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A general history of birds. Vol. III Latham, John, 1740-1837 1822

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THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
WOODWARD HISTORICAL
COLLECTION
 GENERAL,    HISTORY
BIRDS.
BY JOHN LATHAM, M.D.
F.R.S.   A.S.   and   L.S.
Acad. Css. Nat. Curios.   Reg. HotM. et Soc. Nat. Scrut. Berolin. Soc. &c. i
VOL. III.
WINCHESTER:
PRINTED BY JACOB AND JOHNSON, FOR THE AUTHOR :—SOLD IN LONDON BY
G. AND W. B. WHITTAKER, AVE-MARIA-LANE ; JOHN WARREN, BOND-STREET,
W. WOOD,  428,   STRAND ;   AND  J.   MAWMAN,  39,   LUDGATE-STREET.
1822.
.
    1
BIRDS.
GENUS XIV.—WATTLE-BIRD.
J. HE bill in this Genus is incurvated ; the upper mandible exceeding the lower in length.
At the gape on each side a carunculated Wattle, arising from the
uaader mandible.
Nostrils depressed, half covered by a membrane, of a texture
somewhat cartilaginous, and tufted at the end.
Tongue subcartilaginous, divided at the end, or rather deeply
serrated, and ciliated.
Legs made for walking; toes three before and one behind, the
shins carinated at the back part.
CINEREOUS WATTLE-BIRD—Pl. xxxviii.
Callceas cinerea, Ind. Orn. i. 149.
Glaucopis cinerea, Gm. Lin. i. 363.    Daud. ii. 293. pl. 21.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 338. pl.
42.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ii.
Der Aschgraue Lappen vogel, Schmid Vog. p. 65. t, 53.
Cinereous Wattle-Bird, Gen. Syn. i. 364, pl. 14.
SIZE of a Jay; length fifteen inches.    Bill black, strong, and
curves downwards, in length one inch and a quarter; nostrils placed
 2 WATTLE-BIRD.
in a hollow at the base, and half covered with velvety feathers, and
those between the bill and eye of the same texture. The tongue is
singularly shaped, the end being indented into three or four angles,
and furnished with short bristles ;* at the base of the under mandible,
on each side, a round, flat, blue aubstance, not unlike the wattle of a
cock, chaaaging by degrees, from the base, to a fine orange; irides
blue; the plumage on the forehead and between the bill and eye is
black ; the rest dark ash or slate-colour, quills and tail darker. The
tail consists of twelve feathers, about five inches in length, and
cuneiform in shape, the outer feather one inch shorter than the two
middle ones; the wings, when closed, reach only to the base ; legs
long, black, stout; the hind claw much longer than the others.
Inhabits New-Zealand: is often seen walking on the groundj
though sometimes observed to perch on trees, but less frequently : it
feeds on berries of all kinds, and insects; and it is said, on small
birds also.
The flesh is good to eat, and by some eveai accounted savoury ;
has a note not unlike a whistle, and now and then a kind of murmuring, though not an unpleasant one.—I am indebted t© the late
J. R. Foster, for the above account, f Iai one of these I observe the
hind claw to be singularly placed ; not springing as usual froan the
end of the toe, but from a kind of process, a little above it, and
which I have not noticed in aaiy other bird. This came from New-
Holland.
* See the Tongue at the bottom of the Plate.
t Dr. Foster talks of the shrill notes of Thrushes, the gra1
and the enchanting melody of various Creepers, res<
pipe of ttefr WfcfcttewBirds,
en &ll> sidfes.—See Voy. vol. i.
 GENUS XV.—CROW.
1 Raven
A CrossvMled R.
B Northern white R.
C Pied R.
D White R.
2 South-Sea R.
3 White-necked R.
4 Carrion Crow
A Clerical Cr.
5 Rook
6 Enca Cr.
7 Bald Crow
8 Hooded Cr.
9 White-breasted Cr.
10 Jackdaw
A Collared J.
B White J.
C Black J.
11 Jay
12 Russian Crow
A Siberian Jay
13 Nutcracker
14 Alpine Cr.
15 Red-legged Cr.
16 Hermit Cr.
17 Red-billed Cr.
18 African Cr.
19 Caribbean Cr.
20 Rufous Cr.
A Var.
21 Magpie
22 New Caledonian M.
23 Changeable Cr.
24 Velvet-faced Cr.
25 Plush-faced Cr.
26 Indigo Cr.
27 Rufous-breasted Cr.
28 Pacific Cr.
29 Tropic Cr.
30 Australasian Cr.
31 Sydney Cr.
32 Blue Cr.
33 Senegal Cr.
34 Rufous-bellied C.
35 Variable Cr.
36 Kent's Cr.
37 New Caledonian Cr.
38 White-eared Jay
A Var.
39 White-cheeked Cr.
A Var.
40 Wave-breasted Cr.
41 New-Guinea Cr.
A Var.
42 Papuan Cr.
43 Black-faced Cr.
44 Black-breasted Cr.
45 White-naped Cr.
46 White-crowned Cr.
47 Blue and white Cr.
48 Black and white Cr.
4$ Hottentot Cr*
50 Six-shafted Cr,
51 Crishna Cr.
52 Purple-headed Cr.
53 Macao Cr.
54 Plain Cr.
55 Hunting Cr:
A Chinese Roller
56 Brown Cr.
57 Blue Jay
58 Steller's Cr.
59 Chattering Cr.
60 Downy Cr.
61 Fish Cr.
62 Peruvian Jay
63 ParaguanJ.
64 Yellow-bellied J.
65 Lesser Mexican Cr.
67 Cayenne Cr.
68 Surinam Cr.
69 Clark's Cr.
70 Blue-tailed Cr.
71 Short-tailed Cr.
A Var.
B Var.
C Var.
D Var.
E Var.
F Var.
GVar.
In the Crow GemifcJihe bill is strong, the upper mandible a little
convex, the edges cultratei, and in, most of the species a small notch
near the tip.
N^trfis;covei?ed with taristies reflected over them.
Tongue divided at the end.*
* Except in the Black-faced Species, and perhaps one or two others.
B2
 Toes placed three forwards and one backwards, that of the middle
attached to the outer as far as the first joint.*
The different species belonging to this Genus, found in every
climate. They are in general clamorous, promiscuous feeders; build
chiefly in trees, and lay about six eggs.
Several species inhabit England, whose nature is well known, and
may serve to give an idea of the manners of the rest.
1—RAVEN.
rvus Coi
Scop..
Lin.
i. 155. Gm. Lin.i.
.27. Muller. p. 11.
lent. No.38. Ph. Trai
p. 8.     Id. 8vo. i. 15(
54.    Faun. Suec. No. 85.
Kram. El. 333.     Georgi
.lvii. 347. Gerin. ii. 32. t.
Raii. Syn. p. 39. A 1.
x, Ind. Orn. i. 150.
nn: i. No. 45.     Br
164. Faun. arag. p. 72.  Fc
140.    Bor. Nat. ii. 103.   E
Will. p. 82. t. 18.    Frisch. t. 63.   Klein. Av. p. 58.   Schceff. El. t. 30.    Cett. Vc.
Sard. p. 69.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 341.   Amer. Om. ix. 113. pl. 75. f. 3.   Lin. Trans.
xh. p. 530.    Tern. Man. d'Om.p. 66.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 107.
Grand Corbeau, Buf. iii. 13. pl. 2.     Pl. enl. 495,     Kolb. Cap. ii. 146 ?     Levail. Ois.
pl. 51.    Daud. ii. p. 224.    Gunth. Nest. U. Ey. t. 71.   Bartr. Trav. p. 286:
Kolkrabe, Naturf. ix. s. 140. 42.    Schmid Vog. p. 44. t. 29.
Raven, Gen. Syn. i. 367.   Id. Sup. 74.     Id. Sup. ii. 106.    Br. Zool. i. 218. 74.     Id.
fol. p. 75. Id. Ed. 1812. 1. 279.   Arct. Zool. ii. 134.    Russ. Alep. p. 69.   Alb. ii.
pl. 20.      Bewick, i. pl. p. 66.     Lewin. Birds, i. pl. 33.      Id. Eggs. pl. vi. f. 1.
Will. Engl. 121. t. 18.      Walcot Syn. i. pl. 32.     Wood's Zoogr. i. p. 435.     Orn.
Diet. £ Sup.
THIS, the largest of the Genus, weighs from two and a half to
three pounds ; length about two feet, extent of the wings four. Bill
two inches and three quarters long, and covered with bristles for two-
thirds of its length, hiding the nostrils ; colour of the plumage fine,
rich, glossy blue-black ; beneath more dull, inclining to dusky.
The female a little bigger than the male.
This is not uncommon in England, but more rare than any of the
other species; seen only in pairs, and the connection supposed to
1 In one or two doubtful Spe
, the toes are cloven to the bottom.
 continue for life; for the most part anakes the nest hi a tall tree,* and
does not suffer any competitor within a moderate distance.
The nest is composed of large twigs, lined with wool, hair, &c.
placed between the forks of a tree. This bird builds very early in
the spring,f and lays five or six pale bluish eggs,t spotted with
brown; seems more foaad of carrion than other food, which it will
scent at a vast distance, yet is found to destroy many living animals:
rabbits, young ducks and chickens fall a prey, as well as their eggs ;
aaad it will peck out the eyes of lambs, which are weak, whilst the
creature is yet alive; will also pick up shell-fish on the shore : is a
crafty bird when at large, and aiot easily shot; and wheal brought
up tame has been known to pilfer, and hide valuable articles, so as
to cause blame and disgrace on persons suspected of the theft.
It seems an universal species, being found on both Continents from
Iceland§ to the Cape of Good Hope on the one, and from Canada
to Mexico on the other. Known at Hudson's Bay, by the name of
Ka-ka-kew : has been killed also in Greenland, but mentioned as a
solitary instance : with the natives of Hudson's Bay held in detestation ; yet the Magicians, when they visit the sick, invoke the Raveaa,
and imitate its voice : seen every where in Russia and Siberia, except
within the Arctic Circle, and our Circumnavigators found it in
Sandwich Islands, in the village of Kackooe; also at Owhyhee,
where it was ranked among the Eatous.||—The bird which M. Levaillant found at the Cape of Good Hope was bigger, and the bill
more curved; and according to this author, unites into flocks, attacking Antelopes, and killing them.
* We are told that a pair of Ravens has been known to build in one beech tree for above
one hundred years.—Lin. Trans, iii. p. 15. f Sometimes before the end of February.
J The egg weighs scarcely seven drams, and the female Raven about two pounds ten
ounces ; therefore, forty-eight of them will only make up the weight of the bird. The eg^
of the Cuckow is less disproportionate, requiring only thirty-eight to equal the parent in
weight.—Montagu.
§ Hooker's Iceland, p. 31.—but the Crow is not found there. || Cook's Last Voy.
iii. 161.
 6 CROW.
M. Sonfloni* mentions it as a bird of Egypt, a few appearing
with flocks of other sorts of Crows, which frequent the inhabited
places about Rosette, 4a February.
Mr. White Observes, that while at Gibraltar a single pair inhabited
the South point of the Rock, and were masters of the district, suffering no intruders whatever, and that he has received a specimen from
Algiers, no way differing from the common sort.f Mr. Markwkrk'J
mentions the antipathy between the Raven and Rook, and gives two
instances of all the Rooks forsaking a rookery, oaa a Raven building
a nest on the spot, and thfrt in the latter instance§ the flight of the
Rooks was considered by the country people as ominously portending
the death of the possessor, who then" was ill; but he afterwards
recovered.
A.—Corax erucirostra, Daud. ii. 22G.
This variety has the two mandibles crossing each other.
borealis albus, Bri
. App. 33.
2. Lt,   Ia\%ii
The head in this is white, spotted with black; neck and body
above, and breast, glossy black, under parts white; quills white,
with the outer margins dusky; tail varied Wrack and white.
Found in the Island of Ferroe.
* Trav. ii. 239. f Lin. Trans.i. p. 127.
X Rookery at Broomham, near Hastings, at the Bishop of Chichester's.—It was, however, the arrival of the Raven which was considered portentous of death, as Lady Macbeth
" The Raven himself is hoarse
" That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan
" Under my Battlements."
Macb. Act I. Sc. V.
§ It was received by the name of Graab el Sahara ; by.' winch name a bird is mentioned
by Shaw, but this had the bill and legs red; called also the Red-legged Crow, and CrOw of
the Desert;—See Shaw's Trav. in Barbary, p. 25fow.probabiythis- maybe our Red-legged,
or the Hermit Species ?
 C—Corvus varius, Bris. ii. p. 12.    Id. 8vo. i. 157.
Cacabotl, Fern. Hist. N. Hisp. p. 48.
Pied Raven, Gen. Syn. i. 369. A.
Differs from the commmon sort, only in having a mixture of
vhite feathers, and inhabits Mexico.
D—Corvus candidus, Bris.ii. p. 12. B.   Id. 8vo. i. 151.    Schw. Av. Sil. 245.
This is white tjhisoughout, and met with in Norway and Iceland ;
more thaai one instance has also occurred to us, wherein the whole
brood was white, and in one buff-coloured; a mixture of white in the
black plumage is not uncommon; and we are told that Crows in the
Orknies change more or less to white in the winter. Of these Mr.
Bullock had one in his Museum, in the intermediate state of change.
2—SOUTH-SEA RAVEN.
Corvus Australis, Ind. Orn. i. 151.    Gm. Lin. i. 365.    Daud. ii. 226.
South-Sea Raven, Gen. Syn. i. 363.    Cook's Last Voy. i. 109.
LENGTH nineteeen inches. Bill strong, compressed on the
sides, in length two inches and three quarters, and black ; plumage
dusky black; the feathers beneath the chin remarkably loose in
texture ; quills and tail brownish black, the latter eight inches long;
legs and claws black.
Inhabits the Friendly Isles, in the South Seas; found also at
New-Holland; not uncommon in Van Diemen's Land : is probably
a further Variety of the Common Raven.
 3—WHITE-NECKED RAVEN.
■
Corvus albicollis,
Ind. Om. i.
151.
Daui
 Vulturinu
s, Shaw's Z
»0/.Vl
. 343.
■           torquatus
Spalowsk.
Vog.y
i. 1.1
Corbiveau, Levail. Ois. ii. pl
50.
South-Sea Raven,
Gen. Syn. Sup. T
5.   Id
i. 107.   Bruce's Trav. App. p. 152.
LENGTH eighteen or nineteen inches; size smaller than the
common species. Bill ridged, and arched on the top, as in the Ani,
but not sharp-edged; general colour of the plumage glossy black,
except a large patch of white at the nape, and an irregular, broken
stripe of the same on each side, surrounding the neck befoi'e, as a
crescent; the tail is cuneiform, and the wings, when closed, reach
beyond it; the feathers of the head and neck seem elongated, and
dishevelled.
The female is smaller than the male, with less white on the neck;
the plumage less glossy, and inclined to brown.—M. Levaillant adds,
that the feathers of the throat are forked, the webs extending beyond
the shafts, and colour less black than the others. He found it every
where in his African travels, but particularly among the great Nama-
quas, and in Swarteland, but less common than at the Cape itself,
and did not think it to be a bird of passage.
This is a bold species, attacking young lambs and antelopes: it
feeds also on Canion, and may be esteemed a link between the Crow
and Vulture Genus.
I observed a figure of one among the late Mr. Bruce's drawings,
which differed merely in having the shoulders of the wings brownish,
the tip of the bill white, and the back of the neck brownish, with a
large triangular patch of white on the nape,* having no other mark
of white, for the general colour of the plumage was black.
' Mr. Bruce calls this
ind part of the head."
a figure like a cup or chalice of white feathers on the occiput,
 \
CROW. 9
Mr. Levaillant found a nest of one in October, it was of a vast
size, composed of large branches of trees, lined within with soft
materials. The eggs, four in number, of a greenish coloua*, marked
with brown; called at the Cape Ring-hals-kraai, or Ring-necked-
Crow.
In the British Museum is a specimen twenty inches long, in which
all the back part of the neck is white, passing forward, and forming
a crescent before; tail even at the end, consisting of twelve feathers.
4.—CARRION CROW.
Corvus Corone, Ind. Orn. i. 151.    Lin.i. 155.    Gm. Lin. i. 365.    Faun. Suec. No. 86.
Scop: Ann. i. No. 36.    Brun. No. 29.   Muller. No. 87.    Georgi. p. 165.    Faun.
Arag. p. 72.    Frisch. t. 66.    Bor. Nat. ii. 110.    Sepp. Vog. iii. t. 115.    Daud. ii.
226.   Hist. Prov. i. 486.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 345.   Amer. Om. iv. pl. 35. f. 3.    Tern.
u■   f*r     Man. d'Om. p. 67.   Id. Ed. ii. p. 108.
Cornix, Raii. p. 39. A. 2.    Will. p. 83. 1.18.    Bris. ii. p. 12.   Id. 8vo.i. 157.    Klein.
Av. p. 58. 6 ?
Schwarze Krahe, Naturf. ix. s. 41.
La Corneille, Buf. iii. 45. pl. 3.    Pl. enl. 483.
Carrion Crow, Gen. Syn.i. 370.     Id. Sup. 75.    Id. Sup. ii. 108.     Br. Zool. i. No. 75.
pl. 34.    Id. fol. p. 75.     Id. 1812. 1. p. 281. pl. 35.    Arct. Zool. ii. 135.    Alb. iii.
pl. 21.     Hist. Selb. p. 97.      Will. Eng. 122. pl. 18.       Bewick, i. p. 68.     Lewin
Birds, i. pl. 34.    Id. Eggs, pl; vi. f. ii.    Walcot. Syn. i. pl. 33.    Orn. Diet. $ Sup.
THE length of this species is eighteen inches; breadth thirty-six;
weight, twenty ounces. The bill black; irides dusky ; the plumage
violet black, but less glossy than in the Raven; tail nearly even at
the end ; the female has the coloui's less bright. The two sexes are
for the most part seeai together, and the opinion is, that they remain
so during life. The nest is made on tall trees, chiefly in woods, and
the eggs five or six in number, similar to those of the Raven, but
smaller.*  Like that bird,  the Crow is fondest of carrion and animal
* Weight five drams; that of the Raven between six and seven.
VOL. III. C
 10 CROW.
food ; not unfrequently makes great havock of young game of all
kinds, and has also been known to peck out the eyes of young lambs.
This bird, like the Raven, is very tenacious of its own residence, not
suffering any bird to approach within a moderate distance without an
attack, and for the most part defeating the enemy.
This species is found in many parts of the world, though not so
far spread as the Raven : is scarce in Russia, only in the northern
parts; grows more numerous in Siberia, especially beyond the Lena,
where the Hooded Crow is not seen : pretty common about the Lake
Baikal; but most of all plentiful about Astrachan ; where, in company with others of the Genus, they do immense damage to the
vine-yards, and oblige the owners to drive them off with clappers,*
&c.; aiot uncommon at Aleppo,t and may be aioticed in drawings
from China and India; not often seen in Prussia,^: and very rare in
Sweden, § but in France and Germany as common as in England.
We hear of it at Madeira. ||—Dampier met with it at New-Holland,
aaid New-Guinea;** and Dr. Forster at New-Caledoaiia.-ft—On
the New Continent it is frequent about Hudson's Bay, where it is
called Hahaseu ; is more plentiful in-land, being rarely seen on the
coasts \X% not always in Canada in the winter, for according to Kalm,
it is not at Quebec at that season.§§ More of the manners need not
be mentioned, as the species is so generally known, |]||
* However they may join the company of their congeners, as observed above, they certainly do not form themselves into flocks of their own species.
f Russel Alep. p. 69. % Klein. Ord. Av. p. 58.        § Only seen once, Faun. Suec.
|| Forster's Voy. p. 25:      ** Damp. iv. 138.       ft Vo1- "• 4°2-        %% Mr. Hutchins.
§§ Trav. iii. 206.
|| || A singular anecdote of this bird is well attested. In March 1783, a Crow was observed
to build a nest on the vane of the top of the Exchange at Newcastle, and the more remarkable, as the spindle on which it was constructed, being fixed to the vane, moved with it, and
in course turned round to every point of the compass. A small copper-plate was engraved,
with a representation of the circumstance, of the size of a watch-paper, and so pleased were
the inhabitants with it, that so many were sold at sixpence each, as to produce the sum of
ten pounds.
 5—ROOK.
152.    Lin. i. 156:
Faun. Suec. No. 85.    if. Oel. 67.
3. 2.     Bor. Nat. ii
105.     Raii. p. 83.   A. 3.      Will.
ferini, ii. 35. 1.143
145.    Bris. ii. 16.    Id. 8vo. i. 158.
. p. 10. 1.10. f. 3.
a. b.    Id. Ov. t. 8. f. 10.    Daud.
93.    Shaw's Zool.
ni. 347.     Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 69.
11
A—Corvus clericus, hid. Om. i. 152. 4. 0.    Gm. Lin: i. 365.    Muse. Carls, fasc. i. t. 2.
This chiefly differs from the common one, in having the base of
the bill ash-coloured, the chin white, and the black in some parts
more inclined to dusky.
Ray, in his Letters, p. 108, mentions one wholly white.
Corvus Frugilegus,   Ind. On
Gm. Lin. i. 366.     Kram
84. 1.18.    Frisch. t. 64.
Klein. Av. p. 59.    Id. Stem.
ii. 229.    Sepp. Voy. iii.
Id. Ed. ii. p. 110.
Saatkrahe, Naturf. ix. s. 41.
Le Freux, on la Frayonne, Buf. iii. 55.    Pl. enl. 484.
Corneille du Cap, Levail Ois. ii.  p. 11. No. 52.
Rook, Gen. Syn. i. 372.    Id. Sup. 76.    Id. Sup. ii. 109.   Bart. Trav. 286.    Br. Zool.
i. pl. 34.   Id. 1812, 282.    Arct. Zool. ii. p. 250. A.   Alb. ii. pl. 23.    Will. Eng.
123.    Bewick. Birds, pl. p. 71.    Lewin,Ui$\.$b.    Id. Eggs pl. vi. f. 3.    Wale.
Birds i. pl. 34.    Om. Diet. Sf Supp.
THIS and the Crow are not easily distinguished while youaag,
though the former is somewhat bigger, but the Rook, when at mature
age, appears bare about the nostrils, and root of the bill, arising from
the latter being thrust into the earth after worms and other insects,
which the Crow never does, and therefore retains the bristles over the
aaostrils as long as it lives. In the Rook too, the tail feathers are
more rounded at the end. The Rook feeds also on grains of all
sorts, hence is injurious to the husbandman, aaid would be more so,
did it not at the same time destroy vast quantities of the larvae of the
Chafer Beetles,* which in some seasons ruiiir whole crops of corn,
by feeding on the roots.
* Scarabcevs Mehlontha, Sf Solstitialis.—Lin.
C 2
 12 CROW.
This species is common every where in England, and at all times
gregarious, and great numbers often form themselves into societies,
particularly in breeding time, chusing a clump of the largest and
tallest trees whereon to make their nests. These are called Rookeries, and from their perpetual chatter, and litter they occasion, are to
most people a great annoyance. The eggs as in the Crow, but smaller,
and the spots larger; they begin to build early in March; the male
and female sit by turns, and after the breeding season roost elsewhere;
in their going and returning from their haunts, they sometimes are in
such vast flocks as to darken the air. In England they remain
throughout the year, but in France and Silesia are migratory. We
do not see it in Aso's list, as a bird of Spain, though the Crow is
anentioned; and Mr. White has assured me, that he never met with
either Crow or Rook in Gibraltar. Linnaeus ranks it among his
Swedish birds; but neither Brunnich nor Muller mention it as belonging to Denmark; nor is it in Georgi's list of the birds of Lake
Baikal. It is, however, not uncommon in Russia, and the west
part of Siberia, particularly iai the more southern latitudes.
M. Levaillant met with many at the Cape of Good Hope,* but
observes, that they are not bare about the nostrils; and if so, this no
doubt must arise from some different anode of procuring food. I do
not find it mentioaied as an American species.
It is said that there are no Rooks in the Isle of Jersey, although
>ows and Magpies are not unfrequent, nor is it certain that the Jay
nhabits that Island.
* Whether it is this or the Hooded Crow we are not clear, but Linschoten, in his Voyages
p. 84, says, that in India " there are a most wonderful number of black Crows, which do
" much hurt, and are so bold, that oftentimes they come flying in at their windows, and take
" the meat out of the dish, as it standeth on the table before them that are set down to eate;
" and as I myself sate writing above in a chamber, the windowes being open, one flew in at the
"window, picked the cotton out of my inkehorne, and blotted all the paper that lay on my
«' table, do what I could to let him. They sitte commonly uppon the BufHes backes, and
" pecke off their haire." &c. &c. I suspect these not to be the common Crow, as this is not
•known to congregate.
 CROW. 13
Crows are said by M. Landt* to be singularly troublesome in the
Ferroe Islands, deriving great part of their subsistence from plunder;
picking seeds from the field; digging up the newly planted potatoes;
destroying barley before it is ripe; cutting off cabbage roots, and
those of almost every other garden vegetable ; devour the fish which
is hung up to dry, and carry off gosliaags and ducklings ; will often
enter houses where people are sitting, in search of prey; and also
feed on shell-fish, which they let fall on the rocks from a considerable
height. Mr. L. talks of their extraordinary assemblies or Crow-
courts ; from which it may be suspected that the birds he talks of
may be Rooks, and not Crows.f
The Rook, as well as the Crow, varies in plumage, being sometimes found quite white, even the bill. I have also seen others black
and white; and one quite brown, the colour of a Jay.
6—ENCA CROW.
Fregilus Enca, Cuvier, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 164.
LENGTH seventeen inches. Plumage, for the most part, glossy
blue-black, beneath more dull; forehead, cheeks forwards, and chin
black ; the lower and posterior parts of the space surrounding the
eye are naked.
Inhabits Java; known there by the name of Enca. Dr. Horsfield
refers, for the general characters of the Genus Fregilus, to Cuvier,
and gives only the above short description. From the length, it should
appear to equal a rook in size, except the excess is made up of the
length of tail, which is not mentioned.
* Description of the Ferroe Isles.
f A curiosity now presents itself in the Tower of London. It is of a Rook's nest lately
erected, and inhabited in the centre of the Crowns that surmount the weather-cock on the
top of the White Tower—Salisb. Journ. Ap. 3.1815.
 14
7—BALD CROW.
Corvus ealtttfi Ind. Orn. L IfiSi;   Gnu Lin. i, 3®.
Choncas cbauve, Buf. Ui. 80.   PL enl. 52L
Le Chauve, Levail. Am. Sf Ind. i. 147. pl. 49.
Coracine, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ixii.
Bald Crow, Gen. Sy». i. 383.
THIS is thirteen inches in length. Bill strong, rather bent, and
dusky black; the breadth at the base about half of the total length;
plumage, on the upper parts of the bird, ferruginous brown, beneath
paler, inclining to red j upper tail coverts the same; the fore part of
the head, as far as the crown, and beyond the eyes, totally bare of
feathers, and the chin but sparingly covered with them. This baldness is probably the effect of rooting into the ground with the bill, in
the manner of our Rook, and will account for the want of feathers
in the same parts, as in that bird.
Inhabits Cayenne.—Mr. Levaillant says, it is common throughout Guiana, and known there by the negroes, under the name of
Oiseau mon Pere, having, as they think, the robe of the Capucins,
wbja are so called. The male said to be a trifle bigger than the
female, and when young, the head covered with feathers as well as
the nostrils: in some the chin is also destitute of feathers, and like
the Best of the head. Mr. L. ranks this bird among his Cotingas, or
Chatterers.
One of these, in the collection of Mr. M'Leay, brought from
Berbice, was called Kwaa.
 15
8—HOODED CROW.
Corvus Comix, Ind. Om. i. 153.  Lin. Syst. i. 156.    Faun. Suec. No. 88.    Gm. Lin. i.
366.   Scop. Ann.i. No. 37.   Mull- No. 88.    Brun. No. 30.    Georgi. 165.   .front.
6/. 333.    Bor.Nat. ii. 105.    &;/?p. Fog. iii. pl. 106.  Daud. Orn.ii. 231.  Schr.d.
Berl. Nat. iii. 198.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 348.     Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 68.    Id, Ed. ii.
p. 109.
Comix cinerea, Bris. ii. 19.   Id. 8vo. i. 159.    tffeiw. Av. 59.    Id. Srem. 9. t. 11. f, 1.
a. b.    Id. Ov. 21. t. 8. f. 9.    Frisch. t. 65.     Raii. Syn. 39. A. 4.    J?W. 84. t. 18.
& 77.    Gerin. ii. 35. t. 144 ?  146. 147.
Le Mulacchia, Cet. uc. Sard. 71.    Zinn. Uov. t. 10. f. 61.
Nebelkrahe, Naturf. ix. s. 41.
La Corneille mantelee, Buf. iii. 61. pl. 4.    PL enl. 76.
Royston Crow, Alb. ii. t. 23.    Will. Engl. 124. pl. 18. & 77.    Russ. Alep. p. 69.
Hooded Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 374.    Id. Sup. 77.   Id. Sup. ii.' 109.     Br. Zool. i. No. 77.
Id.fol. t. D. 1.   Id. 1812. 286.  Arct. Zool. ii. 251. B.   Flor. Scot. i. t. 2.   Bewick.
i. pl. p. 69.    Lewin. Birds, i. pl. 36.    Id. {Eggs) pl. vi. f. 4.    Donoc. v. pl. 117.
Wale. Syn. i. pl. 35.    Orn. Diet.    Grav. Br. Orn.
SIZE of the Rook ; weight twenty-two ounces ; length twenty-
two inches. Bill two inches long, black ; irides dtisfcy hazel; the
head, fore part of the aieck, wings, and tail fine glossy blue-black ;
the rest of the body pale ash-colour; legs black; toes broad and flat.
This bird, in the northern parts of this kingdom, Scotland, and
the northern Islands,* is a constaRt inhabitant, and breeds there; is
gregarious, building the nest in trees, laying six pale green eggs,
spotted with brown; but separate into pairs is the breeding season,f
after which they unite into bands : it also contiaiues the year through
in several parts of Ireland: in the southern parts of England is only
a winter inhabitant, coming in October, and retiring the end of
March, or beginning of April; during their stay, seen frequently in
flocks of ten or more on our heaths and downs, and not unfrequent
on the shores of the Thames, in Kent and Essex,$ where they pick up
* In the Hebrides it is the only one of the Genus.
f An instance is given of the male of the Hooded Crow, pairing with a female of the
Carrion Species, which attachment lasted for three or four years.—Compend. of Ornith:
%■ Hence, called Essex Crow; by some, Dun-Crow.
 offal and shell-fish; but will be content with insects, seeds, and beiries;
on the Continent they are alike migratory; in Carniola,* and in Sweden, where they breed, as well as in the south parts of Germany ;
in the woods of the Islands of the Danube ;f and is probably the
species mentioned by Fryer,J as inhabiting Ispahan, in Persia, and
has been brought from the Philippine Islands, by M. Sonnerat; is
common throughout Russia and Siberia, but not beyond the Lena.
Migrates to Woronesck, and passes the winter there; grows very
large beyond the Ob, and often varies to intense blackness ;§ found
also at Aleppo, and about the Lake Baikal, probably extending to
other parts of Asia; as I have been informed, that in soaaae parts of
India they are common, and so bold, as to snatch the food from the
dishes, while the servants are carrying them across the Court-yard ;||
not unfrequent on the West Coast of Africa.** It is said, that the
propagation of the cinnamon tree is owing to Crows, but what species
is uncertain; these birds eat the quick-tasted, and red fruit of this
tree, and swallowing the kernels with the fruit, scatter them every
where with their excrements; on this account, none dare shoot a
Crow, under a severe penalty, ft Independent of the Black Variety
near the River Ob, we know of no other, except one mentioned by
M. Schrank, which had the two mandibles curved across each other,
as in the Cross-bill. ££
* Scop. Ann. Hist. i. p. 25.       t Kram. el. 333.
X The Crows here are like our Royston Crows, grey on their backs and wings.—Fryer's
Trav. p. 318.       § Arct. Zool.
|| Mr. Pennant.     This is among Gen. Hardwicke's drawin]
** Life and Adventures of Christian Wolf.    Mem.    This i
the White Nutmeg-Pigeon.
ft Captain Tuckey met with them in his voyage up the River C<
%% See Schrift. der Berl. Nat. iii. s. 119. tab. iv. fig. 10.
s,  but painted of a less siz<
rcumstance is attributed t
  critic fliiwfyJ 6.
 1
  17
9.—WHITE-BREASTED CROW.—Pl. xxxix.
Corvus Dauricus, Ind. Om. i. 154.     Gm. Lin. i. 367. Pall. It. iii. 694.     Georgi. 165.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 349.
Corvus scapulatus, Daud. Orn. ii. 232.
Corneille a scapulaire blanc, Levail. Ois. ii. 14. pl. 53.
Corneille du Senegal, Buf. iii. 67.    PL enl. 327.
Chinese black Raven with a white neck, Osb. Voy. i. 377.
White-breasted Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 367. pl. 15.     Id. Sup. ii. 110.    Kolb. Cap. ii. 146.
Fryer. Trav. p. 21.
SIZE of a small Crow; length at least twelve inches. Bill black;
head and throat black, glossed with blue; neck and breast, and sometimes the belly white; the rest of the body, wings, and tail blue-black;
legs lead-colour; claws black. The wings are long, and reach
three-fourths on the tail.
Inhabits Senegal, and various other parts of Africa, but no where
more plentiful than at the Cape of Good Hope, where it makes the
nest in trees, or bushes, aaot well clothed with leaves, and lays five
or six green eggs, spotted with brown. The Hottentots hold this,
and some others of the Crow Genus, in great estimation; being of
singular use in picking out insects from the backs of oxen, with which
they are sometimes so covered as to be in danger of losing their lives.
Pallas observes, that the Corvus dauricus, or Chinese Jackdaw,
comes early in the spring, in great flights from China, and the South
Monguls Country, into the parts about the Lake Baikal, most frequent about the towns and villages on the River Lena; in which
part the Jackdaws and Royston Crows are seldom seen : * found also
in Persia.
It inhabits likewise the Island of Johanna, where it lives on
insects and fruits ; and Mr. Bruce found it in Abyssinia, as did Lord
Valentia the beginning of January, about Dhalac-t—It is subject to
* Ind. Orn. i. p. 154. 8. /3. f See Trav. ii. 225.
 (M
18 CROW.
variety, independent of the difference of the belly; for Pallas mentions one which was almost wholly black, with the nape of the neck
and throat brown.—Such an one is in Lord Stanley's collection. In
this the neck and breast are fine brown ; belly and vent black ; the
outer quill not half the length of the fifth, which is the longest. I
have observed this variety too, in several drawings of Indian birds.
