all over black, inwardly white; the tail
4 black; in the belly and upper part of the legs the feathers are
" black and white ; its bill is strait, sharp-pointed, wherewith it
" pierces the barks of trees, as the Woodpecker."*
The two bia'ds first described were introduced to our notice by
Mr. Mc. Leay, who received them with many others from Berbice ;
the first was called the female, the other tlae male; aaad to both was
attached the name Hoedoedoe, by which appellation they are known
in the parts where found. It seems to have most affinity with the
Red-headed one, having many markings in common with it; but on
comparison, will be found to differ in so many others, as to make it
very probable, that it may be a distinct species.
42.—LEWIS'S WOODPECKER.
Picus torquatus, Lewis's Woodpecker, Amer. Om. iii. pl.20. f. 3.
LENGTH eleven inches and a half. Bill dark horn-colour;
head, back, wings, and tail black; front, chin, and cheeks, beyond
the eyes, dark, rich red; round the neck a white collar, spreading
over the breast, and appearing as if the fibres of the feathers had
been silvered; they are also separate in their texture, aaad mixed with
silvery ones; vent black; legs dusky blue.
Inhabits America.
* See   Will. Orn. (Engl, ed.) p. 1
Av. p. 43. 7.
3 § V.     Id. (ed. Latin.) p. 95. t. 22.     Raii Syn. t
 WOODPECKER.
43.—NOOTKA WOODPECKER.
Picus flaviventris, Yellow-bellied Woodpecker, Gen. Zool. ix. 161.
VieilL Am. Sept. ii. 67.
THIS is a small Species. General colour black, spotted on the
wings with white; head, neck, and breast red; belly yellowish olive.
Inhabits Nootka Sound, on the north-west Coast of America;
first observed there by Captain Cook.
44.—GOLD-CRESTED WOODPECKER.
Picus melanochlorus, Ind. Orn.i. 239.    Gm. Lin.i, 427.    Gen. Zool.ix. 203.
pl.35. xxxxx
 varius Americanus cristatus, Bris. iv. 34.    Id. 8vo. ii. 51.
Gold-crested Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 589.
SIZE of the Green Woodpecker. Bill dusky; on the head a
very long crest, of a golden orange-colour; cheeks reddish; between
the base of the bill and the eyes a purple spot; general colour of the
body black and yellow, mixed in waves, streaks, and spots, but
beneath chiefly the latter; tail black ; legs dusky.
Inhabits Cayenne, and other parts of America; feeds on worms.
45—CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER.
Grand Pic raye de Cayenne, Buf vii. 31.    Pl. enl. 719.    Ind. Om. i. 239. 41. B.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill black ; top of the head black ;
feathers of tlae hindhead elongated, and beautiful crimson; sides of the
head white, in the aniddle of which the eyes are placed; on the under
 378 WOODPECKER;
jaw a broad kind of purplish whisker, crossed with numerous black
lines; upper parts of the body yellowish, crossed with narrow black
bands; beneath yellowish, spotted black; quills black, barred with
yellow; tail black, the two middle feathers plain, the rest crossed with
fifteen or sixteen yellow bars; legs black.
Inhabits Cayenne. There seems much affinity between this and
the last, yet it may be doubted; as Brisson's bird is expressly said to
have the tail entirely black.
46— YELLOW-CRESTED WOODPECKER.
Picus flavescens, Ind. Orn. i. 239.    Gm. Lim i. -
Yellow-crested Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 589.
Gen.Zool.ix.
own III. 1.12.
SIZE of a Jackdaw. Head covered with a long loose pendant,
pale yellow crest; throat, cheeks, and hind part of the neck, of the
same colour; back and wings black, transversely marked with broad,
light yellow bars; the tail coverts high yellow; belly and tail black;
thighs, and inner wing coverts pale yellow; legs dark brown.
. Inhabits Brazil, among the Airi palm trees ; it is a very solitary
Species.
47.—LESSER BLACK WOODPECKER.
Picus hirundinaceus, Ind. Orn.i. 227.   Lin. i. 174.   Gm. Lin. i. 426.   Gen. ZooL ix. 196.
 flavipes, Gm. Lin.i. 438.
 niger novae Anglise, Bris. iv. 24.    Id. 8vo. ii. 48.    Klein, 27. 4.
Le Petit Pic noir,  Buf. vii. 54.
Yellow-legged Woodpecker, Arct. Zool. ii. No. 167. female.
Lesser Black Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 559,    Albin, iii. pl. 23.
SIZE not much larger than a Swallow; length five inches and a
half.    Bill one inch and a quarter long, and brown; irides whitish^
 WOODPECKER.
general colour of the plumage black; hindhead red; edges of the
ttittgs, and lower belly white; legs yellowish.
The female has the head wholly black.
A.—Length six inches and a half; breadth eleven. The bill pale
yellow; plumage in general black, but the wing feathers are mostly
margined with dusky white; belly, thighs, and vent, white; the eye
placed in a small patch of white, equally surrounding it; at the
hindhead a broad crescent of crimson; legs pale yellow.
The female is much the same, but wants the red on the hindhead.
Inhabits Georgia; met with in some parts of the back and inland
oak woods.
48—RED-CROWNED WOODPECKER.
Picus hirundinaceus, Ind. Om. i. 227. 8. B.
Petit Pic noir, Buf. vii. p. 54.    PL enl. 694. 2.    Gen. Syn. ii. 559. 7. A.
SIZE of the Wryneck. Plumage on the head, neck, and upper
parts black; on the crown a patch of red; over the eye a white
streak, and towards the hind head a mixture of yellow; down the
middle of the breast, as far as the belly, a dash of red ; belly and
sides mixed black and grey; lower part of back, and rump white ;
the rest of the pluanage black, glossed with blue on the head and
body.
The female has neither red nor yellow on the head; and some
specimens, with no red on the crown, have a circle of yellow encompassing the head ; probably these are young males.
A.—Length eight inches and a half. Bill dusky, pale at the
base; plumage in general black; on the middle of the crown a red
C c c 2
 o8U WOODPECKER.
spot; eye placed in a bed of white, extending to the hind head,
which is golden yellow; breast down the middle, and sides deep
crimson ; vent barred black and white, lower parts of the back and
rump white ; wings and tail black ; some of the secondaries white
just at the tip.
The female has the head wholly black ; and a line of white over
the eye; the former of these, in the collection of General Davies;
the latter in my own ; were both brought from Cayenne.
49—PORTO-RICO WOODPECKER.
Picus Portoricensis, Ann. du Mus. Nat. ii. 285, pl. 51.    Nat. Misc. pl. 953.    Gen.
Zool. ix. 217. pl. 37.
SIZE of a Blackbird. Bill and legs black ; forehead before the
eyes, the lids, rump, and upper tail coverts white ; crown and neck
behind, black; back the same, but deeper, with a greenish tinge;
quills and tail black ; throat, neck before, middle of the breast,
belly, and vent deep blood red ; sides of the breast and belly brown,
paler beneath the wings.
The female is much the same, but smaller, and the colour less
bright.—This bird is common at Porto Rico; said to cry like the
European Green Species, and is supposed to be distinct; but seems
anuch allied to the last described.
50.—CRIMSON-CROWNED WOODPECKER.
LENGTH eight inches, breadth fourteen and a half. Bill and
legs pale lead-colour; the whole top of the head, and neck behind
to the back black, but on the middle of the crown is a round crimson
 WOODPECKER. 381
spot about half an inch in diameter; sides of the neck, chin, and
throat white ; from the base of the under jaw a long black streak,
passing on each side almost to the shoulders; the rest of the under
parts dusky white, marked with pale obscure bands; but the sides
of the breast with longitudinal dusky black ones; back, and wings
dusky black, spotted with white; tail black, the two outer feathers
white ; with two black spots near the end.
The female has no crimson on the crown.
Inhabits Georgia: frequent in oak woods, mostly among pines, in
search of insects, is fond also of the young ears of corn.—Mr. Abbot.
51.—STRIPED-BELLIED WOODPECKER.
Picus fasciatus, Ind. Orn. i. 228.    Gen. Zool. ix. 162.
—— striatus, Gm. Lin. i. 430.
Striped-bellied Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 563.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill one inch, yellow horn-colour;
crown and nape crimson ; between the bill and eye red ; just round
the eye white ; sides of the head striated black and white; froan the
lower jaw springs a crimson band like a whisker; back, wings, and
tail, brown black, without spots ; but the ends of the last are just
tipped with white; belly striated black and white ; legs black.
Native place uncertain : described from one in the British Museum.
52.—SKLIT WOODPECKER.
Picus querulus, Red-cockaded Woodpecker, Am. Orn. ii. pl. 15. f. I.
LENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill seven-eighths of an inch
long; irides red; bristles over the bill white; head above the eyes,
the nape, and neck behind fine glossy black; cheeks, inclaiding the
I
I I
 11
&82 WOODPECKER.
eye, white, growing much broader behind the eye, and a little way
oaa the neck; on each side of the nape, close above the white, a small
crimson streak; back and scapulars black and white alternate, in
bands, 18 or 20 of each; lesser wing coverts black,; each of the
ethers marked with a white, heart-shaped spot, and the lower series
with oval ones: greater quills black ; the exterior wholly so, except
a spot or two of white near the base; the second with five white spots
on the outer web, ceasing for one inch at the end, and three or four
larger round spots from the base to half way on the inner web; the
others much the saane, with the ends plain black; the second quills
crossed with three or four spots on each side the web, and being
transverse, give the appearance of bars; from the gape, a broad
streak of black, dividing the cheeks from the chin, which, as well
as all the under parts, is white, but the sides under the wings, and
the vent, spotted with black, most so on the sides of the breast;
lesser under wing coverts white, the others spotted with black; tail
three inches and a quarter long, the four middle feathers black, the
rest white; the outmost barred four times on the inner web, and two
smaller bars on the outer, corresponding with the two inner owes
nearest the end; the second feather much the same, but black within
at the base; t&e third has ttie web within black, and white without,
with a perpendicular fwhite streak on the inner web, near the end,
and two black spots, a larger and a smaller, the first nearest the ends;
tfoe wings reach three-fifths on tlae tail; bill and legs black.
The female is marked much the same as the male, and differs
in having the crimson spot, on each side of the nape, about the size
of a small pea, close to the upper side of the white; but in one which
came under our observation, there was no red at all on any part of
the head.
Inhabits Georgia and Virginia, but is not a plentiful Species;
chiefly found in *&e woods, and lives principally on insects, which it
.procures by running up and down the trees and branches, more
especially pines; is called, in Georgia, Sklit, from the note.
 ■ai^s^^a^ <*
WOODPECKER. 383
53 — ENCENADA WOODPECKER.
Picus variegatus, Ind. Orn. i. 233.    Gen. Zool. ix. 193.
- bicolor, Gm.LinA. 438.
Pic varie de la Encenada, Buf. vii. 74.   PL enl. 748. 1. male.
Encenada Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 575.
THIS is a trifle larger than the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker; the
length six inches. Bill lead-colour; irides white; the plumage in
general of two colours, grey-brown and white, but these are irregularly blended together, so as to render it extremely beautiful; above
mixed transversely, and beneath in a perpendicular direction; quills
brown, dotted with white; the head crested, and mixed on both sides
with crimson; sides of the head white, verging to brown under the
eye; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits America; found at Encenada; seems to be much allied
to the last.
54—YELLOW-HEADED WOODPECKER.
Picus icterocephalus, Ind. Om. i. 241.    Gen. Zool. ix. 191. pl. 35. X X x
- chlorocephalus, Gm. Lin. i, 432.
Petit Pic a gorge rouge, Buf. vii. 37.    Pl. enl. 784.
Yellow-headed Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 595.
SIZE of a Wryneck. Bill lead-colour; head and neck yellow ;
top of the head crimson, lengthening into a crest at the hind head;
at the angles of the mouth a streak of the same; the general colour
of the plumage olive brown; under parts marked with white spots,
most numerous at the vent; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits Guiana.
5
 Ill
384 WOODPECKER.
55—GOLD-BREASTED WOODPECKER.
Picus chrysosternus, Golden-breasted Woodpecker, Wern, Trans, ii. p. 289.
LENGTH twelve inches and a half. Bill near oaie inch and a
half, black; crown deep glossy black, which extends to the hind
head, and there ends in a point; at the nostrils begins a whitish
stripe, which includes the eye, and then becomes a rich orange
yellow, uniting behind the head, and spreading over the sides and
lower part of the neck and breast; chin black ; throat speckled near
the bill with white; upper parts of the body and wing coverts greyish
brown, traaasversely striated with greyish white; quills darker and
immaculate aiear the tips; the fourth the longest, shafts of all golden
yellow ; rump white; body beneath grey, with brown, arrow-shaped
lines, pointing downwards, two on each feather ; upper and under
tail coverts banded black and whitish; tail four inches aaad a half
long, black; the two middle feathers partially banded with dirty
yellow; the two outmost pair the same on the inner web; the shafts
of the last golden hi the middle ; legs obscure olive. This was a
female.
Inhabits the dry and arid tracts of table land in the Sertem, or
inland country of the Province of Bahia, in South America ; and
unlike its tribe, said to have a short plaintive cry while flying, and
frequently perches on the tops of the straggling, stunted trees, which
afford such a contrast to the luxuriant vegetation of the coast.—Mr.
Swainson, from whose account these particulars are taken, esteems
it as a rare species, having seen it in no other collection than his
own.
 WOODPECKERS 385
56—BRAZILIAN WOODPECKER.
Picus Brasiliensis, Brasilian Woodpecker,  Wern. Trans, iii. p. 291.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill near one inch, very strait, sides
angulated; irides yellow; head, as far as the nape, crimson; orbits
and cheeks olive brown ; beneath this, and commencing from the
nostrils, a narrow line of golden yellow, terminating with the neck;
below it another stripe, crimson at the base of the lower mandible,
and olive beyond, ending with the former, leaving the chin and
throat yellow; plumage in general above yellowish olive; inner
shafts of tlae quills black, baat the edges pale rufous, almost their
entire length; inner wing coverts tawny; breast, and beneath the
body tawny yellow, transversely banded with blackish lines; tail
tha*ee inches and a half long, black, the feathers tinged with olive at
the base; legs olivaceous.
This was said to be a male.    The female unknown.
Inhabits South America; met with in the dry and arid tracts of
the Province of Bahia, with the last described.
57.—VARIED WOODPECKER.
Picus tricolor, Ind. Or
n. i. 230.    Gm. Lin. i. 437.    Gerin.
1.178.    Gen. Zool.
■          varius Mexicanus
major et minor, Bris. iv. 57. & 59.
Id. 8vo. ii. 57,58
Quauhchochopitli, Rai
i, 163.    Fern. N. Hisp. Ch. 94 ?*
Pica Mexicana, Seba. i
t. 64. 6.    Klein, p. 62. 6.
Jaculator cinereus, Klein, Av. 127. 2 ?
L'Epeiche du Mexique, Buf. vii. 70.
Varied Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 568,
SIZE of the Middle Spotted Woodpecker. The whole body
covered with black feathers, transversely striated with white; "breast
and belly red; quills and tail black, striated across with white.
Inhabits the colder parts of Mexico.
* Fernandez does not mention that his bird was red on any part of the body.
vol. in. Ttvo
 386 WOODPECKER.
58.—CANADA SPOTTED WOODPECKER.
"Picus Canadensis, Ind. Om.i. 230.    Bris.iv. 45. t.2. f.2.    Id. 8vo. ii. 54.    Gm.
Lin. i. 437.    Gen. Zool. ix. 153.
Quauhtotopotli alter, Raii, 162.    Fern. N. Hisp. p. 47 ?
L'Epeiche du Canada, Buf. vii. 69.    PL enl. 345. 1.
Canada Spotted Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 569.   Arct. Zool. ii. 163.
SIZE of the Greater Spotted Woodpecker; length nine inches.
Bill one inch and a quarter long, and horn-colour; upper parts of
the body black, with a mixture of white in the middle of the back;
under parts whitish; head black ; forehead dirty white; on each side
a broad white band, passing above the eyes, and joining a pale
orange one on the hindhead; under the eye another white band,
which widens as it proceeds downwards on the sides of the neck; the
wing coverts and quills spotted with white; the two middle tail
feathers are black; the next has a dirty white spot near the tip; the
three others with the ends marked obliquely with white; the two
outmost being wholly white, except at the base; legs grey brown.
Inhabits Canada. That figured in Pl. enl. is probably a female,
as it has no orange on the hindhead, nor is the front of a dirty white.
59.—NORTHERN WOODPECKER.
Picus borealis, Northern Woodpecker, Gen. Zool Ax. 174.    Vieill. Am. Sept.ii. 66. 122.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill black; irides red; plumage in
general black, spotted with dusky; wing coverts black, spotted with
white; the four exterior tail feathers white, varied with black; the
rest entirely of the latter colour; on the hindhead a narrow red
band, and a large white spot from thence to the eyes, below which
 WOODPECKER. 387
is a black line, extending to the under mandible; the feathers at the
base of the beak, throat, front of the neck, breast, and belly, whitish,
the latter spotted with black.
This has some affinity to the Canada Spotted Species.
60.—CAROLINA WOODPECKER.
Reus Carolinus, Ind. Om. i. 231.    Lin. i. 174.    Gm. Lin. i. 431.    Gen. Zool. ix. 182.
 varius Jamaicensis, Bris. iv. 59.    Id. 8vo.ii. 58.    Sloan. Jam. 229. 15. t.255. 2.
