BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

A general synopsis of birds. Vol. III. Pt. 2nd Latham, John, 1740-1837 1785

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcbooks-1.0363050.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcbooks-1.0363050.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0363050-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0363050-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0363050-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0363050-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0363050-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0363050-source.json
Full Text
bcbooks-1.0363050-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcbooks-1.0363050.ris

Full Text

   THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
WOODWARD HISTORICAL
COLLECTION
  A
General synopsis
of
B I 11 D  S.
Vol.III.pt.<an.d
L    O    K   D    O   X: .
Printed for Leigh 8c Sotheby,
York Street.Covent Garden.
MDCCLIXXV.
    C   337   1
Genus  LXXXVI.   DIVER.
N8 i. Northern D.
a. Imber D.
3. Speckled D.
4. Black-throated D.
N° 5. Red-throated D,
6. Striped D.
7. Chinefe D.
BILL ftrong, flrait, pointed; upper mandible the longeft j
edges of each bending inwards.
Noftrils linear; the upper part divided by a fmall cutaneous
appendage.
Tongue long, and pointed; ferrated on each fide near the
bafe.
Legs thin and flat.
Toes four in number, the exterior the longeft; the back one
fmall, joined to the interior by a fmall membrane.
Tail fhort; confifts of twenty feathers.
Colymbus glacialis,   Lin.  Syft.  i.   p. 221.   $.—Brun. N°   134.—Mutter,
N° 15c—Frifch. t. 185. A.—Faun. Groenl. N° 62.
Le grand Plongeon tachete, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 120. 6. pl. 11. fig. 1.
Le Plongeon tachete, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 117. 5. (a young bird.}
LTmbrim, Buf. Oif. vi.p. 258. pl. 22.—Pl. Enl. 952.
Colymbus maximus caudatus, Raii Syn. p. 125.'A. 4.
Greateft fpeckled Diver, or Loon, Will. Orn. p. 341.—Albin, iii. pl, 93,
Northern Diver, Br. Zool. ii. N° 237. pl. 84.—Ara. Zool. N° 439.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
nr H IS is the largeft of the Diver genus, weighing fixteen     Description.
pounds: and meafures near three feet fix inches in length :
Vol. III. X x the
 33*
D
R.
the breadth four feet eight inches. The bill is four inches and a
half long, and black: the head and neck of a deep velvety black :
under the chin is a patch of white, marked with feveral parallel
lines of black: on each fide of the neck a large portion of the
fame, elegantly marked with black lines, like the firft, almoft
uniting at the back part: fides of the breaft marked in the fame
manner, but the lines not fo numerous: the hind part of the
neck, back, wing coverts, and fcapulars, are black, marked with
round fpots of white, which grow larger as they are fartheft
downwards; and on the fcapulars, and part of the larger coverts,
the fpots are of a fquare form, and placed in rows : the quills
and tail are black: the wings are fhort: the breaft and under
parts white : legs black.
The female is lefs; and in her the ring on the neck is lefs
diftin£t. In young birds alfo the plumage does not feem foon to
come to perfection, even when of a confiderable fize ; hence we
fufpe<5t that the bird does not arrive at perfection till the fecond
year at leafl.
This fpecies inhabits feveral parts ofthe North of Europe, but
is not very frequent on our fhores; nor ever feen fouthward, except in very fevere winters. Seldom met with on land *, being
for the moft part on die open fea, where it is continually diving.
for fijhi which it does with great agility, and flies high and welL
Is common in Iceland and  Greenland^, where it  breeds, and at
• One of thefe was caught alive near Kefwick, in Cumberland, in July, 1781-
It was, as is fuppofed, making for the lake, but grew tired before it had power
to reach it. Dr. Heyfham.—Willughby mentions one being, taken in the ifland
ofjerfey.
t Alfo at Spitfbergen.—Phypps's Voy. p. 187.
7 that
^csaaa
 IVER.
that time frequents the frefh waters. Is fufficiently plentiful in
Norway, and all along the Arblic coafts, as far as the river Ob,
in the Ruffian dominions. The Barabinzians, a nation fituated
between that river and the Irtifch, tan the breafts of this and
other water-fowl; whofe fkins they prepare in fuch a manner as
to preferve the down upon them; and-, fewing a number of them
together, their hufbands fell them, to make pellices, caps, &c.
Garments made of thefe are very warm, never imbibing the
leaft moifture; and are more lafting than could be imagined *.
Met with alfo among the lakes of Hudfon's Bay.
The female lays two large pale brown or ftone-coloured eggs,
in June. Changes place according to the feafon. Found at
times at New Tork. The natives of Greenland ufe the fkins for
cloathing ; and the Indians about Hudfon's Bay adorn their heads
with circlets of their feathers f. At the laft place it is known
by the name of Athinue-moqua. As they are feldom feen on the
fea-coafts, but chiefly among the lakes, they are called by the
Indians, Inland Loons %.
* Rujfia, vol. ii, p. 234.—The downy fide worn outwards.
t Ara. Zool. X Mr. Hutchins.
Id. vol. iii. p. 21.
 V     E     R.
Colymbus immer, Lin. Syft. i. p. 2*2. 6.—Brun. 129.—Mutter, p. 29.
Le grand Plongeon, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 105. 1. pl. 10. fig. i.—Buf. Oif. viii.
p. 251.— Pl. £«/. 914. |
Colymbus maximus Gefneri, Raii Syn. p. 126. S.—Will. Orn. p. 342-
Ember Goofe, Sibbald Scot.   21.— Wallace  Orkney,    16. — Debet Ferro*
Ifles, \*%.—Pontop. ii. 80.
Imber, Br, Zool. N° 238. pl. 84.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
nPHIS fpecies is lefs than the Northern Diver, and meafures above two feet in length. The bill is four inches
and a quarter long, and of a dufky brown :. the top of the head*
and hind part of the neck, are brown : forehead, and fides of the
head and neck, fpeckled with brown : the back and wings brown';,
each feather margined with a paler brown : on the middle of
the neck the brown comes very forward, and almoft furrounds it;
above this it is fpotted black and white : except thefe markings,,
all the under parts, from chin to vent, are white; but the laft is
mottled with brown : quills and tail brown, the laft edged with,
white: legs dufky.
The female is faid to be lefs defined in colour, being merely
brown on the upper parts; of a dufky white beneath; and fcarcely
fpeckled at all on the fides of the neck. In the Leverian Mufeum is one anfwering to this laft defcription ; and in my own
collection another of the fame; but we have ever efteemed them
as birds not in an adult ftate.
This fpecies is better known in the northern parts of this
ifland than the fouthern, where it feldom appears, except the
winter be very fevere.    Inhabits the feas about the Orknies, and-
the
 D*
R.
the Ferroe Ifles. Found alfo in Iceland, and moft parts of Northern*
Europe; likewife in Kamtfchatka; but not in any part of Sibiria*
or Ruffia. Inhabits Switzerland,, particularly on the Lake Con-
ftance, where it is known by the name of Fluder. Said to dive-
wonderfully well, and to rife at an amazing diftance from the
place where it plunged. Makes the neft among the reeds and
flags, and-places it in the water; fo that it is continually wet, as-
in. fome of the Grebe genus. Has a loud fhrill cry. Is difficult
to be taken, either on land or fwimming on the water; but is
not unfrequently caught under the water, by a hook baited with
a fmall fifh, its ufual food*.
-Buf. Oif. viii.
Colymbus ftellatus, BrU„. N" 130.—Muter. KgUi^
Le petit Plongeon, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 108. 2. pl. IC
p. 254. pl. 21.—Pl. Enl. gg2.
Greateft tailed Diver, or Loon, Raii Syn. p. 125. A. 4. var ?—Witt. Orn,
p. 341. pl. 61.
Colymbus caudatus  ftellatus, Nov.   Com.  Petr. iv. p. 424. — Witt. Om.
pl. 62.
Greateft fpeckled Loon, Albin, i. pl. 82.— Br. Zool. N° 239.—Ara. Zool.
N»
441.
'. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
*4*
'IPHIS is ftill lefs than the Imber:  weighs two pounds and
a  half:   is twenty-feven  inches in length, and three  feet
nine in breadth.    The bill is three inches long, and bends a
trifle upwards;   of a pale horn-colour;   the top of the upper
• Sometimes taken twenty yards deep under water, viz. with a n
hook baited with a fifk. They are commonly fold for two drachms
©f filver apiece.—Willughby.
 I
R.
mandible dufky: the head is dufky, dotted with grey : hind
part of the neck plain dufky: the fides under the eye, the chin,
and throat, white : fore part of the neck very pale afh-colour :
back dufky, marked with oval fpots of white : fides ofthe breaft
and body the fame, but fmaller: the fpots on the rump and tail
minute: breaft and under parts white: quills dufky: legs
brown : webs and claws pale.
This bird is pretty frequent in England; fufficiently fo on the
river Thames, where it is called by the fifhermen Sprat Loon, being often feen in vaft numbers among the fhoals of that fifth, diving
after them, and frequently approaching very near the boats while
fifhing. It is common about the Baltic and the White Sea, but
not obferved in other parts of Ruffia, yet is a native of Kamtfchatka. It lays two eggs, in the grafs, on the borders of lakes
not far from the fea ; they are exactly oval, the fize of thofe of a
Goof?, dufky, marked with a fevf black fpots *.
Thefe are alfo frequent about the fifh-ponds in France, except
they are frozen, when they betake themfelves to the rivers.
This and the two laft vifit New Tork in winter, but return
very far north to breed.
Colymbas
 343
Colymbus arfticus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 221. 4.—Faun. Suec. N° 150.—Brun.
Orn. N° i**.—Muller, N°  154.—icazV Syn. p. 125. j.—Aa. Nidr. i.
p. 140. t. 2. fig. 1.
Le Plongeon a gorge noire, Brif Orn. vi. p. 115. 4.
Le Lumme, ou petit Plongeon de la Mer du Nord, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 26J.
Wormius's Northern Doucker, Will. Orn. p. 343. pl. 62.
Speckled Loon, Edw. pl. 146.
Black-throatedDiver,5r, Zool. ii. N° 241. pl. 85. fig. 2.,—Ara. Zool. N° 444.
Lev. Muf.
'T1 HIS meafures two feet in length. Bill near two inches
long, flender, and black: the fore part of the head and
throat black: hind part of the head and neck afh-colour; fides
ofthe laft white, fpotted with black : on the fore part ofthe neck
a- large patch of black, five inches in length, changing to purple
and green in different lights : the back and upper parts black:
fcapulars marked with fquare fpots of white: wing coverts the
fame, but the fpots are round: breaft and belly white: quills
dufky : tail fhort and black: legs black, with a eaft of red on
the infide.
This bird is now and then found in England, but is not common. Is fufficiently plenty in the northern parts of Europe,
Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. Frequent in the inland lakes of
Sibiria; efpecially thofe of the Arctic regions: alfo in Iceland,
Greenland, and the Ferroe Ifles: likewife in America at Hudfon's
Bay *. Suppofed to cry and be very reftlefs againft rain, making
a great noife f; hence the Norwegians think it impious to de-
ftroy this fpecies % ; but the Swedes, lefs fuperftitious, drefs their
fkins, which, like all of this genus, are exceeding tough, and ufe
them for gun-cafes, and facings for winter caps |l.
BLA
THROA
f Ameen. Acad. iv. p. 587. J Ara. Zool.
|| Faun. Suec^
Colymbus
 feptentr
■Colymb
N° is3.
Colymbus arfticus c(
Le Plongeon a gorge
Pl. Enl. 308.
Red-throated Loon, Edw. pl. 97-
.ii-  Diver, Br. Zool. N°
Br. Muf.
alis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 220. 3.—Brun. N° 132.—Mutter,
d rufo, Aa. Nidr. i. p. 244. t.
ouge,  Brif. Orn.   vi.  p.   ill.
3. pl.  11.  fig. I.—■
240. pl. 85.
Lev. Muf.
-Ara. Zool. N° 443.
rTp HIS weighs three pounds; and is two feet five inches in
length. The bill three inches long, black, and flender:
the head and chin are cinereous, dotted with brown : the reft of
the head, fides of the neck, and throat, afh-colour: the hind
part of the neck longitudinally ftreaked with dufky and white :
the throat, and part of the neck, of a fine chefnut red : from
thence the under parts arc white : the upper parts of the body,
wings, and tail, are dufky ; the two firft marked with a few
white fpots: the tail plain : thighs ftreaked dufky and white :
legs dufky, with a reddifh tinge on fome parts.
The red-throated Diver, like the black-throated one, is feldom
met with fiouthward, except in fevere winters. It breeds in the
northern parts of Scotland, on the borders of the lakes. Found in
Ruffia, Sibiria, and Kamtfchatka ; but does not haunt the inland
lakes *. Common in Iceland and Greenland; breeds in the laft
in June, and lays two afh-coloured eggs, marked with a few
black fpots; they are in fhape longer, and more flender than thofe
of the Hen ; making a neft in the grafs on the fhores of the firft,
compofed of mofs and grafs, and placed contiguous to the water.
It fwims and dives well, and flies admirably, and while flying is
very noify.    Oftener frequent frefh waters than thofe of the fea.
* Ara. Zool.
Feeds
■mm
*
   I
R.
34$
Feeds on fmall fifh, crabs, and fiea infebfs : and the fkin is put to
the fame ufes as that of the black-throated fpecies. Inhabits the
rivers of Hudfon's Bay in the fummer, appearing as foon as the
rivers are open. Lays in June, and lines the neft with a little
down from its own breaft; the young fly before the end of
Auguft, and they all depart in September. Are called by the
natives, Affee-moqua. They prey much on the fifh entangled in
the nets ; but are often thereby caught themfelves *.
Striped Diver, Ara. Zool. N° 442.
V/U'EIGHT between two and three pounds. BHl ftrong,
three inches long, and black: head and neck light grey,
ftriped regularly downwards with long, narrow, black lines : back
and fcapulars dufky and plain : primaries, tail, and legs, dufky :
cheeks, and whole under fide ofthe body, of a gloffy white.
Inhabits the inland lakes of Hudfon's Bay, about one hundred
miles fouthward of Tork Fort. Lays, in June, two eggs. Flies
high, and paffes backwards and forwards, making a great noife,
which is faid to portend rain : detefted by the natives, who look
on this note as fupernatural f. Named, at Hudfon's Bay, Mathe-
moqua %.
CIZE uncertain ||. Bill dufky: irides afh-colour: the upper
parts of the head, neck, body, wings, and tail, dufky greenifh
brown; the middle of the feathers much darker: the fore part
of the neck the fame, but con fiderably paler: chin pale rufous:
breaft and under parts of the body pale rufous white, marked
* Fourteen have been taken out of a fingle net at one tide. Mr. Hutchins.—
The other fpecies of Diver are likewife taken in the fame manner.
+ Ara. Zool. X Mr. Hutchins.
fl In the drawing the length was fourteen inches.
Vol. III. Y y with
STRII
Descr
CHINESE D.
Pl. XCVII.
Description.
 2±6 DIVE     R.
with dufky rufous fpots: the quills and'tail are plain brown, the
laft fhort: legs afh-colour.
pLACE. Suppofed  to   inhabit China, as I faw it among other well-
painted drawings at Sir Jofeph Banks's; it was in the attitude of
fifhing, with a brafs ring round the middle of the neck, in the
manner of the annexed figure.
From the various and uncertain accounts of authors, we are
not clear what birds the Chinefe ufe for catching fifh ; the cuftom,
however, of doing it is manifeft, from the relations of many travellers.—The bird ufed for this purpofe has a ring fattened
round the middle of the neck, in order to prevent its fwallowing;
befides this it has a flender long firing fattened to it; and, thus
accoutred, is taken by its mafter into his fifhing-boat, from the
edge of which it is taught to plunge after the fifh as they pafs
by ; and as the ring prevents their paffing further downwards,
they are taken from the mouth of the bird as faft as they are
caught. In this manner fometimes a great many are proe-ureel
in the courfe of a few hours. When the keeper of the bird Ijaa-
taken fufficient for himfelf, the ring is taken off, and the poor
flave fuffered to fatisfy its own hunger *.
We do not here give this bird as the one moft commonly
ufed for the above purpofe; but have thought right to figure it,
as a fpecies, if not new, at leafl as not generally known; and
probably, from the circumftance of its fituation in the painting,
may prove one of the birds ufed on this occafion.
* See an account of this method of fifhing in Du Halde Hift. China.— OJb.
Voy. ii. p. 35. — Salmon Mod. Hift. i. p. 18.—Will. Orn. p. 329. and many other,
authors.—For a further account of this patter confult the article Corvorant,
\
Genus
.
 [   347   ]
Gs n v s LXXXVII.    SKIMMER.
N0' i. Black Sk.
Var. A.
THE bill in this genus is greatly comprefled; the lower
mandible much longer than the upper.
Noftrils linear and pervious.
Legs weak; back toe very fmall.
Tail forked.
z.-Buf.  Oif.
Ryttchops nigra, Lin. Syft. i. p. 228. i-
Le Bec-en^ci&aux, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 223. 1. pl.
p. 454. pl. 36— Pl. Enl.3S7-
Coupeur d'Eau, Defer. Surin. ii. p. 291.
Bec-de-hache, ou Pied rouge, Hift. de la Louif. ii. p. 117.
Avis novaculse facie, the Sea Crow, Raii Syn. p. 194. 5. pl. 1. fig. 5..
Petiv. Gaz. t. 76. fig. 2. (the bill.)—-Edw. pl. 281. (the bill.)
Cut-water, Cat eft. Car. i. pl. go.—Ara. Zool. N° 445.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Black Guillemot: length twenty inches : breadth
three feet feven inches. The bill is of a lingular ftructure,
the upper mandible being above an inch fhorter than the under,
the laft four inches and a half in length ; both mandibles are
greatly comprefled on the fides; the upper fhuts into the under
like a razor into its handle, and both of them very fharp on the
edges; the bafe of the bill is red, the reft black, and on the
fides of the under are feveral furrows: the forehead, chin, and
all the under parts, are white : the reft of the head, and the upper
Y y 2 parts
 S   K
M   M   E   R.
parts of the body and wings, dufky black: acrofs the wings a
bar of white: the tail is much fhorter than the wings, and
forked in fhape; the two middle feathers are black; the next
on each fide the fame, margined outwardly with white; the four
outer ones white, dafhed with dufky down the fhafts, leafl: fo on
the outer feathers: legs weak and red : claws black.
The male and female both alike.
Some birds are brown inftead of black, and the white beneath
lefs pure.
This bird inhabits America, from New Tork to Guiana,
Cayenne, and Surinam ■, and, according to Ray, the Eaft Indies
alfo. It is commonly on the wing, and fkims the furface of the
water, continually dipping in its bill, to take up fmall fifh, on
which it principally feeds. In ftormy weather feeks the fhores,
and lives on oyfters and other Jhell-fijh, which the fhape of the
bill enables it to open. It is called at Madras, Coddel Cauka, or
Summoodra Cauky; at Guiana, Taya-taya; and at New Tork,
Skippog *.   By fome thefe birds are called Razor-bills.
Rynchops fulva, Lin. Syft. i. p. 220. 2.
Var. A; Le Bec-en-cifeaax fauve, Brif. One. vi. p. 227. A.
Description.   -TPHIS differs from the laft, in having thofe parts of a fulvous
colour which in that are of a black brown ;   but in other
things it entirely agrees.
Place. Inhabits Guiana,
» Dr..
Genus
 [   349   3
Genus   LXXXVIII.   TERN.
N° i. Cafpian T.
Var. A.
Var. B.
2. Cayenne T.
3. Surinam T.
4. Sooty T.
5. African T.
6. Noddy T.
7. Simple T.
Var. A.
8. Egyptian T.
q. Sandwich T.
Var. A.
10. Striated T.
N° 11. Wreathed T.
12. Brown T.
13. Dufky T.
14. Common T.
15. Panayan T.
16. Cinereous T.
17. White T.
18. Leffer T.
19. Chinefe T.
20. Southern T.
21. Hooded T»
22. Black T.
Var. A.
33. Brown T.
B
I R D S of this genus have,
A flrait, flender, pointed bill.
Linear noftrils.
The tongue flender, and fharp.
Wings very long.
A fmall back toe.
The tail forked.
 	
35°
R     N.
Stern« Cafpia, N. C. Petr. xiv. p. 582. N° '- -- 22. fig. 2. (P. S. Pallas.)
Sterna tfchegrava, N. C. Petr. xiv. p. 500. 2. t. 13. 2. (J. Lepechin.)
Cafpian Tern, ArO. Zool p>. 526. B.
T ENGTH one foot ten inches and a half: breadth three
feet two inches. Bill crimfon : irides of a dull colour:
forehead, crown, hind head, and round the eyes, deep black,
here and there dotted wkh white; and a fmall whitifh crefcent
on the lower eye-lid*: the hind part of the neck, and all the
upper parts of the body, are hoary : fides of the neck, the fore
parts,. and all beneath the body, the rump, and taily white as
fnow; the laft forked : the firft fix quills are deep afh-colour,
the margins and tips blackifh s the others in colour like the
back : legs black. In that defcribed by Pallas the haftard wing
was marked with fagittal black fpots; and the legs reddifh
brown.
This is very frequent in the Cafpian Sea, and neighbouring parts,
about the mouth of the Jaick ; wandering at times up the great
river Ob, even towards the Frozen Ocean. Fifhes both in the fea-
and rivers, much in the fame manner as the black-headed Gull.
At times feen fufpended in the air, and then all at once darting
into the water after a fifh ; at other times fkimming the furface,
like a Swallow. Mixes with the Gulls on the rocks. Lays two
pretty large eggs, fpotted with brown. Its note is like a perfon
laughing.    The Ruffians call it Tfchegrava,
timms^s
 R     N.
3$-
Br.Muf.
CIZE ofthe Herring Gull: length twenty-one inches. Bill
flout, three inches and a half long, and of a deep red: the top
of the head, and fides, taking in the eyes, are black fpotted with
white *. the reft of the head, neck, and under parts, white : back
hoary: quills pale grey, with white fhafts: on the fcapulars a
few dufky fpots: tail fhort, and forked; croffed with a few
dufky bars near the end; the wings exceed it in length by three
inches and a half: legs black.
Inhabits Bombay.    Called by the Indians, Talla*
Br. Muf.
T ENGTH nineteen or twenty inches. Bill three inches,
ftout, and of a pale yellow : noftrils pervious : the crown of
the head black ; the feathers longifh, and forming a kind of
penfile creft at the nape; the reft of the head, neck, and under
parts of the body, white: back and wings pale cinereous grey r.
quills grey, with the ends dufky; the inner webs, half way from
the bafe, white : tail grey, forked; the end half of the outer feather white: the fhafts of quills and tail white; the laft Is exceeded by the firft by an inch : legs blaek-
Suppofed to inhabit China. We have alfo feen the fame, or
one greatly refembling, from the Friendly Ifles in the S,atttk $eas*
Is- alfb. found at Hapaee, one of the Sandwich Ifles.
 CAYENNE T.
Description.
R     N.
La grande Hirondelle de Mer de Cayenne, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 346.—Pl.
Enl. 988.
T   ENGTH fixteen inches.    Hind part of the head black:
upper parts of the plumage grey, the feathers edged with
pale rufous : the under parts of the body white.
Inhabits Cayenne.
Greater Tern, Hift. de Surin. ii. p. 187.
CIZE not mentioned.    Bill, head, neck, and breaft, black:
back, wings, and tail, afh-colour :   belly and thighs dirty
white : legs and feet red : claws black.
Inhabits Surinam -, but is often feen two hundred leagues from
land. Its food in common is fijh, and it will often purfue the leffer
ones in order to make them difgorge what they have fwallowed,
which it feizes on as lawful prey *. We have feen fuch a kind of
bird in a collection which came from Cayenne, which differed only
in having the vent rufous.    This laft was the fize of the Noddy.
L'Hiroirdelle de Mer a grande envergure, Buf. Oif viii. p. 345.
Egg-Bird, Forft. Voy. i. p. 113.-—Ceo*',; Voy. i. p. 66. 275.
Noddy, Damp. Voy. iii.  part 1. p. 142. pl. in p. 123. fig. 5. — Hawkef.
Voy. iii. p. 652.
Sooty Tern, Ara. Zool. N° 447.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Noddy:   length fixteen inches.    Bill two inches
and a quarter, black: the forehead is white, paffing on each
not for this' circumftance proving it to be a bird of 1
1 conclude it to be the black Tern, or its variety.
larger
fide
 TERN.
fide to the upper part of the eye, where it ends in a point: through
the eye a ftreak of black, paffing to the hind head : the crown,
nape, hind part of the neck, and all the upper parts, wings, and tail,
are black: the under parts, from the chin, white, paffing a little
backwards at the lower part of the neck : the under wing coverts,
and inner ridge of the wing, white: quills dark greyifh black;
tail forked ; the outer web of the exterior feather white, except
juft at the tip : the fhafts of both quills and tail are white beneath : legs black.
This fpecies feems pretty far fpread, being met with in various
parts by our voyagers. Sir AJhton Lever received it from New
Tork, from whence alfo I faw one in the collection of Colonel
Davies; and in another collection a third, which came from
Cayenne. In the ifland of Afcenfton, they are in prodigious numbers. Dampier met with them off the coaft of New Holland, and
in great plenty in the Roca iflands, near Tortuga *, where he has
feen the nefts j and our late circumnavigators, between New
South Wales and New Guinea, where one of thefe fettled on the
rigging f. It alfo fometimes ftrays farther fouth, as it has been
feen in lat. 48. 38 %. Moft failors agree that this, and others of
the Noddy tribe, feen at fea, fhew the vicinity of land, and that
they feldom go above feventy or eighty leagues from it; but
Capt. Cook fays, this mark is not always to be relied on §. The
fpecimen in my collection came from Chrifimas Ifland, where it is
gregarious. It lays a fingle egg upon the bare ground, in the
month of December, making no neft.
35T
Place »
Mannei
* Damp. Voy. vol.iii. part 1. p. 143.—vol. i.p. 53.
X Forft. Voy. i. p. 113,—^Cook's Voy. i. p. 66.
t Hawkef. Fepiiii. p. 652.
§ Voy. i. p. 275.
 Br. Muf.
C I Z E of the laft. Bill black : general colour of the
plumage white : top of the head mottled with black: wings
of a pale blueifh white, inclining to lead-colour, and fpotted
with brown : quills pale blue grey, margined with white, except
the ends of the outer ones : the wings are longer than the tail,
which is forked, the ends of the feathers dufky, mottled with
white: legs black.
Inhabits Africa.
Sterna ftolida, Lin. Syft. i. p. 227. i.—a
Le Fou, Hift. de Louif. ii. p. 119.
LaMouette brune, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 199
Le Noddi, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 461. pl. 37.
Paffer ftultus, foolilh-Sp;
Noddy, Raii Syn. p. 13:
nam. Acad. iv. p. 240.
15. pi.18. fig. 2—Pl. Enl. 097.
pi. i
V, Raii Syn. p. 154..—Will. Orn. p. 385.
0.  190. 2.—Sloan. Jam. i. p. 31. pi. 6. j
,—Cateft. Car.   i. pl. 88. — Damp. Foy
r. 6.—Ara. Zool. N° 446.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE ofthe Black-cap Gull: length fifteen inches: weight
four ounces. Bill two inches long, flender, and black: the
whole plumage of a footy brown, except the top ofthe head,
which is white, changing at the hind part to afh-colour: the
quills and tail darker than the reft : legs black.
This bird is met with very frequent at fea; but fcarce ever
except within the tropics.   Said to breed in the Bahama Iflands,
laying
 T
N.
laying the eggs on the bare rocks: on the Roca Iflands, and various parts of the coaft of Brafil, and Cayenne. Frequently flies
on board the fhips, and may be taken with the hand ; but though
feemingly thus ftupid, will often bite the fingers feverely with
the bill, and fcratch with the claws, fo as to make it unfafe to
hold by a tender fkin. When flying about in flocks, and particularly in breeding-time, are very noify. We are told alfo that
they lay their eggs in vaft numbers on certain fmall rocky ifles
near St. Helena; and that the eggs are good to eat. Some
voyagers affirm that the fight of this bird at fea fhews the mariner the vicinity of land ; but others aver the contrary*. From
their ftupidity they are called by the failors Noddy. At Otaheite
known by the name of Oiyo.
CIZE of the Noddy: length fifteen inches.    Bill nearly three
inches in length, flout, and of a reddifh colour : crown of D:
the head nearly white : the upper parts of the neck and back
pale lead-colour; the under white: behind each eye a fpot of
black : the leffer wing coverts, fcapulars, and tail, like the back :
the middle and greater coverts white ; but fome ofthe laft have
the outer margins brown: quills black: tail but little forked,
and the wings much exceed it in length : the legs are red.
This  was  defcribed from   a   fpecimen   which   came   from
Cayenne.
• Cook's Voy. i. p. 27$.—Cateft. Car. p.  88—This laft author has met with
ithem above one hundred leagues from land.
LENGTH
SIMPLE T.
3SCRIPTION.'
 3!fi
R    -N.
+■ Va
Descrip
T ENGTH thirteen inches. Bill two inches, black: from
the forehead to the middle of the crown, the fides of the
head, the neck all round, and all the under parts, from chin to
vent, and under wing coverts, white: the reft of the crown and
nape dufky, ending in a point, and a little mottled on the edges
with white : the back and wings deep afh-colour, nearly black :
the fhafts of the quills above are chefnut; beneath white; as is
alfo the outer web of the firft : tail the colour of the back, but
paler, not greatly forked, and is much fhorter than the wings:
legs black.
This flew aboard a fhip in the run from the Madeiras to the
Weft Indies.
EGYPTIAN T.
Description.
Sterna Nilotica, Hajfela. It. p. 273. N° 41.
CIZE of a Pigeon. Bill black: head and upper part of the
neck afh-colour, marked with fmall blackifh fpots: round
the eyes black, dotted with white : back, wings, and tail, afh-
colour : the outer quills deep afh-colour: all the under parts
white : legs flefh-colour : claws black.
Inhabits Egypt: found in flocks in January, efpecially about
Cairo. Feeds on infebls, fimall fifh, &c. May be found frequent
among other birds, on the mud left by the overflowing of the
river Nile.
+- SANDWICH
T.
Description.
T   ENGTH eighteen inches.    Bill two inches; colour black,.
with the tip horn-colour: tongue half the length of the bill:
10 irides
 TERN.
irides hazel: forehead, crown, hind head, and fides above the
eye, black : the reft of the head, neck, under parts of the body,
and tail, white : the back and wings pale hoary lead-colour: the
firft five quills hoary black, the inner webs deeply margined
with white; the fixth like the others, but much paler; the reft
ofthe quills like the back : the tall is forked, the outer feather
fix inches and a quarter in length; the wings reach rather beyond
it: legs and claws black : the under part ofthe feet dufky red.
Some fpecimens have the top of the head dotted with white.
In young birds the upper parts are much clouded with brown;
and the whole of the top of the head greatly mixed with white;
but this is not peculiar, as the young of other Terns with black
heads are in the fame ftate.
This fpecies is pretty common on the coafts of Kent, in the
fummer months, and breeds there : frequents that of Sandwich m
vaft flocks, and makes a fereaming noife. May be fuppofed to lay
their eggs among the rocks in the month of June, and hatch them
before the middle of July, as I have received the young birds
from that diligent naturalift Mr. Boys, the end of Auguft 1784.
About the fame time a young bird, with nearly the fame markings, was fhot by Dr. Leith, of Greenwich, on the banks of the
Thames near that place*. Whether thefe birds only vifit us at
uncertain feafons, or have hitherto paffed unnoticed among other
Terns, we know not; but believe it has not yet been recorded as
a Britifh fpecies. A young bird of this kind is in the Leverian
Mufeum, but differed in having a mottling of black paffing,
through the eye to the hind head: faid to have been brought
from South America.
357
* A young one of this fpecies i
4ra. Zool, N°5z6.
mentioned to have been fhot near Shrew/bury.
 358
Sterna nasvia, Lin. Syft. i. p. 228. 5.
Rallus lariformis, Scop. Ann. i. N° 156 *.
L'Hirondelle-de-Mer tacheiee, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 216. 6. pl. 20, fig. 2.
La Guifette, Buf. Oif. viii. p. SSg.—Pl. Enl. 924.
Cloven-footed Gull, Albin, ii. pl. 82.
Kamtfchatkan Tern, Ara. Zool. p. 525. A.
Lev. Muf.
T   ENGTH eleven-inches and a half.   Bill dufky : back part of'
the head and nape black, edged with rufous brown : the eye
half furrounded at the back part with a black crefcent: the reft
ofthe head, neck, -and under parts, white : back and wings of a
blueifh brown, the margins of the feathers paler : the outward
part of the wing more inclined to blue grey : the wings exceed
the tail in length ; the laft very little forked : legs dufky
brown.
This by authors has been confidered as a fpecies, but is
no doubt a young bird merely of the Sandwich Tern. Buffon
fays it is, in the ftate he defcribes, common on the coafts of
Picardy-, that it lays about three eggs on a bed of dry leaves,
among the grafs, and fits feventeen days, and the young are all
hatched at once.    Has alfo been obferved about Kamtfchatka^.
STRIATED T.
Pl. XCVIII.
Description.
CIZE of the white  Tern?   Bill  black:   irides lead-colour:
the crown  of the head, and fides, below  the eyes, white,
* Rallus fubtus albido-flavefcens, cervice c-erulefcenti maculato digitis mar-
•inatis.— Lin. Syft, i. p. 153. N° 3, (edit. 10.)
f Ara, Zool.
•mottleoV
' m.tmm
   TERN.
mottled with black : the back part of the head and nape black :
the hind part of the neck, back, and fcapulars, white, tranfverfely
waved with black, many of the feathers being tipped with that
colour: wing coverts' blueifh white, fome of the leffer ones
mottled with black : quills the fame, with the outer margins
black: all the under parts white: tail white, fhorter than the
wings; fome of the feathers edged, and others tipped with black:
legs lead-colour.
Inhabits the fea and fhores of New Zealand. From the drawings of Sir Jofeph Banks. This greatly refembles the young of
the Sandwich Tern.
369
T ENGTH fifteen inches. Bill rather flender, near two inches
in length, and of a deep blood red: the top of the head,
juft taking in the eye on each fide, and to the nape behind,
black* this is bounded by a line of white all round; the reft of
the plumage a very pale afh-colour, in fome parts nearly white;
the chin paleft: rump, vent, and tail, pure white; the outer
feather of the laft inclines to afh-colour : legs orange.
A fecond of thefe had a fhorter bill: the tail afh-coloured, with
white fhafts : and the general colour of the plumage every where
darker : poffibly a younger bird.
Inhabits Chrifimas Ifland.   In the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks.
WREATHED T.
Description.
HpHIS is a trifle lefs than the Noddy.    Length fifteen inches:
breadth thirty-four.    Bill two inches, black: general colour
of the  plumage reddifh .brown;   paleft beneath :  between the
legs and vent white:. the head, neck, and under parts, are plain:
4 the
 36o
E
N.
the feathers of the back and wing coverts fringed at the ends
with reddifh white: fcapulars and fecond quills tipped with
white; under wing covert, and ridge of the wing, white : quills
and tail dufky, the laft forked ; the fhafts of both white beneath:
legs pale reddifh brown: claws black.
Some fpecimens have the neck and breaft feathers margined
with dufky.
Inhabits Cayenne.
a fufcata, Lin. Syft. i. p. 228. 6.
ondelle-de-Mer brune, Brif. Orn. '
220. 7. pl, 21. f. ]
CIZE of the black Tern: length eleven inches. Bill an inch
and a half long, of a greyifh brown, with the tip black: the
head, throat, and hind part of the neck, dufky brown: back,
rump, fcapulars, and upper tail coverts, the fame, but the feathers have rufous margins: fore part of the neck, and all the
under parts, brown : leffer and middle wing coverts above,
dufky brown; the greater dufky : under wing coverts cinereous
white : quills dufky; the fhafts white beneath ; the two neareft
the body tipped with rufous : tail as the quills; the two middle
ones rufous at the tips : tail fomewhat forked ; and the wings do
not quite reach to the end of it, when clofed : legs of a dull red :
claws black.
Inhabits the ifland of St. Domingo.    It feems greatly allied to
the laft-defcribed, though much lefs in fize.
 TERN,
361
Sterna Hirundo, Lin. Syft. i. p. 227. 2.—Faun. Suec. N° i^.****Haflelj.
p. 272. N' 40.—Scop. Ann. i. N° in.—Brun. N° 151. 152.—-Mutter,
p. 21.—Faun. Groenl. N° Sg.—Kram. El. p, 345. {Larus.J—Frifib.
ii. 219.
La grande Hirondelle-de»-Mer, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 203. 1. pl. 19. fig- 1.—
Buf. Oif. viii. p. 331. pl. 27.—Pl. Enl. 987.
/The Sea-Swallow, Raii Syn. p.   131. A. 1.  191. 7.—Will. Orn. p. 352.
pl. 68.—Albin, ii. pl. 88.
Great Tern, Br. Zool. N° 254. pl. gd.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH fourteen inches, or more: breadth thirty: Weight
four ounces and a quarter. Bill flender, two inches and a
half long; the colour crimfon, and pointed at the end, where it
is black: the top of the head, taking in the eyes and nape,
black, tapering to a point at the back part of the neck: between
the noftrils and eye, fides under it, neck, and all the under parts,
pure white : the back and wings are of a fine pale afh-colour:
quills grey; two or three of the outer ones very dark; the fhafts
white : tail greatly forked, white, except the outer web of the exterior feather, which is black: the legs are crimfon : claws
black.
This is a very common fpecies, and frequents our fea-coafts;
and banks of lakes and rivers, during the fummer; but moft
common in the neighbourhood ofthe fea. Found alfo in various
parts of Europe and Afia, according to the feafon : in the fummer
as far as Greenland and Spitzbergen-, migrating in turn to the
fouth of Auftria and Greece. It lays three or four eggs, about the
month of June, of a dull olive-colour, an inch and three quarters
Vol. III. 3 A in
 TERN.
in length, marked with irregular black fpots, intermixed with.*
fome others, of a fmaller fize, and lefs bright; the little end is
almoft free from any markings: thefe are laid among the grafs
or mofs. The young are hatched in July, and quit the neft very
foon after: they are carefully fed by their parents, and fly in
about fix weeks. This bird appears to have all the actions over
the water which the Swallow has on land; flamming over the
furface, and feizing on every infect which comes in its way; be-
fides which, the moment it fpies a fifh in the water, it darts into
that element, and feizing its prey arifes as quickly to the place it
dipped from.
It is alfo found in America: comes into New England in May,
and goes away in autumn; called th«re the MackarelGull. At
Hudfon's Bay known by the name of Black-head. Obferved to>
Jay their eggs in fmall hollows on the fhore, fometimes lined
with a few leaves. Often found in great numbers on the iflets in.
the middle of the rivers, and is thought good eating. The natives of Hudfon's Bay call it Kenouch eneou keaflk*. It is a bold
bird, not fearing mankind : and in the time of incubation will
attack any one; frequently darting down fo as to touch a per-
fon's hat, without his giving the leafl: offence.
Dr. Forfler mentions a variety at Hudfion's Bay, having the
legs black : the tail fhorter, and lefs forked; and the outer feather wholly white -p.
t Phil. Tranf vol. lxi
 R     N.
363
L'Hirondelle-de-Mer de rifle de Pan ay, Son. Foy.
Oif. viii. p. 344.
! 84,-2?*/.
CIZE of the common Tern.   Bill black: top of the head fpotted    Descrm
^ with black : hind part of the neck greyifh black: wings the
-colour of umber above, greyifh beneath: fore part of the neck,
breaft, and belly, white: tail as the wings; legs black.
Inhabits the ifle of Panay.    It feems greatly fimilar to our pLA
common Tern, except in the darknefs of the upper part of the
plumage.
L'Hirondelle-de-Mer cendree, Brif. Orn. vi.
Larus nigcr fidipes alter, alis brevioribus, Rai
2to. 3.
Syn.
CINEREOUS T.
The other cloven-footed Gull of Aldrovandus, with fhorter wings, Will.
Om. p. 354,
CIZE of a Blackbird; length thirteen inches. Bill black:
head and throat black; in fome the forehead and chin is
mottled with white: neck, back, wings, rump, fcapulars, upper
tail coverts, and tail, and under parts from the breaft, afh*-
colour: under tail coverts, and ridge of the wing, white: legs
reddifh: claws black.
Inhabits Italy,  and parts  adjacent;   where thefe birds are
called Rondini Marini.
Lev. Muf
T  ENGTH thirteen inches:   breadth  thirty.    Bill flender,
black: eye-lids the fame: general colour of the plumage
white as fnow} but the fhafts of the fcapulars, quills, and tail,
3 A 2 except
+- WHITE T.
Description.
 T
R     N-
except the three outer feathers, are black: the tail is forked in
fhape, and fhorter than the wings, when clofed, by an inch : legs
brown: webs-orange: claws black. In fome there is a flight
mixture of brown on the head.
Inhabits Chrifimas Ifland, and other parts of the South Seas.
Seen alfo off the ifland of St. Helena.
Sterna minuta, Lin. Syft. i. p. 228. 4.—Scop. Ann. i. N° no.
La petite Hirondelle-de-Mer, Brif. Orn. vi. p.  206. 2. pl.  19. fig- 2.—
Buf. Oif. viii. p. 337.—Pl. Enl. 996.
Leffer Sea-Swallow, Raii Syn. p. 131. A. 2.—Will. Orn. p. 353. pl. 68.—
Albin, ii. pl. 90.
Leffer Tern, Br. Zool. N° 155. pl. 90.—Ar3. Zool. N° 449.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf
ENGTH eight inches and a half: breadth nineteen and a
half: weight little more than two ounces. Bill yellow,
tipped with black: irides dufky: forehead, to the crown,
white : the reft of the head and nape black: through the eye,
from the bill, a ftreak of the fame; except this, the fides of the
head, the neck, all the under parts, and tail, of the pureft
white: back and wings pale grey : quills deeper grey, and much
longer than the tail: legs yellow : claws black.
This feems to have much the fame haunt and manners as the
common Tern ; but is not met with fo far north, nor does it appear to be fo numerous a fpecies : it however breeds on many of
our fhores. The egg is an inch and a half in length, of a dirty
yellowifh brown, dafhed all over with reddifh blotches. Out of
thefe_realms it is found in the fouthern parts of Ruffia, about the
Black and Cafpian Seas; and in Sibiria, about the river Irtifch.
In America feen, during the fummer, about New Tork.
Br.
*mmm
 365
T ENGTH eight inches. Bill black; one inch and a quarter
in length, and moderately flout: noftrils pervious : head,
neck, rump, and under parts, white : acrofs the top of the head
dufky black, taking in the eye on each fide, and paffing downwards in a point at the nape of the neck : back cinereous ; fome
of the feathers edged with pale tawny: wing coverts fine pale
afh-colour, dafhed down the middle of each fhaft with dufky:
quills fine cinereous grey: tail fhort, very little forked, paler
than the quills : legs flender, orange : claws crooked, and
black.
Inhabits China.    It feems much allied to the laft.
CHINESE T.
Description.
Bill one inch and a half,
'ings, and tail, dirty pale
Lev. Muf.
T   ENGTH feven inches and a half.
black: forehead dirty buff: back, i
afh-colour: under parts grey : quills white:  tail forked :  legs
pretty long, dufky black: webs orange.  We obferved a fpecimen
of this which was full nine inches in length.
Inhabits Chrifimas Ifland.
Sternametopoleucos, N. C. Petr. xv. p. 475. N0 17. t. 22. (S. G. Gmelin.)
CIZE of the Little Tern: length eight inches and a quarter.
Bill one inch  and one third  long, red  at the bafe,   then
yellow, with the tip black: irides livid :  the forehead white:
the temples, the whole of the head, and neck, black: back hoary:
10 under
SOUTHERN T.
Description.
 TERN.
-under parts and tail white, the laft forked: the quills are afh-coloured, except the firft and fecond, which are very long, and
brown : legs faffron-colour : claws black.
Male and female alike.
This is a Ruffian bird: comes from beyond the Black Sea, in
fpring, in pairs; and is firft feen about one hundred werfts from
Weronetz. Builds in June. Lays, for the moft part, two eggs.
Frequents the water like other Terns. Flies high, and fwift; and
is difficult to be fhot, except the fportfman firft fhoots one of
fome other fpecies, which, being thrown up into the air, entices
the bird to come nearer*.    It returns from whence it came in
Sterna fiffipes, Lin. Syft. i. p. 228. 7.—Brun. N° 153.
Larus merulinus, Scop. Ann. i. N° 108 r
L'Hirondelle-de-Mer noire, ou 1'Epouvantail, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 211. 4.—
Buf. Oif. viii. p. 341.-Pl. Enl. 333.
Scare-Crow, Raii Syn. p. 131. A. 3.—Will. Orn. p. 353. pl. 68.
Larus niger fidipes, &c. Raii Syn. p. 131. 4. A. 6.
Cloven-footed Gulls, Will. Orn. p. 354. § 4. 6. pl. 78.
Black Tern, Br. Zool. N° 256.—Ara. Zool. N° 450.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
CIZE between the common and leffer Terns 1 length ten inches:
breadth twenty-four: weight two ounces and a half. Bill
black: head, neck, and body, footy black: back, wings, and
tail, deep afh-colour; the laft lefs forked than in either of the
others : vent and under" tail coverts white : the outer feather of
• This practice is often ufed by the Britifh fpecies, as well as thofe of the
Gull tribe.
the
 TERN.
the tail edged with white : legs dufky red.    The male has a fpot
of white under the chin.
This, like the other Britifh fpecies, frequents our fhores in
fummer; but is likewife very common a great way up many
rivers, and feveral of our fens: now and then feen about reedy
places, and neglected fijh-ponds. The eggs are three or four in
number, of a dirty greenifh colour, fpotted with black, and furrounded with a band of black about the middle •. thefe it lays
among the reeds, in the fens or other marfhy places. The food
confifts of infeffs* and fmall fijh, the addrefs to procure which-
' is much the fame as in others of this genus. It is called about
Cambridge the Car-Swallow. On the continent it is found pretty
far north: very numerous in Sibiria, and about the fait lakes of
the defarts of Tartary. In Europe, as far as Iceland- Suppofed to
inhabit Hudfon's Bay f; and is probably the fame which was feen
in vaft flocks, beyond lat. 41. north, long. 47. W. by Mr. Kalmy
fomewhat fouth of the bank of NewfoundlandJ-
367
*3
Sterna nigra, Lin. Syft. i. p. 227. ^.—Faun. Suet. N° 159.—Mutter, N° 171.
—Georgi Reife, p. 171.
L'Hirondelle-de-Mer a tete noire, ou le Gachet, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 214. 5*
-Buf. Of. viii. p. 342.
>"p"HIS is a trifle bigger than the laft: length nine inches and
a half.    Bill black: the head, neck, and breaft, the fame :
round the eyes a few grey feathers: back, rump, fcapulars, and
* Beetles and Maggots found in the ftomach of one.—Will. p. 354.
+ Ara. Zool.
X Kalm fays, it was rather darker than the common Sea-Swallow; the flocks
sonfiiled of fome hundreds, and fometimes fettled on the fhip.—Trav. i. p- 23-
7 upper
 368 T     E     R     N.
upper wing coverts, afh-colour: lower part of the breaft, belly,
thighs, under wing coverts, and vent, white : quills deeper coloured at the ends : tail as the quills ; but the outer one on each
fide white on the outer web, margined with afh-colour: fhape of
the tail a little forked: legs of a dull red: claws black.
Place. Said to inhabit various parts of Europe; but we do not recol
lect to have feen the bird. It is moft likely a variety of the laft,
as we have obferved more-or lefs white between the legs of fome
fpecimens.
BROWN T.
Description.
Brown Tern, Raii Syn. p. 131. A. 15.—Will. Orn. p. 352.—Br. Zool. ii.
N» 253.
" -TPHE whole under fide is white; the upper brown : wings
" partly brown partly afh-colour: the head black: the
" tail not forked. Thefe birds fly in companies." Such is the
defcription of Ray and Willughby, from which no certainty can
be drawn. It is probably, from the circumftance of the tail not
being forked, a young bird; but whether of the Tern or Gull
kind yet remains in obfcurity.
 [ 3h 3
Genus   LXXXIX.     GULL.
I.
Great G.
N* ir.
Brown-headed G
2.
Black-backed G.
12.
Laughing G.
3-
Herring G.
13-
Winter G.
*r-
Glaucous G.
14.
Skua G.
S*
Silvery G.
*5-
Black-toed G.
6.
Wagel G.
16.
Arftic G.
7-
Ivory G.
-7-
Little G.
8.
Common G.
18.
Tarrock G.
9-
Black-headed G.
Var. A.
to.
Red-legged G.
Var. A.
19.
Kittiwake G.
BILL ftrong, flrait, but bending down at the point; on the
under part of the lower mandible an angular prominence.
Noftrils oblong and narrow, placed in the middle of the bill.
Tongue a little cloven.
Body light : wings long.
Legs fmall, naked above the knees: back toe fmall.
Between the Gulls and Terns there feems much affinity, and by
fome authors they have been confidered as one family; but they
are perfectly diftinguifhable, and eafily feparated into two genera.
The Gulls are in general ftouter proportioned birds than the
Terns, and have the bill much ftronger, and crooked at the end,
fome of them in a degree equal to many birds ofprey ; while that
of the Tern is for the moft part flrait and flender.   The legs are
Vol. III. 3 B likewife
 37«
GULL.
likewife much weaker than thofe ofthe Gull, and the tail forked
at the end *, a circumftance not obferved in the laft genus.
Great uncertainty however is found in refpect to plumage in
both, arifing from the different ftages of life; and has occafioned
authors to confider many birds as fpecies, when the obfervations
of later times have been able to point out, that fuch variety has
arifen merely from difference in age or fex. But much remains
to be afcertained on this head, as errors of this kind are only to
be removed by flow degrees, and reiterated obfervation.
GREAT G.
Description.
Larus idhyaetus, Pall. Tr. ii. App. N° 27.
C IZ E of the Bernacle Goofe, and fometimes even larger: weight
between two and three pounds. The bill of a dufky yellow
at the bafe; towards the end crimfon; the tip yellow; near it
croffed with a dufky brown fpot: infide of the mouth red : irides
brown : the head and half the neck black : eye-lids white : the
back and rump pale grey: fecond quills the fame, but darker:
greater quills white ; the firft five tipped with black: tail even at
the end, and white : legs reddifh brown.
This fpecies inhabits the borders of the Cafpian Sea, and is a
quite different bird from the black-headed Gull, being fo many
degrees larger in fize. It lays the eggs on the bare fand, without the leafl preparation of a neft : they are in fhape of an oblong oval, marked with frequent brown fpots, with fome paler
ones intermixed. In flying has an hoarfe cry, fomewhat like that
of a Raven.
* Great latitude fhould be given in refpect. to the young of the Tern; as in
fome fpecies the tail feathers, during that ftage of life, are nearly even at the
ends.
 •37*
Larus marinus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 225. 6.--Faun. Suec. N° 15$.—Brun. N9145.
—Mutter, N° 163.
Le Goiland noir, 2?rj£ Or*, vi. p. 158.—Buf. Oif viii. p. 405. pl. 31.—
Pl. Enl. 990.
Great black and white Gull, Raii Syn. p. 127. A. \.—Will. Orn. p. 344.
pl. 67.—Albin, iii. pl. 94.
Black-backed Gull, Br. Zool. ii. N° 242.—Flor. Scot, i, pl. 5. fig. 2.—
^r<5. Zco/. N° 451.
Lev. Muf.
4- BLACK-
BACKED G.
T ENGTH twenty-nine inches : breadth five feet nine inches:
weight near five pounds. The bill is very ftrong and thick,
and almoft four inches long ; the colour a pale yellow ; but the
lower mandible is marked with a red fpot, with a black one in
the middle : irides yellow : edges of the eye-lids orange : head,
neck, whole under fide, tail, and lower part of the back, white:
upper part of the back and wings black: quills tipped with
white: legs of a pale flefh-colour.
Mr. Pennant obferves, that he has met with, on the coaft of
"Anglefea, a bird that agrees in all refpects with this, except in
fize j in wanting the black fpot on the bill; and in the colour of
the legs, which were of a bright yellow : the extent of the wings
only four feet five inches: length twenty-two inches: weight
half a pound; and that the fame has been fhot at Bulfirode in
Buckinghamjhire. One of thefe, fhot on the Thames near me,'
meafured full two feet in length.
This fpecies inhabits feveral parts of Englafid, and breeds on
the higheft cliffs.    The egg is blunt at each end; of a dufky
olive-colour; quite black at the greater end ; and the reft of it
3 B 2 thinly
 37 a
U
L.
thinly marked with dufky fpots. It is alfo common on moft of
the northern coafts of Europe: frequents Greenland; but chiefly
inhabits the diftant rocks. Lays three eggs in May, placing
them on the heaps of dung which the birds leave there from
time to time. Cackles like a Goofe. Said to attack other birds,
and to be particularly an enemy to the Eider Duck *; though
the moft general food is fifh. Common alfo in America, as low
as South Carolina, where it is called the Old Wife--f.
I have feen this from the Cape of Good Hope; but it
meafured only twenty-two inches : the bill as ufual: irides
hazel : back olive-colour. It is faid to breed in the bays of that
promontory, efpecially on the rocks and fmall ifles in Falfie Bay.
The young fpotted with brown. Parkinfon likewife met with it
off the coaft of New Holland; the length not mentioned, but
defcribes it as having a high yellow beak, a fpot of fcarlet on the
gibbous part: corner of the mouth, and irides, bright fcarlet;
legs greenifh yellow X*-
Larus fufcus, Lin. Syft. i. p.  225. 7.—Faun. Suec. N° 154.—Scop. Ann. i.
N° 107.—Brun.  N° 142—Mutter, N° 164.—Georgi Reife, p.   171.—
Frifch.pi. 218.