10.—JACKDAW.
a. i. 156:    Faun. Suec. No. 89.     Gm. Li
No. 32.    Muller. No. 89.    Georgi. 165;
, 160..    Kramer. 334.   Fmehi fc
i. 106.    Gerini. t. 144 ?    Sepp. Voi
350.    Tern. Man. d'Om. p. 70.    J<
Id. 8vo
Borowsk,
o's Zool. vi
67.
Corvus Monedula, hid. Om. i. 154.
367/   Scop. Ann; i. No. 38.    Bn
Trans, lvii. 347.     Bris. ii. p. 24.
Raii. 40.  A. 5.    Will. 85. t. 19.
iii. t. 113.    Daud. ii. 232.   Shu
Ed. ii. p. 112.
Qorni&gamOa, Klein. Av. 59. Id. Stem. 10. t. 11. f. 2. a. b.    Id. Ov. 21. t. 8. f. 4.
Le Choucas, Buf. iii. 69.    Pl. enl. 523.
Dohle, Gunth. Nest. U. Ey. 51. t. 11. fig. inf.    Naturf. xi. s. 42.
Taccole. Celt. Uc. Sard. 72.    Zinnan. Ov. 71. t. 10. f. 62.
Jackdaw*. Gen»Syn.k318.  Id. Sup. 78.   Id. Sup. ii. 110.    Br. Zool. i. No. 81 .• pl. 34.
Id.fol. p. 78.   7<L1812. 296. pl.35.    Arct. Zoolrii. 251. C.    Hist. Selb. 59. 60.
Alb. i. pl. 14.    Will. Engl. 125. pl. 19.    Bewick, i. pl. in p. 73.    Lewin, i. pl. 37.
Id. Eggs. vii. f. 1.    Walcot, i. pl. 36,    Om. Diet.
THE Jackdaw is thirteen ;in.ches long, and weighs^ about nine
o.unces. Bill black ; irides nearly white ; hind headt and back pajrt"
of the neck elegant cinereous grey, passing on each side towardsfthis.
fcffeast; the rest of the plupage glossy blue-black, but the under
parts incline to dusky ; legs black.    Male and female.mijch!Rlifce,
This is a common species in England, remaining the whole year;
builds in trees„mpre commonly in rooks, and ruined edifices, out of ithe
rea.eh of coinanon intruders; and aiow and then in rabbit burrows, as
well as in hollow-trees; the nest composed of sticks; and twigs, shaving
a lining of wool, &c. lays five or six eggs, smaller than those of the
Crow,  paler,   und marked with fewer spots;   sometimes also in
 1
CROW. 19
chimaiies, for want of other convenience.* Independent of our own
Island, this bird is found in France, Austria, and many other parts
of Germany and Spaiaa ; very frequent at Athens : common at Gibraltar, breeding in vast numbers on the loftiest precipices, and staying
throughout the year ; feeds on both vegetable and animal food;
grapes^ figs, corn, pulse, and shell-fish, frogs, young birds, eggs,
young poultry, and carrion ; will also, like the Raven, keep voracious birds at a distance.f In most parts of the Continent, however,
it is more or less migratory ; common all over Russia and the West
of Siberia: but is seen in winter only in the South-west of Russia; a
few beyond Lake Baikal.    It is subject to some variety of plumage.
A.—Collared Jackdaw, Gen. Syn. i. 379. .
Helvetian Daw, Charlt. Ex. p. 75. No. 7.
This differs in having a collar of white round the neck, and is
found in Switzerland.
B.—White Jackdaw, Gen. Syn.i. 379. B.   Ray's Letters, p. 108.
Wholly white, with a yellowish bill.    That recorded by Ray
was met with at Hurworth, near Croft Bridge.
* A person in the Isle of Ely,, having occasion to kindle a fire in a room, which had not
been used for some time, the crnnfaey took fire, owing to the msfteTials collected by the
Jackdaws, which were in such quantity, as to make it the greatest difficulty to prevent
the house itself from being destroyed.
f Rev. Mr. White.
D 2
 20
C—Black Jackdaw, Gen. Syn. i. 379. C.    Frisch. t. (
This is smaller, with spots of white about the eyes, bluish irides?
and wanting the greyish tint about the head; such an one is found
about the Volga ;* others are mentioned being black, with flesh-
coloured bill and legs : one with a mixture of white in the wings,
and the mandibles crossing each other.—In the Museum of the late
Dr. Hunter, was a buff-coloured specimen, with white shoulders.
11.—JAY.
Corous glandarius,   Ind. Orn. i. 157.     Lin.i. 156.     Faun. Suec. No. 90.    Gm. Lin. i.
368.   Scop. i. No. 39.    Brun. No. 33. Muller. No. 90.  Kramer, p. 334.   Georgi,
165.    Faun. Arag. 72.    Frisch. t. 55.    Raii. 41. A 2.   Will. 88. 1.19.   Gerini. ii.
t. 161.     Sepp. Vog. t. p. 1.     Gunth. Nest. U. Ey. t. 38.     Borowsk. ii, 108. 8.
Daud. ii. 247.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 356.    Tern. Man. d'Om. p. 73.    Id. Ed. ii. 114.
Garrulus, Bris. ii. 47.   Id. 8vo. i. 168.    Schosff. el. t. 39.    Robert, ic. pl. 18.
Pica glandaria, Klein. Av. 61.   Id. Stem. 1.12. f. 4. a. b.   Id, Ov. t. 8, f. 2.
Jeay, Buf. iii. 107. t. 8.    Pl. enl. 481.
Ghiandaia, Olin. 35.   Zinnan. Uov. t.10. f. 58.    Cet. Vc. Sard. 76.
Der Holzhaher, Naturf. 9. s. 43.    Schmid Vog. p. 45. t. 31.
Jay, Gen. Syn.i. 384.   Id. Sup. 79.     Br. Zool. i. No. 79.     Id. Fol. x. D.     Id. 1812.
291.     Arct. Zool. ii. 252. E.     Will. Eng. 130. Pl. 19.     Russ. Alep. 69.   Alb. i.
pl. 16.     Hayes Birds, pl. 7.     Bewick, pl. p. 80.     Lewin's Birds, pl. 38.     Jd.
JBgg*, pl. vii. f. 2.      JPa/cof, pl. 37.    Nat. Misc. pl. 549.     Om. Diet.     Graves
Br. Om.    Donov. v. pl. 2.
LENGTH thirteen inches; weight seven ounces. Bill dusky;
irides whitish; the head crested; feathers of the forehead white, dashed
with black; chin white; from the angles of the mouth a broad black
streak passes beneath the eye; the plumage for the most part vina-
ceous buff-colour; lesser wing coverts light bay; the greater most
* Ph. Trans, lvi. 347. 7.—According to M. Levaillant, the black one,"and that with the
grey head and nape, only shew difference of sex—See Ois. ii. 129. but I doubt this, as we
have no such distinction in England, where they are sufficiently common.
 CROW. 21
elegantly barred, rich blue and black alternately, the rest black;
quills part ash-colour, part black ; the base of some, and the edges
of others white; the inner ones chestnut, with black tips; rump
white; tail black, the feathers edged with dusky, the outer ones
wholly dusky; legs brown.
The female differs chiefly in the colour being less brilliant.
The Jay is not uncommon in all the woods of this kingdom ; is a
a'estless and noisy species, alarming by its screams the rest of the
feathered tribe, on the approach of any one; yet at intervals has a sort
of note not unpleasant; it will also imitate the cries of various
animals in the wild state; but when kept tame, may be taught to
mimic many more; and we have witnessed one that mewed so
exactly like a cat as to be mistaken for one.—The Jay feeds on
various things, especially fruit, and grains, also acorns; likewise
birds eggs, and sometimes the parent birds, as well as mice; makes
the nest in woods, of sticks, fibres of roots, &c. and lays five or six
eggs, the size of those of a Pigeon, cinereous-olive, marked with
paler brown.*
This species is by no means so far spread as many of its congeners:
said to be common in France, Italy, and Spain, as far as the woody
parts in the neighbourhood of Gibraltar, but not on the rock itself;
frequents the woods of Russia and Siberia, but not beyond the Lena.
Georgi mentions its being near the Lake Baikal; and Russel at
Aleppo. I have also seen it in drawings done in China,/[ and therefore we may suppose it indigenous to that country. Both in Sweden
and Spain it is brought to market promiscuously with other birds for
the table, but is rarely used for this purpose in England.
I have observed only two Varieties, the one wholly white,J the
other with white quills only, the rest of the bird as in common.§
* In Sepp's Plate they are white.
•fGen. Syn. i. 386.. A.   Said to be frequent there.    Penn. China, p. 193.
% Gen. Syn. i.386. A. Donov. pl.34, § Spalowsk. Vog. i. t.2.
 12.—RUSSIAN CROW.
vus infaustus,  Ind. Orn. i. 159.    Lin. Faun. Sut
c. No. 93;    Brun. p. 10.
Muller,
No. 93.     Mus. Carls. Fasc. iv. t. 76.     Georgi
164 ?     Tern. Man. d'Orn.
p. 176.
Id. ed. ii. p. 116.
ms infimstus, Lin. i. 138.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 3ft&
i orange, Levail. ois. de Parad. i. pl. 47.
vus Russicus, Gmel It. i. 50. 1.11.
LENGTH nine inches or more. Bill black; head dusky brown;
chin and fjtqg,^hi|jsji, ;mixed with ferruginous and as,{|-colour; neck,
shoulders, back, and breast cinereous ; belly and thighs, pale rufous ;
rjutpgip and vent ferruginous; spmje of the WiSg coverts the saane;
ot^ejrs;inejjne anore to rufous ; quills dusky, the outer one shortest;
tejl t&e leaagth of the bj».dy, cuneiform; the twfrR|iddle feathers, dusky
agfe, the others pale fgrrflginpus, with $$ eajdj more or less dusky ;
legs black.
Jiijhabits Sweden; found ajsp.in Lapland j, coaaimoai in the North
of Russjg|/and Siberia, in all the, ^opdy parts ; but not in Kamts-
chatka ; is a ljpk^>bafid^ ; aa^pi^gjiej^ the traveller while enjoying, Ija^
meal in,j$i£ open air, fjiat ijfemay partake of the scraps. The figure
io tfee. Carlsonian JVJiiseaim seemsrjpretty correct.
A.—Corvus Sibiricus, Gm. Lin. i. 373.
Geay de Siberie, Buf. iii. 118.    Pl. enl. 60S.
Siberian Jay, Gen.. jSgfl}..i. 390.
Less than a Jay; length ten inches. Bill dusky; crown brown-
black, and somewhat crested; upper part of the body and wings
cinereous, verging to brpwn on tk^ajjack ; quills cinereous; foiehead
and sides, chin, and neck before, pale, with-ating© of, blue on the
 sides^Of the head, aaida* shade of buff on the breast; the breast itself,
and the under part of the body, and rump, ferruginous orange ; the
two middle tail? feather cinereous, the others orange; legs ash-colour.
Inhabiffe Siberia, and is no doubt a variety of the other.
13.—NUTCRACKER.
Corvus Caryocatactes, Ind. Om. i. 164.  Lin. i. 159.    Faun. Suec. No. 91.   Gm. Lin. i.
370.    Scop. An. i. No. 40.    Raii. p. 42.    Will. 90. t. 20.    Brun. No. 34.   Muller,
No. 91.    Georgi, 165.  Kram. 334.    Sepp. Vog. t. 3.    Gerin. ii. p. 163.   Borowsk.
ii. 108. Spalowsk. ii. t. 12.   Daud. ii. 251. pl. 17. Bechst. Deutsch. ii. 457.   Shaw's
Zool. vii. 353. t. 43.
Nucifraga, Bris. ii. 59. t. 5. f. 1.    Id. 8vo, i. 171:    Klein. Av. 61.    Id. Stem. p. 12. f.
2. a. b.    Frisch. t. 56.    Schcef. el. t. 49.    Tern. Man. p. 74:   Id. Ed. ii. p. 118.
Casse noix, Buf. iii. 122. t. 9.    P/. enl. 50.
Nushraehe, Nusshaeher, 5cAr. Nat. 67.    G'wmr. JVm*. I/. Ey. 38.    Naturf. ix. s. 44.
Nutcracker,   G«i. Syn. i. 400.    Id. Sup. 82.     JFi//. Eng. 132. pl. 20.     Br. Zool. ii.
App. pl. 3.    Id. 1812. 298. pl. 37.   Arct. Zool. 252. D.    £d«>. pl. 240.    Bewick,
i. pl. 79.    Lewin, pl. 40.    JFa/cof, pl. 38.     Orn. Diet. $ Supp.
SIZE of a Magpie; length thirteen inches. Bill two inches
long, black ; irides hazel; nostrils well covered with feathers, edged
with brown; general colour of the plumage rusty brown ; crown and
nape inclining1 to dusky; anostof the feathers marked with triangular
white spots; largest on the under parts ; vent white ; quills and tail
black, the latter tipped with white ; legs black.
This is very rare in respect to England, not having been anet with
more than three times to our knowledge ; is more common on the
Continent, but no where so plentiful as in Germany; sometimes
comes in vast flocks into France, especially Burgundy ; frequents the
mountainous parts of Sweden and Denmark ; met with as high as
Sondmor: common in the Pine Forests of Russia and Siberia, and
all over Kamtschatka; now and then seen in America, but not near
the sea coast.
 ■pi
Ik
24 crow.
It is said to resemble the Jay in manners, laying up store of
acorns and nuts, on the latter of which it most delights to feed, but
will eat insects of various kinds. Makes the nest'in the holes of trees,
and, like the Woodpecker, enlarges them with the bill; the eggs five
or six, pale yellow, marked with small black spots.
According to Klein, there are two Varieties, a smaller and a
larger. Muller also mentions two, the one rufous, the other spotted
black and white; and Mr. Bechstein saw a specimen wholly whiter
M. Temminck forms a distinct Genus of this, of which it is the only
species.
14.—ALPINE CROW.
CorvusPyrrhocorax, Ind. Orn.i
165.    Lin. i. 158.
Gm
. .Lin. i. 376.
Bris
ii.36. t.L
f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 162.    Shan
>'* Zool. vii. 380.
Ter
i. Man, d'On
». p. 7
1.   Id. Ed.
ii. p. 121.
Coracias, Gerin. ii. 1.150,151.
Crave des Alpfes, Daud. ii. 252.
Neu. Schw. Abh.
iii. s
. 104.
Choucas des Alpes, Buf. iii. 76.
t. 6.   PL enl. 531.
Alpine Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 381.
SIZE of the Jackdaw ; length fifteen inches; breadth two feet
seven inches. Bill like that of a Jackdaw, but rather longer, colour
yellow; plumage wholly black ; tail even at the end, and reaching
but little beyond the wing when closed ; legs and claws black. *
Inhabits the Alps; has a sharp, disagreeable voice, lives on grain
and fruits, and does much daanage to the harvest: the flesh accounted
good: makes the nest generally in crags and clefts of rocks, rarely
in trees; and lays four white eggs, marked with dusky yellow spots.
3, that the colour of the legs differs according to the age ;
, and in old birds deep crimson.
 25
15.—RED-LEGGED CROW,
Corvus graculus,  Ind. Orn. i. 165. Lin. i. 158. Gm. Lin. i. 377. Faun. Arag 72. Daud.
ii. 253.    Bechst. Deutsch. ii. 447.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 378,
Pyrrhocorax Coracias, Tern. Man. p. 72.    Id. Ed. ii, p. 12?.
Corvus docilis, Gm. It. iii. 385. t. 39.
Gracula Pyrrhocorax, Scop. i. 46.
Upupa Pyrrhocorax, Hasselq. It. 238.19.    Id. Engl. 197.
.      Coracias, seu Pyrrhocorax, Raii. 40. A. 6.   Will, 86. t. 19.  Bris. ii. p. 3. t. lf f. 1.   Id.
8vo.i. 154.    Shaw's Trav. 251.   Gerini, ii. t. 149.   Klein. Av. p. 60. 11.   BufM,
1. pl. 1.    P/. en/. 255.
Cornish Chough, ^4/6. ii. pl. 24.     Ror/. Cornw. 243. pl. 24.     JFi//. Engl. 126, pl. 19.
Hayes, pl. 6.
Red-legged Crow, ||*; $/s*«i. 401.    Id. Sup. 82.    Jd. Sup. ii. 115.    £r. Zoo/, i. pl. 35.
Id.fol, 83, t. L. *    Jd. 1812. 294. pl. 36.     Bewick, i. pl, p. 77.     Lewin. pl. 41.
Id. Eggs. pl. vii. f, 4.    *Fa/cof, pl. 40.    Ofn. Diet.
SIZE of a Jackdaw; length sixteen inches ; extent of wing two
feet nine inches; weight fourteen ounces. Bill two inches long,
much curved, and sharp at the point; colour that of red sealiaag wax;
irides grey, with an outer circle of red; eyelids red; plumage wholly
purplish black ; legs red;* the wings reach three-fourths on the tail.
The female is smaller, and the bill somewhat shorter.—This is
called by some Cornish Daw, Cornish Kae, Killigrew, and Chauk;
pretty common on some of our English coasts, particularly the western:
in Devonshire and Cornwall, in Wales and Scotland. We have also
received it from Dover Cliffs, where they breed, but said to have
arisen from a pair originally sent from the West; found also to frequent the South Downs about Beachy-Head and East-Bourn, and
there called the Red-billed Jackdaw.f   Makes the nest in the clefts
* Scopoli says, in autumn the feet in some are black—^According to Bechstein, it is in
the spring that this colour in the feet is seen ; and others affirm, that in the first year the
bill and legs are black ; these seeming contradictions can only be reconciled by supposing
the describers to mean two different species, as in this kingdom, the young birds have the
bill and legs red the first year. f £»». Trans, iv, p. 14.
VOL.   III. E
J
 2§ CROW.
of rocks, of sticks, lined with hair, and lays four or five white eggs,
bigger than those of a Jackdaw, spotted with yellow, or pale brown,*
weighing three draans and a half.f
I do not see it mentioned as a bird of France, but is,^^,|mcpm-
mon in the Alps and Carinthia: £ migrates into Lower Egypt,
towards the end of the inundation of the Nile, in September and
October :§ is seen about all high rocks of the south latitude of Siberia,
and Mount Caucasus, the mountains of Persia,|| and the Island of
Candia ;** also common on the Northern Alps and Switzerland ; feeds
on juniper berries; roots coraa out of the ground; feeds, too, on insects,
as locusts, &c. ft does not migrate with us in England, at any season;
is a greedy, restless, and clamorous bird, fearing neither dog nor
wolf: in general imitates the Jackdaw in manners ; is thievish, fond
of glitter, and dangerous to be kept tame, as it has been known to
catch up lighted sticks, whereby houses have been set on fire.
16—HERMIT CROW.
Got. Lin. i. 3. 377.     Bore
470. t. 17.    Shaw's Zool. ^
Corvus Eremita, hid. Orn. i. 166.      Lin. i. 15
107. t. 71. 9. B.    Daud. ii. 254.    Bechst
Coracia cristata, Bris. ii. 6.    Id. 8vo. i. 155.
Corvus sylvaticus, Gesner. pl. in p. 309.     Will. 306.   Gerin. ii. t. 252 ?   Johnst.    Av.
pl. 47. f. 3.
TJpupa montana, Klein. Av. 111.
Coracias hupe, Ba{/iiii. p. 9.
Wood Crow from Switzerland, Alb. iii. pl. 16.    Will. Engl, 396.
Hermit Crow, Gen. Syn.i. 303.   Id. Sup. ii. 115.
SIZE of a Hen. Bill long, pointed, bent and red; head crestedj
dusky yellow, streaked with red; plumage in general black, glossed
with green; tail short; legs dull red.
* Smutty-coloured, Bechstein. f Col. Montagu.
H  At Jerom, the bills and feet (of the crows) are as red
** Belon. Obs. p. 17.
■ff Scopoli says,'they sometimes come down in the lo^
latter hay time, for this purpose.
s vermilion.
I Hasselquist.
meadows by hundreds,
 crow. 27
This bird, first described and figured by Gesner, is said to be
fOund oai all the high mountains of Italy, Stiria, Switzerland, and
Bavaria, and the rocks on the borders of the Danube, but more
common in Switzerland than elsewhere, and there called Waldrapp,
and Steinrapp ; flies very high; is gregarious and migratory ; arrives
at Zurich with the Storks, the beginmiii* of April: the female lays
two or three eggs, and the young fly the beginning of June; is easily
tamed, if taken young, and is accounted good eating. The food is
chiefly small fry of fishes, frogs, and all sorts of insects. Neither the
young, nor very old birds have the crest, whence they have been called
Bald Crows.* According to M. Temminck, this bird has no existence, being made up from the Red-legged, by forming a crest
of additional feathers. This we cannot contradict, as we have only
seen figures of the bird ; but if such a fraud has been practised on
Gesner, it is, we believe, not the only one known among Ornithologists.
lT.—REBH-BIELED JAY.
Corvus erythrorynchos,   Ind. Om. i. 161.      Gm. Lin: i. 372.      Daud. ii. 240. pl. 15.
Shaw's Zool. vii: 361.
Geay de la Chine a bee rouge, Buf. Hi. 115.    Pl. enl. 622.
La Pie bleue, Levail. Ois. ii. 24. pl. 57.
Red-billed Jay, Gen. Syn. i. 390.    Id. Sup. p. 80,    Id. Sup. ii. p. 112,
SIZE of a Jay. Bill red; fore part of the head, neck, and breast
velvety black ; behind light grey, mixing irregularly with the black
on the forepart; body brown above, wMtish beneath, with a violet
tinge, most conspicuous on the wings ; each feather of which is Kght
violet at the base, black in the middle, and white at the end.    Tail
' * Neither All&ffs Figure, nor that of Borowski has ajtaesia whjj& \gives the bird the
appearance of a bald kind of Ibis, and the figure in Gesner is bare above the knee. I have
never seen a specimen, and must therefore rely irpon what former authors have recorded,
e a
 raw
28 crow.
half as long again as the rest of the bird, and fully as cuneiform, as
that of the Magpie, the feathers blue with black ends, and an oval
spot of white at the tip of each.*
Inhabits China, and there called Shannaw : often kept in cages,
and becomes very tame ; and by the Chinese taught many tricks, by
way of entertaining the multitude.
18—AFRICAN CROW.
Corvus Africanus, Ind. Om. i. 163.   Got. Lin. i. 374.  Daud. ii. 240.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 375.
African Crow, Gew. Syn. i. 396.    Nat. Misc. pl. 561.     •
LENGTH twenty-two inches. Bill red; head and neck dark
purple, the first somewhat crested; each feather tipped with grey as
far as the hind head; back brown ; belly dirty ash-colour; quills
blue on the outer edges; tail greatly cuneiform, the two middle
feathers twelve inches long, the outer very short, all of them tipped
with white ; legs red.
Inhabits Africa. These two last seem to resemble each other, so
as make us inclined to think them Varieties only.
19.—CARIBBEAN CROW.
Corvus Caribbeeus, Jwd. Orn. i. 163.    Gm. Li
vii. 375.
Galgulus Antillarum, Bris. ii. 80.   Id. 8vo. i.
Pica candata Indica, Raii. 42.    Will. 90.
Pica Antillarum, Raii. 152.
La Pie des Antilles, Buf. iii. 101, 129.
Persian Pie, Will. Engl. 132. § vi. parag. 2d.
Caribbean Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 395.
. 374.   Daud. ii. 242.     Shaw's Zool.
SIZE of a Magpie.    Bill red; head and neck blue; the latter
surrounded with a white collar; from the base of the bill, passing
f In the PL enlum.
 crow. 29
behind the neck, quite to the back, is a white mark, an inch broad,
and three long, transversely barred with black; back and scapulars
ferruginous; rump and upper tail coverts yellow; under parts of
the body white; lesser wing coverts chestnut; the middle ones green,
with the edges deeper coloured; greater coverts blue, with white
edges and shafts; quills blue green; tail long and cuneiform, the
two middle feathers exceed the outer ones by eight or ten inches;
colour blue, striated with white; legs red.
The female differs in wanting the transverse stripes on the white
mark at the back of the head, and the whig coverts green Instead of
blue.
Said to inhabit the Caribbee Islands, and to be common about
the rivers of Guadaloupe; but according to Ray, is a bird of Persia.
It certainly bears much resemblance to the two last described.
20.—RUFOUS CROW.
Corvus rufus, Ind. Om. i. 161.    Daud ii. 245.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 368.
Coracias vagabundus, Ind. Orn. i. 171.    Daud. ii. 265.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 397.
LaPierousse, Levail. Ois. pl.59.
Grey-tailed Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 112.
Rufous Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 112.
LENGTH sixteen or seventeen inches. Bill strong, black, rather
bent and not notched; tongue bifid; nostrils covei'ed with bristles;
irides red; head and neck black, tinged with brown; body and tail
coverts reddish brown; wings black, with a broad grey stripe, which
includes the greater and smaller wing coverts near the body, and the
outer webs of four or five of the second quills; under wing coverts
dirty white, tinged with brown; tail long, consisting of twelve
feathers, and is greatly cuneiform; the outmost scarcely three inches
long, the two middle ones ten inches in the whole, but stand out
beyond any of the others at least four inches; all the feathers are
 36 CROW.
grey, and have the ends deeply tipped with black; the wings when
closed, reach about one-fifth thereon; legs black.
Inhabits India, found near Calcutta, but not very common; is
called by the Bengalese, Harri Chacha; the women ianagine whenever they hear this bird calling, that it forebodes the approach of
religious mendicants, who, by partaking in the fare prepared for the
family, will clear the pots used in cooking; from wfeftm elrctmlstance
its native name is derived; builds on large trees, and more than one at
a time is seldom observed.
I owe the above to Dr. Buchanan. It may be supposed to vary;
as that described from Lady Impey's drawings had the breast and
belly ash-colour; middle of the wings white; in these drawings the
name given to it is the Vagabond.
Among the drawings of Sir J. Anstruther, I observe three or
four different representations, varying considerably from each other,
in the different shades of brown, though the general division of
colours is the same; in one which appears to be most complete, the
two middle tail feathers are double the length of the others. The
name given to it in the Persian tongue is Makoka ;* is called also
Laut.
In another specimen the feathers Whfid' the <fcttH and chiil are
deeper black thaai the rest; bend of the wing yellow.
One fig-ared in Col. Hardwicke'snane---collection of Drawings of
Indian birds, was sixteen inches long, said to be a male, had a 1 ead-
■eolonwed biW, wfth'ta fel&fck point; tfee two middle tail feathers exceeded the rest by three inches, were pale ash from the base to as
4kr afcifheeMds of the adjoining, then white for near two inches, aaid
fiha$y Mack ftnogfore ^8RPoafeo}i©3iigrth« side feathers white for the
-greater partem the base, then black, with the «ads white/fowtittte
;%lh*»k occwpyJiHEg'Sftjst-spaoe* on the outer feathers.
* The^Atetiguan"Cc|ucfcl ako bears -this name.
 CRftW. 31
Inhabits India, The name Ker«i$bL drawn at Futteyghaiff, iafc
DecempKFf and, as in another drawing, the date of it is in August,
it is probable that these birds are permaneaat in the neighbourhood
the year through.
-     A.—La Pie rousse dela Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 186. pl. 136.
Rufous Crow, Gen, Syn. Sup. p. 84.
Size of a Blackbird. Bill black ; irides rufous yellow; head and
neck brown, the last paler; breast and belly rufous white; back
and rump yellowish, inclining to rufous; lesser wing coverts dirty
rufous; the others pale grey; second quills grey, within brown;
primaries brownish black; tail cuneiform, grey; the two middle
feathers brown at the ends; the others grey as far as the middle, the
rest of the length brown, with white tips; legs black.
Inhabits China.
21.—MAGPIE.
Corvus Pica, Ind. Om. i. 162.     Lin. i. 157:    Faun. Suec: No. 92.     Got. £in. i. 373.
Ph. Trans, lxii. 387.    Scop. Ann: i. No. 41.     Brun. No. 32.    Sepp. Vog. t. p. 3.
Raii p. 41. A. 1.     Will. 87. t. 19.    Georgi, 165.    Kram. 335.    Fauj^ar^g. p. 72.
Frisch. t. 58.    Bris. ii. 35.   Id. 8vo. i. 164,    Gerin. ii. t. 155.    Borowsk. ii. 109.
Schcef. el. t. 56.    Daud. ii. 237.   jKYein. Av: p. 60.     Id. Stem. p. 10. t. 12. f. 1.
a. b. c.     Id. Ov. t. 8. f. 3.      Shaw's Zool. vii. 369.     Amer. Orn. iv. pl. 35. f. 2.
Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 73.   Id. Ed. ii. p. 113.
Aelster, Gnnth. Nest. U. Ey. t. 53.    Bechst. Deutsch. ii. 462.
Gazza con la Coda lunga, Zinnan. Uov. t. 10. f. 57.
Europaisch Elster, Naturf. ix. s. 44.   SchmidiKog. p. 45. t. 30.
La Pie, Buf. iii. 85. 7.    PL enl. 488.
Magpie, Pianet,   Gen. Syn. i. 392. 29.     Id. Sup. p. 80.     Id. Sup. ii.   p. 113.     Br.
Zool. i. No. 78.    Id. Fol. p. 77. t. D. 2.     Id. 1812, p. 289.    Arct. Zool. ii. No.
136.    Alb. i. pl. 15.    Will. Engl. 127. pl. 19.     Hayes.pl. 8.      Bewick, i. pl. p.
75;   JL^*pl. 39.    Id. Eggs. pl. vii, f. 3.     JDoaajoo.w. 95.     Walcot, i. pl. 39.
Graves Br. Orn.    Orn. Diet. § Supp.
LENGTH eighteen inches usxtent of wing twenty-two; weight
eight or nine ounces.     Bill black; irides hazel; sqapaij^rs,  and all
 I
mmm*
32 crow.
the under parts from the breast, white; the rest of the plumage,
wings, and tail black, glossed with green, purple, and blue as opposed
to various lights; the eleven first quills are white in the middle on
the inner web, lessening by degrees as they advance inwards ; the tail
very cuneiform, the two middle feathers near eleven inches long; the
outer only five inches and half; legs black.
The above is the description of a bird in the highest plumage in
the wild state, but when domesticated, and kept in a cage, the colours
lose their brilliancy, and appear to be merely black and white, and
the latter far from pure; in short, in its state of nature, we must
confess, that our kingdom does not possess a more beautiful species.
The Magpie is very comanon in England, and feeds both on animal
and vegetable substances, frequently killing young ducks and
chickens, and sucking the eggs; will sometimes pick out the eyes of
lambs, hares, rabbits, &c. if weak ; also eats insects, fruits, and even
grain, when distressed for food; makes a large oval nest, of sticks
of black-thorn interanixed, haviaag a cover at top, composed of the
latter, with a lining of earth, and fibres at bottom: this is built both
on high trees, and low shrubs ;* the eggs six or seven, of a pale
greenish colour, thickly spotted with black : is a crafty bird : when
brought up young, becomes familiar; will talk many sentences, and
imitate, like the Parrot, every noise it hears, but in a less distinct
manner.
This species is seen more or less throughout Europe : no where
more common than in the temperate and southern latitudes of Russia,
Siberia, and Kamtschatka, as well as in the adjacent Islands.—
Forster met with it at Madeira; Russel at Aleppo ; f and Georgi
about the Lake Baikal. It is also seen in Chinese drawings ; and I
once saw a specimen from thence, the same as ours, but a trifle
smaller.—It certainly is a native of America, and though it very
seldom approaches the settlements, is to be found in the interior parts
* Hence the distinction of Tree and Bush Magpie, supposed two different sorts.
f Hist. Alep. p. 69.
 crow. 33
all seasons. One caught at York Fort, in a martin trap, was thought
a rarity, as the circumstance had not happened for twenty years
before. I find that it is called at Hudson's Bay, by some of the
Indians, Oue-ta-kee-aske, or Heart-Bird ; by others, She-pecum
anemewuck.* We have observed several Varieties; viz. wholly
whitef—black and white in streaksj—white and soot-colour; with
other deviations from nature. §
Camden || observes, that Magpies found in the Isle of Man, did
not inhabit it originally, but were carried there,
22—NEW-CALEDONIAN MAGPIE.
Corvus Caledonicus, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxv.
Magpie of New-Caledonia, D'Entrecasteux's Voy. ii, 226. pl, 35.     Gen. Syn. Sup. ii.
LENGTH twenty inches. Bill black and stout, the end for
one-third yellowish, and slightly notched ; head black, the feathers
of it silky, and the webs loose; round the eye somewhat bare; whole
of the neck white, and a little of the same in the middle of the belly;
but the general colour of the plumage otherwise black; tail very
cuneiform, foamed as in the Magpie, the two middle feathers eleven
inches long, the next on each side nine, diminishing regularly to the
outer ones, which measure aao more than three inches and a half,
legs dusky.
Inhabits the woods of New-Caledonia, described from a specimen
in the collection of Mr. Thompson, of St. Martin's Lane, London.
* Mr. Hutchins. f Mus. Carls, t. 53. X Lev. Mus.
§ Viz. an old bird of a dun-colour, with the wing coverts, breast, and belly white; also
three from one nest wholty^eream-colour, with white bills; and a fourth from the same
nest of the common hue.-—See Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 113.
|| Magpies have been lately introduced, as well as Frogs.—.Gough's Camd. Brit. p.
699. Vol. 3.
 ■msafeNHKSl
34
23—CHANGEABLE CROW.
Corvus varians, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxvi.
Phrenotrix Temia, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 165.     Horsf. Zool. Res. No.   1.—plate of the
Bird.    Id. pl. of bills, N. a. b.
Le Temia, Levail. Ois. ii. p. 22: pl. 56.    Daud. ii. 244.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 372.
Changeable Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 119.
SIZE of the Song Thrush, but longer. Bill black; general
colour of the plumage black, and the texture of the feathers delicate
and soft; those round the base of the bill to the eye and chin stiff
and short, similar to bjack velvet; but on the rest of the bird appear
glossed with green and purple in different lights; the tail greatly
cuneiform, composed of ten feathers, the foui* middle ones of equal
lengths, exceeding the rest of the body, being seven inches long, the
others lessen by degrees to the outer, which are very short and broad,
colour of the four middle/ones black, glossed with green ; the others
black, but with a gloss of green only on the outer webs; legs black.