Bon, 181. 11.    J3«/.vii. 72.   Pl.enl.h97.
Picus griseus, Vieill. Am. ii. 62. pl. 116. Var.
Jamaica Woodpecker, Edw. pl. 244.
Red-bellied Woodpecker, Cates. Car.i. 1.19.  .2.   Bartr. 287. Amer. Om.i. pl.7. f.2.
Carolina Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 570.    Arct. ZooL ii. 161.
I
I
LENGTH ten inches; breadth seventeen. Bill one inch and a
half long, black; forehead buff; top of the head, and all behind
crimson; sides and beneath pale ash-colour, inclining to olive browaa
oaa the breast; on each jaw a slight tinge of crimson; the same on
the breast, growing deeper from the middle of the belly to between
the legs; plumage above, back, and wings black, baaided with white;
from 16 to 20 bands in all on the back, broader than in the Jamaica
Species; wings much the same; second quills black, with four or
five white spots on the outer webs; greater quills black, all but the
the two first tipped with white, or fringed; the first quill shortest;
rump, and upper tail coverts white, transversely marked with black,
and the latter reaching half way on the tail; the outer feather
indented black and white on the outer web, the same on the inner,
just at the tip : the second black, with the outer fringe and tip white;
third only white at the tip ; the four middle ones wholly black, and
all bifid at the ends; the wings reach half way on the tail; legs
black.
D D D 2
 388 WOODPECKER.
In4be female the top of the head is deep ash-colour, the rest of
the hind head and neck crimson ; sides oof the head darldflike the
crown; chin, and beneath pale ash; middle of the belly pale crimson ;
the rest as in the male.
Young males differ, in having the crown, nape, and neck behind
mixed with red, becoming wholly red at the following moult.
Inhabits Jamaica, Carolina, and other warmer parts of America.
Iaa Georgia called Chamchucker, from its note; by some the Chequered Woodpecker: is fond of mulberries: frequents the oak woods.
A.—Carolina Woodpecker, Gen.Syn.ii. 571. 17. A.    Ind. Om.i. 231. B.
In this Variety the forehead is buff-colour in both sexes, as well
as the cheeks; on the belly a pale yellowish brown tinge, but not
at all inclined to red; the two middle tail feathers transversely barred
with white on each side, the aaext only so on the outer webs, but
reaching- to the shafts ; and the outer one dotted with white, On the
outer margins/jthe whole length, but on the inner only near the end;
the head, otherwise, aaswering to the former description.
I received both sexes of the above from Jamaica, and find them to
be larger than /the American ones, nearly as long as in Brisson's
description, or ten inches and half.
Kalm observes, that the colour of the head is deeper, and of a
more shiniiig red than Catesby has represented it.
According to-Sloane, it is'inet with every where in the woods,
and is fond of the capsicum, or^Guinea pepper.
B.—L'Epeiche raye de la Loussiane, Buf. vii. 73.
571. 17. B,    Ind. Om.i. 231, 17. y.
Pl. enl. 692. (female.)    Gen. Syn. ii.
Bigger than the Great Spotted Species ; upper part of the head
le red; on the throat, and under1 the eyes, some markings of the
 WOODPECKER. 389
same; general colour of the plumage above black, transversely* striped
with white,; beneath greyish white; the two middle and two outer
tail feathers black and white mixed ; the othess' plain black.
One of these, supposed to be the female, had a grey forehead,
and no red on the head, except at the back part.
Inhabits Louisiana. The lines on the back of this bird are* more
numerous than in the Jamaica Variety.
C —Picus varius Indicus, Gerin. t. 171.   Ind. Om. i. 231. 18, S.
The general colour of this bird is black and white mixed; the
crown, nape, and belly red; forehead and beneath the neck yellowish
grey ; a line of black descends from the nostrils, through the eyes,
on each side, and surrounding them ; the middle of the back and
rump almost wholly white.
61—HAIRY WOODPECKER.
Picus villosus, Ind. Om.i. 232.     Lin.i. 175.     Gm. Lin. i. 435.    Kalm. It. iii. 43.
Phil. Trans, lxii. 388.    Klein. 27. 9.     Vieill. Am. ii. p. 64. pl. 120V - ^Gen. Zool.
ix. 171.
Picus varius Virginianus, Bris. iv. 48.    Id. 8vo. ii. 54.
Picus leuconotus, Tern. Man. d'Orn. 242.   Id. Ed. ii. p. 397.
Pic chevelu, Buf. vii. 74.    Molin. Chil. 209.   Id. (Fr. ed.) 215.
Pic varie male de Virginie, Pl. enl. 754.    FermsrSurin. ii. 170.
Der Weisspecht, Besek. Vog. Kurl. p. 38. No. 61 i
Hairy Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 572.   Id. Sup. 108.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 164.   Cat.
Car. i. t. 19. f. 2.    Kalm. Tr. ii. 86. Lewin Birds, ii. t. 50.    Br. Zool. Ed. 1812.
p. 324.   Amer. Omith. v. 1. pl. 9. f. 3.
THIS is a trifle less than the Larger Spotted Woodpecker, eight
inches long, fourteen broad; and weighs two ounces.    Bill one inch
—i
 390 WOODPECKER.
and a quarter long, and horn-coloured; the head is black, with two
white lines on each side, the one passing above the eye, the other
along the lower jaw, and down the neck, both arising at the base of
the bill; across the hind head is a red band, divided in the middle
with a black line ; the upper parts of the body are black, and the
colour divided by a list of white feathers, like hairs, passing down
the back; the wings, and upper tail coverts spotted with white; all
the under parts white ; the four middle tail feathers are black ; the
next on each side obliquely white at the tip ; the last but one white,
with the base black; and the outer one wholly white ; legs grey-
brown.
The female differs in wanting the red on the hind head; lays four
whiteeggs—hatches in June. Numerous in Pennsylvaaiia ; seen from
Hudson's Bay to Georgia.
Inhabits more particularly Carolina, Virginia, and Canada:
common in the woods about plantations, and lives chiefly on insects;
said to destroy the apple trees, by pecking holes in them.
This has been met with in England ; but I have only heard of
two or three instances of the circumstance; one in particular, communicated by the late Mr. Bolton, of Stannary, near Halifax,
Yorkshire, of a pair being shot among the old trees iaa the park of
Sir George Armitage, Bart, at Kirklees Hall, where they no doubt had
been bred, but the wood being cut dowaa the succeeding winter, the rest
forsook the ground, and could not be traced further.—Tlae above
pair were presented to the late Duchess Dowager of Portland, in
whose collection I saw them many years since.
These birds answered to the general description in every particular,
except in not having the red bar across the hind head so complete,
being only a patch of that colour on each side of the head.—I suspect
this to be the Leuconote of M. Temminck, which he says is seen
accidentally in the N. Provinces of Germany, in the winter season.
 WOODPECKER. 391
62.—ALBANY WOODPECKER.
LENGTH six inches and a half, breadth twelve; weight sixteen
pennyweights. Bill black; irides dark coloured; vibrissae whito;
crown and scapulars black; hind head crimson; sides of the head
and ears white, joiniaag with a white patch on the side of the neck;
middle of the back to the rump, the throat, breast, belly, and vent,
white; wing and tail coverts black; quills and secondaries black,
spotted with white; the two middle tail feathers black; the next the
same, with the edge and tip of the outer web white; the two next
have the upper part of the outer web black, the rest white; the end
of the inner web the same, with an oval black spot near the end; on
the two next three spots of black on the inner webs, and a small
speck or two of the same near the end of the outer; the two exterior
feathers have three transverse black spots on the inner, and two on
the outer webs; legs black.
This was shot at Albany Fort, Hudson's Bay, in November 1780,
and called thea-e Paupastaow; it was feeding on the tops of the
Juniper Willow.—Communicated by the late Mr. Hutchins.
63—LITTLE WOODPECKER.
Picus pubescens, Ind. Orn. i. 232.     Lin. i. 175.    Gm. Lin. i. 435.     Vieill.Am.ii:
p. 65. pl. 121.    Gen. ZooL ix. 170.
Picus varius Virginianus minor, Bris. iv. 50.   Id. 8vo. ii. 55.   Klein. 27. 8.
Petit Pic varie de Virginie, Buf. vii. 76.
Smallest Woodpecker, Cat. Car. i. t. 21.    Kalm. Trav. ii. 87.
Downy Woodpecker,  Arct. ZooL ii. No. 165.    Laws. Car. 143.    Amer. Om. v. 1.
pl. 9. f. 4.
Little Woodpecker', Gen. Syn. ii. 573.   Id. Sup. 106.