Le Goiland gris, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 162. 3.
 a manteau gris-brun, ou le Bourgmeftre, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 418.
Herring Gull, Raii Syn. p. 127. A. 2.—Will. Orn. p. 345.—Shane Jam. ii..
p. 322.—Br. Zool. ii. N° 246. pi. 88.—Ara. Zool. N° 452.
Lev. Muf.
T   ENGTH twenty-three inches: breadth fifty-two: weight
thirty ounces, or more.    Bill yellow; on the lower man-
* Faun. Groenl. f ArQ. Zool. X See Voy. p. 144.
 GULL.
dible an orange fpot: irides ftraw-colour : edges of the eye-lids
red : head, neck, and tail, white: back and wing coverts afh-
coloured : the upper part of the five firft quills black, marked
with a white fpot near the ends * : legs pale flefh-colour.
The young are alh-cploured, fpotted with brown f.
The Herring Gull is common in this kingdom, and frequents the
fame places as the black-backed. Said to make a neft of dead grafs,
and lay three dirty white eggs, fpotted with black. It feeds on
fijh, and is a great enemy to the Herrings, from whence the name ;
is a conftant attendant on the nets, and fo bold as to feize its prey
before the fifhermen's faces £. Is found in molt of the northern
parts of Europe, as well as about the Cafpian and Black Seas, and
the rivers which fall into them : alfo about the great lakes of
Sibiria. Found likewife in Iceland, Greenland, arid Hudfon's Bay.
In winter migrates" fouth, "being found in Jamaica. Said to
breed on fome of the iflands on the coaft of South Carolina ||.
* In Brijfon the quills are grey brown ; the two firft have a white fpot near
the tips, and the ends black; the tips of the two next white; the two following,
have brown ends; and the tips of all the reft white.
t Br. Zool.—The Mouette grife, Brif. vi. p. 171. feems a young bird : it is
twenty inches long. The upper parts grey, the under white;. crown grey :
prime quills and tail grey, margined with rufous: the outer tail feathers white
a great way on the inner webs. We have fuch a one in our poffeflion, differing;
only in having the fcapulars of a fine pale blue grey,
X Br. Zool. || Ara. Zool.
 G     U
4. ■    Larus glaucus, Brun. N° 148.—Mutter, N° iBg.—Faun. Groenl. N° 64.
4- GLAUCOUS Le Goiland cendre, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 160. 2.—PI. Enl. 253.
G" Le Goeland a manteau gris, 5»/*: Oif. viii. p. 406. pl. 32.
Glaucous Gull, Ara. Zool. p. 532. B.
Description.     T   ARGER than the Herring Gull.   Bill yellow; near the end
an orange fpot: head and under part of the body white :
back and wings of a fine hoary grey; primaries darkeft, tipped
with white * : legs of a pale fulvous hue.
Place and Inhabits Norway, Lapmark, Greenland, and Spitzbergen.   Called
Manners. by ^ j-,^^ Burgmeifter, being mafter of all other fea-fowl.
Builds its neft high on the cliffs. Preys on dead Whales : attends
the Walrujfes, in order to feed on their dung; and will deftroy
and eat the young of the Razor-bills. Is' almoft continually on
the wing. Makes a hoarfe noife like a Raven. Feeds alfo on
fifh, and does not defpife the berries of the black-berried heath.
Dr. Forfter mentioned to me that he met with this fpecies both
at Terra del Fuego and New Zealand. I have alfo received it
from Hudfon's Bay, twenty-three inches in length, and four feet
in breadth; but this differed from the defcription of Briffon, in
having fix of the quills black at the ends; near the tip of the
outer one is a large fpot of white; on the fecond a fmaller white
fpot on the inner web, near the tip, and the tip itfelf white;
the four next only white at the tips : the fecond quills are white
at the ends : the legs of a brownifh red : claws black.
* In Briffon % defcription, only the firft four have the ends black ; all of thefe
i tipped with white ; but the outer one has a black fpot on the white.
 Larus argentatus, Brun. N° 149.
Silvery Gull, Ara. Zool. p. 533. C,
CIZE of the Herring Gull.   Bill yellow, with an orange fpot:
head and neck white; ftreaked downwards with cinereous
lines: back and under parts of the body as in the Glaucous Gull:
lower part of the primaries greyifh; upper black; tips white.
Inhabits Norway. In the Britijh Mufteum is one very much
like the above: length near fixteen inches : bill one inch and a
half long : quills marked as in the other ; but the two firft have
the ends tipped with white for near an inch, the others only juft
a fpot; but only fix of the prime quills had the ends black : the
bill and legs.were pale; but as this bird had been in fpirits fome
time, nothing certain could be faid about them.
Larus naevius, Lin. Syft. i. p. 225. 5^
Larus maculatus, Brun. N° 146. (a young bird ?)
Larus varius, Brun. N° 150.
Le Goiland varie, ou le Grifard, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 167. 5. pl. 15.—Buf.
Oif. viii. p. 413. pl. 33.—Pl. Enl. 266.
Wagel, Burgo-Mafter of Groenland,  great Grey Gull, Raii Syn. p. 130.
s    A. 13.—Will. Orn. p. 349. pl. 66.
Wagel, Br. Zool. ii. N« 247. A.—Ara. Zool. N8 453-
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
'T'HIS is a large fpecies, being near two feet in length, and in
breadth about five * : weight near three pounds.    The bill
is black; two inches and a half long : irides dufky : the whole
• Sometimes as far as five feet fix inches.—Br. Zool.
plumage
 ,G     U      L     L.
plumage compofed of a mixed brown, afh-colour, and white; the
middle of each feather brown : the under parts of the body the
fame, but paler: quills black: the lower part of the tail mottled black and white; near the end a bar of black; beyond this
the end is white : legs dirty flefh-colour; in fome white.
The above frequents the fea-fhores of many parts of England,
though not in any confiderable numbers: at times feen on the
banks of the Thames, along with other Gulls; and the opinion
there held, that it is the female of the black-backed: but this has
not yet been determined fuf-ficiently by authors *. Mr. Pennant
feems to think the contrary; and indeed the different markings
of the quills and tail do not juftify the fuppofition. It feems far
from an eafy matter to arrange the Gulls, in refpect to their juft
divifion, into fpecies ; and we have much occafion to think that
they are confiderably multiplied, by authors having recorded the
varieties. Of this we will mention our third, fourth, and fifth,
as inftances.
The black-backed and Herring Gulls fo exactly tally, except in
fize, that, did not authors affure us to the contrary, we fhould at
once confider them as only one. The fame may be alfo faid in
refpect of our Glaucous and Silvery, if compared with the Herring
Gull; as they fcarcely differ, except in a quill feather more or
lefs being tipped with white, and the paler or deeper colour of
the back and wing coverts. However, we fear that it will require yet fome time to afcertain the true ftate of the cafe. As
to the circumftance of the Wagel being the female of the black-
Fabricius fuppofes it to be the young of the black-backed Gull. Faun. Groenl.
oz.—Linnaus defcribes the Wagel as a firft year's bird of the Herring Gull:
p. 54- N° 154.
7 backed,
 GULL.
backed, as afferted by fome; we fear the difference is too great to
admit of it; yet, however this may appear, we have now before
us a young Herring Gull with every marking of the Wagel, differing only in fize, and a tinge of lead-colour on the fcapulars.
When a writer cannot afcertain facts, he fhould always pen his
doubts, that the reader may be put upon his guard; whereby,
paying more attention than he otherwife would, in fuch uncertain
points, he may at laft be led to the defired information.
Larus eburneus, Phipps's Voy. p. 187.
—■— candidus, Faun. Groenl. N° 67.—Mutter, p. 8.
La Mouette blanche, Buf. Oif viii. p. 422.—.P/. Enl. 994.
Rathfher, Martin's Spitxb. p. 77.
Senateur, Salern Orn. p. 382.
Ivory Gull, Ara. Zool. N° 457.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH fixteen inches: breadth thirty-feven. Bill two
inches long, and lead-coloured, with a pale tip: orbits faf-
fron-colour: plumage wholly white: the wings very long, exceeding the tail greatly, and even the legs, when at length : the
colour of the laft cinereous lead-colour: claws black.
The young are marked with oblong black fpots, efpecially
on the back and wings; with the bills black.
This fpecies feems to prefer the moft northern fituations, inhabiting both coafts of Greenland, and met with far out at fea,
feldom approaching the land, except in the time of incubation ;
but is then fufficiently tame, fo as to be fhot without difficulty,
whereas at fea it is very fhy. Frequent in the Frozen Sea, between
Vol. III. 3 C Afia
 GULL.
Aflia and America, and off Cape Denbigh *. Met with by our
late voyagers at Aoonalafhka -\. Said likewife to inhabit Hudfon's Bay -, but, if fo, it muft vary confiderably in fize: one defcribed to us by Mr. Hutchins meafured twenty-feven inches and
a half in length, and was five feet in breadth. The bill and legs
flefh-colour: irides ftraw-colour : the plumage of a beautiful
white, except a few of the tail coverts, which were barred with
dufky. This, he obferves, is fcarce along the coafts, but more
plenty in the iflands and inland lakes, where it makes a flight neft
on the ground, of dry grafs, and lays four white eggs. The
young are blackifh, and the old ones do not becc-me perfectly
white under three years.
Suec.  N°  l'~.—Haffelq. Voy.
i. N" 141—Mutter, N° 162.
Larus canus, Lin. Syft. i.. p. 224.  3.—Fa
p. 272. 39.—Scop. Ann. i. N» 104.—.
—Georgi Reife, p. 170.
La Mouette cendree, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 175. 8. pl. 16. fig. 1.
La grande Mouette cendree, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 182. 10. pl. 16. fig. 2.—5a/.
Oif. viii. p. 428.—Pl. Enl. 977.
Common Sea Mall, or Mew, Raii Syn. p. 127. A. 3.—Will. Om, p. 345.
pl. 76.
White web-footed Gull, Albin, ii. pl. 84.
Common Gull, Br. Zool. ii..N° 249. pl. 89. fig. 2.<—Ara. Zool. N° 458.
Lev. Muf.
^P HIS is in length fixteen or feventeen inches: is thirty-fix
inches broad: and weighs one pound.    The bill yellow:
• Br. Zool.—A Gull fnow-white, with black along the upper fides of the
wings, found by our laft voyagers, in Nootka Sound,   See Cook's laft Voy. ii.
P- 352-
t Ellis Narr. p. 15. 252—267,
irides.
 G     U
L,
irides hazel: eye-lids brown: head, neck, under parts of the
body, and tail, white: back and wings pale grey: the outer edge
of the four firft quills, and tips of the firft five, black; but the
fourth and fifth have a white fpot at the tips; the reft, except
the three neareft the body, have the ends white : the legs dull
greenifh white *.
Thefe birds differ a little in their markings: in one, which
weighed twelve ounces, and was feventeen inches in length, the
head, and half the neck, were marked with fhort dufky ftreaks :
the ends of the firft five quills black; the outer one deepeft ; the
tips of all white ; but the two firft had a bar of black near the
tip; all the others like the back, with the ends white : in other
things like the above-defcribed. This was fhot on the Thames in
February, and was very lean.
This feems to be the moft common of all the Gulls, being found
in vaft numbers on our fhores and rivers which are contiguous to
they^. Seen alfo very far north, as far as Iceland, and the Ruffian
lakes: is likewife met with in the neighbourhood ofthe Cafpian Sea,
in various fhores of the Mediterranean; and as far fouth as Greece:
is found alfo in America, on the coaft of Newfoundland \. It breeds
on the rocks and cliffs, like others of the genus; and the eggs are
two inches and a half in length; of a deep olive brown, marked
with irregular deep reddifh blotches %. It is a tame fpecies, and
may be feen by hundreds on the fhores of the Thames and other
* In the laft quoted bird of Briffon, the legs are faid to be red, otherwife it
does not materially differ from the firft.
f Ara. Zool. SP!^
X The eggs are two in number, the fize of thofe of a Hen.—Dec. Ruff. L
p. 249.
3 C  2   - rivers,
 L,
rivers, in the winter and fpring, at low tides, picking up the various worms and fmall fifih left by the tides; and will often follow the plough in the fields contiguous, for the fake of worms and
infers which are turned up, particularly the cockchafer, or dor-
beetle, in its larve ftate, which it joins with the Rooks in devouring
moft greedily.
+- BLACK-
HEADED G.
Larus ridibundus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 225. 9.
—'— cinereus, Scop. Ann. i. N° 105?
La Mouette rieufe, a pattes rouges, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 196. i^.—Buf. Oif. viii.
P-433-—Pl.Enl.g70.
Brown-headed Gull, Albin, ii. pl. 86.
Pewit, Black-cap, or Sea-Crow, Raii Syn. p. 128. A. '.—Will. Orn. p. 347.
pl. 66.—Br. Zool. ii. N° 252.—Ara. Zool. N" 455.—Flor. Scot. pl. 5.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH fifteen inches : breadth three feet: weight ten
ounces. Bill rather flender, and of a blood red : eye-lids
red : irides hazel: the head and throat dufky brown; in old
birds black: on each eye-lid a fmall white fpot: back and wings
afh-colour: the neck, all the under parts, and tail, white: the
ten firft quills white, margined, and more or lefs tipped, with
black; the others afh-colour, with white ends: legs the colour
of the bill: claws black.
The Black-cap, or Pewit Gull, as it is by fome called, breeds
on the fhores of fome of our rivers, but full as often in the inland fens of Lincolnjhire, Cambridgefhire, and other parts of England. They make the neft on the ground, with rufhes, dead
grafs, and fuch like; and lay three eggs, of a greenifh brown,
marked
 	
u
marked with red brown blotches. After the breeding-feafon they
again difperfe to the fea-coafts. Breed alfo in Northumberland
and Scotland; and found throughout Ruffia and Sibiria, as far as
Kamtfchatka, but not farther to the north. Are feen throughout the winter at Aleppo, in great numbers, and fo tame, that
the women are faid to call them from the terraces of their houfes,
throwing up pieces of bread, which thefe birds catch in the air *.
Inhabit North America, coming into New England in May, and
departing in Auguft f. The young birds, in the neighbourhood of
the Thames, are thought good eating, and are called the Red-legs ;
but the Black-caps are much lefs efteemed, .being rank, as is in
general the cafe with moft old birds.
Larus cinerarius, Lin. Syft. i. p. 224. 4.
 canus, Scop. Ann. i. N° 106.
La petite Mouette cendree, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 178. 9. pl. 17. fig. l.—Buf.
Oif. viii. p. 431.—Pl. Enl. 969.
Larus albus major, Raii Syn. p. 129. 9.
Greater white Gull of Bellonius, Will. Orn. p. 348.—.&•. Zool. ii. p. 542.
4-RED-
LEGGED G,
THIS anfwers in moft things to the black-headed Gull, of
which it appears to be a variety, or more probably the young
bird. The fore part of the head is white : the fpace round the
eyes dufky : from the corner of each eye a broad dufky bar, fur-
rounding the hind part of the head; behind that another, reaching from ear to ear: the ends and exterior edges of the three
firft quill feathers are black; the ends and interior fides only of
Huff. Alep. ;
6
the
 382 G     U     L     L.
the two next black, but the fhafts and middle part white; the.
tips of the next two white, beneath a black bar: the reft, as well
as the fecondaries, afh-colour: in other things refembling the
black-headed Gull.
In my own collection is one which anfwers in all things to the
black-headed Gull, except in the feathers of the head being white,
with here and there a dufky fhade, and a large fpot of the fame
on the ears; but on raifing up the feathers of the head, one immediately obferves that they are only tipped with white, it being
merely a young bird of the firft year * ; as this fpecies does not
gain the full black head till the fecond or third moult.
La petite Mouette grlfe, Brif. Orn. *
p. i
T   ENGTH fifteen inches,
loner, of an orange-colour,
Bill one inch and three quarters
inth a black tip : irides whitifh :
the top of the head, neck, back, and rump, mixed grey and white:
fides of the head, and all the under part, white : the wing coverts and leffer quills as the back : the greater coverts fartheft
from the body dufky, edged with white: greater quills dufky,
tipped with white : tail dufky; the middle feathers tipped with
white; the others marked with white on the inner webs : legs
orange-colour : claws black.
We fufpect this to be no other than the black-cap Gull in an
imperfect ftate of plumage.
' This laft comes neareft the
of Linneeus,
 3*3
Red-legged Gull, Ara. Zool. p. 533. E.
T ENGTH fourteen inches: breadth two feet eleven inches:
weight feven ounces. Bill red : eye-lids fcarlet: head and
throat moufe-colour, fpotted with white : neck and belly white :
back and fcapulars afh-colour: wing coverts dufky brown, edged
with dirty white : the exterior fides, and part of the interior of
the firft four quills, black : the tail confifts of twelve white feathers ; the ten middle ones tipped with black, near an inch broad;
the outer ones plain : legs red.   .
This was killed on the banks of the Efik, at Netherby, the feat
of Sir James Graham*. It anfwers alfo to the red-legged Gull
of the Arft. TLool. which has been fhot in Anglefea. A fpecimen
of it has likewife been fent from Kamtfchatka.
BROWN-
HEADED G.
Description.
5*. 8.—JV. C. Petr. xv. p. 478. t. 22. fig. 2.
■Buf. Oif. viii.
■- LAUGHING
G.
Larus atricilla, Lin. ~Syft.
(a young bird.)
La Mouette rieufe, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 192, 13. pl. 18. fig.
P« 433-
Larus major cinereus Baltneri,  Raii Syn. p. 129. 8.
Baltner's great afh-coloured Sea-Mew, Will. Orn. p. 346. pl. 67.
Laughing Gull, Catefb. Car. i. pl. 89.—Ara. Zool. N° 454.
Lev. Muf
'"PHIS is rather bigger than the black-headed Gull:   length     Description
eighteen inches: breadth three feet \.   It differs from that
bird only in the legs, which are black inftead of red.
* Communicated by Dr. Hey/hat,
-f- Catefty fays it weighs eight ounces.
Wer
 384 GULL.       j
We have been informed that the male and female, both of this
and the former, are alike in an adult ftate; therefore that mentioned by Briffon as the female, having a cinereous head, and the
forehead and throat fpotted with white; as alfo that in the Pe-
terjburgh TranfaBions, of a lefs fize, with the head fpotted black
and white, are without doubt young birds.
Place and This is found in Ruffia, on the river Don, particularly about
Manners. Tfchercafk. The note refembles a coarfe laugh, whence the name
of the bird. Is met with alfo in more parts than one in the continent of America; and is very numerous in the Bahama,Iflands :
we have likewife feen it from Cayenne.
We are informed that a Gull with a black head, and dufky
yellow irides, frequents Hudfon's Bay *, it comes there in May,
and makes the neft in the pine-trees: lays four lead-coloured
eggs, and departs fouth in September. It feeds on fifh and worms;
and is called by the natives, Akeefie-keeajk *.
13. La Mouette d'Hyver, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 189. 12.—Buf. Oif viii. p. 437.
+- WINTER G. Guaca-guacu, Raii Syn. p. 130. 12.—Will. Orn. p. 352.
Winter-Mew,  or  Coddy-Moddy,  Raii Syn. p.  130. A.  14.—Will. Om.
p. 350. pl. 66.—Br. Zool. ii. N° 248. pl. 86.—Albin, ii. pl. 87.
Lev. Muf.
Descript o T ENGTH eighteen inches: breadth three feet'fix inches:
weight feventeen ounces. Bill flender, two inches long; of
an horn-colour, with a black tip, and bent at the end: irides
hazel: the top ofthe head, hind part, and fides of the neck, whitei
marked with oblong dufky fpots : back afh-colour : fcapulars
and wing coverts the fame, marked with dufky brown : the forehead, chin, throat, breaft, under parts, and rump, white: the firft
quill
 GULL.
quill is black ', the fix following more or lefs black at the ends j
the others tipped with white : tail white, croffed with a bar of
black near the end : legs dirty blueifh white.
This is very common in England, and is obferved to be met
with farther inland than any of the others. Mr. Pennant obferves,
that the gelatinous fubftance, known by the name of ftar-Jhot,
or ftar-jelly, owes its origin to this bird, or fomething ofthe kind;
" being nothing but the half-digefted remains of earth-worms, on
which thefe birds feed, and often difcharge from their ftomachs *.
38s
Place and
Manners.-
p. 408.
I. A. 6.—Will. Orn. p. 348.
9. 7 ?—Will. Orn. p. 349. pl. 67 ?
Larus catarra&es, Lin. Syft. i. p. 226. 11.
Catharafta Skua, Brun. N° 125.—Mutter, N0 167,
Le Goiland brun, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 165. 4.—-Buf. Oif.
Catarraftes, or Cornifh Gannet, Raii Syi
Catarrafta of Aldrovand. Raii Syn. p. 12
Brown Gull, Albin, ii. pl. 85.
Skua Gull, Br. Zool. ii. N° 243.—Ara. Zool. p. 531. A.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Raven: length two feet: breadth four feet fix inches :
weight three pounds. The bill is an inch and three quarters
in length, and black ; it is much curved at the'end, and covered,
for three parts of its length, with a kind of black cere, at the end
of which the noftrils are placed, which are pervious : the plumage on the upper parts of the head, neck, back, and wings,
is very deep  brown,  the feathers   margined  with  ferruginous
* Br. Zool.—Morton Northampt. p. 353.—In the courfe of my correfpondence
with the .late Mr. J. Piatt ofOxford, I recollect his having mentioned, that once
meeting with a lump of this ftar-jelly, on examination he found the toes of a
Frog or Toad fl.il! adhering, and undiffolved; and from thence concluded it to be
the remains of one of thefe, having been fwallowed whole by fome bird, and
the indigeftible parts brought up in the condition he found it.
Vol. III. 3D brown:
 386 G     U     L     L.
brown: the  head and neck incline to  afh-colour, efpecially the
forehead  and chin:   the breaft,   belly,   thighs, and vent, pale
dufky ferruginous:   legs  black, rough, and -warty: claws very
hooked : the hind toe very fhort, but the claw crooked and fharp.
Place and This is a very voracious and fierce fpecies, and  inhabits the
Manners. northern parts of thefe kingdoms, for the moft part: we however
now and then meet with it towards the fouth, as two or three in-
ftances have evinced us ; one in our own collection being fhot near
Greenwich. It moftly frequents the Schetland Ifles, and thofe of
Ferroe. Is alfo common in Norway, and as far as Iceland. On
the rocky ifland Foula is much efteemed, as it is faid to defend
the flocks from the Eagle, which it beats and purfues with great
fury; the natives denying that it ever injures or attacks the
poultry *. It often preys on the leffer Gulls, and other birds, in
the fame manner as the Hawk; and is feen to attack the firft on
the wing, in order to make them difgorge the fifih they may have
taken; as has been before obferved in refpect to the bald Eagle "f.
During incubation is courageous to an alarming degree, in regard
to its young; as it will then attack feveral perfons in company
without fear, fhould they approach its haunts j:. Thefe birds alfo
are frequent in many high latitudes of the fouthern hemifphere :
our circumnavigators met with them in Falkland Ifles, particu- .
larly about Port Egmont, whence called Port Egmont Hens. In
"this place, and at Terra del Fuego, they were obferved to make
their nefts among the dry grafs ||. After breeding-time difperfe
over the ocean, and for the moft part feen in pairs §.    Met with
* Dr. Forfter informs us, that it often tears Lambs to pieces in the Ferroe Ifles,
and carries them to the neft.—Voy. i. p. 118.        f See vol. i. p. 29, of this Work.
X For a fuller account of the manners, fee Britifh Zoology. iHfS? -
|| Forft. Foy. i. p. 293. f Cook's Voy, i, p. 44.
 GULL.
in Kerguelen's Land, and off the Cape of Good Hope, and other
parts *. In all places the manners are the fame in refpect to its
ferocity: is frequently feen to- attack the largeft Albatrofs, beating it with great violence fo long as it remains on the wing;
at which time this cowardly giant finds no other refource than
to fettle on the water; on which the Skua flies away. We
cannot for certain affirm this to be the Sea ■ Crow of Kolben f,
which he tells us is in plenty at the Cape, becaufe he fays
the flefh is delicate, and much valued ; whereas, from the manners of the Skua, it fhould appear juft the contrary: but we are
led to think it poffible, when he fays that the feathers are very
foft, and much ufed for fluffing of beds and cufhions ; and more
efpecially fuppofe it at leafl to' be ofthe Gull tribe, as the feathers of all this genus are faid to be ufed indifcriminately for
that purpofe at the Cape, in preference to thofe of the Goofe,
many thoufands being killed every year for that purpofe %.
i ditto.—Mutter, p. 21.—
129. N°   11. — Will. Orn.
Larus crepidatus, Hawkef Voy. i. p. 15.
Catarra&a cepphus, Brun. p. 36. N°  126. pl.:
Phil.  Tranf. Iii. p.   i^.—Raii Syn
p. 351.pl. 67.
Le Stercoraire raye, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 152. 2. pl. 13. fig. 2.
L'Abbe, on Stercoraire, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 441. pl. 34.—Pl. Enl. 991.
Black-toed Gull, Br. Zool. ii. p. 244. pl. 86.—Ara. Zool. N° 460.
Lev. Muf.
TPHIS is fifteen inches in length : thirty-nine in breadth : and
weighs eleven ounces.    The bill is an inch and a half long,
• See Hawkef Voy. ii. p. 283.—Cook's Voy. I
118.—ii. p. 493.—Cook's laft Voy. i. p. 88. a!
t Kolb, Cap, ii. p. 241, X Kolb. Cap. i. p. 244.
3 D 2
p. 44. 272.
elfewhere,
'. Voy. i, p. 109.
and
BLACK-TOED
T.
 3-38
U
L.
and formed not greatly unlike that ofthe Skua, but is flenderer, and
lefs hooked: the noftrils come forward on the bill, and are placed
in a kind of cere, as in that bird : the head and neck are dirty
white; the fides of the laft marked with dufky : breaft and
belly white, croffed with numerous dufky and yellowifh lines:
fides and vent barred tranfverfely with black and white: the
back, fcapulars, wing coverts, and tail, black, beautifully edged
with white, or pale ruft-colour: the fhafts and tips of the quills
. white ; the exterior web, and upper half of the interior, black ;.
but the lower part of the latter white: tail black, tipped with
white ; the two middle feathers near an inch longer than the
others; the fhafts white; the exterior webs of the outmoft fpotted
with ruft-colour: the legs of a blueifh lead-colour : lower part
of the toes and webs black. This defcription is from the Britifh Zoology.
A bird of this kind was taken near Oxford, and another met
with between the iflands oiTeneriffe and Bonavifla*.
In the Leverian Mufeum is one of this fpecies, but much fmaller than the above-defcribed: the general colour brown r the
head and neck croffed with numerous tranfverfe darker lines :
breaft and belly mottled with dufky white ; fides barred with
the fame: bafe of the tail white; the reft of its length dufky
black; fhape rounded ; the two middle feathers not particularly
longer than the others: legs, and half the toes, and webs, yellowifh brown ; the end half black.
* Hawkef. Voy. i. p. 15.—The dung of this bird is red; fuppofed to be
owing to its feeding on the Helix janthina, Lin. the inhabitant of which furnifhed
xht purpura oi the ancient Greeks.—This fhell faid to be found on the coafts of
Somerfetjhire, and thofe of South Wales—See Phil. Tranf. vol. xv. p. 1278.
Mr.
  M-
 GULL.
Mr. Hutchins likewife obferved one fimilar to the black-toed at
Hudfon's Bay ; but his bird is of a larger fize, weighs more
than that defcribed in the Britifh Zoology, and is as large as any
of the genus which frequents that place: it comes in April,
makes a flight neft of grafts, and lays two pale ferruginous eggs,
fpotted with black. As the winter comes on, it retreats to open
water,^and is there known by the name of Efquimeaux-keeafik*.
The black-toed Gull is a fcarce fpecies, and feems to be more
plentiful on the continent than in England: oftener found in
Denmark, where Brunnich tells us it is frequently met with fkulk-
ing among cattle, and may then be taken by the hand ; appearing
by this as if it were tired after a long flight, or refting for a
while, in order to purfue its route.
3%
s parafiti
, Lin. Syft. i. p. 226. io.—Faun. Suec. N° 156.
■Mutter, N»i66 Faun. Groenl'.
Catharafta parafitica, Brun. N° 127.
N°68.
Le Stercoraire, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 150. 1. (female.)
 a longue queue, id. p. 155, 3- (male.)
Le Labbe a longue queue, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 445.—Pl. Enl. 762 f.
Strunt-jager, Raii Syn. p. 127. 2?
Arftic Birds, Edw. pl. 148. 149.
Arftic Gull, Br. Zool. ii. N° 245. pl. 87.—Ara. Zool. N° 459.
Lev. Muf
T   ENGTH   twenty-one  inches.    Bill   an  inch and  a  half   Description.
long, pretty much hooked, and of'a dufky colour: noftrils
* We fhould have fuppofed this bird no other than the Skua, did not Mr.
Hutchins fay that half the toes and webs was black.
t In this plate the tail feathers appear to be one third of the whole length of
the bird.
placed
 GULL.
placed in a kind of cere, as in the two laft : the top of the head is
black; the fides of it, forehead, neck, and all beneath, white :
acrofs the breaft a pale dufky bar : the upper parts of the body,
wings, and tail, black: the bafe of the quills white on the inner
webs: the two middle feathers of the tail are near four inches
longer than the reft :. legs fcaly, not very flout, colour black.
We have obferved another of thefe, which had the chin and
hind part of the neck mottled dufky and white: at the lower
part of the neck the dufky colour advances forwards on each fide :
all fhe upper parts dufky brown : breaft and under parts white,
croffed with irregular tranfverfe dufky ftreaks: the two middle
tail feathers very little longer than the reft.
The female faid to be entirely brown, paleft beneath: the
middle tail feathers only two inches longer than the others *.
This is a northern fpecies : is very common in the Hebrides,
and breeds on heath: comes in May, and retires in Auguft:
if difturbed flies about, like the Lapwing, but foon alights.
Is alfo found in the Orknies, and on the coafts of Torkfhire,
where it is called the Feafter. Met with on the northern
coafts of Sweden, Denmark, and Rujfia, as far as Kamtfchatka.
Common in Greenland, where it frequents the open fea, as well
as the bays. The female makes an artlefs neft of grafs and mofs,
on a hillock in fome marfhy place, and lays two afh-coloured
re alike, and that he is
The Cathara&a copro-
* Br. Zool.—Fabricius fays, that the male Had female a
certain of it, having brought them up. Faun. Groenl.—
theres, Brun. N° 128, anfwers to the laft defcription : this author is uncertain in
refpeft to the matter himfelf; but fays, that it is held as tat female in Iceland
and Norway.—Fabricius calls it xht young bird.—We have not feen any, except
the two firft-defcribed, which are in the Leverian Mufeum.
4 eggs,
 GULL.
eggs, fpotted with black, the fize of thofe of a Hen. Does not
often fwim, and flies generally in a flow manner, except it be in
purfuit of other birds; which it often attacks, in order to make
them difgorge the fijh or other food, which this common plunderer greedily catches up. Moft authors have told us, that it is
the dung of the birds which it fearches.after in the puffuit; but
later obfervations inform us that the circumftance is not true;
though, from the fuppofition of its being fo, the bird has obtained the name of Strunt-jager.
Edwards received both his birds from Hudfon's Bay, where he
informs us that it is called the Man of War: the natives know
it by the name of Utay-keeafk *.
Larus minutus, Pall. Trav. iii. App. N° 35.
CIZE of the Mififel Thrufh.    Bill reddifh brown : irides blueifh:
the head and beginning of the neck black: the reft of the
neck and body white: back and wings grey; but the quills are
white at the ends : tail even, white: legs red.
Inhabits the fouthern parts of Ruffia and Sibiria: found about
the fhores of the Cafpian Sea, and the rivers which fall into it;
migrating in fummer northward up the Wolga, in order to
breed.
3**
LITTLE G.
Description
' 'Mr. Htitchins.
 Larus tridattylus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 224. 2.—Faun. Suec. N° 157.—Mutter,
N° 161.
La Mouette cendree tachetee, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 185. pl. 17. fig. 2.—Buf.
Oif viii. p. 424—PL Enl. 387.     '
Tarrock, Raii Syn. p. 128. A. 4.—Will. Orn. p. 346. pl. 68.—Br. Zool. ii.
N° 251.—Ara. Zool. p. 533. D.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH fourteen inches : breadth thirty-fix: weight feven
ounces. Bill fhort, thick, and black : head, neck, and under
parts, white : near each ear, and under the throat, a black fpot:
at the hind part of the neck a crefcent of black : the back and
fcapulars blueifh grey: the wing coverts dufky, edged with grey ;
fome of the larger wholly grey: the exterior fides and ends of
the firft four quills black; tips of the two next black; all the
reft white : the ten middle feathers of the tail white, tipped with
black ; the two outermoft wholly white : legs dufky afh-colour:
in lieu of the back toe it has only a protuberance.
This breeds in Scotland with the Kittiwake, and inhabits other
parts of northern Europe, quite to Iceland and Spitzbergen, the
Baltic, and White Sea, as alfo Kamtfchatka. Is common in Greenland in fummer : comes in fpring, and frequents the fea fhores :
builds in the rocky crags of the bays : in June lays two eggs, of
a greenifh afh-colour, fpotted with brown: retires from the
fhores in autumn. Is obferved frequently to attend the whales and
feals, for the fake of the fijh which the laft drive before them into
the fhallows, when thefe birds dart into the water fuddenly, and
make them their prey. Are very noify birds, efpecially during the
time of incubation. Swim well, and fly equally, and for a long
3 time
 u
L.
393
time together; often obferved on portions of ice fwimming in
the fea. Both the flefh and eggs are efteemed by the Greenlan-
ders, and the fkins ufed as garments.
T ENGTH nineteen inches. Bill two inches and a quarter
long, colour black : head, neck, and beneath, white: on
each ear a fpot of black : at the lower part of the neck behind,
each feather has a dufky black bar juft at the tip : the back and
wing coverts of a fine pale afh-colour : from the bend of the
wing to the tip of the fecond quills is a bar of black, appearing
oblique when the wing is clofed, this bar is caufed by moft
of the feathers in the direction being tipped with that colour :
the four firft quills are black, but the inner webs are white ; the
two next white, with a black mark clofe to the tips; the reft
white; fecondaries white, with a ftripe of black near the fhaft»
and parallel to it: tail white; all but the outer feathers tipped
for one inch with black: legs dufky : the hind claw wanting.
Inhabits Kamtfchatka. This feems to be the Tarrock in the
higheft ftate of markings, and of a larger fize than ufual. We
obferved a fecond, in which the markings were much lefs diftinct, with the addition of fome clouds of black below the nape.
Both are in the poffeffion of Sir Jofeph Banks.
Larus Riffa, Lin. Syft.
Kittiwake, Br. Zool. :
Voy. p. 187.
. p. 224. 1.—Brun. N° 140.—Mutter, N° 160.
N° 250. pl. 89.—Ara. Zool. N9 ^6.—-Phypps
:Muf.
■ KITTIWAKE
G.
T   ENGTH fourteen inches: breadth three feet two inches.    De:
The bill yellow, tinged with green: infide of the mouth
Vol. III. 3 E orange:
 394
orange : head, neck, belly, and tail, fnow white : back and wings
grey: the outer edge of the firft quill feather,  and the tips of
the four or five next, black : legs dufky, with only a knob inftead
of a back toe.
.   It varies in fometimes having behind the ear a dufky fpot.
This inhabits the cliffs about Flamborough Head, and is called
Petrel; the Bafis Ifle; the vaft rocks near the caftle of Slains,'m
the county of Aberdeen ; and Prieftholm Ifle. It is likewife met
with at Newfoundland. Found .alfo in Greenland, Spitzbergen,
Iceland, and the north of Europe; the arctic coaft of Afia; and
Kamtfchatka *.  By the Icelanders it is called Ritfa.
Some authors affirm the Kittiwake to be the Tarrock in a ftate
of perfection f; while others maintain the contrary %. As we
do not think ourfelves fufficiently well informed to decide upon
this head, muft leave it to be afcertained by future ornitho-
logifts.
• Ara. Zool. t Fabricius in Faun. Groenl.
X Linnaus fays, Varietas forte Lari tridaUyli, junior primi anni.
Nat. i. Addend,—Mr. Pennant treats of them as diftinct. fpecies. Br.
See Syft.
Genus
 [   39$   ]
Genus   XC.    PETREL;
- True, with the Noftrils contained in a Tube.
-N° I. Giant P.
<l. Brafilian P.
3. Black P.
Var. A.
4. Grey P.
5. Glacial P.
6. White-breafted P.
7. Antarctic P.
8. Pintado P.
Var. A.
q. Fulmar P.
Var. A.
N° 10. Cinereous P.
n. Shearwater P.
Var. A.
12. Black-toed P.
13. Snowy P.
14. Brown-banded P.
15. Sooty P.
16. Fork-tail P.
17. Frigate P.
18. Stormy P.
"    Var. A.
19. Diving P.
* * Spurious, with the Noftrils diftinct.
20. Broad-billed P. 22. Pacific P.
21. Blue P. 23. Dufky P.
THE bill in this genus is flrait, but bent at the end.
Noftrils for the moft part contained in one tube; in a few
fpecies diftinct and feparate.
Legs naked a little above the knees.
Three toes placed forwards, and a fpur behind inftead of a
back toe *.
* The 19th fpecies excepted, in which this laft character is wanting.
3 E 2 Quebran*
 PETREL.
Quebrantahueflos, Boug. Voy. p. 63;—Cook's Voy. ii. p. 20$,—Forft, Voy. i
GIANT G. p. Jl6._Buf, Of.ix.p. 319.
pL, c —— 1 or Ofprey Petrel, For/?. Obf p. 202.
- Mouton, Fernet. Voy. i. p. 15. t. 8. fig. 3. (the bill.).
Oflifraga, or Break Bones, Ulloa Voy. 8vo. ii. p. 214. '
Br. Muf.
13 IGGER than a Goofe: length forty inches: expands feven
feet. The bill is four inches and a half in length, remarkably
flout,, and the upper mandible very hooked at the end ; the tube
on the top of it occupies at leafl two inches and a half from
the bafe ; the colour a fine dufky yellow, not unlike that of po-
lifhed boa-wood: at the angle of the mouth a naked wrinkled
yellow fkin: the crown of the head is dufky : the fides of it,
fore part of the neck, breaft, and belly, white: hind part of the
neck, and upper part of the body, pale brown, mottled with
dufky white : fcapulars, wing coverts, quills, and tail, plain
dufky brown; the laft fix inches in length, and the feathers
darkeft in the middle : legs four inches long: the toes five, of a
greyifh yellow ; webs dufky: the fpur behind flout and pointed, '
but fhort: claws dufky.
Thefe were met with by our voyagers at Staaten Land, Terra
del Fuego, and Ifle of Defolation, and other places in the high
fouthern latitudes. Are often feen failing, with the wings expanded, clofe to the furface of the water, but without appearing
to move them. Like others of this genus, are faid to be moft
active, and in the greateft numbers, in ftorms, or when they are
approaching ; hence their appearance is an unwelcome fight to
the mariner.   Like the Albatrofs alfo vifits the northern hemi-
fphere |
 sf&
  PETREL,
fphere; being feen by our laft navigators in lat. 44. 10. N. iff
March*-, off the coafts of Nootka Sound in April-\ ; and again
further north, on the American coaft, in May, in pairs % : from
which may not unaptly be concluded the poffibility of their
breeding in the north, though as yet no one has mentioned with
certainty where they propagate their fpecies: if it be in the fouth,
they muft migrate in the fame manner as the Albatrofs, which is
not unlikely, as they are frequently found in company with that
bird, and it muft be confefled that they are found in the greateft
quantity in thefouthern regions. Captain Cook met with them in
vaft numbers in Chrifimas Harbour, Kerguelen's Land%, in December, where they were fo tame that they fuffered themfelves to~
be knocked on the head by our tailors with a flick, on the
beach. Thefe are carnivorous birds, feeding on the dead car-
cafes offieals or birds, though their chief food is undoubtedly fifh.
They are for the moft part ranked as Albatroffes by the failors;
but by the more difcerning of them are well-known by the name
of Mother Cary's Geefe; and are thought to be very good food |[.
• Cook's laft Voy. ii. p. 25?. f Id. p. 299.
X Id. p. 352.—If we do not miftake, this is one of the forts called Ghpifha,
mentioned as fo frequent in all the iflands between Kamtjchatka and America^
that they are covered with them. One of thefe is faid to be as big as a Goofe
or an Eagle. Bill crooked, yellowifh t eyes as large as thofe of an Owl: colour
black, intermixed with white fpots all over the body. Two hundred of them
have been feen at once feeding on a dead Whale.—See Hift. Kamtf. p. 156.
§ Cook's, laft Voy, i. p. 87. H Id. ii. p. 205.
 39*
PETREL.
BRASILIAN P.
Le Puffin du Brefil, Brif Om.
Majague, Raii Syn. p. 133. 3.-
p. 138. \.—Buf. Oif. ix. p. 337. IV.
hll. Orn. p. 334. pl. 62.
•T^HIS fpecies, according to Willughby, is ofthe fize of a Goofe.
The bill  hooked :   the head round and thick : the neck
long : the whole bird of a dufky and blackifh colour, except the
fore part of the neck, which is adorned with yellow feathers.
Inhabits Brafil, about the mouths of rivers; but builds the
neft, and lays the eggs, on fhore. It is a fwift bird, fwim-
ming and diving well. Its flefh very good meat, efpecially if
young. We are not certain whether this is a Petrel or not; but
think right to follow Briffon's opinion of its belonging to that
genus, till farther demonftration fhall evince the contrary.
Procellaria a-squino&ialis, Lin. Syft. i, p. 213. 4.
Le Puffin du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 137.
Le Petrel-Puffin brun, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 326.
Shearwater, Brown Jam. p. 482.
Great black Petrel, Edw. pl. 89.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Raven: length twenty-three inches. The bill is
three inches long, and the tubes of the noftrils half an
inch ; the whole bill is of a yellowifh colour, the futures of
it black : the whole body blackifh brown : legs, toes, and webs,
brown : claws black.
This varies in having the upper ridge of the bill black, and a
large fpot of white on the chin *.
1 Ink
35'
S.  lot
and legs were both black.
. 7. 45. W.    Cook's laft Voy. i. p. 36,—Bi
1 this
 PETREL.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and the neighbouring parts.
Has alfo been met with at New Zealand *.
399
Kuril Petrel, Ara. Zool. p. 536. A.—Pall. Spic. v. p. 28. 3.
Var. A.
HP H I S is larger by half than the other.    Has a ftrong yellow KURIL p
bill: the whole plumage an unvaried rufly black: legs the Description.
fame, dafhed with red.
Inhabits the KuriU. Ifles, and Kamtfchatka. Place.
Dark grey Petrel, Cook's Voy. i. p. 258. 4.
Lev. Muf. GREY P.
CIZE of a Jack-daw: length fourteen or fifteen inches.    Bill    Description.
two inches long, and brown: the whole plumage black, or
footy : the under wing coverts white, with black fhafts: the
wings rather exceed the tail in length : the fore part of the legs
greenifh blue.
The fpecimen in the Leverian Mufeum has the chin and throat
of a whitifh colour.
Inhabits  the fouthern hemifphere,  from 3$  to 50  degrees. Plaice..
Seems much allied to the Black Petrel.
TEN G T H nineteen inches. Bill an inch and three quarters,
yellow; the tube which covers the noftrils, top of the upper
mandible, and end of the lower, black ; the edges of both are of
the fame colour: the top of the head, taking in the eyes, and
the hind part of the neck, to the fhoulders, pale blueifh afh-colour : the reft of the upper parts dufky black : chin, fore part of
* Forft. Voy. i, p. 113. 487.
GLACIAL P.
Description..
 PETREL,
the neck, and] breaft, white: from thence to the vent pale afh-
colour : legs and webs blue: claws black: fole of the foot
white.
Inhabits the Antarctic circle, with many other fpecies; chiefly
found among the ice.
T ENGTH fixteen inches. Bill an inch and a half long,
hooked at the tip, and black: the head, neck, and upper
parts of the body, dufky brown, nearly black: on the throat a
whitifh patch : breaft, belly, and vent, white : under tail coverts
cinereous and white mixed: tail rounded at the end: legs
black brown: the fore part of the toes half way black; the out-
fide of the exterior toe the fame for the whole length : webs
black : fpur behind blunt.
Inhabits Turtle and Chrifimas. Iflands.   In the collection of
Sir Jofeph Banks.
Le Petrel antar&ique, ou Damier brun, Buf. Oif ix. p. 311.
Brown and white Petrel, Boug. Voy. i. p. 42 ?
Antarftic Petrel, Forft. Voy. i. p. 108—Cook Voy. i. p. 257.
CIZE of a large Pigeon: length fixteen inches. Bill an inch
and a half long, brown, with the tip black : irides brownifh
hazel: the general colour of the plumage on the upper parts is
deep brown; beneath blueifh white : the fecond quills are white,
with dark brown tips: quills dark brown, with the inner webs
of fome next the body white-, rump and tail white : the tips of
all the tail feathers black for nearly an inch : legs dufky lead-
colour.
Found I
 PETREL,
Found within the Antarctic circle, all round. Met with in
flights of twenty or more, in lat. 61. 36. S. It is obferved that
the fullnefs of plumage is more confpicuous in this fort of
birds than in others ; nature having taken care to fuit them to the
climate wherein they are to live.
Procellaria Capenfis, Lite. Syft.  i. p.  213.5.'—Amain. Acad. iv. p. 240.-
Ofb. Voy. p. 46.
Le Petrel tachete, ou le Damier, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 146. $.—Buf. Oif. ix.
p. 304. pl. zi.—Pl. Enl. 964.—Pernet. Voy.ii. p. 72.
Pardela, Ulloa Voy. ii. p. 304.
White and black fpotted Peteril, Edw. pl. 90.
Pintado Bird, Damp. Voy. iii. pl. in p. 96. fig. 1.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Kittiwake Gull: length fourteen inches. Bill an
inch and a half long, and black : the head, hind part of the
neck, quills, and tail, black: fides of the head mottled black
and white : all the under parts whitifh, irregularly marked with
fpots of black : legs black.
They are apt to vary much in plumage.
Thefe birds are, we believe, confined to the fouthern hemi-
fphere, being feldom feen much to the north of 30 degrees.
Are moft frequent about the Cape of Good Hope *, and neighbouring parts. Are called by our failors Cape Pigeons. They
fly many together; feldom high, but almoft fweeping the furface of the water f. Sometimes appear in fuch immenfe numbers
that feven hundred have been taken in one night J.    The failors
I PINTADO P.
• Dampier,
and others.-
-Said by
failors to be a fure
p/efage
of
a near ap-
proach to that
promontory.
■f* Dampier.
X A
Mafo Fu
ero.—Hawkef Voy, i
p. 556.
Vol. Ill,
M
often
 PETREL.
often catch them with fome tarred firing, or a piece of lard on a
ftfhing-rod*. Dampier obferves, that he met with them in greateft
plenty from about two hundred leagues .from the coaft of Brafil to
within much the fame diftance of the coaft of New Holland. Our
voyagers traced them to New Zealand f, Falkland Ifles, and many
other parts; and indeed they feem to be fcattered all round the
South Pole. One of their breeding-places is in Kerguelen's Land.
The egg of the fize of that of a Pullet, and laid in December %.
When caught it makes a noife not unlike a Parrot; and fpirts
out oil from the noftrils into the face of the perfon who holds it.
It feeds on fifh, but more frequently on the dead carcafes of
Whales, See. about which at times it is feen in vaft numbers §.
In the Ifle of Defolation our laft voyagers met with a ftrong variety, which differed in having fuch parts as are white in the
common one, of a fine cream or buff-colour: the tail white, tipped
with black : and the bafe of the quills white : legs brown: webs
black : and two of the inner toes orange in the middle.
This is in the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks.
* OJb. Voy. i. p. 109.
J Cook's laft Voy. i. p. 86
§ Ives mentions, that wl
rife for flight fr
—See Voy. p. 5,
^ For
I. p. 489.
leek,
:aught and brought on board a fhip, they cannot
mt will moft readily do fo out of a tub of wate*e.
 P   E   T   R   E   L.
Procellaria glacialis, Lin- Syft. i. p. 213. z.—Faun, Suec. N°* 144.—Brun. 0.
Orn. Nv 118.—Mutter, N° 144.—F«»». Groenl,Ha 55. +• FULMAR P.
Le Petrel cendre, 2?rj/i 0--». vi. p. 143. 3. pl. 12. fig. 2.
Le Fulmar, ou Petrel Puffin gris blanc, Buf. Oif. ix. p, 302. pj> 22.—
Pl. Enl. 59.
Wagellus Gornubienfiiim, Burgomafter of Greenland, Rati Syn. p. 130.
A. 13.
Haffhert, or Sea Horfe, Will. Orn. p. 395.
Fulmar, Br. Zool. ii, Nff 257- pl. gi.—Ara. Zool. N° 461.
T  ENGTH feventeen  inches:  weight  twenty-two  ounces.    Description.
The bill is two inches long, of a pale grey colour, with a
yellowifh tip: the back and wing coverts are afh-colour: quills
dufky : the reft of the plumage white : legs greyifh yellow : in
Tome birds the tail is of a pale afh-colour.
This fpecies is found in the northern parts of Great Britain ; Pi ace an»
and from thence as much farther to the north as our travellers Manners.
have explored. It is in the greateft plenty in the ifle of St. Kilda,
where it appears in November, and continues the whole year, except the months of September and OcJober. It lays one large
white, and very brittle egg 5 and the young are hatched the
middle of June. Very common alfo in Greenland*, and parts
adjacent; and of great ufe. to the inhabitants for food, the
flefh being eaten boiled or dried, for want of better, as it is very
ftinking and offenfive : the fat is eaten crude, or burned to ferve
as oil for their lamps; and the fmall pouch of the under jaw
* Breed on the craggy fhore on the weft of Difco, and other places remote from
the continent, in great numbers.—Faun. Groenl.
3 F 2 formed
 L
PETREL.
formed into a bladder to buoy up their leffer kind of darts, by
which they often kill the bird itfelf while fitting at reft on
the furface of the water; for it is very heedlefs, and will fuffer
any one to approach it very near: hence is called Mallemucke,
or Foolifh Fly, by the Dutch.
The food of this fpecies is fifh for the moft part; but will
eagerly feize every dead thing that can be converted to food j.
and filth from the fhips, which they frequently follow. Will
fettle by hundreds on the carcafe of a dead Whale, and pick out
the fat, which foon becoming liquid in the ftomach, enables the
old birds to eject it into the mouths of their young, for their fuf-
tenance while in the neft : and alfo on occafions will throw it out
with great violence, both from their mouths and noftrils, into the
faces of thofe who attempt to feize them, and indeed is almoft
the only defence that it makes againft an enemy.
It is alfo common between Kamtfchatka and America, where we
believe it is blended among others, and called by the common
name of Glupijha *: they are fo flupid as frequently to fly
into the boats of the natives while fifhing. It is afferted that
they are fo fat that the natives have no more to do than to
fqueeze the fkins, through which it runs like oil, and is ufed for
the fame purpofes. Numbers are caught on the fourth and fifth
Kurilfki Iflands, which the inhabitants dry in the fun, and ufe for
food.    Is found alfo on the coafts of Groenland-f.
It is alfo fufficiently plentiful in the Antarctic regions, from
the Cape of Good Hope to as far fouth as has been explored;,.
* This r
t Phypps
ime arifes from their being foolifl;
s Voy, p, 186,
and:
 40$
PETREL,
and indeed, in greater or fmaller quantities, from 34 to 70 degrees
S. latitude all round the pole *.
In the Britifh Mufeum I obferve one of thefe which is near
twenty inches in length : has a dark ftreak through the eye : the
tail dufky f, pointed at the end : legs of a pale colour, almoft
white.
CIZE ofthe laft.   Bill black, flout, and much curved at the end: 9>
head, neck, body, and tail, white : between the wings pale     n„
1 > /* > o   r Description
afh-colour : the whole of the wing dufky black : legs dufky.
Inhabits the Antarclie ocean, pretty far to thefoufhl Place,.
Br. Muf
CIZE ofthe Fulmar: length twenty inches and a quarter.
Bill yellowifh, with black futures : irides afh-colour : all the
upper parts of the plumage dufky afh-colour : the crown of the
head, and forehead, paleft; beneath, from chin to vent, white: tail
rounded in fhape, black ; the under part of the feathers pale afh>
colour: legs blueifh : webs pale yellow : toes and claws pale.
We have feen a variety of this with a pale blue bill, and the
breaft and belly of a deep dufky black.
This fpecies chiefly inhabits the parts within the Antarctic
circle. Many feen in the lat. of 48 degrees. The food is various: the bills ofthe Cuttle-fifh have been found in its ftomach-
* Forft. Voy. i, p. 52.—ii. p. 534.—Cook's Voy. i. p. 2tz.
•ft Brunnich obferves, that the tail feathers are wholly black.
CINEREOUS F„
Description,
 P   E
E   L.
SHEARWATER
Procellarla Puffins, Lin. Syft. i, p. 213. 6.—Brun. N° lig.-^Faun. Groenl.
N° 56.—Mutter, p. 18.
Le Puffin, Brif. Om. vi. p. 131. 1—Buf. Oif. ix. p. 331.—Pl. Enl. 962.
Avis Diomedea, or Artenna, Raii Syn. p.   133.  i,— Will. Om. p. 332.—
Scop. Ann. i.-N" g6.
Manks Puffin, Raii Syn. p. 134. A. 4..—Will. Om. F- 333.—&/<w. pl. 379.
Shearwater, Raii Syn. p. 133. A. 2.—Will. Orn. p. 334.—^r. Z#e/. N° 258.
—Ara. Zool. N° 462.
£*-./-£/•    Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH fifteen inches: weight feventeen ounces. The
bill is an inch and three quarters long, of a yellow colour,
with the tip black : the upper parts of the body, wings, tail, and
thighs, black : the under, from chin to vent, white : the legs
weak, comprefled on the fides, whitifh before, and dufky behind.