This was received from Batavia, but where it originally came
from, quite uncertain. The bill in shape is thick, and not unlike
that of the Beef-eater, which may lead to think, that in manners
it may somewhat resemble that bird. In Java, known by the
aiame of Chekitut, or Benteot.
Inhabits Java, where it is aiot uncommon, but is not a familiar-
bird, never approaching the villages and habitations like many others;
for the most part found near solitary hamlets, fekgiuated in tracts recently cleared for cultivation, where its food is supplieddn.abundance,
by the insects contained in the rich mould, and by the wild fruit trees
about the skirts.—In Dr. Horsfield's figure the four middle tail feathers
are not equal in length, but those on each side of the two middle
ones are shorter, as in the Magpie.
In Mr. Bullock's Museum was one greatly similar, in which the
colour of the plumage was glossy black, inclining to brown on the
 1
.©ROW. 3&
back ; beneath very dark brown, the two aniddle tail feathers seven
inches and half long, the exterior oaaly two inches. The wings reach
one-fourth on the tail.    This said to have been brought from Java.
24—VELVET-FACED CROW.
LENGTH twelve inches and half. Bill black, remarkably stout,
and the upper mandible bending as in the Ani; the base of it, and
round the eye, the whole face, and chin covered with black velvetlike feathers ; plumage wholly deep bottle-green. Tail five inches
and a half long, cuneiform, black, having in soane lights, a gloss of
purple; legs rather long, stout, and black, claws long and hooked.
Native place uncertain—supposed New-Holland.—Gen. Davies.
One not unlike the above, in Mr. Francillon's possession, had the
plumage slaty-grey, instead of bottle-green.
A similar one, in Mr. Harrison's collection, was twelve inches long;
in this the plumage was glossy black ; the bill and legs both pale.
This last caane from New-Holland.
These seem greatly allied to the Changeable, or last Species.
25.—PLUSH-FACED CROW.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill black, stout, and rather curved;
the nostrils, and all round incircling the eyes, covered with black
feathers like plush, or velvet; plumage otherwise deep bottle-green ;
scapulars edged with rufous; from thence a rufous band, about half
an inch broad,]jextends across the back; prime quills black, with
pale margins; tail seven inches long, cuneiform, the feathers broadest
at the extremities; colour deep muddy, blackish green, appearing
undulated on the outer webs ; legs black, not very stout.
F 2
P
 36 crow.
Native place uncertain. I observe one in the drawings of Mr.
Woodford, which was without the rufous band. This may be
probably allied to the foregoing, but the one here described differs
greatly in the bill, this being considerably stouter and shorter than in
the Changeable Species; though in the plush-like feathers round it,
and the colour of the plumage not greatly differing.
26.—INDIGO CROW.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill one inch long, stout, pale yellow
horn-colour, under mandible darker beneath; the nostrils, forehead
between the bill and eye, and the chin, covered with short, downy,
plush-like, black feathers ; the rest of the plumage in general like
that of a Crow, the feathers inclining to purple on the margins,
especially oai the back ; but those on the under parts are edged with
the gloss of steel; scapulars, and part of the wing coverts, purplish
black, with deep margins of steel blue ; quills black ; the tail three
inches long, nearly even at the end, the two middle feathers blue-
black, the others much the same, margined with steel-blue; the
wings, when closed, reach three-fourths on the tail; legs stout, scaly,
and brownish yellow.
Inhabits New-Holland.
27—RUFOUS-BREASTED CROW.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill three quarters of an inch, pale,
the base of the upper, and beneath the under mandible, dusky ; the
face quite round the bill covered with velvety tufted feathers, occupying the whole chin, and coaacealing the nostrils; besides which are
several hairs half as long as the bill, which is a little bent at the end,
 crow. 37
and soanewhat indented; the head, neck, upper parts, wings, and
tail pale cinereous grey; breast, belly, thighs, and vent fine rufous;
quills and tail dusky, edged outwardly with grey, the last of a
moderate length, even at the end, and the quills reach just beyond
the base; legs slender, black, claws crooked.
Native place unknown^—Gen. Davies.
28—PACIFIC CROW.
Corvus pacificus, Ind. Orn. i. 157.     Got. Lin. i. 372.     Daud. ii. 236.      Shaw's Zool.
vii. 354.
Pacific Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 383.
LENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill bent at the end, with a
notch near the tip, and black; plumage cinereous, paler beneath,
with a tinge of reddish brown; forehead and throat cinereous white;
among the feathers of the latter some slender hairs ; hind head and
nape dusky black : quills blackish, with dirty white tips; tail black,
all but the two middle feathers tipped with white; legs black*
Inhabits the South Seas.—Place unknown.
29—TROPIC CROW.
Corvus tropicus,   Ind. Orn. i. 157.     Got. Lin. i. 372.     Daud. ii. .237.     Shaio's Zool.
vii. 355.
Tropic Crow,   Gen. Syn. i. 384.    Cook's Last Voy. iii. 119 ?
LENGTH twelve inches and a half. Bill one'inch and a quarter
Jong, rather broad at the base, and the tips of both mandibles notched;
plumage glossy black, more dull beneath ; wings and tail black,
glossed with gi*een, the last rouaided; vent and sides tipped with
dusky white ; legs black.
From Owhyhee—one of the Sandwich Islands in the South Seas.
 38
30—AUSTRALASIAN CROW.
SIZE of a Crow. Bill large, curved the whole of its length to
the point, as in the Cornish Chough ; plumage in general black and
glossy, the feathers of the head short; the wings reach oaae-third on
the tail, which is cuneiform, or greatly rounded in shape at the end ;
legs stout, made like those of a Crow.
Inhabits New-Holland: in the collection of Mr. Brogden, and
in that of the Linnaean Society.
31—SYDNEY CROW.
SIZE of a Jackdaw. Bill as in the Magpie, but not quite equal
iii!§trength, and somewhat bent; tip of the upper mandible browai;
general colour of the plumage black; some of the inner lesser quills
white ; tail much rounded ; legs stout aaid black.
In Mr. Bullock's Museum, from New-Holland.    Shot at Sydney.
32—BLUE CROW.
Corvus cyanus, Ind. Om. i. 159.   G
Shaw's Zool. vii. 362.    Nat. Misc. pl. 829.
Corvus melanocephalus, Daud. ii. 241.
Pie bleue a tete noire, Levail. Ois. ii. pl. 58.
Blue Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 394.    Id. SuoAa&Xih
.373.   Pallas It. iii. 694.    Daud.
SIZE small; length from eight to twelve inches. Bill black;
top of the head to the nape glossy deep black; body ash-colour,
paler beneath; wings and tail most beautiful blue ; the last very long
and cuneiform, in shape like that of a Magpie, the feathers white
 crow. 39
at the end; legs black.—In M. Iievaillant's< plate the head feathers
are elongated, forming a pointed crest;ialid the wboJcftofj'tbe head
below the eyes, as well as the chin black; the body inclining to
blue above, and wings and tail fine blue ; tail of twelve feathers.
This species miga'ates from the Mongolian Deserts and China,
only into that part of the Russian Dominions which lies to the South
of Lake Baikal.    M. Levaillant's specimen came from China.
33—SENEGAL CROW.
Corvus Senegalensis, Ind. Om. i. 163.    Lin. i. 158.      Gm. Lin. i. 374.     Shaui'i&GJ&G
vii. 371.
Corvus Afer, Lin. i. 157.    Gm. Lin. i. 375.
Pica Senegalensis, Bris. ii. 40. t. 3. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 166.
Corvus Piapiac, Daud. ii. 239.    Levail. Ois. ii. pl. 54:
Piedu Senegal, Buf. iii. 97.    Pl. enl. 538.
Senegal Crow, Gen^Sgki. 394.    Id. Sup. ii. 114.
LENGTH fourteen inches, size of a Magpie. Bill black;
plumage in general violet black above, dusky black beneathi; quills
and tail brown, in shape cuneiform ; the two middle feathers- seven
inches long, the outer four, all of them edged with violet black;
legs black.
Inhabits Senegal : found also at the Cape of Good Hope.
The males have the tail much longer than the females ; perches
on high trees, sometimes twenty together; builds on the tops of the
highest; and, like the Magpie, defends the nest with thorns, only
leaving one opening; lays from six to eight white eggs, spotted with
brown, most so at the larger end; seen in the inward parts of the
Cape, but rarely, if ever, at the Cape itself, called Pia piac from its
cry.-—M. Levaillant mentions a singularity in one of the tail feathers
having two shafts arising from one quill, one of these entirely without
webs, but whether a lusus naturtfofy or peculiar to the species, is by
* I have a common goose quill which branches out into two shafts.
 ft
JPHHeawSBWHa
I
40 CROW.
no means certain.    Is found also in India, and blended With other
birds, under the name of Bhejunga.
34—RUFOUS-BELLIED CROW.
Corvus rufigaster, Ind. Om. Sup. xxvi.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 377.
 octopennatus, Daud. ii, 243.
Pie a culotte de Peau, Levail. Ois. ii. 20. pl. 55.
Rufous-bellied Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 118.
SIZE of the Blackbird. Bill and legs black; whole plumage
above glossy black; tail cuneiform, half as long again as the bird,
with a fine blue gloss on all the feathers in some lights; belly, thighs,
and vent flesh-colour, or fine rufous ; the vent inclines to brown.
This is figured by Levaillant from one in the collection of M.
Ray de Breukelerward of Amsterdam. Said to have been brought
from some of the South Sea Isles, and seems to have affinity with the
Senegal Species, from its shape and cuneiform tail; the bill less
strong than in the Magpie, approaching to that of a Thrush. In this
single specimen were only eight feathers in the tail, and no trace of
more could be found; if this be really the case with all of the same
species, as may be learned hereafter, it is, we believe, an unusual
occurrence; for we do not at present know any bird with fewer than
ten feathers in its tail, when complete.
35.—VARIABLE CROW.
Corvus versicolor, Ind. Ornt Sup. xxv. .
Variable Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 117.
THE true size of this bird is uncertain, but as the drawing from
whence this description is taken was nine inches in length, and mentioned as one-fourth of the true size, we must consider it as a large
 CROW. 41
species. The bill is strong, somewhat less than in the Crow, though
clearly characteristic of that Genus, and black; plumage dusky
brown, with blue and reddish glosses in various parts ; the outer tail
feathers shorter than the others, and the whole of them pale at the
tips; legs strong and black.
This was met with in New-Holland, and the only one of the kind
seen there.—Mr. Lambert.
36.—KENT'S CROW.
SIZE of a Crow; length sixteen inches; breadth thirty-two.
Bill stout, two inches and half long, and black; plumage in general
brown black; the first quill three inches shorter than the second, and
this one inch shorter than the third, all these tipped with white, but
seven or eight of them marked with white within at the base ; several
of the secondaries also fringed with white at the tips; the tail is eight
inches long, all but the two middle feathers tipped with white, which
reaches to double the extent on the inner webs ; the quills, when
closed, reach full three-fourths on the tail; legs black, stout, the
middle claw furnished with a notch or tooth.
Inhabits Kent's Group in New-Holland. One of these was in the
collection of the late Gen. Davies,
37—NEW-CALEDONIAN CROW,
Corvus Caledonicus, Ind. Om. i. 154.   Gm. Lin. i. 367.   Daud. ii, 231:   Shaw's Zool.
vii. 350.
New-Caledonian Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 377.
LENGTH above fifteen inches.    Bill fourteen lines long, stout,
and black,  slightly toothed, and the end yellowish;   irides pale
 42 crow.
yellow; eyelids black ; general colour of the plumage cinereous;
except the tail, which is five inches long, and black ; legs black.
Inhabits ^few-Caledonia.   From the drawings of Sir Joseph Banks,
38—WHITE-EARED JAY.
Corvus auritus, Ind. Om. i. 160   Daud. ii. 250.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 367.
Petit Geay de la Chine, Son. Voy. ii. 188. 1.107.
Little Jay, Penn. China, p. 195.
White-eared Jay, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 83.
SIZE of the blue Jay, length eleven inches. Bill black ; irides
yellowish; the feathers round the base of the bill, the throat, and
fore part of the neck black ; top of the head bluish ash-colour, and
the feathers elongated; between the black and ash-colour on the
forehead, a few white feathers ; on the ears a large patch of white;
the colour of the body, wing coverts, and teil cinereous brown ;
quills blackish, edged with grey; tail four inches long, rounded at
the end, and bends downwards ; legs pale brown.
Inhabits China; common at Canton: seen in flocks in Dean's
Island, Wampoo River, picking up food on the mud of the shore.
A.—Length twelve inches and a half. Bill one inch, stout, and
black ; the base above covered with short velvet-like feathers, tending
to the eye on each side ; behind this, across the forehead, a narrow
white crescent; the rest of the head above, the nape, and hind part of
neck deep lead or ash-colour; beneath the eye on each side a large
patch of white feathers, covering the jaws, and meeting together on
the base of the under mandible ; the rest of the plumage, wings, =and
tail brownish olive, but the outer edges of the great quills grey ; tail
rounded, two inches and three quarters long; legs black.
Jnhabite*Chana, and<is probably a variety of theiWhite-eared Jay.
said to be remarkable for its singing.
 43
39—WHITE-CHEEKED CROW.
Corvus olivaceus, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxvi.
White-cheeked Crow, Gen. Syn.. Sup. ii. 118.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill one inch long, curved and dusky,
base bristly, and the nostrils half covered with feathers; irides straw-
colour; crown black, the feathers elongated; the rest of the head
and neck before to the breast black ; on each jaw a large white patch;
aaid on the chin and middle of the breast some mixture of white ; all
the upper parts of the body, wings, and tail olive-green ; quills rusty
brown; tail cuneiforan, dusky, the two middle feathers six inches
long, the outmost only three and a half; the two outer feathers tipped
with white; the wings reach one-third on the tail; legs brown.
Inhabits New-Holland ; differs from the White-eared Jay, in not
having the forehead whitish, nor does the white patch come so near
the eye as in that bird; besides, the tail being cuneiform, forbids
further comparison.
A.—Size of the former. Bill compressed on the sides; nostrils
imperfectly covered with reflected bristles, colour black; plumage
in general much as in the other; a lai'ge patch of white extendiaag
the whole length of the under jaw; feathers of the throat fringed
with white; breast, and beneath a'eddish brown, marbled on the
former with black and white; tail as in the other.
Inhabits New South Wales.—In the collection of Lord Stanley.
40—WAVE-BREASTED CROW,
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill stout, bent, with a small notch near
the tip, about one inch long, and the nostrils covered with feathers;
 44 crow.
tongue bifid; irides white; plumage on the upper parts brownish
olive, the shaft of each feather marked with a narrow whitish streak ;
under parts of the body dusky white, marked with numerous darker
crescents, appearing like waves; more close on the chin, throat, and
breast; wings and tail brown ; inside of the wing coverts yellowish,
marked with black ; of the quills plain, pale yellow half way from
the base; shafts of the quills and tail feathers yellowish, the latter
five inches long, even at the end; the wings, when closed, reach to
about the middle of it; legs brown, one inch and a half long, the
outer and middle toe united at the base; claws stout.
Inhabits New-Holland.—In the collection of Gen. Davies.
Another specimen was one inch shorter, the under parts yellowish
olive ; each feather margined with darker olive, but on the chin, and
neck before the colours seem indistinctly blended, or clouded.
In a third specimen, in the collection of Mr. Harrison, the chin
is plain yellowish white.
41.—NEW-GUINEA CROW.
Guinea?, Ind. Om. i. 156.  Gm. Lin. i. 371.   Daud. i
PL enl. 629.
vii. 354.
Le Choucas de la nouvelle Guinee, Buf. ii
Echenilleur, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. 1:
New-Guinea Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 381.
SIZE of a Jackdaw ; length twelve inches. Bill strong, blacks
ish: forehead, all round the bill, black, passing in a streak through
the eyes, and a little behind them; head, neck, back, and upper
part of the breast, dark ash-colour; wings dusky, edged with white;
lower part of the breast, the belly, and vent, the lower part of the
back, rump, and upper tail coverts white, transversely barred with
black; tail black; legs short, and dusky.
Inhabits New-Guinea.
 45
A.—hid. Orn. i. 156. 14. /3.    Gen. Syn. Sup. 78. No. 13.
This variety is thirteen inches long: irides reddish$'-'head and
neck bluish ash-colour; upper part of the body and wings the same,
but darker; the eye in a bed of black, lengthening behind as in the
other; breast, belly, and vent pale ferruginous; quills and tail dusky;
the last pretty long, and rounded at the end ; legs red-brown, scaly,
and rough.   •
Native place uncertain. On comparing the above with the following, or Papuan Crow; it seems not improbable that they may be
Varieties of one of the same species.
42—PAPUAN CROW.
Corvus Papuensis, Ind. Om. i. 157.    Daud. ii. 236.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 354.
Choncari de la nouvelle Guinee, Buf. iii. 81.    PL enl. 630.
Echenilleur, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxiii.—female.
Papuan Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 382.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill stout and black, top of the upper
mandible somewhat angular ; at the base a few hairs, covering the
nostrils; from thence to the eye a broad black streak ; upper parts of
plumage fine blue grey, beneath dusky-white, crossed with dusky
narrow streaks on the belly, and vent; tail five inches and half long,
blue grey; quills darker, and reach on the tail more than one-third;
legs dusky blue.
One supposed to differ in sex, is much the same as to colour, but
the trace to the eye less distinct, the under parts from the chin to the
belly crossed with fine dusky streaks; the belly and vent are plain
dusky white.
Inhabits New Guinea. I find both the above well figured among
Sir J. Anstruther's drawings of the birds of India, and the name there
 46 crow,
given is Cuperssooa. Also in the drawings of Col. Hardwicke, which
say, that they are called in Oude, Bessera; and that the male weighs
two ounces and three quarters, the female two and a quarter. Another figure in the last named drawings had the bill more strait;
general colour of the plumage as in the female, barred wholly beneath,
but the bars less numerous; lesser wing coverts blue grey, middle of
the wing white, outer parts and quills black with pale fringes; one
or more of the outer tail feathers white on the outer webs.
Found at Cawnpore.—From the above description we may suppose that these birds are subject to much variety.
n 11
43—BLACK-FACED CROW.
Corvus melanops, Ind. Orn. Snp. xxiv.
Echenilleur,  Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxi.—male
Black-faced Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 116.
LENGTH twelve inches; size of the Jay. Bill black, broad at
the base, and stout, one inch or more in length, sharp-ridged, and
furnished with a few bristles; tongue rounded at the end; whole face
from the nostrils, forehead, chin, and throat black ; plumage in
general bluish ash-colour, paler beneath ; under wing coverts, belly,
and vent white ; quills blackish, with pale edges; tail six inches and
a half long, dusky black, the two middle feathers plain, the othea's
tipped white, with most white oai the outer ones; legs dusky blue
black.
I) InhabitstiNew-Holland, and there called Kai-a-lora. Said to be a
bird of prey. Among the drawings of Mr. Lambert is one with a
bill apparently more stout; the head black for a greater space beyond
the eyes, and the plumage darker in general; tail of one colour.
One, in the collection of Gen. Davies, had the black occupying
half way on the neck before, and all but the two middle feathers
tipped with white; legs black ; toes cloven to their origin. Said to
be the male oft the last.
 47
44— BLACK-BREASTED CROW.
Corvus melanogaster, Ind. Orn. Snp. xxv.
Black-breasted Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 371.
SMALLER than the last; length ten inches. Bill black, with
a minute notch at the tip; upper parts of the plumage from the
crown to the tail coverts, and the wings, fine pale blue grey ; face
beyond the eyes, chin, throat, and breast black; the rest of the under
parts white; outer part of the wing and quills black, edged with
white ; tail and legs black.
Inhabits Port Jacksoai; has much affinity to the last.
One of these, in the collection of Lord Stanley, is one inch
longer, and the nostrils, and sides of the head, taking in the eyes,
black; beneath, to the breast, the feathers fringed on the margins
with whitish, and on the chin much more so, as to appear altogether
grey; breast and sides white, transversely barred with narrow black
lines, two on each feather; under wing coverts, belly, and vent
pure white; tail about half the length of the bird, and somewhat
forked, the outer feather being a trifle the longest; the quills reach
about three-fifths on the tail; legs black, weaker in proportion than
in the Black-faced Crow, yet may probably be a further variety.
45—WHITE-NAPED CROW.
LENGTH thirteen ariches. Bill one inch and a quarter long,
stout, strait, except at the end, where it is a trifle curved; nostrils
elongated, colour pale blue, with a dusky tip; tongue short, pointed;
plumage merely-black and white; baok.part of the neck, lower half
of the back and rump, the belly and»weata#lri*e^<oii^i<e wing
coverts a long,  curved,  broad, whiter .streak;   the tail,  which  is
 >'«l^^@^^sa«»*^p^&ia«K»^si»
rounded at the end, white for three-fourths of the length from the
base; the rest at the end black; the remaining part of the plumage is
also black ; legs ash-colour.
Inhabits New South Wales.—In the collection of Mrs. Sherard.
Known there by the name of Darrung.—General Davies.
46.—WHITE-CROWNED CROW.
s leucolophus, White-crowned Crow, Lin. Trans, vol. xi. 208. pl. 15.
LENGTH eleven inches and three quarters; size of a Jackdaw.
Bill one inch and a quarter long from the gape, and black; on each
side of the upper mandible four or five black hairs; nostrils small,
oval, not covered, but the short feathers of the front turn forwards,
and approach very near them; forehead black, passiaig to the eye,
and just surrounding it above, but beneath proceeding as a streak
behind it for more than half an inch; the rest of the head, neck,
and breast white; feathers of the crown longer than the rest, so as
to form a fine crest, and stand nearly upright; the rest of the body,
wings, and tail, ferruginous brown, and between the white on the
neck and the brown, a band of rufous, surrounding the bird; tail
four inches long, even, the feathers rounded at the end ; the quills reach
very little beyond the base; legs stout, pale ash-colour; claws large,
black, the hind one much larger than the others.
Inhabits India, by the name of Rawil-Khuy, or Rawil-Kuhy.
General Hardwicke. By the English is called the Laughing Crow ;
they assemble in numbers from twenty to fifty, and make a noise
exactly resembling many persons laughing together. This bird is
common in the forests between Hurdwar and Sireenagur; it feeds on
the fruits which it there meets with.
 49
47.-BLUE AND WHITE CROW.
Corvus cyanoleucos, Ind. Orn. Sup. xxv.
Blue and white Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 117.
RATHER smaller than a Magpie. Bill yellow brown, formed
somewhat as in the Thrush, with very few bristles at the base, and less
stout than in the Crow Tribe; the forehead, chin, and throat white;
breast, and all beneath the same; from behind the eye a streak of
white, growing broader as it passes down on each side of the neck,
at the bottom of which it bends forward to join the breast; top of
the head, all the neck behind, to beyond the middle of the back,
deep blue; wings brownish blue, the ends of the quills brown ; the
inner half of the wing coverts white, forming a broad streak ; lower
part of the back, the rump, and tail white, but the ends of the
feathers of the last are deep blackish blue; on the two middle ones
to about one-third, occupying less of the feathers as they are more
outward; tail rather long, even at the end, and the wings reach to
about three-fourths of it; legs brown.
Inhabits New South Wales, there called Karrock, met with in
April.    It is esteemed a rare species.
48—BLACK AND WHITE CROW.
Corvus melanoleucus, Ind. Orn. Sup, xxv.
Black and white Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 117.
SIZE of the last; length twenty inches. Bill and legs dusky
black; irides bluish; chin, throat, middle of the greater quills, rump,
vent; and middle of all but the two centre tail feathers, white; the
rest of the plumage black.
Inhabits New South Wales, chiefly seen in May.
VOL. III. H
 w
m
49—HOTTENTOT CROW.
'   Corvus Hottentottus, Ind. Orn. i. 156.     Lin. i. 155.     Gm. Lin. i. 364.    Bor. Nat. ii.
103.    Daud. ii. 234.    Thunb. Trav. ii. p. 11.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 351.
Monedula Cap. B. Spei, Bris. ii. 33. t. 2, f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 263.    Gerin. ii. 36. 1.148.
Choucas moustache, Buf iii. 79.    PL enl. 226.
-    Hottentot Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 380.
SIZE of a Blackbird ; length eleven inches and a quarter. Bill
black, a little bent, about the nostrils feathers like black velvet;
above them arise some long hairs, above three inches in length, and
! others shorter, and stiff like bristles, at the corners of the mouth ; the
feathers on the head, throat, and neck shiniaig black green; those on
the upper part of the neck narrow, and longer than the rest, falling-
over the back, and waving with every motion thereof; the rest of the
plumage greenish black, appearing in some lights blue ; legs black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.—M. Thuaaberg saw these sitting
on. the backs of cows at Honingklipp, and picking the ticks froan
them; they are also accustomed to take the wheat out of the field,
immediately after it is sown.
50.—SIX-SHAFTED CROW.
Corvus crinitus, Daud. ii. 253.
'■ sexsetaceus, Shaw's Zool. vii. p. 380.
Le Sicrin, Levail. Afr. ii. 127. pl. 82.
THIS, in anake, shape, and size, resembles thexAlpine Crow. Bill
yellow, inclinrntg! to orange about* the nostrilfej which are not:quited
cowerediwith hairs;^fedtheret&fkttoer/head soft,lfesn'd elongatedHinto a
sort of crest; the pluanage in general glossy black,gisaatjrlqgsdn some
lights to green oi\>t$fenwings and tail; over (the eyes fealidgtiiijus,
  ■W^V^ial^^i^^^j^g^i^Jl^sstMm^^s^i^ii^^iaB
 J.        ^
J
 w
mm in   i ...i     >    ijP1 ■liiiii' 'nn
 crow. jSt:
bounding the under part of the crest; from behind the eyesfaneadh
side, spring three long, naked shafts, ending in points, ihe shortest
seven inches in length, the secohd ten inches, and the third so tongas to reach seven inches beyond the tail ; these-^treofelaekipbut the
ends are more or less rufous; legs diisky black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hopefc-fs-M. LevaillantcfaftetiiWith (two
specimens, but could never find the Hotteaatot Crow, from all jiufc
enquiries.
51.—CRISHNA CROW.—Pl. xl.
LENGTH twelve inches and a half. Bill more than oaae inch
long, cultrated, highly bent, and notched near the end; tongue
edged with bristles ; several black ones project over the nostrils and
gape; feathers of the front erect, and from them proceed eight or
nine long black bristles, which hang down on the shoulders; irides
dark brown ; the head and neck feathers narrow, and acuminated ;
general colour of the plumage black, glossed iaa parts with green and
blue ; second and third quills nearly of equal length, the first rather
shorter; tail forked, consisting often feathers, bent towards the sides,
the outmost six inches long, has a very narrow outer web, and
towards the point turned up spirally;  legs black.
This is the Crishna Rai, and Kisheaa Rai of the Bengalese, and
an enemy to the common Crow; is named Crishna after one of the
Hindu Deities, who is represented as of a shining black colour, with
a crest on his head, having been a great warrior. It is common in
the neighbourhood of Calcutta,* and builds among the Bamboos,
living in pairs, and feeding on insects; remains there throughout the
year.—Mr. Cook, Surgeon, of Sylhet, obseives, that it is there called
* And probably in that of the Kristna, a river of Hindustan, if similarity of soandcan
bear any weight.
 Bujunga and Caprage, and that it imitates the voice of other birds,
though the natives do not allow of it. Mr. C. adds, that in the cold
season it visits the high mountains, but returns to the plains of Sylhet
at the commencement of the rains.*
Among the drawings of the late Sir J. Anstruther, I observed
two of these birds, answering to the general description. From the
forehead spring twelve or more bristles near three inches long, falling
backwards on the shoulders; irides red; in one the neck feathers
appear curled, and silky, with a green tinge; but those of the chin
and throat have a gloss of blue; hence we may siappose the two
glosses to arise from different reflections of light, but the general
colour in both black, tinged with green, perhaps arising from sex.
52 -PURPLE-HEADED CROW.
Corvus purpurascens, Ind. Orn. i. 161.    Daud. ii. 251.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 368.
Purple-headed Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 83.
BILL lead-colour; nostrils covered with feathers; plumage on
the upper parts of the body pale rufous, beneath yellow, inclining
to purple on the head; quills and tail black, the last rather long;
legs flesh-colour.
Inhabits China.—From the drawings of the late Dr. Fothergill.
53.—MACAO CROW.
Corvus Sinensis, Ind. Om. i. 161.    Daud. ii. 244.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 369.
Pie de Macao, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 187.
Macao Crow, Gen. Syn Sup. p. 84.
LENGTH  fourteen inches and a half.    Bill one inch  and a
quarter, stout, black, rather bent at the point; irides yellowish ;
* From the papers of Dr. Buchanan.—The Philippine Shrike is also known at Hindustan,
by the name of Bujunga.
 crow. 53
whole face, including the eyes, black ; hind part of the head, nape,
and neck fine ash-colour; chin, throat, sides of the neck and breast,
brown ; back the same, growing pale ash-colour towards the rump ;
belly and thighs paler ash; vent pale red ; wings black, about the
middle an irregular white spot ; tail cuneiform, the two middle
feathers seven inches long, and ash-coloured; the others black,
shortening by degrees, the outer one being only four inches and a
half; legs black.
Iaihabits India : common also about Macao, in China; chatters
like a Magpie ; is apt to vary much in plumage.
54.—PLAIN CROW.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill one inch long, a little compressed,
with a slight notch at the tip, and a few hairs at the base ; nostrils
covered with reflected bristles ; the crown, and below the eye on
each side ash-colour ; body above dusky black brown, towards the
rump ash-colour; back and wings rufous brown; beneath dusky
white; chin and throat streaked with ash-colour ; tail four inches
long, even at the end, and with its coverts ash-colour; quills dusky
with pale edges ; legs black ; the quills reach halfway on the tail.
Place and manners unknown.
55— HUNTING CROW.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill strong, upper mandible crooked
at the tip; colour orange; at the base, above the gape, fine black
bristles; nostrils covered with reflected feathers; tongue cleft; eyelids
orange; irides crimson; general colour of the plumage sky-blue,
with a tinge of verdigrise on the belly and sides ; through each eye
 54 crow.
tei!the nape aJjSfrdad black band; the feathers of the crown elongated,
so as to'jfbrm a crest at will; quills dusky, with an obscure, gilded ~
<gtess,! and a few next the body have white tips ; lesser, wing coverts
blue; the larger like the quills ; tail cuneiform, and disposed in two
rows; the feathers for two^tthirds of the length blue, then marked
ifltfr white on the inner web, after that fcdjack on both webs, with
$hfe<tips white; the two middle feathers rather pointed, have no black,
but the tips are white like the rest; legs orange, the hind toe very
strong, and armed with a much larger claw than the others. This
is the Shirgunge of the Bettgalese and Musulmans ; and inhabits the
hills of Tipperah and Sylhet. It is said to be capable of instruction,
and may be taught to hunt like a Hawk, so as to catch sanall birds ;
besides a kind of chattering like a Jay or Magpie, it has an agreeable note, and will become very tame.
A.—CoracWSinensis, Ind. Orn.i. 171.    Gm. Lin. i. 381.    Daud. ii. 265.
Galgulus Sinensis, Bris. ii. 77. t. 6. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 175.
Corvus speciosus, Shaiv's Zool. vii. 364.
Rolle de la Chine, Buf. iii. 132.    PL enl. 620,
Chinese Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 414.
Size of a Jay; length eleven inches, breadth fifteen. Bill and
irides red ; head and upper part of the body green ; through the eyes
a black stripe; under part of the body, from chin to vent yellowish
white, tinged with green; thighs grey; wing coverts olive brown;
quills the same, with a mixture of chestnut in some, and those nearest
the body tipped with white; tail five inches long, cuneiform, the
two middle feathers the colour of the back, green without, and greenish white within, after that dusky ; and lastly, greenish white at the
tips; legs pale red.—Such is the description giveai by Brisson, supposing the bird to be a Roller; but as the feathers fully cover the
nostrils, and the legs are longer than are usual, added to the great
sianilarity it bears to the Hunting Crow, we cannot but suppose it to
be a Variety of that bird.
 55
56.—BROWN CROW.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill very stout, yellow, with a notch
near the tip of the upper mandible ; nostrils covered with hairs, and
some longer than .the rest; body above pale brown, with dashes of
darker brown or blackish ; breast paler than the parts above, a little
mottled ; belly dusky white ; prime quills dusky, on the outer web
tawny, to within half aaa inch of the ends ; the inner webs the same,
but for a shorter length; the first quill very shaft; the third longest of
all; tail six inches and a half long, cuneiform, the outer feathers
being only three and a half, all of them rounded at the ends; legs
very stout, black.
I found a specimen of the above in the collectioai of Mr. Lead-
beater.
57. -BLUE JAY.
, hid. Om. i, 158.      Lin. i. 157.    Gm. Lin. i. 369.     Borowsk. ii. 102.
p. 9. A. Bartr. Tr. 286.  Daud. ii. 248.  Shaw's Zool. vii. 359. Nat. Misc. pl.313.
Garrulus Canadensis cceruleus, Rm.ii.54. t.4. f. 2.    Id-uSSFcfcii.. 170.
Garrulus  Indicus cceruleus, Robert Ic. pl. 20.
Pica glandaria cristata, Klein. Av. 61.    Rob. Ic. 1676. 1.14.
Le Geay bleu du Canada, Buf. iii. 120.    PL enl. 529.
Blue Jay, Gen. Syn. i. 386.   Arct. Zool. ii. 138.    Catesb. i. t. 15.    Edw. pl. 239. Am.
Om. i. pl. 1.
SMALLER than our Jay. Length eleven inches; breadth
fifteen inches; weight two ounces and a half. Bill black, and above
one inch long; round the base of it black; the hairs covering the
nostrils pale blue; through the eyes a black streak, passing to the
nape; above this the feathers of the head are full, and may be raised
as a crest, wlmm is blue; from thence the black streak passes forwards
to the breast, there forming a crescent; breast blossom-colour; belly
and under tail coverts white; sides of the head and throat bluish
 56 crow.
white; over the eye a spot of the same; neck behind, back, wings,
and tail blue; all the feathers of the last, except the two middle ones,
tipped with white, and nearly as long as the rest of the bird; both
wing and tail feathers elegantly barred with black; greater wing
coverts and second quills tipped with white; legs dusky brown.
The female is less bright, and the white at the end of the tail
smaller in extent.