THIS is like the Hairy Species, but is much smaller :  length
six inches; breadth eleven ; weight near an ounce.    Bill horn-
 392 WOODPECKER.
colour, top of the head black; above each eye a white line; hind
head red ; back of the neck, the back, and rump black, divided into
two parts by a line of white, passing down the middle to the rump ;
scapulars, upper wing, and tail coverts black; greater wing coverts,
and quills spotted witbwhite ; under parts of the body pale grey;
tail black, thofdur middle feathers plain, the rest barred with white
aaad black; legs black.
In the male the three outer tail feathers are white, with two
transverse black bais; the fourth fringed outwardly with white.
The female differs in having the hindhead crossed with white
instead of red, and in this sex more white on the outer web of the
fourth tail feather.
Young males have little or no a-ed on the hindhead.
Inhabits America, especially Virginia, and Carolina; it builds
in the holes of trees, like the generality of its race; the egg like that
of the Hairy Woodpeckei-, but smaller. Kalm observes, that it
abounds in New Jersey, aaad is, of all others, the most dangerous to
orchards, as well as the most daring; for having pecked a hole iaa a
tree, it makes another close to the first, in a horizontal direction,
proceeding till there is a circle of holes round the trunk, by which
the apple trees, having often several of these rings of holes round the
stem, frequently dry up, and decay; this is called, by some, the
Least Sap-Sucker; but the name of Sap-Sucker is also given to the
Yellow-bellied and Hairy Species ; said to lay six white eggs.   I
64.—WAVED WOODPECKER.
L'Epeiche varie onde, Buf. vii. 78,
Pic tachete de Cayenne, PL enl. 553.
SIZE of the Middle Woodpecker.    Bill aaad legs dusky ; forehead buff; spottedfwith dusky, the whole top of the head rufous red;
 WOODPECKER. 393
nape black and white mixed ; general colour of the upper parts of
the bird black, waved with white on the back, and inner second
quills, from the margins of the feathers being white; above each
eye, beginning behind it, is a white streak; and beneath the eye
another, arising from the nostrils ; all the under parts, from chin to
vent, white, varied,a little with black on the sides ; quills black and
white alternate, or chequer-wise; the four middle tail feathers are
black, the others white, marked with four or five spots of black;
the points of the feathers incline to reddish ; toes placed two before
aaad two behind.
Such is the bird described by Buffon in his work, aided by the
figure in the Pl. enlum. and although this author gives in to
tlae idea of its being the same bird with the Three-toed, we can by no
means recoaacile ourselves thereto, for the following reasons—In all
the Three-toed there is but one streak of white on each side of the
head, whereas in the Waved Woodpecker there are two; the spots
on the back of this latter are different from the former, as well as the
quills; the tail, too, is not marked the same. In the Northern Three-
toed, the three outer feathers are not spotted, but divided black and
white; and in the Southern Three-toed very little spotted; but in both
cases differing much from the one here described, which is said to
iaahabit Cayenne. The number of toes might also be added as a
further objection, if the figure in the Pl. enlum. should by any
means be faulty in that particular.
65.—BLACK AND WHITE WOODPECKER.
Le Charpentier blanc et noir, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 254.
LENGTH ten inches and a half; extent sixteen. Bill brown;
irides white; upper part of the neck and half the back and wings
 394 WOODPECKER.
black; back part of tlae head, round the eyes, and belly yeltowrj
from the back of the eye to the nape a trace of black; quills and tail
black, banded with brown ; the rest of tlae plumage white; | legs
green.
Inhabit^ Paraguay ; and from the colours of the plumage called
Dominican Carpeaater. Lives in families; has a loud cry, to be
heard far off, and is disagreeable. Male and female alike. Not seen
iia the woods : chiefly frequenting the places where palm trees grow;
is rarely observed on the ground, but generally seen placed horizon*
tally on tops of trees, aaad is rarely known to climb; feeds for the
most part on larvae of wasps, sweet oranges, grapes, and other
fruits.
66—PARAGUAN WOODPECKER.
Le Charpentier vert dore,
-. d'Azara, iv. No. 256. 257.
LENGTH eight inches aaad a quarter; breadth fourteen. Bill
dusky; top, and hindhead crimsoai; from the aiostrils, under the
eyes, a gilded line, passing over the ears, where it enlarges, and
descends half way on each side of the neck ; the rest of the head,
and upper parts gilded green; tail dusky ; throat gilded; from
thence the under paa'ts are dusky, and gilded in unequal bars ; legs
green.
One of these was met with in Paraguay; and I have likewise
seen one greatly corresponding in the collection of Lord Stanley.
 WOODPECKER. 395
67.—RED-HEADED WOODPECKER.
Picus erytarocephalus, Ind. Orn. i. 227.    Lin. i. 174.     Mus. Ad. Fr. ii. p. 21.     Gm.
Lin. i. 429.    Bor. Nat. ii. 136. 4.    Bris. iv. 52. t. 3. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. ii. 56.    Gerin.
t. 176.    Spalowsk, iii. t. 15. Vieill. Am. ii. 60.
Picus capite colloque rubris, Klein. Av. 21.12. Kalm. It. iii. t. 43.
Pic noir, a domino rouge, de Virginie, Buf. vii. 55.   PL enl. 117-
Red-headed Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 561.    Cat. Car. i. t. 20. Arct. ZooL ii. No. 160.
Kalm. Tr. Engl. ii. p. 86.     Bartr. Trav. p. 217.     Natur. Misc. pl. 126.     Gen.
Zool.ix. 153.
LENGTH eight inches and three quarters; weight two ounces.
Bill one inch and a quarter)long, lead-colour, with a black tip;
irides dusky; the head, aaad whole of the neck crimson ; back and
wings black ; rump, breast, and belly white ; the ten first quills are
Mack, the eleventh black «nd white, the others white, with black
shafts; tail cuneiform, black; legs lead-colour. Both sexes nearly
alike. The young bird is brown, beneath from the breast dusky white;
quills and rump as in the old birds, without the crimson head and
neck. Some, perhaps not quite perfect :in plumage, have the head
and neckredj)with several gripes of brown on the crown and cheeks;
wings brown ;,>fltiider parts and rump white.
Inhabits Virginia, Carolina, Canada, and most parts of North
America; appears generally in April; but migrates southward at
the approach of winter, according to the severity of the season; and
upon this circumstance the people of North America foretell the
rigour, or clemency of the ensuing wiaater; it is a very common bird,
and very destructive to the maize fields and orchards, pecking
through the ears of maize, and destroying great quantities of apples;
in some years are more numerous; when they attack the orchards,
where the sweet apples grow, which they eat so far, that nothing
remains but the peels. Some years since a premium of twopence
per head was paid from the public fund, in order to extirpate so
ipei%ieioa§'a bird, butrthishas been much.neglected; some^a&er, that
they are very fond of acorns ; they are frequently seen in Virginia and
 396 WOODPECKER.
Carolina the whole year, but are not in such aiumbers as in summer;
during winter are very tame, and often come into houses, in the same
manner as the Redbreast is known to do England.
It is called iaa Georgia the Summer Woodpecker, and Corn-eater;
aaid fondest of the maize When in roasting ears, or when fit to boil,
the grain being then soft, and full of a sweet anilky juice; they peck
away the membrane, and eat the grain, returning at times until they
consume the whole ear, but oftener only open it, and eat some of the
top, whereby the rest rots by the rain ; they are less desirous of it
when the ear is hard, although they will then sometimes eat it. This
bird is also fond of mulberries, plums, peaches, &c. and seldom
eats insects, but through want of corn or fruit; if an ear of maize is
turned dowaa, the bird cannot get at it; and in all probability the
true cause of their migration is on account of the scarcity of fruits
and corn, when they shift their quarters to others more productive,
and agreeable to their palate. It is a common species in the spring
and summer in Georgia ; and a few are sometimes seen in the oak
woods in a warm day in the winter season.
They build in dead pines., making the nest of chips of rotten
wood, lined with moss; the eggs of a plain blush-colour, with a
kind of transparency, or whiteness at one end. They make a noise
with their bills against the dead trees, and may be heard at a mile
distant; they build the earliest of all the tribe, and generally place
the aiest pretty high from the ground. The flesh is by many
esteemed savoury. The black snake will often enter the holes, and
destroy both nest and eggs.
68—WHITE-RUMPED WOODPECKER.
Picus obscurus, Ind. Orn. i. 228.    Gm. Lin. i. 429.
White-rumped Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 563.
LENGTH nine inches.    Bill horn-colour; head, throat, and all
the upper parts of the body dusky, transversely streaked, and waved
 WOODPECKER. 397
with dirty white ; chin the same, but paler; lesser wing coverts like
the back; the greater plain black; prime quills dusky black, fringed
outwardly with cream-colour; and the tips of several whitish;
secondaries white, except at the ends, which have irregular bars of
black on each feather ; but on some of the inner ones the second bar
is wanting on the outer webs; rump, belly, upper and under tail
coverts white ; legs black.