Briffon's bird is rather bigger, but correfponds in refpect to
defcription.
This is found in the North of England; but particularly in the
Calf of Man, and the Orknies. Alfo in Denmark, Iceland, Greenland, and no doubt in other parts far north. To the firft they re-
fort in February, take a fhort poffeflion of the rabbit-burrows,
and then difappear till April, when they return, They lay one
white egg, blunt at each end : the young are fit to take the beginning of Auguft, when great numbers are killed by the perfon
who farms the ifle. They are faked and barrelled, and when
boiled, eaten with potatoes. During the day they keep at fea
fifhing, and towards evening return to their young, which they
feed in the fame manner as the Fulmar : they quit the ifle by the
•end of Auguft or beginning of September.    In the Orknies they
make
 PETREL.
make the neft in holes on the earth, near the fhelves of the
rocks and headlands : called there the Lyre, and greatly valued,
both on account of being ufed as food, and for the feathers. Are
falted and ufed as in the Calf of Man. They alfo take the old
ones in March ; but they are then poor, and not fo well tailed as
the young.    They appear firft in thofe iflands in February *.
They alfo frequent the Atlantic f and Southern % Oceans, being
met with by our voyagers in various places of the laft.
Le Puffin cendre, Brif. Om. vi. p. 134. N°
Le Petrel cendre, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 302. pl. z:
pl. 12. fig.
r"pHIS is about the fize of the Shearwater, or laft fpecies.
The bill above two inches long, and black : the hind part of
the head whitifh, with a tinge of afh-colour: the reft ofthe
upper parts of an elegant afh-colour : fore part of the head, and
under part of the body, fnow white : the baftard wing fpotted
with black : quills outwardly black : tail white : legs grey
brown. £
Inhabits the northern regions. It is probably the brown Shearwater, which has often a white ring round the neck, feen by
Kalm every where from our channel to the American coaft. He
fays it has a peculiar flow way of flying, and may be plainly feen
to feed on fifh [\.
Description.
• Br. Zool.
t Every where from our channel to the Amei
X 25 deg. S.   Forft. Voy. i. p.  co.—New
laft Voy. iii. p. 175.
'     I Trav. i. p. 2*.
 n
403
BLACK-TOED P.
Description.
PETREL,
Lev. Muf.
X ENGTH thirteen inches. Bill an inch and a half long,
black: all round the bafe of the bill, the chin, and throat,
pale filvery grey, marked with minute dufky fpecks: top of the
head, and all the upper parts of the plumage, wings, and tail,
dufky black, inclining to hoary on the back: tail rounded at the
end : wings and tail even: the under parts of the body hoary
afh-colour: legs very pale: the webs for one third the fame ;
the reft to the end black : joints of the toes black.
Said to inhabit North America.
Le Petrel blanc, ou Petrel de neige, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 314.
•Snowy Petrel, Forft. Voy. i. p. 96.—Cook's Voy. i. p. 33.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
CIZ E of the Pintado Petrel: length one foot. The bill is an
inch and a quarter long, the colour black, inclining to blue
at the bafe; the tube which contains the noftrils comes pretty
forward on the upper mandible, which is much curved at the-
end : the whole plumage of a pure white, the fhafts ofthe feathers black : the wings exceed the tail in length: legs of a dark
fea-green, or blue, with pale webs: claws long, and crooked.
This is found in the colder parts of the fouthern regions, off
the ifland of Georgia*, Terra del Fuego, and other parts; but no
where in fuch plenty as in the neighbourhood of ice, or within a
few leagues of it, and proved to be the forerunner of falling in
with the fame; and on th% icy maffes themfelves thefe birds
were often in confiderable flocks.
* Forft. Obf p. 72.—Voy. i. p.
-"Cook's Voy. i. p. 23.
 409
ED P.
"SCRIPT
T  ENGTH eleven inches.     Bill  an inch long, black, with BROWN-BAND-.,
the tip yellowifh : the plumage on the upper parts of the
body greenifh afh-colour, deepeft on the crown : the fides of
the head, taking in the eyes, and all the under parts of the body,
white : the ridge of the wing almoft black : quills and tail dufky;
the laft rounded at the end, and tipped with dark brown: the
legs brown: webs yellow: claws black: when the wing is expanded there appears a dark band from tip to tip, quite acrofs
the body.
Inhabits the Ifle of Defolation.    In the collection of Sir Jofeph
Banks.
T  ENGTH eleven
hooked at the tip :
inches. Bill black, an inch long, and
irides pale afh-colour: head and neck of
a footy black: but the body in general tinged with brown, not
unlike the colour of the Swift: the rump is brown: the under
parts of the body much like the upper, but paler: the ridge of
the wing mixed with afh-colour : the tail is fomewhat forked in
fhape, but the feathers themfelves are fquare at the ends; their
colour, and that of the quills, deep black: the wings, when
clofed, exceed the tail a trifle in length : legs flender, an inch
long, and black.
Inhabits Otaheite.    In the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks *.
• In a drawing in the pofleflion of the fame, each web of the toes was marked
with a yellow fpot.
Vol. III.
3G
 FORK-TA
Descript
Fork-tail Petrel, Ara. Zool. N° 463.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH ten inches. Bill black, three quarters of an inch;
in lengtfv; the upper mandible very hooked at the end, and
the tube of the noftrils reaches fome way on the top of it: general
colour of the plumage a dark filvery grey, paleft beneath: the
chin very pale grey: vent white: on the forehead and crown is a
mixture of brown : the inner ridge ofthe wing dufky black : the
quills are of a blackifh grey : the fecondaries paler grey on the
edges : the tail coverts are pretty long: and the tail itfelf the
colour ofthe quills, and forked in fhape; the outer feather white
on the outer web: the wings, when clofed, equal the tail in,
length : the legs are black.
Found among the ice, between Afia and America.
Procellaria fregata, Lin. Syft. i. p. 212. 2.
T ENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill one inch; flender, and
not greatly hooked: the top of the head, and hind part of the
neck, as far as the fhoulders, blueifh afh-colour: back and wing
coverts brown: rump hoary blue : fides of the head above the
eye, and all the under parts, white : .under the eye a trace of
blueifh afh-colour: the tail, when fpread, feems hollowed out in
the middle, but fcarcely what may be called forked : legs black:
on the middle of each web a yellowifh mark.
Such is the defcription of a bird among the drawings of Sir
Jofeph Banks, which I liken to that mentioned by Linnaus, of
which.
 R
L.
which he merely fays, that it is lefs than the Stormy Petrel,
black above, and white beneath.
Found in latitude 37 fouth.     In a fecond drawing, I obferve
the rump to be very pale, nearly approaching to white.
Procellaria pelagica, Lin. Syft. i. p. 212. l.—Faun. Suec. N° 143.—Amcen,
Acad. iv. p. 587.—Scop. Ann. i. N° 95.—-Mutter, N° 143.—And. led.
ii. Pl. 1.
Le Petrel, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 14c!. 1. pl. 13. fig. 1.
L'Oifeau de tempete, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 327. pl. 23.—Pl. Enl. 993.
Storm-finch, or Little Pitterel, Catefb. Car. App. pl. 14.—Edw. pl, 90.—
Borlaf. Corn. p. 247. pl. 29— Albin, iii.  pl. 92,—Will. Om. p. ^9S-
—Damp. Voy. iii. p. 97.—Br. Zool. ii. N° 259. pl. 91.
.     Br. Muf.      Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Swallow: length fix inches : breadth thirteen inches.
Bill black: the general colour of the plumage is black,
but paler on the under parts, where it inclines to Joot-colour : the
ends of the fecond quills, rump, and vent, white; and the four
outer tail feathers are white on the inner webs at the bafe: the
- wings, when clofed, are half an inch longer than the tail: the
legs are long and black.
Thefe birds are fufficiently common, though feldom met with
but at fea*; and feem to be difperfed all over the Atlantic ocean.
Flocks of them are for the moft part feen about the fhips in full fail,
but particularly in ftormy weather, in the wake of the fhip, to
which they feem to refort for fhelter from the violence ofthe waves.
* One was fhot-at Sandwich, in Kent, in a ftorm of wind, among a flock of
Hoopoes, in January. Mr. Boys.—Another at Walthamftow, in Eftfex, now in the
Leverian Mufeum.—A third has not long fince been fhot at Oxford.
3 G 2 They
 PETREL.
They are filent in the day, but very clamorous in the night; and-.
are called by the failors, Mother Cary's Chickens, and Witches..
They are excellent divers,, and appear to flay under water half an
hour without rifing. Often give the idea of Swallows, as, like
them, they fkim the furface of the water; at other times appear
to run on the top of it *. Their food fuppofed to be fmall ftjh;
but they will pick up, or at leafl examine,, every fcrap which falls
from the fhips which they follow f. Pretty common to the north :
found in Kamtfchatka J. In the Ferro Ifles the inhabitants draw
a wick through the body, from the mouth to the vent; which,
when, lighted,., ferves them for fome time, burning like a lamp,
being fed by the vaft quantity of oil contained in the body of it,
as well as other birds of this genus §.
It is probable that thefe birds build in the holes of the rocks
like many of the genus ; as Mr. Pennant obferved them in Auguft.
off the end of the Ifle of Skie, lurking among the loofe ftones,
and betraying themfelves by their twittering noife ||.
They are alfo met with not unfrequent in the Southern regions.
Forfier ** faw them in latitude 25 degrees; Dampier ff in 31
degrees; and Ofibeck % £ in 34 degrees fouth.
* Damp. Voy. iii. p. 97.
t " Feaft along with other fea-birds: when we threw the guts of pigs over-
" board, they generally were the firft and laft on fuch an occafion."—Ofb. Voy.
i. p. 113.
X Hift. Kamtfchatka, p. 155.—Thofe found here are larger than have been obferved elfewhere.    Ara. Zool.
§ Brun. Orn. p. 29. || Br. Zool. ** Voy. i. p. 50. 110.,
it y°J- --i- P' 97- tt. F~oy. i. p. 113..
 CfALERNE mentions a fpecies differing from the above: it
is of the fame fize, but differs in colour. The bill is black :
back the fame, waved with blueifh purple: the head, crop, and
fides of the body, nearly blue, reflecting black and violet in different lights : the hind part of the neck of a changeable green
and purple : the upperpartsof the wings and rump fpotted with
white: the reft of the body black: the legs fhort and black.
This is found in the fea about Italy; and, as the others, feems
to live on the furface of the water, no one having ever yet feen it
on land ; and its pretence faid to forebode a ftorm, be the weather
ever fo ferene : feen always in flocks *►
CIZE of the Little Auk, and of a flout make, not unlike that
bird: length eight inches and a quarter. The bill nearly an
inch long, flout and black;, the middle of the under mandible
white on the fides : irides dufky blue : the plumage on the upper
parts is black brown : beneath white, except the chin, which is
black; the fkin of that part, and of the throat, is loofe, ferving
as a pouch, as in the Frigate. Pelican: the wings are rather fhorter
than the tail: the legs of a blueifh green : webs black : the fpur
at the back part wanting..
Thefe are met with in Queen Charlotte's Sound, and other parts
in the neighbourhood ofNew Zealand. Were feen in vaft flocks,
fluttering on the furface of the water, or fitting on it; and dive
L Salerne Om. p. 383.-
welli,
 R
L.
well *, arifing often at confiderable diftances, with amazing agility. They croak Vftae frogs, and fometimes make a noife like the
cackling of a Hen.    Known by the name of Tee-tee.
SPURIOUS,   WITH   THE   NOSTRILS   DISTINCT.
BROAD-BILLED
Le Petrel bleu, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 316.
Vittated Petrel, Forft. Voy. 1. p,
BluePeteril, Cook's Voy. 1. p. 29.
Lev. Muf.
Sl.—Obf. p. 199.
CIZE of a fmall Pigeon : length twelve inches. The bill blue
grey, an inch and a quarter in length, and near an inch broad
at the bafe; both mandibles bent at the points ; the edges finely
ferrated; at each noftril a diftinct very fhort tube: the tongue
is very large and flefhy, and fills up the whole of the bill, conforming to the fhape of it: the colour of the plumage is blueifh
afh on the .upper parts; and fome of the feathers are brown in
the middle: the fides of the head, and under parts of the body,
white : beneath the eye a dufky black ftreak : the quills, and the
ends of the fix middle tail feathers, dufky, almoft black: when
the wings are expanded a dark band appears from the tip of one
wing to the other, croffing the back : the legs are black.
The female has the fame plumage; but the bill, though greatly
exceeding that of any other Petrel, is fcarcely more than half
the breadth of that of the male.
Thefe were feen all over the Southern hemifphere, from 28 decrees upwards.    Met with in Dufky Bay, and other parts of New
* Thefe are the Little Diving Petrels. See Forft. Voy. i. p. 189. 503.—Diving
Petrels fhew the proximity of land. Id. i. p. 483.
 PETREL.
Zealand. On the north-weft part of Anchor Ifle found in immenfe
numbers, among other fpecies; fome on the wing, and others in
woods, in holes in the ground clofe to one another, or under
the roots of trees and crevices of rocks ; making a noife fimilar
to the croaking of frogs; and fly much at night, fo as to be
taken for Bats. Thefe were not to be feen in the day-time, but
at three o'clock in the morning were very active, being diving
throughout the day, at fea, in queft of food *. Dr. Forfter obferves, that thefe birds are exceedingly well furnifhed with cloath-
ing, equal to the Penguin; for " their plumage was amazingly
f* abundant, and increafed their bulk in a great proportion; and
" two feathers, inftead of one, proceeded out of every root,
" lying within one another, "and formed a very warm cover-
" ing f."
Blue Petrel, Forft. Voy. i. p. 91,
Another Blue Peteril, Cook's Voy. i. p. 32.
Br. Muf.
T ENGTH twelve inches. Bill an inch and a quarter, blue,
with a black tip ; middle of the bend yellow : the upper parts
of the plumage blue grey, but paler than the laft: under parts
white : beneath the eye a patch of dufky r on the breaft a dufky
band : the greater quills are fomewhat darker than the reft ; and
the inner webs of fome of them nearly white : the tail the colour
of the back, but the outer feather is white; the next white within ; the reft tipped with white: acrofs the body, and wings whea
* Forft. Voy. i
t Forft. Voy.
-Obfi. p. 199.—Cook's laft Voy. i. p.
expanded-,
 expanded, a dark band, as in the broad-billed fpecies: the
wings, when clofed, are fomewhat longer than the tail: the legs
are blue: the webs pale.
Thefe fly in flocks, and inhabit the Southern Ocean, from 47
to 58 degrees of latitude. Capt. Cook fuppofes thefe to be the
female to the broad-billed; but the bill has no degree of breadth to
juftify it; and the colours of the plumage, on comparing them
together, immediately detect the difference.
Br. Muf.
¥ ENGTH twenty-two inches: breadth forty inches. The
;bill is two inches in length, of a lead-colour, and much
hooked at the tip: in the place of a tube the noftrils only appear ; they are fituated obliquely, of an oval fhape, a little elevated, and placed an inch and a quarter from the bafe : the upper parts ofthe plumage are black, the under dufky : legs pale
oa-the infteps, where they are marked with fome black fpots,
and a few others on the toes and webs.
Inhabits Euopoa, and other iflands of the Pacific Ocean. Said to
fly in innumerable flocks. Difappear at once, dipping under
water all together, and then rife as fuddenly.
Br. Muf.
T  ENGTH thirteen inches.    Bill an inch and a half; the fides
of it horn-colour, otherwife black; in the ufual place ofthe
tube are only two fmall holes, ferving for noftrils; the point of
the bill hooked: the upper parts of the body are dufky black :
the
 PETREL.
the under white : on the fides of the neck brown and white
mixed : the edges of the middle wing coverts are whitifh: the
legs are placed quite in the vent, and are, for the moft part, black,
except the infide, which is pale the whole length : and the two
inner toes yellowifh : the webs orange-colour : claws black.
Inhabits Chrifimas Ifland. One of thefe, meafuring lefs by
two inches in length, is in the Leverian Mufeum, faid to have come
from King George's Sound, on the American Coaft.
Vol. III.
3 H
 [    4*8    ]
Genus   XCI.     MERGANSER.
N° I. Goofander.
a. Dun-Diver.
Var. A.
3. Red-breafted M.
Var. A.
Var. B.
N° 4. Hooded M.
5. Smew M.
6. Minute M.
BILL flender, a little depreffed, furnifhed at the end with
a crooked nail;  edges of the mandibles very lharply ferrated.
Noftrils   near the middle of the mandible, fmall, and fub-
ovated.
Feet furnifhed with four toes, three forwards and one behind;
the outer toe before longer than the middle one.
ti Mergus Merganfer, Lin. Syft. i. p. 208. 2.—Faun. Suec. N° 135.—Brun,
4-GOOSANDER. N° 92.—Mutter, N°   i*~.—Kram. El. p. 343. N° 1.—Georgi Reife,
p. 169.—Faun. Groenl. N° 49.—Frtfch. N° 190.
Mergus ^Ethiops, Scop. Ann. i. N° 90.
L'Harle, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 231. 1. pl. 22.—Buf. Oif viii. p. 267. pl. 23.—
Pl.Enl.g-i.
Merganfer, or Goofander, Raii Syn.  p.   134.  A.   1.—Will.   Orn.   p. 333.
pl. 64.—Br. Zool. N° 260. pl. 92. fig. 1—Ara. Zool. N° 465.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
Description.     \17EIGHT nearly four pounds: length twenty-eight inches:
breadth forty.    The bill three inches long, narrow, toothed on the edges of both mandibles; the tip of the upper much
£ bent,
 MERGANSER.
bent, and of the under a little fwelling; colour red : irides the
fame: the head is full of feathers on the top and back part; colour
of that, and half the neck, a fine gloffy greenifh black : the reft of
the neck and under parts white*, tranfverfely undulated with
dufky lines on the fides over the thighs: the upper part of the
back black : fcapulars neareft the body black ; the others white :
the lower part of the back, rump, and tail, brownifh afh-colour;
the feathers edged with dufky white towards the rump : the
leffer wing coverts are white, the others afh-colour, but in the
middle are white alfo : twelve of the prime quills are black;
fome ofthe inner ones afh-colour on the inner webs: the fecon-
' daries moftly white, and five or fix of them fringed with greenifh
black on the outer margins : the tail confifts of eighteen afh-
coloured feathers, the fhafts of which are dufky : legs orange.
The Goofander feems to prefer the more northern fituations to
thofe of the fouth, not being feen in the laft, except in very fevere
feafons. Continues the whole year in the Orknies; and has been
fhot in the Hebrides in fummer f. Common on the continent of
Europe and Afia ; but moft fo towards the north. Found alfo in
Iceland and Greenland, and breeds there, retiring fouthward in winter; at that time found about the lake Baikal. Frequent in America: inhabits the province of New Tork in winter ; retires from
thence in April, probably to Hudfon's Bay X > and, if the bird
called a Fifherman Duck, found alfo in Carolina ||.
i birds the breaft is of a delicate yelk
j to the feafon of the year, or any other
f—Ara. Zool. X Ara. Zool.
vifh   rofe-colour ;   whether
aufe, I am ignorant.
H   Lawfon Carol, p. 150.
3 H 2
 MERGANSER,
Mergus Merganfer (fern.) Faun. Suec. p. 48.
Mergus Gulo, Scop. Ann. i. N° 88.
Anas rubricapilla, Brun. N° 93.
Mergus Merganfer, (fem.) Faun. Suec. p. 48.— Kram. El. p. 343. N° 2.
Mergus caftor, Lin. Syft. i. p. 209. 4 ?
L'Harle cendre, ou le Bievre, Brif Orn. vi. p. 254. pl. 25.
L'Harle femelle, Brif.   Om. vi. p.   236.—Buf.  Oif  viii. p.   272.—Pl.
Enl. 953.
Dun-Diver, or Sparling Fowl, Raii Syn- p. 134.' A. 2.—Will. Orn. p. 333.
pl. 64. (the head.)—Albin, i. pl. 87.—Br. Zool. iL p.  557. pl. 92.
fig. 2.—Ara. Zool.Na4.6S.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
•THE Dun-Diver is lefs than the Goofander, and meafures
in length twenry-feven inches : is thirty-five in breadth :
and weighs three pounds and a half. The bill is much the
fame, but duller in colour; the nail at the tip blackifh : the upper part of the head and neck are ferruginous, paleft on the fore
part: the feathers of the crown and nape much longer than in
the Goofander: the chin and throat white: the back, wing coverts, tail, and fides of the body, are afh-colour : the lower part
of the neck before, the breaft, and middle of the belly, are white:
greater quills black: fcapulars darker than the back : the ends
of fix of the fecondaries white for two inches, but the laft of
thefe has the inner web, and the remaining part of the others,
wholly of a pale afh-colour : legs orange, but paler than in the
Goofander.
The above is moftly found in the fame place, and at the fame
feafons, as the Goofander; but appears to be far more common.
THE
 MERGANSER.
-THE Mergus Cafior*, fuppofed by Linnaus and Briffon to be
a diftinct fpecies, feems fo little to differ from the Dun-Diver
as to be efteemed as one bird ; it is indeed much lefs in fize, being
fcarcely bigger than the Smew: the length of my fpecimen
twenty-one inches and a half: breadth twenty-feven: weight
feventeen ounces : the bill two inches and a quarter: as to the.
colours, and the diftinction of them, it is much the fame as in the
Dun-Diver; but the neck has a greater mixture of afh-colour,
and there is a pale ftreak between the noftrils and eye: the reft
as in the laft-named bird.
This is faid to be common in Germany -, and at times to be
found as low as Egypt f. The fpecimen referred to above was
killed on the coaft of Suffolk.
An opinion has prevailed among later authors, that the Goofander and Dun-Diver were male and female only, and not diftinct
fpecies; but perhaps this conjecture may not be fo firmly eftab-
limed as not to admit of the intrufion of a different fentiment:
and the following facts lead us' again to feparate them into different fpecies.
In the firft place, the Dun-Diver is ever lefs than the Goofander ; and individuals of that bird differ greatly in fize among
themfelves : and, if we admit the laft-defcribed as a variety only,
in an extreme degree : we may alfo add, that the creft is confi-
derably longer and fuller in the one efteemed as the female, than
in that thought to be the male; a circumftance obferved in no
• Bievr'e Oifea,
ts building on roc
fee Belon, Hift. Nat. des Oif. p. i
mthor talks of
otheff
 MERGANSER.
other bird that is furnifhed with a creft at all *, for in fuch the females, in many cafes,-have not even the rudiment of one. Again,
fome of the Dun-Divers have been proved to have a labyrinth, as
well as the Goofander: by this is meant an enlargement of the
bottom ofthe wind-pipe, juft before the entrance into the lungs:
and as it is only found in the males of the Duck kind *, we have
a right to conclude the fame in refpect to the birds in queftion,
efpecially as they are the neareft link to the Duck genus. But a
far more interefling circumftance than any of the above-noted
is, that fome of the larger Dun-Divers have really proved, on
diffeblwn, to be males. This difeovery I owe to the attention of
Dr. Heyfham, who informs me that he has more than once found
it to be fo. The laft he met with of that fex, was at Carlifie, in
the month of December. He likewife obferves, that the Dun-
Diver is infinitely more common in Cumberland than the Goofander, at leafl ten or fifteen of the firft to one of the laft, which
indeed is fo fcarce there, that he never had an opportunity of differing more than one, which however turned out to be a male.
mpullam
1 opinati
* Ray's words run thus, in refpect. to the Dun-Diver: " Haec etiam
" feu labyrinthum in afpera arteria habet: quod maribus proprii
" fumus."—Syn. p. 135.
In Willughby we find the following.—" In the Dun-Diver, which we take to
«' be the female ofthe Goofander, we found a large labyrinth^-to that we will not
" be very confident that the Goofander and Dun-Diver differ no more than in
*' kx."—Om. p. 336.
Briffon's figure ofthe Harle cendre, ou Bievre, the Mergus Cafior of Linn<tus,
defcribed by us above, is faid to be that of the male bird. In refpect to our fpecimen, this matter could not be afcertained; as, the bird having come from a
great diftance, the inward parts were too much difiblved to be attended to with
any degree of certainty.
Having
 MERGANSER.
Having faid thus much, there is no way to reconcile the prefent opinion of authors, but by fuppofing the poffibility of the
young birds of both fexes retaining the female plumage for a certain number of years, before they attain that of the male, as is the
cafe in fome birds: but in allowing this circumftance, we muft
fuppofe them likewife capable of propagating their fpecies;
which, if true, is not very ufual in animals before they arrive at
maturity.
We have been led to this digreffion from a defire of future
information; and efpecially if any with the plumage of the
Goofander be females. This is to be gained only from repeated
obfervations, aided by the unerring guide of diffection; a circumftance hitherto not attended to in the manner neceflary to
fuch enquiries.
4*3
Mergus ferrator, Lin. Syft. i. p. 208. ■'.—Faun. Suec. p. 136.—Brun. N° 96.
—Mutter, N° 134.—Georgi Reife, p. 169.
Mergus albellus, Scop. Ann. i. N° 89.
L'Harle huppe, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 237. 2. pl. 23.—Buf. Oif. viii. p. 273.—
PL Enl. 207.
Red-breafted Goofander, Edw. pl. 95.— Albin, ii. pl. 101.
Mergus criftatus capite caftaneo, &c. Kram. El. p. 343. 2. (female.)
■■ cirratus fufcus, Raii Syn. p. 135. A. 4.—Witt. Orn. p. 336. (Mer
gus cirratus minor) pl. 64. (female.)
Red-breafted Goofandeis, N° 261. pl. 93. (male and female.)
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
J   ENGTH one foot nine inches: breadth two feet feven:
weight two pounds.    The bill is three inches long;   the
upper mandible dufky; the lower red :  irides purplifh red : the
head, and part of the neck, are black gloffed with green : the
feathers
-RED-BREASTED M.
Description.
 MERGANSER.
feathers ofthe hind head forming a pretty long creft; the reft of
the neck, and the under part of the body, white': the breaft ferruginous, mixed with black and white: upper part of the
back gloffy black: the lower, and rump, tranfverfely ftriated
brown and pale grey : on each fide of the breaft are five or fix
broad white feathers, margined all round with black, and when
the wing is clofed reft on the bend of it: part of the fcapulars
are black, others white : the wing coverts are alfo part black
part white; but moft of them of this laft colour: quills dufky :
tail brown: legs orange : claws black.
The female differs in having only the rudiment of a creft : the
head, and upper part of the neck adjoining, dull ferruginous:
chin white: fore part of the neck, and the breaft, ferruginous,
mottled with black and white : the upper part of the neck, back,
rump, and fcapulars, cinereous: the lower part of the breaft and
belly white: on each fide the breaft the fame black and white
feathers as in the male: fcapulars and wing coverts much the
fame as in that fex ; but have lefs white and more dufky in them:
legs orange, but paler than in the male-
Individuals of both male and female differ from each other in
plumage. In the firft, fome have twice the proportion of white
in the neck that is feen in others; and the white on the wings
infinitely more pure. The females differ alfo in being much
brighter in colour.
This fpecies is found for the moft part in the northern parts of
this kingdom.    Obferved to breed on Loch Mari, in the county
of Rofs, and in the Ifle of Hay *.    In moft parts of the north of
Europe, on the continent: and as high as Iceland, where it is called
• Ar3. Zool.
 MERGANSER.
Vatus-ond: alfo in the Ruffian dominions, about the great rivers
of Sibiria, and the lake Baikal. Frequent in Greenland in the
fummer, where it breeds on the fhores. The eggs like thofe of a
Wild Duck, but fmaller and whiter. It dives well, and is very
active in the water; but the Greenlanders often take it by darts
thrown at it, efpecially in Auguft, being the time when it is in
moult. Frequent in Newfoundland; and often appears at Hudfon's
Bay in large flocks, but is obferved to be of a larger fize there
than in Europe. They generally come in pairs the beginning of
June, as foon as the ice breaks up; and make the neft foon after
their arrival, chiefly on dry fpots of ground in the iflands. Lay
from eight to thirteen white eggs, the fize of thofe of a Duck: the
neft made of withered grafs, and lined with the down of the
breaft. The young are of a dirty brown, like young Gofiings.
They all depart fouth in Oblober, to the lakes, where they may
have open water. They are known at Hudfon's Bay by the name
of As-fick *.
4*5
L'Harle blanc Sc noir, Brif. Om. vi. p. Z50. 4.
• noir, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 251. 5.
CIZE ofthe laft. The head, hind part ofthe neck, back, fcapulars, and rump, black: upper tail coverts brown: all the
under parts white; as are the leffer wing coverts, and the greater.
ones neareft the body; the outer ones and quills black: tail
brown: legs red.
This is a variety of the male.
Vol. III.
* Mr. Hutchins.
3-
 426
MERGANSER.
Var. B.
Description
L'Harle noir, Brif Orn. vi. p. 251. 5.
CIZE of a D^.    Bill black: head, back and rump, fcapulars, and upper tail coverts, black: neck chefnut: breaft,
belly, and under parts, white : wings black, croffed with a tranfverfe band of white : tail black :  legs black.
Found in Germany.    This feems a variety of the female.
HOODED M,
BR
Mergus cucullatus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 207. 1.
L'Harle hupe de Virginie, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 258. 8—Pl. Enl. 935 (the
male) ;  936 (the female.)
L'Harle couronne, Buf. Oif viii. p. 280.
Ecatototl altera, Raii Syn. p. 175.
Wind Bird, Will. Orn. p. 389.
Round-crefted Duck, Edw. pl. %6o.—CateJb. Car. i. pl. 94.
Hooded Merganfer, Ara. Zool. N° 467.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE nearly that of a Wigeon: length feventeen inches and a
half: breadth twenty-three inches: weight nearly twenty-three
ounces. Bill an inch and a half long, black, furnifhed with a
nail at the end: irides golden : head of a dark brown : forehead paler: the head furnifhed with a large rounded creft,
flat on the fides : round the eyes, and the middle of the creft,
black; the reft white, tipped all round with black: the head,
neck, back, and quills, black: tail dufky: the under parts
from the breaft white : fides of the breaft, and lower part of
the neck, undulated with black: the wing coverts are deep
brown; acrofs the lower ones a bar of white ; and a mixture of
5 the
   MERGANSER.
the laft on the fcapulars : fides of the breaft fine tawny, croffed
with black lines : fides of the vent the fame, elegantly barred :
legs black.
The female has the head and neck dark afh-colour, mottled
with black : creft fhort, and ruft-coloured : back, wings, and
tail, dufky : a white line acrofs the wings: breaft and belly
white.
This elegant fpecies inhabits North America. Appears at
Hudfon's Bay the end of May, and builds clofe to the lakes : the
neft is compofed of grafs, lined with feathers from the breaft.
Lays from four to fix white eggs. The young are yellow,
and are fit to fly in July. They all depart from thence in
autumn. Appear at New Tork, and other parts as low as Virginia -and Carolina, in November. Frequent frefh waters. Return to the north' in March. Called at Hudfon's Bay, Omifka
Jheep *,
31
 4^ 8
MERGANSER.
f- SMEW. Mergus albellus, Lin. Syft. i
Male. N° 97—Frifih. t, 172.-
Mergus albulus, Scop. Ann. i. N° 91
Le petit Harle huppe, ou la Piette,
—Buf. Oif. viii. p. 275. pl. 24
Mergus Rheni, Raii Syn. p. 135. 5.
White Nun, Raii Syn. p. 135. A. 3.-
Smew, Albin, i. pl. 8g.—Br. Zool. ii
209. 5.
m, El. 1
• 344* 3*
Brif Om. vi. p. 245. 3. pi. 24. fig. I
.-Pl. Enl. 449.
—Will. Orn. p. 337.
—Will. Orn. p. 337. pl. 64.
.. N° 262.—Ara. Zool. N° 468.
L'Harle etoile, Brif. Om. vi. p. 232- 6.—Brun. N° 98.
Weefel Coot, Albin, i. pl. 88.
Red-headed Smew, Br. Zool. ii. N° 263.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
HP HIS, in fize, rather exceeds the Teal: length fixteen or
feventeen inches: breadth two feet: weight thirty-four
ounces. Bill near two inches long, and black : general colour of
the plumage white: the head crefted at the back part; the under
part of the creft black: on each fide of the head an oval black
fpot, beginning at the bill, and taking in the eye: on the lower:
part of the neck, on each fide, are two curved black ftreaks,,
pointing forward: the inner fcapulars, back, coverts on the fide
of the wing, and greater quills, are black: tail cinereous: legs
blueifh grey.
The female is fixteen inches long : twenty-three broad: and
weighs fifteen ounces. The bill is lead-colour: head ferruginous,,
and flightly crefted: cheeks, chin, and throat, white: between
the bill and eye the fame oval black fpot as in the male: back,
dufky afh-colour: wings as in the male: belly white: legs pale
afh-colour.
The-
 MERGANSER.
The Smew is feen in England only in winter, at which feafon it will fometimes be met with at the fouthern parts of it;
as alfo in France, in the neighbourhood of Picardy, where it
is called la Piette: fimilar to this, we have heard it called in
Kent by the name of Magpie-Diver. On the continent we find it
as far fouth as Carniola: frequents alfo Iceland, at which place,
or fome other arblic region, it paffes the fummer; and where it
in courfe breeds, probably along with the other Merganfers; as it
has been obferved to migrate, in company with thofe birds, feve-
' ral kinds of Ducks, &c. in their courfe up the Wolga, in February *. It alfo inhabits America, having been fent from New
Tork f, where it is probably a migratory fpecies, as in Europe.
429
Mergus minutus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 209.. 6.—Faun. Suec. N° 138.—Kram. Et.
P- 344- 4-
Mergus tinus, Haffela. It. p. 269. N° 37..
" glacialis, Brun. N° 99.
 pannonicus, Scop. Ann. i. N° 92.
Le petit Harle huppe, (femelle) Brif. Orn. vi. p. 243. 3. pl. 24. fig. 2.
Le Harle etoile, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 278.—Pl. Enl. 450.
Mergus glacialis, Lough Diver, Raii Syn. p.   135.—Will, Orn. p. 338.—
Br. Zool. ii. p. 560.—Ar3. Zool. p. 540. A.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
-•"PHIS is rather lefs than the Smew:, length fourteen inches
and a half: breadth twenty-three. Bill black: the upper
part of the head, and fides, taking in the eyes and the hind part
of the neck, dufky ferruginous, deepeft on the head, the feathers of which are fomewhat elongated: the chin, throat, fore
* Dec. Ruff. ii. p. 145. f Ara, Ztol.
-t- MINUTE.
M.
 MERGANSER.
part of the neck, and fides of it for half the length, white: the
lower part of the neck, and breaft, mottled dufky and white: the
belly and under parts white: the wings not greatly differing
from thofe of the Smew, dufky black, with a patch of white on
the coverts, and two bars of the fame below : legs dufky.
The male and female fcarcely differ, except in fize, the laft
being fmaller.
What has been remarked of the Smew may be faid of this
fpecies, in refpect to its migrations: feen fometimes as far fouth I
as latitude 37, being met with in the ifland Tino, in the Archipelago -, paffing northward in fummer, in order to breed. Birds
of this genus are in general not fo well-flavoured as thofe of
the Duck kind; yet we have often met with thefe laft in the
London markets, and by fome are thought to be very little inferior to the Wild Duck; which laft now and then partakes of
the fifty haut gout, a flavour not difagreeable to the palates of I
the connoiffeurs in good eating.
 [   43i   3
Genus  XCII.
D   U
C   K.
mt
Whittling Swan.
N°24.
Bering G.
2.
Mute Sw.
25.
Gulaund Duck.
3-
Black-necked Sw.
26.
Bernacle.
4-
Loggerhead Goofe.
27.
Brent.
5-
Buftard G.
28.
Blue-winged G.
6.
Variegated G.
29.
Eider D.
7'
Antarctic G.
30.
King D.
8.
Magellanic G.
3'-
Mufcovy D.
9-
Painted G.
32-
Rufous-necked D.
IO.
Snow G.
33-
White-headed D.
ii.
Great G.
34-
Georgia D.
12.
Chinefe G.
35-
Black D.
Var. A.
3*.
Scoter D.
13-
Black-backed G.
37-
Velvet D.
14.
Canada G.
38.
Harlequin D.
15.
Spur-winged G.
39-
Brown D.
16.
Egyptian G.
40.
Spotted-billed D.
Var. A.
41.
Damietta D.
i7-
Red-breafted G.
42.
Nilotic D.
18.
Ruddy G.
43-
Mallard.
19.
Grey-headed G.
General Variety.
20.
Mountain G.
Var. A.
21.
Grey Lag G.
Var. B.
Var. A.   Tame G.
Var. C.
22.
White-fronted G.
Var. D. Hook-billed
2J.
Bean G.
44.
Curve-billed D.
N° 45- Super-
 43 *■
DUCK.
N* 45. Supercilious D.
N° 67. Soft-billed D.
46. Pied D.
68. Pochard.
47. Red-billed whittling
Var. A.
D.
6q. Spanifh D.
48. Black-billed ditto.
70. Dominican D.
49. Scaup D.
71. Ferruginous D.
.   Var. A.
72. Pintail D.
50. White-faced D.
73. Long-tailed D.
Var. A.
Var. A.
51. Shieldrake.
74. Weftern D.
52. Crimfon-billed D.
75. Buffel-headed D,
53. Uathera D.
76. Golden-eye D.
54. Mareca D.
77. Morillon D.
55. Shoveler.
78. Mexican D.
Var. A.
79. Tufted D.
Var. B.
80. New-Zealand D.
56. Mexican Sh.
81. Crefted D.
57. Red-breafted Sh.
82. Red-crefted D.
58. Jamaica Sh.
83. Iceland D.
59. Ural D.
84. Dufky D.
60. Lapmark D.
85. Summer D.
61. Gad wall.
86. Chinefe D.
6a. Falcated D.
87. Garganey.
Var. A.
88. Common Teal.
63. Common Wigeon,
89. Summer T.
64. Cape W.
90. American T.
65. American W.
91. St. Domingo T.
66, Bimaculated D.
92. Spinous-tailed T.
N° 93. African
-.
 N* g3- African T.
94. Madagafcar T,
95. Coromandel T.
N° 96. Manilla T.
97. Baikal T.
98. Hina T.
TH E bill in this genus is ftrong, broad, flat or depreffed,
and commonly furnifhed at the end with  an  additional
piece, termed a nail; the edges of the mandibles marked with
fharp lamella? or teeth.
Noftrils fmall, oval.
Tongue broad, edges, near the bafe, fringed.
Toes four in number; three before, one behind, the middle
one the longeft.
Anas Cygnus ferus, Lin. Syft. i- p. 194. n—Faun. Suec. N° 107.—Scop. Ann. 1.
i. N° 66.—Brun. N° ^.—Mutter, N° 106.— Kram. El. p. 338. 2.—   +" WHISTLING
Georgi Reife, p. 165.
Le Cygne fauvage, Brif Orn. vi. p. 292. 12. pl. 28.—Buf. Oif. ix. p. 3.—
Pl. Enl. 913.
Elk, Hooper, or Wild Swan, Raii Syn. p. 136. A. 2.—Will. Orn. p. 356.
pl. 69. (the head).—Edw.   pl.   150.—Br. Zool. ii. N° 264.—Ar3.
Zool. N° 469.
Lev. Muf.
*~T- H E whifiling, or (as it is called) wild Swan, is lefs than the    Description.
tame or mute fpecies, and about five feet in length. The
bill is three inches long; from the bafe to the middle of it
yellowifh white, and from thence to the end black: round the
eyes, for a fmall fpace, bare of feathers ; the eye-lids yellowifh :
the whole plumage, without exception, of a pure white: legs
black *.
Vol. III.
! In fome Reddifh.   Willughby.
3 K
This
 D     U
K.
This fpecies, for we efteem it diftinct, is an inhabitant of the
northern regions; never appearing in England except in hard
winters, when flocks of five or fix are now and then feen. Said
however to come into Lingey, one of the Weftern Ifles, in the
month of October, and to flay there till March, when they depart:
A few obferved to continue in Mainland, one of the Orknies, and
breed there ; but the major part retire to the north during fummer, being found in Iceland*, Lapland, the defarts of Tartary
and Sibiria, as far as Kamtfchatka. In the fummer fpread towards the fouth, being then found about the Cafpian and Euxine
Seas, in Greece f, and at times even fo low as Egypt; but are
obferved, on this fide the Equator, only between the Tropic and
Arblic circles, to the laft of which it is faid they fcarce ever
arrive J. We have little doubt of this proving the bird caWedColum,
which is met with about Surat, in the Eaft Indies \, where likewife
is the mute fpecies; the former well diftinguifhed from the latter
• The people of Iceland find that the number increafes towards winter, hence
fuppofe them to come from parts ftill farther north ; and in fpring more than an
hundred are often feen in a flock, which are thought to have come from the
fouth. This is faid of the migrators ; for the greater part of the young brood
ftay the whole year, frequenting the lakes in fummer, and in the winter removing to the fea-fliore.—Von Troil. Icel. p. 143.
t Catejb. Car. App. p. 36.—Hift. Louif ii. p. 78. X Ar3. Zool.
D Fryer's Trav. p. 119. 316.—After obferving that theColum is found at Surat,
as well as the Serafi, a fpecies of the former, he fays, " The afpera arteria is
" wound up in a cafe on both fides their breaft-bone, in manner of a trum-
" pet, fuch as our Waits ufe : when it is fingle it is a Serafs, when double a
" Colum, making a greater noife than a Bittern, being heard a great while be-
«1 fore they can be feen, flying in armies in the air."—And adds, that thefe
fly towards the cold countries whtn the Rant enters its lign.   P. 316.
by
 D     U
K.
by the wonderful circumvolution of the wind-pipe, below-mentioned. Are met with alfo in America. Not uncommon at Hudfon's Bay, where they are called Wapa-feu; come there accompanied by the Geefe, about the end of May, but not in great numbers, though fometimes as far as nine in a flock; yet the
lakes to the fouthward are faid to abound with them. The natives greatly efteem them as food. They lay four eggs, and
hatch in July *. Have been feen alfo in King George's Sound f;
from thence to Carolina £, and Louifiana, migrating on the new as
on the old continent. The Indians of the laft wear the fkins, with
the down attached to them, fewed together by way of covering;
and of the larger feathers they make diadems for their Chiefs, as
Well as weave the fmaller on threads, as barbers do for their wigs,
with which they cover garments, which are worn only by women of the higheft rank §.
In Auguft they lofe their feathers, and are not able to fly, when
the natives of Iceland and Kamtfchatka hunt them with dogs,
which catch them by the neck, and eafily fecure their prey. In
the laft place they are alfo killed with clubs. The eggs are
accounted good food ; and the flefh much efteemed by the inhabitants, efpecially that ofthe young birds, infomuch that, fummer
or winter, no entertainment is faid to be made without one ||.
The ufes of the feathers are manifeft to every one; and the
• Mr. Hutchins. f Cook's laft Voy. i. p. 235.
X Said to be two forts : the larger called the Trumpeter, the fmaller the
Hooper.—Lawfon, p. 1$6.—Ar3. Zool.
§ Hift. Louif. ii. p. 113.
|| This was not obferved to be the cafe when Captain Cook vifitsd that place.
—Cook's laft Voy. vp). iii. p. 347.
3 K £ fkins
 436
D     U
K,
fkins of the body are worn by the inhabitants; befides which, that
ofthe legs, taken off whole, is ufed for purfes, and appears not
unlike Jhagreen.
This fpecies has a fharp loud cry, which it chiefly makes
while flying, and may be heard a great way offj frequently when
fo high in the air as to be out of fight *. The wind-pipe is of a
Angular conftruction, entering the cheft a little way; from thence
reflected in form of a trumpet; after which it enters a fecond
time, when, dividing into two branches, it goes on to join the
lungs f. It is perhaps from this ftructure that the bird is enabled
to produce fo ftrong a voice; whereas in the next, commonly
called the tame fpecies, the wind-pipe enters at once into the lungs,
the confequence of which is, that the utmoft noife it can make
is a mere hifs.
Anas Cygnus manfuetus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 194. 1.—Faun. Suec. N° 107. P.—-
Brun. N° 44.—Kram. El. p. 338. 2. @.—Frifcb. pl. 152.
Le Cygne, Brif. Om. vi. p. 288. u.—Buf. Oif. ix. p. 3. pl. 1.—Pl. Enk '
913-
Tame Swan, Raii Syn. p. 136. A. l.—Will. Orn.p. 355. pl. 69.—Albin, iii.
pl. g6.—Edw. pl. 150 (the head.)—Br. Zool. ii. N° 265. pl. 60.
Mute Swan, Ara. Zool. N° 470.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
HrlilS differs from the whiftling Swan in being bigger: weight
about twenty-five pounds.   The bill red; the tip and fides
black; and at the bafe on the forehead a callous knob : the plumage the fame in every particular as the former.
* Hift. Louif ii. p. 113.—Swans in flying follow one another fo clolely, that
the bill of the one lays on the tail of the foremoft.— Hift. de Lyon, i. p. 212.
fWttl.Orn.p. 356.357.
8 This
 u
K.
This is found wild in Ruffia and Sibiria, moft plentiful in the
laft. Arrives later from the fouth, and does not fpread fo far
north*. Thofe about the fouthern part of the Cafpian Sea are
very large, and much efteemed for the ufe of the table. The
Swan is held in high veneration by the Mahometans f.
In England this fpecies is very common in every gentleman's
garden where there is water, being kept as an ornament. They
generally lay from fix to eight large whitifh eggs, and fit near
two months. Seen on the Thames in vaft plenty, where they are
efteemed as royal property, it being accounted felony to Ileal the
eggs; by this means the encreafe is fecured, and prove a delightful ornament to the whole length of that river, from that part
where the traffic of the metropolis ceafes, quite to its fource. In
the reign of Edward IV. the eftimation they were held in was
fuch, that <c no one that poffeffed a freehold of lefs than clear
" yearly value of five marks," was permitted even to keep any.
On the river Trent are alfo in vaft numbers; but no where more
plenty than on the falt-water inlet of the fea, near Abbotjbury, in
Dorfetjhire %.
The young Swans, called Cygnets, were formerly much efteemed ; and are faid at prefent to be fattened, at Norwich, about
Chrifimas, and fold for a guinea apiece §.
I will here wave mentioning the fong, &c. of the Swan ; that
antient fiction, fo beautifully recorded by the old Poets; our
friend Mr. Pennant having moft elegantly touched thereon in his
Britifh Zoology.
Nothing can exceed the beauty and elegance with which the
Swan rows itfelf in the water, throwing itfelf, before the fpecta-
' Ar3. ZooL
t Dec. Ruff. iii. p. 7
X Br. Zoo.
§ Id.
tors,
 438 D     U     C     K.
tors, into the proudeft attitudes imaginable, as if defirous of being
viewed. Will fwim on that element fafter than a man can walk:
it however cuts but an inelegant figure on land. Is very ftrong,
and fometimes exceeding fierce; has not unfrequently been known
to throw down and trample under feet youths of fifteen or fixteen
years of age; and an old one to break the leg of a man with a
ftroke of the wings. Said to be very long-lived, and frequently
to arrive at the hundredth year. The young not perfect in plumage
till the fecond year. Lays the firft egg in February, and continues
laying every other day to the amount of fix, feven, or eight
eggs ; thefe are placed on a bed of grafs near the water, and fits
fix weeks. It feeds on both fifh and herbage. The flefh of the old
ones is hard and ill-tafted; that of the young yet efteemed,
though infinitely more valued by the antients than in, the prefent
age.
BLACK-NECKED
SW.
Black-necked Swan, Boug. Voy. p. ^g.—Pemet. Voy. ii. p. 26. ch. 9.
•■"pHIS fpecies is faid to have a red bill: the plumage the fame
with the other Swan, except that the neck is of a velvet
black : the feet are flefh-coloured.
This fpecies inhabits the Falkland Iflands, Rio del Plata, and
the ftraits of Magalhaen. A bird is likewife mentioned in Hawkef-
worth's Collection of Voyages, vol. iii. p. 101. 117, faid to be
black and white, much larger than a Pelican, and refembling
that bird. Poffibly the above may be meant by this fhort defcription.
 439
. Oifeaux grifes, ou Oies de plein,
Racehorfe Duck, Fernet. Journ. f
Loggerhead, Phil. Tranf. vol. lx\
Voy.
Fernet. Voy. ii. ch. 19. p. 2K
. 213, 214.
i. p. io\.—Penr. Falk. Ifl. p. 3J-—Forft.
LOGGERHEAD
G.
. p. 492.
T ENGTH thirty-two inches *. Bill three inches long; colour orange; the top of the upper mandible brown at the
, bafe; the tip black: irides orange, furrounded with black, and
then with orange : the head and neck deep afh-colour: upper
parts of the body much the fame : the outer edge of the fecondaries white, forming a band of the fame on the wing: the under parts of the body dufky down the middle : over the thighs
cinereous blue : vent white : quills and tail black; the laft fhort,
and pointed in fhape: the wings are likewife very fhort, not
reaching to the rump : on the bend of the wing a yellow knob,
half an inch in length: the legs are brownifh orange: webs
dufky: claws black.
Thefe inhabit Falkland Iflands, Staaten Land, Sec. and were
moftly feen in pairs, though fometimes they were obferved in
large flocks. From the fhortnefs of the wings they were unable
to fly; but they made confiderable ufe of them when in the water, on which they feemed as it were to run, at leafl they fwam,
with the affiftance of the wings, ufed as oars, at an incredible
rate, infomuch that it was a moft difficult thing to fhoot them,
while on that element: to catch them, the failors ufed to furround
* Some of our voyagers call the weight of it nineteen or twenty pounds;
but others found it to be not lefs than twenty-nine or thirty.—-See Cook's Voy.
a flock
 D     U
K.
a flock with boats, and drive them on fhore; where, unable
to raife themfelves from the ground, they ran very fait, but foon
growing tired, and fquatting down to reft, were eafily overtaken,
and knocked on the head. Their flefh was fometimes eaten by
the failors, in defect of that of the Buftard Goofe, but it was not
much relifhed, being rank and fifhy, and thought more fit for
the hogs, which, after it had been boiled in the copper, ate it
greedily, and fatted well.
5. L'Oie des Ifles Malouines, Buf. Oif ix. p. 69.
BUSTARD G. White-winged Antarctic Goofe, Brown 111. pl. 40.
Buftard Goofe, Bong. Voy. p. 59.
Outarde, Hift. de la Louif ii. p. 113?
Sea Goofe, Phil. Tranf. vol. lxvi. p. 104. (Clayton. J
Br. Muf.
Description. T ENGTH from thirty-two to forty inches. Bill fcarcely two
inches in length, and black: head, neck, leffer wing coverts,
and under parts of the body, white: the lower part of the neck
behind, and as far as the middle of the back, croffed with numerous dufky black lines: fides over the thighs the fame: the
greater wing coverts black, tipped with white, forming a bar of
white on the wing; at the bend a blunt knob: fecond quills
part black, part white; prime ones dufky black : fpeculum dark-
green : the two middle tail feathers black, the others white: legs
black.
A fecond of thefe,  in the Britifh Mufeum, had almoft the
whole of the neck croffed with dufky lines, and the wings without
 u
K.
out any fpeculum, otherwife like the firft: whether a young bird,
or different in fex, is uncertain *.
Inhabits Falkland Ifles, where it is called the Buftard Goofe. It
ftands pretty high on its legs, which ferve to elevate it above
the tall grafs,. and its long neck to obferve any danger: it walks
and flies with great eafe ; and has not that difagreeable cackling
cry peculiar to the reft of its kind: it generally lays fix eggs :
the flefh is accounted wholefome, nourifhing, and palatable;,
and it feldom happened that there was any fearcity of it.
ClZE of a large Duck. Bill one inch and a half long, and
black at the bafe and tip : head, and neck above half way,
white: lower part of the neck, and breaft, deep red brown, beautifully mottled with black and white: back brown black, mottled
with white: over the thighs the fame : all the under parts marked' as the lower part of the neck : rump and vent ferruginous:
wing coverts white: fecondary quills green; greater quills and
tail black : legs black.
Inhabits New Zealand:. found at Dufky Bay, in April: called
there Pooa dugghee dugghee. From the drawing of Sir Jofeph Banks.
This feems to be the bird mentioned in Forfter's Voyage f, which
he fays is the fize of the Eider Duck: plumage blackifh brown,
elegantly fprinkled with white : rump and vent ferruginous : fe-
* M. Bougainville calls the female yellow; and. fays, that its wings are adorned" with changing colours. See Voy. p. 59.—Perhaps he means our Magellanic
fpecies.—He obferves, that this, the Black Swan, and other Ducks, have in
this climate a very foft down under the feathers, of a grey colour, and very
thick.
t i. P- 156.
Vol, III. 3 L condaries
VARIEGATED
 444
D     U
K.
condaries green : quills and tail black. Clayton, in his account
of Falkland's Iflands, mentions a bird by the name of Mountain
Goofe *: he fays, it is larger than the Mufcovy Duck: the plumage on the back fpeckled brown and greenifh black, and towards the neck turns of a gloffy beautiful gold-colour: the breaft
coloured like a Pheafant. This, he obferves, always feeds on
the mountains; is pleafant tailed, and preferable to the other
forts ; but is fcarce. But all Geefie are beft in autumn, when the
cranberries are ripe, on which they feed.
He likewife talks of another, as large as a lame Goofe. The
Gander black and white, fpeckled : the Goofe almoft like the
Mountain Goofe, but darker, and not fo beautiful. Thefe feed
in the vallies, on wild cranberries and grafs; and are good food
in general, but beft and fatteft in February, March, and April.
The firft of thefe two appears to be our prefent-defcribed fpecies;
as to the laft, we cannot determine it for want of a better defcription.
ANTARCTIC G.
Description.
Lev. Muf    (the female.)
■*TPHIS is fmaller than a tame Goofe: weight fixteen  pounds.