Inhabits America, common at New York and New England in
April and May; feeding on hazel nuts, chestnuts, &c. breaking the
shells with its bill; not seen farther north than Albany; fond of
maize, and often seen in flocks of forty or fifty, which alighting on a
field of ten or twelve acres, soon lay waste the whole; sometimes
eats snails and other veamin; continues in Georgia the whole year,
but rarely uniting into flocks, as in the more northern States; hence,
although they will attack the tender ears of Indian corn, are much
less destructive thereto than the Red-Headed Woodpecker, for they
will frequently be satisfied with acorns and berries; the nest is built
in the forks of oaks and pines, lined with fibrous roots, thirty feet
from the ground or more, but concealed with so much art as to make
it difficult to find; the eggs are white.* This bird has a variety of
notes, and some musical; will learn to talk; extends to Paraguay;
observed to inhabit an extent of country more than seventy degrees
from east to west, and more than thirty from north to south.
58—STELLERS CROW.
Corvus Stelleri, Ind. Orn.i. 158. Gm. Lin. i. 370. Daud.ii.248.   Shaw's Zool. vii.365.
Pica glandaria coerulea non cristata, Bartr. Trav. 170 ?
Steller's Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 387.   Id. Sup. ii. 111.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 139.
LENGTH fifteen inches.    Bill black, at the gape  five or six
bristles ; head crested, the crest composed of narrow, brown feathers;
* Mr. Abbot—In the Amer. Omith. they are said to be dull olive spotted with brown.
 the rest of the plumage purplish black, inclining to green on the
rump; half the wing coverts brownish black, the others deep blue ;
second quills deep blue, crossed with eight or nine black bars, as in
the last species; greater quills black, edged with blue green, fore
part of the neck and breast dusky; belly and vent pale blue; tail
six inches long, cuneiform, blue, the outer feathers shorter by one
inch than the middle ones, shafts black; legs black.
Inhabits North America, in the woods of Nootka Sound ;* Steller
was the first who noticed this species, being shot there when Bering's
Crew landed upoaa Aanerica. Mr. Bartram anet with a bird in the
journey between the lower trading house and Rock Point, supposed to
be no other thaaa this. He says, it is of an azure blue, no crest on
the head, nor so large as the blue Jay of Virginia, but equally
clamorous in the clumps and coverts.
59—CHATTERING CROW.
Ind. Orn. i. 154;     Gm
. 367.    Daud. ii. 230.   Shaw's Zool,
i. 345.
Cornix Jamaicehsis, Bm. ii. p. 22.    Id. 8vo. i. 160.
Comix nigra garrula, Raii Syn. 181. Sloan. Jam. 298.
Corneille de la Jamaique,    Buf iii. p. 67.
Chattering Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 377.
>j Jam.473. Klein Av.b9,
SIZE of a common Crow. Length eighteen inches. Bill one
inch and a half long, black; plumage in general, also the legs, black.
Inhabits the north side of the mountains of Jamaica; makes a
chattering noise, different from that of the European Crow, and is
thought not to be strictly the same bird ; it feeds on berries, beetles,
&c. and by some esteemed good meat; is probably found in Georgia,
* A Bird, not greatly differing, was met with in New Caledoi
not half so big; the feathers tinged with blue.—Cook's Voy. ii,
ia, described as a kind of Crc
124.
 58 crow.
as Mr. Abbot mentions a Crow seventeen inches long, thirty-one
inches and a half broad; the bill one inch and three-quarters long;
and observes, that the wings reach within one inch of the end of the
tail. He adds, that it makes great havock in the fields, by pulling up
the corn and maize, when they first spring from the ground, sometimes in flocks, destroying the green or roasting ears. It also sucks
birds eggs, and those of the great Land Tortoise, called Gopher, which
are laid in the earth, at the entrance of their dens; is certainly distinct
from the Carrion Crow, as Dampier* talks of that, and the Chattering
Crow,f as two distinct species; both are said to be called, at Brazil,
Mackeraw.
60.—DOWNY CROW.
Corvus leucognaphalus, Daud. ii. 231.    Damp. Voy. p. 81.
SIZE and shape of the Chattering Crow, and the plumage as in
that bird, of a full deep black, aaid furnished with fine white down
at the base of the feathers; tail rounded, and reaching but little
beyond the wings when closed.
Inhabits Porto Rico.    A specimen of one is in the Museum at
Paris; it is probably allied to, if not the same as, the last described.
61—FISH CROW.
Corvus ossifragus, Fish Crow, Amer. Om. v. p. 27. pl. 37. f. 2.
THIS is sixteen inches long, and thirty-three in extent of wing;
the upper mandible notched near the tip, and the edges of both
! Voy.3. p. 73.
t The Ani is also called the Chattering Crc
 crow. 59
turned inwards about the middle, with large and long recumbent
hairs or bristles; irides dark hazel; plumage wholly black, with
reflections of steel-blue and purple; the chin bare of feathers round
the base of the under mandible; first quill feather little more than
half the length; the fourth the longest, which reaches to within two
inches of the end of the tail; this last is rounded, seven inches long.
Bill and legs black.
Inhabits North America, observed first on the sea coast of Georgia,
approaching the shores of the river Savannah by break of day,
retiring to the interior as evening caane on. Its food dead fish or
other garbage, that floated on the surface of the water, and which it
picked up on the wing, by means of the claws ; will also perch on
the backs of cattle like the magpie; is seen sometimes to pick up
small lizards, while they are swimming with their heads above the
water ; this sort never mixes with the common Crows, and is supposed,
by Mr. Wilson, to be a new and undescribed species; both from the
manners and voice, which is more hoarse and guttural than in the
common Crow; seen near Philadelphia, from the middle of March to
the beginning of June; they build in tall trees, near the sea or shore,
and from the circumstance of six or seven being usually seen together
in July, it is probable that they have four or five young at a time.
The male and female are much allied to each other.
62—PERUVIAN  JAY.
, Ind. Orn. i. 161.    Gm. Lin. i. 373.    Daud. ii. 249.    Shaw's Zool.
Geay de Perou, Buf. iii.
i Jay, Gen. Syn._
PL enl. 625.
Nat. Misc. V. 6. pl. 213.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill dusky; forehead, and a patch on
each jaw, fine blue ; back part of the head, from the eye to behind
the neck, whitish; sides of the neck under the eye, the chin, throat,
 and breast black, the feathers appearing like velvet; from thence to
the vent yellow ; back, wings, and two middle tail feathers green,
the others yellow; shape of the tail cuneiform, pretty long; legs
dusky. Inhabits Peru.
63— PARAGUAN JAY.
L'Acahe, Voy. d'Azra, iii. No. 53.
THIS is thirteen inches' and a half long. Bill black, strong,
and strait, nostrils covered with feathers; the top and sides of the
head black, soft, and velvety ; a pale blue patch on the hind head,
reaching an inch on the neck ; another over the eye like an eyebrow,
a third on the lower eyelid, and a fourth at the base of the under
anandible; the top and sides of the head, whole neck, all the upper
parts and tail deep blue, end of the last white ; under parts of the
body yellow in the male, and whitish in the female ; legs black.
M. D'Azara thinks this to be the Peruvian Jay, but M. Sonnini
esteems it distinct, and a new species ; it certainly differs from that
bird in many points, baat possibly may be an incomplete specianen.
It is said to be common in Paraguay; comes near habitations,
and is often domesticated; the nest is not known, but a pair in
confinement produced eggs, which were whitish, inclining to dull
blue at the large end, and every where spotted with brown.
64—YELLOW-BELLIED JAY.
Corvus flavigaster, Ind. Orn. i. 162.    Gm. Lin. i. 373.
Le Garlu, ou Geay a Ventre jaune, Buf. iii. 119:    PL enl. 249.
Yellow-bellied Jay, Gen. Syn. i. 392.
LENGTH nine inches.    Bill stout, dusky black ; plumage on
the upper parts of the body greenish brown, darker on the head and
 CROW. 61
nape; chin white, from thence to vent yellow; down the middle of
the crown a golden yellow streak; over each eye, from the nostrils, a
streak of white; wings and tail reddish brown, margins of the
feathers paler;  legs slender, short, and lead-coloured.
Inhabits Cayenne. We have hitherto only seen figures of this
bird, and it may admit of a doubt, whether it is different from the
Brazilian Shrike; for if we compare Nos. 213 & 249, of the Pl. enlum.
very little difference will appear as to distribution of colours, however
essentially they may be from each other in the bill; we are certain,
from a specimen in our possession of the former, that this part in the
Pl. enlum. is much exaggerated, nor does the bill in 249, convey any
other idea than belonging to the Crow Genus ; hence we can only
recoanmend the two birds in question to future investigation.
65—LESSER MEXICAN CROW.
Corvus Zanoe, Ind. Om. i. 164.    Gm. Lin. i. 375.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 367.
Sturnus Zanoe, Daud. ii. 319.
Pica Mexicana minor, Bris. ii. 44.    Id. 8vo. i. 167.
Tzanahoei, Raii. 162.    Buf. iii. 106.
Lesser Mexican Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 397.
SIZE of a Magpie. Bill black; plumage in general blackish,
but the head and neck incline to fulvous; tail very long; legs black.
Inhabits Mexico, has the manners and cunning of the Magpie,
learning to talk like that bird; said to cry like a Starling, from
which circumstance, we may suppose, M. Daudin thought fit to place
it in that Genus.
 66—CINEREOUS CROW.
. 376.    Daud. ii. 250;
Co
Canadensis, Ind. Or
. 160.
Li;
158.
Gm. Lin
,i. 3'
Sh,
iw's Zool. vii. 365.
Am
■er. Orn. iii.
pl,
, 21. f.
1.
Ga
rruh
is Canadensis fuscus,
Bi
•is. ii.
54. 1
:. 4.
f. 2.
Id. 8vo. 1
L 17(
Geayb)
run de Canada, Buf.
iii.
117.
Pl.
enl.
530.
Cinereous Crow, Gen. Syn.
i. 389.
Id.S
ii. 112.
Arct.
Zool.
Trans, lxii. 386.
LESS than the Jay, length ten inches and half; breadth fifteen ;
weight two ouaices and a half. Bill blackish; irides dark hazel;
forehead and throat dirty yellowish white; hind head and sides
blackish brown; neck whitish ; upper parts of the body, wings, and
tail browaa, the last somewhat cuneiform, and tipped with white;
under parts of the body pale ash, lighter coloured on the breast;
legs blackish.
Male and female much alike. The plumage of this species,
especially about the head, is very soft, and loose-webbed, and so full,
as to prove a very warm covering.
Inhabits Canada, and breeds there early in the spring, chiefly in
the pine trees ; laying three or four blue eggs, and the youaig fly in
May ; is not gregarious; feeds on moss, worms, and flesh ; mostly
seen in pairs throughout the year ; are bold, pilfering birds, stealing
from the traveller even salted aneat; devour the baits from the traps
set for the Martins; said to lay up stores for the winter, when they
approach habitations; do not bear confinement well, nor are the
natives desirous of it, as they detest the bird. The natural note said
to be like that of the Baltimore Oriole; and like our Jay, it will
imitate others, so as to deceive many ; very frequeait about Hudson's
Bay, and known there by the aaame of Whiskijohn, and Whiskijack ;
seen more often on the ground than on trees; is for the most part
solitary, being rare to meet with two or three together.
 63
67.—CAYENNE JAY.
Corvus Cayanus, Ind. Om. i. 160.  Lin. i. 157.   Gm. Lin. i. 370.  Daud. ii.242.  Shaw's
Zool. vii. 360.
Garrulus Cayanensis, Bris. ii. 52. t. 4. f. 1.    Id: 8vo. i. 169.
Geay de Cayenne, Buf iii. 118.    PL enl. 373.
Cayenne Jay, Gen. Syn. i. 388.    Id. Sup. ii. p. 80.
SIZE of our Jay; length thirteen inches. Bill grey, round the
base of it, the forehead, cheeks, throat, and lower part of the neck
black ; on each side of the head three spots of white ; back, wings,
and tail violet, with a tinge of ash-colour ; tail rounded, violet:, with
brown edges, and white tips ; the two middle feathers violet brown ;
legs grey.
Inhabits Cayenne.—In Brisson's figure, the white spots are
blended into one, and form a curved patch of white from the eye to
the chin on each side ; and in a specimen in the Leverian Museum,
the whole space in front is black, except a small perpendicular dash
of white under the eye.
68— SURINAM CROW.
Corvus argyropthalmus, Ind. Orn. i. 164.    Gm. Lin. i. 369.    Jacq. Vog. t. 1.    Shaw's
Zool. vii. 366.
Corvus Surinamensis, Gm. Lin. i. 375.
Surinam Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 397.    Id. Sup. 81.    Brotvn III. t. 10.
SIZE of a Crow. Bill dusky; Head deep brown; at the back
of it rich blue, beneath that pale green; under each ear, and on the
hind part of the neck, a spot of the same; neck, breast, belly, and
wing coverts deep changeable green; prime quills dusky, the ends
rich blue; tail dusky; legs flesh-colour.
 I
64 crow.
According to Jacquin, the general colour of the plumage is
black; irides silvery; above and beneath the eye a blue spot; breast
and outer part of the wing, the colour of Prussian blue; tip of the
tail white; bill and legs black.
The first mentioned was in the collection of the late Mr. Tunstall;
the latter said to inhabit Carthagena, in South America, and there
called Oiseau de Plata; has a monotonous voice, frequents woods,
is easily tamed, and often kept in houses.
69—CLARK'S CROW.
Corvus Columbianus, Clark's Crow, Amer. Orn. iii. pl. 20. f. 2.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill dark brown; the general colour
of the head, neck, and body, light silky drab, darkening almost to a
Dove-colour on the breast and belly, vent white; the wings, two
middle tail feathers, and inner vanes of the next, except at the tip,
black, glossed with steel blue ; the second quills except three next
the body, white for one inch at the extremities, forming a large bed
of white, when the wing is closed; tail rounded, yet the two middle
feathers are shorter than those adjoining, all the rest pure white; legs
black; claws hooked, particularly the middle and hiaader one; the
quills, when closed, reach to the end of the tail.
Said to inhabit the banks of Columbia, and country adjacent,
in great numbers; frequenting the river and sea shore, wheie it probably feeds on fish. It greatly resembles our Jackdaw, but the claws
are formidable, and most likely enable it to strike living animals.
 65
70.—BLUE-TAILED CROW.
Turdus cyanurus, Ind. Om. i. 361.    Gm. Lin. i. 818.
Corvus cyanurus, Shaw's Zool. vii. 384. pl. 47.
L'Azurin, Buf. iii. 410.    Id. iv. 470.
Merle de la Guiane, PL enl. 355.
Pitta, Breve, Tern. Man. Ed. ii.   Anal. p. lvii.
Blue-tailed Thrush, Gen. Syn. iii. 88.    Nat. Misc. pl. 617.
LARGER than a Blackbird. Length eight inches and a half.
Bill one inch, brown; top of the head to the nape black ; from the
nostrils over the eye, an orange band, meeting at the neck behind;
from the gape springs a broad stripe of black, including the eye,
and passing oai each side of the neck to the back; scapulars and
adjoining wing coverts reddish brown ; but those next the outer parts
and quills are black, except the greater whig coverts, which have
white tips, forming an oblique indented band on the wing ; tail only
two inches and a half long, cuneiform, blue ; all the under parts of
the body, from the breast, transversely striped alternate yellow and
blue; legs brown.
Inhabits Guiana.
A.—This variety differs a little from the former; the crown is
black ; over the eye a yellow streak, changing at the back part into
orange; through the eye abroad black band ; beneath this, from the
chin, a broad yellow one passing backwards on the sides of the neck;
upper parts of the body rufous brown ; all beneath from the throat
pale blue, nearly white; on the sides of the breast several curved
orange lines; wings black ; on the outer edge, near the bend, a
patch of white, and a few of the second quills have the ends white;
tail as in the other, blue; legs long, brown.
 w
mm-mmmm&sms&K-
66
B.—In the collection of the late General Da vies we observed a
further variety; length eight inches. Bill brownish yellow; crown
chestnut, paler over each eye, nearly orange; through the eye black;
chin and throat buff-colour;' across the throat, above the breast, a
band of blue black, arising at the nape; plumage above brown ;
five or six of the outer wing coverts black, with an oblique, longish
spot at the tip of each, on the outer web; greater quills dusky ; tail
cuneiform, the two middle feathers brown, the others blue; side
coverts blue; legs one inch and a half in length; thighs three-
quarters of an inch ; colour brown ; outer and middle toe connected
to the first joint.—It has hitherto been a doubt where to fix this
bird, partaking so much of both the Thrush and Crow as to create
a difference of opinion among authors. We have now placed it with,
the Crows, led thereto by the opinion of Dr. Shaw; in addition to
which, M. Temminck prefers making it into a separate Genus, and
taking in the short-tailed under the name of Pitta, or Breve.
C—Myiothera affinis, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 154.
THIS is smaller than the last, being no more than seven inches and
a half in length; the colour of the plumage above is rufous brown;
beneath the body pale fulvous, with numerous violet bands; chin pale;
cheeks black; continued in a broad streak on each side of the neck ;
throat divided from the breast by a band of black, terminated posteriorly
with blue in the male, and with dusky grey in the female; the
upper part of the head in that sex is nearly the colour of the back,
and the lateral stripes testaceous chestnut; on the wings an irregular
band of white, formed as in the first described, from the tips of the
coverts being of that colour.
Inhabits Java, known there by the name of Punglor.
 67
71.—SHORT-TAILED CROW.
Corvus brachyurus, Ind. Orn. i. 166.    Lin. i. 158.    Gm. Lin. i. 375.    Shaw's Zool. vii.
385. t. 48.    Nat. Misc. pl. 553.
Merula viridis Moluccensis, Bris. ii. 316. t. 32. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 246.
Breve de Bengale, Buf. iii. 414.    Pl. enl. 258.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lvii.—Pitta.
Short-tailed Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 398.
SIZE of a Blackbird ; length seven inches. Bill grey brown,
corners of the anouth orange ; irides whitish; head and throat black;
over the eye a fulvous stripe ; hind part of the neck, the back and
scapulars fine green : all beneath fulvous, under the wings black;
lesser wing coverts shining blue green ; quills black, on the six first a
white spot about the middle; tail aaot above one inch long, black,
tipped with green ; legs dirty red.
Inhabits the Molucca Isles.
A.—Merula viridis atricapilla, Bris. ii. 319. pl. 32. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 246.
Breve des Philippines, Buf. iii. 413.    Pl. enl. 89.    Gen. Syn. i. 398. A.
This is rather smaller, has the plumage more or less green in
parts, but differs in having the whole of the head and neck black ;
the under parts not fulvous, but pale gi'een, the lower belly black,
with the tips of the feathers rose-colour.    Bill and legs brown.
Found with the former.
B.—Coturnix Capenis, Klein. Av. 115.
La Breve, Buf. iii. 413.
Madras Jay, Raii Syn. 195. 12. t. 1. f. 10.
Short-tailed Crow, Gen. Syn. i. 399. 37. B.    Edw. pl. 324.   Nat. Misc. pl. 353.
In this variety the head is not black, but marked merely with
three black stripes, one from the forehead, passing over the crown
 TW
and nape to the back, and one on each corner of the mouth
down the sides of the neck ; over the eye an orange brown stripe,
a white line through the eye, and a second under the black line oai
the sides of the neck; plumage on the back and wings green, inclining to blue on the lesser wing and tail coverts ; beneath from chin to
vent buff-colour; towards the vent reddish ; quills and tail black ;
the former white in the middle, with yellowish or white tips, the
latter with green.    Bill flesh-colour; legs reddish yellow.
Inhabits India.—One of these in General Hardwicke's drawings,
met with at Futtehghur, in June, called Norunga; is also found at
Ceylon.
C—Breve de Madagascar, Buf. iii. 414.
Merle des Moluques, PL enl. 2571   Gen. Syn, i. 399. C.
The head in this variety is blackish brown at the top, with a little
yellow at the back and sides, bounded by a crescent of black,
encircling the neck behind; also two bands of the same, passing
beneath the eyes, and terminating at the corners of the mouth ;
breast white and yellow; beneath the body yellow brown; wings
as in Var. A.    Tail tipped with blue green.
D.—Turdus triostegus, Mus. Carls, fasc. iv. 84.
Short-tailed Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 115. G.
In this bird the head and nape are dull green, with stripes of
black, as in Var. B, but that at the angle of the mouth is bifid ;
beneath from the chin buff-colour; towards the vent rose-colour;
shoulders blue, also the ends of the tail feathers; on the quills a
patch of White as in the others.
£f. Thunberg brought ^fliis from «o®e of the East India Islands.
 E.—Breve de Malacca, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 190. 1.110.
Short-tailed Crow, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 81. 37. D.
This varies chiefly in having the head and back part of the neck
black ; over the eye a greenish streak, bounded beneath with blue;
chin white; fore part of the neck and back green; belly rufous,
vent red.
Inhabits Malacca.
F:—Breve de Malabar, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 191.    Gen. Syn. Sup. 82.
This differs principally in having the head and neck black; down
the crown a longitudinal rufous stripe; breast pale rufous; belly,
thighs, and vent red.
Found on the coast of Malabar.
G.—Short-tailed Crc
. Syn. Sup. p 82. F.
The crown in this variety is rusty-brown ; through the eye, and
round the head a streak of black ; under this a collar of white; the
upper parts of the body green, the under white; on the middle of
the belly a red spot; vent crimson ; quills black; tail green, tipped
with black ; legs pale red.
Inhabits China—from the drawings of the late Dr.Fothergill.
Independent of the above, we have observed some other distinctions of less note, and therefore not worth discriminating; serving,
however, to shew the great variety of this species, all of which are
beautiful. Whether they may be more allied to the Thrushes, as
some suspect, than to the Crows, is notteasily to be determined, as
their manners are as yet imperfectly known. In some India
drawings one of  these is   called Gooda.
 (T
70
GENUS XVI.—ROLLER.
1 Garrulous Rollei
2 Bengal R.
A Spotted R.
3 Indian R.
4 Long-tailed R.
5 Senegal R.
6 Abyssinian R.
A Var.
B Var.
7 Pacific R.
8 Oriental R.
9 Specious R.
10 Cape R.
11 Madagascar R.
12 Blue-striped R.
13 Black R.
14 African R.
A Var.
15 Black-headed R.
16 Docile R,
17 Varied R.
18 Striated R.
19 Streaked R.
20 Hairy R.
21 Mexican R.
22 Cayenne R.
23 Piping R.
24 Pied R.
25 Noisy R.
26 Fairy R.
AN this Genus the bill is strait, bending towards the tip,   edge
cultrated.
Nostrils narrow, and naked.
Legs, for the most part, short.
Toes placed three before and one behind, divided to their origin.
1.—GARRULOUS ROLLER.
>9. Faun. Suec. No.94. Gm. Lin.
Muller.No.94. Bor. Nat.ii. 111.
172.     Shaw's Zool. vii.  388.  t. 50.
Coracias Garrula, 7nd. Orn. i. 168.   Lin. Syst. i.
i. 378.    Scop. Ann.i. No.44.    Brun. No. 35.
1.10,     Daud. ii. 257.     Bechst. Deutsch. ii.
Tern. Man. d'Orn: p. 78.    Id. Ed. ii. p. 126.
Coracias ccerulea, Gerin. ii. 1.153.    Id. p. 45. 1.164.
Galgulus, Bris.ii. 64. t.5. f. 2.    Id. Svo.i. 173.    Sch.el. t. 35.
Comix ccerulea Gesneri, Raii Syn. p. 49.    Will. p,85.
Pica marina, Rati Syn. p. 41.    Will. p. 89.
Garrulns Argentoratensis, Raii Syn. p.41. 3.     Will. 89. t. 20.     Klein..
Stem. t.12. f. 3. a. b.   Id. Ov. t. 8. f. 1.    Frisch. t. 57.
Die blaue Rache, oder der gemeine Birkheher, Schmid Vog. p. 46. t. 32.
Nussheer, Mandel Haher, Wirs. Vog. t. 5.    Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. 1.14.
———— Mandelkrahe, Naturf. ix. s. 45.
 ROLLER.
71
Gazza marine, Zinnan. Uov. 68. 1.10. f. 59.
Rollier, Buf. iii. 135. t. 70.    Pl. enl. 486.
Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 406. Id. Sup. p. 85. Br. Zool. App. pl. 2. Id. Ed. 1812. i. p,
300. pl. 38. Edw. pl. 109. Will. Engl. 131. pl. 20. Arct. Zool. ii. 235. G,
Bewick. Birds,i. pl. p. 85. Donov. Br. Birds,ii. pl.33. Lewin. Birds,ii. pl. 42.
Walcot, i. pl. 41.    Orn. Diet.
SIZE of a Jay; length thirteen inches, breadth two feet three
inches. Bill black, one inch and a half long, strait, hooked at the
point, beset with bristles at the base, but not covering the nostrils ;
space about the eyes somewhat bare; irides of two circles, brown
and grey ; the head, neck, breast, and belly are light bluish green ;
back and scapulars reddish browai; coverts, on the ridge of the wing,
rich blue, beneath them pale green; upper part and tips of the
quills dusky, the lower parts fine deep blue; rump the same; tail
forked, light blue; the outer feather tipped with black above, and
beneath with deep blue; the same with such parts of the quill feathers
as are black above; the other tail feathers are dull green; legs short,
and of a dirty yellow. The female has the head, neck, breast, and
belly ash-grey, with little gloss, nor in that sex any where so
brilliant as the male, which does not come to the complete plumage
till the second year,
This bird is sufficiently common in many parts of Europe, in
anost of which it is migratory. To the northward it is found in
Sweden and Denmaa'k; also met with in Russia, but only from the
southern parts to the neighbourhood of the Irtish,* and none farther
to the east; has a screaming voice, like a Magpie, or Jackdaw; said
to build on birch trees, in preference to any others, laying as far as
five eggs, of a clear ga'een, sprinkled with innumerable dark specks;
will also build in the holes of old oaks ;t the chief food is iaisects.
In Germany, Malta, and Sicily, these birds are so common, as to be
sold in the markets and poulterers shops, for they are accounted good
food, the flesh tasting like that of the Turtle; has been called the
 !~>i»»»^\^X~®».
72 ROLLER.
Strasburg Jay, but for what reason it as not easy to say, since it is
very scarce there. Adanson says,* they come to reside for some
months of the summer in the south parts of Europe, going back to
spend the remainder of the year at Senegal, where they are sometimes
seen in flocks, with the Cardinal Sparrows. In its passage from
Barbary to Europe, it frequently rests for some time at Gibraltar,
though not in great numbers; and in respect to England, it is very
rarely seen, not more than two or three ever having been met with.f
On the Continent is often found in tilled grounds, with Rooks, and
other birds, searching for worms, small seeds, and roots, X and will
sometimes make the nest in holes in the ground ; the nest said to be
filthy, from the young evacuatiaig themselves therein, whence it has
by some been said to make the nest of excrements. This, perhaps,
is the Shagarag of Shaw,§ which he met with in Barbary; about
the size of a Jay; body bi*own; head, neck, and belly, light green ;
wings and tail spotted with blue; and is probably the bird which
Russel found at Aleppo. ||
2.—BENGAL ROLLER.
Coracias Bengalensis, Ind. Orn. i: 168.     Lin. Syst. i.   159.     Gm. Lin. i. 380.     Bor.
Nat ii. 112.    Daud. ii. 259.    Nat. Misc. t. 273;    Shaw's Zool. vii. 390.
Galgulus Mindanoensis, Bris. ii. 69. t. 6. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 174.
Rollier de Mindanao, Cuit, Buf. iii. 144.    Pl. enl. 285.
Jay from Bengal, Alb. i. pl, 17
Bengal Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 410.
LENGTH twelve inches and a half.    Bill blackish; top of the
head green, verging to blue near the eyes; hindpart of the neck
* Adans. Voy. f Br. Zool.    Once killed in Sussex.—Lin. Trans, p. 14.
X Also beetles and frogs.—Faun. Suec. § Trav. p. 251.
|| A kind of Jay, beautifully variegated with blue, green, and a sort of brown.—Russel.
Alep. p. 70.
 ROLLER. 73
fulvous, tinged with violet; back and scapulars• the same; with a
gloss of green and olive; lower part of the back and rump blue,
mixed with green; throat rufous white; cheeks and fore part of the neck
violet, dashed with bluish white down the shafts; breast rufous,
inclining to violet: belly, sides, thighs, under wing and tail coverts
blue green ; lesser wing coverts deep blue; the greater outer ones
blue grey; those of the aniddle blue and green mixed; the five first
quills deep blue ; the middle of the outer webs blue green ; tail even,
the two aniddle feathers dull green, tinged with blue down the shafts ;
the rest blue for one-third from the base, then blue green, with blue
tips; legs grey.
Inhabits Bengal, and the Isle of Mindanao, where it is called
Cuit. It anay be suspected, that this is related to the following
species, for the reasons therein given.
One of these met with at Mosambique, by Mr. Salt.
1
A.—Coracias Bengalen sis, Ind. Om. i. p. 168, 2 var^
Rollier tachete, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 258.
Spotted Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 120. var.
Size of the Common Roller; length thirteen inches. Bill black;
head rufous, with a whitish mixture in the face; general colour of
the plumage rufous, tinged with dirty green on the back, aiad
inclining to red beaaeath, marked with a longitudinal white stripe
on each feather; wings dull, pale green ; quills sky-blue; tail rufous
brown, pretty long, and the feathers of equal lengths; legs dusky.
A specimen of this bird is in the Museum at Paris, brought from
Senegal by M„ Geoffroy de Villeneuve. It has been also killed in
Caffraria, by M. Levaillant. It is probably a young bird of the
Bengal Roller.
 3—LONG-TAILED ROLLER.
169.    Lin. Syst.i. 160.    Gm. Lin.i. 380.    Bor. Nat
Coracias caudata, hid. Of
112.    Daud. ii. 260.
Coracias Angolensis, Shaw's Zool. vii. 394. t.51.
Galgulus Angolensis, Bris. ii. 72. -pl. 7. f. 1.    Id.
Rollier d*Angola, Buf. iii. 144.    PL enl. 88.
Long-tailed Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 409.
. 174.
LENGTH fifteen inches and a half. Bill blackish; hindhead
and neck green; back and scapulars fulvous, glossed with green ;
wing coverts, lower part of the back, and rump fine blue; throat,
neck before, and breast violet, the feathers on the two first marked with
a streak of white down the shafts; belly, sides, thighs, under wing,
and tail coverts sea-green; quills the same for half the length, the
remainder deep blue on the outer webs; shafts and inner webs black;
tail feathers even at the end, except the outmost, which is twice the
length of the others; the two middle ones are deep green ; the others
blue-green, and the outer one, as far as it is longei? than the rest,
deep blue; legs grey.
Inhabits Angola, in Africa, and probably differs from the last
only in sex, in being a young male, which does not gain the
elongated outer tail feathers till the second year.
4—INDIAN ROLLER.
Coracias Indica, Ind. Om. i. 170.     Lin. i. 159.     Gm. Lin. i. 378.     Daud. ii. 262.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 390.
Blue Jay from the East Indies, Edw. pl. 326.
Indian Roller, Gen*Syn.i. 412.
LENGTH eleven inches.    Bill black; crown of the head blue
green; throat, neck, breast, and back- reddish brown; sides of the
 ROLLER. 75
head and throat darkest, streaked with white; rump, tail, and under
parts, from the breast, fine blue; tail even, the two aniddle feathers
green, the outer ones blue at the bottom and tips, and sea-green in
the middle; wiaags green and blue.
Iaahabits Ceylon, and various parts of India ; not imfreqnent on
the Coast of Coromandel. Seems to be greatly allied to the Bengal
Roller, if not the same bird.
A.—This measures also eleven inches. Crown of the head
furnished with loose feathers of a fine light verditer green; the rest
of the head and neck deep blue black; those of the chin and sides
narrow, and pale blue; back and second quills deep green; wing
coverts and outer part of the wing deep blue; quills dusky, edged
with blue; under parts of the body blue; rump the same, but
brilliant; tail three inches long, the two middle feathers deep blue
black, the outer ones more or less paler blue; legs stout, short, and
yellow-brown; claws black.
This, in many points, agrees with the last descriptioaa, but appears
to be a stouter bird.
5.—SENEGAL ROLLER.
Coracias Senegala, Ind. Orn. i. 169.    Gm. Lin.i. 379.    Daud. ii. 261.
 albifrons, Shaw's Zool. vii. 392.
Rollier du Senegal, Buf iii. 143.    Pl. enl. 326.
Swallow-tailed Indian Roller, Ediv. pl. 327.
Senegal Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 408.
LESS than a Jay. Bill black; the whole face, as far as the
eyes, white; head, neck, and under parts of the body, upper parts
of the wings and tail bluish sea-green; shoulders and quills deep
blue; the outer feathers exceed the others in length, as in the
last described.
Inhabits Senegal.
 n
11
6—ABYSSINIAN ROLLER.
Coracias Abyssinica, Ind. Om. i. 169.    Gm. Lin.i. 379.    Daud. ii. 260.
Rollier d'Abyssinie, R«/. iii. 143.    P/. enl. 626.
Sheregrig, Bruce's Tray. App. pl. in p. 182.
Abyssinian Roller, Gen. Syn.i. 404.
LENGTH eighteen inches. Head, to beyond the eyes, white;
the rest of the head, neck, and wing coverts, fine green; shoulders,
quills, and rump blue; back, and second quills orange brown; tail
as in the last described, and the general colours of the bird very
brilliant.
Inhabits Abyssinia, and seems to vary but little from the Senegal
Species, and perhaps not sufficiently distinct from the two preceding.
Mr. Bruce calls this Sheregrig, and the Senegal one is named
Shagarag, which appears to be the Barbary name for Rollers in
general, therefore ought not to be appropriated to one species.
A.—Length, to the end of the shorter tail feathers, eight inches, but
to that of the exterior ones three inches and a half more. Bill dusky .
head, neck, and breast pale ferruginous, or testaceous brown, with
paler streaks; back black, or very dark brown ; from the breast, all
the under parts and thighs fine blue; wing coverts the same, but
black down the middle; the middle of the wing pale blue; quills
deep blue, within black, the outer margins more or less pale blue •
tail pale blue, the feathers two inches and a half in length, except
the outmost on each side, which is three inches longer; legs dusky
yellow.    From the drawings of Mr. Woodford.
B.— One, similar to this, in the collection of General Davies, had
the head and neck, to the breast, pale greenish grey, the feathers
 ROLLER. 77
appearing streaked; back deep brown ; wing coverts fine deep blue;
on the middle of the wing a pale blue, irregular patch ; rest of the
quills deep blue, changing to black near the ends; under parts from
the breast deep blue; tail bluish sea-green, with two elongated
outside feathers, as in the last described; bill black, with a band of
black passing through the eyes, and ending in a point behind;
legs stout, black.
7.-PACIFIC ROLLER.