One of these, in the collection of Gen. Davies, was received from
Long-Island, and supposed to be a female, but of what species is
uncertain. M. Vieillot esteems it a young bird of the Red-headed
species, which I think not improbable, as in a specimen in Lord
Stanley's collection is one answering to the description, iia which
may be plainly seen a mixture of pale crimson feathers, breaking
out, and intermixed with the brown in various parts of the head.
69—RED-BREASTED WOODPECKER.
Picus ruber, Ind. Om. i.    Gm.Lin. i. t. 29.    Gen. Zool. ix. 160.
Le Charpentier a ventre rouge, Voy. d'Azara. iv. p. 255.
Red-breasted Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 562.    Id. Sup. 106.
SOMEWHAT less than tne last; length eight inches and a half.
Bill one inch long, brownish horn-colour; eyelids naked, yellow;
head, neck, and breast crimson; from each nostril a line of buff,
passing under the eye, where it finishes ; the back part of the neck
mixed with dusky; back and wings black; several of the lesser
coverts, near the outside of the wing, tipped with white, and others
of the greater ones with the outer webs white, making a streak of this
colour, parallel to, and near the edge of the wing ; most of the scapulars marked with an obscure yellowish spot at the tip; the first
quill feather is black, marked on the inner web, half-way from the
base, with round spots of white; the secondaries spotted on the inner
 398 WOODPECKER.
#eb $8iy,)PiStider wing coverts black and white mixed ; middle of
the belly dusky yellowish White ; the sides of the same, mixed with
dusky ; the tail wholly black, except one of the middle feathers,
#hfeh has three white spots on one side of the shaft, baat the other
web is plain black.
'^Tfofe* was-said to come from Cayenne; and one greatly similar, ii
not the same, is found in the woods of Paraguay; another, not
utflike, was anet with/In Nootka 'Sound, on the Coast of North
Aanerica. This iV'S&Sd'to be "less than a Thrush, black above,
^fft!i'\#Hrte spots on the wing; a crimson head, neck, and breast;
* and a-ytfltowfeh ofttfeKoloured belly; from which circumstance it
^'mlgbi'pefhaps be called the Yellow-bellied Woodpecker."
70.—RED-THROATED WOODPECKER.
Picus rubidicollis, Red-throated Woodpecker, Gen. Zool. ix. 136.    Viell. Am. Sept. ii. 63.
LENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill lead-colour; head,
neck, and upper parts of the body black, varying in different lights
to blue and green; forehead, rump, and upper tail coverts white;
all beneath the body crimson, bounded on the sides with pale yellow,
on which are a few black spots ; legs lead-colour.
The female is like the other sex, except that the under parts are
grey and brown.
Inhabits St. Domingo.
71.—RAYED WOODPECKER.
Picus striatus, Ind. Orn. i. 238.    Gm. Lin. i. 427.    Bri
59. Vieill. Am. ii. p. 61. pi. 114.
^PgsHy'e de St. Domraguff,- Bitf. vii. 27.   Pl. enl. 281.
Rayed Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 587.    Gen. Zool. ix.
iv. 65. t. 4. f. 1.    Id. 8
■'* 1*M?IS is a little biggW'tJaaft the Greater-spited'Woodpecker ;
l%8gtteie4g%t^HC%fes and three-quarters.    Bill hor«i*-&$iOOT \' forehead,
 i^^ii*
WOODPECKER. 399
cheeks, and throat of an elegant grey; crown and hind head red;
upper parts of the body black, transversely striated with olive;
quills blackish, spotted with yellow on the outer, and whitish on the
inner webs; rump and upper tail coverts red; forepart of the neck,
breast, and under wing coverts grey brown; belly, sides, thighs,
and under tail coverts olive;* tail black; the two outer feathers
edged with grey ; beneath olive; legs blackish.
Inhabits St. Domingo.
A.—Picus Dominicensjs striatum minor, Bris. iv. 67. t. 3, 2.   Id. 8vo. ii. 60.
Pic raye de St. Doiningue, Buf. vii. 27.    Pl. enl. 614.
Rayed Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 588. 36. A.   Ind. Om. i. 238. 39. B
This is a trifle smaller than the last. Top of the head black;
hindhead red ; but the rest of the body little different in markings
from the other, hence supposed to be owing to age or sex.
72— PASSERINE WOODPECKER..
Picus passerinus, Ind., OtH(.i. 238.    Lin.
. 174.    Gm.Lin<\
. 427.
Vieill. Am. ii. p.
61. pl. 115.    Gen. Zool. ix. 200.
Picus Dominicensis minor, Bris. iv. 75. t
4. f. 2,    Id. Svo;
i. 62.
Petit Picde St. Domingue, Buf. vii. 29.
Le Charpentier brun et dore, Voy. d'Azar
o. iv. No.258.
Passerine Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 588.
Id. Sup. 110.
SIZE of the last; length six inches. Bill grey; crown red;
sides of the head rufous grey; upper parts of the body yellowish
olive; beneath barred whitish and brown ; on most of the upper
wing coverts a white spot at the tip; the inner edges of the greater
* The vent falsely painted red in the PL enlum.
 400
WOODPECKER.
quills brown, deaatated with whitish; the two first plain, as are the
outer edges of all; the two middle tail feathers are brown, with two
grey transverse spots on each margin, edged with olive ; the two
laext the same, but of a darker brown; and the two outer ones
mixed with grey; the exterior tipped with whitish ; legs grey.
Inhabits St. Domingo, with the former; also Guiana, and as far
South as Paraguay.
Some of these birds, from Cayenne, came under any inspection.
Those which were called males answered the description above; one
marked as a female, had the crown brown, otherwise like the male.
In this last, the tail feathers were exceedingly worn at the ends,
but iaa the others more rounded and pliant.
73.—TRINIDAD WOODPECKER.
LENGTH seveaa inches and a half. Bill black, an inch long,
a very trifle bending downwards; crown very deep ash, nearly
black ; at the hind part a crimson crest, pointed at the bottom and
reaching lower than the nape; the rest of the aaeck behind, the
back and wings, yellow olive; rump paler; upper tail coverts
barred with buff; under wing coverts yellowish white; most of the
quills the same within from the base, the greater part of their length;
shafts yellow beneath, the first quill one inch long ; the second two
inches ; the third half an inch longer ; but the fourth longest; sides
of the head pale ash-colour, nearly white, growing broader behind
the eye ; in the direction of the jaw a dusky black streak, minutely
dotted with white; chin much the saane, but the white dots more
conspicuous and large; from the breast to the vent transversely
barred with dusky and yellowish white; tail deep greenish black,
the outer feather barred olive and buff; the next the same towards
the end; the rest plain, but most of them have the margins yellow
olive ; legs greenish black.
Inhabits Trinidad.—In the collection of Lord Stanley.
 WOODPECKER. 401
74.—BLACK-WINGED WOODPECKER.
Picus melanopterus, Maxim. Tr. i. p. 140.
THE whole plumage of this bird is white, excepting the wings,
back, and part of the tail, which are black, and the eye encircled
with a naked orange-coloured skin.
Inhabits Brazil; is esteemed as a new Species, and met with in
the neighbourhood of St. Salvador.
75—CAYENNE WOODPECKER.
Picus Cayanensis, Ind. Om.i. 239.    Gm. Lin. i. 428.    Gen. ZooL ix. 240.
 striatus, Bris. iv. 69.    Id. 8vo. ii. 61.
Le Charpentier d'un vert fonce, Voy. d'Azara iv. No. 252 ?
Petit Pic raye de Cayenne, Buf. vii. 31.    Pl. enl. 613.
Pico variado menor, Gabin. de Madrid ii. p. 51. lam. 59.
Cayenne Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 590.    Id. Sup. 111.
LENGTH near seven inches and a half. Bill blackish; top of
the head black; hindhead red; sides whitish ; hind part of the neck
and back yellowish olive, but the feathers of the lower part of the
back, rump, and upper tail coverts have a black mark at the tips ;
throat black, minutely spotted with white; fore part of the neck and
breast dull yellowish olive, with a small spot of black near the ends
of the feathers, and some of them tipped with red; belly, sides,
thighs, and under tail coverts yellowish, with a few black spots on
the two last; scapulars and wing coverts dull olive, crossed with
blackish bars; quills blackish, with yellow shafts, spotted outwardly
with yellow, and within with white; tail black, the six middle
feathers barred outwardly with dull olive, but the two middle ones
have the inner webs marked with the same; the two outer ones
barred black and rufous, with yellow shafts; legs grey.