Bill narrow, fhort, and black: the whole plumage of a dazzling fnowy whitenefs : on  the bend of the wing a blunt knob :
legs yellow.
The female has the bill, and legs the fame as in the male, but
the firft of a reddifh flefh-colour: head, neck, and body, black,
croffed with tranfverfe white lines; thofe of the head and neck
Phil. Tranf lx*.
 DUCK.
are very minute, but grow broader as they proceed downwards :
middle of the back plain black : wing coverts white: on the
bend of the wing a blunt knob: fpeculum green, edged outwardly with white : greater quills black : tail white: vent greenifh
white : legs yellow.
Inhabits Chrifimas Sound, in Terra del Fuego *.
44>
L'Oie des terres Magellaniques, Buf. Of. ix. p. 62.*-Pl. Enl. 1006.
T ENGTH twenty-four inches. Bill fhort and black; the
upper mandible a little bent at the end: head and neck ferruginous brown : the beginning of the back, the breaft, and all
the under parts to the vent, barred ferruginous and black; near
the vent grey: the lower part of the back and tail dufky: the
wing coverts white : quills dufky ; the fecondaries tipped with
white, forming a bar on the wing : legs yellow : claws black.
Inhabits the Straits of Magalhaen.
A fpecimen of this is in the Mufeum of the late Dr. William
Hunter. It is poffible that the above may prove the Painted
Goofe, mentioned by Commodore Byron, found by him in the
Straits of Magalhaen \; but as he fays no more on the fubject, we
can only fuggeft it.
MAGELLANIC
G.
Description,
J   ENGTH twenty-eight inches.  Bill fmall, under an inch and
a half in length ; colour black : irides afh-colour : head and
neck white, inclining to afh-colour at the hindhead: the fea-
* Dr. Forfter obferves, that the flefh is foetid, and not fit to be eaten.    See
Voy. i. p. 495. 518.—See alfo Pernet. Voy. ii. p. 13.—Cook's Voy. ii. p. 186.
+ Httivkefiw, Voy. i, p. 47.
3 L 2 thers*
PAINTED G.
Description,
 u
K.
•thers of the forehead produced forward on each fide of the upper
mandible : the lower part of the neck and breaft white, marked
acrofs with numerous narrow black bars : the upper part of the
back pale grey, barred in the fame manner with black : the lower
part of the back and fcapulars dufky afh : wing coverts white :
at the bend of the wing a blunt knob: fecondary quills dufky,
with pale edges; prime quills and tail black: the middle of the
belly, thighs, and vent, white: over the thighs barred dufky
and white : legs black.
This was met with at Staaten-Land, in January. From Sir
Jofeph Banks's drawings. It appears to be the Painted Duck, mentioned by Captain Cook *, which he fays is the fize of the
Mufcovy Duck: the plumage moft beautifully variegated: the
head and neck of the female white; but all the other feathers, as
well as thofe of the head and neck of the drake, are of a dark
variegated colour: both male and female have a large fpot of white -
on the wing.
We are not perfectly clear, in refpect to the five laft numbers,
whether they form more or fewer real fpecies than we have
feparated them into; moft likely the laft, as they appear to run
much one into another; and we will be much obliged to future
voyagers for better information.
* Cook. Voy. i. p. g6.
L'Oyc
 D     U
L'Oye de Neige, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 288. 10.
White Brant, Lawfon's Carolina, p. 147.—Phil. Tranf. lxii. p. 413.
Anfer Hyperboreus, Pallas Spic. Fafc. vi. p. 26.
Snow Goofe, Ara. Zool. N° 477.
CIZE of a Goofe: length two feet eight inches: weight between five and fix pounds : extent three feet and a half. Bill
fomewhat ferrated at the edges; the upper mandible fcarlet;
lower whitifh : irides reddifh : forehead yellowifh: general colour
of the plumage fnow white *, except the firft ten quills, which
are black, with white fhafts : lower order of coverts, and baftard
wing, cinereous, with the fhafts black: legs of a deep red.
The young are of a blue colour, till they are a year old.
Thefe are very numerous at Hudfon's Bay, and called by the
natives Way-way, and Wapa whe whe. Vifit Severn River in
May, and flay a fortnight; but go farther north to breed : they
return to Severn Fort the beginning of September, and flay to the
middle of Oblober, when they depart for the fouth, and are obferved to be attended with their young, in flocks innumerable.
At this time many thoufands are killed by the inhabitants ; who
pluck them, and take out the entrails, and, putting the bodies
into holes dug in the ground, cover them with earth, which
freezing above them, keeps them perfectly fweet throughout the
fevere feafon; during which there is no more to do than occa-
fionally to open one of thefe ftorehoufes, when they find them
fweet and good.    They feem to occupy alfo the wefiern fide of
* Mr. Hutchins obferves, that the wing cc
ikds may not be quite in their perfect ftate ?
-;rts are light blue ; perhaps fuch
America,
 446 * D     U     C     K.
America, as they were feen at Aoonalajhka *, as well as at Kamf--
fchatka f, but believe at neither of thefe places very common i
in plenty, in the fummer months, on the arbtic coaft of Sibiria,
but never migrate beyond longitude 130 4". Suppofed to pafs
the winter in more moderate climes, as they have been feen
flying, at a great height, over Silefia; probably on their paffage
to fome other country, as it does not appear that they continue
there: in like manner, thofe of America pafs the winter in Carolina. Are by the Sibirians taken in nets, being decoyed thereto by a perfon covered with a white fkin, and crawling on all
fours; when, others driving them, thefe fiupid birds, added to
their miftaking the firft for their leader, follow him, where they
are entangled in the nets, or led into a kind of pound made on
the occafion §.
Great Goofe, Ara. Zool. p. 570. A.
'"pHIS is of a very large fize, weighing near twenty-five or
thirty Ruffian pounds.    The bill is black; bafe of it tawny :
body dufky : under parts white : legs fcarlet.
This fpecies is found in the eaft of Sibiria, from the. river Lena
to Kamtfchatka, and is taken in great numbers, together with
the Red-necked Goofe, in glades, as we do Woodcocks in England,
but upon a larger fcale ||.
* Ellis's Narr. ii. p. 22, f Hift. Kamtfch. X Ar3. Zool.
§ Id.— The Kamtfchatkans ufe a fimilar method.   See Hill. Kamtfch, p. 158.
H See Ara. Zool—Pall. Trav. ii. p. 325,
li
 D     U
Anas Cynoides Auftralis, Lit
Frifich. pl. 153,  154.
L'Oie de Guinee, Brif. Orn.
Pl. Enl. 374.
Swan Goofe, Raii Syn. p. 13
Spanifh Goofe, Albin, i. pl. 91.
Chinefe Goofe, Brown. Jam. p. 480.—Ara. Zool. p. 5
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf
•—Faun. Suec, N
280. 7.—Buf. Oif. ix.
■Will. Orn. p. 360. pl.
'"PHIS is a large fpecies ; between a Swan and Goofe in fize :
in length more than three feet. The bill orange at the
bafe : on the forehead a large protuberance of the fame colour :
irides red brown: and under the throat a large pouch, fcarcely
covered with feathers, of a dark colour: round the bafe of the bill
a ring of white : the upper parts of the plumage pale greyifh
brown, fometimes the feathers edged with a paler colour : down
the hind part of the neck to the back is a lift of black: fore
part of the neck and breaft yellow brown : belly white: fides
over the thighs grey brown and white: legs orange f : claws
black.
Anas Cygnoides orientalis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 194. (3.
L'Oye d'Mufcovie, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 277. 6.
Mufcovy Gander, Albin, ii. pl. 91, 92.
T   ESS than.the laft: length three feet "fix inches.   Bill on
irides yellow: on the forehead a large knob, as in the laft,
the fame colour as the bill; and beneath the throat a wattle: the
* This figure, though r
loofe.
f In fome, the bill, kno
red to in the index, feems rather to be the Canada
the bafe of it, and legs, are black.
 L
DUCK.
head and neck brown, deepeft at the hind part: back, wings* .
and tail the fame, but deeper, and margined with a paler colour r-
the quills, breaft, and belly, white.
The female is fmaller than the male. The head, neck, and
breaft are fulvous; paler on the upper part: the back, wings,,
and tail, dull brown, with pale edges : belly white : in other
things agrees with the male, but the knob over the bill is.
fmaller.
Such are the defcriptions of Buffon, fuppofing the above
birds to be diftinct; but later obfervations inform us,, that
they all belong to one fpecies, the characterise marks of which
are the knob over the bill, and the loofe fkin under the chin.
We are inclined alfo to think, that the bird often varies, with
the bill, knob, and legs, black; as the major part which have
come under our infpection have been of that colour.
The firft-defcribed is faid to come from the coaft of Guinea i
the laft, to inhabit the Ruffian dominions ;. and we are well af-
fured, that the fpecies is found wild about the Lake Baikal, in
the eaft of Sibiria, and in Kamtfchatka *. They are alfo kept
tame in moft parts of the Ruffian empire -j-. Thefe birds like-
wife inhabit China, and are common at the Cape of Good Hope % :.
our laft voyagers, met alfo with this, or one very like it, at
Owhyhee §.
* Ara. Zool. f Dec. Ruff. i. p. 466.—Frequent at Aftrachan.
X This is no doubt the fpecies mentioned by Kolben, called Crop-Goofe ; who
fays, that the failors make tobacco-pouches, and purfes, of the membrane which
hangs beneath the throat, as it is fufficiently tough for fuch purpofes, and wilt
hold two pounds of tobacco.—Hift. Cap. ii. p. 139.
§ A Goofe, like the China Goofe, at Karacakooah Bay, in Owhyhee, quite
tame, called thefe Na-na,—Ellis's Nan. ii. p. 143.
 wm
D-
K.
In England they are fufficiently common, and freely mix with
the common Goofe, the breeds uniting as freely, and continuing to
produce as certainly, as if no fuch mixture had taken place: they
are a much more noify race than the common tame Geefe, taking-
alarm at the leafl noife ; and even without difturbance will emit
their harfh and difagreeable feream the whole day through. They
walk very erect, with the neck much elevated, and as they bear
a middle line between that of the Swan and Goofe, they have not
improperly been called Swan-Goofe.
Anfer melanotos, Zool. Ind. p. 21. t. 11.
L'Oie bronze, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 77.
Oie de la Cote de Coromandel, Pl. Enl. 937.
Black-backed Goofe, Ind. Zool. p. 12. pl. 11.
BLACK-BACKED
CIZE of a Goofe, but of a more flender make : length two
feet nine inches. Bill pale, large, curved downwards at the
point; in the middle, over the noftrils, rather more forward,
a large rounded flefhy excrefcence, or knob, the fame colour as
the bill: the head, and half the neck, white, full of black dots,
or fhort ftreaks; the feathers of thofe parts as it were ruffled
or reflected; the reft of the neck, and under parts, are white,
tinged with grey on the fides : the back, wings, and tail, black,
bronzed with green, and inclining to blue towards the tail: legs
dufky.
This fpecies is very common in the ifland of Ceylon, and alfo
inhabits the coaft of Coromandel. Buffon fuppofes this may prove
the Goofe, called Raffangue, having a red creft on the head, found
Vol. III. 3 M at
ASCRIPTION,
 D     U
K.
at Madagafcar *." As to the colour of the creft, or knob, it can
be no objection : it is poflible that this part may be red while in
the living ftate, and grow pale on the death of the bird.
Anas Canaderffis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 198.
L'Oye fauvage de Canada, Bnf. On
\.—Phil. Tranf Ixii. p. 412.
vi.  p.  272. 4. pl. 26.—Pl. Enl.
L'Oie a cravate, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 82.
Canada Goofe, Raii Syn. p. 139.  10. p.  191. 9.—Will. Orn. p. 361. pl.
70 t-—Catefb.  Car. i. pl.  92.— Sloan. Jam. ii. p. 323. 6.—Edw. pl.
151.—Ara. Zool. N° 471.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
npHIS is bigger than a tame Goofe: meafures three feet fix inches
in length : and weighs nine pounds. The bill is two inches
and a half long, and black: irides hazel: the head and neck are
black: under the throat is a broad white band, like a crefcent,
the horns paffing on each fide upwards to the hind head: the
• breaft, upper part of the belly, back, and wing coverts, are
dufky brown: lower part of the neck and belly, vent, and upper tail coverts, white: quills and tail black: legs dark lead-
colour.
Inhabits North America. Found, during the fummer, in Hudfon's Bay, and parts beyond; alfo in Greenland %; and, in the
fummer months, in various parts of North America, as far as
Carolina. Numbers breed at Hudfon's Bay, and lay fix or feven
eggs; but the major part retire flill farther north. Their firft
appearance in the Bay is from about the middle of April to about
* Flacourt Madag, p. 165.
t Faun. Groenl.
+ Called by miftake Svsan-Goofi.
 D     U
K.
451
the middle of May *, when the inhabitants wait for them with
expectation, being one of the chief articles for food, and many
years kill as far as three or four thoufand, which are faked and
. barrelled. The Indians, and frequently the fervants of the Eng-
UJh, form a row of huts, made of boughs, at a mufquet-fhot distance each, acrofs the parts they are expected to pafs; and, as
the flock fly over, they mimic their noife fo well as to flop the
Geefe in their flight; when each perfon, having two guns, fires
the firft, and directly after the fecond ; by this means a good
markfman has been known to kill two hundred in a day. In
this fport they muft be very cautious to fecrete themfelves, for
the birds are very fhy, and, on the leafl motion, fly off directly j\
On their return fouth, which is from ' the middle of Auguft to
the middle of Obtober, much havoc is made among them, but
thefe are preferved frefh for winter flore, by puttings them, feathers and all, into a large hole dug in the ground, and covering
them with mould; and thefe, during the whole time ofthe frofts
lafting, are found perfectly fweet and good. The Indians at
Hudfon's Bay call them Apiftifkifh J.
This fpecies is now pretty common in a tame ftate, both on
the continent and in England; on the Great Canal, at Verfailles,
hundreds are feen, mixing with the Swans with the greateft cordiality; and the fame at Chantilly.    In England, likewife, they
* The month in which the Geefe appear  is  called by the Indians, Goofe
t Ara. Zocl.
X The French, while in poffeffion of Canada, ufed to call thefe by the name
of Outarde, or Buftard; but this has lately been applied to one found in Falkland's Ifles.    See p. 440. N° 5.
3 M 2 are
 45*
D     U
K.
are thought a great ornament to the pieces of water in many
gentlemen's feats, where they are very familiar, and breed freely.
The flefh of the young birds is accounted good; and the feathers equal to thofe of other Geefe, infomuch as to prove an article of commerce, much in the favour of thofe places where
they are in fufiicient numbers.
SPUR-WINGED
Anas Gambenfis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 195. 3.
L'Oye de Gambie, Brif Om. vi. p. 283. 8.
L'Oie armee, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 76 ?
Gambo Goofe, Raii Syn. p. 138. g.—Will. Orn. p. 360.
Lev. Muf     ■
CIZE ofthe common Goofe, but ftands higher on its legs. The
bill more than two inches long, of a red colour, and at the
. bafe of it a red protuberance: the cheeks and chin are white :
the neck, fides ofthe breaft, back, rump, and tail, black, inclining
to purple on the back: the middle of the breaft, and all the under parts, white: the outer wing coverts, the bend, and inner
ridge, the fame; but the reft ofthe wing black; on the bend, a
ftrong, fharp fpur, an inch and a half long, and horn-coloured :
the legs red.
Inhabits Gambia, and other parts of Africa. At Senegal is
called Hitt *.
Buffon's defcription of this bird (if he means what we have
defcribed above) is delivered in a very obfeure and unintelligent
manner. Ray and Willughby's fimple defcription prove them to
have been the only perfons who had formed a right idea of the
bird; for on comparing the text of the Hift. des Oifeaux with the
Hift. des Oif.
plates
 ^tffuirr-^s&pzaed-tfcnyzte/.
  u
K.
plates in the Planches Enluminees *, we plainly fee that they are
only the Egyptian Goofe in different ftages of life. We muft here
confefs, that our better knowledge of this bird is folely owing to
a fpecimen in the Leverian Mufeum, from which our figure was
taken; and perhaps is the only one extant in our Mufeums, according to our own obfervations, or thofe of our friends.
9. pl. 27.—Buf. Oif ix. p. 79.
Anas ^Egyptiaca, Lin. Syft. i. p. 197. it
L'Oye d'Egypte, Brif. Orn. vi. p.  284.
pl. 4.—Pl. Enl. 379. 982. 983.
Gambo Goofe, Will. Orn. pl. 71 f-
The Ganfer, Albin, ii. pl. 93-
Lev. Muf.
CIZE ofthe common Goofe : length two feet three inches. The
bill two inches long, and red; noftrils dufky; tip black:
irides yellowifh white: eye-lids reddifh : on each fide of the
head a large rufous chefnut fpot, in the middle of which the
eyes are placed r the crown, and the reft of the head and throat,
are for the moft part white, the laft a little fpotted with chefnut:
the neck, for about two parts of its length, is pale chefnut, growing of a much deeper colour at the lower part: the upper parts
ofthe back and fcapulars are of a brownifh red, croffed with
numerous dufky lines : back and rump black : the lower part of
the neck before, the breaft, the fides, and thighs, very pale ru-
* Pl. Enl. 982, g%i.—Willugbby\ figure likewife by no means anfwers to his
defcription of the bird.—See Orn. pl. 71. referred to by this author.
f This is plainly the Egyptian Goofe, though the index refers it to the Spur-
winged; but in the laft the knobs are not of half the length of thofe of the firft;
nor are they fharp at the points,
+- EGYPTIAN
 DUCK.
fous, croffed with numerous dufky lines: on the breaft a large
fpot of a deep chefnut-colour: the belly is white: the under
tail coverts yellowifh: the wing coverts are white; the greater
ones neareft the body croffed at the ends with black ; and thofe
fartheft from it black: the greater quills are black, and, except
the five firft, edged with green gold: the fecondaries margined
with chefnut: on the bend of the wing a blunt fpur half an inch
in length : the tail as the firft quills : the legs red : claws dufky.
The female differs: the chefnut patch round the eye is fmaller:
the chin white: the chefnut patch on the breaft fmaller, if not
wholly wanting: the leffer wing coverts white; the others pale
afh-colour, with darker margins; the lower order fringed with I
white, forming a bar on the wing: fcapulars and fecond quills
much inclined to chefnut: in other things refembles the male.
This fpecies inhabits Egypt, and other parts of Africa ; and is
fufficiently common at the Cape of Good Hope, from whence
numbers have been brought into England; and are now not uncommon in gentlemen's ponds in many parts of this kingdom,
being an admired and beautiful fpecies.
L'Oie fauvage du Cap de Bon Efperance, Son. Voy, Ind. ii. p. 220.
'"PHIS is the fize of the Egyptian Goofe, of which it appears to
be a variety. The bill is greyifh, tinged with black at the
point: irides yellow : the head, neck, belly, and vent, grey : the
eye furrounded with a naked fkin of a chefnut-colour: on the
breaft is a large black fpot: the back, wings, and rump, are
chefnut: on the edge of the wing are fome white feathers : thef
tail is black : legs red.
8 Anfer
 455
Anfer ruficollis, Pall. Spic. vi. p. 21. t. 4.
Red-breafted Goofe, Ara. Zool. p. 571. C.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Canada Goofe; length twenty-one inches: breadth
three feet ten inches : weight three pounds troy. Bill fmall,
brown ; nail black: irides yellow brown : round the eyes fringed
with brown: fore part of the head, and crown, black, paffing
backwards in a narrow ftripe quite to the back: forehead and
cheeks fprinkled with white: between the bill and eye an oval
large fpot of white, feparated from the white of the forehead by
^a fine of black : chin and throat black: behind the eye white,
paffing down on each fide the neck, and ending in a point; the
middle of this white is rufous; the reft ofthe neck deep rufous:
on the breaft is a narrow band of white feathers with black ends,
forming a band of white and another of black: belly white:
fides ftriped with black: back and wings black, the laft even
with the tail: greater wing coverts tipped with grey : upper and
under tail coverts white : legs black.
This is a moft elegant fpecies, and breeds in the northern
parts of Ruffia, from the river Ob to the Lena-, retires fouth in
autumn. Frequents the .Cafpian Sea, from whence it returns to
the north in fmall flocks as the fummer comes on *. Suppofed
to winter in Perfia. One of thefe was fhot near London in the beginning of the fevere froft ofthe year 1766 : another taken alive
in Torkfhire, near Wycliffe, about the fame time ; this foon became
very tame and familiar, was kept among other Ducks in a pond ;
RED-BREASTED
G.
• Dec. Ruff. ii. j
 DUCK.
but though it affociated freely with them, and feemed partial to
one of them, never produced any young. This information I
received from Mr. Tunftall, in whofe neighbourhood it was taken,
and in whofe Mufeum the firft is in high prefervation; the laft
lived till the prefent year, when it loft its life by an accident.
The above gentleman likewife mentioned a third, which was fhot
in this kingdom. This fpecies is highly efteemed for the table,
being quite free from any fifhy tafte *.
Anas cafarca, Lin. Syft. iii. p. 224.
Anas rutila, N. Com. Petr. xiv. p. 579. 4. t. 2
2. fig.
1.—Georgi Reife, p.
167
Collared Duck, Gent. Mag. xiii. p. 161. pl. i
n ditto
'HTHIS is larger than a Mallard, almoft equal to the Muf-
covy Duck; though it feems even larger than it really is,
from the length of wing, and Handing high on its legs. Bill
black: irides yellowifh brown : eye-lids, and juft round the eye,
blackifh: top of the head, and nape, white : forehead, cheeks,
and throat, yellowifh: fore part of the neck ferruginous, encircled with a collar of black, inclining to deep rufous on the
throat: breaft and fides pale rufous: belly obfcure : vent deep
rufous : beginning of the back pale ; lower part of the back undulated hoary and brown, not very diftinct: rump and tail greenifh black, the laft rounded in fhape : prime quills black ; fecondaries edged with violet green; and fome of the inner ones with
ferruginous: fecond wing coverts, and whole bafe of the wing,
white : legs lone, and black.
The
 u
K.
The female chiefly differs in wanting the black collar round
the neck.
This comes very near the Egyptian Goofe, but is really a diftinct fpecies, and is found in all the fouthern parts of Ruffia and
Sibiria in plenty. Seldom feen farther north than 55 degrees;
but always in the greateft plenty the-" more fouthward. In winter migrates into India ; returns northward in fpring *. Makes
the neft in the craggy banks of the Wolga, and other rivers, or in
the hollows ofthe deferted hillocks of Marmots; making it after
the manner of the Sheldrake, and is faid to form burrows for itfelf in the manner of that bird. Has been known alfo to lay in
an hollow tree, lining the neft with its own feathers. Is monogamous : the male and female fit in turns. The eggs like thofe
of the common Duck. When the young come forth the mother
will often carry them from the place of hatching to the water
with the bill. Have been attempted to be domefticated, by rearing the young under tame Ducks, but without fuccefs, as they
ever are wild, effecting their efcape the firft opportunity; and
if the old ones are taken and confined, they lay the eggs in a
difperfed manner, and never fit f. The voice not unlike the note
of a clarinet, wh ile flying; at other times cries like a Peacock,
efpecially when kept tame ; and now and then clucks like a Hen.
Very choice of its mate, for if the male is killed the female will
not leave the gunner till fhe has been two or three times fhot at.
The flefh is thought very good food.
' Dec. Ruff. i. p. 417.—Always feen in pairs, Id. 464.
fid.
Vol. III.
 458
jg, L'Oie fauvage a tete grife de la Cote de Coromandel,  Son. Voy. Ind. ii.
GREY-HEADED p. 220 ?
Grey-headed Duck, Bro
n III. pl. 41. 42.
Lev. Muf.
T ESS than the Brent Goofe. Bill dufky: head and neck
pale grey : cheeks white: breaft, belly, and back, bright
ferruginous, marked with darker femicircular lines : wing coverts
white: fecond quills green; prime ones black: vent orange,
croffed with a band of black : tail and legs black.
The female differs in having no white on the cheeks, and the
colour in general being lefs bright. One of thefe in the Leverian
Mufeum has the whole of the head and neck^ deep afh-colour:
there are alfo two others, but in neither of them is the ferruginous part of the plumage ftriated.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope; and (if the fame with that
defcribed by Sonnerat) is met with alfo on the coaft of Coromandel *. Among Sir Jofeph Banks's drawings I find one fimilar to,
if not the fame with the above : the length about twenty inches.
It inhabits the mountains of the Cape, and is called Bergenten by
the Dutch.    The above fpecies feems much allied to the laft.
MOUNTAIN G.
Description.
Hill or Mountain Goofe, Kolb. Cap. ii. p. 139.
CIZE larger than the tame Goofe.   The wing feathers, and thofe
of the head, of a bright red fhining green.
* He exprefsly calls it the grey-headed Duck, yet fays, that the head and upper
parts are deep dirty rufous-colour: breaft and belly the fame, but paler: part
of the wing white : quills filky green for half their length, the reft black.
Inhabits
 459
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, where it keeps moftly on the
hills, and feeds on grafs and herbs.
N° 214.—Brun. N° 55.— 21.
-Frifih. Pl.  i5S.-Georgi   GREY-LAG G.
Anas Anfer, Lin. Syft. i. p. 197. 9.—Fai
Mutter, N° 112.— Kram. El. p. 33!
Reife, p. 166.
L'Oye fauvage, Brif, Orn. vi. p; 265. 2.—Buf. Of. ix. p. 30. pl. 2.—
Kfe$        Pl. Enl. 985.
Wild Goofe, Raii Syn. p. 136. A. 4.—Will. Orn. p. 358. N° 2. pl. 69.—
Albin, i. pl. 90.
Grey-Lag Goofe, Rail Syn. p.  138.  A.  3—Br. Zool. ii. H° 266.—Are!.
Zool. N° 473.
Lev. Muf.
'TPHE Wild Goofe, or Grey-Lag, weighs ten pounds : the length
two feet nine inches : breadth five feet. The bill is large
and elevated, yellowifh flefh-colour, with the nail white: the
head and neck are cinereous, mixed with dirty yellow : neck
ftriated downwards : back and primaries dufky, the laft tipped
with black; fhafts white : fecondaries black, edged with white:
leffer coverts dufky, edged with white: breaft and belly whitifh,
clouded with afh-colour: rump and vent white: middle feathers
of the tail dufky, tipped and edged with white; the outmoft almoft entirely white: legs flefh-coloured: claws black *.
This fpecies inhabits the fens of England; and it is believed
does not migrate, as in many countries on the continent; as they
are not only met with in the fummer, but alfo known to breed
in Lincolnfhire, Cambridgefhire, and other places. Have feven or
eight young, which are often taken, and eafily become tame.
They however unite into flocks during the winter feafon, as
1 Ara. Zool.
j N 2
Place anb
Manners.
numbers
 D     U
K.
numbers are met with together. On the continent they are migratory, changing place in large flocks, often five hundred or
more : in this cafe the flock is triangular in fhape, with one point
foremoft; and as the Goofe which is firft is tired fooneft, it has
been feen to drop behind, and another to take his place. In
very fmall flocks, however, they are fometimes feen to follow one-
another in a direct line. Geefe feem to be general inhabitants of
the globe; are met with in Iceland, and on the continent, from;
Lapland to the Cape of Good Hope *. Are frequent in Arabia -j-,
Perfia, and China, as well as indigenous to Japan%; and on the
American continent, from Hudfon's Bay to South Carolina. §. Our
voyagers alfo met with them in the ftraits of Magalhaen ||, Port
Egmont in Falkland Ifles **, and Terra del Fuego ft* Alfo in
New Holland, though not at New Zealand, as we find Captain
Cook making the inhabitants a prefent of a pair in order to breed.
We believe that this is the fort called at Hudfon's Bay, Miftuhay
Neffcock, or Grey Goofe, weighing about nine pounds. They
breed in the plains along the coaft: moult in July, and are
knocked on the head by the inhabitants, as they cannot then fly;
though fome are faved alive, and fed on corn. They depart fouth
in September XX*
• Kolben. t Forfchal, p. 3. N° 6 ; called Has araki. X Kampfer.
% Kalm Trav. || Hawkef. Voy. ii. p. 31. •• Id. p. 65.
tt  Cook's Voy. iv. p. 43.
XX It }s probably this fort that Kalm mentions the taming of by the Americans,
taking the chance of mooting them in the wing. Thefe will often grow tame,,
though old 1>irds, and have been kept for a dozen years; but never familiarize
with the tame ones, nor lay eggs,—Trav. i. p. 209.
 461
Anas Anfer domefticus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 197. 9. /3.—Faun. Suec. N° 114. /?.—
Scop. Ann. i. N° 69.—Kram. El. p. 338. 4. ®.—Frifch. pl. 157. "v
L'Oye domeftique, Brif Orn. vi. p. 262.  1. M
Tame Goofe, Raii Syn. p. 136. A. 3.—-Will. Om. p. 358. 1. pl. 75..
Lev. Muf.
'TpHIS is the Grey-Lag Goofe in a ftate of domeftication, and    Des<
from which it varies in colour, though much lefs fo than
either the Mallard or Cock, being ever more or lefs verging to
. grey; though in all cafes the whitenefs of the vent, and upper
tail coverts, is manifeft: frequently found quite white, efpecially
the males; and doubts have arifen, which of the two colours
fhould have the preference in point of eating.
Tame Geefe are no where feen in greater quantities than in the Pl
fens of Lincolnjhire, many perfons keeping no lefs than a thdufand
breeders. The ufes of the quills and feathers are too well known
throughout Europe * to be particularly noticed : for the fake of
thefe the birds are ftripped while alive, once in the year for
the firft, and no lefs than five times for the laft: the firft plucking is about Lady-Day, for both quills and feathers; the other
four between that and Michaelmas, for feathers only : in general the birds are no confiderable fufferers, though fometimes,
if the cold weather fhould come on, numbers die in confequence.
The poffeflbrs of thefe, except in the apparently cruel ufage of
• In the countries bordering on the Levant, and throughout Afa, the ufe of
Goofe-faathers is utterly unknown ; we find matraffes fluffed with wool, camels-
hair, or cotton, inftead. Pliny, indeed, mentions the ufe of bolfters of feathers
to lay the head upon, in his time; but their being put to this ufe now is not
plucking
 46i
knowing them
, treat
them with fuffici
th themfelves. D
, lodgi
ng them
each bird
le above
has its allottee
another; and
(called a Goz*
! of them
he whole
to water, and
every bird in i
It is fcarcel
of Gt
go
are dri
s, places
the diftant cc
to London for fal
or three
thoufand in a
The co m m
of mutton, bo
thers.   The
pounds; but
drove
j n pric
th bei
jfual •>
it is fe
e of Geefe, in Wi
ig the fame by
/eight of a fine
iree credible how
the
Gc
poun
r th:
s regulated by that
d, without the fea-
fifteen or fixteen
s may be encreafed
by cramming
The victims d
floorbjxhtw
to prevent the
them
eftir.ee
d the
laft pi
Toi
>een w
with bean-meal,
id ot
ler
Fr
fatten
eir eye
ferve
tnce is
f or ei
ng diet,
d to the
what end this
ece of barbarity
.-hat weight they
:11 informed, that
is hard
but we have 1
tu
lentj-
ren thirty:
pounds, is no
uncommon thing in Er
gland.
* See Toor in
t A drove of
above
/, 8ro. p. 8.—Br. Z
?,ooo Geefe paffed th
*ol.
ii. p.
h Che
Z\
rd, in t
he way to
London, from Suffolk.—See St. James's Chronicle, Sept. 2,  1783.
X They are crammed in France with a kind ofpafte made of fatting ingredients, and they alfo put ont their eyes ; by which means they grow fat in fifteen days, or three weeks, and become very delicate.—Salerne Ont. p. 407.
The
 u
K.
The Goofe in general breeds only once in a year, but will frequently have two hatches in a feafon, if well kept. The time
of fitting is about thirty days. They p'A\ alfo produce eggs fuf-
ficient for three broods, if they, are7 taken away in fucceffion.
It is faid to be very long-lived, as we have authority for their
arriving at no lefs than a hundred years *.
4-53
as ^rythropus, Faun. Suec. N* 116. (the female).—
Mutter, N° 113.—Kram. El. p. 339. 6.—Georgi Reife,
Brun. N° 53.— 22-'
«  ,f,f, WHITE-FRONT-
' P- l66' ED G.
L'Oye fauvage du Nord, Brif Orn. vi. p. 269. 3,
 rieufe, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 81.
Laughing Goofe, Edw. pl. 153.
White-fronted Goofe, Br. Zool. ii. N° 268. pl. 94. I. (the head).—ArS.
Zool. N° 476.
Lev. Muf.
g IZ E of the Grey-Lag: length two feet four inches : weight    Descript
five pounds. The bill is yellowifh red, elevated at the bafe;
the nail at the tip white : the forehead, and all round the bafe
of the bill, white : the head, neck, and upper parts, are for the
moft part dark brown, with a little mixture of afh-colour on the
wings: the belly and under parts white, which furrounds the rump
likewife : the two firft marked with black fpots : legs the colour
of the bill: claws very pale.
This fpecies is found in the fenny parts of England, in fmall
flocks, in the winter feafon, but migrates before the end of
March.    In refpect to this country, are not plentiful.
In fummer inhabits the north of Europe and Afia; at times
! See Willughby.—Hift. des Oif. &c.
Place a*
Manner:
pretty
 4«V
D     U
K.
pretly frequent in Sibiria, and the Eaft of Ruffia *. Is alfo
common in the fummer at Hudfon's Bay, where it is called,
Safafquepethefue ;  and very numerous along with other forts f.
Bean-Goofe, Br. Zool.
. N° 267.—Ara. Zo
•v. Muf.
>/. N° 462.
T ENGTH two feet feven inches: extent four feet eleven:
weight fix pounds and a half. The bill fmall, much comprefled near the end, whitifh, and fometimes pale red in the
middle ; and black at the bafe and nail: head and neck cinereous
brown, tinged with ferruginous : breaft and belly dirty white,
clouded with cinereous: fides and fcapulars dark afh-colour,
edged with white: the back of a plain afh-colour: coverts of
the tail white: leffer coverts of the wings light grey, nearly
white: the middle deeper, tipped with white : primaries and
fecondaries grey, tipped with black: feet and legs faffron-colour :
claws black.
The above are the common colours and dimenfions of the
Bean-Goofe, as Mr. Pennant has thus defcribed it: but a fpecimen in my poffeffion varies both in weight and fize, as well as
in being fomewhat differing in plumage: the length of mine is
full three feet: weight feven pounds five ounces: bill, from the
noftrils to the nail, deep brownifh red: leffer wing coverts grey;
the greater the fame, tipped with white: fecond quills as the
laft, but tipped and margined with white : greater quills plain
dufky black: legs dull brownifh red: claws black: in other
things it anfwers to the defcription in the Britifh Zoology,
■ Ara. Zool.
t Mr. Hutchins.
This
 D     U
K.
465
This fpecies inhabits England in the winter feafon : comes into
Lincolnfhire and Torkfhire in autumn *, and departs in May. Are
apt to alight in the corn-fields, and feed much on the green wheat.
Breed in great numbers in Lewis, one of the Hebrides; and no
doubt likewife in fuch places as other Wild Geefe are found,
being not till lately diftinguifhed from them. My fpecimen was
fent out of Suffolk.    Obferved alfo at Hudfon's Bay j\
Bering Goofe, Ara. Zool. N° 475.
CIZE of the Wild Goofe. At the bafe of the bill a yellow ex-
crefcence, radiated in the middle with blueifh black feathers :
round the ears a greenifh white fpace: eyes, black, encircled
with yellow, and rayed with black: back, fore part of the
neck, and belly, white : wings black: hind part of the neck
blueifh.
Obferved by Steller, in July, on the Ifle of Bering. The natives purfue them in boats, and kill them, at the time of moulting ; at other times hunt them on land, with dogs; and, not
unfrequently, catch them in pits covered with grafs J.
BERING (
DesCripti
Gulaund Duck, Ara. Zool. p. 572. E.
CIZE between a Goofe and Duck.    Bill narrow: head of a
mallard green : breaft and belly white.
Inhabits the moraffes of Iceland.    Lays from feven  to nine
eggs, and is a fcarce fpecies.    The Icelanders call it Gulaund §.
• Among  thefe fome have been obferved quite white.—Ara. Zool.
f Id. X Defer. Kamtfch. p. 159. § Ara. Zool.
Vol. III. 3 O Ana*
GULAUND D-
Description.
 +- BERNACLE.
DUCK.
Anas erythropus, Lin. Syft.  i. p,   197. 11.—Faun. Suee.^ N° 116.   (the
m*\e).—Frifch. pl.  189.
La Bernache, Brif   Orn.  vi.   p.   300.   14.—Buf Oif. ix. p. 93. pl. 5.—
Pl. Enl. 855.
Bernacle, or Clakis, Raii Syn. p. 137. A. z.—Will. Orn.  p.   359.—P£//.
Tranf. ii. p. 853.—Gerard. Herb. p.   1587.—.Sr. Zool. ii- N° 269.—
Ara. Zool. N° 479.
Lev. Muf
T ENGTH two feet: breadth four. Bill very fhort, lefs
than an inch and a half in length, and black, croffed with
a flefh-coloured fpot on each fide : irides brown : the forehead,
half the crown, the fides of the head, chin, and throat, are
white: from the bill to the eye a black ftreak: the reft of the
head, neck, and beginning of the back, black: breaft and under parts, fides of the vent, and upper tail coverts, white:
thighs mottled dufky and white : round the knee black: back
the fame, the ends of the feathers margined with white: wing
coverts, and fcapulars, blue grey ; the ends black, fringed with
white at the tip : rump plain black: quills the fame, edged with
blue grey, except towards the end: tail five inches and a half
long, and black : legs dufky black.
This fpecies is not uncommon on many of the northern and
weftern coafts of this kingdom, in winter; but is fcarce in the
fouth, and only feen in inclement feafons. Depart our ifland
in February, and retire north to breed; at which time they frequent the north of Ruffia, Lapland, Norway, and Iceland. In
America it is now and then met with, in Hudfon's Bay.
This is the fpecies of which fo many authors have handed
down
 U
K.
down to us the natural hiftory, under the name of Tree Goofe,
and Clakis *, fuppofing it to originate from old decayed wood, -
and that it came out of the fhell called a Barnacle f> which is
found flicking to old wood; and gravely fay, that the tail of
the young one, not yet come to perfection, may be feen flicking out of the fhell J. But this opinion, like many other an-
tient vulgar errors, is now exploded; as it is well known that
the bird is hatched, and bred, like all others of the Duck
genus.
467
Anas Bernicla, Lin. Syft. i
N°  84—Brun. N°
Groenl. N°4I.
Le Cravant, Brif. Orn. v:
Pl. Enl. 342.
Brent Goofe, Raii Syn. p.
i. pl. 93.—Br. Zool. i
p. 198. 13.—Faun. Suec. N° 11;.—Scop.
<L2.—Frifch.   t.   156.—Mutter,  N°   115.-
'p. 304.  16. pl. 31.
[37. A. 6 Will. Orn. p
, N° 270.—Ara. Zool. N
Lev. Muf.
Buf.  Oif. ix. p. 87—
p. 360. pl. 6g.—Albin,
T   ESS than the Bernacle.    Bill one inch and a half long, and
black: irides hazel: the head, neck, and upper part of the
breaft, black : on each fide of the neck a large patch of white
and black mixed : the ldwer part of the breaft, the fcapulars, and
• See Phil. Tranf—Gerard. Herb—Camden Brit.  1695. p. g\\.—Will. Orn.
P- 359-
t Lepas anatifera. Lin.—Figures of the fhell may be feen in Argenv. Concb.
t. 30. f. F. G.—Lift. Conch, t. 440. f. 283.—Ger. Herb. p. 1587. ch. 171. In
this laft are rude figures both of the Jbell and bird.
X Authors alfo further relate this of a certain tree, the leaves of which, if
they fell on land, became birds; if on the water, fifties.—See Baubin. Pin.
p. 514. HI.
3 O 2 wing
 468 D     U      C     K.
wing coverts, afh-colour, clouded with a darker fhade: vent, and
upper and under tail coverts, white: the tail itfelf dufky black,
and a little rounded in fhape: legs reddifh black.
Female. The female differs in having the plumage lefs bright; and in
young birds the white on the fides of the neck is fmall,  or
wholly deficient *.
Place and Thefe birds, like the Bernacles, frequent our coafts in winter ;
and are particularly plenty, at times, on thofe of Holland and Ireland, where they are taken in nets placed acrofs the rivers f. In
fome feafons have retorted to the coafts of Picardy, in France,
in fuch prodigious flocks as to prove a peft to the inhabitants,
efpecially in the winter of the year 1740, when thefe birds de-
ftroyed all the corn near the fea-coafts, by tearing it up by the
roots; a general war was for this reafon declared againft them,
and carried on in earneft, by knocking them on the head with
clubs; but their numbers were fo prodigious, that this availed but
little : nor were the inhabitants relieved from this fcourge till
the north wind, which had brought them, ceafed to blow, when
they took leave J.
They eafily become tame, and, being fatted, are thought to
be a delicate food. They breed pretty far north §, returning fiouth-
ward in autumn. Fly in the fhape of a wedge, like the Wild
Geefe, with great clamour. Called in Schetland, Horra Geefe, from
being found in that Sound ||.   Are common alfo in America: fre-
* Such is the Rat or Road Goofe of Willughby.    See Orn. p. 361. pl. 76.—
Brif.  Orn. vi. p. 302. called La petite Bemacbe.
t Br. Zool. X Hift. des Oif
§ In Greenland, where they frequent the northern parts in fummer, migrating
in flocks to the fouthern in winter.—Faun. Groenl.
|| Ara. Zool.
3 quent
 u
K.
quent in Hudfon's Bay: breed in the iflands, and along the
coaft, but never fly inland : feed about high-water mark : pafs
the winter in the fouthern parts, as in Europe. Their food con-
fifls of plants, fuch as the fmall biftort * and black-berried heath *f,
fea-worms, berries, and the like. In one we opened, the ftomach
was full of grafs. Are apt to have a fifhy tafte, but are in general thought good food. The fame fable has been told of this
bird as of the Bernacle, in refpect to its being bred from
trees.   Called at Hudfon's Bay, Wetha may pa wew.
Anas ccerulefcens, Lin. Syft. i. p. 198. 12.
L'Oye fauvage de la Baye de Hudfon, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 2
L'Oie des Efquimaux, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 80.
Blue-winged Goofe, Edw. pl. 152.—Ara. Zool. N° 474.
Lev. Muf
BLUE-WINGED
G.
^*pHIS is rather lefs than the tame Goofe. The bill is red:
irides deep chocolate : crown of the head yellowifh, appearing as if tinged : the reft of the head and neck white, the laft
fpotted all the way down at the back part with black : the lower
part of the neck, all round the breaft, fides under the wings, and
back, dark brown, paleft on the breaft: wing and tail coverts
pale blueifh afh-colour: fcapulars and tail ftriped white and
grey: greater quills dufky : belly, thighs, and vent, white : legs
red.
The female has the upper mandible black ; bafe of the lower
lead-colour, with the tip black : forehead white: between the
t Empeti
m vtvipat
n nigrum.
 47°
U
K.
bill and eye blackifh : the inner half of each tail feather white,
the outer black.
Thefe inhabit America; found about the fouthern fettlements
of Hudfon's Bay. In fummer moft numerous about Albany Fort.
Migrate according to the feafon, like many of the Duck kind.
Known there by the name of Cath £atue We We *.
Anas moliillima, Lin. Syft. i. p.   198. 15.—Faun. Suec.  N°  117.—Brun.
N° 66.—Id. Monogr. pl. 1, 2.—Mutter, N° 116.
L'Oye a duvet, ou PEider, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 294. pl. 29. ^o.—Buf. Oif. ix.
p. 103. pl. 6.—PI. Enl. 209. (male.) 208. (female.)
Great black and white Duck, Edw. pl. 98. (male and female.)
Eider, orCuthbert, Duck, Raii Syn. p. 141. A. i.—Will. Orn. p. 362. § i.
and ii. pi. 76.—Br. Zool. ii. N° 271. pl. g^.—Ara. Zool. N° 480.—
Tour in Scot!. 8vo. p. 35.
Lev. Muf.
-T HIS is lefs than a Goofe, and one foot ten inches in length.
The bill two inches long, and black ; the feathers on each fide
of it come very forward almoft to the noftrils: the top of the head,
taking in the eyes, is black, and continued in a line of the fame
on each fide, where the feathers project on the bill: below the
nape, on each fide of the neck, the colour is pale pea-green: the
reft of the head, neck, breaft, and back, wing coverts, and fcapulars, are white; the laft curved at the ends, and hang over the
quills, which are black; as are alfo the tail and under parts from
the breaft : the legs are of a dull green.
This is the defcription of an old male, which does not come to
the complete drefs till the fourth year.    In the firft, the back is
 D     U
K.
471
white, and the ufual parts, except the crown, black; but the reft
of the body is variegated with white and black.
In the fecond year the neck and breaft are fpotted black and
white : and the crown black.
In the third, the colours are nearly as when in full plumage,
but lefs vivid, and a few fpots of black ftill remaining on the
neck : the crown black, and bifid at the back part.
The full-grown males alfo vary a little, fome of them having
the bafe ofthe wings, and middle of'the back, black : one with
this laft character is in my poffeffion.
The female weighs three pounds and a half. Has a bill like that
of the male: general colour of the plumage reddifh brown, barred
acrofs with black : hind part of the neck marked with longitudinal
dufky ftreaks : on the wings two bars of white : belly deep brown,
indiftinctly marked with black : tail dufky : legs black.
This fex likewife varies in fome fpecimens, having feveral
fpots of white in the body : others with the neck and belly afh-
coloured, and the lines on the wings obfeure, and in fome few no
traces of them left.
The young of both fexes are the fame, being covered with a
kind of hairy down : throat and breaft whitifh : and a cinereous
line from the bill through the eyes to the hind head.
This fpecies frequents the northern region, even to the higheft latitudes yet difcovered. In this ifland it is fcarce ever met with; but
is found in the Weftern Ifles of Scotland, and on the Farn Ifles -, in
thefe laft it breeds, and is faid to lay feldom more than five eggs*,
* They muft now and then lay as
ar as eight; for it has been obferved, tha
o lefs than fixteen have been found
n one neft, with two females, who agre
eroarkably well together.—Von Troil
hel. p. 144.
 D     U
K.
on the ground,"of a pale green colour, and gloffy; which the female
fecures from cold in a bed of fine down, plucked from her breaft.
This down is ofthe lighted and warmeft nature of any thing yet
known*: the natives, who know its value, take care to plunder
the nefts, taking away both the down and eggs: when the Duck
lays again, furnifhing a fecond parcel of down, her laft flock; for
if fhe is robbed a fecond time, the male muft fupply the warm covering ; but if a third theft be committed fhe will wholly defert
the place.
In America this bird is found as far fouth as New Tork -, and
breeds on the defert ifles of New England; but moft common every where to the north. Are faid to be conftant to the
fame breeding-places, and that a pair has been obferved to occupy
the fame neft for twenty years together. Their food is Jhells, for
which they dive to great depths. Very numerous in the Efiqui-
maux lands; but lefs fo in the middle fettlements. Called by the
firft Mettek.    In Greenland are known by the fame name f.   The
one neft more than filled the crown of an
ret quarters of an ounce. Br. Zool.—Three
effed into a fpace fcarce bigger than one's
i to fill a quilt five feel fquare.    Salern. Orn.
*%'
The quar
tity
of down found i
hat,
yet weig
bed
no more
than t
pou
ids ofthi
dov.
* may b
i comp
fill;
yet is aft
rwar
ds fo  dil
arable
p. 4
16.—Tha
t fou
nd in the
nefts is
firiit
ely more
laftic
than tha
t pluck
ed i
1 Iceland.
Th
I beft fort
is fold
and
^fixteen
vhen
not clean
fed.    1
oft valued, and termtd live down; it is in-
plucked from the dead bird, which is little efteem-
fold at forty-five fifh per pound, when cleanfed,
e generally exported every year, on.
the Company's account, fifeen hundred or two thoufand pounds, of both forts, ex-
clufive of what is privately exported by foreigners. In 1750 the Iceland Company
fold as much in quantity of this article as amounted to three thouf and feven hundred and forty-five banco-dollars, befides what was fent diredly to Gluckftadt.
—Von Troil. p. 146.
t Crantsc. Hift, Greenl.
natives
 D     U
K*
natives kill them on the water with darts, ftriking them the
moment they appear after diving; and know the place from their
being preceded by the rifing of bubbles. The flefh is faid to be
much valued. Are faid to live to a very great age, and at this
period to become quite grey *.
Anas fpeftabilis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 195. 5.—'Faun. Suec N°
Fr. ii. p. 25.—-Mutter, N° 108.
Le Canard de la Baye de Hudfon, Brif. Om. vi. p. 365. 15
 a tele grife, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 253.
Grey-headed Duck, Edw. pl. 154.
King Duck, Ara. Zool. N° 481.
Lev: Muf.
-Muf. Ad.
CIZE between a Duck and a Goofe: length near two feet. The
bill almoft two inches long, and of an orange-colour; on the
upper mandible is a femicircular ridged protuberance, comprefled on the fides and flat on the top, where it is divided into
two; the elevated parts are of a velvet black, paffing on each
fide in a line to the eyes: the crown of the head, and nape, are
of an elegant pale afh-colour: at the bafe of the upper mandible, the feathers are pea-green, paffing backwards on each fide the
neck, and taking in half the eye : beneath this, and round to the
chin, dirty white, but the green and white blend themfelves, the
laft lofing itfelf by degrees in the other: under the chin are
two black ftreaks, meeting in a point at top, and diverging as
they advance downwards, like the letter V inverted : the reft of
the neck, and breaft, are whitifh: the middle of the back, the
Vol. III.
• Ara. Zool.
3P
 IT
D     U
K.
whole of the belly, and vent, black : wings dufky, on the middle of the coverts white: all the quills black: the fecondaries-
curve downwards over the quills ; the fhafts deep ferruginous j
on each fide of the outer ones a patch of white : tail cuneiform,
fhort, black: legs black brown.
The female is lefs : the gibbous part of the bill not fo big,,
nor fo high-coloured ; but the feathery ridge on -the top is
broader: the colour of both bill and legs is more dull, inclining
to brown : the whole plumage brown, the middle of each feather black : the head and neck paleft : the throat inclining much-
to brown : the belly, the fourteen firft quills, and the adjoining
coverts, are brownifh; the fix next are tipped with white, hence
is produced a line of white on the wing : tail as the quills.
The young males, like the females, do not get the comprefled
gibbofity ofthe bill, nor the colour ofthe plumage, till advanced
years.
One in the Leverian Mufeum, which we fufpect to be the
young male,, has the bill of a dufky red, nail black; the elevation
at the bafe much lefs confiderable : head and neck brownifh afh-
colour : top ofthe head ftreaked with a few white lines at the-
back part: body and wings dull black: on the middle of the-
wing coverts a large.patch of white, as in the male, and another
in the middle of the back :. legs reddifh brown.
This beautiful fpecies is found at Hudfion's Bay.. In plenty at
Churchill River, in 59 degrees north latitude, where the birds remain fo long as the water is unfrozen. Scarce at Tork Fort^
Build on the fides of'ponds and rivers ; the neft made of flicks and
- mofs, and lined with feathers from the breaft, as in the Eider
Duck. The eggs are four or five in number, whitifh, and as
7 large
 DUCK.
large as thofe of the Goofe. The young fly in July. The food
chiefly confifts of worms and grafs. Known by the name of Mis
fie fiheep *. In winter fometimes is met with as far fiouth as New
Tork. Is common in Greenland; and feems very much ofthe
nature of the laft fpecies, producing down equally valuable, and
has much the fame manners as that bird. The flefh is accounted
excellent, and the crude gibbous part of the bill a great delicacy.
The fkins are fewed together, and make warm garments. The
natives kill them with darts, and ufe the following method to fuc-
ceed :-*-A number of men in canoes, falling in with a flock while
fwimming, on a fudden fet up a fhouting, making as much noife
as they can; on which, the birds being too much frightened to
fly away, dive under the water; but, as the place at which they
are to rife again is known by the bubbling of the water above,
the hunters follow them up as clofe as may be; and after acting
this three or four times over, the birds become fo fatigued as to
be eafily killed f. This fpecies is found alfo on the coaft of
Norway, and has been killed in the Orknies J. Is pretty frequent in the north of Sibiria and Kamtftchatka.
475
' Mr- Hutchins.
•j* Faun. Groenl.
3 P a
 Anas mofchatus, Lin. Syft. i.p. 199
N° 85.—Frifch, pl. 180.
Le Canard Mufque,  Brif. Orn. vi.
(female.)—Pl. Enl. 989.
Anas Sylveftris Brafilienfis, Raii Syn. p.
Ipecaguacu, Id. p. 149. 3.—Will. Orn.
Mufcovy Duck, Raii Syn. p. 150. 3.—I
— , Cairo Duck,  Guinea
p. 381. 382.—Albin, iii. pl. 97. 98
Lev. Muf.
16.—Faun. Suec. N° 118.—Scop. Ann. 5.
P- 3J3- 3*—Buf °'fi 1X- P- -62- t-* 9'I
48. 1 *.
p. 383. pl. 62.
H11.
Duck, Indian Duck,  Will. Orn.
15 I G G E R than the^Wild Duck: length two feet. Btfl two
inches long, and red, except about the noftrils and tip,
where it is brown : the eyes are furrounded with a naked fkin,
which is warted and red: the crown of the head is black: the
fides of it, the throat, and fore part of the neck, white, varied
with black: the lower part of the neck, breaft, fides, lower belly,
and thighs, brown, a little mixed with white : the back and
rump brown, gloffed with green gold: the upper part of the
belly white : the three firft quills are white; the nine next dufky
brown; the reft brown, edged outwardly and tipped with green
gold : the tail confifts of twenty feathers, the outer one on each
fide is white, the others green gold : the legs red.