Pacific Rollei
ca, Ind. Orn. Sup;
371.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill and legs red; head and neck
chestnut; down the middle of the chin and throat black, bounded
on each side with a line of white; the lower part of the neck, from
the chestnut, changes to green, and from thence all beneath paler
green ; wings fine blue; base of the quills white, forming a spot
when expanded ; rump, and upper tail coverts, green ; the tail, and
ends of the quills, dusky blue black.
Inhabits Port Jackson, in New South Wales.
8. -ORIENTAL ROLLER.
Coracias Orientalis, Ind. Om. i. 170.     Lin. i. 159.     Gm. Lin. i. 379.     Daud. ii. 261.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 403.
Galgulus Indicus, Bris. ii. 75. t. 7. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 175.
'   Golaris Orientalis, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 162.
Rollier des lndes, Buf. iii. 147.    Pl. enl. 619.
Colaris, Rolle,  Tern. Man. Anal. p. liii.
Oriental Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 411.    Nat. Misc. pl. 509.
SIZE of a Jay; length ten inches and a half, breadth twenty-two.
Bill pale yellow, broad at the base, and more hooked than in any of
 nmwasaK^
78 ROLLER.
the Genus; bead, and neck behind, brown; back, rump, scapulars,
wing and tail coverts, green brown; throat fine blue, down the shaft
of each leather a pale line; rest of the under parts blue green ; quills
mixed blue and black, on the middle a pale blue spot; wings- longer
than usual, reaching almost to the end of the tail, which is short,
and even at the end; the two middle feathers green at the base, the
rest of the length black, the others first blue, then green, with black
ends; legs yellowish; claws black,
Inhabits the East Indies. One of these, said to be a female,
measured twelve inches in length. Bill and legs red; plumage in
general brownish blue ; top of the head nearly brown; middle of the
chin deep blue, shafts of the feathers pale; wings, except the coverts,
blue green ; quills dusky, on the middle of the six outer a patch of
glowing, pale, greenish blue; tail even, four inches and a half long,
the base half dull blue, the rest dusky to the tip.
9.—SPECIOUS ROLLER.
AMONG the drawings of Mr. Woodford is a Roller, which I
cannot exactly liken to any other. The bill black; crown of the
head, and nape, pale dull green, streaked with brown; chin, throat,
and sides under the eyes, streaked yellowish, rufous, and brown;
back and scapulars rufous brown; ruanp hoary blue green; breast
rufous, from thence, to the vent and thighs, pale green; shoulders
of the wings fine blue, the rest of the covei'trmixed pale blue, the
inner green; beyond this again deep blue; quills deep blue, but
several of the outer ones pale on the outer margins in the aniddle; the
tail three inches in length, nearly even, the two middle feathers pale
brown, the others deep blue, crossed about the middle with a broad
bar of pale blute^peen^ legs rufous yellow.
 ROLLER. 79
A second of these answered to the same description, with the
addition of two elongated feathers of double the length of the others,
and these are green. How far the above birds have connexion with
other long-tailed Rollers, I am at a loss to determine, but certainly
they do not exactly coincide with any. In the wings and outer tail
feathers they are most like the Bengal Species.
10—CAPE ROLLER,
Coracias Caffra, Ind. Om. i. 170.     Lin. i. 159.     Gm. Lin. i. 379,     Daud. ii. 262.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 398.
Cape Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 412.
THIS bird is said to be blue, with the outer edges of the quills
luteous.    The female of a bluish black.
This very slight description, given by Linnaeus, informs us in
addition, that the bird inhabits Ethiopia.
11.—MADAGASCAR ROLLER.
Coracias Madagascariensis, Ind. Orn. i. 170.   Gm. Lin. i. 379.    Daud. ii. 263.    Shaw's
Zool. vii. 404.
Rollier de Madagascar, Buf. iii. 148.    Pl. enl. 501.
Colaris, Rolle, Tern. Man. Anal. p. liii.
Madagascar Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 413.
SIZE of the common Roller; length ten inches. Bill stout at
the base, rather short, and yellow; plumage in general rusty, purplish
brown; rump and vent blue green; quills deep blue above, and blue
green beneath, inner webs black; tail blue green, near the end a
purplish band, the tip blue-black; legs reddish brown.
Inhabits Madagascar.
 80
12—BLUE-STRIPED ROLLER—Pl. xli.
Coracias striata, Ind. Orn. i. 171.    Gm.LinA. 381.    Daud. ii. 264.    Shaw's Zool.
vii. 396.
Blue-striped'Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 414. pl. xvi.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill three quarters of an inch long,
bent at the tip, and black; irides red; general colour of theplumage
deep blue-black, dashed with streaks of greenish blue; the tail and
legs black.
The female is cinereous grey; crown of the head darkest; wing
coverts and quills black, edged with cinereous, but not streaked with
blue; tail plain grey ; legs black.
This we believe to be an exceediaigly scarce species. The figures
were supplied to us by Sir Joseph Banks's drawings, taken froan
specimens met with at New Caledonia, in the South Seas, by Dr. J.
R. Forster. We have never seen more than a single, mutilated
specimen of the male.
13— BLACK ROLLER.
Coracias nigra, Ind. Om. i. 172.    Daud. ii. 266.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 396.
Black Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 85.
LENGTH sixteen inches. Bill oaie iaach and a quarter, strong,
cui'ved at the point; nostrils at the fore part of a depression, not far
from the base, and covered with a membrane; colour of the bill
brownish horn; general colour of the plumage glossy black ; the
outer quill half the length of the adjoining ; tail cuneiform, the two
middle feathers six inches long, the outer four and three quarters, the
feathers rounded at the ends; legs deep blackish brown, the feathers
hang over the joint, and are short aaid scaly; the middle toe very
long, and the claw larger than the others.
  n
II I
mxwsmsm
 "1
P1.XLI.
^^J^ tfUor^
I
  One of these was preserved in spirits in the British Museum, but
the place from whence it was brought not mentioned. We have seen
a second, an the possession of Mr. Comyns, of Dawlish, which came
from Ceylon.
14—AFRICAN ROLLER.
Coracias Afra, Ind. Om. i. 172.    Daud. ii. 267.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 405.    Nat. Misc.
pl. 401.
African Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 86.
LENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill stout, yellow, bent at
the tip ; plumage on the upper parts pale cinnamon, beneath paler,
inclining to lilac; vent, and under tail coverts pale blue green;
quills deep blue; the ends of the two middle tail feathers black, the
others blue green, tipped with black; legs brown.
Inhabits Africa. Described from a specimen in the British
Museum; it seems a stout bird in respect to the length.
A.—Length eleven inches and a half. Bill stout, one inch and
three quarters long, black, with a conspicuous hook at the tip, inside
yellow; upper parts of the head, back, and inner wing coverts fine
cinnamon-colour, inclining to brown on the back; feathers of the
crown elongated ; under parts of the body the same as the upper,
but paler, streaked on the chin, throat, and breast, with dusky white;
outer wing coverts, and the rest of the wing deep blue, the colour
paler at the base, and the inner webs of the feathers black ; tail near
six inches in length, marked as the quills, but the two middle feathers
are dusky, with a greenish cast; legs yellow, strong; claws black.
Inhabits Abyssinia.—Mr. Salt.
 WtM
II
15—BLACK-HEADED ROLLER.
Coracias melanocephala, Ind. Om. i. 170.    Daud. ii. 267.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 397.
Black-headed Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 86.
SIZE of a Jay. Bill red; head and neck black; hindhead
greyish; upper parts of the body bluish purple, the under white;
quills brown; the two middle tail feathers blue, the rest purplish, all
of them tipped with white ; legs red.
Supposed to inhabit China.—Described from drawings made
in that country.
16.—DOCILE ROLLER.
Coracias docilis, Ind. Om. i. 172.     S. G. Gmel. It. iii. 378. t. 42.     Daud. ii. 266.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 403.
Docile Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 120.
SIZE of a Jackdaw. Bill yellow, rather bent, feathered on the
sides, and the under part covered with white feathers at the base;
eyes black, round them dull grey, behind and beneath whitish, with
a slight mixture of red; the upper parts of the head, neck, and
breast, much the same; belly and vent chestnut brown; the nine first
quills half white, half black, the rest wholly black; tail black,
with the tip white.
Inhabits Persia; and, according to Gmelin, has obtained its name
from imitating the words and actions of those around, such as crying,
laughing, and the like.
 83
17.—VARIED ROLLER.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill stout, one inch and a quarter
long, greenish yellow; irides red-brown; nostrils visible; plumage
parrot green beneath, sides of the neck paler, inclined to brown,
and each feather marked with a slender white streak down the shaft,
swelling in the middle; vent plain ; second wing coverts and quills
marked with a small white spot at the tips, and the latter with three
or four spots of white down the shafts; greater quills brown, edged
with green; tail four inches and a half long, even at the end, all
but the two middle feathers tipped with a white spot; legs stout,
lead-colour; claws hooked and large. Said to be a male bird.
Inhabits New-Holland.—General Davies.
Another specimen in the collection of Mr. Harrison ; it is also in
the Linnaean Museum.
18— STRIATED ROLLER.
Coracias sagittata, 7nd. Orn. Sup. xxvi.    Shaw's Zool. viii. 400.
Striated Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 122.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill, from the gape, one inch and a
quarter, stout, red brown; head, neck, back, rump, and lesser wing
coverts green, the shafts of the feathers dark, appearing as lines;
on the chin and throat a mixture of ash-colour; breast and under
parts dusky white, marked with black streaks, broader and bifid
beneath, appearing like the barbs of arrows; under wing coverts
and sides tinged with yellow greeai; greater wing coverts and quills
dark within, and ash-coloured on the outer web, each marked at the
tip with white ; tail of twelve feathers, even, four inches and a half
jl
 TW
84 ROLLER.
long, all but the two middle marked at the tips with a large oyal
white spot on the inner, and just tipped with the same on the outer
web, deepest on the outer feathers; the legs stout, short, brown;
claws hooked.
Inhabits New South Wales.  In a drawing of this bird the tongue
appears to be bristly at the end, not unlike that of the Honey-eater.
19— STREAKED ROLLER.
11
LENGTH eleven inches and a half. Bill stout, brown, with a
slight notch on the upper mandible, at the tip; plumage above olive
brown, inclining to green on the rump; all the feathers streaked down
the middle with dusky; from the bill a mottled paler streak, passing
over the eye, and surrounding the hindhead as a wreath, but not
eminently conspicuous; under parts, from the chin, white, with
dusky streaks, most numerous on the breast; vent white; wings
brown, the feathers edged with tawny; under wing coverts mixed
pale tawny; tail four inches and a half long, even, brown, all but
the two middle feathers marked with a large oval white spot on the
inner web at the end, and just tipped with the same on the outer;
legs stout.
Another, supposed to be a female, wanted the tawny edges of the
coverts, and the wreath round the head less conspicuous.
Inhabits New-Holland ; has some things in common with the
Striated Roller, and might pass for a young bird, or differing in sex,
but the feathers of the tail in this have the ends pointed, and more
narrow than in the Striated, which has the tail feathers in general
broader, yet the white ends in both are precisely the same, and
therefore gives a suspicion of their being allied to each other.
From the collection of Lord Stanley.
 1
85
20—HAIRY ROLLER.
losa, 7nd. Om. Sup. 5
rinita, Shaw's Zool. vi
Hairy Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii: 122.
THE bill and legs in this bird are dusky blue; neck, breast, and
belly testaceous brown, streaked with white, the feathers rather loose
and elongated; over the eye a streak of white, and through it a
darker one; back and wing coverts green brown, edged with blue,
and changeable purple; quills deep blue; upper tail coverts pale
blue; tail long, even at the end, and the same colour as the quills,
which, when closed, reach to about one-fourth of the length.
Taken from the drawings of Mr. Woodford.
21 —MEXICAN ROLLER.
Coracias Mexicana, Ind. Orn. i. 171.    Gm. Lin.i. 381.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 399.
Galgulus Mexicanus, Bris. ii. 83.    Id. 8vo. i. 177.
Merula Mexicana, Seba.i. 101. t. 64. 5.    Klein. Av. 62. 5.
Mexican Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 413,
THIS is much larger than the Missel Thrush. Upper parts of
the body dingy rufous grey; the under parts and wings light grey,
mixed with flame-colour.
Inhabits Mexico.
22—CAYENNE ROLLER.
Coracias Cayana, Ind. Orn. i. 172.    Gm. Lin. i. 381.    Daud. ii. 265.    Shaw's Zool.
vii. 400.
Grivert, ou Rolle de Cayenne, Buf iii. 134.    Pl. enl. 616.
Cayenne Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 415.
LENGTH nine inches.    Bill strong, reddish, a little bent at the
point; general colour of the plumage brownish green ; over the eye
»
 II
a white streak; chin white; bounded on each side with black; fore
part of the neck and breast dirty white, or pale ash-colour; tail
cuneiform, the edges of the feathers greenish; legs longer than
usual in the Roller, pale grey.
Inhabits Cayenne; approaches greatly to the Crow Genus.
23— PIPING ROLLER.
Coracias Tibicen, Ind. Om. Sup. xxvii.    Shaw's Zool.vii. 405.
Cassican, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ii.
Piping Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 122.
LENGTH eighteen or nineteen inches. Bill bluish white, two
inches or more in length, strait, except at the end of the upper
anandible, which is bent; tip black, with a very slight notch near
the point; general colour of the plumage deep black, but the nape,
wing coverts, some of the greater quills at the base, rump, vent, and
base of all the tail feathers, for two-thirds of the length, are white ;
the remainder of the tail is black, as is the whole of the outer feather
on the outer web; legs dusky slate-colour. In some specimens those
parts are cinereous grey which are white in others.
Inhabits New South Wales, by the name of Tarra-war-nang.
It has a soft note, not unlike the sound of a well-toned flute; preys
often on small birds.
24—PIED ROLLER.
Coracias varia, Ind. Om. i. 173.    Gm. Lin. i. 381.    Nat. Misc. 781.
Gracula varia, Shaw's Zool. vii. 464.
Cassican de la nouvelle Guinee, Buf. vii. 137. t. 7.    Pl. enl. 628.
Barita, Cassican, Tent. Man. Ed. ii. p.li.
Pied Roller, Gen. Syn. i. 415.
LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill two inches and a half, bluish,
with a dark tip; head, neck, and upper part of the back, black; the
 ROLLER. 87
rest of the back, rump, and upper tail coverts, breast, and vent,
white, inclining to blue on the breast; wing coverts black and white
mixed; some of the secondaries black, some white; greater quills
black; tail five inches long, even at the end, and black ; all but the
two middle feathers tipped with white; legs lead-colour; claws stout,
sharp, and black.
Supposed to inhabit New Guinea; seems of a doubtful Genus,
between the Oriole, Toucan, and Roller, yet strictly belonging to
neither. We have, however, placed it in that of the last named, till
its character and manners may be better known.
25—NOISY ROLLER.
Coracias strepera, Ind. Orn.i. 173.
Gracula strepera, Shaw's Zool. vii. 462.
Cassican,  Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Ii.
Reveilleur de l'lsle de Norfolk, Daud. ii. 267.
Corvus graculinus, White-vented Crow, White's Bot. Bay, t. p. 25,
Noisy Roller, Gen. Syn Sup. ii. 121.
LENGTH nineteen inches; larger than a Jackdaw. Bill two
inches and three quarters long, curved at the point, with a slight
notch at the very tip, colour black; nostrils elongated; irides orange;
general colour of the plumage black, the feathers about the head
short and stiff; the first quill feather is half the length of the fifth,
which is the longest of all; the first six are white at the base,
producing, when closed, a white patch on the wing; vent, and base
of all the tail feathers white; tail eight inches long, even at the end,
the feathers pointed at the tips, and marked on the inner webs with
white, but the two middle ones are wholly black; the wings, when
closed, reach more than half way on the tail; legs strong, feathered
rather below the heel; hiaad toe very large and strong.
M
 88 ROLLER.
Inhabits Norfolk Island; very clamorous, especially in the night;
and called by our sailors a Magpie, perhaps on account of the colour,
added to the similarity of voice. It is a very foolish bird, running
after every person, and suffering itself to be knocked down with a
stick; most frequent in June. M. Temminck unites the three last
described and our Blue-green Paradise Bird into one Genus, by the
aiame of Cassican.
L
26—FAIRY ROLLER.
Coracias Puella, Ind. Om. i.
171.    Daud.i
. 264.    Sha
w's Zool. vii. 998.
Irena Puella, Lin. Trans, xiii
p. 153.    Hor
sf Zool. Res
. No. 1. pl. of mal
Id. Plate of Bills. K. a
b.
Fairy Roller, Gen. Syn. Sup.
p. 87.
SIZE of a Jackdaw. Bill stout, black, rather broad at the base,
and a little curved at the point, at the base a few hairs ; head, sides,
front of the neck, and all beneath black, belly dusky; nape, neck
behind to the beginning of the back, and lesser wing coverts fine
splendid blue; middle of the back, and the rest of the wing black,
with three or four spots of blue at the base of the quills; lower part
of the back, rump, and vent fine blue ; tail dusky blue; legs lead-
colour ; the wings reach just beyond the base of the tail.
Iaihabits India, and there called the Blue Fairy Bird. In various
drawings from that part, I observe that the blue differs considerably
in shade, being in some much paler, and the tail blue-black, the
blue upper coverts reaching to at least half the length of it. At
Chittygong it is known by the name of Nealumpurry, and in some
other places is called Ootrool. In one of the drawings of Lord
Mountnorris's Collection, it is said to have been met with at Malacca;
it also is found in Java, and there called Bressi, but is very rare,
and does not exceed nine inches and a half in length; found also in
Sumatra, under the name of Biang-kapoor; is seen likewise in the
adjacent Islands.
 ROLLER. 89
In Dr. Horsfield's figures the tail of the male is full black; the
plumage of the female chiefly of a dull blue, in some lights having
an obscure reflection of sea-green ; greater quills brown; the lesser
and the greater coverts the saane, edged outwardly with dull blue;
wings and tail both brown beneath. Is said to inhabit woods and
forests, feeding on fruits and wild grains, concealing itself oai solitary
hills, distant from habitations, preferring rather elevated and cool
situations.    It is a most beautiful species.
 eift\<iii^^ss^^«^%»^
90
GENUS XVII—ORIOLE.
Black and yellow
19 Red-winged
41 Fork-tailed
A Black and yellow Daw
20 White-headed
42 Whistler
Red-rumped
A Var.
43 Red-breasted
A Brown Cassique
B Hudsonian
A Guiana
Crested
21 Para
B Bengal
A Var.
22 Black-crowned
44 Rusty-crowned
Red-billed
23 Olive
45 Rufous-winged
New-Holland
24 Blue
46 Yellow-throated
Southern
25 Crimson-billed
47 Sharp-tailed
RufF-necked
26 Icteric
48 Aoonalashkan
Rice
27 Baltimore
49 Red
A Hudsonian Thrush
A Spurious
50 Antiguan yellow
B New-York Thrush
28 Weever
51 Kink
C Labrador Thrush
29 Bonana
52 Golden
Cowpen
30 Hang-nest
A Mango
A Brown-headed Stare
31 Chestnut and black
53 Yellow
B Lesser black
32 Lesser Bonana
54 Black-cheeked
Cayenne Olive
33 Least Bonana
A Var.
Chestnut
34 St. Domingo
B Yellow Thrush
Carthagena
35 Jamacaii
C Var.
Red-headed
36 Yellow-winged
55 Cochinchina
Mexican
37 Gold-headed
56 Indian
A New Spain
38 White-winged
57 Black-headed
Ring-tailed
39 Yellow-headed
58 Mottled
Brazilian
A Var.
59 Nun
Japacani
40 Schomburger
60 Striped-headed
Grey
A Spotted Troupiale
61 Yellow-backed
'jVHE Oriole has a strait, conic, sharp-pointed bill, the edges
cultrated, inclining inwards, both mandibles equal.
Nostrils small, at the base of the bill, partly covered.
Tongue divided at the end.
Toes three before and one behind, the middle one united to the
outer near the base.
 	
These birds are for the most part inhabitants of America ; are a
noisy, gregarious, frugivorous, grataivoi'ous, and voracious race, very
numerous, and often have pensile nests.
Several are coanprised in this Genus as Orioles, although inha'bit-
ing the Old Continent, from the similarity of bill, &c. and some from
New-Holland, which, in our opinion, could not well be brought
under aaiy other Genus.
The Golden Oriole, with all its branchings, is well known to
inhabit only the Old Continent, and although called by some authors
a Thrush, by others a Grakle, and again supposed to approach to
the Chatterer as well as the Oriole, it might seem doubtful where
to place it. In this case, the manners will assist in forming a situation ; and its making a pensile nest like other Orioles, determined our
predecessor, Linnaeus, to add it to that? Genus, and we of course
cannot do better than to follow the opinon of so distinguished a
naturalist.
1—BLACK AND YELLOW ORIOLE.
Oriolus Persicus, Ind. Orn. i. 173.    Lin.i. 161.     Gm. Lin. i. 388.   Borowsck. ii. 117.
Daud. ii. 327. pl. 24.
Oriolus Cassicus, Shaw's Zool. vii. 413.
Tanagra albirostris, Ind. Orn. i. 430.    Lin. i, 315, 12 & 18,    Mus. Adolp. ii. 31.   Gm.
Lin. i. 894.
Cassicus luteus, Bris. ii, 100 t. 9, f. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 183.
Pica Persica Aldr, Raii 424.    Will. p. 90.
Jupujuba, Raii 46.    Will. 98. t. 23.    Id. Engl. 142.    Spalowsck. Vog. ii. t. 18.
L'Yapu noir et jaune, Voy. d'Azara. iii. No. 59.
Le Cassique jaune, Buf. iii. 235.   PL enl. 184.
White-billed Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 241.
Black and yellow Oriole, Gen. Syn. iii. 418..    Id. A. 419.
LARGER than a Blackbird; length eleven or twelve inches ;
extent of wings seventeen inches.     !J&jjjl  sixteen  lines long, pale
N 2
I
 ■wg»F
92 ORIOLE.
yellow; irides blue; the plumage consists of two colours only, the
greater part full black, but on the middle of the wing is a large
patch of golden yellow; the lower part of the back, rump, belly,
and vent also yellow ; and the tail, for three-fourths of the length, of
the same fine yellow, the rest black ; thighs yellow, in some black ;
legs black.
Inhabits Brazil and Cayenne, and other warm parts of America^
as far as Paraguay, and makes a most curious nest, in the shape of
an Alembic, about one foot and half in length, composed of dried
giass, and a substance like hair,* or what appears to be so: the
bottom for one foot upwards is hollow like a purse, the remainder
or upper part, for half a foot being solid ; and it hangs by the top,
oaa the extremity of a branch of a tree; often built near houses ;
and one tree has beeaa known to contain above 400 nests; the bird
said not unfrequently to bring up three broods in a year.
A.—Black and yellow Daw of Brazil,  Edw. pl. 319.    Gen. Syn. i. 419. B.
This seems a trifle bigger; has a purplish lustre in the black of
the plumage, and some of the yellow feathers, which compose the
spot on the wings, tipped with black.
One of these hi the collection of Mr. Mc. Leay, was named
Assewaka; the feathers had a musky, castor-like, smell.
* Probably the Tillandsia usneoides, which may easily be mistaken for horse-hair. The
bird may perhaps be the Petite Pe of Fermini, but his description merely is, that the
colours are prettily diversified, and yellow from the middle of the back to the rump. He
adds, that it easily learns to talk a number of words; makes the nest on the tops of high
trees ; lays six or eight eggs, spotted with black, living on insects, and small birds, also
their eggs; advances by hopping, and always flirts up the tail; is bold enough to attack
birds of prey, as well as leverets, and other such game.—Descrip. de Sarin, ii. p. 167.
L
 93
2—RED-RUMPED ORIOLE.
Oriolus hsemorrhous, Ind. Om. i. 174.     Lin. i. 161.    Lin. Gm.
vii. 417.    Nat. Misc. pl. 365.
Cassicus ruber, Bris. ii. 98. t. 8. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. ia3.    Daud
Cassique rouge, Buf. iii. 238.    PL enl. 482.
Red-rumped Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 420.
. 387.     Shaw's Zool.
LENGTH eleven inches. Bill sulphur-coloured, thick at the
base, and passing far back into the forehead, where it is rounded,
and bare of feathers ; plumage chiefly black, with a greenish gloss;
the lower part of the back, rump, upper and under tail coverts* fine
glowing crimson ; wings and tail dusky black ; and the quills, when
the wing is closed, reach almost to the end of the latter; legs black.
Inhabits Brazil and Cayenne, and called Cassique ; said to have
the same ananners as the former, making the same kind of nest, and
building it promiscuously with that bird ; hence, has been by some
esteemed only as a Variety, but of this we are not competent to judge.
At Berbice it is known by the name of Jabbani; about Brazil
it is called Guasch.
A—Cassique bruu, Orn. de Salerne 112.    Gen. Syn. ii. 420. A.
In this the whole body is black brown ; rump and upper part of
the tail the colour of wine lees ; under tail coverts light yellow.
This is found at Guiana, and known by the name of Quiacagou.
Said to frequent shady places, near water, and to scream like a Jay.
* One in the collection of Mr. Francillon, had the under tail coverts black, not red.
 1
94
3— CRESTED ORIOLE.
! II
i
Oriolus cristatus, Ind. Om.i. 174.    Gm. Lin. i. 387.    Daud. ii. 326.    Shaw's Zool.
vii. 414.
Xanthornus maximus, Pall. Spic.vi. 3. t. 1.
L'Yapu proprement dit, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 57,
Troupiale, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. liv.
Cassique huppe de Cayenne, Buf. iii. 241.    Pl. enl. 344.
Crested Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 421.
SIZE of a Magpie; length eighteeaa inches and a half. Bill
strong, two inches long, dirty yellow, bai"e, somewhat gibbous, and
rounded at the base; nostrils in a furrow; tongue jagged; irides
blue; head crested; head, neck, and body, to the middle, black;
beyond this, the rump, and vent, deep chestnut; wings black; tail
eight inches long, the two middle feathers brownish black, and
seven-eighths of an inch shorter than the next on each side, but the
shape is cuneiform, for the outer one is only five inches and a half
long ; all but the two middle feathers are yellow ; legs black.
Inhabits Cayenne, and other warmer parts of America. One, in
the collection of Mr. M'Leay, received from Berbice, was called
Boeke roe roe. The female is crested as well as the male; it lives
equally on fruits and insects, but particularly on a sort of Grenadilla;*
also another plant, called by the Creoles, Grains cols jaunes ; when
the bird eats the latter, the excrement becomes yellow ; fouaid for the
most part in pairs or single, though sometimes in flocks of 100, perching on the tops of trees ; the nest in the shape of a purse, three feet
in length, and ten inches broad at the lower end, which is hemispherical, the en trance at top, the bottom furnished within with a thick bed of
dry leaves, and hung from the ends of branches, sometimes six hanging
on the same tree; it is constructed of fine strips of the Caraguata,t
. t Tillandsia, as before mentioned'under the first Species.
 ORIOLE. 96
interwoven by the birds, both sexes of which contribute their labour,
and the threads so fine as to be easily mistaken for horse hair; the
eggs are not jdescribed, but the young said to be fed with worms, and
the adults to be fond of oranges and ananas, M. d'Azara mentions
one which bad five white and yellow spots, irregularly placed, at the
beginning of the back, and upper tail coverts. Found at Paauguay,
but not common, nor seen beyond the 26th degree of latitude; has a
loud cry, but aaot:iilisagyeeable; the common name Yapu,* also
Yapmi and Acahe^saiyUjor Yellow Acahe.
A.—Gen. Syn. ii. p. 421.
This is full twenty inches in length. The bill two inches and a
quarter, yellow, with an orange tip; the feathers of the head
elongated into a crest, as in the former, besides which, there are two
slender feathers, two inches and a quarter long, springing from the
hindhead, and hanging down behind ; the plumage in general olive
with a hue of orange ; lower half of the back, the rump, belly, and
vent chestnut; tail rounded, the two middle feathers chestnut, the
others yellow, but the outer one dusky on the exterior web; legs black.
4—RED-BILLED ORIOLE.
.     Oriolus cristatus, Ind. Orn. i. 175. y.    Gen. Syn. ii. 422. B.
 rufirostris, Shaw's Zool. vii. 416,
Xanthornus virens, Naturf. 18. s. 1. tab. 1.
Cassique vert de Cayenne, Buf. iii. 240.    PL enl. 328.
LENGTH fourteen inches, breadth twenty.    Bill red; general
colour of the pluanage dull green, but the hind part of the body,
* Yapu signifies Error.
 vfww^
^■$M$88*Ss£si<*m£am&xi
96 ORIOLE.
rump, vent, and thighs are chestnut; quills black; tafl as in the
others, the two middle feathers black, the others yellow. In the
Pl. enlum. the two middle feathers are dusky black, but the exterior
of the yellow ones dusky black on the outer web, for three quarters
of an inch from the tip; the two middle in the plate of JVaturforscher
are dull green, and shorter than the adjoining, which is also seen in
the first described.
Inhabits Cayenne, Brazil, and Guiana, and though greatly
similar, is probably distinct; for, according to Sonnini, it does not
associate, or frequent the same haunts. It generally builds on high
trees like the others, and the flesh is said to be well flavoured, not
having the rank scent of castor, so observable in the first Species.
5—NEW-HOLLAND ORIOLE.
THIS is a large Species; length twenty-two inches. Bill stout,
as in the Crow, but pointed at the end, in length two inches and
a half, blackish, with a horn-coloured tip, the base for one inch,
passing backwards, on the forehead, and rounded as in the Red-
rumped Species ; nostrils a narrow slip, covered with a kind of flap;
plumage cinereous grey, or pale soot-colour, beneath the same, but
paler; belly and vent nearly white; the second quills very short,
and the eight first are white for three-fourths of the length from the
base within. Tail nine inches long, consisting of twelve feathers, in
shape rounded at the end, the two middle ones more pointed than
the others, and of one colour, the rest white for one inch on the
inner webs, but the outer web is white quite to the end ; the quills
reach to about the middle of the tail; legs two inches and a half
long, stout, the two middle and outer toes united at the base.
Inhabits New-Holland.—Mr. Thompson.
 ORIOLE. 97
I observed another in the collection of Mr. Brogden, in which
was a very minute notch near the tip of the bill; the feathers of the
neck and breast of a downy or loose texture; second quills white at the
ends, the outer edges of the prime ones whitish; tail feathers, the
two middle ones excepted, white at the ends for full one inch.
Whether these slight differences refer to sex, or are Varieties, is quite
uncertain.
6.—SOUTHERN ORIOLE.
LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill stout, slightly curved, with a
minute notch at the tip, nostrils linear; tongue bifid at the end, full
as long as the bill; irides yellow orange; head and throat dusky
green; upper part of the neck, body, and wings olive-green, the
middle of each feather marked with a narrow dusky streak ; throat,
breast, and belly, dusky white, marked with longish dusky streaks ;
vent plain; wings as the back, the margins of the feathers whitish ;
greater quills black; tail longish, rounded at the end, olive; the
wings reach to one-fourth beyond the base; legs stout, dusky blue.
Inhabits New South Wales : manners unknown. One of these in
a drawing had four of the outer feathers of the tail tipped on the inner
webs with a spot of white; legs black.
7—RUFF-NECKED ORIOLE.
LENGTH fifteen inches or more. Bill one inch and a half, stout,
and pointed at the tip, the base above passing far back into the
forehead, and rounded behind; general colour of the plumage fine
glossy black, with a tinge of violet, green, and copper, in different
 rw?
i
lights; the feathers round the eye and cfcan short, like velvet; those
of the neck much elongated, and capable of being erected^ in the
manner of the Ruffed Grous; the feathered part of the thigtosareaches
below the joint; quills and tail deeper black, and have much less
gloss than the other parts; the tail, somewhat rouaaded at the end;
consists of twelve feathers, and is fiveinches and a half in length <;
when the wing is closed, the quills reach to about the middle of it;
legs black; outer and middle toes united at the base.
Inhabits South America; brought from Trinidad by Lord Seaforth.
Is said to erect the feathers of the neck in a beautiful and singular
manner.
8—RICE ORIOLE.
vii. 445.
Ind. Orn.i. 185
Gm. Lin.
i. 393.
Sha
arus, Ind. Om. i
. 176.    Gm
Lin. i
386.
neus, Ind. Orn.
i. 176.    Gn
i. Lin. i
. 393.
Daud. ii. 351.    Shaw's Zool.
. 439.
Cassicus niger, Daud. ii. 329.    Shatfa, Zool. n
Icterus niger, Bris. ii. 103. 1.10. f. 1.   Id. 8vo.i. 184
Comix parva profunde nigra, Klein. Av. p, 59.
Gracula ferruginea, Rusty 43rakle, Amer. Om. iii. pl. 21. f. 3.
Troupiale noir, Buf. iii. 320.    Pl. enl. 534.
Yapu noir, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 58 and 60.
Black Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 445.   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 144.
Rice Oriole, Gen. Syn.ii. 423.
LENGTH nine inches; extent of the wings fourteen. Bill one
inch and a half long, black, stout, sharp, and somewhat bent at the
tip, the base passing backwards on the forehead, as in some of the
former-Speeies-;-irides silvery; plumage in general black, glossed
with purpie4wa the head, neck, and breast; tail five inches long, even
at the end, and the w*»gs5 when closed, reach a little beyond the
base ; legs black ; hind claws-large.
 ORIOLE. 99
The female is one inch shorter. Head, neck, and breast wholly
brown; over the eye a pale-coloured line; lore black; belly and
rump ash-colour; upper and under tail coverts skirted with brown;
wings black, edged with ferruginous : tail black, glossed with green.
Young birds, of both sexes, have the feathers of the head, neck,
breast, and back, margined with ferruginous, the rest of the plumage
black, but less clear than in the adult.
Inhabits various parts of America; coaaaes into Pennsylvania, from
the north, early in October, and associates with the Redwings, and
Cowpens, chiefly in the corn fields, and where grasshoppers are
plentiful, but is most fond of Indian corn; retires the aniddle of
November. In Georgia frequents plantatioais, and there called
Cowpen Blackbird.
As this bird does not gain the full plumage the first year, it is
often seen mixed with the young ones, which have variegated
plumage, and will easily account for such being esteemed different
Species. Said to build in trees, at about eight feet from the ground,
making a nest of moss and grass, laying five dark-coloured eggs,
spotted with black; is easily domesticated, but not frequently, as it
is not valued for having any song.