 402 WOODPECKER.
Inhabits Cayenne.—In a collection of birds from this place
was one with a streak of 'crimsoai on eaeh side of Itbe jaw ; which
was probably a male of this species. Azara's bird seems to differ; it
is between eleven and twelve inches long, and the bars on the body
said to be yeHowishogreiJri••& the latter-is constantly found in Paraguay, oand always in pairs.
76.—YELLOW WOODPECKER.
Picus flavicans, hid.Orn.i. 240.    Gen. Zool.ix. 202. pl. 35. XXXX
  exalbidus, Gm. Lin.i. 428.
  Cayanensis ajflbus, Bris. iv. 81.   Id. 8vo.ii. 63.
Pic jaune de Cayenne, Buf. vii. 32.    Pl. enl. 509.
Charpentier jaune, Ferm. Surdni ii. 171.
Yellow Woodpecker,- Gen. Syn\ ii. 591.
LESS than our Green Woodpecker; length nine inches. Bill
yellowish white, above an inch long ; hindhead crested ; head,
neck, and whole body, dirty white ; from the lower jaw to the ears,
on each side, a red stripe ; wing coverts browtf, with yellow edges,
some of the greater ones mixed with rufous on the inner web ; quills
brown or rufous ; tail black; legs grey.
The female wants the red band on the side of the head, Which is
seen imthe male.
■uii InhabiteisCayenne, where it is common, and called Charpentier
jaune. Itimakes the nest within old rotten trees, forming an eaatrance
with its bill from without; at first it is horizontal, but declines downwards as soon as it has pierced through the sound part, till the hole
is at last a foot and a half below the first opening. The female lays
three white, and neash^round eggs; and the young are hatched about
the beginning'of April. The note of this bird is a kind of whistle,
fflshtimes repeated, of which the two pr three last aa*e in a graver
accent than theothers.
 WOODPECKERS 403
Some specimens ai^s of? the dirty white above meaitioneck»$#icl
others of a light yellow.
77.—FERRUGINOUS WOODPECKER.
Picus cinnamomeus, Ind. Om. i. 240.    Gm. Lin, i. 428.    Vieill. Am. ii. p. 59. pl. 111.
Gen. Zool. ix. 209. pl. 35. x x x x x x
Pic mordore, Buf. vii. 34.
Pic jaune tachete de Cayenne, PL enl. 524.
Ferruginous Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. ,592.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 159.
SIZE of the Greeaa Species ; length eleven inches. Bill black ;
head crested; tlae crest of a dark yellowish cream-colour; upper parts
of the body reddish cinnamon-colour, marked sparingly with yellowish white spots; on each side of the throat a large spot of crimson;
the lower part of the back yellowish ash-colour; tail and legs black.
The fomalelwa&ts'tiieired on the -undepjawv One of this sexcwas
in the Leverian Museum, having a pale bill, with a black>base;
crest buff-colour^; rump, lower belly, sides, and thighs dirty yellow.;
vent pale rust-colour; inside of the quills marked with both dark
and pale spots ; quills and tail dusky; the rest of the plumage as
in the male.
Inhabits Cayenne, Guiana, and other parts of America. Buffon
calls his colour on the upper parts a bright, brilliant, gilded, red,*
and the crest and rump yellow. The bird from which the description
of the male is taken, in the collection^of Geaaeral Davies.
78.—BLACK-BREASTED WOODPECKER.
Picus multicolor, Ind. Om. i. -240.    Gm. Lin. i. 429.    Gen. Zool. ix. 205.
Pic a crayat;&«oim Bvf- fi« 35-    Pl' enl. 863.
Black-breasted Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 593.
SIZE of the last.    Bill pale;  head, throaty and neck-behind
orange yellow; the lower parto£"the last, fore part ofiifcemeck, and
* Un beau rouge vif, brillant, et dore.   This is no doubt his mordore colour; but in all
the specimens which I have seen, it has been more of a rust-colour, or cinnamon.
 404 WOODPECKER.
breast black; head crested; back and wings bright rufous; on the
last here and there a few spots of black; also on the tail, the end of
which is black; the quills are marked with black; belly and vent
ferruginous buff; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits Cayenne and Guiana, where it is called Toucoumari.
79—RED-CHEEKED WOODPECKER.
Picus undatus, Ind. Orn. i. 241.    Li)
Red-cheeked Woodpecker, Gen. Syn.
. 594.
Gm.
Edw,
Lin. i. 432,    Gen. Zool. ix. 206.
pl. 332.
iliii!
LENGTH nine inches. Bill brownish ; from the angles of the
mouth, passing under the eyes, is a broad plat of red feathers; the
whole bird is of a lion-colour, or orange, inclining to olive, marked
with dusky bars; legs dusky.
Inhabits Guiana, and Surinam.—The above description taken
from Mr. Edwards.
L—RUFOUS WOODPECKER.
Picus rufus, Ind.Om.i. 241. Gm. Lin
Pic roux, Buf. vii. 36. Pl. enl. 694. 1
Rufous Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 594
i. 432.    Nat. Misc. pl. 753.    Gen. ZooL ix. 207.
THIS is scarcely as long as the Wryneck, but rather stouter;
length six inches. Bill pale; the whole bird more or less rufous;
the breast aaid belly, wings, and tail darker than the rest, and the
rump and back paler; the whole body throughout waved with black
streaks, in different shades; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits Cayenne and Guiana. We have met with more than one
of this kind, with a streak of crimson on each side of the under jaw.
 WOODPECKER. 405
A.—Rufous Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 111.    hid. Om.i. 241. 48. B.
This is of an intermediate size between the two last; length eight
inches. It is marked in the same manner, and has a large patch of
crimson under the eyes; quills dusky, spotted with ferruginous; the
tail barred and tipped with black; the bars of the breast so much
broader than on the rest of the under parts, as to give the appearance
of a black breast on first inspection; legs horn-colour.
It seems not improbable, that the Red-cheeked and the Rufous
Woodpeckers differ merely from age or sex, and that the present is
a connecting Variety.
The last was brought from Cayenne, and is also found at Guiana.
81 —YELLOW-BELLIED WOODPECKER.
Picus varius, Ind. Orn. i. 232.    Lin. i. 176.    Gm. Lin. i. 438.    Bris. iv. 62.    Id. 8vo. ii.
59.    Klein 27. 10.    Georgi 165.     Vieill. Am. ii. 63. pl. 118.    Gen. Zool. ix. 168,
Pic varie de la Caroline, Buf. vii. 77.    Pl. enl. 785.
Yellow-bellied Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 574.   Id. Sup. 109.    Cat. Car. i. 21.    Arct.
Zool. ii. No. 166.   Kalm. Trav. ii. 87.    Bartr. 287.   Amer. Om. i. pl. 9. f. 2.
LENGTH seven inches and a half; breadth thirteen. Bill lead-
colour; crown of the head red, bordered on each side with black ;
hindhead pale yellow, continuing in a streak over the eyes on each
side; through the eyes a black band, and beneath this another of
pale yellow, passing down on each side of the neck ; chin red, surrounded with black as a crescent; lower part of the neck and breast
brown black;* belly pale yellow, mixed with black ; sides, thighs,
* In some birds brown.
 Vm
406 WOODPECKER.
aaad under tail coverts white, crossed with bands of brown; upper
parts iaa general black, but the wings are marked with white spots,
as in many other Woodpeckers; down the middle of the back buff-
colour,A4b©ttledtraaafcverselyMsvith zigzags of dusky'arfdpblack; upper
tail coverts1 spotted"blaek and white; the two middle tail feathers
black, marked-On-the insides of the shafts with white, and two or
three of* the=oUter ones black, with white'spots on both webs; legs
pale lead-coloUiv   ^
The female has the-crown red, but witftowfrthe red on the throat;
nape ancpback black,- with dusky, pale, yellowish white spots, -and
a white streak desvn^the middle of the wing/ ■
In the young bird, the crown of the head is brown, with pale
spots; Nsides of the throat, and across the-breast, mottled in bars of
pale and dark brown; belly pale yellow; the upper parts yellowish,
spotted with black on the back; wings and tail as in the adult;
but the legs paler than in the old bird.
Young of both sexes have the crown black, and deep scarlet;
and this last colour i&seeia ka the young males.
Inhabits North America; called by some the Sap-Sucker; makes
a circle of holes round apple trees, and by means of the bill sucks
out tlae juice or sap; called in Hudson's Bay, Mehisewe Paupastaow;
common in Pennsylvania.$. jeomes intosorehards inOctober, .but'rarely
seen among the settlements in summer; associates with tlae Downy
Species, having nearly the same manners, and lays four white eggs;
a nest met with the 25th of May.
A yoiing female bird, in the Leverian-Museum, had the throat
mottled brown and yellowish, without any black surrounding it, or
any red on the chin, but the crOwn red,- surrounded with black, as
in the adult male, but paler.
Whether thisSpecies inhabits any'part of the European Continent
has not come toour knowledge ; but it is^aid by Georgi to frequent
the Lake Baikal.