The female is lefs, but not greatly differing in colour : the ca-
runculated fpace about the head much fmaller in circumference,
and lefs vivid in colour.
This fpecies is fufficiently known, being pretty common in a-
* Ray's bird was wholly black, gloffed with green, except the wing coverts,
which were white : fuch an one is now in the Hunterian Mufeum. I obferved in
this fpecimen a fhort black tubercle at the bend of the wing. This bird came
from Cayenne.
3 domefticated
 D     U
domefticated ftate in almoft every nation: where it originally
came from is not fo eafy to determine, by many fuppofed to be
Brafil*, as Marcgrave and other authors have defcribed it as belonging to that part ofthe world; as alfo the fame bird with a white
plumage f, which is no uncommon thing to be feen alfo in our
menageries, where it multiplies much. The eggs are rounder than
thofe of a Duck, and in young birds frequently incline to green.
They are efteemed, as they lay more eggs, and fit oftener, than
other Ducks. In an unconfined ftate, make the neft on the flumps
of old trees; and perch during the heat of the day on the branches
of fuch as are well clothed with leaves. Are naturally very
wild, though when kept tame are fufficiently docile; and the
male will not unfrequently affociate and produce a mongrel
breed with the common Ducks. The name of Mufcovy Duck, given
to them, was on the fuppofition of their being natives of that
country; but they have rather been fo called from their exhaling
a mufiky odour X> which proceeds from the gland placed on the
rump in common with other birds. Their flefh is thought very
good, and the breed ought to be encouraged, as there'is more
flefh on it than the common Duck, and of a very high flavour, and
the bird withal as hardy as any other fpecies.
Anas ruficollis, Scop. Ann.i. N° 81.
CIZE of the Mallard.    Bill black:   head  and neck rufous -
breaft black : back variegated with lines of brov/n, tending
backwards: wing plain cinereous brown : tail fhort, not longer
than the wings when clofed : legs black.
Native place not mentioned.
* Thefe birds are met with wild about the lake Baikal, in Afia—Mr. Pennant.
f Ipecaguacu.    Ray.—One of thefe is in the Leverian Mufeum. X Ray-
Anas
RUFOUS-NECK-
EDD.
 WHITE-1
EDI
White-headed Duck, Shaw's Trav. p, 254 ?
QIZ-E of the Mallard. Bill broad, furrowed at the bafe, and
of a pale blue : head white ; crown black : collar the fame * :
breaft-chefnut brown, variegated at the lower part with tranfverfe
black lines : belly grey, marked with fmall black fpots : back
rufous: wings the fame, but paler, marked with lines and dots of
brown : quills and tail brown.
In the Mufeum of Count Teffin.    From whence unknown.    If
the bird quoted above, of Shaw, is found in Barbary.
T ENGTH twenty inches. Bill two inches, turning up a
little at the end ; colour yellow; edges and tip dufky black:
irides reddifh brown : the head and neck pale reddifh afh-colour,
lighteft on the fore part, and minutely dafhed with dufky ftreaks :
the upper parts ofthe body pale reddifh afh-colour, marked with-
dufky fpots : fcapulars the fame, but deeper in colour: wing coverts pale afh-colour: fpeculum of the wings pale verdigris
green, edged with dufky, bounded above and beneath with a
bar of white : fides pale cinereous, marked with fpots of a deeper
colour : quills and tail dufky: legs greenifh afh-colour.
This was found in South Georgia, the middle of January, and
was a male bird ; the flefh was thought good eating.
From the drawings of Sir Jofeph Banks.
Another, fomething fimilar to this, was met with at the Cape
of Good Hope. The general colour dufky afh, mottled on the
breaft with white.
* We may fuppofe round the neck, but it is not faid fo.
 D     U
479
Afcasperfpicillata, Lin. Syft. i. p. 201. 25.—Phil. Tranf Ixii. p. 417.
La grande Macreufe de la Baye de Hudfon, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 425. 30.
La Macreufe a large bee, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 244.
Canard du Nord, appelle le Marchand, Pl. Enl. 995.
Great Black Duck from Hudfon's Bay, Edw. pl. 155.
Br. Muf     Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Velvet Duck: length twenty-one inches:- weight
two pounds two ounces. The bill is comprefled on the.fides;,
die bafe of the upper mandible rifes into a knob of a yellowifh
colour, with a black fpot on each fide of it; the reft of the bill
orange: the nail red *, the fides of it, all round, black: the
plumage is of a dull black, except a large patch of white on the
forehead, and another of the fame at the back part, of the neck :
the legs are red : webs dufky.
The female, is fmaller: of a footy-colour : and has no white
fpot at the hind part of the head : but the cheeks are marked.
with two dull white fpots *.
This is-wholly an American fpecies. Breeds along the fhores at
Hudfon's Bay; and feeds on grafs : it alfo makes the neft with the .
fame, lined with feathers ; and lays from four to fix white eggs :
hatches the end of July. Is called by the natives Miffe qua gu ta
wow. In winter met with as far fouth as South Carolina, and is-
frequently feen at New Tork, where it is by fome called the Coot.
Our laft navigators met with this in Prince William's Sounder.
* Ara. Zool.
t- Cook's laft Voy. ii. p. 378.
 D     U
i Nigra, Lin. Syft.
. 7.—Faun. Suec. N° no.—Mutter, N»
La Macreufe, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 420. 28. pl. 38. fig. 2.—Buf. Oif. ix. p.
234. pl. 16.— Pl. Enl. 978.
Scoter, or Black Diver, Raii Syn. p. 141. A. 5.—Will. Orn. p. 366. pl. 74.
—Br. Zool. ii, N° 273.—Ara. Zool. N° 484.
Lev. Muf.
HPHIS is a trifle lefs than the Velvet Duck: length twenty-
two inches: weight two pounds nine ounces. The bafe of
the bill furnifhed with a knob, as in that bird, which is red,
and divided down the middle by a yellow line; the colour of the
bill is yellow above, edged with black, and the under mandible
wholly black : the eye-lids are yellow : the eyes black: the plumage is wholly black: the head and neck gloffy: the under
parts dull: the legs are brown *-.
The female has no knob on the upper mandible: the colours
dull; and in the chin, and middle of the breaft, fome afh-coloured or whitifh feathers mingled with the black: otherwife
like the male -fv
This fpecies is found on the northern coafts of England and
thofe of Scotland, in the winter feafon; but no where fo common as on the French coafts, where they are feen in prodigious
numbers, from November to March, efpecially if the wind be
to the north or north-weft.    Their chief food is a gloffy bivalve
* ■' The male hath no labyrinth on its wind-pipe."—Willughby.
f Willughby mentions the defcription of a female fent to him, which had
" the neck and head, on both fides, as far as the eyes, white." See Orn.
p. 167.
fhell,
 DUCK.
fhell, near an inch long, -called by the French, vaimeaux; thefe
they are perpetually diving after, frequently to the depth of fome
fathoms: this affords an ufual method of catching them, by
placing nets under the water, in fuch places as the fhells are
moft numerous; and, by this means, thirty or forty dozen of
them have been taken in one tide. The day feems to be fpent,
by thefe birds, between diving, and flying to fmall diftances over
the water, which it does fo low as frequently to dip the legs
therein. It fwallows the food whole, and foon digefts the fhells,
winch are found quite crumbled to powder among the excrements. Has been kept tame for fome time, and will feed on
foaked bread. The flefh taftes fifhy to an extreme, and, from
this caufe, is allowed by the Roman Catholics to be eaten on faft-
days, and in Lent; and indeed, to fay the truth, muft be a fuf-
ficient mortification.
Thefe birds abound in all the northern parts of the continent,
Lapland, Sweden, Norway, and Ruffia; and are found in great
plenty on the great lakes and rivers of the north and eaft of Sibiria, as well as on the fea-fhores. It likewife inhabits North
America, being met with at New Tork *, and in all probability
much more to the north on that continent, and that of Afia;
Ofibeck t met with them in 30 and 34 degrees fouth latitude, between the ifland of Java and St. Paul, in the month of June.
1 Ara. Zool.
t Voy.
3 Q.
 D     U
Anas fufca, Lin. Syft. i. p.  196. 6.—Faun. Suec. N° 109.—Scop. Ann. i.
■t-VELVET D. No (,a.—Brun.   N° ^.—Mutter,  N9 log.—Frifch. pl.  165.—Georgi
Reife, p. 166.
Turpan, N. C. Petr. iv* p. 420.
La grande Macreufe, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 423. 2g.—Pl. Enl. 956.
La double Macreufe, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 242.
Great Black Duck, Raii Syn. p. 141. A. if.—Will. Orn. p. 363. pl. 70.
Velvet Duck, Fr. Zool. ii. N° 272. pl. 96.—Ara. Zool. N° 482.
Lev. Muf
A Trifle larger than a Mallard: length fomewhat more than
twenty inches. The bill rifes into a knob at the bafe, behind
the noftrils, where it is black; the reft of the bill is yellow, with
the nail at the end red; the edges, all round, black : the plumage, in general, is black; inclined to brown on the belly and
vent: under each eye-lid a white mark, paffing in a ftreak behind the eye; and acrofs the middle of the wing a band of white:
the legs are red: claws black.
The female is brown where the male is black, and the protuberance at the bafe of the bill wanting.
Mr. Hutchins favoured me with the defcription of a bird which
I take to be a variety of the above. Length fixteen inches :
breadth twenty-feven: weight twenty-one ounces. Irides dirty
white : forehead of a dark brown: crown black : under each eye
a large white fpot: neck rufly brown : fcapulars and upper tail
coverts black : breaft fhaded with black: belly white; in young,
birds black.
This frequents Hudfon's Bay in fummer, where it breeds.   The
neft compofed of grafs: the eggs from four to fix in number,
3 and
 p   u
K.
-and white: hatches in July. Feeds on grafts. Known by the
name of Cus cufii qua turn. It retires fouth in winter. At that
feafon the Velvet Duck is frequently feen as far fouth as Tew Tork:
our late navigators met with it at Aoonalafhka *.
It is now and then feen on the coafts of England, but is not
•common. More plenty on the continent, inhabiting Denmark
and Ruffia: in fome parts of Sibiria very common ; and enters
the lift of thofe found at Kamtfchatka. In breeding-time goes
far inland to lay the eggs, which are eight or ten in number,
and white. After the feafon is over, the males are faid to depart;
the females flaying behind till the young are able to fly, when
the two laft go likewife off, but to what part is not certain -f-.
We believe that this is called at Kamtfchatka, Turpan; though
it is in greater plenty at Ochotfka, efpecially about the equinox:
fifty or more of the natives go in boats, and furround the whole
flock, driving them, in the flood, up the river Ochotfka; and,
as foon as it ebbs, the whole company fall on them at once
with clubs, and often knock fo many of them on the head, that
each man has twenty or thirty for his fhare X*
* JUlis"s JSarr. n. p. 43.
X Hift. Kamtfib. p.  16c.
• Nov, Com. Petr. i
. 421.—Ara. Zool,
3 Q-
 .—Mutter,
Yd. Tranf.
-Buf. Oif.
D     U
Anas hiftrionica, Lin. Syft. i. p. 204. 35.—Brun. Orn. N" 84. 85
N° 127.—Faun. Groenl. N° 46.—Georgi Reife, p. 166.—P
lxii. j-.t7.—Frifcb. t- 157.
Brimond, Olaff. Icel. ii. t. 34.
Le Canard a Collier de Terre Neuve, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 362. 14.-
ix. p. 2(o.—Pl- Enl. 798.
Stone Duck, Hift. Kamtfch. p. 160.
Dufky and Spotted Duck, Edw. pl. 99.
Harlequin Duck, Ara. Zool. N° 490.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Wigeon. Length one foot five inches: breadth twenty-
fix inches: weight eighteen ounces and three-quarters, troy.
Bill near-an inch and a half long, and black: irides hazel: between
the bill and eye white, in fome yellowifh, or faffron-colour *, extending a little over the eyes, and beyond: crown of the head
black, bounded by a reddifh ftreak : on each fide of the neck
a- perpendicular line of white, and above it a white fpot; except
this, the whole of the neck is black : round the breaft is a white
collar, broadeft behind, where it is marked with black dots, and
is bounded by a black one: between this and the wings is a
tranfverfe mark of white: the breaft, below the collar, blueifh
afh-colour: the back dufky brown, inclined to purple: rump
deep blue black: belly and thighs black: fides dull orange: on
each fide of the tail a fpot of white : the prime quills dufky
afh-colour, fome of them tipped with white: tail brown : legs
blueifh black.    In one of thefe were found two ftreaks of black
{ Mutter
 on the nail at the end of the' bill, diverg
the angle towards the tip *.
j like the letter V,
Anas i
Syft.
p.  204.
, N»  86,—Faun,
N°46.
La Sarcelle de la Baye de Hudfon,, Brif. Om. vi. p. 469. 41.
Le Canard brun, Buf. Oif ix. p. 252.—Pl. Enl. 1007.
■     ■    brun & blanche, Buf. Oif ix. p. 287.—Pl. Enl. 799.
Little Brown and White Duck, Edw. pl. 157.—Catefb. Car. i. pl. 98.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH thirteen inches and a half. Bill black: irides
hazel: the forehead, and between the bill and eye, white:
on the ear a fpot of the fame: head, neck, and back, brown;
paleft on the fore part of the neck : upper part of the breaft and
rump rufous brown: lower part of the breaft and belly barred
with pale rufous and white, but the lower belly and thighs
with rufous and brown: fcapulars and wing coverts rufous
brown; the outer greater ones blackifh: quills and tail dufky,
the laft inclined to rufous : legs dufky.
The two laft defcribed are male and female, and are found both
on the old and new continents : on the firft, feen as far fouth as
the Lake Baikal, and from thence to Kamtfchatka, particularly '
up the river Ochotfka; alfo in Iceland, and as low as Sondmor f.
In America, from Carolina to Newfoundland X, and Hudfon's Bay ;
alfo in Greenland: in the laft, frequents, during fummer, bays
and rivers, efpecially near their mouths, but not in great plenty,
and is a very noify fpecies.    It is fond of fhady places, and
* Brunnich. -j- Ar3. Zool.
X The fifhermen at this place call it the Lord.—-Edw,
roenl. 38.
HARLEQUIN D.
The Female.
 486 DUCK.
makes the neft on the fhore among the fhrubs. Its food is fmall
fhells, eggs of fijhes, and particularly the larva? of Gnats. Seen
in the neighbouring feas in winter. Swims well, even in the
moft rapid ftreams; and dives to admiration*: likewife flies--
fwift, and to a great height: from thefe circumftances is not
eafily taken.    Our late navigators met with it at Aoonalafhka f.
Pretty frequent in the fmall rivulets of Hudfon's Bay, about
ninety miles inland : feldom in large rivers. Has a whiffling
note. Lays ten or more white eggs, like thofe of the Pigeon,
on the grafs. The young brood fpeckled in a very pretty manner. Migrates fouth in autumn. The name, in the Algonquin
language, is Powiftic oujheep J.
39- Brown Duck, Ara. Zool. N° 400.
BROWN D.
Description.      T   ENGTH fixteen inches.    Bill large,   thick  at the  bafe;
colour blueifh, with the tip black; noftrils near the end:
head and neck of a very pale brown : lower part of the laft, and.
breaft, the fame, edged with ruft-colour: wings cinereous grey M
fpeculum blue, tipped with white: tail and legs dufky.
fiACE, Inhabits Newfoundland.
* The people of Kamtfchatka take advantage of this : as they do not fly
off at the fight of mankind, they follow them clofely on the water ; and,
when tired, without difficulty knock them on the head with clubs.—Hift.
Kamfch.
f Ellis's Narr. ii. p. 43.—Called there the Painted Duck.
X Mr. Hutchins.
 487
Anas poecilorhyneha, Zool. Ind. p. 23. t. 13.
CIZE not mentioned. Bill long and black, marked on each
fide with a red fpot at the bafe ; the tip white : from the bill
through the eyes a black ftreak : cheeks, chin, and upper part
of the neck adjoining, cinereous white : crown, nape, hind part
of the neck, back, wing coverts, greater quills, and tail, black,
edged with afh-colour: fecond quills white : fpeculum green,
the feathers margined with white : vent black: legs rufous
yellow.
Inhabits Ceylon, in the Eaft Indies, where it is very common.
SPOTTED-BILL-
ED D.
Description.
Anas Damiatica grifea, roftro apice piano lato rotundo, Haffelq. Voy. p. 264. 41.
Black-headed Duck, Shaw's Trav. p. 254. i DAMIETTA D;
CIZE  a trifle bigger than the Mallard.    The head, half the    Description.
neck, the fhoulders, and tips of the tail, black : the reft of
the neck before, breaft, back, belly, fides, and tail, white: at the
lower part of the neck, next the back, a crefcent of ferruginous;
and the end of the wing is of the fame colour near the back:
quills greenifh black : hind claw very obtufe.
Inhabits the fhores of Egypt; moft frequent on thofe near the Place,
Mediterranean; chiefly in the bay near Damietta, and between
Alexandria and Rofetta, where they are taken in nets. It moft
likely is alfo an inhabitant of Barbary, as it is not greatly unlike
the one defcribed by Shaw, if not the very fame bird.
 488
DUCK,
NILOTIC D.
Description,
Anas Nilotica, Hajfelq. Voy. p. 365. N° 36.
CIZE between the Pintail Duck and the common Goofe, but
ftands higher on its legs. Nail of the bill hoary ; "the margin
of it is bounded by a mllus, which is a little elevated, equal,
and of a purplifh blood-colour; a fecond encompaffes the bafe,
a little elevated, of a dull purple, and has four warts, two on
each fide : irides yellow : throat, fides of the neck, crown, and a
line behind the eyes, whitifh, fpotted with hoary or cinereous:
breaft, belly, and thighs, whitifh brown, croffed with dufky tranfverfe lines: fides of breaft and belly marked with oblong and
hoary lines: tail longifh, rounded in fhape: legs red: claws
black.
Inhabits the Nile, inHpper Egypt, but no where elfe, except
perhaps on the bays of the Red Sea. The Arabians call it Bah*.
Is eafily tamed, and lives among other domeftic poultry in
Egypt.    The above feems allied to the Mufcovy Goofe.
* No doubt this is the fort called by Pococke, Bauk; which he fays, when
fent into England, are known by the name of Baw Geeje.—See Pecoci. Trav. i.
p. 2io.
 Anas bofchas, Lin. Syft. i. p. 205. 40.—Faun.
lxii. p. 419.—Scop. Ann. i. N° 77.—Brun. N° 87.—
Kram. El. p. 341. 11.—Frifih. pl. 158.   i-g.—Geor^
Faun. Groenl. N° 47.—Faun. Arab. p. 3. N° 9.
Le Canard fauvage, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 318. ^.—Buf. Oif. i:
—Pl. Enl. 776. 777.—Perm. Surin. ii. p. 156.
Wild Duck, Raii Syn. p. 145. A. 1. 150. i.—Will. Orn. p. 308. pl.
—Albin, i\.p\. 10. (male)   1. pl. 99. (female).—Br. Zool. ii.
pl< 97.—Ara. Zool. N° 494.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
^-p-HIS fpecies is well known, both in its wild and domefticated
ftates : fuffice it to fay, that the former is near two feet in
length: the weight two pounds and a half*. The bill of a
greenifh yellow : head and neck gloffy changeable green : at the
lower part of the neck a collar of white, paffing almoft round the
neck: the fcapulars white, barred or rather undulated with
minute lines of brown: the back is brown: and the rump black,
gloffed with green: on the wing covtrts is a tranfverfe white
ftreak, edged with a fecond of black ; and below this the fpeculum, or large violet-green lucid fpot: the lower part ofthe neck
and breaft are chefnut: the belly pale grey, croffed with numerous tranfverfe dufky lines: the tail confifls of twenty feathers, and is pointed in fhape; the two middle ones are of a
greenifh black, and curve upwards in a remarkable manner; the
others as ufual, and of a grey brown, margined with white: legs
orange.
* Thi
decoyi
Vol. Ill,
is the ufual weight; but feveral Mallards were taken in Chillesford
Suffolk, in the year 1781, whofe weight was three pounds and a half.
 DUCK.
The female is very plain: the ground colour of the plumage
pale reddifh brown, fpotted with black : the fpeculum on the
wings the fame: but none of the tail feathers curved, as in
the male.
Wild Ducks frequent the marfhy places in many parts of this
kingdom, but no where more plenty than in Lincolnfhire, where
prodigious numbers are annually taken in our decoys*; each
decoy paying from five pounds to twenty annual rent -j*. They
pair in the fpring, and lay from ten to fixteen eggs) but, in refpect to England, only a fmall portion may be fuppofed to breed
here, as the prodigious quantities feen in winter, compared with
thofe which are met with in fummer, make us fuppofe that the
major part feek a more northern fituation at that feafon. With
us they pair in fpring, and breed in all the low marfhy grounds;
laying from ten to fixteen eggs; and the young take the water as
foon as hatched. Is a very artful bird, and does not always
make the neft clofe to the water; not unfrequently at a good
diftance from it; in which cafe the Duck will take the young in
its beak or between the legs.    Are known fometimes to lay the
* In only ten decoys, in the neighbourhood of Wainfteet, thirty-one thoufand
two hundred have been taken in one feafon.—Br. Zool.
f In Somerfetjhire one has been known to pay as far as thirty pounds. Id.—
The nature of thefe decoys, and management of them, may be feen at large in
Will. Orn. p. 372, 373. See Br. Zool. art. Mallard.—In the Biblioth. Topog.
Galean. N" ii. part 1. p. 359, I find an extract from the Antiq. Society of Spalding,
concerning the taking of Ducks, which is as follows: " At the ducking on Thurfi.
day laft, were taken up one hundred feventy-four dozen of Mallards or Drakes
moulting; and on Monday forty-fix dozen and a half: in all two thoufand fix
hundred and forty-fix birds."
eggs
I
 D     U
K.
eggs in a high tree, in a deferted Magpie or Crow's neft *. And
we have likewife been informed of an inftance of one being
found, at Etchingham in Suffex, fitting upon nine eggs, in an oak,
twenty-five feet from the ground : the eggs were fupported by
fome fmall twigs laid crofsways f.
In France this fpecies is not often feen, except in winter; appearing in Oblober and going north in fpring: are caught in various manners; among the reft, in decoys, as in England; the chief
place for which is Picardy X> where prodigious numbers are
taken, particularly on the river Somme. It is alfo cuftomary
there to wait for the flock's paffing over certain known places,
and the fportfman, having a wicker cage, containing a quantity of
tame birds, lets out one at a time, at a convenient feafon, which
enticing the paffengers within gunfhot, five or fix are often killed
at once by an expert markfman. They are now and then taken
alfo by a hook baited wiehua bit of Jheep's lights, which fwimming
on the water, the bird fwallows the bait, and with it the hook.
Divers other meaas of catching Ducks and Geefe are peculiar to
certain nations ; of which one feems worth mentiooing, from its
Angularity:—The perfon wifhing to take thefe, wades into the
water up to the chin, and, having his head covered with an empty
calabafh, approaches the place where the Ducks are ; when they,
not regarding an object of this fort, fuffer the man freely to mix
with the flock; after which he has only to pull them by the leg
w-adrer the water, one after another, till he is fatisfted ; returning as
unfufpected by the remainder as when he firft came among them.
* Salerne Orn. p. 428.
X In one decoy, nets a
Oif ix. p. 128.
t Mr. Tunftall.
'. ufed to the amount of three thoufand livres.—Hift. des
3 R
 D     U
K.
This method is frequently put in practice on the river Ganges,
ufing the earthen veffels of the Gentoos inftead of the calabajhes:
thefe veffels are what the Gentoos boil their rice in, and are called
Kutcharee pots (they likewife make adifh for their tables in them,
which goes by the fame name) : after thefe are once ufed they
look upon them as defiled, and in courfe throw them into the
river as ufelefs ; and the Duck-takers find them convenient for
their purpofe, as the Ducks, from conftantly feeing the veffels
float down the ftream, look »pon them as objects of full as
little regard as a calabajh. The above, or fome fuch method, is
alfo practifed in China *, as well as India; alfo in the ifland of
Ceylon f. By the fame means they are faid to take Wild Geefie in
South America J. Some authors fay that a hollow wooden veffel
is ufed to place over the head, with holes to fee through ||.
The Chinefe make great ufe of Ducks, but do not prefer the wild
fort, being in general extremely fond of tame ones: and it is faid
that the major part of thefe are hatched by artificial heat; the eggs,
being laid in boxes of fand, are placed on a brick hearth, to
which is given a proper heat during the required time for hatching. The Ducklings are fed with little craw-fifhes and crabs,
boiled and cut fmall, and afterwards mixed with boiled rice;
and in about a fortnight fhift for themfelves, when the Chinefe
* DuHalde Hift. China, vol. ii. p. 142. pl. in p. 162.
f MS. in Britifh Mufeum, 3324.
X At Carthagena, to the eaft of Monte de la Popa, in a large lake called Cienega
deTefcos, the Wild Geefe coming  there of an evening in vaft flights Uttoa's
Voy. i. p. 53.
|| Sympfon Voy. to the Eaft Indies.—See Naval Chron. vol. ii. p. 473, with a
plate of the fame.—See alfo Ind. Zool. p. 12.—Zool. Ind. p. 21.—Pococke mentions the circumftance, but does not feem to credit it.    Trav. vol. i. p. 210.
8 provide
 D     U
K.
493
provide them an old ftep-mother, who leads them where they are
to find provender for themfelves; being firft put on board afam-
pane or boat, which is deftined for their habitation, and from
which the whole flock, often to the amount of three or four
hundred, go out to feed, and return at command. This method
is ufed nine months out of the twelve (for in the colder months
it does not fucceed), and is fo far from a novelty, that it may be
every where feen; but more efpecially about the time of cutting
the rice and gleaning the crop, when the mailers of the Duck
ftampanes row up and down the river according to the opportunity of procuring food, which is found in plenty, at the tide of
ebb, on the rice plantations, as they are overflowed at high water.
It is curious to fee how the Ducks obey their mailer; for fome
thoufands, belonging to different boats, will feed at large on the
fame fpot, and on a fignal given will follow their leader to their
refpective fiampanes, without a ftranger being found among them *.
This is ftill more extraordinary, if we confider the number of inhabited fampanes-f on the Tigris, fuppofed to be no lefs than
forty thoufand, which are moored in rows clofe to each other,
with a narrow paffage at intervals for boats to pafs up and down
the river. The Tigris, at Canton, is fomewhat wider than the
Thames at London, and the whole river is there covered in this
manner for the extent of at leaft a mile J.
* This I have heard feveral affirm. It
thors, among which fee Oft. Vos. i. p. 194.—
t Sampane is the common name for a boat;
iep&rzte family, of which it is the only dwell
pafs almoft their whole lives on the water.
X Cook's laft Voy, vol. iii. p. 433.
een Voy. ii. p
; and very 1
ontain each a
of the Chinefe
 494
B     U
K.
We have inferred the above account under the head of Mallard, on fuppofition of its being the fpecies which is fo common.
OJbeck mentions two by name, viz, the one called Hina-a, and the
other Konga-o ; but does not defcribe the latter, not having feen
it; yet he obferves, that certain Wild Ducks found there were
in fuch plenty, as to greatly difturb the fijhermen, by taking the
fifth out of their nets *.
♦-TAME-DUCK,
u
A-nas domeftica, I-
Le Canard domeftique,.
Common tame Duck, A
pl. 75.— Brown Jt
pl. 99.
Syft.i
p. 206. 40. @.
Om. vi. p. 308.
*. p. 480.—Sloan. Jai
10.—Will. Orn. p.
p. 323.  7.—Albin
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
T> Y the above is meant the Mallard and Duck in their ftate of
domeftication; of which no regular defcription can be given,
as the variety is infinite, much in the fame manner as in domef-
tic Poultry ; befides, being under the continual infpection of all,
it would fcarce be in our power to add to the knowledge of any
country houfewife, or the loweft domeftic, on this head, or in the
manners, which are fo well known.
• We were aftonifhed to fee (fays he) the Chinefe, who had put their nets into
the water, fhoot conftantly without aiming at any thing; but, on enquiry, we
were told that they were forced to watch their fifheries continually, and to
frighten away the Ducks, who would elfe empty the nets fooner than the men
could. I never faw fuch fearlefs and numerous flights of Ducks as here; one'
flight after another came, notwithftanding the noife that was made on all fides,
and endeavoured to fettle near the nets; but were always hindered in the above
manner. See OJb. Voy. ii. p. 33.—Whether thefe were the fampaneDucks, or not,
is not faid ; but he precifely determines that they were not like ours.
3 Le
s-Ji
 495
Le grand Canard fauvage, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 326". A.
nfHIS differs from the common one in being larger, and mea-
furing two feet fix inches in length, and three feet nine
in breadth. It is like the other in plumage, except the back,
which is the colour of foot. If we are not miftaken, this variety.
is called by fome the Roan Duck.
Le grand Canard fauvage gris, Brif Orn. vi. p. 326, B. 43.
Var. B.
C IZE ofthe laft, but the plumage is afh-coloured, and the bill    Description
and legs black.
Le grand Canard fauvage tachete, Brif On
. C.
'"pHIS is like the common Mallard; but differs in having the    Description.
1
-back black, fpotted with yellow..
Anas Adunca, Lin. Syft. i. p. 206. 41. ,,.
Le Canard a bee courbe, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 311. 2. Var. D-
Hook-billed Duck, Raii Syn. p. 150. 2.—Will. Orn. p. 381. pl. 75.—   HOOK-BILLED»
Albin, ii. pl. 96. 97.—iii. pi. 100.
Lev. Muf.
'T'HIS differs not in colour of plumage, make, and fize, from
the common Wild Duck; and is alfo feen in every variety
incident to the domefticated one; but differs in the bill, which is •
fomewhat longer, and bent downwards.
This,
Des<
 D     U
K,
This feems to be a mere variety of the common Duck, and
breeds as well in its tame ftate. It feems only to be kept in
England out of curiofity; but we are informed that in fome
parts of Germany this fort is full as common, and the breed is
encouraged almoft to the exclufion of the laft. Bancroft *, in his
Hiftory of Guiana, mentions a Wild Duck, larger than the tame one,
and refembling it, except in the bill, which is black, and crooked
at the end ; and the feet and legs of an afh-colour. Thefe, he
fays, are found in plenty, during the rainy feafons, on the banks
of rivers near the fea.
Other varieties might alfo be mentioned : fuch as, thofe with
tufted heads; others, with fome of the fecond quills turned upwards, called four-winged Ducks *\ ; and, not unfrequently, one or
two in a brood wanting the webs between the toes, while others
of the fame hatching have them complete.
Anas curviroftra, Pall. Spic. vi. p. 33.
CIZE of the Wild Duck, if not bigger. Bill as in that bird,
but bent downwards : irides fulvous : general colour of the
plumage black, but more dull on the quills and under parts:
the head, neck, and rump, tinged with fhining grey: on the
throat an oval fpot of white: the five outer quills white; the
others black; the exterior fecondary quill margined with white
on the outer edge at the end ; but the outer margins in general
have a blue black glofs, forming a fpeculum of that colour on
* Hift. Guian. p. 170.
t See a Goofe of this kind ii
Gent, Mag. vol. xxv. pl. oppofite fig. 2.
 D     U
K.
the wing : tail as in the Mallard, with the two recurved feathers
in the middle. *^% r
The above was defcribed from a fpecimen in the late Mufeum
of M. Vroeg, now difperfed, and in the Prince of Orange's Mufeum.
The author fuppofes it not to be a variety of the Mallard with
the hooked bill, but a diftinct fpecies.
■P
N1
half in length, of a lead-colour, with SUPERCILIOUS
J EARLY the fize of a Mallard: length twenty-one inches,
Bill two inches and
a black tip : general colour of the plumage cinereous brown, the
edges of the feathers very pale: over the eye a ftreak of white;
beneath it a fecond, broader than the firft: chin and fore part of
the neck dufky white: fpeculum of the wings blueifh green, in-
clofed in a line of black : legs dufky afh-colour.
This inhabits New Zealand. Found both in Charlotte Sound
and Dufky Bay. Known there by the name of He-turrera. From
the drawings of Sir Jofeph Banks.
Pied Duck, Ara. Zool. N° 488:
CIZE of the Wild Duck : length nineteen inches. Bill two
inches and a quarter; the bafe of it, and round the noftrils,
for about one-third, orange; the under mandible dufky : head and
neck rufous white, the feathers of the crown riling in a narrow
ridge, along the top of which runs a narrow ftripe of black to
the nape : round the middle of the neck a collar of black,
which paffes down the middle, at the back part of the neck, quite
to the back: the fcapulars are white; fome of the inner ones
Vol. III. 3 S edged
46.
PIED D.
 DUCK.
edged with black, and curve downwards over the wings: back,
and tail brown: fecondaries white: greater quills dufky : on the
breaft a band of black: belly brown like the back, but paler:
legs yellow: webs brown.
The female has the. bill like the male: the plumage on the
upper parts dirty mottled brown: on the wing a fpot of white,
arifing from the tips of the fecond quills being of that colour :
under parts of the body dirty white : legs black.
Inhabits the coaft of Labrador; from whence a pair in the
collection of Sir Jofeph Banks came. That defcribed in the
Arblic Zoology was fent from Connecticut in New England. Mr.
Pennant fuppofes this fpecies to be the fame with the pretty Pied
Ducks, which whittled as they flew, or as they fed, met with by
Lawfon * in flocks, in the weftern branch of Cape- Fear inlet.
Anas autumnalis, Bin. Syft. i. p. 205. 39.
Le Canard fiffleur d'Amerique, Brif. Om. vi. p. 400. 23. pl. 38. 1.
Le Siffleur a bee rouge & narines jaunes, Buf. Oif ix. 183.—Pl. Enl. 826.
Red-billed whittling Duck, Edw. pl. 194.
Lev. Muf
CIZE of a Wigeon: length twenty-one inches. Bill two inches*
long, red, nail black: irides hazel: crown of the head chefnut : nape ftreaked with chefnut: fides of the head and throat
dirty white: lower part of the neck rufous chefnut: the breaft
and between the fhoulders yellow aft-colour, but paleft on the
breaft; all the feathers of the laft have yellowifh margins r
back and fcapulars   chefnut:   inner wing coverts afh-coloury
! Hift. Cartl. p. 149,
inclining
 D     U
K.
inclining to rufous: greater coverts afh-colour: quills black,
but moft of them have the bafe white, making an oblique bar
of the fame on the wing: lower part of the back, the rump
and tail, belly, and under the wings, black: under tail coverts
mottled black and white: legs yellow: claws black: hind toe
■ pretty long.
Inhabits the Weft Indies.    I have alfo feen a fpecimen which
came from Cayenne.   Has been brought into England alive.
Anas arborea, Lin
Le Canard fiffleui
de la Jj
naique, Brif Orn. vi. p. 403. 24.-Pl.EnL BLACK-BILLED
H J ".     -J* WHISTLING D.
Le Siffleur a bee Noir, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 185.
Black-billed Whittling Duck, Edw. pl.   193.—&k7 Syn. p.  192.  12.—
Sloanejam. p. 324.  t.  272.—-Brown. Jam. p. 480.—Ara, Zool. N*
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf,
■"PHIS is lefs than the Mallard, and ftands pretty high on
its legs: the neck is alfo long and flender. The bill is
black: irides hazel: crown of the head dufky, fomewhat crefted
at the back part, and of a rufous brown : hind part of the neck
brown : back and fcapulars the fame, but the feathers margined
with rufous: rump and upper tail coverts darker: fides of the
head and throat white: fore part of the neck white, fpotted
with black: the breaft pale rufous, fpotted alfo with black : the
belly, thighs, and vent much like the fore part of the neck, but
the fpots are fmaller, and moft numerous on the fides : the wing
coverts rufous, fpotted with black: quills and tail dufky: legs
lead-colour: claws black.
3 S a Inhabits
 DUCK.
Inhabits Jamaica, where it is remarked for its making a
•whiffling kind of noife ; and is faid to build in trees, In fome
feafons migrates into Guiana. Is thought to be very good food.
I received one of thefe from the firft-named place,and kept it for
fome time in my garden; but it was wild in the higheft degree,
and would by no means become familiar. Is fuppofed to frequent Carolina in winter, at leafl one, like it in name, is faid to
be found on thofe coafts by Lawfon * and Catejby f. It is certainly not the other fex of the laft fpecies. One of thefe, in the
Britifh Mufeum, had the title of Opano Duck; which name, we are
informed, it bears at Guiana.
49.
SCAUP D.
Anas marila, Lin. Syft. i. p. 196. 8.—Faun. Suee. N° in.—Phil. Tranf.
lxii. p. 413.—Brun. N° 50, 51.—Mutter, N° ill.—Frifch. t. 193.——
Georgi Reife, p. 166.
Anas fubterranea, Scop. Ann. i. N° 83 s
Le petit Morillon raye, Brif Orn. vi. p. 416. 26. A.
Scaup Duck, Raii Syn. p.  142. A.  6.—Will. Orn. p. 365.—.Sr, Zool~u.
N° 275. pl. 100.—Ard. Zool. N° 498.
Lev. Muf
'TpHE length of this fpecies is eighteen inches: breadth
twenty-nine: weight one pound feven ounces. The bill is-
two inches long, and broadeft at the end; of a lead-colour, paleft
at the bafe ; nail black : irides of a fine gold-colour : the head
full of feathers; that and the neck black,, gloffed with green:.
the lower part ofthe latter, and breaft, black: the back and fcapulars are pale grey, finely undulated with numerous tranfverfe lines
of black: lower part of the back, rump, and vent, black : the wing*;
• Hift. Carol. 149. f Catefi. Car. App. 37,--ArS, Zool.
3 coverts
 u
K.
coverts are finely undulated with alternate lines of dufky and white,
fo minute as to appear at a diftance as powdered with thefe two
colours : the ten prime quills greyifh afh-colour» the four outer
ones are dufky black on the outer webs; the other fix greyifh
white, but the ends of all are black: from the eleventh to the
twentieth, white, with dufky ends, forming a broad bar of white
on the wing; the five next the body dufky, which is likewife the
colour of the tail: the under parts of the body, from the breaft,
are white, powdered with dufky between the legs and fides over
the thighs : the legs are pale lead-colour: webs and claws black.
Thefe birds are faid to vary in colour, efpecially about the head
and neck *.
The female weighs more by two ounces than the male\, and
has the irides of a dirty yellow.
This inhabits Iceland, as it does the more northern parts of
the continent of Europe, Lapland, Sweden, Norway, and Ruffia,
Common on the northern fhores of Sibiria. Very frequent on the
river Ob. Breeds in the north, and migrates fouthward in winter. Inhabits America, as high as Hudfion's Bay -. comes there in
May, and retires inOblober. Found in England, in the winter feafon,-
in fmall flocks. We have received it from the coaft of Suffolk. Is
laid to feed on broken Jhell-fijh, called Scaup, whence the name J.
If the fame as ScopolPs :fl bird, above quoted, is very -common
* " Efpecially in tke head and neck, fo that among a pick of forty or fifty
you {hall not find two exactly alike."—Willughby.
t ArB. Zool. X Willughby.
II His bird is lefs than the Mallard. Bill brown : plumage above, brown;
beneath white: tail white, tipped with brown: quills white on the infide : legs.
brown.    He compares it to the Scaup Duck, yet fays
bird.
abfolutely the fame
 DUCK.
In Carniola, on the lake Zirchntchew, where it makes the neft in
fubterraneous hollows in the banks: and this author obferves, that
they are often killed in vaft numbers by the countrymen with
clubs; being driven out of their holes in the full funfhine, in
the middle of the day, which blinds them fo as to prevent their
being able either to refill or fly away.
Var. A.
Description.
WHITE-FACED
Le Millouinan, Buf. Oif. i
-Pl. Enl. 1002.
CIZE of the laft: length twenty-one inches. Bill bhieifh black:
head, neck, and breaft, black, bronzed with green, verging
to copper about the eyes : lower part of the breaft and belly
white: back, fcapulars, leffer wing coverts, and between the legs,
ftriated with fine tranfverfe-lines of black and dufky white: lower
part of the back, vent, and tail, black: greater wing coverts
half black, half white : fecond quills much the fame: prime
quills dufky : legs black.
This was killed in France, on the coafts of Picardy. Buffon
alfo mentions a fecond, which he received from Louifiana, but rather fmaller. It appears by the figure to be merely a variety of
the Scaup Duck.
Anas difcors, Lin. Syft. i.;
La Sarcelle d'Amerique,
White-faced Teal, Catefb.
Zool. N° 503.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE between a Teal and a Wigeon: length fifteen inches and
a quarter.   Bill black:   crown the fame:  bafe of the bill
1 furrounded
p. 205.37.
Brif.  Orn. vi. p. 452. 35.
?uf. Oif. ix. p. 279.—PA Enl. 966. (the 1
nale).
Car. i. pl.  100.—Brown Jam. p. 481
—Ara.
 u
K.
furrounded with black : between the bill and eye a white ftripe,
ending on each fide the chin: the reft of the head and neck
gloffy green, changing to violet: back brown, tranfverfely waved
with irregular lines of grey : the lower part of the neck before,
breaft, and belly, pale rufous, marked with dufky fpots: vent
black : wing coverts blue; below them a white band : fpeculum
green: quills and tail brown : legs yellow.
S°3
Anas difcors, Lin. Syft. i. p. 205. 37..0.
La Sarcelle de Virginie, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 455. 36.
 Soucrourette, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 280.
■  de Cayenne, Pl. Enl. 403.       ,
Blue-winged Teal, Catefb. Car. i. pl. 99.
Lev. Muf
nn H E female is rather lefs than the male. Bill the fame: the
head and neck brown, mixed with pale grey : back deeper
brown, the feathers margined with yellowifh buff-colour : breaft
and fides the fame, but paler: belly and vent pale yellowifh
brown : the fcapulars are dufky black: the wing coverts pale
blue; fpeculum green; between them a narrow bar of white:
quills and tail dufky : legs dufky yellow.
Thefe birds inhabit the American continent *; but not farther
north than New Tork. Catejby obferves, that they come into
Carolina in Auguft, and feed on the rice, remaining there till
Oflober; and, when the rice fails, attack the wild oats ; and frequent the ponds and frefh waters. The flefh is reckoned delicious, being for the moft part very fat. Found alfo at Guiana,
and Cayenne.
* The American Shell-Drake and Blue-wing exceed all of the Buck kind what*
foever; and thefe are in prodigious numbers.—Burn, Trav, p. 16.
LENGTH
50.
+- WHITE-
FACED D.
Place
Mann
 504
D     U
T ENGTH fourteen inches: breadth twenty-two Inches: weight
fourteen ounces. The bill is one inch long, narrow, black :
irides blue: the forehead and crown gloffy black, the feathers
longifh : on the ears fpotted with dirty white: "back part of the
neck brown: fcapulars and leffer wing coverts dark blue; the
greater blue, with a white fpot at the ends : greater quills deep
blue: fecondaries white without, and deep blue within: throat
and belly white: breaft and vent blue : tail black : legs blue.
The above comes into Hudfon's Bay in June, and departs in
October. Lays ten fmall white eggs, on the flumps of trees, near
ponds -, makes no neft, only forming a hollow out of the rotten
wood ; hatches in July; the young are conveyed by the mother,
from the fhell to the water, in her bill. Feeds on grafts at the
bottoms of ponds; and frequently flies juft over the furface.
Known by the name oiWaw pew ne way fe pis, or Pied Duck *.
rl# Anastadorna, Lin. Syft. i. p. 195. 4—Faun. Suec. N° w-.—Brun. N° 47.
•HSHIELDRAKE. —Mutter, N° 107—Frifch. pl. 166.—Georgi Reife, p. 165.
La Tadorne, Brif Orn. vi. p. 344. 9. pl. 33. fig. 2.—Buf. Oif. ix. p. 205.
pl. 14—Pl. Enl. 53.
Sheldrake, or Burrough Duck, Raii Syn. p. 140. A. 1—Will. Orn. p. 363.
pl. 70.  71.—Albin. i.   pl. 94.—^. Zool. ii. N°  278.-^5. Zool. 4
p. ',72. D.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
Description.     CIZE of the Wild Duck: length two feet: weight two pounds
two ounces.   The  bill turns up much at the end, is pretty
broad,
JL
 K.
broad, and of a red colour; at the bafe a rifing knob; the noftrils, and nail at the end, black: the head, throat, and part of
the neck, are greenifh black; the reft of the neck, the back,
rump, and upper tail coverts, white: on the breaft a rufous bay
band, which, growing narrower, paffes under the wings, and
round to the upper part of the back: the middle of the breaft,
belly, and vent, are dufky and white mixed: fides of the two
laft white : the fcapulars are black : the wing coverts white:
fome ofthe outer ones, baftard wing, and quills, black : fome of
the quills part white, part black: fpeculum green gold, gloffed
with copper : the tail is white, except the outer feather on each
fide, which is tipped with black: the legs are red.
The female is fmaller than the male; but does not effentially
differ in plumage, except that the colours are lefs vivid.
This fpecies is common, in the neighbourhood of the fea, in
many parts of England; where it is found throughout the year.
•It breeds in deferted Rabbit-burrows, or occupies them in the ab-
fence of the owners, who, rather than make an attempt at dif-
lodging the intruders, form others; though, in defect of ready-
made quarters, thefe birds will frequently dig holes for themfelves. The female lays fifteen or fixteen * roundifh white eggs j
thefe are laid at the further end of the hole, covered with down
fupplied from the breaft of the female, who fits about thirty days.
The young as foon as hatched take to the water, and fwim fur-
prifingly well. She is very careful ofthe young, ufing many ftra-
tagems to favour their efcape when in danger; and will often carry
them from place to place in the bill: this we are certain of, from
Place
Mann
* The younger birds lay only as far as twelve.—////?, des Oif.
Vol. III. 3 T a young
 506
U
K.
a young one having been dropped at the foot of an intelligent
friend unhurt, by the mother flying over his head. The young
birds do not come to their full plumage till the fecond year:
they may be hatched under a tame Duck, and the young readily
- brought up; but are apt, after a few years, to attempt the maftery
over the reft of the poultry ; and we have feen fome that were
even vicious, attacking every thing that came in their way. In
a ftate of nature the food feems chiefly to be fmall fifh, marine infests, and fhells -, herbage has likewife been found in their fto-
machs. In a tame ftate will eat bread, grain, and greens. Their
great beauty would tempt us to endeavour at domefticating the
race ; but it will not thrive completely, except in the neighbourhood oi fait water, which fomehow feems effential to its well-
being : the flefh likewife is rank and unfavoury, though the eggs
have at all times been thought very good.
This fpecies is found as far as Iceland to the north. Vifits Sweden and the Orknies in the winter, and returns in fpring. Is found
in Afta about- the Cafpian Sea, and all the fait lakes of the Tartarian and Sibirian Defarts *, as well as in Kamtfchatka f. Our
voyagers, if right in the fpecies, have alfo met with it at Falkland Ifles X> and Van Diemen's Land\\.
* Between Syfran and Symbyrfk, in the fpring, M. Lepechin met with the Shieldrake, Pintail, Shoveler, and other forts of Ducks, in fuch quantities as to be
obliged to flop his ears on account of their noife.—Dec. Ruff. i. p. 472.
t Ara. Zool.
X " The Sheldrakes fwarmed in fuch a manner at Falkland's Iflands, that in
failing our boats under the rocks we have killed hundreds with our oars and
boat-hooks''—Penrofe, p. 34.    1
|| Cook's Voy. i. p. 229.
LENGTH
 SQ?
T ENGTH fifteen inches. Bill two inches, turning up a little
at the end ; colour a fine deep crimfon: irides red : plumage
on the upper parts dufky brown, paleft on the forehead: the feathers on the back very pale on the margins : the chin, fides of
the head beneath the eye, and the reft ofthe under parts, white :
but the fides of the breaft are irregularly fpotted with brown :
over the thighs tranfverfely marked with fine lines of brown:
on the wing a tranfverfe narrow bar of white; below it another
of buff-colour: tail dufky black: legs the fame.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
CRIMSON-BILLED D.
Anas Bahamenfis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 199. 17.
Le Canard de Bahama, Brif. Om. vi. p. 358. 12.
Le Marec, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 256.
Mareca prima Marcgravii, Raii'Syn. p. 149. 4.
The firft Mareca of Marcgretve, Will. Orn. p. 379. § II.
Uathera Duck, Catefi. Car. i. pl. g*..—Ara, Zool. N° 495.
CIZE of the Common Duck: length feventeen inches. Bill lead-
colour, marked on each fide near the bafe with a triangular
orange fpot: the top of the head rufous grey ; that of the neck,
back, fcapulars, and rump, rufous brown: cheeks, throat,
and fore part of the neck, white : breaft, belly, and thighs,
rufous grey, fpotted with black : under tail coverts plain :
leffer wing coverts dufky; the greater green, --with black tips:
fecond quills of a dull yellow; prime ones dufky: legs lead-
colour.
This  inhabits Brafil, and is alfo met with in the Bahama
3 T 2 Iflands,
ILATHERA D,
 £08
D     U
K.
Iflands, particularly that named Bather a; but is not numerous.
Is faid to perch and rooft on trees; and does not migrate norths-
ward to breed *.
Le Canard du Brefil, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 360. 13.
Le Mareca, Buf. Oif ix. p. 256.
Mareca fecunda Maregravii, Raii Syn. p. 149. 5.
The fecond Mareca of Marcgrave, Will. Orn. p. 379. § 12.
'*T*HE bill in this bird is black and fhining: the top ofthe
head, upper part of the neck, and back, are umber-colour r
on each fide of the head, between the bill and eye, is a round
yellowifh white fpot: the chin is white : fore part of the neck,
and under parts, dark grey, with a mixture of gold : the upper
wing coverts are of a bright brown, with a greenifh glofs; the
greater ones brown, with the outer edges blue green, and tipped
with black, forming two bands of thofe colours: the quills are
brown, tipped with white: tail black, and cuneiform: legs-
red.
Inhabits Brafil, and feems to be a fpecies not far differing
from the former, both of them being called by the name of
Mareca by the Brafilians.
 5°9
Anas clypeata, Lin. Syft. i. p. 200. ig.—-Faun. Sttec. N° 119.—Scop. Ann.
i. N° 70.—Brun. N° 77, 78.—Mutter, N° 117.—Kram.El. p. 342. iS.    +. SHOVELER
—Frificb. pl. 161. 163.—Georgi Reife, p. 166.
Le Souchet, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 329. 6. pl. 32. fig. x.-—Buf. Oif. 9. 191.-—
Pl. Enl. 971, Male; 972, Female.
Shoveler, Raii Syn. p. 143. A. 9. Male ; 144. 13. Female.— Will. Orn. p.
370.-15. Male; p. 371. 16,17, Female.—Albinfx. pl. 97, 98—Caleft.
Car. i. pl. 96. Fern-— Br. Zool. N° 280.—Ara. Zool. N° 485..
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
T   ENGTH twenty-one inches: weight twenty-two ounces.   Descriptions
The bill is near three inches in length, and remarkably
broad at the end; the edges much pectinated; the colour black:
irides of a fine deep yellow: the head and neck are gloffy green,
changing to violet *: the lower part of the neck and breaft
white, with a few fpots in the fhape of crefcent-s : the fcapulars
white: back brown: belly chefnut: vent black: the firft and
fecond wing coverts pale blue; the greater brown, tipped with
white, forming a band on the wing: the quills are brown; fome
of the middle ones edged with green, and forming a fpot of
that colour: the tail brown, more or lefs edged with white j
the outer feather wholly white; fhape cuneiform: legs orange :
claws grey.
The female is a trifle fmaller.    The plumage differs greatly : Female„
the wing is marked much the fame, but lefs bright: the reft of
the plumage greatly approaching to that of the Wild Duck; but
for the firft year the wing is like the reft of the body. Both
fexes are apt to vary much in colour: the male likewife differs
from the female inwardly, having, juft above the divarication of
• In fome blue,— Willughby.
the
 5i9 D     U     C     K.
the windpipe, where it paffes into the lungs, an enlargement,
or, as it is called by fome, a labyrinth.
Place and This bird is now and then met with in England, though not
Manners. -n great numbers. Willughby mentions one found at Crowland,-
in Lincolnfhire; and we have had the male fent out of the London
markets. I cannot learn that it breeds in England, but it is faid
•to come into France, * in February, and fome of them to flay
during the fummer f. It lays ten or twelve rufous coloured I
eggs, placed on a bed of rufhes, in the fame places as the
Summer Teal; and departs in September, at leaft the major
part of them, for it is rare that one is feen in the winter.
The chief food is infecls, for which it is continually muddling in the water with its bill. It alfo is faid dexteroufly
to catch flies, which pafs in its way over the water. Shrimps,'
among other things, have been found in its ftomach on dif-
fection.
This fpecies is alfo found in moft parts of Germany; throughout the Ruffian dominions, as far as Kamtfchatka; and in North
America, in New Tork and Carolina, during the winter feafon.
With us it is accounted pretty good food. A bird fimilar to
this, if not the fame, is obferved to come to Hudfon's Bay in
the fpring -, and makes a whittling noife. It is there known by
the name of Mimenewick.
* Hift des Oif f Salem. Orn. p. 421.
 Anas aiufcaria, Lin. Syft. i. p. 200. 19. 0.—Raii Syn. p. 146.—Will. Orn. ce.
p. 375.—Frifch. t.   162. Var.A.
Le Souchet a ventre blanc, Brif Orn. vi. p. 337. A.
'"PHIS differs from the former merely in having the belly    Description.
white, and is a mere variety.
Le Canard fauvage du Mexique, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 327. 5.
Tempatlahoac, Raii Syn. p. 176.
Broad-billed Bird, or Tempatlahoac, Will. Orn. p. 387.