The Yapu noir of Azara seems to be this. He mentions the
having a nest brought to him, found hanging at the ends of
branches, and saw another, made of rushes and other flexible
materials; it was the size of that of the Crested Species, but narrower;
in this was an egg almost round, white, marbled with deep brown :
the cry of this bird is Gaaa, at other times like the word Pupui; is a
solitary and rare Species, only found in the deep thickets. The
three following appear to be the same, in different stages of plumage.
A.—Turdus Hudsonicus, Ind. Orn. i. 362.    Gm.Lin.i. 818.    Vieill. Amer.ii. p;16.
Hudsonian Thrush, Gen. Syn. Sup. 143.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 204.
Length seven inches and a half.    Plumage black, every feather
more or less edged with chestnut: probably a young female,
o 2
J»
 RfP*
100
B Turdus Noveboracensis, Ind. Om.i. 362.    Gm.LinA. 818.
New-York Thrush, Gen. Syn. Sup. 144.    Arct. Zool. ii. No. 205.
In this, the head, neck, and breast, are mottled light rust-colour
and black; back very glossy, edges of the feathers ferruginous; from
the bill, above and beneath the eye, a band of black to the hindhead;
belly dusky; wings and tail greenish glossy black.
rdus Labradorus, Ind. Orn. i. 342.    Gm. Lin. i. 832.
Jamaicensis, Daud. ii. 317.
r Thrush, Gen. Syn. iii. 46.   Phil. Trans, lxii. 400.    A.
varied v
t. Zool.ii. No.206.
th blue and greeaa
General colour glossy shining black
in different lights.
The female dusky black, breast dark grey. Said to come iai
flocks to Severn River, in June, and to return South in Autumn;
suppposed to feed chiefly on worms and maggots; called at Hudson's
Bay, the Blackbird; lives among the willows, and builds in all sorts
of trees. The three last, though hitherto ranked with the Thrushes,
are no other than the Black Orioles, in various stages of life.
9.—COWPEN ORIOLE.
Fringilla Pecoris, Ind. Om.i. 443.    Gm. Lin. i. 910.
Emberiza Pecoris, Cow Bunting, Am. Orn. ii. pl. 18. f. 1, 2, 3.
Sturnus stercorarius, Bartr. Trav. 289.
Fringilla Virginiana, Bris. iii. 165,    Id. 8vo.i. 352.
Le Troupiale commun, Voy. d'Azara,iii. No. 61.—male.
Le Chapi, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 62.—female.
LeBrunet, Buf. iv. 138. Id. Tolcana, Buf. iii. 193.
Troupiale de la Caroline, Pl. enl. 606. 1.
Troupiale, Tern. Man. Ed. ii.Anal. p. liv.
Cowpen Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. 269.     Id. Sup. 165.    Cates. Car. i. pl. 34.     Arct. Zool.
ii. No. 241.    Gen. Zool. ix. 501.
THIS is from seven to eight inches long, and eleven broad. Bill
blackish ; head and neck fine brown, the rest of the body glossy
black; tail somewhat forked, or hollowed out in the middle.
 ORIOLE. 101
The female is less, all over brown; pale ash beneath, chin nearly
white.
Young birds have pale bills and legs, the plumage brown, and
the margins of the feathers paler reddish brown ; chin, and middle
of the belly white; under the eye aaa obscure dusky narrow streak,
which bounds the white on the chin; just within the bend of the wing
an oval dusky patch.
Iaahabits America.—I am obliged for the above account to Mr.
Abbot, of Georgia, who gives reason to suppose, that they vary
greatly in different periods of age. They frequent places where rice
grows, fly in flocks, both sexes generally together,* but are less
common about Savannah, his place of residence, than in many
others.
I find from the Amer. Orn. that the length sometimes reaches to
nine inches ; that the young birds are altogether brown for a month
or more ; bare of feathers a'ound the eye and mouth ; breast spotted
as in the Thrush, with light drab, and darker streaks: in two months
after leaving the nest, the black begins at the shoulders, and gradually
increases along each side, till the bird appears mottled on the back
and breast, with deep black and light drab : at three months the
colours are complete, and, except in moulting time, does not change
colour : appears in Pennsylvania the end of March, or beginning of
April, and departs in October; called Cow Blackbird, Cowpen Bird,
and Black Rice Bird. The female has the habit of laying her eggs
in the nests of other birds, in the manner of the Cuckow, particularly in those of the Red-eyed Fly-catcher, Maryland Yellow-throat,
Blue Bird, Chipping Sparrow, Golden-crowned Thrush, Yellow Bird,
White-eyed and Small Grey Fly-catcher, and others; but the two
first mentioned seem to be the favourite places of deposit. The bird
lays but one egg in each nest; it is larger than that of the Blue
Bird, dirty white, thickly sprinkled or granulated with pale brown;
* Mr. Wilson observes, that nothing like pairing, as in other birds, is discovered.
 1
ill
102 ORIOLE.
generally appears in March, and departs about the end of October;
passes the winter regularly in the lower parts of North and South
Carolmaand Georgia; and is very common as far South as Paraguay;
and also at Buenos Ayres. In January, strings of them are seen for
sale in theimarkets of Charles Town, for the use of the table : frequently accompanying the Red-winged Orioles, but oftener seen
among cattle, feeding on seeds, worms, and such like, picked out
of the excrements, hence called Cowpen Blackbirds.—M. d'Azara
says, they build in the holes of trees, walls, rocks, and under the
eaves of houses: the nest made with Sticks and straw, lined with
feathers, and other soft materials.
A Sturnus Junceti, Ind. Om. i. 326.    Rai
 obscurus, Gm. Lin. i. 804.
 nova; Hispaniae, Bris. ii. 448.
Icterus Emberizoides, Daud. ii, 350.
Oriolus fuscus, Gm. Lin. i. 393.
Brown-headed Stare, Gen. Syn. Hi. p. 11.
 Oriole, Arct. Zool. ii. p.-288.
168.—(Tolocatzanatl).
This has the head rusty brown ; body and wings black, glossed
with green ; tail dusky.—Ray's description is, less than a Starling,
but like it in shape, wholly black, except the head, which is brown.
Inhabits New York, and other parts of North America.
B.—Oriolus minor,
Ind. Om. i.
185.
Gm.
Li
».i.
394.
Sh
Sturnus Mexicaoug,
Ind. Om.
i. 326,
Gm
i.L
, 804
Icterus niger, Daud
'.. ii. 351.
Cotinga Mexicana,
Bris. ii. 247.   Id.
8vo.
i.
254.
Caxaxtototl, Raii 167.    Buf. i
ii. 195.
Petit Troupiale noii
; Buf.Hi. !
221.
Mexican Stare, Gen
. Syn. iii. p
.12.
Lesser black Oriole,
Gen. Syn.
ii. 446.
Arct.
Zool. ii.
144.
Length from six to seven inches.    Bill black; irides reddish;
the whole plumage fine glossy black, tinged with blue about the
 ORIOLE. 103
head.—Ray's descripttoay from Fernandez, says, the bird; is wholly
deep blue or blackish, the size of a Starling; yellow irides, and a
longish, sharp-pointed black bill. There is scarcely a doubt of this,
as well as the last, being allied to the Cowpen.
' In the collection of Lord Stanley is a bird supposed to be the
same in early plumage ; length seven inches ; general colour dusky
olive black; chin, neck, and breast, waved with grey, but not very
conspicuous.
10—CAYENNE OLIVE ORIOLE.
Oriolus olivaceus, Ind. Or
n.i. 186.
Gm. Lin. i. 394.
Icterus olivaceus, Daud. i
. 352.
Troupiale olive de Cayenne
, Bufix
i. 225.    PL enl. 606.
Cayenne Olive Oriole, Gen
.Syn.ii.
447.
BILL black; head, throat, and fore part of the neck glossy
brown, deeper on the throat, and inclining to orange on the breast;
quills dusky black, mixed with brown ; legs black.
Inhabits Cavenne.
11.—CHESTNUT ORIOLE.
Icterus castaneus, Daud. ii. 353.
Olive Oriole, Var. Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 125.
SIZE of the Olive Oriole. Bill black ; head, neck, and general
colour of the plumage fine velvet black ; throat, breast, belly, back,
rump, and vent fine glossy chestnut; belly and thighs dusky; wings
and tail Mack; greater wing coverts tipped with white, fbuming a
transverse band of that colour; legs black.
The female is less deep in colour, inclining to brown-above, and.
teiaaifous beneath; vent grey.
]»
 ■pp*
I
iiliii
104 ORIOLE.
M. Daudin received the above from Cayenne, with the Olive
Oriole, to which he seems to think it allied, if not the same in
any change of plumage. It is said to make a plain, round, hemispherical nest, of dried roots and fibres, and that many nests are
commonly found on the same tree.
12.—CARTHAGENA ORIOLE.
Oriolus Carthagenensis, Ind. Om. Sup. xxviii.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 445.
Coracias Cartagenensis, Scop. Ann. i. 40.
Carthagena Oriole,  Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 126.
SIZE of a common Oriole. Bill and head black ; throat white;
back varied rufous and brown; breast, belly, and rump yellow ;
wings and tail rufous, spotted with black ; from the base of the
upper mandible to the nape, on each side, a white streak.
This was brought from Carthagena, in South America, by CI.
Jacquin, and placed in the Menagerie of the Emperor of Germany,
at Vienna; it was an unquiet, and clamorous bird.
Le Troupia
13—RED-HEADED ORIOLE.
, Voy. d'Azi
LENGTH eight inches and a quarter, extent twelve. Bill one
inch, strong, strait, flattened at the base, but having the point as in
other Orioles; tongue short, forked; head, and almost the whole
neck before, a flaming red, so bright and glowing, that one might
suppose those parts composed of glass instead of feathers; yet they
are rough to the touch ; thighs bright orange ; the rest of the bird
black, of which colour are also the bill,  mouth, legs, irides, and
 ORIOLE. 103
edges of the eyelids; tail cuneiform, the outer feather half an iaich
shorter than the others; legs covered with scales.
Inhabits Paraguay, and from thence extends to the River Plata.
14.—MEXICAN ORIOLE.
Oriolus Novae Hispaniae, Ind. Orn. i. 176.     Gm. Lin. i. 385.     Daud. ii. 341.    Shaw's
Zool. vii. 419.
Icterus Mexicanus, Bris. ii. 88.    Id. 8vo. i. 179.
Acholchichi, Sebai. 90. t. 55. f.4,    Buf.iii. 206.
Mexican Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 425.
SIZE of a Blackbird. Bill yellowish; head, neck, throat, quills,
and tail black; neck, back, rump, breast, belly, sides, thighs, upper
and under tail coverts, fine yellow; lesser wing coverts black, the
greater tipped with yellow.
Inhabits Mexico.
A.—Oriolus Costototl, Ind. Orn.i. 177.     Gm. Lin.i. 385.     Daud. ii. 341.     Shaw's
Zool. vii. 440.    Zool. Misc. tab. 2?
Xochitototl, Raii, 167.    Costototl, Id. 90. young bird.
Icterus Novae Hispaniae, Bris. ii. 95.    Id. 8vo. i. 182.
Xochitol et Costotol, Bvf iii. 210.
New Spain Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 407.
Size of a Starling. Head, throat, neck, back, rump, and upper
tail coverts black; breast, belly, sides, and under tail coverts saffron-
colour, mixed with black; thighs black; wings cinereous, beneath
mixed with black and white ; tail saffron-colour, varied with black.
Inhabits Mexico. The young birds are said to be yellow, except
the tips of the wings, which are black. It is probable that the two
last described form but one Species, of which the latter is the female,
if not an imperfect male.
YOL. III. P
 1
BBM^^^ ^aK^^aasssms^H
I
111
1Pi
1M
15.—RING-TAIL ORIOLE.
Oriolus annulatus, hid. Om. i. 177.    Gm. Lin. i. 385.    Daud. ii. 342.     Shaw's Zool.
vii. 418.
Icterus cauda annulata, Bris. ii. 89.   Id. 8vo. i. 179.
Comix flava, Klein. Av. 59.
Avis Ocotzinitzcan, Seb. Mus. i. 97. t. 61. f. 3.
Arc en queue, Buf. iii. 207.
Ring-tailed Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 425.
SIZE of a Pigeon. Bill yellow, a trifle bent at the point; head
throat, and neck, black; the rest of the body yellow, shaded with
a deeper colour on the upper and lower tail, and lesser wing coverts;
the greater and quills blackish, edged with pale yellow; tail yellow,
each feather marked with a broad, transverse, blackish band, appearing, when the tail is spread, as a crescent, with the concave part
towards the body; legs grey.
Inhabits America, where, according to Seba, it is accounted a bird
of prey; how far it is an Oriole or not, must solely depend on his
authority.
16— BRASILIAN ORIOLE.
, hid. Om. i. 177.    Gm. Lin. i. 385.    Daud. ii. 343.    Shaw's Zool.
Oriolus Brasili
vii. 448.
Icterus Brasiliensis, Bris.ii. 93.    Id. 8vo. i. 181.
Muscicapa e fusco et luteo varia, Sloan. 309.    Raii Syii, 186. 35.
Brasilian Oriole, Gen. Syn. i. 426.
LENGTH four inches, breadth seven. Bill half an inch long,
and black ; head and back light brown, spotted with black ; tail one
inch and a half long, brown ; wings the same, with the ends whitish;
about the eyes, the throat, sides of the neck, and tail coverts yellow;
breast the same, spotted with brown ; belly white ; legs ba*own, toes
yellow.
 ORIOLE. 107
Inhabits Jamaica : common about the town of St. Jago, jam'ong
bushes.—In Brisson, the size is said to be equal to a Starling, and if
so, it must measure more than four inches. This ispeaies, therefore,
wants further elucidation.
17—JAPACANI ORIOLE.
Oriolus Japacani,   Ind. Orn. i. 177.     Gm. Lin. i. 385.     Daud. ii. 343.     Shaw's Zool.
vii. 440.
Japacani, Raii Syn. p. 84. 12.    Will. 173.    Id. Engl. 240,    Buf. iii. 208.
Japacani Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 426.
SIZE of a Starling ; length eight inches. Bill long, pointed, a
little curved, and black; irides gold-colour; head blackish; hind
part of the neck, back, wings, and rump varied with black and
brown; tail blackish above, spotted with white beneath; bi'east,
belly, and thighs mixed white and yellow, with transverse black
lines ; legs dusky.
These two species are made but one by Brisson, but they surely
cannot be the same, the latter being twice the size of the other.—
The description of the Japacani is from Margrave, as well as the
size, not attending to the dimensions of Sloane's bird ; though they
are some what alike in colour to each other.
18.—GREY ORIOLE.
Oriolus cinereus, Ind. Om. i. 178.     Gm. Lin. i. 386,     Daud. ii. 344.     Shaw's Zool.
vii. 439.
Icterus cinereus, Bris. ii. 96.   Id. 8vo. i. 181.
Ococolin, Tococolin, Raii Syn. 163.    Buf. iii. 213.
Grey Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 427.
SIZE of a Starling; the body variegated with black and yellow.
but the back, thighs, and belly, are ash-coloured.
P 2
v
 Ill
1
108 ORIOLE.
Inhabits New-Spain, in the forests, where it makes the nest, and
brings up its young : is said not to sing : the flesh is savoury. The
three last seem to merit further enquiry.
19—RED-WINGED ORIOLE.
Oriolus phceniceus, Ind. Om.i. 178.     Lin. Syst.i. 161.     Gm. Lin. i. 386.   Daud. ii.
344.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 421.   Nat. Misc. pl. 341.
Icterus pterophceniceus, Bris. ii. 97.    Id. 8vo. i. 182.    Will. 302.
Sturnus niger alis rubentibus, Klein. Av. 64.
Sturnus praedatorius, Red-winged Starling, Amer. Ornith. pl. 30. f. 12.
Le Commandeur, Troupiale a ailes rouges, Buf. iii. 214.    PL enl. 402.
Acolchichi, Raii Syn. 166.    Will. Engl. 291.
Red-winged Starling,   Catesb. i. t. 13.     Gent. Mag.   V. 22.  t. p. 316.     Alb. i. t. 38.
Du Pratz. ii. 91.    Kalm. Trav. t. p. 291.    Bartr. Trav. p. 289.
Red-winged Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 428.   Arct. Zool. ii. 140.
SIZE of a Starling; length nine inches. Bill black; irides
white; the whole bird deep black and somewhat glossy, except the
shoulders of the wings, which are of a fine dull red ; the legs are
black.
The female is seven inches and three-quarters long, and twelve
inches and three-quarters broad; the general colour brown, with
every feather having a very pale anargin ; beneath lighter, marked
with irregular, dusky spots of brown; the sides of the head brownish,
margined all round with very pale rufous, or nearly white, especially
over the eye, where it appears as a white streak ; chin pale rufous
orange.
The young bird of the first summer is like the female, but more
buff-coloured about the throat and breast; and the margins of the
wing feathers broader, and brighter coloured than in the female ; the
shoulders of the wings obscurely marked with tawny red.
Inhabits various parts of America, from Mexico to New. York :
frequents watery places, and builds in low bushes, in  the islands
 ORIOLE. 109"
within the ponds, the beginning of May; makes a strong and deep nest,
formed outwardly with sticks, and dried stalks, lined with hay; lays
five pale black eggs, spotted with dark brown.* Catesby says, they
attach the nest to the reeds ; but if so, they must have two modes of
building; on all hands it is allowed to be a very destructive species,
for they come often in such vast flocks, that at one draw of the net
300 or more have been taken. These nets are spread in a bare path,
at the side of a wood, and the place being strewed with rice, &c. it
often happens that so many are taken, as to be obliged to kill most of
them, in order to secure so vast a number. They are called by many
Maize-thieves, froan destroying that grain ; and first attack it while
green, pecking a hole in the side, by which the rain gets in, and spoils
the ear; but some suppose the bird to do this in search of insects,
which would ultimately destroy such ears.
These birds are sometimes kept in cages, and have a pretty kind
of note ; it is said also that they will imitate the human voice, but I
suspect this to be a rare instance; nor does it appear that the flesh is
well relished.f
The Red-winged Orioles enter Pennsylvania about the 20th of
March, and separate into pairs in three weeks after; the nest is
found the last week in April, commonly made of rushes and tough
grass, lined with bents, and secured to the adjoining twigs, though
sometimes placed on the ground, or very near it; the young fly the
middle of August, and often in flocks, at which time they resemble
females. The brown continues to skirt the black feathers for a year
or two, so that it is rare to find an old male entirely black, but the
red is generally complete the following spring. $
One of these birds, completely white, was shot in the winter, in
a plantation belonging to Mr. Read, about ten miles from Savannah.
* Am. Ornith. says, faint tinges of light purple and long straggling lines and dashes of black.
f Mr. Abbot. t Amer. Omith.—Mr. Abbot sent to England a bird, having all
theblack feathers margined with fine rufous, which had the appearance of a young male—
but it was larger than any full-grown bird, and he esteemed it a distinct Species, by the
name of Streaked Oriole.
V
 I
20.—WHITE-HEADED ORIOLE.
OiiakiSTlencocepnalus^iimd.Om.i. 175.    Shaw's ZooL vii. 44.
 Xudswianus, -Gm. Lin. i. 387.
Cassicus leucocephalus, Daud. ii. 328.
Cassique de la Louisiane, Buf. iii. 242.   PL enl. 646.
fftWhttfc&eaded. Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 422.    Arct. ZooL ii. 147.
LENGTH tenuiiches. Bill black, one inch long; head, neck,
belly, and rump, white; quills and tail changeable violet, bordered
with white; the rest of the plumage white and black mixed ; tail
somewhat cuneiform/i and the wings, when closed, reach to about
the middle of it; legs lead-colour.
Inhabits Louisiana, and other parts of North America.
A.—White-headed Oriole, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 88.
Length nine inches and a half; breadth thirteen and a half;
weight one ounce and three quarters. The head white, except a
black spot on the crown; neck and breast glossy black, spotted with
white; lesser wing coverts the same, but more faint; bastard wing
white and black; outer quills white ; the rest of the bird brownish
black ; legs pale flesh-colour.
This was brought to Mr. Hutchiaas, while at Hudson's Bay, by
the name of Wawpawchou Chuckithou, in July 1781. Said to
associate with other Blackbirds, but not common.
B.—Oriolus Hudsonicus, Gm. Lin. i
Hudsonian White-headed Oriole, Ar
no's Zool. I
No. 148.
Gen. Syn. Sup. 88.  I
This is about one inch and a half shorter.    Head and throat
white; ridge-of-thawing, first primary, and thighs the same, and a
 ORIOLE. Ill
few oblong streaks of white on the breast; the rest of the bird dusky,
glossed in parts with^gBeen.-.
Found at Hudson's Bay, with the former, and there can be little
doubt of"ftoth''being Varieties of the White-headed Oriole.
21.—PARA ORIOLE.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill near one inch and a quarter, sharps
and black; from the nostrils a large, bare, dark-coloured space
surrounds the eye, and continues behind, for some distance; another
of the same on each side of the throat, on the sides of the under jaw;
head, neck, and beneath fine golden yellow; lesser wing coverts,
aaad under the wing the same; the rest of the wing, back, and tail,
fine glossy deep black ; tail rounded in shape, five inches and a half
long, the wings, when closed, reach to about the middle of it; the
thigh feathers cover the joint before; legs black; claws hooked.
A second was one inch shorter. Bill one inch ; round the eye,
and on the jaw bare, but the under part of the bill, and the bare
parts are pale; the head, neck, wing coverts, and all beneath as in
the other, but the colours less deep; it differs, too, in having the
back of the head, from the middle of the crown to the nape, black ;
the plumage, which is black in the other, inclines to brown- and
the margins of the feathers dull yellow brown ; legs pale.
These birds are in the collection of Lord Stanley, and came from
Para, in South America; they seean much allied to the Black-
crowned or following Species, if not the same; but the bare cheeks
are not mentioned in the description of that bird, nor is any such
character observable in the Pl. enluminees.
 22—BLACK-CROWNED ORIOLE.
Oriolus
vii. 419.
Icterus Mexicanus;
Icterus fuscus Nov
Troupiale jaune a <
Black-crowned Ori
Ind. On
. 179.
. Lin. i. 388.     Shai
Daud. ii. 347.
e Hispanise, Bris. ii. 105.    Id. Svo. i. 183.—female,
alotte noire, Buf. iii. 222.    PL enl. 5331—male.
Je, Gen. Syn. ii. 431.
LENGTH eight inches and three-quarters. Bill yellowish ;
head, throat, neck, breast, belly, sides, under tail coverts, lesser wing
coverts, and beneath them yellow; crown, back, rump, and upper
tail coverts black brown ; greater wing coverts the same, edged with
yellowish grey ; quills and tail black ; legs yellowish.
The female has the bill and legs pale : crown and under parts of
the body dusky brown ; quills and tail dusky.
Inhabits Mexico and Guiana.
23.—OLIVE ORIOLE.
Oriolus Capensis, Ind. OmA. 184.    Gm. Lin. i. 392.    Shaw's ZooL vii. 447.
Icterus flavus, Daud. ii. 338.
Xanthornus Cap. B. Spei, Bris. ii. 128.   Id. 8vo. i. 191.
Carouge du Cap de B. Esperance, Pl. enl. 607.2.
 olive de Cayenne, Buf. iii. 251.
Olive Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 444.    Arct. ZooL ii. No. 149.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill brown ; plumage in general olive
brown above, and yellow beneath; crown greyish ; throat, and neck
before, inclining to orange; edge of the wing yellow; coverts; brown,
margined and tipped with olive green ; quills and tail brown, edged
with olive; legs brown.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope ; varies in having the forehead,
cheeks, and under parts yellow; the upper brown; wings and tail
darker, edged with yellow.
Ul
 ORIOLE, 113
Buffon received one from Louisiana, which differed only in having
the throat black, instead of orange, and the general colour inclining
to olive, but he is doubtful if the same, being of opinion that no
true Oriole is to be found on the Old Continent.
24—BLUE ORIOLE.
Oriolus cceruleus, Ind. Om. i. 185.    Gm. Lin. i. 393.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 447.
Icterus cceruleus, Daud. ii. 339.
Xanthornus cceruleus, Bris. ii. 125.    Id. 8vo. i. 190.    Pall. Spic. vi. p. 3. a.
Pica Maderaspatana minima, Raii 195. t.l. f. 11.
Blue Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 444.
BILL rufous; plumage in general black or ash-coloured, except
the head, wings, and tail, which are blue.
Inhabits Madras; called by the Gentoos, Peach-Caye. Dr.
Pallas is of opinion, that it is certainly an Oriole, though the
smallest of its race.*
M. Fermint mentions one not unlike, at Surinam. Bill black;
head and upper parts blue, as far as the back; wings and tail black,
on the former a long white spot; X rest of the body sky blue. He
adds, that it suspends the nest from the branches of trees.
25 —CRIMSON-BILLED ORIOLE.
LENGTH six inches. Bill three-quarters of an inch, stout at
the base, sharp at the point, and crimson; plumage fine blue, but
the front, chin, and bend of the wing approach to white ; through
the eye, from the nostrils, a broad black streak, inclosing the eye,
and ending at the nape in a point; quills brown; tail pale ash-
colour, a trifle rounded at the end ; legs red.
* Contra Xanthornus verus est, quamvis in suo Genere minutissimus, et solo cyaneus,
vigesimus octavus Brissonii:
t Descr. Surin. ii. 171. J Can this Author mean the White-winged Oriole ?
vol. iii. Q
 ^jH^
&Mt&««SS«0»^
114 ORIOLE.
A drawing of this is in fthe collection of Sir John Anstruther, said
to inhabit the Eastern Islands in India; probably it may not very
widely differ from the blue, or last described.
26.—ICTERIC ORIOLE.
11}
Or
ioIus Icterus
In
d.Om.
i. 176.
Lin
1 i. 161.
Gm. J
Id. 8vo. i.
78.
Shaw
* Zool.
420.
Icterus vulgaris
Daud. ii.
340.
Me
rula ex nigrc
-vir
ulcscente, &c.
Ger
n. 3. t.
306.
Co
racias Xanth
s, Scop
. Ann. i
Nc
.42.
Pica luteo-nigra
in, Sloe
n.Jam
301
. t. 259.
Raii
81. 1
Tu
rdus oculis c
ceru
leis, Klein. 69.
20.
Id. 70
33.
Gi
ira-tangeima
Rait 45.
Will. 97. t
43.    Id. Eng
.141
Tr
pupiale, Buf
iii.
203. t.
16.    PL en
I. 532.
Yellow and blac
kl
ye, Ca
es. Car
. App. t. 5.
Bo
nana Bird, Alb.
i. pl. 40.    Brt
wn.
Jam. p.
447.
Icteric Oriole, Gen
Syn.ii
424.
i. 86. t. 8. f. 1.
10.    Klein. Av. 63. 10.
SIZE of a Blackbird ; length nine inches and half. Bill hoary,
or black, with a brown base ; skin round the eye naked, and bluish ;
irides yellow; head, and neck before to the breast, middle of the
back, great part of the wings, and the tail black; shoulders, and the
rest of the bird golden yellow ; on the wing coverts an oblique bar
of white, and a patch of the same on the quills; legs as the bill.
In some birds the yellow is much deeper than in others, so as to
be completely orange-colour.
Inhabits Carolina, also Brazil, and all the Caribbee Islands: feeds
on insects; hops like a Magpie, but in its actions very like the
Starling; is ferocious, and will attack birds much larger than itself,
for which purpose four or five will unite. In some places kept in
houses tame, as it kills insects of all kinds, making them its food;
will often tear up the cases of moths, which are spun up, for the sake
of the pupa?. The nest is curious, as in many of this Genus, made
in the form of a cylinder, and suspended from the end of the outmost
 ORIOLE. 115
branch of a tree, not unfrequently near habitations, and by this
precaution it is safe froan the plunder of other animals. One kept
tame at Lady Emily Macleod's, fed on any vegetable diet; was fond
of the kernels of apples, and opened nuts given to it, without difficulty,
for the sake of the contents.
27.—BALTIMORE ORIOLE.
Oriolus Baltimore,   Ind. Om. i. 180.     Lin. i. 162,     Gm: Lin. i. 389.     Borowsck. ii.
115. t. 11.    Spalowsk. Vog. t. 4.    Skaw's ZooL vii. 425.
Icterus Baltimore, Daud. ii. 348.
 minor, Bris. ii. 109. 1.12. f. 1.    Id. 8vo. i. 186.   Klein. Av. p. 68.
Le Baltimore, Buf. iii. 231.    PL enl. 506. 1.
Baltimore Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 432.    Arct. Zool. ii. 142. pl. 12.     Car. Car. i: pl. 48.
Rarfr. Tr. p. 288.     Gent. Mag. xxiii. pl. p. 180;     Amer. Om. i. pl. 1. f. 3.—male.
Id. pl. 53. f. 4.—female.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill lead-colour; head, neck, and upper
parts of the body black ; the rest of the body orange; also the bend
of the wing and the lesser coverts; rest of the wing dirty brown ;
greater coverts and quills black, the first tipped with white, making
a bar on the wing; the last margined with white; the two middle
tail feathers black, in shape somewhat forked, yet the outer feather
is a quarter of an inch shorter than the others, so as to appear doubly
rounded ; the four outer feathers are orange from the middle to the
tips, the next just tipped with the same; legs black.
The female has the head and back olive, edged with pale brown;
wing covea*ts the same, with a bar of white; under parts, and tail
coverts yellow; tail dusky, edged with yellow.
Inhabits various parts of North America, often in flocks;
migrating as far as Montreal to the North, and to Brazil on the
South; most common in Virginia,    The nest loosely constructed, of
Q 2
W
 TW*
li!
116 ORIOLE.
some downy matter in threads, formed not unlike a purse, fastened
to the extreme forks of the tulip, plane, or hiccory tree; there are
four white eggs, marked with rufous spots; called by the common
people Fire Birds, and justly, as they appear in their quick movements
from tree to tree, like a flash of fire. It is generally three years
before the plumage is complete; sometimes the whole tail of the
male, in the spring, is yellow; at others the two middle feathers are
black, and frequently the back skirted with orange, and the tail
tipped with the same; feeds chiefly on caterpillars, beetles, &c.; has
a clear mellow whistle, but it can scarcely be termed a song.
-Oriolus spurius,-Ind. Om.i. 180.     L
Trav. 288.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 426.
Icterus minor spurius, Bris. ii. 111. t. 10. f.3.    Id. 8vc
Turdus minor gutture nigro, Klein. Av. 68. 14.
Le Baltimore bastard, Buf. iii. 233.    Pl. enl. 506. 2.
Bastard Baltimore, Gen. Syn. ii. 433.   Arct. Zool. ii.
Syst. i. 162.     Gm.Lin. i. 389.     Bart
143.    Gates. Car. i. pl. 49.
This is a trifle less than the other. Forehead and cheeks black,
mixed with yellow; hindhead and nape olive grey, with a few spots
of black; upper part of the back the same, but more dull; lower
part of the back, rump, fore part of the neck, to the vent, and
under the wings, orange; wing coverts and quills deep brown, the
greater tipped with dirty yellowish white; the two middle tail feathers
are olive, then blackish, with a longitudinal yellowish spot at the
end ; the next on each side olive and black, irregularly mixed; the
four outer ones yellowish olive; legs bluish.
This is, we believe, on all hands now acknowledged, as the
female Baltimore, or, at least, the male, in imperfect plumage, in
which state they differ greatly. We have seen several Varieties; in
one, the parts above were olive brown; on the wings two bars of
white, from the tips of the coverts; quills with pale edges; and the
tail dusky; the under parts of the body olive yellow.    Another was
 ORIOLE. 117
not unlike this, but the chin brown, and not black ; not far different
from the Olive Oriole. Mr. Abbot thinks it distinct, under the name
of Black-Throat. He says, the female differs in being paler, but is
not a common bird in Georgia.
28— WEEVER ORIOLE.
Oriolus Textor, Ind. Om. i. p. 180.    Gm. Lin. i. 392.    Shaw's ZooL vii. 429.
Icterus Textor, Daud. ii. 349.
Cap More, Buf iii. 226.
Troupiale du Senegal, PL enl. 375. male. 376. female ?
Tisserin, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. lxx:
Weever Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 435.
SIZE of the Golden Oriole, but the wings shorter in proportion;
length seven inches and a half. Bill horn-colour; irides orange;
head browaa, appearing gilded in the sun; the rest of the body orange
yellow; quills and tail dusky, edged with orange; legs flesh-colour.
One, supposed to be the female, had the head, chin, sides, and
fore part, to the breast, yellow; belly and thighs nearly white; hind
part of the neck, and back brown; wings, tail, and legs as in
the former.
These were brought from Senegal, and supposed to be of opposite
sexes, but after being kept for two years, the one thought to be a
female gained the brown head; and in both birds the head lost its
dark colour, and became yellow every autumn, regaining it in the
spring; one of them, kept in a cage, had a sharp but lively note,
and, having by chance got a bit of sewing silk, wove it among the
wires, which being observed, more was put into the cage, when the
bird interlaced the whole, but very confusedly, so as to hinder the
greater part of one side of the cage from being seen through; it was
found to prefer green and yellow to any other colour. M. Buffon
observed a similar occurrence in some in his possession, for having
 F H^fpr^r
W^-^^^^^^^^^^^^mmmOkvmsmmsm
118 ORIOLE.
first entwined some stalks of pimpernel iai the wires, some rush
stalks were put into the cage, when they soon formed a nest large
enough to hide one of them, but was often deranged from day to
day, as if the fabrication of the nest in a state of nature was the
work of both sexes, and if so, in all probability finished by the
female.
29—BONANA ORIOLE.
Oriolus Bonana, Ind. Om. i. 181.     Lin. Syst: i. 162.    Gm. Lin. i. 390.    Bor. Nat. ii.
117.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 431.
Icterus Bonana, Daud. ii. 332.    Gabin. de Madrid, p. 17. lam. 8.
Xanthornus, Bris. ii. 115. 1.12. f.2.   Id. 8vo. i. 187.
Icterus minor nidum suspendens, Shane's Jam. 299. t. 257. 1.     Id. 300. 17. t. 258. 3.
Raii Syn. 184. 27.   Id. 167. 12. Xochitototl.
Turdus minor varius, Klein. Av. 68. 13.
Le Carouge, Buf. iii. 243.    Pl. enl. 535. 1.
Bonana Bird, Gen. Syn. ii. 436.    Brown. Jam. 477.
LENGTH seven inches, breadth eleven. Bill black, base of
the under jaw grey; head, neck, and breast chestnut; upper parts
of the back velvet black; the lower, lesser wing coverts, rump,
belly, thighs, and under the wings deep orange red; greater wing
coverts, quills, and tail black; legs grey. The female differs in
being less bright.