 WOODPECKER.
82—MINUTE WOODPECKER.
Picus minutus, Ind. Orn. i, 243.    Gerin. t.194. 2.    Nat. Misc. pl. 44.    Gen. Zool. ix.
211. pl.30.
Yunx minutissimus, Gm. Lin. i. 423.
Picus Cayanensis minor, KBrii. iv. 83.
—— minutissimus, Pall. n. Nord. Beytr. iii. 1.1. f. 2.
Le tres petitEic, Buf. vii. 37.    Pl. enl. 786. 1.    Perm. Surin. ii. 170.
Le Charpentier nain, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 260.
Minute Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 596.
SIZE of a Wren; length three inchesand a half; extent of wing
six. Bill black; top of the head blackish, minutely dotted with
red, so as to appear at a distance wholly of »the last colour; hindhead
dotted in the saane manner with white; sides of the head brown,
with white spots, but less numerous; plumage on the upper parts of
the body dirty greyish, or rufous brown; on the under greyish white,
the feathers bordered with brown; quills and tail brown, with paler
edges; legs brown.
One of theses supposed a; female, had the whole crown black,
with minute spots of white, each feather being tipped withPit; the
plumage above olive greeaa, the ends of the feathers pale, or dusky
yellow, especially the wing coverts; all beneath marked with
alternate dusky and olive yellow bars; the under wing coverttfTufous
white; quills dusky, with pale edges.
Buffon mentions>iais bird as having the head gold-colour, like the
Gold-crested Wreaa ; but in the Pl. enlum. referred to by that author,
I see no difference of colour in the crown from the rest of the body.
Whether this last bird, therefore, is the true female, and the one
supposed to be so, above iaaienti on ed, is uncertain; if the female, the
other, no doubt, is a young male.
.v<*B?his'.Species inhabits Cayenne, but by no means common.    We
have seen two, answering the first description, from Trinidad; and
 408 WOODPECKER.
learn, from Azara, that is is found in Paraguay and Buenos Ayres.
M. Temminck agrees with Gmelin in joining it with the Wryneck.*
83—GOLD-WINGED WOODPECKER.
auratus, Ind. Orn. i. 242. Lin. i. 174. Gm. Lin. i. 430. PA. Trans. 62. 387.
torowsk. ii. 134. t. 17. Spalowsck. Vog. ii. t. 25. Vieill. Amer. ii. p. 66. pl. 123.
len. ZooL ix. 213. pl. 36. +
Canadensis striatus, Bris. iv. 72.    Id. 8vo. ii. 61.
—- major alis aureis, Kalm It. iii. 42.
Cuculus alis deauratis, Klein Av. 30.
Pic a ailes dorees, Buf. vii. 39.
Pic raye de Canada, Pl. enl. 693.
Le Charpentier des Champs, Voy. d'Azara iv. No. 25.
Gold-winged Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 597. Id. Sup. 111. Cotes. Car. i. t.18. Kalm
Trav. ii. 86. Arct. Zool. No. 158. Cook's last Voy. ii. 297. Bartram 287. Am.
Om. i. pl. 3. f. 1.
LENGTH twelve inches ; breadth nineteen and a half; weight
about five ounces. Bill one inch aaad a half long, black, somewhat
bent, and contrary to others, rounding, not square, being only
ridged at the top, with a sharp point; top of the head, nape, and
neck behind, pale ash-colour; below the nape a longish patch of
crimson; sides of the head, chin, sides, and fore part of the neck,
pale dull yellowish red, or rufous; through the eye, at the base of
the lower jaw, a long black mark ; back, scapulars, and wing
coverts grey brown, striated across with black lines ; rump whitish;
breast, belly, and sides whitish yellow, each feather marked with
a roundish spot of black at the tip ; oaa the middle of the breast a
large black crescent; thighs, upper and under tail coverts, black
and white mixed; quills brown, with yellow shafts, spotted with
brown on the outer edge; tail blackish, outwardly edged with gley^
* See Analys. p. Ixxx.
 WOODPECKER. 409
the outmost feather dotted with whitish on the margin; beneath
yellow, more or less black at the ends, which are somewhat bifid ;
shafts of all but the two middle ones yellow half way from the base.
The female differs chiefly in wanting the black whisker on the
jaw, and having the general colours less vivid.
Inhabits Canada, Virginia, Carolina, and we believe many other
parts, as far as Mexico and Paraguay; plenty about New Jersey and
New York, where it is called by some Hittock, Pint, and Flicker,
by others High-hole. The two first names arise from the note, and
the last no doubt from the situation in which it places the nest; it is
seen for the most part on the ground, rarely climbing the trees, like
others of the genus, except occasionally to sit oaa the branches; lives
for the most part on insects, woodlice, berries, Indian corn, and
commonly is so fat as to be thought very palatable for food; is called
by some the Lark Woodpecker. Visits the neighbourhood of Albany
Fort, in the northern parts of America, in April, leaving it in September, and called Outhee-quan-now or Outhe-quan-nor-now, from
the shafts of the quills and tail being yellow; is not unfrequent in
Georgia, where it stays the whole year; chiefly found on the sides
of ponds, generally on the ground, but when disturbed flies up into
the trees; in defect of insects will eat dogwood, and other berries,
and in the winter those of the sumach; but is particularly fond of the
seeds of the red cedar, on which it grows very fat; builds chiefly in
old trees, and will often make a hole for the nest in hard and sound
wood; lays from four to six plain blush-coloured eggs, upon the
chips within.
Capt. Cook, in his last voyage, found this at Nootka Sound.
i
 410
WOODPECKER.
84.—YELLOW-SHAFTED WOODPECKER.
Picus cafer, Ind. Om.i. 242.    Gm. Lin.i. 431.   Gen. Zool. ix. 215.
Gold-winged Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 599. 49. A.
RATHER less than the last. The bill exactiyshaped as in that
bird, and brown ; on each jaw a stripe of crimson, like a whisker;
plumage above brown, beneath vinaceous, marked with round Mack
spots; the under part of the wings pale red, the colour of red lead ;
tail black, pointed, each feather bifurcated at the tip, as in the
Gold-winged Species.
I have seen two of these, which came from the Cape of Good
Hope; as also another smaller, not more than six inches long. Bill
black ; upper parts of the body, brownish ash-colour, with obsolete
dusky spots; crown plain brown ash; nape crimson; chin, throat,
and sides of the neck dusky white, with a mixture of dusky spots on
the jaw ; shafts of the quills yellow ; tail dusky yellow, with black
spots, and yellow shafts ; legs black. The rump was not whitish,
aaor of a paler colour than that of the back.—This last was among
some drawings done in India.
85.—ABYSSINIAN WOODPECKER.
LENGTH six inches. Bill dusky lead-colour ; forehead dusky
buff, the rest of the crown and nape crimson ; upper parts of the
body olive-brown; wing coverts darker, with whitish spots; quills
the same, each marked with three or four roundish spots of white on
the inner margin, and dotted with white on the outer, the third quill
the longest; upper tail coverts crimson; tail spotted as the quills,
the shafts brown above and yellow beneath ; the under wing coverts
whitish, with a mixture of brown ; on each side of the maTgin pale
 WOODPECKER'.
dusky white ; all the under parts from the chin, dusky white, with
numerous, longitudinal streaks of brown; legs dusky; shape of the
tail rounded at the end, but the two middle feathers in proportion
longer than the others, shafts of all of them yellow at tlae base.
Inhabits Abyssinia.—In the collection of Mr. Salt.
86— GOLD-SHAFTED WOODPECKER.
Le petit Pic a baguettes d'or, Levail. Afr. vi. 25. pl. 253. m. & fem.
BIGGER than our Little Woodpecker. Bill and legs brown ;
irides yellowish ; forehead first brown, then black, behind elongated,
and crimson ; over the eye a white streak; body above dusky black,
with undulated yellowish, white lines; chin white; cheeks dusky
white ; quills spotted with yellow, and yellow shafts; tail the same;
body beaieath yellowish white, dashed and mixed with dusky.
The female has the colours less brilliant, and the crown wholly
black, but at a certain age has a small patch of red on the crown.
The young male like the female: in the first feather the red may
be seen on the hindhead.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, on the East Coast at Groote
vaders Bosch, and various other parts of Africa; lays five or six
pure white eggs, and both sexes sit on them in turn.
87.-CRIMSON-BREASTOD   WOODPECKER.
Picus olivaceus, Iwd. Orn. i. 243.    Gm. Lin. i. 431.    Gen. Zool. ix. 216.
Le Pic Laboureur, Levail. Afr. vi. p. 27. pl. 254.
Crimson-breasted Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. 599.