CIZE of a Tame Duck. Bill broad, long, black: tongue
white: head and neck green, gloffed with purple and black :
irides pale : breaft white : the reft of the body beneath fulvous,
with two white fpots on both fides near the tail: above beautified
with certain femicircles, the circumference of which from white
incline to brown ; the middle or inner part from black to a fhining
green : the wings, at the beginning blue, next white, and then
fhining green; yet their extremes are on one fide fulvous, on
the other fhining green: the circumference of the tail above
and beneath white; elfe it is black underneath, and of a Peacock-colour above.
Inhabits Mexico, to which it comes from other countries.    Its
flefh fuch as that of other marfh birds.
Le Souchet du Mexiqu<
Yacapatlahoac, Raii Sy
Brif. Om
p. .76.
56.
MEXICAN SH.
CMALLER than the Common Duck.    Bill very broad, and
of a brownifh red : head, neck, and upper parts, barred with
2, fulvous,
 DUCK.
fulvous, black, and white alternate: leffer wing coverts white;
the greater ones fartheft from the body brown; thofe neareft
the body green gold, forming a large fpot of the fame on the
wing: quills brown : the belly, thighs, and under tail coverts,
fulvous: tail banded as the upper parts: legs pale red.
Inhabits Mexico.
RED-BREASTED
SH.
Red-breafted Shoveler, Br. Zool. ii. N" 281-
CIZE of a Common Duck. Bill large, ferrated on the fides,
and intirely of a brownifh yellow colour: head large: eyes
fmall: irides yellow: breaft and throat of a reddifh brown:
back brown, growing paler towards the fides: the tips and pinions of the wings grey : quills brown; the reft of a greyifh
brown : the fpeculum, or wing fpot, purple, edged with white:
tail fhort and white: vent of a bright brown, fpotted with
darker: legs fhort and flender: feet fmall, and of a reddifh '
brown colour.
In the female all the colours are fainter, and the fpeculum of
the wings blue.
This fpecies is fometimes taken In the decoys of Lincoln-
Jhire. Shaw mentions a bird, by the name of Barbary Shoveler,
which feems much like the above, if not the fame; but in
that author's bird  the fpeculum confifted of blue, white,  andf|
' See Trav. p. 254.
SIZE
 D     U
m
CIZE of the Buff el-headed Duck: length fixteen inches. Bill
an inch and three quarters; in fhape very broad, and turns
\ip a little towards the end : general colour of the upper man-
-dible blue; but the place of the noftrils, fides, and all the under mandible, are orange : the eyes placed high up in the head:
irides brown : top of the head, taking in the eyes, black : fides
beneath, chin, and throat, white, mixed with blackifh fpots:
the upper part of the neck is brown; the lower part, all round,
breaft, and belly, barred dufky and deep ferruginous, inclining
to faffron-colour: the lower part of the belly, vent, and rump,
barred dufky and dirty rufous white: under tail coverts dirty
white : back and fcapulars brown, a little marbled with minute
yellowifh dots: wings and tail plain dufky brown, the laft cuneiform in fhape, and rather long: legs orange.
This feems fomewhat allied to the laft, but is certainly a different fpecies. I received it, among other birds, from Jamaica, .
where it firft appears in October or November, and flaying till
March, retires north with feveral other fpecies. Bancroft, in his
hiftory of Guiana *, mentions a Teal fomewhat larger than the
common one. The bill broad and black : the feathers of the head
whitifh brown : thofe of the neck, back, and wings, grey brown,
variegated with fpots and bars of chefnut: breaft and belly dull
White. Ifufpebl this to be the fame with my bird. He fays that
it frequents the rivers, like the Guiana Wild Duck, and at the
fame feafons.
* p, j 70.
■ JAMAICA SH,
mt
Vol. III.
3 U
 D     U
Anas merfa, Pallas Trav.
K.
HF HIS is a trifle bigger than the common Teal. Bill large, broad,
very tumid above the noftrils, and bifid in the adult bird,
the end marked with diverging ftrias; colour blue : head, and
part of the neck, white : on the crown a large patch of black :
eyelids black : the middle of the neck the fame: the fore parts
of the body yellowifh brown, undulated with black: back clouded with cinereous and pale yellow, powdered with brown: under part of the body, and rump, greyifh brown, in fome lights
appearing of a gloffy grey : wings fmall, no appearance of a
fpeculum:. tail longifh, in fhape cuneiform, colour black: legs
brown, on the fore part blueifh, and placed far back, as in the
Diver genus.
The female and young bird have the bill lefs tumid at the bafe,
and wholly of a brown colour: the head brown : throat white,
expanding towards the nape.
This fpecies is not unfrequent in the greater lakes of the Ural
mountains, and the rivers Ob and Irtifch. Not feen on. the .:
ground, for from the fituation of its legs it is unable to. walk ;
but fwims very well and quick, at which time the tail is im-
merfed in the water as far as the rump, ferving by way of rudder, contrary to the common, method of a Duck's fwimming.
The neft is formed of reeds, and floats, fomething like to that of
the Grebe. By the defcription of this, and the laft bird, they
appear to be not unlike each other in plumage.
 Anas latiroftra, Brun. N° 91.
< Skoora, Midler, N° 130.
Lapmark Duck, Ara. Zool. p. 576. M.
CIZE of the Wild Duck. Bill broad, and black : head, neck,
and breaft, chefnut brown: at the bafe of the bill pale, and
inclining to yellow: back, wings, and tail, black : fecondaries
white, tipped with black, giving the appearance of a white line
on the wings: breaft and belly white; lower part ofthe laft afh-
colour : fides, under the wings, ferruginous : legs black.
Inhabits Denmark.    Common about Chriftianftedt; alfo Lap-
mark; frequenting both fea and frefh water.
faun.  Suec. N° 121.—Bn
1.—-Georgi Reife, p. 166.
Bg. i.—Buf. Oif. ix. 187. pl
Anas ftrepera, Lin. Syft.  i. p.  200.   20.—
N° 91.—Mutter, Nu 118—Frifch. pl. i(
Le Chipeau, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 339. 8.pl. 33,
12. fem.—Pl. Enl. 958.
Gadwall, or Gray, Raii Syn. i.  145. A. 2.—Will. Orn. p. 374. pl. 72.—
Br. Zool. N« 288.—Ara. Zool. p. 575. I.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Wigeon: length nineteen inches. Bill two inches;
colour black: the head, and moft part of the neck, brown,
mixed and fpotted with rufous and black: fides of the head,
throat, and fore part of the neck, rufous white, fpotted with
brown, paleft near the head: the lower part of the neck, beginning of the back, and breaft, brown, marked with curved or
waved white lines: lower part of the back black brown : rump,
upper and under tail coverts, black: breaft and belly white,
U 2 fpotted
 $i6 DUCK.
fpotted with grey: lower belly, fides, and thighs, barred with
whitifh and grey-brown lines: vent dark: on the wing are three-
fpots of different colours, viz.  white, black, and red:, tail afh-
colour, edged with white : legs orange.
Female. The female differs in having the colours on the wings duller,,
though marked the fame as the male: the breaft reddifh brown,. I
fpotted with black: the feathers on the neck and back edged,
with pale red: rump the fame, inftead of black : and thofe elegant femicircular lines on the neck and breaft wholly wanting.
Place and This inhabits England in the winter months; and is alfo found
at the fame feafon in various parts of France and Italy; migrates,
as far as Sweden as fummer advances, in order to breed; and
found throughout Ruffia and Sibiria, except in the eaftern part
of the laft, and Kamtfchatka.
It is a very quick diver, fo as to make it difficult to be fhot.
Feeds morning and evening only; being hid among the reeds
and rufhes during the day. The noife it makes is not unlike
that of the Mallard, but louder.    The flefh is good-
i-FALCATED
D.
Anas falcaria, Pall. Trav. iii. p. 701.
 falcata, Georgi Reife, p. 168.
Falcated Duck, Ara. Zool. p. 574.1, pi. 23.
CIZE of a Wigeon: length one foot fix inches: weight twenty-
five ounces and fix. drams. The bill an inch and a half long*
and black: the feathers of the back part of the head, and a little
way down the neck,, long, and crefted: the forehead and crown
dull ferruginous; in the middle, near the bafe of the bill, a fpot
of white: round the eyes, hind head, and creft, fhining green,
varied
 u
%
**?
varied with copper, efpecially on the temples: chin white: beneath this two collars, the firft of a greenifh black, and fprings
from the creft; the lower one white; the reft of the neck and
breaft cinereous, undulated with brown: back grey, the upper part
obfcurely lineated with a paler colour: the belly dotted with
grey and white : vent black ; the fides of it white, divided tranfverfely by a black band : fhoulders grey, and fomewhat undulated : fcapulars grey, and curve inwards at the ends : fpeculum
of a fine blue green, above it a white band : wings as long as
the tail: legs lead-colour.
This is found in the eaftern part of Sibiria, from the river
Jenifiei to the Lena, and beyond Lake Baikal; but not in the
weft. Found alfo in Kamtfchatka, but rare. Probably winters
in the Mongolian deferts, and China; is affuredly found in the
laft, as I have a fpecimen from thence, which was brought alive
to England, where it lived for fome time among other poultry,-
and was pretty familiar, and when dead was prefented to my
collection.
Sarceile de Java, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 275.—Pl. Enl. 930.
'"PHIS differs from the laft in having the head very little crefted on the crown, the feathers of the nape only being elongated : no falciform feathers falling over the quills : no white on
the vent or fides of it; inftead of which they, as well as the back,
are brown: and the thighs are white: in other things it much
refembles the former;, and we fufpect that it is only the female or
a young bird of this beautiful, fpecies. I obferve alfo another,
very fimilar to this, among fome Chinefe drawings, and therefore
look upon it as a bird of China,
Aaas
 5i8
63-
COMMON
Anas Penelope, Lin. Syft.  i.  p.   202. 27.—Faun. Suec. N°  124.— Brun,
N° 72.—Muller,N° i2\.—Kram. El.p. 342. 16.—Georgi Reife, p. 166.
W1GEON.
Anas Kogolha, N. C. Petr. xv. p. 468. N° 15. t. 21 ?
Le Canard fiffteur, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 391. 21. pl. 35. fig. 2.—Buf. Oif ix.
p. 169. pl. 10, 11.—Pl. Enl. 825.
The Wigeon, Whewer,  or Whim, Raii Syn. p.   146. A. i.—Will. Orn,
p. 375. pl. 72.— Albin, ii. pl. 99.— Br. Zool. ii. N° 286.—Ara. Zool.
p. 574.K.
Br, Muf.   Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH twenty inches : weight twenty-three ounces. Bill
narrow, an inch and a half long, and of a blueifh lead-colour : tip black: the top of the head is cream-colour, a little
mottled with dufky fpots; over the bill almoft white: head and
neck of a bright bay, and fpotted with dufky: the lower part of
it behind, and the breaft, vinaceous * : back and fcapulars minutely undulated with black and white lines : fides of the body
the fame, but paler: wing coverts brown, more or lefs mixed
with white f : quills dufky, fome of them banded with white;
the outer webs of the middle ones green, forming a fpeculum or
fpot, bounded above and below with black: the belly white:
vent black : legs dufky lead-colour.
The female is brown, the middle of the feathers deepeft: the
fore part of the neck and breaft paler: fcapulars dark brown,
with paler edges : wings and belly as in the male.
This fpecies is pretty common on moft parts of the old continent, on which we are affured it migrates as low as Egypt; being
• Sometimes, though rarely, marked with round black fpots.—Br. Zool.
f In fome fpecies wholly white.
caught
 DUCK.
caught there, from the middle to the end of November, by nets in
the marfhes, before the departure of the waters. It is alfo found
in Aleppo, during the winter, in plenty. Obferved likewife in
the Cafpian Sea and its neighbourhood; and in moft parts of
Europe as far as Sweden. Is pretty common in England during
the winter months; being caught, among other Ducks, in the
decoys at that feafon. It is faid not to breed in France, nor are
we certain that it does in England.
Both fexes are alike till the following fpring after hatching,
when the male, about March, gains his full plumage; but is obferved to lofe it again the end of July *, and with it in fome
meafure its voice, which is thought to be very like the found'
of a flute.   The flefh is much efteemed.
C I Z E of a Wigeon : length fifteen inches. Bill two inches ,-
colour red; round the bafe black: the head is of a pale
blueifh afh-colour, marked with minute dufky fpecks, as in the
Wigeon: lower part of the neck, and breaft, blueifh afh-colour,
the feathers margined with the laft: back reddifh brown, edged
with cream-colour: quills of a dufky afh : fpeculum on the wings
pale greenifh blue, bounded above and below with white: legs'
pale red : webs dufky: claws black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.    From the drawings of Sir
Jofeph Banks.
* Hift. des Oif.—We remember once to have  feen fuch a  party-coloured
bird, appearing as if it. were half male halffemale; no doubt in its change.
 S'2-3
K>
|P Le Canard Jenfen, f>/. £«/. g$.c.—Buf. Oif ix. p. 174;
- AMERICAN American Wigeon, Ara. Zool. N° 502.
WIGEON. Lev. Muf.
Jescription. A TRIFLE bigger than our Wigeon: length [the fame.
Bill lead-colour; tip black : crown and forehead yellowifh||
white : hind part of the head and neck black and white, fpeckled I
behind the eye a black mark, changing in fome lights to green:
back and fcapulars pale ruft-colour, waved with tranfverfe black
lines: in the middle ofthe wing coverts a large bed of white:
quills and tail deep brown : vent nearly black : legs dufky.
Place anb Inhabits North America, from Carolina to Hudfon's Bay; but is
Manners. j j
no where a common bird. Called at New Tork, the Pheafant
Duck *. In more plenty at St. Domingo, and Cayenne, where it
is called Vingeon or Gingeon. At Martinico great flocks of them
■often take fhort flights from one r/V^-plantation to another,
'where they make much havock, particularly during the rainy feafon. Are faid to perch on trees. Feed in company, and have a
sentinel on the watch, like fome other birds. This fpecies is fel-
■dom feen during the day, lying hid in places ftiaded from the fun;,
but fe foon as that luminary difappears, come forth from their
hiding-places to feed ; and, during this, make a particular kind of
noife, fo as to guide the fportfman in his refearches after them;
often betraying themfelves thereby, when otherwife, under cover
«of the evening, their filence would protect them : at other times
-their note is a kind of foft whiftle, which is often imitated in or-
cder to decoy them within reach of the gun.  They fit in January,
and
 DUCK.
and in March the young are feen running about. They lay many
eggs; fometimes thefe are hatched under Hens, in which cafe
they are, while young, familiar, though when grown up exceedingly quarrelfome with other Ducks: as they have been
known to breed of themfelves when kept to maturity, it is a
thing much to be wifhed for, that thefe birds might be domef-
ticated, as their flefh is moft excellent, efpecially fuch as are
brought up tame. They appear upon the coafts of Hudfon's Bay
in May, as foon as the thaws come on, chiefly in pairs: lay
there only from fix to eight eggs; and feed on flies and worms in
the fwamps: depart in flocks in autumn. Known by the name
of Atheikimo Afheep *.
521
Anas glocitans, Aa. Stock, vol. xl. p. 33. pl. 1. ,g
Bimaculated Duck, Br. Zool. ii. N° 287.—Ara. Zool. p. 575. BIMACULATED
D.
T ENGTH twenty inches.   Bill deep lead-colour; nail black:     Descriptiok,
irides brown : crown brown, changeable with green, ending
in a ftreak of brown at the hind part of the head, with a fmall
creft: between the bill and eye, and behind each ear, ferruginous fpots, the firft round, the laft oblong and large : throat of
a fine deep purple : the reft of the head bright green, continued
in ftreaks down the neck: breaft a light ferruginous brown,
fpotted with black : hind part of the neck and back dark brown,
waved with black: wing coverts afh-coloured ; lower coverts
ftreaked with ruft-colour: fcapulars cinereous : quills the fame,
inclined to brown : fecondaries fine green, ending in a fhade of
i Mr. Hutchins.
3 X
black,
 5a« D     U     C     K.
black, edged with white: tail coverts deep changeable green:
.. '-.*,'      twelve feathers in the tail; the twomiddlemoft black, the others
brown^edged with white: belly dufky, finely granulated : legs
fmall, yellow : webs dufky.
Place. Taken in a decoy in England.   Has been alfo met with along
the Lena, and about the lake Baikal.    Has a fingular note, fomewhat like clucking*. "-'^V^k
67. Blue Grey Duck, with a foft bill, Cook's Voy. i. p. 72. 97.—Forft. Voy i.
SOFT-BILLED D. p. 157.
Description. CIZE of a Wigeon: length eighteen inches. Bill an inch and
a quarter long, of a pale afh-colour •, the end of it foft, membranaceous, and black: the top of the head greenifh afh-colour:
body in general pale blueifh lead-colour : acrofs the wing a fpot
of white : on the breaft a mixture of ferruginous : legs dufky
lead-colour.
Place and This inhabits New Zealand,   was met with in Dufky Bay, in
ankers.      April.    It is fingular on account of the end of the bill being fo
flexible and foft.    It may be fuppofed to live by faction, fearch-
ing out the. worms, &c. in the mudj when the tide retires from; •
the beaches.    Is faid to wbiftle like the Whiffling Duck.    Is calledi*v
in New Zealand, He-weego.
 . Anas ferina, Lin. Syft. i. p. 203. 31.—Faun. Suec. N" 127.—Brun. N° 8«.
—Mutter,H° 124.
Anaserythrocephala, N. C. Petr. xv.p. 465. N" 14. pl. 20. (Gmelin.)
Le Millouin, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 384. 19. pl. 35.  1.—Buf. Oif. ix. p. 216.—
Pl. Enl. 803.
Pochard, Poker, or great red-headed Wigeon, Raii Syn. p. 143. A. 10.—
Will. Om. p. 367. pl. 72.—Br. Zool. ii. N° 284.—^r<2. Zool. N° 491.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf
CIZE of the Wigeon: length nineteen inches: weight one
pound twelve ounces. The bill broader than in the Wigeon,
of a deep blue," with a black tip: irides orange: the head and
neck deep chefnut: the lower part of the neck and breaft, and
upper part of the back, dufky black: fcapulars, and wing coverts neareft the body, of a blueifh white, minutely barred with
dufky black; the exterior wing coverts and quills dufky brown :
belly dufky white, marked with numerous dufky lines on the
fides : tail dufky grey : legs lead-colour.
The female has the head of a pale reddifh brown : breaft the
fame, but deeper: wing coverts and belly cinereous : the back
the fame as in the male.
This fpecies, like the Pintail, and fome others, is common
both to the old and new continent. With us frequent the fens ih
the winter feafon, and are brought up to the London markets
fometimes in considerable numbers, where they are known by the
name of-Dun Birds *; and are efteemed excellent eating. In
winter pafs pretty far to the fouth, being found in Egypt f, about
• The female ofthe Wigeon is alfo fo called.
3 X 2
•j- Fauna Arab.
Cairo.
 524 D     U     C     K.
Cairo. Come into France the end of October in fmall flocks
from twenty to forty. Not known for certain whether they
breed in England; but one has been fhot in July in France.
Feeds on finally and fhells. Has a hiffing voice. The flight
rapid and ftrong: the flocks form no particular fhape in flying, but
are indifcriminate.   Found in Carolina in winter *.
Le Millouin noir, Brif. Om. vi. p. 389. A.
'"PHIS differs from the laft in a few particulars.    The bill is
black, with a blue bafe: irides yellow : head and neck chefnut;.
the lower part afh-coloured on the fides, and blackifh before: the I
back, rump, and tail of this laft colour: breaft and belly brown,
mixed with dufky and afh-colour : wings mixed black and whiter I
lees olive: webs and claws black.
MEXICAN P. -*-je Millouin de Mexique, Brif. Om. vi. p. 390. 20.
Quapachnauhtli, Raii Syn. p. 177.
Description.     'THE bill in this is dufky afh-colour:   eyes  black:   head,
neck, breaft, belly, thighs, and under tail coverts, fulvous r
back, fcapulars, wing coverts, and rump, tranfverfely barred fulvous and brown : quills not much unlike the laft:   tail black
and white : legs as the bill : claws black.
Place. Inhabits Mexico.
 SH
Anas viduata, Lin. Syft. i. p. 205. 38.
Le Canard a face blanche, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 25;.
  du Maragnon, Pl. Enl. 8c8.
Spanifh Duck, Gen. Birds, p. 65. pl. 13.
CIZE a trifle lefs than the red-billed whifiling Duck. Bill and
eyes black: forehead, cheeks, chin, and back part of the
head, pure white: crown black : round the neck a black collar :
back and breaft bright ferruginous, croffed with narrow dufky
lines : wings pale brown, no fpeculum on them: belly whitifh
brown, fpotted with black : tail cuneiform, black : legs blueifh.
This is a beautiful fpecies; has a whifiling note ; and is called
by the Spaniards, Vindila. Found in Spain and Barbary * ; and
is faid to frequent the lakes of Carthagena f.
Le Canard Dominiquain du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 22.
CIZE of the Wild Duck. Bill black: the face and throat are
white: through the eye, from the bill, is a ftreak of black,
ending in an angle behind: hind part ofthe head, neck, and
breaft, black : back, and leffer wing coverts, deep cinereous grey,
croffed with two bands of very pale grey : belly and vent pale
grey : legs black.
Inhabits the Cape oft Good Hope.
DOMINICAN D,
Description.
* Gen. of Birds.
t Linmeus.—Whether of Old or New Spain he does not fay ; though it fhould
eem- the latter, from his ufing the authority of Jacqin for his defcription.
Anas-
 5%6
DUCK.
FERRUGINOUS
Anas rutila, Faun. Suec. N° 134.
Ferruginous Duck, Br. Zool. N° 281
pl. gg.—Ara. Zool. p. 576. N.
TT7EIGHT  twenty ounces.
*       rounded a little at the bafe,
The bill long, and flatted,;
ferrated along the edges of
each mandible, and furnifhed with a nail at the end of the upper ; colour a pale blue : head, neck, and whole upper part of
the head, an agreeable reddifh brown : throat, breaft, and belly,
the fame colour, but paler: the legs of a pale blue : webs
black.
One of this fpecies was killed in Lincolnfihire. Found in the
Swedijh rivers, but rarely. Mr. Pennant has alfo received it from
Denmark,
Anas acuta, Lin. Syft. i. p. 202. 28.—Faun. Suec. N° 126.— Scop. Ann.
i. N° 73.—Brun. in Append.—Mutter, N° 122.—Kram. El. p. 340.
9.—Frifch. pl. 160.—Georgi Reife, p. 166.
Le Canard a longue queue, Brif. Om. vi. p. 369. 16. pl. 34. fig. I. 2.—
Buf. Oif. ix. p. 199. pl. 13—Pl. Enl. 954.
Sea Pheafant, or Cracker, Raii Syn. p.  147,   A.  '-.—Will. Orn. p. 376.
pl. 73.—Albin, ii. pl. 94. 95.
Pintail, Br. Zool. ii. N° 282— Ara. Zool. N° 500.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
T ESS than the Wild Duck: length twenty-eight inches:
weight twenty-four ounces. Bill long and black, on the
fides blueifh: the head, and for an inch of the neck before,
rufly purplifh brown : nape dufky : fore part and fides of the
neck white, a little mottled with dufky, the white riling up-
2 wards
 D     U
K.
527
wards on each fide, at the back part, in a narrow ftreak toward
the hind head: the hind part of the neck and back greyifh
white, finely barred with black : fides of the body the fame,
but paler: fcapulars black, long, pointed, and margined with
very pale cream-colour: wings pale dufky brown; acrofs them,
firft a pale rufous bar, then a broad deep copper-coloured
one, edged with black; and below this a narrow one of white:
the two middle tail feathers are black, and more than three inches
longer than the reft; the others dufky, edged with white: the
under parts of the body are white: vent black; the fides of it
white : legs lead-coloured.
The female is fmaller. The head and neck dufky, minutely
ftreaked with brown: back brown, the feathers margined with
pale reddifh white; the fcapulars with pale rufous: wing coverts
as the back, but margined deeper with white : acrofs the wing a
cream-coloured bar, bounded above and below with white:
tail as in the male, but the two middle feathers not elongated.
The young males remain of a greyifh brown, not greatly unlike the plumage of the females, till February, when they firft
gain the proper drefs of their fex.
The male is furnifhed with a fmall labyrinth.
This is a pretty common fpecies, but not in fuch plenty in
England as in many parts of the continent, in the northern parts of.
which it breeds. Common in the Ruffian dominions *, as far as
Kamtfchatka.   In Sweden and Denmark in the fpring ; and breeds
Place a
Man nci
• In troops of hundreds on  the borders of the Don.—Decouv. Ruff. i. p.
 73-
Anas glacialis,
LONG-TAIL
i. N° 74
ED D.
cif DUCK.
about the White Sea *. Frequents this kingdom f, and the
countries which lie to the fouth of it, in the winter feafon, at
which time it is common in France, Auftria %, and Italy %. Is in
plenty about the lake Baikal ||, in Afia; and is often feen in flocks
on the fea-coafts of China, where it is caught by the Chinefe in
fnares. In America not uncommon, being feen in plenty at New.
Tork, where it is called Blue-bill **; from thence as far north.
at leafl as Hudfon's Bay, at which place it is fuppofed to breed;
and from whence I have received a fpecimen. The flefh is very
fine flavoured, and tender.
. Syft. 3. p.  203. 30.—Faun. Suec. N° 125.—Scop. Ann.
'run.  Orn.   N° 75. 76.—Mutter,   N° 123.— Phil. Tranf.
Le Canard a longue queue de TerreNeuve, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 382. 18.—
Buf. Oif. ix. p. 202.
Canard de Miclon, Pl. Enl.  1008."
Swallow-tailed Sheldrake,  Raii Syn. p.  145. A. 14.—Will. Orn, p. 364.
§ 6.
Long-tailed Duck, Edw. pl. 280.—Br. Zool. ii. N° 283—Ara. Zool. N*
501.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Wigeon: length twenty^two inches: breadth twenty-
nine,  the  long tail-feathers included:   weight twenty-four
ounces and a half, troy.   The bill is an inch and a half long, and
*- Ara. Zool.
f Vifits the Orknies in great flocks, in the winter.   Id.—In great quantities
in Connaught, in Ireland, in the month of February only.    Br. Zool.
X Kramer. § About Rome, where it is called Coda lancea.—Willughby.
11 Georgi. ** Kalm Trav. i. p. 137.
4 black;
Des«ription.
 u
K.
5*9
black; down the middle, and acrofs the tip, orange: irides red :
the fore part and fides of the head are of a reddifh grey: on
each fide of the neck, juft below the head, is an oval fpot of
black: the hind part of the head, the throat, and remaining
part of the neck and breaft, white : back and rump black: fides
of the upper tail coverts white, the middle black: lower part
of the breaft, and upper part of the belly, dufky, paffing upwards, on each fide of the breaft, to the back : the lower belly and
vent white: the fcapulars are alfo white, and are long, and
pointed at the ends: the wings chiefly black, with a mixture
of chefnut: the four middle tail feathers are black, the others
white; the two middle ones are narrow, and exceed the others
by three inches and a half: legs of a dull red : claws black.
This fpecies varies; in fome birds the plumage is more or lefs
of a brown or chocolate colour, where in others it is black ; and
the fpot on each fide of the neck occupies half of it: the two
middle tail feathers are frequently as long as the reft of the
bird : the legs alfo have all the different fhades of red in different birds. The bill however is one conftant mark, though it
is broadeft in the younger birds *.
B
Anas hyemalis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 202. 29.—Faun. Groenl. N° 45.
Le Canard a longue queue d'Iflande, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 379. 17.
Sharp-tailed Duck, called Havelda, Will.  Orn. p. 364. § 5.
Long-tailed Duck, Edw. pi. 156.
ILL as the laft  defcribed:    fides of the head white;  hind
head cinereous; the reft of the head, the neck, breaft, and
* Pall. Spic. v. p. 28. Note (a).
ol. III. 3 Y back,
LONG-TAILED
 u
K.
back, dufky black: the lower part of the breaft and fcapulars
chefnut: belly white : upper tail coverts and wings much as in
the male: legs dufky reddifh brown.
Some birds of this fex have the brown feathers edged with
ferruginous, others not. I have likewife obferved in fome a
white fpot on each fide of the lower part of the neck. The
middle tail feathers are much fhorter in fome birds than others;
and, in refpect to the female, it has not been our fortune to meet
with any which poffeffed them; perhaps they do not appear,
except in old birds, or they moult them before the other
feathers.
This fpecies inhabits the northern regions, and comes now
and then, in rigorous winters, into England; but never in numbers. Met with in the Orknies, in confiderable flocks, from
OcJober to April *. On the continent, frequents Sweden, Lapland, and Ruffia; often in the neighbourhood of St. Peterjburg.
Met with alfo in Kamtfchatka. Found at Hudfon's Bay, and
from thence as far as New Tork. Remains at Hudfon's Bay,.
Greenland, and among the iflands, the whole year. Said to make
the neft among the grafs near the fea, like the Eider Duck; and
to lay five t blueifh white eggs, about the middle of June, the
fize of thofe of a Pullet. When the young are hatched, the
mother carries them to the water in her bill. Swims and dives
well. Flies fwift, and is a crafty bird. Lines the neft with the
feathers of the breaft, like the Eider Duck. The down is alfo
equally valuable, were it to be had in the fame quantity.    It has
• Ara. Zool.
f Seldom fewer than ten, and often  as far :
Hutfhins.
fourteen or fifteen.—Mr*
 D     U
K.
La Sarcelle de Ferroe, Br'f.  Orn.
Oif. ix. p. 27%.—Pl. Enl. 999.
p.   460. 40. pl. 40. fig. :
Buf.
S3*
a loud and fingular cry, not unlike the word a-a-glik, fuppofed to
arife from the ftructure of the larynx*. It feeds on fmallJhell-
fijh, obtained by diving, and which are fuppofed to make a great
part of their food f. Called at Hudfon's Bay, Hahaway, and appear numerous, flying in large flocks; their flight is fhort,
and near the furface of the water.
T ENGTH one foot four inches and a quarter. Bill dufky; at
the bafe of the upper mandible is a fpot of pale grey, from
thence paffes a black ftreak down the middle of the crown to the
hind head : fides of the head pale grey, inclining to yellow ; and
juft round the eyes white: hind part of the head and neck
dufky and white mixed; fides of the laft dark brown: throat
and fore part of the neck white, minutely fpotted with brown :
back, wings, rump, and upper tail coverts, brown; the laft white
on the fides : fcapulars long, brown, with rufous margins : breaft
and belly white : the tail pointed ; the four middle feathers grey
brown; the five on each fide pale grey, with whitifh edges :
legs brownifh lead-colour.
Inhabits the Ferroe Ifles, where it is called O'Edel.   Suppofed
to be a variety of the long-tailed Duck %.
* This is faid to have three openings covered with a thin membrane.—
Defcrip. Kamtfch. p. 498.
•fr One fpecies is the Mytilus Difcors.—Lin.
X Brunnhh.—Ara. Zool.
3 Y 2
 LI
m
74. Anas Stelleri, Pallas Spic. vi. p. 35. t. 5.
WESTERN D. Weftern Duck, Ara. Zool. N° 497. pl. 23.
Lev. Muf.
Description. CIZE of the Wigeon : length feventeen inches. Bill made not
unlike that of the Wigeon; colour black : irides hoary brown :
the top and fides of the head and neck, and hind part of the laft
for halfway, white : acrofs the forehead from eye to eye a pea-
green band ; at the nape of the neck a tranfverfe one of the fame-
colour, but much deeper, at the lower corner of which, on each
fide, is a round black fpot the fize of a pea-, at the lower angle
of the eye behind, another of the fame colour, but irregular in
fhape : the chin, throat, and fore part of the neck, black, communicating with a collar of the fame which furrounds the neck
about the middle; from the hinder part of this the black paffes
down over the back, quite to the tail: the breaft and fides are
pale ferruginous, deepening into chefnut at the middle, growing
ftill deeper as it paffes on towards the vent, where the colour is
black: the wing coverts are white; the prime quills dufky
black; the fecondaries are fix inches long, and curve downwards,
partly white, partly black, the colours divided obliquely on each
feather : the fcapulars are alfo long, and curve elegantly downwards over the greater coverts, as in the Garganey -, each of thefe
has the web next the body fcarcely broader than the fhaft itfelf,
and both of them white ; the other web very broad, and black :
tail pointed, brown: legs black.
The above is defcribed from the fpecimen in the Leverian Mufeum.   In that mentioned by Pallas, the head is faid to be fomewhat
 D     U    C      K.
what crefted: the green fpot before the eye does not unite acrofs
the head, and is broader than in the above bird : the black fpot
at the angles of the green band of the nape not mentioned : in
other refpects one defcription may fuffice.
This is a rare and moft elegant fpecies.    Found about the fea-
eoafts of Kamtfchatka, and breeds among the inacceffible rocks
there.     Flies   in  flocks.     Frequents   alfo  the  wefiern  fide of
. America.
S33
Anas albeola, Lin, Syft. igg, i8.—Phil. Tranf lxii. p. 416,
—— bucephala, Id. 200. 21.
La Sarcelle de la Louifiane, Brif Orn. vi, p. 461. pl. 41. fig. 1.
.     blanche & noir, ou la Religieufe, Buf. Oif ix. p. 284.—PL
Enl. 948.
Le Canard d'Hyver, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 349. 10.
Le petit Canard agrofle tete, Buf. Oif ix. p. 249.
Little black and white Duck, Edw. pl. 100.
Spirit Duck, Ara. Zool. N° 487.
Buffel-headed Duck, Ara. Zool. N° 489—Cat eft. Car. i. pl. 95.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf
CIZE rather larger than a Teal: length fixteen inches. Bill near
an inch and a half long, and black : the head and neck green
gold, with a glofs of violet in fome lights: from behind each
eye the feathers are white, paffing in a broad patch to the back
of the head : the lower part of the neck all round, the breaft, and
under parts, are white : the outer fcapulars are white, forming a
longitudinal band on each fide of the back, which, with the reft
ofthe fcapulars, is black : the leffer wing coverts are dufky, edged
with white ; the middle ones white; the greater, down the middle
ofthe wing, white; but thofe on each fide black : quills dufky
4 black,
+- BUFFEL-
HEADED D.
 S3*\
D     U
K.
black, fome of the inner ones marked with white on the inner
webs : tail cinereous, the three outer feathers edged outwardly
with white, the fhape of it cuniform : legs orange : claws black.
Anas ruftica, Lin. Syft. i. p. 201. 24.
La Sarcelle de la Caroline, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 464. *g.—Buf. Oif. i
Little brown Duck, Cateft. Car. i. pl. 98.
, p. 286.
CMALLER than the laft: length fourteen inches: weight
one pound. Bill black: irides hazel: the head and upper
parts deep brown : behind the eye an oval^white fpot: throat and
under parts pale grey: greater quills deep brown; the leffer ones
the fame, but outwardly edged with white, forming a patch on
the wing : tail brown : legs black.
Thefe inhabit America, and are found at New Tork in the
winter, migrating alfo as far as Carolina ; return fouth in fummer
to breed. Come into Hudfon's Bay, about Severn River, in
June, and make the neft in trees, in the woods, near ponds.
Dive often, and rife again at a great diftance; hence called
by fome the Spirit Duck *.
The Buffel-headed and Spirit Duck of authors can be no other
than one and the fame fpecies, as they differ only in the fulnefs of
plumage about the head ; every other character agrees minutely.
That of Catejby was drawn from nature, and is fuch as I have
feen various fpecimens of in cabinets, as well as in my own poffeffion, except that in the Britifh Mufeum, in which the head is
frnooth, and fimilar to that from which Edwards made his figure.
As thefe birds are not fcarce, I have compared them again and
s faid of the ti
again,
 U
K.
.again, and cannot at prefent form any other conclufion. We fhall
however be happy to retract this or any other fentiment taken
up againft the general opinion, whenever fufficient proofs fhall
be adduced to clear up the point.
Anas clangula, Lin. Syft. 3. p. 201. 23.—Faun. Suec. N* 122.—Scop. Ann. i.
N° 71.—Brun. N° 70. 71.—Mutter. N° ng.—Kram. El. p. 341. 13.—
Frifch, pl. 183. 1-84—Georgi Reife, p. 166.—Faun. Groenl.N0 43.
Le Garrot, Brif. Om. vi. p. 416. 27. pl. 37. fig. 2.—Buf. Oif.
—Pl. Enl. 802.
Smaller reddifh-headed Duck, Will: Orn. p. tfg.—Raii Syn.
(female.)
Golden-eye, Raii Syn. p. 142. A. I.—Witt. Orn. p. 368. pl. 73.—Alb,
pl. 96.—Br. Zool. ii. N° 276.—Ara. Zool. N° 486.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf
I ENGTH nineteen inches : weight one pound and three
quarters. Bill not quite two inches long, and black : irides
gold-colour : the head and half the neck are black, with a glofs
of green and violet: at the angle ofthe mouth, between the bill
and eye, a large white fpot: the lower part of the neck, the
breaft, and under parts, are white ; fome of the feathers on the
fides tipped with black: the back, rump, and upper tail coverts,,
black : fcapulars black and white: the wing coverts are black,,
marked with two patches of white, the firft on the leffer, the fecond on the greater ones : the quills are black, except feven of
the middle ones, which are white :. the legs orange. This bird
is furnifhed with a labyrinth *.
• The wind-pipe hath a labyrinth at the divarication : and befides, above fwells
out into a belly, or puff-like cavity.—Willughby. See an engraving ofthe
wind-pipe in.the plate..
The
 DUCK.
The female weighs one pound, or more : has the head, of a
deep reddifh brown: neck grey: breaft and belly white: wing
coverts and fcapulars dufky and afh-colour: middle quill feathers white; the reft, and tail, black : legs dufky.}
This fpecies is not unfrequent on our fea-coafts in winter, and
appears in fmall flocks; but paffes to the north in fpring in order
to breed. It inhabits Sweden and Norway during the fummer.
Is an excellent diver, and feeds on fmall fhells. Moftly feen in the
water, as it is very aukward in walking. Has been attempted to
be domefticated; but feems out of its element on land: with
difficulty can be brought to eat any thing but bread; and the
feet foon grow injured, infomuch as at laft to hinder it walking
at any rate. The flefh is much efteemed, and the birds are often
feen in the markets at the proper feafon. Found in America, in
winter, as low as New Tork ; in fummer at Hudfon's Bay, where it
frequents the frefh-water lakes, and makes a round neft of grafs *,
lined with feathers from its breaft; lays from feven to ten white
eggs. Is called there Mifte pe fqua pe wew\. Is alfo an inhabitant of Greenland; but is not there a common bird.
* In hollow trees.—
t Mr. Hutchins.
 S37
Anas Glai
i, Lin. Syft. i. p. 201. 26.—Faun. Suec. N° 123.—Scop. Ann
N° 72.—Mutter, N° 120.
Le Morillon, ifrj/1 Or». vi. p. 406. 25. pl. 26. 1. 2
Grey-headed Duck, ^r. Z00/. ed. 2. vol, ii. p. 47c
Glaucium, or Morillon of Be/on, Raii Syn. p. 144
Br. Zool, ii. N° 277.—ArS. Zool. p. 573. F.
Lev. Muf.
-Will. Orn. p. 368 —
B
RISSON deferibes this as being rather lefs than the Golden-
eye: length near fifteen inches. Bill lead-colour: irides of
a golden yellow: the.head is fomewhat crefted : that, and moft
part of the neck, black, gloffed with violet; the lower part of the
neck, rufous brown: the back, fcapulars, and rump, gloffy blackifh brown, with a flight tinge of violet: breaft feathers brown,
deeply edged with white : belly white; near the vent mixed with
brown: wing coverts blackifh brown; moft of the inner ones
have a eaft of green : the ten firft quills are blackifh brown;
of thefe from the fourth to the tenth are marked with grey, more
or lefs, in the middle, on the outer web, near the fhaft; the
eleventh and twelfth pale grey, with brown tips; the eight following white, tinged as the laft; the inner of thefe brown on
the inner web; the fix next the body dark brown, and the
outer one of thefe has a white fpot on the outer web : tail violet
brown : legs lead-colour : claws black.
The female has the head and neck brown, mixed before with
dufky: back and fcapulars bright brown, dotted with minute
grey points : lower part of the back and rump dark greenifh
brown : fides grey brown: under tail coverts white, with black
bands : in other things like the male, except that the laft has a
Vol. III. 3 Z labyrinth
 538
D     U
K.
labyrinth at  tke entrance of the lungs, which the other fex
has not.
In the Britifh Zoology the defcription fomewhat differs. The
bill is yellowifh brown: head dufky ruft-colour: round); the I
upper part of the neck a white collar ; beneath, a broader one of
grey: back and coverts dufky, with a few white lines; greater
coverts dufky, with a few white fpots; primaries black; fecondaries, breaft, and belly, white : fides above the thighs black r
tail dufky : legs yellow.
None of the birds we have hitherto treated of has caufed
more uncertainty in our minds about the identity of the
fpecies than this; but we fear that thofe defcribed by Brifi-
fon have not come under our infpection, at leafl his male-
Some years back I had a pair fent to me for Morillons, which
differed from each other merely in having the head and neck of
the reputed male greatly darker than thofe of the female -, but
both were fo like the hens of the Golden-eye, that I was ftcud{|i
with the circumftance : they were dried fpecimens, fo that the
internal conformation of the wind-pipe, Sec. could not be detected. Willughby feems at a great lofs how to account for feveral birds defcribed by him*, which were greatly fimilar in plumage, as he found the labyrinth (an endowment of male birds only)
in fome thought by him to be females; but this may be reconciled by allowing for the different ftate of plumage in birds-
in different periods of life; and that, although the feathers were
not the fame in the young birds as in the adult, yet the labyrinth
was to be feen in every ftage; hence this circumftance, having
* See Om. p. 367, 368, 369. feci:, xii. xiii. xiv.
nothing
 D     U
K.
nothing to do with the age, can only afcertain the fex. We have
feen the Golden-eye complete in every thing but the white fpot
at the corners of the mouth ; and in the Britifh Mufeum may be
feen one with the white fpot as large as ufual, but advanced only
fo far towards perfection as to be greatly obfcured by dufky fpots ;
ferving to fhew the progrefs of nature towards fhe perfection of
the diftinctive marks ofthe adult bird.
La Sarcelle du Mexique, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 458.—Buf. Oif. i
Toltecoloctli, feu Metzcanahachtli, Raii Syn. p. 175.
Sarcelle, Defer. Surin. ii. p. 158.
S39
CIZE of our Teal. The upper mandible blue; the under
black : irides black* : the head is fulvous, mixed with blackifh and gloffy greenifh blue: between the bill and eye a large
fpot of white: neck and body white, fpeckled with black dots,
in greateft number on the breaft : feafrulars, and upper tail coverts, the fame; under tail coverts blue : wing coverts blue, acrofs
them a band of white; the greater ones, fartheft from the body,
blackifh :'quills black, fome ofthe middle ones green outwardly,
and tipped with fulvous, forming a band of the laft acrofs the
wing at that part; but thofe neareft the body are white, dotted
with black: tail dufky black, margined with white : legs of a
pale red.
The female differs in having the head, hind part of the
neck, back and fcapulars, wing coverts, and rump, brack, fome
ofthe feathers edged, with fulvous, and others with white: throat,
' Fermin fays, the irides and eye-lids are yellow.
3 Z 2
fore
 540 DUCK,
fore part of the neck, breaft, and under parts, black and white
mixed :  prime quills black, edged outwardly with white; the
next green on the outer webs, and black within; and thofe neareft
the body black, outwardly banded with white: tail like that of •
-   the male : legs afh-colour.
Place. This inhabits the lakes of Mexico, where it is faid to be a very
foul feeder, continually dabbling in the mud with its bill for
worms, dead fijh, &c.; alfo fond of frogs, and in fhort all manner of filth; notwithftanding which, the flefh is accounted excellent.    Found alfo at Surinam.    Said to lay three large eggs.
79. Anas fuligula, Lin. Syft. i. p. 207. 45—Faun. Suec. N" 132.—Scop. Ann. i.
+- TUFTED D. No 72.—Brun. N" go.—Mutter, N° 129—Kram. El. p. 341.   12	
Frifich. pl. 171.—Georgi Reife, 167.
Le petit Morillon, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 411. 26. pl. 37. 1.
Le Morillon, Buf. Oif ix. p. 227. 231. pl. i*\.—Pl. Enl. 1001.
Tufted Duck, Raii Syn. p. 142. A. 7.—Will. Orn. p. 365. pl. 73.—Albin, i.
pl. 95.—Br. Zool. ii. N° 274.—Ara. Zool. p. 573. G.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
Description. T ENGTH fixteen inches: weight two pounds. Bill broad,
of a blue grey; tip black: irides golden: head feathers
long, forming a pendent creft : head, neck, and breaft, black;
the firft gloffed with green: fcapulars deep blackifh brown,
fprinkled with minute dots of a cream-colour, but not vifible at
a diftance: wings dufky brown; acrofs them a narrow bar of
white : the belly and vent white; the laft mixed with dufky r
legs dufky blue : webs black.
Female, The female is like the male; but the creft is wanting, and the
black colour verges to brown.
PiACE. This fpecies is found in Europe as far as Norway.    In the win
ter months is not unfrequent in England; being met with in the  .
markets
 D     U
K.
markets in that feafon, and is much efteemed *. It is common
alfo throughout the Ruffian empire, going northward to breed.
Is frequent in Kamtfchatka -f\
541
Anas nyroca, N. C. Petr. xiv. p. 403. (Gueldenftaedt.)
T ENGTH fixteen inches and eight lines. Bill two inches,
black; toothed on the fides : irides whitifh: head comprefled on the fides, and of a deep gloffy chefnut: neck, breaft,
and fides, the fame: lower part of the neck behind, back, and
rump, olive black : belly and vent white; fides of the laft brown:
wings fhorter than the tail; fome of the quills edged, and others
tipped with olive black ; from the feventh to the twentieth
white, except at the ends, which are black, forming, when clofed,
a large patch or fpeculum : tail pointed, of a black brown : legs
deep lead-colour: claws black.
The female is fmaller; of a dirty ruft-colour where the male is
chefnut : belly whitifh, clouded : region of the vent paler
brown; and the back inclined to rufous : the reft as in the male.
This inhabits Ruffia; and is frequent about the river Don.
The male and female always found together. Lays from f|x to.
eight whitifh eggs, in fome hollow on a riling ground, in the
month of May. The female, while fitting, drives off the male,
left he fhould break the eggs, as he is known to do. This fpecies lives chiefly on vegetables and feeds, rarely on fifh. The flefh.
is well-tafted, and tender.
* The French allow this to be eaten on Maigre- Days, and in Lent; as they
alfo do the Scoter: but though the flefh of this laft is now and then tolerable, that
of the tufted Duck is feldom otherwife than excellent.
f Ara. Zool.
I0 M. Gueldenftaedt*
 u
K.
M. Gueldenftaedt, the author of the above, thinks this to be a
diftinct fpecies from the Tufted Duck, in which I cannot pofi-
tively contradict him. It muft however be confidered, that the
tufted fpecies varies exceedingly, and is not complete in plumage
till the fecond year.
In the young bird * the head, neck, and breaft, are chefnut
brown, and very flightly crefted : the feathers at the bafe of the
bill of a pale yellow: back, wings, and tail black: breaft and
belly white; and a line of the fame acrofs the wings.
Scopoli has alfo noticed three varieties, which differ in fize
as well as plumage. The firft is fmaller than the Mallard, with
.a black head, tinged with violet; creft as long as the finger: the
body brown : rump footy and white mixed.
The fecond variety is the fize of a Mallard. The bill yel- -
lowifh: the head, and beginning of the neck, rufous ; creft
fhort: the reft, of the neck, the breaft, belly, and rump, black:
back brown : wings cinereous brown, margined with white: quills
white: at the bafe of each wing a white conic band: thigh*
brown.
The third is the fize of the firft. The head and creft rufous :
temples gloffy green: breaft whitifh, fpotted with black: belly
pure white : beneath the tail black: bafe of the wings brown,
beneath this a rufous band, then a fhining green one, and laftly
one of black : quills brown.
From the above obfervations of authors, added to that of
our own, in refpect to the young bird, a fpecimen of which is
jiow before me, there is much reafon to fufpect that the whole
• Anas latiroftra, Brun. p. 21. N° 90.
 u
K.
here included under the article of Tufted Duck, are either varieties, or differences in fex, if not in their progreffive ftages towards perfection.
CIZE of a Teal: length fifteen inches. Bill two inches long,
and fomewhat flout; colour a pale blueifh white; the nail
at the tip black: irides the colour of gold: the head and neck
are black, the hind part gloffed with purple, changing in fome
lights to blue: upper part of the body and wings black,
gloffed with green : under parts of the body pale afh-colour:
the quills are deep afh-colour; on the fecondaries a bar of white:
tail fhort, of a dirty green : legs pale afh-colour.
Inhabit Dufky Bay, in New Zealand *, where it is called He
patek. From the drawings of Sir Jofeph Banks. Captain Cook f
alfo mentions one, in his Voyage, bigger than a Teal, all black,
except the Drake, which has fome white in the wings; and obferves, that it is met with no where, except at the head of the
Bay. The above feems to bear great affinity to the Tufted
Duck.
NEW-ZEALAND
D.
CIZE of a Mallard: length twenty-eight inches. Bill two
inches long, black, and turns up at the end; edges of the
under mandible yellowifh : irides red : top of the head dufky,
lengthening into a creft at the hind head: forehead, fides under
the eyes, and neck, pale afh-colour: chin, and fore part of the
' Forft. Voy.
+ Cook's Voy. i. p. 72,
CRESTED D..
Description.
neck,
 DUCK.
neck, pale cream-colour, tranfverfely fpotted round the lower
part of the neck with dufky and ferruginous : back and wing
coverts deep dufky afh-colour: lower part of the back and rump
pale rufous afh-colour : fpeculum of the Wings fine blue, bounded below with white *: quills and tail black; the laft pointed in
fhape, and longer than the wings.
Inhabits Staaten Land.   From the drawings of Sir Jofeph Banks.
g2i Anas rufina, Pall. Trav. ii. p. 713.  N° 28.
RED-CRESTED Le Canard fifneur huppe, Brif Om. vi. p. 398. 22.—Buf. Oif. ix.  182.
D* — Pl. Enl. 928.
Anas capite ruffo major, Raii Syn. p. 140. 2.
The great Red-headed Duck, Will. Orn. p. 364.
Barbary Shoveler, Shaw's Trav. p. 254 i
Lev. Muf.
Description. YX?EIGHT three pounds or more: length twot feet. Bill
the colour of cinnabar : irides brown: upper part of the
head and neck deep teftaceous red : crown pale rufous; the feathers of it thick fet, Handing up, and forming a pretty large
globular creft: body in general black, but the under parts
inclined to dufky : beginning of the back, between the wings,
grey brown : baftard wing paler; at the bafe of it a tranfverfe
lunated white mark: wings blackifh brown : fpeculum white,
furrounded with black; under parts of them, and margins,
white : tail fhort, brown; the margins of the feathers whitifh:
legs brown, reddifh on the fore part.
• In the draught there was fome appearance of a protuberance on the joint
of the wing ; but as nothing was mentioned in the manufcript about it, the circumftance muft remain uncertain.
The
 D      U
K.
The female is brown: of a paler colour: has a reddifh bill:
and is deftitute of a creft.
This inhabits the Cafpian Sea, and vaft lakes of the defert of
Tartary, where it leads a folitary life. Sometimes feen in the
great lakes lying on the eaft fide of the Uralian Chain, but not
in the reft of Sibiria. Found to the fouth as far as Italy, as
Willughby met with it at Rome; and, if the fame with Shaw's
Red-necked Shoveler, alfo in Barbary.
Hrafn-ond, Mutter, p.
574- H.
16. N° 131.—Ift. Reife, feft. 688.—Ar3. Zool. p.
S+S
PENERAL colour black.    Head crefted : forepart ofthe     Description.
neck, breaft, and belly, white : legs faffron-colour.
Inhabits Iceland.    Called by the Inhabitants Hrafn-ond. Place.
Dufky Duck, Ara. Zool. N° 496.
J ENGTH two feet. Bill long, narrow, and dufky, tinged
with blue: crown dufky: neck pale brown, ftreaked downwards with dufky lines: back and wing coverts deep brown:
breaft and belly the fame, edged with dirty yellow: primaries
dufky: fpeculum of a fine blue, bounded with a black bar : tail
cuneiform, dufky, edged with white: legs dufky, or yellow.
Inhabits the province of New Tork.
Yor.. III.
4 A
 54-5
D     U     C     K.
Anas fponfa, Lin. Syft. i. p. 207. 43.
Le Canard d'Ete, Brif Orn. vi. p. 351
Le beau Canard huppe, Buf. Oif. ix. p.
Yzta&zon Yayauhqui *, Raii Syn. p.
American Wood Duck, Brown Jam.
Summer Duck, Catefb. Car. i. pl. 97.-
■Edw
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
—Pl. Enl. 980. 98 iv
76—Will. Orn. p. 387.
481.
01.—Ara. Zool. N° 493V
iWiP
neteen inches.
Bill red,- neareftr
CIZE of
the bafe of the upper mandible yellow; tip and ridge black r
irides hazel r eyelids crimfon : the hind head much crefted; the
feathers very long, and hang down the neck: the head and*
creft are gloffy green, appearing purple in fome lights: from the
noftrils a white line paffes on each fide over the eye to the hind,
head; and from the back part of the eye a fecond, tending to
the fame part: hind head, beneath the creft, black:. the chin,
and throat are white, which forms a flender curve upwards
round the jaw, ending in a point at the back of the eye* below this is a fecond curve, tending towards the nape: the
neck,, below the creft, and breaft, are of a ruddy vinaceous-
colour,, inclining to brown behind; the breaft marked with
triangular fpots of white; from thence, as far as the vent,
white: the feathers which fall over the wings barred black and-'
white : back gloffy brown : fcapulars- gloffed with blue green;,
fecondaries with blue: fides ofthe body finely barred with dufky
and cream-colour: the feathers over the thighs croffed with black,
and white at the ends: fides of the vent purplifh chefnut: legs
orange.