Inhabits Martinico, Jamaica, and other West India Islands. It
makes a nest of a curious construction, from fibres and leaves, in
shape of the fourth part of a globe, sewed, with great art, to the
under part of a Bonana leaf, so that the leaf makes one dde of
the nest.
 119
30.—HANG-NEST ORIOLE.
Oriolus nidipendulus, Ind. Orn. i. 181.     Gm. Lin. i. 390. Daud. ii. 233.     Shaw's
ZooL vii. 430.
Icterus minor, &c. &c- Sloan. Jam. 300. pl. 258. 3.    Raii Syn. 184.
Hang-nest Oriole, Gen- Syn. ii. 437.
THE bill, according to Sloane, is white, surrounded by a black
line; crown of the head, neck, back, and tail, reddish brown; the
wings deeper, intermixed with white, and a black line on the middle
of the neck; the sides of the breast, neck, and belly are of a feuillemot
colour.
He aneaations a variety with the back more yellow; breast and
belly light yellow, and the bill black. And adds, that this bird is
common in the woods, and sings not unpleasantly; anakes its nest of
stalks, or inward hairs of Oldman's Beard, which is like horse hair, on
high trees; such nests are often seen on the extreme twigs of the
tallest, when the Reaves are falleai off which Jaide them; known by
the names of Watchy-Picket, Spanish Nightingale, and American
Hang-nest. It seems to bear some affinity to the Bonana, in respect
to the nidification, but differing in the mateaials with which the nest
is composed.
31.—CHESTNUT AND BLACK ORIOLE.
Oriolus castaneus, Ind. Orn. i. 181.    Gm. Lin. i. 390.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 427.
Icterus varius, Daud. ii. 334;
Le Carouge de Cayenne, PL enl. 607. 1.
Oriolus mutatus, Orchard Oriole, Amer. Om. i. pl. iv.
Bastard Baltimore, Cates. Car. pl. 49. lower figure.
Chestnut and black Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 437.   Id. Sup. ii. 124.
LENGTH six inches.    Bill blue black; head, neck, breast, and
to the middle of the back black; the lower part of the back, the
Jf
 f^pp
II
120 ORIOLE.
rump, and all beneath from the breast, dull ferruginous; the lesser
wing coverts the same, but the greater, the quills, and tail are black;
the second quills fringed on the outer edges with dusky white; tail
much rounded, the two middle feathers two inches and three quarters,
and the outer two inches and a quarter in length; two or three of the
outer fringed at the tip with a very pale-colour; t|ie wings reach ,
one-third on the tail; legs as the bill.
The female is pale greenish brown above, and full yellow
beneath; crown dusky yellow; wing feathers with very pale, nearly
white, margins.
A young cock, of the second summer, is like the female, but the
yellow more dusky; the chin, fore part of the neck, and throat
black, which is seen at the base of the upper mandible, between
that and the eye.
A cock of the third summer is olive yellow, tending to brown
above, yellow beneath; some black markings at the beginning of
the back, above each shoulder; wings dusky black, the feathers
having pale edges; all beneath yellow; chin, throat, and neck black,
as far as the ears, and even with the eye on the forehead : base of the
tail mixed with black; on the breast a few markings of ferruginous
orange; the upper part of the tail plain olive.
We are indebted for these observations to Mr. Abbot, who further
informs us, that these birds frequent the sides of ponds in the spring,
and first part of summer, sitting on the top sprigs of the saplings, or
branches of the large pines, to warble out their notes ; as soon as the
young are able to follow the parents, they all leave Georgia. The
female begins to build the beginning of May, making the nest in the
fork of a sweet gum tree,* curiously woven with the small stalks of
a plant, like green hay, lined with wool, and lays five eggs, of a
pale or whitish blue, marked or streaked round the larger end with
dark brown. Young cocks have the manners of the old ones, singing
* Amyris balsamifcri
 ORIOLE. 121
as strong, and are in general more shy; the colours in different birds
also vary much, having more or less chestnut and black spots, and
in the distribution of colours.
One sent by Mr. Abbot, had the upper parts like a female, but
more inclined to green ; beneath like that sex, but the yellow rather
deeper; chin and throat black ; and from the nostrils to the eyes, the
black margined beneath with a ferruginous tinge. This was probably
a cock of the first summer, as, according to Mr. Abbot, they do not
acquire the full plumage for three or four years.
We Taave much the same account in the Amer, Ornithology, in
which Mr. Wilson observes, that they generally make the nest of a
hemispherical shape, and suspend it from the twigs of an apple tree,
usually in orchards; and that it is composed of a loose, tough,
flexible grass, well knit and sewed together, lined with wool, and
light down of the seeds of the Button-wood ; * and that the hen sits
fourteen days. We learn, too, that the chief food is insects; and
the young birds are easily raised from the nest, being now and then
kept for the sake of the song.
32— LESSER BONANA ORIOLE.
Oriolus Xanthomas, Ind. Om. i. 181. Lin. Syst. i. 162,    Gm. Lin.i. 391.  Nat. Misc.
pl. 243;   Shaw's ZooL vii. 432.
Xanthornus Mexicanus, Bris. ii. 118. 1.11. 2.   Id. 8vo. i. 183.
Icterus Xanthornus, Daud. ii. 334.
Ayoquantototl, Raii Syn. 171.   Seb. ii. 102. t. 96. 4.   Klein. Av. 54. 7.
Petit Cul jaune de Cayenne, Buf. iii., 247.    PL enl. 5. f. 1.
Lesser Bonana Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 438.   Id; Sup. ii. 125.    Edw. pl. 243.
LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill blackish; face, throat,
quills, and tail black; the rest of the bird bright yellow ; wing
coverts black, chiefly edged with white, as are the quills within,
towards the base; legs black.
* Platanus occidentalis, Lin.
 111 m
122 ORIOLE.
Inhabits Jamaica, Mexico, &c. in some from the former place,
the greater wing coverts were wholly white, and the yellow parts
inclining to olive.
Edwards's bird is bigger than that of Brisson : in the latter the
lore and chin only are black; but in the former the chin and throat
also, and the coverts have a large portion of white; the yellow parts
in Brisson's are full and bright, but in that of Edwards of a greenish
yellow.
33— LEAST BONANA ORIOLE.
LENGTH five inches and three quarters. Bill black ; through
the eyes black; chin and throat the same; head, breast, and under
parts fine yellow; deeper and more inclined to orange on the two
former; back, wings, and tail fine olive or yellow green; quills dusky,
edged with the same ; tail rounded, plain ; legs brown.
A second of these had the wing coverts deeply margined with
yellow; the rump fine yellow, as well as the under parts of the body;
legs brownish flesh-colour.—The chin in this bird is black, and cheeks
aander the eye, but not the throat; and being rather smaller, seems
to prove it to differ in sex, or to be a young bird.
Ori
sDoi
-SAINT DOMINGO ORIOLE.
, Ind. Om. i. 182.     Lin. Syst. i. 16a    Gm. Lin. 391.
ZooL vii. 448.
Icterus Dominicensis, Daud. ii. 3»
Xanthornus Dominicensis,, Bris. i
Le Guirahuro, Voy. d'Azara, iii. I
Carouge de St. Domingue, Bris. i
Saint Domingo Oriole, Gen. Syn. i
. 12. f. 3.   Id. 8vc
LENGTH eight inches, breadth twelve inches and a half. Bill
and legs black; general colour of the plumage black, except some
of the lesser wing coverts, and lower part of the belly and vent, which
are yellow.
 ORIOLE. 123
Inhabits Mexico, Jamaica, and St. Domingo, where it is called
Demoiselle ; and at Jamaica, Lesser Bonana Bird; but whether any
way allied to the last but one described,- is uncertain, for it is known
by the same name.* The note is said to be like that of a Golden
Oriole, with the sharpness of that of.a Magpie ; and that these birds
suspend their nests, which are in the form of purses, at the extreme
twigs of large trees, especially when hanging over the river; it is also
asserted, that in the nest are small partitions, in each of which is a
separate nest; these are very artful birds, aaid difficult to be taken.
Le Guirahuro, of Azara, does not quite answer to our bird. He
says, the bill is black, irides chestnut; head, and fore part of the
neck dusky; behind, and upper part of the back, quills, and upper
wing coverts deep brown, lightly tinged with yellow, the same in
respect to the upper tail coverts, which have, besides, a yellow margin;
the rest of the plumage yellow.—If this be really the St. Domingo
Species, it may not be in full plumage. It is very common in
Paraguay, in the neighbourhood of water, especially on the River
Plata, but not further South ; in small troops, but very shy ; male
aaid female much alike. Said to form a suspended nest, hanging it
between the thick reeds, more than a foot from the ground; in one
were three white eggs, spotted with rufous.
35.—JAMACAII ORIOLE.
Oriolus Jamacaii, Ind. Orn. i. 182.    Gm. Lin. i. 391.  Raii Syn. 75. 4.   Will. 173. t. 42.
Id. Engl. 237. pl. 42.   Salem. Om. 221. 1.10. 5.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 438.
Xanthornus Bxasiliensis, Bris. ii. 120.    Id: 8vo. i. 89;
Jamachai, ou Pic du Bresil. Robert. Ic. pl. 4. f
Carouge du Bresil, Buf. iii. 249.
Brasilian Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 439.
LENGTH nine inches and three quarters.    Bill black, base blue;
head, and fore part of the neck black, the rest of the body yellow;
* Supposed by Buffon to be male
ird has a black collar round the neck.
md female—Hist. Ois
 rsjHP
124 ORIOLE.
between the wings a black mark ; wing coverts black, with a white
spot in the middle; quills and tail black.
Inhabits Brazil; makes a nest of rushes, lined with hair, and
fastens it to a great leaf of a Bonaaia, by means of long threads,
passing through the leaf, from the ribs to the edges alternately, and
resembling a pouch.
36.—YELLOW-WINGED ORIOLE.
Oriolus Cayanensis, Ind. Om. i. 182.   Lin. i. 168.    Gm. Lin. i. 391.
vii. 433.
Icterus Cayanensis, Daud. ii. 336.
Xanthornus Cayanensis, Bris. ii. 123. t. 9. f. 2.    Id. Svo.i. 190.
Troupiale noir a couvertures des ailes jaunes, Voy. d'Azara, iii; No. 61
Carouge de St. Thomas, Buf. iii. 248.    Pl. enl. 535. f. 2.
Yellow-winged Pye, Edw. 222.
 Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 440.
SIZE of a Lark; length eight inches and a quarter, breadth
thirteen. The bill, legs, and the whole of the plumage black,
except a spot of fine yellow on the wing coverts; tail rounded at
the end.
This is in plenty about Paraguay, towards the 28th degree of
latitude; less frequent at Buenos Ayres; inhabits the Island of St.
Thomas; found at Cayenne, St Domingo, and Porto Rico.
Male and female much alike when adult, but do not gain the
full plumage till the third year.
 J
 i ''"pSjf^T'^
i, fflnill.:
W^-^rt^ 0/uJv.
 125
37.—GOLD-HEADED ORIOLE.
Oriolus chrysocephalus, Ind. Orn. i. 183.    Lin. i. 164.     Gm. Lin. i. 395.    Shaw's
Zool. vii. 434.
Icterus chrysocephalus, Daud. ii. 336.
Xanthornus icteroceph. Amer. Bris. App.38. t. 2. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i; 192.
Gracula chrysoptera, Merrem Ic. Av. Fasc. i. p. 10. t. 3.
Gold-headed Oriole, Gen. Syn: ii. 442.
[ LENGTH eight inches. Bill black, a trifle bent; top of the
head, and nape yellow; forehead, sides of the head, neck, back,
rump, scapulars, breast, belly, upper part of the thighs, and sides
staining black; lower part of the thighs yellow; upper and under
tail coverts the same, but paler; lesser wing coverts beneath pale
yellow, greater ones cinereous, mixed with yellow and black; above
the lesser are fine yellow, the greater blackish; quills black, with
pale edges; tail blackish, rounded; legs lead-colour.
In the Collection of Lord Seaforth was one, in which the tail was
cuneiform, the two middle feathers four inches long, the outer two
and a half; in other things conformable to the above description.
Brought from the Island of Trinidad.
38.—WHITE-WINGED ORIOLE.—Pl. xlii.
Oriolus leucopterus, Ind. Orn. i. 183.    Gm. Lin. i. 392.    Shaw's ZooL vii.  433.
Oriolus melaleucus, Mus. Carls. Fasc. ii. t. 31.
Tangara noir, Buf. iv. 257.    PL enl. 179. 2.
Troupiale des Bois noir a tache blanche, Voy. d'Azara iii. No. 76.
Guiana Tanager, Gen. Syn. Hi. 225. the Male.
White-backed Maize-thief, Arct. Zool. ii. 141.    Kalm. It. ii. 274.
White-winged Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 440. pl. in title page.
SIZE of a Lark; length seven inches and three quarters.    Bill
and legs black ; general colour of the plumage glossy black, except
 HangHna^nss^a
126 oriole.
the inner wing coverts, on which is a patch of white; under wing
coverts white; tail three inches and a half long, even; the wings
reach rather beyond the base.
Inhabits Cayenne, and is the male of the following.
tra noir, Buf. ii. 257.
a Tanager, Gen. Syn.
Pl. enl. 711.
. 225. the female.
This is wholly rufous, inclining to ash-colour beneath; the bill
is dusky; legs yellowish.
Inhabits Guiana, as well as Cayenne, in the more open spots,
and lives on small fruits and insects; has a shrill voice, but not
what may be called a song; generally seen in pairs, and never in
flocks.
II
. Sit
39—YELLOW-HEADED ORIOLE.
Oriolus icterocephalus, Ind. Om. i. 183.    Lin. i. 163.    Gm. Liu. i. 392.    Shaw's ZooL
vii. 434.
Icterus icterocephalus, Daud. ii. 337.
Xanthornus icteroceph. Bris.ii; 124. t.12. f. 4.    Id. 8vo. i. 190.    Spalowsk. ii. t. 17.
Comix atra, capite, collo, pectoreque flavis, N. C. Petr. xi. 435. 1.15.
Coiffes jaunes, Buf. iii. 217. 10.    Pl. enl. 343.
Yellow-headed Starling, Edw. t. 323.
Yellow-headed Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 441.
LENGTH seven inches. Bill blackish; base covered with short,
black feathers; head, throat, and neck before fine yellow; the rest of
the plumage black, not glossy; the lore black; legs brown.
Inhabits Cayenne.
A.—Length ten inches. Bill glossy black; head and neck before
to the breast, fine deep yellow; lore and round the eye black; the
rest of the  plumage black,   slightly glossed; some of the   wing
 ORIOLE. 127
coverts are white, as also the bastard wing, forming an interrupted
streak; under tail coverts mixed with yellow; tail even, four inches
long; legs stout, black.
A specimen of this was in the collection of Mr. Bullock; it
measured more in length than the other, yet agreed in too many
points to form a distinct Species.
40.—SCHOMBURGER ORIOLE.
Lin. i. 392.   Shaw's ZooL
us, Ind. Orn. i. 184.   Lin. i. 163.
. 191.
Oriolus melanchol
vii. 435.
Icterus melancholicus, Daud. ii. 337.
Xanthornus naavius, Bris. ii. 126.    Id.
Fringilla ex fusco et nigro varia, Klein. Av. 98.
Schomburger Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 441.    Edw. pl. 85.
SIZE of a Lark ; length six inches. Bill flesh-colour; irides
hazel; general colour of the plumage rufous brown, beneath the
same, but paler, each feather marked with a blackish spot in the
middle, except on the crown, where it is plain; lower part of the
belly, thighs, and both tail coverts light brown; scapulars the same,
with a tinge of yellow; cheeks and throat black, narrowing on each
side of the neck, and ending in a point on the lower part of it,
just above the shoulders; quills and tail blackish, the feathers edged
with rufous; legs flesh-colour.
The female is for the most part of a dingy yellow, blended with
dirty white, giving an unpleasing uniformity.
A.—Troupiale tachete de Cayenne, Buf. iii. 123.   Pl. enl. 448.    Gen. Sgn. & 442. A.
7 ^4In this the male has the throat white; a streak of the same
through the eye, between two other black ones, parallel to it; irides
 128 ORIOLE.
reddish orange; each feather black-browai in the middle,  bordered
with orange on the wings, tail, and lower part of the body; and
with yellowish on the upper parts.
Inhabits Cayenne.
41.—FORK-TAILED ORIOLE.
Daud. ii. 354.   Shat
113. t.10. f.2.   Id.8vo,i. 187.
Oriolus furcatus, Ind. Ot
vii. 432.
Icterus cauda bifida, Bri
Sturnus cauda divisa, Klein. At
Turdus niger Mexicanus, Seba
Fork-tailed Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii
SIZE of a Blackbird. Bill yellow; plumage in general black,
inclining to blue on the back, rump, quills, and tail; lower tail
coverts white; tail long, and forked; legs black.
Inhabits Mexico.
42—WHISTLER ORIOLE.
Oriolus viridis, Ind. Om. i. 184.     Gm. Lin. i. 395.   Daud. ii. 352.   Shaw's ZooL
ii. 446.
Icterus minor viridis, Bris.ii. 113. t. 10. f.2.   Id. 8vo.i. 187.
Troupiale de St. Domingue, Siffleur, Buf. iii. 230.    Pl. enl. 236. 1.
Troupiale, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. liv.
Whistler Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 443.
LENGTH almost seven inches. Bill horn-colour; head, neck,
and upper parts of the back olive-brown ; breast the same, thaged
with rufous, forehead paler; lower part of the back, rump, belly,
sides, upper and lower tail coverts, and lesser wing coverts olive
green; thighs, olive yellow; under wing coverts, and edge of the
 ORIOLE. 129
wing yellow; greater upper wing coverts brown, edged with yellow;
tail rounded, above dull olive, edged with olive green ; beneath olive
green; legs grey.
Inhabits St. Domingo, where it is called Siffleur; its note being
a sort of whistle, and very agreeable.—Seems allied to the following.
43— RED-BREASTED ORIOLE.
Ind. On
, 178.
. Lin. i. 386.     Daud.
Oriolus Americ
Zool. vii. 428.
Merula Indica pectore cinnabarino, Raii 67.    Will. 143.    Klein. Av. 69.
Tanagramilitaris, Ind. Orn. i. 431.    Lin. i. 316.   Mus. Adolp.ii.39.    Gm. Lin. i. 895.
Borowsk. iii. 174,
Emberiza militaris, Amcen. ac. iv. 241,
Cardinalis fuscus, Bris. iii. 51.   Id. 8vo. i. 317.    Buf. iv. 303. § 7.    Klein. 96. 16.
Troupiale a Gorge ensanglantee, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 70.
Troupiale de Cayenne, Buf. iii. 218.    PL enl. 236. 2.
Troupiale, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. liv.
Greater Bulfinch, or Shirley, Edw. pl. 82 & 342.   Bancr. Guian. 180.   Osb. Voy A. 329.
Red-breasted Indian Blackbird,  Will. Engl. 194. § 7 ?
Mocking-bird of Guiana, Bancr. Guian. 177.
Military Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. 242.
Red-breasted Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 430.
LENGTH from six to seven inches. Bill dusky black; general
colour of the plumage dusky brown or black; but the chin, fore part
of the neck, and breast, are deep red; also the upper ridges of the
wings; legs brown.    This is the male.
A—Oriolus Guianensis, Ind. Orn. i. 179.     Lin. i. 162.    Gm. Lin. i. 388.    Shaw's
Zool. vii. 438.
Icterus Guianensis, Bris. ii. 107. 1.11. f. 2.    Id. 8vo. i. 185.
Troupiale de la Guiane, Buf. iii. 218.    Pl. enl. 536.
Guiana Oriole, Gen.Syn.ii. 430.
This is about seven inches long; the plumage black, each feather
margined with grey; beneath from the chin- to middle of the belly
VOL. HI. S
 w» m;\**!$*£*^
130 ORIOLE.
red ; the inner ridge of the wing is also red; tail somewhat striated
with grey; legs brown.
This is found with the former, and is probably the female, if not
the young bird, which is subject to some variety, arising from
different periods of age ; some have the breast almost white, and are
smaller, and in such the tail feathers are barred beneath with deeper
and paler brown, and dashed with brown on the belly; in others the
breast alone is red ; and in one specimen only a few red dashes on
the chin, and the breast not red; but in all the shoulders were more
or less of the last-named colours.
Dr. Bancroft's bird is described with a flesh-coloured bill; general
colour of the plumage black; the chin, throat, breast, and margins
of the wings, also the crown of the head, red.
These birds inhabit Cayenne, Guiana, and other warm parts of
America, and are said to make nests of a curious structure, cylindrical, from twelve to fifteen inches in ch'cumference ; these are fixed
in a dependent manner, on the high branches of the tallest trees, and
wafted in every direction by the wind, on which account their great
length is necessary, to prevent the inhabitant being thrown out by
every gust. The voice is sweet and harmonious, and sometimes
imitates the notes of dther birds.
B— Size of the other. Bill and legs pale; head, chin,, and upper
parts of the body, wings, and tail rufous brown ; throat, breast, and
outer bend of the wing fine vermilion-colour; thighs and vent rufous
yellow.
Inhabits Bengal, called there Rhoocorah, or Dirt-eater; but why
it has obtained that name is not said. I have also seen a bird greatly
similar, in drawings from China.—It is with great uncertainty that
we join this with the others which are natives of America; to be
justified only by external appearance.
 44.—RUSTY-CROWNED ORIOLE.
Troupiale a Calotte rousse, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 72.
LENGTH seven inches, breadth ten. Bill stout, three quarters
of an inch long, conical froan the base, and pointed at the tip, colour
pale lead ; the crown and whole top of the head fine ferruginous, inclining to the colour of Spanish snuff; chin and throat the same ; sides
of the head, and all the rest of the plumage fine glossy black ; tail
more than two inches long, even at the end, and the quills, when
closed, reach to about one-fourth of the length; legs rather stout,
and black.
Inhabits America.—M. Azara observed six of these together in
Paraguay, said to have been met with in the marshes; one of them
taken alive, and kept in a cage, lived for some time, and was fed
with braaised maize.—In the collection of Lord Stanley.
45.—RUFOUS-WINGED ORIOLE.
Le Troupiale noir, a couvertures des ailes rousses, Voy. d'Azara iv. No. 74.
LENGTH eight inches, extent ten. Bill stout, sharp-pointed,
and black ; plumage wholly black, except a snuff-coloured spot, of
half an inch in breadth, on the middle of the wing coverts; tail
cuneiform ; the outer feather eleven lines shorter than the two middle
ones; legs black.
Inhabits South America.—In Paraguay the Guaranis call it
Guirahumi, (or Small Blackbird); makes a suspended nest, but
neither long nor deep, attached to the end of the branches of the
Palm-tree, but so shallow, that the sides scarcely rise above the
thick bed of leaves, which serves for the lining; the eggs are three in
number.
J
 MWN^iS&i^gasQglifi^^
132
46—YELLOW-THROATED ORIOLE.
Oriolus virescens, Ind. Orn. 185.   Gm. Lin
Icterus virescens, Daud. ii. 185.
Yellow-throated Oriole, Gen. Syn. Sup. 89.
. 393.   Shaw's Zool. \
LENGTH nine inches, breadth fifteen and a half. Bill dusky;
over the eye a bright yellow streak; cheeks and throat the same ; the
rest of the plumage tinged with green; some of the wing coverts
tipped with white ; legs dusky.
Inhabits Hudson's Bay.
47.—SHARP-TAILED ORIOLE—Pl. xliii.
Oriolus caudacutus, Ind. Om. i. 186.    Gm.
Icterus caudacutus, Daud. ii. 354.
Fringilla caudacuta, Sharp-tailed Finch, An
Sharp-tailed Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 438. pl. 1"!
ii».i. 394.    Sha
r. Om. iv. pl. 34. f. 3.
Arct. Zool. ii. 152.
SIZE of a Lark; length five inches and a quarter, extent of the
wings seven and a quarter. Bill dusky; irides hazel; crown and
cheeks brown ; above and below the latter, dusky yellow or orange ;
from the forehead a broad stripe of ash-colour passes down the
middle of the crown to the hind head, bounded on each side with a
darker one; under parts from the breast dull, pale yellow, with dark
brown streaks; the throat and middle of the belly, white ; the back
varied with ash-colour and black, and a few curved marks of white;
beneath the wings buff, spotted with black ; wing coverts aaid quills
dusky, edged with light reddish buff; tail a trifle cuneiform, the
feathers sharp-pointed, the colour much as in the quills, aaad seems
obscurely barred with a darker colour; legs pale brown, or clay-
colour.
 1
p
  \^^Z4^P/reS&i
 ii
 Wl
oriole, 133
Inhabits America; not unfrequently found about New York. A
specimen brought from thence in Miss Blackburn's collection, from
which Mr. Pennant obtained his description.—Mr. Wilson observes,
that it has the same manners, and associates with the Sea-side Finch,
but is by far a less numerous species.
48—AOONALASCHKAN ORIOLE.
Oriolus Aoonalaschkensis, Ind. Om. i. 186.     Gm. Lin. i. 394.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 444.
Daud. ii. 354. (Icterus).
Aoonalashkan Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 447.   Arct. Zool. ii. No. 151.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill brown; plumage brown above,
the middle of the feathers darker; between the bill and eye a white
mark; wing coverts and second quills edged with ferruginous; prime
quills brown; tail the same, with ferruginous edges; chin dirty
white; on each side, under the throat, a diverging mark of brown;
neck before, and breast rusty brown; middle of the belly plain;
sides dusky; legs brown.
Inhabits Aoonalashka.
49.—RED ORIOLE.
Oriolus ruber, Ind. Orn. i. 179.    Gm. Lin. i. 388.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 429.
Icterus ruber, Daud. ii. 346.
Troupiale rouge d'Antigue, Son. Voy. 113. t. 68.
Red Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 431:
SIZE of a Blackbird. Bill blackish; irides fire-coloured; head,
neck, back, and thighs vermilion red; quills, belly, and tail velvet
black; legs blackish.
Inhabits the Isle of Panay.
 "-r^T*^
II  I
II
134
50.—ANTIGUAN YELLOW ORIOLE.
Oriolus flavus, Ind. Om. i. 179.   Gm. Lin. i. 389.    Dowd-ii. 347.    Shaw's ZooL vii. &&.;
Troupiale jaune d'Antigue, Son. Voy. 13. t. 69.
Troupiale a tete jaune, Voy. d'Azara, iii. No. 66.
Antiguan Yellow Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 432.
SIZE of the last. Bill blackish; head, neck before, breast, and
belly, the colour of yellow orpiment; neck behind, wings, and tail
black, and like velvet; legs blackish.
Found with the last—Said to inhabit also the New Continent,
about the River Plate, in South America; called there Ventre-con-
color6. This M. Azara confirms, and that it is seven inches and a
half long, and twelve broad; very common in Paraguay, quite to
Buenos Ayres, sometimes in flocks with other species, often approaching houses.    Male and female alike.
51—KINK ORIOLE.
Oriolus Sinensis, Ind. Om. i. 186.    Gm
Oriolus Buffonianus, Shaw's Zool. vii. 4
Le Kink, Buf. iii. 253.    Pl. enl. 617.
Kink Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 448.
SIZE of a Thrush. Bill reddish brown ; head, neck, and upper
part of the back greyish ash-colour; the rest of the plumage white ;
quills the colour of polished steel, with a violet green gloss; tail
short, rounded; the two middle feathers as the quills, with white
tips; the two next^he same, but the white increasing to the outer
ones, which are mostly white, the base only beiaig steel-coloured;
legs flesh-colour.
Inhabits China—seems a species between an Oriole and Thrush,
partaking of both.
 ■■*
135
52.—GOLDEN ORIOLE.
Oriolus Galbula, Ind. Orn. i. 186.    Lin. i. 160.    Gm. Lin. i. 382.   Act. Stockh. 1750.
t. 3. f. 5.    Georgi. 165. Sepp. Vog. t. 11.     Kram. 360.    Bor. Nat. ii. 116. Faun.
Arag. 72.      Bechst. Deut. ii. 478.     Id. Ed. ii. p. 1292.     Gerin. iii. t. 307, 8, 9.
Shaw's Zool. vii. 408. pl. 53.    Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 79.    Id. Ed. 2. p. 128.
Coracias Oriolus, Faun. Suec. No. 95.    Scop. Ann. i. 45.    Faun. Arab. 7.
Turdus aureus, Klein. Av. 66.   Id. Ov. t. 9. f. 2.    Id. Stem. t. 14. f. 8. a.
Der gelbe Pirol, Goldamsel, Kirschfink, Schmid Vog. p. 50. t. 38.
Galbula, Raii 68.    Will. 147. t. 36. 38.    Id. Engl. 198. (Witwall)
Oriolus, Bris. ii. 320.    Id. 8vo. 217.    Hist. Prov. i. 491.
Widewal, Pyrold, Frisch pl. 31. M & F.
Die Golddrossel, Naturf. ix. s. 46.
Kirschvogel, Gunth. Nest. U. Ey. t. 47.
Oropendola, Gabin.d. H. Nat. de Madrid, i. lam. 4. p. 9.
II Rigogolo,  Cet. Uc. Sard. 79.
Loriot, Buf. iii. 254. pl. 17.    Pl. enl. 26.    Voy. en Barb. i. 271.
Yellow-bird from Bengal, Albin, Hi. pl. 19?
Golden Oriole, Golden Thrush, Gen. Syn. ii. 449.     Id. Sup.  89.    Id. Sup: ii. 126.
Rr. Zoo/. App; iv. pl. 4.    Id. 1812. 303. pl. 39.    iewiw'* Birds, ii. pl. 43.    iVaf.
Misc. pl. 285.    Orn. Dicf. &. Sup.
SIZE of a Blackbird; length nine inches and a half. Bill
brownish red; irides red; plumage chiefly fine golden yellow;
between the bill and eye a streak of black; wings black, marked
here and there with yellow; on the middle of the wing a patch of
yellow; the two middle tail feathers black, the base of them olive,
aaid the tips yellow ; the others black from the base to the middle,
from theaace to the tip yellow ; legs lead-colour.
The female is dull greenish where the male is black; wings dusky;
tail dirty green, all but the two middle feathers yellowish white.
The young birds resemble the females; at first are more spotted,
but towards the end of August, the yellow begins to appear; they
have a different note from the old ones, which is like the words Yo,
Yo, Yo, sometimes followed by a mewing like a cat.
 136 ORIOLE.
This beautiful species is common in many parts of Europe, said
to be plentiful in France in summer, and to breed there; migrates
into England and Sweden, but at rare and uncertain periods; is
mentioned as a Russian species ; comes twice a year into Switzerland;
found also in Carniola; is seen at Malta in September, on its passage
southward, returning as spring advances to the north by the same
track ; comes into Constantinople in the spring, and leaves it in September ; but remains in Alexandria until November, when it departs;
appears at Gibraltar the end of April, but only a few stragglers on
their passage, their residence being in the more cultivated inland
parts, where they meet with greater abundance of fruits, but some
few never fail to stop in places where almonds, figs, cherries, oranges,
pomegranates, pears, locust, and other fruits grow, taking up their
residence among them for the summer , and in defect of other food,
wall be content with insects and their pupse.
The nest is of a curious construction, not unlike some othea's of the
Oriole tribe, in shape of a paarse, fastened to the extreme forks of tall
trees, and composed of fibres of hemp or straw, mixed with fine dry
stalks of grass, lined with moss and lichen; eggs four or five, of a
dirty white, spotted with dark brown, most so at the larger end; the
female is so careful of her young, as sometimes to suffer herself to be
taken with the nest and eggs; aaid has been known to sit upon them
in a cage, till she died. The bird has a loud cry, to be heard far off,
and it is said to whistle before rain.* The flesh is well relished, for
Willughby mentions, having seen them exposed for sale in the
poulterers shops at Naples; in short, they seem to be anore or less
frequeait in the greater part of the old Continent. Russel found them
at Aleppo, where they serve for food; the same in Egypt, where
they aa*e fifteen days in passing, -j- There is no doubt of their being
found in the province of Oude, in India, from whence drawings of
both sexes have been sent to Lord Mount Norris, by the name of
Pilluck.
* Gesner. f Hist. Alep.
 •I
ORIOLE. 137
A.—The Mango Bird found by Mr. Macneil in plenty in the
Isle of Salset,* seems to be a Variety only of the above; general
colours the same, but marked on the chin, throat, breast, and beginning of the belly with slender, dusky streaks; the two middle
tail feathers olive-yellow, with bright yellow tips ; the others, olive-
yellow for half the length, then black, and lastly tipped with fine
yellow; Mr. M. observes, that the notes are plaintive and melodious,
though simple.
Mr. Bartolomeot likewise mentions anothei', found in India, and
known at Malabar by the name of Magnakli. This is said to be
entirely yellow, except the wings, which are black.
The Variety of Golden Oriole, among Mr. Salt's birds, differed
in having a considerable portion of fine yellow on the margins of the
wing coverts, so as to make them appear wholly yellow; the margins
also of all the quills are more or less yellow; and except the three
outer ones, all are anarked at the ends with the same; most of the
second quills bifid at the tips, and broad; the two middle tail
feathers are black, the very tips yellow, the next on each side black,
with part of the outer edge and end yellow; the other four wholly
yellow ; the inner one of these has the shaft black for one-tha>d of
the length.    Bill and legs as in the Europeaaa Species.
53—YELLOW ORIOLE.
Ampelis lutea, Ind. Om. i. 368.
Ampelis luteus, Mus. Carls; iii. t. 70;
Yellow Chatterer, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 190.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill black; at the gape a spot
of white; body above olive brown, beneath yellow, growing white
towards the vent; rump yellow; the two middle tail feathers black,
tipped with yellow ; the others dusky yellow; legs black.
* Archceohg. viii. 252. f Voy. to India, 224,
 138 ORIOLE.
From whence the above came seems not to be known. The bill
in Dr. Sparrman's figure is a trifle bent, but very sharp at the point,
more like that of an Oriole than of a Chatterer, as M. Sparrman
calls it. It is probably a Variety of the female of the Golden Oriole ;
or a young bird in imperfect plumage.
54.—BLACK-CHEEKED ORIOLE.
Loriodor, Levail. Afr. vi. 49. No. 260.
RATHER larger than the Common Oriole, but much like it.
Bill and eyes deep brownish red, at the base a few hairs; general
colour of the plumage yellow ; through the eye to the nape a black
streak, broader in the middle, aaad pointed before and behind ; wing
coverts yellow, but some of them fringed with black ; quills black,
more or less edged with yellow, having more yellow as they are
nearer the back ; tail two inches and three quarters long, cuneiform ;
the two middle feathers black, with a spot of yellow, and pointed ;
the others black, spotted with white, and the ends yellow, occupying
a greater space as they are more outward, so that the exterior one is
almost wholly yellow ; legs as the bill.