LENGTH ten inches and a half.    Bill two inches, in shape like
that of the Gold-winged, colour black;  upper parts of the head,
 413
WOODPECKER.
neck, and body dusky olive brown, faintly dotted with paler brown;
rump very pale crimson, marked with spots of a paler colour, in the
same manner as the rest of the upper surface; quills dark brown,
crossed on each side of the web with oblique, pale, cream-coloured
bars; throat and neck before dusky brown, faintly spotted with a
paler colour; lower part of the neck, and breast pale crimson, not
unlike the breast of a Linnet; vent dusky brown, crossed with faint
bars of a paler colour; shafts of the quills and tail yellow; the latter
two inches long, black above, and yellow beneath, with the ends
bifid as in the Gold-winged Species.*
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.—From the collection of Sir
Joseph Banks.
In Levaillant's bird, the throat, and neck before are white,
growing red on the breast and belly; tail feathers tinged on the
sides with red ; irides yellow red. In the young the brown on the
upper parts tends to greyish ash-colour; the red on the rump, or any
other part of the body, is scarcely discernible ; and the irides grey.
He adds, that the bills are for the most part covered with dirt, occasioned by scratching up the insects and larvae of beetles, from the
ground, and digging after them with the bill; though at other
times the bird uses the tongue like other Woodpeckers, and that
several of them live in society with great harmony.
88—BATAVIAN WOODPECKER.
LENGTH almost nine inches. Bill horn-colour; crown and
nape crimson, mixed on the crown with ash-colour; in the direction
* From the similarity of the bill of this bird to that of a Cuckow, it has been by Linnaeus and others, formerly ranked with that Genus, though wanting one of the common
manners, viz : that of climbing trees ; but the rigidity of the tail feathers, and the usual
length of tongue seen in the Woodpecker, independent of other characters, have determined
later authors to rank it with the last named Genus. To this the Cape and Crimson-breasted
may be added, from all their bills being shaped in the at
 WOODPECKER. 413
of the lower jaw a streak of crimson; from the nostrils, through
the eye, and the sides of the head dirty buff; back and wings fine
olive green, with numerous buff-coloured dots ; quills plain brown
within, with golden yellow shafts, marked with white on the inner
webs, and with buff-coloured dots on the margin of the outer ; chin,
throat, breast, sides, and thighs yellowish buff, marked with
minute black dots; middle of the belly plain buff yellow; tail stiff,
dusky at the end, with yellow shafts, and marked on each web with
eight or nine bars of yellow; legs brown.
In the Museum of Mr. Bullock ; said to have been brought from
Batavia.
WITH THREE TOES.
89.—NORTHERN THREE-TOED WOODPECKER.
Picus tridactylus, Ind. Orn. i. 243.     Lin. i. 177.    Faun. Suec. No. 103.     Gm. Lin. i.
439. Act. Stock. 1740. p. 222.   Ph. Trans, lxii. 388.   Scop. Ann.i. No.56.   Georgi
reise 165.     Bor. Nat. ii. 138.     Spalowsk. Vog. iii. 1.16.     Decouv. Russ. i. 100.
Tern. Man. d'Om. 246.   Id. Ed. ii. p. 402.
Picus hirsutus, Vieill. Am. Sept. ii. pl. 124.
Picus tridactylus anomalus, Mus. Petr. 368.    Gerin. t. 180.
Tridactylia hirsuta, downy Tridactylia, Gen. Zool. ix. 219. pl. 38.
Three-toed Woodpecker,  Gen. Syn. ii. 600,     Id. Sup. 112.     Edw.  pl. 114.     Arctic
Zool. ii. No. 158.
LENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill dusky; the under mandible white; tips of both dusky, and broader at the base than in
any of the tribe; crown of the head golden yellow; sides of the
head, before and beneath the eye, dotted black and white; from the
eye, on each side, a streak of white; down the middle of the back
white; upper parts of the body and wings black ;   on the coverts a
sssanraini
 414
WOODPECKER.
few white spots ; quills-spotted with white; chin, tfoeejat, and breast
white ; belly transversely striated black and white; the tail consists
of ten feathery* the two middle ones black, spotted on the inner
webs with white; the others black, more or less marked with orange/
buff at the ends, except the outmost, which is white, and the outer
web buff-colour the whole length; the legs have three toes only, two
before and one behind ; colour black; shins covered half way with
down.
The female is the same in all things, except the crown of the
head, which is black, masked with perpendicular lines of white ;
in some the whole crown is white.
This species is found in many of the northern parts of Europe;
in Switzerland ; on the high mountains of Lapland and Dalecarlia;|
as well as in Siberia $ and Austria; § common also among the Alps.
The specimen from which the above description is taken came from
Kamtschatka. It is almost as-common as other species in Siberia.—
Inhabits the parts about the lake Baikal. ||
A.—Length nine inches and three quarters. Bill one inch and
three quarters; colour black, near the base horn-colour; middle of
the crown deep yellow; from the nostrils a line of white passes oaa
each side under the eye, finishing below the ears; above this the
rest of the head is black, as are the upper parts and sides of tlae neck;
the whole of the back, wingooverts, and second quills black; the
greater quills the same, but the three or four next the body are
spotted on both webs with white, aaad the others on the inner webs
* Pallas says, there are twelve—it is a new observation. In the above specimens were
only ten.—See Spic; 3$ft>6. p. 11. note c.
f Fam. Snec. X Hisfyfifyijii. 79. § Scop. Ann. i. p. 49.
|j Georgi—is also found about Woronesh; the male has a yellow head, the female a
white one, and has more white in her than the male ; it will sometimes eat grains. Dec.
Russ. i. 101.
 WOODPECKER. 415
with the same; beneath the white streak under the eye is another of
black, mixed with a little white; the under parts of the body, from
chin to vent, white ; but the sides are barred with black and white ;
the tail consists of ten feathers, the four middle ones are wholly
black, the next half black and half rufous white, obliquely divided,
the very tips black; the outer but one the same, but the end half
wholly white, aaid the exterior feather white, except the inner web
just at the base ; legs black.
Inhabits Hudson's Bay, and other northern parts of America.—
The one last described received from the late Mr. Hutchins. Dr.
Forster says, that they are met with about Severn River, but not
very common there, that they live iaa woods, and feed on the worms
picked out of the trees ; the weight two ounces ; length eight iaaches;
breadth thirteen ; irides dark blue. I have had several from the last
named place, which varied much in size; the largest nine inches and
three quarters. Some had the sides of the belly barred black and
white, others not; some had the back plain black, in others it was
spotted with white; but all were probably of one sex, as the heads
were yellow at top : at another time I received one in which the top
Of the head was neither yellow nor white, but black like the rest of
the body.—Not uncommon in Siberia, frequent in the Switzerland
Alps; very rare in Germany, or elsewhere on the European Continent.
A Woodpecker with three toes only, said to be shot in Scotland,
iaa Mr. Donovan's collection; see his Catal. No. 170.
90.—SOUTHERN THREE-TOED WOODPECKER.
Picus varius Cayanensis, Bris. iv. p. 54.    Id. 8vo. ii. 56.
Picus undulatus, Vieill. Am. ii. p. 69.
Tridactylia undulata, waved Tridactylia, Gen. Zool.ix. 220.
Southern Three-toed Woodpecker,    Gen. Syn. ii. 601. 51. A.    Bancr. Guian. 164?
SIZE of the Northern Three-toed Woodpecker;  length eight
inches and a half; breadth fourteen inches and a quarter.    Bill six-
 !
416 WOODPECKER.
teeai lines long, cinereous; crown of the head red, the rest of the
head, neck behind, back, and rump black; as are also the scapulars
and wing and tail coverts; on the back and rump some transverse
spots of white; beneath the eyes a stripe of white, beginning at
the bill; all the under parts from chin to vent white, but the sides,
thighs, and under wing coverts have a transverse mixture of black ;
quills black, spotted on both webs with white; the tail consists of
ten feathers, the four middle ones black ; the next black, but oaa
the outer web, from the middle to the end, rufous white; and on
the inner two rufous white spots, near the tip, which last is black ;
the two outer black at the base, the rest of the length white, with
some spots of black within, the ends black; the wings reach, when
folded, to about three-fourths on the tail; legs cinereous.
This is  M. Brisson's description,   who informs us, that it was
from Cayenne, aud in M. de Reaumur's collection.
91.—TIGA WOODPECKER.
Picus Tiga, Lin. 7Va«s.xiii. p. 117.—Horsfield.
LENGTH eight inches and a half. Head crested; plumage
above green glossed with orange; crown, nape, back of the neck,
aiad rump crimson; sides of the head and forepart of the neck white,
streaked longitudinally with five black and white lines ; under parts
of the body varied with black and white, and black on the breast;
the scapulars very deep, but paler on the belly ; quills and tail soot-
colour, the former fasciated with white, the latter plain; toes two
before and one behind.—Inhabits Java.
    

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