*■ Tie bird with a various-coloured head..
 u
K.
The female is fmaller. The feathers round the bafe of the
bill white: round the eye the fame, paffing backwards in a ftreak
behind, where it finifhes in a point: chin and throat white : fore
part of the neck and breaft brown, marked with triangular fpots
of white, as in the male, but much lefs diftinct: the back and
tail brown: wings the fame, mixed with blue green on the
coverts and fecond quills: acrofs the wing, juft above the
quills, a narrow white bar: quills dufky, edged near the ends
with grey, and within with green: belly white: legs as in the
male.
This moft beautiful fpecies inhabits Mexico, and fome of the
Weft India ifles, migrating in the fummer feafon as far north as
40 degrees, or a little beyond. Appears at New Tork early in
the fpring, and breeds there: makes the neft in the decayed
hollows of trees, or fuch as have been made by Woodpeckers,
and often between the forks of the branches; whence by fome
called Summer Duck, and Tree Duck. When the young are
hatched, the Duck takes them on her back to the water. Are
often kept tame in our menageries, and will breed there. The
flefh is much efteemed by the Americans. This is the fpecies,
the neck of which the natives of Louifiana ufe to ornament their
pipes, or calumets of peace * with; and at the laft-named place is
found throughout the year.
* Hift. de la Louif. ii. p. 115.—See alfo vol. i. p. 37. Note *, of this Work.
 54»
DUCK,
+■ CHINESE Di Ana« galericulata, Lin. Syft. i. p. 206. 42.
La Sarcelle de la Chine, Brif.  Orn. vi. p
276. pl. ig.—Pl.Enl. 805, 806.
Chinefe Teal, Edw.. pl. 102.—Kampf. Japa,
Lev. Muf
45°*' 34-—•£■/• W- ix. p.
• p. 129- pl. 10.
*"pHIS is fomewhat lefs than a Wigeon. The bill of a dull
red : irides hazel: the hind part of the head, and part of
the neck, full of feathers, and elongated into a flattifh creft r
the top of the head, down the middle ofthe crown, of a greenifh black: between the bill and eye pale rufous; behind the
eye white, paffing backwards into the creft, which is of a dark
gloffy green : the feathers round the upper part of the neck,
all round, are long and pointed, like thofe a cock, and of a
dull orange-colour: the lower part of the neck, and upper part
of the breaft, chefnut: at the bend of the wing are three tranfverfe ftreaks of black, and two of white, alternate: the fcapulars are black, margined with white : the back and rump dufky
brown, gloffed in fome parts with blue green: on the wings a
fpeculum, or gTofiy patch of blue green, bounded below with
white: the quills dufky brown, edged near the ends with pale
grey: one of the fecond quills much broader on one web
than on the other, and curves upwards in an elegant manner,
Handing upright when the wing is clofed; the broader web of a
.fine pale brownifh red, tipped with black; the under, or narrower one, dufky black: the tail pointed, of a dufky brown,
fringed with blue green: the fides of the body of a brownifh
cream-colour,  tranfverfely  croffed  with fine black lines:  the
feathers,
 u
K.
feathers over the thighs barred with black and white at the
ends : the lower parts of the breaft and belly are white : legs
orange-colour.
The female is not unlike that of the Summer Duck, but has
two bars of white on the wing: the breaft feems more clouded
with brown, and the fpots on it are not of the triangular fhape
as in the Summer Duck, but rounded. However, to fay the
truth, fo little difference is there between fome fpecimens of
females of thefe two fpecies, that it requires a thorough acquaintance with them to prevent miftaking the one for the
other.
This inhabits China and Japan, and is a moft fingular and
elegant fpecies, and kept for the fake of its beauty by the inhabitants. I do not find that it is near fo common in China
as many other kinds, or perhaps they politically hold them dear
to the European purchafers : they are frequently expofed to fale at
Canton, in cages, and the common price is from fix to ten dollars per pair: they are not unfrequently brought into England
alive, but want care, as they feem more tender than our fpecies.
Attempts have been made to breed them in this country, but
without fuccefs, though they are familiar enough. In this matter it may not be amifs to hint, that care fhould be taken that
• both fexes are of Chinefe origin; for the female of the Summer ■
Duck of America is fa like that of the Chinefe fpecies, as frequently to be miftaken for it. The bird is known in Japan by
the name of Kimnodfui. The Eng lift in China give it the name
of Mandarin Duck.
 5P
D     U
Anas querquedula, Lin. Syft. i. p.  203. 32.—Faun. Suec. N° 128.—Scop.
Ann. i. N° 7S-—Brun. N° 81.—Mutter,N0 125.—Kram.El.p. 343. 18-
—Frifch. pl. 176.
La Sarcelle, £«/. Orn. vi. p. 427. 31. pl. 39. 1. 2.—Buf. Oif. ix. p. 260?
—Pl. Enl. 946. (male.)
Garganey, Raii Syn. p. 148. 8.—Will. Orn. p. 377. § 7. pl. 74.—Br. Zool,
N° 289. pl. 101,—Ara. Zool. p. 576. O.
Br. Muf   Lev. Muf
'"THIS is fomewhat larger than the Teal: length feventeen
inches: breadth twenty-eight. Bill black: the crown and
hind head are dufky brown : from the eye a white ftreak paffes
to the hind head: on the chin a large black fpot: the cheeks and
upper part of the neck are pale purple, marked with minute oblong lines of white pointing downwards: breaft light brown,
marked with femicircular bars of black : belly white; lower part
of it, and vent, varied with fpecks of a dufky hue : wing coverts
grey; but the loweft are tipped with white : the firft quills are
afh-coloured; the exterior webs of thofe in the middle grey :
fcapulars long and narrow, and elegantly ftriped with afh-colour,
white, and black: tail dufky: legs lead-colour. This fex is furnifhed with a labyrinth.
The female has an obfeure white mark over the eye; the reft
ofthe plumage of a brownifh afh-colour, not unlike that of a hen
Teal; but the wing wants the green fpots, which fufficiently dif-
tinguifhes thefe birds.
This fpecies is found in England in the winter feafon, as well
as feen at that time in France -, departs from the laft in April:
migrates to the north as fummer comes on, in order to breed.
7 Noticed
 U
K.
Noticed in Europe as far as Sweden ; and is common throughout
Ruffia and Sibiria, as far as Kamtfchatka, at which laft place it is
very frequent.
Anas crecca, Lin. Syft. i. p. 204. 33.—Faun. Suec. N° 129.—Brun. N° 82. 83.
—Mutter, N° 126.—Kram. El. p. 343. ig.—Frifcb. pl. 174.—Georgi
Reife, N° 166.
La petite Sarcelle, Brif. Orn.vi. p. 436. 32. pl. 40. i.—Buf. Oif. ix. p, 26 c.
pi. 17. iS.—Pl. Enl. 947.
Common Teal, Raii Syn. p. 147. A. 6.—Will. Om. -p. 377. § 6. pi. 74.—
Albin, i. pl. 100.—Br. Zool. ii. N° 290.—Ara. Zool. p. 577. P.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE fmall: length fourteen inches: weight twelve ounces.
Bill black: irides pale hazel: head and neck reddifh bay :
fides of the head, behind the eye, green, paffing backwards to the
nape ; bounded on the under part with a white line : the lower
part ofthe neck behind, the beginning of the back, fcapulars,
and fides ofthe body, white, marked with tranfverfe fine black
lines : fore part of the neck and breaft dufky white, marked with
roundifh black fpots: belly white: middle of the vent black :•'
wing coverts brown : quills dufky: fpeculum green, bounded
obliquely above with black, and edged with white: tail cuneiform,
brown, edged with white: legs brown. At the entrance of the
lungs is a labyrinth..
The female has the head and neck dufky white and brown*
mixed: the lower part of the neck, and fides over the wing,
ikown,. edged with dufky white: wings as in the male: belly
white : vent the fame, not black.
We frequently fee the Teal in our markets along with the
Wild
- COMMON
TEAL-
 S5*
D     U
K.
■WildDucks, in winter; but whether it breeds here, like them, has
efeaped our notice. In France it flays throughout the year, and
makes a neft in April among the rufhes, on the edges of ponds;
it is compofed of the tendereft flalks of them, with the addition
of the pith, and a quantity of feathers. The neft is of a large
fize, and placed in the water, fo as to rife and fall with it. The
eggs are the fize of thofe of a Pigeon, of a dirty white, marked
with fmall hazel fpots *. Is faid to feed on the grafs and weeds
which grow on the edges of the-ponds which It frequents, as well
as the feeds ofthe rufhes -, it will alfo eat fmall fifh f. The flefh
is accounted excellent. It is found to the north as high as Iceland; and is mentioned as inhabiting the Cafipian Sea to the ftouth.
We make no doubt that it alfo extends to China, as we have feen
a figure of it among fome fine drawings of the birds of that
part ofthe world.
Anas circia, Lin. Syft.  i. p.  204.  34.—Faun. Suec.  130.—Scop. Ann. i.
N° 76.—Brun. Orn. N° 83.
La Sarcelle d'Ete, Brif Orn. vi. p. 445. 33,—Buf. Oif. ix. p. 268.
Summer Teal, Raii Syn. p. 148. 7.—-Will. Orn. p. 378. pl. 76.—-Albin, ii.
pl. 103. 104.
^pHlS is faid to be fmaller than the Common Teal: length thirteen inches and a half. Bill dufky: the upper parts, from the
forehead to rump, greyifh brown, margined with white on the
back : over each eye a white ftreak : cheeks and throat chefnut:
fore part of the neck rufous, margined with brown : under parts
* The Garganey and Teal are both faid to lay fix or feven eggs, in a hole hollowed out by the bird.—Dec. Ruff. i. p. 102.
t Hift. des Oif.
 u
K.
553
■ofthe body rufous" white, fpotted with black on the belly: fcapulars like the back ; the larger ones white down the middle :
wing coverts cinereous : acrofs the wing a white ftreak: quills
brown: the fpeculum green, edged with black, bounded below
with white: tail brown: legs blueifh.
The female is lefs. The upper parts cinereous brown : the
back edged with rufous : cheeks, throat, and under parts, rufous
white : a white line over the eyes, as in the male: fcapulars and
wing coverts grey brown, edged with rufous: the reft of the
wing much as in the male-, but no black in the fpeculum.
This, though fo fully defcribed, is by many efteemed a doubtful fpecies; and with great probability fuppofed the female of the
common Teal. We think it however worth while to preferve the
ufual fynonyms ofthe bird in queftion, as fome guide to the refearches of future fyftematifts. Among others, Buffon is dubious
of its being a diftinct fpecies; yet gives a formal account of its
remaining throughout the fummer, and breeding in France ; and
tells us that this bird comes there the beginning of March, when
they diftribute themfelves on the coaft. About April they get
together a quantity of rufhes and grafs, and make a covered neft,
the opening for the moft part to the fouth; in this they lay from
ten to fourteen eggs, of a dirty white, and as big as thofe of a
Pullet; and fit from twenty to twenty-three days. This author
obferves likewife, that the male lofes the plumage of diftinction
after the time of incubation is over, becoming fo like the female
as not to be diftinguifhed from her, but regains it after January.
He adds alfo, that this bird cannot bear the cold, and does not
frequent the northern countries *.
Vol. III.
' Hift. des Oif.
B
 554
D     U
K.
AMERICAN T.
Description.
Female.
Place.
American Teal, Ara. Zool, N" 504.—Phil. Tranf. Lxii. p. 419.—Brun. N" 130.
Lev. Muf.
rTs HE head and upper part ofthe neck are of a fine deep bay 1
from each eye to the hind head a changeable broad green bar :
beneath the eye a faint white line: fore part of the neck and breaft
fpotted with black : over each fhoulder a lunated white bar:
back waved black and white, inclining to brown on the rump :
wing coverts brown : fpeculum green : legs dufky.
The female reddifh cinereous brown, fpotted with black: the
wings like thofe of the male.
This is found in America, from Carolina to Hudfon's Bay 1
breeds in the laft : has from five to feven young at a time
Found in the woods, about fmall ponds of water. Retires fouth
in autumn. Mr. Pennant feems to think this very like, if not
the fame with the Summer Teal of Willughby.
ST. DOMINGO
Anas Dominica, Lin. Syft. i. p. 201. 22.
La Sarcelle de St. Domingue, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 472. 42. pl. 41. fig. 2.
 rouffe a longue queue, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 283.
j de la Gouadaloupe, Pl. Enl. 968.
Chilcanauhtli, Raii Syn. p. 177.—Colcanauhtli, id. p. 176. (female) ?
rpHIS is a fmall fpecies, being under twelve inches in length.
The bill is fcarce an inch and a half long; colour black:
the fore part of the head and throat are foot-colour; hind part
and neck rufous: back, fcapulars, rump, upper tail coverts, and
fides, the fame; the middle of the feathers blackifh : breaft and
belly
 DUC
K.
. belly grey brown, mixed with white : lower belly, thighs; and
under tail coverts, pale rufous, mixed with grey brown: the
wing coverts of this laft colour, mixed with white; and fome of
the greater ones wholly white : quills brown ; fix of the middle
ones white half way from the bafe, or in fome to two-thirds of
their length, forming a fpot of the fame on the wing: tail
dufky, cuneiform, the feathers pointed at the ends ; fhafts black:
legs brown.
Inhabits 6V. Domingo and Guadeloupe.
sss
La Sarcelle a queue epineufe, Buf. Oif ix. p. 282.—Pl. Enl. 967.
T ENGTH eleven or twelve inches. Bill blue: top ofthe
head black : through the eye a ftreak of black; beneath it
a fecond of the fame; between thefe white: general colour of
the reft of the plumage dufky brown, with a mixture of darker
brown ; paler beneath; the chin paleft: wings like the reft of the
body, mixed with a fmall portion of white on the outer coverts :
tail as the wings, fhort; but each feather has the end unwebbed,
being prolonged into a fharp point: legs yellowifh flefh-colour.
Inhabits Cayenne and Guiana.
SPINOUS-TAIL-
ED T.
Description.
La Sarcelle d'Egypte, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 273.—Pl. Enl. 1000.
A TRIFLE larger than the Garganey, and the bill longer and
bigger: length fixteen inches. The head, neck, breaft, and
belly, deep rufous brown, but bright: on the lower part of the
breaft a patch of white: the reft of the plumage black above :
acrofs the wing a bar of white.
4 B 2 The
AFRICAN T.
Description..
 Ss$ D     U     C     K.
Female. The female is nearly coloured as the male, but the colours lefs
diftinct, and duller: the white on the breaft waved with brown.
Place* Inhabits Egypt.
MADAGASCAR
La Sarcelle male de Madagafcar, Buf. Oif. ix. r.
74.-
. 770.
QI Z E of the Teal: length about twelve inches. Bill an inch
long, yellow ; tip black: irides yellow : top of the head as
far as the crown, fore parts of the head, and neck, white, paffing
on the fides behind the eyes, and ending there in a point; but
part of the head and neck dark dufky greenifh black : on the
middle 6f this, below the ears, an oval patch of paler green :
lower part of the neck and breaft pale ruft-colour, undulated
with dufky lines, and paffing behind in a collar : upper part of
the body, wings, and tail, very dark green : fides clouded with
ferruginous: middle of belly and vent white: quills dufky : on
the wings a ftreak of white : legs dufky.
Inhabits Madagafcar.
COROMANDEL
La Sarcelle de Coromandel, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 274.—Pl. Enl. 949, 950.
'T1 HIS fpecies is lefs by one fourth than the Garganey. Bill
dufky : top of the head black; the reft of it and the neck
white, fpeckled with dufky black : the lower part of the neck
ftriated acrofs with fine lines of the fame: the upper parts of the
body and wings are brown, with a green and reddifh glofs:
breaft and belly white: fides of the vent inclining to ferruginous : legs black.
The
 D     U
K.
The female differs in having the white on the under parts        Femali.
mixed with grey; and the lines on the lower part of the neck
broader, and lefs diftinct: and in general the whole plumage
is lefs beautiful than the male.
Inhabits the coaft of CoromandeL Place.
La Sarcelle de ITfle de Lucon, Son. Voy. p. 91, t. 54.
T ESS than the Teal. Bill black : the upper part and fides of
the head and throat white: neck, breaft, and wing coverts,
reddifh brown: back covered with yellow feathers, margined
with black ; thofe ofthe belly white, with black-margins: quills
"and tail flate black : legs blackifh.
Inhabits the ifland of Manilla.
MANILLA T.
Description.
Anas fbrmofa, Georgi Reife, i. p. 1&8.
CIZE of a Teal: length fifteen inches: weight eighteen
ounces. The bill is black: crown of the head the fame,
bordered on each fide, with white: from the eye to the throat,
on each fide, is a curved ftreak of black, bounded on the back
part by a pale one, and afterwards by one of green : the nape of
the neck, and fides, undulated : throat pale rufous, dotted with
black: the back is brown: baftard wing ftriped with ferruginous,
white, and black; the outer edge of it undulated : fpeculum
black, on the fore part obliquely marked with gloffy green, and
edged with teftaceous: vent black, fpotted on each fide with
ferruginous, and croffed with a white band : tail fomewhat
^ pointed,
 D     U
K.
pointed, brown ; the middle feathers whitifh : legs of a dull red :
claws grey.
Inhabits Ruffia, about the Lake Baikal. We believe it likewife
extends to China, as we have feen one greatly fimilar from thence.
In this laft the fides of the head were yellowifh buff-colour: behind the eye green : crown black : the curved ftreak from the
eye to the throat, furrounds the firft: in other things much the
fame as the above-defcribed.
Anas (Chinenfis) regione oculorum (Maris) viridi, Ofb. Voy. ii. p. 33.
CIZE not mentioned. The bill is blackifh grey, and foft: the
head and chin brown : a white line paffes below the eyes : all
above the eyes green : the neck and upper part of the back
white, fpotted with black : lower part of the back, and rump,
afh-colour: upper part ofthe neck white, fpotted with black:
breaft and belly white, fpotted with black backwards : the feathers of the rump edged with white : feet and legs afh-coloured.
The female has the head and all about the eyes of a whitifh
grey: chin white, above black, and in fome parts of a reddifh
white ; beneath white, fpotted with black.
This inhabits China, where it is called Hina-a. The above
imperfect defcription fcarcely will characterize the fpecies, whether or not it is like the former, though we much fufpect it.
He mentions another, met with at Canton, called Konga-o-, but not
having feen the bird, fays no more about it.
 C   559   3
Genus  XCIII.    P I N G U I N.
I.
Crefted P.
Var. B.
1.
Patagonian P.
N
'6.
Magellanic P.
3-
Papuan P.
7-
Collared P.
4-
Antarctic P.
8.
Red-footed P.
5-
Cape P.
Var. A.
9*
Little P.
BILL ftrong, flrait, more or lefs bending towards the point,,
furrowed on the fides.
Noftrils linear, placed in the furrows.
Tongue covered with ftrong fpines, pointing backwards.
Wings fmall, more like fins, covered with no longer feathers
than the reft of the body, ufelefs in flight.
Body cloathed with thick fhort feathers, having broad fhafts,
and placed as compactly as feales.
Legs fhort and thick, placed very near the vent. S"*i. «t„<
Toes four, all placed forwards; the interior loofe, the reft
webbed.
Tail very ft iff, confifting of broad fhafts fcarcely webbed.
This genus of birds feems to hold the fame place in the
fouthern parts of the world as the Awks do in the northern, and
are by no means to be confounded the one with the other, however authors may differ in opinion in refpect to this matter. The
Pinguin is feen only in the temperate and frigid zones, on that
fide of the equator which it frequents; and the fame is obferved
of
 $6q P   I   N   G   U   I   N.
of the Awk in the oppofite latitudes; and neither of the genera
has yet been obferved within the tropics*. The Awk has true
wings arid quills, though fmall; the Pinguin mere fins only, inftead of wings. This laft has four toes on each foot; but the
former only three. The Pinguin, while fwimming, finks quite
above the breaft, the head and neck only appearing out ofthe
water, rowing itfelf along with its finny wings, as with oars;
while the Awk, in common with moft other birds, fwims on the
furface. Several other circumftances peculiar to each might
be mentioned; but we truft that the above will prove fully fuf-
ficient to character'ife this genus.
The bodies of the Pinguin tribe are commonly fo well and
clofely covered with feathers that no wet can penetrate; and as
they are in general exceffively fat, thefe circumftances united fe-
cure them from cold. They have often been found above feven
hundred leagues from land; and frequently on the mountains
of ice, on which they feem to afcend without difficulty, as the
foles of their feet are very rough and faited to the purpofe f.
* Saw one for the firft time in lat. 48. S.—Forft. Voy. \. p. 92. Not met with
nearer than 40 deg. S,—Id.-—Iutrod, Difc, on Pinguins, Commentat. Gott. vol. iii.
t Id,—Ib.
Aptenodytes/
 P   I   N   G   XL I   N.
561
Aptenodytes chryfocome, Comment at. Gott. iii. p. 135. pl. 1.
Le Manchot fauteur, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 409.
 — huppe de Siberie, Pl. Enl. 984.
Hopping Penguin, Boug. Voy. p. 64, 65.—Phil. Tranf, lxyi. p. x.
Br. Muf.
*"p HIS beautiful fpecies meafures twenty-three inches in
length. The bill is three inches long; the colour of it red,
with a dark furrow running along on each fide to the tip; the
upper mandible is curved at the end, the under obtufe: irides
of a dull red: the head, neck, back, and fides, are black : over
each eye a ftripe of pale yellow feathers, which lengthens into
a creft behind, of near four inches in length; the feathers on
each fide of the head, above this ftripe, are longer than the
reft, and ftand upward, while thofe of the creft are decumbent,
but can be erected on each fide at will *: the wings, or rather
fins, are black on the outfide, edged with white; on the infide
' white: the breaft, and all the under parts, white: the legs are
orange: claws dufky.
The female has a ftreak of pale yellow over the eye, but it is
not prolonged into a creft behind as in the male.
Inhabits Falkland's Iflands, and was likewife met with in Kergue-
Un'sLand, or Ifle of Defolation, as well as at Van Diemen's Land, and
New Holland, particularly in Adventure Bay. Are called Hopping
Pinguins, and Jumping Jacks, from their action of leaping quite out
of the water, on meeting with the leafl obftacle, for three or four
feet at leaft; and indeed, without any feeming caufe, do the fame
Vol. III.
► Cook's laft Voy. i. p. 8?.
4  C
 $62 PINGUIN.
frequently, appearing chiefly to advance by that means. This fpecies feems to have a greater air of livelinefs in its countenance than
others, yet is in fact a very ftupid bird, fo much fo as to fuffer itfelf
to be knocked on the head with a flick, when on land *. When
angered, it erects its creft in a beautiful manner. Thefe birds
make their nefts among thofe of the Pelican tribe, living in tolerable harmony with them; and lay feldom more than one
egg, which is white, and larger than that of a Duck. They
are moftly feen by themfelves, feldom mixing with other Pin-
guins, and often met with in great numbers on the outer fhores,
where they have been bred. Are frequently fo regardlefs as to
fuffer themfelves to be taken by the hand f. The females of
this fpecies lay their eggs in burrows, which they eafily form of
themfelves with their bills, throwing out the dirt with their feet.
In thefe holes the eggs are depofited on the bare earth. The
general time of fitting is in Qblober; but fome of the fpecies,
efpecially in the colder parts, do not fit till December, or even
January,   How long they fit is not known J.
Si
*- Thefe were found difficult to kill, and when provoked, ran at the failors
in flocks, and pecked their legs, and fpoiled their cloaths.— Forft, Voy.
t Cook's laft Voy. i. p. 88.
X Dific-, onPinguins, Commentat. Gott. vol. iii.
Aptenodytes
 PINGUIN.
sh
Aptenodytes palachonka, Comment at. Gott. iii, p. 137. t. 2.
  Miller's Illuftr. pl. 20.
Manchot de la N. Guinee, Son. Voy. p. 179. t. 113.
Le grand Manchot, Buf. Oif. ix. p. 399. pl. 30.
Manchot des Ifles Malouines, Pl. Enl. 975.
Firft Clafs of Penguins, Boug. Voy. p. 64.
Patagonian Penguin, PhiL Tranf. Iviii. p. 91. pl.
66. pl. 14.—Gent. Mag. xxxix. pl. in p. 489.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
PATAGONIAN
P.
$.—Gen. of Birds, p.
n^HIS is the largeft of the genus yet known, being four
feet tltoea inches- in length ; and ftands erect at leafl three
:$eet; the weight forty pounds. The bill is four inches and a
half in length, more flender in proportion than in any of the
fpecies, and bends towards the tip; the colour of it black for two-
thirds of the length, and from thence to the point yellowifh ;
the under mandible orange at the bafe, and black at the tip :
the tongue Is half the length of the bill, and armed on each
fide with: fpifees, turning backward : the irides are hazel :
the head, throat, and hind part of the neck, are of a deep
brown: the back of a deep afh-colour, each feather blueifh at
the tip: the under parts are pure white : on each fide the head,
beginning under the eye, and behind it, is a broad ftripe of fine
yellow; this advances forward as it proceeds down the neck,
where it grows narrower and paler, and at laft blends itfelf Wrrfi
the white on the breaft; this appearance however is only when
the neck is ftretched, for the ftate in which the bird ufually carries
. itfelf is with the head rather crouched in between the fhoulders,
when the yellow appears incircling the neck as a necklace: the
4 C 2 wings
 L
50*4 PINGUIN,
wings are formed much as in the others, but feem longer in
proportion : the legs fcaly and black.
Some of thefe are much paler in plumage, and the yellow lefs
vivid than in others, which are perhaps the females, if not the
young birds.
Place and This fpecies was firft met with in Falkland Iflands, and has
Manners. alfo been feen in Kerguelen's. Land, New Georgia, and New
Guinea *. M, Bougainville caught one, which foon became fo
tame as to follow and know the perfon who had care of it: it
fed on flefh, fifh, and bread, but after a time grew lean, pined
away, and died. The chief food, when at large, is thought to
be fifh ; the remains of which, as well as crabs, Jhell-fifih, and
mollufca, were found in the ftomach. This fpecies is the fatteft
ofthe tribe; moft fo in January, when they moult. Suppofed to
lay and fit in October. Are met with in the moft deferred places.
Their flefh is black, though not very unpalatable. This has
been confidered as a folitary fpecies f, but has now and then
been met with in confiderable flocks %. Are found in the
fame places as the Papuan Pinguins, and not unfrequently mixed
with them ; but in general fhew a difpofltion of affociating with
their own fpecies.
* Sonnerat.—Forft. Voy. ii. 214. 528. f Bougainville.
t Cook's laft Voy. i. p. 87.—Pinguins were feen by thoufands in New Tear's
ffland, near Staaten Land, of which more than 500 were had by the fhip's company for food.
Aptenodytes
 PINGUIN.
Aptenodytes papua, Comntentat. Gott. iii. p. 143. t- 3.
Le Manchot papou, Son. Voy. p. 18U t. 115.
Lev. Muf
CIZE fomewhat bigger than the Cape Pinguin: length two
feet and a half. Bill four inches long, colour red ; the upper
mandible fomewhat bent at the tip; the under moderately pointed : irides yellow, or of a pale red: the head, and half the
neck, dufky black, inclining to blue; on each fide the head,
over the eye, a large patch of white, tending backwards to the
hind head, but not furrounding the eye below; acrofs the top of
"the head is a narrow bar of white, uniting the patches on each
fide: the under parts from the neck are alfo white; and the
upper blueifh black : the wings are black above, and at the tips,
the lower edge and infide white: tail cuneiform, the middle feathers feven inches in length: legs red; in fome yellow: webs
dufky : claws black.
This inhabits the Ifle of Papos, or New Guinea; and has alfo
been met with at Falkland Ifles and Kerguelen's Land*. Found
frequently among the laft-defcribed.
Aptenodytes antarftica, Commentat. Gott. iii. p. 141. t. 4.
T ENGTH twenty-five inches: weight eleven pounds and a half.
Bill more than two inches and three quarters in length, and
black; the under mandible fomewhat truncated: irides pale yel-
ANTARCTIC I
* Cook's laft Voy, i. p. 8
 PINGUIN.
Uow : the upper parts of the body are black, the under gloffy
white : beneath the chin a narrow blackifh ftreak, paffing backwards towards the hind head, fomewhat bent about the region of
the ears: wings as in the others; above blue-black; the lower
margin and infide white; tips black: tail cuneiform, the feathers,
or rather briftles, which compofe it, black, and thirty-two in number : legs flefh-coloured : foles of the feet black.
This fpecies inhabits the South Sea, from 48 degrees to the ant-
arblic circle; and is frequently found on the ice mountains and
iflands, on which it afcends: it is a pretty numerous fpecies *.
Our laft voyagers found them in plenty in the ifle of Defiolation.
And it was obferved, that in an ifland they touched at, not greatly diftant, the rocks were almoft covered with Pinguins and
Shags; the firft moft probably of this fort f.
Diomedea demerfa, Lin. Syft. i. p. 214. 2.
Le Manchot, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 97.—Pl. Enl. 382.
Aptenodytes demerfa, Comment at. Gott. iii. p. 144.
Magellanic Goofe of ClufiaftWill. Orn. p. 322 *
Pinguin, Kolb. Cap. ii. p. 144.
Leffer Penguin, Phil. Tranf. Iviii. p. 97.
Black-footed Penguin, Edw. pl. 94.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a large Duck: length twenty-one inches. Bill blackifh, croffed with a tranfverfe yellowifh band near the tip; the
upper mandible is hooked; from the bafe about half way is a
furrow, in which the noftrils are placed; the under mandible is
truncated at the end : the upper parts of the bird, from the head
5 Forft. Voy* i. p. 1
t Ellis, Voy. I p. 6.
 PINGUIN.
to tail, are black: fides of the head and throat dirty grey: breaft,
belly, thighs, and under the tail, white: the finny wings are
black above, white on the lower edge, and white varied with
black beneath : tail fhort and cuneiform: legs furnifhed with
four toes; the inner placed high up, and on the infide of the
foot: the colour of the legs, membranes, and toes, black *.
Le Manchot tachete, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 99. t. 9.
Le Manchot a bee tronque, Buf. Oif ix. p. 411
Black-footed Penguin, Edw. pl. 94.
pl.3i.-«-P/. Enl. 1005..
C IZ E of the laft. Bill the fame: the upper part of the head,
neck, back, and rump, blackifh, each feather dafhed with
deep black down the fhaft, and marked with very fmall whitifh
grey dots on each fide: on each fide ofthe head a ftripe of white,
beginning at the bafe of the bill, paffing over the eyes to the
hind head, and joining with the white on the fides of the neck:
the fides of the head and throat are blackifh brown, marked, like
the back, with fmall dirty white fpecks, but lefs confpicUous:
m the breaft is an arched blackifh brown band, which paffes in a
line on each fide quite to the thighs : the wings, tail, and legs,
as in the laft-defcribed -f.
* Kolben fays, Of a pale green.—Iii a drawing ofthe late Mr. Edwards, now
in my poffeflion, I obferve the legs to be red: we may conclude therefore that
the legs vary much in colour.
t The above is Briffon's defcription: that in Edwards differs in having the
black more inclined to brown, and wanting the whitifh fpots; which alfo is the
cafe in a fpecimen in my own collection.
I,N
IHkv
 P   I   N   G   U
1N the Leverian Mufteum I alfo obferve a further variety. In
this the crown ofthe head, hind part of the neck, and all the
upper parts ofthe body, are black : the under moftly white, except the chin, which is black, and furrounds the eye fomewhat in
the fame manner as in the laft-mentioned; but at fuch a diftance,
and in fo circular a manner, as greatly to give the appearance of
the bird's having a pair of fpectacles* on, efpecially if feen in
front: it has the fame band over the breaft, and paffing down
on each fide to the thighs, as the laft-defcribed.
The two firft-mentioned are fuppofed to be male and female;
and perhaps fuch as vary from thofe defcriptions may prove the
young birds of one or the other fex ?
The above are all found in the neighbourhood of the Cape of
Good Hope; but particularly in Robben or Penguin Ifle, near Sal-
danie Bay f. Like all of the genus, this is an excellent fwimmer
and diver; but hops and flutters in a ftrange awkward manner
on the land, and, if hurried, ftumbles perpetually; and frequently
runs for fome diftance like a quadruped, making ufe ofthe wings'-i
* Compare Pinguin a lunettes, Pernet. Voy. ii. p. 17. t. 7. fig. 3.—Id. Engl.
Tranf. p. 243. t. 15.
+ In abundance in Conye Ifle, fourteen leagues fhort of Saldanie Bay, feeding
tat. fifh at fea, and graft afhore; and have holes to live in like Conies. ** Some
adventure to eat them, but to make a meal I cannot advife, other than as the
- dtftich dire&s.
Tota quidem ponatur Anas, fed pector/; tantum
Et cervice fapit, caetera redde coquo.
Divide the Duck, only the neck and breaft
They favour well, the Cook may take the reft."   Herb. Trav. p. 12.
6 inftead
 PINGUIN.
inftead of legs, till it can recover its upright pofture; crying out
at the fame time like a Goofe, but in a much hoarfer voice. Said
to clamber fome way up the rocks in order to make the neft; in
doing which has been obferved to affift with the bill. The egg*
are two in number, white, as large as thofe of a Duck, and
reckoned delicious eating, at leaft are thought fo at the Cape,
where they are brought in great numbers for that purpofe. At
•this place the birds are often feen kept tame ; but in general they
do not furvive the confinement many months.
569
Aptenodytes Magellanica,   Commentat. Gott. iii. p.   143. t.  5. — Miller's
Illuftr. pl. 34.
CIZE of the Antarctic Pinguin: length from two feet to two
feet fix inches : weight eleven pounds. The bill black, with
-a tranfverfe band acrofs it near the tip; the under mandible obliquely truncated : irides red brown : fides of the head, beneath
the eye, and chin, black : from the bafe of the bill, through and
over the eye, a white ftreak, which furrounds the black on the
fides of the head, and meets under the throat: except the above
markings, the reft of the head and neck are black ; of which colour are the upper parts of the body and wings : the under parts
ofthe laft, and body, from the breaft, white, except a narrow
band of black, which paffes at a little diftance within the white
on the breaft, and downwards on each fide, beneath the wings,
quite to the thighs : the legs are of a reddifh flefh-colour, fpotted
irregularly on the toes : claws black. "
It feems to be greatly allied to the laft-defcribed, and to
differ in external appearance chiefly by having the middle of the
neck black all round.
Vol. III. 4 D This
 570 PINGUIN.
Place and This inhabits the Straits of Magelhaen, Staaten Land, Terra del
Fuego, and Falkland Ifles, and is a very numerous fpecies; often feen
by thoufands, retiring of nights to the higheft parts of the iflands
to pafs the night, The voice not unlike the braying of an Afs.
Is not a timid bird, for it will fcarcely get out of the way of any
one ; but, inftead of it, will frequently attack and bite a perfon by
the legs fo as to fetch blood. Thefe were killed by the failors
of Capt. Cook's fhips by hundreds, with flicks, and were found not
unpalatable as food, though thought to have a mufky tafte: the
way they were liked beft was in a ragout. They often mix with
the Sea Wolves, among the rufhes, burrowing in holes like a Fox.
When they fwim, only the neck and fhoulders appear out of the
water, and they advance with fuch agility, that no fifh feems able
to follow them : if they meet with any obftacle, leap four or
five feet out of the water, and dipping into it again, continue
their route.
This is probably the fpecies that Penrefe alludes to, of which
he fays, the chief curiofity is the laying their eggs; this they do
in collective bodies, reforting in incredible numbers to certain
fpots, which their long refidence has freed from grafs, and to
which were given the name of towns*. " Here," fays he,
(c during the breeding feafon, we were prefented with a fightv
which conveyed a moft dreary, and I may fay awful idea ofthe
defertion of thefe iflands by the human fpecies:—a general ftill-
nefs prevailed in thefe towns j and whenever we took our walks
* He obferves, that they compofed the nefts of mud, a foot in height, and
placed as near one another as may be.—It is poffible that they may have different ways of nefting,v|according to the places they inhabit; or perhaps thfr
manners of this may be blended with thofe of another.
among
 PINGUIN.
among them, in order to provide ourfelves with eggs, we were
regarded indeed with fide-long glances, but we carried no terror with us.
" The eggs are rather larger than thofe of a Goofe, and laid
in pairs. When we took them once, and fometimes twice in a
feafon, they were as often replaced by the birds; but prudence
would not perapit us to plunder too far, left a future fupply in the
next year's brood might be prevented." They lay fome time in
November, driving away the Albatroffes, which have hatched
their young in turn before them. The eggs were thought palatable food, and were preferved good for three or four months.
Aptenodytes t
Le Manchot a
,46.
1. Voy. p.
COLLARED P.
A TRIFLE lefs than the Papuan Pinguin: length eighteen
inches. Bill fafhioned fomewhat like that of the Patagonian
Pinguin, and black: irides black: the eye furrounded with a
hare fkin of a blood-colour, in fhape oval, and three times as
large as the eye itfelf: the head, throat, hind part of the neck,
and fides, back, wings, and tail, black: fore part of the neck,
breaft, belly, and thighs, white, extending round the neck, where
the white begins, like a collar, except that it does not quite
meet at the back part: legs black.
Inhabits New Guinea. Seen alfo by Dr. Forfter near Ker-
guelen's Land; and again on two ifles adjoining to the ifland of
South Georgia.
4 D 2
 57^
PINGUIN.
,   g< Phaeton demerfus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 219.
RED-FOOTED Aptenodytes catarraftes, Commentat. Gott. iii. p. 145.
P- Le Gorfou, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 102.
Red-footed Penguin, Edw. pl. 49.—Phil. Tranf. lviii. p. 98.
Dsscription. CIZE of a Goofe. Bill two inches and a third in length, and
red; both mandibles pointed, and fhe upper one very little
bent: fore part of the head dirty brown; the back part of it,
and all the upper parts of the neck and body, a dirty purple:
all the under parts white *: wings brown, fringed with white:
tail fhort, briftly, and black : legs, toes, and membranes, of a
dirty red : claws brown.
Pla.ce. Inhabits the South Seas.
LITTLE P.
Pl. CIII.
Aptenodytes minor, Commentat. Gott. iii. p. 147.
Small Penguin, Cook's laft Voy. i. p. 151.
Lev. Muf
CIZE of a Teal: length fifteen inches. Bill an inch and a half
long, in fhape much like that of the red-footed; colour
dufky; the under mandible fomewhat truncated, and blue at the
bafe : irides livid: the upper parts of the bird, from head to
tail, appear cinereous blue, the ends ofthe feathers being of that
colour, but the bafe of them is brown black, the fhafts of each
feather black: round the eye, and a little way below on each
fide, is a bed of pale brownifh afh-colour : the under parts, from
chin to vent, white: wings dufky above, and white beneath: tail
• Edwards'% bird was undulated on the under parts.
 ^lM/&,
  PINGUIN.
very fhort, and confifts of fixteen ftiff feathers, but is fcarce
perceivable, except in the feathers appearing a little elongated at
that part: legs dull red : webs dufky : claws black.
This fpecies is found among the rocks on the fouthern parts
of New Zealand, where it is not unfrequent; but in the greateft
plenty at Dufky Bay. They make deep burrows on the fides of
the hills, In which they lay their eggs : thefe holes are fo thick in
fome parts, that a perfon is fcarce able to walk three or four fleps
without falling into one of them up to the knees. The inhabitants of Queen Charlotte's Sound kill the birds with flicks, and,
after fkinning them, efteem the flefh as good food. They are
known at New Zealand by the name of Korbra. Thefe birds
I have found to vary both in fize and colour : fome are much
fmaller than others, quite black above, and meafure only thirteen inches in length : others rather larger, and of a plain lead-
colour on the upper parts, and the wings black; though all are
white, or nearly fo, beneath. The legs in thefe two laft are
marked with black at the ends of the toes; and the claws are
black.
57J
G E H-U--S
 [   574   ]
Genus    XCIV.     P E L I C AN.
N°I
White Pelican.
Var. A. Saw-billed P.
Rofe-coloured P.
Brown P.
Manilla P.
Philippine P.
Red-backed P.
Charles Town P.
Rough-billed P.
Frigate P.
Leffer Fr. P.
White-headed Fr. P.
Palmerfton Fr. P.
Corvorant.
Common Shag.
Crefted Sh.
N° 16. Violet Sh.
19,
Red-faced Sh.
Spotted Sh.
Carunculated Sh.
Magellanic Sh.
21. Pied Sh.
22. Tufted Sh.
23. African Sh.
24. Dwarf Sh.
25. Gannet.
Var. A.
26. Leffer G.
27. Common Booby.
28. Brown B.
29. Leffer B.
30. Spotted B.
THE bill in this genus is long and flrait; the end either
hooked or floping; the noftrils placed in the furrow ihatj.
runs along the fides of the bill-, and in moft of the fpecies not
diftinguifhable.
The face for the moft part deftitute of feathers, being covered
only with a bare fkin *.
• Our eleventh and twelfth fpecies excepted, in which thofe parts are covered.
Gullet
 PELICAN.
Gullet naked, and capable of great diftenfion.
Toes four in number, and all webbed together.
In the genus Pelican are included all birds known hitherto by
the diftinctive names of Pelican, Man of War Bird, Corvorant,
Shag, Gannet, and Booby * ; but as the whole of them have fome
fimilar characters, which are marked fo ftrongly as not to be fepa-
rated, we have thought right to follow the example of Linnaus,
by uniting them ; the propriety of which will be feen by attending
to the fpecific defcriptions.
575
Pelecanus onocrotalns (Orientalis) Lin. Syfi.i. p. 215. 1. a.—Hafiila. Voy. 1.
p. 288.—Nov. Com. Petr. xv. p. 471.   N» 16.—Scop. Ann. i.  N° 97.   GREAT WHITE
—Georgi Reife, p. 169.—Kram. El. p. 345.
Le Pelican, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 519. i.—Buf. Oif. viii. p. 282. pl. 25.—Pl.
Enl. 87.
Baba, Bell. Trav. p. 41.
Pelecane, Raii Syn. p. 121. 1.—Will. Orn. p. 327. pl. 63.
Tubano, Wheeler's Travels, p. 304. pl. in ditto.
The Pelican, Edw. pl. 92.
Great Pelecan, Ara. Zool. N° 505.—Gen. of Birds, p. 67. pl. 15.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf
■HPHIS bird, when of full age, is greatly fuperior in fize to a     Discriptiok.
Swan; it fometimes extends, from the tip of one wing to
that of the other, as far as fifteen feet, and will weigh twenty-five
pounds. The bill is fifteen or fixteen inches long; the upper
mandible flat and broad, furnifhed with a hook at the end; the
fkin between the fides of the upper mandible very flaccid and di-
' See Briftin Orn. Vol, VI. Genera CX, CXI. CXII.
 $76 PELICAN.
latable *, reaching eight or nine inches down the neck ; this is
bare of feathers, and in fome capable of containing many quarts
of water : the gape is very wide f.
On the top of the upper mandible runs a rib of crimfon; the
reft of it is of a pale red at the bafe, and grows yellow towards the
point; the under one is of a pale red, and the pouch red or yellowifh : the tongue very fmall, fcarcely diftinguifhable: the irides
hazel : fides of the head bare of feathers, being covered only with
a flefh-coloured fkin, in which the eyes are placed : the hind
head fomewhat crefted : the plumage wholly white, with a tinge
of flefh-colour, except the baftard wing and prime quills, which
are black : legs lead-colour.: claws grey.
The bill in young birds is wholly yellow.
Place and This fpecies is common in fome of the warmer parts of Europe,
on the continent, but chiefly frequents the torrid zone. In the
Ruffian dominions they are in incredible numbers about the
Cafipian and Blajck Seas, and fometimes proceed a good way up
the rivers which fall into them, coming and going with the Swans,
Geefe, Storks, and other birds; are very fcarce towards the Eaft,
and feldom met with fo far North as the Sibirian lakes, though
now and then feen on that of Baikal; often met with on many
* This is often ufed by the common failors for tobacco-pouches, bringing it into
form merely by putting in a large ftone or cannon-ball, and hanging the bag to
dry in this ftate. We have, however, feen the pouch drefifed, and made into a
lady's work-bag, and elegantly ornamented ; the appearance of it in this ftate is
not unlike a well-dreffed parchment or vellum fkin, but very pliant.
f In one fhewn fome years fince in London, the keeper could eafily put in his
bead; and mention has been made of another, fhewn in France, whofe gape was
ib wide as to admit the legs of a man with boots on.—Salem. Orn. p. 369.
2 of
 PELICAN.
of the coafts of the Mediterranean, and the iflands therein *; are
common in Greece, and faid to build in fome of the rivers which
flow into the Danube f, ftraying fometimes into Switzerland, one
having been fhot at Zurich, but fo rare there as not to be known
by the common people ; are now and then feen in France, one of
them having been killed in the province of Dauphiny, and another
on the river Saone, in that of Lorrain %. I find an account like-
wife of one being fhot in England, at Horftey Fen, in May, 1663,
which meafured three yards from tip to tip of the wing ||; and
Dr. Leith affures me, that a few years fince, in the month of May,
he faw a Pelican fly over his head, near the feat of Sir Gregory
Page, on Blackheath, in Kent; but this was of a brownifh colour,
moft likely our brown fpecies. In Africa thefe are pretty frequent throughout ; coming there in September, and flying in
flocks, forming a wedge fhape with the point foremoft, like wild
Geefe. In Damietta, and other parts of Egypt, not uncommon, as
well as on the coaft of Senegal and parts adjacent, that of Guinea,
and the Gold Coaft, and from thence to the Cape of Good Hope: in
the bays and rivers of the laft, very frequent §, and in many other
parts both of Afia and Africa mentioned by various authors. The
female makes a neft of reedy grafs, in the moffy, turfy places,
chiefly in the iflands of the lakes, remote from man ; it is a foot
and a half in diameter, deeply hollowed, and filled within with
577
* In the ifland of Majorca. f Hift. des Of. t Id.
|| See MS. in Br. Muf. Nu 1830, 16 E. in a memoir by T. Brown, of Norwich.—A quere is here put, whether it might not be one of the King's Pelicans,
kept at St. James's, which had been loft about the fame time.
§ In Sea-Cow river, in December, Phil. Tranf. vol. Lxvi. p. 291; and by hundreds in Verloore valley, Id. p. 309,
Vol. III.
4E
foft
 578 PELICAN.
foft grafs. It lays two or more white eggs, much like thofe of
the Swan, and fits about the fame length of time. If, by chance,
any perfon difturbs the bird while fitting, fhe takes the eggs -
out of the neft with the bill, and drops them into the water, returning them to their place as foon as the enemy is out of
fight*.
The chief food of the Pelican is fifh, which, when fingle, it
chiefly takes by diving: is frequently obferved hovering over the
water-, and, as foon as it fees a fifh beneath, dives in an inftant,
and feldom mi fifes its aim, the enormous gape of the bill giving
it a greater chance of fecuring its prey. After it has by this
means filled the pouch with as great a load as it can carry, it flies
off to fome convenient point of a rock, and fwallows the fifh at
leifure. When numbers of thefe are together, they have another
method of fifhing, and efpecially when in company with the Corvorant : thefe two fpread into a large circle, at fome diftance from
land; the Pelicans flap with their extenfive wings above, on the .
furface, while the Corvorants dive beneath; hence the fijh contained within the circle are driven forward toward the land, and,
as the circle leffens by the birds coming clofer together, the fifh at
laft are driven into a fmall compafs, when their purfuers find no-
difficulty of filling their bellies. In this they are attended by the
large Black-cap, and fometimes other Gulls, who likewife come in
for a fhare. This bird is alfo obferved to make a neft in the
defiarts, very far from any water; but for what reafon, Providence
alone can fuggeft, as the bird's only fupply of faftenance muft arife
from that element: hence it muft bring water to fupply the young,
■ Bee. Ruff, i
p, 142
by
 •P    ER
A   N.
"579
by filling the pouch with it. It is faid that the Camels and other
beafts take the advantage of quenching their thirft, by retorting
to their nefts, and, as if grateful for the fupply, never do the leaft
injury to the young *. This is faid fometimes to be ufed for
domeftic fijhing, in the fame manner as the Corvorant by the
Chinefe f. I do not find the Pelican much commended for food ;
though we are told that it affords better meat than the Booby, or
Man of War Blrd%.
Le Pelican a bee dentele, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 523. A.—Buf. Oif. viii. p. 309.
'THIS differs from the great white Pelican in nothing, except
the having the bill toothed, and of a faffron-colour: the     De
legs are alfo of the fame colour, inclining to red.
Inhabits Mexico.
SAW-BILLED P.
Le Pelican rofe de l'Ifle de Lucon, Son, Voy. p. 01. t. 54. 2.      	
* J v  * ROSE-COLOUR-
CIZE of a tame Goofe.    Bill black: round the eyes bare and ED   •
yellow : pouch the fame : the plumage wholly of a rofe-colour : legs black.
Inhabits the ifland of Manilla. Place.
* Ofteck Voy.—-The Pelican has been remarked for peculiar tendernefs to its
young, in feeding them with the blood from the hreaft ; but this has arifen from
feeing one of thefe empty the red water bag, which it does by preffing it on the
breaft, and a perfon ignorant of the matter might eafily be miftaken.
t Hift. des Oif. viii. p. 285.
X Dampier's Voy. Part II. p. 7i.*-Forbidden to be eaten by the Jews, as well
as the Corvorant.   Levitic. xi. 17, 18.
4 E a
Pelecanus
 580
PELICAN.
Pelecanus onocrotalus  (occidentalis), Lin. Syft. i. p. 215. 1. fl.—Georgi
Reife, p. 169.
Le Pelican brun, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 524. 2.—Buf. Oif. viii. p. 306.—Pl. Enl.
N°9S7-
The Pelecane, Raii Syn.   p. 191.   3.—Witt.  Om. p.  327.—Sloan. Jam.
p. 322. 1.—Brown Jam. p. 480.
Pelican of America, Edw. pl. 93.—Ellis Hudf. Bay, i. pl. 1.—Ara. Z00L
.   N° 506.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
HPHIS rather exceeds a Goofe in fize : length nearly four feet.
The bill is fhaped as in other Pelicans, length fifteen inches
and a quarter; at the bafe it is greenifh, but inclines to blue
mixed with a little red near the end: the pouch is of a blueifh afh-
colour, ftreaked with reddifh lines: irides deep- blueifh afh-colour : the bare fkin round the eyes whitifh : the head and neck are
white; the firft a little crefted at the back part: back, fcapulars,
and rump, cinereous brown, the middle of each feather whitifh :
the breaft and under parts like the upper, but plain : the upper
wing coverts like the back; but fome of the outer greater ones
are plain brown : the fhape of moft .of the above feathers is
pointed, narrow, and long: prime quills black; the fecondaries
hoary brown: tail the fame, and confifts of eighteen feathers :
legs lead-colour : claws black.
I apprehend this to be the bird called a Gull in the Hiftory of
California *, and found in vaft numbers in that place, the Ifle ofAfi-
fumption, and San Roche. It is faid to equal a very large Goofe in
fize, and to have a vaft craw, which in fome hangs down like the
1 Vol. i
 PELICAN.
Peruvian leather water bottles *. It is ufual for thefe to bring food
to any wounded or fick companion ; hence the natives take the
advantage of confining one of them near the fhore, by which means
they procure a difh of ftjh without the trouble of catching it.
The
581
By the Peruvian leather bottle is perhaps meant that made of the elaftic re-
fin, or caoutchouc, commonly known by the name of India rubber. This is produced from the juice of the jyringe-tree of Cayenne, and other parts of South America : it hardens by cold, foftens to a great degree by heat, and is wonderfully elaftic. It is faid to be made thus:—The juice of the tree is obtained by
incifion; it is then fpread over pieces of clay, formed into the defired fhape, and,
as faft as one layer is dry another is added, till the bottle be of the proper thick-
nefs : the whole is then held over a ftrong fmoke of vegetables on fire, whereby
it hardens into the texture and appearance of leather, and before the finifhing,
while yet foft, is capable of having any impreflion made on the outfide, which
remains ever after: when the whole is done, the infide mould is picked out *.—
The ufe ofthe above, as a containing veffel, is no doubt not of very recent date,
being related, as a thing commonly known, in the Hiftory of California above-
mentioned -f*. I remember myfelf to have feen, more than thirty years fince, a
fmaller one of thefe bottles, fhewn to me as a curiofity.—As to the ufe of this
fubftance for deftroying the marks of the black-lead pencil, it is probably of no
long Handing; the firft we remember of it was about the year 1771 or 1772,
when fquare portions, fomewhat above half an inch in diameter, were fold m
fmall boxes for the laft-named purpofe, of which I purchafed one at that time, to
my great fatisfadtion.—As to the plant which produces this ufeful matter, we are
not clear to v/hat genus it belongs : Aublet, in his Hiftoire des Plantes de la Guiane J,
defcribes the tree, the fruit, and manner of collecting the juice, but never faw
the flower : he calls it Hevea Guianenfis. Linntsus (the fon) in his Supplementum
Plantarum, names it Jatropha elaftic a §; but confeffes that he only gives it this
name from the ftru&ure of the fruit, having moft refemblance to that genus *. hi*
* Fir. Med. RevU',
•{■ Firft published ij
nalyfis of the lubftan
§ P. 4«.
 P   E
C   A   N.
The Brown Pelican is very common in many parts of the coafts
of America; and no where more fo than in the Weft India Iflands,
Jamaica, Barbadoes, &c. Alfo in great plenty in the Bay of
Campeachy, and as low as Carthagena. In fummer found as far
north as Hudfon's Bay. When fifhing in the water is fufficiently
active ; but having filled the pouch, and retired to the rocks to
fill its belly, is obferved to be to a degree ftupid and fenfelefs,
remaining without motion for hours together, with the bill refting
on the breaft, half afleep; when it is no uncommon thing for a
perfon to Ileal upon one unawares, and feize it by the neck
without refiftance.