The female is smaller, the yellow inclines to olive, aaid the black
less pure. The young are olive-green, brownish on the wings and
tail, and pale yellow on the belly and vent.
Inhabits the South of Africa, and is there a Bird of Passage,
being only met with during the time of incubation; after the fruit
season departing elsewhere : the nest not met with : the song of the
male is much varied.
A.—Length nine inches.    Bill one inch and a quarter, brownish
red; plumage fine yellow; through the eye a black streak to the
 •%
ORIOLE. 139
nape; lesser wing coverts yellow ; greater black edged yellow; quills,
chiefly the inner, fringed with white; tail black, the end for one-third
yellow, but the two middle feathers only yellow for a quarter of aai
inch ; quills reach three-fourths on the tail; legs black.
In the collection of Mr. Bullock.
B.—Turdus flavus, Ind. Om. i. 350.    Gm. Lin. i. 836.
Merle jaune de la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 193.
Yellow Thrush, Gen. Syn. iii. 63.
• Size of a Blackbird. Bill red ; irides grey ; plumage in general
deep yellow, paler beneath ; shafts of the feathers white; eye surrounded with white feathers; from the upper mandible a band of
black, finishing in a point beyond the eye ; legs red.
Inhabits China. I find in Indian drawings one called Mutch-
runga-Parowari: in this the upper parts have a tinge of green, the
same streak through the eye ; tail cuneiform; the two middle feathers
yellow, the others black, spotted with white : probably this differs
from the last described only in sex.
55.—COCHIN-CHINA ORIOLE.
Oriolus Chinensis, Ind. Om. i. p. 188. S.     Lin. i. 160.     Gm. Lin. i. 383.     Gerin. iii.
320.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 412.   Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 152.
Oriolus Cochinsinensis, Bris. ii. 326. t. 33. 1.   Id. 8vo. i. 248.
Oropendula atris et aureis varieg. plumis, Ph. Trans, xxiii. 1397.
Loriot, Tern. Man. Anal. ii. p. liv.
Le Couliavan, Buf.iii. 262, I.    PL enl. 570.    Gen. Syn. iii. 452. C.
Yellow Indian Starling, Edw. pl. 186.
LENGTH ten inches. Bill yellowish; general colour of the
plumage yellow and black, laot unlike the others, but distinguished
by having a black mark like a horse-shoe, across the crown, from
 tt -WMBiB^ssEatflte-*
IS
140 ORIOLE.
eye to eye; wing coverts yellow instead of black; quills black, more
or less, from the base, the rest of the length yellow, the latter
occupying more space as the feathers are outward, the exterior
being nearly all yellow ; legs black.
The female differs in having the colours less bright.
Inhabits Cochin China, and there called Gouliavan; found also
at Java, and called by the natives Kepodang.
Ill'
Oriolus Indicus, Bri
56.—INDIAN ORIOLE.
.328.     Id. 8vo.i. 248.    Shat
Chlorio Indicus, Aldr.Av. i. t. 862.   Johnst. p. 80. t. 41.
Loriot des Indes, Buf. iii. 264. III.    Gen. Syn. ii. 452. D.
THE bill and legs in this bird are red, but in plumage it does
not vary considerably from the last described; and like that, has the
horse-shoe mark from the aaagles of the mouth, passing over the
crown ; the wings are marked with bluish longitudinal spots, and a
band of blue across the middle of the tail.
Inhabits the East Indies : varies but very little from the last.
57—BLACK-HEADED ORIOLE.
Oriolus melanocephalus,  Lit
Orn. i. 187. (3.
Oriolus Bengalensis, Bris. ii.
Pica Americ. luteo-nigra var
Loriot, Tern. Man. Anal, pl
Loriot de la Chine, Buf. iii.
Loriot Rieur, Levail. Afr. v
Yellow Starling from Bengal, Alb. ii. pl. 41.
Black-headed Icterus, Edw. pl. 77.    Gen. Syn.:
329.   Id. 8vo.i
a, Gerini. ii. t.
54.
262. II.    Pl.en
. p. 55. pl. 263.
. 383.     Shaw's Zool. *
451. A.   Nat. Misc. 473.
LENGTH nearly nine inches.    Bill red ; irides hazel; head aaid
throat deep black; quills black, marked longitudinally with yellow;
 *m
ORIOLE. 141
the rest of the body, and beneath, fine yellow; the two middle tail
feathers yellow from the base to the middle, then black, with a
yellow tip ; the next yellow, with a large spot of black on the inner
web, near the end, the others wholly yellow, shafts of all whitish;
legs dusky.
That figured by Albin had the throat and neck before marked
with minute brown streaks ; a variation arising from age or sex.
One of these, in Geaieral Hardwicke's collection of drawings,
said to be a female, had the head partially black, being dark
green, with black streaks; general plumage pale yellow; greater
wing coverts here and there streaked with dusky; quills dusky,
margined with yellow; middle of the tail feathers marked irregularly
with dusky; the forehead yellow; chin and throat white, the latter
anarked with a few narrow dusky streaks; bill black.
Found at Calcutta; also at Madras, and other parts of India;
called, on the Coast of Coromandel, Peei'col and Peerool, * at
Calcutta, Peeluck. M. Levaillant found it within the Cape of Good
Hope, in the woods near Groote Vis Riviere, and the Gamtoos.
Nest and eggs uaaknown.
58—MOTTLED ORIOLE.
Icterus Maderaspatanus nsevius, Bris. ii. 91.    Id. 8vo. p. 180.    Shaw's Zool. vii. 411.
Ind. Orn. i. 187. y.
Pica maderaspatana, Mottled Jay, Raii 195. 1.1. f. 7.    Gen. Syn. ii. 451. B.
LENGTH near eight inches. Bill reddish brown; forehead, to
the eyes, bright yellow; the rest of the head, throat, and neck
black; the plumage otherwise fine yellow, dotted with black; upper
wing coverts, quills, and tail black.
Inhabits Madras: Is called, by the Gentoos, Cundoe Vanga
Pandooe.
* The Golden Thrush is called in Silesia, Pirohle.—See Kramer.
 ■■■■
142
59.-NUN ORIOLE.
Turdus Monacha, Ind. Om. i. 357.    Gm. Lin; i. 824.
Le Moloxita, ou la Religieuse d'Abissinie, Buf. iii. 406.
Loriot Coudougnan, Levail. Afr. vi. 52. pl. 261.262.
Nun Thrush, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 77.
SIZE of a Blackbird. Bill reddish; head black, descending on
the throat, and ending in a point on the breast; upper parts of the
body yellow, more or less tinged with brown; the under pale yellow;
wing coverts and tail feathers brown, bordered with yellow, the end
rounded; quills blackish, edged with light grey; legs cinereous.
Inhabits the woods of Abyssinia, and feeds on berries and fruits;
found frequently on trees, growing on the edges of precipices, which
renders it difficult to shoot, or to obtain afterwards. M. Levaillant
says, the female is smaller, the colours more dull, and the young
even more so; found very abundant in all the forests East of Africa,
from Brak Rivier to the Caffres; the nest of twigs, fine roots, and
moss,lined with feathers; eggs dirty white, with brown spots, encircling
the larger end; the notes very agreeable, and it imitates those of
other birds, its own supposed to resemble the word Coudougnan,
Mr. Salt met with this at Mozambique, on a mango tree.
60—STRIPED-HEADED ORIOLE.
Oriolus radiatus, Ind. Om. i. 188.    Gm. Lin. i. 384.   Shaw's Zool. vii; 443.
  capite striato, Bris. ii. 332.    Id. 8vo. i. 249.
Merula bicolor, Aldrov. ii. 624.    Raii 67.    Will. 144.
Loriot a tete rayee, Buf. iii. 265.
Striped-headed Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. 453.
LESS than a Blackbird.    Bill reddish yellow; head, and neck
before black, the feathers tipped with white ; hind part of the neck,
 ORIOLE. 143
back, rump, and upper tail coverts reddish yellow; beneath the
body the same, but paler; wing coverts and quills black, edged with
white; tail reddish yellow; legs yellow, claws reddish.
Country uncertain; probably belongs to the last described.—
Among the birds brought from Abyssinia, by Mr. Salt, is one
apparently between the two : in this last the tail is greatly rounded,
the two middle feathers greenish olive, ends fringed with yellow; the
next the same, with a dusky tip ; the others black, with yellow ends;
the yellow having most space on the outer feathers.
61—YELLOW-BACKED ORIOLE.
Oriolus Xanthonotus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 152.
LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill red; plumage chiefly
black; the belly whitish, streaked with black; scapulars, axillaries,
rump, vent, and inner part of the tail feathers yellow; legs black.
Inhabits Java.
 T*l
*m-*asmi&i
144
GENUS XVIII.—GRAKLE.
* With the Head more
less naked.
1 Minor Grakle.
A Greater Gr.
2 Bald Gr.
3 Paradise Gr.
A Black-winged Gr.
B White-tailed Gr.
4 White-headed Gr.
5 Pagoda Gr.
6 Malabar Gr.
7 Grey Gr.
8 Gingi Gr.
9 Gosalic Gr.
A Var.
10 Javan Gr.
11 New-Holland Gr.
12 Surinagur Gr.
13 Indian Gr.
14 Cockscomb Gr.
15 Yellow-faced Gr.
16 Bare-necked Gr.
17 Fetid Gr.
18 Tufted Gr.
19 Long-billed Gr.
* * The Head covered with
feathers:
20 Crested Gr.
21 Dial Gr.
A Var.
22 Egyptian Gr.
23 Abyssinian Gr.
24 Green Gr.
25 Black-headed Gr.
26 Pied Gr.
27 Cinereous Gr.
28 Brown Gr.
29 White-vented Gr.
30 Sattin Gr.
31 Glossy Gr.
32 Shining Gr.
33 Boat-tailed Gr.
■34 Georgian Gr.
35 Purple Gr.
36 Chili Gr.
37 Noble Gr.
38 Climbing Gr.
39 Picoid Gr.
OILL convex, a little compressed on the sides, and cultrated.
Nostrils small, often near the edge.
Tongue various.
Toes three before and one behind, the middle one connected at the
base with the outer.    Claws hooked and sharp.
f WITH THE HEAD MORE OR LESS NAKED.
1—MINOR GRAKLE.
Gracula religiosa, Ind. Oi
118. 1.12.    Daud. ii.
p. Iii.
Sturnus Indicus Bontii, Raii Syn.
318. t.74.
Corvus Javanensis, 0*6. It; 102.   Id. Engl. i. 157.
Eulabes religiosa, Lin. Tran. xiii. p. 162.
189.    Lin.Syn.i. 164.     Gm. Lin.i. 395.    Bor. Nat. ii.
Shaw's ZooL vii. 451. t: 54.    Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal.
Will. 145. t.38.   Klein. Av. 60. . Gerin. i
 GRAKLE.
Le Mainate, Buf. iii. 416. pl. 25.   PL enl. 268.   Bris. ii
Der Plauderer, oder Minor, Schmid Vog. p. 46. t. 33.
Bontius's Indian Starling, Will. Engl. 196. pl. 38.
Minor Grakle, Gen. Syn. ii. 455.     Id. Sup. 90.     Ah
Edw. pl. 17.
145
305, t. 28. f. 2.   Id. 8vo. i. 242.
pl. 38.    Hist. Sumatr. S
SIZE of a blackbird; length ten inches and a half; expanse of
wing nineteen inches. Bill orange-colour, paler at the tip; nostrils
oblong, in the middle of the bill; irides hazel; feathers on the top of
the head short, like velvet, but down the middle as on the rest of the
body; on each side of the head is a naked membrane, from beneath
each eye to the hind head, but does not unite there; it is irregular as
to breadth, loose on the edges, and yellowish, varying in different
seasons of the year, or when the bird is angry, or pleased : the
general colour of the plumage is black, glossed with purple, violet,
and green, in different lights; sometimes with a slight tuft at the
back of the neck, below the nape; on the quills a bar of white;
tail even at the end, consisting of twelve feathers, and is three inches
in length ; legs orange; claws pale brown.
This species inhabits various parts of the East Indies, in the Isle
of Hainan, and almost every Isle beyond the Ganges; remarkable
for whistling, singing, and talking, anore so than any Parrot, and
very distinctly, imitating the human speech in greater perfection than
any other of the feathered tribe; its food is said to consist of
vegetables of all kinds, and fruits; is particularly fond of cherries
and grapes, at least is greedy of them in a tame state; it is easily
domesticated, and becomes very familiar.* Notwithstanding so many
Authors have mentioned the bird, I do aiot find its manners at large,
nidification, &c. treated of by any one.
It is common at Java, and there called Maynoa, also Beo or
Mencho; and at Sumatra, Teeong; in India, Moina, and Pahania
* In Sir W, Jones's Life, mention is made of the domestic and engaging Mayana, which
bids us good morrow at our windows.
VOL. III. U
 yPB^fflTr
Mina, or Hill Moina. It probably is a native of China, as we
frequently see it in Chinese Paintings, and is there called Lefkoa,
yet we cannot be certain of this, as we were informed by a Friend,
that those kept in cages, at Canton, were said to have been purchased
at Java, and that they are there sold for five shillings each.
M. Temminck forms a Genus of this under the name of Gracula,
or Mainate, and of which the Minor Grakle is the only Species.
A.—Mainatus major, Bris. ii. 308.    Id. 8vo.i. 243.
Cornicula, seu Monedula Indica orientalis, Klein. Av. 60. 12.
Le grand Mainate, Buf. iii. 419.    Gerin. iii. t. 319.
Greater Minor, Gen. Syn. ii. 457. A.    iJdio.'pl. 17. lower fig.
This differs from the other only in size, being much bigger, and
equal to that of a Jackdaw.
Inhabits the Isle of Hainan, in Asia, and probably varies from
the other only in sex or age.
2.—BALD GRAKLE.
Gracula calva, hid. Om. i, 189.   Lin.i. 164.    Gm. Lin.
Misc. pl. 689.    Shaw's ZooL vii. 461. t. 56.
Merula calva Philippensis, Bris. ii. 280. t. 26. f. 2.
Pastor Martin, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Iv.
Merle chauve des Philippines, Goulin, Buf. iii. 420.
Iting, Tabaduru, Gulin, Palalacse Species, Phil. Ti
Bald Grakle, Gen. Syn. ii. 457.
396.   Daud. ii. 284.   Nat.
Id. 8vc
PL,
tL 200.
iii. 1397. 43.
SIZE of a Blackbird; length ten inches, breadth fourteen and
a quarter. Bill brown; head and cheeks bare, and flesh-coloured,
but down the middle, from the base of the bill to the hindhead, is a
narrow list of short baown feathers; general colour of the plumage,
on the upper parts of the body, is silvery ash, beneath grey brown ;
 GRAKLE. 147
wing coverts, quills, and tail black brown, tbeelast three inches and
a half in length; legs brown.
Inhabits the Philippine Islands, and said to build the nest in
hollow trees, especially the cocoa aaut; lives on fruits, is very
voracious, soon digesting what it eats, insomuch that a vulgar error
has arisen, of there being no circumvolution of intestines, but only
one strait passage from the mouth to the vent; it is reported to be a
noisy, chattering bird, and when irritated, the bare part about the
head changes to a deep red.
It varies in having the under parts brown, spotted with white ;
and in some the under parts are yellow brown.
Sonnerat mentions one, which was two inches longer: the feathers
surrounding the naked part of the head, and down the middle of it,
black; under parts of the body the same; wings, tail, and upper
parts grey, lightest on the rump and neck.
One, similar to the above, twelve inches long, the tail four inches
aaid a half, inhabits India, and called Gogoye; but this seems not
peculiar, as others of a different Geaaus, such as the Crying and
Chinese Thrushes, are called by the same name.
3— PARADISE GRAKLE.
Gracula tristis, hid. Orn. i. 190
Shaw's Zool. vii. 455.
Gracula grillivora, Daud. ii. 285.
Merula Philippensis, Bris. ii, 278. t.26. f. 1.
Martin,  Buf. iii. 423.    Ess. Phihsoph. p. 44.
Merle des Philippines, PL enl. 219.
Paradise Grakle, Gen. Syn. ii. 458.    Id. Sup.
Syst.i. 167:    Gm. Lin.i. 401. (Paradises
. 127.
LENGTH nine inches and a half.    Bill yellow; irides dove-
colour;  the upper part   of the head covered with narrow black
feathers, similar to those of the Bird of Paradise; behind the eyes a
U 2
 vlMKBtaiNtesa!*".
triangular bare red space, taking rise from the nostrils, as a line;
throat, neck, and upper parts of the breast blackish, tinged with
grey; lower part of the latter, back, rump, scapulars, upper and
under wing, and upper tail coverts and thighs, chestnut brown ;
belly, sides, edge of the wing, under wing and tail coverts, whitish;
prime quills half white, half dusky, secondaries brown; tail deeper
brown, the side feathers tipped with white; legs yellow.* The
feanale like the male in plumage.
Inhabits the Philippine Islands, and Bombay; also Ceylon; is
a various feeder, aud very gluttonous in its appetite; is useful in its
wild state, in freeing the backs of oxen from vermin, and has been
known, when kept in confinement, to swallow a young rat, more
than two inches long, whole, after bruising it against the wires of
its cage; is also very fond of locusts and grasshoppers. They build
twice in a year, chiefly in the forks of palm trees, though not
unfrequently in outhouses, making a coarse sort of nest, and generally
lay four blue eggs. The young birds are easily tamed, and soon learn
to speak, imitating the cries of the common domestic poultry, &c.
This was ranked formerly by Linnaeus with his Paradise Bird, on
account of the velvet-like feathers about the bill; but why he should
have named it tristis is not so clear, as, according to Dr. Buchanan,
it is the most cheerful bird in India: it has a great variety of musical
powers, is often very noisy, but sometimes, especially at dawn, has
a pleasant chirping song. When these birds meet with a snake, they
assemble round it, and scream violently, and by this means discover
it to others; when tame, it will imitate the human voice; eats grain,
milk, and iaasects; builds in trees, lays the eggs in June, in the
hollows, on a little straw; a nest of one met with, of twenty inches
in diameter, was made of bents; in it were two greenish blue eggs,
one end much narrower thaai the other.    Dr. B. says it abounds in
* I observe a drawing of one from India,
called Gursall Mainah.    Another of these
nth the bill, caruncle, and legs orange.    This
not widely differing, was named Saulak.
 GRAKLE. 149
India,* and calls it a Thrush, as it has a notch at the tip of the upper
mandible; but this, though a general circumstance, is not an
exclusive one, as some birds, by no means of that Genus, have it,
and others, reputedly Thrushes, have no trace of such character.
In the Hindustan Language it is called Desy Meina; at Ceylon,
Kawadiya, or Eoms-kowy-deah.
A.—Gracula melanoptera, Daud. ii. 286.
Size of the former, and differs greatly in plumage, being wholly
white, excepting the quills, which are black.
One of these is in the Museum at Paris, and appears to be a
mere Variety.
B.—Length seven inches and a half. Bill one inch, deep yellow;
at the base arises a bare yellow space, continuing beneath the eye,
and behind it, for near a quarter of an inch, ending in a point;
plumage in general fine pale ash-colour, paler on the lower belly
and vent; sides of the head inclining to dusky; lesser wing coverts
as the back; the greater, and second quills dusky black, the base
of the latter white for some length, forming a bar; greater quills
white, but dusky in the middle; tail two inches long, rounded,
wholly white, the quills reach to three-fourths of the length, when
closed; legs pale yellow.
Inhabits India;  found at Cawnpore, in September.—General
Hardwicke.
* I have before mentioned, that the inhabitants of the Isle of Bourbon having imported
some of these birds, for the purpose of destroying the grasshoppers, they increased so fast,
that after having cleared away the insects, they attacked not only the fruits, but the young
pigeons, and became a greater scourge than the grasshoppers had been before. We learn,
however, that this assertion is not precisely the fact, and most likely M. Buffon had been
misinformed; for M. Duplessin, who gave it as his opinion, that these birds might usefully
be introduced into that part of Spain, situated towards Africa, by way of destroying the
locusts, had been many years resident in the Isle of Bourbon, where he had seen them introduced ; that, indeed, they have much multiplied there, but so far from their bemg considered
as a nuisance, the laws for their preservation are still in force.
 I! Ill
150
4.—WHITE-HEADED GRAKLE.
LENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill one inch and a quarter,
black; head dull white; from the nostrils to the eye, all round it,
and for some space behind, bare, and pale yellow; round the neck a
collar of black, broader on the fore part; back and shoulders, wings
and tail brownish black; the quills deeper; some of the second
tipped with white; the outer edge of the wing, from the bend, half
way white; from the breast to the vent, white; bend of the legs
dusky; shins pale brown, or horn-colour.
Inhabits Cochin China.—General Davies.
5.—PAGODA GRAKLE.
Turdus Pagodarum, Ind. Om. i. 332.    GmlLin. i. 816.
Gracula Pagodarum, Shaw's Zool. vii. 471.
Sturnus subroseus, Nat. Mis. No. 805.
Martin, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Iv.
Le Martin Brame, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 189.    Daud. ii. 287.   Levial. Ois. pl. 95. 1.
Pagoda Thrush, Gen. Syn. iii. 30.    Id. Sup. 140.   Penn. Hindoost. ii. 267.
LENGTH seven or eight inches. Bill black, the end half yellow;
irides blue; feathers of the head black, long, narrow, aaid form a crest;
those of the throat, neck, breast, and belly the same in shape, colour
dull rufous; on the neck they are streaked down the middle with
white, and appear distinct, like the hackles of a Cock. Back, rump,
and wings blue-grey; quills and tail black ; aander wing and tail
coverts white; legs yellow. In some specimens the feather's of the
neck are not streaked with white; round the eye somewhat bare; the
outer tail feathers tipped with white.—Levaillant's bird, the size
of a Starling, did not differ much in colour, but the plumage rufous
 "%
GRAKLE. 151
greyr; taiLrounded, the outer feather white, except at the base* the
nestj white, lessening as they are more inward, and the two middle
ones are wholly black. One of these was in the collection of General
Davies.
Inhabits the Coast of Malabar, and Coromandel,,in India, and
there called Martin Brame, as it is chiefly seen about the tops of
pagodas; but the name it is most known by is Powee or Powe-ner.
Mr. L. met with great flocks at the Cape of Good Hope, passing
from west to east, uaider 27 degrees of latitude South, where he first
fell in with the Cameleopard, but they rarely flew within gun-shot;
he killed two males, but the natives did not seem to know the birds :
in India they are kept in cages for the sake of their song.
One of these was seen alive at Mr. Kendrick's, in Piccadilly.
6 —MALABAR GRAKLE.
Turdus Malabaricus, Ind. Orn. i. 333.    Gm. Lin. i. 816.
. Gracula Malabarica, Shaw's ZooL vii. 471.
Martin Vieillard, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 195.    Daud. ii. 289.
Malabar Thrush, Gen. Syn. iii. 30.    Id. Sup. 140.
THIS is ratfoeiL smaller than the last, and greatly similar in
markings. Length seven inches; it differs in the head, being of the
same colour with the body, and not furnished with a crest. The
bill is black, the tip yellowish ; head, and. neck feathers Jong and
narrow, cinereous grey, with a streak of white down the shafts;
back, rump, wings, and tail cinereous grey ; breast, belly, and under
tail coverts rufous ba-owai; legs yellow.
Inhabits the Coast of Malabar, where it is kept in cages, and
called Powee, as the last; in the Bengalese. tongue Dessee Powee,
or Native Powee, so called by the people of Calcutta, from being
ioiithat neighbourhood ; it huddsLins^iidkbushesg. goes jua flocks,
 ill
and lives on seeds and fruit. Dr. Buchanan observes, that it is not
a Variety of the Pagoda Species, yet the two have great affinity in
size and shape, but differ in colour.
A bird, seemingly a Variety, was seven inches and half in length.
Bill one inch, stout, yellow; head aaid throat furnished with short,
stiff, grey feathers; through the eye rufous brown ; the rest of the
plumage fine rufous brown, inclining to the latter on the belly and
vent; quills and tail dusky; legs rough and scaly, pale oker yellow;
wings and tail nearly even. Found at Sierra Leone. In another
drawing a black streak begins at the gape, passes round the eye, and
ends in a point just behind.    Probably this may differ in sex.
Gracula
Martin g
-GREY GRAKLE.
:a, Daud. ii. 286.   Shaw's Zool. vii. 469.
efer, Levail. Ois.ii. 187. pl. 95. f.2.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill one inch long, orange; head black,
the feathers narrow and stiff; irides red-brown ; behind the eyes a
triangular, narrow, bare, orange-coloured space; beneath from the
chin and upper parts of the body iron-grey, teaiding to fulvous on the
neck and breast, and to brown on the nape ; from breast to belly a
band the colour of polished beech wood; under tail coverts the same;
quills black, the ten first white at the base; on the wing a triangular rufous spot; lesser quills glossed with green or purple on the
margins; tail short, rounded, glossy black, the four outer feathers
marked with clay-colour at the ends; wings reach three-fourths on
the tail; legs citron-colour. In one specimen I observed, that all but
the two middle tail feathers were orange at the end.
The female is smaller, and the colours less bright.
Inhabits Africa.—M. Levaillant met with three females and two
males at the foot of Bruntjes Hoogte, on the borders of the Bird
 River, in their passage from the east to the north-west. The end of
the tail was worn, seemingly a proof of the bird building in holes
of some sort, or trailing much on the ground.
Among Lord Mountnorris's birds, one had the whole head black;
the space behind the eye carunculated, aiarrow, and pointed; plumage
more or less brown above, aud all beneath from the chin white ; near
the outer edge of the coverts a triangular patch of white; the tail
feathers with the ends white, and some of them white at the base.
Bill and legs pale yellow. This seems a Variety, and was called in
oaie drawing, Ablak Mainah—in a second, Sirwell Myna.
8.—GINGI GRAKLE.
Turdus Ginginianus, hid. Om.i. 362.    Daud.ii. 288. (Gracula).
Le petit Martin de Gingi, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 194.
Gingi Thrush, Gen. Syn. Sup. 144.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill orange, strait, a trifle bent at the
point, with a slight notch; above carinated; nostrils oblong, covered
with feathers; tongue lacerated; irides dark red; the lids scaly,
covered with dark feathers; a bare, yellow, wrinkled skin, from the
gape, reaching behind the eye, and round it; feathers of the head
sharp-pointed, those iai front longer, and may be erected as a crest,
colour greenish glossy black; neck, back, rump, sides, and thighs,
grey; vent, and under wing coverts pale rufous; upper wing
coverts black, glossed with green; a few next the primaries pale
rufous ; quills black, the prime ones rufous at the base; tail rounded,
black, the end, rufous, deeper on the outer feathers; the two middle
ones glossed with green; legs yellow; hind toe strong, as long as
the middle one, which is united to outer at the base.
The female has the feathers in front shorter, so as not to admit of
forming a crest, the wing more white in it, and the quills ash-colour.
 P3Rte*»m«s*«§s»*»
154 GRAKLE.
I observed some males, in which the wings had a patch of white,
instead of rufous, and the ends of the tail feathers white, which in
others are rufous; legs orange.
Inhabits the Coast of Coromandel; brought to Calcutta from the
hilly countries near Monghy; lives upon trees; is the Ram Salic of
the Bengalese, as Dr. Buchanan informs me; also, tiiat the Paradise
and Crested Grakles are called, by the Hindoos, Salic or Sara, by
others Sei'ghet; and at Futtehghur, Chehey.
9—GOSALIC GRAKLE.
290.    Gm. Lin. i. 802.   Bris. ii. 446. t. 41 :
n. i. 290.   Gm. Lin. i. 803.
Sturnus Capensis, Ind. Om. i. 322.
3.    Id. 8vo. i. 282.
Sturnus Contra, Ind. Om. i. 322. 2,
Pastor Jalla, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 155.
Icterus Bengalensis, Bra.ii. 94.   Id. Sup. 94,   Id. 8vo. i. 181.
Etourneau pie, Buf. iii. 191.-  PL enl. 280.    Daud. ii. 303-
Black and white Indian Starling, Edw. pl. 187.
Cape Stare, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 5.
Contra Stare, Gen, Syn. ii. p. 5. A.   Albin. iii. pl. 21.
LENGTH nine inches. Bill one inch and four-tenths, flattened
towards the point, and with a slight notch ; nostrils about the middle
of the bill, the base half of which is orange-coloured, the rest white;
tongue cleft, black, and about half the length of the bill; orbits,
and a small space round the eye, bare, and orange-eoloured, pointed'
before and behind; irides black, surrounded with a pale ring; the
feathers of the head lance-shaped; from the nostrils a Large patch of
white, broad behind the eye, and narrowing in a point to the nape; >
the rump, margin of the wing, to the shoulders, and all beneath the
breast white, inclining on the latter to pale ash-colour; (tthe rest of
the bird black; the two exterior tail feathers are shorter than the
others, and have the outer edges white; legs brownish; hind toe veiy
strong; elaws black-brown, hooked, and sharp.
The female scarcely differs from the male.
 GRAKLE* 159
Inhabits India, and common about Calcutta, throughout the
year; is the Gosalic of the Bengalese, and known at Hindustan by
the name of Abluka; also called by soane Abluka-ahina;* generally
seen in pairs; lives chiefly on insects; usually found in pastures
frequented by cows, on which account, in order to distinguish it from
the Salic,f it has Go (that is, Cow) prefixed to its name. The Contra,
or Condra of Bengal, is not this, but a different bird, being applied
by the natives to the Jocose Shrike.
I am indebted, for the above account, to Dr. Buchanan. This
bird has been mentioned by some, as a native of the Cape of Good
Hope, but, according to M. Levaillant, it belongs only to Bengal^
as he never met with it at the Cape.
A.—Among the Drawings of Sir J. Anstruther is a fine Variety,
chiefly white; top of the head black and white, in streaks; chin and
throat dotted with white; quills black; greater part of the tail
feathers black, the rest white; on the sides of the vent some black
crescents; bill and legs yellow. In another sianilar Variety, nearly
the whole of the plumage was white.
The Gosalic Grakle is mentioned as a bird of Java, where it is
called Jallak, and Jallak-rdringi
10>—JAVAN GRAKLE.
Pastor tricolor, Lin. Tfuhs. xiK. p. 155.   Horsfield.
LENGTH eight inches and a half. Mil and legs yellow; the
plumage chiefly white; the quills and tail feathers black, the last
white at the tips; on the back a blackish grey band.
Inhabits Java; known by the name of Jallak-awu.
* In one of General if aridwlcke's Drawings called Abulka or Afcikaj iti ianother naated
Sergut. f The Paradise,' Crested, and Gingi Graktes, go by this name,
X 2
 156
11.—NEW-HOLLAND GRAKLE.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill orange; from the gape a bare
yellowish skin, passing through the eye and behind, where it is
sprinkled with minute black feathers; head and chin black; neck
and body slate-colour; wings glossy black; base of the greater quills
rufous above, and white beneath; under wing coverts rufous; belly
paler than the upper parts; towards the vent rufous; legs stout, and
orange-coloured.
Inhabits New-Holland; there called Gattua Maino.—Probably
a Variety of the Gingi, or Gosalic Grakle.
12.-SURINAGUR GRAKLE.
BILL yellow, pretty long; on the forehead a rounded tuft of
black soft feathers, standing upright, as in the Crested Grakle ; those
of the ca'own black, and much elongated, so as to form a sort of ci-est,
hanging over the rtape behind; general colour of the plumage pale
greenish grey; between the bill and eye downy, and behind the
latter a naked, bare, blue space; wing coverts and tail blue; the
rest of the* wing blue-black; legs long, pale greenish yellow ; claws
black, long, and hooked; the quills, when closed, reach to the
middle of the tail.
Inhabits the internal parts of India, being found in the snowy
mountains of Surinagur: called, in Persia, Gulgully. In the
drawings Of the late Sir J. Anstruther, it is said to be three-eighths
of the weight of a Sare, which, supposing that to be equal to two
pounds of our weight, makes the bird to be twelve ounces; and the
drawing being nine inches long, and called half the real length,
we may conclude that of the bird to be eighteen inches.
 157
13.—INDIAN GRAKLE.
LENGTH twelve inches. Bill stout, bent, yellow; nostrils oval,
placed in the middle; from gape to point one inch and a half, at the
base a few bristles; irides brown; beneath the eyes a narrow bare
yellowish rim; general colour of the plumage black; the ends of all
the feathers inclining to paarple, giving an appearaaice of being
spotted with dull purple; wings and tail dull blue, the shoulders
brightest; tail even, five inches long; that and the quills dark blue-
black ; the wings, when closed, reach one-third on the tail; legs
black, toes long, claws crooked, the shins near two inches in length.
Inhabits India; among the drawings of General Hardwicke, but
with no name annexed, or history; from various circumstances it
may possibly be allied to the Surinagur Grakle; and if so, it probably
differs in sex, as it has no elongation of feathers, either at the nape,
or on the forehead.
14—COCKSCOMB GRAKLE.
Sturnus gallinaceus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 324.
Gracula gallinacea, Daud. Oru. ii. p. 291.
Gracula carunculata, Gm. Lin. i. 399.
Gracula larvata, Shaw's Zool. vii. 468.
Tringa carunculata capensis, Naturf. xi. p. 9. t. 2.
Martin, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. Iv.
Porte-lambeaux, Levail. Af. ii. p. 178. pl. 93, 94.
Cockscomb Starling, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 9. No. 7.
THIS species is a trifle larger than the Starling; length six
inches and a half. The bill not unlike, and yellow; eyes brown;
general colour of the plumage rufous-grey,   or ash-colour, paler
 158 GRAKLE.
beneath; wings and tail glossy black, with a tinge of green and
purple in various lights ; tail even at the end, and the wings reach
to about the middle of it; legs long, pale yellow-brown. M.
Boddart, who described this bird more than twenty years before it
came under M. Levaillant's inspection, only had seen the dead specimen, which was sent from the Cape of Good Hope to Holland, in
spirits, and as it had wattled appendages on the jaw, as well as a
crest of the same bare substance on the top of the head, although
they appeared in the day state of no particular colour, supposed them
to have been, when the bird was living, the same as those of the
common Cock, and described them, accordingly, of a red, or orange-
colour. M. Levaillant, however, assures us, that he has anet with
great numbers of these birds, and that the plumage is not different
from what is mentioned in the Naturforscher, the anale having a
double kind of wattle, springing from the base of the bill on each
side, and hanging down for an inch or more, ending in a point; on
the forehead a kind of crest, of an irregular