Whether this, or any other of the brown Pelicans, be merely the
young of the white, is not for us to determine : many authors aver
it, while others are doubtful or filent on the fubject. That the brown
ones are fmaller than the white is true; and that likewife fame
are feen of mixed colours, feeming to prove the change from one
colour to the other; and Sonnerat even goes farther, by fuppofing
that the white ones become rofe-coloured, when arrived at old age.
But however this matter may turn out, nothing but a long feries
of obfervations, made during a number of years, will determine
the point, it being a long-lived bird: on this account we fhall not
dry fpecimen wanting alfo thefiowers
felled by the above juice, we find it i
that the juices of feveral other trees
birdlime, the natives are enabled I
large birds.
* Cecropia Peltata—Ficus Indica & religiola.-
vol. ii, p, 671, of this work.
—As to the vifcid and elaftic quality pof-
it peculiar to that alone, fince we learn
I poffefs the fame, and whereby, ufed as
entangle and fecure Peacocks and other
—See Phil, Trenf. vol. bcxi, p. 376. and
hefitate
 P   E   L   I    C   A   -N.
hefitate to continue here as fpecies, thofe mentioned as fuch by
former authors, till new and fafficient lights fhall have enabled
future writers to unite them with confidence.
583
Le Pelican brun de PIfle de Lucon, Son. Voy. p. 91. t. 53.
*T< H IS is exactly like the rofe-coloured Pelican, except in the
plumage being wholly of a brown-colour.
Inhabits Manilla with the above-mentioned. Mr. Sonnerat
fufpects both thefe to be the fame, but the one here defcribed not
yet come to full age, as is the cafe in the Flamingo, Scarlet Ibis,
arid fome others. Both thefe make the neft on the ground, and
feem very unwieldy while on land; yet at times fly very high.
Their flefh is rank and bad.
MANILLA P.
Description.
Le Pelican des Philippines, Brif Orn. vi. p. 527. 3. pl. 46.
rT% HIS is nearly four feet and a quarter in length. The bill
fourteen inches long, the colour reddifh white, with a few
fpots of brown on the fides of the upper mandible : the bare fpace
round the eyes of the colour of the bill: the pouch very pale :
the head and neck are whitifh : from the hind head to the back
is a ftripe of feathers fomewhat longer than the reft, mixed white
and brown ; thofe of the hind head ftill longer, fo as to form a
creft; the feathers of all thefe parts very foft and filky : the upper part of the back and. feapulars cinereous grey r the lower
part of the neck, the breaft, and under parts, the lower part
of the  back,, and rump,  white:   the wing coverts  cinereous
PHILIPPINE P.
 584 P   E   L   I    C   A   N.
grey, with the fhafts and margins white ; the outer greater ones, .
and baftard wingi darker, almoft black : quills dufky black; the
bafe of many of the fecondaries white : tail compofed of eighteen
feathers, colour greyifh white ; all but the two middle ones white
on the inner webs at the bafe; fhafts black : legs red.
Place. This inhabits the Philippine Iflands, and is probably the bird
known there by the name of Alcatraz *. The natives fay that
the fkin of the breaft, dreffed with the feathers on, has a fweet
fmell; and, being worn on the ftomach of any one afflicted
with the afthma, proves a remedy for the fame.
Bill thirteen inches
long, formed as in other Pelicans, and of a pale dirty yellow :
fpace round the eyes, and pouch, the fame; the laft reaches eight
inches down the neck : the hind head is crefted, fome ofthe feathers four inches in length : the head and neck dirty brownifh
white: the back of a fine pale reddifh cinnamon-colour: the
wing coverts like the neck, but darker: fcapulars pale greyifh
lead-colour: leffer quills not unlike the wing coverts, but the
ends dark grey and the fhafts black: prime quills black : tail of
a deep grey, the fhafts white at the bafe, and black towards the
ends: the belly, thighs, under wing coverts, and vent, like the
back, but much paler : the feathers of the breaft, wing coverts,
and lower part of the neck, are long, narrow, and pointed, efpecially thofe of the breaft: the legs are yellow.
This bird .was fent to me by Mr. Lewis, navy furgeon, who
informed me that he had it alive from the governor of one of
* Phil. Tranf vol. xxiii. p. 1394, N° 40.
 PELICAN. 5&£
our forts on the Gold Coaft, where it had been kept tame for s.
long time, rand was reckoned a fcarce bird, by reafon of being
crefted. Like others of its race, it was very voracious: an experiment was tried how many ftjh it could take into the bill, and
numbers of different fizes were laid before the bird on the ground :
it firft attempted to take up one of ten pounds, but the bill
would by no means raife it from the ground ; it then picked up
as far as ten of the others, each weighing a pound, and flowed
them carefully in the bag, arranging them along-fide each other,
with the heads towards the throat; and after this trudged off
very ftately, with the bag hanging down to his feet. The pouch
held about two gallons of water.
Charles-Town Pelican, Ara. Zool. N° 507. 7-
CHARLES-
TOWN P.
CIZ E of a Canada Goofie.   Colour of the plumage dufky above ;
white on the breaft and belly j with a pouch capable of holding numbers of gallons of liquids*.
Thefe abound in the bay of Charles-Town, in America, where Placi.
they are continually fifhing.
'"pWO fpecimens of birds fimilar to the above, if not the fame,
' are in the Hunterian Mufieum. The fize correfponds: the
length four feet. Bill thirteen inches long, and differs from
many in having that part of the upper mandible which is next
the bafe almoft cylindrical, and not flat, though fpreading out
confiderably near the end :  the plumage brown above: head,
. Zool,
4-F
neck.
 PELICAN.
neck, and under parts, brownifh white: the lower half of the
back, in one fpecimen, ftriped black and dufky white; the feathers narrow, and edged with the laft colour: in the other, the
back of a plain colour : the bag in both of an enormous fize,
taking up the greateft part ofthe neck before: at the hind part
of it, the whole length, the feathers much longer than the reft;
though the nape of the neck, or back part of the head, were not
at all crefted.
Thefe laft. were brought from Cayenne.
-f-ROUGH-B:
ED P.
DiscRir-Tio
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
CIZE between a Goofte and a Swan : length four feet fix inches.
Bill thirteen inches, fhaped as in other Pelicans, with the addition of fome fingular protuberances on the top ofthe upper
mandible; from the bafe of which, for above feven inches, the furface is plain, as in other Pelicans *, at this part an elevated ridge
begins, of about an inch and a half in height, and one-third of an
inch in thicknefs ; this continues about an inch and a half on the
bill, and then other fmaller ones take rife, of differeus-fkes, and
continue growing fmaller in an abrupt manner to the end of
the bill; the colour of the bill and ridge is reddifh yellow, here
and there inclining more to red : the under mandible and pouch
as in other fpecies; but on each fide, about the middle ofthe
firft, is a black fpot the fize of a fiver penny, and the bag
is ftreaked with fine lines of black, which are pretty numerous
on the fore part of it, moft fo next the end of the bill: the plumage of the bird is wholly of a pure white, except the greater
quills, which are black: at the hind head the feathers are greatly
elongated,
 PELICAN.
elongated, forming a creft of four inches and a half in length :
the legs are black.
This fpecies (for we efteem it as diftinct) is found in fome parts
of America. We have only feen three fpecimens, two of which
were brought from Hudfon's Bay, and the third from New Tork ;
but Mr. Pennant mentions its having been alfo fent from
South Carolina. The moft perfect fpecimen is in the Leverian
Mufeum : that in mine has the elevated part of the bill injured
in many places, but fafficient to fhew the original ftate. A third,
in the Britifh Mufeum, has the ridged part reduced to a mere
fibrous tuft, the reft having been beaten off: hence we may conclude, that nature has intended this additional ridge for defence;
and, as it is compofed of full as hard a texture as the reft of the
bill, nothing but repeated and violent blows could have been able
to produce the breaches made in my fpecimen, and efpecially the
total deftruction of fhape feen in that of the Britifh Mufeum.
587
Pelecanus aquilus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 216. 2.
La Fregate, Brif. Om. vi. p. 506. 6. pi. 43. fig.  2. A.—Buf. Oif. viii.
p. 381.—Fernet. Voy. i. p. 125.—Hift. Louif ii. p. 118.
La grande Fregate de Cayenne, Pl. Enl. 961.
Fregata Avis, Raii Syn. p. 153.
Rabihorcado, Raii Syn. p. 192.  15.—Will. Orn. p. 395. pl. 77,—Ulloa's
Voy. ii. p. 304.
Man of War Bird, Brown Jam. p. 483.—.Damp. Voy. i. p. 49. pl. in vol. iii.
part 2. p. 99.
Frigate Bird, Albin, iii. pl. 80.—Gen. Birds, p. 67. pl. 16.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE, in the body, of a large Fowl: length three feet: breadth
fourteen.  The bill is flender, five inches long, and much curved
4 F 2 at
 588
Place a
Mankei
PELICAN.
at the point; colour dufky; from the bafe a reddifh dark-coloured fkin fpreads on each fide of the head, taking in the eyes : from
the under mandible hangs a large membranaceous bag attached
fome way down the throat, as in the Pelican, and applied to the
fame ufes; the colour of this a fine deep red, fprinkled on the
fides with a few feattered feathers: the whole plumage is brownifh black, except the wing coverts, which have a rufous tinge:
the tail is long, and much forked; the outer feathers eighteen
inches or more in length; the middle ones from feven to eight:
the legs are fmall, all the toes webbed together, and the webs
deeply indented; the colour of them dufky red.
The female differs in wanting the membranaceous pouch under
the chin; and in having the belly white: in other things is
greatly like the male.
The Frigate Pelican, or Man of War Bird*, as it is by fome
called, is chiefly, if not wholly, met with between the tropics, and
ever out at fea, being only feen on the wing. It is ufual with other
birds, when fatigued with flying, to reft themfelves on the furface
of the water ; but nature, from the exceeding length of wing
ordained to this, has made the rifing therefrom utterly impof-
fible, at leafl writers not only fo inform us, but every one whom
we have talked with avers the fame; though perhaps this is no
defect of nature, as it fcarcely feems to require much reft; at leaft,
from the length of wing, and its apparent eafy gliding motion (much like that ofthe Kite) it appears capable of fuftaining
* It is alfo called Tailleur,
tail reprefenting a pair of ft.
and fhuts them frequently,
Fey. ii. p. 304.
or Taylor, by the French, from the motion of its
tars when opened; and when on the wing it opens
in the manner of ufing that rnftrument.—Ulloa,
very
 PELICAN.
very long flights; for it is often feen above an hundred *, and
not unfrequently above two hundred f leagues from land. It has
indeed been known to fettle on the mails of fhips; but this is
not a frequent circumftance, though it will often approach near,
and hover about the top-maft flag J. Sometimes it foars fo high
in the air as to be fcarcely vifible, yet at other times approaches
the furface of the fea, where, hovering at fome diftance, the moment it fpies a fifth, it darts down on it with the utmoft rapidity,
and feldom without fuccefs, flying upwards again as quick as it
defcended j|. It is alfo feen to attack Gulls and other birds which
have caught a fijh, when it obliges them to difgorge it, and they
take care to feize it before it falls into the water. Is an enemy
to the Flying Fifh; for, on their being attacked beneath by the
Dolphin, and other voracious./^, to efcape their jaws thefe femi-
volatiles leap out of the water in clufters, making ufe of their long
fins as wings to buoy them up in the air, which they are enabled
to do fo long as they remain wet; but the moment they become
dry are ufelefs, and drop into their proper element again : during
their flight the Frigate darts in among thefhoal, and feizesone or
two at leaft. Thefe birds know the exact place where the fifh
are to rife, from the bubbling of the water, which directs them
to the fpot § ; in this they are accompanied by Gulls and other
birds, who act in concert with them.
Thefe birds, though not uncommon every where within the
589
I Forft. Voy. i. p. 47.—Id. Obfi p. 211.
f Hift. Barbad. p. 86.—As far as four hundred.   Pernetty.
X Cook's laft Voy. i. p. I
|j Dampier.—He obferv
5 Hift. Barbad. p. 86.
, that they do not take their prey in the bill.
tropics,
 P   E   L   J   C   A-   N.
tropics, yet are lefs frequent in fome places than others. Were
feen by Cook in jof deg. In the old route of navigators mentioned frequently, as being met with at Afcenfion Ifland, Ceylon,
Eaft Indies, and China *. Dampier faw them in greateft plenty
in the Ifland of Aves in the Weft Indies. Our-later navigators talk
of them as frequenting various places of the South Sea, about the
Marquefas, Eafter Ifles, and New Caledonia f, alfo at Otaheite,
though at this laft place not in fuch plenty as in many others.
Are faid to make the neft on trees, if any within a proper
diftance, otherwife on the rocks %. Lay one or two eggs, of a
flefh-colour, marked with crimfon foots. The young birds are
covered with greyifh white down : legs of the fame colour : and
the bill white.
+- LESSER FRIGATE P.
La petite Fregate, Brif. Orn. vi, p. 509.
Man of War Bird, Edw. pl. 309.
<.—Buf. Oif. viii. pl. 30.
'TPHIS is lefs than the laft, and meafures only two feet nine
inches in length : extent from wing to wing five feet and a
half. The bill five inches long, and red; the bafe of it, and bare
fpace round the eye, of the fame colour; the noftrils are faffi-
ciently apparent, and appear near the bafe; fhape of the bill as in
the larger one: the head, hind part ofthe neck, and upper parts of
the body and wings, are ferruginous brown : the throat, fore part
* Thought by OJbeck to be one of the forts of birds ufed in fifhing by the
Chinefe.
t Forft. Voy. i. p. 588.—/</. ii. p. 433.
\ Dampier.—Known to build in quantities on a fmall ifland contiguous to
Guadaloupe.—Hift. des Oif. note (f).
1 of
 PELICAN.
of the neck, and breaft, white: tail greatly forked, as in the other:
legs of a dirty yellow.
In my collection is a bird very fimilar to this, if not the fame:
general colour of the plumage a full black : breaft and belly mottled with afh-colour: the inner ridge of the wing the fame : the
bill has the long furrow, as is feen in the greater one ; but the noftrils are fafficiently apparent, being about half an inch in length,
rather broader at that part which is near the bafe. This has a
large red pouch at the chin and throat, as in the former fpecies.
It is moft likely that mine is the male bird, as others, fufpected to
be of the oppofite fex, have little or no traces of the jugular
pouch *. Some have fuppofed that the greater and leffer Frigates
are the fame bird, in different periods of age.
S9-
CIZE of a large Duck : length near three feet. Bill five inches
long; colour dufky, except at the tip, where it is very pale,
nearly white; both mandibles are hooked : the fides of the head
covered with feathers : the head, and fore part of the neck, are
white, finifhing in a point on the laft: the breaft and belly are
alfo white : except thefe, the reft of the plumage is brown: the
tail forked : legs reddifh brown.
This is in the Hunterian Mufeum. In the fame collection I obferve one very like it, with the head and half the neck all round
white, paffing on the fore part down the breaft, and ending between the legs : fides of the body, and the vent, brown; which, as
• This fupptffition feems juftified from apair in the Hutiterian Mufeum, in both
of which the plumage is wholly black ; the one has a large pouch, the other defti-
WHITE-
HEADED FR. P.
Description.
 S9S- PELICAN.
in the other, is the general colour of the reft of the plumage:
legs reddifh brown: middle toes ferrated : neither of thefe were
bare on the fides of the head, nor had any appearance of a pouch
on the under mandible. Not far different from the above is one
mentioned by OJbeck*. In his bird the cere at the bafe of the
bill (he fays) is blue, and extends to the eyes; the temples, or
fides of the head, being naked: the tongue large, almoft trifid at
the top; the corner at the bottom fplit: the head, fore part of
the neck, breaft, and belly, white: the general colour of the reft
of the plumage black: tail forked, giving the idea of a pair of
feiffars: legs black.
Place and Thishe met with at the Ifle of Afcenfion, where it is very tame,.
ann£rs. ancj cjoeg nQt appear to tje afraid 0f mankind. He fuppofes it i&-
capable of fifhing for itfelf, as he obferved it to be on the watch
till fome other bird had caught a fijh ; which it immediately pur-
lued, and obliged the fuccefsful captor to render up his prey, by
returning it by the mouth, on which this depredator feized the
fifth, and ceafed further perfection*
PALMERSTON
FR. P.
Description.
T ENGTH threefeettwo inches. Bill five inches and a half long*
and hooked at the end, as in the Corvorant: colour black; fpace
round the eyes well feathered : the upper part of the head, neck,
and body, brown, with a greenifh glofs : the wing coverts neareft
the body dark gloflfy green : fore part of the neck mottled brown,
and white; the reft ofthe under parts white: vent black: tail,
forked; the fhafts of all the feathers white: legs dufky black j,
the middle claw ferrated on the infide.
1 Voy. ii. p. 87.—Ametn. Acad. iv. p. 238. N» 7.
Inhabits.
 S9S
Inhabits the ifland of Palmerfton, in the South Seas.    In the col- ?L
lection of Sir Jofeph Banks.
Syft.i. p. 216. 3.—Faun. Suec. N° 145.—Scop. Ann.        _     13.
?i2o, 122.—Mutter, N° 146, 148.—Georgi Reife, p. -*-CORVORANT.
I7.—Nov.   Com.  Petr.  iv.   p.  423.—Faun. Groenl.
1. pl. 45.—Buf. Oif. viii.  P. 310.
Pelecanus CarbOj
i. N°98.—Br,
169.—Frifch.
N°S7-
Le Cormoran, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 511
pl. 26.-Pl.Enl. 927.
Cormorant,  Raii .Syn.   p. 122. A. --.—Will. Orn. p. 329. pl. 63.—Albin,
ii. pi. 81.— Br. Zool. ii. N° 291.—-Ara. Zool. N° 509.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Goofe, but more flender : length as far as three feet, or
even more : breadth four feet two inches : weight feven
pounds. The bill is dufky, three inches and a half long; the
upper mandible hooked at the end, and a furrow runs longitudinally from the bafe great part of its length, but no appearance of
noftrils ; the under mandible is covered with a kind of yellowifh
green cere, extending under the chin and throat, and forming
there a kind of pouch, and from thence exrends backwards, and
paffes round the eyes : the irides are green : the top of the head,
and part of the neck, are black, variegated with perpendicular
lines of white ; at the back part the feathers are longer than the
reft, forming a fhort creft: the throat white, paffing upwards behind the eyes : the lower part of the neck, the breaft, and all the
under parts, greenifh black; over the thighs a large patch of
white: the back, fcapulars, and wing coverts, are of a brownifh
colour, reflecting in different lights purple and green ; each feather margined with black; the fecond quills nearly the fame as
Vol. III. 4 G the
 PELICAN.
the wing coverts; the prime quills dufky black: the tail the
fame, much rounded in fhape, and confifts of fourteen feathers :
legs black.
We find a remark in the Britifh Zoology, that the chin of the .
male is white, and in that fex there is alfo a fhort, loofe, pendent
creft at the hind head, with a large patch of white feathers over
the thighs -, but this perhaps is not peculiar, fince we have been
informed, that a fpecimen with all the laft-named markings has
proved, on diffection, to be a female*. May we not therefore, with
fome propriety, rather conclude that the above diftinctions are
thofe ofthe birds in their higheft adult ftate; and that the various "
other differences in plumage are thofe ofthe younger ftages ? We
have obferved many birds called Corvorants, but none had the
white on the thighs, except thofe with the ftreaked heads: in the
others, moft of them had white, more or lefs, under the chin and
fides ofthe head beneath the eyes; many of them with fome portion of white on the breaft and belly, even to the laft being wholly
white, though in others the under parts were all black; and in
one fpecimen, in the Leverian Collection, the middle of the hind
head and nape had a narrow feries of long feathers ferving as a
creft.
This fpecies is found in England, and in many places ofthe old
continent; on the fhores of the Cafpian Sea is feen fometimes in
immenfe flocks; frequent in the Lake Baikal; is mentioned as
inhabiting the Cape of Good Hope; alfo common in China, the
Philippine Ifles, New Holland, New Zealand, and other parts.
It is found in many parts of the continent of America, being
met with in Hudfon's Bay, New Tork, and from thence as low at
■ Mr. Tunftall.
leaft
 P    E    L    I    C    A    N.
leafl as Carolina : at the laft place feen, efpecially in March and
April, when the Herrings run up the creeks, at which time they
may be obferved fitting on the logs of wood which fall into the
water, waiting for the paffing by of the fijh *. Our laft voyagers
met with it in Nootka Sound |-
The Corvorant, or what has been termed fuch, is faid to be
frequently made ufe of by the Chinefe for fifhing %, of which fome
fifihermen keep feveral for that purpofe, and get a good livelihood
by it; and this circumftance, we are told, may now be feen by
thofe who vifit the Chinefe empire. A ring placed round the neck
hinders the bird from fwallowing; its natural appetite joins with
the will of its matter, and it inftantly dives at the word of command ; when, unable to gorge dowrt the fifh it has taken, it returns to the keeper, who fecures it for him: fometimes, if the fifh
be too big for one to manage, two will act in concert, one taking
it by the head and the other by the tail.
The training up Corvorants for fifhing, we are told, was once in
practice in England, tying a leather thong round the neck inftead
* Ara. Zool—Lawfin
X " II reffemble affez
■ crochu, & pointu : c'<
' poiffon, a peu pres comme i
ilina. f Cook's laft Voy. vol. ii. p.
■beau, mais le cou eft fort long, & le bee
efpece de Cormorans qu'ils dreffent a la peche du
n dreffe les chiens a prendre des lievres."
vol.ii. p. 142. pl. in p. 162.—The figures of the birds in the plate are
not very well expreffed, but they feem rather to be thofe of the Corvorant than
any other.—Ofibeck mentions, that the Chinefe call it Lou-foo. According to his
opinion, the prints give it greatly the appearance of the Man of War; but
though he was at fome pains to procure the bird itfelf, he could not: he obferves, that this way of fifhing is ufed at Macao, and that it is very expenfive;
its price is fettled, and is faid to amount very often to fifty tale : the fifherman
pays a certain fum of money as an annual contribution. Voy. ii. p. 35.
4 G 2
 596 P   E   L   I   C   A   N.
of a ring, keeping them in the houfe with due care, as is ufed in
refpect to the Falcons; but we do not believe that the practice
has ever been very common in this kingdom, fince it is not noticed by authors in general, as it muft have been, if in frequent
ufe. Willughby, who mentions the circumftance *, quotes, in the
margin, his authority, from Faber's notes on Recchus's animals ;
but on infpecting the paffage alluded to t> we are merely told,
that fome Corvorants, which had been trained for fifhing, were
fent, along with a Vulture, as a prefent from England to the king
of France; that they were hood-winked till they were let off to
fifh, in the manner of the Falcon, and would fetch Trouts out of
the river very dexteroufly. However, that they were now and then
ufed is plain, both from the above paffage, as well as what we
learn from the Br. Zoology J. A circumftance is likewife mentioned
* *' When they come to the rivers, they take off their hoods, and, having tied
" a leather thong round the lower part of their necks, that they may not fwallow
" down the^ they catch, they throw them into the river. They prefently dive
" under water, and there for a long time (with wonderful fwiftnefs) purfue the
" fifh, and when they have caught them, they arife prefently to the top of the
" water, and preffing the fifh lightly with their bills, they fwallow them, till
" each bird hath in this manner fwallowed five or fix fifties; then their keepers
" call them to the fift, to which they readily fly, and, little by little, one after
" another, vomit up all their fifh, a little bruifed with the nip they gave them
" with their bills. When they have done fifhing, fetting the birds on fome
" high place, they loofe the firing from their necks, leaving the paffage to the
" ftomach free and open, and for their reward they throw them part of their
" prey they have caught, to each perchance one or two fifties, which they by the
" way, as they are falling in the air, will catch moft dexteroufly in their mouths."*
Will. Orn. p. 329.
t See Hernand. Mexic. p. 693.
$ Whitelock tells us, " that he had a eaft of them manned like Hawks, and
 PELICAN.
tioned *by Swammerdam *, who feems to imply that the birds
were not taught in England, but imported from other parts ; and
gives the method of fifhing with them much to the fame purport
as related by us above.
The Corvorant is fufficiently common in this kingdom, but more
efpecially the northern part of it; it is likewife very frequent on.
the continent, on all the northern fhores, quite to Kamtfchatka f ; in
Greenland it remains the whole year, and builds on the tops ofthe
crags, laying three or more pale green eggs, the fize of thofe of a
Goofe; but thefe prove fo very foetid and difgufting,  that the
. Greenlanders will fcarce ever eat them. Often feen in flocks on the
inacceffible parts of the rocks, and is in general a very wary bird,
. yet at times is unaccountably torpid or heedlefs; for after a full
forfeit offijh, or when afleep, will fuffer a net to be thrown over it,
or a noofe put round its neck, fo as to be eafily taken. About
twenty-five years fince one of thefe perched upon the caftle at
Carlifte, and foon afterwards removed to the cathedral, where it
was fhot at upwards of twenty times without effect; at length a
perfon got upon the cathedral, fired at, and killed it. In another
inftance, a flock of fifteen or twenty perched, at the dufk of the
evening,  in a tree on the banks of the River Eftk, near Netherby,
" which would come to hand. He took much pleafure in them ; and relates,
I that the beft he had was one prefented him by Mr. Wood, Mafter of the Cor-
" vorants to Charles I.'—Br. Zool. ii. p. 610.
* Biblia Natures (at the end of his Introduaion to the Hift. of Bees). See Engl.
Tranft. Parti,  p. .93.
t On the borders ofthe river Don, and the lakes of Ruffia adjoining, are common, and build in trees, five or fix nefts together on one tree ; thefe are large,
compofed of flicks and roots. Dec. Ruff. i. p. 164.—They fometimes make the
nefts in trees in this kingdom, along with Herons.
■     , the
 598 PELICAN.
the feat of Sir James Graham. A perfon who faw them fettle, fired
at random at them in the dark fix or feven times, without either
killing any, or frightening them away; furprifed at this, he came
again at day-light, and killed one of them, when the reft took
wing *. It moftly frequents the neighbourhood of the fea, for
the fake of fifhing, which it does by diving after its prey;
and is obferved now and then to take the fifh out of the bill
with the claws, in order to affift its flight. The fkin is very
tough, and is ufed by the Greenlanders for garments; they alfo
fometimes eat the flefh ; and the fkin of the jaws, like others of
this clafs, ferves them for bladders to buoy up* their fmaller kinds
of fifhing darts.
- COMMON
SHAG.
Pelecanus graculus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 217. 4.—Faun. Suec. N° 146.—Brun.
N° 121.—Mutter, N° 147.
Le petit Cormoran, Brif. Om. vi. p. 516. 2.
■  ou le Nigaud, Buf. Oif viii. p. 319.
Shagge, or Crane, Raii Syn. p. 123. A. 4.—Will. Orn. p. 330. pi. 63.
The Shag, Ara. Zool. N° 508.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH two feet fix inches: extent three feet eight:
weight four pounds. Head and neck black, gloffed like
filk with green : the back and coverts of the wings of the fame
colour, edged with purplifh black.: belly dufky and dull; the
middle cinereous : tail confifting of twelve feathers, dufky gloffed
with green : legs black: middle claw ferrated.
Shags frequent feveral parts of Great Britain and Ireland; alfo
Sweden, Norway, and Iceland; and are faid to build in trees, in
* Dr. Heyjham.
% the
u
 PEL
CAN.
t Ray.    Willughby.
vifio
* Book of Nature, part i. p. 193.
X Linneeus feparates the Pelican gen
edges of the mandible ferrated, the other >
takes place before his Graculus or Shag, wh...«. .. „.«-.- ..-
after the defcription of that bird, or before the Pelecanus B
Nat.i. p. 217.
with the
by miftake the fepai
fhould r
•See i
599
the manner of Corvorants; were obferved particularly to do fo
in the wood of Sevenhuys, near Leyden, in Holland, fo long as
the trees remained *. The eggs are long and white j\ It is
faid to be a very ftupid bird when on fhore, but difficult to fhoot
while in the water: fwims with the head erect, the body almoft
immerfed in the water, and when a gun is difcharged at it, the
moment it fees the flafh immediately darts under water.
In the account of the Shag given by Willughby, as alfo that of
Briffon, the chin is faid to be white, and the under parts more
.or lefs inclining to afh-colour. Linnaus obferves, that the Shag
agrees with the Corvorant in all things, except in being fmaller;
and fays, that the whole under fide, from the chin to the thighs,
is marked with teftaceous white fpots: he likewife fuppofes the
probability of this bird proving a young Corvorant %. We believe, however, that the Corvorant and Shag are diftinct birds, not
at all related to each other; and indeed the firft having fourteen
feathers in the tail, and the other but twelve, feems to decide the
matter indifputably, were there no other circumftance to prove it.
It is therefore not improbable that the difference of defcriptions
I in the above-named authors has merely arifen from their having
taken them from the younger Corvorants, which vary exceedingly.
 PELICAN,
15. Pelecanus criftatus, Faun. Groenl. N° 58.—Brun. 123.
CRESTED SH. Crefted Shag, Ara. Zool. N° 583. A.—Br. Zool. ii. p. 292. pl. 102.
Lev. Muf.
Description. COMEWHAT fmaller than the laft ; length two feet three
inches: breadth three feet fix : weight three pounds and
three quarters. The bill is four inches long, narrow, dufky,
and hooked at the end : irides fine green : on each fide the head
a long tuft of dufky feathers reaching beyond the crown, forming a fine creft: the head, neck, and lower part of the back, fine
gloffy green : the upper part of the back and wing coverts the
fame, edged with purplifh black: belly dufky : tail of a dufky
green, confifting of twelve feathers : legs dufky black.
Place. This  inhabits  Great Britain,  and the vaft precipices about
Holyhead; alfo Norway, Iceland, and Greenland; but in the latter
not very common. Mr. Pennant obferves, that he met with feve-
-ral Shags in the Hebrides, but faw none with the creft; hence
we may fuppofe it to be fomewhat rare.
"Violet Corvorant, Ar8. Zool. p. 584. B.
HP HIS bird is faid to be wholly black, gloffed with violet.
The fize not mentioned.
Found about Kamtfchatka and the ifles. One greatly fimilar to
this is in the Leverian Mufeum: the colour of plumage, and fize,
as above-mentioned ; but the top of the head is furnifhed with a
long pointed creft, Handing upright.
 PELICAN.
601
Red-faced Corvorant, Ara. Zool. p. 584. C 17.
Urile, Hifi. Kamtfch. p. 157. RED-FACED SH.
.'"pHIS is fomewhat lefs than the Corvorant: length two feet Description.
ten inches. Bill three inches and a half long ; the bafe of a
reddifh green, the end black: round the eye a bare fkin of a
reddifh colour: head and neck dark blackifh green; on the middle of the neck before a few flender white narrow feathers, thinly
interfperfed among the others, many of them two inches and a
half in length: back and wings dufky black, but gloffy; the
back has alfo a glofs of green in fome lights, with here and there
a white flender feather : the belly is wholly black: on each fide
of the rump a large patch of white feathers: tail fix inches in
length, confifting of twelve feathers : colour of the quills black:
legs black.
Inhabits Kamtfchatka, chiefly about the rocky and craggy Place and
places on the fea coafts, in which places it builds the neft in
June. The eggs are the fize of a Hen's, of a green colour, and
very ill-tafted ; notwithftanding which the natives think it
worth while to climb the rocks for them at the hazard of
their lives. Like others of the genus it feeds on fifh, fwallowing
them whole. Flies well and fwiftly; but rifes with difficulty
from the ground. While fitting on the rocks faid to be very
ftupid, and not eafily routed; hence the natives catch them eafily,
by means of nets thrown over them, or noofes at the end of long
poles; and not unfrequently thefe filly birds fuffer themfelves to be
taken one after another to the very laft. As a food, every one
but a Kamtfchadale muft abhor it, yet this nation think it very
Vol. III. 4 H tolerable, -
 PELICAN.
tolerable, whether owing to the method of cooking or not is not
fo certain : their method is to roaft it in holes in the earth,
whole, without plucking off the feathers, or taking out the entrails, and after it is done enough they fkin and eat it. It is
faid to have no tongue; yet it is averred that it cries morning
and evening, not greatly unlike the blowing of a trumpet. By
fome this bird has been called the Sea Raven *.
SPOTTED S:
Pl. CIV.
Crefted Shag, Coo'k's laft Voy. i. p. 151.
Lev. Muf
CIZE of the Shag: length two feet, or more. Bill three inches
long, of a pale blueifh lead-colour; in fome yellow; the tip
hooked: round the eyes bare, and of a dufky red: the chin,
throat, and fore part of the neck, are nearly black; as are the
forehead, hind part of the neck, and beginning ofthe back : juft
over the forehead -arife fome long feathers, forming a pointed
creft; and at the hind part of the head a fecond, not unlike the
firft, but rather longer, fome of the feathers meafuring an inch
and a half: juft over the eye begins a line of white, which paffes
down on each fide of the neck quite to the wing, and growing
broader as it proceeds downwards : the middle of the back, and
the wings, are of a brownifh afh-colour, each feather tipped at the
end with a round fpot of black, largeft on the wing coverts, but
no where bigger than a fmall pea : quills not fpotted : from the
middle of the back to the end of the tail, and from between the
legs to the vent, black gloffed with green : tail three inches in
length, rounded at the end ; that and the quills plain black : legs
• Hift. Kamtfch.
8 deep
J
   PELICAN.
deep brown, or black. In fome fpecimens the bill is reddifh, and
the legs dull yellow : the chin white, covered with feathers, and
deftitute of creft : the feathers of the fides near the vent ftreaked
with white : thighs black: the ftripe on each fide of the neck not
fo diftinct; and the black on the neck lefs pure. Whether this
conftitutes the difference of fex muft be left to future obfervation.
In other birds I obferve the creft as in the firft-defcribed; but the
diftenfible pouch ofthe throat not bare, and feemingly much lefs
capacious. I have likewife obferved one with the white on the
fides ofthe neck not paffing above half the length of it.
This fpecies inhabits New Zealand, and builds among the
rocks; met with principally in Queen Charlotte's Sound, where it
is known by the name of Pa-degga-degga,
603
Lev. Muf
ALMOST the fize ofthe laft. Bill dufky : fides ofthe head
bare of feathers : between the bill and eye much caruncu-
lated, and red; the reft of the fpace round the eye afh-colour;
the orbits of a fine mazarine blue, and elevated; and over the eye
is a tubercle larger than the reft: the irides are whitifh, or very
pale brown : the head fomewhat flat on the fides, and the crown
rather full of feathers: the top of the head, and fides of it, the
hind part of the neck, and all the upper parts of the body, the
wings, and tail, are black, except a longifh patch of white on the
wing coverts: the forehead, chin, and all beneath, white: the
legs are flefh-colour, or very pale brown.
This inhabits New Zealand;   found in Queen Charlotte's Sound,
though not in plenty; but was met with by millions in Staaten
4 H 2 Land;
CARUNCULA-
TED SH.
 604 PELICAN.
Land; and is faid by the voyagers to build in towns. By this
is meant when they form themfelves into focieties, and take certain places to themfelves. They make the neft near the edges
of the cliffs, on the tops of the tufts of grafs *, which are flat and
broad above, occafioned by thefe birds building upon them from
year to year.
MAGELLANIC
SH.
Description.
T EN GTH thirty inches. Bill three inches long, black: fides
of the head, and the chin, bare, and reddifh; but the middle of
the laft is fomewhat downy : the head and neck, as far as the
breaft, the back, wings, and tail, are of a deep black; the head
and neck fomewhat gloffy, and the feathers of the firft feem full,
making that part appear larger than it really is ; but the head is
by no means crefted : behind each "eye is a fpot of white:
the under parts, from the breaft, are alfo white; and the fide
feathers under the wings ftriped with white: thighs black: the
quills and tail are deep black ; the laft cuneiform, and four inches
in length: legs pale brown.
Inhabits Terra del Fuego. Is alio met with at Staaten Land;
and is gregarious, like others of this genus. In Chrifimas Sound
build by thoufands among the rocks, chufing fiich places where
they project over the fea, or at leafl where they rife perpendicularly, that in cafe the young fall out, they may take no harm,
dropping only into the water.    Are faid to make holes in the
41.—This grows frequently
breadth at top.    The Pen-
• Daaylis glomerata. Lin.—See Forft. Voy. i.'p
four feet high, and is two or three times as much ir.
guins often take fhelter beneath it.—Id, Obf. p. 41.
rock,
 PEL
CAN.
rock, fuitable to their purpofe, of themfelves, or at leafl enlarging the natural cavities fo much, in the rock which is not of the
hardeft fort, as to make room for their offspring in them. Shags,
both in this as well other places unfrequented by man, are fo
tame as to be very little frightened at the report of a gun; for,
on being fired at, though they were at firft difturbed, they immediately returned to the neft, fo as to make it a matter of no great
difficulty to fhoot them on the wing, as they moftly flew but
heavily *.
605
Lev. Muf
T ENGTH two feet fix inches. Bill four inches and a half,
formed as in the Shag ; the top of it dufky ; the reft of it,
and bare fpace about the eye, yellow: over the eyes a narrow
ftreak of a pale colour: the top of the head, hind part of the
neck, back, wings, and tail, are brown ; the middle of the back,
and wing coverts, paleft; the margins of the laft almoft white, or
very pale : the lower part of the back, rump, and thighs, very
deep brown, nearly black : quills black ; fome of thofe neareft
the body have pale tips : tail brown black, rounded in fhape, and
fix inches or more in length ; the outer margins and fhafrs white :
the under parts, from the chin to the vent, wholly white : legs
flefh-colour : claws dufky.
The above defcription is taken from a fpecimen in the Leverian
Mufeum ; fimilar to which I obferve one among the drawings of
Sir Jofeph Banks. This differed in a few particulars :—the plumage much the fame, except that in the brown parts the colour
• Forft Voy. ii. p. 494,495.
was
 6o6 PELICAN.
was univerfally of the fame fhade, but inclining to black : round
the eye the fkin was blueifh; and the fides of the head, as well as
all the under parts, white : legs black.
Place. The  above fpecies inhabits New Zealand,  and was met with
frequent in Queen Charlotte's Sound.    It builds in trees, on which
a dozen or more are feen at once *.    The egg is two inches and
and a half long, rather fmaller than that of a Hen, and of a pale ■
blueifh white.
TUFTED SH.
DiSCRIPTION,
T ENGTH two feet ten inches. Bill two inches and a half
long ; colour dufky yellow : round the eye bare : the head,
and fides above the eye, the hind part of the neck, and all the
upper parts of the body, wings, and tail, black: the feathers on
the top of the head very long, forming a pointed upright tuft or
creft, fomewhat tending forwards : on the wing coverts is an oblong patch of white: and the under parts, from chin to vent, are
alfo white : the tail is four inches and a half in length, rounded
in fhape, and compofed of fourteen feathers : the legs pale yellow brown.
This was brought with the others from Queen Charlotte's Sound,
and is in the Hunterian Mufeum.
AFRICAN SH.
Description.
Br. Muf
CIZE of a Teal: length twenty inches.   Bill hooked at the tip:
round the eyes  bare:  colour of the upper mandible of a
brown black; the reft ofthe bill dirty yellowifh white : the plu-
• Thefe •=
laft Voy. i. p
e mentioned as being more common than the fpotted fort.—Cook's
•S-*
mage.
 PELICAN.
mage on the upper parts of the head and neck brown black:
middle of the back and rump gloffy black : fcapulars and win|
coverts blue grey, each feather margined all round, and tipped
with black: the three firft greater quills pale brown, inclining to
cinnamon; the reft brown black: fecondaries as long as the
quills, of a dufky black, edged with brown : the tail confifts of
twelve feathers, is cuneiform in fhape, the two middle feathers
being feven inches long, the outer three inches and a half only;
the four middle ones, and the outer on each fide, are pale brown,
the others black : the chin is white : fore part of the neck mottled dufky white and black: belly much the fame, with a mixture
of brown : legs black.
Inhabits Africa.
Pelecanus pygmaeus, Pallas Trav. ii. p. 712. N° 16. t. G.
•HTHIS fpecies is fcarcely fo big as a Teal. The bill, legs, and
fhape, exactly correfponding with thofe of the Shag : the
body black, with a call of green about the neck and breaft : wing
coverts obfcure brown, each feather margined with gloffy black:
about the eyes dotted with white, but the fpots not very numerous : on the neck, breaft, and fides, are alfo a few fcattered fpots,
which arife from pencils of very tender hairs of that colour,
which are intermixed, and appear here and there among the feathers : fhe tail is compofed of twelve feathers, is ftiff, long, and
cuneiform, as in the Shag.
The female is wholly brown, or of a dull  black, and not
fpotted.
This
 PELICAN.
This fpecies is met with about the Cafpian Sea, among
of the genus; alfo on the river Jaick, about Gurjef*.
Pelecanus baffanus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 217. 5.—Faun. Suec. N° 147.—'Brun.
N° 124—Mutter, N° 147.—Faun. Groenl. N° 59.
Le Fou de Baffan, Brif Orn. vi. p. 503. pl. 44.—Buf. Oif. viii. p. 376.—
Pl. Enl. 278.
Sula Hoieri, Raii Syn. p. 123. 5 ?
Soland Goofe, Raii Syn. p. 122. A. 2.—Will. Orn. p. 328. pl. 63.—-Albin,
i. pl. 86.
Gannet, Br. Zool. ii. N° 293.—Ara. Zool. N°5io.
Br. Muf.     Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Goofe: weight feven pounds: length near three feet:
breadth fix. Bill blueifh afh-colour; the length of it fix
inches; noftrils placed in a furrow: infide of the mouth black : a
naked blue fkin furrounds the eyes, and the bafe of the bill: the
throat is bare, and the fkin very dilatable, forming a pouch capable of containing five or fix Herrings: irides yellowifh: the
general colour of the plumage is white; but the crown, and upper
parts of the neck, at the back part, are buff-colour : the baftard
wing, and greater quills, black: the tail confifts of twelve feathers, and is cuneiform: the legs black, marked with a ftripe of
pea-green before: the claw of the middle toe pectinated, like
that of the Heron.
The male and female are much alike.
Theyoung birds, during the firft year, are dufky, fpeckled with
white-, one of which we fufpect the next-defcribed to be.
The Gannet inhabits the colder parts of this kingdom, and
* Dec. Ruff. iii. p. 504.
 PELICAN.
more efpecially feveral ofthe northern ifles, and in particular that
of the Bafis in Scotland, whence the name. It generally firft
makes its appearance in March, and after making a circuit of the
ifland, departs in October or November*. This race feems to be
in purfuit after the Herrings and Pilchards, whofe motions it
watches; and the fifherman knows the coming of thefe fifh by the
appearance of the birds. That this is the inducement feems pro-
- bable, as they are likewife feen, in the month of December, as far
fouth as the coaft of Lifbon and Gibraltar, plunging for fardina f.
The Gannet is alfo common on the coafts -of Norway, and thofe of
Iceland, and now and then met with on the fouthern coafts of
Greenland. In America, found on the coafts of Newfoundland,
where it breeds; migrating in winter as far as Carolina. Said alfo
to have been met with frequently by our feveral voyagers in many
parts of the fouthern ocean; but we are not clear whether the fort
meant by them is the common Gannet here treated of, or the leffer
one, below defcribed %.
■ The neft is compofed of various matter, fuch as grafs and fiea-
plants, intermixed with any thing the bird finds floating on the
water. It lays only one egg, which is white, rather lefs than that
of a Goofe; if this egg be taken away, the bird will lay a fecond;
and fhould this be taken alfo, a third; but on the lofs ofthe laft
can furnifh no more that feafon. The young Gannets are brought
to Edinburgh, and fold at twenty pence apiece, and, being roafted,
are ferved up a little before dinner, by way of whet; but the inhabitants of the ifle of St. Kilda make thefe birds a great article
609
* According as the
J See Cook's Voy. i.
other places.
Vol. III.
,ts take or leave the firft egg. Br. Zool        f Id.
I.-—Hawkef. Voy. ii. p. 382,  3. 439, 6*7, and
 PELICAN.
of their food, and are faid to confume annually no lefs than
twenty-two thoufand fix hundred young birds, befides an amazing
quantity of eggs : they preferve both eggs and fowls in fmall pyramidal ftone buildings, covering them with turf-afhes to preferve
them from moifture. To procure thefe birds, the natives run,
great hazard, in being lowered down from the top of the cliffs- bjfc
ropes, and not unfrequently perifh in the attempt *.
Le grand Fou, Brif. Orn. vi
Great Booby, Cateftb. Car. i
p. 497. 2.—Buf. Oif. viii. p. 372.
pl. 86. (thehead).
'"THIS is about the fize of a Goofie, but the tail is longer..
The bill a little more than five inches long, and of a grey
brown : irides hazel: fpace between the bill, and eye bare of feathers, being covered only with a dufky fkin : the head, neck, and
breaft, and all the upper parts, deep brown, marked with white
fpots; which are fmall and more numerous on the head, and
larger and fewer in number on the back and breaft: the belly,
and reft of the under parts, dirty white: quills and tail brown :
legs black.
Inhabits the fhores of Florida, where it is frequent.    It appears-,
to be no other than the young ofthe Gannet.
* For the above, as well as the general account of the manners, fee Br. Z00L
-—for the method itfelf, fee Ara. Zool. Introd. p, xxix. pl. IV.
 PELICAN.
Pelecanus Pifcator, Lin. Syft. i
(foemina).—OJbeck. Voy. i.
Le Fou blanc, Brif. Oris. vi.
17.—Amasn. Acad. iv. p. 239. 8.
'*l&
. 4.—Buf. Oif. viii. p. 371,
CIZE of a large Duck : length two feet feven inches. Bill five
inches long, ferrated on the edges, and reddifh : fpace between
the bill and eyes naked, and of the fame colour: throat naked,
dufky black: general colour of the plumage white, except the
greater wing coverts and quills, which are black: the fcapulars
are alfo black at the ends : the tail confifts of fourteen feathers; is
cuneiform in fhape; the bafe white, but black the reft of their
length : the legs red: the middle claw broad and ferrated.
This fpecies is faid to inhabit China, where it is called Bubbi;
and is fuppofed to be one of the forts ufed by the Chinefe to catch
fifh, a ring being placed round the neck. Some birds have thofe
parts of a deep brown which in others are black.
The male is faid to be wholly black, with a hoary belly: bill
and legs as in the other. But I much fufpect it to be the brown
Booby, if not fome other fpecies, and not related at all to the
white one. I am led to think this from a drawing of the laft, the
notes belonging to which obferve, that it is common in the Ifland
of Afcenfion; and particularly mention, that there is no difference
of plumage in either fex.
 PELICAN.
f- COMMON.
BOOBY.
Pelecai
Le
t.Syft.i.  p. 218.
ius Sula, [
,u, Brif Orn. vi. p.49i.
. Anferi Baffano congener fufca
322.  t. 271.  fig- 2»-
Booby, Brown. Ja
-Buf. Oif. v
, Raii Syr.
p.ifil.—Catefb. Car.
Lev. Muf.
li. p. 368. pl. 2g
p. 191. 6.—Ska
pl. 87.
.-Jam. p,
CIZE of the leffer Gannet: length two feet fix inches. The
bill nearly four inches and a half long, toothed on the edges,
and of a grey colour; bafe of it pale brown : fpace round the
eyes, and the chin, bare of feathers, and covered with a yellowifh
fkin: irides pale grey: the head, neck, upper parts ofthe
body, wings, and tail, cinereous brown : the greater quills much
the darkeft: the tail brownifh at the end, and in fhape greatly
cuneiform : the breaft, belly, thighs, and vent, white : legs pale
yellow : claws grey.
Catejby obferves, that thefe vary: fome have white bellies, and
others not; and that there is no perceivable difference between
male and female.
The young birds have the head and neck while, with a very
flight tinge of. brown; but may be diftinguifhed from having the
feathers of thofe parts downy and foft, and not of the ufual
texture.
Inhabits the Bahama Iflands; and we believe likewife very common in many other parts of the world. Our fpecimen came from
Cayenne. . It probably may be the fort mentioned by Dampier as
being fo plentiful in the ifland of Aires, eight or nine leagues eaft
of Buenos Ayres, which is defcribed as a very fimple creature that
will hardly go out of a man's way. Thefe are faid to build their
4Hn»»|*f   .. nefts
 PELICAN.
nefts on the ground in fuch places where no trees grow, but make
them on the laft whenever they, can be found. The flejh is black
and fifhy, yet is often eaten by the privateers. Is alfo met with
in New Guinea *. This has been feen at Kamtfchatka f; is found
in the Ferroe Ifles; and has alfo been met with on our own coafts
a. few years fince J.
6-iJ
is fiber
• Syft. :
Le Fou brun, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 499. ■$. pl. 43. fig. *u BROWN B.
Le petit Fou brun, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 374.
Fou brun de Cayenne, Pl. Enl. 974.
Anferi Baffano affinis, avis cinereo alba, a Booby, Raii Sym p. 191,5.—
Sloan. Jam. i. Praef. p. 31. pl. 6. fig. 1.
CIZE bigger than a Mallard: length two feet or more.    Bill   Description..
three inches and three quarters, of a reddifh colour, bent at
the point, and fomewhat ferrated on the edges : fpace about the
eyes naked, and red: the general colour of the plumage is pale
cinereous brown, darker on the back and fcapulars, and paler on
the under parts of the body : the rump, and upper and under tail
coverts, pale-grey : greater quills dufky afh-colour : the tail con-
fifts of fourteen feathers, and cuneiform in fhape; the two middle feathers afh-colour; the others the fame, inclining to brown,,
with the tips grey: legs red.
Inhabits Cayenne, and other parts of America, as well as feveral Plac*-..
of the Weft India Iflands-, found alfo in Africa.
* See Voy. Vol. iii. Part i
t Ara, Zool—Br, Zool. ii
. pl. in p,
619,
:6s.
t Ellis Nar. ii. p.
 CAN.
Le petit Fou, Buf. Oif viii. p. 374.
Fou de Cayenne, Pl. Enl. 973.
■•"PHIS is the fmalleft of the Boobies, and meafures in length
fcarcely eighteen inches.    The bill is pretty flrait; and the
fpace round the eye not bare : the throat, breaft, and belly, white :
all the reft ofthe plumage dufky black.
Inhabits Cayenne.
Le Fou tachete, Buf. Oif. viii, p. 37s.—Pl. Enl. 986.
TN this bird the bill is pale brown, towards the tip yellow : the
plumage in general dufky brown, fpotted with white throughout ; the fpots are fmaller on the head, and largeft on the back
and wings : breaft and belly white, waved and fpotted with dufky
brown: the wings remarkably fhort, much more fo than in any
other of the known fpecies : the quills and tail plain brown: legs
pale brown.
This inhabits Cayenne-.
Genus
 C  615  1
G e w v s   XCV.     TROPIC     BIRD.
N° 1. Common Tr,. B.
Var. A.
Var. B.
NB a. Black-billed Tr. B.
3. Red-tailed Tr. B.
BILL comprefled, flightly Hoping down; point fharp j un-.
der mandible angular.
Noftrils pervious.
Toes four in number, all webbed together.
Tail cuneiform ; the two middle feathers extending for a vaft
length beyond the others.
Phaeton sethereus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 219. r. ,,
LaPaille en Cul, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 480. pl. 42. fig. 1.—Fernet. Voy. ii. p. 75.     COMMON TRV
Le grand Paille en Cul, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 348. pl. 28. •**••
Paille en Cul de Cayenne, Pl. Enl. 998.
Rabijuncos, Ulloa Voy. ii. p. 305.
Tropic Bird, Raii Syn. p. 123. 6. 191. 4.—Will. Orn. p. 331. pl. 75.
Br. Muf   Lev. Muf
HPHE fize of this bird is about that of a Wigeon: length two   Descmptiow..
feet ten inches, to the tip of the long tail feathers. The
bill is more than three inches long, and red : the head, neck, and
under part§ of the body, are white: near the bafe of the upper
mandible begins a ftreak of black, which curves round the upper
part of the eye, and ends a little way behind in a ftrait.direction %
a the-
 TROPIC
I   R D.
the back, rump, and fcapulars, are white, croffed with curved
ftreaks of black : the leffer wing coverts white, fome of them
tranfverfely marked with black: greater quills black, margined
with white: fides over the thighs black, or dufky and white
mixed : the tail confifts of fourteen feathers, twelve of which are
of a moderate length, the longeft of them about five inches and
a half long, and fhorter as they proceed outwards; hence the
fhape is cuneiform; the two middle ones meafure above twenty
inches, and finifh in a point; the colour of all of them is white,
except the long ones, which are black for one fourth of the way
from the bafe : the legs are of a dufky yellow : claws black.
The name Tropic Bird, given to this genus, arifes from its being
chiefly found within the tropic circles ; but we are not to conclude
that they never ftray voluntarily, or are driven beyond them; for
we have met with a few inftances to prove the contrary *. It is
however fo generally found within the tropical limits, that the
fight of this bird alone is fafficient to inform the mariner of a
very near approach to, if not his entrance therein. It has alfo
been thought to portend the contiguity of land f; but this has
often proved fallacious, as it is not unfrequently found at very
■ Dr. Forfter obferves, that they are -never feen beyond 28 deg. of latitude ;
but others talk of their fpreading far beyond it.—In lat. 32. 45. Ell. Narr. ii.
p. 64. 33. 10.   N.    Cook's laft Voy. iii.  p. 178. 38. 34. S.   Park.  Voy.
p. 132. 38. 29. S. Hawkef Voy. iii. p. 77.    This is mentioned as not being
common ; but Kalm fays he met with thefe in 40 deg. N. See Trav. i. p. 22.
—And a friend of mine affured me that he faw one in lat. 47I N.; but at the
fame time obferved that it was the firft inftance he had ever known of fuch a
circumftance.
f Ulloa's Voy. ii. p. 301.—He obferves, that they feldom are met with above
e'ight-or ten leagues from land.
great
 R  O   P   I   C
I   R  D.
great diftances therefrom. The flight of this bird is often to a
prodigious height